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106 046 82^ OdA 










{Aii rights ratr^vd-l 




[A Jrur diMjts htfcrt mj father U/i Atitiin^tatt far TrrluHd, in 
StfUm^r cf lojt jFfar ( i ^96)^ hi cMltd fttt int^ Ais Horary, 
aiui hamini me the pn^J n/ (he preface af fu4 Cyprian — the 
h^ok that U here presented — asking me t^erideist attjihing that 
itmeh me in iL 

The /t>iUnviH£ da/ / bronchi him a paper ff mift»U SHgget^ 

tiwmj* H4 mrtif through them ^itk the utm^t patitnet, aectptinf^ 

Mme, tfW tartftdlj juilifyiits the rejtttion u/ aihen. When he 

had fimshid, he eaiif, " You Mem te fifuf m^ stfU ^'ery ohseureT^ 

fimi/tHg) "^u ore nat the tmfy pcrjcrr Ufhi> tioef.*' I I'enittrtd 

£f ATf that / thought he raas ta^ earrfu/ to avairi the odvwus : 

•A'*," he Mui^ •■ ifs net that: I ^j whh tt> say the chvicas 

tki^ without (he fust*^mary ptriphrasef—it aH c<.7mes <f/ hoHrs 

amd hfit/rf spemt tath tntensf eaj^ment ever ThMeydidej^ 7Wgh- 

iMf the forte af every adjectitr and every partic/eH' i ttvw/ tfw 

t9 aii xvhether the Cyprian v.\ts natty fimshed, and reminded 

hm pf haw more than fifteen years te/ore, zvhen he uras at 

Trurc. he had ttnae <*Ht of his study one etYfting, and annattHttd 

thathu Cyprian %ieaj *' praetieaiiy finished:" ^' Yes' he said, ^ it 

cr mit eiffm: only a few eorreettmis afnt smficatiffia ta ntaht," 

I ashed xchether he tffos natg/ad it ttvij d&ne: "V onght to be;"* 

--he taid, ami hfgem turning t^'^'' f^-'f^i af the prccfs en the 

tahte: then he /^^htd ttp mth a smOe: 'hut I am not reaify 

gfad m^ ottiy amHSemeut wili ^ gane'* 

And this tvas Hterally true : my father was itss capable af 
" amusimg kimsetfl* af resting, than any <me / hafe ever hmwit : 



his koiiJajfS itvre merc/j' a ^kaftgt /n?fn one mitm^ kinJ of 
y^rM to attcthcr: if fu tt/fis in n ffaa &/ artistic or ontiquariaH 
inUrtst, fu wtfrkfd at fictures and thurchts, as tfwugk it aw»if 
//« bnsiHcsj ef his Hfit fu sf&rtd his mittti zt/ith praise and 
grapftic itHpresswns^ In tcttiifs a/ naiurai betinty, ht itwiitd 
dttati tike an artist. At Ji^mc, tvh^i at wofk, at Lamt^ith and 
Aiiditigiort, he And a "Cyprian" tabit, rvftfrt /dj btHfkt and 
papers lay ofti'n unrmched for wrrkt to^rrhfr: latr ar fii/^kt, 
early in the mornings when ail his official u^rk had hem dane 
teith tfu minute pra'fAicH so <Aarai'Uristii' of kim, hf itoU an 
h&ur from sieep f&r his betcved book: but J /tave the autficrity 
cf the Bishop of Winchester, who ttwj with him constantly 
at alt times and places, for saying that n&t mfy did h* 
mvcr let his iittrary Ufork ifittrfen with his tsffianj -work, oi 
rmistitulc a rrn.wnfor nvoidin^ a piece pf busiftess. or deferring 
an mj^^rnent — bftt tltat he regardid it i*i the strictest sense tk 
a recreation only. 

Thirty years ago, ivhen he ^vas Headmaster of IVeltingUt 
Colleffe, fie found tfiat his professional worfc was so absorbing 
that he f eft himself itt danger of h^itig sij^ftt of study, of emdt 
lion, of antigmty, and resolved, on the steg^tion of his dea 
friend Bishop L i^tfoot, to undertake sanre definite work, whte. 
might frovitle both a contrast to and an illustration of moden 
tendencies ixnd recent probkms. 

Year etfter year, at Lincoln, at Truro, at Canterbury, thes 
patient pages have grown: sometimes ufeeks xt/ould beeonsnrne 
in the elneidaticn of fome mitfufe technieal point : he et^en nndet 
tooi\ a fetif years ago, a jmtrney to North Africa to study A. 
topography: of late Iw has often sigfied for ''sijr weeks i 
ftnbrobm leisures — I cottld finish my book" Tfte first knndn 
and fifty pages were put into print so long ago tfuxt -^hen i 
had reeiehed the end, they required to be entirety retdsed tu, 


r/mr. Bui af fast it ztns fittuktd^ and ki t&vk the ti'/urlt 
zvirA him tfi irfia»td, mttt of it in fr^f atid part p/ it itt 
MS., in ^rdir to cmf^ai^ur to s^ the fW, 

TxiVf si^nific^iHt rntrirs in kis Diary in tht imt /^nr ^f kis 
Ufi may Mrf, I think, witfi aJi^nta^ be fuottd^ tc ^h&w iu>tv 
kts kffts Xiurr &^utui ufi in tht b4>ok, "Mtk Ativ difinti* a /wrf&u 
of uif-edttmtitm it ka4 Inttt fi&ntitd cntdtarti^ ^nt, andk^tv 
mrdfni/jr ke dairtd that it skouid sert€ tru€ and ht^k ards. 

MmiiJung wJtaf I rtnl^ think it tAt out tf my Cyfriam — ik* 
t i ^ mt mt i itiK ^ the Liiti ^ Sish^pj tvAfi aftrnJcd C^awik ttndfr 
O^TAM, 731/ itti (/(TWBMflVi/ tffkifh they ^fer t;\u *«<■ of tAt jh-it 
Jittfr ik4t iflru^ jw- / t/^n wr^ Hfl at \sii) the Lttts anJ triti^std 
tkm. TAu ram arlainly %V 4tnv A^vn later (if S£ tuft) than 1S65, 
o^ / katf t^day uml that ari^inaliy written iitt and a-ittes, K'i/AJraA 
mta made Jk*^r /<■ the l/iinersi'ty Prut, S0 tAat wty *o^^ ' is at 
imtt j/^years afartin iti itwi. 

/ ftay G^ ^t$t tAit Ctfrian tp tAe ffv>d of Hit Chuffh. // He 
Um it m9t^ 1 4a» tpini hatj Nty iife in Midinj^ hay and sl^Mh, and 
tAi 4rt mutt aentume it. But phase G^* may it last 

SktUay, MauA a, t&g6. 

Nmir maiff fnufirafJjr fmthed a iu^ h»>A. imhts f ejiid a frw if 
llr Grtdt mmmtmts. If it ever uc Mr H^Al, many urdt tArmA it a irry 
tH ML MA are tdijitj in sntA dtffere.-it jc^yt Bat it Aas edified 
ttf, Uihkh it vAat / Ae^am tt/fir, 

T* nmphasix4 tht ev^nt, cr **t4 adt*rn a £aW* leoutd h€ cttt 
^ fiact htrt: / ha\r mfrtfytriidt^f indicate the kUiory ef tht 
intA and th4 signififanr ftur that tht fennpleti,**/ ef hit only 
hkr^ry tmterfirist toinctded ta ttnuijctfy and sa fna/esttcaify xt^ith 
tht tenniHativn 4fhu tarthiy fwrgitt. 


7-«. I. i»^ 


Among the last proofs which my father corrected was 
found a memorandum to write an Appendix dealing with 
the Rev, E. W, Watson's valuable Essay on the StyJe and 
Language of 5- Cyprian in the 'Studia Biblica et Eccle- 
siastica/ voL IV. (Oxford, 1896). In all other respects the 
book had been completed. 

Mr Watson has since most kindly verified some compli- 
cated references from two important codices in the Bodleian. 

I must here also be allowed to record my sincerest 
gratitude to my father's dear and honoured friend, M. Alexis 
Larpent, who gave him invaluable assistance in verifying 
references and suggesting corrections, compiled the index 
and in conjunction with my brother, Mr E F. Benson 
corrected the final proofs. 

A. C. B. 

Feb, [2, 1S07. 





It is » long time dnce I fixed on llie Life and Work of 
Cfpnait (bt A spixiaJ study. The reason, I think, wraa first 

In tioscs wf1tc^t like ours, were boTh extraordinarily 
picturesque and cxtruofdinarily crowded with business, a 
powerTuI and fa.Hcinjiting p&r»(in.ality apiie^rcd to mc to have 
done most to turn Ihc Pagan to the Christian temperj to 
hftvc dcdlt masterfully witli lasting problems In the Church, 
En have left behind him a living Theory' — so living that 
the ffccUsta /rsJicipa/ij Has never ccA,scd to fret over It And 
retouch iL In ^h<Ki he «i]i;Krar(-d U^ he ^tnnrtg us. 

He wu tempted into the noble and ala^' too fruitful 
enx- of arraying the Visible Church in attributes of the 
Cburdi InvUible. But he said and shewed how men might 
fnvcly dtSAcnt without one wound to peace, lie spoke a 
waich'word of comprehension which, for lack of the charity 
which po««esKd him, we do not receive in the churches, 
ahbough ft muat needs precede the; Unity we dream of, 

I hope that In th» study [ have not ever been un- 
flundfd of the present, and yet hdvc not committed what 
I hold lo be a grievous fauh In a historian, the reading of 
fbc present into the pait, I have tried to sketch wh.-it I saw. 
It b ooiy thus that th<; pa^t can be read Into the present — 
Ihe'Lcftson of HiHtncy' learnt 



That wc have some need of the Lessen of the Cyprianit 
times I feel sure. Sure that it might have saved us some 
of our losses. 

Still I was not civercareful to point the moraU in place;^ 
where it could escape in> thoughtful reader wherein Ihey 
lie. or what they arc Such simpler moials arc of infinite 
value to a student who draws them out for himself. Not ol 
much value to one who should read them over and thttil* 
that he had always thought them. 

As I have dared to take the rcidcr into conf^JciiCc bj 
placing two names, sacred to me^ on a leaf of this boot, '. 
may perhaps be allowed to explain why work so long ag< 
commenced is 50 late committed to the reader's indulgence 
At school under Prince Lee the very name of Cyprian hat 
attraction for me. At Trinity Lightfoot and 1 read th 
Df UititaU together on Sunday evenings in tny Freshman* 
term. At Wellington, at Lincoln, at Truro, at LambotI 
even at this Addington — cara ubi tot earn — minuceg only r 
the day. often of the wecl<, have been all that what 1 am m 
ashamed to call a life of lahoiir has left mc. Therefore 
feel that if my love for the man ha^ surpassed my abilil 
to know him, I may humbly a^k that aomc excuse may \ 
allowed me. 

If the earlier part of this Life i^ j^omcwhat thin, that 
because T thought it not worth while to bring up its prifjiit 
to the same level and same fulness as those days of Cypn^ 
v/hen the real problems of Church and World were up< 
him and he wrestling; w:lh them, 

The Texts of the Latin Versions witnessed to in ] 
writings arc too special and too large a work to be includ 

The smaller type is for student -studies not essential 


the main course of story or comment, although they often 
shew the source of the text. Some nevertheless I commend 
to the general reader who will soon see whether or no they 
have interest for him. 

To ProC Lanciani I owe the map which illustrates the 
chapter on Xystus. The two others are compiled. They of 
cour^ owe their accuracy to M. Charles Tissot and to the 
grand Archfeological Atlas of Tunisie which is being pub- 
lished by the Minister of Public Instruction and Beaux -Arts. 

1 must express my gratitude to my friend M. Larpent 
for his minute and learned assistance to me while seeing 
the work through the Press, and to the University Press 
itself and the Publishers for their patience. 

Edw: Cantuar 

Sifttmirr, 1S96. 


of itre T).ma *nd WflCngi of Cyprbn 


CmImcv and ber Sodctj 


. Jtfv— junnii 


Tm» Last or thb Lono Peacx 









Cji'^ii'* Ficfustkio Ui lioiEbciHluiit • 

'T»l4r IlM>U AftA HOI GOM* 

Cnniui Dacoa . - , . . 

FrolTtenic ..... 
H«lp» t» Ligvtca^ SnlpMre StodiM 

'ToQciBiMvi't'TKatmoNio'l . 
Cn«iM fBsde Pope cfCutbicc 

Cn™*^'* ™* ^ ^ Attthoncf «nd ihc Dcvpi ijf the £pi>cop«lc 
Divft^cnoe or C>prufl~« fraic Modern V^wt .... 
A Bkbop'ft Woik ophiU ... 

TW e^ibtaCD Monthcf^nflnkifd. Virginal Ijft id DvOuier 
UUflvyChHBnvrcf ibo BiHilt 'Or thiDrsuov Viloin&' 







• J 




Ths deciav C£iisE:cuno>t- 

1, Tlie Romhfi Theory of PcrstcirtJon 

EI. Thfl Outbreak d{ (he D«?i4in PemeiruLion— lUtn* 
Of GtnHinnusi in ^Sinfrn^urf 
Oh Er&^sa ai>rJ NmrtfriiJ 

in. Thr ??rwculional Cmh»gc,— i. Tlie 'S1iii«b 

». The ' Uj»i * 
On lAt Ftr/ti anJ C^tt/nti of tk^- I.ihJU , 
l\w Tha Rvdrcin.-iU of CyiiTipji ^ - . - 
V. lBt«rbrtnc« of Tba Chtirch at bamc 
VT, The 1j*]i«U Mill ilie Mftfiyi^ . 
VII. Tlie CyiiEJaiiJc Si;li<!iuc far IUiIi>ihUvc DiaciifUitc . 

(ht ihf - P^' ef RMidH Conftsiim ^t^th it dfU^ from 
that nvuti 

On JAf ThirtetR Episfi^ of zehick Cy^aif tatt ceft^J tu ike 

IX. Diocevm DiMi^utctudcB . ^ . 

K- DedftTntiun of Parties— Kt^-ntuH and KcUcisMmbik 

PtniiHatimi ind SarciHotriJi ^ - , - . 
XI. Croivsb of the Opiwsition al ftom*— Tho Confcssops and Kwitian 




Sequel or tub 1'ersecutios. 

Cyprian 'i " Fltsi CouticiL mf CKttiWAOt. ' ; 

Question I. TheTiltc of Cora*lluJ . c 

Qucaclon 4. DedAion on FaltcUaimus . r, 

QtieliQn j. ?faviUuinisti ..--... j, 

Fattritt^frmt Pirtvrftfiw thsyt^r afu i^ 

OfCyJin'iH Ajrfirt Ail ffJtiH Pnihytgrx u 

Of Cvprian ircf'Tt tht fiitiiiait Pra/'j'trrs . . t^ 

Of fi'eluitamtts at a marr faithfui rrfuuKtAt^tfi ^ tAt 

CHuttA - - . . . , . t, 

QiiOjrion ^- Tlie r>«'i*iQii oh iht Lajiwi] ^ , ^ 

AdvAHfc of Nrivaiiaoism— Reium of rhe Caufssori - , . t| 
Cominuod Actiim dEfdiiftt NDvatiBiiLta]-.— Kuiiuui Counaluf i^j, 

Aaiiorheni^of A.D. ij? H 
Di^uttifi ipt idmtifyirtg Nippfilyhtt, tkrntigA iifkffm 

Diany>iMiv»trfftit€J^9/nQHt, with J/'^/t'///hs e/ /^yfm> il 

11^^ u Dt^t^iiuj' /ipislU to l/tr Jfomanj fsUni Anuofiiv'A/ \\ 

^^^^^f CONTENTS. 



CrWMrjMiiBMl IteriU or th« Fim Caunrtl 

17V ^H 


CMOtktiflA ^-^Purfttrdna : Aalm-Mfhl; F1i|;!il fiinn SuETcring. 



■ 74 ^H 


^ Ma*i rm/fcMi /yapmnf ^ C^frisM . . 






Ctpuaw *ov 7»ii Uwnv or tre Catholic Chukch,' 





Tw Qoatknu oa Cypiuiilt Vniiy^ i. Wu JT ■ ifiiMiyof Cijnr^ 


ticB orof roLiqrr 9. Dos k tnvolvE! KoniAii I'lriiy? 



(^■'I'''*' <i^ O/PihMW pvt^rt wn ihi L'nt't^ riptifi^i vi Mr 


<«7 ^H 

Tbc Appe^ ctf i>w nic<lcm Church of Rome io Cypriftr on ' T^ 


l^d^^SJtt CalL^ CAMNk*—\iy vny cf h^icrvokUmi . 




119 ^H 


^TMt m .'iu OitafitHfi^m /V^i'ib //. 



^P CHAf^rEK V. 



T»v Harvrft or THB New Lgoislaticw. 



Tbc lofUaiDj: ^thc FEinnc«»— ■Till: SBCOtiU CoUffCCL^ 

1J3 ^^H 


TW EAtct ca tcUdiBinDf anrl h» Tifty . ^ ^ i - 



• Ttts TuiU) AMD Ki>uiiTri Coi-NClUi>* Eiriioopftl Cue^ The 








ExrAvstoit OP Human i kulitcc axd Entu>.;t. 



TIk Qmich bt fcUkfiim la Phjr^cal !>uiT«rin|; ' 




qfCttnmiuif^i tT^Oiffta/Mcitl . . . . . 



t. TW Clvfch >a i«[Mion Eo Hifath*n ^ulTering, — Th» Tia^d 



^ TlicTlMor|->— UrtcoadUiutiiil Aluuiim. 'Or Wokk atiu 




«49 ^H 

«50 ^H 


Thr tncciprvuikfli of Sonon - . . . 





^^ "To FowrVWATVi' ['SXlfOHTATIiXl TO MAHTTftDMl'l 






09 lAt CAarta/rliftti ^ut GfrnuiMW^u ijf tiU Di f>omintm 


Compatittm fhtiiiialinj: thi J}Q£ei ...... 

R{|ual— I. The Mined Cup 

OijKiiou Ifi Cauarif It/- nH fl/rffVMt f/ ttl J nlififin^/aiitv 

Thr Romax Chaik. 

I- "Oit End of Ois^iiLiua 

II. TheSJiringcif Utciv>< 

III. Sr&fFiAfdis- Tbc Chaich not iiJencilkd Mrtdi or reprcv^nM bjr 

Kome ,...-..,.. 

1. The Sfo&lfih Appcskl . . . h , . , 

a. 11jg Gflull^ Appokl • ,.<.... 


Frol'iyLen as Mcnibm of AdnLinistiHtion . . . . , 


1. I. TheTmditioiicf Arrica ..->.<•> 
3i TlicTistliclLjn cf Alii MiTior Bul ....>. 
IK t. rositjon oftlic: L^adcnt— CypHan AUfi f^icphcn i 

/Jny^j (Comitil nf I/wmit m"! urlior) , - . . 

z AcU and Di>cum*rjlfc --..,-,. 

FiPTii Council, f [HUT u,N llAi'fiKjrf . . - . . 

SiAiK Cvuwcii* 3M-<>?<ij ►»« BAm^M 

Diif Sf/fAfu iji^mnntumtfitrf tfir ftttAfl/v ftffkt Eatff 

DioiiyBius the Gr«T , . 

Tkai thett ii ns rttu^H U mp^je Utkrs Art mUsif^ fi'Sm 

the Cerrtifent^tKt ft^lA S^ffl^en • ^ > > > 

TJiof iAf Eptsflf I^ P/ifvjvy {hp- ;♦) hmJ Sttphrn't SfixUt 

TAai Kp, 7J f> SlffHn h njffttiy ^ *io9on u iJkf SitM^ 

CouHctl. tt^i tin T^trd 

TAai QuittHi ^ Hui\t: ivh^ t/M in tit StsitvlA C^mtcit 



noallui ■ad hb Loticv . . - 

Qint§tvm ^ Strifhtrt iit ftrmilvm 

Tbc Ntnwlfai Aurhfir ' on KcbtpUm ' . 

^jn. Tbr Aqrunrnci 

^K CTptiu^ I. QtijccUvtf . . . , 

^^^^^ \^ SnhjccliTc . . , . 

^^^K Af/CKN in tlU MtPtf </ Ckrisi a!cHt 

^^H Diblii^ 

^^^^1 SiqAcn'* ArgQawiiii . . . . . 
^^^^H Om ^ /^*rtt f/ Sit/iktH'i NihU EnnovvtdT ntii 

1^ TIm Unhrokn t^ahj . . * . . 

^ J. The Caiholic Mil ihr riimnonrani} E%:linatt of 




locf or CttitisTuy Feemsco a^d Ekemv fRgmmi^ 


The Peitsecimoit oy VALtKi,\K. 

TW YAttt ud »tt occuiOAt ....... 4|4 

UACrma, TWpnAUiii^offJ4Uoru ' . » « . « 457 

Om ATffiAj^intni/ /At fjtmii if/ AW/uiAvM . . . 4GJ 

Trmincfil t4 Cyivi*D ^ - . , - , . , 464 

Xtnidiim Bittiop- CmaffiMCfm *>.«■«• 471 
'To FotrU^ATUl' [*0r K^tCOCtAO&tlUfT TO COHPUSOH^ 

""■■I *:4 

Rom. Aoflciriftft oT XjUua uid hu imtminfty . . 4;^ 

Tkt RMcrtf4 477 

t<a», Tha K%duiitmi fnjm iba Ccni«t*riM - - 4V' 

MoBTMlAvf XjnTii* u>ij bB NUnrvdwa ■ .... ^t? 





jy^t wiu Cyptmn Mftityr htriidi 
IVhrrt Han Cy/rrtuM tneJ and rrtnttti t 
T^t Orm n/ C^friai^ . . . . 

Of tiu lifflta Cttndiiia . . . . 
Aii* Pntvitatiarin . . . . - 



\\>' iy») ,.,..« 

"&. AifitittoHnf ttfitf tm Libplli SLOd two eiiont tffdtnpni of ih«tti (pp, 

Bi— 8*1 J 

K\ 7Jti fnirfptt ah^ut Mnnwiu*' Tenr. ymentfi ijfier\^y ira) . i 

n» T%f /afrifpte ttitatti tht Bvnciticticie Tekl. AJdlHi^titii um en ilu 

K- 7*-t/ of tkf Iflierpolfllioti in De UniUte c. iv. x^ifk hiv 

rpilaturu ^ ...... i , ... j 

G OH/hf Hamtif^t I^fntfif Ad Novftlwnum atttftht aftn'^nfitm »/ it Is 

Xpli.!. [p. 47*) I 

H- ^ra/titrtalifn #/ r-4* Llstt ^ rf^ Hiihapi atftmting thr Counfflb- 

{CtrtHtitJtHJi. Smiv^) , . . - ^ . ' ^ j 

I, K. 7Z< CilU-s /rr-w w/ifiA ihs Bt»hr>p fowtf /J Ihe rtcvcnlh Council 

on the Finl of Sfpl«mlt«r. a^h. tt^ . ^ , ^ ^ . J 

In Oh ^, Cypriaii'>i Duy 14 Kutrndnis, And how il came Ld he in 

Knglnnd on (he^Clh uutcatl 9\ iJie J 4th of S«[minber . . 4 



Tbc CoDeterici on Ihe Appiui W^y dcv Rome . - , > • 481 

Cuihagc (Eovirons of) ..,..,..., 509 

ProcoraMlar Africa and Numidia to iL]iL«u*te the writings of Cypritui . . 573 


LociJui of Fabian ........... 6€ 

Loculu of Cornelius 134 

LocqIus of Mmximii& ........... i5i 

Coizu of ConKtUi SaJoaina ....,,... 300 

Xinth Century ^urefl of Cyprian and Coraeliui htan the Cemetery of 

Caltislns 501 

Localos of LdcIds ........... 306 

Well of tbc Legend of Stephen's baplizing in Cemetery of Domililla 353 

Liki of Books qiioted , .......... 621 

Indci ' ............ 616 


^ 4CL /ffj^Au/e/^Oedliust Tdff CscdliHiiu- 

p. iio. n. 4i rvo^^ Privatai of Ltmbzsc had Five adhereDtat.,.Five Bishops 

aiteoded Corncliiu at the TeconcLIiation of Maximum. 
p. i6ck Xt^ the fibbop EvamtUB, who had been probably one of Xovatian's 





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A 9JU1.1XO Tc»el runniaic before a &ii *ind from OiiU. could rrjch 
rtnhagt on tbe second day- Yc( 10 the Komjtn Africa ntvtt |[>ie the 
at tibtMtcc whI mrdaesv- His businctv truiuutiutu wUb it wific 
Ie ifl all siRwn wtth relici of ha (a.ctahf%, yri hi« Hrleniihc 
il tutfie AS acird fti the t^ks of iu vild men- Ita lion undci- 
naod vtiai v<u ^afd lo htm. Iu pytltnn cherkni h)s Icglnn. N«w tpMis 
W cre«t«t«4 wvro coBtisOAUy produCMl there Hii Annies trod AAt>r» of 
s* ovrr boitofntctf pit>- Kr (]LiHrrinl AtIa^ hit predont iibkt were 
Mideof >ti <ro(Ht,y« it ttn£ rhe mouni.Lin 'of iMt,' the tncxhauiiibic, 
~nntilar«ble iriaiuitain- Kven in rhe «tilh rrntiiry hin rirHcrjpiion of Mt 
Attre* a raexti^ Untosk^ He never shook off liis feeling aboul Ihe city 
vUdi bjiJ «te>ilc4 itiih biTi) for (lie Giiivife of the euih, and bad been no 
CgaAy ihrvirii. H* titll htard with iwe th>i. where oiher ration* colled 
o» lt«if j:o4i,ihe Afrk^o bruilhe<l only Ehc a^nne uf 'Afncn' before a 
aev ouerpme. 

lais ibii reg»oii opened t»oglorioa»]|^tc&f the vxUeyof T^ypt and lhi» 
«lkB. Tkfougli ihoe t*t] tntisi p:tss jujd repass all th^t ihr Mnlitrr- 
fa^ed aad curied lo or from ibc infiQite Soudfin. Ihrcugh this 
4II :hAi Uiey tent or borrowed fmm tL^e intinn nnd r?ioure«^ 
cmtwitWwii vhkd) Uy l>«nveen Sahvi and the ma, and alt the human 
whUk lened jLod riobted the muJtituidinDus interests ihcie in- 

For iu cc«4l from the Nile to the Atlantic Uy thu». Fir*t a low- 
ot duaes, vhose lafedi invj^pd ihr sei ttX twa vant Syrtei, nwtpt hy 
ibc kurrka«es 6rom th« &aham over the rocky rin. and swirliag in shooU 
«ad qmft*=*ftd* and shifting tNuikti ^onjc ever-ihiRin^ currencs. Then 
dpim vpoo tbc*e, llope aher slope, ic\i the buttrei* ends of iwi> Alptne 
eliaias vMc^, barrinff breoki and rents, rolled out their snowy ndfes stde 
fty iMc to Uu AtUotie : the northern ebain, ^ vjut rampnn creating 
th« irun-bound coiisi which ft inidc ; (he southcra falling by 



plMnu alivT plateau till it plunged iu tooL^ in Sjih;tr>, and ilung iu 
tontnta into lea(£ij«s or satE. lakes. Between ihe Iwin gi^nt rtdfcet, lom^ 
citnet linked together by crois fclU «.n<l yokca of ]gwcr hcislit, wcec hiuti 
piling and hollows full nf mnunTiLin hasin« ^iiid small simms, lo that 
thcK were endless rich »hcct» of Innd 'ind fetlilc ilopcs^ and sometimes & 
•uccflision offal plain*, as orj the Mcrfjerdfl, .« well ai oases of bewilder- 
ing feLtility ojt m the deacrta. Uonei and citEilCt ccrealSf the h&ivieit 
uhcai And br^nT yidd tlien known^ Tnin<!r:il!(, unique mnrbT^, pAlm 
l^rovet iouihwArd and olive woods northiwaidi and n^ountains of c<dn» 
Slocked -ind stored the Utid. The yi-^Id of ml was prodigJous^and :i thtnl 
of all the corn consumtd in Kcune and lluly was grown here- 
Time tlin^r liiir^p ihe irorLhern slupc^, the souihem tcriateis, and tli^ 
vasL certral Up, were thick from immemonal lime wiih naiive villages^ 
moil of which grew inio tovms of which scarcdy one was insiEnificaai \n 
Its possession of some Bouj-tie of welf-bejua, 

l\ WA5 on the bioA- uf ihc scihwaid head, between tigbUndji and low- 
l(in<:l«f where the endt of the lwi> chains broiij^ht Lbf; u'lfstenug shore to 1 
sudden stop and turned ll iiotth,— it was in lIihi gntc, commandini; tb< 
TOitiirh of the Medji^rda valiej'.thjit CarthAfie had long lincc <flf henelf down 
/fa^iam <oHfni, and looked straight north to Komt^ So da^ngcrously i>eiV 
u wju, that ir^to shewed the *cn-iior* s fresh fig ptillcd two day* beton 
in C'lrihiLj;?^ lis u Ei^ken thai both could not exi^t- 

• * ♦ 

The end of her power hrid be«n the b^^ginninf^ for her of iinequollei 
wealth. When hci warships had been tuwed out to ^ea and tired ih 
became a neutral, free of ihe seas, while war kept out of commerce all th 
mdjntJme peoples of (he EiaL fur half «i century. 

But thai prosperous interval sof^ed the apirii of a state for whic 
HannibTLl hnd not bccu airbitiou± cjioutl>i when he lalcctthed ai\ hoaioui 
Able pe.ire and Afnca for a sife dominion. The pursuit of gain thtnnc 
thcLi tioopt and Tilled iheoi up with mejtenaiieL The lifty yeaia ove 
\hey h»d notliing but the wish for peace and a readinett to give and kef 
Any rcCjuircd guiLrantccs, to oppose to the stolid ajiimoE^ity of C&to 4T 
th? emit of MaAinUsa. It would have been a «ore eachangt for mankir 
if semi-ode ntnls scrunibUng Into democracy through const! lutionftl do& 
haG prtviiilcd. Bui the Rompin policy, inspired by both fear and jtm 
its secret in&liga.tion of the b:Libaiiari, its 3jmtjlatii>ii of jniprtftiAllty, h 
been cJilled by the calmest of hUtonans' diabolic/ l: flared mil in t 
atrocities of the siege and the capiure- Through seventeen days the cii 
which lalcdy i:onlaincd 70o,chXf pcoplei buritt a^ 'one fiin^ri^l pyre-' Th- 
the plough w^ foolishly dragged a1>oiil her viCDhed walls. 

* * 9 

A ijuarler of a century, and h^r hUtoty be^an again through Ctt 
GfiLCchu^, hue m a djeary fAshioii. She loomed loo Ur^c still to be I 
to ^htcniGuui boatmen and Libyan mapaiio. The cdpital was &udda 



iVMfM bmI tt» hridfl Allotted to Komari coloviicu, old loldjcn^ 
^^rruUting IknncEa, ind bom of >Utc laboufci^ Bul ^liil jealousy 
*mii j^etmii BO rfol development. Ttury had to pnM«ct them»clvcc 
T^? has Du mitiUfy ttAibn. Tbc w«lU wtrc ncv« latorcd* odd 
vatOm^ forbade the inhibriing of ikip prrcinct. so thnt '^ht mint of 
fVlhlCr ' tn vbich Melius nu »cca >Utin£, wcic hjiJl « niHc pcrhtp* 
tntaUmatv &fid bnnliaw. 

Bit aJl Bsv cfcaofcd once more wbcn lereJii men aod »iALctmen, 4 
I^Hvd SA OetMvitii, ondcnook the ibing^ Tbeo bcjfia a real pc^Uq^t 
iAfa encufb* but 1 policy vhkh enn^hed nui c:la»c9. created a 
panuRfT, found a tvbiiitcncv for ev«ry fie^innr, und f«iH Italy, Car 
IbaccfinUiAd thcr tlKoldiownsbcKnn tOTCCCLvcpc-ivikK^MiK munkipU 
Vdoobnitev toeiietinrm tttulATy, hut often ^\th n^.n\y srEiltn cApnble of 
^A^nuing ibc iliick and thlckcnine popuUtion^ The>' slid quietly 
fan 0» admniimEion cf Sti/tUt. *Jii<1k''^' ^^ 'b^^ *>' nuwjrf'r'n and 
Am^Mj. AiVcr TraJRc*R lime nearly all to^ns bod rccctvcd bonoun 
t>4 prmtege*, and look occAflon tf> glofif>' tbcmsfNrt utth link mini- 
ofbl batUia^ acid hn;e niatkct -placGti sibovc all with u»phtihc.iirc»' 
Ikcy (rmple« and bulhcaji and ^rcbet, tliou|£b not perfectly pure In 
CtftE, vcTF ^reot and slatclyi is they coni«cra(ed ihemsrJvos m marb^ 10 
l^E) mn SnrcniK, to hii Juiia> Gcia and Cur.i'.nna- 

li'udthy viILm, luncundrd themaclwi ivich clependeots and with 
oaitfTcx Imd 10 be token into occomil in the comraunal syitcm kkc 
euD io*na» and wm len eatily dealt with. 

tie Roman £imiei uf Alrku biiit left lirb mark. HU Moorisb mic> 
etftOVf iboufh lor civil und r«liKioiE« purpoieiuAin^ iho Aral>io KalendflTp 
MAcihcmubtbt u/ibeir-iK"tu]iLi(4i uiKiaciun^ frujii lij« Luiit. Heita» 
pBOfOtial for two potntfl^ Hia dau^htert worked it wl-H ai hii sons, and 
W own implemeat ua? ibc Omiit^ l^mimi. He voiked a.nd m-ide 
fierynnr work, Plisy vaw him or hit native lennnt m Hyifj^iLini yoking 
tt eld vo<naa wilb pIH asi, a practice not dropped untd or Utc Ho 
Md ki* laJid Dtnalljr npon « military Trnare, 

Tbc bnltMni Tbird Lei:ion executed irctks of immcnic ma^'niiudc aiid 
U MbuFible uiJjty, while from its toldirr town* tl fenced fiviliifllM>n niT 
ImiiIk Berber hordo, A fcv of their dam were more or less lickcicd 
ttd cttrntird, bui all were tabjecti in the e>* of [be law, ijenerjilly rebels 

Tte whole dvll &f>d rulitarv ori:;ini0lion, from (be Pmrnnsuri 5r«ir 
V4 Ofico downwvd«t wni without a break, abiolutcly continuous, jn' 
tffflite, miautc ind intianL Wc- know n fiom their innumerable 
iwiwrmiini M pre«:i>rty as we knew thit of cotiitttes pariahea and 

^a a Esarfol ahadow dOfgod alJ this national gcntas and trdividoal 
r, tb« in!i«icM vii:c erf ibc Konimi Apiiit, tlic icunifiil inbuiiuuiitj 
vUc^uftaviliaed popobboci were unhelped ani^ repelled It wa» 




thi*, with its cvrr-^owin^ Ir^in or con«equenc««» ihifr &nd 
Vandftl^ which wn^Uf^ht the laif wrcdc. 

Of niattri;i1 Canhagv ue have less solid kcowkd^e ihan of ai 
city- Carthjific has bcrn leamcdl)- rcbmll in (Ul' n»r, its [cmp 
flrrrlb :TiHp|>ril and naiiiird by dcijartmcnts, but ill irc as viaionjuy oi 
miragC' ArchjTology has spoiled Cirth^i^e for tnuieuins an Arab* dJdj 
for limcmSf aad Italian Kepublica fof cMbi^drals. VmM sciciicc lad 
sysiciTi explore what lies mierr«d under claicien vp can Imoi^ Lilt^ a| 
a city whose two eSaccmcnts were not more wondcrfdl th*n tuelf E^ 
iis mnjtftty, Wh^n Cypnan w>i£ there in the height of hia reputBt Ca|( 
th^^c IS icptirtcd by Itcrodiari to have been in popuUlian and wCftld 
the equal of Akxandna and second only lo Rome. U« beauty nutclM^I 
its rank. ' 

The Ar^T few «(eps in It Ici-rlay are ermi^h tn «hfw ui rhaE ihe«e Ar^t 
quarters were laid out by no .\rab hand. Two street* of great lcn|rt| 
lhrE>iigh lis luge^t dimeniioni, mtcrt^t at right nn^es, and pfl5« Aiit 4 
the city northward and wostwiird as itnTKrial roAd& For tht^ outer ci^ 
and environs they fomi tjase linM cnch waj^ fnr many firber srreetf fi 
4uil ax right angles, and frequently iricrlaccd a^niti with eonvcfiieft 
diagonals. In the inner ciiy, with its wiadinK «dge and rliff. its height 
find sleeps, the streets sliil made a singulur sjmtneiry of squarei ani 
triangles, so (hat siiacr was rapidly iravtrsed and every awkward pW 
made serviceable. Most of ihia htcml ^cometr^' waa Koman, but in CO 
older citadel -reition and religious quirters there are traces perhaps i 
those Etr<:Gls with wliich, enrhe^t of all world cities (il wai bc]revi*d( 
CarJhjige wa5 I^id cvx in regular plan. In iiiothcr fc«ttire this Irm* 
City resembled nodcrn sea-ports and vols unlike ancient ones^ Tb 
haibour wa& excavated in rirgular b^Lsins. otiEcr and ianirr. The OQlf 
oblong, for vef'ScU of commerce, the inner, called Coihon, fined for si 
full'Siied triremes. This mn round, or nearly rounti. n cirrnUr Ulaiu 
from which the Punic admiral't quarters had commanded the lake i 
Tunii untX the 3e#t^ All was dCjn^Lmcted at tlie one L;urner which ^a\e 
straight shtire. %outh and noriti* for quays and a short end louthviu 
and ibdtcfcd for the harbour mouih, Everywhere there was a ^niu 
for adaptation visible. At the micrsecUon of the two great sircoia a] 
ihe exiiacridinary re^er^oirs, Roman (oo« but on Punic lines. The »u| 
structure of the citadel— a unique contrivance (except to far a* 
lescmblcs the suL^structuic of [he Temple) — b a ne^l of chambei 
where water was piintied and stood rn va^r votiime- Of the triple w4 
of the inner diy. itself coniaimnE stabling *^^d hayracks, wjibot 
believing all that rs in Appiar, we nx-xy believe wonders. 

At the hcail of the isosceles triangle which, as wt can pcrce^e, d 
eiiyahiiped out, rnte ihreehundred feci hif^h, Ehe famous Ho/rah<— dimbc 




MA of rapkl gradient— ihp B>Tia or tii? Ir^C^nd, ttid of the 
BUI 'tnMMal Had moving' of oJl ticgc nanrxuiv«i uvc one. 

Ott the crwn of n bod bctn in aUl Punk tirric ihe tiuelnry itmplc 
<rf ta^mwun, heavily piIUr«d and ycOov fiuccood, replACcd pcrhap* 
a ibt ikncb *c Arc (wsy wiib, Vjr Uie CarinihidQ or Ionic temple; 
tC vioie coluomfr i lew irifinwnbi romain. Now i% ia iIm cliapcl 
d dM sftlni ukd ktn^ who <lied cm ihr ^Imic below m ib^ Arms of 
JOwiiL Htn were the B&i«ijcu^ wh«rc C)-piun pkaded, ihc grcit 
library he a*«dl 1^ Senile House, the Pnctorium bdng the ma-* 
md all Che homo ol & Sfftta^ 

OoM by ikc ii^et >idc of the harbour tiict a miniAiura BjrrM* on 
whch pcflup* Cxl^Mft hnd her »briEi«— Athtaroih, the *abominalion of 
ftv £sdonii«tii,' &rij Lhc itGf|uir of Vifj-Ll, nficr *hom Craccbui» tried to 
v^mnr the torn jimonla. 

He fnjraicnt* which ihickir strew ihc firoudd atc «1I Roman, The 
Ti3U( nty Hf^ h<li>w tbpm ttml^r a t\ttp hy^r rf r^l^^t1'rf ranh ^ml wnnd 
■k Xothi&£ oi it pr«saci on our eye* hat ihc cnormoiu tufn blocks 
Buted viEh fire, tht bate* or the mmppvci. Within iheiT northrmmoyt 
vmA b>t Mcmiai^ly beyond aU old Hurellins^ la the city of the dead, 
Ink hilU ithd drlU at Mme^*ianr. OJ/^I A'hiinui, whttc lie hurdirri* of 
Tbeir placed hikvc bcca sunken, burrowed, ;inc| fiCOOpcd, 
rv-tioMDteid and dcv^mcd auAin- Tkuubdtid!t erf dull n>orm- 
mmt icMti u« oMbiA^ but njtme^ Thcae daLc on^'ord from the wcond 
IbDt&daa epoch, T^kxi forefAihen had buried in tbc I nner Town. Tlie 
padtroM Mp^kJirc* of the oldest Phoenician lords ore io tbc udtA of 
kttiL Tcrtnliflii bad shuddered at wbiLt be itaw diuiuted wticn the 
tidooa was cucavaud. Here are Christian emblems, and here are be- 
hedad ibcieUina with their beads laid carcftiJJy upon their U|».. And 

ViUaa tbc ranipart* p^vtlr^ but for mile* oui^ide ihcm, »ir^tcbcd the 
M»4» and garden* of tbc Xoman p«cr«, an «i;teni of * Horti ' uocifttcbed 
at K«iae. aitd acroM thecn from the weaccm hiUi strode the coloaMi 

If MG dMl aot know that the marble wealth of iti viructurei, «o 
tmtrt^ au if nraiififid ffir a second quarT>ing, had ttmpied cot only 
toChCbiUtiaa Tvnjs, but suprntnely Chiiitiin Fiu. ne should catc with 
t^efe e}n epoifi the t^alc vpi^e4 wh«rr tti^h m-irvirU luvi* heerd. Of 
iafUUieatre nod Cveui no trace but immenie abaUow troughs in Ihc 
•■a. Of Tbeaire, Odeom, Fonm \Vtit\S, wnrce a ^jn. The Chriitiao 
fahwm did HOC pvopboy in vnini when they declared that thoACi Ibe 
mm peow j neat, non huin«iin|[ tn?i(iiutt<.ins of thai «te, were dittolvinie 
Ihi irnvy in^ifiiitca of weicty and nature mpect for Life, for Mrtuc, 
Is Goteminrat. 4nd for Junicp Hiclf, About il»AmphilhcairrT«lullian 
<rinM to reaM>n with Cantirantt, He cAn convider ii an open question 
eilf Im oen Kill heathen^ la the Circd« mere iruidiicto it kinjtt ^o 



authority nckiicw^«clg«d- Crprian 1»)U ihem thii Theatre ii the 

thcOAiB cC »iii, thib Toruin th« livm^: iiihtE of FnlhcncM. It !» 4 »ti 
noce of OLir i^tcy ihai all iht^sf! have bc«Tj not TYitnn] but nnnihilAief^- 

F&mtlr (ben ^vc mAy picture to ounrlvr^ a taaittial soratihins: noi 
wholly imlikf what Canhflge was, Sc,*rcely wiy cHy yields sn mut} 
accncs. The itrccia ;;athcriii>: Ehcmsdvc^ in uriqiic aymtnciry lo ihc M 
of itidclen ffeepa and many-tiiittid nrtrblr htfi^biv. or opfming full on iH 
gliatcnrnj; tjuays .ind the brcachkss bnrbour: jj^ccFifl hilb about I 
n-nwnM wi^h ^hrine^ and viHi.^, i^roal EevrU iipT?qdin)r in rhavr tV 
gvirden ; low MifticuH hilU' wuh *flftificirtl pasMgcti,' vthich voiced thi 
ntck of ill foTpUind: ihc va^t lake where nAvies of cotnmcfoc and o 
pliTJisurt? rode ctoac lo the sIreciSf severed by a tlirciid from tho opai 
seai ntounuin irrcais in snotv wdichin^: from ihediMAnca; [htough ■! 
and over aU ibe keen lighi and iniense bUic of Africa- 

Mere to 115 ihun lilt siilenduuis of \hc pUcc is tite popuUtion, 

habits and temper 

One of il» unlikeiiuics lo olhcr capitaU was Lii: %ay in Ahich it 
made and kepi a elcy of Peace* tuxurioi)& bui not idle Peace. Th^ P^><^ 
of its rc-pcopling did not sulTcr k to be a military ccnire, A ih^rd of ||f 
Third Ijrgion was always <jiiartpr*d, not al Carthage, bi»! wherc^-er tn 
PfOci»n»u1 was, and the brilhancc of hi3 courl wJ5 unsurp^^cd^ d 

When Carthage called the Gonhan^ rti (he Empire, ten year* bcfOR 
Cyprieii hccflmc a Chriitian, the railitan' ccrtmonial of Rome wa 
puncUUomiy n-prpsenred there, biri M-ixiniin tuunied the Hiy whici{ 
vouLd malce Emperors, with l>cing kept in order by a handfLil of licto^ 
having no weapons bur hnniing'Speflrs* and no drill bui the dance. Th 
population of the rich territory outride was not more martial. The 
poured in anii^d only with haTtlieiii and cniiairy ^itck^ It was the moi 
striking becau&e thc^r neighbour rj^umidia wa& a Land of fottt and cornff 
andf thanks to in marvclbiis old M.isinjssa, famous for its native Jav( 
men, who rode without bit or bridle and ^iteered' iheir barbst (he cosi 
tn ihe woildj vhh inril i.iid switch- 

Ttiree of the fiDcit of earth's races lived together in its cirmtl. 
Roman, as he U best knu^fi. io ]» he abo lca»c pittient of a i^pid loucl 
We need ^ay here no Tnore than that of all the \ast miliiutions ao 
oryaniiaiions of puwtr, rule, pleasure, curruplion whkh we m.iy louch Ol 
he wa& the creator. The Kom^Lns of Cotihagc did not see Iheniselvca^ ■ 
ac hornet sending out, hU from a wurce, all the let^ilative, admmlittratlV 
and executive pownsiand receiving the appeals and prztyersof ailnatioq 
noi ycL,35 in other capital^ few in number but sorcreign (hiough luUitai 
peace and uniwerviag Uw- At Carthage the commerce, wealth and socu 
inllucnce of their preponderating numbers were shared by PunJC 6uniL[4 
Laijniied since the last cu la a nations. If the native race largely bupplijt 



with «Uv«fl, it had atvi an independrni popuUtian withtn Itw city 

Tbe Berber — bf ihk, fti; nonlirm namp. wr may «D thp nrlirtt iwi- 

*»»»l ttMk of the coftlincat wham the *ntieTil» knew by in»ny nAme*— 

tW OcibtT may be Mudiod now u vnd\ ai Jit any ef hh imrcoirdrd ffr», 

Ht u uDcbwafocL Ho n neatly h^lf the populations In Lir^e di»Lric(3 

far Ulki *LJbyaD' mil abjch his mJUieri nwrr Allowed nti coin or docu' 

■m. and •ddcuQ indeed could tpMk- He ii no child oi Shcm like the 

Anfc hrlitri with. Ht^ noclonK arc <rf tquofity ainnne mpn, honcnir for 

■■aMOk lailsfe cocncnuBTbn (m the hill-topa if poiifiblc), ncighfuuriy 

fcd ei MiOft He U imH, Mronir, ^upplir, healthful, ofcm 'ttk? a bronte' tot 

Imv awl colour, often fur aad blue eyed. Wc do not know whether he 

anc in by GibnilUir Before oar tinin he had Icimi cncnit:!^ <3f Roman 

SHUtM akmf the Mftboarcl. How ih« Roman uied him and v-hat he 

■de il fatu in the iutvitoi wc ih.ill tell by ajid bye or lii» ihinl 

CMaiy itUliau lo Chniiiamty we know nothing at alL In hu time be 

Wkwt the Phoenician, Ro&uuh and Cliriiiivi rcligicnN and he rcuifu 

^t)t± of eai^li. AJl ihii vim imiiorl^int in them he dropped iM-for^ 

He «Av all other rbces in and will icc ^heni oM^ 

The idmuuftralioa of Uw wu pcrfnrtc nfcorouL The compliuied 

'V'nu and mililajy oonditiojia under which land nns ^nusuntlr bcins 

■^inrf, tt-Med, mb-let, nnd iranftfinrttl by Konnn f^m^^n; ftriiirni 

UmUcvi and tcnviti btln^ generally inainuified in ihcii' ii){hi>. -Jnd 

eUenire ^vtrv^ lytEem worked with an eye indeed id the benefit of 

^mpntton, yet wHh a tendency to keep pcnuntdife tolerably 

ant id a^eraTaie tmdttlonul servke—Rll rhU drvrlop^il highly In 

'JUKoi taine of pleaders' loinc brancbea of tc^nl skills Int^iipiicna 

mna to the care wkh whi^h pciiant farmen had their ca^e* heard, 

ni the awards recorded monumcntalky for futurt information »nd 


Tbnovt^ie pcui ofthcpopiiUtion confuted, not, fki wuh ui, of people 

ihrlr way up to the mfiropnlii m be io«t in it, but of fjunUie? jjkd 

ben vctena soldiers, halting; on their way up the country, ajid 

tkm^cnaaAag then litik CApilal by the injrrniou» u«e of oppontinHkes 

■Ueh • Mjpofi offered in the uay OE nev> irnvAli^ commodiuct nccmible* 

nA InAutrin ui rrquiutton^ Diu rmAliy they vftc in miai of rich 

VBMdiag plots of ooil* aa mtat aa night h« to the <ountle» litti* townc 

*kb vere groniniE out of vtUaj^n and Punic: siuitun?* in the pljttcnuA 

adilopi ctf AtJaa. After n whtle the>' ind their foci on agam crowded 

faqap with then pmJuce. and cmptoyed a conAux of foreiiin sAttur^ 

piBKi, dtfdt-UboQtert, to i-hich the 'Khuppapj^r of ihi- I'lrj^* wab a 

Md oitely comfnny- 

Httabttt the ultinuiety ruinoui tmntfera of Itad were proeveding, by 
*ifaci dc aapefict ownenhi^j woa concent raiini; ittelf under fewer and 
to>v tdkea f ann» were iherefore ranging ihemietvei more and more 



round the bri^lit tOKit?, rich In c/ery n«turfil ftdiafit^^c of water ttti 
wood iinrl qiuiry, whilr erormous tnuB <if lind wrr? b^ing afbrvitcft 

All thU inipliffd ao inmwnHQ class of lawyers and ascnti, of archJtc<i 
and engineer, buildcra of nqutduct* and road makers, with Colloji** i 
Survc>-or« who had ncv«r Jound it convenient to drop the au^rnl sytia 
which fpivv * DiviTir 9U.ncti(in id thrir tnifriiiiruiion. Thtrrr verdtcu nm 
be no more disputed than Ihose of the magiBiratcs, who similarly su] 
penned their excellent cliAiactcr for juiitke by conjuring iucks., by reiajnlt 
pri«tly fuMclioot, liy !» ^ravt aciing of rehgious sentimenls wliich few 
tliQiiL ciLEci lAiiietl. If t^iere W4» ono thiii|^ iliey disliked, ii i^-^-i luring 
punt&h opiftiont which ;tl ttrm seemed to thetn only eccentric Y«t ^ 
Christians iun;ed evc;i ihU irio a ^lavc necessity. 

How oonid there be mitny races without many gods} Ycl ih< 

Chrisii;iii& would hnve but imc (^od, and H^m a ricv on^ How con 
so m-tny riec) have unity or coherence without the £Hlfus of the o 

Uefotc hU bust in the siExndard of the legion, before bU inagie in i 
bliriue uf (Jjc duiiic^tic cloister, inccnst: went up contiaually. He nufbl 
^ile, but he was the Uniiy of Min, His «*«/« was a.n earthly Hro 
dcnce — practically more useful than a hcavciily one — *> useful that n£\ 
a temporary interruption by Chnttinn l^mperoTs ifae same cultus rwfv 
and atill f^otm^hcs on [he soioi^ e^rtbly conlrc- 

Among Celts and Africans ai:hoo{s of Latin were a rkecesitcy- Tt 
naturally became schools of Rhetoric^ Spam, Gaul and Africa were C9 
frim^ni*. :vnd Au^iislTne flilniits no rival to Cartilage except KoTOO, 
Pii>fc>5ors of Oratory and of all [he knowledge which oraloty demon 
Ffonto, with hii "gfaviiy; glorifipd ai • :h/ Oratf-r' and canonwed 
Aureliin' lavish friendship, wa\ of CJitiL Bur as of old i\ was rcmarli 
thai Afri^;H had jrriKhiced * no asiTonomer,' %o to the last ihe rcand 

Augusiine^ who owed so much TO its srhools^ cJifinot be «aid tn ftpi 
cf CarEhaire with alTeciion^ Jis^riot of fiaptious loves' which swept a* 
even ' the more sedaif^j' its srage dancing and scenic shame, :ind scare 
tasa the falatiy of its rhetorical training and the iibjecis it) be eifccted 
that training, made Carthage a blot on his mFmorV- He speaks with 
further horror of street scenes in ^'hich he never took p:Lrt) theabomtna 
^'grsiffti/s, which se'-m to hai-c perpctunled [he iradiiion of Thoee Pn 
riois in which, us at Alexandriii, Polybius says th« youlhs took aa mi 
p^rt a& the men- 

But in general her citi/ens were as ^enamoured ' of Carthage as Peru 
V'iahcd his countrymen lo be of Athcas. The feeling h iii>l ill rcpresen 
by Apulciufi, himielf 'a half tii^telinn, half Numidian' from Madai 
He speaks of ha achouK her commerce and hci nhj:ioa u the ibc 


XX xm 

Ml iMMt o< her d/jvKKurA im^iian M her ftft ttie one Uitfng 
DVikr tawtca two <UiCai|fui»hcd fncnd* of bis own^ 

CrfAiA hitnftcH^ conlcuins lO the full Ihf itnin* u]inn liih owti ]£f^vr 
fwifcaaicinil Lie. yd cxclum* v lo Catihai:c iiEtcir, 'Where better, vrbere 
l^dkier nufht I be thAA tn ttie place nhcTc Hod willed me w bebeve vul 

• * * 

Of ibc Pbcwcioa popdtiLfoa uT C&rthkKc ch«re hu been much to 

i^Bf_ liiti« m kaov, <k<!inE record bui an endunng type Mote ihan 

■rtE« cmiin«» bcfoec Clm«l ihcy had Meppcd hitter, point by point 

itatf the MetUinrafimn coaL^ri on their w*y l<i Spuin luid mitwii:cl, 

Ba% n blWkd, tbcrc a forelnnd or a pcoinbuta h*d terved iheir turn ind 

mdt Aon muten or cosUoUcn of [he luovin^ ^UETcnli uf wealih. Uul 

te «M iw Uieir nobk«l veeilcxnifnt* AbouE the eighth fcntur)' it may 

Wfcbeen reof^eustcdt ftceivi^ the iMnie whiili 4tif'CJiE> on toiii ^nd 

WiMfiii, K»rt HMU^atf th« Nivw City vrhteb (.Ato tned to pronounce 

■ hrt 'CanliftdA-' They checked the aUvoace of Cyicne, i;iUn:in)E 

i^ tht edife of tbe Lci«cr S)Tli^ as fir on xt Ihe Greater, a eh«in 

rfa^v^ccd poMs. whose i,-aUeCLivc name of Ent^ria sumpA the »|nrit 

£oiiad^ion :uid mdidiet tht^ir wealth. V/her« th«n w«r« 

they rc^jk^.i^niinuOf Ehcm ^rxJLfiibk with quArocid Aqueduct 

cSDMy. These covne they lost and von a^im and ogAiQ iti conSict 

nth lutiic pvioceL They cared nothinj^ for the peoples Mtiong whom 

Imd, Mid ttothang for their brood landL They paid tribute readiJy 

txibea. unit! the d^y caeiic when h txiuM be repudiated' A 

■iMjuiCiifufif tpmi marked their rvle- The^ Am^ijfikniatvd no 

«UM DO ^vemmcnti. <oncilLited no loyklty. TbciJ [iC'Lfeht 

,Uiki,wh<H'eTnt«r««tv««ein»d ideniicaJ wiib those of Carthage, 

to tam on ber whca her fltreai eun& 

They h4d twought » rich mnten^t dowry m Thf »r new^ oimtry:— ^piirple 

«bic4k on tbe KabuLnka of the I»1e of Meninx become a. source of 

•ci»]th : oHre, vtnr, Anirhnk^, poin^^fxnaEe, the date-palm vrhieh 

aoi pMicsffeil tbe hiod* The fint of all trCAiiict of cardeniDj* wu 

M^ft*!. Tbey inibedtkd ibe eiiy Hi strdeni. Thai they dL<l not intrO' 

iicc 4ea- or boar i» )aii a token of how Ihtlc eo ihcm wm ihc inEai^d- 

liV Cbry tbno«t oilonsl ihr Tuiivr liorte. and stamped him aoi ibeir comt 

«A pcrfbd Mpprcciaikin of hiA poinij. 

Tkrf alwi broujhl with them nvnnhSpit which hAd the f^v:fnatinn« of 
mot<t^^'xnd vecrocy, worship* trverdeadlicsE tothcrchgion of let-cI*- 
Gi& The Ronttn* fflioaretl or adopted the urvice of ihe ^ Darmon * or 
"CiMMCltkcCMlhdkginUbi^'UdaloT'Hendes'or Ltchmoun; us well as 
^Annfe,T«xitUtbe' Jono'oi V^ir^o CaJeitiv of nbote nbvn-jinr^^ thpre 
ift Bat vaociflg irAces m the Motklem vdU^ct of to-day- Hot everywhere 
:-r coeniDcfCiaJ EOuch- Amun^f ii the incitt ijupurtant of our FdoIc 
re 1*0 ijwitfi %-hJch lAbuJate for CAnhage and MariciUc* 



the fers and prrquUite^ or sacrifice* And rikc pnot of victims. Of » 
Punic woidft in Aui;u4hnr, one ill * Mammon/ which he render* * Lacft 
and he quQlu rtvtc proverb, ^Tbc Pln^tic a^ki a coin ; £\vc two ta be r 

cf him.' Comni«rce wa4 thdt ofisiacraitc liiic^ sencnft and ship buHdii 
their ancestral pride. *Th) bcLiclii;^ of ivor)' : luic linen with broidvn 
work of Egypt thy ^^U;,-.wi£e men thy caEhi^rs' ; so Ktekitl (ouchea 
the Tydan j:<il'^y< iWK.}i i ship ja sailed viiti ii^ uinual freight of * Tir. 
fpiiiU' from ih« dauj-ht^r Carthage. A gainhd peopt*, high and to 
tjiuitjuiti^ mtl biibitit Toi oflke. siiys Pulybtus, with a bribery whii 
at Komc in his Eimi; would have been penal and capital; ^mbllio 
vith n pjission which Hannibal bimself falkd 10 gratify. 

The chrkfticier of the r:tcc ivns pemi:inent [ik< its phys>ogitoin]> ; 
both they H^rc CAirrn/ni^as (bey caltcJ themselves lo the Inst, ^cnui 

\Vh<n the lost Colcnia settled 'ttithm the vestiges of great C&rthm 
thcro vfctt snme ihouiands of Chenani linyerins There, safer than amo 
Libyan nitmnds* They were not ejected. There was i^othing to bine 
the redevelopment of their antient fasies, but ever/thing to promote the 
The Romnns who had been so seared when the jackals pulled up t 
boundary rods were only too glnd to Adore anri to endow ihc god* 

It is not liardt then, tu undeislttnd liuw under the Empire the rich a 
able ChonAni proiptT«d, and how their cmflsmi^n, Labourers and suitt 
fuunJ more cmptaymeni than ever on the quay*}, haibour autl like, wht 
rode 1!cett of allnaiioins, Tbememory of their pa»twaa written iocciloa 
cbiiraciers all round them, and would have icnded to keep a less »upi 
peopk- -Separate in the pride binh oi ji thieve men t and of suffering, a 
probably in a dibtjnct 4uari€t Ktf rlie diy. But of this ^v hear nuEhii 
And although some greai Punie families probably withdrew graduiUy 
their remoter esutes. ai the Mahon^edjin gcotfy now slip sw&y fn 
Algiers even agamst tfie wi&h of the Trench, yet at any rate in Canhi 
aiTon^E interests ptomoied fusion. 

It IS more hard to 5^y what hold Christianity Took on them, T 
copious Augustine, whu Rn&hes mio every corner, linds it needful io t 
attention fo ooJy two Pnnlc words, even incidentally. The tecond v 
AfciJi^. Wc must not assume from this that (he language had recc( 
in (tie tw9 previous eenturlet, for Cyprian and Tertullian mention no 
The iwo Saciamcntj were known among them by beautiful turn 
meaning Sa/as and yifa, which AugHstinc supposes must have come 
tlicm ihiough iome ori^nal Ajxistolii: ehanncL of their o^n. Vet in 
CTyprinnic dncnmenTs, flowing over with li.icrameninl language, there It 
one doubtful nlluaion. ' Lavor of Health/ and that i^ in the retranalat 
from Fimnilian, 

For ontcial u^e Punic had been soon disallowed, and in CarthAft 
Vhfcniclans soon became bilingual, but the Romans never. In the in 



ptw iitt towtu Alone Punk ««> iaUecxI bji' ifae lover wAen^ utA wa» 
puriorirrffy kept up V Wgtiw circ!*», logribw vnth i Utile tnocklnff 
C ci i k, aokd no tdlia t« ftpciJc of. That wnit tlic <:uie m Trip«lE>. Forty 
ttiksfrwi HiFt»o tt V31 Df^nurrin ihrfAurih cenmry to pbcp ;i Pun^r- 
tfmkim^ Bishop in Ui« tovn ol Futsilatand the uinfly Vokhus look 
AapA^Bt: Adt bb coai^uior bectute it wa> twpoialfcdc r^r hiiu da a Gmk 
1» mtk Ufc rtively^ fkonuciui ihei wx & livmg tongue, aod ii lud, v^e 
kM«» «i Sequence of iiB owa. Scvcntt wu ' \cty piompi it^ih ic' lu 
il(S liunivK VM rcAd, ami ' Ukc lumed fouTid much wisdom io itJ 

TWn «u a ffcc u>e by (he population of An incorrect LaLin, of which 
•C h**e eiMinplet m ibe L^i^ri or CricrtniK Anrt lAiriiin, and nlicv in 
anrfanmi llicdnti-Dociflliti 'PmIhi' or Ballad,mAdc tobesunje about 
tfitei^fiAr, w«i In Lstift- li t>4 tcalftfigly said thai !f Donatiun uere 
riv aa£T fcnunc Chn«iAniLr. u it claimed to be, <*Dly xv^ of ifac PentO' 
ant imgno4 were vronh nrLjilvnsi '(>' 1^ lAlkrd only Pnmr nnd Tjtiin. 
iWc a> »o Itaoe of & Phctnicun Chfitiioii Literature Of a hu^drt^d 
Bd tans ^ ^y »*ni« </ Buhopi in the Cyprianic p*pcrs, not more 
ta b^Mcn m«y be aoO'L*lin, but apparontEy nDcm»rB than one miiy bo 
htk- AH the faeu look ose way, ami they scarcely «tM be trh^ii ilicy 
wt i Giri»tanitT nt ibc tiine virc tpeak of had lokcn hoLd of the PhcEnici&n 
ui9ia«ST> in riihrf lU tnwer nr Itt cuhiv^ifd iir^Ej^ The L^im Chmi^an 
f9ch *hi£h there dcrclopcd was due to the fi<t thai vhtle th* Chuich 
Kamc wu itin a Gnrk Church, ji Churrb of foreiKnertt, tht* Miobt 
cUftsce in Conkijre. of komAn ortR^n ind Latin toni^e, were 
fe ^Di£ ChmiuQ. AthI wh«n ih< Juridi And ihc rhctaridant wrrr 
they were the vtry mcA quahfied 1o form wiEh occurfirry the ncitf 
of the new uibjccu and not lo be deteireil liy the necc*iity for 
covitWnalnnt of vofd) when they ael otit !□ cxpmi tnith with 
yL T\k kngvid btenttirc. for tjch It lud hecn, w;ih re£cncnitcd 

Their *Afriu'— /or tEie Kotn^n of C«uih<ii:c w&> jit piuud vf ibal nimet 
itnk bd ttOra«ho«i c<jnic kn mth faiin Jind nat unknnvn to the Ureeks^ 
ikiW Lonlvner it of 'En^t^nd -^hftd begun to jflocy in having ^Alujatcd 
^aM viiA nil the rdigioni, ill the pleisuret* 'of ^e Greekn.' What that 
MMi uv moToU tnotixliat} icll S^Uvian urouis that the city itKlf wa» 
fflftb pari6«d 1>y CluMitinLty till the liirong;, pure VandnlR cnme in- 
1t ii nwaifh far m> to uy that, for the mai^c?. the »iarLdvd< vnuch 
dittOpbne, of RMvali »vt]| down bfrf^rr (he flnod, iinttrEnmocI by 
;jrDpi(im£iion of "djcmoni.' e^er multiplyinjti swunuiflx on c^ery 
of Ue, vbUfl ill UCt wAA pervaded by a senu; of the unreality of 

IirfpDoQ* *er« ^mlfttfttr, poulbly tiumerouv The monuments shew 
Ihc old cku1e» jC^nve, dilt^cot vjriuu wcrir in honour^ Of the m^ny 
m phtloru^hy kw. pertiaps. were nut in Mine Ni\iaX\ dci;icc 
^■VTv m laiainjc the »(»m] tone of their b<M ditcipUv, ijome woticed 



4 ttiero, if eelf utisfied, cede. But when the bMt wak done, ih« iq^ 
vjttuij only wAt moved or nu»cd. &ad ihc mdiridual ktcw dally of 1^ 
and Itst arcount- I 

Tlic one itiin^ ilctir^iUlc, iUj: vllc iIiUj^ uiLaftdJEiubk hy any kxiut 
mMhod, WM a np^casiing of Socifiiy. m<h thai «eltiBhncR£ thould I 
diicouTilcd u an cviL the source of evil, and yet ibe individual l>e in« 
of fulL nt^cflunc- A Society faiThful to the Indivtdnul, ih<< Indlvidv 
devo;ed to the Soeicty. 

Mrnniimc there h,nl been i;TO»injj vp for more than i ocninryai 
ft half tn every griidc of society a hind of Uniorif or laihcr a Iciuft 
'People,' i0t this Wii3 wlifli tiicy ii\c:liii lo Iw, although not in any len 
a nation, Thoy wrri: unifunnly JoyaJ to the GovcremcQL save only 
to [he one artjcle of beating anui in its scrvicf: Hut averse, wm ti 
verse, to almoit every other influcnce,nile, tone, opinion, habc and »aet 
ob^iviinte ofevcty locally m which Uicy wcii: fuund- 

II was undorstood chat they were bound together in afctlsral neiwo 
and thcii- leading of5oa]b gcocriilly ivcLt known, mid tliAt by dir mj 
ottiexaJ tttlcs in alJ ^ounm^i. They sought the iiidi^dual vhom It 
tbuUKhl likdy to join Ihen^ They cared for the alraneer^ If he he*^:v 
one of thctn, they made him. wherever he travL-Hcd or settled, o&e 
a circle of pledged fiiend^ with vowed teachcri- God and Life «, 
Dei«rh were noT iha sirac things in ihetii :t( to any oihfts- There wi 
djiily^ and 9on;ctirnt^ more (rcqueiit gatheringip of :hciT tocjJ groups 
puhbc hie they were j m- proa c liable except fnr their sTiange convetitio 
betrayini; ihcir nc^/ Associations by noihiag soiiiciimc& bui a dcranij 
choncter. Yet the lea^l moiaJ of their ncighbouT* had more than doii 
of their secret liecnttousnen. Few knew the aiiBliation^ of ihcirbcncta 
theories, Hi^toticn.]1y and ' «cho1 asit rally ' l.h«y were bound up with i 
Jews* but Judaic hostility lo them v/;^s unsleeping- Admired pTofeaa 
Of pM1n«nphy con^iderrd thnin with more or le^s clearness, their eihi 
ncriron^ wcie unacccruntably sound, but s<j disfigured by being adapted 
fit iMtih hopdra^ people, and their evidently phUosophir Founder &a c 
guised behind a wild story and a sacrilegtou^ theory, that if the ethics I 
no practical efTeci on them this cmtid not be wondered af. 

Their unpopularity must rent vn aomu deep contradiction <9 bun 
prin'ipl?> or it i^uuld hol tie bu iiiitructive uid universal. Social han 
popular outbreak, magisterial severity, imperial thunder wc:e peq^eluj 
brpiting on them, and were les^ ihan unavailing; in fact stimula 
intercut m them jind ai1hct?n<:e to them. Until lately they hctd bi 
a non-di.'scripi bf^lf^'een etlmics arid Jews, a TrrU'um OrauvvUom* 
rv'copni^icd tolenLnco^ coutd scarcely be expected to tolerate. Vet pec 
began slowly to he aware that the singular persons whom they In 
belon^d to an invi$ib]e ^majority/ *We arc ttien of yetierday^' ■ 
TcrlulUan, yet Ihey mn^e 'rilling: cities, i^landst c^tsiles, hotoughsr eouj 
roomi,— oven camps,— tliD Cnbeij the decunes— palace, senate^ fonu 



nvf rfacc but the Ectnplcs.' They had coiue la w imcnsibly thai «omc 

M than Hill plied Ibnoer caUingi inc^fjn^iMrnt wUh (hrrr pnnr'iple!!. 

S«« >a4 ten some «'erc vecn in iht ctttfi ai the habicunl tpectJidcft. 

H*»r la Aihca — at t^ Ctte Bfcicb all pnKctl through— rheic wis no 

ssdk a»otbct hocpice oo the quay aa thi-re vras at Portut. Th«rf 

ao iknbt rn ihr toAn Basilic;^ Ami 'Fubrit-ar ^■^'^'^ ^'* FiibiJiii hail. 

b«At >l iht «Afn« time in Kuiuc. The private cttatc of ihcir well- 

diief wxa Uijc und beautiful Then .ill ^diig bo:li rtUgct of 

Alia» aad oe V> wb«re h? dipped to his cwn ocran. (here ivat ngi a ioaii 

vWlC d<T Inul cM a fuutin^ nnd a lunstiluuuji) uBc^r^ and jul inavi 

dAl«; eo( a fann «bo* they did not cl*im a Uavc, if not a kon. Ili^ir 

Ajib, ^lervutu,' ' iub-scrr4nt» ' and 'foUowcrK,' flktcd u> and (m with 

— m i 4ftd carried mociiec i>n ihip*, througb prison dcon, omang bar- 

ivfcb lad aisn. Wbcr Ihcy hcic recoeiiiiecl ilicy vrcic isosx. Their 

'OvfftMn' cooirert«d th«m&d*cs for deliberation uhcn and where they 

ibned Tbcir publk d«alb-9ccn«9 from time tc time were to ihc'n mcc 

Il ««9 aad i* iTAia ca 1/7 lo aACertkin where And by whftt avenucv ihc 
had povrvd in. Cypriin only kimr ihni The 'sartrdotal iioiiy/ The 
vrbcv of bnbopit bwied U> the 'pHmal church ' of Ramc- Avruttine 
ihoagtai ibiat the Funlr Sxrnmertv ctEWf hy nair^ii nor borrowed or 
Erem ihiC tjf*^, trnccd 10 tnmc other Apoicolic aourcc That is 
4 TWy vrrv there and Thry wert one. The Chh^tiini had in fai^ 
>■• IMO ponetftion at the I'hernidtni themsclrct bad come into poft- 
M«M of hattirvn anid eruilt, nril lite ihe noi^y KnmAn colonicti hut 
^kfti violence or obacmuion- 
li II vith a fcw ycai* of iliti People that wc are now 10 cciiici:m 




C/frian's Prfparati&n in Hraihendfim. 

\ waj tikccity ftn<l the society in which, possibly after 
cticc AS aifi Advoaitc> Thucius Cyprianus became the 
. rtnineiit ni^Mci of fonrnHic eioijiience* ; thut H \o sAy 
■^ng member of the highest of the professions*. 
5i hU birthplace or family *e know nothidu; botJi hU 
f are almost unique in the nomcnclatufe of ikntiqujt>'* 


^V«l Bwaaitiii quoquc d«ccm 
^0kL HktiBa. m*PL 7««. c. }. 

HiiAor, donda ynt- 
conoicar. Ewb. 
It Olymf. f t«. 

dU gloiUracx ftrtb vr\- 
■ikfii, L«cuint^ 

BKndunriLm ccrlLnma 
. ft alimvA Un^uu 
fax anndictinm^ In aIIb 
iUv> J>rw. iij,t. 4(4), 

d Iqp M«A7 •dteaicfl uJ rtteEcm 

jVfw, H- Hi. e. 4 I I 

tCfffBMM be k ^\\*^ 

^tU Aw. 3, 4. ct 

C>/r.l, aoJ io Uic itufiJu 

'C)^B«uuu i|ui «< 'lluidui.' Aflvr 
hU *doptieiQ, ucordinf lo Jenuac 
(/V yirit ift.)y oi [he 'cc^<»m*ntiini' 
uf fb* pn«^yi*r who corn»ft(rf him, hv 
b«QunB ThMciui Cjcciliiit Cn-iunua. 
tod bi bis proscripiioD Iwhkli he liljn- 
teJf luotn £^ 6t) l« ciUlecl CwiiUiu 
Cjpriuiu*. &Qi Ibc •doplkm diiaii b? 

nkoiv Id Ihc only pUc; wher* Fooliv* 
uicutiuo hifii (Ci 4). JUkil PiiiiUiu Bdttk 
nothing on thr tubjocf, Tht picannt 
bmcj *v liksl> to ocear <i> bii:craph«ri. 
Tbc un]j recun^hcc uf the prMiopruKi 
which I find Ik in rhf Afrinn Kalitruljif, 

un S«pt- ih lu ratily »" Juiibi IcBik lu 
ihr mmnnm«r /arrau ( TiUrimt. TdmfJ 
CvynMUt in ilic DfcrM ^f C«w. Al^w. 
I. W Gdu.. l^bbe v. t;^ jHt. 

1 h0 nnmr C^pnftaa* oKvn liter, 
•fkcrj Ltm— <,^. one vf tlw Ftllicn io tbc 
CffnhaglnUin rautKii of a^O^ 41^ (Atg- 


and when he ^pcakn affccticnitcly of Cartha^ a.s the h 
ptacc on caitli to him> — * where Cod had willed that h< 
believe and gjow up (io the fdith)/ he wuuld scarce 
omiftnl to claim sl naiWc interest in the beloved hoi 
he possessed itV 

All that to us \s represented by the influence of tl 
lay ir an andcnt capital within the power of eloquenc 
from any shade of jnrcality resting on them the tea< 
oratory were courted Itadtrs tn society. The piibUcit) 
the majesly of national audiences, the familiarity of tl 
vatcd classes with Che leaching of ihc schools, reqai 
orator to be not only perfect in the graces of life, bu 
versed in ethical science ; to be armed with solid ai^ 
9.9 well as to be facile of invention ; not less cofl 
than itttractivc; id short to be a wit and a student, 
tician and an eclectic philosopher. 

At the age of nearly thirty Cicero was still placing 
under the tuition of the Rhodian Molor^ Augustine* 

alKT Cor/, /rucrr. i,aa. toL JC 
I^J. TA*GIV4 liriRTV\*rVil, 

From th« «nnn«i^(iA of C] 
Cknblge it niLfiti bav« K«m< 
to <itriv<r O/ndHiu ihoice I 
bad twffl Hn (itotrinio«d piq 

but SCiUCgI/ OtllCfM^nC. iVpi 

it wiih 'Copper/ If dcri 
Cypitt Lt would, UK olhtT dn 
divine nuncii ApgllonSvis H 
&c., be more common. Nu 
aftei ihii grjd^lcu ootaa gimc 

* The birrliplacc U noi n 
cttcd by i\\< put:9^ que 
rruJentiiu i^riiir/^* iiil. j 
prills pamie manyr." and S\ 

ka^j(t}AuJV.. i^ Iff n^fi/MT^, €Vl 

\n^ :hcir Aiidiofiiy (<> be 
Jerome's "r'yfjrinnun Afer" ■ 
(ileh. Pt by FecMrup. Eo mi 
SAfil) A nnlive of AfriUi 

^fiP- >7!^i '^0 lt^ ^u numrd. u b alio 
the Deflfcn whn »rripi1 tb? rfmnrkalilr 
corrccpDn<l«nc? between J«fomc and 
Augaaiiiie lAu^- £>V^. 71 ct **i*\^ . t. 
Pra^yTet, to wtuiTii Jerome wnrc* u 
Prc^-byicrorutn AimlJo^vflmc/ Bfi- i^^ 
('39l ti^) "" r^ilir l^g (goh And h 
Df^nitint tliihop {Aug. r. /if,', frfiA i«- 
<- j+ (40)1- Jri r. imn. Gr. IV. «5J^ 
Jrom ncthlpbciDi i^^^},, Q41' K')Vf>7fB)' 
*iji/j in C fn^irr^ Lfitt^wuA^ ^n. iigi 
|a Hithopcf Uagsi}, vn^U. 10539; ^^^ 
latuiuui ' in the VnndAl nml GuthJcwiis, 
Thiiui'iipe j^rofterly^alU jt 1 Iuta nunc 
The ofijjin of boih nanich is unkncTwn, 
Thr Mntambir: Vesper Hymn for hii 
d;iy lt*Kitij, "Ufhis magirtflr TaiciL*.' 
£^'f. J/iu, cd, Migiic 11' <■ itoi (cd» 
Card- Ximcnn,. ' TuKiir '). but ihU 
*flnDol he Heniified wiUi (]» Affican 

Of rq^dcd kift mure tlutn 1 i-ueu. 5tv 

' F«r ihe third liiae CI& 


ChHstian Doctrine shcw^ us that five centarie^ und 
Ml rdiglon did not abate the valu« placed en technical 
ift. Nd ^ttateamnn'a n^nc had for £encratioR:% com- 
Aich reverence a^ was paid in Cypnaib's tiiitcs to the 
BemorycfTimcsitheus rhe Rlietortd^n, whose daughter OIk i-o- 
l)f African Emperar h;u] i!Hpou-scd',aTi<^ who«c honour 
cfsal cultivation and cxpi^rJcncchad for a bn«f jntcr\'al 
purity to the court, dignity to the ^^enatc. nnd dUci- 
thc CAmps of Rome, 

trell-mouldcd Mrength of Roman eloquence Africa. 

pJcader^V had ;iddcd a fcrvoiir nol nnJikc ihal with 

has enriched the English bar. Witli a powerful 

«uid a methodic, class ificatory mind, Cyprian had 

e bighcet literary culture ' What gold, what silver, 

nt he brought whh him out of l^gypt*' exclaims 

And Jerome, treating the toniiiicst of the literary 

Christianity aa grander than any triumph nver intrc 

liixor>% and seeking a« inKtanec of the true " Kings 

orld,* — 'who are la«t of all to hear the word, ytt 

like the Nincvilc, descend from their thrones to 

levels. Uy aaidc the radmnce of their eloquence, put 

intoxiraling draught of words, and thenceforth 

themselves with tht- niiijesty of Chr[«ttian thoughts' 

the ifTcat Carthaginian master*. 

^mte iJIgnw pflrtftidi lu 
Phi tasT^ible owe Jlfi-JiMtfw 

m. 55JO, It Tlcfvnxict 
■ad fhll como o e W vtv 

1*57)- p^ ■*•' .1 1 

nL f «s 'a«i1a*i cuO- 
DcohJH Akr sfiJ 

Juiiiu Afn«iiu> in tht iim« ot Nno 
vrvre orMOn wfaom Q«intkbui (■, 1, 
iti) oDjnptiTs 10 the «acfeni»; the 
Uiicr he ilrvfibn u 'eandlAttfV vd in 

cuFit vcrlHirum nimixu-' 



No accessionfs indeed, to the Chmtian ranlcs were 
importatU rlun the conversions of the great law/crSv V 
in letter; and in modem thought, practbed in the sifti 
evidence, cold to ihc voice of cnthuaJaam, moving in 
circle of irfincd habit of which Minucius gives so ddit 
l^Ecture In hU barrister's holiday at Ostfa. ^ccvistomod r 
over to sec Christians at the worst worldly advantage 
became witnessos and disciples at once. Nor arc any p 
mcna more significant oi the hold which waa beiTig g 
upon the Roman world than first the convention, and 
the? sn|»enority to co^i temporary ethnic writers, in genius 
and in estivation, of a TeriirlJian. a Felix, a Cyprian, 

The position he had attained might alone imply tl 
the time when he first attracts our notice Cyprian had p 
middle life", His wealth was affluent, his landed pro 
large, hia gardens in Carthage spaciou:^ and beautiful'- 
hoiiie of which he speaks to Donalus a* no longer fair \ 
pureed eyL- is sketched :ipparenl!y from his ow'ii:*it ts s 
of more than Pompeian richness, with frescoed wall*, f 
ceilings^ and marbkdJned aaloons% 

ituar ir jid^TV t^ yrtpt rdrra r«Xir- 
itvtbn. ll ti 4virlenl ihtit firt^rf hid 
icdil mme 1,1 lca>| hj{ hit l^caliso {nod 
wc tUo c- 7), There b (iu ^rJimd fjr 
su|ipc£in£ hu ciLher Cypfiofi tu titive 

mftirencF from lUe ^1^ IfeKefttm c. 3 
'scnin/ M t? hit tgc, uid obarra 
ihai Pontius glics no Uqc jf li- Thii 
wouli] be (tnogc id a. biographer. ldA 
■llhau^^h rnfifgrtstM VftiufMii ^rtaTem 
I\iiil. t-'ii, 3 mjij mean 'aurpuninii aX{ 
intiquity.' ll 11 just pomiblc Hint tn bit 
tupnflnff fLtylthe may paratlisJ fvifri^uj 
by vtfwiatu uiil umhtu \>j iftitifm, (liiu 
implytti(f old Jgv. Ah[iqiTit}r ■> nnt pjirt 
of ihf Antilhtbkit Mid he is c#nlru()ng 
Cyprian v»ll)i tlioic wKu lioij heard ihc 
truEli all ihetr ttvck Ittvgarj Mpfj&rLfen. 

caillitifj him (Or, xilv, tfl rA rfi » 
difBoi^ coat-ain him with xh9 C 
CypnAiL who was %auKnhal u 
jxccoiitiii£ lu t!ic 5toiy. 

s PoTii ^'^^ s. ii,J Dpuat^^ 1, , 

' tll/J^H. l;^, CompAfG Vil 
5 (H) ' r^^EctniiUlDA BUIUID CI 

(KTna) eU^nntinra vt ipfttHWcn i 
venEuQcacipiunHov* I do not la' 

itai irpat^pia Ihtcbual- lhvi« in DO It 
whtfltiei hv hdilh« ri^ht CjrprUn 
him. CVi Ktiv, 6. The «iid of ^ 
C 3 hoB no rclaikon lo tkli ovu p< 
'KnwibiH i//t nblrcUDi(...//i> 1 
chenULiiu cooeu* or picluioqq 



Ifis personal address was concilutory ycl di^iBcd. h» 

mamtr mflectionatc, hi-i cxprc»»on attractis^ by a certain 

ptvc joywjsnaa. His dress, quiet yd appropriate to hl-i 

nnk, vr4» rrrmarlccd on us niMtwrrlny^ U> hh c»\m tnnc of 

nind'. He never ihoitghl it necewary to ^ufiuinc ihc philo- 

«phci^s pall, which TcrtuUian had maintained to be the 

tree dre» or a Chnstian, for Co him the bared arm and 

ocpoMd chc5t Accmcd rather prctcniioua than plain*. Au^u^ 

bbc.wbcnacknoiA'talging the benefits he had derived through 

Qpriui's Intercession*^ dwells especially on the ncuer-hard- 

e«ed tcndemeva of hit character. 'Gentle he was when he 

'bad ytx to endure ;tfnid various temputiona this world's 

'penUV Kvcn to the Jaat his fnond^hip was claimed by 

xnator and knight, by the oldest heathen bou5C9, and the 

highcat rankft of the province'. 

Vrl wrallh and eleganee, cultivation and ^ood sense^ might 
have left him ihc mere ornament of his circle or perhaps of 

^ Mt <o<Btt« nmu ,.nK cultus 
l^t a vaktka Icnpeutv cl ipse Jc 
Qoa EtiBiti sifierUH vctolartv 
« IMMQ pronci Ailfec- 
■onljAan-u Tvpi- fit. t. 
^^gpwy HvhMx^ vartij Uil rnd the 
^^^ vUek te ibw bcvvitfnllf ren- 

faoE lAl »\4f*|iarTqf. i^ Arc* dv/Jcri* 

Dn BtrnJ^tdrtUi^i * csuertl *c ic- 
4 pHdCBi*,* ac Tlttt b, be am* 

Jab kepi i^ wbkt Tntijliu 
w uoe<lc «i)d O^riiUas. 

u* two fifivci uf iQchcfb 
i*. S^ rcL 11. p. 14^ Tiv. 

Bd wppr. ir (jfqiDij Nui- 
■MHi tlhU Cyprlu wvr« tht 

vhtn TiF pnktt in hfm t6 rwpi rt" 
4tf^fl «4\^D«**') Lt it ontof hii count < 

leu akui Ac4 aUiuI IliJil' 
' Serrn- jii, C, i. 
1 Font yif. 14. Acid thit hes1h«n 

Hv ta' tiC ILfU-tLOJio^t ninv tXXA ml 

ij, Dt t^cn. p. |H, uZcinnly worlu 
out. «A tf from LdCEinliu*. Unl % oiek- 
nuue ' CiJ(>tviim4 ' wu <A<ctiall]riMd 
xt OirOu|:< to bu|^ auny Crpriui'i 
intliiviicr^ Atl ttiAl ]^cia.niviu nyi it 

lamnplUlicd nuui bicik thl« unr Jest. 
feay bfE^ yaui Al Icul J0l«r- ilic point 
of jl wu tbat 'bo drfuxt a «ti. nicanl 
tor }Httut tliirii,'*, iTiui ElevtHwl iitcW [0 

Surl' TV- 4i- ScunH t^ui ini;op:ixiQT< 
Cj!mj- /n^r, tp, M. Manlnl JUji». 


the chiirch, but for his inscincifve delight In cone 
with othcrifi and in gathering influential men ali| 
finely developed tact in approaching the right pci 
suitable moment. an<i a real labcrjouancs^ Jn keep 
of wejghl informai of all they could desire to kn 
habit?4 may belong; to men of small conception^;! 
the accompaniments of genius, such a genius I 
worlds I 

The pccuh'ar expressions of two authorities, o^ 
from local opporiumties, the ether from the chaii 
invKstigationSf may have seen good re^ons for t 
imply that, in somewhat more than the commti 
of an advocate, he had concerned himself with r 
polyiheism. Whether in processes touching cemj 
mcntJ=i^ or in procedures against Christians, in panej 
some more speculative way, cannot now be deter 
Jerome di,^linctly speaks of his having been a 'vii 
idolatry/ and Augustine dwells on 'the gamitu 
"noble eln(|iienc(? whereh}' the crumhling doctrines, 
■ were once undefierv-cdly decorated,' " that eloquei^ 
'a& from some preciou^i goblet, he once drank 
* deadly errors*.' 

The purport of the Christian rJtes had never 
escaped his earlier obseivaiitm ^s a mora]i»it. LI 
noble heathen he had known whac it wad to re-1 
senfetial habit. The power of Haptismal Grace had 
tioned in his hearing; and not e>ccited his derision 
supprcs;iion of passion and surrender of indulgent 

tlilo/ o£ OpUL- i. «> g 'AdKnoribufi ce- 
de^ Catbolkw.* So Aug, CohA viji. 1 
fi.y% ihnr Vli^rorlnut chr rhriorkc^kn hfl'l 
uf> to on kilv&iii-cU ofc dcTcadcd %vHh 
fiuiMJi: tluqueuce |ure triHtre^Hj) tlic 
iSdnslioiH rarrS^n ign^t. In in invrip- 
tion ot ApE>- 49,< on DcmxiLii BialiDp nf 

n- 9^8^ ht is iAjlnii {n 
(p^wpf) I'mniATvs er \ 

A( lo Cjprlan we ^otic 

TttprfraTM may reiirmnfj 
diiiofi. Or. txW- 9m 
* Strm. 3U» & 1 {tt'i 


liKTedibte dream to th«> observer of human ^atx1^e^ At 
wiih closer observation, came the recognition of a Divine 
in the worid. adequate even to Uiose effects- A 
lytcr of high chflractcr in the city. C^cilidn by name, 
ns pcnnlttcd to crown & long: life and devoted friendship for 
Cfpiita by imparling to him the Nt^ra Viia of ilic wodd'n 
Cypmc becamr ;* Ciitpcbiimcn of the Chinch of Carthagt?. 
already for her faith, organiiation, and qiaieludeV 
Tile head of the sockt)- was Donalus^. 

A.n. »««. 


C. Aiti . 



Tike period of Catechesis would naturally engage so ener- 
ptc 1 convert in that closenefis of study which Pontius 
ifaU>, and which his enormous classified copiotisncA^i of 
Eiofi evinces to have been at some tJrac bestowed by 
on Scripture. But. qualified as his mature reason may 
been for reflection, the habits of the man instantly tran- 
1bout*ht into lilc- His work never became speculative, 
ever was purely doctrinal^ He read to practi,^, 
Incad dwclb on the vividness with which in the coDver- 
of these &nd the subsequent months he analy^d for 
and fof^ ihc K^'^P which vumjunded iutn le^t.Minv of 
'jod-plcasing' lives In which \\\^ new rrading^ introduced the 

lCh« m taMbni»'»ji«cr*K»4,.nLt 
Trtiiain . atitmn .'. * Qui 

jtf Am. }. 4- 

It Ktiic tvK <l bonofe 

^ ravi ftd i^tkxum vent 

>ed UaqfUMA ii<i«E viUE pa- 

Pnni, fKT. A' Dotn MMsaeoa- 

vtlho*! ■>> 0oand AM Iw b 

liy OLtaTiut in Miouciat Folt(. 

humUtuicRi. Up. it.. J. fton KonutTi 
dfriiy (NovMtun). Cf. *tr) opviibm 
U»Ar%m* Eff, 10.4, 'aolccEiaribm' j<l, 
I. <fi. I, 

* PnKl<hlm» wdl (Ouehuthiacbuac' 
UriUit, ' Vivtri juitiliam Climti iitof' 
tnn dognu couruin.' />r, kiii. jt- 



man of the world. He gives us the very words' of one vi 
relic of Cyprian'^ talk. It is about Job, and thoi^fh 
woidiag differs throughout* the tKou^hts are almost idcnt 
with biA Uter rcflcctiona on the character wlikh a^j 
bocik Of rHtiencc, 

How deep dyed a stain rested on society is seen in 
singulAriCy which wa« attached to the r^ct that from 
moment of his entrance into the ntnks of the Catcchum 
and 'l^cforc the insight of the second birth,' the new con^ 
devoted himscir to perfect chiistit/V What he felt to be 
moral obligaiion of his pavilion is no duiibi exjiressed in 
of the heading of his ' Testimonies,* soon a^fte r wards com p 
— "that a Catechumen ought to sin no more/ This ish^wi 
fltnguUrly deduced from a faisc reading of St Paul ' Let i* 
evil wUilt good is corning— -wYio^^c damnation is JLstV 

Thus early' also he rcveilcd to the primitive example 
liberality, and in seeking to palliate the incurable p^mjiei 
of his time parted with hi*^ property, whole farms apparc 
at once", and distributed all the proceeds. 

* ObMTve the flirwt icneet, ftriii [he 
biUoduaiian of diitht. ^l>Q^ f^Vf, j^. 
Compare Dt S, Far. rS. Obterve nl<io 
bow ft farget of either of these piece 

geniilnt «iir— while rwi» inclcjicnrlefK 
fb^ni coLild ntv«r have to camciilH] in 
thouj^hi ajid lvnc> Tlic one i^orJ of 
CoJDciiJpnc^ Is ih? »11ing of Gnu's 
OomnenilftiJon a 'bleHiag' {itfiudi.'^e 

■ This lUnnr thtwi how tht x^H^-- 
ri^ uJ ^ypvwplAt aUrilmtfld to him hy 
GkE' ^^'' AC? in A hloc key, and do noL 
tflong (o rh\T Cyprinn, Or. iiiv. fj, 

c|i]umiit daicnatio jv?>Li c^t,' Roui, ili. tl 
ap. Tat. iii-9B. 

* * Rudit hdei aC cbI noodnm fonitan 
CTcdcfcEiii,' Ptml- t^. 1, i.i^ nhilat hi* 
converiiun WAS pTubablj dutrtitte^, hke 

" Tilt lt*l iicic i» UtcfutiniE- 

[rnctii r?baf i^nk ml Indigt^ntlum B 
rum |mc«m iuii[i»?n(t»n, tola | 
pcclu di«]iai*jinh, &k,' in [Ur1«r» 
ing in Pniil- I'it. c- i. But *pM 
in Tha Rinttfrlal EerKc (and (tot ma 
*rindoin from pei^rcuuon ") it in 
nhk, Tb? mdmg nr Ilall. IM. i 
Bodl, Lttud. Mi*c- fob 191} ' jtitl 
tiam mulloimii pALjpcium ' u iid< 
^jinl MTiitCn bur alftfi accounf* fui 
cein ^ throuifli in munnediaFs a 
vlation piii. 

but //^(T prwtia pfjida \t tht rvadi 
Cod, T, tlic lAvourlt« of Dartcb 
dimipi ;)'w/^d /m/d Indlouei 
Itiui rbc word prrtta oeU^h And 
'tola prieJia /f^v JiapenUrs* i 
harxh^ Cr Hun once su^^foitcd I 



Two works of Carthaginian authonhrp had probably been, 
m tk baAiis of his friend C«cUlan> iratrunncnttit to hii ccn- 
tcnkn,'— the Ocfaiiits of Minucius Felix, aid Uic Apoh- 
gititjxm (>f TertullUir Tcrlulli^r/a pa-ssionatc gi^niiis wmj; Uie 
Ine to grap|>Ic with the ^m^iKing dtfficiitty' of maVJng the 
ipe«cb of ibe Roman a vehicle for Thcolcgy, That his atyk 
vu fcaid, dAfk, ^ranitK in no wonder. Cyprian henceforth 
«u hb devoted yei dbcriminating disciple. He daily called 
kr x«nc manuscript of hia in the famoo^i phrase * Give me 
7W Uwtcr'; 

His 6r^ labour probably was. with the condensation and 
tiKlocid anangemcitt of a pleader, retaining » far as possible 
tbt nc^s of his originals, yet avoiding whatever was dJs- 
fkanagly rug^c^d of ambiguous, to produce for tho^c who 
Ivd vitneued his activity in the opposite camp, a telling 
little f^»um^ (if Mirmciu^* unii<-p»lylhi?istic ;irguments*. and 
of Trrtuilian's magnificent presentment of the Person nf 

It canikc out, we know not when, as a Thesis headed 

'^■«W ffwManm,' juhI Or WotcoLl 

BbdL ML t rrltfiillj rniT ■wti/^ 
pKtk,* Int hst been Do ifK lpJ 
I, hf cbBfing Itvt mil / «l 
^m^n^maA itt«*nMioQ//ikt inra d Ull 
* £■ 4te^ likf odMn- Tbn Mk. which 
^M Ml gf nmn •iioavrvcied ihroi]£h- 
tm \^ • cpMCMportry hiiwl. uid x*« 
boe pcT^iB (he rfjgbl rt&iJin^i 

' paid* *dl«r il VM mI4 wtfr hn 

of A£l> ^v> M *hi<b in ibc 
•drpdi ^:n» km m. QirfXqqgi 
i^nsEl ncad ff <a JiJfcrcbtMrt /rwnti 

¥tOAl!via.' And Auf^ufimc Sp. :B£, 
ta. 3rt, qtii>frt AcCf iVr ja u 'ei 
Mmo Jlcctwi iliquld /mif^it*!.' See 

i.e. rjr;nii(fi jftf uutf. ifi Ixu "fbr- 
do*-, in mm iMdigtultJiii f^tHit' Dt 
«/. flf fA ij ' pr\eda„.tiiiptm4JtiUtt.^ 

^ A ilmple JniTSpodilOQ of laiwictt 
tlwwi the CWm*iJ/ ti> be tFte Mlghul. 
and Jerome ta hi* dC^ ^Vr^ /j!/. tf» be 
rl|*hE in naming Miniidiu etkrlier Ihftn 
C)r|irLAr- Divmartb i and ? of rhefrvt 
krc compilo) bvm Minndui 90— I7t iS. 
jt. Tbv 5Til tvn Tcnallun Ap*i. ii 
—^3. Cyiirinn had ilvi lenrl (^ir*/ Af. 
9} Ihe ZV T4ftim4mt Amim^ 



'That (dols are Nor Goij:*^" Ii is the work of a 
not of a teacher*. fl 

A Jittic later he challenges the world's Lifei thts 
review of the world's Creeds. 

L Thr popular Divinilicscan, he argues, be idcntif 
historical benefactors. Tlieir vaTiety^ the survival ■ 
tradition about them, the inferiority of one national ( 
anoEhefj the occasional suppression of one group by 
sufficiently demonstrate this. The indigenous Roma 
was one of the least prominent or least respectabk 
could cicdit Picus or Tibcrinus. Favor or Cloacina i 
rise uf Rome > To n^live deities the grciUlcss of the 
owed nothing. After lodging this shaft, he accepts ilu 
—supported by a consensus, a; he says^ of the master t 
antiquity, — of the operation of wandering and impuri 
Their presence is sufficient to account for the mai 
nomena of vaticination and possession upon which th 
5titious fabric of worship has been raised to obstr 
rational service of God, Their office is to ' confound ti 
false, — deceiving and being deceived.' He then con 
challenges their votaries to be present at a Christiai 
cisna. Wt: speaks of extraordinary scenes — the con; 
the lamentations, the dcpaituic of these spirits — as 

^ For iJu title 'quod Ictalfl dl^ nan 

tmL,* kcfJt \\\ oil [he m^nubolpls. 4iid 
confinncil l>x Jrftime Ep^ \t> (34J. 5 od 

opening with ifie iiamc wpi<1s« acail^ aII 
editions hare sub&iliuinl 'D? Iilciloium 
VODllflre.' to '[piiroym^ th« mo<Jvil 
ctuneLff of a aimple iEiqu, There \\ 
ao aluidow of grchiDLl for PctciV \tcal- 
nrnt rf ih» lind iht LtciH o niiiiami 
Oi togplhcr ToFTiiific aa AiJolouifl 

■ PomSirs omilh U from the Itat 0/ hia 
V«ikA' Jerorao [Lc] ^TiivTig itv Lca-rn- 

not luicw huw aiiaplc A v 
Ei wb. Kur iitfiI(Uk«, k hclt 
iber uqtiaintiinco Ihan mir 
Minqcm* {car} hitIi Eabi 
Kicbndut, vrho» 'trpd ' 
lriniliir«d by Enniuc. vu 
CVprifcn'i purpi;4CH 

' I iiTi ucK fiurc (Eml Cyp 
Xa uy ihnl h* hiwl fiMfl in ( 
fthliuugh, if not, he ^nuld hi 
huli iiiuTC Eiini(tc<tly- Heho 

lays 'vidfsi* Quoif Jti- c j^ 




1, Iq oontnul with all tht« conrusion ri«G« the mAJe«tic 
tnidi d" the Unity of G<xf. H« attempts no proof oT this; 
OEiJy ilustnite* it, nnd not rclicitou4t)\ from analog and from 
meaofit in the universal ccni-sciounnc». 

J. Now comes in ihc impressive history of Judaism and 
exact correspondence of it^ ^rcatn^n^. unA Us di.Hperiion. 
>ilh predlctloQs which hid linked iu dentin}' to obedience. 
AoMiianie prcdicticnfi had anticipated a nnivcr^al nation in 
tt&m with Cod incarnate. The appearance o( Chrt»t, the 
u»nlcn>retatioD of His work and Person, the testimony to 
Hti Rc?iUTrcctiun, arc facLn beftvre the world. Th^ illuini- 
«fon of the individual hy Kafih in Him. and tb<^ coming 
dffukm of the Race of Man. are beginning to fulfil 
teuelvcft. He concludes, fof perh-npi; the ftrt^t time 
• the Christian argument, by putting in evidence the 

4QfMH 'tUWw aiM nottri vn» n 
VM«T — jwJBlb wccull* flufru ocdi, 

p* vdndlH c^bUte. f>eaicre, lif^rt' 
M'tB^kft bkd a fccrc un^ihciuon o1 
SM' 'quolics * IK-^ c( t<^u>ciUD 

)i^ Ivivg tlMH «ij<innl. C>prkn 
«|ai hb owii «crd» in •/ ^m, j. 

^ 'HBri be hcU ' (4 otfrpover thv 
M llkbclBtt TcnuiU idliuony 
> fM phfiKnid it turd ik> f ixt, 
^t^ tppmU lo the ka«it««fce of 

V-^ri^*^» iiadrt l^r niuicfif -V. 

^ '^ T. a-, «« Bi^ Li|tl>»fc>x. A/, 

-iq[«pac<Phw •■ Aa Hcood eenimr 

botll ihp trtdily of mnrdim Bnr! Ibi' nxn 

Iv. ao*] A Itrse lollccibn of t>ttUAcc» 
fe tp DiHtit. L. In H. HnrtcFK ^. 
Atfr. Opmtmi^t vqL I- Si Ambme, 
j?/. 13- y. Ii4h 'L:a(^ri»ti>(iA ifih>c^'i(/tjj'f/,* 
whirli hr oii|*)ii nor in hav^ wrlM«n. M 
Ttirtullua OBghi not ti? h-ivc ^ti«n 
W/W, L ^ii. nociK ihty haJ been >pec- 
UlArt rh«m»lvn aIu. llowcirrlkf^. 


, <Bt VM ^^ X/VTOU hix^' Df^VD^U 



343; 1^51 n led, BeU.<it. ThcMcbliu 

t^jiuo ■ ilcitiun, 'acLlEbK Icfcre il the 
nmS raj* vul lUrfioil i»f iliC HpIjihw^* 
Tlitf dsmon WOK ilrivvii off, aclatcning 
iliBi jt 'lOfiEcnocJ Ebc j^t> and vmt 
uhain««r bpfofF him t«o/ 


cvprian the catechumen. 

continuous 3u^CTiiiE:s of believers in attestation of th 

The brilliant Itnlc pamphlet* canntit but luivc had 
effect, none the weaker bccau^i*^ ihc rc;^sfiTiing<i were ntit 
[t vms even more remarkable that Un^iiage which had bei 
half & century before tha world should have been talu 
tip, pointed, edged, polished by the Eamou^ Thascius. H 
destructive detd.iib of the: argument had indeed long fe 
mented. Pnlythei^m had fulted, un^bk' either to remoi 
them or repair them. The very ;tttenipTs made to tinge tfc 
legends with Christian morality pointed the fatal contra^ 
From before Cicero'^ d^iy untd now the thoughtful Rotnfll 
had looked on religion with tlie same sad eye. Like Ciccf^ 
Cyprian must have long contemned Acca and Flora and tl^ 
Hald Vcruis, yet underneath all hsd recognised a supernaturi 
ba<^iA- Like him he had from time to rime distrusted tl^ 
most refined pleasures : like him hud despaired of socie 
And even now. though the Person of Christ had risen bcf* 
him a* the Regenerator, he could not yet grasp the cone 
tion that the paitlL would effect the reconstruction of ^ocl 
or the amelioration of gnvcniments, A pure society wit 
society, and eternal salvation for its holy mernbers, is 
that he yet hopes for. He deliberately excludes providenc 
from hirttory, Nation:; rise and fall by some external IQ^ 
cipherablc law of chaiig:c, without conscience and wit 

' Ac ne ctoCl|>rob4Eiamin[i±»1ida,,. ju^'lT n^ca in It tit $rtvUaj and 

ilalor Qui wx\\.%x\\ ir^\^% Pi\, ifilfnoveinr^ tfar. 

ac. Qnt-! Id. t<. Thii tpmirk and " See Mnlilvr {ip* Fct^n, p 

th« hr>inc>HrusE AC thr inidqtjuocj'af tEif Ki'^hitt^^^k., |ij>. j&^ IT- 
Rt>ma(i2odsL>rl^iiDlr(to fnrov \ know) * Quod Jd^ t <r«gnii non mtriro «« 

with nur milhot^ duni i<d A«ri« VLirinncui,' 

* Tin quntltia which JwOflie 1/, i,J 




Lay- Work. 

We nay perhaps u^ume that Cyprian received baptism a^ 
'itthetJoic m<nt usual in AfncA* the Aca^on of £astc^^ \^^^ 

Id Uic autumn holidays next ensuing;, and in his own ^P^ **■ 
hr pUcc:i tlir titne; and Ticenr- of a moiialngiie^^ bricT 
Ti»$culan— Addressed to % Tdlow-neophytr' and 
fb«todcian, i>onatu!(. The subject was one in which 
Cittrov«*ild havcfiloricd— THE GRACE OF GODf 

He paiatA the itccnc with a fulness of colour which will a^k 
(trthcr ciitkiun, but ivith the tenderness of one who fceU 
itat a h^her call is robbing il of it* charm. From the busy 
tbo^htlesf ftound« of the sUvf- household they retire to a 
'vfey cloister/ and here Cyprian pours forth the freshest 
inteescstcxprc^-sionsof relief from the o]d passionate thraldom, 
Md of |oyou3 rcstfulnc&i in Christ. Wc discern what Cyprian 
*iU be ; there is no s})iritual analysis ; there is no subtlety of 
dottrioe; but there is the deep avow;*! * whereas I was blind 
MP I si«-' Th^TC U the modest el jim to have the evidence of 
n» life cxaminod ; the confident a»;«rtEon of a power above 
te powers of darkness. 

Behind the tn-o friends lies the awfut background of a fast 
Gcmipting aocEcty, surrendering itself to ufiblusliing evils, 
^nvatc and public They pass " Life* \\\ review. Lowest in 
& scale lie the Criminal classes— whole sections defiant of 
b», threateningly aggressive upon society. War is tnces&ant, 
ilw war, lh« arena is visibly deadening humanity. The 

Ttt.4 dsr^Qwavc J9- 
^MDm, i, t$ 'Tu ODiam, i^ucm 
cuihi nilkik uelcaiU 

' tV KM. Dp to t^ «tr4vlh (CO- 

iii'J^Mfn'tirpiilrtt Mini 
h^pM hU latter 10 Unukuu, 

vhjdi is ih? pTolocur co his tnnsUdan 
ofOngfJi'a llomiliaon Sum tttn, with 

](>|iui : Iknc ai]iDuue«« Duiulc ouU- 
limq ' Thu iJtU Vf ^Titfia Dd u ilp. 

'Qab mmJumtTaTum c"iiur pcf Adcm 



theatre with its unnatural subjects aod impure apccta clca. 

the divinisation of lu^L ^H 

lt\ fixing upon th^ arena as a dcgrarffltinn in comj^S 
of which slaver)*, that "abyss of misery,' may be parsed 
silence. CypriaD is true to nature^ The delight in blood li 
become a systematized psLssion. He marks 'the simplicJI 
'the manly hcallh and grace, of the youths trained to muttt 
■ murder under the eyes uf tlieir own fathers, the brcithcr wa^ 
'his turn in the den, alcove which ills the expectant sistD 
' the mother pays a higher pn'ci? for the ticket to witness h 
'child'ftdeathwoundon a gala day, and there is not the faint< 
'sense of guilt on tie\y conscience*/ [n thus regarding t 
unknown individual man and the alTcetlons ivhieh ought 
centre on him as a precious thing, tlic ChrisLian ide;i. r&<Ol 
something to the world which civiltsalion h^d taught 
Anionine, an Aurcllu* to ignore. The appalling proportici 
Qf the crime to which every city dedicated its grandest buildtr 
may be judged from the fact tliat xvhcn Cypnan becaf 
bishop, within two years from this time, the Emperors Phil 
had jusl celebrated 'The New Age*/ on the completion 
Rome's first thousand years, by the combats of that thousai 
pair of gladiators, whom the gentle Gordian had provided 
adorn his own triumph. 

Meantime the horrors of private licentiousness, from whl 
the veil is from time to time rent by 9omc cause e/i^^rt 
which the very evidence Is criminal, the corruption ai 
inhuman procedures of the judicature, the degrading coj 
petition for official rank, and the trembling insecurity 
military dominion, stamp the decline of public and dcmef 

Were those the dreams of despondency 9.nd wori 

' Ad DfH^ 7> Th« u^lpiftljori ^f 
*lhr Mkitpr' hid afwa^ly boileH o^fr in 
the Df Sffftatuiii. 

■ A. l>' i4H> Tht coim fix ttic 'lat^ 
lluiom fac<ulum'or 'novum bccatum' 

Lothc jrtl conauUhipcifthcdila nil! 
Eii4fh, [Chrttmr. II ] [1»l?i il wnty 
A.n. j+7. Chnion, Foil. /v«. r | 

' Adnata ^—li* 




vahTictt? The Aiwwcr \s not to be gained b>" collecting 
Ha:idalM» Mi^cdotcs. But, apart from the end to which all 
tetdlngt irc might conclude Cypnan's general i^ation.t to 
rvt &tifD his treatment t»f Uie courts of law. A successful 
man here ipe-ik* m tcnnn to provoke reply, If 
possible, on a subject on which declam^iiicn would 
ilMlC a>nd hU ^adea ar« as dark as el«cwhere\ On 
points vrc can compfuc the lan^vin^e of the ^ntirists, but 
Jl is Mfice the age of Juvenal that the tide of corrLiption has 
lited the judgment scat. False glitter, iiittigucs, assa.ssi- 
irhich s'jTATTnrd iiboijt ihc persons of niimeroLs pctiy 
tad kingly irugi^itT^te^^ till the ouiline ;vhfeh {% traced 
bf 1^ violent death* upon the world's throne, within the last 
tm fun, of eight Emperors, unshielded by either the highest 
pUeaopHic rirtue or the lowest animal ferocity'. 

Yet wider still the sketch of Cyprian ranges as with 
auicsdzurilikic instinct he marks tlic no Ies$ fatal symptum^ of 
Palitic aI dmol ution, presented by vasi ;tcei.imulationsoflocked- 
i*f capital, by the abnormal growih of grazing land^ and 
Cfac gradual ebnaination of the independent bbounng classl 
X-aatl^, — and at Carthage it was probably naore complete 
Oian at Rome — there was the dfaruptioii of the clicnc-bond 
aaJ the diAOwnin^ of obligation between ridi and poor- 

What ihcn i* the morale or what th** remedy* There U 
Me; one eatm, one freedom. All that the individual can 
h Co aeek deliverance from this world's 'whirlpools/ to 
the • Gift of God,' and be ' greater than the world ' : 
become 'a home of God'' and crntcrtain the indwelling 
il*<^^ot indeed in ascetic retirement, for the hcmiit-lirc 

^>a*[.. It', MadibiaWA* 3Luimui, 


Ad Don* i>. 

' Ad J^. 15, oiAfk the csLjvoUoa 
*^H«HMf..jqiu(u Dummoii inwdil trm/ii 

' RcUbcfi-'* ijjitoaiici: iif icfipiure 
liUigQEiga bfflniyt h» pfqcdaUoD LOW 



has not yei presented itself as tho ^c remaining refu^ — bm 
thTOugh inner purity, m sweet domestic life* tn a round ol 
prayer and study'. Such [» the troral of the scene widi 
which the holiday evening closes. — the sober banquet, llu 
swcci chant, the memory stored with Pitim*. 

All thi* needed expansion intn fuller richer Itfe: yet It 
was something when the fominatc man of the world bt^^^ 
even thus to live. The condition* of the new problem ut 
stated, though their connection is not yet perceived. On oM 
Side the needs of modern life, on the other his own apiritua 
experience tlius far as a pag^n^ " I ftcc<jndcd my nwn be 
'setting vices ; I despaired of improvement ; I looked on mj 
'fftults as natural and home-born; I even favoured them 
'But so soon as the stain of my former life was vnpei 
'away by help of the birth-givtng w.ive. and a calm pure ligh 
'from above flooded my purged breast ; no soon as [ drank o 
'the spirit from heaven and was restored to new manhood bj 
' a second nativity; ihen, niarvellously. doubts b^An to clear 
'secrets revealed themselves; the dark grew light; seeming 
'difficulties gfavc way; supposed impossibilities vanished; 
'was able to recognise that what was bom after the fle^h ani 
■ lived under the rule of sin. was of the earth earthy, while thji 
' which was animated by the lIoLy Spirit began to belong x 
'God',' These mighty experiences of his Fl-jptism suppoi 
rather than invalidate hi* biographer's account of the Chant 
and Purity of his devoted preparation for it. Pontitjs ha 
known no parallel, he tells us, of such early fruits of FaitI 
but to Faith he expressly attributes them, and so to the Grac 
of God, ' although the second birth had not yet illuminate 
the novice with the ze/te/r splendour of the light divine'/ 

peroeiTmi- IbiH ' Tone uf mynlloil unbii 

f^AJtU fitu',' anil to l« fciund only 'ift 
thraO"dlcil tnrly *rhiui:>.' 
' Sir tihi vrl Dniin oaidiu v^ E Ipftm. 

■ Aii Don^ 4- 
itvic'cfc divine: 1liu> otulavcrat.' Por 




Whm CypiiAn speaks of hfs utibapti2«l life ^s one of 
*diikacu. igTBOfancc of «dr, estrmg^mcnt/ he U not dwelling 
OB tte ihort itilcrvaJ between ccnvtrrston and bapti^sm but on 
bis life u a whole, A^ yet the Miblletic:; were not wlijch 
wtiM ^s^i^ the 8tigc of aUractioix aiid approacli raiher to 
tbc bctUicn than to Uk Qimtijio Mtie of life. Very frcbk* do 
ihry^'ieir hmr^ith the dawn on which Cypri-in'sigaEc was fixed. 
Dma^ Grace bu failed a« a psychological f^icc within hiit 
fBMul ucperience while he contemplates todety a& barren 
Jid compting through lack of an inspiration. He wiU not 
k loDc in daimtnc the regeneration of society from the same 
WBTCC vhkh he already rccofini^irs as Uit? fe[n:w4l of the wnti. 

We tired not hx>!c to him for Theology proper, for doctrinal 
Tri b g i DW H, for the mctaphy«ic of Christian definition, We 
'iMI Sad biro bu^y with moral conditions, the work of grace, 
^ttt boeds of union: the sanclificaifon of Ufe through the 
atfunests. the remodelling of life through disciptlnc ; the 
onctitijtion of the church In permanence, the transforming 
kflodal infioences which are to control the appUcation ofpoi^er 
*ttd wealth, to charge ^eicncc again with the love of truth, art 
wtJl the love of beauty, and to crcnte a new benevolence 
Tbe' Charumata of Adininbtrations/ ' helps, govcrnmcnlsV^ 
arc bi^t Act cl. 


CjfrutM DeaeffH, 

The tndlgmce of the Carthaginian poor was. owing to 
a«e« which Cyprian himsell had indicated, a constantly 
gult Kiftj- yeara later treasures were stiti thrown 

<■ 1*4 fwtlli THknoM Tom. ev. Cj^tian of lb« Knat* and tlia faan of 

I S. Cn*-1 * cmirvdktba Kirvliicli pn<«(tMit.Baio(t]>cuiti0ia< 

■iBrtCjfMHnhU (D vhnhrr rrtirf aiirl pruv vhich fnllm*«^ ii, 

W*4* w«ff* bc^MT or dl«< ^ ff<MiorJb, irtik^it, *v0t^riftrit. 

FWiiv ckftilf H!rxi* of r Cor. )iU. I. tit 



iQto it m vain. The lint outbreak of the an|*or of 6 
sqsAnttbi Donatus againat the Catholics, his famous cxclxm 
Cion WhAl hath Empercir to do witJi Church ?,' urasoccuuKl 
by the mti^lon of Paul and Macariti^ to Car^i*ige frc 
ConsUns 'wilb relief for the poor'; "that powny migfcl 
able to brcaihc, be clothed fed and comforted.* Theyoi 
'bringing what wc may almost call TmuurU^ to cxpe 
■ upon the poor'/ 

To the sacrifice of his fanEis in their cau!« Cyprian 4 
not hc^tate to add that of his dcHghlful Gardens. Fricn 
twughl them in', and insisted on his residing there. La 
on he was only too anxious to sell them again. Eve 
thing shtriA's him to have been free from family tiea^ 
reasonable interpretation suggests that he entered the on 
of Deacons. And as wc shall have mote than one oceasi 
to remark the intimate relations ^ub^istin^ between a Deaf 
aiid some Presbyter to whose tabours he was speciif 
attached, so we find him, possibly in this capacity, takirig 
hi» quarters in the house of his aged father in the faith, 
Presbyter Caicilian', and by his attention ;»ootliing his 

1 0pi4t Lli. I. 

> Pom. ViT. 15. PeiliBpi Portitis 
vrv concemeJ ia (hi£ mnucrian. for 
\\t u)'h Lttey were 'tic Dei ioLlnl^cnlla 

the Hon) oiulL have been wn^ic^tci^ 
lat^raml ibar PtmUnn mjiulcn ibts for 
«1uriUble »dl« nov. Rtntitit' pcruiu! 
knuulcJu? Kxrm (0 [iccKni to Iiim nu 
difliciilty, nnr j« the quMilon how the 
confiicaiiuii w^ lakvn olf. 

' Thcfti ii \\v LokEfi uf hUcvcr hAvlny 

ohacure. Vrl il i« inpKdi table for 

litvd iniFLUn^eniood whiti hr Fny-i of 
C»?i»inn\ viff onr] rhiklren to mepr 
Cfptuii^* bmily icn(iunc>cd in (kvour of 

C«i|ib«^p Dp. Pell u wune b 
rcftdbiff whai Poniius tap ol y»A't 

bO u to prov* Cyprian*! nun 
PotiE' fVf- Ck 3 'llluiD (Jub) tiua « 
iua/fff/i Llerttiil/ Kdl 41I loc "cnn 
Luv cigo cfat Cyprii;iUB.' L<t U 

own day- Itk aJl hu l^ticr^ fraKLh 
Lirviaent ibere Is no rvfercDoe ml 
of his own, 

* 1 can pve no mtflnifiB ro the v 
or Puutiua tht Deacon 'Ent Ml 
etiani ilc nobin cDntiilxirqliUD..X' 
vti.' ctccpi thai 3£qi^e<l to Iht 
I'eiEVrii t^a. (7/^. A.Lk. •4J), ' 
ilill or fttr body (the dutcruiiUc} h 
quinernnih CmrilJan/ Poni. I 
rnnlius fiiintcir t*sid*d with Q 
Own bdoic hb firit ivciiVDUAt 1 



>or Ca^cillan «hortl^' afrcrw;iridi^ died, com in ending 
uid children 10 ihe^aiefat afTection of hi£ convert'. 



we now naturally enquire i« the exact character up 
inc impreued, ill the eye£ of the Carthagirian church, 
yroao by his becoming & cleric. Was it ofl^ciat and 
Of mystical, or didactic, or benevolent? From 
wc may collect an^Hcrs to tlic^c tjuc^tion^ with 
learTKfM — an-iwCT* cumiitent \v\\h each olher though 
rctidcrcd from the same ptiint* of view, 
Clon of the clergy had been expressed in term* 
from the dvil constitution — terms which there i£ no 
tbipk were disputed at C&rthagc a^ cither arrc^nt 
t»te. The laity were the Commons or P/^i*, the 
the Or4ia. thai b ihey were the Senatorial Order 
; Ordo being the regular name of the Senate, 
, in the pTOvincidl and Italan towns. Cyprian 
yman is called a 'I'lebeian' by Pontics, and he 
drc59c9 kttCT!t *to tho^e who stand fast in the 
' and ' to tJic Commons of Lean and Astorga/ As 
ors In roarl ^ind in baulica IvmI the: unuuiun -bench 
), «o had the clergj- fn the congregation. 'The 
bctvp-^n the Order ant) the PIcbcs la constlnitcd 
ftiitliority of the Church, and by the consecration 

[fciHuiii- Pom, ^V' «. 

I Un TvnLor c« oMc U) 
TIm wold but* becK did- 

(ivy LvEh to Lhc OirmliEUi rulea wKjch 
■iihlicid urUpimcil t^iiuin Ttijiii uikbi: 
ihiiia (illiHt, XEiil Iflihit Ramon nukgcof 
^pointinQ tha I14WC4I rtlaiioni. Bee 
IkIui* pp. 44 *t|q> Fechlfiip p. lo* it > 
Tr*«i]lf«4|j' htncf inf/m thil he tn* A 




'of the 0fif)cc fndicatod b^ the sitting to^h«r of 
' OTdcr^' TcrtuUian docs oot attribute to the clergy sfirTtfl 
ilcKcnl fraca the ApcKitlci, nor regnnl (liem aa luving bo 
typiAcd by the Levitical Pr>5t!iood, or a« occupying tbj 
relative positioQ towards the people. Bui fae regards ^ 
Office u none the kss ' sacerdotal ' aJthongh in orlg 
ecclcuasticai, and not JmmcdaAtdy dix-ioe, 'A wnman I 
'mxt permitted to ftpeak in the church, nor yci to teach, U 
* bdpti£<^ nor ofTcr. nor cldim to her^pelf the rights of d 
'masculine function, much less of the sacerdotal officcV % 
right of giving baptJMn belongs to the chief priest, Mhti 
the bishop,' and heretics otiTend \xi the moveable charancr. 
their orders and in that they 'enjoin *accrdot^ of&oes 
laymenV No-crthelcss the funaions of the Order were t 
si^ificant of any altcnatior or absorption of the priestho 
of believers; thc>' involved during ilicir cxckisc only 
suspcnUon or dormancy. Whtrre there la a deittitutioiL 
clergy the sac^rdoial powers of the latiy revive, to the exw 
of performmg sacramental acts. ' U here there ti no Bcr 
'of the ecclesiastical order you (a layman) offer Uhc aacrifi 
*and >^u baptize aiid arc your own sole priest'/ i 

The priesthood liad bccEi actually imparted by Chn'tf 
alt ChnMians, for Jesus the High Priest and Lamb' of 

* LHtfrrenTUm inter OrdinFm ^i >1r^ 
fc«m nBiCiluil l^ccloisi tuciariUi, ct 
HuDvr pft Oii^iniii wnitciaiiin vuicii- 

fiCBtni- Df Rthtrt. Cart.jr UanartM 
fik* Ofdo A conBEituiJDnal hoH, li^jni' 
frinc llk« OfBco uT tuj ntoci-Julf qi 
riignny. Kp. U^ifoot In hu ifJffr/'Ai' 

JVtiliffuini p. 7M (tfl^fill [iim>lAta 
thu * . thtf eonuenrit^n ai ihc'ir rank 
hy lbs VHfnniBiil of qKcuI benchfi? 
Ut ihc dxiu.' Tlir I^iJicp htJI 
obMfw thai their pjiKi^^ fnming 
IhMa A MantiEiuE brat witrjoi ti> rTie 
UtX th&t the doctrine of an uitivtrul 
pricttbood Hucommtnicroundiahliii- 

«lf uirl hu 4^pp<irivfiti- And lU 
cAiuM iieqaitUy ubc ft* toihr4tf 
Lif the oBCike uf ihc functiuDt el 
priHitifuJ hy ihe Ori^ only. 9 
10. note \h« f«nn '/n^^wAid-* 

' y>/ /Vrfcir^, ntrrrff, 41- 

* ^ i»^ Cj«- |. Ad*o aW 

doiAAlld <ndluiA nun csl cuutM 

|^IT«re(1 lingiiv et girtnlos a titii f 

> AJapUEi[£ Se&JigcTk uuti l' 

' Nl^ It^HiAHUtiiinu aduculiK r1 ^4 

(ot the <oinmoA (vfldiag mt/^nmM^ • 
put Cirp'- '^i/ /iv/Bn*/. A^/- 



cloChiTig IK from His own [clothing], because they 
"diKftrc baptized In Chthx have put on Christ, haih made us 
'ftints to His Father, according; to John/ Sc ccrapJcte U 
He siccrdotal chairaLCtcr of the Chmtian layrran thQt he is 
Rbjcci to rules latd down for the Jewish Tficstliyod: thus. 
Af 3xjuiig man who was not suflfcml to bury his Jewish 
jfatkrwu prohibited because, being a Chri^tian^ he was a 
Prirt! an<I coald roi (according to the law of the Prieic) 
inotil the funerul, although Christiana may bury Christians 
bciusc these Vtvc «tilt In Cbmt. Again, 'Assuredly we an 
'P'int5 called by Chnst, and therefore bound to single 
'Bftiiiiges only, according to God's ancient law which then 
'ioEt^ifwn priests prophr>hjed of us^' 

TV rancJfuln&B of the eonclucionx does not affect th« 

iboory from which he derives them. He argue* from what 

tttfi (general [y accepted to what he himself advanced. 1ti his 

Enc the substantive priesthood of the Uiiy was an imderatood 

'Qility. T!ii5 it was which was pcrocived to be fore-shewn in 

: fc Lcvitic priest hr^wl, not tJi^t official priesthood of llie clergy 

»*ich was rightly con*Titiiied by the authority of the Church. 

T^en there were the beliefs and as^ociat ions which invested 

Httrdcf of the Prcsbytcrate at the time when Cyprian was 

Mmd by Donaius to their own bench*. Wc shall sec how 

Itay were prcscjitly varied> 

We ihall ftee tuu hu%v i^ravc was the busincsa which came 
W>re the *con*ess«s,' and how nccvssary that men of affairs 
)^d have seats on it. 

All that bU Biographer records of Cyprian as a member 
H^'lfce BetKh of Tresbyters is that he was no less active in 
kicfioc thao Ik had been as a Plebeian, ro less eager to 
JBtalate the andcnt saints into modem life '. 

A,o, t^;. 


CtffiM Imp. 
M. fal. 


Imp- Cfi- 
M Jul 


Am:, r. fi 

^■Ufr* tqjiwUlc conftcia «i \Aat 
* ■ 4 mntitm con •^nt In pnprti 

' Xc^a poti murium ctmpar^ ill«etu 




f/fifii f^ La^^taii Scriptttne Sfudits. 

Of that activity in one of ita appJications weha^e 
noble instance in At IcAst two of the book? of cla5:ii5cd 

skilfully grouped under pi thy heading, cnti tied To QuiRI 
— I^c 'dear son/ or layman, at wbosc request tlKy 

Since in Augustine's mention of the books tbc nar 
Testimonies is used, and Ptlagius compiled his -Tcstim 
to the Remans' in imitation And indeed in completion ol 
a.$ he himself stated.— and jincc this name Appcar» i 
carlic.1t manuscript, if not hi slightly later oncs\ Ic ifl 
bablc enough that a title, which so neatly describes the 
was of Cyprian's own giving. 

It \u^s also vulgarly called 'Against the Jews'; bui 
periiaps not so much Intended for as found to be a servic 
manuiLl in the contemporary controversies'. 

fcouil. mdlla 4JUW ad velfl-nm exemplx 
jiutorum iDi;Ulii7iic cgi^umili prOBC- 
i:viM%... ' Am lie&rM/itfftr.' dicrhai. 'qui 
Ilea pbopFp fL«id<*rinL ' at tii! ^■per) 
bononim oinmuDi tACinpU dc<!Ol'(CIl^t 
<luni ibcliuFci iictnprT Im^uilur, cUoiit 
ifK* te Ircn imjumdum " Cf. tustb. 

^ ItatiEl, \i. j<p, ctiliLlct ii Lliut: 'Ad 
Quirtftum ^TeitinirthioniTii Lihh Tr«j,' 
whidi can rcprocnl nocfiing nttcienc. 
And lii% fiwn nolc la u folJowi , "^ng^ 
f. h. rfi/- Ptfitg. 1. IV. c- 51 (]i, (So A) 
C/piUnum clJ&m ipH hxEv^inrc^ies i^- 
torum J'clagitiicijnL l]cbil<lblJnoTe(OlIl' 
T^m1Drl1l, ul>i ffj/«>f>wLorr'«fl libnim 
nrlbcrif, flidji ce naerit iiaiuifi. 'Uuf; 

fcftrti fl4/ QniriTtum.' ft /jmi^m Itim 
c. -i^ mcrilu el ^ Qujntiun de hic re 
nbutulidimam kcnlcnliun prgpotiit cui 
ialiMOitia dJviHA lUlijunucrcT. Hleroa. 

UlOrem irno c&plclorcoi <rpcrjk 
Cypiiani huilKitLi> ad O^iViWiV 
filbitir." Thr? SaurLnn kt«. |B 
Mij. or (-1U--1X- Rciffsnche 
* TuLiTfiutiifjEuiii uicipiE .-wl Qulr 
(h(f wottl 'tfuplicii' bef<jw ■ T** 
oriim ' tdcTf of couru lo ibc pn 
ircALlac !^iirci> fEum ikcv Ik 
ttouM fidf ' conjtcuirf Thai (h«| 
tilltf writ ■ Ad Quirinum ' Eoafllfi 
the iiiMe AL ihccii'1 uf Elk- u^ If 
imply that i( wit ^nnirTiiDH 
NuuEki— -Ail Quiriniini numJ 
III. U.7 Itiiricl p' I&4- Cf. 

ad nuid^ni ffkutirpm cnpiiUofVia i 
tXX. [Cud. M], Hnttrl p, 101. 
iJtX- ihiftOfor tnrrxy. 

* See Oil Novatiu\ cqpain 
l»ak« p. i:j and no[ci. Sia(« 
nearly 3 hiinrirffd iaiU9|>iA fnLIc 



boolc oiutcmbkn the chief ?bcnpturc« which ferc- 
■edieiKc and foTfcicurc oi gr.icc: on ihc pAti o( the 
the inheritance nf all the Church'tt privilege* by the 
the substitution of a fiew CircumnsioTi, l^w anrt 
t for the vicier^t ones, of a new Baptianv a nc* 
pw the old r^ittorK, tlie old Hoiuw of God, the 
Bd the Sacrifice were to conic bkck in nobler form ; 
caoatioQ of the PHc^tUood and the succession of 
true High Pric»t^ were predicted 4iid dccompUshed; 
■ JewUh nation tlicrc remained now nothing but 
y bjipti^^m the blood of their itUin Me<ai<di and to 

Becond book Cypna.n treats of the Mystery or 
II of Christ >'^^thc ndcqLiAtc fulfilment of prophecy 
LDd the grandest notes of His Person. The clear- 
force of these nioat brief summaries or articles 
ilog)- arc very impressive, nor less so the spirit of 
kvotion which Ihcy breathe. 

lird book', separately ijisued, re?iemWM the others 
rai^emcnt It i« a common pbce- book, meant for 
frequent reading, of text* for Qoirinut' ti*e on the 
duty and doctrine'; the tone very pure and 


iBou. fltd ifacK abnod all 

V lbIIUa«« «( llM OI4, tAd 

w^ DQ>ci « eaatiwl of Old 

y wmffvhtl k» dor (c 

W m «fc U> A« |cvi^ 

■vT* i. *«■ gNn IV pnini 

0B». Ot««lH p. sf*. 
9 In MM' A and H ■! «nd 

iJUrUl p- IVO' 
iL 4 Ai ihllOC f]iiote<l bj 

* 54liibr*Fl enUKleciiinpriKllLUn . in 
trnvurium peuc;^ di|[«vta t* wludtar 

til. /^^HfR. No. A it [irrhtipi thr AnC 
explanation in l^lin of niiifinna'i** >i t 
divine piobbdon *nA i» ihc l«>i>"tc of 
Ub trcalbc cm Tike AferfaJi^. Kv. it 
niBrkiiltr«|ij(hi irnHenrj which ryf'fUn 
h«H to Ni>v4dArnm txfbic 7fo>-atiaiu 
No« 4& OD *Llcn« of vomcn vcmi 
't\-i]j pUcH, K«11b«tg ugiin ItiU 
■hi- hAok ttJoi^ l4i the nrly )^u^ oT 
lui ChiiMJAoit/ Irouk Ul« ' tUth UlEllitllt 
bemia' t>**nir oihrr thin thoae which 


H is toucht-s upon Faiih are well wonh reflexioi 
very difficulty of the subject* demands that dofjma 
simple ; that belief is not independent of will ; that a 
effect are proportionate. a5 elsewhere so in faith ; d 
fC<]uircs patience as an i^sscntiAl character of it>clf'. 

Cyprian's copious memory, to which Pontius bore 
rectHves remarkable illu^lraiiiD]: from thf^se boolts^ T 
a work eould be compiled out of Scripture at atl b^ a 
unassisted by concordance or index [& 5uq>rigin^. \ 
tfats that the scLeetion is so sycll made, ard that the 
had been so reccrlly introduced to the Bible. He r 
that he had avoiJed diffuse selection, and confined hi 
wh^t a ' moderately good memory ' had suggested '. | 
this would be truly unimagiriahli? if lie h^d been t 
from the study of Scripture until he entered on the t 
a presbyter, and had been Uu^ht only orally rvhilst t 
layman'. Quirinua himself must have been such &» 
for Cyprian seeks to provide him only with profitable 
towards forming the frst lineaments of his faith/ 
assumes that Quirinua will presently 'be soarchtng'j 
'Scriptures old and new more fully, and reding thrt 

(which I doubt) to vhai a hon foid as 

TaU h» iTiMDD. Bui tlie furt dn(^ 
apj^ear, I Lhink. Cedtu the iSih haai3in(^ 
jait mciilifflipd slamlinfi withcul the 
qi»Jifirtii»n which h* wmW Uttv^ sided 

1 Ua, 51, Crr^lendi vel nnn cr«il<ndi 
libciutnn ill ajUtritJ po^iiam. (Coiq- 
ptre Coltfidge ^»i/' 'c AVfln'nwi.) No- 
^^. Dei aF<uu pcripict non po«a«, ct 
Idclfcci fiUciu nuntrain aLtnplkcia ok 
dtlifre. No. 4I, hidrm laTucn (iiorlcue. 
d Unlura no« pome quAiilma cfcdimuL 
Na. «5t Spcm fiiliaorum cue, d ieIbj 
rtdem clroa «t qaoe promlva Mnt |iatU 

■ Tbr I'mfm. c«iii.|WfG PobL TiV^ 

& ■! 'lam loffinuriofei dkol'] 
* TliU u1tTftnL>[ilflnc Iboi 
ffl, mil ry]wlqn\ cmdj <i1 
limitfid to *9boui tht mdrle 
(pj PcLfTf, p, ^, in th« fdct 
»ccom»l (r<A fl, j) hnw Cj 
laifman vdi r«achi]ijr oihfn 
Stni^tun* t-tiA gf ihcK vcfy 
QiiiiioLi' So NL>^idi.D to 
al Rnme, 'Ntm I'ai iinccru 
liuTTi.Miion lanluDi icndil vt 
AuiiDUBc dvcclia,' De CiA, 
Vticn ahcgci Ih« tan f«f 
*Quod li^oJi' and the 'act 

U Ii I1 iruf 1 ihf wm of thmiP 
It ui MiftWCT in Eulh ' 




'vkklc of the volumes of the fpiritual books' and * equally 
'tilh oursdvcs be drinking of the »Ame sprJnfi of dtvlnc 

To our knr&wlr<tg^ of ttif" wnrrting nf the arliiut vrrxinm 
«M the Affkan Chri<ttan thiit «CMdi«d thcae bra^k* are 
Monvily a v«ry important conirlbi^tlon. In this light wc 
kt^ n return to them again. 


npitl had been the progress of Cyprian through the 
CbowMc and in th^ oHiccs of the Prcsbytctatc' that he was 
■tn A Novice*, According to usitjit ;Lccriiinc» whc^n ihr public 
Di|rinh)n of the Uiiy\ JmmrdTati^ly upon the vofdance of iht^ 
lltef Cinhagc by the demise of Donatu*', unanimously called 
Ha to that post. The apostolfc warning against the elation 
rf a neophyte wras afterwards quoted against him. Some 
icfcad c ii the ntcp by the imtarce of tlic Vi^ir of Mcroc, 
h^ptiatd by an crangeli^t after an hour's instruction. But 
M&efB crstcd on the exception^] chAntcLer of the man, his 
•tabneand genilc wisdofn, his wa^i knowTr^lge. ^agacrty and 
. M g tacc, and that riipid ener^^y, xo needed by the stagnant 
I Avth, which stt'iftiy carried him through the circle of in> 
I mdgjiitioci and acquirement, and then unre^iingly lhrou|;h 

liliinlilnliiiiii rerorma. and new creation:); 

Cyprian <5c<liT>cd the office: Hid own doirc waa to sec 

^fxrtcineil by one wf his elders in year* and m the faitli*. 

i«u4ll paction of the church, but among them five of the 

li ppai 

V. I-. Aug. 


nuuL. o«r, 

miU' Ill- 
Imp, COH^ 

M Itl 

m*ii, C«f p. 
fnax, it* 

'IbilI^. J „M pcvpnpcrm ciToci' 
H^HB^bcvrrf. ^ ^i* vnim nan 

' itecBMfftTfUft^^.vavitivi. foDL. 


* 3LL£Fifl£iaa) mtmm.— vain iiifl!f«- 

|t. ^1, note 1^ 

* Awir^uiuribai cftLcioL Full. 'Ipf-f. 


moil influenUal' members of the bench, hold the i 
Some of the ftrme±t frieixU of bis aner-life had b| 
first to that minority, but the five presbyters maif 
mary years an organiied opposition. The mass i| 
brook neither oppoMtion nor refusal. They nurrg 
house aiii} filled Ihc avroucs by wtiich it was approi 
concealed himself, he ^voulc] fain have escaped byi 
but the tumultuoiH dcmon^tr^Tion (a au^dent tn{ 
the present seeuHty of the Christian population) 1$ 
he reappeared and ^ignil^cd hia cotisent, when ft 
cecded by raplurous joy. 

Whether as in some untrustworthy statements o 
Alypius and Ambro^ he wa3 carried away and cc 
on the spot, oi what further steps were allowed to 
nary before his tonaecratinu, wc do not know. 
rc^maln mailer of doubt whether the bishops of hk 
were summoned to elect him. He himself enumef 
Chan once the requisites of a regular episcopate 
:ind *ays that they were regarded in Africa as cssea^ 
the choice of the neighbouring bishops of the provii 
bled at the sec'; secondly, the 'suflTrage,' that is, tbt 
and support of the Plcbes at that choice ; thirdly, 
ment of God. Tothcscheadds^ in vindicating the { 
of the election of Cornelius at Rome, the testimony 

^ ^fi- t^' 4 --''*!l*£ . -lucl tmtH.— On 

■ Font. Pit. i. I liopc tiiU U wtuu 
FontitK mHfU by ' pDmiuei (onue 
innc illi *pu:riaUci]n illdd cvenuv. ^uod 
Toluiu ui p*^' rvnGtmn dcponEictur, li 
|un mm jipoNinb> rtiam ardlruLTinnis 
>LMbgrc himilarfmr.' FrvppeL ' tl y 
ftua£ca lui mc}aicn1» nn'if. tou tiumilil^ 
rpdi>uiA Cf trfiii t\e rfsfvtnhianct avrc 
PacI.' Kather 'if be was he'iti^ made 
iJkc him m one v^j, by ordjnncion. he 
mLflhi ^ifbt W hv^ hU own will) la«? 

hwn msj\f lilrc him in vralb*'. by 

S- FauTcDuld be foitsitien 
aj>ui.llE when Al DoirUMDI 
j> AEi^ihcr inHflet. 
■ £fi. 67. 5 "...mpud ■ 

Itft pn pravini^Uu Dni«a) 
ad ordinaljonfs rile cclebv 
pltibcBi cuj pnrpffiliuK o 

capl ^u^dtni pnuvmoPF pi 
eanvenkODl, el cpi-^opiu dt 
pncscniG.,.' Ifc alio dlB 
'epiicnpfltus ijpf*rmuf' 1 
ei ..impnoererur* 

tn fifi. 49 ii may be obi 
sy^ of Jifm^etr ^A) '. .pc 


CV'PRIAN »1S110P. 


iff of the dcrg)'. But since wc observe that, althoagh 
^orc than once to mafntAin his own i\ilc\ he ciiiiC9. a5 
Dgra|ihcr docs, ihr mention tif i*ny such choice by hi» 

fil bbhopi. claiming nevertheless to have ha<l *thc 
m of his fcllow-bLJthc>ps\' it it prc>bable: that such a 
icelunation superseded further ctcction*, ard th^it 
wiuensus* wm simply their imposition of hindsi. 
be picture drawn in cailicf canons and constitutions 
itt the people electing their bishop, and declaring their 

S)D the Lord's dxy in the presence of the presbytery 
Cbt>ourinf; bifthops, in answer to the thrice- repeated 
on$ of the principal bishop^ * Is this the man whom ye 
for a Kulcr? is he blameless, aad ia he worthy*?' 
[^b more likely ihiin that Cyprian was hiiriAciroixlaincd 
D a way more primitive than that which he aftcrw^uds 

f» ciisTornaTy*. The ordaintng bishops were those 
I Frovinee of Africa, according to its dignity, not 

acicaiarii' lo ih« 
txcaa In ihf prl- 

r, vol, U. p- 50S, *uL 

poaapw lliB doclinn of 

C«vun4 ju the Mine 

u mold ie«in ihu 

of the pcisun. ^t'l- 

pKOfdc, And UTt ibcii 

kin. TtUcBi, 

on & Gmc- Thintn. 

«>aCQ of Ae Coptic 
'Ikcniy i^Qetns alllU the 

iOtkBWMWtM. U, Till, c (.* 


'ApAiahc! Cuccw' 

•tww us the Uihop rlcetod bf hb 
flock «ml aOMptvd bj Eha o«i|^l»urin|[ 
bbhop*; CrpdAQ'i mlc u ikcicd b^ ihti 
Ddfbbmulac bbhcpii acaepL«d Uy ttc 

nc<k' IliG proo*u of cbAD^ Tziay h«Tt 
4raiw UD ibiough Lhc otlicv iiiiHoai pre- 

bUhup ro taxy L^ottj-rcgsiion, Qoi lutiricg 
bcfoic htbl or elected ■ binhop or it* 
am. In vhJch ivclve cu-n si Iah were 
ntAy to guajini«fe * mtlvoutioti Hud* 
til ibdi c«ae ihe adchbouiflng (hurchci 
lifopOMd ft bAdiop L(r tbe nrw ^afvre* 
gUiun who by three a«puti« «fiDiipfft 
and (if wtLviicct AJth Ihcit ivpurll 4C- 
cvpml bim, llir |ir»iKuct« niiui iu 
firactio* nr olficialLf hire b«cn the bi- 
Hh^p4i *ilbM?quCii[ dfctioiu in kuch 
■eo u^A^ld HLiily follow the pjcccdtat 
of tTie Fire! dcciioh. fciia M wn miiltu 
plietllhii would bcDOneituiuiulAodK. 
Cuptic CullK-tiiJJL, OllJijU lA, UuiiKO, 
^^lir.VDj. irp.joj.vnt.tll- Pli' ji^l'^ 



the pnmatcs of the neighbouring provinces of Xui^ 
MduritaniaV ^ 

The 'suffrage' of the laily was adequately sign! 
their pfcsencc and ihdr te*Jtimony to good life and ee 
ticm. There ia no indication that the " sufTrage ' impi 
recording of vote* ; under the tutelary empire the wc 
Jong ceased to bear any such meaning* in politica] 
«nd there is no ground for fancying that lliis sen 
revived by the Chifrch of Carthage. 

In what way dbtinct from these the third recjuUit 
Jndgmenc of Cod '^ was looked for is somewhat moi 
euEt to perceive. Some have supposed, as in the cY 
Matthias, a casting of lots with prayer Evidence of th 
is none'. But by those who relied upon the special pro 
and guidanci! of tlic Father, I lis Judgment was recogi 
the fact of the election and ordination proceeding in di 
without interruption*. Cyprian claims to enjoy "thejui 
of God and Christ' as a token of the genuineness of his \ 
ahip upon the ground that he is dt facU bishop; th 
' God who made him to be this is the God without 
■the sparrow falls not",' 


' Id Efy 57. 5 tUc onllmtloQ iimdc 
In ihf frtiHut of a prebci liitEy •noavcr^ 
mm viih the life $.tid convcmUion uf rh? 
bbhup elcci it uid lu L)o 'Ct niiiveiw 

•ODltriv'ik the '»/*/fu-/ which ihu ntnrn 
crinw ^f Ittuiu^ i^^vc \q hit uwii luihv' 

Tcpctlri' ore the erie? ^LEh which the 
niuh Jciudiiilcil Cjr^fjjiii fui ilic lium. 
Pont, Vrt.-. i..\tri\\ \'* ^\ve Su^agDHjf 
m f» j;W^ rnj A.iT^-,UuHt whldi in the 
e-PiTiirtui \t\\ \y{ £p. .*5. iS flKpliL^CTl 
JustNtn 111 T Jr.]] ii, [— fl woM wliii-h 
uenit to imply th4 iitipr ffisipi^earnnc* 
of wiy idea of unhci opinion*' The 
' Voin' in Copt' C^a. ti£ neiti Hi meu 

ih? pT«vi«uaty expTeucd ami 
bCQ< 0^. <i>. vgl, j[], ^ $0. 

* IJ- Dodwell, Dtis. V/f. I 
Ihe wunt *^^^ i& lie cvidcru 

* Th« Copiic Cjti)i.iii 4) WK 

following upon the coquifj wl 
eleclfd pcr-toa L^ of piue d 
' Ad'T ii tliey b[1 together ht^ 
ihnl be 11 such on une accord 
tEulh, (juil thd FothcfE anrl 
tir^iben Son Jmit Chritloor 
the Holy Choflt Ati/if /tt^ 
ttiijit't <Tr so, .* 

" ^.^. lyl I 9. fp rnplenut! 
be ii^ouJd inUe Ltie strungcvl | 
couM. Si> hIkj Iu Curiidi' 
SomewhftT ilinilixrly an oppo 

a'^RlAN THE mPE. 


Cypnm's Hfk ef ' Pafa: 

Rmtam clern' n ^dreutniE CyprJan And in oiriiing ahoui him 
' PapAt' ' ^A(n4«' or Popo «i C-vtba^*«, :ls do aUo ^e CecfeiMn 
Fn city". ThU mic ftu bcca aiirmpiwl lo be rtplniiu^d by tbc 
Uua it vti a coanman syronym for ' Ui&liqp,^ or (hni Lhc 
fdt no d^&-ulty in uLtendtng ihc iitLc u&cd by (heir owd 

10^ BiBSluni'. Rouili< hAvc «ddcd tbdr wdi^ht tv the belief 
inhop* wcr« to called. JhiK bcvcvcr wjis jippvcntly ocit ihc 
be lime cf Cyption. By eIic cml of ttic ^Iti tenLui) no tloubt 
% ft comicon 6eIc m di&tinfu^thcd «cc«. biduniua Ap^iUinAriA 
ipttlu E>f the Popes of Rhcims, Lyoni, Arlci. Vicnnc. MAnctllcs 
r^ isoally- Kvpn m thr 4th crmury th« nun^ wai not uncom^ 
pputtfic U tnciiu^ntly Addrcucd ft* Pope by his <orrcftt>onJcnU*i 
r by lertinie, and Jcrrmic htm*Hf to ^aJk Ep)phan:ii.s, John of 
Attunosivit Chfomntiui of Aquiloio, u wcli u Anoatuiui 
DMU Bishops of Roinr, and Thi^ophiLu^ of Alexiindrii^ 
3abop« of AlcittndrjA however h^J the ipi^cUjiLion eailici 
ttvL Both A(hanA.<iLj^ anil Ar^u« caU AkxAnil^r (j^- a.d, 336J 
' of ihftt 3CC and the lint disunci u^e of the til[e ihcrc it in 
of HefaiclA« vho probfthly <lifd in a,d. 346 and » 10 ttylvd 

win *Mm rwnarkiibk rhat wlthm iwo or Thr*e yiMn of the 

iiiiii ^ft^ Cjpriaii s% cjiUcd t'apn irvquenlly by lUe Romftn 

ccnfovors, u wcil a^ by ihc nitiv^e tonfrasuri— ctptrtiilly 

\ «TCQ «4i«n It w richdy (1* 
tbe ordd uf |jrowid?Dtc} 
Mtgbl, M «ftllcd an ocfftuon 
fo«H A d^/bAfti^v£Wdaaft- 
:rti -,/ A Z^j. 10. 
Cyp^Kbd Pip« Pw^yitri 
o^cAaatnUB (— (.ptA- 
^ (Iqik^uuhc papa. 
DooNno bmp wlprv. \im 

Cypltftoo fMyB UoyK« ?I 

Cypcteio P«pKl PmbrTffi 
k Roiftift eoputMni«i ». 

i?/. 0. f. Didiciiniii icccuWd bvA<- 
[liciuLU PftpxUiii Cypiiiauiii' |Cl<ui 

> VimJ. Efiitt, S. Jgmtt p. I. 0. hI. >. 

' KoiL^li, ^- S. ttl. pp. t^j. jfitL 

' Aue-£/. 0«. Si, 119, >i<. 

' llicriMi. £/^ Si lfi<^), W (;o), 88 

' £a«cb. //>!/. £t<k4^ vii. ?. Gic* 
pwy at NeacHm (ThuflBWrt} id- 
dttuei hit Cd«M».'4/ij!//<rtD(Iiv^'arf) 
nir« in \-i'- t^ft (??, Ut it i* difficult 
H»**j »liHfi*f rhinii a oncviUr J«t« to 
huhv^ or to pfJ«siAv 01 Cr«k prieili 
Wkl WiuBiuimkU wc Hf caJlcd. ai lu ■ 
pardf ubi Uihop. 



bclonj^ed equally to z\\ believeri^ Had hisoA^ccU 
Tintiirally out of the prcsbytcrate, a« the prcsbytci 
grown out of the whole community? or. if thU enqi 
pas.'jcd the curiosity of the zg^y did he regard hli 
delegated to be their hea(l-prie>t by a nation of priesi 

Ot did he regard his i:>fFice as something different 
from all such conceptions of it ? as d Line traced in thi 
Plan? indicated and asfiumed, if not denned, in t 
Tcftt&ment.' dcducibic from it by reasoning, such as 
from the same writings the doctrine of the Holy Tri 
a power not llicic leduced to terms, but coiu^tanl in c 
endowed wilh n grace specific, exclusive, cffieierr * 

These <]iicstion« receive a full answer in Cyprian's 
Ai matter of order, the eminence of the rank of tht 
v/AS visible to the Roinan world. He was the Chic 
ChriMian Society; the confiscation of hb property wa» 
for a time the only, edict of pcracculing magistrates., 
assembly from the midst of the separate semicirch 
presbyters* ro^e his chair or Throne, already the i 
name and symbol of his author[ty. He was speci 
Preacher' in his church, the chief instructor. Again 
the principal arbitrator in disputes. As to moi 
discipline, whether clerical cr lay. he wa^ * Judge in 
fttead' of d isq ua I i locations' from commLmion. pra[ 
restoration, suitablcnew for any office But m this 
Cyprian felt at all times bound to act on the princlp 
in one of lijs earliest letters he lays down — 'to do 
'vnthout the information a.nd advice of presbyters, 
'and laymen*/ 

vtiiu Itifuiidll- De Umi. JO- Olib ufOie 
«(liip»r» of Hie dlle ^s ,.qv[0(t.-nec 

ivl cl cdthcdiK tcKrvanin. 

