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Full text of "Dai Nippon, the Britain of the East; a study in national evolution"


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JU I JB ±x A ¥c Y 

OF THE 

University of California. 

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DAI NIPPON 



DAI NIPPON 



THE BRITAIN OF THE EAST 



A STUDY IN NATIONAL EVOLUTION 



BY 

HENRY DYER, C.E., M.A., D.Sc. 

EMERITUS PROFESSOR, IMPERIAL UNIVERSITY OF TOKYO 

FORMERLY PRINCIPAL OF AND PROFESSOR OF ENGINEERING IN THE IMPERIAL COLLEGE 

OF ENGINEERING, TOKYO 

LIFE GOVERNOR, GLASGOW AND WEST OF SCOTLAND TECHNICAL COLLEGE 

ETC., ETC. 








LONDON 
BLACKIE & SON, Limited, 50 OLD BAILEY, E.C. 

GLASGOW AND DUBLIN 
1904 



3 ■ 



I DEDICATE THIS BOOK 
TO THE STUDENTS OF THE KOBU-DAIGAKKO 

WHO HAVE DONE SO MUCH TO MAKE 

MODERN JAPAN 

Not only as a memorial of past work, but also in the hope 
that they may find it helpful in the solution of the problems 
which lie before their country in the future. 



PREFACE 

MY object in the following pages has not been to give 
a history of modern Japan or detailed statistics of recent 
developments — to do that adequately would require at least 
a volume for the treatment of each of the main subjects 
mentioned in the different chapters — it has rather been to 
indicate the forces which have been at work in bringing 
about what is admitted to be the wonder of the latter half 
of the nineteenth century ; namely, the rise of Japan as a 
member of the comity of nations, and to note some of the 
chief results. Historical details are therefore omitted and 
the use of statistics has been limited to such figures as 
seemed necessary in order that a fairly complete picture 
might be given of the different aspects of national life which 
have gone to make modern Japan. As one who took an 
active part in the educational and engineering works which 
have been among the main factors in producing the great 
changes that have taken place, I have naturally given 
special attention to these and to their direct results on the 
national life, but at the same time I have endeavoured to 
take a wider view of the subject, and have at least indi- 
cated, I admit imperfectly, the inner forces which, after all, 
have been most powerful. It is well to remember that 
" cause " means the sum of the conditions which produce a 

vii 



viii Dai Nippon 

phenomenon. I have noted what have seemed to me to be 
the chief conditions which have brought about the great 
developments that have taken place in Japan, but national 
evolution is such a complex phenomenon that it is difficult 
either to state exactly the nature of the conditions or to 
estimate their relative importance. One thing, however, is 
clear, and that is, the fact that the impulse came from 
within accounts in great part for the rapid progress which 
Japan has made in Western methods. 

In Japan, as in other countries, the developments of 
industry and commerce have started forces which are causing 
many serious problems, not only of an economic but also 
of a social and moral nature, which will require very careful 
consideration. Lovers of Japan are somewhat dismayed at 
the disintegration of taste and ideals which is coming about 
in consequence of modern competition, and which is having 
very serious effects not only on the national life but also 
on international relations. My satisfaction at the great 
success which has attended the work of the students of the 
Imperial College of Engineering has been damped when 
I ponder over the problems which lie before Japan, but my 
consolation has come when I recognise that without that 
work Japan as a separate nationality would probably have 
disappeared under the aggression of Foreign Powers. The 
world cannot afford to lose such a unique nationality, not 
only because of its special qualities but also because it is 
the chief progressive force in the Far East. Although she 
is confronted with many difficult problems, Japan is now 
strong and determined not only to maintain her independ- 
ence but to be a very important factor in the evolution 
which is rapidly transforming economic and political con- 
ditions in the Pacific area. 

Without attempting the role of a prophet, I have in 



Preface ix 

the concluding chapters glanced at some of the political, 
economic, and social results of modern developments, and 
have indicated some of the problems which I believe lie 
before Japan. On these subjects there will of course be 
great differences of opinion, and what I have said must be 
taken only for what it is worth ; but having a fairly intimate 
knowledge of the affairs of the country during the whole of 
the period of modern development, I venture to hope that 
I have at least suggested points which are worthy of the 
attention of all who are interested in the future of Japan. 
My own ideas with regard to that future are decidedly 
optimistic, and I believe that in material, intellectual, and 
moral influence Japan will fully justify her claim to be 
called the Britain of the East. 

Instead of burdening the pages of the book with 
numerous notes and references to authorities, I have, at the 
end of each chapter, given the names of the most important 
books and documents I have consulted on the subjects of 
that chapter, and in the Appendix I have added a list of 
books and other publications which will be useful to those 
who wish detailed information on the important develop- 
ments in Japan of which I have been able to give only a 
broad outline. I owe so much to my numerous friends in 
Japan, that it is impossible to name them all, but there are 
two who must be specially mentioned. Dr. Sakatani, the 
Vice-Minister of Finance, has kept me supplied with all the 
most important Government publications, and to him I am 
very grateful. The files of the Japan Daily Mail, of which 
my old colleague Captain Brinkley is the editor, are mines 
of information not only for the details of current history but 
also for able and important discussions on all things Japanese. 
I receive the journal weekly from Japan, and it has been of 
great service to me. Captain Brinkley's monumental book 



x Dai Nippon 

on Japan and China should be carefully studied by all who 
wish to know Japan. It deals with history, manners and 
customs, religion, art, politics and modern conditions, and 
gives full information on many points which I have been 
able only to touch. I have repeatedly quoted Captain 
Brinkley when dealing with subjects on which he is a special 
authority. My students in all parts of the country have 
not only kept me informed with regard to their work but 
have also discussed with me many of the questions on which 
I have touched in this book. Its plan renders necessary a 
certain amount of repetition of some of the main facts of 
modern Japanese history, so that my readers may under- 
stand their connection with the subjects directly under 
discussion, and logical arrangement has, to a certain extent, 
been sacrificed to the convenience of general readers. 

Dowanhill, Glasgow, 
September 1904. 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER I 

Introductory 

The Imperial College of Engineering — Work of the College — Courses of 
study — Success of students — Departure from Japan — Results of work 
of College — -Observations on the Continent and in Britain — Social 
Problems in Britain — Social Problems in Japan 



CHAPTER II 

Fall of Feudalism 

Early Japanese history — The Emperor always the source of power and 
honour — Orders in the State — Forces causing downfall of Shogunate — 
Early relations with foreigners — Some Japanese educators — Conditions 
on the arrival of foreigners in Japan — Fall of the Shogunate — Young 
men who became leaders — Embassy to foreign countries — Conversion of 
Mikado's Court — Fall of feudalism ..... 14 



CHAPTER III 

The Japanese Mind 

Mistaken ideas about Japan — Motives of the Japanese — Necessity for a strong 
Japan — Oriental and Occidental thought — Constituents of Japanese 
thought— Resultant thought — Hara-kiri — Duty to State always first — 
Commercial morality — Japanese mental characteristics — Eastern people 
and Western thought — Results of European action — Personal experi- 
ence of Japanese students — Charge of want of originality — Disproved 
by recent history — The spirit of the Revolution . . 31 



xii Dai Nippon 

CHAPTER IV 
Transition 

PAGE 

Problems of the Revolution — Men of the Revolution — Central Govern- 
ment — Deliberative Assembly — Attitude towards foreigners — Lines of 
progress — Embassy to United States and Europe — Signs of trouble — 
Relations with Korea — Japan and Russia — Saghalin exchanged for the 
Kurile Islands — Results on Japanese affairs — Liu-Kiu and Formosa — 
Satsuma Rebellion — Agitation for representative institutions — Develop- 
ments on Western lines — Difficulties with Korea — War with China — 
Treaty of Shimonoseki — Aggression of Russia and Germany in China — 
Results on Japanese policy — Results in China — Alliance with Great 
Britain — Extent of Japanese Empire ..... 51 



CHAPTER V 
Education 

Education in Old Japan — Beginning of foreign schools — Primary education 
— Secondary education — Training of teachers — Higher secondary 
schools — University education — Technical education — Art and music 
education — Special schools — Summary of educational statistics — 
Miscellaneous organisations — Private educational institutions — Moral 
education — Results of education . . . 78 



CHAPTER VI 

Army and Navy 

Army and navy as factors in the national evolution — Reorganisation of 
fighting material — Causes of recent developments— The army under the 
feudal system — New system introduced — Factories — First fighting of 
new army — Foundation of modern Japanese navy — The Naval College 
in Tokyo — Development of Japanese navy — Oversea wars — War with 
China and its results — Present conditions of Japanese navy — Training 
of Japanese naval officers — Japanese soldiers in the Boxer troubles — 
Japanese power as factors in the Far East .... 109 



CHAPTER VII 

Means of Communication 

Necessity for improved means of communication— Communications under 
the feudal system — Roads — Railways — Outline of history of railway 
construction — Working and financial returns — Railway legislation — 
River improvements — Shipping — Beginning and development of 
modern Japanese mercantile marine — Open ports and harbours — 
Lighthouses — Telegraphs — Telephones — Postal services . .129 



Contents xiii 

CHAPTER VIII 

Industrial Developments 

PAGE 

Introduction of foreign industries — Conditions of native industries — 
Methods of native industries — Change of conditions — Supply of timber 
— Modern improvements in Japanese forestry — Mining and metallurgy 
— Civil and mechanical engineering — The Imperial Mint — Shipbuilding 
and shipping — Subsidies for shipping and shipbuilding — Cotton- 
spinning — The silk industries — Value of output of textile industries — 
The printing industry — Chemical and miscellaneous industries — The 
building industry — -Government factories — Manufacturing establish- 
ments — Working-hours, wages, etc. — Industrial training — Technical 
associations — Patents, trade marks, etc., inventions — Industrial ex- 
hibitions — Industrial legislation — Combinations of employers and 
workers — Foreign advisers — Status of foreigners under Japanese 
industrial laws — Japanese ambition regarding the future of commerce 
and industry . . . . . . . .151 



CHAPTER IX 
Art Industries 

Importance of art in Japan — Art in Old Japan — Characteristics of Japanese 
art — Western influences — Foreign school of art — Japanese Art Society — 
Criticism of foreign art — Renewed ideals — Modern conditions — Eastern 
ideals — Art and economic conditions— Present conditions in Japan — 
Comparison with India — Future of Japanese art industries . . 204 



CHAPTER X 
Commerce 

Commerce in Old Japan — Results of new conditions — Development of 
foreign trade — Exports and imports — Distribution of Japan's foreign 
trade — Balance of trade against Japan — Current prices of the chief 
articles of merchandise — Provisions for encouraging commerce — Com- 
mercial and industrial guilds — Tariffs — Social position and commercial 
morality of Japanese merchants — Position of foreign merchants in 
Japan ......... 219 



Dai Nippon 

CHAPTER XI 

Food Supply 



PAGE 



Population and food supply — Agriculture in Old Japan — New conditions — 
Improvements in agriculture — Cultivation of tea — Sugar, sake, beer, 
tobacco, etc. — Capital and labour employed on the land — Means for 
encouraging agriculture — Agricultural legislation — Fish and other 
marine products — Government encouragement to fisheries — Importa- 
tion of food ........ 238 



CHAPTER XII 

Colonisation and Emigration 

Pressure of population — Department of Kaitakushi — Military colonies — 
Agriculture and marine products — Railways, mining and other 
industries — Immigration and population — Formosa — Japanese popula- 
tion in Formosa — Administration — Education, justice, and sanitation- 
Means of communication — Products and foreign trade — General effects 
of Japanese occupation of Formosa — Emigration to Korea and China 
— Emigration to other foreign countries . . . .251 



CHAPTER XIII 

Constitutional Government 

First principle enunciated by the Emperor — Tempered autocracy — First 
attempts at representative government — Evolution in direction of 
representative government — Agitation led by Itagaki — Edict announ- 
cing national assembly — Legislative and administrative reforms — New 
orders of nobility — Marquis Ito and the Constitution — Difficulties in 
working Constitution — Personal elements — Legislation . . 269 



CHAPTER XIV 

Administration 

Problems of administration after the Restoration — New central Government 
— Changes in Government — Functions of the Cabinet — Privy Council 
and other advisory and administrative bodies — Administration of 
religion — Administration of justice — Officials — Local government . 280 



Contents 

CHAPTER XV 

Finance 



xv 



PAGE 



Financial position at the time of the Restoration — The old and the new 
taxation — Problems before the new Government — Financial adminis- 
tration — The land tax — Other sources of revenue — The burden of 
taxation on the people — National debt — Local finances — Banking 
systems — Present financial conditions ..... 292 



CHAPTER XVI 
International Relations 

Motives of Japanese — First treaty with a foreign power — New treaties — 
Feelings of Japanese with regard to the treaties — Foreign consular 
tribunals — Discussion on extra - territoriality — Captain Brinkley's 
opinions — Attempts at treaty revision — Opinions of Sir Harry Parkes 
— Conferences on treaty revision — Negotiations renewed — Japanese 
aims — Approaching a settlement — Treaty with Great Britain revised- - 
Followed by other Powers — Imperial Rescript — Alliance with Great 
Britain — Remarks on treaty revision — Laws specially affecting 
foreigners — International business relations — -Geographical advantages 
of Japan — Industrial competition with foreign nations — Japanese 
industrial influence in the Far East — Japanese industrial influence in 
the West . . . . . . . .311 



CHAPTER XVII 
Foreign Politics 

Economic forces — Ambition to become the Britain of the East — Diplomatic 
action — Japanese ideas on foreign policy — Chinese opinions and ideals 
—Japanese influence in Japan — Japan and Korea — The case for Russia 
— Russian ideas — Expansion of Russia — Reasons which dominate the 
foreign policy of Japan . . . . . . .341 



CHAPTER XVIII 
Social Results 

The fundamental question — Life in Old Japan — Modern conditions — Life 
of the well-to-do classes — Life of the common people — Economic con- 
ditions of farmers and labourers — Home life and the position of women 
— Factory work of women and children — National health— Intercourse 
with foreigners — Labour and social problems .... 365 



xvi Dai Nippon 



CHAPTER XIX 
The Future 

PAGE 

National ideals and economics — Confucian philosophy of life — The task 
of Asia — Future financial and fiscal policy of Japan — Manufacturing 
industries — Effects on foreign policy — Ultimate solution of the problems 
of foreign policy — Future of constitutional government in Japan— Japan 
in Asia — The so-called "Yellow Peril"- — Future of combinations of 
capital — Future of ethics in Japan — Future of religion in Japan . 381 



CHAPTER XX 

Recent Events 

The methods of history — The making of Japanese history — War begins — 
Japanese proclamation of war — Justification of Japanese action — Events 
of the war — Behaviour of Japanese troops — Japan in war-time— The 
secret of Russia's failure — The secret of Japan's success — Lessons for 
Great Britain — Lessons for the nations of the world . . . 404 



APPENDICES 

Appendix A 

Japanese weights, measures, and moneys, with English and French 

equivalents ........ 437 

Appendix B 

Treaty of Alliance with Great Britain ..... 438 

Appendix C 
Some of the more important recent books, etc., on Japan . . . 443 

INDEX ......... 447 






CHAPTER I 

INTRODUCTORY 

IN my preface I have briefly indicated the object of this 
book, but in order that my readers may understand my 
point of view and the trend of thought which runs through 
its pages, it is desirable that I should give a few preliminary 
explanations which will help to bring them, to a certain 
extent, within the sphere of my mental environment. The 
writing of even the simplest history necessitates rethinking 
it, and in that process the introduction of the personal 
equation is inevitable. A study of national evolution is 
much more complicated than a mere record of facts, and when 
an attempt is made to estimate the chief forces which have 
been at work, and not only to state their results in the past 
but also to indicate what they are likely to be in the future, 
it is evident that the value of the opinions expressed must 
depend, to a very large extent, on the personal experience of 
the writer. I have no intention, at present, of attempting to 
write my own natural history, and in making a short state- 
ment of some of the facts of my experience I do not put 
it forward as an apology for any of my shortcomings in my 
treatment of the subjects discussed in the book. I shall be 
content if it be accepted as an explanation. 

When the embassy from Japan of which Iwakura, the 
Junior Prime Minister, was the head, came to Britain at 
the end of 1872, I was offered, through Professor Rankine 
of Glasgow University and Mr. H. M. Matheson, the agent 

(b 207) -g 



2 Dai Nippon 

of the Public Works Department of Japan in London, 

the position of Principal of the Engineering College which 

The imperial ** was P ro P ose d to found in Tokyo. Mr. lto 

College (now Marquis lto), one of the ambassadors, 

ngineenng. wag \7"i ce _]\/[i n j s t er D f Public Works, and it was his 
wish that a College should be organised which would train 
men who would be able to design and superintend the works 
which were necessary for Japan to carry on if she adopted 
Western methods. Fortunately, for some time previously 
I had made a special study of all the chief methods of 
scientific and engineering study in the different countries 
of the world and of the organisation of some of the most 
important institutions, with the intention of devoting 
myself to the advancement of engineering education in 
Britain, so that I had fairly definite ideas both as to what 
was desirable and what was possible. I little thought that 
my first experiments would be made in far Japan, a country 
which, at that time, was almost unknown to foreigners, but 
which is now leading the way not only in education but also 
in many of the arts of peace and war. 

Mr. lto was kind enough to arrange that his private 
secretary, Mr. Hayashi (now Viscount Hayashi, Japanese 
Minister in London), should accompany me to Japan, and we 
sailed from Southampton early in April 1873. My time on 
the voyage was chiefly occupied in writing a draft of the 
Calendar of the proposed College, and on my arrival in Tokyo 
I was able to present it complete to the Acting Vice-Minister 
of Public Works, and it was accepted by the Government 
without change of any kind. 

I was pleasantly surprised to recognise in Mr. Yamao, the 
Acting Vice-Minister of Public Works, a man whom I had 
seen as a student in the evening classes of Anderson's 
College, Glasgow (now incorporated in the Glasgow and 
West of Scotland Technical College), when he was learning 
the practice of shipbuilding in Napier's yard. I did not 
make his personal acquaintance during his stay in Glasgow, 
but his connection with that city gave us much in common. 



Introductory 3 

I wish to bear testimony to the whole - hearted support 
which he gave to all my proposals for the education of 
engineers, and to his personal kindness on every possible 
occasion. To his efforts much of the success of the 
College was due. Mr. Hayashi became Chief Commis- 
sioner of the College, representing the Department of 
Public Works and managing the finances and the adminis- 
trative staff, while I, as Principal, was responsible for the 
educational arrangements. After seeing the College fairly 
started and rendering it most effective service, Mr. Hayashi 
entered the wider administrative departments of the Govern- 
ment and became Governor of one of the southern provinces. 
Later on, he became a member of the diplomatic service. 
After representing his country for several years in China, he 
acted as Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs during the war 
with China, and for his special services he was raised to the 
peerage under the title of Baron Hayashi. He next went to 
St. Petersburg as Minister Plenipotentiary for Japan ; he is 
now, as Viscount Hayashi, in a similar position in London, 
and he will be remembered in history as the diplomatist who 
carried on the final negotiations which resulted in the 
alliance between Great Britain and Japan. 

While fully recognising the services of the representatives 
of the Japanese Government and the liberal support of the 
Government itself, it must of course be admitted work of the 
that the success which attended the work of College. 
the College was chiefly due to the enthusiastic manner in 
which the various members of the staff entered on their 
duties. We were, for the most part, young men without 
much experience, and in looking back I now recognise the 
risks which were run in placing us in such responsible 
positions. No doubt we made mistakes, but even our most 
severe critics admit that the College was the most successful 
educational institution in Japan. The subsequent careers of 
the members of the staff have proved the wisdom which 
was shown in their selection. The original professors of the 
College were W. E. Ayrton, Natural Philosophy ; D. H. 



4 Dai Nippon 

Marshall, M. A., Mathematics; Edward Divers, M.D., Chemistry ; 
Edmund F. Mondy, A.R.S.M., Drawing ; and William Craigie, 
M.A., English Language and Literature ; while George 
Cawley, Robert Clark, and Archibald King took charge of 
the practical parts of the instruction in engineering. 
Almost all these names are now well known in the world of 
science and education, and the bearers of them have not only 
distinguished themselves by their researches, but from their 
experience in Japan they have been able to exercise great 
influence in moulding the conditions of scientific and 
engineering education in this country. 

Additions were made to the staff of the College as its 
work developed. John Milne, F.G.S., became Professor of 
Geology and Mining and made himself a world-wide repu- 
tation by his investigations in seismology ; John Perry, B.E., 
A. W. Thomson, B.Sc, Thomas Gray, B.Sc, and Thomas 
Alexander, C.E., as Professors in the Engineering Department, 
developed the methods of instruction and began the re- 
searches which have made them famous ; and Josiah Conder, 
A.R.I. B.A., became Professor of Architecture and still remains 
in Japan in the practice of the profession by which he has 
done so much to meet the modern requirements of the 
country. Captain Brinkley, R.A., the distinguished Japanese 
scholar and authority on everything Japanese, was for some 
time Professor of Mathematics. To Captain Brinkley's 
writings I am specially indebted for information on many 
of the points discussed in the following pages. Our first 
Professor of English, Mr. Craigie, was compelled to return to 
Scotland after a few years on account of his health, and his 
colleagues received the news of his death shortly afterwards, 
with great sorrow. He was succeeded by W. Gray Dixon, 
M.A., and he in turn by his brother, James M. Dixon, M.A., 
both of whom did excellent work in their own department. 
We soon gathered round the foreign staff of the College a 
number of Japanese assistants, who in a comparatively short 
time were able to render very efficient service. 

With such an able staff, all enthusiastic in the work, the 



Introductory 5 

College was certain to be a success if all the other conditions 
were favourable. The Japanese authorities did all in their 
power to bring about that success. Within five years from 
its institution, handsome and commodious buildings had 
been erected and the most improved appliances of all kinds 
supplied for teaching purposes. The general arrangements 
which I made for the course of training were such as to meet 
the requirements of the country. It extended over six years, 
the first and second of which were devoted to 

. . . Courses of study. 

the general training required for all depart- 
ments of engineering. At the beginning of the third year the 
students selected the special departments which they wished 
to follow. The technical courses were — {a) Civil Engineering, 
ib) Mechanical Engineering, (V) Telegraphy, (d) Architecture, 
(e) Practical Chemistry, (f) Mining, (g) Metallurgy. Naval 
Architecture was added a few years later. One-half of the 
third and fourth years was spent at College, and the other 
half at practical work. The last two years of the course 
were spent entirely at practical work. 

In this way the students obtained a fair introduction 
to the theory and the practice of their profession, and there 
can be no doubt that the success which has attended their 
work has been, in great part, due to the method adopted in 
their training. In the College itself mere book-work was 
made of secondary importance, and by means of drawing 
offices, laboratories, and practical engineering works the 
students were taught the relations between theory and 
practice, and trained in habits of observation and original 
thought. The College being in the Department of Public 
Works, the students had the run of all the engineering 
establishments and public works under its control, and in 
this way they had exceptional advantages. I do not 
propose to enter into further details of the work of the 
College, my present object being simply to give a general 
sketch of the methods employed. 

Some of our first graduates were sent over to Universi- 
ties and Colleges in Britain, and without exception they 



6 Dai Nippon 

distinguished themselves in their classes, not infrequently 
taking the first place. The best proof, however, of the 
Success value of the training which they received is 
of students. t i ie excellent work which the students have 
done since they left College, as there are few engineering or 
industrial works in Japan in which they are not to be found 
taking an active part in the management. 

Having been about ten years in Japan and seen the 
College firmly established, for personal and family reasons 
Departure I resigned my position, and on my suggestion 
from japan. j) r Ed war cl Divers was appointed Principal 
of the College, and instructions were sent to the agents in 
London to select a man who would take up my work as 
Professor of Engineering. Charles Dickenson West, M.A., 
University of Dublin, was appointed, and he still continues 
to occupy the Professorship of Mechanical Engineering 
in the Engineering College of Tokyo University. As marks 
of appreciation of my services the Emperor bestowed on me 
the Order of the Rising Sun (Third Class), the highest 
honour of the kind given to any foreign employe up to that 
time, and the Government conferred on me the title of 
Honorary Principal of the College. Since the Engineering 
College was made a College of the University of Tokyo, I 
have been appointed Emeritus Professor of that institution. 
My students have taken an active part in the formation and 
carrying on of many associations and societies in connection 
with engineering and science, and they have elected me an 
Honorary Member of the most important of these, and I 
receive frequent communications from them informing me 
of their work. The former students of the Imperial College 
of Engineering (Kobu-Daigakko) are now to be found not 
only in all the most important engineering and industrial 
undertakings in Japan, but a considerable number of them 
are actively engaged in China and Korea ; so that the 
College has been a most important factor in bringing about 
the changes in Japan and in influencing conditions in the 
Far East generally. 



Introductory 7 

The extent of these changes and the amount of that 
influence will be indicated very plainly in the following 
pages, and I might quote from contemporary Results of work 
journals and subsequent observers to show the of Colle g e - 
place which the College took in the national evolution of 
Japan, but space will allow me to mention the opinions only 
of a few who were able to judge of the actual results. On 
the occasion of his last visit to Britain, Marquis Ito was 
unable to visit Scotland as he had expected to do, as 
events called him back to Japan, but Viscount Hayashi wrote 
stating that the Marquis had expressed his high appreciation 
of my services in Japan, saying, " That Japan can boast to- 
day of being able to undertake such industrial works as the 
construction of railways, telegraphs, telephones, shipbuilding, 
working of mines, and other manufacturing works entirely 
by the hands of Japanese engineers is mainly attributable 
to the College so ably established and set in motion by 
you." The Marquis had previously expressed similar 
opinions to Mr. Alfred Stead, who records that in the course 
of an interview with him he said, " When I was in London, 
engaged in my work of preparing the Japanese Constitution, 
I was approached on the subject of forming a special 
Engineering College in Japan. It was pointed out that the 
advantages would be very great for the country, and that 
such a scheme of engineering education had never been 
carried out in any other country. Accordingly I established 
the College, and brought many foreign Professors to Japan 
for that purpose. The Japanese engineers who are now 
running the most important concerns in Japan were trained 
in the College and can dispense altogether with foreign aid." x 
The opinions of the Marquis have been confirmed by many 
of the leading men in Japan and by others who have had 
opportunities of judging. 

In his interesting and valuable book, Japan in Transition, 
Mr. Stafford Ransome, M.Inst.C.E., who spent considerable 
time in Japan as the special commissioner of the well-known 

1 Stead, Japan, Our New Ally, p. 57. 



8 Dai Nippon 

journal, The Engineer, says : " Although the higher branches 
of modern technical training had been experimented with in 
Japan at a somewhat earlier period, it was not until 1873, 
when Mr. Henry Dyer was engaged by the Japanese 
Government, that a solid system of technical education was 
inaugurated." In his review of the circumstances which 
led to "Japan's Accession to the Comity of Nations," 
Baron Alexander von Siebold says : " After the Restora- 
tion of the monarchy the first attempts were made with the 
help of English and American teachers, to introduce some- 
thing like unity into the system of public instruction. Of 
these endeavours the immediate result was the establishment 
of the ' Imperial College of Engineering,' which had reached 
a flourishing state by the year 1875. The founding of this 
Polytechnical College was a particularly happy idea of the 
Japanese Government, aiming, as it did, simultaneously with 
the introduction of railways and telegraphs, and the training 
of a native staff of experts to work them. That institution 
has already borne rich fruit. The whole of Japan is now 
covered with a network of railways, which are being con- 
stantly extended." 

Many of the scientific and technical journals contained 
descriptions of the work of the College and its results, but 
meantime it would be out of place to enter into these, 
although a full account may be published in the future. 
The only other opinions to which I will refer are those of 
Dr. Edward Divers, F.R.S., who was Professor of Chemistry 
in the Imperial College of Engineering from its foundation, 
and who succeeded me as Principal. A discussion had 
arisen in The Engineer in connection with a series of articles 
which had been written by Mr. Stafford Ransome, the special 
correspondent already referred to, who had been sent to Japan 
to give an account of the development of engineering in that 
country. In such matters differences of opinion are certain 
to exist, and I would prefer not to enter into the discussion 
at all, but as a matter of history it cannot be ignored. 
A very fair statement of the facts of the case were given by 



Introductory 9 

Dr. Divers in a letter to The Engineer} and to this I would 
refer for details. Meantime I shall quote only a few sentences. 
After sketching the early history of the Imperial College of 
Engineering, Dr. Divers says : " While, as will have become 
plain, there are many engineers who may claim to have each 
done something in Japanese training — and, in individual cases, 
sometimes very much — there is, it may truly be said, one to 
whom, almost alone, Japan owes its well -organised and 
elaborated system of engineering education, namely, Dr. 
Henry Dyer of Glasgow, one of the Governors of the 
Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College, whose 
latest act in connection with it has been the selection this 
year of a Professor of Naval Architecture as colleague to Mr. 
Miyoshi, Professor of the same subject. Dr. Dyer came to 
Japan in 1873, not as a Professor of Engineering only, but 
to found and organise in all its details, large and small, an 
institution for the education of engineers in Japan. He was 
given a salary proportional to his double duties, and an 
extent of power in the control of affairs quite exceptional 
for a foreigner in the Japanese service, whether then or since. 
The result of his work was the College of Engineering, the 
first school of engineering of any kind in the country, and 
such as could hardly have been developed under less 
favourable circumstances. Its magnitude of plan and 
completeness of execution soon made it far and away the 
most prominent educational institution in Japan. It attracted, 
too, the particular notice of the foreign — British and other — 
community in Tokyo and the Treaty port of Yokohama, 
some of whom dubbed it ' Dyer's ' College, and in con- 
junction with some wealthy Japanese notables endowed it 
with a very respectable fund to provide annual prizes for the 
cadets." 

Dr. Divers enters at some length into the changes in the 
administration which took place (and which will be noticed 
in a following chapter), and then says : " There is only left 
me, in order to complete this long account of the foundation 

1 May 6, 1898. 



io Dai Nippon 

and growth of engineering education in Japan, to show in 
what estimation Japanese engineers and the Imperial 
University hold the services of Dr. Dyer. With the one 
exception of the Geographical Society, the Engineering 
Society of Japan is the most influential learned society in 
the country. It has a journal of its own, and a very long 
roll of members, of which only three are foreigners. Of 
these three, again, but one is an engineer, and he is Dr. Dyer. 
Again in the 'Historical Summary' — Chronology would be 
more correct — of the Imperial University contained in its 
' Calendar ' no one is mentioned at all except its successive 
Presidents and Mr. Henry Dyer, the first Principal of the 
College of Engineering. It is not customary in Japan to 
refer to individuals in official-so-called histories of institutions. 
The honour to Dr. Dyer is therefore especially great that he 
is not only named but the value of his services acknowledged." 
As the fact connected with my departure from Japan has 
already been noted it is not necessary to quote Dr. Divers 
further. 

In the years immediately following the Restoration, it 
must be admitted that there was in Japan a certain amount 
of overlapping in the work of the different Departments of 
Government. The Minister of Public Works was anxious to 
train men who would be useful in carrying out engineering 
works, and he therefore arranged that the Imperial College 
of Engineering should be in his Department, so that the 
students might have the advantage of experience on practical 
works. On the other hand, the authorities of the Education 
Department were anxious to have all the educational 
institutions in the country under their control, and when they 
could not manage this they sometimes started duplicate courses 
of their own ; but the connection of the Imperial College of 
Engineering with the Public Works Department gave it a 
great advantage, and the majority of engineering students 
attended it. Some years after I left Japan the Public Works 
Department was absorbed in some of the other Government 
Departments and the Engineering College became a College 



Introductory 1 1 

of the Imperial University of Tokyo, but this and other facts 
will be noted when we are dealing with education in Japan. 
Meantime, therefore, it is not necessary to enter into further 
details of the history of the Imperial College of Engineering, 
my present object being, as I have said, to bring 0bservations on 
my readers within the sphere of my mental the Continent 

, , i 1 , , • • . and in Britain. 

environment and thus help to explain my point 
of view in the following pages, but a very imperfect idea of 
that would be given if I did not briefly indicate my ex- 
perience since I left Japan. The greater part of the first 
year after my return was spent on the Continent of Europe 
in the study of educational institutions and the inspection of 
engineering works. Hitherto my attention had been chiefly 
confined to the scientific aspect of my work, but personal 
knowledge of social and economic conditions in Europe 
soon showed me that engineering education was only a small 
part of the problem of education, and indeed that undue 
attention to it might help to intensify social problems. 

A very active share in the organisation and manage- 
ment of educational institutions in Glasgow of all grades, 
and an increasing interest in social problems, have kept me 
in close touch with the actual conditions, and this has been 
supplemented by the study of reports of all kinds from all 
parts of the world. An interesting fact in the history of 
education is to be found in the organisation of the Glasgow 
and West of Scotland Technical College. When that 
College was formed by the amalgamation of existing 
scientific institutions in Glasgow, I was able to transfer from 
Japan the programme of studies of the Imperial College of 
Engineering to the Glasgow institution which is the suc- 
cessor of the College in which the Vice-Minister of Public 
Works and I studied as apprentices in the evening classes. 

There can be no doubt that a lengthened absence from 
Britain enables one, on his return, to observe British social 
conditions from a detached and comparative social problems 
point of view which was not before possible, in Bntam - 
and he finds much in these conditions to excite the most 



1 2 Dai Nippon 

painful anxiety, which may result either in deadly pessimism 
or in an active determination to devote himself to efforts which 
tend to improvement. The ever-widening extremes of poverty 
and wealth, the conditions of life of our poorest classes, the 
production on a large scale of degenerates who are physic- 
ally, mentally, and morally unfit for a fair share of the duties 
of citizenship, the uncertainty of employment, the growth 
of monopoly which is placing the conditions of the people 
at the mercy of a comparatively small number of capitalists, 
and the immense armaments which are sucking the life-blood 
of the nations, are all factors which give rise to very serious 
thought. The brutal materialism which pervades all classes 
of the community makes true art almost impossible, while 
the soul-destroying ennui of the leisured on the one hand 
and the restlessness of the middle and poorer classes render 
their intellects, their hearts, and their consciences almost in- 
accessible. An increasing number of all classes do not even 
make a profession of religion, but content themselves with 
the pursuit of self-centred individualism and refined sensualism 
which blinds them to the importance of the great social 
problems with which every industrial country in the world is 
now confronted. 

Those who return from Japan, especially if they have 
known it under the old regime, may well doubt whether the 
Social problems importation of Western civilisation is likely 
in japan. ^o b e an unmixed blessing to the people, 
although they will admit that it was necessary to save Japan 
from foreign aggression. Fortunately, the most thoughtful 
among the Japanese are recognising these facts, and they are 
becoming more and more impressed with the necessity for 
attention being paid to the social and economic conditions 
of the people and to the problems arising therefrom. My 
friends in Japan keep me 'supplied with many of the more 
important journals and official reports, and long conversations 
with those who visit this country prove to me that the most 
thoughtful minds in Japan fully recognise the difficulty of the 
problems with which they are confronted. They see that 



Introductory 1 3 

the engineer is the real revolutionist ; for his work changes 
social and economic conditions and brings forces into action 
which are more powerful than anything which can be done 
by mere legislation. The students of the Imperial College 
of Engineering are the men who, to a large extent, have 
been the means of developing engineering and industry 
in Japan, and it seems appropriate that a study of that 
remarkable evolution which has made that country a world 
Power should be preceded by an outline of the circumstances 
in which the College was founded and an indication given 
of the results which have followed from that evolution. 
Some of these results have no doubt diminished the charm 
which Old Japan had for lovers of nature and art, but it 
cannot be doubted that if the Japanese had not taken 
advantage of Western science and methods for the develop- 
ment of their resources, in order that their country might 
become strong, it would probably ere this have been 
dominated by a Western Power. The problem of the future 
is : — How best to take full advantage of all that is good in 
Western civilisation while retaining the special characteristics 
of Japan and bringing them into organic harmony with 
those of other nations. On the solution of that problem 
depends the welfare of Japan. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

For details of the institutions referred to in this chapter, 
reference should be made to the Calendar of the Imperial College 
of Engineering, Tokyo, Japan, 1 873-1888, and to the Reports of the 
same College. For recent developments the Calendar of the 
Imperial University of Tokyo should be consulted. The Calendar 
of the Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College shows the 
application of the experience of Japan to a Scottish College. 
Existing social and economic conditions in Britain should be studied 
in such books as Booth's Life and Labour of the People in Lofidon 
and Rowntree's Poverty, a Study of Town Life, and in other countries 
in similar books. The literature which has been published in 
recent years on industrial, social, economic, and political subjects is 
very extensive, and reference should be made to special catalogues. 



CHAPTER II 

FALL OF FEUDALISM 

Notwithstanding all that has been written about Japan 
in recent years, a very common impression in Europe and 
America seems to be that feudalism was put an end to in 
Japan by a stroke of the pen of the Emperor, and that the 
cause of the change was the advent of foreigners in the 
Land of the Rising Sun. Although there is an element of 
truth in the impression, it is so imperfect that it is desirable 
to indicate, in outline, the causes leading to the revolution 
which inaugurated the great developments that have taken 
place in Japan during the latter half of the nineteenth 
century, so that these developments may be better understood. 
To do so completely would involve a study of Old Japan in 
its many aspects ; all that we can attempt is a sketch which 
will indicate the chief forces which were at work. 

It is not necessary to enter into an examination of the 
origins of Japanese history. It is sufficient for our purpose 
Early Japanese to say that the Emperors (Mikados) of the 
history. present dynasty have been the dejure sovereigns 
of Japan since the legendary era, the first Mikado, Jimmu 
Tenno, dating from 660 B.C., but according to recent 
historical researches the first date to be considered trust- 
worthy in Japanese historical annals is a.d. 461. The 
earliest records show that the sway of the Emperors was 
absolute over the whole empire, and that its influence in the 
government of the country was limited only by the defective 
state of the means of communication, which necessarily left 

14 



Fall of Feudalism 1 5 

a good deal of discretionary powers in the hands of the local 
chiefs. The amount of these powers in the various cases 
would depend to a large extent on geographical position and 
local circumstances, and no doubt also on the individualities 
of the persons concerned, but it can easily be seen that this 
state of affairs contained the germs of the feudalism which 
grew to perfection in after -years, when the local chiefs 
became for many purposes practically independent. The 
work of the engineer, by annihilating distances, not only 
welds countries together, but for economic purposes makes 
the whole world one, and, as we shall see, it did much to 
hasten the course of events in Japan. 

Towards the end of the seventh century the hereditary 
Ministers of State, the Fujiwara families, began to encroach 
upon the power of the Emperors, and from that time up till 
the revolution in 1868 the Emperors reigned but did not 
rule. The conversion of the nation to Buddhism in the 
sixth and seventh centuries was the most important event 
in Japanese history. For a century or two before that, 
Chinese civilisation had been slowly gaining ground in 
Japan, but when the Buddhist missionaries crossed the water 
all Chinese institutions followed them with a rush. Science, 
of a kind, began to be cultivated and books began to be 
written, so that Chinese thought had a great influence on 
the Japanese mind. The custom of abdicating the throne 
in order to spend old age in prayer was adopted, a custom 
which, more than anything else, led to the effacement of the 
Mikado's authority during the Middle Ages. 

The Fujiwara family engrossed the power of the State 
from A.D. 670 to 1050, and monopolised all the great posts 
of the Government. Discontent arose from this state of 
affairs, and civil war ensued in consequence of the abuses 
which had arisen, and the Fujiwara family lost the influence 
and power which it had so long enjoyed. A successful 
soldier, Yoritomo, while nominally supporting the Emperor, 
ousted the families of the hereditary Ministers from their 
positions and aggrandised himself. Instead of restoring the 



1 6 Dai Nippon 

real power to the Emperor he caused himself to be 
appointed the head of the feudal families and generalissimo 
(Shogun) of the Empire ; a fact which was remembered 
in the revolution of 1868, when it was thought by the 
supporters of the Shogun of that time that the action of the 
larger clans was due not to loyalty to the Emperor but 
to jealousy of the Shogun. 

It is easy to understand how the state of affairs which 
existed led to the belief among foreigners that there were 
two Emperors in Japan, one who attended to spiritual 
matters and the other to the administration of the country. 
This belief was entirely wrong, as the Emperor remained 
the source of all power and honour, while the Shogun 
utilised his position as commander-in-chief to concentrate 
the affairs of the nation under his control. Discontent, 
however, frequently arose among the feudal chiefs, who 
understood the real position of the Shogun ; and when abuses 
became oppressive, civil wars ensued and several changes took 
place in the Shogun family, the position being seized from 
time to time by a new military chief who had the ability to 
arrogate the power to himself and his family. In this way 
one family succeeded another until that of Tokugawa 
assumed power in 1603 and retained it until the revolution 
in 1868. 

The point to be distinctly remembered is, that in all 

these changes the position of the Emperor was never called 

in question, and in fact when the Shoguns 

The Emperor , . . . , , 

always the source abused their power the plea put forward by 
of power and those who wished to displace them was that 

honour. 

they were supporting the cause of the Emperor 
against the presumptuous arrogance of the man who wrongly 
had assumed a great part of his power. They did this not 
only because it was politic to do so, but also because, no 
doubt, they believed it to be a duty which they owed to 
loyalty. For not only is the very antiquity of the Imperial 
line the cause of the awe and veneration entertained for the 
Emperor by his people ; but the fact that, while he was 



Fall of Feudalism 1 7 

looked upon as the source of all power in the State, he yet 
confined his activity to the bestowal of titles and honours, 
brought it about that, while he thus did not give the slightest 
cause for complaint, at the same time he earned a great deal 
of gratitude from what human vanity holds most dear. 
The Emperors, therefore, were held in most loyal adoration 
in all ages throughout the Empire. The maintenance of 
the Emperor was essential to the power of the Shoguns, and, 
his sovereignty acknowledged, the very aloofness made it 
easy for them to appear not the usurpers, as they in fact 
were, but as trustees of the throne. It is easy to understand 
how the Shogun came to be described by the representatives 
of other nations who came in contact with Japan in the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries as the real sovereign of 
the realm, and how that, in modern times, he was described 
in British treaties (the Convention, for example, of October 
1854) as " His Imperial Highness the Emperor," in the 
British treaty of August 1858 as "His Majesty the Tycoon," 
and also in the Prussian treaty of 1861 as " Seine Majestat 
der Taikun." As a matter of fact, " Tycoon " was not a 
Japanese title at all, but was probably adopted from the 
Chinese when the treaties were being arranged to mask the 
defective political status of the Shogun. 

The three political orders in the State were the Kuge or 
nobles of the Emperor's Court, who were chiefly offshoots 
of the Imperial Family ; the Daimyos, or feudal Orders in the 
chiefs; and the Samurai, their two-sworded re- State - 
tainers, who formed the military strength of the nation and 
were at the same time its most educated class. They con- 
sequently came to the front, in the affairs of the nation, 
after the revolution. The first of these orders numbered 
about 150 families, the second 268, and the third about 
400,000 households. Below them was the agricultural, 
artisan, and merchant population, numbering over thirty 
millions and called Heimin ; who were without political 
status, but who nevertheless were allowed considerable 
freedom in the management of their own affairs. So 

(b 207) p 



* 



1 8 Dai Nippon 

far as the details of administration were concerned, the 
territorial extent over which the powers of the Govern- 
ment of the Shogunate were operative was limited to the 
domains under the direct sway of the Shogun himself. 
The territories under the control of the Daimyos enjoyed 
almost complete autonomy. Such measures as were 
necessary to control the feudal lords and to prevent them 
from acquiring dangerous independence were enforced by 
indirect methods rather than openly, but otherwise they 
enjoyed in their respective domains the rights and pre- 
rogatives of independent sovereignty. They could not 
declare war, conclude peace, or coin money, but they 
exercised autonomous control in almost all other important 
matters pertaining to the executive power of a State. This 
system of semi-independence extended also to other classes 
of the population. The predominant influence acquired in 
the course of time by the military order became a very 
marked feature in Japan, but with it all, the farmer, the 
merchant, the craftsman, and others of the common people 
enjoyed under the law, rights and privileges, lesser in degree 
and in extent, but equally well recognised and respected. 
The commercial and municipal systems established from 
early days afford an example of this. Within certain limits 
the people of the cities, towns, villages, and rural neighbour- 
hoods controlled their own local affairs, and while there 
were no rich men in the modern sense, there was little 
actual poverty and no degradation such as is to be seen in 
modern industrial towns in all parts of the world. 

The line of the Tokugawa Shoguns held their power 
for a period of nearly two hundred and seventy years, and 
Forces causing during that time the country was at peace and 
downfall of the dual form of government seemed to be 
fixed on a stable basis. As Japan was self- 
contained as regards resources, and commerce and industry 
in the modern sense were unknown, and also because the 
people seemed to be united in religion, the forces which 
undermined feudalism in Europe were absent, but notwith- 



Fall of Feudalism 1 9 

standing the apparent calm there grew up a strong current 
of discontent with the existing state of affairs, and this 
increased with every blunder made by the Government of 
the Shogun. 

Sir Ernest Satow has expressed the opinion that the 
real author of the movement which culminated in the 
revolution of 1868 was the second Prince of Mito, who 
was born in 1622 and died in 1700. With the help of 
a number of the most distinguished scholars in Japan he 
wrote the Dai Nihon Shi or " History of Japan," a work 
which fills two hundred and forty-three volumes. It, how- 
ever, remained in manuscript, copied from hand to hand by 
eager students, until 1851, when the wide demand for it 
caused it to be published. The tendency of this book, as 
well as of others which appeared, was to direct the minds 
of the people to the Mikado as the true and only source of 
authority, and to make clear the historical fact that the 
Shogun was in fact a usurper. All this caused an in- 
creasing wish on the part, not only of serious students of 
history, but also of others to whom they had communicated 
their knowledge, that the Mikado should be restored to his 
ancient authority, and this would in itself have brought 
about a revolution in due time. Events, however, were 
hastened by the demands which the representatives of 
foreign countries were making upon the Japanese for the 
conclusion of treaties of trade and commerce between Japan 
and the countries which they represented. Before, however, 
dwelling on these comparatively recent events, it will be 
useful to note some of the earlier relations of Japan with 
foreigners. 

So far as is known, Mendez Pinto, a Portuguese 
adventurer, seems to have been the first European who 
landed on Japanese soil, and the wonderful Early relations 
stories which he told about the country excited vvith forei s ners - 
a great amount of curiosity ; hundreds of Portuguese of 
all classes were attracted to Japan, where they received a 
ready welcome from the people and from the feudal chiefs, 



20 Dai Nippon 

who wished to take advantage of their knowledge and 
appliances and especially of the foreign implements of war. 
Merchants were followed by missionaries, among whom was 
St. Francis Xavier, whose preaching was attended with such 
success that it is said that in i 5 8 1 there were two hundred 
churches and one hundred and fifty thousand native 
Christians. Towards the end of the sixteenth and the 
beginning of the seventeenth century the political intrigues 
of the Jesuit missionaries and their interference in the affairs 
of the country became so audacious and obnoxious to the 
authorities that they determined that a policy of exclusion 
from the outside world was the only way of avoiding im- 
pending dangers ; accordingly all the missionaries and 
converts were either expelled from the country or executed, 
and all intercourse with foreigners was prohibited under pain 
of death. So thoroughly was the work supposed to be done 
that Christianity was said to have been extirpated in Japan, 
but after the revolution of 1868 it was found by the French 
missionaries that there were villages in which numbers of 
the people retained fragments of the beliefs which had been 
implanted by the Jesuits. 

The only exceptions to foreign intercourse were in favour 
of the Dutch and Chinese, who were allowed to carry on 
trade at Nagasaki under the strict surveillance of the 
Government. Preference was shown to the Dutch because 
they were not of the same religion as the Spaniards and the 
Portuguese ; at least, it was thought that their form of 
Christianity was not likely to cause them to take part in 
political intrigues. Nagasaki, however, seemed to have a 
fascination for foreigners of different nationalities ; no doubt 
in great part due to the mystery which surrounded the 
Japanese nation, and the desire not only to gain information 
but also to share in the reputed wealth of the country, of 
which fabulous accounts were given. On the other hand, 
many Japanese were eager to extract as much information 
as possible from the foreigners ; so that in course of time 
many European ideas filtered from Nagasaki throughout 



Fall of Feudalism 2 1 

the country and an elementary and somewhat debased 
knowledge of Western science was propagated. The Dutch 
physicians especially imparted to a considerable number of 
Japanese a knowledge of European medical theory and 
practice. 

During the fifth Tokugawa Shogunate, Arai Hakuseki 
(Chikugo- no-Kami), one of the greatest scholars Japan has 
ever produced, was so impressed with the some Japanese 
necessity for a wider education on the part of educators. 
his countrymen that he made the acquisition of Western 
knowledge the pursuit of his life, and he gained the con- 
fidence of the sixth Shogun and induced him to endeavour 
to realise some of his political ideals. He continued to be 
influential in the time of the seventh Shogun, who was a 
minor, but retired when his successor came into power. He 
was a voluminous writer, and his historical works were much 
read and esteemed and were a source of inspiration to many 
thinkers and men of action in subsequent times. 

Arai was also a diligent collector of information from 
the Dutch who were in Nagasaki, some of whom periodic- 
ally visited Yedo, and his influence was no doubt great in 
obtaining the withdrawal of the prohibition of the study of 
Dutch books and of other scientific and technical works. 
Several Shoguns, in succession, appointed to honourable 
posts those who had a knowledge of the arts and sciences, 
such as astronomy, medicine, mathematics, and gunnery. 
The Dutch language was studied by considerable numbers 
so that they might be able to make themselves acquainted 
with the most recent publications. The want of teachers 
and the difficulty of obtaining foreign books prevented much 
progress being made. European ideas, however, began to 
make themselves felt on political subjects to such an extent 
that the Shogun's Government took steps to repress them, 
as no doubt those in power foresaw that their development 
would render their positions impossible. 

The memory of some of the men who took a leading 
part in the education of public opinion is now held in venera- 



2 2 Dai Nippon 

tion by their countrymen. Among them one of the most 
notable was Sakuma Shozan, a samurai of the province of 
Shinano, who was influential in introducing several branches 
of Western science, especially those relating to military 
practice and tactics. In i 848, five years before Commodore 
Perry came to Uraga, he gave instruction in gunnery 
according to Western methods, and from accounts in a Dutch 
book he constructed artillery and otherwise did much to 
pave the way for the introduction of Western culture and 
ideas in general. 

Probably, however, the most popular hero of the time was 
Yoshida Shoin, a Choshu samurai, who by his work as an 
educator had great moral and spiritual influence on the 
young men of his clan, and from among his disciples came 
many of the leaders who brought about the abolition of the 
feudal system and the establishment of the new government 
on a firm basis. A popular although not very exact account 
of this remarkable man has been given by R. L. Stevenson 
in his Familiar Studies of Men and Books, who describes him 
under the name of Yoshida Torajiro, the Japanese pro-name 
being subject to change during the lifetime of the bearer. 
Yoshida paid for his zeal for reform with his life, and the 
story of his career is still an inspiration to his countrymen. 
His last scene was of a piece with his career, and fitly 
crowned it. When being examined before the Court, " he 
seized on the opportunity of a public audience, confessed and 
gloried in his design, and reading his auditors a lesson in the 
history of their country, told at length the illegality of the 
Shogun's power and the crimes by which its exercise was 
sullied. So, having said his say for once, he was led forth 
and executed, thirty-one years old." 

It is evident that the influx of Western ideas was not by 
any means the chief cause of the fall of the feudal system. 
That had its origin in a return to the old ideal when the 
Emperor was not only the source of power, but also the 
head of the actual Government, and in a strong desire for 
national unity. The feudal system and the authority of the 



Fall of Feuda lism 2 3 

Shogun were opposed to this ideal, and their overthrow 
became a necessity before the nation could be consolidated 
under a strong centralised Government, which would be able 
to take advantage of the Western ideas taught by Arai, 
Sakuma, Yoshida, and others. 

Some of the most powerful feudal chiefs in the south of 
the Empire, notably those of Satsuma and Choshu, were not 
slow to perceive the advantage which Western Conditions on the 
arms and science would give them in any arrival of foreigners 
struggle they might have with the Shogun, and m JapaE 

had been long making preparations for an armed conflict, and 
only wanted the opportunity and the excuse for striking. 
This they found in the negotiations which the Shogun had 
entered into with the foreign representatives, who came with 
the demand that the country should be opened to them, and 
which they had backed with a force which he knew he could 
not resist. When Commodore Perry of the American Navy 
steamed into the Bay of Yedo in 1853 he found a Govern- 
ment tottering to its fall ; although no doubt many of those 
who were opposed to it cared less for the rights of the 
Mikado than for the opportunity of aggrandising themselves 
at the expense of the Shogun. 

The Shogun yielded to the demands of Perry and of the 
representatives of the other foreign Powers, Britain, France, 
and Russia, who quickly followed him, and consented to 
open Yokohama, Hakodate, and certain of the other ports 
for trade and commerce (1857-59). In order to gain time 
and collect information he sent embassies to the United 
States and to Europe in i860 and 1861 ; for even with their 
very limited knowledge of the resources of the foreign Powers 
the Shogun and his advisers had come to the conclusion that 
it were vain to refuse what they claimed. The advisers of 
the Mikado, however, had practically no knowledge on the 
subject, and they determined that the " land of the gods " 
would not be polluted by outsiders, and that at all hazards 
the ports would be closed. Some of the rash adherents of 
the anti-foreign party attempted to give effect to the policy 



24 Dai Nippon 

which they advocated by firing on foreign ships and by 
assassinating foreigners. When matters were in a critical 
position they were brought to a crisis by the Prince of 
Choshu causing some ships belonging to France, Holland, 
and the United States to be fired upon by the forts at 
Shimonoseki, and this led to the bombardment of that place 
by the combined fleets of those countries at that time in 
Eastern waters, together with that of Great Britain, which 
espoused their cause on the ground of the solidarity of all 
foreign interests in Japan, and an indemnity of 3,000,000 
dollars was exacted. The resistance which the Choshu clan 
offered to the assault of the foreign Powers, and the offensive 
action which it took against the Shogun, proved that for 
years it had been taking advantage of foreign arms and 
methods of war, and preparing for the struggle which had 
now come. The Shogun attempted to punish Choshu for 
the humiliation which had been brought on Japan, but his 
forces were defeated, and shortly afterwards he himself died. 
A few months later the Mikado also died, on the 3rd of 
February 1867, his son Matsuhito, then in his fifteenth 
year, succeeded him, and is now the reigning Emperor, the 
one hundred and twenty-first of the line. The Court of 
Kyoto, prompted by the great Daimyos of Choshu and 
Fail of the Satsuma, suddenly decided on the abolition of 
Shogunate. ^ e Shogunate, and the new Shogun submitted 
to the decree which was issued. Some of his followers 
offered an ineffectual resistance, but after a short time they 
capitulated. 

The government of the country was reorganised during 
1867-68, and was nominally an absolute monarchy, with the 
Mikado as the sole source of authority, both legislative and 
executive, and the dreams of the literary party were 
realised. The Shogunate which had made treaties with the 
hated foreigners had been swept away, and they hoped that 
Japan would go back to the conditions of primitive ages, 
when it was really the " land of the gods," but they little 
reckoned with the forces which had been called into action 



Fall of Feudalism 2 5 

in the conflict. Western ideas, methods, and arms had over- 
thrown the Shogunate, and now, in turn, they were to con- 
vert the followers of the Mikado. These wished to ignore 
the existence of foreigners and drive them from the country, 
but some of the leaders of the southern clans, prompted by 
younger men who had been to England and knew something 
of the resources of the foreign Powers, did all in their power 
to oppose these proposals which they knew would be futile, 
and they were successful in convincing the advisers of the 
Mikado that it was desirable to come to terms with the 
foreigners. 

The story of the young men who were able to exercise 
influence in the manner indicated is one of the most romantic 
in the history of Japan, and a short space may Young men who 
be devoted to a sketch of it. Soon after the became leaders - 
Shogun had concluded the treaty of peace, friendship, and 
commerce with Lord Elgin, the Daimyo of Choshu expressed 
a great desire to send some of his young men to England in 
order that they might study the science and industries of the 
West with a view to the advancement of their country. It being 
still illegal for any one to leave Japan, he arranged that five 
young men from his province should be quietly put on board 
a vessel belonging to Jardine, Matheson, and Co., and that 
through that firm the necessary funds should be supplied for 
their support in Britain. On their arrival in London they 
were placed under the care of Mr. H. M. Matheson, who 
made arrangements for their education. Their names were 
Ito, Side, Yamao, Nomura, and Endo. About two years 
after their arrival Ito and Side asked leave to return to Japan, 
as they knew that stirring events were going on, and they 
were able to influence affairs to a considerable extent, Endo's 
health was not good, and he returned shortly after. The 
two who remained, Yamao and Nomura, made good progress 
in the study of the principles of science and also obtained 
some practice in their industrial applications. Yamao came 
to Napier's shipbuilding yard, and, as I have mentioned, 
attended the evening classes in Anderson's College, Glasgow, 



26 Dai Nippon 

at the time when I was a student in them, and on my arrival 
in Japan I found him Acting Vice-Minister of Public Works. 
He is now Viscount Yamao, Controller of an Imperial 
Household and President of the Institution of Engineers 
of Japan. Ito is now Marquis Ito, several times Prime 
Minister and the most distinguished statesman in Japan. 
Side is Count Inouye, who has held several Ministerial 
portfolios and is also a very distinguished statesman. 
Nomura is Viscount Inouye, late Director-General of Imperial 
Railways in Japan, while Endo became Master of the Mint, 
but died some time ago. A year or two later other 
young Japanese began to come to Britain, as well as to the 
Continent of Europe and to America, and the stream has 
gone on ever since. Foreign travel or residence is now 
looked upon as an essential part of the education of every 
Japanese who is ambitious of taking an active part in public 
affairs in Japan. 

As a result of the influence which was brought to bear 
on the advisers of the Mikado, an embassy with an Imperial 
Embassy to Prince at its head was sent to give the Mikado's 
foreign countries. CO nsent to the treaties which had been made with 
the representatives of the foreign Powers. It has been con- 
tended that neither constitutional law nor practice prohibited 
the Shogun from entering into treaty relations with other 
Powers, but it is probable that there was no law on the subject 
as such an event was not anticipated, while if certain events 
in practice seemed to justify the contention, they only proved 
that the Shoguns had successfully kept the Mikados in the 
background in any such arrangements. There can be no 
doubt that in preparing and carrying out the restoration the 
Mikado's party held that the Shogun's assumption of the 
right of making treaties with foreign Powers was just as 
much a usurpation on his part as was his exercise of 
authority in purely internal affairs. In order to emphasise 
this view of the matter the foreign Ministers were invited to 
an audience with the Mikado in Kyoto. The British and 
Dutch Ministers accepted the invitation, the others declined. 



Fall of Feudalism 2 7 

The train of the British Minister, Sir Harry S. Parkes, was 
attacked by fanatic assassins and his life was saved by Goto, 
who by a sweep of his sword cut off the head of the assailant. 
The conversion of the Court of Kyoto was conversion of 
instantaneous, and they became good friends Mlkado ' s Court. 
with the men whom they had looked upon as unworthy to 
be in Japan. The action of Sir Harry Parkes on this 
occasion did much to bring about this happy result. It was 
determined, not only that foreign intercourse should be 
encouraged, but that Chinese customs, which had hitherto 
been the sole foundation of Japanese civilisation, should 
give way to European, and that European science 
and arts should be studied so that Japan might become 
a member of the comity of nations on terms of perfect 
equality. 

Hitherto the Emperor, while looked upon with the 
greatest veneration by the people, had lived apart from all 
his subjects except a few court nobles, but it was resolved 
that in future he should take an active part in the govern- 
ment of the country and be as accessible as European 
sovereigns ; and to emphasise the change, Yedo, the capital 
of the Tokugawa Shoguns, became the new capital of the 
Empire, instead of Kyoto, the old seat of government, 
and its name was changed to Tokyo, meaning " Eastern 
capital." The Emperor was supported by those statesmen 
of both parties whose intellectual superiority had caused them 
to be recognised as leaders, and they united in adopting 
the modern progressive policy which ever since has guided 
the Japanese Empire. 

On March 14, 1868, the Emperor, soon after his 
accession to the throne, proclaimed on oath the five principles 
that were to guide the Government newly established. 1 

First. — Deliberative assemblies shall be established on a 
broad basis, in order that Governmental measures may be 
adopted in accordance with public opinion (taken in the 
broad sense). 

1 Viscount Hayashi's translation. 



28 Dai Nippon 

Secondly. — The concord of all classes of society shall 
in all emergencies of the State be the first aim of the 
Government. 

Thirdly. — Means shall be found for the furtherance of 
the lawful desires of all individuals, without discrimination 
as to persons. 

Fourthly. — All purposeless precedents and useless customs 
being discarded, justice and righteousness shall be the guide 
of all actions. 

Fifthly. — Knowledge and learning shall be sought after 
throughout the whole world, in order that the status of the 
Empire of Japan may be raised ever higher and higher. 

In the same year a deliberative assembly was called 
together as a first step in carrying out the policy which had 
been adopted. It was composed of persons representing 
each of the Daimiates, who were chosen for the position by 
the Daimyos, and was intended to give advice to the Imperial 
Government. The inexperience of the members, however, 
rendered it of little use, and it resolved itself into a peaceful 
debating society of a very conservative character, and after 
a short and uneventful career it was dissolved. 

Meantime it had become evident to the moving spirits 
of the revolution that national development and peace could 
Fail of never be secured while feudalism existed, as the 
feudalism. c i an S y S tem was fatal to national unity, and they 
recognised the necessity for a reconstruction of the machinery 
of government and administration. With few exceptions 
the hereditary princes of the provinces had come to be 
merely formal chiefs of their Daimiates, and the real power 
was in the hands of the energetic and capable samurai who 
were employed to manage their affairs. These latter were 
not slow to recognise that any scheme for the transference 
of the political authority of the Daimyos to the central 
Government would render more important their services, and 
no doubt these motives prompted them to support a plan 
which at the same time advanced their interests and could 
be commended on patriotic grounds. 



Fall of Feudalism 2 9 

Matters were brought to a point by the presentation to 
the Emperor of an elaborate memorial signed by the 
Daimyos of Choshu, Satsuma, Tosa, Hizen, Kaga and others 
offering him the lists of their possessions and men. This 
memorial appeared in the official Gazette, March 5, 1869. 
Its preparation is attributed to Kido Takayoshi and bears 
supreme evidence to his learning and statesmanship. The 
example thus set was followed rapidly by others, and in 
the end only a small number remained who had not so 
petitioned. The Emperor accepted the offer thus made, and 
on the 25th of July a decree was issued, which stated that 
His Majesty, from a desire to assimilate the civil and 
military classes, and to place them on a footing of equality, 
abolished the designation of Court nobles (Kuge) and terri- 
torial princes (Shoku, more commonly called Daimyo) and 
replaced them by that of noble families (Kwazokit). By 
another decree the Government reserved to themselves the 
approval of all appointments or offices held under the late 
Daimyos, another obvious step towards the subordination of 
all the local administrations to that of the central Government. 
Thus, at almost one stroke, the whole institution of feudalism 
which had flourished for many centuries was cut away, 
although the forces which brought it about had been at 
work for a considerable time. In the sequel we shall see 
that adherence to the principles enunciated by the Emperor 
has within the short space of one generation brought Japan 
from conditions of feudalism to a strong position of con- 
solidated military power, able and determined to make its 
influence felt among the nations of the world, especially in 
all matters affecting Far Eastern policy ; while in industry 
and commerce she has already made sufficient progress 
to ensure that she will be a most important factor in the 
evolution which will take place in all the countries bounded 
by the Pacific area. 



Dai Nippon 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

The complete study of the subjects mentioned in this chapter 
involves the whole of Japanese history, and that can only be done 
by those who are able to read Japanese books. Some of the more 
recent of these are very good and follow scientific methods. Some 
very interesting and important papers appear in the Transactions of the 
Asiatic Society of Japan, but general readers are likely to be content 
with the works of Murray, Griffis, Rein, Black, Adams and others. 
The official report of Perry's Expedition, Griffis's books on Townsend 
Harris and Perry, and those by Laurence Oliphant and Sir 
Rutherford Alcock on the early days of foreign intercourse with 
Japan, are all interesting in their way. Captain Brinkley's monu- 
mental work should be in the possession of every real student ot 
Japan and Japanese history. 



CHAPTER III 

THE JAPANESE MIND 

The facts mentioned in the preceding chapter indicate the 
forces which brought about the fall of feudalism in Japan, 
and their study should help to dispel some of Mistaken ideas 
the mistaken ideas which prevail on the subject. about J a P an - 
Before proceeding further, however, it is necessary that we 
should form, at least, an approximate estimate of the mental 
and moral qualities of the Japanese, or what may be roughly 
called " the Japanese mind " ; for, after all, these qualities 
form the chief determining factors in the progress of the 
nation. Japan is still looked upon by many people as a 
very interesting country for the globe-trotter and the curio- 
hunter, but few as yet have admitted the serious purpose 
which has guided all the changes of the last half-century, and 
fewer still have realised the extent of the developments 
which have taken place or the importance of the position 
which Japan now holds among the nations, as a factor in 
all the problems which affect Far Eastern politics. 

In endeavouring to form an estimate of the Japanese 
mind it is evidently of the highest importance that we 
should ascertain, as far as that is possible, what Motives of the 
were the chief motives which urged them on Japanese. 
when they determined to give up feudalism and to replace it 
by constitutional government and Western science, industries, 
and commerce. No doubt, at first these motives were some- 
what indefinite and probably considerably mixed, but those 
who know the history of the past fifty years will admit that 

31 



3 2 Dai Nippon 

Dr. Inazo Nitobe is near the truth when he says : "In a 
work of such magnitude various motives naturally entered ; 
but if one were to name the principal, one would not 
hesitate to name ' Bushido.' When we opened the whole 
country to foreign trade, when we introduced the latest 
improvements in every department of life, when we began to 
study Western politics and sciences, our guiding motive was 
not the development of our physical resources and the in- 
crease of wealth ; much less was it a blind imitation of 
Western customs. The sense of honour which cannot bear 
being looked down upon as an inferior Power — that was the 
strongest of motives. Pecuniary or industrial considerations 
were awakened later in the process of transformation." 1 The 
mental attitude of the Japanese with regard to material 
subjects is well illustrated in another passage by the same 
author : " It has been said that Japan won her late war 
with China by means of Murata guns and Krupp cannon ; 
it has been said that the victory was the work of the modern 
school system ; but these are less than half truths. Does 
ever a piano, be it of the choicest workmanship of Erhard 
or Stanley, burst forth into the Rhapsodies of Liszt or the 
Sonatas of Beethoven without a master's hand ? Or if guns 
win battles, why did Louis Napoleon not beat the Prussians 
with his Mitrailleuse, or the Spaniards with their Mausers 
the Filipinos, whose arms were no better than the old- 
fashioned Remingtons ? Needless to repeat what has grown 
a trite saying, that it is the spirit that quickeneth, with- 
out which the best of implements profiteth but little. 
The most improved guns and cannon do not shoot of their 
own accord ; the most modern educational system does not 
make a coward a hero. No ! What won the battles on the 
Yalu, in Korea and Manchuria was the ghosts of our fathers, 
guiding our hands and beating in our hearts. They are not 
dead, those ghosts, the spirits of our warlike ancestors. To 
those who have eyes to see, they are clearly visible. Scratch 
a Japanese of the most advanced ideas and he will show a 

1 u Bushido" The Soul of Japan, p. 117, 



The Japanese Mind 33 

samurai. If you would plant a new seed in his heart, stir 
deep the sediment which has accumulated there for ages, — or 
else, new phraseology reaches no deeper than his arithmetical 
understanding." 

The secret of the developments which have taken place 
in Japan is to be found in the fact that the Japanese have 
a high sense of personal and national honour, which their 
critics not unnaturally put down to conceit and vanity. 
From the time that the first treaties were made with 
foreigners, they felt that some of the conditions were such 
that they were placed in a position of inferiority which they 
could not endure. I can recall the bitterness with which 
some leading Japanese spoke to me of the presence of a 
British regiment in Yokohama for the purpose of protect- 
ing the foreign settlement. They felt it as a national dis- 
grace which ought to be got rid of as soon as possible, 
although they recognised its need for some time after it came. 
The terms of the treaties by which foreigners were placed 
under the jurisdiction of their own national authorities were 
considered humiliating to Japan. The responsible statesmen, 
of course, recognised that such arrangements were necessary 
until Japan had brought herself somewhat into line with 
Western nations as regards the methods and the administration 
of the law, but all classes of the community felt that the 
arrangements should not continue for any length of time. 
Their educational system was reorganised in order that men 
might be trained who would be able to discharge the national 
duties ; legislation and administration were brought into 
harmony with Western ideas so that their claims for re- 
cognition as equals might be admitted by the other Powers. 

The Japanese, however, were not long in learning that 

foreign Powers were more amenable to the arguments to be 

drawn from a large army and a powerful navy Necessity for a 

than those to be drawn from improvements in stron sJ a pan. 

education and administration, and they determined to make 

themselves a strong military nation. The sound of the 

cannons at the Yalu River really awakened Europe and 
(b 207) ^ 



34 Dai Nippon 

America to a knowledge of the fact that a nation had been 
born in the Far East which had not only brought itself 
up to a considerable degree of Western culture, but had 
developed its administration to such an extent as to give it 
a strong claim for entrance to the comity of nations on terms 
of perfect equality. The effective action of the Japanese 
army and navy during the war with China, moreover, proved 
that they were able to enforce their rights with something 
stronger than mere arguments. Fortunately nothing more 
was needed. 

One almost requires to have lived in Japan to understand 
what Dr. Nitobe means by saying that it was the ghosts 
of their fathers guiding their hands and beating in their 
hearts which won the battles on the Yalu, in Korea and 
Manchuria. In the absence of that experience no better 
guide can be found than Dr. Nitobe himself, and in what 
follows I shall be greatly indebted to him, Mr. Lafcadio 
Hearn, and Captain Brinkley. Probably some of the 
opinions of these writers may seem to be overdrawn and to 
a large extent sentimental, but I shall, for the most part, 
confine myself to an outline of those which I can confirm by 
my personal experience. 

The distinguishing idea which differentiates Oriental 

from Occidental thought is that of Pre-existence, to under- 

_ . . stand which aright one requires to have lived 

Oriental and & * 

Occidental for some years in the real living atmosphere 
thought. of B U( jdhism. It shapes every thought and 
emotion, and the term ingwa or innen, meaning Karma as 
inevitable retribution, comes naturally to every lip as an 
interpretation, as a consolation, or as a reproach. It is very 
curious to note that Western philosophers have scarcely as 
yet recognised that the modern intellectual movement of 
science and philosophy is strangely parallel with Oriental 
thought, and that Buddhism and Science are more nearly at 
one in their view of the universe than the conventional form 
of Western theology. To the Buddhist mind expressions 
and thoughts which seem to require long psychological 



The Japanese Mind 35 

explanations to our minds, are matters of common experience 
and axioms of everyday life. 

A complete study of what we have somewhat roughly 
called " the Japanese mind " would take us into many 
departments of Confucian philosophy and of Constituents ot 
Buddhist and Shinto religions. From the two Japanese 
former the Japanese were furnished with a oug 

sense of calm trust in Fate, a quiet submission to the 
inevitable, a stoic composure in sight of danger or calamity, 
and even a disdain for life and a friendliness with death. A 
soldier inspired with this spirit does not know the meaning 
of fear. A nation inspired with the spirit of Buddhism is 
continually striving to bring itself into harmony with the 
Absolute. The tendency of such a spirit is to lose itself 
in contemplation, and to become very indistinct ; hence 
the neglect of material conditions which are necessary for 
moral and physical welfare. In the case of the Japanese, 
however, Shintoism supplied a corrective, to a considerable 
extent, for it brought into prominence the national as 
distinguished from the moral consciousness of the individual. 
As Dr. Nitobe puts it : " Its nature-worship endeared the 
country to our inmost souls, while its ancestor-worship, 
tracing from lineage to lineage, made the Imperial family 
the fountainhead of the whole nation. To us the country is 
more than land and soil from which to mine gold or to reap 
grain — it is the sacred abode of the gods, the spirits of our 
forefathers ; to us the Emperor is more than the Arch-Con- 
stable of a Rechtsstaat, or even the Patron of a Culturstaat 
— he is the bodily representative of Heaven on earth, blend- 
ing in his person its power and its mercy." 1 The two 
predominating features in Japanese national life are therefore 
patriotism and loyalty, and these to a large extent explain 
the circumstances which led to the overthrow of the Shogun 
and the restoration of the Emperor as the centre of executive 
authority in Japan. They also explain the national char- 
acter of all the movements which have taken place since the 

1 Bushido, p. 9. 



36 Dai Nippon 

Restoration. When once their meanings were fully grasped 
by some of the leading spirits, they rapidly spread through- 
out the nation, and even the poorest in the land felt that 
they had to take a part in them and that the ghosts of their 
fathers were guiding their hands and beating in their hearts. 
Another point to be noted is that the real nature of the 
religious and national life of Japan has been and still is 
predominantly communal, and that individualism has only 
had a minor part in forming the nation. The combination 
of Shintoism, Buddhism and Confucianism which constituted 
the Japanese religion and philosophy was therefore not a 
mere mechanical mixture ; it was of the nature of a chemical 
compound which was very different from any one of its 
elements ; and this accounts not only for the essential 
difference of the Japanese mind from that of other Eastern 
nations, but also for the social order and in great part for 
the changes which have taken place in recent years in Japan. 
It would take us far beyond our present limits if we 
examined in detail the nature of the compound which was 
Resultant produced by the amalgamation and evolution 
thought. f j-^ various factors in Japanese religion, but 
a few notes are necessary in order to understand some of the 
features in the national character. Buddhism, in the process, 
became very much modified and simplified. The immeasur- 
ably deferred hope of the Indian Buddhist was brought 
down to everyday life by the prospect of immediate 
admission, after death, to the ranks of the deities, and its 
practical morality was condensed into five negative precepts 
and ten positive virtues, which are to be found in all the 
moral codes of the world. The former were — not to kill, not 
to be guilty of dishonesty, not to be lewd, not to speak 
untruth, not to drink intoxicants ; the latter were — to be 
kind to all sentient beings, to be liberal, to be chaste, to 
speak the truth, to employ gentle and peace-making language, 
to use refined words, to express everything in a plain 
unexaggerated manner, to devote the mind to moral 
thoughts, to practise charity and patience, and to cultivate 



The Japanese Mind $7 

pure intentions. The practical Japanese mind could not 
accept the negation of all interest in the affairs of this world 
as necessary to the way of salvation, and while not 
neglecting meditation, it found scope for its religious zeal 
in the exercise of a charity which, if it had been practised 
as prescribed, would have made the devotees very good 
Christians. " It included the digging of wells, the building 
of bridges, the making of roads, the maintenance of one's 
parents, the support of the Church, the nursing of the sick, 
the succouring of the poor, and the duty of recommending 
these same acts to others. There were further noble 
precepts, and there was also an elaborate system of daily 
worship and prayer. All idea of abstention from the affairs 
of everyday life disappeared, and the hereafter became, not 
a state of absolute non-existence (nirvana), but the ' infinite 
perception of a beatific vision '; a condition in which each 
of the saved formed one of a band of great intercessors, 
pleading continually for their ignorant and struggling 
brethren upon earth that they might attain to the same 
heights of perfect enlightenment and bliss." 1 

The latest developments of Buddhism in Japan made a 
still further approach to the Christian ideals. Nichiren is 
one of the noblest and most picturesque of the Japanese 
saints, and his teachings included the conception of a God 
in whom everything lives and moves and has its being ; 
an omnipotent, omnipresent and omniscient deity. All 
phenomena, mental and material, in all time and space, were 
declared by him to have only subjective existence in the 
consciousness of the individual. To the enlightened Buddhist 
all worlds were equally beautiful. " Hence, to proclaim the 
identity of this evil or phenomenal world with the glorious 
underlying reality, or noumenon ; to point out the way to 
Buddhahood ; to open the path of salvation ; above all, to 
convince the people that one and all of them might become 
Buddhas, here and now — that was the mission of the sect of 
Nichiren." Captain Brinkley sums up the results of all the 

1 Brinkley, Japan, vol. v. p. 146. 



38 Dai Nippon 

changes which took place in these words : " Thus the 
colours that Buddhism took in its transmission through the 
Japanese mind were all bright hues. Death ceased to be a 
passage to mere non-existence and became the entrance to 
actual beatitude. The ascetic selfishness of the contemplative 
disciple was exchanged for a career of active charity. The 
endless chain of cause and effect was shortened to a single 
link. The conception of one supreme, all-merciful being 
forced itself into prominence. The gulf of social and 
political distinctions that yawned so widely between the 
patrician and the plebeian, and all the other unsightliness of 
the world, became subjective eidola destined to disappear at 
the first touch of moral light. The Buddha and the people 
were identified." * Captain Brinkley adds : " Buddhism in 
the comparatively bright and comfortable garments with 
which Japanese genius clothed it, is the faith of the masses, 
but the scholar proposes to himself a simpler creed, an 
essentially workaday system of ethics. To be moral, 
honest, and upright ; to be guided by reason and not by 
passion ; to be faithful to friends and benefactors ; to 
abstain from meanness and selfishness in all its forms ; to 
be prepared to sacrifice everything to country and king, — that 
is the ideal of the cultured mind, and in the pursuit of it 
no priestly guidance is considered necessary. If a Japanese 
be asked to define the much-talked of Yamato damasJiii — 
the spirit of Yamato — he will do so in the words set down 
here." 2 There can be little doubt that they express the con- 
ditions of the Japanese minds which exercised the greatest 
influence in the country since the adoption of Western 
methods and the introduction of Western arts, sciences, 
and religion. Confucian ethics, in Japan as in China, was 
the basis of the philosophy of life to the educated classes, in 
so far as they had a philosophy of life, and the Confucian 
teaching only strengthened, deepened, and gave form and 
outline to the sentiments of the Shinto religion. Farther 
on we will consider some of the changes which have taken 

1 Brinkley, Japa.71, vol. v. p. 151. 2 Ibid. p. 159. 



The Japanese Mind 39 

place in recent years in consequence of the developments in 
education and in social, economic, and political conditions. 

Nothing illustrates the spirit of Old Japan so much as 
the institutions of suicide {hara-kiri) and redress {kataki- 
uclii), and they show, in a very clear manner, some 
of the characteristics of what we have called the 
Japanese mind, even of the present day ; for although they 
are not carried out as in former days, they indicate the 
attitude which the great body of the people still assume 
when there is any question either of national or individual 
importance under discussion. When a question of honour 
was involved, death was accepted by a samurai as a key to 
the solution to many complex problems. Redress did not 
descend to mere personal revenge, for it was justified only 
when it was undertaken on behalf of superiors and bene- 
factors. " One's own wrongs, including injuries done to wife 
and children, were to be borne and forgiven. A samurai 
could therefore fully sympathise with Hannibal's oath to 
avenge his country's wrongs, but he scorns James Hamilton 
for wearing in his girdle a handful of earth from his wife's 
grave as an eternal incentive to avenge her wrongs on the 
Regent Murray." l The recognition of this spirit helps to 
explain many of the features connected with Japanese 
history, not only under the old regime, but also during the 
transition period since the country had intercourse with 
foreigners. 

In some respects the Japanese samurai resembled the 
ancient Greeks in that they always placed loyalty and duty 
to the State before self-interest, and their most 
popular literature abounds in illustrations of ^Vs first* 6 
this. Viscount Hayashi has given English 
readers an excellent example of the ancient spirit of the 
Japanese in his book For His People, and the perusal of 
this and similar books will do far more to make people 
acquainted with the manners and thought of the Japanese 
than formal disquisitions on ethics and psychology, and to 
1 Nitobe, Bushido, p. 86. 



40 Dai Nippon 

such books we must refer our readers, as our space will allow 
us only to touch on those parts of the subject which have 
an immediate bearing on the chief aspects of modern 
Japanese life, with which we propose to deal. A very 
competent writer has made the following remarks on the 
feature in the Japanese character we have been considering, 
and they explain a great deal which to the ordinary foreign 
mind is not apparent : " Something more than a profound 
conception of duty was needed to nerve the samurai for 
sacrifices such as he seems to have been always ready to 
make. It is true that Japanese parents of the military class 
took pains to familiarise their children of both sexes from 
very tender years with the idea of self-destruction at any 
time. The little boy was taught how the sword should be 
directed against his bosom ; the little girl, how the dagger 
must be held to pierce the throat ; and both grew up in 
constant fellowship with the conviction that suicide must be 
reckoned among the natural incidents of everyday existence. 
But superadded to the force of education and the incentive 
of tradition there was a transcendental influence. Buddhism 
supplied it. The tenets of that creed divided themselves, 
broadly speaking, into two doctrines, salvation by faith and 
salvation by works, and the chief exponent of the latter 
principle is the sect which prescribes ' meditation ' as the 
vehicle of enlightenment. Whatever be the mental pro- 
cesses induced by this rite, those who have practised it 
insist that it leads finally to a state of ' absorption ' in which 
the mind is flooded by an illumination revealing the universe 
in a new aspect, absolutely free from all traces of passion, 
interest, or affection, and showing, written across everything 
in flaming letters, the truth that for him who has found 
Buddha there is neither birth nor death, growth nor decay. 
Lifted high above his surroundings, he is prepared to meet 
every fate with indifference. The attainment of that state 
seems to have been a fact in the case both of the samurai of 
the military epoch, and of the Japanese soldier of to-day, 
producing, in the former, readiness to look calmly in the face 



The Japanese Mind 41 

of any form of death, and in the latter, a high type of 
patriotic courage." With a spirit of this kind even very 
imperfectly developed fear of death disappears, and deeds of 
daring are possible which astonish the outside world. 

Amidst all the intellectual and material changes which 
have taken place in Japan there have naturally been great 
changes in the religious ideals of large numbers of the people. 
One thing, however, has not changed. Shinto remains the 
unique creed of the Imperial house, and as this fact is of 
great national importance it is necessary to dwell on it a 
little in detail. Appended to the Constitution, by which 
freedom of conscience was unequivocally granted to the 
people, were three documents — a preamble, an Imperial oath 
in the Sanctuary of the Palace, and an Imperial Speech — 
every one of which contained words that left no doubt of 
the Sovereign's rigid adherence to the patriarchal faith of 
Japan. In the preamble His Majesty said : " Having, by 
virtue of the glories of our ancestors, ascended to the throne 
of a lineal succession unbroken for ages eternal ; desiring 
to promote the welfare and to give development to the 
moral and intellectual faculties of our subjects who have 
been favoured with the benevolent care and affectionate 
vigilance of our ancestors ; and hoping to maintain the pro- 
sperity of the State in concert with our people and with 
their support, we hereby promulgate," etc.; in the Imperial 
oath he said : L< We, the successor to the prosperous throne 
of our predecessors, do humbly and solemnly swear to the 
Imperial founder of our house and to our Imperial ancestors 
that, in consonance with a great policy co-extensive with 
the heavens and with the earth, we shall maintain and secure 
from decline the ancient form of government. . . . These 
laws (the Constitution) contain only an exposition of grand 
precepts for the conduct of the government, bequeathed by 
the Imperial founder of our house and by our Imperial 
ancestors. That we have been so fortunate in our reign 
... as to accomplish this work, we owe to the glorious 
spirits of the Imperial founder of our house and of our other 



42 Dai Nippon 

Imperial ancestors"; and in the Imperial speech he says: 
" The Imperial founder of our house and our other Imperial 
ancestors, by the help and support of the forefathers of our 
subjects, laid the foundation of our empire upon a basis 
which is to last for ever. That this brilliant achievement 
embellishes the annals of our country, is due to the glorious 
virtues of our sacred Imperial ancestors and to the loyalty 
and bravery of our subjects, their love of country, and their 
public spirit." The sentiments embodied in these words 
represent a force in the national life of Japan which 
those who have not lived in the country cannot realise, 
and its existence may bring about a combination of 
Imperial and democratic power which may probably throw 
a new light on the political and social problems of the 
future. 

At the same time it must be admitted that there has 
been a great development of purely materialistic ideas. A 
large proportion of the younger men may be said to belong 
to the school of scientific agnostics, and their religion resolves 
itself into a system of practical ethics, and is in fact a return 
to the " Bushido " of the samurai. It may be said that the 
code of moral principles embodied in that system was to a 
large extent ideal and had little effect on real life, but I 
venture to affirm that its principles entered more deeply 
into the national life of Japan than do those of the 
religion we profess into Western civilisation, which in 
many respects is directly opposed to the spirit of 
Christianity. The true samurai insisted on justice in all his 
dealings with his fellow-men, and courage was not esteemed 
unless it was exercised in the cause of righteousness, while 
benevolence, magnanimity, sympathy and pity were ever 
recognised to be supreme virtues, the highest of all the 
attributes of the human soul. The courtesy and politeness 
of the Japanese were simply the outward symbols of the 
inward spirit which was the mark of the cultured man ; who, 
however, never allowed mere outward form to interfere with 
the standard of veracity and conduct which was demanded 



The Japanese Mind 43 

by his social position. The word of a samurai was sufficient 
guaranty of the truthfulness of an assertion. 

Foreigners who have had commercial dealings with 
Japanese may find it difficult to reconcile these high ideals 
with the practice which they found to prevail, but commercial 
it must be remembered that the social position of morallt y- 
the samurai demanded a loftier standard of veracity than 
that of the tradesman or the peasant. It cannot be denied 
that Japanese merchants gained a bad name by their want 
of commercial integrity, especially in the early days of 
foreign intercourse, but under the feudal system none of 
the great occupations of life were further removed from the 
profession of arms than commerce. The merchant was 
placed lowest in the category of vocations — the knight, the 
tiller of the soil, the mechanic, and the merchant. Com- 
mercial development was not possible to any great extent 
in feudal Japan, and the obloquy attached to the calling 
brought within its pale many who did not care for social 
repute. The initial consequence was that, while those 
belonging to it had a code of morals which guided them 
in their transactions with each other, in their relations with 
people outside their vocation their actions were in accord- 
ance with the low reputation which their class had acquired. 

Such being the case, it can easily be understood that 
when the country was opened to foreign trade, the most 
adventurous rushed to the open ports to take part in the 
scramble with foreigners for their share of the wealth which 
was the main object of life at these places. Some of the 
samurai, and even of the nobles, went into trade, but their 
inexperience and their sense of honour led the majority of 
them into bankruptcy ; the Japanese side of trade was thus, 
for the most part, left in the hands of sharp, unscrupulous 
persons, to whom the spirit and teaching of " Bushido " 
were either unknown, or if known, altogether ignored, 
and their actions brought the whole Japanese nation into 
disrespect ; for foreigners are apt to generalise regarding 
Eastern peoples from their experience of those with whom 



44 Dai Nippon 

they come into contact, and who are seldom, if ever, the 
representatives of the highest types. Under the old 
regime money and the love of it were ignored, and a man 
was honoured on account, not of his possessions, but of 
his social position, his character, or his wisdom. 