{i.4. plebc). £/. ij. 1. tt- 3 
Ep^ 3S. i,.,»olpTniu vQii uit 




lich hw been foe ccnturic* the stipnnnc tilic of 

Ltnch\ tlic tillc of FontilT, he would have rcjcctol 

and horror. On TcrtutliAn's \\\i% it liad been a. 

ian'« langiiagr it wa^ rc^crv^d for Cniaph;ti« aft^r 

had pcused from him by his con<!emmUoo of 

igh Priest': but th-it the liiahop war dimply the 

representative of the people in ihcir s&cerdotal 

thought which never took ,ihjtpe from h\j^ pen. 

ic Bishop Is die sacniicing priest*. Christ was 

Orduner of the Jewish Pneithoc»d», The Priests 

were 'OUT predece»*oni»/ The JcwiRh E^nesthood 

*a name and a shade,' on the day when it 

Its reality pa»»ed on to the Christian 

congregation (diocese) i» 'the congrq^ation of 

declicn of the bishop in their preAcnee h made 

ice vrilJi the Law f>f Mohcn*; the lapKtMl or Mnftil 

r, li Sec tctow. 

|v t> So Cm did 

PoBliuk fif' c. ij 

«l D«i fianlif**' 

the 'poniiSoM iujui 

«. II -Dvtroniifai' 

the t«li«i of Cuprum 

llw mini 

vhok clencaJ hncTy it 

that 1^ aigimkCDtt 

ffiu *kli diB luUi in 

[wVfe idArvVKl Irt ot At 

l|imbji<n, bit tb» opA- 
ibM he tcofiD^ 

of whoa the nanjoriTy* he uyi, are 

A}^in, Wt own prcfcliytm «rn» nfil in 
built, and it would ba contniy lo )ui 
primapJM 10 iMldrcs d>a pr«l7Un of 
itmtber. Evvn in i^i|» V|ii>t1a Llwr«- 
fort 'ocvrdoi' mHni biihop- In £f. 
40 be tu.j% NufnJdicdi hk^ 1)Mn raicucd 
f^oiLiticuh At hii[]u:tynJ«iubjGc>d» '^ut dculntun p«r lipiiiin <iMonAilMn 
pK>byicronun noitronim oopiuo flo- 
liiBt* >uxrdoiJI>ahUiiuuci/ Tlu>4lhe 
gntfrni vie at thr irrn, u in 'udvrdo- 
tn 4L minittti,* and he iixlcid 4dJk '«t 
|tlxnn(rictHtui i|LiidcDi ,-Jul luupliurciu 
liKatn.' V. fT^u]>|iilunv k^ thitc 'Hcer< 
dot' dQ«« nol Iii4 har« iU pmptf nCtr^ 
cDut. Id Dw ZiL tf Liif^ 6 it uiicbt 
fquaEly b? majnutned iJiikl (be ward* 
vHc dliC^DgaUhc^ <fj thij Lhtj vtt 
rhduritolly [nutllBlcd, ' JimmMiHteLui 
■wefdoilbus. dam cplKupli Invlddui/ 
• V ^ *^ • ^ (L t. 



bishop H prohibited fr^m ^Acxiiidng by the Monic it 
fLgainst unclcanncss: his communicants arc tainlcd by hii 
The presbyterate U ihe Leviiic tribe', exempt from wc 
office, debarred from worldly callingA, living on the off* 
oi the people, as their prcdcccsEoK on the tithes, devotee 
•fid night to sacrifice and pr&yer. So precise is the I 
cation, that tlie people arc to rise At their coming in purst 
of the Lcvitic direction'. 

Again there is another aspect of the same office. 
Apofilks were bishops. Matthias was ordained a 'bii 
And still the bishop is the Apoatle of his flock*. 1 
the Twelve through successive ordina.tions he dcrivcj 
chariictcr'. His order is of divine creation. The diac< 
li the institution of hi-n predecessors. 

He is not only a Judge. He U Judyr in Christ's st 
Contempt of his government' is the parent of hcrcq^; 
expressly condemned in the Law^ in the book« of Samue 
the example of St Paul and of our Lord- To maintftii 
snmc faith and worship and yet invade the o^ce of 
rightful bishop is identically the sin of K^Jrab^ For 
Laws about the M igh Priest arc not merely applicable u 
Bishoiw; they were ultimately intended fort" them, and 
ihcy spply to ihem alone. 

' Levil. nU. j^ij to inivipicttd Tif- 

pcrauoiH £f. j^. ji. Cf. £/. 4S. 3. Tlic 

^JA^.'^. 67. 4(Ktrt, p-73Bt, i0,nDt 
only lupponctl pjj[<Bicnl]]r by iJI ms&^^ 
aiEflknil ed<1-, bai it r?i]iiir«4l bf the '?pi4. 
VopoTUin cl BicerdiiliirB' ivliieh fo]1iiw»- 
■ <..A|A&1i>IS> vicojifl oidiruLionif ^uc- 

* Bp. 59. 5 'vice Cliriati.' Cfl 

UK "f Jmifx tii>l Afti/fr U Imf 
on at-rmmt of hu l«gfil vnacrhMi. 
' Ef 6f, f/. z. £/. .9. £, 
The t^C'ijilLirT^ quoLrd arc Deut 
14, vhxli it «tiQj liv« Umek r 
via. 7. Sir.tJi. 19,^11. AcUAzJl 
MAdb, vUL 4. Jop xvUL 41, If. 




these Of>ifiions of Cypnan the fifst jjoinl which invites 
mcMMC) i« their dbaimilnrity to any t^chcme of the Christian 
mnvtry now held. A paf^ticl between that mtnutryand the 
»lWtc Lcvhk ordcn ih hiilccril f4imlmr to u:^, but net the same 
pKilId which CypHAH drpivr^ Although (liMilx^iicnce to the 
h ibe «in of disobedience to the High Priest, yet bis 
i* noc pounrayed as surrounded first by the Priests^ 
dly by the Ucdcon-Levitcs- The Order of Bishops 
answers lo the * Priest* of God,' the Frcsbylcrs arc 
of Levi The New High I'ricst ia Chmt clcmally'. 
ndly. neither wuuld ^tty school row intcr]>rel the 
precepts with anything like the Uteralness which be 
i-s iifie& For inttance, the territorially endowed minidry 
Chruteitdom givci^ up what wu in hix eyi» an e);iiential 
lo the house of Levi, their right to mainlcnancc 
iA£« without land. 
Hbrd, the method of election to bifihopnca as extinct 
ftnngh the wliole world- Nowhere do neighbouring biiliopt 
Wt and, requiring the teHtimcmy of the Uiiy over whom he 
^Ipfttide, elect or nominate for ihenia bishop-. Vanouias 
Wt been the pha^s through which that electio:i h^& pa.tsccJ, 
Me can be more alien from the spirit of Cyprian's preficrlp- 
taaithac tlie two which divide tJic Western Church between 
ka In one the Uy, in the other the ccclcMasticAl rkoicnt 
Wndticed Its C0|>artncr lo a t^hadow : In each the surviving 
^Tbcni has merged in a qrngic tndivldual,a single nominatoc 
biilxet within hi^ »uprem;icy. Here it is the monArch, there 
cac bifthop of Rome'. Mea^^ircd by ancient standards 
Kction could criticise the other, yet to the purposes 

The bibh«p cf Rome Jn ilic pRcowpa' 





of each no machinery cnuld be better adapted lh% 
present, und ancient standards were not uniform. No 
analogy is that of Kngtond, where a minBtcr of th« G 
selected from popular rqirc5cntativ«i nomtnatcs, the ch; 
ju rcprcsenUlivcs of the diocesan preshytcrntc accq 
reject, i*nd the comprovincial bi^hopa ct>]1aec^atc^ 

Fourth, the pre*;bytcrs had no voice or vote In the cU 
of the bishop distinct from that of the laity: their infli 
was groat, but in govemneni they scarcely appear j 
order'. The very name of priesthood fas rcprcsente 
jacm/oUJ, saccrdotium) did not descend from the episo 
upon tlicm until after Cyprian wrote. Their then dc^igrv 
iVi the 1-tvUic body uf the church, similarly descended 
the deacons*. 

Fifth, while the virtue of Aaron's Priesthood and the 
of Apostleship stiJI flowed, a* it were, from 3 divine ti 
through the world, those who received it were not act 
witli power to invite or coopt or to increase their nu! 
at theii pleasure. It was the Christian p!ebes which to ' 
individual bishop was the fountain of his honour'. \\ 
they who by the 'axptrntion of God" addressed to him th 

cant Conpnabjrtou f^ui adtmnt,' Ep. 
Ti. I. 

CypfiLiiK Application of Z^w'/hn tral'iu 
\£p- 1. 1) lo pj-oUricfb {k-Xi. EJtc, it.s) 
Ofigcnn /fiTM. lii, I. in Jmm- {DtUnn: 
V. iJi. 1^4^ [t7fB]), and it b in » vmy 
wLiiiJi rJlrw^ liif um ofbolli won.1* inhv 
iinbmllltr. fH ni oAf tut reirran Truf 

jf4-, TIlc t'ltii fariDiLl uk tit ihvDi I 

tmce 16 ill /A Coru. CfuL « 
w/'A/rtf. A.rL^QO, CuL ii. \l^h 

m*}' *^I^C'< ^*> ■ qVStiOQ put K 

wonlt'cpucupua, presbyter ct dtl 
CfFn^hhu'v himseJf rvpliei, uw 
cto^nciir-s aTk[iililc», ci [>ti Ha 
nee noo a L^viii^/ Li thu Ten 
rpllofi rrpntt ir CV- Qm. S«. 
C«ji.tJj,4Labb«,n'C. 1161), la 
of//. CV(f4. ra«4. diJiiI in Ckci 
///: fTtfiif . CarfJi. AM. J97 (al. j 
foTtn nppetn in tJlUa only* 
Canons /kpd hii i[ Ajtrcail»' 

wiEhuut ui^fc than a nijojlDAl re 
[o ihp ;i/^A/j, iiur tli« vhole » 




li aitc! on the inheriUiKc of that priestliood and tbc di^pcn- 
tukn of ihxt grace. On them rcistcd al^o ihc rc%|>onKibi1it>' 
Md^otjrof wiihdravring from him and hiK adminUtrAtian« if 
' kven A rifiner. ' A peopk obeiticnt to the precepts of the 
'Ufd and fcanng God w bound to $«par2tc itself from a 
'Ltful prelate, and not to assocUtc it£Clf with the sacrifices 
d a Micnlcgioui J'hcJt : forn^much as they ha%'e mainly the 
'fomtt dthcf of clcLtidg worthy Priests («>. Dishops) or of 
*Rftiting the unworthyV 

Sixth, hcocc* vrhtt\ a btchap had bc^en appointed to a see, 
he BK, BO loriff as he remained in faith and charity, the 
ymMe piUar, foundation, ami irdei^d the embodiment of his 
ifan^ 'The bishop is in tbc church, and the church in the 
^lobop, and if dn>'onc b not with die biiihop he id not in 

SereAth, in the cnuncib there wai: no elective, ro mutable 
i^HCftataiion. Each diocete elected its bishop once lor alJ 
tft tv, among other functions, the rcprci^ntattvG of hid church 
M conjtituenc)'; a life member of the conciliar body, 
needed no other. 

btK tlie Icwptatiun^ Eiiddeiit ti> thi$ copirjus authority 
tKl vriihout an antidote in the popuUr character of the 
cconnission and the popular duties it involved. To tbc bitter 
uock of I'upkn Cyprian replies *all the brethren and the 
'blUhcn 4ljfO wdl know and love my humble character: you 
*icicir "ft and you loved tl when you were in the church and in 
GBaununiou with inc... 1 am daily the servant nf ihc brethren. 
*i Kcchc those who come to the church, one after another, 
1*1(4 ({oodwUI. with prayera, and with joyfulneei'/ 

tattly, It hac been accurately «hewn that there is no clear 
ntScpQicnl of these opinions on Pric«hood in the writinsa of 
^ Aportolk Fathers, in Justin, or in Clement of Alexandria*. 

k^if, J. Un Ihc NiMd of the 
^Hh riwibci la canvtaicnc wiili 

mjtiy In Up- Llghifoot'i edlLLOn of the 


TiiK f'KiES^riioun or thk laitv- 

I Adi not j»o sure that there is no tr^co of them in Ift 
Wc have sect) that in Tcrtullian they exist side by nU 
clear enunciations of the doctrine of ^n cMcntial pric 
inherent in all Chl'i^tia^^ but exercised in fully dcv 
churches by the organic mfnislty alone^ 

This universal Lay -j3rie*t hood is not dwelt uj 
Cypri;in, but there 15 no sufficient reason to <iuosti' 
belief in it Nor is it a vpecially Christian doclnne 
co^tval with the religious inslinct of mankind. It 1 
doubt been ob»:ured in pagan Greece, «nd cvcu in 
many shrinrs hnt\ special endowments and mimslers, 
tlir last both rctaineti traces of functions appropri 
priest-kings. But the pdncipal sacrificing priest* 
Roman state, th^ pcntilTri and the augurs, were Ma> 
!lot separated from the rest of the people. The cclcbr 
the sacrifices were generals, senators^ and magistrates' 
Jewish nation had been founded as a priesthood, in wh 
fLnction* propcT to the whole manhood of the no 
deputed first in theory to the eldest sons and then 
singJc tribe, yet frequently resumed for sufficient ca 
kings and prophets. This royal priesthood became, 

£jHltff t« the PkiUfftiml. iWSk. pp, 

> In-njrui hajidln the ctn^coiwLt 
murp 'fl* th» iirjirtiitriry M vpnvinhr 
lrfc<lillon* ihun d» 'the ttnUv «/ unjly' 
(Bp, Llgfaruut. up. iU. pp» i,c fl). 
beciiTH bh vhulc Db|«ci ti docirtrnl. 
not CflvvramcntiLL The whoie Church 
ti ID htm A 'dcpo^imrnuv ilivn/ ijiCv 
which Ibc fl^miilpB «owH 'ommfl qiu 
lini vcriu(i>t' 4. /Afrtf- iJu «. The 
muz* liuwrvcr cif a chuich (pcwcuUi|f 
fJkar^fnatJi 9ii<] u)| fipuMf of viilneu- 
in^ Id H|ioiiEfllic TruLh he m«kn to be 
thre*. tit 'apud quui csi ii) » 4jav 
«at nh npTHif-Jix fi'lnia? iQMie«1o. (i) 
<t iii quoil Ml unum ri lFT<prob«bl1« 
oouvciHUiaaid, {^ ct iuildltenuutn cl 

incomiptihrilK urmuniL omAU 
[h<« lie parsilldi with ihe ' 
lHHi'hcu. d<»ciofi>' or I Cor. 
/fiff¥t-iv-ifi Sfr aim Ehpco 

mcDl of th( sARie acctjon uid 
iv. itj, lit- i, V. tQ V-.cpiKfij 
^poiroLi iriflidemnt eccltutt.' 
in JwEifi It le ime, AU. 
iifi, thai the whole Chnhia 
in* ihr hiEh'pnf^tty Hrfti\y^ 
mu'.t niii'L alio ih* chiir^h-li 
[he T^twffriiif done, ^/tf^t 
iTjrwHmlJt. .^a^^* .r^XV<4^^<B 

> .n^ininirx et :Filir«« « 

ne^ of thf 0^<v. And ' it §eems plain from his mode 
;tag Ibat such language wai not peculiar to hinL^elf, 
Kd current in the chtirchcs among which he moved*.' 
dUtinctiTe therefore in Cyprian's theory simpiy 
the origin of that ofHcc. .A.ccordin£ to him, k 15 
ibcritancc ixom the apo^tlc^* (2) And a succc^ion 
jevittc rficslbood, only nn>ic gloriuus in being the 
t cff that |>nnthnci(l cif a lypc, 
now, wc most observe that Trom whatever scurcc the 
prang k was not an emanation from the fioHey of 
And altbouffh it would be equally fnaccurote to 
ibc policy sprang from the thcoi^'. yet the influence 
nv in moulding both then and ever since all vif^iou^ 
cwhich ha^ had any contmuity.all ChnMtan organic 
tkih h^s enjoyed any extension, c:in scarcely be 
bated. From the very First Cyprian belieivd that he 
doctrine in Scripture, and in Scripture as a vliole. 
rtt derived, it came t^ him in hi* ' novitiate/ We 
strongest and completcst terms in his first cphtle 
L fin>t apptiCdtion of texts in the TeHttmonies. The 
irtd of lu* cpiicoprtte added nothing to th*- distinct* 
which he rraliicd it, although hvy dr^cu^cion^ and 
tt* reflected and impressed £t>. There is no room 
^^nCftifl that the exigencies of his position towur^Js 




the aec of Rome, determined or in the Jca^ developed 

And whence then did this rorm of Chrisrisn th<^ 
originated I »ee no proof, and to me it i« incredible tlia 
he or other AfricsuiA iJiould h;tvc derived any sueh achemi 
cOQSCiouaJy or unconsciousJ^t fTcan P^fg^n constitutions. Mi 
appeared to them all in the light of a purely dcmoniad 
and Satanic system. Nor yet is it possible that they Inhcritc 
tbcm from any yndaisi^ forms oi" Christianity. Pur Of 
only IS sacerdotalism not one of the ch^ract ens lies for whic 
Judftizers are ever reprehended', bi»i in fact the veiy ettcn' 
of JudaUm lay In looking back to the literal cireumciiio 
the literal passover, the literal centfaLi^^ing of the church upc 
Jcrusiilcm. Toward* Gentile Priests, toxvards Lcvitea ffl> 
the uncircumcision. they had no propcnsion. Neither 1 
beithenism nor to le^llitlc sects can we trace back d 
fruitful powerful theory now acoepted in Africa. 

Was it then but an unconscious stramini* t^rat of br^E^sf 
then of fcclmg, lastly of thought which gradually warpi 
with a hieratic dUtortion ofUccs originally politic and did&cd 
Did the contemplative .study of numemu'ily fulfilled lyp 
draw men by a seemingly irresistible attraction to imagineJ 
actual continuity, totally unreal, between a sacrilicial pric? 
hood and whnt wu designed only for a hortatory coll^' 

Or, was the belief a legitimate development of the jwi 
dplcs of the apostolic church, parallel with and analop^ 
to the growing light on cardinal doctrines which sinulOJ 
nothing but use cojjd illustrate? And are all the fonrfl 

' O. RIEkM (pp. JiO, 95^, «3f 

ilfcrLdpfil wlthoui (hp CTETLii. No 
pmaivl theory cf & pfllliy ooald bt. 
Bui when he «>* th*i U bicVc ofll 
ju a new periYp»on in Rp. ^j, he nciE 
cAlf oveiloolu the e*rly i^^ 3^. Ihil 
(l»ilk to dbc<m tthiLl it Uhjn imparcjmi, 

thil the (oticepliort of Ihff Chutdk "^ 
C>|]r(iui it|ii>Uo 10 life in bia filK * 
xn^\ fntuinr* fur lt> jujlcnlbl nJi^ 
thir ihmry which Lli« f^rniitlii fOl 
cuniolicUm.— fHri l<ii vu viil 
tUDc )rcBf» btfgttf RiMbl tppvni 
> Rp. IjjhTfnni, Jf '**- rP' '5** 


be «fttd to live among us broken lights of tfa« 

ftltemativc v$ 4tt itDin^Ttini one. It will be ftji&wcred 
\er% »c€X)cding tii ihrir schools, ard c^nnor lie *!ctcr- 
|f hifitory Jifont Wc shall find furlhcr illu$tr2tinn& of 
piogras of the hi.itory. but it becomct at this point 


V inootb^ only were left to the un^Ufipccting Chri^ 
a * Thiny-eijtht year» PeacC which bad AJi^ist^ the 

of the church without protnoting; cither its devotion 
rganiftatiorw Hrhc-11, some time between the July of 

1 and the following April', the figure of the wcU-a-u, nv- 
ulvocate, now for »omc time mis^d from court and ^^Cmi. 
nd grown fainilmr to Christiaim hi the semicircle of ^^^^"* 
[Ts took tJic white Iincn-covcrcd chair of the iUiciinu* it, 

L. Mxvjui 

JO iK»ne merchant princes basilica', and the voice A^uUuma, 

DbTp Alvil If, a.Dh %\%s ror in jf/. *9- 
tftcj Kfuicr A-D^ s<o, he moickin* tliAL 
hf hart madr Sflluni* r«ii a Leuun, 
•tf'wXk ihc cpiiKnt of [be clor^', on iHs 

Thp lircian p^nwulK* hqpn in tlic 
fn<9 of Ati>- i4f, Of ihv vcrjr bcjfinniaf 
ui A>t)> i(ic- ^•'^ ^ fbAl li]t|i|wiinl Til- 
Imonl dilowm ivd y«en (vol, iv. %. 
Cfpr. Art, Ti.). KighlMit coonthi i» 
1)]« u[mi»l pofiible, uitt t<n>btb]y l!iti 
fpiutfpaTf VRin n't! l-ing a»lrr June 
ApIJ. -14^, Mote ih«n fcpur yarn ■oul'l 
be uUcd A ^nifiiriucnciluiii ; in £>. 54^. 1 
1 'rrl'^nnnim^ u two )rf«n arid ihrec 
iDoiiiba ; IB B^ 4j» 4 IjIIU more ilian 
« iwcSciuuiilh lA n 'bjcuiiium-' 

bouHt, ud nol that* ofUit liw-comn* 
were pnba^ ibt Bodflb of tbt fini 

ii Tiu ei ixx 
kaob fnii,' ri>. ficm the fml 
i*«nit {/ f Feb. ml, it«ut 
\ the fETucilia or tJic pru- 
l^ilft «lirvlv-l TTTtJliin't 

|CA,r< CMr^ <ii- 16. »pcaVJ[ic 
I — mplwtictt of Ibf cZhm. 

99A vpUlk «B vriilcn 

)^^M^ CrT™A hail rhvn 

Vt for iwo or Ihm mnntlK 
•c fivtv, ftl al«tt 'or lour 
b —In tk tiutkil d:ile 
r haa aecrwkiCL to tie Junv 
k»lMM p«b1iI* Apil A,Eu 
biabop en Guicr 



thftt had defended the st3t«-re1i|rioA rose before an x\VU 
which, stiU Manding in its old place sixty yean Uter^seetud 
to reproAch the depiirting AGhismatic with the shadows 01 
Cyprian and of Unily- 

Of his strmuits, unless the IrAct on Patience U a stnm 
remodelledf not a record has reached us: a sing"ular contlM 
10 the vasr monuments of Augustine's preaching. We shouli 
have gladly learnt the tenor of thit tirst exhortation whict^ 
after the UAag:e of the Afnciin bishopR, he opened and closo 
with the double' salutation ' In the Name of the Lord/ *tid 
havr rsughl the fir?^t note of thoso thirteen ycar^ of incffptcc 
able teaching. But there is in the whole man such onmea 
that we can scarcely question that, ^ in his letters Mid 
pamphlets, so fronn his bema ChrUtian life wajc tau(;ht tf I 
Bk>cJal science. ' In the quiet time he had served ^iscipivt^ 
13 his own epigrammatic talc of his first few monlha. Tlierti 
waa nothing wavering in him, or tentative ; there wa» no km 
ing for a due, He entered on rcslisraiion and or^itntEatlnd 
with a theory clearly ascertained, and a practical devotion W 
its consequences. ' The church is one. She holds and o^vn| 
'all the power of her Spouse and Lord. And in her we p»; 
■ side. For her honour and her unity we do battle. Her pac* 
'and her glory we alike maintain with failliful &eIf-dc«Jtioit 
'We have God'*» leave to water God*s ihiisting |>poplc- W* 
'keep the bounds of the springs of life',' Such wa* Ml 
eatimatc of hia duty and his responsibility- To re\"ivc >ft 
a worldly laity, with a slafT of caballing clerg>'. the re»lJ<^ 
of their professions and of their offices, to reanimate churt' 
life with half- forgot ten forces, wa.'? his first task. anJ ^^ 
thai iiriniitive aye no light one. Not only had he from thl 

churrh«. See R- ^rrCt fipmt ttni/ i^f ' .. uIuinriDn»<(Cilicvt gvminAU>Op 

Ot«/4f>iai Ihtnxl. p. L Thni u^cd ui. vii. 6, nole p. i5l| od> AU«^ 

bT Cypriikti*B cunerrt^clon wan mnfn- nnd. Paris, i4ji< 

imncd ixfterwBnlt at o church, ' Efi. fj> ft 



'contumel)' toward his office'*; not only did 
% the five presbyters and others, " liirbuknt men 
coitid scxrctiy niJ«'/ render hift admiristnitiOTi diA- 
gUin9g jibutc^ of the cpiscop^il office were yd harder 

tb. Socially known a^ Ic^ing men, but uiijirovidcd 
independence, or w^ith position cqii^l to thAt 

ncial roagisiracy, sonic bishops were cngio^^el in 

; ruititt^ flhsrnt in rommrrrr. *rtmf^ even eni^a^^ed in 
There was the frce-It^'ing bishop actually enriched 
riunitie* of hi« post, ready to abjure the fiaith on 
of danger, ready to resume hia o^cc when peril 
There wftA the immoral bi^ihop on the vct^c of 
mention'. Some were secure in their position though 
for their frauds in the ba^iaar, or Ehclr complicity In 
trade of thp Sahara* Some 4g;iin were ttya ignorant 
t their catechumens for baptism, or to avoid licrctical 
\ Chdr public prxyers, too indifferent et-en to ab<&tam 
15 in their liturgies' the compositions of well-known 
Cold and dark arc the »h;ide% which ate HungaLhwart 

tracts and around thr gbwing lights of tlic scL-rrt 
fly church Itfe. If Itwas possible for such men to be 
re can understand how amonp their presbyters the^' 
the makers of idols find tLio compounders of incense, 

their laity a^trolo^crft' and theatrical trainers'. 
\i licrc« sui^e of mingling races, tyrannoiis classes, 
ttipcrslitlons. the struggle of life and the shix:k of 
was, upon a comparatively narrow «]iacc, tenfold 
eni and more unscrxipulous than in the most intense 

31 MC Mbvrt I- Tir 


tat comwunf l')r|irunii^* /hti- iv ^ 

(ij): i. £/. /\irw». III. 1 fs). cr 

Oft. I B. 15, JO Cfinr. ^'iifl. iji9!^—jeA 1% 
Can. r J /. C^aw. C^rf^. {^tft). 

• Aiif^riEr ^a//-f,£p0rHV.Ti.3j (47^ 

• T«rt. dt /dt^atr. cf , T, 9. 


ccntrcTt of our citci^c*. The new *cct had been for tl 
pari of 2 century not only unharmed btiC prosprrai 
hollowiieas and insincerity ftbould bav€ grown up it 
tneviubic. We can but recognise its. they did theirut^l 
tllc persecution of the church was mercy to the worl 
»hal] find reason to believe that its end was anawcrct 
for the present, wc shall sec thai the troablcua year 
followctl were niofc favourable: by far Umn piufoundc 
could 3i;ivc been to thf^ grand comblnatiuns of c>ne mK*b 



DtjapiiH^—Clotcai and Lay. ^ 

We niusl noiv pass in revfew ihe measures of C 
elghleen months' of peace, remembering that, tlhjstr 
th^ &re, they are but a prelude. 

One passing glimpse of what iieem active method 
him to us with a band of the ' Teachmg Frc 
examining into Ihc qualifications of Readers, testing 
were preparing for the clerical ollice, ami placing the a 
in a Wind uf rank as " Next the Clergy.' On one sni 
5ion these agree to appoint Optatus one of ihe Read* 
' Teacher of Catechumen*/ — to do for many what K 
had done for Cyprian, but still as a Reader', Again 

' CuunUnii fiom June m*! ^t*'** 
Sec p. 41, noit 1- 

' i£^ ai^ ' , ifUo« jam pnrlem co[n- 
inviii cmuuUv c1cri> prokimoi fcfCTAmus, 
llUanilo 9LU .SuluEu tile ri*Lki.' kuiicl 
d[<jnv itdfuni IccitijnciH dc^tintu^, aul 
iFiotlo cum prAbyleriit ilocloribdA Icc- 
(oro dillevtili!! prulnmiiut. OpLutVQi 

ttLluiaLUi, cxfimiQ&nici, ^c-' In ihit in- 
leioEing p«dA*t»c Xhztt lUuhL be ki^inc 
fnuU, lot f-'tifyifrii canrot tie diU'c: 
Dc Hurl fdnjcclmreii ihAl afitut moy 
bivir Lli>it|Jt»itir(J iiflcr ^m, Kariel 
nad* /fijl^mm, whLcbmiotaL'ypriiAAlc 

like A^pasiui in Auiio XT. j 

dbrinc^l Order u in Tw^i 
Xif.Afeutiixv vv,,or2A^ 

OfAT, Vis. Ill, ^. S« Doil' 
C!i:^. tit I cAnrot Lhlnk V 
scmel DEqUc lifium IpcUoncn 
flioia:; *vv gAVc? him l^o f 
Tund klciuij lA uftmiiiftixi^,' 
£/, 38. 1 ',.,duuititita IqE^i 
jft. I he «iXLki oi hu 'p 
cimntiltin^ prcibylcni tluicofl 

OB Ltll? AlJLlJU uf CUjUi JftlOf 



Easier Days tlicy\^n to Saturtis, lUough not 
r, th« Reading of the [.euon. It is not quite 
say wh«lhcr &JI thia was netv, or old with a new 
Bui this feathering of the best-read prcsbytcn 
bUhop tn tbc training of the young ckr^ was a 
progrcwivc improvement- 

rtumeiits ol" lhi» time are one Trealive and three 
idi the KagAcity of Pearson r&itored to iheir place 
t in the coUcciion. About another, however (the 

mistaken ^ 
epistle dcah with the case of ore who had, con- 
existing rule, leil a elcrgyman 'Tutor'by will to his 
It forbids the sacril^cu' to be offered for hi:t repose, 
us Victor of T'umt' near Carthage had in hb will 
as "Tutor' Geminliis F^UKtinus a presbyter. A 
a former council bad ruled thu^ : 'No one h to 
y hifi will 1 cleric and minifitcr of God to be a /itt&f 
•^ siDce every one who is honoured with the divine 
I and appointed to the cicncal mmJstry ought only 
M a!t4i and iALri/itcs anJ he frte fur dcvi^lioria and 
f'if «fiy *hall have v> done, no offcHng shall he 
dm nor sacrifice celebrated' for his repose-' Cyprian 
y enjoins that at Funii Iherc shiill be ro ' oblation ' 
iu» Victor or any 'deprecation frequented ' in the 
kid name. 

t transaction in which we mark the strong, con> 
Icr, i> the ani^wcr to Hucratiu^, the bishop probribly 
t scacoaat colony of Thenar or Tain'. It fiirni^hcs 

o:>ndJ>u«iACVidi>UbuA<JAlua,'£y. I* I. 
1. Bnntea, Hlfif^m ^tui Ati ^, 

at /ftftjtmtffmr «■» [mplln- J-/I i ^. 
* £> 3. Eucniiu* apohc in tfce 
ct>uncil vf Icii yeaih lalfc iii auppiirl t4 
iTitttconil Mptidik at hfttlioL [Smff. 


imJ GMion IP tpoiiine 
Ind MVi fft wm^ft^ 



an instance cf that c^LTeful weighing of individual cue 
layd the basts of permanent enactments. An Actor, i 
Icf^ the proilii:atc and oormpting Maj^c* u a matter o 
in obedience to Chmtijtn principles, felt no sct 
imparting his skill of voice *ind gesture to hcalhcn 
or slaves. He had no power to enfranchise, or w 
them from their jitofeisioii, why hesiiute to iinprt 
elevate, perhaps chk*tcit their performance* Similar co: 
every day impede practical morality, ard the Africi 
third century was rife with them. With the touch < 
Cyprian expose* the man who v^as ready to form O 
take the place from which he had c?icapcd cjiiMciencc-s 
!«uggej4ts ht« maintenance, if he really has no other 
of living, by the church ; and offers him^ if Thcna: 
poor, food and clothing at Carthage. 

The diHicuIty Kucratius had fdt in dealing with t 
lay in the ebscncc of any rule excluding from the 
docutionisE^ or others who only trained actors. A 
fragment belonging to the second half of the ihird c 
fttipplied the omission. 'If one ha« the mania of tb 
'shows, or if he has been a deeiaimer in the theai 
'him cease or let him be cast out. If he teach tlw 
'(in theatrical shows) it is good that he ahoyld cc 
'he docs not make a trade of it. let him be forgive 
A.I), 305 or 506 the Synod of Rlvira enacts the rule ft 
a converted performer* to renounce his profession 

^//. 3^0 Hit itucccaHcirs Appear la 
Couooiliupto A.n- fi4i. Sm ^//rnrfu' 
on Ctitet. 

^ a, BiriKtaiQ (l»SSl, *ohiv, p. iS|. 
' Humwn, fftffalytm \\%l\). vol, [i. 
p, 514; iL j> Ifllcr iIjod Cxl>[Un'i JcUer. 
if nul l^a^cJ upuik ir 

' hmni ihr AlFVundriLn tbmn of ilip 
Ap<Mali£ ConitiititinoB which 1* flilL 
■ OittAnl Id the Ab/siiiuAn IcaI ud 
Anl>k irajiblBiion ihciTrri>tii, ni vrrlt u 
-JO Lbe Coptic uiri ^yriotj And whteii 

fimtu <hr i^itndivcirk ol ihi 
cnllCFCian which now appaa 
Sigklh Book of QUI Greek ta 
iffp. tif.). AF^Jt, CfiMft^ vtii, 

* Catti. /^/iSfrifan- cun. 61 

pvrorTi wjih ^istrtt. Ln C 1 
SuLkthi l>H.t. vf CttrA amd JR 
guiUfiyA-v, {(iL 1A9C). 


mcpcion j&to th« €btirch> and to he excluded upon any 
iQeiDpt to ruuni« It 

Up the 'founh' letter he ap^ic^r^ with Cjcctliui, tlie scalof 
Bpp of the province, and nthrr hJKhop^ and preshytpr*, 
^bg tCrong fneaiure^ for the suppiession of a flhockiirg 
bttltdsm wbicb allowed a ^iippnscd purely spiritual anion 
ktvtcci certain junior clerics *n6 profcAacd vii^ma'. In 
hBr»Jutc cunnccljon with Ms subject dppcai<:d his treatise 

Id thew tetters the authority of the Bishop of C<irthage 
binoked or exerdited heyonJ hU own diocctie, and wein 
llRtdr Siomething of a metropollcic a^pcctn 

One more cxcmplifiefttion of the s/stcm and applianoca of 
£k^ne may be mentioned as belonging to this interval, in 
fie iftveitigation twfore t)\e bishop arnl assessors of ccrt:iin 
Ais^ of cruelty to a father and a wife* which impended 
4m an eminent presbyter, Novatuii, the future schism atarch. 
hthii WG khall return hereafter. 

Vb*beQ the persecution was pa^t, Cypn^n'a calm judgment 
tf hn prev«i(]!( expcricnoTS wa^ ilut 'lon^ Pciice h;id cor- 
'c^ted a dMnely delivered discipline ; thst Faith had beer* 
^^i^tg her t^tse and half aslccpV 

Wc ire bound to Ukz avtmc of these subjrct< in dcuil, not only 
beOiMe ef »h*ir inlrifnk inwrrn and jmpoftiinctf. Sui becauie 
4iT Nflbcd u» [ht fifst wpporiuniiy of wdsbitii: the objection* 
ifttct hJiv« b««n 3dv»nc«il by a <rtc^rtfr vricer n|j;aifi«r \\\v jcnuErf<n»« 
tf Ac Cvp^*i^'^ Tcucn*. Mr Shepherd iqHidUiCA tbc nmhcntkiiy 
vfi^ Kim LrtEVT ind of thr c^inon on which \\ ii batcd^ 

Action thoc dommcntB Mr Shepherd nixuci* thai since the 
Cartft^latao rouncilt of JLU 34! md A-ti. 419. in forbidding rhp 
tmrcTKi of s«\J*r offico by th< clergy* did a»l n:i?iiaci ihii canon 
cnm hnr brc^ unkfkown \f> ihcm*^ He STfttf« aNo ih^tt 'the eflicc 

' ^ r«vtomlT•^ T, pi ^4. £^ 4. 

lU jt. •- 

wTilinE* AiicriljeJ U> CypKuii* by Htu 
* S«oan4 l«tiHi p. a^ 




■of Tui&r wAi one vvhicb a clerk, if h« had no legal ««vinptioi^ «fl 
'compeUed lo &crvc^* Thui Ag.i^n the mlnisicn of Cyprian's a^ 
srtil] later Itmcs did engage in biuin«E {a practice ^.llowed t>y tkj 
fuuriTi coi.tiL<.il cpf a.t»- 3q8}, pxnd *wcre ihcicfore \^v^ Cu from bciA 
* ftlwmys cn^a^cd in serving the alur and snmfirM. and mplojivd t 
'ijmycr^ and )U|>p]k-'i[iuti«,' ThAt, Although the cvi1> which fkrw^ 
fforii cleric* Eftkmg the office af 'Tutor' were to iTwry ihai JuttiniM 
prohibital it, yet the>' were "at fini' (in Mr S's opinion) prort 
penont to uniJ^rTsle'' ^iirh « rhaTyr, Anfl setiiiilly did W (*ififfl Q 
17th cnnon of ihc 4(h council erf CirthAire ordcn <Kiu, not d| 
bishop himself" hji, his HrcHpresbyier or archde.icon should u|( 
charge cf wiJovr» and orphans). It ia besides 'exceedingly |V4 
'po^terous ' vo im^tgine ihat the blahopa of CyprijijiS s-ge. whom U 
ccnsLire^ for lecubrtty, should have posacd * nny Uw a^ainsi »f<ulj 
ptirsuitV when meftntime even Cjpiiati hJiiisrlf wi* 'ihc victjin < 
9uch an appoimment from hl^i own «piutLi:i] fachcf Cj^cdius/ *l^^ 
'nothing/ he adds in a notir, 'of the wife luhn wa* 3lsi> emnmq 
*tO him ; nnd [ stispect Ehiil a )'Qunj^ Africun widow, probablvtiC 
'nitich out of her teeos, wculd have t^een quite as scriout jl ditii 
'as the children,' | 

[| lii tiecessary (o quole LhJs piLsaage, noi. bccAu^e \\ 15 ]1jppiij 
but because il evinces Ehat Uie critic ha« not (loase^sed hitnW 
of the mo&t accessible infoimationV In the whote AtgumcDt ' 
do not delect one correct ttatcrnent. It is well Icno^'n ibaE ih 
power of a Tutor or Curatot hd.d 'tespect 10 ih*i propctij' in 
pecuniary interests, not the fiers^nx oT (h« pjupjiji * or vardl 4 
was A im^lee. His business ivas 'the prt4<"ivaut»n of firv^tt 
during minority*; to gtiEud agamsi the mmor't bemg ftefradd^ 
debt! coutd not be recovered, noi were engageinei>Es vMi . 
incurred by a minor witiioul his sjincirorv He vu also bound I 
improve Ihe t>ropcfly. The office of TUftf/ bulnistcd up to tB 
ward's fourteenth year; that of Cur^ititr buiween the founeenihm 
ihc twenty-fifth, it which he came of age. 

There ik ni> reason to suppose that CypriAD vixt Tutor or QuX^l 
of the properEy of hi> fricnd'a familyi PoniiuA dctcribes a dcatbb 
■cene (accerthtone jam proximo) in which Occiliui cooDineiu^ 
them (commendAVJt) pcrtunftll/ to his coni/crt'a affection (piciaH 
It wai improb^blft that Cyprian thould have been named TW) 
iJi the willi for by bluod he was noi rcUted ip Ca^cilJiiSf and A 
Ui.ige w«s io Invariable by which the nearest rcJations and nfl 
heirs were flppoinied Tutoia. that il was a special slur if any I 

■ £^. Mr O. Ifon^a utide />Ht. Gk. 
aruf Xam. Ami. 

• Tin T*« and Eh* peeuntft, He ^m 

callril upoo *iiQ£oiiA eercrc'aed 'iQ^ 
rttairm [Tiierponere.' 


Itanvne postfrl orer^ Inaiienialiy, we obienv itaiai in ihU v«ry 
Ipta Cfmtmwt Victor ftominaic* n re^^ilivc 6Vtft/wW FauaLinu^ 

Thv mtfch To* ibc IcgAl critic isTU. Inin ilic poMihilicy i>f 
Hcvbr ttinded ra«n p^Ming *a 4ait'M<uUr itniutc I ncfd not cnta i 
tnoascibe kner bpcaks of ifie rule hiviiiKbcci] mii&e ia/art lUe atgc 
if CfiprtUit and bc^ing now ^nlorccd by hrm AK^inUa ncculuHty which 

V^ mmn now look into Ihe Argumcni from the cdnoni. (^nuiled 
4ift jU ikii liine the il^iey cuulil nut Jivi; un ihcir allawa^ncca, and 
lit| «lttT«Ard& ckcil then living out by handicratL, by fiirming, or 
>r &crar)r occbpAtkm I Bui ch« point cfcAnon After CrXiion U this r-^ 
Tlxi ibcy »«rc noe to jKlminLVEer ihe property oi cthtr peoplO' 
Tic ditcinciKKi ocjtpc^ Mr Slicpbctd. They uc not lo be iu:eai> 
fit orwd^*, nor l*nn-bAihff». nor accOiinLmtt*, nor comriuton^ 
biBonfe or *iaoa|Eer?*t tn shorty not * implic^tti ebnoAii ulitnis 
tfpku' 11 aU. Th^ mvin it net only obviouv. but itrdicMed. 
Tk opcDU))- Arr pcoiUtion, ur &c Icaftt lor euapicion* c«UAcd tlic 
tetfa u> be lQ «pabf?ft of, M they ic^cpied luch of^cffs- Th« 
pwds for Kb« prohibhion of th<*« ii|Ecncic» applied tenfold more 
ttTlflonhip of minors wiih propvrry, Th.» Tutor in Pmuii* ti^hi 
Itr Acdc<«u« of Ihc ward. And while the ^hurtb jli t, ct>r{3oralion 
•d cT teok froini the ilrtt not only i\\t: iiHf{.i, tijt thr m.ilmrrtann? of 
fa iHiitc orphans koA widows, and appointed her piopcr ofticcn, 
Dttomi {and afttr 4 liniF ArchdnconaA ^^^ c^^o for thrin, it 
Itfiiac oaly Uic BKirc imporLmt that her ckr^y ahontd not enter 
vaprfviir fftliitfnntorth^ldn'), 

Nf« tlbe CourL<tl of vu 34$^ whuh Mr Shepherd AU?g» u the 
ivEcsi lbrb'<lding Cflcufctr rrnploytnrni to rhp cLcrgy, luppliet 
mlayr woinii Aitcniioii Uut there did exist an earlier rule forbid- 
tel ilrfcy to »erciw t^uU pupiHttr^m, Jn tlii[ Council tc 6) 
tti Mbopa *cEtJe thia the dcr>;y Arc ooi to bceome asents or 
/■Jin They do not aclude them from the offier of tutors. One 
Ai*«p tbcn coquirvs whether pcr^on^ already enj^ed a« agents, 
laar\Qrruu>n,<»ujehi i;>hi: ^nlrmaed to ^nlLW The Coundl Al]o^rs 
if'^ t) 'if they havo fmt wound up ;ind exhibited thcjt accounts^ 
ud kfed Ehero ^ppiovcd,' These tAO canons arc only inEclligiole 

I^HULi r . "J'liU \ '-.• ■ H'rfl 

Al^l*, -ditopfUiAB pAi longs 

'"' <W. CartA. A. n. 398- oBBi, ^l, 

* f, Cmt. CAftk. A-D 3«a, nn. N, 
> /^i/. c*o. 9. 

' Pch» ^p1/ iL n •,,.inipiHiiinvr uti- 
nara quern proximu* li-xrca Impello 
miuti^itm^ (lie uoi »r kill ht'init 
iiiior Ery tti* vri- Tililn, nntm r^tf 
wi]] had DomLHAloi iom»n« elit- 




JT wt n«siim<^ ihe rrality of thfii parlLirr cuion nicniionfid I)/ Cfpnl 
Unk>D Li existed pneviouBly, th« Council wouUI havT 1«A Tnalt<7i 
ihiK tncnmpk-tc po»Liion, thuE lutcui c^nuld i:in1y 1ir<(iLTir- dcnn I 
ictffning oflice, buf Ihot dcrica mt^l frocL)' become ntq 

A*iiJtne however ihai clericti wen- already forbidden to bem 
tutors, ard wc ?ec why they Jirv not lorbidtien in canon 6. Xgd 
dcric* htiny already inrafiAblf of becotninj; citrnrs, and otheTt bdj 
novrnhrt excluded, the quenion n-iiuri^lty Arises^ which is Mt'M^ 
ctintm S, ' Is It impo^tble for ^ luiar, anti pfnnns holding sd 
posli, to become clerks ? ' The omUsian in ihc SiKih and ihe indun 
in xhc EigUlli c^non aic boih ^iinply rsjjlitineO. 

Last.]), Ehcte is a mi^Eake even in ihe assertion th^it a Tul 
was obliged to ^erve uinlcs^ he had jl legal exciiipiion. Thd 
tuior? (Ciillod Jf^Utii) vrJio were appointed by magistrates vii 
praplc died intestate itvn' »o coiiipeLIed, Bui a tutar appuiot 
by a will could ^^bdiCBte/ or renounce. Certain offices wer« hd 
ever ccnsLdercd l>y (he Liw ^is exemptiojit* and the Arrii:An bir<hd 
of the third century desired lo make the clerical oftcc nich 
ewmptioQ by iiitcroal regulations, since the government oould I 
(ancti^n it, unitL in the reign of Jitslini^in, the canon wii adopt 
inlu ihc Hiipcrifll leti»laiii»n. The sole penally llitn lay H d 
time against tb{? i«staiOT, and none w^ po'siblc except the omlid 
of hi« name frotn the intefcessioni for the dcpArtcd. No iifl 
could be taken ngaintt the cleric igior, who mi^fht krow nothisf 
hU appuintnicnt until the will was read, aud who certainly could I 
assign to his htiathen neijflibours, a« a ground for renLinciatioD, II 
he was a Christiaji prcsb>tcr. 

Perhaps none of Mr Shepherd's *criTicj£ms' Imd more foi 
in shaking contidencc Jn Cyprliui's letters ih«bn hia att&clc oa d 
one. Yet the objections are merely icgal and historical micOj 
cfplions, The circumaianccs of the letter are, as ^e b^vc ihn 
perfectly consistent wiih the rathsr inLricate coridiLiona cf thv CjH 
the cady cxl&LenCe of the disputed catiun ia dcmontlraipd by t 
wording of the later onei. and the autheaticiiy of the story dlusCraJ 
by the very namcS' 

And here, lastly, «c must add the consistency with which 
find a member of the nme family of Gciiiinji speaking ai bull 
oif the 5i>ine town of Fnmi [Sfrtfr. Epp. 59) fevenl years Inter td 
Cound) of j\.i>' ^56. It ii nai impo»ibIe thai ii may have 1m 
Cvninius KAustmus him^lf, and that h« loo v\\y be the Bid 
C«nilrkU9 i.Ep. &7) who aignod the syuodic IctLcr in a^D- 354. 




Sm^ puK^t^ ju ^e olrr^dT qtioled preclude any doubl lu ta the 
Iqgiliiy of quilling t]i< tb«airi<al profoiiaoa in ih« third century, and 
ibrv Uia£ A Uwof VaJciitiuUii \\\ AhD. 371 (CW, Tktede^. xv. lit viL, 
J^vhkh t'AkHoUtfh iX cOLiM not i)t:uc \\ ait the opUQn of any dar^y- 
■Oh to rvunri|Ntie Any m«Mc;r']4 \\Mts liy coiiicitunicAiing ihi'iii] 
node tha recepfiop of the lost ucramerti nccetsitiie An actni'* 
UMi in CIS? of TccovFry. wv noi C^ aucncd) tbe lirsE itep 
takeo towards enuncipaiion of actori- 
Atnore iwrtpcn]; mc^mrc vibmLrtrd Iti Aixadius and Hnnurfub by 
Aa Afrkvt eptKopMc tn A.r. 401 '1 namely that the «doptloti of 
Qstsikaniiy ibouM at once rcleaie actnii who wi^hcil Lo idinqubh 
d« ckJfif , Gptnted Eowatds the reformation of ihc Uige u well 
to CO lifec ndenipfiion uf JotlividuaU fiocn iti ccfruptioiu 
ta C)firian'« um« ihon i\ vrii poMible far an lu^tor tn retire (lom 
ttj^e, and yet. ihousli a Chnstj^in, to it^i up oa a trainer of 
pfofMioA forbidden immediaicly after ; 10 thni the Second 
ivde ii dctfiniiely £jicd to Cypnan's timc- 

Vrt Mr Sbephcrdi i^onn^ th^ Alexandrin* fri^ment and U19 
CUvWr 4Ad »ap|XJ»in)^ the Ua f»f VdlciiLLrtMik Aiid the $y»Cf^ 
'|p| to prove th*l no Acior could ever le.ive the n^ge'— an absurd 
■^ as if all acicis weic )Uv««— ^uid then a^aunLiUK it lo be *a 
tmpouiC>ibty ' thai aay Chnitian coufd wiah to ea«KiK« that 
iMKi'. or iti^ bisliop duubt buw to peulcciJ in luch a cakc. 
b lltia ttapcrticial moite made hit tetUng aitack upon a letter 
il a» dcmoniirably authentic aa any of Ciccio'^ 


BigfUiVu MoHtJts c^niMtu<f. Vir^rtal TJfe in C^rtAiigr, 

Vir^'ilAl Life 35 it appeared in C^rlbagc was one of 
Light and darkest ^hado White Cyprian rccognisi^s 
both by ftorrowTuI confession' and by actu;il Icgbla* 
ifei speaks of its devotees as the Flower of the Church. 

■. Mitia, ^^frit. on. tij. EXnriMidnt cicrciwd by Chri«ii4n> }iUit 

vtA lh« nirvitml kind 

4f *»'— ftV r*f^ to *tiicb 

\tmiA be nbfeci: 10 umdv ehii 

I **i nndf i«chnteai^ 

«dh Au Mac 9I pm^»4>ttTe 

o oe BAf think vWn Hiwru 

Jwforti, «* find in^ftte-cfjldni;. i*l"U 
urviiij^ (hy cLciica). idol-p&iniint;, t«h- 
l>k'-!jLiJlJiiii:- Tcrt- .* /jWa/r. ;, A^ 

4— » 



He trcAtai it o^ a practical tmd precious uistitution. with 
breaking like TcrtuUiafi into wild reproaches against m 
corrigible vanities which occurred, nor yet glorifying the 
with the title of Bn<les of Christ SeIf-<ledic;ttion to 
unmarricti £tate was consickred a CliHsciaD *Work' in \ 
sajnc f<n»c in i^-hkh Alm^iving was 'WorkV But tbt 
nr« at proem no associations lor common liGc, no comoi 
hrad. no peculiar dre^*, na s|>ecial rvguUtion for eiti 
charity or litur^. The right conception of the " work ' m 
»ys Tertullian, (and that it usually prevailed, be impti 
that it should be a» secret as almsdccdi and prayer. 
viou^y vrc arc in the rudiments of or^acixation vhcn C 
suQCVtx to the elder women to assume some position, and 
the younger to pay them some deference*. No specific 
giaoc« K«in» to be expected from the order even to 
bkhop^ for vbite his a^sur^ncc that he addressee them 'aft 
tiooately rather than o&cially ' indicates that his oflkial |M| 
tion was reco^bcd, he adds that he is too conscious of| 
own tnierionty to claim the right to crrticiic^ Tbe acll 
duties of all Chri^^i^in ni^mrn »Trc thetf^ only so much Hlj 
widdy&s the fuller leisureallowed— to vv^llhe side, tofreqa 
th« offering of the «acT\&ce and the preachii^ of the wof 
Tbe ratting of orphans and widows wfaethcr poor or rii 
the irbiting of dannooiacs, with cocitinuoia prayer and faitl 
to be enabled to uw oa thctr behalf the gift of bcaG 
if they had iraMui to believe that tbe^- had recei>-ed 
inlcfwssaon for the chtndt (or the hoJioc3» of its clergy J 
b- it$ delivcranoe &DCU fate ckrg)-. arv cnpioyinenu suflpi 
tn tbt Mfiy kttcn which pass under the ikame of CkM 
To spcok in chwdw t«ac^ baptiae or do any clerical aa < 






iia/tiMcn as of couric'- Tlity entered on thc^ lift? by private 
rM)lBtlon\ not by public vow ; marriage might be looked on 
Ma depanufe from holy purpose, but not as violating rule, 
vd tn Aocnc cmcs it was right*. 

Tbc order* of sexagenarian 'Widovs* (vi'ho must have 
auiicd but cmce mtd brought up children.) tiad a. rcaX of 
fancor in the Church', but in TertuHian'^ time was Arst seen 
k)r pennassion of the then bishop - the monstroiis marvel ' of a 
Wdoi KBtcd amon£ them', and unlike them fitting unveiled. 
Tbc meaning of this was that, as girls under thchctrothAlage 
<f iwelrc y<carM wore no veila', a claim had been made by 
Ipertvn <lmli<:atcd virgins to cr>ntim»e the symlxitii: fretdoin of 
agt of innocence, and at least in church* in Uy ^i^ide the 
whkh elsewhere public opinion enforced. They 
too that St Paul had enjoined veils for 'women' or 
t*' not for the whoic acx- They now treated as injurious 
^hcm*etvc9 the assumption of a veil by ary of their slaters, 
l^fiBaliy obtatned a general rule in their own seii5c> to 
Idistre^ of the more retired'". The ;ivowed ob;ei:t was 
a distiriction which fsbotild make the ordci more 


Tfcc 'work' was 'secret* no more. However by general 

Scr^tural arifunicnts, appeals to the u^c of other churches, 

unhappily to wrctk-H which hdtl ititreiisingly markc-il the 

of the order, TcrtuiUan seemK to have efTcctml the 

.* tr. K ^ 

I qn«B kUcei pDdcr tiuioi 
•n» U0itviQ uniTimi, id ot 

■ft|wilii tlJg^BT, «0l rt 
« t*^dflB *J«eMri«« filicntn, 

n r. « Tbdr ttatmoB (/K 

* tf*n ^i T»4i ■'f.K' I Crr. Jii- 5. 
Teriull- iLtpuho uf (hli> in ^ e?nf. e. * t. 
Jonmc dwvili m u uflmli^btd viut oa 
tbc diKiiKlioD bd^ccQ 'muUcr* and 

'° II vill bo obMMvvd rhxc *to lake 
tlic veil' mouit odiiiDAltjr [o (tdopt the 
Dfual dp«s of youDj vomen ot (hctr 
am ■€<• 

^ TcrL<^K K14. 



restoration of the uswat drcas*. Cyprian has no co 
against departures from the rule, And if thi* be 
may rctnaric here one of the instances in which Tor 
Montrtnii^rn was no bar Eo his catholic intljcnce- 

Christian women had now refrained as a rule foj 
century from public festivals and ^cna spectacles fta 
from templcN But an indpicnt tendency to reform 
appears when the Virgin* arc rlctiired to ^tay aw; 
weddings on account of the coarseness of the custoi 
from the baths in whidi botli sexes appeared in undrc 

Ihc popularity and sentimental admiration whi 
attended the order led to va3t cvila. Even Cyprian 
his moderation ranks the Vii^in next to the Mariyr. 
exaltation, sense of security, led many, the solitary i 
of heathen hearths, or cif circles in which Christian d 
had not yet dia^ipatcd heathen indifferenlism or su 
jects, or which shared their blind confidence in the r 
n vow, to seek homes in the houses* and even share tb 
hers of Christian men and clerics who had bound the 
under the same obJigation*. The power of ecstatic 
may confessedly sometimes overpower even continuous 
tior^and C>*prian wishes In dealing with this dreadful 
aot lo assume that evefy sucli case was one of actua 

^ tl Uii u nihf-hAm, vol. it- p> 404 
{ti. i^^s\ wiim, tiuc Ihfll Tcrtnlrian's 
obJ«T *ni to tr^liict nil ilrgitii ti> «** 
ihe ^ravf habii of natrons ^ bul be 
luu Uau id vkw a bydj uf virgin*, «bo 
thoiiii?! ihfy iHd nor Hvc in a Mtcicty 
Wfj« dii,Tmclly dt^Li^arcJ, De K, K 16 
'Na^iiii enim Chiiaio/ Ci 14. 

' ritiTitcn miHi liavc forfictim this 

piijihAUV, lU H"/'. ^''rg. 1(1. when m 
//i/fafyim anJ hi a^e, voL II. p. ijj 

(til' rNp}, y»f rrfprt nt\ «pfiHio1ir fjirnn 
to lh*f bjul Oil occciiini of il^it pro' 
miKuaiiii Unlhin)^, U<ttbcti^'» Anli- 

l?ui bqllff lha( ably ChhMlO 
Lllcii L<juk Cbcballl. 

' A/. ,. 

* ...Jum Uthvc c«pWl 

piiuini, Eft. 4. *> Chr>iv3ti] 

Kf '/ni Up. jf h/thmt x'if^ 

pica of * Pcrfcttion,' Tl 
' I'irty,' or ' Ilrnihrrhoful,' 

£*/. it,<3'( BMit9i.Mum„ and E 
/firm. 7!i, rr, agree wUh ht 

ihc uicic fuel u a amndxl, 
r^kCommtinJEDLion, Efi. ^ ( 

'TIJE DRfiSS OF ViRcrNS-' 55 

:r adds id the in5tant Acparatioii a dreadful 

rcptflilion of «imilAr gricfK for a centiir)' and a half 
roufKlts of Carth^igc. ihdr prevalence in Spain ^nd 
in Consrtmttnciple', establish the inevitable 
a pontion which the cornobitic or conventual 
to ftsrtify. The earliest fornnation of luch 
intended pcrh.ip?i to meet the case of homeless 
But at prewnt lackin^^ the- l^nality (if a rtf cognise J 
^xily uf dUciplrne or prc^KcHbed ncciipiutioii, the 
was llrtle more than the expression of a fresh 
ent*, a re%<oU a^ainiit the universal d<^radatiori 
nxLopcddtylife. Its own corruption is a warning as ti> 
^ of revivals attempted under ineomplcte conditions. 
\u tiealisc upon 'THE Drkss OF THK VlKGINS' 
(s concerned wiih what ^cems lets important yet 
y lay nearer to the fountain of tlie mltchtef. He 
liiiDself not only to the correction of vanity, but to 
id exalt the influence of womc^n on the cocnmunity, 

ry and sabjcctjoi) of iJic iiiarricd limitcrJ their 
That of an titder prtjfes?«-d yet free lo cunie Aut\ 
t be alonou boiindleis. M^ny of the Virgin*, a:; h 
ouged to the wealtlileat cUsa, and, without re- 

in A Con.-, 
ix 34:3 acumiQUTLicA 

tl w*t fartdddcA by 
^ bf civil Ixf ni^^^T 

S«r raiKin F- 
A ti^tmrni ahlch Am- 
qiMk*of (fion 

* Kr*|ij>tl, |>- 159, intnrm^ly rvpi» 
^vnLi [he Aitvi« of Cyprij^n u *a GcricJ 

thir 'reli^urut' life m bpLlpr tlin«» uir! 
»jip|xtr1ii Eho Uliitim ^y coci^tming the 
imcrfEtvUirr irilh iWz Pktwvlals Inio 9, 
priihiEtiT]4>n 'tn Iivr undtfi f he tfime iT>of 

VJT ' by more modfvi <lrmflH. All Ihil 
h« i1v9 fr^uIk lit Ehoi thcj ^liouIJ drcb 
like oL]ier *uii1 KniLum IwEin of ilidi 
iiwn ji^anrl Uvr in frnfH*! hnmi^ ^1 
AnpudiMi Ay. rii (bl- id}, ipv&ki of 
■ SanctimonUli> uVfu capEivr \'y b» 
barisnt am] if*iintDl to hir^rmti. 


The urkss or vihuins.' 

BiB:nitig rafik or home (which indeod no eidating organit&tion 
cnnbkd them to do), sought m their resoltition protection 
against social corrupCLon with independence aod respect M 
arncmg ihc Christians, To them no cccA.'tion presented lUdf 
obviously retjuiring a change in thdr dress or orTiamcnt«. 
In fashion* half Roman, half Tyrian they still * buried the 
neck'* in masses of gold chain and pearl, Mill piled the hair 
in grape-like clusli^rs, loaded arnns and feci with bracelets* 
outlined the almoiid-lilcc eye with antijumty. dyed tlic cheeks 
'with crimson falsehood/ lipped toes and fingers with henna. 
A strange sketch of a si?iter! Modes against which Cypri*n 
alleges Scripture, scn^e and feeling. Yet this can have been 
but a small portion of the picture. Wc may be sure there 
was much 1o reverence and much to love in that whJchH 
excited in the great organizer, in the world-worn lawyer, 
a«di intense enthusiasm. 

Grave matirr for reflection tn this essay are the ' reverence 
and foar" wtth which he scarce reproves, the self- a basement 
with which he asks their prayers'- The motives .ire at once 
too low and too lofty upon which he lauds their choice of t 
virgin-life,— the escapes namely from marriage- trouble, their 
union with Christ, their anticipated supetioriiy in the rcsnr- 
rcction-life. There is latent in these motives a subtle selfish* 
ness and pride, such as it seems true foredght might have 
shvnncd without wailinp for experience. But woman's un- 
approached power in alleviating human wretchedness, and in 
ttic revival of aspirations after purity ; the influence of great 
examples of self-siicrifice upon a sordid and luxurious age; 
the effective operation of frequent intercession, are more 
substantial and le*** obtruded motives. They were real then^ 
and they are real for ever; iitiU destined to be at lant a£ 
effective as they arc sound in shaping the nobler mona^i- 
dsms of the fiilurc'. 

' iif ///rfi. i^trg^ I4, >5, 11. 

' Tile lu'D J'pKilri lo Virrios, 
ip 5jrn«c*ucribcd to Qemfifltof 1 




Uiirary fkantatr &f tht Hook ' Of tht Drtss &/ Virgims.' 

Tltix book is \^is analof^ouii to TertuUian'^ very Mon- 
c iracl 'Of ihc Veiling of the Vifgpns' than to that 
iuthor'a two booka on the ' Apparclline of Women." Those 
BU^UMt» to csdic*- frivolky und purify their «wti wjcicty. 
vhkhTenullJjn had tliawn out for iKl* sex, are here special isctl 

Wc luve found already that the amplest plagiarism wjis 
rcimiuibic; a«*l, thi^ assumed, there is much literary interest 
ffi observing how a master of style like Cyprian deab with 
Ifac E«dcy genius of hia own * Master* 

A hkiw cldic^ilc t^i.^le abjuio the coar^r appeiils and 
taodflics though unabk to abandon, tho maicniilisrn. Thus 
ftfl], equality ij^Hth an^cU is literally begun for tlios« who 'are 
net given in marnagc''; wool-dyeing is unnatural because 
there arc no purple or scarlet ^hccp; hair-dye unlawful 
bceaojic ' we cannot make one hair white or black/ Ili.s own 
uillnciemly bo!d phra^ that ajsnictic arts arc ' the siege and 
stenniTig of the Truth of the faee' t*i worked up with 
TcmiUbn'fi passicnaCe'they lay hands upon God/ Like hi» 

vCn. TWAnl k both jWn MirvAd 

k« b 107*0 tfid ofoiMiou (tw Wtitr. 
V*■lg^ pp. if— ruk » woiW «f (be 
*n«4 «raiBry» «n«l ptoMhlf o^ the 
Im hiirof It^ TtH pVfCviKvi to purity 
tboiicfc lev oointcciTu^ 
ifi^ L 10) an Ptt McvpErtl, 

t0imK mmtma^ ixnaniiac, prctcui of 

u to thffir whiii thr i]itnK*^northr! piD- 
fmton ot Virginll^ unpfOt«cted wi«r« 
bdbrv Uw Umt of Crpriui^ llic scoond 
vphtlt It nci la VEreTm. boE prcwrlhlng 
CAuQcD uid dbcarum it (nvdbA£ cl«nc« 

laratf rlingpTv froid «nnihi<f pojnt of 

vjpw. Kr«|^peL ^/^fl jif^sf^!,. pp, 114 
Hiii>) kalJi iheic lu be eaiULnc. n da 
AfvtiffUt SaUuwt, I,, CItfmml. to\- l- 
p^«07B^4. (i«90l. 
> i5* flW, ;^#y. fli, Cf. M. ij. !;• 



predecessor he ascribes the invention of the toilet, " woman'a 
world * to apostate angels who lived before the flood ; but he 
spares U3 Tcrtullian'a B/ronic picture of spirits siglung io^ a 
lost heaven ycl scheming an ctcrnnl hell for their beloved. 
He c:innot part with "ihe cvtl presage' of ilic ihcn fashion- 
able 'flame-coiour' of hair, but avoids *tu^cstiiig the horror 
of wearing 'the despoDmcnt of the strange woman* of the 
head devoted to gehenna.' 

The warnmg to the innocent though ovcr-drest girl 'thy 
' beholder hath in heart gratified his iLst , thou art become a 
'sword to him*' is soflenecl into ' though thou fall not th/sclf 
"thou riestroye^t others, and makest Ihyscif as it were a 
'sword and a poison draught to the beholder*'.' ' Modert>' 
is sacristan and priestess of the shrine' becomes 'in those 
shrines the worshippers and priests are we'/ 

So he preserves the fine turn ' Plainly the Christian will 
'glory even in the flesh. — but only when it hascndured» — torn 
'for Chrisr^* *>ake; that the spirit may be crowucd in it, not 
"that it may draw the eyes and sjgh^of youth after it,' — but 
preserves it more gracefully, " If we are to glory in tlie flesh it 
' mufA plainly be then, when it is tormented in the confession 
'of the Name, when woman proves stronger than torturing 
' man, when ahe suffers fires or crosses or sword or wild beasts 
* that 5he may be crowned '-' 

The gain and lo.^s of the Master in the di*iclple's hand are 
evident; the chief Rain was thai he became more readable: 
but Cyprian's merit was not hmited to the turn of a phrase or 
the smoothing of a ' Postrcmissiraus' into an ' Extremi «t 
minimi\' or the inweaving of expressions as beautiful »s 
his 'Law cjf Innocence'/ To Au^iitine, who in him and 
Ambroi;(? finds thtr leaders of Christian eloquence, though he 
eriticizes severely the richness of his earlier writing, this 

^ l^tl. i^ Cuie. Ftm. 1. lu 

* TBrt. C.F.%.i\~ B~ K a. 

* Th-i, t. ^. », r ; — H. K j. 




tfttitise must have appeared very perfect in style^ It fur- 
nishes him with illustrations both of the 'grand' or 'moving^' 
style, and of the ' temperate'.* 


■ Vu. di Ha^. ITtrg. tl Si 

pafOKli vtifi-x, i0 i6 luspiaris- 

^ Vii. tit Bdf. Virg. I Nunc to 
u^t, ubd 33 Quomodo t^ end. 
Aog.^ZWr. CinifHMd iv. 11 (47, 
48, 49lt 'QiuB dnos u omnibiLS pro- 
FOKreTohii/ Th« cUs^itkAiion (Lv. 17 

II. nix. jiBt ii9t ii (1) ut do«at, 
poterit pirTH aubmiuc; {1} ul delectet, 
modica temperate; {3) ul flectat» magna 
gnnditer dicete. In ecclesiaiticaJ elo- 
queace alt the topics ue 'majiia,' but 
the 'submiss^ style i& for iDitTuction^ 
the ^tcmpcTate' for praise or blame, the 
^grajid' for arousing energy. 



Tkc Roman Theory of Pfntcutwn. 

The disorder and worldliness which have been described 
were such as in Cyprian's convictions were post correction 
Trcfm within. Possessed with this idea he vtas visited by 
intimations of coming lHaI which wore a suiJcmAtuial 
characlcr'. And it came. The Decian pt^r^ecutian wa* co- 
extensive with the Empire, and aimed at the suppression of 
Christianity by the removal of its leaders. It was not per^ 
ccivcd that it had passed the stage in which it depended o^ 
tadividuals. I 

But before wc enter on this scene of ouj" history, it may be 
well to lay down the principles upon which harmless prupltt 
were so cruelly handled on account of their opinions by the 
law-loving and tolerant state of Rome. The question admits 
of a less simple answer from the fact that the Christian l^ii^ta 
of the Theodosian and Justinian codes have expunged the 
cbsolctc statutes. If ihc chapter of Ulpian 'Of the pro* 
consul's office/ wliich recited* the provisions applicable ta 
Christians in the middle of the 3rd century, were extant we 
should have the answer to our hand. We can however fra 
one correctly though circuitously. 

(i). In the first place the Julian Law of Treason included! 
among state offences and in very general terms the hQldinfT 


' On (he lifioni 

of CfP'*"* ^^ ' LucLuiI. £Hv. ImiHti x. i 



nf irt)- iiq^mbly with evil intent*; then too it proinolcd by 
Off)' means the laying ni Moimniions under this head, ad* 
nirting evijonce Uiadmiwhlr in fwher case*, that of infamoiu 
pe»oos.soldJcnvWO«nenV and ota. m&n's own slaves'. These 
OttdBeMs dcccn prior to the time of Alexander Scvcms, or 
cv« o>ntcniporar>- with the Antonincs, while from Marcus 
Anielius djite5 the fii>sf mort^a trial for treuon and the 
oafrcaiion of the csidtc of heirs. 

Sow provincials could secure the freedom of ihcir religious 

fvettings by regicEnttion of thdr cuUiut as a rr/i^'0 iicitti. 

Bai ifccre was no province for which Chmtianft>- could be 

n^iitervd. It was a Urtium s^^us, not ethnic, nor Judaic*; 

>id any other usociations ior religioim ritc«. nave only unions 

^ Mcurioif funeral ockbrationa for ihcir members, were illicit. 

It is Arange lr> think thcit the Churcli must have subsisted 

AroMnc IlRlc ai Rome under the exiern4l aspect of a HiiH;il 

Society; oecupCed (ts catacombs, had its staff of fouors. and 

otocnbed its fnartyr« in this light No club^ except tha«e cf 

Wry poor persons were allowed to have common funds; they 

Q^glit not a-ucmbic oflcncr than <mcc a month \ and no per* 

uacoft "Mailer of sacred rites** was allowed, Tlic Stale* was 

the one wwicty which *hou!d engross every religJGus and 

•xtel tntcrcu beyond those of the family, Monotheivtn even 

ibea licenwd vrau looked on as anti-national and anti- 

iBf)ctiai A nionotheiitic society then, undemtood to have 

adbcrcni^ frooi all classes of doi^'cty, branches everywhere, 

lily oicctiDifs, pcrmaneRt religious i:hicf^ waa on all Glides 

* Sv« E- KoEiHa'K «KL:(Lkne uomirI 
ttrt, c. iviii- Thi< rnllDv^iri; an ihc 
i. II, Dc otTidc rrxfccli urUi Ai- 4, 
Up rolle^ii f\ rorporibiit, See aUo 

mala (cahlimn irnlum 
cA fvnv cots* cvmnluAYC fiaJr-- 
LV.p. A/. iKm. 4(1). 
' /^^ iJviii- 4 I7, 8|. 



amenable to laws of Treason. Delation was cftsy and 

(7)^ The application cf te^ts was familiar to the Rom 
magisUacy. While a *lave or provincial could be torture^ 
R freeman, nu^pect of religious engagements hostile to thd 
State, could be summoned lo take part in a sacrificial feaa^ 
or at Ica-st to offer incense before an imperial statue* to whidl 
the leasi mark of disrcsjiecl was IrcHson. Whatever otbci 
scruples were allowed for, none might doubt the prcscfU 
divinity of the emperor ; no beliefs could interfere with i 
mechanical aci of obedient veneration. 

Imperial edicts possessed by the Lex Kcgia' the force of 
Law, Such were i^jed from time to time to require the 
genera! application of this test. It was further competent for 
any magistrate who feared :htr growth tif a dangerous da*t ill 
his district, or was pressed by popular feeling, to summon 9 
neighbourhood or any residents in it to take the lest und«f 
former edicts. This mode of action is exhibited in far the 
larger number of arrests which led to confessors hip aji^ 
martyrdom, 'Persecution' of this kind, as the Christians 
very natura.11y c^illErd it, was incessantly sfmmertng in sODM 
province or other, intensified by the policy of one emperoc; 
moderated by tlie broader policy of another, at times eeo^ 
for years in particular districts* 

(j), The difficulties of soldiers. To quit the army p 
maturely without appiXivcd cause w<i5 treason. For a Christian 
to rmnaiii unsuspecttd or if suspected lo avoid disobedience 
was scarcely possible. The sacrifices 10 the standards, th« 
military oaths, the religious decorations, the festivities, the 
wreatlis distributed not simply in honour of the emperor but 
in honour of his divinity, were endless snares. Thus iJie 
martyrologies name many soldiers. And if the victims of 

^ Qaod principi plocuit Icgin hd-bdt (i) ; G^iume, JfJtaiutiM, lom, ^t. c- I. 
VLggreoi ulpnlc Cam Lc^r, Rc^a,, popu- JiiRliman, /n/t/, i. lit, i, 0(J whitji ttf 
liaele(b4UlU«>mat:5Uumi]iLpQ-tuiiici J. D. Moyk's nat« <od. iMg). vrJ. h 

y proi 



rovn persecution were easily niuUipIiod by report, the 
of fli&loyal privates in a re^^imcnt wovld sieldom 

{4i. The application to CHHsttan^ of repeated torture wa^ 
it|nscntcd from isuch diflcrcnl points of view and involvcid 
Kf Hogular a dilcmnta dial we must pause to consider the 
iatf of iv !t WA* no new thinj^. It wav coniitantly applied 
coibvct and provincials to induce them to confess jus^ffd 
mm. It was Applied to Christians because to be a Chrbtiun 
»ia equivalci^t to having groij crimet to confess. A secret 
MKkty wfaic^ could not a^k for a licence, which at Rome 
fffCMndcd to be a butUI :4u<.jely. 4iid via^ evidently much 
xan^ lay under dutrgct orhideciUH unniiliiT;il nrgie.s. 

Tbco again the usage did not allow confessions wrung out 
bfiht fir«t torture to be acted on: it must be repeated lest 
foiaps the ^tst avowal should have been only obtained by 

Tbc conAsAor confe^ed his rcHglon at once add coii- 
Wcntly. Then he was lortured to make htm dfrny it, for 
dnial la ilii» case amounted to a promise to be guilty no 
iwc, «ince it wajt vrell understood that denial would involve 
OGchuioii from his $cct. 

Thus thct\ to the mat^btratc torture Appeared a lenient 
dnoipliac for such criminals. He could not understand their 
dedSmog to be let oiT so cheaply. He did not consider it 
• pviisbnient at all. but 4 conilcni^tim) of the past while it 
•rfUmtly secured the State from a repetition of the oflcnccs. 
Tie secret erinws whatever they mif*ht be were allowed to 
pus in the accounts the ma^Atratc's ^nse of his own 
baevolcacc is quite characteristic of genuine Acts of mat- 

BjI to the ChrL%liau wh« knewf there were no crimes tt> be 

toe ffltflMi>«ft x^^TMR t Ufti* \t%^ gfi. 

ilud juMi. PIIll ad Tru/. 



jffvulged the tortures seemed iniquitous Indeed. T^riuUian' 
and Cyprian ' justly excUimed against n ferocity which actually 
reversed the Uw, by applying to those who without he^itsti 
confessed the crime of Christranity torture* which in all other 
CAics were reserved for such as denied the legal charge- 
Finally, as their numbers grew the fruitless attempt aX rc- 
pres.^ioEi Wiis a^ravalcd almost to dcspcraliou Icsl the whole 
system of public worship and of thsl damesiic religion, on 
which rulers relied for sobriety of morals among a large cUss 
of the fxjpulation, should go down before the undisguised 
contempt of men who acknowledged none of the authorised 
sAnctions and were believed to live in private shamclcssnessL 


Tkt^ Out^rtak of thf Decian Prrseaitkn.—R&mg. 

Philip had been 9o tolerant of these Christians tliat he 
Appeared in their approved legends as a penitent on E^Ktcr 
Evel Deciiis was as antichrislian as be was vfrluaus* He 
was, we are told, 'In life and in death worthy to be ranked 
with the Romans of old time^' The luxury of hia pre- 
decessors, the mustering of the Goths, llie prevalence 
Chri^tiartity, were alt alike to hrm hateful forms of dissoltitio 
in society* g^^ernmcnC and religion, He was to correct, to 
arrcsl, lo repress them all. HU 'knowledge and universal 
forethought'* failed him in the one great sign of the tJmefi, 
But he knew how to strike. It is amazing that one man, 
even a Roman emperor, should after thiriyeighc years of 
religious liberty have been able in a moment to deal blowd 

■ Terl.^/*/. ii. "hftClmpfTiunn, eujut 
mngi&lri «JIb, ctvilis nun 1jraiuiiv« du- 
miniiljo i?it.' Cf, Ep^ 31. f (fim^ oti 
Cyp.) 'ni^farifufontra. veriraiedi l4|;c&' 

■ Euscli, //. E. VI. J*. 1IL> flM.Xfta 
tAf^ifiintfM ijiiit rem on i\it wund 

HiirKoiiry at Ujonyiiai »p. £u«. n. ||. 

* Zosimiti i. It .^yirti T^af)^^ mI 
a^nirpaTi tpw^'i Sinai w^aait tiir^mr 
raiK iipera.\v. m 

^ FL Vn^iBOui Aurt^mimt c- 41. V 

' 2£viilUIE« I, 33 ...-'1! ^»ipV TtTwU^ 
Til An^r^uu Hal ir^ a^r* wptf^^ 

I!. I!. 



nnptd and accuntt. In October a.i>. 249 he relucuinOy but 
nccmtuMy headed hi« cor(idin|^ master's legions against litm, 
^ hy the following jAnuary his cdict^ was doing deadly 
aKutioa This edict sccma ta have fixed capital pcnallica 
it !bc fint :mtAnce on the bisliops only*. The ^rcdt Ori^eri 
ifked vas held no le^s imporlant, and was subjected to 
rarrme lortUF^s with care 10 avoid releasing him by death. 
Tb- flew bi«hop of Alcxardria, Dionysius, after awaiting the 
^Idicrs four day^ in his house, as they roamed the neighbour- 
hoed in Karch of hiir, fled at ]asi upon some divine iittima- 
GiDi. Grcf^o«y Thaumaturgus took many of his Hock into the 
MUcrac&^ The two patriarchs of Antiuch and Jerusalem 
died spceUny in prisuci, ruimcly B^bylas and 'the bright ii^c 
ud hoary head of Alexander'.' At Rome Fahian, who four- 
!wn years before had been chosen upon the descent of a 
Do\-e on hj$ head in the elective a^^sembly*, was executed 
oQtbc ;och January A.D* 2;oV 

The dismay caused by this blow was very gteal. His people 
d=cscd no successor to Fabian when they laid him behind 
Af ilOBe which, still bearinL^ the contemporary record, pre- 
wrvts a slight but certain memorial both of their dejection 
Ud of lh« order-loving spirit of that Chiirch. The name 
'Fkbian Bishop' is cut deep with rude firm strokes. Not 
Budi lalcf. but af^cr the stone had been placed against the 


leoj. Cert. 
Impr CIh- 
C. Mruiiu 
Qu. Trfcj. 

P. r, Aui^ 




^ «»tervf^ Ito«s^ ap. Eu. vi- 41 
« pndM. C«<. NrB, t'ii. Gr,x. 

«< ■. |5w F4«binip, p. 44.) Ov ihv 
^VtlMlki ictTiDanMrttBU il. 5irr 
hfntk ^m de £»rr, n>l, ui p^ ^. * 

lMif» Mm ^cik^ of ta oconccciaa 

" ^ bm , uwtiiciwir, tasUmmi 

* E« ir. £ Ti. n 

t J- X „ Vi^wt xn kl. Kclr— Car, Ft' 
/uian. ,- F^^uimii,. .SfiVu AnniA xiiu 

n«Af« I dllM XI-., •( pOMlU •« Xlitt 

KL f«b,. qui irpultoB «tl in opuUiid 
cnlnrl uli (tpplEi xitJ KL frbr, Tbe 
ILILM And the xu IlL f«b. uc bollt 
ubuict n?t XTti, 0iic| the real 1cn|f[tj 
of llic Htf'lrrinivy n ynr* sml lO 
lUjni' &«* R. A. liptitu, C<trtHti«g. 
dfr H^iiiK Sitihffft (1A&9], pp. I9f, 

a6j, i(W, ad?, *J4. 


|]ie appellation could nest be attached even to no !siicn^ a' 
£ca.v^ in the catacomb chapel The age in which m^irtyrs 
were lightly multiplied was not come. 

Neither was the fanatic acal for martyrdom at Hood, The 
Roman Church would not now select one of her leading 'ucfi 
for immediate death* and for sixtccnmonths elected no bishop', 
The cicigy of the metropolis was a regularly organized body,' 
well able to act in concert, and requiring more than a pauin^ 
notice to enable us to understand their remarkable relations 
with Carthage and her bishop, 

The wisdom of the Church waseverywhcre not to trai 
or break up. but to adopt administrative lines and civil 

' Ttc IcUn-cnitcr of FflHan'* la- 
ccriptlon uu nnt a good one tike hb 

iIjc 0[nus QUL ?lcgiLn[ ot cxueE, (he 
pufiriuaiiiiD ugly- The loscripiion b 
Dol a luler hunoruy one, like Anr«ro&'s- 
The ilibrcvialifm is unusual, (in an 
tiDDomry inHiripUoii IL wijutit have brciL 
fuU MAPTTPJ ani U ^veality cut ot 
nihct MiitLuhtd af<cr ibc »!ob *Qi In 
lit ptacb 

* 1 betiev« Ihii «xpbiul)oD of 6e 
Rma'i {fi. S. VoL II, pp. aSBqq-] ta be 

re^l. Compurc Oput. u t6 *..M d 
monyTu* trf wciShn pi*Afifrf,' wiJ 
Cyp. £^- II, 1- 

' The ulLtaniunUuic itUloncnl nfi 
ihis fact [k thm 'ii ippnrr*! lo At' 
pagans thii ihi! monE L«nb]p bl 
iher (ciild inflict oa tha Cho/di wu 
to hitidn the cltciion of a idccsKv U 
Sftinl i**Wr ■ FreiJpd. ^. C^nnvb 
pH 17^ ]l ii ncciilcu to s*Y llul ihoC 
i& nil Evidence for iOy of (he thrai 
lUSerLiDEu involved. 




«hi(H tud already Impusscd characters and unkiM on groups 
of population. The ' City of Grid ' thni ^rcw no flitnly with 
itt Qf^G^Ani nation in accord with the Uie^ of the people, that 
iiiAerdme t):e ^clejiaMical division xvas often thought to 
beoripiuL In fACt it remaned tLt a «ort of original vhUc 
&ab ilelimttations succeeded one another on its aurfacc. 
One of the c^rhc^ cxJimplc* siccm^ la hc]onR in thi< tiinr. 

-AagiWus had divided the City intn fourteen Regions, cacli 
m^iu Cuntor, and for some purpoae* grouped in pairs', 
Alexander S€ver\i» (a,d, 232—235) amplified the powers and 
mk of these curators and attached ihcm as a bench for 
ttrtain causes to tlic Prefect of the City. 

Very »oon after iheir rccon«titution by Alexander, Fabian 
|ij6.»25o'» 'divided the Regions to the Deacons V That is, 
Ipparently. he ajtsigned two Regions to e.ich of the Seven 
DcocoftS. But he Is also said to have created the seven sub- 
dMconsL He thus took the municipal divisions, to which 
aOcntjon had recently been drawn, either singly or in pairs, 
itfo the churcli organixation. and also rct^ncd the apuntoUc 
ibcr of dc-acon«- 
Tbe Presbyters a few months later' ivcrc forty-six in 

^ DM. OL mtd Xtmtai jtmti. \u 

«rf am choKM ikABiullj by loi (kc 

fcUi 0/ ga*p» J O be |ml tlicb ii«mc* 
ip Ibr otsBCttoM 19 be oiaJc, *w 
And J*m did/ bt ujdi 'j>i 

WKtt pUAOJ iTIf. Ull 

J, Uvrcfl, wkih cuppI«D«fil«fy noTC 

W'htn ihe Fetidiin Citalojuc («dL 
iy^™. UjihiUk <^. */A p- ajj) hoi ' Kie 

iiminiront ul BV*1ft mArlynim bdvUlct 
ooUq[crc«l--/ ru]^ trc not remove ihc 
nop ift;r 'Bubdlacuoitnu' and n-nder 

'»jid cAVH^Ehrcnflhf iaucntl 10 np«' 
^nlahj acvcp iidbducuiiB mid >cvctJ 
BolBiia in unlcr lo coil4ci chf Acdcf 
tlj0 murtyn"? 
' UUor of C«mc1)ui, Evik H^ E. ■!- 




number; and since in ihe persecution uf Dioclrtliin (J 
century* later) there were ' upwards of forty basilicas' ' i 
been concluded too hastily* that each presbyter had cl 
of one basilica. This is contrary to all we know of 
or^nization. Only in the smallest country places were chu 
anything but collegiate. To cacli of the deacons there i 
subrieacon ard six acol/tes Exorcists, readws and 
watchers amounted to fifty -rwo. 

Such was the administrative body required for Iho 
thousand' Christians of Rome in the middle of the 
century, and such as remained at liberty of the seven* 
Treasurers or Visitors, called Deacons, loyether with the 
CM" more Presbyters, now took in commission the Epifi 
conduct of iniemal affairs and of the relations with 

^ Optimist Ji. 4. Ntinndcr (hinka [his 
number niij»l be cjuifycrniut; bui tlicsu 
biM'ji^oji were nriE public bujldrng^, buE 
(hoK which were ffe<)ueni]y nlUAlicd 
lo grtat hoiitcs.'— R^ Bufii, JCo/«^ aiuf 
iA4 C^mf^tia. p, L I'he dc«(L for dis- 
p(r>JOii and &nwil1 gongitlifllioriscnlirdY 
FtpUlns the number. Many uf ihtst 
ivuuM lie li[(c pnv^lie chapel!^, white in 
ihc rc^^ubrl)' used jjics iheic woidJ l>c 

« ty Routh, firr. S. vol. nr. p. 60. 

' Tliii «»iiiii*lc formd by Bishnp 
Bumcl ( Travftj (k Sttiiivrltwi. Italy . . 
{i6a5-*(6j, e<1- ip|, pp, J17-J10J, i^x*- 
proved by^W- MoylcU^''f'*J' III p, \^\) 
snd flcccpred by Gibbon c, av> In il- 
luatriiilij Ih(- inUgnificancc of iht tJhrifc. 
riaaf. who ibuA uaiiHintcil ti» less ihiin 
oneiwcnticih uHhcpupu]itioD-&e>:Disiu 
ni« IDO la^Tgc mlhcr than ino (mall. JEur- 
QCl catlraamf/cni the |i»wwk1o^V3k vir- 
£Uii ikUiJ L]iUbo[Dcni*Qi alllicicd people 
who f«Hve'l roUpr (Conni- »^- Ens. 
/^< £■ vi. 45,} HLi reckoning i^i cDughl}' 
verified h> tEiE ii,K?rt4iiiiCEl piupuKimi, 
thr««|tBrc?n[-a[ Aiilioeli,L>rthc wiJiiW4 

bre! vii^cn recetviap aJms t,)OM 
whole iJdnilict of CbriBlLans (td 
ChryitD^lum, ni beoed. Vri. p] 
fiio, Thf poputudon of Aaiio' 
9oo,HO. t/- IJ- p- .tgy. But w 
consider thai (he inccHani vuv 
IcnJ la make the piD]»r[iou of 1 
DDd dependeni chikkm Isrgtr 
cApitaK T'Eum tlie monumcoLi 1] 
Lightfool ihinka we might cuncU 
Chn^LuD^. to be few*! in pm] 
at tbis tiitie^ AJdms »n Ai 
&.r,C. {M^mtlUn, rS?.^-) 

* A later «nior[iiivi[y will od 
ilJtittrtUDg the LfnpoiiADCf cf Ihe 
Dllieec^ Ip' 114)- Al prc^cul 4 
nouci; thai aeven rentkiiwi] aC 
fhe (ifced nvm^i of deacotift 
cclTegc of cuidiaali netuDS tha I 
ai^vcu (JcACDnB still. Until tt 
c«niiiry (be Lite! I0 the !i«e of 
wm lisvaya a piieil ar JcKun, th 
by [tirfncnix, Srr DudiesDr. O 
Culrr C^r^tif*, p. J45 «, Oo ih^ 
hcmd CoEulAtilincjpIv in Jubtinlon 
tiail uluiiiJmiJtiujia. Rcmihtt 




Charges, pArticiilarly thcit of Cfirthage, Their tone wtu at 
hxtihttRy inllucDccil by Uxc powerful duraclcr of one wlioac 
Ors nnclianty vcvrrnl him at \Ast from a Church which he 
MTMil bom to govern, and by others whose rigid counsels 
lojoded more impresiively from their tliingeon depth, and 
rto »«« saved lo the c^tiise of unity only through the nffcc- 
tkoitcviadom of C>-prian, Of the first great Puritan, Novatian, 
9t shall have occasion to apeak more fullyn Two of the 
PacUiyicrs the aged Moysc^, probably of Jewish birth, and 
MaKinous, who%e gravestone possibly still confront* us in 
4e Vatkan'; two of the Deacons. Rufin«9 and NicoRtratus, 
id* btter aflcrwarda an aetu-e propagator of Novatianism in 
Cjprians own diocese, were thrown into prison At the time' of 
Fibian'a execution. alone; ^*^ l*ic laytuen' Urbanus, Sidonlus, 
)bariux*, jtnd with one Ce1erinu,i, who deserves more than 
prang mention. ThU man'*; *trir)' nnt only i^ a remarkable 
9Btntion of the lime, but tesseJUieJ toi^tiier, m it require* 
U be. out of many distant allusions in scattered letters, it ig 
Oto of the mo5t interesting proofs of the gcnuincrcss of the 
tUc corrG-Hpomlcncf- It is moratly iLiipo.s^iible that such a 
ISBplete tatr rotild hr recompoiied oui of «uch .flight touches, 
vvre tbofe touches not truthful ; morally imposiiible for the 
Wotx [ngeniouft former to have constructed a, character and 
tei to have dotted it about so fragrncntari])' n:^ not to support 
kb aint by one cro^ -reference. It Is only by writing out 
ooy passage in which hts name occurs, compart n|{ these with 
Ihr African tommemocations of confessoru, and with a passage 
of £ui^tis\ that we extract the following narrative, 

Cderinus wa^ d native of Carthage, established in Rome. 
ffii grandmother Cclcrina had died by martyrdom in some 

'T^ lonliH MAZE] MOT ]IP{w. 
h^/mi, lie Rtmk Jf- S. ral. t. i«v. 
lu. ^ ,Scr hrkm p. t6x Doic «- 

' j^it. t'^-pfimewctdupa-.JBT- 

' Stat fat £^ 4j^ I '.r^Miumuni 

4; SI' '■ TllUmtKic, tqI. he. p, 441, 
conriitfit him wirh Cvivnoiu. 
• //. £. fi «. 



cailicrpcrsccution: !<ohad liersonand son-in-Uw l.imrentinuj 
and Egnuliu^, hnxh of them soldiers in the Roman armyj 
They were commemorated ir the African Church &» Cyprii 
records', and the African Calendar yet reuiiis their namcn 
or; the 3rd of February. Augustine preached' in a church, 
dedicated to Cdcnaa, and it was givcit up to the Ari^ 
und^r Genscric*- 

At the lime when the Bi4hci|> of Rome was ex* 
Celerinuji was tortured in the prc^sence it would seem of Dedi 
hiiTiBclf. A Carthaginian friend of his, Lucian, a man of hum! 
birth And small reading* congratulates him in a misspelt, ui 
giammaljcal letter* upon having prevailed against ' the chii 
Snuke, lliir Qua rlcr- ma liter of Anlith ri^t'.* Cornelius, bishop of 
Rome^ mentions this «ame Celerinus in a Greek letter to Fabiusl 
of Antioch as having 'borne every sort of torture and mightiln 
overcome the ad\"ersary/ and he mentions him in company* 
with Sidontus (a Funic name) and others with whom the 
former allusion' in CypriiLn also connects him. What thc^ 
tortll^e!^ were we lenrr from a quite different source*. He was 
liberated from prison in the course of Che year A,D- 250, and 
A.CIU1V, about December conveyed letters fry>m Moysea to Cyprian*", 
■ who by this time, as \vc shal! see, wa^ in retirement. Cyprian 
mentions having seen the terfib!c scars of hia torture, and 
witne^&sed Ihe broken heiillh which had resulted (torn ninctcca 
days in the stocky under irons »ilmo_«rr without food or wa.ter. 
He speaks of him as the earliest of tEie Roman sufferers In 
this persecution, 'the first at the conflict of our lime/ * the 
standard 'bearer in front of Christ's soldiers.' His history and 
that of hts family, as well as his personal character, whii 

■ Morrrllj. vol. el. p. 65. Viciof 
Vli. 1.9(3). 

' £/- 77. I. 

' II fhovH br nati in Huifl'i 
ecHlion With (he rvnifirkii in hi« pre((t«t 

p. lUvUL, onthc vulffAF [oiigu«. 
* £p. ». [ 'Metaii>rcra.' 




Cjfvivi describes ^ that of ' an honejt and sturdy confosaor, 
*idH<catrainc<l. guarded and shamcfaxt, with «lU the lowlincsi 
'nd Jtwe that beBt cntr rdi^ii^u.' mtulc the Bbhop dc5irou» to 
oral him among the clergy of hK native pfacc, and 1iepropfv;tfd 
U nake lifm x RcaderV But ;l€ ha had been in a oiinner 
mniiali^ed at KomCr Cyprian explains the step somewhat 
Eatonously to the clergy' there. The 'glorious look^ and 
'czudcst bearing of one who now lived only through a Icitid 
'«f rcmrrcction'wouTd, at his daily reading of the GiMpd*. stir 
ck brethren to ^omc Imitation of his faith. A vision which 
Ae young man had 01/crcame some scruples of his, and he 
m ordained aJon}* with the young Aureh'us. who had himself 
been a ^Victor' before both the native magistracy and the 
pncotiaiil*. To each were a&slgncd at once the daily com- 
Wuvk and mrmthly dividends of a piCshyXci^ and they were 
tkslgnatr fnr *<*ats on Cyprian's Bench, when they should be 
A^age to take that rat)k. 

The martjT spirit however had not nerved every member 
I it ihc family. His sitter Candida had offered ^acrif cc. His 
^iiitcr Elccus^ or NumcrJa. while actually on the ascent uf 
^Hl Capitot, found at tlie Chapel of Tlie Thrue Fates some 
cficer to whom she paid' a sum of ni<>ney to be eiccused, 
Both A^ere cut off from communion, and then full of remorse 

' F/. p^ and nn^OT ^ 

< ..,CDttidi«'.«««nptinltctw.,. £/. 

ciltfd B<«cun» beciiae die nnitileil out 
V^HHvil) InbM 'oc hinHf In xufntX 
I tf Utog.' I Uat Obrimit cuinot b« 
^^■afci nt ihb Uitcf |b&* E^ n. 
^ tUi paiaice don not *h*ti \a hvrt 
hm. tiJtM Inco aecovni la dlaimiirif 
fti ^) pc fo|i iy of lltc >lopc or (he 

}k tji^ TfMiemplvof ihe 
Ite vte not. *> CrOlLlhoni (p. 

ilf] n-^ Vii) rlax* 111 tb' Trmpl« of 
JanuA, hut higher ap« for the Papil 
piucculoa on &iut0 M(rnJa> In Ehc 
miditlp Iff** ' 'i^mi iiLb arcu Ehum^hik- 
U [>& ^t- Sff^ri] MiAr iimftum /«■ 
/a^< rt Umptum C^maniia.' OrJo /Ctm. 
■i, 'JiB-y- Hfnudt-i. *p- Ma^iiIIon and 
GtRM-in ^vi, /tjL 11. p. i^j; and wiih 
ihin >ci<n riiKu^fiun u^ 3i^ GoUA. I. 
15. MTlin wy« ihr irmplr of Jtniu \t ^ 

When Aauutlui 'H the fuua^ al' 
iuJff-l !o by P«rviD \Jmt. CyfiF- A.ft. 
ijc^ «. ^v, whicU will ba fijODd ia VU, 



dcvoicd themselves to the sulTcicrs whom now they en 
and e^pFxrially to the tcWef of their compatriots, the refii 
who. driven from Carthage by the edict, found like < 
foreigners their obscurest hiding-place among the crow< 
Komc. These they met upon their landing at Portiis' 
had no less than sixty-five of them under their care at 
time. Celcrinus pleaded for their restoration ; and their 
was heard by the Roman presbytery', Bnc their readmi; 
was postponed until the election of a Dew bishop. 
temporary adhesion of Celennus and his friends to Navi 
at that election will be noticed in its place. 

It was close on Easter .\.d. 250 when his sisters yicMc 
that the ' Day of Joy' and its whole sea-son were spent by 
in sackcloth and ashes and tears. At last in utter agon 
Candida's "Death to Christ,' he wrote an affecting bu 
judged appeal to Lucian at Carthage^ He prevailed 01 
sufTerinf: confessors there to interpose their unmcas 
popularity in subversion of the judgment of the constil 
authorities of the Church. 

A fatal system thus simply originated, which presr 
began to threaten the whole organization of the Church. 

0/ GfMuintKtsj ifl Nemfitciaturt^ ^* 

We must pause upon certain exceptions to the genuinen» 
th« corr^pondence in which (he abov# accnunr i^ «xiani. \V< 
Arst, liovrevcTi ask whether \X 15 possible that a tile such a 
enuld bp sown in surh mmuie frngmpni^ over sueh a num!: 
epi&tlcfi as Q (fiance a\ the foouiotcs exhibits unless thai talc 

Haner. L L«bbet vd, vi. e. [4I9 and 
fit^ /ftu/riaiti i. Lablic» tol. vifi. cc^ 
i;0} %n6 jr^J, speifci of S- Adrian and 
of S^v Cunmv and DnnuEir] us being 
'Id Tijlidn Fjtia,Mhu mu onlf^ mcui, 
CU aun'ipxi Kiw. rhii iht lower vml 
I<ir ?nurLli ;,id«) oT thtf Konim eune to 
be X) C4tlcd- 
1 Sec ftni&l, BoUmiHS Jt Aniut^. 

Criir., itiriQ iv- p. jo, for iniei 
lUithliaLii^Tu of the iiecehaity An 
pTovirion u PorTii*! puriiculor 
erection by the ^aDor Pmuni 
S, JciuiLic^f fiicdd, of A hoHcIc/ 
fur reregrim. 
* IVjepcisUk, £/, >i, 3, 


(tllE UJTTERS GEN List) 



Voe; ftnd iKen «£*;& that Euicbbift ahould hxvc preserved luch a 
comibontion of ii, uid that even a title <rf ■ lermon of Au^rufttint? 
ibookl tcodcntiillf iHuatntc tl f or what obfccl could po&tibly have 
htta t^rvrd hy invrntin^ KUt^h n rharartcr ;inr1 then EAklng ^u^h 
(ttt^onjiairy pains to avoid prcKntingiiasa whoi«? 

Tbc critic' in^eniounly ^fKue! A]fHirmt ihr ^'rauinmcis of the 
ktstr of Oltrnut from Rome and the fOply of Lucian from Car- 
tuyc*. aa Ukc jfiouud Lhjt: they itould cvinr^e an incrcdLbity 'close 
ad bDinaic oonntxion' beiveeo the two Cburchtt. 'The M^mam 
' f iinfo iiji jr.* h< aay^ 'supports hi^ pmyer 1.I0 the AfricMJ Cotifessurr) b^ 
*ieaiia( ihat Statiiu< un{l Sc^criLhnuA, tutd the Kintyhvc Afnc^Ln Con^ 
^IcMor^ <rho had been uircil for by hU ItpAcd »iaicft, jinncd in it,' 
H« tbcD qmxci the grceticgi tent from Rome t>y ' MacariuK and his 
'uucis Cornelia rnd Enictitn, by Saturtiiiiua [a conf»«or]f ygur 
*bnthnei Lalpumiut ajod Mara,' Jkc, and Lucian's counter-grwtin^s 
b ilic uunc pcnonx and 10 'Colkcia, Sabirta* Spc^ino, Januiiriaf 
*Dai3va. Uunai^ Saturui with his,..', BatsLanus ard alt the clcigyt 
'Uiafiim, Alexiui. QumiJiuius» CulonicB, &t, Akxiu^ Cetulicus' and 
ftnn bm awn *tii(*rt Januana and Jiojihia.' Fiom thne mcEiacts he 
VipB» ih-it, if th«7 citr fonned portions of rcJ kttc^ ikt Cki^rdut 
mail/ Aav/ f<ff» uhtAfr mifr/ pt*r /tj iA/tts imf fttmiSyt that theie 
CfiCB«X]e fitimei without further dcacription would hairc conveyed no 
Attlnciiv« kfonnaiion b^iween Rome and Carthage: that, 9& it wiu 
iapOAiblc thai iherc could be 9uch izitimacy between inch ptacea, 
Ibe tetoen eanfwt br avirhfntk 

The ini^iouft critic con^civo a letter in >omc persecution in 
CnflaiLiI to a Chriftilan in Nrv York and wriiei out a pamllrl b«t 
«f nd^ar riainea and iiin^amci, 

Tbii was no doubi tnorr divertir^ th^n to trit'? bibonouhly the 
\oaiaart*A Ccktinus, and to arrive nt ihc Fact that he wa« no/ *.i Roman 
CaafcMor* aTitini; tn a flanh.4^inian, but a Carthaginian rF«idmt in 
kovke^ *ho*e family were cmincni lufTctcn among Ihe Chriitiani 
ti Carthage and wha imin havp bern uell and ivtdirTy knovn Among 
dkem- All the naniea cwntiuncd vn both aid<^^ Afc btft twenLy-two, 
JDd of dine lOTT^I arc brifthrra and ij^lf^rs, surely not a vpry 
brft circle 'llieo, it mu^t be observed u naiurali that tfLc more 
lumerous rcittcaibrantes we those sent from CzinhAue ; which the 
nnf^TYs had br«« c{UitCtni; for Kon:et 'And th«y -\t^ nenC through tho 
pcniMU who ucre receiving ;ind cafing for them. One uf those 
ia Sjisi^MKX a dtri£. Now mnfU that m i/. 8. 3 the 
clergy mdvisc the deni^y of Cartbavr uf the dinval at Rome 

> £f. 11. J. CiiiM ma 'with thtir 
rriatda' i* •ulEdcntl}' Cuniliut 

^ lb Ehi|)lMfd-i Tint LcQ«, P' 11, 




of liA»BiAnti« ^eemmgjy aa brinj^n^; ttit^r^ anil, accordittf;^ to 

Mr 3- diinks iL suspicious That the ^mott commoD names 
Cwtfuffc' atK U8cd- The argunicnt tells ihc othcmny. They 
CttrtM^^ni^n namrj;» much more common *n frarthagr C«* itisorv'j 
tioDB testify) than elsewhere. TTiis b inic of iho»c h< cttJotc}-<4 
ViCtDTv Donatuti Dunnt^L, Januari.x He shcnild havp a<1<I?i1 r>Atiiii 
Kflm^ 0xpm»vo of * Cod's Gift' arc ns rhomidnn as ihcy uv 
Hchrrw. Um x\s.ei fletulicus Sflfuminu*, llninlm point to il 
country And to the Punic wor^ip which tlicy rcprc»cpi. Hi 
should *a Gnulinh Bisliop m ihr- ^ch century, a stranger to Afiii 
in th[; diiys of Co;«arinn, Hit^hop of Arlcs^' Ect^*c witli SEich nici 
M Eo evolve £0 Apiiiupnaic a li&t of ripiaicb ? Bui ^Ain ihc nanict 
not alJ common' It Spestna a lamJiar nam? Co Mr S.? Hv will 
not Und it in all Lhe tliuu^aiids of m^cirptioiia jn Muntori and 
Grutcf. Vet ic does occur jusi vhere i\ should if these l«tc*n| 
ue genuine. It la ihe name of a martyr in (tie AJrumi Kalcndo^ 
[And since this was wnitien it has appeared in se^'cral Afnctm 

On Btt€htG arf4 Atim^a^ 


Etecus^t the Cartha^ninn obtajned enemplion from sacriBcingat 
Rnrae hy p:iympTil. Her brmlhrr CeleTiiius culn^at*! that the firti 
martyrs selected for death among the prisoners at Carthage may 
'Jstis sororibus noi^iii^ .Vvwrmt^ et CatiiliiJfe lalc p«t.caium r^mii- 
'tnnf- Nam hanc ip^ani £tfiUS^i»H semper appeLLtvit^.^viHti pro 14 
'dona jmrngravi/ tie sactulcaret ' (£p. 2i. j). A& tr^nhliitrd hfi 
Dr Wallift *our listers Numeria and Cardida, for this latter 
have always called Etccusa.-!KC,iU!»c she g^ivc Kifts/ the passj^e I 
as he observes, 'aliogetht-r tiFiinleUTgiblt' Hence tbi^ conjccCur«f 
t/ Mttiittin i&tKiivtiov), &ti!x*>i*f*i*' (Dodwctl, Diti. titi Ep. 2\)t and 
Hanct's excusafam. Mo vanous reading except EUtcvsam and 4| 

Lftt us observe however thai A't/mfr^Ji is nnt a renl p 
(Vuro, JJtjr- Lat i^> ^i) i that Lie whole letter f^ila in u^ic srd in 
grammai ; that kaw: tpxnut miiy perf^cilj^ well be predicaiis-e ; and 
thni li%Mt€ need not refer to the laM named, i^-ho in this Latin 
would more commonly be hliwi. Hence we inay undex^ti^nd that 
Ntttntria » the sobriquet which Cclcrinus »ay» he has affixed W 


T. *' 9- ii' i*. **. 

' ip- More*lli, vol. ii. p> jfig 
Jun. v]J> Jd.o.Splalna;.' 


ffjirtm rjD, all Numidiaji. 




hi ikttcr brcftuc the pild (mtfmrrm^iA for iEnmunltjr. 'Aib r«* 
'sisuoD for tli«fc listers of miDc AV«/rt'j and CjuiJidL, for »o 
'•de«d (Atfjvr jj^mjDv— by (hti panicul^T n^mr A'vmrrr^; have I 
'thrsyi caDcd Eiccuaa, because iht paiJ ^rW^ bribe? lo be cjtcuied 

Wc &od T««V4a in de Rtfaii. R^ S, yal lu lav. Ml. (6), la 
cn^^ction with Laurmiiui, whidx (or Laurenfii>u»j vai The name 
ttt martyrrd uadc of CcUrinus b tho samv pcraccutioCt J!^- 39^ 3 

(I0 th* lAdeved volumes of C /jts^rr. L<ui, Tecuba (Taccu^a once) 
ocnirt in 6 fn«tripliun4, of wMcb i ^rp African, voL viir. i. 3306 ai 
Linb«*c 896r Axit bon TcDih viii, W. J&S05 H.idnini<tum ; 3 Sar- 
Afllao t^ol X, .0 7i9(X 7943; an*l i a* 0«l-"» CvoL Xiv,) 16^7, Thrr« 
hm martyr Ttcun m Ancrr* (?und«T Dio<Ietmn), 1% May, Buil 
Htm^hg^ Mitnc /"dt^. (7r v. 117, c. 464- jCf^^f ^'Jnrf/. BffUoHxL 

There \\ do tnxTAnce of Eie^ttm ^uid (O read f / TVntf/im froni T^ 
pocf be beu. The \X. <i rtatm/H iiranijly support* IL And il »uiu 
CcktiftDt' emplu^ic iryJe. 

Wc atiDiJd tlicn hair AA intcruiLOX tiacc of the (o.iw\y it Rouit 
■d of TeeuM'c mtonumn. 


rir Pfrsf^tion at Carth/tgf. — I, Tiu 'Stantfs,' 

The episode of Cclcrinua linlcs together the siifTcrcrs of 
^ Evo cities Great hnd been the di^tmay caua^^d by the 
uml of the edict «t Cmhagc It required from cvxtyonc 
*mt «jmptc tchl of uiicbiislUnity bcfort; a specified day'. 
Tike 'Bifhop of the Chmtians ' was expressly n;<ined, and 
pnbabl3rhe alor>c. But anyone who failed to 'profoAs' might 
^ ^Q^y summoned and interrogated. Some were dn^C^ 
Muc the magistrates and aomc maltreated by the popuUce. 
Tbt numbers who mlTcrecl were possibly not great, but 
6t[r 5uflerings were intc-iisi- The cdJcl prescribed confisca- 
t>cn, banish R>ent, mine-labour, imprisonment with starvation 
vpQMltiea,aDd torturous the means of inquisition. In each 

* Jk Zi^sw 5 ',-ybqn f^quiiqul}) ^rofcaiua lat» dkm non cM ChriiLlvwaft 



A.n. if«- 

Uywn live com mission era ^ were fts»ocifttcd with the magist 
The tortures were :iot used until ihc arrival of ihc Proc 
in April*, He found ttie ^teventtet to much abated that 
nf the exiles had retumrd, but after presiding ovci 
tribunal in the capital', he made i tour of the pro 
with his twelve dreaded fasces', exercising svich rigoui 
»omc conspicuous confcASors yielded, while others died 
his engines*, 

While ihe persecution of DlocletUn was based o 
determination that, cost what it might, ChnstLaniE)r t 
be extirpated^ that of Decius at ^TSt assumed that It i 
be dissipated by a mingling of ferocity with forbcsu 

' Primom. J^, «3, ^i- •rers-cutio 

quin^uc i*rj p:c5b)ricrt iliKlI jlIiuJ ivitiL 
qiiHiu 4aiiM|iie prLmntfr>k illi qui nlirro 
B«pcr mogisFralilius fuemnt cojiuUti, uL 
fiJciQ Dntrim aubniercni, ui eradUa 
fn[ium cnnlH ad Ittnln laquwi pnc- 
T*ricationt vonlattt nverlercol. eodom 
iimic ntiu, (3f1cm mmit cvcisJo pci 

Tcii arl ni^nam $aliius induaiur, ^/ 
That Jir "Tin five picabvlcii *ic lu 
nilnoos Id iht Chiir^h as rvtr ihv hvo 
mognAivA were ■ Tc intcrpfti it of 
vifcioijt. VI of ilic Tucbyieis Klaally 
lorliirmg minyrx, i< ihKurrt iridepi^, II 
ia oaly jtul u obicun u a CTprkn, 
nntmi; to uy lo ti]xia|[ a thinf;. nould 
fee] bound lo moke li< 

Wt mfty Mmpftr* ^> £«. 4 where he 
i4)'s 0/ NoTitoa 'ftii in ip*o pcfKcu- 
rtaac.AllB quanldra pcnccuito ncsEii 

^ Sec noic on xiii Epiiila, £/. ii 
mfr,i»p. [01 vjq. MartreLli, vol. ri. p. ll 
and fi- 101, alt4 hrm Fortttnatianuh. 
The Grfrl< Mtrire& fAt>ril- Vencu i4i4) 
A|i> 10 iLc&ciiLic in Atiuam mAnyr 
Tettiiiiiii ta ^Hrring unilpr Korlunaiu 
MU» AH VT'^^^i >''- 'Pm«'i rifEhtlr 

P. F. ZiilHf' Lallti TenToli af 
ui, ai Venice Cdli Ilud 'pi 
GBloiniu \A£f« SS. p. B6t 

Bjuonii ' p:wf<c[uiu' Nirlel {ip 
vim^ /Ifj. jUMwvfrjp vol. lU' 
and fM) bat 'prr-r^' Ap. 
Oct' »8- The Menologirtm 

coniM fjotn Creek veiMofii of 1 
£11141 l^iiat TcTTnUus' relic* 
heen prewrved pr LVmiTintirwpL 
rikt*c rtfertrc** ic (he io<j 
Mured lib knawlcdf^c 1 owe 
fCfiFurch mnd Jcmtinnu of ihc Rpi 

But 1 nuBt condndc (tchb ihl 
TvrcEiIiiu belonged to NumldU 
MniireUnidfi uider (he jiulidie 
n /<tf /^x or fnf/ntm [irytr^) : 1 
lu Africa Proper under iis Piocf 
^tf^AVfl ■ Lind thai hcni^ (ha | 
ue uu( luflicicnt fcr ploeiAi; F 
liknuhon the Roll of (he Fn]ci>n 

» ^/, to- + 

• £/. ,i7h 1, The pvoeon 
Afnca vid AaU bore ihcAtf ir 
otheri but BiK' 




mtEOg the Icad^rB with uncompromising sternness, while 
iDwiDC implfdt undcrtitandings wiUi many of tbe inoffensive 

Tljcrc ift^crc. however, many who instantly saciificcd pro- 
prrty and citi7<;nshi|> by voluntary exile : many who saujfht 
Uii^ In the crwvdft of Rome, The fimt inmate« of the 
^riioc Bt Carthaf-e were a presbyter Rogatlan, "a elonous 
oU aian" who had been Icjft by Cypnan, during his absence, 
tRtfcc of his charities, and a 'quiet sobcrmindcd man' by 
wne PdicU?iimu!iV These were dragged thither by the 
nulmudc Regular committals soon swcllf^d the number. 
Women and even lads were imprisorted" who had met with 
«qnl defiance the threats and the kindly persuasions of the 
iBCistnted*. They declined to taste the sacri^cial victim, 
m sprinkle the incense, or to put on the liturgjc veil. Two 
ftnible cell5 were ass^ned to thcni where hunger, thirst and 
oLcn^e stoon did their wurk\ After a short time liAecn 
pmocifi had perished there, of whom four were women, be- 
ilo one in the quarry, and two under torture. M;tppnticus' 
w oi>c of the latter Hia limbs and sides streaming from 
rtpcated blows of the tonure-claw, he said to the proconsul 
la be wax rcmandCTl to the cell, 'To-morrow you shall sec a -^P"! "T- 
£«nicat indeed.' Next day he wfis tortured again and died. 

Some scenes were yet more dreadful. Maidens were not 
ipucd the Lupanaria'. Subordinates were allowed to invent 
lew tortures'. Numidicue', a presbyter of the ncighbourjiood. 
pn^ared many for dcatli, and then with his wife wa^ tortured 

4.1J, IJO. 

ha iM ^BH- Cyfr- x-tt. «f« ^. vi ju 
ttiM Ifahovdni; IWi^r-'t error in mAkiiiL' 

ikci) Ehint RuuiAc a lIic 


* £^. 11. >. 

' Spk ID- 1. nv KaL Mhi com- 
tBrmrvraiTf MappjHnit In MiriTTDl. 
African, Morcvlii, .^ tit. II. p. j6^ 
ATut ihc d«1e KutU Oui TrUcr. 





by fire The wjfc was actually burnt ftlivc. and he was left 
for dead, a shotvcr of stones having been hurled upon him at 
the stake. Hi* tiaughlcr found him breathing still; he wswi 
rcAvcd, and afterwards enroUed in the presbyterate of th« 

Many were after double torture dismissed, some into 
baflbhlncIlt^ some to bear the brand for life, as a secoDd 
'seal in thcJr forcheadsV some to rc^tumc former occupationA, 
beg^red of all they possessed. Some qLtailed and fell, whoH 
cm second thoughts returned to avtjw their faith, forfeit their 
all, and undergo their torture'. Bona' wa.* dragged by her 
hu&baiid to the altar^ there to justify her reappearance from 
abroad ; but excbiming 'The act is not mine but yours' aa 
the incense fell from her hand, she was exiled again. No 
martyrs were more honoured than Castus and iEmilius, who 
for such recantation were burnt to death*. 

The devouring passion for martyrdom was sc(H In ih* 
future, yet already survivors envied "The Crowned/ Th« 
fervid temperament of Africa was aflame. Rhetoric aposEro- 
phiacd ' The Happy Prison 1 Gloom marc brilliant than 
the Sun himself M' yet even such rhetoric seems colder to 
us than the cv^ry(]Ay term^ of their common speech whidi 
called every such death a ' Confession in blossom/ a ' Purple 

Still at the very summit of their enthusiasm their leader 
never suffered them to foi^ct that enthusi^m was not the 
solid height itself but only a glory which bathed it. 'He that 
'speakcth the thing^s that make for peace and are good and 

llum Qoioianim ipcurda IntcripiionE 
* IkLafiiu %it Kc AuguaiiQc't mc- 

mon cdiiw, on ih^r di^* Thl> ivu 
M&r g)» Mortellip vol. 11. pi jMb 

'^ Ep-b. \. 

orum roiRiblemiiit, ii. j, KutilonixQ, 
£,. ,.. 




' juf^ «iccoTding to the bidding of Christ, he it if who is the 
* d&IJy Confessor of Chmi V 

But hovr great a step had been frainod in human thought 
and fixltng when numbers of delicate and educated persons 
lutnfndered .ill that nutdc life bt^auifful or even tolerable mid 
accepted all that wa* hideous and unendtirablc, simply because 
tmroortality hitd become a certainty* and the revelation of 
God's character and Chxut's presence a reality amid a world 
oTicq^tidMn and vice. 

TAt PrrsrcHtwi at Cart/e^^ge.—z. Tkc ' LaPSI/ 

Nevertheless, where these sober truths rose into passionate 
tcniimc^t there ab«» ihc >eiiMbiIitics to suffering ;tnd to 
ridicule vrerc niiully high-Unmg. Nor had the refent life 
of the Church been io rigorous or disciplined as to make 
constanc)' under trial charactcxistic of its masses. Yet 
Cyprian, in spite of long forebodings of what under such 
circiunstarccs would be the result of the worldly habits of 
the bishops and the gentile associations and exiravag^^nct! of 
the laky, wa4 not prepared for the first spectacle upnn the 
arrival of the edict. Even he was appalled at the nish of 
faithl«8S CbrUtianii to die Capitol* or to the Forxitn to aacriliee 
amid the jeers of the populace; their unwlllin^ess to be 
deferred lEl momiog. when darkness cloi^ed upon their thrung, 
their piteous production of children and newly*- baptized infants 
10 drop incense from ihcir small fingers Most of the clergy 

■ Or Ijtpt. ^ H. £f. yir i]. The 
BpB or Bocrfeh. ^ iliicwhcrv In 
— kipit lfc« ' Idetan Capitofil ' n a 
KogplKd term Sm Cmdl of EI' 
cuun 59. tad Hetrte \/f. 4. 

>6«l Bpoik 'ti. At 0}|q|>;v« Hm oU 
Ciiiiitol u lEitt Mj allcij. 

CompfLTv wtrh ihc KFtio Jail ifiwhed 
bjr Cyprku) ihc ptinlully griphic 00.1™' 
uveufAlcvhudiuLicHCJibitfy Diuu^iM- 
Kii>. H.&,-^^t. 



fled', some La[i8cd*; Ihcrc remained in the city scarce cno 
to carry on the daily duty'. Many provincial bishops fled to 
Rome'. One at lestt, Repostus of Tuburnuc, carried the maia 
part of his Hock back to pai^anism*. 

Even in Kome there were fears at one moment lest 'the 
'brotherhood should be completely rooted out by tliis head* 
' lodg return to idoUiry'." Ailhough It m^iy or may not be a. 
literal statemrnt that the lapsed at Carthage werr^the majority 
of the flock'/ yet their Bishop may well have felt Uike one 
sitting am:d the ruins of his house/ 

Thus were being formed the vast clashes of 'the Incenscrs' 
and 'the SacrificcraV whose self-excision from the body of 
Christ was palpablcn The act of the latter class ^va^ held the 
more odious whether from the fuller ceremonial, or from the 
material pollntian ascribed lo thr victim's flesh. Yet greater 
perplexity resulted from the conduct of others who, although 
Tiot stronger to confess their faith, were less bold to abjure it 
The constitution of the courts which had to crforce uniformityi 
and thcnunibcrofinfcnorofficiabcrnploycd in a service which 
attempted to deal with individual beliefs, openrd a. door to 
any evasions which friendship, favour, or cupidity could devise. 
As in the days of Trajan, the approved form of profession wa* 
still to take part in sacrifice, but it w'Rs po5;sjble al^o to tender 
allegiance in writing*. The name of one who 'professed' in this 


' £p. JO- a. 

^ £/ SV '"' Tubtimiic VKU 9 ^iruill 
BObicipium and Kol-Wclk, abont n 
miltA njutti K>t ihc GuU uf Tunih, pr it 
from CjiTtho|fe. TluDi It ^Sa {hy tn- 
•dveneitcd?) rankra this ttc one of 
'cmpkciiJiom inc47nna/ but in pi, viii' 
markh ihc pbrf. which a nn doubt the 
MV- In Numidu wi> Ji Qav^a^pfAKS 
ffoAbfU iPtui,), All o^pkdum *iviuv4 /Ctr- 
miipamra {E'liiLf, {Corfi. Jmrrr. Lot^j. 

vni- Iip> ivO. G, VVlljuiUinx udPVEu 

Uid 64S ta UiE Latter. Mcir«ni, val. L 
P' l^^' fiivca ibtni LO ibc ft*iincr. Om 
wiwld imrLinlljr place Cj^jTiftn'i Up* 
poKTiii iwef to him. fJo tmcc rematui 
ofaftjplncc MSfccring lo Huld** Su- 
rDimtvpni^E. or the r«ding« NEi&mo' 
cfTuiG. QuolunikciiQfi, Sulun-Lir^couit 

« ^/,a. 1. 

T Efp. 11. li 14. t. 

' Tbaril^aiii. SacriliOftrL 

* S(!e below ttunalean the LiBKUJ. 




km was mbscribcd cither to a rctmnciation of Chrij^tiAnity, 
«r ifiM dtni«i of thftC crime, or cbc to a statement o( having 
Rttitly or habituallv attended !*acnlice> and lomclimcs (unlcw 
Au^tinc' has falLcn into ah uolikcly error) to a mere dcclara- 
Stfl ofreadlne^ to ci.)mpfy. This dociim^rit wsi^ deHvered 1o 
I RUgut'^tc^ entered on the Acta, ar^d firally published In the 

In the peT5ecutton of Diocletian timid ChriictiariE were 
xs«tinie3 represented at the altar by a slave* or by a 
botiicn friend \ sou>ctimc» attendants connived at their 
slijipinji jia«t the iilism wlthtiut actually m^kirj^ tlie ot> 
fation'. U would seem ihat in ihe D(?dari persecution too a 
ffoxy* lometimes performed the act which the accuted after- 
vaidt ciaicned as his own ; while in heartrending cases; which 
omt later to light, the heads of families often dcchristianiscd 
Aiaaclvca to dcH^-^r wife* children and dependants from 
h«BBary and ton^^c^ 

Veiul or kindly fraud provided further a different security 
htn mokistation. Ccrtificaies at high rates of payment 
me oiTered and almost thrust on persons who believed 
HkSksdvcfl. alter a private avowal of their faith, to be 
ftDfily purcbastnff exemption from the obligation to con- 
hrwL Thb is a upccics of confiscation and has iicldoni 
^fetli offence*; but it is evident, from the endeavours of 
Cfpffan to awaken penitence on account of them, that the 
cMccnts of these certificateie or • libels' were not unobjection- 
«Ue. Indeed it ts impossible that they can have sanctioned 
Cttnptioo without some £round:t being alleged. Nor can 
^h»e grounds have been any other than thai the ccrtifyii^ 

■htt> Alet- «> *. ?- Th» fcUic, 
I* ClBWtiia, f«*s»wl m oi^h « <9M 

Wk. M, S. toL IV. |ip. f V, jo- 

' ?v», aik- cmh. i^ rot thii or. 

Rourh, ^nr. p. )S. 
' Sod note od tj'Utlj, p. l^a. 

* ifA H- '3' T*n,rf^Ar, *. 11, 1^ 

* Oi> the Montanirt ™». bs-^rrifr, 

di ilitt, D^ Mi., vol. ttu p. T^, 



magj^^trate luid ^dtiaficd tiimscif of the sound pa^nniMn of; 
tht recipient. 

The Tin worthiness of these transactions must not mUlead 
us into conceiving that ChrUliar truth had little hold upon 
those who were concerned in them'. 'Parliamentary certi* 
ficates' of conformity were in our strictest age ^ven a 
received by the strictest Puritans and churchmen without any' 
[Jnrtcxt of fact. Intense devotion to formal truth has to tin 
southern and eastern temperament seemed often rjot incon 
sistent with insensibility to fine veracity. To detect thi' 
iurkitig source of so much false doctrine and false practict. 
was a part of Cyprian's moral ol^cc, and he speaks of the 
tears of sorrow and surprise with which many first recognised 
the gravity of the fault. Even Peter of Alexandria, in the 
midst of sfmilar displea.sure with the Lapsed under Dio- 
cletian, cannot forbear, before he passes on to place the sin 
in its true light, to glance at its aspect as a mockery of 
heathen power; calling his flock 'clever, designing children 
befooling dull ones.' When wc are treating of African* or 
RLiiuana in the thiixl century wc cannot infer that there w^a 
no truth of conviction because we find that canviction wx% 
dissembled. To them the system came so naturally, that 
when enquiries began it was found that the numbers of tbe^ 
' Libellatics' or certiheated persons with whom Cyprian him 
self had to deal amounted to aome thousands^ 


Om the Form And Cmunti of tht LibtiU. 

I have in ihc text presented a concct account, 1 believe, of Ebfl. 

various ways in whirh the vast dass of l-ibclla(ici arose- Thediffii 
cultics taiscft by vitriour? Huthurn h«VG HrihCTi froni tlidr rusnniJi 
ThnT tKp Libelli were all of nnr fcmd, or ili^T thcrr njald be any 
(yntcmfttic and regular pnKcdurc ft>r Ehc oosion of procedun'. 

* Tillemont (vol. ijLp p. 701) nli^n* 
'l^t^cdre t{ut Ion aiull ci Cun ei 

I'autii^* Dun Alarui ihoH^jti: ihe <11b*'' 
tincIioD wu 0T\]y K'hetlicT [xnoni had 
bccftprtMiit or noi at ihe ngute ring «f 
ttiuir lULuic*. Vif. cyA' **' Hi|:i3(l»pa 
t'cll^JtZ-jolthAMhellbcilll wenflrclMi- 


(on the L1BF.I.S.) 


(h t^ CoMTiry, vtvry roncriviibk infrAni uynild of i^oiine be 
idafMeiL Acrouau an roc irrecofiolnbk ; Ihoy only dctcribc 
dilec«ikt tfaiatft. Cypriau'b Ijjiku44!C ib iuciaimtc lo (c;:hnk;t1iry in 
rtie«K of profeiioQat lenrLS- 

I, {!> Tlic IJbcUus which ihc Mspcti^d nitn IcrdcicJ i> deaily 
cfeanci«fterd in tir t^tfi. 37, *« ill^^/rrj/'jjiue^l d«neg:&niJs, f^fl//;- 
AAd^ cil chnMiAitL quod fucrtE' Atmucniih.' In Ep^ 3a 3 'Pnr/guio 
Ibdkmtm' ii agnin ih« rikiditian or pnmrtg in tA such ^csucmfrntkH 
FrffSifTi i» dKwhcrc (he IcchnicAl leim. 'Chriiti ncptiionem jo-j^S- 
itm fm^ffwi; Aa. SS~ A^tfi/i, CJUtmiw, fr^tufr. ^e.. M.ain-.\tt^ Afta 
Jfjff- RaUsIx 1659* p[h 424— >^ AffjJn^ icnUsIiitii/ inckns llic pica 
or ii3ii*iE«ni of h)K ovkTi cn^c iriAde by cirhtr pony to a tun : It 
aniwvn 10 the ii,#^9Ut tjf thr Athcnia.n Courti ; ibc RomAn <lcf:|Cy 
convdly siT^e in Ffi- 30- 3, (h;{( ^rhoujfh * mAy nfit h.ivp 
■yfiM4<tied the oIut, h« rausE \akc Eh« con^qucnccj {te/ie/tar) if he 
hi* |xat i& a /'aW ajirmttiion [cert^fifafas n/) Mif / Ar A<ny i^4f W. 

Id the At>o>« puun^ts n Lilicllui ih plainly 1 cio<iiRicnt cniAnAtinj; 
6q(0 ihc ECi^iAntlnK Clirisliim. Such pcisani 4JC in /*f/^ of AUx- 

Tht aatUTt of the <unic(ii^ of it i« mdicakd iu ihc pdbvtbTC of llic />^ 
iLi^ftfTf 37t 'He has dwlared himwlf to have done vhw«vei «vi] 
iMtbo Aciu&lly did' ifackndo ttfrnnuAtt^ which impliu a rcprc' 
twtttitc in iht 4icrl»ci^ act 

TW otfentc of ihc bishop Martial (£]#. 67. 6) wbu wa> ' ataincd 
•Kh the libctlut of idolatry/ is explained by ibc ute 0I the word f^(i«- 
AnWifltf- In the publk piocccdrnjf* before the Duccnnty ProcLii^uor 
iKiic pobl«e h;ihiTji apud n. 1^) he had appeared, and put in a 
^iintion thdl he hjid d<nic(] Chri»i ^nd ido|3tod 4 licAilicn cuhiu. 
He ;( net accuwd of having ever acnifttly tii^rifioed, and ihe libclli 
«f«<hcfa.4t Atj^Mine MTs,<DniiunedonlyB dcclAraiion of readiness 

10 do MX 

(3) A wcond cU» [i^ J^iiitm) nre spoken of 1>y Ncvaban and 
the ftoKVUi tlcrny in ^p. 30. 3 a* having vinjilly 'it'vcn acfcTiow- 
^flgmf^ l^ q^tiaAc<4 or diicharxea^' (acc«piu fv^ntcni), tboo^h not 

4 (A| V..«ethtirficamKw ^r^^j />vnr,' 
' Affjftit /Ku/mi tK appATf Ally iht 
bc4l lulhcnil^led readLn^. Atifpt^Jb^ 
ftrf ti I carnmnn term fl7lrk.Hii. Afarm^ 
air, >.». aeucpto Ac^rpiuiuJ^ Bnl Ihv 
oilier (Cji(Im^.pri:f4/a<.fry, which Neuidct 
■ri<i|ilH, iH fijiE^lly |iiix«ni1p hcrr in tnmn- 
a^. li lA *w pui in a [>liu in n Itgal 
pr«cM.' 'LAEcrcLUcmciciciiUlOfviuAUa 
Incia Hhi.' Soevcila ap. KomlUnL, 

Mm rtArt ntf taMchmlsm or of Chrit- 
^akr, ban iCftdeied (lU falter vith 
lubol «bIt by the people. Aod not 
r«B I7 KUfMntn ^ Frehnup th&i 
l>f *VT «ac«UruJ otititeaUi only. 
Mttip^ i9odi] plndiaic b oiucbcd 
triB imetofesc cf eroy nvchnk^ liw 

* Ik* p<cir«r pfanie ooenv «fiin 
§iDmi0tf, ij, *id qvcd pflni l^nrr.' 

6— a 



prcscni in person (cant liervnt). They luul put in A j!Q^t/ ftppcvancc 
{...pnrmfmm ri/am.,./n-i/unt)by tommMtatmg n provy to regkier 
their nomci on the iiia^i»uatc»' \h\ of coafoioilty (at sk uriifmi/ttr 

mrtrtrt^nrfrt], NovTitiao :iT{iie5 ihat fl* one who onJtrpi a CTitnP i* 
rcaponitiblc for it* *Q one wha iftnctiona fcanitcnuD) the rcAdisf; in 
public (piiblire l^^nirj of itn irnfmr STatempni abcui hinupir is 
liable to be proceeded aK^msi a& if it wore true. 

ir T}ic oilici kiuiL uf iil^/iut wU\t.h cm;iii^ml nut from the 
rcndfftdc but from ihc mo^i^tnttc ia described w4th equal preciieciB. 

In Ihp kner ta Atiumian (£/. 55^ u) Cyprian «>•< lomt erf ihc 
LibellAtic] had received \^aiCfi^lin) such \ libellu^ An opportuoiir 
for obiainiitg oiie Itad presented ii^Etf uiL«iou}jhi [oct-tisia UMH 
aititiiiM...otUnsa}f -ind they hod in person or by deputy (MiiindtM^ 
Konctvu [tiA^istrAii?) informed hiiD thac ilicy were Chnii.j;ini andptJd 
a «um 10 be exempltd from sacriEicmg. Hut .is no magistivie c^Kitd 
iwue AD crdcr «imply staying the enecution of an edicx, hii certifioie 
mtifit have fnninmAd a stAiemcm of the saii&facior^' pagatiistn of tlie 
bolder. This IS why Cyprian tries to awaken their conacicnccii 
whilP ttip/ Ibrtnurlvra wprr dis]:o*ieiJ iy plead tini t^ey had iivowed 
their nslij^oa and thai t^c form of the document was the m^i^isiraic't 

Again, In the Afi Fortt/nufvm c- n Chriati^ns ^ta ur^ed if 

tibcllu* i^ QlTered them {fitelli.,.9h!ata sihi oicitiont^ not to embrace^ 
the gift {dtafiiffntittm mali$m mtrnus^ by ihc example of Elea* 
who refused ihe ficilitie^ olfered hini by the uf!]c«ia [a ininisiru 
rtgtj /iifttititi q^rrretur) for entm^ LiwIq] llehh ait a inuke l>e]icv« 
for Hwiiie'^ f1e!»li. The ofEicIal canmvajicc in c^ch ChISc wuuki ]i4ve 
enabled tbem ro «e«(Ti to do whm they did not. The Ubfilus %% b 
lomelhinu offetcd and i:^ & munus^ 

Noihtn^ IS more fleftr thnn that ihr /^Ar/ included iwo kinds 
dcicuments. Whether itiy document wna la^ucd ia cases of rcji-ul 
tior it not H^Afp biir All ihre& tons of persons are mcludeii in rhft 
name Libcllaliel [Sec W^j^nv^u', p. 541-] 



T/u Rciiremeni of Cyprian. 

While these scenes were passing Cyprian was away from 
the city. He had left it before the end of the month of 
January'; so suddenly that Caldomus writes lo him as if 
una^varc of his departure'. The place of his retreat is tjn* 




ra". He nude over part of his still la^c property to D«. 
of the presbyters RogdtJa:i. for tlic use of tlic auiTcrcra, * j*^!**' 
fonmrrfing furlhrr in'ttalmcnbi to him z% need aro?*e*. The**^"***" 
popuhw sought foe him with cne^ of ■ Cyprian to the Lions," 
and the govcnmicnt published a I'roi:cription of him and of 
bb trustees'. 

Nothing in hin career ift more remarkable than the calm 
decision with which he took a step which to many vvoulij 
le cm questionable, and which hi^ 'M^tsler' had beforehanij 
brandi^d' vith disapproval. His own ritiona) view that 3 
tour^e ^nctioned by Christ was legitimate.-^ was for some 
men ik duty, the nef;;lcct of Avhicb a^ravatcd the guilt of any 
cubsequcnt wavering',— was not the only eonsidcration which 
deUnnined his action. Clciics engaged daily in miiiJHt ration,^, 
ipiritual and cor[)i>rc.t], Vdc not frtre to depart* MJch ^biscntees 
had forsaken their <pedal callir>g The absent bishop re- 
terred their restoration, upon their rettjrning. for the deeiaion 
of the whole picbcs, and suspended during the interval their 
'nonthty cJividendV So wide wa« the line which» Hkc a true 
ttitcsaiAn, he inevitably and unshtinkingly drew between 
ihdr functions ^nd his own. The presence of the bishop on 
toy one 4;p«l was infinitely le«« important than uninterrupted 
govcffimcnt. It was nor the nnanyrdom of a saint which 
wa» tn question but the maintenance of rule. Some yearn 
litcf. when his death seemed to him Likely to be at last more 

to Vkm lb* t>««C4a rwdCDDDiuiiiaa 
vad nl^'a Ui* ■funcwK clnv Af F/, 
vj. vUffh ii (Tint onlf in Rigtlt^i 
'fttki itvaoftik.' yri Ukoi inio the 
hEft hj B*lBe> and on />. 5, whrrp 
As aaMfluifwiovi.oiniiEAd I>yll&r1e]' 

Itiadil^ BiUmvat OaH Uw plut raait 
bin b«n Iumjwi lo tbc ua^iuatcfc or 

■ Gi ttipi, iQ. The wwd* 'Dumi- 
TtVt In penrcdiionc ufflIeK et r^gtrr 
mandivil' rvfvrtitic to Match, h. ij 
riicA (hfil il U nul nocosuT \Q i(itci|iict 
Kp. rJi. 4 ■ l>ommnt, <|ui ur t^nH^pm 

jutiii' of *moiiiv ^- i>iber Ui«a of 



useM than h\s energies, he remained, against all soHcitationSi 
to die among his people. And gladly now vroutd he have 
braved danger in the activity of the presbyteratc "if the 
conditions of his pUcc and degree had pcmiitlcd'.' But hit 
presence in Carth^c would liikvc atttcictcd danger upon 
Others*; would have provoked rfot« in the aroused state of 
heathen feellngV Tertullus*, the devotee of pn«5ners and 
martyrs, was himself the prime mox-er* and moat strenuous 
ftdvocate of the concealment of Cyprian. Vet such a chartn 
invest even the most rash exposure of life» that there possibly 
will never be wanting suggestions that ihi; first duty of 
Cyprian's life w^a to thruw it aw^y. Leaving fan^ticL^m 
however to its doubbi. and scepticism to its sncen on ihU 
particular, we pass to the ii!^e he made of that life. His pre- 
eminent work sprang into light before him. rnstantjy we 
fird him blending a life of devotion and eucharist' with 
intenscat and widest activity. We find him not only swaying 
and sustaining the Church of Carthage; he forms and guides 
the policy of the Wc^l. Kepdiing a angular aggression of 
the Roman clergy, he suggests cr> Rome the measure* of the 
Church. The faith and polity of the Church are menaced 
simultaneously by the two worst dangers: by LndifTercntiAin 
bidding for popular support with newly irventcd induigcncc* 
and saintly merits, and by l^uritanism armed with Apecious 
idealsn To the victorious' firmness and sweet persuasiveness 
of Cyprian it wa-s due that in his age Christianity did not 
melt into an ethnic religion or freeze into a sect. 

' Ef^ II. 1 ',.,ct cdcbrtnlur hie ■ 

memoi-niioiitt fonjm/ A pfclrtTnl loo 
dcut uf uiic tit liU oHiLniLinJons U rdaloi 


ROMAN intkrferekck: 


inUrftreme of tht Cknrck &f Rome. 

ffc intut pviniue diese lines in d^ail. Itnincdiat^ly upon 

uirfl-Vrm**nt the Roman presbyters and deacons, thea holding 

tht uJninUiriilon of their sec' in commi^^ion during its 

waDcy, despatched two letters to Carthage, one detailing to 

Cjpriaii himself vi*ry fully the glorious; martyrdom of their Jan. ^^ 

MS bishop, and evidently painting hiiiis from his example' ; *" " *^' 

tk olbcr exhorting Cyprian's clergy to supply by their 

derotion ihc ^^oid created by the fugitive'. *Thc unfaithful 

f^^bcrdtof Eicklel and the hireling shepherd of the GoKpd, 

'the Gccd Shepherd Himj^elf and the faithful pastorate of 

Prtcr tDuil be their wiminc: and their pattern. They them- 

*jdte» at Rome h*vc reaped the reward of not deserting the 

^bodKrhomi. in the gcncial ^delUy of theii Church in spite 

"of the lapse of wjine eminent and timorous peisons/ Thi«, 

ifttr the remark that Cyprian's clergy justified hfg absence 

u beiTE an ' eminent person,' persecution impending*. Such 

1 arcasffl might perhaps have seemed intelligible had it 

blb«red ihe return of their os**ti envoy, sent with the ncwa 

of FibunS martyrdom to Cyprian, and brin^Hng b*ick the 

ituiling news of h» diAappe^rance. Utlramontanc ingeriuily 

hii indeed so nanatcd the fiaa*. But it wa* Carthage 

vUc^ had communicated both fact ^nd justi^CAtton, and 

iflfortunately the two Roman letters were sent together by 

tbt Aune hftnd, nor can the former^ which has not survived, 

I b Sf. %. Thxt on KfltUan ^ \m\ 

Mc tc*ni '.<* think h^ hmh 
tad «iC Awl richlir. IX htinfi 4 d» 

Ihe marc tipa^BL' Jifi. ft. 1- Huut 
i^ilit Ih* Bau* by hi* oana?* httatt 
'ceitAtA auBS.' 

' Krrpprt, p. 174. KnTI ol ftdn&n. 
tlon urhu Chunb'k 'iiacliiumi tji ti|(il- 
it]u:c 'lid uiiivnn] wEiLituik * be ma^ 
pAiiimriEitly t^miialhiiri^ viih Cfpntfi'i 
KTni,iirwiv« lo what mLghl Im^ >ccdiciJ 
*Aa indued tauiirc.' 




have been leas wouading than the Utter. Cyprian rc-spondl 
however with fervour to the eulogy on Fabian, but retumi 
to them their other letter with a dignified hope that it mzy] 
prove to be a forger/, since it lacks both authencicaijon and! 
address, and surprises him equally by it^ matter, its styl«^ 
and even the paper it was written on^ It is indeed asing^ular 
document Wc might have wished to share Cyprian'* aua- 
pjcion, did not a Ulei kUci of his shew that his ddiciUe 
dotibt was but a criticism of the missive^ It is, when printcdfl 
according to the genuine text, a remarkable illuetration of 
what has been often pointed out, the deficiency of the Church 
of Rome at that period in literary cultivation. The inelegance 
of its atylc and the incorrectness of its constructions and 
forms of words place it by the side of thp four other epistles' 
which emanate from less cultivated persons, and distinguish 
these from all the rest of the correspondence. No further 
caUBtlc criticism was provoked. He had awakened them lo 
the 3cnsc of his position and their own. Their answer gave 
him full assurance of siipport, and with a vigorous letter 
from the Roman to the Carth;iginian Confessors*, came op- 
portimely and helpfully. Therr third Epistle was from the 
strong, clear, pedantically clcar^ pen of Novalian' and wu 
sent after a consultation with " Bishops Present ' as Ihcy were 
called — neighbouring bishops and bishops then tn Rome on 

* In ^f. io- 3 lie ciUfi it pUinl^ 

from i[ vtth iL bVi^hi imprDvcineni in 

t>t)Xy tbinki he had mode aiui now 
dclcclciE Jic miAlakc, 

" £)y. »i — n- The emii¥ art not 
dtic lo the iiuoeuiucy but Ui the gdi- 
rectncsk of i}v text, whk;b dsewhcrE 
eihili1» no mch phi^nameiia. Set Htt- 
Iti'z ^rsfaaa. p. xtviii- Do« tkitrt^ 
ipit kii Kp. 9> % fuiclm Wi^iLCc the 
poveily of The tcnbe? One wouicl 

l-lully loirck what hunuur nru covertly] 

intrnrleil f"r Ihf Charch nf Kone 
thie cumpositioh, upon the chnry 
Ihc whuk Cyprtajil^ (i^ntipciEMJi 
Vfl» fo'grd in her ictfTpfl. 

' Theae Iwo croacd Kla Rp' lOk 
Ep^ i^. 4, AUil arc Ichc like ibaL ou 
Fabkon- The pnncipal fonrrnTs of ihr 
former ore given m £)*' ^o- 3, Kud il 
*L> Muicly diculnlcd with iwv oS 
Cyprian^s, Their lecrer to Sicily {hfi- 
^0. *) IE altry loBl (ice p. 55)- 

" Aa jo, ci»Jipa«e £fi' i*> ft. On 
NovBLi]iii\«rylc&ce p. i?i uid note- 




of the persecution or other causes, for before it wu 
«niten tlicy h^ learnt how mt^h they ami the Church owed 
n C^rtan's pr^^ervatfon. U is posvfblc too that the need 
Rv Mcloaon which Novation ^ Tclt in Y\u own cuse, us we 
iM see. hod aomcthing to do with the change or at least 
tJkc supprcKHOn of opinion from Rome on thia subjeet, so 
M««3 NoTatian became their scribe; 

TTieii hut letter a\w> pcncir-d by Nnvatian is in thoroiifjh 
accord with the vigorous stcp« which, as wc ^hall see, Cyprian 
tvk UhJ proposed to take as difficulties developed'. 


TAr Lafisfii nnd (he Martyrs. 

For in the incantime mightier i^ucs had blazed out The 
writ of confesftomhip and the reinorte of the lapsed had 
c«oe fece to face, and the conception had been entertained 
tioi the faithful mij^t mediate for the fallen. Even ir Tcr- 
idlun's time certain penitents had by their inlerccsiion pro- 
ORd r^turation to communion for othcnt. He intimates a 
4Mbl of the VRlidily' of this system in his carlit-st wnrk, 
nic ap|)ar«ntly Implying that it was of no long standing; 
W a£ a MontauUtp however exaggerated his language, he 
iboK that Jt had become more common under the patronage 
cf Ae contcmporar>' bishop whom he attacks^ 

Now, however, the question wa» no longer one of the 
dwpnisaiion of private sin, No contraM could be strongs 
Aan that between the Confessor* and the Lapsed, and it 
«3fi exhibited on a great scale. The stt^erers were not only 

'S«ff- 111. >*a- 

' jf^ jA; ■?« IS It}. L }- 

Note (^ wordi qni- 

tune p«inct£«m- I>i fhtdt^. <- *i. 



faithful to the Church, they were saving its existences and at 
the same time demon.^atin^ that the attraction» and the 
terrors of hc.ithcnit^m were rot powerful enough to hold the 
world. GratiluOc to ihcm knew no bounds. Mini^leri^ to 
tlicir wauls flocked to the prison^'. Men prayed all night 
upon the earth that they might them^elve^ be captured so 
Af to attend on those' who had been tortured. ' The Offering' 
was made regularly in theircells^ From his retirement Cyprian 
has to recommend ]c^^ demonstrative sympathyV and to 
enjoin that only one prcabytcr with one deacon should per- 
f(inn that service, and tliat these -should su succeed one 
another as not to cause the consiant attendance of any to 
be remarked. Every death among them wa* commufticated' 
to htm that he might 'celebrate the oblations and sacri^ces' 
of commemoration, and %vas calendared for future observance'. 

At Rome the martyred Fabian himself had made the 
compilation of such registers a duty of the subdeacons withfl 
their clerksV A few years latL-r began under Gregory 
Thaumaturgus the substitution for pagan feasts of wakc« 
over the martyred remains which he conveyed CO varioua 
local ities^ 

Thus everywhere the veneration for the martyrs roscTti 
proportion to the ma^nitudeof the intercstfl at stake. Cyprian 



^ AP' 37- * ' '- nuUD^ni iTiiilioniin 

* Til? unly LiUfflllfirtIc scn^ t can 

give IQ //, 3 1, J, 

c:>.1vEmnlE Ofalnit Qtcllian aiDtc from 
hb ^^■cJuifmgaillli^ru piuiJmco. ff- i/fj 
Cirrb-i/fi (cd. Dclmt)rol. t. p. I^i' 

* Kp. If- >' Frrnm ihr recilalion uf 
Ih^r nuEifli; in Ihtf iiat or cinon am^,? 
Ihc Term *»non[«h' C^rriliau, aK. 
3tf. rebuliu hucitla's vcntiDlkoii Un a 

necJum viNiJittitt\' mt^oikmnfMfst/, 

Opi. i, i6. The dday Qcccvarr tor 
(ucb cnmlmm^ i-. 4 pFObable eacplinsk 
Eiuii (lU hfLB Liccn AlrtAilj i>Wi«cil) (if 

Einl imtch lulirr. Co the epi^ph fif 
r'libifln. nliout *hi>ic martTrdom ttcrc 
can be no qkiciilon i w? pp. 65. 66 Add 

* "Noiarii,* /VA»iw C*ttt/f,pu {Lip- 
uu:i, (tfi. iii^ p. ]7£)p CT' PcftTkni. 

Afmar Thtoffi^i- iVffrti. vol- ft- pp. 31^ 

^ Gnfti Njru, 1?//. 1. ill. p. 57«,cd. 



biosdr, who vraa not without some apprchcn^on of the 
ctcnfc^ mischief; who had writtcD 50 wisely. 'He vho 

ipcikctli thin^ peaceful aud kind &ncl righteous aftex the 
' ^nct^i of Chrii«, ir rvrry tlay a Ci)nft'ss<>r of Chrwt ' \ who 
dwherc w> invarubly softcfis Tcrtiillian's rhetoric, himnelf 
MV exajOferatea it tiven to bad toicc^ in odUresifiinf; Uie 

A ^nifkaot ch^uiec Iiad taken place even in the common 
locof lercn*. Only seventy yc^rs bcfijrc thu llic sulTctcr:! uf 
Lfoni and Vicnnc had. in ihcir last prison, after their last 
coatcstt whh ihc wrild be^st^, ^h^rply reproved tht? application 
ti> lljea«elvefi of the n^mc of Mart>-r, ascribing it to thoitc 
aJonc who had foUowcd to the death ' the Faithful and True 
Jlmyr' ol the Apocalypse^ At tho end of the second 
oeaCsfy we have indeed a fragment from one \vho styles 
lanself* Attfcllus Cyienius Martyr*' . whuai, U wc rightly uii- 
ikntJiKl him, the men of Lyons would h^ive disowneil. Hui 
Tvnallian early addrcstcd imprinoncd Christians only as 
'Bttrtyrs dc^ij^ate*' and Kem^ much later to repudiate and 
ndkvle the growing fashion by his qucscion, * What martyr is 
*4 dwelkr in this world, a petitioner for pence, a victim to 
4tKttv and money-lender*?' !ltit ncjw Cyprian jscs ii frocly 
^lii tvjio are in prison:^ or m mines*, while 'Conri?<i«tor,' once 
nterved £br thow awaiting death, i± applied to any «alTcrer, 
tilcvcn fl^ht is honoured ta a * private confession'.' 

Iht eaptivei were in Cyprian's eyes ' the friends of the 
L«4* wi>o wQuld Mt with Him in judgment.' whose inlcr- 
onions already avail* id the unseen world* Dut the faction 

* ^ktntrngk ilkAiuioe auM bt made.- 
^ lie tkoi frct l m c w «f u«iaph<Ht 
>* trilr, I anmN tharx FrrppttV 
BnapHt Bl £/- lo, * - cc b>pg« 
^biMHMbE lU point Ifiiqat,' 

' MMvf/. t- 

\fii f^iftt. ti, I lA uuafale Ui 

vfupl tlw cEmmuD vxplanuiijii of this 
ilul cl&A of liittoriani which ihnia In- 




which hafi at all times been unrdendly to him aUributed to 
them such spiritual supremacy on earth as threatened to 
disoi^ani^e the whole fabric of the Church, 

Among tbc Lapacd there hud at once set in a violent 
revulsion, a pas^iondtc desire to rcciivcr or to reassert their 
place in the for^nikcn Church. Some reappeared at tJie tri* 
bunalsr and received sentence of exile'; some, like Cas 
and jCmihus, of torture and death ; some, like the sisters 
Cclerinus, dedicated themselves to the service of the coo* 
fcssors*; others entered unmurmuringly on penance of inde- 
finite duration'. Unhappily most preferred to rely on jt 
vicarious and imputed merit. At first a letter from a ' martyr' 
to a bishop prayed only that the case of a fallen friend might 
aAer the restoration of peace be examined into ; a due period 
of penitence and the imposition of hands being understood 
to be at Ica3t as necessary as after other open falls. Sofuc* 
like the torn and tortured Saturninus, forcbore even this peti* 
lioij, Mjipp^licits in dying requcslcd it only for his sister and 

But the factious presbyters, who in the simplicity and 
devotion of these men saw so promising a weapon against 
the abacnt bishop, ventured now to anticipate ncit such enqui^ 
only, but even the death of the martyr which alone could 
have given validity to hts appc<Ll', Upon the streng^th of 
papers signed by still living confessors they 'offered the fl 
names*' of lapsed persons at the Eucharist as of duly restored 
penitents and gave them communion'. Then these LibcU 
began to be carelessly drawn: they sometimes specified only 

sight cQiuulE m the x^ripCion of Taw 
fnoliv« 10 great niind&. 9eu in llii; Ijin- 
gUELg? Etic bjiidliig for support oj^aiiut 
the rnrtiouK rtFrgy^ 

> Efl. Sfr. 1- 

'AAv I- 

* Efi. rfi- 3, 

* On ^4miM p^trtv mK tLt 09^ 
reel though uot very Lucid remulu of 

%\\\r (i5a3), rtprinlfllio lLl»«<Ud»a«f 

Opt4Lu^> ifj7ij> (Kiimr'»Oputui. i£i6| 

11. VL 



one of Si grofip to whom they were granted, ' Allow »uch an 
one and Ats /amrfy to communicaicV They were issued In 
the rmme of a dead confessor, of a confc^&or too iilticratc to 
write*; issued so copiously', that some thousands were 
believed to be circulating in Africa und the very sale of 
thcni was not beyond 5uspicion\ The chief author of this 
Issue was Ludan, the old friend of Celerinus, bot very 
ttnlilce him, Oiyt Cyprian, in delicacy of feeling thfiugh an 
honest man. end 'scantily versed in the literature of the 
Lo^d^' Ltician had been charged, as he announced^ by a 
revered confe»or l^aul before his death ia prison to bestow 
'Peace * in his name on whoever it^^ked it. and lie did i^o with 
only the (iruviso, that the recipient should, when the pcr^ecD'- 
tioQ ended, present himself to his bishop and confess his 
li^Me* He used similarly the name of AureltLis. When 
renKmstrated with by Cyprian, he Accni5 to have replied 
altDOftt at once by promulgatinG; in the name of ' All Con- 
feoora*' an induIgcnGe to 'All Lapsed,' and desiring Cyprian 
himscir lo communicate this lo the provmcial bishops. A 
cooditfoft was annexed, seemingly meant for a concession, 
that they should nAiufy their bishop as to their conduct since 
llMsr fall This extraordinary document is extant*. 

Cypnan rci^ardcd il an an outr^tf^ on discipline*. The 
Rocnaa presbyters exposed its incoiiaiattncies, but partly 
eatcusod it as sliewing a desiiv to escape from thdr fal?K- 

* £f. vj- I- Ob ^at gnanti tjicLAn 
)wA«d kd ue of the n*nic oT Auiclikii) 
'^■ad lltoH BMi mtiSfl'l l^ tt for 

^K A mlJiJ vm immcdiifclr cTler 
«rianBlI.tftaf liyCrprkn- £/.jS.t. 

* £p^ u- I, 

* Compare ^r^ftTfli i/tit j^ttpttAtnt 
£^C ut^Cpvff ai cad of ccnL ilL 
LudAii. m\t. KuuUj, A- S. ^ul. IV, 

* Sf. as, 

* ., .[{uiui ittbUctqiiLiit iliijuJJ <t IPED- 



position by throwing the final responsibility on their bishop — 
which is not an unfair vicw\ 

It may for a moment be worth our while to gUncc at 
Un! modt^rn iiltnjmnnl:ine cxplaratton nf this step. *Tbdr 
'imprudent charity' says Frcppel "had forgotten that /»- 
'du!gmces have for i/tdr ohj^t «i suppkftt<Ht the tmitffi<ifn^\ 
'&/ werks of saiisfaction, but not to replace Ihem' How was 
it then that not only Cyprian, but his supposed directors, the 
RoiDan prc^b>'tei'^ left aft^r all the dcliTiition of an Indul- 
gence so I Ti com pi etc ? — No stronger refutation of ultiamon- 
tanism exists than its sitempts to write history. 

The Lapsed and the Presbyters who encouraged Ihem 
soon de^pi^cd the condition that they should satisfy the 
bishopa^^ but beyond the direct evils of the confc&toty 
action lay the unpopuUiit>' which It ensured for the bi>h<>|Js 
if they did their duty. They must presently he ^een rejeettng 
wholesale both penitents and martyrs. Discipline was 'Ao- 
lated. but harmony too and reverence rind sfiection would 
have no place under the random domination of merits. It 
is not surprising that in some of the provincial town^ there 
was something like actual riot'> ^%M^ that the Lapsed extorted 
commimioii from the weaker pre*bycer?i by force. J 

From the Cyprianic correspondence it would seem that ■ 
these disorders did not exist at Rome, This was no doubt 
due at least in part to the powerful inBucncc of Novatian J 
in the exactly contrary direction over the confesaors whom 
he commenda for maintaining 'Evangelical discipline*' ttfid 


id cpLaiAtpiiiti ilio» rcmiLlujii^ ^^ £/■ 

famun rv cum maceis mArt^riliPUfl pfLoeoi 

fliiifcKtftni wrrp loo Uifral w* tji *rite^ 
isfi dlbo il u initcw^Mc \<t crcdil ihem 
with p«ioU>ib£ LliE u>iud fuims in llie 

ntleetixLioti clause *pRiKontE Ac cIafq 
cT ciotcitla cl Icclurc* 

' ln*idia, £:f/. ij, ^\ ay. a. 

' ...InipGtUB per iBuUihidincmi Zj*. 




vto at dm ^hcTcd lo Tiim Mthcr than to the mildcf 
GnmIIusv TTicsc cIcteV sympalhir.c with Africa and cvt- 
tet]y with Sidly*, and deplore the revolt not only there but 
ii acirly all the world,' but qT themselves they state *we 
seen so far to have escaped the diBordcri o( the times'/ 
Tic vacancy of their Sec was an adequate reaiioa both for 
foitpniciticnt aod for patience- It w« prudently employed, 
atij.*! a rule, sensibly ^ttcptcdn Cdcrtnua was the exccp- 
tiio'. Cyprian** corcespondeiits amon;^ the Roman confessors 
takf Cyprian's view; ur^e humility on the Carthaginian mar* 
1>T3,aiid at last j^ beyond him in strictness* 


^^^ftr Cypnaii liad lost no time. A distinct polic^^ bad 
^^BBk e$5rniial- Thr Ermpcr of the Lapsed, the increasing 
diflgers which it threatened, the fitness of conciliating the 
~aityr^\ and the approach of the feverouit malariou* autumn 
of the old world city or the stagnant offensive water of the 
hake ol Tuni-*«*. would brook no delay on the part of the 

TAr CyfrioHic Sd»eme for Kistoratiw DuH^ifU. 

' TlAt HBBi 10 be the 1^1 msaliOD 

' ^ j«, f. 6- Under DioflctifcO'v 

«Ai|L A pa^ or lawnRfD M«((iry 
• laittatpJ bi tbc *f il»p]» ol Damfliui 

ttaft Hv barrom (tie wnitmentt »ni1 
«v4t of Cfpnu IQ <spRM Ihc limiliu 
nbtSsD. Dftm, ront. n- Dt S. Mar- 
■* Mar^yrt, -VfcUkv Kn;tnr Ai^ut 
fMr rrfmtmmjtifv iVmhatmarni fuit 
bwta UbUD,! Itukc &irof, 

i^krih ^cMduar lO puin rvl- 

Cti*.,/ Ertn hlood wa» ibctL he pTD- 

^w4t« Rnui, /wfrr, rarifT, II p. Arft 
rott— 3, r|*i ftUd K. S. il. p. 49t. 
Miitnc /Wr, Ziij/H XIII. cc. jiI^ jtj, 
FeiR Al« Can, % tpnks of confjason 
fivm|^ remiidickn ic the lApBcd under 
itic peric^iiliaii ol UiwilcEUnp liul in * 
tnlkl if^TTii. jnd he ftjijitjlnts Ihem n peiX" 

* Note* J iLTid 4 un p. 94, 

trTik|]ti>i infiniiiLHtilmt ftuLdvib r« eravl- 
|iti« rtbfahtatuiTL. . Ktir^ 0' 1^ ^nrpk^ 

Ap].^in, d^ ^Aiu /^■ifi', vtM'^. 



church In dealing hvith the anxious multitudes who bcsic^ 
her gates. So ,soon as the Lfbcis appeared he wn^te 
despatches to the conresaor* at Carthage, to his clergy, 
and with peculiar warcntli and confidence to hi* laity', Co 
Bishops in ail directions', to .1 rensrkabic group of RoitiAn 
coAfc^aors, and to the Romau clergy' who were still under 
the leadership of the able, high-minded and austere Novaltin. 
This n:ian. had he lived ii) Komc brief hdlcyou day when 
ortliodox speculation and a^^ccrticism were in the aaceitdant, 
might have been a scholastic sainL That, in times of eonflict 
and in the most praciical of ail ciues, some ungc of ambition 
shot across his higher quahtie^, made his position f;itse and 
his memory unenviable. At present however notliing had 
appeared In him but the de^r and somewlmt hard decisive- fl 
ncss which, giving point to his nobler characteristics* made 
him regarded as the possible head of the Roman church, 
ivlien Fabian's successor should be elected, Moyses, Maximus f 
and Ihcir fellow prisoners were as yet earneatly attached to 

To aJl whom he now addressed Cyprian proposed one 
simple method: To reserve the case^ of the Lapsed intact* 
wheiher the martyr* had given them Letters of Peace or 
not', until councils of bishops, assembling both at Carthage 
and at Rome* on the abatement of persecution, should lay 
down some general principles of restoration for those who ■ 
deserved compassion: Then ihc cases to be licard individually ' 
b/ the bishops with the assistance of their picsbyierate, 
diaconate and 'commons'': Full confessior witlioul reserve 

* Ai^ If, to, and ij- 

' £pfi. >7 ud iS. 

* £/- ac^ 3. 

* £fip^ i* .1, sfi. 4. 

* £p. 17^ 4 /rjjyjfiwj in />Je&£ eita- 
ti}friitu.ui, i:p. 31. f, puts m the 
■Uoni^cal %ht the opiniqnt Wjih of 
C^prlbii and uf Uie Roman Conrmon 

Vit 10 th« put vhicb tb« Plcbes w«i«co 
b»rc nn Adcaiini of ttc mAcaiiudtf of 
Chr afair. ' r^vjtt/4> (imnihut Eplicopili 
I'nwhylpni. DiBmnihit*, funifi-Hortbiik, 
Bcd fi i/su vtaniibus Zaini/, ui in lith |i- 
lerii el ipsf iHiniii/ £/'. 17. r '...d- 

II lU 




to be required la the presence o( those mo^t convcrjuint with 

ibe circiMiiBtarcc^ : Rcadmissfon to Communion to be given 

by Lhe impoftcd h^ndi of th« bi^op and clenit : M<;antlme to 

cOKcde to mercy Ami to the martyre thus moch^— thjit any 

bpsid person In dant;er of dciiUi or in ^rious trouble, wA^ 

W Atfff provided tfi/& a LiM, might be readmitted to com* 

nniott with ifopoaitiOR of hands by any presbyter, or lo 

Jepenite ca«e.*«, even liy a deacon' t until ^eneiul re^^ilutiuna 

^IJ have been come xo. all others, who had not obtained 

C^km&n Letters, must even in the hour or death be 

CORimended to the fofgivene*^ of God wcthout c^irthly com 

miaiofi And be a»btcd in their repentance. It wa^ not 

kr the ordinary ofBccm to restore them to communion 

Mttbo«t directions from the bishop, or recommendation (wm 

oujtyrs. To a]t it wai still open publicly to recant their 

teial of Chr>«T, and to abide the ii«ue from the heathen 

luihoritie*. Thus they would be not mcroly restored but 


The grounds of the course he advised were these : 

t. That fo general a question should be dealt wtth upon 
lofne general principle not by individual discretion*. 

7. That the Lapsed if restored at once would have 
fared belter tbiin tJie Con^unt who had borne the lusa of 
^ tlitngx. 

3- That some regard should be had to the "prerogative" 

Thtic principles he in^sts upon in his letters ^ind in his 
punphlct Or THK Lapsed'. The concession to confessors is 

' . rum pabconm ntc ttdrmu «dii» 
■« waim pvDviodv Kd tcUv orViit 

r^tumf dI the tc(1«itT— lurly, tmi iE ia 
of ihiXt icUkt vkw>. for thcjic view* 
graJEUlly alter, ju vc ahAll hc 



not unnaturaP, His assurance of the divine sccepUncc of 
the un-iiieltd penitent i^ nobly exprf^**ed', *Thty ihit in 
'gcrtl<?nc£« and lowliness and very penitence shall have per^ 
"severed in good works will not be left destitute of the hclp^ 
* and aid of the Lord. They too will be cared for by a dtvioe- 
' healing.' 

0*1 ike 'Pr&i>^' a/ H^man C&n/fSsi^H uiAich is Jerifed 

Some thetjry yf ' de^'clupmeul ' applied to the principies both of 
dihcipUue AJiJ JociiiiLE i& no Ica;^ e^scniisLt Co the pro^rt;^^ (and even 
to the consinjciiou} of ecclesiastical than of civil Kt;il«£. The mil- 
iiijmne uf Konie U wax ijnly thai her coiiMructi^cncss has been m- 
consequent s.t\.A has mtorporated usngee subversive of Ihe origin^ 
(hcoiy, boi ihai she does praaically lepudiale sdicmcs u/ 'develop- 
ffletl ' erected in her behalf, Her icholais are required To prave her 
most modeiii inveutions to be pnitiiiive. Fqf msUtnce — The word 
Confesaion {txemolirgtsit) is siiil so far from bearing a technical 
aense in Cyprian, ihul li is applied in thr ^mie pn>;t f i ) lo die 3un|i 
of the Three Children, £2) Co (he Mono^ly of Uani«l, aj\d (3) V^ thtj 
public acknowlcdKJiiciiL (jTapusla^y {tie Laps. ^^^ 31 ^, iu vrcU as (4) \tt 
Testim. iiin 114 to ConfciEion of sin lo U<k1. The word 'Sacerdo*' 
in Cypnvi invariably sij;m£» a Brshvp. But ajudidaus EimiiiUiDD 
of iheae two tennft to the sense of ^ sacramenial confe&btots ' nndi 
'picabytcr ai priest' yields lu Ihc ultramontane mind ihe pfoduci 
of aijricular c□nfl^slion as now used \^ the chttrch of Rome^ Is it not 
Eicuraolo^eaia before a Saccrdas } 

A iQiniilAr conoatr^niilian U made of (f ) Cypnan'a aTg>mient tlutt 
*»ince even ordJnajy pcnitcnis could be restored only through the 
imposition of hands by bishop and clergy, afcvr lets offencei than 
apoatasy, the Lapsed cannot be admitted rrujn easily' ^th (3) his 
te<\M\t^n\t^r\tcii tr/imiilogfiistini^ the latter class, and (j) with esampli?* 
drawn from some tender consciences which had rcvcjUed a merely 
eomempUrerl desertion, From these pas«ige5 is drawr [he inference 
(hat Cypnan ' d^w^niJ^f^ /d^r^tmfrtAi/ confe^ion of di/thclesssonous 
fBuha' A& ^itdtigfitary' and 'a« extending even to ftati thoughts.' 

' .^Aumvidcjclurcllionnt inaii.ynbiu 
bftbenmh, /->. ifr t- Cf, Ef. 18. I. 

■ Ep. iS. ■. 


ACMtt in exlrcmc C4»o a pickb? icr * witfaoui iv«itinf Sot our pre- 
voce* ta ' rvcn a iHtucort' mighf on appTC^f^h of death Uy hi« haAd 
at ■ pcaiient who Im ^otiruicd hh bpic, And give him ihol ' Peace' 
whidi the manyn harl rc;u<-sied for hifn. Thi» simple natural per- 
imiaMn is by the uJcrnmontfknc cxpandcJ iniQ (tic foHowinii: diffi- 
cultie*: (I] that coni^^tcia ta a deacon who Wit 'ncM ihe minittftr of 
ihe tAcrunertt of peii'tacc ' wju *nn act of humility which could not 
&1 lo be rtry meritorinus' : {aj tKiT 'a* inJuljfences iirc conferred 
ijtut Aram the tacraiTncnt ' so *At that dale Appnrcntly dcAcons h&d 
]h« powrr tci ■il^);f4/>' to tfir yScV turh «ptriniJi1 l^vour*; (J) thU par* 
tuulAf 'spintual favour' U defined lo be ^a rcmii^on to ihe mot)- 
buMlctfii///if lVB^^«nt//a»if due io rhrtr iim.' 'ti wat whui we call 
f/frjMn^ tHdn^^mtt ^Cf^rdeJ in ikt iirur &f Hesttk} 

Thii> ihm i« the my lo demon^ttatr ihr pr^mJii\« rhjimcrer of 
ceofeMHM povftb^ Mcremtntol, obti^nLofy, c^icndin^ to ihe ihojj^tv, 
ud biixsrcd with p^ary indulgence. This ^UtnoM incrcdihlr Jvg- 
rfag l« 6rom FreppePs tenth L.eeturc on S, Cyptmn at the Sorhonne. 

Kochcrup note«i.p. S3^ihat Exomoh^tsis m f'enullian tigniRcs the 
vlnk coooc ukI piOLCi^ of [juUlk pciiaiL^ ; whjch i& no nearer lo 
fc Kooun U40 (tee tU Pamifniiity c. 9). 

VI n. 

^kt adofiifti ^k)/ was Canhei^inian twt K^tnan. 

"Dit moJcm UttTatiiuiiUnc asciibch tlii* policy Ui 'the 
'tfiuingukhing wi.<dc)in of Ihat chv:rch, mcjihrr ;*nd mi'rtrcss 
'of all others, which Indicates to Carthage tho only couraeV 
iod attipu to Cyprian the merit of ' fully adopting this line 
of conduct' 

Tht hoiKit Tillcmont tnithfully wrote ' Cyprian regulates 
'ia a council the buiinc&a of tlic L-ipscd, and '\^ followed in It 
'by Rome and by the ivhole churchy' There i4 no pn^uibility 
of doubt ax to the origination of the wliole policy. 

l>p. 195— ' Vfll Of. i CffrUtt, An. 13. 




All that tiie Roman clergymen have to recommend in 
their first coarse letter' i* mere restoration of the Lapsed if 
Mick anil jienitent : to the rcfit they o5er no piospcct but that 
of exhortatfati. Conception of the wijrld-wridc itn|»ortancc c>f 
the crisis, conception tyf/tiffir^ they have none. There i* no 
fiit^e£tion of in ves tig action by tile Bishops, of coundtft or 
committees, of the s^sistance of the laity, of modification 
of discipline in accordance with circumstances, of rcacrvalion 
until qujctcr times. Yet these are the ImporUnt lines. With- 
out itiem ihe plan is featurelcfi^. 

And il i* Cyprian who step by step develops them all in 
the three letters seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth to 
the Clerfjy and People of Carthage. In his twentieth be 
communicates his views and the action he had already taken, 
to the Roman clergy. He observes that he has seen their 
letter'n ' reconimending the restoraliun nf sick penilentai,' 
and agreed with il, 'considering united action very im- 
portant/ This is the commonplace with which he proceeds 
to develop his own far greater scheme. Less he could not 
say in inltodacing it^ As the plainest exposition of it he 
encloses to them a budget of Thirteen Letters' which he had 
from his retirement despatched to Carthage, containing his 
siicce-ssive comnieiil* and ijistriictioiis upon the progre** of ■ 
affairs, and he adds a connected outline of their purport. He f 
repeats his own three ob^iervatlons which had led him to 
direct ihat^ while others should be deferred till tlie councils 
couid be hetd> those who possessed martyrs' Libels should. 



' £fi- fl- 3t «e ftliovct kcIh V, 
■ £^ le. J. Mcnniag £;>- ^. Itlffiv 
tified by thv mt-nliui of CrcmentiiK. Kc, 
^hM ]c»] una. tmiCDil Lb £f. 37. 4« hid 
not ypi rradip'l hinU' 

tory »Dicncc hoH he m<nt]on^lhcqupvli' 
fiatioiL^t inLEodm^td b} him&tlf, whkh 
moile nil the (IlffeTonct! /l/>- lo. j 
'^.JUcJuui pulftvi Gt cum vcatra ica- 

euc cr i^ tirta omriJi lipher, in 
nliquu diftcrepitrel. fiJaru rfjf/w*w— 
ivatiti, fM^MW iibtih a martyr^m 

DitntlH*/ ww5i> ^fii, pluiu itmveaire im 

• £/- 30, 1 On ihe Tliirtwn L»[t#f« 





!a peril of death, be reUorcd by the imposutJon orhiuids\ 

He procniscs the Komann a full share in the future rc^- 

klos ckf dctaiU'. They in their answer, compOM^d by 

Ko^ilun And hmiI niaud tii thif K%t fur ihdr sigoHturat, 

Enawledige ihe whole sxrhcmc to be entirely Cyprbn\ and 

ft whh a patronising deferene^. ' He allows themj say 

't!bc>', by virtue of their approval to share hid credit to be 

'i&(>ii£bt of as "eohcir**' in hia counsels because they reaffirm 

*AcniV 'Too haity remedies/ such as they hail themselves 

jt fnt advised, arc dcprt-cated ; poinl by poinl the Cartha* 

gfai^a scheme U re^tatAJ and adopted. They are only 

tolidtous to point out that in their former letter they had 

EfccQivdvcs * lucidly ' dLfferenced three elates among the 

Upied. The more plain-spoken Confessors of Rome ac- 

kDC«lcdged the debt more candidly and less obsequiously'. 

f.att1y. in a nulc to thcin which relates a new presumption 

rf the ' martyrs ' C>"jiTian adds thai, if ' neiliier his own nor 

their letters' bring tliem to their senses, "we shall act as, 

recording to the gospel, the l-ord charged us to act'.' The 

Roman dcr^y >n their last letter, also by Novatian'a hand, 

Adtniiingly acknowledge his 'vigour' and enforce with 

tr^ofaenbt, as he wishes, the action that bai so far been 


■ Ct- xommuniuu Mum v^hiBcam 

iDplcf of CfprliD*! In A'p. lo. 



On Ihf ThitUtn Epistles c/ 'whUk Cyprian senf tttpits ft' M^ 

En Epi^Lle 20. i Cy^i^iftii ^\*c\ fir/iii o( the coiucnu of lliciic liU 
Thincer l_elteni^ with some fhrnnolo^^icai noiffs, in somtwhai of ili* shitiv 
way in which Pontius {PVA c. 7} gives in a few sentences a conaccutivc 
oailiD« nf CypriAn'^ Tr&»isfs Hy writing out jKk iltptdi in rlaci^e^ and 
Itnc^i And pL-icin^ cppo^ke to these uur own abstract of certain cp^stlea. 
we ifliall farm an opiition (1) At, to wheUicr any of the Ehiriecri ^tt loii, 
(3) a^ ;o the order in which Cypiiun himself had Ihcm arranged^ and 
wi&htd them 10 be lead. Thu* — 

Cvp. Ep. 20. ^' Et quid c£«nin locuntur vobia Episiulfc pro temparibos 
«aiis£iir nucncro Tredccim : 

in quibus nci! *dcro' contiiliuiT), 

nee 'confcaaorlbu^' exhonaiio, 

ncc ^cxtorrlbus^ quando oporluit objurgaliOi 

nee unjvefSvf fraleniii-iti nl dcprccandam Dei miichcordUnii 
cutJo et ptrsuasto nostra defitiL 
Posicaquam vcio ct 'tormenia venerunt^' 


sive jam lortis fralribus riostri^, 

sive adhuc ui torqucicnlur 'indiiaii/ 

ad cunoborando^ &js et coafortando^ noster sermo pen^ti^tviL 





%^ % 7, 14. Tiiitci: Idrcn to Picr«iivtc(u; and Deacon^ an iheir 
dn£j : oM hU funda ; keep the prions quiet: J^fi. 7 rcgrcu own 
abscDCe^ wliich is for gcneml good : cxre of widows. &ick, poor, 
fturifiriicn ' •Lddjlional mpplic^ . £fi, y 2 spc^Ls of Itic prr>cnt u 
th( ini/rtt of pcr->ccution as in J-Sfi. f). 4 >ind £>t- 15. £ : Et. 14 » ih« 
klW«( and >ironj{tftt about 'ixiupoKh' {t\*d io precetUs E^ C)q> v. 
EftL; rU order otherwiie unAjii:^]/: t|UOti:t £/. %. 

M^h. To Ccn»rK«ott^. '...Kmiulor \>'.tr\\vr ci exhcmor. .-' Kmbff' 
OK Joy in ihdr ccnfettinn ihr> the first prisoners: no(P 100 m- 
fTwA itU/is. i/id exptp«i(in-i coinfulcm with those of ^;9, s- 
ly To COJ'FESSORS. ^pt:iks oi bin fonrer 'exBulumr^ verba' 
Imv £fi, 6> £xhum 10 portftvonac*. !>cv<;re objur^ntion of fpigUy 
OMteiors, reivfDod iwnvi and othcr»> H^oit? h u /nW /^rt- 

To PKEahVTttiw !uid DK-vcoas, wiih ditrciions (7) ibftt ir be 


nod ta Oie Bk&THRLN. One (uniinuous K-ilioruiiioii tu Fruyer. 
He nan llic pliniMT 'Lurmeiiu vcDcniiu'' and dnctibe^ ihcw ix» 
dcirHcii not :o Ik foi^l bui tu tioni/eri. [Fl-cIiuuj* pp. jy, 40 wrll 
vguet ihjU tbit EpUilc precedes ihc bcv«rc&t Muge tirdei thi; jtru^ 
Ottful, b«l i» j^ Hidv-LTLte from chc impjn^unmcni and <:onriAai:ion 
Ml^e.) Fnsn Uie jllu^ion in Sp. Ij- 6 u the vlaiun descnb^d in £j>. 
II. ^ £p. 13 pn>tubty folluw^ £fi. 1 1 in lime ihough not in Cypri-tn'v 

fy II- To FrjuuVIkiu and UUACONS. Home have died in pnton, not 
hoio lOflturvs ; ire no less martj-rs riottutps therefore hnve no! 
b«tft csUtne, bul niL^hl hai^e been— wturh exacliy t^orretpands with 
Ibc reiL It below* to tame moment a^ £fi- ti)' nfers verbally lo 
^ 5, Thi» *p#akt of havm*- '**fteif wriTen' about ihc I'Oor, "-hUI 
L»p« jun bcnpai,' tvhich limdi Uj filar:inj{ not £J^ 5 ^nd £/k 7 otdy, 

bui alio Ji'p. 14, •omewhcro m the yroup .^bove i:/ 

£^, to. Ti> MAKiVSi and ConhiMOits. This jnd remiiinind Epiatlw 
all dicell on Toituce 11 in fult use ; onJy I inprl sunnicnt or e^ile 
banctf brci> u^cd hilhcrlu- Tlic*>r: ibrn bclunif tu ihe Vi>iildtfun of 
tJac Pioco(k>t)L Thii U [aici I^hji A^rii 17. from tit mention of 
^■PpiTirm' dc*ith uudct toiiurc. '^hoK: u^inntciiiofAtioti i» cLii day 
in IBC Ainum K^iend'U- TImi EpiMle could not be sujnm^iriKd more 
ciactl]l ilua by Cypiiin crppoaite, V^uioui CApreifiii^n» coincide aUo- 

CoBpuc Jk Lafii. 1^ ' Sed tormcjum poAtmodum icnentnL' 



lL«in cum compeTitacm Slz. M/ liUiriSuiwn e/ltMU, 

litiersu feci quibus m^rtyres ei <:onffr&ioret ad domiflicii ' pni^c^pti ' 

revocjTfm : 

Ileal pit^hyxtin cl diicombiu non deruit kACCiduti) vigor ui ^quldvn '' 
[Ii5<:iplim minus 'mcm^rcs,' rtetivirtg La^etit^ Ci>in/fmmsH wi/M^vi 
smthi>niy. tumjjiinirrcnliir, 

Pottmodufn v«m {ike Lepifd hit^'tng vioi^nSfy frtorUtt <pmtMitwfimy^.69 
hoc eTinm m^ aiI Citnim !iri«niH fiFci.u (|iii Mi1>oni> a martyTiliat 
;iccepio' dc siru^o cvcedprtni 'exiimoUigcsl fticu' et ' manu «k in 
npnttpmia imposiu c^itt puce' *ibt *» tJiBftyribxis' prnmfs*a 'ad 
Dominum' remiiitrennir. 

Sod cum vtdereiur j. iwfjjMr^ /*' rftpn/ Cf/i/^-rs^frr, 2. ^ititPt ihf Ltt^irJ, 
3. ret<'Hi.iie ikk ptaiieHii, Ac hud otdcfsd lk< hMli i'f It cttmp/itJ 
n.'ifA m /*/j iart rart, or tgicftr*}^ iht thftt f^tnit: aii otk^rcaas U 
bs ttfsrvid fifr a Coand! 'whsH Pta^i rrfttr/tj. 




^^ tf To MAMiYlct ukd CcKnciAo;%i^ Obs«rv« Chnit's 'preccpu,' 
U disciplMie » u<i! as faith, even though prasbytere mid <Ic:ic<jn« 
beiailL This (4)m«ciiont £p. i& to Uiecktigy, and Hfi. 17 10 tbe Mst tati:« taneon same sut^ecL (?jLinc: scvtrttics ikluiiin^-) 

ptci»cly <Jct<f tbcd oppotttlc 
i^ i;. To LaIIY. Accgmpuiics £p. 15. A precuc aoCDUnt of ii 

% ta Tu PKesBrrKRs and Ducqk& D^led lu ble July cr Auiniiit 
pact* uit nbovc cuf r^er ; aho accutfitfffy ni:iTr|)i^<^il> -^i^tl i:xprcs^ions 

i^ If T« PxiDtmTKioi and nrcArnw?;. Ai^curate pr^is in ^/l ?o^ A5 

f r b ckar frovi the :Lbavc companion thai no \ttHiT described by 
b miuini; f:<JUi ilic budi^ci. He tvisturi) iIjc Roiiiaikt u> :c^ 
ii^ t^ *wh ^jk S ''**^ ^/" 7» ■*"*! -/^A "J bcfort £/. M, oui of their 
t bukimy , on Account of iheir Mibjccit. 

Thfl cfcro&ologicai order sundi ihus, 10 for u it deiennioe* it«df, 
Ef^y\7, i\, Lj. 14. ii> iti^ IS. i*^v 17, iS. isL 

Tiircnwm IV, pp. CO^-^ 604, 605 and Dam MAtno i^f/ 6', C>t^> ix. 
kiw doobcv but Peaui%(m hiw thjti wc bjul ^ill- rechtnip (p^ 41^ 41) 
apccs wtth CcftTKin, Jtnd ventie« with cire and cZeame^s, 



Throughout the earlier part of Cyprian's corre£pondciic« 
IS perceptible a rcliiincc Lipon his Iatt3% a dissatisfaction with 
his clergy. These omit to answer his letters\ Some act 
Independently of his aims. Some compromise themselves by 
entire deference to the injunctions of the Confessors' ov 
adopt them as the ^iCrongesi barnr^r against superior autliorityi 
In one letter' he throws himself on the Plebes with an almost 
impassioned appeftl. * My presbyters and deacons should 
*have warned them. I Icnow the quietade, the 5hrinking<> 
*ness of my people. How watchful would they have bcCB 
'hid not eerlaia presbyters in quest of populanty decesvcd 
' them ! Do you then yourselves t^We the guidance of theci^ 
*one by one By your own counsel and moderation r^raia 
'the spirits of the lapsed.' 

When he haa at length obtained the entire concurrence 
of the Roman clergy, Novatian included ', of their confcssora*^ 
and of the whole episcopate African and Italian', he assumet 
a stronger tone with his own cleTgy^ and recjuires them 10 
circulate the whole correspondence of which he forwards 
them copies. This was done'. The afTair seemed settled 
for the present- All the Lapsed except death-stricken persons^ 
however armed with Martyrs' papers, even Clergy penitently 
ready to return to their charge', were reserved for the dci 
cision of the organic authority — the united Epiacopatc. 

Lastly JO accordance with the severer tone already as-^oimerl 

• £p. jj. 1, J. 

■ E/. 55- i' i 

■ £j'^ ]H. i- Tlicy were 10 ccvc 10 
drpw Their munlhlj illvLikndA, thoDCh 
'<iviEhauL prtjuclicfl/ unlil lh«y cookl bt 




bf ccram dc^y aciiiig vt ctmciert witli some bishops wlio 
kidbcea visiting Carthage and were fn Cyprian'* confidence', 
fistkc WHS duly (^ven of cKComitiitnication to bo enforced 
ifihft any who, until that authority should have :(poken, 
3^<ild give communion to any of the Lapsed except in the 
c»eia1rcad>' proviJod for'. 

By the November of the year 250 tlie perseciitttin wa* No».. 
ttUxJng »t Canhagc. The Goths had crossed the Don.''""'**' 
Diehit waj leaving; Rome for hiK la^t campaign. It was 
Ao^t^-cr stilL uiteftfe for Cyprian to return. He therefore 
MK&ttsioned five representatives' for certain important func- 
!bi». which be fetched out and for which he supplied the 
Dcan^. in Carthage and the neighbouring districts. These fjaxi., 
■ffeibrcebiihop-t, Caldonius, HoTculanns and Victor, wkh two **"****'' 
pfwbyters, Numidicut whnm, after his already mentioned 
v^scitttion from 3 horrible martyrdom, Cyprian placed 
aaon^ the clerj^ of the capital, and lastly K<^tian, the 
a{td coDfcMOr, long »ircc chained with the dispersion of 
Cfpnui'^ fortune. The letter of Caldoniua. who acted with 
lnw««, indicate^ by \x^ incorteclnrss a scanty and provincial 
edbotion* This commisiion had enough to do, under social 
cooditions which teemed to allow penury' no upward road, 
in difitnbultrtg alma, in helpfully subsidising confessors whose 
ci|ieal had been conl^:»catcd so as to enable them to rc:tume 
^trades, in selecting persons capable of being employed in 
bnctionsof the church*, in maintaining cummunicalioiiM with 

' ^> )li >^ wlicrc ihty aie hU 
WBt^t et t/oaanm^atian with afhor 

~^/- aJ- I ',.'W pnf mc i>carii:«,' 
b «TlKcn tr> Then when 
C«fdk4ce. cilbcr vUrlne 

ol ^btm ■- ' hu liiteru inc9k 

ad dnum iiuumiititv....' £fi. 41. 1. 
TTifFe \i no il^ af their mnova] hdng 
Ave la the influence of FcUciuimui. 
Tlic rcMJbcca Here aliU Cyiviui'i vwu, 
mmi/ti^r ittit- //- |r. 1' 

* r,-ibhiuaa priortm deMc^um, Uid 
thr Funic L«lin tjlvmn/ri twi« fut 
/tifirrn, Ac- urith fiT^t i^hitminfti rtf 
Ckprt«i«ii' £/. 14. S« lUftel't Pr- 
btc. p, ■Iviii' ) Ic kb^ul J 111 tuii>»lcacr 
have kepr thoit KiiiliDB* nf TaO<! T,. 



the provincial bishops, und above all in endeavcuHnj; tq 
persuade to patience the restless masses of the LaptedV ^ 

Superstition wo^ in »omc quaiten bcginntne to add terror 
to tht ^iMCiciy for restoration. Stricken consciences hud in 
many instances induced physical and mental prostradon^t^n 
death*. One person had become dumb in the moment of 
dcni.ii and so remained. Another had died in the public 
baths, gnawing the tongue which had tasted the idol sacrifice 

On the other hand still more terrible ^igiis indicated the 
profanity of prcsuraptuou* return. An infaTit girl had rejected 
the chalice with wailing and convulsions. Thi« occurred in 
Cyprian'^ own presence, while celebrating during his retire- 
ment It wa« found that the nurse had t;iken the child 
before the magj&tratcs and made it taate the idolatrous wine 
A woman who clandcitinely prcisented herself at the litur^, 
died in die act of communicating. One who had as usual re- 
served the sacred Bread al home, was, on opening iu receptacle 
after her lapse, scared by an outbLrst of flame, A man found 
it changed to aiihea in hia very hands. 


Declar&t'u>n of Parties. NtK'atiU and Fdicissimui. 

The latter class of stories indicates, what was the Cad, 
that the opinion destined to create and to perpetuate real 
dJviBion was already active. Evidently the question which to 
some was presenting itself was not when, ur upon what terms 
the Lapsed should be readmitted, but whether it was possible 
for the church to remit such guilt. Although Cyprian employs 
these incidents in favour of delay, they are plainly no ema- 
nation from the party of moderatioa Vet he probably 
apprehended at thitt moment Uttlc peril from the icntimcni 

^ E^ !«. 

Dt Zq/W* «4* >di ^< 




Pdritsntsm. It vNi* the piirt/ cf Laxity which at prc^nt 
to be absorbu^ into itself every dan^croua clement 

It thrtaterkcd blm indeed from rti^fiy sules. There were 
Ik cfxwyls of IJbrlUiicii cagrr for rctMTn. Thctt u-rrr 
wntoriouft confc^sofs. woundai because Ibeir fortitude waj 
M tllovred to cover a brother'^ weakness. 

Bot the conscientiously troublesome In both ranks were 
oinciicied by the Hx>rlci]y artct un-Hcrupuloua who roamed at 
Kttaiiit, Fof them Ihc Universal JntluLgence franked with 
ife Tuime of the Confe^or Paul iva§ title enough Eo cancel 
Bwre «pisccpal restriction s'. Some ' n^fugees " who luid never 
left the port, and others who had quickly broken their sentence 
tfid come back, skulked awhile as outlaws in low hiding' 
pbf»'; and emerged, as the ?u:vevities abated, to claim a 
vnoe in church-alfair& Some of ttie confessors, their heads 
tncncd by VAiiity, wtiirted by female dcvolce*. had sunk 
itfa icandAlmi« immorality'. Of ihr Upsrd many h^d not 
^ent one day in penance, but had braved ihetr shame 
uiid the habit-; of f^if^hionablc and dissipated life*; while 
(ai ve have sccrf iniluential persona in the provinces had 
cucvtcd commumon by actual tumult from unwilling cJernfy. 
Many of llic clergy however wltj: not unwilling', and ihcy 
^md ready ehie/n, although ^erhap^ ncii at first avowed 
ottB*, in the Five Frcftbyters who had been all along hostile 
ti> Cyprian's election and authont>'. Under their headship 
At party ^rew Dunacrous and bold enough to designate itself, 
IB a manifesto addressed to the bishop himself, as ' TJIE 
CnVKCH.' To this he answered charactcH-sticatly that t\tict 
the dty of the Charge to Prter the Chureh bad been found 

' S«b BiDM be* i iWk the Eomiing 
4 '.. ftllrpili lonoloiliH M Iwclv^ni* 
4iift«iaic» aIuu ib ouK pMFiuta umle 
MMok IkOb at KCioAnif. at depre- 
9^m» HOD |ftn qmtl Oirvatiuiua trd 
^mmtoemtftmt^' £/. tj. ^, £jr- 
*nw u ovtUMlT «wl both of ibflw 

wh4> fleJ vbA ihuK who were IcC^iy 

* /If ir*a^ M. 

* /y^ 1^' I. 9 ' Xune appinin Kcli- 
«»iini futio unic venbftcl-,,.* 5« 
abuTc. pp.. t$, «!■ 





in unity with the Bishop; and »ilU more charac:temcica)l]| 
that iheir Toll of the Lapsed could scarcely be "The Church^'* 
since Goo was not the GOD of the dead but of the living.' ' 

More welcome letters^ reached him at ihc same mcmcnt 
There were many of the Lapsed who had ever shicc ^ivcn 
themselves devotedly to good works in silence. These no^ 
assured him that they would never plead iheir LJbtrU ; that 
they were living in thankful penance; biding their time foe 
ftttoration to Peace on his return. They added with thaf 
gentle fervour which marked true African Christianity that 
* Peace would be more swccl to them if re5lorcd in his own 
' presence' ' How I hail ihc^m/ says Cyprian^ * ihe I-ord ia 
' my witne^ ; He has vouchsafed to ^iiuw what ^crvanL^ li 
Mhese deserve from His goodness/ 

Then in that methodic way which gave point to all hit 
cnthii3ia9m he requests from each side a liat of their signatures^ 
sends to the clergy of Carthage explicit iostrucdons, and to 
the clergy of Rome, by a subdcctcon Fortunatus', copies of «il 
the papers'. 

Foremost of the presbjicrs stood the famous and restlcfi^ 

EneuisMcmELnd fnr them/ To concdlf 
thni nf-i has <ln]ppml oitX befbr* BUtrii 
DiDnairuuA m Lftiuut^, and lo irunlaU 
it ^ chirn /ift rhrmt/irvj liberty la gttt 
/4/VM cnmniuiiiori prvnuiurely,' (t|MU] 
!A, Su, huHcvcr* 0. KitKlil'k UbiMTvd 

* Secp.47. ' Rcrum qovprum Kffipa 
cup^dkib/ £f. ^i. 1. Thai (be ]at\a 
Novaiu^ WEU onr of Ihp ¥^ve K^^tain 
from lliv wlioU lenctr of ihc htalory a 
ihs fasildn moic tliait trotn piiTUculai 
pteUfifs. Compare hiiwrvcT £ji- r^- 4 
£j>. sg- g, And whjtl it oaiJ of th< Pi*4 
presbrtcin acting wiih Fdici^imui, ^ 
4^. 3, ami or Nnvaiu^ acUng wirh him 
Sf^.^ut. ThMlheFivcAjcthcoiickA 
o|,itioccii[a of Cy|>rlAa is ^cwn hy ihi 
^xprFsuoTi 'nUm fo^undum vAtin «f 
Ihi^ ' in £/, tj< }, and the** 

■ Bofh IftUns Hie ^eicrihed in />. 33. 


•f>36. I. 

' £/f. 3j, 34. ilj, Tht Rfsman 
dcT^ acknowledging ihae £fi. 3^. 3, 
a^ Ibcic miLsl Irf? 9011LC '<]UJ illiM 
«nuM-,,rt in pcrveraim imJfumra..- 
mV\mt dflpOftcanI illjf pDpEriLif coqi- 
DHUueitionh vcncttfi/ iint thai itoi ^»mi; 
IfudnClU fftb^rumdam^ wuulrl al] havt? 
dlLT«d ■UOi petutanlEr iihi jnin /vt.^m 
vlndkuC'' I1 bhould be uniK-^cuoiytv 
r«mjirk ihat armrur n1ib intirtunut 

uieaU^E /tft-id^ an4i /Nrnish, liuid has ao 
1x14-114311 la pitum wliicli i^ siin{jlr j'tfA- 
murtioH. anil coiilnJn»i no imlicnriun of 
■ weilerc aulslondiiclie Heive^pJtigea/ 
^v^rvi'i^nj rcfcri Co ihc pcn^rib nf 
whum C>-|TLan had told ih?m. not to h i£ 
etergy at Urge. Agntn '^JtJ^s^mitf ii/ia ' 




To dicitc o|>poiicnL% Cyprijtii allows on the whole 

both age and weight of character, yet Novntu:^ h<Ld been in 

fair repute', aod hatJ escaped zti investigatfon" Into his 

onduct otxfy through the breaking out of the perEccutioD- 

Hc had bdcn chargcxi ivith inhuman cruelty towards his 

«ra -wik ftnd father', [t is true that the assumption of 

lAnatus' guUt* and the ^ilrlbuting his withdrawal to a 

Mncken conAcicncc, ;u well as gi^neral accusations of dejir;ivity 

uj unworthy motive, may or may no! b& due to factious 

Eifrescntationj. But that an enquiry before Cyprian and 

useMor» was impending over Novalus just before the pcrsccu- 

tifta broke out b surely undeniable^ It is a question of 

fad upon which, if Cyprian '5 direct statement be not tnist- 

■nthy, what evidence \s credible*? 

^|pvd tcgctluf leave no dvubt &> to 
^^Blfflkalkci uT iLttf ^Mrrik 'idem <»t 

CMte l—tndf<m acnJUTii, Jbc' Mf>- 

Cjf. ccLi. tij CpovaU Jovinus ud 
Ih^BMi b« dMM hod Upxd {£fl. 

to vtj fif thf Kit*. PajT^lv 

lUposiu* AriJ Fflui bm df 

c «ftfc A Upiol lfi>hG|j arid th« 

i bi4ic^ of ^vT^f tefnarauc 

haij. Oov M4r>u (vrii') ood Rcttbcrs 

tfftg;— lit) fU u.pvi] DudJitLu. Fvrla*^ 

flPM «fti1 GoHfia, uil rigbdy (i^, 

r^, () ] ilak A« C« Ftntuultu [afiflr- 

*vtb ilie jwffa buhpp «f (he [^^nr) 

4st H 00 dnit4 (/> f^ 9)^ >SitI f hjiE 

tti Uth vw ni^r C^»t or Didji (^^ 

|4< it or AbCvnduk l£/. «>] » a mere 

^^ aad (ft* Utlff #H ' dufon (A/, 

M- 1)^ F*ll, wi:houi any «oIomt, hn- 

t^ tSM unly i&m pi«tliylcr>. thiHC 

FiAh^i DMitr<cmr« with r«d»cii thai 
iha pnkk* uf lM»ii4lu>^ FvilivuiEiih 
KofttH Bad CctfittoL wu foF an im^ 

mediate rc^toritjfflo of aamt l^pacil; 
tai Cypt'intt Antvftn aa he ^irajft 
luitw^ri thai nqubt- |1ul ihit It *!- 
rrtdy cowrfd a ■ foinc Lisi * |p. So) 
far unltiof ihc iiricl (citfeHMjr^ w&fli Ih« 
Ifli parly ogniui Cypnnji, ihiough hli 
ctpn^tnl ivfuul, ii A hlllc loo tut^Llc. 
The jiLiikfeTa at in tlir ?u[ban of dlt 
vntifln in rh« /V ^^^ r/ f.tyiire {b\ do 
not BMni 10 in« ti> apply lo lMi pAJly, 
■ml (bcjr wfre wjllKn kii yan laler. 

■ Seinprr uUc cpbcapa male cc^i' 

* tmmlnebal cogniliank ^ih. £^. 
ji. J. .'ejpu/itf tht Inlijuni lerm uf 
(lie bw. 

* Ot* Kcondfr'i opinion, i/rrf. ^ri* 
CAriu. fiafv^iert unJ CAt^A. yvl, 1. 
p. jii (Ibihn), iet p. 130, note >, Infra. 
tr Cypnaa had «Kf vpoken cul at Id the 

*ypiilrt nrirn haup elurioi uirli rnpemuily 
u Moifccim, Neandcr, and lUU>>erg 
bavv dtmuii ii> clcoiir^ him* 

This mau, as a Presbyter, had some charge in an im] 
ngion or ward in the city, called Mons, or the Hill 
BcKua or Byr^a itself thing some tivo hundred feet ab< 
rest of the town, with the main streets leading up it, a 
pHncij>a] buildings on its pklcaUn may u^ell have 
<l]:ttinctioii«. local and social, like the *tiU rcmcmbt^rr-'d ' 
Hiir and * Below Hiir of «uch ciiica as Lincoln; 
IcoAt no other district can well huve occupied that disl 
DamcS In mfinaging its church a^airs he associate 
himaelfas Deacon an cnei^^etic and determined pcr^Dn 

> ThU I vcmur? la thipk miui be ibc 

I xxA % In C4ch plaoc Hutcl reads in 
mortf tinrl hu REUcblt Ac Biil m The 
Inil^ ^»ii"* ili<irc it ni> rioubt o» lu tlie 
rcAiLinCi yfiavinfi »M^'«/*aiifl Z^^jn/rfrw; 
Id ihe former mprtr 7". ^« iH*. mortem Z 
*» nutiirfll rofrrcrind-j ni vhal iwrnwl 
cfLvturc ; but noi w metttf for me*'tt, 
the Kfttc of wliidi would be obYiuiu ; 
trh^lti (fvmo at rfirfiw. r. tftima viiit, ^. 
iodiuU both ihv pnulc of the tcriben 
AtuI chiL ihty had rT^on^f bcfiiic tbrm- 
Sc« «la:) p. ifj. Tioi« «. Ktrfifrvnnr (n 
J/f'H/< in li'uibid'ii b Lbtufd. Sfoi- 
hrinL uEiil uthci-k Uiuu^liE ihaL ihh Ma 

Romt, jLod ^Tt ihc NovAtianLhEH (hv 
Dome ManLtiuo tbcrr^ Htfdr {AVint' 
ft'jwijf**; SiM^rna in tVyfur a. WHt^i 
KirthmkxU^M, »nd U. J. C<}iti.tiiJ, td. 
ncEarc, L. vui. fi 105) i^yi thai (licy 
v«re wa fall«<i (and i]ui AfffUJuHiit*. 
vhidl IJ HH iitvention} (ram coafiuion 
ivltb Ihe MunlaJiisIs, Bui all Ihis irim 
iVoiD 4 mitiplcrprprnripn il l''piphAfiiv», 
Hit WJida arc [»ft« he hu fi]te*»iy 
BiiufiiE^tiiinl llic Mununliu in hih liitl 

toJm. 0' not Movr^UK. wi ^ 'PtkifAp 

of «oiinp &Th«r Nnvatioiiid or JlonariiU 
(dlffcrenGcd bf origin oiiilyt tnt Uoe- 

itIqc). and JiE Rome the /Jmo, 
Ci!l«1 MontrnkA, S« OpE^I 
G. W., tnd the pOMi^ thcifV 1 
E- Tiap\n (Ptrii, [701, p. jj), 
C'ipPH- 1^6} odf'. LftiJ^ fed f 
^> f'*A> W» -^ t'«''. &< 
H^tilfmt ftV' '^fl^' ^*™'- 1- 
%. xliii (A,1t. foJi}. Tlwr* in 
af Bxif KCt bm Ehc DoDAtiiUi 
callal. AA<I ihej fiom « Mom 
la ft gioiio of which iboy h«i 
chuidi. In ibc aib ensign of xl 
hrlri 11 Kontff^-n, jKA tn« tM 
that conjoiJivd and didingviii 
venjenle^ 4 Nt^Ttti^qis vel M 
pc-r ra«nii^ irnfi^ilinnpin sn 
/v fi* ^hch/ Hbapliiuit ' \B^ 
pApa, L&bb«, t. \x. <. ijif) 

rcrhftpi I nuy iiti?inpi btfr 
Ihit (unon, 4liifc i)ic iiiUc^ 
oiCfiL toa Fun been ^cn) ibc 
(he TarL Tliey are Lhci^ p* 
by InnucenI I- in hU IctFf* M 
of Rouen {Inime, i, E^, a* 
V. itL. c- ij]. 'pr^itr pv, r> fi 
nola>i nrl 111am tofueitnto 
fiffr/-' 1 propow fo reftd la Ijj 
(aiHia 'txtrf4v ^HH t«bdLptifl 
Ihe i?on«riicii(iii cf^ *,,.cnx| 
rialufD u( buDiuiUi inicgn 
[aklut,, ' Lhx^lu (umiubiUi 




Fdicttoimut*. Cy]>ri;m wslh nfur^lly not consuhc^d as. lo tUU 

^potncmcnt, wtikh gav« to the party the control of con- 

ardenbte Tundf ; hit mi.tiiivef vcrc rty^tcmatically disregarded 

tychcm; the Lapsed freely a<lmittcd and mvitcd to com- 

ouriion^, Lhe agreement of the bi-*ihoj>t in the diran^meiit 

bclwctn Rome and Cartltage unheeded, and when CyprUn 

MAT out bU commiKsnon of relief and enq^iry^ Fellci^aimiLft 

tRAted it « a deliberate invaaion of his di.^conal office. He 

ttitouK^ publicly th^t whoever had accepted its benefits, or 

uanrercd it^qucncf, shoizld be' excluded from participation in 

thea>nJniunion» and all other bcneBtiioftbcHJU di^tricL Ttnn 

ifeclurjtion ;ippp^r^ in hiK nwn nnirr, and hU lfidder«hlp wa« 

»i pncfgetic thai the Five are designated as his partners/ 

'his ntellrtei^/ even 'his pretbyterateV ' His Five Presbytert 

wtreas ruinous lo the Church.' iays Cyprian, vith their offer* 

ofCommunion, * jui the Five Magnates on the Committees of 


In vigorous reply to hU own Wgour FrlJcift^imus with 
ttitker deacon Atigendiif! was for the time being^ excom- 
■nkited by Catdonius and the Commitision, Cyprian ^Octobri. 
ipeakf od the moral chorees n^ainnt Felici.^nnus as now 
ajvinccd upon evidence *o grave as alone to oonititutc 
Cnvod* for 'auapcuaton ' cf communion with him- Thjs 
cnfiiry h po^tponi^d Ljnti) 4 {jn^per ctjurt can br asscnihlc-d- 
C||«ian's Instructions to thi4 effect are contained in the «ame 
despatch which directed thetr benevolent bbours. and he 
deii(t5 that in forwarding it for the information of the clergy 
B Carthage CalJoniua urill append !o it the n:tmcs of the 

' 4^ M' ^ i cf- £>. |i^ I, ttf- Com- 

' «^ «i. >■ 

4i ibvw mtMm' to Abk^ itie reminder 
mm 'tdM m tift •cctffti* iwt4Kuni am^ 


minmiunoi on CMt qai ae tftmit 

Note hutt ifr ftr/tta Aiuw<rt ld an 
mvHis i il CDukJ imI jtrnwct Cu m m^wU. 

* Sf- 4*' *. y 7- 

* S«* p- 76, oot* 1. */, 43. 3, J. 
' £^41* > 'iaUrim-' 





fstutoni of the conspiracy. Tlii.i letter accordmg^ly comticiown 
lo us followed by Caldoniiis* list- \i gives a glimpse of ihc 
lower social classes which entered with living Interest into 
Christ jfinjty and its debates, — elastics without which the 
Churchis work ia not half done. With the two Deacons arc 
named a imAll manuliicturer, a fcairutrcss, a wonian who had 
been tortured, and two refugees. The Five Presbyters arc i»l 

The pniminence of a Dcacor at thit period need cause no 
surprise. Although the time had not yet come when aC 
Rome those of1icer£ so far sur^asj^eU the presbyters In emolu- 
ment and dignity, that they looked upon promotion as an 
injury, or when at Cartha^Tc they were described as in 'the 
third PrieslhoodV and needed new canons to remind them 
of their subordination to the presbyh^ratc as well a?i lo the 
epincopatc, and even oflheir duty of rendering assistance in the 
Eucharist', yet already their control of funds, their knoalcdge 

* £fi* 4*- In £p' 4'- > CypriAT] 

^ntiH qLLii^uiiiJiLC K KcliciMirini*^ juiihi;- 
rini. ' Actonliri^ly £p^ 41 ]> j-imjfly 
3* InJlnwi- 't^alclonii]** cum Hp|Ctilj|]f> 
<l Vict^r« QiI1«|C''^ i^cni Rnf^ntuuio cum 
NumldLcci rr?»tryii:ru> AtMinuimiu a 
CommimimrjOTH? FrlitituinHm ^ Aa- 
gcndunii itcn Rfpoaium de uiarrfbiii 
el Ircncm Kmilonun cL PaulamuLrdriii 
Iricrm qitorl e* ulnatnLioni- mm tcirr 
dfibuiiti. ilam AbiktinuimuB SofihToniam 
tl ^l^mu <Jc (uLtHfiluh !^ulinMhLxii) 1»ui1i< 
hAnum-' ttt thi« trmigp litifct uwe it 
■hvuM ^btfiit ^UfHrdluouA t*t toy ihht 
Wutfii/iV' luiiooi iDum rbr kiml ul Libi 
by whi<-'h a mt^umlc tULhlwfird Ihr 
OAin«« of diAjvviAwf sammonfd lo appear 
fct triiJ {r*c Dirli*«ii, Mtfiuaft. J.u,). 
This » iinclf !t «r!iiirn»- nn nnjftrifni* 
oifemlcri itvl m it»lf ihe /i,fHfifaflff, u 

r«miJt7 villi h'a tiiiln>CTion»- Jut'tf 

riif'iiiiti ii rpjuoliiry and doe* not Implj 
R funiLcr tommjntcaliurt ; comporr £f. 

iJwiidLc nirt iftAuLri.' Tnrvtlu^ ' 1 ad 
[■minil rEimfrpmi ynu hy:i note i.ppcnr]«l 
l"py inyicJf* Tliln £^. 4I !> uoT til- 
diflurd to CyprlAD hlintejf therrrotc. m 
UfUaKy undentood. but b * IrvucnpC 
of the LLLh>uiiLcnL iibucd. Ii ruLiinllf 
lK.-«rn iLii d<!illn:«> , ihc valfile head 
C'y/njiKa S. ii nni orifiii*!- 

Dn lh« obneuro DCCUpftCioQi nimoj 
tv? nuic ni end of ilili MCcLoa. p* 117. 

Un ufifrr/i cf. bliJiiro drj Cypr. Jtff. 

14 ui«l iH, rpolinc C, Gd]rct. X 3. p> 

Art M/ fiom.lH AJ^rfvr.y/iygy, Jim. ) 
note 3, p- la^abcivc, 

■ OpiAi. i. 13 fvtd, Cubuib. in locU 
Hieran- in l^mb. r. ib- 




«J baiines-s their intimacy with the secular circs of the laity, 
Uw vtty foci th^x a district wliich had many prcsbylcr* 
bd but one deacon, g^ve them the command of manjr 
Hnadicf LoRuencc. Ifcnce from Spain It is the Deacon uf 
thedinrch of Meridn wlio wrifrn in the iiarne c*( ihcf irliurch 
10 thr bi«h4^p« of Africa in protcsT ag;iin)it the return of its 
lipsed lH<hof>> and receives therr conciliar reply. Cyprian 
calls the oflke at Rome (apparently in Cornelius' words) 
'Ibc Diacofialcof the Holy Administration/ and refers to it 
» 'the cha^c of guiding and pilotinir the Churcb'.' The 
DcKun indeed nut only hail i^hai^e of the carpuiate fuiuU 
iMalto acted a<; the ofTicial trustee nf Chriwian wi<Jr»wi; Ant^ 
nphans*. Hence his oppommity of enriching with both 
adhcmsu and |»operty any section which he pronounced to 
be the true church. And it is from fitich tramfercnces pro- 
bably thai the accusations of 'fraud and rapine 'arise which 
*tc so freely tihowcfcd upon iinortlicdox Deacons, when 
livVer »iaia« on character rest evidently on hearsay*. 

There i* no ground for assumini^ thut Novati-is evaggenited 
Wi irregularitio; by actually conferring orders upon I'clicia- 
ma^\ There is no previous or contemporary* instance of 
*idlia fact, nor the nli^tc^C symptom of any presbytcrian or 
m^jicopalian theory (a^ members of uncpiscopal churchei 
Ww: freely uverred't iit llie piiiKiplt-s or tuiidjct of Novatus 
ttd his fbltnwing- They were in epLACopal eummunion, they 
ttoftpart \n the epiw opal cleciioa at Carthage and opjHJscd 
At Qomutation of Cyprian, they presently elected a acw 

BVVfl fAcbJ BmcriUr cuiuihlBitibu^' 
* JC^ jv- I- hn ^tOirt |>, jii 

' Bulokrtlae fMCuahr ...*Mwiru(n 

ftiiktm. dcpniU, Jfy. S^ Sec f- 6^. 

Timet e/ S. C^ft. p- 134) lh*t some 
hcLCtlc«.l trbtiuii wnu i:4ll<>3 111 IiuJU Ul 

-St^r. I- pfv 4*4 iftq. Nfarulvr, iijL W/. 
<vl. t [^ 3*3. bnirlc* R4lt^«>)-. D'An 
^ifciui, Kcpo. Fcchimt* howCTTf 
riglirly *iyt 'nicht dn? Spur, nichi dn 
WorC'p, Bi, e, 1. 




btshop for themselves and procured his consecration. Wbt 
Novatus viaitcd Rome, he threw hin^Kclf into the episcopal 
election Ulch proceeding, opposed the candidate who wad 
cboKer, and ihen pnicurcd an epi.scopal consecratitin for hrr 
own nominfre*. If in any century of the Church's hUtory 
the presbyleral parentage of episcopacy was for^gotten ofl 
undi^icovcrcd* and any revival of latent presbj^eral clnim tm 
a33ume an episcopal function impossible, it wa? in the third*. 

But, again. It is evident from the natuic of the frauds 
attributed to Felicissimus that he was already a Deacon vihej 
he jijiTied Novalus, and it was by aimpUcity with him that 
Novatus became liable to the same accusation' of wroBgii 
the fatherless and widows*. 

Thus at last we liave before us a complete picture of 
formation of" *in Opposition in the third century. Th( 
original clerical clcmLiit of di^atlj^faclioii with the pupul 
choice of the bishop had allied it-self with discontent at tl 
bishop's delegating even administrative fiinctionfi to others, 
and wjlh a wide-bpread conviction that meritohous suflfering; 
in the Chuich's cause established some claim to a voice in her 
discipline. Lenity to the Lapsed, open admiaiion to Coi 
munion was the rallying cry^ ftnd ihc rank and file of il 
party consisted of the miiltitudinous claimants for restoratii 
with their families. 

tftf CAniftOM MtnUtry, 

* In fjV*' 5i-ity»ac1ion ^fKoviitu 
k pn-Hpltiil with hn cTrtUoii *ti M 
Biithop, 1^-hidi WDa certainly nul <vi(Jiout 
ibe mJiTTytriH'fi uf Icfiiumnic lilshmiJ*. 
Hi4 otifncr Uy in makirLg Feli<ri«Bimiii 
Air fTcACor>, *nt* pfrriittentc mc nee 
tciniie.'y.fhiiicunmillQCyEiriaJiti. Coiri' 
par* fi/i. ^^. I *i;4in Did^M /rvifiy^ 
4trr *l diaocmn fjut.' *Frlici«imuin 

HlcUiiem mum diacoiuuii.. .coiuiliuii' u 

tlic reading of HuHcl. hul ibc KA 
' FclicihsimLtin imlclliiriii tuum tamm 
(tiaccinrm ci>raililuiE,^ and Q, 't'dicUcJ- 
mucn utd^itein Jbhfr tHwt iIjooobbb 
cuniiiiiiij' arc n^hL uid ivjjpnrtKt h^ 
th« further reperiiion m M^ 'Fvlidian> 
mum Hidliiem ti*atm imtm diaconn^ 
t»Mm con^iimil/ i 

Fvchinip. pp. lie. irt. «(id o. J 
p. no. tAf-i eighty ihal Novfttdjj 
cdLild nol hjivr rcniUTnl upon, nor 
Cyprtsn havEtailf^d utplic^iiry io<cniair«, 

by H (iruljy£ei> 




From the counter extreme we have fainlly caught in dark 
l^ndai^' form Mctnci volcf^s demanding cvcrn in ca^-going 
CiAbage their perpetual excluiion. In the haugbtler Capital 
tiu ttndcncy alone had a chance of development We >;hall 
ittbovr ain^larly ihb movement was in the very person of 
HUraJoas Imkcd to the opposite Carthaginian movement. 
Ovr next tntrrext will be to trace the gentle yet commaiidjiig 
pcJiqr of Cyprian in ?;nh(iuing the violence of both the 


wt and 5*«TJM/rr>. {Efi. 43.) [Ad<lrtioTial Not* on p 114.] 
For Ibc rcuoQ ^ven in the I»1 Ehc obscure occupanon* of two of 

I, Solianui (tiMtf a nam^ which ] h^Kvv niy\ ToLind in in«mptionfr) it 
died BmU/mriift {^mHamxriaj T.). lo whici) wc luvc no tluc. FcU tun- 
|'nvi«Jwf)^«>tr3ir/ * muJt' keeper,' but iialuic hndi na traced ihtfcwt>rd. 
Hftwwu Sopboc1c« &**(!■ LlJ^kOH 9/ Homan and JitiitJttint Pttiods hA> 
'l^fMJpm .^d'^dr/ >4rrrA Tlft^ 491* Wnifrn :iko ;?iivpff»v»^iot Cyriit. 

)|tta' Tli«t« form*, e^itttJfrinj^ tkt Latim Jfrmimifi^tm tt/ ike v^ord^ 
iKn 10 auike it* eusleocc pTobiiblc- 
SkMaiftt <.S>r^. //f>r >4trf. p, 408) (it p. ^7^, Lugd. r67i) fon- 
ht Um^t tm tiom hiiit^ which Du Cunj^c Jndicnics, thoush 
It nanplo. fti A (liminmlvc of j^«//r» 'a tmull i^tne-boii ' or 
'httk,* vkich hu vumy eviAlivcs fSavrrltnf, ^omv% ttr-X- (^, Soph^ Le^% 
iv\ hr/jfr, MtUta^ AtuicvM (v. Du Ckei^). And he ^ujE^rrviH ihii< ii 
■eut *a EKilro of tntAll t«mcLi or tncjuurc* ' (f.g^ ttctiaiinWf. H»y- 
dv Im ^ihWiv -"u ^ T«rciiuiic wgrd for Xori^nH 4 qm^'^- 

*. Pnvla "ii* a Santwtttnr^ The tmploynicnt is oficn nicniion«d in 
4vrip(£aai4nd»Monc-ofihroRiCfSof (hr Oomu^ Aui;ijm;i. Srt Orelli, 
/tocw. 645, <>37i3» 7'75; a *»ne monument ap. Gnjicr» p. ucxvii. 9 
Ttmtih Sdturali SiUtLnatrix ProciiEcio VcthiC tuo puirro ingcDious- 
«lvio.,.' i4tcl arc inienpt-iont on p. i>ijcxx, where two h%v<t t^rfple nLmtt 
lad ilictc <tfc libciEx ^ one ih of ' ItiliH Tuc^tndA An)^ 1. kH'CtiiALi(ix) a 
Da«d« siuljc(bn),' &c. Abpn Lavigerie comrn unified to d* Roui one 
4i^ CdiWA in MftUEelAiriia ' Ro^nU Svcinatr, SatumPi v. ], ■, %,' {C^rf. 
tmvr /. VIII- II- na 'i^jKj. 

W^Ai ibc olGcc W41 sccm9 acofCcly daubiful if iLie tjuoutjona In 
FttecBina m compxrt^- Fmnto, j& Difftr., p. 3ir>i (Putsch^ 'SaTtrii 
qpi« awdtt ttrcioatrix <ruK s»KiaAs scrv4l'i NonibK c i- ^6 *Sferdn&' 
akM Mm « ^uidnm volunr sircilrices 4|LLaat a lareicndo, £cd mis^s ;i 


Hrcinit 71W piun'mntn y^stium iunmri/' But A)* HBuluia, iMjf- I- 47* 
[it. 3t 8j (Af )i tAyi * Fulto ct a^trcmauir, qui paltcnrLi mi SiViJientlA vcsti- 
mraU accipii,' the gTiunmarij.n&^ accaunt (fhmi^b ihfy nte arkioo* :u 
to the forra&tion of the word) iK <AnALHtent yniik the cmplo^rmcnt betn|[- 
tlut tii ft 'JirstimtTrmr' or 'mcntlcr.' ihc 'nrrin^p * heing paclc« of doThriL 
80 from on old LatinGTcck Glosavy in the Library of S. G^rmoJo de» 
I*fi*s Dii Car^f* S.V., cf. vol. \'i L p. 443 a I. ^. <|«ow*. ^arcmfltrix ^mjrpiit, 
liicfffTfiU [f/t: ^X'3> •} t'iW^nifrffiM. U i» coupled in Dig^ I I $, th, I, JJ 
{Caxw) wlrh thr employment of 3 'tcjtxni;^ a« *n *amfidiim vulgAre^' 
So in PLaut. Aului, ]il 5, 41 the * »rGiruktc>rc9 ' arc named with the 
^rultune?!,^ aft :il^o in Gaiu^ CinrjmrTti. I. tK, 143, 167, 205. In LuciL ^ 
JVi7M. li, 3lti the 'antcmotor ' Tn.ikc^ a pnlrliwork quill ^srjere ccnl<nicsn'' 
Whai ihc 'iTiftchimr' ate in Varro. iifi. JVitn. i- ajfr, ' Homines ni&tkoi iB 
vindcmia in4:ondiu fnnUre, sarciimtnces in madvinia* is nm so den/. 
Anyhuw the eJiliibiliun of the social cUi^ b tno^i inErre^cing^ 


N'at'atiart, ■ 

We have already had occasion to mccrtion ^ nobte group 
of Confcasors who had been committed to the Romiin prbon* 
at the time of the cxcciiCion of Fabian'. Their sufTcrlngi 
and the sight of each others tcrtutcs were harrowing, 
Cyprian sent them constant ciicon rage men t^ and pcciini;tty 
help from his own resotirces". Among ihcm were two of 
the seven Dcaeons of the clxy. Rufinus, of whom we have 
no further personal detaii, and N kostratus. who ^oon pas^d, 
never Co return, into Che ranks of schism. Of the laymen con- 
fined with their, Urbanufi twice underwent the torture; the 
three Punic fiiends SidoniiH, Macaiius and the mdomhablc 
Celerinns' are familiar names already. The Presbyter Maxi- 
mus' was in after years thought worthy to be laid among 
the bishopB in th€ subterranean chapel of Comcliue ; we 

* Ef, ^i. I. i, 6. * ^. t^, lAa. 

11 XI. 



shall find him inspinng hi» fellow ^ufTcrcra to an set of 
coura^ tnorally higher than their confcs^rahipL But the 
nlinf spirit amonc them during the yait 350 was €. PrcS' 
\n-lcu who doubtless belonged to the Jewish section of the 
church of Roiiir, Moy^^^ Hi^ Mgnaluro had beLvi attached 
ID Ibe letter in which Novation and the clergy «ij;nifie(] 
ihtir ;idhcuon 10 the proposals of Cyprian, and we may not 
unrcuonably conjecture htm to be the author cf the manly 
tiuny-lint epistle\ Had some philosophic magi&lr&te Aur* 
yrtoi in l\s pAssagc auch a document, rating his scvcriticji, 
<m vhile in proceu, a.-^ ^ub^l^mtbl happiness to the siifTcrer. 
ad fnam a dungeon claiming the nght to legislate for 
ffidcotly numerous classes of manlcind, he must have quc«- 
bencd with himself not only as to where the chief Good, but 
rterc the reality of power resided 

Moy5c» and hi> fctltJw- sufferers from the first gave no 
cvntcnancc :o the theory tliat the iiienLa of martyr:! ur 
flMfesBor^ should ctoh* the path of discipline; and they 
«va«d the gratitude of Cyprian by their remonairance wiih 
tkoie whom they were connectecl with At Cartha^, against 
tWiioe there pursued*. A yc^r of confinement was nearly 
Fut wben Cyprian writing them a letter of ajnlidcnce and 
camfan, in answer tu their*, Ijy the now liberated and welcome 
kud of Celerinuv trMicd uuc the progress of the fuur M^i<ion!i 
(tf their ^irituad experience, with no small rcmnantJ^ of hix 
older rhetoric'. It mutt not be forgotten ih^t «uch Ilowern 
of doqucncc were in tlieir frcshncs:! then, and that the 
hr%htnc» of 9k pri»on-hou3c was a new theme, Some un- 
known members of the group had alrwdy died', whcr; Moyses 
after elefen months and eleven diys of bonda^r^- (such is the D»c-(?)3i, 
ucuratc record of the Liberian Chronicle, and ore which ''^ '^^^ 

OM arou fbf Ibc icit apti^Lr* 
pbrtv 'iwn dteftiD,' Sfi. ^i. 

* M/, jj, J 'lid fiKiJiiiiii rJonini 



even here marks the importance attached to his | 
M\cywcd thGm^ to a confessor's g^av(^ ^ 

Witli an insight l^tcking to the rest Moyws hatf" 
Novatian's progress toward an exclusive rigorivtn, 
discoverable even in his first epUtle> and hardening 
Cyprian softened, after that meeting- point" So unci 
like had seemed to him the ' insane arroEance' ' of Ng 
tunt- that at last he had refused to act with hira, OTT 
to eomoiunicate with him and his uncharitable disci 
this time five pre^ibytcr*), in the visits which, lik 
clergy, they paid to the prisoners'. Moyses may w\ 

* Fosi paadlonetTi ejiislFatJIl Moy«4 
et MimimUi prffubywri *( Nieoffnuis 
UUcuiius coiiiptdicPE.i *aii( eX in cv- 
cercm tiiiM mlsai. Eo rcDtpurc lupcf 

ceclniA Sovoiionunu ti qurjid&m cor- 
fafsorsn pcrsiqunm Moy^s in Career? 
rlrfvnolit «T, qii^ fuil ibi to. iL d xi- 
(U^fnot Caialv^-Ct ftp- Lip^iv), •/« 
tU. |f. 3^7). Caiuiiilerin^ ]}ip1 Fabian 
wu Riariyred on 10 Ju>. iliis lookc as 
if it Pie^nl iliiii Moyses dtc<i on <h« UsI 
tlay (jf ihc ycnf ; ihc precision of the 
rH<^rf 11 <1ue 10 Ihe ncc^^iLy f«ll for 
Mving \Xvc niciJtotr of Mujica fruiu tlu: 
imputhliim of NuvalbimiiirL 

dirdvPLir- Eu^ /^- E. vL «;. 

up. Em. //. E^, /,f., where »cc Volois- 
Atthou^l) the worU i» c]ju3)Ca] ixi ilic 
rtn« o* "hiving 10 deflling* wiiti/ yel 
ib^ bond And drigrs of ccunmunian con 
luutlly fail tui have aflcclcd already a 
(env which toon «-ju Iveoming iHe RtH 
word for 'evcommdmcAtctl,' e;pe<U]]^ 
wiitt rlic 9fiUr(JCC proccctls tfOr rsii 
iHrrt KpteftuTip<]4i toT* ^^ja djrry Awn- 

Id Ihit «aiLkc lUuh? Lipiuit it^. fit. 
p. Joa) utitovirdly cnncckfd thtt Fhia 

ai>f<J mu^i refer it> Novum 

Novplwri, he^ou^ff 'The H^ft J 
mmt ^ T/it Fivt CtrtA^pi 
hy^en. It h 1u be obwrved ih 
Ihe uhuli K|iiHt]« MrrVBtiPTi 
possibly IbrujuH E(i«bia»' 
'Novatiu/ Unvlnf howfvci 
1 numenul N( n pivtb^le 
LJpMUk ainlco Muyiu'ucoin 
Nijvaiufc anil hi< five- In lb 
).houI<i K4V1 a RnnuA pm 
commiuucalinE Hve IV^sb^ 
never itincct from Cdnbt^ 
whom It it-lilftculE to <or\cei^ 
JiaU bcaii. UitidJ. |>. 6S, 
:lIjc> (]];ii ihi> wuutil molkc fil 
[iDh Prtfjbylvn t-h#i«. wln-ivai 
hear of Five. But (hen filrt^ 
Is ?ho. Mcyaci is noL sill u 
fiDiii]f0ri Hovntiin lii*iiKlf a 
onV Novtiut nnd hia Culb 
wbciraA lUii ditifftiiiriE of Nj 
the wry poim whjch Cam^Ni 
\a ifnptcu an Kibjuq, 

llie iiumlfcr ^vr rct|ipn 
larl)^ in Eh* Hiiliry. Cypn 
recumuili *r* Five Pntb^en 
J. i. The borrlk rrivjius of 
ha<J l-ivfl pr«!E^}■t«* ulhvnau 
10- Five |i(TabyUni altctidcd 
Ht Ibc rcc4]]icilintiDn of Mail 
4^ 1, Fivr hvbap* totttM 




one of the presbyter* whtMC advice I'tibiAn had over* 
ruled when he ordained Ihc Stoic philowphcr, the epileptic, 
rto had been cxor ci Ht t l an a ii»;mriiiiHc» and liiqitiKCfl in the 
tppiretttly TalaT fn:4larly which enfued, yet who atf^cr hid 
iKOToy had not cared lo complete the right by obtaining 
the impoctition of hands. These were h^iriib traiU in Nova- 
tian'j history, and although the Unguage of Corncliui is 
cnjcJJy bitlcr\ they were traibj likely to be remembered 
iC^inU him by the gentieat* when the man slowly moved 
ilk prcmtnence as the withholder of fnrgivencss and rejeclCT 
rfike penitent. Harsher yet was the story tiiat the Deacon* 
^oM not persuade him to emerge, in order to vi*it suffcnng 
ailti»on, from some small cell* to which he had retired 
^Eins the persecution, ^ because he had resolved to be no 
itflBc presbyter and bclon^d now to another philosophy/ 
Vac nr^i fialf ef the sptt'ch thus imputed to him wc may 
nioilatingly reject an a mistakrn C4>mtneiit an the md, 
Hd meaning doubtless was that he embraced the eoncem- 

^«ftb«M Fitomicbi iJ iTdyxinMjr 
'fliliiiHiLl mill Ili« Flv¥ NoviilinLU 
^t i J Il H , at ih« PW* Ifmhrlvn 
4C«f4icV- We runmbcr too ihal 
C)|QM KnaukzllT tilcntttid bla awn 
Hiff irttS IV * Flv« M i^iTs ' 

' n«ulk< of bii-w«lfU« rFicndU 

■iK' w^ba ]k» ctnvnuun lu Eliv >cl 

tf Seia, u<f ifVAU the nAFuivl ml*, 

lilt t p«nan l«ptiKi! imiler imr of 

4^ ilmlil *«< U tdnuUe^ loOfdcn. 

» tf il aiailiMt of hA ^qoilly lufnnl 

He mi ■ nuftv mrdcd 

Cfpriwi. vilh his Uitcr lic«it. 

fftlUa Ihr pnpklin (which 

« K«oo*iar«» A-d. ji^ b*eun« ■ 

Cms* ac>l'>'< CHnkil BtplBoi by 

Ifairiif Iter othv* bofHitnt m^r ^ntt ei 

«WI be «lUd PeriraiKM;, £/. '^^ ]6. 

tl b tmc UkAt HT liAvc Bu ^dUncT ld- 

t^ Id^niUi vu a Stole, 

hat he it eoDAliuilly ipakcn af u proud 
nf IxiniC A philnirtphcf, A/ad ifliu actool 
liict brrri iiTi> but ihi' SIdIc, Cfpriaa 
Cftvli icDrrvly h4P* writliffl A^ 41-6. 
'ilkA <4t ph^Iai>:iphorjm c| StOKonjlQ 
lEtiu. A-c/ Thf ueroncia of his tone h 
AirLt vcn in ihc (tnngt cpiiheeK wiih 
whtfh be lo4dt hb Ld«« oT iii*bllac44^ 
uf^crj ri lib|piLli cl Hrli c( Anm ct 
£nw« nifiret hwninam proti^BFiir, /V 
C>>. ^W- c J- Nc cr«<til ctu he ■!- 
tftchtil lo [be itatfiTient tf rhilmtot* 
ipni(, >/. /<. vtii. 1^^ (hot h^r qin\ a 
I'hfTgiui' bccrftlct, who wrvt« {//- £^ 
H, itt) Aich A lUoiiic ifi^d Ifi ihc 
MnVKTtunltt 'iMLpImp ind tind invcvti- 
f^attfJ the hiiLiufy of the lect ii Fhryglc. 
allfibulra it> i^k^eI Llierc [i> llic jtiUlcifi 
rhafMrrrMrTJiP |i4vsplr in'\ fnff jit all ui 
sny p«t*giiBl intlacnciL Cf- So4om. 

■ obrf#«f« Et»b. JH^ ^ 



plfttivc life in preference to the active, and For this his hcaltM 
and habil4 runiished an excune which would nut li^ve IkgJ 
diftiUowed from athcra. To forsake the prcsbytcratc wouU 
have been a. stop alien to his rigidly ecclesiaatical ftpiril 
while at the -in-mc time there is no rca.ion to question citht 
the fAcC or the sincerity of his abjuration of episcopal ami 
tion*. The uiisparidg author of tlic tonCcmporiir)- pamphli 
' To NiH-Jiti.ici ' btais wilne'ts !o his f^iithfuJiiess as n presbyter 
' how he had wept for the faults of others as his own, how hfi 
' had borne their burdens,' an<i dwells on "the strength of his 
heavenly addresses' to the faint-hearted*. 

We may judge for ourselves that his eloquence was of nq 
vulgar order At i time when the Uoman church possessed 
no Latin wriler of ability, hi^ style is pure, clear, incisii 
not disdainful of verbal fC|>etiEians for distinctne.s^' s^k% 
in his syllogisms afraid of prolonged pronominal clai 
When he passes from explanations to reflections he has 
peculiar tone of melancholy sarcasm and latent censure whi 
3ecms to dwell even in the sound of his sentences. 

He had been engaged in contrj^ersy with the Jews, ai 

' We Mfed nm T«lir*P with Cotfneliun 
jEuseb' U.% a/y) thai hi* <ath^ on ihia 
siilijctl were ipQ&rpU [...mi J*' i^uv 
^o^rpuy Ttruw ..}. bui Nfflnrlpr't quc*- 
lionipg [fif, it/, vol. }- pp. 3,^5, t) (hut 
Novitun piotri1i;J A|;aLiii1 titc Jiijpata- 
lion |a not cr^iliiaMe 10 hii cfiiicum, 
NovOluai Wb n ttUtli.-ni.HiK! n picliat ixiicf 
& severe ouui, lukI miJclioirchuikh. Uc 
did mjL wiili 10 bt dta^cil fram rodte- 
msM tinli] [hsfJovtiJopmebl ol hi^iTiew^ 
(oictd 'u on him. 

• AtC Ua^tiaNum, di, i.t. in the 
■pp«ii<]iC!es lo Cypnan. Up ihe Aulhor- 
ihjp of this Tmrute ace jif/iruJu, 
p. 5ST- 

' l-'rotn thin luiie (»a PKpedalLy tho 
innrnvAlLOh of 36. j|) aciiJ frcm (tie 
proiiomitkDJ prculinriEiti I E:Bnno[ hsl- 

if^atm ^offj p'lr if i/tij tactn pul 
vcikknL aiLi[]]a«lvti(U[|]va niiliii a 
proiuliu*,' and £f. ^6. j 'qmndo m^ 
hoTCK i^^rii'M.,.iinpeLrciur ' wtth S/. 
30> 4 ' Nam ^iti it/ viH>4/ \ut\Kl DM 
ciuEodii m ^ ex /ifii iilVil iiouiMct 
flum r^ u ^U0 pk>b.HLvi t%o\a\, ominl 
f//(K/ /wiPi/(JOhMdcb4l,' i/id wilh Nov^l 
li;^u'» r/c Trim, fi. 1 j '...Vrr^ium anifQ 
Afr/iW«c fi:id^.,.[^ nihlJojniniu duM 

aflBln the tmnif of ithori djium eocj 
meiiccd «rith ^a/ r/ in th« 4bvrc p« 
tai»c of Z>r TVjff. hith £^ j<k i> 1 
* qui 1I habtfhE.' &r.. and cN p, 147, n. ^ 
inf, [A more eLaLonLltr pruof of tli 
Auitjoi^liip ih wujkci:! out by Dt i 
I IfiniAck in lyi. »i/., infk p, t jo,J 




Ap5 with the Judaizin^ ChmtiAna, who formed so ntron^ 
1 puty in Rome. Nothing indeed coutd be more important 
\\m\ liinl the viiHt Jcwlnh pupulatiun shouM be ilir:fctly cun- 
fronfcd by ChnMbinity, And that inquirrrv should Ic^rn the 
Mmcce between shadow and substsince. Hi« two cpi»tle<: 
'Of Cireumctsion' and 'Of the Sab1:>ath' were thus aimed^ 
VilKUicr that ' On the I'ricst ' bore on the snmc conirovcr^ 
»f on hU own conflict with CorncUus is more than 1 can 
decide But hi^i extjuit epistle 'Of the Jewish Meata' was 
cumposed probably in This very year, and possibly during the 
KliRSieiit* which by some v:i* to violently re pre! tend eel, a» 
i nanual repeatedly ai^ked for by a lait>' who * not only held 
^t \cheirently taught a Sincere GoKpel' It U a ein^ular and 
fwtly bcautirul essay :-— 'The Jews are strange to the under- 
*eu<[in{ of their law., -No animala. created and blcascd of 
' Gcd, arc really unclean. Some havi; in their habiU. character 
crform a figurative rrpukivenewa, ard this was taken ad* 
'vanu^ of as a means of instruction in morals.' Here the 
ilwiratiofia arc fanciful* a.^ might be imagincdj the pride of 
ihc nnn s neck bcin^ one of them. So it was ' in lomc olden 
t»j* wbcn such like shadowis cr emblems had to be uacd.' 
B«l Chrnt had opened out 'all things which antiquity had 
dtTMded in miits of symbol'/ hi<d ' rtsiorcd Them all to 
fteir own primal bcnedictionK by cloving the law/ 

■The tnic ni«it» holy and clean, is a right faith, an «n- 
'9oAed conscience, and an innocent noui. Whoso thutt feeds 
ptwiiii Chibt. Such a banqueter h God*3 guest. These 

> £« he -ap hiiAMir. Sot iV Ci^ij 
Jm^. c- I- lib >ft Jtfif'c lUT ^'"'! 

loMC Elite of n iwniUai Ur TtiIvMibei* 
pte pwiiuafj.' H« ^ie*k* of vrlLlni; 

h Joiing 411 ttuMioa vhJvh b* tnuU 
Will uo[ (xove iiijufiotis lo ihvnp If 
ihi> wen fliinng pprH^uilori M accmmrt 
for (hit clungc of lotie ft> lo Cypriui't 
tcliirniei]! whicli wc hw ihtt KovMlikik 




*be the bAnquets which sustain an^ls; ihene he the tilmS 
'which make martyr*/ 

' Chrifrlidti tcinpcmicc condcnms both avarice and luxutyV 
ThesGe vices are srrveivly chastised, and lastly, in language 
much sterner than S. PauTs'. iht^ parcaklng <tf things offi^red 
to idoJa is condemned as sUll in u^c, and apparently as beingf 
the one way now possible in which defiled meats could bo 

Thus then Novatian had well deserved the reputation, ai 
which the (^radical Cornelius \cvc\s an uiirhinklnf{ snccr.of'a 
in;iMer m doctrine and a maintairu^r uf ecclesia-stic;i1 science*' m 
Cornelius was indeed cast in another mould He was t 
Roman of the Romans. Apart e^cii from the other popes 

with their Greek epigraphs^ he was buried under a Latii* 
inscription among the noble Coniclii^ He had risen ^juiet and 

^ e. 6. On <mif ^ngulnr rcvelition 
here mtt<l« ttK p- 190. n- 4^ 

* -..iiumciilcin ilicinniiiu nalflt n»D 
Deo,,, c 7' 

* ..i ihyfia'iirr^i. A r^t *iiri»^w»iofT|. 

Nomian'H.aiItnir:ib1t wiirli Ofthr THh^ 
Uyy muKt, from ircmsnlion cif 'the S*- 
bfllina Ikmy' (c» w si^qOt '^< t^^mc 
jPCVt iBLcr In cJate- Jerome idt i^rr. 

Tmuillflnj iKiiftll}' owiilied it>Cyprt*H. 
Uoder CyprUn't lumw \t yni In tSta 
tLmo void Al CoiuttiutLirHijJv at a 1u« 
prl«» vrkh Ihc obj^t of helpfne on A* 
M»Moniiin vI»ki of rhe Holj SpiriL 
U^wervr il b orthodun, 4Eid incBCt 
«nty at prior to Jcrmliiuiu M 

• Sh ihi. Ch. vn. r Th« AAnM^ 
CoiiilffgHt [Lipfciiw, 9^ tit, p, >75} doei 
mK nivniiDn hia ftrhcr't n&mc. uid the 
ttimsne raittnni ipvi?n in the XiVfr 




respected through every order atid office in the cliurch*. Per- 
Diiill)' he wa« noi oilier than a humble-mind^ man, yet 
virocwlut JrrUable. and wiih a hi(fh 9en«e of oflficiaJ dignity* 
Cypnu at once honoured and humoured him. and was as 
fu superior to him in the instincts of a nikr, att Novatian 
vuin doctrinal acuteoc^i. lie had rccerivcd to Communion 
lomewho, he satiiified himself by enquiry, had been unjuittly 
iCCOscal ol lajioe by the neverrr racttuii, Jind wa\ retalialed 
^»Di by charges of communicating with lapsed bUhops and 
otters, or eveci of bein|^ himself a Lib^Uatlc*. 

The disqualificationfL of Novatian however for the cpi^' 
C4|Qte were patent; hh irregular ordinatior, his unpopular 
mntRicnt, the judgment of Moyacs on hla opinions. For 
bt haii now advanced to the |)o»ition of the l^uritfin. He 
WU it impossible thai the Church on earth ^houTd recondlc 
iponaiet. He did not indeed exclude them from hope of 
olTitioa He maintained it to be one of the most solemn 
oniitrtcs to brint; t\\ctn to repentance; but to communion 
lever To coflnmunlcatc in thc^r communion was to become 

No Chri«li«in thinU'er a« yec had struck on the now so 

fcmiUar dntinciion between the Invisible Church and the 

Viifble, as the reconcilement of her essential attributeH with 

Ibeir practicable cvinccmcnt. But r true sense had guided 

^^ Cornelius and Cyprtan himacLf, (who in later years was 

a> c^T^Joaily to fail for lack of the aamc simple formula,) 

to a standpoint of more leniency than ihe Ute resolutions 

httl occupied. With them moved almost the whole Church. 

But lin^lar to say. the immediate comrades of Moyses had, 

pocsibJy in some reaction against his inHucnce, but also 

t^tbc 1. p. Mj, u \t^ ]ikc>r li> be da- 
4tiam^ Ibui invrtucil. Sec tEotU. K. 

■ t-^ tS, t^ II. IV Whli vnj^ttbr 

niuni ot kHt>«mi: wlieihcr Ccnuliai 
wai 4 Lttj«tlAiLc, The whole [moj of 
hu hiiilOfy find ih« -Icb^le iboijl hit 
iitic nui't hivc been quite iifTercni '\S ht 




Cm. Imp. 


P, K. Aufi- 


i;!af«- [nmut 

■>Nov. or 
Doc-, A. II. 

t Feb. Of 

urged by a new and nlran^L- partisan, plified thcmselv^ on 
ihc side of Novfliian'. 

Early in the year 25 1 they were libcrtied from prisoa 
Ai^d the election of a biahop u^as coitCemplated^ 

For the security of Dcciu* was threatened- Before the 
commencement of the new year Priscas* had a&sumcd in 
MacedoriM tlie title of AugustuSn and allied hi» legions wftlii| 
Cniva and his Gnih^. Decius left Rome for the *rene 
action. Scarcely was he poiic when Julius Valeiis urais pi 
claimed Emperorf behind him^ ^nd followed htm as far at' 
niyria'. There a sudden abscrcc from the city of 4U 
the principal military officers, Valcns soon feU, But 
WRT of cojninandcra waa the Rest of the Church, And thougl 
threats abounded, and expectations of resumird pt^rstfcutioit: 
prevailed', the interval was seiEed^ for an election. Cornelius 
compelled to accept the result', was by no 1ei;s than sixti 
bi&hops' ordained to the See of Rome, 

In th;U Imperial world horror followed horror and * blood' 
touched blood' so fast that llie st;nsc -jf awe only stirred'] 
uncostly from time ia lim\z and was slill again. But a greai 
people WHS silently rising oyer its vast firea, for whom Provi- 
dence and the Iimocent BIoc>d were realities, and whose sen: 
of God's Lo\e was deepened by fiuETering for Him, Th< 
tidings were yet ^ome months distant of a treason ag^ini 

' Em, ff. JC, v\. 46 . .fti fi I^CNttrf^ 

' Am. Vkiin,alr Cn-iai-i/mi, j«j. The 
rinc cf Vflrni tonk place in Feljf. or 

uf PiiwiiuiiL cmluf 3,iia; bcc TUicmuiil, 
vol. nr, pp, 35H, f. 
' -.t\\i\ (ComeliuQ) lanlum Mnpom 

' The tvcQis arc connccif^ liy ihc 

l^ibrnve ill Efw *[^w 1^ ' ...turn mulio iha' 
ttmlui el I'lleribihiDk aiiijr'm tnwri 

Decim lA^ar^of ihj& infriii£cini?iiE ^f \\ 
cilict A{;»( bishops, Liot hdh^ UlAf 
at K-iimv. (1} TTio awHlut /.rnutfi 
none but Vakna. (3) The tvcuti #ere 
Dc4rb cQiLtcih|Jii[itjivuu>. If Valcn* 
hai\ lUeu in MJ^c^ ±111! ConwlJai 
(Dcconliiig lu the kibiinl clitcmoJofj) ift 
June Cj^prian rntld noe Ii«*c tib^H 
cnnnericti ihem, ^H 

^ ,. vim piuiiiK tjil ut ppivMjMlVEtt 




Dedia like his owr. of the plunf^lvig squadrons ai dead of 
aigfil in the aJl-dcvourinf; morajtii, of the atrenuouf emperor's 
dbappcinuKc wUh his loved son. When the nGW« came at 
lail.jLnd the cn^lfed prince* had been added to the gods of 
Rc«n«', h iftould have bcrn tot? slniiigc if there h.ttl not ^ur- 
rtvcd rnou{{h of hum^n nat^Trc to make- the Christians tMCe 
xo Av^ngtr tn such xrj.gcdies ; but what wa^ new ms the 
acccpunce by the ma^ of them urdoubLingly of their own 
feneration a* a Divine and wholesome chastiacmenL And, 
ap Cyprian, their enemy had not, 'in the darkest hour of 
the Iovcr& of God* succeeded for an instant in any place in 
li^endag iheir constunt 'buast of His |>rabe' until oticc more 
'thf votid Rhone out tn light*/ 

Till then security «^as not assured, but from the day when 
Dectu marehed out of the gate* ihe persecution virtually 
dmpped, and * Tcacc/ wtiich but a i'ew monthji before had 
A^tDcd an impouible blessing, settled tranquilly down upon 
Ifac Church. 

We shall not be Tat wrong if we frx the ordination ofMardiB^: 
Comtliui to about the >th of ALirch'. Easter Day in thu *''^"' 

•ML min DiToi ExUri. Buifnp. 1%. «. 
*'l|ifidDk doriE,' />r L^rat, i> 
' Ptoc«f 4kua ' an only refer to ihc 
klMh el D?ciu» ill No<iidb?i. Ttiii 
lUe ftfftfe matf tcJon|> to 4 laiet 
ilaiM. kr lli« tnuikc VIA t^t by Il^<9 
cad 1/ IbKb* b «■« tUl Kc. S« 

■ J^tJ, M- 7%«fl4ie of thv election 
■I CnWifcil ii ihOB uriTcd ai by lip- 
4^^ flf. p. iK pp. JcA. 107^ Ills 

MBBiBO LttdV dlAl OB the 5lh MftFCb 

dUi laitni Ht dfbl cnuiirhi vi-1 ten 
^» f £j>tfiB> CUaitrmt) in Kbkh the 
Ihf^ t4dwA jvn an in inler|MbIiL>Q. 
nk M^i ta» nrlkMlv)!! to June i|^ 
amM V ttC allo^r ul trtniKc time fijr itit 
f} ptac*t tS* d^ath of CoTTutiEJt 
Ji*^ ami hb otdiMtJon, two yvvi 

TFif flaf^ of ihc |ih ur March fu 
ibe titofk <yf iMeiiit if prettily cop- 

ttJiiAiit. which uyi thai 'Cffrrutwi 
tuftercci uA £tli Maruh, and cr>miiiittad 
Lh(' cUurch IrtAfiUic tn Uic nrctkijfAvi^ii 
StepliiinuK.' Tlir intrxliifrJon of Sl^ 
phanni ihfwi (hn O*™*/"-* i< bt» 
■n cn'r>r for Lu<iij> fiuot vtiMV lift Ui 
tbc ume I'vaido-Damanu roina the 
iioiy (L*bbc [. c. jj^). 

L» iTic HecLkm of n^rnrlLHi^ Iiah rlU- 
tufbvd thff <hni:>DLo|2y of Ihg Tti^n of 
Dcciui by DaakLr£ it ^{ipcar that PriBCVii 
i-uald not h«VT rci^fjUcd brfcirr ApiiU 
aitrl has l«l even l'ratii>ii to conttrort 
hjrpQibesH of Ions rtceuo In Ibe ve*^ 



year Z51 was on the 23rd of March, And Cyprian, lliough 
unabk to keep the Paschal solemnity Jn his owtj church, 
as was the wont of the African bi«hop«^r returned very shortly 
afterwards to Carthage, after fourteen months of absence'- 
It was some expected move' on the part of the faction' 
which postponed his rcium. or the fear of a demonstration 
which might rekindle persecution. Nothing tinusiual .seeing 
to have occurred. U w^s recognised that the execution 
of the edict was suspended', work was instantly resumed 
with utmost vigour, and the bishops of the province, about 
the first week of April, began joyfully to muster in the 

lion (if lh« JHnT C-Mincll, unJ of s«vpnl 

jounicj"! for fJcpvaJm lo an^l TroiH RehrC' 
ThaL Unte resCb however on Ha men: 
application of iht Juraliun o\ Coraeliufl' 
cpncopBlc (lwd jrcua rhrrc months xnA 
icn dny^) it the 141b of September, 
whitli IrtoQic |*ivo as the hulnhcal 
ilatc of Kill ciKuLinti a1 Kumc. Curiic- 
hqPk vrMfc h*»ivrver noi jml To ilearh, anJ 
thai da* u (ho re^l anmTcrbaTy vf the 
nia/lyrdorr of Cyprian, logcthcr wiih 
whfHc fpiTivBl thr Enemrtriol of Comc- 
lldi tvob (^lebmlvtl a[ Kotnc on account 
qf l!)cit fricEidihip mid ubloa- 

It iprmj (fi me poHll'le .ilto thai ihe 
ecfmcidencv of Coif)«liii-i* dr-diQn inil 
Lucfon' iJcalh on ,lt1i March mivy have 
been A ciiu*c tif rrroT in psirly CfllenJiUs, 

EuteUiu. in nKigning ihfve yet 'a 
the puntitioEc cf ComelUti blunders 

vntclwfly ^y copying oal th« o^d 
number of okonthi at If ihcy ircrv the 
ycuiL Thus, rcum die ttaccincDiii thai 
CofTiclhis ifl-lff '1 11. ro- lit- d. x„ 
Sleplianus a- III- m. n. d. xxj,, Xy>[ai 
«. II. m, XI. d. VL-' he flpilva his 
iHicmenti ihil rh«y tarr nHpc^tivdy 
tl«c< ycfli** Iwii yMia, oiiJ cU* tn fad- 
He has ].ui:iii» more cinrccT. 

* BitK/tiatm m thr Iook, «ver< 
wni]i|]1ng iimcrFckntiJng oT « Roouur 
^/, 43. #- S*< ooie 1, p, 4r- 

■ - MalignJTu et perAJk.' He dk 
tiaciiy plaimcJ liii return fur d^ 
Eaitet, Sf-^yi. 

* PcrsKulione upilft* Ckim data e«*«t 
facultiu in unum caitvcniendi. oij^nwa 
vfiucopardm niiin?rus A/^ 5^- 6> 




Cjffrians First C^uncU pf Carihagi. 

QitnH^ I. 7^ Tidt of Ccmt/ius, 

Events had co concurred that the first subject which 
voofd demaDd the atlCDtion of this, the first Coancil <^ 
Ctfthfge which had met for perhaps half a century'. wh3 
lldtc other th&n had been contemplated in the agenda. 

C/pHan hiiil ^l the ];i*t inomrnt' received the drsjntch 
IroQ Cornelius announcing hk own election. But with it 
bd been delivered a letter of another tenor; — a protect 
aj^a the choice tLit had been made* It was from 

The president felt him^ctf called upon to decide whether 
Jte should lay both documents before the Council, or if not, 
vhMi o^ the two. He vta^ guidi^d^ he says, simply hy the tone 
of the cocnmun teat ion «, One ' had the tone of religioos «im- 
'plicity; the other rang vhitti the noisy baying of execrations 

* Sf^ i|> • ' .tJadi tunc. (aEDbiis et 

> ^ 4^ •- Don Hub | I^^ J;, 
Cfff- Ztk*) kkn ThU J<l£<c aol Id 

hate bcctt * pnxoi. bat onv from Cur' 

•ciu« cf BkluR (iL p. 4J9) whnm he 

Coiuidcntit (NonUUiJmenpa vvcaucM, 
doo cl p]«bt U^ pnee«|i( qiMo idi^ 

idii^ tiiDtiUciuilciu n*fiit^MHf 




' and invectives.' He resolved not to communkate ihe maiit of 
Utter and offensive charges in writing* against Cortieliin; 
to oin Audi&nce of partially informed^ provincially-educated 
persons, far fiom the scene of action, now gathered for dclt- 
beratiun in ix\c3 about the AIt^r\ and suitouudcd by the 
excitable laity of the city. Whether even on these fordbles 
motives he should have withheld them h a qnerfton ; con- 
sidering that these councils were the verj' lypes of returning 
freedon, both individually and corpor^tcly. Wc recc^nise in' 
his act the benevolent despot eingulariy combined with the: 
scrupulous debater He tocjk however the politic step 

kkomlaful. Nol u RcUl^ri; (pi I>|1. 
'eta gin?ti Hurh in^tllllr.' 

' FinEntfUi (I'r, acerilf>iibiH)*t plebi, 
£/\. ^a,^ 1 .,|gni£C )x>»liUK c( Uqiia ai4ii? 

iTi(er««ting [>i5fiB£* by i [till vtop nf^ar 
^ UlCiiiik*LiAU£> * Cjpibb up mpcci for 
llif iBPmbly foiboilf litm 10 pToducE 
ibe railjni: oecusauon '<onsk(lcraAKd 
padlcr ct pamlcnuilcfi qvccL in Ujilu 
friiirum rfligioim*iii<" convciilu cinisirlfn- 
libui M wnnlcitiliuK ft altitri ptH]ti> 
□cc legi dcbc4L Dci; tudirL' Tbnl ». 
■he well weighed whni was tini fit to 
be rc&d ot litirniril to in ^uch a pJoce' 
Fuillirt on he myi. '\xhto Xittx: firiii 
iHrhfrt ofe1'!nclEfnlls ^ C[liflnii} Ulfi 
qdonindnfn cAlumnko^A tcmcriloLe <cin- 
Kiipid^un: tcti;i|.iuJ 1105 non paimmi '; 
[hm ii, ■Wcnefognlwlhit rturyif, when 
people Knvc given vent 10 such libellous 
tpjtc, AC mffcr il not lu be rud ber<irc 
u*.' (If, Fphe, 4. 35,) In tacf^ ^w*- 
SAgc Hhrtct buA eiipimg{;il tbe nc;;iitiv«, 
rentlmg 'tt lq;i <lcl«nt rf nnUri' and 
■spnd nmiptdmur," FFChlruplMnWthff 
chuget deitinj tht mmniPE; bwl ihcf 
r«i%on]}picKn( [hcci:invcc^ |qdi Ihc 
(cvtrac) \iJieH offterr osiemiimw Jb in- 

Fn'Kiniptpr i^A^nd n-I^niiirluTrrnii 
dJIiicutTiH in ^ma/ &nd in ri 
UowncE lliKcl'i Tinl rckding hu 
lOLrtcry onr nipporT, hit vcond T^fmt. 

O. Kiiiciil lp> Iji) mnk*i Cypnui ini* 
pan Cuiacltui* IcUci '- -»lu *a die 
Blichafe und cwfli \n ilcr EfliriiTHiirti 

mr/iy Hu: l)i;« phiOM merely mpiu 
Efaot he loatt nre That no oaf ihaalrl bt 
jgniinml of it -. intifftarr hut no tint 
scciTcy about il (i*^, intimiwnMKt ]» 
ii>>ert of Tli«* dn-lAEBiinn nf ^b« J evi rhil 
ihcf had no king but Ca^it, .fi^ 
/■rf. Huirl, App. p. tjii. ijj. The 
ihnugfic of *«f«y nor only -aIi*! Bunijr 
Ihc cofiErut wilh Cypiiad'ft Licn^Dicnl of' 
Kovaiiui'ft l?Ui:i. Iiui \iv kayt upTrufi; 

Rilichl I1U Cillcit inio uiadicr 
mi^iJLke on '^.-ca qiu; ci diterw 
lihnini misum fcngem iDmni 
li&nibi>» criminuii! fcajjuimui* C45 
'Jcu Bijrf Oct Gcgcnpptrlei MJtl ci au| 
FrhiTlrniiii" \on itich grwicnefi h&lvn.' 
A^'fthaHauihus depends wi i^**g(ita- 
y^\ RitKhL't wbqk aLogatign RflLiDn 
Cy]>ri«]i of unfolmcn In The tn^rmMt 
of Novniian'a 'JpipoTch and of natnilli 
reiii uu thoc I»D FTTijn bid im 
meiiilnglF«4 readjng rtttnin tn ^, 


proposing to despatch two of their own number to Rome 
aA 8 <Icl^ftcy to invcsti^te «nd report Hb old frkada 
C^iULimu?! aikd Furiuudlua were nelectnt and look tlidrdciiai^ 
imtK Thdr iii'^tniction* were to comTniiniratc in ihi- first 
tatuncr with the bishops who tud attended the ordination 
of Comdtus* and. if £ati:i;5cd, to procure from them written 
atleittlions of iC« rcgoUnly, 

This UTipreccdcntcd request for credcrtiaK althoLgh com- 
pLod vith, cx|xMcd Cyprian «t Rojuc to rcnectioiis upon liis 
nuumting turn. He rea&oDably replied that the circuna* 
sUKev were novtl, and his procedure a security to the title'. 
tht commifiMoncfK were further charged to use their best 
endeavours to recompoee the broken harmony of Rome'* 

Octe more fltcp wu taken to con^pletc the fairness of the 
ncatmlity. Communications with Cornelius as bishop were 
fQtpmdeil ; lettem of church business lo ihc city were 
urderrd lo be addrcs^rd for the present ta its prrsbyterK 
*nd deacons* All Christian travellers Rome-ward bound 
^rf cauttORcd to be circumspect in recognising claims for 

Pending intelligence from 1t;dy the Council ^pprrrached 
ihrir ordinal work. There wa* tht< farther necewiiy for the 
Meglcy to Rome — thai if Cornelius really favoured. &s was 
repoffted, the party of laxity at Rome, the position of Felicis- 
•tmu5 might be stfen^hcncd indefinitely'. Before conditions 

* fy, 4& 1 1 A^ 4*' *■ *^} *^ I taJnintfium. 1 <Jo pot icv how 

■ ijfLt f<rtl>ai>fi TnK AffnpTdiitH Cp. Up»1ui infen (0^ dt- p $04^ From £^. 
44. I, 4£ Ituti letlen (o Cornditu hod been 

' £^ 4^ J- ilmd; wriium which won ouw nc- 

■ Tlw 4oci Bot v«» lo hav* bad ■ ^ 4S. 1, 1. 
ecDcpl (m «e iball * KkiachL pp^ 77* ?>. 




of communion could bo dctermmcd far tho Lapsed, the affair 
of FclJcissimua slood as a preliminairy question. For» should 
it be din^ded that his reteption of ECpeiiUnt rcncK^dcs with- 
out terms of penance hnd been warranted by circumstances, 
no further dUcussioii on the Lapsed ivould be required But 
if the broad issue should be first decided in the opposite dense 
to his, it might thc^n be too tate to introduce his conduct as a 
diacipimary question- Condemnation would wear the appear- 
ance of being ba^ed on exfiost/tu/v regulation. Whereas his 
achism really consisted not in the views he had maintained 
about the Lapsed, (for the que^lior was yet open,) but in the 
fact that he had re-admitted offenders when the bishops had 
given notice that their cases were to be reserved Co a council. 

There is large indication tliat Cyprian was not present at 
thi5 debate and its decision. An honourable and cxpcnenccd 
lawyer would naturally avt^id the position of a judge in a 
case in which he was virtually plaintiff and Fclicissimus de- 
fendant. In writing of it subseqiaencty to Cornelius he doc« 
not employ the first person, which is 1 think his unvarying 
practice when he records decisions at which he had prcsidcdn 
'To acquaint you' (he says) 'with what has passed here let 
' relation to the cause of certiun presbyters and Fclicissimu^, 
'our colleagues have sent you a letter subscribed with their 
'hand, and by their letter you will le;irri the opinion and 
'decision they arrived at after giving audience to thepartiesV 

Lastly, there is intimation of the atisence of Cyprian from 
Carthage at the very conjuncture when, as I concludCj 
case of P'elicissimus was before theni< 

In company with Libcralis, one of the senior bishopn of i 
the province, he visited Hadfuinetnni' about eighty mile? 
from Carthage, on [ know not what errand. They found the 
clergy there in official correspondence with Cornelius, and in 
accordance with the resolution of the Council (which tlicir 
absent bishop Polycarp had not yet transmitted to them), 


dc^irrd them locommumcate with the Rom;tn Church, nol at 
present throuf^h CorocliuB, but through it^ prcsbyier« atid 
deacons. Cofneliua toak umbnge at this coiirse'; and cer- 
tainly the »olc momcri nt which Cyprian could properly have 
adopted it wa?t precisely this intCTval elapsing after the 
departure of Caldonius^ bHorc the Council had satisfied them- 
s«lve9 of the validity of Cornelius" position. Tbi^ ihiry did 
(x^ we sthall tet) sometime before the return of Caldoniua, 
that is to say, jusC when they were debating the case of Feii- 
ci.v^ifnuj. Caldonius and FortunaCus had been also provided 
whh a transcript of the prc/iou* letter* addressed upon this 
subject of FclicUsimui by Cypiian to bis laily aiid his com- 
nis**onert They were read to the laity of Rome, who clius, 
without direct apf)ea] to them, were put in possession of the 
cace and on their f^ard at*ainsi clandestine negotiation*. 

That the faction and Fehcisniimus were imnecl lately con- 
demned it b almost unnecessary to relate. Cyprian liimdieir 
docs cioC record it except by implication- 

But though thc^e. their would-be patrons, were sflenceJ, 
it tvax not yet po«^ible to decide upon the future of the 
tram:»ca]ly situated Deniers of Christ 

Ike dlwittv nt C^tt^n rinrn ih« Council 
^m^% tW triA] of hU opponent F«|i- 
c^rinai v>}f« d^fficohicB to tay mind 
tlianlnfrlj iwlithle in Vif oihct WI7. 
n* ia> ctldbio crouDdi lufflcwot lo 

■tCflQIIWIll il. rG*»fin 40 J TiUotlOIll 

heM tint tJb« Omndl wu pr(ildii|[n1 hy 
— I »B» adparnnknU- But thtir ltypo< 
t%tAt wu fciatei (1} to 4ifpoK gr (he 
Im^ pcrtod i4i>ch tbc fii! ■< dale uf Cur- 
mdiaf glun^n h«olT**t, |3]io>lla* toi 

^■910 ado' (^ M^ 13I. whkch Peu- 
Xj^iate^ dKaifb fcc hu cuiintcJ 

tccciKf diS^caUy (c^> aif. pp. loj— 406> 
bf toppovt^c lh« Canned], bdiire dU- 
p«raii>(, I0 bflvc trnpowcpo) Cyptjui. if 

HtLirjol, tu rectj^nisc Cumcliuk in Lhtir 
ntnw- 1tu( Wf hhall t«r fhi-T Pi-rmp^iiic 
uid SlFphanub, before CoIHcniui m- 

of Eht vftlidrly (if :he rlecEii^n. Hnrl ihat 
oh Tbrtr twiJfnce Comeliui «rv ai>- 
kuowlc<[tcd {liicru nofint ^d tc dj' 
mimu5, ^. 45. 1). antj puMiniUon of 

thmt Al\(r the rrt\i <ii the Ccuu^it, 
Cyprian should ha^r iiUi^KTinlnl ilir 
r4optnirn«in«' con«poisdtn«t with 



Qi^fi&n J. N'l^tUtattUm. 


For the Council at once became almo*t a council of war 
on the more imperial question. Mcs&ongers came and went M 
from the field. Seldom has a council *at tL\md the outbreak 
and dash of the questions they hati to dcciJc. Seldom has 
a cojiicH been more wisely guided: seldom indeed swayed by 
so tranquil and Urge-hrarted a chiefs seldom recalled to ^ 
consider the whole range of first pnnoples ratlier than to ™ 
pursue or recoil from the paiii^ion of the hour. 

What wc now study aa ortc of the most famous of 
treatises was in its first form an Essay or Oration ON THE 
Unitv of the Catholic Church' delivered at this cod- 
juncture*. It must have been rapidly composed, for the 
occastoti of it had not arisen when the prelates first assembled. 
For them it was in itself an education. In masterly [inefi and 
with a colouring sometimes not inferior to Tcrlullian'a he 
sketched thai view of the constitution of the Church which 
has permancnll/ shaped Its history. The great theory and it* 
illustrations must be reserved for fuller cotiBideratioTi pre- 
sently. Here mii^t be indicated simply the two or three 
leading prindples by which the crisis was skilfully Facedj 
and an intense feeling of personal rc^ponsibilLty for the 
integrity of llic Church evoked in her bishops. 

Only by distinctness (it is represented) as to the Scripture 
ideal of Unity may be formed a compact resistance to the 
inslnviating errors of an age whose temptation is the prt- 
senCmenl of novel error under Christian forms. The boU 
practical bond of union is to be found in a united episcopate. 
To every member of that order ia committed, not only the 

' So lh*f hP5f «W. MlW \i, BIVl »p" 

pa»mlly Cyprian HimwK, Ef. 5#, 4. 
In Ihe clm^ uf Fulij^cnt^iu ii hmj ic- 
ceivH •IfPi'lj iht fllt«Miivc title D» 

' The dale will t>c dbcuued 
AccUL>n uu the Dr Urnktir. 




rcinjlfttion of his own portion of the church but a joint 
inlctcst in and rcnponnibiiity for the totality and onc:nc3^s of 
all its partfL S^paratif^m abntrgntrs in the individual the 
essence arul fint broad principle of the religion which in a 
Love cxpajMJing into, or r.ithcr necessarily expressing itself 
in Unit}^. Such were the principles of whidb Che eloquent 
expression was elicited from Cyprian by the Arrival of intelli- 
gence wtidi wc shall now relate 

AUhcjG^h Caldoiim« and hi* colleague had not returned 
(rcfnsining trt accordance with their in«tructioT]« in hope of pro- 
ducing some effect^), two other African bisbopa, Stephen and 
Fovnpey by name, had appeared in the mid.^t of the session 
frcah from the scene at Komc. They had been present at the 
couacciA tion of Comehu^'. Aware of the impoitancc of the 
dtiefly clerical agiE.iliGii against it, and assured cif ha regu- 
lafity, they had arincd themselves with documents drawn up 
by the consenting bishops, testimonies from the laity to the 
life, character and ' discipline" of the new bishop, and attc&- 
tstioas to the depositions they were prepared to make at 
Caf1tug& In their pUcen they gave their evidence amid 
univenal satisraction» All the characters of a true election 
In lh« third century (aa we have iilready specilied them) had 
ccmctirred; the majority of the clerics, the ^sufiragc of the 
laity, the consent of the neighbouring bishops'. Practically 
nothing coiJld now be ^incd by the formahty of awaiting 
the return of the Commission. Letters of recognition were 
addrcucd to Cornelius'. Tlic tidings were disseminated 
through all the sees of Africa with the rcriuc^l that they too 
woold acknowledge the new bishop. 

Scarcely ean the ink have dried when four new delegates 

> A> ^J- I, *. 

ft Siv twyMOl^ lu*v rowl on bit 

* IStrjfMH^ li the nondoorrd*tiT« 

ta d^efrnm. Kit pun ealibjujr ccni«» 
ondflr thi* Iwad. 

■ ..tittvrak QOfiru id ie dinsLPUi, 


Cyprian's fiiwt council or carthage. 


Murch j. 

\.0. 9(0- 

frotr Rome requested audience, a certain Machaeus and Lon- 
ginus, Au^ndus a deacon of Novatian's, probably die excom- 
munjcatcd follower of Fclicissimus, (not the only member 
of that party who had taken a new colour at Rome,) and. aa 
their senior, Maximus a Presbyter, not the confessor, but one 
who soon after pretended to the chair of Cyprian. TTiefr 
missioi^ was personally to press the charges against Cornelius, 
and fiolemnly to announce that Novatian had been coqm' 
crated Bishop of Romc. 

Wc must narrate the circumstances of thi* startling event, 
which had occurred after the departure from Rome of 
Stirphrn and Pompcy', and now surprised the Council in the 
midst of their satisfaction. 

It seems then that the party of severity, disappointed and 
perplexed by the election, had been stimulated to action 
partly by Evaristus, a bishop whom Cornelius regarded aa a 
prime mover in the enterprise', But a more Important actor 
had appeared at Rome in the person of Novatus- He had 



' It bccnmcB eerUifi lli^i iLu ii«3 ihc 
OTtlvr of cvcnti ttiui ihr followiufi ob- 
wntiioD^- Sirpbnnus and Fnmp?Ti]*i 
tfe nut viil Eo hnve brought any news 
atcrpt ihil uf Conidmfc' cunsccrflliuii- 
Anil rU« Eipnijir]on in the Crmn^^il ni rhe 
uinoaQccmcnl by ibc Novntianbl cm- 
bA^y sti£«s Lluii li broughl tbe Jim 
HEWS of ihar ni Novnu-tJi. I'hrn thp 
Council lit JB ttalcd ^J*- 44^ )) vcrc 
able ti> icfuve flftl repc] Ua diorgo. 
nithcmgh they hod run reeei-rrfi [extpit- 
ftvimvt £/. 44- 1) tlic rvpt^rl of Ihcir 
L>i4ii coEtiiiiistioii {Duta MBian, t'iCe S- 
Cypr, XKl, ffrntneoiuljr tlafr^ ihr non- 
tnry), bc»U9c Stcj^liBJiiiB and Panri- 
pejiu had produced tviJepcc of ibc pro- 
prieiT ^rvA regulamj' fif ihe fonEeen- 

SnfifTvertfrunl^ £p, «t< I. il "osjr bt 
ObsTTved mfartG 'cam* on ih* rop d 
uat cspccUmc)'/ fin/ *c»inc *ft«r isvuu- 

tun's «Abauf/ For tbo Covndl cooU 
noL havi; jxT on^c tuHpoided the cmb&nr 
4roin tummiwistvn at They did* tf up tilt 
then they bid roccivcJ aoly ConiclW 
uwa Idleia fuf which Ebey had souighE 

'vF^^fo. Thecorainon|ic*rliouJ?»v* 
ijlum QtatereiH nkiimatu ^vuuld noigiTie 
hJm.aaRilichl. p, 7ii^ii>pn«;f it uouTil, 
e pdaiiioD AM;ribabk 10 NovftttAn aIooc 
Aucbfr ja pjoperlj il piurooicr^ ntit in 
originaior. So (he eonfeuar* aocw 
themselves QFbeini;^ir'tf£ffl«frnj, /^ 
49. I, foi fcllowioK {ut ptirrrmfftrr) the 
conHcntiad of Nuvarian. Jerome ciJtt 
Ncivfttus *Auclor' ofNovAtuui (u^ firu 
/lA'- 70K Ncverthelis» func A3iit»rf i\ 
prolttlily rhe ri^hi t«a4iiig» far the 
reading of th« iwa bclicr M3t- <■<« 
omiVfirj f& Duthiti^ but ad Afhcaui 





troubles of his own in Carthage ; an enquiry which had lone 
hung over him wa» now near, and he wished to avdd it. but 
be cnK«rd ihtf Medil<^rrAne;tn' with xt leait nuine va^iie 
pjfpoce of baffling that *piHt of the rising time whirh by 
aeus of the epiJiCopal order w^ introducing organization 
■mid ocnfusion. and constituting its free representative as- 
aettUic5 (the only free assemblies be it remembered in the 
Empire) into a legislative and judicatory power. 

To prosecute thi* aim he would have lo ally himself at 

Rome with a body which took the diametric^Uy opposite 

Tiew upon the rcadmiwion of Che Lapsed to Uiat which he 

had supported in Carthage. Policy ro doabt shaped his 

«aib as weJI as his means, yet his joining the exclusive 

coofcssora at Rome when fresh from the com prehension - 

jMity of Carthage doca not perhaps after all stamp htm as 

a fDcre adt'etiturer. Rather it revcids the true character of 

hit view. The restoration or non-rrstnratior of the Lapsed 

was probably to him indifferent. The i^uestion with him 

was. What should be the working power? In whose handi 

should the settlement of the terms of church communion be 

vested ? The real object of hjs activil>' was lo resist what he 

considered the encroachments of episcopal influence, and to 

retain lh(? regulation of inch cases where it had been during 

ihe looM chaotic time before Cyprian, namely in the hands 

of tndivtdoa] clerics He had no doctrinal view to maintainV 

ff^m JUn* witb tht fkiil cm- 

' 1 hAi« ocuUpttd ibc iiailtDiMi ttut, 
Mm Jilt te Cyi* ^AM' >. Kk I141I ihjit 
— imi j cf tht aJtrtimirE— cu chuiicrn 
i» 1m>| b«e«iii* s( any niv (hii hdJ 
W»e ibf Roaua oHifwan- 
r. bdecd. if- tic-, vol- J* pp- 
ji« afq-. kitli cfauamnriic «nKietr 
la fliM Aiakcn onpr^udicvd bdbtc 

tcwlrrr. uBunin thai thnc Malrnicnti 
ur tbr (fcwih of polcmk ranf nur. ud 
gn#q to lu Otf to Mf ihAL Cypnui i*ouLi] 
hiiuilf hive IjHu tobUme fm dluwio^ 
iprcvlouK 10 xt\%\ W tvcultl &ei!inj inch % 
chAruict uuuna I*" eltii;:r> ll^i* it 

ul hi4 wilhdnwi] from C4rtliA£v lr> a 
Iwi ci>iiKicnCf» uid the cuncnd lauM' 
ItoDi or dcpiivU?, tnay be Cluft«l vriih 
Ihe atiiflJ violent moral prc|uriicc4 



Hence though a aingie passage implies that his virtual 

eoquinr into hla cooiluci vru unpending 
jdvt hffOTv ihc pem?aitii>p, nascertDili 
M « four can be. :<? fi> in »up« 

ZWr */ jVifuilni' jL'utnfy io J^i'mr. 
Nothing bril turitvi; tingular crtinrifTenec 
COnld have gircn U'i tliia d^tc mjbutc]):. 
But itw iklcrDimiti^Li i>f tlic triii' lUic 
or thf ardiTiBiriii nr Cornvliiu T&nnve* 
■ difiicutiy whJch be*cl Pomon iiid jlII 
ButicT dirviiutijgrn in alleippEin^ tu 
liiL ir In 4i(her fiointE rhey huve ttiuEim] 
rfacDAvlvM. [i) G^rncliiis w&ii njppo^d 

10 have twcn coiiHciBicd in June ijK 
[l) il waj mfcrTFd from iht words nf ihi? 
IJt>vrihD CataJogiic that Novtrua HalI 
pracliacd witli ihc Rumin C<jiircs%ui& 
tt Mrly a* jiftHflTy sji. (j) Ir i*« 
infcrrtiJ TiDra J^^ f,j- 3, j thai he had 
flecl lo Rdilic Iq avoit] ihc io^tUie ss, 
fo hit cwinlur:!, which wsw to c(imc ofT 
brfcv* the penecuiion b«!gaii. f'.f . tU (he 
kteili la ibc end gf A^i^- 149- U^ lie 
wns orgnniiin^ ihir dppMil'E'jn bt Cut- 
ChogcwiEh rcMd-oimv^ fowarda the end 
of tlic pcjKCLUlion — lowanlfc March 33. 
Ea&Lrr A.D- i^Ql £p-\^- 1. I5} H« una 
al Rome ifter CnmoUui' <Mi&MiBiion. 
Tq icconcJle lL^k dnlea it vru nKQ&uy 
[0 «ippo» Ihar ht had midv wvpnl 
'Pci^ges to Rome «hile orgnoiiiu^ his 
plrlir. ItuI sufdy ftinnii^ lila ullicr 
eiertionx in lUc ca«w of error ihi» 
would huvc fcccivf-d &cinL« nulicu, wEtde 
the inton^i^tpiitj' iif hia tinftiiig pnUcy 

11 ihe IWQ renir« of hiA )i<:(i\ii)r would 
hnvvatlngfCedmoifolnervjiTion. Haw- 
Civ^f, I hope to be etiuJtcd for a longer 
MUiminiition of the siory, ifU wereonlj' 
beuUM Ltpvlui hlmaelf; who detected 
the d*[c of Carucliux ililliiioM^ttic»fi-Qm 
(i) and (5} UEh: voyni^c imErLo^ialeljr on 
Ihf df■tho^M^ybe«, uneormomcqtliFr. 
And one nfEfit ihc Comicil, Liptiji, «/> 
(i^., pp- Jt»i 3^ lAkn Cn^rim in fT- 5 
(n upak of *uch 4 voyitgir. n.|[h(»tigh he 
hIe duwn the motive kaaigbal tbt it — 

dii^cfihetrUl— to^rtysplie, P«dui 
» The loiiniaia of Ihti mi^taJcc {Ad Sym- 

/tifr,*Ljl.Tii. p.'jft^i (i:*".*)!' H< quota 
pan of Cypnan^ wof dt, hitt panphrutc 
hit'vt juJiciLim mcirittciEUBi volunUrit 
djKcaaJojic pntoc^crcl ' \<j * Ri^iDim vc- 
nU - el hi^ liiiEtvlt.' Riu whar Crpnaii 
icalJy sa]rs 1* ihai Xovmxu «TDid«i 
fioontmiioiation for pciki^iuU u^^dc- 

Jufwg TAr prra/fHiim^ thai u Iq nj 
by ff^ltin£ u^J, m juiniaiE, th« iMtiy of 
Kellduimui; ^om Hp. |i, v m vf 
lldl KelEaucimuJL took lh* tMifaefttt 
uid cicfmnnimJcjiicd the Crprianic adv 
(wnTenEjam qHim jin^ dilril). In ^- 
5?, t C^rprim ijienLJont the v07fe(« la 
ct>i^ncction will^ ihv fommcucciucul of 
[be pDCiy of Felidsinias. buc ihli ii 
onJy a Tbeiannl juxiapUbiUoii Utfuuaa 
lie tfnalits Eji pomilcl Novamt'i appwuf 
lociil of a iJhhop ui Romt? wiih hu 
Inrmer itppoinitniqiki of a De*coa Ui 
CuLhi^. [}) Aeainu to iliB Ubciiui 
Ca^aloeue- The words aiP. ondcr F*- 
nrrr«. < .J'.hi pflKt«neDi «juq U4TaK«t 
MjAimiu p(4^l>y1cn ct Nkvctnru* dk- 
cunua cumt^rchi^i&i s^x\\. rt in (irccTaB 
«unt mifKi. liA tpnpaiv tupetreiiit 
XovatUB £x Africa vl KpAtJtvIt de ec- 
cicala NovaLianura « qurwdwn txxt- 
fetsnm^ poiTqiutoi Mcryiu in cxr^m 

dcniUClUA Dt ^u1 fuil ibi ID. Kl d. Jll 'l 

:ind under DriLNKUim. ' „Sab Efri- 
tini|i9iu #jiu Novaiuii cxl» firflmlii 
ofthanvit NDTQlianuin in ujbc lloiiuci 
NiTOWratuni in Africn, Hoc fAdOfnn' 
fipisnrfl qui 4e separtvwunl a CohmIm 
cuni MoENiia p;xabyLcio. qaj cua liCcqw 
fiiUp ad ecdcH^m suul rerersi-..,' afx 
LipBiu*, oft. fit.y p. 167. Kow the ob- 
ject of ihc^e cntii?!, irhii:h ixca|>7 the 
mAln [larL uf ihe tlioM mvmoirt, U tA 
lecord t^eat^non flf Moyie* uid Miti- 
miu who were comicemuiaicd U Rnoe 






duafc of party vnts not unnoliccd at Canllag<!^ yci it is nol, 
u might hasv been expected, urged against him as a p^ljivble 

If this «Joction of Cornelius couM be overruled at onoe 
bcTcre beiaff seneraUy accepted or even announced ; if he 
coutdcaUblhh himself at the right hand of another biahop. — 
one 10 whom the eyes of many men of hit-lie^t cliuructcr hitd 
bccii directed ; if he could thi^n %ecurr for him rc*cognitlon at 
Canba^; he would not only have nothing more to fear on 
his own account, he would be in the ver>' bent position for 
noderattng between the epir^opal power, and all who whether 
0|wn Ux or upon puritan piinciplcs desired almost all indi- 
vidual div:ip]ine to bo in the hand^ of the second order. 

h vas llius rhat Novatus and Pelicissimus tried to restrict 

■I Comiomar*, It *&t imporlitqt ihej 
■fcwJd ttvl beduiHit u Knvail&niMH. 
W4 ContU w m hki Isatr In Euwbrut ts 
ttjdotts 10 *kdk«ce tbemi ]e «4i uccJ 
M lA A|lq(nbh ihm frtnri Si<:i»lf]ilJt 

A bbhdr fu ker? >cT^*<nltd] dJd to- 
aito > Nondiiilsi. Ir ii ImpOBlblc lo 
pMM ilM tnl mrr inTo « «:hriMK>lc^2tf«L 

•0 Tfnw fatm^bidf Mflcr thcdcfttb ai 
MijM ICa objKt 14 ro rccoM Ihai 
Moyiu S^ oa ■ oon&wor Icfan No- 

W« ikcBd^rr coMtuHc thai w# haw 
BO ■*-'*-*"^' *liAr<Tcr iiDp^c lliat 
Kowai atu!4 mnrc ihaii one Jmimry 
to Row «l tbii period- If he did nol 
fcack Room liU 4^ ihc dfdioii tjT 

f«4 ^irii^l^t dbonian f . ; lixvnr* ei in 
p^n rtctvdcHCfli« dbcordia. . f ^ 
4$, tf tSn^j. be muld illU h^ve 
ut Fimc to urguiiic iiwuur« 
C&ldonisi tfTivTiI ia the tnd or 
jtd Bwkctf April unl/UtfinJ Nijvxlita 
4» IW p3Ef c4b«ngmntvent«l- And 

tulEy wc muki rcRUfli (hm until aftei 
tiK pIvUiun «r CuiiicIJuqIiiu] luketi plAOf 
rn acT of Nrvslit* ctuliJ L* dficnl^d 
u 'wfOTAiing ilir (onfoawr^ fmm lb* 
diurch/ fo; at the »oi*[ he coulJ gnly 
hflVe tiHn erLdHvi>uring ro pnvurt (h« 
dccliob of anuihrr. I coflchdc there- 
fvfc itul Muir4\UK ciuue (u Koiae iuiniir' 
diaroEy Bllvr thv i?TLlmal;on df Comtliai 
on MdKh 5t ^,u. 151, 

It b iuiM(iyiii(> 10 fiitd Tcchtrup* whc 
baa Idf^ oE icfune^, tuggvsticg Vy 
Ihe vrpjr that Corncliii** CaiuccT^tioD 
mftTlx put '*(wi vieiichii Tj^cijalec' 
in ordcf ro allow Nnvahit % iDrrniQhi 
more for mbchicfftl Komr. If LipeLO«^ 
olcuUEba, p^Tviic In itielf. and ulvms 
ftTT lilfticTiltlet. tfl TO 1v puT a forinigVit 
out OQ tuc:h tubjccUw '(-Iruodc/^hrO" 
iid1o|^ in imJefil vniii (Fcclitnip pi loj 
BfiH tinltj- 

^ Zy. 51. 1 ', .lUtricarv nanc audcE 
ucrlT'icintluiii Eimnui/cDuipajT ibc Tal- 
lies ■ niinf flver ii taptonim pttimitro 
vcDeaftTn sLift 4l«!epiUHie vmcnnl/ i^- 
hf i-udiil^jcace, Sp^ 45. >. 



the terms of coininunion in their own <lUtnct, and the view 
though unacriptural and Qnccnstitutioral is intelligible. 

The spirit of Novdtus illustrfttcs itself in those presbyters 
of our own wh<j» if they ctJiild. would lepcl from communion, 
celebr;iieor withhold mirriage or funeral nt^^s^or fix the age of 
confirmation, on their own judgment ; who revolutionise ritual ■ 
without respect to cither Bir^bop or "Plebes'; who admit 
to vow3» direct the persona who take them, and prcterd to 
dispense from ihcm. 

Maximus and the other newly liberated confe^sorsV al- 
ready bia*i*ietl ag^in>il Cornelius by the austerity of their nvrn 
views, now worked upon to believe tiiat he was ready to 
s&crilice the Church's purity for a spurious charity, and 
stimulated by the temper of Novatus, determined to elect 
Novatian'. Their high character rendered it not impossible 
to procure thict: cuunlry bl&hops to lay their hands, In the 
*>upposed cap;tclty of saviours of the Church, upon his hrjtd*. 
and to invest the lirst Puritan' with the attributes of the first 


* \..v*iiiii\\t 4t eccltiii...' Lidtr/an 

• Com- ap, Em. *1. ^y W« raiy 

prviart'ft lirtipf ihaT ihe rtTr wit \ytt^ 
farmciJ by item in s, iEaIp >>{ mcbrcl)', 

Al>ilili«« nf rhp liin^ Eulogiiu, Bp. of 
AlcundriBi A-d, 579, hnd (Phol, B^l, 
cod. (Sa) a prep<htFjous u^ry aUiuL 
Novariitn bang nip/f*! poj>p hy ' foVi 
3rt,il 'A^tiar3^i*f Mj-n4ir«iff'i where 
we shoakl, I liiink, rcitii tvi^i ir<pi 
'A*i^£n.i'6/wf. rms of file hUhn[>i josL 
named, lliough even ihnl will not raalcc 
sense of llie ilory, "Nsjiraliaii vria,' he 
fcUieip 'the AtchdracoD of Romr' 
(no mch cfficv eii^ied ticfare the end 
u( Ihc fill uculury, Kc Lipsjui, of. ttt', 
p. 110 unil mitt). *Thc AichdciTon 

rtf»r i^Tfip,.,fr»V'rr*) w saccced to 

the cplicoijftie- bui Comeliui on dU- 
^r>vtiing itk4t be wpi ploiiiDg bi« rinth 
put An cud ta bi9 ftmUlioui dcEif^ Vf 
urilAiLiin^f him It ])rcibyieT, ' Wc inuit 
ncviVB Willi ijiLililicarian lh« ■tiTrinmt J 
of PacUn ibal he bccune binhnp irith^ ^ 
<jul cmisecrallon {£;«t i- jf. The Con* 
t*iQpcifary Innguaec of [he c<mff«Bft 
fljvl of CL>mc1tua \Ep. 41) and Eu&, /. t.) 
b lDGiuit(uvc(iib1c> SUii if we pat 

KPlcm.-.catvtecnnEc nulln..,pcf G|^t^ 
Ixm (confes5oiiioL)* side ]>r tidtf *llh 
Cyp- -;> unttitSf ercifii'f la, V-.nemiBe 
£pI?copAiLiin diafc.,-/ we may tuppoie 
Ihm ^ijnie hrilc iiilezviJ ouujird be 
Iweea bi± c][^ctil>n and cqnwminll, in 
vhtch he wnuld bd cdllcd £pi&ci>p'D4 
RonuJliis, whcrcu onliiuidy Lhc ojh- 
sccnulon Immtliaicly follcweil. 





Aali'pop& He then, in stninf^ anticipation or the policy of 
hu nx^i's SUCCCU0C5, connected the Euchavistic feast with a 
plecigr of p^nnnAl fealty tn ]iim-*trlt 'Swtsir to mc;' he Mid 
(far Coraellus belicve<I he had obiaJTiCTl tlir very ^yllable^ of 
tte fbfiiK *nirear to mc'— taking both banda of each com- 
■iiiennt betH^ccQ hU own— 'never to abandon me and 
fctnm to ComcUua,' The ruponsc ' I will no more go back 
tD Cornelius' took the place of the Euchan^rtk AmcnV 

Thv« ^^ crjmmcnced iJie NovAtianT^t or Purin ftchism. 
vhkh deepened iu unforgfvingness at last to heresy ; which 
pUflUd bishops in all the leading sees from Spain to Pontus^ 
Md nadc the mountamecrs of Phrygia almost its own ; which, 
fintalEowcd and then proscribed by Conatantine, supported 
fay Julian, supported by Thcodosius, and forbJddei^ by his 
tpo sons, lasted on at least until the end of fhe sixth century*. 

This then was announced in regular form at Carthage 
n tttc eleeticn of a true bishop for Rome, one who wotild 
'iSKrt the gottpcl' ' and prcacrvc church-purity. Confirmatory 
Epdl>3 (partly forged, as they afterwards declared'} were 
famed in the name of Maximus and ihe Confessors, together 
vitb despatches from Novatian himself tu the other principal 

In IhcKc Novntian dwelt on the unwillingness with which 
he b^ accepted a position Htcrally forced upon him*. And 
in a reply which the lai^c-hcartcd Dionysitis of Alexandria. 
viirr perhaps tlian severer censors, addressed to him, we trace 
A ml t>elief that lie may hiive followed rather than led ht« 
nqspOftcn, and that he might yet dtscntangle himself If 

HiO^i A«r. Cr. toL IU, C. MQ?' 
' &a»K jy, £. TV «i> 

HfTck in Wdwr a. Wdlc'a Xhriaf 
l^*fm (.VoMT. SiMism) 

' J/. «4^ I, 3. S« noifl M A«>- 
/r^m, Infi, p» I4T- 

' A> 4g. I. 

• Jiff^, *fl, r: SB- «- 

H icron. Jf f'iru tit* 69. 



again the mfercnce from wards be as just as it is obvious^ 
he waB in fact prepared to acquiesce m s. secondary place 
at Rome, if only accepted a^ bi»hop of a church withia a 
church ^ 

It WdK thus that DionysiuA ai^ued. 'If it was against 
'(hy will, as thou §aye*it, ihat ihoii wasr promoted, thou wilt 
'prove this by retiring. It were good to suffer anything and 
"everything so to escape dividing the Church of God- And 
' martyrdom to avoid schism is no less glorious than martyr- 
'dotn to avoid idolatry'. Nay. it is to my mind greater. In 
'one ca.^c A man is a marlyr for his cjwn single soul's sake, 
' But this i*i for the whole Church. Even now wcrt thou to 
'persuade or constrain the brethren to come to one mind, 
'thy true deed were greater than thy fall. This will not be 
'reckoned to thoc, the other will be lauded. And if thou 
'shouldcM be powerless to sway disobedient spirits, savc^ save 
'thine own souL I pray for thy health and thy stcdfast 
'cleaving to peace in che Lord,' 

Now Dionysiufi' actual view of the mischief which Nova- 
tiar was doing was conveyed in these terms to his owa 
namesake^ then a presbyter, afterwards Bishop, at Rome; 
'wheeling on to the sta^c most unholy leaching about God; 
'falsely accusing our kimiest Lord Jesus Christ as void of 
'pity; setting at nought the holy Laver ; overturning thi 
'Faith and Confession that go before It; and while tlicre wai 
'some hopt of their continuance or return, chasing the Holy 
'Spirit away from them'/ 

Read side by side with this opinion of the man's work, 
Dionysius* Idler to the man himself is iurcly a p<Lttem 
*!on trovers I al MVeetness. 


Trftr fjttj tiBttAtyiOTprifA* fiVottirtfJ '4 lit- 

fi. E, VI- 4*. The Xfv\ in Pesrvin, 

£tm» '<( c[B( nga inferioi ^Igru »ai 
tltitrj^ miriyrluni or iciivlHrur «clHf« 
(qLLion Ht iIIa nc Idolji ininatctur)/ 

BAptl&mfll Idler to Dionyt. Rom. 





That Cyprian n'ns deeply convinced that ambition hod a 

real bold on ihc spirit of Novation and contributed to hxs 

acticiai appears in a ^savc iii;;tdcittal cuiidcmiiatiurt of him 

pctincd Mx VKATS laterr. At tlvAl dhl^tice of time, and after 

his unai^imous councils, the allu&ion could roi be to the 

opponents of his own election, nor does it in fact characterise 

that form of opposition. It must be of Novatian that he thinks 

when he writes of ' one who complained of being passed over, 

*and m>uld not brt^ok another^ prcfcniicnt, aiid rebelled out 

'of enmity not to the man but to his office/ and again cf 'one 

'in »heep'» clothinj; who tlirough the coming in of jealousy 

'could neither be a peacemaker nor be in charity V 

When MaximuB and the other delegates of Novattan 
presented thcm«elrcs to the Council at Carthage it would 
have been iji ^ny ca« irregular to aJmit them to hearing 
pritir t:i the tt-ptirt nf their own cornriifusioncrs. But by this 
time a« vc have sceti they had received very full evidence, 
aod were able at once to rebut many of thetr strenuous 
AiMftions. Until the return of the deputies they fcfu*ed to 
bar more or to admit them to commiLnicatc*. 

Wc must confess however thai the delegates ^nd Kovatian 
imadf wem not wholly without ju!itific:itiu[i if they had 
mtlcipated tltat pertonally Cyprian might take a different 
ricw. It is far from Improbable that Nov^tian may have 
had before htm Cyprian's new book of Testimonies, and seen 
the hcadLng 'that it is impossible for him whose olTcnce 
b against GOD to be abcrulvcd in ihc Church*-' At any 
late when laM they corresponded they had agreed upon 

tD fac arvs ued, » Cbtkcbl (}i|L a», S ■)> 

rirt.' IMmpliflt Ji kind at ' ■Mjirorinn ' 
Mly. Ati^M^t, KUDctinvv «ilh t^ 
left, it Hit ia^jufljtUe iciu An cxcAin- 
miiotoiiior— hM Jf Ii»m- Ot- lA. Bfip. 

i- y> 4i'»l 39' '>y» to; dSnii 74. ft, 
' Tfiiim. ill. x% ' nua |xm< ua ncIuIb 
rpminl a qui in EJAim i4«1»^iimL' 



two important ftoints, Both had held that the exclusion of) 
the Lapsed should ber for a protracted period, to be measured 
apparently by years. Both had agreed that the Mart>'rs 
shojld have a voice as to the course to be pursued. Nova-' 
dan had now advanced to the conclui^ion that mere time 
could not restore their status as churchmen ; he was prepared] 
to act upon the letter of the theory which regarded^ the 
separation as more properly life-long. Again, if the Mar- - 
^rs* opinion was to be respected it was no less valuable | 
when it favoured exclusion than if it recommended com- 
prehension. If he was not aware that his own change of 
view* was an abandonment of catholicity, how could he have 
expected to find C3^riar now inclining to shorten indefinitely I 
the term of exclusion, or forcficeu thai the influence of the Car- 
tha^nian Martyrs would be exerted in precisely the opposite 
direction to that of the Roman * His ambassadors accord- 
ingly, after being removed* from the aaacmbi/, appealed with ■ 
much v^flnrmence to the primate in his church upon the next 
Station-Day* as well as to the laity. Either then, or on 
their previous removal from the Council, it was replied that 
NovatJan had placed himself in a position external to the 
church, and could not return except as a penitent'* They 
were however bitterly in earnest, One or two of them ctjn- 
ferred privately with many leadirg members of the church in 
the capital, others made the lour of some provincial towns 10 
push the cansc^ It was essential to the principles of such a 
sect that, however few and far between, all the ' i*ure' believers, 
should be united in one body. 

* RirsichI hakLs That though Eherr hud 
^nv OD in Nonh Arriot 4i well 3< In 
Wy 1 loftctiiin: of [he ly^lcni of CX' 
idu^iuii* yet cxL'lu^un fur life wm nUJ 
Ihf theory in lh? mutanceuf Lipit« miliJ 
the Dccion pciat<u(icin, ^\). t;^ i6^ 

describe a sBsiob uf the Connd] on 1^ 
oovlDt of Ihfi prRelti^c of ul altar {£^, 
t5< ti nnd of \hi coubcuuj. Ii b wad 
tlmUojiy, If |-iait<ri leading r/t 
lor iffsfmaifffm it cottrct. £J^, ^. 3, 




It is now worth while, even if Mjincwh^t tircsoiTiGV to 
follow out one intric^Tc cxfimpir of the minute finish of 
CypHan's d[pk>m3ey. of his laborious care in conciliation, in 
tbc iv«MljUiee or removal ot m is undc standi ngv. 

A Presbyter — VrirrtitivAis— wa5 first despatched as the 
bcutrod'a private cominunicatton to Comeliua* briefly giving 
iht heads of the tmn5ACtion«» with inUructions lo afford per- 
HHkUJy the fuJle:sl cxpUnations* Such expknatitin^ he was 
actually «ent \>stck to i:>btatr, where hi« information fjtiled, 
with r^ard to the sugpenilon at Hadrumetura of the recc^- 
niuon of Cornelius' title. C>"prian"5 reply on this, a modd 
of (onuderatcnem towards unduly Aggrieved fcclint^s. points 
to the complete 3ucce:t» of the method julopted" and to the 
find corroboration secured through Cdldonius aiid Fortunalus. 
Heirever me^nlime ihc provisional sending olT of Friinftivut, 
irhidt proved to be thui politic, had been at once followed up 
b>"th* sending of the Subdeaeon Mettiuft with the acolyte 
Niccphorus in charge of a fuller explanatory deaputeh* to 
aeet cadi point of po»iblc misconstruction ; to enclose fresh 
coptt of Cyprian's earlier iL-tlcrs with a request (luL tlir^ne 
Q^hl be \stiii before the brc^thren ; further, U> announce that 

tmk Cb IqpnkcW llut Oihc difl> 
■gfai>HPfc BJ fiir Crvia nbtioiu w ihv 

f^Ml^tmecd, no defied up And duwn. 
1 «ii4 V i«i>«l B dme,— «reta taciddU 

n4e4 vat onljr to b« vprinkled io 

' £/- 44. «. LipuiH ([L t04 n-t a^f 
4m pMi «rf ih« MCTMfondine* ben ii 
btfn Cfvtiitt ofinMlT Mjrs, )iDirT%ci, 
i^A *« ^tito ^biM TC^nuoi f!i coil' 
pwkl iMl. Jq ipMltk «oactrt» Ion- 

^iliilril fc^ I'miitlvs^aad Thrve it Pc 

tm JMm whidi n« do Dgi 

diul letlflT Aboul Fclicinitmu- 
* ^ 4«. J. 

ffhtf /ir fnUm FffKUiimt tt d$ f-rtt^ 
Ufii tjtuJt^ oidUniim ittu{ij- here la 
Cuthigt) nun rt ad ptt^fm urififram 
ii Iht oppoiU« oTdi* Cut, r« jS/- 4J U 

lib iTCt|rh[y Appcid tu (be l^iLy chj thk 
rxM-t witij^i , Haldol ppfvf ritly ignore* 
lb« pntl«d rvaJita^^ of n*c Ewfonr fftw. 
which ii <»cnlUL tu (liT KiiK< but 
dropprct by Ihc wmmonc^ kinct of ^Jlp 
Lr'T*r ih« -iV- In lb* tama Ime hit 
chuuio ibc fUfAuin(^lcH ii-ifit in pre- 
fercocc lo the equally wcU suppuncd 




the whole Province of ProconBular Afrioi had by thio time, 
been informed of the conciliar icaffirmaljon of the Title 
Comc<]ti»; to communicate thtf coociliar Rcw^Lutions on 
FcHci^islmu^ and Ms adherents; and to enclose for the Con* 
fesjsors, under cover to Iheir true RiEhop, a * Brief LcttcrV 
Finally when the explanation asked for through Fnmvtivufl'] 
Vfus 3crt« Cyprian was able to add th^t the Recognition 
Cornelius had been forwarded on from the Province through- 
out Numidia and MauretanJa\ 

And now to taic« up the ' Brief T,etter/ The concent ration | 
ofenci^p pathos and dtjctrine m so f^^^ lines is surcl)' mar-j 
vellouB'> He touches on the depresi^ion with which the nei-vaj 
of the Confessors' desertion had crushed him : — ' Again«1 
'God's ordinance, against the Gospd-kw. against the unity 
'of the Catholic foundation, to have consented to the creation 
* of another bishop t thai is, to a thing divinely and humanly 
' imposisiblG. the founding of a second church, the severing of 

' Ep. 4.*- I ' Sctl cl per /'hrvauUm 

timm, liabpl efi'itm yt'midia'f ti M\*m- 
fiXamam lilii L'oh^rpntK, n? in Ufbe.' 
Ac. * InoHmuch ti5 out Province U vcjy 
vrj4lr%prciiJ, a»'I 1ii« kIhi Numkiu and 
MauTiraniB m clu^ cutinecfioii with it. 
ihfiefoTe, Ac.' (Peters, lo mppofl a 
aC^cmu of 'Mclfopolil, ObcT-™<lr*po- 
llt, Kirch cripmvin»t" ftc. wiih« lo 
Tn&kc ^d^ mean ' inctntla * nnd $iH 
•unilcJ to each other.') The tm pro- 
ctPdii ' pliiduii ut per tplsc4.>piii;. nJenia 
■ nolnn rpi v^nTala. <■! ud comproban- 
drnn Qiclin.'Yiioiicm lunm focTa qucLori- 
tn» nmjnrf. lunc (kmum SL:ru]7ulo umui 
de gingulanrni pcctarihiit FKCiiRfi. per 
Dinnt4 omnuii} fcttic pn-iifoB Impnr *ie- 
Tpnl/ 1 cannm tnni^lalc n/^Hia \{lu^ 
tel fiom u<;s. tfucopt >* rtimiiY "Kepi 
sciJEcl' (u O. HiUeUl, ace p. i.iEii lu 1) 
caniiuLbetheiDcflmci^, fur ibtiikspKlcb 

wat TOid to ibe nsembly, ud ta 
ccal it Mould no) bnvc mciTAKd 
*nthnrily Cypniip'i ohj«t wiu \ 
|>]flcc bc^on-i dodbi (he f^ctt of 
clcLiiuii wliAlcvci Uicy were. So jS) 
44. I 'ul ti* advenlunrJum «l *V) f^a 

/dffr. .pnrtii jKUcnti^ inpiobitu fnii^ 
frmr/ which h tiiHc^ily panllH i A/. 

ris'i 48' 4 '...uLinc <piKopAiiu oii d 
tA^btF piiril«r et di£niia>i i^/kjvvi£fttiini 
jy^cv Jutt^aftt «i-' 1 thervforfl ntaiv 
i<< fjiapoK refttra 'ddcovcnd, nevt- 
in1n«l,' inircod ni rrimM^ Thr 4t>ii> 
ipvuuEd (bus bf 'vtf tc^alved ih&i the 
bishop- ahrtuld CnU*e IclWrs lo bc cij- 
culaierl among all in all rjtrrclion* hrte, 
nowihM weKnd/nTm/t1icre«lfKctH. iLnd 
were in 1 bctlcr poBtJon lt> cojiluin yvur 
ordinarion. not 1 scniplt at lait rrnijun< 
tog in iny lioftOSL' 




'Cfaii5t*5fncinbcn,thcrcn<iin£ of soul and tK>dyin the Lord's 
'flock by tbc sundered rivalries — this ianot tbc way to "assert 
'ibr <jLj%pel " of ChrhtV Am! wc/ he excUim-i, * we cannot 
■ ipiit thr ChiTFch to cfimr oui to you I — Return to your mother 
■— loyotjr brotherhood." 