We have hitherto dealt chiefly with the ethical aspects of 
Japanese character, but it will be necessary to glance at 
Japanese mental some of their mental characteristics in order 
characteristics. \fodX we may better understand the wonderful 
progress which has been made. The common impression is 
that the Japanese have wonderful powers of imitation but 
little or no originality. This impression, however, is as 
superficial as many others which have been formed of 
Eastern peoples. The Japanese samurai, and to a very 
considerable extent all the other classes in the country, were 
fairly well educated, but it was not for the purpose of 
enabling them to pass examinations or to make money but 
to build up character. Intellectual superiority was of course 
esteemed, but with them intellectuality meant wisdom in the 
first instance and only knowledge in a very subordinate sense. 
The framework of " Bushido " was composed of Wisdom. 
Benevolence, and Courage, but in erecting this framework 
the mind was trained in such a manner that it obtained the 
capacity to undertake any study to which it was directed. 
When, therefore, Western learning and science were intro- 
duced they found a field well cultivated for their reception, 
and characters prepared to take full advantage of them. 
As, however, a very thoughtful writer has said, " although the 
' occidentalization ' of Japan is a fact unique in human 
history, what does it really mean ? Nothing more than 
rearrangement of a part of the pre-existing machinery of 
thought. Even that for thousands of brave young minds 
was death. The adoption of Western civilisation was not 
nearly such an easy matter as unthinking persons imagined. 
And it is quite evident that the mental readjustments, 
effected at a cost which remains to be told, have given good 
results only along directions in which the race had always 



The Japanese Mind 45 

shown capacities of special kinds. Thus the appliances of 
Western industrial invention have worked admirably in 
Japanese hands — have produced excellent results in those 
crafts at which the nation had been skilful, in other and 
quainter ways, for ages. There has been no transformation 
— nothing more than the turning of old abilities into new 
and larger channels. The scientific professions tell the same 
story. For certain forms of science, such as medicine, 
surgery (there are no better surgeons in the world than the 
Japanese), chemistry, microscopy, the Japanese genius is 
naturally adapted ; and in all these it has done work already 
heard of round the world. In war and statecraft it has 
shown wonderful power ; but throughout their history the 
Japanese have been characterised by great military and 
political capacity. Nothing remarkable has been done, 
however, in directions foreign to the national genius. In 
the study, for example, of Western music, Western art, 
Western literature, time would seem to have been simply 
wasted. These things make appeal extraordinary to 
emotional life with us ; they make no such appeal to 
Japanese emotional life. Every serious thinker knows that 
emotional transformation of the individual through education 
is impossible. To imagine that the emotional character of 
an Oriental race could be transformed in the short space of 
thirty years by the contact of Occidental ideas is absurd. 
Emotional life, which is older than intellectual life, and 
deeper, can no more be altered suddenly by a change of 
milieu than the surface of a mirror can be changed by 
passing reflections. All that Japan has been able to do so 
miraculously well has been done without any self-trans- 
formation ; and those who imagine her emotionally closer 
to us to-day than she may have been thirty years ago 
ignore facts of science which admit of no argument." l 

This line of thought might lead us into many interest- 
ing discussions on the relations of European and Asiatic 
thought and into a consideration of the belief which is often 

1 Hearn, Kokoro, pp. 9-1 1. 



46 Dai Nippon 

expressed, but as often forgotten in practical action, that the 
East is separated from the West by a chasm that nothing 

Eastern people can brid g e and is altogether impervious to 
and Western influences from without, but meantime these 
must be postponed. The quotations which we 
have given indicate the lines on which an Eastern people 
may be influenced by Western thought and the limitations to 
that influence. The forces acting on Japan from without have 
been co-operating with those which acted from within and 
have merely changed their direction ; they have created little 
that is new. If we compare her case with that of China, 
we at once see the cause of the differences of results. It 
is customary to speak of China as having stood still for 
centuries, but if we examine her history we find that she 
developed on her own individual lines from age to age up to 
the time of the coming of Europeans, and since then she has 
slowly but surely retrograded ; because, as an experienced 
Eastern official in the British service has put it, " the external 
influence brought to bear upon her has been one essentially 
Results of antagonistic to her whole spirit and genius, and 
European action, ^as served to make development of a kind 
which was natural to her, and which was something wholly 
unlike, and far more subtle than the progress of modern 
Europe, an impossibility." The same writer points out that 
in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries and later the 
Chinese were remarkable among all the nations for the 
extraordinary care which was taken by high and low to 
secure the safety of the persons and property of strangers, 
travellers, and foreign merchants, and religions of all kinds 
were tolerated. What has wrought this complete change in 
China, the reputedly unchanging and unchangeable ? The 
writer from whom I have quoted says : " The answer, let us 
blind ourselves to it if we can, does not admit of a doubt. 
It is due solely and entirely to the influence of Europe, to 
the aggressive spirit which animated, and to a certain extent 
still animates, the white men in Asia ; the spirit which, 
coming into rude contact with that of the East, threw the 



The Japanese Mind 47 

latter violently back upon itself, stayed the tide of its 
natural development, and since the civilisations of Asia 
were thus prevented from advancing in their own fashion, 
and the law of Nature forbade that they should stand 
still, compelled them to retrogression." l The present con- 
dition of China is a disgrace to the Western Powers and a 
complete justification of the independent position which the 
Japanese have always taken in matters affecting the internal 
development of their country. 

My own experience with Japanese students has always 
been, in every way, most pleasant. Eager and persevering 
in their studies, and with abilities which compare 

.... - . - Personal 

favourably with those of students in any part of experience oi 
the world, they retained a great part of their Japanese 

' * or students. 

native politeness and gave no trouble to teachers 
in the course of their work. If occasionally one of the more 
boisterous spirits forgot himself, a word reminding him of 
the behaviour which was expected of a Japanese gentleman 
was sufficient to recall him to a sense of his duty, and during 
all the time I was in Japan no question of College discipline 
ever arose. The only change made in the Calendar of the 
Engineering College as I drafted it was the addition, on the 
suggestion of the Japanese authorities, of certain regulations 
with regard to discipline, but these were found to be un- 
necessary, and they appeared only in the first edition of that 
publication. In recent years, however, it is evident that a 
turbulent spirit has shown itself among certain classes of 
students, but this no doubt arises from the disorganisation 
of Japanese ideals and methods and the want of anything 
better to take their place, and indicates the necessity for the 
cultivation of " Bushido " suitable to modern conditions. 

The charge of want of originality on the part of the 
Japanese is, as I have said, superficial and charge of want 
unfair. How could originality be expected of originality. 
under a feudal system which penalised it in every form ? I 

1 Hugh Clifford, C.M.G., "The East and West," The Monthly Review, 
April 1903, p. 133. 



48 Dai Nippon 

remember my apprentice master, Alexander C. Kirk, LL.D., 
writing to me when in Japan warning me not to expect too 
much in the way of science and engineering from the present 
generation of Japanese, for, as he said, " such things had to 
be bred in the bone." In the course of little more than a 
generation the Japanese have shown that they are not only 
able to adapt Western science to Japanese conditions, but to 
advance its borders by original investigation. The memoirs 
and papers published by Japanese students, both on scientific 
and literary subjects, will bear very favourable comparison 
with those of any other country, and while no Japanese 
Newton, Darwin, or Kelvin has yet arisen, there are men 
connected with Japanese universities and colleges of whom 
any learned institution in the world would have no reason 
to be ashamed. In the course of our investigations we shall 
have an opportunity of noting the practical work which has 
been done in engineering, industry, and commerce, and a 
mere outline will be sufficient to show that the Japanese are 
not simply book students, but are able to apply their 
knowledge to the practical affairs of life. As conditions 
develop, the opportunities for originality will increase, but we 
must remember that what we call originality is only another 
name for the resultant of the experience and spirit of the 
age ; genius simply translates that into language which can 
be understood. 

It is too late in the day to continue to repeat what was 
a very common saying thirty years ago ; namely, that the 
Disproved by Japanese were very clever imitators but that 
recent history, they had neither originality nor perseverance 
to accomplish anything great. Their whole history in the 
interval has disproved the charge. Their ardent patriotism, 
their high sense of personal and national honour, their 
keen intelligence have enabled them to work what is 
admitted to be the political miracle of the latter part of the 
nineteenth century. Early in their new career they formed 
very clear ideas of what they wished to attain. They made 
their plans with deliberation, they carried them out with 



The Japanese Mind 49 

skill, and by their adaptations of Western methods to their 
national institutions they have created a new Power which 
will influence conditions in all parts of the world and 
especially in those countries bounded by the Pacific area. 
To show how they accomplished this will be our task in the 
following chapters. 

A complete study of the mental and moral qualities of 
the Japanese — which have influenced the Revolution that 
has taken place in their country — would take The spirit of 
us into many psychological and metaphysical the Revolution - 
problems. Enough has been said to show that the spirit 
which dominated that Revolution is of a very complex 
nature. What has been called "the Soul of Japan" has 
been a very important factor in it ; but, unlike other Easterns, 
the Japanese have brought the soul under the control of the 
brain, and each successive step in their evolution has been 
guided by an appeal to reason, which has enabled them to 
combine many of the qualities of the East and the West. 
What these qualities really were will be best understood, not 
by abstract discussions, but by a study of the results which 
have followed from their efforts. ' The advent of Christianity 
in its various forms in Japan has had the result of imparting 
new life to Buddhism and in many respects causing it to 
approach still more nearly to some of the Christian ideals. 
On the other hand, Christian missionaries now understand 
much better than they did the conditions of the Japanese 
mind and are not so disdainfully aggressive as they were, 
and, consciously or unconsciously, they are imbibing Eastern 
ideas which are causing them to modify the forms of pre- 
senting some of their Western theological doctrines. How 
far this process will go on is one of the problems of the 
future. 

If I were attempting to sum up briefly the qualities of 
the Japanese which have enabled them to make such 
wonderful developments in such a short time, I would 
mention as the most important factor the intense loyalty of 
the people, which compels them to make any sacrifice — even 

(b 207) 



50 Dai Nippon 

life itself — when they consider it necessary for the honour of 
their country. This, combined with their great intellectual 
ability, enables them to take full advantage of the modern 
science and organisation necessary for the attainment of the 
objects of their ambition. Their great power of foresight 
prepares them for all their enterprises, both of peace and 
war, with an exact and scientific prevision not excelled by 
any other nation. While they are permeated by Eastern 
ideas they have been able to appropriate much that is best 
in Western thought, and thus they unite many of the best 
qualities of the East and the West. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

The Japanese mind is not to be understood from books alone. 
A lengthened residence in Japan and a careful and sympathetic 
study of the subject are necessary even for its approximate under- 
standing. Still some books which have been written will be found 
useful, such as Dr. Nitobe's Bushido, The Soul of Japan, Lafcadio 
Hearn's Kokoro and other works, some of the chapters in Captain 
Brinkley's large work, and Professor Chamberlain's Things Japanese. 
Gulick's Evolution of the Japanese, Social a?id Psychic, contains a great 
deal of interesting but some of it debatable matter. Probably such 
books as Mitford's Tales of Old Japan or Viscount Hayashi's story 
For his People are more useful to general readers than formal 
psychological treatises. 



CHAPTER IV 

TRANSITION 

The formal abolition of feudalism in Japan was only the 
beginning of a long period of transition during which the 
government and the institutions of the country were fitted 
to the new conditions, and before entering on a description 
of the chief developments in the various departments of 
national life, it will be convenient to give a sketch of the 
more important events that occurred during the period of 
rapid change which we may consider to have ended with the 
war with China in 1894-5 — a war which was the means of 
causing the strength of Japan to be recognised by the other 
nations of the world. Changes have, of course, been going 
on since that date, the more important of which will be 
noted under their appropriate headings ; but during the 
period mentioned the foundations of the institutions of 
modern Japan were laid and their superstructures sufficiently 
developed to allow us to give an outline which will be of 
use in co-relating them to each other and to the general 
course of events in Japan. The task before the country 
and the people was a difficult one; and it is Problems of the 
not surprising that mistakes were made, and Revolution. 
that troubles arose which sometimes threatened serious 
results to the nation ; but, on the whole, it is admitted even 
by their most severe critics that the Japanese have per- 
formed their task in a manner which, in many respects, 
affords an object lesson to the world. 

On the publication of the decree abolishing feudalism 

51 



52 Dai Nippon 

the ex-Daimyos returned to their provinces and assumed the 
functions of governors of their clans, and each provincial 
government received a uniform constitution. It was soon 
found, however, that the hereditary princes were, as a class, 
utterly unfit for the chief executive offices of their old 
provinces, and as vacancies occurred they were replaced by 
other more competent persons. The actual leaders in the 
central Government, after the Revolution, did not number 
among them a single Daimyo, although two or three were 
Men of the Kugt or Court nobles. Among the men who 
Revolution, have made modern Japan, the names of Okubo, 
Kido, Iwakura, Sanjo, Goto, Katsu, Okuma, Ito, Inouye, 
Soyejima, Oki, Saigo, and Yamagata deserve to be specially 
recorded, although many others who will be mentioned later 
on did much in their own departments to consolidate the 
new regime. Captain Brinkley, a very competent authority, 
has said : " Of the fifty-five men whose united efforts had 
compassed the fall of the Shogunate, five stood conspicuous 
above their colleagues ; they were Iwakura and Sanjo, Court 
nobles ; Saigo and Okubo, samurai of Satsuma ; and Kido, 
a samurai of Choshu. In the second rank came many men 
of great gifts, whose youth alone disqualified them for 
prominence — Ito, the constructive statesman of the Meiji 
era, who inspired nearly all the important measures of the 
time, though he did not openly figure as their originator ; 
Inouye, who never lacked a resource or swerved from the 
dictates of loyalty ; Okuma, a politician of subtle, versatile, 
and vigorous intellect ; Itagaki, the Rousseau of his era ; 
and a score of others created by the extraordinary circum- 
stances with which they had to deal. But the first five 
mentioned were the captains, the rest only lieutenants." If we 
were studying the history of the time we would of course enter 
into the examination of the share which individuals had in 
public affairs, but, as already explained, our object is rather 
to give a broad outline of the national evolution, and therefore 
we can touch on the careers of individuals only in so far as 
their work bears directly on the subjects under consideration. 



Transition 53 

The Emperor was the source of all authority, but the 
actual work of the Government was carried on by the 
Daijokwan or Privy Council, composed, for the central 
most part, of the leaders of the Revolution. Government. 
Under the Daijokwan were the Ministers of the different 
departments, who were called to take part in the Cabinet 
Councils of the Government when any questions relating to 
their department were to be discussed. The composition of 
the Privy Council from time to time caused serious dis- 
content among the members of the more powerful clans, who 
were dissatisfied with the share which they had obtained in 
the Government. Satsuma especially was troublesome, as 
the members of that clan looked upon themselves as the 
principal agents in the Revolution which had been the means 
of restoring the governing power into the hands of the 
Emperor, and their discontent came to a head in a very 
serious rebellion a few years later. 

The first deliberative assembly having proved a failure, 
another attempt was made in 1870 but with almost equal 
want of success. The House was opened with some 
ceremony on the 26th of June, but it was found Deliberative 
that the members were so deficient in the informa- Assembly, 
tion necessary for the transaction of business and so much 
given to irrelevant discussion that they were eventually sent 
home, with the object of qualifying themselves for the task 
they had set to perform. 

From time to time attacks were made on foreigners by 
Japanese who thought that their country was going on a 
wrong course by the adoption of foreign Attitude towards 
customs, but in many cases these attacks were foreigners, 
provoked by the imprudence or misconduct of the persons 
who suffered. On the whole, however, the anti- foreign 
policy was being abandoned, especially by the high officials 
of the clans, and by 1 87 1 it was evident that a very 
important change was coming over the spirit of Japan. 
The people recognised that any attempt to return to 
the old system of isolation was impracticable, and they 



54 Dai Nippon 

agreed with the Government in its resolve to respect the 
treaties and to encourage friendly relations with foreign 
Powers. 

Public opinion changed very rapidly. On the one hand 
there were those who wished to adopt all kinds of foreign 
arts and inventions at once and to plunge into Western 
civilisation, and on the other those who, while recognising 
the necessity for an approximation to the methods of 
European countries, were anxious to retain what was good 
in Japanese customs and methods and to preserve the old 
institutions of the country. When opportunity arose I 
always took the side of the latter, and impressed on those 
with whom I came in contact that a nation which forgot its 
past was not likely to have a great future. N While anxious 
that the Japanese should be assisted in every way to become 
a strong nation, I felt that if too great haste were dis- 
played disastrous results would follow. For some years it 
was difficult to prevent the beginning of schemes which were 
doomed to failure, but as experience was gained more 
caution was shown, and gradually there occurred what many 
foreigners called a reaction against things European, but 
which, in reality, was only a recognition of the claims of 
things Japanese, and a clearer recognition of the conditions 
of real national progress. 

Many young men and a considerable number of young 
women were sent to foreign countries in order that they 
Lines of might obtain a knowledge of foreign methods and 
progress. fo Q instructed in Western arts and sciences, but as 
they were quite unprepared to take full advantage of what 
they saw and heard, the results were, in the majority of 
cases, very unsatisfactory. Those, however, who settled 
down to a systematic course of study, as a rule, did well, and 
on their return to Japan were able to do very efficient work. 
It was, however, felt that it was absolutely necessary that 
arrangements should be made for a sound preliminary training 
being given in Japan to those who were likely to go abroad, 
so that they might be fitted to take full advantage of the 



Transition 55 

opportunities which they had for the study of Western arts 
and sciences. 

Frequent changes and developments took place both in 
the central and local Government with the object of meeting 
the new conditions which were arising. The most important 
of these we will note in subsequent chapters. The 
administration of the law was improved, the Department 
of Education was established and a beginning was made 
with the organisation of national education and of public 
works which have been the means of changing to a large 
extent the general conditions of Japan. The various public 
works were united in one department, the Kobusho, under 
which a few years later was placed the Imperial College of 
Engineering. A telegraph was soon in working order 
between Yokohama and Tokyo, and the construction of a 
railway between these two points was begun. In order that 
navigation might be rendered safer, lighthouses were con- 
structed at different parts of the coast under the super- 
intendence of Mr. Brunton, a British engineer, and in short 
a beginning was made in a great many departments of 
national activity, all of which have had very important 
developments, to be noticed later on. 

Those in power, however, felt that more complete informa- 
tion was required before a systematic attempt was made to 
reorganise thoroughly the national institutions, Emba 
and accordingly it was determined by the Cabinet United states 
that an embassy should be sent to the United and Europe> 
States and Europe on a tour of observation, for the 
purpose of learning the nature of the institutions of other 
countries and for gaining a more precise knowledge of their 
laws, commerce, and education as well as their naval and 
military systems. 

In addition to these reasons, however, there was another 
which probably had more direct effect in causing the 
appointment of the embassy. The Japanese Government 
and the people generally had all along felt that in the treaties 
with the foreign Powers the clauses which placed those 



56 Dai Nippon 

of their nationality who were resident in Japan under the 
direct jurisdiction of the representatives of these Powers, were 
derogatory to the dignity of Japan, and that they should be 
altered as soon as possible. The date fixed for the revision 
of the treaties was 1st of July 1872, and it was recognised 
that an important epoch was approaching. The members 
of the Cabinet felt that it was their duty to make the 
Governments of the Treaty Powers acquainted with the 
changes which had taken place in the country since the 
treaties were signed, and explain the existing conditions and 
the policy which it was intended to carry out. 

The chief of the embassy was Iwakura, the Junior 
Prime Minister, and with him with the title of Associate 
Ambassadors were Kido, Sangi ; Okubo, Minister of Finance ; 
Ito, Vice-Minister of Public Works; and Yamaguchi, Assistant 
Minister for Foreign Affairs. There were in addition a 
number of secretaries, commissioners, and other officials ; so 
that the embassy attained considerable dimensions, as was 
becoming, considering the importance and variety of the 
functions which it was expected to perform. 

The embassy did not succeed in bringing about the 
revision of the treaties, but it collected a great deal of 
information on many points relating to government and 
national institutions which no doubt has been largely used 
in shaping the policy which has since been followed. 
Personally I am interested in the embassy and its work, 
because, as I have mentioned, when it visited Britain Mr. 
Ito, one of its members (now Marquis Ito) arranged for the 
institution of the Imperial College of Engineering, of which 
I became Principal. On my arrival in Japan in June 1873 
I collected, with difficulty, about fifty students from the 
small schools and classes which had been started in con- 
nection with various departments, and we made a beginning 
with the College, using as temporary premises the yashiki 
or residence of an ex-Daimyo. In order to provide properly 
prepared candidates for entrance to the College I started a 
large preparatory school, which was carried on with success 



Transition 5 7 

for some years until the work of the Education Department 
was more fully organised, when it was discontinued. What 
ultimately became the University of Tokyo was also being 
rapidly developed, and a national system of education was 
being organised, but these and other matters connected with 
education will be noticed more fully in the next chapter. 

Beneath the surface of the apparent calm in the country 
there was still a large amount of latent discontent, especially 
among the members of the Satsuma clan. As 

, T,i ,.ii 1 1 Signs of trouble. 

has already been explained, that clan took a 
leading part in the Revolution which brought the Emperor 
back to power, but its members were, as a rule, animated by 
a great dislike to foreign customs and methods, and indeed 
they made the action of the Shogun in favouring foreigners 
and making treaties with them the main reason for working 
for his overthrow. The Satsuma leaders were therefore 
justified in thinking that under the new order of things their 
services would be remembered, and that they would have 
a large share in the Government. Probably they were dis- 
appointed that they did not get as much as they expected 
in this respect, but subsequent events seemed to prove that 
some of them aimed at acquiring for themselves the executive 
authority of the extinct Shogunate, without its name, rather 
than at making the Emperor the real and effective depositary 
of supreme power. It is very difficult, if not impossible, to 
estimate men's motives, but there can be little doubt that 
these reasons and the contempt which they had for foreigners 
and their methods explained the action of many members 
of the Satsuma clan during the years which immediately 
followed the Revolution. 

The story is a long one, and we can notice only those 
points in it which bear on the national evolution. Among 
the Satsuma men who had rendered good service at the 
time of the restoration of the Emperor was Saigo Takamori, 
and on the formation of the new Government he was 
appointed to an important post in the Ministry of War. 
Other members of the Satsuma clan had also received 



58 Dai Nippon 

influential appointments, and amongst those was Okubo 
Toshimitsu, whose name is associated with all the more 
important changes carried out by the Mikado's Government 
in its early years. In November 1870 the members of 
the Satsuma clan who were then in Tokyo began to show 
signs of discontent ; Shimadzu Saburo, the acting head of 
the clan, and Saigo presented a petition to the Emperor 
asking to be relieved from their service in Tokyo as part 
of the guard for the central Government. Okubo and 
Terashima, the two other members of the clan in the 
Government, did not support the petition, and there can be 
little doubt that the real grounds of the request which it 
contained were the discontent and disappointment of the 
two former statesmen at finding that the part in the 
government of the country allotted to them was infinitely 
less than what they considered they had a right to expect. 
These feelings were shared by the troops and the majority 
of the clan. Various unsuccessful efforts were made to 
appease them. Shimadzu and Saigo returned to their 
province, and under the name of a " private school " they 
carried on an establishment which was essentially a military 
training institution ; all their resources were employed in 
the maintenance of armed forces, and as many as 30,000 
men were being constantly drilled and exercised. They 
had a large arsenal, and connected with it were a cannon 
foundry and powder mills which were able to turn out 
considerable amounts of the munitions of war. They also 
held the fortifications which commanded the harbour of 
Kagoshima. In short, Satsuma was practically as feudal 
as ever, and all Satsuma men obeyed the orders of 
Shimadzu and not of the central Government. 

An open breach, however, did not occur for some time, 
and in April 1873 the Government, after much negotiation, 
prevailed on Shimadzu to visit Tokyo, and he was offered 
high official position if he would modify his opposition to 
the projected changes. Shimadzu arrived in the capital 
about the end of April, accompanied by several hundred 



Transition 59 

armed retainers, all wearing the old costume of the country 
and carrying their two swords, and their appearance in 
Tokyo caused no little sensation, where the samurai had 
already availed themselves of the permission granted them 
to lay aside their weapons. I arrived in Japan in the 
beginning of June of that year, and I can recall the Satsuma 
men with their swaggering gait and sometimes scowling 
aspect, and one was thankful when one got safely past them 
in the streets ; for there was no saying what an angry samurai 
might do on the spur of the moment. In order to conciliate 
him, Saigo was named commander-in-chief of the Emperor's 
land forces, but neither he nor Shimadzu modified their 
opposition to the progressive measures of the Government, 
and the latter, finding his advice unheeded, asked leave to 
return home. The Emperor refused his request and ordered 
him to remain in the capital until the return from Europe 
of Iwakura and the members of his mission. This took 
place in September of the same year, and shortly after a 
split took place in the Cabinet ; the reason which was given 
being a question arising out of the state of Japanese relations 
with the Kingdom of Korea. 

These relations go back to the almost prehistoric times 
of the Empress Jingo (a.d. 201-269), but it is not till 1592 
that we have exact historical records. In that Relations with 
year a Japanese army under the Regent Korea. 
Hideyoshi, a man with great warlike ambitions, landed in 
Korea and conquered it, and although the Japanese army 
was withdrawn after the death of Hideyoshi, the Koreans for 
more than two centuries sent tribute to the Tokugawa 
Shoguns. After the Restoration, however, they had refused 
to acknowledge the Mikado as Emperor of Japan or to have 
any official relations with his Government, which had given 
so much encouragement to Western barbarians. This caused 
great irritation to some sections of the Japanese, who held 
that the conduct of the Koreans deserved severe chastisement. 
On the other hand, Iwakura, the head of the embassy which 
had just returned from Europe, became the chief of the 



60 Dai Nippon 

peace party which declared that the country was unprepared 
for war and that financial ruin would be the result of 
attempting it, and the counsels of that party prevailed. 

The relations between Japan and Russia are at the 

present time the most important political questions in the 

japan and Far East, but a glance at history shows that 

Russia. they are of very long standing. The present 
policy of Russia is only a continuation of the policy she 
has carried on for generations. Towards the end of the 
eighteenth century, Russia made several attempts to open 
up communications with Japan, but in vain. In the early 
years of the nineteenth century several raids were made by 
Russians on the northern parts of Japan, and their actions in 
burning, pillaging, and taking prisoners raised Japanese 
feeling very strongly against them. One of the prisoners was 
entrusted with a letter ending with the sentence : " If you 
comply with our wishes [to make a treaty of commerce] we 
shall always be good friends with you ; if not, we will come 
again with more ships and chase you about" — a communica- 
tion which was not calculated to increase the friendship 
between the parties. 

Among the students who about this time tried to obtain 
a knowledge of Western countries through the Dutch who 
were settled at Deshima was one Ono Kinshihei, and he, 
like all others who infringed the laws on these matters, soon 
had to make a difficult choice. He had collected information 
regarding the manners and customs as well as the military 
and naval organisations of Western States, and he had to 
choose between concealing information which seemed essential 
to his country's safety and revealing it at the certain cost of 
his own safety. He chose the latter, and published a 
book in which he not only gave all the information he 
thought would be useful, but warned the authorities that the 
Russians would one day show themselves in the north of 
Japan, and urged the advisability of building a fleet and 
constructing coast defences. His patriotism was rewarded 
by imprisonment and the confiscation of his publication. 



Transition 6 1 

Before he was five months in prison, events vindicated his 
wisdom ; the Russians appeared and attempted to carry 
out their objects by force, and their depredations impressed 
themselves in bloody letters on the memory of the Japanese. 
The great struggle which was going on in Europe at the 
time diverted the attention of Russia from the Far East, 
except for an occasional visit. In 1 8 1 1 the Russian ship 
Diana was sent to survey the Kurile Islands, and by a 
stratagem the captain and a number of his officers were 
seized and kept prisoners by the Japanese for two years and 
treated with considerable cruelty. An interesting account 
of the experiences of the Russians was written by Golovnin, 
the captain, which gives some insight into Japanese ways 
and thoughts. 

Gradually as the colonisation of Saghalin by the Russians 
from the north and that of the Japanese from the south came 
into contact, friction arose, and in 1854 Count Pontiatine 
endeavoured to arrange a boundary line, but without success. 
Then, as now, however, Russia combined silent but aggres- 
sive action with her diplomacy, and in 1857 she attempted 
to include the island of Tsushima among her colonies — 
Tsushima, which lies within sight of Japan on one side, of 
Korea on the other, and commands the principal entrance 
to the Sea of Japan. In 1864 the Government of the 
Bakufu (Shogun) sent a special envoy to St. Petersburg to 
discuss the questions at issue, and a sort of joint occupation 
was agreed to, which, however, was found to be unsatis- 
factory, and in 1869 trouble again arose. In one of his 
letters 1 Sir Harry Parkes thus alludes to the subject : 
" What a day I have had ! A very important question has 
occurred in Saghalin to the north of Yezo, which if not 
carefully treated by the Japanese Government may occasion 
a rupture between them and the Russians, in which case the 
former would go to the wall. The Russians are reported 
to be concentrating 1200 men at the extreme south of 
Saghalin, with the object, I think, of taking Yezo if the 

1 Life, vol. ii. p. 239. 



62 Dai Nippon 

Japanese give them the chance. Yezo would be a most 
serious loss to the Japanese and a great gain to the 
Russians. I have advised the Japanese to throw force 
into Yezo, and not to quarrel about Saghalin, to which 
they have only a questionable right. In a weak moment, 
some years ago, they agreed with the Russians to a joint 
occupancy, which means of course that the whole island 
will be appropriated by the Russians. This cannot be 
helped, I fear, but Yezo may be saved." 

In a recent letter to the Times 1 Sir Robert K. Douglas 
says : " It is interesting to observe the identity of the 
methods by which Russian diplomatists work out their 
political ends. Some years ago Russia began to cast 
longing eyes on the island of Saghalin, the most northerly 
island of the Japanese group, and, taking advantage of its 
detached position, utilised it as a convict station. The 
Japanese very naturally raised objections to this appro- 
priation of their territory, and in reply Russia brought 
forward a proposal that the two empires should enjoy a 
common possession of the island, just as she now proposes 
that they should enjoy a common possession of Korea, only, 
in this instance, she substitutes ' spheres of influence ' for 
' common possession.' They mean the same thing in the 
Russian sense. When Russia made this proposal Japan 
was in her callow days and yielded the point, only to find 
shortly after that ' common possession ' meant ' full possession 
by Russia.' Again, in 1867, Japan had occasion to protest 
against the continued encroachments of her northern neigh- 
bour in the administration of the disputed island and 
Russia answered her protest by the suggestion that in 
exchange for the full possession of Saghalin — an island 
containing 47,500 square miles — she should accept four 
insignificant islets in the Kurile group. This suggestion 
Japan refused to entertain and the two Powers returned to 
the pre-existing arrangement. Matters, however, did not 
work smoothly, and in 1875 Russia came forward with a 

1 February 3, 1904. 



Transition 63 

more liberal offer. She proposed to yield to Japan, in 
exchange for Saghalin, the eighteen islands which form the 
Kurile group, stretching between Kamtchatka and the 
Japanese island of Yezo. To this transfer Japan deemed 
it wise, in the existing circumstances, to consent, and 
Russia thus became legally possessed of Saghalin, just as 
she would surely become the owner of Korea if Japan 
were weak enough to fall in with her present proposal. 
But Japan has learnt her lesson." In the interval, however, 
she has had to pay dearly for her experience. 

The outcome of the negotiations was that Saghalin was 
surrendered to the Russians and the Japanese received, as 
compensation, the Kurile Islands. The shame Sakhalin 

of the cession, unavoidable though it was, was exchanged for the 
deeply felt by the samurai, and it has sunk 
deeply into the hearts of the Japanese. One of the last 
instances of liarakiri — exclusive of the wholesale harakiri 
that followed the suppression of the Satsuma rebellion — 
was that of Ohara, a Yezo militia lieutenant, who dis- 
embowelled himself in 1889 before the tombs of his 
ancestors in Tokyo, driven to suicide by brooding over 
Russian encroachments. The surrender of Saghalin added 
to the discontent of the samurai, who thought that the 
Government had already made too many concessions to the 
demands of foreigners. 

All these events had very important results on the 
national evolution of Japan. The decision that Japan would 
not go to war with Korea did not simply involve Results on 
a question of peace or war, but the much wider Japanese 
question whether the country should halt or airs ' 
advance on its newly adopted path of progress. It was 
recognised that Japan must be made strong, not only that 
she might be able to resist foreign aggression, but also that 
she should be united. A conscription law was therefore 
passed making service in the army or navy obligatory on 
the adult males of all classes of the population. The object 
of this was not only the formation of a strong national 



64 Uai Nippon 

army and navy ; it was also intended to destroy all clannish 
feeling, cohesion and power, and to result eventually in the 
disarmament of all the samurai. This was another cause 
of offence to Shimadzu and Saigo, who saw that it would 
be the means of decreasing the influence of the samurai 
in the affairs of the Government. 

Saigo and other officers left Tokyo and returned to their 
respective provinces. About the same time disorders broke 
out in Hizen, and shortly afterwards, in January 1874, an 
attempt was made to assassinate Iwakura, but which was 
unsuccessful. As soon as peace was restored in Hizen the 
Government became anxious to have Shimadzu and Saigo 
back in the capital, as it was felt that their presence would 
be a guarantee for the good behaviour of their clan. Saigo 
refused the invitation, but Shimadzu, after parleying for three 
weeks with the Imperial envoy, obeyed the summons. He 
was given the title of Sai-daijin, the second in point of rank 
in the Government, although his opinions with regard to 
the policy which ought to be followed by the Government 
do not seem to have been much modified. 

The Liu-Kiu (Loo-Choo) Islands had a shadowy con- 
nection with Japan, and received an annual visit of one junk 
Liu-Kiu and from Satsuma to obtain the marks of nominal 

Formosa. vassalage, while the island of Formosa was to 
the Japanese a far-off land of fairy tales and adventure, in 
which, centuries before, Japanese buccaneers had won fame 
and glory. Indeed, in earlier historical times Japanese 
pirates had made themselves unpleasantly known in the 
Chinese seas generally. It was therefore not to be won- 
dered at that a proposal to send a warlike expedition to 
Formosa should not only raise the enthusiasm of the fiery 
samurai, but also that the Government should take the 
opportunity of using it as a safety-valve for the purpose of 
cooling their warlike aidour. On more than one occasion 
shipwrecked Japanese and Liu-Kiuns who had been cast 
on the shores of Formosa had been murdered by the wild 
aboriginal tribes, and in 1874 an expedition was sent to 



Transition 65 

Formosa for the purpose of chastising these tribes and 
acquiring guarantees for the future security of Japanese ships 
and seamen. No doubt it was also intended as a means of 
outlet for the discontent of the samurai, especially those of the 
Satsuma clan, and of directing their attention away from 
home politics. The central Government also saw in it an 
opportunity for increasing the regular army, and thus of 
strengthening their position and controlling the samurai class. 
The expedition was placed under the command of a younger 
brother of Saigo, who had distinguished himself during the 
war of the Restoration, and it was completely successful 
in its object. The Formosan tribes were defeated, the 
Japanese troops returned in triumph in December 1874, 
and an indemnity was obtained from the Chinese Govern- 
ment for the expense incurred by Japan. 

As has been mentioned, the decree of September 1871 
made the custom of wearing two swords optional, and its 
effect was soon observed by the numbers which gave up the 
custom. In March 1876 the Government thought that the 
time was ripe for prohibiting the practice of wearing swords 
and limiting to the regular forces the right of bearing arms. 
This caused further irritation among the samurai, especially 
those of the Satsuma clan, which went on steadily increasing 
its military preparations. Meantime, however, the central 
Government was also consolidating its position and augment- 
ing its army and navy. The postal and telegraph services 
were extended, and as they were of great use in directing 
the operations of the military and naval forces, they added 
to the strength of the Government. 

At last, in the beginning of 1877, matters came to a 
crisis, and civil war broke out between the forces of the 
Emperor and those of Satsuma, the first overt act Satsuma 
being by pupils of the " private schools " breaking Rebelli on. 
into the arsenal at Kagoshima and carrying off as many rifles 
and as much powder as they could remove. On the 5 th of 
February the Emperor had gone south for the official open- 
ing of the railway recently constructed between Osaka 

(b 207) p 



66 Dai Nippon 

and Kyoto, the representatives of the foreign Powers had 
accepted invitations to be present and the former capital 
was in festive garb for the occasion, when the news of the 
outbreak at Kagoshima arrived. Although these were con- 
sidered grave, the ceremony was carried out as originally 
arranged, but, immediately after, a Cabinet Council was held 
and Admiral Kawamura despatched to Kagoshima to en- 
deavour to arrange matters. The leaders of the Satsuma 
men, however, had decided that the time for action had 
arrived, and civil war was carried on in real earnest. The 
struggle was long and severe, and for some time the issue 
was doubtful. Both parties exerted themselves to the 
utmost. Among other things which were done, the engineer- 
ing workshops which we had organised in connection with 
the Imperial College of Engineering were utilised for the 
provision of the munitions of war. Ultimately the resources 
of the Government told, and the Satsuma men were totally 
defeated. The final act was very characteristic of the 
Japanese nature. Saigo wounded by a bullet in the thigh, 
one of his lieutenants performed what samurai consider a 
friendly act. By one blow of his heavy sword he severed 
his chief's head from his body in order to spare him the 
disgrace of falling alive into his enemy's hands, and after 
handing the head to one of Saigo's servants for concealment, 
he committed suicide. The rest of the rebels who took part 
in that fight were either very severely wounded or killed. 
Admiral Kawamura, in the spirit of a true samurai, rever- 
ently washed Saigo's head with his own hands as a mark of 
respect for his former friend and companion in arms. 

An Imperial Notification was issued on 25th September 
that the rebels had been overcome and peace restored. The 
news was received without much demonstration, but with a 
feeling of relief mingled with admiration and regret. The 
rebellion had the effect of causing the strength of the 
Government to be greatly increased. Fully 65,000 troops 
were employed in its suppression, and the naval forces and 
ships of transport were considerably increased in number ; so 



Transition 67 

that the troubles in Satsuma had the effect of consolidating 
the power of the Government, which immediately applied 
itself to various developments in administration and to the 
rearrangement of financial affairs, such as the land tax, 
pensions, etc. Satsuma was placed under the same system 
of government as the other provinces, and the " private 
school " system was replaced by a garrison of Imperial troops 
at Kagoshima. The civil administration was placed in the 
hands of Imperial officials, selected without regard to the 
place of their birth, and the taxation was put on the 
same footing as elsewhere in the country. A final act in 
the tragedy must not be forgotten. On the 14th of May 
1878, Okubo Toshimitsu, the Minister of the Interior, was 
assassinated as he was driving to attend a Cabinet Council 
in the Emperor's palace, being cut down by two men who 
thought him a traitor to his country and who were deter- 
mined to revenge the death of Saigo. I can well recall the 
place where the event occurred, as it was one of my favourite 
walks. It has been described as " a sylvan dell, bounded on 
each side by grassy slopes, crested with grotesque old pine- 
trees, and studded here and there with bamboo groves — a 
dell where the philosopher might think undisturbed, and the 
painter find worthy studies for his canvas." As if to com- 
plete the tragedy, the remains of the murdered man were 
found by General Saigo (a brother of the Satsuma leader), 
who happened to drive past shortly afterwards, and were by 
him conveyed to Okubo's house. 

Now that the troubles with the samurai were largely got rid 
of, the attention of the people was directed to political affairs, 
and a demand arose for the establishment of . ., .. , 

Agitation for 

representative institutions. The agitation was representative 
led by Itagaki Taisuki, the chief man of the 
Tosa clan, and to this day an active worker in the fields 
of philanthropy and social politics. In July 1877 a 
memorial was addressed to the Emperor giving reasons for 
the proposals, and reminding him that in 1868, before the 
assembled Court and Daimyos, he had promised that a 



68 Dai Nippon 

deliberative assembly should be formed and that all measures 
should be decided by public opinion. We will trace the 
history of representative government in Japan later on, but 
meantime note that on July 22, 1878, a notification was 
issued by the Prime Minister stating that the Emperor had 
decided on the establishment of elective assemblies in all the 
provinces of the Empire. This, however, was only the 
beginning ot a movement which led in 1881 to the promul- 
gation of an edict announcing that a national assembly would 
be convened in 1891, and that a Constitution would be 
framed which would give the people a direct voice in the 
government of the country. 

In the interval, however, great developments took place 
in education, administration, public works, industry, and corn- 
Developments on merce, and for some time there raged what 
Western lines. ^as been called the great "foreign fever," 
when Japanese society was literally submerged in the flood 
of European influence. Speculative companies of all kinds 
were formed for the purpose of carrying on public works and 
industrial undertakings, many of which came to grief through 
the inexperience of the promoters and the insufficiency of 
financial resources. The rude lessons of experience brought 
a reaction, and greater care was exercised in attempting to 
carry out new proposals. The methods of administration 
of the Government were reformed, and the excessive number 
of officials reduced. The laws were codified, and the ad- 
ministration of justice brought into harmony with Western 
ideas, with the result that in 1894 the long attempt at 
treaty revision was successfully carried out by the conclusion 
of a new treaty with Great Britain and a few months later 
with the United States of America. These, and other 
developments we will consider more at length in the special 
chapters devoted to them. 

Among all the developments which had taken place in 
Japan, the most important, from the point of view of national 
evolution, was the growth of an army drilled and equipped 
in foreign style and a navy of considerable size and of great 



Transition 69 

efficiency. In the summer of 1894 these were employed in 
a manner which showed that the Japanese had profited 
by the instruction they had received, and, moreover, that 
they had realised the nature of the arguments which had the 
greatest weight with the foreign Powers. 

The early relations of Japan and Korea have already 
been mentioned. The irritation caused by the conduct of 
the Koreans after the Restoration was never Difficulties with 
allayed in Japan, although for some years Korea. 
Korea was left in her hermit-like seclusion. The Japanese 
maintained a small settlement at Fusan, the most southern 
port, but they knew little of what was being done in the 
interior of the country. Rumours, however, were current 
that the Russians were attempting to establish themselves 
in Korea. In 1875 an incident occurred which was 
the immediate cause of the opening of Korea to the world. 
A gunboat belonging to the Japanese, while surveying 
the coasts, was fired on by a small fort. The fire was 
promptly returned, the fort destroyed, the arms, banners, 
and other trophies were brought to Tokyo and exhibited in 
the military museum. The punishment which had been 
meted out to the Koreans did not satisfy the national 
pride of the Japanese, who now felt that they were in a 
position to impress their will on such a Power as Korea. 
An expedition was sent out to Korea, but fortunately 
matters were arranged without having recourse to war, and a 
treaty was concluded by the terms of which two ports were 
opened to the trade and residence of Japanese subjects. 
The other foreign Powers were not slow in following the 
example of Japan, and Korea was at length open to the 
world. 

In the negotiations which were carried out Korea was 
treated by Japan and the other Powers as an independent 
nation, with which diplomacy was to be conducted on terms 
of perfect international equality. But although Korea had 
broken off the slight bonds of her vassalage to Japan, she 
still clung to China's suzerainty, and China retained a con- 



jo Dai Nippon 

trolling influence in her affairs, both foreign and domestic, 
and this was always exercised in the direction of obstruction 
to improvements and of conservatism generally. The 
Japanese, on the other hand, wished to. see developments 
in commerce and industrial undertakings and in all that was 
necessary to make them successful. They were not always 
fortunate in their methods or in those who represented them. 
Unscrupulous men in search of fortunes, without regard to 
the means they employed, treated the natives in a very 
offensive manner, with the consequence that the traditional 
hatred of the Japanese was revived, and in 1882 the 
Japanese Legation at the capital was attacked and burned 
by a mob ; the Minister and his staff escaped with diffi- 
culty to the coast, twenty miles distant, where they were 
rescued by a British man-of-war which happened to be 
surveying in the neighbourhood. The Legation was very 
soon rebuilt, but from that time Japan claimed and exer- 
cised the right of maintaining a force of troops in the 
capital. This right was recognised by China, and in 1885 
a convention was arranged between the two countries by 
which it was agreed that both should have the privilege of 
stationing troops in Korea, but that due notice should be 
given by each to the other of any intention to exercise it 
whenever it became necessary. 

For nine years there were constant difficulties between 
Japan and China, for which it is impossible to apportion the 
responsibility. Matters were brought to a crisis in 1894, 
when a serious insurrection broke out in Korea, and the 
Government was unable to cope with it. The Japanese 
Government saw that it was necessary to put an end to the 
misrule and corruption which rendered Korea a scene of 
constant disturbance, and offered invitations to foreign 
aggression, which, if carried out, would be a source of 
danger to Japan. Russia especially was to be feared, and 
the Japanese recognised that if that Power got possession of 
Korea, the narrow straits which divided their country from 
Korea would not be sufficient protection from the further 



Transition y i 

aggression of the great northern Power, of which they had 
already reason to be afraid. 

I do not propose to enter into all the political or other 
questions involved, or even to attempt to defend the Japanese 
on all points from an ethical point of view, war with 
European Powers are not in a position to criticise China. 
their action, as nearly all they do in the Far East is dictated 
by pure selfishness — national or personal — which is gener- 
ally prompted by the ambition of their representatives, who 
recognise that an active policy, if successful, leads to official 
promotion. Even the autocracy of the Czar is powerless 
before the influence of the Russian bureaucracy. The 
Imperial Rescript issued by the Emperor of Japan on 
declaring war with China intimated that while Korea was 
an independent State she was first introduced into the family 
of nations by the advice and under the guidance of Japan, 
but that it had been China's habit to designate Korea as her 
dependency, and both openly and secretly to interfere with 
her domestic affairs. On account of disturbances in Korea, 
China despatched troops thither, alleging that her purpose 
was to afford succour to her dependent State, and in virtue 
of a treaty concluded with Korea in 1882 and looking to 
possible contingencies, the Japanese sent a military force to 
that country. The Japanese Government invited that of 
China to co-operate with them in the maintenance of peace, 
not only in Korea but in the East generally, but China, 
advancing various reasons, declined Japan's proposals. 

We need not follow the details of the negotiations or 
even inquire into the sufficiency of the reasons given by 
Japan for her action, for, as Professor Chamberlain remarks, 
" though Japan evidently lacked moral justification for her 
proceeding, the science of statecraft, as understood in the 
present imperfect stage of human culture, must approve her 
action." No doubt the Japanese saw that it was necessary 
that they should show their strength, and their quarrel with 
China afforded the opportunity. On this subject Captain 
Brinkley says : " The approximate cause of the war is 



7 2 Dai Nippon 

readily discernible. China's attitude towards Korea, her 
fitful interference in the little kingdom's affairs, her exercise 
of suzerain rights while uniformly disclaiming suzerain 
responsibilities, created a situation intolerable to Japan, who 
had concluded a treaty with Korea on the avowed basis of 
the latter's independence. A consenting party to that 
treaty, China nevertheless ignored it in practice, partly 
because she despised the Japanese and resented their 
apostasy from Oriental traditions, but chiefly because her 
ineffable faith in her own superiority to outside nations 
absolved her from any obligation to respect their conventions, 
and the struggle was therefore between Japanese progress 
and Chinese stagnation. At the same time, Japan's material 
and political interests in Korea outweighed those of all other 
States put together. In asserting her commercial rights 
she could not possibly avoid collision with a Power behaving 
as China behaved. But there was another force pushing the 
two States into the arena ; they had to do battle for the 
supremacy of the Far East. China, of course, did not regard 
the issue in that light. It was part of her immemorial faith 
in her own transcendence that the possibility of being chal- 
lenged should never occur to her. But Japan's case was 
different. Her position might be compared to that of a lad 
who had to win a standing for himself in a new school by 
beating the head boy of his form. China was the head boy 
of the East-Asian form. Her huge dimensions, her vast 
resources, her apparently inexhaustible " staying power," 
entitled her to that position, and outside nations accorded it 
to her. To worst her meant to leap, at one bound, to the 
hegemony of the Far East. That was the quickest exit from 
the shadow of Orientalism and Japan took it. This is not 
a suggestion that she forced a fight upon her neighbour 
merely for the purpose of establishing her own superiority. 
What it means is that the causes which led to the fight had 
their remote origin in the different attitudes of the two 
countries towards Western civilisation. Having cordially 
embraced that civilisation, Japan could not consent to be 



Transition 73 

included in the contempt with which China regarded it ; and, 
having set out to climb to the level of Occidental nations, 
she had to begin by emerging from the ranks of Oriental 
nations." 

We cannot enter into details of the war which followed. 
Both the Japanese army and navy did splendid work. The 
skill of the generals, the bravery of the soldiers, and the per- 
fection of all the arrangements for the supply of materials, 
combined, no doubt, with the unprepared state of the Chinese, 
led to easy victories by the Japanese, in which the navy took 
a prominent part. Within a year the Chinese saw that it 
was useless to continue the struggle, and on April 17, 
1895, a treaty of peace was signed by Li Hung Chang and 
Li Ching Fong on behalf of China, and by Marquis Ito, the 
Premier, and Count Mutsu, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, 
representing Japan, at Shimonoseki. By this Treaty of 
treaty, among other things, the complete Shimonoseki. 
independence of Korea was declared, the province of 
Liao-tung and the islands of Formosa and the Pescadores 
were ceded to Japan, and it was arranged that a war 
indemnity of 200,000,000 Kuping taels should be paid 
by China. Further additional commercial privileges were 
provided for, as well as a commercial treaty similar to 
those concluded by China with European Powers. While it 
was the sound of the Japanese cannons at the mouth of the 
Yalu River which awoke the nations of the world to a sense 
of the military and naval power of Japan, it was the terms 
of this treaty which impressed them with the political signi- 
ficance of that Power. Russia was busy constructing her 
Trans-Continental railway and was intent on obtaining a free 
opening on the Pacific, and both France and Germany had 
their own plans of aggrandisement. These three Powers lost 
no time in presenting a joint Note to Japan, suggesting that 
she should forgo her claim to the territory ceded to her on 
the mainland, since its retention would not make for the 
lasting peace of the Far East. Although this Note was quite 
polite, there could be no mistaking its meaning, and the 



74 Dai Nippon 

suggestion was meant to have the force of a command. It 
says a great deal for the self-restraint of the Japanese that 
they received the Note as they did, but it must have been a 
severe blow to their national pride. An Imperial Rescript 
was published, simultaneously with the ratified treaty, in 
which the Emperor, proclaiming his desire to do all that in 
him lay to serve the cause of peace, " yielded to the dictates 
of magnanimity, and accepted the advice of the three Powers." 
Subsequent events threw a lurid light on the disinterested- 
ness of these Powers, and are illustrations of the morality 
which guides them in their dealings with Eastern peoples. 
Their actions, however, reacted on themselves, and had a pro- 
found influence on Eastern opinion ; for while Japan was 
denied a large part of the results of her conquests, the action 
of the European Powers was the cause of raising in her the 
larger ambition to become the champion of the down-trodden 
countries of the East, and by her counsel and, if necessary, 
her assistance enable them to obtain the same measure of 
independence and power as herself. 

Under a pretext of " leasing," Germany seized Kiao- 

chow and asserted her claim over the greater part of the 

Aggression of Shantung province, and Russia practically 

Russia and annexed the Liao-tung peninsula; so that 

Germany in China. .,, . c c .1 .• ri 1 ■ 

1 within four years from the time of her expulsion 

from the territories belonging to her by right of conquest, 

Japan saw those territories appropriated by the very Powers 

that expelled her. The immediate result of the arbitrary 

conduct of Russia, France, and Germany in China was an 

Result on i ncrease i n the belligerent force of Japan and a 

Japanese determination to make the army and navy strong 

po lcy ' enough to assert the rights of the country. The 

indemnity received from China as well as the revenue 

from increased taxation was spent on what was called the 

post-bellum programme, which provided alike for warlike 

and peaceful developments. The principal features in 

that programme were — {a) the expansion of military and 

naval armaments ; {p) the establishment of an Imperial 



Transition 75 

University at Kioto ; (c) the improvement of rivers for 
purposes of internal navigation ; (d) the colonisation of 
Hokkaido ; (e) the improvement of railway lines and the 
extension of the telephone service ; (/) the establishment of 
experimental farms and institutes for training in all branches 
of the silk industry ; (g) the encouragement of foreign trade ; 
and (//) the establishment of a Government work for the 
production of iron and steel. We shall note some of the 
chief results of this programme in the sequel. 

The Japanese recognised that something more than 
peacelul progress in Western industries and methods of 
administration was necessarv to win respect 

. Results in China. 

from the nations of Europe and America, and 
a large part of their energy and their money was devoted to 
the development of their army and navy. Even the spirit 
of the Chinese Court was roused when they saw their 
territories being filched from them, piece by piece, but the 
great body of the people were apathetic. Steps, however, 
were taken to form volunteer associations for the purpose 
of resisting foreign aggression. From the want of proper 
control, these rapidly assumed the form of an anti-foreign 
rebellion, which led, in 1900, to cruel excesses in the 
provinces of Shantung and Chili, and placed the foreign 
communities in Tientsin and Peking in positions of extreme 
peril. During the troubles which ensued, the Japanese won 
increased respect among the nations of the world and proved 
that they were able to bear themselves under very trying 
circumstances in a manner which compared favourably with 
that of the representatives of other nations. When the 
foreign Legations in Peking were defending themselves 
against overwhelming odds, the Japanese contingent of the 
foreign troops in China came to their rescue and won the 
admiration of the world by their bravery, skill, and good con- 
duct. It has been truly said that " when all alike were tried in 
the same fire, the peoples of Europe learned to their humilia- 
tion that the largest measure of restraint was exercised, not 
by white men, but by the soldiers of an Oriental Power." 



j 6 Dai Nippon 

All who have made themselves acquainted with the 
history of events in Japan during the past half-century will 
Alliance with agree with Professor Chamberlain that " what- 
Great Britain. ever troubles Japan may have in store for her, 
— troubles financial perhaps, complications with foreign 
Powers, troubles arising from the constant yearning of small 
but influential sections of her people for radical changes in 
government, — one thing is certain ; — the whole trend of 
recent events has made for stability and for safety, for 
increased commerce, increased influence, and national self- 
respect. New Japan has come of age." Her coming of 
age has been fitly recognised, not only by her admission as 
a member of the comity of nations on terms of perfect 
equality, but also by a political alliance with the Britain 
of the West. 

During what we have called the transition period 

territorial expansion has been a feature in the history of the 

Extent Japanese Empire, and it now includes the long 

of Japanese chain of islands extending from Kamtchatka 

mpire ' on the north to and including Formosa in the 
south. In that chain there are five large islands and about 
six hundred small ones. The most northerly latitude is 
50 56', and the most southerly 2i 48', so that the variety 
of climate is considerable. Its position has enabled it to 
become a focus of navigation routes in the Pacific and a 
great market in the Far East, as well as a naval power 
which will have a dominating influence in the whole of the 
Pacific area. In 1872 the registered population of Japan 
consisted of 16,796,143 males and 16,314,650 females, or a 
total of 33,1 10,793 ; while in 1900 it was 22,608,1 50 males 
and 22,197,806 females, or a total of 44,805,937. In 
addition the population of Formosa, which was ceded by 
China to Japan in 1895, was, at the latter date, 2,621,158. 
During recent years the population of Japan proper has 
increased at the rate of nearly half-a-million a year ; a fact 
which must be kept in mind when the foreign policy of 
Japan is being considered. 



Transition yy 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

A standard history of Japan for the period covered by this 
chapter has still to be written. The students of the subject must 
consult Government Reports and Blue Books, the files of the daily 
newspapers, and other contemporary publications. General readers 
may obtain a fairly good idea of the history of what I have called 
the Transition Period from some of the books which have been 
written, although these are usually of a somewhat superficial and 
one-sided nature. The following will be found useful : — Black, Young 
Japan; Adams, History of Japan ; Griffis, The Mikado's Empire; 
Murray, The Story of Japan ; Mounsey, The Satsuma Rebellion ; 
Yamawaki, Japan in the Beginning of the Twentieth Century ; 
Norman, The Real Japan ; Stead, Japan, our New Ally ; Didsy, The 
New Far East; as well as others mentioned in the Appendix. The 
best condensed account of the history of modern Japan is that given 
by Captain Brinkley in his articles on Japan in the supplementary 
volumes of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. His large work, especially 
volumes v. and vi., should be carefully studied. 



CHAPTER V 

EDUCATION 

" KNOWLEDGE and learning shall be sought after through- 
out the whole world, in order that the status of the Empire 
of Japan may be raised ever higher and higher. " In 
these words, the Emperor, soon after his accession to the 
throne, when announcing the principles of the progressive 
policy which would in future guide the Government, not 
only stated the object which would be kept in view, but 
also indicated the means which were to be adopted for its 
attainment. That object was the raising of the status of the 
Empire of Japan among the nations of the world, and the 
chief means by which that was to be attained was by 
taking advantage of Western knowledge and experience. 
At first, no doubt, the ideas of those in power were very 
limited, as regards the nature and extent of the knowledge 
required, but, as is the case in all national movements, 
these ideas developed as the work progressed, until it was 
recognised that Japan could rise to her true position only 
through a system of national education conducted on the 
most approved methods. The development of education in 
Japan during the last quarter of the nineteenth century is, 
without doubt, the most striking example in the history of 
the world of the influence of education in changing the 
economic, industrial and social conditions of a country. We 
can only note its most important features ; details of organisa- 
tion and of the work of special institutions may be studied 
in the publications mentioned at the end of this chapter. 

78 



Education 



79 



Under the old regime, education in Japan was carried 
on strictly on Chinese lines. As has already been indicated, 
the samurai, consisting of about one-fifteenth of Education in 
the population, were highly cultured according Old japan, 
to the ideas of the country and were characterised both by 
uprightness and by devotion to duty. The most important 
part of knightly pedagogics was the building up of character, 
and the subtler faculties of prudence, intelligence, and 
dialectics were left in the shade. Intellectual superiority 
was, of course, esteemed ; but the word Chi, which was 
employed to denote intellectuality, meant wisdom in the 
first instance and placed knowledge only in a very 
subordinate position. The tripod that supported the frame- 
work of Bushido was said to be C/ii, /in, Yu, respectively 
Wisdom, Benevolence, and Courage. A samurai was 
essentially a man of action. Science was out of the pale 
of his activity. He took advantage of it in so far as it 
concerned his profession of arms. Religion and theology 
were relegated to the priests ; he concerned himself with 
them in so far as they helped to nourish courage. 
Philosophy and literature formed the chief part of his 
intellectual training ; but even in the pursuit of these, it was 
not objective truth that he strove after — literature was 
pursued mainly as a pastime, and philosophy as a practical 
aid in the formation of character, if not for the exposition 
of some military or political problem. 

The curriculum of studies according to the pedagogics 
of Bushido consisted mainly of fencing, archery, a knowledge 
of anatomy required for purposes of offence or defence, 
horsemanship, the use of the spear, tactics, caligraphy, ethics, 
literature and history. Finance and commerce and every- 
thing connected with them were regarded as low pursuits 
compared with moral and intellectual vocations. Money 
and the love of it being thus diligently ignored, Bushido 
itself could long remain free from a thousand -and -one 
evils of which money is the root. People whose minds were 
simply stored with information found no great admirers. 



So Dai Nippon 

Of the three great services of studies that Bacon gives, — for 
delight, ornament, and ability, — Bushido had decided pre- 
ference for the last, where their use was "in judgment and 
the disposition of business." Whether it was for the 
disposition of public business or for the exercise of self- 
control, it was with a practical end in view that education 
was conducted. " Learning without thought," said Confucius, 
" is labour lost ; thought without learning is perilous." 

In the matter of science and of the outside world the 
higher- class Japanese were in a state of almost absolute 
ignorance, while the education of the common people, 
for the most part, consisted of varying degrees of know- 
ledge of the Chinese classics, got up by mere force of 
memory, and of Japanese history and Government edicts, 
together with the ability to write and to reckon on the 
abacus. It was curious to note how much the people were 
the slaves of mechanical methods in their mental training. 
The abacus, for instance, was used for the most simple 
calculations which any fairly well-educated person could 
perform mentally or with a pencil and a slip of paper. 
Still, intelligence was very widely diffused, and few were 
unable to read and write, at least in the ordinary Japanese 
characters, although their knowledge of Chinese might be 
very limited or altogether nil. Learning by heart and 
copying constituted the greater part of the education of the 
Japanese youth, and the teacher did nothing to stimulate 
original thought. The schools were small and the scholars 
in each class seldom exceeded six ; so that the personal 
character of the teacher was a very important factor. There 
were three grades of schools — Sho, Chin, and Dai-Gakko ; or 
small, middle, and great schools. The latter, however, were 
found only in a few localities. The chief centres of learning 
were at Kyoto and Yedo (now Tokyo), where the highest 
educational institutions had something like university rank. 
Kyoto was the seat of ecclesiastical and aesthetic learning, 
while Yedo was the highest seat of Chinese learning in the 
land. In nearly every daimyo's provincial capital there was 



Education 8 1 

a school for the instruction of the sens of the samurai. 
Etiquette and good manners, for which the Japanese in 
olden times were so marked, were taught with special care. 
Under the forms of politeness, however, there were concealed 
many of the results of Eastern philosophy. As a well-known 
exponent of the best-known school put it : " The end of all 
etiquette is to cultivate your mind that even when you are 
quietly seated, not the roughest ruffian can dare make an 
attack on your person." Or as Dr. Nitobe has said : " It means, 
in other words, that by constant exercise in correct manners, 
one brings all the parts and faculties of his body into perfect 
order and into such harmony with itself and its environment 
as to express the mastery of spirit over the flesh." Japanese 
politeness was therefore not the superficial matter foreigners 
usually took it to be. 

During the long peace which prevailed under the 
Tokugawa Shoguns considerable encouragement was given 
to literature and arts. There was a good deal of specula- 
tion and several systems of philosophy were produced ; 
sciences and arts began to emerge from the narrow sphere 
of Chinese philosophy, and to be gradually permeated with 
the influences of Western civilisation. As I have already 
indicated, there slowly filtered throughout the country, from 
Nagasaki, where the Dutch had their settlement before 
foreigners were generally admitted to the country, a certain 
amount of European science and literature ; but nothing of a 
systematic nature was done until the representatives of the 
Foreign Powers were forcing themselves on Japan and 
demanding treaties of commerce, when the Government of 
the Shogun recognised the necessity of training men in 
European languages and methods ; and in order that they 
might more successfully carry on negotiations, they instituted 
a school in Yedo with an English and a French depart- 
ment, which ultimately developed into the University of 
Tokyo. The missionaries who had arrived in Beginning of 
Japan in considerable numbers did excellent forei s n schools. 
pioneer work in education, and among them the name 

(B 207) Q 



82 Dai Nippon 

of the Rev. Guido Verbeck deserves to be specially 
mentioned. He began his work in Nagasaki early in the 
sixties, and there he influenced men who afterwards took a 
leading part in the government of the country. After the 
Restoration he was invited to Tokyo to take charge of the 
school which had been instituted by the Shogun, and for 
some years he acted as its Principal. Thereafter he became 
adviser in general matters to the central Government, and 
during his later years he returned to purely missionary work, 
at which he continued till his death, in 1898. His name 
deserves to be held in remembrance by the Japanese, as he 
rendered good service to their country at a very critical 
period of its history. 

After the Restoration, in 1867, as we have already seen, 
great changes took place in the administration, and the 
Government soon turned its attention to the improvement of 
education. In 1869 regulations relating to universities, 
middle schools and elementary schools were promulgated by 
Imperial decree. In July 1871 the Department of Educa- 
tion was established, and all affairs relating to general 
education were brought under its control. In August 1872 
the Code of Education was promulgated. An Imperial 
Rescript was then issued indicating the course to be pursued 
by the people in general. The purport of the said Imperial 
Rescript was briefly as follows : — 

" The acquirement of knowledge is essential to a 
successful life. All knowledge, from that necessary for 
daily life to that higher knowledge required to prepare 
officials, farmers, merchants, artisans, physicians, etc., for 
their respective vocations, is acquired by learning. A long 
time has elapsed since schools were first established. But 
for farmers, artisans, and merchants, and also for women, 
learning was regarded as beyond their sphere, owing to some 
misapprehension in the way of school administration. Even 
among the higher classes much time was spent in the useless 
occupation of writing poetry and composing maxims, instead 
of learning what would be for their own benefit or that of 



Education 83 

the State. Now an educational system has been established 
and the schedules of study remodelled. It is designed, 
henceforth, that education shall be so diffused that there 
may not be a village with an ignorant family, nor a family 
with an ignorant member. Persons who have hitherto 
applied themselves to study have almost always looked to 
the Government for their support. This is an erroneous 
notion, proceeding from long abuse, and every person should 
henceforth acquire knowledge by his own exertion." 

In the Code of Education above mentioned various 
regulations were prescribed in regard to the grand, middle, 
and elementary school districts, school district committees, 
bureaux of inspection, the appointment of special school 
officials in the local Government offices, the subjects of study 
to be pursued in universities, middle schools, and elementary 
schools, school teachers and normal schools, pupils and 
examinations, students in foreign countries, school funds, 
tuition fees, etc. Rapid progress was made in carrying out 
the objects of the Education Code. For some years Dr. 
David Murray, a Scotsman by birth, but an American by 
education and experience, was engaged as adviser to the 
Department of Education, and he introduced some features 
of the American system into the elementary and secondary 
schools of Japan. The colleges were to a large extent 
staffed by men of different nationalities, and they of course 
caused them to be moulded, to a certain extent, on lines to 
which they had been accustomed. The staff of what has 
now become the Literature and Science Colleges of the 
Universities had representatives of almost all Western 
countries ; that of the Engineering College was British, and 
largely Scottish ; the Naval College was British ; the Medical 
College, German ; the Military College, French ; the Agri- 
cultural College, British ; the School of Art, Italian. In 
education, as in other departments, however, the Japanese 
have not been content to copy any system ; they have 
observed what they believed to be the good points in all 
systems, and they have now evolved an organisation of their 



8 4 



Dai Nippon 



own, which is very complete and well suited to the require- 
ments of the country. It begins with the common school 
course, comprising a primary department covering four 
years, to which children at the age of six are admitted, and 
a secondary or higher grade covering another four years. 
Above this there is the middle-school course of five years for 
boys, and the high-school course of four years for girls, to 
both of which those who have been two years in the higher 
department of the common school are admitted. Above 
the middle school stand the higher schools, of which there 
are six in the country, and which provide three years' 
preparatory course for the Imperial University, mostly in 
languages and mathematics, as well as, in the case of some 
of them, four years' special training in medicine, law, or 
engineering, instruction being given in the vernacular. Only 
the graduates of the middle school are admitted to the 
higher middle school, through competitive examination. 
Lastly, at the head of all stand the two Imperial Universities 
of Tokyo and Kyoto — the former consisting of the colleges 
of law, medicine, engineering, literature, science, and agricul- 
ture ; the latter of the colleges of science, and engineering, 
medicine, law, and literature. There is a provision made for 
the post-graduate studies, called Daigaku — to which only 
graduates of superior scholarship are eligible. The system 
as tabulated stands as follows : — 



Common School — 8 years 






Primary 
department — 
4 years 


Higher 
department — 
4 years 










Girls' High 

School — 4 years 






Normal School 
— 4 years 


Higher Normal 
School — 4 years 




Middle School 
—5 years 


Higher School 
—3 years 


Imperial University 
— either 3 or 4 years 



Education 85 

Supposing a scholar enters the elementary school at six 
years of age, and follows this complete course, he will be 
twenty-two when he enters the university. 

The object of the elementary schools, as defined in the 
Imperial Ordinance, is as follows : — " Elementary schools are 
designed to give children the rudiments of moral Primary 
education, and of education specially adapted to educatlon - 
make of them good members of the community, together 
with such general knowledge and skill as are necessary for 
practical life — due attention being paid to their bodily 
development." This object is explained more fully in the 
regulations relating to the elementary school course, in which 
the principles of teaching are defined and the chief points to 
be attended to in education are indicated. (1) In teaching 
any subject of study, special attention should be paid to those 
topics which are connected with moral education and with 
education specially adapted to make of the children good 
members of the community. (2) As regards the knowledge 
and skill to be imparted to children, those facts the know- 
ledge of which is most necessary in daily life should be 
selected and taught, so as to enable them, by repeated exer- 
cises and study, to apply intelligently and practically what 
they have learned. (3) In order to ensure the sound and 
healthy development of the body, instruction in any subject 
shall be so regulated as to conform to the degree of growth, 
both mental and physical. (4) In teaching children, careful 
discrimination shall be made as to their sexes, so that educa- 
tion thus imparted might be best adapted to their respective 
characteristics as well as to their future life. (5) The 
instruction in different subjects of study shall be so conducted 
that they may be beneficially influenced by one another, the 
true object and the best methods of instruction being steadily 
kept in view at the same time. It is quite evident from 
these sentences that the Japanese do not make the mistake, 
which is so common in this country, of confounding instruc- 
tion with education, and that the training in character is the 
chief object kept in view. 



86 Dai Nippon 

The number of ordinary elementary schools in Japan is 
18,871, and of higher elementary schools, 8238, or a total of 
27,109, showing a proportion of one elementary school for 
1685 heads of population. Supplementary courses extend- 
ing over two years are provided in 2136 ordinary elementary 
schools, and in 224 higher elementary schools for those who 
carry their education beyond the ordinary course. The local 
administration of the schools is almost entirely in the hands 
of the local authorities, a general supervision being exercised 
by the central Education Department. In city, town or 
village elementary schools tuition fees have hitherto been 
levied as a rule, but, according to the revised Imperial 
Ordinance relating to elementary schools, no tuition fees are 
to be levied in ordinary elementary schools. In special cases 
the local governor may allow fees to be charged, not to 
exceed 20 sen a month in cities, and 10 sen in towns or 
villages and in town and village unions. Almost the whole 
expenditure on elementary schools is borne by the city, town 
or village in which they are situated ; but as the expense of 
education is increasing from year to year, the difficulty of 
obtaining the requisite funds is becoming greater, and grants 
are given by the Central Department for the purpose of 
lessening the local burdens. All the indemnity received 
from China on the conclusion of the war of 1894-5 was not 
spent on the army and navy or other warlike purposes : a 
considerable part was devoted to industry and education. 
The sum of 10,000,000 yen was reserved as an educational 
fund, the interest of which is distributed among the schools 
in proportion to the attendance. 

I must refer to special publications for details of the 
courses of study and of the organisation of elementary schools. 
These will be found to cover every part of elementary educa- 
tion, and to contain much information which is worthy of the 
attention of educationists in any country in the world. 

The same remark applies to secondary education in all 
its aspects. It has been arranged that there shall be, at least, 
one secondary school in every town and province. Since 



Education Sy 

the Japan-China war the desire for learning has become so 
great that the increase and extension of secondary secondary 
schools has during the last ten years been educa t'on. 
remarkable. In 1893 there were 53 public and 15 
private secondary schools, with 5 branches ; while at the 
end of 1902-3 there were 207 public and 35 private 
secondary schools, with 22 branches; which shows an 
increase of four times in the aggregate. As to the size of 
the schools, the expenditure, the number of pupils, etc., the 
increase has been even more rapid. The subjects of study 
are — morals, Japanese, Chinese classics, foreign languages, 
history, geography, mathematics, natural history, physics, 
chemistry, law and economics, drawing, singing, and gym- 
nastics. In some cases a few of these subjects are optional. 
The establishment and closing of schools of this class require 
the approval of the Minister of State for Education, but the 
expenses are borne by those who establish them. In public 
secondary schools tuition fees are charged, except in 
particular cases, but with private schools this matter is left 
to the will of the proprietor. The greater number of the 
private schools are supported by the tuition fees, which are 
usually higher than in public schools, and vary from one to 
three yen per month. 

Special schools have been instituted for the purpose of 
affording the higher general education necessary for girls. 
In Japan, however, the women are in the minority, and the 
consequence is that almost all of them get married at about 
twenty years of age, and the demand for higher women's 
education has not arisen to any great degree. The objects 
kept in view in the girls' high schools is therefore the forma- 
tion of character in women and the imparting of knowledge 
well calculated to make good wives and wise mothers, able 
to contribute to the peace and happiness of the family into 
which they wed. 

Very complete arrangements have been made for the 
training of teachers for the various classes of schools, in 
the higher normal schools, the Higher Normal School for 



SS Dai Nippon 

Girls, the Teachers' Training Institute, the Tokyo Fine Art 
Training of School, and the Tokyo Academy of Music. 
teachers. These schools are all Government establish- 
ments, and the expenditure for their maintenance is kept 
distinct from the general items of expenditure of the 
National Treasury. By the accumulation of their yearly 
balances it is hoped that, in time, those schools may 
become independent and self-supporting. 

In addition to the ordinary secondary schools there are 
others called Kotogakko, or higher schools, which prepare 
Higher secondary students for entrance to the universities. 
schools. There are now eight such schools, and they 

are situated in Tokyo, Sendai, Kyoto, Kanazawa, Kumamoto, 
Okayama, Kagoshima, and Yamaguchi. They are all 
Government institutions and are supported in the same way 
as the higher normal schools, with the exception of the one 
at Yamaguchi, which is supported by donations. The 
courses of study are divided into three sections, each ex- 
tending over three years. In the first section are taught 
those who wish to enter the College of Law or the College 
of Literature ; in the second, those wishing to enter the 
College of Science, the College of Engineering, the course of 
pharmacy in the College of Medicine, or the College of Agri- 
culture ; and in the third section, those intending to enter 
the course of medicine or the course of pharmacy in the 
College of Medicine, — and they each give a very complete 
preparation for the work of the universities. 

The Imperial universities of Japan are stated to have 
for their object the teaching of such arts and sciences as are 
University required for the purpose of the State, and the 
education. prosecution of original researches in such arts 
and sciences. Each Imperial university consists of a 
university hall and colleges ; the university hall being 
established for the purpose of original research, and the 
colleges for that of instruction, theoretical and practical. 
At present there are two universities, namely, the Imperial 
University of Tokyo and the Imperial University of Kyoto. 



Education 89 

The latter is of very recent origin, having been established 
in 1897, while the former dates almost from the Restoration. 

After that important event the Imperial Government 
revived an institution known in the Tokugawa period as 
Kaiseijo, and in the following year it was designated 
Daigaku Nanko ; and from this originated the present 
University of Tokyo. In 1873 the name was changed and 
the institution was called Kaise'i Gakko. In 1877 it was 
combined with the Tokyo Igakko, or Medical School, to 
form the Tokyo Daigaku, or Tokyo University, with the four 
departments of law, medicine, literature, and science. 

In so far as the Kobu-Daigakko, or Imperial College of 
Engineering, is concerned, I shall quote verbatim from the 
last edition of the Calendar of the Imperial University of 
Tokyo, which says : " As at present organised, the Tokyo 
Teikoku Daigaku, or Imperial University of Tokyo, is of no 
very great antiquity, for it came practically into existence in 
March 1, 1886, when an Imperial Ordinance fused the two 
independent institutions of the Tokyo Daigaku and the 
Kobu - Daigakko into one, under the title of Teikoku 
Daigaku, or Imperial University." After giving a some- 
what detailed account of the various developments of the 
first named of these institutions, the account proceeds : 
"The history of the Kobu-Daigakko (Imperial College of 
Engineering), the second component factor in the Imperial 
University of Tokyo, is much shorter and much less com- 
plicated than that of the Tokyo Daigaku (Tokyo University). 
Originally known as the Kogakko, it was established at 
Toranomon-uchi, in connection with the Bureau of Engineer- 
ing in the Public Works Department of the Imperial 
Government. In 1872 it was divided into the College 
proper and the Preparatory School (which latter opened in 
Yamato-Yashiki, Tameike, in 1874), and m 1876 an Art 
School was established in connection with the College. 
[This Art School was discontinued in 1877.] In 1877 
the Bureau of Engineering was abolished, and the College, 
now established in its new buildings at Toranomon, was 



90 Dai Nippon 

officially named the Kobu-Daigakko (Imperial College of 
Engineering). The abolition of the Department of Public 
Works in 1885 caused the Kobu-Daigakko to be trans- 
ferred to the control of the Department of Education. And 
on March 1, 1886, Imperial Ordinance No. 3 was pro- 
mulgated for the organisation of the Teikoku Daigaku or 
Imperial University, and the Kobu - Daigakko and the 
Tokyo Daigaku were merged in the new institution. Two 
years later (July 1888), the College of Engineering was 
removed from Toranomon to the new brick building then 
completed for it in the Kaga Yashiki grounds at Hongo." 
The professors and students of the Kobu-Daigakko were 
transferred to the new buildings, and the work of the 
Engineering College has been carried on with success, 
although there are not now the same opportunities for 
practical work as when it was in the Department of Public 
Works. The students have now, for the most part, to 
depend on private undertakings and on visits to Govern- 
ment establishments. In the interests of the students and 
indeed of Japan more complete arrangements are required 
for practical training. 

In June 1890 another college, that of Agriculture, was 
added to the Imperial University as the result of two 
Imperial Ordinances. That college had been instituted in 
1874 by the Agricultural Bureau of the Department of 
Agriculture and Commerce, and the buildings are still on 
the original site at Komaba, at a considerable distance from 
the other university buildings ; a fact which, of course, does 
not prevent it from being an integral part of the university, 
which now consists of the six Colleges of Law, Medicine, 
Engineering, Literature, Science, and Agriculture. The build- 
ings of the first five of these institutions stand within the 
grounds of the old Kaga Yashiki, on the north-eastern slope 
of the Hongo plateau. 

The following figures from the latest published Report 
of the Minister of Education give the numbers of professors, 
instructors, and students in the different colleges : — 



Education 



9i 





No. of Professors and 
Assistant Professors. 


Students and 
Pupils. 


Graduates. 







fi 

17 

23 
20 
12 
18 
14 


1 1 

£ 

3 

7 

14 

4 

5 

18 


to 

9 

4 

23 

22 

5 
9 


tup O 
Ph 

4 
1 

2 
7 

4 



H 


V 

3 

c/5 


'3. 
3 
Pi 


B 

H 


c 

13 
3 


'H. 

3 

Oh 




H 


University Hall . 
College of Law 
College of Medicine 
College of Engineering . 
College of Literature 
College of Science 
College of Agriculture . 


33 
35 
59 
45 
28 

45 


467 
969 
398 
421 
285 
65 
65 


2,6 

124 

6 

17 

3 

275 

45i 


467 

995 
522 

427 

302 

68 

340 


*44 
106 

97 
98 

7i 
19 

15 


2 
133 

5 
3 
1 

37 


44 
108 
230 
103 

74 
20 

52 


Total 


IO4 


5i 


72 


18 


245 


2670 


3121 


406 

*44 


181 


6 3! 



* Students whose term of study in University Hall had expired. 

The Calendar of the University gives very complete 
information regarding the courses of study in the various 
colleges ; that publication must be referred to for details, 
and its perusal will show that the youth of Japan have now 
opportunities for higher education which will compare very 
favourably with those of almost any other country in Europe 
or America. Besides the colleges, there are several other 
organisations which add to the completeness of the arrange- 
ments, such as the Library, the Institute for Natural History, 
the Hospital, the Institute of Botany, the Astronomical 
Observatory, the Seismological Observatory, experimental 
farms, etc. Each of the colleges is well equipped with 
laboratories for experimental work, so that the teaching is 
made thoroughly practical and encourages original thought 
and not mere book-learning. 

The courses of study extend over three years, with the 
exception of those of law and medicine, which extend over 
four years, and on satisfying the examiners, the graduates 
receive titles indicating the courses which they have followed. 
The total number of graduates of all classes up till September 
1903 was 5459, and of these 391 had died. 

The Imperial University of Kyoto, though of very recent 



9 2 



Dai Nippon 



establishment, being scarcely seven years old and conse- 
quently far from complete in its equipment, seems to be 
satisfying the expectations of the students belonging to the 
various colleges. It is developing rapidly, and thus laying 
a foundation for larger usefulness in the future. At present 
it consists of the University Hall and the Colleges of Law, 
Medicine and Science and Engineering. The following 
table shows the number of professors, instructors, and 
students for the year 190 1-2, and is taken from the last 
published Report of the Minister of Education : — 





No. of Professors and 
Instructors. 


Students and 
Pupils. 


Graduates. 








ig 

£ 


[« 
<? 


bl 

. 0< o 


"3 


H 


c 

V 

•a 


t/2 


"S. 

3 


"2 


H 


c 

3 
w 


'H. 

3 

Ph 




H 


University Hall 
College of Law 
College of Medicine 
College of Science and 
Engineering 


10 
12 

21 


2 
4 

14 


4 
2 

12 


I 


16 
18 

48 


30 

157 

71 

202 


15 

9 
7 


SO 
172 

So 

209 


39 
39 


I 


40 


Total . 


43 


20 


18 


I 


82 


46O 


3i 


491 


I 


40 



Not only are the teaching arrangements becoming more 
complete, but the external organisations which are connected 
with the University of Kyoto are developing, and there can 
be little doubt that she will emulate the example of her 
elder sister in Tokyo. The Government proposes to estab- 
lish another university in some other part of Japan as soon 
as circumstances permit, with a view of realising more fully 
the aspirations of those numerous students who are eager to 
pursue the highest course of study in Japan. 

All the expenses of university students are defrayed by 
themselves. Each student is required to pay a fee of 2 yen 
for admission, and 25 yen annually for tuition fees. An 
incidental fee of 10 yen for each academic year, to cover 
the cost of materials used, is also required of each student 
in the Colleges of Engineering and Science. To help those 



Education 



93 



who have not the means of meeting the necessary expenses, 
a system of Loan Scholarships has been established in the 
University of Tokyo, and these have been of considerable 
advantage to the class of students for whom they were 
intended. 

The higher branches of technical education are of course 
important in the colleges of the Imperial universities, but 
in order to give a fairly good training in both Technical 
theory and practice to those who will be in charge educatlon - 
of the more practical aspects of industry and who cannot 
proceed to the universities, numerous technical schools 
have been established. Since the Japan-China War the 
Japanese Government has put much weight upon technical 
education, and during the past ten years it has made very 
rapid progress. There are at present the three higher 
Technical Schools of Tokyo, Osaka, and Kyoto, and a large 
number of others of a more elementary and practical nature. 
The following table shows the increase in the number of 
technical schools, public and private, since 1892 : — 



Kind of Schools. 


[3 • 
5? 


"3 

UT./3 

< 


."5 
Ij 

otfl 




"3 hi 

.a -3 

§■5 


'11 
< 


a 

c w 
§"3 

c 

u Xi 

■&« 

3 
W 



H 


1-1 
















^ pi, /Number of schools 

°££\ ,, ,, scholars 
■ — ■ vn 


5 


12 


II 




? 


? 


28 


7i4 


191 


1629 




? 


? 


2934 


H 
















g >,/ Number of schools 

2"H \ j) >> scholars 

•— co 

CO 

u 


18 


56 


3S 


4 


22 


I50 


288 


1605 


504O 


8269 


319 


1642 


885O 


25,725 


q >,f Number of schools 


21 


79 


41 


5 


25 


221 


392 


S"-S I >> >> scholars 

CO 


1993 


7778 


9842 


533 


1528 


12,992 


34,666 


H 
















g S^/ Number of schools 
S^-S \ >> >) scholars 

— - i_n 

CO 


25 
2590 


102 

9847 


50 
",370 


7 
7i5 


32 
2192 


629 

3o,SS2 


845 
57,596 



94 



Dai Nippon 



An adequate description of the different kinds of schools 
and of the work done in them would require a large volume, 
but the following statistics for last year give an approximate 
idea of the extent of the movement for technical education 
in Japan : — 











j! 


i 




>> 




Number of Schools. 


'5. 


3 


4) 


3 










3 


3 


5 


J§3 


Kind of Schools. 








O 


O 


-3 

C 


■sf 
















H 




3 


s 

3 
S25 


















Yen. 


Yen. 


Industrial Schools 


23 


2 


25 


2590 


417 


508,700 


62,330 


Apprentices' Schools . 


3i 


I 


32 


2192 


469 


125,799 


29,230 


A-class Agricultural 
















Schools 


55 


2 


57 


7146 


1919 


1,031,697 


) 


B-class Agricultural 














J- 1 IO.090 


Schools 


47 


2 


49 


2701 


572 


154,435 


J 


A-class Commercial 
















Schools 


34 


7 


41 


9882 


I02I 


611,300 


| 53.2IO 


B-class Commercial 














Schools 


16 


1 


17 


1488 


573 


48,395 


A-class Nautical 
















Schools 


7 





7 


715 


93 


83,407 


13,820 


frl 


Industrial . 


42 


1 


43 


3042 


479 , 






gen 


Agricultural 


482 


21 


503 


*2,933 


1804 






!•!■ 














17,564 


16,573 




Commercial 


69 


13 


82 


4880 


501 






t— i 


^ Nautical . 


1 





1 


26 


6. 






Sum . 


807 


5° 


857 


57,596 


7854 


2,739,297 


285,253 





















The courses in these schools include the subjects which 
are indispensable to artisans and others engaged in industrial 
and commercial occupations. The programme includes 
morals, arithmetic, geometry, chemistry, and drawing, to- 
gether with those subjects directly connected with handicrafts 
and practical work. When convenience requires it, any 
subject except morals may be left out or taught simply as 
an elective subject. The length of the course is from six 



Edtication 95 

months to four years ; the season for teaching may be fixed 
according to the convenience of the locality, and lessons 
may be given on Sundays or at nights. Very complete 
arrangements have been made for the training of teachers 
for technical schools. Special institutes for this purpose are 
attached to some of the colleges of Tokyo University, 
and various independent training institutions have been 
established. 

The events at the Restoration upset all the arrangements 
for the teaching and practice of art ; for some years purely 
Japanese art suffered a check and many of Art and music 
those who practised it were reduced to very education. 
great straits. What was formerly done from love of art and 
in conformity with Japanese ideals had now, very often, to be 
done to obtain a bare living, and to conform to what were 
supposed to be the tastes of the foreign purchasers. Gradually, 
however, a revival took place, and facilities were given for the 
culture of art by various educational institutions and societies. 

In a future chapter the subject of art industries will 
be considered ; so that meantime a few notes on existing 
institutions are all that is necessary. After various attempts 
had been made to re-establish art training on a proper basis, 
none of which turned out very successful, a commission was 
sent in 1886 to Europe and America to study the methods 
and organisation of art education ; on its return to Japan 
in 1888 a new institution was founded under the name 
of the Tokyo Fine Art School. Several changes and 
improvements have since been introduced into the constitu- 
tion of the school, and it has now reached a remarkable 
stage of development and progress and is the chief centre 
of art education in the empire. The school gives instruction 
in painting, designing, sculpture, architecture (omitted for 
the present) and industrial arts, with the object of training 
youths as professional artists or teachers of drawing. Each 
course of study extends over four years, besides one year 
of preparatory work. For details of which, however, reference 
must be made to special publications. 