Dion>'siu« the Great aUo wrote to them from AlexandriEi 
ia tliftr alienation*. The Catholic Church could realise then 
vbt wu meant by this— 'If one member suffer all the 
members suffer with II" 

* b ii RttiuliilUc ib(U the chuKtcj 
^kA tctNu M ihii iinic tfpecUlly 10 
■Kii to the word ^utM^iiywa U ibM 
</ 4r%t$cn tx /rnunui. Tlim in £fi. 
CIlVd «stin in Or Utpt- %% Ljprian 
«thAt Kikidv dlMiplia« ■Evwificli- 
niv%c«/ 'Eriiiic«lii ncvi,' E^ 55- 
fr'fnyJie* Mmun.' ^^o tff. 67. 
'< V* *: If' V Tltia vust l)« borne 
4 u^ in jouJeriiuE luch piuu|;a u 
'ffMiMVif ii«litionlha« Dharalof .' i>t 
hi§^ \, TV mholic nik Id hftv< bul 
Ni Wlop b ■ dty i) (itilt HiiK the 
^Bfi^Mof itrvrDsA] 'fnng«ti^ tri' 
^ ■S-'fpcie tf<<I«c juBCttu E|ui >b 
n«Cdk> winmbu/ A Lmfa. iEL 
Haarif !4Wi( viihiHii 1 clurvlRulEc 
taVclW aij^ ^ XoTKtiui iim the 
fci—TiUfltlir ■ ill ■: i|i n iih fr li I »i tina n) , 
ivi^Ku vifOTp i*nj]j[rhniTn j^'iii- 
^ feadbsofOup)*' ud t1>e nbiiAJi 
1^ ad a^^CEtiYc t*di'e tiuei h ihe 

fim ivfu cliap[cf)i or £/, jt^. Ami uJ- 
dr«B«*>i Chff boak TV OAii yttdrntir^ 
10 jvf« VfW 'uue ocUATionc in Evui- 
^cliu viH t^^EftUicaiunnltaLit-' After U« 
■ffwbiAo ■ftrangefium L'lirtiili nbttrrrc' 
tA/.*^. j)i 'ijscrtoir* vtxtt^\i\* {Sf. 
M, 3I iccms 10 tui\e Ixcn ilw watcljwoid 
or bit u«:l. Sa «v<:i in hit (affek tvFta 
(0 Fibiui, Em. /^, £. VI, ^j, CuincUu* 
h4it«ilii:UI>' ctLli yiiviiEinii A (VAufn^ 
r^i^ G<qyt«^^dv, Tha* tTill extant Typ« 
wiu ncxi flUM«<f«il \i\ KtA ci4|;^rited 
by [ht I>ocu^ii[>. Tbey wq^ in ihc 
EuMt r>l accoiting mhotici viih * Ki- 
\tf\jt CWiiluni,' Of 'C«.i &vi> Cam Sm4. 

r \\y or ' KoriLib bono tsa, tl non «ti« 
tmdilor f VDnthuTc nn^moD uw: eno 

* Kunvb. H. K^ ^- 4^ .«fri rp tou 



A.D; 25a 

It i> only fair 10 the Kinder tbai I thouM now aC tlti« point 
remind bim tlmt eminent ctLLL» havi; df^^wLi vct}' <^ilTcrc:nL skcichca 
from those above of chief actors in the church affairs of A.i>. sjo. 

I prracni oviLlJnct tfom two porttnlls of CypHaJi by Ouo Rludll 
and by ArJolf Hurinf:!:, amd, by ihe fonn^r, one of Fdidsstmua in 
the cliatfictcr of Uic True CttUTchmAH, and oiie of a vwaliiac 
Novfttus- i cufibt 10 lay thai mine w-*re earlier in print, b«i 1 
short conicmpUiiori of these may further cleat some polnia. 

It 15 natural that divines in Non-episcopal Confi^uLDns «]iouLd 
1101 only fenrch {x^ uc see) ffjr a non-episcopiil ordinaiionj but shonld 
tmce (he early wisdom arid success of rpiscopal adniinistr^iori il5(lf 
eUher 10 ignored action on the part of !he preabyicrate or to m^sierful 
Ckmbilioiw of great prelates on behalf of their order; or a^oin thit 
Ihey should tf possibtt exhibit inaiance* in which, as one o( Uiem 
naively expresses it, 'ehing:» leally do ^ without n Bishopi and £0 
well« if only the Clergy ^[rp full m/ 

If my own judgcnicnt of what took place in those times be warped 
(pB I ihink ihe[xs ia) by prep 05 sessions nnpercdved by myself, it i% 
my sincere desire to hav^e them corrected by fact and document- To 
these testa I coniimt the difference wlihoirt reserve. 

The hr^ portrait shill he that of Cyprian before bid ova 
Prc»bylcn in the time hefure the Council, by 0» Ril»ctd^ Hjr 
abilracE will be at Jusi as 1 can make it. 

*Thc Romnn cleigy left responsible in the vHCdjicy of their ftvn 
'see, regarded the Carthaginian see as practically vacant through 
'Cyprian'^ retirement, its clci^y ^ responsible tike ihtmselves, and 
'themselves as rcBponsiblc for suye^ii'^b' ^o them a course like thoir 
'own. They wrolc ihcm th^Tcforc the Eji^btb Epistle/ — So ttr well- 

■Ne*f. the Carthagmiao. clergy on: of their perfect loyally to 

' Otto Hiliclil Cyfriam tJ. A'arT^tf/u umf liU VfrfAtm*^- tier KirfAf 
Thai, Oip. t (l^iTtlngen 1%^^). 





'CypriiA commLinii^atffl ihr Epi«t]« to hini. No facijon (whaiever 

'Thf Roman l^fier and m. prnlinhlr pfln"i wrre gnui}y drn*<t«l 
'bjCfpnOA^ Even ttc 1oyj\] cijrduct cf h)£ clcr^' nboiLt it pUcc'l 
dieti in n ptMJtioE] ur makr (hin^rruu^ capilol uf their m^miniiiiiiy. 
' But Lt3 actual effect wiis niso acq' t!'^-''^- 

'Il nmvtfl lU Icasi ihc Four Presbyters (^;>, 14) tt> mild view* of 
'(be counc to be uken witb the LajHed, axtd iht tinal reiult of 
ihcir action was |(] iruiki; Cypnun fldupL tit? idiklcf view, Rut 
'A li probab'T« thiU lh« whole body of the HrcebyccH look thiB ^-iew 
'fnun ibc tir>l and thni ihcy Kkctcd Fuur of Uieniiit^lvrs tv bear 
'tv hnmi of Cypnan^i Jin^^. Cypriiin wat hiinl un ihi clvr^jy, 
'cKUAjnje all oihcra juid laying all blflrnc on ifacrn. The "lAdiaU" 
'pmbyren who eftriy tomniunicATcd the Lapsed tiniply anticipated 
'he ncccuary poUcy which Cypiinn After a lime Jidopted. 

'The "ViMifflH of tht MailyrT" fir Conff^for* cfjntribdied to 
'l«Aen lift) proci:du(C' The gfTcncc b« took «! (lie Conleiion niife civ 
'nuBfr of pnnripk, htti only x perumal «ense of their di«rtKp«ci- 

'C7pri«o*» attitude however »iia ihaf of a stronjr mitn. He mijjM 
'lUtc beer c^prded tu employ hi^ money in rooriliato rtiiixe who 
'diVcrcd from Hoip IJui hcdidnoL He treated the Four Prtabyten, 
'and indeed all, xviih j^owing dpciiion. For piampLe; whiliT in 
'£)*. 5 he Qiee the tang\]fij»;c of rcqueai "fir/Ot" Ac, aficn^^rdfl, whcfi 
'ihr errat Eriehth K|7)4i1i^ miuhi hnvr Mvi:kt<\ (heir aHrKmncr, he 
'bdklly ia £fi. 14 uao the imperative inoud And WlniJn ihrouichout.' 

Tij examine die above tchcmc— 'And to bcicin with the last 
ligxeitieA- Thit ii nor htenlly inie. Kor, if in f.p. 5- i he only 
uiM /»f». in A'/. 14- 3 he tMci ere Vf/, and m £">, 5. 2 occur the only 
ml inperaiWet which ^ippv^ir in either^'.iJi/ti//^ rf prm'Uttif. Bui 
ia tone there ii nu innjc^^le Lhflfercncc. It in absiuril lo trmt ftffticr fi 
mmtdo in £fi, n. J a.t imjienaiit when ihr objrct of ihrni h *nri a» 
pteiiipotc«tikarte» for me,' tfV^ mt^/uiti^miHh 

But the whole scheme rnuy Urf charac leri/ed a» n itrinjf of j«!tumed 
pfulabilili** which have been alre^idy oc^ativod by lucerta^aable 

Tbt ucnpoffiaAo* MtJjfTicd to the illjteme bpinile Eight it Tiec««*ary 
10 die theory but is wholly unhananubic- A licfca of humour 
hai k«f< the Critic from seeing the urcastic force of Cyprian's tr«U- 
mm\ cf k ill Ep. g. J ('»ee ppL S7, ftS above). Bui in txnx there U no 
raMoa <o *Dpp04e tiiai tlie Kijj^hth Epistle ever came to the hand* 
id the CartlueiiiJaa cIcrKy ai ail^ They never replied to iL They 
iMVvr i«linfk Ki ir For ^^vctd reason, h horf no Ad^rrit. It wu 
ddn-Cftd to Cyprrnn ai the some time by the same hand — Crcmcntiuy* 
— wtaicb brcQghi him the letter of the same itoman Presbyters abom 



Fabian*i nuiftyicUim, itnil il v*i x\ onct: recuriLctI by liim Eu i| 
authori for rcconsiderAtion^ fi propaicdf aj> wc have aeeOi no sat 
j»UDtia1 plan, hi pruinoitra frli ash-in^cd trf iJ *nd chftngvd (hrrr 
not*^ Vet ihia IS )h« rurJTtidablp <Jocumvnt to Uic gUJ<iaA<« 

And tcjrroj' of wlii^ti tvr jiir d^ktJ tu Imcc aU the Icnimcy uf 
cUrgy and nearly the whale policy of Cypniui' 

At to the effetr upon him of the 'Martvu' Visions' ii is cDough 
to o&«or\'V that Thv Vi^iuns ant nc>l «JAid Ii6 Inavv heen «vcn by tht 
M.vryiv but by aihci pcisona^ >tEid ilt^i ihc unc [DoehI uf aII the 
Vi«ioni it levtrely di^ciplinniy and not reliucklory. 

A|:ain ilic * Rfldlcar dcrny tan ia nu smijc be said lo hxTc 
arttiiipittiit lh« i*f^Tit>n of Cyptiaj^. They 6\d indetd rv^drtu lo 
comniuiiion, lluL Cypnan's poipl wa^ not tlint ihe Lapsed khcmM 
be cither admitlcd or rrpelled, but That ihcy shcjuld not be idmitud 
(0 wiih^ut tipcn Ttpentftpcc, \2) wiihoui iht fonnaJ osscm of the 
ChuTths The^ cundiilons, in vhich lie^ ihe gtut i>f his vtho^e polrcy, 
they vtoUCcd. Rit^chl (p, 17) s<'°^<^ '^^^^ -^y^- li 1 ■>■'' 

fiesiftitfi In prove thrtt was nor an^ry at their action but oolj 
Ai rhfkr precipiianf]/, Ittii he nmit? Cyprun"* r/trttra ^rai^Mf 
ttgeM frojn the same cUu?c» and wQtdz citnnoi express grtskber 
indif^nuiiuiL tliun CyprijinS ai ih? absence of enquiry jtstd tMthotit 
frorn tbair procedure. 

The ITT] pM3i bib) lily cf other LomLmation^ and conrUii^t^n; of 1 
achcme — these arc the mnin ones— will 1 hope be detected from 
ttxi mtd ref&rcaces ah^vt^ 

3. C/finan Effort tXt Ritm^tn Presbyigrr^ 

This is our Kcond Port td it -Sketch. 

We have iicknowledged that it U tempting lo crttain tcholan to 
enplore inslaptca in which * thmgs really do ge wUbouC a Bishop, fljid/tf 
well, )f only the Clergy step f^ill in^/ 

ll is icmpiing c^'CTi though the vacancy be one of a few incnlha only» 
wA ei'cn if ihe Clergy Th^^m^clves «o liMle Hc^tuiesce in the idcfl UutI 
'things go well/ thai all the lime they are lamcnLing their limitations aod 
longing (0 get the see tillrd^ 

Yet wc jhouM icarcely have expected ihat the vacancy of Ihe Konun 
See, in whtirh it5 PresbyTrrs «] rh:ingirfl (heir b^'aring lawnrds Cypfiao, 
and adopted his Policy entire i fl lacnncy in which hia cv^Hraui his 
wfidom, gentleness Jind dignity as b bishop come v^ itrongly out, vouldfl 

' Ah Hsfuaek, <»/. «/. ifffr. p. ty grhi mid |;ul gi^lit, wcnnnurder KJaui 
>Dau D vlrldich auch uhnc Bincliuf voll cinLriit. knun dns Bci&pid.' Jbc 





bf ftlKtvd u in fvam^U of the adequacy or headkssi unepitcopal 

In in ingtnleiut 4i>d J«Mf>«d Miay (which Afipctred many yoiri aftef 
ilic jilMvt itil wm In prim) Dr A. HiJiixck, iibn^i wiih much ih^i u uf 
Ifvpmic imporance, and a mjnuic verih<iation of the luihorship of i)», 
J^hn muiUainod an intcrciiini; tlicai» tu ibaL cJTc^ct^ 

To btni * KpiitJo tnii. i% (Itf* mM%(prLy work of n^ uncf a PAi^tnr and n 
'SWmnui (p. 2$) — thou|;h not k wcU-fUucaied one, ImmcdkBUly on 
'huritg ihat Cartba^ had by hit own net lost h?r Bixhop, th«- Romnn 
'drrfy twdcrtook the duty and adopted ibc iiylc ofa Biihop) md i»ucd 
'orden li> ihe Clergy of Uidt diy- It U quite »n " Arch f episcopal In- 
'wnction ■ (p^ j6). They punned indeed wiih gfcnt poUUcil M^aciiy a 
'owWr potin- To CypriAn ihfy wroit rf^p^^ct fully as Bishop, lo tli« 
'Ocriy tbey irrolc «iih the view of jfotimg them ti^ tj^norc him ai 
'Uo^umI takcibt rrini of jovpnimcni in hand themselves.' (p. ^4.) 

Hue w« iT)U«t rvally pau>«. Thero is Jn £fi- B nothing to jusEify the 
i^tuk» of BuichinaiJon m> mata amJ cruel* however pruilejk[ It n^ay 
VAiotomo- The Roman Clcrj^y bc^^n misialcenly, Bui they were in 
& 00*1 dif&cuh pcuJon. Without a head themselves and not dniini; to 
Act nK, they now beard that the Second City ol the Empiro ira« 
hndeaa too, Jiad ihxi by tho Ui^bopi o^n act. l^ci^ecuiion wa* dtrat 
nd b« «u gonr. It wai ver^ natuni That th^ should urite to the 
vihtritica ibcTt nichnut a ih'iuKbl thut they v-erc compoain^ ^ a pendant 
(inl»uin'/)iothP HpttTleof Clement tothe Ciihnthianft '(p. 15)- Cypflan 
VMfaene compLan» of their doing so — only, in his diEitificd ^a-y, of ibcir 
tOM, £|^ 9 ; and in Fp- ii> iays he vrn(e« |o Ihvm nor M boilnd 10 do M, 
Wbeoibw ikcy nrc under a mtsttke utd mUinfomied. They could not 
Wi tbat the counsel they sent had been inticip.iied by Cyprian In 
BMmoroinmutcn«»; llvit for the liberality they rccommcndt-d io#ard« 
MTjui and poor, Cyprt^n bad provtdeiE iho moAns; th^t ii tcheme wna 
^<pn by Cypiian Ua 6esAing with the Lapicd, the ' Martyr*/ and the 
fWiUBR: Rcatorvrai of which Ibc} wuuld Uc i:!aJ Lo borrow all th&t 
lltttMni etie requ&rtd ; thai from bift retirement Cypruin v^i governLng 
^ Wbcn Uicy knew, ;hey i^han^ed thtir note : but fiom the fkfii there 
*VMd«plieity m their conduct, rather too rough :i itraightforivardnetf, 

neGernr l9 whom they ivii>tc hn^t had tolcmr^ly conirmilci to Lheiii 
Mnhand by Cyprian himself all the powers which the Komant withed 
(^ to take ' Difcharcc upon the spot both yoar own p^Lrts and mine' 
(fy ^ ij. "J tiboil and charffe ynu, who ean be upon the Kpot without 
'Bn&aaufteift and with Icsi periU to dischaj-£c in my »iead whatever 
'4>k>ihe reliftoul administr^iiun demjindb' [Ep^ J4. t). 

Ilaniaek* Ac Brte/n Ja 
f*ns^ tOmu tmt ^fr /tii *Ur 
im y^^rr 13CV 0|V T^ioU- 

fiitAe ^Mdfti/ZirnjTff [publlnlioi in 
hirthdcy}. Fmbuiig I. B, 1491- 



Tht i^iar^y who wrott were performing ihosp vtiy duiies* jnti u 
RoniAH« were in ihc vncancy, but they vrcnc ofily loo p&infully v 
thai there were episcopal runctinnfL vhii'h ih<y them^elvi^ woe incjipal 
of tUaehar^ng' They look the best and widm counsel ihcy could, 
in ihcJr neighbour hinhopi and surh ex\\ed bishops as were ilien nt Rume.* 
but *We hnvc thought,' aiy thc>', 'ihat bcfon? Uit iippoinimcnl of a 
' bbhop we mu^E. uke na ntrw vtcp« but lakt ^ middle imt: in futciidiii]; 
'lo ihe lapsed, so Uiat m the m«iiiUme» while we are waiting leff a 
'bbbop lo bf i^ivr-fi us by God/ — Lhc diflerent clasjt:^ should br truted 
thM* ajwJ thus {^/, }o. ii. A^ain, ' We are Ihe more abhyed to potX\ 
'thia atfair, bccai[»: ^iiicc lUc dccoLse of FabJar of nubint memoiy 
'have hadromDgto the diflicdciefi of otcumn-ineet and lartet^ na biit 
'yet appoinUd Kt diie<;t all ibetc ifTiiir^ lad to eidinine JiUo [he c. 
'of the lapsed with authority and wisdom,' [E/f. ^o. ;,) 

This is surely not "cbefbisthollichc Unierwcisunt'' (p- -^) Thia 
not the tone of ihOEc who fdt thi! even they themselves possetsed the 
4iitbority vhicb they uigc [u we arc aaauied) their brethrea to aMume. 

Nffverlhele^K Dt Hani:^ck finds that i\it great vhier of Jip 8 at onet 
' jdc(itilic» ihc clergy in who&c iiajnc he writes with the Bishop,' for thi 
ipeat of *OQr Predecessois/ meaning the Uiihops of Rome — 'ajit! 
aore* nostri'.' 

The passage refetrKi to is, ■ Tf wc are found neglecifnl, \i will bt 
'to us aa It was also sajd to our piedcce^sors, who were such neglectful 
■prelaTei {^rctptniir), That we have not lougbt that whirh was lost, and 
*have not ^t right the wAndcnng, and not bound up the latnc, and ^<cn 
*«atrng the miTk of Ihem, and dolhmg ourselves wilb the 'wtvH of them.' 
{Kfi.%~ t,) This ivould have been ^Uan^c lao^H|;e to address to pnmilivf 
bishopi of Rome, but of conrie \i was r\.M. It w:!? really addres«d by 
Ewkiel to the ShL'phcfds of Isruel, the predecessors of all shepherds'. 
Dr Hamack admiii or adrnkcii the'saiircisiic' or ' cutting* {artrHgii4A)'ajm 
made of Scripture texts by the author (p. s;)- This text may perhaps 
iCTve him la illusirjic that criticism, but not to shew tliat Ftesbytem of 
Rome regarded ihamselves as Soccessofs of the PopcSr 

The repicbentaiion of [be rest of the cone^pondencc takes its colouring 
Irom tliese J^mnrfiinK While the letters of Novattan 30 and 36 speak an 
episcopal language, those of Cypriitii CJibibil his humiliation. 

' Du Collegium <pnc1it in ihm to. 
alt wUrr n ^dVci ilci Bitthcrf, ]a ca 
rcdn von 'nosifi anttccssurcs-' (p, it,) 

■ tn?l4. c- iiaiv tfli, J, 4. Hartel 
ha« perhaps Ij^ic ticaivcd lljmock by 
omiuire ihe rererenee from bmih teiC 
40<] ronrgin, ait //tfut i^; HuIdI. 
Append, p. 4jp Llscwlierv lie hu ii- 


' Yet. «ven to the di>fctortion of miiwr 
fu:L£ like lhe«G. Il u uid thai they 
leARil Cyprtan'f flight Ihrou^ Their 
own dcIegBie Uutianu*— ulidtoolj 
iciil [o rnquhe- VeE all ihaL b sahI of 
RflysiADUs hrre it th*[ he 'lias arrM-rtl,' 
JfjV R. J, «hi]4 l( i* diKtinclly di^ (hit 
the (Cartlw^"") >ab dcaufQ ClcmflB.' 


CHURCK AFt'AlK^ A.Ui 35a 


*N««lh* oJlcrwW* Cypnaa writct one letter, 30, i» ttcure alJiet, 
'hunbled evca to ipcAkitig of hiniKlf i> "mca mcdiociitaa " E (sc- i, 3): 
■■DMAKCOP^I, 37r vjihoui wmimgforAn answer to ihe Am: » tilonll)' 
'4|Mnd in tKo R&man Icitm <3tre £j>. iT- 4)i bui iikcton ktiii lu ait«wer 
'too, HVth ndcb Battery ol^ the Conf^sun^ At last "the ice li broken " 
'(P-P\ud Nsvation conddccnd^ la viiu uo more to the driuy but tu 
'iiEfiMir Kvrn ili<n a pimful Linpr«»ion U prnducrd hy (hf^ i<>)ioiu<le 
'■ilb khkh be cifcul^o the Rotnui miuivef.' ' Whal a tnumph for the 
'fccftaj Clergy!' (p^ ^9). 

lo the Lui ptdMcnph I Havc thought 11 oikly ri|;h; to pUcc before 
wriiri inch A veb nf injEt-nuiiy Kpiin by ko dltiln^lthcd a itCholjir- 
ll b Ibe meciiajc-po'iii nf the cMfcmci, rfc9b>icnan Tcutooism and 
Vhsunontanicm. For J nvvd not add iHai xht luppo^rrl potiiton Is 
tai^Qwa aa & truly hi^oncAl uid Jogict^ step from episcopacy to^«nl 
fkKfnaiMcy of Ronie- 

TV only answer vhich can be of value ia an ing^nuout *uit«inent ol 
Atebohcontemvof the Letters. ToLhi«,As I have fried to cive a above, 
MdloAc Letters ibemsel^'es 1 confidently refer tor thol antwcr. 

O. RitickPi ThetTA rs th4l the cor^idaiion of the E|x«oo|iAtie ua« 
t acre policy &uncd by nn unscrupulous encrttetic man from 
iMttfai tft momrrt to mr*p( rhr i?icrj;rnn« £>r hi* pofilion* and his 
I^odnnc of UnJty a theory evoJvcd to justify hia ;;»ntchCG' In dc- 
nloprng thrs ihcvs he rtfonMnicts the hiitory of ihe Fartion of 
FflicusjmuSh U is ini;>iMiibU 10 pw more than an ouitioc of bi^ 
icdious labour, but ihc f^iv iniisT, he nminiains liavt bi^en thesel 

'Cyphxn's Commtuion and Relief Fund, i.t. hU &wn means were 
'dei«icd 10 ihc crration of a p;my by briber)- .ind plHicp-givingHnd ta 
*^ overthron of the I'rvtb)icr5' ioiiuciice at Canhag& FelicisiLmufi 
^«U probibl) put forward by [he ?rv^]r>^tcc>H to drlrat the pbn. 
^Bcing only x Ueacon hi& tuppofed ibmLt irannoi hnvo been rvatly 
'btmidabk, and iheiefoce the ^tilberrncr to hm:i, whjch was hrcry ex- 
'MasFVc, brtokcni only the amount of suspicion fell about Cypnan. 
'Kii »0(«»£ iMtSmti^ ^ffVf tJu Ci^mmisyioft ati>ny it^>ni Catlha^;?. and 
'tberdare Cypritft*! luiemeiit that the //unmi wtn on his tide ia 

*Efr 4t mhitnit Cypran'4 pmbamAsnient, He would Fain ex- 
'admunJCAic Fe£ds«inus for hb iTCAinieuL uf llic Cvmfn]v»io>ii. but 

^ikam Mp^vmn fiotn cbe conofMny 
li'bamitaud ns, f/i d- j, to W a 

C*rlhA|pttiiui cleric mnd rcfafcc. 



'thai i> ho<pQL«s«i he f&ll« hack on previous ofTcfLOcs, and aAcr all 
' rvMrvn ibr decision for hh cominj; council. The xroe ruuin f6r 
' Feltci^lmuk' cKcommuni^Arion U hiK limpk rc»i9t&ncc (o Cvpriaa* 

■ [f AuKcndus adhtrB lo hitn Ae is to be exromrnuniriiicri fi>r ihU 
'aJon«- Uetwecn Th« ^ther« cxcommunicaiod the only lie U their 
'oppOhiliiin to Cyprian. Tlie Coiniiii^«iion hj^i Jin! ajyfiiiej M il^ 
' CUrgy ej Cartha^i lo ibsuc ad excomrounicntjon. At ihey dttiiitf^ 
"tff do (hiiy thcy^ issued it diemtdvc^ In dieir own opinion ihcrdbrc 
Mbey must hakve been always competeni to do % and having dine 

* bibliapi un their board'-'lbc nun^ber competent tciordoin-^^Cfjmpeicnt 
Mhry v^rt^. They reiurncd to CArchagc^ nnd ther« a^ddttd to th# 

* proscribed twn namts more f£/, 4s), 

'The fi*-* bo*Tile presbyFer^ nfquired their influenoe *i/?/r /i/n^ 
*" u&mmuHkiiUxm fy tkt ^itrgy fi/ Otu'iti 0/ Dititi^ \\ i» iccn in Lhc 

* rtjHSiit o4 the &ame cleiigy lo evcommu nicotic FelicUwitnus. It comc« 
'out tiTonKly when the Coimnission did it in spite of the ctcfigy; 

■ they then had with thefn the majority of the ChriMians. The iive 
' wcte the fiiii of die cloi^y, and enjoyed thai popular confidcEice 

■ utfhinh crypriftn forfeited by bis nh*ience- 

'To them Cypiian now aiuibutcs the oii^ln«L opposition to hli 
'epitcopMe, Hp Icindles ^ood ChristuLns nj^ain^t the Lap»d (su^^h 
'i» the vJcw of £^, 45) ; sees ibat he can never win bnck the followers 
' of Friiossimus. nn<t must nd tbe Cburth — and himself— of them- 

'AccDidirtj^y (he Episcopal Council of A-D. ijr cxcommuTiicite* 
'F«licistrmu5 and hi* followers. 

* Thus thit Epbcopa] power \% organiicd in order to fight Cypiian^s 
'baiTle*, jTid, m order to afford \X a bnass^ the dociriiie of the L'nJty 
'of the Church is developed out of his conscioujineM,' 

or cDurse no pr^{:tjcdl theory of policy w developed without evctui^l 
but having already drawn out the real events as nccursiely ju I can 
(and the ciidence is abundant), t (an only su^yest further that 
Ritschl's henvy puj^es be t^jA with the Original letters «ide by aide, 
juid with An honcii intent ta reconcile ^me and to recxignii^c other 
of the mcidcntfi— if it be possiblt 


4. Oj tkt Eitimtscttut 0/ Novatus undfr ititsckl's Analytic. 

I dntre fairly to givo the gist of several laborious pages' ;— 

'All our infotmatior about Novaius rests upon the siatementi of' 
* Cyprian. If v/p reflect on what k credtble or biMfiricAlly imaginabla 
'wc cannot admit thai Novatus wa^ in Rome st^pportinj* NovAlian** 

pp. 6a— ish 

III. t. 




^cJcciJon. The btlicf 4 due lo the f4ci that ComcHub having men- 
'booed kicQ in geo«raJ lermA, Cypri^in. delighted wiih n weak pifolJel 
'*tucb ittjf^mcd iiirir to h'mi, aUtcd eImI FvuvitLub julvaiKed in 
'tnEhni*l9<JLl protfrcition Ironi onUinmif a Ucocon at CarthM|f« to 
*cuQ9cciAt»j^ A Iii»hop «i Rome li 'i> unlikely Eoo tlmt Novatu 
'thovld have Icfi Canhoge for fear of protecdin^. tmcc h« #ouLd 
'h4rc known thai hi: fliouki be condcLuncd ia hia abatnccr Unlikely 
'chAi Cypo«n thould have irAnicd Comcliut ag^ainsT him, jvtt u he 
^*nu aU>ui kAiif^ Rome, NovAiui' connection with pafi lumioiJ 
'ip Canlufe resii on no proof: it it built up oui of the rombiriAtioni 
'of Crpnv)^^ fancy. It is latei un whcu Novaius la OAiiicd in <on' 
'DKbon with thtm.' 

Aod I win cateit'Tically louch on tliwc '^iiiisms' as they de- 

The ftct U thai Cyprian makM nn ^tatrmpimt ahowt Novflius in 
Rome. Uc comments uid momliaci freely on what Complin* tdlv 
him. An JDVenEUt of ^uicnicniK wuiilrl ovvtr hAvv ca^l llL«m in a 
nerv ftlluaivc fbrm. V^'e do i>oi look for proof m such a ciuc; the 
proof i* iMijpneiy. Tlie rule uf tlitee on NovatUi' pruKfcis 

from Cartlkigc to Rome ^ttd vo from Deacon mAkm|; lo Bishop- 
ouJunu n h niei? pluy of rhcluriL on auiiiciUlr)^ luld lo hioi. Tb« 
critic c«capc« the t^arct of humour. 

The fcAt oi judtEincnL ^ui[t^ by defnuh is aol a common deleft 
rmt from absconding. Why should it dckr Novntutf Aa to hii 
ailivr iaHuciKX d|r<Aiii»i Cypnair, 'a^llalor^' tnul *i:eruiin persons* 
«re ^luJed M from the very Arit. Jt is the manner of Cypn^n snd 
of nun/ ekily Chr^tiAn writers not lo itame ndvcrt^rie^ io lung as 
rthcecce n pottible^. And why should ^yprijiii dcicribe the career 
of Nut^liu to ComeLiua until he he^vd that Novaius waa biiby neat 
10 bun? 

Acw- RiUcIlI fuids it of ooune nccesMry to c^tpuj^^e* ac Neiv^ 
from ftll imaniiicripti and editioni of J:fi. 47. And to Novaius 


Hvt yet again Kitt^hl himtelf detcrilie* *ryprBn nt penning ^- 
t£t : in a »t»Et of *paM(onftie cscitcmcni' at the thouchi of Novalu»* 
itC«ni ftiCim Rome 10 CftMhajCi-. If Ehur v^rp to, Why K\d l*itnnU^*i 
fc«Cfi to Rome? Whia hjid he there been doing? And whAi wu he 
«ip*CCfd 10 do Ln Carthage } Nothing? 

' Sw Dobc 4. pb 1^ 

' Mtf f point om to tiudrntt thbl 

i^wn use when boLh cuLijunctlontafe tu 
TitMn dW [not fioTk ii>h/J ^ Comfttte 



Qttatiijn 4. Ifu £>f^isiott iJn the t&fud. 

The primary question l>cforc the Council had bcren 
shniild be ihc position of the [-apwd ? Its determmatiofl 
had been postponed first lo the examination of the case of 
Felicifisimus, and secondly lo the unexpected outbreak of 
divi<jion in the election to the Rnman bishopric. Both of 
ihcsc nevertheless depended on the solution of the original 
issue- Though the latter involved <iuestions so much wider, 
jf-t its origin was in the identical i]tjest]on before the Council; 
and its present aspect illustrated the pnlicy of free and early 
conciLiAr action such aa had been concerted in Africa. The 
decision on Felicissimus was as we have seen a necessary 
preliminary to that action. These two decisions indeed had 
cleared off ihc extreme views on cither side. Neither the 
lax nor the purisl view of Discipline could now be rcopcnoS. 
Cyprian lets us know that the discussion was nevertheless » 
prolonged and earnest oneV that the baais assumed alike by 
the advocates of lenity and of severity was an examination 
of Scripture, and that they conceived as a distinct idcsd for 
their guidance the mcrclfuhicaa of the character of God'. 

Cyprian had bestowed deepest attention oci the subject. 
He had developed his conclusions in his elaborate paper On 
THE Lapsi^u which he read to an audience who cannot have 
been leas moved by the simple pathos with which it fixed 
the tragedies passing before their eyes, than they were 
strengthened by its wisdom and charity'. Nevertheless their 
leaning was to a course still milder than he suggested^ and 


* f/' hh' ^ ' Sciipiurb [Jiu] rx uun^ 
que pjirt* prolftiis," t-p. 54, 3 * dm toul- 
tumiiLu: tiaclAfu itrter !>□« heibila/ 

* Tilt "ctbaJ rt«mblancL- of m- * 
x\\\\ II, 11, 3^ taht^wfi Lliiii tlic riarc uX 
Ihe letter Its Anintiijin ^va" vgr^ nHin 
&flcr the cveuU, and iherefuc^ Ltlil^ 

thcRonumCoupciL mentioned Ep. ^. j 

tQ June Of J lily- 

" £/. i4. ^. £>. 55, 5, S, Th<! tilidli 
(end Ld Ihc Coancil wt^Tc Uic Dt 
snri fh UniUiK Sec pp, 174, 

tli« fcirqi0. 


the)*wcrc much less disponed than be to give the ODartyra 
ft \xaCK in their decisions. The primate wa^ loyal to the 
dclibcnitivc- power 1w lud cvukcd. 

Thr mcyrlCcal wlucb omuint^il ihc rcHolution^ is l0v<*t'. 
But lis gist, itrd even its minuti;*:, arc cxtricabic from ;in 
idmirable letter of Cyprian. The Epistle to Antonlan is In 
to 1 pampbkt in length not far short of that On the I^pr»cd, 
AnEonian was an African bishop who, while forwarJirig letters 
of adherence to Cornelius, privately acquainted Cyprian with 
totjm dillicultic^ which he h^td fdt in doing 5q, And received 
iiOiD him, aAcr tlkc Council clo^ci, a rcslalemenc of the whole 

It would seem Then that Cyprf&n In council abandoned 
Qor« than one of his own au^^ge^tioDs. He admitted that 
fV postpcnemefit until death of the reconciliation cf the 
bMIatica was a severity only applicable to the very hour of 
penccutiOR. when retrieval through a rcw confession was 
JKt an open though terrible way. Certainly if penance wai 
ent 10 worked in if roes of 'Pt-ace' thi* could only be because 
Lapisc was lAfrcqucnt and Return more infrequent stilL 

After peace h<Ld t>een once restored to a Church which 
Wiuffercd from Lapse upon a grceit scale* the sentence of 
liMcng cxclU3Jou waa feh to be a cruel and an impolitic* 
ncuuTc For the utilitarian aspect of the question was a 
roily noble one. In the laier struggle with the Donatists 
OptuuK' warns thein that the 'Passion for Innocence* in 
tW Church while practically unattainable could not, even if 
Vtijbtd. be hiifher than the ' Utility of Unity/ Upon the 
Wan! tcndcnc>' towards strictness felt by the unfallcn he 

^3M ■ dooiiDrat It mlmifd in 
^ ** ^n»v. 45. 6. For 'dneuli 
l^dto^a ttpal*' hkt no rclatiuQ t> 
^ km, nor 'HI czimlniraiiuT ' i<t 
fcavHMa of ik la^nr. Tltii JcEEcr 
^ teiiM i* pnor t« ikc ScoTmJ 
C^wC 4-Pb 3f>. titiic 'a tjvok of the 

n^oraijon i^r tlu Llbellaild only, noc 

multonim »i]tin pfairldendunt piLluir* 
» OpL Tii. 1* 





idds, 'The keys of Heaven were committed to the Apo^ 
•who fell, not to 30 m*ny who stood firm ; it wan ordained 
'that a Sinner should open tlie gate to Innocence, for as 
•Innocent one might have dosed it against Sinners.' 

Considering therefore that penance without hope of mitt 
gation could have no practical value, but that a relum tc 
pagan life or at be5t an adherence to some more tolerant 
echism would be its natural result, while on tlic otlicr hand 
every spiritual help was requisite: for persons who migfal 
shortly be exposed again to persccution\ it wa^ by thil 
Council ruled: — 

1, That an individual examination should be held n 
only of tlie facts, but further into the motives or indiieo 
ments which had been presented to the weakness of tht 

!I- That the I^psetl who had not sacrificed should bc 
restored aftrrr a considerable term of penance, and after publk 
application to their bishop for restoration'. | 

III, That those who had sacrificed should be restored m 
the hour of death' if they h^d continued penitent. I 

IV. That such as bad refused penance and public con^ 
fession until they were In fear of death should not then hk 

The Council did not rule, but Cyprian assumes, that ont 
reconciled as a dying* man would not be again excluded tf Kft 

* "IViheielUf diu pipnHmtlo ct rof*' 
rdur dulenler pntvnui clem«DTU, £/. 

• fij. 17, P«chlnip, p. 110, a!kg?» 
SpA .15* S ^^ c^iablish Agbin&i Dupin 
«nil Hcfclcthac Khlc 1, uhcuaijplJciJ Xi} 
'ucrificati,' inip^K thii wmeof (h«c 
mi^fat be relored enrluff ■ ButvIUicugli 
Cypiian tinyi (hNl ihcii fauK wv of 

ditlincliui) h«li*«tfn thiiaD md the IJ^ 


lUT, m>c]Itric<» cum uicnAcoUi jvqt 
oponere/ The lUlmnent in ih* 

i^i 1 Ihinkt accurate. 

' ^- 5i. n- 

Hie tc^xi^h^nu of Ukmyimi u Maodf 
the kAitic in ilie IfC&utifut in^mBOt Ol 

hl*i diiisEle bh Cimon pritifed [a Pllvt^ 
Sfii^iUgiHi*! ,W/rfvfi. 1, ft. r£ fraa iht 
Lodldpin foJ. ZUrifittuH. cxcvi. To. fj^ 
an exceqic of wtiicli nfLtiwanlji fatt^l 
for I CttrtUfi by a coQtufcron fcl iint int| 


r«o\trod. Wtth a humour which he domctimcf cxcrcbci 
i^ion over-r^dity he obncrvc:i tliAl the man cannot be re- 
quimrl to die, or tiitt spiritiiAl guidt; If) insnt tin hb di-cea«*, in 
orto to complete the condition* of his restoration. In his 
imt stniQ he add* that, if GOD Himself rettpiteit him this t£ 
occmore mark of the Divine pity and fathcrlincse. Added 
life uicc» up the pledge of holy LifG^ 

The RcsoluUoiis were communicated to Cornelius, to 
Fabiu*' j>alriarch of Aniioch, and doubtle^ to the other 
gmt ^c^ and the Council then broke up^ It wab the June' 
efxD* 251. 



Muntime tntim^ttion had been Hent 10 Africa by Cornclluf 
ihi: kis m-4ls shewed no dUposition to Mt tamely down 
Mer the rejection of tlieir emb&ssy. A confessor Augendus 
^0 □cynvc>-cd thia news whs speedily followed by Niccphorus, 
lhcacolytr,bc4rini;a pnvitc luitc withfulitriMiticiilannf the 
oergrtic movement wiih which Cypriar was to be pressed 

A second Nov^tianUt delejjacy had already started^ and 
ht it die principal 'authon' of the movement Primua and 
I)ic4])iius wc know but by name i Nicostratu^ was a freed* 
Bva. probably rich ; be had been one of the powerful Se\^n 
Detcofts of Rfimc; after shannj; the prison of Moysts and 
UAjdmus he was now permanently alienated ^om the 

' C«M^n CTpcUnV harvllkn^ ilxitT- 
IWhiiy, f, i)f, »i4taLrtLly fctmlnbf* 
^ |inr*ldoa 10 the C««imU , ftnrl 
pMtto«ibitflchc!)OMEid]»wcr« more 
*n>w: t^. Ntfn an. ij. Atiihic. 
L em. ^ Cp«oa. cvi- j4. P«rhnp» 
AtMk oaifjlnl lh^ lu be 10. 

■ Or J11I5, l.i]K. pp 105, 6. V« 
HumJ^ u, coandmnj- the Ivn^lh 
which iJii> woul*! £&vc to xht CftTtha- 

Ehc unhc^Llhy itfuan lo wbicb it uQuld 
Ihiow the KoDun CounchL 



Church. He is a<:cu3ed by Cornelius not only of cmbc^tlin 
church funds (which might mean that he had carried »uou 
ovrr to whfil he held to be the Uuc sjoceHStun), but aUo tft 
having defrauded tht? p^trnne^ss to whom he ou^ed his frcw^ 
dom'. Such reports however easily passed into circviUtion, 
and perhaps shew Httle but that he had funds at djspotalj 
just as the accusations of avarice against Novatus have 
doubtlcjts to do with the pecuniary oi^nizalion of the 
sect- .| 

StiU more notable delegates were the Bishop £vari«tus!') 
who had been one ol' Novatian's consecrators, and to whom 
his "Commons' had instantly elected a successor; and lastly 
Novates himself, once more or his own ground, fortilicd 
hl» success at Rome*. 

The ground was however less secure behind him than he 
trusted. Cytjnan does not hestlate to ascril>e the next act of 
the drama in some measure to the withdrawal from Rome of 
his great influence*. The very day after he reached Cartban 
with his colleapies, the acolyte of CorneliuB sailed into the 
port, and with the warning we have mentioned he delivered a, 
second letter. He had in fact hurried on board 'die 
'hour, the very moment.* says Cornelius, "of the conclusi 
*of a Station in which MaximuSn with his fellow confesso 


' Sf. fio. The Libcrian C4taJoi[iic 
sltlalhftthc wuETtodcbiiliopJi] Africa, 
which u po5Tilh|p, hur may ^i* dut to n 

> £fi.$o, dMrtWfl Hand for common 

* The umisf^ioQ of the name of N'jva* 
tiBTii ilsignilot only 'hujift federal! 
honinit/ 1«<1 ihrip to rifgnTct thi»i (^) 
Icder of Cnni?lii)^ n.i a fTsgnicnt. Cm- 
auint liuAtvct (Kuutli, -A*' Sm. ill. pp. 
31— j|) sbpwffd ihiiT trt firop the name 
of abiecboinlJe jn-nKms wa^f a camRirJn 

practice nUb pt/pa ud cahciS' Routh 

red a 




□b^trviu itiiE the netno of Noi«ti*D 

Itttcr. H* employe vnrtfHi* fvilphruft, 
anJ in nne ]iLa«p, lo bvoiJ tpcftkirv 
hia bflpiinm, bu fiY^<x<^<^T Aa^<» iri' 
LMjt tA j3drru7ua f£u(i vl. 4J, R 
IM. p. ftjj, Cypnon, on th* M 
huid» who bail n(^t Eb« bitTcroMi 
Cumdiiu. evUcndy play^ on the f 

liuii vt NavAli DuyaB,,rinAclilnM' 

cupHu?-' Ep, St. I, J. 




*l*iban, SidoniUic, Macanut and most of ihdr adherecits had 
"iqoinod xh< mviin body of the ChurchV 

A Riniovjr had been rife of thb return from the Nova- 
tiinbt camp' ComcHuA ytm chantctcnsticatly the )a^t person 
tecrtdlt iL At some gAlhcnng of presbyters, attended by 
6rc faUhofKi btrt not by Conieb'us, UrbAn and SidoniuA 
ippeincd to express on the part of Maximufi and hi£ party 
a 4tik^ for reunion. Some feeling of di^niHt decided the 
d9gy to dccluic to treat with reprcscnUtivc^. and a large 
My of NovatianiMn agreed to attend. The main ground of 
ilUKl} agaifixt them w;ls the calumnious nature of the circular 
fctttre issued ^o widrty and efTcfTively in their nr^me They 
dfadairocd tlic rcsponsibtlicy and even the knowledjje ct 
Cktc "Nothing had been further from their thoughts than 
'tn abandonnwnt of the Church, They had been led to 
'qAotion simply the title of Comcliua-' Their accusation 
I0UIK tlKnisetvcs was ihc sctnction which tliey had i^iveii 
lathe new onlinauoa It was not in human nature that ihey 
'ikn\d escape without ^omc Invective They however pressed 
forpordon without needless humiliation. 

Nothing further could be determined without the bishop 
Upoo a second diiy he convened a full presbytery with the 
Sw Ufhops. Inttividual opinions w«c pronounced and rc- 

Ukt Roiun CoDodl (qpc p. 
4|),#af« otbmiv &rf wjiuM have 
htm eimaiiiaic&toT. vhtcb il docs 

■RtfiOihcC4rUkmiiiwiC'<niriaJ. imcc 

Cfpni mtk*a DC Illation fo rr m 

Aiaf, m ha Icttcrt lit oi About the 

cffbvtfn^ ipd be rod Ute tccuoEU of 

tiMv ncnm 4</- |i- i) to rt» Chnreh. 

«Di d4 bafccy*. Il mwt aIk ttA-^ 

be^ dlnafjr ilia Mvniun'* kocuui] 

^k^rj. acacnFi**! m lb* uw buodlr 

flif kttai fam Conclim; lot Novtfut 

i§m en ihai nnbtMy, uil CTPtian 

•ayi Ikcf rcliinwd Icf fh« Ckurdi upon 

Thjt dnir <11ipuia of KiiHrLl't Mief 
Ibui NoviJuh h^micir ap^corn! before 
ibc CoiincU. The amJi^'a n* vUich br 

crT>t>t4]r of vhicJi N^^'aitm b-a* nnt » 

* Kfltbcrjjf, uho it alwyi anuinlag 
Inltljtao, «lit« how Cj'pnin tiMk 
aij«dnli|rc ul NvvjLLb*' oxbinif io Cv- 
Iht^p to prcB tbcm to l<«v«* Nntvciui, 

nc^nttvcl by potkibUttivi al lime- 



Cyprian's first council of carthage. 

cord(Hl\ Thtf confessors, who ag^in appeared, loolc the %^tvtc 
dignified grctind as before. AUawanccs mu5t be made ofl 
both sides. They listened to an exhortation to sinctrity. But' 
Ihcy simply asked to be received back Bgain without pCDftncc 
cr disgrace"- ' They h^ been iniposcd upon^ Facts bid 
'been misrepresented to thcni. They had never intended lo 
' set up a second bUhop. The essential unity of the episcopate 
'tvas clear to them a& to othcTK. They had wished for one 
'true bishop, and they had not. until undeceived, r^co^rnscd 
* eucb an one in Corncliua* Chanty and policy alike forbade 
harshness towards »uch sufferers and such penitents ; the 
laily iiiipui-iivcly embraced them, ihcy wept for joy, ihey 
broke out into loud thanksgivings. The presbyters opened 
their circle and took Maximum* hack to hfs old place near the 




TT IP ^ 

LoeuLt> OP Maxlhuh. 

^ ScQlcnliu.-.quJihclAalijccliLalcL^tt : 
£p. 4^- ). vi^rftnlJnit 1 1:v*tiev<f, like thi>hr 
of ihcviuh Council, AJ>, 15^, 

* •Omnibus »«&i»-*iw ftraiMW.' 'Dr- 

ttmetion iinlfBt Aorftiaftiur, or •□hid 
wuh irord, b» ilippsd out, A/^ 49, 1, 

* 1 cin 4ffiB^ 09 utbvi (oax lu then 

in ablivioncra vcibreni millaquc voiuni 
mvuliii ImWtcm^ |KLiiiulc jilijuc hi iiihU 
euHE rr\ camxnmtim vtl diclunn." Ac. 
Ukken in coniuncliun wilb J^'^, 4^- 1, 

TPmihimii^ Deo/ iml flir p<iirif whirh 
lilt tnnSesaoti. miilv o( ii jii ^. ^j 
'^tnnibub tcbiu prastflrmuib tt judicio 

' Sec Av fU>ui. ^rMd SM mymtgj 
vol. I, pph Ji^f. 1^ Ta*. iLi*. J. vd, ir- 
p. 184' Tl>&ii}:h cbi; namv It commoi^ 
yd il JA t»rcc|y likely thnt 4j)whcr 
un^Tiown Muimui. «Iki 1 prrtli^ur* 
ihovH have found a pUc«> aiib h» 
iimie b Greek and in loliriiniE «! tltAl 
ftlE«. LiL lIiv umi;i3nib chapel or, 4inl 10 
cIq&c ro t.f\t lidp ot, Vht bliJiop C«' 
[icliti^i whoui die infliwacv of/JuMu^ 
i]iu« <4r UtgEly mniiibbial to T-*ifrMih 
Tlie ft[«icniei)t ihat he wu nvfjitd 
kinder V&lcridn. Baron, d/ A'#h 1^ 
IHdJuK Ap- Koulh, ^' ^, ui. p, ^ Ift 
irHWPWi i-y 1 (HemonT. L iii. Th* 
Dqwftitio Marlifuro fMomtnscn, o/.iiirt 
pH 6^>\ hu ihii entry, MetiK Julio vi. 
Id* *fit vk Mukoii [ic. cotmeiflhoj 




bishop, froin whom death itoclf wa^ no more to part hiin for 
ctcr^ The Uymco of the ^chiuti vrcrc desired at once to 
fr^ime full commuaionV 

Thu generous Irc^ttmcnt probably justified the expecta- 
liDiu of CcrndtuA and m^e rccantutioo easier 10 othcn. 
The tcmptjratc firmncs* and the ricrcne joy cf Cyprian's 
momtrancc dnd coiigraluUtion to ihc confcMOrs on tlicir 
00 ^nd tlieir return pUi;c the 4<Jth ^nd 54IJ1 ktlt^ry 
ng the nifutt delicate speeiinens of the collection, and are 
< enough 10 give Cyprian a forennost rank amonii; wise 
and lovinf* ^ntii. Nor was Dionysius' behindhand iti ^reet- 
in^ ihcir returning steps. But to Cyprian the return was 
tnofc than a clad reunion — more than an Incident of the 
Cvpcl of VcAix. U was a conclu^^ive evidence of the truth 
<thk thcor>'. 'This error being gone,' he exdaims, 'lighl 
^^'hshed in all hearts: it is demonstrated that the Catholic 
^^FCburch is One* and admits neither ^hiam nor division, 
f 'Scpintion has no note of permanence*/ 


Catitmnfd tutian against NitvatiaHitm — litmiaa CVuwi/ pf 
A.t>* 351. Anti&ckene cf \.D. 252. 

The winrftrg up of the Carlhagtntnn Council lirmight ux 
(» vc saw) to ihe June (scarcely the July) of A.l»- i^x*. nor 40. i|(. 
^w lay joni; interval* have elapsed before the Roman bishop 

* S<« p. i«- 

iAnn^i. Cjipf. A,u- 3^1. uii.) ud 
ocMptH hy l<«:hini|i (p. ijq) igurt 

Uic Djklc of Coracilu' decilgo. Oat 
II — 3 

*> Wj fBst'* Tbcrc i* 00 (c<»tory 
^ ***■■— r* Did tb9 NonLMoJib 
<n«tl to dum bifn alill ^ 
~ TW Kiec*t Codncd ticnilju-lf »- 

^ hU Rftk tod l!w fj^Niiriiin ci( 
Cnt^ Uii} lb* DoaatirtA. 





With a Council of sixty others from Itily and with many 
prc<byt(fr* and deacons, accepted and promulgated the fiamc 
decisions, and excomnmiiicated Novadan on account of bis 
inhumane doctrines. M 

The right direction of Roman and Italian opinion was (uV 
wc have seen) aided by the powerful s>'nnpathy of Dion)'*iu3, 
He ha.d followed up his bracing advf:!e tu Nnvatian^ anil hitJ 
Tcply to Corneiiirs by a letter, singularly called *diacona!V 
Addressed to the Romans therr^elves "through Hippolylui''; 
a second direct to thorn 'on peace and likewise on repent-, 
ancc ' — that ia. on the Restoration of the Lapsed ; one to the 
Confe:^sors. while still adherents of NovalUn', and two inoi 
after their return. 

It seems to require more knowledge than we possess tOt 
enable us to decide whether the Hippoljtus. through whom 
the first letter to the Romans was transmitted, was the great 
'Elder*' and philosopher, whose episcopal work though not 

of thb tynod, vallei] by JcKipike (who 
\nt-lti 11 u alino&t one with the Cai< 
tliHgiBion) 'S/nwIut Uoinana italicn 
Affitnnii* \I.t/>- ift S'ir, fHuUr. c. 
6A), Labhe, r pp. >U^5— 8AS. milled 
by Huron iuK) hai nindti Ibm. C(, 
Zoou^t iJi. lOr ^- Dindoif) tit. pp. 

'3+. US' 
■ Eu£. ff-E. vj. 45. 
• Sec Naic At end of ihli Sectioo. 

AxVVQ'fl'V ^fHT-flt ^jiGfkH^ &d lir-ffo- 

Jtromttt de Virit Jlluttr. 65 "Uiorly. 
%vii;, in Cypriuii c( AfrK:An:c jjnodj 
dogmii con Stf miens (t. p, 356 infr) df 

pUirimu mint EpJaliiioSr qun: usque 
builk rftflAHl. ci tA Fjibiuin, Antlo 
thpnEV url>K «piKGpuin, Ktip»u de 
juctiiEcfEiCia, cl iJ KuiDAnue pur HLp- 
poljrlua olltmuL. Ac' Jcrumc (£/- cA- 



Cl) koctt KuhdjiLLi' Ihi of KS|]po]]rii»' 

WTirmp (ind bad 'loutnl' \rrpfm\ 
Rtarif Di<^(« of {Iilac wliivb Kkiscbiu |vii 
)■) ±^il were li> be fuuiiil faCtpQii 4r)i 
Kotb Qfline iht ifr>Ai Ms/if^uvd »nd th« 
ir^iiiivainitaJ^tf(ifl 'ddrnrmlsoiDns 

' Elu. /^. *. VI. ,6 .#^ 04 T^ 

er/ieorHm 1. \- iftjS, p. 4S4, 
rragmrn: (if Djonysiui wliicli, from 
pcculiAf i'>ud]G» on ' Dfao:/ indii 
A cuniCKi i»ii Ihac rupict I raih«r ucnN 
ta /,4t/ lerc^r nBin«d by Evsebiuj tbui 
tu one of the (hicr Utvljso 'oh Pmi-M 
[?DCe' njimifit hy Jerome, tg whirb Mal*^ 

i^ofiiitiaiitj. iiJ /tr-mtfiiej). JciQin& Jr 

* S« Bp Li|:blfoDt.^/vr/(^v/k/«09^ 
pl. 1., S. Citm^nt 9f ftomt, voA. Ii^ 

\l Ul 



iJO?nairi^1 b>" F-u^ebiiw, or, more strangdj, by J«?rom*?\ 

[ay airong ■ ihc naiionaiitie* ' in the I'ort of Komc If 

thU were po&flible the idea is historically attractive. For 

though there ta no colour for attributing to him actual 

Novstianbin. yd his former attitude towards two prcdc- 

ccwDf^ of CQrncliu:(> — witli whom he * wus at daggers dr^iwn'/ 

will whom he 50 rclenttM»;(y depict?. — gave ground enough 

itt Im being thought noi unlikely to take the Pariian »ide, as 

^Ckrwardfi he was believed to have done*, Th^it position had 

been a right but very fierce resiatancc to a low tone of doctrine 

and ]ro»ls. Neither side in Rome would now be prompt to 

Appeal 111 him, charged aA they .stood the one wlIIi laxity, the 

cthrr with ;rrcgi>l;irity ; while he, at hi* grr;it agp» with his 

profouod study of the working of sects, was the vcrj* man 

Am^b whom the £reat Alexandrine would naturally Ap- 

fcoftch the Romans*. Nor would any poUcy be so likely 

lo Rcuie his cooperation, which was of serious conAcqucncc, 

•jli llie Council, It bean* the singular tiUe of "A Dvuenic 

tE?i«le throujfh HippoJyiu* to them in Rome/ 
Cyprian approved the mingled seventy and moderation of 
the Eanj^ua^e of the Roman Council, and tetterA of assent 
cant in from many Italian bi.ihop5 who h^d rot Attended it^ 
Next, in pursuance of its resolutions, (if it had rot been 
otho ;i subject <]f the programme',) ii bi-ihop Trt^fimu'S, 
■ Vk. um ^ <« -1— /hk-... j*j_ ihc Imcripiiurj by Dim4*m, while !>■' 

only Oil popular Lclicf* ' I lipfwlytiu 
/,-rtur prcmcitJil cum Juio* E^manL 

* Qd Clironolopc-Al nd ntW tJiffi 
culiiet Kc Note it cnJ d/ SccikoiL. 

^ \\ tfcni!* to lur. ihoiigh I ila out 
IiiiuwOial l(jc klliuiorj hu bcca Dnticalf 
ilt>L [hr itumb 'tmtia/u mm tpUigis 

' b. J/, jr. ri. >0 . . ;lni\vr>t. fri^ 
t^ tw t%i aMl ajwcfi^ ^'irX«jpatfaf. 

1>*^ai> BCfUB c^olppc orU* Kire nan 
^^- SofU^Ur^y.^, ri^., p. 434 

4f6iR4Miii Qiiirth/ // |X4«A- 

VottHKuu.' CI VT. )H1T 
t^ltb*^ 4|^aV:, p^ 31H, 4)4> Ivai 



who had olTerrd inccnsc in the ttxHiblcs Jtnd been iinitaini Dy 
his tlock, was together with tbcm restored lo communion 
by Comcliufi. It is not denied that his people's attach- 
ment to him and the assurance that they would follow hi* 
return, eased the reception of Trohmus, Bui Cyprian, mho 
defends the fact ^ain.^t misrepresentations forwarded by 
NovatianJst.** to AfncB« drrte^ on his own knowledge tliat he 
was suffered to nssutne his Orders'. It is impniliHblc tUnt 
a lapsed bishop would be obliged or allowed to do public 
penanc«. The statement itself th^kt Trohmus 'with penance 
</ ftitrtaty confessed his old fault' is against it. and it ts 
said that he made * satisfaction/ although it is presently 
added that 'the return of the brcchrai made satisfACtioo 
for himV 

CuuiicTl urjapv (IT July. 


Sf. jif, 2 ' 7>it/tmp ft rnnrfltaJii' 
leaves il shor of wnain whcihor Tro 
fiiiiiu liJEkikcIf liiiil |{ouc *v fij ill hi* 
l&pw. And while In The order nf »hU 
Kpihile the eo*c o( ihe ncrijifaii i* 
iKAicU kcpixmtcly Trum Uia in anoihci 
■rclicin, and ilio Tfjoniiiciiiof WsOnHeni 
U ncpr«vtly cikpioved, Kitv^lt] |p. 7^) 
dCBCribc»hiinu.&brT/ft-«/f<j. urc»[i>rcd 
corruiirlf tu UU Cpbcu^tnl pljvccr, £Jid 
pkIci ■ Whal Hi^fmee u il ta illf^. I^ke 
CypriAO. iKiit Trofimiu hud tXx^t the 
emnptc of fumtE tibhopa ^juril^ood 
hinucll iot hit Doek, and liipuHl in 
order tc licep Ihcm tugtilKci?' Thb 
ridkulniJ^ qunliun eihiljilA l^tM^lil'f 
renH^Hri^ of * conhgpndu fialnbLti m^A- 
Itis i^jinjpimui (ral^r hastcr neccsaiute 
BucL'Ubuii' (f/» *5. !!>■ Frater is of 
fnuru not ■|'Tf'>mMi a! a.\\ bill I. or- 
DcJiiu himwJf, cind ihc Hf\4jn/ffi i* (he 
olali^jBlion M tuch be fell lo MCfiivft 

TrvfiBiuAbuk (iliciuuhoiylyu > byiran) 


in nccoidonci? with pr«cdGlll% Ibr 
kiLc tif (ccuvcrini: whh Mm the 
liincpfl'- In //- fi7- fi Cem«llat n 
poi-liculA'V cnrnuotkcd M <ODCUiTi»C 

«fllj the whL>lc cpUup:uc In tbr In- 

pAUt l^^lit^ Ckf n^milnTing 1>{»h| tqttiapa 
in holy i^nJcit- [Ht ralorcd attt of 

TiuvAiipii'x Hjo^^cialoi-a vtiiy (q Lf ' 
Communion. Cnm^l. aj\ F.u* in jj,] 

uiHlakck ifLLlici niuir »ubUr ih*a ibac- 
FcchiTup vfs in hia mii^utioa dtt 
'ijwciil i^dciuivd' of rJo'iliftD** tmst^ 
»inn. RuW [» acute; uaot ft) il 
tdun ha^c bcrn Icrroirn En Rome ihM 
Ttftftmut wai h^ i«ioreil to OMen, 
though jC *rf%t rcpciricd b Africa that 
he WAS ; tad (1 1 hbi lailtstion vu «Aci 
ihr cprruioni. v^ lor u w« ran ie!L 

uuL ULkuntiu^ii.iidl-iuii \iinx one td 
not twice piinLihril. (lUmtl, Ji^. 1 
{ti*}, applin <hd 10 ■ dt«caa t> hm\ 
iacdpahle of rCklurtTlon la orden>^ 
Ccnni- KUder^ ciin- jfl fijlrn ppnancv 
far deafon«) JVn.^-'ff- mtt, i f^r priciUf 
KrlLhoiiI rnioratjoni A^kta. idf. lA io*' 
vcdv» II f4>r both. l,fo I. S^ 167 {1 





K% for other %tcAt centres. Nr^vatian had ^nnounccil lo 
thoD his dcclion as he did lo Carlfuige^ and not always 
withoAit effect- Hifi high tone was tmpfCKKivc*. Even Alex- 
andra had needed a etronp remotis trance from ita prudent 
and g^cnilc chtef, DJonyaius the Great'. To the Kgyptian 
church a}M> at large, and to Conon, bishop of Hcnnopolis, 
in pirticulikr', DIonyniux addre?»etl papers on the l^p^eil 
ind rhcir Repentance, carrriilly di^tirgtii^hing fcr them tht- 
different classes of offending'; nor ean his letter to Origen 
411 Mart)' rdom have been unconnected with the di«cu»Aion. 
TDthc Armenians he wrote on the same qu edition with the 
«nc precision* 4s to the ^gyptlana ; again to ihe Laodiccnes 
mdcr ThelyraiUres. 

Bui about no See wan Huch anxiety imfnineni as about 
Attioch- There the Patriarch Fabius had a certain leaning 
k^rdv the Schism". Dionysiu* wrote "much* lo him on 
'Repentance/ and 90 free was the Hast from Aomc of the 
Woicrn dangers, that he is able to lay great atrcas on the 
<1t« taken b>' the martyrs. "As they accepted these pern tents » 
'uuied with them in prayers, renen*ed racial intercourse with 
ihem*. so let ut; not constituting ourBclvcs critics and re- 
'ttei of their judgmcntV "Christ Himself— as in the case 
'('Swapio*!". a lapa^dman who was endowed with miraculous 
'>U>^tKforcl>eing restored to comtnumon — has declared His 
**accptance of their euiitntion.' Tlie arguments of Dtony>iun 
*err flowed up l>y Cyprian'ii announcement to Fabius of 

*P tmtam c*dudci poua^c t<rt rc- 
^wkHL he Atli^OB il fur ^irivLie diw- 
4ift. F#a» 111 («H^-4^3), K^ 7, 
*■■! ft 10 byjiQpfc pnaA mod dcadoo* 
^ W «Qttc«lat lo («b«pli£4iiixi' 
*^f^. 1 *l(T(cnr .^rqumt^rmiiMr 

QVn>aaB.' Scffaado. Ic-mm. 

• F-UJi- /-H. Hirrnii. J, Virii iU.C 
^ 'ad Armcniv d< psDilcntia «t 
dc tndiilv ddicUrum,' 

4«Tbdf <•!■ llDW^WV. 



J^D. 1^1 

the synodical dccisi<3fi of Africa, then by Cornelius' &c< 
both of the Roman and the African CoanciU, and yet \ 
by a letter from Cyprian urging the general cxconti 
cation of Novacian and alJ \iU followers'. Lastly Con 
addressed to him that memoir to which we 01*^ our (i 
knowledge of the great Puritan's antecedents. His att 
had indeed been so menacing' from the first that las Dion 
himself wrote to Cornelius on receiving his announccai< 
his clcctiun alung with the rival mis&ivc of Navatian) the 
great prelates of Cilicia* Cappadocia and PAlestine, He 
with his bishops, and Finnllian and Theoctiiitu^, had re^ 
to confer with him in Synod tn his own elty and^ 
Dionysiua to join them there. ^| 

Kabius died ere they met. Hts sucees^^or Dccnc 
held the Council in March of the next year, 252 A-D., 
lliough not without effort, secured the condemnalic] 
Novatus — meanitig thereby Novalian — as * the Frien 
Sin'/ In that same sense Jerome and others call his op 

^ Eat. vi, 4i. Thflouer^of Cornehui 
wciciii(}reek,lhiBicufCifpd3nm Lflin. 
Of Clj^pibn'fc Ihcrc vrtr r**-* x[ Iteui 

fmm ll«f conlcnU (hey *crc aiMrciwJ 
dLr«t 10 Fibim, Euw!hius, jaM as Kc 
vniwt di(tingi]iiih betw»ti Ni>v«ti]dnd 
NoTAikEin, SaiU aIbd lo j>f icci'c [liBt ti^c 
pHrC^pIci ol ih* leEifl-lfliifiiL origmaicd 
in Afrtcix, The IciieT^ ol Carndju^ 
wcfc ccdiiiflly luuf in number. Euscb, 
iri, 4j hpeiks t}( epitf/fi which j^avc 

luirl Lhc opinion^ of (hem of lxa.\y, 
Afriinit Jttttl Lhc caiLiiirL«A tbcrc* (time 
nuiL h]ve b^wn 11 any rm Ivo) ■- fit 
A iAift/^ ftbout ihc 'Iciemivr^AtionKiflhc 

#ili'T*f*), which it J crome't /*■*''/ tpUiIe 
of Cotniliufi *Dt Gvtiif Synodi ' (Hiei, 
^ I'Uk W. 66, C^^nuiimy. an.i of ■ 
fiurih Jrom which he i^ivfvlonfniriiCiK 

vonfeesi^n, Ihe cnakccrstiiig bubc 

tatlir^i upinbEii.bufrtJBm anJ on) 
J9S3 prF«liylpr» arnt rnnfirmniliw 
a lie) of th« CQac]?inniDc buh«| 
thcii bcri. Hkii r<mnh Mcnait 1 
mprmd pitciljr lo Jcmme'i ' 
veryprolii' one oa thv 'ciujftct of 
lUaiiQi bqJ the uiaLbcniL' Jc 
ftrai t*o *Dc SjtodP, Ranun*. 1 
Afiirttifl.' and "on NovilJii 
the trfijiacil' corm^iDiid well ( 
tr> EtihebJLis' liwoj 'Epurlo.' 
Argiir^t in vsin ihil tu«ebmi( bi 
only three And Rulintu of two 
leinijtji fco^ns^ the four- It 

pntriuch FUvian. 4hom Eoicbii 
aiblcnLly f;alth Fjibiun- 

lubbf, cf. Euwb, 71. 4j; tH. 
■rid the 1iynd<{tcon, Lahho, *fll- f . 




ih« Cainitc hcr»y— fio deadly to the brethren, so desperate 

in IU«ir. 

ic ikt ftcntint with HifipofySui e/ Partus, 

Ttt poini renlLy 11 whnh^r Hipptilyiut of l^onitt wa^ living ifi 
tD itfi—j. If AU were admiticd il would not hnvc Wen doubted thit 
'M «u Ihr HlppAlyixit mr^nr But ii U f;^n4>ra]Jy denied, ii^rl if nnf 
4Pibu fifL Lijhtfoot^} condLi*)oni one doct \i wiih uncAi^tncf^'. The 
dcnol it because he irould hnve been very cM in A.ii- ^50^ thai he had 
Mo^poned to S.4(dmia in a.d 235, and that he i? ni^t heard of afior- 
nalfr— iinMi ii U here 

D«ic5 do aol fofbid u> to think of IHppolytua a* intcrcttcd in Novt^ 
:kDiim in ihf yf^r 3jtx 

>) Bp. Uehifooi holds (hat it IS nol poa^ble, bccAute hi) literHry 
Klrvny br^^n in A.D. 190. Unhappily we havr nol the promised proof 
■I !bi» dale* for the learned and jnteresttng essay was .it:L5 1 norvr 
fauAtd, but rv«n i«f>, 6a yp^rs i« no unnJtmpled jvenod fnr xiich 
oKirrsCf to be attained 

h tradriion of old a^c appruis ^A\r\ and ag;iin in Pnideniiu?^ for 
■kiiii tt woitb- tf be wtT« 1; tn J90A.D. hv would in 350 be 85. 

►'*) Bp. Uifblfoai iJiiiit* ihnii, 1i^vi[i]£ licrn deportnl in ^j> (o Sar- 
tea, vhwb il capre^ly tiiLlod intMln ttoiiva, along with t'onfianut, who 
U tfief^ on Sep. :;7* Hippalyiui was nol likely to haw luivivcd- 

TWMaicmentin the Liberian Catalogue ijihi«(Momm»en, C^rQHfige. 
"-/MP- (^3S* tJp«iu4, t^t' cit-^ aCiS). 'Eo tempore Ponttitnus epL»copu\ 
'*Vfpr>litm prevbyier^ ticoLcj tuni dcporttti in Sardinia in intula nocivA 
SfKTD H QuintinoconL in eaJem inauU diicmaui cii' iiii KL Octobr. ei 
tfu ordinatus est Anthetos xi Kl' Dee- cont- tn-' Cf- ^J/r P^ni^taiij 

^Qos^it la ihe omr pooled a Juvenile 
blCUbrslloQ Ott AA# Atart^^M /i/id 
C*m M um «r^ i > fi «f S, iltf-^'*iylH! in 
the ytnrtt,\i ff/ CAi'.i'.ai dn^ .Wrdtf 
/^iMiffv voir I. pp. tS« »qc|,- rtfff 
' lViiJcnt',iri]A/r.,va» vr-ij.iO> 

aenioc j^, caput alveum. cadiin tp. 

• * Probyter,' ■« p. i63» note 3, 

* Uay not the curioni virpreulap 
■divinrtmetl' tUode lo the dittatildfr 
of Ihe Eligh riicat ,Vanin ia pitpttit- 
tion for death ^ 

■ HMenllccc ibaL Fabin' inkntlnn 
^toitd Novatianitn iff hit pro- 
fail CM>dU and 1^ Helcnvf of 
'^^m, PlmlDut of Cappadodi. and 

iWKtHiM of Paloctne. h<ip<H hy rhe 

^finlii acid thai D?meul*n. tuc- 
SBftt M i}k wtf, hut nol ih the «i«in 
^r«ifc 4coM aciuiUy La butd tbc 
C* ^ c fl «ttd proioalcMt iU oonclvAioiu 

* IidnowUdga the ModenMi with 
■U hf potly ueium and partly 



(ed. DuchcAix, vol i. pp. 6^ 145, and nou\ -wfiich re^> t^fim/ati 4^ 
AUratidra and irtfula Sunua. [adl 73; wi« rtMlly jw3 il/AnM/iui.] 
But SnrdLnLA wu not unLvcmiJIy HiTiil And Poniian'v <Icath i* 

mmtioncrt^ nind ihat of Hippolyiu^ 1*1 not. If it be said ihtti Pontixn^ 
ftlonc 11 mcntioQcd bccau^ he wu ihc bi&hoi>, thU would hatv alsd 
cherkrd iht mrnrion f>f ihirir joini eitk- The paifagc has no bearing 
on the dmc of HippolytuV death- Us one lu^gcilian j» that Hippotytua 
did Mfi/dir wlien Pontian di«t1. 

KciibcT bAi Ihc Dfp^Uh mttrfimm any beannj; dd that ditc (m 
Ci. Salmon lo />yt/, Chrim'^n ftiag. in, p. *S/.t'- iiig^psiO H has Mdn* 
Aug. Ypoliti in Tibunina « Poniiani in Calisii/ They may have been 
piic iogr*rh^ri ai Comdiui and Cyprian soon wtn. on acrount of their 
c<fnn<rciion in life- 

(3) Itiit It l!^ a1i^ iTtxt th:it no ^divtry of Htppolytnii U mmtioned 
belwcen a^u. :3; and £jo^ which ai iir&i itecms ftlmiigc considering the 
man he wiii. 

Hill yd a^njn whai do4;i][ncntA att. thert' in which wc should hnvtf 
expected hiai to be mcnlioiicd a» alivc? And old age and infirmities after 
on exile lo SArdiTki:k ai the a>;v of 60 inij^ht have Icept him ffuteE, Hnd 
aeverlhctcbft he im^hl be the fi^ht prrHin i\f iMitsinila Icllo at recuu 

The di'ti siikly ycoi's of thi& century are l^ke an underground lunncl 
wjih two breaks of broad daylight One i« ihat viuid light vthidi 
Hippplytus hiinacif ihrowa on the limes of Calliaius and Zephyri»ut| 
VT>. ?03^!!i ; [he oiher rs that of the Cyprianic correspondence 347— 

From ^^s—i^? wc hnvr really no ilocumcnif lilcely to illustrate &ufh 

p{)5itian nod life a& hi&. Wir have remtirlecd in the text tJiai he wu not 
likely to he prnmiiicnily in tequcsi wiili eithn- Novallanisis or Corndi»ii^ 
and (he Cypri^nic corretpondeace only deal% with aciors ; tf in fact Dio 
nysiut wrote 10 the Rotnam ihrouKh liim, we find him at once In 
trorlhyand ngnilicant position, i^iiUjii t^u^ntua:. There i£ re statemeo 
that he w;t»;ilLvc,nDnc thai he wa^ dead. Al I tic same time di' 'linraX. 
C&nnot be CMpUmed except in a forced way, 

[4) Bp. Lightfoot (pH 372) would take 0^^ 'ImroXiiim^ to mean only 
' Ehc delegate charged to dehvor the letter-' But surdy it would be 
scrangc to cite and identify an Epi»tk to the RoniaEiJs b> llie natne of 
the e3>cellent deacon or Eubds^icon ^'ho carried it, as such officers wer« 
in^ref&anily^ doin^^ Loth Elu?iebius ind Jeiuine mcmion the 'through 
HippolytHs/ and only eight pniragraphs before Jerome has given a |i«t 
of ihe wriliugi tif ' HAppolyiii^,' Eu^ebius cLiAracl<ti(c« or quotes tnore 
than thirty letters of Dionysius (//, £. v\. 40, 4K 44i 4>f 4&' vii. J, 4, 5, 7, 
9, io> ii> £t. i ^ 36). and tu none other of them docs be refer b^ the aune 
of the bearer. 

(Sh U U £aid also ip. 37^) that ' HippolyEu^ is a fairly common name.' 

« - 

Ill nt 



Bui tbb I doaocfin(L En I5«f the indexed Tolumc* of the Ctff^ihAf/ffj^r. 
LaiL contkininif cvrr 6j^oao inscription*! th«TF arv only faunecn iculAncct 
of tli« n«>ic Hippolytii* And Lhrcf fjf Hippolytc. k U a rfionl rire name. 
In deratiU of proof that bt was clt*d, 1 more vcnerablt Hippolyiu* 
any Mill u«ni to luive b*ea concerned ic introducing Iho greU muii't 
kucf la ihc icrcAi cbunrh. 

fFil/ it th^nj/tivi' Epistf/ if* the Rptnant i^Uid dtuKWtnf/ 

1. Tbv bifldinif prajrcn xnil 1iuinlr« r«cite^ by D«'icoi« in ib^ Grnk 
LltUTtiei, which bqfin with rVfjpijtn; tc^^virf^ And pray 6rkt f<>rll)c Ptic«of 
Ihr Wofkl and the Churchy Afc i^nrd iiuJiffrirflJl) hitnnmivt uiiJ ri/iiTixi(d 
Tbii ha4kd Bp-Chr.Wor(isworihi/y///tf^/i/j,p- (79,ed, i3So) [ointc/prcx 
iMwacij ri& cijuiv^I^Lil L<i ffpr|h<if. ^cF Guflti EuiUohgivn (Pjinzs 

1647}, p^ 6>, ijturg- <JJtry-t. *i ^wi-nH»ff \}yi,...rh tfii»7'4iai ; p. (95, JJfttrj;. 
^ ^^tMrKt(/i<^* yjyttmu [to] ravra rii /furcapici^ and GoAr^ noic. p. I2> 
Sopfaocle* (C^ L/1% '/ /'oM- di^ ./^/ff, ^riii^f) j.f/. rd <tf7<}i'f«a ' taid by 
tbe Dcttcvci,' 'ollnl olio r4 AuuDvitri' Cp, ibc R-poiTi^>^iTi< of ihr 
Deacon. A/^/- Ctmff^ viii, i]. tlui whon on« ibin^ rt calkd by 

tvo diAcPcnt ninic^ fur i»uch whiflh' diffcicnt rcftHonh, the nitjtict dti iiui 
in cmoD« Uncage, or nccpi rn itang^ become inccrchangcible m 
Mber eoiifdy di^icni applicaijoas. I cAnaol ibiuk thii iatcrprcution 

i. Dp^ Ut[h|foot think* [1 *A rcaiK^ridbTc conjcciurc' lb«I the Icttvr 
sone nder«tK:« to the irrangcmontb of FabiJUt atom deacon* (tec 
pp. 67, 6£), Out Eucbmi' n^jcc cf tlib Uuci is embedded in bit 
of liw lclt«T« on Not'^lian, and it u not whtico 10 Fabian, or 
Comdiua. but 'to tlioM i>' Rome'— to lli^ people. How F;ibiiw'» 
D«9£MM cut faAvc been to Guch an cxttnt itw Kubject oJ tb« Uticr aa to 
^ve H tkc naino of a ' DUconic ' letlei, ] do not *c& Agroin Ji ' DiACOnic ' 
letter w> more «e«m« to meAn a letter nbout Deaconi thjin in 'FpiV 
Qpfttl * oe ' pJiM^r^l ' letter i« a letCct abtxit UiAhoi»i ur PA^Eori^ 

y It44li gur^tn flrv iboie of Irarn^d 3nd tng^Titont nwn. t^uf Auurn- 
^■■j b ftOt a K^fcnical word for any kind of Icitcr, ^d perhaps Dionyiiut 
Otfiy fcive hiRHftf ub#d It m hr« own letter A! a liveljr Fvprettff^n, In 
•CUU>K fbfftb that he wa« not vriling to them as biabop, in any autbori 
ttUvT viy, bat that he limpty menni to minister to their ddibenitton aa a 
4e«coa raib^ than a biibop might do — tbnt thr /ititfToX^' is not ittvrr^w- 
vHi^ 1^ ih«E 10 bL» own Aock (t:i]4. vi. 46), nor imitrtfmm^ nor e^«n 
«^«v9tritfwiH ^1 merely such as a deacon might sul^mit to them. The 
vord lugbt be uken Itum MJitic lu^ti phtd>(?olo|*yj aa h hd.i» Bii;irui«l 
10 PM. {Qi. Aift4tt/trvt^-^.wptrrfiwrMr, ap- Hp, Li|Ehtfoot, p^ nrV, pp. 39} 



4. NevcnhelcM I rnthcr incline 19 Bt soggcstiOD made to n>e 
M, I^tpcnC thai ihe word, ^vtikli mcani aimpty 'wcrviceabk,' in PUto 

Oo^^- L3lXtl. (p. J17 Fl) trCV cyu ^r/v rom'tri aifl yf Ainn^tfivv «£i44 frAfvi* 

tirivfr/^ii/ii rafntltit «j1 ALJu^n'm iTafi'jXpijtJ"4Q'u fnnTTijiiuaK] mi nwr^* ta^ 
^latovittiv iroi'jrfitiiivT} ftuvtut fi^iaw *\jivl AfJSlOph. P/aJif. II70 W tv&itat 
^tantiru',! «f»<ii| doic^st Riiiy bc applied in ttio same Bcnac to a i^fttr of^ 
praciirftl advice. 


C^rutitnti^nai R^sn/ts of tht First C^nhcU. 

All these evidences of activity and wide-sj>ie;id communi- 
cation are :ii;icle slill more inlcrcsting by the observation 
of certain coratitulional points which the decision of the 
Cartha^nifin Council involved. Wc note four 5uch. I 

Fint, the submission of the views of the pntnate himadf 
t(k his Council, They were substantially modified- The 
coarse which he proposed lo them in the Dt Laf^is was 
less lenient than their.^^ (although even this waa to be stiH 
more softened in the course of the next year), and bc waa 
aware of tlic change produced in himself. Charged with the 
inconsistency, he docs not deny it Again the NovatiAniKl 
deputation appealed from the Council to him as a sympathiser 
wtth their rigorism. But in fact purism in him was ftub- 
urdini^te to his broader views on Unity, He evoked a spiritual 
power as wiser, more hbcral, stronticr and more divine than 
any solitary utterance, and he rcmnincd loyal to it 

Sr.amdiy, Cyprian h*id in Ins cpistolaiy proposaU ^s^\^\ 
weight to the verdict and recommendations of the martyr* 
in procuring reconciliation. The Council wholly ignores 
these intercessions. Fifty and sixty years later the Letters 
of Confessors might, by canons of Klvira and Aries, bc 


' £^ ii- «. 

' JT^ IS J- 




cxchdngcd for Eptscopal kllcrs'; value being ihus atlachctl 
D dwm while the pmper rt*gimen of tht Church was formaHy 
upportcd. But tho Council of Carths^e U in iU reaction 
ilfonff enouf^h to pa:^ over Ja ftilcnce the *mortts' %\htch h^d 
ktc\y threatened all organisation. 

For oow coroc?* out the unity of ihcir decisions as again&t 
both of the *(ch;%niJLtic^il leaders; ainoc it is dclinitEvcly .settled, 
iMrtlfy, :4gain<t Nnvaiian, that there ate no remii^iblc offcnrf*"* 
»hich it ii beyond the power of the regular organi^^hUon of 

Church to rcmrt, - 

And /^urMy. a£:ain3t Fclicisjimus. that no sanctity', con- 
ing Authority to assign terms of communion or remit sin, 
residf^ in any cla^s or pcison sai/c in the body of the Church 
Mtih Its autl:cmic administrators*. 

Thcprmciplca then which had now been solidified intolegis- 
UtiOR ^pccitic^lly invented ihc primeval Christian institution 
oJ cpiscupiacy with ^1 the functions of govern mi^nt, and accord* 
tngly the private sentiments of the metropalitan were, with 
kit dieerful consent', overruled, while his past acts as birthop 
of Ctrthagc were ratified. No rep res en tit ion 3 against a 
Wiop oiicc seated >vccx: to be admissible'. The Resolu- 
tion* vent forth in the name of the (lishops only. 

' cw. JSA*^. A. o, )«5-6. /«■. tf 
' MM i|id atiulcrit tiln'f* vuiifodur is*. 
^talo ftcmiftr «i:a%fntArL^ *o r]iKid cim- 
M'abbACiKabiAii ck«m p^^dia conco- 
■M 4aflk»r comoiunictlEjfui ci jIxh- 
^m UitcitB.' Ok. Hn/Jiul^fM- 
t'l^ ku ^ ConlmAfum Ihvru nlfe- 

*C|iaii«ett9Dualc«ionv/ llefd^hu 
■< tthlmiood the ^ppHulioa of Uich 

' FahAf* ibc miEAiailou* viEiimcril 
^ Ihf /J^ tafru 'fofa ififUnc«« of 

*ii>Cil b soiii Lo aicTl itic pa;ticuU( 
fc4i«| «1ticli rEBtai cm ihr f if^pticA*! 

' Wc diufil (lol a,j (liff ftdniniBMiitart 
iluiie. The ruiiciiuij jf ilic lutjr >» 
friirtUBdly, ihoimTi not VFf> esplbJlly, 
Df)^, In £/. 64- I i1 Ik AH objaclba la 
unc JCTtflmiuitm iHjlL i[ kw m4<lf 'sine 

* .iciM mr nihil Ir^it^t f^««* ii»d . 

iLtlum disEulliAc.. el nunc ib hii nan 
r«f>J«niUHt ipifi«l In cofiCiho notlro de 

coniitium cuhUUi>nc|d«ciiBrant,,-- Sf. 

M- 7- 

* Onr'tiati tidtEn na|pvimiu (?D]it«- 
nira ul con<K« ncsEn jfrm dclfcti 
« onUniit ..vvniiUri ultra LcmvcU-.. 



inbcr that each bishop was the rcprucn*' 

nowii wc rcmcn 

lativ^ of A ffc^ election, and ihcir asscmbl/ a free assembly of 
equals, — the only free elections, the only free, ihe firsr represen- 
tative assembly ir the world — we shall see that Hpi£c<>pacy had 
virtually taken its piacc among Kom^n Inetitutioiis, informc<L 
ivith Roman strength and Roman respect for Law, suirming 
in itself, and disparting to its members powers judicial aod 
cxecutiveH resen/in^'^ to ilsirlf all appeals, and uriginaling leyi** 
lation, [t was an Institution not only fraught with the ntin 
of polytheism but rich with the freedom and the order of th^ 
coming society. 


Suffering;. 7/u De Lapsis. 

Cyprian's Letter to (Ke Confessors on their rctnm contains 
a passage of about iwerrty lines which Augustine cites in fiiU 
no less than three times in separate works\ as containing the 
absolute Scriptur-il answer to Puritan separations. It \& the 
earliest exposition of the parable of the Tares, and of S- PauTj 
image of the Palace with its Vessels precious or vile as accu-B 
rate presentments of the lasting conditions of Chm-ch Society. 
No human right exi^Ls to eradicate tares, or to break ih« 
poorest earthen vessels ir pieces. Freedom to become good 
corn, or make a golden urn of itself belongs Co every souL 
The fcrrfeitura of light will ever mark aj^sumptions of tbc 
divine judgeship. 

Ag.iiii^t NovdtianisnL Donattsm. and how many long 
perpetuated species af Puritanism and Calvinism, rudimen* 
tary inorganTC forms of the ftrsi reaction of converted ^irits 

1 Tci Miu-nihiu*, Kp. roH, c^ Id. A^fAlrut (he DnniUl&l Cruonlu, ti, 43, u4 





i^iifAt Um: kingdom of sU}. do lltcsc icw words bear 

The L«ttcr was accompanied by an JniGresting g^:^ 
Copies of bis lreaiti*« Ov thk Lai^shu and Of tkb UNITV 

Of the latter we *h(ill spc-ilc presently. 

To postpone with Bp. Pearson' the date of the former to 
Vmrmber u lu altribule to Cyprian a puMicAtiuii out ofili^lc^ 
Xi iu appearance, and counsels upon which he h;id already 
inprcived. *The Avenging' of which he speaks in the open- 
log is no doubt the destnictiDn of Decius in that November*. 
But while lai^ pArts of the book, as wc have itn wear &]] the 
mu)a of an oration', other parts never c^in hAve been so 
dcAvcred, and arc plainly to be reasoned out in the study. 
U fact wc have In our hands the edition published some 
mcotha later ; as we have in i^evcral of CIccto'k orations ; and 
(ithiA edition bdon(*s the actual cxordiiim» 

On the other hand the strong and immedialc Apology 
fof Fugitives markfi the moment when prejudice against hJs 
cnn retirement has not yet dic-d out', 

ll lA a woric of a hi;;h order Us hterary fonTi is excellent, 
but hr beyond that pr^i^c i» the power with which it lifts the 
cmicntiarm of pflrticii and tlic vexing questions of the moment 
iaio a ngion in which thity c»n \Ki ^een as deiluctioiiK fmm 
bating principles, and determined on high grounds. So 
tOfitG, so to uplift U to the full sui difficult in church politics 
uiii mundane controversies. And the high aim U eBected» 
^ the tone sustained without one faijure. 

[ts outline may be sketched a« follows: — 

After the ck>£e of a persecution an ideal position of^^^ 

^ Jwm. O^- A,». v^i.c. t*. 

' TVn it vulhisK "^ ^ oTdihnrw 
W JtUtt Vslnu Of Pmcitt slucfi *ciuM 
^v ta wp«£i to Gviaiiub of ih« 

thrn alflrmn Ihcm. 





spiritual influence is occupit<l by T^iTliirul suffrrcrs. even by 
voluniary exiles for conscience* i^lce; and by tho*e who h^d 
been faithful in danger, although not in actual sufTennf*, B 

To the LapEcd sympathy b due; and hi» :iymp5thy rings 
&s true as his sense of discipline; especially with those who 
had broken down under intensity of torture. Between these 
and others he draws a broad line. 

After shewing that Persecution is not without Ic4 g^ood 
and ujfcful service he proceeds to analyse the causes of Lapse 
which have been so wide-spread and so operative through 
the whole Church, — and that in spite of forewarnings, of the 
unnatural horrors of tlic very act, of all the given oppnrtunitie* 
for avoiding it. He concludes that the secret is to be found 
in the world-leavened spirit of the Church, 

He next enters upon a close argument (l) with the party 
of lax rcadmisaion, (a) with the Confessors who promote it. 
and (3) with those of the Lapsed who seek it; setting before 
them deterrent experiences and the dishonesty of tlic position. ■ 

He concludes by an exhortation to hcinesty i.if confession, 
to seriousness of repentance and to activity in good works. 
High hope is yet in store for them. 

The book on the La^jseti has largely contributed to our 
narrative. Its teachings concerning the Eucharist, and its 
evidence upon contemporary Supernatural ism will be diai-S 
cussed each in its own place. Upon Penitential Discipline, 
its views, equally remote from I'rotcatant and Roman stan-' 
dards, have been exemplified sufficiently. ■ 

I, Yet we may now further remark on the shtgniarity of 
the relation in which Romanism stands to the Cyprianic vtc«r 
of the influence of interceding saints. Their merit, (Cyprian 
holds,] may aid sinners in the day of judgment, in the world 
to come'. But they cannot on earth reverse or disturb 
the organisation and working order of the visible Church. 


in. V, 

cvPRUN 'or THE lapsed; 


Dcpartcfl mirtyrs sia heard in the Apocalypse still praying 
to bL* av«?ii^e<l. How can the/ in that ftitiuttion be tiie 
deferdcre of othcrtV 

How ingcntoua then is the Rombh combination of a 
suppoicd accumuUtion of meritorious trca^iirc wjth it^ ofUcial 
dispensation by visible authorities! 

II. His opinion* that there niighl be occa^onH when a 
man wntilil nnt he justified in accepting the oflcred ctrjwn of 
martyrtlom, ind that flight from persecution m such circum- 
stances wsLg 'a pHN-atc confession of Christ as mutyrdom ts 
a public one' must have »avcd to the Church valuable lives, 
although the problem of decision in any given case was not 
the least of the djlHcuUlrv which arose bclweeii Christianity 
and heathenism. 

The eloquence of the Di Laffsis seems almost perfcct. 
Thc style ha£ gained in lucidity though still here and there 
the touches arc a little too ornamental There arc few finer 
passages than the triumphal ode in pro^c with which he cele- 
brates The While Cohiirt of Chiist/— the Cot^rcwors, men, 
women and children, restored to the Church after their war- 
fare. A Touching instance of its felt power \i an adaptation 
of two passages from it on an Afticai: inscrtp^on'. 

Magus Innocent Child. 

New thou beginnest exigence amonf; the Irmooent. 

How atcdfast now is Life to thcc, 

Hoivjt^ful t^tm an fi> hi wtkomtd bjr ih^t Masher i/se CkHrch 

iPff thy rtiunt/r&m tltix world. 

IM tki siting cf oar ktarfs hf stUltd. 

Lit tht wftpin^ *?/ Qttr fyes ^ sfayfj^. 

' c* i. d. <. 10- 

■ Hin. .yujj^fuiu SaStim- voT, IV, 
p. jj£p HSiiyvt pBCr iiU)OC«cu J ok 
jatt) iai«r inoocvnilv oapkii. | qoaoi 
tciivil«a ihii ha« tlu «it ] qosm t« 1*- 

im cnipd nMcf eodcsU (Te oc | raiiA> 
du nvtTteaiMn. oonpreiiuuit pecio- 
noi I gnnitii*. imstnr Oonv oonlo- 
mm. Tlic nunc Jlfi$tm Mil % p«cbtrsr 
amngmrm of craw «od pdm tmodi 
liuJjcaE* a C«fThaginJRn ongin for Iht 





Another beautiful passage^ ^tid one which illustrates how 
the oratory of Cyjjrian sometimes piles itself up like that 
of Barrow, is worthy of quoution upon the obliteration of 
repentance by over hasty communion. 

'This is 110 peace but war. He does not join the Church 
' *ho parts from the Gospel- Why do men call an injury a 
■blessing? Why give to impiety the style of *'Fity"? How 
'do chey pretend to give communion, when they interrupt the 
' repentant lamentation of those who have need to weep in- 
^ deed? Such teachers arc to the lapsed as hail on corn ; are 
' OA a star of Lempest to trees; the lavage of pestilence to 
■ flocks and herds; the wildness of the storm to ships at sea. 
'The solace of evcrUsting life they steal away; uproot the 
*tree; creep on with siclcly suggestion to ticfldly infection; 
' wreck the ship ere it enter the harbour. Such easiness yiclda 
'no peace, but annub it; gives no communion but hinders 
'salvation. It is a fresh persecution, a fre?ih temptation. Our 
'subtle foe employs it in his ^cdvances to assail thf fallen yet 
'again with unperceived devasiaiioni : stilling their lamenta- 
'tion, sikncmg their sorrows^ wiping out the remembrance of 
'their sin. hushing the groaning heart, quenching the weeping 
'eyesj drowning the entreaties of long and full repentance 
'toward a deeply oiTcndcd Lord, — and all the while it stands 
'written, "Remember from whence thnu arl fallen and «• 

inoniimtni llnrir. The Cyprlnnic poa- 

it£fti cxc^ptT mater ccck^in d< /neltt 

gcfnilni^ ttai""tur HfTii^ rirnlorum, II 
hu been »g£ni<d i« tj&rrecE iia/tt^fur 
tt in lucli abuud to ifria^iir by the 

Cyprimif ■ * Si foplpm »i«lUfi itntHei.' 
aii Drtnetr. Ch f> The teisond ukd 

qiiottfd, hwl I know not whence. 
IHftricl? ]«l<i »inu— p«ctoriiTJ 
■ c. i6. 


ni. V. 

cvrsiAN "or the LArsKI>.' 


M^t tt^^vJ FmgwuHf oj C^pritm. 

1 can find nt) pUce uznuni^ the CypriKnic zirKuInifB vkhich could bff 
fil]c>dl3f Ihv friii^mcnt KYUTIANOY ir«p; ivn^oiv |Mm, C/^J- Aiult. r Vai, 
t.mid.€diSowMm Tomoi X. pp, A-uit, jSj — 7^,n^n, I »uppDiv, <:ould Mai, who 
fayf * vjdeiiir hic Cypn^inui AnEiocht<nuii ' Kor (h^l h□^vevvr th«r« ii no 
(oluiir. Tlic iHiinI uf lUc cxeim^L lt^ tW c<4uul >uiTcrmK» hate no 

pover tci «<)u^(e ihc bad and ^ood. UcsidcSt if ^ve except itig^ht louche^ 
Otfi S. Tad] (which com paiv withC/i>rian Hlartel}, p. 304. 26, 511, 16— 18> 
tMi ontoflhe Scripturv illUKmtion^ k CyfmAnir in hjimiltr^if, Th# ^'r^- 
mcnE Jidduccft Phnriiih, ihr rciiitcQi Thief, N&boih, Annnitxi. who ^trc never 
named ^y Cypriiin : Job \^ nut liifc*<n ffOtri rypTi:«n'i vrry diniim-t point of 
view ; ZcdckJah. al»0| noL m Cypnttrii in <vnu()k1y dcnll HTtht ntuch i» in 
the Rpurirn^t iit Piixchit Camp^tms (Hanpl, Af*p., p. j^*, 3^: 5fif\ 19]* 
The coDiniit between Uftnid and Nebuchndncuar is thiu (he former wa* 
eoniit^ned 10 frwd blasts and thr latirr to fwd with bi^utiL The reatittic 
ccnirul between our Lord nnd the I'bicf logics Cypnnn^ tklicacy. Thut 
the Fn^enc'i fii^t air of rc^rmhlnnrc (o Cypricin melis awjiy- 


Tiwi itnd Substfinrf of fJir Trmtue. 

The Iwo or three leading motives of ibis victorious essay 
were sketched at the point where wc had to outline the 
principles on which the Council acted The flesh and 
blood, so to speakf the colour and the warmth, claim nearer 

The conjuncture at which it was read to the Council' 
is discernible. Allusions to Novatian and to his having 
assumed the episcopate are plain and numerous*. On the 
other hand there is no reference to Felicifisimus and his fac- 
tion, a subject which In a paper on unity could not have been 
avoided unless it had been already disposed of. Allusions 
there arc' to laxity iind dissoluteness on the part of former 
confessors, but without ^ny reference to methods to be 
adopted towards ihem, and only in illustration of the posi- 
tion that confessors (and so Novatian) were not secure from 
falling; away. Thus the publication of the treatise is marked 


' £/. ^4. 4. In Jc Uttiiate c, j wc 

u K LKliire or E-mb^ iul<|f«wd to 

cdkoEuu ! 'Qii»m muuuju tcacre 
fiiialUr cl vinilicarc Jeiemm iiimiiuc 
tfiiitafi qui in octJeib fntrufrmtti.' 

intntltftea pre M^blc, Stc. c- H, uno m 

fnntiu^ c- io» ppiimpi mbi mxnvii- 
c. t J, Knuli sBcerdoEiiiEi (bi^opsi. 

nliiicl alurf ^ 

IV. I. 



as after th^ *cltl«fnent of ibc qucfcFioi of Hclici'ssimus und 
before that of Novatian was dctcmnmcd. 

1'ht position ot^ Novatiun wat the problem of the hour. 
Heresy had hitherto been nrianifold ftnd fantastic- But 
Schism, — mct-ining ,%ccc3:iiQn up^m (iticsticinit not originnUy 
doctrin^tl, — had been aJmost unknown. Now, ho%«:vcr, bo- 
ginning from the central sco, the Church reeled wlih the new 
possibility of being cit^ft in twAJn upon an enquiry ak to 
whether she possessed disciplinary power for the reconcilia- 
tion of her own pcnttcnts. 

The rationale of such a separation, its reUtion to the 
divinely preconceived economy '—'Wh4l sudi n p(jrlE--rt1 tncanl? 
How God could KuflTer it ?' — w;is the qviei^tion on many lip<( 
' It 16 not (they said) a« though a new dogma or mysticism 
'attracted the fipccuUtivc iuid devout. Hut with teaching 
identical, amitl undoubted holiness of life, wc icc Altar 
' against Altar. Chair against Chaif. in tlic metropolis of the 
' world and Church/ This is ihe problem vhich Cyprian set« 
out to «>lv& *The ch;iracteTf*tic danger of thl^ age when 
'Christianity U for the first time widely accepted is the 
" presentmeot of old enor under Christian fonnis, 

'Such danger can be detected only by distinct concep- 
"tiODa as to the abode of tiuth, cicaiticss as to the Scriptural 
'idea of unity. Thcv: art' not far li« ■*c^. When tlie Lord 
'gave Peter his commis^on, "What*ioevcr iAau shait bind 
* shall be bound," and then renewed the commission to 
'a/I the Apostles, '' Whoaeaocvcr sins ^^ remit they are 
' remitted/' it i;t obvious that He placed all alike on the 
'ftame level', yet, by first addrcwing Peter alone. He indicated 
*tiie OnencM or Unity of the oonrimis^ion* itself. So ever 

qiio-l TuiT Pftrui, |ari coFU«rtio fnt- 
<lili fi liuiuirb <t ptitciU^iv k<J nufr- 
dlnm ill usiluc pnrfidsdtw, c. 4, 
nm fi>Uc<n Itic luaL>Lii tnicfpolMlcn. 
— uf vthldi IkJdw. 

nhwuTbaviih cIcAmcwt Ad PEtnm 
locnEuj 9t t^Juiiuiu, III uDum* idao uL 


'since, this tangiWc bond cf the Church's unity is her one 
'united episcopitte. an Apn^tle^ship urivcrsal yet only orie — 
•the authority nf every bishop petfect m itself and inde- 

• pendent, yet not forming with .ill tho others a mere agglo- 
"mcralion of powers, but being a tenure upon a totality, like 
'that of a shareholder in some joint propert/V 

Such 15 his statement of the historic and existent con* 
dition:^ as ag^iinst the threatening .%chiain. He continues 
'The man who hold^ not this church unity, does he believe 
'that he holds the Faith .^ He who contends against the 
•Church, i,i he assured that he is within the Church? The 
'Old Testament and the Pauline teaching harmoniw with 
'the Gospel as to this unity. And the episcopate above all 
'Is bound to exert Jtself in the maintenance of its own 
"Indivisible oneness,' 

Then follows the famous and beautiful passage on the 
natural analogies of this spiritual unity. 'There is one 
'Church which outspreads itself into a multitude (of churches), 
(wider and wider in ever increasing fruitfulncss ; just as the 
^un has many rays but one only light, and a tree many 
•tranches yet one only heart, based in the clinging root; 
'pnd, while many rills flow off from a single fountain-head, 
' nlthou^h a multiplicity of waters h seen streaming away in 
'diverse direction.^ from the bounty of Jls abundant overflow. 
'k/ct unity is preserved in the head-spring. Phick a ray away 
'from the sun's body! unily admits no division of light- 
•JBreak a bough off a tree ! once broken it will bud no more. 
"Cut a rill off from the spring ! the rill cut off dries up. So 
'too the Church flooded with the light of the Lord flings rays 
*ovcr the whole world. Yet il is one light which dj6ru3cs 
' itself everywhere ; the unity uf the body knows no partition. 

* She reaches forth her boughs over the universal eaith in the 
■richness of her fertility, broadens ever more widely her 
'bounteous flowing rivers, and still there Is one head, one 

^ Epi>C9p4iuv unub ni cuJua a linpjiis in w/iduw jinn ^enetur. c. ■;, 



IV. I, 



'source, one mother, rich in ever succeeding birlhs. Of her 
■we arc born ; her milk our nurture, her breath our life/ 

Scripture^ he |>rDccecls u> thc?w. tcenift with i?xATiiple*i utd 
illuKtFTiTJon'i of (his unily. ' The Sons of Chrlsr arc ihr ^qhh 
'of his unUefiled spouse. He cirnot hive God for lii* father 
'who has not the Church for his mother.' The Ark of the 
Klood. the Scamlcaa Coat, the one Flock, the erne Howsc 
untouched in the fall of Jericho, the one ]!oU3c of the Piiwhal 
Lan>b, thcr 'one mind in the House' of iMacI, ihc Dove-like 
fonn and nature^ of the Spirit, all are parablei ilhisimtbig 
the inferences whicli we michl draw from the Kingdom of 
Nature, and Irom the Unity of the Godhead, !xs w«U ad fTom 
the direct injunctions of Christ S, Paul and S* John*. 

The application i» immediately pointed. 'There are nov 
'tho^c who wJthdniW from the Church, und biLild them alien 
* homes. This must be reeugni^rd d> the departure of alien 
' apirit!!,* 

A conception of Separatism l& now distinctly obtaiiwd^ 
' Heresy itself has its place m relation to unity in tlie economy 
' of God. It IS a testing power. It iii a pi-x-judicial acpara- 
' tion- 

'Tls proniot^rc first assume preeminence among the 
' unthinking, then holy orders, and then the <-pi*€OiKd pre- 
'fOffative, of whidi the esncntial diaracter h that U is ajTWW. 
'that it i« a tt^msmittc^ power, they take Christ'^ special 
' BIcAsiag on the United " Two or Three ' and apply it to their 
own ?wparatist twas and threes', as if the Lord meant to 
■ conimead not unity but paucity. Tlicy corrupt the Font 

' The calMiMiMii Artribuiel \o the 
Dov» to braughl Id from Tenullinn. ZV 
B^f^^ ?!, Il rfceivei inlflnting UJiu 
Ltillon from HffLtnnponf J inMnpiJCdu. 
tn ilic cvmeicTy o/0a.lli«ui iilc KohI. 
X9M.>V II. p^ la^-TAV.AXvU'— 
luviii, n. If} « itAj u ilcacribed ii 

FAi-VUDA %^1Mt FU.. Mil Id ITiC Cfypt 

of S, PlUMctv {/nHTT, CArtii. U. ^, 

iivfiiM rtL^ Comfort A/dMirf,ActJtT 
M' i.*bu1 t ainpami'livv'daad Udi 
ipdl Tanolu opprcsdnn bdllcT.' 
■ Dt Uml. te. tt—^ 


'of Baptism'— (mark here the carlicat appearance of Cyprian's 
great characteristic eTror}^*»o that ita water stains rather 
"than cleanses; tlicy erect a rival altar, they offer a rival 
'sacrifice^ but it is tl^e sacrifice of jealousy, and so their vzry 
' martyrdoms iire wretchedly not crowns but judgmenis. For 
'while a Lapse from the faith is pureed by the Baptism of 
■ Blood the religion of the Schismatic is spurious in essence, 
' not for any narrower cause but that it faiia in the first broad 
' principle of Christianity, a Loving Union with the brethren. 
'Schism is accordingly more fatal than lapsing, and the 
'5cbi«maiii:*s dealh ujider ihe persecutor is no martynJom, 
' only a penalty and a despair/ 

He comes to passing events and living pcrsonSn The 
cmment unnamed, intempcratc-tongued, confessor who has 
established a separate communion, can be none but Novatian. 

* Be that conft^sof who he may, he is noi greater, better, dearer 
"to God than Solomon onccwa«i. Vcl he retained God'sgracp 
■only so long as he trode God's path„-He js a confessorl 
'after confession the peril is more, for the foe is more pro- 
' voked. He is a confessor J The more sliould he stand by 
'the Gospclfor of the Gospel came his renown, .-h He is acon- 
■fcssorT Let him be lowly and caim, lei him l>e modest with 
■discipline in action, like thf Christ whose confessor he is. 
' He is a confessor — but not so, if afteru'ards the greatness 

• and worthiness of Christ be evil spoken of through himV 

There is here an undertone of anxiety for the fideKty 
of confessors at Urge, which exactly suits the immediate 
position of Roman alTalts, mingling with his thankfulness for 
rhe general loyalty', and echoing the personal appeals already 
cited'. He proceeds 'I would indeed, dearej^t brothers, — I 
'counsel, I urge^thai, if it be possible, not one of the brothers 
'should perish^that the joyful mother should lock to her 
"bosom one united people,' If the return of wilful leaders be 



IV. t 



hopdcis, it is sdU conceivable to him th&t the nua» of the 
niUlcd should »cc with Ihcir own eyes, aiid cxtrkatc thcm- 
Nclvc-t frotn pt?r%on;il cump]ic:»tinn*^ 

La^itly, hr rrstatc?; the nature ard obligation or unity and 
the causes which underlie disunion. 

The unity cf the Godhead, of the person of Christ, of the 
ideal church, of the faith, must be reproduced in the unity of 
the earthly congregation. Agreement \s the medium of that 
unity. Sections from the living organism muM lose vitality. 
The unity of humanky within Itidf and with God is that In 
which alone salvation consists', 

' As for the real causes of disunion, tie cri^n is not in the 
' theory of this or that tcAchcr. Li]%» of unity i-\ thi: natural 
'outcome of an age of recognised^ sanctioned, recommended 
'sell^shne^i — selfishnew which aaj^s belief and moral force 
'together, which undermires that faith whereon rest the 
'principled of God-fearing, righteousness, love and hard 
' work, and diminishes the awe of thin^ to comcV 

This wa4 penetrating doctrine ; went to the heart of thing* 
Which of the churches will master it earliest ? 

The suitabiUty of the whole argument to the crisis, and 
its effect] veneas, need no illustration. The beauty of its die* 
tion is ft 6t vehicle for the loving holiness and might of its 
spirit. It icatchcs alike t2ic deeps of the divine word and of 
the human hearl. Aj^din and agvin iLt ^lertti^HionK and its 
warnings have availed with spirits nobler than the noblest 

' Stnppei of itt hfpam ihii elinui 
(c. li) ojoljdoi ;hc Eround ofCrpiunV 
im} inil ihe Qicnce ot his dDcinncu 
!%• pimni doKMl dcDrt inuiiUiloa^ 
' kuiot Deiu at, ct ChriiAHa unu. d 
una Ktittia cjiit, a files vnp.. vx pttAt 
[unnj in aolidtm c>rporit uajutera con- 
eafi}uT (lacuio CDfiiUtL Scindi unitu 
nan poUai. iiA mipu> vnum ditciiJio 
fon[4gini« ivpanri, divulttt UcnTiontf 

■ ttiLtriM diiniBrrli tcongia vtw* ct 
njdrue Don poceill, labtljuiliiiia mLBlb 

Pift^i 9tm*, ILulcL, AUloi perhaps 

tf\ X ininrfikc fur M (Mriiuctnilii): mA 
vi y {\9tvTiV\xxk\\ n>tth«T «>. of MttJ 
nine DOMcLtftpoini- WGR ouh vad 

• «. ft 

iS6 cvrRiAK 'or hik cnitv or thk catholic ciii'rch.' 

which have iigonizcd thcfn<p[vc« into «ep^ratiooK — yes, and 
in hours of greater temptation than thein. 


7W Qttfstiffos 0ti CyprianU Unity. L Was it a (hcory cf 
Ci^Tvit^iittn <rr ff/ PciUy t Z. Dou it invoitt Rotnan Unity f 

or the Unity of the Catholic Church Cypnan ho^ been 
suffered — reverently, I hope, and Juiifully, so far as a faitbfLil 
purpose U able to represent htm — to speak for himself. 

Vet the merest outline reveah the defects as weli as the 
meriti of his marvclloLis book. 

The impossibility of hamiomzlng hb theor>-. ai it statKld, 
wiih stniic phenomena of diutch history is owing tn its non- 
devdojtement of onr e5*ipnEial principle. 

The distinction between a Visible and an Invisible Com- 
munion upon earth did not present itself to him — still Less 
the true incorporation with the Visible Church itself of mem- 
bora not entirely nound, Wc arc not called upon to dilate 
on a topic which has engaged Hooker', but we mu<t notice 
that it is this same deficiency which in his next great crisfa 
placed Cyprian himself in some danger of separatism. 

Dut there arise two further questions which demand 
candid answers. 
y I, Wiu* Cyprian's view of the Chorch as one whole with 
one proper and characteristic fiovernirenf a sinceie doctrine? 
Had he received '\i> Had it been a rcaJit>' to earlier 
Christian thoughts Or, was it only the justification of hia 
practical polity, a tissue of the ingenious suggestions point 
by p*Hnt of ^1 difficult position ? 
y 3, Did this theory of Unity rtst on, contain^ or logically 

> &r/</WK^U. III. 






lead up to A recognition ot a central church authority in the 
Roiran or Potriiic sec ? 

The quefttions are of moment apart froth their interest. 01- 
tbcir bCftrinf; or\ Cyprian's honcst>* ftnd on his forc*?i£iit, 

Tlic first enquires whether C>'prian w^s an Expounder 
or iin Inventor of the Oneness of the Church. 

The second enquires whether Rrtman Supremacy wa*i an 
outcome of hli teaching on that Onenes*. 

Before Ihc fomjct tiucstion can be well answered wc miwt 
know whether the word Ei^Ifsia had Lniil now described only 
the individual congregation — or. if more, more only by trans- 
ference. If that were 30, the Cyprianic theory was novel— 
not more than an engine against Novalisn. If it were not 
so, the course of tlic enquiry would probably reveal the 
principle on which Oneness was atlrihiutnl to Aa Itli^^l more 
complex or more abstract than that of^panshcv' 

Now a review of Cyprian's few writing* before the Deeian 
persecution 1$ enough to shew in the first instance that the 
idea then conveyed in the word 'Church' wn^ not limited to 
the mdividual congregation, cither with or without its chief 
pastor. That name h fruin ihe fir^t u»cd equally and williout 
diKtinction of the Congregation, of the Dioce*e, and of the 
Whole Body of the Faithful. It is not the ca»c that the 
former seniles arc earlier in Cyprian than the latter 'Ihc 
latter sense also appears without effort and without explana- 
tion, a:i familiar to all. 

Thus in the First Book of Testimonies, the Church is ihe 7ht. L 
New People in contrast with tlie Jewish, It t* the Barren ^ J^^ 
Mother of Old Testament figure^ proving more frailful than 
the fruitful wife. It is the Sara, the Rachel, the Hannah, 
whoie son* arc t>'pes of the Christ, It is "She who hath 
borne the Seven Son:s»' for it wa,i to Seven Churches that 
St ?;(iil wrote as well as St John. In this one pa^oage two 
of rhc senses ?^nd clearly nut. 

In the Second Book the "Church' \i the ' Spouse of Christ." Ji. 19. 


ir.Kj. Inthe'Dress of Vir^lna/ the virgins themselves arc 'th« 

gloHouji fruitbeuring of the Mother the Church.' 
fft V. 1& / 'The Church had been plantcii ard founded upon Peter,' 
^^„^ In thcac three pa^^agci the larger sense alone is possible. 

£>. lOi^ In the loth Icltcn ' liappy is our Church' means ^pecifi* 
call/ the Clnirch of Carlhage ; but in tht- very first letter the 
word U used in both the lir*tt and secord of the three senses. 
A certain rule of clerical discipline Mn the Church of the 
Lord,' which had been laid down in a Council of earlier 
bbhopa. is mentioned in the same passage with the direction 
that certain ofl'cnders are not to be prayed for 'in the Church,* 
that is Iii the congregation. In the srune epistle, Clerks are to 
have their time free from private business to serve ' the Altar 
and the Church.' just as in the 3rd (so numbered) tt is said 
that the disobedience of Deacons to thcfr Presbyter leads to 
the Toriahing of the Church and the aubstitutton of b 
profane Altar/ 

In the ^nd letter the Christian who has to give up his 
profession as a. Dramatic Tutor is maintained by ' the pro- 
vision" and "at the charge** of tSir Church; seemingly the 
local church to which he belongs, hut is urged to "ieam 
' saving things withn tfic Cknrt^fi instead of teaching dcathful 
'things outside the Church.' 

Il cannot be said then that the use of this word in 

/ the scn?ic of 'Congregation' or 'Diocese 'is earlier than its 

/ aggregate sense, and it is needless to point out how, in some 

^s^^ of these rnstances, the eye sees in the Diocese the true image 

^v^nd life of the whole. 

It is simiUrly fmpowtWe to say that tlie earliest idea was 
that of the pkbcs apart from its governing body. It is no 
J/-6i.i.v 'definition' when Cyprian writes ' Thi C/mrdt. that is the 
■plcbes established in tht Chunk, faithfully and firmly per- 
' severing in what it has believed.' It is no definition, for the 
word to be defined actually recurs within it, and forms part 


Ep* I. >. 






of ihc dctirtition ^o-callcdV The question icmairs * What i» 
the Church within whtch the /jV^ U thus est^ibliflhcd^ U 
it an unorganized, undisciplmcd, uomled aggre^te of ifuli- 
viduala? On this the jrd (ao numbered) letter is significant £/-j 
enough when it say* that the Apostles constituted the 
Deacons 'to be the ministers of their own Ii^itcupau and of 
the Church/ This imagined Definition' has in it nothing 
which is mconsistcnt with other words which really boltrnj^ to 
the same period—' they are the Church— a Convmons united £/^ 
to a Bishijp — a Flock clinging to itd Shepherd.' 

In the 4th letter, one of liis very earliest, we find an //.V 
exposition of which the h;irdncw ami dcfmitcjies* is never 
again exceeded - if they refuse to be pure in life ;ind hjibiC,V ' 
' they cannot be readmitted to f/ie CAurck ; they carnoC count \. 
'on life and fi^nlvation if they will not obey the Bishops, In / 

' the old Law he who would not obey the PrJcat wm slain / 
' with the temporal nword. To be cast out of the Churcli now / 
'is to be slain with the spin'tual sword. For outside the / 
' Chufch they c;tnnoC livCf JKasmtich as the Hi>jiSf of God is j 
' Ow, end nc ofu can ^ sofs bnt in the Chunh,' f 

In the 3rd Book of Testimonies wc reiid. ' Schinm not to Tmu 
'be madcpevcn if he who departs rcmfiin tn the one Faith and 
'tlic same TradiLiooV 

1l is thftn uncritiesl and unhii;tori'cal to suppose that th< 
thouffht of the aggregate Church rose brer on Cyprian's 
mild, or grew up gradually out of the idea of the individual 
Churclin From the first it was impossible not to aee titerally 
coeh in the other It is also equally uncritical to think 


%^t\ ActMllj' prop»M, on i«couni of 
the fUpt"M*d liniplidtf uA Abacncc «f 
oTpniBidoD iwplkil In vW be b 

iTiMpdK tbit «piiilc phi! |ituie il 
■inufi^ tbe c&rlicat IdLoa licfuji Uie 

chUCmeiuip Ifanrone miuMedvi dar# 
ktcv tbu t dv t« thi* jid Book- 5c« 
pH \y &ol ic it cicu Chax thJt ii a 
Cvncnl pTECcpc dq ttbiso, nd hu no 
Td«Knc« to KovituiuoD, lad » ibn>«^ 

■Kwld nut hive ^ILuv^i thu Nonului 
f rnuinci) ' in in* «n« rntJiLUB/ 


thai there ever wa* a time when the Church was contem- 
plated apart from ita MinLiterirg Rulers or they from it. 
Erich ag«(in was essential to the other. With the passage 
from ihc 4U1 rpisilc before us, il is impossible lo conccK'c 
thai the Church appeared to Cyprian to have ever carried 
itself on or subsisted without its episcopal order— or ever to 
have been an>'thing but a Unity. 

We have ^ccir before^ what the Bishop was to his own 
Congregation and 'Diocese/ Was there anything which for 
the whnle Church Catholic corresponded to the Bishop's 
position in respect of his own Diocese? The Cyprianic 
answer is absolutely clear: — What the Bishop was to his 
own Dioceae that the whole united Body of Bishops was to 
the whole Church. 

When, in his one sarcastic letter — and sarcastic indeed 
it is — Cyprian writes to Florentijs Puppiiinns, *The Church, 
'which is ■* CATHOLIC, o?«E," is fiot split nor divided but 
' 13 certainly knit together arid compacted by a urn^t of 
'Bishops fast cleaving each to each othcrV this grotesque* 
ncss may put more forcibly, but does not express more 
siibstan lively, the ground which is i^^umed in the earlieat 

In the isC epistle — The Church Law forbidding clerics to 
engage in secular business 'had been long ago dcrtermined 
"in the Council of the Bishops" ; "the Bishops, our prcdc- 
'cessors, religiously considering and soundly providing for 
"this, eiacted &c.' ; 'thai so the decree of the Bishops, rcll- 
•giously and needfully passed, may be ubserved by u^/ 

More palpably still than single phrases can state it, the 
Roman presbytera assume, in the 8th letter, that in the 

' Ep. <56' ft i^liaiicId eccLesU ^vx 
'colliolii^a una' uT ^cavx nan f,il nfipip 
4inu, wJ iJT i]tif|uc tfoncKA ct eoliK 
jGiilnuuffLi lav(ceFDui:e(<iolLi[i] /r^ti/tto 
copliiB, Thr aiuhortiy (or 'cachoUca 

■hih' wIlhouE t/ i^ condudve ; nm^ for 
ilws jrasiTriH mill bccnusc 11 ifr a^suinal 
l/wtf fur^ us Ihtf ErtHind for fleducrion, 
1 Inke h ta be metinE ns a iiaoUition 


abKACc of both Bishops the t«wo chuKhcs have to maintain 
the brotherhood of mutual counncK 

la the 3rd (vo Tiiimbc*rr4l) — An indtvidti;!! Rishop having 
laid before xhe body of BUhops ji complaint against a Deacon 
of hij; own, * reply speakit of ' the Apostles, that iS 
the Bbhops and Prelates' — a dcscriptiom of a united college 
surely, if words can describe one 

Lastly — to go no furthci — the great decision is postponed 
uniil all the Bi-ihops of Afric:i can :i?»<ipmble and make sure 
of acting in Harmon/ with the Bishops of Italy. 

The College of Bishops, then, is the ver^- form and sub- 
.^tarce of the inherited free ^vemmcnt, advising by resolu- 
tion, commanding by mutioal consent, yet not c\'cn when 
unatiimouH coii^training d ninglc di-^uenCient bi-thop*. A:^ the 
Nicene Fathers did not make but formulated the Nicene 
Faitlu so the characteristic of Cyprian, hi* merit a« some 
venture to think, i« the clear outlining and distinct GXpre«sion 
which he i^ave to the principles which he found in uac, and 
the stcdfastncss with which he worked the eodc and Mibmttted 
lliiitwflf tt> il. His chjract en's lie reward was iht^ inynhy nf 
thov« who felt his loyalty to them, — felt ir rendered because 
they were BUhops in council, though evidently not hi* peers 
in learning or in policy. 

If then the V\m Question be. Did Cyprian create hi3 
theory of government in the Church in order to solve his own 
problems f the answer is that it w^s far older than Cyprian, 
although in him k was lit and fired by that *en*e of Love 
and feeling ;ifler Unity which seemed to Augustine the most 
special chaiactcrisitc of the man*. y 


' Se« CirpfiAo'i tpfach on a)i«nin|[ 
the acvcblh Canncslh 

■ Hliacht'k Ijutvdible fcmulGt gn 
Ihk cbantber failing been pot on, inA 
ttiumrd ty Crpri^u u ■ men weapon 
and HKVUirntni. inujrlit r«ail im ihcuri* 

4# ihav erilidnu ibM th«y Eora bin 
to pkoe tb« A^rH «piMl« «v<7 Mffy (kc 
^ JS9 n^)i bccaiBe the nniplkily uf 
ir> Ung<iag« on thr Churth ■ppvwi to 
hua irLOonmicni with Ci'pmftU Ulor 

pUcrd thp artiAt Eplviln uid ihe 


/Our Second Question was. Did the theory of Cyprian I 
demand or lead up to or suggest a single Centre; of Church I 
Government — .it Rome or elsewhere ? ■ 

Rome CQold not but be a centre of thought and fcclinf. m 
^. It Wii» fi«t merely the laigcsl, rfchc^t oi atrongi^t city, II I 
was the head of the civilised world, with & practical reality of ■ 
power and fitness unattributablc to and unimaginable of any fl 
other head before or sine«. Was the Christian Church in ii ■ 
similaHy not only the foremost churcti, but was it the head I 
of the world-Church which was already in existence? I 

We need not stay to enquire whether Cappadocia, Anlioch, V 
Jerusalem cuidd so regard it — but was it such to the West? " 
was it such even tu Carihage? Princfpafis^ Ecdtsia it was. 
y It had a lofty undeniable primacy antong aU churches which I 
/ believed it to be the Foundation of Saint Peter, and to I 
\ have in it S. Peter's CaOudra, ascended by his aucccsaor*- V 
\ Certainly not less veneration could attach to it than to the 
SAlcxanJri^ of S. Maik, or ihc Hphesus of S. John — say 
eVen more — but was it of a different kind or order* 

Did the theory of Cyprian either in itself, or as embodyiUK 
y the Western feeling, whatever this was, towards Rome, sug- 
^ gcst that this sec was a centre of aNih^rity or j'ttrisdurtimt to 
the Churdi at large? We have seen how each Bishop wa» 
held to be a centre of authority and fountain of jurisdiction 
to hi* diocese. Did the theory of the Onttifss of the Church 
involve that there should be One See whose influence em- 
braced all other sees analogously? that there should be a 
Bishop of Bishops ? 

The only passible answer is that this conception, so fai' 
from being verified or supported by Cyprian's tlieorj'. contra- 
dicts that theory, hat overthrown it in practice, and lends to 
obliterate it. 

THiinonlH {which irrr net at all tit Vmt 5 the wijrrl" from nf^a \c ttrt^ 

'4iinf^* in hl« ^enH pciy lat*. He ruM/df are a latw mterpolfllion- 
{■ compelled fiirlhei 10 uaKrt [f- ^4) ' Cjp. Ep. f,<^ I4- Sec J/pttttlU 

vithnut ■ vfuligr at antharity rhaC in 00 Pritift^iu Brtttiia, p. ^^^. 




1. We SEhall pr^ently sec in detail ihn in order to ftdapt 
even the very bnguagc of Cyprian in the pa-iMigc vrhtch they 
thought the oiofit fdvour.tblc to tiictr pretensions, the papal 
apologists have framed, and at all hazards, and ajjcaiiist (evi- 
dence futl And understood, have itedf;i^tly m:A£nt4iiied the 
groiue«t forgery in litcracnre Without the inscrcion of iheir 
phrases the paasaf^e means fojtiethini; palpably dilferent. 
This docs not look aa if C'yp'i«ti^ here had ever been felt to be 
OQ their ft[dc> 

2. Docs Cyiniflii\ practice exemplirj- the Koinan theory? 
Wr <hatl see how the siibscquent history' of hU intercouree 
with thL- Roman «ce exhibits him Kometimcii, as we KhDuld 
say, rightly in convict with it. fiofnctimcs wrongly; but in 
conrtiel almotit always — cxhortinjc the Roman bishop, re- 
buking him or making excuses for him, or a^surinj^ him that 
he had r:«co[nrnimic4t(r<] hrmnclf by hi.^ vain thrcaUof excuni* 
municatirg oihcr;— ohrying him neve^^ 

3. But it may perhaps be said, ttiat t^cat men and saints 
are not alw&ya consistent, that hi^ priictice may bav-e been 
inferior to his thcor>", or even contradictory. 

The answer to ih'w is that the very mention of the supre- 
macy of one PonlilT or the universality of one jurisdiction, is 
the precipe eoTilrar>" of the Cypri-inii: *t;itcmimiv The form 
of (government for the whole Church which these enunciate is 
tiiat of n Body— its whole episcopate. This ia a Represcnta* — ^ 
tivc Body. Us members, appointed for life by free election, 
represent each one diocese'. They give their judgment by 
sutfra^^. They have no power of dele^^ition. for Christ 
constituted i^rm to govern, — not toappomi governor* Purity 


* Cj^. M^^ 6«- ». 31 r> i\ 11- 
trrrniit|3. ,^ 4. 17**. »S 
' Thb \\ Hi» Id* itic CJJC whoever 

laiiva of KcprdcaUUvo. Appoiol 

linl iBod«J. PicAbyi«n not tielng pro- 

pf rip in^vivnuii^ fif lh«it coagriBa- ~ 
liont' Cooplioa by alW llialop* U 
illU leu utitfo^Loiy. fl-hitff <1if only 
imolvriMv plin '\ ihil «f Ihtir «p- 
poiviiTifnl by one iBptnar of tfa*ir 
iiftii iirikr affiuiatnl b; • Ebv «f 



of cfinduct was essential to the continu;*nce of any cneof them 
in his authorityV No minonty among them couJd be over- 
borne hy a majority, in a matter of administration, even 
■though it were 30 grave a question as that of Rebaptism. If 
all but one voted one way, that one coulti not be overruled in 
the tlirection of his diocese. 'These cons i derations, deer 
•brother/ writes Cyprian in the name of his^xth Council, *we 
'bring home to your conscience out of regard to the Office 
'\V2 hold in common and to the simple love we bear you, 
'We believe that you too, from the reality of your religious 
"fccling and faith, approve what is religious as wdl as liuc 
* Never ihelcss we know there are those who cannot readily 
■part with pnnciplcs once imbibed, or easily alter a view 
•of their own, but who, without hurting the bond of peace 
'and concord between colleagues, hold to special practices 
'cncc adoptf^d among them — and herein we do no violence 
'to anyone and impose no law. For in ihr administration of 
'the Church each several prelate ha^ (he free discretion of his 
•own will— 'having to account lo the Lord for hie aclionV 
The prelate who is thus allowed the same freedom as the 
rest of his order in governing hh own diocese is Stcphanus. 
Bishop of Rome, No protest of his in answer claimed the 
right lo direct all or any of the rest. 

'!t remains for us to deliver each our judgment on the 
'particular question,' so said Cyprian, opening the seventh 
of his Councils, "without judging any, without removing 
'any from our communion, whose judgment may differ from 
'our own. None of us constilutts himself a bishop over 
.'bishops, or makes it imperative for his colleagues to obey 
'him, through any despotic awe, inasmuch as ever>' bishop 
'by leave of his freedom and office, has a free scope of 

* S/^ A;, j ' I'lO^Lci quod pkte Ipsa oiuiuic hAbcpI potcifntcm vcL 
9^3fif«UHJ prE^eptEs utominicii ct Dnm «lieaiiii ^iignns «c«nioti?L< Vf] indignru 
nttU«lLt I ^fa/frf prafeJite \k. epiK- neuiandi,' CF. £/. 6S- 3, 


'hU own, and can no more be judged of ftnctber than he 
'can himfielf jud^^e another. We mujct sill Alike aw^^it the 
'judgment of our Lord Jesus Chmt, who alone by Himself 
'hath the cffice (/vUsfas) of promoting us in the ^vcrn* 
' mcnt of His Churchy and of judging our course af acCionV 

4- In what then consisted in effect the unity of a bcdy 
so coniititulcd ^ It was a practical unity, a moral unity, held 
together by its own sense of unit>\ by 'the cement of mutual 
concordV A.* problems arose they were to consider them 
each by ilscif. The fir5t thing was that they should, with as 
deliberate cdnMiflJilion ^b could be had, ntate their several 
opinion-^ whhour favour or fear. 

If we consider what great effects were produced, what far- 
re^Lching and endurinj^ remits were secured, through the mere 
exercise and utterance of thi» moral, or spiritual judgment, 
by men whose divine commission was airrply io use tbi*, 3it\6 
to express this, we may perhaps think (hat ah incessant 
complaining of the unwillingness of imperial aasembllei to 
discus's decide and give effect to church measures, h at 
leaat not pHmUively church-[i]<c. The periods in which 
the Church Ha:c worked its will upon us through civil rule nic 
not limes of impressive apirituality. The immcanurably 
higher en thusi^LMu -ind stronger effectiveness which has at- 
tended its mt^ral judgments under governments as hostile, or 
a» surly, or as Indifferent as merv politicians could with 
governments to be towards realty Christian maltcrs, might 
encourage the faith of modern churchmen in the value of 
their one undisputed prerogative. 

A bi-shop could not then resist their united voice without 
hardihofid, but U he did, he wja undsaatl^iblc utile** viciou*- 
ncss or false doctrine were patent tn his life or teaching. In 

luLonol durHlAi of the bodv, hvt not 

(if iu «ctk«i-'Bhkb *• whftE h itvUy 

13— a 



that c^tse the all^iance of hi^ flock was to be withdrawn. 
He was to be regarded (says the African primate, with a strong 
local colounng] as a brigand chief who had got possession 
of a caravanserai'. 

The divine reality of such their unity hati been taught 
typically in the respective charges of ihe t^rd to Peter and 
CO the Twelve^ The authority and power committed is the 
same to each several apostle. But for the sake of shewing 
(such is Cyprian's interpretation) ihat many apostles did not 
make many churches, but one only, therefore the first decla^ 
ration of the foundation of a universal Churcli is couclied 
in language acidressed to one only — S. Peter, For that one 
occasion the words are to one, but the meaning is for ever 
to all. 

As nothing limited it in space, but the authority bcIonEi:cd 
to all the apostlca, wherever they went, so in time also, after 
they were departed, nothing limited that authority to Peter's 
successors among the succc!>sors cf them all. Though the 
charge to Peter appears among the earliest of Cyprian't 
Christian ideas^ as does also the obedience due to bishops*, 
yet Peter's successors are nowhere mentioned or hinted at by 
Cyprian as necessary to the Church's Unity', But the sue- 
cessfjra of the other Apostles ate And of them it is said thai 
the power given by Chri^^t to them, in equal measure with 
S, Peter, passed on to the churches which they established, 
and to the bishops who everywhere succeeded them", 

A headship attributed to the successors of one amon^; 
them would simply ruin at once the whole theory of the 


* Sec Cjitaia or pouogc^ on \ht 
tJnEty fnxD TL-lrf. hfrtp. 197^ 

* £^- 4- 4k *hcfc ihr tpiritual siyon! 
is describcJ In brab drxdly Lo llic&|jjut 
A^ \hc oiritehAl s'noiA xv^s li^ llle liff of 
ftnj vbo Jisobeyed ihe ancicol high 


■ TUiA ItitKhl hiiatclf caafiruci. It 
will be biudciMDod thai he ^\xy% Lhi* 
diuigi*roiH|[BniPormiiintainlng jjrethyv 
EcriiLDiint mpiinil cpisropacj, hy trriB[; 
\M HiUlJc Cyt>iivi]*i rpihcupvty wild 
the p:ipaf:y its ii* nrci'Miiry itFriuciion' 

'^ Sfi. ji. 16, %cc CaUna bclcw. 


unity iiQcl of the authority whfch subsisted in the ft^hyitm 
ctfrpus stMtrdotum — the fphetfatut untts, ipiscopomm piH/0rum 
(•(mcorJi ftum^rositau diffusus^ . And this u Cypnan'w theory. ] 

5- Yd again, as that Body might not nilc any one 
Bishop, it ro1]ow3 a Jcrticri that any one Hbhop could not 
rule that ISody. It ia plain that such pretension could never 
be set up without violating the principle and essence of 
Cyprijin^a tJitory, This theory cuutd not even cixrxi^t witli 
the theory of a ijominant centre. The two views arc mutuallv^J 

A fiin^iloT ffttc overtook two strorp sentences of the early 
Latin fAthcrAn It is comprehensible how the sentence of 
Cyprian could be vivisected and injected vbith corruption liU, 
as we find It, it seemed to yield ;i «ense cmilrary to JwV^ 
original forc«, and to the context, and to the whole scheme 
of the treatbe. and to the leading; idea of ttu author. Uut, 
that Tertullian'i scornful parody of some Bishop of Rome's 
assumption — 'P^ntifex scilicet maximus, quod e^t ffisatpus 
/puayieinitKt /j/rViV,' — should have worked round into be* 
coming the actual title and style of hU successor, exhibits a 
feat of tliat brilliant imagination which even iUclf could 
nc\'cr have realised. 


[a^. 24SL Pctru» ciMtm cuL ovci mai Dominut puc<ndju tucndiuquc 
oommendar, lupa qurni pcauic ri fundavjt ecclcvum, uiriun 
quidcm ct ar^gcnium »ibl «tM ncicat,... 
A rfccrorloJ owtiA>t <if ihc £mU Id UaiI. ktI' viJ A<t« iii nol \rf iUilf 

IcachJuv tliv quotiA uf Vntljr.) 

4.D.3ii- Prubsib r^l ad l^drm fACi]K> compcndio vciiuu'a. Loquitui 
Domlnus ad Pctjuin: *«g« tihi cU«o' inquil 't\M\^ tu a P«iiti« 
'ci *upcr innm pctram 7di6c4Lbo cctlcsi*ni mc*in, t% potiK 
■ inffronjo non viacent cnm. Dabo libi cUvm r«gni cvlonim ; 

• tft Cfpfian tUa thoutfal uiJ tbe»c Cf. JF/. M- ^ 
ivorili we \T^ pmrtntil flov. Rut Ef^ * TtrL dtr AiAJ£ 1. 


'<! qax l^pvcrts raper icmm trmtti Ugu% et in ca^Ja, et 
'q— nimrtnr Mtrem toper ivrram «niAt sohlft M in crii*.' 
A]Afmi«a< jEdificat c«k?ijj[\ a qcumvU dfAuaisfij muu^bj 

'Skut niaii ULQ patcf ci c^ ciUlo rof. A«)fiiE« Sfuritiun 

'Sftsdun : si cuiw iiBiiMffsiii pccciu, rvmutentur illi : n 

; 'c^^jua tcauvritis tcncbuntnr.' Umcti ii anit^Um M^ntSftsiartt, 

I amiuHi c^iilcm origtatm ah ti*t^ in^^inttm «ua Aiicuh- 

I iA«r*r 4b mniiaSt proficiKitaf » »/ €<tii*i^ Ckriiti in»a acaw tMaT' 

^MuipTTi EEur be Uk t^luc of Lhc veumcdC or iUkuUivkm, ili«v cut in lUi 
lu grouJAr tn&p« ht n^i dotbt &i (o (hr B>C4nmc of clir piimcr- The Apnda 
a* «J1 audv v^oal in honooi ad pvivei hj our Lml'i eonmiiikA* Sisp^ to 
dccbrc the uAJir of Ifb Ourcb, H^ ihe lint time tLii f Ic £i«ti thM oommlwiw^, 
elvcill ia one- Aflcnrvdji he nrfwflij [h< ume cDnnolaloa (u C^iiiui under- 
Mood 10 if> k]L Th« iv^^ umAhii*. «f unjLy ftCtrU [/rQiC<TfriiflM>^ Inn oi u * 
diAriifBiKllun ur JenaatLraliwi {m^/u/nt^rti. nvtmtrtiuri tA Mniiy. 

The HUDt tetdilng bJcnUcallf ai'pcan, w;lh grc^a or las camprariart, b«l 
wkhnovuutioaDf Ldca, in tU DCh*E reference Iq nhoni>(wrTf addreuv^i j ufcUwa 

^' 4J' 5- A'D'SJOl {Plfdi Uftiver/a). Dcus Chiistus^nus ct mMtitU$M 
rt iathetira una mptr tttntm S)omint vitf^ fundata. 
Tbd unity it hnv infcurvd hvm the /-vnTr r-viW speaking to Fclfi aIqiic, M Id 
l!bnli k the y\ U^iiaK iiublLhcJ ihc jou afici ^L clr ;«mc pUcc 

^.45.3. A-U-i}'. {CorruUo Fralrf}. Hoccnimvcl)Tiaxime,frarcT,eiUboramiiiei 

bbomre dcbcmus uE urfilatcm a Df^mino cC/i^ apostolffs nobh 
sUi£Cssuribui iroiiiiam, [not j/o^jj wot p^ Pefrum lajr^rsSfrtAus, 
but (0 the bishops :i3 ^uccocdiJij^ (o (hat equal authofity of 
thi: apustlca) i^uantuui pos&uujus ohtiucrt; curcmiiui, a. quod in 
Tiubis cut j>aUbun<Us «t errantcs oves, ,,m ^trUsia e^Uigamus. 

Cp*^^ IV B iC^neiiif Frittri). Communicniioncm tuara id cit otthoUcj; 
udisia vnUaf^m pariter ct mrifaUm [a- b, nut AoHortm or 

j^ 15. 8- AJX 15X. [Antonf^Ho Frairf). Hic kc of Rom« ii Faiiart/ i4ati>,Jo£Us 

Sf.^1. \\ » {VarTttU& J-'ra/rf). Petius lamen super quern a^dilicata ab 
codcAi DuiiiuiLi fucidt ccdcaia, uftui pro otnmiits ifft/uejn:, ci 
mUsia vc£4 retpondens ait, * Domme, ad quern Lmu^?' 

■ 4> ,1 T, ...ct nd I'ctn cathcdram atque id ecclesiaui pnncipnlcm $iifdf 
mtl'ltu saieniai nil's i^orin isi. 
/^tftf, NL AD. 1j4- {Fl/frtntin fui ft Pu^lam Fratri). On aimv piagt ns f/, ^. 7 
^ad qucm ihiman &c* loquitur illic Pctrus super iiucm xdifi- 
cau fucmt ecd^^siu, ucUsia nftminr dacens. 







71- J- A.n.?55, (^lux/^/Vjf/n^ referred Id is £j|k 73 ^/^^'M0,;>d/r;'). Vyi*n%n 

htn •hftH> vSaI drdu^lion I» noi to be dnwri ftOiu fbc coEnmUiLoa vf our t#onl' 

Nfun ncc Fcirat, qaem primuici DconinuK rifgtt ci tupcr qucm 

sediftcAvitocclesumtuam, cutn tecum Pau)uftdis<:cpurel,vin. 


poiJui oporicf C'». 

/-K Pvl»r did flri/ drav (he inffrcofv of bit prmiAcy from thv &ct «4 h» hI«c- 

lion Kf be ihc *0Ti|io' or 'eioiiJium' of unity* 

7J. f. A.U. 236. {jfuhaiiiN^ J-ralft). Mkmic&tam ciC auEcm ubi CI per ^u/tt 

rvmiAjpA pcuAtorum ditii poifhic, qux in baptiimo iciliccC 

ddtur. Nam /V/f^t ftrimvm Ilormtniit, Eupcr qiiem fdlficavit 

ccdctlfuii^ c( tinJt tinittUii ^rigimni insfUn^i <t asiffndit% 

pcTnTaiem islam d<r(lTl u: id MlvrrrtUT [in t«rri%J qiinci \\\v 

lolvisacL. OC post rcaurrvcti'^ncm qvoquc a^i nftfuU'h*! loqLiLtur 

(liccns 'iicut rci\s\x n\f patrr et rgn mltto voi.' hoc cum 

diKiMClr ivpiravii CI sax. iUis 'nCL^jpite spinium tnnctum, ai 

cujiu rvmtirrltjft prccata....' unde intfJleginiii^ non nUI in 

/itmtatfi lifjr^ bjipriMff-.. 
Ib manner pffcivlj ptrilkt (q the /Jf UmMTt \\c infctt that whul ivA* Ar$i uU 
lu upt Lb (iilH^ri iifunitr VAt jiAt-twukritB »kl iv til to tlicir chMUr tA auUwrily— 
ird Eo n^inff hut ibvrn- 

75- 16. A.DL Ji6. {FirmiH^ims Cjpritmti Fratri), Qunib vcfo crtor »k te qiinniA 
Cft<itateju4 qui rcinisiioncm pcccatorum dicii spud syQngdgOfl 
h^-reilconim datri po!E%e, nee permanet in fundrnt^nh unia« 
<ccle« ^un |p*mcl a Chrt>to luper petravn PtolidAiJ c«i, hinc 
InicUcgj potcii quud scN Ptiro ChrJslui dwcrii 'quxcmiii^Lic 
hgAv«H>, ...* et iicrum la evangetio Jquando] In s&hr a/tpxfaiot 
inaiifllarii Clt:i»tu» tlicciia *«c<ipitc ^piiitum ftLUicCum^ tk 
cojufl-.' potest^ ergo pcccatorum rtmilicfidorutn afonolit 
data cat ct taifjiii ^mhu illi a Chriito inU«i conttituemat et 
/fiiuajirt ^i fit flnfi/uifffiitf t-i^arfji rVfV/rf/rkn/. 
tint timiljirly rmiillkn (wlio at ii wetU known cchcxs Cjrpilui to ibc l«ueT> 

luld* Ihe volar » Ptt« to he Ihe lokm of unil/, und the pD*m in be slured by 

tiM tpoitlcs, the chuTcbc* md Ihc ncccatJvc bidwpt alJ ftlik«. 
17. A'P- f J& ..^bnnc lam aptrtnin et irunifnlatn Slrphkni ntiilfitUm i\\iaii 
qui tic (ic cpiacopaU* sui loco iclariiitur ce k succoiiorcm 
PciTi tcnrrc concondtr, super qucm fundamrniJi «i^]fci» crrilo- 
cata sunt, innluu olijts pctfO-S hducnt et ««1c»inrum muTianiin 
novA ^i^rja cranimuiii dum »ic kIMc bAjiiitma »xi« sue- 
toritalt defend it* 
f^. The prvicnr lii«hop of Hnme, .V^qcAiwiv. whe «o pridn hbnidf on his 

uoeanou ocriGctt Fht prrro^iivD uf kiiRictl atvl ill aihcr Trne biiJiop* by 

rvGopuMBC bofitwa cxicin&l lu tl]« chvrcEi and iheni^ 



Th» Appeal cf tht modern Chunk t^f RofHt (q Cyprian 4m *Tht 
(JmtjFoJ thf C&i/ufiic Church'— l^ k^ of Inr^rpoiatUn. 

f Nol withstanding its somewhat technical character, I can- 
not but present this strange matter as part of the oontinuou* 
narrative of Cyprian's ' Life and Work' The conception of 
his formative mflucncc on the Church of Christ would be at 
once exaggerated and incomplete without dome account taken 
of an immL^n^e power cUTmed in his name, and cxcrci*nl 
thrDugh the shadow of his name, by men and societies who 
have DO act or real word of his to sliew on thdr side 

In the year 16S2 the Galilean Church helfl that celebrated 

assembly which affirmed their ancient Liberties, and described 

in The Four Articles the iimita of papal authority. Yet, as 

Boisuet in the most eloquent perhaps of hb haran^^iies bad 

discnurscd to them. *Thc object of that assembly was Peace' 

—Peace with Innocent the Eleventh. "Conserver rUnit<?' 

was the guiding thought of Bossuet's lifc\ Their Synodical 

Letter* therefore, addressed to the whole French hierarchy^ 

pKfaccd its protest against that pontiffs usurpations with 

p" ft confession of their duty to his Sec. Tliat duty was cslab- m 

\ liahed and acknowledged by words borrowed from CyprianS I 

\ fourth chapter on Unity— the printed test. I 

It is difficult to exaggerate the effect of those words even 

amid the universal indignation which then possessed court, 

Church and people. The aiitJiority of Ihat primaeval voice 

was once more as conclusive as it had now been for some 

centuries- Ilwa^ alleged a& conducive, and t^^s alleged alone. 

And yet the great orator of Meaux, amid his own array 


' SemiDa prftcW [9 Nov- rfiBi) \ 


' I,«Etrv ^c ]*u4cmb]^c i5u Cleigij dc 
fiancBH LcnucEii i6Si,A Com let Prdlnu 




of inconclusive authorities, forbore to iriAi^hal tbb capital and 
decisive text. 

That vrry year thcrt apprarH the n«rw English •Miilion 
Trom which that text was omitted. 

The woTds arc spuftou*- The history of their interpola- 
tion may be distinctly traced even now, and it is as slnf^ular 
M their controvcnial importance h^ been unmeasured It is 
a histoiy which well may mal;c K the most inlcrc?iting of 
Htwar>" forgeries. But the UltramoHtane i* still iirconvinced. 
and as he may long remain so, we lay the evidence before 

The eloquent Mgr Kreppel, Bishop of Angerjs late Pro- 
fessor at the Sorbonne, — in which capadty he delivered his 
course of lectures on Saint Cypriiia, repeat.^ the contention 
that the (sivin^ of thi! keyfi fo Peter and the charge to feed 
the flock U 'the charter of invei^titiire of the papacy,' and in 
support of it aaks lcav« " to place under our eyes this remark- 
able pa5sa|:e' of Cyprian. 'Whatever difficulty criticism 
'may raise on the authenticity oF such or such a word in 
'particuUr* iIoeH not afirct the argument. 'Wc havr a right 
'to maintain a reading which has «uch numerous and such 
'antieot testimonies for itaeifV 

I quote Ihi* merely as a clear statcmert of the position 
which Romish argument ha^ taken and ^till takes us to the 
parage and as to its value as it stands^ It is easy to allege 
that 'CypTian only repeats here what he says so many times 
ebewtiere/ but the tenacity with wlifch tins place in reprinted 
and repeated betokens well enough the mfs^ving as to the 
other passaf*6s bcinf; capable of enduring; the required mean- 
ing without the comment of thi^ fabrication*p 

pd, Ptof. k U FjKbllc (Ic Thcolupc dc 
Pull lad} (Coun ta.\t i h .SoritonncL 

« See ftlw ProT. HwlcT. $< J., SS^ 
fMmm Ofmx, i. p. ;«. 

■ M«p1 old copies of Cjpmn hew 
witactt IP iJic apUtkiit vf ^^liiil otu 
rhnv rJqaw*. Bmidfr pt« oHialli' it ■ 
Huu (V«a*C. i7|fl}| «o«n« liB« uc 
CTuoJ jtnd rcTeiencci placed ai the 
•McL A Piin^l^ clua thmnfhoui 


The ' Dumcrous and ancient Testimonies' consist of (i) 
the ^ittofis which contain thL^ |>as!£ages, and the manmcri^ts on 
which ibcy arc supposed to rest (2) CittifuMS ci the passive. 

Our aimptcat method is to give the passage in full, exactly 
Sis thi!) author reproduces it (as he ^ays] from 'the editions 
eiT MaiiutiuN (1563) (who first pnntcd it), Dc Pam^lc (iS^id). 
Rigault(i(54S), Dom Maran (iy26f\' 

" The Lord saith unto Peter, ' I say unto thee thai thou 
art Peter,and upon tht£ rock will 1 buildmy Church, and 
the g:atca of hell shall not prevail against ft. J wiil give 
uiito thcc the kcy!» of the kingdom of heaven; and what- 
soever thou shalt bind cm c^rth ^hall be bound in heaven, 
and whatsoL'ver thou shalt iousc on earth shall be loosed 
in heaven,* Andto thf samt {aftostU) ^tsays after His rr- 
surr£Cthn*Fee4mydu£^' He build? //Iej Church upon /jfc»/ 
Qnc^andt&him ^tiruth Hi^s s^ecp tt> ite fed. And altliough 
after Mis resurrection Jdc assigns equal power to aJI \\\s 
jipoAlle>, and says 'As the Father sent me even so send 
I you, receive yc tlic Holy Ghost; who^iesoever sins ye 
remfc they shall be remitted unto him, and whose^ev^r 
sins ye retain they shall be retainL'd,' nevertheless in 
order to make the unity manifest, He cstabltsAai ^ne 
Qtairt and by His own authority appointed the origin of 
that same unity beginning from one Certainly \X\c rest 
of the jjpostles wcrv that which Peter aho was, endued 
with equal partnership both of honour and cffice, 
but the beginning sets out from unity, <tnd Primacy is 
^V^n to Piter, that 0H£ Church cf Christ and qhc dtmr 
may he pointed dut; and all arc pastors and one fivck is 


«citc«pl for two very loiltfil puja hm 
vlth ntflbd ectmenik A U^tuie (Pi-iii 

i7^AlT]:iHn]L;y piukiiifch wiiVli:!! uut uil^ 
ihi- m.irj;*"!', "rul Ihi" wIkiIp of thii 
iO fcppcarn. Sf* uf rlir- Iwo |*pmti»l(c 
MMifl OOG bd* ibc pua«i;c acvrci with <l 

pencil, ihf nilirr with n knlfr. 

■ We mubi howevct tUic thni Mbuu- 
|]u^ 'ioci not eWc llic cIkum; 'lie w!i" 
dcKTU the cliiir of Teicr on whi<th Ihr 
ChurcU v^ns founiloJ/ nur Mumn ibtf 
woniB *«tabli4bci1 one cIijlIt mhJ.' 




sAffWii. (o bsffd by ail ifu apsstifs with on^ht^rted accord, 
tJial one Church of Chriit may be pointed out. It J.t this 
one Church which the Holy Spirit in the Pcriron of tlie 
Lord speaka of in the Song of Songs, sayinE ' My dove 
is onCj my perfect one, one is *hc to her mother, elect (o 
her who brought her fortJi.' He that holds iit>l tliis unit}' 
of the Church, dtivn he txriitfvc; that he fioldt tlic faith? 
Ht who ^trivrn and rrhcls agnin^t the Church, fu ivAo 
iits^rSs tht Cfmir &/ Fttfr &h 'whidt the Cf/nrth ti'fU fQundtd, 
doet he truKt that he is in the Church? StiKe the hlc^ed 
Apostle Paul also../" 

The words in italics admittedly must be from tlic pen of 
one who taught the cardinal doctnnc of the Roman see- If 
Cyprian wrote them he held that doctrine. There is no diS" 
Kuismg the facL OnofHo Panvinio* for instance in hia gieai 
treatise on the Primacy of Peter places this whole pass^cj 
from Cyprian 'forcmoat of the holy Fathers' next after his 
dtation!; of Scripture, and the words wc have printed m italics 
he ha» anticipated u^ by printing Jn capitals as the crucial and 
decisive one«- 

But the reader will observe that, separated from the 
italidscd word^i the passage runs smooth and the doctrine 
is a diflcrcnl one. It is the doctrine of a catholicity perfect 
in unity without hint of Pctrinc or of ajiy primacy. As we 
have already seen, it exhihits a unity ui(lic;tleil (Mich k the 
special argument of the pas?iage) by Christ's committing one 
and the same charge, first to one and tlien to all of the 
apostles as peers or equals of that one. 