96 Dai Nippon 

There is a considerable number of private institutions 
connected with artistic education, the most important of 
which is the Bijitsuin, of which the leading spirit is Mr. 
Kakasu Okakura, to whom frequent reference will be made 
in subsequent chapters. The object of this institution is to 
endeavour to keep art more closely in touch with Japanese 
ideals than is done in the Government institution, while at 
the same time allowing it to develop to a considerable extent 
on Western lines. This is a very difficult task, and we need 
not be surprised to learn that it has not been altogether 
successful. There are now many private studios in which 
pupils are taken ; and as regards painting, we find the 
original Japanese school, the European school, and a 
mixture of both, so that a most interesting development is 
now going on, and it is probably in art that we will first 
see a combination of the ideals of the East and the West. 
Instruction is now given in many institutions, both public 
and private, in the applications of fine arts to industry. 
Art in Japan enjoys the enlightened patronage and power- 
ful support of the Court, and the official recognition of 
distinguished artists by the Imperial Household has greatly 
stimulated progress. • 

Music in Japan goes back to the remotest antiquity 
and has taken its development from various sources. In 
1879 the Department of Education began to take an interest 
in musical education, and sent a Commission to Europe and 
America for the purpose of investigating the subject. A 
school was established in 1883, and the curriculum was 
constituted as follows : — Morals, Singing, Pianoforte, Organ, 
Koto, Kokyu, Special Instruments, Harmonics, Theory of 
Music, History of Music and the Methods of Teaching 
Music. After undergoing various modifications the Tokyo 
Academy of Music took its present form. The school 
provides five courses — the Preparatory, Principal, Post- 
Graduate, Normal, and Elective Courses. The principal 
course is not by any means confined to music in the narrow 
sense of that term, but gives a very complete education, 



Education 97 

through music and its allied subjects and the other courses 
allow a considerable choice for special study in any depart- 
ment. Outside the Tokyo Academy of Music there is 
no school, either public or private, for systematic musical 
education. There are, however, many musical societies and 
associations with different objects, with which the fellows 
of the Tokyo Academy of Music are mostly connected, so 
that there are opportunities for musical education apart 
from the formal training of the Academy. There are, 
besides, special institutes of musicians, such as the Board 
of Musicians which takes charge of affairs relating to music 
in the Imperial Court, and to that of the army and navy. 
In recent years much more attention has been paid to 
musical education in the higher circles of society, and in 
almost all the schools singing and music are taught as a 
part of general education. 

There are many schools in various parts of Japan 
for special purposes, which cannot be strictly classified 
under any of the preceding headings ; such as 

J * ° r. 1 1 1 Special schools. 

the Tokyo Foreign Language School, the 
Nautical College, the Higher Commercial School, and the 
institutions connected with the army and navy, some of 
which will be mentioned later on. Considerable attention 
has been paid to the education of the blind and of the deaf 
and dumb, and the Institution in Tokyo which was started 
so far back as 1874 has rendered very effective service to 
an afflicted part of the community. The subjects of study 
in the ordinary course for the blind are Japanese, Arithmetic, 
Conversation, and Gymnastics ; and those in the industrial 
course, Music, Acupuncture, and Massage. The ordinary 
course for the dumb includes Reading, Writing, Composition, 
Arithmetic, Written Conversation, and Gymnastics ; and the 
industrial course, Drawing, Carving, Joinery, and Sewing. A 
similar institution has been in existence in Kyoto since 1878, 
and the subsequent careers of those who have passed through 
these two schools show that they have been fitted to earn 
their living in an honourable manner. 

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V) 





Education 



99 



A very imperfect outline has been given of the educa- 
tional organisation of Japan ; to do it justice much more 
space would be required than can be given to Summary of 
it in this chapter. The preceding summary, educational 
however, gives a good idea of the extent of 
the work which is done. The figures refer to the year 
1 900- 1 90 1, the latest published. 

The Government schools are those directly under the 
control of the Education Department ; the public schools are 
those which are managed by the local authorities, subject to 
the general supervision of the Department ; while the private 
schools are those which are instituted and carried on by 
private persons with the authority of the Education 
Department. 

Space will not allow a detailed account of all the 
financial arrangements in connection with the organisation of 
education, but the following figures showing the main items 
of expenditure for the year mentioned will be found 
interesting : — 





Regular 


Special 


Total. 




Expenses. 


Expenses. 






Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


The Department Proper 


392,813 


I, 377,612 


1,770,425 


Earthquake Investigation Committee . 


28,094 




28,094 


International Geodetic Committee 


14,333 




14,333 


Central Meteorological Observatory . 


36,9IO 




36,9IO 


Observatory for measuring Latitudes . 


4,898 




4,898 


Dependent Institutions 


2,027,398 




2,027,398 


Salaries for the Directors of fit and 


53.167 




53.167 


Ken Normal Schools 








Local School Inspection 


161,469 




161,469 


Grant for Technical Education . 


249,984 




249,984 


Grant for Elementary Education 


1,487,637 




1,487,637 


Total .... 


4,456,703 


1,377,612 


5,834,315 



The following table shows the expenditure for the same 
year on the institutions named : — 



IOO 



Dai Nippon 





Regular 


Special 


Total. 




Expenses. 


Expenses. 






Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Imperial University of Tokyo .... 


882,167 


67,062 


949,229 


Imperial University of Kyoto . 






3 2 6,342 


101,253 


427,595 


Higher Normal School . 






157,287 




157,287 


Higher Normal School for Females 






83,824 


4,932 


88,756 


Supporo Agricultural School . 






58,737 


2,500 


6l,237 


Higher Commercial School 








54,346 




54,346 


First Higher School 








127,581 




127,581 


Second Higher School 








83,721 


2,659 


86,3So 


Third Higher School 








103,473 




*°3,473 


Fourth Higher School 








78,673 




7S,673 


Fifth Higher School 








I22,76S 


13,713 


136,481 


Sixth Higher School 








20,041 


10,000 


30,041 


Yamaguchi Higher School 








37,830 


3,083 


40,913 


Tokyo Technical School . 








85,286 


36,392 


121,678 


Tokyo Foreign Languages School 








55-574 




55,574 


Tokyo Fine Arts School . 








57,704 




57,704 


Tokyo Academy of Music 








29,010 




29,010 


Osaka Technical School . 








5o,377 


7,000 


57,377 


Tokyo Blind and Dumb School 








12,255 


1,498 


13,753 


Imperial Library 






23,577 
2,450.573 




23,577 


Total 




250,092 


2,700,665 



These figures prove that the Japanese believe that money 
spent on education is a good national investment. 

There are many organisations in Japan which, although 
not directly educational, all help the progress of education. 
Miscellaneous Educational societies exist in almost every 
organisations, locality for the purpose of diffusing and develop- 
ing education and interesting the people in it. They organise 
discussions and lectures on educational subjects ; their pro- 
ceedings are published in journals and thus they are able 
to make their opinions known. They are also engaged in 
the compilation of school books, the establishment of teachers' 
institutes and the organisation of educational exhibitions. 
There are now numerous scientific and technical societies 
(the most important of which will be mentioned in a sub- 
sequent chapter) which are devoted to the interests of special 
departments of science and industry and the transactions of 
which testify to the ability of the members. The scientific 
memoirs issued by the members of the universities will bear 



Edtication 101 

favourable comparison with those issued by European and 
American universities. Libraries of considerable extent are 
now to be found in many parts of the country, and new 
books published in Europe and America are eagerly 
purchased. The Tokyo Academy, somewhat on the lines of 
the French Academy, was established, under the control of 
the Minister of State for Education, for the promotion of 
science and arts, with the view of exercising a beneficial 
influence on education in general, and is composed of 
members selected from among old and venerable men of 
learning ; the number of members is limited to twenty- 
five. One was selected by His Majesty the Emperor, 
while the others were elected on the recommendation of the 
members. Addresses are delivered by the members of the 
departments of learning in which they are interested, and 
these are published in a magazine. Among the contribu- 
tions made to the Academy during the last year for which 
a report has been issued were 10 volumes of books, 378 
copies of magazines and 40 copies of catalogues or reports. 

The figures which have been quoted show that there is, 
in Japan, a considerable number of private educational 
institutions of all grades. The demand for D . , 

•=> Private 

education in recent years has been so great that educational 
the capacity of the Government and public 
institutions is too limited to meet it, and consequently part 
of the educational work has been undertaken by private 
individuals. Some of the more important private institu- 
tions have been started by men who wished to have greater 
freedom in the choice of subjects and methods than was 
possible in the official institutions, and in my opinion such a 
line of development ought to be encouraged, not only to give 
variety in the educational arrangements and methods, but 
also to induce a healthy rivalry in the training of men and 
women of high character and ability. The most important 
of these private institutions are the Keio Gijiku, the Waseda 
University in Tokyo, and the Kyoto Doshisha, each having 
its characteristics derived from its founder, its origin or its 



i o 2 Dai Nippon 

methods of instruction ; and these institutions are entitled, 
side by side with the Government special schools of various 
descriptions, to the credit of having been pioneers in the 
advancement of civilisation of the country. 

The Keio Gijiku, as its name shows, was established 
during the Keio Era (previous to the Restoration of Meiji), 
and is consequently the oldest establishment of all the 
special schools, public or private, now in existence. Its 
founder, Yukichi Fukuzawa, was one of the most prominent 
characters modern Japan has yet produced, and his name 
will be long remembered not only as an educationist, but 
also as a writer and philosopher, who did more than any 
other man to promote the introduction of Western ideas 
into Japan. His life and his writings should be carefully 
studied by all who wish to understand the current of events 
in modern Japan. The institution which he founded has 
trained a great many of the politicians and public men who 
now occupy very important positions, and it has thus been a 
most important factor in the national evolution. It is now 
provided with a university course, an ordinary course of the 
standing of a middle school and a primary school course. 
The university comprises four departments ; namely, those 
of Political Economy, Law, Politics, and Literature. At 
present the number of students and pupils is over 2000, and 
it has sent out 3318 graduates. 

The Waseda University was established in 1882 by 
Count Okuma, one of the most distinguished statesmen in 
the country, and some of his followers. It consists of a 
university course, a special course, and a higher pre- 
paratory course. The university course embraces three 
departments ; namely, those of Political Economy, Law, and 
Literature ; while the special course consists of six depart- 
ments, namely, those of Politics and Economics, Law, 
Administrative Law, Japanese Language and Chinese 
Classics, History and Geography, Law and Economics, 
and English. In addition, it is provided with a post-graduate 
course. The number of graduates of the special course 



Education 103 

has already exceeded 2000, and the number of students and 
pupils is at present over 3000. 

The Doshisha, in Kyoto, was established in 1875 by Jo 
Niijima, who had received a Christian education in America. 
At first it was called the Doshisha English School. Later 
on, a theological seminary, a girls' school, and a preparatory 
school were added to it. In 1883 the courses were much 
enlarged and the institution was about to become the 
Doshisha University — a scheme, however, which was not 
realised owing to the lamented death of its founder. At 
present the Higher School Course of the Doshisha is treated 
as a Special School. It consists of the Harris Science 
School, the department of politics and law, and the depart- 
ment of literature. In addition, this institution is provided 
with a theological seminary, an ordinary school, and a girls' 
school of the standing of a middle school, together with a 
library, a school of nursing, and a hospital. The graduates 
of the departments number about 1000, some of whom have 
become exemplary Christians, having no doubt been inspired 
by the noble and self-sacrificing spirit of its founder, while 
others have made themselves conspicuous in other fields, such 
as politics and literature. 

Besides the foregoing Special Schools, there are others 
which provide courses in Law, Political Economy, and 
Politics ; such as the Meiji University, the Hogakuin 
University, the Hosei University, the Nihon University, 
the Senshu Gakko, etc., as well as special schools of 
medicine, science, and pharmacy. Among the institutions 
devoted to instruction in literature and pedagogics may 
be mentioned the Kokugakuin and the Tetsugakkwan. 
Two universities have been established by the Buddhists, 
the East Honganji and the West Honganji, and they 
are noteworthy, not only as regards their design and 
equipment, but also because they are indicative of the 
religious and intellectual revival which has taken place in 
Buddhism. 

No notice of the educational developments which have 



1 04 Dai Nippon 

taken place in Japan would be even approximately com- 
plete unless due praise was given to the work of Christian 
missionaries. The Doshisha in Kyoto has already been 
mentioned, but in the early days of foreign intercourse many 
of the missionaries devoted a great part of their time to the 
work of teaching. Now that the educational work of the 
country has been organised, this is not necessary to the 
same extent, but still there are a good many who are engaged 
in teaching, and their influence over numbers of the students 
has been considerable. Some of these have become profess- 
ing Christians, but many others have had their ideals of life 
and conduct moulded by Christian principles. 

In educational institutions of every grade in Japan the 

teaching of " morals " has a place in the curriculum, 

but except in those which are conducted 

Moral education. . . ... 

by religious organisations, nothing is taught 
in the shape of religious dogma. The subject, however, is 
very much discussed both in newspapers and in books, and 
a very great variety of opinions is expressed. The following 
paragraphs from an article on the subject by Mr. Tokiwo 
Yokoi, one of the most thoughtful men in Japan, indicate its 
present position and are sufficient for our purpose : — 

" The ethical teaching in the schools remains still the 
most important unsolved problem with the educators of the 
country. The various methods that have been tried during 
the past fifteen or more years, such as the use of Confucian 
classics, or the worshipping of the letter of the Emperor's 
Rescript on morals, have all proved inadequate to solve the 
great problem with which the nation is confronted. The 
greatest difficulty in the way of its solution is probably 
caused by the presence of two factors which must be taken 
into consideration. These two factors are the relation of 
religion to education, and the bearing of the changed social 
conditions of the country on the kind of ethics to be taught 
in the schools." 

" Secular education in its barest form is the system that 
has been in vogue ; but it is a question which, I believe, is 



Education 105 

now beginning to engage the serious attention of many of 
our leading educational thinkers whether education in order 
to be secular must necessarily be so completely detached 
from religion — or anti- religious — as has been the case 
hitherto. To Viscount Mori is attributed, whether rightly 
or wrongly I know not, the dictum which has ruled the 
educational world of Japan for past years, that the minds of 
the pupils must be kept completely blank as far as religious 
ideas are concerned, until they attain to years of discretion. 
It is questionable, however, whether young minds can be 
kept entirely blank and free from religious bias for many years. 
Weeds grow and fill up gardens if useful plants are not 
cultivated. The actual result of this policy seems to be that 
the gain in the form of freedom from bigotry or superstition 
is counterbalanced by a lack of ethical ideals and intellectual 
depth among the educated people. Secularism in education, 
as emphasised by the Japanese authorities, seems to go hand 
in hand with shallowness and worldliness. When there is 
no sense of the eternal that maketh for righteousness, when 
no great and ennobling ideal pervades the thought, when 
martial glory and national splendour are all that call forth 
the ambition of youth in a country, who can expect great 
results from the teaching given in the schools ? I am far from 
thinking that education in Japan should be given over 
entirely to Buddhist priests or Christian missionaries, or that 
endless disputations should be brought into the lecture-room. 
I believe in secular education in the sense of its separation 
from sectarian religious systems or bodies. But secularism 
does not necessarily imply anti-religion, or hostility towards 
any one form of religion." These opinions and the discussions 
which take place in the newspapers and elsewhere prove that 
the exclusion of religious teaching from the schools has not 
by any means settled the question, and its future development 
will be watched by many educationists in all parts of the 
world. How far Eastern and Western religious thought will 
approximate to the same ideals is one of the most interesting 
and important problems of the future. 



1 06 Dai Nippon 

The outline which has been given of the educational 
organisation in Japan shows that the recent developments 
Results of which have taken place in that country have been 
education. j a j^ on a so \ x ^ basis of national education. The 
Government has taken the lead in encouraging and support- 
ing educational institutions of all kinds, and the people have 
eagerly responded to the facilities which have been offered 
to them. All classes were quick in perceiving that from 
a personal and national point of view it was their duty 
to equip themselves in such a manner that they might be 
able efficiently to discharge the duties which the new con- 
ditions would place upon them. Moreover, higher education 
in Japan, as in Germany, is encouraged by the fact that the 
graduation certificate of a common middle school not only 
carries considerable weight as a general qualification, but it 
also entitles a young man to volunteer for one year's service 
with the colours, thus escaping two of the three years he 
would have to serve as an ordinary recruit. 

The results of the educational arrangements which have 
been made in Japan will be evident from a perusal of 
the following chapters, dealing with the most important 
national developments. The Japanese have not been 
content merely to absorb Western learning, but they have 
also, by original researches, extended its boundaries and 
have engaged in scientific, historical, and philosophical 
investigations of great interest and value. During a stage 
of such rapid transition, however, as has taken place in 
Japan, it was only natural that at first the new learning 
should be sought for chiefly for its practical applications in 
national affairs, and especially in the development of the 
natural resources of the country. At the Southport meeting 
of the British Association last year, the President, taking 
as his subject " The Influence of Brain-Power on History," 
traced convincingly and conclusively the intimate relation 
that exists between the provision made by a nation for the 
higher education of its people and the position taken by 
that nation in the ceaseless competition between the great 



Education 107 

countries of the world. After a searching comparison 
between the facilities for university education in this country 
on one hand and in the United States and in Germany on 
the other, Sir Norman Lockyer said : " But even more 
wonderful than these examples is the ' intellectual effort ' 
made by Japan, not after a war, but to prepare for one. 
The question is, Shall we wait for a disaster and then imitate 
Prussia and France ; or shall we follow Japan and thoroughly 
prepare by ' intellectual effort ' for the industrial struggle 
which lies before us ? " I have given an outline of the 
earnest and thorough attempt which the Japanese have 
made to establish a complete system of education, and in 
succeeding chapters evidence will be given of the profound 
and comparatively immediate effect which a well-considered 
scheme of education can have on national prospects. 

The study of law, economics, and politics has had great 
attractions to large numbers of Japanese, no doubt in order 
that they might fit themselves to take part in the govern- 
ment of the country. In a recent official report it is stated 
that " the prevalence of a desire for such abstract forms of 
learning as law and politics in this country is no doubt due 
to the fact that people have become aware of the importance 
and necessity of pursuing these studies, since they live under 
a Constitutional Government ; but for this state of things 
another reason is assignable at least, as powerful as the one 
just given. Great importance is attached by our country- 
men to what is called governing a country and saving its 
people — an idea which has been implanted in the mind of 
the nation by the study of Chinese literature. So deeply 
rooted is this idea in their minds that it has come to be 
almost a hereditary trait of Japanese character. This senti- 
ment it is which impels the most promising young men to 
give themselves to the study of law, politics, and the like." It 
is now, however, being recognised that any attempt to govern 
a country and save a people by too close attention to 
technical education and material ends only sharpens the tools 
which may possibly drive them to destruction, while the 



io8 Dai Nippon 

training of an official class which is content with the 
machinery of government altogether overlooks the higher 
elements necessary for real national welfare. As a dis- 
tinguished Japanese author put it a short time ago: "No 
system of education which is not based on sociological con- 
ditions can ever be thoroughly successful, and therefore a 
study of ethnology, sociology, and of evolution generally is 
absolutely essential to a thorough understanding of the 
educational questions awaiting solution." The Japanese are 
now face to face with many of the problems which confront 
all industrial nations, and it is to be hoped that, having 
organised their education generally and in some respects 
given an example to Western nations, they will go a step 
farther and show that it is possible to combine industrial 
development with the welfare of all classes of the community. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

The subject of education in Japan is touched upon in almost all 
the recent books on Japan, but usually in a very imperfect and 
superficial manner. A very complete official account of it has 
recently been published by the Education Department for the St. 
Louis Exhibition. The annual Reports of the Minister of Education 
should be studied in order that the progress made from year to year 
may be known. Details of the various institutions must be got from 
the Calendars, Prospectuses, etc., which they publish. The Life and 
writings of Yukichi Fukuzawa, the speeches and writings of Count 
Okuma and others who take a special interest in education, and the 
discussions which appear in the newspapers and journals must be 
studied in order that the opinions of the Japanese on the national 
aspects of education may be understood. 



CHAPTER VI 

ARMY AND NAVY 

FOR our present purpose it is sufficient to consider the 
Japanese army and navy as factors in the national evolution, 
and it is not necessary to enter into details of 

. . . 111 r •! Army and navv 

their organisation, although a few particulars a s factors in 
will be given regarding them. As in other the natlonal 

& r _ evolution. 

departments, the ideas of the Government on 
the subject of national defence developed with the changes 
of conditions, both internal and external. The existence 
of the samurai had accustomed the people to the idea of a 
class whose chief object in life was to do the fighting which 
was required, and after the Restoration the problem that 
presented itself was to consolidate, under the control of the 
central Government, all the fighting material D 

a & Reorganisation 

in the country. At that time foreign politics of fighting 
did not to any great extent affect the action of matena • 
the Government ; therefore the army received the greatest 
attention ; and it was not until the relations with other 
Powers became considerable that a powerful navy was 
considered essential. Even at the outbreak of the war with 
China the Japanese had no battleships, but the action of 
some of the European Powers after that war showed them 
very clearly that if they were to receive the respect which 
was their due they must be strong enough to command it. 
They soon recognised that a complete system of national 
education by itself would not do this, and that if their 
country was to obtain a position of equality with the foreign 

109 



1 1 o Dai Nippon 

Powers, the most effective arguments were a strong army 
and navy, which could be depended upon to enforce their 
claims, if that were necessary. 

This, in great part, accounts for the developments which 
have taken place, especially in recent years, in the military 
Causes of recent and naval resources of the Japanese. They 
developments. were not animated by any desire for territorial 
expansion, or even for warlike glory, but they were deter- 
mined to claim their full independence and the position 
which was due to them among the nations of the world, 
while at the same time they took full advantage of Western 
arts, sciences, and industrial arrangements. It is a sad 
commentary on Western civilisation when we find that an 
Eastern Power could not qualify itself for entrance to the 
comity of nations without, in the first place, spending a 
large part of its revenue on the appliances of destruction, 
and which could have been used to far greater advantage in 
improving the general conditions of the people. Recent 
events in the Far East have clearly proved that if the 
developments in national strength which have taken place 
in Japan during the past quarter of a century had been 
neglected, the national existence of the country w r ould have 
been in danger. Moreover, Japanese statesmen have re- 
cognised that not only is the centre of importance of the 
commerce of the world moving in the direction of the Pacific 
area, but also that that area is destined to be the scene of 
great political events in the not very distant future, and 
therefore that Japan must be prepared to take her due share 
in the working out of the great changes which will pro- 
foundly affect conditions in all the countries bounded by 
that area. 

Under the feudal system each daimyo had his own 

fighting men — the samurai — and although peace reigned in 

The Arm ' J a P an f° r two and a half centuries before the 

under the Restoration of 1 868, all the military forms of 

feudal system. i • • j i <-p, 

3 an earlier period were kept up. 1 he events 

accompanying the Restoration caused these to be shattered, 



Army and Navy 1 1 1 

and made a new military system a national necessity. The 
Emperor's Government rested chiefly on the reverence 
inspired by his sacred name. This moral force had been 
assisted by the actual support of the three great clans of 
Satsuma, Choshu, and Tosa, whose chiefs had taken the 
lead in surrendering their possessions and men to His 
Majesty, but under the changed conditions it became 
absolutely necessary that an Imperial army should be formed, 
which would give stability to the new Govern- New system 
ment. It was therefore arranged that the introduced. 
three clans named, who were the most powerful from a 
fighting point of view, should furnish the central Govern- 
ment with a certain proportion of troops who were to be 
transferred to Tokyo and entirely handed over to the 
Sovereign for the purpose of forming the nucleus of an 
Imperial army. Contingents from the other clans were to 
be added subsequently. Foreign officers were engaged to 
teach the Western methods of drill and tactics, and before 
long the Imperial Government had a considerable number of 
troops who were armed and drilled in foreign style. 

It was, however, soon perceived that something more 
complete was necessary to consolidate the Government and 
to do away with the feeling that it was to a large extent 
the creation of the three most powerful clans and mainly 
supported by them. In 1873 the conscription system was 
therefore introduced. This, indeed, was only a return to 
what existed in the early days of Japan, when every man 
was a soldier and when civil duty was not differentiated from 
military. This measure practically put an end to the 
dominance of the samurai class, and no doubt it was one of 
the causes of dissatisfaction which arose among the samurai, 
and which came to a point in the Satsuma rebellion, noticed 
in a previous chapter. 

That rebellion, although it was the means of causing 
great hardships — financial and warlike — on the country, had 
the effect of strengthening the Imperial army and making it 
a truly national institution including all classes of the people. 



1 1 2 Dai Nippon 

It was thought that the farmers, artisans, and tradespeople, 
after centuries of exclusion from the military pale, would be 
found to be deficient in the military spirit, but subsequent 
events dispelled this fear. At twenty years of age every 
male Japanese becomes liable for conscription, and the con- 
duct of the Japanese troops in the war with China and in 
the more recent disturbances in that country showed that 
they may be trusted to fight their country's battles both at 
home and abroad. 

When the new system was introduced French officers 
were engaged to assist in organising the army and elaborat- 
ing its system of tactics and strategy, and they rendered 
most valuable aid to the Japanese. A few British officers 
were employed in special departments and latterly some 
German officers, but ultimately all foreign services were 
dispensed with, and now Japan sends her picked men to 
Europe to complete their studies ; on their return they 
are appointed to positions in which they are able to intro- 
duce the latest improvements, and it cannot be doubted that 
in organisation and efficiency the Japanese army will compare 
favourably with any other army in the world, while the spirit 
which animates it makes it a weapon, both for offence and 
defence, which is far more formidable than its numbers 
would seem to indicate. 

As I have already stated, for our present purpose it is 
not necessary to enter into details of the organisation of all 
departments of the Japanese army ; our object is not to 
look at it as an end in itself, but simply as one of the 
factors in the evolution which has taken place in Japan. 
Still, a few particulars may be given. There are four 
principal kinds of service ; namely, service with the colours 
(genyeki) for three years ; service with the first reserves 
(yobi) for 4^ years ; service with the second reserves (gobz) 
for five years ; and service with the territorial troops 
(kokuminhci) up to the age of forty. There are also two 
bodies of supernumeraries (hoju). The first consists of men 
who, though liable for conscription and medically qualified. 



Army and Navy 113 

have escaped the lot for service with the colours. The 
second consists of those similarly liable and qualified, who 
have escaped not only the lot for service with the colours 
but also the lot for service with the first supernumeraries. 
The period for the first supernumeraries is 7^ years, and 
that for the second 1^ years ; after which both pass into the 
territorial army. Their purpose is to fill vacancies in the 
troops with the colours, but in time of peace that liability 
devolves upon the first supernumeraries alone, and during 
the first year after conscription only. After reaching the 
territorial army a man is relieved from all further training. 
The total number of youths eligible for conscription each 
year is over 430,000, and over 60,000 are taken for service 
with the colours, and fully 130,000 are drafted into the 
supernumeraries. When the scheme of army organisation 
adopted in 1896 after the war with China is completed in 
1905, the strength of the army on a peace footing will be 
150,000 of all ranks, with 30,000 horses, and the strength 
on a war footing, 500,000 men, with 100,000 horses. 

The Emperor is the Commander-in-Chief of the army, 
and theoretically the sole source of military authority, which 
he exercises through a general staff and a war department, 
with the assistance of a board of field -marshals. The 
officers of all ranks are kept in a high state of efficiency, 
and there are several schools for their education. The most 
important of these institutions is the Rikugun Daigakko, or 
Army College, where officers are prepared for service in the 
upper ranks and for staff appointments, and there are other 
schools for special departments of training. Captain 
Brinkley, a very competent authority, says : " The Japanese 
officer is one of the strongest features of the army. His 
pay is small, according to European standards, but his 
mode of life is frugal. Quarters are not assigned to him in 
barracks. He lives outside, frequently with his own family, 
and when duty requires him to take his meals in barracks, 
food is brought to him in a luncheon-box. His uniform is 
plain and inexpensive, and he has no desire to change it for 

(b 207) T 



H4 



Dai Nippon 



' mufti,' as so many Occidental officers have. Being thus 
without mess expenses, contribution to a band, or luxuries 
of any kind, and nearly always without private means to 
supplement his pay, his habits are thoroughly economical, 
and a campaign involves comparatively few privations for 
him. He devotes himself absolutely to his profession, 
living for nothing else, and since he is strongly imbued 
with an effective conception of the honour of his cloth, 
instances of his incurring disgrace by debts or dissipation 
are exceptional." 

At the beginning of 1902 the following were the figures 
for the strength of the commanding staff on peace footing: — 



Kind of Service. 


Active 
Service. 


First 
Reserve. 


Land- 
wehr. 


Total. 


Generals and non-combatants of 


110 


27 


IO 


147 


equivalent rank 










Gendarmes ..... 


91 


54 


27 


172 


Infantry . 












4427 


1654 


873 


6954 


Cavalry . 












421 


95 


28 


544 


Artillery . 












1519 


239 


98 


1856 


Engineering 












474 


98 


42 


614 


Commissariat 












252 


73 


34 


359 


Paymaster 












712 


3°7 


168 


1187 


Surgeon . 












932 


526 


128 


1586 


Veterinary Surgeons 








148 


45 


27 


220 


Band 








7 






7 




9093 


3118 


1435 


13,646 



Factories. 



Large and very completely equipped arsenals, for the 
manufacture of small arms, cartridges, and the implements 
and tools pertaining to small arms, are situated in 
Tokyo and Osaka, and turn out highly efficient 
work. There are powder factories at Meguro, Itabashi, and 
Iwahana, and the powder manufactured has very special 
qualities. The Osaka arsenal undertakes the manufacture 
of guns, cannon-balls, and other munitions of a like nature, 
and it maintains the powder factory at Uji and the arms 
workshop at Moji. Attached to the War Department there 



Army and Navy 1 1 5 

is a large factory at Senju, near to Tokyo, which manufac- 
tures woollen goods for the clothing of the army. 

The Japanese army under its new organisation had its 
baptism of fire in the suppression of the Satsuma rebellion 
(which we have mentioned in a previous First fighting 
chapter), and its behaviour showed that a con- of new arm y- 
script army could overcome the elite of the samurai. It 
however proved its efficiency still more strikingly in the 
three over-sea wars in which Japan has been engaged since 
the abolition of feudalism. In each of these the naval 
forces were also engaged, and therefore before noticing them 
briefly, it will be advisable to give a few particulars regarding 
the Japanese navy. 

Although the modern navy of Japan only dates from 
the last days of the Shogunate, the Japanese are not without a 
long naval history which proves that in the early Foundation of 
days they were bold and adventurous seamen, modem Japanese 
For more than 200 years the policy of national navy ' 

seclusion enforced by the Shoguns of the Tokugawa dynasty 
stifled all maritime enterprise. As far back as 11 85 there 
are records of naval battles between the rival factions in 
Japan for national supremacy, and later on, in the Middle 
Ages, battles at sea more than once decided the final issue. 
The Japanese made many piratical descents on China and 
Korea, culminating, in 1594, in the great invasion of Korea 
under the Shogun Hideyoshi, by, according to the native 
annals, a military force of 500,000 men. Even when 
rigidly confined to their own shores by the most drastic 
penal sanctions, the fishermen and coasters were bold and 
adventurous sailors, and showed that they were capable of 
furnishing material which required opportunity only and 
training to develop into ocean seamen of the best type of 
efficiency. 

The advent of foreigners was the immediate cause of the 
foundation of the modern Japanese navy. When the Shogun 
was carrying on the negotiations in connection with the first 
treaties, he soon recognised the necessity for the possession 



1 1 6 Dai Nippon 

of a navy, if Japan was to hold her own with the foreign 
Powers, and, as a preliminary, he despatched a few young 
men to Holland for instruction, and among them was one 
who afterwards became well known as Admiral Enomoto. 
At the same time the foundations of the present great Naval 
Arsenal at Yokosuka were laid by French engineers, and the 
services of British naval officers were obtained for the 
organisation of a naval school. The chief of these officers 
was Commander, now Admiral Sir R. Tracey. The troubles 
at the time of the Restoration prevented this school from being 
organised, and after a short time the officers returned home. 
The first steamship owned by Japan was a small yacht of 
400 tons, named the Emperor, which was presented by Lord 
Elgin to the Shogun, on behalf of Queen Victoria, when he 
negotiated the first treaty in 1858. When the Japanese 
students were in Holland, a wooden frigate of 2000 tons 
and 26 guns, with engines of 400 horse-power, which was 
named the Kayo Maru, was ordered in Holland, and in 
it the students returned to Japan. On his return from 
Holland Enomoto was appointed to the command of the 
ships belonging to Japan ; which besides the vessels I have 
named consisted only of one obsolete vessel of war (a wooden 
paddle-ship, which had been originally known as the Eagle 
in the British Navy and had fought in the Crimean War), 
and of some half-dozen equally obsolete merchant steamers. 
Enomoto being an adherent of the Shogun, made a stand 
for his master in the struggles of the Restoration, and in this 
he was ably assisted by two men who afterwards became my 
colleagues in the Imperial College of Engineering, and who 
since that time have rendered high service in many ways to 
the Government of the Emperor ; namely Viscount Hayashi, 
now Japanese Minister in London, and Baron Otori, 
formerly Japanese Minister in Korea. My first lessons in 
Japanese history were from Viscount Hayashi when he was 
my fellow-passenger to Japan in 1873, and his accounts 
were most interesting. Into these, however, we cannot at 
present enter ; it is sufficient to say that he and his friends 



Army and Navy 117 

fought for the Shogun, not because they were opposed to 
the Emperor becoming the head of the actual Government, 
but because they believed that those who were fighting 
against them were animated by selfish motives and wished 
to displace the Shogun in order that they themselves might 
assume the executive power. The issue is well known ; the 
Imperialists had purchased from the United States Govern- 
ment the Stonewall Jackson, an ironclad ram, which though 
only of 1 200 tons burden, carrying one ten-inch and other 
guns, was in those days a powerful ship, and were thus able 
to overpower Enomoto and his colleagues and bring the 
struggles of the revolution to a close. 

On the restoration of peace the Government directed its 
attention to the creation of a national navy, and the first 
step was the establishment, on a large scale, of The Nav , 
a Naval College and barracks, in Tokyo. A College in 
few months after my arrival in Japan, Com- ° y0# 

mander (now Admiral Sir Archibald) Douglas, assisted 
by a staff of British naval officers, took charge of the 
instruction in the College, and for some years did excellent 
work in the training of officers and men, and their students 
are the admirals and senior officers in the Japanese navy at 
the present time, many of whom have distinguished them- 
selves in active service. A few years later Commander 
L. P. Willan and Lieut. T. H. James (now of the Nippon 
Yusen Kaisha, London) joined the staff of the college, and 
these officers first took charge of Japanese ships of war on 
distant cruises to Australia and India ; their work gave 
the Japanese confidence in their own powers, and now 
Japanese ships of war have no difficulty in finding their way 
to any port in the world. Another name which must be 
mentioned in this connection is that of Lieut. Hawes, who 
organised a corps of marines whose smart appearance 
won for them good opinions wherever they were seen, and 
who initiated that state of efficiency which has made the 
men in the Japanese Navy the acknowledged equals of 
those of the best navies of the world. 



1 1 8 Dai Nippon 

For some years the development of the Japanese navy 
was slow, as those in authority recognised that their first 
Development of duty was the training of officers to take charge 
Japanese navy. Q f t h e sn jp S and men to work them, and it was 
not till 1877 that the Government seriously entered on the 
acquisition of modern fighting ships. In that year the first 
ship specially built for them in England, a broadside central 
battery ship of 3700 tons, designed by Sir Edward Reed, 
was launched on the Thames, and she was soon followed by 
several small but powerfully armed ironclads. Still, when 
the war with China broke out, the navy of Japan was by no 
means strong, as it did not contain a single battleship. It 
had, however, a considerable number of fast and heavily 
armed cruisers, and it was with these that she won the great 
naval battle of the Yalu, though fighting against armoured 
battleships ; thus proving the high efficiency of the officers 
and men and the skilful manner in which they conducted 
their operations. 

The three over -sea wars in which Japan has been 

engaged since the abolition of feudalism have already been 

mentioned in Chapter IV., when we were con- 

Over-sea wars. .... 

sidermg the most important events in recent 
Japanese history. The first of these was the expedition in 
1874 to Formosa, the second the war with China in 1894, 
and the third was on the occasion of the anti-foreign and 
anti-dynastic rebellion, which broke out in China in 1900. 
On each of these occasions the arms of Japan were dis- 
tinguished for bravery, efficiency, and skill. We must refer 
to special histories for detailed accounts of these expeditions ; 
all that we can do meantime is to note some of their 
results on the national evolution, and the effect they had in 
causing the other nations in the world to recognise the 
advance which had been made by Japan, not only in 
western methods of war, but also in all those departments 
of national life which were necessary to enable her to claim 
a position of equality in the comity of nations. 

The expedition to Formosa was undertaken at a time 



A rmy and Navy 1 1 9 

when, as we have seen, the affairs of the nation were in 
a very critical condition. The steps which were taken had 
the effect of consolidating the army, and of adding to the 
strength of the navy. Moreover, they gave a great impetus 
to the Japanese mercantile marine, which rapidly became 
important in itself, and a very necessary adjunct to the 
navy for purposes of transport. The success which attended 
the expedition to Formosa should have taught the Chinese 
authorities that Japan was not to be despised ; but that she 
was able and determined to take any measures which were 
necessary to maintain her national dignity. Fortunately, 
through the good offices of the British Minister in Peking, 
the war which was threatened between the two empires was 
avoided, and the matter was settled by Japan agreeing to 
withdraw from Formosa, and by China indemnifying her to 
the extent of half a million dollars (about ;£ 100,000) on 
account of the expenses of the expedition. 

The war with China in 1894-5 marked a most important 
epoch in the history of Japan and gave a great impetus to 
every department of its national life. The war with China 
circumstances under which that war broke and lts results « 
out have already been noted, and reference must be made 
to special books for its details. Even Japan's best friends 
had doubts as to the ultimate issue when they considered 
the immense numbers and resources of the Chinese ; but in 
modern warfare mere numbers are powerless before efficient 
equipment with the most improved appliances and methods. 
The Chinese cannot be accused of want of bravery, or rather 
of the fear of death. If they were properly armed and led, 
they could face any troops in the world ; a fact which has 
been certified by such an eminent authority as Lord 
Wolseley. On land the war was a succession of triumphs 
for Japan, and the great naval battle which took place on 
September 17th, 1894, near the mouth of the Yalu river, 
that forms the northern boundary of Korea, not only 
showed that the Japanese could make good use of their 
navy, but it also awoke the nations of the world to the fact 



120 



Dai Nippon 



that a new Power had arisen in the Far East, which in 
future would require to be taken into account when any- 
political problems arose. The Yalu victory practically gave 
Japan the control of northern China, and before long the 
Chinese authorities recognised the hopelessness of the 
struggle and agreed to the terms of the treaty already 
mentioned. 

Besides a large addition to the "ordinary" expenditure 
on the army and navy the post-bellum programme included 
the following items for " extraordinary " expenditure : — 



A. Military Expansion Scheme: — 

Construction of coast batteries 
Furnishing arms, repairs, etc. 
Manufacture of arms 
Extension of arsenals 
Buildings 



B. Naval Expansion Scheme : — 

Construction of war-vessels 
Manufacture of arms 
Buildings 



Yen. 
14,071,893 

i7)334,89o 
8,486,766 

2,949> io 5 

479,577 

43>3 22 , 2 3 I 

Yen. 
47,154,576 

33.75 1 * 162 

i3, 8 7°,5° 6 



94,776,244 

The spending of these sums was spread over five years, 
but before the first programme was completed, the " Second 
Period Expansion Programme " was initiated, and again the 
chief features were concerned with the expansion of the 
army and navy. The following were the military and naval 
parts of the second programme : — 

A. Military Expansion ; — 

Yen. 
i 6,460,520 



Coast batteries 
Barracks, etc. . 
Manufacture of firearms 
Making up deficits . 



19,363,746 
9,854,538 
2,679,790 

38,358,594 



Army and Navy 



121 



B. Naval Expansion ; — 

Construction of war-vessels 
Manufacture of arms 
Various building purposes 



Yen. 

78,893,399 

33,176,329 

6,254,99° 

118,324,718 



Adding together the amounts for military and naval 
expansion included in the two programmes, and including 
the addition to the ordinary expenditure, we arrive at a 
total expenditure for naval expansion of 360,000,000 yen. 
In some cases, however, the estimates were exceeded, and the 
total amount of expenditure for army and navy expansion by 
Japan, consequent upon and subsequent to the war with China, 
has been estimated at 400,000,000 yen, or ^40,000,000. 

Both programmes have practically been carried out, and 
Japan has now a navy which is, in offensive and defensive 
armament, in steaming capacity, both in speed p rese nt 
and distance, and in homogeneousness, equal conditions of 
to any in the world of the same size. The J a P anese nav y- 
majority of the ships have been built in Britain — on the 
Thames, the Clyde, the Tyne, and at Barrow-on-Furness — 
and the construction of the most of them has been 
superintended by my former students of the Imperial 
College of Engineering, and whom I had often the pleasure 
of meeting when they were in this country. 

The following figures give the personnel of the Navy at 
the beginning of the year 1902 : — 



Kind of Service. 


Active 
Service. 


First 
Reserve. 


Second 
Reserve. 


Total. 


Admirals and non-combatants of 










equivalent rank .... 


47 


22 


14 


83 


Senior Officers 






639 


22 


60 


721 


Tunior Officers 






1,060 


2 3 


70 


1,153 


Cadets 






330 






330 


Special Warrant Officers 






631 


10 


54 


695 


Warrant Officers 






5,802 


163 




5,965 


Seamen . 






22,036 


4036 


1793 


27,865 


Students . 






S34 






834 




31,379 


4276 


1991 


37,646 



122 



Dai Nippon 



The latest published returns, those for 1902, give the 
total tonnage of ships in commission or reserve as 252,180 
tons, with an indicated horse-power of 459,599, distributed 
as follows : — 







Tons. 


6 


First-class battleships 


86,399 


2 


Second-class battleships 






11,112 


6 


Armoured cruisers . 






58,778 


9 


Second-class cruisers 






38,518 


5 


Third-class cruisers . 






14,078 


10 


Coast-defence vessels 






18,215 


2 


First-class gunboats 






3,557 


14 


Second-class gunboats 






8,013 


13 


Destroyers 






3,957 



The remainder is made up of despatch vessels, tenders, etc. 
In addition there were over sixty torpedo-boats of various 
sizes, with a tonnage of 4675, and this number has been 
considerably increased since the returns were published. 

The Japanese navy is well supplied with dockyards and 
arsenals, there being four first-class naval stations. The 
oldest is that at Yokosuka near Yokohama, which was 
started over forty years ago by French engineers and naval 
architects, but has since been greatly extended. The most 
important station is Kur6 on the Inland Sea, which, in 
addition to a well-equipped dockyard and a magnificent 
harbour, possesses a fine arsenal for the manufacture of large 
modern breech-loading steel guns, and also of large-calibre 
steel shell. Sasebo (or Saseho), in Kyushu, is rapidly 
becoming of great importance, and its position, in the south 
of Japan and near to the coast of China, would make it of 
great use in case of hostilities. The fourth station at 
Maizuru, on the Sea of Japan, was opened only in 1901, 
but it is also being developed. There is also a very 
complete arsenal in Tokyo for the manufacture of 
appliances required in the Navy, and the Shimose powder 
factory supplies ammunition of very high explosive power. 



A rmy and Navy 123 

A survey of the resources of the Japanese navy shows that, 
for its size, it is the most thoroughly equipped navy in the 
world ; while the bravery and efficiency of its officers and 
men will enable it to give a very good account of itself 
should it be required to defend the rights of Japan. 

As an illustration of the thoroughness with which 
the Japanese make their plans, of the completeness with 
which they carry them out, and also of their Trainin of 
power of adapting arrangements to their own Japanese naval 
conditions, a sketch may be given of the 
training of Japanese naval officers. That training was, 
as we have seen, founded on the British system, but in 
some respects they have improved on that system. It 
may be divided into the following sections: — (1) Entrance 
of cadets and their education in the Imperial Naval 
College at Yetajima ; (2) education of midshipmen ; 
(3) education of sub-lieutenants and lieutenants in their 
respective duties afloat and ashore ; (4) education of officers 
in the Imperial and Higher Naval College at Tokyo ; and 
(5) education of officers in the torpedo and gunnery schools 
at Yokosuka. In each of these sections the course is very 
complete. The whole expense of training, food, and cloth- 
ing is provided out of Government funds. The cadets are 
selected after a physical examination of the candidates, as 
well as one testing the state of their education in those pre- 
liminary subjects which are necessary for naval officers. The 
course extends over three years, and the instruction is given 
partly in college and partly in the tenders attached to the 
college. It includes the physical sciences and their applica- 
tions to engineering, navigation, gunnery, and the other 
departments of the duties of naval officers. In addition, 
elementary courses of international and civil law and naval 
history are provided. When the cadets pass the final 
examination they are promoted to midshipmen. 

The education of midshipmen is divided into training in 
the special training ships and training in the ships of the 
standing fleet, the object being to show them how to apply 



124 .£W Nippon 

practically what they had been taught in the college and to 
give them the foundation of the experience necessary to per- 
form their duties as junior officers. After the completion of 
the course the midshipmen are distributed among the ships 
in commission — almost invariably to the ships of the stand- 
ing fleet, where there is no regular course. They perform 
junior officers' duty under the supervision of the superior 
officers, but it is, as a rule, the custom for the captain of 
the ship to choose a very competent officer to take charge 
of them, besides giving orders to the gunnery, torpedo, and 
navigating officers to instruct them in their own special 
branches. As sub-lieutenants and lieutenants their studies 
are continued, although not according to any fixed pro- 
gramme, but it is the practice of the captains to set each 
officer a subject for a " yearly essay " on either theoretical or 
practical questions of naval interest. The subject varies 
according to the officer's rank, special duty, and capacity. 
After being criticised by the superior officers, these essays 
are printed in book form and distributed throughout the fleet 
and naval barracks. Special lectures are from time to time 
given on recent developments of naval science and practice. 

The courses in the Higher Naval College in Tokyo are 
provided for those who have shown special ability ; their 
nature and extent depend on the object in view, and 
they are very similar to the special courses given at 
the Royal Naval College at Greenwich. Besides all this, 
there are special schools for instruction in gunnery 
and torpedo practice ; moreover, when some new weapons 
had been introduced, or some new scientific discovery 
had been made, or drills had undergone changes, a number 
of officers were summoned from various parts to bring 
themselves up to date in such matters and to teach their 
comrades or those under their command what they had 
themselves just acquired. The success of the Japanese navy 
is evidently not of a haphazard nature, but is the result of a 
long, systematic training, combined, of course, with the fear- 
less bravery of the officers and men. 



A rmy and Navy 125 

The share which the Japanese forces took in the opera- 
tions which were carried on in China in 1900 by the 
Foreign Powers was the means of still further , ... 

directing attention to the efficiency of the in the 
Japanese army. On account of the troubles 
with the Boxers, the foreign communities of Tientsin and 
Peking were placed in situations of extreme danger, and it 
was impossible for any European Power or the United States 
of America to organise efficient and prompt measures of 
relief. On the other hand, Japan was near, with a well- 
equipped army and a powerful navy ; but, knowing the 
suspicion of the Foreign Powers in such matters, she hesitated 
to intervene, and it was not until Europe and America made 
it quite plain that they needed and desired her help that she 
sent a division (21,000 men) to Pechili, and it was admitted 
by all competent observers that they practically saved the 
situation. Their coolness and bravery under very trying 
circumstances won the admiration of all who saw them, and, 
fighting side by side with European and American soldiers 
and under the eyes of competent critics, they acquitted them- 
selves in such a manner as to establish a high military 
reputation. Probably most important of all, the conduct of 
the Japanese soldiers was in every respect worthy of com- 
mendation and in some ways worthy of emulation by their 
foreign comrades. The Government of Japan acted in har- 
mony with all the other Governments, and sought no special 
advantages, on account either of the part their troops had 
taken in the operations in China, or of the special interests 
which they had because of their proximity to that empire ; thus 
showing that there were no grounds of any kind for the sus- 
picion with which they had been regarded in some quarters. 

A mere statement of the facts connected with the 
Japanese army and navy is sufficient to show their 
importance as factors not only in the develop- Japanese power 
ment of Japan, but also in that of the Far as factors in 
East generally. In many respects Japan 
closely resembles Great Britain. Both countries consist of 



126 Dai Nippon 

a group of islands, with almost similar area and population, 
and the one has the same geographical position relatively 
to Asia that the other has to Europe. The Pacific area is 
destined to become the most important commercial area in 
the world, and Japan is nearer that centre than Britain. The 
Japanese were not slow to recognise that the circumstances 
which had led Great Britain to rely for trade on a great 
mercantile marine, and for defence mainly on her fleet, 
applied in her own case with almost equal urgency, and 
for some years they have been rapidly building up their 
commercial power by means of a great mercantile marine, 
which now trades with all the chief countries of the 
world ; at the same time they have been adding to their 
fighting strength by means of a navy which is now a 
very important factor in the political forces in the Far 
East. Their army is relatively large, well equipped, well 
organised, and capable of doing very effective work if 
required. The expenditure on the naval and military 
forces bears a considerable proportion to the total national 
income, and one of the problems before Japan is how best 
to provide for the defence of the country without crippling 
its financial and industrial resources. 

It must be recognised that this expenditure is part of 
the price which Japan is paying for her membership of the 
comity of nations, and it is very sad that it should be so. 
Captain Brinkley has truly said that " no one who should 
tell the Japanese to-day that the consideration they have 
won from the West is due solely to their progress in peaceful 
arts would find serious listeners. They themselves held 
that belief as a working incentive twenty years ago, but 
experience has dissipated it, and they now know that the 
world took no respectful notice of them until they showed 
themselves capable of winning battles. At first, they 
imagined that they might efface the Oriental stigma by 
living up to civilised standards. But the success they 
attained was scarcely perceptible when suddenly their 
victorious war with China seemed to win for them more 



Army and Navy 127 

esteem in half a year than their peaceful industry had 
won for them in half a century. The perception of that 
fact upset their estimate of the qualifications necessary for 
a place in the ' foremost files of time,' and had much to do 
with the desire they henceforth developed for expanded 
armaments." While the expenditure may be regretted, it is 
not difficult to give sufficient reasons for the policy which 
was adopted, and looked at simply from an offensive or 
defensive point of view even their most severe critics admit 
that the Japanese army and navy are in a high state of 
efficiency. Professor Chamberlain gives the opinion of all 
who have had opportunities of observing the powers of the 
Japanese army and navy when he says : " We cannot help 
expressing our admiration of and belief in the Japanese 
navy, and of Japan altogether as a military power. Though 
it may not be for us to judge of the technical excellences 
of ships and docks, it is perhaps given to an old resident 
who has travelled widely, and read a great deal, and mixed 
much with all classes, to appreciate the existence of those 
qualities of intellect and morale which go to make a good 
fighting man, whether on land or sea. To our thinking, any 
foreign Power that should venture to attack Japan in her 
own waters would be strangely ill-advised." The high state 
of efficiency to which the Japanese army and navy have 
been brought has proved not only that the Japanese are 
able to take advantage of all the applications of Western 
science to military and naval matters, but also that all classes 
of the people are now animated by the true samurai spirit 
which knows no fear and which prefers death to either 
personal or national dishonour. Modern military and naval 
appliances are merely the tools which are used ; the " Soul of 
Japan " which animates those behind them is the source of 
the strength of the army and navy. 



128 Dai Nippon 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE. 

An excellent account of the Japanese army and navy is given by 
Captain Brinkley in his articles on Japan in the supplementary 
volumes of the Encyclopedia Britannica, and an interesting sketch 
of the Growth of the Japanese Navy by Mr. Longford, late of the 
British Consular Service in Japan, appeared in the Nineteenth 
Century for September 1903. The Imperial Japanese Navy, by 
Fred T. Jane, gives plans, photographs, and full descriptions of all the 
ships in the navy, of the Japanese dockyards and arsenals, as well 
as official reports on the Japan-China war. H. Yamawaki'sy^tfTz in 
the Beginning of the Twentieth Century contains statistics of the army 
and navy, with an outline of their history and organisation. Heroic 
Japan, by Eastlake and Yamada, records the doings of the army 
and navy in the war with China. Many books and reports on this 
war have been published, which must be consulted for details. 



CHAPTER VII 

MEANS OF COMMUNICATION 

As soon as the Japanese had determined to introduce 
Western methods of national life into the country, they 
recognised that one of the first necessities, not 

Necessity 

only from an industrial but also from a political f or improved 
point of view, was improved means of com- means of 

1 . ■*• communication. 

munication, and that of these the most im- 
portant was a national system of railways. When I went 
to Japan in 1873 the on ty railway in the country was the 
short one of eighteen miles between Tokyo and Yokohama, 
which had been opened with considerable eclat by the 
Emperor a few months previously, and the illustrations of 
that event published in the Illustrated London News were 
the first things which specially directed my attention 
to Japan. Little did I think that in a short time after 
reading the account of the opening of the first railway 
in the country I would be at the head of an institution 
which was to be the chief means of developing not only the 
railways and other means of communication, but also all 
the other industries of Japan. Students of the Imperial 
College of Engineering (Kobu Daigakko) are to be found in 
important positions in almost all the undertakings which 
have caused so great a change in the economic, industrial, 
and political conditions of Japan, and it would be interesting 
to enter into some details regarding their work, but these 
must be reserved for another occasion. Meantime I can 
only briefly sketch the developments which have taken place 

(b 207) T , 

" 129 K 



1 30 Dai Nippon 

and which have enabled Japan to rank as an equal in the 
comity of nations. It may be thought that in some respects 
she has paid very dearly for this position, but there can be 
little doubt that if these developments had not taken place, 
she would have fallen under the domination of one or other 
of the foreign Powers which are so anxious to extend their 
influence in the Far East. 

Under the feudal system the means of communication 
were very imperfect ; indeed those in authority deliberately 
Communications ^P* them so. Each province was to a large 
under the extent self-contained, both economically and 
system. p ij t j ca Hy ( anc j ^he central Government did not 
exercise much control over ordinary affairs. The Tokugawa 
Shoguns and the feudal nobles took care that the highways 
leading to the capital should cross deep defiles and bridgeless 
rivers, where all passage might be barred by a small force. 
Thus one of the main thoroughfares from Kyoto to Yedo 
was led over the Hakone pass and the other over the Usui ; 
and any one taking a circuitous route so as to avoid the 
guardhouses at either of these precipitous places was liable 
to be put to death. At the same time the feudal chiefs 
were required to keep the roads and bridges within their 
territories in fairly good order and to provide post-horses and 
ferry boats within the limits of their provinces. 

There were, indeed, a number of Imperial roads, some- 
what like the old coach roads in Britain, and those were 
largely used by the Daimyos and their retainers when they 
made their visits to Yedo to pay their respects to the 
Shogun. Of these the two best known are those already 
mentioned ; namely, the Tokaido, or Eastern Sea Road, 
running along the sea-shore between Kyoto and Tokyo, and 
the Nakasendo, or Central Mountain Road — so named in con- 
tradistinction to the Tokaido and the comparatively unim- 
portant Hokurokudo, or Northern Land Road, in Kaga and 
Etchu, between which it occupies a middle position. There 
were several other main roads of less importance, all provided 
with lionjin or specially fine hostelries, for their lordships and 



Means of Communication 131 

their retainers to sleep at. The changed conditions have 
caused the glories of these institutions to depart. 

About the beginning of the seventeenth century a regular 
transport service was organised between Yedo and Kyoto, and 
a scale of charges for coolies and pack-horses was fixed by 
law ; later on the merchants of Osaka organised a land 
transport service to Yedo, and gradually the system was 
extended to other parts of the country for the carriage of both 
goods and letters. A considerable maritime carrying trade 
was organised between the most important sea-ports, and 
this fell into the hands of guilds, which obtained a practical 
monopoly. At the Restoration, however, the means of 
communication were still in a comparatively primitive con- 
dition, and it was determined to improve them not only in 
order that the country might be welded into one organisa- 
tion, but also that full advantage might be taken of its 
economic possibilities. Not only improved roads but also 
railways, telegraphs, steamships, and other means of com- 
munication were therefore the natural results of the new 
conditions brought about by the Restoration, and the 
demand for them was the immediate cause of the institu- 
tion of the Imperial College of Engineering. For some 
years a considerable number of foreign experts were engaged 
by the Public Works Department, but as the graduates of 
the College and other Japanese trained in other institutions 
and in foreign countries gained experience, the work to a 
large extent fell into their hands, and a very large part of 
the civil engineering undertakings have been carried out 
entirely by Japanese. No doubt many mistakes have been 
made, but no unbiassed critic will deny that the develop- 
ment which has taken place in Japan in the ways and 
means of communication has been wonderful. 

In feudal times the only methods of travelling were on 
foot, on horseback, or in kago. The latter is a kind of 
basket made of bamboo, with a light roof atop, 
and swung on a pole which two men — one in 
front and one behind — bear on their shoulders, and it is 



132 Dai Nippon 

still used in mountainous districts. The old norimono of 
the towns, which was largely used in the Daimyos' pro- 
cessions and by rich people, was simply a glorified kago. 
The jinrikisha, which is now so well known and so much 
used, rapidly displaced the kago. The origin of this useful 
little carriage is sometimes attributed to an American 
missionary, named Goble, although it is also traced to 
several Japanese sources. After the Restoration the neces- 
sity for better means of communication between the different 
parts of the country caused attention to be directed to the 
roads. The old thoroughfares were repaired and improved 
in many ways and bridges were built over rivers which 
formerly had to be forded ; so that the more important 
roads were made available for carriage and bullock-cart 
traffic as well as for jinrikishas with passengers. The local 
authorities being responsible for the cost endeavoured to be 
as economical as possible. Although improvements and 
developments have been made during recent years, many of 
the roads in Japan are still in a very unsatisfactory con- 
dition. The developments which have taken place in the 
railways and shipping have probably been the cause of 
attention being directed from the ordinary roads, as they 
have now become of secondary importance in the carriage 
of goods. The advent of the cycle in its various forms 
and of the motor car for all sorts of purposes will no 
doubt lead to an improvement in the roads and to their 
extended use as feeders to the railways. 

The initiative in the construction of railways in Japan 
was undertaken by Mr. Horatio Nelson Lay, who in 1 869 
arrived in Tokyo with proposals to offer a loan 
ways. ^^ ^ e Government on behalf of certain British 
capitalists to be used for the formation of a railway between 
Tokyo and Osaka, with a branch to Yokohama. The 
amount of the loan was one million pounds sterling at 
twelve per cent interest, the capital being repayable in 
twelve years. The railway was to form part of the security 
to the lenders, who were further to have a lien on the 



Means of Communication 133 

customs duties arising from the foreign trade at the open 
ports. Mr. Lay had stipulated that he was not only to be 
the chief commissioner of railways, but that he was also 
to have the appointment of all the engineers and other 
foreigners whom it would be necessary to employ, and the 
ordering of everything that had to be imported. Mr. Morel, 
a gentleman of experience and ability, was engaged as 
engineer- in -chief, a considerable number of subordinates 
were appointed and they at once set to work to make the 
necessary surveys. It was determined to make a start with 
the line between Yokohama and Tokyo, and before the end 
of 1870 the work had fairly commenced. 

It is not necessary to enter into the details of Mr. Lay's 
financial arrangements ; it is sufficient to say that they fell 
through, and that the business was taken in hand by the 
Oriental Bank, and for some years the financial arrangements 
of the railways were under the supervision of the Bank — Mr. 
W. W. Cargill, acting as director of railways on behalf of the 
Bank, and Mr. R. Vicars Boyle, C.S.I., becoming engineer-in- 
chief, with Dr. William Pole, F.R.S., as consulting engineer 
in London. For some time the work of railway con- 
struction proceeded at a comparatively slow rate, partly on 
account of financial reasons but also because the Japanese 
Government had determined to use the construction of 
railways as a practical training school for Japanese engineers. 
At first fully two hundred foreigners were employed in rail- 
way construction, but the services of these were gradually 
dispensed with as students of the Imperial College of 
Engineering and others, trained partly at home and partly 
abroad, were able to undertake the work, and now very few 
foreigners remain in the railway service. 

As already mentioned, in 1872 the only line of railway 
in Japan was that between Tokyo and Yoko- n ,. 

. • • 1 Outline of 

hama, a distance of eighteen miles. The original history of 
intention of the Government was to construct a railway 

construction. 

trunk line from Tokyo to Kobe and Osaka and 

Kyoto by way of the Nakasendo, or Middle Mountain Road, 



1 34 Dai Nippon 

but it was found that this would involve great labour and 
expense, on account of the mountainous district through 
which it passes ; it was abandoned, and the Tokaido 
route adopted instead. The part between Kobe and Kyoto 
was proceeded with slowly, under the superintendence of 
foreign engineers. The construction was under the control 
of the Department of Public Works, the railways at first 
being entirely State undertakings. In 1885 the Department 
of Public Works was abolished, and the Railway Bureau was 
then placed under the direct management of the Cabinet. 
In 1890 the Railway Bureau changed its name to Railway 
Board, and it was at the same time affiliated to the Home 
Office. This connection with the Home Office came to an 
end in 1892, when the Department of Communications was 
created, and the Railway Board, which had restored to it its 
old designation of Railway Bureau, was brought under the 
control of the new Department. 

The main line between Tokyo and Kyoto via the 
Tokaido proceeded slowly. The people of Japan were 
quickly appreciating the importance of railways in the 
development of the country, and as Japanese engineers were 
being found qualified to undertake the work, it became 
necessary to devise a more rapid means of extension, and 
permission was given to private companies to undertake the 
work. The pioneer of private enterprise in Japan was 
the Nippon Railway Company, which in November 1881 
obtained a charter for laying the Tokyo-Aomori line. As 
it was impossible to form any exact estimates of cost or 
expenditure, far less to calculate the probable amount of 
traffic and the consequent return on the capital invested, the 
Government undertook to guarantee its profit within a certain 
limit, and moreover gave it every facility for carrying on the 
work. In a short time the work was begun and carried on 
with great zeal and activity, and the period of private railway 
work was ushered in. Since then it has developed at a 
rapid rate. Indeed, in 1896 and 1 897, immediately after 
the war with China, there was something .approaching a 



Means of Communication 



135 



railway mania, like that in England during the early days 
of railways ; numerous schemes were proposed, many of 
which came to nothing practical, as they issued from the 
brains of speculators, whose object was not to construct 
railways but to make money out of the unfortunate investors. 
Since that time the greater part of railway construction in 
Japan has been carried out by private enterprise, although 
the Government completed and has still retained the 
management of the first lines which were designed. It has 
also carried out extensive railway developments in the 
Hokkaido, in order to encourage the promotion of industry 
and agriculture in that rather inhospitable part of the 
Japanese Empire. No doubt political and military reasons 
have also had considerable weight. The question of the 
sale of the Government railways to private companies has 
often been discussed in Japan, but as yet no definite pro- 
posals have been made on the subject. So far as can be 
gathered from the opinions expressed in the newspapers, 
there is a strong feeling that the railways ought to be 
directly under Government control, not only for military 
reasons, but also that they may serve, to the greatest 
advantage, the general wants of the country. 

It is not necessary to enter into details of the various 
railways in the country, but the following figures show their 
distribution throughout the Empire : — 





Area 
sq. miles. 


Population. 


Railway 

Mileage. 


Mileage 

per 100 

sq. miles. 


Mileage 
per 10,000 
Inhabitants. 


Honshu . 
Kyushu 
Hokkaido 
Shikoku . 


86,329 

13,771 

30,123 

6,858 


34,196,471 
6,586,682 
1,003,751 
2,961,714 


3165 

425 
360 

75 


3-67 
3-07 
1.16 
I.08 


O.74 
O.52 
3-48 
0.20 


Total . 


I37,o8l 


44,748,618 


4026 


2.75 


O.72 



The following table gives the rate of construction for 
State and private railways since 1872 : — 



136 



Dai Nippon 







Mileage open 


to Traffic. 




Year 
















State Railways. 


Private Railways. 


Total. 




Miles. 


Chains. 


Miles. 


Chains. 


Miles. 


Chains. 


1872 . . 


18 


O 






18 





1873 . . 


IS 


O 






18 


O 


1874 • • 


38 


27 






38 


27 


1875 • • 


38 


27 






38 


27 


1875-1876 


38 


27 






38 


27 


1S76-1877 


65 


II 






65 


II 


1877-1878 


65 


II 






65 


II 


1878-1S79 


65 


II 






65 


II 


1879-1880 


73 


22 






73 


22 


1880-1881 


76 


37 






76 


37 


1881-1882 


100 


38 






100 


38 


1 882- 1 883 


114 


63 






114 


63 


18S3-1884 


125 


5i 


63 


OO 


188 


51 


1884-1885 


!25 


5i 


So 


63 


206 


34 


1885-1886 


I67 


62 


129 


76 


297 


58 


1886-1887 


208 


64 


165 


77 


374 


61 


1887-1888 


244 


40 


293 


24 


537 


64 


1888-18S9 


445 


19 


406 


38 


851 


57 


1 889- 1 890 


550 


49 


525 


22 


1075 


7i 


1890-1891 


55o 


49 


848 


43 


1399 


12 


1891-1892 


550 


49 


1 166 


40 


1717 


9 


1892-1893 


55° 


49 


1320 


26 


1870 


75 


1 893- 1 894 


557 


49 


1367 


77 


1925 


46 


1894-1S95 


580 


69 


1537 


33 


2118 


22 


1895-1896 


593 


22 


1679 


75 


2273 


17 


1896-1897 


631 


62 


1800 


9 


2431 


7i 


1897-1898 


661 


65 


2282 


37 


2944 


22 


1S98-1899 


768 


37 


2642 


57 


34" 


14 


1 899- 1 900 


833 


72 


2802 


49 


3636 


41 


1900-1901 


949 


69 


2905 


16 


3855 


5 


1901-1902 


1059 


48 


2966 


48 


4026 


16 


1 902- 1 903 


1226 


64 


3010 


64 


4237 


48 



We cannot enter into details either of the working of 

the railways or of their financial arrangements, but a few 

Working and of the main figures may be given. The 

financial regulation gauge of the railways is 3 feet 

6 inches, but for light railways it is 2 feet 

6 inches. The details of rolling stock vary considerably, 

the capacity naturally advancing with the progress of 

railway business. The ratio of vehicles to mileage under 

traffic is, according to the latest returns, 33.5 locomotives, 

1 12.5 passenger cars, and 492.3 waggons per 100 miles. 



Means of Communication 1 3 7 

The actual capital invested at the beginning of 1902 

was as follows : — „ 

Yen. 

Government Railways . . . . 127,167,852 

Private Railways 219,709,432 

346,877,284 

The dividends paid on the capital have, as a rule, been 
very good, those on the larger railways being from 1 o to 12 
per cent per annum, and very few being below 5 per cent. 
The net earnings of the Government Railways in 1 90 1 were 
8,418,128 yen, and of the private railways 16,547,242 yen, 
or a total of 24,965,370 yen. Both the passenger and the 
goods traffic have increased at a rapid rate, but there is still 
great room for development. The latest statistics show that 
the number of persons, per head of population, per annum 
who travelled was only 2.39, and that the distance travelled 
was only 40.5 miles, while the number of tons of goods 
carried per head of population was only 0.30 tons and that 
only for a distance of 16.4 miles. Mr. K. Inuzuka, Director 
of the Railway Bureau, after an examination of these figures, 
says : " These analyses impress on the mind of one that the 
benefit taken of the railway by our people is still in a state 
of infancy " ; and he adds : " To afford a more enlightened use 
of the facilities by railways at the minimum cost of perform- 
ing the service, it is necessary on the one hand to accomplish 
a more direct communication, and on the other to adopt all 
the most important modern improvements in railway appli- 
ances and methods, so as to induce the public to enjoy the 
benefit of railway travelling." It is evident therefore that 
great as has been the development of railway construction in 
Japan in the past, we may expect a considerable develop- 
ment in the future. 

Various legislative measures relating to railways have 
from time to time been passed, but it is not necessary to 
enter into details of these. A few of the main Railway 
points, however, may be noted. In 1872 the legislation. 
first measures were published, and they provided general 



138 Dai Nippon 

rules about railway work ; these were amended and ex- 
tended from time to time. In 1879 an< ^ 1883 the general 
and punitive rules which had been issued for Government 
railways were made applicable also to private railways. 
From time to time special regulations relating to loans and 
the construction of special lines were issued, and in 1900 
the laws relating to private railways were codified. The 
following are the points in these which deserve special 
notice : — 

1. Shares of the capital must not be acquired except 
by the payment of money. 

2. Unless in virtue of a decision arrived at by a general 
meeting of shareholders and with the sanction of the minister 
concerned, no railway can be chartered or hired or its 
management entrusted to others. 

3. Unless with the sanction of the minister concerned, and 
after not less than one-fourth of the share capital has been 
paid up, a railway company must not issue debenture bonds. 

4. With the approval of the minister, a company may 
contract a loan by mortgaging its railway with accessories, 
but they must not be used as objects of right of mortgage. 

5. The debenture bonds and loans together must not 
exceed the total sum of the paid-up capital. 

6. No company must declare dividends unless after the 
principal and interest of the bonds and loans payable every 
year have been subtracted from the proceeds. 

7. Except in cases specially approved of, the gauge must 
measure 3 feet 6 inches. 

8. The minister concerned may order an alteration of 
tariff rate, when such alteration is judged necessary in the 
public interest. 

9. The tariff rate of third-class passengers must not 
exceed 2 sen per mile. 

10. A company shall be held responsible to offer its 
lines in accordance with the provisions determined by law or 
ordinance for the use of the army or the navy either in time 
of war or in time of peace. 



Means of Communication 139 

1 1. The Government reserve the right of purchasing the 
line with all its appurtenances after full twenty-five years 
from the time of granting a permanent charter. 

The Japanese Government has paid considerable attention 
to the improvement of the rivers of the country and have 
spent large sums of money on the work. For Ri ve r 
instance, in the last Budget, there appeared the improvements. 
sum of 3,220,000 yen for river engineering works. The 
rivers of Japan are peculiarly difficult to keep in order, and 
their beds are subject to sudden changes which often cause 
floods of a very serious nature. The engineering works are 
chiefly for the purpose of preventing such floods, but the 
improvements which have taken place have made many of 
them much more useful as a means of communication for the 
transportation of goods and passengers, and the traffic on 
some of the larger of them is of considerable and increasing 
importance. 

The early records of Japan show that a considerable 
maritime trade was carried on not only between the ports of 
Japan but also with foreign countries ; but in 

/ r , 7. ...... , Shipping. 

10 1 4, on account of the political intrigues of the 
foreigners who had settled in Japan and the fanaticism excited 
by the ill-judged measures of the propagandists of Christianity, 
Iyeyasu, the then Shogun, issued a proclamation ordering the 
banishment of the propagandists and leaders of Christianity 
and the destruction of their churches and the compulsory 
recantation of their doctrines. A period of persecution 
followed, which culminated in the imprisonment of the Dutch 
at Deshima in 1641 by the grandson of Iyeyasu, the third 
Tokugawa Shogun. In order to make his edict more effec- 
tive he ordered that all vessels of sea-going capacity should 
be destroyed and that no craft should thenceforth be built 
of sufficient size to venture beyond home waters. Some 
vessels were built for coast defence, but their design was very 
crude and they were utterly useless for the purpose for which 
they were intended, while the trading junk, as modified by 
official instructions, was as little capable of navigating the 



1 40 Dai Nippon 

high seas as of fighting, and the Japanese remained without 
anything that could be called a mercantile marine until 
after the advent of foreigners and the signing of treaties of 
trade and commerce with the representatives of the foreign 
Powers. 

After the restoration of the Emperor to power, in 1869 

and 1870, the Government made repeated announcement to 

the effect not only that any person might keep 

Beginning and a number of ships of foreign type, but also 

development J r ° J r ' 

of modern that liberal protection would be afforded to him 
iaTtiirmarine. in his undertaking. For some years^ a con- 
siderable number of antiquated and in some 
cases worn-out ships were sold to the Japanese, who, how- 
ever, soon found that what seemed cheap bargains were, in 
the end, very expensive, and they determined to build up a 
mercantile marine on sound business methods. In 1872 
the Nihonkoku Yubin Jokisen Kaisha (Japan Mail Steam- 
ship Company) was organised, which was superseded five 
years later by the Yubin Kisen Mitsubishi Kaisha (Mit- 
subishi Mail Steamship Company). Afterwards the Kyodo 
Unyu Kaisha (United Shipping Company) and the Osaka 
Shosen Kaisha (Osaka Merchant Steamship Company) were 
created in 1882 and 1884 respectively, both of them being 
supported by the subsidies of the Government. In 1885 
the Mitsubishi Kisen Kaisha and the Kyodo Unyu Kaisha, 
after a desperate competition, were united into one company 
under the title of Nippon Yusen Kaisha (Japan Mail Steam- 
ship Company), the greatest navigation company in Japan 
ever since. After the war with China, and in consequence 
of the encouragement and assistance given by the Govern- 
ment, shipping and shipbuilding made very rapid progress. 
In 1896 the Toyo Kisen Kaisha (Oriental Steamship 
Company) was established. The success which has attended 
the efforts of the Japanese to build up a mercantile marine 
is one of the factors which establishes the claim of Japan to 
the name of the Britain of the East. The following table 
shows the development of Japanese shipping since 1870 : — 



Means of Communication 



141 





Steamers. 


Sailing Vessels. 


Total. 


Japanese Junks. 


At the 
end 






























of— 


No. of 


Gross 


No. of 


Gross 


No. of 


Gross 


No. of 


Gross 





Ships. 


Tonnage. 


Ships. 


Tonnage. 


Ships. 


Tonnage. 


Ships. 


Tonnage. 
















Koku. 


1870 


35 


? 


II 


? 


46 


? 


? 


? 


1871 


71 


? 


31 


? 


I02 


? 


? 


? 


1872 


96 


? 


35 


? 


131 


? 


18,640 


3,3I2,28l 


1873 


no 


? 


36 


? 


I46 


? 


22,693 


3,835,402 


1874 


118 


? 


41 


? 


159 


? 


22,673 


3,766,221 


1875 


149 


? 


44 


? 


193 


? 


21,260 


3,577,853 


1876 


159 


? 


51 


? 


2IO 


? 


19,919 


3,397,183 


1877 


183 


? 


75 


? 


258 


? 


18,964 


3,251,425 


1878 


195 


? 


123 


? 


318 


? 


19,135 


3,333,406 


1879 


199 


? 


174 


? 


373 


? 


19,285 


3,254,759 


lS8o 


210 


? 


329 


? 


539 


? 


19,092 


3,273,709 


l88l 


298 


? 


379 


? 


677 


? 


17,638 


3,032,345 


1882 


344 


? 


428 


? 


772 


? 


17,331 


2,930,842 


1883 


390 


? 


419 


? 


S09 


? 


16,149 


2,655,763 


18S4 


412 


? 


402 


? 


814 


? 


16,427 


2,798,7So 


1885 


461 


95,975 


509 


57,292 


970 


153,267 


17,006 


2,854,632 


1886 


460 


100,112 


688 


60,328 


1 148 


160,440 


16,757 


2,786,818 


1887 


486 


"5,395 


798 


64,416 


1284 


i79,7Si 


17,194 


2,851,247 


1888 


524 


129,836 


896 


67,529 


1420 


197,365 


17,878 


2,969,695 


1889 


563 


141,805 


843 


57,624 


1406 


199,429 


18,796 


3,216,158 


1890 


585 


150,058 


865 


54,989 


H5o 


205,047 


19,375 


3,302.385 


1891 


607 


154,749 


832 


53,387 


1439 


208,136 


18,589 


3,I53,2IO 


1892 


642 


165,764 


780 


49,085 


1422 


214,849 


18,205 


3,069,816 


1893 


680 


176,915 


746 


48,303 


1426 


225,218 


17,209 


2,878,462 


1894 


745 


273,419 


722 


46,959 


1467 


320,378 


17,300 


2,876,131 


1895 


827 


341,369 


702 


44,794 


1529 


386,163 


I7,36o 


2,960,887 


1896 


899 


373,588 


644 


44,055 


1543 


417,643 


17,612 


3,066,128 


1897 


1032 


438,779 


715 


48,130 


1747 


486,909 


19,097 


3,320,284 


1898 


1 130 


477,43o 


1914 


170,894 


3044 


648,324 


19,099 


3,049,035 


1899 


1221 


510,007 


3322 


286,923 


4543 


796,930 


iS,479 


2,713,646 


1900 


1329 


543,365 


3850 


320,571 


5179 


863,936 


18,796 


2,785,114 


1901 


1395 


583,532 


4020 


336,436 


5415 


919,968 


19,758 


2,921,565 



Statistics relating to the gross tonnage for the years prior to 1884 inclusive are 
inaccessible. Only Japanese junks, the capacity of which are over 50 koku. are taken 
into account in this table. 



A few particulars may be given of the three great 
steamship companies which now carry on the ocean-carrying 
services of Japan. At the time of the amalgamation which 
resulted in the formation of the Nippon Yusen Kaisha the 
foreign trade carried on in Japanese-owned vessels was of 
a very limited nature, the only foreign services opened 
being between Yokohama and Shanghai, Nagasaki and 
Vladivostock, and Kobe and Inch-'yen. The new company 



142 Dai Nippon 

opened regular services to Niuchwang and Tientsin, and in 
1892, in order chiefly to bring a supply of Indian cotton 
for the rapidly developing cotton industry, the line to 
Bombay was opened. When the war with China broke 
out in 1894 the company furnished fifty-seven transports 
with over 130,000 gross tonnage for the use of the Govern- 
ment for military purposes, and thus helped materially in 
the victory over China. After the war, a great extension 
took place in the foreign services of the company, and as a 
first step its capital was increased to 22,000,000 yen and 
a considerable number of new ships were constructed in 
Britain for its trade. In March 1895 one of its ships 
made its first voyage to Europe, as an experiment, and the 
result was so satisfactory that a regular service was instituted 
between Kobe and Europe. In August and October 1896 
a similar service was started to America and Australia 
respectively. The four lines, namely the European, the 
American, the Australian, and the Bombay lines are the 
prescribed routes specially ordered by the Government. 
In the two former the vessels are despatched fortnightly 
and in the latter monthly. In addition the company has a 
regular service to all the chief ports of Japan, China, and 
Korea, the total length of lines on which the company is 
now running regular steamship services is 44,418 miles. 

The necessity of connecting the city of Osaka, the 
centre of trade of the western part of the Empire, with the 
most important trading ports such as Kobe and Nagasaki 
and Shikoku, Kyushiu, and many other islands lying to the 
west of Osaka, induced a number of large shipowners, in May 
1884, to combine and establish the Osaka Shisen Kaisha. 
At the time of the combination their trade was confined to 
coast service, but in 1891 and 1892 the Osaka-Fusan and 
the Osaka-Inch-'yen services were respectively opened. In 
1896 the company began a regular service to Taiwan 
(Formosa), one to the Yangtze in 1898, another to south 
China in 1899, and others to various ports in Korea in 
subsequent years ; thus facilitating the means of communica- 



Means of Communication 



143 



tion between Japan, China, and Korea, and between Japan 
proper and Formosa, and at the same time improving the 
coast services ; so that the company is now considered one 
of the most important shipping companies in the Far East. 
During the war with China in 1894-5 it furnished the 
Government with thirty or more transports with a gross 
tonnage of 12,500 tons. The total length of lines on 
which the company is now running regular services is 
19,727 miles. 

The Toyo Kisen Kaisha, which came into existence as 
one of the post-bellum undertakings, was established in 1896 
but did not begin actual operations until the end of 1898. 
The original plan of the company was to open a regular 
service to New York and Batoum, but changing it sub- 
sequently, the company selected the route to San Francisco 
via Shanghai and Hongkong, the steamers being now 
despatched once or twice a month. 

The following shows the development of the Japanese 
mercantile marine in the larger size of ships during the 
years 1892- 1902: — 





From 


From 


From 


From 


From 


No. of 
Ships. 






1000 to 


2000 to 


3000 to 


4000 to 


5000 to 


Total Tonnage. 




2000 tons. 


3000 tons. 


4000 tons. 


5000 tons. 


6000 tons. 




1892 


39 


IO 


2 






51 


8,645,912 


1893 


43 


11 


2 






56 


9.574,843 


1894 


46 


29 


9 


2 




87 


18,367,228 


1895 


58 


40 


13 


2 




114 


24,291,045 


1896 


64 


45 


14 


2 




126 


26,569,602 


1897 


69 


47 


14 


2 




I40 


32,197,885 


1898 


68 


44 


16 


2 




I44 


35,708,600 


1899 


65 


47 


17 


3 




I48 


38,239,974 


1900 


70 


52 


17 


3 




156 


41,053,741 


1901 


74 


56 


17 


3 


2 


170 


44,372,346 


1902 


81 


60 


17 


4 


2 


182 


46,995,000 



A survey of the growth of the Japanese mercantile marine 
shows that it has been one of the most striking features in the 
national evolution, and its past history makes it quite clear 
that Japan means to follow the example of the Britain of the 
West and become a great maritime nation. 



1 44 Dai Nippon 

At present there are thirty ports open to foreign trade ; 
namely, Yokohama, Kobe, Nagasaki, Hakodate, Niigata, Ebisu, 
Open Ports Osaka, Shimizu, Taketoyo, Yokkaichi, Itozaki, 
and Harbours. Shimonoseki, Moji, Hakata, Karatsu, Kuchinotsu, 
Misumi, Izuhara, Sasuna, Shikami, Naba, Hamada, Sakaye, 
Miyazu, Tsuruga, Nanao (southern basin), Fushiki, Otaru, 
Kushiro, and Muroran. With the object of maintaining 
order in these ports having much shipping traffic, in 1898 
an Imperial Ordinance was issued containing Harbour 
Regulations, and the ports of Yokohama, Kobe, and 
Nagasaki were at once placed under this legislation, which 
was extended two years later to Moji. 

In May 1864, while the Shogun's Government was still 

in existence, Japan agreed, in accordance with Article XI. of 

the Tariff Convention concluded with Great 

Lighthouses. . . . „ . 

Britain, France, United States of America, and 
Holland, to construct lighthouses and other nautical signals 
in foreign style and in the vicinity of the open ports. Sir 
Harry Parkes, the British Minister, took much interest in this 
matter, and having referred it to his Government, the Board 
of Trade undertook to procure the lighthouse apparatus 
required by the Japanese Government ; to appoint and 
send to Japan suitable persons to erect the lighthouses and 
to organise an efficient lighthouse system. The Board of 
Trade engaged the services of Messrs. D. and T. Stevenson, 
engineers to the Commissioners of Northern Lights, 
Edinburgh, and these gentlemen designed and superintended 
the construction of all the apparatus which was sent to Japan. 
They also selected the chief engineer, Mr. R. H. Brunton, 
and the artisans and lightkeepers who were sent out, the 
Board of Trade in each case approving the selection and 
making the appointment. 

Mr. Brunton arrived in Japan in August 1868, and a 
Lighthouse Engineering Department was established at 
Benten, Yokohama. Mr. Brunton remained in the service 
of the Japanese Government for eight years, and during that 
time he superintended the construction of a large number of 



Means of Communication 145 

lighthouses and other signals at the most important parts of 
the Japanese coast, and thus made navigation comparatively 
sa'fe. Since that time the number has been considerably 
increased and the Japanese coasts are now well lighted. 
The nautical signals of Japan are divided according to 
construction and method of maintenance into three classes ; 
namely Government, communal, and private. At the end of 
1 90 1 there were 162 Government signals of various kinds, 
51 communal, and 16 private, or a total of 239. 

Among the Western apparatus presented by Commodore 
Perry to the Shogun in 1853 were two sets of telegraph 
instruments, but they were never used for any 

Telegraphs. 

practical purposes. The Shogunate was, as we 
have seen, in the midst of very serious troubles, which ended 
in its disappearance, the officials or people had no time 
to study telegraphy and the instruments were left to mould 
and decay in a storehouse. 

It was not until after the Restoration that Japan had its 
first line of telegraphs, when in 1869 under the super- 
intendence of Mr. Brunton, the engineer of the Light- 
house Department, Tokyo and Yokohama were connected by 
telegraph wires. For some time the pioneer line suffered 
from the ignorant masses, who looked upon the telegraph as 
a species of witchcraft and frequently broke down the line ; 
so that the guarding of it was no easy matter. The Govern- 
ment, however, was firm in its determination to maintain the 
service, and spared no trouble to extend and improve it ; 
the people were soon convinced of its utility and gave up 
their attempts to destroy it. 

The system was slowly extended to other parts of the 
country, but without any definite plan and with very 
imperfect construction and appliances, and breakdowns were 
frequent. Soon after my arrival in Japan I impressed on 
the Vice-Minister of Public Works the desirability of a more 
complete organisation, and on my suggestion Mr. Edward 
Gilbert of the North British Railway Company's service was 
engaged, along with a competent staff of assistants, to 

(b 207) k 



1 46 Dai Nippon 

organise and develop the system. In a comparatively short 
time considerable extensions took place and the service was 
placed on a proper basis. Its importance and utility were 
fully demonstrated during the civil war in Kyushu, and its 
use gave the Government troops a great advantage over the 
rebels. In the following year the Emperor made a tour 
round Japan and many telegraph offices were opened ; 
shortly afterwards the country joined the Telegraph Union, 
and thus both internally and externally the telegraph service 
was placed on a fair road to satisfactory development. That 
development was hastened by the work of the graduates of 
the Imperial College of Engineering and by the operators 
and workmen who were trained under their superintendence. 
In a recent report it is stated that " in short, the technical 
knowledge possessed by Japan in the work of constructing 
lines and apparatus has been advanced to a state of efficiency, 
and both in respect of applying the latest developments of 
science and art and of training the staff of operators and 
experts, our telegraphic service can well stand comparison 
with that of Western countries " ; and there can be no 
doubt that this claim is well founded. Besides the offices 
maintained in the interior, the Government also possesses 
telegraph offices at Fusan, Seoul, and Jinsen, all in Korea. 
There are now about 2200 telegraph offices throughout 
Japan, and they are being increased as the demand arises 
for them as quickly as means will allow, and it is expected 
that before long all the post offices in Japan will be con- 
nected by telegraph lines. In the more thickly populated 
districts of Japan proper, that is in Kyushu and Shikoku, 
the offices are at the rate of one per nine square ri approxi- 
mately. The latest developments of electrical science and 
the most improved appliances have been fully utilised in the 
telegraph system of Japan. 

The following table shows the development of telegraphs 
in Japan since 1869 : — 



Means of Communication 



147 







Telegraphs. 


Number of 


Length 


Length 


Number 






Offices open 


of 


of 


of 






to the Public. 


Lines. 


Wires. 


Messages. 








Ri. 


Ri. 




1869 




2 


8 


8 


? 


1870 




4 


19 


19 


? 


1871 




4 


19 


19 


19,448 


1872 




18 


160 


185 


80,639 


1873 




28 


354 


536 


186,448 


1874 




34 


433 


1.325 


356,539 


1875 




47 


637 


I.590 


525,930 


1876 




5i 


672 


1,626 


690,162 


1877 




68 


947 


1,946 


868,970 


1878 




97 


1310 


2,828 


1,037,884 


1879 




112 


1518 


3,211 


1,659,702 


1880 




155 


1722 


4.037 


2,041,372 


1881 




169 


1871 


4,666 


2,585,663 


1882 




185 


1990 


5,116 


2,978,763 


1883 




*95 


2056 


5,496 


2,678,860 


1884 




213 


2216 


5,803 


2,723,613 


1885 




216 


2243 


5,921 


2,670,311 


1 886 




219 


2265 


5,948 


2,540,928 


1S87 




231 


2346 


6,209 


2,647,536 


1888 




251 


2452 


6,723 


2,842,331 


1S89- 


189c 


> 3" 


2574 


7,275 


3,675,802 


1S90- 


1891 


408 


2900 


8,218 


4,316,366 


1891- 


1892 


524 


3244 


9,245 


4,728,728 


1892- 


189; 


633 


3557 


10,052 


5,466,095 


1S93- 


189/ 


!• 716 


3S36 


10,388 


6,556,109 


1894- 


189 = 


762 


3983 


11,670 


8,359,774 


1895- 


iSgfJ 


787 


4044 


12,408 


9,410,985 


1S96- 


189; 


' II2S 


4903 


15,659 


11,099,150 


1897- 


1895 


i 1259 


5872 


19,158 


14,296,378 


1898- 


189c 


1272 


6127 


2 1 , 500 


15,188,008 


1899- 


1 90c 


> I450 


6534 


25,302 


14,496,130 


1900- 


1901 


I65I 


6999 


28,606 


16,789,543 


1901- 


1902 


! 1S56 


736i 


3i,i7o 


16,596,806 


1902- 


190: 


2198 


7628 


33,584 


17,635,461 



Telephones. 



Some time in 1877 I had a set of telephone instruments 
sent out from London, which were the first in Japan, and 
having connected my office in the Engineering 
College with that of the Public Works Depart- 
ment, they were shown in operation to a large number of 
visitors. Other instruments were gradually introduced and 
used for short distances, but it was not till some years later 
that telephones became largely used as public means of 



148 Dai Nippon 

communication. The first long line was constructed in 1888 
between Tokyo and Atami. The scope of operations was 
next extended as far as Shizuoka, and then to Osaka, and 
with success in both cases. During the past ten years 
especially great progress has been made in telephonic com- 
munication in Japan, and it is now being used freely, not 
only for business purposes, but also for social intercourse. 
Reference must, however, be made to special reports for 
details. 

Among the methods of communication which have been 
the means of causing great changes in Japan, a prominent 
Postal place must be given to the postal services, that 
services, have now attained a high standard of efficiency. 
From an early period a very rudimentary form of postal 
service existed in Japan. As I have already mentioned, 
early in the seventeenth century a service was established 
by the Tokugawa Shoguns. At first this was limited to 
official uses, but later on it was imitated by business men. 
The intervals, however, between the despatches were con- 
siderable, and the methods of delivery crude and uncertain, 
but for more than two centuries this primitive system of 
postal service was in vogue. 

The great changes which took place in the country after 
the Restoration convinced the Government that the postal 
services could not be carried on with efficiency and benefit 
as private enterprises, and it was decided to run them as 
official undertakings. In January 1871 the new Postal 
Service System was promulgated, and it was put in force by 
way of trial between Tokyo, Osaka, and Kyoto in March of 
the same year, and very soon developments took place all 
over the country. 

In June 1877 Japan joined the International Postal 
Union, and from that date every effort was made to keep 
the arrangements of the Post Office Department up to the 
standard of Western countries. On June 20, 1902, on the 
occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the admission of 
Japan into the Union, a great celebration was held to mark 



Means of Communication 



149 



the occasion and to recount the work done. For some time 
Japanese letter postage was the cheapest in the world, being 
based on a silver standard which naturally shared in the 
universal depreciation of that metal. Inland letters went 
for 2 sen, that is about a halfpenny ; post-cards for half that 
sum. In 1899 these rates were raised fifty per cent ; so that 
domestic letters now cost 3 sen (for \ oz.), post-cards 1^ sen. 
Foreign postage to all countries included in the Postal Union 
is 10 sen (2^d., though originally intended to be equivalent 
to 5d.). There is an excellent system of postal savings- 
banks which at the end of the year 1902 had 27,196,802 
yen in deposit in the names of 2,363,335 individuals. The 
money orders and parcel post are largely made use of. The 
following figures show the increase in ordinary mail matter 
in ten years : — 



Year. 


Letters. 


Post-cards. 


Newspapers and 
Magazines. 


1892 
1897 
1 9OI 


74,991,639 
148,254,148 
190,951,188 


133,260,804 
287,069,246 
436,673,345 


50,829,871 

88,266,273 

139,116,263 



The dead-letter office in Japan has very light work, as it 
is the universal custom for correspondents to put their own 
name and address on the back of the envelope ; a custom 
which is now becoming somewhat common in other parts of 
the world. A detailed study of the work of the Post Office 
Department of Japan affords a very good index of the 
national progress in many of its aspects. 

The sketch which has been given of the development of 
the means of communication shows most distinctly that they 
must have been very important factors not only in the 
formation of Japan into an organic unity instead of a group 
of isolated feudal clans, but also in the promotion of national 
and international industry and commerce in all their depart- 
ments. Some of the most important of these we will now 
proceed to consider. 



1 50 Dai Nippon 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

The Reports of the Public Works Department and of the 
Departments of Communications give statistics of the development 
of the means of communication in Japan. A very complete resume 
is to be found in the Financial and Economical Annual issued by the 
Department of Finance, and in another annual issued by the Imperial 
Cabinet, namely the Resume Statistique de P Empire du Japan. 
Chapter vii. of H. Yamawaki's Japan in the beginning of the Twentieth 
Century gives the most connected account which has been published. 
The British and American Consular Reports have noted the pro- 
gress which has been made from year to year, and several special 
reports have been issued on the railways and shipping. Almost all 
the recent foreign books on Japan contain an outline of the arrange- 
ments and extent of railways, shipping, telegraphs, etc. 



CHAPTER VIII 

INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENTS 

FOR some time after the fall of feudalism the progress 
of Western industries in Japan was comparatively slow. 
The attention of the new Government was too T . , 

Introduction 

fully occupied with problems of administration of foreign 
and finance to allow them time to consider the industnes - 
reorganisation of industry, and few among the people had 
either the capital or the knowledge to enable them to make 
industrial developments on Western lines. As affairs settled 
down in the country, however, considerable numbers of 
foreign experts were engaged to superintend the working 
of special industries, but the success which attended their 
operations was not great. Some of these industries were 
started under the superintendence of the Public Works or 
some other department of the Government, while others were 
undertaken by private individuals. In many cases the 
Japanese had to pay somewhat dearly for their experience. 
Not infrequently they were unfortunate in the selection 
which they made of their foreign employees, and occasionally 
the unsuitable economic conditions of the localities selected 
for the works brought about failure. Sometimes the want 
of success was due to an attempt to carry on the works 
entirely by Japanese before they had gained the requisite 
experience. Withal, progress was made, and especi- 
ally when men who had been educated in the colleges 
in Japan, and who had supplemented their training by 
experience in Europe and America, returned to their native 

151 



152 Dai Nippon 

countiy. From about 1880 onwards, the progress has been 
wonderful, and for some years there was quite a boom in 
industrial undertakings, some of which, however, were of 
too speculative a nature to be successful financially. The 
war with China in 1894-5 marked an epoch not only in 
the political history of Japan, but also in its economic and 
industrial history, and its successful termination gave an 
impetus to every department of national activity ; which had 
a great effect on industrial development. 

While that development has been very great, especially 
in the neighbourhood of large towns, it must not be imagined 
Conditions of that all the industries of old Japan have dis- 
nauve industries, appeared or changed their methods to any 
great extent. Mr. Stafford Ransome has truly said : " Any 
one whose business it might be to visit the modern factories 
in the Japan of to-day, and who afterwards might pick up 
Rein's Industries of Japan, thoughtful and excellent in 
every way as is that work, might well imagine that what he 
had seen and what he reads in that book had to do with 
two absolutely different countries. This does not mean that 
the industrial Japan described so ably by Rein has ceased 
to exist, but that during the last few years, side by side 
with the picturesque, effective, and time-honoured native 
handicrafts, there have sprung up into being the essentially 
progressive but inartistic factory chimney, and its accompany- 
ing and still more hideous workshops, built on the most 
approved-of European and American designs. My advice 
to the visitor to Japan, who wishes to enjoy himself and 
improve his mind, is to study the industrial Japan depicted 
by Rein ; for though less obtrusive, it still remains, and is 
far more interesting than its modern congener. Let him see 
the making of cloisonne ware, embroidery, rice-mats, and 
carving, and admire the curios, toys, hand-weaving, and 
painting, while those are arts still to be seen as now carried on ; 
for my conviction is that, if the old Japan is destined to die, 
as we are so often told is to be the case, mortification will first 
attack its native industries." 



Industrial Developments 153 

I shall discuss the probable future of the artistic in- 
dustries of Japan in a future chapter, but as native industries 
are still carried on to a considerable extent Methods of 
and as their products still form a large part natlve industries - 
of the industrial output of the country, a few notes regard- 
ing them will meantime be convenient. 

During the Tokugawa period, extending over two 
hundred and sixty years, Japan was in a state of perfect 
tranquillity, and the feudal chiefs did a great deal to encourage 
and protect manufacturing industry, especially that of an 
artistic nature. The energy which was formerly spent on 
internecine war was expended in friendly rivalry in the 
industrial arts, and the consequence was that a very high 
standard of excellence was attained. The best work was 
not made for sale, but for use or presentation ; time was not 
money, and the artificers and artists threw their personalities 
and all their skill into their work. Both artists and work- 
men were free to work when they felt in the mood to do 
justice to their objects, and equally free to seek repose the 
instant fatigue notified them of their failing powers. They 
therefore had real pleasure in their work, and each of the 
products was a distinct specimen of skill, perfect, novel, and 
idiosyncratic. Nothing short of what they considered 
perfection was allowed to pass ; for their honour as craftsmen 
and artists was at stake. Usually they worked by them- 
selves in their own cottages, or else with a few sympathetic 
associates, on such branches of art as had been perfected by 
many generations of their ancestors through the fostering 
care of their feudal lords. Skill passed from fathers to sons 
or adopted sons, and surrounded by their own domestic circle 
they carried on their work under conditions which were 
almost perfect from an artistic point of view. Qualified 
critics and fellow -workers kept up a spirit of healthy 
emulation, and the worker unconsciously imbibed in a more 
or less degree some of the purity, poetry, and refinements of 
the motives which actuated his art. 

It cannot be wondered that the specimens of Japanese 



154 Dai Nippon 

industry which found their way to Nagasaki, and from there 
to Europe, when the Dutch were the only people who had inter- 
course with the Japanese, are still looked upon as the best 
specimens of Japanese art work, and that the Tokugawa 
period is considered the golden age of Japanese art. Some 
of the best products of the period are now better represented 
in European museums than in Japan. The industries were 
fairly well diffused over the country, although naturally 
certain districts became specially noted for their products. 
Textile fabrics in silk, hemp, and cotton were produced in many 
parts of the country 7 , and porcelain wares in those districts in 
which clay of good quality was to be found. 

The economic and social changes which took place on 
the fall of the feudal system played havoc with all the 
Change of Japanese art industries, even with those of a 
conditions. purely mechanical nature, and great hardships 
were inflicted on the workers. Many were reduced to 
poverty, and others were compelled to undertake work of a 
menial kind. As affairs settled down production for sale 
and profit took the place of production for use and enjoy- 
ment, with a consequent debasement of taste and workman- 
ship, and the art products were made to suit what were 
believed to be foreign tastes. In recent years, however, 
great improvements have taken place, and it is now possible 
to obtain specimens of Japanese art workmanship, which 
are of a high standard of excellence but with modified 
ideals of art and under conditions approximating to the 
factory as distinguished from the domestic system. The 
modern factory system as applied in all the chief industries 
is crushing out many of the smaller trades of a domestic 
nature, although the combination of industries of various 
kinds with agriculture still prevails to a large extent. The 
spare time of the farmers and of their wives and families is 
utilised in those domestic industries, and in this way they do 
not compete directly with the large factories. They are 
thus likely to exist for a considerable time, although as 
industry and commerce are more organised and specialised 



Industrial Developments 155 

they are certain to become of less importance and probably 
ultimately to disappear. 

The factory system has made remarkable progress in 
Japan ; modern industries are now dotting themselves 
about all over the country, and many of the larger towns 
have become industrial centres of considerable importance. 
Even Tokyo is becoming distinguished for its high chimney- 
stalks and manufacturing establishments, but being spread 
over a great area they are not so self-evident as in other 
parts of the country. Osaka is rapidly developing into an 
industrial city pure and simple, and Englishmen sometimes 
call it the Manchester, Scotsmen the Glasgow, Frenchmen 
the Lille, Germans the Hamburg, and Americans the Chicago 
of Japan ; but, as Mr. Stafford Ransome has truly remarked, 
while one " of course sees the idea which gave birth to these 
respective similes, yet Osaka is not in the least like any 
one of the cities mentioned, and never will be ; for the 
individuality of the Japanese will always be strong enough 
to prevent the possibility of their adopting any of our 
Western methods in their entirety, even in the carrying out 
of their modern industries." 

The changes which have taken place in the life and 
industry of Japan have caused a very largely increased 
demand for wood for manufacturing, engineer- supply of 
ing, and other purposes. Moreover, large timber. 
quantities have been exported to China and Korea. This 
has caused greater attention to be paid to the forestry 
industry. Not only has the Government taken steps to 
prevent the destruction of existing forests, but also to 
introduce the most improved methods, so that the natural 
capabilities of the forests may be developed and the 
demands of the new conditions of the nation more fully 
met. The Forestry Department has issued very complete 
reports on the subject, but meantime we can do little more 
than mention it. According to the Government statistics 
for 1 90 1 (which are the latest published) the area of the 
forests of Japan is 23,087,365 cho, that is over 59 per cent 



2 1 per c< 


;nt 


25 „ , 


> 


45 » ■ 


, 


9 » . 


' 


100 „ 


» 



156 Dai Nippon 

of the area of the whole country, and of these 13,125,320 
cho are State forests, 2,091,755 cho imperial forests, and 
7,870,260 cho people's forests, and the variety of woods is 
very considerable, depending on the nature of the soil and 
the climate. The different classes of forests are in the 
following proportions in the forest areas of Japan . — 

Conifer forests .... 

Broad-leaved forests .... 
Conifer and broad-leaved forests 
Thinly-stocked or blank areas, etc. 



The great demand for wood which has arisen for 

purposes of construction and industry caused a large amount 

of thoughtless deforestation ; in recent years 

Modern , _ fa , J , . 

improvements the Government has taken steps to prevent this, 
m Japanese definite regulations have been drawn out which 

forestry. ° 

are now rigidly enforced, and when they have 
been in operation for some years they will revolutionise 
the conditions of the forests, and greatly develop their pro- 
duction. According to the existing system, the Minister of 
Agriculture and Commerce has the supreme supervision of all 
matters relating to State forests and to forests at large, and, 
subject to his control, the Forestry Bureau takes charge of 
all matters relating to the administration and scientific 
treatment of forests. Under this supervision many marked 
improvements have been made in recent years. 

These improvements are, to a very considerable extent, 
the result of the developments which have taken place in 
arboricultural education. Not only is very complete instruc- 
tion given in the College of Agriculture of the Imperial 
University of Tokyo, but higher courses are given in the 
Sapporo Agricultural College and the High Agricultural 
and Dendrological School at Iwate. In each of these 
institutions attention is paid to the training of specialists 
who are to combine adequate scientific and practical 



Industrial Developments 157 

knowledge of forestry, and who on leaving are qualified to 
attend with efficiency to the duty of managing and im- 
proving the forests. The Government is giving special 
encouragement to the study of this useful science, by 
offering to the graduates comparatively good posts. For 
the subordinate posts there are secondary schools where 
special courses are given in the practical sides of the work. 

A considerable number of Laws and Ordinances have 
been issued with regard to the regulation of forestry con- 
ditions, and altogether the work which has been done in this 
Department is not the least noteworthy of the national 
developments which have taken place in Japan. The 
Japanese have always been distinguished for their love of 
forests, and many are inclined to think that they owe 
much of their patriotism and aesthetic sense to the influence 
the forests have exercised upon them. 

The people of Japan were not slow to recognise the 
fact that the Britain of the West in great part owed its 
predominant position among the nations of the Mining and 
world to its abundant mineral resources, and metallurgy, 
especially those of coal and iron, which enabled it to carry 
on all kinds of manufacturing industries, and they determined 
to develop the mineral resources of their country as rapidly 
as possible. In some respects the mineral resources of 
Japan are limited, but some of the most important harbours 
are very conveniently situated for trade with China, from 
which abundance of raw materials can be obtained at a 
cheap rate. 

Nothing accurate is known about the origin of the 
mining industry in Japan, but history records that, as early 
as the seventh or eighth century, gold, silver, copper, iron, 
coal, and petroleum were produced in various parts of the 
country, but the operations were carried on on a small scale. 
Since the Restoration, however, great progress has been 
made in almost every department of mining. The following 
table shows the production in the more important depart- 
ments since 1886 : — 



Dai Nippon 







i- 


cm 


NO 


M 


CO 


t-^ 


o 


NO 


NO 


O 


CO 


o 


CO 


NO 


NO 


00 








NO 


NO 


CM 


CM 






CO 


NO 


in 


t^ 


r^ 


t^ 


CO 


ON 


1^ 






T" 


<* 


r>. 


CO 


in 


<* 


NO 


CO 




CM 


CO 


CO 








<* 










































m 


00 


ON 


o 


ON 


CO 


CM 


*fr 


t-^ 


T(- 


CO 


NO 


CN! 


CN) 


"* 


o 




ri- 


o 


in 


NO 


ON 


■* 


^r 




in 


00 


NO 


CO 


o 


NO 


NO 


CO 


X 


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Industrial Developments 



159 



Taking the last of these years, the following table gives 
an approximate estimate of the value of the more important 
of the mineral products : — 



Kinds. 


Units. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Gold .... 


Momme 


652,356 


Yen. 
3,261,780 


Silver 






,, 


14,174,489 


2,055,301 


Copper . 






Kin 


45,652,927 


16,252,442 


Lead 






,, 


3,004,983 


246,409 


Pewter . 






,, 


23,422 


13,749 


Iron 






Kwan 


18,680,043 


2,947,684 


Pig Iron 






,, 


14,686,801 


2,041,465 


Matte 






,, 


335,551 


32,884 


Wrought Iron 




,, 


412,246 


172,319 


Steel . 




,, 


3,245,445 


70I,Ol6 


Sulphate of Iron 




,, 


4,690,270 


27,782 


Silica 




Kin 


17,187 


1,633 


Quicksilver 




>s 


1,250 


1,688 


Antimony 




,, 


911,462 


13,814 


Refined 




,, 


714,276 


117,856 


Sulphate . 




,, 


197,186 


16,958 


Manganese 




,, 


27,115,884 


108,464 


Coal 




Ton 


8,945,939 


30,592,971 


Bituminous 




,, 


8,811,903 


30,207,203 


Anthracite . 




,. 


S6,554 


230,407 


Natural Coke 




,, 


47,482 


i55,36i 


Lignite . 




,, 


9,740 


16,343 


Petroleum 




Koku 


9^3,799 


2,278,418 


Sulphur . 




Kin 


27,580,478 


386,127 


Black-lead 






M6,495 
Total Value 


17,433 








58,343,038 



In feudal times the operations of mining and metallurgy 
were carried on in very primitive methods, but now full 
advantage is taken of all the latest appliances. In the 
latter days of the Shogunate, that is in the year 1867, an 
Englishman, Erasmus Gower, introduced into the country 
the use of explosives, which he employed in the silver-gold 
mine in Sado, and about the same time an American, 
Raphael Pumpelly, also used an explosive in the Yurap 
lead mine in Hokkaido. In 1868 the feudal lord of Saga, 
in conjunction with a Scotsman, Thomas Glover, sank a 
shaft in European style at Takashima, and this was the 
beginning of the development of the now celebrated coal 



1 60 Dai Nippon 

mines of that district, which supply with coal many of 
the ships that visit Japan. 

At the Restoration the new Government undertook the 
mining business itself, and placed the Sado, Ikuno, Muoi, 
Ani, Kosaka, Kamaishi, and Okuzu metal mines, as well as 
the Takashima and Miike collieries, under its direct control. 
Foreign engineers were employed and Western methods 
adopted in carrying on the work. As the graduates of the 
Imperial College of Engineering and others who had studied 
in foreign countries were able to take charge, very rapid 
developments took place, an example was set to private 
mining companies and many of these were started. They 
were not always successful, but on the whole good progress 
was made. Gradually the Government handed over their 
model mines to private companies, and mining in Japan is 
now almost entirely carried on by private enterprise. For 
details, however, we must refer to special reports. 

Japanese copper is of high quality and free from 
impurities, and thus of great value for electrical purposes ; 
already it has been the cause of a wide application of 
electrical power for manufactures and to the development 
of industries connected with electricity. Gold and silver 
mining, as will be seen from the figures quoted above, is 
attaining considerable importance. The production of 
sulphur is large and finds many applications in the chemical 
industries. The petroleum industry is developing. At 
first the sinking of wells was done by manual labour, but in 
1890 the Japan Petroleum Joint-Stock Company introduced 
American oil-well boring machines with success, and this, 
with other improved appliances, is rapidly causing an 
important industry to be built up. 

As will be seen from the figures which have been given, 
the production of coal has increased at a rapid rate, and it 
is capable of great development — a fact which is of great 
importance from an industrial point of view. 

Still more important is the production of iron and steel, 
as it forms the basis of engineering in all its forms. 



Industrial Developments 1 6 1 

Although the deposits of iron ore in Japan are considerable, 
they are not in themselves sufficient to allow a great 
development of the iron and steel industries, and the 
recognition of this fact has already led to arrangements 
being made for the supply of iron ore from China, where the 
supplies are very large. In this as in other departments 
of industry a close connection between Japan and China is 
necessary, not only for the supply of raw materials, but also 
for the disposal of the manufactured products. 

The Government has established large steel works near 
Wakamatsu, an excellent harbour in the north - western 
corner of the island of Kyushu, ten miles distant from the 
important port of Moji. They are connected by a branch 
of the main line of the Kyushu railway, are in the immediate 
vicinity of the most abundant and cheapest coal-producing 
districts of Japan, and have an abundant supply of excellent 
water conveyed from the river Itabitsu, and amounting at 
the ordinary water-level to nearly 2,000,000 gallons per 
diem. They are divided into three principal departments — 
(i) pig-iron, (2) steel, and (3) rolling mills. The first is 
fitted with coke ovens and blast-furnace plants, the second 
has mixed Bessemer and open-hearth plants, and a steel 
foundry, and the third, blooming rail mill, large, middle, and 
small bar-mill, sheet-mill, middle and large plate-mill plant. 
In addition there are a central pumping station, an electric 
central station, repair shops, iron foundry, pattern and boiler 
shops, smithy, and chemical and mechanical laboratory. 
Every one of these is provided with a complete outfit of all 
the necessary machinery and appliances, all of the most 
modern and efficient types of German manufacture. 

The works have evidently been designed on an extremely 

comprehensive and ambitious scale, but unfortunately due 

regard has not been paid to the financial conditions 

necessary for success. Their cost has far exceeded the 

estimates, and although a beginning has been made in the 

production of iron and steel, the cost is much greater than 

that of imported material. The Government would have 
(b 207) M 



1 62 Dai Nippon 

been well advised to have started the works on a much 
smaller scale and developed them as experience was gained. 
Although a mistake has been made in this respect, there 
can be no doubt that these works will ultimately have a 
very important influence on the industrial development of 
Japan. Their excessive cost is part of the price which 
Japan has had to pay for her experience. 

The record given in the preceding chapter proves that 
in all the ordinary branches of what are usually called civil 

„. .. , engineering construction the Japanese are 
mechanical now able to carry on the work entirely on 
engineering. ^ e [ r own responsibility. They can construct 
their roads, railways, bridges, docks and harbours all in 
very good style and at moderate cost. In all these depart- 
ments they are continually sending their most promising 
young men to foreign countries to learn the most improved 
methods, and to make themselves acquainted with the latest 
design, so that there is little danger of the various works 
falling behind the times. The Japanese keep a very sharp 
look-out on all that is done in Europe and America. 

Considerable progress has been made in the various 
departments of mechanical engineering. When I went to 
Japan in 1873 comparatively small mechanical engineering 
establishments were found in Tokyo, Yokohama, Kobe, 
and Nagasaki, but they were inadequate for the proper 
training of students, and large works were started under 
my management in connection with the Public Works 
Department at Akabane, Tokyo, in which the majority 
of the students of the Imperial College of Engineering spent 
considerable time, and they were of great use in the practical 
training of the students. I insisted on all the students of 
the various departments of engineering spending some time 
in the workshops before they took up their special work, 
and they found this preliminary training of the greatest value. 
I wish to record my high opinion of the efficient service 
rendered by George S. Brindley, the superintending foreman 
at the Akabane works. 



Industrial Developments 163 

There are now in connection with the railways, the 
shipbuilding and shipping companies, the navy and the 
army, as well as other departments of the Government, 
a considerable number of well -equipped workshops, all 
turning out on the whole fairly good work, while private 
establishments of all grades of size and efficiency are to be 
found in many parts of the country. These are now able 
to turn out all the ordinary machines and mechanical 
appliances, as well as the land engines and boilers for 
factories, electric lighting and pumping. Almost all the 
marine engines and boilers for the home-built boats are 
made in Japan ; in some cases the designs have been 
got from abroad, and the work done in the Japanese work- 
shops ; they also make their own dynamos and electric 
motors and electric fittings of all kinds. The number of 
electric tram-roads is increasing steadily throughout the 
country. Some of the tramcars are imported, some have 
parts imported and the rest made in Japan. A considerable 
number of machines and appliances of all kinds are still 
bought abroad, especially if they are wanted in a hurry, 
but if not pressed for time, they are usually made in the 
workshops in Japan. 

The railway workshops are mostly confined to repairs, 
but at Kobe several new locomotives have been constructed, 
and there is a private locomotive building establishment in 
Osaka which has built a number of locomotives and a 
considerable quantity of general rolling stock. An Anglo- 
Japanese Locomotive and Engineering Company has been 
formed, and plans have been made for the erection of a 
large establishment in Yokohama which will undertake the 
manufacture of locomotives and all other kinds of railway 
rolling stock. The value of the machinery made in Japan 
in the year 1899 (the latest for which returns have been 
published) is given as 4,175,144 yen. 

One of the earliest Western industries to be introduced 
into Japan was the coinage of money, and it has been one 
of the most successful. Article VI. of the Convention 



1 64 Dai Nippon 

signed at Yedo on June 25, 1866, between a Minister of 

Foreign Affairs in Japan and the representatives of Great 

The imperial Britain, France, the United States of America, 

Mmt - and Holland stipulated for the establishment of 

a free mint on certain conditions. The Japanese Govern- 
ment purchased from the British Government a mint which 
had been established at Hong-Kong, but which the latter 
had resolved to discontinue. Major Kinder and a staff of 
officials were engaged to superintend the operations which 
were begun in Osaka in 1869, and the establishment was 
completed and opened with great ceremony on April 4, 
1 87 1, the foreign representatives having been invited to be 
present. Among the members of the staff the best known 
were Mr. E. Dillon, B.A., F.C.S., technical adviser and 
assayer, Mr. W. Gowland, F.C.S., Assoc. R.S.M. (now 
Professor of Metallurgy at the Royal College of Science, 
London), technical adviser, chemist, and metallurgist, 
and Mr. R. MacLagan, engineer ; all these gentlemen 
rendered very efficient service to the establishment. The 
latest report of the director, that for the year ending 
March 31, 1903, shows that the work is being carried on 
in a very satisfactory manner. The coinage during that 
year consisted of 10 yen gold and 50 sen silver coins, 
amounting to 5,351,126 pieces of the value of 38,300,563 
yen, against 21,354,919 pieces of the preceding year valued 
at 15,903,726 yen, in six denominations of gold, silver, 
nickel, and bronze coins. In addition to these, 668,782 
pieces of silver yen were struck during the year for the 
reserve fund of the Taiwan Ginko (Bank of Formosa). On 
the whole the Imperial Mint has been one of the most 
useful establishments in Japan. In this connection it may 
be mentioned that there is a large Government establishment 
in Tokyo for the printing of bank and other notes, so that 
Japan is thoroughly well equipped for the provision of all 
that is necessary for the currency. 

In Chapter VII. the rise and progress of the modern 
Japanese mercantile marine has been sketched, so that 



Industrial Developments 165 

meantime it will be sufficient to give a few details regarding 
the shipbuilding industries and those otherwise directly- 
connected with shipping. The following returns shipbuilding 
of the shipbuilding output for last year, as and shl PP' n g- 
supplied by the special correspondent of the Glasgow Herald, 
gives a good idea of the present condition of the industry : — 

Steam. 1902. 

<- ' -. 

Ves. Tons. Tons. 

Yokosuka Dockyard ....... 5 3,940 4,413 

Kure Dockyard 8 1,710 3,420 

Sasebo Dockyard ........ 3 270 270 

The Mitsu Bishi Works . ...... 6 14,940 14,561 

Kawasaki Dockyard Company ..... 8 5, 218 3,280 

Osaka Ironworks ........ 5 3,518 1,582 

Owaki's Shipyard ........ 1 1,628 1,526 

Fuginagata Shipyard ....... 3 1,382 523 

Other firms *20 2,805 5,457 

* Includes 1 1 sailers of 640 tons. 59 35,411 35,032 



Vessel. 
Otowa 
Hayatori . 
Asagiri 
Two vessels 



DOCKYARD, 


YOKO 


SUKA. 




Type. 


Displt. 


I.H.P. 


Registry. 


3rd cl. cruiser 


3000 


10,000 


Jap. Govt 


T.b.d. 


380 


6,000 


Jap. Govt 


T.b.d. 


380 


6,000 


Jap. Govt 


T.b.'s 


180 


2,400 


Jap. Govt 



3940 24,400 



THE IMPERIAL DOCKYARD, KURE. 



Vessel. 








Type. 


Displt. 


I.H.P. 


Kari . . . . .1st class t.b. 


152 


4,200 


Uji. . 








Gunboat 


646 


I,O0O 


Aotaka . 








1st class t.b. 


J 52 


4,200 


Hato 








1st class t.b. 


152 


4,200 


Tsubame 








1st class t.b. 


152 


4,200 


Hibari . 








1st class t.b. 


152 


4,200 


Kiji 








1st class t.b. 


152 


4,200 


Sagi 








1st class t.b. 


152 


4,200 



Registry. 

Jap. Govt. 
Jap. Govt. 
Jap. Govt. 
Jap. Govt. 
Jap. Govt. 
Jap. Govt. 
Jap. Govt. 
Jap. Govt. 



1710 



30,400 



THE IMPERIAL DOCKYARD, SASEBO. 



Vessel. Type. Displt. i.h.p. Registry. 

Three vessels T.b.'s 270 3600 Jap. Govt. 

Also a caisson for new dry dock to take 1st class battleships. 



1 66 



Dai Nippon 



THE MITSU BISHI WORKS, NAGASAKI. 



Vessel. 
Kojima Maru . 
Tamamo Maru 
Niigata Maru . 
Yeiko Maru 
Nikko Maru . 
Ceylon Maru . 



Type. 
Ferry t.s.s. 
Ferry t.s.s. 
Cargo s.s. 
Passenger s.s. 
Passenger s.s. 
Cargo s.s. 



Tons. 
220 
220 
2IOO 
I900 
5.SOO 
5000 



I.H.P. 
320 
320 

I200 
I500 
65OO 
^?200 



Registry. 
Shimonoseki. 
Shimonoseki. 
Tokio. 
Tokio. 
Tokio. 
Tokio. 



14,940 13,040 



KAWASAKI DOCKYARD COMPANY (LTD.), KOBE. 



Vessel. 


Type. 


Tons. 


I.H.P. 


Registry. 


Heijo Maru . 


Spardeck s.s. 


I208 


Il85 


Osaka. 


Kagawa Maru 


Spardeck s.s. 


614 


949 


Osaka. 


Yehima Maru 


Spardeck s.s. 


614 


955 


Osaka. 


Two vessels . 


. T.b. (2d class). 


178 


2400 


Jap. Govt. 


Otori . 


. T.b. (1st class). 


152 


35oo 


Jap. Govt. 


Hashitaka 


. T.b. (1st class). 


152 


35oo 


Jap. Govt. 


Taisei Maru . 


. Aux. t.s. barque. 


23OO 


900 


Tokio. 



T.b.'s are displacement. 



521J 



OSAKA IRONWORKS AND DOCKYARD. 



Vessel. 


Type. 


Tons. 


I.H.P. 


Registry 


Tensho Maru 


. S.s. 


528 


350 


Osaka. 


Korin Mara 


. S.s. 


75° 


500 


Osaka. 


Siang Kiang Maru 


. T.s.s. 


935 


750 


Tokio. 


Yuen Kiang Maru 


. T.s.s. 


935 


75° 


Tokio 


Reibun Maru 


. S.s. 


370 


300 


Otaru. 



3518 2650 

OWAKI'S SHIPYARD, SHINAGAWA. 

Vessel. Type. Tons. i.h.p. Registry. 

Kwannon Maru, No. 26 . . . Wd. s.s. 1628 1500 Shinagawa. 

FUJINAGATA SHIPBUILDING YARD, OSAKA. 



Vessel. 
Nagata Maru, No. 
Kaishun Maru . 
Ikuta Maru 



13 



Type. 


Tons. 


I.H.P. 


Registry. 


W.d. s.s. 


580 


450 


Not stated 


W.d. s.s. 


112 


85 


Not stated 


S.s. 


690 


500 


Not stated 



1382 1035 



Vessel. 
Kyodo Maru, No. 7 



ONO'S SHIPYARD, OSAKA. 



Type. 
Wd. s.s. 



Tons. 
548 



I.H.P. 
44O 



Registry. 
Tokushima. 



Industrial Developments 167 

SORA SHIPBUILDING YARD, OSAKA. 

Vessel. Type. Tons. i.h.p. Registry. 

Uwajima Maru Wd. s.s. 464 482 Not stated 

KISHIMOTO SHIPBUILDING YARD. 

Vessel. Type. Tons. i.h.p. Registry. 

Shin-Yu-Maru Wd. s.s. 415 330 Kishiwada. 

CHUJIO'S SHIPBUILDING YARD, TOSA. 

Vessel. Type. Tons. Registry. 

Juho Maru ...... Wood sailer 147 Kochi. 

Kaitsu Maru Wood sailer 159 Kochi. 

306 

THE URAGA DOCK COMPANY (LIMITED). 

Vessel. Type. Tons. i.h.p. Registry. 

Uraga Maru, No. 2 . . . Tug s.s. 173 200 Uraga. 

One vessel Dredger 14 50 Uraga. 

Two vessels ..... Hopper barges 52 — Uraga. 

239 250 

MIYAGAWA SHIPBUILDING YARD, OSAKA. 

Vessel. Type. Tons. i.h.p. Registry. 

Teshiogawa Maru W.d. s.s. 180 150 Osaka. 

THE ISHIKAWAJIMA S. & E. CO. (LTD.), TOKIO. 

Vessel. Type. Tons. Registry. 

One vessel P.s. gl Not stated. 

Six vessels Barges. 122 J 

174 
NAKAMURA'S SHIPYARD, OSAKA. 

Vessel. Type. Tons. i.h.p. Registry. 

Taisei Maru Wd. s.s. 164 130 Not stated. 

OKUBO SHIPBUILDING YARD, OSAKA. 

Vessel. Type. Tons. Registry. 

Shoun Maru ..... Wood sailer 160 Osaka. 

FUKUI SHIPBUILDING YARD, OSAKA. 

Vessel. Type. Tons. i.h.p. Registry. 

Kanei Maru Wd. s.s. 155 200 Kobe. 



1 68 Dai Nippon 

YOKOHAMA DOCK CO. (LTD.), 

have docked and repaired about ioo vessels, and repaired a large number out 
of dock. 

MARINE ENGINEERING. 

The following table summarises the Japanese marine engineering of 
the year, details of which appear in the shipbuilding returns : — 

Total 1902. 

I.H.P. I.H.P. 

Kure Dockyard ......... 30,400 10,000 

Yokosuka Dockyard 24,400 25,075 

Sasebo Dockyard ......... 3,600 3, 600 

Kawasaki Dockyard Company 13,389 4,450 

The Mitsu Bishi Works 13,040 12,265 

The Osaka Ironworks ........ 2,650 2,688 

Owaki's Shipyard . 1,500 1,100 

Fuginagata Shipyard i>°35 280 

Other firms 1,982 4,662 

91,996 64,120 

The most important shipbuilding establishment in 
Japan is that of the Mitsu Bishi Company at Nagasaki ; 
it is now able to turn out vessels of 6000 tons, which 
as regards design and workmanship will bear favourable 
comparison with those built in Europe. The works are 
thoroughly well equipped in every respect, and the docks 
capable of taking in the largest steamers which go to the 
Far East. The other important private shipyards are the 
Kawasaki works at Kobe, the yard connected with the 
Osaka Ironworks, and the establishments belonging to the 
Ishikawajima Company at Tokyo, and the Uraga Dock 
Company near the entrance of the Bay of Tokyo, all of 
which are now turning out good work. 

The three most important Government dockyards are 
(1) Yokosuka, in the Bay of Tokyo ; (2) Kure, in the Inland 
Sea ; and (3) Sasebo, on the west side of the island of 
Kyushu. They are all equipped for repairs rather than for 
new work, and in this respect form a contrast with the 
private yards. Third-class cruisers have been built at 
Yokosuka and Kure, but all the larger vessels in the 
Japanese Navy have been built abroad, chiefly in Britain. 



Industrial Developments 169 

All these three Government establishments, on the other 
hand, have magnificent graving docks and all the appliances 
necessary for repairs in time of war, and in that contingency 
they would be able to render very effective service. 

All these establishments, both private and Government, 
naturally involve a large number of subsidiary industries of 
all kinds, but into details of these we cannot enter. 

After the war with China the Government of Japan 
resolved to encourage both the shipping and the shipbuild- 
ing of the country, and in March 1896 the subsidies for 
Navigation Encouragement Law was promul- shipping and 
gated, which provides that any subject of Japan 
or any commercial company, the partners or shareholders 
of which are Japanese subjects, engaging themselves in the 
conveyance of passengers or goods between the empire and 
foreign countries or between foreign ports, with their own 
vessels of 1000 tons or more, registered in the shipping list 
of the empire, shall be granted subsidies in proportion to 
the distances traversed and the tonnage of the vessels used 
for the lines concerned, as is prescribed in the law. At 
the same time the Shipbuilding Encouragement Law was 
enacted, by which bounties were granted for the construction 
of vessels above 700 tons to any subject of the empire or 
any trade company engaged in shipbuilding, the partners 
and shareholders of which are Japanese subjects. Since 
these laws were passed the shipping and shipbuilding 
industries have made rapid progress. In a paper read by 
Mr. K. Uchida (Director of the Marine Bureau), before the 
Institution of Naval Architects in Japan, it was stated that 
under the shipbuilding law there had been built, up till the 
end of 1902, a total tonnage of 86,000 (gross) and 71,000 
indicated horse power. The following are the amounts 
paid to the steamship companies mentioned in Chapter VII. 
for their most important lines. 

The routes run by the Nippon Yusen Kaisha, and the respective 
subsidies, are as follow : — 

Yokohama to Melbourne, employing three steamers of 3500 tons 



1 70 Dai Nippon 

and above : speed, 16 knots and above. A monthly service. Subsidy 
,£53,600. Contract runs from April 1901 to March 1906. 

Yokohama to Bombay, employing three steamers of 3000 tons and 
above; 10 knots and above. A monthly service. Subsidy, ,£18,200. 
Contract runs from April 1901 to March 1906. 

European line, employing twelve steamers of 6000 tons and above ; 1 4 
knots and above. A fortnightly service. Subsidy .£272,800. Contract 
runs from January 1900 to December 1909. 

Hong-Kong to Seattle, employing three steamers of 6000 tons and 
above ; 1 5 knots and above. A four weeks' service. Subsidy, 
,£66,700. Contract runs from November 1901 to December 1909. 

Also mail routes : — 

1. Yokohama to Shanghai, employing three steamers of 2500 tons 
and above ; 14 knots and above. A weekly service. 

2. Kobe to North China, employing three steamers of 1400 tons 
and above; 12 knots and above. A weekly service, except in winter. 

3. Kobe, Korea, and North China, employing one steamer of over 
1400 tons : speed, over 12 knots. A four weeks' service. 

4. Kobe to Vladivostock, employing one steamer of over 1400 tons 
and 12 knots. A four weeks' service. 

5. Kobe to Otaru, employing twelve steamers of 1400 tons and 
above ; 1 4 knots and above. Two routes : eastern, ten times a month ; 
western, weekly. 

6. Aomori to Mororan, employing three steamers of 700 tons and 
above, 10 knots and above. A daily service. 

The joint subsidy for the foregoing six mail routes is .£56,100. 
Contract runs from October 1900 to September 1905. 

The Toyo Kisen Kaisha have the following route and subsidy : — 

Hong-Kong to San Francisco, employing three vessels of 6000 tons 
and above, and 17 knots and above. A four weeks' service. Subsidy, 
,£103,400. Contract runs from January 1900 to December 1909. 

The Osaka Shosen Kaisha have the following : — 

Shanghai to Hankow, employing three steamers of 2000 tons and 
above ; 1 1 knots and above. A bi-weekly service ; in winter, three 
times a fortnight. Subsidy, .£25,000. Contract runs from January 
1898 to December 1907. Hankow to Ichang, employing two vessels 
of 1500 tons and above; 10 knots and above. Service, six times a 
month; in winter four times. Subsidy, ,£11,200. Contract runs from 
January 1899 to December 1907. Kobe to Korea, employing two 
steamers of 700 tons and above ; 10 knots and above. A three weeks' 
service. Subsidy, .£3100. Contract runs from October 1900 to 
September 1905. 

The first two of the other companies mentioned run services on 



Industrial Developments 



171 



Chinese rivers and on the Japanese sea respectively, and receive 
subsidies, the one of ^5900, the other of ,£14,000. 

The total annual payments on account of the special services 
above detailed amount to .£630,000. 

The cotton-spinning industry is the one which has made 
the most rapid development, and which appeals cotton- 
most directly to British manufacturers, as its pro- spinning. 
ducts compete with them. The following table shows its 
growth and extent : — 



Year. 


Number 

of 
Cotton 


Gross 

Amount of 

Capital 


Average 

Number of 

Spindles 


Quantity of 
Raw and 

Ginned 

Cotton 

demanded. 


Total 
Production 
of Cotton 


Waste 

Cotton. 


Waste 

Cotton 

Yarn. 




Mills. 


invested. 


used daily. 


Yarn. 








Yen. 




Kwan. 


Kwan. 


Kwan. 


Kwan. 


I88S 


24 


? 


113,856 


1,807,066 


1,593,103 


140,986 


16,025 


1889 


2S 


? 


215,190 


3,859,464 


3,358,042 


3",97I 


51,971 


1890 


3° 


? 


277,895 


5,962,484 


5,132,588 


598,651 


88,565 


189I 


36 


8,7I5.5IO 


353,980 


8,995,293 


7,689,938 


823,003 


232,371 


1892 


39 


9,103,237 


403,314 


12,240,788 


9,997,20s 


906,116 


304,851 


1893 


40 


11,271,005 


3 Si, 7 8i 


",53I,307 


10,666,744 


1,178,059 


298,466 


1894 


45 


I3o08,030 


476,123 


17,179,774 


14,620,008 


1,816,333 


191,017 


1895 


47 


16,392,058 


518,736 


21,771,346 


18,437,011 


2,423,361 


251,879 


1896 


61 


22,860,709 


692,384 


24,803,618 


20,585,485 


2,915,950 


328,159 


1897 


74 


36,414,728 


768,328 


32,068,243 


26,134,120 


3,706,510 


1,177,099 


1898 


77 


42,342,080 


1,027,817 


42,544,656 


32,163,239 


4,980,687 


558,409 


1899 


83 


33,023,317 


1,170,327 


42,962,406 


43,052,402 


4,923,207 


587,343 


1900 


So 


35,908,512 


1,144,027 


38,323,770 


32,419,641 


3,889,848 


786,457 


I90I 


81 


36,690,567 


1,181,762 


38,681,886 


33,115,829 


4,092,460 


477,364 



The distribution of the cotton -spinning industry in 
different parts of the country is shown by the following 
figures, which give the latest published returns of the value 
for the year of the yarn produced in the various districts : — 





Yen. 




Yen. 


Tokyo 


2,278,953 


Okayama 


3.743,899 


Kyoto 


821,880 


Hiroshima 


912,591 


Osaka 


12,264,578 


Wakayama 


791.763 


Hyogo 


4,954,7 6 6 


Kagawa . 


363,557 


Nara 


1,114,763 


Ehime 


704,740 


Miye 


2,380,858 


Fukuoka . 


1,681,073 


Aichi 


2,242,658 







Cotton-spinning in Japan was started by the Daimyo 
of Satsuma at Kagoshima in 1865. The machinery came 



172 Dai Nippon 

from England and consisted of 6000 spindles. A few 
years later another factory was opened in Sakai, Idzumi 
province. In 1870 Mr. Kajuna Manbei started a similar 
factory, near Oji in the vicinity of Tokyo, and these were 
the only establishments of the kind in the country when 
I went to Japan. After some of the graduates of the 
Imperial College of Engineering, who had been to Britain 
and studied the construction and working of cotton-spinning 
machinery, had returned to Japan there was quite a boom 
in the erection of cotton mills ; the progress made was 
most remarkable, and many of the cotton mills in Japan 
will now bear favourable comparison with the best of those 
of England in organisation, equipment, and extent. They 
have as a rule been successful financially, many of them 
paying from 10 to 20 per cent per annum. On the other 
hand, some have not been so successful, partly on account 
of extravagant financial arrangements and partly because 
of excessive production before the markets were prepared. 
The latest published returns give the average rate of 
dividend of each company at 6.2 per cent for the first 
half of the year, and 3.5 for the second half; but averages 
in such cases do not give much information, as so much 
depends on management and on local and other conditions. 
The question of the supply of raw cotton for Japan is 
one of great importance and is receiving considerable atten- 
tion from those who are interested in the industry. It is a 
somewhat remarkable fact that the cultivation of cotton in 
Japan has gradually but steadily declined. The principal 
cause seems to be found in the fact that the native cotton 
is of much shorter fibre than the imported, and consequently 
not nearly so well adapted for spinning purposes. The chief 
supply of raw and ginned cotton comes from British India, 
China, Dutch India, Egypt, and the United States, with 
small quantities from other Eastern countries. The variations 
in the price brought about by the action of speculators and 
other causes are very troublesome, and have directed attention 
to the necessity of improving the cultivation .of cotton in 



Industrial Developments 173 

Japan. In recent years Japanese farmers have been 
devoting their attention to the introduction and cultivation 
of American upland cotton, with considerable success. The 
area available for this purpose is not great, and it is not 
improbable that the Japanese may turn their eyes to various 
parts of the world in order that they may have a more secure 
supply of the raw material for what has proved to be their 
most important manufacturing industry. 

A full discussion of the economic conditions and the future 
prospects of that industry would require much more space 
that can at present be spared, but sufficient has been said 
to show the rapid progress which has been made and the 
important place which it has taken in the national economy. 

Sericulture, or the art of rearing silk-worms, in Japan is 
said to date from the " Age of the Gods " ; since then it 
has always been of importance, and has shared The silk 
in the modern developments consequent on the industries, 
introduction of Western science and appliances, and a great 
deal might be written about it, if space allowed. The 
following is a resume of the industry in 1901 : — 

Silk-worm raisers (families engaged) . . 2,475,819 

Egg-cards (number manufactured) . . . 3,856,683 

Cocoons (in kokii) . ..... 2,526,181 

Egg-card manufacturers (families) . . . 18,138 

Raw Silk manufacturers (number of) . . 421,941 
Raw Silk output (in kin) . . . .10,972,981 

Raw Silk exported (in kin) .... 8,697,706 

Thus it will be seen that silk-producing forms one of the 
most important industries of Japan. Indeed, silk comes close 
after rice in importance as an article of domestic production, 
while as an article of export it has no compeer. It may even 
be said that silk holds the balance of Japan's foreign trade. 

Under feudalism the reeling of raw silk was carried 
on in the domestic system as subsidiary to agriculture, and 
the appliances were of a somewhat elementary nature, but 
in 1 870 the Government erected a model filature at Tomioka, 
Joshu, and engaged a French expert as superintendent. 



174 



Dai Nippon 



Since that time numerous other establishments of a similar 
kind have been started which have brought about a large 
increase in the production. The industry is not, however, 
by any means confined to large factories, as even those who 
were formerly contented with hand-reeling now took up 
frame- reeling, and adopted the practice of selling their 
product jointly by unifying its quality. According to the 
official returns for 1900, the output by machine-reeling was 
6,193,869 kin, as against 4,7 79, 57 5 kin by frame-reeling. 
The number of machine -reeling factories was 2072, 
employing 122,1 16 pans, and of frame-reeling establishments 
597, employing 55,022 pans, the figures being in each case 
for factories which employ ten workers or more. 

The following table gives the value of the out- 
Value of output of put in the principal textile industries for the 
textile industries. y ear ICj00 , and it is sufficient to give an 
idea of their relative importance : — 

Yen. 



Silk, raw 
Silk Yarn . 
Cotton Yarn 
Silk Fabrics, etc. 
Silk Handkerchiefs 
Cotton Fabrics, etc. 
Silk-cotton Fabrics 
Hempen Fabrics . 
Woollen Fabrics . 
Various (about) . 
Allied Industries — 
Straw Plaits . 
Hats and Caps 
Umbrellas (European) 
Matting; for Floor 



86,233,957 

4,296,883 

73,619,589 

166,936,604 

4,3*8,553 

122,652,764 

20,275,823 

2,851,981 

5>°34,7 2 ° 
20,000,000 

2,926,127 

424,321 
2,918,085 
3,039,795 



The printing press has been one of the most powerful 

factors in the evolution of modern Japan ; for it has been the 

The printing means not only of spreading useful knowledge 

industry. fo U £ a j so Q f educating public opinion on all 

matters affecting the national welfare and uniting the country 

for purposes of education, industry, and commerce, as well as 



Industrial Developments 175 

of defence. Printing is now one of the most important 
modern industries in Japan, the latest returns showing that 
there were 108 companies engaged in it, with a capital of 
2,121,956 yen, and the number of newspapers, journals, and 
books which are printed is now very large. 

The rapid growth of journalism is one of the facts that 
forces itself on the attention of every one observing Japan's 
modern career. When it is remembered that little over 
thirty years ago it was practically non-existent, and that now 
there are probably more than 1000 newspapers, magazines, 
etc., published in the empire, we can form an idea, not only 
of the extent of the printing industry but also of the 
influence of the press. The daily papers cost from 25 to 
50 sen per month. Many of the journals are of a high 
standard, both as regards the quality of their matter and 
their tone, but others pander to tastes that are demoralising, 
and indulge in language which is far from creditable. In 
Japan, as in other countries, newspapers are made to sell, 
rather than to instruct and elevate. Captain Brinkley says : 
" Already the press occupies a very low place in the estima- 
tion of educated Japanese. They recognise its political 
capabilities, but regard journalism, on the whole, as a low 
calling. Public opinion does not help ; its restraints are 
practically inoperative in Japan. People uncomplainingly 
endure many things besides journalism." Still, after every- 
thing has been discounted, there can be little doubt that 
modern Japan would not have been in its present condition 
if it had not been for the press. 

In the early days of the open ports the foreign 
journals which were there published were often marked 
by a narrow, selfish spirit, and were very unfriendly to the 
Japanese, although there were some honourable exceptions. 
Examples might be given of writing which appeared in them 
at very critical times in the history of Japan which in any 
other country would have caused the suppression of the 
paper and the expulsion of those responsible for it. Now, 
a more reasonable spirit prevails, much of the captious 



176 Dai Nippoii 

criticism no longer appears, and while not hesitating to 
criticise when that is necessary, they are sympathetic to 
the Japanese and appreciative of the progress which they 
have made. 

Not only are many journals and books written and 
published in Japan, but many of the best books of Europe 
and America are translated into Japanese, and the book- 
sellers freely import books of all kinds ; so that the Japanese 
have now every opportunity of making themselves acquainted 
with the latest developments in every department of thought 
and action. Japanese engineers and scientific men are often 
found better informed regarding the contents of British 
journals than are many in this country. 

The number of chemical and miscellaneous industries 

now carried on in Japan is very large, and the majority of 

„. . , . them have, on the whole, been very successful. 

Chemical and ' J 

miscellaneous Among those of a chemical nature may be 
mentioned the manufacture of sulphuric acid, 
sulphate of potash, phosphate of soda, soap, matches, brewing 
and distilling, tanning, sugar-refining, tobacco-manufacture, 
glass, cement, and brick-making. Those of a mechanical 
nature, in addition to what is usually included under 
mechanical engineering, are very numerous, including clock- 
making, the appliances connected with electric-lighting and 
motor work, telephony and telegraphy, and the numerous 
appliances connected with the larger industries which have 
been mentioned. The manufacture of foreign clothing, boots 
and shoes and furniture, has now assumed considerable im- 
portance. In short, it would be difficult to name any 
department of foreign manufacture in which something has 
not been done with more or less success, the ambition of 
the Japanese evidently being not only to supply their own 
wants but also to become a manufacturing nation like the 
Britain of the West, and thus not only provide for its rapidly 
increasing population but also claim its share in the markets 
of the world, especially in those of the Far East. Mean- 
time space will allow only the following figures from the 



Industrial Developments 



177 



latest returns showing the value of the annual output of 
some of the more important industries : — 
Yen. 



Sulphuric acid 
Soap . 
Matches 

Sulphate of potash 
Phosphate of soda . 
Paper (European) . 
Paper (Japanese) . 
Leather or Hide . 



559>49 2 
794,823 

5,886,388 
260,968 
867,910 

7,001,1 1 1 

i3>9 8 5>437 
2,592,412 



Glass ware . 
Cement (Portland) 
Bronze and Copper 

ware 
Porcelain and 

Earthenware 
Shippoki 
Glass ware . 



Yen. 
1,493,044 
2,372,266 
1,106,907 

6,873,693 

3i5. 6 76 

i,493>°44 



Manufactured articles used for food will be mentioned in 
Chapter XI. 

The changes which have taken place in every depart- 
ment of national life have naturally caused great develop- 
ments in the building industry, as applied not The building 
only to engineering and industrial purposes but industry. 
also to public institutions, commercial houses, and domestic 
residences ; and as is always the case in transition periods 
there has been a great mixture of styles. In fact, it has 
been remarked that what is termed the " foreign style " of 
building is so named because it is foreign to all the known 
styles of architecture. Some of the public buildings are 
handsome and do credit to their designers ; some of the 
industrial establishments are substantial and well adapted to 
the purposes for which they are intended, and a few of the 
main streets of the larger towns have been Europeanised, 
with, however, a considerable number of Japanese modifica- 
tions. A comparatively small number of rich men have 
houses in foreign style (although always with Japanese 
annexes), but the greater number of the buildings are still of 
an unsubstantial nature ; a fact which is explained partly by 
the frequency of earthquakes and partly by the want of 
means to erect them in a more substantial manner. 

The following list of Government factories gives a 
convenient resume of the most important Government 
manufacturing establishments directly under factories, 
the Government : — 

(B 207) £j 



1 7 3 



Dai Nippon 



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Industrial Developments 



179 



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Instead of going into further details of special depart- 
ments of industry, it will be sufficient for our present purpose 
Manufacturing if we take a general view of the manufacturing 
establishments, establishments in Japan. Appended is a table 
showing the number of workshops (employing not less than 
ten workpeople) and of manufacturing companies : — 



Year. 


No. of Workshops. 


Total. 


No. of 

Companies. 


With 

Motor. 


Without 
Motor. 


1899 
1898 

1897 

1S96 


2763 
2003 
1971 
1967 


3788 
4067 
4346 
4403 


6551 
6070 

6317 
6370 


2253 

2164 
IlSl 
1367 



The falling off in the number of establishments without 
motors in 1899 as compared with the preceding year was 
because the workshops engaged in mining were withdrawn 
from the total, and no doubt also that many which were 
without motors supplied themselves with them. The 
following table shows the number of manufacturing com- 
panies, their aggregate amount of capital, the amount paid 
up, and the reserves : — 



Year. 


No. 


Aggregate Capital. 


Paid-up Capital. Reserves. 

1 


I900 
1899 
1898 

1897 
1890 


2554 
2253 
2164 
1881 
1367 


Yen. 
216,766,903 
222,673,634 
183,657,046 
165,232,633 
143,617,530 


Yen. Yen. 
158,851,730 17,697,540 
147,783,280 13,467,802 
122,066,653 11,642,993 
105,381,106 7,581,535 
89,900,900 7,404,980 



Those figures show a very rapid rate of increase. 
The workshops may be broadly analysed into the 
following kinds : — 

1. Fibre workshops (raw silk, spinning, weaving, cord- 
making). 



Industrial Developments 



ibi 



2. Machine shops (machine - making, shipbuilding, 

furniture-making, casting). 

3. Chemical workshops (ceramics, gas, paper mills, 

lacquering, leather - making, explosives, drugs, 
manures, etc.). 

4. Miscellaneous workshops (brewing, sugar - refining, 

tobacco manufacture, tea - curing, cleaning of 
grains, flour mills, lemonade, mineral water, con- 
fectionery, preserved fruits and vegetables, print- 
ing and lithography, paper -work, wood and 
bamboo ware, feather ware, reeds and straw plait 
ware, lacquer ware, etc.). 

5. Special workshops (electricity and metallurgy). 

The following are the figures relating to each of these 

classes : — 



A. Run by Motors : — 





Workshops. 


Horse Power. 


Workpeople. 


Fibre .... 

Machine. 

Chemical 

Miscellaneous . 

Special .... 

Total . 


1921 

208 

190 

348 

36 


32,094 
4,274 
8,349 
5,220 

12,194 


196,723 
18,412 
12,966 
18,425 
33,766 


2763 


62,131 


288,292 



B. Not rim by Motors :- 





Workshops. 


Workpeople. 


Fibre .... 
Machine .... 
Chemical 
Miscellaneous . 
Special .... 

Total . 


1803 

157 

650 

IO65 

"3 


5°, 394 

4,205 

25,625 

27,391 

5,002 


37SS 112,617 



The ordinary working-hours of operatives are 1 2 hours 



1 82 Dai Nippon 

per day, but sometimes they extend as long as 16 or 17 
hours. In cotton mills 1 2 hours are the standard, for 
Working-hours, both day and night workers, in filatures the 
wages, etc. regular hours are 13 to 14, and in power-loom 
factories 12. In hand- weaving workshops a great diversity 
prevails, the general rule being 1 2 to 15, according to the 
season, though in some rare cases the hours are as long as 
from 16 to 17. In the larger establishments, such as ship- 
building yards, vehicle and machine shops, the working hours 
are far more regular, being in general 10 hours, occasionally 
with one or two hours of overtime. 

Wages are usually paid by the day, although payment 
by the month also prevails to some extent. Usually the 
amounts are settled once or twice a month, though in some 
cases they are settled every six months or once a year. In 
filatures, payment is made according to the amount of work 
done and by the month, though in some cases a yearly 
account system prevails. In cotton mills those who receive 
daily wages constitute about 40 per cent of the whole, and 
those who are paid by piece-work about 60 per cent. In 
such establishments as shipbuilding yards and machine and 
other similar shops day's-wages are usual, although at times 
a piece of work is given out on contract to one or more 
artisans. In match workshops the payment is by piecework, 
and in general this method of payment is becoming common 
where the amount of work done can be definitely computed. 

The rate of wages for adult males employed in cotton 
mills and weaving-shops is about 30 sen per day, while that 
of females is about 20 sen. In shipbuilding yards and 
machine shops the rate is usually about 50 or 60 sen per 
day, but skilled artisans are paid more than one yen. In 
match factories the rate is only from 12 to 20 sen for 
ordinary female operatives, and from 5 to 1 3 sen for little girls. 
In tobacco factories and printing shops, ordinary females get 
about 20 sen, and males from 40 to 50 sen. The following 
table gives the average wages of workers in the years 1887, 
1897, and 1 90 1 : — 



Industrial Developments 



Kind of Labourers. 


18S7. 


1S97. 


1901. 




Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Carpenter ..... 


O.224 


0.434 


o-593 


Plasterer ..... 


O.225 


O.436 


0.590 


Stone Mason .... 


O.250 


0-474 


0.670 


Sawyer ..... 


O.205 


O.43O 


0.580 


Shingle Roof Thatcher 


O.205 


O.42O 


0.540 


Tile Roof Thatcher . 


O.243 


O.469 


0.640 


Brick Maker .... 


? 


O.483 


0.440 


Mat Maker . 


O.218 


O.387 


o-Sl3 


Maker of Doors, Screens, etc. 


0.2I I 


O.396 


0.560 


Paper-hanger .... 


O.215 


O.380 


o.535 


Joiner ..... 


O.209 


O.3S8 


0-553 


Wooden Clog Maker . 


? 


O.318 


0.420 


Shoemaker .... 


? 


O.384 


0505 


Carriage-builder 


? 


O.352 


0.498 


Tailor (Japanese Clothes) . 


O.189 


O.305 


o.453 


Do. (Foreign Clothes) 


0.399 


O.461 


0.620 


Dyer 


O.I73 


O.287 


0.305 


Blacksmith 






O.217 


o-394 


0.488 


Lacquerer . 






O.205 


0.362 


0.503 


Tobacco-cutter 






0. 171 


0-353 


0-473 


Compositor 






O.223 


0.287 


o.395 


Gardener . 






? 


0.404 


0.568 


Male Weaver 






O.127 


0.225 


0.293 


Female Weaver 




O.074 


0.150 


0.193 


Day Labourer . 




O.160 


0.290 


o.399 



These figures show a rapid rate of increase and indicate 
the tendency for wages of the same class to approximate to 
the same amounts in all industrial countries, and as in- 
dustrialism in all its aspects becomes more and more inter- 
national this tendency will become more pronounced. 
Moreover, it must be remembered that the rate of wages is 
not by any means an accurate index of the cost of produc- 
tion. High wages are, as a rule, economical, as they indicate 
a high state of intelligence and therefore of efficiency on the 
part of the workers ; a fact which ought to be kept in mind 
when the fear is expressed of undue competition of Eastern 
countries in the markets of the world. 

The general arrangements for education have been 
described in Chapter V. Every part of it has had a more 
or less direct effect on the industrial development industrial 
which has taken place in the country. In recent tramin g- 
years especially, great attention has been paid to those 



1 84 Dai Nippon 

subjects bearing directly on industrial occupations, and the 
colleges in the Imperial Universities and the higher technical 
schools have trained many of the men who are now in charge 
of the most important undertakings. 

As, however, already stated, with the object of still 
further diffusing technical knowledge and imparting a general 
idea of science to apprentices and young mechanics, the 
Government has made liberal grants to special technical 
schools in different parts of the country, and these efforts 
have been supplemented by local authorities and private 
individuals. Attached to a considerable number of the 
primary schools, for the benefit of those who cannot attend 
school in the daytime, are commercial and supplementary 
schools somewhat similar to the continuation classes in this 
country, and they are beginning to occupy an important 
place in the educational system in Japan. 

All these arrangements have caused the apprentice system 
which formerly prevailed almost to disappear. It retains any 
semblance to its former status only in such departments as 
hand-loom weaving, pottery, and dyeing. In some of the 
larger factories and in the engineering establishments and 
shipbuilding yards the foremen take a number of the boys 
under their special supervision for the purpose of instructing 
them in the methods and details of their trades. In Japan, 
as in other parts of the world, however, the system of division 
of labour, especially in the mechanical industries, is rapidly 
causing the old, all-round system of training formerly 
given to apprentices to be superseded by a course of train- 
ing in a technical school, supplemented by such practical 
experience as can be picked up in the factory or workshops. 
The want of more thorough training in the practical side of 
the work, however, places the young men, for a considerable 
time, at a disadvantage. A due combination of theoretical 
and practical training is one of the problems which have still 
to be solved for those who are intended for industrial 
occupations. 

In addition to what are usually considered educational 



Industrial Developments 185 

institutions, there has grown up in Japan a considerable 
number of scientific associations which have had great 
effect on the progress of industry. The first Technical 
of them was the Institution or Society of associations. 
Engineers, which I inaugurated when the first set of 
graduates left the Imperial College of Engineering. I 
drafted the regulations somewhat on the lines of the British 
Institution of Civil Engineers, and the Institution of 
Engineers and Shipbuilders of Scotland, making, however, 
modifications and improvements where I considered them 
necessary. My friend Viscount Yamao became the first 
President, — I am glad to say that he still occupies that 
position, — and in the interval he has rendered great service 
not only to engineering but also to industry generally. 
Although Viscount Yamao's name will not figure to any 
great extent in political history, he deserves to be re- 
membered as one of the men who did good service to Japan 
in a quiet, unobtrusive manner, and also as a good friend 
of all who were working for the progress of the country. 

I arranged for the Engineering Society to have sections 
representing the various departments of the Imperial College 
of Engineering, and it still includes engineers of all types ; 
but in Japan, as in Britain, the tendency has been to start 
societies for special departments, and there are now 
Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Chemical 
Engineering, and Shipbuilding Societies, all in a flourishing 
condition and each publishing valuable transactions. There 
are, in addition, a considerable number of societies, each 
devoted to a special department of industry, and all per- 
forming very useful functions, not only in collecting and 
distributing information with respect to their special interests, 
but also in cementing the bonds of friendship between those 
engaged in them. 

After the Restoration the Japanese were not slow in 
recognising the necessity for encouraging Patents, trade marks, 
invention and originality in design. In eta - inventions. 
1 87 1 a measure was passed for protecting inventions, 



1 86 Dai Nippon 

but the difficulty of carrying it out was so great that it 
was rescinded in the following year, and for about fourteen 
years from that time Japanese inventors were left unpro- 
tected, although encouragement in various ways was given 
to them. In 1884 the regulations protecting trade marks 
were enacted, and in the following year those relating to the 
protection of patents. 

According to the existing system all matters relating to 
patents, designs, and trade marks are controlled by the 
Patent Bureau of the Department of Agriculture and 
Commerce, which adopts the regular system of examination 
before granting a licence, and patent agents are subject to 
the control of the Patent Bureau. The number of agents 
duly registered at the end of the year 1902 was 193. Up 
till that date 24,412 applications for licences had been 
made, and of these 5500 had been granted for patents, 
while for designs there had been 4694 applications and 
1277 granted, and trade marks 28,925 and 18,200 granted. 

Reference must be made to special publications for details 
of the regulations, which on the whole follow more closely 
those of America than those of Britain. When a foreigner, 
not residing in Japan, wishes to secure a letter patent or to 
have his design or trade mark registered, he must file an 
application through his attorney appointed from among 
those in Japan, and must further appoint, when his applica- 
tion has been accepted by the Patent Bureau, an attorney 
to represent him in all dealings with the Bureau and in all 
possible civil or criminal actions. The neglect to appoint 
such an attorney without justifiable reason within six 
months will invalidate the efficacy of his patents or registra- 
tion. A patent must be worked within three years from 
the time the licence is granted, and if this is not done or if 
the patentee refuses without justifiable reason to assign or 
permit the use of the patent under reasonable conditions by 
a third party who has applied to him for such assignment 
or permission, the patent is liable to be revoked. 

The figures which have been given are sufficient to 



Industrial Developments 1 8 7 

disprove the statement that the Japanese have no original 
ability. In mechanical engineering all over the world the 
designs of almost all the principal machines are essentially 
the same, the variations being in details to suit special 
conditions, and in this respect Japanese engineers have not 
shown themselves deficient. Not only have they modified 
Western designs to suit the conditions in Japan, but they 
have in many respects shown decided originality. 

It would take up too much space to enter into details 
of this subject in the various departments of engineering, 
but what the Japanese have done in connection with 
appliances for military and naval purposes is sufficient 
to prove their ingenuity. The ships of their navy are 
probably the best illustration of the Japanese method of 
procedure. In naval matters they accepted all the guidance 
the Western world could give them, but at the same time 
they struck out a line of their own, and the fleet which 
they have created is unique in the character of its units. 
British designs have, in many respects, been improved upon, 
with the result that they have obtained in their latest ships 
many features which have won the admiration of the world. 
Among the inventions which have added materially and 
conspicuously to the fighting efficiency of the navy may 
be instanced the gun-rack of Rear-Admiral Yamanouchi, 
the water-tube boiler of Engineer- Admiral Miyabara, the 
smokeless powder of Dr. Shimose, the percussion cap of 
Vice-Admiral Ijuin, the floating mine of Commander Oda 
and Captain Taneda, and several others which might be 
mentioned ; all of great practical utility in real warfare, and 
the use of which may revolutionise the methods of war in 
the future. In the army the Japanese have shown them- 
selves masters of tactics, not merely copying Western 
methods but introducing many of their own. The Murata 
rifle was an improvement on those of Europe, but that has 
been displaced by a still better weapon of Japanese invention, 
the Arisaka rifle. Not only in the arts of peace but also 
in those of war have the Japanese shown that they are 



1 88 Dai Nippon 

able to think and act for themselves. The discoveries of 
Dr. Jokichi Takamine in the department of chemistry, and 
of Dr. Kitazato in that of bacteriology, and of many others 
who might be named in other fields of investigations, 
prove that the Japanese are able not only to apply existing 
knowledge but also to extend its boundaries. I am proud 
to add that Dr. Takamine and Dr. Shimose are graduates 
of the Kobu Daigakko. Dr. Kitazato is a graduate of the 
Medical College. 

In a recent letter which I had from Professor C. D. 
West, of the Engineering College of Tokyo University, he 
says : " I suppose it is necessary to say something with 
regard to the inventive power of the Japanese ; this is a 
much vexed subject. Some people assert that they have no 
inventive power at all, but I don't think this is so. It must 
be remembered that the power of making absolutely new and 
original designs is confined to very {qw people indeed ; 
' Inventor nascitur, non fit,' like the poet. Almost any one 
with good abilities can be trained to design, and this the 
Japanese certainly can do ; but between inventing, pure and 
simple, and designing, there is no hard-and-fast line ; there 
is room for all intermediate grades of inventive capacity. 

" It is to this intermediate capacity of designers that 
almost all our machines are due, even the most complicated, 
by a process of gradual improvement and development. I 
see no point in this designing process at which the Japanese 
must necessarily stop short, and I know of several things 
they have produced that must come under the head of 
inventive designing." If we remember the conditions which 
existed in old Japan, when originality of all kinds was 
severely repressed, and consider what the Japanese have 
already done, we must admit that they have all the qualities 
which are necessary for the success of a great industrial 
nation. 

As a means of encouraging the progress of industry and 
manufactures, the Japanese Government has, at various 
times, caused exhibitions to be organised at home, and 






Industrial Developments 189 

has also taken part in those opened abroad. The first 
Domestic Exhibition was held in Tokyo in 1878, and I 
arranged a machinery department in which were industrial 
shown some of the machines and appliances exhibitions, 
made at Akabane (the works which were connected with the 
Engineering College), as well as a few from private estab- 
lishments ; but at that time comparatively small progress 
had been made in mechanical engineering. Two similar 
exhibitions were held in Tokyo later on, which showed 
considerable developments in Western arts. The fourth 
exhibition was held in Kyoto in 1895, ar >d the fifth in 
Osaka in 1903. This last was the most complete illustra- 
tion of the progress which had been made in Japan in 
Western arts and manufactures, and attracted a considerable 
number of visitors from all parts of the world. It was 
international to a certain extent. Of course very large 
exhibits were not to be expected from Europe and America, 
but many of the foreign manufacturers who are in the habit 
of sending goods to Japan exhibited specimens. The 
following, from a report which was published at the time of 
the exhibition, not only gives a good idea of its contents, 
but also serves as a resume' of the developments which have 
been made : — 

" Considering that only thirty years ago Japan had no 
such institution as a factory, and knew nothing whatever of iron 
foundries or machine shops, the Japanese-made machinery 
display at the exhibition at Osaka is astonishing. There we 
find silk-weaving and mat-making machines, electrical motors 
and generators, gas and oil engines, locomotives, electrical 
fittings, tools, beltings, match-making machine, fire-brigade 
appliances, rice-cleaning machines, huge steam navvy, oil 
tanks, soap-making machines, printing machines, massive 
hoisting engine, tea - refining machinery, heavy mining 
machinery, and many other smaller machines ; all of Japanese 
manufacture, admirably made and well adapted to the 
purposes designed. 

" In general manufactures the empire makes a good 



1 90 Dai Nippon 

showing in certain lines. Straw braid in all conceivable styles 
and uses ; shibori, a beautiful dyed stuff, making pretty dress 
material ; woollen serges and woven silks, cheap and good 
cotton blankets, Japanese towels, artistic designs in tiles and 
roofing materials, drain-pipes, fire-proof bricks. In drinkables, 
also of home manufacture, there is beer by the cart-load, sake, 
the famous native drink, enough to quench the thirst of an 
army. 

" One of the best exhibits is in clocks, some of them 
very handsome and very cheap, made by one or other of the 
twelve Japanese clock companies. The porcelain exhibition 
is good, consisting of beautiful vases, artistic porcelain 
trays, basins, tea-cups, etc. The exhibit of Japanese-made 
shoes is quite creditable. Other native manufactures 
exhibited are bamboo furniture, whatnots, overmantels, 
fire-screens, shell buttons, paper lanterns, fine silken rugs, 
shawls, paper, camphor, oils, soap, all kinds of sauces and 
relishes, silks of every hue and description, silk lace, gold and 
silver thread, linen, duck, tent cloths, ivory work, hinges, 
lacquer and silver work, surgical instruments, pianos, organs, 
and other musical instruments, bicycles, gymnastic and 
athletic goods, microscopes, cameras, barometers and almost 
every kind of educational apparatus. 

" The natural products of the country are exhibited to 
good advantage. Rice, tobacco (manufactured and raw), 
silk-worms, various varieties of silk cocoons, tea, huge 
oranges, sugar, furs, woods, pearls, coral, fish (dried and 
salted). Mushrooms are a special exhibit of one prefecture, 
tea of another, and so on. The whole section of the 
agricultural experiment station is complete and admirable 
in every way." l Besides the national exhibitions, Japan 
has also participated in the World's Fairs held in Vienna, 
Philadelphia, Chicago, Paris, St. Louis, not to speak of 
various other exhibitions of limited scope. 

All matters relating to manufactures are under the 
control of the Bureau of Commerce and Manufactures, 

1 From Japan and America, by Walter J. Ballard. 



Industrial Developments 191 

and are in direct charge of the Section of Manufactures, 
which forms part of the Bureau. The Section in question 
deals with matters relating to experiments industrial 
made with the view of improving manufactures legislation. 
and manufactured goods, the position and construction of 
workshops, the control of boilers, the employment and 
engagement of operatives and apprentices, together with their 
relief, education, etc. In consequence of the rapid develop- 
ment of the factory system and of the problems arising 
therefrom, a temporary Factory Committee was created in 
the Section of Manufactures for the purpose of inquiring 
into matters concerning factories and operatives. Various 
draft measures have been put forward for factory regulations, 
but as yet none of any importance has been passed into 
law. The first legislative measure enacted bearing directly 
on manufactures was that issued by the Department of 
Agriculture and Commerce in 1884, relating to the formation 
of guilds, the object of which was to encourage different 
interests to form themselves into guilds and to provide 
against the provision of shoddy goods. The regulations 
relating to these guilds have been improved and extended 
from time to time. The provisions regarding trade marks 
and patents for inventions have already been noticed. In 
February 1901 rules were issued relating to the establishment 
of local and commercial industrial experimental laboratories, 
or manufacturing training schools ; the object of the enact- 
ment being to encourage the improvement and progress of 
manufacture. It was arranged about the same time that 
matters relating to the control of boilers, factories, and 
operatives be left in charge of the respective local offices. 

Not only has the formation of limited liability companies 
for commercial and industrial purposes been largely developed 
in Japan, but the practice which is now so Combinations * 
common in other industrial countries for the employers and 

1 • ,. c c • 1 workers. 

combination 01 groups of companies and in- 
dividuals having common interests in any given branch of 
manufacture or industry is now a feature in the organisation 



192 Dai Nippon 

of the country. The first step in this direction in connection 
with Western industries was the formation in 1882 of the 
spinners' union, which exists to-day in a somewhat modified 
form. It undertakes all matters which are supposed to 
further the common interests of the members ; it despatches, 
for instance, merchants or experts to Bombay to inspect the 
condition of the cotton market or of the cotton crop, and 
enters into contracts with the Nippon Yusen Kaisha (the 
Japan Shipping Company) for the import of raw cotton from 
Bombay. Agreements are also made as to the rates of 
wages and the general conditions of work in connection with 
the industry, so that there may be no unfair competition 
between the members. Almost every industry of any 
importance has some form of combination or guild for the 
protection of its interests, and the latest returns show that 
there were nearly 200 such guilds in existence, which seem 
to have in them the germ of what may lead to an organised 
system of industry, the evolution of which will be watched 
with interest. 

Meantime the workers are also beginning to organise for 
the protection of their interests ; for they have not been long 
in finding that when all the organisation is on the one side, 
the other is certain to be subjected to unfair conditions. 
Under the feudal system, as already mentioned, guilds 
existed in the various trades, and these have now been 
transformed into something like Western trade unions. 
Strikes are by no means uncommon, and many of the labour 
problems of Europe and America are now to be found in 
Japan. The labour unions on Western lines include the iron- 
workers, the ship carpenters, the railway engineers, the railway 
workmen, the printers, and the European-style cooks, and 
some of these organisations have become so strong that they 
have in some disputes been able to dictate their own terms. 
The supply of workmen trained in foreign style being still 
rather limited, it can easily be seen that the labour 
organisations have a great advantage in Japan. Their 
members, however, are beginning to look beyond mere trade- 



Industrial Developments 193 

union efforts and to think of the possibilities of a system 
of co-operation which would make strikes impossible. Co- 
operative stores are to be found in various parts of Japan, 
while whose who study the problems involved recognise the 
possibilities of co-operation, both in production and dis- 
tribution. The progress of the labour movement in Japan 
is largely due to the efforts of a young man, Mr. Katayama 
Sen, who has spent ten years in America and made a special 
study of social problems. He is the head of Kingsley 
Hall, a social settlement in Tokyo, similar to the settle- 
ments now somewhat common in this country, and which 
are the centres of varied social activities and investigations. 
He is also the editor of the Labour World, which is looked 
upon as the special organ of the working classes, and which 
should be studied by those who are interested in social 
problems in the Far East. These problems are part of the 
price Japan has paid for her use of Western methods, and it 
will be interesting to watch the attempts which are made 
at their solution. 

While it is admitted that the progress made by the 
Japanese in many departments of industry has been remark- 
able, and that their aptitude for Western manu- Foreign 
factures is very great, even their greatest admirers advisers. 
think that in many cases they have paid too dearly for their 
experience by dispensing with their foreign advisers and 
assistants before they were able to replace them by fully 
qualified natives. While a love of independence is to be 
admired, it should be remembered that it involves neither 
personal nor national loss of honour to employ foreigners who 
have had special experience in any new development of 
industry, and if the right men be selected, they will be worth 
their salaries many times over. Captain Brinkley, who 
cannot be suspected of being unfriendly to the Japanese, 
says : " A visit to Japanese factories often shows machinery 
treated carelessly, employes so numerous that they impede 
rather than expedite business, and a general lack of the pre- 
cision, regularity and earnestness that characterise successful 

(b 207) O 



194 Dai A J ippon 

industrial enterprises in Europe and America. Achievement 
in one direction and comparative failure in another, although 
the factors making for success are similar in each, indicate, 
not incapacity in the latter case, but defects of standard and 
experience. The vast majority of the Japanese have no 
adequate conception of what is meant by a highly-organised 
industrial or commercial enterprise. They have never made 
the practical acquaintance of anything of the kind, nor even 
breathed a pure business atmosphere." He emphasises his 
criticism by referring to the railways and the posts. He 
says : " The Japanese have long been able to survey, plan 
and build their own lines of railways, to run the trains and 
to manage the traffic. For these achievements they deserve 
much credit. But their arrangements for handling, forward- 
ing and delivering goods are very defective, when judged by 
good Occidental standards, and their provision for the 
comfort of passengers leaves a great deal to be desired. So, 
too, their postal service invites criticism in some very 
important respects, if it merits praise in others. All such 
defects would soon be corrected if free recourse were had to 
the assistance of foreign experts, who have the advantage of 
familiarity with higher standards. It is unfortunate that a 
people so liberal in their adoption of the best products of 
Western civilisation should hesitate to avail themselves of the 
best means of learning to utilise them." 

Surprise may be expressed at this state of affairs after we 
have seen the high state of efficiency and organisation in the 
army and navy, but, as Captain Brinkley points out, for 
elaborating their military and naval systems they have had 
access to foreign models, every detail of which could be care- 
fully scrutinised, and they availed themselves freely of the 
assistance of foreign experts — French, German, and British ; 
but in the field of manufacture and trade their inspection 
of foreign models is necessarily superficial, and they are 
without the co-operation of foreign experts. He thinks that 
the Japanese attitude in these matters is to be explained 
by two considerations — one legal, the other sentimental. 



Indzistrial Developments 195 

The treaties forbade foreigners to hold real estate or engage 
in business outside the limits of the settlements ; thus render- 
ing it impossible for them either to start factories on their 
own account or to enter into partnership with native 
manufacturers ; and an almost morbid anxiety to prove their 
independent competence impelled the Japanese to dispense 
prematurely with the services of foreign employes. The 
unsympathetic treatment which Japan received from Western 
Powers in the matter of treaty revision prejudiced her against 
foreigners in all capacities, and the opportunity was lost of 
co-operating with Japanese in matters of industry. Captain 
Brinkley believes that there is clear evidence that this sus- 
picious mood on the part of Japan, which is so injurious to 
her own interests, is being replaced by more liberal sentiments, 
but in the meantime she has been induced to stand aloof 
from alien aids at a time when they might have profited her 
immensely, and to struggle without guidance towards 
standards of which she has as yet only a dim perception. 

As the status of foreigners under Japanese law, especially 
in matters affecting industry, is a subject of growing practical 
importance, the following extracts from Status of foreigners 
an address delivered by Dr. Masujima under Japanese 
before the New York State Bar Association 
in January 1903 will be read with interest, as they touch 
on the most important points : — " The cases in which 
foreigners are restricted in the enjoyment of private rights 
are the ownership of land and Japanese ships, the right to 
work mines, to own shares in the Bank of Japan or the 
Yokohama Specie Bank, to be members or brokers of 
exchanges, to engage in emigration business, or to receive 
bounties for navigation or shipbuilding. Any company 
must, in order to own Japanese ships, have its principal office 
in Japan, and all its members in case of a Gomei Kaisha, 
all unlimited liability members in case of either a Goshi 
Kaisha or Kabushiki Goshi Kaisha, and all directors in case 
of a limited company, must be Japanese subjects. Otherwise 
foreigners are as free as Japanese to own shares in any 



1 96 Dai Nippon 

Japanese commercial companies organised by themselves 
alone, or in combination with the Japanese, or to engage in 
any manufacture or other commercial operations. 

" Foreigners may hold a long lease of land to plant trees 
or erect permanent structures, which may be arranged for 
an indefinite term almost perpetual, such as one thousand 
years, or as long as may be agreed upon. Such a holding is 
called ' superficies,' and it is very much like a long English 
lease, the only difference being that trees or buildings do 
not at the end of the term revert to the landlord, his right 
being only that of pre-emption at current valuation. The 
most advisable way for the enjoyment of the actual and per- 
manent holding of land is for a foreigner to buy land himself 
through a Japanese, as bare trustee, and to secure its super- 
ficies for the period of as long a term as may be desirable for 
his purposes." 

" Although no foreigners may work mines individually, 
they may be taken on mortgage, and a company registered 
as a Japanese organisation is entitled to engage in mining ; 
the theory is that foreigners as members may merge 
themselves in the entity of a Japanese corporation, although 
it may be composed of foreigners exclusively." 

" No railway or tramway business is allowed to be carried 
on unless by a limited company, and a concession for such 
purpose has to be secured from the proper authorities. No 
such railway can be pledged, but it may be hypothecated. 
Japanese pledge corresponds to English mortgage, differing 
therefrom, in that immediate transfer of possession and 
holding the pledged property absolutely is essential. 
Hypothecation does not carry possession or the right of 
entry. This condition of Japanese railway law has not 
satisfied capitalists as not affording sufficient security to 
induce investment by them. There has been some attempt to 
have this law altered, but it has not yet been accomplished." 

" Banking, insurance, shipping and all other kinds of 
commercial business may be carried on in Japan by foreign 
companies by observing the treaties and certain regulations, 



Industrial Developments 197 

such as the registration of their branch offices, their 
representatives, or other matters prescribed by law." 

" There are two kinds of civil corporations, the one 
consisting of persons associated together and the other an 
estate of aggregate property somewhat like a trust in 
English law, formed or established for the purpose of 
religious worship, teaching, art, charity, education, or any 
other object of public benefit, not aiming at the making of 
a profit. Such a corporation can come into existence only 
with the permission of the competent authorities, while 
Japanese commercial corporations may be formed without 
it. No foreign association of persons or trust property is 
accorded the same rights and privileges as are enjoyed by 
similar Japanese corporations ; such a foreign corporation has 
no standing whatsoever in the Japanese courts, and the only 
way in which it could obtain protection would be to appear 
in the individual names of its members, just as used once to 
be the case in partnership actions." 

" If foreigners wish to do business in combination with 
the Japanese, the best way would be to form a GosJii Kaisha, 
or limited partnership, they themselves carrying unlimited 
liability. To control a Kabushiki Kaisha, or limited 
company, they should own more than half the amount of 
capital, either by holding themselves or through their 
nominees, and shares should be tied up so as not to allow 
their transfer without the consent of the board of directors. 
The advantage of any business being organised as a 
Japanese corporation consists, as the law now stands, in 
owning land and having the full rights of Japanese subjects." 

The question of the employment of foreign capital in 
Japanese industrial enterprises is one which is at present 
receiving considerable attention. The Japanese have sunk 
a great part of their floating capital in engineering and 
industrial enterprises, and as a natural consequence they find 
themselves in want, not only of working capital, but also of 
what is required for further natural developments, and 
various proposals have been made for the purpose of 



198 Da i Nippon 

inducing foreign capitalists to invest in Japanese under- 
takings. Some have done so, but as yet the number is 
limited. 

The introduction of foreign capital into Japan is a 
matter which requires very careful consideration. Capitalist 
domination is becoming one of the features in every in- 
dustrial community in the world, and in many respects it 
leads to conditions which are worse than those of the feudal 
system from which Japan has freed herself. Herbert Spencer 
in a letter to a Japanese correspondent, written some years 
before his death, was very emphatic on this subject, and said : 
" There should be not only a prohibition of foreign persons to 
hold property in land, but also a refusal to give them leases, 
and a permission only to reside as annual tenants. I should 
say decidedly prohibit to foreigners the working of the mines 
owned or worked by Government. Here there would be 
obviously liable to arise grounds of difference between 
the Europeans or Americans who worked them and the 
Government, and these grounds of quarrel would be followed 
by invocations to the English or American Governments 
or other Powers to send forces to insist on whatever the 
European workers claimed, ' for always the habit here and 
elsewhere among the civilised peoples is to believe what their 
agents or sellers abroad represent to them.' In the third 
place, in pursuance of the policy I have indicated, you ought 
also to keep the coasting trade in your own hands, and 
forbid foreigners to engage in it. The distribution of com- 
modities brought to Japan from other places may be 
properly left to the Japanese themselves, and should be 
denied to foreigners, for the reason that again the various 
transactions involved would become so many doors open 
to quarrels and resulting aggressions." The policy in- 
dicated in these lines is, in my opinion, too drastic, as 
I believe that it is quite possible to find many oppor- 
tunities for the investment of foreign capital which would 
not only be advantageous to Japan but also offer safe 
and sufficient returns to the capitalists. Whatever 



Industrial Developments 



199 



opinions we may hold as to the future relations of capital 
and labour, the present time is one of transition, and no 
sudden change can be made in the methods adopted. 
The welfare of the people, not the returns to the capitalists, 
should be the chief object kept in view, and as the social 
spirit develops we may expect many radical changes in 
the methods of owning property of all kinds. Municipal 
and State ownership and control are rapidly extending, and 
it will be very interesting to note how the Japanese face the 
problems which are now engaging the attention of thoughtful 
men in all countries of the world. Before any criticism is 
offered of their action, we ought to put ourselves in their place 
and consider how we would act under the same conditions. 
They are likely to take to heart not only the lessons to be learnt 
from social and economic conditions in Western countries, 
but also those from their own past history. A return 
recently published by the Nichi Nichi Shimbun gives the 
following figures as the amounts invested by foreigners in 
undertakings established and conducted by themselves in 
Japan : — 





Capital. 