Now the indictment we prefer \s that every italicised won! 
is a forgery; and a forgery dcHbcrately for three centuries 
past forced by papal authority in Ihc IcetH of evidence u|>on 
editOTK and printers who were at its mercy. The recent 


labour of Hattd rcvcah a similar process at work long be- 
fore Ufx^fi the manuscripts. The curruplions were always 
|]3ten1, but nnw we c^n actually watch the agents. 

If proven, the interesT of our talp \s beyond thai of literary 
curiosity or even Iitcrar>" morality. Dukes and CardinaU, 
Frclatcs and Masters of the Palace prevailed over broken- 
hearted scholars. It was a Battle of the Standard, fought 
thai a forgery might not be (as one of the defenders cxpreaaed 
it) 'ravi ^ I'ftglise,' All that t'nergy, all tliat diplomacy, 
— the very tone of this moment — are the best witnesses 
to the value of the Protestant conviction that, although all 
Cyprian would have to be read by the light of those phra5cs 
could they be saved, Cyprian witlioul their is an irrefragable 
witness ag^*nst those assumptions. But out business is now 
with the literary eWdence. The reader may point the moral- 

We will take tlie manuscript history of (he passage ftrsL 

The codices of Cyprian * tfe Unitate which are older than 
the tenth century are as follows; 

The Se^uier manuscript at Paris; so styled from its first 
known possessor the great Chancellor, from whom it passed to 
the Prince Bishop Coislin of Mctz, thence to the Abbey of 
S, Germain des Pr^^ by his gift, thence after the fire of 175)3 
to the Librafy of Paris, where it is now. It is a most 
precious volume of the Sixth or the Seventh century pre- 
serving the moat geruine readings and oldest forms of words, 
and it is distinguished in collations as 5> 

The Verona Codex of the Sixth or Seventh century (V), 
an uncial WS- which was given to Charles Borromeo by the 
eai^ons of Verona, used by Latinius in preparing his note^ for 
the edition of Manulius, and further known to us by his 
collations, copies of which were m the hands of Baluze and 
Rigault. and another copy is extant at Gottingen, A some- 
what inaccurate coUaliou was also made by R. Rigby fiir 
Bp FelL Latinius was certain that it was of the Sixth century. 

» Hand, Pnef. ^^., iii., t., in,, fcii,, nk., mix,. jrKti., itiii,, bua., IkmIt, 



The Codex Bcncvcatiinu» (called nltto Ncapolitanu^) wu 
one of the hcH ma^u3CfipU^ Wc arc acquainted with it 
fnim the co)lntion*i inat!c by Ant. Agn«tinu Rt>hop of Altfi ;ind 
i*5e4 by Rigsiilt, and thrwc made by Rigby for Bishop Fell. 

The MS. of Wuraburg (W) of th« Eighth or Ninth century, 
ascribed by some to the Seventh. 

The codicc9 Kcginenaia 1 16 (K) and San Gallensis 8g {G\ 
both of the Ninth. 

In not one of xjniac maniiscf Jpts have the it^IicUod words 
apjiearcd fn any shape. 

Of Trcccnas (Q) of the Eighth or Ninth Ccatury, and of 
Monnceiuis (M) of the Ninth, we will speak prencntly. 

The gKat scholar Latino Latini. Canon of ViCcrbo, who 
died at the age of 8o in 1593* tcIU ua he had »ecn seven 
manuscripts (intcgros) of Cyprian in the Vatican in which aU 
these wor<is were wanting', 

Bftlute' says that he had himself *ecn twcnt>*-scven 
manuscripts without them. 

Bishop Fell u,*cd four English codices of which none 
have a liact of our italics*; and beaidci thc*c four Ent;H»h 
inHnu«criptJ« (ti> which we add a Pemlirxjice codex rniurd 
by him') all hivc only the additional Po^l-Resurrcciion' 
Charge to St Peter, (a mere parallel rcxt»} without any wond at\ 
all about the Chair, the I'rimacy of rcter, the Unity of Peter J 
or the dcMrtion of the Church founded on Peter, These 
mantiscripts arc all of the tcnih century or later 

Baluxe* lay^ that the German manu^rlpts of the dene of 

r6:T. p. <:^. 

» C^friMn Ofitr^ H*ltue. Parb. 
1716^ !>. ^^. CoBim. in loc, 

* Vif. BwJ- ii Etiot. New 0>[1c|^ 1, 
,Slnim, In v|4lp nf Ehrv FtZl k«|iE (hir 

For 1 de«cri(^tion nod nev coITMiofui 
oiiht lirigtiuliiaifiikKfifU bccAjipfBdix 

■ Vb« Bod. 1, I,Ainbclh, IJnroln^ 

or VoM* lUi. havf DQl bc<ii fi^ 





Vencricus bishop of Vcrcclli' seem not to have had theac 
words; nor arc they found in any of the earlier editions (or 
their numerous reprinis) cf Cyprian which appeared before 
that of Manutlus in 1563 ^rd which represent to us mmy 
manuscripts which have long disappeared'. 

We must now eee what authority there is in favour of 
the italics against this mass of negative evidcnccn 

la ig68 Jacques Dc Tamilc. canon of Btugcs, brought out 
hh Cyprian, Ignorant of the fact» and of Latini's griefs (of 
which, we shall present!/ ^peakj^ he accepted Manutius' 
edition as rt^ pro son ting the famous Verona manuscript. 13ul 
as Latini hinted "he had no nose'j he was absurd enough 
Co think the spurious tract 'on P ice- p layers ' was in 
Cyprian's style, and careless enough to say that its Latin 
lexis were in Cyprianic form. He surrendered himself to 
a manuscfipl" belonging to the abbey of Cambron' in 
Hainault, which was more interpolated throughout than 
any known copy. He thought it confirmed the Verona 

The corruption according to BaluKc was found also in 
an ancient manuscript of Marccllo Ccrvinl, afterwards Pope 
Marcellu* II., and this one was used by Onofrio Panvlnio*. 
It was found in a certain Bavarian manuscript which Bishop 
Fell know only through Gret^er^ who assures us it was 

• Very ixaccvnle ic<:<iutilii nf ilifia 
editions Jire prefiiLad lo xht ciliiii^itis of 
nfllutjiin by Mnmii aji'I (if Fal[» miii tt^ 
p«Llei1 in thf Oi(f»r*l Trar^ktion of Cy- 
pitiLTL^ p, L;^E (Libtnry cf lHc Falheni)- 
Ha^cI hki> uiLQimc^] indgivcnacafcru] 

* KonWiiif-DUKiripLifiCLUs^il Jacqu«f 
t>c Fmactc um dLauupblr LiullLiIc. L«ci- 
ntdi, in one of hit polLiihtii leftcn id 

blni {£^/: I. p> 309), iidjnim (he am- 
UUion In wliit]^ we shonl^l ^e* luicieiit 
BULhun *in aliam formam b haiIva <1« 
gcfttimsc* if Ehfj were edited u Uo 

• Codsx CamhrontdiiB—'imerpol*- 
licjf ialcr]>oTftti86iniis ' — Jlartd- 

10 *Kiipia fcieiupliiriii-' 

' Jr UrcUci, di /art rf wffrf traAi^ 
hntiti, ttfurg4iidi, e/ '>bt>ttn/ti /itnu 




of ' the highest stamp/ Wc shall however presently know 
moTc about it if the reader will only bear In mind that thb 
was evidently the Munfch maTiuftcrrrpt.— Monacen^is or M. 

The manuscript* which have this passage have it with 
all the varreties* omissions, and transpositions which uni- 
versally Ifidicatc corruption of text. The oldest which ha» 
iddicions Hkc those In Manuttub ia one of llie tenth century. 
It belonged to Tsaac Voss and fs called h : It is copied 
partly from T» and partly from imerpoUted mantiBcripts'. 
But we may pass it over as we shall meet the corruption 
higher up the stream. Similarly wc need not here concern 
ourselves about a manuscript of the fifteenth century in the 
Bodleian' tvhich ha^ a like tale to tell. 

But there is one' m the Bodletan of the eleventh, or 
perhaps the tenth century, which exhibits well the moat 
pecviliaT and interesting phenomenon connected with the 
manuscripts, There once existed a manuscript of Cyprian 
of which three others now extant belonging to the tenth 
and earlier centuries arc copies. These three are the 
Troj'e* Codex,— TrecenaU, or Q, of the eighth or ninth 
ccnlur)-; the Munich codex, — Monacensis, or M^ of the 
ninth ; and Ihc Bodleian just named, of the tenth or eleventh. 
These three arc all copied from copies of one lost manuscript 
which wc may call tlic Archetype'. 

lib, 11., c- 7, p> ifi^^) ll« Mf* he (oU 
uponibLk coiJc^ 'in KatorkcabLbtbihcca 
— CBtniKaruvDm nptiaur nnt.r-* Sit 
AffmdLcj p, 549, u E« itv r«AjlTn|;«. 

■ Uuidk p. kL. Ut i*y* 'tin jmnr 
vfdtlLoni^' pp, \\. Jind ill. n,, but 
il b W4AC thaa AUnuuv tn fuding 
'thii uutlj of Fcl<:i\' ibtLcad of 'thb 
ornl J oF xYtt- ChnrtlL ' 

> Fth't'Bad. 3/ 

> FcU-i -B«L «; iMi « nth 

* Tht Cod«ic TrM>ciHJt Q, anrt 

MoDUifntit, M, ai* jndrptnd^i ca|<i«« 
arciA«»pyofihftoi( Aiicbci]rpt(JI'ri*1' 
^, Ltiv). 0\n Bodkiaik, which l> ogi 
dncr^bvd by Iftrtel. i< nor copiM fron 
ihAt lubt C4p7 of Uic k«l muiUKnpt, 
fur t]iiH|;h a Ilib Chc iiLlczjxtUcJuna 
»]mait The fetmr. itlll \\\ rodmfi ds^ 
violc fr«ni M jind <^. wd ihei« dfu- 
(iuut arc bcller aivl mnrc (^ujnv rvwJ- 
in|^ Il wx\ nipinf Ihrii Irnm a toti 
iTEinuKTi]!! olhf And belter T>i«i tbt 
imvcditiQ ^ricinA) uf M And <^, If 
with Hincl wr ct[l y itid (J't ]o« 
orljlifial <X^ wv my Okll ihe lout 


Now it seems almo^ Incredible but it is true that 
th«ie inanuiEcriptJft should reveal $,0 minutely as th«y do 
the manipulation practiicU on their forefather. Codices M 
and Q ^ivc the interpolated pa».^agc in full, and havinjr 
com^ lo ihc cud of it with fts four inserted clauses ihcy 
proceed without Atop or stay 10 givi.' thcr genuine pa-iSAgc 
without any interpolations At all. First coined the doctored ■ 
recension which the acribtr of the Archetype was intended, 
by the person who directed him, to substitute for the 
original. This icmodelled paragraph was finished up with 
an cmphaltc repetition at the keyword with which it 
began — 'He built Hi9 Church upnn Onc\" Rut the thriee- 
fortunatc copier suppo<ied this ^na^l repeated ke>'word to 
b€ the cue in the original from which he was to go 
on. Accordingly having copied out his interpclntcd pattern 
schedule he went en from tho&e words in the genuine 
manuscnpt before him, atid wrute out in his simplicity the 
genuine passage which b^sin with them''. The Bodleian 
Codex gives first three interpolated clauses only but in 
it^ repetition of the whole paa^a^ inserts the fourth inter- 

If any one asks. How copyists could so flagrantly go on 
giving a girnuine anr1 an interpolated text on the !iame I3a^e, 
we can only be thankful to the fatuous or cynical fidelity 
which wrote out what was before it. Many and inferior 
maiiuscnpta give only the corrupt form. But the double 
form went on being copied for a long time. For example, 
the third Bodleian MS, of Fdl, as we have mentionL-tl. has 
(till the duplicate form' as late a* the fifteenth century,— 
and what is still more remarkable the Jesuit theologian 

onginLl c>f the BodleUm «^X 4> . I1 
M cDontiDBlc vrith Hartd*> 4X>lkcul 

* 'Super mmm fl?df[ifflri/ccclQi2ni,' 
jltl aa oihcTb hnyt: fimiii^f^y eniplut- 
•iod by ntlaiibliitK litem \ht linulaf 

*ardt 'Tlui [hr Church «F CTirItt m«y 
be ahewnu one-' 

' Sec AppcnJUt P' «i4V' Hjutd, 
Prvf. pp. 1,. xlp iLUt. ootvs pp. ll>. 

■ Held, i, Uiut MW. trf' 


Gwt?ser copies It out double word for word in triumphant 
fciy to demolish Thomas Jameit th« 'English Cal%ini2i)/ to 
prove as he saj's rliat ' papt5ta: have seen manuscripts \* 

Thus if there never waa a viler fraud than the inventor's, 
there w-is never a wor^c iicme^l^ than the honest obtu«eness 
of his JaMniment^ 

W^ must now enquire how interpolation against which 
the manuscripts bore such conclusive eWdcnce c^mc to be 
embodied for the first lime in the edition of Paulus Manutius 
in 1563 after all earlier edition.^ and reprints had escaped 

The son of the grciit Aldu^ had \Ktn twu year» settled in 
Rome, loaded with every kindnc^, honour, and privilege; his 
failing health spared by a staff of able correctors who were 
astiigncd to him for the great undcrt«tking of the new I'apal 
press Id Greek. Latin and the Vernacular. Cyprian was the 
fir^t author issued from that |n-rs5. Charles Dorroineo had 
been truly anxioLiH for the restor:ttion cf ihc text of Cyprian 
to itK primitive integrity. The Verona manuscript had been 
procured by him for the purpose. 

The editing of the text wa^ commillcd to Latino Latini. 
Besides 'collecting with many watching^ and labours' an 
illu^tralivc commentary on obscure passa^a, he made 
accurate (rt>IUtions and prepared a brief critical aimmentary 
on the readings'. In one of his privete letters' he complains 
that after the most conscientious labour upon the text he 
found that, while passing through the press, not only were 
Kblical quotations altered to conformity with the Vulgate, 
but besides, 'whether it wa^ at the mere pleasure of certain 

> Hand nunwf 10 cdd-i uid thvr* 
WTc &t loan 10> iFiclgilinii rcpHnli q1 

' B«ildM tb« V«»n> uid Bcixvefilc 
4or Njiplo) coilci» lUrlcl. p> tnLi 

ticertALU lh»l be hul vi cur CiUAl 
aaci Xtt^ (p) n. ivM ^^^ P">li- Mom* 

UflUV (;fl|. 

* Ad Andf' Mjbium (Mao) tl. fu 
10^ [Hdriclt j^ t., cl- p- LixbL Mnd 
Ijit f\( lAtlru pKAxf-d [« the ftt^it*' 



*pcrson!i or of set tltrsign, lie Icik^w not, some /fassa^rs rtu 
' Tftaintd contrary to iht t^jXiUtici iif the matntscripti, ^nd c^tn 

* s&mc additions madt.'' Under the*e circumslacices he would 
not ^iDwhis name to bo connected with the edition, 'deeming 
' it no light crime to conceal the tiuth gr to alter the smallcat 
' letter/ and withdrew liis a. n notations. In the Bihliotfuca Sacra 
et Prefann^ or collected notes of the same critic^ he mentions 
three ep(ules of Cyprian first discovered by liim^elJ' in the 
MS- then at Saint Salvadore's at Bologna, and in two 
Vatican MSS„ of which cpistka the arrogant 8th letter from 
the Roman Clergy which Cyprian treats contemptuously wa* 
one- ThciC he says the superior authorities' would not allow 
to Le published ' un*c mended,' ant! accordingly the 8th 
epistle does not appear at all m that edition They refused 
also to al(ow the anti-Roman epistle of Firmilian to be 
' brought forth out of darkness '—but in this Latim seems to 
have acquiesced, 'detesting the man's petulance'/ Upon a 
remark of Pamclius' censuring a certain reading of Manntius 
a few lines forward in the De Uffifate, he observes 'this 

* is one of the alterations which were made neither by me, nor 
'by Manutiufs, but by one who had permission to pervert, 
' to add. to cut out, or to corrupt whatever he would, against 
' my will.' 

That our present interpolations were among this per- 
sonage's manipulations fs clear from Latinf's statement on 
the same page, that he had ntiftr san these in any manu- 
script except 'in a fragment ^ery recently written at Bologna, 
' — a small book containing only a few treatises of Cyprian^ 
'belonging to Viancsiu* de Albcrgatis,— and also in a com* 
' plete copy at iiologna (from which the said fragment was 
'copied^ which was itself also wriHen in a recent hand,' 

There is in the Library at Gottingen* a copy (brought 

^ ^I'rf/. ,fiftr-rf/Vtf/,, p- <7»*' ■ Pamd,, Cypr. (AnU. ift6Sl, p* 

* Qui prcmnnt, t^i. ?03d, nmrr «. B. S. 4t P., p. 179^. 


front Venice) of th« edition of ^faovdii^ nfth ooica vrrttteo on 
Its mar^n. Those notce are copies of manoxript notes by 
L^ni. One of thcae notes says npon this place. * T/ies^ 
^jvards were added out of a sitt^t manuscript belonginj; to 
*Virosiu.5 ^a cfrrkal error for Viancsius) of Bulogita, now in 
' lh« Vatican, by P. Gabriel the I*frni!entiary with the conaetrt 
'of the Master of the Sacred Palace:' So close a diain of 
cadence leaves no doubt as to the time, manner and per- 
Cbmicrs of the interpolation. 

The most eonipctcnt editor of hU age and country fck 
compelled to resign hU work bt-cauie he was pDwerlesn to 
prevent the Theolngucs of the Vatican from rctnofltrllfng hi* 
ttxt. But wc arc noi quite at the end of this strange story. 

In the Council of Trent in the year i $63 the debate wa^ at 
its height ■ whether Blsliopi hdvc Uieir power* c/ Divine ri^ht 
or of Papal ri^ht^^ The amhiguou* canon prriposed fmm 
Rome, that bishops hold the principal place dependent on 
the pope, wai under diJsctJsiKit^n with a view to liubjttiCutinf;; 
for it, chief under the pope but not dependent, Quotations 
&om Cyprian were rife. About the 20th of June. Carlo 
Visconli, Rp. of Vcntimfglia, the pope's secret minister at 
Trent, and his spy upon his legate*, an e3C|ierlenced diplo- 
mati£t and 'man of exact judgment/ received tetters from 
R04Qe tclhng him that the new Cyprian had appeared, witli 
the passages which the c:>rrcctors had expunged from the Dt 
UttitaU*, The possible cifect on tlie Council itself was serious. 
\^onti wctit atraight to Agostino. now bishop of Ixrida, a 
great tauycr, dJplomatUt and antiquarian, who had received 
the «amc intelttgencc and with it a copy of the new boolc He 
could tell Visconti that Latini himself had many days back 
communicated the fuctd to Cardinal Hosio (Osius) ; facts which 
he thoroughly understood, for it was he who had years before 


5«cS«rpi,BMkirL,vii.,«ip, ni. jt. 

As apt >Uy. 





made the colUtion of the Bcncvcnto manuKf ipt The Agcitt 
told the one Legale whom the pope trusted there. Cardinal 
SimcHietA, and on June 22nd advised the Vatican thai ^bHbrc 
Mmeh an ^iniam got established ' u that the correctors had 
been ovemied, * ^be/ should find means to retnove it \ which 
'ODuld be done by fi^tvinf; aulhcrit>- to iM^x -w^rds whkb had 
*bcen published, authenticating them with the testiowny and 
'approbation of peiKMis who had xcn and confronted the 
' aniiL-fit codkcsV 

So writ«« one who had just recorded the testimony' of 
the persons who had 'confronted' the antiem codioes, — the 
verdict of the correctors. 

Even in 1^63 it was a little Utc for such measures. But 
the note actually attached to the voLume is now full of 
mcanirg' It ends thus, * It is not Jtnproper if pioui and 
'catholic interpretations and true sen^^es be applied to the 
* writings of the old father* ir order to preserve alwaj-s the 
' unity of the Church which Cyprian in his writings had mo«t 
' at heart. Otherwise no end to heresies and ^hism^/ Thl^ 
muHl have Miundcd mysterious to tht- un^jspecting sTudctit 
of Cyprian ; and they were few who Vnew that chcy were 
meant at once to gloze the gloss and to defend the scholar- 
chip of the perpetrators. 

Such is the history of the interpolations in the edition 
of Marutiun where they 6r£t appcarcd. 

Their appearance in th:: Benedictine edition is no less 

Ualuzc had rejected them on the weighty evidence which 
he suica with utmobt clearness', and had piinUd off the 

> Epp. Cir- VieecflmUit, 1. %U. %\ 
Ckrd* DurrMMO [BrLk, Afiterfl. iii^, 

Pi 4T> tMmdl. LuM I t6j— i;6*]" Scfl 

' llift wLuiruci \K\t>)L (ju wo hive 
indUaiodMhe SegHLrnDn nni VcronsF 

VcQciici VfrccU-. oud tlic d(itlJuii8i fncc 
ti?low| by L'aliicluih U,, Iti? curdiEiJiJ^ in 
T^eB, uid the Uotnatt C^freclon («ce 
p. i;Si n. 5) p> s«A CWi* ««L iIvQ' 


wheels without tbcm. Kb d«ath in 171^ interrupted the work 
which hftd been committed by order of the Kc|;cnt Duke 
of Orleans to the Royal Pncs^. In 1^34 it wafi fcsiiRied for 
completion by the Benedictine* of S, Maur ^t the request 
of 'Typographiic Kcgi."c Pncfcctxis/ and entrusted to Dom 
Prudent Maran. BaJuze hud formerly L«en banished by 
Louis XIV. and his property confiscated* for publlsfiin^ 
in his History of tlie Hiiuse uf Auvcrgne fragments uf a 
cariiibr>' and an obituafy which iJicwcd the descent of 
the Cardin^il de Bouillon from a sovereign house in France'. 
He had been placed in the Index by the court of Komc on 
account of hia Lives of the Popca at Avignon, And now 
hin genuine text of this pan^iafrc in Cyprian was assailed 
by J, du Mabaret. rrofcssor in the seminary at Angers, in 
u di^sertattcm' wbicli he sitbrnitted tf> Cardinal F!cury, now 
Minister, to the dominant Jc^aits. and others in the interest 
of the holy ^ee. The minister named a commission to 
decide the critical question. It waf understood that a diffi- 
culty with the court of Rome would folltjw the omisMon of 
the pa*<Hagcs rrr»m an edition issued ijndrr the authcrity of the 
mini&try. It was decided lo restore them. The prince of 
courtiers, the Due d'Antin. of whom it woji ^atd that he acted 
Hattcrics which others sfx>ke, was chaq<cd with the delicate 
oflicc- He requested Dom Margin to 'confer' with the abbe 
Targny'. The result of the 'conference' was what printers 

■ The •ocTAf*^ ■&d honeity of Bfl- 
huc in llui mni curioixi vt hLvorical 
dhpoici tn daaomituttl t> M, Ch, 
l^fiqiiet. 'Lm etnfirul ilv Bauillun, 
EaIuk, VUUtlan ct Th. Hulnart, ^c' 

' Lttirttl'noS'vMtd'A.aaiiAdtriir* 
dnM^moboilcTr^viju pootrecUnKT 

UB PuttCC ImpoituiE (Ic S. Crpilcn 

tma. Mhvim dt TrrtftttJ he OcU 

dr Luvivuix ^ ithum he wu 'TlicQ- 
]<jgUu/ lUiil sAcT 1^ Tc[lj(rr\ at\y 
dcAth, Ihc 7->nhdcftc4 0/ the Cardmal 

.Siil^Ie Bnivc, I mUt dc />/ Ki^. Tliv 
LjAtn Hiiclfnn^ of Chiniic (•» p- 3j6, 
n, 1 1 confbin the huct>r7 hy 4 dili- 
LiaiuUikin wgrih nijilaC- 'Cum&bbAte 
Tvgnj (ihK>)«ei> Lkiniiiu li TtiSaiw 
djcii AbWt^i 4i ZtfUULiJ lunc in ixlwt 
ncldiuticu iMria q^nfu,' Tlu* 
AbUtltflJHitoIthlddledin t;iS ud 


call 'a caned/ The leaf was reprinted with the interpola- 
tions Inserted, at the expense of typographical as well as 
moral symmelry, Baluze's note greatly reduced, and a 
parrnthrsiii ircorporated with it staring that 'it h;id bcm 
'ntitssary to alter much in Baluaes notes, and that more 
'would have been altered if it could have been com^cnmitiy 
'effected' The double scnac of the words can scarcely be 
missed'. The sole ground alleged for thcreintrodnction hth^ 
die "words had appeared in all French editions for 150 years, 
even In that of Rigaiilt' — the truth being that Rigatilt 
in his footnotes repudiates them and prints the uncorrupc 
text in I'ulL 

I perceive — and anyone who will look in the first edition 
pubiiEhed at faris in t^^C may perceive — ^in that magnifieent 
volume the tracer of this sad story. On page 195 the interpo- 
lation has been inliwJuced, In order to make room for it this 
and the next pa^c have been rcpiinled wJlh forty-seven lincb 
of type, there being through the rest of the volume only forty* 
six lines to a page, On these or on the adjoining pages hd 
will find also the traces of the binder's 'guards' by which 
the separately printed pages have been inserted. 

The Index seems to yield the same evidence. It fails to 
rr^ister 'cathedra, primatus. pastores^ grex' from page 195, 
apparently because the clauses containing them were foisted 
into it after the Index had been printed off, although it gives 
the same words abundantly from otlicr passages, and though 
other words from the genuine part of that page are given 
copiously; e^. ' apostoli' is quoted from it twice, but not from 
the forged part. 

hii ^logfi wu delivci^il at the AcAil-Jcnic 

Frpttdh is *conf*rpT avtc r«hb# Tatgny 
lThtolt»g*eii <lc le Tdlitr, <lil TAbW 

diat la afbircB dp VtgWit^' Tbi* 

parenthus arir ah I pvr xhtTH. 

' ' Qujn etiiiDL nt<tiit /aU in DnlLuii 

iDulAfa, id ^1 iommtdt litri palaJH«L* — 

Vahi 1796) on p- t95- 





Doin Matin's preface betrays th« very moment of the 
change. For it was made after that preface was actually id 
prittt fic there cUc» the pa^M^e with only the c^nrty 
and honest addUiun "et iterum cidcm post rcsurrectloiicm 
5iiam...'* And proceed* 'I quote thi* teslimony [of C3rpr!an*] 
'just as it is contained in this edition of Bahize's, but the 
'word« of Cyprian are read differently in the editiont; of 
' Manutius and PameliusV 

la the note:! which are placed in tlib PariH edition at the 
end of the volume, it has been found necci^sary to cancel what 
must have been far the Urgeu part of Balurc's original note. 
A whole sheet, a pair of leaves, printed off before hi« death, 
had to be entirely removed, via. pages 345 and $46. In order 
to pre^rve the continuity of the paging two leaves which 
precede and follow the abstracted ones, and which also had 
to be rcpriaEcd, \m\c Iwij pkigc-uunibers oa each of their two 
pages. Thus, page $43 ts now mLmbrr^d also 544; what 
would have been 544 is now 54$ and 546, and so on until 
page 5 SI, when the single numbering of the pages is rcsuired. 
Similarly, at the foot of the ^amc leaver, the notations 
Ggggg and Gggggij which designated the fikhcd sheet ha^'C 
been affixed addlclonatly to their neighbours Ffmij and 

]*rofcssor Mabaret ntnv hnd a fight for the fini time of 
Baluic's original note, upon which he penned some elaborate' 

ftiluze wrote i Super i^fiam uiiuiu icili- 
hc«T,,.ac. PrsH. p. ». 

^ IVft£. p> X. * Hoc iHiuDoofuin 114 
piotaLi UE lubdut In ttc IklujEiJnllUone. 
S«t C^niuil vcba thtet itfpiaxni In 
«d|lJonibii* Maodtij ac Pundiii' In ibc 
aMtlbkted note ih« Iktiodictiiic cdiiur 
bu left flA« HhteaM inibnut a vvrt^' 
'mi teoco mipAint 4^>B ■» MtttAtu 

luiujL imlkiuiujitjuh ml otiua ittdicam 
mJttiLUCriploniin Auctoduic' irjWi ed. 
I3>*» P- MS*- The Vvnkc <tL nfS 
(ft 461) ndtU'CDnfinnKJut/ 

• ■ ,. r*po*tjIla d* jxilni en point/ 
ChinLaCt a* Aalv 3. Milunt't ^p«> 
hfld Lhc eiui<] ULlfl ' Ektuui in Crpiuai 
lacam /VuiDW Am. ^r. phmlfrnk 



Annotations wtiJch the editors <ijd not conuder worth 

printing '. 

III. I. What. lastly, is the Origin of Ihc interpolated 
pfissagcs themselves^ It will be observed that they are four. 
To the first, namely 'And to the same apostle. &c.* applies 
the remark of Latiniu^tliat the corrections have crept in from 
mnrgina] summaries, not all at once but from time to time, 
Tliia 15 the oldest of aU, occurring in manuscripts which have 
no other trace of addition. It is simply a second text ad- 
duced and afHirmcd to be iClustrativc of that tvhidi Cyprian 
bad quoted. Tlie wtirt! ii/ttm, 'mmn l/tai unc' ^iposlle, is 
alone later and polemic. 

2, The second Interpol a lien 'established one chair' 
apparently exisls unly in the most corrupted manU!icripts', 
It is omitted even by Manin when repTacing the forgeries. 
It inakes nonsense of the argument as regards its order, but 
m^ also have been a marginal note. 

3 and 4, The opening word*^ 'and the Primacy is given 
to Peter' of the third interpolation had a similar origin. For 
in that state, in the form namely, 'Here the primacj- i^ given 
to Peter," Cardinal Hosius' mentioned that they existed atill 
in a manuscript of his own, where they found place immedi- 
ately before the first inleipolation. 

But the rest has a very dtfTerert origin. 

The Bishops of Istria had from the time of Vigilius 
onw&rd contended against the authority of the second Council 

< Ttie hiflory of ihc Paris cfliiioo U 
givflp ift the Catifhgui O/^ri/m Sttph, 
Saintii l)f P. dc Chiniav prcfuicil is> 
Balujc's Cap^niaria rtgwtt /^nmeornrrt 
Farm I7A0. I. pp. 7,^. 7(, atn\ In hit 

atmc caiiy Aiiil AppcfiilijE in Ftciidi). 

' M<j., H^lii Fflnu vtJ PjtudLiuk't 

rationpm Bs Pcm-. ntquc raiiiMif;ni *aa 
B3B4, *lq\ic uiutbnii su^c M after 
^(i^iiicnii tec Apiwuilu ua ihe En^cr- 
pfjintion. p, no. 

' Ap- PamcUi Jhlnol. (Cypr, 156B, 
p, i&il AJiiI l-ax- l^uniua Sifif.S.ft P.^ 

bvi in hiK I'CELdt^ he writca Osus- 




of Constantinople as having /irtiuUy censur^ed that o( Ch*l. 
cedon. In A.D. 585 Pebgiu:; the Second invckcd the ctTcctivo 
authority of ihc Exarch Smaragtius of Ravenna and in an 
Epistle to the lii^op^ appealed to the 'terrible tcstimenjc^ 
of the fathers' — as he may well call his own quotationn 
Amora: them Felagius alleges a p!i<«nge from Augustine 
which h;i5 nearer been idcnti^cd and bears small resemblance 
to the views of that father. Then, (our centuneti before its 
appearance in any known or any evidenced manuscript of 
Cyprian, Fclaeius produces the pa^riage from the Dr UnitaU^ 
w!th tlic intcr]:io1;ilinn<i which we ate now ronsidrnng, antt 
without the citatinn from ;hc Canticles- Thus, 

Arc luid nScncd CypHuk too» that noble monyr, In the book 
which he raflcd jifttr ihe name of Unity, among oih« ihm^ ta}i 
lKii»: 'The WgirLning tcts oLit from unhy : And Primacy ja ^ivcn to 
'Peter, that one Churrh of Christ and one Chsir m*y be pointtftl 
'out ; ni}d ilJ arc pA^cors^ biu one flock b ahcivni to be fed by the 
*flpfiiil« with onp'hfnried Accord,' and a few word^ Uier, ' He thai 
'holds not ihi» Unity of ihc Chufch dock he bclkvc ihit he hulda 
■the faiih^ fff -ii'J^ drurti /md Tittits^ tki Ckmr ftf Ftifr, en 
' tkAick Mf CJiUfTjk wt9J fiufutid, the/ kt imtt that kt $4 m iJu 

' Church r 

These interpolationi; can never have been meant as honest 
paraphraacsn The manipulation is loo much, However here 
they appear for the Itr^t time, And the mspctrtion of the 
[WNHages side by side will -^hrw how. down even to their 
omi«ion of the versp of Canticles, the later reeen«ionft of the 
Tnantiscripts have been formed upon thiK EpiBtlc of PeLa(i;iu$. 

The omissions ;ire a* evidence of design no lc:U instructive 
than Che insertions, i. The text which ajaij^ns to aii the 

^ Ob>ii ■■ Itu Rlt^lion vilb Ml im- 
poMJtln' commcitun ^r tht k™uia^ 
ruUiH which lirtiri t^bcaLut ilmpivd 
out of thtif r^rnkvlvtlnl CypriAiiic lt\\. 
'niu Due fiLCt Jilaa pr«vcnu «ur AOC4pt> 
aa« oT thf jWHihility th^xi Oit tolitary 
nittinucnpi of rh« >oth rrmury whirh 
ooMWM (bt kltvr of JVlogitH Buy 

icielf h'vc bnn intvrpDlitltd from inuau . 
&f. Situd F.ff< /lir.) Uhbc led. VetL 
Sce with ' Sijtt on ihc CitjiHMi hom 
the lDl«rpoUlk4l. pi 5^1. 


apostles the remiaaion of sins la lel^ out. and lliat which givt^ 
the Feeding of the FlocWto Peter is substiiutcd for it, 2, Those 
expressions are kit out which incJicate that unity i^gins from 
one apostle, as being lo the corrector's mind inadcqufttc 3>So 
aIso, as Irrelevant to hi^ purpose, i£ the text of Canticles. 

After this we have the awkward iotroduction of 'Paul'^ 
unity' btcau*e ai Rome the later watchword btcame 'Peter 
and Paul'; and the reading /lafic tt PauH umiaUm is the 
attempt to invoke Paul also after Pttri had been airciidy 

We must also note the force of the earlier interpolation 
iUum before unum The contention of Cyprian was that the 
Church wa^ built on ewe. For the corrector's purpase it must 
be '^Artf one." 

Mgr. PVcppcrs last argument for the interpolations is 
that llicy are cited in the Acts of Alexander HI,', in 
the Dtiretum of Gra^tian*, and in the Ddcrttum of Ivo of 

If such quotations in the twelfth century possessed any 
importance, it would be more worth while to observe on the 
other h£Liid (with Balucc) that Pope Calixtus II, in a Bulla to 
Humbald of Lyons*, that the Cardinals of Gregory XII. 
assembled at Leghorn in A-IX 140S*, and that the Roman 

* ^At\)\\. Ann, Eiil A.D. 11A4, XlJlt- 

didlU Qui CiLlhtdiikin PtrliiileKciitfiupci 

i^Djim fimdiU cEi «o:]afa qunrcorio w 
in EdcIoqa cue conhtJil/ hW he dccE 
Hi/t invc ihc ' phrmt entitle' •» Mf J. 

' A,n, 1151- 

lEtctD qui nan l«rvT, Lfrier« it fidain 
CTEdil? QuiturAtUrajriJ^frinfpvifttam 

TimdaEA Bt EtcltEtia Jocrii. in Eccli^ui 

' B«]u£«. p. 541. and oificn mfntJon 
rhi«> Iiur the leii k tim piLblt^ed m 
SiiiiMrf tin Pofe CaiUie /A by U- 

^ Jin. ini). 

^ EpXAfJinflJiuinCice. icij, AilEpi«- 
copasA.D. L4ov(mo^)' Labbc, vol. xv. 
P' 11^9. Nurly q]J <>f c. 4 ui<[ 5 of 
Cypjian UE quoEdd wkUuutcrieir&ccoi 
corruiilion, iLllbna)-!! llic jnieipoUiuMu 
wnnUI liavp no prcdwiy iLittd their 
purpu^e ihit in defBult of iheiD they la 
fjici introdncf h jicw one cf ih<ii oita 
JnnvrtiiiiZ ' Epim:upaLus. r^zs*i suwmHt, 
u<iu» ««< ^b«l-' (Jd JiMit/^d Max. 

IV, la 



Correctors, mih the edition of Manutius before them, till 
gave the pjissagc pure of corruption. 

And as to the appcid to Grali;ui w^lio, in the 93rd DiKtinc- 
tion', ()uole.s a% from Cypri;<ii the 4th >iH(?rpolatIon ihus, 
'He who deserts the chair cf Peter whereon the Church 
' waa founded, let him not trurt that he U in the Church,' it 
sctualLy yields U3 a fiOii instance of the ^n^ular fatitlity >vhich 
has haunted the denier? in this roi^r>\ for m another passage 
Gratian' ciccs the 4th and 5tli chapters entire from 'the l.owl 
aaich to Peter.' not only ofnitting the phrase he cUcwhcrc 
ciCe» but absolutely without any tiace whatever of any even 
th« ear Uest eorruptmn*. 

Singular, hntcftil, &r\d in its time effective, haa been this 
fo«igcr>' as a Papal aggression upon hi%lory .ind htcralurc. Its 
first threads may have beer marginal ^jmmarie&in exaggerated 
language. Then came an unwarrantable praphrase and a 
deliberate mutilation for a political purpose. Then jc ap- 
peared in manuscripts of the author with its indictment round 
its ncck»side by side on the same page with the original which 
il Ciincaturcd- Then it was force*! into two grand editions 
with an interval of a century and a half between ihem, first 
by the court of Rome itself, then by the court of France with 
the fear of Rome before its eyes, 

Tantts ntotis erai Rifmawtm CGndtrf ScdeoiH 

This is the true 'Chaner of the Investiture of the Papacy' 
and as authentic as other documents in that cartulary. 

The suiTcader by wme of av iinpurunt a hdp sujEjfcaud to others the 
ctideax-our to do mifaour it by weaving logeiher diAmnf e«ir(a frurn 

th* inttipcUrioDi %tv nal toAf vol 

J Dci'rti run \. Disi, iciti. c IUk 
■ /AvnW Pin 1 L CitUA KKIV. 


Cyprian Ic shew ihM this ona (in itii comipL slate) rflprcsci^led whftl .ifti^r 
all v>L« hi*i real teudilug :— an Rticnipt which wtiiJd nrver hAvc bpcii 
[hougttiof if ibis spurious passage hadnoE lirsi caused him to be Lhouf-hi 
30 puwE-rful n itu|ipurL Thi-i is don« iwUh the uimoai spcciaT pli^admi: by 
P. Bdllerni A-D, t7&6 d* Vt ^ raHort^ primiifjts Komm. S'&utijf. Xlll, iu, 
cd. WcsthulT 1345, Bui a Citicna of the p.t^togt^ if ^ivci; %up. pp. J97 
sqqi To anj' ^ii mind, Roman orgthcr^ I command them. 

It b nuthinj^ lu 5ay Ehai iLcy also ha^e «th<jlan ^5 ilivr tc iLc furgcnea 
^ wi^ iLi«- '("hese fvrgerres h:xv« been import:%nt sie|>4 Lti their asc«nl to 
power and nimnienancc of claim. Unitproved and h^nouied Hcholan 
of theirs stilL uphold Iheir genuineness and reprinl T.hem in :ext-buok«. 
Others wiclt superior uit like the \\x\. L. Rirln^on nvoid Cjuotinjc (he 
jninided words, bui fcire iht whok gi«l 4>f Ihtm, :ind mfnilihiliiy besides, 
if be had been ao undcistood aiiti^niK. into the genuine word»- If fuch 
hqd Iven TTie meujiing of Cyprian, (he forger ivould have had no ocr-.i^ion 
for his crafi 

iVtfft on the " CUntion* /rent Peia^us TL <p. 317). 

The * Citation' fn^m Pelngiu^ IL i«of course the ricvw ei c^iumtn of 
the Roman proof of the genuineness of (he forgery. But ihrr& arc ihre« 
AllCTQUivu (i), fiij, (iii}, which lo be f^ced, I «ii| cdl the text {u 
Ir b^iandt^j of Pcligius II- Pf M seeming ]es£ lo insist upon his per^onftl 
responiibilily for ii, 

We have no external evidence to the auiheniidty of the first two 
epislUa «f Fda^us 11, to the Bi^hop^ of l&tna, beyond the fact thftt 
the third alludes to some earliiir *cpi!iLJc&' and ^ wiirda of admomiion/ 
PbuIjs Diaconus I Wafnelndus), Jf grtfts LjiH^abartUm/ft \\\. ao, men- 
[fons *3n Epistle' of hit (written foi- him in fact bj- Gregory when a 
dcCLCOn) on the Tria Capitutat and Gregory Bpp. it, 36 mentimn *a 
Book' {fittr) of PfUyius, on the subjctt. Tltc ' Buok' i^ wo di^ubt our 
long (bird * £pi«tle/ Hence 

Ahernaiive (i). If the setond Epistk were n<jt authcnilc of course its 
i*ttimoriy to Iho intcrpoUtion would be valuekss. 

But aisume it to be authenuc. There being only one MS. of the Three 
£pifille«^ ind thai of the xlh ctrntury ; and corj^i M of Cyprian beingr 
of the ixth tcnCuryi we ou^ht to consjdcr >vhcthci /* con have been 
interpoUted from Al or iT4 reUdoni- Hen<re 

AUernaiivc (ii). In thai cite agaia PclaKiua would yield no evidence 

^ Civpnto l'(«rcinitiKby Nieolu Ftbre, cc, 1J4. ^dt, 895J, ud bov in raric- 
BAroo, Ann. Erd, \.D. jSfi, Pclag. JX, See Cata/ix" 4/1/. AfSS. Bi^. fttg. 
KiviiL LaIIic {Maoil IX. ^li^eui. ij^j, P, i. t. },, Paru 1744, p. r;D. 



However 1 think that the rcAdicg af iht Cyprionic intcrpolAlion 
whicl) kinnt\s in P is not clcriv^d from ilic imerpoUtion which ftppi-Jtn 
in codex Jif- Kcfcrencc to (he l^exo In Appendix will nnkc the fftcU 

U wa4 cf course not sufEi<:itint for Ihe :v^iam«ni, ai it stands in P> to 
rdy on Eideitxi vrith^^uc eip^css mcniion of CtMfMftfrit Prtri. Thtrrfor* 
iryt EctUrnr rtnititur the manipuUlor hat put Cathi^ram Ptiri Jetfrii/ 
but he hits left f/ re^is/if ^oupkd to ^ari/, ihinkin^ lhi» connection of 
fttUtit with Lhc aecifiiitive over the body of dfttrit might pa&t. Itut tht 
■cribe of &F knew chji coupling Il> be inaihEiiuiblc iii a gooil htylc^ And 
tmoorhed ihe ditlEcull}'* At any good gTAmmirian would, b/ leaving out 
Ibe jicnuine 741 EnUjia reniiifur tt rtsistit md le^placitiK <I t^y ?"/ 
C^lktdram Petri ntfitr ^v/tm fun^tiUx fuiftia tit tUi<rtf. Thi* trrmt lo 
be Uic g«iic9i> of the tvi:a\Jin^ in tbc tnicrpolaied pan of J/- And k> P 
rmii&ini the foum of the pbrttr. 

AJternftltve (i^i), Wbccher the text is Pd0f:mft' own or nol, its wording 
<:finvifu tt Of awbwnrd but Intrnrional m^knipitlnt^on- M hufi P brfot9 
him Biid coiicttcd ii. 

The 'Ciutian ' is indeed a valuablr ont lit prpwnce in this Rpi*Tk 
NiIHce^ to ahew tbat ttther t, the EpistU is noi genuine, or that Zs it h^i 
been mmipted nince ii wAtwriiirn^or 3. Prla^iitt himv^lf %rJutTemted 
the *Glacion^— a 'CHririon' of much value b oiabLUbini; ike text of 
Cyprtnn— hui in wham ) 




T^ scftming of the P<nff^ces.Sv.conx^ CoUNCIU 

In spite of all the c^rc And circumstance which had waited 
on tt, the Rule :jf restoration for the Lapsed was the work 
of a class, the most austere ;ind in reality the least temptcid. 

For we must recollect that, although the clargy were mort 
exposed to persecvition, yet the sorest of all tempters, repu- 
tation, position, and even (if '^cy ever expected a cessation 
of persecution) worldly advantage, called on them to stand 
firm as strongly as the same motives invited many of the 
laity to yield. The Rule was too rigid to be a real aid to 
human nature and it was therefore injurious to the Church, 

The Persecution of Gallus (as it may be called for con- 
venience) was a general movement of popular feeling 
Imp Cif3' against those who refused to perform the sacrifices ordered 
C vibiu* ijy cA\ci for The averting of Ihe spreading Pestilence of the 
riiaftiij time. Street cries demanded "Cyprian for the lionsV Mani* 
Au£, II. festationa ana vLSicns to him and to others gave warning — 
c'i'S^i "*^* wholly justified by the event' — of sufferings at hand more 
AfiniuE severe than ever™. Of the libellatics condemned to indefinite 


Vridiim' suspension many were hvmg in pcnitcnee< 'never quitting 

ntanus L- 

ptDdJK p, 57* it L« spTtken i\f a^ a secuH- 
Jum praiiti"*, m which Ihoj- wha hid 
been ' woiiodcJ ' prim* *^it iti tif 
Ottiona fierttrutione rcooYcrcd tbcm- 

thi> ndti'fullilQieiK h ■ fair chroao- 
lo^cal iHMc Ihai -nifh arljdporioni ire 
hoi a fbrgvTy latci thiinth«|3cr»cuiionii 
* ,.,pun lilcm quHLis fuh icd nuillg 
graviorpni cf acriorem. £/, jj. 5; cf. 

V, J. 



the threshold of the Church^ '; soma whcfc the clcrjjy had » 
Novatuniiit bias, died unandcd' ; *omc clerical delinquent* 
had quietly resumed their po^tSn whence no m^tenAi power 
war; able to dialodj^c them; many persons had resumed with 
the name of Cbrbtians their old unchristian liven*, and many 
families of thonc who despaired of pr^iclical restoration to 
the blessings of the Church had been lost to hereiy and even 
CO gentilism. The examination into individual cases had 
revealed unexpected palliations; men had sacrificed to nave 
families and friends horn the 'ctucstion'; or had without 
reflection allowed thc^msclves to be rcgUtered as ' sacnficen*,' 
while simply intending to purchase exemption. Cases wh&rc 
there was less excuse deserved no less compa^ion- 

At or near to Capsa' three men named Nlnu&, Clementian 
and Plorus* after enduring much violence from their own 
inai:btratc5 and the angered populace, were thrown victorious 
into prison- Dragged out oa the arrival of the Troconsut 
upon hh progress', and submitted to repeated tortures in 
wbidi life waft carefully gfuarded, they - could not endure dll 
the crown came *,' They fell. Then they crept back as miser- 
able penitents to the Church. Merc than two years after' their 

• 4^ *!• 3- 

link noithorthcTniontinLolcc In iht 
praeoniblu proriTice ; k rich »fid ^rttj 
»ntirat loira ja « bcanlirul ntini bdil 
bMn uroDclX nAtinna1» ^tiflfml hnrnm 
iBQ^«r Mariui foi loj^liy 10 Jacdrttu, 
lire CiirtiiAin w<rc uUI <ii Plinjr'i lime 
'u oiuch ■ clin u ■ Kornan Lown' 

TIlCil \t «■■ nikcd lu (he tatik cjf i 
* Colony 'i ii<l vaq unr lit tbv TM'n 
dfitab of ih« Sj-aacva* prtTinc* uiidtr 

vni. U p- 11- FUdt*! C^pti*aiti trtrn 
rather t« the io^j^, L'j'prLUk'i Cf/Aw/if 

to ibc dtT> 

* Tri« halt 41 Cjipf* of an «arUrT 
procQDsul. €- DmtliiH Prwnrt*. £ftLhfr 
of chf unhappy vifc uf ConuDodoi, 
coniq] In i£j anil tfto t-D.. inmi tn he 
nuked by <lie epiUph oF hit vlCc, 
C/. £., Vlit, L no, 119, 

' £jt. |6, 1 'cornnun vtm poluiue |i*r- 

oflhcthinj£iob«iaua«d. Ctrfi./mitrr, 
}agiB ■bccnlDrtdilum pnftm MqidMl' 

' TrUnnliiDi i£fi, j6- i). « (ooJ In- 
ktaacc e( ibe Induklve icfltocing in 
vg^uc- TliU m* bcri>K KAJtcr (Apr. 
I •) A, h, i|i. VI ildi cnn ir ibc |«i> 
«oa«] hod vkEtcrf Chpaa l«hich i« hoc 



M«y 15, 
A^V. tit. 

biihop Supcrivi presented ihcta to the new Hshop of Capsa, 
Donatulus\ and the fiv^ collcAgue^ who bad assembled for 
hli cojuecTAtion, And asked whether their pitiable exclusion 
might not now be closed, It was if^rccd to refer the question 
to the Council which Cyprian had convened for after Easter. 
And Cyprian on receiving their appticatton did not hesitate 
to express in warmest terms his convection in their favour 

In very many ca-ses sympathy and policy tinited their 
claims for mitigaiion. and the Skcond Couxciu which 
ajtsembled at lea^t iwo-and-forty bishops in the May of 
this year \ ruled ' that all who had so far continued stcdfast in 
penance should be at once readmitted.' Cyprian penned the 
SynodicaL Letter which announced the decision to Cornelius*. 

lak«l]r} b curlr " Jinunry 154, two 
ymi uid Ihrrc moalliB is :hr loajfnl 
thfli- fioMirtl*. s*? p- ^r, n, », 

^ The tncviiac at Capv wv for the 
|iurp<iic of urUiioknif t fiew Ti1kho|i, 

In A'i>h ifi'S bcftppcarvM lip- arCA|4A 
at vJL. Cunc. Cuth-, anil W2s Lhcipfoje 

' E&ner fell in A- II- i^i on Ap. 11. 
TbeSKCQKJiCou T^Qi L UNUJik Cri'Jii \x 
Dt pan lafiii fnainrwt tlamdit in dalcrl 
tc Haij, Mnjf jj.— Ay. J9. ic. 

* Mr Shaplierd [LttM H, p, 10. 
roUovins »h« wake nf i^mbcrt ap. 

Thfnpiiit (^;>. Af) for reacljntiiirig the 
Upteil prHbj'Efr Viclar lo communian 

affn 1h« Frianimn grnnr^ by rhe 
Sfconil Council^ and iKat QccorJingfy 
the Ci/uncil nliirb CfUAuicil hin), whjUi 
»« couni Third* plidng it »1»iit iht 
±f«ptiint)rL' nf 153 a.m. (^/- 64), muit 
haVf pTcceded our Srcoiiil Ci>aDul of 
May 151 AhU. which iHiwd Ep j,?- 
Thb It » pooran atlempi « harnwnlf- 
tniC ihm wc un vnly wonder why tot « 

ngoafit Hr & aboaU «««m to dro{»Ui 
onivenal loepdc^m 1q Its ^vuuf- We 

iDiHi briefly i>bKrir«|])wiifiP«arvoi] that 
tbcConcttmr Ej'isUe 1,7 cukes rtfvftOOc 

111 Jut jiErrl^ui Council, ^fl emaimted 
Ihsfffore rriori! probihly fiom a tccond 
ihoD A lliirJ. but r*4^rai]n'a IkCoOiI) 
obtervBtJon tbflt it u jmpioljAtilc that 
to Bu.ny u 66 biihopt ihould hive 
h^Xtx met hcfor? Eflitrr 151 afler 
ihcir iFtaion of A-D' ifii, hm nulhinf 
iR iL (j) In £/, j;, I iht nljin- 
lioa is gfjuited in Jtnticipalioa of tha 
ppi5ccu[lan under Ga,\\v\ 'tieci;uiuitc 
cogcnic,' bill Ejf 64 it wfirifn in a 
dim, *uch as ict ifl when .^miliao't 
Kicun: uf cinjijrc in April 15 j ^wkhdcev 
atlentinn from CliniilUn pnigT«?>ri, i-nd 
wtki curtlinuei! by V^fcrun from June 
ODWAid upuii principle- (4) A>, 64. 1 
cliitincrly speak-, ol the inHtini^'iu of 
rtUAfiti^d gmDli^i] bytheS^L^ondCiancil 
hn li-iviii}; been utglAtol in the a^t gf 
Thmpiii^ Hp hnd rcpeiv&! Vieror 
nol only ' rritifA imJSmt/iih itrginte*i!ht 
iAta lUoweii by the Flml Ccundl. Lot 

icUuitiOn gmnlcJ by the !^eca]1d■ Th« 
ttty MTflndsftte IwrrQwed frum £'^, 37, 

V. n. 



It may be <lcscribcd as an able answer to his own once 
sEciTCr language. To hi» former arfftiEnent rc%titiitinn was 
^supc-rflijous in the caw* of men rrftdy in wml their sincerity 
'by martyrdoniH since the Baptiani of BIfxxl wA« higher than 
■ Ecclesiastics I i'cacc/ he replies that ' il wa* the Church's 
*4iity to arm such combatants for that laat encounter with the 
'protection of the body and UJood orChrist/ ' Mcr might 
' well faint <he says) v^howcrc not animatcil by ihc EtidLarist' 
He remained the guiding spirit of the movement although 
hh policy had so altered, — rather perhaps because it had 
80 altered — and even when its working had evoked one anti- 
pope m Romc> and two in Carthage. The letter of Antonian 
txhibits commonplace bewilderment nt the change At 
the results af the change Cornciius gazed in horror, Cyprian 
wfth an unalTcctcd though not careless contempt'. 

T^ EffiCt en FtHcissimus and kU Party. 

It happened tliua. The effect of the late amnesty upon 
the l^urttan» would be to confirm them in their austerity. 
At the same time iheir numbers were increased by new 

wbflU [ht «tb Council vis \tt\i. uc miuT 
flMt th« 3nt Council vhicfri t<plJ«>l to 
ildia* AuUmn u> Sepl«mlvf of iji.f, 
tthidi ^ f^rnmi't cnnjccrutr, tctmi s 
nUMiflhI* time- Th4 4lh ind -ih 
CovacUb vrrv Mr1aifil)r Nolti it llial 
fltte«f rr«r. M&ran\ {% »1t-) ncitivn 
tA(tapl«d bv Jlerde] <hat ( iiJiii w&» an- 
»*itEd Ij iitf liiiJuj^iiK Id. Mai ij^i In 
Ihf JifUind t:<]uncll uoni uni^auuiAlile, 
l« why kfauul<l only 41 oJ them h&tr 
conciuicd LD the SynudU: Kpikilc? Il 
wu ibfa STCodic E|iLi|[lf whidi actuAliy 

which Thi'tvpiiiK vih rnLhEiral^ wrrljr 
not by lh< «in>4 Cauncil- 

^ SaIIi miiLtui lum It , , ^quuitimi 
OK ccmmoTuTn^ i.f'-f- fif 1-) — Quo4 
AUlcta tlbi dfr K^fluiuLo iiEo pmid- 

Limvn dtf hue [MLtiiau jifeffuilppiicopoj 
\\hi JicripKiaiD qtumJo hix ojunia cab- 
EcmnmLui \ nuhii. .C^/, 59- ^l. To 
oOBOfivt (((ttihvfjt I tj, (■' 1ft) that 
Comvllaa repaid iho *frri<u «rhich 
Cyprliin hnd TeDdci^il Zilm. ind ni>v 
m tam upTielil lb« tolltnrvg fhraii« of 
CAf^hoifc, ■» lUdeeJ to mikUudcriUnJ 
Ehe dimmiAncCT oni mitukc the nwn. 




convcrtj From heathenism, and what would be the relation 
of these to l!ic Church whenever the enlargement of their 
dogmatic viPU^ should incline them to thr Catholic body' 
wa* sure presently lo become a serious question. They now 
cast off their last hope of Cyprian and elected and conse- 
crated the head of their lirsl legation* M;k:«imus to be their 
anti-bjahop (or more accurately ' arti-popc) at Carthage', 

Meantime the laxer party perceived th-it the ground was 
cut from under their feet, and their leading adherents, never 
having done penance, found themselves as far a% ever from 
readmia^ion to the Church; their numbers also had bccQ 
swelled bydisciples who wished for communion on easy tcnns', 
and ail these clamoured for some action on the pfirt of their 
heads which would give Ihcm a tenable position'. They iiatl 
been taunted as the 'only unepiscopal body* among pro- 
fessed Christians'. Accordingly, when P ri vat iis^ once bishop 
of the new great colony of Lambesis", but some years since 

1 £/. (9. If Sf^ii* It*. 

* I ihlnk ihb r3tiut>t I^kvc li«vii <Icinc 
«uUcr. In Aa £1, 1 NovHiuH hft& not 
yci mruicA BiiJiop in Canraifc. In £/• 

ip A.JL i^iU^At letter having' hccD vrrit- 
Lcn Llii> yar after Ihe IJet o( May, £-f' 
ig.jfr^r^J. HiH in A/. 58. TO aj Anton. 
we ^aA they had appointed bj^hopi la 
lutiay pluCQ Iwftjrc tliciccund CutiiifiJ. 
II thftfpfOfe Ihlfc stflp Wti *l*loyet in 
CMrlb^CC^ il may he>ve been becauAe 
liopcf vert tUll cn(cilaiii«t of vjinc tJc 
ciiri«f«i in Ihpir ti*our hy Cypnor. 
Nor fui I ihUk thor the liapc. itirtugh 
iiuit]d]u:cilt tnu unnRlbiHL 

' Z"/. 5SI. '.^- *fi" 

* Latthtnii ntore oft^n in nnim|i- 
tbni, anil {Harldj 'm the codkci of 
Au|;t»Liiic' (S^nft' ^J'A)^ ^^ i'* lumc 
Inieripliona, u unifarmly in the manu- 

rti A>,^fi,4; fi/. i^S- lo)- Tljtf lii!*toc7 
a( ihib kErikiii^ lIiou|;h mudi uptnUd 
place- tkpw ljtinbc!44. Is beiuhTally 
wurVcil *iit liy Wilmiiiius Ciom ii» in- 
■rnplmn*. aMvr i;oOin nurbb4 ((-'.tfj^ 
/«*'''- Zji//- vinn i. f'. ifijj- Il WTua 
whully OKxlcni mililnry tccrn. ^pmna 
from ih^i^reaL camp or the Third Le|rkiOh 
whicK^sl^cf A'^h. 133, Htuljiju (ikcdon 
■he mmh flupe nf AunLtius ai Mkldic 
atlfliC, 10 Ue«|) the canlinert qiiitl. In 
A.ti. 166 II was !>ul A m'^iU, bill th«lMV* 
fivcn ti> the Ic^iunaiin to kcve ^mlHcfl 
incrrptprt il (mnipnsely. and hj- *.li. 10V 
it wfLi a wn/Hn'/itM nnd cnpitalof Nu' 
luiitiii. 111 btifcta and i^i^t itruciuio 
hegnn shortly bFforv Thaf, liven iri 
tcmptei Tcntuins^ ooAer ulbiary da- 
(hohly, exciii(>( fiom civic (nv^blcaEn- 
AnaltJtiy lecula Wilrofliinft in IwUew ft 
Wit tnDiEa 9 iltiiorii when C^f«i«^ian »• 
mortil the I,<:gion. TliaC would be be^ 
l«0n A-ii, i^ft Aiiil S44, 1 itbuyki ia(tt 



condemned of heroy in a CoudciI of ninety t^shopa holder at 
that placcS i*nd severely censured by letters from Donatus of 
Carthage and Fabian of Rome, applied for a fresh hearing by 
the Counc:! of 252 AU and was refused, thi* party loo 
repaired its own defect by procunng his adhesion in the 
h«it of hia mortification. A new coalition of Five* created 
ODC of Cyprian's oldcM op|>oncnt*, Forturatus', into a acoond 
anti*bishop of Carthage. 

The fdult w^^ifat^l'and iX was followed by irstant colUp^e, 
Whatever prcibyteral standing ihcy had wat.igtiTie. Whatever 
hopes they b^d cherished of a gr^nd general r^onciliation 
with tlie Church were gone. Their foUowers were not in the 
main prcp^ed to accept a n«w Church and a new bishop, 
They had thrown away the advantage which numbers gave 
tbcm ; although those numbers were up to that moment 
scarcely a minofity as compared with the Cyprianic church'. 
The announcement in Carthage that twenty-five bUhops were 
expected from NLimtdia to consecrate FortunatU3 in Cartbj^e, 

from Crpron'* wordins Itut it wu a 
C«lom« QM ody whea be wrote in x-f' 
^ja, but nivijr ytun bdoiv Mheii Fri' 
vftEV iU titbop wu condtrrm*^^ ' IVi' 
*mtiin TcUrem hotrdkum in Lmnbui- 
tuu o^lonU xnit niulLoi fti« taam <i>n> 

fa nLUuV time, bciwocn iji vid ija, 
Ihia cu&bI C/piiinJE dat« ojcily Au 
n vith Wiimtnni' nt>««rva1ian. Nfil 
jxttr 151 tbv 1-C|^or «■% rvUoTVd, and 
IIk [TtBtJiais of ihe i>liice, viih lis 
tehAO« pvofile. A'inriniirtri fill CnruTan* 
tine mftdr Ciru the cupii*! and |-friv i1 
liiu uvrii lunW' Then l^uibaik CoL* 
lipfted. In A.i>. ^64 u horl nn Tiuhop, 
1 ai«y obi«fv« lli*t IB t£* (U hdhop 
wu piobtblr l^nmLrlni* ai be it a nrf 
tenlrv blkhop4<^lh)ka tfiO- Sfmtr./ifp^ 
" ^/ i^t lo'oocMUfirm epiicftporum 
■CBlcDtaa coaJcmcBlLiint bvlcfraaiurum 
etiftm lkAaUuniui--,FiI)iani cl iXmlli 

liicrit MVBAimi) noCAiam-' llniB von- 
tcicatioDcly uprcH<d by to UlUm- 
motitiut, 'Frivni sVuJi vu condtmeer 

dooi /« /4/ri uini FaUeo AVtll M^ifrW 

' Tb«*y wpr* fnwtot himwrf j Felix. 
■ pHudo-lflthap »f I'TL^acui' laj^poini- 
menc, Kcpv«tu*, * kpKd biihgp pic^ 
bihly of Tubufnue (ice p. Be, n, jj^ 
MfLxiinut mtd JaritiuAi ccnnclr<l of 
UpK ami uctilkri wbu f frgm lh«Lr Iult- 
Ing bKAfirKt mndcinhKt ti}' niii« bidwM 
Um bjriha fim CovtieiJ ) wrc doubHa* 

' I>Mn Milman :00k r^rmnimi toir 

ft;VjtAl'Mlia//lU]ti-btllHpL It llJpVcqTlr 

esoipcl ha otBcnalW UmiI ihcrr wm 
iwf uLi'PopatnCanhKce^ £dr, CAw- 
fi^jfti^. 1. 1. 

' A/ J<h «*• 

* If I njEhU)MBndcm4Dd J?^ t^ 15. 

IS— 2 


the announccincnt in Rome tb^t they hnd actually done fto, 
r&ilcd to accredit hiin\ Fdicissimus sailed for Rome m the 
capacity of l^alc to his new chief or instrument ; Comdius 
iind the mildci parly might yet be willing by a recognition of 
FotiuTiatus to drive Novatianism oft the field with numbera. 
They represented Cyprian's cause as lost "They were prc- 
' pared to bring him to trial before the chiirch of Carthaj;^ 
* His flock were ready to expel him tumultuously from the 
'city. If Cornelius refuiicd to hear tlie documents which 
'they submitted, they should feel bound to communicate them 
"to the Roman laity'/ Cornelius was disconcerted by the 
violence of Felicissimus thout;h not imposed upon- He 
repelled him with spirit, but wi^lc tartly of Cyprian's neglect 
in not informing him of the movements of the party, Cyprian 
in hh Ion ^-practised tone of business indicates a certain defect 
in the memory of Cornelius^ and apologizt-s for unavoidable 
delay on the part of his messenger, the acolyte Felician. His 
advice is keen and stimulating, and though he opens half sar- 
castically he is profoimdly affected by the prevalent disorders. 
*If Sacrificcrs and dcnicrs of Christ arc to be proposed, 
'admitted, and then to terrorize* the Church may as well sur- 
' render to the Capitol at once ; Ilt^hops may be gone and take 
'the Lord's altar with them; idols and images may transfer 
■ themselves and their altars into the assemblage of the clergy/ 
■No priest of God is weak enough^ abject or prostrate enougti, 
'nor so enfeebled by the imbecility of mortal incompetency, as 
'not to rouse himself against the cncmicsand assailants uf God 
'in godlike wise, and feel his lowness and feebleness inspirited 
'by the valour and vigour of the Lord.' The best rcfijtation 
howeverwas that Cyprian himself was almost worn out by the 


* ^fi $9-^1- CItar it it thiLt jiifwng 
the oUuiiOnft lo schism And paetiJu- 
biihblja la (he d<r {/rtiftta nunc l>caE on 
lh« Incidents of ihc [wo Cnrilu^nidn 
prj?teT*Jert. tl i% NovaliRn hiw«U why 
(in jlLL the chiLptcn vijj. lo cail) is <1b< 

rlnirrly ItefoTe the rye af Cyimnn a the 
diviJ« a{ Oic fioek- Tliis olotifi might 


Iftboiir cf cxAitiining antl rcjulmitting the fa^tt- recanting ful- 
hcrcnis of I'clicLSiimus and by the anxieties of rejecting those 
whom the flock (for every case was formally put to them' and 
coneidcrcd in their presence) absolutely refused to receive. 
The Christian public witnessed singular pictures of the brutal 
inaistcnccof somcthc tearful thaokfjlncss of other candidatC3 
for restoration'- Mistalce^ were inade, Cyprian confesses 
thU he had disastrously in more than one instance overruled 
protests Against false penitent!^. It is well worth remarking 
that in this the claim for stricter penitential di»cipline 
was rot Mcerdotal or official, but popular. In epochs of 
suffering it ^ill be always &o. 

Tlie^e c^u^e?! ihL-n, llir deci^un of the Council, the suicidal 
policy of a rival episcopacy with no moral basis, and the 
popular demand for discipline, acted rapidly to break up the 
party. Cyprian estimated that at the moment when its 
emissary was intimidating Cornelius at Rome it had suddenly 
shrunk in Carthage to a congregation inferior in rumber to 
the clerical members of ihe ftrst Council'. Presently al! trace 
of chcm ifi lort. They vanished l>cforc more earnest quos- 
ticmer^ But Novatianism contained no «t)ch seeds of speedy 
dissolution. Altliouf^h Cornelius represents to Anijoch. to 
Alexandria* and to Carthage in terms stronger than Cyprian 


' ^A W '*■ '^^' WllHPCTll of 

Socmea 1<r. 19I IhoE lh!i vos Ibv 
DlOmvnl St which PcniLcnriby Pff»- 
bft^n wtn imtilutHl in hnr prrval* 
eenfcHjiAi n OMiifr Xit the <HrhoU 
Tiffw «f the time. SMOmco (tH, r6| 
pvn 90 liurruting pldTore of t^e 
R«nan mftlioil at pefunec M t n\a«h 
bin (1'iv in which ilic l^iihop !■ him^ 
t«ir llv fipllnw |viill«nt iiul Iht ati- 
•olv*i. And iba dinM oonlvmlJclioD 
of hu own «l4t«Bicitt ihat r<iuicnLib-in 
were ■« IrwiEuilon in ilir Vf'c« at wHI 

u [n the Elut ihc«a hutv little vu 
kiiC'tfu vf the 4mk or «ri(ni cJ »ucL 

bytEn uid deacDiit wiva hul been ihdf 

■El paftt of AfricA Ht ccjndy ILWdy 10 
have bcni ■! tended oq tUe ataacg hjr 
raorr Ihin t«i>«l»rla nctt tx Ehv ml' 
ndt- II vc Bdd fony CM fl poaiblt 

iff CTiHhugr— ii mAypvpTmnrhrrmore 
lliu 300 u ths nlic* »r th« Cvn^rcca- 
tLon of FclkiBimiu* 

' Em. ft. R. ti. 43, 46. 



uses of FcHcissfmus. that Novation wa* altnost abandoned, 
still Ills sect with its episcopal sucxcssiom endured tliroughout 
Christendom far into the sixth ccntiTiy, — a slcra Puritan relfe 
of the Dcci'an pcrKecution. It ha* been well said that 'likt 
* all unsuccea^ful opposition iC added strcnj^th to it* triumphant 
' adversary, and only evoked more command ingly the growing 
'theory of Christian Unity/ 


T/te Ltgiuy of CUrkaJ Apptah under the Law of (he Lapsed. — 
The Third ani> Fourth Councils. 

Tfu Spanish app^ai against H&mc 

From this point wc may with advantage carry our vicvr 
forward to ccrtaiik illLstratlvc cases which aiose in the course 
of the next two years, aflcr the main work of rccciudliation 
for audi as returned was over. We have notice* of three 
appeals made !o the See of Cartluge. They are clerical 
cafteu. For the dei^y, as they were less tempted to fall, 
30 fotird il harder to return. It was easy for them to achieve 
2 new position in some aggrc^isive ^ect ; snd It was not the 
wjsdom of the Church to confer its functions on the timid 
or vacillating. We cannot with confidence assert that terms 
for them were separately considered at the Second Council, 
yet we find it immediately and generally accepted that 
lapsed Bishops and Clerks could never be restored to 
Orders', Cyprian rests his ai^ument for this' not on in* 
junctions of the Council but on Scripture, drawing the rule 
from the Levitical Institution*, and from visions vouchsafed 
to himaelf. Yet elsewhere' he says that, in common with 
himself and all the bishops of the world, Cornelius had 
concluded this. Not for four years more, until the second 
Council on Baptism* was the piinciple of degradation 



cjctvndcd to &ny presbyters and deacon? who hod takea 
part in a her»y or a achum^ uid it prca^nts a singuLar and 
contr.idictory appearance of laxity that only Novatianhts and 
DoiiatiAts held the mark of orders to be so Indelible that 
bi&Jiopn rtturnintE to tTicm after Up^& resumed tht-ir fufiaioiifi'. 

Late in the summer of the next year one of the African 
bf&hopi^ the same Fidus, ^^ho, as we shall l«arn, counted 
inlanLn under eight days old too impure for ehnftcning', re- 
porCcd to the prinialc that a Up:4cd presbyter, Victor by name, 
had after rtn in^uflicicnt period of penance bccfi Atlmitted to 
rommiinion by their colleague Therapius of Bulla*, A fev 
wcrd» of this worthyn wlio Hpoke in his place of seniority sti 
sixty-first bi^op in Cyprian's last Council*, j*ivG an idea of 
one whose fancy might outrun discretion, ' He who concedes 
*and betrays to heretic^,' he then said, * the Church's (right of) 
' baptism, what is he but ihe Juda^ of Chrl>L > Spuust ? ' But 
if Tlierapiua thought ;in uniMuml (ipmion within the Church 
a worse betrayal of the Church than apostasy from her, the 
uncharity of Kiduj; in in contrast to the spirit of Cypriaa 
Fidus evidently desired tliat a new cxcommimication should 
overtake Victor. 

At hi* good fortune the Thikd Council of sIxty-«Hx 
bishops, who met Cyi>rwn prf>bably* In September A.n. 253, 
were Ick« ofrE;ndcd than at tbe autocratic manner in which 

C^ii. tmii. 

l\ F. Aug- 


• C^. Caim. £,</. Aff, %X (C. 
Jitcitllvi. rarl« 1A14. 1, p, 98; ir.p.4])^ 
L'AabHipEne, Of^utfat. V. >> O^t 

S. S, r^l. Iir p, J44K JqJ Moreeili 

rauDn to Iff 1 rlJfTci^Rt pUcc ftnoi 
BolU Kiigia- Ir iru In Koaiidia Pn- 
<ari*u]m«. n*u whecc th« bouaduj 
tfuna tti? Socndu. And ova fO nUlcs 
frrirn Ifrppn k>-^iii rm the r«>d to 
CuihAj** -aov Jfl«miHiB Dirridji, 
C. A L. vni. i. p. 151. U, p. pd4' 

Ii vdLt 14 citwll 4IH (Orn>'} FrvcTnim 
(Plin,) »^*f Ihc iwl rdi pJnn of the 
bn^rwtu (^ronip. 4t KfiJ. Induct L 

■en *Miiu t« lUfBolv the Mac ai 
BuUcrlA. lEtioe a bCabop from each 
illeniitd The BUTDinohi o\ Ifdnvn^ to 
C«ftli«^ in A.i>. ifi-4' A >k«Lpdi la 
A. Gnh^i'i Tumiit9^ p- iSS. 
» We Tumot «1(uh wdifht (o t1i« 

* On Eliv ^tu i)f ilih roaacil M 
noiwt, J. p. 914- 



even the now lenient conditions of restoration had been 
ignored. They would not withdraw the boon which a 'Priest 
of God' h^d granted, but a vote of ccn^tuic was pa^^ed 
u|jon Therapms (who may be suppo-^ed to have been presrnt 
fn his place in Council*) for giving a gratuilouE indulgence 
which the Laity had neither requested nor sanctioned'. 

The second case came from Assuras*^a populous inland 
town^ whose ruins lie widespread over height and ravine. 
The Temple and the Christidn Cluifch, which are slill, after 
its gates of the Antonines, the most marked objects there, 
may well have witnessed the incidents which brought on the 
appeal- The diocese had already elected Bpictetus to the 
Chair vacated by tile idolatrous sacrifice of Fortunatian ', when 
this traitor bishop, supported by a party of fellow-lapsed, re- 
claimed the function and emoluments' as his right. Cypnan, 
whose characteristic mistake was to consider every office of 
a church vitiated to nullity If discharged by an unworthy 
minister, urges that view more than the broad ground of 
order, in answer to an appeal to him from the disquieted 
flock, and counsels a resort to individual can^-^issing, if 
necessary, in order tn knit the church firmly together under 
their autfientic bishop. 

Ceji. IiDDi 

Cot. r. 


Far the most important to u* however of all case* of 
appeal is one which did not totne before Cyprian until 
about September km. 254 Its imptirtancc lies in the prin- 
ciples which it reveals as already regulating tlie intercourse 

> The form of pirpreKiftn may tctm 
TO wDJTftDl thiiT *tatiF full f!'/rtr^rt 
Tbciapuvin callccAm iicnlrum.,.c( t/t- 
Mtfiuitie.' Ep.6^- \. 

' Efi-Of,^ Alirii.likc BtiEU. JntJuEnulb 
Pioconaulitri'*, Src N. Dnvh. Kuinnl 
Citia vrilAifi Xnmi'tJ. ahJ OirfM. T^- 
lifariirs. fi. 6i^t siadHnG-TtmpLt'iJ^A- 
atrriMi. vol. 11. p, iM, ColontaJuUi 

Cfp- /merr. J.ait, n. fi^i inhibituiia 
AunriUni/ajJiV'r ; nuw ^iirc/ur, but ilh 
fiUin li'kAtrr Ktiert^ hrace't i\iavriii^ 
of the Temple titit arch it in CoJ- R. L. 

* PamctJu^ erroni;cusly iivpts rhiik 
nian a,f. a Kovii1i4nib[. FeW (olluyrti. 

' £fi. 5<i. a 'itipci ei «b1«i(Mie> ct 


of churches or dwc^es. But, reserving for the present the Vaieiuuiu* 
development of ihcsc principles, we will here relate only the n" ' ^' 
litriWine circumstances of ihe Lapse and the imme<)uTe acHnn J5*? Vf ■ 
takrn tipfin fr, Tt is r wHH talc, vi t(i ^pcaV, of the oM Eenaiio* 
Hordtr Lilt between Clmstianily and Pa^nism, p. F.Auft. 

The Ltishops of Leon and MerJda in Si>ain hod accq>tcd 
tcHtimonials to their orthodoxy ha pagans^ Tlic former. 
DasiliJcA by nanic, irpcntcd And Ibrnidlly abdicated hi» Aec 
w\wi) the persecution lulled. He then confe^^&l not only )\h 
crime of l^pfte, but how \n the <n]per«titiouH terror of Kome 
HInesfl he had bhsphcncd the God of hi;; faith. After this 
confesMon he th.inkfijlly accepted the position of a Layman. 

MEirtial of Mcrida had long a^o enrolled himsdf in one of 
those rclJg:ioj5 colleges which, besides their other celcbr^ttions, 
pcrforn^cd the funcml ritiittl of their members A'ith ^11 {Vigan 
solemnities in crmeicries *<ecurcil to them by law'. With 
»uch rites he interred children of his own. 

The Chairs of these two men had been lilled by other two 
elected by their own churches and approved by the neigh' 
bouiing pidatcs, BasUidcs afterwaiijs rcinn^cring fiom hLs 
direction jutkl a viKit to Rome, and there he and, we mu«t 
Infer, Martial] also*, by some fraudulent means procured a 
declaration from the new pope Stephen that he would hold 
them still to be the lawful occupants of the two scca 

Against this sudden and monstrou.n utterance the Spani^ 
chunJic?! appeal to CyprJaa A Fouktm Council of seven * «>- ■*♦-" 
and thirty bishops, assembling under him at Carthage*, accept 
the appeal, reverse the Roman sentence', and Instruct the 
churches to keep to their ri^hteour* course. There is no 
further reference to the Roman sec in the matter. 

' £/^ 67- S^ 4l>9T«. p. Si, 

3^, icwa Hnnir tnlrrTHMnif 'iHnila nf 

Sc« cnoFc futt^ un iNi Appeal and on 
the alTfllr ol Mtrlian of ArUi in Ijhf 
rhipirt OB Siephrft. p- jn . 

" StitipLy, 'nui oIlcApifl Sttphdi 
v»k « luq^ vn^ ulT iDil ifovMni uf die 
hctt ■»! or fhe inilh-' £f^ 6;- %r 


It is obviously of extreme interest and imporUnco to 
obfpCrvc principles not created but unqucstioningly acted upon 
in this cause; The action taken is quite compaitible with the 
thoit^ht oT Rome ^ Prific^a/is £ceUsia* as a centre of ' unity/ 
but irreconcilable with any view of thjil yi* ii^ a centre of 
legislation or jumdiction, or even as a centre of reference 

Meantime we may remember that while the lef:::tsIation 
provided for the Lapsed was tcmponiry, the principles whkh 
it Hrst broug^ht into strong relief arc for all tinjc. And wc 
may still regard our jxissr^ion of them a£ oar inheritance 
from the Decian persecution, 

A less happy forecast attends the case of a 'contumelious* 
Deacon and a Layman abetting him. which i^ referred to 
Carthage by the Bishop Rogatian', in all likelihood the 
^ame who figures in the Councils, ]3ishop of Nova, deep bi 

The tone of the letter indicates thai he was known to 
Cyprian ; ' Let no man despise thy old sgc,' he says. He 
writes however not for himself only but in the name of 'col- 
leagues/ so that his systematic consultations were at work. 
The Ufa of authority Is developed and fortiJied, bul it is the 
same idea as in the fourth epistle, resting on the same precept 
in Deuteronomy* of reverence and obedience to the High 
Priest. That mean^ simpiy, that details had taken time to 
work out. but that from the first Cyprian held that view which 
ijc held last of the identity of iittcrnal relations in the two 
polilies of IsFELel and the Church. 

The case, says Cyprian, might have been properly dealt 
with by excommunications on the part of Rogatian himself 

This is the course which, with his 'colleagues who were 

' Seep. iQi.and AffiftfUix, p. f^. * Dcm. xvil. ii. 13. Ie wu prn- 



* See AffatdiM m CUm, p. 575. Pc4i»uu. 



present/ he recommends in the last resort, but he would rather 
rely on an appeal to ^od sense and feeling\ It is well and 
sincerely ur^d. But here we see excommunication, Instead 
of being kept as the discipline of sin, already looming as an 
engine for managing the Church. 

^ O- Riuchl poLnred out fp- 339) whkh connects it with the lime ire 

that Aigument and dlu^ion in £p. 3, are discussing. 

as Pearson counted it, aie not of an If the ^colleagues present' are a 

&Li\y stamp ; and I would further Council, and not rather the OccasiotuiL 

observe on the doBC verbal resem- Boaid. it waa probubly the Third Coun- 

blance between Ep. 3. j. 1 and Epp- cil. for Rr^atian attended the Second 

5^ 4 ; 66. 3 ! and de Unit. 17, iS, and Fourth- 




p. 1*1' 

TAf C/mrck in rtiation (a Pkyiiux! SujfffriN£. 
1. Within iiseif—Tkc Bcrhcr Raid. 

Even whilst ihe Council sale news arrived that many 
Christian matdcnsn wives and children', had been kidnapped 
from Numidia by the Berbers, The frontier tribes, quieted 
last by Scvcrusj were in mnvcmcnt this year and were carry- 
ing terror into the provinces. 

Faultily' and fatally these indigenes'^ ages ^o rolled 
back by settlers from Asia and Europe, were being now ruled 
by fortrc,^5C3. military colonics, farmers holding by service- 
tenure, absolute magistrates, without any attempt to interest 
or incoq>oTflte thenin Their raids were really waves in thtif 
steady retxim. 

In the year 253 there was a concerted general advance. 
Maurctania felt themn They broke out of Aures* through 
the ^aud c!iain of fortress settlements, harrj'ing the domains 

^ Sf. <5it ii Cyprian appcaU ti> 1V Rheims »»> is onl m ipwd teiei. 

father* nniT Pi^iibendB o^ iLCc«taartI^ 
lymjiQlliitin^p ]l was a raid un per- 
lont- In c J, p. 699, I- iL, ] dcmui 
lo WnneVt Tt^t^\r^g ■ vincuh mirlTiillt 
Amgre* (torn the Rhdni'i MS., wliit;lj 
BjtlitK Ilcic Irctt aaule for ibp licuer 
eiproalop 'piulirt vinculi m:<rirallft' of 
the ediii^iif which rcpiaent Jorf K(S. 

* F. Ltcroiv in Lhc ftitttf A/ncaiw. 
tdL vle, p. jAj. 

' Thtre axt irul Vi^t inca of their 
otmc over nU North Africi. Ti>Hl. 
G^gt. til i* yv«', iTA/riqM, 1. p, jy4. 

■ S»f jtpfimdur an drtn, p. J7|. 



of the Strongest towns. Thubunx on the Salt Mars^h. and the 
va»t .toldicr-cobny of Lambxsia. Froro the Sahara they came 
right thmiigh tht? Province tt»elf intn the terrbmth wocxls of 
Tucca And tn thr great centre or traffic As^ums, little more 
than z humlfctl miles from Carthage, 

The Christian population of at least eight tees wa* thus 

As memoriaLi of transactions $o fatal ultimately to the 
church of Afncia ^nd lo all the civilization which depended 
on It, clearing tlK* {ground as they did for Vandal and for 
Saracen, there remain in explanation of each other only 
sc<tttered notices, a few inscriptions, and the ^ixty'S^econd 
cpiJClc of Cyprian which went with a lanaooi'- 

Thia muit have been a aeriouH time for the dominion 
of Afrtcii. though we kntnv nothing direct about it- Not 
Cyprian but two or thrw unburicd marbles' tell ua how 

> Intlwfmjnfc crniury^hildKB w» rHtte ca the defeali of VaiaiIv > 
emilEndjr icdccoKtl from chv Dcilxn 
Aod baptucd i/ (uiJi^cnt^lit^, I'.Cptttf 
CaK4. c. ft, jlo. 31)3. Ij[»6r ir ni$ 

tic mini u[i, uu tx^ iS, ;t9. llefdck /A 
d^ C, B. rin. top). C44. Camt. Eeet. 
jfyV, 71, JuiutL p. i^% («t.l r4i4)> 
Labbe. IJ, ijoS. l?/fv hinc/<^. hulc.) 
En A^, 40V wc nark tlictJi IcIdnapirlniE 
«liD furlbsr iwrlh K1 Stlihi itAClf, Aufi^ 
^ ai. (cMi).] ;- 

* Aa affRtinc intciipLkia ^itui ia 
fyw- A/r. VII- p 3f9 btloni^ 10 Uit 

tisla fofl) A r ccvLti D h kavk al- 


Tour Idtm Irorn Wjlmanos' <n(1, 
«bo bw i afla b k. and Tm v a imjiU 
L (7), C7. /, Z^ rut. U 9ia8]. A 
JbrgkTj dAlminE 10 l« nf yeu »^4 vilh 
ft Gaiioat •tocr ia givm C. i- I- vijf- i. 
Pi jDoiiL. y^ Olber iAK(i|iUgMi be- 
Idnging (f> thp itciEl ;|a or 40 yan, 


C/p/.-niiH Li-9»4^tbccti^crLjUn frctm 
whom the A>*™»/Hr'» hinl. ^'ratm^fn 
are laid tn h« catlcd, of thcf^uirtQUK- 
OKnrA.-(Bl KM>t,tM al BouiEic, ^d^, 
C. /. /„ VTlf. li, H5»4 t*"»T- ^yr- IV, 
P' «5l)f i^**^ "^ Qfthati at Oiefcbtl, 

CriWd. KAASIA rk^Tll>[IV» KAB\KI« 

TRAr<r>rrAu»ehSfttv» C. A L. vni. \\. 
9JI4 (Av- /^r. IV. p. tit< Whs. Alf. 
No, 7J' 

The Qalnqucgvttianel dbappear loon 
tritr lb«ir ov«itbrov by MmdmiM 
(Eulrop. iK- ij)- The Iktbcn bcdrecn 
^iliFih and Ciru arc (jy Fliiiy *. ioftl 
Aiid KEolemj iv^ j <p, me uj ei-llcd 
SAbftrbBTsv Za^ai>^tv'^ *~^cb iivjd 
Ui otHiUin Ihe Nuuiidiui pnCa Zai 
(A'^Hr^ Affk^mt, val. vii. p. »j, Ac), 
bbl m cither ea*« viih v. L 3at*bw«at 
Za^6ov^%. Ai ui UM of iJtff Abort 
iiuffiplimit- In Kp. l^i- | nait^aronnn, 
&C- would(«rrfcilf hOLV-aHGAptUl Ictier- 

io4i (publlihfHilaMibEpnnioiBpin- 


a year or two Later the Bavarcs under Tour united nftCivo 
prmcee wasted Numidia as far up as Milcv. There, and 
^ain on the MaurctAHTAn Frontier, they were violently checked 
by C Macrinius Dcdanus, pioprarlor. lie defeated 4t Uic 
same time other great Ic^gtiti* ot clan?*^ of them, ;is the Quin- 
(juegentand, who fell or MaurcunJa itself; and while he 
claimed Uie cn^it of the capture and execution of h'smtxcn*. 
almost a chieftain of romance,— like the present Berber cKiels, 
'who look as if thawed out of marble statues of Roman 
emperors',' — it would seem that the actual 5eij;ure of him 
and his whole stalT wa* the exploit of GargiHus M;irtiali>>, an 
ofBeer who had served in Britain and now commanded the 
loyal Moorish cavalry. Still further west Auzia. no;v Autnak, 
must have been in peril, for when, in A.D, 36o, Gar^ilius him* 
self was destroyed by a Berber acnbushi Ausia commcnioratod 
by a statue hi> former act of ' valour and vigilance,' 

The redemption of captives, like the portioning of orphans. 
had long been among the Romans a favourite work of 
liberality — ' most worthy of the gravity and greatness of the 
senatorial order*,' 

There was nothing specifically Christian, nothing novel 
in the collection which was promptly made at Carth^e for 

^ia.y\i AJiii iisiioic I vvtiK wi(ltea}> ton- 
sldcn ilut (be iriaoiici of Ucctno belong 
\<t the yau* 953 snd 354, He was 
' Ltip^lva duoruiii AugunEumm f^Liini- 
dlRi' i,i» ot Vftkrlcui svid GnlUirn. in 
A.D. i6o, 10 which year t!ie movtwient 
iCiclfbelcngi. See t\u: inii:r\pi'>vas C. J^ 
L. viii. I. 3615 (bL J^ml-irsi-s). ii, 'fi\' 
(Aaim}, and compurv li. 9045. Mark 
ihff cuprtssinJK "pcovinciam Nomidiam 
vajfa&isM,' 'miJiliii ItavDrum lieetpiB,'' 

* ijtn. Cfculy thcw* ihut Habar^ 
included Quinqnegtniiinffi and Fnxi- 
ncnKCBt Ifn: AfikhL i3Ai.p.iJ. See 
iho Tlstol I- 4jSk 11' 79^ 

^ Tlic Dttx fii$Hati!si*HHi |full of 
legendi) oT [he FmxincnKs mu^ be 
Faraxen hiimcir. Col. K- L. VW^i^. 
TtmaU in the FMOCeps of Brma 
\\\ Tt). uty^ xhax ill ibc Allien muon- 
rnin; over Limbe^i^ it a M^b tvoodtd 
and hccladcil vol le/ colled Ti Fv^smm. 
lis lume. pr^rbaps, may be a ncanJ of 
lhi& rmil, 
■ Col- R- L- Plftjfiir, i»/. -*'. p. 70> 
* RrvlJmi c ^crviLuLc cap(0A.,.viilfo 
loliinm fi*Ti nh or^liftc nocu-o .Hftc 
{con&iietuifi>} Chi gnviuai honuniun 
«K|ue lut^ijrvin. Cic* d(f Qf, U. Ift 

*j: cf- ifi. 5j. 


the victims, except the number and po\-erty of the con- 
tributor. But thia novelty waa Christian. The motives 
which they Iiad fouad Jxresislible were 'tJiat the captives 
'were 1ivin|; shrme^s «f ilcfty; tluil Cbrist wiLs in thctu iuid 
"they in ChrUt: thai such an event was a probation not only 
'of suflfer^ra but also of sympathizers; thai all looked tot a 
'Judgment in which sympathy would he the main subject of 
' enquiry/ If He will then my ' l waa sick and yc visited me.' 
much muvc will ihc Redeemer say I w^s captive And yc 
redeemed me/ How full Cyprian's mind was at this momenc 
of the^e topic* w*: »hall recognUe a* we proceed. 

Nearly eight hundred' pounds wa« f^ubacnbed by the 
community, and by the sitting bishops; by these partly 
OR behalf cf their poor churches. The liM of donors, acnt 
into NumidJa, was accompanied by the request tliat they 
niiglil be commemorated ^t the ^Acnficcs and in prixaie 
pray«f«, and with an assurance of further help should the 
need, as was too likely^ recur. 

A beautiM inci<I«niaL proof of the g«niji>icn«£» of our documents 
COikiM out brrr Thr Tvli«f is ^rni from C^irLh&ge 10 ri^lii NumidiiLn 
bi#fck<ip«, Janujinubf MiLxiinus, ProculuA, Victor, Mocli^timti, Nc- 
meaianiiK, Nampulu^, HoitorAiu^, but theic U no iruuma of ihcir 
>«««. Nov in ibf i;il of thr CoiinctI of 356 four of thei« nKipp<ar fu 
boUxop* uf (All NuinJdiaii icca tthidi um iijunni an^ twu rrovinclal ; 
vu: jAnuariut of Lamb^iu and NcmogioAui ol Tliubuna-r Victor of 
A^suia^ and Honor^ius of Tucc<l Thc»c towii» uiih Auzia g\yc 
tht ][co)Eraph]cal \\r\t I hav« mdicatvil, which 11 it*«1f :i >i^ of 
ACcarACy, What forfcr of ftikoihcr Afc nnd muntry oouUl hate 
marked for himfcir upon hi« mip a line of tMubinui advance and 
then hove forborne Eo indicate eI, but in a wholly Lincoancctcd doci]' 
mem have atu^od to the t«f4 whtch ma.rked xhix line lh« nant^t 
of Mine of hi^ fetiiiou* bivhopt? Qebind diitlinc toward Mt Aarvj 

' Z/ fr>'4'koli:i[iiiai ceiituiu millui Ui^icl tn loidint; 'laurtEk tciKuiii 

nttinmnni. riTomiv- lib. df tot, n. iS' mllln nummoruin/ eku clo balax'^ 

IjarrL Th< ivo xvih oniitt^ iitanL f[uuUiioiu pror* it lo be po*tib)c. 
)tu. cf tbiB epibLlT Kiicsb junify 


lie several Cypti*nw sees, such as Thamogndi, Matcula. Theveiie, 
and beyond it G«mdZai, Badiis, and gihers ; lomc of ihc^L- no doubi 
were the olht^r Tour i^ufTt^rcrt. In anolhcr [lUce I thaEI sliew hu» ihr 
ordct of tbc pamca in Councils (a matter of acniorltyj i^ortcspoiidii 
Klib Other irull cations. 

J. Thi C/iunM in rtlatutjt U Htathtn Suffering,— The Plague. 

And now tho formation and compacting of the ChrUtfsui 
community have for some lime engrossed us. Meanwhile 
changes have p;is5ed over the aspect which that community 
presented to the world. That community owed and owned 
a duty lo all unconverted humanity — not only a duty to 
absorb it with ^)\ possible rapidity into itself — t)ut a duty also 
towards the pan not within any given time likdy to be 
absorbed. That enquiry into social morals which most taxfid 
the philosophical power of paganism had been overtaken by 
a code, or the principle of a codc» which exempted no man 
from active benevolence. The doctrine of Grace operating 
upon and cooperating with the human will to reconstruct 
character, the embracement of eternal life and reward, the 
earthly pattern of Christ and the passion of reproducing it, 
above all the experienced and attested union of the indii'idual 
spirit with Him during the present existence* placed the Chrij- 
liaii, 5o ioon a^ lie btgan lo realise this new range of Ideal, 
in an altitude of fresh and unexpected energy towards every 
person and every contingency with which he came in coniaci 

This realization had been to the practical comprehension 
of the convert Cyprian an afTair of perhaps a few weeks*. 
This realisation was what he excelled in impressing on other 
mtn> Even the East appreciated this action of his on the 
community. 'He educated the whole moral tone, dissipated 
'undisciplined ignorance of doctrine, brought order to the lives 
'of men V says Gregory of Nazianzus. We have watched him 

■ ?oni- Vii-i. 

• Grig. Nu. Or. ^tlr. i|, ,.^0* 



a^Ilc as ihe Org^ntzcr. Wc return lo follow him through 
the same periud as th^ MastL^r of Doctrine rcijuccd to Life. 

If we C211 vividl)' pUce thia work before our eye« as tt 
went on in one grc^t city of the old worl<l. wc ftbill Atand 
clo^c to the fountain- head of the movement It wit9 in the 
citicH that It bur^t out» ^ it waa in the busiest Galilean towns 
that Christ Himself hnd preached ni06t attractively. While 
each of the great cities hat! tu own [rart, Alt'^camlria the 
more profound ird tpccuhttve and Rome the more political, 
Carthage, in some respects so like EngUndj with its blended 
races, ita contracted homc> world-wide intcrcourae, and ready 
interest in theories which had their birth elsewhere, attained 
ib( own tfueiC historical eminence through Christianiiy, and 
that eminence the most in«ruciivc of all foir u& 

The field on which first opened out the Christian strcngtii n>- >5i" 
in contrast to heathen hclplci^sness was a terriUe one. In 
the year 2$3 A.n. the Great Pia^e reached Carthage The 
epoch was ore of those periods of physical disturbance which, 
righfly or not, have been noted in connection with plague«- 
Famme, protracted drought, tornadoes and unexampled hatl- 
atorms' prevailed. The pestilence had defended two years 
before from vl^thiopia* upon Egypt; a pestilence differing 
ApecificaUy from the third vbitation In the rcl^n of Ju*itinjan\ 
which wa* !»itriclly iinalof^ju^ In (h<T inndern pU^iir, hut 
travelling the snme route and exhibiting a somewhat similar 
character with it* predecessor of the fifth centUT>" before 
Christ. Whether Ihesc were different disorderR, wq cannot 
dbtinffuish, Both were of the class of malignant typhoid fever. 
The absence at Carthage of those pulmonary complicationiiH 
which Thocydides de^crfbes as one of tbe most distressing 
symptoms, may be atiributable to the dr>" atmoiphere of 

^vairit fl n^l It Afyvrror. 4,r.X. 

■ Pracofdm ippfan \a mr lo Mw 

cmbellkihcj hit lo|i£ accuunt of thit 
by DiAiy paritJ^iilm fn>in o(h«T peMi- 
IcnccL be hdk An. II. x> (DinJ. 
\.J. t. p. t4i|]. 




Tunisia, but neither does Cyprian mention die red and livid 
blistering eruption, nor yet ihc brain affection, which among 
the Athenian sufferers had frequently resulted in the ex- 
imction of memory. If Kutropius is accurate, it also dilTered 
from that pestilence in not extin^ishing like it all other 
disorder, but was on the contrary attended by a multiplicity 
of thcni^ Other symplams, perhaps the most general, arc 
identical — the dSarrhcea, the ulcerated month and lliroat, the 
congested eyes, the internal fever and incessant sickness ; the 
loss to survivors of the feel or ether extremities, the Umc- 
ness. bhndncss. or total deafness. Both were preceded by 
the intense nervous depression which induced the premoni- 
tory symptom of threatening spectres*. 

This plague went on for a term of twenty years ranging the 
civilised world, TCinmlng once and again to countries which 
it had desolated and to cities in which it seemed to have 
stricken every house*. In A.D. 361 its recoil on Alexandria 
was worse than its iirst assault, and in four years more it had 
reduced the population by above one half- It fell on tlic 
armic-s of Valerian and delivered the East up to Sapor. In 
262 five thousand persona died in Rome, and the same number 
in Achaia, on a single day'. In 370 the emperor Claudius 
died of it while it was serving as his most effective auxiliary 
against the Gothic hordes in Thrace. It had run but half 
its course when Dionysius quotes and affirms tlie remark 
that of all the wars and miseries which oppressed the race 

scgriiudmibos ndui vomm princ^pPlLH 
full. Eutr, iih 5, 

■ Gieg- Njj6, vif' S- Crti^^ JVmam. 
I IS, Procnp. It. p. a^j ^iffi^Ta. 

* Dmnyn. Jtp. Eiisph- vii- 3i--^Cnnl.i' 
nuflCtu per ordmvm <1omoc.-f Dfit, KjA 

«■ ^1 So OTOsiUS. vU. IE. 

* At AltfxuulrLa Ihe wbolv Aim of 

and Ho v'fts xHer ibc reign aCGdlHfPiu 
cqufl] only re the farmcinuiii1>crof (hoK 
bet*i;i:a 40 and jo- GthlKip hellOr 
dediu^ei ih« AlK>ve (m£1, cii. k- id fin* 

* Thftb is if I mmpfdienil ilic 
QfJioue (>liKtirily of TirliclJiuSh rolljo 
{Ciilhfiit Una 5). liihhnn ij»ka it 
tliii duiitig toma uid« £Ooa died in 
Rome diUf. 



of man the i^loguc alone hdil ojLrun the cl;irkc^t anticipa- 

Th)5 was the horror and the misery which fell like aa 
unnatumi nigttt on the Chmti;inft' dawning hope« of peace 
and crder. 

In our present year it carried off the young emperor 
Il05tilLaD^ and the cmpci^r Gallus and his aon Voluaiaii were 
winning golden opioious by their tiirc fur the interment of ihr 
meanect viclimt*. To confess to any lunitary motive, such 
9S wc hope we may suspect, would have been Impiety. 
Avowed mcuureft of relief were limited to edict-*; for universal 
sacrifices which exposed Christianity to fresh persecution from 
popalaoCH whidi furiously marked its non-compliant attitude, 
and also to an unprecedented issue from the imperial mints 
of coins dedfoited to 'Healthful ApolloV These remedies 
marked the limits of antique celf-devotion to populations sick 

' Abi. Viclor, £fiii. c. je. All Um. 
hat: iivj llvetilifimia /Wfimav -.u /Vr- 
fttms^ an Erm^c^n lumr cintri^t^lly 
irfdob OffKAnn nfT«^kTiof hjm, llmti 
mTit Iclrni ulitlcr bu:h nanK4 pf h» 
faroihcr, midc ni]]>crw wUh hm, iml 
liMt vttb Dcciut, TIL Kprmniiii Kirut- 
ctu, WD «f lUtcnflia Einucillo. Zo- 
vlmui. L )<;, taya thb death lo ihe 
jvalouay of GatliU' 

* Aur. Victor 4&C«»'Cp 3a ' icnubatoii 
cajDsc(uccuci]ut>iiciLiuaiiit>* Euiiawc 
ban io ?«imniUH Saiynt. c- t lA ' rin- 
qHHii ia T>«ti}cttii* canpo^ in tgiiibw 
alUl iLud ot niii flHbvcri qun Ucv 
ruDDur «al corvl -ivi la^rnnt ' 

' Tb«itoryof the invocation utjr«^c> 
Cinaalb }>ick in miitd uul tfu^T aflci 
Grta't mitrdtft itnii^kL 1i^« d«uirliu 
bcttrinc Arouut S^alumhik wiih olh«r 
colli* uF tiaiibr AllEtkioiL {icc Stcvrn- 
UD. y>w/- /"j**!. CiWHJ. l8Sg. p. 6j). 
Tb*n Oitlu* jn ihu pU|^e ibuul A.Li. 
154 (to Ecklicl] BLtuck Uf)[c btuu aaJ 
odi«r mci^U uilI Iuioil AroLLlNL 

SALEjrAki (StcveiiMOt p. <}), U ihv 
Bfhnli Muinui aiq two 'Antonuinl,' 
<n sumiiATii:! a hDlfnurfut of ili« Tyff. 
AIh (G rubber and I'oolc, fitmo/t 
Me^i^vni in /trtt. Mm,, p|r. a;, 6a) 
1 bius TDtililliGri of C>»lbt And anp of 
VnJwilftiij which bcai Apollo with 

lahkricbl 3 lnurcL Itruicli, in hi>i ]<l^ 
1 *rrp«nl, bfvnil 4RN aji. Th«(« 
icfcr EO the Atnc luidi^r and tbc iiMd 
uf iL BVBu tf Pdlctiji'» dcTtr toien'TC- 
lUicH) of ^rirjt Aid Ariaium aiectinu « 
Colenw in aol «fldin {Sc*Tcn«4ai 
p. 8il> Sm H. Ci>1iDn (nol ^^mte iccv^ 
nirv)» Metmiiai jr>tfifif/i vus f Kmfiirt 
J?t^ai», |K«5, vol, v., pp. tjK, ijfln 

Similar rrpM >k comiioncd throogh 
Chft EfcMi nigtt wiih fr'iviU of th* Di 
MaiuKs and fll b uM) (h< fir>i ap' 
peoimce of I>luui [k1u> a hcilcr) on 
«uiu- ^Un^ uc loiLnd la Hn^lajtd- 

16— a 


unto dcjicb. That tlic greatest happmc^d of the greatest 
numbcT h best secured by the cTcvofion of the mdividual to 
hU own, was not then a floating theory. It pc^rvaded society 
as a living principle. When physical terror became the domi- 
nant chord in life "egoism' perfected its melod/n Instant 
flights, the desertion, the exposure of the dyin^, the barred 
gales of the house-courts, the hasly flinging out of the dead, 
street asaaasi nations and drugged pusscts, the spoliation of 
unprotected fortunes, the last corruption of the judicature, 
marked the opportunity and the successes of Self let loose* 
upon society. Every natural, every acquired semplc broke 

But the entrance of aclf-sacrificc upon the scene docs 
indeed difference the plague in Carthage, in Nco-Ctcsarca. 
or Alexandria from the plague of Athens. In cad) of thc^ 
ulies tht Biahop of ihc Chn-stian.^ was a leading ciLrxen. Thr 
e^rlie-st-dated though but passiug meinion of this plague is 
in connection with the deaths of several* Egyptian Deacons. 
The behaviour of Gregory in Pontus secured the faith of that 
region. Nor had the wearing persistence of the misery any 
power to abate ztkL In Alexandria ten years later, when 
h;ilf the town had perished*, there wa^ niiW in rendering 
the last offices almost an excess of tenderness, such a« 
scarcely could be justified except by the moral cfTect of 
intrepidity upon a population. For it so subjected the Church 
to contagion, and swept away such crowds of faithful lives, 
that the Chnstiana owned that now at length was verified 
the soubriquet with which by an ungenerous perversion that 
Pansian-like populace had long stigmatized ihem — they were 
become *the Offscouring' of all- 
Ac Carthage, so soon as the usual street -scenes and hou^^c- 
scenes began, Cyprian summoned his community, and in a 

/>fmt/rr II, 

* /.f. jauiTitng ihiii iliDtD «cre only 

«*cn tccording lo Cone, N*ocaij*. A.D. 
JI4. CDii, ij-— Eoicb. vii, I). Cf- 31. 



speech which hu deacon wished the whole city could h&vc 
hcdrd from the rostra, developed the ctuty and diviitcncsa of 
prayt-r and bbour on bt^hnlf of pi^rKtxiilun^ In thiii light he 
appealed to ihrir Chri^H;in hHirf in ihi-ir writable Sonship to 
God^ His epigrammatic • Ji^j/Wft^^ty-t N/tialtbus* is a nobler 
version of Nobicsse &bUg£ and no lost deli«s rendering. 
He then, with the facility which marked his arrangements, 
forthwith propo:v:d and c^Lrricd a ^chemc for the ny^tetnatic 
care of ihc city, Wiih a ft-w niiitTkcd cxccplions' the whole 
socieiy, rich and poor alike, partly from motiWB like hi* own, 
partly under the spell of hi» personal influence', responded to 
the appeal, undertook the parts he assigned thom, raised an 
abundant fLind, and formed an adequate staDT for the nursing 
and burial oi .sufferers and victims* without any discrimi nation 
of religious profes^^inn*. 

Of this or^uiiation probably Uttle or nothing transpired 
before the heathen. We fiec to-day how the wide organiza- 
tions, much more the aclf-sacrificc, of the Church's work in 
obscure London can escape the philanthropic novelist and 
even tJie rcli^ous sects of mure prospcroiis quartern. The 
slow, va»t effect of those unsuspected forc&*« en Carthage may 
ebeer the sacrificers and organizers of to-day. It was not 
Ukely to be recognised in that old tortured and torturing city 
that the new enthusiasm of humanity was fired by Christianity. 
Or if this partly emerged, still nothinir could overcome the 
DAtural disgust with which citi;:cns regarded such stolid 

' 1 infei that ihcK were eiccpri^cu 
frau Ik O/. ^ Ei. u 'yNdfiAtft m 

ajkOitct quod umim/taia/ m rr^a/Mft^mJ 
ttnritm' which *%l<leijtly^ refer* Uf uei- 
aoAwnwd afii'nilt mmlr tiy UimvU irpin 
Alt wbjcffli 

* Sub unto docton. . pUceKt ot 
Deo pBirl. ft jadM Chrwo, vi Liumm 

* .,,ejiubvrADZiain o^jcrom UrtlljUc. 
qiN^d boniini ^tr l/I omim. nnn nd 
ioUn it>molic4) Add pAnlta*, JT/. 10, 
darm tlic fur4;ivciivv« ^li (he Jcaiih 
Sdlnl T<kM4& "one*, jwIcp nnri itt- 
t^ucntlj,' far niin)* hi* ' mo^mpidii 
bic iriclT/ '•hitli tJillcclcjd only Lti« 
rrmmini itf hn nvni Hti^H-'ivUfTtn, 
lowB thiD ihdt of Cy)«Lan. * Pul 
nem (ba add>) bdonp to the dai<s of 


encmicK of the emperor ind the cmpfrt How else account 
for the cfccl coldness willi which their sect looked oti at the 
propitiations and tears presented tr> Health* to Apollo, and 
to Ca^lestis Queen of Heaven? None however wa* »o ob- 
roxious a^ the Overseer' of the Christians — for the populace 
knew well that title. The publication of the aacrificial edict 
had been once more a signal for the Citcvs to demand that 
Cypiian should be fetLheU and matched with one of their 
lions, and he was officially proscribed by name and office'. 

His terrible work was not over, and grave political com- 
plicationa had jjathcrcd round him, when five year^ latCTj 
A,D. 257h he wa:^ banished. This, says his biographer, 'was 
'his reward for withdrawing from living sight a horror like 
'that of heir and for 'saving his country from becoming the 
'empty shell of an exiled population.* Allow the utmost for 
partiality, that effort to grapple with a Plague-cit^- must have 
been as energetic as it was noveL 

3. TJtr TAfory. — Uftcattditiotiaf Aitruisrtt. 

Cyprian's mode of organizing had this merit and this 
njiing 5|n;ll, thai he tonJt those who were to be organized into 
his full confidence- He filled them with the ideas which had 
carried himself to the point of action, 11 parlc. il pari© 
beaucoup, il fait tout ce qvi'il a dtt' was: the witty description 
of a novel diplomacy which converted a province into an 
empiic. It was in the highest sense of that description that 
Cyprian educated his followers into the schemes of duty 
which rose before him. 

We may look on his little treatise, his ' Letter,' as Augus- 
tine calls it, * OF Work, and AlMS-Deeds; as the expansioD 
of his noble motto R^sp&nderc NataUhiis, as a lengthened 

' Ep. 66. 4 'Siqiils tenet possiJcl 
Ac boniE Czcili Cypriani Kpic^npi 
Chmliannnjin * — rino(«! from ihc doCa' 

ct idjuncto epiittopBCdK %vA Donilnc 
amphkhvalro,' ftc> 

VI, r. 3, 



ttcho perhaps of that last speech of his on the approach of the 
plague. It h an unreserved ^tstcmcnt of the Theory which 
he carried throuffh without reserve. The strokes which were 
falling on the Chnatian> turned the cLffluencc of many into 
poverty- Yet such strokes were partijl in their effii^ct, 2nd 
left many untouched. So too the horror* of Pestilence do 
not bring the same universal impoverishment as Famine; and 
even Captivities and Confiscations had only their selected 
vietims- There were patrimonies atilh there were old hoards 
of bullion, which it was time to unlock to the thronging 
misery ; there wrrr matronly j<^wellenr% ;iiii^ a\\ the extrava* 
garLcrs of fashfon ; the barrenness, the dtilness, the darkness 
of wealthy luxurious life oppressed the mind'. It was a time 
to build any frethly gained ideas into the social code, and 
his own splendid use of wealth ^ave him a right to utter 

Christ then had treated the s^tcnfice of wealth a.% a note of 
enrolment in His siiptrnaiural society, as a grade in perfection, 
9S a reality which would accompany the soul into immortaUiyV 

Christ had not merely overlooked mundane ccir^iderationjL 
He had pcrsoaally pledged Himself to convert losses so 
incurred into g.iin, and fd.ithlcss gains into loss. He had 
charged Himself with the iinxieties of the liberal , in short for 
His followers He had tdcnilfied Hiirii«lf with Providence'. 

5ociall>- He had declared Himself to be the new power in 
the world for the elevation of th« masees; He had mtnuteJy 
described how in the close of the world's hi!itcr>- He will 
look back on efforts made for the amelioration of their 

Domestic cUims cannot really coropelir witf the needs of 
the poor; boch the interests and the charactets of ChriiiCian 
families are best provided for by practical demonstrations of 


real faith in iniinortat recompense, in daEly providence, in 
ihc f^ihcrhcod of God^ 

Orcc more the whole theory of Christian worship, center- 
Ing as it docs on the F^ucharist, U nuHilied lor the rich and 
acliiah. Without personal sacrifice there can be no union with 
the DJvmc sacrifice. What an irony to sec a gorgeous lady 
befofe ^n dlUr receiving her communion nut of tllc otTcrings 
of the poor'. 

In a nearly contemporaneous letter' Cyprian represented 
Christian endurance by metaphors almost overbold, 08 a 
gladiatorial combat fought for crowns before l^mperor and 
Ca?sar. He now carries liis figure farther. The wcaltliy who 
will br^tow his mr^ans in supporting ^uch combatants is like 
the MuncrarJus' — the man of rank or ambition who lavishes 
a fortune to provide a worthy spectacle- With a Goethesquc 
audacity Sdtan himself is introduced to confront tl)e throned 
Cbiist, He points out the glorious shows which his servants 
niin themselves to exhibit with unfrnitful unselfish splendour 
in his honour. 'Where, O Christ/ he sneers, " are }'our 

■ Munerani ? Where your capitalists^ who will do even self- 

■ remuncratirET works on -luch a scale upon your principles,— 
'eitlier through gratitude for your loving Passion^ or in hope 
'of your bright reward-'' 

But our account of the motives for generosity which Cyprian 
expands before the Church, would not be complete without 
his peculiar and less satisfactory development of the relalton 
of Almsgiving to Sin. Not only do prayer and fasting lack 
substance and reality apart from such alms and wo^k^ but 
when past sinfulness has been obliterated by the blood of 
Christ in Baptism, the ciTeciivenes^ of that Baptism is pro* 
longed and subsequent frailties continually abolished, through 

' DiQ.tlE. ifin a» 

* Nole Lhc p0pukr vonj invunicd by 

Ao^tDK. Quiniit- viii. 3, ond note lh« 

vr. n. 



the maintenance in all its freshness of the slate ot mind In 
which v/c kavc thrr font by a coniitunt How of working and 
almspivinffV There can be no better Ulustration than this 
tCAching [iri which a distinct propitiatory value i« a.^«if^cd to 
oar own acilon) of ihc combined rcsultSH in the lievclopmcnt 
of doctrine, of rcsoriing to thr Jewish Apociyplia, relying on 
a Version, and construcUng a iheorj' from a word*. When 
thiK thread of erroneous, or at lea^t ambiguous, theory 
waa presently after woven in with TertulUan'a new forensic 
language on satisfaction bcin^ made to God by pcrnancc\ 
a commencement of much medidcval troiibic was made. 

Or the other h»n<t for thb very treatise tht fust Council 
of Ephesus was grateful, when ihcy cottld quote, with 
Other 'chapters' from the Fathers, against the confusions 
of Neatorius' its clear-toned opening 'The Sent Son willed 
to be the Son of Man/ 

And Auguatinc with quite a burst of love brings up tts 
eloquent tniths as against the Pelagian thought that some men 
in thitt life are sinless. ■ So didst thou teach, *o didst thou 
admonish, incomparable teacher and glorious wiiressV 


Such was the pre|iaration which the ChriTtii^mv of Carthajge 
were receiving for their conflict with the misery of a heathen 

* Huch arenoEt dutlneil)' the vouicct 
oi tKe idcfl — £icm j^/hJ \i4. Itiptiinil 
utiufiKl JKUciu (i.f. ]{chcrtDa) sic clcc 
ncMj'nA oti/igtM pcccaium (irUrach UK 
}p), uid na^n Tnjv. m^ 6 *Mlv^ 

(iv- a; 'jirr miiif liniriUjtni ei itdrm |r|]r. 
noiLU ptfecAta'l, which in \ht AffifUi 

puripaLui/— /'v 0- tt E^ i> 

4^t. U WU fVU) A£Ii|(i at xht Hcond 
Covacii A'l'- 1^, *dA ag«iv al Ch4lc<- 
den 4,D'4£i> /W' it- ii)t> Vlamal. 
L[rtn. C^nmati. Lr ^ 

* Out «r Oiii ihotX. UC*li4c: AiifUil^C 
quoleipLilof ilk iLiifilcld^Lct mice tu. 

17. and Cem/n ym/i/m^ Ptla^, H. Ii- e> 
vkti' , pu^ nf di> i. io CtfHUVitf ^i«i rf^. 
f'ri^tt- B. IV, c. ii». ; »il put of 


^ Sab jpio cdCUi */ Dfrft^r. 45- 
ctirn ffcquenttr^ QIC vctiLjei. 1: imvus 

tlw drtulii .lod fire fcf TciL fni Sft/. 
4 'crrmjimur'J wtrr All m vngiie Dgaimt 

nwni thtt J>(neirkn w« pn>conHil. 

HU powci and hb inlinjicf viA 
Cypiian msy nuggm rhai btt wns onv 
of (h« Fivp native /n«n»-fr Duccictcd 
with Unman oHi«n Toi Ckhttluc In- 

* Bishop Bdilef^ S*mion viir. C" 


city. Meantime the rancour of it» popuUtion which hod laid 
wars Afid drought and pestilence at the door of the tolerated ■ 
Chri^tfans found a more emphatic voice than usual in the 
utterances of an ^cd magistrate, Demetnan, After having; 
been frc'oly admitted in the character of an enquirer to Cy-* 
prion's house, he was now, with ore foot in the grave, acting 
on the tnliunal the pnrt rot merely of a harsh enforcer of 
the prnal statutes, fcnit of an ingenious inventor of tortures. 
He was open to the further suspicion of having himself put 
the most exciting imputations ;^ainst the accused into cir- 
culation ^ 

Hic indignation raided by cruelty and injustice and the 
'desire of having it punished, which persons unconcerned — 
■ and in a higher degree those who were concerned — would feel, 
■ii by no means malice. It is one of the common bondfi by 
'which society is held together.. .a weapon put into our hands 
'by nature... which may be innocently employed. of the 
* instrumtnls of ihath which the author of our nature hath 
■provided, .>, not only an innocent but a gtnerous movement 
*cf the mind. ...a settled and deliberate passion implanted in 
' man for the prevention and remedy of wrong'.' 

It is thus that Butler characterises RfstntmenL It is thus 
tliat Cyprian exemplifies it, as precisely as if his words h^td 
been weighed to comply with the pliilosopher*s subtle and 
original distinctionn 

'We may hate no man/ ' Odisse mort licet tifiMj*' He 
could know no greater joy than that Dcmetrian should be 
partaker of his own blessing, but *hc makes a way for his 




indigiiation.' So ton^ as Dcmctrian hod ' bayed and raved at 
God' it would have been 'an easier, lighter elTcrt to beat 
'rising MdvcTS back with ^bout& than to curb Micb fury by 
'itccost,' but it IS time to sperak when >i double itnd trijile 
injustice is perpetrated with every accompatiimcrl cf cruelly, 

Tertullian had in liis day confronted a persecator'. Strange 
to say, in this one instance 'The Master's" spirit is more 
gentle than the gentle prelate's. There arc points of contact 
shewing the ap|jcal to Scapula It? have been r^ludicd by the 
author of the appeal TO Demetrian/ in both we have the 
remofistranee against the suppresiiion of the One Natural 
Worship; both point to the tjuielude of the prcvaihng Sect'; 
to the power of their prayers in exorcism* and of their 
suflfcring cxajnplc in conversions. But here ihc resemblance 
ends. Tertullian's exordium U ^Imn^t afTcctittnate ; he has no 
denunciation'^; ro word of the Eternal Doom of persecutors 
nor of the new philosophy of Divine Probation. He Is mainly 
occupied with relating warnin^fs that have befallen ^severe 
frovernorft, and blensings that have attended lenient judKca 
and ratified Christian Prdycrs. The aim of Cyprian is quite 
dlQcrent and mudi wider. Dcmetrian and he reprc?H:n1ed 
face to face the popuUr and the new or advanced ancwers to 
the question. 'Whence all thi« political and all this physical 
misery ? ' 

The Heathen cr>' was, 'The progress of Christian opinion 
*is rcfu-<«ing to the immortal god% the inittitutions which ac* 
'knoih'ledge and represent ihem. — temple, page^wt, art, drama, 
'drcu4, arena, private homai;e, oaih, vow, even Incense and 
^blood; all th;it wc know of sacred is to them execrable; the 
aame opinion denies to our human constitution its own ^atis- 
'factions, its own necessities*' 'Nature is chastising our 
'tolerance of the unnatural.' 

The new reply i,s very gmve. For Cyprian Uio nature and 

> Fan pvn« major cnjiMqn^^ivluiif, pofmhu- d/ /''<*''■'- if' 


humanity were at present dark of aspect. Uul his cxplAtia* 
tion of the phenomena of sufTering wa* threefold. Pint, he 
believed that on general grounds a decrepitude of universal 
life, corresponding to that of individual objects» must be 
expected and is begun. The opinion of the old age of the 
world, which ColumclU so long since had rejected', gained 
ground with the decline of virtue. Christiana in parlicuUr 
fancied that it at^cnrded with their then ^scheme of prophecy. 
This was a hypocheai» more obvious. In the silence of 
economics, than to trace the decay of enlerpriEe. of pro- 
duction, of art-skill' to the univci'sal cxpulfiion of free labour 
hy slave labour, the artificial appreciation of corn, and the 
consolidation of real property in hands incredibly few. 

The second answer regarded political convnlsionii These 
Cj'prian concurred with his ant^onist in regarding a^ divine 
judgments — and upon impiety. 

But impiety where? }n illustration he points to the 
system of slavery — to the absolute conviction which that 
institution implied of the accuracy with which duty ought to 
be rendered by one set of mortal lives to the other", and of 
the unlimited chastisement due to disobedience. 'Was it 
'reasonable to suppose that the universal profligacy of disobc- 
'dicncc to acknowledged moral laws should receive no check 
*fvom the Master of Man? or was it wonderful that civic strifes 

' Df rt rtuiu^ Pmf,, 1. li. i. 

* Agricata ..lUHti^.-innrlibiiapciitiiit 
ad fifmttf. 2' 

* Ad Dtmttf, «. Ttaifi itgumpDl 
shcwh i\iO.X x\\t idea thai sluvcjy *fli 
unchrifitmn hnJ noi iwnciniecl even 
Cyprian 'f; humaht naTure. At tliu eninc 
time hiii InflJ^iiaiion dbouC the aliocUicf 
fih?w<; whai. vhoi cuuiintE, oiiil lie pEainly 
Joe* Pol ireil ilavtrya^i i nafiirallttHf. 
The pua«cti j^ well wcirElL ^ubtini;. 
*llAK <1i! icti'ij Euucxigiit BcrviLulenit tl 
Mffme Aflfujrvwt i«rcTP titji Pi nlKTflijr 
a>iB|wllU| cl cum ail vdbia tenitm ttri 

naiHtJi, tHid/enf una iii^rrf4i, OOf' 

ntio rommufil'i, a^uatj Jurp pi pon Ipgc 

tffi veiTidtiif in i^Eum murdum, rpi de 
iDuikd^ poelmoiluiiL fccnliln^ tnii^Qi 
nlaitlbi proarbiirbiuosprvJaiiLr. nliiat! 
variiTit4li< obtpquiitin jhAmiUfn imp*- 

£c!llu. vrrl^ro^ i^ayt. iLli, itudiucc, ct 
feiT) ftHjupiilpr PI fnrpprp ullligit dt 
CUCiaSh El noo [iynofteii{mi>er] Ditmi' 
mirji Dcum fuuni. num sti: c^tctcr?!^ ipic 





•and ari^ocr^ttic savtgety ahould beckon the Goih to the 
' frorticr } That deaths should avenge an atiHtocratic nnd com^ 
'ocrcUl rapacity which laflictcd worse famines tlian nature F 
' That pcililentc should linger h\ cilics wlicrc iti wiirutngTi had 
' only evoked fresh rebellions against morality' ? " 

HcTp he introduc^es with force a fact cf which Dcmetmn 
had already heard something — that ^cA scourgeft had been 
onerringiy foretold by Prophets as vLsitntionn upon su^A sins, 
and foretold with this remarkable supplement to their prcdic- 
tion:i. th-tl refoTnialioii would be tuivpicd only by tlfe Tew dnd 
SCtimed by the mass. "And yet' he finely excUimii, 'ye 
are indignant at the indi^nailon of God*/ 

Thirdly. He retorts the causes of thftt divine indignation 
in a more sounding strnin — 'You and your courts are labour- 
'rn|; Uix the eradication of the only rational and spiritual 
'worship extant: Uboutin^ to conserve the adoration of inept 
'6gnicntA&Lid animal mciiislciSH Full of Uiisa^cdlyuu actually 
'invert the usagei of law' again?it u%- But argue wilh ii<, con- 
'vioec LIS by reason ; — or only come and listen to your own 
'demon deities confc^sin^^screaming^^ying'frcm cur prayers. 
'Then set the unmeaning meanness of yotir cringing prostra- 
'tionsiigainst the open-browed, mnnly.ncnnibledevLJtion^ of our 
'assemblces. Do you ihink it cinccivablclhat brute force shoidd 
move us from our position to yours ^ Do you doubt ouf 
'sincerity? The certainty of our conviction as lo this world 
'and the unseen is best evidenced by cur perfect acquiescence 
'in your inflictiontj. Vast a;^ our number;! are in the cmpin^ 
'we have never turned on an oppressor. The la*l persecution 
'ha*4 indeed for our :iake cxillapscd in the 'cra%h of empire' 
"when treasure, forces and c^mp were lost with Dcciu*i\— » 
"but without our act or wish. Once mort our conviction ts 

' Mot jLtvTvc II. J, p, 6i. 

* b«« ^ i«i a- 3- 

' W« mail rtad f»di^U tirmm %vq\ 

rtgtim <>7^, bar th« louchv* iHr« no 
dmbt of ihc cvenl. Tho dvib ol d^ 
Dedi JmiacOuiTl)' vafpredal pcne- 



'evidenced in ciur acquiescence in the heavenly chastiscmcnta 
"which we fully shire with you. For Uiirk you ihdt wc claim, 
"as spiritual worshippers, exemption? Surelyno, — on ijs.wlch 
'our eternal trust, chastisements faU light. To us they come 
'in an aspect ncvv'-born with us into the world's thovight, as ft 
^prciKziioH, as a discipline of strength. Ir the Aesh we arc but 
'men liable to all things human. Wc dwell in one house with 
'you ; we fare as you do; ae bear urillingly what God in our 
'records said long since He must inflict for the wicked's sake. 
"Our prosperous days are f^oi her«. They are to come. For 
'you wc grieve and with you, and we intercede unfalteringly 
'for your worldly happiness. But the present interruptions of 
'that happiness are not only fulfilments. They are forcwarn- 
'ings also- There \s in the distance a divine day; when wc 
'Vp'ho in this world are Rc-bom, and signed with z. certain 
'sign in a cert;iin blood, shall part from you, and never rejoin 
■you, The pleased tormentor of to-day must then become 
'the spectacle of the tormented'. By that fear, by the abun* 
'dant time and occasion offered for your change, hy all the 
'dear hopes which^ as we know, centre on that change, the 
■persecuted appeal to the persecutoir in his own behalf.' 

Such is in brief what I have called the '^Resenim^t' q( 
Cyprian, Throughout there is a transparent consciousness 
that the struggle between Christian and Roman will crc lone 
be contested on more equal terms'- Already the former are 

> Ad Htm. 04- Gentle u tht op- 

sbgl »r the ftcrornlion ifli «nd inli 
Rilel/ dllfcrtuccd frum Ihe wild (hrral 
of TerluKiflti W' Spe^t't^-)- the dilliW' 
ncn uf Ibc lighii whith Cypnoji thcw 
ni. 'Qui hW nia j^AiMf.. .CfkulrHuiii 
vula^m brevih /t-uf/Hi.' rnnklpi loo 
much hew, Hv $l»tf eandcuii unnot 
jfflD o»ci Cypriini'* ciJinuictLt on ihc 
thruLt whkh tht fifch S1nccih« hurl& 
«t Anliochufc — a cejmnicnt wli^cli in thit 
CGorv^y mouM nol be pouiblc in Lbc 
cDlbiilic Chuicti 'Quale lllud IcviuDfln- 

rum fUii martyn, qitAm miignaEn, quun 
^rAndc sotAcium. in eiueiaiibbsigitaon 
(ujinciiLa ^>c(ipfM ct^ilarc, veil torlgris 

Ktemdl puEiubmL^ci it;d iltr cLcmii] prt' 
ifirvnLKKi nnoHcy Ic m«kc ii jxMhlile 
■rp suilfil In awful tetm ' ScrvabuniBf, 
ciim corponlnu mtE nDima inGailli 
diQCiacibu^ ad doLorcm/ 4i^ Danir. 
i(. Komans under firrhecTiiiiiii m\^\ 
be* teckdned on U> discuver Lhic 
' Wt wxy com^jnre iKu with the 



proud of thdf numbers'; already iherc Is hope in speaking 
out: already there » a convinion thut the mafitei are ready 
to hear rettson': a perception that persecution U the grandc«t 
opportunity for the missioncf*. 

Jerome' has echoed a cnticism of LactantiLS that Cypnui 
might have met the heathen mag:istratc more convincingly 
itpnn general gnnntils than by Scripture tcxtx*. Il u iKCo* 
sary to differ from the prince of critics because (i) Ihe texts, 
where used ai arguments, are al[ege<l, after devcripiion oftbc 
tokens of Divine Anger, only to shcu- that tho visitations had 
been predicted*. The argument is thi5, Tbey who could 
predict them might be presumed to have a key to the right 
explanation of [hem. They did predict them as pumslimenta 
upon idolatry and oppn^^ion. Thfs kind of exhibition of 
prophecif?^ is surdy a legitimate allegation to produce before 
an unbeliever O) It is visibly the sequel of arguments which 
had been touched upon and but half developed in convcr- 
satiooa. CypHan shews himself aware that Scripture tcxti 
arc not producible for every purpose, (5) Having to meet 
Just such unfamiliar knowledge as would have adhered to 
a Dcmetrian. Cyprian, I observe, docs not once quote to 
him any author of Scripture by name,— always 'a prophet,' 
'another prophet saith,' 'God in the Holy Scriptures.' 

The man'a acquaintance with the elements of ChnstJan 
argument justifies Cyprian prcci-icly tn the graund he takr?t, 

w*tt9 poHJotiftlc conrtcilon d Ttrtallan 
LJJ (he /\ CWvHd. 

olciKiEbT |d^ O/TKfTr. 17}. 

' ^fij tAiucn irrwunti tfitfi diA 
mtttttf fTriiii rat/^mrwi {lui /Vwrff, >). 
DilMptkEian* vthtfr* rmer r^wtf [i^]. 

' ...dum Die ihtUtiaavm i/it^ iMv 
ti /v/hmi Ur.wminon^i iin>DaniiLj rl tun 
d cko4 vr^rrra clan if puhtirn fr^'ttja- 

' HctiUr£, p. 166 f'. bikldg occuioa 
hy Jcicitnc uh! ciincrivini; furlbo ui 
imftiuy in jrlilrminf 4 iB4([tfTnTC in 

UiuttoW* iWlitioyt jxmonti^^ Dot 
tlic itail ai hw vititing Cypriui pcobM- 
vdly In fnf)uiro, m<:1ull]r Id dMlain* 
bi> bdrAJiHtl cgc, ibc pccuiiir mode 

* Hoc aeiu Mat /vWv^UiBv (d^£L ;)> 
IpiiLia uidi It^^ucnieoL it^ D. 6)> 


while it funh^ verities to us the really of the circum- 

O/fHf Stytf ef thi ''Dfmetn^n: 

of thui bmiJki 



siiong. Some 

ihc expressions finely Icnc and epigrammatic, ' Vcncunt judicaturiJ 
* Devis ncc quKritur n*e timptur-' "Qunsi, «tsi ho*lu d«ii, «&se pax 
fnter ip^K^iognspossiT.' Some what of a relapse into th««a.rl>^floridiiy 
b pcrccpublc in ih^ third ani seventh chapters. Tvkc Cyprian 
moulds n line of Vir^l into his prase {Ct^rg. 1. 107) * h^rbis 
sicciiatc morientibus i*[uani rampua' {^a), and {Giorg. i. 154) 
'in jigro iniear cuJuia ct fcrcilca scfictc^ lulium ct avcoa dtnniactuj'' 


The iHteffretation cf ^otrc^s. 

Kxercitia sunt nobis htn non funCTH, Tie Mortaiitate j6. 

Difficulties which arose from within tlic community were 
scarcely less peiplcjtint;. It seemed ait if the Pestilence might 
work a new lapse of it town. Nijmbcrs weredismayed that the 
scourge of Christ's persecutors should light no less heavily on 
His fricndsV Others shewed the first symptoms of the fanatic 
spirit, so fata) afterward to Africa* and chafed when death 
threatened to forcatal! their riartyr<rown'. Others sliil liable 
to be stimmoncd to ihc tribunal shrank from the crns^. To 
preserve their faith by deluding the tyrant was not an extinct 
temptation- What was the church of Carthage? Ji was an 
unpopular yet important section of a great city population. 
overmastered by powerful ideas, unfamiliar as yet with their 
manifold applications; dragged daily into contact with bitter 
social hardships tlicn suddenly made sharers in the world* 
wide terror of the Plague, then accounied responsible for its 
mysterious origin; j^ung back thus on the old enigmas of 



cxJstencr And rol cxcmplcd from new enigcnji in their Taith, 
— such a body nf^cded indeed that some broad and ChmtJan 
view of this physical calamity should be opened before them. 

The work of mercy had been organised, but lo control 
these cross currents of fcclidg required yet greater ikill and 
delicacy. To beard a slanderous tormentor was perhaps a 
duty, but a harder one wa« to maintain m a people 90 tried 
the gcntkne^^i and rranqullllcy of *pfrJi, the intelligence of 
devotion, the sense of unity with God which marked the line 
between the Church ^nd polytheism. In quick succession came 
out three more of Cyprians finest Essays- The topics of the 
puut^cnt pamphlet 'on Dtmctriar' are revicweil from the posi- 
tive side fn che encouraging address "on the Morralily.* Then 
we have the noble joyous treatise 'on the Lord's Prayer.' 
The later ' Exhortation to Confession/ a Scripture manual for 
Martyr^H must be treated with these as his last teaching ia 
this region. 

It was in answer to actual calls that the pen of Cyprian 
was thus busy amid such distractions. Few of Che bishops 
could make adequate answers to the questionings of the times. 
The laily of the distant ' town of Thibaris entreated his pre* 
Acncc among tliem. Edicts of Gallus for sacrifice had reached 
tbem^ Torture had recommenced. Then: and elsewhere 

' t^t^. tip. jS. I. tOMlntil »ry 
|co|:Tm|ibcr*. aBrl oul Ueni^fif^ until 
iIBa «hrn an tmCTipltuii (ik^viuTul- 
■Aan Aur;iiSTo ^^kCRUU K P TlUtt 

tlM hLU&on (b« Knilti vf lh*[>lAin eJ BiUln 
ttbd uT Lhc n»<] Vi CiitAi itt f/ritiiir 
J/iMilm^. The rami <if tl* liUkllLca 

It Li juhi III 2eu)tiUii& wtivET TcLl. p» I M. 
by vnnf ncritlriii places It : p^ t^y. he 
idcotiflM it wilh 7'aAont in M^utfujlB 
CkwretiHib HaccUi n/t lUidoaia 

placr^ if xn thr Ryucmr lvcai>v tit 
tn4hopvol«4k[n4ii|; tii«c4 provincialt in 
tbf Council of Caichotc (JVka'* /iff, 
ijU I may ni«oijon ihif tb^ie 4s no 
ffQoenpbic*] («iler of voting tlicrr. He 
iuIiIa ihil Ihcii baliop VJcLoruii .ippeani 
ivlcc in iTie CnlUTinn nf OurhAgcA-P. 
4Ui Cfgitit.i, ijj and cS;. jL^blw, 
vol. ni.t PP' >oianc1 tJi.J Tttcaimrin 
Cy|in3nEccni1ic« ia nlw mil TiifAaH- 
famti and JihiAtri^ Al Mohanntdi^ 
• i>a«f Tabvia * (?), « mila friHD TunU. 
i^. In }^aj[laai. ihv mnc r^i^^iv 
hai bv«n md on a «Ub (A!!*- 4fiie, t. 

I- p^ ir<l- 



A.V. 3£3. 


congrcf^ations ceased to assemble, and the bishops to preach'. 
Their own biihop Vincent four yOLn later wu the moat 
r^natical of All the speakers in the Council of th^t date, 
holding^ heretics to be so much worse than heathens as to necJ 
not only B;iptism, but a preftniis Kxorcism, if they joined the 
ChureK At present the bishop is only alluded to as silenced 
The Lap*ied were atill unrestored, and no restoration but that 
of martyrdom was yet recognised". Haraaacd and tinsup- 
ported many Christians buried ihi^mselves in the solitudes 
of the adjacent Tell, many escaped by sea And then many 
were haunted by the apprehension that a lonely death in 
exile was no tnic confes&orship of Christ. 

The "urgency of affairs' in Carthage rendered a vieit from 
Cyprian hopeless. But he wrote to TlllBAlUS an afTcctionatc 
and rcasaunng letter', which coatatns in germ the scheme of 
the essays which he next undertook, and some few thoughts 
which he does not repeat, Had his 'Mortality' and his 
'Lord's Prayer' been already composed he would have sent 
them these a^ he sent the 'Unity' and the *I-apsed" to the 
Roman Confessors, The multiplication of practical necd-s for 
his counsel was ever the motive of Cyprian's litcraiy work. 
In words alnios: identical u-ith those of his Second 3)'nodic;il 
Letter, which followed immediately, having tnld the Thibarf- 
tans of the warnings which made hirn feel that thej- were but 
at the beginning of sorrows, he reminded them that stagc^i 
oF history which have been predicted in Scripture ought when 
reached to create no difHculty to Christians, He sketched mit 
for perhaps tlie first time the full doctrine of probation, and 
the preparation for a final judgment which it afforded. And 
then while, as to Demetnan. he insists that endurance without 
an attempt at retaliation is characteristic of the Christian life 

' Ajipr^pinqupnlcjBm, imoimnamci^- 
Ic CiulU irci-afcutioiic^ ifc Pei4iM>Ti'? dnlc 
for ihf ?pi(Ilp {Anna/. Cypr. *-D, 151, 
iKhJ- The totluru and Biglil tud how- 

ever rvcommeDced [Ep.^%-^),vnA Aiywl 
Ihe Upsei! Had noi bcc^n icEifvcd hj (be 
acconil ctjuiiLiI t£/,gA>8), lahciulil datfl 
lhelF(l«r Mvch A. D, 151- BvApnlrhe 
council wgnU hkt< bcu pLuacd. 




on earth', still the hope of eternal trijmph u with real incoit' 
aiatcncy hcaghtcncU by the incdiutJon of eternal vcogcancc 

Wr hAvctnij right to HlurlhiA tnLitaflhc thought orthttiimc. 
but If we think a. truer Icsion might have been early kamt, yet 
the «iicc»»ion of aj^c3^ which huvc not karat it should imprcci 
on us what is the hardest Icason which Christ bcX to man. 

The Lap5cd arc invited to rearm, aiid regain their lojo. 
The loneliest Dcdth for ChriM is witiics»:d by Ilim, and is as 
gloriciu-i ^4 any public martyidom. Wc have &]>DkiTn before 
of the line image which in thi« letter he borrows from the 
gladiators Af^hting and dying before the Emperor ard the 
Caesar. 'A combat hi^h and threat! guerdoned gloriouKly 
'with a heavenly crown I That God should be our spectator! 
'ahould open Hi^ eyes on men whom He \uis deigned to 
*malce His sons^ and enjoy the spectacle of our contending I 
'We give battle; we tight in wa^r of the faith; God our 
' spectator, His Argeli spectator*, Christ a spectator tooV 

Nothing however is more eloquent than this practical 
cTosing application of the Christian armoury from S. Paul 
' T-ikc wc al?rtj as 4 covciing for out licdd Uie Helinel of 
'salvation, tu fence our iMr^ag^ thr-dmdiy Kdicts, our eyes 
' from the sig)it of the abhorred Images ; to fence our brow that 
'the Seal of God may be safely kept on it, our iJpA that the 
' victorious tongue rnny acknowledge its Lord ChruU Arm wc 
' our right hand too with the ^iritual Sword — sternly to repel 
' the deathly ?iacrtficc^,that,un forgetful of the Eucharist, it may, 
' as it has n^teived rhe Lord's Body, so also clasp Hinwelf V 

From such needf; then grew the address* 'OS THS 
Mortality/ Cyprian says it is intended to fortify the more 

* QvlUu ficcidfre non UmI, cccirii 

* S/.f»-9. Did Cfprikn koow ih; 
CanninH SfbyUiDD? Sec C. AtruDdrc. 

4Ad K. 17). He ciia il in iu plM«»i 

CMrra Mian. o. iriil, 15. O^. imj/.^, 
Ju/um, VI. tW-t hf- 117, at. and \tx if 

...maliiiac piiriic uQinibEU qulccclsiu- 
Ucfti Utmt trrxtny 1auri«bklim Tiorum. 

vvtL) on [be ftTETtacEi to ii ia Cknm* 


timid minority of his flock; and hti mAkes leader excuse for 
their misconceptions. But it served a far wider purpose. 
)t taught the teachers. 

The new leading thoughts in^thc Dcmerrian weir (i) the 
evidence which Prediction might afford to heathens thai Che 
Christian Inierpreiation was true, and (2) the idea of Probation 
by trouble, as chatactcriscicof Christianity- To his own people 
he presents the convene of these thoughts. Prediction;; of 
chastisement fulfilled are a picdgc that promises of Joy will 
be accomplished. The idc^ of Probation, unrcveaJed to Plato. 
unpreached by Cicero, i^ brought home now as the philosophy 
of suffering, the interpretation of sorrow. Job, Tobias, Abra- 
ham' are the new masters of the ruined, the oppressed, the 
bereaved. One stroke of Providence effects both the Discipline 
of Love and the Censure of Sin. Ir the present calamity, the 
noisome repulsivciiess of ihc plague Utcpens the trial, and 
yet what pure woman, what innocent bay would not shrink 
from this less than from the torturer's polluting fingern'? 
(3) Cruelty and hardness have been denounced already as the 
main provocations of paganism. And now *the service of the 
'sick, the kindness of kinsfoik. pittfuiness to suk shvf^, the 
*3elf-dc voted ncss of physiciiinsr* IhcsCn says he, are among the 
first subjects "which the dread and deadly -seeming pestilence 
comes to look into,' 

The ecclesiastical belief in a speedy dissolution of the 
WorkJithe illustrations which it drew from prevailing famines 
or pestilences, and the class of motives to virtue which it 
suggested arc sometimes treated as rctn:^rcssions in phik]* 
sophy, hindrances to the political efficiency of citizens, and 
interferences wlih the Hellenic sense of * Beauty/ But in 
fact this belief was {as we have seen) carried into the Church 
from the thought of the day. What the Church really con- 
tributed was a new way of regarding that belief. The inter- 
pretation which Cyprian and others proposed for universal 
physical disasters excluded probably all the conceptions with 


VI- 111. 



which conteniporar>- Jntdlccts, whether |MvpubT (ir ailtivatecl, 
inveAitecl thi^itc terrilic criKCK. and to us that I'ntcrpretstioii 
oflTers coicial tests of wh«lhor th« Church wjw a<l^-aficinj; 
thought and sontimcTit, and elevating courage, or was parting 
with a glofiQUs view of n^^turcn 

Such frightful ilU were traced to oiic ur other of about five 
general causes; to a dualism of conflicting deltK!«. good and 
malcvnlcnl ; to a dualism of the beneficent spirit and of matter 
ititttinct with mechanic tawiA; to a necessity controlling; deity 
and matter alike; to foftuitous conditions and fiKed sequences 
in matter itaelf; to the pergonal displeasure of dejty which 
willed its own recognition by traditional ritcn and under 
pcipular titles, although such names might not be strictly 
identified with divine personalities. This last was the more 
refined version of the popular creerf which fcJl the action of 
bein^A vincttcatinf; a right to material offering and to th« 
extermination ofathectts. 

The despair ind apathy which these beliefs engendered in 
the presence of universal suffering arc c«inmonp!;icc^ with the 
Greek historian and Roman poel. Bnt the first Christian 
who touches the subject i* led by the Mortality into a region 
of sublimity and tenderness. 

On him it enforces (i) absolute confidence in a Paternal 
care, which through visible correction\ through ackncA^'Icdgcd 
probation*, through resignation to yet uncompreh ended 
purpcv^es*. elevates niii) puri1ie?i anil culmH. 

(2j It enjoins on htm utmost activity, organi tat f on. self- 
devotion in the alleviation of suflfehng and of bereavement', 
llicite effects on Christian thought and practice arc deduced 
from distinctly Christian grounds^ 

These same grounds create in him (j) the conviction that 
mora) cause^i in society* have an efTcct on the conditions 

> DtMMf, IS- 
•i?»JAjrf. II, 18. 

262 EXPANsrON or ClIftlSTlAN ?TiEL-IN<; AXD ENERG%\ 

accorded to hum^miy. nol only tmmcdiAlcly by Ih^ tccoot- 
pcnsc carried by the irulividual's vice or virtue. Ijur mediately 
by afTecting goncral laws, exterior ard physical, through 
exercise of ihe moral judgmc;nt of God. Not only is a world 
in order a ^eld for hmnan excellence to expard on and an 
external instrument for it to utitiac. but a world m physical 
disorder is an instrument of correction, converting selfish and 
abject thoughts to interior and to wider to nsidc rations', vivi* 
fying the hypothesis of an existence independent of physical 
decrepitudes', and exciting w those who believe the divine 
Fatherhood an almost emulous beneficence'. There are germs 
of further social advance in Cyprian"5 teaching. Could It 
have been demonstrated to him th^t pestilence is (irrespeo* 
lively of intcr]>osition) a direct result of the uncivilised squalor 
which dogs ihe feet of luxury, he must have cnipbaticaTly 
replied by an application (not perhaps yet visible to him) of 
the doctrine which underlies all his teaching. He would 
have »atd that luxury and squalor are both expressions of 
hideous moral errors, Entcrpiisc, administration, humane 
intercourse, skill In arts*/ are to him tlic STg^n^ of an ad* 
vancing, progressive, youthful world. Wistc of the worldV 
resources, content in sordidncss, disregard of natural tiet, 
indifference to the meanest, the crushing of small industries, 
the abolition of amali holdings for the sake of grazing fanna 
And deer forests", are to him so many crimes against the 
world's life. And it is a familiar thought Xo him that there l» 
BO exact an appropriateness in the ob*ierved consequences of 
accumulating evil?, that believers in Providence do not err In 
calling these consequences 'decisions'— ^WiW* — ^judgments*. 


' Da Morf. ifi. 

• A,i Xiem. 3- Cf. /ft Mort. ^. >». 

* Egcniem ct pauperem nort vi^tnl 
iiciili ^upcrfusL nigiuTC- iieOp-*i Ei. I&- 
— .SuffocaUonfi impfflefiriuni coramer- 

Z>Bmiii\j Oraf- 53,— Ci-nlinuniilta lal- 




Not the respect only but the adhcrcacc of many a heathen 
was crc long compelled by tHc attitude of the»\ 
and yel f;ii1urc% of f^tith there were 'in the- Hnme of Faith*' 
and ihcir bishop marked many {ncredulitlt?^ a^ain^t 'otir 
Muter in beHeving\' Minds fre^h from paganism took 
unexpected turns. He meets them with bnghtncss. 'You* 
'who because you Arc ChrUtiaiu expected immumty from this 
'visitation, ^vill you, a^ Chn&tlant, claim exemption fiom the 
'scirocctj, from ophthalmia, from stranding' chips'.' — " Vou who 
'fret to think that plague may cut you off from martyrdom, 
' — know thai It U rot the mart>'r's blood but the inart>'T'* 
■faith that God asks'.' 

To others death was dreadful still. Thei^c then have yet 
to fill their imagination with realities which they have coldly 
accepted. 'Nor arc we n(7W without >pccial helps — A coU 
'league of mine, a fellow bishop, l;iy at the point of death. He 
* prayed for a respite: At once a young man Ktood at hU side, 
'noble, majestic, of \o(Xy atatufC and bright ccurlcaance,^-n« 
'eye of flesh could have endured to look on him, save cyei 
'which were closing tu iJiii world. There was likdiguatiuri in 
' hilt spirit, and his voice vhook, an he icaid " Ye fear to suffer, 
' Yc are unwilling to depart What ^hall I do unco you*" It 
*wa* the voice of one who heeds not our mocnenlar>' desires 
'but our lasting interest Not for himself, but for us, the 
'dying man heard that/ 

To this talc Cyprian adds what we may well believe, how 
many timc8 he h^d him^cir. little and la«t' though he waa, 
heard the prompting to preach puhlicly llw; glorious veritie* 
of deAih\ as it comes by the will of God. 

'Let us realiae what wc mean by the pre£ence of Chriati 
'BUd the eternal society, the increasing hoats of our friends, the 


Moved, thcs revered, the sainted who are thereV Hi« voice 
j^welU to lyric fervour^ and preludes the mast majestic of 
odes* For him the cheering certainties of exalted life are 
dashed by no pag^an rcmmi,sccncc, no anticipated media:* 
vatism. He cannot mo^m the departed though much he 
Tniss(._s them like distant voyager*'. He cannut brook even 
the as^timpt^'on of blacL' garments as a memorial of those 
who wear immortal while. 

'Put the terror of death out of door^; dwell on the 
Undy ingress beyond itV 

It may he difFicuU to revive the early rrcshness with which 
feelings and thoughts, now long grown usual, bcg-jn to tninglp 
In the older talk along street and quay in Carrhage. But It 
i£ not hard to say whether tJ^e eityand the world gained by 
the change. 

The 'Exhortation to Mahtvrliom/ or rather 'TO 
CoNFEssoRSHiP',' IS 3 Manual of Scripture passages, con- 
nected by brief remarks, and arranged under thirteen heads 
for rei1exJon» It was compiled 5ve yeani later, after Vsil«- 
rian's Edict for persecution, at the request of a layman, 
Fonunatus by n^me, and it is. says the author. ' No dis- 
course, but material for discoursingV— ' Not a garment, but 

> ^ Aftrr/. i6- 

* D/Meri^it* IlisdlfFicuU lofc^iil 
ihtf imprcfKiolMhal (hff Cypiinnic 'Itlif 

wmcThinc moic Ihstn a coincidence wilh 
the AuililuftLHii 'Tt ghn^itti afpjff 
!pnt*n e^tru/i tt firt/Affarur» }i.a-is.hilii 
itvffierwl, \t CbDltldMUE N'4^'/j"ti/n lou- 
dill ctcicilusn' Thcw tfc anioiiy ihou- 
clouau (if th<? Te Deuni which Dr 
Swuiniop counts u 'dowly Ljgnne^lcd 
wilh ihc Kuchiimtic Uysan of the 

jirtfi^if.t i, V-). But ih(! rcsr^mtjUocc 
here liei. in the Triplr piralU^livm of Ehi> 
diuwE, and the use of sufli word* u 
churm/ and aumtrHi, which an OcH 
poinLA iif ihr litLir)^,. 

* Non araiUi wd pro^nuib , . ,ut uivi- 
fimtn Aolem, (tevilerAii cw dcUrCi 
mm pIplh^L titMon, mi. 

* /^t Mart. 34. 

* The oripnfll liilc w*4 AJ /V//V' 
Rn/bffl simply. 

* .Hon inm irarrBilum mtum vklcor 
tibi miUBfic quain ntati^iuin linctaitti- 






Wool and Purple of the Lamb Hiau«lf' rcad^ for the 

Its purpQhc 1:^ to iiNiii&t ltim:ieir diid otlicrs tn prcpaiing 
persons for their Sc<:ond napliMn — iIil- Baptism stionfici in 
'grace, lofcicr of effect, more prccfou* in honour— Ihc J^aptisrn 
' wherein angd^ are the baptizcrs, at which God and His Christ 
"arc joyful — the JJaptism, after which no man sins'.' The very 
cxbtcncc of a practical little book like this answer* the 
question whether martyrdoms s^cfc very few and scattered. 
The cheerfulness of Cyprian'^ own :iplril appe^n in his infer- 
ence thai the very number of the sufferers shews that auch 
endurance cannot be over-diificult or too itevere". 

The place which the book has in tlie progres^f of Cyprian's 
thOL^ht may be recog'nised. In his 'Unity of the Church' he 
Uivl accumulated every Scriptural illusttatiou, aptof olherwiac, 
of thai doctrine. In this book he dcvelopes rather labortously 
a new one. The Seven Maccabees whose histor>^ he detail* 
(as Origen does on the same subject)' are not only patterns 
to individuals, but also present an image of the Tota!it>- 
(Septenary) of all the Churchc*, their Mother being 'the First 
and the One.' 'the Bcgimung and the Root/ tliat is to say 
the Cathulic tjnity, which was founded by the word of the 
Lordn and fpve all Churches birth', 

AgaJnr estpcricncc has now carried him beyond that 
flattery of Confessors which marked former years. Among 
other applications to the circumst^inces of the tine arc thc!^e ; 
he observes (i) thai when a question arose whether the 
youngest Maccat>ean brother should save his life by an act 
of conformity, no suggestion was made that the merits of the 
Six Martynt could plead for him. At;ain I2) in waminc his 
people against a resort to L^^iii^ he shews that Llcazar 

A Alt Farftn*!- j, Tbit nHtaphr^r 
of ikalita "in TcrU dr M^nee- 7, 

1 Ad Ftrtum^fr ^. 

* A'i FfffHmif, 1 1 fin. 

* A^ f^Mfmt^. II. 


declinEsd to da wh»t all the Libdlatkfl hid done: (3) he sayic 
the true martyrdom h in the spirit ready for marlyrdorn, 
whether it be consummated or no; and the tract doses with 
the observation that the crown whidi under persecution is 
assigned to M arty r'Wd-r fare b In 'time of Peace' bestowed on 
Con ^ci cntiousncss. 

But not ev*rn on this sensible moderation re^ts either 
the merit of thU pamphlet or ths indication it gives of what 
the cvcr^'day Cyprian really was like; still less 00 its own 
assumed grounds — ^thc nearness of the lind. the Advent of 
AntJchriM, the accomplished skill of the Arch-cncmy accu- 
mulated (as it is. grotesquely put) in hi* six-thousand^ycar^ 
conf ict with man*. Mure broad and strong arc the well 
conceived theses; and marvellous, considering the blanknes0 
ofAll secondary aids, is the command of Scripture. 

That some degree of conformity to the worship of the 
vulgar may be allowed to mingle with the higher light i% a 
notion admitted only in churclies in which a genuine stru^lc 
with the essence of polytheism is not mairtaiiied. Cypnaji 
makes the very substance of the martyr-spiril to be a perfect 
sense of the heinousness of Idolatry under every specie». 
of the aggravated * difficulty' which it raises in the way of 
Its own foigiveness as 5lii» and iif the necessity for absulutc 
genuineness in all relations with Deity. 

> The<iuaiandnUom£)itfroni Tcr- 
tiMBJS^dtVkf.yhs^. i/t(ljibolo,„*i]jki- 
«nteMlttdr«ar1lnlqulTitiiingrriln,' Tfa« 
totftllufi of dilM LD Hebrew S«np1iirv 
gircs ncujcJiti); lu ClmCo^;, +138 x-X- 
n a (lire for Atbm. hut tht t,XX- 
maku It, tiKording Id Cuiminghune. 
547S if.i;. IvMvi AfrioLnm shortly 
belbrr Cypri:in'fl rimp hnii hwughl Ihii 
ta 550i>t "hich wo(iUi make the JaTe 
of tbc cfticl of Vjlcn^n lo be the 
f7S7ih ycni of E.hc world- *^cx millia 
Anndnimjani pijtnemmpffntui/d^/^f^ 
frtHOf, I. In Ebc lK:£ianirL|[ of Ibc fidh 

ccritury Ar.ia4mip v\*o cninpuied £50*, 
otul Puiudiirui .S4g)> Sulpiduf Serr- 
rut.wHo lirmgs hU hliTofy dovn 10 juVl 
400. flbu htis 'MandiiK a Domino con- 
iLiluliis c&l abhinc utiimii Jam fmu its 
mithn.' Chron- \. 1. T\\r 4Lgnifinnc« 
of ihe 'tiv itiousLtnd j-tan' lnj in thv 
KabbinLC bcUff, wliJdi, unliL \\vc Itlnc 
liaJ long t'ime b/, cijlrmrd nnrl iisiially 
iliArrfSBP'l the Lhn&iitu miiiij, oq lo rlie 
of all (hingi. Stc Ldcuintiu?^ Z^f- /sFr 
vti. 14 ami 1h« citalhoni In nr>T«t itiere- 

VI. IV. 



The next most importart themes of this textbook are 
Uiftt prabiitionno' ^*pccl of sLifrcring, which hi* mind had 
long rcciliicd ; the certainty of a supporting Providciicc, aitd 
faith as the mca?iurc of the &uppeit h yicldii. 


'Ow THE Lord's Prayrk/ It wa* not enough to arm 
the confes*ior, to nerve ihe limM, to §itencE tht* calumnfAitor- — 
Common life needed building up. Cypriar saw no nearer or 
bfiCtfir rood to edification than to lill with intelligence the 
omvcrsaJ Devotion. The recitation of the Prayer of Chri3t 
might become mccha.nkdl even when timet of trEa) call it 
not ^infrequently to thp tongue. They who have se^n abroad 
great naves empty for nablc vcspcre and crowded for the 
rosar)' may thenec draw the nearest notion of wlui antient 
'Bnttology* was with it^ iullaby of spiritual contentment'. 
The Essay on thi: Lord's PrayHR J* written with precisian 
and wiih a visible delight. The freshness of his thoughts, 
the sweetness of his words, the fulness and fitness of his use 
of Scripture are a delicate fruit indeed to have t>een pro- 
duced under tlie Darning heat of eontrovcrey, amid the whirl 
of organ iz^ntion, in the atmaaphcrc of a pla^c-itriclcen city*. 
There are paints where the commentary very cIoMrly touches 
both the historic facts and the spirit uf which the facts were 
a products We see too how the little treatise both enshrined 

tAd J^iwifliftiniit in J^r. CAriii- fiiifgr^ 
* Mml ri^ J. 

' Mur. f icppel <p. 3*1 } ■*T* *«li i" 
cnnpArifiH (his witl) 1>rtalli»v'i Tre«llw 
On th* P'n3flri .'.'vne onvnon do^oa 

»ui ImprcuLoDi de la fMt^ dMiD^ni 
Ad ditckpt* iin ivanlngc nir Iv mftt^iv, 
clu» Lia lujel <rii k <aiir ^h piirlcr 

tlcpiefcrciKcil'o{>iil', 4]lliiju|;h ■umc 
q( the MiktFT'k iTiTiM funoiH and tlir. 
rie£ woKli ua fountl in tbu limriM 
HTiJ Itfw |)aju4;b (if ^iriiuftl jaoctfToa 
excctd hi» iMi iwii weikirH. 

But ii in cBiioui 10 ncMa hew ha bM 
only omia Ihc word 'notlci' but, I 
thhikt forbwn CD dweJl Kqrwberc on 
thc/UWn0/o1Vncttraf Ih* pnynvhtth 
ramu w much lo CypfkA. 


and foreshadowed some of the most beautiful phrased of 
ftimiliAr liturgy. 

The special dcvclopiiieni frmn the words ' Our Faitlier ' of 
the essential character of Uml/ and of ihc ircxpjableness by 
martyrdom of the stain of schism incline me to place this 
Es^ay in date dose to that 'On Unity/ which in almost the 
same words states conclusiors whkh only four years later 
Cyprian expresses in quite other lan^agc*. 

In applying ih^ ijctition for Bread to the Daily Eucharist 
the author dwells on the danger of those from whom it is 
withheld'; * martyrdom' or confessorship is a familiar thing; it 
is al^o a temptation to arrogant assumption*. These thoughts 
mark the very crisi,^ of the lime. 

The recommendation to *€V€ry nngk man to prepare 
himself to surrender worldly wealth' comes with a special 
force from one who w;is parting with hts all'. 

It is the time too when the Idea seems ever present to his 
spirit by which he nerved himself and the rest to meet *che 
Mortality'— the inborn power of Christian sons to resemble 
ihe Divine FalhcT — a sonship and a resemblance wrought 
through Daplism, ' Wc ought to know that when we call 
' God " Father^' we ought to live as if Sons of God'— * We that 
• ought to be hke our Father ' — " What He made us by Second 
' Birth such He would have tia, as reborn, to continue— bom 
'of water and Spi^it^' These belong to the period of 
Rfsfmuitrt Nataiibus. 


^ CoDtpkn lit l/mtatt 14 'Talcs 

tVrtitit [i«c pasioiJC ifQTUiUui,' wicli ife 
/foHttntra Oru/itri/ 34 'nrc si pro ma- 
mint ^tiiut jMfnt irtOifH Juunmnu 
yVofcfnif /Vi!flrVcvhderc,&^....Qiix]c d<- 
Lictuin est quod Dec biphiDio san^init 
poi«( ahiu*' qiulf? cnni«ii «ii qi»yl 

TI10 same doctnne b vtated in Rp, 73. 
ai— '(](([ ift veiy Jiflcroit phnuwoluijy. 

ui 41I11S coram hnminil^iii < limliinn 
DontitcilLLr. at un|;uine tuo liAptiaeiaf ? 
El Iimca ntc Itoc Ijapdiina hjcreilco 
piTHli^I. 4]UJLinv^» ChTlnEiLRi conffflBai 
exlia ccdcEiam fumt <kcLivb, &<■ 

' DeJ^atia. Oraf, iri. 

* D« DvmiM^ Crai, ri. 11, 171 >i> 

VI. IV. 

■ON THE lord's PRAVER." 


The Eway of Tertuliian on Pi;iy*^r ha* turen the nioilcl 
after which Cyprian worked, although in the freest manner 
Saint Hilary, while be omits to comment on the Lord's 
Prayer in the course of the fifth chapter of S. Matthew, 
preferring to -icEid his rcaden to Cyprian^» E?isay. due» justice 
TcrtulIianS "most apt vulumc,' regretting that the unhappy 
position of its author— *the later aberration of the man '— 
(hould have prejudiced \l% acceptance*. 

Its method and interpretations have been folLcwed by 
Cyprian into a mysticism unusual to him. And indeed, 
where TcrtulU&n had only taught that we should, besides the 
Morning and Evening Praycis. pray thrice daily as debtors 
tn Tiii^ THKbK, Cyprian has a mystical expansior upon the 
perfect trinity of the Thfee 'Hours' with their three-hour 
intervals — 'a sacrament of the Trinity which wa* to be re- 
vealed in the last days,' and this is the earliest passage in 
which the Latin word ' Trinity ^ occurs in this schm*. 

What effect Tertullian's book had taken in the interval 
between is traceable in the dilTcrencc of the correctives 
employed It is still indeed necc^ary to check the ^ rumui- 
tuous ioquadiy' of persons praying aJnud 'when we assemble 
with th<r brethren and ct-lebrale the Divine Sacnficen with the 
I'riest of God/ but several superstitions have disappeared, 
which Cyprian could not have laiTed to rebuke hnd they still 
prevailed, iiucli was the practice of waAhmg the hards before 
prayer' in strange commc^moration of Pilate's surirndcr of the 
Lord i the putting off of the wooll<?n cloak' a\ the same time; 

* Br'T«tutL.d^./Viu.i,3Jllflnot 

■p[iLk>i3 i> a ivimc uf DcJIjr Uiou^li (lie 
t^ti^ (pjimsrhn ii- In thr ix\\ (iiundl 
(^,D. ^ifi) KncnlJut of Th*n» uhi 
\\ \n Ibc d&fltliii^lcti iia;in«r in hit 
phruf *»:t»fiAfmia Thim/a/ii'i SftM. 

1b when TliNphUQt of AnHnch a^.d. 

ihitt *i^yi of dsLWa bdore the tm u 
gtAM of the iiui Hod moon jm iinlkai 

oJ Ihc TriaUj. 

* Tbc iHcinilA, ^oirMvi « ^ iX ir»i. 


the sitting down after prayer in imiuticn of Hermas^ ; the 
disuse of the Kiss of Peace when fasting, and the abstaining 
from ihc Liturgy on Fast days^ The dJAUsc of veils by 
maidens had cunttmied, ;is wo have seen. Il wss also prrw 
babiy still a question whether it was correct to kneel on the 
Sabbath, although Cyprian doe^t not notice it Ifw^ consider 
those ritualistic qjestion5 of the Early Church, wc need 
^arccly despair of our own working their own solutioiii 

IL is charactcrislic of the tempers of the two authors that 
Tertullian hailed the Co^ifusior of the Nations as a phase 
of the Kingdom to come. Cyprtan emits this, and, while 
his noto on the second word of the Prayer is his well-known 
beautiful phrase ' To us, prayer is of the people, and is 
common to all/ Tertullian who comments on S. Mattheur'** 
form of the prayer, here, with S. Luke, drops the word 'Our' 
and does not even allutic to iL 

Although in reading Cyprian's treatise after hb 'Maatcf's' 
a softened echo of strong words is audible, and the writing 
out of his riddling epigramii in limpid sense is frequent and 
deliberate, there is little tranaeriptjoui as in earlier days, of 
sentence or phrase. The Scriptural iliu&tratlons alone shew 
markedly the originalily of Cyprians work in a point in 
which it must have beea actually difficult to avoid repetition. 
Tertuliian quotes about sixty places, and Cyprian seventy, 
and of these latter only about seven seem to be suggested 
by Tcrtullian's use of them*. Even these are dJITcrenUy 
rendered into the vernacular'. 




' Tertull, de Orar. ifi, /TmM- *Xrit- 

' /.t. |iii1^ing bj' the mar^iuil refer- 
eneti inil doing iht hat one may wilh 
Ohlcr's indiCHt which for inowaroc}' 

J}ar .Vrt*f Tff/inn/fif yWrti//ia*t' r of 
KikiukH *p|iv«tf 10 beu out ihc iiai« 

i// Ornt. t, rilio' j^ui ct jlli m« ngn b^ 
Qorciunl; ap. Ji Dea^ Oraf, lo, fiilca 
gffDctavi er rsalfavi, Jpel tinTem me tprr- 
«runl j*ry. i_i. g. op, loTT- tf* i>rai. i 
nc (|ucm in lerria phircin voirt»irj m'lt 
^upm hilwmLis in a^Eii- op. dt Org. 
t.*raL 9, ne \f)ftmur nubk patrrrtt in 
(«m, quod iftH*^ nobis nnu* ptilcr qui 
cstlnCRlU. jVr.36.4M^f^' ?3^ 46J. 


Vh IV, 



Both give and comment upon the ihird petition AJt 'Thy 
wUl be done in heaven (the heavens) and In earth,' which 
form also. Augustine ^^ys, was mofv in use, and to be found 
In a m;tjority of ^1anvl<cript«^ Accordingly neither annoUtor 
finds in this clause any reference to citlicr anj::dical or phyai- 
c&l order. They Arc obliged to understand heaven and earth 
as symbols fur spirit and flesh within u», or again for 
heavenly and Pflrthly-mindeH men, 

Cyprian expands and somewhat dilutes TertuHIan's 
splendid phrase, ' iV^ are heaven and earth,' He close* 
thus, 'At Christ's bidding wc pray; and we ask that we 
'may make our prayer be to the salvation of all, that as 
'God\ 14 ill was done in heaven — that is in us throitgh our 
' faith, that we might belong to heaven ; so God's will may 
'be done aUoin earth — that is in them, on their believing'; 
'that so they who are by their first birth earthy may begin 
*to be heavenly by being born of water and oflhc Spirit' 

■p. TbtI. ^ Orat. B. omt* nc tcnplc- 
PlUd: ife Difi. OrtJ. 16, nC vrlUldK in 

TpmjitaHfinrm, Mf- iH. ji, ap- T^rt, 
dt OfVJ- 7. ^^}Bninu4 Hlphiiiim rtMninili ap' 

dcbiium. /V;r,a.;t4,Ap,T«ii, ^^{>rat,t, 
ftolltc At cnfluno cogiluct ^p, y/ /Vd- 
Or^^ 19. iioliU la ciAilinmn c^fUK. 
For /^. 91, 4?' ap. Ten. A [>jr. 4' Pw«, 

nov t«c] tun fitt viiIuiiUji. Ur £>i^. Oni. 
l^piiUlogvThor.Vf, 16. ^^ PalTt li hm 
yot#fli mritnl am«uKt iitfl, with JA^ 

fton qtioH Bgo vnin wl f|uoil f 11 irit i 'AW 

Ten. d^ <>'!»/» iS» \snirt hvra cum T<rl 
UloTitflivi adcfibuni parrm h ipiritu 
ec vvfim*; up- 4// Zf/j (V<i/. J (td, 
tuur by ItuVcI), hprxiu veaiiT <|itfiido 

4. ^tL, vp "t'cTl. i/r iJ'M'. 4, nufi cuuu 
•al (HMiHi I'Acert k volvaUlcm; Ap> 

u1 CtLlini ndunijKcin mt'aJa wd votua* 
ItErrn rjiin ijui miiir nc 

To Uluxirafi parii4 cottiHi#nut Tcrl' 
W ^^. 6 quMcj j^ 6. ii^\, 35, Aiiii Jr 

TtrtkLliuu'i «umple cf ' picl^ti^n.' iff 
OfM, S; Job i» Cypriia^ /if Ad, Orat^ 

' Ad|[, 4d!r ^110 ftn/^ iii- (' P- Stba- 

Rriiu. 174^—491 »■ '<>■• P- .U< «1» 
thaf Cyprtan hu •ilevi' lik* «ll olhn 

»uchoritI« «iCTpt Tcriul]ikQ- Boi Ihi* 
ii a mliuke due la ihv rcia of »II Um 
pniifcd Cyp^iLTLi in bk time AH iht 
er?«l HUh have ^Aal v<cJunlu tua in 
CLclu ct ]n Icvnu' dr A^u. On/. [4. 

* Kaa «^ rka. Ont^ c. 17 -In T«rr«, 
boe Hi in illu ef«d<<acib(U.' tUrtd, 
uudor 1 mii4ijii([jitioii atplaldtfd mue 
rully hrbw lAi«y « Ckan^^tiahft, 
^^.). cbuign tbtf bntaryirif traJhlJ 
ialo ' vr«du< nokntAoAt' 


The clause 'Lt^d us not into ttrnptction' is explained by 
Tertullian a» 'Sufler us not to be led'/ and without a hint 
of ihc genuine form Cyprian uses the Master's gloss as his 
own text of llic prayer*. Apparently be was llic 5rst. though 
not the last to do so ; and it iHu!4trates his excessive love of 
lucidity. Augustine notices his reading, and observes "and 
thus do some pray' — amonc them probably his revered S, 
Ambrose; and he adds that he 'had nowhere found this in a 
Greek Gospel/ but that it was in many Latin manLi&cripts of 

From his words on ^Detrv^r tis from E'^iV " h is not dear 
whether he gives Evil a personal sense^The Evil One. *A 
' Mah — we comprise all adversities which the Enemy devises 
'against Its in this world'; *Wcask God's protection against 
*Evii; that gained, wc stand quiet and guarded against all 
'works of Devil and World/ It looks lallier the other way. 
But scarcely so if wc take into account his previous words on 
the clause about Temptation. ' Here is shewn that the Foe 
■hath no power against us, except first God give him leave, 
'that so all our fear, devotion and observance may turn 
' toward God, seeing that tfie Evil One (Afaio) hath no licence 

' U tit nc nD3 pMLtiiuii Induci ib fo 
utiquc qui lemplau Tctl. dt Qraf. c 
a. EUeivhefc only Ne DOi mriTicni. itf 

' De Di^ Oiat- 15- &« HocuKb. 
//: 7if^ TerlulHam't, p. 600- Hit rp- 

fcrcncca irc ulen ffom Snbaliar. 

{^tp- lit.) givei ir thiu u ha, iPNt of th« 
Vcrsio Aniiqua of S. Matt, \i. rifronn 
iheCulUjii Ml. (e. toil. nil,. P*rik,/*f"j'j 
Ztf/.i£4)ihlhtforTn'iie prusui notfueTli 
iiuluci,' auil ffum the a«ci3fL<t ^, (icr- 
LDAin (wni. ii' or %.. g. 1, ffniit LM- 
13169) jmd Ih? S. CiEifD MS. (cem. 
Ui P»m} OA * ut pilijiFu aofi iudud/ 
['K? pbtiulk iu» induci,^ FSooh of Ar- 
magb ftn<1 the Kaihworth Gocpek (afso 

Irish)* cciiu. viii.i Uh, J. WurdfcwoitU 
and H. J- While. AVe. T. 1. al,, kHL 
&d.J 'Satulier dE« ihi& jatlcr rona 
aIso from Aniabius, ^ i^M THh^ 
ijj d, 3< AiubnHe, fiV 5funtfff», U< *• 
vi. col. JJ7 a, 385 c, and S- A&pa* 
tinci 1. li. de Sftfrr. l>am~ "V m, <it^* 
>o6 l^ 111 A, wh(7 tfcatJi Lt ;» an cm- 
bodinl t^iplaaaliua jvidflie^t PipoiiPV- 
leb} and w^Ko hjnuflf conndiinlly tuc4 
infiraj. J, Wordsworth, C>^^/*ir.5/Ji. 

nttt tcaX\y on Old Lmin us, bui * ^1- 
gaif [cxt intc'poUicd i?r mucd. dihl r 
at more diiuncil)' on Old Laiiti u«. 
(They ti4-re Tepr«enl borti AmbroK tod 
Ihc older Afncaiu?] 
• /}£ Dca. Orut. 17, Cf. 15. 

VL rv. 



'in the matter of tcrm[>1;ttif>r.i:, except power be giver hira 
'from Gcct.-anct power k given to /4f Evil <Pw (M;tIo) 
'agAinst us according Co our etm {Is, xMl 2$), and ^ain 
■^'thc Lord stirred up Satan" {\ K. xl. 23J "ao adversary. 
"■Rcaon," against Solomon himscir.' 

The fuln«s and the value of ihu Essay to Church thought 
arc well illustrated not only by HiUrys e.*ttimatc of it, but 
by the practfcai account to which it was ^oon turned. 

A century and three-ijuartera later* the inonkft of Adru- 
ntetum were affected with Pelagian leanings, Three of ihcm 
vi.^itcd Saint Augustine and spent Easter with him. As 
evidence of what catholic dt>ctrinc rcaJly was, he read them 
this book, and recommended the 5tudy of it to the MonaMery, 
which possessed a copy of it. By it, he sayst, "a* by .^ome 
' invincible dart were ttanspierceil hcrelicx who were yet for to 

CX the three points wliich c-itholic truth held faj^t against 
PclAgius he found two distinctly laid down in ii, ii\ That 
all holiness in a free f^id of the £racc of God, ^uid (2) That 
actual sin is committed by the hoHcf^t of men. Foi Cypit^n's 
exposition. Augustine shews, sets forth how gifls of grace 
are to be sought U^r them that have none, and power to 
pefscvere for those wlio have received them. 

The third point (3)— That all men are originally *inful — 
he shews to have been catholic from t^ypnan's Epistle to 
Fid us. 

The freedom of that Epistle and of this Treatise from 
technical Jarguagc /rven the cxpreK-Mun ori^nai itH nnt oc- 
curring in Them) vouches for their earTy date. No fabricator 
could have extncated himnelf from termtt in which all around 
htm clothed their thought-^ Augustine, with all his fluency 
and case, could never have so expressed hinisetf. and as hLi 
conceptions hardened and narrowed in his years of contro- 

1 J?f l>im^ Of^. 95, 

■ A.i>,4«;- 

Aug, £/- «««- 


versy' his own language and that of his contemporaries be- 
came too rigid to allow their ideas to be expressed as once 
they had been. Yet whilst the phraseology familrar since 
thai controversy is wholly wanting, nothing can exceed the 
strcngUi and dejitti ^nt} definilencss with wliich {a^ brought 
out by Augustine's analysis) one truth breathes from every 
line — tliat truth tacitly so forgotten m ever new forms of 
error — * That all things which relate to character, by which 
* we live rightly, are to be asked of our Father in heaven, and 
' that to presume on (the strength of our) freewill is to f^tl 
' [torn grace/ This is but a solitaiy instance however of Ihc 
Imporlancc o? literal ai)d accurate ^position- No !(?ss thitn 
thirteen tiTnes* in his lreaitfse>i against Pelagians h Augus- 
tine able to cite this one small work of htm whom, in hi* 
hi^h spirits, he calls " victoriosiMsimus Cyprianus.' 

Lastly. The simplicity of its thought as well as of lis 
diction ^eeins fraught with hints for the preacher as to the 
true niclhod of doctrinal teaching. As to its substance may 
we not hope that wc are tiursclves somewhat nearer to Cyprian 
than to Augustine? At least we recognise how much of spiri- 
tual conflict and misery might have been spared if only the 
early recognition had lasted on that all good is of God 'the 
Father of lights/ that 'a\l holy desires,' even in their first stir, 
'proceed from Him,' that all works 'pleasant' to Him are 
wrought by the grace of Chmt and the infusion of His Spirit, 
that His presence and action are essential to every existence 
even which we can beheve to be real and substantive; that 
only that subsists which subsists by Him, 

* 1q ihc BcncdicLinG ladex (Vvn*t> 

173^1 arid that ipferentes : +86 d^ A15, 









TABLE sAttifiitg^ thf v^rhai dtbtt to TtHuiUjvt 

XVII. Deuinuifltn noB voc)i*cd <otdU ludilw cfit. 

The rdl <ii the chetplcr vt Cypniui ifnHigEy, bul hunlly verb- 

dly, rc!iemU» TcriitlilMiL, 
„ iu ip^ i^uidem TiiJiJtilm:^ f.ith1iiiii4« eUlia it*\ TempeTire ■£ probe ebt» 
[ifif\/ti. Icvutia], n? vullu cguLiIcm in autUcJam cnebtp 

II. ' ]}<imintis', ^pTscqul luqueni in terns ptucnn vM«inui mii quem hAbtnoi 
in ataiii- _ 

hoeai quod brMll cKpiob^Eut*. (B^ L i)> >ct obliira pauU dcuGUmua. ■ 

in> HOD quod d«ccaii>quKd >I dt «t ftlioi ^ qjOi-nui apiemiU'.CflterQni 
qanndo non nncium ei tanciiflcAium fsc per acjnci ipium noinr^n d«i cum 

CCl«ro4 lanrtllicel n Hinti ipW?---I'l pp|tm*a nl ^n^llrti^etur in nnhin 

qnj in illo lumiu* - 
\. Vrtiui oU^^Jl'ii RKrfNLTM iiruH. -in nobi^ tciUcct* Nirndt-iiK quantity nun 

r^fin-ir? ..tiTjnt dftminia TcpnuMnUlin . oplnmut , non iJiiiMat stfvite^ 
IV' Don quod nliquia oKvaUt quomJJiua voLuntu ilci 1iai.-Kd in omnibat 

peilmus fitti vuluniatcm tjuh. - 1 - Qux ui tmptcrc! pOHiitiuhi upun cut Dffi 


DuBilnu& quoqttc cum lubKEantb f)aalomt In^im^iticm caraU ilrmoaAiimre 
Jam in iiib cunc volnl&ui. roTr^r. inqiiii. icfin^jrer poculnrn iitud ; «1 ncor- 
dftluo. ^Ji^i quDil mi?Bncn kcd [tip 5it1 voluntas (Lc. n^ii, 4i|. 

ol cL ilia Dci vultinlAS ^min Uomintja odminitlrfl^il pfXtlEcMitJo, upenuidOf 

ex mt«rpreitiltoi]c Fi^nti cuni^ et fipiritas noa fhUmiu cielura at lemi-*. 
netihiu pctiliuriiii uc in ikjIjEi luit vuIuilIaa Del in fcrrU ul pouilKillccl fen 
cE ill cxlh- Quid aiiltoi Dens vuIe qimm incttJAC nts &c. 


VL Pankm .. ipiiitolitrt poUiis InttllrBuciiia. Chn»pliia ciiim pani» n™(c: oi, 
i]Liia vllo. Chflirtus d vila iMuii, Ego »i"ni. inquit. (uoin \iLt..,Tiim 
quod tt coTpuf ejiu kn pane «n&rtur; Hoc r^t rorpiit mvum. Itaqufi 
pElcndo pancm quotiiliqnum pa-petuitalcni pDiLuliUDiii in ChfiMo «( 
IniiividuiUitrji] a carporc ejmi. 




4. quia DeiB non vodi «ed cnnlli udlior ca. 

& ngn Bdl«v»li* In olnia inpud«nivi oculi* Dec mAnibu UuoUtiicE erecU& 

^ DoiAinu4>> iknrc«pit tic vocciniu nobis p&ticin In cvjiKfuod »dllc<t nobbuixni 

10' rrtuc iwii Ju-Ijkh etiaok penlnngii et pcrcuM . - (Jq, vuL 44 ; EtMl- t- «}-'ti1 

quOfum <Kpr J^uiiuiLcm ■ ■ ^^xm, cum ilvrcUiiucrunL 
II- nan quDif a^nmut I>o ur uncrificrTUf crtilonibvit nnitrU, icd i^uM |VUuiiii& 

■ U» ut (Ionian cjub uinftirioctLir in pobift. Cvrpnim 1 <|U0 l>«i:t suictiA- 

«tar qui ipic Hitiicliticnl? . .- td pcEimiu <1 ro|;ainiiii ul qm in htpliamo 

A^nrtifimti itimtii In fnqucxt eicsr e(Fi»iniH ivncwnxouA. 
\l. rTETrum rliam ^ei n^pntHfuUh nobit peiiaiu*- -*iuan I>jic quando non 

rcjjniit \ , m qui in bc;u1o ■nic bcrvivimiu poitmodum ■ . rf^iicrimh 
14- nam l>to qulu obiliiJi quamknus quoi veUi facUif «*! qnU nohb k dUboln 

obitiriiur quointniii ptt omnu Alc, 
t* qufc ut fial in iwbin ' Qfriu ot Dd volunlilc,' id CAl ope cju> cl pTf^tcctJou, 

quia nviiio fuU vlrLbut roilin ni, rtnl &c. 

p^tctE cruiKiit a me calU uts, st > . . o^idjl dUcru : Vctdhtanvn ftc^ (Ml. 

If, voUmTu onl'm Dvi ^ti qdim rhri<tdt «t IMt 4I dnctiitp'^thfn friL]i>m an 

nIfvTcvlf beagiifvl pbnA^ Cn^rian'i ^w^. 
l6> cum «ir]7ut % imia cL tpiriiaiia (f^Midctniut a &nli> Ipn *lena ct CJcliiin 

vxmut' Ft ti> utroqvf, id m rf roTpore ff tpiniu, 'ui l>i volutifu lUi* 

omiam . . . hoc precuaiu ei tn «*tj et in lerrm voluntaLvm cim n<M Del 

&i:ii : quia fjjc^ opC vuJuiilAi Del ul . . < 
1;, pp[iini)ii_.ur quam^rln En cclo. Id at lo liabU> per Adcm ncatram toIuoiu 

Dd facia c»t ut cMicnidt « Cttlo, iU At In UfH, hoc «ai !■ ilUi ci«det»ib[u, 

)$• qooit fiotr^l fl tpEriiiltiCT d Mm^ilidJcr liileUeyi. mm |wui vltc Oirlhliu »t. 
>l p«Di« hicommum con oat »cd noilvi ^l...qmj| Cbn^v «onim qm cufpui 
tiu> «oa[Jnj{imu« panit Til. ilan< outca panon diti nabia «>tiidie poHis- 
Uniu ae qal La ChriUt lumm <l nchtriktiuu c]u» cotlnJic od dbuia 
latutu 4CEipiinus . ■ ^ r abalvnu H non camTnanEeancca.-^a Chntli corpor* 


VI. IUiu> homiolti qvil provenimlibut fructiboi tmvilmliDiirin hujEcuiunr clloofflt 

Kcuriliids spREla CGfEll*^^ ^ ip^ EiQElc mciril ief, 
VIL cOCkBvqucM M«t. ut obacryitA dei liberatil5i« uutm dvcnentiam «iua pr^ 
CSf«innr> Quiil cniai klinicniiL pjodcriDt, n illu tc^ioIjuduj retcn quid 
Euirusad victinijim? ■ 

Rid il4n«liir cEictio ; t\cvt tlU Mrv« dominui dabjium fieinlut ^ . Idem nrrvoil 
. - h toilon cIctce^iL^r. 
Vllh ndjcdl 4(1 plcniUitliLPm lam ujicrliut; ortliorjb,. i Ereo respomlci claa* 
iliIa . , , 
EXp cnmpcrdiij$ pjiaculanim verbacum i^aol alllnpintur.. .Quid mirum? D«U1 
ialu« (Iwcrc [X>luil rjuumudu ui vrlltt orari. Ab L^j^iGilUdEiliiiJLlureli^iu 
oraiir>nA Src- 
l. .'Dci vermo^'Jc^ai Chnitui dommus ao»lcr nobis dtRCipulis NVvi Tata- 
ni?nl) Dovam ocatioRU fonniiin Jclvrmmavil^ [CypvtBJi drop* the &di' 
bigiioiLf phrDUdlngy shout Chntr ivm^^ llpi Sptrirua,] 
XXV. obKrvotio ttiam honnoi qainimdiam - < ■ qiUB Hi^f iaivrspatifl ki^ant lBrti& 
M>U nou ^lioa HjUcmniun ia iai^iaih Lnvcnifv cil. rricnab tpind 
unfrus Fongre^iii ilLsi^i^ulLt hon rcriin inriifii( »L Pflmi <]ua dLC; 

uitmti graUa a>ccDi!ctal m mpcnuru ^ - ul quod DiaielL quoqnc le[iaiul^ 
exccpTia qiiquf [sgitLmis cnlioafbut quA KiM tillii admeniUoBC driMffiar 
Uificnu inch ic (icctia- 


10. kiKuUio copiu ajci^anitm ct k civbftBntiom fnctaua bigiute iKianCcm . * ■ 

T«cTc moriiurui. 
ffv- puiaubiiJiLimcibi perUm <i vcaiji<ldictl at <|ul « Deo ptinrnr in Dm vWot . . 

,B li peccau dontntur i^un dabilA Pominv «ppcLUc. 

37. pott i^u r>inria n ojnfamjmvi*'t3,f i)miimi.>( vmii dAviala nnir^rtu pviltlonc* 
It pr*CH n«Cr« collvclJi brv^ttatc vontEddne - > 

ft^ qoid miium ' . ■ sJ L>r^o lUia cil <iuftiji Dcii>di«ujl ^fUJ iBJ^^^terii^ wo omncra 
ptmeniUBirim ulotari senncnc brcirlatic? , ^.rfam rum t>?lirmiu Dumami 
b««t«r /«iu» Chrutu* omnibm rciicTii ci vtlli^ttii docl« pafiter vt tndoclm 
Omni Ktu Jitjue ieiuu pnc^^tfpix lAfitih ^tlidcriE. [»ri!cc«|]lwattt laoium ftfcil 
tEumlc cuinpeDiItmn lit Id [litctpllQA CJtInii diiocniiuai &i» 

i^fp la oiAlWafbLiB ¥cio cdtbuiodEk Ipvcnlinvt obMcnu< cum Dknielc . - honm 
mtiAm taiLm nociJim ■ - - ^ox hi^rsnmi ipuia jam prldcm iptrliAUitf deter- 
vimuitu jfibralorci Da ttvuiiB ei Icptimii od pcccdn temporibia Mr- 
vicbdni ..liuTA \ttta dcvcfqdh Spuitvii wnclU) ^Ai^tn Pctru* tiun xvLi In 
tcavn iaperiLitcuecT>dnii irjfiio panrrr tt tvcc Od monmtlt tniiniaai cr« 
«l omnet ad gmtiam ulults hlmiicrret - ' . 



Ou th( CftatacUristu^ and CfHuirt^nesj of tht Dt 
Dominua Oratimu. 

IrhAsbceii conteniied that Ac trcAtiie 'Of the Lord's Prefer ^ b Uicr 
ihaji Cyprian, on graundi whtrh I hopv io «imrii«r fairly from thir dti- 
ctirsive hantUmg the question has reccivcdj The reply might be scarcely 
worth malting but for ihc interesting characteristics which come out by 
the way. 

1 1 has hern alleged 

f. Thai ths trcatUc bctrayj an acquaintance with the cominentary of 
ChromaLfus of AquiLeiii who dird aboui 406 a-I>. 

II. That its langvoeeon 'Daily Bread' is more *Sacracnenur(i} Ihzin 
chat [>f Chromutiub, (ii) ili^in Eh ^i cfT Gn^^ory Nysstfne or Chrysoftom, who 
pnibubly represcint the prevailing view (>f the j^uurth century, (iti) and 
than la consistent with Auguitmc's doubt as to the sacronicnLdJ furce of 
tb« pe(ktii>n<, 

IlK That VmatitiiJt Fcrtunatuii Bishop uf PuiijerA In the aiith 
ccnttiiy, who uavf Tertullian's treatise on the Lord'; f'rayer, do?« not 
lue that of C>prkan, which his prcdecc^tor HiUry had commended ^ 

I. On the liretheadj I will accepi Tor companion Ihepassaget, prfntrd 
after ihi^ note ^fom TcrtuUUn {iU Orai. c. 4)1 Chiomatius {Tracia/. 
jtiv- 4 in S. AfatL £i'.), and Cypnnn [ff^^ Dei. Oraf. t4"l7), on the 
words 'Fiat Volunras Tua,' Scc^ The iclccljon (however undoigncdly) 
is an unFavoirrable teit-passage, RoBemhIancp*! nTf like?)' to be fewer on 
this pclicion than cbcwberCf since Chroinntms i& ca^poundin^ ttic common 
reading 'A* in hcnven sfi in earth' while the African* explain their own 
fonn 'Thy will h« dont! in heaven and in e^ih.' The compariAon hew- 
ever yields abundant evidence ihai Chromaim^ had studied fyprian, not 
Cyprian Chromattui, A question is pul which, if Accumtely worked outt 
^ould lead 115 right * How could Chromaiiua, if he were inakine use of 
*Cypnon| have escaped imrodticmg ideas that Cyprian had taken from 


< E. J. Shepherd'i Fitt*'fk LfSttr U 
Dr Moitiand. iflss- 

He ftinhcr ol>spf*es that if hl^'arga" 
laents %:t oogcul snJ contlnsiveH' Cy- 
|iriiui becomes 'an important aiIjjcv 
U£aia±I many Au^ilinuta untiikE^,' 

Thdt r* Jme- Vnt etxn\j\\f ihe fol- 
[owing *ork» of At^slinc would b? 
forctrici in wliolc ar in t^art — Cvntra 
^u&A Epatotas ffUsj^itnarum; C-m^frs 

Ep. 3i5i wliifh acconijiniiicil hi> bcuk 
Df Gratia H tJhtr^ ArinTnn^ Df Phr* 
i//viirtt/i\'H/ SiH/tfrum, oiid £/- ti*, 
in whicli bjijk^ Bi Ica^l 14 I'iLsugct of 
ourtrpaTise JiTT '^jiirjlertt woven inland 
<!Ciiimentcd rm m 4 way ohtn satnlUl 
to the ^irutture. 

• Hilar Commmh in Maith^ c. V, i ; 
Venarit. |*'ormnftt, MitnU- hL K- c. 1, 
£xp9nl. OrnfipHtt Dvmiiru 


'TeituUitn? How account for the <UmLiuuioa of so mach llul isTcr- 
'tdlltaDiMic?* The aiuwcr ifc ihM» cun(lrn»c4j and pmuic a> ChmmAtiu§ 
it, be docs Jttti 'cacApc.' Of the rkch prottition of Tcnullian'» Idea* 
ChromatiiEi reproducei fcv, Bui mine few he ha»: iiid/ii£^4 sHJcf ihcsc 
baa adhering to it 40itwiUiiiK which Cypnvn JiL^d Addod. Again not ooe 
'TertailLJLitiitiJc UIca* lb icprotluccd in ClicomAtiu^ which u not m Cyprian, 
or iwilhoul Cj^riac'K natxip on it^ it follow* thai Chfctnitiu* ba» Omo 
ttcqunbicd wilb Tcnullian's lte*tifce iAnfagJi Cjfriarft — at Lca^t, throiifli 
ftomt tTKAEtHO which h9L« handled Icrrullian on the Gam« tubjoei id the 
some manner cx^icili <u our De Dominicit Orafitf/u doea. 

To coi^hnc; ourtvlves foi ptcof to ihifc on* then and unfiivourabte 

r Tehdhvi IS shewing how ii \s we can t^n^ibly firtty for c;od^ 
inviitCibU will lo be done; Tial Volu[ita«Tua,.,nDn <3Uod all quia ^n/ilii/ 
^btfiMifwr Volutilitt U(?i fi^t ..ted fju ruvv^/jff p/timui flrrl Voliini;ifrm 
Ejus.' Cyprian gcoeraJly inca to m^ke TcrtiillJan more elegant and mor« 
clrar. Their wras an inanilicial iinprrfeciiiru in merely repealing, 
iniUod of inddcntalV cxpUimniCt (h« word> tVvnAi/ Dfi fi^, whil« 
the roujfh in nmni/ttij Icjfl thu difTicuHy wheic it wna. Fur ibc diffl- 
cuity lici exactly in apprehending ho* the Divine Will aui fail to bo 
(i|;eraiive in alt. Cypthaw ihitefuic hmi'NAm Dci^ i|iii> i/b:istit ^aifnatus 
quod veht faciAl^,.,sed quia ^ri^^f/ a diohoio e^suFifuff kf mi hui fier tfmftJa 
nosier nnimu> Jid^ue octui Deo obtcq^aluri orainua ct fie/imwj ut lial /n 
nf>#ff VoJunias D«i,' 

Now ChtuinAtius como in; t^kej Cyprian's ^mtJ vtJit /atiai ; uid 
vbcteos Lypri^n, with m amnUus before him» had whuen ptr i>m.nia I'ti 
iwdist CbfomaiiuB tinds tho firt fmii-t unncccaurj', drops it; ret^ne 
(Tflftulliflirt -fcndj typrjan'i oftajitrj and Cyprian'i firdM»i, bul give* 
of all TcriuUinn'* conECLl nol a syllable which is not in Cyprian. Sayi 
Chromaiiut 'Non tnim <;uHi:;uam est i^iii abtistgrt et ooniradicere Deo 
p099il, nc qifati ifrJif /Mta/.'.itd ut im ti^si vnlunt«j Ejus fiat f>ni«n»-' 
Anyofiff of thf; thghteii nkill In compoiLition sees that Cypnan Is the 
MtdJi^ ifrm between Tenullian and Cht^maiiufL 

r Tcriulhnn tay^ G(h]\ Will ib ihtt we should w&lk after Hit 
discipline.' He ftJiyt nothing About V^t\\i or Hchevinc. Cyprian tnlr^ 
due(% it among many oiher poinii, — 'siabiliui in fide/ 'per lideim,' 
'crvdeoEibus/^r which Ta4t more prMvntly. Chromatiu* make* Jt th« 
fitat point 111 his definiliun ' VwIuiiIa* IJd rn, ut A*ftf tfFtfc «' trtdmift 
hnc qU£e heii pr:capit implentnm/ and more. Any rruter of ttyk would. 
I Ihinkt pronouns that a milet woikuig/rff^ Chromaliui must have 
made mote diiltnci ut? of hm <^iAm and erniHtitat than the hook we 
ascribe (o Cyph^n hut* done. |( \% ^bieiit tn TcituUiao. obii^uc iti 
Cyprian, express in Chromatmt^ And \K is m important that once itaied 
at must have been re-iiatcd. 

J, Tertulliac has here the truly T«rTulhancu|iie evpfctnlon *cx Inter- 


pretAiione figurati ^an^ii ri spirituE no& 4unii)« CEClum et lerra.' There 

he kavca ii, floirnilung for TcatJcrs to ihjnk Aboai. Whit did he mean by 
noft £ich Individual, compounded of flesh :ind ^jpiritl or the world of 
GAtnally minded and spintvally minded men? Cypriitn cxpIainA the 
ppiiiion nn Tfte first hypothesis- Tfi mran 'Thai GcmI's will mny he done in 
our bcidy and in our spirit/ He then p'^^* <J^c other alicrticiiivi: (poicat 
et sic iiitelligij, vil ihivt 'quomorio in c^ln» id tr in rtihi?, per fidetti 
nosinin Volunias Dei fticU tst,„Hiln m in terra, hoc est in illis cicdOA' 
lihus, fiat VoluTiCfl.5 Dei,' gllitlng thus inro jn cxplnnation nf the other 
meaning, ^Tliat they whom just before he dc&cribet ss fui adhuc ierra 
aiml el x^tj/um tir/^^/ts, &f - mny bc^in trsn ttfUstti ei aqua ct spirtlu nali.' 

Novv both ih^sc myslicAi mferpreution& hav« Jitsen from the Africans' 
form. To pray that GqJ's Will 'inigbi be done in heaven' miphcd la 
Ihem Ih^l Heaven wa^ n region where it not yet done to perf«KSioo> 
Heotc it couid nol Lo Uicrrt [iia we srfw) mcin the Heavenly Hosts, but 
father the highest part of rnan, hi» regeoeriLe spirit, or eUe tha converted 
put of the world. This interpretation tould nut ha^e arisen whctt the 
reading ' siciil in twlo ' prevailed — ' caelum ' being then the region where 
it ia done c^emplaiily in contiasC tu cailh. 

Hf^vv (!nL'« Chrom<i(iu« prnci^td? He has the true reading and he has 
Cyprian's comment. To him Cyprian's first ah cm olive is i>ut of the question. 
No mnn eniilrt apply u tn ihc true feirtjng. No man conld pray 'that fJod's 
will (nay be done m his f]e^h ai it U I'rt /tit spirit/ He is obli|{«d io omit 
this. But the second altemaiive of Cypriflji will f\\ vrell enough, There* 
fore to his own sensible exptunation as 1o the Angels he Add» 'Vcl certCi* 
'nt i\c\\\ in fffJo, id est in *an(^iii et nrt/sfi^i hominibus, Dei Vnlunia* 
'implclur ; ita quoque in ttrm, id est in bis f n/ ftf^tfum crvJidimn/* Sk. 

Here ^ig-iin W i^ tmposs'iblc U> dnubl ih^ii Cyprian i^ the tnidHit term^ 
nrd thnt ic is owing to un one but him llmt Chrom:i(iU9 has dropped the 
fjtst And true idea of ivh^it TcrtuUiiin nKant by making 'kenv^H ttiui 
ttirth ' n 5gur:Ltive eqaival«nt for '»/,' md laken n less harsh Euggettion of 
tthat \\ cuuLiI mcaii. 

Tertullian gives his mysdc rendering of 'eselum et terra' second of 
his li^ points on diia pciition- Cyprtxn moves it to In&t. There Chto- 
mitius ha* It ako, and enpiinges the poetry which Cyprinn had left in 

4. The reader has no doubt noticed a sin^lar variant in the l4«C 
ctnut^- Where Cyprian has in tiht crrtffniihus ^undonbtedly the true 
icftding—iJar three manuscripts of this trcfllisc which ntc of the fitat order 
have no negative), Chiomatiua has j« his qui ttFi^tutt rvfdiiitvunl. I| is 
y^meLhiriK ^iiigular that just Lhis passage should have been lighted on, 
for did a shadow of doubi lin^^^er a*k to which wait the orig^inal writer, the 
evidence that Chromatins has hero marked »t\. obscurity in what uvia 
before him and avoided \\ by a tnm of expression, would suffice to diipel 
it. ClcEul^ the two posKagGS are n»l independent. Whichever is orfginal, 
tht other is a copy. 



Now, no one could bavc miaappicbcndcd ihc Chrumatioji pmycT 
that 'God^ viEl ma}- be done it Am fHf tut^vm eredi^frvnV No on« 
A'CuU lirivc ic[jruJuLCii ll iri t]ic CyiitUni^ im\\\ 'in itttt crrdmU&ut.* 
Uvi itie CYpn^ntc lorm mij^ki cause hesitation— * Ui <|uomo<lo tn cirlo, 
' id eat in nabia per Adcin iioatfaui. Vo1uiit<u IJci ina^x «m, ut e»cmu» e 
'ckIo, ita«t ta terra, hoc nl in iJJit fTv^/vrj^u. hat Voluntut n«i.' 1i w4b 
nniura] lo sec how Cy^jrwi's p«rtidp]c iniflit be iiv4unil«riLood; how it 
mighl nfli be perceived ihflt by im iilis ^^dtntibus Cyph^n meant Mn 
^iktm (aa opposed to <>j ttGbix\ upon their bclicTiniE, bcinx converted or 
' beginning to believe/ 3ti(1 <\'^^.t At present they are »;>/ Affg^vrtj simply 
to »pre» thai one point ^rat, ChromMim accoriiingl^ puti \X imo 
unDiittiike^ib^e fonn 'qui necdum ereflttlrnim.' Augimine nimtl^f^y hus 
explained Ijy pur^phrfEsc the vxprcssion ai Cyfinan, vbicit wouIU bavv 
been nepdle« \i n negntive hsri hern thnr Of fourse A^W*' ^A>JYiijf, 
•rhen men *become heavenly,' they arc non-believers ; accordingly he ha* 
*iia et M €ts ^ui Kan i.Tniitnt it ob hue adkuz i/rra suni. Quid ergo 
'OTMnua pro nolentibus credere nisi ut Drun in ilhe optietur et vdlc',' 
H. Grave wa^acEually mUletlas tofhcpnrtlnpiiil u»e Aiitl inwirted Kntufum, 
f. Morel «*"«, as if 'in illi* crcdentibui' did or could incnn 'in ihote 
bctievinji* nnd Hand has Eivtn us the sLatiling cojijpdurr Mn iUii 
cred/'v n^j/fnti bus '—which comes indeed from Au^ dine, but not from 
(he srnteEicr wbrcli pRraphrasdi Cyprian- 

Cyptian uses parciciplei fnmtUarJy in thii appoiiiJonal eendented 
way- and in ibc sainc phnue bas 'cjrleitev ex aqua ei ipjiitu nati/ 
There u no iiiLliciiiori thit A;i^ufitire or ChromaEixi* niin«d the X^tir, 
tike (he editors : but time ocfone wt^uld luvc alicrred (he tlciuChivniatiaii 
tnio Fbe difficult Lyprtame. it ■« certain that LhromjLti^t niber applied to 
the Cyprianic the »aine lem^rdy which other creditable men bit upon, or 
(if anyone thinks nAWbw or ff^/enlibut genuine) that h« had before him 
an older cext than we have a irdce of. in ithtch C4ae Au£uMine, hii con- 
(empor«ty, had It too In eirhcr caie our ZV Dfm/mcti Ortni^uf n older 
thm Chromaiius 4Dd wat before hia eyes as he wrote'. 

It, We now cuttke to the Kcond objection to the gcnulneneu eif 
Cyprian on the Lord's t'rayer— The attergth of the Eucharirtic Lm- 

(i) Thi» It admilivd lo be quite in consonance wiib the 'other 

* I miui nr>t dng mj r«dert rhrou^U 
a refutacic'ii of Mi blii^hdrl^tBCtitucUty 
difljLUhio. Cm lie be hlmhdf vth^iik 
»h«a he iiLs ua to •cooudI br Chro- 
TDiitiijj not hft'lnj; repi«dueeid two par- 

Howevfi (hey VTtwoirhich CyprUn 

hai trtnklrmil ftnm ihciT coniett lo 
new bcaclii \J^ Onat. j uiti 5, which arc 
to lie found in .4r Ac^ Oral. 17 and i^h 
lYinv iin< «cn»t nf T^nniWatii idw \n 
Cypriax for which ChFomAiius (and* 
no roMb Tht pukit i>, Cliiunuuiut 
kiUjHki no 'l>rTuJliui Mctp *h»T lu» 
been reilAtnficd by Cypdu. 



writiiiKS* Attributed to Cypri&n and wiih 'that of Ui« suspicious FinniliAnH' 

If Chromnlitis w^rv lets strong (wIiEch is not lo evidr*nE] this would not 
ftt that ilA^c oT EhoLi^ht be concluiivr as Eo mc-re ca'tjncM i>f dnlc- 

'Chhst U oiir Hr*?ad of UfcJ 'Our dsily Communion is a dally 
Reccpiiou of Him.' ' Wc pray thfli we may not through the coming in 
{iieUntii^nU) of any grirvou* *in tip separaieri frnm thf Body of Girist' — 
i» icrptiff Chriiti stpiirrmur. Such is the CypriaO(c ^loi* on TertuUifln's 
foiccful word ' in -lakiu^ djjly bread vec claim cuntinuonce in Chn»l and 
undlvidcdnus from His ^oAy^-^ittdividhttaifM a ^ifrpftr^ efitr. Nov 
CliroiiTfitius rrpeii;« Cypitdn almost word for word, aubnlrluiins 
VfnifitU iat ittttr^^iiifiU, a word of double meininE, and/zwa/tfi iS more 
SCncral, for ^^raviert delUio. Augustine sUfCly echoes ihc aimc E^Oa* 
when h« ha* 'Sis ^nveirtms nt ab Hh atUtri tifiiirgmur.' Here ns before 
Cypti^a place in the chain \& dlSIinct^ 

[HJ To paw to the 'conjecture from ihe commcnurie* of Gregory of 
Nyua and Chrysoatom^ thai in the Oricrxtat ehurch ihc pctiliou wa» 
ronsidered a^ origirtally intended by our Lord to express i^nly wM/sj it 
Primarily M^attf, and that such wa the prevaihng interprelntion in the 
fourth ccncuf),' which probahlj ' was ihi: case iii ihc Wcbl ^ao/ 

The irath IS that the fnthers of the Aniioch school had uoihing bm the 
rtalibtic cuplanatiou cu unVr, beLUuac ihcy aiccptc^d Oii^n's cironcouv 
denvalion of JirioCriPs ys meanm^'litr'acE for our^^uhstancOi' but rejected^ 
as their wont was* bis spiritualised mystic view of *Sub»tai]ce* aj the 
EaMDce of Uur Bcini^^ The llread prayed for necc^i^rily vas to them 
only the Nurture of our Material Substance'. 

Tho Western curreoi of interpretation steadily kepi to the rightly 
derived rcndcrine ' Pailr'' It also ne^'ti' from TcrtuElian (our carliex 
wilnc*^) onward faileJ to see an Hucharistic rcferfncc hfre. Jerome'* 
rcndcnng ' aiipcrsubstanUaJ' vrai lon^ before it partially displaced 'djiily/ 
but it vfAt F.ufhansTic ^ttll. 

Thus then while the Eastern sHcv fras rtdlbtic in the fourth century 
nnly iinder a re«clion from a mysticistn far exceeding ihar of the West, 
the view in this treatise occupies the very position which Cyprian should 
occupy in the universally Eiifrharistic inicrpreiarion of ihc West. 

(iii) Augustine's view would be stated accurately thus, In his treatise 
'Qf [he Sermon on the Mount' he will not /imtf the peiilitin lo cilhiT 
earthly subsiBience or to the Eucharisiic gift; his reasons for not con 
fining it 10 the latter bciny ihat Orientals do not receive U Matly,' and 
thut Occidentals use the prayer many times a dny after recepliort. 
Ncvctthclcss he allows lliiii as one of the three sensc:^ whjch we may 
combine; that which he prelers being God's Spiritual Word. Vet in 

^ ChronutiuH' «ordi are i ttc uliquo 
mtervdiipaie p«ccato % (orpore Uommi 
leparemur, 7\^it. niv. 3- 

^ Dr Llehlfvoi un ^lai^iui^ Ap^, tQ 
p' lof &C> find E!dp 1G71). 


chrc« diflertnl i«rinoni^ h« giv«i tbr prominence to th« t^uchAiiitic 
»caK> 'The FAilhrul know wbji: h i» ihiic they cicHve in the Eucboiut* 
—'10 then the Luchartit i^ our UMly BrcAil/ The bandUng of Augu*- 
Eint^ tnoit t^iiiilyticAl and >«t moie iiiyittcftl, i« dlitinciL/ in k liter iriood 
than the fimply morjil ton« of Cyprian, 

On cbis head it i» Adiicd* Ibai 'It ii natonJ Ko voppoBC tt»t the 
' S:irnm4'TtUJ In(?rpn'(:)ti(^n (of l>4ily Brr^rl), when ftnt tnircHlurrd^ 
' would fcJtow, not precede, the Primary Meaning i lund when i< i» fourd to 
'piTCP^lr tl,(hat Th* of timr CyacI rollr-.l hiiihcr rlown— ' tr. a» th« 
'Primnrr Mciminj;' precede* the 'Sftcramcnul JoterpTCtmion ' in Chn>- 
malbt and follaws afirr il in the Cyprixnif npatisc^ therpforr ibe Uiifr ll 
a later work. This assumption would mnko Ctiroir^uCiui caaiy indeed, for 
TrrtuIllan'H authonliip of his /'/ Oratitrtu^ 1ft noi ditpuinl, And TfTTuKian 
five^ /]f^^ the Spimual and the SacramcnUl sense and then whAt he 
ralU ihr TamaT ftpn*** whirh l* Mr ShrphrnlR 'Primarj- M^nntn^* 

1 1 1. Why fto Eate an author u Venantiut ForTMnaiLis («ho)G refcrtncc* 
svould prove noihn^ Aft lodaic) doc« (louin hi&un(inibh»i tmtit«on Che 
Lord'» Pmy«r, reler to Cypnan's exprebtly, I cannot ^y, nor nved we 
?T]c|ULic- He was nut bound lo use Ihc same maienikls as hJ« prcdrcff^or 
And if Hilary's rchrcni;* to the iieatite is no argUTncnt for its i^cnuioe- 
uciSf surdy the liilencc vf Vcimmiuf Ja uo diicLuiieiU ^ainai ]L Bat I 
Ehink VeniintLUA is nitt oiitinjctd with Cypn^n. Un tuch a lubject cc^ 
incidences are natural, but some resembUnccs here seem to be more than 
comcideocet It must be remembered thai Venfuitm*' 4^y>i-/ la dtffet«nL 
He writes vuy cumpreMcdty, Lkii niuic Lhculot^ically, for instance, be 
Aayi Tn spcjUcmg of the ward father, *i^e be not tons m the mode of the 
* PenOQ of ou[ Lord Usus Christ, because He was bom of Uii Own 
' SubM*nc«j. , -yet thrnngh gnce of flic Only Hf^oiffn wr hiiv« aiiatjnod to 
^be made Adoptive' So a^nin when Cypriikn sj^>st1iejcvr'» Are not Son»*, 
Venanttua isys 'the Arian. the Jew, the Phorinian, the Manichce, the 
SabclUHin. and other pla^ei^-, and when spMkmc of the Will of God, 
^op* at Ifngth iniri thr qncsiinn of thr prfonrouinett rf tht ' Knmao 
WilL' Compare howe^'er what both say ds to the petiiioa 'Hallowed be 
Thy name' bfi:ijj a pr;tyrrfcir FtrtrvfrnHif, Or compart th<? uurds of 
de Den. (Mtf- I J on 'Thy Kmgdoin oomc;,' Poi««i. ,ipae CAritlttt tsu 
r^r/HtfM fhi gutM veitire ceifiiiie fMftimiti. mjits ^t^OttusSa^ quia In lElo 
rt^aaturi sumHS^vixxh Vnxt- t'oitunAtii* ((;ot. Jl" A, ^itj^*^ Pafr. Cat. v. %%j 
AiJveiddl rr^iiitin iuum, kt^ cji CArtitui Duminu-t noLiib sdvcuriil qucni 
ifu^tiiiu SLinclorum chorus veneratiter ijffiiat^ in cujus prom^wone u 
tonfidiinl justi rryiii'tf- Or on 'fiat Vuluntas Tua.' afir ^f^ii. Oral. 14 Nam 
Ueo quia oiniitii fitommut gttivf ^iitt j»Xk-ta:f «ed c^uia w-rAxr a diatt&U 
o&ajfitur.-o^iu e»L Dei voluntiic, id »l ope cju* ei proieciioi^ ijum 

) Au^, i&nr>A«, 53.^ * Shepherd's Aur/J ZdlVr, p. j}, 



nemo 9ui« vinljiFii Forlfb «! sed Dei induljEt^niiJt et misericordia tuluK csl, 
Willi Portuii, {cii\. 317 A nnd col. 31 H) Non id hi quiaoliquis potuit rtsiUtrt 
cju^ volunuii Hi itatiji^cefci aliquando ^ued iwiuit Diuniputcns. .acd ut m 
nobis imptcatur ejui voluntJU ut c^pcntur, ^ jf^vfif^M, a^hi^tarie nast^U, 
nos voluDiaTcm eju» iinpUrc non poASumus mii p.iUodiiLO ejus mLiEiiHrnur. 

Ot Agftiikf ot>serve bow m commenung on Cirlum tt urra wc havo, be^ 
»it]c!» the usual uitcr|>rriaLloti> tijc further cnc tL^ai ihc 11c±h may da the 
*Qrkft of" tbt Spirit, find The expreiijon " noa vidttnur facii c&se cshUts 
per bapliamum' — purely C>prifl.nic and intiodufcd with a BoftcniniT 
phrnse. In these pa^^sg^* Ihif cTd*?r <if ihe Ihotjghls is CypTian\ the 
IKColiBjHlics nrc Cyprinn's, and the TerLuUiaiitsqut hAndhnjf of the third 
petiimn U recast after Cyprian. There can be little doubi thai Foitunams 
was in some ^inpe acquainted with Cypi4nn, itiou^h his aim and his toueb 
are tlifTercnt- 

[ may observe further thnt Ambrose' in bis commentaiy on S- Lulie 
pa^set in sil<:ni:c ibf firsL four vtr^ci of chapler xj., oiniiiuii- ilii; Lurd's 
iVEi^er altogether. This xvould seem (c be inexplicable except for the 
exlslcniie nf aUDiC siantl^rd treatise, Whetltrrr Qieic hm^ such a trniTisc 
jippeur* from Hilaryi i^omtfttniary on Matt v. 1, *Uc oralionis sacnt- 
*mcnto ncLcasiute 1104 tonmientandi Cypnanu& vir aancif memorise 

J I ta easy widi a c^idcsa sponge 10 stain a N ujnidian Marble. It may 
cake a nr\Dntir« u^orL la eitnct that stikin. And whcrn it ti done a faneiftil 
icUna n>iiy sec the blur aldl. In tin;: history of sdiolaiAhip 1 know nothing 
(more honest and notbuig) more wanton, than the fharp guetses nnd 
iiLsinualiena which, withodi rsil devotednefts in research, withcrut delicacy 
of perpppiion, only with iin imitative ring of mticism, have hveo syringed 
over 9onic of Ihc noblest essays of a grcaE author* 


' Amhro*. St^tn/, A'mjvj'. i/f. £k/., lib. vii, Wj, 



ihJ Secundum hanc f-it- 
nuni xubJDD^imuH: FUl ^o< 
liintKiq rm in nrlk fiF in 
Ivna, Hon ijuod aliquv «Uu' 

fax., ti ei wawum volaaiuu 
nu* crrmui, tvd m onfiibiu 
pctitQiu fxri v^luQUtem tjut; 

1) DehtM ulti Ful vo 

iriT^ p«r qnoque et bk Jn- 

cEiim q«i»'iiiun «U qui obtb 
Icrc ctOijnL(KllcrtcD?i>p<MLt. 

DB qOixl vrlit tiiciu ; cum vo- 
LuntAU cjui ci ic cjilo «i b 
UiiitcuQctdiuiiiVhlaJil; kJ. ut 
ill niilHA vfitiinEiU t}it% HM. 

(lone coin tfimM cunli* tl 
Hpinttti aoit MIM» cxtnm ei 
Ifiirra, (|uii-n[]utuu.fltKiQin|)[iCE- 
icf inlet kfiCndiixn c»l, idem 

in nnb]i| Eia[ vntqnliu U'i in 
lcrrLi|Utpo»aKitic?t fKTicTJn 
a!Ui. quid auioD licvi viih 
i^aun LncejIfTe no« wcunilum 
loun J jjciplinAin " ? pcllmut 
fTCDtubkluiLAOicl ruiiluim 

aobii, mli' baIvI Himiu «l Jn 
<je1Ii et id tcrrls, /juls lunmia 
dl VGliii>l3lkf|[ii ulm piriltn 

ini^Lt pivikwida. o^riukdu, 
nvtlDMda Si tnlm ipw 
pnmantteYilt noo ntxntt >c>i 
iMArH ftutc *e tDEui;UlEUi» 

Cypfc «=Tctt. (, 

mot in 

Oralioni, cc- t^-— 17- 

(Ucimuii Fill rgluRUi Ivn tn 
<vTn rl m Um, luvi ul Drut 
bokl ijDod nil, ud ct ca 
Cacctc pouinui quod D«u« 
vuJt. Dacn lJ«o quii oh^e^t 
qoominuB quod v«Ul ficbl? 
Kd qaU nubU A 4Ubolo ob- 
■Sujtitr cjuamlnuA per omnia 
cnM«ri9iiiiiu*adqupacEb4 l^do 
«l)MqwCUr,oTnAui<1 pT»inu« 
cr fill in nrjliii volunta* Dri: 
qiiV iiE liar innobic' 'npuafvl 
Dei vulunU-lc/ iJ Cfl «p< eluB 
ct pfoieciLone. quia nemo taii 
vifibui foTUi «t bvd D«l indaL* 
i;c(itia CL miiteticoriiih tulUkCM* 
t^T. 5.} D«n^u«viDo- 
miDUBt inAimiUTcm hvminTn 
qucm |irTTahA» mlimdfni, rtitr 
pflLcr, n Acri f>ot««. mtiHal 
A IB? W4JU ju<, «l cKin^ikm 
dEtdpaltt full ftklnbMDii, ut 
UdA volunitiem iiuin h4 Dd 

tAmrn non quoi ejo volo icd 
qifodtuTia, «( tU?>|acoiltcltS- 

Ikon dcacchdi dc cvio llL rKiuD 
v<i1iiTiiaLein mnm utl volunLi- 
Icm ejui (^iii cniiK nw.,. 

J.) VolunTu aatvn Dti j.] VoluflU* «<jl«n tM 

docuil. IjumllitajlnconTcrH' Yvk quj- fich |irv<.ij>it loi- 

Uanr, fTbbiUrti m tiilri in j^THJAut. d« i^ua roluniaU 

fucib JLulirii, ic operib» mi- l>ai ApQtt«lu$ tciuiur dlovni; 

■tfTJcnnlHL LL^ moiibuB Ji>ul>U- K>AiiiM« />rf r>^ UAfj 

H",m;unaiiirac0reni]rinQH« w^pd nf <tijrmiu/M 



TniitllUniu, lU Oaf-, 

«rai voluntas p*trb, ul quA: 
nunc nofi velm ad Mcm- 
plaii* provocamai, ur ei pT«- 
iJicdiDUt c: upcrcEiJUT cE *U1' 
tinrqiniu* fA Kiimciii uiqtie. 

Th, i»- j). de qiin n nonij- 

nut in Evsngelio localun «<t 

cdiibere -, in quiuIJont cJicr^nt: flifAnt ivijtnttLi fiaint 

AddcUin <]iia cunyrcJimLir. in wrri ^tti m^iUmi ntammufmi 

4.} llfln fllcpniet, flat vn- 
Inntu tda- v«| co oobii bene 
opUlntju. qit^Nl nihil tnidi u1 

In ndyrjhiniiH^.rtiJini *1 quid 
pro mvnlEt cnjnsvi^ue lecui in- 
roi:9lktr. jam hot iMciv d-^ 

«lt D«L VQlunUtc, mur; ,„hacchL pivccpLum Dei Ao/MiT idiarM tetrriuiM {Jo> vL 

parrn impWt. 

4O FiFh fliUi>iii pptimuf 4,] Cum cir^ dlclmcc; 

voluniAleoi D« ici cjilo cl in Fml votunliih tut fcicut in <s^ 

icftn.,,fum CLiru corpuietcrrA ciLiiLtm: hoc orMHU*. M ot 

et ipirltutn pauldciimui c ut ilcutl lid voliinrflii iTi jm- 

v^lul ipkt *i«n Gi cfluiQ gctiMlti^Eliler cEutoditurin o- 

■urau.' cl in uEiih^uc, jd e*I pi li» iu<]UcKjue a no^n tclicioA 

luffereniiam nQnnci][>Mij^ jirsr- corpnir d. hiJJrilu. ul Dei vu- ac (idpli devol^coiE ' Kirpcr 

numemiu, lunm lijT t.»r4rmik> c«[ cnim cerretur in Eernin <qiis vo]uTi- 

tntcr uman el apiritnm ata- Ias ut in tii>|it& rile p^l Im- 

IucWio.hCI iJcim>cuiti<IiAma plerj. ftine Imermissiont^iirt- 

immocuniimuHoiatirinibutihrK: nie dignfliionit JuutlJuxn pOt- 

pnumut... luJudbm cat- 

5t±T. i.J Hoteal «( sic 5J VelcertpFmlvoluiitoi 

inLcllc|^.-,iiI quonJAiii mtDUai lun xicut In cxlo ct in lem; 

t( m<it»: JJonriinoa etinm iaU ul weitt in iijvlo. iJ «i in Wfic- 

niicot d^Jigfrp L'E pro hit quo- lia ut c-j^^^tib^in hominibui. 

qut qu) nui pcr^'CUnUir unuv. Del voluntds implctut; ita 

(c^ Tc^rt, ^^) pcUimut tri piu 'tnoiiur in ttm^ ui e^t in hit 

i]]LAqui:ic|liuf:r!>ruitEnEGl riH' i^tii aecduiA endiplerunt, p« 

qidv cum tub kpiELiilittm pu- 

iiSonU Infrmilirrm earn I* ile- 

moObUBre jani m tun nam? 

yoluisacl J PalCTx iftquit, Imiu- 

Icr puctjltjifi 'Mu*l. at rrcotila- 

lllkn ntii (yw»^ men ai>n, ^I'H itA 

liAl ^'olun[4?. ipPhC ciat vduo- tium C'clc^lf^t r^c cccpcruiil crpduliialcoi tidci cl ^critalit 

1A cipointas [>aiii3i ct laicvti ui ri ctica ilLcrb voluntas Dd o^ Ud iVal vnlilD- 

ftd demonsLraiJ4n«in tnHcrrn- hat .,ui pnarri pronmnmmtt tu orafnu&. 

tiR dcbiLo: voiuoUli >c pDlria natbtc favlamua ui qaocnodo in 



cslo. ill cil iu nubit. pvi dJcra 
nopiiRim voiuntoi Dei Incm at 
UI H^itLvs o ciclo I ;IA et tn 
If itB» hcjc cai ill ittih cifidcMlJ- 
bl]«t 1^3t vnlunCns Dfi, ul qui 
dilhuo (unt prima nitivitiTe 
ictienl iudpianl ivx Oilralca 
ei Aqv* et tpinfa nnti. 

l"i Thrt* (in« omittffJ jA^fu* //nii.. 
Appar«ntly by a prinur'v tfiii 4t Anl b 

a, p. I Jf4. i5<^4t 1''^ tiisoti ^■''' ^'^- ^'f- 
Air. V. Vt P'9F<7p Lujid' lAjn and GaMjukI. 
J. y,P. vol viiu p. ,14Sh Veiiei> nfii but 

givffn in tirsT BoiIf Kdition i^iS, in Dnlda^ 
Utinit [816* q.v. and Mtgnc- 

* llortcl'* tcAli cACcpi in bl> EnfeLiizitoiu 
conjecture /rw/frv wV/juV^u for trrifaitiAiu, 
HO p. B^j, D. 1. 




V. Jiitwi 

L TJk Mixed Cup, 

The l«st quc^tmn^ which come* within the present cycle 
of CypriMi's activity was thai of RElaal. 

Hp has worked out the application of th« new Chmiian 
principle* to the treatment of Suffering; to the purincation 
of the pEL5^ion9 of Ke^jntmcnt and Sorrow ; au<l to intelliffciit 
Communior with the Father. Time brought nlM> round K>mG 
nccc9»iiic5 for clearness in the Ritual in wbicb tlic new 
principles lind tacitly cmbtxliwl iticnisHir^i A little latrr^ 
and it a**nmrd *ijch pmponinns as to Hwarf for a lime 
the rc^t, and to Leave the one blot on Cyprian's |;lory. 

A material ehan^^e had been introduced 8ome ttme before 

caUj, iJicu^ Rctrbcr^ (p- i^^ n, t) 
ffithcft 1J Imufc: Kp. 6j to d ilate u 
laie as ihe lui i>mict;uijuii, iudcc ihc 
aprvninn 'cum mpdioaitUcn nnlDun 

4fftMmut' Jip. 6j. I [hHiulAta iJme fur 

«il lioniilLLf mufv chirftcichilic of the 
heglnnflifp at «n *pia&>p»i«; Thov 
(* aolbia[ tp lliih And in 4n aJ- 
millctllir Uec lctl<i* £>^ €6, a. Cjiprtiiu 

rOEun cl Iralm omnvt «\ |^nri1<» quo- 
^lic bWuul e( ililii^uni'i whidi nlw 
thcconfoHn iti ji|mr«t trir tail l«lt«r 
fft ntl dectuo (0 bf IfiM) *oauubu* 
77- t. RiOichl\ thfurln dttFc him to 
Fatf/-(»2'*^f> b«nijise of tU lupiKPkcd 
tkAotiioiii of 'eccIniuD/ v 'jJcbcia 
ia HidcaU canitiltiUtf].' c- 13— huf vp 
hare f«ea ihni Ihii U no do&iutioa.— 
Crpriin jji ntcivir imiTprctiac the 
wHier in lim niiTiJ chftHcc lo ii^\tf 

(here (ficlndlne a( founr the MiiUtTrr.) 

in ronincliiiinciiun ti> Ihe wine, m 
ttprtkciitlnf^ \\\c t'jvliiiCj of Uk Lord, 

Tlic uuili t> [ini the Irim ban 110 

IWU of dala tiEtfpt thkl rh* irmfitr, . 

bcEi;.} jLCid Ibal dL 17 ail cgHr^u 
nrxvimc hii<n«'tiiij^miH IK nhi<]uv 1^ 
otriffliu,. .tcrvcior cl ab to quod 
Cbn»iLu ct d^Kuii « to^ Don leccda- 
lui' ImpliH n vdl-BCabltAhal puiiiaE, 
PcrK^utioa Kcrai t-> he in * iintii»f< 
^ kUU- Ttic JucLfiDC uf llie lifja- 
monu iLTiil nf (hr j^riftlhncHl hki l«fn 
rery full/ iliiii^hc our. i!i Chnflui 
Jcnu DoiDUiuA ci Dciu nutei ipK eit 
tnsaii:* ucerdoa fM |uirsAf ,. wtqiK 
Pk MC«rdo« lie* Chiiiti vvr* fungiior 
qal id quod ChriiUi fecii ioiJiiiui ^1 
(tfk Ki u«rdo[ca Dei vt Chtu;i ^uohm 
nun inTrnio qutcn taai^b t«^uj (JUCEB 
iMthtWi fl Chn«QiDdcbc4DiuB (lA), Uc 
t^aku IB alndknu to JbtJnU vuioa 
■rd cccnnutvl- Ott ihr vhole Feu- 
»a't opinioa of the |iUc« of ihc l;pullc 
a UGl itl-lcuoJeJ' 




by a number of bishops, and among them perhaps n bishop 
of Carthage', into the Eucharistic offering — Uie adoption of 
water [nstcad of wine. There is in this no trace' of rd[giou<( 
antipathy to wine, *uch as had been taught ninety years 
before by Tatian, Not to say thai there is no other indi- 
cation of 5uch teaching hitherto in Africa, the present w^, 
wc cicaily Icam, the mere social timidit>' of a simple people', 
Chrintian wives n( heatlien hu^^bands* inany dependcnL&, and 
others incurred unworthy nnspidons from having the *4cent 
of wine about them at an early hour*, A compassionate 
evasion had suficrcd them to commimieate in water. 

When scarcity of wine was found to have occa^^ioncd the 
same irregularity at Rcgcrsbui^. Saint Wolfgang wept so 
prtifu-'tely that his recovery was despaired of*. The state* 
ment that the Norwegians in the fifteenth century received 
permission from Innocent the Eighth to celebrate in water^ 

1-1 inpnrlrrrilmn. .anlrnoi: .,' i7'ii<-|mE 
dcBdi cccMori ba » ooitris . no n \nt ohncr- 

lb? cu^lDin oni^nhicd with * iouic\itih.o]t 
cf Cwthnfic," Avi' Cypt. A.u- 7Mh i*i- 
Buf if Wf cciniitler [he Vfry oftirinl form 
ofthcklf". fliMl iLi aildicto to [licfcnior 
IjUhop of ihc provinn, (he inicrcncc 
It (jdIh I thiiik. w ccnaim Thr mood 
inJicnt^ lomi? pariiniljtr pencn- 

' Ai luppowl by F. Miiiiler, I'riingt'J. 
£(tta, Ajriiatw, p, i^^i compare M. 

MCtntcr qjaro^ » if l1 QLustntcd Lhc 
IKMDI. the 'ji|rpcii4JU^ c< fj] (if Tcitut- 
Itan'i Pmtcnptw Haffficer^m — which 
^ipcndbt b 9, Acpornte wi>rW, noL Afri- 
can. ThcIIydru'iJ^ruIMiE, Aqu4NL«oj 
■Wjvrrr-c»ffrrf:r« ' w? re in ihe jth ccnJ-arj' 
a bivicbul^r^Uinut^, or Hcicfilim ; an 
Apocrypha-colkcLmg, ahcclic, Judnic. 
DocctCc Scliotil ; ^« H. L^ Manuel. 

manf, v, II. p .«ia Ni>t one of tllDM 
unnti5tat<cBt>]( marlu occori In Cyp* 

• /■/' fSj 17, iS itrophcitBlU limplU 

* Su&pkiDfu nol uDJosiilieLl) if thfn* 
w#rp mrniy of (hoss wh^ \n& Novaiiui 
taj's) held it unChrliitbn to drink tiitt 
miinji 'Vid43s ttvgn tnlcs rvf^o xnnrt 
nilhiiir jeJuTinN oT jnm elirios/ nnd ;im- 
aihly a( the EuehAfJst, &» ht ipcoks 
of rhdi 'ivbtiilum-' Thlh t:unou> pu< 
utftr Icavch i; unccrcaJA whcllicr [i) llicy 
Jrnnlt irvpnitutli «vm4- at fulmg com-' 
■DuniiJLii^cr lauk^liEnulaniabirfDrcthcni, 
ur [si wliclhtif NfiVaLiuj] hjiaadf io- 
dlntil 10 tht u«p or wQf4!r m romnm- 
nion, ot [^) whelh?f litis wu cimply a 
rdoliaJi drfcntc oi JLcival *ice- N*j**- 
linn, i// aj^rj 7«/, c, vi. 

c. ]4» ap. Ecim. Mnitcnc, ■£: ^n/. 
E^alti. Rit^ [, iiL Art- vij- 31. 




on account of the llabflity of iheJr wznc I0 sourness, E§ not 
only denied but quite tTnj>rc)b;ible V 

Cyprian fdl impelled to Umjc an ofHciaJ letter to Cs^liiu 
of Bittha, not as on olTcnder, but as senior bishop of tho 
I'roconsubr Province. Oeciliun was one of the moEtt regular 
attendants in Cyprian's Councib. He bad formerly been 
cmpluyul in the supi>R!nsi(in tif ^roa^er irrq^uUrflics* ; 
M\d hjfi *|»eech, cra«rd jierh;ipii wilH iiged vinjlrnci% K tJie 
first of the unhappy verdicts of the great Council on Baptism. 

In the letter now addrc^&ed to him by Cyprian the wild* 
nc9s, it must be admitted, of the Biblical interpretation:^ and 
the looseners of tlic It^ic, ia equalled cmly by the quiet 
tnftinuating beauty of 'its fityte\ the noundneva of its con- 
clusions and Its value in evidence*. The subst^irkcc however 
Ib to this cffvci : — 

That Wine in the Chalice is essential to the evangelicat 
tradition ; to the symbclte twnne of the Last Supper; to the 
Fulfilment of anttcnt types ; and to the faithfuE representation 
of the Lord's own iicL It is further Ftppareikt thst Cyprian 
and his contcmporarifs woiiliJ have rrgardrd the adniTxnirc 
of water 'ah being not indeed equally eitvential with the 
presence of Wine, yet in it5 place e^^entiaJ for the ful^ment 
ofthodc fourneccwary conditions. 'Drink ye the Wine which 
1 have mingled for you ' he cjuotcs from the Book of Proverbs', 
and ihefi proceeds 'Wisdom declares hci Wine to be niiiif^led; 

* Bilnu (p^ 4;tJ ipptfin to le- 
CQpL IE OB amboriiT^ of K&phAel Vol*- 

CoMiw. V, nardi^C, vol. J. |5p- IJ7, 3 33 
A.a. 1490. c- H1I, 

* Auc.AZ>0^frtfM CkhaitMat B- it. 
c uL qnotci U •£ H Eiuxkil at the 

* Efi. 6)- P«i.rKn^« rv>vo«i for 
udgnkngE ll to x.U. tt<i aro Lhil •nrw 

tiprcuSmt LrifJic4ta « lime of p«r«»- 
caiioji, utfi tlut CypruBD had htea Liatp 
inollicE- DiicnMuul'^- Q^'AniiJ.) 
righily iHJnkk Ihrm n^ii cii|!imt. Bui 
I cuinot ACT*0 ^tl> hm Ifaai 11 i* 10 b« 
pko0d«lUr (he «ffiCroTnT an Hajiiatn 
lud broken init. Cyj>riAri'> whole nnJ 
wu ib«ii » oharstd irith xitMt iubj«ei 
(hat b« codd not h*ve f cmc to iic*r 
wiiboot ■lliiili>n Id It i^r plobrr ttuo 
U«nn ulriciic* 
" Prov, u-i* 

1S>— 2 


' Forcannounccs that is, with prophetic voice the Lotxl's Cup 
"minglwl of Water and Wine, thai it may appear ihat In 
'the Lord's Tassion that which had beco foretold was done'.' 
.^gain 'the Lord taught us by the pattern of His mstmc- 

■ tions that the chalice was mingJcd by conjunction of Wine 
'and Water"; and again 'we find that what He ordered is 
• not obw-'rved by us, iin!c??s we ttx> do the saine things which 

■ the Lorxi did, and similarly mingling the cup, depart not 
'from His Divine instructions V — Still such pass^es cannot 
fairly be cited as exhibiting a direct dcciiion of Cyprian's 
that Water absolutely trtuji be used as well as Wine, because 
the immixture of Water was not the exact question before 
him; :ind incidental judgment** ought not to be alleged in 
controversy as if they were direct. This is clear from another 
clause of the last cited section. * In re.^pect of which' (the 
incidents of S. Matt, sxvi- sS, 29) wc find it was a * mixed 
'chalice which the Lord offered, and that it was the te-i/w 
"which He called dfooi/. Hence it appears that Christ's blood 
' U not offered if there be no 7t/irtfr in the chalice.* 

It i* true that he plainly says "wine alone cannot t)C 
oflered," and again ' the cup of the Lord is net water Alone 
nor wine alone/ but he gives his reason for this assertion, 
50 that the assertion will not be valued (except as distinct 
evidence of practice) by those to whom the reason docs rjot 
commend itself, This reason is thjtt the water signifies the 
People (according to the irlerpretittion of the Apocalyptic 
Seer that the waters are peoples *J while the wine signifies the 
blood of Christ Himself with Whom His People* arc blended 
in inseparable union and conjunction. 

' Sf,, 9, 

■ Sfi- 65. ron 

* Apoc *fii- 15. 

* Ep^ fij. 13. Th« nrroanl ii ■- 
'Jopt*d by the Council cf Trihiir a.i*. 
Vgs cuu sU' and thil of flartdo: 

M*r«i. ynl. XVIfl., Vnwt 1J73. coL 
If), vol. 3nt3EL 179S, c<A. 1056)* but %i 
jfe cginl^iird by ilieni wiih the ifiwin 
AltnlfiiEFd \G AlFUEidpr Bp, 0I Kome 

VI. V, 



The same union is cxprcKicd iii tlic Bread itMlf to which 
Tio consistency couM be given but by the use of walcr The 
many grains rcprcicm ihe multitudinoiu porukera who only 
receive their unity in the one Lostf, the iJrcad of Heaven ^ 

oulL6.lA, t]t namely llicEDiracakiutauL^ 
fJoH (mm rlic tide of ChrUr. Tlic 
CaUDCjl of I'rvnt mlopEi Iht ml«rpH< 

but Ladjfioiuly ilmpi ihc ippml lo 
SiiJii Alntnrlfr. (St^tnri »«, elk 7J 

' Id mojl ]^lui);iu, vhvn Lhc waltf ll 
laixcJ with tbc I'me louic fdtiencr 1* 
aiiul« ta the blooil uvt water whIfJi 
flowed frcrtD llw Lord^ft h^c.',,.'ThG 
tvuc (( a ^Ivai ^cuctjilly by tijc 
lliLiTtiM'? Chr*Ih*m< whd4i*cJi« iCo- 
mu, Mookmblc 1114 AmbroiliUk *• lb' 
tUULCCf. Thin »liitC4UEnl itiij *ti uuJIy 
CAUtr Im|irir1itnl muTiknthnE It li ui-ll 
ta atM«Ev» Ihai un pnncipti lilurg^ttt, 
Anoog them ihc fif/noji, wtxkh ^lirccl 
thi^ miAtnrr.hi^T no iitLoslon lo thiiiai- 
Thc Syrinc LiIlu^ of S, Jvnu. ^hc 
uti'mat, viic uf Lymai, the CAtlbmioii 
(p«hflj» u A survivnl af uiUrrtT 
Ljnoi^i) tOMy be ad(L«d la iht olbar 
Iwv which Kttre It> The yiuqrf of 
CunMihlinople poinieilly ivi>lEl>t it* (or 
it rccitM Th# ivni [Jo, iix- ^. j^f 
wbcrr th« Pnni^ in tht lillJ* play 
vhich i^on un jl thv ?rDthr%ia, ^talvi 
rhr n<HT *iirl[|i thf [dnrp'j lTi« n%ii> 
turc of Ibc ohiUoa fotlaivv lAn thu. 
The /Utblopic polaltOlr HvtjiJ& iL ; Lis 
UlujIrAllcn Is Cinii, and rhwi^h 'Ihf 
filood thed anGolgothft' Itnimed llw 
Wnici U iH't^ Tlic (jrc^oruui mhI GeU' 
Kiim ami th* Nestofiin (Arbtn* tnA 
U*rti) eU> riot LciuoUy iiniiic Watftr, 
thonfh the nliLmrc wu ukAdc* nur d^ 
flvr minor oav% f^ittu la KchaueIoi'i 
mc<md *olum«, pp- 136-^iOj ; Ewo 
oiTiciB do* ppk 1;^ tj^i bot ib none 
ofttinn, 1 (hiuk^b there any illittlcMilo 
the KMufLoll' 

Tlic pAnltd mutt iimly luvc pK- 

KDtcJ ii»df 16 CypiUn's 'jpf/«wnim 
mm* ' AQil to CAO kctrcdy htve *p> 
provHJ kttdi to h^ui AA iHtng true tym- 
boliuD, He doo nol hiJACver, ninanE 
llic iiinurn«]3tj]« |44>ii:n wbicb ht 
Nndt llul wmy, apply tt lo Bapliani 
eiLher, u ou om Ric« d»Cai 'oIIowiae 
Lhc SiiniX) AmAAv A*^ (Mii^dJ, 
Mem. /fif, i.p, ifdwhtrhcnni^fminThP 
CelMUn SfcCTunncnrfiry. Uqn£«ri| £i^ 
A'tH4. t'tt, I, I. uc. }A^ ffD, ToEuIIUa 
Ifcricr ippUc* Jt to iht diisiin^ biptlimK 
of Water tnd Il]c»f3p jCr ^^.i//^ g, I6, .it 

/Wfif. 13. 

Thp pnyA jti th« miii[llii|[ In ihft 
Roman U lual carrj*! ihe lyniboliBii to 
ft hifchcr tq^ion— fran ^ coofptfa- 
ilon [Q humanity Ittelf* but dofs ihia 
by drvuln^ up tht bfsntifaJ Mattiut 
ahJ i'tt^ m i^lx/ tLif t}ir N^IlvEly in (he 
ClfilBidiii Sarniiirft[*ry. Murntnri {ff. 
JKT.) t.oal. 4f ; ^ D^DXjui bvnikiivmli- 
ttantlor dtcnlcMcm ti mlr4bttitrr condi' 
dkLltfiqifTahjlintrrinnnaitl: ilKivvn' 
mua tir^r <i^u wur in ^rc^ JHn (or<OflP< 
quinotflw>iuinjLD,it«rik l^^ri di^itTu (4i 
piitlccpi Cliiliim Kihgt luui,' The 
Miiial altien (he (taI vvrdb KiILcktd 
into *per bujvi l^uoi; ft vinl mystedum 

Whichever tyml^lmm he iF»pltd 
ibe A<liLH!lfo(jni~iff^ra/ie«iiif riiM lobe 
tuilabtc Ivany tlwc bAci ihc pivtedU- 
llan it. T-egun by pladng the e.lcmem* 
on the ie^**#n or crnlcneei « Al any 
rflitf ^rj ihcij rcmov»] from iC ivt tht 

>£^6j-i5' -rmf|uem*duiAduingnnt 
■nulla ii^ iinudi collect! d connuliti ct 
coumixu pftocai uumn /uhuii, tic In 
Chri*l4 ^ mfi pan» c»lnu< uniin 


Nevertheless, though Cyprian ha.s not given even in these 
words a dcclaratfon on the subject, yet since lie lays down* that 
'the Lord's sacn^ce is not cclcbmtcd with legitimate conae- 
'cnition orcept our oblation and sacrifice concspond with Hb 
* PaMion.'andas'kgitimalcconsecriition' is assumed to consist 
in doirg what our Lorddid, preserving tfie tradition. lepnracntiog 
the Pa_ssion, or following Its points in symbol, we are C(>ni|3tllcd 
to conclude that, although he allowed that the blood of Christ 
was received through communion in the wine, yet he would 
not have held that the consecration of wine without water WM 
'legitimate/ but would have included that practice, however 
long-standing in any cliui-clu under the calt^^ory of Muilidik 
Tradition followed in place of Divine Example * 

Other corollaries of a not unimportant character are 
tmmcdiatcly inferrible from this Lcttcr'Trcatisc- The Coin- 
munion of the Congregation i^ essential. The absence of the 
Congregation prevents the Commemorati\/e Mixed Chalice 
which may be offered in the Family after the Evening Meal 
from being anything of a true Domi/tienm. 

Again, the Morning Hour is the only hour at which the 
Resurrection' (which is the power of the EucharUt) can 
duly be celebrated; Christ Himself had offered in the 

(untor fiunicnic «i idDfintiu.' Thi« 
itnA|;c, whidi was as hij lovcfa Iinfiv so 
fjivourilc ,tiiil conUjinl an linage wilh 

Iwi^Ain wi- htvc^ Sec ihe beaulifu] 
EucWislic pmycr in the Tmehtnj p/ 
lit .TiL AporttfS, c- 5h "nffir*^ ^if r^uTo 

aj(6^u gov 4 JftAiqcrlff Aw& Tiii> T^patvtr 

Ctrrtjtl. Af^sL y%i. c, 16 which ^mits 
f rdru Twv ^f^tiM and h&s A\ d/irot for %*, 

» Kf^. 63. 10, 

* Ep-ii^. 14. Ibluiti:, p. 477, dCfi 
an iminiciivc mbrlc Ironi ui ^Lnitrnt 

11.V of S' Mirtlnk ar Tour. *rr bj 
miataktf the pri«l hns wn&ecraied cm- 
mu^ WLiic. or wfl[ei ^vlUluul wiue* 
the wine \% heiil (o \\^ incrim^nr, bitl 
aM ihf Wfltef/ ]t «tfiuB nnmn*! that 
i}iF Moiiaphyniu diurdi uF Arnu^a 
^MsrTtne) ^hoiiM con^Kriilc wine an||r, 
bal Lhcir anticnlly tlfcgcd rcEiuTi wa« « 
pt&sagcuf C^rys{uronl /^■'rt. 81 f8j| In 
Ml 4^. c- 9- Fof rhis usige Ihvf W0r« 
Kpmvcd (wilh A proper apUnitlion of 
tLcii ChrysuflDm) in Ihc jjnd caaon of 
t^e <Jiiini - Sffirine Council *-0. 651, 
bm keep ii stilli 
■ j^. «i. 16. 


VI. V. 



Evcrlrg solely in order to mark ihe cIom of the old ovder 
and to merge the Vzamovcr Ritual into ours, 

Thu3 in the Celebration of die Eijcharist no Ic^s than 
in the Theory of Orders points aiUc in which no modem 
aimmunily am be strictly said to be At one with the 
Cyprian ic Church. 

2. The Ag4 of Baptism. 

The Ritun] of ^nnthcr 5^acramcnt vuk% also ncrw cr>iningA.& 
iiHo thr FicM, Thovjgh ntit yet in ell its import. In Scpt<!mbcr J^. 
A.IX 2>3 or late in the suminer of that year' It waa considered q^'J^ 
safe to hold the Bishops' meeting omitted at Easter, The Vibiu* 
tumult of niilitar)' faction and perhaps the succession ofGdlus 
Valerian, whose household is described as & 'Church of God Vp^^,,'*!^'^' 
so leavened was it with Christianity, gave this breatliing- J[*j;?*'?"** 
space. Sixty-six bishops* met \v\ Carthage. rr. 

A record of two of their deUbcralions U preserved injj^^^Ji^^J, 
their letter to Fidus a Bishop, He had found it in his heart "^'^ 
to petition that an excommunication prematurely removed 
from a repentant presbyter might be renewed'. He also 
found it in his heart to tct^ucst that a canon might be passed 
prohibiting tlic bApticm of infAnts under eight dapi ciliL The 
mind of the Bishops, Cyprian replica, wa* ' far other " than \\h \ 
' not a man agreed uiih him ' ; they judged that God's pity 
and grace could be dented to no child of man/ Mdute shrank 
from bestowing the Kiss of Peace on so young a babe, as if it 
were yet unclean. Cyprian replies that the fresh handiwork 
of God claims onl/ deeper rcvcrciicc : in it we discern, wc 
ki«« His own cr<rativc hands. It is only to our sight that 
birth begin* exintencc. To God the soul has lived before. 
Judaie forms of undeanness were but types, and are for c%'cr 

» The lUHt of /gn 04 U diicttSMd 



at an end. Perhaps this Eighth Day itsdf had been aligned 
to circumctsion in order to give to a carnal rite some touch of 
spiritual a^ociation witii the Refiurrection Day^ the First of 
tllc New Week. The first weeping of the * helpless new-bom, 
babe ■ mounded to the heathen like a foreboding of the misery 
of living, to the Oiri^ian eftt it was a prayer and an appeal 
Theie beaut itul thoughts helped ihc stiAtghtfonviird 
reajioring to sJiaHer in Christian spirits the petty plea* of 
FiduB, with whatever of Judaizing lay behind them. 

With this letter in his hand', at Carthage upon S. 
Gaiidcntius' day, a hundred and sixty years later, in the 
Basilica where lay Terpctua and Fcllcitas', Augustine defen* 
dcti against Pelagius the piinciplcs cf Infant Baptism 

And we may remember in A ytrt earlier e^ay how there 
can be nothing broader and freer than Cyprian's recognitioti 
that Chriatian Baptism is truly a re-assertion of our human 
Childhood and Sonship to God. "* AU who by the hallowing 
"force of baptiani come to the gifl ^nd /atrm&u^ of God, 
"there, by the healthful layer's grace, put off ihc ^old man/ 
"are rcmade by thi^ Holy Spirit, and in a ^second nativity are 
"cleansed froir the old infectious plague *pot4'," 

* Aug. at Gfitdi fk/nfH xl S 13. 
Sat fllu AW/M a. Eiitsntloj Ptiagg. tPj. 

IV. B. viii. f >j. 

' Bwtilicn Mnjomm ^Mnjnrini ?Mb- 
jnr. The «ss of Vict*n Vilcnsis //rJ/, 
Ptn-rcut. i. j have MajatHm, ct^ccfl W 
(Vinduljoii, Kc. xj.IotieI LtDm^lin. vc 
ilL), hal PetwbmiE litt ilirughi fit Kti 
prvfiev in tTue pliae ihc readiTig nf Uiisv 
twO| Attijurftn. The tiUrji of Aui;, 
Strmm. 34 Aii Afaffrtt nv] i6f,Mn\ 194 
tupporl Af^ytf^wi, Uit t^Hhax AfaJttmH- 
Ic ii impouiblc not Hr rcnncmbcr the 
recently ciplored t^joxi BuaLlicA of C«r* 
thflgp <tc*ie mitiidr ih* wdlln, with [H 
niiu flislu, iti luge btpli f cry and voM 
fcmkircu]*! uithn ajLdlJLlobite'aier^ 

' A- //fliftf* yir^' 71 'Omnei qui' 
lEcrn qui Art liivifium mumit tf f^:H^ 
memufw bapiiiut sAnciiJicaiioiic pet- 
vciimuL huminrm illic vtiirtm gritlia 

Spirits SiUiclu n rtrdthut c'pnlApanij 
antiqvit (ipiotn naiivitiur puiKMitui/ 

(u [juod tvmptiJJei SIM membra noriliiv 

VAcri Tiialli snncii^icatiDne piii^iA.' 

1 mud wiihnkoileduiont ikiid ttevca at 
lUlutc't <odite>^ in spile o( 5. W. D 
tad HArtet. luunLain pairimonium, 
whieh Goldhotn rvitorcfi 3ihi Baluj« 
(p' 5jj)kIIf>WH. 'Divimiin manuDci pd' 
IrluiD* li noi Cypdanic urdvi or wJue- 





|i bai \x<-a inMiuUr ob^nfd tl^iE the qiiciticm of Ftdai 'j;^v«s 
' CyprJjn lh« ^^ppArtimEly nf malting j ihnfmighty inupHa^ian (liJi> 
'course'— A wlM sutenicnt aiid miskculfcng lo ihovc incupablo of 
followtnjf It up. The letler has be^n ir*atvd ii ipurifiu* on th*- 
Alleged gromtda. (inl that it rcKnibU» th« Utcr Canon CX of Ibc 
AAicanCode^And secondly thn kts language thcwt U to b« Uifr iliAn 
the Pelagian conimvctiy^ 

Now, xh'Ai trv»h cflTion tt agamM ihoie who objwt ift Infani 
Biipitsin, or hold il Lo be a »uii of drnmalic ficiion, on the cround 
that tb«re tt no ort^nal uln'. 

But Fidus ha» not & won! dthn for or BfAlnH the doctrue of 
Origrnul Sttr. Hrapproved of InfirtC Uapium : only, forcCTTain »m*ll 
rca^on^ not till the infani »m ciK^it d;iyi old. And the sniwcr 
obsFTves That bp«]d<^t thr Imlr^'inrr! :ind unklTidnpii of hii tdrai> The 
mnortnt child wai at Icui its worthy of acirepEanGa a* & sin-Uden 
muk ; i. not very 'Lniii>eU£tan docirinc- 

Thco, u to Lhe Innffooce -, it \% impoiaiblc ibai it can hftv« bt«n 
penned after the Pelagian conifoveri). TLeic ib not uncicchniciLl 
term in it'. So far ti v«rbal ]ili«n*v4 >;oc*i the Cypnanic fath«r« 
niieht hJLve almoit iccmcd liiihcr ag^Ainstt the AuKu^tinian thought' 
Thit delin«i oti^ni] sin to be ^b^JM another's attif oar own/ They 
wiy *Tlic !»ini remitted lo the infant air the «na of othcrst imV hia 
own/ Ihui nothing c^uk be mor« ditlorent than the purviciw of the 
eanoQ «nd the epbik cicept the Unguace ittcif ; ajid while no forger 
aftw th« controvcny could baire helped luing recognwcd termrt. we 
Lave in ihe Un^ufi^t of Cypriatt juil tbo clc«r hot untechfiicil itiylc 
whifh mark* the catholic dncirmp in an Jige prior to a coniroveray', 
but which cannot pcrhips for ages dlcrw^^rd be recurred to aa 
Adefjuatr anrt Eiard accordin|r1}r 

■ Sbc|>heid, pp. jr, p, and p. ir, 

* V|M7«vfaH} 4fivrU— lv«^ ^4v#w 
/< Tfi Jfiuvyotfati JtlUd. CKf. Caaiv, 
AH/n- W_/nr. no. 

* Nc -Oricuult PcMainin,' <pM«t^ 
titm wlclnlk' or 'ContoKlum Peccntl.* 

CHMftan MtcWu aurtyu^ tt the Inr 
but lutisAmnJ aueqUBn« of our £nt 


* Pr«cfiKly fhfl iUD« IrtMmeBl of ihc 
feUDC doctriric* vich Ihc hudc frecdoBL 
f>om leehnicaliry txtni In Ibr rfr f?^ rr 

n. JEjy^ Maa- 1- f^i ^< vii^' I >■> aivl 
m [be lilt of ancient ooihurmto th« vane 
tn^X <|Uoia4 hf Ranili, A. X vol. III. 
1^. m8, 9. 




The End ff/" CORNELIUS. 

Wk have anticipated by three months at Carthag;*: a great 
change wbicli had occurred at Rpmc Coriieh'js had been 
suddenly^ banishrd to Cetitumccllie^thal CIvHA Vecchia 
which has been so fateful for his line. The first intention had 
been to i&olau him. Bui his apprehension was the signal for 
a crowd of the Lapsed' to revoke and expiate their Denial 
They thus justified Cyprian's policy of penance with hope of 
restitution'. They were hurried away with him as were also 
the Confessors who had lately escaped to hini from the 
Influence of Novalian. Their numbers were s\ich as to im- 
press at least themselves, and perhaps the government, with 
the idea that, if they had been so minded, they might 
have made something at least of a stand, *lt was a con- 
fcssorship of the whole church of Rome'/ Such an exile 
then was a happy reunion of extreme fadionsi and breatbmg 

' Re(>mdiuipcrtccud«,-»*cijUriBpo" 
W>U& i»ubllu inqiuperil. £/. Ai. ^. Cf> 

^unl ifsiiluri iiec JEtm tTorp ad drttmnis 

60, >' CuEircsorcm poimiuDit t'^iV- J, 
Cnmp4TF I bp L ifirWH Cataiepn. r.. con - 
TcKores qui » ficpaisvcnini a ComcUi^ 
cu]]iAlaaiaii>pic«bytcro,f]m turn Mo>>c 

hoc CcntumcclIiB txfttht- tbi cum 

glDria donnicioiiem nccepil.^ Then u 
DO gnojEiil Tur '^ccepiing Lip^iib' aJ- 
tetation Ic /n/mi, p- 17^. On xhu 
conimry n haniahmeni on a la-rgc kiJc 
Ib intcndol. wch ta CypiiLiii docrLbes. 

' lf>ui flfilorp piQirtrhluT fsu^i Ad 
prerliDm fortloPB, £fi. Soh Ih 

* AilvcnarLuA ^^. intdlenit — Chnai 
mlllia.. fifc republic n^ntn rmpiig- 
piuilci, cum CKcidcre ianoccntibiis net 
ngnutimi ll«ai> £p. 6o» 1. EccInU 



VII. I. 



this consolation Cornelius died 'with glory' in June A-U 


The Antipopc was too inconspicuous to the Magistrncy 
to l>e in danger. In Cypiiiui'^ ayca hiji iininuiiit^ otherwise 
uti explained ought lo have been to him evidence of his 
Divine rejection. Quid ad hat Noi>ariauissf The outburst 
wa,^ the open seal of heuvcn'ti favour and liell"* hosUlily to ihc 
true priest and people, and was clonrly designed Tor thin vcr)' 

Corndius has been ranked as a martyr by the church of 
Rome ^ince the middle of the fourtli centurjf, iiTid his frslfvp*! 
kept with Cyprian's on the 14th of September. The state- 
ment Is first found in Jerome* that "they suffered on the 
same day though not in the same year/ 

in the contemporary scniic of the word a Martyr he was, 
aa dying In exile'- Cyprian who in A^riting to him speaks of 
hi« 'glorious witne»,' afterward speaks of him and Luclu^i 
(who was not a mArt>T either in our sense of the word) ai^ 

i TTiMthemonihofMKieaiaKinufit 
h«T«beeii ytiHt It «ri«wn 4 hew (^hap. 
IL p, itfi^*)- E'«fh>n jwbo U haw- 
crei mUlcd bjr it* uaJltlonfll Stf^/ftfr 
OT hia IrgHiilUj nunyMom) urgor* 
Jiurlj thai tJic cvcaii Aji<! cbuijEvvvhich 
iKcuii^ afict Mdy 1 ;w )^'^• ^^^^ befviu 
hill i1**aih cnuM nftT hivr hrcii <foi*(!i\i 
into th# June vi sj.*— vii ihc oHi- 
nftliaa of F«iluii4Ui>s ha vayniLc* rt< 
JQcticn mrvl tnnh bIIrdiiI. vHh kR tbc 
IctitTh which pAkAcd 1wtu«tn CjprUn 
ftod CotiiclruXk Lhc lAtto in xcurilral 

of d«ith. Acftin Dwmjrtiut <if Aln- 
aadHft mcMionA b a Igtur to CorDclJun 
the death of PabJut of Anliochi uid 
th« ootuocmiun dthh mccfnor D«fDV- 
triu- (Eus. //. £, vi. 46-] A^^WInt; 
tu Ibc CArfifiTiW of ICuxLliti this uMi 
tn the consul dliip of Vokntn and 
GfJiicfiiu lif or tu tbc 7^41 >jp din 

AlK;;haBi, A-D. V53^ (lipskm, ly^ fir; 
p, lie). Iliii t« fc Kirtvlty uiileperdenl 
t^tmony ir kupporl of the tmiat Acni' 
nte cAtolgciLct wbldi, giving Eo hla 
KAT t ^rtfiTi 1 monrht ind eo doy^ 
bfiatf Uic ytiu of hca il<4th lo ijj *,[>, 
Jecumc oukei Ihc ulriui^E hCJUeintnil 
' Recti Mclrtiun mfl [idWr f '.lAiruntf 

A^iuick the KoDiLii Bmiux cif ptacuf 
bift dfilli andcr Dkih- At pmai 
ho^rcvcr il rodb G^iOt ft fvlaiiarta 
itmittltAiu which ihOLigh Iccnrrecl 
it Pnnon'i avn- He felled on the 

£iDllir (UplJlU, ^ til. p> lO^it UO' 

wUi l^n or ibe Ulerkn Dilalccue, 
luce pcnp^ciniu. &ci* 
* Mip. p- Jl. 



'planted together in glorioles martyrdom,' and a^n £t>*Jcf 
him a Blca^^d Martyr'. 

However, these terms arc fafniliar enough to us as used of 
living prisoners or exiles, and by no caily aulliority b he said 
10 have been put to death. Hh name is not fjn the LibCT-tan 
mtnyr-rol), nor yet in the Deposition of BiithopK. All 
accords with the mf>re modest anti«nt record ' Thcr« with 
glory he took sleep'." His rcmAins were CEirricd to Kome, 
and wcirc laid near to the older bl&hop^ bul not among thc(D^ 
He rested amid the ashes— so it must «em — of his patrician 
house', and wiih hl^ iianm cut In Latin, and not tike his 
predecessors in Greek', 

Salonina, the wife of GallienuR, whom hts fethcr Valerian 
immcdiulely associated vrith himself, in this* October was 
both A Cornelia and a Christian'. We might without over- 

' Moiiiai>en» u/. «if. p. 6,t(i. 

IW*, Ucj«i, /^. S- I, p. t$a. 

* SvT Ki>[thGOL« and Brownluiiv^ 

* Sifp, f- l«4> Ro«i, /itmaSptlrr 
mwd. ton. I. p- 174 ff'i inr, \y., 1. 
All hctotc him juul ihi>v for Afty 

ycAT*, btei davm tn Kutychiui ate 

' Corf, lifsrrr. Luti. Wil. i iftti. 
" Of ibc riiflny coint of Comditt 

tin Ihc iibvcnc her ihTonai. icepiicd 
t|;;ur«f holrlm^inUernglithMid lAoJivc 
brudi, md HJLh the ki^nd avOV^TA 

limjicil to ChriiiTiftn rntmoriHl?;. Oihrr 

cainsof heft liciu^ commcTi i>pca. Bul 
ilisrjb&srvaZiZethbt Etiuugh herliuthnnJ 
Coliienaa wb much ipven lo coiita|;e 
'CunsccfdlidTis' of U» proiiecc&wi[B 
«Dil of \iii fnmily ncrpT of ViTrrian. 
there h no p:i^ii ipolheo^ of ^Ho- 
ulOA. Dc Wittc, wha lint cununcMcd 

on lh» typ? «bd (Uiumvd il lo be Utcr 
ficiilini; i( in two larKP hoanlMif foim 
\iAVe^l ■ppflrentJy mv Iwet thun a.d, 

Ste*ai6on. Din. AVw- Qi;'flj, p jn. 
The doubl i*^ I suppose, hcuiui? <ff i^k 
mcidept of" [lie Enupfci*'*' danger in A.Di. 
l6e ALLbc Siege of FklUui. C.W. KiD( 




boldncM pcrhapA conjecture that soch a princess w&s not 
unconcerned in the locality or the aJornmcnt of his repose 

ThL<( chamber in xxid m a lutcr sdory to liAve bccti first 
preparrcl for him in a crypt on hrr own estate, on the Apphm 
Way, hard by the cvmtiivry of Calii^ius. by the lady Lueina 
Gillcd Aftcrw^rdti the iJ]c»;ed, who was :tlso ii^correctly «aid 
to have AiUcd Conicltus himieU in laying the body of S- Peter 
in the V'AticJtn and of S- I'auI on the Ostian Way. But it w4S 
delicatirly done, whoever brought to his side in dcatli the 
Presbyter and Confessor Maximus whom Cornelius had 
brought back to the Catholic Church in lifcV The sepulchrv 
of Corrclias * is with us to thjg day/ Btill rich in acchitectura] 
appointments and shewing trace of nomc grand sarcophagus 
to which his bones had been transferred from a simpler but 
not uiinotablc {^rdvc. 

Wr may add that in the fourth century DAmaHiis in hij« 
last nine^s opened the old chapel more to the light and t>egan 
a staircase for pilgrinu'. Injured by Lombard invaden: tt 

dom dtM bh wby she lAneM b* mppotol 
to lave 1jc<n then olive {^^i^j" VArisi- 
ian J^K'niimitJiiit p. 47) but I thmk lie 
Cintni hatv itotie**! ThM mcid«nl; far 
Zon*rw would l>i.'*on' ihaa h« w if ho 
dtd not nun ttr coniiKt 11 widi llut 
ci«£C- hvt nn thr nlhrr Imml il ^r«r^K 
(4 mc nol toipouiblt tbfti Pipan, bk 

«ad in honanf otf whinn hf and hU nrart 
Uati dm* c^ itK m^^ luft liCfn the 
BotflXitftfa nf thb fAmp-tl>3ty- Ar any 
nE«,vb«tbvr )n LUc orcldLh.boLuiiiEiA't 
It A Chri-'<rian Lct^m!, wilhoul prc»in|: 
(he Mv (III Kiiir irf ihf ftcr^ur* 10 
mMti M/mar^t9 iJUiiJ- Othvr jndl> 
OtdoM of * CHmiiui itAuoTicc im Ihi^ 
Inoovapnhcfislble napcmr occtu- in i\x 

(JLlltcriat uACc »nl t mut of ««tu 
ftliUi to |iio^iiiilG CUudiuK >aiOQ|f 

Ihem *trtea:t» Sa/fWiiAmtu tratvaro** 
pctlupk of hb HmpKn, pcihap* of btt 

* i^up. pa|fF 161, RoHi, >^j*u JiM- 
//rr. tom^ J.p-lfl, tAT. xiK, 5' Lucino, 
k rif V bunumc ^1 fuiind iu ihv Comcf lui 

* Afpift dHCvJin cHAnii*lo icndtw- 

C|tic Aigiti> 

Camcll nonBnirnEi vidA (iiinnl«nr|iie 

Hoc <fpiu Kcrciti Daa^ pncvfimtU 

Ka»rl ut 3CCBK1I1 mcUor, popvliv^o* 

Auilitunt SuutL tt iTftleu il fiinden 

CorJc prcca. I>4£ai«u mdbr conmt- 

jcre pau«t 
l^xirm aon lucit unor icnuii an^^e tvt% 

"niii iccoreiy. ttttm Kfcral bi^neM* 



VII, 1. 



wa» restored by Leo III. In the ninth century, and then the 
tall commandmg figures of the brotherly Cornelius and 
Cypridii were pahilcU un tls walU'. 

Ir h inii)o»ih]<' ni>l to hta led a littlr aiTdc hy whsT has 
been of undying interest to so many generation*. But to 
return to the facts of Cornelius' death and buriaL The 
inferences from them urc clear enough. Dying quietly at 
Civitik Vccchia hia death-day had for a time no very marked 
commemoration, When a festival wa* sought for him ius a 
Martyr he was conjoineJ with his friend and broiher Cyprian 
whose day h;id been long observed at Rfime. For so, without 
any mention of Cornelius, Cyprian's actual death-day appears 
in iho Kalendar of a.[)» 354. 

* Kourtecnth of September, commemoration of Cyprian, 
Africa, It is kept at Rome in the cemetery of Calbtus^' 

and fiom Dainuui' luiilidr ta^pt of 
thv cfigiDAl miCTipiion ;ilAOB<t over Xht 

De Roui^ niutc JnccXLkmit aid [fc[|!ccl 

iTLlUBphL Jf^ S. I. p. ti^ — )E^|. 

> Raiui /f^ S. L :. ton. \i. 

ptii«Ki AFRie>« RciUi« cRL>»«Arua 
iT< Cauati." 

Witli tJHinorJijMiy tiolcnce huul 
iriihpi tft iTn»*rt (->7»^j Iff C-t^tiTi t*ff. 
fore the iMmv of Cyprian, and Momm^ 

n. p. Oj3, no(e I, aba den Chfono- 
pnph •"*!» Jih, 3S4f woutit ItVc <-^ 

lo tu<h Itmgiht trill dti«rsifflt4 troitt 
ctn now pFOCT«d' TEic uaroAniitte 
iiu|3;r^ irtii iii iHnrriwni uppmrntJ}' froni 
MuRiiotit Ut- /^«m- I'/t. 1. ccl, ^9. D. & 
|St< A/finu^t'j on S. CjrpfuaV Daj, 

Th* >VuMii Ctf AiJ^/ tayi Cornelius 
^«u beheaded ki lHc Trmplf of M^n, 
uid !;('» Ehtr sIutt of Lucini, of which 

th# irciTmfS irill ippr^r id ihe huroryof 
XjuaL This f»laloguc Lt fe<o>rdlri(£ly 
oblt^cd (V uuil (he vider vuida ^IIh 
cum (Lortt donnlrLariFni acorful.' Lip- 
hivt. tf. nf^ pp. ijj, i;s. 




Thr Siltia^ of Luau& 

Tlie whole chronology witli its pcrplexitfes is unravelled 
by llii^ diseiigagcTnetil of the decease of Ccimeliui from its 
litur^cal connection with the fourteenth of September, and 
its certain replacement, in June a.d. 353. A few days may 
perhaps be af^umed to have elapsed before the twenty-fifth of 
that same month, on or near to which hts aucceasor Lucius 
came to the Chair for a brief eight mouths and ten days\ 

He was immtrdTalely banished* though wi[hout depriva- 
tion of properly or rights', and directly afterwards recalled or 
allowed to return; with him came home apparently the great 
mass of cKilcs. Whether this was some experiment in the 
workintr of tenor and leniency, or whether it was a result of 
the divided AcntimcnLs ot' the imperial hou^hclda wc cannot 
IclL Valerian became ^^everely anli- Christian, but wc have 
just seen that Saloninn. the wife* of his son Gallienus, who at 
this jtincturej succeeded with him to the honours of Consul. 
Imperator, Caesar and Augustus, was probably 3 Christian 
and of the same great house as the last Bishop; and Galh'enus 
in his rescript of toleration published when he began to rci^i 
alone in a.O, ifii*, speaks of having already hag a^o made 
cofutssiofts to thf Christians, 

■ Cypri«n's nliLuy Icittcr I0 Ludu 

{£'/. 6 L ) indicnrJag avAy one otlio, and 
ihJklflldy wriilcrj aiul iLnrid|mlJjt|; m^r- 
lyrttom iav hi^n bmilfs^ would lEiark 
The puLLtiAuilc aa probflbl)' hlirfft, Bui. 
U|jsiu haa ihcwn iiiJc^'cudciilI^ llui 

chrAnol^gUl pn(i«es lU hih ' viJi m^nEliK 
nint ■ lUys^ a a mrrt hluudct. aiiiI 
ihal Euvbiub //. K vit- i jit^i K oriiS' 

flfinu In meTiH3 iiJ dls Hi,' 

* N ground for < lafii^ thai he hid been 

oUci jjrcviuujJy banished with Cumdius, 

1), lii^tl imquctiiDnHUy with prcciiiDii 
by Lhc Old LciptC- 

' Clinlun, Foiti ^amani. viiL j, pp. 
aftii, ;. Eusrh.J/.£.\i\. 13 ^There^Ecf 
was tf> bv Ofiivcnal ; ihey art noL lu be 
kept ouL cf ihcii |)lacn ot viuiihip (drA 
r^vhi¥ T^f ff^'ffttvtiflur'j- Ihey ma}' VIC' 
hi h It 15 ihei t wiuT*n I thii form uf rocripl j 
Qa oiLc Ik ig molckt tticiu , nvl rv^ 6wtp 




Ccftairly the persecution w&s not suppoMd to be over 
with Lucius' recall Cyprian had viaiond of comme evil and 
tc1k% him thAt he may And ought to expect to be ' immolated 
bcfcic tlic eyes of ilie brethren' m Rome- The Chuj^ch uras 
h»cir iitiawartf of the reason of the change; and lonjj after- 
ward* reFerfcd Ix *tmply to the ' will of GodV j^^ ** Cyprian, 
at the moment, referred it to the favour of God investing hi* 
episcopate at once with Confetiirarship, He picture?^ hU 
return Ai a scene of such joy that it \va.i a forctaatc of ChristS 
near retum', and Lucius the likeiie£iL& of Ilia forerunner. 

Morr* than thjji \% nut to \yc known of hi« character. 
Cyprian ^ccnri to wntf tn him ai to a manly kind of person, 
but it would be pressing his phrases too far to be .sure 
that ll^cy describe the perton rather than the protective office 

An early ritual tradition ascribes to him the "precept' 
that the bLd;op of Rome ^lould be accompanied in every 
place by two presbyters and three deacons'; a tradition which 
pc-rhaps echoes some facts of his exile. 

But what i« moft important w that, in hi^ view a^ to the 
rifiht treatment of the Lapsed and their restoration after 
penance to peace and communion, he was at one vrith hts 
predocc^Aor Cornelius, — that is firmly against Novaiian and 
with Cyprian — And tliat he had issued docuincjits upon that 
subject *. 

On the 5th of the following March he was laid beside 
Fabian in the eemi'tery of Catlistus. Tlie day i% given us in «»■ f. 

#i>Yif^p^7rau' C, W' King, Hnr^ 
CAr. .Vumii. p. 47, ini<tp(cik ■«*& tk 

but 1 do vKit tn thr rainl of ihat, 
•Ad would »£{m iKfti tLf dftuvc 
OM/ mcui 'wtiu ^011 may |Jtifunn 
hi ftfmEdnnce with []U» leave, I ru*« 

^ Cital. Utrr . Ulte^nlfuJC tt jiintcB 
DUiadeiinCQlumlsAfteccTfiiUn rrrcnui 

Aft 1*4- 

<bi. CiW. JUu-.. Hie fn ciLlio Adi 1007. 

potfH nUadl inwlomu. ^*^' '"^ 

Mr^^rd ioto ihi* until iinaur dimply 
froBl haTinu ntcd lh« word ^^fr^mtrnt 

• ]lk pretcpll Ul duo phitl «| 111 
diannri m vmrn. Eoro ram cpfl om 





CD. P. 

Anfi. tl, 
Imu. Ca. 


the cntotnbfncnt-lisl not of martyrs but of bNhop^V Ht^ 
original itepukhral slab with Grc^k chaiacttrs, and no menticin^ 
of m^rtyr^Gm, adds simply the most interesting of th« 
exunplQSOf th«vu1(;ar termination, commoa in Greek, Jewish, 
or Graccizfng- Latin Inscriptions during the third century, but 
almost extinct before the end oflhc fouitli'. 

The inddcntf of the last few pages, difficult, and almost 
fr^ul, fnr criticism to elicit and to combine with 50 
much certainty, will not seem trivial to tho^e who perceive 
through them, how firm and subtle were the new threads 
which were now being drawn through all society, securing 
the alle^ance of in^pcrial anticnt houses, drawing to the 
centre of influence men who had not even a fimily 

' m Nf>K, MHB' I'UCl IN CALI>(rO, 

Momnucn, ^/- af. p- Ajr, m ^'oN- 
MaF' COr^A' n> Cafaf. Lihtr. Lr^iniui, 
fip ftf- p. zfi~- The TJlwrinr liit is 
Pot only wrong in carrying rhk Jate 
lu[o ihc 5rJ i;oDauhhJp of ViJcria/i n-nd 
and of Gftlllemw lA-l*. 155) ^nAn whnm 
tL puts down ftl»o ibt death ofSt^phimH 
^icrfour yran IkIlTi but iirvcnucifiihle 
vnh ]ii ovn dniET of ^ ymra 8 jnuntlii 
10 dlyiwhicti il Hiur>t( from GaIIu^ 11, 

'We have AITOPIC A-D. 163, 

AYPHAIC <«Bpu Ahtun. P. From 
(bt Jcwiuli cemetery ai Rome TAfCi 
A\ENU. Ritithl bj- such cLBinpla 
jLs Ctrnfis, Ctodit thpws it not to tmve 
bften V wholly modem coirupticn, 
and ibmka It aidiJvic. Tlic UEcsI in- 
panccs we have irr TAPACiC A»0, 
461, and QYPANIC vlth or vlith. 
ccft^ Rosrft JT. J, vol. IIh pp, 66. 8- 
From Fi>lidAD CUBlogue, L^nui, p. 
a?^, quoiva CORNILIS. 

Vll. Ill 



name, knvtting: tcgtrthcr d&ss^s that had bfen aptft nnce 
Roman law bcg^in; — how a new moral nia|;iatnicy fri^pplMl 
witli the sins ivhlch undcitay cnmca ; — bow possible it wai to 
fall uul of &tidi an iii!iociaiio». atid Ihcn — how men would 
give all things — hc^».lth, we.ilih, connection, honour* — to he 
restored to it 


T/u Chink not uU»ttiJitd toifA or nprtstttird hy Rome. 

Cyprian's relations with Rome 5oon afterwards underwent 
a B^reat chans^ It take?> cITort to view with candid and clear 
vi»on^ K» a» to we them in their finit meaning, fiuc!h f^cU and 
expTc^'^ions as controversios ha\/c ifnce coloured and shaded. 
Yet the truth is that what wat confused and beclouded while 
nothing but amit/ existed wa& made distinct by variances. 
The dignity of the Kotnan See was in Cyprian*,f eye* that of 
an Inherited precedency anil presidency, and not due merely 
to the f'ict thaC-H if CaiOui^e wa^ the second city of tlie world. 
Rome was its mtstresiV 

But that even it* more moderate claims to spiritual 
aupremjicy are 4i doctrine unknown to Cyprian la evidenced, 
as we have »ecn, by the definite alterations which Roman 
divlr>c5 have introduced into his language and maintain 

Kxemplificalinnx nf hiit real theory are 'writ targe' in hia 
corrections of the successor of Lucius Long before the bitter*- 
nesaof theoloffical difference aro«e between them, in dealing 
with moral cai^s of I^p:(e, we had to look onward, and we 
saw how the church of Africa received appeals against two 

* MiUiuu and vltitr» u«£c ijthfi too 
muEh WFigbt la rbiL Ct B^ 59H [«> 
Sea pp. i95, a^^ tbuve^ 

' Sec A \^j proltig«K bbioi of Out 
ibroTj u 1 hbiorir fiici in FRfpcC pp- 
l>a— i>»«Ai 11V— >» 

20— a 



ecclesiastical judgments of the Roman Hishop and rcvcMcd' 
thcm^ Presently we shall fkn<l him aditionishtd of hisdut/i 
toward a Nov;itiani«t and declred to transmit an account oti 
hi* discharge of it to Carthage', The Christian wor3d con- 
temned his arrogance, while it confirmed his practice in 
Bapttsm. Modern Rome outdoes his pretensions and frccl/ 
uses the Rcbaptism he rightly condemned. fl 

It might at first sight seem as if only one common link 
could hold together alliances so inconsistent with each other, 
alliances with Lapsed, with Novatianists, who stood equally ■ 
aloof from Lapsed and from Heretics, and wtth the Heretics 
themselves, — a consialenC opposition to C>T>rian, It might ^ 
£cem as if nothing but uniform contravention of Cyprian's! 
policy in its thicc branches could evolve such variety. Ste- 
phen might wish lo abolish out of Rome \he influence to 
which his predecessor had yielded ; Cyprian's Petrine unity, 
he might say, was but theoretical, his practical Episcopal 
unity threatened the Roman unity But if he could force 
Cyprian into opposition lo his Sec and its Traditions, that 
Petrine theory of his would serve to put Cyprian in the 
wrong, and leave htm on his own shewing no belter than a 

But mortal opponency surely never ran so wild a length. 
At any rale, of this low subtlety there 19 no appearance on 
the part of Stephen. Indeed at Rome, where Cornelius was 
so much more of a presence than Cyprian, the effect to 
the eye of the Church would he thai of an onslaught upon 
Cornelius and his councils rather than on Cyprian. Besides 
it had virtually been Cornelius who modified Cyprian's purj^ 
tanism. Wlicti Stephen restored peccant biihups he was 
following Callistiis; when he condemned Rebaptism he was 
Appealing to tradition older than CaUistus'. In all the letters 


^ ^H' ^,13- >34 fclo^c. £p. 67 
■ £/. 68. 

* So KtUehl. 

11, 11, rl 7. 




to Ati6 about him C)TJfian never writes as if Stephen were 
making capilal oiil of his own Pornnc unJty; he repeats the 
theory^ He shews no consdcusnews that hi« view of epiMO- 
Pa! unity is disputed or is likely to be disputed by Stephen. 
He strongly states' hU conviction of the taitb and antiquity 
of the Afnoin discipline* but acknowledges in Stephen as 
in othci bihhopa iJie right and the reapoiji^bility of differing, 
Tliu-^ tiiL'te ix ntJ trjce of that diploin;ic:y with vrhidi Stephen 
is ingeniously credited by moderns: nor yel of the mere 
obstinacy of which lie is accused by hU comemporary* 

The business of history is rot to be reviving blots which 
have faded from the world's mind* but to mark nnd trace all 
life which was ever tRJc and all trtith which ever lives. 

Our material is sullicleni to inrJicate that from rTw first 
Stephcfn had no leaning toward* niles which hi* predecessor* 
&nd Cyprian had laid down for themselves* His temper 
(which so often corresponds to, even if it doc?i not interpret, 
a policy) wfu that of a man averse to strictness, and severe 
only with those whu wi?dicd to ;iec hiin so. Hiii policy may 
be characten'jed as mtighly anti-Nnvaii^mist or anli-puritan. 
and In C)^rian himself there was, as we have »een, an under- 
tint of puritanism not invisible to Sicphenr whose ruling that 
a lapsed or a perjitred bishop might, without over severe 
conditions, resume his see, or even a Novatianist retain hij!^ 
were strong anti-Novatianist examples of tolerance But in 
fact lie ntay be rather ^id to have Inaugurated^ or at le^Ast 
to have befen an early type of the regular Roman policy of 
comprehension on ca«y terms saving as to the one article 
of riubmis^OD : ready in Spain lo restore sciiu-patl^nB to the 
Episcopate ; rcad>' in Gaul to uphold the harshest repellcr of 
penitents; ready anywhere to receive Marcionitcs without Bap- 
tism toCommunton. AndaJthough the issue ofhis long severe 
Hapnsmal cnntniverxy with Cyprian hai been detemiineil by 
the Church catholic in Stephen's sense ; although the practice 



he nratntained has been accepted as Uuc wisdom and true 
charity; although Cyprian'n theory hxft been rejected as 
wcU-nigh unchristian^ yet few moral triumphs have equalled 
the ^cendency of the vanquished Carthaginian. It arose 
M>lcly upcn the nobility of tcnc» the ma^naaimotis gentleness. 
the poatponcTnent of self to the Church, in which he con- 
dLict4.<d hi^ tmhappy cause. Tht never broken veneration 
entertained for him Is an answer to the calumny that theolo- 
gians cannot foi^tvc an opponent^ or spare the memory of 
the defeated. It was the victorious Stephen who did not 
recover the shock of that conflict. While Cyprian and 
Cornelius are companion saints in Kalendar and Collect', 
behide the ftlUr of the Catacomb* and in the mosaic heaven 
of the Basilica*, Stephen rented for ccnturicyi in the impraised 
silence into which Pontius* dismisses hirr> Not until in the 
ninth centur>' a catacomb yielded a marble chair with an 
inscription over an unnamed martyr pope, did the church of 
Rome asaign saintahip to Stcphanus' disengaged name. UoVf 
he has lost both chair and legend again will be narrated 

Jeremy Taylor sets an uncharitable seal to the popular 
church view of his ■ uncharitablcness, Stephen was accounted 
a xcalous and furious person',' Still wc need not forget 
thftt his portrait i:^ made up of traits etched in scraps by 
the pen of an adversary^ and that he was not solitary (as 
Florentiiis evinces) in hi* aversion to the power which 
Cyprian was now wielding", Dionysius Che Great makes 

^ LeoniiB SBcnuncnlnry, Muriitari, 
LifutX' Jfatn. V'ri. umii i- cul. 404. 

KAlmd^Ti (' 44 ; Grcgorun SiHrt- 
ruTiitiuy, E. [l> c. \\^'. Ggttilc MIua!. 
t 11^ p. Al^, Hn enMtPly JifTrrVAt 
(jfflee fuf Comdiusi and Cyprinw. hn\ 

thf day here and In oihfr rliudi, im 

* Sec Ri:^±i a^ Abovc» pp. 30^, ji 

' Ai Di RivcEina in S. Mortiniia In 
C^\a Anreit l,4rti*rw:inl« S, ApullmArv 
N novo J, 

* Wiihcnit nunilJijniiiE Stephen he 
markdlly pmcced^ ' Um ilr Xyslo bono 
0I pacific^ RACfTlorF-' PodL IW. 1. 1>. 

* Of IUi««y )3, Li&trty of tfophv- 
tji^. vol. V. p, ,i9fi (eil, Kflrn, %»^i\. 

' a^ 46 l-'Jarcatio Pup[iiuo, 




thankful mention or his liberality to tho churc1i«» of Syria 
and Arabii'; :md to Vincent of Lcriiu* there floated across 
Xvfo centuries a tradition of modesty as well as teal, of faith 
as well as dignity'. 

It wsis About thr twelfth of May. A-f), 254', when Stephen M*y 11. 
succeeded to the CliaJr of Lucius. CyprUn's fint extant'**" 
letter to liiin wac not ^o much in a tone of equality as in the 
s[>irit of direction, if not of dictation. He anticipates no 
ilif^erenccs. but plainly cxpecU to be on the same tcrm» with 
him as had existed with Cornelius, Uis lanffu&gfe \i riithcr 
pcrcmpiory, but with a peremptorincss which feel* It may 
reckoQ on comiiliance. 

In Che next letter Cyprian hav alrrady given StephcTi up. 
He makes a faint apology for him on the ground of hiii 
' unacquaintedneis with the facts and troth ' of the case, 
ni;ikc$ allowance for hl^ 'inattention V and proceeds to lay 
down principles and ^Ive dtrcctionft in absolute reversal of 

ENewhrre' wc have given the outline of the heathenUh 
Lapie of two Bishops in Spain and of the action taken about 
th«m. We reserved till now a consideration of the principles 
that reveal themM:l^'c^ in that intercourse of churches or 
dioccsca. Wc must enter a little more into detail. 

It will be Tccpltcctcil that Stephen on the pergonal ap- 
plication of Basilidcs gave judgment that such men as he 

» Vine. LUIa Cem^^^miu 1. G. 
> TiUrnwitt. voL IV., p, 3ft, '(WMi 
At^ttinc ^ Afwv B^f4^ I. TwZ [4 *c 

il^LniluiD.' Thi* ody vtitj utt*m llwit 
ibty •^njlMil him lu br » gciiatnr 

bishop. ■ live tncmUr ofa tn% Um^ 
' idpti^.cf- fit- |i, ii«< 

the iJuofe id lone loaartb SCcpliefi 
trtita >n afltccKmaip oofiiidente ia a 
•di-iocnlKcd e«Ui>eti. McrwArdft It 




And Martial should on recantation be restcred to thdr 5c«\ 
The church of Leon with A-storga thereupon apj^olntcd its 
presbyter FHix, and ihethnrch of Mcnd;i its deacon' JEUua, 
to compose an instatU appeal lo the great chvfrch of Carthage, 
Kerida sent by the s.tmc bearer on epistle from Felix of 
Saragossa. Whether this Felix was the bishop of that place, 
or sonic rcprc-icntative layman, docs not appear, hut the hi^ 
toriana of Art^goii have debated the question with iaterest'* 
Sabinu^ who had betni unanimously elected tt> succeed Basi- 
lides and confirmed by the netghboiiHng hUhops. and Felix, 
who had replaced Martial, carried the three Letters 

The reply of Carthage to the churches i$ the eompofiition 
of Cyprian. It closes with his own nominal salutation, it is 
written in the name of seven and thirty prelates who aa- 
senibled in Carthage in the autumn oi A.D. 254', It punc* 
tillonsly exempts Stephen from fumher hUme than that of 
negligence in accepting Bastlidcs' mere ai^surance of repent- 
ance, ;Lnd ratifying his episcopal tenure-^ when even to absolve 
him would have beer a strong measure. It assumes that if he 
had investigated he would have decided as they — Cyprian^ 
Fuurlh Council^ndccidcd, namely that the two men had for 

> 11 iM not atyrrDwl ihnl Mortial ip- (p3ti»ffinrm*ftl ipiritflsl rt'iine rhrftieni* 



1) b aLtribiJlcd to Inm. and thcic rr- 
spcnahlp SpdninnU are trcneik ls '> 
en ont plftifomi' 

' The SjJfcftiah dcAcom boic »n im- 
pnitfLnt pAii in tUt piiiniriiitTiiion af 
cburcbe*^ Sbc ContiJ- Elib. Can. 7; 
Si f ■'' Jitifiy/rtu fJtAem situ f/iijSifJ>& rrl 

t' ji^k M KiLp' p. 114. Uidcanfll prv- 
Bum|>tion>i Are rrMrunc^i A.n. 514 M 

tit PArtt^ CauU, t. J. p. 40, Oics fr^m 
the Lpiift of Vlcnnt an<J Lyons 
177, Kui, it. S^ V. 1 Vi {tic) rilicK 
de Vicftnc, ri*- itirvy^r difo Biin'ijt* a 
an tailj siEDpl? 'iI'ud diaciE charc^ du 

Hue irtuWtm h XdyKTOf S^A^ofey ^.r.V; 
the IcUM i& hen," gmuy 1 Hit ot /fumiJi 
and even ■□ ttiiage ibe phfLsc in ihic 
heii^ wijuld have b«r<iL rd* dv6 l^itrwi}$ 

> Sec QaIiubc'i not* in \oc 

* Tlic Couiitil of I5< A^Ji. muiL liave 
hppii hfld (fjwHnls luTuinfi- Enter day 
viflA iTL the ijg-d ApnL, ^Lcphinnq ««& 
onlAlnpJ dl/vut Mpy 13, fif/irrt Ihc 
Cnun^tl Witt hf^lcl Biutluk'^ htA Ainuly 
been nl Ki^mOi he«ii Slrphcu. and been 
Kvmfd [ij litiii of the pT^ijinctj- <jf hi* 
remmlrig hSt s^r ; rhpChiifclie* ulljon 
Lnd Aklarpi had rrcuived 1hi< ri^ciAion 

VII, in. 



ever surccfucd from tbc episcopate. To Stephen himself the 
Council submits no rcpr»cntation of Its opinion. They make 
not tlic most ilintanl hUuhIot] to 9iny inhcri^Tit premgativr of 
liu oflicr ;i^ HiKhc^ji or RomcV Thor? is no request that he 
would icconsidcr his judgment, or reeof^oitc their*. They 
simply rcverte ht« verdict -ind regard their reversal as final. 
Their long epistle, estimating the many points at bauc, trcat5 
the deciMon of the Bishop of Rome aa simply AEid gravely 
mi^Ukcii. aik\ thercfori; to be wt fisidc: There arc then 
no less than four accoufits upon which ihjs Synodical EpiHtle 
of A.D. 254. on Ulc aflfair of Basilidei; and Martial is im- 
portart as a witncfij: to the relations subsisting within the 
coQsrei^ationa and between the cong7cc:ation« of the Church. 
]t creates none. And it docs not imply, but distinctly stated 
these relations. 

I. [t?i mum putport ia the di^inct accepting and ahsolutr? 
drdding of an appeal from the church of one ration to 
another in reversal of an ecclesiastical decision by the Bishop 
of Rome' The sole rule to be recognised in the judgment 
la that of Scripture. ' 'l"hcre can be no acceptance of person, 
*no dispensation can be granted by any human indulgence^ 
'in matters where divine prescription interposes a veto and 
'appoints a lawV 

II. It ai^tign^ to the Laity the right, and Insists on thefr 
duty, of withdrawing from the communion of a 'sacrile^ous' 
or 'sinful' bishop. 'The Laiiy mainly have the power in 

Ithlian rhdrfh^ A|ipnl In lv hnml hy 
Am Biibop* of CaiiJ. ThBy *m 
AvdDy only ftUowoi ihrn, l^^nn vthat 
bdn^ lUltant. U^UL i 13. 

Mkrlc lhr>hMr1 iif tli« atiliBfi Inall tbc 
JkrKwifitdf Q Vld (b« vncJOAl t« and 

/WA-^yAtf C R U9il Uw ccmetor of L I 

■ll ihdC UG of IXDI. Jl iQ DSIN VUl'- 

t> f)i ill nNlinm b^rl ^rt/mftu uniij 
ItsrloE, msd bu choic* ••mu p«rTvn«. 

run. AfH pfTtftifti^ hvjttnA Ittcommoo 
LluD io tu luriiv-irr, whtch ^ vluti « 



'cither choosing worthy Bishops or in rejecting unworthy 
'onet* 'The iMiy mu*t not fl^Mer themselvrs with the idea 
'of being untouched by the contagion of hjs offeree if they 
'eommunjcate with a Bishop that is s. dinner' 'They must 
'sever themselves from a sinful prelate*/ 

III. It marks (bi!^idc other things) the presence and 
testimoTTy of Laity a.s rcquirecl, ijr, as it »* here expressi^d, as 
"a thing of divine tradition and apostolic observance/ in the 
appointment of a Bishop, — " that he may be chosen in the pre- 
'scncc of the Commons under the eyes of all, and be approved 
*as worthy and meet by public judgment and testimony/ 
'In the presence of the Commons wliJch fully knows tlie life 
'of each, and has discerned everyone's line of action through 
'intercourse with hlmV 

IV, It marks the ^ense that there resided no power 
in a Christian congregation which could assig'n episcopal 
authority over itself, or commit the celebratiot: of sacra- 
nicnlal acta to any nominee lacking the note of regular 
aposlcllc Orders- The custom is kept for ' the nearest 
BUhcp^ of the province to meet and the Bishop to bo chosen' 
not by, but 'in the presence of the Commons/ 'Upon the 
■jud^cnt of the Bishops the Episcopate was conferred on 
'him, ;tnd the hand laid upon him^* 

2. Ihg Gmiltsh Appml. 

The majestic Romanesif|ue portal of the Cathedral of Arl(?s 
ranks the noble image of her Founder and Patron Trophimus 
the Ephciian with the protomartyi and the apostles. From 
at least the ninth century onwards it waf: unquestioned 

■ Ep. 67. i^ Routh, A S. vol, Jii. 
pp, rfi, 1, cnmrciljr. afrer F.rasmut. 
Imrs itit pnui^ u nferriiig to siru 
trhlch wcio EcdcBUKkAl diequoli^CA- 
(ions, h ai™ \sy^ down xV^v/terdam 
Ji^m fwrtf/ J^at u esfidTiliin] at orrLi- 

tinlitm iri onUi i<? ihf virtut t/ tkt 
miimlnlien, ai]<t SFrptn wp itf th« 
(m^tih of Cypriiii's one ehftractarulic 

' Up. fi7. 4. S. 

VII. m. 



history thzt he had been Jiutnllccl there bj S. Paul on his 
way to Spain, after consecrailon Lo the Bishopric by S^ Peter 
at Rom«'. 

In the mtddtc of the fil^h century fewer paiticuJftr* had 
been extant The positton of Coiutantinople made it con*- 
veiuent in the Went to be^n to nuik Metropolitans not by 
ttw polituca) importance of ihcir province, but by the &up* 
po;icd aniiquity of its ccmveriion, Sltll when Zo?iiniuJ« in 
A-l). 417 dechrecl the ccandAlouK J'Atrochis xc> be the Metres 
politan of the Provinces of Vlenne, Nvbonensis Prinna 
and Nsrboncnsia Secunda, he only affirmed without naminff 
a date that Rome had sent out TrophLmu» a4 Chief Btahop, 
and that from Miia fountain all Provinces of Gaul reGci%'cd 
the rill* of the faith V 

T*he Bishops of thw Province Jn an appeal to l^o, ad. 450, 
framed om Zoitimuf;' words, still claim no more than that it 
was kDOwn at Rome, and generally, that Trophimus had been 
sent by 'the Blessed I'ctcr the apostle'; but tliat b the then 
U3ual phraAC fvr the Sec of Rome', So far all that Atanda 
before us fnim the fihh centuty is a local trvHiion of n RoiiMn 
Missionary Bishop as Founder But again there were nld 
diptychs of the church of Arlec in which Trophimui was 
only the second name on the list of Bishops ; and thuis even 

' Sifphuic V. Tikftc rrihuu Epivlola 
ad Stinm. Ac- tibbe, xu iSO- Ado« 

* 'Suminut iin\i*to Ac-* Zotimi £/- 

Zodimivtil niByba obvnvil, Banifftcc:, 
CclcsEJnci and 1-«o the QtttA, 'lid not 
fcil the ncceviilf, and odmitirfl thr 
old rtiik of Vimnv. S^mmtchm oofr 
mon rtbtMUiMcd Aii«fr Gtt^rj the 
Gm«1 tpcdiB of AtIvi u the chiiwd 
of all fviPir (IhniiiArLiFjF, S« Grvg 
Hi^. Jf/^T V. <3, noi« ci «d. Bened- 

I leiof Ihc 5n) otnlurT bstwccs Arlc* and 
Rum? ktn ilrci|-«U in Lh« 4ih, and Ihat 
Tnnulpin* Guil in jmrtiolafEAinvM 
4mw« ta MilMi. Zflaiinaa* aci vm « 
covmnACEbn (o thii. H^ 'VkoriUc' 
d Arin ifi cent. t1, «*■ liolUfll ittd 
Imukikr, ftnil nut rtfeclifrb Pubone, 

1*94, I. p. MlJ 

iiv, "■ lV«a midv, Ac' Bui lui '*li 
apotiolii' the ume wtice^ See TUIV' 
mOAl, AW/ c, uir S. Dtm/i dt /brv, 
v<d, tT. p^ 70j» 


Tin: ROMAK auiiL 

If tho«c diptych* wttfie not accurate, it appears that tlMfc 
had been a time when the name of Trophimus sai not tm* 
prtntd on the mind of the church of Arks as its FoundcrV 

la Grcifory of Tour^'. A-D. ?573 — 594. wc come 00 an 
iatcrmcdulc ricw of the >tory. Seven Prc&b>-tcrs n^erc 
ordained Blibopo at Rome In the consulship of Dccius and 
Grattis, and sent to the great ^es of Gaxd. to Tours^ Nar- 
bonnc, TouIouml Paris, into Auvcrgr>c, to Limoges, and 
amonj; them Trophimu:* to Aries, The conaulahtp of Dcciux 
and Gratus corresponds to the year A.D, 350, in ^hich year 
Fabian was martyred un the 30th of Januar>\ and the see 
WH« vacant ;ill ihr rritt nf the yrar Grrgofy might have 
been iturc that Fabian had as little to do with Trophimus 
and Arle« x\ S. Peter and S. Paul had'- 

But in r^ct a letter from Cyprian to Stephen* lets U3 knovi- 
who the real Bishop of Arlcft vuts at that time and for ftome 
years after. It is earlier than the Baptismal Controversy which 
began in A.D. 255, Stcplien's wrcond year*. Bm 1! implies 
the passage of earlier leticrR, a period of waiting for answers 
and for action^ such that it cannot have been written until 
well on m his second year. Again Cyprian remarks in it that 
' many brethren had died at Aries without being restored to 
*CommitiiJun [Ijy their putitiin bishop), en ifiesc pa^i years\' 
Such a phrase can scarcely mean much less than t/trft years. 
Novatianlsm began only in June A.D. 251. Accordingly this 

■ Mhhllkin ppr JUIemiXkl. IV- p-;^j> 

^ iiitU fr^t^\ I. 18, 

' f^anoLi iihFiv«<l thai ^uli^cl^ii .V- 
#enii iLiul tlie I'fqicn vf Stlnminus IoqH 
no cuuaitiunctf tv ihcK sinltMnDati, 

monl tpdcHvoun la uw ibc ctttSh of 
Grajpry ikf a hutuiUri li (lie tdgM uf 
Dedut by tiiiii»c<ti(it|j thai TfOLiliLnuu 
mlj^hl htive twuff nil a michion to Vni- 
icn« divn, Mn\ bni^ p>nK<rAtGEl ycora 

l>«ciuJ the riim «f NQVitmn, ihv riftr of 

Che VtxJtntiriifliVi, and ^^o niMiyrdom of 
Xyilut. Ilawevct ih^rc wu no biihop 
\ii AflOt we may be turc. before ihc 
Uuilli of Irchffui abooi 303 a,i>., and 
lh« H* wu othctwii*e occupidl Ln A.o. 
ip. The Qmk lumc wliklk Pcarunk 
trtate M aguhkl hit cqrnin|£ fr>ni Horn* 
vdttLd nklhar tuU in fa^-our gf rt> 

Jrm*/. Cyfr. a-d. tf^, n- 

VIL 111, 



Novatianist bishop, uho^c name wit^ Mercian, tnu^t tiAvc 
governed ihe church of Arle* from 151 at Ule«t to 354- 

Marcivi not only exercised the harshest puriUn diftcipline 
in the pcrpelual exclusion of Uw most scnrowini; penitents 
even in their laiit hour^, but he openly renounced communion 
with the other bishops and took the extrcmcst Novatianist 
tone that the whole Cliurch, by rcadinittinf; tlie LAp>ed, un- 
rhurchctl iTsdfV Thr grtifral conHrmratinn of Novatian^ 
his doctrine and adhercnis', did not affect ihe position or ihe 
conduct of Marcian, until l-'austinns, bishop of Lyons, laid 
the facta before Cypnan^ and toyrcthcr with bis fcHow biahopa 
icpreaented the ca.%c to Stephen. Stephen took it in silence. 
His broad dnti-Novattanij^t tone would not allow him to be 
hard cvct on a Novatianist, and Cyprian attributed this 
iaitsfr passfr ^wjlicy to carelessness, 

Faustinus complained of Stephen in a second l«tt«r to 
Cyprian, And Cyprian took upon himself to addreM Stephen 
in stnun^ tcrm& as to his duty. 

So much has been and still ts made to turn on the very 
phrases of this letter chat in faimcfts the debated sentences 
miut be reproduced* 

Wg arc to ot>scrvc rc^vf Cyprian recommends to be done: 
«wfc to be the doer or doers: cApeciaUy to note what part 
the Roman is urged to take, and on what grounds. 

' It is,' ^ys Cypnan. 't>ur duty to consider this afDiir ^uid 
'to remniy it; thinking on God's clemency a« we do, and 
'holding the balance of the Church's government, and so 
* exercTKinn: severity toward sinners as not to refuse the 
'Divine healing to the Lapsed' 

miuiCBiJuic ao«tni m HBcri^vcrit.4»d« 

cTCOitu. J^ , jV- ^ >• AndiDjE Uouclf 
not ewti r«t o««nniUAlC«t«d by ut. 

do not tn4 cftnniX <»coiBBWaic&E< nw. 
1 vtiibdimw from dmn.* TIU umtv 
rfoTviUv on thr other hcnJ wu n> 
coramsniaittd mt onUt pnT*^ V> b* 
•amliicH. «iHd V** toU thii the «a]r 
(4IIID w«i« HbnriiBlvn. Tbu I1 ibt 



He therefore urges Slcphen to write ' a very full letter' to 
the Gallic bi^thop^. What he rcconinici^ds him to advix is 
'that (hey,* the bishops, 'should no longer allow Marcian to 
trample upon our (Episcopal) College." 

As an example of what they might do, and in consistency 
ought to do, he quotes che refusal of the assembled African 
bishops to hold communion with Novatiaxi after his spurious 
cclcbrotion of DiWne worship and a:^sun^ption^ of oRicc in 
separation from Ci>nie]ius, The parallel is distinct : as the 
African bishopjf excommunicated Novatian, so let Ihe Gallic 
bishops excommunicate Marcian- 

By his excommunication the see would be at once vacant 
So far is clear, Cyprian proceeds, ' Let letters be diapatched 

■ from you into the Province and to the LaJty who stand faith- 

■ ful at Aries. iAheret3y\ Marcian having been exccmmunicaCcd. 
' another may be appointed in liis room, and the Jlock of Christ, 
' which for to-day, broken up by him and wounded, ts lightly 
'esteemed, maybe gathered together.' Does Cyprian mean 
that ^j* t'irtu^ of tfis UtUr iisfif Marcian would be excom- 
municated, and his successor appointed ? or were the receivers 
of the letter intended to perform those acts? The wording 
alone might admit the fcrmer alternative as easily as the 
second (though not more easily) i« respect of tfie tubstitHtkm 
of t/ig mw biih&p. In respect of the excommunication the 
Latmity is against the idea that the letter would effect it 

But we observe that this second letter is to be addressed 
ftf lfi€ Laity. The first letter which Cyprian recommended 
Stephen to write was to tbc Bishops', urging them to action. 
This is to be to the Laity ; because to the Laity' belonged 
the fiUin^f of the see, voided upon Marcian's excommunication^ 
by their election of a successor. Nomination by Laity was, 

> ...ItUomr ptihvt aM/M/t MarcUno 
Tbcabucntion would hove hcen alTcady 
iKDCt of [be lini [cltcn: uid wiLh ihu 

Uio couEruclbn of th» phmec i^nci. 