Amount paid up. 




Yen. 


Yen. 


Breweries .... 


600,000 


450,000 


Machine Companies 


2,290,000 


229,000 


Kerosene .... 


24,000,000 


16,500,000 


Raw Silk .... 


1,850,000 


1,850,000 


Carrying Companies (land 






and sea) 


132,340,000 


130,400,000 


Miscellaneous 


2,401,000 


2,401,000 


Agencies (commission) . 


50,000 


50,000 


Purveyors .... 


1,500,000 


1,300,000 


Banks ..... 


23,750,000 


23,750,000 


Commercial companies 


17,245,000 


17,245,000 


Insurance .... 


5,000,000 


3,750,000 


Newspaper and printing 


227,OCO 


227,000 


Wholesale dealers 


780,000 


780,000 



In addition to these sums foreign capitalists and even 
small investors have considerable amounts in Japanese 
undertaking's and stocks of various kinds. 



200 Dai Nippon 

The facts and figures given in the preceding pages show 

the great progress which has been made in Japan in industry 

Japanese ambi- during a comparatively short time, but it is 

tion regarding evident that past developments are far from 

the future of . . . , , . . . , _ . , 

commerce and satisfying the ambition ot the J apanese. A short 
industry. time ago one of the leading journals, the Jiji 
Shimpo, which takes a great interest in industrial and economic 
subjects, had an article of which the following is a translation 
of the more important parts: — "The talk about Japan having 
become a commercial and industrial country has in recent 
years been on everybody's lips. In reference to the question 
of what is the best economic policy for us to follow in future, 
with the exception of that small section of the community 
engaged in agriculture, everybody recognises the necessity of 
our making commerce and industry the foundation of the 
country's wealth. It would seem at first sight as though as 
a country we were very favourably situated for pursuing this 
policy. But the question is, how far have we actually 
followed it ? Though various differences appear in countries 
owing to their adoption of diverse economic systems, there 
are three unmistakable signs of commercial and industrial 
countries; which are (i) that the raw produce imported 
from foreign countries should be utilised for manufacturing 
purposes ; (2) that imported food should go to support the 
people of the home country ; and (3) that the interest of the 
money sent abroad and the profits derived from general 
business should be received in the form of imports, which 
should always be in excess of exports. We observe by the 
British Trade Report for 1901 that the value of food, liquor, 
raw produce, and manufactured articles imported and exported 
by England was as below : — 

Imports. 

(1) Articles of food and liquors . . . . ^224,763,000 

(2) Raw produce 137,355,°°° 

(3) Manufactured articles . . . . 93,609,000 

(4) Other miscellaneous articles . . . . 66,511,000 

. ^522,238,000 



Industrial Developments 201 



Exports. 

(1) Articles of food and liquors . . . . ^15,626,000 

(2) Raw produce ...... 33>777>°°o 

(3) Manufactured articles ..... 207,966,000 

(4) Other miscellaneous articles . . . . 20,976,000 



^348>345.° 00 

Percentage of the Exports as compared to the Imports. 

(1) Articles of food and liquors . .... 6.9 

(2) Raw produce ....... 25.0 

(3) Manufactured articles . . . . . . 222^0 

We see then that the proportion of food-stuffs, liquors, and 
raw produce imported by England corresponds to over three- 
fifths of the total value of her imports ; and that, on the other 
hand, the proportion of manufactured articles exported has 
reached two-thirds of the total value of her exports. It appears 
that in the case of food-stuffs and liquors the total value of 
the imports is about fifteen times that of the exports. It is 
quite natural that when a country is manifesting signs of 
making commerce and industry, instead of agriculture, its 
economic foundation, its imports and exports should take 
this course. 

" When we come to inquire how our country stands 
to-day in reference to the above-named points, though our 
tables, being very incomplete and failing to distinguish 
between raw material and manufactured articles, do not 
allow of accurate comparison with the English tables, they 
suffice to give a general idea of our economic situation. 
According to last year's (1901) returns the total value of 
exports was 252,349,000 yen ; and the total value of 
imports, 214,929,000 yen. Out of this the value of food 
exported was 28,125,000 yen, and that imported 7,502,000 
yen; that is, food bore the proportion of 11.1 of the total 
exports and 3.5 of the total imports. This one thing of 
itself is enough to make it clear that Japan has not yet 



202 Dai Nippon 

given up the economic principle of supporting herself on 
agricultural products. But, moreover, when we come to 
consider a variety of other articles of commerce this 
becomes still plainer. The total value of the exports of 
our four principal commodities, namely, refined copper, raw 
silk, woven silk, and coal, is put down at 100,270,000 yen ; 
that is, they constitute about one-half of the total exports 
of the country. On the other hand, as to the import trade, 
with the exception of ginned cotton, valued at 50,000,000 
yen, it would seem that the imported articles consist mostly 
of railway locomotives, iron, steel, things made of iron, and 
kerosene ; which means that we still are in the condition of 
a country which exports raw produce and imports manu- 
factured articles ; that is, that our position is the exact 
opposite of that of England, which may be regarded as a 
model type of a commercial and industrial country. Though 
our circumstances bring us into connection with those 
products which form the basis of commerce and industry, 
despite the fact that the necessity of our becoming a 
commercial and industrial country is pressed home upon us 
by so many writers and speakers, we cannot but acknow- 
ledge that the real truth is that we are still a very long way 
from attaining to that position." It is to be hoped that in 
the best interests of Japan she will not attempt to 
follow the analogy of the Britain of the West too closely, 
and that above all she will ponder " whether, among 
national manufactures, that of Souls of good quality 
may not at last turn out a quite leadingly lucrative 
one." Modern conditions in Western countries do not 
seem favourable either for the production of souls of 
good quality or for the attainment of physical and 
intellectual excellence. The economic conditions at the 
beginning of the twentieth century are very different from 
those which existed at the beginning of the nineteenth, when 
Britain began her industrial career, and the social and 
economic problems with which Western countries are 
confronted should cause Japan to recognise that the 



Industrial Developments 203 

inordinate pursuit of merely material ends will not lead to 
the highest national welfare. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

The literature on the subject of purely Japanese industries is 
very extensive, but Professor Rein's book on the Industries of Japan 
will be found sufficient for ordinary readers. No systematic account 
has yet been published on the development of Western industries 
in Japan, and information must be sought in the Reports issued 
by the various Departments of Government, in the British and 
American Consular Reports, and in the files of the newspapers printed 
in English in Japan. H. Yamawaki's Japan m the Beginning of the 
Twentieth Century is most valuable for the statistics of the subject, 
as are also the Annuals issued by the Department of Finance and 
the Imperial Cabinet. J. Stafford Ransome's Japan in Transition 
contains an interesting and readable account of modern develop- 
ments. Those interested in technical details should consult the 
articles by the same writer which appeared in The Engineer 
(1897-8). Clement's Handbook of Modern Japan contains a great 
deal of useful information on the subject. Practical details are not 
to be found in ordinary books. These can best be got by personal 
inspection, or from men connected with the various undertakings, 
supplemented by a perusal of the scientific journals and the 
transactions of engineering and other societies. 



CHAPTER IX 

ART INDUSTRIES 

All real lovers of Japan, while admiring the energy and 
ability which have been displayed in the application of 
importance of Western knowledge and experience to industry 
Art in japan. anc j commerce, and to the arts of war, would 
regret if, in the changes which are taking place, it lost 
those artistic qualities which have given it a unique position 
among the nations of the world. That world would be 
a very dreary place if everything in it were reduced to 
the level which is the inevitable result of the competitive 
struggle for existence. Europe paid too dearly for its 
industrial development by the decay of art, and it is only 
in recent years that attempts have been made to retrace the 
backward steps. Whether a complete revival is possible 
under present social and economic conditions is one of the 
problems which must be faced before real individual or 
national life can be attained. 

Under the old regime in Japan all the workers were 
artists to a greater or less degree ; that is to say, each one 
Art in impressed on his work his own individuality. 
Old japan. This was true even of mechanical trades, but 
it was strikingly true of all artistic crafts, and was to a large 
extent the direct result of the social and economic con- 
ditions existing under the feudal system. In the early days 
of the Shogunate each daimyo based the reputation of his 
clan on its martial prowess ; but during the long peace of the 
Tokugawa period, art and industry were the. distinguishing 

204 



Art Industries 205 

features of the different parts of the country, between which 
there was always a certain amount of friendly rivalry for 
excellence in their productions. Not only did the daimyos 
exchange with their friends objects of art as compliments, 
but some of the best specimens were periodically sent to 
the Shogun's court in Yedo and to the Emperor's court in 
Kyoto. The daimyos therefore became liberal patrons of 
art, and the artists and workers were usually attached to 
their households as pensioners. These latter could never 
become rich men, but the wish for wealth never entered 
their minds. They found their happiness in their work, and 
they had a sufficient allowance to meet their small personal 
wants. In those days time was not money, the artists 
were able to work in a leisurely manner and give full play 
to their genius, and all their products had the marks of 
their own individualities ; and these again were fashioned to 
a large extent by the spirit and conditions of the country. 

One requires to have lived in Japan, and to have 
breathed its atmosphere, before he can appreciate its art. 
A Japanese painting is not a picture in the ~, . . 

J * r a r Characteristics 

Western sense of the term ; it is rather a poem of Japanese 
which portrays an emotion called up by a 
scene, and not the scene itself in all its elaborate com- 
plexity, and Japanese connoisseurs value simple works far 
more highly than those which are full of details. The artist 
therefore omits all that is irrelevant to the particular emotion 
which he himself feels, and which he wishes to draw out from 
those who look at his art. A very capable writer on the 
subject has truly said that a Japanese painting is " the 
expression caught from a glimpse of the soul of nature by 
the soul of man ; the mirror of a mood, passing, perhaps, in 
fact, but perpetuated thus to fancy. Being an emotion, its 
intensity is directly proportional to the singleness with which 
it possesses the thoughts. The Far Oriental fully realises 
the power of simplicity. This principle is his fundamental 
canon of pictorial art. To understand his paintings, it is 
from this standpoint they must be regarded ; not as soulless 



206 Dai Nippon 

photographs of scenery, but as poetic presentations of the 
spirit of the scenes. The very charter of painting depends 
upon its not giving us charts. And if with us a long poem 
be a contradiction in terms, a full picture is, with them, as 
self-condemnatory a production. From the contemplation of 
such works of art as we call finished one is apt, after he has 
once appreciated Far Eastern taste, to rise with an un- 
pleasant feeling of satiety, as if he has eaten too much at 
the feast." 

We cannot, of course, enter into a lengthened dis- 
quisition on the characteristics of Japanese art, but what has 
Western been said should be remembered as applying 
influences. j n a greater or less degree to art work of all 
kinds, whether painting, porcelain, lacquer, bronze, or silk. 
Many of the most elaborate specimens in each of those 
departments which have in recent years been sold to 
foreigners, while good in their way, have really been pro- 
duced for the foreign market, and the designs are not truly 
Japanese, but have been made to suit what are supposed to 
be Western ideas. The influence of Japanese art has been 
much felt in Europe and America, especially in the depart- 
ment of ornament, and on the whole that influence has been 
in the direction of improvement, but the same cannot be 
said of the foreign influence on Japanese art. The ideals 
are essentially different, and, while Western ornament with 
a tinge of Japanese may be passable, any attempt to 
Westernise Japanese art simply takes all the soul out of it. 

On the downfall of the Shogunate the halcyon days of 
the art workers disappeared, and many of them were thrown 
on their own resources, and as the native market was 
entirely disorganised during the troublous times following 
the Restoration, they were compelled to adapt themselves 
to the supposed requirements of the foreign markets. It 
has been truly said that this was the Brummagem period of 
Japanese art, and it is responsible for the gaudy, vulgar 
specimens which form the chief points of some foreign 
collections. 



Art Industries 207 

For a year or two after I went to Japan my time was 
so fully taken up with the Imperial College of Engineering 
and the industrial establishments connected Foreign School 
with it, that the art side of Japanese life to a of Art. 
large extent escaped my attention. I was led to take an 
interest in it by a proposal on the part of the Government 
to start a School of Art, in European style, in connection 
with the College. All the more important foreign Powers 
were anxious to have a hand in what they were pleased 
to call the " civilising " of Japan. The Americans were 
influential in general education, the British in the navy and 
public works, the French in the military service, and the 
Germans in medicine. The Engineering College repre- 
sented the United Kingdom, as we had on our staff 
graduates of English, Scottish, and Irish universities. The 
Italians thought that their special sphere was that of art, 
and they were anxious that there should be a School of 
Art in which they could impart the methods and ideals of 
European art. To please them the Government established 
such a school, which was, for convenience, connected with 
the Engineering College. I remarked that while I could 
not object to the arrangement and to the introduction of 
European art into Japan, I sincerely hoped that something 
would be done to prevent all that was good in Japanese art 
from disappearing. My old friend Mr. (after- Japanese 
wards Count) Sano took up the matter very Art Societ y- 
keenly, and he formed a society for the purpose of culti- 
vating the different departments of Japanese art ; to him 
and his friends the country owes a debt of gratitude, as 
through their efforts, and those of others who have followed 
in their steps, there are now many artists in the different 
departments who produce work which will compare very 
favourably with the best of former days, and all that is 
wanted is suitable economic and social conditions for their 
encouragement. There has been a certain amount of 
westernisation of style, but in recent years the great aim 
of all the artists worthy of the name has been to return, as 



208 Dai Nippon 

far as possible, to the canons of Japan, and to the methods 
and designs of the days of feudalism. 

A Japanese artist and scholar, Mr. Kakasu Okakura, 
who has done a great deal to revive the old spirit in 
Criticism of Japanese art, and who has written a very 
Foreign Art. interesting book 1 on the subject, speaking of 
the attempts to introduce European art into Japan has 
said : " The art which reached us was European at its 
lowest ebb — before the fin-de-siecle aestheticism had redeemed 
its atrocities, before Delacroix had uplifted the veil of 
hardened academic chiaro-oscuro, before Millet and the 
Barbizons brought their message of light and colour, before 
Ruskin had interpreted the purity of pre-Raphaelite noble- 
ness. Thus the Japanese attempt at Western imitation 
which was inaugurated in the Government School of Art — 
where Italian teachers were appointed to teach — grovelled 
in darkness from its infancy, and yet succeeded, even at its 
inception, in imposing that hard crust of mannerism which 
impedes its progress to the present day. But the active 
individualism of Meiji, teeming with life in other cycles of 
thought, could not be content to move in these fixed grooves 
which orthodox conservatism or radical Europeanisation 
imposed on art. When the first decade of the era was 
passed, and recovery from the effects of civil war was more 
or less complete, a band of earnest workers strove to found 
a third belt of art-expression, which by a higher realisation 
of the possibilities of ancient Japanese art, and aiming at a 
love and knowledge of the most sympathetic movements in 
Western art-creations, tried to reconstruct the national art 
on a new basis, whose keynote should be ' Life true to 
Self.' " 

I feel that Mr. Okakura's condemnation of the methods 

adopted for the teaching of European art is fully deserved, 

and it is satisfactory to find that the danger of 

Renewed ideals. , . , , . . , . 

the native art being entirely swamped is now 
past. The problem now is to evolve economic conditions 

1 The Ideals of the East. London : John Murray* 1903. 



Art Industries 209 

which will make true Japanese art possible. In a preceding 
chapter I have mentioned the arrangements of the Govern- 
ment School of Art at Uyeno, Tokyo, and of the Nippon 
Bijitsuin at Yanaka, in the suburbs of the city ; but, after all, 
Japanese artists are not so much trained in schools as under 
the eyes and direction of the masters, who do all they can 
to develop the powers of their most promising pupils. The 
biennial exhibitions of the Nippon Bijitsuin reveal clearly 
the vital element in the contemporary art activity of the 
country. Mr. Okakura, who takes an active part in the 
work of the institution, says : " According to this school, 
freedom is the greatest privilege of an artist, but freedom 
always in the sense of evolutional self-development. Art 
is neither the ideal nor the real. Imitation, whether of 
nature, of the old masters, or above all of self, is suicidal to 
the realisation of individuality, which rejoices always to play 
an original part, be it of tragedy or comedy, in the grand 
drama of life, of man, and of nature." Those who wish 
to make themselves acquainted with the spirit which now 
animates the best work in Japanese art cannot do better 
than read Mr. Okakura's book from which I have quoted. 

Our present object is to enter into details neither of the 
ideals of Japanese art nor of the manufacture of the different 
kinds of art products, but rather to look at the Modern 
social bearings of the subject, and to consider the conditions, 
possibility and probability of real art, and all that it means 
in the national life, surviving amid all the changes which 
are going on in Japan. Mr. Okakura truly says that 
" The simple life of Asia need fear no shaming from that 
sharp contrast with Europe in which steam and electricity 
have placed it to-day. The old world of trade, the world 
of the craftsman and the pedlar, of the village market and 
the saint's -day fair, where boats row up and down great 
rivers laden with the produce of the country, where every 
palace has some court in which the travelling merchant may 
display his stuffs and jewels for beautiful screened women 
to see and buy, is not yet dead. And however its form 

(b 207) -p 



2 1 o Dai Nippon 

may change, only at a great loss can Asia permit its spirit 
to die, since the whole of that industrial and decorative art 
which is the heirloom of ages has been in its keeping, and 
she must lose with it, not only the beauty of things, but the 
joy of the worker, his individuality of vision, and the whole 
age-long humanising of her labour. For to clothe oneself 
in the web of one's own weaving is to house oneself in one's 
own house, to create for the spirit its own sphere." 1 

He insists that it was some small degree of self-recogni- 
tion that re-made Japan and enabled her to weather the 
storm under which so much of the Oriental 

Eastern ideals. . . . . 

world went down, and he generalises, that it 
must be a renewal of the same self-consciousness that shall 
build up Asia again into her ancient steadfastness and 
strength. The opening paragraph of Mr. Okakura's book 
gives the key to the whole position. He says : " Asia is 
one. The Himalayas divide, only to accentuate, two 
mighty civilisations, the Chinese with its communism of 
Confucius, and the Indian with its individualism of the 
Vedas. But not even the snowy barriers can interrupt for 
one moment that broad expanse of love for the Ultimate 
and Universal which is the common thought-inheritance of 
every Asiatic race, enabling them to produce all the great 
religions of the world, and distinguishing them from those 
maritime peoples of the Mediterranean and the Baltic who 
love to dwell on the Particular, and to search out the means, 
not the end of life." These somewhat mystic words reveal 
the fundamental differences between the Eastern and the 
Western minds, differences which must be remembered when 
we are trying to explain the past, to understand the present, 
or prognosticate the future. As a rule, Eastern peoples 
have a religious spirit (in the broad sense of that term) and 
try to live up to their beliefs. Western minds are essentially 
materialistic (although there are some exceptions) and the 
majority of people spend their energies in searching for 
the means of life and forgetting the end. The answer to 

1 Ideals of the East, p. 236. 



Art Industries 211 

the first question in the Shorter Catechism, What is the chief 
end of man ? has become largely a form of words which 
has no bearing on practical life. Six days of the week 
spent in the worship of mammon, an hour or two on 
Sundays in church, and a few subscriptions to philanthropic 
institutions designed for the benefit of our social failures 
constitute the religion of the majority of well-to-do people 
in Europe and America. Some of them have picture 
galleries, but these are looked upon either as A and 
safe financial speculations, or are used chiefly to economic 
gratify their vulgar vanity and love of display. condltIons - 
Under such influences true art is almost an impossibility. 
No doubt some artists of strong personality are able to 
develop their powers under the demoralising system of 
modern competition, but it requires a very strong man to 
resist the temptation to prostitute his talents in reproducing 
the figures of rich nobodies at .£1000 apiece. 

It may be asked, What has all this to do with Japanese 
art ? Simply to show that national art depends largely on 
social and economic conditions and on the ideals which 
animate the lives of the people. Artists and art workers of 
all kinds should therefore have a special interest in social 
reform, so that they may be free to develop their own 
individualities, without which there can be no true art. 
Japanese art must degenerate unless conditions are evolved 
which allow the artists the same freedom which existed 
under the feudal system, and unless the ideals of national 
life are kept clearly in view. These indeed are the two 
great problems which lie before Japan. We will consider 
them a little further on, but meantime, looking at the subject 
from an economic and artistic point of view, I would insist 
on the necessity for the Japanese maintaining their individu- 
ality in art and art products. Their artistic ability has won 
for them a unique position, and while I would repel the 
suggestion that they should confine themselves to the role of 
curio-makers to the other nations of the world, I believe 
that they have a wide sphere of usefulness in supplying the 



2 1 2 Dai Nippon 

artistic elements in their own national life and in supple- 
menting those of foreign countries. 

Notwithstanding the high ideals of Mr. Okakura and the 
practical efforts of the Bijitsuin, it cannot be said that 
Present condi- modern Japanese artists have yet been able to 
tions in japan, translate their ideals into their works. They 
seem to be struggling between the ideals and methods of the 
East and those of the West. Writing of a recent exhibition 
held in Tokyo, a competent critic in the Japan Daily Mail 
says : " There are many pictures of considerable merit, but 
one carries away from the display a strong impression that 
no progress has been made since last year, and that there are 
even signs of retrogression. It should be premised, perhaps, 
that these are not pictures in the pure Japanese style. They 
represent an effort to wed the arts of the West and of the 
Far East ; an effort which has been watched with much 
interest for several years. Hence, when progress is spoken 
of in this context, the reference is to evidences that the 
marriage can be effected successfully and that its offspring 
will be attractive. We begin to entertain doubts. It 
appears that the Japanese artist has not yet ' found ' himself 
in such work. He is still groping after an undiscovered 
something. Fine ideas visit him : delicate ideas, romantic 
ideas, and even poetical ideas. But he can neither express 
them nor fix them so as to make them speak clearly from 
the canvas. He is living in a land of haze. His aspirations 
end in mist, and his struggle to be large finds no resource 
except the expanse of his canvas. Sometimes where his 
drawing is admirable, his composition well balanced, and his 
subject impressive, he fails in monotony of tone, in dreary 
absence of centralisation. Sometimes when he carries the 
spectator into an ethereal region where the impression of 
breadth and atmosphere is almost overpowering, he spoils 
everything by outlines that recall the studio of an immature 
observer. Yet there is in these pictures an indefinable some- 
thing that suggests a noble idea in embryo. Several steps 
of development are necessary, however. Their nature, of 



Art Industries 213 

course, cannot be accurately described. If it could, achieve- 
ment would not be still distant. But hope remains though 
in the presence of considerable disappointment. The exhibi- 
tion ought to be visited by every one that has any concern 
for the future of this school of Japanese artists, or, indeed, 
for the future of Japanese pictorial art. We do not allege 
that there are many striking pictures, or even many that rise 
above the level of mediocrity, but certainly there are many 
that offer much food for thought." 

The standard of modern art metal work in Japan has 
been well maintained and many interesting developments 
have taken place, but it is still in a transition stage. 
Cloisonne enamel is a branch of applied art which may be 
considered of essentially modern development in Japan ; 
indeed it was only during the last quarter of the nineteenth 
century that it emerged from a condition of crudeness to 
one of unparalleled excellence. Captain Brinkley, a high 
authority on the subject, says : " There was no reason to 
anticipate that the Japanese would take the lead of the world 
in this branch of applied art. They had no presumptive 
title to do so. Yet they certainly have done so." In the 
department of pottery, although modern productions cannot 
yet equal the best porcelains of Hizen and Kutani and the 
faiences of Satsuma and Kyoto in the feudal times, still very 
good work has been done in recent years. For some time 
after the revolution a great deal of what was made was 
supposed to be designed to suit the tastes of foreigners, and 
much of it was utterly opposed to the canons of Japanese 
art, but in recent years there has been a return to Chinese 
ideals and a consequent improvement in the standard both 
of execution and of taste. Lacquer work of good quality 
can still be obtained, although the demand in Europe and 
America for cheap imitations of the old methods and designs 
has made it difficult to keep the standard of excellence up to 
the level of bygone days. In no department of applied art 
have the Japanese shown so much progress in recent years 
as in that of textile fabrics, and many examples are produced 



214 Dai Nippon 

which are remarkable both for workmanship and for combina- 
tion of colours. Although not much attention is now paid 
to the carving of netstikes, which attained a high standard of 
excellence in feudal days, the glyptic artists of Japan now 
devote their time to the production of works of greater 
importance, which are in many respects on a higher plane of 
excellence than the old work. Engraving in its several 
departments, work in gold and silver and many other appli- 
cations of art to the articles of everyday life, all prove that 
it is possible for Japanese art productions to maintain some- 
thing like their old standard of excellence, notwithstanding 
the great developments of Western industry and trade. 
While it is both desirable and necessary that these develop- 
ments should continue in order that the standard of life in 
the country should be raised in all departments, all who 
really know and love Japan will agree with Captain Brinkley 
that " it would be an everlasting pity if the chief endow- 
ment of her people, their wonderful artistic instincts and 
their not less wonderful facility in expressing them, were left 
unutilised, because a party of fanatical radicals deemed it 
necessary to commit national suicide in order to be re-born 
into the comity of Occidental Powers." Japan has now been 
admitted a full member of the comity of nations because of 
the wondrous progress which she has made in every depart- 
ment of national life, and it is to be hoped that she will 
always retain those characteristics which have given her a 
special place among the nations of the world. 

Sir George Birdwood in his book on The Industrial Arts 
of India says a good deal which applies with considerable 
Comparison force to the conditions of Japan, and his 
with India, remarks should be carefully studied by all who 
are able to exercise any influence on the future of Japan. 
Space will allow only of the following extracts : — " What is 
chiefly to be dreaded is the general introduction of machinery 
into India. We are just beginning in Europe to understand 
what things may be done by machinery, and what must be 
done by hand-work, if art is of the slightest consideration 



Art Industries 215 

in the matter. But if, owing to the operation of certain 
economic causes, machinery were to be gradually introduced 
into India for the manufacture of its great traditional handi- 
crafts, there would ensue an industrial revolution which, if 
not directed by an intelligent and instructed public opinion, 
and the general prevalence of refined taste, would inevitably 
throw the traditional arts of the country into the same 
confusion of principles, and of their practical application to 
the objects of daily necessity, which has for three generations 
been the destruction of decorative art and of middle-class 
taste in England and North -Western Europe, and the 
United States of America. 

" The social and moral evils of the introduction of 
machinery into India are likely to be still greater. At 
present the industries of India are carried on all over the 
country, although hand -weaving is everywhere languishing 
in the unequal competition with Manchester and the 
Presidency mills. But in every Indian village all the 
traditional handicrafts are still to be found at work." After 
describing some of the general methods of some of these 
handicrafts, he concludes as follows : — " I do not mean to 
deprecate the proper functions of machines in modern 
civilisation, but machinery should be the servant and never 
the master of men. It cannot minister to the beauty and 
pleasure of life, it can only be the slave of life's drudgery ; 
and it should be kept rigorously in its place, in India as 
well as England. When in England machinery is, by the 
force of cultivated taste and opinion, no longer allowed 
to intrude into the domain of art manufactures, which 
belongs exclusively to the trained mind and hand of 
individual workmen, wealth will become more equally 
diffused throughout society, and the working classes, 
through the elevating influence of their daily work, and 
the growing respect for their talent and skill and culture, 
will rise at once in social, civil, and political position, raising 
the whole country to the highest classes with them ; and 
Europe will learn to taste of some of that content and 



2 1 6 Dai Nippon 

happiness in life which is still to be found in the 
Pagan East, as it was once found in Pagan Greece and 
Rome." 

The determination of the proper functions of machinery 
in modern life is one of the problems which faces every 
industrial country. Many of the social evils of the Western 
world arise from the dull dead monotony of the work of the 
people, and from the low, material, sensual ideals which large 
numbers of all classes have of the meaning and object of 
life. In Old Japan there was not only variety in the work, 
but interest and pleasure in a great deal of it, and certainly 
in all that which was of an artistic nature. Time was not 
money and the feudal patrons encouraged the highest 

Future of excellence in every department of artistic work. 

Japanese Under present conditions the foreign market 
has to a large extent taken the place of feudal 
patronage, but its demands are fitful and its tendency is to 
reduce even the best artists to the production of pot-boilers 
of little artistic value. The true spirit of Japanese art is 
prostituted to the promptings of gain, and foreign tastes 
have more influence than Japanese canons. A most essential 
step is the organisation of the art workers in such a manner 
as to ensure not only good payment for first-class work, but 
also the maintenance of that standard of excellence and 
purity without which all their efforts are for the most part 
wasted. They must, however, be assisted by the men of 
means who are becoming somewhat numerous in Japan. 
They, like true patriots, should see it to be their duty to 
take the place of the ancient daimyos in the encouragement 
of art, in a truly national spirit, and under such conditions 
of freedom as to allow the artists to develop their own 
individualities. In addition the municipalities and other 
local bodies as well as the central Government should give 
every encouragement to artistic genius in the decoration of 
public buildings ; for, after all, the highest forms of art have 
always been developed under some form of communism. 
The temples and tombs of Japan and the churches of the 



Art Industries 217 

Middle Ages in Europe are illustrations of the results of 
such conditions. 

In this way there would grow up a body of men who 
were free from the anxiety of earning a mere living, who 
would exercise a great influence not only on the national 
art, but also on the art products which are exported to 
Europe and America. Paintings and picture books are 
likely to be appreciated only by those who have been to 
Japan and who are really artistic in their nature and under- 
stand the motives and ideals of the artists, but there is a 
great field for the production of artistic articles which are 
intended partly for ornament and partly for use. The pro- 
duction of works in lacquer, pottery, bronze, silk and other 
materials is capable of immense development, and for these 
Japan might find a ready market in almost every country in 
the world. My past associations with Japan naturally make 
me anxious to see her take full advantage of the applications 
of Western science and machinery for the production of the 
requirements and conveniences of modern life, but it would 
be a disaster to the country if in the competitive struggle it 
lost its art and individuality. Other countries will be able 
to compete successfully with it in the manufacture of textile 
fabrics, engineering appliances, and chemical products, but I 
know of none which can take its place in art productions. 
If Japanese art be guided on right lines, it may interest 
every country in the world, not only from an artistic point 
of view, but also lead to that blending of Eastern and 
Western thought which, in my opinion, is necessary for the 
true progress of the world. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

A considerable number of books have been written in English 
and other foreign languages on the art industries of Japan. In 
Professor Chamberlain's Things Japanese will be found useful short 
articles on the different departments of Japanese art industries, with 
references to the most important books on the subject. Captain 



ITY 



2 1 8 Dai Nippon 

Brinkley's article in the supplementary volumes of the Encyclopedia 
Britannica is the best condensed account which has been written. 
Clement's Handbook of Modern Japan (chap, xvi.) gives a very good 
outline, with a useful list of books on the subject. Of these the 
following may be noted : Rein, The Industries of Japan ; Anderson, 
The Pictorial Arts of Japan ; Brinkley, Japan, Its History, Art, and 
Literature, and Japan and China (12 vols.); Audsley and Bowes, 
Keramic Art of Japan ; Huish, Japan and its Art ; and Conder, 
landscape- Gardening in Japan. The Ideals of the East, with special 
reference to the art of Japan, by Kakasu Okakura, should be care- 
fully read, as it contains a great deal of useful and interesting informa- 
tion about Japanese art, and also indicates its relations to Japanese 
life and thought. 



CHAPTER X 

COMMERCE 

THE history of commerce in Old Japan has many features 
of an interesting nature, but for details of these I must refer 
to special books on the subject. It will, however, be useful 
to note a few points which have considerable bearing on 
present-day conditions. 

The earliest existing records of Japanese commerce take 
us back to the third century of the Christian era, at which 
early date things were in a very primitive commerce in 
condition. Under feudalism there was always old J a P an - 
a tendency to the multiplication of regulations and the 
increase of officialism, which prevented the free development 
of commerce. Some of the regulations were as quaint as 
they were absurd. They were for the most part based on 
the doctrine that the people's reward for the products of 
their labour must be regulated primarily with regard to the 
convenience of the ruling classes. 

The commercial intercourse with China and Korea dates 
from a very early time, and a study of the relations which 
existed at different periods is very interesting in the present 
state of affairs. Such a study is necessary in order to under- 
stand the Japanese point of view. All the arrangements 
were controlled by officials who valued the merchandise as it 
arrived, and sales were afterwards made at greatly increased 
rates to the people, the difference going to the Treasury ; so 
that in a sense the Government was the only wholesale 
foreign merchant. 

219 



220 Dai Nippon 

A very important feature in the internal commerce of 
Japan was the system of guilds or trusts, which practically 
controlled all departments of trade. The merchants, 
especially those of Yedo and Osaka, working under these 
trusts, gradually acquired great wealth and fell into luxurious 
habits, and they often resorted to arbitrary measures which 
caused great hardships and consequent discontent. In 1841, 
by the authority of the Shogun, the licences of the guilds 
were withdrawn and they were dissolved, and liberty given 
to all who wished to engage in commerce without let or 
hindrance. This sudden change, however, led to great 
inconvenience, as no other adequate arrangements had been 
made to take the place of the guilds, and after about ten 
years it was seen that a modified form of the old system 
would conduce to the public interest. Modified regulations 
were therefore made ; the guilds were re-established and 
they remained until the beginning of the Meiji period (1 867), 
when they shared the cataclysm that overtook all the 
country's old institutions. It will be interesting to note 
how far modern conditions will lead to a renewal of an 
organisation something like the guilds of former days. In 
Japan, as in every other industrial country in the world, the 
tendency is towards combination and monopoly. 

The early days of foreign trade in Japan, under the 
conditions brought about by the events connected 
Results of new with the Restoration, were marked by great 
conditions, embarrassments, resulting from the difference 
between the silver price of gold in Japan and its silver price 
in Europe, at the time when the trade was opened. The 
difficulties were increased by the extraordinary appreciation 
of the prices of all the ordinary articles of commerce, in 
some cases amounting to as much as four hundred per cent, 
and seldom less than three hundred per cent. Such an 
increase inflicted great hardships on the consumers, who 
naturally attributed it to the advent of foreigners and the 
opening of new markets. On the other hand, the producers 
made large profits, as they obtained from foreign buyers 



Commerce 221 

such prices as they had never before realised. Marine 
products, raw silk, and tea were at first the chief articles of 
export, and notwithstanding the difficulties which he had to 
overcome, the foreign merchant frequently made a profit of 
from forty to fifty per cent. The failure of the silk crop in 
France, owing to a novel disease of the silk-worm, gave the 
silk trade in Japan a good start, while Japanese tea appealed 
so strongly to American tastes that a large demand at once 
arose for it, and it still continues the most important export 
to America. 

For some years the increase in the foreign trade of 
Japan was comparatively slow, but as improvements took 
place in the administration of the country, and as develop- 
ments were made in the means of communication, and the 
applications of Western methods to industry, the increase 
became very rapid. No great increase in the foreign trade 
of the country could be expected so long as it consisted 
chiefly in the importation of foreign goods. These had to be 
paid for, and the trade could not possibly continue unless a 
corresponding quantity of goods of a different kind was 
exported. Agricultural products and other raw materials 
were, as already stated, at first, the only exports, and 
they still form a very considerable part, but now goods 
manufactured not only in Japanese but also in foreign 
style are, as we have seen, assuming a position of im- 
portance. 

The rapidly improving financial position of the country, 
and especially the resumption of specie payments in 1885, 
had very marked effects on trade. We will notice some of 
the financial measures in a subsequent chapter ; meantime it 
is sufficient to note here the inconvenience to the import 
merchant who purchased his goods with gold which not only 
appreciated constantly in value relatively to silver, but also 
the silver itself appreciated rapidly and sharply in relation to 
the notes paid by the Japanese consumers. Commercial 
operations became in great part a gamble, and it was not 
until the cause of the uncertainty was removed that the 



222 



Dai Nippon 



foreign trade was placed on a healthy basis, and developed 
with increasing rapidity. The natural resources of Japan 
have ample room for growth, while the growing intelligence 
of her people with regard to foreign countries will, no doubt, 
inspire the rising generation with a stronger desire to open 
up closer trading relations with the outside world. Some 
commercial men in Japan even think that in a comparatively 
short time their country will become the centre for the 
carrying trade of the Far East, and the geographical position 
of the country, as well as recent economic developments, 
justify their hope. 

The development of the foreign trade of Japan since the 
Development of Restoration has been most remarkable, as is 
foreign trade, shown by the following table, which gives the 
amount of imports and exports during that period : — 



Year. 


Exports. 


Imports. 


Total. 




Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


1868 


15,553,437 


10,693,072 


26,246,545 


1878 


26,988,140 


32,874,834 


58,862,974 


1888 


65,705,510 


65,455,234 


131,160,744 


1892 


91,102,754 


71,326,080 


162,428,833 


1897 


163,135,077 


219,300,772 


382,435,849 


I9OI 


252,349»543 


255,816,645 


508,166,188 


I903 


289,502,442 


317,135,517 


606,637,959 



The principal exports are raw silk, hafaitaye, cotton 

yarns, matches, fancy matting, tea, camphor, marine products, 

Exports and copper, coal, etc. Of these, raw silk and 

imports. habutaye stand out conspicuous in volume and 
value, and have in the United States of America and France 
their best customers. Cotton yarns go mostly to China, 
Hong-Kong, and Korea ; matches and coal to China, Hong- 
Kong, and British India ; fancy matting to the United 
States of America, etc. ; marine products to China and 
Hong-Kong ; copper to Hong-Kong, England, Germany, etc. 
The following table gives the total value of classified 
commodities exported from Japan for the three years 
1 901-3 : — 



Commerce 



22 





1903. 


1902. 


I90I. 


Beverages and Comestibles : — 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Part I. (Tea) 


i3>935-252.7io 


10,484,017.060 


8,854,326.700 


Part 2. (Grains) . 


5,170,066.600 


6,822,574.610 


7,037,432.000 


Part 3. (Marine products) . 


7,073,322.690 


6,200,083.770 


6,983,959.I70 


Part 4. (Others) . 

Total . 
Clothing and accessories . 


6,254,803.110 


5,222,l6l.l50 


5,250,132.880 


32,433,445.110 


28,728,836.590 


28,125,850.750 


3,473,566.740 


2,860,393.640 


2,442,764.280 


Drugs, medicines, chemicals, 


7,323,165.520 


6,150,748.920 


6,576,367.390 


dyes and paints 








Metals and metal manufactures 


18,329,564.350 


12,796,450.650 


15,821,272.720 


Oils and waxes 


2,387,970. 170 


2,486,913.710 


1,709,550.980 


Paper and paper manufactures . 


2,053,337.120 


1,785,588.030 


1,659,300.540 


Skins, hair, shells, horns, etc. . 


1,645,231.420 


1,106,701.480 


1,035,811.050 


Tissues, yarns, threads, and 








raw materials thereof : — 








Part I. (Silk) . 


ii3,7oi,393-8oo 


II3,954,I08.230 


I09,I37,I39.330 


Part 2. (Cotton) . 


39,928,259.470 


27,110,732.590 


28,029,194.550 


Part 3. (Others) . 

Total 
Tobacco .... 


i,475.576.26o 


I,333,975-250 


1,186,072.560 


155,105,229.530 


142,398,816.070 
2,365,792.830 


138,352,406.440 


2,127,580.380 


1,748,492.520 


Miscellaneous 

Grand total . 
Re-exports .... 

Total exports 


61,092,533.010 


54,994,774.570 


51,943,691.350 


285,971,623.350 


255,675,016.490 


249,415,508.020 


3,530,819-160 


2,628,048.380 


2,934,035.080 


289,502,442.510 


258,303,064.870 


252,349,543.100 







The imports into Japan are of a very miscellaneous 
nature, the most important items being machinery, iron 
ware, petroleum, sugar, raw cotton, cotton fabrics and 
woollen goods. Iron ware comes from the United States 
and Russian Asia ; sugar from China, Hong-Kong, and 
Germany ; ginned cotton from the United States, Hong- 
Kong, and British India ; cotton goods from England and 
Germany ; woollen goods from England, Germany, Belgium, 
and France. Under machinery the most important items 
are locomotives and cotton-spinning machinery, the former 
coming from Britain and the United States and the latter 
from Britain. In the requirements of the dockyards, both 
Government and private, British manufacturers still have 
most of the trade. The United States supplies a large part 



224 



Dai Nippon 



of the electrical machinery. The following table shows the 
total value of classified commodities imported into Japan 
during the three years 190 1-3 : — 





1903. 


1902. 


1901. 




Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Arms, clocks, watches, instru- 


13,219,740.010 


12,114,322.790 


16,738,946.870 


ments, tools, and machinery 








Beverages and comestibles 


i5» I 57,962.48o 


8,713,970.720 


7,505,181.240 


Clothing and accessories . 


i,374,489-7io 


I,3 2 7,499-860 


I,35I,432-230 


Drugs, chemicals, and medicines 


6,712,050.930 


7,183,082.870 


5,527,045.170 


Dyes, colours, and paints 


7,728,656.240 


6,682,354.930 


5,358,605.680 


Glass and glass manufactures . 


1,424,995.190 


1,836,906.610 


I,395,458-08o 


Grains and seeds 


67,"3>444-9 I ° 


26,223,165.350 


18,797,209.960 


Horns, ivory, skins, hair, shells, 

etc. 
Metals and metal manufac- 


3,271,610.660 


3,076,050.940 


2,977,177.620 








tures : — 








Part 1. (Iron, steel) 


21,918,767.650 


18,768,763.120 


19,998,203.560 


Part 2. (Others) 
Total . 
Oils and waxes 


5,822,309.940 


5,o67,933-76o 


5,416,198.190 


27,74i,077-590 


23,836,696.880 


25,414,401.750 


13,929,044.240 


16,699,976.120 


16,361,561.670 


Paper and stationery 


4,855,425.630 


4,947,869.610 


3,216,852.810 


Sugar ..... 


21,005,629.870 


14,486,234.750 


33,527,463.440 


Tissues, yarns, threads, and raw 








materials thereof : — 








Part I. (Cotton) 


81,371,230.990 


96,949,588.480 


74,798,478.790 


Part 2. (Wool) 


16,316,073.550 


I4,304,534-090 


11,848,457.500 


Part 3. (Silk) . 


i,940,493-590 


2,456,977-790 


1,542,489.040 


Part 4. (Hemp) 


2,072,927.240 


2,102,936.890 


1,665,692.750 


Part 5. (Others) 
Total . 
Tobacco .... 


1,203,269.520 


1,055,722.610 


844,803.440 


102,903,994.890 


116,869,759.860 


90,699,921.520 


1,117,858.340 


995,976.250 


121,090.750 


Wines, liquors, and spirits 


769,236.900 


695,790.140 


698,243.180 


Miscellaneous 

Grand Total 
Re-imports .... 

Total imports 


28,302,362.380 


25,629,785.280 


25,784,684.120 


316,627,579.970 


271,319,442.960 


255,475,276.090 


507,937.950 


411,815.590 


341,368.610 


3i7,i35,5i7-920 


271,731,258.550 


255,816,644.700 









The following table gives the total value of commodities 
Distribution of exported to and imported from the various 
japan's foreign trade, foreign countries for the year 1903 : — 



Commerce 



225 





Exports. 


Imports. 


Total. 


Asia — 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


China .... 


64,994,I79-640 


45,458,057.420 


110,452,237.060 


British India . 


8,086,798.150 


69,894,197.280 


77,980,995.430 


Hong-Kong . 


29,724,694.190 


1,739,726.910 


31,464,421.100 


Korea .... 


11,761,494.010 


8,912,151.230 


20,673,645.240 


Annam and other French 


197,776.140 


15,579,626.870 


I5,777,403-OIO 


India 








Dutch India . 


912,419.440 


10,842,779.850 


",755,I99-290 


Russian Asia . 


2,239,986.850 


8,267,652.090 


10,507,638.940 


British Straits Settlement 


7,108,700.780 


1,323,441.260 


8,432,142.040 


Philippine Islands . 


1,675,519.180 


3,421,553.530 


5,097,072.710 


Siam .... 
Total 
Europe — 


73,625.930 


3,726,279.770 


3,799,905-700 


126,775,194.310 


169,165,466.210 


295,940,660.520 








Great Britain . 


16,544,523.980 


48,736,758.130 


65,281,282.110 


France . 




34,279,ii5-90o 


5,107,913.280 


39,387,029.180 


Germany 




5,185,658.490 


26,958,976.670 


32,144,635.160 


Italy 




11,003,607.190 


311,020.990 


11,314,628.180 


Belgium . 




487,173.130 


7,578,590.990 


8,065,764.120 


Austria-Hungary 




981,290.360 


3,676,995-080 


4,658,285.440 


Switzerland 




264,738.220 


2,187,954.190 


2,452,692.410 


Russia . 




1,125,250.840 


291,558.700 


1,416,809.540 


Holland . 




224,043x00 


8l4,705-930 


1,038,748.930 


Sweden . 




518.000 


290,697.190 


291,215.190 


Spain 




67,593-5So 


101,191.430 


168,785.010 


Turkey . 




io5,959-370 


2,044.520 


108,003.890 


Denmark 




29,447.710 


18,002.120 


47,449-830 


Norway . 




1,727.560 


19,804.990 


21,532.550 


Portugal . . 




998. Soo 


17,999.260 


18,998.060 


Total 

America — 


70,301,646.130 


96,114,213.470 


166,415,859.600 








United States of America 


82,723,985X10 


46,273,870.930 


128,997,856.540 


Canada and other British 


2,923,539-730 


499,039-860 


3,422,579.590 


America 








Mexico .... 


72,222.270 


1,638.950 


73,861.220 


Peru .... 

Total 
All other — 


12,012,180 


18,088.840 


30,101.020 


85,73i,759-790 


46,792,638.580 


132,524,398.370 








Australia 


3,352,465.570 


1,199,935.250 


4,552,400.820 


Egypt .... 


322,664.420 


2,401,598.460 


2,724,262.880 


Hawaii .... 

Total 
Other Countries 


2,253,782.630 


6,218.480 


2,260,001. no 


5,928,912.620 


3,607,752.190 


9,536,664.810 


486,791.180 


782,185.320 


1,268,976.500 


Unknown 

Grand Total 


278,138.480 


673,262.150 


951,400.630 


289,502,442.510 


3i7,i35,5i7-92o 


606,637,960.430 






(B 207) 








n 



226 Dai Nippon 

If we examine the shares of the principal Western 
countries which supply Japan's requirements, we find that 
in 1883 more than one-half of the total imports came from 
the United Kingdom; in 1890, about one-third; in 1898, 
considerably less than one-fourth ; in 1899, little more than 
one-fifth ; and in 1 900, one-fourth. Taking the three last 
mentioned years, the aggregate import trade of the whole 
British Empire bears a less favourable ratio to the whole 
import trade of Japan than did that of the United Kingdom 
alone in 1883. The trade of Germany has in the same 
period advanced from about one-twentieth to one-tenth of 
the whole, and of the United States (including Canada in 
1883) from about one- ninth to over one- fifth. German 
trade is and has always been exclusively in articles which 
compete directly with British productions. It is only in 
very recent years, on the other hand, that the United States 
has become a competitor with the United Kingdom, the 
trade of that country having, until 1896, been almost 
entirely in such products as kerosene oil, flour, leather, and 
tobacco ; whereas it now includes machinery of all kinds, 
scientific and other instruments, metal manufactures, rails, 
railway and bridge materials, boots, clothing, cotton tissues, 
and even coal, etc., the supply of all of which was formerly 
considered under the exclusive control of the United 
Kingdom. The principal item in French trade, representing 
perhaps five -eighths of the whole, is the woollen staple 
mousseline-de-laine, the production of which is not seriously 
attempted by British manufacturers, and trade rivalry with 
France can therefore be said to exist only to a small extent. 

While the trade of the United Kingdom has in the 
period referred to increased less than one-and-a-half fold, 
that of Germany and of the United States has, in each case, 
grown more than ten-fold. Not only is this the case at the 
present, but the most strenuous efforts are being made in 
both the latter countries to prepare the way for very 
considerable extensions in the future. I cannot enter into 
a detailed discussion of this aspect of the subject, but 



Commerce 227 

the following opinion by Mr. Consul Longford should be 
noted : — " While much of the success of Germany and the 
United States must be ascribed to the willingness of the 
manufacturers of both countries to cater specially for the 
requirements of the Japanese, to advertising, and to the 
energy and vigilance of agents, some of it, and not the 
least part, is undoubtedly due to facilities of through 
transport from the seat of production in both countries to 
the destination of the goods in Japan." 

The most marked feature, however, in the foreign trade 
of Japan is the growth of that trade with the Asiatic 
Continent. In 1881 Europe stood at the head of the list 
in the volume and value of its exports, followed by America 
and Asia. Twenty years later, in 1901, the relative positions 
of these great divisions of the globe were reversed, and in 
the exports Asia came first, followed by America and 
Europe. In imports also Asia occupied the same position, 
after which came Europe and America. In the interval 
between the years mentioned Asia advanced by over seven- 
teen-fold in the value of her exports, Europe by 460 per cent, 
America 680 per cent, Australia and others by over 325 
per cent. In imports the rate of advance for the same 
interval was over fourteen-fold for Asia, over 450 per cent for 
Europe, over 2360 per cent for America, and over 5680 per 
cent for Australia and others. The importance to Japan 
of freedom to develop its trade on the Continent of Asia, 
and especially in China and Korea, is therefore evident, and 
this has a very important bearing on its foreign policy. 

Since the opening of foreign trade the imports have 
exceeded the exports in value by a very considerable 
amount, and there can be no doubt that Japan's Balance of trade 
foreign trade is, at present, causing an outflow a s ainst Japan. 
of her specie. Much of her floating capital has been in- 
vested in works which as yet are only partially productive, 
and is thus not meantime available for further developments. 
Still the balance of trade against Japan is not so great as it 
is sometimes made to appear. After the war of 1894-95 



228 Dai Nippon 

Japan received from China an indemnity of thirty-two 
millions of pounds, out of which she brought eighteen and 
two-third millions into the country. Further, in 1898 she 
sold bonds to the value of four and one-third millions in the 
London market and caused the money to be sent to Tokyo. 
Moreover, there are other sources of income which are not 
apparent in the ordinary returns. Her merchant marine 
brings in a large sum. She is selling coal and other ships' 
stores in her ports to foreign vessels, the value of which is 
not entered in the trade returns, and her 70,000 emigrants 
are bringing or sending their savings home. In addition 
to all this there is what may be called the foreign tourist 
industry. It is estimated that each foreign visitor spends on 
an average about £200 ; so that taking all these items into 
account the apparent debit balance is very considerably 
reduced. In the future the gross amount of that balance is 
not likely to be nearly so large as in the past, as much of 
the imports were designed to increase the exports and thus 
cause the balance to decrease. 

The developments of all kinds which have taken place 
in Japan have caused a great increase in the prices of 
Current prices of commodities in ordinary use, and this fact must 
the chief articles be taken into account when the effects on wages 

of merchandise. , . , .... , . , , T 

and social conditions are being considered. It 
should also be remembered when the future of competition 
with Eastern countries is being discussed. The work of 
the engineer has caused economic conditions in all industrial 
countries to approximate to the same standard. The actual 
cost of production, not the rate of wages, is the proper basis 
of comparison. Skill, organisation, and the utilisation of the 
latest developments of science and machinery are the most 
important factors in modern industry. The following table 
gives the average prices of commodities throughout the 
country for the years named, from which it will be seen that 
rice, sake, coal and fuel have more than doubled in price in 
the interval considered, and other commodities have also 
greatly advanced in price : — 



Commerce 



229 



Kind of Commodities. 


Unit. 


18S7. 


1892. 


1897. 


1901. 






Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Rice ..... 


Per 1 koku 


4.710 


7.OOO 


II. 8lO 


II.47O 


Barley . 




>! 


2.360 


3.3IO 


4.8S0 


4.070 


Soja-beans 




,, 


4.070 


5.060 


7.920 


7-43° 


Table-salt 




,, 


1. 190 


I.460 


3.I70 


2.010 


Soy 




,, 


8.290 


9.380 


I3.330 


18.120 


Saki 




,, 


I3-930 


I4.24O 


24. 200 


31.480 


Tea 




Per 100 kin 


26.090 


28.660 


35-520 


38.650 


Leaf- tobacco 




,, 


8.480 


IO.9IO 


17.880 


35.080 


Japanese white sugar 


,, 


8.770 


9.260 


12.550 


12.470 


Foreign ,, ,, 


,, 


7-750 


8.070 


IO.OOO 


10.760 


Japanese brown sugar 


>» 


6.180 


6.47O 


9. IIO 


9-370 


Foreign ,, ,, 


?» 


5.020 


5-570 


6.670 


8.120 


Japanese ginned cotton . 


>> 


18.520 


18.89O 


23.870 


27.550 


Foreign ,, ,, 


) ? 


16.640 


I7.750 


21.460 


25.740 


Japanese cotton yarn 


j» 


31.040 


26.950 


31.080 


57.000 


Foreign ,, ,, 


,, 


30.830 


28.580 


37-5!o 


54.480 


White cotton cloth . 


Per 1 tan * 


.310 


.310 


• 37o 


•380 


Foreign grey shirtings 


Per 1 kamaf 


? 


2.480 


3.100 


4.030 


/"Superior quality 
Raw silk -J Average . 
(inferior . 


Per 100 kin 


? 


? 


? 


? 


j > 


? 


? 


682.000 


706.000 




? 


? 


? 


? 


Kaiki (silk tissues) . 


Per 1 tan 


2.580 


2.800 


4.460 


4.500 


Hemp ..... 


Per 100 kin 


20.450 


19.660 


27.990 


30.270 


Japanese pig-iron . 


Per 1 kwan 


.230 


.260 


.420 


.500 


Foreign ,, ,, 


5 J 


? 


? 


•330 


.320 


Kerosene or petroleum oil j 


Per box con- 
taining 2 cans 


2.020 


1. 8lO 


2.310 


2.860 


Coal 


Per 1 ton 


3-360 


3.860 


6.910 


6.810 


Fuel 


Per 10 kwan 


.IIO 


.130 


.240 


.250 


Charcoal . . . . 


. . 


.290 


.380 


•73o 


.840 


f Dried sardine . 


,, 


I.580 


I.74O 


3.080 


3.260 


Manure -! Residue of herring oil 




? 


2.24O 


3.220 


3-550 


(Rape-seed oil-cake . 


" 


? 


? 


1.850 


1.820 



1 Tan varies from about 9 to 10 yards. 



t 1 Katna contains 40 yards. 



The Japanese have taken full advantage of the organisa- 
tions for facilitating and encouraging business to be found 
in Europe and America. Though the custom Provisions for 
of using commercial bills in trade existed long encouraging 

• . 1 ., , 1 commerce. 

ago, it was only in recent years that clearing 
houses modelled on the Western system were established in 
Japan. The Osaka Clearing House, opened in December 
1879, was the pioneer institution of this kind in Japan. 
Then followed the Clearing Houses of Tokyo, Kobe, 
Yokohama, and Kyoto. All these establishments partly 
partake of the Houses of London and New York in their 



2 30 Dai Nippon 

organisation and working-, and they have been of great service 
in facilitating commercial and financial business. 

Commercial and industrial bodies discharging the 
functions of regular Chambers of Commerce existed in 
Japan in feudal times, but it was only in 1890 that they 
were organised on modern lines. Since that time fifty- eight 
Chambers have been established throughout the country, and 
they undertake all the usual functions of such institutions for 
the encouragement of commerce and industry. Besides the 
Chambers existing in Japan, the Japanese subjects residing 
in the various parts of Korea, as Seoul, Fusan, Mukpho, 
Gensan, and Jinsen have Chambers of their own. 

In 1896 the Government established the Higher Council 
of Agriculture, Commerce, and Industry for the purpose of 
devising measures for encouraging foreign trade, and in 
1897 its organisation was amended so as to allow it to 
deliberate as well on matters relating to domestic trade, 
and a large number of measures have been passed on its 
initiative. For a number of years the Government has been 
despatching officials and commissioners to foreign countries 
for the purpose of investigating the conditions of trade, and 
especially with the object of promoting direct export trade 
by Japanese merchants. Besides Government officials, 
student commercial agents, student manufacturers and 
private individuals experienced in respective lines of trade 
have been despatched on similar missions, the Chambers 
supplying them with either the whole or part of their 
travelling expenses. There are thirty-eight Commercial 
Samples Museums in various parts of Japan, and these 
institutions have been of great service in promoting 
commerce and industry. Similar establishments have been 
attached to some of the Japanese Consulates in foreign 
countries. The Department of Agriculture, Commerce, and 
Industry issues valuable Reports on industrial subjects, 
especially in their bearing on foreign markets and the 
conditions of production in Japan. In addition the Reports 
forwarded by Japanese Consuls, student commercial agents 



Co7?imerce 



2*1 



and manufacturers, and also reports embodying the result of 
investigations made either at home or abroad on industrial 
and commercial matters have been published. 

Mention has been made of the guilds which existed 
in feudal times. Some of these have been revived and 
extended to meet the requirements of modern commercial 
trade and industry, and they now exercise great and industrial 
influence on existing conditions. The latest g lllcs - 
returns give the number of agricultural guilds as 112. In 
1897 a law was passed for the regulation of such guilds, 
and it marked a new and important departure in legislation 
of this kind. It was rendered necessary owing to the pro- 
duction and export of an inferior class of goods and to the 
consequent injury done to the prosperity of the various 
branches of trade. Three years later the scope of the law 
was expanded to the shape in which it now exists. A very 
large number of guilds have been formed in connection with 
the modern developments of commerce and industry, and 
their chief object is to protect the interests of their members 
and advance the special trade or industry with which they 
are connected. Like other similar organisations in other 
parts of the world, while in many respects rendering use- 
ful service, they not infrequently are led to acts of an 
individualistic or selfish nature and contrary to the interests 
of the general community. These guilds, however, are 
destined to take a very important part in the future evolu- 
tion of Japan, and their development should be carefully 
watched by all who are studying the subject. 

In another chapter will be given an account of the 
negotiations connected with tariffs. The tariff on imports 
was originally fixed on a ten per cent basis ; but 
in 1865 Japan consented, under heavy pressure 
and even armed menace, to reduce the rate to five per cent. 
This, too, was only nominal, for the conversion of ad valorem 
duties into specific was managed in such a manner that the 
sum actually levied on imports did not average as much as 
two and a half per cent of their value at the port of ship- 



232 Dai Nippon 

ment. Under the revised treaties it was arranged that Japan 
should recover tariff autonomy after a period of twelve years, 
and that in the interval a greatly increased scale of import 
duties should be applied. 

The system promulgated in 1897 divided imports into 
three main classes, namely — dutiable goods, non-dutiable 
goods, and prohibited goods. The tariff for dutiable goods 
ranged from five to forty per cent, ad valorem, divided into 
sixteen grades. The schedule has as a standard rate, so to 
say, twenty per cent for ordinary refined goods, to decrease 
in one direction but to rise in another. Natural products, 
scientific instruments and apparatus, and raw materials, 
machinery, half- manufactured materials, and articles of 
ordinary consumption occupy the decreasing side of the 
schedule, while articles of luxury and liquors and tobacco 
occupy the other extreme. The new tariff was put in force 
in January 1899. 

Since that time it has received several amendments, 
either in the interests of the inland revenue or with the 
object of encouraging home industries. Tobacco and 
liquors of all kinds are now made to pay very heavily, and 
the raw materials required by the State monopolies and 
match-making were relieved from all duties, as were also 
artificial and natural fertilisers. The regulations connected 
with the tariff were embodied in a law which was passed by 
the Imperial Diet in 1899. The passing of this law may 
be said to have ushered in a new era in the history of the 
Japanese tariff system, as it marked the introduction of 
Japanese tariff autonomy, and many matters which formerly 
led to diplomatic interference were henceforth transferred to 
the domain of ordinary administrative affairs. 

When we recall the position merchants occupied in 
feudal Japan — the lowest in the social scale 

Social position , . . , . . rr . . . , , . 

and commercial — we have little difficulty in understanding 
morality of fa e opinions which were held by foreigners 

Japanese merchants. * . 

in the early days of foreign trade with 
Japan regarding the commercial morality of the Japanese 



Commerce 233 

trading class. These opinions were the results of experience 
with the sharpest and most unprincipled among the Japanese 
merchants who rushed to the foreign settlements in the 
hope of enriching themselves, and some of whom did suc- 
ceed in amassing a considerable amount of wealth. Great 
improvements have taken place in recent years, and 
commerce and industry are now engaged in by men of high 
rank and honourable character, who are exercising all the 
influence in their power to raise the standard of commercial 
morality of their fellow-men. The bad reputation of former 
days, however, has left its mark, and many foreigners still 
hold the opinion that all Japanese merchants are untrust- 
worthy, and in many cases they are able to support their 
opinions by examples from their own experience. Exceptions 
to honourable dealing are still to be found, but I doubt if 
they are more common in Japan than in other commercial 
countries, and I have no hesitation in saying that, if the 
caution and prudence which should mark all commercial 
dealings is exercised, there should be no more difficulty in 
carrying on trade with Japan than with any other part of the 
world. A well-informed writer in the Quarterly Review 1 
recently said : " The Japanese nation, as a whole, is not dis- 
honest. The Government has always scrupulously observed 
every engagement made by it, and even when, as not 
infrequently happened in its early days of inexperience, 
shamelessly tricked, it invariably fulfilled the obligations it 
had inadvertently assumed. There are old-established mer- 
cantile firms of which the same may be said — firms to which 
credit may be and is constantly given with the same con- 
fidence as to British firms of the best standing. The writer, 
throughout a long experience, has found the Japanese 
tradesman compare favourably with the English, and has 
met with many striking incidents of honesty in its best form 
on the part of domestics, artisans, and labourers. A Japanese 
policeman is absolutely incorruptible, and a railway guard 
or a postman would look upon a ' tip ' as an insult." Com- 

1 October 1902, p. 557. 



234 Dai Nippon 

mercial morality, even at its best in any country, is not much 
to boast of, and the worst sinners are not always those whose 
shortcomings are made public, but the prudent, respectable 
people who keep themselves within the four corners of the 
law, and are still able to enrich themselves at the expense of 
their more scrupulous competitors. 

The position of foreign merchants in Japan is one of 
great interest. It must be admitted that it was chiefly 

Position of through their exertions that the foreign trade 
foreign merchants of the country was built up. They acted as 

m japan. a g en t s both for the Japanese producers and for 
the foreign purchasers. Both as importers and as exporters 
their knowledge, experience, and capital were of great service 
in developing the trade of the country. For some years 
fortunes were rapidly made (and very often as rapidly lost), 
but as things developed the competition of the foreign 
middlemen with each other enabled the Japanese to obtain 
the very best terms, and profits were cut down to a very 
small margin. The foreign merchants were, however, always 
in a position of unstable equilibrium, and as education 
developed in Japan and experience was gained in foreign 
methods of business, naturally the Japanese got more and 
more of the trade into their own hands. All reasonable 
people will agree with Captain Brinkley in saying that " In a 
measure the ambition (to manage their own trade) is quite 
natural. If a community of aliens settled down in the 
United States or in England, and obtained a dominant place 
in the management of the country's foreign trade, Americans 
and Englishmen would certainly endeavour to wrest the 
business from their hands. Every nation must desire to 
carry on its own commerce independently of foreign 
assistance, and since a community of strangers is not to be 
found discharging similar functions in any Occidental land, 
the Japanese would prefer that their land should not be 
exceptional in that respect." Statistics show that the efforts 
made by Japanese merchants to get the foreign trade into 
their own hands have been tolerably successful ; for whereas, 



Commerce 235 

in 188S, their share was only twelve per cent of the total, it 
rose to twenty-five per cent in 1899. Yet Captain Brinkley 
thinks that there are strong reasons to doubt whether 
such a rate of change will be maintained in the future. He 
believes that the day is still distant when the Japanese 
tradesman can hope to establish with the Occident relations 
of such mutual intimacy and confidence as will enable him 
to take the place now occupied by the foreign middle- 
man. 

Formerly the attitude of the Japanese in their employ- 
ment of foreigners for any part of their work was very 
severely criticised and especially by the foreign press in 
Japan, but now a more reasonable view is taken of the 
subject, and the legitimate ambitions of the Japanese are 
recognised as the natural results of the developments which 
have taken place. One of the oldest foreign journals l in 
Yokohama writing on the subject, after noting the changes 
which had been going on for years, expressed the following 
opinions, which on the whole may be taken as representing 
a reasonable view of the position : — " The underlying germ 
of truth is only misleading if the rest of the facts are not 
duly taken into account. In the first place, the growth of 
Japanese manufactures is accompanied by an immense 
increase in Japan's own requirements ; and they will continue 
to increase, because the law of supply and demand is always 
directly influenced by the law of progressive civilisation, 
which develops ever-increasing wants and is never satisfied. 
Where a Japanese fifty years ago would regard half-a-dozen 
kimonos as sufficient for a lifetime, he now has that number 
in a year. Where he used to go from Yokohama to Tokyo 
on foot, once a year, wearing out a few cents' worth of waraji, 
on bare human hoof, he goes now every month, and helps to 
wear out an infinity of things ; he does it because it pays 
him, for the outlay returns now vastly quicker than it did. 
So, consumption of everything is increasing and always 
will ; and Japan can no more live without imports than the 
1 Japan Gazette, May 20th, 1903. 



236 Dai Nippon 

United States can. True, the character of the trade changes, 
and that is where, in a certain sense, some foreigners are 
being and will be crowded out by the Japanese and gradually 
deprived of their livelihood ; or deprived of one line after 
another, but only to develop new lines all the time, and it 
hurts only those foreigners who are unadaptable, unprogres- 
sive, unforeseeing, and unenterprising. It is true that one 
old-established firm after another has had to close its doors 
and wind up its business ; but this proves only that those 
firms lacked enterprise and business activity. Such things 
happen all the world over, but they do not prove that it is 
becoming impossible to live. 

" It is by no means impossible for European firms to 
flourish in India, though India also is building up her own 
industries even more than Japan. India has entirely ceased 
taking certain lines of cotton from Lancashire, but instead 
takes machinery, and develops a demand for finer grades of 
textiles which only Lancashire can make ; and the country 
is as far as ever from being closed against the white trader. 
There are British firms which flourish and prosper in France, 
Belgium, Germany, in every country ; and there are firms of 
every nationality doing a fine business in England. There 
is of course little or no scope in any country for alien 
competition in the commoner and simpler lines of trade, 
and it is not creditable on the part of foreigners in Japan to 
moan and groan about the bread being taken out of their 
mouths. The elementary branches of trade of course 
belong in the natural order of things to the people of the 
country, and if they have for a time been in the hands of 
aliens, this could not be expected to continue. The only 
excuse for business people to be in a country not their 
own, is that they conduct some business which the natives 
cannot do so well. If there is anything in the claim of 
superior abilities on the part of the white man, he should 
never have any uneasiness on the score of any other race 
cutting into his business. If it is a business which the 
Japanese are able to do, and do so well as to compete with 



Commerce 237 

the foreigner, then it is time for the foreigner to give effect 
to his business superiority, by developing a line in which 
they may follow at a distance but cannot catch up with him. 
It is unworthy of the foreigner to cling desperately to any 
line which can be quite satisfactorily handled by Japanese." 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

Much interesting information is given regarding the conditions 
of commerce in Old Japan in Brinkley's Japan and China, and in 
Dr. Yetaro Kinosita's The Past and Present of Japanese Commerce. 
H. Yamawaki's Japan in the beginning of the Twentieth Ce?itury 
(Chap, v.) gives very complete statistics of the development of the 
foreign trade of Japan, as does also the Annuals issued by the 
Department of Finance and the Imperial Cabinet. British and 
American Consular Reports should be carefully studied by all who 
are interested in the commerce of Japan. Some of the special 
Reports are very valuable and give a useful resume of the 
departments which are taken up. The volume in Harper's 
International Commerce Series by J. Morris on Jap ait and its Trade 
will be found useful. All books and reports on this subject, 
however, soon get out of date, and only the latest editions should be 
depended on for information regarding present conditions. The 
daily newspapers should also be read, as they notice all the most 
important developments which take place and discuss the conditions 
affecting trade. 



CHAPTER XI 

FOOD SUPPLY 

Amid all the industrial and commercial developments which 

are taking place in Japan, it is satisfactory to find that due 

Population and attention is being paid to what is the oldest 

food supply. anc j after all the most important industry ; 
namely, agriculture. Through the improvement of agri- 
cultural education, and consequently of the methods of 
farming, the increase per annum in the agricultural produce 
has kept up very closely with the increase of population. 
When from any cause there is a failure of the crops in any 
part of the country, or even when there is speculation on the 
part of the merchants and farmers, considerable quantities 
of food products require to be imported, but in ordinary 
circumstances the amount of the staple articles of food of 
the common people which is imported is nearly balanced by 
that exported. Moreover, as it is found that the allowance 
of rice per head of population of those above five years 
of age has also increased, as well as that of the other 
agricultural products, we infer that the average standard 
of living has improved. 

It is very interesting to note the various influences which 
have been at work in causing attention to be paid to 

Agriculture in agriculture in Japan. When, at the beginning 
Old japan. Q f j^e seventeenth century, the policy of seclusion 
was decided upon, the Government was confronted with the 
problem of supplying a large and rapidly increasing popula- 
tion from a comparatively small cultivated area. Not only 

238 



Food Supply 239 

were emigration and the exchange of the products of other 
countries forbidden, but the profound peace which lasted 
for two and a half centuries completely did away with 
the check to over-population furnished by the wars thai 
had been so common. The result was, that great attention 
was paid to the art of cultivation, and the farmer class rose 
in the social scale, being placed next to the samurai, and 
above the tradesmen and merchants, the latter being the 
lowest in the scale. Individuality, independence, and skill 
were assiduously developed. The rural districts had a large 
amount of local self-government, and the consequence was 
that not only did they enjoy a fair amount of economic 
welfare and simple enjoyment of life, but they also displayed 
a loyal affection towards the central Government on account 
of the consideration which was shown to them by the 
authorities. It is said that the farmers took a positive pride 
and delight in the payment of the taxes. " Taxation, as 
understood or felt by the people of most countries, is a 
burden imposed, a kind of robbery of the hard-earned means 
of the people. But it was, as a rule, quite differently 
regarded by the people of Japan. The payment of taxes 
did not seem to be considered by the peasantry as a burden, 
but as a loyal duty in which they took more or less pride. 
The time of the annual payment of the rice at the collectors' 
storehouses, where each farmer's rice was submitted to 
inspection, instead of being an occasion of sorrow and 
irritation, was more like a fair where each vied with the 
other in presenting for official inspection the best return of 
rice. It was always a source of mortification for any one 
when his rice was rejected or declared improperly cleaned 
for market. Prizes were awarded for the best quality and 
yield, which stimulated the farmers in its production. The 
tax-rice was regarded as a precious thing not to be defiled." 1 
This quotation is an illustration of the manner in which the 
spirit of " Bushido " permeated even the common affairs of 
Japanese life ; everything was done in a spirit of loyalty to 

1 Knapp, Feudal and Modern Japan, vol. i. p. 84. 



240 Dai Nippon 

the country, and not simply with a view to personal 
considerations. 

The rapid increase of population since the Restoration 
and the introduction of Western industries intensified the 

New difficulty of the food problem, and it has even 
conditions. b een stated by some foreign writers that Japan 
was being rapidly transformed from an agricultural to an 
industrial country and to a large extent (like Britain) 
becoming dependent on other countries for its food supplies. 
There is a considerable element of truth in this statement, 
but the statistics of the Agricultural Department to which I 
have referred prove that the pressure is not yet very great. 
The authorities have wisely recognised the necessity of 
making the most of the land, and they have done this not 
only for social and economic reasons, but also no doubt 
from that spirit of patriotism (foreigners are very apt to 
call it exclusiveness and selfishness) which we have already 
recognised as the chief motive in all the national movements 
in Japan ; namely, a love of independence and a determination 
to stand in a position of equality with the other nations of 
the world. At the same time, not only the increase of 
population but the growth in general prosperity and the 
distribution of wealth among the poorer classes of the people 
have led to an increased demand for food products. Many 
who were formerly content with barley and millet now 
regard rice as an essential article of food, and the time is not 
far distant when large supplies of this cereal will have to be 
drawn from abroad. The same is true of timber, which the 
development of engineering and other works of construction 
has already made inconveniently scarce. The cotton and 
woollen industries have, as we have seen, in recent years 
attained considerable importance in Japan, but all the raw 
materials require to be imported. The growth of these and 
other industries has led to a great increase in that part of 
the population which is not engaged in the production of 
food, and therefore to the need for supplementing, by 
importation from other countries, what is supplied in Japan. 



Food Supply 241 

The area of Japan proper (exclusive of Formosa) is 
24,794 square ri, or 38,555,229 cho, but of this only 
6,120,519 cho is arable land, the remainder improvements 
being hills or mountains not available for pur- m agriculture. 
poses of agriculture, so that the arable land is only about 15.7 
per cent of the whole area of the empire. Rice being the 
most important article of food in Japan, the greater part of 
the arable land consists of rice-fields, which are usually in 
low and wet localities not suitable for other crops. The 
religious beliefs of the Japanese led them to avoid animal 
food, while the configuration of the country made it necessary 
to conduct farming operations on a small scale. In Japan 
agriculture is essentially tillage and has little to do with 
stock-farming. 

During recent years full advantage has been taken of the 
applications of Western science and methods to agriculture, 
and as already indicated there has been a considerable in- 
crease in the amount of the products. That increase, how- 
ever, is partly accounted for by the additional land which 
has been placed under cultivation, and also by the more 
efficient use of that already cultivated, through a re-arrange- 
ment of the fields and of the irrigation canals. In recent 
years there has been a tendency to an increase in the 
size of the holdings, and a consequent greater amount of 
co-operation in the irrigation and other arrangements. The 
great variety of climate in the Japanese Empire, extending 
as it does from the nearly Arctic regions of Yezo to the 
tropical climate of Formosa, makes a great diversity 
of agricultural operations necessary ; conditions which are 
advantageous from a national point of view. While rice and 
other articles of ordinary food are the most common agri- 
cultural products, some districts are most suitable for 
sericulture, others for tea and others for sugar. Stock- 
farming is never likely to become very important in Japan, 
as the development of railways, tramways, shipping and 
other means of communication has, to a large extent, 
rendered unnecessary the raising of animals for draught 

(b 207) .„ 



242 



Dai Nippon 



purposes, and the great majority of the people are likely to 
be content with vegetable products and fish as their chief 
articles of food. Agriculture and fishery will therefore 
in the future, as in the past, always be very important in 
Japan. The following table giving the amounts of the chief 
agricultural products for the years named shows the increases 
which have taken place : — 



Year. 


Rice. 


Barley. 


Soja-beans. 


Potatoes. 


Sweet Potatoes. 


Koku. 


Koku. 


Koku. 


Kwan. 


Kwan. 


1886 


37,191,424 


16,033,960 


? 


? 


? 


1887 


39,999.199 


15,852,044 


3,253,790 


28,382,572 


561,407,587 


1888 


38,645,470 


15,311,658 


? 


? 


? 


1889 


33,007,566 


15,316,897 


? 


? 


? 


1S9O 


43»037>S09 


10,723,107 


? 


? 


? 


1891 


38,181,405 


18,098,471 


? 


? 


? 


1892 


41,429,676 


15,951,146 


3,110,665 


40,491,431 


568,371,606 


1893 


37,267,418 


16,636,588 


? 


? 


? 


1894 


41,859,047 


19,822,000 


2,943,478 


49,752,903 


495,948,701 


IS95 


39,960,798 


19,537,840 


3,163,683 


44,273,903 


711,813,132 


1896 


36,240,351 


17,340,466 


2,999,490 


44,220,605 


725,942,023 


1897 


33,039,293 


18,005,490 


3,IOO,973 


58,528,287 


663,391,590 


1898 


47,387,666 


20,462,053 


3,108,708 


34,088,550 


716,956,146 


1899 


39,698,258 


19,335,952 


3,410,693 


64,594,705 


661,444,862 


1900 


41,466,734 


20,391,673 


3,562,176 


71,775,433 


756,935,532 


1901 


46,914,943 


20,640,207 


4,069,619 


73,682,653 


7",639,5I9 



The cultivation of tea has always received great attention. 
For a long time, however, the use of tea was confined to the 
Cultivation wealthier classes and to the priests. In course of 
of tea. time the custom of tea-drinking began to wear 
an aspect of something like a ceremony, with nice and 
strict canons of etiquette surrounding it, and the ceremony 
finally came to play an important part in society as a 
regulator of social etiquette and as a means of promoting 
friendship. 

Almost as soon as Japan was opened to foreign trade a 
great demand for Japanese tea came from America, and at 
the present time the United States and Canada take most 
of the teas which are shipped abroad, while Russian Siberia 
takes a small quantity of black tea and brick tea. The 



Food Supply 



24; 



following figures give the amount (in catties) exported and 
consumed at home in the years 1891 and 1900 : — 





Total Output. 


Import. 


Total. 


Export. 


Home 
Consumption 


1891 

1900 


44,352,488 
47,576,175 


65,618 

"3,9S5 


44,418,106 
47,576,175 


39,923,999 
32,240,147 


4,494,107 
15,449,963 



For some years past there has been a tendency to a 
decrease not only in the total output but also in the amount 
exported. This arises from the increase of rivals in the 
foreign markets. On the other hand, there has been a 
marked increase in the amount of home consumption, which 
indicates an improved economic condition on the part of the 
population generally. The Government has been doing its 
best to promote the tea industry, and besides granting a 
subsidy has adopted measures for the improvement of the 
quality, and for keeping those interested well posted with 
regard to the state of the markets in foreign countries. The 
local authorities follow the example set by the central 
Government and are supplementing the efforts of the tea- 
growers and manufacturers in endeavouring to advance the 
prosperity of the industry. 

The increased consumption of tea and of rice is not the 
only sign of an improvement in the dietary of the Japanese, 
there is now an increasing use of what may be Sucrar ,. 
considered food luxuries, such as sugar, sake, beer, tobacco, 
beer, tobacco, etc. Meantime we can give the 
figures for the value of the output of these only for the year 
1900. 

Yen. 

Sugar ...... 6,216,206 



Sake (liquor) . 
Soy (sauce) . 
Beer 

Tobacco (cut) 
(cigars) 



108,328,650 

23,782,840 

2,809,874 

i35. I22 >893 
5,528,600 



244 Dai Nippon 

The cultivated land covers about 5 million c/10, yielding 
d 1 b ur a bout 1000 million yen worth of crops every 

employed on year. Of that sum rice constitutes about 
400 million yen in value. The value of 
the cultivated land is estimated at 7000 million yen. 

The capital required in agriculture is invested in farm 
buildings (which are not expensive), in the tools and imple- 
ments required for the work, in live stock, and in manure and 
fodder. The Japanese have always been very economical in 
the use of their manure, and apply it with great skill to theii 
lands. Night soil and stable manure play a most important 
part as fertilisers, but in recent years considerable attention 
has been paid to other kinds of fertilisers, which are either 
made at home or imported from abroad. No department of 
chemical industry has been so active as that for the produc- 
tion of chemical fertilisers, and especially the manufacture of 
superphosphate of lime and other phosphate and nitrogenous 
manures. 

In Japan, as elsewhere, there is a tendency for the 
wealthier classes to increase in all spheres of activity at the 
expense of the poorer classes, and the consequence is that 
farmers of limited means are in danger of having even these 
absorbed by manufacturers or merchants of larger resources. 
Special banks have therefore been instituted for supplying 
capital, under proper conditions, to farmers who wish to 
develop the resources of their land or otherwise improve their 
conditions. The Japan Hypothec Bank was started in 1896 
for the express purpose of supplying the funds required for 
the development of agriculture and industry ; and in the 
same year local Hypothec Banks were started in each of the 
administrative localities for the purpose of supplying funds to 
farmers of the middle and lower classes, and even of making 
loans to organised bodies. For smaller loans there are 
Credit Guilds, somewhat after the style of the People's Banks 
in Germany, and all these institutions have been very useful 
in assisting the development of agriculture. 

Exact returns are not obtainable for the farming popula- 



Food Supply 245 

tion of Japan, but in 1900 it was estimated approximately at 
28,000,000, with 4,800,000 households ; in other words, the 
farming population constitutes a little over 60 per cent of 
the whole population, and the number of farmers' house- 
holds is a little less than 60 per cent of the total number of 
households. 

In addition to the Agricultural College of the University 
of Tokyo and the other institutions for agricultural education 
mentioned in Chapter V., there is a considerable Means 
number of special organisations designed to en- for encouraging 

1, , , , c agriculture. 

courage agriculture, such as experimental farms, 
local training schools for the purpose of imparting to farmers' 
sons and to farming people generally some elementary 
knowledge of the principles of agriculture, surveying, meteoro- 
logy, physics, chemistry, natural history, veterinary science, 
horse-shoeing, etc., local lectures in agriculture, sericultural 
training schools, experimental tea farms and laboratories for a 
variety of special investigations. Special attention has been 
paid to the breeding of horses, not so much for agricultural 
as for military purposes. Stock-breeding generally has also 
made some progress, but for the reasons already given it is 
not likely to become of much importance. Attention has 
been paid to the training of veterinary surgeons and farriers, 
to dairy-farming and meat -preserving, to the rearing of 
poultry and the keeping of bees ; in short, it is difficult to 
name a department of agricultural industry which has not 
in recent years been greatly developed by the Japanese. 
Arrangements have even been made for utilising the spare 
time of the farmers in subsidiary work of different kinds, so 
that in some cases they divide their time and labour almost 
equally between those " odd jobs " and their regular farming 
work ; being, therefore, partly farmers and partly manu- 
facturers of goods, which, however, do not compete with those 
made in factories. 

The Government has done a great deal by means of legis- 
lation to encourage agriculture. For instance, in 1899 the 
Law of Agricultural Societies was promulgated with the 



246 Dai Nippon 

consent of the Diet, and the Rules of Operation of the same 
in the following year, the legislature providing, among 
Agricultural other things, a grant of not more than 1 50,000 
legislation. y en ever y year to the societies established in 
conformity with the law. A large number of such societies 
have been established in the various prefectures, and in 
addition numerous sub-societies in rural districts or cities and 
in towns and villages, and these are certain before long to 
have a very great result on the agriculture of the country. 

In 1900 a law was promulgated relating to Credit Guilds, 
but as it has been in operation only for a short time, it is 
still too early to speak of its results ; but there can be no 
doubt that the provision will be extremely useful. Even 
before the passing of this law there were considerable 
numbers of such guilds in existence, some of which were 
established as far back as 230 years ago on the rules laid 
down by the celebrated economist and moralist Ninomiya. 
Sufficient has been said to show the great interest which, 
under the new conditions existing in their country, the 
Japanese have taken in every department of agriculture. 

Fish and marine products have always been very 
important parts of the food supply of the Japanese. Owing 
Fish and other to its geographical position, to the direction of 
marine products. fa e marine currents in its vicinity, and also to 
the abundance of suitable indentures along the well-wooded 
coast which can be used as harbours of refuge in the case of 
storms, Japan is an ideal country for fishermen. It is not 
surprising, therefore, that there are 900,000 families of 
fishermen or of persons engaged in the marine industry, or 
over 3,000,000 individuals, and that the number of fishing 
boats is over 400,000. With the steady increase of 
population and the development of the means of com- 
munication in the interior, the demand for fishing products 
has begun to show a striking advance — an advance which 
has been accelerated by an increasing demand from abroad. 
The following Tables give the values of raw and manu- 
factured products during recent years : — 



Food Supply 



247 



Q. 

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to 


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248 Dai Nippon 

The average value of the seaweeds which are used for 
food or for industrial purposes has in recent years been 
about 850,000 yen, and of the whales caught in Japanese 
waters about 220,000 yen. Sea-otters are caught in the 
Kuriles, and fur-seals in the Northern Pacific and the Sea of 
Japan. Formerly these fell mostly into the hands of foreign 
sealers, but of late, owing to the encouragement given by 
the Government, the capture of these valuable fur animals of 
the sea by Japanese fishermen has become quite satisfactory. 
Modern scientific methods have been applied by the 
Japanese to their fishing industry ; fish culture is now ex- 
„ . tensively carried out in both fresh and salt 

Government J 

encouragement water, and the Government has given encourage- 
ment and assistance in various ways. Under 
the feudal system certain fees were charged the fishermen 
for the privilege of the exclusive use of shores, while fisher- 
men eligible for the maritime service of the Government were 
given similar privileges. 

After the Restoration the practice of exacting fees was 
abolished and the seas were declared to belong to the State. 
In all other respects the Government left the matter to be 
regulated according to existing usages and customs. In 
1886 fishery guild regulations were enacted, but soon these 
simple regulations proved inadequate to deal with troubles 
constantly arising among fishermen, until in 1902 the 
Government put in force a law regulating fisheries. In 
1897 a law was passed for the purpose of giving encourage- 
ment to deep-sea fisheries, and State aid is now granted 
according to the tonnage of the ships employed in the work 
and to the number of the crew, provided such ships, whether 
steamers or sailing ships, engage in specified kinds of 
fishery approved by the Government. The latest returns 
show that the number of ships engaged in deep-sea fisheries 
was 22, with a total tonnage of 2042, and that the 
sum given during the year as State aid was 28,035 y en « 
Japanese fishermen were employed in fishery in Korean 
waters even before the Restoration, and since that event 



Food Supply 249 

their numbers have largely increased. In 1883 and 1890 
the Japanese Government made special arrangements with 
the Korean Government for their protection. In 1 897 
these fishermen established their own association at Fusan, 
and from 1900 the Government has given an annual grant 
in aid of its funds. 

The progress of fishery education has been very slow 
compared with that of agriculture and commerce. In 1889 
a course of instruction in fishery was arranged in the 
Agricultural College at Komaba, but it was shortly after 
discontinued. The Fishery Training School of the Japan 
Fishery Association did much to diffuse knowledge with 
regard to this important subject, and its work is being 
continued now as a Government institution. There are 
various associations and public bodies interested in fishing, 
some of a national and others of a local character ; all of 
which are useful in promoting the fishing industry and regu- 
lating its financial and commercial interests. 