' -.,pt?n)hiu]tft3UUL^iiuadciKpL»:op[Ji 
itCKli-osbGilEidion^riruioE, Ep. ^S. i- 

* ...Ad pLcbem AiclaLo cc^p^iMeMsm 




wc }uvc Already iKcn, (he rule oi the Cyprianic ^c, ard 
needful for a trut apptiirnmenl V 

Stephen is not re^iucstcd by Cyprian to take any part 
beyond the writing of letters in the same sense in winch he 
had himself presumably arswcred Fauatinu^, namely by 
counselling ihc Bishop* of the Province and the Laily of 
the City to perlcjTfn Ehdr ^everftl duties in ntspect tit the 
NovarianUt prelate' 

He proceeds, ' it i^ for tJiU end, dearevt brother, that Xhe 
* Body of the Bishops; i$ great and l&rge, kail fast with eluo 
' of mutual concord and bond of unity, tliat :k>, should any of 
'our college «tttempt the forming of a heresy, the rending and 
'wasting of Chripit's flock, the icnt may <:uiiie totlie te^ciir. and 
'like ;&eTvioeable coinjiaHstonate «hepherd« gather the Lord*a 

» Siiprapp. i^n. ii5' 

Kciccfiitiarjf, 1S77). wdici^ p> 47G, tbb 
ihamfleB cammcrt an thit ^im* pu- 
M^' — ' Aoeordiof ED tkn. cuh Isimbopf 
u a Micccww of tbv spviilnii u re- 
fpnntthlf fAT Eh# tthol* ' ^i iitin* ihrif 
muLiitudc ii bound Iflf^Ther in the unky 
trf III* One CTiicf Heid, the mode of 
ifTonhng hf Ip Id HUAordLiury osn Is 
douly ft^ribed Co The Onr. If the 
■*tcBiicQ[ of mutual cuocoid" b ittf 
tfnv^ am^ tar ihr m&Lntrninoe of 
ibat bond of uoivy vliirh u to CMtrcie 
ftU, Ihcn cvrae* The Od«, ucoiding 
10 III* iuikWT»Meiicici fof Ihc *lLo]e 

TI1C vciT [i^int of Cjpriu*t rcmarkt 


Bui Dr Ptlcn conUnut*, ^So fhM. 
Mitr ra tk/ C^Tir a/ f^rr. ami tkr 

nndeitil* to uy »iiiw cr nrhti iramHT 
of penoa Df Peltn mtM^f^ hu miicn 

to uadcfstaml 1? btm ' #bo let ^V 
^mf pvirt aiiihftiity. Ofti? ti^uM tnp- 
pCH' In poini of fftcl U wu « c»ap 
gf 'hcictiu wtLo<l«rDJ' M l^ilol Arul 
Cjpnan nurrelflne ftl llidr ftadadij, 

fur duin^ wT uiJ ifltt dt^uui^ cluE 
rtere wai 00 rMl enil to be annivprnj, 
luldt'uQlcM p^rdunca liiif haiidrul of 
desperate lumed tTiJii|^ cnuiLD Ibe ui> 
Iborltj of th« bJkbops ffi AfrtcA n- 
UbJiib«iJ to Ix iff// C«|] f«TvtnLon 
do marv} And jf unued cmr uk> 
'Wberr li all ibu •bmi Thr One 10 
be fouAdr lir PMen replies 'Khxx >( 
wu not necrwiry to eaplua lo the 
PoniLff hid oirn anihoriry/ SuTrly. U 
Vii tntl leu DfeesAUj lo icP litm HnX 
the auitiorif wa» in ihc Buhcfq^ if '^ 
WA» jij liiui^lf. 

■ In the Te«I. &f ■ Iffdflr nhkh 
roeocubca Ehd CW buhap4 vill ocoiB' 
mLiiiJtaiv 4j|j llic tvly rc-ippoiat. 
Fimo'lmt, Hu Pk-rmn (ap, 1ti]nf^j»end 
DafontiiB OflHfct froin thu pAHaf^'ibil 
the ItfiDAn biiliap had |iv ver cimk thai 
to aOMiiffiDiiiniie, naj 10 deprtre (uj) 
bUlb*p«, md I0 nbfliilate freib onci-' 



'!thcL'p into the fiockV Would not this be strange, incomprc- 
hcnsibtc language, if Cypnan hetd held that the remedy, and 
the appljc&lion of the remedy* throughQut the world lay in atn 
ovKr-arohing supreme pontificate of Ronie? Umiy is onencM 
of a number, and so Cyprian invariably writes^ 

Cyprian next, afier picturing the state ofMardan's pcoj^le 
with two fme image* ^sketched from his own familiar African 
scenery, — from the half-ruined coasting -harbour, and from the 
caravanserai occupic(i by brigands — piijcec<Is thus. " VVc, 
'dearest brother, must take to ourselves our own brethrci^ 
'escaped from the rocks of Maician, and malcing for the 
'Church's harbour of safety. We must provide them such an 
'hostelry as the gospel speaks of, where the Host may take 
"care of them,' With the person of the Pope full in view 
before him. and dii-cctly addressing him, he describes the 
remedj' as being in the hands of many, not of one, in 'our' 
office, not 'thine' 'For,' he continues, after citing Ezekici's 
denunciation of the heedless shepherds, 'albeit we are many 
shepherds, yet wc have but one flock to feed/ Is this 
the language of one who held that on earth there is one 
shepherd, a:^ well as one flock ? 

'We have to rnainiain the honour of tnir prtdece^isors 
•Cornelius and Lucius,. ..whose memory, much as jv/ revere 
'it, ought to be much dearer to you, their representative' 
'And successor. Full of God's spirit, planted in the glory of 
'martyrdom, they decided for Restoration (of penitents^.. 
'And this is what all of us altogether everywhere decided,,., 
'for among us in whom was one spirit there could be no 
'diversity of sentiment. And so, It is plain that one whom 
•we see entertain different sentiments does not hold the truth 
'of the Holy Spirit as the rest do. 

' Intimate to us distinctly who is put into Mercian's place 
'at Aries, that wc may know to whom we must commend 
*our brethren, and tu whom we must wrile,' 

' £fi^ 6B. 3 *.,,a>pioBLiiii corpus esi * VicuiiUi £/. M< 3. 

HU:rnkitma„.uU..fut>vv[tUQl crCvi^.' 




So ends the letter ; a letter as indepcndcnr a* ii is deferen- 
tial Not such as an ArchbUhop of the Koiniin obedience 
couid by any possibility address to his Pope, That there 
W3U1 fiuch a thing as a pntmrchal Pntnacy; that the Bishop 
of Carthage acknowledged the une chfilr in tlie West which 
apostles had planted; that he counted it a diit>' of that ser: 
to be to other sees a remembrancer or dut>' and purity ; that 
the Konnan see had naturally clo^e rclatiorLi^ with the gees of 
'The Province/ aU this is true. It is not perfectly exact to 
say with Pearson. 'Cyprian asks nothing of Stephen which 
he Is not ready to dischajge himaelf/ ^%'ithout the addition 
ihjil he held il Stephen's duty to move first, Cyprian, even 
in his ill-rcprcssed indignation at Stephen's indiflercncc, given 
him a place and name before hi» brethren. But — without 
entering now into the infinitely gravef c|ue^tion,^ of uncorrupt 
truth, pure worship, and paramount Scripture aa essential to 
the vahdity of rights and tenure of any sec — such primac)' 
was not historically a dominion cither secular or sjnrituaL 
Of control in things of faith, of jnriwJiclion to he exercised 
administratively, oxceutivcly, or legislatively in another sc®. 
of sole or immediate supremac>- witliout appeal, this letter 
presents no least tracc- 

And now, lest it should be imagined that Kominh daJiM 
arc such a£ find any countenance in the ccncessiona of irn* 
partiality or in the analy.iii of truth -necking, we may finally 
contemplate PTofe*isoi Dr Petcrs's summary of this Letter, 

'Cyprian here concedes and ascribes to the Succctsor 
'of Feter "the ordmaiy and immediate Junediction'' over 
*forei^ Dioceses; and consequently over the whole ChurchV 

Mgr. Freppel alone could outdo this; an^ he docs. 
Cyprian...' sees in the Roman pontiff the ^ardian and the 
' defender of the cunfiHj for the univer^-ij Church ; ihe biiho|> 
'whnsr jurisdiction, f^r from expiring on the confines of a 

1 Dr J- Vtur% C^fri^ ms X/trt^^^ p. ^j^ 




■ province or a country, extends to the cnltre universe,' " Vm*' 
"he wnles to hfm, "the plenitude of yotir authority: acfrfress 
*to tile bishops of Gaul and to the people of Arle^s letters, 
^pUtisstmas iitUr^s, in virtue of which Marcian may be 
' deposed and another elected in his place '^ 1 ask any 

■ huncst man/ crici Mgr, Frcppd. * how should Cyprian have 
'proceeded in order to alTirm more highly the primacy of 
■the pope? For the deposition of a bishop is the gravest aet 
' of jurisdiction one could point to'/ 

Not only arc such terms as 'ordinary and immediate 
JLiTLsdiction/ 'defender of canons for the umversil Church/ 
ridiculous In their anacluoni&m ; not only is the phiasc "use 
the plenitmlc of your aulliority' an itiventiun of Freppcrs 
owrti, which he prints a« a citation, and comments on as 
original; but the whole lanf^uage of both authors is in the 
teeth of the text The text assigns the function of excom- 
munication, involving deposition, to one authority, the duty 
of substitution to another, and neither of these offices to 
Stephen, who is simply urged to press their duty, as became 
his place, upon the Bishops and Laity of Provence. 

" Frrpptl. ji, 367. 

T'lip« wnltfTi mnnot he n^rtlfd 

RoTiifln doctrlnt The BuU t'fiam 
tanff/iM rnncXw^r^ wirh rhr wnrdi 
*}^u1>fut R-pmflnn PonihlSd omni hu 
uimiii: ?Turuf4 Jcclii^iiinui dlcjioiu 
flrdfiifflUk IdifRnlmuhJ rrf pronundfimut 
omaiDO cme ffc n«ciiiutate mLvtit/ 
Btniuiiin Annai. £uUi. Uau. iJv- \y- ^4, 
Buriifac- Pnp. viii, Ann, S, iv-, A-h. 1 501 ; 
Cnr/. Jurii Catum- Richl^r el Frid- 
bfi|£t pan i* iaI. 114A (ciL. |8B|)> 
S-xfrojti^- CiTHtm, Tr ir t\\. viij- c 1 'iir 
mAJnrttciiv c( obedirnlifl.' 

The Viiican fkcicv *£>/ o»' tu roFioHe 
pnnhifM JCffPtani /'otrijSds' nins thai: 
Si qiiJK iEiK|LHT rJiiiiphT Komanum I'ltnlj- 
^ztaa hahvt ivitiuumcidu ofBdam 

1niiprcili>iilA vd dilWClrMiK ron nutoa 
plensm «t HiprvmAm poi^sEatcm juiii' 
(ilc(i(rni> in (inivfrum Eo;]amta, inm 
ftftlufti In ^t^lls qui i<! fidtni et nnrn 
[mumi R], bed aiiam in ji4 <.]»» ad 
HiiciplidBm cl rcfpnicn l^ck«Ur pfi 
tolvmntlinn difhiu? j^ninrnl; laErom 
htfbtfp romiTm pniuimi part«,nDn vno 
fotum plcniludinem hujuK AdpnoK 
IxrteaUlu; mi hniic ejus potcbUicm noci 
cue nnMnnriaw vt inmiFiliatam liv-* in 
oinnea sur Eingufai efclKiob^ liv* in 
DOjiica cL Bijiffulos pi^lom ct AdflvB i 
anatliema hil,' t'cnitttitttti Pogfuitua 



Some enquiry wai fromiacii' into the part borne by 
the Clenisuf aiilient dtica, the Ordo. the Conicttus or Bench 
of Prrsb^'tenf, in the adminl^lration of church business. It 
would hsLve been almost mcaninglcftft to m;tp thift out before 
becoming: familiar with the kind of transactions amongst 
ivhicb their o^cc wan to be used. But some principles 
of its excrci;&c can now he leadil/ dr^wQ out. The later 
correspondence of Cyprian p-isses into cjtlicr lines, so that 
the indications we seek cease before the great controversy 
with Stephen begins. 

The lirst epistle presents a certain Body zt Carthage 
'taking notice of a Chriittian*^ will at Fumi; a will, which, 
in violaticn of a forma or rutc pcisscd, with a prescribed 
{tensity, by a previous Cotincil of bUhops, appointed a cleric 
to a legal function. Th[« Body x*, not a Council, and doet n»t 
either make a rule or affix a sanction, but act« as a Court in 
deciding that ipso facto the penalty has been incurred and 
niu-Httakc effect'. 

Tiii^ Bcrdy iHcn exerti in another town of the province, 
which bad a bishop of Its own, authority over the clergy, and 

« F. 41. 

the l«w [<Rn tot niii^cri^ cminuy. 

The nilttv b ' or fmtd pm 
donnUi«a* «Am 9poi tm Adi obkiicv* 




§o virtoally over the Uity, through ihc carrying out of the 
sent«EK« by the ckrgjv lu members arc the BUhop of 
Carthage, some bishops who were in Cartha^ at ^e time 
u)d attended the mcctiEig, ard 'our com presbyters who were 
a^iAcuont to \is\' There b an ambiguity as to whcthci 'tMr 
comprcsbyters ' were the C^nsastu of ihc city, or included 
Others who came wi:h their bishop5_ 

It if not th^jti a corporate body; h Is not limited to 
certain per«on«, but to a certain cla&s or classes. The 
nucleus and main part of it is tbe Consensus, the Presbytery 
of Carthage, with the Bi.ihop for its head; it includes other 
bi-^hcips then in Carthage, and possibly (but this is Dot clear) 
other prtabylcrs- 

It£ authonty, which amounts Eo jurifidicHon, h evident. 
In the epistle to Lucius he says chat persecution has been the 
test not only of the true bishop but also of the tnie con^cssus. 
It ha» ihewn which ' presbyters were united with their bishop 
in hla sacerdotal officcV Had the prcsb>'trty tlitrn this 
authoHtyj or *iomethin^ lilcc it, inherently and apart from the 
presidency of the bishop? or, if not, could it by delegation of 
the bishop be invested with such authority? 

The occurrence of Cyprian's long retirement brings 5ome 
significant facta Into unexpected salience, and the concurrent 
vacancy of the RLntiaii sec rernarkably illustialcs the case. 

In thrre several letters from his retreat', addressed to 
the presbyters and deacons of Carthage, Cyprian requests 
them to supply his place : — ' There discharge ye both your 
own parts and mine*; "Your diligence must supply* my 
office"; 'Discharge my function about the conduct of things 
which the religious administration requires.* 

He had arranged for some amoiLn[ of money to be 

I „,*go*l collcgir m/if^vii prtMcnirt 
adcmTiC Et crxDiirc^bTiai itMfn qui 
noHi afJitiJeUinl, £fi. ■■ i. 

' J^fi. 6i. 3 'ueer^loinli honore.' 
Dolh •rocda technical. 

* RcpnDcninrc, *mak< ta be pmcnt.' 
SeiJ uBidiii» mtvai vmra dillgentift 



realised &ru3 distributed to the clerics that there m^ht be 
mcaas in several hiinds> He had left in the hands of Hoga- 
tian, hid commissioner, 'a llltlc sum realiscrU ' apparently by 
srimc recent sale, and sent hiin a further ^^ortion af^cnvarcU*. 
Ou: of these funds he requests the presbyters and deacons 
to care for the poor, the £ick and strangers, for Chrirtianfi in 
prison, and for the bodies of those who die under torture or 
confinement*. He begs them to make such arrangements 
for visiting prisons as will lesM provoke suspicion, and to 
calendar the dates of martyrdoms and corfesaors' deaths 
and communicate them to him for remembrance in hj« daily 

Jn common with the HebcSithis clerical body w&.s usually 
consulted by Cyprian on the mcriU of persons proposed for 
Ordination, They were thus fixed upon 'by counsel in 
common/ but exceptions, at least during hia absence from 
Carthage, were frequent. Ho sends to them the names of 
aeveral men whom without such consultation ho had ad- 
mitted to Orders, some of them to ;l seat in the Conscsflus, 
to daily allowances and the mciiUily dividend*. 

He urges them tti prumoLt? among the people habits nf 
fanting and prayer for the interna! reformation of the Church, 
and for its outward deliverance; to instiuci the ignorant. 

' SlllDU1Lll«-,->cUUlJI. £fi. $, I, tk 

^v4atiCM* mu |iffiprl«.. allftm pon^iv 
Mm, £fi. ;. fuM/r^d/, lechnicAUj- t. 
huup lum. in C. /. L v]ri> i. j6t 
capiuJ It oppoinl 10 ttntfa. In S^ 
J9 (tt- 3 iof) it hu no kiuc of 4ll««- 
UKdi but » liotply CTcn luicki- 

■ £//. 10. 3S> 39, t^ Sf, 39. $ 
'^.pubyttril hoAOfcni JoigikAuc nos 

bmlvt, ■wfeiih nifbifecvBi pn^Tictit ei 

tfylcf liml hit BUbilint allunwii^t vul 
of Ihc diurcti'ironury ; beMdft iht 
idEiic aUuwabm cftUcd jftvfitia {ef. 
£f^ I- I ' ApDtlLiUnlmin fmliuiti']. Hint 
a]>a bul ifirir in^rtum in (hit djvt- 
dvHl whidi wu iJic mimacJc; of Iha 
moith'B cxpfiiK; thi:dlr» mt o( ih« 
prf«1i):tpr> umfpf him tha bithfip m 
iHea Tiad a o«nun iiiinb«r of \ht 
|{r*THt «rhr> livoJ ariiE (oinii]rioc<I U- 
wAp widi him/ ITuoVci v[]. xuli 9. 

(tbougb the fHCi vuvj be 14} bat itkeir 
fuLViC pUct In Cic cuueaHii. » *»<>- 
biKum K^tHr in ctno^' E^. ^ 



but upeciully those confe&'^ors, in or out of prison, whose 
spiritual self -satisract ion made tfacm not very amenable \ 

So far, nothing Is enjoined on the ^o6y except a &Jthful 
perfonrancc of their individual clerical duties. He regrets 
their lmiJeTf(-*ct performance of thtrir prisun-duties, espectally 
with regard to religions instruction^ — duties always hitherto 
reeognisod, he says, as their proper work', 

Strenuous admonition on their part, he insist^ was re- 
quired. And in virtue of the episcopal energy is&ctrdoUi 
vigor^) which he had now to exercise From a iJistaiLce, he 
endeavoured through them especially to prevent the breaking 
down of discipline. 

Do we here find duties of a more govemmerUal cliaractcr? 

He declines in the fourteenth epistle to take a step which 
had been suggested by four of the presbyters, without 
first receiving counsel from the Body of the presbyters and 
deacons and bcing^ also informed of the judgment i^f the laity- 
This altp Wis the rcbtoraticn of some of the Lapsed to 
comTTunion. When !n spltp of his mc^ssgt' the four admitted 
them» he considered that the Body h^d failed in its duty of 
repressing them, and he appeals to the laity to keep the 
Lapsed quiet *. Later on' writing to the laity, he commends 
the special activity of three of the presbyters, and of the 
deacons as a body. In encouraging or in deterring the Upaed. 

There is still no exclusive authority recognised as inherent 
in the consessus. The disciplinary duties here particularised 
are of the moral order, and can scarcely amount to more than 
persuasion. They are capable of being discharged by the 
laity, failing trustworthy clerics. 

Tlie only autlionty which, in Cyprian's opinion, could, as 
we have seen, decide on thL* wliole wide policy to be pursued 
was a gathering of £t>-e/n'xcvj>j\ and further they too must have 



a CQcniiiQii umScrstanding with the bJishops of otlicj countries. 
The only authority which coultl under that policy Jccid« on 
the reinsutcmcnt of individuAls was an assemblage in which 
both thd cler^ &nd the laity of their own Church ahould 
with the bishop at their head examine and conclude each 
cascV In tJii5 function the weight of the hitty wad nuch that 
Ihry vetoed some whom Cyprian and nlhcr* would have 
restored', while elsewhere he expresses regret at having in 
some cases overruled them. Thetr right as laymen to abstain 
fronn comnnunion with a Lapsed or a Novatianist B^«hop 
ijt affirmed again and again'. 

We found no particular authority assigned to the Clerus 
in the election of a Bishop, Tlieir pari W4*i to beair testimony 
to the life of the person proposed for election. The laity 
tiected; the neighbouring bishops assented and ordained*. 
Cypriiin'a letters to Cornelius, in which the principles of 
the coming legaalation were dJKUBscd, were * always read 
aloud' by Cornelius to the clcrus and the laily together 
— 'to the most flourishing clergy which stts with tht-e in 
' the foremost rank, and to the mo*t holy and most honour* 

Whibt therefore its counsel was of the greatest weight 
and import in the dclibcratic>n with the bishop on all the 
greater afTairs of the Church, we find no trace of authority 
or JurisdicTion hrlongiiig to the Consessus as such- 

The level of moral influence which belongs to it *tan<I» 
markedly apart from the way in which, for instance, exconv* 
munication was inflicted. 

In Cyprian'5 absence excommunication was imposed di- 
rectly by a commission appointed b>- himself, conaisling of 
three bishops and two presbyters*. It is true that he com- 
mended the pre*byter-i and deacons of Carthage for resolving 

> A^ rr dv. 



not to communicate witli Gains of Dida, a presbyter, and his 
deacon, after these had anticipated the Church's making of 
rulca for re-admission, but it must be especially observed that 
this resolution was taken upon the counsel of CQll£a£U£s of 
mifit\ who hat! frequently warned Gaius against the step» 
who were t\ow prc^smies in Carthage, and thuH completed a 
body like that which Cyprian had presided over in the first 
Kumi case, namely^ the cLerics of the city (^/fnVi ttrbici) and 
bishops, whether of the Province or from beyond scaa^ He 
then adds his own episcopal direction that any. whether home 
or foreign clergy, who \x\ like manner anticipate the Church's 
nwn ruUng are to be similarly withdrawn from. 

To these bishops prasmtts he desires that what he 
writes on the course to be followed may always be communi- 
cated at once. They evidently clothe tlie presbyters and 
deacons, in the absence of their own bishop, with a suilicicnt 
episcopal authority. We may just mark (thotigh wiUiout stress) 
the distinctness with which ihey are mentioned as coiUributor* 
to the subscription raised for the Confessor Bi'^hops in the 
mines' ; but an apt instance occurs Jr the second city Of the 
province, Hadrumecum. Its presbyters and deacons had, in 
the absence of their bishop, placed themselves in communica- 
tion with the new Bishop of Rome^ before hi^ title waa 
deaied. Cyprian and another bif^hop arrive^ and are firtw- 
sfntfs^ Upon their authority communication is suspended. 

We are now in a portion to tj^jn a clearer view of the 
principles on which the presbyters and deacons of Rome 
had acted in the vacancy of the ace, after Fabian's martyrdom. 

Even in the eighth letter, in which the>' describe them- 
selves ua ' we who seem to be set over thcm» to lead the 

* /ip. dv *- Did>M. uthdwtac un- 
knnwn Mi)rrFllt'« roQJ?r^rEir& 'liHtrn^lg' 
not likely- U wo* tw Cu gfT in Mfturv- 


* i'.p. ft*- I. Cyjjrtan wilb his own 

Bl Ca,rthiec/K[]«(cg]icGuunii|iJoqueet 
£4C«rtlohJin fin<Tronini, qui ^r lp«i, nm 

nomine, qouHaiu |iio \iiiL?u» cuiuv' 
IcnmiH nnirsim jitldirii.' 



flock In pl^cc of shepherds,' the extent of what they claim 
to hiivc done i» only lo have been aciivc in keeping people 
from l;\psiiip.and in recovering the Lapsed to repentance — their 
due spritu:il Tninistration in time of dinger. Their *lAiemei>t 
in the thirtieth letter Ih^t all they had done was done with the 
help of the Confessors shcvirs that they had no idea of 2 
constitutional power dcvolvii^^ to thef^^c1vc^ in the vAC^mcy. 
But when they have ofi^CLally to resolve that the adoption of 
a permanent §y«item must wait for the determination L:if a new 
bishop in consultation with thcmselve*, with the Confeswirt, 
and with the laity, this constitutional concluaion b formed in 
a meeting at which ute present nei(;hbo]jring bishops, bishops 
then visjting the city nnd bishops exiled from their dioceses. 

Again, afterwards, when llic Novatianist Confc!i^or^ wished 
to return to the unity of the Church, the course taken was 
this, Delegates of theirs seek an frtervlew with the Pres* 
bytcry. The presbytery deflire the attendance of the whale 
ovmbcr, examine them, and report to Cornelius full par* 
ticulars\ Cornelius next summons the presbytery, and with 
them five bishops, then praarnies'^ They dctcrmhic i>u llicir 
couree, e;ich opitilon being recorded. Then the Confessort 
arc introduced, and make their petition orally, Tht- ' people' 
arc admitted in large numbers, to hear tlic confession, and 
resolve upon \t. The scene han been deiJcHbed above. 

The result is this. When the see wa* vacant, or the 
bishop absent, the episcopal funaiona of hearin^^, judging, 
ruling (quite apart from Che sacred oilicci of ordination, &c.) 
did not pass into conimi»icn in the hands of the clcrus. but 
were rcsci^ed whenever il was pussiblc. Arid by the atten- 
dance of other bishopi^ any «tep« of dixeipline which had to 
be immediately taken received an episcopal sanction. Hadru* 
cnctum, Rome, and Canha;;e, as well as the minor caiics of 
Assxiras' and Fumi yield one result 



The corlra&t h maniTest between what could constitution- 
ally be done by the Urgcst clems in the most influential 
position, and the povrcr and responsibility attaching to the 
Icaat prominent bishop, Ic 15 no account of the facts to 
say Uiat the scheme carefully examined yields no trace of 
presbyteriaii government. Tt is an absolute negation of the 
presb^'terian idea. It :s an equally complete negation of the 
papal idea. Scarcely less docs it contrast with that modern 
sharpncs.^ which would l~cncc off ench diocese as a preserve in 
which neighbour bishops have do concern or interest. The 
true capitular idea is there, but with a flexibility and width 
of which we iire not yi^ CcLpabIc ag;tiii. 

Tb« Kpistle of tinnilian {it/- 75. 4] ha« to some seemed to Epeak 
as if tn (he gcncr^ Counclh of the Eau bis-hops and jifcibyien 
sitting together regulated church afT:Li]'s in cominon, '.^.apud no% 

* fit ut per singulos atitios senion^s et piacpoisiti in unum con- 
' h'eaiamus &d disponend^ ta <[ate noEir^ cama commis^ sum/ 
Ril3chl» however, poiuls om \p. 157) thai the Greek original must 
have b^n nJ irftiaii*'''ttpoi a< npoiirrainvoi, U-n<i the // diiv to li tm^- 
undeiatonding of the ttanalaloj. Siniilat))' i£fi. 75- 7^ ^-.quAndt* 
*omnrs potwui ei gratia in eccleiia constitute tit ubi pmident 
'majertj nafu ^vi et baptiiandi ct manutn imponcndi ct ordinandi 
* potti/Unt ftot^stiium' H* compares Hcrmns (K/r. ii. 4) wher^ rJ 
npra^vrtptu til iriwItrTa^ffiH nyr I'kJtXr/m'df Is in the LAlin Vcl^lon 

* seniores qui pnesunt eccl^r^iic,' And EciSifbius Ff- E. vii 5. j : 5. 5 ; 
39. I, from which it is dear thai bishops ilone formed ihe Ea^ierii 



TllLKG is an early and father ^racdul martyr-talc which 
Bjtrcjtiius wclcomrs as hi»lory, and which Tillcmont amilc« at 
hifnsdf for admitting to ^me consideration on accovint of 
iu honcifC micn^ It is called the 'Actft of HEppol^tua, 
£u£cbiu«,and their Fellow- Marty r£.' Hrppolytun tK a Roman 
recluae who tn-cs in a sandburrovr in the Cr)'Pt^> or Cata- 
comb5\ and there cooccaJA for some time his converted 
rcLation?i. The difficutUcs of maintenance in such i pUuc. 
thtf utihistcirical deUuK and lattr feature^t rthew the ^tory 
to be pore romflnce. 

The prfxicipal personage b Pope Stephen, who \% intro- 
duced to baptize the multitudes whom Hippolytus Christian- 
1ZC3L The well appropriated by the story to bta use ia yet 
near the old entrance from the xandpiC'road to the Cemetery 
of DoiDJtilla on the Via ArdeatinaV This character in which 

1 lUrcnini, Anm^in, k-^^ i£p> ii^ > J. H. rart«T, Ank^r^t^ »/ X4m4, 

V. IV- p> fg3> Or uiiv «ii]t uT Umt utiieJaU en- 

' In eiyptiiw-in ■rviurw- Emm And lik« tl bull ol bHSlifttl 



St<*phen appears, as the Great Baptuer. is ihc rude form 
which the main episode of his life a^umed among the simple. 

It h with that cpi.^odc that our next group of letters and 
<iocvimcnlfl is concerned. This grojp indudrs Fpjsllcs 69 to 

btirkwork it iHe (trrhpd iton irith 
t]i« <lacp wtfll. The wcU-liCf» 1i of 

Hde ihnifiL, (lie hol«H Tot IHf Lk^uiTI oil 
vfiicli (In pUcher hungj m the wall 
4ja 0U< rj^htfl the CDnduLt md tiA*in I0 

rfcrivf ihp wflT*r, On ih* n/ihtt *(We 

df iLuEiC' 'Hic bupcisiiiJfi] *iraii|jeai«ntH 
IhrfiUEhiJuT il^rrvc tnote (lalicr llisin, 
t beltfTC. tiiej' hive received. 




75 and the * Judgments of (he Eipht>'-sevcD Bishops.' They 
bclun)^ Co thu ycAiA 2$$ And 256 A.I>' Their exclusive HubjecC 
ta ' Rcbaplbrn/ For although Cyprian protests' against the 
applJcatioTi of tb*it term to hi» view, cfttholic tcachinfi: inaisU 
on the a!i-^crtion which it jiivolvw, 

ThE^sJniplc;st lines on whicli our fnveatlg^tton can advance 
will be — 1. 10 give what we perceive of die earlier opinion* 
forming Cypmn'« trillion; IL next to describe the 

positions or the two l&^dcra and the action and documents 
of the content; 111. then to group together the reasonings 
urged on cither aiJc of Ms threat argument, 

A great argumenl it is, fn spile of iu narrow form. 
The first questioning was How can pr:>f*nc waters blew?' 
It means at least thi^: — 'A Soul longs to be baptised into 
'ChrifiL A mistaken, erring, even an immoral believer does 
Mn intention baptize it into Christ. !s tliat So^jI in facC 
'baptiied into another than Christ, or into a society other 
'than His Church? Or, is the baptized pnuelyte of a 
'heretical sect a haptiacd CafhoHc in »pite of circum^t;ince ? ' 
Tlic dcci^^ion which the whc and loving Cyprian formed and 
laboriously propagated wa» to deny the reality of all such 
baptfsm. This is that grave anti-catholic error of his which 
not only itruck unpcrccivcd at :hc root of the spiritua] con- 
stitution of the Lhnrxih, attd ilucalctTed Ui tminlier Uer aniong 
her own sects, but in principle withdrrw the virtue of the 
Sacrament from the immediate ministering of Christ present, 
and attached it to the human agent. 

The difTcrencc was ^rcat Yet not for a moment did 
Cyprian dream of severing the connection between hb own 
church and the churches which he crtrccivcd to be In 
error. Not for a moment lus the Catholic Church cea&ed to 
revere him ivt one of tier mu>itt authoritative fatheri, si sic 

^ E^ f3- K Hdu'wct* th« Nleenc 
fitfte ii ■ ttuitl wil!iiiD[ B «liii|». fur Xlic 

diDfidi h^Oufi avhiflb i| ofd«t* far 



omfiia. The bounds which of necessity, as men now believe, 
part many scnjIs at prt^cnt from the Church arc like low lines 
of hni in comparison vrith that mountain-range of difference 
on fuEidamcntftls which lay between Cypriftn and those from 
whom he diss(rnied. 

The distaree between their possibilities and oura is the 
distgincc between a gfcat age of cf>nfitrLjction and an age of 
minute criticism. But have we for c%"er lost the power of 
acting as they acted ? of seeing with the 'larger, other e>'e»7 

To Cyprian himself in his ingenuous moderation it seemed 
but an obviDUTt course to desire 'every man ta »peak hi* 
"thought: to judge no man: to remove no man from the 
■right to communion^ if he dissents../; 'to wait for Cliriflt*s 
'own judgment'.' The Dcnatifits, perplexed like us by thic 
liberality in one whom tliey choae to look on as their patron, 
imagined it to have been a nisc to elicit free e^cpre^ion of 
opinions i on which Augustine's comment is lliat this would 
have been a morality far wor^e than any heresy*. Equally 
simple the course seemed to Augustine: ' Put me down as 
'one of those whom Cyprian failed to persuade. Never may 
*1 attain his glory; nor compare in auihcrahip with him ; for 
'his genius I love him, in his eloquence 1 delight me; I 
'marvel at his charity, and I venerate his martyrdom, — but 
'Ibis, his strsrge doctrine, 1 do nnt accept*' The great 
lesion in fact which Augustine is perpetually enforcing by 
Cyprian's example is the lesson of our "liberty without 
lo.sing our communion-rights to think diversely',' 

Hooker's famous apnphlhcgm. "The teacher's error is the 
'people's trial, — harder and heavier to bear, as he is in worth 
'and regard greater that mi%[ier^uadeth thcin,' no way quali- 
fes his appreciation of him "whom the world did in his life- 
'time admire as the greatest among prelates and nowhonourt 

' t, Cratvn. II. ituxlL 4O1 

* Salvr> ]ui« (ommtmiorvii rtLv«na 
Kiitirc- Vt ^tt^. .. ZhHfM. VI. vii. to. 


VHL u 



'a« not (he lowest in the kingcl(>m of HcavoiV' Taylor 
vigorously fiums the moral. * Saint Cyprian did right in a 
' wrong: cause and Stephen did ill in a [food cause. A* far 
'then as piety and charity i* to be preferred before a true 
'opinion, so far is Cyprian's practice a belter precedent for 
'u5> And a5 an cxani|>le of prtmltivc sanctity, than the zc/d 
'and tndi^cr<?tion o( Stephen. S- Cypnan had not IcAmcd 
'to forbid to any one a liberty of prophesying or Inierpno 
'tation if he transgressed not the fouBdation of the faith and 
•the cwcd of the ApoallcsV 

I, I, T&ir Tradiiiott of Afrka. 

We now proceed to consider, as one source of Cyprian's 
teaching, the liadilion which he inherited : — 

The relig;ioas sympathies of the Africans flov^ed ever in 
deep impetuous narrow coarsen like the viream^ of iheir own 
Atlo*. To make separations sharp and unkind was not the 
aim of a Tertullian only or a DonatusL Cyprian himself 19 
not unaware of tJK tendency- of his church to narrow its own 
limits. ' CcrtAtn predecessors of ours among the bishops here 
'In our own prnvince/ he wntra, 'have utterly refused any 
'place of repentance' to offenders who in other churches 
'were forgiven after penance.' Nay AugustTne, broader 
churchman a« he wa:;, had rather a ^hi^ering trust in 
even the Divine charity towards those whom hi.t parttculiir 
breadths did not comprehends 

The ' first of all mortals/ as Vincent of Lcrloii puLH it, to 
nile that they who had bcrn baptized by schi^matict muKt be 
baptlred anew ere they could become catholics was Agrip- 
pinus of Carthaj^e'. Aupj^tine points out oiccn that Cyprian 

* Uktf^r *f F^'*ti*KF*''A Sect t^ 

0/ tltru^. 13. 



b unable to adduce a.ay coilier authority than hb against 
'Miiivcrsal sturdy custom'.' A^ regat<t» the Westcra 
churches the reader may iiccept tlic s^tatemcnt, Agripplaus 
was the bishop neirt but onr before Cyprian tn hU Kce. 
Under him a Council of seventy* Afticaii and Numtdian' 
prelates decided in his sense. 

In the Roman Church on the conUary the tradition wu 
cicar and continuou:^ Against Rcbaptism of schlMnatics. Some 
have undtrelood a pa.sKagc of llippolylus. which covers the 
ground up to that time, to accuse Callistas' of rebApti^rng 
them'. But not only U the passage not susceptible of 
that meaninj*, but the diiitinct unchallenged declaration of 
Stephen that Hm church had never albwed ^uch a practice 


AaS, 4> Jtajtt- e. Ihtwtt. ITI, i. j; xiL 
tji II. viL la; IV- vU ft. 

< S<4tU A-n- 117—14 1>«' *-»' »"' 

' Htppnlytak. Rtf. Har, Uk 11 'Eiri 

irviiJ^ iliouH hAfc nccuiatc alicntioii ; 
II li not nH frt4>Mi|TAi af>rv. (rat /tJ 
Tv^pv K^H' ^ by ttkixi ffirly during hti 
hblioprit/ It b not ir^fu*- n/'fflij 
r(Td\>iijTat M Thong!) thry were the 

jjly in hi* rime' THc ^Attd rrroV?'*' 
iodSctirs ih-iL /^^r pnittice elided siill 
Bt K.nme vrh«n K ijijioljrluK «v]ur& !im! 
10 prob&hly jn S(?pheD*t lime, wiEliout 
In ihr Idui alTe^ling clkdrcti inrJitiviL- 
The j.iawagt [)itir»*[!i*» Tflira ^f a^*^ 

ffttTff. Ta^a rrfcih Lc> all the Ebl of 
dacinnri 4n<l prac[icp4 which CiUbtim 
WM luppouJ 10 pAironkic Th« t\t9- 
ful render of the whulc iktu'y wij] duI 
cnnctitfp ihdt (he wonl ffivifTflon-ra 
(1 inicFide<[ ioc1ii1« thdl Ca]h«lai hifli- 
■clf luijfhi Reb&pliun, l>ut will »[h?t 

aifi»lili iiifcrriiin; Ir, Not will h? Iiav4 
fta}> <ioubl Ihsl a^rcTi mcAni « coirupl 
ud cYil fncEioji whci fot a lim« Tcre 
(DO tunr (br fnpnl f^hnir, Iwf ivll (wmc 
ar LmU) Into the KIchauiFc dclmjons. 

To 41) timch nculpiiicpfl Callldtui U 
einiiClcLlH hut \\ ix |k)«iEitre]y Kubg I0 
morti tlic Enudtfn and motivei af Ronan 
Cftlh>-lic icholdfi, Evcu Ilcfelc, B- 1. 
c. Ji. f |, not Kcing hov To dcfiv«r 
Callitlkit fniu iliff kcandul of a practke 
(which Li tivt luil^ inijiuLrx] (^ hjiq in 
the wortf»l nr Ikiw m ifixpurangle him 
irorij hik pafty (which U more diflUcull) 
reprcicniB Jiippolyiu* ai wjine. *Bt- 
lupiltm wa^ intradncTd under CiJ* 
Iiitut i'h fi^.w i'Kurtkti in comqiunioa 
with him'j aJdioif, 'one can K«mly 
doubl that he hjiii In virw Affiippt. 
Tim ond hit Synod orCnrthnpt.' 

On (heoihci faand. fui- wont of altca- 
tioij to thcic mine ijuiuiq Fwhlni|» (p, 
194 nnd n- 1) rcnden 'miliar KalUdui 
(vi du ^V'n^nlaE '!<r Wicdtnlnuf? in dtr 
A7r*^f an/^koninu'ii,' Aiid fii^ the 
OmiiiciI of Ajpnppinin in Iho middb of 
Xh^ E|iipico|ioio of CilliituB A,;»- no, a 
datE which >ukls aonc af Ihecandiliora* 

VilL L 



from the apo«tkR down is incontroverliblc' Hippolytus 
however, ihoufjih Calijitus* bitter enemy, certainly avoids 
ascribing the prticCicc to him pcrsonilly. ' In Ais titm 
first h&th »ccond baptiani been ventured on by than! 
thiit t\ by the worldly, tux and (jcrhip^v lkcntiau« party 
whkh was n^tmcd aflcr that liberaJ and versatile pn.4atr 
All doctrines and pracUces found their ivay ftooner or later 
to Komc, This practice came to Kotnc in Caltisttiii* time, 
and was Eidoptcd during his administration by the party with 
whom he had been connected before he became pope, and 
who were cftlicd CaUi«tian« by his cncRiic:^ aiid thcits'. Only, 
wIicrciiM in ib* native province ihal practicr bore a ?uritan 
character, drawing the sharpest line betwfc-n church and sect, 
h received In the Capital the quite opposite Mamp; beini; 
intended by the Callistian^ to open an cA^ier way than that 
of penance to the restoration of gross sinners. The reception 
of schismatics followed ca;)ily> but the Church never accepted 
this, nor \s there evidence that CaUt^lu^ himself did. 

Ifwe allow fmir ar five years for the practice to have been 
in tisc eUcwherc before it came in At Rome, wc might infer 
that the unknown date of Agrippinus' Council was about 2 ij* 
In the Courcil of September A,D» 256 was present one 
Novalus who had been bishop of the rich and bcdutirul city 
af Tliainiigadi so ]ung llml lit to'jj* ntiw ui:e of the vety oldest 
prelates there, fourth hy seniority out of the eighty-seven. 
If our date for AgrippJnus' Council be correct we can under- 

71. 1. y. 7^' ■!■ Wh^L Uooxn mt*nt 
tlul i^phyritiiu {A.a. 199 -<■•] eul- 

AilMd CAfiu-l mulAl tint' I otnnot 
p, l}i (cd. iIImI- 

■ b0«\u-qp A'XnW4f dvaKoNfLi' ^X*^ 
^aCw<. u wu cuiuixl. 

• Thia dit* bMt hit all Uw tilvuQ- 
lUacct oT (h« Hvi< f am KU17 diAt 
I ODce TTDic dtftrrmdr^ AnJdf <m 

■ A^Ff in**,' iWiftiWT' */ C4r«jAdif 




Stand how thi^ old man could just speak of the members of 
that Council, forty-ffiiir years before, as 'colleagues* while 
h« aleo callfl them 'men of holiest tncmofyV' We cao fl 
understand how Cyprian^ talking of a lo ng -stand in ty custom, 
says *many years have pcisscd and a long period since 
Agnppinus' Council/ while Augustine, thinking: of the whoU 
tenor of cliurch pr^clice, says 'the novelty had prevailed 
but a few years before CyprianV 

An interesting <iuestiort has arisen as to whether lh)« 
Council had felt the influence of Tertulliai, since in a treatise 
conimonly accepted as catholic, and if so probably prior to 
the year aoo. he not only declares the rebaptism of heretics 
to be nccc^Miy, but says he had written a Greek treatise to 
that piiqjo^e". 

I can fi?el only surprise that his pam];>h1et on Baptih'm 
should ever have been looked on as cathohc work*. Ita 
singularities, not to ^iy frivolities, are as striking as its power j 
and grasp and goodness, and they b^ve the Montanist tinge- 
When a Catholic he did not write in the character of a Mon* 
tanJst, but as a Montani^t he often wrote like a noble Catholic, 

Neander think* that, when under the influence of Mon*' 
tanjstn, he could scarcely have spoken as he does here of the 
viable Church. But his Montanist mind is a strange stormy 
study^ This dogma, wc should rcmcmbcr> was quite in the 
Mootani&t vein*, and his belief in continuous revelation did'l 
not obliterate respect for a *iolemn churcli utterance, though 
it made him hold churchmen cheap. 

He observes that 'it would be improper to rehandle thft' 

Iwfrprt^ woulil malce ' <i<?crcn]iii cv/A- 
fjorum rvxirtrtitrt' mcaJunglGs- 

cf VAlrntinus nmi Builidtr^ vi having 

£p. 71- 4' Au£ tie £a/Lc. Di"iiitt.iw. 

* Bp. Kayc doubli if he b liehL in' 

foKowrng the mnjorliy of f amm^r^fatoTt 
in Eo cli^Lr^ing it' 

^ In A pampblct ^hJch he huilvil at 
ihe rhurch ™s a MnnranUl, the ffpqihrfl 
l>fl[)ttrcil by a Hertli? hu la be cl?«iiHd 
Ljf 'both (he men,' hit cthtjic xlf ml- 


'question of what shouM be observed as concerning heretic*, 
'for it haa been published to usv" His wotxl is '^ul-iisk^' 
not 'ftandcd d^wn' to U3\ Thia expression car, I believe, 
only refer to the Council of Agnpptnus. It cannot refer, aa 
Mime wi.<th, to the voice of Scripture^ for Tertullian \^ the 
most patient and pertinacious argiier upon texts, &nd never 
passes Scriptural v/arrant with so vague an allusion. He can 
only hive in view some well-known, recent, authoritattvy* 
sentence, and the great Council of Seventy under the 
Biiihop of CarCh&ge is litly alluded to by the Carthaginian 
prcsb>-tcr in those terms, 

I^ter on in the cuntrovctsy we become suddenly aware 
from the lengthy Epistle of Finnilian, Bishop of C^esarr^a in 
Cappadocia. that there had for long p^st been some iiiter- 
change of influences on this subject between Africa and the 
l^aMcm regioflis of Asia Minor We therefore look to what 
we know of the judgment of these last. 

1. 2. Th£ Traditvm cf Asia Mirkfr BasL 

InhisfuriouslyMontjinist treatise *On Fasting' TertuUi^n 
speaks with reverence of the 'councib' habitually held' throujfh- 
out the Grarcias' as an imprcsMve image of the whole Church. 
He wuuld fatp ficc theai, rtilli tlieir preliniinury fjibtint;^. intro- 
duced into thr We$tV We may readily amure ounelvec that^ 
wben so speaking he had not In view councils which q>ecially 
subjected Montanists to Rebaptism as an apostolic Insii^ 
tution for the restoration of heretic^', 'i'hls would have been 

Tht Affercnce tt ux kccurstie ooc 
* If tbi« fi^viUon of T«ifii11j<tTi'i df 

ibc Firhl CuuiKil of Carddicc uiJci 
Affripr^iu^ had ccl yrt b#n hrld (Kc- 
Mf, //. d*i CamnU», B. i. c ii- | «], 

ih^i help* ua to Ax t^v dkU of thu 
}]wiiphkL u luHudi 110 A'tL AqiI if 
Thr pmrioui rMvonkng U iworntT« v« 
ihould further dtfcroiuii tht iiBl« of 
the Jt ^i^fLHVtfl 10 About K.^ IJ« or 

• ^ ?^ J- ;- 




more tUstxi Hcfih and blood, particularly Toitullian's, cou 
endure Co culogiscc 

The G>uiicll of Iconium there held for Phr^^ta, GaUtiA 
and thp neighbouring districts is one which thus i4iikcd Mon- 
tuUsU with heretics neetling baptism. There it no reason 
for fixing its date eariier than A-D, 230'. Firmilian, wriiing in 
256, AAys he had been one of the ' very many * who there so 
ruled it\ and SynnadA' which dealt with the same subject in 
the satiic sense was probably near the S4me time One of ihcsc 
two is probably that 'Council of PifCy' which Donatists al- 
leged against Augustine*. Thelargt runiber of Fifty BUhops 
gathered in ciiat small locality is a note of truth. For in 
Phrygia Towns and Bishopries were identical*. A iystcm 
of Rector- Bishops, which commends iti^lf to some Imagina* 
tiotia now, prevailed there. Power vested in an a^grcg^atjojt 
of necessarily second-rate men proved to be powerless a^jaiiiat 
those elements of Jkction. pftSSLon and superstition whl 
S, Paul foresaw might rend and end those churches. 

The rdigious lone of Phrygia was peculiarly likely to lead 
to some difficulty aa to Baptism, Everything initiatory. iK&t is 


^ Tbt dW* oT TllIcnioiK, IV. p- 14a. 
■nd V«]oit tin KuicE>- vii. ;. 

' Plurirtii *iinal canvenicQla ip Im- 

fim^Avimu^, £/- 75. l^. 

' The Rile nf -<ytma<li au unlcnnwn 
xjnUt jS^fji wben M. Tcirvi Umivi i\ m 
The highlnndi of Phry^Et. It ^rai «□ 
kHlH-lAvn ji-£uf:vfj/v/J xnd thr c«Ti(r^ 
oflKc uf the LiriprrUl frit^ritftift^ nar- 
mffritm. mano^cT o{ the quuriH iind 
VMt rrvupon d bAlh-tlnbt. monoltlh 
coluDina aaA c^pUtli t>( Ehc put|>lc- 
flecked rhryjfUn mmljlc ciJIcd l^ud- 
miiH or hyiLTiEidif. AfTer /l.h. eAo rhe 
oAcc wumergciiU tFieiiPW unr <4 fru- 

«ru1 EnnilK «[mi. Sirt^m ^jirAkA ui jeh 
ffttl iXcti^VTtr rt^tr. bill Elictt miml 

Ai oEEts win nur e'"^ ^1 j#oo ft. 

^iWtfj, *ul VltL- ppH 4^1, 3], M tfti 
jjfnnli roprrni-ri with the LVruncU, it 
miu !Jr Pdfn' aFffumcnli to oUJ 
SynDtda the uplul of FliTri^iK, bQ< l|' 
npTCT wai in until atiet ^ a,[x, u4' 
Lhcn cipiul onlj cf ihf Diviaioa *$i'| 

■Why doca Fimilllwi itff/ mrm^iim ili«' 

tUc <)uc>IJuii. Dctllini;cT trbiLl 
Lnl^ line uuL uf lukn^ jH»tl(i|p replji 
iiid fhrrrc-upcm ddtn Ihr nme Cov-twU. 
Hefclc due* jiQt cvco quolv tua ri 
* Aii|;. i. Crufen, ill. i. j. 

£rtAefn\^ «/ I^^i.*, % ^ H. S 



Gverythifif* exclush'e, was dear to the native min± But wliile 
Augustine remarks that fifty oricntaL bishops were no evi- 
dence. thoug:h backed by seventy Africjin?, AfftiTUtt the unity 
of ttic tradition elsewhere, Icomum and SynnadA must both 
bf rumbt^red amon^ ihc series 'held lon^ ago' and 'tn many 
districts,' of which DionyKiu* the Gre;it telN^ hU nameiake 
(as yet a presbyter) of Rcmc that he had heard, and which 
took the same vjew aa to the rccepbon of Heretics in ^^eneraL 
The firm belief which these Councils entertained that they 
were continuing apostolic usage, while the ^cry need for them 
IS the bc^ evidence that the usage was far frcnii bcini^ clear 
or accepted, may connect ilsclf with the fact that two canons, 
based, to say the least, on their decisions, appear in the 
Apoittolic Canom. Jt would not be j:trange if one of thea;e 
two were the actual utterance of Iconium'. 

' BefareAiiM58;i|;hHiit^vlu7, which 
kt givea IP Ml m Note cm 'Dkih.' fk 

' /f/prJ. Ca»- kIv- (Dionji, £xi£^ 
ilvir), HTl(f<oT\PP ij r,-Hiil1firtfiiv alftrfi- 

rfif f«0 Xptmm ir/Ai tov BtXtaX; ij rlt 
iUfi$ n#n^Urra ArlrreVi Tliv tuOnifcAl 

the LAtln rotdcTlfG of iHnny^ku.— CsM' 
Tilvk. (D- xlvii.) 'BrtfuowM 4 r/xtf^frrfpAt 

ftfw. t^ v^^ '^' rrair^ fAl t^ rtC 

bapiUdD cf hercii^ *c »i»p«iiTt tv he 
i^cpoud. for whii LI Chriit'i convmi 
la BcliiL, or what ibc ft^ltafid man'i 
|Hirl nilli II1C r«i Jlla>^' 

|6^ *R]ibAp 4ir rmhTfpr, if hrhap- 
iLic 4IIGW biu (^i hiLth a Bsplkai u^ 
cording LD iniiti or If be bapiiic not 

Urn lliAl h«th bcvn polluied at tfic 
tmpfcciLii.— Id hjm be rlepowd, u on* 
thil ni4<Lcth th« Cros *rtd the Lord*! 
Dcftlh, iDd dlKcrncLb qo[ prlols 'raip 
(be fftlie priHtt/ 

Thfac canoru trt plainlf tbe «i«Tk of 
dilTcicQt U^^iklatuik. Oqv cI>iiik uf llic 
KHoiul caven ihe whoJf ground of thr 
Rnt. Tiicy iJltge rlJlVcfiaV tpecincnii 
vf the LhcD pofiikf tfiuncntii. Oiil]r 
tbt lini aT rbf riVf] fLpfmr^ in ihi* 
CopCic Cod* (RunurL. Hi^f^iy'ttn am^ 
Alt ^, vol, IL p. Il4, <(i. tH*)- Wc 
miffht hivs IknclH Ehit. v^rr rh?y 

ihcj woul) riQi bnTC c«captii t«no aIIq- 
■Ion 10 CainiduyElam- &ni F^nnUlui 
tlwvi {h^ ;j 1^) that the Iconiuin Ke- 
holutjun w»» nu'tc ^*»ii/ on purpoM^ 
'rf|WfUn(lum cue omnr uuinina bap* 
titmEi ct^wl «il «Vr« acrltftiuii ccn' 
»tiiutum,* aod thai ii u pavibt« i)M 
tbe irri? uDrdi of lojnjmn ouTtc coi;- 
Uiii«d in Canoa ifr. IVartnn frm' 
^dcT* Ukcm «ulHr (hnn Iconium, Inil 
if to, ■»}iy should (bcj Mil bitv been 



Evidence there is none tu cttfiblc js to answer the in- 
teresting question whether Tcrtullian's Greek Treatise had 
influenced the decision of the Greek Councils'. Tf it werr 80 
his weapon was strangely turned agamst him. 

One far-fdched iheoiy is that Tertuliian actually con- 
demned Heretical Baptism with the aim of procuring OJi 
oblique sanction Tor Montanism from the Catholic Church, 
which he expected not to condemn its advocate ; nay. that 
he was so far successful that Synnada Jef^ Montanlsm in 
consequence untouched. This view, rot baseless only, but 
contrary to the facts of the documents, i^ worth noticing only 
as an instance of the modem Roman determination to trace 
every anti'Roman fact to condemned or suspected -^iourcca 
outside Llic Church. Tcrtiiliian is to be the great "Firal 
'cau^e of the Innovation introduced as well into Africa as 
' into the East/ 

II. I. P&sitmi of the Leatiers. 

Tertuliian then, whether he contributed or no. throui 
his treatise on Fasting, to popularise in Africa the idea of 
Councils, cannot, at least by his Irealisc on Briptism, have 
affected the Agrippine decision. Tertuliian with his spiritual 
allies and Agrippinus with his Bishops were alike carried 
on by a rising wave of rigour, which swept across Asia Minor 
and Africa, was observed from H^ypt as it passed, and just 
reached Rome, there to affect only a miaefable sect. In the 
more tcnaciuus Asia the practice of Rcbftpliim, once ratified,.] 

appealed 1o AS iiill mce imporiant? 
Finnilliii appeals lo ilijil Cuui^il'b dc- 
cisEdn ae hiin\. dml I^i^iinysinfi let both 
il atid SynnulH as dhuI wcight^f, 

* Ftfiiuupi 1^ rcjSi illi^ts nu evi' 
doiceactpr thwf riling i:if thjir tralisc 
ui Gntk- Unhappily cucti thin^ wvll 
«>iire»cd in» for cviJcnoe^ Di ?otca 

{p. ^S) rajnic« to think the nation 1* 
1ii& owjL. ' Dicv Bcbftuptun^ ill ihffD I ' 
"Wc wUJ lomtnE For him thfii HMliA^ffr 
tihould have anljdpiktcd him (ace Di>U> 
I/ipp. unJ fCiiULt. \t- jgj1< "nly Dtd- 
Tmgrr obs^ivn lE^ fL^arfii] fHitct on 
tht lAnpcvity of FiriDilJAn uhI date* 
lcaatuia4bout Atii. 331. 

Vllt. It 



quietly held its ground. In bu«i«r Africa it quietly went 
much out of use, so th&t Cyprian, while he declares that 
• thousands of heretics have thu5 become churclimcn through 
'the Lrtvcr of Life' ha* nevertheless lo meet ihc wt^umcnl 
that numbers of 1 hem had been received without il, And had 
(xWtn iuleep in the bo4om of the CharchV tt haJ continued 
fn NumidiiL since the old Council, but a change of feeling 
forces her bJ»hop& to consult Carthage afresh'. And Augus- 
tine conJesMcs that he 'scarcely knows what Cyprian means 
'by paying that the prEicticc had prevailed from Agnppinus' 
'd;iy lo hi* own; for/ he rationally asks, *what occasion waj* 
"there for CypHftn's three Cnundla if all Africa had but one 
'custom? or why should Cyprian have argued to Jubaian 
'that he was making no change, *irux Agrippinui bad deter^ 
'mined it before? or why should so many of the Bishops 
'hiivc advised (in the Third Council on Baptism] that reason 
'and truth must be preferred to custom" — if the fact were 
not, as Firmilian allows, that, while Asia had maintained the 
doctrine ;ind the practice, the practice of Africa had diverged 
from the theory V 

We has-e seen all alon^;; that Cyprian's most brilliant 
characteristic was that he quickened anew every languishing 
oi^an of churcli life and inspired with fresh forces each doctrine 
which worldly peace wo^ holding lightly. In t)ie moal vigorous 
time of life he firxt received b>lh diKtrines and ordinances 
into a vfvid intellect togiratly tniined. He could not accept 
them merely- They munt live. They must be lived. To 
such 'late-lcaTning' leaders of great movements it ha» not 
uflfrcqucntly happened that aomc one point burtl^ out of 
ill desuetude upon their imagination with dispro portioned 
power. In his case the exceeding delight of his own rcali- 

[oini* ouif p. 4^;, o^ie 5, Itiat T«- 
talliu, •& AkAr. 19, Kcm« iu ^y ihtl 

The (Kutnj of Ifip vordi U u^athU, 



aation of Htc blessing and illuminntion of Baptism' IT&ve 
Intense meaning to the old ruling, when he first read it, th&t 
cvcD believers in Clirist, ualcas oucc baptised Ittto tlic catholic 
fulness of ihtf ont Church, neei! s(ill to be bapti/cil Every 
rtflder of the Dr Unitau is startled at the vehemence' with 
which he so early recorded this conviction. Then althouj^h 
the Novatiani^t exclusion of the whole Church from the 
Church provoked no mere retaliation, it \s impossible to 
ihink that il did not stimulate the sense that the 5chi;»- 
matics were themselves excluded by an earlier flaw ; point 
the observation thiit they had suITltccI so much less in the 
persectJtion ; and awaken a confidence that the reelected 
church dut>' would, if revived and insisted on, exhibit to all 
men the fact that Novatianbti were not church people at all. 
A half-worldly temptation strang^cly reJnfocced the spiritual 

When therefore the question arrived in simple form 

Arc we of Numidia right in rebapti^ing, or are you of 

Carthage right in ignoring the standing order T it was not 

± crotchet which Cyprian took up. The whole man wa^ 

on fire 

It \b only through theiie facts thai we can account for 
iphat we have row to study ard lament ; the prcctpitaiion 
and the passion which possessed him and the many men 
whom he had by this time moulded to be like him. It 
was inevitable that sooner or later the broad and the purist 
theLJrif:s should collide, because they were theories embodied 
in daily usages. 

Some indication on tlic part of Stephen in fa\ovir of 
heretical baptism was the occasifin of the conflict. Whether 
the incident was to his honour or no, it is thankless to 
aggravate the faiJings of an unpopular personage, from whose 

' Sec >np. p. IJi cJ Dtnntum. 

' Prion, p. ^10 n.« ipc^ki of a dif- 

ferent lnterprtfl^iIiDn propoMd by tuixi- 
lelf uxd VfA oppjovcd, 

VIII. n. I. POSITION or the leaders— Stephen. 34s 

conduct nothing; but ^ooJ has rC!iuUe<!. Hls tolerance of 
Novatianism, ard his patroa^gc of lapsed bi?ihoi», axsty 
make It probable that personally ht was biMsed. though in 
the right direction, by little cUe than his vague liberality, 
aut it ib at least possible thai his motive was the cx^ct con- 
trary of thii; that he interposed with a necessary correction 
of the Calltstiaii Liberals, who doubtless were prepared to 
purge ern>r> of belief a» they pui^ed ctntzst uf lif^ by second 

'It must move our wonder,' says Cyprian fn his first 
letter on the subject*. * nAy r^tthcr ovtr indignation ard grief, 
' that there are Christians found to take the iide of anticJinsta ; 
'that shu^crs in ihc laSth. and traitors to the Church, take a 
'»tand within ihc Church herself against Ihc Church, Now, 
'Mnc4.- tht^se allow (iiotwithst^ndrng their u^tial periinaciiy and 
Mndocility) that heretics and schismatics alike do not possess 
'the Holy Spirit, and Chat accordingly, though they can 
'baptise, they cannot impart the Holy Spirit,— here we con- 
•vicl them; — namelyn by pointing out that such as have not 
'the Holy Spirit cannot baptize at -ill,' In i^ncpiiring who 
hift earliext advei^ary was, it fs noteworthy, ihiuigh not in 
itself sufficient index, that 'pertinacity and indocJlity' are 
the particular virtues which Cyprian steadily assigns to 

Next, an Italian local i^nnt ion is given to these ASfcrters 
of the obnoxious dnc.trinr by another passage 111 the tianie 
leiier'. ' Sinee the Church alore hji* the water of life, and 
'power to baptize and to wash man, he that says one can 
'be l>aptized and sanctified in Novatian's hands, must first 
' prove and convince us that Novatian in in the Church, or a 
■prelate of the Church- The Church is one- As one she cannot 
'be both inside and uutstdc. [f she is with Novatian, she was 
'not with Cornelius. But (f she w«t« with Comelfuf, who 

£/^6^ la 

' 'j* 69 »■ 



oi OMgfclJLiI aod 
to no ooe* b sdP- 

pf udM o aL F«r is bd wie oa he bold or keep ilac Chnx^ 

Ad ins not bn» ocduoed in tbc Chaick* 
Tte pcrtomligr nf ite giiBiijn next becnDcc cksr 
<lfcoa|^ as y«t BO Maw h« beca a— tioanJ) wteo m the 
«n«n^-fiflat letter' we read. *We mast tut co by preacnpcxn 
'of ca»too: wc vait prcnil by fea^ooi n g: for ncitfaer did 
* Poer, wbooi the Lofd <haat &nt of aO, and on wbocti He 
'haih Hh Clwwdi.wfaea a Ai a Jt^l Paal diatpotcd with htmoQ 
'Qf«iniKiakMi,lBH)lcfidydaiiiiorafrogajiU7a»ua»e anythine 
' to himself, decUrii^ " that he biin««lf hdd ihe primacy and 
'oi^Cbi the rftthtf %o be obeyed by novkcSk and oien (called) 
'later ttiaa huaadf; odtbcr d^ be look down oo Pa^i as 
' the Cborcb'A forokcr pcnccator. bat be adopCcd the coomd 
'of tnjth, &ad readily aiisenced to the l«^timite mucm that 
'Paul maintamcd; giving u^ thereby a lessoa in unity and 
'patience, not to hug our ovrn fai^des with firhmacHy, but. If 
'our brothers and colleagues offer upon occ«»on UMful And 
'«rhoIcv>inc auggcst^oiis, rather to make those our ovou If 
' they arc true aiid icgular.* 

Although he may in these passages Inclade other and 
oearer ne^bboun ; whether bishops who in the first Council 
diiMBted from his views, or that remarkable Unkoovm Author 
(be may have been one of thc^icj from whose pen we have tiic 
ine oontcmpof^o' tract 'Of Rcbapti^m'*; yet plainly the 
one prominent Agurc b<rfoTe him, in whose opposition all 
other uppcMition was merged, i.s nonr other than the Bishop 
of Rome. And in Stephen's tone there had evidently been 
some personal disparagement, as well as some uncalled for 
meoAuhn^ of the popedom of Rome agaiuM that of Carthage. 


* yi± ra^ p. 11%. 




Ther flowed in upon Cyprian (not, one would infer', 
without something of concert wUh lilm^lf) a Keriei of fom^U 
letters, known to u« only by his replies, requesting him to 
deliver his opinion upon the subject. The original enqviiry 
was whether a baptism among the ndh^rcnbt of Novatia.n> the 
accuracy of whose creed wa:^ unimpcachcd, might be accepted 
as vklid, when sLich persons turned to neck auhrdssiiim iunoiig 
the Catholiea. The question then ran through degrees of 
mlabclief unii3 tlie case of Marcionites, and perhaps eveti of 
Ophites, was debated', Stephen made no difficulty about 
including, Cyprian about excluding, one and &11 But for 
the ordinary African bishop who fctt the puritanic tendency 
of Iii^ people towards Nuvfttianinm. (d lendcncy which 
had already suited up in Montanifim, and wa« to break 
over them yet more terribly in Donatiam*] and who now 
i^aw Kcbaptism used m this alone of all herestei as it^ 
characlcnstic initiation, it was no slight dilemma which pre- 
sented itself in the question. Was the adherence to thU 
almost isolated tradition of Africa itsHf a dangerous, a puri- 
tanic, a practically Novatianisttc dcparitirc from the breadth 
of catholic use? 

Da&s {Comndi «/ iiomimm and tfifxru 

Eii>. H. £1 vii, 7- ft) Llp^a» {CJifim. iL f^vnij^^rrt ffutAiJ/rt pp- J>9, 
30) arguei that the Syaod of lc£>tiium urac /at/r chAn the bynod ol Aniioch 
AJD. 3tj< becAO«c it «ppeAt9 from compArink' EuKb. ri. 46 with vii. 4, | 
chat after th« uneipeirrrd harrronT at Artrioch ihey f«l( ftfiiiAu> tott \he 
question of bapriam ihould divide ibcm. but vurcly thii is &o aiYvmciu 
iar (lATinjE any on^ Jitirfin/Itir ^ynorl. For w« tnighl rqually well npply 
it to other), one by one, and conctiidc thai tiJJ UuptisnuE decisions were 
Utf r iban the Council of Aniioch^ (21 Lipiivii oigiiei thni «ru« C\'phan 
was irfHvf«t rwf TvTf (Eu«. vii, y) who held lhi» pxrtkulnr opinion (^y«<r«), 
ihcn-fote CyprLAii*s nipcure with Stephen frfCfMlUe Counctl of ItMncun^ 

^ Thfi KTia u » complete u Co ATtiaLV Laymm. t, Tmai the BLthopk 

— CTi"** thW, At (he Ihm- rounrilt of NanriAn, 3 Fmn Tiro Buhopt of 

npnioiit J- Affia, i^ AficB «nd Nu- MmmAmijI' 
ffiidU, 3# AfhcJh KiunidU uid Muuc * £p^ 7^ «* 

lAni*, 10 Ihe ^wn arc, t. from An 



whjcVi he accoidln^ly ilaie^ i$$ A.U Bji ccru.Lnly EiiKbiua docs not 
mein lo contradicl Ihc ttattmcni which he quotes (rii. 7) from Dionysiiu 
who in A-D. 1^6 wfi(t*9 ItiAl RcljaptJ^m had been hdcl ^lang a&O,* wp6 

^aff^, nor yel <:an he ni«ni] tc den)' thai (be Cduncd of Agitppinui 
iiad so nUed in Carlhivitc \lit\t Bui H hjwbtdi jnr tun aftccts ihe date 
of [fomum it mtiai aifpi:! the date of Diony^iuf^ Cauncih, and that of 
A^rippinLis 100. Mark 100 iha( ih« T»r toti ia in the Terr nexi sentence 

Tbe fi^i i^i Hbicbiui mcani emaly wbAL he »j^vs- Aiiki Minor 
had qnirll/ continued. Afrir.i hnd in many part« quieiU' dropp^ the 
pnicticc, and Cyp^f^n wns the iirst rv^ r^^r^i /hf- ^ kij iiyHttmportsrtfj^ 
10 mcor lea rfalfirmnrinn. 

Lipids is driven by bis own special pleading 10 aay ihnt there wcr« 
i^o synods at Iconium -which musi noi be confounded/ one of a,i>- 255 
mentioned by Firmihan, arid che other much earlier named by Diony^Jus; 
both iboxii The bapusm of Iicreiic^ ; both makiikg auly the same declarH- 
lion, at eonsidetablc iniervah Sirfficientty improbable. Besides, F(r- 
mJlijin aitcndcd the one he aicnuon5« and Hch wiiiin^ in 256 A.u„ spt^iks 
of it {Ep. 75, 7) at hai'mg been hekiydm/rr*/^w. 

Of Roman wikcra, Boromua and Ldbbe^ were aniiiou) to bclirve tbib 
synod was htid ii'i StephenE limc^ and ihereby to jufiti(y his behavjoUT 
10 the Ea^t- Dr Peters on ihc same side' plates i( ' nol in the second, 
but very cftdy m the third c«n[ury' m oider to enable it to have been 
milled Ly the pamphlets of TcriuUlan. jiliI tbiii induce) him to put 
Synnadn carhtf still, and ^X the same time a« Agrippinus' Couneil. 

The Older \i\ which Diouy^ius itanies the two ayitod^ \i i-tther ^aln^t 
the genera] asiumpfion that Synnada preceded leonium, 

Zephynnus Bp. of Rome 

TcrtultJan becotncs Mont^miat drc, 

„ writes DiJijUHio €ift^ 

Council of AgrippinLis tire. 

Terlulliiin's Dt ii^pUtm^ tir^. 

CAlliaiLi!^ tip. of Rome 

Council of l^fonmm rfrr. 

Council of Synnada 

1 Uaigu. ^hHp A>I>' 1:^0. tiv.i Liibbe whom Iif quan 
A.D- ij^t In tptEf of Fogi and Horrtuin ■ V- ^^. 

x.i>. !«— ai7 

VUl. IL 3, 



IL 2. Acts and Documents^ 

Our clearest method wiW now be fir^t ta describe the 
DtKunicnEs. ."incl Uieii Xa dtiiw out by tbeimelvn Uie Aijju* 
ments, which are so often repeated that chronological analyM» 
of the letters would be wasieci hereS 

Magnus, a layman, whom Cyprian treats with respect and 
affccticn, writes the fint letter — 9Si cnq\iiry whether Nova- 
tianLsts should \ic accoiinted as other heretics in the: need of 
church -baptism on recantation. In Magnus' circle the old 
canon w^s plainly not forgotten, and the plausibility of an 
exception is obvious. 

Then followed an appbcation from eighteen bishops of 
Numidia, These had continued the practice which they and 
their predecessors had helped Agrippinuft to cstablUh'; but 
the movtmeitt of the tinier c^i^ccUlly pnhap^ amung the 
Uity, required fresh conxidrntioa The reply to Magnus 
came from Cyprian' : that to the Numidian* from a Council 
which lie soon convoked^ of thirty-three biithopv of Africa 
with the presbyters of Carthage'- 

This L^ CvpRiAN's Fifth Councjl of Carthage and 

FlUST ON HaPTISU, A.D. 21$. 

The seventieth epistle U their conclUar declaration, con- 
firming Ch:U of the old Council of A^ppinuv, That neither the 
baptism nor the continuation of heretics ha^ any value : That 
convert* from a heresy can only Uiroui^h baptism enter into 
the faith and unity of the Church> 

This dcciition aeems to have been not unanimotuly arrived 

' Wc may repcfli Ihkl tbc group ill' 
elmlci fiff. 69—^5 ud (he Smfmtt* 
SftKoptntH (jf ihu Tliinl Ouncil, inrl 
Ivlcn^ li> ihfl yton A.D- 15^ aiu) i0, 

' E?- ^ RrlltKric fpp- r^>»— 1^> 

lo (tur which in»w«i( ]\inip<^gt, £/. 
;4i ah aocoQol of Uie lune 'Jdccn- 

Vt^^ ' ftppucnl in H- but M biB iTpJ; 
fti ^tjt|tnv» i* KTalvd itp«'i hi> inwn view 
nnd u^utiJCTtts wiUiuul teTcicnte tu 

cnuDctb- Thai lo Pnmp«iiM AJJudfl* 
</>■ ;4- >^1 to iht dm CtniDcfl ff/j 
70. ij itnot totlieHnvtvl- 

A-a jjs- 

On- P. 

Piat Fsljk 
Ai]£, Ui. 
ItDp- Cm, 

A«c- 11. 



at Cyprian dcscrilMS it fis the judgment oi 'very manjr 
fellow- bi:i hops ' ; but he laments the fact that 'certain of 
oar colleagues arc guided by some Strang confidence* to 
the other DpiiiionS 

Next cornet a M^uretAT^ian bUhop, one Qujntus*, cn<}uJrtR|^ 
through a ccm^r^l^trr Lodan ; he is aostwcred by the 
scvenly-first letter, with ihe seventieth, already in wide circu- 
lation! enclosed*. The tone of Cyprian is a^ of ore who ha> 
sulTercd sUghts, It is clear that the tcnc of the Roman bishop 
was already becoming injurious; clear also that un^rimity 
had not yei prevailed in Carthage, 

At thi^ time, without one allusion in ic tc the embittering;; 
controversy'. Cyprian published his tract. ' Of the Excellency 
of Palicnce,' to be a calming note in the awaking^ ^torm. 
Very little latCT in date, and similar in purpose, is hfa 
■Jealousy ami Fiivy'; eTjujIly reiiccTil on passing circum* 
stance, except for onr jsHght touch upon Novailaa These 
shall be examined later Now we need only name them ad 
further tllLstrations of Cj^rian's vision of a new philosophy of 
moral feeling. adju,*(tc<l to the new doctrine and proportioned 
to its standard. And wc may think of the angelic spirit of 
the man who, when passions were rising on eveiy side, re^d to 
himiielf and lii^ combatants lesions ao sweet and so stem. 

here K<m4 \n be not cqaLvalflil 1o 'a 
tnioicruiia TwJy «tji *tl u' Ibcflvu' bcuutc 
ih# fihrB*a dcttriblnfi the objttTon, pnU 
dam i^flZ^fWHitf'inVlwhich iirrpcflted 
ia £p- 71- 1)1 b But Appwemly 4 men 
plnnl eqolvsleftT for ^ut kiK \iUsparre- 
eimhim 4t nta oiicti^nlate ^ttstal^ who 
mx^Bt b< J>tcphaaiu. u4 who ia 4G?iii 
tneant in Kf: 71, ^frimatum, £:c ^sn 
nrtt* 5, p. 35if 

■ ^j^ 7 r. 4< QuiniuiB ind Mb eat^t- 
iOfft mc vpok^n ittn^ iUuy and knformcil 
«f rhpitatpoflhmg^tn AlrifaiBnd Ninni' 
dm which fnltowvd A^nppiaut' Couudl- 
L doubt not thai Quinlu Is Uu Cuhvp 

of Bnruc vho spoke id th« S*vealh 
Coaocil' whom ottEit M£s. uU Quieiv*, 
Smtl.K^.^Z {kz ji/fifftdijc vD Litti ^ 

but merely tbiQugh miEireblingt for dicpe 
» tif^i' FccbUupujnroundii liioi 
||i. soj) with Qninftu, nf ^gffy* whidb 
wis in the PRw»oi«Ur Pmvjncc- 

" Efp. It' I. 71. 4. WluLi ilorm 
iVTrn mcttn iri vlrw of ihc Iftti n?r«rmcf 
by Mying on p. 3 1 j thfei w« mif ht hAv« 
upcdfd CTpriut Uj Appeal U Ihe 
Council of Asrfpptniu uid rely on that 
u proof of cnilom. find thit Cjprun'f 
Dol ddng •a Mbewk ibmi h« w«0 Avnre 
the (snga vai not laed on? 


vin, II, 2, 



Next year, A.D. 2$6. tlic quotion occupies the Bishops 
in their Council before Easter; the SiXTll UNliEH CvpRlAN 
and Second on Baitism. They were seventy-one in 
number*. They formulate into a kind of Canon, applic- 
able lo clergy who had joined heretical or schbmattcal 
bodies ard then recanted, the same practice which they 
h:id adopted as to Up»c:l Clerici, n;imely to restore ttiem 
simply to Lay-Corn m union , They decide (hat bflpti*im is 
necessarj- for all converts from the sects. They adopt the 
terrible phra«e of *thc fitain of profane water bcspotting' 
thcisc baptized with it '. 

Wc mu*t note that now the prelates of Africa and 
Njinidid' are sitting together, and are unanimous unJirr 
Cyprian in re-affirming the o!d dedKior of their own prede- 
cessors under Agrippinus. A s>'nodical letter from them 
wa» forwarded to Stephanus at Rome, The letter to the 
Nomldtans and the letter to Quintiis were cndoscd ivith 
it. It is an uncoEiGtliatory document, and htnta con.icious- 
ncss of the offence which it will give*. 

Stephen had however among Cyprian's blaliops those who 
sympathised with him': one of thcaw, or, as it faan been 
SLirmised. Stephen himself through them, drculatod an au- 
thoritative paper, rccc^nising the baptism of c%-cn Mnrcion* 
by ii<iiiic. A copy of it, with »omc other ar^mcnt\ was 


CWj. L. 


^ Mf^ 7*-'l 73- ■■ Cjrpninhi-liutd 
the eiproitoa in its luil«t itrvn^li id 
Di ViaitiU/, c- II, And mlbeicJ la i: In 

Ui the PatiTiiiuiiiu. Bk V, <- i. 

> In A-iX}ii1h« tcInriEVHOOiurairiu 
If CanhAfV HVert not htlH lo bv drfi- 
HJiUety >e[tlt<l. liefelr, 11 i. c hi. 

* An^yMjjK doct ncl kcd to have 

* QDidtmtlecirikvi»iianni,J!E;p.Tt-t, 
Cf. Qaictam d« coir^t. ^fiwAr, £/f, $9. 
QaidAffl riD«ui pnrtuicAFurD tcntjUin. 
tSOiff. Upp. jS) nni ice nolc j, \y J50. 

■ */ ti- *. *-■'- Aug- fl^ ^off- f- /**■ 

CtMiUiit, Effi ptmi. p. 346, di>)agi«ca 
tlvil Ihii Hncninirnt ivu % tvpy of $t^ 
phflfi*! liritfrio ch? Eut> Naevulence. 
IVlcti ihinks ibaL It warn [be niuit 
irut /^ AVAtfjVinwifr, vfucli reodH« 
it doabtfiU «htthft be au luve read 
that li«i:t t!ii«i|[1b 



forwarded to Cyprian by Jubaiar, a prelate of Mauretanio, 
who fcU himself much exercised by Ihcir »trcii^- The 
MAuretaniniis had not been represented m the old Council of 
Agrippinus, and the opening now occurrei? for securing them 
upon a new one. Cyprian answered these, and In so ciabo- 
rate a fortn, that at the hnal Councti he read his answer 
as the complete exposition of hh views, supplementing it 
with Jubaian's grateful and convinced reply. Thb letter waa 
accompanied to its first destination by copies of the docii- 
meris tliat had been sent lo Stephen, and a codex of 'The 
Excellency of Patience." 

A deputation of bishops from Cyprian now went lo 
Rome and waited upon Stephen, as bearers either of the la^ 
named or of some separate epistle* Some little graeioufincu 
might have made much of so conciliatory an act But (so at 
least Frrmilian relates the incident amid his condolence*') no 
audience was allowed them either public or private; and the 
Koman congregation was desired to shew them no hospitality 
or attention'. 

Nevertheless, the letter was answered^ and tliat in Ccrm^ 
apprifciative of the importance of the situation and of the 
greatness of the baptismal gift*, large in charity towards 
Separatists, and noi deigning to ai^ue at length. Stephen 
asserted in it the apostolic authority of a distinct tradition 
for the Roman usage', magnified the chair of Peter*, and 
vituperated Cyprian as 'a false Christ, a false apostle, a 
treacherous workerV 

Lamentable language: yet Cyprian's qualification of dis- 
sentient colleagues as 'Fautors of Antichrist' and ' Traitors 
to the Church** laid him open lo it. 

* Labbe, Ct>n^'lp t.p. r7rtfafekHthi3 
bilhopt- Ful th« iefcrtn» of (li? a 
fmhtJ b lo tvhaitm {£f- 7*1. as), ihe 
AfiiuLnb : ox clu lo bdh the Orienliiji 

and the Airiant tn^^thcr, ■ theory ru>i 
jeT ventured odh 

' ^/- -i- i* 6 icnmpare fc/, 73. 13), 

vni. If. 2. 



Stephen how«v^ had by thi» time issued a piper' which 
awakened a universal storm of mdignation and dispute* 
among the Bishops of the East', or, according to tJie more 
yarded statement of Diony^ius the Great, among the Bishops 
of Asia Minor*. He threatened lo withdraw from their com- 

To a^ume Chat Stephen had already rebuked these 
Bishops of the East when Cyprian 6rst mooted in Africa 
Ihc question of rcbapCism' l» one of the Roman modc5 of 
al once cxliibiting liis vast jurisdiction and of softening tlic 
blameworthiness of hia asperity toward* ^o great a saint. 
But this was not so. The thought contradicts all our docu- 
ments upon critical examination*. Stephen quarrelled with 
Cyprian first> and then turned on those who were sure to side 
with him. No doubt the relations of the Koman bishop with 
the EasI must have been somewhat complicated by iJkC pro- 
pension which the Jatr patriarch o( Antioch had cxhiLiitcd 

* 'BTfffTdViiijiA'iifr Tpdrtpor. Eund}. frogmfai ui Idi FlnU lo (hli the 

AT. X- vii. s- 

* Sf> TS. i« 'Uioi «nim be dluen' 
«10Dc< quiaiiu p«ni|L pei e«cLeiJai 

* Ef. ;s. .^ 

' EuAcb. vlL £. 

' "io Mifflii und Hffc[?, a i. t. i\. 

* AtNul frtiin ihe fnvueuu* UaEC tfti 
whkh Martn {yn^ Cyfr. tiU.) «pd 
olhcn tidve fcui^vd to ^upHen't <le<- 
uuiEKiaLioci of ihc OHcnUU ia <ft\lti <•* 
brine ^' tarViet than hia conlrorttity 
whh Cypnvi [^wt we ni>w know thai 

afi»intt ihv whuU ivnnr nf mit dcicu- 
nxnli- I. Ifoir EuKbiun "rilca wt 
tliTt iOCJi iXol* oa /)aM;, p. 3*7). 
Ibe «p<n]nc unic » »<« t>f him 
in Cj^^H movcBicni kind Sttphen't 
iihligialiuui t. DiL^tiyuui lu the tmi^- 
mtRl af hit S^cccind Lcrt«r prvivcvu ■ 

nfr afrV ro^ip cirfs' dtarif vhcv 
SicpbcJi 10 bv *lmdj ht the amc 
ItBipiitmal <4ii<r m cntlicinn virK wimr 
«thfT churcti : an*! none bvc ihf A5icuk 

leiien hilt one le Sl«p}i<«i In hu Ihree 
y«Art' >Mi And (hnt lo hit nMoiaf 
vh^i amx< ij(M> h (uAy fAiiljr be bfcrn! 
thftt Ihc cEuc at Slcphai'i Eimt mw 
tlv commeac«q«nt of iht conatpon- 
tJcncCh lIlcacpoinUArcbniuKhlout hj 
botH P^rcn und Fr^hriup. Onlhaother 
htn^ MifAFi urcvd 11 rtt*icirk>l phn** 
of FirmiluD't f£> J*- 15} 'Slrpbcn 
qujirfrK nr»« vtiib the FKimii, now 
wiih fm' bi if ti vftr a dircmcilnpcal 
fiotecf Ihc onltr of cfcnan And PrEnk 
Inslod of doUiuir nLkHuIly vith the 
mopAt iDg(^ri thai pio1dhl]t tht rtvkf 
of Finailun au«ni him 'ht fuhjecrirr 
taiMUon «r hi'iug b«eu mi«11c<1 lint. 



toward Novatian, nor was it a tneaninglc« anxiety which 
tufked uoUer Siepheii's complaint of ' treachery/ But It was 
A weakness and &n error to urce upon such men an un- 
reasoned conformity ; to tlircaten that he would hold no 
communion wiEli bishops who used r^cund baptisilL They 
haci what ihey thought immemoria] uvagt' and their recent 
Councils behind them ; and he but amoie a rock. The most 
conspicuous Churchman of the day, FirmJUan, metropolitan 
of Cappadccia, replied 'Thou bast cxcommanicated thine 
own «clf-' 

Our only ori^nal mniends for settling whelbtrr Sicphcn c&rricd hb 
threat fuTlher ate £fip. 74. 8 ; 73. 34 ; Dmnys. uji. Fus. vti. 5. Th«r 
IE, I think, ju5l criiical hg^ht enough to imve it ihc fcxCL Supposing 
Dionysiui haj written that Scrphcn dirtfrraJ^mi 5ri oil uuwi^itih (as 
Thucyd- S, 99 wriEftb limrraXuii-.-ori oSn al j^tt ifapttratrto it.T^X,} even 
ih]s woulJ not h&yc said mote 1h;tn that he thicatcncd^ But 1^ whics 
^f-TToXufi vf vC vivtof^trtif, ard this subjective «p marka 1 distinct mb- 
tfBctii^fn fioin the atiuality uf the verb [being used 4s Henri Esticnoe 
says * fagsieiionii vef £i>na!u intlicandi causi <)UQ <]ui5 ulKjind facil vel 
fatcrese siraulalvelaliisvuletur.' ThiMiurui G- L. rd. Hase, and Dindorf 
tfllt. cqI, 30W5. Lj (Winer, Ur. Or. J*an HI. 65, 9.) Also Cypnin »ay« 
Sleplicn*sacerdt>lesH..rt*j//'«*'«-'^jj»j'/<J/' f£>. 74-8) and I'irniilian '>hAu 
omn« a te abstineri posse' (75. i^;, l3oth imply tliai the note had been 
urandc^dt Uut not that the deed was done. If ihcsr passages prwcd 
the excommunication Ibey would piove rt eo be earlier ihnn fhe Thiid 
Council, but Cyprian's speech {S^ufi. Epp. Pr^m.) shews thai 'coro* 
pliiince' bad nui \hfx% 'Wf.u cnfurrcd by lerror.' ' ...quisquattv ntiitruwi' 
there cannot of eour&e nie&n Africans as against ItomATiS. 

Diort^sius the Grral. 

Two of Stephen's leading presbyters, Philemon and Diony- 
sius a learned' successor of hia own, in the lir^t instance 
shared his views and supported his action. Later on thcy 

■ 'A Chjulo el ab AjNilulu/ Bp. 

* U^rAt Tt roJ 9w)^\JA, Ent. tU. T- 



consulted the f^rejic Dionyaius at AJexaiidTia\ He nplied, aa 
he hinv5cif observes, at first briefly and then at some lens:^ 
In the frdgmcEit of his letter to Philemon, which EuscImiis has 
preserved, he mention? that from hi:( predecessor flcmclas he 
had received it a* a rule, not to rcbapiJEc r<^turning licrctics : 
but he is here speaking only of such a« had been baptii^ed 
before their error; an exception which even Cypriai allowed*, 
element of Alexandria had however more than doubted the 
realty of heretical baptism* for he glosses one of the iitrange 
phraser interpolated by the Seventy In the ninth chapter of 
Proverb* 'so wilt thou rro^ over the water of strangers' by 
the words 'Wisdom here accounteth the heretic baptism to 
be no native, genuine water'." But no Ei^ptian synod hod 
then taken up the question, and determined it So far from 
th]», that DionysiuN of Alexandria in hia letter to Xystus 
of Komc* relates a moving story of ' hU own resistance to 
the cn1reatic5, tears and prostration^^ of an aged Catholic 
who discovered his own Haptism to have bocn utterly hcrcti" 
cal. He encouragetl him to have ro «cruple«; his long life 
in the Communion of the Body and Blood of Christ counter- 
vailed ever>- incompletene:it!^ ile failed to persuade the old 
man, who dared not communicate &nd scrupled, as if UA- 
baptifcd, even lo aUend the prayerx Yet. xltlw^ugh rexdy 
to l>c ^dvithod 1*3* Xysnis, Dionysius could nni mion hl»i nwn 
convictions give way! <*o important did he detrm it that the 
relailors of communions to each other should not be at the 
mercy of the weak and scrupulous. Again we must remember 

' I am not c]far iTint rhey ilid not 
»rU^ to DioaytiM cr^n in SLc[ilien'> 

^Vfft - Kuvtib^ // ^- vi'i, y 'Dar fUlcf 
pMiicLi'lf iw thr aLteocc uf anir llmitmi^ 
puiici* 4«nd if itivy hfld jud wntlvn 
be noald }\Dve i*i<l y/bV"?i| i^ tattKr 
LruitC'fTCt diaii jMOCftt— -' i¥av twiie- 
■pondpnii oF mLn«/ Bui il iA in hit 

[ttttr to Xyvtm Ihil he irwnriuna lfa« 
fu<, And the fifJi/^ ictccn fwTiich ft' 
taain) art ^HtXtn in Xrilu*' tlmt, 

* Ha 51b ou D»|ilmn. EilkU nL 9. 
33— J 



that hia severe languiige abuut Novatian is extracted from one 
of hU lUptismal Letters, aamely the fourth to his namesake 
at Rome ; that it is severe on account of the hard eeparatism 
of the sectarian, and that one trait of this separatism Is 
that by Rcbaptism 'he sct^ al nought the Holy ForlV It 
seems clear then that he agreed, as dk\ the two Roman 
presbyters, with Stephen's theory. But he was shocked with 
his want of delicacy, and addressed to him un earnest 
entreaty' not to be severe upon a practice resting on 9UCh 
authority of old bishops and councils', Wc know also that 
he admitted the Baptism of Montanists, at which Basil* 
expresses surprise, considering this to be a distinct Hcrt:fty 
about the Godhead. But here Dionysius was better informed. 

ii iu difficult then to reconcile with these fragmentary 
facts which we know, Jerome's statement that Diony^ius 
'consented to the dogma" of Cypnan*. Still it may be 
argued that Basil would not have been so surpmed as he wait 
at Dionysius, if his view of Muntanism had not seemed an 
exception to his view of other heresies, and that he would 
have been more surprised if he had admitted the baptism 
of all For Basil is mistakenly persuaded that a di^ercnce 
had been already at that early date defined between heretical 
and schismatical baptism and tliat the Latter u^as admisMble. 

Perhaps we may infer from all that is before US that 
Diony«ius held a policy not unlike Easira own about the 
Kalhari : and would have had every country observe its OWO 
tradition. While he himself would have accepted Stephen's 
clientele, he was rot willing that Africa and Asia should bc 
interfered with. Such a policy suita the broad and tolciaat 
cliaractcr of Dionysius* mind and tlic hypothesis harmoniaes 
the various statements. 


his ftfth [titter unil Cypfi^in't * Nuvatlui- EuhH. vii- 5. 



His middle position is not that i>f oxxt who 16 not strict 
or whose mind 'ms not made up'. His information increjued 
with hi,n enquiries, but his view* and his conduct were con- 
sistent lhroiiE;hout. His view was that heretics may tsc validl/ 
admitted withoai second bapti'im. but thai churche* which 
ruled r>ih(?nvise rnust not ht overruled ffom without Hiu con- 
duct was very decisive, Thank.^ to Euficbius we possess the 
outlines and fragments of Bvc Letters which he wrote 'On 
Baptism' to Rome*. Hb First was to Stephen; a full* 
letter, called fiirth by one from Stephen, of which the 
adt^r<?s«L w nr>( given, but the subject was *aboul Helenus of 
'Cilicia and Firmilian of Cappadocia and all (the bishops) 
*of their provinces and of all the neighbouring tribca' 
'About them' he repeated the cen?iure and the threatening 
with which he had already approached Cypnann decUnng 
*lh4t he wuuld not commuuicale wiih them eilh(.'r/ und "fur 
the? ivlf-snme cause,' Dionysiu^ ^ddresjied hin^ in the in- 
terests of peace. He delineated the restored tranquillity 
of the Kasicm church. Persecution past ; the Antiochenc 
Patriarch wlio had le^incd to Nov^itmn mccccdcd by one of 
comprehensive sympathies; Jerusalem. CT^areaand Tyre, the 
Syrba snd Arabia grateful for Romao beneficence \ Meso- 
potamia, Pontu*, hithynfa — all exulting in brotherly concord. 
The chord which plainly he hopes to touch in Stephen** 
bcnrt in the near fulfilment of the I'entecoata) foreshadow in(;. 
Of Saint Luke's list arc wanting only Parlhia and J'cniia, 
for Egjfpl and Rome are the correspond en Is and Africa ia 
the unnamed subject. ' How grievous/ is Dioiiysius" evident 
inference, "Uiat such unity should be vexed by threarcnings.' 

Of the three next lettcn; we have *poken already. 

The candid and enquiring mind of him who was not afraid 

■ E(«J», //. B. vU. 1—9. 
Cf- i< ^ ~ni» 'Tbg nrM gn Dsptijn' 

mikit b< Uk fekRi« ohich he hiraKlf 



of studyini: the attractive Htcmturc of heretics, bocatift« (as 
he tcils the Roman pnesbj^er) the Divine voice reminded 
him that he was ' capable of criticizing and that svich fc^rjc;^ 
^tudy had brought him to the faith at first," comes out in 
delicate touches. His earliest letter urgc^ on Stephen the 
general ground of the pcnor of tlie Church, wlthotit refer- 
ence to authonty. Of tliff Rebaptlzing Council he then 
seems; to know nothirg. But to Xystus he writer, ' I Jind by 
'inquiry that decrees have been made in this scn^c in the 
'greatest episcopal synods/ aod to Dionysius 'I hair learnt 
this too/ meaning the oopiou^ prcccdcnii, and particularly 
the Councils of Iconium and Synjiada'. 

Grratly then to be regrrfted is the Jass of a sixth 
Letter — written in the name of the church of Alexandria 
b>' their bishop and containing his hnal discussion' of the 
whole <iue3tion, Wc may nevertheless be assured that his 
conclusiona were the same pacific and truthful ones to which 
he pointed all througL Had tic really decided cither for 
Rebaplisiii (;i5 Jtromc ht^aril) or against Cyprian, ihis would 
have been the most important fjctor in the controversy; and 
Kusebius could not have failed to record it His Eilencc 
implies that he had already indicated sui^cientiy the lines 
laid down by Dionysius the Great. 


To return to Carthage. One last enquirer now appears, 
Pompcy, the bishop of Sabrata upon the Syrtis, in the later 
province uf Tripoli. He liad reccivt^d ihe circa!a.[ed docu* 
menu and was anxious to learn how Stephen had replied to 
them, Cyprian sends him Stephen's epistle to himself^ with 
an antidote of his own' — a fine letter though not moderate*. 

fl'jMvii.i, I raiu(h<icjufiilfy F*krt(p. 
jOi) oijiuJuiE FcdllriiflP' ij^) In laying 
BEtcu oD the upre^!»Jon!> o^ Dxany&iiu. 
I'vchtrup cnyt Ihal Dioiiyaiikk fnciiliuiih 
Ibc C^iincib ta hb nccount in Xpluk 

oF his First Lrlier; whict U inir, bqi 
not u from tJiv ttUcT iiKlf, only In hit 

' J'umpffid l^riLri, £f- J^- 

Vril. n, 2, ACTS, ETC— niONYSlUS THK GRRAT. 


One of those which Jerome calU 'a rending of Stephen and 
of "t^frr&r" of invctcnttc tradition/ In Recourse of it he 
Iftys down the prmcipl&i of a tnic Reformation (and such he 
conceived hh own meAAurcn to be) in lines which the historian 
of our own KefonnatloTi might sdopt for his prol^nt. ' Kcli- 
•^ou* and singte-he^iited minds have a ihfwt method to di»- 
'burden themselves of error, and to discover and dex'clop 
'truth. For if we tuni back to tlie fountain-bead and source 

■ of the Divine tradition, the hutnnn error disappears; the plan 
'of tlic heavenly mysteries is perceived, and all that lay 
'diiikting under the gloom and mists of darkness opcn^ out 
' into the 3ight nf truch. If some aqneduct. whose stream was 

■ ever large and copious Iwfore, fail* suddenly, do we not pro* 
*cecd to its fount, there to learn the nature of that failure; 
'whether its flow has dwindled at the source through the 
'drying up of the veins, or whether indeed it £uahca thence 
'in full unshrunken volume, but has failed in mid course? 
' that -so, if it if* Uie fault of a broken or porous channel thai 
'the water doe« not run in nninternipicd flow, unceaj^tngly 
' and perpetually, the cfunnel may be repaired and strenph 

' cned, and the collected water* be delivered for the u« and 
' drinking of the city in all the selfsame ricl^ne^s and purity 
' with which they i*»uc from the ^iprinfj, Kvcn so God"?! priests 
' must deal now, and keep the Divine charge ; so that, if in 
' at)|[ht truth totters and wavers we tJrn back Ixjtii to ilft 
'fiouroe in ihp Lord, and aUo to its delivery b/ evangelist* 
' and apostles, and our plan of action takes its rise where rose 
'alike cur onjer and our bc^nningV Considering :hat in 
these words Cyprian ts laying the plan cf a campaign f^ainst 

* £^ 74* 10 'H ad arigia«in 6i> 

m\Ti\attn n jul evuifellaun »iIliqc vpo- 
rtnlicim Tni3Ltiaiwm.' Tht Itngih ind 
deuit af ih« vBiile »fly Hvra (d pedal 

on th( woTfSerful AqunLiLfTnrr.jirliife- 
Ft*tm the *hovl>* in Za^ddab mad 

D\'>aiiv CMdoi ZcuciUnui tad Hocu 
2^Dc<|ibiufcl thrvu£li diaoneili lixiy 
milr* long, ptrt tun«rl» [un oa the 
turfuG of lilc >lopH« |«rt oo vmtK 

trvrn nulli^jnk uf gullori* fliily into Ihr 
d(j and nei^bwiibacd, th« *itFt/Mt 



Rcmr. it b c\cAr llul Rome iraA Qot to liim the 'fbunUin' 
or the ' bcginnf r^ ' of cither doctrine or order 

He closes his letter with a canon framed zs an amend- 
ment on that of Stephen with which he opens- Pompcius if 
he had wavered was convinced, and his proxy ia prevented by 
his neighbour, tiiahop NatnJis, of CEa, at the next Council', 

TTkAt ikfTf £i fm ^tt*a Af mfifi^tt lyfurt itrt mitring /nm ikg 

Tht abore is a «iiDple and sufiiciect afCAunE of the circunsuncei cf 
(he cotrcipundencc Rcllbcrg (pp. i8l KjqJ ndmirn Mo»hcim'« 'di^ 
tovpry" of oihtr letters^ ind thui arrangci lh« exlanl and tapposed 
dcfumcci^. i> The Synodal Lciter. Cyprian to Stephen, Epitllc 73- 
9, Sicph«n'« reply, /iMf- C>pri;%n mrtiliani it in Y.p. 74 Ei} Homp«iui, 
'in moderaie terms as a mcKlcmtc paper*; auid 'nt^mld have wrilren mor? 
'bATthijr if he htd been rh[tr3C:rfrixed m Ihat letter as he was in ihe dm 
*9Dcn hr FirmiLian ' : co Pompcius he al^o uk^ mcUpbi>r& and arfumcfits 
flot uifil in the Synodal Leiter, biH quored by Firmiliar a« occurrin); in 
Cyprian's kUcr to Stephen ; whcnt^c is inferred J. A reply ffon* Cypriaa 
to Slcphcn ^mt, mcxlerair of lone, and rtstmtfftt^ thai to Pompeius in 
atptm^at and illustrfltiOD- 4 Stcpben^s second reply to Cfpnuk, /tu// 
inhuman in character; the cine described by Firmdian, 5. The Lc^ 
tionlctier from CypriaA \<> Stephen, &c,. Usi. 

TIjc detection ti( lo>t ducuiiicuLs is a diversion for ctilica* But I see 
no eviElence of jiny of theae hiving exbcvd except of course the Letter 
of Stei^en. evidently vibjcb Poinpeiu^ taw wi^ the same which 
Firmrlun liw, even \i not the sajnc thai was sent to the Oriental 
bisliut)s- and lEie Lcgaiiun probdbly presented the Synodal Lcltei only. 
For (1) Firmilij^n nowhere aUudfs Co a Jctler from Cyprun to Stephea 
Hf cnrii;h[;d with llma« metaphor^ &C. The Garden^ the PoLiiitaLn, 
the Ark. ih? Apostoh< tradition of Rcbaptism, are plainly taken Irom 
Cypnan'a letter to Firmjlian him^dr (3) The Synodal Letter waa 
Cyprian's ultimatum. It left ihe question ihencefcrwarrf in the hand* 
of the bishops. AccotdinEly the ncicl declaration i» 'The sentences of 
the bi»hop** one by one. The force of thar declaration iR thus ac- 
Gouuied itir, (3) Aa to the ai^utiKnL that Cypriau woold in writiai; to 
Painpeiut hHve been «lung to sharper r^titltnlion an Stephen if 3)e Jiijul 
MCn whAL titcphcut according to Ftrmilian, said of hin~L« we may consider 
tliat AuguMine was imptesBed by the " moderation ' oi Cyprian ; and that 
there is surely stiength enough in such phrases as ^cvcry^hing elso, 

VII t, II. a. 



^tfherhffr haiigbiy, im;IcvsiTii, or «pir-coninu1ictoryp «rhicb StP;>hAnua 
* igmoraoily and unadvisedly wroi€'(£/.74- <)■ Thcr,»ccmK =^*i Stephen'* 
«iiiipo«cil ^mmirrati' iftrer li d»crib«d 4* evincing 'eAgern«tA for pre- 
suiDption flnd GontuRucr/ and made Cyprian in hit ^aiodcr&lc* rc|>lr«x- 
cWm that, if such principle* prevail, 'we musi give up ro ihe Devf[ Ift* 
'ordmnncc ol ih( Gospd, the di^petkodtion of Chnat, the nujc^tycf God... 
■Thi" Church mu^t Eivrplflcc Tolwrnic*, liishttodarl.. ,hop^ lodMpair..,, 
'rcaum to error,.., immurLAl lif« (r> death. ..^ (ruil> to Reiion-,,, Christ 14 
'Ancic'-hmi' l^F.p. 74. fiJ: icclng aUn thai rhe s^mc letter of Siephen^s 
went the length of saying Thai ^sienii^nt tithaps should be exconiFntinl- 
caled (jMffTrAfj^f tihtiHtit{ii\ v: mny Allow ibai JE wq^ pmbnbly in it* 
penoiiAi pnrts strong enoii|fh to havo bc«n Ibe one which FirmiHi&n !&#. 

nittlktS^Ht to PompfyiEp, 7A.) i^nd Sfefiken's EpistU ^ottd tM^rtia 

art iarhfr :Aan fke Third C'punriJ ■■« //j^jjw- 

Jl has been Tiiainlitned (O- Aliiehl, pp* 113 ft) that Cypnani opening 
addrei* to the Third C^juncil on Qrtpil^m, lexying liberty of action to «il 
btihopi, is i kmd of offered eampromiie of concilution to Stephen ; and 
that ihcrefort ihc Idler to rompcTi^^. ;4>i ihewincpclationi with Sieph<n 
to lie at an end* musf hr tliit'd iiflT that Counf^il ; *ml thrrrfrjTT aliio rhe 
letter of Stephen, ^hich i& criticised in it, mu»( be a reacript of Stephen^ 
af(*r hie reeeivrng the Report of (hat C^iunell from Cypri.ifi- 

iJut the apccch <}f Cypnan \a no olive-leAf- ll vtatei the putition cif 
tolerance which hr tak«f as a^nit one who vrantt to make himielf a 
bi»hop of bishops, and who by ^ t^rannouEt terror' «cck* to (okk obedience 
on eAtie:ij:[i»4 [Stuff. I£fifi- Prtttm,) 

Ajtii-in the rAimcii from Stephen'* Ldtcr^ contained in Ep, 74- ^^ 
mainlf arpimtHft, from practice nf hercries, from tradition!, L-urked by a 
threat of excommunication --the very point totichcd in Cyprian's speech— 
arpimenM embodli^d to be rvf^trd in a Tnng Arcunbrntailvc letm from 
Cyprian to a neiRhbtmring aunrii^in *ho tnquirci 'whflE reply Stephen 
has lent him ioour<tocunieni'^MJi^w/^/*/^//)Vrfjr fWJiViir ..r^tiTtfiserii\ 
They belong to the pro^n?*? of the di^cusfiion; Lind wcaj no ucmblunre of 
a Homjfti ulUmaium nns»«irig ihe ititim^tuni of a Council of three pn> 
vince* i and the letter wbich eontains them m.\ke« no jillutton whatever 
to a Cijijuul iro inipcjiUEit, a» fteidirijf the wttde t^uetlion foi tXl AfficAf 
th^t, if It had Mte and reported before chftt letter wm written, it could not 
but have been mentioned. 

If the cont^nih af nne letter pr«r ettab1ith«d ti« plne« In t Aericn, Ih* 
74th lettTi to Poinpcy and the letter of Stephen nbicb it ^uoiu preceded 
the Third Coune^ 

' ^-r*. I- 


7%ti Mp^ 73 /-* St/J>hfm it tightly fiut ifi^Wft tt^ tht Stiwd Covasii &n 
Baptism Net fk^ Tkled* 

It hJ4 be«n ]ii|(«n]cm«|y Lnitntsitncd (O, RjtGcbl, pp. 1 14 ft] tbai Epidtlc 
73 is the Lcucr aui of the SccuiicJ but of ilic v^^K Thiiil CouitctL < 
(1) Hf^'autf ii ut^ thai ii^ndpoint at lo the liberty of btthopi which 
Cyprian i^ikes In his adttrcM to tlic Tlurd Count;!!. Ansn/^r. It b ike 
sam* view which Cyprian iinifrtimly iak«- CT f/- S5-3i ; 69. t?; ?3- a6. 
(a^ i'd'jrawjf, if Ehc Spring (01 E^jtcr) Count: il hA4 hIicaJx tent tixiccuivi; 
a leiT^r t[j Ktf phcn at this 73o4 no ihird Council need hive Ijecn EpcciAlLy 
convened, Ai this wn* for September the wme year, ^itfftvr. Stephen^ 
reply la the Second CoUftciUcticrwas to trufuleitc, at it* relic* in A^ 74 
ahcw. thai it was essential to ppe3i;nc to him the itiongcal Africon front 
possible- lE wan Therefore nece^&ary to cciTivenp thf ManrniLniiiiiK, as 
well as ihc Africans and Numidians who formed the Second Council 
And Rjischi himself thinks thi>i Ulls su iiiiponant lh:ii he .tccualty believes 
^p. IT7) that the (Icierrninin^ 10 cunvene the MjiurcfAnttLnb vinttt lolid part 
of the buunest of ttie Second CouiicJL [He: belicvci hUo that he hat 
«hewn that Sp. 74 and its ^uotation'b from Stephen's lotier, are later than 
this Coutitil ; bui their he faib, ^tc U5I note-] {3) Het^itttu the 

mention of the Second Council in £/. 73- I doe* not implj' that a Icciw 
waj sent 10 Stephen- Answer, h wa* noi absoljtely ncceiaarj' to »y 
io in telling Jui>ajan wIjje the resolution was, even if a letXtti vent to fl 
Stephen, iiut the position of Lhc Thiid Council is i^thcr that of a H 
tremendous dtfmonRraibnf by an uciennce obri:tin«d from every single 
ItishfliJ. upon SteplLcn'k threat of ciicommuijiir4iLion. Thctr mere opinion 
had b«en sent to Stephen before, more than unce. and it does not appear 
ihat atiy letter was sent by the ThitU CountiL The ScHtenfi^ trert 
eiiou^h. (4) Jieteux* (p. 1 16; letter 75 itself «mes that the Coimcil from 
which it emanated wai n jpccinlly c:ontfcned oz%^*^Ad ifHaiiam ^ispontmia 
nuesu kntfmmHt,..c&gtrg ft cfitbrurr centtftum* wherejis the Second ^ 
CoUDcil was the ordinary EosEer {or Spring) Meeting of Biahopft at H 
Carthage- Ans^^er. Ritsrhl's qiKitaiion m unconaciously r^ot quiw ™ 
ciindid. If the word^ which he represc^nis f^ind does not rcprc^ctU) by 
dots are inserted the lenience is 'Ad ^undam di^poneitsii^ el consilii 
'communis cicaminatione btnanda nectue Jtatmimus, frater CAiicsime, con- 
■vc(UenEibus in unum pluribns sacerdottbus togere ti ftlebran ci^nnHum : 
4n qjo muUa quldcm prolata adque «>acu sunt. Sed de eo vel manmc ^ 
*tihi scribenduni. Ac* (Fp^ 7^ i) (via, ilie bapiisinal quesLon). N*>w fl 

hcK' Cyprian plainly seetna to say tliat he felt obliged to taU* the afpffr* ^ 
iamty of 'many bi»hop» meeting' to bold 'a Councir in ord^ Lo arrange, 
txamine, and /ffrmvliU cortan* things, and that beside* the one subject 
on which he wrote 10 Stephca, there weie *niaiiy' other* 'biouKht fnr- 
ward ind disponed of/— II leems as if a rnore accurate account could 
acarcety be given of the anniuU epiacopal EiceiiLig of the year A.t>, ij6 


VIII. II. 2. 



b«ui; turned into tbe Soccnd Coundl ^i C^rUiage under Cypriuk <m 
B^kLieiI' The letter »yf k came from tuch a bodf^ 

To ihi* I tnusT add Uiai the deicripiicpTi of Council lU tn £> 71 t 
an«w<fn almosT in wcrrls to (hf ri*? sen prion In A'/* 71 of tbe Counrll frofln 
whicli lUclfcmanMcd. Thus 

£p. ji. I convcineniibu* in 
unum plurfbuE saj^PrdohbuSrrde co 
vc) mtxiinc tibi »c fi bend uiii... quod 
magu ad ecdoiii 
catholics uniiattm.coa qui «uri., 

dodMlfiot,..vcroerirt) bopCijsan opor- 
iac,..,Tu[ic cnim dcirum p^cne 
Kmclificari.^.talutaris fid«i veriUl^ 

£jAi yy I cum in urum coo- 
vert«seinu«- ,epicopi numtro («p- 
tuaginca <t unuft-HhocfirmAvimus 
4TaLu«n(«i< t%\i\\ra b.iptiLUM r^w 
f|UDd »!t in cede*! A c»ibolica 
cnniiitutum. .non rehaptliari «ed 
bAptiaH a riobis ^uicunque ab.. 
pralitrrji aqua vrmcnm ablurndi 
aint ct san^tincAndl lolutarU oquic 

(5) Jtivauu Ef. 73h I (aj^i noihing about Lbi^ avi*//-* vhi£h hfi^ 73. 1 
uysueic baudlcd id U» Council i4«JVtfr. No. For j^/L73>>iUi)wcrmg 
JabaiaiA'* i^ucBlton »« to what had been done on ^a/ poim. 

(G) 1 add ttial il is a vcfy atrou^; poiai itidtcJ iliut f/. 77 raention^ 
ai doCLim^nt^ i*sLjcd by Cj-prian prior to u* own L&tincil ooiy /j//, 70 and 
71 (10 [tic Numidians and Quintui)* and don noi najnc 71 (lo 
wbi4:^h Cy|innn, ^tfier il wrii wrttt^n, ti^ed qtiitc as i m^inuaE (aa it wj of 
aTi:ujiicnIi *jVi hU aide, and read a« »ucb to ihc Thiid Council- \i I^^ 73 
had emanated from the lliird Council it muii havo mcaiiOTiMt Ihli Efi. jy 
Riudil uio 10 mcci this by aaymi^ that Ep^ 7,1 "^ 100 rude to Stephen 
Ir lif si^ni \a him — which U Tf^bk. con«id<rnn^ tb^ lAnKiLjii:^ ifhlrh was 
u^idoubtcJIy 9cnt- Boidc», bow could that hold vrhen the Epiiilc had 
btcn already read to the whole Council? 

1 know how iroublcsojno all thi» dcuil of rtstorini; th« documcritv 10 
Ihrtr r^hf order \%, but vrhat eUe can b^ dj>ne when tiich a scholar a« 
Ritfcbl ukca such miinitc point to dislocAEe them ? 

7%«f QiaVAvj efBtmic who tp^ht vjtk in th/ SfviHtk Caundt it f^intms 
tlu MmtftCanian, rtcifiint •>/ £p. 7"> 

Hnrtd give« the natne of the bUhrp nf Rtirur who spoke In thtt 
Seventh Council {S^itif. Epp^ ii) without various rcadinx a* ^QmlM>' 
So do moti edirionf^ But PatnMe in hit text, Morcelli, and Labbe. L 
StOk xxviui and Indcxi have *0tiHht4* Ktn ia perhaps an indic^ion 

■ FfK 70UflB«r «iJn* mty t obn^r** 
thdC /rviirtsrHjiliinn doa not by JUclf 
Imply tn fefSnruEiuii nf ■ ptcvium de- 
diion^ lo ^^f). ;j' I 4 ii thf WEinl 

j^fiv which ^rm that vn»c ; hut in 
X/, 71, 4 jSrmavit it (he word hhJ 
with iliUtKt vf A^rippintu himiciC 



ihJil ihefp wrt* 4ome nss. which roA 'Quirtus.* But howevw thai may 
be. observing* the vrrbal jod nviCena] corrcsp^^adcficis b«tv««n thii ahon 
ftpcfch And Cy^priHn's ]r[ler U> Qiiinlus Etic M^uretnoJiiil Bifthop (Ajt. 7J], 
J cannot doubt ihai ib« speaker »4$ Quinim tim«elC There vc lhe*e^- 
fa) The puiqf^ Qui bapiiz^tus i monuu in Strm* 34- 3<^ aiad Lbc 5inuife 
argument nbout bnptLsm by the Acad (p> 411 int), ire novhere ubcd hjr 
C^prUn ciccpi tn bit letter to Quintus; and in the Coancil uo speaks 
escppi thiE fQn^eiuK orj Quintus empIoyGii. (#) Sfnf. nj qui ab bjcrc- 
ticiA inimKuuniui. f)>, 7t- J qui apud h«n;tito» linctj sunt CO SaU, 17 
uno vitih ba-pttsmale quod in <cde«ia cathotica e^I, et &aDctifieari d*- 
bcTe...-^> 7], 1 unum baptisma esie; quod itrntm Kilicct la eccie>U 
cath^Iica e«t> sanciificuid] hammU poE.«si3iein. (^0 ^fff- ^7 ctir 
ad DcclcsiAm reniuQi?..HCOgnito erroic pnMinu ad veriuietti cum peciii- 
itntia. rcveFttmtur. Jifi. 71- i ad frcclc^am reverientei ct p<cniceatiAm 
a^Eencci-^'PcccaTo ruo coi^ito cL crrorc digcjtg. (f) St^/. 37 si ecim 
qui ^tpiit fllM bapiiEuiluT pel r^miuiai^pm p^c^atorum vicam fd^tnftin 
conv:[|uuntur, cur ad cccksiam vcmunr. £p^ 71. 3 sciamus rcmisiani 
pec<^iorum non niii tn pcclesia dari posie. 

Lftbbe noLi^d a rHcmblanCE. I h;ive sheun elsewhere [^fifiemiir 
dn Cifi^. p. 6oj] thai liunic »a^ more lrkd>' than not in IvI^ureuniA. I 
should veniure to read S^mil Epp. 17 Ql^ntus a Bunirc 

The Seventh CouNaL under Cvpr[an and Third 
ON Baptism was held on th:^ First' of J^epicmlxr, aj>. 

* Mr Shspherif!. tititf it\ p- 1 4, cbtd^ 
mctitii 'Thi* C^wTitil wondtrful lo *ny 
bb A iliue.' tic migCi; have wui^JcrcU 
alio t^t (he Second fhLs own Itiiril) 
Tins a dale {£^. if^. ^«), Jlc Farther 

TioritFfi] To hdvc ^aid A.n. iKo or sonir 
suflidolc/ foi aii(jLh«evcnL ITliscBT- 
lAivly would hiTc been av ititt^ic&tini-ET 
*afly »]■* of ihf Chl^^\inn era. Thii 
u'aA imcoilucfd by hh fa^^jurite Dia- 
ii)Vut EKJcinjq^ * whoni he would lAihcr 
havp rnllfd Ma([ni]t/ 11? inn;j b« «- 
cuHd for not knowing thai Ufironfiu had 
%a9d ap that minute Mirf, but bu he 
hoUced how far \i wu uiual for Irtien 
»ftrl Fveiir«iolvcarT'liil]y ilnird in thoK 
Ijmffiand cnnnliies? For in&lKDcei Au- 

•UiuiciriaP Vet <loubl!rtfi th^ pwadtf of 
dAEc* fi uty kind ja rcm^ikable. Il it 
tonnrctcd tiiOj iliat mLcoBc Afrioui 
liuiilililj! In e<r«i dvil forrs ibal had 
been sulemnly baad bj bettheniHUt 
»Lich coDit? om in Monun^n, Vot4* 

tullinn. I[ if hajA l» kmpu^ a ccxjndrft 
gctiuincticu fui wanlint; a <^xl.e. wlioi 
th* Council of Cirlfl {A.IX 30^) tt qiiri- 
tioiwiJ by 1I1C DonalikU (in friA-D.), 
who Tniul have known xmactbiDC of 
Afnotn Chnttlatruy, tolcly oifi the 
^no^t lli&i ti kji X dst^. Th« Catho- 
lics bad to reptjr thai, lhau|th Duiuiiat 
councils and docutnffnti were undated. 
Cithollc* did ni>i c*i:|iew daiea, Vei 
IE may be thai Dimaiiisi prcacned A 
Puiiian irvdilicn and IbaL the CathoUoi 


256' — an assemblage of no le^s than cighty-sev*a bishops Scpn 1, 
•from Ihc provinces of Africa'. Numidla and Mauretania' — a ' " * " 
proporlicnatc represenUlicn of course they could not be — 
with* presbyters and deacons, in presence of a v^st laity. 

A great vUion wa* fulfilled. It was given to Cyprian to 
sec in actual pti^scncc that 'copious body of bifliop^s^ in 
whfch he bad long ago declarrd that the safety antl purity 
of the Church lay. 

The bishop!;, it will be home in mind, were the elected 
judges, overseers and teachers of the Christian section of ifl 
many African towns, No part of the Empire wa* more fuli 
than Africa of Intellectual, civic and 5nancial life The 
Christian section was the army of advance in thinjjn Motial, 
Rior^l and religious. It was the section which at present 
found it hardest 10 asi;ert its rights, whether individual or 
corporatCj iti the Empire. Yet it wa^ dcvcioping new insti- 
tutions theoretically and practically. It was already creating 
a new literature, and it had in its bosom tJie ton.ntitution and 
legislacion of the future. Brought up thenuelves in daily 
sight of Justice and of rule the bi^hopi; had been ^ectcd 

h*l com? ro u« (hcLTi more (me)y by 
ilr)£r<c9. On llic whole hc oui^bl be 
fonr^t fn.nrliuii for aniiniliiinl QjuiilU 
tht cicuH which ihff C-'jilholid aIIoivbJ 
foi fjat IliAl ibc PoauibU reLicd cd- ' It 
ti col lUivdt dtboi ]xut ui lIaT' BuL 
w« do nai mtin to i1t»pme it for ihat. 
Iltt QDOic lilidlf to htdbfi Eo iintiiuiaca* 
hmUxt than 10 fmuiJ-' aco Aiicustinc, 
£n^'. tW/j/fcwtj rum /JfuntPtiriiylfTtii 
dla, tf. nLv, 1^^ >f> tnil 37- CF. 
Xranilci ('^ 'Ml. vol. iti, p. >6i uoLc 
^ FirniEtin't letlcr wu not rrofived 
nntil the C^nindl -"U owr. 

Vifiy-fitr bull^«0cs vevc fTom rro< 
^onnlor Africa (twtlw* of Itwin from 
vrkhjn * drcl* of 4$ Romui milci al 
Cuibagc)-^Tili dupoHA of O, Riivchl'a 

{p' tijl niew th4t CyphoJL found \% 
necouiy I0 K<ure ihc help of Madic- 
(aula bcfofr vtJiEvrlji^ his &[ep 44:itini[ 
STfphcn; — (iffvnfy-ti^i trom fh« iMgcr 
rqfioa of Numidiii ; M«unlPnrH an 
lure tcci uiiljr Iwu huAjitfO. (tunc 
nqirwJj or Xon ui1 Buntr, lUil tulf 
4a Intftm in ihc bh of Tucn- Sec 
ApptndiJ ^»C»liei»^. S75, aail Notcon 
P Jf'i. '*>tetu< or QuiDtu' A/, ri 

" Dt FukTp CammHir/thf CAunA, 
p- 7|. 1*p tinu ofk Eltaa» pr*«liTlcn Bn4 
dftoori TxtDg itkicd LD the AcU to b« 
■he (fraliyler* tuul deacQiik of the ip 
>ptfaE%« litahopt, -lAeir pmt'jiitn fcnd 
d«icDn>.' Bui ihc word h vol in ihe 
text. The Lit J fert dctcribc J B ««rtWs 



10 their presidencies because in tlicm was recognised the tmc 
sipirit of rule, of iiistructio«:. of sensible converse with men. 
The tipeci^l saintlinej^s of ascetic! fiim, whicli might have pro 
cured election later on, had not yet come int^ vogae. A 
new aptrilual power had 'come into the world" and it was 
ccmmitlcd to them tc exercise tt Jn a world of realities. 

The town* from which ihcy came, and tlirouETh which 
they travelled, presented the social life of the age in almost 
every aspect — a5 simple ' municipLa/ as 'free and exempt^ 
citii:^ or ' republic^,' or as ^colome^* loaded with titles and 
privileges, and splendid with buildirgs which, like the 
amphitbcatie of Thysdrus, rivalled or outdid the similar 
structures of Rome- Their elaborate ot^cial organi nations 
and their adminiatrations, fiscal and agrarian, are as well 
known to scholars as modern finance Is to the officials of oar 
Treasury-, The list of (owns* shews how immediately the early 
Christians faced their problems by laying hold of Ihecentresof 
life and activity- The policy of the Christian Church was ia 
all respects unlike that of the modern Missionary Society, 

11 handled christi<inisation as, the state hajidled civiliiialioEu 
It began with strong focal centres. It threw out frexh 
centres as fast as tt could make them strong and safe. It kft 
no new focus unsupported. It gave eacb bishop the utmost 
independence cousistent with unity. 

Nothing can exceed the variety of tJic social situatiotij. 
Some of these cities were pnmsval settlements of Canaan- 
ites, which still used and occupied their rack-cisterns dnd 
half-solid citadels or BoKrahs of gigantic stone** ; which with 
all their accretions were yet governed by Sufetes, the 'Judges' 
of Palestine, stamped their Phrenician names on their coinage 
until intc m the Empire, and served Baal and Ashtoreth in 
Imperial Temples. 

'• Se* AfiV^Jvlii on the Lists of 
Bishops allciuliDK ihc CounclU {p. 563J1 
and AppcQiLii oTi Ihe CiUq IrouL which 

th« Buh«|H ctmc la the Scvcnih 
Cciun6l on 1h« Rrbl of Stplfmber a.I>- 


The Humeric Lotu viand, the large low Isle of Mcnmx, 
juM tKen beginning to call Itself Gifba, maintained, as it 
docft tO'day, 2 pure Berber stock which had learnt of these 
Canaaiiites to grow the best datee and dye the brif;lite«t and 
costliest purples*. They have bc<:n impartially receptive of 
aU ttic succc^ivc faiths of the masters of the mainland, 

The ixland rock ofThabraca, whoic i>edk rode somi! three 
or four hiitidred feet above it<; bu<.y little port and the forest* 
of the mainland, was own daughter to Tyre, and mother of all 
the coral (isherics of the Western Mediterranean. And while 
thcpcctjliar Fjnicfish<Taftwfi5 then thcwcAlth.asit isstill tbe 
sub^^cncc, of H ippo Diarrhytus and other towns, the binhop 
of Caipos Wits bishop of a bright and fashionable seaside spa. 

Of many seaports represented some were hIiII the insecnie 
little mad*(eads which had for ccnturie?< ^htpperi fjfTthe preciou* 
yield o]~ NumJdian mines, and the homely produce of Kab>'liail 
farms. Other immense elaborate harbours had grown up as 
factorica of Carthage ; others enclosed a vist precinct for the 
diief coni'Tnarkets of the world, and depots for the grain which 
fed the proletariat of Rome. Of rhese some had once s^ivcd 
their commerce by offering themselves lo the Romans, aa their 
couKinx the Gibeonitcs offered themselves to Joshua, or bad 
risen again on such a dood of exports and imports that they 
dcnpiMrd even the cruel impo:it which still avenged their 
roibtancc to Julius Cfcsar himself. 

Tripolis and the Euiporia were rich and luxurious ;tmicl 
tmce^sing wars with the invading tribes and the advancing 
sands of the Sahara. 

Other cities were ^ated amon£ tlLimitabie slopes of com, 
or overlooking the High Plateaux, or among the foreit^ 
through wliicli ran chains of vJUagca and linca of road still 

^ Hivir l^iliip Monnnhn b IriErmI- ilut in ■ ^rm iKkirhpi^ «lv eviUicA 
\t£t oot only for hia nd gnmrau. but \Sjmu. £ff, to.) Sm AfftmiU #h 

%. ytfy ttdiJiiol [vm of Dyoic|fr and 



marked by broken oil-mill^, dry fountaiti^ ^nd post -stations. 
Crystal rivers, which aflcr short courses row plunge in sands, 
were then barked and quaycd and at la« led off into 2 
thousand channels of irrigation. 

Cirta, tile old capital of Numidia* on cartli's most perfect 
City-throne, was with corsummatc wisdom long allowed to 
mciinuin with four anticnt surrounding burghs a sort of unity 
or republic of their own. 

The vast region of Mount Aurcs with its rich uplands and 
inaccessible lajr^ of restive tribes was girdled with a rii^ of 
strong and brilliant towns and was held chained, as it were, 
to Carthage and its orderly powers by Hadrian's great wotIc. 
the new straight road of near two hundred miles tii Tbcvcile. 
To that ring belonged the military centre of Lambssis, the 
beatitifu) Thannigafli. the ninst antient mart of eotrmerce, 
and Thevcste, the centre of communication. And these were 
model cities also^ each a miniature Rome with every ap' 
pliancc of domestic, civic and luxurious existence that could 
keep legions and tribes engaged. Not only theatre and 
amphitheiitre for their dissipated and ferocious amusement, 
temples to the gods and genii of Health and Commerce 
and Katherland, whether Tyre or Rome, baths, with all their 
amascmerita, triumphal arches which set forth the conquests 
of the Emperors and the motbcrltness of Empiesscs, ample 
basilicas ready to become churches, forums and mimic 
curiE in which buslnt^? was discussed by orators with all 
the semblance of freedom. Here soldiers had unusual prtvi- 
leges of marriage^ and their children were enrolled in an 
honourable tribe. 

Along the Theveste Road itself, constructed by the Third 
Lcgio Augusta, was a line of fresh thriving stations, with 
here and there an antient town renewed, so populous that 
before long there was a Christian See every thirteen milesotso. 

Farther off huge frontier fortresses, like Capsa 'fenced 
with sand^ and serpents/ held the key of Sahara for the whole 


VIII iL 2. ACTs.ETc— coi:NaLVTi.(m.>, Tiiewsjtops, 369 

Tcll» and controlled the c&ravana which laboured up and 
dou'ti und acrosii the enormous b»tnK of the kiU Ukc£, or 
like Gcmdl-c' created their own oasis and there helcj the ulmoat 
bastion of civiliaation a^in»t the Spirit of the Desert — who 
after »ll h master. 

In safer districts lay what were simply (he adorned and 
noble cltJe* of Peace — Thubnrbo, Aisurac, Tbelepte, Mac- 
tharU, and many others, — above ail. Sufetula, which was not 
even walled. 

In short, the material spectacle of thc*c African citio was 
not unworthy of tbeir setting in Nature. And what more can 
l>c said? There is no measuring thcin by tmr timall and 
sombre ideas o( ntfirket town^i and appropriate public works. 

Yet many heathen knew that all the brilliance wac dark- 
ened by a rcclvless using up of life and hopelessness in death. 
The Chnstian Bishop in each knew that he and hi» were 
armed with a message of reality. To the delivery of it it was 
vital that ihcy should be of one mind about this 'enten'ng 
into life,' Therefore thej' met at Carthage about ftapti«m. 

For the present wc regard the record of the Council simply 
a^'a Document.' The arguments which prevailed m it will 
come later under review. It* proceedings were opened 
by the reading of the Jub^u^n correspondence, and of ibc 
letter to Stephen', wiih a very few wurdi fnmi i\\c President, 
which Augustine justly eulogizes for their large pAcilic spirit' 
and indomitable tolerance- Diversity in diocesan practices 
had no terror* for him, although the responstbility of creating 
diversity seemed to him appalling. Of creating it binuelf 
lie wuk all unconscious. 'Our present busineu,' he vaid, 
■w to state individually our views of the particular subject 

* 1» darrt «f Klaknn it oil btpCT' 
icciol with chaiuicK trivfl ^y\n>, md 
4l(cbt« Iti l^«h(i[^ ijLUMh* pruvn hih 
mkc tr^ * inattphnr froiti Mh* hijnd 

■ Aiic ^'Ad^-f. />W4/r- (9J; 



'before U5, judging; no one, nor rctnovme froin hb rights 
'cf coRiniunion any who tnay hold d[ffc:rc;nt Views from our* 
'^in?& For thrrc l^ rone? of an who cnnstitiitcft himscir 
'Bishop of BUhop^ OT publics hU colleagues with a lyrannous 
'terror to the necessity of compliance; since cver>* Hi&hop 

* according to the scope of the liberty and office which belongs 

* to him han his dcci^iion m his onrn hands, and can no more 
^be judged by another than he can himself judge hl» 
'neightxjijrV but wc await one and alt Ilic judgment of 
'our Lord Jesu Chriat, who One and Alone haji the power. 
*both to prefer uh in xhi governing of Hu Church, and 
'to judge our conduct thcrcirV Then every prelate in his 
seniority" delivered hjj» opinion. We cannot doubt that we 

^ Mi/k Cjrpnaik'i Mudied im of Atu 
andd/^Tfrwrn. Jn the nui clftuse I [hink 

iht |Jiiticlu4iliun tri 111] tllr vtliETuna i& 
wmnif. The rxp^t^Mtu ilfjirndt an 
^usiiJf. Sntt/- £//' jynfm. 

* The okt pa\}a.\ ttay uf huchUinc 
rliev tlipmy phnitn wt» w turn ihfm 
Ut ascovut lilcc Burunini byviyiiig iKal 
Cypri*n 'ihranKh not oTci-rcspccifur 
'tlludcd cf cDiinc to r^c Dfa» pvV 
IU«d by Sl«ph«n'E Supreme iVjniilie 
■alhorkiy uid hrpuleci u luool Wh>/v "ifJ- 
jemm willi ihc uUt tide of Uithop of 
Blihopt.' (**»•. AD. J5B, thi.) 'I"he 
nri4dlc mode wu that of thv KiAnvucdiu 
R. MivHjri (nn) '^'■■1 ^ Mitlkctibulij 
fi7yoJ aii<1 liapl«i Affhhiiihop Tliuiii 
(lV£i)r rnC l>j t}i[»c wha fawn on bim 

A«conlliig lo lliu mod? the conirnvsny 
ife A Ti>n]iiiicc lUiJ (he rrc^rdt rcr^Tia> 
Th* IhiH or tnodem ultramontane 

wUh (nilh. -Il B imptiiiMt /or mr lt» 
t«« any alliiiton to Stephen In these 
Honl».' Ht lh«i uLlvsly rtnarkB 
tliiLi CVprion'- 'absciliivc nlcticc* iboul 
Mrjihm M ihii CouDdl 'deserves all 




out atrcnl^on' and It 1 'choK ^toO' 
nuktc'— cvLdrnUy a loUen of 'deaiict 
homumKc' Ip. ti,il to ihc 'Sovenj|;B 

PiMitilT' AaiftuDr Prtmtpp, 51^,(1^) 
<an»!ciicia!ltjriiob nt aH loSt^phTifl. H« ^H 

huwcrci hai»i>i]v dutiilftLa fur u vhit ^ 
MgT, Ft«pp«] Irn dDTb— Vli. 'wbotlUt 
u ih? iibjr^i <ir Cypriui'a tiluaoo ?' It 
ji Cyt>iijui bimwir. [Ic. t^ 'eIjc burti 
ProAdcnt (jfthe AittraNy uil "Obrr- 
mctropohi " ol att AFfto>i' ncrdy 4i^ 
dajuu any t'^P*'^ "' u^in^ ^ "X' 
IHiHitirm, uvHch icluiHy wu ihm Of 1 
'Bi>ib>p of Bmbup^' lo di4ck fnvdoB 
of caprcuion^ 

He furthet rcxiwk" ihal chv Synod 
wu nnt Hi nil flpiignod ra r«ply re 
Romf» but 'fM Ldmnonod noldy to ■><■ 
thr ^[luwjiiK »|.i|n'*iLiiu^ t^f the Afiica 
Imhijp r» C-yiiridi] .—in ir|rpnvrifpn 
which 4aihihil*d ifulf in the anivtr' 
ullr Mni iiuliTiduHlIy ti^vnna aui l uIb- 
cidrntr nr thrir vJcwt with hts- 

■ Sn Roulh. R^ S, vot. iJi. p, i^r. 

Ilruffiiii uid UifiDliiB- CoifUpc MM. 
<rdinl>rtin, ap. Tiun^lf-H tn rhe«(tillaai 
ol Kruimut (The rrnt ctf ibii CwDotl 
nnil M^riEiimi, and ^ Lhc much inlcT< 
polimlmtf^ Cdfif^raffMJ^|PamMt],tb« 


havtf the very words of each of those cighiy^seven m*^n ' : from 
some u. tcllinj^ areumert ; from some a Scripture; from some 
an antithesis, an aralo^, or a fajicyV Here a rhetorical 
Hourinh, there a Aolucciam, or an unfinished clausc^ a re- 
nItUeniciit of the opimon in Lcrrns of an ar^mcnt\ or a 
jx^rsonal virulence or f^naticj^m f«r ouUihricking the usual 
tone*. Two of the juniors adopt the judgment of the 
majority", pleading their own inexperience. Such weak- 
nesses (except perhaps the last) still appear occasionally in 

4fl, 4J, 4*, t^. Kt. Wh ,-8, 6l, bU fi», 
J9» 61 i iWof "Mflrtyi'to ;3, ftf, flo; 
uO 'Diin>i de uh[)>DMXlci)i ' eo 70, 
VrruTii* i (liM of *ct>nSrnu>t r1 miitjrr" 
lo 45 mntl 87* Tboc tiilu are ttul in 
out muiUKn|>bi, BhIeiut ocbiJleJ Ihem 

(r p|>. If 14136), A' ni>l b«lDn|£Liij< Id the 
'goLd/ u oi wunc ihcf cvulJ not, 
uiij ai nil uivcti by Alleunjll(^ Bui 
ihokigli nci AiitheitUc, xhcy p«rti«fH prc- 

ndinple. only four nppoir of ibt con- 
lotfiOT-lqihop' iwnrd m £/. 76, ud 
|bvdpvtn>*li<xi«i Verului b iulcioti^itc. 

* .SlKpbciU (loulHi. Hut Comelliu 
■cpi io A^ 49 (?J (he ««iTennt o( on 
T|»XDiul mufcjCEKf to Cj^rita, 'qnM 
mtiliciu tc[:n>' In Kuk. vii- tij hc hjivc 

' the Hiafnuion bttwMn P%ui of Samo- 
jftl* init Malrhmn tftliaii dovm in ihort- 

Stuff- £/f^ y NcmcBUDt (he mulyr- 
Uihap c4' Thobuiue, iiTt, 'Thi* i^ ihc 
XplrlE vhtch frinn (N liq^ma^ muvoJ 
UpOD tIm fJK* <if lb* mlm, fc^r n«irhrr 
the Splrfl «ui «f4nla MMEit iWna imict. 
nfmntrr apart rnHnihtSplKt,' J^ir. 

* Smi, 7t'uruin tikbcl oac cl l>&p 
tiMnt,' *iltcTvliuIo1x±]uunetaptiiin/ 

I luld tliJiiki ibii 4 oriuptJon, bal It U 
Afrioui asf» in.1 even wHIi paaiiT^ lii- 
finliin. &/. f,j 3 ' ,.,<Jia <[* ecclHla 
ct ciduili hiTie^hU't Efi, ^y 6 'toudttrl 
rfliiRtri tinltcTcI/ Tafiivr. i. 11 'ijuml 
.„4t Xcivmri VcUBdUffmiim diri hflf whIh ' 
&CL Marie bciid the CDliiclj' broken 
conitiutlim] of the cnJ vt Snt^ 7, 
ind (1v ntM nhv lifinMmi; nf *tUfi«' 
in Setf^ ty Stnf. 4 'Dcbvunut 91^0 

ifhtiTnalir^t id HN^IptJim vmlenlc^ qui 
pKudo-l3«pU«Xi TiJcnijaf. ikUw -va ia 
[vnle tfctcmii i^ptiiuL' (Cr£i*< 7»> > 
'iddlfnv «ir.-.j0r nudpl/ J^, 70 Aft. 

* So ^mpuniiu i^r DiDQinauu: *tl m 
rvklpnt (hut hurrlici tfc riol ahk in 
bapiiu and i:ivt mnidioa of tiai, irho 
h«TV no powfr eiihci to loosecviaUEht 
AitTlhiiaj;ojJc3rtb/Sr«f.4(L Tbc poai- 
potitv of KoEiK nl Cthin« Hcak fi uc- 
finiitak«abJT cmdni:, S^r^ v6^ 

'i;m/.jr, VjEocmurT1]lbafU;-WE 
*iiwfti HrtrtTin M ht worw (tmn lie*. 
ihfTii.' Whcrtfnr* h« Mcoovncnda (hat 
ihcy ^lioafd \t tiorcwd before Iwiai; 

cnu of Cirla. Stui. %. a .S>W. t» 
* ut UDcer qaod habeb«ai «l <1diniuiioTiu 
CI iriLm-. uncttftcetui ' : onthE* T«nuLrb' 
ibJ* ■p<«di wt Jffmdur «■ CittKr, p. 

* ^MOr. 71 and 7& 

24— » 



dcb&te. On the wliole we can but admire the Roman phh] 
JiEkd tc:r»c:ncss of epigram, the^ ability and even mofc the-' 
tiMUper of" *(i great a number of speaken; to a (^ondii^Ion 
which we dissent from. Augustine points out the quiet 
intention to adhere to aniCy which appc^iru not only in 
Cyprian's own words, but in such eTcpressions of the rcM as 
'50 far &» in us lie»/ 'with all our powers of peace makini 
wc must strive.' 

Cyprian in a sentence of six simple lines closed the dis*| 
cussion, * My own opinion is quite expressed in the letter 
' our colleague JubAian — that heretics being by form^il declara- 
'tion' of apostle* and evangelists styied adversaries of Christ 
*and antichrists, mu-'^t, when they join the Church, be bap- 
'tiEcd with the Church's one baptism, in order to become 
'of adversaries friends. Christians of antichnats,* Thai 

was the unjcnimims ^cnse of his Council, 

Firrniiiart and his letter. 

Our next * Document' is one of singular interest, 'llll 
Letter of Saint Firmilian to Cvpkiak.* 

Tt would be in contradict! tin to the whole of his policy' 
if we supi>osed that Cypn'an condescended to bring lo bear] 
upon the Council the pressure of any external influence whal 
soever, [f he h;id desired to do so, it was within read 
After the Council had deeded, immense weight must havi 
been added to its resolution;) by the confirmation which theyj 
received from Asia Minor. Directly after the meeting, andl 
so not early enough lo announce an answer, Cyprian hat 
written to tlif bishop of Carsarea, metropol(t;in (so to speak) 
of Cappadocia, a very copious letter, and accompanied it with 
copiej^ of two others*. These he had sent by Kogatian, on«j 

Ift rtld JLifiicoMaU'i lutun] ui* of thu 

FirmiljoA^ IvEUr to Cypnaa% ai 
menu ftre all DO be foood in llu 



of hi.% dcjtcons, who brought back ihr reply before- the 
wintcf V 

Cst^»Tcx WAS s. mcinorable pl^ce. Its four hundred thou- 
sand upland people' were even now in some urconscioue way 
preparing for a heroic stand witJ^in three years from this 
time' against foes at present undrcadcd and undreamed of. 

«ipicil« rjaad7^ Cftrcliil ntminitW 
iviU convince tlic rtf^r UiM BOiUfii^ ft 
quoLcJ Uoiti Cg (u Klliclil p- ii« »ip- 
po«t«|« which dwi Doi tppcAT In 73 or 
in 74. 

Of tljc*e /{p. ;j. aiMiCMtcd lu Ju- 
himn. was fl-* w Imv? tfm, ui*t! j4 
4 fitit mnndol of die ^uffBiion, conlAin- 

wiih nEhrnt iddffl. Aivj E/. ?« wvi 
wrilEcn M F»mp*j immedEllHly after 

coniaincd tb? Urnl vkw of [lie utide 
qufiiion, anrf «lsn o( Slephen'j prnent 

ThcK two Ieucr> Ihcrcfojc give (he 
giu (if lU (lusriani inrl irgumniii on 
wliich hik juilgincnl wu loqutr^d &nJ 
ncrc fui llm roduci trul lo tlw i^al 

if nm aII, riC AC nny rale ihc timpla 
ppi«W vfH- nni vn( In Finniltan in- 
ll«ad of the Uier mont elabontr oov, 
in order tu ol>i«Jn hin iudcmani vbich 
it» requuvl wnh apnd, 

^ J* th« xnnta of *.r. jj6, for b*- 
t9tt ihe ttot Stephen ifjfd and Cypriui 
ttv ia «3(Dd ; utd [be lepwL tent 
froftt Ihia Coancil vould not htvt been 
hcpi huk » ftu. 

lirfc ibii d'lAicDU^ii ialK<t. **£. ibai 
Kinntliao. tpnlilnf of ihe pc-rwcuTii^n 
of ^Liximm whkcb killowfd Ihc cvlh- 
qtukei in Funtui '/tfit Akiaitdnam 
itupirctorfm,' who wai kUleil Lr Feb- 
rviT^. A.:> 1^5. «0i^ If Wfti 'djfe/r 
cifm/i ft Jvfi /rrrtmu^'' iJ:'/. fj. io}i 

«hkh If iccfill> Gjuci VKuld tlnte ihe 

telter ar lli« beglim^ngoTA-D. ftj^ Hal 

iheeodof ijfi A-D., cspceldly «tlh/crr, 
ukl conildeiiniE (licit IncIuAin nicxle nf 
reekanlns, Uuiffjcl*n|ly nei*. 

Dr Pctem (p, ^f^ ihmki thtU ihc 

wivihat whir^ ti^rtk Minilarlytrthim ihe 
n«wt gf thii ume ThiM Couneil. Any- 
how FirniitkLn hu hod Oic iKi;oiLrit a! 
iHaE ivjrciiiin fTiim Cyprian, ^tipimir^ 
th« il*]#gai«i (0 har* tdt Caittiage about 
Ihc ent! of Lhc first wcik of SfipUnbcr, 
(Iirrc ttci« etch) wcckt fur (!irm (o |>u 
(o Hrkini*, ro TpFum in r-arlliif*. ihrn 
foi Hq>i2a(ianlxiinalEchiAwaj' loCatiuca 
and be bai;k in CaFllu|;c 'dtft/rt wmttr,' 
whkch. for hflii^tlon purpMn« bf^an 
ax thU 4n abnul Novtmbcr j. Thii 
vaulJ tie tlfL^c moutflk, Pcaiiori. Kctt' 
berj, Upalui (hlnk (he !ei(cr to fir- 
miban U'tnt off Ixfon ihv (Ji^uncil, b«t 
£>, 74 i> aflci (be CvuiLdl fcnd ;l vu 

" JSomrtM, niL »j. Cmare* I* be* 
(HTcn 3000 and 4000 f«( above theie^ 

' TlJGie con be iiu 4uuIj( dial siSg 
jCH. ■< thf Tadl flhtr uf the eipmr* 
<tf VaWnan {ttm A/fttuHa *ff CA nnftpgy. 
FaUritm, |k 151). C^cufca fell very 
nearinihif iintt Smhrnrlin of diS' 
bon't edilon- ll w loiaUj impOFUbJ* thai 
Firmtlian'i TeKci t*n ha*e l»«n wilem 
uyiti ifXct 10 Tearful an eteni withoai 
an ilhuloo to il, eonftidcnri0 hii ciyle; 
ajtd \t ix wT(e aAg, ll musi bave been 
irftKofiaafy alWf. Cenuoqueotlr wc 

nifty be turt (bit the MCk «l Cj 
«iu t<lVBeb s^ a«4 i4l. 



Thdr wall», like tho5e of m<nt inland towns rcnxitc from 
Trontien. hud long since <lccaycil or b<«o removed'. They 
fell by thoui^ncU, dioking up their cnvD ntvincTt bdVim the 
PtfTsiBD Sapor. By thousands ihry wrrr drivrn like rattle To 
ffUtvHngT They lost all things; and *hcn they rcco\*crtfd 
themselves as Paris only in our own cla>'S has doae. 

Thcif present native bbhop, prcdcccMor of their native 
Basil, was a memorable man, Firmilian, conspicuoos by his 
family, had already, fivc-and -twenty years before this, t>ecofiie 
maic conspicuous Jn that pfwitioii'. Hi* eminent character 
ennobled a race so noble that IifCy ye^an; later under Diocle- 
tian, the judf^e entreated a Christian mart)'r not to tami£li 
it£ reccrd by a crimmal death. ' But its best nobility/ 
Capitolina replied, *is that Firaiilian was a scion of 
house/ *Him u-ill 1 follow: after him 1 fearlessly coni 
that Je^ub Clirist is Kin£ of kings*.' 

He had paid Origcn prolonged visits In Palestine, so best 
to deepen his intim^acy with 'things Divine'' — no common 
student of no common master. To one of these times 
belongs perhaps his introduction of the awakened pa^n 
Uwycr Gregory^ afterwards the Thaumatiu^e, to Origcn for 
hi* many years of .vtudy in all that wiis knowable. He had 
prevailed on Origcn to come and lecture from chifrrh to 
church among the towns which hurg about the vigorous 
plateaus of Cappadocia*. And there later on^ sttU tn Fir-^^| 
milian's time, sheltering from persecution, Origcn apparently 
fomid fresh material for his lifelong study ^ Fir miliar; 

= Tfirbuhr Lrce. Rfm, Hia. li, 

< j^oTJinu xji- sj, 

* In A-c< iji ' tbe EolHjou'cr Alo- 
andet-' At^pcrcr tt tr n^rtfi^ Eiueb. 
ff- S. vl 16, 

* TillcEUuiJt, vul, tv-t p. ,109. 

' TifAf aCrt^ ffuv^isTfiikir J^pArnt rift 

tlttA^it^ptXTtiLattift trftii. l<>iiuh. vi.t?. 

' cfi^\7tf-4wVw^Knar,EuHb.¥i.3Ti 

jercime*^ t-'irr.///. ^4. tuysoll Cafipa' 

T Evseb- VL 17. Bui we dobi t*bt 
tare nai tu make £ijKbiu« ht mm 
lluui be mfanin tor he ion tnsifi t& 
have a \'ti\r eKC^Hed tin •nlLorilj- 
Afrei ipcak.lii£ cif bymmochm tt ttim- 
laiiHE [droTttttiiitoi irp6f> tht nftmlivf 
ot S Manhcw, he procvcda 'Oiigpn in- 
diotic* (nvAlfct) ihnl he recciTtd rrooi 



■vfas admired 'for the trained exactitude of his intcHccCual 
facultic:^ in philosophy and chcolo^ alike*'; — 'an iUustriouft 
n^an.'&Ays NiccphorjSt But so Dionysius the Grcat*had ranked 
him Uin|j hefcirt; wilh Uhc Diorc illustrious bi^hop:^ whom 
alone I name .' The grciti liljiiorian of Armenia ipfaki of 
hia many works, among them a * Hivtory of the Vcxationii of 
the Church" under Maximin and Dcclus', He waa amonj* 
the cariJGSt thinkers who touched vAih prtcision the fact:^ of 
Original Sin\ and S, Basil appeals to the treatises^ of 'our 
Firmilian' in evidence of tlie exoctocss of his own teaching 
concerning the Holy Spirit. 

VLth other inlci-prdalianB [ip/L'trtim] 
of !ijrRiPWiJluk iin ihe htiipuroi. aiid 
ho up hlut (hit thr rrcLMVfil iht Th^nkk 
tpy Buccr*4icm from SjinniuHii* Him 
irlf/ Thr t!ipr?vlnn« IhIf yo ■Jmllftr. 
Add Thr tninitlvti i< vi rautiouv ihi( 
EoHbim fiiDit t>v 1>i>ildi(i|- on l KnU 
vhlch rallodbe aIj^o hx (//u/. /^< 

/Mr, Pufn ifii+> I* n> P' 1049} in 
Oiii^rA vwit hiuidwiitiiiif 111 « irer)' oltl 
tinol whjr^i ««^ wrhtrn tn 4ffnie>llnf!i 

book I fuMnil in iIjc imncnii^n of 
JulmriA, 1 viffph m CxaarM, wbffn 
I wu ID hidi^E al bci houK' And \ht 
UjclI to tAj ih? had Ricoivrl ii itum 
Sjnuui'hut himtifiLfj ihi* mtdfjuwr^r nf 
lli« J^vi.' There i^ mrnli'Jn hcrp 
«ii]y of anc Iwuk. 4iid ib>l aoi QuncU- 
UfLgeik\ vorl uv ffX7ft/«ni. no| ha- 
|^Af#u on whkili my M« of rvlulon^ 
i)iij>r0U A>toiinoi]cLn<jIiKn«Uoair— 
'Owtfyt-rtyfiiwytmnta "whicft book hid 
bccE lucnbvl' with the vordi Eivcnt 
DiH ihU Ok hvtk vo ■ uiuiuicf>i>t by 
OrigBii Zfixnp^ i^ot% nm mnn -a 
pMUoi bootu' Uil 4 iMt*k wriJUo in 
KiuiC'tino- AltlaaLi|*h KiLvbiu* ur> DO' 

thprr i« na grounft (a qii^iliin 1>ip rmth 

Oiigcn then vu proljably ul Julm 
iherc during thct«o]wnn(A>ii, ij;— 7) 
ol MuriniB'fc pertMttliob of Oirlslfcn 
TciHjLieife iDtxioro* vd {jncciitje pRjp' 
TFT Qil£entai.tAy\ OtmluK fiiil. ^ii. 19 
nihn boldly); oi tW^ tvnig ihfr« t^- 
tcidy »L imjtk, he tniy hir« bftn fnrctd 
Into hldiDE by (he noiniria of SnmLin, 
proconnd- PuJUdlm ««a« JvIibim 
^ayiwrdrfl vol in^ronluT TUc le*i 
iaWamdhj Meaning tji^d, Bst, if^iA. 
*nd the tnnil&TAr Hci^^ctu tonhub 
(lie *to(y by liidiriic tbc B^i^ik inalcaduf 

■ ri^^oti^ a*<^^ iqj HvripQ* yfiiftvt 

' T04^ ykf tf^a^wrfW^ova, ji^iif 
rAv fTtvi^iruv «M>uffa, DJOU. ftp. 
Euwh. VII, f. 

' Mo«« of Kfionn (tc 3^— e- 4S7) 
bui fiaidowc* mow prwli* deuJ 
of penon* iur<i |iUc«k in hb iccvitB 
of AnnciJtu bid ^ibcr uuitfidumt, 
fiiit Anun. \- it. c ^y. 

* RnLLlt, R^S< tiL p. 149. 