Notwithstanding the efforts of the Agricultural Depart- 
ment to improve farming operations and to increase the 
amount of the agricultural products, the supply importation 
of food will evidently soon become a pressing of food. 
problem, as is seen from an examination of the trade returns 
for last year. The rice crops for that year were excellent, 
as were also the most of the other crops, and it was 
anticipated that there would have been sufficient food for 
the nation without purchasing much from abroad. The 
farmers, however, were anxious to recoup themselves for bad 
preceding years, and refused to sell until the price of rice 
had risen, and thus large amounts had to be imported from 
British and French India, Burmah, Siam, and Korea ; but rice 
cannot be kept stored in bulk in Japan for any length of 
time as it spoils very rapidly in the damp weather. With 
the free importation of rice the Japanese farmers find them- 
selves face to face with a competition similar to that which 
has placed the landowners and the farmers of Britain in a 
difficult position. Still a certain amount of speculation on 



250 



Dai Nippon 



the part of the farmers and the merchants is possible, and it 
must be taken into account when studying the food supply 
of Japan in the future. Moreover, the Japanese are now 
using a considerable amount of foreign food materials which 
are not likely to be produced in Japan for some time, and 
they all, more or less, affect the question of food supply. 

The following table shows the values of the grains and 
seeds imported last year : — 



Beans, peas, and pulse — 

Beans, soja 

Others . 
Rice 

Seeds, cotton 
Seeds, sesame 
Wheat . 
All other grains and seeds 

Total 



Yen. 

6,369,081 

1,624,331 

51,960,272 

829,017 

373, XI 3 
4,767,838 
1,189,789 

67,n3,44i 



Sugar was imported to the value of 21,005,629 yen, and 
in addition there was a long list of beverages and comestibles 
of foreign manufacture to the value of 15,157,962 yen, 
besides a considerable number of miscellaneous products 
used for food or drink. Evidently the problem of food 
supply must be taken into account when we are considering 
the forces which are likely to influence the foreign policy of 
Japan in the future. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

The Reports of the Agricultural Department showing the 
developments which have taken place in agriculture in Japan should 
be studied. A very good synopsis of the subject is given in Part II. 
of H. Yamawaki's Japan in the beginning of the Twentieth Century, 
as well as of the fishing industries. A large number of special 
articles and reports have been published in Japan on these subjects 
and will be found of great interest by specialists. The volumes 
prepared for the Paris Exhibition of 1900 may be specially mentioned. 
The Annual Returns of the Foreign Trade of the Empire of Japan 
issued by the Department of Finance should be studied for details 
of food imported and exported. 



CHAPTER XII 

COLONISATION AND EMIGRATION 

Notwithstanding the improvements in agriculture and 
fishery, as we have seen, the population is beginning to press 
on the supply of food produced in Japan. The Pressure 
Britain of the East is now passing through the of population. 
same stage as did the Britain of the West in the earlier part 
of last century. Modern sanitary, social, and economic 
conditions have been the chief causes of the rapid increase 
of population in recent years. For some time past that 
increase has been between four and five hundred thousand 
per annum, and the Japanese Government has in con- 
sequence been compelled to consider the problems which 
have arisen. As an influential Japanese writer recently put 
it : " Of her habitable dominions Japan has made the best ; 
not a jot of land has been left uninhabited. Still she finds 
herself obliged to make some further arrangements. What 
by necessity and what by policy she is prompted to take, 
not as heretofore a stay-at-home policy, but to push forward 
and neglect no opportunity in planting settlements in any 
places of the earth not yet occupied by others, and favoured, 
even in a moderate degree by nature in productions and 
climate." He supported his arguments by pointing to the 
examples of other nations, but of course it is evident that 
such proposals are only of limited application. After all, 
there is not a very large part of the surface of the globe 
unoccupied or at least unappropriated, and if all nations 
followed the same policy, every inch would soon be taken up. 

251 



252 Dai Nippon 

As yet, however, the population problem has not pressed 
very hard on Japan, and indeed the development of industries 
has to a large extent provided for the increase of population, 
and has even, in some districts, caused a dearth in agricultural 
and other labour. No doubt these industries will increase in 
number and size, and Japan, like Britain, may be made to 
sustain a very large population, which may be to a con- 
siderable extent supported by the food imported from other 
countries. This policy also has its limits, and it is doubtful 
if it is wise, from a national point of view, to follow it too 
far. We have seen that the Japanese authorities recognise 
the problems involved, and have been improving their 
methods of agriculture, and bringing more land under 
cultivation. The belief, however, prevails that Japan, like 
Britain, must become a great manufacturing country, which 
would send her products to the markets of the world, and 
especially to those in the Far East. Hence the attention 
which has been given in recent years to colonisation, 
to the outlying parts of the Empire, and to emigration to 
foreign countries, especially to Korea and China, and the 
influence which this has had on the foreign policy of the 
country. 

In the strict sense of the term Japan has no colonies, 
for all the so-called colonial settlements are within the 
empire and under its central Government. What has 
been attempted is not colonisation, but immigration from 
one part of the empire which had a surplus population to 
another part which was comparatively unoccupied. There 
are Japanese settlements in China, Korea, Hawaii, and to a 
smaller extent in Siam and other parts of the world, which 
are sometimes called colonies, but which are simply con- 
cessions from the respective Governments on terms similar 
to those of other nations. The administration of those 
parts of the Japanese Empire in which immigration has 
taken place is in some respects special, and we will therefore 
note some of the measures which have been taken to advance 
the objects in view and to develop their natural resources. 



Colonisation and Emigration 253 

While the annual increase in the population in Japan 
was still small, and chiefly for political reasons, one of the 
first undertakings of the new Government was Department of 
the institution of a special department, called Kaitakushi. 
Kaitakushi, for the encouragement of emigration to the 
island of Yezo, and for the development of its resources. 
The Ainos (or Ainu), the aboriginal inhabitants of Yezo, 
are supposed to be the remnants of the people which 
formerly spread over the whole of the Japanese archipelago, 
and on the arrival of the Japanese proper from the north- 
west, they were gradually pressed towards the east and 
north. Early in the eighteenth century they were completely 
subjugated and confined to the northern island of Yezo. 
Japanese colonists had, however, proceeded in considerable 
numbers to that island, and up till the time of the Restora- 
tion its affairs were administered by officers of the Shogunate. 
During the troubles of 1868 Admiral Enomoto took the 
Shogun's fleet to Yezo, captured Hakodate, and proclaimed 
a republic, but in the following year he was compelled to 
capitulate. Soon after Yezo was placed under the special 
department of the Government already mentioned and called 
the Kaitakushi (Colonisation Commission), and the island 
became part of Japan proper, receiving the designation of 
Hokkaido, or North Sea Circuit. It was divided into ten 
provinces, and arrangements were made for the development 
of its resources. 

Up till that time Yezo was chiefly important for its 
fisheries, but of course its position gave it great political 
importance. Its possession gave a command of the Eastern 
seas, a fact which even then had been recognised by the 
Russians, who endeavoured to obtain a footing in the island, 
but the opening of Japan to foreign intercourse nipped this 
encroachment in the bud. These and similar actions by 
the Russians were, however, not forgotten by the Japanese. 
Their earlier attempts at colonisation in Yezo had therefore 
a significance of a political nature, and cannot be judged 
entirely from their financial results. 



254 Dai Nippon 

A considerable number of Americans, with General 
Capron at their head, were engaged by the executive for 
the purpose of developing the agriculture of the island. 
Large sums were expended on model farms and public 
works, but it was soon recognised that a strong navy would 
be far more useful, from a political point of view, especially 
as it was found that many of the agricultural and colonisa- 
tion experiments had a very limited success, and in 1881 
the Kaitakushi was dissolved. Since that time the Govern- 
ment of the island has undergone repeated reorganisation, 
into the details of which, however, we need not enter. One 
Military attempt at increasing the population may, how- 
Coiomes. ever) be noted. In the year mentioned the 
Government resolved to found military colonies, in which 
it was intended that the soldiers should at the same time 
engage in agricultural cultivation ; but the combination was 
found to be inefficient, both from the point of view of 
soldiering and of agriculture, and after some time the 
experiment was abandoned. In order to guard against 
Russian aggression, an army corps is now always stationed 
in the island, and emigration, agriculture, fisheries, and other 
industries are allowed to develop in a natural manner. 

An Agricultural College was instituted in Sapporo in 
the early days of the Kaitakushi, and it has been of con- 

, . . siderable service in training men who have 

Agriculture a 

and marine improved the methods of agriculture. More- 
over, many of the chief agricultural officials 
have been educated in the Agricultural College of Tokyo 
University, and in addition have visited foreign countries for 
the purpose of observing operations which are likely to be of 
use in Yezo. Although the climate is somewhat against the 
agricultural development of the island, great improvements 
have taken place both in the cultivation of the land and in the 
fisheries. The tinned-fish industry has assumed considerable 
importance. Other marine products have also been largely 
increased, and their annual value now amounts to a consider- 
able sum. 



Colonisation and Em igration 255 

The Government has laid out a very complete system of 
railways which will open up the resources of the Hokkaido, 
and a considerable part of it has been con- 

• r - Railways, 

structed under the superintendence of my friend mining, 
and former student Dr. Tanabe Sakuro, now . a ° d other 

industries. 

Professor of Civil Engineering in the University 
of Kyoto. The Tanko Tetsudo Kaisha (the Coal Mining 
Railway Company) has done a great deal to develop the 
mineral resources of the island and it now does a very 
large and prosperous business. The island has not only 
very large deposits of coal but has also a considerable 
number of other mineral resources, including silver, manganese, 
sulphur, petroleum, some of which are capable of offering 
employment to large numbers of people. Industries of 
various kinds have been started and carried on with con- 
siderable success. Sapporo beer has been favourably known for 
nearly thirty years, the paper industry is being developed, and 
many smaller industries have been started, especially those 
connected with fisheries and marine and agricultural products, 
and in order to meet the requirements of the shipping a 
dry dock has been constructed at Hakodate and other 
facilities for the encouragement of trade have been given. 
In short, Hokkaido will in future be treated like the other 
parts of Japan ; that is to say, its resources will be developed 
without artificial support or assisted emigration, and its 
success will depend on its economic conditions and the 
manner in which these are taken advantage of. 

Notwithstanding the encouragement which has been 
given by the Government, the attempts to settle a consider- 
able population in Hokkaido have not been immigration and 
very successful. This is accounted for, no doubt, population. 
to a great extent, by the inhospitable climate in the winter 
time and the comparative isolation of the island from the rest 
of Japan. As, however, the means of communication are 
improved and the industrial resources are developed, there is 
certain to be a large increase in the number of settlers. 
The following figures show the population since 1868 : — 



256 



Dai Nippon 



Year. 


Population. 


Year. 


Population. 


1868 


58,467 


1895 


678,215 


1872 


111,196 


1896 


715,172 


1877 


191,172 


1897 


786,211 


1882 


239,632 


1898 


853,239 


1887 


321,208 


1899 


803,413 


1892 


509,609 


1900 


8lO,III 


IS93 


559,959 


1901 


800,102 


1894 


616,650 







Formosa. 



The island of Formosa (called Taiwan by the Japanese) 
came under the control of the Japanese Government on the 
termination of the war between Japan and 
China in 1895, being ceded as one of the con- 
ditions of peace between the two nations, and in consequence 
the Japanese found themselves face to face with some very 
difficult problems. Although they cannot as yet be said to 
have solved all these problems, they have by their tact, good 
sense, and, I may add, unselfishness, gone a long way towards 
making Formosa an integral part of the Japanese Empire, 
not only politically but also in every other respect. 

The past history of Formosa is very interesting, but for 
it I must refer to other books, and notably to that by Mr. 
James W. Davidson, formerly the Consul of the United States 
of America in Formosa, now of Antung, Manchuria ; all 
meantime that I can attempt is a short outline of the work 
which has been done by the Japanese since they obtained 
possession of the island. 

It is very rich in tea, camphor, sugar, fruits, and 
vegetables of every kind, while its mineral resources are 
considerable, although these have, as yet, not been fully 
investigated. The Japanese did not enter into peaceful 
possession. A large part of the island is inhabited by 
aborigines of a savage nature, who have to be brought 
under control ; while many of the Chinese in the island, 
animated in some cases by patriotism, and in others by real 
or fancied grievances, have given great trouble. The 
difficulty of finding men who were capable of undertaking 



Colonisation and Emigration 257 

work of such an intricate and novel kind would have been 
found great by any country in the world, and the Japanese 
Government has had trouble from the inefficiency and 
misconduct of some of its officials ; but this is now being 
overcome, and under the administration of Lieut-General 
Baron Kodama, Governor-General, and of Dr. Shimpei 
Goto, Civil Governor, efficiency is rapidly being attained and 
misconduct is disappearing ; so that now even the most 
severe critics have nothing but praise for the work of the 
administration. 

Previous to the occupation of the island by Japan in 
1895 there was not a single Japanese resident in Formosa. 
The first civilian arrivals were not a very Japanese popuia- 
desirable class, being, for the most part, tion in Formosa, 
adventurers, and they led to considerable trouble. Many 
died from the effects of the climate, combined with in- 
sanitary conditions and their own bad habits, and many 
more were glad to return to Japan on the first opportunity. 
After the restoration of order a better element arrived. 
Merchants in Japan sent representatives to report on the 
prospects of trade ; scientific and professional men visited the 
island for the purposes of research and the investigation of 
its resources, while shopkeepers and tradesmen of various 
kinds established themselves in the cities with the object of 
carrying on business. At first the mortality among the 
Japanese residents was very great, on account of the bad 
sanitary conditions, but with better houses and attention 
to sanitation, matters have greatly improved. Mr. Davidson 
says : " Given a sanitary neighbourhood, upper-storeyed 
quarters, plenty of fresh air and light, good food and 
protection for the head when exposed to the sun's rays, and 
life can be made quite as healthy as can be expected in a 
warm climate. The author's experience of six years in the 
island without a single day of sickness entitles him to speak 
with some authority on this point." 

In 1900 the Japanese population of the island was 
about 40,000, being an increase of nearly 8000 during the 

(b 207) g 



253 



Dai Nippon 



year; the total population being 2,690,387. The following 
table shows the occupations of the Japanese population : — 





Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Officials .... 


5 2I 4 


697 


59" 


Educationists . 


116 


30 


146 


Agriculturists . 


54 


II 


65 


Manufacturers . 


2255 


230 


2485 


Merchants 


4458 


3597 


8055 


Labourers 


1260 


146 


I470 


Possessing no regular trade 


165 


84 


249 


Miscellaneous . 


3912 


2832 


6743 



With the exception of some wealthy firms, who are 
interesting themselves in plantations, the Japanese do not 
take to agricultural employment, and they are not likely 
ever seriously to compete with the Chinese in this depart- 
ment, who are not only accustomed to the work, but have 
also great powers of endurance under a hot sun. Formosa 
is not therefore likely to offer much scope for the influx 
of a large number of Japanese agricultural workers, not 
only for the reasons mentioned, but also because the greater 
part of the cultivated land is already in the hands of Chinese. 
For artisans, overseers, and shop assistants, and for general, 
professional, and skilled labour there is, however, an opening. 
The present Japanese population is therefore found scattered 
throughout the cities and villages. During the early days 
of the Japanese occupation wives and children were rarely 
brought to the island ; now family life is more in favour, and 
the number of Japanese females is consequently on the 
increase, although even yet the males outnumber them by 
3 to 1. Taking into account the increase of Japanese 
population and its general welfare, Mr. Davidson says : " All 
things considered, it would appear that the Japanese are 
finding life in Formosa worth living." 

The administration of Formosa and of the neighbouring 
islands is wholly under the central Government of Japan, 
there being no local representation. The laws of Japan do 



Colon isation and Em igration 259 

not apply to Formosa unless special provision to that effect 
has been entered in the law itself. The supreme executive 
authority is vested in the Governor- General, 

. Administration. 

who has as his immediate advisers the Chief 
of Civil Administration, Chief of Military Staff, and the 
Chief Councillor, who have power to issue ordinances for 
the government of the island, which come into force after 
they receive the sanction of the Emperor. Under the 
Department of Civil Administration are the Section of 
Police Affairs and the following Bureaux : — General Affairs, 
Finance, Communications, Agriculture, and Industry and 
Public Works, each with an adequate staff of officials. 
Local administrative offices or cho (as in Japan) have 
been established at a sufficient number of points, and the 
work of administration generally is approximating to that of 
Japan proper. 

Under the Chinese Government education in Formosa 
was almost entirely neglected, there being only two missionary 
schools, confined almost exclusively to the Educat i on 
children of well-to-do parents who could afford justice, and 

c 'a. ti t n i. u sanitation. 

to pay for it. lhe Japanese Government have 
been doing a good deal to encourage education, and there 
are now 120 Government public schools scattered throughout 
the island, many of them in buildings specially built for the 
purpose. Progress must of course be slow, but it is intended 
to have the same system as in Japan. In addition to the 
primary schools which have been established the Government 
supports a number of special schools. First in importance 
comes the Medical School attached to the splendidly 
equipped Central Hospital at Taihoku, the chief city in the 
island. An agricultural school has been established in con- 
nection with the Taihoku Prefecture agriculture station and 
a number of other special schools of an industrial nature. 
In addition nearly every village possesses a school on the 
old Chinese style, with which the Government does not 
interfere. 

For many years much good educational work has been 



260 Dai Nippon 

carried on by the missionaries of the Canadian and English 
Presbyterian Churches, for details of which, however, reference 
must be made to special publications. Among the latter 
my old fellow-student the Rev. Thomas Barclay, M.A., has 
since 1874 been taking a very prominent part. Courts of 
justice have been established over the island and law and 
order now prevail where formerly there were crime and 
disorder. Considerable attention has been paid to sanitation, 
with the consequence, as already indicated, that public health 
has much improved. 

The Japanese have greatly developed the means of 
communication in Formosa. New roads have been made 
Means of and the old ones repaired, and at the present 
communication, time over a thousand miles are in process of 
construction at a very considerable cost. The first railway 
in Formosa was built by the Chinese Government and was 
completed in 1893. On the arrival of the Japanese, some 
62 miles in length came into their possession, but it was 
found to be in such a wretched condition that a satisfactory 
train service could not be maintained, and the rolling stock 
was very limited and entirely unsuited to the requirements. 
The greater part of the line was reconstructed. At first the 
railway was under the control of the Military Department, 
but in 1897 it came under the control of the Civil Depart- 
ment. A private limited liability company was organised 
for the purpose of completing the Formosa railway system, 
but it failed to obtain the financial support of the public, and 
in 1898 the Formosan Government announced its intention 
of carrying on the work itself. Under the able direction of 
Chief Engineer Hasegawa, and of the Assistant Engineer 
Mr. S. Niimoto, the plans were soon arranged; in 1899 
work was commenced on the southern line from Takow 
north to Tainan, a distance of 28 miles, and it was com- 
pleted in November 1900. The Kelung and Shinchiku 
(Teckcham) lines were repaired, much rolling stock was 
added, and in the autumn of 1900 work was commenced on 
the short branch line from Taihoku (Taipeh) to Tamsui 



Colonisation mid Emigration 261 

(Hobe), which was completed in June 1901. Over 200 
miles of narrow-gauge tramway have been constructed in 
the island, primarily for the transport of military supplies, 
but it is also used for general freight and passengers. The 
main line runs from Shinchiku (Teckcham) in the north to 
Tainan in the south, a distance of 140 miles, and there are 
two branch lines. In order to meet the cost of improving 
the existing railway and extending it to form a complete 
trunk line, as well as to construct a harbour at Kelung, 
erect Government offices, and make a cadastral survey, the 
Diet authorised the Colonial Government of Formosa to 
raise loans to the amount of three and a half millions 
sterling, the principal and interest to be paid out of the 
revenue of the islands. Formosa now possesses twelve open 
ports, though only four — Kelung, Tamsui, Takow, and 
Anping — are utilised by merchant steamers engaged in 
foreign trade. The remaining ports are visited by coasting 
vessels and by Chinese and native-owned junks engaged in 
the China and Formosa trade. 

There are now considerable facilities for steamship 
communications between Formosa and Japan and China, 
encouragement being given by the Japanese Government in 
the shape of subsidies. The chief line of steamers trading 
to Formosa is the Osaka Shosen Kaisha, although the 
Nippon Yusen Kaisha, the most important steamship 
company in Japan, has also some traffic with the island. 
Unfortunately, Formosa possesses no good natural harbours, 
and plans have been made out for considerable engineering 
works for harbour improvement. The large mail steamers 
running between the island and Japan have Kelung as their 
Formosa terminal, which is in fact the only harbour for big 
ships in the island. The steamers destined for Hong-Kong 
and other China ports sail from Tamsui and Anping. 

The Japanese have instituted a very efficient post-office 
and telegraph service in Formosa. Every village has now 
a post office, and mail matter is delivered to any city in the 
island at the regular rate existing in Japan proper. The 



262 Dai Nippon 

telegraph is under Government control and is run in 
connection with the posts. Over 2000 miles of telegraph 
and 600 miles of telephone wire, with cables between 
Formosa, the Japanese mainland and the Pescadores, have 
been laid. 

The chief agricultural products of Formosa are rice, tea, 
sugar, cane, sweet potatoes, ramie, jute, turmeric. The value 
Products and of the marine products, although it is increasing, 
foreign trade. j s no j- ve t ver y great. The mineral resources 
are being developed, gold to a considerable extent, while 
the output of sulphur is now of importance, and the output 
of coal is rapidly increasing. Camphor is a Government 
monopoly and yields a revenue of about ^400,000 a year. 

There has been but little increase in the value of the 
exports from Formosa since it was ceded to Japan in 1895. 
But the Japanese occupation has had a stimulating effect 
on imports, which now include many of the products of 
Western civilisation. Formosa, however, being an integral 
part of Japan, there is a rapidly growing trade with and via 
Japan, and therefore the outline of the foreign trade of the 
empire which we have given in a previous chapter will be 
sufficient for our present purpose. 

Mr. Davidson says that " the Japanese occupation will 

improve the position of the masses throughout the island ; 

of this there can be little doubt. It will bring 

General effects . ..... . r . 

of Japanese thousands within the reach 01 modern con- 
occupation of veniences, the railway, improved shipping 
facilities, good roads, etc. It will afford them 
modern medical treatment, the advantages of modern 
education, and will offer encouragement to the development 
of the island's resources and the utilising of machinery and 
other improved methods of manufacture." It is yet too 
early to attempt to tabulate definite social and economic 
results, but already a considerable part of the population 
finds its wages doubled, and the farmers obtain higher 
prices for their products ; a fact which reduces somewhat 
the actual value of the wages. Still the purchasing power 



Colonisation and Emigration 263 

of the masses has been considerably increased, with a 
consequent increase of comfort and welfare. 

Dr. Shimpei Goto, the Civil Governor, thus summarises 
the reforms which have been introduced : — (a) The adminis- 
trative system, for which General Baron Kodama is at present 
responsible, has since 1898 answered all requirements, and 
has given contentment to a population which is composed 
of many elements inclined by nature to be more or less 
antagonistic to one another, {b) As to sanitation, whereas 
the Chinese had paid no heed whatever to such matters, and 
the death-rate was extraordinarily high at the time when 
the island became the property of Japan, steps were at once 
taken by the new owners to remedy the defective drainage 
of the towns, to supply pure drinking-water by boring 
artesian wells and establishing water-works, and to reduce 
the number of mosquitoes and other noxious insects, which 
previously were veritable plagues. Hospitals were in- 
dispensable to the fulfilment of the scheme, and no fewer 
than eleven of these institutions are now rendering excellent 
service, (c) The cadastre, upon which the land tax is 
collected, is being pushed forward, and its effects, as ex- 
hibited in a largely enhanced revenue from this source, are 
already plainly visible, though the work is necessarily one 
which demands time for its complete accomplishment, (d) 
The educational measures adopted are far-reaching and are 
certain to be effective, (i) Public works, in the direction of 
lighthouses, railways, and telegraphs, and the improvement 
for the accommodation for shipping at various ports, are all 
receiving their due share of attention. (/) The banking 
affairs and monetary system of the colony have been placed 
upon a satisfactory footing. With all this Dr. Goto claims 
that already Formosa is no longer a financial burden to the 
central Government, and he justly claims this as proof of a 
vitality and of capabilities in general that are indubitably 
above the average. He believes that its future is eminently 
hopeful, as it is based upon rich agricultural and mineral 
resources which will form valuable adjuncts to those of 



264 Dai Nippon 

Japan proper, and the development of which will not only 
give a considerable outlet for the surplus population but also 
add greatly to the wealth of the empire. 

One very interesting item in the action of the Japanese 
in Formosa is their treatment of the opium problem. When 
they took possession of the island they found there a 
population more or less addicted to the drug, and it was 
decided to abolish the practice by degrees. Only those who 
have already suffered from its effects to the extent that it 
occasions them intense pain to deprive them of the pipe are 
now permitted by a special warrant which they are obliged 
to procure to continue the use thereof. It is strictly for- 
bidden to begin the practice, under severe penalties, and in 
order that the Government might have full control, and also 
to facilitate the final extinction of the habit, it has retained 
the sale of opium in its own hands. The revenue derived 
from the monopoly amounts to about ^400,000 a year. 

The rapidly increasing population of Japan has com- 
pelled the Japanese to look beyond the boundaries of their 
~ . t . , own territories for outlets for their surplus 

Emigration to " 

Korea and people, and naturally Korea and China have 
been looked upon as the most eligible countries, 
not only on account of their proximity, but also because of 
their historical associations. Mr. T. Nakahashi, a well- 
known Japanese politician, has said : " It admits of no 
doubt that nothing is more urgent for Japan at the present 
time than to find and develop the resources of new districts 
beyond the sea, with a view to the increase and prosperity 
of her own race in the world. In fifty years or so the 
number of the people will be nearly thrice as large as it is 
now. The number has been increasing yearly by four or 
five hundred thousand. As the increase is made invariably 
in regular advance it may be safely inferred that in a few 
score years the Japanese people will number a hundred 
millions. 

" Granted that the Japanese should in every possible way 
be encouraged to emigrate to some convenient countries with 



Colonisation and Emigration 265 

a view to their future greatness, then Korea and Manchuria 
are the very places, and their next step should be to open 
and develop the means of communication with the proposed 
colonies. 

" By an expenditure of sixty million yen spread over 
twenty years, two or three millions of Japanese settlers could 
be sustained in Korea and Manchuria. However great may 
be the number of emigrants from Russia, that Power will find 
herself always outdone by Japan. 

" Japan must work out her own greatness, if necessary, 
in spite of her allies. Friendship is one thing, self- 
aggrandisement another. Even at the risk of peace, her 
colonisation policy must be carried out according to the plan 
she thinks best. Not a few collisions with the interests of 
the various nations may arise as a consequence of this 
struggle for existence. But each must carry out her 
respective international policy in spite of all obstacles." 

These sentences prove that the modern Imperial spirit 
which has shown itself in almost all other parts of the world is 
not unknown in Japan, although they cannot be looked upon 
as in any way representing the policy of the Government. 
Still their existence cannot be overlooked, as their influence 
is certain to be felt in a greater or less degree. All that the 
Japanese ask, at the present time, is freedom of trade and of 
reasonable settlement ; in short, that their countrymen in 
Manchuria and Korea shall have fair-play, and that there 
shall be "the open door" for commerce. The official 
returns show that at the end of 1901 the numbers of 
Japanese in China were 5686, in Korea 4843, in Siam 16, 
in Hong-Kong 371, in Manilla 150, in Singapore 173, and 
India 42. 

The emigration of Japanese to other countries, especially 
to North and South America and Australasia, is certain to 
cause a certain amount of discussion, if not Em j grat i on t0 
more serious trouble, in the not very distant other foreign 
future. The dislike of these countries to 
crowds of Chinese is well known, and drastic legislation has 



266 Da i Nippon 

been passed to prevent their arrival. Such legislation 
equally affects the Japanese, but in many respects their case 
is different from the Chinese. In the first place, their 
numbers are never likely to be very great, as the majority of 
those who wish to emigrate will naturally give a preference 
to countries nearer home ; and in the second, those who do 
leave Japan will, as a rule, not be of the labouring classes, 
but rather have special qualifications as merchants, engineers, 
or craftsmen. The latest published returns show that there 
were over 9000 in the United States or their colonies. A 
good many of these were in Hawaii, which at the time they 
settled there was an independent kingdom, and the climate 
and industrial conditions of which are very suitable for 
Japanese. Of the number mentioned 554 were students, and 
2851 were engaged in trade. In Britain and British colonies 
the same returns show that there were 8215 Japanese, 
while Russia and Russian colonies had 3953. The other 
countries, apart from Korea and China, had only insignificant 
numbers ; so that the question of Japanese emigration with 
them is not as yet of practical importance. 

In Britain proper it is never likely to become a burning 
question, as its geographical position makes it unlikely that 
large numbers of Japanese will ever settle there. Moreover, 
the economic conditions are against such a probability. In 
Australasia and Canada, however, the cases are different, 
and the same laws apply to Japanese as to Chinese, and it 
will not be surprising if the subject becomes one of general 
and diplomatic discussion. It is to be hoped that it will 
be settled in a common-sense manner, and that in British 
territories at least Japanese will be welcomed as likely to 
advance the welfare of the communities in which they settle. 

In this chapter I have confined myself to a description 
of what has been attempted by the Japanese in the way of 
colonisation and emigration, but, after all, such methods of 
solving the population question can have only a very limited 
result. The solution of the real problem lies much deeper, 
and it is to be hoped that the Japanese will recognise that 



Colonisation and Emigration 267 

their influence in the world will depend much more on the 
quality of the people in their own country than in the 
numbers scattered over the other countries. It is further 
to be hoped that their national pride will not allow them 
to become hewers of wood and drawers of water to the 
other peoples of the world. Japan, like other industrial 
countries, is now face to face with many economic and social 
problems, and a resort to emigration on a large scale only 
results in the postponement of the solution of these problems. 
When free immigration is allowed in any country it has two 
bad effects. In the country to which immigrants are 
admitted it blinds people to the real causes of unemploy- 
ment and starvation in the midst of superfluous wealth, 
while in the country from which the emigration takes place 
it, to some extent, relieves the pressure of competition and 
enables both the Government and the people to shut their 
eyes to the real causes of the evil. 

While anything in the shape of what may be called 
artificial or forced emigration should be discouraged, natural 
emigration, depending entirely on economic considerations, 
should not be interfered with. Each nation should be 
expected to solve its own social problems, and economic 
conditions determine to a large extent how this is to be 
done. The Japanese are never likely to send great numbers 
to any parts of the world, except probably to neighbouring 
countries in the Far East ; and Europe, America, and 
Australia must recognise that unless they receive on 
favourable terms those who go to them on legitimate 
business or work, their conduct may lead to measures of 
retaliation which would not only be unpleasant but also 
probably result in great financial loss. Already some 
questions have been raised, and it is to be hoped that they 
will be considered fairly and in all their aspects by the 
nations concerned, and that arrangements will be made 
which will conduce to the peace and welfare of the world. 



268 Dai Nippon 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

There is not much literature dealing directly with the subjects 
of this chapter. Many of the books on Japan, however, touch on 
it incidentally. Government Reports and the files of the daily 
newspapers are the chief sources of information. Mr. Davidson's 
large book on Formosa deals fully with the history, resources, 
government, etc., of that island. Chapter xiv. of Stafford 
Ransome's Japan in Tra?tsition, and Chapter vi. of M. Dumolard's 
Le Japon, politique, economique et social, contain some useful 
information on the subject. On the more general question of 
colonisation and emigration there are no special books, although 
there has been a great deal of discussion on it in the newspapers. 



CHAPTER XIII 

CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT 

The first of the principles enunciated by the Emperor soon 
after his accession to the throne, and which were to guide 
the actions of the Government, was to the following effect : — 
" Deliberative assemblies shall be established -. . . . , 

tirst principle 

on a broad basis in order that governmental enunciated by 
measures may be adopted in accordance with l e mperor - 
public opinion." For some years before these words were 
spoken there were in Japan a considerable number of 
students of constitutional government as it existed in Europe 
and America, but probably those in authority had little idea 
of the actual shape which the measures proposed in Japan 
would take. In this, as in other matters, their ideals 
developed as they gained information and experience. 

The Government of Japan under the Shoguns, while 
nominally an autocracy, was tempered to a considerable 
extent by various influences. The local autonomy enjoyed 
by each fief was not exercised by the daimyo himself but 
by his leading vassals, and even the nominal 
powers of the Shogun were wielded by a large ^^acy 1 
body of ministers and councillors. Although 
there was no direct representation from the other clans, 
still the more powerful among them exercised a considerable 
amount of influence in a more or less indirect manner, 
as they were jealous of the practical absolutism which 
had been developed by a family which legally was in pre- 
cisely the same position as themselves. On the arrival 

269 



270 Da i Nippon 

of the American fleet under Commodore Perry, the Shogun 
thought it politic not only to inform the Emperor of the 
demands of the Americans but also to summon a council 
of the feudal chiefs in order that they might consult as to 
the steps to be taken under the circumstances. No doubt 
he saw that it was impossible to refuse the demands which 
were being made, but at the same time he felt that to grant 
them was a dangerous step to take on his own responsibility. 
The opinions of the daimyos were by no means unanimous 
on the subject. Some were inclined to open the country to 
foreign commerce on account of the profit which would 
result, others were prepared to resist the demands of the 
foreigners, even at the risk of war. The position of the 
latter was strengthened by the attitude of the Emperor 
Komei (the father of the present Emperor), who, being 
absolutely ignorant of political affairs in the exterior world, 
looked upon the arrival of the American squadron as a 
foreign invasion, sent letters to the dignitaries of the 
Buddhist and Shintoist priesthoods asking their prayers for 
the expulsion of the foreigners, and in this position was 
supported by the whole of the Imperial Court. 

The first attempt at representative government in Japan 
therefore came to naught, and it was evidently made more 
for the purpose of appeasing the jealousy of the larger clans 
than of obtaining the opinions of the body of the people. 
That jealousy brought about years of agitation and many 
assassinations until the death of the Emperor Komei in 1 867, 
and shortly afterwards the Shogun, Keiki Tokugawa, re- 
signed his powers into the hands of the present Emperor. 

During the next year a Kogisho or Parliament was called 

together, and great hopes were entertained of its usefulness. 

. It was composed (1) of representatives of the 

First attempts at i- \ / jt 

representative daimyos, (2) of functionaries of the depart- 
govemment. ments of the central Government, and (3) 

representatives of the higher schools in Tokyo. It turned 
out a peaceful debating society, whose function was to 
give advice to the Imperial Government. Moreover, it 



Constitutional Government 2 7 1 

was decidedly conservative and adhered to all the old 
customs of the country, as was shown by the practically 
unanimous votes against the proposals to abolish the 
privilege of hara-kiri and the wearing of swords. After a 
short and uneventful career the meeting was dissolved in 
the autumn of the same year, never to reassemble, as it was 
very evident that the country was not yet ripe for anything 
which was really worthy of the name of Parliamentary 
government. 

Although the first attempt at a representative assembly 
in Japan was a comparative failure, still the evolution pro- 
ceeded in various ways. The modifications 

1 11 -i 1 • r * 1 Evolution in 

that took place in the machinery of the direction of 
central Government (and which will be representative 

x 1 • 1 government. 

noticed in the next chapter) were all in the 
direction of widening the influences which were brought to 
bear on the executive, and, although these influences were 
indirect, still they were by no means to be neglected. 
Public opinion, in many ways, was able to make itself felt, 
and these rapidly developed a demand for a representative 
assembly composed of members directly elected by the 
people. In April 1875 an Imperial Decree was issued 
which, in addition to certain administrative developments, 
ordered that an annual meeting of provincial governors 
should be held, so that they might discuss the affairs of their 
own districts and of the country generally. The Satsuma 
rebellion and other troubles, both internal and external, 
occupied public attention for a considerable time, and the 
agitation for constitutional government subsided. Meantime 
the Government slowly developed representative institutions 
in the various prefectures and cities (as will be explained 
more fully in the next chapter), but these steps did not 
satisfy the leaders of the agitation, as their purpose was to 
overthrow the clique of clansmen who, holding the reins of 
administrative power, monopolised the prizes of officialdom, 
and the development of local government did nothing to 
attain this end. 



272 Dai Nippon 

In 1879 the agitation was renewed, chiefly on the 
initiative of Itagaki Taisuke (now Count Itagaki), a Tosa 
Agitation led by samurai who had taken a prominent part in 

itagaki. foe movement for the Restoration, and meet- 
ings were held in many parts of the country for the purpose 
of discussing the question. In March 1880 a general 
meeting of the leaders of the movement was held in Osaka 
and a new organisation was formed for the purposes of 
active propaganda. Under the leadership of Itagaki there 
was formed an association called Jiyuto (Liberals), which was 
the first political party in Japan, and was composed not 
only of men who held advanced opinions, but of many 
others who had or thought they had personal grievances 
against the Government, through their loss of office. The 
words and even the actions of some of these men were 
sometimes very violent, and in order to restrain them the 
police were entrusted with certain powers of control over the 
press and the platform. The somewhat drastic use of 
these powers enabled the Liberals to pose as victims of 
official tyranny, and prosecution (or persecution as some 
might call it) had its usual result ; the movement grew 
in popularity and political agitation spread rapidly. In 
1 88 1 Okuma Shigenobu (now Count Okuma), who had held 
high position in the Government and was an authority on 
financial matters, seceded from the administration, and with 
his adherents organised an independent party calling them- 
selves Shimpoto (Progressists), who not only stood aloof from 
Liberals but even assumed an attitude hostile to them ; a 
fact which proves that the first political parties in Japan 
were grouped not about principles but about persons. 
However, it is not necessary meantime to enter into details 
of party politics or of constitutional and legislative enact- 
ments. For our present purpose it is sufficient to note the 
chief points which seem to have a direct bearing on the 
national evolution. 

As already mentioned — the outcome of the agitation 
which was carried on — in 1881 an edict was published 



Constitutional Government 273 

announcing that a national assembly would be convened 
in 1 89 1. It was naturally supposed that this would have 
stilled the agitation, and that the Japanese Edict announcing 
spirit of patriotism would have caused merely natlonal assembly. 
personal considerations to be put aside and united all parties 
in their efforts to make constitutional government a success. 
Unfortunately this was not the case ; for having seemingly 
attained what was stated to be their object, the leaders of 
the movement directed their energies to the dissemination of 
anti-official prejudices among the future electors, somewhat 
after the manner of party politicians in every country in the 
world, and for ten years a very active anti-Government 
propaganda was carried on, both on the platform and in the 
press, and not infrequently scenes of violence occurred, pro- 
ceedings which did not augur well for the smooth working 
of the future Parliament. 

Meantime the statesmen in power resolutely pursued 
their path of progressive reform. Captain Brinkley has 
summarised their work during this period in Le gi s iative and 
the following paragraph, which is a model of administrative 
condensed information : — " They codified the 
civil and penal laws, remodelling them on Western bases ; 
they brought a vast number of affairs within the scope of 
minute regulations ; they rescued the finances from con- 
fusion and restored them to a sound condition ; they recast 
the whole framework of local government ; they organised a 
great national bank, and established a network of subordinate 
institutions throughout the country ; they pushed the work 
of railway construction, and successfully enlisted private 
enterprise in its cause ; they steadily extended the postal 
and telegraphic services ; they economised public expendi- 
tures so that the State's income always exceeded its outlays ; 
they laid the foundations of a strong mercantile marine ; 
they instituted a system of postal savings banks ; they 
undertook large schemes of harbour improvement and road- 
making ; they planned and put into operation an extensive 
programme of riparian improvement ; they made civil 

(b 207) -p 



2 74 Dai Nippon 

service appointments depend on competitive examination ; 
they sent numbers of students to Europe and America to 
complete their studies ; and by tactful, persevering diplomacy 
they gradually introduced a new tone into the Empire's 
relations with foreign powers. Japan's affairs were never 
better administered." 

As a step towards providing some of the machinery 

required by the new constitution, the Emperor, on the advice 

New orders of of Mr. Ito (afterwards Marquis), instituted five 

nobility. orders of nobility (apart from the princes of 
the blood), the English equivalents of which were princes, 
marquises, counts, viscounts, and barons. The greatest of 
the territorial nobles received the title of prince, the smallest 
that of baron, and titles of various degrees were bestowed on 
men who had rendered service to the country as statesmen, 
soldiers, sailors, or scholars, without regard to their original 
social status. In 1900 the princes numbered 11, the 
marquises 33, the counts 89, the viscounts 363, and the 
barons 280. The Japanese have been sneered at for this 
imitation of foreign customs, but they only followed the 
national evolution from feudalism to a constitutional 
monarchy and gave modern names to those who either by 
birth or service were entitled to recognition in framing a 
Constitution. 

That Constitution was promulgated in 1890 with 
imposing ceremonies. Marquis Ito had been entrusted with 
Marquis ito and the duty of framing it, and his name will live 
the Constitution. j n history not only for his great services to his 
country as a statesman and administrator, but also as the 
chief author of a measure which gave Japan a constitutional 
Government ; and the Japanese people point proudly to his 
work as the only charter of the kind voluntarily given by a 
sovereign to his subjects. Although, as we have indicated, 
there was a certain amount of agitation, there were none of 
those long struggles between ruler and ruled which marked the 
rise of constitutional government in Europe. Marquis Ito 
studied parliamentary institutions in Europe and America, 



Constitutional Government 275 

noted their methods, and his proposals were of a very 
cautious or even conservative nature, and the actual Constitu- 
tion was fashioned more after that of Germany than of 
Britain. The minimum age of the electors and of the 
candidates was fixed at twenty-five, and the property 
qualification at a payment of direct taxes to the amount of 
15 yen (30 shillings) annually. The result was that only 
460,000 persons were enfranchised out of a population of 
42 millions. As is usually the case in constitutional govern- 
ments the two-chamber system was adopted for the Diet, the 
Upper House being in part elective, in part hereditary, and 
in part nominated by the Sovereign ; the Lower consisting 
of 300 elected members. By a subsequent development the 
qualification of electors was reduced to 1 o yen annually, the 
number of franchise-holders being thus raised to about 
800,000, and various modifications were at the same time 
introduced into the machinery and methods of election. 
The Constitution guaranteed freedom of conscience, of 
speech, and of public meeting, inviolability of domicile and 
correspondence, security from arrest or punishment except 
by due process of law, permanence of judicial appointments ; 
in short, all the essential elements of civil liberty as found in 
free countries. The Diet was given full legislative authority 
and control of taxation and financial matters except the 
payment of the salaries of officials, which the Sovereign 
reserved the right to fix at will. In the Emperor were 
vested the usual prerogatives of a constitutional sovereign, 
such as the power of declaring war and making peace, of 
concluding treaties, and of appointing and dismissing 
officials, of approving and promulgating laws, of issuing 
urgency ordinances to take the temporary place of laws, and 
of conferring titles of nobility. 

The provision, however, round which has centred the 
chief difficulties in the working of the Constitu- Difficulties 
tion is that which made the Cabinet's tenure of in working 
office to depend solely on the Emperor's will, Constitution - 
and causes it to take its mandate from the Throne and not 



276 Dai Nippon 

from Parliament. The Diet was not long in existence till 
these difficulties appeared. Loyalty to the Emperor com- 
pelled all parties to accept as a tenet which was not to be 
disputed that the sanctity and inviolability of the Imperial 
prerogative was to be observed ; but the most radical among 
the Members of Parliament soon showed that they were of 
opinion that a Cabinet not acknowledging responsibility to 
the Legislature was virtually impotent for law-making 
purposes. The authors of the Constitution, no doubt, 
thought that the transition from an oligarchy to full 
Parliamentary government was too sudden a transition 
and was likely to be attended with danger. Probably 
they were right. Constitutions must develop with the 
conditions of the country, and already, although the printed 
words remain as at first, Parliamentary decisions have 
frequently had great effect on the actions of the Govern- 
ment, and have, in fact, more than once decided its fate. 
The future development of this part of the Constitution is 
probably the most important internal problem which faces 
Japan, for on it depends the solution of many other 
problems. 

In addition to this constitutional question personal 
elements have to a large extent influenced the action of 
Personal the Japanese Parliament. The provision alluded 
elements. t evidently gave the opportunity for the con- 
tinuance in power of practically the same men as those 
who wielded it before the promulgation of the Constitution 
and of what were called the " clan " administrators. The 
Government, for the most part, continued to be formed of 
those who belonged to the powerful clans who had taken 
an active part in the struggles of the Restoration, and while 
every unbiassed critic admitted that they did their work 
well, still the jealousy of the men of the other clans brought 
about constant struggles in the Diet, and in fact the 
opposition was directed against men, not measures, and 
obstruction of a very determined kind became the weapon 
of political parties. Legislation and finance were rendered 



Constitutional Government 277 

very difficult, and for some time it looked as if constitutional 
government in Japan was not only a failure, but that it 
would be the cause of serious disaster to the country. 
Domestic and personal squabbles were, however, forgotten 
during the war with China (1894-95), an d all parties 
united to give all the support which was required to make 
the war successful. 

It is not necessary to follow the rise and fall of ministries 
or the changes in political parties ; the broad fact is evident 
that the government of Japan combines the features of an 
autocracy, an oligarchy, and a constitutional government. 
That the two former are still all-powerful has been made 
plain by recent events, when Parliament has been repeatedly 
dissolved while the same Ministry has continued to hold 
office. At the same time it cannot be said that the repre- 
sentatives of the people have been without influence in 
many important ways. In matters of finance they have 
been able to influence the Government proposals to a very 
great extent, in general legislation they have broadened the 
foundations of many public institutions, and in both domestic 
and foreign politics they have made their opinions felt in a 
very marked manner. 

Making a survey of all that has happened since the 
promulgation of the Constitution, we must agree with 
Marquis Ito, its chief author, not only that there has been 
the experimental period, but also that excellent results have 
thus far been obtained, when it is remembered how sudden 
has been the transition from feudalism to representative 
institutions. However able the framers, no Constitution 
can be turned out which is perfect, and it must be modified 
to suit the changing conditions. As the Japan Mail put it, 
" it would be altogether extravagant to expect that Japan's 
new constitutional garments should fit her perfectly from 
the first. She has to grow into them, and of course the 
process is destined to be more or less awkward." 

The first attempt at the compilation of a criminal code 
was made in 1870 and was amended three years later. 



278 



Dai Nippon 



This code was far from perfect, being based mainly on 

ancient Japanese customs modified more or less by Chinese 

laws. One of the first serious pieces of work 

Legislation. 

undertaken after the Restoration was the 
codification of the laws of Japan on the basis of the laws 
of Europe. Foreign experts were engaged to assist in the 
work, and no efforts were spared to adopt the best principles 
of Occidental jurisprudence without doing violence to the 
customs and traditions of the country. The Civil Code, 
the Code of Civil Procedure, and the Commercial Code are 
modelled chiefly on the laws of Germany ; the Criminal 
Code and the Code of Criminal Procedure on the laws 
of France. 

In 1882 the Criminal Code and the Code of Criminal 
Procedure were enforced. The latter was subjected to a 
thorough amendment in 1899, while the amended draft of 
the former was introduced into the Diet in the eighteenth 
session, but the dissolution which occurred did not allow 
time for the consideration of the measure. The principal 
statute laws thus far enforced are as follows : — 



Imperial Constitution 

Law for the Operation of Law 

Law of Nationality 

Criminal Code 

Criminal Procedure 

Civil Code . 

Civil Procedure 

Commercial Code 

Insurance Law 

Law relating to Registration of Real Estate 

Law relating to Organisation of Courts of Law 

Law regarding Ships .... 

Law regarding Crews of Ships 



1889 
1898 
1899 
1898 
1890 

1896-8 
1890 

1890-8 
1900 
1899 
1890 
1899 
1899 



Reference must be made to special publications for 
details of these laws. Other measures relating to finance, 
public works, and administration have been mentioned in 
the chapters dealing with these subjects. It was very 



Constitutional Government 279 

significant that one of the first Bills introduced in the Diet 
in 1 891 was one for the removal of all restrictions on freedom 
of speech, but on account of the opposition of the Peers, 
who shared the opinion of the Government that to grant 
a large measure of liberty would certainly encourage licence, 
it was not until 1897 that the Bill was passed; and the 
results have falsified all sinister forebodings. No doubt, 
in some of the journals, the language used is sometimes 
extreme, but in the majority of cases it is marked by a 
moderation of tone which has made the press of Japan 
a most influential instrument in the education of public 
opinion, and in moulding the empire into a harmonious 
unity. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

The subject of this chapter is chiefly of interest to specialists, 
and for general readers there is little need to enter into details. 
Marquis Ito's Commentaries on the Constitution of the Empire of 
Japa7i and Lay's History of Japanese Political Parties (Trans. Asiatic 
Society of Japan, vol. xxx. part 3) should be studied. More 
systematic history of the subject will be found in Iyenaga's 
Constitutional Development of Japan and H. Furuya's Systeme 
Representatif au Japon. Knapp's Feudal and Modern Japan is well 
written and interesting. Chapter ix. of Clement's Ha?idbook of 
Modern Japan gives a very good outline of the subject. A large 
number of articles dealing with its different aspects have appeared 
in British and American reviews. W. Petrie Watson, in his book 
Japan, Aspects and Destinies, has several chapters on the subject 
which are very clever, but he sometimes sacrifices exactness for 
effect. On legal subjects many books and papers have been 
published, but it is sufficient to mention Gubbins' translation of the 
New Civil Code, Longford's Summary of the Japanese Penal Codes, 
and other papers which appear in the Transactions of the Asiatic 
Society of Japan. Captain Brinkley's article on Japan in the 
supplementary volumes of the Encyclopedia Britatmica contains an 
excellent digest of the history of Constitutional Government in 
Japan and its more important results. 



CHAPTER XIV 

ADMINISTRATION 

ALTHOUGH the formal abrogation of the feudal system in 

Japan seemed very rapid and simple, it was, as we have 

seen, the result of forces which had been act- 

Problems of ..... , . . r . 

administration ing for a considerable time, and it left the new 
after the Government face to face with many problems 

Restoration. _ J c 

of a complex and difficult nature in adapting 
the institutions of the country to the new conditions. If 
foreigners had not forced themselves on Japan, a revolution 
would still have taken place, but in all probability it would 
have stopped with the establishment of an autocratic 
administration, with the Emperor not only as the source of 
all honour and power, but also as the head of the actual 
government. The introduction of democratic ideas from the 
West, however, led to great developments of which even the 
most advanced thinkers in Japan had no conception. 

As I have already pointed out, those in authority were 
not long in recognising that if Japan were to attain what 
they believed to be her proper status among the nations, a 
system of education which fitted for all the activities of 
national life was an absolute necessity, so that commerce and 
industry might be developed in such a manner as to supply 
the means of raising the standard of life, and that a strong 
army and navy were necessary to command respect. The 
development of constitutional government and the recon- 
struction of the laws of the country in harmony with the 
ideas of Western countries broadened the basis of administra- 

280 



A dmin is t ration 2 8 1 

tion and made the solutions of the problems which lay before 
the Government more difficult. A detailed account of all 
that was done to improve the national organisation is far 
beyond our present scope ; all that I can do is to give an 
outline of the most important steps in the development. 

After the Restoration a Constitution was drawn up 
detailing the various Departments of Government and the 
duties of the officers in each. These Depart- New central 
ments were: — 1. Supreme Administration; Government. 
2. Shinto Religion ; 3. Home Affairs ; 4. Foreign Affairs ; 
5. War; 6. Finance; 7. Judicial Affairs; 8. Legislative 
Affairs. The work of the central Government was carried 
on chiefly by the Daijokwan, or Cabinet or Council of State, 
and it is interesting to note the names of those who com- 
posed it in 1 869 and their former positions and clans. 
They were : — 



Sanjo Udaijin 


(former Kuge) 


Iwakura Dainagon „ 


Tokudaiji ,, 


>> 


Nabeshima ,, 


(ex-Prince of Hizen) 


Okubo Sangi 


(Satsuma) 


Soyejima „ 


(Hizen) 


Okuma ,, 


)> 


Hirozawa ,, 


(Chishiu) 


Kido 


5) 


Sasaki „ 


(Tosa) 



It is impossible to give exact equivalents of the ranks of 
the various members. Sanjo was First or Prime Minister. 
Iwakura, Tokudaiji, and Nabeshima were Chief Councillors 
or Junior Prime Ministers, and the Sangi were Councillors. 
Under the Daijokwan were the Ministers of the different 
Departments, who were called to take part in the Cabinet 
Councils of the Government when any questions relating to 
their Departments were to be discussed. Sometimes they 
were all called in to deliberate on matters of great 
importance. 

In 1 87 1 the Daijokwan, or Council of State, was turned 



282 Dai Nippon 

into Sei-In, or Chief College. It was composed of the Daijo, 
Sai, and Udaijin and of the Sangi, and formed the Council 
Changes or Cabinet of the Emperor. Sanjo was raised 
in Government. to t h e ran k of Daijodaijin ; that of Saidaijin 
remained vacant. Iwakura became Udaijin, and Saigo, 
Kido, Itagaki, and Okuma — representing Satsuma, Choshiu, 
Tosa, and Hizen — were the Sangi. The chiefs of Depart- 
ments were constituted the U-In, or Right College or House ; 
while the Left College or House, which was intended to be 
of a somewhat representative nature, was composed of 
members nominated by the Emperor, and consisted of a 
President, Vice-President, and a number of subordinates of 
different ranks. The executive part of the Government 
consisted of the Ministers and Vice-Ministers of the eight 
Departments — Religion, Treasury, Foreign Affairs, War, 
Education, Justice, Public Works, and Imperial Household. 

From time to time various changes took place in the 
arrangements of the central Government. For instance, in 
1885 the Department of Public Works was abolished. That 
Department had been started for the purpose of initiating 
public works and various branches of industry, and by the 
date mentioned it was evidently thought by the Government 
that sufficient progress had been made to render direct 
assistance and supervision unnecessary, and that private 
enterprise should be encouraged. A large number of limited 
liability companies were started and undertakings of all 
kinds were initiated. The functions of the Public Works 
Department were distributed among the other Departments, 
that of Communications taking over the Government Rail- 
ways, Posts, Telegraphs, etc., while the Imperial College of 
Engineering was, as already mentioned, transferred to the 
Department of Education, and became part of the Imperial 
University of Tokyo. 

It is not necessary that we should enter into the minor 
changes which have taken place from time to time ; it is 
sufficient for our purpose to give an outline of the existing 
arrangements. The Privy Council is the supreme advisory 



Administration 283 

organ of the Emperor, while the Cabinet is the central 
administrative body. It has under it nine Departments of 
State ; namely, those of Foreign Affairs, Home Affairs, 
Finance, War, Navy, Justice, Education, Agriculture and 
Commerce, and Communications. The heads of these 
Departments are the Ministers of State and they form the 
Cabinet, under the direction of a Minister President of State 
who is Premier ; and in obedience to the Em- Functions of 
peror they deal with all matters relating to the Cabinet - 
administration. The principal matters to be determined by 
the Cabinet are as follows : — 

(a) Drawing up of projects of laws and compilation of 

Budgets and settled accounts. 

(b) Matters relating to treaties with foreign countries 

and to international questions. 

(c) Imperial Ordinances relating to official organisations 

or the operation of laws. 

(d) Disputes between the Departments of State as to 

jurisdiction. 

(e) Petitions of people sent in, either to the Emperor or 

to the Diet. 

(f) Disbursements not covered by the Budget. 

(g) Appointments and promotion of officials of cJiokunin 

rank and of local governors. 
Matters of importance coming under the direct super- 
vision of the Ministers of State may also be laid before a 
Cabinet Council. Attached to the Cabinet is the Legislative 
Bureau, which deals with matters relating to the drafting of 
projects of law or of ordinances or their amendment or 
revocation, whether such drafting is done at the instance 
of the Cabinet or of a Department of State or at its own 
initiative. It is also entitled to express its own opinion 
about those matters. The Cabinet, as I have already 
stated, is by the Constitution responsible only to the 
Emperor, by whom each Minister is appointed and dis- 
missed at will, although as we have seen Parliamentary 
votes and public opinion have had considerable influence 



284 Da i Nippon 

in the unmaking of Ministries and on the resignation of 
individual Ministers. 

The Minister who has charge of a Department of State 
is empowered to issue Departmental Ordinances. The 
portfolios of War and the Navy are subject to ministerial 
changes, but there is a growing tendency to regard them as 
technical and administrative, and therefore to make their 
tenure independent of the Cabinet's life. The affairs and 
estates of the Imperial Household are managed by the 
Household Department, under a Minister who has not a seat 
in the Cabinet and is independent of changes of Ministry. 
Under the control of the central administration, but not 
forming part of it, are the Bureau of the Tokyo police, 
the Hokkaido Bureau, the governors of prefectures, and the 
staff of the Government of Formosa. 

The Privy Council is the supreme advisory body of the 

Emperor, and attends to (a) matters relating to the Imperial 

Privy Council House Law ; (b) matters relating to projects of 

and other ] aws anc [ ordinances pertaining to the Constitu- 

advisory and * ° 

administrative tion ; {c) matters relating to a state of siege, 
bodies. to t k e j ssue f ur gency ordinances to take the 
place of laws when the Diet is not sitting, and to primitive 
provisions of the Constitution ; (d) matters relating to 
treaties and international agreements, matters relating to 
the organisation and rules of the Privy Council ; {e) other 
matters on which it is ordered by the Emperor to deliberate. 
At the present time Marquis Ito is the President of the 
Council ; so that although he is not a member of the Govern- 
ment in the ordinary way, it has the advantage of his 
experience and advice. 

There are also a number of special Councils or Com- 
missions intended to assist with advice the higher executive 
bodies, — such as the Codes Investigation Commission, the 
Central Sanitary Association, the Public Works Commission, 
the Higher Educational Commission, the Higher Council of 
Agriculture, Industry, and Commerce, and the Railway 
Council ; and attached to the various Departments there is a 



A dm in istration 285 

considerable number of special administrative offices, but 
into details of these it is not necessary to enter. 

Although Shintoism remains the religion of the Imperial 
House, neither it nor Buddhism can lay claim to State 
protection in modern times, except that a grant Administration 
of 216,000 yen annually is given for the of religion. 
support of Shinto shrines. No aid whatever is given to 
Buddhism. Under the Shogunate there was a class of 
officials whose duty it was to administer the secular laws in 
all matters relating to religion, and the Church was thus 
removed beyond the pale of the ordinary tribunals. The 
revival of pure Shintoism during the eighteenth century 
assisted so materially to re-establish the doctrine of the 
Throne's divinity, and thus prepare the way for the Restora- 
tion, that the new Government naturally identified itself 
with a creed of such practical utility. The old officials of 
religion were abolished, a new authority was created which 
ranked above all the State Departments, and there can be 
little doubt that the aim of the more radical reformers of the 
time was the ultimate suppression of Buddhism, and the 
elevation of Shinto to the rank of a State Church ; but 
Buddhism had entwined its roots too strongly round the 
hearts of the people to be thus easily set aside. In 1872 a 
further change was made by the creation of a Department, 
with the name of Kyobu-sho, of a lower status than that 
which previously existed, but still very high in the adminis- 
trative organisation, and from this office the priests of the 
two religions received equal recognition. 

The spirit of the Revolution, however, was too 
rationalistic to maintain an intimate connection between 
Church and State, and the attempt to identify their interests 
gradually ceased to have practical force, until (in 1884) the 
ranks and titles of the priests were abolished, and the various 
sects were declared perfectly free to manage their own affairs. 
The only official connection of the State with religion is 
through the Bureau of Shrines and Temples, which administers 
the grant which is given for the preservation of the sacred 



286 Da i Nippon 

buildings, but this is much more a matter of historical 
interest than of religious importance. The last tie that 
bound the Church to the State was severed when the 
new Constitution was promulgated in 1889, the twenty- 
seventh article of which declares that, " within limits not 
prejudicial to peace and order, and not antagonistic to their 
duties as subjects, Japanese subjects shall enjoy freedom of 
belief." 

In no department of national life is the difference 
between Old and New Japan so distinctly shown as in the 
Administration methods of the administration of justice. 
of justice. Under the feudal system those in authority 
were too much inclined to visit summary and cruel punish- 
ment on slight pretext. It has, however, been clearly shown l 
that there was in Old Japan " a legal system, a body of clear 
and consistent rules, a collection of statutes and of binding 
precedents." The chief characteristics of Japanese justice 
under the old regime, were the following: — (1) Making 
justice " personal, not impersonal," by balancing " the benefits 
and disadvantages of a given course, not for all time in a 
fixed rule, but anew in each instance," and thus " to sacrifice 
legal principle to present expediency"; (2) the feudal 
spirit, especially in criminal law, as illustrated by the use of 
torture, humiliating forms of procedure, and awfully severe 
punishments ; and (3) the attainment of justice " not so 
much by the aid of the law as by mutual consent," by means 
of definite customs, applied, however, " through arbitration and 
concession " ; so that there was " a universal resort to 
arbitration and compromise as a primary means of settling 
disputes," and only a dernier ressort to the process of law. 
In these as in other matters it is necessary to study their 
history in order that we may understand certain traits still 
prominent even in New Japan. 

Having codified their laws on Western principles, the 
Japanese organised the machinery necessary to put them in 
operation. Their judicial system is divided into four grades ; 

1 Wigmore, Transactions, Asiatic Society of Japan, vol. xx. Supplement. 



A dm in is t ration 



287 



namely, the Supreme Court, the Appeal Courts, Local Courts, 
and District Courts. The last is the lowest tribunal and is 
conducted by a single judge, while in the Local Courts 
three collegiate judges sit on a case, in the Appeal Courts 
five collegiate judges and in the Supreme Court seven 
collegiate judges. Public Procurators are attached to each 
Court, on commission from the Minister of Justice. 
Security of tenure is guaranteed by the Constitution to the 
judges, and their appointments and those of the Public 
Procurators are obtained by passing a regular examination. 
The position of barristers is regulated by the Barristers' Law, 
and strict measures are in force with regard to their 
qualifications, rights, and privileges, and they are amenable 
to the same disciplinary law as that enforced in the case of 
judges. 

The following table shows the number of Courts and 
the staffs at the end of 1901 : — 



No. 


No. of Judges. 


No. of 

Procurators. 


Supreme Court 
Appeal Courts 
Local Courts . 
District Courts 


1 

7 

49 

310 


25 
121 

399 

557 


7 

29 

I4O 

159 



Great improvements have taken place in the Japanese 
prison system within recent years, and it will now bear 
favourable comparison with that of any Western country. 

The dignity of the law in Japan is most commonly seen 
by " the man in the street " in the person of the policeman, 
and it must be admitted that he very worthily upholds it. 
The police of Japan are a very superior body of men, 
resembling the gendarmerie of France. They are in reality 
an excellent body of soldiers, who receive much higher pay 
and broader training than do the conscripts, and are almost 
without exception of high character and with a due sense of 
the dignity of their office. 



288 Dai Nippon 

Japanese officials are divided into four classes : the first 
comprising those that receive their commissions directly from 

the Emperor and are entitled to report personally 
Officials. , . , i ^i ^i ... 

to him ; the second, those that receive their com- 
missions through the Minister of a Department and have the 
entree to the palace on State occasions ; the third, those 
commissioned similarly to the second class but not having 
the entrie to the palace ; and the fourth, those temporarily 
engaged and having the status of mere employees. There 
is also another classification into nine ranks, each having two 
grades. The place occupied by an official in this list is 
granted by the Emperor as a recognition of merit, and the 
designation is prefixed to the name, like a title in official 
documents. Admission to officialdom is by examination, 
except in the case of candidates possessing certain duly 
attested educational qualifications. 

The problems connected with local government which 
arose after the Restoration were even more difficult than 
Local those of the central Government, as they involved 
government. so m any details directly affecting the daily lives 
of the people. At first the old machinery was utilised as far 
as possible, but it was found utterly inadequate to the 
changed conditions, and in August 1871 the daimiates were 
converted into prefectures or ken. The following is a trans- 
lation of the message of the Emperor, and it is interesting as 
indicating the reasons for the change and the objects which 
it was desired to attain : — " We are of opinion that in a time 
of radical reform like the present, if We desire to give protec- 
tion and tranquillity to the people at home and abroad to 
maintain equality with foreign nations, words must be made 
to mean in reality what they claim to signify, and the govern- 
ment of the country must centre in a single whole. 

" Some time ago We gave Our sanction to the scheme 
by which all the clans restored to Us their registers ; We 
appointed Chiji for the first time, each to perform the duties 
of his office. 

" But owing to lengthened endurance of the old system 



Administration 289 

during several hundred years, there have been cases where 
the word only was pronounced and the reality not performed. 
How is it possible for Us, under such circumstances, to give 
protection and tranquillity to the people and to maintain 
equality with foreign nations ? 

" Profoundly regretting this condition of affairs, We do 
now completely abolish the han and convert them into ken, 
with the object of diligently retrenching unnecessary ex- 
penditure and of arriving at convenience in working, of 
getting rid of the vice of the unreality of names, and of 
abolishing the disease of the government proceeding from 
multiform centres. 

" Do ye, Our assembled servants, take well to heart this 
Our will." 

The radical change thus announced appeared bold and 
hazardous to foreigners, but the Cabinet had confidence in 
the success of the new proposals, and that has been fully 
justified. At first the daimyos were appointed governors of 
the prefectures, but it was found that in many cases they 
were utterly unfit to perform the chief executive offices of 
their old provinces. Hence gradually other more competent 
persons were appointed to the vacancies as they occurred, 
until it was understood that fitness was to be the requisite 
qualification for such appointments. As the schools and 
colleges turned out graduates, they were appointed to the 
subordinate positions, and these as they gained experience 
proved very efficient officials. No doubt there are cases of 
inefficiency, and in recent years it is much to be regretted 
that cases of corruption have been painfully common, of 
which, however, the most is made by both the Japanese and 
the foreign journals. Still, taking everything into account, 
and the rapid changes which have been made, there are no 
reasons for supposing that in these respects the local govern- 
ment of Japan is much or indeed any worse than many other 
governments, even of some of those which are held up as 
examples of efficiency and purity. As the emoluments of the 
officials are increased, and as public opinion is more influential 

(B 207) y 



290 Dai Nippon 

through the press and otherwise, there is every reason to 
believe that the standard of excellence of local government 
in Japan will rise in every department. 

In the preceding chapter the Imperial Decree of April 
1875, instituting an annual meeting of the provincial 
governors, has been mentioned. The powers of that meeting 
were gradually extended and representative methods adopted 
in the various local bodies. In 18 So the Provincial 
Assembly Regulations were enacted, followed in 1884 by 
the Civic Corporation Regulations, and in 1888 the local 
government system as it exists to-day was in thorough 
working order. 

For purposes of local administration the whole empire is 
divided into 47 prefectures {ken), 653 counties {gun), 48 
towns {ski) and 14,734 districts {cho or son). The three 
metropolitan prefectures of Tokyo, Osaka, and Kyoto are 
called fu, and the districts are divided into " urban " cho and 
" rural " son, according to the number of houses they contain. 
In each of these full effect is given to the principle of popular 
representation, and the local representative bodies have 
control of the financial and other important matters in the 
locality. The governor of a prefecture, the mayor of a town, 
or the head man of a county or district is ex officio president 
of the representative bodies. The system is divided into 
three grades — prefectural, sub-prefectural, or county and 
civic corporations. Of these three divisions, the last one, 
relating to municipal and rural communities, represents the 
self-government mechanism in its most striking form ; for in 
the other two higher divisions, owing to the greater part they 
have to play in administrative affairs, their self-government 
function does not lie so distinctively on the surface as in the 
other. Both legislatively and also practically the municipal 
and rural communities are bona fide self-governing bodies ; for 
they are entitled by law to enjoy the rights of juridical 
persons, also to incur obligations as such and to arrange all 
public matters relating to their own communities. The 
system of local government has now been in operation since 



A dministration 291 

1885 and it has been found to work well. It not only 
affords a thorough method of political education for the 
people, but it also gives them the opportunity of assisting 
directly in promoting their collective, economic, and social 
welfare. Local and municipal politics in Japan, as in other 
parts of the world, are now assuming increasing importance. 
The local governing bodies will have increased functions, 
without, however, in any way lessening the ultimate power of 
the central Government, and thus they will obey the general 
law of evolution by the transformation of a homogeneous 
into a heterogeneous form of government, with increased 
coherence between its parts. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

A very good outline of the administrative system of Japan is 
given in Part I. of H. Yamawaki's Japan in the Beginning of the 
Twentieth Century. Chapter x. of Clement's Handbook of Modern 
Japan has also a well-written digest of the subject. Several papers 
on the subject are to be found in the Transactions of the Asiatic 
Society of Japan. A systematic history of the subject in all its 
bearings, however, has still to be written. 



CHAPTER XV 

FINANCE 

THE fall of feudalism left the finances of Japan in a state of 

chaos, and one of the most pressing problems which con- 

„. . , fronted the new Government was the establish- 

Financial posi- 
tion at the time of ment of a system of national taxation which 

the Restoration. 11 <v> • . . ,1 

would secure sufficient resources to carry on the 
affairs of the nation, and at the same time be on such a basis 
as would encourage the economic progress of the country 
and not be unduly burdensome to any section of the com- 
munity. The difficulty of the problem may be inferred from 
the fact that during the first year after the Restoration of the 
Emperor the revenue arising from taxation was little more 
than one-tenth of the expenditure and that the balance had 
to be met chiefly by the issue of inconvertible notes. A 
detailed account of the financial affairs of Japan would 
require a large volume for itself ; all that I can attempt is a 
short outline dealing with some of the most important points. 
A study of this, however, will be sufficient to show that the 
management of the national finances has not been the least 
noteworthy achievement of Japanese statesmen. The great 
changes which took place involved many difficult problems, 
and not infrequently the financial conditions of the country 
not only caused much uneasiness among those personally 
interested, but called forth predictions of disaster from out- 
siders ; but by skilful management all sinister forecasts have 
been falsified, and while many problems have still to be solved, 

292 



Finance 293 

there can be no doubt that Japan has sufficient resources to 
ensure her a stable financial position. 

The third of the five guiding principles of the new 
Government, as proclaimed by the Emperor on his accession 
to the throne, was that " means shall be found The old and the 
for the furtherance of the lawful desires of all new taxatl0n - 
individuals without discrimination as to persons " ; which 
meant that every man, even among the common people, 
should be allowed to have full scope for his abilities. This 
principle marked the fundamental distinction between the 
conditions which were to exist under the new regime and 
those that had existed under the feudal system, which was 
in fact a military organisation in which the welfare of the 
agricultural, industrial, and commercial classes was avowedly 
and wantonly sacrificed for the maintenance of the warrior 
class. The daimyos not only governed their respective 
provinces, but they also held a sort of proprietary right over 
their respective domains, and there was no clear distinction 
between administrative powers and proprietary rights. The 
rice tax was the main source of the revenues of the daimyos, 
and its rate varied in different provinces, while other mis- 
cellaneous duties were imposed according to the industrial 
conditions of the localities. The burdens on all classes 
were heavy, and, what was worse, they were uncertain, as the 
people were liable to arbitrary contributions in the form of 
money and personal service. The primary conditions for 
individual and national welfare were therefore wanting, as 
increased exertion brought no advantage to the persons 
concerned. 

The financial position of the central Government of the 
Shogun was equally unsatisfactory. While the Shogun 
exercised a supreme authority over all the clans, the respec- 
tive daimyos were only to a very limited extent under his 
authority. They were required, in case of need, to place 
their military forces at his disposal and to render certain 
other services. No tax could be directly imposed by the 
central Government upon the subjects of the various fiefs, 



294 Dai Nippon 

although contributions not very great in amount were made 
by some of the clans to the revenue of the Shogunate. Its 
ordinary revenue was raised principally from the territories 
reserved as its own, in distinction from those granted to the 
clans. 

The financial problems before the new Government were 

peculiar and complicated. After the Restoration, while the 

Pr biems before centra ^ authority was transferred to the Imperial 

the new Government, the resources of the country were 
not under its command. Before anything like 
a satisfactory social and political organisation was possible, 
it was absolutely necessary that the methods of the feudal 
system should be completely changed, and especially that the 
particularism of the clans and the undue privileges of the 
warrior class should be abolished and the claims of all classes 
in the community be placed on a basis about which there 
could be no dispute and the amounts of which were certain. 
For some time tentative measures had to be adopted and 
the deficit in the revenue had to be met by the issue of 
inconvertible notes. Gradually, as the administration of the 
country came under the direct control of the Imperial 
Government and all the feudal privileges were abolished, it 
was possible to enforce uniform laws before which all sorts 
and conditions of people were to stand on a footing of 
equality. 

Under the feudal system a great variety of paper notes 
was circulated in the various districts for purposes of trade, 
Financial the value of which depended on the credit of 
administration, those who issued them ; and the first duty of a 
centralised Government was to reform the currency and 
bring something like order out of chaos. The paper money 
of the fiefs amounting to 25,000,000 yen was exchanged for 
Treasury notes, but the new Government was compelled to 
adopt the same device as the feudal chiefs ; in five years 
it had issued fiduciary paper aggregating nearly 60,000,000 
yen, and the notes circulated freely throughout the whole 
empire at par with silver, even commanding, at one time 



Finance 295 

a small premium. As public works developed and the 
national organisation was improved to meet the requirements 
of the new conditions, further demands were made on the 
Government, which thus found itself under the necessity of 
issuing more paper money, with the consequence that it 
rapidly decreased in value, until in 1881, fourteen years after 
the Restoration, notes to the face value of 150,000,000 yen 
had been put in circulation, and eighteen paper yen could be 
purchased with ten silver coins of the same denomination. 

The Government fully recognised its responsibilities in 
the matter, and, after various temporary expedients, in 1881 
it was resolved that a determined effort should be made to 
place the currency of the country on a sound basis ; first, by 
reducing the volume of the fiduciary notes in circulation, 
and, secondly, by accumulating a specie reserve. Reference 
must be made to special reports for details of the methods 
adopted. It is sufficient for our present purpose to note 
that, by the middle of 1885, the volume of the fiduciary 
notes had been reduced to 1 1 9,000,000 yen, and their 
depreciation had fallen to three per cent, and the metallic 
reserve of the Treasury had increased to 45,000,000 yen. 
The resumption of specie payments was then announced 
and became in the autumn of that year an accomplished 
fact. Captain Brinkley, after reviewing the transactions 
involved, says : " Viewed by the light of results, the above 
facts constitute a fine economical feat, nor can it be denied 
that the statesmen who directed Japan's finances at that 
critical time showed clear insight, good organising capacity, 
and courageous energy." 

As early as 1 871 the New Coinage Law was promul- 
gated, with the view of establishing the gold standard, 
but as in those days silver was the universal medium of 
exchange in the trade of the Far East, it was difficult for 
Japan to maintain gold mono-metallism, and for a consider- 
able time the currency system of Japan was on the basis 
of bi-metallism. It was not until 1st October 1897 that 
the gold standard system was put in operation. Count 



296 Dai Nippon 

Matsukata, who, as Minister of Finance, was directly re- 
sponsible for the change, has published a detailed report 
on the subject which has been officially translated into 
English, and to this reference must be made for further 
information. It may, however, be mentioned that one yen 
in gold, which is the new unit of coinage, was made 
approximately the same value as the old unit in silver, so 
as to avoid an abrupt change in the price of commodities 
and a disturbance of the relations between debtor and 
creditor. 

The economic change which took place when the 
daimyos surrendered their " domains and people " to the 
The land Emperor was in a sense a change from the 
tax - communism of feudalism to individualism. 

The new Government retained the sovereign administrative 
power, according to the modern principles of public law, 
while proprietary right over land was granted to private 
persons. For giving up their domains the feudal lords and 
their retainers were indemnified by the grant of Government 
loan bonds on which they drew interest, while all occupiers 
of land were at once, and without any transaction of a 
personal character, recognised as owners of the respective 
lands actually held by them. Probably as economic ideas 
develop in Japan this will be recognised as having been a 
very serious mistake, but meantime we are merely recording 
the fact. Under the Shogunate the sale and purchase of 
land were forbidden (though various means of evading the 
law were not unknown), while the tenants were not at liberty 
to use the land as they thought proper. Each clan aimed 
at making itself self-sustaining as far as possible and 
insisted upon a certain order of crops, without due regard 
to the real capabilities of the soil. Under the new regime 
the proprietors not only had perfect freedom in the cultiva- 
tion of the soil, but they also had the right of selling it ; 
which no doubt was an excellent arrangement for those who 
happened to be tenants at the time of the change. 

The Government, however, claimed a tax on the value 



Finance 297 

of the land held by the different proprietors. In assessing 
this value the annual amount of its net produce over an 
average of five years was first converted into a money 
value according to its average price for the same period ; 
and then this money value of the produce being considered 
as interest, the amount of capital necessary for yielding it 
was taken as the value of the land. A cadastral survey 
of the whole country was made, the official valuation of 
the land was completed in 1881, and revised in 1899 
with a view to remove certain defects. The land tax was 
made payable in money and its rate was fixed at a per- 
centage of the legal value of the land. At the initiation of 
the system it was fixed at three per cent, and in 1877 it 
was reduced to two and a half per cent, at which rate it 
remained until the augmentation of taxes that took place 
as a part of the so-called post-bellum financial programme. 
In 1 88 1, the year in which the land-tax reform was com- 
pleted, the yield of the land tax amounted to 42,000,000 
yen in a total taxation of 60,000,000 yen ; so that it was the 
chief source of the national revenue. Writing on the subject 
of the land tax, Count Matsukata, after noticing the history 
of the reform, says : " Land being, after all, the basis of our 
material life, there can be no question about the great im- 
portance of a radical change in the system of land tenure. 
It may be said, indeed, that the land-tax reform ushered in 
the social conditions under which a free play of the economic 
forces of the country became possible. The general prin- 
ciple that the obligation of the people as taxpayers should 
be regulated by proper laws was also implied in, and ex- 
emplified by the land-tax legislation — a principle which 
was afterwards expressly guaranteed by a provision of the 
Constitution." These sentences indicate the economic prin- 
ciples which guided the men who moulded present conditions 
in Japan. 

In order to meet the rapidly increasing wants of the 
country, other sources of revenue besides the compara- 
tively stationary land tax had to be found. In 1887 an 



298 Dai Nippon 

income tax, at the rate of from one to three per cent 
was introduced as a new direct tax. A tax on 
Other sources of sake, the common drink of the Japanese, 
revenue. brewed from rice, had long been in force, in a 
somewhat arbitrary fashion, and in 1878 it was placed on 
a more exact basis, depending on the amount of sake 
brewed from a given quantity of rice. Its amount has 
been raised several times, and the tax now covers beer and 
other similar alcoholic liquors, and is the most important 
not only among the indirect taxes but among all the other 
sources of revenue, whether indirect or direct, including 
the land tax. 

The war with China gave rise to considerable changes in 
the financial conditions of Japan, and therefore it will be 
useful to give here the figures showing the main items of 
the national revenue in the year before that memorable 
event : — 

The Ordinary Revenue in 1893. 



Land tax 
Income tax 
Sake tax 
Customs duties 
Other duties . 



Yen. 
38,808,680 
1,238,763 
16,637,436 

5> I2 5>372 
8,194,512 



Total taxation ..... 70,004,763 

Revenue from 

Government industries and property . . . 11,743,268 

Miscellaneous receipts ..... 4,135,049 



Grand total 85,883,080 

The termination of the war with China marked a new 
epoch in the financial conditions of Japan. The post-bellum 
programme of military and naval development and of 
engineering and industrial undertakings caused a great 
increase in the national Budget. Part of that was met by 
the indemnity paid by China to Japan and part by taxation. 



Finance 



299 



At the same time the opportunity was taken of changing 
the standard of the currency from silver to gold. As China 
had in any case to raise a loan in Europe, she was easily 
induced to pay the indemnity in British instead of Chinese 
money. Thus the sum of £32,000,000 sterling was put at 
the disposal of the Japanese Government, and with a portion 
of it as reserve of the Bank of Japan, the gold standard was 
put in operation. 

The last Budget presented to the Japanese Parliament 
was that of the year ending March 31, 1903. and the 
estimated revenue was as follows : — 



Ordinary. 



Excise (alcohol and sugar) 
Land tax 
Customs duties 
Income and business taxes 
Other taxes . 

Total taxes . 



Stamp duties ..... 

Receipts from Government undertakings and 

State property (posts, railways, etc.) 
Miscellaneous ..... 

Total ordinary revenue . 

Extraordinary revenue 

Total estimated revenue . 



Yen. 
69,882,212 
46,845,971 

I7>°45> 611 
12,713,812 

6,942,935 

i53,43 ,54i 

14,304,9s 1 

50,814,978 
6,244,570 

224,795^40 

48,835,836 

273,630,876 



The estimated expenditure was as follows : — 
Ordinary. 



Imperial household 
Foreign affairs 



Carry forward 



Yen. 
3,000,000 
2,282,785 

5.282,785 



300 Dai Nippon 

Brought forward 
Interior ..... 

Finance, National Debt charges 
Finance, other expenses . 
Communications (post office, telegraphs, 

harbour works, lighthouses, etc. 
Army ...... 

Navy ...... 

Justice ...... 

Public instruction .... 

Agriculture, industry, and commerce 

Total ordinary expenditure . 
Extraordinary expenditure 

Total estimated expenditure . 



etc.) 



Yen. 

5,282,785 

10,583,416 

39>905,495 
21,858,183 

21,172,977 
38,43 2 >3 I 7 
2i,349>°54 
10,837,646 
4,845,708 
2,948,9 I 3 

177,216,494 
93,208,001 

270,424,495 



The extraordinary expenditure included the amount 
disbursed in connection with the North China expedition 
and now replaced in State reserves from which it had been 
previously borrowed, large sums for railways, harbours, and 
other public works, the development of the army and navy, 
and of works connected therewith, besides extensions in the 
Departments of Education, and of Agriculture, Industry, and 
Commerce. While the post-bellum programme caused new 
taxes to be introduced and old ones to be increased, certain 
taxes, on the other hand, have been abolished, with a view 
to simplifying the system of taxation. Since the revision 
of the treaties which allowed freedom in the imposition of 
import duties, the rates of duties vary from five to thirty- 
five per cent ad valorem, according to the kinds of com- 
modities, and also on account of the great increase of foreign 
trade there has been a marked increase in the customs 
duties. On this subject Count Matsukata has remarked : — 
" Henceforth the customs duties may be counted as one of 
the chief items of the State revenue. Moreover, the 
Japanese Government has now acquired greater freedom in 
regulating the general system of taxation, because import 
duties on certain articles may be raised to degrees corre- 



Finance 30 1 

sponding to the internal taxes on similar articles, as has 
already been done in the case of alcoholic drinks and 
tobacco. We have thus recovered tariff autonomy, so far 
as the general principle is concerned. But it is to be 
deplored that the import duties on certain commodities are 
still limited by our treaties with a few countries, of which I 
am happy to say the United States is not one. Not that 
the Japanese nation contemplates adopting a policy of 
protection, and finds an obstacle to the adoption of such a 
policy in the remaining restrictions on tariff autonomy. 
Conventional tariffs on the basis of reciprocity may also be 
welcome to Japan. All we desire — I think, justly — is the 
total abolition of the unilateral obligations imposed upon us 
in regard to the tariff that have been allowed to linger in 
our existing treaty relations." 

Notwithstanding the increase of national income and 
expenditure in Japan, the burden of taxation on the people 
is small. The direct taxes only come to a little The burden of 
over three yen (between six and seven shillings) taxation on the 
per head of population ; which cannot be con- 
sidered excessive. It is evident from the figures which have 
been given that the termination of the war with China 
marked a most important point in the economic and 
financial conditions of Japan. The country was suddenly 
called upon to face the new situation which had arisen in 
the Far East. Events had shown that a strong army and 
navy were absolute necessities for national existence in face 
of the aggressive action of some of the European Powers, 
and the new position involved an increase of taxation. 
Meantime, however, foreign commerce was developing at 
a very rapid rate ; Western industries and engineering 
undertakings were being introduced and the sources of wealth 
were thus being developed, so that the increased taxation was 
not very severely felt except by the poorest classes of the 
community. The prices of agricultural products had greatly 
increased, so that the real value of the land had at least 
trebled on the average value which was assessed as the basis 



302 Dai Nippon 

of taxation. When therefore the rate of the land tax was 
in 1899 raised to 3.3 per cent of the legal value of the 
land, the real rate was hardly more than one per cent of its 
actual value ; so that the increase of the land tax is only a 
partial set-off to the relative reduction of the burden of land- 
owners that has automatically come about since the date of 
the land-tax reform. When, moreover, we remember that 
the farmers entered into absolute possession of the fields they 
had hitherto cultivated as mere tenants, and that in return 
for being transformed into owners they were required to pay 
a rent assessed on a basis of eighty years' purchase, it is 
evident that the so-called land tax is only a very moderate 
rent, and strictly speaking the farmers should not include it 
among their taxes. 

The income tax and business tax fall chiefly on those 
who have benefited by the improved economic conditions of 
the country. Moreover, a considerable part of the national 
revenue is independent of taxation and is derived from 
Government enterprises and properties (as railways, posts, 
telegraphs, telephones, factories, forests, etc.) ; an item which 
naturally increases with the country's prosperity. Twelve 
years ago the income from this source was 8,500,000 yen ; 
now it is over 50,000,000 yen. This amount is, in fact, 
the dividend which is paid on the investments made in 
national undertakings. Further, another considerable part 
of the national revenue is derived from the taxes on sake 
and tobacco, which, of course, need not be paid by any 
person desiring to avoid them, as they are of the nature 
of luxuries, while the customs dues are an indirect impost 
scarcely felt by the buyers of imported goods. When the 
whole facts of the case are considered, they do not seem to 
indicate any excessive addition to the burden of taxation. 

The following table shows the relative position, per head 
of population, of revenue, expenditure, taxation, imports and 
exports for the years 1892-3 and 1902-3 ; in the interval 
a gold standard had been adopted and the figures for the 
first-named year are reduced to that standard. 



Finance 



303 





1892-3 


1902-3 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Total Revenue . 


3-33 


6.16 


Total Expenditure 


2.52 


6.15 


Ordinary Revenue 


2.64 


5.06 


Ordinary Expenditure 


2.09 


3-8S 


Taxation .... 


2-15 


3-32 


Imports .... 


2-35 


5-93 


Exports .... 


2.98 


5-64 



One of the most striking features in the administration 
of Japan is the fact that the greater part of the developments 
which have taken place have been brought 

. . , , r . 7 National debt. 

about without much assistance from foreign 
capital, the amounts required being, for the most part, raised 
in Japan. Reference must be made to the Reports of the 
Finance Department for details of the various loans. It 
should, however, be noted that none of them have been used 
for the purpose of making up any deficit in the ordinary 
revenue of the State. They have been occasioned by the 
reorganisation of national institutions, the adjustment of 
finances, the construction of public works and the develop- 
ment of civil and military affairs generally. The following 
table shows the amount of interest-bearing debts at intervals 
often years from 1871 : — 



Year. 


Amount. 


Rate of 
Interest. 


Interest 
per head of 
Population. 


1871 
l88l 
1891 
I9OI 


Yen. 
4,88o,000 
237,349,361 
246,042,374 

547,575,950 


Per cent. 
9.OO 

6-45 
5-42 
5-15 


Yen. 
.013 
.417 
.328 
.602 



Even with the highest figures the amount of debt per head 
of population is under twelve yen, or twenty-four shillings, 
which is very small compared with what we find in European 
countries. According to the financial scheme which has been 



304 



Dai Nippon 



fixed, the total amount of the debt will be redeemed in 
fifty years. Such schemes are seldom carried out as arranged, 
as national events occur which make some alteration 
necessary, but unless something very unexpected happens 
the capacity of Japan to pay off her liabilities is ample, 
provided her finance be well managed. 

When we compare, as is done in the following table, 
the amount of national debt per head of population for some 
of the chief countries of the world, we find that of Japan 
is very small indeed. 



National Debts in 1901 



Commonwealth of Australia 

France 

Argentina . 

Great Britain 

Italy 

Egypt 

Russia 

Sweden 

Mexico 

Japan 



£ s. d. 

5 1 3 4 

33 10 

18 14 11 

18 911 

15 17 11 

10 12 2 

4 19 8 

3 15 5 
3 14 o 
164 



The yearly interest on the British national debt comes to 
about 1 os. per head, whereas that on the Japanese national 
debt is only about is. 2d. per head of population. More- 
over, that amount in Japan does not all represent taxation, 
as a considerable part of the national debt has been invested 
in productive works which return a very large and increasing 
revenue. Measured by the standard of wages, the working 
classes of Japan should find it much easier to pay the interest 
on her national debt than do those of Great Britain. 

With the development of local government the ex- 
penditure of the local authorities has been increasing at a 
rapid rate. Large sums have been devoted to 
useful public works, the establishment of public 
institutions of various kinds and the support of education. 
Less than ten years ago the prefectural and communal 



Local finances. 



Finance 305 

revenue aggregated about 53,680,000 yen and the ex- 
penditure about 44,730,000 yen, while the latest published 
returns give the former as 129,300,000 yen and the latter 
1 1 2,860,000 yen. The increase may be expected to continue 
with the progress of the times, and the central Government 
is exercising strict attention to prevent any undue expansion 
of the local expenses. 

To meet the expenditure a large sum is obtained from 
property owned by the local administrations, and the central 
treasury grants a considerable sum. The system of local 
taxation is complicated, but, speaking generally, two kinds 
of impost have to be paid : first, a prefectural tax ; and 
secondly, a town or district tax. Some of the local taxes 
are levied on the basis of the national tax, in which case 
the former must not exceed a certain fixed fraction of the 
latter ; some are levied independently, as taxes on houses, 
vehicles, and draught animals. The same principle of 
graduation is observed in the case of the house tax as in 
the income tax, and in other cases a distinction is made 
between the taxation of the rich and the poor ; so that the 
burden decreases rapidly as the poorer classes are reached. 
Before any new local tax is levied it must receive the approval 
of the prefectural or city, town or village legislative council, 
as the case may be. For a tax of importance the sanction 
of the Ministers of Home Affairs and of Finance must be 
obtained. 

Prior to the Restoration the only organisations which 
existed for the collective use of capital in business were the 
guilds or unions and the exchange merchants . 

& . Banking system. 

who undertook the exchange business of the 
feudal princes. The new Government lost no time in 
devising measures for the promotion of foreign trade, and 
very soon banks of different kinds were established which 
took a very important part in the development of the 
country. In 1872 the Government issued banking regula- 
tions, and a number of National Banks were established. 
They had the privilege of issuing convertible notes under 

(b 207) X 



306 Dai Nippon 

seemingly favourable conditions, and these notes were 
designed gradually to replace the inconvertible notes issued 
by the Government. Owing, however, to the great flow of 
specie from the country, the National Banks soon found it 
impossible to maintain specie payments, and the Government 
had to allow them to exchange their notes with Government 
notes. Thus they failed to be of use as instruments for the 
gradual withdrawal of inconvertible notes, and with few 
exceptions their influence was small. It soon became 
evident that there was need for a central bank, placed in 
a supreme and commanding position, above all the others, 
and in 1882 the Bank of Japan was established for the 
purpose of bringing the other banks nearer together and 
of facilitating the monetary circulation throughout the 
country. After several alterations in the regulations 
regarding the Bank of Japan, the National Banks were 
ordered to give up their privilege of issue at the expiration 
of their term or at their option, and to redeem their notes 
with those issued by the Bank of Japan, which are con- 
vertible into gold. The Government then began to work 
for central and local industrial banks, in order to give 
facilities to agriculture and industry, as well as to turn the 
money spent for post-bellum enterprises into useful channels 
by means of the debentures issued by these banks. Most 
of the National Banks, after the expiration of their charters, 
have been changed into private banks and are now on 
the whole efficient organs of monetary circulation. The 
savings-banks have been an object of particular care to 
the Government, which, besides establishing the post-office 
system, has made special regulations for them, so that their 
business may be carried on with greater security than in 
the case of ordinary banks. Their number is now 487, 
* with an aggregate capital of 58,000,000 yen. The 
Yokohama Specie Bank, established in 1880, with a capital 
of 24,000,000 yen, at present is specially designed to 
facilitate foreign exchange. The Hypothec Bank {Credit 
Fonder) of Japan was established in 1 896 for the purpose 



Finance 



\°7 



of making long-term loans at low rates of interest on the 
security of real estate. To complete the organisation of 
the banking system, a loan was arranged in 1900, providing 
for the establishment of the Credit Mobilier of Japan, 
whose chief and characteristic function will be to make 
loans on the security of shares and debentures ; but owing 
to ministerial changes, the state of the money market and 
various other reasons, it has not yet been put into operation. 
A fairly complete account of the banking system of Japan 
is given by Mr. Yamawaki in his book on Japan in the 
Beginning of the Twentieth Century, while Dr. Sakatani, the 
Vice-Minister of Finance, has published a very elaborate 
history and description of the financial conditions in Japan, 
and to these and similar works reference must be made for 
details. 

The wealth of Japan is a subject which has not been 
sufficiently investigated that it is possible to present financial 
give an altogether trustworthy statement of its conditions. 
amount. The following has been given as an approximate 
estimate : — 



Land 

Mines 

Live stock 

Buildings . 

Furniture . 

Railroads . 

War and merchant ships 

Specie 

Miscellaneous 

Goods, etc. 

Total 



Millions of Yen. 

7000 

500 

80 

1900 

400 

35° 
250 
200 
300 
800 



. 1 1,080 



Some of these items are due entirely to developments 
which have taken place in recent years ; the amounts of 
the others have been considerably increased on account of 
these developments, and when it is remembered that, apart 
from the Chinese indemnity (a great part of which was spent 



308 Dai Nippon 

on the army and navy), Japan has received little assistance 
from foreign capital, the increase is remarkable. The bulk 
of the floating cash of the country has been sunk in various 
enterprises, and as a natural consequence Japan now finds 
herself, as put by the Tokyo correspondent of the Times, 
" not only debarred from undertaking numerous other enter- 
prises which would be lucrative, but also compelled to work 
many of her existing enterprises with ruinously expensive 
working capital. Investments which sound almost incredible 
in English ears go a-begging in Japan. Railways offer 
preferential stock at 10 per cent to complete their con- 
struction ; wealthy corporations are willing to sell 6 per 
cent bonds at a considerable discount for the building of 
waterworks ; and banks of the highest class gladly pay 7 per 
cent on fixed deposits for six months." 

The real position of a country cannot be estimated 
simply by looking at purely financial returns ; due regard 
must be had to its general economic and industrial con- 
ditions. The survey which we have made of the progress 
of Japan in agriculture, fishing, and mining, and of the 
development of her manufacturing industries, her railways, 
telegraphs, posts and telephones, her mercantile marine, her 
banks and all the organisations connected with finance and 
commerce, forces us to the conclusion that her economic 
progress has been far more rapid than that of any other 
nation. Moreover, that progress is not by any means 
superficial, but has been built on a sound basis of education, 
which in some respects affords a lesson to Western nations. 
The financial results which have followed from the industries 
founded almost entirely by Japanese capital are proofs of 
business capacity of a very high order. 

Still, it must be admitted that cheap foreign capital, 
introduced under proper conditions, would enable Japan to 
continue her industrial and commercial development, and 
hasten her national evolution. So long as the currency was 
on a silver basis, Japan hesitated to contract gold debts, and 
European capitalists would not lend in terms of silver. 



Finance 309 

Now, however, that a gold standard has been adopted, the 
conditions are much more favourable. Moreover, both in 
Europe and in America the Japanese are now better known 
than formerly, and confidence is being strengthened in their 
integrity. Foreigners have now opportunities of investigating 
the conditions attached to any proposed undertaking, and of 
ascertaining the value of its security and of estimating the 
trustworthiness of those connected with it, and the success 
which has attended existing undertakings shows that there 
is a wide field for the employment of foreign capital, which 
would not only afford returns advantageous to the lenders, 
but also increase the wealth of Japan. On this subject Mr. 
Jiuchi Soyeda, the correspondent for Japan to the British 
Economic Association, says : — " Japan is just in the growing 
stage ; therefore if she becomes larger it is by natural 
growth, and her economic development is not as quick as it 
might be, because of the deficiency of nourishing capital. 
When once the due amount of capital is properly supplied, 
first from the savings of her own people, and then from the 
far-seeing capitalists, the progress of Japan will be much 
accelerated, to the mutual advantage of herself and her 
creditors. It is a great misfortune for Japan that her real 
strength is not duly known and fully admitted by the world 
at large. In the art of war she showed it amply, in the 
China-Japanese War and the Boxers' affair. Now it remains 
for her to prove that her capacity and ability are not inferior 
to her fighting power, on which she is now beginning to find 
out that too much stress was laid. If judgment, prudence, 
and patience be well exercised hereafter, a bright future lies 
before her in the peaceful works of commercial and industrial 
progress, for which she possesses many natural advantages." 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

The Japanese Government have always published very complete 
accounts of the financial conditions of the country, and have thus 
afforded every opportunity for discussion and fair criticism. The 
Financial and Economical Annual, issued by the Department of 



3 1 o Dai Nippon 

Finance, is a model of clearness and good arrangement, and it con- 
tains very complete statistics relating to financial and economic 
matters. Further details are given in H. Yamawaki'sya/rt^ in the 
Beginning of the Twentieth Century, a work which should be carefully 
studied by all who are specially interested in financial matters in 
Japan. Very full accounts of the annual Budget of the Government 
are published in the newspapers, and every opportunity is thus given 
for detailed criticism. The Report on the Post-Bellum Financial 
Administration in Japan, 1896-1900, by Count Matsukata, the 
Minister of State for Finance for the period, is a very valuable con- 
tribution to the history of the subject during an important period, 
while his Report on the Adoption of the Gold Standard in Japan 
bears testimony to his ability not only as an administrator, but also 
to his knowledge of the principles of international finance and trade. 
His article on the "Financial System of Japan," in the North 
American Review for May 1902, gives an excellent resume of that 
system and a clear statement of conditions at that date. Chapter 1. 
of vol. v. of Captain Brinkley's large work on Japan and China is 
probably the most useful statement on the subject for general 
readers. An exhaustive history of the financial administration of 
Japan has been written (in Japanese) by Dr. Sakatani, Vice-Minister 
of Finance, and it must be considered the standard work on the 
subject. During the past year or two many articles on different 
aspects of the financial conditions of Japan have appeared in British 
and American magazines, while the daily papers published in Japan 
(both in Japanese and in English) have fully discussed them ; so that 
students of the subject have no difficulty in obtaining either facts or 
opinions regarding them. 



CHAPTER XVI 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

In the preceding chapters it has been stated several times 
that the chief motive which urged the Japanese in their 
adoption of Western civilisation was neither Motives of 
the desire for increased wealth nor the blind Japanese, 
imitation of Western customs ; it was the sense of honour 
which cannot bear to be looked down upon as an inferior 
Power. The new system of education was adopted in 
order that men might be trained who were able to guide 
the destinies of the nation under the altered conditions. 
The laws and the administration of justice were brought 
into harmony with Western ideas and practice that foreigners 
might feel they had security for the safety of their persons 
and property ; a constitutional form of Government was 
adopted that its action might reflect the ideas of the 
people ; the means of communication were improved that the 
resources of the country might be developed and that Japan 
might take her place among the commercial and industrial 
nations of the world ; but in all these changes the underlying 
motive was that " the status of the Empire of Japan may be 
raised ever higher and higher." The story of the attempts 
made by Japan to obtain what she believed to be her due 
position is a long one, and in some respects does not reflect 
honour on the representatives of the foreign nations con- 
cerned, but still the obstacles which were put in the way 
were, in a sense, blessings in disguise ; for they made the 
Japanese more determined not only to attain their object, 

3" 



312 Dai Nippon 

but also to fit themselves more adequately for the new 
duties and responsibilities which would fall upon them when 
they had full control of their own affairs. 

On March 31, 1854, a treaty was signed by Com- 
modore Perry on behalf of the Government of the United 
Fir t treat States and the representatives of Japan, by 
with a foreign which the ports of Shimoda, in the province of 
Idzu and of Hakodate, in the island of Yezo, 
were opened for the reception of American ships, to be 
supplied with such articles as wood, water, provisions, and 
coal. There were stipulations with respect to the treatment 
of shipwrecked sailors, an article giving facilities for trading, 
a favoured nation's clause and provision for the appointment 
by the Government of the United States of consuls or agents 
to reside in Shimoda, provided that either of the two 
Governments deemed such arrangements necessary. In this 
year Admiral Sir James Stirling arrived with a squadron 
and concluded a convention with Japan by which Nagasaki 
and Hakodate were to be opened to British ships for repairs, 
supplies, etc. 

On July 29, 1858, Mr. Townsend Harris, after many 

delays, succeeded in concluding a fresh treaty on behalf of 

the United States, and shortly after this was 

New treaties. . . , . 

followed by similar ones with Great Britain, 
France, and other nations. The treaty with Great Britain 
was signed by the Earl of Elgin and Kincardine and the re- 
presentatives of the Tycoon (Shogun), and after pledging the 
two countries (in the usual diplomatic fashion) to perpetual 
peace and friendship and stating the arrangements for the 
residence of representatives, it stipulated for the opening for 
purposes of trade of the ports and towns of Hakodate, 
Kanagawa (Yokohama), and Nagasaki, and later on Niigata, 
and made arrangements with regard to trade and commerce. 
According to Article IV. it was agreed that " All questions 
in regard to rights, whether of property or person, arising 
between British subjects in the dominions of His Majesty 
the Tycoon of Japan, shall be subject to the jurisdiction of 



International Relations 3 1 3 

the British authorities." Article V. stipulated that " Japanese 
subjects who may be guilty of any criminal act towards 
British subjects shall be arrested and punished by the 
Japanese authorities, according to the laws of Japan. 
British subjects who may commit any crime against 
Japanese subjects, or the subjects or citizens of any other 
country, shall be tried and punished by the Consul, or other 
public functionary authorised thereto, according to the laws 
of Great Britain. Justice shall be equitably and impartially 
administered on both sides." Trade and residence were 
allowed to foreigners in the treaty ports and they were 
permitted to travel without passports within a radius of 
10 ri (about 24^- miles). A very low scale of import dues, 
at most five per cent, ad valorem, was fixed. In 1859 
regular diplomatic relations were established between Great 
Britain and Japan, Mr. Rutherford Alcock arriving in Yedo 
as Her Majesty's Consul-General, on June 26. Towards 
the end of the year he was appointed Envoy Extraordinary 
and Minister Plenipotentiary, and representatives of other 
nations followed in due course. 

On June 25, 1866, a Convention was concluded at Yedo 
between a Japanese minister of Foreign Affairs and the Re- 
presentatives of Great Britain, France, the United States of 
America, and Holland, whereby some modifications were 
made in the tariff and some new arrangements for the en- 
couragement of trade. By Article IV. the Japanese Govern- 
ment undertook to establish a bonded warehouse system, for 
the purpose of enabling the foreign merchants to re-export 
unsaleable goods without the payment of any duty. Article 
V. was intended to protect all Japanese produce on its way 
to the markets of the open ports from the payment of 
transit duties or any other tax, with the exception of such 
road or navigation tolls as were levied equally upon all 
native traffic. Article VI. provided for the establishment of 
a free mint on certain conditions. By Articles IX. and X. 
restrictions which were formerly placed on foreign trade 
were removed and all classes of Japanese, whether merchants, 



3 1 4 Dai Nippon 

daimyos, or people in the employment of daimyos, were 
given perfect liberty to trade or to hold social intercourse 
with foreigners at all the open ports, without any inter- 
ference on the part of the Government. They were also 
permitted to employ foreign shipping to trade either with 
the open ports of Japan or with foreign countries, and under 
the provisions of a passport system they were allowed to 
go abroad for purposes of study or trade and to accept 
employment on board foreign ships. By Article XI. the 
Government agreed to light and buoy the approaches to all 
the open ports. This Convention was a great step in 
advance, for, as Sir Harry Parkes states, " if its stipulations 
were faithfully executed, they would enable Japan and her 
people to share freely in the commerce of the world, to the 
complete abandonment of their old exclusive policy." 

After the Restoration these treaties were confirmed by the 

Emperor, but from the very first the Japanese felt that some 

of their provisions placed them in a very 

Japanese humiliating position. They were made on the 

with regard tacit assumption of the unequal status of the 

to the treaties. . . ....... 

two contracting parties, civilised white men on 
the one hand and on the other Japan, just emerging from 
Asiatic semi-barbarism. In making treaties with Oriental 
non-Christian nations, Occidental Christian nations had 
always insisted that their subjects and citizens should be 
exempted from the procedure and penalties prescribed by 
the criminal law of the countries in which they were resid- 
ing ; in short, that they should enjoy within the territories 
of such countries the privilege of being arraigned before 
tribunals of their own nationality and tried by judges of 
their own race. In civil jurisdiction a division of functions 
was arranged. These principles were applied in the case of 
Japan, and no doubt, at first, their application was both wise 
and expedient. It soon, however, became evident that the 
Japanese were very different from other Eastern peoples in 
many respects, and that their loyal independent spirit rebelled 
against even the appearance of being in a subordinate posi- 



International Relations 3 1 5 

tion to Foreign Powers ; from the time the treaties were 
signed the " extra-territorial " regulations were vehemently 
condemned by all classes of Japanese, and no doubt it was 
the hope of being able to remove these that was the 
immediate cause for the despatch of the embassy mentioned 
in a previous chapter. As there stated, the date fixed for the 
revision of the treaties was July 1, 1872, and it was thought 
at least by some in power that an attempt should be made 
to have it brought about. Whatever may have been the 
intention, the treaty revision did not take place till a number 
of years later ; but although the embassy failed in its 
immediate object, it was fully justified by its results. It 
was the means of making Japan known to the Western 
nations, and the information which was collected on all 
subjects relating to national life laid the foundations of 
many of the developments which have brought Japan to 
its present position. 

The foreign consular tribunals were in some cases very 
unsatisfactory, and, apart altogether from the principle 
involved in " extra-territoriality," gave just offence Foreien 
to the Japanese from the nature of their con- consular 
stitution, their methods of procedure, and their 
judgments. A few of the great Powers, and notably Great 
Britain and the United States, organised competent tribunals 
and appointed expert judicial officials to preside over them ; 
but the majority of the Treaty States were content to 
entrust their authority to merchant consuls, who were not 
only unacquainted with the details of the laws they were 
expected to administer, but might also be interested, 
financially or otherwise, in some of the business questions 
which required their decision, and a Japanese subject might 
occasionally find that the defendant in a case would also 
be the judge. Still, on the whole, there were not many 
abuses of power on the part of consuls, and although little 
could be said in support of the system, it cannot be doubted 
that during the transition period it saved the Japanese from 
much trouble in which they would have been involved if 



o 



1 6 Dai Nippon 



they had been entrusted with a jurisdiction which they were 
not prepared to exercise in an efficient manner from the 
want of men with the necessary experience. 

As I have stated, the existence of the " extra-territorial " 
system did much to spur on the Japanese to qualify them- 

Discussions on selves for what is the right of every sovereign 
extra-territoriaiity. State ; namely, judicial autonomy. In the two 
previous chapters we have seen how they developed their 
system of government, local administration, and legislation, 
and how they remodelled their law courts and took steps to 
equip them with a competent judiciary to administer the 
new codes. During all the time I was in Japan the subject 
of treaty revision was continually coming up in some 
form, and strong opinions on the subject were expressed 
both by Japanese and by foreigners. The impression 
which was given to those who were anxious to assist the 
Japanese in their efforts to raise the status of their country, 
was that they received little sympathy either from the 
representatives of the foreign Powers or in the foreign 
press ; but as I have indicated, this may have been to the 
Japanese a blessing in disguise, because it made them more 
determined to bring their institutions up to a high pitch of 
efficiency, and ultimately enabled them to obtain better 
terms than they would have been able to get at an earlier 
period. 

Captain Brinkley, whose long experience in Japan and 

intimate knowledge of Japanese matters enable him to give 

Ca tain an °pJ mon which carries authority, has summarised 

Brinkiey's the position during these years in the following 
paragraphs : — " A portly volume might be filled 
with the details of the negotiations that followed Japan's 
proposal. Never before had an Oriental state sought such 
recognition, and there was extreme reluctance on the part 
of Western Powers to try the unprecedented experiment 
of entrusting the lives and property of their subjects and 
citizens to the keeping of a ' pagan ' people. Even the 
outlines of the story cannot be sketched here, though it 



International Relations 3 1 7 

abounds with diplomatic curiosities, and though several of 
its incidents do as much credit to Japan's patience and tact 
as its issue does to the justice and liberality of Occidental 
Governments. There is, however, one page of the history 
that calls for brief notice, since it supplies a key to much 
which would otherwise be inexplicable. The respect enter- 
tained by a nation for its own laws and the confidence it 
reposes in their administrators are in direct proportion to 
the efforts it has expended upon the development of the 
former and the education of the latter. Foreigners residing 
in Japan naturally clung to consular jurisdiction as a 
privilege of inestimable value. They saw, indeed, that 
such a system could not be permanently imposed on a 
country where the conditions justifying it had nominally 
disappeared. But they saw also that the legal and judicial 
reforms effected by Japan had been crowded into an extra- 
ordinarily brief period, and that, as tyros experimenting 
with alien systems, the Japanese might be betrayed into 
many errors. A struggle then ensued between foreign 
distrust on the one side and Japanese aspirations on the 
other — a struggle often developing painful phases. For 
whereas the case for the foreign resident stood solid and 
rational so long as it rested on the basis of his proper 
attachment to the laws and the judiciary which the efforts 
of his countrymen through long generations had rendered 
worthy of trust and reverence, and on the equally intelligible 
and reasonable ground that he wanted convincing proofs of 
Japan's competence to discharge her novel functions with 
discretion and impartiality before submitting himself to her 
jurisdiction, it ceased to be a solid and rational case when 
its champions undertook, not merely to exaggerate the risk 
of trusting Japan implicitly, but also to demonstrate her 
radical unworthiness of any trust whatever, and to depict her 
under aspects so deterrent that submission to her jurisdiction 
assumed the character of a catastrophe. The struggle lasted 
eleven years, but its gist is contained in this brief statement. 
The foreign resident, whose affection for his own systems 



3 1 8 Dai Nippon 

was measured by the struggle their evolution had cost, and 
whose practical instincts forbade him to take anything on 
trust where security of person and property was concerned, 
would have stood out a wholesomely conservative and justly 
cautious figure had not his attitude been disfigured by local 
journalists who, in order to justify his conservatism, allowed 
themselves to be betrayed into the constant role of blackening 
the character of Japan, and suggesting harshly prejudiced 
interpretations of her acts and motives. It is one thing to 
hesitate before entering a new house until its fitness for 
occupation has been ascertained : it is another thing to 
condemn it without trial as radically and necessarily 
deficient in this respect. The latter was in effect the line 
often taken by the opponents of Japan's claims, and, of 
course, no little resentment and indignation were aroused 
on the side of the Japanese, who chafing against the obvious 
antipathies of their foreign critics, and growing constantly 
more impatient of the humiliation to which Japan was 
intentionally condemned, were sometimes prompted to dis- 
plays of resentment which became new weapons in the 
hands of their critics. Throughout this struggle the 
Government and citizens of the United States always 
showed conspicuous sympathy with Japanese aspirations, 
and it should also be recorded that, with exceptions so 
rare as to establish the rule, foreign tourists and publicists 
discussed the problem liberally and fairly ; perhaps because, 
unlike the foreign communities resident in Japan, they had 
no direct interest in its solution." l 

At the same time it must be admitted that the American 

attempts at treaty-making were not very successful. On 

July 25, 1878, a treaty was concluded at 

Attempts at Washington ( and ratified there on April 8, 

treaty revision. fa \ tr j 

1879) between the Japanese Minister, Kiyowari 
Yoshida, and Mr. Evarts, Secretary of State. By this 
instrument the question of jurisdiction was left as before, 
except a provision of Article IV., which stipulated that all 

1 Encyclopedia Britannica, new vols., article "Japan," p. 699. 



International Relations 3 1 9 

criminal cases connected with the customs should be sub- 
mitted for decision to the American tribunals, — but with the 
addition that the fines and confiscations in all such matters 
should fall to the Japanese treasury ; an arrangement which, 
from the Japanese point of view, made matters worse than 
before. In Article V., however, a favourable concession was 
made to Japan by which the right of the Government to 
regulate the coasting trade was recognised, while Article I. 
equally acknowledged the Japanese right of customs 
autonomy. In contradistinction to this right, Article III. 
stipulated that there should be no export duties on Japanese 
products consigned to America. This convention created 
considerable sensation at the time in diplomatic circles, but 
as Article X. stipulated that its provisions would come into 
force only after Japan had revised her treaties with the other 
Powers in a similar sense, it remained a dead letter, as the 
other Treaty Powers had not the slightest intention of making 
the desired concessions. 

A statement of what may be considered the official 
British view of treaty revision in Japan will be found in 
The Life of Sir Harry Parkes} and while some 
of the opinions therein expressed were justified, Harry n pa°kes r 
it illustrates very clearly the difference of the 
points of view of the Japanese and the foreigners. The 
former expected recognition of the progress which they had 
made before arrangements for the administration of justice 
on Western lines were fairly complete, and they were 
intensely anxious to get rid of even the appearance of 
foreign sovereignty. Sir Harry Parkes held that it was a 
misconception on their part to consider extra-territoriality 
per se as a derogation from national sovereignty. He pointed 
out to them that " throughout the Middle Ages in Europe 
different degrees of extra-territoriality were the rule rather 
than the exception. The Jews were more or less under 
their own jurisdiction, the clergy were almost wholly 
independent of territorial laws, the Hanse towns had their 

1 Vol. ii. chap, xxxviii. p. 313. 



3 2 o Da i Nippon 

privileges. Exemptions of a similar kind still exist, even in 
the United Kingdom. The American States are more or 
less extra-territorial in their system of law and administra- 
tion, and in Old Japan the tozama daimiates enjoyed, in 
practice, complete home rule. There was no surprise on the 
one side nor concession on the other when extra-territoriality 
was established by the treaties of 1858. The extra- 
territorial system was absolutely necessary, if merely to 
supplement the deficiencies of Japanese law, which did not 
in truth exist at all." After further historical illustration of 
the subject, he added that " in truth, in Japan, as in China 
and Turkey, it was rather out of contempt — or perhaps 
indifference — that the foreigner was denied the benefits of 
territorial laws, of which he was not deemed a proper object." 
It must have been exceedingly difficult at the time the 
treaties were made to ascertain the opinions of the Japanese 
on this subject, but there can be no doubt that from the 
time of the Restoration their feeling was very strong against 
the system of extra-territoriality. The foreign commercial 
population in Japan was almost unanimous against treaty 
revision on the lines suggested by the Japanese, because 
they could not bring themselves to believe that either their 
persons or their property would be safe under Japanese law, 
and their opposition continued to the very end. Their 
opinions were reflected for a considerable time by their 
representatives to the Government of Japan, but ultimately 
these were convinced that the demands of the Japanese were 
both just and reasonable, and the majority of foreigners 
in Japan would now be willing to admit that they had been 
mistaken in the position which they took. 

In 1883 the Japanese Government felt that sufficient 

progress had been made in the reorganisation of their 

national institutions and methods of adminis- 

Conferences on tration t • tif formal demand that the 

treaty revision. J •> 

foreign powers should consider the whole posi- 
tion and agree to the abolition of consular jurisdiction. A 
conference was held at Tokyo of the representatives of all 



International Relations 321 

the Foreign Powers to determine a basis on which the 
respective Governments might come to some conclusions as 
to the modifications to be made in the existing treaties. On 
this occasion Japan was represented by her Minister of 
Foreign Affairs, Kaoru Inouye, one of the most experienced 
statesmen in the country. He, of course, had come to the 
conclusion that his country's only chance of procuring 
international recognition of its claims was to break com- 
pletely with its old system of isolation, to adopt the principle, 
practised by all the European States in their relations with 
one another, of the equal footing of natives and aliens in 
affairs of trade and commerce. Mr. Inouye therefore, in 
return for the abolition of the consular jurisdiction of the 
Powers hitherto existing, offered to throw open to trade the 
whole empire and to place foreigners, in their pursuit of 
commerce and industry, on the same footing as the natives 
of Japan. The Japanese Government, however, did not 
demand that its jurisdiction over foreigners should begin at 
once, but suggested a transition period of five years, during 
which the Consular Courts should continue to some extent 
to exercise their authority, which would then be gradually 
transferred to the native tribunals. During the transition 
period foreigners were not to enjoy in their entirety all the 
rights promised to them in the interior later on. As a 
concession to foreign feelings it was suggested that, for a 
certain definite period, a number of foreign jurists should be 
attached as titular judges to the Japanese tribunals. Various 
other safeguards were suggested in order to guarantee as 
far as possible to resident foreigners the proper and impartial 
administration of justice. It was proposed that the new 
treaties should be valid for twelve years, while the corre- 
sponding tariffs, etc., might be subject to revision after the 
lapse of eight years. 

Practically nothing came of this conference. Some of 
its members were opposed to the concessions asked for by 
the Japanese, and did not hesitate to express their opinions 

to their respective Governments, which simply shelved the 
(b 207) Y 



322 Da i Nippon 

voluminous records of the proceedings. There can be no doubt, 
however, that these served as a solid foundation for the 
subsequent revision of treaties. Even in political circles in 
Japan there now arose misgivings as to whether the proposal 
to open up the empire to foreigners was not somewhat 
premature ; and special objection was taken to the proposal 
to appoint foreign lawyers to assist in the native courts, as 
this seemed to be only another form of " extra-territorial " 
jurisdiction, and not much improvement on the existing 
system. On the part of the foreigners it was felt that the 
clause giving the Japanese the right of denunciation after a 
period of twelve years would enable Japan, after that time, 
to claim a free hand simply on the ground of international 
law. Even those who sympathised strongly with the claims 
of the Japanese felt that the preparations for making and 
codifying the laws were not yet in a stage sufficiently 
advanced to impress the European Powers with the wisdom 
of placing their subjects under their jurisdiction ; so that the 
delay which occurred was, as I have indicated, really a 
blessing in disguise, as it urged on the improvement of 
legislation and administration which enabled more satis- 
factory arrangements to be made later on. 

The subject of treaty revision was allowed practically to 
lie in abeyance for a period of four years. On May i, 
Negotiations 1 886, a conference of the representatives of 
renewed. ^hc Treaty Powers met in Tokyo. Japan was 
again represented by Mr. Inouye (who had meantime been 
raised to the rank of Count). The subjects of the tariffs 
and of the judicial arrangements were fully discussed, and it 
became evident that the representatives of the Foreign 
Powers were willing to make several very important con- 
cessions on the suggestions of the conference held in 1882. 
The British and the German delegates on June 1 5 tabled a 
project which, after expressly acknowledging the progress 
made by Japan since the last conference in the field of 
legal reform, offered to her Government the assumption of 
jurisdiction over aliens, but without the conditions previously 



International Relations 323 

attached to the proposed transition period and which had 
met with insuperable difficulties. This was decided testimony 
to the effect that Britain and Germany recognised the pro- 
gress which had been made in Japan, and that they were 
willing to acknowledge her claims to equality of treatment 
with other Powers. Although the representatives of the 
other Powers gave a general adhesion to this position, they 
were unable to agree as to the means of carrying out the 
proposed changes and the guarantees deemed necessary by 
some of the Powers. The conference continued to sit at 
intervals till the beginning of July 1887, and meanwhile 
Japanese popular opinion grew somewhat virulent against 
some of the proposals, as they were thought to be derogatory 
to the national sovereignty. On June 19, 1887, Count 
Inouye adjourned the conference sine die, so that the 
Japanese Government might be able to show what progress 
had been made in the codification of the laws and in the 
improvement of their administration, and thus prove that the 
guarantees demanded were no longer necessary. 

In 1889, after lengthy negotiations at Berlin, a treaty 
was signed by the representatives of Germany and Japan, 
by which Japan granted very far-reaching concessions in 
respect of commerce, industry, and settlement, while Germany 
agreed to the abolition of her consular jurisdiction and 
recognised the complete legal sovereignty of Japan ; but 
only under the condition, which was still regarded as 
indispensable, that a number of foreign jurists should be 
attached to the Japanese Court of Appeal. This stipulation 
caused the treaty to be received with disfavour in Japan, and 
Count Okuma Shigenobu, who had succeeded Count Inouye 
as Minister of Foreign Affairs, was made to feel this 
disfavour. He was attacked by a would-be assassin and 
severely wounded, and in consequence of the feeling which 
was aroused, the coming into force of the obnoxious treaty 
was suspended by the Government, as well as that of the 
identical agreements with Russia and the United States, 
which had meantime also been concluded. 



324 Dai Nippon 

A review of these negotiations shows very distinctly the 

determination of the Japanese to insist on complete sovereign 

powers. Foreigners generally ascribed all this 

Japanese aims. . ,, . 

to what they were pleased to call conceit, but 
which after all was only a very keen spirit of patriotism and 
national loyalty. No doubt that spirit sometimes caused 
them to make demands before they were in a position to 
satisfy all the necessary conditions, but it was a spirit of 
noble discontent which spurred them on to greater efforts to 
improve these conditions and also showed clearly to the 
representatives of the Foreign Powers that they were 
determined to gain their point. Although the conference 
brought no definite results, still it must be admitted that on 
each occasion they brought the problems a step nearer 
solution by causing the foreign representatives to understand 
the Japanese point of view. Foreign diplomatists, as a rule, 
look at Eastern problems from the outside only and there- 
fore in a very superficial manner, and this ignorance of 
the Eastern mind, to a large extent, accounts for all the 
difficulties which have occurred with Eastern peoples, who 
are governed more by ideas than by principles and statutes. 
This fact should be more distinctly remembered than it is 
in our dealings with our Indian Empire and with that of 
China. Fortunately for Japan the Foreign Powers had to 
deal with a people which did not allow them to forget it. 

Xot by study but through practical experience in their 
dealings with the Japanese did the representatives of these 
Approaching Powers at last come to recognise that the time 
a settlement. ^^ arr ived when the demands of the Japanese 
Government ought to be conceded. Changes had taken 
place in the personnel of the membership of the diplomatic 
body in Tokyo, and the newcomers, although for the most 
part profoundly ignorant of Eastern ways of thought, were 
free from preconceived ideas and from opinions resulting 
from unfavourable personal experiences ; they approached 
the subject of treaty revision with open minds and their 
common sense led them to a solution of the problems which 



International Relations 325 

had baffled their predecessors ; and it is satisfactory to find 
that in these matters the representatives of Great Britain 
took the lead. Details of the negotiations are to be found 
in a well-arranged British Blue Book, 1 to which those who 
wish to study the subject must be referred. That document, 
to those who know the events of the previous twenty years, 
contains a great deal of condensed history and diplomacy. 
The Japanese representatives always seem to have retained 
their native politeness, which, if report be true, was not 
always returned by the foreign representatives, but on 
several occasions their patience seems to have been sorely 
tried. Mr. Mutsu, the Minister for Foreign Affairs, felt 
himself compelled on one occasion to say that " the Japanese 
Government do not consider themselves bound to acquiesce 
for ever in the present position of the question or to go on 
maintaining indefinitely a system of relations with Foreign 
Powers which they consider to be no longer compatible with 
the progress and changed institutions of the country " ; and he 
added that by meeting with discouragement in London " it 
might be necessary to resort to other means of asserting 
what Japan believes to be her rights." Lord Kimberley, 
the British Minister for Foreign Affairs, retorted that if such 
language meant that Japan would set aside her treaty 
obligations, it would retard rather than advance the revision 
which they desire. In a carefully prepared memorandum, 
which is an excellent combination of politeness, firmness, 
and diplomacy, Mr. Mutsu explained that he meant nothing 
offensive to the British Government, but he insisted on the 
fact that consular jurisdiction as understood and practised 
in Japan is incompatible with a constitutional form of 
Government, and he concluded as follows: — "The con- 
scientious endeavour on the part of the Imperial Government 
to fulfil, in good faith, their existing conventional obligations, 
coupled with their recent attitude on the subject of the strict 
enforcement of Japan's treaties, are in themselves strong 

1 Correspondence respecting the Revision of the Treaty Arrangements between 
Great Britain and Japan (August 1S94). 



326 Dai A T ippon 

guarantees that the Imperial Government have no thought 
of resorting to denunciation in order to free the Empire of 
those treaties. It only remains for the Imperial Govern- 
ment unequivocally, and without any reservation whatever, 
to declare that the proposals now under consideration of 
Her Britannic Majesty's Government rest solely upon their 
own inherent merit. They are not supported by any 
menace of denunciation, and the Imperial Government have 
no wish or intention of attempting a modification of their 
treaties except by the method prescribed in those treaties." 

The national feeling in the matter was reflected in a 
letter from Count (now Marquis) Ito to Prince Nijo, of 
which the following passages appear in the above-mentioned 
Blue Book : — " Those national rights which may be asserted 
by the strict enforcement of the treaties should, of course, 
be strictly enforced ; and, moreover, should it be necessary 
to insist upon our national rights, we must labour to abolish 
and amend the provisions of such treaties. . . . The 
Government is convinced that it does not lie under the 
obligation of willingly acquiescing in the sacrifice of 
Japanese rights by submitting to the present treaties 
permanently and indefinitely." 

If Mr. Mutsu had had the same knowledge of inter- 
national law as his successors who now represent Japan at 
their own Foreign Office and in the various countries of the 
world, he would not have assumed such an apologetic tone. 
He would, with true Japanese politeness, have simply read 
his opponents a lesson in international law and reminded 
them that, as the term for which the treaties had been 
concluded had expired, they could be renounced by Japan 
without any question as to her legal right to do so. More- 
over while we may give Mr. Mutsu full credit for writing 
what he believed to be the true facts of the case and with 
no intention of using a threat, it cannot be doubted that if 
there had been much longer delay in the revision of the 
treaties neither the Japanese nor the British Government, 
nor indeed a combination of all the foreign Governments, 



International Relations 327 

could have prevented some other steps than those of 
diplomacy from being taken, as evidence was abundant that 
the patience of the Japanese people had almost reached its 
limit. 

Fortunately for all parties, no such steps were necessary, 
as in March 1894 the question so long at issue found 
definite solution in the negotiations between ~ , ... 

& Treaty with 

Lord Kimberley, represented by the Hon. Great Britain 
Francis Bertie, Under Secretary of State on 
the one part, and the Japanese Minister, Viscount Aoki, on 
the other. On the 16th July the work was completed by 
the signature of a Treaty of Commerce and Navigation 
between Great Britain and Japan. Article XVIII. of this 
Treaty provides that " the several foreign settlements in 
Japan, possessing extra-territorial rights, shall be incorporated 
with the respective Japanese communes " ; while by Article 
XX. it is stipulated that the present treaty, from the date 
it comes into force, shall be substituted for all previous 
conventions, " and, in consequence, the jurisdiction then 
exercised by British Courts in Japan, and all the exceptional 
privileges, exemptions, and immunities then enjoyed by 
British subjects as a part of or appurtenant to such 
jurisdiction shall absolutely and without notice cease and 
determine, and thereafter all such jurisdiction shall be 
assumed and exercised by Japanese courts." The Blue 
Book contains memoranda by Viscount Aoki and the 
representatives of the British Government explaining the 
various points in the treaty. The Japanese Minister said : 
" The treaty opens to Japan a new era in her foreign 
relations, for it proclaims for the first time its full and 
legitimate reception into the fellowship of nations. To 
Great Britain it signifies free access to the whole interior 
of the Japanese Empire on the usual terms of European 
international intercourse." 

The example given by Great Britain was gradually 
followed by the other Treaty Powers, and it was agreed, 
subject to the fulfilment of certain conditions, that from 







28 Dai Nippon 



July 1899 Japanese tribunals should assume jurisdiction 
over every person, of whatever nationality, within the confines 
Followed by of Japan, and that the whole country should be 
other Powers, thrown open to foreigners. The foreign settlers 
were, as a rule, opposed to the revision of the treaties and 
to the giving up of the privileges which they had hitherto 
enjoyed, but when they saw that revision was inevitable 
they accepted the position and showed their willingness to 
co-operate with the Japanese authorities. On June 30, 
1899, an Imperial Rescript was issued in the following 
terms : — 

" Assisted by the surviving influence of the virtues ot 
Our ancestors, it has been Our good fortune to uphold the 

imperial reign of sovereign rule and disseminate the 

Rescript. benefits of orderly administration, resulting at 
home in the increased prosperity of the nation, and abroad 
in the strengthening of Our relations with Foreign Powers. 
As to the revision of treaties, Our long-cherished aspiration, 
exhaustive plans and repeated negotiations have, at last, 
been crowned by a satisfactory settlement with the Treaty 
Powers. Now that the date assigned for the operation of 
the revised treaties is drawing near, it is a matter for 
heartfelt joy and satisfaction that, while, on the one hand, the 
responsibilities devolving upon the country cannot but 
increase Our friendship with the Treaty Powers, on the 
other, it has been placed on a foundation stronger than ever. 

" We expect that Our loyal subjects, ever ready to 
discharge public duties, will in obedience to Our wishes, 
conform to the national polity of enlightenment and progress, 
and be united as one man in treating the people of far-off 
lands with cordiality, and in thereby endeavouring to uphold 
the character of this nation and enhance the glory of the 
Empire. 

" Further, we command Our Ministers of State to under- 
take the responsibility of putting the revised treaties into 
operation in such a manner that, by means of proper 
supervision over their subordinates, and the exercise of 



International Relations 329 

prudence and discretion, both Our born subjects and strangers 
may be enabled equally to participate in the benefits 
accruing from the new system, and that the friendly relations 
with the Treaty Powers may be permanently cemented." 

All classes in the country united to carry out the wishes 
expressed in the Imperial Rescript. The Premier and other 
Ministers of State issued instructions to the effect that the 
responsibility now devolved on the Government and the 
duty on the people of enabling foreigners to reside con- 
fidently and contentedly in every part of the country. 
Probably the most significant sign of the change which had 
taken place in Japanese opinion was the action of the chief 
Buddhist prelates in addressing to the priests and parishioners 
in their dioceses injunctions pointing out that, freedom of 
conscience being now guaranteed by the Constitution, men 
professing alien creeds must be treated as courteously as the 
followers of Buddhism, and must enjoy the same rights and 
privileges. The confidence which the Foreign Powers placed 
in the good faith of the Japanese people has been fully 
justified, and their relations with the Government of Japan 
have been of a cordial nature. No doubt some questions 
have arisen about details and some individuals may have 
thought that they had some grievances, but, on the whole, 
foreigners in Japan have greater freedom than and as much 
safety as they would have in any other civilised country in 
the world. 

As Great Britain was the first Foreign Power to recog- 
nise the freedom of Japan from foreign jurisdiction, she was 
also the first to follow that up by a treaty of \ni ance 
alliance which bound the Britain of the East with 

to that of the West with more than the ties of 
diplomatic friendship. 1 The advisability of such an alliance 
had been gradually impressing itself on the minds both of 
British and of Japanese statesmen as a very natural result of 
the political developments which had taken place in the Far 
East, and among others no one had recognised more clearly 

1 See Appendix B. 







2,2,0 Dai Nippon 

than Marquis Ito that the interests of Great Britain and 
Japan would be served by an alliance which, while actuated 
solely by a desire to maintain the status quo and general 
peace in the Far East and to secure equal opportunities for 
the commerce and industry of all nations, would at the same 
time ensure that the Governments of Great Britain and 
Japan would co-operate in all matters directly affecting these 
interests. On January 30, 1902, a treaty of alliance, defen- 
sive and offensive, was signed by Lord Lansdowne and Baron 
Hayashi, representing Great Britain and Japan respectively — 
a step which may be looked upon as the final stage in the 
recognition of Japan as one of the Great Powers of the 
world. 

When the true and complete history of the early inter- 
national relations of Japan comes to be written, it will afford 
Remarks on many interesting lessons to the psychologist 
treaty revision. anc j fae moralist. I have touched on some of its 
main points only. Captain Brinkley, reviewing the subject, 
has said : " The most tolerant of Europeans has always 
regarded the Japanese — and let them see that he regarded 
them — merely as interesting children. Languidly curious at 
best about the uses to which they would put their imported 
toys, his curiosity was purely academical, and whenever 
circumstances required him to be practical, he laid aside all 
pretence of courtesy and let it be plainly seen that he 
counted himself master, and intended to be so counted. If 
the archives of the Japanese Foreign Office were published 
without expurgation, their early papers would make a remark- 
able record. Diplomatic euphemisms are the last thing to 
be sought there ; and in that respect they reflect the 
demeanour of the ordinary foreigner. When not a harsh 
critic he was either contemptuously tolerant or loftily patron- 
ising. The Japanese chafed under that kind of treatment 
for many years, and they resent it still, for though a pleasant 
alteration has gradually been effected in the foreigner's 
methods, the memory of the evil time survives. Besides, 
they neither consider the change complete nor regard its 



International Relations 331 

causes with unmixed satisfaction. It is not complete 
because the taint of Orientalism has not yet been removed 
from the nation, and the causes are unsatisfactory because 
they suggest a low estimate of Western morality." 

Captain Brinkley has thus summarised the privileges 
conceded to foreigners under the revised treaties : — (1) They 
may trade, travel, and reside in any part of L 

Japan, enjoying full protection for their persons specially affecting 
and property ; (2) they may use the law courts 
on the same terms as Japanese subjects ; (3) they have full 
religious freedom ; (4) they are exempt from any taxes 
except those imposed on Japanese subjects ; (5) they are 
exempt from military service, military contributions, and 
forced loans ; (6) they may engage in all legitimate trades 
and mechanical operations, subject to the provisions of the 
law ; (7) they may enter into partnership with Japanese or 
foreigners or become shareholders in joint-stock companies ; 
(8) their ships and cargoes may come to all ports open to 
foreign commerce without paying any higher duties or 
charges than those paid by Japanese subjects ; (9) they are 
exempt from all transit dues, and they enjoy equality of 
treatment with Japan in regard to drawbacks, exportation 
and warehousing facilities, but the coasting trade is reserved 
to Japanese vessels except in the case of the existing open 
ports ; (10) they may lease land ; (11) they may take mort- 
gages on land. The conditions relating to the holding of 
land and other matters affecting industry and commerce have 
been mentioned in a previous chapter. 

We have now glanced at the most important international 
relations of Japan in so far as these are embodied in formal 
treaties, but nowadays the engineers, manu- international 
facturers, and merchants bring about conditions business relations, 
which have great influence in politics. Before we can under- 
stand the foreign policy of any country we must study its 
business relations with other countries, and therefore it is 
desirable that we should look at the industry and commerce 
of Japan in their international relations and ascertain their 



332 Da i Nippon 

influence on political action. It has been truly said that the 
engineer is the real revolutionist. He creates forces against 
which the efforts of politicians are vain, and even the actions 
of armies and navies are of little avail, since ultimately 
economic conditions determine the fate of nations. Legis- 
lation and political action may divert for some time the forces 
which are moulding national affairs, but in the long run they 
must yield to the economic forces which are at work. In no 
part of the world has this been so distinctly shown as in the 
countries in the Far East during the latter half of the 
nineteenth century. 

The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 was an event 
which produced immediate and serious economic changes — 
industrial, commercial, and financial — in the affairs of the 
Far East. Before that time all the trade of the Western 
Hemisphere with India and the Far East had been by the 
Cape of Good Hope, at an expenditure in time of from six 
to eight months for the round voyage, and the time and 
risks involved naturally caused a vast system of warehousing, 
distribution, and banking suited to the conditions. The 
opening of the Canal rendered the greater number of the 
sailing ships hitherto in use practically valueless, and an 
amount of tonnage, estimated by some authorities as high as 
two million tons, and representing an immense amount of 
wealth, was virtually destroyed. New steamships specially 
designed for the passage of the Canal were constructed, and 
with the improvements which have been made in recent 
years, the voyage from London to Bombay can now be 
performed in less than three weeks, while the Far East can 
be reached in a time varying from a month to six weeks, 
according to the route selected. 

The telegraph communication which has been made 
between the Far East and all parts of the world has been 
the cause of great changes in commercial methods and 
results. The world has been shrunken into small dimensions, 
and economic conditions tend to a uniform level. Formerly 
large fortunes could be made by taking advantage of the 



International Relations 2,33 

conditions of local markets, and a good part of the wealth 
acquired by early British merchants in China was made by 
keeping swift steamers, which carried goods to markets 
where there was a great demand, and selling them at prices 
which were much above those ruling in the places of 
supply, and from which goods did not arrive until the 
high-priced stocks were disposed of. 

During the past few years still further changes have 
been made which will have profound effects on the commerce 
and industry of the Far East. The completion of the 
Siberian Railway has brought Europe within a month of 
the ports of China and Japan, and has been the immediate 
cause of the development of Russian progress in the 
direction of the Pacific coast. The war between Japan and 
China in 1894-95 awoke the Powers of Europe to a sense of 
the military and naval strength of Japan, and led to those 
political developments which have kept the Far East in a 
state of unstable equilibrium ever since. In a sense, the 
war between the United States and Spain was a sequel to 
that between Japan and China ; for recent industrial and 
commercial developments in America and the growth of the 
imperial spirit in politics have made the United States a 
power in the Pacific, and Hawaii and the Philippine Islands 
were required as midway naval and military stations. 
These developments will lead, before long, to the con- 
struction of a Trans-Isthmian Canal either at Panama or 
Nicaragua (possibly ultimately at both places), which will 
have a profound effect on the commerce, not only of Japan 
and China, but also of the other countries and colonies in 
the East, such as Siam, Hong-Kong, Straits Settlements, 
and even of India. The creation of the Australian 
Commonwealth, which was rendered possible largely through 
the work of the engineer, by the construction of lines of 
swift steamers, of telegraph cables and connecting railways 
and overland telegraph lines, have all emphasised the fact 
that the Pacific area is destined to be the scene of the 
struggle, not only for political but also for commercial and 



334 Dai Nippon 

industrial ascendency, by the nations of the world. Mean- 
time we can only consider briefly one aspect of that struggle, 
namely, the part which Japan is likely to take in it, in 
order that we may the better understand her foreign policy. 
A glance at a map of the world shows us that Japan is 
placed in a peculiarly advantageous position not only for 
_ , . , purposes of trade but also for military and 

Geographical r r J 

advantages naval defence or offence. It forms the centre 
o Japan. Q ^ a jj ^ Q most important trade routes not only 
of the Pacific area but also of the world, connected as she is 
on both sides with Europe and America by lines of steam- 
ships and railways which must concentrate in her a large 
amount of trade and give her a great advantage in nearly 
every market in the world. 

Japan is equally well situated for every military or naval 
operation which is likely to take place in the Far East, and 
her geographical position would go a long way to ensure her 
success should matters ever reach the terrible arbitrament of 
war. The long line of the Japanese Empire from Yezo to 
Formosa affords safe and convenient stations for both military 
and naval purposes ; the army and navy would be near 
their sources of supply and not thousands of miles away as 
would be the case with the European and American Powers. 
The coasts of China would thus be commanded, and the 
passage of any hostile forces made very difficult. Korea is 
within a few hours' sail of some of the strongest and most 
convenient ports of Japan, and Hong-Kong is close to the 
southern point of Formosa, the Philippines are only about 
seven days' steaming from Nagasaki, while Indo-China, Siam, 
and even Australasia are all within easy reach. It is evident, 
therefore, that Japan, by herself, must be a very potent factor 
in all Far Eastern questions. In alliance with Britain, as 
she now is, she would be irresistible against any combination 
which was likely to be formed. Moreover, there is another 
aspect of the subject which should not be overlooked. While 
I do not believe that the Japanese have any wish or intention 
to follow an aggressive policy, it would be well if the Foreign 



International Relations 335 

Powers would recognise not only the strength of her position 
but also the possibilities of a stupendous military and naval 
organisation under the leadership of Japan, which would 
make the peoples of the East all-powerful should the selfish 
policies of European Powers drive them to an offensive 
position. 

As I have already stated, there are two distinct and 
essentially different kinds of industries in Japan ; namely, 
those which are of native or Chinese origin T , 

& Industrial com- 

and which are still carried on to a very large petition with 
extent in Japanese style, and those which have foreign nations - 
been introduced from Western countries and are carried on 
on the factory system. With the former of these there is 
no competition in the markets of the world and they must 
win their way through their own inherent merits. The 
production of the keramic and cloisonne ware of the 
Japanese, of their silk fabrics, their pictures and their 
carvings, and in short, their art productions of all kinds, 
must be carried on in what is essentially the domestic 
system of industry if they are to retain their excellence. 
Each workman is an artist to a greater or less degree, and 
he revolts against being converted into a machine or the 
mere attendant of a machine. He requires work which, in 
itself, gives him pleasure and on which he can imprint his 
own personality. There is indeed a danger, as I have 
already pointed out, that the artistic capabilities of the 
Japanese may be crushed out by the use of machinery, and 
that they will be brought face to face with all the problems, 
industrial, physical, and social, which lie heavily on the hearts 
of all thoughtful men who have observed the conditions of 
modern industrial nations. While all that is admitted, it 
must also be recognised that mechanical and industrial 
development in the production of goods to satisfy many 
of the ordinary wants of life is a stage in the necessary 
evolution through which nations must pass before they 
arrive at a state of equilibrium in which they will endeavour 
to live and not simply struggle for the means of life. 



336 Dai Nippon 

The industries in Japan which will have a direct effect 
on her foreign policy are those conducted on the factory 
system and the products of which come into direct com- 
petition with those of other countries. The one which 
meantime appeals most to British manufacturers is that of 
cotton, which, as we have seen, has made great strides in 
Japan during recent years. Not only are the products of 
Japanese mills able to supply the greater part of the wants 
of the people of the country, but the surplus now forms a 
very important item in the trade with Korea and China. 
The Statistical Secretary of the Chinese Imperial Maritime 
Customs in a recent report, writing of manufactured goods, 
says that Japanese productions, made of cotton, imported in 
a raw state from China, are able to return to China and 
compete successfully with the home-made yarns, which are 
heavily taxed. In short the Japanese mills, though obliged 
to pay export duty on the raw cotton, together with the 
cost of two transportations between China and Japan, and 
finally import duty on the yarns as they re-enter China, 
can undersell the Chinese yarns in China ; a fact which 
speaks well of the efficiency of Japanese workers and 
organisation. It is a remarkable fact that Japan is now a 
larger importer of Indian raw cotton than all the Continental 
ports and the United Kingdom together. The consequence 
of the development of the cotton industry in Japan is that 
the trade of British yarns is practically at an end. The 
problem of an increased supply of raw cotton is one which 
Japan must face, in the same way as British manufacturers 
are attempting to face it at the present time. What is true 
of the cotton industry will also be true, before long, of other 
departments, and therefore the economic relations of Japan 
to other countries are a matter of great importance, not only 
for the supply of raw materials, but also for the sale of the 
manufactured products. China and Korea being the nearest 
countries to Japan and offering the most convenient markets 
are naturally those in which the Japanese take the greatest 
amount of political interest. 



International Relations 337 

Although the development of Japanese industries has in 
some cases increased the competition with British and other 
foreign goods, it has at the same time given a great impetus 
to the manufacture of others, especially the machinery- 
required in industries and in all the accessories of modern 
Western life. A glance at the list of imports shows that 
the Japanese are now users to a greater or less extent of 
almost all classes of foreign goods ; so that an increased 
demand for these has arisen which counterbalances the loss 
in special departments in which they now produce not only 
for themselves but also for their neighbours in the Far East. 
As the different countries in the world develop their own 
resources, so must the exports of Britain and other manu- 
facturing countries change their nature. Many of these 
have had their origin in chance conditions which are rapidly 
disappearing, and the cheap supply of raw materials and 
efficient labour must in great part determine the future 
of any industry. Any attempt to prevent the action of 
economic forces by tariffs or otherwise must result in the 
great body of the people being taxed for the benefit of a 
small number of manufacturers. 

The direct economic influence of Japanese industrial 
development on the countries in the Far East will, no doubt, 
be to disturb the conditions which have existed 

• ... , Japanese 

for generations ; but by itself it is not likely to industrial influ- 

be very great for a considerable time, for, after e " ce J? the 
„ , , . Far East. 

all, the best market will be the home market ; 
still as a factor in the evolution which is going on it cannot 
be neglected. Japanese products are finding their way into 
all the countries in the Far East, are gradually changing 
the social customs of the people and leading them to the use 
of Western appliances and methods, and thus again affecting 
economic conditions in other departments. But probably 
most important of all is the indirect and the educational 
influence of the Japanese in China and Korea ; for this is 
certain to tell before long on large numbers of the people, 
who will be stirred up to attempt manufactures on their own 

(b 207) z 



338 Dai Nippon 

account. If the Chinese were undertaking modern industries 
with the same energy as the Japanese, they might become 
the greatest manufacturing nation in the world, but they are 
slow to move, not because they are either stupid or lazy, 
but because they have a philosophy of life which keeps them 
out of the competitive struggle. It will be interesting to 
note how far they are drawn into that struggle, or whether 
their philosophy will be sufficient to enable them to take 
advantage of Western methods without allowing these to 
dominate social and even political conditions. 

The fear has sometimes been expressed that the cheap 

labour of the Far East will cause a decrease in the wages of 

the West and a consequent deterioration of 

Japanese 

industrial influ- the standard of life, but that aspect of the 
en w m the SUD J ec t has been greatly exaggerated. The 
tendency will be one of levelling up rather than 
of levelling down, and already the wages of all skilled 
workers in Western industries in the Far East have 
greatly increased. Local economic advantages will, of 
course, tell, but inherited skill and experience, superior 
organisation and management will for a considerable time 
more than balance these advantages. British manufacturers 
have much more to fear from the competition of America 
and Europe than from that of Japan. The start which they 
had in the industrial world gave them a great advantage, but 
it is now having its disadvantages ; for many manufacturers 
have kept neither their machinery, their organisation, nor 
their management up to the standard to be found in 
many of the works of the United States and the Continent, 
in which full use has been taken of the latest inven- 
tions and the most improved methods. The telegraph and 
the other means of communication to all parts of the world 
have to a large extent made the markets of the world one, 
except where they are hedged in by protective tariffs, which 
not only allow the local manufacturers to accumulate large 
profits but also discourage attempts at improvements in 
machinery and organisation. With the constant change in 



International Relations 339 

conditions there must be a constant change in methods and 
appliances involving not only a temporary loss of capital 
but also in many cases a loss, or at any rate a change, of 
employment which will inflict hardships on many of the 
individuals concerned. Whether these hardships can be met 
with the present individualistic social organisation is a 
problem which will require to be considered in the not 
distant future, and the study of such problems may lead to 
very important results. Britain especially will require to 
study her position very carefully and recognise the changing 
conditions. It was a happy concurrence of circumstances 
more than any virtue or talents inherent in us that gave 
us such a predominant position in industry and commerce 
during the nineteenth century, but now circumstances are 
tending in the opposite direction. Not only in Japan and 
China are great economic changes taking place, but in all 
the countries bounded by the Pacific area we may expect 
still greater changes in the near future, and these are certain 
to influence not only the foreign policy of Japan but that of all 
the great Powers of the world. If we look at the marvellous 
Pacific coast -line of Asia, stretching from Singapore to 
Vladivostock, with the vast countries of Siberia, China, and 
Australia, and then turn to the Pacific coast of America 
opposite, stretching from Alaska to Patagonia, with the vast 
countries of Canada, the United States, South America, and 
the rest, and imagine the population which will be in these 
countries by the end of this century, we are almost over- 
whelmed with the thought of the possibilities of the position. 
Meantime we cannot discuss these possibilities, but we may 
rest assured that Japan will take a very important part in 
them. In conjunction with China she might not only 
revolutionise economic conditions in the Far East, but also 
have great effect on those of the West. The late Secretary 
Seward, nearly forty years ago, made a prediction in the 
Senate of the United States that " the Pacific Ocean, its 
shores, its islands and the vast regions beyond, will become 
the chief theatre of events in the world's great Hereafter." 



34° Dai Nippon 

That prophecy is now being fulfilled ; but whether these events 
are to be the outcome of free economic forces, whether they 
are to be guided by legislation and tariffs or whether the 
competitive struggle will lead to armed combinations which 
will upset all calculations and speculations, are secrets that 
only the future will reveal. The direct as well as the 
indirect economic influence of Japan on other countries and 
especially on those which are bounded by the Pacific area, 
will form a most interesting study during the course of the 
present century, and attention to that study will be necessary 
on the part of the men who guide the destinies of the nations 
concerned, if their policy is to be carried out on rational lines. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

A history of treaty revision in Japan will be possible only when 
access is given to the archives of the Japanese Foreign Office and 
to those of the Foreign Powers, or when some of those who took 
part in the negotiations publish their impressions and observations. 
An outline has been given in Captain Brinkley's article on Japan in 
the supplementary volumes of the Encyclopedia Britannica, and 
Baron Alexander von Siebold has given a fuller account of it in 
his book, Japan's Accession to the Comity of Nations, although in 
some parts it does not seem to be quite impartial. The files of 
the daily newspapers are almost the only sources of information 
available to general readers. The British Blue Book containing 
the correspondence respecting the revision of treaty arrangements 
between Great Britain and Japan, and the corresponding publica- 
tions of the other Foreign Powers, are the only official published 
documents, and from these a good deal can be learned by those 
who lived in Japan at the time and thus are able to read between 
the lines. With regard to international business relations, little of a 
scientific nature has been written, and reference can only be made 
to current publications, as the conditions are rapidly changing. 
Stafford Ransome's Japan in Transition contains some suggestive 
matter on the subject, and Alfred Stead's Japan, Our New Ally, will 
be useful to general readers. Interesting chapters on " Japan as a 
World Power " will be found in the two last-named works, also in 
Clement's Handbook of Modern Japan, and Norman's Real Japan. 
Conditions, however, are changing rapidly, and with them new 
problems are arising. 



CHAPTER XVII 

FOREIGN POLITICS 

We are now in a position to understand the foreign politics 
of Japan. I have endeavoured to indicate the motives and 
the economic forces which have been at the root of all the 
great changes which have taken place ; and we cannot doubt 
that the intense feeling of patriotism among the Japanese 
and the determination to make their country stand in a 
position of equality with foreign nations were the most 
important factors in the movement which has profoundly 
changed all the conditions of Japan. Such a feeling 
naturally led to actions which, in many cases, had the 
appearance of presumption, and no doubt sometimes the 
appearance had a good deal of reality ; but in times of 
transition, when old ideals of individual and national conduct 
are disappearing and new ones have not yet fully taken their 
place, a certain amount of eccentricity is to be expected. 
However, after discounting all that even the most severe 
critics have said about them, it cannot be disputed that, 
notwithstanding their apparent fickleness, the Japanese have 
steadily kept to the main ideas with which they started 
when they decided to adopt Western methods. These, as I 
have more than once stated, were embodied in the principles 
proclaimed on oath by the Emperor on the occasion of his 
accession to the throne. 

Behind the patriotic motives there are strong economic 
and political forces which have influenced the foreign policy 
of Japan. The rapid increase in population and the 

341 



34 2 Dai Nippon 

necessity for outlets not only for the surplus population but 

also for the surplus industrial products, has been forcing 

Economic Japanese statesmen to consider the problems in- 

forces. volved, and like the statesmen of other countries 
they have sought them in the settlement of numbers of their 
people in foreign countries and in an extension of their 
foreign markets. Korea, from her geographical position, her 
sparsely peopled territory and her undeveloped resources, is 
the most natural outlet. Moreover, its historical connection 
with Japan gives the Japanese a first claim among Foreign 
Powers for close relations and, if necessary, friendly pro- 
tection. The development of industry in Japan is making 
the country to a certain extent (although as yet not to a 
very great extent) dependent on the produce of other 
countries for the food of its population ; and as Korea is 
a rich agricultural country, it is important that Japan should 
be able to control it so far as to ensure a supply of food for 
those of her people who are engaged in manufacturing 
industries. Most important of all, however, is the fact that 
the possession of Korea by a strong Foreign Power would 
give her a strategetical position which would not only 
dominate Japan but even threaten her national existence. 
These considerations have to a large extent displaced the 
ideal of a self-contained empire, by one whose influence 
would be felt in the councils of the world, and especially in 
all that directly affects the countries in the Pacific area. 

When I arrived in Japan (in 1873) ^ ne highest ambition 
of all the officials with whom I came into contact, and also 
of my own students, was that their country 
to become the might become the Britain of the East, and 
Britain of the ^ey not infrequently got laughed at by 
foreigners for what was considered their con- 
ceit. During the thirty years which have elapsed since 
that time they have kept their ideal steadily in view, and 
few will deny that they have gone a long way towards its 
realisation. They have laid a solid foundation for national 
progress in a system of education which is very complete 



Foreign Politics 343 

in every department, and which, in some respects, affords 
lessons to Britain ; they have formed an army and a navy 
which cause the opinions of Japan to be considered with 
respect ; they have developed their railways, their shipping, 
their telegraphs and the other appliances of modern life to 
an astonishing extent ; their industry and their commerce 
have made wonderful developments, and the machinery of 
legislation and administration has been brought into line 
with those of European countries. 

The geographical position of Japan gives her a mari- 
time advantage relatively to Asia precisely analogous to 
that occupied by Great Britain to Europe. So far as I have 
been able to judge from the utterances of her statesmen, from 
the opinions expressed by the press and the general ideas of 
the people, the Japanese have no higher ambition than that 
their country should become the Britain of the East, resting 
secure in her own strength, but with no wish for territorial 
expansion in other parts of the world. Whatever influence 
she exercises on Asia or indeed on any other Continent, 
they wish that that should be through wise statesmanship 
and the peaceful methods of commerce and education. A 
great part of the success of the modern movement in Japan 
arises from the fact that the impulse came from within and 
that the people have recognised their own powers and the 
possibilities of their country. As a thoughtful Japanese 
writer has said : " It was some small degree of this recogni- 
tion that remade Japan and enabled her to weather the storm 
under which so much of the Oriental world went down." 
No doubt, believing that Asia can be really influenced for 
good only by those who understand Asiatic modes of thought, 
the Japanese think that they have a special role in the re- 
generation of the Far East, and this idea may occasionally 
lead them into what, to Western minds, may seem extra- 
vagances ; but on the whole, so far as I have been able to 
judge of those who have any authority in Japan, they will 
be content to allow their influence to develop in a natural 
way ; that is, through the intercourse of commerce and 



344 Dai Nippon 

industry and the results of education. It must, however, 
have been evident to those who have studied the subject, 
that Japanese policy, both at home and abroad, has developed 
through change of conditions, and recent events in the Far East 
may have enlarged the views and ambitions of the Japanese ; 
or perhaps, to be more exact, they may compel them to take 
steps in self-defence which never occurred to them when the 
subjects were first discussed. The aggressive action of 
Foreign Powers may indeed compel them to actions which 
also seem aggressive, but it is to be hoped that whatever 
happens, they will always be willing to grant to other 
Eastern nations all the rights which they have claimed for 
themselves, and chief among these is the right to work out 
their own national salvation in their own way, without 
foreign domination. 

As we have seen in previous chapters, for a good many 
years after the advent of foreigners in Japan, diplomatic 
Diplomatic action was, for the most part, confined to the dis- 
action. cussion of the revision of treaties, and especially 
in so far as these affected tariffs and the question of extra- 
territoriality, and Japan had practically no foreign politics. 
Now that she has attained a position of equality with other 
nations, she asks no favours, but she means to insist on her 
rights. Her alliance with Great Britain was formed from a 
desire to maintain the status quo and general peace in 
the Far East, especially the territorial integrity of the 
Empires of China and Korea, and to secure equal oppor- 
tunities in these countries for the commerce and industry of 
all nations. She has in many ways made it clear that she 
has no wish for territorial aggrandisement, but she may be 
driven to take steps to protect her interests and reach her 
ideals which may seem to be opposed to the strict letter of 
some of her words. If that be so, the Foreign Powers will 
have themselves to thank. She is not likely to interfere 
either in European or in American politics if her legitimate 
rights are respected. Her task lies in the Far East, and 
whatever influence she exercises in the countries of the West 



Foreign Politics 345 

will only be indirect. She may, however, afford those 
countries many useful object lessons, and it is sincerely to be 
hoped that their foreign policy will be such as will enable 
East and West to co-operate in advancing the highest welfare 
of both. 

While it is, of course, impossible to give what may be 
considered a strictly official view of Japanese foreign policy, 
the speeches and writings of representative men , 

1 or Japanese ideas 

who hold or have held high positions in the on foreign 
Japanese Government may be taken as indicat- Pay- 
ing fairly well the opinions of those who guide the policy of 
the Government, and especially when it is found that the 
diplomatic and political action of the Government agrees 
with the ideas expressed by those from whom we quote. 
The following from a paper read to the American Academy 
of Political and Social Science * by Mr. Takahira, the 
Japanese representative at Washington, on " The Position of 
Japan in the Far East," may be taken as representing what 
may be called the intelligent official view of the subject. 
After dealing with some historical details, Mr. Takahira 
said: "Japan has never had an intention to take advantage 
of the misfortunes of her neighbours or to seek for territorial 
aggrandisement, but the sincere desire of her Government 
and people is to have all neighbouring countries realise that 
mutual interests can best be promoted by the maintenance 
of peace, the promotion of commerce and industry, and the 
strengthening of the ties of interdependence. It is not 
meant by this that a race coalition should be formed hostile 
to the interest of other countries ; such a coalition as has 
been typified in the expression ' Yellow Peril.' My meaning 
simply is that a country to be truly prosperous should have 
peaceful and prosperous neighbours. That naturally leads to 
interdependence, not political, but social and commercial, and 
establishes the surest guarantee of peace to all concerned. 
Some portions of the world have been compared to an armed 
camp, each country watching the others and each jealously 

1 March 7, 1903. 



346 Dai Nippon 

apprehensive of encroachment. Under such conditions men 
prosper not because of this policy but in spite of it. It is 
no part of the ambition of Japan to establish such a state 
of things in the Far East, least of all to combine with her 
neighbours for aggression or even for defence. She wishes 
them to be peaceful and prosperous, because that is the 
most certain means by which her own peace and prosperity 
can be assured ; and she desires them to appreciate at its 
full worth the advantage of interdependence, because their 
relations and their relative positions are such as to render it 
an indispensable pre-requisite to mutual prosperity. ... It 
is not out of place here to call attention to statements which 
have appeared in different publications expressing the fears 
of certain over-anxious persons regarding the modernisation 
of Asiatic peoples. [Here follows a quotation from an article 
written in 1893.] ^ n this group of wonderful hypotheses 
may be found the only basis for the fear of a so-called 
' Yellow Peril ' to which I have already alluded. The usual 
corollary is that Japan has a desire to control China thus 
rejuvenated, and to lead her myriads against the rest of the 
world. So far as China is concerned, the best answer to 
such arguments is her present condition, ten years after the 
foregoing article was written. As for Japan, her conduct 
throughout the Boxer troubles and the course she has 
pursued since those unfortunate events, have shown the 
world that she has the same cause to uphold in China and 
the same interests to protect as other civilised nations. It 
is therefore self-evident that so long as China maintains 
a correct position towards the civilised world she will retain 
Japan's friendship ; but that she cannot rely on Japan for 
support when she assumes a wrong attitude. . . . While we 
are thus labouring for ourselves, our most earnest desire is 
that the kindred people who are our neighbours shall labour 
in the same manner for themselves and endeavour, as we 
have done, to raise themselves above the hardships and 
miseries of their present condition. That sums up, in a 
word, Japan's position among Eastern nations. We are in 



Foreign Politics 347 

duty bound and in interest forced to do all that lies in our 
power to assist our neighbours in the path which we have 
followed, and in performing this task we esteem peace and 
the preservation of the kindliest and most cordial relations 
with all as an essential pre-requisite to success." 

Commenting on these opinions, the editor of the Japci7i 
Daily Mail (Captain Brinkley, a very competent authority) 
says : " These utterances have, of course, a certain 
academical sound, but as an exposition of Japan's position, 
coming from one of her responsible officials, they are un- 
doubtedly valuable. A man's interpretation of his neigh- 
bour's mood is generally a reflection of his own. There has 
not been any period of the world's history since mediaeval 
days when racial prejudice prevailed more strongly among 
Western peoples than it prevails to-day, and naturally these 
nations expect to detect the same sentiment on the side of 
its Oriental victims. It is not an unreasonable expectation. 
Within easy reach of Japan's hand are materials which 
might be welded by her into a stupendous military machine. 
No observer with any experience doubts that the Chinese 
are capable of being converted into good soldiers, or that 
well equipped and well led they could stand in any field. 
Assuming Japan to be ambitious of imperial aggrandisement, 
and assuming that the racial prejudice of the Orient towards 
the Occident is as strong and effective as that of the Occident 
towards the Orient, it is quite within the range of possibilities 
that the Japanese should be found one day at the head of 
an almost irresistible hegemony of Eastern peoples. Some 
such apprehension may fairly be assumed to have influenced 
Russia and Germany when they combined to expel Japan 
from Manchuria, and that the same apprehension is almost 
overwhelming in Russia's case seems to be the only way of 
explaining her subsequent aggressions in Manchuria, which 
could scarcely fail to strain Japan's patience to breaking 
point. A hard task is imposed on Japan to prove herself 
true to the creed that Mr. Takahira enunciated at Philadelphia. 
But she is trying." 



348 Dai Nippon 

Many opinions have been given (very often on imperfect 
knowledge and very scant experience), on the future of 
Japanese policy, but the following by Lord Curzon, now 
Viceroy of India, may be taken as representing the intelligent 
and statesmanlike view of the subject. After criticising 
some of the opinions expressed by foreign writers, Lord 
Curzon says : " The critics to whom I allude had lost sight 
of the part which Japan aspires to play in the Far East, and 
to which her policy of expenditure and organisation has 
been strictly subordinated. That part is determined by her 
geographical situation. Placed at a maritime coign of 
vantage upon the flank of Asia, precisely analogous to that 
occupied by Great Britain on the flank of Europe, exercising 
a powerful influence over the adjoining continent, but not 
necessarily involved in its responsibilities, she sets before 
herself the supreme ambition of becoming, on a smaller 
scale, the Britain of the Far East. By means of an army 
strong enough to defend our shores, and to render invasion 
unlikely, and still more of a navy sufficiently powerful to 
sweep the seas, she sees that England has retained that 
unique and commanding position in the West which was 
won for us by the industry and force of character of our 
people, by the mineral wealth of these islands, by the 
stability of our Government, and by the colonising genius of 
our sons. By similar methods Japan hopes to arrive at a 
more modest edition of the same result in the East. Like 
the English, her people are stubborn fighters and born 
sailors. If she can but intimidate any would-be enemy 
from attempting a landing upon her shores, and can fly an 
unchallenged flag over the surrounding waters, while from 
her own resources she provides occupation, sustenance, 
clothing, and wages for her people, she will fulfil her role in 
the international politics of the future." 1 

The greatest difficulties in the problems connected with 
China and Korea arise from the fact that the Govern- 
ments of those countries are not animated by that spirit of 

1 Problems of the Far East, p. 393. . 



Foreign Politics 349 

patriotism which made the Japanese so jealous of every- 
thing touching their independence. The conduct of European 
Governments has been so unscrupulous and Chinese opinions 
selfish, and the Chinese officials so untrust- and ideals - 
worthy, that it is impossible for outsiders to state any 
guiding principles in the foreign affairs of China. At the 
same time, even an approximately correct opinion about 
Japanese policy in China cannot be formed without a study 
of these affairs. All that we can do, meantime, is to give 
a general idea of the impression which the policy of the 
Foreign Powers has left on the Chinese mind. This has 
been expressed by Sir Robert Hart in the following terms : 
— " We did not invite you foreigners here," they say ; " you 
crossed the seas of your own accord and more or less forced 
yourselves on us. We generously permitted the trade you 
were at first satisfied with, but what return did you make ? 
To the trade we sanctioned you added opium-smuggling, 
and when we tried to stop it you made war on us. We do 
not deny that Chinese consumers kept alive a demand for 
the drug, but both consumption and importation were 
illegal and prohibited ; when we found it was ruining our 
people and depleting our treasury we vainly attempted to 
induce you to abandon the trade, and we then had to take 
action against it ourselves. War ensued ; but we were no 
warriors, and you won, and then dictated treaties which gave 
you Hong-Kong and opened several ports, while opium still 
remained contraband. Several years of peaceful intercourse 
followed, and then Hong-Kong began to trouble us ; it was 
originally ceded to be a careening place for ships simply, 
but, situated on the direct route to the new ports, it grew 
into an emporium, and also, close to our coast and rivers, it 
became a smuggling centre ; in your treaties you had under- 
taken a certain control of any junk traffic that should spring 
up, but when that traffic became considerable you dropped 
the promised control and our revenue suffered. Originally 
uninhabited, Hong-Kong now became the home of numerous 
Chinese settlers, many of them outlaws, who dare not live 



350 Dai Nippon 

on the mainland ; these became British subjects, and you 
gave the British flag to their junks, which were one day 
British and another Chinese just as it suited their purpose ; 
and out of this came the Arrow war, followed by new 
treaties, additional ports, legalised opium, and fresh stipula- 
tions, in their turn the causes of fresh troubles. Whether 
it was that we granted you privileges or that you exacted 
concessions, you have treated the slightest mistakes as 
violations of treaty rights, and instead of showing yourselves 
friendly and considerate, you insult us by charges of bad 
faith and demand reparation and indemnities. Your 
legalised opium has been a curse in every province it 
penetrated, and your refusal to limit or decrease the import 
has forced us to attempt a dangerous remedy ; we have 
legalised native opium, not because we approve of it, but 
to compete with and drive out the foreign drug, and it is 
expelling it, and when we have only the native production 
to deal with, and thus have the business in our own hands, 
we hope to stop the habit in our own way. Your mis- 
sionaries have everywhere been teaching good lessons, and 
benevolently opening hospitals and dispensing medicine for 
the relief of the sick and the afflicted, but wherever they go 
trouble goes with them, and instead of the welcome their 
good intentions merit, localities and officials turn against 
them ; when called on to indemnify them for losses, we find 
to our astonishment that it is the exactions of would-be 
millionaires we have to satisfy ! Your people are every- 
where extra-territorialised ; but, instead of a grateful return 
for this ill-advised stipulation, they appear to act as if there 
were no laws in China, and this encourages native lawless- 
ness and makes constant difficulties for every native official. 
You have demanded and obtained the privilege of trading 
from port to port on the coast, and now you want the 
inland waters thrown open to your steamers. Your news- 
papers vilify our officials and Government, and translated 
into Chinese circulate very mischievous reading ; but yet 
they have their uses, for by their threats .and suggestions 



Foreign Politics 351 

they warn us what you may some day do, and so help us 
indirectly, although that does not conduce to mutual respect 
or liking. All these things weaken official authority — 
therefore the official world is against you ; and they hurt 
many native traders — therefore the trading classes are 
indignant. What countries give aliens the extra-territorial 
status ? What countries allow aliens to compete in their 
coasting trade ? What countries throw open their inland 
waters to other flags ? And yet all these things you compel 
us to grant you ; why can you not treat us as you treat 
others ? Were you to do so you would find us friendly 
enough, and there would be an end of this everlasting 
bickering and these continually recurring wars ; really you 
are too short-sighted, and you are forcing us to arm in self- 
defence, and giving us grudges to pay off instead of benefits 
to requite." * 

Those opinions which Sir Robert Hart puts into the 
mouth of a Chinaman are becoming public opinion in 
China, and they have been intensified by the events of 
recent years. The so-called leases of Kiao-Chow, Port 
Arthur, Talienwan, and Wei-Hai-Wei, and especially the 
doings of the Russians in Manchuria, have raised very 
strong feelings among the educated Chinese. The excesses 
which are sometimes perpetrated in China are simply the 
blind, inarticulate reaction against the feelings of injustice 
which the people have with regard to the action of 
foreigners. These feelings are the causes of Japanese influ- 
the increasing influence of Japan in China, as ence in China, 
the Chinese recognise that the Japanese understand their 
ways of thought better than Europeans, and it is becoming 
more and more evident that the idea is taking hold of the 
Japanese that it is the mission of Japan to bring China, as 
it were, into the sphere of her intellectual, moral, and social 
influence. Not only, as we have seen, is the trade with 
Japan increasing, but Japanese influence is rapidly extend- 
ing in educational, military, and police affairs in China. 

1 Hart, These from the Land of Sinim, pp. 1 19-122. 



352 Dai Nippon 

Many of the educational institutions throughout the country 
are superintended by Japanese, and in the training of 
Chinese troops Japanese have, to a large extent, taken the 
place of the Europeans who were formerly employed. 
Gunboats and other vessels are being built in Japan for 
the Chinese service, and it is understood that arms and 
ammunition are being purchased in Japan. Hundreds of 
Chinese students are now in Tokyo and other parts of 
Japan fitting themselves, in many ways, for their future 
work in China ; so that in a sense Japan is repaying to 
China the debt she owed to her for her former civilisa- 
tion. We are safe in assuming that if the foreign 
policy of Japan ever brings her into collision with a 
European power, the real (whatever the apparent) casus belli 
will be the control of China, and that not merely on account 
of the commercial and industrial interests involved (which, 
of course, are very great and more than sufficient to give 
the controlling Power a preponderating influence on the 
Pacific) but probably even to a greater extent because of 
the special mission which Japan believes herself to have in 
the rejuvenation of China. 1 

Korea being the nearest part of the Asiatic continent to 
Japan, is, of course, the part which commands the first atten- 
japan and tion. The earlier relations which existed between 
Korea. Japan and Russia have been briefly indicated. 2 
The interference of Russia, Germany, and France to pre- 
vent the Japanese permanently occupying any part of the 
mainland of China was evidently prompted by jealousy 
and selfish ends. Not only did Russia see that such 
an occupation would prevent her progress towards the 
Pacific, but probably also the representatives of the 
three Powers named shared the opinion of the German 
Emperor that it might lead to a combination of Eastern 
forces which would threaten the safety of Europe, and 

1 For an excellent and condensed account of the doings of the Foreign Powers 
in China and their results reference may be made to Brinkley : s China a?id Japan, 
vol. xii., and especially to the last three chapters. 

2 Cf. pp. 69-73. 



Foreign Politics 



ODO 



indeed of the world. Such a thought was entirely 
unwarranted, and it had never entered the brains of any 
responsible Japanese ; while the Chinese have shown by 
their conduct that war will never be of their seeking, not 
because they are cowards, as is frequently supposed, but 
because they are philosophers and detest war. 

After the war with China (1894-95), Japan was for a 
time supreme in Korea, and if more prudent counsels had 
prevailed, that supremacy would not have been disturbed. 
It was admitted by every one who knew anything about 
Korea that its Government was in a most corrupt and 
decrepit condition, and that reform was a necessity before 
there was any hope of the country. The Japanese ought 
to have known from their own experience that real reform 
was only possible when it came from within, and that it 
could not be impressed from without, and that it was there- 
fore absurd to present the Korean Government with a 
cut-and-dried scheme of reforms as precise as their military 
plan of campaign, and to insist on it being carried out as if 
it were a school exercise. The programme included the 
reorganisation of the finances, the reform of the civil service 
and the institution of a national army, as well as educational 
and judicial reforms. When to all this was added a demand 
for the compulsory development of Korean resources by 
mining, railway, and commercial concessions, in which would 
be found a profitable outlay of Japanese capital, there was 
raised not only the opposition of the Korean Government but 
also that of the Foreign Powers. The hatred of the powerful 
family of the Queen, the members of which found themselves 
threatened with the loss not only of their offices but also 
of the opportunities which these gave them of enriching 
themselves, was found to be a great obstacle to the success 
of the Japanese, and in 1895 a party of Korean malcontents, 
accompanied and aided, if not actually led by Japanese 
soldiers, broke into the palace and murdered the Queen 
and a great number of her relatives. These unfortunate 
occurrences had most disastrous effects on Japanese 

(B 20 7 ) 2 A 



354 Dai Nippon 

influence. The King took refuge in the Russian Legation, 
and from that time date the troubles which now seem to be 
nearing a crisis. The Japanese minister who had served 
his country so badly was replaced by Baron Komura, the 
present Japanese Minister of Foreign Affairs, whose 
diplomatic tact and ability was as conspicuous as was the 
lack of it in his predecessor. 

From that time, Japan's earnest wish has been to come 
to terms with Russia, and to secure the safety and indepen- 
dence of Korea by diplomacy. She has extensive interests 
both commercial and industrial in the country, and has 
large settlements at every port open to foreigners. Three- 
fourths of all the foreign trade and shipping of Korea are in 
the hands of Japanese, whereas Russia has practically no 
commercial interests. Two conventions with regard to Korea 
were agreed to between Japan and Russia. By the first each 
Power was allowed to have in Korea a sufficient number of 
troops, not exceeding 800, for the protection of its legation 
and settlements, and in addition the Japanese were allowed 
a certain number of gendarmes for the protection of their 
telegraph line between Fusan and the capital. By the 
second, concluded in Tokyo in 1898, between Baron Nishi, 
the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs, and Baron Rosen, 
the Russian Minister, both Governments "definitely recognised 
the sovereignty and entire independence of Korea, and 
mutually pledged themselves to abstain from every direct 
interference in its internal affairs " ; and that of Russia 
further pledged itself " not to obstruct the development of 
industrial and commercial relations between Japan and 
Korea." Mr. Longford (late of the British Consular Service 
in Japan) remarks that " all these undertakings of both 
conventions were faithfully observed by Russia, as long as it 
suited her to do so, and that period only lasted until her 
military resources in the Far East reached a stage of 
development which she thought would enable her to meet 
Japan on equal terms." 

The discussion of affairs between Japan and Russia 



Foreign Politics 355 

became very acute during the summer of last year, when it 
was found that the Russians had taken possession of a 
concession which was said to have been granted by the King 
of Korea when he was a refugee in the Russian Legation in 
1896, and the usual Russian methods were followed. Forts 
were erected commanding the Yalu River, and a claim was 
put forward that the valley of the Yalu was included in the 
sphere of Russian influence. The Japanese saw that this 
looked suspiciously like their methods of procedure in 
Manchuria. There they had commenced with the leasing 
of a small portion of the Liaotung peninsula, and they 
gradually extended their military occupation over the whole 
of Manchuria. They disregarded with cynical effrontery 
their promises to evacuate the territory by specified dates, 
and instead they steadily strengthened their military 
position, giving every indication that they meant to make 
their occupation permanent. The Japanese took these 
lessons to heart, and determined to bring the matter to an 
issue before Russia had time to make herself overwhelmingly 
strong. We need not follow all the discussions and corre- 
spondence which were carried on in the latter half of last 
year, the following Japanese official communique plainly 
states the case for Japan : — 

" It is absolutely indispensable to the safety and welfare 
of Japan that the independence and territorial integrity of 
Korea should be maintained, and that Japan's own para- 
mount interests there should be safeguarded. 

" Accordingly, the Japanese Government find it impossible 
to view with indifference an action endangering the position 
of Korea. 

" Russia, despite her solemn treaty with China and her 
repeated assurances to the Powers, not only continues in 
occupation of Manchuria, but has even taken aggressive 
action in Korean territory. 

" Should once Manchuria be annexed to Russia, the 
independence of Korea would naturally be impossible. 