* 4 U7«i ««i ■araX'>nir<. Bmb!. d$ 



Hi* name stands first in Eusebius's roll of the ,_ 
temporary Church-rulers ;— before Gregory and Athenodonis 
of Pontua* before Helcnus of Tarsus^ and NicomaA of tconium, 
Hyitiennru» of Jerusalem, ThcotccriLiit of the Palcsbnian 
Ca^sarca, an<t Maximo-s o( Bo^tra^ This wajs after the death 
of Dionysius, who may have been greater In apeculadve 
powcr> whilst Cyprian had left htm no room for originality 
JO bU Baptismal ihe-sis, — the only document of his that wc 
posisess. Hut his sense of the need of action was the wider; 
his w^ the more 'chora^ic' spirit, 50 to ^peak 

Dionyaius wrote against Novatian. He wrote against Pau! 
of S^tnosata. Nay, he wrote to the diocese of Antfoch itflclf 
in a tone as if their wild prelate had alrE^ady been deposed. 
But Firmilian was in both innanccs a foremost influence in 
assembling the churches for fair hearings of the questions'. He 
waa President of the Third Council of Antioch (Second against 
Paul of Samosata) and there determinedly accepted, against 
the sentiments of the Cojudln the apologies and promises of 
Paul, ' tnistrn^ and hoping,' and leaving hhn room for repent- 
ance. When this charity of his proved as useless as it was 
in those days remarkable, the Fourth Council of Antioch 
assembled, and whilst they tarried for him as ncecasary to 
their deliberations Firmilian died al Tarsus en the journey. 

Thi.s was the man to whom Cyprian wrote ; not hecaua^ 
as Romanists have hnperi, the cause in hfs hand was pre- 
judged, but because he was the foremost church-ruler of the 

His Letter, extant In a contemporary Latin version of hi3 
Greek, is the most enthusiastic of the series. It has many 
poinU of strong iniercst Of the claim:) of the great See of 
the West to guide the Catholic Clinrch he does not write 
with either awe or scorn. It is plain he had never heard of 

^ Eub U. £- vii. ggn Paul of SamoraU (r) In 464, (t) iL ur 

' He vnu conncclcL) with Fonr utEcciUin *\.aXt bciHctit 164 ami 'i69t 
Ciinnclli of AniJocli. Lht fir^t in a.Up anU (^} in lAg. 


Eiucb. ff, K. it. 



tlicni'. It ttfTirms the apostolic antiquity of the custoro of 
rcbiiptism in Asia; h touches on the anrusl synods of that 
region, on the fixed and exicmpore portion]* nf the Kut^ha" 
ristic liturgy, on the clerical function with regard to "peni- 
tence' being not to bcstovr rcmisflion of sin, but to awakca 
conscience and promote reparation; the qua^i -supremacy cf 
Jcni^alcm, the unity Aubfibting under wide division. The 
Guiiduct of tht; Roman ttiwpird?! the Caitha^inian Pupe he 
compare* wHthout ;i miigiving to the act of Juda*. For 
Arguments on the Baptismal question he relies on Cyprian, of 
two of who#e tettefs this is to a f^at extent an ipproving 
digeiit with illustrations, It is in fact an "open letter/ a 
restatement of the case from the beginning, a contribution 
to the controversy on Cyprian's side, the very force of 
vrhfch consisted not only in alTimiing the concurrence of East 
Alia Minor with Africa, but in showing how completely the 
arguments were adopted there, which were urged in vain 
on Italy. He says himself he had tho^ tetters by heart 

Quesiiooins^ of the ^nuincncM of Finnilijn)') letter are so mere an 
•plicd^ in tbe cniicitcn of ic acd in the history of Cypnan iI^jt it would 
be wMJte cf »|>ace t<j disco** any but the mott t<c<nL Oiticri >Lall be 
jiiii cnEimerated tint, 

A> if forlr doubt) had existed, Rcttber; Cp> 1891 note) under Mine 

' lthi1n»c)ft vurth vrhiletcdinctil- 

ttntiAr lt> Karcntm AaHnrntLBnf^javAT- 
fir^/.A,!}. i^lL.KlIij,— DaaaiKhamplccJ 
hii pQwc(« in BUtcmrni and in ciitlclica. 
Cjprnn ^p o^J irirrt ir> pmoif* rh* 
)«iH«nnot of the Ori<fiUl biih^^i Ar 
tixiCf he wrQic 10 K> nmnFc ■ i<i:ion u 
C*pt»rti^l» hr cannw have crmiilfd in 
tvnt* m Ihr nw cr bifthciiu - f tmiljon 
lUndfl (anTiclcd of % 'patfifu nicnd*' 
cium' ■hen ht uyi thiz SwphenKyled 
Cypnan 4 * [xtiido^bFltf ind pB^udo' 
prtn»hci'i ffr Bektbct Cypnui tto» Au- 
IpjKliac DdLllvn thoic cpllliGU : V\t- 

ttiilJAD made 'fiumredion «fE*in»E' ibe 
Church dI Koa« injudbhnjj vithMoO' 
UAivU Hbd QutrtodcdmAMt bal *« 
'ft^toifd ID CaLbolic connDunbn* uu) 
*<ti^ in Ihr pfiir^ nf Ittp Churrh'; Ai>r 
hi i« A Lhv Cirnl^ KaJAailiu— g^hOtl. 
* Let no nuLn ibink FiinioiIi«>i prncTBTcd 
in hkf fLcromravnimc oMMf lifon ' ; Ar 
«'ilh othtfi he cute m ihc CourclJ af 
Aaliuch^ Kinally, kU the Or^catsl 
bUhojH vliD TCTt of hlsof^nton ahaui 
bjjtiiirn nrthlM ficuT ytvt and giw in 
tb«i a^b«UMi to Stephen' 



«ran^ mlsconf^pllon, tmtet ^Augii^mc was itii^hn«d to recagnit* ilie 
'gcmLincncu of the Idler «5 k could be mcd A^amsi tbc DoDAtisist 
■iri]y SI fin** friliral Ciinon,' Aua^isMre seems oowlipre lo oi^kr anjr^ 
CAplicil refcTCficc lo the IcUcr. fl 

The Epi^tlr did nm upprar in the Editio Princeps of Cyprtan™ 
or ill repttitiona (A.D, 1471 — iSii) because it wu not itt the poor 
m^inusrrpis rmployedi although lirtbre iy2f' twer\\y-i.ix MFiS. n«re^ 
known conLdjnini; il. Ag.uii, it was not in the editions cf Erismut 1 
(a.»- f53r>--is;o) hecausr not in the Corbcy ws. of ihe Fpi*t1«» 
whicb alone he employed in cottecting ibc old xext. Bm MftAutius 
haul the epiitl« in two nf his manu^HptSt yri did nui print il m 
Roine in T563 ; 'the authorities/ mys L^iino Ljiiimj bis editor (BiM*' 
Sihrr. et Prof- p. 174 b), 'not approving cr 1\^ax. hiihertti unpuTiHshi'd 
epjiilc being brought out of ili daTUn«%' Noi that he fntcttiiifie<l the 
9|]Ehl«I diiLibl of VA ^-cjiuitkcociS. Fur Tain^le hnving obscned th;it 
prudence would have dictnied it? continued supjiress^jn, * on aciffunS 
'itjT umpi-uffiid vfhttnencr aiid i>i:i/rn£XA which h^ul le^tt M:inm.ius fo omit 
'it,' Latini eomes forward [p- 177 b) lo coiTeci him : ^ It was 1, ^nd not 
'Manutius, who left it out. Mowing my pjedcce3soi5\ and becAute 
'cletvtted Ih^j peluhince of !he man [Kirmilian]V He did not Icnow ibat 
ptcvtout editors had never h*d \\\5 oi^purtumLic^. Morel fiist printed it 
in 1564; and then Pamftle in 156!*, cTiiicinng Morel's imprudenctH but 
(hiiikm^ the letter too importunt to be emitted. &nd administering in- 

The Urst person suppo&ed to hAve quc»lionEJ its authenticity «rM 
Cbristiiin Ltipus in his Scholi^i or TeTtullian's tie Pr^ttriptitmibUF 
(BruiflL \h'i\ on tbc ground th.-kt it could not be true, a> siAicd in the 
leiter, ihnt Stephen had i:a1ted Cyprian 'a FjIsj? Christ ' ^-'An \n^xiri txttt 
of conjecture,' aays BalutCj p. 513, 'against which no monument of 
antiqiiiiy is safe.' Poor Lupus liowever never dntihted in authenridty, 
BiLiute miaundentands hj« rathei cljmsy expression * D'p ntjt/i inmcn 
'Ofritatf hiFs/w'; which meiint only thnt he qupaiioned whether Stephrn 
could really hnve so miscalled Cyprran, Lupus elsewhere also U5ea 7\t- 
milian's epistle asjjcnuini?. [Chr- Lupu*, O^^. L ix. Vcnei. 1727, TenulL 
4e Prat£ript>oniln/i^ Scholia, enpp, 4, 5, pp. ^7, 93.) 

In I7J3 Raiiiiond MissorJ, a Fran<iii:iin, puhhihed a£ Venice twft' 
dis««riattons in which he ass^ignt the whole of the HJipti^maj Document! 
to a race of Donatist fo[gc»^ and in 1734 Kh J- Tourncmme. « Jesuil* 
pr;nied some 'Conjectures sur Ja supposition de tjueiques ouvragea d« 
S. Cypricn et do la letlrc de FitmiiJen,' in the Af^moJre's fit TrA*oUx kn 
I734,p, ;246. KeTlherg characreriies both by anymg the Utter ia 'etwat 




nit I 




' J/Hii/>/*i«^««//<i[?iflii(;nieixIj«a]H to break off hi» 
* Haitel tluiiki llic uuiic fcclini! c 3). 
ku£«d ihe (CriCte at coUex O, b»c- Kit., 

Iiii Iwucripl (M ^mm9 



buonncncT ohf^vkh cbcn ao abflprechnul' a> the otbcr- Miia^ri woa 
vimr^red by Cm. C Vttu b an ticndcm1f;il flicputanon^ J^tvi^ ^73^: ** 
wcJI M by Joh, Hy&c. Sbanlra, Bolotfim 1741*' ^ouib, J?. 5, JU. 
p. tifi, Inschtxs over Mm only *(|itam infrllfltrr, qukm ri<1iculr' To 

Toumcminc tx '$ehr gr^ndlidi' rcrutaijon wa> g,iven by D. CoVtA, 
Ttibitijj^n 1740'. 

RouEb (^. i5^ nr. 1 86} rccordsthnt Mntibiaa Donncnmayri /ajtthififiKt^, 
p. 115, Viciiftfl 173^1, mtmion& jAuihonijefe icpoil^aiinjf tbc hcfptidfim &« 
Romanisu; and Wmmonn, /utinf/. Hist. Eai, N. 7*.[HatfcMagd. 1745]* 
vul. ]. (& J4g, and Kccti* De L^^aftett/dut Etcf/iiajt. } xvili. j>. m* Olhcfs 
OA froiesionu: h« r«rcrs nho to ~[\ M. Manachi, Origg' '^ AmUff- 
CArtinrm. {Kom- J749 — 55] 11. p. 316, In itqo And 93 anothcf 
cucui revived the Attack, vii. M^rcdlinai Molkenbuhr ir tvo Laim 
Dinerijaiioii^ ; he was labiiriouily tcfuiL-d by Lumf^er (Miirnc. Cttrsms 
PatrcJeg. TcrtuJiian, vol. Iir. ; P. G. Lumper, //lj/^Ofi T/tt^thgiet^CriUta, 
vol. XIII. pp. 7Q7 3qq.). 

Jn 17^; Ciov. M&rch«lti in bit ' Ki«rt:itATiH?ni CyphAtikhe,' Romn 
[1787, Nt'uv^ Hiit£T. Gtn^i *l«o 4tlA<.ks tbf Kvi^('inrnrM> 

In iStT Marri^Ui in his great .^^^Vil CkristMnti \y. 11. p. 13S) itrang^ly 
reject) ill only because ho cannot think that »o »Aintty a pcrion can have 
drnnurred ihr Pope, ;<nd on thr »mc gmunda he d«Tiie« itic KpUEl^ of 
Cypiian to Pompcy. 

In iS$3' Mt Shepherd 'added to and mould«1' Motkenbahr Hi« 
idea is thaT the documenii «hich the Ronviniats held %o injurioos lo 
their CAX%%f hnfl Virt-n finrnfl in thf Roman ifiterF*t 

In iS62 VnTicEan^ Archbishop tti Ni»ibi, brought oul 'La celebrc con- 
tesa fra a, Sit^fano c ^ Cipnano' ^Rduiu, Solviiicci), Him we lave tg 
the v«ry ECAcler nierei«i of hit athamcd Komftni»Li I>r Po1i;rt (p. 504X 
and MgT. Ficppel {pp- 4^9 *qq')- 

Mr Shqitierd's reaiAlcmcDli and aisuinentj, ducnfcojred 6rom thdr 
tivclm«M, «rc ihes« t 

I, That Finnilian^ ktier ib not apokcn of by anticnta like tIu9Cbiu«i 
Auj^&tin«f f en»me, OpEaTUV, Uc-t lhDi]0b it might have bMn cvpe<ied of 
ihcm ; opcci^^ because ^ depraved human nature ' ifroald delight in iu 
'ridicuk, sarcasm and abu««.' 

Several treatises which Mr S. sajrs ousbt lo have cited Finnitian*i 
I«tl«r if it were geiQuine, nm thcmsdv^^, aivnnllng xa him, not eeniilfift 
90 that he can scarcely argue IVom thetr cmiiMons^ But no o«c doubts 
Emebiu^^t ignorance of the Wf^u. or AvigiisTinr'i cf ibe Knit. Kusebius'i 
knowkd^'G erf Cyprianic iran^nciions comes only from Uionysiua* lottcrii 
whil^ Auf>u«tlne U at ignorant of ClnnEna AlecandTJaiitp of nJonytiut 

^ ki-riTtfirE, p. 1900. > Rrl Tlmf, i»nf. 



himi«lf, or Hel^nui of T^iu^ anri all ihc great prcUrM whom Ensebius 
ranks with Firmiliaa, as \f ihny had never Vwtd, Shcphirnl ar^vci a« if 
■{TTUinincc of din 4UThor*& GiisT«nrr wih knfiwlpiljfr ni 1iU nan-eLii»ieDC& 
Nevertheless Augustine »ccms quite avut ibu wmc Oricnult liad 
mingled in lLi» conijwcrsy^^vi/rufh'j^nr orienttMtmm litttHi is* Crrston, 
Hi If 3j — and been influenced bv ^ff^iitfUn ^t>fUf»tum' (ZV /'■i^. f. 
iJrJn. UL- 2], j^ihcu^h tlie accuincy of hit mformutian ma;^ be j[.iutEcd 
by his doubii as (o wtieLhcr many of ihcm had held to rcbaptiim, 
And by his ^tnicmciii ihal Lhey liiiiJ rtrt;a.iilei] it, Creuort, /-f>)> Why 
Sheptierd thmlu Ihai ' Eusebitis records none ol the fjicu at ibe qoarrvl 
* between Stepben and the Onenu) churches, the probable convenitif 
'ci on« or more l^r];e Synodic and the cuttmg olf of n Ur),>o i^rtion at the 
' £m9L from the Romfin CoinmoniDn' ip^ lS), i» liin) to iay> He records 
them all, U <^knaot be necetsnty to discuss why Jerome or DptJiius do 
not wnwc Fiintilian^a letter. But B-i^Jl kfLCw and Lued it. Sec iiiiLc« 
p 388. 

2, ' C»>TiAn raff only \nvc wtiticn to Fifmiliiin ^^cituf Ftrxciiliui 
'vtks, IHte himtelf, under the Rotnan ban, find yet the lener shovs no 
"evidence of Cyprian's knowing ihii (p. 10).' Such n (act would hftre 
bp^Ei ^udd ^nund far ;t fiir^er'« fjelr^eiion of m rflrrMpondant, And ft 
foTkfcr would for <:i:rlAm hnvc biuii^ht out the point. The ailcnct 
then favours genuineness. But the real reason for Cyprian's wiiling to 
FirmiUan is quite diflcrcni and fully brought out in ibc XciU 

J. 'C>-pmn does not even whisper the namr of FirmUjan in hU 
jfrcat Council (p. JiV How should hc^ on his own responsibility he 
vrote to him cicpEaininj; hi^ own position, but independently of and 
after the Council. 

4. The dciicoh Rogatian who omed the letiei 'would noi have 
been in ^ch a, hurry 10 rrTum (p. l^)/ It waa important tbnt he should 
not only convey the repl), bni. also that he shwjJd amicipate the wtntCT 
ai MO, beginning as wc b«ve &cen on Nov. 3. 

^, 'The purney of sqcmj miles iti a direi^r line' could not be ptr- 
formed ' between rbe end of September and bcRinninB of November' even 
'kf m ihsL ^ci^on ihere wa^ it vtssd sailing ai. air (p^ 2$). About I400 
miles is the real distance, and Mr S- bns not leabsod either the rate of 
Rninan itavdling, or ihe number of Roman vessels, wliifh for obiioii* 
rt^ons covered the Mediterranean more numerously than those whicb 
traJe to the poit of London il&elfi and e^ptrcially before the open s?uon 
ended. He talks about «a])ing to KpheEU<> or .Antioch, biil the val[<y of 
the SaiMs readily brougbt the people from the port of Tarsus to Comanat 
within lifty miles lyf Csesarea. 

h is wdl just to note how the iacidents of those objeirtioni j, 4, 
and f support each other^— ^the speed of Rogatian's journey on the verge 
of winter, the baste of Firmiliaik to reply, and the silence at ibe CouncU 
about his tetter 



6. Some other ' Arguments ^ arc bcDc^ilh Jioltcc, but the boldeit b 
that "lh«* Hdlcmsins' aJ the Iciirr ;tre not Hdlcniims,'' :inil ihii th»rt 
U ' Jiu Iraic ijf the iran^Utoi m [he /^^^ of ihc Icucr/ Of courie nooe 
if the ' Hellenismfi * xrc nai mch. A* to ihis however jwii^-ft fftth. 
In Ibe irUtaUtlon il U imposaible not to recogniic touches &f C^pnan'* 
ftylV- Mr ^h'^phenl Aclmitii tl tn ht tn Ihe c^isy natural \V^\9 iD which 
the ftUlhoE orihe rest wriio hU own leticn. 

It 19 cqu^y imposiible not 10 tee thv Greek; — 

A. In ftome of ihe ^ompnund phrawund coupled tpltheu: 

1. atftgnam voluntatis caritaiem in unum c^onvefiire : — vmXX^k rau 
^Ari* «poAjF«*tir (ct 3 Cor. viii, ii) tU tr 'frvnK$tlv. Ko occuion for 
claerititirm, iht' conjectuTf of Romh, who points turi the rvlervnce. 

.^. ,..& Comino misii sunt unitat^a ipintu vdocticr currc&tcs {*aj[v- 

4. quaniun icrtno divinca^^.distnbuAiur, ikc whole dnusc. 


In the Liters and com«timc4 ittkward rendering of vords: 

4. fcniorcs ei prrpa^ili for n>K«-|9urf^i ■>■ vfitttarnrtt^ Rilscht CJL 
lUp. p. 330 n. 

In c ?i prgpiident uMj^r/j «*t/H, where >(;:« i> riothm^ to the point, but 
the tr3n&l:t(nr cnuld not hiiw tiu*i^ prtAiryerti\ whi<'h would ucribe 10 
prcabytera the power ol conl^rmin^ and cniainiof;. 

5. incicUKdbilem scmeeiiijm (Jw^cXoTiyrov). 

6> rcfj ^ui kom;e /MAA>^.nec obiervari lUie orinia ^ua/i4tr ^tta 
Hicrowlymis *jb*tffvantut {/-ytRiiat ■ni'u 
7, jiOBsidenl poteitat^m [lUKr^rfaiy. 
la nrr vciAri Ib ii/sftto. 
It, quamVLs Ad iitiagjnem wnuhi 'tfjww [«/ «h^ ^i nit <&ij- 

iJC dnmonum fAtlocla i/ja est t»n}- {Noticed by H&rtcli Pmf. 
pp. xt,, ili^ n,) 

1^. 'Ai-LA/v/ (the tnie readinjc ^ imduity Cf' ibrvj^^t fvprtr tj Syjor 
mvb^ JrA ToO roT^r ml rv£ uiiny Thcodoieii //, £. 4.9, p. JU, eiL Gabf- 
(Hanvl /^r,j, 

77. fufj^ aifuJ ^Ham connnunjcdi (rl itAXn (), {HaticI Lc-; cvr- 
rectoninierled.v^/) O'. 13 ^vtd ahtnf faan...b\b\t. 

23. JVAT ctiam f'/Au ^ vi^j ^^ v^i^' priuf in Ecclciia Calholiu Episcopi 
fuemnt cannot be an ortfinal LAtm ettitte. <-'»vve ol tut' 'Bv^ K. /n- 
7icia-0&rT4c vcrr* t^unriirurTD.) C£ S- Luc, li. 40 Vg. 'in kii qtNH Tauii met 

ij. M/fw^^ilh>shKretlcM,..roc«jnui C&aW). (Hjirtd/.r.) 




3. ^fid tiftHtrt Affi di <l[vina voluniatc. 

33' volcniibus viverc, 

34. H.-CDH^ilii tl sfrrmrnti (Savkftt irdl hayouj jhould be rafnmu\ 

35. qua; tpfiC /i^ m^n'Sfl audire {fcberet (icat r!£f*rf). 

75. bene te vatcre omnilftti M^A/t...opUirLUS. ut,,.habcanius nnbiKum 

C InsE^nr^a in whit^h fhe GT««1t ^fcms ^c^arcd^ unil»ntoC>d : 

U s«d non i-h/w 51-aX^' ov y^ tt, where Harid [p. xli. n.) would 
*fttr Ndltius improve ihc Laiin ni [he expense of ihe Greek by ftiam 

S. ni»i U hih cpiicopi^ ^Hf rtunt minor fyk Paulus ^Tivr rvr), 

3L ut per cos qui aim tpsi : /um unnehinmjJT and Hutel would omil 
gait (Talavt read <u ut vrO 

There is toam for differences of Judgmenir bul lh« aboi^e iniuncec 
I0 whidi tticiny mitfUt be ad^^cd Are faiu And logcllicr evince a Greek 

In <- to wc may fuTther aoiice the applicability to the conditions of 
Asin Minor, :ind a( no t^iht^r rr^on p«rhap4j of th« lEte of such WDrCl« 
as piitriiu tuas abonr inaU pcraceiitionS' 

The remnrbable traniblioti in c. 24 of Fpb. iv, ?» 3 * sustinoitcs 
im'icem in dilectionc, latis Agent«« i^rvArc anitalem Spintu; m conjtmc- 
Tion? pacis* is in the s.'ime words as in fhree placet uf CypriAn^ anri 
dilfcrs from every other known rendering. Ep. $y 2^x Dt VniK%\ Dt 
B^no fas. ij <iim>ngly cited by S^ibJiier ns from De Ofi. ti EL\ TTiU 
seems to indicate the use of n v^rsii^tn which Cypnan u&cd or made. It 
Es worih obstmnp that I'lren the African Nemusiaii [St^tti. Epp. j) 
quotes the passage as ' airuntts scrvare.' 

The other cjuotations in che F.pUile are either not tnatked emmigh to 
be conclusive, cr may have been borrowed from Cypnan s own Bapti^mAl 

Riiscbl has undertaken 10 diss&iTL the Epi«i1e with a viev to shfvtng 
that parts of il have been added in Latin by Cyprian or his party (0 the 
OTifiinRl letter of Firmillan. Even jf the operation had been performed 
With success^ what would survive of the EpisUe so much more than 
^ul^ces for ihL- utmost support of Cyprian's views, chai any motive for 
Jdri^ery la lateDL Uut the destructioa of IJtcr&ry monuments byconecits 
is so much to he dcprecati^d ihjti ii Es right to see how baseleH the 
allcgntions are, 

Chaptci XI. Ritschl decides that this Is *vau anilerer Hand Angc- 



(0 becALue ihc quMtioA of the effect of unworihiacM U deduced in 
t, fi fri:tm the iiory of EhedrmonUc woman- 

(3j becftUKC itt lAtt words nf 11 mcidy repeal the lad( voKti of 11, 
Now ihis par;illfil form bdongs to the stating of ihc Three Dilcmmai 
pointed out bclotfv^ and the begifinm£« alio art pajdlf L 

C' 1 1. Nuini^m<I cV hoc ^tqUiAnuii qvandoApitd lUat cmmno Spiiitu* 

Sanciji It on ciL 
c> tl- Jllud ctbm quale e*t <iuod vuU Stephaauc.^^non tit Autcm tUic 

SpirituA d.inf.tu». 

e- 13. Sequhur ccim tlJjd t]Uod mlerrogaodL sunt Jipud quoi Spifitus 

SLLMCtUl ti<in ebL 

(j) because £pp. [;fl, 9) c, i; ts cloidy modelled on /j»- 74- S *nly 
(...tkh ubrigc^i ganz ges^hickt lu venicclien) aiid JfVffA i* Liied for**!/. 
/m/(' ia order lo vA/y the word^. (On thU »cc ' QuotatiooA,' p. 387-) 
AgAin Ibr ih» same nsuon '«1 non mrmimr ftpo^inlj^' iii u%«d tnurad of 
*didt eposialus.' Bui *non mcniitur^ takes S- Paul'i wordi {Ctil^ ■> so) 
irora Ihcuine Epistle hrr^ qtiotcd (Gal^ iii. 77), And thirdly, ^ a ^jf/njfr!/ 
...srfiitrarj is varied with aj/t ji.,.tdividwt juid cx-pfinded. This 

vAryiiijE honever ninit iltTf^u^h nifUrl^r ibe whole Elpi^te; anly ihr worcU 
arc uiJoUy nit^r^ voHcd Tbc phenomena are ehroughoui preciicty TboK 
of 4 retntn&Uiion of a tronilatioh, not f^heckcd by ccimporistin with the 
originals They are familiar to clA^&icol tuiorsi The pointi arc Itepl, 
the (inphasi^ is diffcrcnr. ihrr arordm|j somriimr?! vtry m.Mr, soiTirtinirt 
far away. In tht» lost inslnctcc the cnpnal force of fir&n ^t>Jtii.,jt 
Ckristo SpiriCm stparari is Jncirascd by The rciritnKlatton nni ii n 
Ckriiia Spirilnm Mt'i/fuHf. iM*y I here obiervc th^t jVwi ^' with 

lb^ Ttidicativr in LJ?><nl m ^ rfJatiiif ad aSjunfum when ic it mcdiit tha.t 
Ihc opponent ts lo^tcaily firfit'tJ to be .iduAtty m »n absurd potUion, 
uid i« not merdy Aumed ofT hb gniLind b)' a sight of Lhc cunicquc^ocs? 
Compare 75^ it nisi si.., contend um, 75. 14 piii ^,.>^pahr, 7j, at niti 

To pas» frorn wording to vubitonce, Ja ec. 11, iiand 13 t'lrmtliAxi 
puts Three Dilcnunu to Stephcit agaiasi hii principle that 'btpiiun in 
heresy WAS Chntlianbaptitm': 

(j) Would Stephen s^y that bAputnt hy » [icrton potMMnl by a 
demon was Chnsitan baptism, if ^mimticred la regular fonn^ (0. n\ 

(a) Tl>r hrtpitHvl, if S. PMtX U true, h*ine 'put on Chriil" According 
bo Stephen, ihcy must iijll loicivc Lmpoaiiiui: uf hjuid^ withjn the Chuich 
to order 10 receive <ht Holy t;ha>t ; Will Stephen ihen lAy that Qmn it 
where the Holy Cheat is QOt? (c ii). 

(j> WUl Stephen «Ay whether the b-^putm ol herotir« u 'of the 
Sckb' 01 'of ilic^t>"H'? If it us o/lUc tlvtii, how doci ClirW^HiL Wptikui 
dtlfer from Jcwuh baptism.' 11 ' of the Spini/ how i» tt (hat thoy 

camiot inLpait the Spirit? (u Jj). 



Or bricD)- [i) la thvrc ibioltiteljr iw limiuiion to efilcftcy through 
unwonhlneu? {2) U hcrcEtc* imp&rl Chrisl. why not the Spirir? 
[3) If Uicir bapOiFtn is spinlual, whttt defect tn thdr ipiriiuAl nxtu)? 

Of thnr Three Dikmmai RiiMhl proposM in drop rait j^J, ihst 1» 
ch. 12, on the ibove frivolous groubdt' 

Chapters 13— ?s art al«o chnrffed fls a frauidulpni vldtTl(^n to Fir- 
milian^ ori|:maL They fofm, it is said, *a whole' by thcmfcl^^i; the 
Epistle ended with chapter 35, and chapTer 33 hejjrin* with Ln(ro<lijCing 
a tent of Provcrbuhit liasni>conncclii>nCunvcrmiHclO[p- 153} wjihwh*: 
precpdrs, Funhirr, rert.iln words m the end of M aft erhoed in rh« ^tid 
of 35 (1 suppose 10 create n deceitful sbitUric/, but am not auit i^hy)* 
Now these are (he pas^^ges : 

Ct 22.., /And SE^phen is not ashamed to cnamtoin this; w that 
he SAyi remission of sins can br^ given through ihcni, ihoiigh they 
ore involved in all manner of tins, 05 if ihc Lavcr oF IHeAlch could 
be in the House of Death, c. ij, What pbcc rhm will there be foi 
ih&t which i» written '* Keep thcc from the strange water. &nd fron 
a strange fount drinlt thou not V* if leaving the "scaled fount'" of the 
Church ^ou lake* ^strange water' of yotir own tnslc^ and poUoic 
the Church with prnfane founis>' 

Even if a Jettrr could have ended to abr^pityt yet a complete 
*whole" dnes noi begin Js c, 23 begins. The Proverb ccnainty hau i 
connectioriH U ia itself the bnk- li is quoted to «ui>port by Scripture 
ihe aigument that the L^ver or Font can be only In The Chyrch. ll I* 
Quoted by Cyprian in the same connection In £^ 70^ i and thence (Lke 
%o many other (eit^s) .-tdopied by Finnillan- IL ts quoted ig^Xti in the 
same connection by Ncmesian, S^/f. Epp^ 5. 

Again (he end of JJ is no repetition of ilic first wordu of the flbove 
cxlrjict, but a gLrong advanee upon them. 

r- ?5,..*itiiTmamfcsi that neither ran we have liaptism in common 
with hcTclict wiih whom we have nothing at aJl in common, (Thai 
it the paint rea^^bed in zz and he proceed:*) And yet Stephen i» 
not ashamed to afford to such his ptitronage against the Church, 
and for [lie «:ikc of maintaining Ihe c^uiic of heretics to cleave the 
brothcrhoocl asunder, and, over and above that, fo say Cyprian u 
a faUc Christ and f^^ apcnile and teacher and worker ; jind coti' 
«CLOU« that oU theae flaws ire in himself, fore&t^li them by fa1s«ly 
laying to another's charge what he should quite deservedly have aafd 
of himself/ 

' The Bmngc (AfHcan?) Jiddition \s> 
Pnjv, U. iB which ipptars in Li:x. 
«nd in Kp. jo. \. in Sentt^ Hpp^ f^, 
bi At]|>, and in Ambrust. buE not in 

Ibc VulgAtC. 

1 Cam. iVh t«. 

' I iDusL %^^miiip\i wi^h the orly 
cfHTtctoi of Q, Then? ii no v, L u (o 
Ihe oiliet PreAcnii- 



T>i» objecEion to c. zi (p. 133) that ibt Mpf>>titioD» nrr built tt}> uui ciT 
^Vl^' 73' " S ; 74" 4 Mwi 7S- 30 fcoulJ be of no wfijlrt if irue, Kin3ad^An*ft 
open lrtf*f iiw^ up I'lir the pinpoM? of rrsflHrmin^ [hem mo!si, if not ill of 
ihe ar|{\imcntt contained in ihc two cpistlci vhkh ifttrc lubmiitcil for hit 
coniirniaiuirL tlut it dor* not happr^n to bt true rxctpt in mere vcibal 
coincidcncCt at to the Lirst two pa»»A,E(»' Th< ^trtiicnnf c of £fi. 73. 1 5 it 
ihc Hpottolic deriniticHi nf herr^y. Tb«l of Ajf^ 74' 4 <" ^^ic hundiin^ nT 
.Stqsbcn'c argument ^lonvcd from the practice of her?tic& Meitbcr of 
ihcic rcappcjit in c. 24- ThaT of Zip. 73. so 11 that :Si^h«[i ^tualLy 
nutUiUJft th« poor heretic \^ ho wuuld fiin mtar the ChuKk by hfihiful 
4irp8- This ii^ tcpcainl ^nuL 10 c- £4< but) in t\ 33 of Aj«^ jy 

It b lutrrted (Rlr^chl, p, 134) thftl c. ?5 conintiliru <: 6 n\ ti> lh« 
coonc of Sicphcn*» action ; and m d 6 is ifiicroting tn other pnrticulan 
It ra%y \ic givrn vo Tar in full 

c- 6. *Thnt tho Roman church doca not in nil thiols obaorvo tho 
primicive ir^OitJocii wad altc]£^ the auihoriiy of the Apmtk« to no 
pufpOM- anybody may know from Mein^ that about the celebntion of 
£uicr. and in.iny othct ''jacnunenu ' nt religion, there «iit with 
them loine divtmtci«a, and all Ihin^ arc not nbcirrvcd there in iht ^ime 
vf^y ivgtteJilit i/v<t\ a^ thi;y me vb^etvctl a\ JcruiaJrm. jusi u in the 
Other aumerouK provmcca loo there are muny thinjcH varied to ^uU local 
And tribal differed cv;^ {Imomm nigw hami/tum), Jiid yrt on \.hx\ ^<,to^^ 
the peace and unity of the Catholic Church have not nt any tine boeo 
itopancd from^ Stcfriicn hfu now d4Jcd in do tbiw breakirg (ihot) peace 
with you ivhich his predvctiion have ever kept v-kh you in love and 
mucunl hnno»r-' 

The kuppoKd contnidiction to thlt it found in th« opening of c. 35. 
'How tlibtfcnlly hdiU Sicphcrj fuIliUcd these the Apoitle'% cummond* 
'and saluiajry monition* {IhcMC namcty of Eph. \v.) kctpin); "kjwbnefa 
'and mceknca^'' tn tiLc lir^I rank \ For what ii more "lovrly and tncek** 
'than to have differed with »o iniiny biahopft throuj^houi the whole 
'Aoild, bidkin; the peace with each in vuiotii kind of discord, one 
'tibhile imede) with &3i(eri; bithopa. of which (fact) w« Ate confident thai 
^fdU too are awa^c, another «hilc with 7ouriclve» who arc in the %o^M 

c 6 then, It II tatd, maket the breach u^tti Afncn the Anii while 
c 25 places it Uier than the Eastern quarrcL c 6 however louche* no 
question of time but only tayt that the African* are thenuelv«« a living 
JnstorLce of Stephen^* quaircbomc pretcntionk; and c> 15 does not uj^ 
thai hU cirient'il tjuATrrl preceded in point of time hiL African quarrel. 
Bui if Dionr^u^ ^"^^ Eu^e'oJua (Euscb. //. /T. vn- f) uii^fy the leddcx 
thM the Ortenrai <]if1iru1iy w;ii ihe earlier hr wril scarcely nnd hti ofiinion 
contradicted in 35t nnd in that ca*c the erroir vuuU be in Rit>cb!'> 
genuine chapier 



The liiiifuLiitk objection. tUm ihe U*l word of the quxlc adtrntU^ » 
lh«re applied to the union of Eplteopal cquil« imong thnaiclvei, wtirreu 
Cypnui uaciii onlvof the unionof inferiors to »iipctior»« 15 of the people 
to their bithopii, or of ihr Cfiurrb to Oiri«U 4h*iliitHy br**k* <I(*wn 
yf^^Md/b/ »ml 'I'iMttiittff *rc ij>T<t by Cyprmn of ihc uiriccdnctt of Llia 
own ACiLon with thar of the Roman prtibytcry, and tpffcUlly of rhc equal 
rclaiion and uniori oinonfE Ihcmjtlvcs of ihc conp'Cgalion ', of ihc »oqs 
of Gorl', of ihf* injc^ pfoplfr of ChniL Thrice in chjipier j, which che 
cniic hiRiBcIf calls jconoinc, of lhi« very cpiAllc, 11 i* used in the suae 
fttriEe, And orm rvrn nf ihc union nf angrii wiih iht Churck Similar 
in CypriAo's ApplJCAlion of (he wi:>r4 iJ^M'^d/rV to ibc muiiul borid of 
churches', »:ie1 lo Ihr 'niArjy ^:^3in&'<^f The iACraiiteiiUl loal'. 

Lastly, )t mub( be obtorvcJ tlinL the m^fk& ol uanfliniioit frora the 
Creek are as rife in Rinchrs fandemnird chai^iers a» in any othersh 

Ci^rttlusioH. Thc5c rhen are iJ^e fniin of (what I betJeve 10 b«) 
ihorouji^ c^tami nation of ihe objections pushed n^^aiflat (be gciiuiiiencM 
of Fvrmili:»n's epWilr. The more general questions raised either prove 
poinlLcss or Ic&tl Co further cot^1lnLlA(.ioD^ 

Thf diction is iriHimfraily ihsit of a irsinslntion from Creek ; the 4|yl* 
ring* viih Cyprian ; the atgumcnts are Cyprmn'* own, All fit* preciadT 
Ihe conditions of a letter ir^nslAiei^ under Cyprian's hand or eye fiwn 
the originAl of a Greek wnler who had sliidied Cypnan's arj^umcntSv 

The ch;ipters whi':h have hern rtlsungnishcd by a superfine afumrn 
AE inscition^ either c^finoi be detached from [he context without viotencrc 
tL> (he af^umcuL, 01 are provably not tialjlc [u [be special charges made* 
^vhelher hjstoncAiiy or Uitgui^ically ; and they have the lamc marked 
characier as ihe rest. 

No literary document bears ciearer atump of authenticiiy and fentttn*' 
iiess Ehiin ihis tnicrcsline translation from sach an aiubor by luch an 

Qticttt/iaHt ff/ Stri^furf in ^irmiJ/an, 

Another test may be aj^lied. There are quoted \i\ f^p. 75 (Ftr* 
milJHn) tome ar pastagec of Scripture. Twelve of ihe« are ako quoted 

' ...Alil Dci,,.raponde4ni aduntit. 
I>,2^^^iltv. IS. 

> £■/. iSi. I- 



in Cypri4fiS wniingi. U the rcridcriDjc» ^' litem m Efi, 75 diflcred 
8pprcxiablr in fonii or wortl^ froin Cy^iriiin's [xndrrlnt*% wc mj|Eh( dciubt 
whccbcr Ibc iTJii»lai4on ol (he cptsClc vas pTDduccd by C^prtnn, under 
Cyprian's dirnriioii, or in Africa ni n\l. U on ihc aihrr hand the rrndrr- 
iTig« m £fi. 75 £Drr««pondc<l Eo ihob? £iv<ti by Cypnin^ thjft rtMmbUnc* 
would coniirm the oilicf MidjcAiton!^ of time, place And authi^r^hip. Wc 
vriW ckainin« a}} thott oiationt in £p. 75 which r«ciirin Cyprioo, 

A. The follftwrtng quoiatlflri* AppcAT in ihc Latin vcnioa of Hr* 
milJAn^ft Iciier in precisely /A^ jum^ wording in whicb they cccur tn 
CypriiinS wriim;r». ni>l only fis tvo of lhr«l do) Ell (he l"0 IcCter* whk^h 
Ftrmilian h^jl r«Ad, but in hia other wniiAff*. 

j^ "S' 9 <^uolesMarc KfiL6 veriMtJm u ^^ Umt 14, anci A]^ 73. 16. 

7S' '4 .* Lo xi, ij ., „ /:> 6y. 1 Jiid /^> 70. j, 

75. 13 „ Cant iv, 11, 13 „ „ A/ 6^ 3 ACid ii>. 74- > >- 

7f- 3j I. ProV' u. 18 I. H EP-7^ I (KcmwiuidLlfctuitlr. 

StntL K/f, SJ- 
75^ 3j „ Eph. iv. 1^6 (a looff q^outtlcm). 

T'TT. 3, 3 ^PIS- ^4 *'«' '^ *' ^'"- 'S ! 

dt f mV. ft. 

caniolidatc* ' »icut voc*li *»- 
ti* rfl una »pe" tnfo *ura Tpf* ' 
a»doci Ocdiiuf, 5rR// £». 
I. It ift nfti In ftc! B 'rfti*A 
M^'; our C«inman Prayct 

3i 5 qu^ed by Ncmcsi»n, y^mJV, 

IL In th« foIlowIniEr Che vaHationn nro tisch ns mifhl occur in 
diflcrcni MS», of the vimc vcnion^ The rcjtder may obwrvc th^t m 
I Cw. Kt- 37 the Kimiihiin fcm m Qvarvr to «och of Iwo ililfvrin^ (ormi 
ibAn ihcyafc EooACh othe^ : G^. itL 37. JViff irrrr for drifi/i^afr ii conuivm 
boih in Cyprian U^. £//. 73. St 71. i; 7% 13 vhich b«t Riivchl itiinlti 
jEcnuiar),— &nd tbcidorc coi^d not ntrrt in 75' i^ >u ^uchl Mr*, for a 
dif]£iiist,''-and aIdo ifi l>nulliAfl- Jhc i«-o puogM utifh diAer «i|[- 
:tificanOy arc boih froni the Tfftim^ma, which jccncrjilljr prcM&tA tnoic 
vAfl^y Ncin«^tftn, Sfnf/. A/J>, 5, c^uotci iwo pAuAfCd iihlt^h Ffi. 7| 
([Liotes and in both diSera alike horn it aod trom the veni«ti in 

as— 2 



Ep. Jl- 12 quoCft G0i. \kl >7 with tinctl. Kfifi. 6?. 3 And 74. 5 hopiivMi. 
m 75- M <• ^''- ^1^*- t\..^fi^pHli (uitgftiitiits{dtrtivii. — T^tfim. il- 19 

,. ,populumn]iJm<ri domuin piuis quooiana 

quod f I vo*- 
„ 7f, «S „ MS. Kvi, 19 qii^KutiqiJtr (fimi). Ef^ 33. I ; dfr W«^- 4 

f. 7i' <^ » M »»■ >J <^i *» "')«'*■ ^-/A 65H I ; 7J. 7; A £Mr. 4 

adniin(j«tur(E'./. -AturJ, 
„ 75< 11 '. I C(7. ^. 17 C|tikuLnijuec(Icnc p^ncm^iuL iT^. 15, i; 

/J/ /*j/j. (J qui- 
cbmquc cdaril 

TVj/- iii. ^4 qui* 
cumque tnuL- 
ducivcrit pg* 

'like fRCU are ali^ whether the pn&iages atcm in /^pfi. 73 and 74, or lo 
olhcr wrilint!:^ of Cyitnan. 

li seem?, obvious on careful coniideration of all the hew ihat th« 
quoUtions <irc dot rc^dcr^d anc* from Firtniliun^s Gnck text, but ate 
sifiiply ^iven from t(?st* Ihcn in u*^ in Afrlrn, 

Tl)i» tndcpcndctit and minute t«i then ngain support* the idcji of the 
version bem^ CyprUnic- 

/fjfiV iiW iJu LttUr 0/ Pirmiihru 

Jf The fftllowing i:IaiiicE cf lijiiil. Ffft. C!ai.xii IL^ £"/. eSS cAMfimi^a 
Prima {AmphUtfihii)^ *ntt "f Firmilian £/. 75. 7^ S iijc read side by side, 
a* ^uggesied to me l^j' M. Larpent, I believe it wrll be felt lliat they arc 
not irdeptndein. The vcscmblnnfca arc closer and marc parallel ilian 
iiii::c ircaimc^m friiiii ibc ^amr potni of view could create. 


Ma*f*iv '"i II|iiff*£Uj ^V ToC tiipa- 

9*^ "^ ^nf^tCT Ti* ]|;**^^ dtfrif r^x*" 
fvtr c<Vi r«v j^^ytrwiv '7x^ '^^ 'f*v~ 

. <fUix) «Ifun lUi qd CaiiphiTpa af^ 
pcllurur. . n« pnEifmpOMlMhlibse 

□CL rillLLItl 

il»m ntf <ij>miiim ttn«(uni. 1 quibui >i 

iv«[^nd«bunl Ami k pnwlicare qui 
BnwnL iptrlun pei Xoaunum « 
IVihcflin ]ocultijn">Sel «t ceicrt qui- 

liat. ailiU h4tw p>tc^l4'i* iwi cnllff 

in cccIckU cnnilintA iii« M (jncinJeal 
majdrt* nalu qui ^ haptlv^rnti «! 
moiiLKn JmponcDcIi pi oidinandl |iov 
lidKil iMl^uttat, hvraUcuni ttiimiiuuL 
ofdlnuv Don tlcn nK nunmn Ini' 
poD4rG» itti iic« haptimrq ncc qo^cquftiu 
miar «t fpiriliJilw fvrcfT. , > . qtiod 
loiuDi not iun pridcra m IcoiuOp>i£oI' 

$ /h. I - ^ nui t<a prkiu dUm ^elv^tdr 

Tht corrc3pandciic«t >r« tbc more itnktne bcotusc llicy nre »o link 
verbal, llicrr m th* confftructivt hflroy of <h« Moniintftta ; th&n arc 
(he |wi> u[jMc» oC bcr«1]c^ dnU » JiU(n«iici ; Lhc \tM* of ilic jHiwer o( 
impflrling th« Hoi)* Spini Ihri^ugfli lhc ton of the ApottoJic SucceiSion ; 
Shcic U the idcrcncc in Jlud It* uKitt ciiTict cauon, in FinnilUo ic 
hkt content ponry Council of Iconium; xnd their ii the markcl phraie 
*Thc BaptiiTii of ih< Giurth.' And *il tbr»e loplci *fc in Iho umc 

A- Homack. GtscA, H. aU-Ckr. LiUfnt/^r Ait B*j^. h p- 4V> lettn 
to thii patULgf. but do«i t;oi notice Che pnnllrlUm. It tiu b««n mtn- 
mntd xbovc(\t^ St S)l\iHl\n A Sfitn'tnStUKto xdx^ 3^74 ^»*^\ Appeals tu 
FirmlllAn'i define at a BtnndArd. The urordi omitted al the afiteriU: * 
couple Cjfiritin ai^d *oar /fr7ni/Af'«*l»t:ctficr ai anitcnt authorities nho 
requimH (he fcaptiim of sch»TiinH« ef|HflUv w^ih hereiir* iiM* JXX' 



Tiu Sam^kss Aulhffr 'OS ResaPTISM.' 

The interest centering oti the cbampian of the wii 
yd lost cause must not make u* forpcl that so far he alone 
has registered what of record there ik a^^ainst himftclf. There 
must be facts a champion could not record, Hia councils 
cannot have been so Linlikc all others as not to have been 
*icene« of cotiiroversy ; his signataries not the only prelates 
who had ojimjonsi his bl-thops not more docile than ht» 
presbyters'. He regrets himself that not all, though so many, 
were wrth him. In hi^ la£t Council he fseeou to absolve itome 
dioccics fiom compliance. In his opinion worldlincs* 

accounted for the disuse of Agrippinua* rcbapti^niAl ataiute; 
but we are well able to see that that HTect was at leavC 
also producible by thought, by charity, by comprehension cf 
Apoatolic principle; and if a contcmporarj" of this stamp, 
one who diiTered 'by a whole sky' from Cyprian, not tradition- 
ally or ;jvcrbcanngly but philosophically, should have sui* 
vivcd, how valuable might be his separate illustration of the 
Chfistrart ica^^n nnd spint in ihat agr:. 

Such a writer, I entertain no doubt, exists for us in ' THE 

Author ON Rebai'tism," 

llis pamphlet waa found and copied by ihe Pire J&cqucs Sinnond 
frOTTi A "wry jtniifnt lYi^iuscripr * ofCypriar* in ihctibiary of ^ Rcrtni 
ai RhcJms^— whcft \\ cii:&t> no diotc. It there foUovcd CypHim'a 
lOEtcT td Fompeius'' and was subscribed Cffcifst CypriiiMi Ji$tivit rii* 
n^aptitmtMU. Rigaut tint printed it in i6>|3 sei'ing its vaIuc* and 
from ic» dlcnon concluding it lo be *?3 tr-^'o Cypriuui^t* fitinim rfij> 
Ian*. Th?n Libbe in 1672 m the Ctfuciluj^ vol ]., ontj^ after tnakin£[ 
« new collaj-ion, Baliuc. Hariel has no other iniiteriiils tu rdil from 

(Piwf. p. \Tt\u). 

ifaiH.' fiy. 10 Mmu£ in ipui ecctslfl-' 
£mUy Jipp. jS '^dam lusfri pnt^vvi- 

CAlCirck verit4lik.' Cumpirc 'rplicQpu 
fiiirimoN' ami v""'^™ ^k AA '^i- X imd 

■ -tfA 7*. 



Labbc »tfi {Syitfipsti Came Afifanti. lom, r. p. 9}) a MS. Of «t ift 
the Vfttjon AUributCft ii to ■ Ur^nui ;be Monk ui A/tic^n.' And to 
nanus ti. PeArAon accept* chii. Baluu sUo, l>ecia(c the tmcrviJ br- 
tween iuwritngandthc Apoillc* hailkd\<,'n.)MtJirtufffrvmt<rnta 
tftuvy \ pliraif mjpTiliMWf in \ht Kg* of CyjirUn. Oudin [^at/tn/r~ 
miiU ttirrfnrs, a» TiClcmont lAyii), bcaidcs Roiith {fttlL Stu^ vol V. 
p. iiAj.L, who quctet Ejbbf At ikying Tkrtt mAnuuripit, ncccpC 
Uriinu^ Such names cJaim An otherwiac aupeifluouH iniwor- What 
wc know mf irrqlmiK U fri>m C^nriAdiiis prfshytrr of Mandllrs \eb^ 
A.D. 496), jci lii» conimuBibn of Jwomc. />/ KlVii JUitsin^* c 37- 
'Ursiniu (l^ntdntiR Sirmond) Monnchui •cniHir advtrsuB cim qui 
* rcbaptizandos lucrclicC'^ dccctnant. doccns ncc kpliinum t%*t n&c 
*ncu <Iii:Tiiim rcbrtfiiir-iri ilin* qui in nomEfie KlmtJkUu ChiUli»«l 
'bd nomine P^Trit ec ftln ct Spmtus Suncii quamviB pni-o kvam 
' luptiiatitur ^ iiL'il puai TriniUlii cc ChrlaLi simpLucm cuilfe^sicincro 
'•ufl&ccre xd ft&luic(Ti mnaui impodtionem cuholiCL ACietdoLii.' It 
ii hftid to tec how ihii can h^ive been ijken (or an accouru of our 
■u<hor He i» pUinly not ;i monk bm 1 bithop. The word* Ugt- 
timatm md Dte tiixnum pgini \q eaprns rc»i^niri£h turning 00 (1) 
authoniy^ (A) anaEtiyy, which arc iiAt toirchcd ta IhU bM>k' nor ytft 
the diatinction of bnpilsms in tlic name of Christ and of ihe Tnfiiiy, 
K^ th« posttibllif y of Ih^ Intl^r hring vallrDy h^Tnwi^rl ;ihhou^ praUff 
jffitu, which b Ml inteilieiblc icimind dealt wilIi by Cypriiua (£/i 
73' S^ Nfjiher U k preliminary confnilori mfitttcd on. Again, 
would *Caihohcui Saterifod' ba^^e been u>cd in ihis abiUTict unleM 
It were iri ih« trt^iHie d^icnbcd^ our author always ffpmk« 6t 

Cave (//- A- l,p, 131) tUggMtt Ihat the Vsttfan tubwrnpuon \s d\ie 
to lomc reader of tJennndiu!^ and Tillemoni that ii wudld be vxW to 
ascrrtiLin that (he M« is onr of thiv trrAtt»e, I do noi know whence 
com» C«ve'» account of Ur*inu« a* 'Kenic Afcr' ei<ept ff«in the 
mibvcnprioa, or h\% diTc 440 ^'^^^ hui ai any raie Uriinu& must 
haw unitcn (from Uvnnadius' BUleinentJ nt a mucti Ut«r period of 
the (onlrover^y. anil probably in iit DgnatiM Mage, 

At to tiAlv»'& leinark on the ^lot i^ccuJoTiLin tanta sphei' indi- 
catrn^E a Inici dace, the phtax is not of coune more literally accurate 
{n 440 than in 35a It belong! to tbeir (eoeral leaning to brge 
viumbcra: the eipeclAtioo of the end ot the wo«td had 5om«|hinc 
to do vnti) makinx the Chrittitan pait $^mt long; but apfln front 
that, ihi» very lrc*ii*e caib the few ycm of Peter and Pnurs mutual 
knowledge 'tanta lempora': Cyprian ipeiki of 'loi b^rrebconiin 
milia' hnvint; entered thr African churcb by rebflptitm {it/. 73, 3); 
Optaius B, \\ r. j, tpmkt of John m baptiring 'InAnitn milLa homi- 

Fleury was abnurd enoujch 10 iMnk Strph.-uin9 a poMible Author 




imenKNit (in ha dercr dbcauiaii voL iv. note ti^ we 
jtrxi-i.}, Dv Pitt, htur^n. G4lIaDd« Nnndcf, HtMe^ nocfiUM the early 
dMc. Cavc id»o. pvtly o» ibc lerouod of idmnccs to coaiein' 
porwy penccutJoM ■ bat of lb««c, tayt Uudiii, IJt SeriptL KtifUj^ 
Ant^ V. L p, ioc6> Lip«- I7ti* tnih. kIwk ii jv 7^ 4r«rj^iIr«iL Tlw 
pofiiiion of th« tf«Ati*« in Lb« Rh««ni> manuKripi i« not «ithottl 
iti bcariag on tbc datft. 

As literary tokens of his ftnti<iuity wc may mark 
genuine nsuJtrig of S. John vJi, 39 '{'^''^) Holy Gl>art k*m iw/ 
before ChH«;t')i cxnlucion. No I^ttn father re»di thii; un- 
cornipted. Again, 'The Holy Ghost,' he says, *camc down... 
not of Hb own will/ a paraphrase, which heresy early ren- 
dered impossible, of *...tic will not come unto you..,I will 
KDd Ilim unto you/ combined pcrli&p» with 'He shall not 
speak from Himself'.../ 

From a doctriiml point ihe higher value SM upon the 
Imposition of H^nds than on the Baptism Itxelf U a mark 
of early and not far from Teitullianesquc age'. Again, the 
familiar use of ' Baptii^m in the name of Chri:(t' aa cquh-alcnt 
to perfect bapttsiti v^ould have been impossible when the dis- 
tinciiiin hrid once been thought fjui between ihsit fortr and 
the Inw>caiion of the Holy Trinity. No one could have 
used the ttrma a-^t equivalent after Cyprian's correspondence 
with Stephanus was known. 


■ JOh vii, 39 («p. AiHi. ^ Rt^. c 

[4) Aiul ivi. 7, 1,^ |A|I. Auci. c. 61. 
TlHemrjnT.wlio iStw* uol rfcognlw cither 
qUol*Tioii» wy» fro vtiine i-xl«il rifflilly) 
^». IV, iKrtc *!.) iliil Ihc fuiHili cailut;r 
'wuulJ nut liBvr lolrrainl *ui'h i^[frr«- 
■i'lrix." tF had in foci airwiily iiutrlvd 

fithvrc wrniT Thf word /ifw wcept Ihc 
truiilalor of Ongm, if he may ^ Irnitc^l 
M (ndBpcrtLleni. 1lte iruc rtuling wftk 
pnMnvcd ntraiiv^Jy in I^Un M'a. 

Thin ir it fmind m lUinelm. (A [Ucnil, 
K] mc- Tii,, y(iL), Fold. iF54i--54fi 
A'iJ.)rS«igenn. (G njfcu,). SionyliunL 

viii.). Hul. (Z> src. vU vitt. Gad. 
Knar l<l iiK.V],), though it ha> not jCmu. 
hda it nv> diiit five. W.) DtH >^fu bul 
in rtj< Stfc Bp. WordivonU uf Sarara 
and II, ; While. AVp. TM. I-afuu. 
*ol. tv. p, 959 fCHion. iSg^l- 

vlictnin tKi>rl nnn mlvlli^/ If a 'edi- 
IJon/ J?' Vh VL>1. V. p, »9J,U in ihe ndun 
n HTcLchol repiini of F^'i wicichcit 
cnpjr^ rffiroduffing even ito»*omJai 

■ Auclor c. 6 ul fin, Cf. T«ti, dt 



There is a yet nicer indication. We shaW pre«ert)x mc 
that the Authof'a theory of Che visible Church was in itself 
adequate to :iolvc Cyprians difficulty- Vet the Author has 
no more than ^n instinctive xttsc of it5 truth and of IVi 
applicability. He doci not drive it home. TliJs is a pht^- 
nc>meTion which can only occur in contcmpurary arguments. 
Two theories exist side by side; in ihc next generaiion one 
of them will have yielded. At firal the discoverer of the 
true one ha?* rarely Icaint it?i fuli speculative value ; he 
applied it merely ^ a teat to point» of pr^cUcA. 

A^Air, the Author dor* tiol mrct the grcst doctrine of 
'Unity' on which every argument of Cyprian's is based. 
When once a theory ha» pasjicd out of the euay^-i;t;^c» in 
which others as >-ct compete with it ; when once it has po^ 
M!Mion of the field, no eye can ttir without teeing it. No one 
could have written on Cyprian*^ subject even a fcwycara later 
withuut knuwii]|E of tht» key to ht« whole iwHitlon. The 
abitence of any ;tlluK]on to the doctrine of Unit>- a£si^« the 
Treatue on Rebaplism to the 5rjit years of the controverK)-. 
How could it have been excluded ever so little later when 
the forms in which it wa^ cast and the Scriptural symbolii in 
which it WfL-i exprcAMrd wcreau taking, so popular nu numct^ux, 
^ntl so a^saiUbtc' ^ 

Acute In disputation^ and fresh In language he writes a** 
one who hopes still to influence the controversy'. He is one 

* [( miut \h poncmlicivl [hM (Key 
OMur inthe'L'imy' ai onpliaiioliy «i 
\n hu LcUcffS. 

* A* u kuuoic* of hit ^bilJIr ftftd 
lUoji* in look II Avti (U ihcT ore. 
BttU hov. iTiiictpiung 'your utuftl' 
anrnvt (w!iidi Cy^tUn lioc* lik m 

Ihc EBAC of lllC SftOUUltUUt £f. }y 1^] 

vit, thu *rha diviplM h«Jd the right 
frilb «lm ibqr vftfc lupcicc<t ■«)£ 
bdbr« m«4irtii8 the Hol^ Ghnl,' hr 
«rr>rb« mil hnv Thrir MfMidnir h^hrft 
wpr* then Jwltiic M » okriiiiaJ poiot*. 

w*J aaL iiDpcrfiXl only but crioncocu. 
V (At tvrj lime vhen ilwr vore DOI 
onty b«p(«vd bat bspiuii^ Mhtt*' 

' '.--d MdHLfeoUa bumhiibm nt vei 
imm nurn ncBccftun h^h ia/ifid/u 
fifrtuoAn: atMnthtrii pLvrinmn cfBn 
HfKr u lice ^ooqbctfwnliir jww ia m drm 
tvfturitu EKvjuiffitfrr/ Mh cfivtidi in 

Ldiib rl BiiiLiu «iitc Gifuuua. AcoadJ 



of the bi*hop3^. To him C/prian's proposal is m etTect a 
new cjucstion. an attempt to attcr, to reform very widely the 
linage of the churchc^tn a step to Nov&tianiBm'. He is not an 
ItallaQp No Italian coulJ have avoided as he docs an appeal 
to Roman traditioi^ and the Romar pope. His speech is 
Afriean*, His advi^rsarics are not heretic* like the Dnnatifitc; 
they arc churchmen and bishops. There is no other date 
poAMble for him, unk^s it can be shewn that there wa£ :somc 
Otl^er at which there raged a second tempest like oura within 
the Latin -speaking churcJi. yet one in which there wan no re- 
cuirencc to either tht ailments ar ihr rrfiitalinn* of Cyprian- 
It would indeed be necessary to create a second Cyprian. 
For no one else can be repreaented fn the unkind i;k^ch 
which the Author gives of his antagonist* as he sees Wffl 
abetted by hia bishops in imputing their own fau]t>' in- 
ventions irreverently to the Church ihcfr mother. To act 
;^ainst all the heart- burnings ancJ separations that will artjie; 
the sole fruit of the new que^^tion H, he 4ays\ the exaltatJcn 
'of one single person, whoever thac is. so tlui he may 
'be vaingloriounly proclaimed among the thoughtlcna as a 
'fnan of great insight and consistency; and that, whit»t 

1} be cnlln th« conrroveny ffitttMint 

' He contrt^ilt lidiititmi LirlmiinbL«roi 
■jfur «*f" Mill fonfimiflUfln fiilltiviiig 

immct^iflruI/T wilh hnplinn ALlmLTLiM' 

c to. 

< Supst hue tmVA ^us«;Liaii« C' i' 
Nuc piimuni rrpcnic v MnC ratianc 

Iniutjcic Ch 6, Hcrciiconim-.- c. r 
( A tw of thoflc iJioou may be 

ic n): — prat«ioran]i (c, 9)^ Hev(»i<ii» 
ff, ^l; Auminn c^e \cn[je cjui cur- 
ri:tiuiit it. jft, LhLs (Afji^n) fk]lui« 
\% dcaumded hy ihe «n*c nnd the 
dbUion lboi4fh KtMih tud liajttl 

luivt 'ciirrehnfiT"; rKilc^mArallul...pef- 
a'nm (cT, OprtilH ih, c. 4 tfipcdinln 

vfr5(on hdlff 'nhi^itta faominun* \^ 
ij), Ko- \\, i( (not uclcd by Huidl; 
l>rupiEiiu uL Ltbi (c. 9I. Ml. nrt 41: 

np]ne nrivi if (c. ij), Mt. tin, 7a 
Mny 1 hpre ?i]£|*«it 4q cmcndAlinn 

Ijfc- I. vU. n (wJofllLDP) lor lt,7 *RJt 

qiicmo'trTioifuiQ a if in ju^uji ul pcent' 
IcnlLam ic't in StiinU Suucio/ 
■* AUCL c J, 




' cTijoyin^^ the julmiTiitiOTi of lierrtiw*, whose soTitary comfort 
•in perdition i* to be wen jcinning ir company, h*^ may be 
'extoUcd among his copyists and compeorei for havmg set 
* right the errors and defect*; of ;ill the churches.* Thi» piir^uit 
of logical is4ue£. thi* tendency to ruritaniim, luat of re- 
modelling, rxtendcd ambition are contemporary aocuftfttiuns, 
not so acnmonloLis as ihoM of Puppian* but a? i^urcly aimed 
at Cyprian- The charge of ImlMIfnjjf Novatian is exacily 
what angers Cyprian irto the retort that Novatian i» the 
Ape of the Church/ and that the way to harden heretics is 
to patronise and imitate theni'^ The Author's anccr thai 
'want ofliumantly' is whai makes hi& opponent undcftfalue 
atsittm U f^tmitiar* In ihe frcqutnt intcrch-injitf uf lingular 
and plural addresses we see the large party, and the leader 
who ia himself the party. C}*priar*3 ase of a favourite 
text i> sharply touched. *Whcrcto perhaps you, with your 
'novelty, may forthwith impatiently answer, as you arc wont. 
*that the Lord aatd, Except a man be born a^'n« &c** 
Even the exquisiie writing dees not escape. ' How,* he asks 
fiarcastically, 'must the Line of disquali A cation be dran-n? 
"Why should it be drawn at hereby, more than at immoraEityf 
'and then why not at erroneous views^at virtual heresy? 
'at want of skill m impartint; these mdimenti? Vou mmt 
'at laat come to cnforcintc >'OLir 'dentta' baptism if the 
' catechiAin(t l^»hop hat been imperfect in exprcaaion— not 
' so orn;ite and precipe a^ you are*.' 

Finding ourselves then so close to C>'prian in this treatise, 

> H±T«lccram ilupore rrirodliui. 
And. r. 
* S/. M. 

^not onci itvmiu tTupnrnn hvrticii pa- 
lioalfrii rl wnHncai nosin.,..' 
' Auci. i6- 

[^pUJlH, but nf <wn« Ih4 rvnufk 
onnoi be tioiUpJ Xa ihcni wdj.. AI>o 

Nanwitan. Stmrx. £ff. 5. Aidorc ^ 
* .«nl nAn UQi onaif m fn ct um- 

injnwrlunt lltdci IikImie. Dkiurih c* 

boa quoqtrt <1envh> t*ptiaA<l« cbm, 
Ail(;l c 10. li ii|i|jcui>(a mc » err* 
itin (hAT CyL'^iHti tt ttm Nwam ■» Ihil 
XX an ntVBT hav* Imnt wTJn«n at\a hb 



it is natural to z^k. W:ls the Author actjuairted u^ith Cyprian'i^ 
full writinf^s on the subject? or Had Cypnan himsdf read 
the Author? The question* seem capable of answer. And 
as answers arc deducible from fads I/ing aside of that main 
stream of the Argument on which wc have not yet cnibiarkcd. 
we may intelligibly complete our review ot the Bonlc a< ;i 
documerit by producing them here, 

<n Did then the Author know Cyprian's later vrritln^ 
on the subject ? 

There is scarcely a semblance of this. He no- 

where attacks his very a.^sailablc typology. For example 
Cypn;tn ask.*, ' If heretic baptism be so safe^ why any church 
'reception^ If that baptism J? a feality, heretic* may be 
"holy maxtyre,' And the Author meets these queatioiu ; 
but it is simply as floating arguments without any appear- 
ance of setting treatise against treatise. He was ac- 
quaintcd with Cyprian's line of action, wtth his treatment of 
the ordinary texts^ and with certain paiTiphJels on both sides'. 
But he does not fasten on Cyprian's sp<?ciah'tres as iie know 
them. His treatise miJst therefore come quite early In the 
movement" of his day. 

But another .-strong personality, besides Cyprian's^ accma 
to be before him. whcn^ analysing Christ's prediction of 
■falt^e prophets with miraculous powers," the Author speaks 
of * certain powers/ and of ' the false prophesying'/ — ihc term 
for MonlanUm — irt his own day, and then goes on "but 
'certain it is that, because they are not Christ^, they have 

■ nothing to do with Christ ; just as if any one draw away from 

■ Christ, cleaving only to the Name of Him. he is not much 
'helped thereby, nay rather h actually borne down by ihU 

■ Name ; although he wer^ before Simt most strong in the faith. 

^ HiK Uko o| 'i*; jtfi/ri," ec- 3, H.— li an iiii,\*rt ro Cyp. M^. rj. 11 on th« 
'SiriptA a/^*tc rejtri/tiit' Auclur c J- pfuKtlcuiicu of mjiitynloin lo b^rcttO- 




'or mo*! upright, or held some rank among ihc clergy, or hod 
'Attained the dignity of confcojorthip." Car tlwrc be much 
question OA to who was the original of this sketch ? And if it 
b Tcrtullian the early date is still more disthicl. 

Oiit inpreeion of the Authot-'s phct in the controversy 
is •supported by wh^tt appe;iri; to be the ;in<wer to the next 
question : — 

{2) Had Cyprian read the Author? 

When ihc Author propose* with the air ofa new dilemma 
' Uliat pUcc can you ccjiisistcntly ^ivc to the uiibxpti^cd 
confessor?' and when Cyprian dcKcrfbcs thi§ exact question 
as * the human Argumentation of certaf n persons,' bis reference 
seems to be distinct' and express. 

When Cyprian says cJiai the apoilolic motto ' unum 
bapii&ina ' must not be construed as & rubrical direction but 
is a declaration of the oneness of the Christian bond, he sccQis 
to assail some Mich inicrpreUtion art ilie Author adopt*, 
that 'to repeat baptiitm was contr^fy to a dtirtt of the 
Apostles.' Stephcfi himself had not gone beyond saying 
'what we have received from the Apo4tlc«i' meaning by 

Again, ihc bpcciAlncis of Cyprian's warning againat tlic 
idea (hitt heretics will be kept away by tlic required repetition, 
whereas thry will rather be attracted, h;i< ih*^ appcaran^^r of 
a reply to some such reprcseniaiion as that in which the 
Author p^untsi the rcj^ponsibility of a church which would by 

* Anoor II 'C^hiV mtttf^ iituiin 
in pcnonam e|ii« iv*^^ vtdifHtu yv 

cxgmci. .mariTiiutii duinn tioaadu in 
i|iui pi |HT ipum nnmuiiim \vtKm ft*- 

dftm <|4Ui ciacuuT posaini Immtu 

pwiijiii, ri fmt n hit tfWfiUNi b 

noa tit f?nKliu SAnffuinr iinuiti *ik>..- 

gTAlitm <N>nwiui rlMknr .t)«intDii«-' 
The ivKiBbbiuv n T«vbttl u vdt «a» 



iiccdlcs5 demands deter from spmtual baptism lli^«c for whom 
iht; holds material baptbm to be csacrU^L^ 

If then llicnc arc ftur IntlicHtionn thjtt Cyprian knew the 
Anlhrir'* WiirV, can il p^rliips be the acrij;t] epistlr whieh 
Jubsian enclosed lo Cypriio'? There is & sin^lar toijch 
ber& Cyprian, i^outinf; the ide;i that one b;tpti7cd out»de 
the Church need not be baptized into it, as baptised already 
in Chri,«t'a name, says tu Jubaian that he will not pas* over 
'a mention of Marcion ' which he observes m thai enclosure*. 
' Marcton does not hold the same Trinity vfc hold, the same 
■Cre;itor-Faiher, the same Son in true flesh, and therefore 
"Marcion's baptism is net in the tnic Christ'* namcV Now 
this ia precisely the ground which the Author takes in 
denying to the (Mardonitc) heretic the possibility of martyr- 
dom. * It is an empty appearance of martyrdom, when the 
*nian bclicvts in a diiTcrenl Gtnl. a differeat Cluiil; not Uie 
'omnipotentCreator of Scripture nor the Son of Htm*.' Thifi 
seems to be the mention of Marcion' whtch Cyprian takes 
up. To the Author's acceptance of heretical baptum he 
simply oppiisc» his rejection of Marcionite martyrdom- 

If It be thought that, supposing this to have been Jubaiaa's 
enclosure, Cyprian would not have pa-ssed silently over its 
main issue,— n;imdy, that while Baptism proper i* h ' Water- 
Ij^iptism,' like that of John, accompanied by Invocation which 
has a certain power, ■ Spirit-Baptism " accompanies the Lay- 
ing on of hand^, — the answer is simple. Il is because this 
theory in no way entered into the controversy with Rome. 

\0. NdI tit JLCCUIIluLtlC ptthUJfCkp wc 

may arH AurL », /ohti ' (l(-»^"r>.fmi* 
a kp i*! nt Mryn titui^ttjutme tafi 

Ifap Jptvt Vtf»> fl Moy«i jLttLlr^uJidl' 
oiuoi bDptim4 fuer&nl odvpri.' And 

puUon of Aacior c, 6 vrhcrc he is ap 
puwuJy cttrTMlin^ oa «itr«aw opinion 

00 liis own Ufif f.G '.o (be n&ked soUt^ij 
iLkTVUlioii of JciuB^ Name mflici^^ fur 

of Cvd ut vl Chiiait tJoDG A *ncD* 
' AucI, 13. 

VJli. la 



The viewr i:i iu remote from Stephen's u it is from Cyprian's 

The Treatise then "Atsrms to yield these intcre^ing f^cts 
about it^If; that Cypriar) was acquainted whh H; that Us 
Author, while certainly ac<iuaintcti with C>'prian'*; action and 
view, n-u not acquainted with his later or more cJ&borate 
writLfigft on the controvc/:(y ; that consequently he handled 
it in its early alugc ; that it was not inipfobdbty tlic treatise 
which Jubaian i^ubmitied to Cyprian- 
Its interest lies not in Cyprian's being careful lo answer tt. 
It is a fresh spedmen of the life m which he lived. Its argu- 
mcnta although ihcy lie aside cl the thread of the controversy 
yet arc produced in defence of the prcmling practice. In its 
way it helped to widen the hand of Chn^ktcndom at a time 
when the grcatrst Christian man living WMx for contraction. 
It3 Intvrpretaiinn of isolated texts wns Mich aa no modem could 
employer be aifected by. The forced mbtJeexege^s evolved 
by an Acute mind whilst intent on the letter ia in contract 
with the lar^e anti-aupcrstitiou^ view which the samt mind» 
rich with Evangelic teaching, took of the most sacred lite. 
Hiit letter pcit^hed, hln spirit pfcvailed. The ficiquency with 
which this phenomenon Tep<rjiti itself in Theology is a gfeat 
wptncsK that there truly abides in Theology a living spirit, 
from age Co age using, and then dropping, that 'letter* which 
to the eyca of subsequent generations may £«em to have been 
all of which their Jathei^ were capable. 

Ill- T/if Argumtnts^ 

Wc may open our review of the Arguments wilh a luUer 
statement of that which, at the time when Cyprian began 
to give his >upporl to tlie icvival of the old discipline 
of Agrippinuv by rrf|uiring a Seoitd B-ipttsm, defended 
the prevailing ptacticc of fcceiving returned schiKmaticx by 



impo*iitjon of hand& The Author on Rcbaptbm, thouflt his 
particular arguments faded, yd contributed to in^Jnuin opinion 
on the side which finally prevailed. The theory he alleged 
may have been too nubile to be of popular service at any 
timc> too fancifiil to h^vc captivaicd the solid reason of the 
Church for Any pcriodn and yet In fragments, in scattered 
light), by ^ide^.ttrokcs. such theoncs do substantia] work. In 
tiiic scjisc iioihing really dies of which tlic fipiril haa entered 
into the \i(e of the Church, however she may have outgrown 
tlie stage at which the form was accepted. 

This is the line of reasoning by which the Author main- 
lamed the status gnax — 

T The preaching of John distinguiahed two baptrsms, 
tile c»nc of Spirit, the other uf Water. Thc^sc two are xcpar* 
able. When separated X\wy are still integral ; not unmeaning 
fragments'. The essence of Water-Baptism is the Invocation 
of the Name of Cliriat ; even after the gift of die Spirit, that 
Invocation U a F&w^; prior to it, a Begirning which in due 
time maybe completed', ll has a virtue' which intellectual 
error cannot destroy; whldi may re^rivc after donnanc>' ; lo 
which mistaken dnctrines cannot in \\s ministrants be won^ 
hindrances than immoral lives. It remains ineffective until 
the Imposition of Hands gives the Baptism of the Spirit; 
olthough for such as never attain this it must be completed 
by the Divine Goodness. The Baptism of Blood, again, can- 
not be kss salutary than that of water, altliough to the heretic 
it is nothing, because he suffers not in Christ, but only under 
Christ's Name* 

i\. Invocation then, or Water- Baptism, must in order to 
become ctTcctive be compkud for the heretically baptized by 
the Spirit-Baptism of the Laying on of Hand%'. 


^ Auctor u, a— ji, with i]liisu«lloD» 
fium ScrLpiiue ami from d&Uy life. 

* A«ctorc» II. 

ij 'Those flcniilc- (in whom ChrimV 
"icpk ihe Loikl," The ctic cl tbt 
p1a£ed>' c> I \. 


in. Both the species orBaptUm were represented on ibc 
Cro44 in their Unity, but two lMpii«m» of otu specie would 
be uncT^diir^iblc'- 

IVh There arc then three Baptisms— -of Witer of Blood, 
of the Spirit; and th<;5C three arc recc^oiiied by S. John'. 
And the Ho)y Spirit wJ1line:ly imparts Himself even Co 
the unworthy for certain ends. We should tliercfore trust 
Him 50 Ifj do, adhering to tlitr tnic nte ; 4nd not doing 
violence by a second Baptism cither to the Jnvoc&tion of 
Chciftt Of tc venerable custom*/ — Such ik hiit tfae««'. 

In examining the views of Cyprian, wc have to avoid 
nuking hfin rt^punsiUe for the arguita-nti uf hi« partisums, 
who«e handling in the Seventh CounctI is at tinacs very 
discrepant from that of his letters. Firtntlian, on die other 
hand, is a fair rcpres^entative and sensible siEinmariscr 

Cypridn's argunicnts arc of remarkable range and fulncAL 
He ignores but one aspect of the question. And that one is 

The objective entity of th« Church, the objective presence 
of the sanctifying Spint» the subjectivity of iht bapti^cr and 
of the baptised arc discuAscd ; historic evidence* t»ib)ical 
dccbraticn^ ca^uiatfc (llfTiciilUc^ arc tested. 

Hit vfijfctivf gnjiinds rn;iy In: ;irntnged thus t— 

(1) T^ unity of thf Church demands (re)-Bapl[sm. The 
qoettion with him broadened at once. ;» we have seen, from 
the consideration of 9;chi«m to the consideration of hereay. In 
the critical point these were identical. The demarcation of 

■ AuiJtur c. $4* 
* I |a. ¥. &— a. 
' c. 15. 

' Tb* QKOtpEiun wliich UAiamm \% iti- 
tn«ilin{ in iUu^lmtifirt o' vbsl uanv 
•act* Win 'Tb« eohjurii^ firv' vhieh 
V «lKiini apva Iba mtor tX Sinwasni 
ItaphivB b ID Impoitun aiftcient to 


IttiilldMi llic riic hart n\%Vr ti dcBillx- 
II bcCMDd 'Another S*,frttncTit' Ttiv 
tm menEiancit in John'i GUptihm i» 

u phr<i(iL} ' uhit ' hi ihc ffinbai of 




Church from non-Church wast di»iinci '. Tb* wprLitcnUiion of 
sacred acU outside the Church was no equivalent for the 
rcdlity ofi^ficrcd &cta within it. The inviolate cncncs:i had no 
outlying dependencies. Although the schismatic' might own 
"One Lord' and claim ' One Faith/ yet llie 'One Baptism * 
wjkn not hi«, for the One Bajitinm imjtiied the Ontf Church, 
which he rcnounccdn 

(2) Mc could not howowrcraim even Unity ft/ B/!uf,' One 
Faith/ whilst the Aposilc*" creed stood in it* African form. 
' Do$t thou believe the h'orgivenesw of Sin»i and the Life 
Evcriaaling through Holy Church f ww on hia lipa null in 
the very hour of bAptism'. 

(3) The rcinisM>ry virtue of the Hlc in respect of sin 
shewed it lo be a function of th< Ho!y Ordtn which had no 
being outside the Church*. So that from the ecc1e<^i3?^ticAl 
^ide ft might be ^aid that the whole episcopal authoHiy a* the 
bond of unity, a.nd the whole dij;nity of tlie Divine economy 
and organisation were involved in the question whether the 
baptism of heretic.^ w£ts to be recognised ^ If it were, then 
the Church haJ many centres, and rested ngi upon one Foon- 
dation-rock but upon several". And if th-it bapti*im wr-r(" 
recognised, untruly and untruthfully, then the unforgivco sins 
of these strangers must be shared by those who received them' 
into a communion which behmd the earthly flccne Icncw them 

' M75- if- «Sp n- 35- 
' £/, 69. 71 £/. 70. 1. 

* Ep. 7j. 7f $, y'vtm tvhidi die mind 
of ForlLinaTTiB of Thupcabcris flcvrlopes 
inio */iMUfi ChriaiuB, ,pQrc?*rnt[-m bapt! 
joruli ([ibcopij doiii/ Senti- Erpf. 17, 
T^rtuHiiin held ihc ^wtTinnty tn bflpiiw 
tu 1}? dcriwDbJ? from bi^ops, bill of- a 
nmLlrc of onlei nol L>f uacncc* TcllulL 
flV Hapt^ 17. 

' ^P 73- 

sicrub pcCfAlix comniuniciLrc.' A[i|rui- 
inH? prapeilj' uhacrvcs ih>U Vj(:i<ir of 
GordutBi \Sir**U. hpp. 4a) gow for he- 
yoDi! Cypttan it\ dlopng thii such Hni 
mu>t pcrincalir lIic whole cuaimuoiuo 
wilh 4l?li)£DicDt [ Aug. k/r £ii//. f . />9«djr. 
VII. Ev, {(^ 7)], buL iL if tfarccl^ «n lib- 
gilimnlc nicnnnn of Crpn^nV «i««, 
though inconsiscniwkhothaprindpln 



The separatist teacher has surf cii Jcrcd ^ tlic animaiiiiff, 
unif/iniE Spirit utid no pcr^^oiiiJ cai'nc>tiiC3% of his own could 
ormvcy th^t Spirit tn his followers hy haptifing thcmV He 
ilhistraics his principle by the iiigerious remark that in order 
to the ex«rcj>ie of tlii}; function John Baptist received the Holy 
Ghost in his mother's womb'; but aince John did not impart 
the Holy Ghu^t to h'm baptixcd cro^df, he ha!( to limit the 
application to his baptism of our Lord, and similarly he viys 
that the Apo4t1<:s ri^cc!ivL-d ihe Sjjirii by thL* bieithing of 
Christ, that they might be cii;ibl«i f4> hapHst and ght rtmis* 
St fin afsms. 

<4) The tidmisstcH cf reconciled stparaiists to the Church 
by imparting to them the Holy Ghost ^y imposition cf kands^ 
which is the u^agc of even thoiw who recognised tliclr baptism, 
WiLt 4 practical dccl.LntK^n ttiat they \\m\ not received, btit KtJll 
Tieedc*d to rcccivr, that Holy Ghost. For the itsage can never 
be defeDded from the Apoitles laying their hand)^ on the bap- 
tised SamaritAns, since that was a coniirmmg of wof k initiated 
by their own Deacon'n Hut if the *chism-itic admittedly had 
not as yet received the Hoiy Ghosi, ho\v should he sinclify 
the very waiter for bapti-sm ) or the unction uf con^fmalitni'. 

' ..tanaprii Spirinwi S*nctxim. /^. 

' Rfi- 5v- 11' 'Qbilmit ligibcX quu- 
mnda clil^ fx-mmr a ftrnhflord nf Ihe 
DoDftliiti. Tlw rtply <if tit* Catholic* 
vu 'Dcvm «V« clatalcrp': >« 0(>< 
tarn, who loltn the qurttinn with 

' f^ fa^. 1 1 '.-Adkm ttut—iit UlCTo 
nulrw (roniklirniUL* tX tiir i, 1 f ^( to 

* Kfi.. ^i,. 9. ill cwinAliDb witb Ef, 

' Oporiei Dourdati « i4»c1»ti(An 

ilimo mo pcMUA hiirainii qui bapilacar 

1MDCIL4CUC tqufn poiod qui ipm aa- 

n<>[) (*E *.. un|£i qooque Dcceuc rat mn 
4111 (ApLiu(u»<BL Ul accqilo cbri*tEiiiI«^ 
ifl #14 nnfTifir^.^ftr bn/fiif /JAri hohrir 
jn M jfni/kuv C4>uA~ potut- Porm 
ujtent cucTtarotk cH undc luplLail 
nnipnlui oLpiiin fM o/ivi lAnrtiAntuni. 
SftBCiLFieuc a«teiD non pointi «M crva^ 
lutaoi qui Jiec ■Ibur luWil ncc v(* 
clBdRi. Bfi. j^ 1, 4, Of- 5«Ueiu, Smrr. 
£/f. iB 'ib quaniiiin v\ta tatfrd^Hi 

liclJi. in Uiilniii Ivndtco terwtt^mj vqIdI 
Qiierr tii^r* similar pccuTi/ In 
TmiiUinn {M /UP/. ;j ihc unction 
Civn iIk CliTWUa liii i»n«Mbgod. On 
Aug- 16 O*^ fif% t% 10. Aaw. fr. pj 
b F» mri-t tfsvr. i« 1^ div. 19, and 




which ia Ihc sign of the Royalty and Priesthood of every 
ChHdtian man? Above All, how should he ji^ive the New 
Birth', which as the essence of the sacrament b c^i^ntialb' the 
act of the Spirit? 

(5) Xor yviX could their Ikiptii^m be n:gH«rdcd ^ an itttkoait 
Sacrament, b«^n without the Spirit, hul completed fn Him", 
The washing of water u^ith^tt the Spirit is a mere camaf 
yndaizinff rite. Nay, applied as a deceiving semblance, it 
must be worse. It 1.1 a mutenal pollution'. Under sentence, 
and void of merit, the pretenders can neither 'justify nor 
sanctify' their biipliwtl'. Who but the holy can hallow** 
Who but the living gi^t; life'? 

mftkukg t( (nrfn onr Kinj^ihip iml 
PrkMhoc-i. Ht Di A ,J. Ma,*tfi\./^f^ifi>m 
^ CtrnfirvatiiiH 19 SapUim. 1S9J, ppn 
87. 171. Aivl popviliirly ("nidfTihuF. 
I^^ffmiichiA, V, ,^Alk 'un^rnTuoi rv- 
ftk.' Skk Buntcn : ' Co the (ctucbu- 
mm'*) vf»w for lifr JintI death tort*- 

r»poDUbLe aft.' HtpfK^ytu^ aid lui 
t^. IKft Bi. pp. |10» I OH54}' Ob- 

^Uttinim. Ut. vll, c '>i. ti 1ft snH ihai if 
then 14 no cil for the juiointtof bcrcre 
lb? Idylihiii, tv^it diEiHitj (it^por) ttii iht; 
%ixht£(\neni anomtitiQ. wnXet M^%ct^% 
fur ^tli ; li/Nni TSv^ 1*1 rpii %fiic%f kbI 
ir,L^l ir^pffyiJo, It rit wilti WiEci iliat 
[be l'lii4:IiiJi rhurd) >caU tlic bapMfi^Li 
will] th« Signoculum Crucit, although 
ibc Koyai IVialhccd of the I^iy would 
bd niuFt plwnly «i]>rc!W^ and uiujihi 
if wr uirH Ihcr prttniliv* anomlingr 

Ai to (ho o^ounl cf Tliiodof^l, 
/ftrtf- Fa&, iiin ^, ihLi chc NuvutJAJi' 
uu iiH<d nrt unclioDt tt » pottlbl^ due 
to the r<ct that Nuva^ion himj^lf had 
niA leccivcd iL in bu 'diiii^' bjLpiihii] 
(Kaulh, A'- Ji-vDl-IJl. pi^^. 7ojp Icir wa 

muiht Lnclfidr tlti« inir»nc r& XatA 'cSp 

<^ th&l «4AlkKI, &pd which MMV d|»- 

tincuishnl from hli ncglecr of canfinm- 
tii>n by ComeJ. £^. mJ Aa^- tiucb. 
//. £. vl. 43p H it were tnu Ihc 
AT^uiiicnt qf Cyprian itouUt hiw bwn 

' A/, 74- i- 

• A/. 7f- 13- a Tert-^fTd/tf'. !», 

' riofonA- Aqiur laLct, £"/. ;ti I, 
uluhrmcl t>ruf4umaquiLf/-7^-j,; 
ptafflrn jj^Da polluuntur- ^y^ 69- i& Ib 
WDrcl> Uii* Ihrcomo more rcvoliia|; In 
the Vole Qf :?cJitiu» IStna. Epf. iS. 
flbnve \\. ti>,t. Tinic fil, buT thr vme u 
oowhcie Elfdngvr tban in C^piito't 
tBftli:st ilctii^rnd^ai) oji (he &tiI>JGCt 
'm«D arr ntiit tfran'^] Ju ihar bapbwi 
hut nther 4rc dehled^ nof Pie ibeir 
«la> ^i^fKnl 4*vfty bui milml ue heaped 
lusher." Bt d'nii. 11- 

* A'f.6q. CO. jaHf ii^Anw in hcTT r&tbei 

l0C0WJA'V'<tfl4l1ICchtlii:aIlT tOMJBfld^. 

TIlc eJTnt >*( U i* tn nakc 1 m^a ■ 
leinple of God, A^. 73. [ft- 


(6) Is it mainUincd that for *n cafnc^t thougli miiJn- 
formed convert the Prtsaic^ anuf SimcHfy of Ckriu Hiouclf 
cx^imtervail tht; unworlhincvt of ihr ininictrxnt ? Tbtfn, if 
Chri« be ibrrc, how ^hoiiW His Spirit be A^-anting? And if 
the Spirit be absent, as our Imposition of Hands alKnns, how 
can WG affirm that Christ \% present^ 

Wc have thus approached the ssshjictivt basis of tJic 
C/prianic argument 

(i) \{ Faiih of thf Rtcipxtnt^ ts urged as the ground of the 
blcHing, a mere faith in hJii o\w^ faith cannot be acle<)uate. 
To be effective a faith must be a true faiih. But while the 
faith of the rLchbmatic Is deficient in a cardinal point namely, 
the fcmisaion of sins through the Church* the faith of the 
heretic i^ fa1»c and often bt^sphcinou^'. 

(1) But must not the ftn'ovotittn of God in the Lord's own 
words be effective ? Tlver* seem lo have been in Africa some 
who understood baptism 'in the Name of Chrift' to ba 
sufficient without the Trinal invocation. This wa» evidently 
very r*Lre, if ever it was more than an exception. Augustine' 
says thai although still in his day n)any hurictl clergy prayed 
ignorantly, and many t-rmnrously, through ihdr having pc»- 
se5sed themselves unwittingly of copies of heretical devotionSj 
yet that it would probably be easier to find some noQ< 
baptixing icct, than people baptieine with a mutilated 

Stephen bestows no consideration, still less any approval, 
upon such a form. \V!»«i he deft^ndst bautium "in the Name 
of Christ' he is using the words in a Scriptural sease. oi 
persons who at least intended to be baptised into the Faith of 
Christ. llca5Aumc5 the ordinno' correctness of baptisms tn 
auch respccta. Cyprian it h true argues against the validity 
of somt^ kind of baptizing ' in the? N.ime of CbH%t.' hut only 

' J^ 7S- !»- 




just as he ari^ii^ against the v;i1]dity of Sflm€ iMpti^ing in the 
Nankc of the Triiiii/, iiajiicly because anothtr Christ And 
amther Trinity are understood by the bu^piixcr;. 

a^tptiim in the Namf pf CkritS altmt, 

11 i[» nc(.cfr»«r>' lo look inio ibi^ qutritton with sumr ujirc un demount 
oi A^ Pd cAndcr's bold JU«enion {Ofn^ral Hist of the t'Amttjn Jiefijpffn 
tmd CAnrtkt sect, jii^ vot. t. pp. 44^ 7. And noto, Dobn) thAt from 
Cypritui'v EcUcrs nnd from tbe (conteniporary) bcok />/ RtbsptiimaU it 
19 iJ&dcnidbl]r clear thai the /ttfnntH party nMinlaincdi ^tri a mort liberal 
CfariBtlan spint" ihan his, the objecnvc vah<iuy of bflptiiing in Chfitrt 
Aftmt alttnci wiUiout the ]nvo<:atioii of the Holy Trinitr' 

ll n in ihj' fitit \i\xev unfair to j^irHbuir^ \o Rnrat. i>r views of the 
Author on Kc-tvApti^m who is cciiaialy an Altican- But tljcic i» no ugn 
ofhU having held ^ueh a *iew. 

1. WhcLi the Author on RcbapEism says ia (c. T) l1^at. white llie 
Trinal Invocation was t»o[ only ffrttat ft rfthnn tt nrnKi^Hi mfvUi in 
t£cUs,in ahim-iiitiifi/ri but wjia ods^ri'ari ^Nogitt sofituw^ -viz ihould con- 
' sjdirr that Invocation of ihr Name of Je?ius cKiglii not lo br.' looked on 
'by us as futii^' (j\ nvbh fufilij vidcri)^ *\X n^ij^ht have n ton of laitial 
vtTtuf Lapablc^ of &ub!ic:quenl curnpletion.* debet i[ivi>i::ik[io h;i^G ncnninl* 
jcau ^atasi initiufft ^Mfd^^^m fftytUrii IJamimd temMu/e^ Moh't €t ivttrit 
amnifnts .xccAyi. ^uod potsit postm-xiam r^xftfuU rtSus iitspUn. — Hrdoeft 
not say what the r/siiiu<e res nre, but sin<:e the ' Name of J^tus' i& the 
only thinji as ycl *caniiiion' to the Church and these persons, ihc refutvt 
of the Invocntion, the communion of the Kather and Ehe Spinl, cannot 
be ciclutled from ilitiu. 

In the title and Aist chapter of the book the expression 'acmel lA 
nomine Dfrnins Jtut Cfiriiti iincfS' is cijuivalent to 'CbriBlian baptiwn.' 
and does not mean one cla^s of baprUois only, foe it comprehends thote 
w\iit altcail> y/tic b4piued in the name of the Trinity, 

2. What thi* 'Roman pnrty' malntAiiiCfl can be gathered frorn (he 
ar^umcntb against them, Ijut eapccully from ccrtam clau&ea imbedded in 
those which are recognmable ^s fragmeoiaty quotation* Irom lirephen. 
Such pa^aagc^ are chcae^ Stephen. £/. 73, t5, ia reprcacnled Ait 
saying, *ln nomine Jecu CbrisEl ubicum^^ue et quomod'^cvrnque baptiaati 
gratiam baptiimi sunt coniccuti.' and £fi. 73. r8 'eitra ccctesUm immo 
^ ct contra *cclesiam modo (/,/. provided that it be) in nomine Jesu Chridl 
* cujuBCumquc et qucmodocLimquc ^cntikm bapiizaiuEi] remiavoneni pcc- 
' cMOniin consequi posie': whfeh is a version of the same citafion/rp^/tf*. 
cum^vt' (ru: hg^t) bcin^ Cyprian's paraphiasc of Stephen's own word 
uMoftngMf, and meaning 'whatever doctrine of the Person of Cliritr be 


cnicruun^d by the *ccu' The tame pUMj^c Firtnilian-CKpn^Uk (f'/- 7^ 
iS) quatei thu»: ':(cd in niultum* intuit *prt>1id1 nomcii Chnxli ad Mem 
'«t baplismi uacCilicAlioncm, ut qtiifuniquc ci ubicumque in nomine 
■Oiri&ii bapti£.iius fiicrii ciin!ief(uaiur irAiim ^raium ChriiiJ." And 
ajEim llie urnv p:u«A^c it <^u<itvd £/. 74 $ *qui in nomine Jetu Chrisli 
ulikcumqne ci [luomoducum^iac bApiiwniiir." Nnw ihU one hirptd-on 
qtiouiion [fdd- It is only one) would have c;ifried Ncnndcr'a r,ttit.^ had 
tlic question been one of annfiiifiti^ ^A^ vu/m ff/^t? farmL ItuI there is 
noinchqueitionftLrrug^ I'be^tuc&tEon n vb«ther atchiimaiicjd^njH 4^a» 
hafitite, nil clac bcirs equal. Siephen use* ' baplued in tAi AVjwr &/ 
CAriiS' in ihe New Tesramcnt ^^ous it (iquivaleni to CbnitJin tuptiim 
— «i Origcn cxpbin* Rom. vi. 3, ^bjtptiied into CkrUi* by icfercf^cc 
lo Ihe CTimrKC (f> mean crtltnary Chmtintn bnpii*m, *cum utit|Lic non 
hibeMur IcgLiijnum bopiLsmri nui JV^ ncmine TrirrittUii^ ' And th4T it 
wai only in ihii fann ih^it 5itphen contidtrtrf thr ■ Name of Chrnt ' lo 
be Applied in bjiptihm it pUirt Irom KirmTliiLn't other quotation from hJm, 
^P' 7S" 9 *no" tinfl-renilaiii l-%sc ^uia 4lt Jlk i|Ul hapii^Airrit re cjuoJ qui 
'bapiiiitu* lit graham (onse^ur ^rnmt tn^tva/n TfinitaU Htmi/tHm 
* PiUra ti Fiiii ^i Sfiiritau Samti.' Fimiilian indcrd cxprea^ly auumcs, 
^/' 75- '^t ^^=^' Stephen would require th« ^na Air/irwv Jrtnitntit, et'^n 
ihoui;U hi* p^mtiplei would (« he suppomj aUow, if it were coirecl in 
ibat point »mrf in Vhc imerrrigaiinni^ n b^pttsm by -v demoniAC or a 

Lookini; (hen even to the latter of what btcptien wrote (though ic 
liitlc reniAiuk Eo uft), Nednder*! Account oJ it i» uol juititled. If me 
conrder how iitron^ CypriAn (^/. ?3. 16,1 wa» o« thi* ^\rA, — fpt* 
C/tn'iiMj Ju^i /mfi/tMri x^nfea in pU/ia 4i aJtinotta TniafttUt following 
hit Muwr who say* iji ttagu^aiii im^flxifn at it Jorwt^ praaripta 
(Ten. 4t Bapt. tj) -we sbAll »eG thai had he conceived 'BAptiim m 
Chritt'i N*mc" to Imply thr disrctard i>f Chrin'i "torm,' he **c)iild h.wc 
been armed «itb an iigumcnt agoinftl Suphen which he could not have 
failed to Wc ih^ll aIho obMrro* wiLh TiUemoiti (Tom. rv.> Noit J9 
ftfr^\ Cypnfn\ th^i nelihct Kuiebius. AuguBtme, Vinc«a( of Lerint or 
FAcunduA ever ^)cr{:eivctl in Stephen »uch fjthe 'hbcrality' aa Ncander 
would i*^\Tx discover in hlm^ 

In this view of Stephen^ Pcditrup Afrce*, pp- ui— 234- TLlLcnMnt, 
aituchinjc impouible force 10 the title of the po^mpbEet, Ehmkt (he Attthor** 
position wa3 th^ "hidi Ne^ndcr E4.kca. On the ground of ihe p^tUKC 
of Aiigukttnc, quoc«d in the tra, It hai been douhttd whether all the 
«eci3 iiAiiicd by Gcnnodius ^dk £«k^^tk dagmtil, ca^ Iil) rtallr dad 
itiiusF the furm. 

White thcrd'ore CypHan regards thit Form of Chriit'c 

■ Oii|:ni . f AHwn/' im £fut. md /*«>., ILb. r. c %. 




InstJnition Mn the full and united Trirjty' to be v«s«*fitial*, 
he appeaU be>*ond this to comoioA reason to decide whether 
one can be imfy baptised into the Son, who denies the tfuth 
of the Son'* humanity, or one who is taught to believe the 
God of Creation and the God of Israel to be an evil (icity* 

Granting then that the true formula has been uttered by 
people of such tenets', he argues with force and dignity that 
the rile is not a question of words ■- that the absent Chhst, the 
absent Spirit are not bound by them, a:( b>* a spell, to bless 
untruth, unfaith, broken charily. Thus then an effective 

fAilh o\\ the part of the recipient caitfwt J^ jecmird hy tkc 

(5) Again, what may be effective faith outride the Church 
is incapabU of definition. It is no part of the Church's duty 
or prerogative to graduate degrees of departure from the 
truth- Since a death suflcred in persecution for a spurious 
creed ought clearly not to rank aa martyrdom for the truth, 
how can there be ascribetl to erroneoii** baptism a virtue that 
15 denied even to the Baptism of Hlood' ? 

But it is when he comes to the handling of the Iluiencal 
Pntof that for a time Cyprian seems to hdwc hi> advcr^aiy 
tn bis grasp. 

(i) He had pleaded 'Usage/ and Cyprian, with a fire 


1 ^-71. i«. 


fitil 4|}]KUBncc of lib Euguuiciil it iu 

in bia (i^c^ tre^iiu hail dn^^'ll it nut 
more fuMy »li]U *Our C^ JtJuJ ihcira 
li not ihi; ame: not It our Chrlil tmr, 
thkit Iftti) n^» not the wTnc! anooidingly 
their bflpiUuk anil uwi i> nor fne, 
becobkc aox Ehv «auic ; iut a^ ihc/ liftvc 
i1 not Aaiy uilI prcpcrly, tlicy have Lt 
not nt xUi tkiA ihn OLnnut be inkcn 
.'Li:{:nuiLt of whiuli is nai hjul; jtJid a& 
thty have nul Ehty cpnnot rectfiMf.' 

The AuthnT on HrtinprSKm rullowt ihp 
'imir JiTLC of thbiighL c 15. 

' *>- "in «^- /^ /^'^rt' Orat, 74. 
D4 L'ml. t^, [9. The uqlvenal]l)r 
of ihiK jUff|*[iieTit C4n xarccly be il< 
lustraicd beiLvr ihan b)' the f«c[ (faat 
[he ttrMct chunchiniXTi who wraif Ch» 
Tiui^^'f^i/Vum^j/iriDCo. iNijdls- 
claimiia/i^dijuUuEiilicvibtecl: 'u the 
ktiHerCF bclitvcd <vn Another GwJ And 
an ftnoi.h?T Chri^, be ic a confvtKor 
nuV of ChiiVt bu[ irk an vnsubUAiitUt 


caught from Tcftullian\ argues tlut no lapse of time, no 
extent of UM! can ajuntcrvdil Truth. Newest found Truth i$ 
mere prrcioi)^ thun the- mtrni vent^nibk error*. U^a^ may be 
an Apoto;^)' for i^orance while Ignorance la$1f^, but it cannot 
be a reason against Kea^n V 

(a) Moreover the ar^ment is two-cdgod, The u*« of 
Rome was not the univerul uac*. 

(j) Aj^ain. it vi^ argued that scccdcr^ frofo the Church 
Vfcrc not rcbaptiieJ iijuin their reluni to it, why ihcn should 
they in whose fellowship they had lived meantime be differ- 
enced from theoi .* He replies that ihcy had once received 
that one Jiiptism which was ever-availing; to Uiem as peni- 
tents for any fiin. Their case was not parallel to that of a 
heathen wht; hati been made not a churchman at finit but a 

(4) It was argued tliat the original practice of the Church 
was Atteiited by the fact that the mofit divergent heretical 
bodies recognised each the baptism of the others* and rc<iuired 
no renewal of the McrAmcnt upon Iraniitions : and »o still fit 
Wici sdid) the ChuiUi when Uicy came hunw lu her, hod 
notliin^ 10 require but a true ainfev&ion*. Cyfrnan replied 
that the Church had nothing to learn from heresy; and to the 
objection that his own ilicory was in fact NcvatianV, who re- 
baptized even bin Catholic adherents, he an:?wcrcd' on a sound 
principle* tliat accidental coincidence with heresy invalidated 

* TtiU Dificu Um pit* or Vt Ptten 
1? tS^) ^^ Sirphonui leUoi nor an 
UMfiC but on TnJiUgn. Cyprian n- 
qaii«d llua UhbV^ Uiuul J be ttrtiin] tiy 
R«wnn arul hy Scripiun lirfcov tip 
would fcllow h to tw TfjdiiuJii Bl UL 

> ^ 71. «. whidi nt>l»o (me, u 
FlmilitLn rvniuki, in oUin tim;fn, t^. 
in iHc ccl«brvion of CHteri Ep. j$. ti. 

' ThrNciBibai5(mid du ItaitAiiAC^ 
im Ihc ipini oi irut l^l^Uf|l, £rcu«d 

OM-tioUc Bfl|rtuni a* imll. Tilt IntlPct 
appcaliil Ie> chbidinirn uith ractt «• 
prvwcma u -liUiol« ChfiMiajni/ 'CU 
Set, Cwa Seia, «4hae paj-aziui o, 
«ijt }iaginii-' <0pi4it» lii- ii-j Op- 
rattit ipHkiof ih« fwrror vrhicli vS^cMd 
himiLtlh; r« c«iM<itBi uf CUmliuii. "tm 
...dldcii Do lidbliaad MjilnlJcic. nl 
foniT' W.6. 

• J9> 74 *■ 
' £i^ 7*. ». 

' So Aat- dt itaft, t. DhiM, in. 


T»b UAtniSMAL i^VKSnOK, 

no Church tisagc. and that indi^d the E^uritanic mimicry' was 
pood &s evidence of what Novation had learnt In the Cliunch, 

(5) Cfuttistic <iiffiatiti(s arc met by hioi with genuine 
brcadtli. For example, he is asked, ' If ri^genftatwn wiikttt 
* ih£ CkurcM is thus essential^ what is the po<iiinn of thn«e for 
'whom either term has failed? — of catechumens martyred 
^before baptlsfn'? of heretics received tn ttmc pa^t without 
'baptism &,r\^ so deceased*?' 

Hia theory, like hi^ Master's, was in this one point lc$» 
narmw than the more liberal party might have faiHy expected- 
Things essential tu eartliiy order would not (he knew) bar the 
goodness of God ; the moat glorious of bap^sms sanctified 
such a^ having: lived by the hg:ht tliey had fell asleep in the 
Church, though unbapCiKcd ; no man 5hoiiId fear their being 
parted from her ctcmally. "Simplicity Hke this \s enough 
for me/ says Augustine at lhi<, in the midst of h(s refuiationsV 

Ready with an answer (ike this Cyprian could yet more 
effectively press the abandonment of error when detected, 
and despise mere scnjplcs of conscience as to the unknown 
consequences* of Rcbaptii^m 'should the first baptism have 
been perchance valid in the sight of God^ As for casuistic 
difficiillifs. such could be propounded on either side: What 
for instance could even now be said as to the validity of 
baptisms performed by a demoniac woman with everj' Chris- 
tian solemnity? — a professed propEietcss who foretold ajid 
claimed to have caused the earthquake?! which led to the 
persecutions of A.ix 235. who traversed frozen snows bare- 
footed and unhurt, who had trains of followers for whom she 
celebrated the eucharist with a form of ' invocation not to be 
discreditedV and seduced a deacon and a country pre^bj'ter ? 
Were her unexceptionable rites valid or no \ 

■ 'loiridii qundnni-* E^ 73. ^5. 

given hiy J'lrmiJiin. Cp. »St liberty 
jiTcn 10 Uw WfcniJcfinE l*^>phcls, rgf* 



7I1P liberal Author on RctKipiJHrn, though he calU a 
cert^iin Simoman baptism, in which fire wa< cxhibiled uyxm 
the surface of the water, 'an aduUertnc, r&y intcrncciiiG' rite, 
<loftt not absolutely declare rebaptUm necct^sary even then'. 

or Cyprian'^ Biblica/ ar^^tm^nfs the crorc r^miliar need 
Acarcely mote than simple mention. There h the * One 
Ixnf,' ' One Cup/ * One Arte/ — to which the- Dnnati'itft fiddcd 
'One Clrciimci^icin/ 'One Delug<^.' Then? U the 4chfs< 

matic;i1 (note, nol heretical) ^'ain^aying of Korah. There 

is the inference thfil if the Apostle baptized the household 
on whom the Spirit had faUcn\ how much more should tho^ 
be baptised on whom it was confoscd by the imposiCLon of 
hartds at ilwir rcccfplion th;il H4? LuJ never UU<?ri- 

A ne;it ingenuity appean in his dealing with ftome of the 
pftfisa^s ; — a* when he explains' the omission of the Father's 
Name from S, Peter'ii mjunction of Baptt^irn (Acts ii. 38) by 
observing that these neophytes were Jcvr^ who needed bat the 
Soi^A Name to aupplcmcnt their anlicat DapliMn : or when, 
on Philippians i, 18. which was quoted* Afi shewing that even 
an Apostle recognised the c\'angcllzing work of Ills opponents^ 
he point)^ out that their work wa^fi within the Church and their 
aimit>' personal not doetrinaL 

Some of his most constant and conclusive quoiationa are 
strangely erroneous. He perhaps ntattcd the interpretation of 
Qiti liji/i/isafi*r a mvritttf ^aitf^r^JUit iava/ii»v^'uj*f ' He that is 
■ washed after tuuchinu a dt*ad bfxly an*^ ftrrwA^fi if ti^aiti. what 
' prolitoth he by hi$ washing r a«if it meant ']4e that i« baptized 
by one that iit dead/ if. by a hcreiic. Thi« is quoted in hia 
flcn3C by ^uintufl (t^uictus) in the Council*; and constantly by 
Pctilianu:!. Crewoniu^ and other DonatiM*, afainat Augustine* 

U r/e^iffair «Ti*j»Ar«Tt tf^jfa^trrvi^ Itfa 

■ Ef V «■ 

• Sir- 1% fu1.^o^ i^:i 

* Stm/r. Ktf, vf. 




who at frrst wa^ only able to n.^>]y tl^al ' xlw H^ad ' baptizer H 
a heathen priest, or a ddlied hero, rather than a heretic', not 
obicrving the omission or 'and touchcth it again.' When he ■ 
saw it he thouj^ht Uonatus a ' Fur divini doquii,' and yet 
ag^ftir di^ovcrcd that in most of the older Arrkan manu- 
scripts these words were wanting, and retracted his strong; 

A spurfoiK pasRagr a^ well aa a genuine one may have a 
spurious sense ast^igned to it, arid nin as mischievous a course. 
Cyprian in the First Council on Haptigm, quotes the Akx- 
ardrme addition to l^rovcrba ix. iS. Ki^p tJte^ /rem a/i^ 
waUr, and ef Uu alien fcnt drink thou not. Since the Alex* 
andrine Clement had already applied the further spurioai 
context Si) ihah thou cross aiim wat^r to ' heretical baptUm,* 
and paxs beyond an niirn river to 'the ethnic and disordered 
WAVC6 to which their pervert would be hurried," it is possible 
that Cyprjan or one of his b:shops (Tcrtullian doe^ not quote 
it) thence icamt the Application, Firmiiian adopts it from 
them, and la the Third Council Ncmcsian of Thubuna? (i^ho^ 
Lnu*4uany long speech shews that he read Tertuliiaii as well a* 
Cyprian) malces the passage his own- Augustine's common 
sense is rot misled as to the meaning, but it£ authenticity he 
does not question*- 

Then again favourite passages arc Jeremiah xv, i8 and li. 
1 3, DtcexviHg soater and Broken cisUms arc to Cyprian plain 

■ They «< in *ofiw edition* wfong^y 
iPicrced io ihc ciUiliuii by <,>iiic[ui Scntt, 

■ £fi, la. I- C]aD.Altn.SfrBm. B- 1- 
e- iiK- ; hii sc^ml gIku^ noi even in 
LX*. ^/'Ti-iJ SmftA//,*.. Aug. 
€- Dtifukiu Efi. <^t Unit. EaU. c uaii^ 
(4^5). Thr Urntdic^iirc eOiioib hitvc no! 
ubaeivt^d ttinl the furgfry \\ qiin(f<f, but 

\%. They iLic nm in ihc VuIijaIc. Of 

phui itikd KirmillAn of counifirireiikeDi 
In lilt uiiieforn>'ahai|ua i.1i«U sMvt€ 
U el it tviMZi aIIvdo □< biZicrii', Ncoic- 
idan 'All aqua aH/ifin alieni ai^tint «<- 
ste tonie fxtivrrtfi htbem'; Augiutme 
' ab v\iia fllLcna \9f^e"n it rf *i€ UttOs 
Hlicnu DE InEiciik/ The VATleUa o| 
»rly Lsim Vcrxionh Are lUutntoil 
bcrc- CooipAK Tad^a in Bp. WcK- 
Co[l'5 arLidc Vuli^au' in Smitb'i I ^ittt 

vrir iiL 


41 > 

prophecies o( heretical baptism. Wc may ^pf^y to him almost 
litcrall/ thcaddrciAof Optatus to Parmcnkn, when after re- 
futifi|f lib Cyprufiic u«c of the ' hmken i:i«lcfn« ' he prtKeeds 
• You batter the Law to <!uch purpose that wherever you 
'lind the word WaUr yuu conjure out of it son^e ^ense to 
'our diaadvai^taf;:cV By the same vcrbjil hsndlirie Cyprian 
furaii^hcd the Donati?it« with their pet atuurdiEy. * Ixt not the 
sinner's oil anoint my head' as being David's denunciation of 
heretica) unction*. 

There is do denying thf? poetic aptress of hi« fAvouriie 
application of 'The Garden enclosed. .the Fountain sc.iLed., 
the Paradise with \t& pom^ranate^V from the Canticleti, nor 
of his bold pressure of the New Birth* and Sonship of the 
Christian — who in Heresy can no more find a Mother, than 
Clirint can find in her X\\z spotless spoule^ 

llie Answer of Stephanii^ to thiK l;iKt wan nnhle; that 
Heresy was indeed an unnaturai mother, who exposed her 
children as soon as they were born, but that the Church's part 
was to And and bring them home and rear them for her 

Still the argument was on neither side a matter of simile 
Whil?it a glance ihroiitEh the! rcferrntcs abovL- given will i^hew 
that Cyprian's scheme is no: fully developed in any one plact^, 
but had to be worked out from his correspondence, it did not 
lie in fragments in his mind, but was to him intelligible, 
coherent, logical — and was m^evU^ 

AguHHt such ft piece of Chrintian philosophy, held and 
promulgated by one of Cyprian's powers and Cyprian's 

> Opianu Iv, 9. 

* Ft. ul. (csll) 5- jSy^ 7^ 1- 
Oporu It. t> 

* c*BL if- 1«. i|! ^^ 69. ■: u- 
lit 15' 13- 

* iE^. 69. 1 ; 7t^ 1 1 : 7§- If, uinnvnd 
H«v pMtiT nsr Im lutMd Inlo cul- 

troo nutW In Kdbt bUhOp of Ha-in- 
MQon ij^fur- iE/A as) who i^r* 
that 'OirlK hn gtvcn vi lib MCtirilT 
{rmihim} llut aan u 4 /Wuasr fannialB 
(^PHMtf}/ Crpfun At !«■' ^1 "T 
nMm- Barld mmdl lilunc ii> hin^ 
hti nni vtm noelml x\Uk F«lii i« 



character, backed by an army of prcUtcs whom he rather re- 
strained than stimuUtcd^ moving as one man to his direction 
yet witli ail iiidcpcndciicc wliidi tlircw cadi upon himMcir for 
his argument, hnw grf-;it was the triumph of Stqihf^n T 

No council assembled to support him. Alexandria remon- 
strated : Cappadocii denounced'. Hta good cauj«cwa« marred 
by uncharity, passion, prctcutiousncas. Vet he triumphed, 
and !n him the Church of Rome triumphed, as she deserved. 
For she was not the Giurch of Rome aa modern Europe 
has known her. She wan the liberal church then ; the 
church whom the Truth made free ; the representative of 
secure latitude, charitable camprehensivenc^, considerate 

Thia question she decided on one grand principle, — ntthcr 
a. grand iuatirtct a^ yet, tv be tnfcrnncd later into a principle. 
For Siephcti's thcdogy was not siiPidpntly advRnced to de^ne 
it- Nor was it rr>rmu1»icd until Augustine's time. It was the 
principle which a.[\ the four western doctors contributed to 
establish in the analogous case of ordination. It was the 
same for which the Church must ever be content to set aside 
her ctfcr-rccuning temptations to discountenance crmr by 
denying the grace of those who err, to assert her dignity by 
increasing severity, and to attraet mankind, as Cyprian said 
she would', — and this is hardest to forego, — by her vciy 

*As there was much for a learned Cyprian to tcAch, »o 
there was something too for a teachable Cyprian to learn,' 

' ThiB Diu&C be our inference frnm 
bit opcQUiB •pcdhj t^JC/ WL>uM have 
liked Wdl la 'pau Judgmeni' od the 

luvc bapliKd but cjeuicIjcJ ictuiniiig 
hcretiu: Vinccrii vS TUiUiru UTrwV. 
£//. J7) otcLmiTirtl ' #t tnmf hcrctlo 
to be warn tliui the IvcAtheti/ 

' yitwiiiiitii ^pj-ijikldi uvcT Uim Huch 

iudatia, iiuolciiLJi. imperllU/ * Hb 
EnbumiLniE^ vm wdctnnc^ IC had fanughl 
■>u( the IviU and wicJont of Cypriftn, 
even u \ht ptifidy uf Ju4u had 
Uouyhl— ']" 'A buJiUini iltic of 

Episcopiii cpiscopofiini 1 IE hail ilr^duiy 
provoked the lAruiim of Tcitbilljui] 


viiL la 



»/» Auf^ftdnc\ criticmng his reproof of StcphcT>'f indocile 
temper. The fallacy which underlay Cyprian's convicUona 
wut rcjitly that whi^h hail dt^ticivrd TcTtullisn ; which Utcr 
moved and maintained' the Don^KUtt in 4?xicnding to whM 
they hdd ti> be ■ Treason" in :in orthf>dox cleric the (;raee- 
debnrrlng power which their fathers had attributed to schi&fn ; 
which n^ade Wyclif' deny the validity of S&cramcntft or 
Orders given by a Dishop or Prc*bytcr whllM in *in ; which 
led Calvin ami Knox to refuse baptism to ihir infant children 
td 'papttt«,' or the divtne?£ of Genn-A to allow it upon a 
ch;iritablc hope th;tt the 'grace which had adopted,., the 
great -grand fathers might not yet be so wholly extinct ' as that 
the infants should )iave Moat their rij^ht to the common 

Aldiougb in Cyprian*, and even a* it would seem in the 
DonatisLs there is no trace of .such tcMchinjt ;u ih^t (hi,- moral 
character of the priest afltctft the efficacy of the Sacnmmt, yet 
the Puritan dogma (compared with which any other sscerdo* 
talism ts but shadowy) That the mmistcr is of the substance 
of the sacrament" may be considered to lie implicitly 

ffiidn^TiB* if ibiy wcr< bfewiof dnom- 

iH< UfiitM ' k L WydlEiie pnp«it>on 
nvhich toDK 0/ bu divciptci rcaottBrtd 

and which wu«rLcfvi[iflHfliC'niitUfK«; 

■ccLftlUlMftDM). vol, Kxvr<*L6<^6— 
tol. XXILI- c<iU iw;. VcDcli I7H4> 

* Hooker. K- xw. I. i«- 

' RmCh (voL. 111. p. i^r) «i«n|>ctj' 
tocDxv Erutnw of luivinif writicn ihii 
'iryfituti w?m« lin Hf*, ri^\ to frvl ihai 

dM tudfrte of A wkkfrl pKni ihV4tIi 
notbinC'bnt nuher ddUa Ihe |«opte/ 

fbi Cnunaa ojniiniKi 'But he mnaK 
I think, in fh* rutf nf a hhh»p 4/- 
fnK4fd ly Aftffifi, whr> it ■*/ a >val 
AuAr^. hh liio do »nl ihvAi ihinc 
ftho uipport hu impifty/ tniRi orf 
/h. C^^. -Thg DoTialitt limiutLon of 
diaqvliriddiM to (be TVWnVrirJ tctf ma 

irUiniy. Int tpporFntlr nliiol rn an 
tuUhnofibr tnt (aihicii^ Vnt AagnaUTM 
■ccna Alwip Able l« icdiic« dum lo ■ 
ihlonmH by ulkiun vhcihcr 'icmi 
iniiriEcri ind aduh«n« wrre not an 
cquft! Jiiqu«lilicaiiao. ' The? Uicrt/oET 
hail not w jAuMf iL Then ik a ttwdal 
caMt l«a in tiU /^ /tfT- AfrA**u tir, 
nxv. (44k ' VcMi (lVn>lol>) /<* fMy /a^ 
lii«.l the ^jj>]c(w|]iuii « criiui^ikl ^"^^ 



in that one proposition m whkh Cyprian diflfcrcd from the 
rest of the W»L k vfti^ not until Augustinea time that a 
categorical answer wa« ilrvrlopttd ^mutidty tn rarh srparate 
argiument of CyprUn And hn bishops: so long dfd they 
retain their jiccming convincingness almost unbroken, nay 
become ' like Scripture"* to their maintainera. 

Vet the true K>1vcnt haJ evidently been perceived at onee 
by hix (jppaneiiEs, althotigh the minute fragnicnts of Stephen'^ 
own language which Cyprian gives us do not eontain the 
exact statement "The grace or BaptUm' they said wad 
'of Christ, not of the human baptizer' He who baptized did 
■ not give being or add force ' to the Sacmmcnt. This had 
beer almoat on the lips of the Numidians when they ftrat told 
Cyprian of thdr difficulty as to rebaplizing, ' bccAU^,' said 
they, * Baptism is Oftr.' That oneness is of the One Lord: 
but tliey had allowed themselves to be put off with the super- 
ficial reply that its oneness was of the one Church, and that 
to admit non-Church baptism was to admit two baptisms or 
to recognise more'. 

The Author on Rebaptism states it with even scornful 
force^ so that it is surprising that he should have let slip 
for so many subtleties this real answer*. ' Let us. excellent 


* h«(b|m|i, p. ttfi, h. fj mliyingfa 
wi<v«i PbIfti i'i nitbd by Pirien' 

rLght iiJUf]ii[?nr. iVicn ihould htve 
cJltd A'/. T0> I and Ef- 71.1. On the 
olhcr IioikI Pe[«ra \% ^roxig la lUtnVing 
EhftI C!y|irtin tiimseir huft (hit key Ir> his 
own erKif \i*, Ep. ft^. x^. There lie 
doo* noi tpuk i^f Chriii simply, but cf 
'Chrtsl in hi* ChufcN* as givlnfi pqu*! 
gncc lo everympmbcr ^f It in MipCitm, 
S« iiUt> 13 nf the same EpiotJc- He 
EPJatiK bimbcif con^fully. 

* Aiicinr ro 'virfimin nplim^ tel- 
da^Qin^ et ptnTiillamw vlfiuUbui cjc- 

lit eni4>]umt>vtuir] |ihvn(«r «i adqiiiM- 

This \% mdl cuprtaed hy Optituv, 
lih, ¥. c- \% * Has re* uoicuiqtie hob 
c}UMl«m rd optiarina ted <re>JcDn> Ado 
rt TrlnilEU iirLBEDt,' c. 4 ' ...omtica qui 

bflptusini optfrn-riot ««h, non docniDa. 
ctsLcrarni^DlD pcrac esc isncli.. tioH per 
hoiniiirs ,/ OpEALub in^wcn by im;il!- 
cation mmy o* Cyjiriint urEtimtntii. 
fim il ts viqiMc how rhc powe* of bid 
i:ir«1 nunc fdflwli^ dJrrcr auxcL. Au- 
(^Biiiir- Firbi txtih m^lB tiim fuU ami 
readt the Enie Ltf«»on of hit lifcb Con- 

VI U, in. 

THE arguments-Stephen's, 


'sir,' hir wrilo (as I beli«fvef 3g;im<:t Cyprian htmsclf), 'render 
'and allcjw to the Powers of HcAVcn » mifrht of thdr own. 
'and siaffer th9 condescension of the Divine Maj»t>' to have 
'its independent operation's.' 

ills conception of the visible Church n indeed higher than 
Cyprian's* and hitd he learnt how to apply it would have 
been of more value than all his argiinimtK hnide^t. 'What.' 
he asks, — ' unless ^ome higher prindplr modify thi? rigidity of 
'your strict formula — What is the portion reserved for the 
'Chnstian multitude' which dies without the impositfon of 
•handa?' — 'What for those bi^hopn themselves.* hi* irony 
addjt, 'who Fal! to \\9\t and contirin such a? sicken and die in 
'the outlying dUlricU of ihelr dioccscs'7' 

Thus on every aide, he infers even within the acknow- 
ledged pale; even within the entrenched lines of saint* and 
martyrs, there lies a vast verge beyond the operation m full 
meajture of that «impie ^ccrdotui unity, which is nevertheless 
essential to the gcncrml cfTcctuation of the gospel 

And wh^t iie^ bej'ond the pale ?' It is in the M>temn con- 
sensus which cxi^t*: A'i to the adefjuatc and complete sanctlfi- 
caCior) of that adiniteed vei^e or margin that we are to look 
for analof^ies which shall solve the new-Hfing problems aug- 
gestod by the existence of hercsj\ We cannot subject all 
truth to the conclusion.1 of a theory which ik iruc up to its 
limits but wliicJi has limits beyond which nothing in clear ^ve 
the Love and tlic Powei*. 

Cyprian's demand for a sanctity in the baptixer in order 
to 'justify and to sanctify* the baptised', may well have 
revolted the Church of Home a.^ it docs the Church of Hni:- 
land. Doubtless he took the term» in a u^caker sense than wc. 

IV. c vil. (101 'ir villiin the cloved 
garden of God ihctr arr thurni iif iKr 
Dwil. irbj may aottb*-Si*rtnj[ofLhnrf 

Auv out bcyitfid it^' 

* ■ Salwiji^ii in fjf ihc Chiijc*i'! Tmt. 

thti dtiBailton uf Ecdou be yj wiiie a 



But ihvy at Irait make Stephrn** mvcctive inU-Uigiblc. 
atniclore of the Church, the apostolic teaching, the personal 
work of Cbrifit seemed to him endangered ^ And they were 
so\ had not theological science arisen to refrain such careless 
moclcii of speech- 
Stephen taught that bs one whn separata Trom the 
Chtinrh does not forfeit his own church baptism fa/ hfs 
wandering, but when he returns will return in its valWHy, 
so neither in the meanwhile does he lose the ' power ' which 
as a baptized man he possessed of imparting liaptism to 
others*. M 

And he taught that the child or the henthwi who leanV 
Christ thnjugh the teaching of the heretic cannot be charged 
with ■ defect or disorder' in the reception of that sacrament 
to which he comes with fullest faith*, and which it is the will 
of God to impart to every creature- Though he b e?ccludcd 
from * fellowship in holy duties with the visible Church/— 
the &€afa vita as Augustine truly calls it — yet of that visible 
Church he i* «till a mefnher. Its tnie image is the great House 
with all itfi variety of vessels, and the Cornfield, capable of 
including for awhile, nay even of producing, not misbe- 
lievcr* only, but miadocrs*. These teachings of Stephen on 
the lasting virtue of Baptism were reaffirmed by Augustine 
with ovcri^uwing illustration, but there is no ihought in cither 
that Baptism has in it any spell to courTterv^il sepantiori 
That would be not liberality but superstition. ^ 

Whatever evil is in heresy or schism, or in any form oF 
origin of them, is no more purged by Baptism than ani 

<-1<^t"'^''*1^i'*» Jdloanm npcnkriuin.,,.' 

trroriB incnTnL* A quouiion (fff>m 
5l«i>bm prabably] vhicK q^^\^V by lU 

1 any 

very wording ro have coltrTiei] C] 
Bfi. 70, 1. 
* Allhtjueb ihcBc illnfirilitiitt arc lktI 

yet ihey ^v«ie «ln*dy in use, CypiiAK 
b^d pcixfivTtl ilidr borinc on the cue 
uf The lAptfff) thoii|;h be Utjm Uird tO 
«p(>ty tTient uiaK ividcly, £/- ^y ft] 

vin. iiL 



ufircnouoccd sin. As it is no step to sftlvfttion, but ftWAy from 
it, if one oblaiiLs baptism by 1 fcigntd or inconsistent rcpent- 
anoeV^o if anather is baptiip<) a fee' to Unity, to the; Ptaoe 
of ChH«» to Charity with His Church, ihcsc \t^ not cotidfrion^ 
for rcali^tng the Remission of Sins. The tnnermottt power 
of baptism is in bolh men Jet and hindered, until it matures in 
fellowship And unity icgAincd. Both need a chAn(;cV Both 
alike must make ^ more truthful confession'. 3ut both alike 
have rrceived a coi)*iecration, and a'StampoftheLorctV which 
protects to them, which makes for reconciliation. The change 
they need is not another Consecration, but a full^tment of the 
former. With that it b^ins not to be present, but to be 
profitable, to minister to salvation'; their sins melt away as 
they «nter withtr the bond of love* 

K policy, convenience. mterc*t, taste, Jealousy, self-will, 
carelessness or the like take a mar who knows there Is but 
'One Baptism' to seek it from a sepantist or to continue 
witli him in his separation, those errors of the soul will work 
ihdr proper cffcci; his knowledge will not excuse his in- 
diiTcitrncc lo unity H'n Ba^vtiAin U mit fur hi-% soul's 


But the faithful believer who receives Baptism from the 
outside teacher when his only other choice is to die unbap- 
tizcd airainst ChrUts word, hAS remission of his sins and 
all other benefits, lie Iom^-i nothing. 

The symbols arc lucid. The ([<mi1 which upbeai^ the ark 
is deathful to the (k-spi«c-r« Heaven's rain fecdt ihom« and 
tareft for destruction as well as wheat for the garner*. Yet 

' v«tbii nan factii nnanTfwil**.* 1. ilL 
(rS) 'quM. fl «d ipnuu Dtptivmom Actus 

> yw/, r.dll, (tO- 

* /Ah/, h lii. (iS) ' vrnu otfitfcuiu/ 

* Aug. £/- 9S. } (All RaaSfwiitfB) 
■<]udi <«niccmtJo mm ■jaklem f&cH 

hrretkujn ,,bAl>cittvin dooiinicum du- 

pfodcne quod im-ni-' t. xil {i9) 'tA 

' /hJ. VI- ». U). 

• /Md. VII. IIL (5), 

7?— 2 



Euphrates vfn^ not hcd^d in by ]^l^a()i9^. The river ofj 
Eden flowed out inio the world'- 

The ChtJirh has wichin tv^y separated communion sl 
flomethii^ which U all her ownV lly that tomething sho 
bcaf« sons in them to her^eir They are not bom to others* 
When they turn homeward they are wholly hers. 

The only rca} blot which Cyprian struck v/ta the vulgar, 
I>i:rh4p» -u'c ou^ht lu 'iay llic African, exphination of the 
laying on of h;tndii in the act of reaotation fo the Chtjrch. 
]{ it had meant a first impartinj^ of the Holy Spirit which 
.schismatics could not impart by their own imposition of 
h<tnds (for urqucsti'ofiably Ihcy too used xh\^ rite), then it 
might be fairly reasoned that thcjr Baptiam equally needed 
iL-ncw^]. But in rcJiLity it htul no »uch meaning. Stephen 
explains it ckarly as a nic 'unto penitence'*: even Creacena 
of Cina 2it 'a reconciliation in penitence'." It was not the 
imparting of the Spirit for the firat time ; it was a renovation 
by the Spirit, an introduction to Communion of a repentant 
and enlightened ' Child of God.' For ' a Son of God ' 
tiiioughout, ill spite of his ihcotc^ical errors, Stephen dcv 
dares such an one to have been in the full 3en»e^ And It Is 
this very expression which was mo*t offensive at Carthage, 
and which is cavilled at e^^en in the synodic letter of their 
second Council" on baptistn. 

There were three intentions (besides that of ordination) 
with which the imposition of h^nds was uscdn It whs u^ed 
I, for what we call Confinnation. 2. fur the Receptioa 
of Penitents', 3, for Exorcism. The second of these is 
what Stephen clearly brings out as its true meaning in ttie 

' In pcenhflniiun. £>- 74. 1, 

' JEj>. 74' A. Compete ?£- 17, 
" 'runccnliDdciDuni i^lene^^nciirkciui 
ct CMC 'jmi t>a' ^Kjvauiil si Mciuncnm 

Dti' is tvuff^nify a quoiAEioii. Tht 
ttro tocnkmofLts rat bApii>.ia emd U^^oj- 
(xa uf hitnib. 

' In wliich wm^ ii ik livH in the 
j^^lffUfal Ci^HititHiiffH! viii- t- 9 liT. 
X«M^tf4r^ Ko^ <Clxt ^r^p rvt ^r^MTotdf. 




rc*c«ptEoii of tchitrnftticK, while Cypnan iTiamtnincd thai it 
meant the fir«t, and ihcreon built a logical claim to have 
Baptism repeated as CJonlirmAtion waft repeated. Of his 
extreme pArtis&n3, some would even have made it ineAn the 
thirds and ,-4U treated the schismatic aa d dcmoiiUc, 

To some )t has seemed not clcai that Stephen mcAiit to 
exclude 'Conlirmarioii' from the idea. StiEl he <Jiews no 
Intention whatever to include it; and he u«3 tcrma whtch 
give to it the other sense. The doubt arises only from the 
fact that Cyprian' endeavours to fasten that scn&c upon him, 
and thfLt wc have no reply from his ?iide. Similarly Firmiliaa 
infers unfairly* and ciuitc contraiily to Stephen's actual prin- 
ciplr, that if Ba|jti-%m with its gracious gifts were coiimtuni- 
cable by heretics, no imposition of hands neicd be used, but 
that wc mifiht unite with them in their prayer- mcetinf^ and 
at the altar and its sacrifice'. 

QudtionE have antcn upon the phrate of Siephen *Si qui cr^io a 
'quociinqtic hjcnii vcnicni al]>c>3 uikU initirvetatr ms{ qtted iradiium etr, 
*ni maniH ilU tnifKinarhr m |ja'nH^ntiftni..,/ £p, 7* (. How Sit'pht-n 
hcft [l] conEcmpUlc ;» 'Rcncndt' I'lnnovelur) of Jiir^f^i'ttf jW tkt t^nx'^rf, 
hut only vi(\t a icnrwal nr rcpcdiion a« Tntliiion wammta? or {1) doei 
he fotbid ' Inftovmion' ttt /Af 'ite/, and nquin Trii<ltiinn to be main< 
liilncj againai it?— Dota the iHntJvan mt^ti 'rruovaiion' nr 'innovation? 
MaCt^ {Tii^ift^^ QuartaUfhri/f, 1849, p, 636, ap. Vcttr*, F«chtrup &ad 
Ilcfck)uiiupU Ujc Aift, ^tllI AiKve* llmt ^ /V«uAif hMb liuI OLLurrxd btibre, 
the thrng 10 be rene««ri it Cem^rmatii'm. So Heletc dMlorei (U. I. e. L, 
\ 6J ihat the second could not have been expressed KnuiunELtically 

» j;Hijy if/,ff, 7.». i«, J7- 

Jf/^^ <k. uiJ Tkoiudiiaiu Dp. of CUpUh 

I u^ rBmsth iliat TlHoi 1. 1- p^ TA4 
wDtkId onnd the IMDC of thii pU« 

Iwhich m^ ncarl y oppwiic to <^*rth»^ff 
on the (Ulf) 10 Cirpl : bur cnc of lii> 
«»lAtJtj(ki fivm the tn^niimc Jiiacmr 

-^Ihm prf^r nothing, Thev*. author- 
«y in C>T<iiri offtri Caijc*, uhd an 

losulfAon A-It* iSO — ifit hA KAt ' K4 

C /, Z. vm, i.n. 9^. Sco^/fnuSr 
dit CtrWj, |k ^j% infra. Gfock e"** 

CiffiTanv*, HoK«lli, I. p itr. 
• iSA ?fr II* 



fic«pt by 'Nikil icuioretvTp m/ qv«d tradicum «h ^JM^tfftv.' P«bcn 
Ukc» /qJtPtWWr to cnc^a rv&ev*] in the convert, aiisvcrUkc lo whai 
b tmplicd m U)^a2 ha&di oa tb« «icb; in cxorckm, aad in peaance, 4»d 
bglda itut it u cidkid ' utvootui' bcatu*c uf ibc buiioiiikD of buidfe acd 
akndy in Bapdsau This h« saft U ' Crannniical' Kcckircp (p. »;}> 
who Mc« tliAt the cUuic 'vi ma^ui impcnuuur in fi^tuStmtiam' is ihc 
npiinican of *f«fl/ fr^tdiftim rtt; and j^cc tk« act CUKit be NUd '» be 
raicwtJ*' h^Tinjt never been dooc bcTocc* fods obUtcd to uy that ia (be ^ 
*Muf fr»i^ tr^Jtum eci ' there it an kacdrrcctncu of cxptM«ioft, a^d that ■ 
nxn the bcM aMbora oAcn initc JacoircctLjr. FonBO^tdy it ia only ™ 

ihe coiaiMvlaton «-ho lail in gramDur. U^h ia Laiin and Ccedt, pv* 
licks dcnotins ar tp Um inuodofx not nttrciy viiat b an exception vnder 
%Moe rul« bad dOWB, but ali^ any ^ntiadklion of ir, cvrn the Rt^at 
pMiti*c TtiUK ia Vulf, .MuL v. 13. ^ad nittilunt Tittpct ttltra irtJi ux fl 
mttattrr forai' doe* aoi irK^n itiat vapid aalL Jtai a ralue for thp tmt V 
purpoK of bcine ibro*n away, bui that 'it it of a^ value ^mdta^ cnfy be 
trcMed fiOu'— ' Kt malil l^roa cni^i m /mi// sub Elisoeo praphfta ^ ef n/M* 
tf^/v*i mundatus «m nUi Numan Srm** ^Loc- ir. rj\t 'ta Israelicc *v 
clAnvcd, 5tti a non-tnaelUe wk.* So Cypn^n Fp. 63. ij \..Sic rem 
'calls Domini non c*l a^ua tvi^ an;! rinum aetuiK Mta ucrvin(|ac dbi 
' mlAirnkiur, quo Tni>dn nf<: Trtrpns Domini pait^ti eac firina fjAi am aqtia 
*taJa mnuir\imq*ic adunnlum fucrit/ *Each element it 'u^t^nv ujb«UAC« 
#w/a compound' Hmce thv pasnge befcr? us 'nihil innovctur nl*l quod fl 
trivditum nt' means, in accordince wtlh UAage^ 'No lOiukValion i$ td be ^ 
tnftdr-, nnl/ tradition must be Ucpt to.' Euaebius (//. £. %i3. 3) also had 
these very words before hiiti vhca he described Stephen aa ^^ inr ft^ 

<rJ<f/*H<vi i and Cyprian Ihus ieti then* aside, 'quasi it inmrvtl qui ttnum 
'tiaptUmaunJcccle&ixvindic&Uct nan ilk utiquc qui^.-mcnt^ACMt profjmac 
'tmctionjs umrpoL* Vincent of hurij^s {Citmmerat- \- 6)1 who gives the 
phriLse a^ 'nihil noi'uiidum wj/ ^acir/ Uadituiu C3t.^ explains it ^n^m sua h 
poftens tT;ideTv itii :i niajoribiifi accepu servare/ We conclude ihereforeH 
with [^ctUlnlv ihxt ima(ri/itut doci not refer la tht rvrmoai of aiiKllunCi 
but to iKHovaiions in the ritei and thai ihe Impotiilon or Handa which 
'tradSlLon' rc^quLicd was Ihat which appcttaitiod 10 the Reception of 
penitent aJonc 

Hcfcle, in spite of his view of * grammar,' admiTn (in a footnoM) thi 
thift ii the interpreUtion of Chrisrian Aniiqniiy an*! rhai thf word* 


rV. Efe^tsuutual R^initt. u The UnhnAen Unity, 

or al] the legacy of lessons which this rcirtarkablc story 
leaver u», none more strike home than thonc which ^rin^ from 
the observation Ihal C/priiin bad «i re*l point of conUct with lanism. Wc have alrr^atly sccr ihat the Novattanista 
perceived it. 

The central idea with both was that the Church must be 
att&intcd by. and therefore cannot tolerate, the admixture of 
elements foreign to her spirit. Such inadmissible clement the 
Novatianisti found in iJio^ who, Ii4viiig tavted all her gifts, 
fonxiok her ;tnd for?*worc ihrm. In thr CAstr of the Liipfw^d, 
however. Cyprian detected the fallacy. He would rot, h'kc 
Novatlan, leave them to be reconciled in some unpenetrated 
region. To him they were still the Church's rccondlable chil- 
dren ; not really »uch aliens as many wilful oflendcrA within her'. 

To himself however the bounds of the visible Church were 
marlc^d by historic lines— line* divinely drnwa wiTh perfect 
de5n)tenc»« and unfailingly preserved for the guidance and 
seeuntj' of all. Without the action of the Catholic minirttry 
of the one episcopate there could be no effective Communion, 
and no admi^ion within even her outer courts. For who was 
to admit? The moral qualities or the correct beliefs of the 
individual wr-rr- irrrh-vani I0 the solely cnn^tituttonAl question. 
Ha* he been made a member 0/ the visible Church ? 

According to Novattan, Renouncement of Communion 
annulled membership for ever. Accordini; to Cyprian, un- 
catholic Baptt*im never conferred iL Wc are not required to 
appiaisc the two crrcnv. But the grand di^erencc it here. 
Cyprian's historic lines, which misunderstood had bafl^ed him, 
when rightly intcqiretcd corrected! him. Noii-atian with hi* 
unscftened character broke from them without rctnofse, laid 
new ones down, and made all convene upon himself. The 

1 4^ »*■ ««' 




Divine idea which Cyprian saw in Histor>', the Unity and Love 
which undrrUy the scheme of it, would not suffer him. thou^ 
opposint; the claims of heretics, to dissolve the ties with one 
sinj^U diocese, much less with aJl However erroneously any 
sec and its prelate might decide, it waa mconcdvablc ttuit he 
shouid break with the brcttircn. The heart of Love kept him 
straight whi^rc the I<^ical naird went a-stray. 

So Novation became a sect ; not uncnithful, but hard and 
barren : died after a while and left no seed^ 

The great Church held her way, and every generation as 
it swept its ^^and^ over Cyprian's error bore stronger witness to 
the paw[;r tjf Cyprian"** passion for unity. WhiUt he Mxnts 
almost dearer becau^ he could not be perfect, tlie jn^rfcetness 
of that passion of his in still unrcalbed, and too often unfcit 

Although the Roman Church took wider views than 
Cyprian of ao great a matter as Man's Sonship to God, yet, as 
to the possibility and duty of union in diversity, he held a 
practical theory which Rtimc never mastered. 

Augustim-, who says he never wearied of re-reading the 
■peace-bestowing utterances'' of the end of the Epistle to 
Jubaian\ draws out the noble independence of thought and 
action which Cyprian willed lo maintain without bigotry or 
exclusion— Every bishop free to judge for himself; none to 
suffer separation for their thoughts ; therefore evcijonc to be 
tender of the bond of peace. Safvojitra ^ammntiiortu dhifrxa 

3. T^ Bt^ti^fttal Ccunciis fai/rd dcttrinidiy — and w/^f 

Unity then was not broken. Yet what is the conclusion 
to be drawn from the spectacle of these Carthaginiaa assem- 
blies ? To some it might seem discouraging. 

Can it be accounted for by the incidents of these 
assemblies ? 

Vlll. [V. a. ssi^vLTs. TiiBcouNcn^FAiLEix--winr? 41s 

A Provuicc iiiAy be too W^e to fonn ji rcftl SynocL 
There arc Provinces of to-rfay wliimc very cxicni, forbidding 
even attcndAtices, throws derisions into the hands of a metro* 
polilical party. 

Bishops may be too numerous for the area. There may 
be more positioni; of influence thui there arc men bom or 
drawn to till them. In such coaca the numbers outweigh the 
able mtin or they fall under the power of [xiliiJc men. A 
leader who combiner fervour with ^oWcy iwccp* them head* 

But the deg^ree in which these causes a« yet existed fit 
Carthage ii not suBicicnt to account for the doctrinal failure. 
They were exceptionally modified by the independence ex* 
pectcd of the bishops and by the eame9tiicn% of the times. 

The Council* were neither deficient nor cxcc^mvc numeri- 
cally, nor were chey created for the iake of thdr suffrage*, 
nor were the^' packed- They were under no State pressure. 
They were not rccalcitraling at any state tribunal. The 
question wa*i a broad one. They were not trying a teacher or 
judgbi|r ii It-Mder. They were luukint; Ua principlcb. Seldom 
cinilc! perMinal demenls he m> ni^rly eliiTiiti;ited, A}{Am, ihey 
were really representative. Each bishop was the el^ct of 
hi« flock. None of the CoundU wa* senile or too youthful. 
The memberai were not drawn from E^cminar)- or cloister. 
They were men of the world, who in a world of freest 
diAcu-i-Hion had become penetrated with Christian ideas : 
seldom ordained, somcttmcs not Christianised till Ute in life. 
Their chief waft one in whom mental and political ability were 
rarely blended ; rarely tempered with ho1ine««, self-discipline 
and .•iweetneivi- 

Such was that house of bi»hop». The result it reached 
was uncharitable, anti-scHptural, uncathoUc--'«iul it was 

A painfiil Utue. Vet In another respect, the moral is fcr 
UE encouraging. The mischief was silently healed and pef- 




fcctly- And how ? By no coufitcrcouncil— for blcr deoreGs 
merely register the reversftl— but by the simple wocking of 
the Chii^Hnn Society. Life corrected the error of thought 

[5 there then no need of Christian d«sc(i>blic5 ? no hope in 
them, or of tltem * In ih*^ Church a polity un^ue in this 
sense, that without c^unwl ft can govern tt*elf. without dc* 
liberation meet the chanRinp needs of succei^ive centuries? 
To how grcAt an extent even thift may ho!d true wc read in 
the disappearance of the Cyprianic judgments. Nor can ^ny* 
thing he more consonant with our belief in the indwrUrng 
Spirit of the Church ; notliing mnrr full of romfon us we- look 
on bond^ ^lill seemingly inexiricable, and on stcpa ^ yet 

But nevertheless if no reasonable mind questions the necca* 
stty of Councils, in spite of the gloomy moral and doctrinal 
history of whole centuries of them, may it be the case thai 
their constitution has been icicuiriplete, and that the m> euriy 
ill success of Cyprian's Councils in particular was a primeval 
warning of ihc defect ? 

The Laity were siJcnt. Yet we cannot but deem that it 
was among them principally that there were in existence and 
at wtffk those very principles which so soon not only rase to 
the surface but avcmiled for the general gorid the voices 
of those coundllors. Each Council was a parliament of head 
officials; a governing body composed of provincial govemora, 
whose irresponsibility, i^ave in the forum of their own con- 
science, had more and more become Cyprian's axiom 

Were these bodies divinely constituted for the great object 
of * guidance into truth'? were they the very Church In its 
'doctrinal capacity," the living Church to which The Presence 
was promised ? (t has been held that they were and ever arc 
Yet whatever false strands have been inwoven with CathoUc 
doctrine have been introduced by such bodies alone. These 
particular judgments were, according to llie whole Church 

Vlll. IV. 2. JfSSVtrs. THE CODNCri^ FAILED— WHY? 427 

CatholiE:, greatly p^rverac. They wjjre even then cf>ntr;triant 
to the Church opinion which surrounded them and quietly 
prevailed over them. That this wns 90 may tw inferred Irom 
several considcmtions : I. from the determined unanimity of 
the Council : the ctghty-scvcii sentences vx}icctl only one 
oracle. 2. from the avowal of lu/o among the number that 
Ihey were incompetent to form an opinion, yet they did not 
abstain from voting, but voted with the majority. 3. from 
the evidence which the Book on i^ebupti^n give* of a po^^■er- 
fui and informed opinion existing yet unrepresented. 4. from 
the silent reversal of the decision. 

It is true that iti and fiom the second centur/ Synods of 
Bishops wen: thtr rule. But ill that wff know tend*i to the 
condusiun that it was no 'derogation nf antient custom to 
admit oThcr* than bishops to be members of a synod'.' The 
custom of admitting laity was dyin^; out under Cyprian*. It 
had been no new experiment 01 his. The second and even 
the t}itrd centurica preserved traces of their old admission. 
The intrusion of the words • aru/ the ' into the text of the Con- 
ciliar letter of Jcruftalcm, 'The apoatic* and the prc*bylcrs 
if«i//4y brethren EreelmCp../ shews that at the time when they 
were added* it did not seem so impo«ublc that the Uity should 
have consulted even with apo-itlc*; that they had in reality 
been consulted appears from the nairativu, ' It w*h dt-icruimcd 
by the apostles and thi? elilers Uf^tJkrr wM fA/ u.'htj£ CJitirck^ 
tin1e«>i ibix i* thf^ti^ht to be rhetoric. Ircna^uj wrhes a very 
grave decision on the keeping of Ea«Ur " m tJU voiuw ^ tk£ 

* II ■mu Uiat in later ATiicui C^ga- 
cilt tmiartt fUHi mvf^ ar ilin«< onii' 
tuli«d- 'I'hi* 01*7 b« ■ Kik of tiie 

Of ihc i9i\> tm\f lllujitnirt {ik pmeikal 
diMpporvm, ui] doo uQl ku|i|>ctrt 
Miiotci't vi<w of the dcmoctuic tev^ii 
nf LliJii clidfch. ^nman^ MitL A/r. 
4Kt(niiv» i9>c», pp- «i, p. $«« C4d, 

be nWnol t^ tt m f/A^ Tt oniiti ii io 
VA. S, and il 1« aoLiiinl by tj^miim, 

ti»l Ver*,, with ABH'CD. V^lfi. -//- 
flafvE tJecfctum ctl, Platiiil. AcUit. 




brtfhrtn whom he presided over throuE:hout Gaul'/ Is it 
supported that he had not obtained their judgment? A 
very eafly writer' speaks of ihc formal condemnation of 
MoiiUnJMTi by Cimncil-s ' Tht /aith/u/ lhn>uj;hoiit A%\yt 
' halving met fot thjii purpoisc, many time*, and in many pUces 
'in A»ia, and having examined ihts novel argument^ and 
'demonstrated their profanity, and having rejected the 
'heresy,' It ^a:m5 tmpo^isiblc that 'the faithful' should not 
include ihc bity, and the quc?ition is of doctrine, subtle doc- 
trine Origen, in a pa§sagEr which would not be conducive 
if it stood alone, uses an expression which, side by side with 
oth«rs, hints that the consultation of the laity by the bishopA, 
though disused in his day, had ibi plaee in the traditions 
of the past as well ds in reason. ■ Moses sought the coun«] 
'of Jcthro, thciugh an alien to the Jewish race. Qut orAa/ 
' hUksp in tfif jiresatt day . . condescends to taWe the counsel 
'of an inferior priiri even, much more of a (aymam, or a 
'Gentile*?' He has been showing that the 'counsel of the 
Gentiles' was to be Icamt from tlieir great authors^ and 
apparently 9omc practical way of consulting prcabyto^ and 
laity was not unknown to him. 

!iut thff *?arHer Cyprianic letters themselves are distinct as 
to the propriety and duty of recognising and including a not 
:alent laity in the Councils of the Church. 

It cannot be admitted that Cyprian meant to consult the 
laity on only personal individual questions, such a5 enquiries 
into the fitness of private persons to be restored co com- 
munlon^ That is very far from what he says when^ for 

* Ku»b. //. /f. V. M /■ wfM^w (J* 

tian bdily ttnt thq buhnps- 

• Died l-y Di ^«^CJ {C^uittili 9/ tkt 
Church' C' II4 i>, 5,^) mlsiEikcnly as 
Ap«U^nuiuc cl HifrsjxilB Vale^uiEon 

Euselx V, [d made thU cleAr. 

* OriR, NoMt- Jt. Iff £>M^ c. ( 
'Quis adlcui Liodjc eoiiim qui pnpulls 
prfsuni. -' The ««-u[>[i Ei'i rlodl'ft rvs 
preteaU rptmnirrtitf. Cp. nol« on 
p. 3(0. 

Vni. TV, 2. XasviTS. THE COUNCILS FAlLEa— WIIV ? 4I9 

in»lAncc, he tlius adUrc^cs the prcftbytcm «ncl deacons of 
CfLrthagc; ' I could give you no rcpl/ al all by myself, for 

* from the first outset or my episcopate I resolved to transact 
'notbinj^ ctix my own private judgment without your oounnsl, 
'and without the consent of the laity. JJut when by Gcd's 
*gnce I am come to you wc will treat ir common of things 
'cither transacted or to be tran^acicd, as the honour due 
'from Ciith lu other rvquirc^V At the curnLnenceinent of 
hJ5 episcopate the question of restoration had not ariMn. 

A(,MLn. when he asks the laity to persuade the l.apjted to 
pftticnCG untiU 'convening our fellow- bishops, wc may in good 
'oumbcn — deferring to the discipline of the Lord and the 
'Confesaors' presence and your own opinion aIso — be able to 
'cjtaminc the letters and express desircn of the blessed 

* niariypiV it >* th* del LTini nation of the broad principle, not 
the application to particular caj;c«, in which the Laity are 
called to assi«t. Yet if we narrowed to the utmost the 
questions pressed, it would be little to the purpose; we 
should Mill have to ask where even thi.^ mca-turc of con^ulta- 
licjit wilh ihc vetiubk J^iiiy uppc^tcd in the later Ci^unctls'? 

It wax DO mere question of the application! uf rules. m> 
investigation of individual cases, which vras in view. That 
function \% not neccwumly conciliar. It '\% judicial That 
function may be committed to delegates it may be conocn- 
tratcd in a metropolitan, according to the conMitution or the 
use of the several churches. It wa^ not this which Cyprian 
had In the early days of his episcopate, and seconded as yet 

«l Oniadlt m whLE^ iiiijr h4t« \ t^iioiu 
pkfe, uai h*