"This must, no doubt, be acknowledged by Russia 



356 Dai Nippon 

herself, because in 1895 Russia expressly intimated to 
Japan that the possession of the Liaotung peninsula by 
Japan would not only constitute a constant menace to the 
capital of China, but would render the independence of 
Korea illusory. 

" Under these circumstances, the Japanese Government, 
being desirous of securing a permanent peace in the Far 
East by means of direct negotiations with the Russian 
Government, with a view to arriving at a friendly adjust- 
ment of mutual interests, in both Manchuria and Korea, 
where the interests of Japan and Russia meet, communi- 
cated such desire to the Russian Government towards the 
end of July last, and invited them to meet it. The Russian 
Government then expressed their willing consent. 

"Accordingly, on the 12th August last, the Japanese 
Government proposed to the Russian Government, through 
their representative at St Petersburg, a basis of agreement 
on the subject, which was substantially as follows : — 

" 1. A mutual engagement to respect the independence 
and territorial integrity of the Chinese and Korean Empires. 

" 2. A mutual engagement to maintain the principle of 
the equal opportunity for the commerce and industry of all 
nations in those two countries. 

" 3. Reciprocal recognition of Japan's preponderating 
interests in Korea and Russia's special interests in railway 
enterprises in Manchuria, and mutual recognition of the right 
of Japan and Russia respectively to take such measures as 
may be necessary for the protection of the above-mentioned 
respective interests in so far as the principle set forth in 
Article 1 is not infringed. 

" 4. Recognition by Russia of the exclusive right of 
Japan to give advice and assistance to Korea in the interest 
of reform and good government in the Peninsular Empire. 

" 5. An engagement on the part of Russia not to impede 
an eventual extension of the Korean railway into Southern 
Manchuria, so as to connect with the East China and Shan- 
hai-Kwan and Newchwang lines." 



Foreign Politics 357 

The communique then gives a detailed account of the 
negotiations which took place ; it states that " the Japanese 
Government have throughout the negotiations been actuated 
by the principles of moderation and impartiality, and have 
demanded of the Russian Government nothing more than 
the recognition of a principle which has been repeatedly and 
voluntarily declared by Russia herself, while the Russian 
Government have persistently refused to accede thereto. 
While unduly delaying to hand their reply, whenever they 
had to make one, they have, on the other hand, eagerly 
augmented their naval and military preparations in the Far 
East. In fact, large Russian forces are already on the 
Korean frontier." Enough has been said to make the 
question at issue clear from the point of view of Japan. 

In order, however, that we may understand the whole 
position, it is necessary that we should look at it from the 
point of view of Russia. When we do that we The case for 
find many of the same forces at work as in the Russia. 
case of Japan. In a previous chapter I have noted some of 
the early relations of Japan and Russia, which showed that 
the difficulties between the two countries were of long 
standing. 

The history of Russian expansion in its details is, of 
course, beyond our present scope ; it is sufficient for our pur- 
pose to notice some of its main features. Since the Crimean 
war great industrial changes have taken place in Russia, and 
many parts of the country are being transformed from 
agricultural to industrial and the population has rapidly 
increased. As the methods of Russian agriculture are 
extensive rather than intensive it has become necessary to 
absorb more and more territory not only for purposes of 
trade but also for colonisation. These were, no doubt, the 
causes, in the first instance, which chiefly led to the construc- 
tion of the Trans-Siberian Railway, not only in order that 
the vast resources of Asia might be developed, but also that 
an outlet might be found for the rapidly increasing popula- 
tion. Russian foreign policy is therefore being guided by 



3 5 8 Da i A T ippon 

what are believed to be the overpowering needs of the 
nation, and the expansion of her territory is now being 
planned on a truly imperial scale at all the borders of 
the Empire. In North and South Europe, in Persia, in 
North Asia, and on the borders of India we find a Russian 
question which is a sort of nightmare to the countries 
concerned. 

That question is made very difficult by the ambitions of 

the military leaders of Russia, before which the autocratic 

. . although peacefully inclined Czar is nearly 

Russian ideas. x t . . , - . 

powerless. Ihese ambitions carry the foreign 
policy of Russia far beyond the national requirements. 
Internal difficulties are shelved by attracting attention to a 
spirited foreign policy, and the voices of Liberalism and of 
Nihilism are smothered in the universal acclamation over 
the extension of Russian territory and influence. Moreover, 
it must not be overlooked that the religious feeling of the 
masses in Russia has always been used as a motive power 
for political ends. The religious cant which is uttered in 
connection with tortuous diplomacy or in justification of 
aggression is sufficient to disgust all thoughtful Easterns, 
whose conduct, both national and personal, is very often an 
example which might well be copied by those who think 
themselves their superiors in civilisation. It cannot be 
doubted that the enthusiastic Russian believes that his 
country has a mission in the world, not only to civilise savage 
tribes but to combat and correct the diseases of Western 
civilisation by means of the Orthodox Church. He distrusts 
all liberal institutions as leading to anarchy and the dissolu- 
tion of society, and he believes that the Russian theocracy, 
religion, and such social organisations as the village com- 
munity are the best antidotes to socialistic and nihilistic 
agitation. It is evident therefore that in discussing Russian 
as well as Japanese foreign policy we must go below the 
surface and ascertain the forces which are behind it. Unless 
we do this all our ideas are of a haphazard and of a generally 
impotent nature. The opposition between Japan and 



Foreign Politics 359 

Russia arises, at bottom, from the clash of two different ideals 
of civilisation. 

The rapid expansion of Russia across Northern Asia is 
easily explained when we look at the geographical conditions. 
The Siberian steppes offer facilities for unlimited Expansion of 
expansion, and the importance to a country almost Russia - 
completely landlocked or ice-bound on its European frontiers 
naturally drove it to the Pacific shores in search of ports 
which were open to the trade routes of the world. The 
construction of the Trans-Siberian railway intensified the 
need for such ports. At first, its terminus was intended to 
be at Vladivostock, and while it was constructed to that 
port, it soon became evident that that was only a stepping- 
stone to one farther south, and which was ice-free all the 
year round. British statesmen have, indeed, recognised the 
reasonableness on the part of Russia in taking this step, and 
probably this accounts for the seeming weakness of British 
policy and action. Russian diplomacy is an art which 
requires long study to understand, and it is difficult to 
describe it. It is not doing it any injustice to call it 
tortuous, prevaricating, and insincere. This was clearly 
shown in the events which followed immediately on the 
termination of the war between Japan and China, which 
we have briefly mentioned. The more recent doings in 
Manchuria are further illustrations of the same thing. After 
obtaining possession of Port Arthur by means of her clever, 
if somewhat unprincipled diplomacy, Russia always protested 
that she had no ulterior designs on Manchuria. On that 
pretext she was allowed to occupy the country during the 
Boxer rising lest her railway to Port Arthur should be cut 
up. Since then she has remained in Manchuria, notwith- 
standing her repeated promises not only to Japan, but also 
to Britain, the United States, and China, to evacuate the 
territory long ago. The official despatches of the British 
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs must be read in order 
to understand how difficult it is to teach Russian diplomacy 
to be honest. That correspondence shows that Britain and 



360 Dai Nippon 

the United States are both agreed as to the necessity of 
preventing Manchuria from becoming a Russian province 
and preserve, but neither of these Powers seems inclined 
to take up a position which would put a stop to Russian 
aggression. 

With them, however, the decision on the matter, while 
affecting their trade, is of comparatively small importance, 
but with Japan it is a matter of life and death. It is absurd 
for Russia to hold that Japan has no special interests in 
Manchuria as distinct from the other Powers, and therefore 
that she could not enter into a discussion with her on the 
subject. The Japanese recognise that if Russia is entrenched 
in Manchuria she could easily collect troops and muni- 
tions of war, overwhelm Korea and bring the Russian 
territory up to the Pacific Ocean. Moreover, the fact that 
Russia filched the results of Japan's victories in 1894-95 
from her, and appropriated them for herself, gave Japan the 
right to raise the question in a form which will prevent the 
repetition of such a piece of deception. While willing to 
recognise the special claims of Russia in Manchuria, and 
especially those which arise from the construction of the 
railway connecting the main Siberian line with Port Arthur, 
the Japanese firmly insist on the political integrity of China 
as regards Manchuria. While Russia has promised to 
observe that integrity, she has shown most distinctly by her 
deeds that she will never give up possession until she is 
compelled to do so, and further, that she will, as soon as she 
can, take steps to obtain a firm hold on Korea. Looked at 
simply from a Russian point of view, and especially when 
sea power is considered, the possession of Korea, with its 
good harbours, most of which are open all the year round 
and capable of easy defence, is of enormous value. As 
Captain Brinkley puts it : " Korea is a kind of half-way 
house between Liaotung and Vladivostock. It commands 
the maritime communications between the two places. 
Japan, holding Korea as Russia's enemy, could close the 
Broughton Strait and the Tsugaru Strait to- Russian ships 



Foreign Politics 361 

and thus effectually isolate Vladivostock by water. Economic- 
ally it is equally necessary ; for neither Manchuria nor Siberia 
possesses a harbour offering first-class mercantile facilities, 
whereas Korea possesses many such. In fact, to become 
owner of Korea would secure for Russia the end she has so 
long sought to compass, free access to open seas in a 
temperate zone." When we examine the whole case for 
Russia, we see, as has been stated by a well-informed writer 
in the Quarterly Review} that " not only is there no real 
difference between the earth appetite of the Muscovite and 
that of other great colonising nations, but there is also 
nothing in the policy which has enabled it to achieve such 
stupendous things that differentiates it in any essential way 
from the motives and methods of rival empire builders. 
The enormous expansion of the Russian dominion and the 
rapidity of its advance have been mainly due, not so 
much to conscious statesmanship, as to ethnological and 
geographical conditions. The vast scene of that expansion 
is a prolongation of the mere patrie, generally analogous to 
it in physical features, and peopled with races with whom 
the Russian colonists easily establish terms of sociability, 
if not of assimilation. In these circumstances Russian 
colonisation was a comparatively natural and rapid process, 
and the political consolidation of the conquests thus effected 
was correspondingly accelerated." It can scarcely be doubted 
that if it had not been for the rise of Japan as a strong 
Eastern Power, ere this Russia would have extended her 
territories to the Pacific coast, down to and including the 
Gulf of Pechili, and she would not have been content until 
she had obtained possession of Japan. A distinguished 
Japanese statesman expressed the opinion to me that the 
work of the students of the College of Engineering had been 
the chief means of preventing Japan from falling under the 
domination of Russia. 

The gradual aggrandisement of Russia in the remote 
solitudes of Eastern Asia was regarded with comparative 

1 April 1904, p. 578. 



362 Dai Nippon 

indifference by the European Powers, but for fully a century 

it has given rise to very serious apprehension in Japan. 

Especially since the termination of the war 

Reasons which .,„... n , . . . 

dominate the with China in 1 89 5, when through the action 
foreign policy Q f R US sia, France, and Germany, Japan was 
compelled to relinquish a great part of the re- 
sults of her victories, Japanese statesmen have watched with 
great solicitude the action of Russia. They have carefully 
noted the trend of events, and they determined on a simple 
but clear and decided policy as regards China and Korea, in 
which while recognising all legitimate international rights of 
other Powers, they mean to insist on the independence and 
territorial integrity of these two countries. This policy 
explains the attention which they have given to the develop- 
ment of their army and navy. The expenditure on these 
two departments is really the price which Japan has had to 
pay for her membership of the comity of nations. 

With Russia they have shown every wish to be 
reasonable in their relations ; in fact their self-restraint under 
very difficult circumstances has been beyond praise. They 
recognise not only the legitimate ambitions of Russia, but 
also the economic forces which are compelling her to provide 
openings for her surplus population and her manufactured 
products. They mean also, however, to insist on what they 
believe to be their own rights. The Czar called a conference 
at the Hague for the purpose of discussing how war was to 
be prevented. Deeds which lead to the peaceful solution 
of international problems are far more useful than discussions 
which have no practical results. If the Czar and his 
Government made their policy in the Far East quite clear 
and reasonable, and if they respected the legitimate interests 
of other Powers, especially of Japan, there are no reasons why 
there should be a collision. Instead, however, of pursuing a 
reasonable policy, the Russians have not only broken their 
engagements, but they have ostentatiously and defiantly 
collected what they consider to be an invincible fleet, and 
they are parading that fleet in Korean waters, and while 



Foreign Politics 363 

delaying an answer to the demands of Japan, they have 
almost seemed to invite a conflict. The other Powers 
interested have not taken a very noble part in the present 
crisis, but have thrown on Japan the task of defending their 
rights. If Britain and the United States had taken a firmer 
position, the crisis with Russia would never have arisen, as 
that Power never fights until she has exhausted the resources 
of her peculiar diplomacy ; although it must be admitted 
that that diplomacy in the Far East and the actions 
following upon it, since Japan laid bare the impotence of 
China, have been sufficient to provoke war many times over. 
The present crisis is likely to awaken China to a sense of 
her strength, and to the necessity of showing that she means 
to use it if her territory or her rights are violated, and with 
the help of Japan she would be able to repel any encroach- 
ments by whatever Foreign Power they were made. More- 
over, Russia ought to recognise that if her object is to 
become the absolute and uncontrolled mistress of the Far 
East, and to secure to herself and her traders a supreme 
monopoly of commerce, she will have to reckon not only 
with Japan but also with the other Powers which are 
interested. 

When Russia proposed to Japan that the latter should 
not oppose Russian action in Manchuria or her acquisition 
of Masampho — a port in Korea almost opposite Shimonoseki 
and the dockyard of Saseho (or Sasebo) — Marquis Ito is 
reported to have said to one of his colleagues : " A free hand 
in Korea, with Masampho in the power of Russia, would be 
like a free hand in a bag of gold, with the mouth of the bag 
drawn tightly round one's wrist." If that were so with a 
comparatively small concession, we may well ask what would 
be the position if Korea were dominated by Russia ? The 
national existence of Japan would be at her mercy, or to 
be more exact, at the mercy of the first ambitious Russian 
officer who thought he saw an opportunity of winning 
renown for himself and adding to the already overgrown 
possessions of the Russian Empire. The aim of Russia is 



364 Dai Nippon 

evidently predominance both naval and commercial on the 
Pacific. That of Japan is not simply for additional markets 
and openings for her surplus population, and certainly not 
for territorial aggrandisement, but for the preservation of her 
life, her national identity, and the exercise of her natural 
and legitimate influence in the affairs of the Far East. 
Should she be compelled to defend her rights with her army 
and navy, she will bring to the contest with Russia's enormous 
forces a living patriotism and a scientific completeness of 
preparation which will more than compensate for the 
comparative smallness of her numbers. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

The foreign politics of a country cannot be understood from 
books and articles alone. One requires to live in the country to 
know the mind of the people and to understand existing conditions 
and the economic and political forces which have produced them. 
In the preceding chapters I have indicated the more important of 
these forces, and while not professing to give an official statement 
of Japanese foreign politics, I have endeavoured to show how the 
Japanese look at the problems which have arisen. Chapter ii. vol. v. 
of Captain Brinkley's Japan and China contains a clear statement 
by one who is thoroughly acquainted with all the conditions, and 
will be found sufficient for the majority of general readers. For 
more than a year past many articles on the subject have appeared 
in British and American journals, and as these have generally been 
written by men who have had special experience, they are worthy of 
special study, although in some cases the personal equation requires 
to be taken into account. The subject of economic and political 
dynamics is beginning to receive attention, and such articles as those 
by Captain Mahan are very valuable. World politics is gradually 
becoming a science, and when it is better understood, it will lead to 
the solution of international difficulties without resort to war. As 
an introduction to the subject, reference may be made to Professor 
Reinsch's book on World Politics, at the end of the Ninetee?ith 
Century, in the " Citizen's Library," published by the Macmillan 
Company, New York, and to the list of books and papers bearing 
on the subject which are mentioned by the author. 



CHAPTER XVIII 

SOCIAL RESULTS 

The sketch I have given of the changes which have taken 
place during the past half- century or so, enables us to 
appreciate the economic and political signifi- The funda- 
cance of the sudden rise of Japan among the mental question, 
nations of the world and to form an estimate of the kind, 
and even of the amount, of influence which she is likely to 
exercise in the evolution which is going on not only in what 
is usually called the Far East, but also in the Pacific area 
generally, and indeed in the whole world. After all. 
however, these developments are of small importance to the 
Japanese compared with the answer to the question, Have 
they been gainers by the changes ? That is to say, Has the 
great body of the people been made healthier and happier 
and been enabled to develop their personalities to a higher 
degree than was possible under the old conditions ? All 
other questions sink into insignificance beside this one, and 
unless it is kept in mind at every stage of national develop- 
ment, both energy and means are simply wasted, and indeed 
possibly used to hasten national decay, if not destruction. 

Life in Old Japan had much to commend it to the 
thoughtful student of social conditions. The majority of the 
people lived their own lives and did not simply Life in ow 
struggle for the means of existence or for Japan. 
wealth and power, as is too often the case in Western 
countries. True, measured from the point of view of modern 
civilisation, the outlook must have been narrow, at least so 

365 



366 Dai Nippon 

far as the affairs of this world were concerned ; but their 
religion, or at any rate their philosophy, took them beyond 
those affairs and to a large extent made them indifferent to 
them and thus caused them to neglect the means which 
were necessary to enable them to realise their higher 
personalities. Intellectual activities and material means are 
however not necessarily the accompaniments of moral and 
spiritual development. Moreover, Western writers in dealing 
with Eastern conditions assume the truth of Western meta- 
physics and overlook the fact that Eastern civilisation is in 
great part built upon the idea of reincarnation (the possibility 
of the truth of which was admitted by an agnostic like 
Professor Huxley), which, if it be true, upsets all their 
estimates, as it indicates a much higher view of the doctrines 
of heredity and environment than is held in modern Western 
scientific thought. The discussion of this aspect of the 
subject, however, would take us far beyond our present limits, 
and it is simply mentioned to show that it has not been 
overlooked. 

As in all feudal systems, it must of course be admitted 
that the military class dominated the rest of the people, 
whose welfare was made secondary to theirs. Life was held 
at a low value, no doubt because its existence at any time 
was considered insignificant when compared with the cycles 
through which it extended. In addition to this view, there 
can be no doubt that mere bravado and a domineering spirit 
led to a reckless use of their swords by the samurai class. 
Measured by Western standards, the lives of the majority 
of the people were empty, as education in the modern sense 
of the term was rare. Many, however, found pleasure in 
their work, and they asked for no other blessedness. Even 
the most common craft had something artistic about it which 
revealed the personality of the worker. Outdoor pleasures, 
which were taken advantage of by all classes and all ages 
of the community, prevented tedium and maintained health ; 
the absence of material wealth was not much missed, 
as life was simple and wants were few. .There were no 



Social Re stilts 367 

great fortunes, but there was no degrading poverty ; for the 
semi-communism which prevailed provided for the wants of 
all without the machinery of a poor law. Children supported 
their parents in their old age, and even the poorest classes 
had friends or relations who supplied their wants. Modern 
industry, emigration, and war had not upset the provisions 
of nature, and practically all the women obtained husbands, 
who were able to provide for them in some way ; so that the 
woman question, as we know it, did not come to the front. 

No doubt, in some respects the position of women was 
very far from satisfactory, at least when measured from a 
Western point of view, and they were too much the mere 
subordinates of the men ; but in the great majority of cases 
their lives were not unhappy, and they proved themselves 
model wives and mothers. Any one who knows the con- 
ditions of the lives of the poorest class of women in Britain 
and compares them with what existed and still exists in 
Japan, would have no hesitation in saying that the lot of the 
Japanese was to be preferred. They had few who would 
compare with the best type of Western women, but, on the 
other hand, they had none who led the lives of the so-called 
leaders of society, who sacrifice not only themselves but 
also their families in the hunt for what they call pleasure, 
nor had they the degradation of extreme poverty and 
drunkenness. 

Men's position and influence were measured by their 
personal worth and not by their riches. The samurai had 
their incomes secured from the revenues of the land, and 
they often supplemented these by a little amateur farming. 
The tiller of the soil was looked up to with respect, because 
it was recognised that he, above all others, was an efficient 
worker, as he produced the necessaries of life. Tradesmen, 
artists, and workers of all kinds carried on their employ- 
ments very much at their ease, as they had learned that 
real happiness was found in giving out to their work the 
best that was in them. Merchants and speculators occupied 
the lowest position in the category of vocations. Conse- 



368 Dai A T ippon 

quently commerce did not reach a high degree of develop- 
ment, and the obloquy attached to the calling naturally 
brought within its pale such as cared little for social repute ; 
a fact which, as I have already indicated, explains many of 
the characteristics which have given Japanese merchants a 
bad name among commercial men — a name which is rapidly 
disappearing as education develops and as a superior class 
of men enter into mercantile life. 

The development of commerce and industry has had a 
profound effect on social and economic conditions, and that 

Modern development has been hastened by the improve- 
conditions. m ent which has taken place in the roads and 
by the introduction and extension of railways, steamboat 
services, telegraphs and telephones. These means of com- 
munication have had the effect of consolidating the empire 
and causing almost the last vestiges of the feudal system to 
disappear ; they have made intercourse between the people 
in all parts of the country not only possible but in 
the majority of cases very easy ; they have allowed its 
natural resources to be developed, have thus added greatly 
to its wealth and made it possible to undertake many 
national functions, the most important of which we have 
mentioned, and which have enabled Japan to take a position 
of equality among the nations of the world. On the other 
hand, as I have more than once indicated, these changes 
have not been without some very serious drawbacks. 

In many parts of Japan many of the old customs and 
methods of life still survive, but in the neighbourhood of 
large towns they are rapidly disappearing before the pressure 
of modern commerce and industry and the competition which 
they inevitably bring along with them. The results of that 
competition, with which we are so well acquainted in Britain, 
are beginning to appear, and Japan is now face to face with 
many of the social problems which have been the puzzle of 
Western social reformers and statesmen for several genera- 
tions. Large fortunes (comparatively speaking) are being 
accumulated at one end of the social scale,. while degrading 



Soda I Results 369 

poverty is appearing at the other, and as yet no effective 

means have been devised either to alleviate or to prevent it. 

The increased strain, worry, and anxiety, even among the 

well-to-do classes, make not a few of the older generation 

look back with regret on the conditions which existed in 

the days of their youth. Some of the most distinguished 

men in Japan indeed have been so impressed with the 

seriousness of the position that they have given up all their 

other pursuits in order that they may assist in the solution 

of the social problems which lie before their country. 

We are sometimes told that the Western civilisation 

of the Japanese is only skin-deep, for the most part 

confined to outward appearances, and that they are never 

really comfortable in their foreign clothes and in the use of 

foreign appliances. It is true that, notwithstanding all the 

developments which have taken place, in many respects the 

inner life of the people has not been much changed, and 

that many of them lead a kind of dual existence, conforming 

to the requirements of Western methods during the day, but 

reverting to purely Japanese customs in their own homes. 

Even those who have handsome houses on Western models 

always have an annexe where their familiar alcoves, verandahs, 

matted floors, and paper sliding doors continue to be found, 

and where family and familiar life is carried on in Japanese 

style. In my opinion, these characteristics are praiseworthy 

rather than otherwise. All the time I was resident in Japan 

I always urged that while the Japanese should take full 

advantage of Western science and civilisation, in so far as 

these were necessary to make their country great and their 

individual lives full and complete, they should retain all the 

characteristics of Japanese life and character, and maintain 

their individuality not only nationally but also personally. 

The seeming reaction of recent years is therefore all in the 

right direction. A nation which forgets its past and gives 

up all its special characteristics neither deserves nor indeed 

is ever likely to attain true greatness. 

The richer classes and many of the middle and working 
(b 3 o 7 ) 2 B 



370 Dai Nippon 

classes have been able to add to the luxuries and con- 
veniences of their lives, but even among the wealthy there 
Life of the well- is an utter absence of vulgar display, and the 
to-do classes, majority of them continue to live in a quiet, 
unostentatious way, just as if they were poor. " Which of 
us," asks a well-known writer who has been a long time in 
Japan, " which of us knows of even one very wealthy 
Japanese who makes a parade of his riches or devotes his 
money to purposes of glitter and display." They have not 
forgotten the social canon of Old Japan which made osten- 
tation a sin. No doubt the increase of wealth has led to 
luxurious habits on the part of some who have become 
rapidly rich ; but almost without exception those with whom 

1 have come into contact are very temperate in their manner 
of living, and in some cases almost ascetic. Of course, I do 
not wish to particularise, but many of the most distinguished 
as well as some of the richest men in the country have, for 
the most part, retained their simple personal habits, and they 
look upon their wealth as a trust which they must use not 
simply for their own gratification but for the good of their 
country. 

Notwithstanding the development of industry and 
commerce in Japan, the number of men who would be 
considered rich is still comparatively small, and even their 
incomes are insignificant compared with those of the 
millionaires of America. According to a return recently 
published in a Japanese economic journal, there are only 

2 men who pay an income tax on over 250,000 yen, and 
there are only 1 3 men in the whole country who pay on 
39,000 yen, only 67 who pay on 24,000 yen, 96 who 
pay on 17,000 yen, and 140 who pay on 11,000 yen. 
Out of every 1000 inhabitants there are only 7 persons 
who make 2700 yen a year. Measured therefore by 
income, the Japanese cannot be considered rich. According 
to Captain Brinkley, careful investigations now show that 
the number of men possessing property valued at .£50,000 
sterling does not exceed 441. Comparing. this record with 



Social Results 371 

American statistics, for example, it appears that whereas 
there are 3828 persons in the United States credited with 
possessing, at least, £200,000, or in other words 1 for every 
20,000 inhabitants, there is in Japan only 1 owner of 
£50,000 for every 100,000 of the population. The contrast 
is very striking. The figures which have been quoted show 
that there is still considerable equality of economic conditions 
among all classes of the people in Japan. 

For the most part, the life of the common people 
remains simple. Their staple food is rice, with fish — fresh 
and dried — seaweed, beans and other fruits Life of 
of the earth. Meat and poultry form but the common 
a small part of their dietary. Their houses P eo P e - 
are plain wooden structures, their furniture is scanty and 
cheap, and their dress, both of men and women, is inexpensive. 
In short, the Japanese have solved many of the problems of 
life by simplifying their wants ; so that we can understand 
why even those who have the means and the opportunity of 
indulging in Western habits and methods prefer, as soon as 
they can, to return to the simpler life of their own country. 
Such a procedure is not blameworthy but rather the reverse. 
They have found that the increase of possessions and the 
multiplication of complex appliances lead neither to health 
nor to happiness, and they have recognised, what many 
foreigners have also recognised, that the simple Japanese 
life is in many respects to be preferred. While not 
neglecting the advantages to be derived from Western 
appliances, they are coming to the Greek ideal of life, and 
while keeping their personal and family wants simple, they 
are determined to make their civic and national life as full 
and complete as possible. We have had sufficient evidence 
to show that patriotism is the dominant feature in the 
Japanese character, and the aspiration of every educated 
Japanese is to keep up with Western nations in the race for 
progress. The problem, however, which they have to solve 
is to arrive at a clear understanding as to what constitutes 
real progress. 



372 Da i Nippon 

In reviewing the general financial position of the country- 
Captain Brinkley comes to the conclusion that the tax-payer 
is much more favourably circumstanced now than he was ten 
years ago. People receiving fixed salaries, as administrative 
and judicial officials, persons engaged in education, etc., have 
had no increase of income to compensate them for increased 
taxation or for the sharp appreciation of prices. But such 
persons form a small fraction of the nation. All the other 
classes are earning more and possess much larger property. 
On the other hand, their taxes have not undergone any pro- 
portionate increase, and instead of saying that the nation is 
embarrassed by the payments it has to make to the State, 
the truth is that it pays relatively less than it did ten years 
ago. 

In a previous chapter 1 figures were given which showed 
that the wages of workmen, and especially those engaged in 
Western industries, had in some cases nearly doubled, and 
that in nearly all cases there had been very considerable 
increases. We have also seen 2 that the prices of nearly all 
the necessaries of life have risen, although not so much as the 
wages ; so that on the whole the economic condition of the 
majority of the people has improved. On the other hand, 
their wants have also developed, and it is doubtful if there is 
a large proportion who find themselves better off than they 
would have been under the old conditions. Moreover, a 
considerable number have been unable to fit themselves to 
the altered circumstances, and as is the case in all com- 
petitive communities they have gradually drifted down to 
the lowest depths of poverty. 

Some very dark pictures have been drawn of the 
conditions of the poorest classes. Probably some of these 
have been exaggerated, but there can be no doubt that the 
problem of the " submerged tenth " is becoming as acute in 
Japan as in other countries. This indeed is the problem 
which confronts all industrial communities. The following 
interesting comparison between the cost of living in 1889 and 
1 p. 183. '- p. 229. 



Social Results 



373 



1899 was given some time ago in the Japanese journal, the 
Miyako, and it is calculated to show the monthly expendi- 
ture of a family of six members — a married couple, a parent, 
two children, and one servant — living with strict economy : — 











Yen. 


Yen. 


House Rent . . . . .2.50 


5.OO 


Cleaned Rice 








4-5° 


7.OO 


Soy 








0.45 


°-75 


Salt and Miso 








0.40 


0.70 


Oils . 








°-45 


0.69 


Sugar . 








0.60 


0.90 


Milk . 








0.90 


1. 10 


Newspaper . 








0.25 


°-35 


School Expenses 








0.80 


0.90 


Stationery 








0.60 


0.90 


Hair-dressing 








o.34 


0.69 


Bath . 








0.90 


J -5° 


Vegetables . 








0.90 


1.50 


Fish . 








1.08 


1.80 


Beef . 








0.60 


1.20 


Auxiliary Foods 








0.24 


0.42 


Tea 








0.40 


0.50 


Fuel . 








1. 00 


1.80 


Total . 


1 7.2 1 


28.20 


Security money for 


Rent 






7.00 


15.00 



The above figures represent what may be considered the 
necessaries of life for a superior working-class family of six 
members, but when other petty expenses are included, the 
total will amount to fully thirty-five yen per month. 

The economic position of the agricultural classes does 
not seem to have improved to any great extent. The steady 
increase of population has been an important 
factor in keeping rents high, as the competition 
for farms has become much greater and the 
consequence is that very often the share of 
the profits which falls to the tenant-farmers is barely 
sufficient to provide them with the means of subsistence and 



Economic 
conditions of 
farmers and 

labourers. 



374 Dai Nippon 

with the manure and tools required for their farms. Exact 
statistics are not available, but there are about one million 
and a half freeholders, about one million tenant-farmers, and 
about two million who are partly freeholders and partly 
lessees ; so that it is evident that the agriculturalists form a 
very important part of the population, and their economic 
conditions must be carefully considered when estimating the 
results of the recent changes in Japan. Mr. Yamawaki, the 
Private Secretary of the Minister of Agriculture and Com- 
merce, states that " the farmers find it hard to keep up with 
the progress of the times " ; and he adds, " Something must 
be done towards ameliorating their condition, for though 
individually they are comparatively insignificant, their com- 
bined interests in the economy of the nation predominate 
considerably over all the others put together. The farming 
classes, for instance, constitute 60 per cent of the whole 
population and are largely sending their surplus population 
to cities and towns. In view of this circumstance, both the 
Government and the general public are doing their best to 
improve the mode of tillage, to encourage the use of labour- 
saving machines and devices, and also to promote all the 
important economic contrivances provided for the interests 
of the farmers ; so that it may safely be expected that the 
conditions of our farmers will become much better in the 
near future than they are now." 

Some time ago the editor of one of the Japanese 
journals sent out a form making inquiries regarding the 
lives and work of the labouring classes ; the following 
are two of the family budgets which were returned, and 
they throw much light on the inner life of the Japanese 
workers : — 

No. 1 

House, 2 rooms; a family — man, 30 ; wife, 23 ; mother, 
53 ; two sisters, 14 and 11 ; occupation, blacksmith. 

Yen. 

Working days in a month . . . 26 

Working hours in a day . . . . 12 



Social Results 



375 





Yen. 


Daily Wages 


• 0.52 


Monthly Income 


• 13-83 


Monthly Expenses 


• 13-65 


House Rent 


0.96 


Rice ..... 


. 5-76 


Fuel and Light . 


. 1.08 


Vegetables .... 


. 0.87 


Fish 


0.96 


Sake ..... 


0.24 


Soy 


• o-73 


Tobacco .... 


0.20 


Hair-cutting and dressing 


• 0.83 


Bath 


. 0.88 


Pin Money 


. 0.25 


Sundries .... 


. 0.89 



No. 2 

House, 2 rooms, with kitchen ; a family — man, 27 ; 
wife, 25 ; boy, 6 ; girl, 2 ; business, iron-worker. 









Yen. 


Daily Wages . . . . .0.25 


Overtime Income for one month 




I.50 


Monthly Income . 




8.28 


Monthly Expense 






9.44 


House Rent 






°-75 


Rice .... 






3- 2 5 


Fuel and Light . 






0.41 


Vegetables . 






0.60 


Fish .... 






0.60 


Soy and Miso 






0.23 


Tobacco .... 






0.25 


Hair-cutting and dressing 






0.18 


Bath .... 






0.20 


Pin Money 






0.60 


Sundries, including interest c 


n deb 


t 


2-37 



The family life of a country and the position occupied 
by women are probably the best tests of its Home life and 
civilisation. In comparing nation with nation the position of 
we have no doubt in asserting that one of 
the most important forces in the progress of society is 



3 j6 Dai Nippon 

the education which the mothers convey to their children, 
and no nation can ever be truly great unless women rise 
to a high plane of thought and life, and kindle and foster 
similar ideas in the minds of the young. In the East the 
focus of civilisation is to be found in the idea which prevails 
with regard to the home. Very often that does not lead 
either to physical or to moral efficiency, and this fact, no 
doubt, to a large extent accounts for the impotence of 
Eastern nations. In some respects Japanese home life 
affords an example to Western nations. The love of the 
Japanese for their children and the happiness of Japanese 
childhood requires to be seen to be appreciated. In fact, 
Japan has been called the paradise of children, and the 
name is not altogether undeserved. No such delightful 
children are to be found anywhere else in the world. It 
has been said that " to the beauty and grace of childhood 
they add the roguishness, the playfulness, and the gentleness 
of puppies or kittens, and they are just as self-possessed. 
To describe adequately the children's life in Japan, at least 
as it existed under purely Japanese conditions, would require 
a large volume. 

When, however, we inquire into the conditions which 
affect the intellectual and moral life of women, we find 
much that stands in need of improvement. Under the old 
regime women were entirely at the mercy of their husbands 
in almost every respect, and although great improvements 
have taken place, much more is to be desired. A very 
competent observer has said " the woman of Japan is a 
charming personage in many ways — gracious, refined, 
womanly before everything, sweet-tempered, unselfish, 
virtuous, a splendid mother and an ideal wife, from the 
point of view of the master. But she is virtually excluded 
from the whole intellectual life of the nation. Politics, art, 
literature, science are closed books to her. She cannot 
think logically about any of these subjects, express herself 
clearly with reference to them, or take any intellectual part 
in conversations relating to them. She is, in fact, totally 



Social Results $77 

disqualified to be her husband's intellectual companion, 
and the inevitable result is that he despises her." 

A great deal has been written about the sexual morality 
of the Japanese, into details of which, however, I cannot 
enter ; but it is very doubtful if in this respect they are any 
worse than the people of other countries, although they 
make less effort at concealment. In these matters, however, 
improvements are taking place, and public opinion is 
strengthening against some of the customs which formerly 
prevailed. Women are no longer compelled to follow 
prostitution against their wills, and many who had entered 
on such a life have voluntarily given it up. The accounts 
of this aspect of Japanese life which have been given 
by foreign writers have often been grossly exaggerated, 
and give an altogether false impression of the actual con- 
ditions. It is a very significant fact that many of the 
foreign visitors who write about Japan seem to think it 
their first duty to visit the special districts licensed for 
these purposes. One thing is certain ; a person may live 
in Tokyo for years and not see anything to offend his 
notions of propriety. So long as the most important 
streets of London, Paris, and other European cities present 
such scenes as they very often do, the West has no grounds 
for criticising the East. Too often the pictures which are 
painted represent the degradation of the open ports, where 
the morals have been pared down to European requirements. 
The Geisha of Japan, under good conditions, is by no means 
the degraded, sensual person she is represented to be, but on 
the contrary is highly intellectual and accomplished ; her 
first function is to minister to purely intellectual pleasures, 
and with many it remains the only function. The accounts 
of the writers who gloat over the moral deficiencies of the 
Japanese should be received with a great amount of caution. 

A great improvement has in recent years taken place 
in the position of women. Mr. Gubbins, in the introduction 
to his translation of the Codes, says : " In no respect has 
modern progress in Japan made greater strides than in the 



378 Dai Nippon 

improvement of the position of women. Though she still 
labours under certain disabilities, a woman can now become 
a head of a family, and exercise authority as such ; she can 
inherit and own property and manage it herself ; she can 
exercise parental authority ; if single, or a widow, she 
can adopt ; she is one of the parties to adoption effected by 
her husband, and her consent, in addition to that of her 
husband, is necessary to the adoption of her child by 
another person ; she can act as guardian or curator, and 
she has a voice in family councils." Meantime, as we have 
seen, attention is being paid to the education of women, and 
already a considerable number have shown both literary and 
artistic ability, and are able to discuss social and political 
problems with intelligence. The most thoughtful minds in 
Japan recognise that if their country is to be truly great, the 
women must be educated and animated with a conscious 
moral purpose which will always keep abreast of the highest 
level of the existing generation. 

Modern industrial conditions threaten to take away the 

joy of young life in Japan, and undermine the national 

„ . . health by the employment of women and 

Factory work J sr j 

of women and children in factories of all kinds in which the 
hours are long and the conditions of employ- 
ment insanitary. A great deal has been written on the 
subject in Japan recently, and although the descriptions 
of actual conditions have in some cases been overdrawn, 
there can be no doubt that the subject is one demanding 
careful attention on the part of the authorities. The 
industrial development of Japan will be bought at too 
dear a price if it causes the health of the rising generation 
to be undermined, and destroys that joyous life which has 
been so characteristic of the Japanese. 

On the whole, however, it is admitted by competent 

medical authorities that the physique of the Japanese 

people generally has improved in recent years. 

National health. % \ fe . . . , . f . 

Sanitary conditions have been bettered, the 
quality of the food of the majority of the people has 



Social Results 379 

improved, and more attention is now being paid to systematic 
physical development than was the case under feudal con- 
ditions, when it was for the most part confined to the 
samurai class. During the past few years especially the 
purely Japanese system of physical training entitled jiu-jitsu 
has been very much extended in its application (and indeed 
is becoming common both in Europe and America), with 
the result that wonders can be performed in the way of 
physical endurance. The soldiers, sailors, police, and others 
in official positions go through a systematic and thorough 
training. This training is in fact indicative of a great deal 
that is done by the Japanese, as their knowledge of scientific 
principles and their ability to apply them in an efficient 
manner enable them to surprise their adversaries, even 
although these surpass them in numbers and size. On 
the other hand, some of the conditions of modern industrialism 
tend to lower the state of the national health, and therefore 
to decrease the amount of the national wealth, in the true 
sense of that term. 

Since the revision of the treaties and the development 
of the means of communication with the Far East, the 
intercourse between Japan and foreign countries intercourse with 
has been greatly extended. Many Japanese foreigners. 
go abroad for purposes of study, commerce, and special 
investigations, and many foreigners now visit Japan, for 
the most part, however, for purposes of pleasure. Indeed, 
Japan is becoming somewhat like Switzerland in this 
respect (for there is no more delightful country in which 
to spend a holiday), and what may be called the " tourist 
industry" is increasingly lucrative. It is doubtful, however, 
whether it does not do more harm than good to the people 
of Japan. It certainly causes prices to be raised to those 
who are engaged in more serious researches, and who are of 
more moderate means. Rich people who make Japan a 
mere holiday resort are likely to be somewhat extravagant 
in their habits, and some of them are objectionable from 
other points of view ; so that their influence on the people 



380 Da i Nippon 

with whom they come into contact is not likely to be for 
good. Even when I went to Japan, the manners of the 
Japanese deteriorated as we approached a foreign settlement ; 
a fact which was a somewhat sad commentary on Western 
civilisation. The value of that civilisation will be estimated 
not by its material advantages or its profession of religion, 
but by its effects on the lives of those who represent it in 
the Far East. 

It is evident that the development of modern industry 
in Japan has brought it face to face with those labour 
Labour and problems which are to be found in Britain and 
social problems. a j[ other industrial countries, and which are 
the inevitable results of a transition stage of society, and 
it will be interesting and no doubt instructive to note how 
they are met in the Britain of the East. Meantime the 
same processes are going on as in the Britain of the West. 
Factory legislation is being proposed with the view of 
preventing the most apparent evils, and combinations of 
employers and workers are being formed for the purpose 
of safeguarding their respective interests. Both, however, 
are still in a very indefinite position, but the employers 
have the advantage on account of their capital, and while 
uniting for their own purposes, they are, as a rule, opposed 
to unions for the workers, and several of the large organisa- 
tions refuse to engage union men. The problems of the 
relations of capital and labour are in Japan, as in other 
industrial countries, the problems which are certain to attract 
most attention. 

While duly recognising all that has been accomplished in 
Japan, as I have said, many of the most thoughtful minds in 
the country look back with something like regret on the old 
state of affairs, and I must confess that I share in that feeling 
to a very considerable extent. What we call modern civilisa- 
tion does not captivate those who have imbibed something 
of the ideals and the spirit of the East. A writer from whom 
I have already quoted has truly said : " There are two forms 
of the cultivation of Self. One leads to the exceptional 



Social Results 38 1 

development of the qualities which are noble, and the other 
signifies something about which the less said the better. But 
it is not the former which the New Japan is now beginning 
to study. I confess to being one of those who believe that 
the human heart, even in the history of a race, may be worth 
infinitely more than the human intellect, and that it will 
sooner or later prove itself infinitely better able to answer all 
the cruel enigmas of the Sphinx of Life. I still believe that 
the old Japanese were nearer to the solution of those enigmas 
than are we, just because they recognised moral beauty as 
greater than intellectual beauty. And by way of conclusion I 
may venture to quote from an article on education by 
Ferdinand Brunetiere : — ' All our educational measures will 
prove vain if there be no effort to force into the mind and 
to deeply impress upon it the sense of these fine words of 
Lamennais : " Human society is based upon mutual giving, or 
upon the sacrifice of man for man, or of each man for all other 
men ; and sacrifice is the very essence of all true society" It 
is this that we have been unlearning for nearly a century ; 
and if we have to put ourselves to school afresh it will be in 
order that we may learn it again. Without such knowledge 
there can be no society and no education — not, at least, 
if the object of education be to form man for society. 
Individualism is to-day the enemy of education, as it is also 
the enemy of social order. It has not been so always, but 
it has so become. It will not be so for ever, but it is so now. 
And without striving to destroy it — which would mean to fall 
from one extreme into another — we must recognise that no 
matter what we wish to do for the family, for society, for 
education, and for the country, it is against individualism 
that the work will have to be done.' " l These opinions are 
being shared to a considerable extent in Japan, and they are 
certain to influence the future of the nation ; but the transition 
which is going on is not yet sufficiently advanced to hazard 
a prediction as to the probable form of social organisation 
which will be the outcome. I believe that Japan will learn 

1 Hearn, Kokoro, p. 38. 







82 Dai Nippon 



a great deal by a careful study of her former conditions, and 
thus may be able to temper the extreme individualism which 
is the cause of so many social evils. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

In Japan, as was the case in Britain, the social results of the 
industrial revolution are being forced on the attention of the people 
from the observation of actual conditions. These are freely dis- 
cussed in the Japanese newspapers and also in the foreign papers 
published in Japan, but as yet nothing systematic has been done 
either to solve the problems which have arisen or even to record the 
actual conditions. Many articles have appeared giving details of 
special cases, and the conscience of the country is being awakened. 
Actual observation and reference to the files of the daily newspapers 
are the chief means of obtaining information, although some of the 
recent books on Japan touch the subject ; none of them deals 
with it thoroughly or in a systematic manner. A few years ago 
an investigation was undertaken by M. Andre Siegfried and pub- 
lished by the Musee Social (Paris), entitled Le Developpement 
Economique et Social du Japon, which contains a good deal of inter- 
esting and important information regarding the working of the factory 
system in Japan. Chapter vm. of M. Dumolard's book on Japan 
treats of La Question Ouvrilre et le Pauperisme, and may be read 
with advantage, although some of the statements are one-sided. 
Alfred Stead, in Japan, Our New Ally, also has a chapter on the 
Labour Problem, and in addition gives a good deal of interesting 
information on social and economic subjects. It is to be hoped that 
Japanese students of sociology will deal with social problems in the 
same thorough manner as scientific problems have been dealt with in 
Japan, and their efforts will be watched with great interest. 



CHAPTER XIX 

THE FUTURE 

The past history of Japan and China shows most distinctly 
how the economic and social conditions of a country may 
be influenced by the prevailing ideals of National ideals 
individual and national life. In Japan, under and 

the feudal system, everything was conditioned econonllcs - 
by the fact that it had been determined that the country 
was to be self-contained and self-supporting. The position 
has thus been stated by a competent writer : " A population 
of twenty millions at a start — that number nearly doubling 
before the country was again thrown open — was to be sub- 
sisted solely upon the resources which the empire itself 
could supply, with only one-twelfth of its area susceptible of 
cultivation. At the same time, in the face of the tendencies 
to the contrary, which isolation is ordinarily sure to develop, 
the people were to preserve their self-respect and live in 
peace, happiness, and content with each other. 

" That the policies adopted to secure these seemingly 
impossible ends were successful, the condition of the people 
at the present time when, after the centuries of seclusion, the 
barriers have been broken down and the feudal system 
abolished, is ample proof. These people are indeed 
wretchedly poor, but their occupation being held in high 
esteem, their access of pride is to them and to the nation 
more than compensation for their poverty ; while the wonder- 
ful development of agriculture under the stimulus of that 
pride has made the arable twelfth of the empire more than 

383 



384 Dai Nippon 

sufficient to support its teeming millions. And, again, the 
pinching and searching economics enforced upon the masses, 
having not only the law but the fashion, even in the higher 
ranks of society, have resulted in that simplicity of living 
and consequent freedom from superfluous cares which have 
practically made the Japanese, in the best sense of the word, 
the most independent people of the world." l Under these 
conditions a man's value was not estimated by the amount 
of his wealth, but by his worth as a soldier, a statesman, an 
artist, or other useful worker, or as a citizen. The separation 
between power and riches kept the distribution of the latter 
fairly equable, as few thought the accumulation of wealth a 
sufficient object of life. It was true that new developments 
in science and industry were discouraged and that literature 
was repressed ; still, on the whole, life was simple and free and 
offered many compensations for what, from a Western point 
of view, would be considered its imperfections, and many 
thoughtful Japanese look back on the old days with feelings 
of regret. 

The Japanese theory of life was founded to a large 
extent on Confucian philosophy, and Japan owed practically 
Confucian a ^ tne cn ^ e ^ features of its civilisation to China, 
philosophy and therefore it is to that country we must look if 
we wish to understand the Japanese mind. My 
old friends the first Chinese Ministers to Japan, Their 
Excellencies Ho Ju-Chang and Chang Sz-Kwei, with whom 
I very often discussed such matters, were in the habit of 
saying to me that while they gave Western people great 
credit for their knowledge of science and its applications to 
industry, they were of opinion that the steam and the 
electricity had got into their brains and that the machines 
were their masters, not their servants. Thoughtful social 
reformers have long recognised this fact, and have come to 
the conclusion that political, economic, and social problems 
are to be solved only by individuals and nations who have 
realised the object and meaning of life. Eastern people, as 

1 Knapp, Feudal and Modern Japan, vol. i. p. 117. 



The Future 385 

I have already remarked, have as a rule neglected the 
means necessary to enable them to live the highest life, 
whereas those of the West exhaust a great part of their 
energy in the struggle for the means of life and for super- 
fluities which in many cases are of no real value. The 
Christian conception of life has been lost in the race for 
individual riches and for personal and national ambitions, 
and no country has suffered so much as China from those 
who profess the Gospel of Peace. 

It must not be imagined that I am placing the civilisa- 
tion of Old Japan or of China before that of the West ; what 
I wish to insist upon is, that the peoples of the East should 
retain all that is characteristically Eastern in so far as it 
helps the higher life, and adopt only those Western methods 
which will enable them to live their own lives 

The t3.sk of Asii 

in their own way and according to their own 
ideals. As a Japanese writer from whom I have quoted has 
put it : " The task of Asia to-day becomes that of protecting 
and restoring Asiatic modes " ; and while keeping in view the 
ends of life, it should also develop the means of life in such a 
manner as to make the highest life possible. Instead of 
rushing into the competition for cheap production and 
spending a large part of their national resources on the 
materials of war, they must recognise that the production of 
souls of good quality is, after all, the most lucrative one. 
Ruskin was laughed at when he held up this ideal in 
Britain, but the necessity for it being kept in mind is being 
slowly recognised. One of the chief faults of the British 
people, and to a great extent of all Western peoples 
generally, is that they are so pleased with the advancement 
and excellence of their own institutions that they cannot 
understand why any other nation cannot be content with 
what contents them, and this tactless, unimaginative charity 
has been the main cause of their troubles in all parts of the 
world. 

Before ideals can be realised attention must be paid to 
the foundations on which they are expected to rest, and 



(b 207) 



2 C 



386 Dai Nippon 

therefore economic conditions must receive careful atten- 
tion. As I have already indicated, there are difficult 
Future financial problems before Japan, and each of these must 
and fiscal policy be studied in all its aspects. Their solution 
o japan. -will depend in great part on the national policy 
adopted with regard not only to home but also to foreign 
affairs. The problems connected with fiscal policy are now 
being very much discussed in all parts of the British Empire, 
and it will be interesting to observe how they are dealt with 
in Japan. The conditions of the two Empires, are, how- 
ever, very different, and the arguments which apply to the 
one will not apply to the other. The past history of Japan 
affords lessons which will not be forgotten by Japanese 
statesmen, although they are not likely to return to a 
policy of seclusion. While developing their own resources 
and taking advantage of the applications of science to 
industry, it is to be hoped that they will retain sufficient 
of their native philosophy not to allow the struggle for 
the means of life to cause them to forget the ends of 
national life ; namely, the highest welfare of the great body 
of the people, physically, intellectually, and morally. 

The financial arrangements connected with the develop- 
ments which have taken place in Japan have been managed 
with great skill and with comparatively little help from 
foreign countries. Large sums have been spent on the 
army and navy, but it is to be hoped that the policy pursued 
by European Powers will be such as to render unnecessary 
any great increase in that department of national expenditure, 
so that the resources of the country may be developed and 
prosperity increased. If intercourse with Foreign Powers 
brings to Japan the curse of militarism, with all its attendant 
evils, the people of the country will pay dearly for their 
admission into the comity of nations. 

The question of the use of foreign capital is one requiring 
great care. As a rule capitalists are too intent on securing 
large returns for their money to pay much attention to the 
social results of their undertakings, but still, with proper 



The Future 387 

precautions, it would be possible to employ foreign capital 
not only to the advantage of those who lent it, but also to 
that of the people of Japan. 

We cannot expect the Japanese to be content with 
modern manufacturing industries which are just sufficient for 
use in their own country. They must be able Manufacturing 
to obtain whatever they require for the develop- industries. 
ment of their national life, and as imports can be paid for 
only by exports, they must send to other countries some 
of their own productions. Not only their economic con- 
ditions but also their national ambition impel them to 
enter the markets of the world, and especially those of the 
Far East ; but if they are wise they will subordinate their 
external trade to the welfare of the great masses of their 
own people and estimate their national wealth, not by the 
value of their cheap productions, but by the results on the 
Japanese nation and on the world. The conditions which 
existed in the early days of the manufacturing system in 
Britain, and some of the worst of which are being reproduced 
in Japan, should be a warning against the adoption of any 
policy that would degrade the conditions of the working 
population. A thoughtful writer has pointed out that " the 
industrial reformation for which Western Europe groans and 
travails, and the advent of which is indicated by so many 
symptoms (though it will come only as the fruit of faithful 
and sustained effort), will be no isolated fact, but will form 
part of an applied art of life, modifying our whole en- 
vironment, affecting our whole culture, and regulating our 
whole conduct ; in a word, directing all our resources to 
the one great end of the conservation and development of 
humanity." 1 

This may seem too much of an ideal to be of use in 
practical life, but the Japanese, above all modern nations, 
have shown themselves most capable of rising to a national 
ideal, and symptoms are not wanting that such a one as has 
been indicated would rouse their imagination and stir them 

1 Ingram, History of Political Economy, p. 246. 



388 Dai Nippon 

to practical action, and their example would have a powerful 
influence on the nations of Europe and America. 

While that ideal should be kept in mind and approxi- 
mated to as rapidly as possible, a strong army and navy 
Effects on will be national necessities for Japan for a very 
foreign policy, considerable time, and her statesmen recognise 
that fact. Gradually, however, the attempt to carry out the 
ideal I have mentioned would have great effect, not only on 
the home but also on the foreign policy of the country, and 
would do more to strengthen Japan than doubling her army 
and navy. The position of Japan in the Far East is a 
matter which concerns, to a greater or less degree, every 
nation in the world ; and a policy such as I have indicated 
would gather allies round her whose friendship would be 
sufficient to ward off the aggression of any one Power, even 
if Japan felt herself unequal to the task, which I do not 
believe she would. The policy of the Britain of the West 
has often seemed to other nations too self-assertive, and the 
increase of her naval armaments has led to great expenditure 
and to a great increase in the navies of the other Powers. 
Surely, if civilisation has any meaning, it should give us 
confidence in the good intentions of our neighbours, or at 
any rate, if these intentions prove bad, it should lead to 
such action on the part of all the other nations as would 
bring the troublesome party to its senses. A small inter- 
national naval force, acting as a police for the Pacific area, 
and under the orders of a Council representing all the 
Powers concerned, should be all that was required in the way 
of naval expenditure, and then the resources of the various 
countries could be employed in advancing the welfare of the 
people. 

The real and ultimate solution of the problems of the 
foreign policy of Japan, and indeed of every other country, 
TTU . . , .. is not to be found in the struggle for foreign 

Ultimate solution =>■=> & 

of the problems markets, but in the development of the home 
o oreign po icy. mar k e t anc j j n ^g improvement of the social, in- 
tellectual, and moral conditions of her own people. Colonisa- 



The Ftiture 389 

tion and emigration can only be temporary ameliorations 
of the population question, as it is evident that when all the 
industrial nations of the world pursued the same policy, every 
part of the surface of the globe would soon be overcrowded, 
and the difficulty would be greater than ever. Poverty, in 
all its forms, not only in so far as it arises from absence of 
wealth, but also, much more, in the want of spirit and in a 
low state of morality, combined with the severe struggle 
for merely material ends, is the main cause of the rapid 
increase of population. A general improvement in the 
standard of comfort and intelligence would tend more than 
anything else to prevent an undue increase of population, 
and, there is good reason to believe, would bring about an 
equilibrium between the birth and death rates. As the 
world becomes wiser the waste of infant life will be much 
reduced and longevity extended. In the past, Japan was 
able to solve her population question, and there can be no 
doubt that if, with her greater knowledge, she studies all the 
factors in the problem, she will be quite able to do it in the 
future, without returning to a policy of seclusion, with all its 
results, or even resorting to emigration on a large scale, but 
by raising her people to a high standard of intellectual, 
moral, and social conditions which would make them not 
only respected abroad but also prosperous at home. The 
solution of this problem involves the solution of many other 
social problems, and it would put an end to all troubles 
connected with foreign policy. 

The sketch which has been given in a previous chapter 
of the development of constitutional government in Japan, as 
well as the historical notes on the events of 

. , . . , Future of 

recent years, show that, notwithstanding the constitutional 
introduction of representative institutions into government 

1 in Japan. 

Japan, the old principles of loyalty to the 
Emperor and of implicit obedience to his will still have a 
great hold on the people of the country. On several 
occasions an indication of that will has quelled party spirit 
and compelled Parliament to look at the questions before it 



39° Dai Nippon 

from a patriotic point of view. As we have seen, the 
Japanese Constitution makes the Ministers independent of 
Parliament and responsible only to the Emperor ; but while 
that is so, it cannot be disputed that, indirectly, the decisions 
of Parliament have had a great deal to do with the making 
and unmaking of Ministries. The Emperor has adhered 
faithfully to the terms of the Constitution, and the proofs 
which he has given of his wisdom and patriotism show that 
there is no danger of a return to the old state of autocracy. 
Moreover, popular influence is increasing so rapidly that no 
Minister of the Crown, however reactionary, dare advise a 
suspension of the Constitution. As Mr. Tokiwo Yokoi has 
put it : " How these two principles of the divine right of the 
sovereign and the divine right of the people, which in 
Europe have so often waged fierce contests for ascendency, 
are to be harmonised, is the problem which is at present 
taxing the efforts of the most thoughtful politicians of the 
country. These politicians all see that it has been the 
intense loyalty of the people which, more than anything else, 
has carried the ship of state through the troubles of recent 
times, and that it is the Imperial House which to-day gives 
unity to the nation, notwithstanding the presence of a 
hundred divisive forces. At the same time these statesmen 
also see that the rights and liberties of the people are not 
only to be preserved and guarded intact, so far as they exist 
already, but that they must be more and more increased in 
proportion as the people prove themselves capable of a larger 
exercise of their powers." 

The future evolution of government and administration 
in Japan will form a most interesting study, and there are 
many difficult problems to be faced. On the one hand, 
the demand for a popular form of government, directly 
responsible to the elected representatives of the people, will 
become stronger, while on the other there will be great 
opposition to any change which will seem to diminish the 
glory of the crown and make the government less stable. 
What form the government will ultimately take it is 



The Future 391 

impossible to say, but there are not likely to be any violent 
changes. The intense loyalty to the Emperor and the 
spirit of patriotism which compels all Japanese to lay aside 
merely personal and party reasons, and probably also the 
danger arising from the aggressive policies of some of the 
great Powers of Europe, will cause the ancient " Bushido " of 
Japan to reappear in a form suited to the new conditions, 
and solve the difficulties which at present are appearing on 
the political horizon. 

It is sincerely to be hoped that Japan, in her own 
interests, will continue her present policy, abstain from 
any attempt at territorial aggrandisement in 
Asia, and confine herself to commercial and 
industrial intercourse and to guidance in the rejuvenation of 
that vast continent. There are too many interests involved 
to allow any one Power to obtain a dominating influence in 
the Far East, and especially in China. Free intercourse, 
without any sign of political aggression, is the only bond 
which will bring about the brotherhood of nations. Unless 
the Foreign Powers interested in China recognise this fact, 
they are only transferring to China the problems with which 
they are confronted in Europe. Their duty is, therefore, to 
aid in the peaceful development of Asia and to give all 
assistance to the Chinese and the other peoples to reform 
their own Government and to take advantage of Western 
methods, in so far as these are necessary for the purpose of 
raising the standard of life. Whatever the result of the 
contest between Japan and Russia may be, both Powers 
should remember that the peoples of the countries con- 
cerned have rights which should not be overlooked, and that 
their object should be to raise them to a higher state of 
national life. As I have frequently pointed out, this cannot 
be done by imposing a civilisation on them from without ; the 
impetus must come from within. Education should be 
developed in all its departments so that the people of 
China and Korea may learn what is necessary in order to 
hold their own in the international struggle for existence. 



39 2 Dai Nippon 

Probably, as the representatives of the Western Powers 
become wiser, they may recognise the futility of a great part 
of that struggle, and decide, as many of the Chinese have 
done, that the object of life is to live, and not simply to 
struggle for the means of existence. Intercourse with 
Western people and with the Japanese will, however, 
show the slow-moving people of China and Korea that a 
knowledge of science and of its applications to the develop- 
ment of the national resources is necessary for the fullest 
individual and national life. 

All the Powers interested in the Far East may rest assured 
that the civilisation of the future demands the maintenance 
of strong independent nations, fearless of oppression, entering 
into closer commercial and social intercourse with each other ; 
that thus by the practice of material aid upon the plane of 
physical life, they may lay the foundation of a higher 
spiritual fellowship. Any attempt at military or political 
domination simply leads to the suppression of all real 
national life and hinders the cause of true world civilisation, 
the object of which is, not to extinguish individual nationality, 
but rather to bring it into strong organic harmony with the 
life of other nations. 

The bogey of the " Yellow Peril " has been raised as a 
reason why Eastern nations should not be encouraged to 
The so-called strengthen themselves with all the appliances 
"Yellow Peril." f Western arts, both of peace and war, and the 
rapid development of Japan has led to the fear that she may 
place herself at the head of an Asiatic combination which 
might overwhelm the civilisation of Europe. Mr. Charles H. 
Pearson has drawn a gloomy picture, not only of the 
possibilities but also of the probabilities of the future ; and Mr. 
Meredith Townsend has argued that Asia, which has rejected 
Christianity and hates the European mind, will one day 
attempt to shake itself free from the Western world. If that 
day ever comes, it will have been brought about by the conduct 
of the European Powers, which have so long taken advantage 
of the weakness of Asia. It is just possible that the ends of 



The Future 393 

eternal justice require such a retribution, but I believe it is 
not yet too late to prevent it. To the Eastern nations the 
" White Peril " is a reality, while to the Western nations 
the " Yellow Peril " is only a speculation. I am inclined 
to agree with the opinions of Professor E. G. Browne of 
Cambridge University, who in a recent lecture said : " The 
curious thing is that nobody has any idea of whether there 
would be any ' Yellow Peril ' even if the other Asiatic 
Powers shook off their weakness as Japan has done. For it 
is to be remembered that while our civilisation has developed 
very largely on military lines, that of China (which is the 
dominant factor in the case) has tended away from militarism. 
The Chinese despise fighting as a propensity of brutes, 
beasts, or savages, and leave it to the riff-raff of the populace. 
And even if, under the influence of Japan and the pressure 
of European rapacity, they should organise themselves to 
resist the violence of others, it does not follow that they will 
embark on a career of aggression. On the contrary, it is 
possible that China may yet give the world a lead in the 
direction of peace." If that lead be not followed, we are not 
likely to be far wrong in assuming that, if the unexpected 
ability of the Japanese and the Chinese to defend themselves 
against the " White Peril " means a " Yellow Peril," that 
peril is certain to appear. 

Meantime Japan is face to face with some of the 
problems of a similar nature to those which have appeared 
in Europe and America. The inevitable result Future of com- 
of the developments of industry and commerce binations of 
and the increase of competition has been, as capita 
we have seen, the formation of large combinations of capital 
which are beginning to have very important effects on the con- 
ditions of the people, and one of the most important problems 
of the future is : — What forms will these combinations 
ultimately take and to what will they lead ? Will they 
cause a return, in a modified form, to the semi-communistic 
conditions of the feudal system in which the due mainten- 
ance of the lives of the people was considered the first 



394 Dai Nippon 

charge, or will they tend to become more and more 
capitalistic in their nature, and dividends for the fortunate 
few be ground out of the lives of the workers ? Under 
modern conditions, in all industrial countries, wealth has 
increased at one end of the social scale and poverty at the 
other, and already in Japan these two features have given 
rise to a considerable amount of socialistic writing and 
speaking. Indeed a prominent Japanese politician has 
written a book in which he has pictured a socialistic 
Utopia where poverty will be unknown, but he has copied 
his picture too closely from Western models and has not 
sufficiently considered the idiosyncrasies of the Japanese 
mind. While the philosophy and former social order of 
the Japanese was, to a very considerable extent, communistic 
in its nature, still their genius is individualistic, and they 
are not willing to sacrifice results to a rigid organisation. 
What ultimate form the combinations will take it is of 
course impossible to say ; but it is to be hoped that the 
organisation of the future will allow the work which is done 
to be representative not only of the Japanese ideals of life 
and art but also embody many of the features of the new 
civilisation, and in this way Japan would be able to exercise 
great influence on the life and thought of every country in 
the world. 

The amount and nature of this influence would depend 
on the moral standard in Japan. At present that is very 
Future of ethics indefinite. Old ideas have to a large extent 
m japan. disappeared, and during the transition nothing 
very definite has taken their place, although the discussion 
of ethical problems is now occupying the attention of many 
thoughtful men in Japan. In a previous chapter I have 
indicated some of the steps which have been taken in the 
direction of arriving at an ethical basis for modern Japanese 
life. Probably the process will be slow, and in the interval 
many different opinions will be expressed and many experi- 
ments be made. Mr. Tokiwo Yokoi, from whom I have 
already quoted on this subject, says : -" The Japanese 



The Fuhire 395 

professors of morals cannot appeal to the authority of a 
religious system. After the failure of the attempt to revive 
Confucianism, no other similar project can succeed. Educa- 
tion has never been, at least during the last three centuries, 
in the hands of the Buddhist priests. Their ethical interests 
are to-day too weak to seek to influence the policy of moral 
education. Christianity is not to be thought of. It is yet 
new and untried, and its position, though highly respectable, 
is not commanding enough to take the lead in this work. 
The only available course left to the educators of Japan is 
to appeal to the sentiments of loyalty and patriotism which 
lie latent in the breast of every Japanese. Such appeals 
carry immense weight with the young, and go no doubt a 
great way in solving the problem." He points out, however, 
that they are apt to become one-sided, and to forget that 
in order that efficient public service may be performed, there 
must, in the first place, be men of good personal character, 
and that the rising generation must not only have impressed 
upon them that truthfulness, temperance, generosity, and 
thrift are indispensable to those who would be loyal and 
patriotic subjects of the Mikado, but that they are so im- 
portant in themselves, they ought to be freed from the 
domination of any other class of virtues and given in- 
dependent positions. He thinks, however, that most likely 
this one-sided emphasis on the importance of public virtues 
to the neglect of the private is a momentary phase in the 
educational development and will gradually pass away, and 
with the increase of intelligence among the people and the 
growth of private schools which are conducted on less 
formal and more liberal lines than the Government institu- 
tions, there will be evolved a system of ethics suitable to 
the new conditions. 

There are at present three distinct trends in Japanese 
ethical thought. In the first, it is argued that the religion 
and ethics of Old Japan, if maintained in their purity, are 
sufficient for the wants of the future ; in the second, that the 
materialistic and utilitarian philosophy is all that is necessary; 



3 9 6 Dai Nippon 

and in the third, that a higher development is required in 
the direction of Christianity, although it may be necessary 
to present it in a form different from that which is common 
in Western countries. 

The ideals of " Bushido " which inculcate right -doing 

combined with the highest code of honour have still a great 

Future of hold on the minds of many of the people of 

religion in Japan. Life without honour is not worth living, 

Japan. anc j death is faced without fear if either personal 

or national honour is in question. Buddhism, which 

permeates the thoughts of the common people ; Shintoism, 

which makes the bond of personal loyalty to the Emperor 

so strong ; Confucianism, which guides their practical ethics ; 

and the influence of Western science, philosophy, and religion 

must all be reckoned with in considering the possibilities of 

the future. That future is therefore difficult to forecast. 

Marquis Ito may be taken as a representative of the 
spirit of the Revolution. Some years ago when a suggestion 
was made that national education should be put on a 
religious basis, a Japanese interviewer reported that Marquis 
Ito " did not hesitate to dismiss the rumour as a baseless 
fabrication. That religious votaries should endeavour to 
push their evangelical efforts in every direction, educational 
or political, was intelligible enough. But it would be the 
height of folly for educationists to invoke the aid of religion. 
. . . The modern progress of Japan was, in his opinion, due, 
among other things, to the fact that all religious entangle- 
ments had been wisely avoided in the domains of education 
and politics. ' Look,' said he, ' look at those Oriental 
countries which are still in a state of religious bondage. 
Do we not observe in those countries that religious prejudice 
still constitutes a fatal barrier to the introduction of an 
intelligent system of administration ? Do those among us 
who would have religion introduced into the field of educa- 
tion desire to follow in the footsteps of the backward 
countries of the East ? ' He did not mean to say that 
religion should be banished altogether from society ; the 



The Future 397 

people were perfectly free to believe and profess any form 
of religion, only .... with re-affirmation of the drastic 
and sufficing efficiency of Education, pure and undefiled." 
He continued : " In the view of the ruling classes, religion is 
a secondary affair. The important thing is to conserve the 
national morality, which inculcates love of country, loyalty 
to the Sovereign, filial piety, family harmony, respect for 
parents, goodwill among sons and daughters, the worship of 
ancestors, etc. These are civic and family observances, not 
religious. This moral system limits its aims to this world, 
and its practice contemplates no celestial reward." The 
religion of the Revolution is evidently not a religion in the 
ordinary sense, but a civic and family morality, and seems 
to be very similar to that inculcated by Comte. 

On the other hand, it cannot be disputed that Christianity, 
in some of its varied forms, is having considerable influence, 
both direct and indirect, in Japan, but it will be presented to 
the people in a form widely differing from that of Western 
countries. Count Okuma has expressed the opinion that 
" Civilisation does not depend upon religion. The old 
characteristic civilisation of Japan has assimilated Christianity, 
giving birth to something better. Japan's progress for the 
last thirty years does not depend on Christianity, but upon 
the peculiar attractiveness of the Japanese character. Japan 
has her own philosophical system, based on Chinese ethics, 
and strictly speaking she has no religion ; but she has 
capacity for Western civilisation, which enables her to 
assimilate the best that the Western nations possess." Mr. 
Shimada Saburo, a professed Christian and a well-known 
journalist and politician, writes : " The Christianity that gains 
the hearts and minds of the people of Japan will be our own — 
a Japanese Christianity. It will not be exactly like that of 
England or of the United States. Just as we have united 
the Benevolence of Confucius and the Mercy of Buddha, and 
have made a product peculiar to Japan, so Christianity will 
be tinged with the national characteristics." Dr. Nitobe (from 
whom I have so often quoted) believes that the profit and 



39$ Dai Nippon 

loss philosophy of utilitarians and materialists finds favour 
only among logic - choppers with half a soul ; an opinion 
which is rather hard on the scientific men in Japan, who are 
for the most part inclined to this way of thinking. He 
explains his own position (which may be accepted as that 
of many thoughtful men who have had opportunities of 
studying Western thought and its results) in the following 
words : " It is with ecclesiastical methods and with the forms 
which obscure the teachings of Christ, and not with the 
teachings themselves, that I have little sympathy. I believe 
in the religion taught by Him and handed down to us in the 
New Testament, as well as in the law written in the heart. 
Further, I believe that God hath made a testament which 
may be called ' old ' with every people and nation — Gentile 
or Jew, Christian or heathen." He further believes that 
before Christianity can make much progress in Japan or 
in the East generally, it must divest itself of its foreign 
accoutrements and the superstructure of Western metaphysics 
with which it has been loaded. At a religious conference 
held in Amsterdam last year, Mr. Z. Toyosaki, of Tokyo, 
said that " the Japanese are usually said to be indifferent 
towards religion, but this is not their real attitude. In fact, 
their dissatisfaction with popular Buddhism and orthodox 
Christianity has led them to stand aloof from all religions. 
They have found that popular religious conceptions are 
incompatible with the scientific and philosophic thought of 
the present day. Yet they have come to acknowledge the 
possibility of a higher religion capable of satisfying the 
intellectual as well as the spiritual cravings of mankind." 
Any one who keeps himself acquainted with Japanese 
thought, as that is expressed in their journals and current 
literature, must admit that moral and religious subjects claim 
a large share of attention. 

The Japanese, indeed, must find it very difficult to 
ascertain what Christianity really is, as it has been presented 
to them in so many different forms ranging from the 
Salvation Army to the Roman Catholic and Greek Churches, 



The Future 399 

and all claiming to spread the true Gospel. They must 
have a further difficulty in discovering where Christianity is, 
when they observe the results on either the individuals or 
the nations with whom they come into contact. The former 
are, as a rule, more intent on the worship of mammon and 
the pursuit of pleasure than the service of God and their 
fellow- men, while the latter in their dealings with Eastern 
peoples constantly deny the religion which they profess. 
When they visit Europe and America and study the results 
of Western civilisation they find many things with which 
they are by no means enamoured. The effects of Christianity 
in Japan must be measured, not by the number of professing 
Christians, although that is now considerable, but by the 
influence of Western civilisation on the national life and 
thought. Modern Japan has, to a large extent, as Count 
Okuma has expressed it, assimilated the best that Western 
nations possess, and to a very considerable degree has 
justified the opinion that the nation which has from 
ancient times imbibed and assimilated the elements of 
Oriental civilisation, may produce a new and strong tissue, 
and this may be done not by a suddenly professed change 
of religion, but by a slow process of evolution in which many 
forces — economic, intellectual, and spiritual — will co-operate. 
Those who are working in this direction may rest assured 
that personal and national example will have more effect 
on Eastern ethics and religion than formal teaching and 
preaching, especially if these be conducted entirely on the 
lines of Western thought. 

Lafcadio Hearn says : " With the acceptance of the 
doctrine of evolution old forms of thought crumbled, new 
ideas arose to take the place of worn-out dogmas, and we 
have a general intellectual movement in directions strangely 
parallel with Oriental philosophy." The probability of the 
doctrine of pre-existence is being admitted not only by 
theologians but also by scientific men, and even the modern 
theories of stellar evolution and dissolution seem to confirm 
the general principles of Eastern cosmogonies. Changes in 



400 Dai Nippon 

religious thought as a rule are slow, and are usually more 
the result of unconscious permeation than of deliberate con- 
viction. This is strikingly illustrated by the developments 
in religious thought which have taken place in the West 
during the past quarter of a century. These developments, 
combined with greater experience of Eastern peoples, have 
led to great modifications in the methods of presenting to 
them the fundamental truths of religion. Much of the crude 
anthropomorphism and many of the materialistic ideas 
regarding the future life which formerly characterised 
Christian theology have disappeared, and have been replaced 
by teaching which commends itself to the intellect and the 
conscience, and many of the narrow sectarian doctrines 
formerly preached are now seldom heard. Most important 
of all, religious toleration has been greatly developed. A 
great deal, however, still requires to be done before Western 
theology can appeal to cultivated Eastern minds. It must 
be admitted by all who know much of the subject that while 
astronomy is no longer geocentric but heliocentric, Western 
theology is still largely geocentric, and has not been much 
affected by the developments of science, although there has 
been a somewhat indefinite demand for a roomier universe. 
If they wish their work to prosper, religious teachers must 
not only take to heart the lessons of science, but they must 
also free themselves from the fatal distinction and breach 
between the Church and the world which is the very 
negation of the central teaching and privilege of Christ. 
They must not only place the doctrines of their religion on 
a proper basis, but they must remember that it is not only 
a creed but a life. No society has a right to call itself 
Christian which lives by principles that turn the earth into 
a battlefield, and in the evening summons the ambulances, 
picks up the wounded and sheds tears of pity over the 
dead. Intelligent Easterns will be inclined to judge of a 
religion, not so much by its dogmas as by its results on the 
lives of the individuals who profess it, and on the social con- 
ditions of the people. On the other hand, we may rest 



The Future 401 

assured that they will not be content with the cast-off 
theological garments of the West. The work of doctrinal 
reconstruction is only beginning, but already some of the 
most repulsive beliefs have been replaced by others of 
a more rational nature. The old material Hell of the 
theologian has practically disappeared, and a new Heaven 
is being imagined which shall have at least its foundations 
laid on this earth and its superstructure in similar parts of 
the universe ; while Buddhism, that wondrous creed by which 
every human life is the Heaven or Hell of a life which pre- 
ceded it, is insensibly permeating the best thought of our 
modern preachers and scientific men. If its fundamental 
principles were clearly understood and acted upon, they 
would have most important results not only on individual 
conduct but also on social conditions. 

It is gradually being recognised that if religion has any 
meaning, science, industry, and commerce must not be used 
as ends in themselves, but as means to raise the standard of 
life of the people, not only materially but also intellectually, 
morally, and spiritually. The Easterns, as a rule, in con- 
templating eternity forget terrestrial realisation of individual 
and social life, and consequently fall into a degraded con- 
dition. The civilisation of the West is in danger of ex- 
tinction through social upheavals and moral decomposition, 
and faith is disappearing before the most dangerous form 
of scepticism ; namely, that which arises from the doubt 
of the possibility of regenerating society and making the 
Kingdom of God stretch over the earth. For the highest 
culture we require a combination of Eastern with Western 
thoughts and methods, so that in this way may be reconciled 
the forces which on the one hand make for the renunciation 
of the world, and on the other for the accumulation of 
wealth. Science must become religious, and religion must 
become scientific, and both must be applied to the solution 
of social and political problems. The most thoughtful men 
in the West are beginning to recognise that these problems 

are most likely to be solved by calling in the old world to 
(b 207) 2 D 



402 Dai Nippon 

redress the balance of the new. One of them recently 
wrote : " England, as the member of the Anglo-Saxon 
family least possessed by the passion of industrial progress, 
may then discover in her imperial position a historic signifi- 
cance as yet unrealised, and having still her share of Anglo- 
Saxon energy and virility, but with a more mellowed 
temperament, and perhaps a more rooted hold in the past, 
she will find that the fortunate accident of conquest has 
called her to mediate between East and West, ancient and 
modern, and so in due time to contribute no mean illumina- 
tion to lessen the obscurity in which we now find ourselves. 
For only a race of the highest virility can learn from the 
East with profit — a race possessing the implicit faith of the 
West that the Wheel of Being does not merely revolve but 
moves forward. It is only some such expansion of thought 
beyond racial limits that will save modern philosophy from 
self-stultification." l We may rest assured that there is no 
peace for the intellect and heart until science, philosophy, 
and religion are not merely reconciled but are seen to be 
one, as root, stem, and leaves are organic expressions of the 
same living tree. Then the highest truth of reason will be 
one with the highest object of faith, for only the thought 
which trusts can truly indicate faith in the God which gave 
it. Then, and then only, will national welfare be laid on a 
solid foundation. 

A new Power has arisen in the Far East which has not 
only a large share of Anglo-Saxon virility, but is also deeply 
imbued with Eastern thought, and it may have very im- 
portant functions to perform not only in the domains of 
industry, commerce, and politics, but also in the realms of 
thought. The tendencies of the present day seem to show 
that Eastern philosophy streaming back to the W 7 est will 
produce a fundamental change in our thought and know- 
ledge, and profoundly affect social and political conditions. 
It has been argued with no little force that " to reconcile 
the East with the West ; to be the advocate of the East 

1 W. F. Alexander, Contcmporcuy Review, April 1904, p. 531. 



The Future 403 

and the harbinger of the West ; this we believe to be the 
mission which Japan is called upon to fulfil." It will be 
interesting to watch how far the Britain of the East is in 
alliance with the Britain of the West, not only for political 
purposes, but also how far the two Powers are able to 
co-operate in the solution of the most important problems 
which lie in the future, and thus promote the highest welfare 
of the human race. 



CHAPTER XX 

{Supplementary) 

RECENT EVENTS 

In the original plan of this book it was intended to conclude 
with the preceding chapter, but early in the present year, 
The methods of war broke out between Japan and Russia, and 
history. as ft w j]j mar k a most important epoch in the 

history of the Japanese Empire, and probably of the world, 
I propose in this supplementary chapter to indicate how far 
recent events have justified the opinions expressed in the 
preceding chapters, and at the same time to mention some 
of the chief lessons which the Britain of the West may learn 
from the experience of the Britain of the East. 

As I have stated in my preface, my object is not to give 
a history of modern Japan, but rather to indicate the forces 
which have been at work in bringing about what is admitted 
to be the wonder of the latter half of the nineteenth century, 
and to note some of the chief results. Political conditions 
are considered up to the end of last year, when the question 
of war with Russia still hung in the balance. A systematic 
history of modern Japan, and indeed of any other part of the 
world, would be a sort of dramatic poem in which every scene 
and person is determined not by imagination or accident 
but by conditions which all lead up to the purposeful plan 
of the whole. All that I have attempted to supply are 
some materials for such a history by a preliminary study of 
the dynamics of the subject. What Ranke designates as 
the " art " of writing history consists, not simply in the 

404 



Recent Events 405 

narration of facts, but in the arrangement of these facts in 
such a manner as to show their relations in the causal and 
teleological connection of an organic whole which is de- 
veloped by individuals or nations acting as the conscious 
organs of the general tendencies dominating their times. 

For some years past the Japanese have been consciously 
making history with very definite objects in view. The 
events of the Restoration gave them many The making of 
difficult problems to solve. The feudal system J a P anese history. 
had disappeared and the whole machinery of government 
had to be erected on a new basis. Administration and 
education received their first attention ; but contact with 
Foreign Powers soon showed that these, in themselves, were 
not sufficient to enable them to attain a position of equality 
with the other nations of the world. The long negotiations 
in connection with treaty revision awoke within them the 
consciousness of the need of a national policy which would 
make them strong and cause their just claims to be con- 
sidered with respect. The fear of aggression from European 
Powers, especially from Russia, developed that conscious- 
ness ; and the action of that Power, along with France and 
Germany, after the conclusion of the war with China, almost 
turned it into a passion. Without rest, but also without 
haste, they strengthened their army and navy and developed 
their means of communication and other appliances, and 
thus made themselves a strong military Power. They dis- 
claimed all intention of aggression, but at the same time 
they studied carefully the trend of events and determined to 
resist to the death any action by outsiders which injuriously 
affected their welfare or threatened their national existence. 
The doings of Russia had long been a cause of anxiety to 
them, and especially those in Manchuria after the war with 
China filled them with grave apprehension. They were 
anxious to come to an understanding with Russia on the 
subject, and their self-restraint has been admired by all 
disinterested parties. 

Negotiations were commenced in August of last year 



4o6 Dai Nippon 

with regard to affairs in Manchuria and Korea, and the 
Japanese Cabinet drafted a treaty embodying its proposals 
on the lines which I have indicated in a previous chapter. 
They proposed to place Manchuria and Korea on approxi- 
mately the same basis, and assimilated the position of Russia 
in the one country and Japan in the other, and thus afforded 
a clear proof of their wish to arrive at an understanding on 
the subject. In order to safeguard the supposed rights of 
Russia, Japan expressed her readiness to define the interests 
accruing to Russia, through her railway in Manchuria, as 
comprising the administration, military and civil, of a strip 
of territory measuring thirty miles on each side of the line 
and including the town of Harbin, situated at the junction 
of the Manchurian railway with the main Trans-Siberian 
line to Vladivostock. These proposals did not satisfy 
Russia, and believing that Japan would not dare to go to 
war, she put forward counter-proposals which clearly indi- 
cated her ambitions. They limited the treaty to Korea, and 
even for that, restrictions were placed on Japan, while Russia 
was to be allowed to do as she pleased in China. Russia 
declined to pledge herself to the policy of the " open door," 
or indeed to anything which in any way restricted her 
freedom of action in Manchuria. On the other hand, she 
made three further and uncompensated demands stipulating 
for (i) no fortifications on the Straits ; (2) a neutral zone 
exclusively Korean ; and (3) the abandonment by Japan of 
all political interest in Manchuria. These demands clearly 
showed that Russia did not wish a reasonable settlement. 

Negotiations dragged on till the end of last year, and 
on 2 1 st December Japan presented what she called her 
" last amendments," the object of which was to guarantee 
the independence and integrity of China by defining strictly 
the position of Russia in Manchuria. About the middle of 
January of the present year the Japanese Minister in St. 
Petersburg was instructed to ask for an " early reply." 
Meantime Russia was busily employed in strengthening 
her naval and military position. Every ship that could be 



Recent Events 407 

spared was being sent out to the Far East, evidently for the 
purpose of overawing the Japanese. On 26th January the 
Japanese Minister at St. Petersburg was informed that the 
Russian Government had resolved not to yield on the 
Manchurian question, but to make substantial concessions 
to Japan on other points. Still no formal reply had been 
sent to the proposals of Japan, and it was evident that the 
whole object of Russia was to gain time. On 5th February, 
and not until after Russian troops had already invaded 
Northern Korea, Mr. Kurino, the Minister for Japan in 
St. Petersburg, was instructed to break off negotiations. 

The Japanese were at once ready to strike a determined 
blow, as they were well aware that the first blow counts 
much. On 9th February, Admiral Togo made a 
successful attack on Port Arthur, disabling seven 
Russian warships. The Russian Government issued a 
memorandum to their representatives abroad giving their 
version of the negotiations, and complaining that Japan had 
not waited for their reply and had commenced war without 
a formal declaration. I shall deal with that complaint 
further on, but it is evident that the object of Russia was 
to gain time so that she might have a sufficient naval force 
in Eastern seas to settle the matter without any operations 
on land. At the outbreak of the war the naval forces of 
Japan and Russia in the Far East were so nearly equal that 
a very slight superiority in skill might have been sufficient 
to have decided the struggle in favour of Russia, but the 
Japanese showed such brilliant qualities of strategy and such 
bravery that they soon obtained a practical command of 
the sea. 

The Russian military authorities must have recognised 
the difficult position a large army would be in, at a distance 
of 4000 miles from its base, and supplied only by a single 
line of railway. Some time ago an eminent Russian pro- 
fessor of the art of war solemnly declared that it was 
" historically and philosophically impossible for Japan to 
prevent Russia from fulfilling her manifest destiny in Asia." 



4o8 Dai Nippon 

To this it has been answered that such a saying reminds us 
of Huxley's definition of Herbert Spencer's conception of a 
tragedy as " a syllogism strangled by a fact." The Russian 
officials, despite all their bluff, must have seen that they 
were placed on the horns of a dilemma which is this : — 
"The army which can be fed by the Trans-Siberian 
Railway will not be strong enough to beat the Japanese ; 
the army that is strong enough to beat the Japanese cannot 
be fed by the Trans-Siberian Railway." It is therefore 
easy to understand why the Russians were anxious, if 
possible, to confine their operations to sea. 

The position of Japan was clearly shown in the Imperial 

Proclamation of War, which was as follows : — " We, by the 

Grace of Heaven, Emperor of Japan, seated on 

Japanese r J r ' 

Proclamation the Throne occupied by the same Dynasty from 
time immemorial, do hereby make Proclamation 
to all Our loyal and brave subjects as follows : — 

" We hereby declare war against Russia, and we com- 
mand Our Army and Navy to carry on hostilities against 
that Empire with all their strength, and We also command 
all Our competent authorities to make every effort, in 
pursuance of their duties and in accordance with their 
powers, to attain the national aim with all the means within 
the limits of the law of nations. 

" We have always deemed it essential to Our inter- 
national relations and made it Our constant aim to promote 
the pacific progress of Our Empire in civilisation, to 
strengthen Our friendly ties with other States, and to 
establish a state of things which would maintain enduring 
peace in the Extreme East, and assure the future security 
of Our Dominion without injury to the rights and interests 
of other Powers. Our competent authorities have also 
performed their duties in obedience to Our will, so that Our 
relations with the Powers have been steadily growing in 
cordiality. It was thus entirely against Our expectation 
that We have unhappily come to open hostilities against 
Russia. 



Recent Events 409 

" The integrity of Korea is a matter of constant concern 
to this Empire, not only because of Our traditional relations 
with that country, but because the separate existence of 
Korea is essential to the safety of Our Realm. Neverthe- 
less Russia, in disregard of solemn treaty pledges to China 
and her repeated assurances to other Powers, is still in 
occupation of Manchuria, and has consolidated and 
strengthened her hold upon those provinces and is bent 
upon their final annexation. And since the absorption of 
Manchuria by Russia would render it impossible to maintain 
the integrity of Korea and would in addition compel the 
abandonment of all hope of peace in the Extreme East, 
We determined, in these circumstances, to settle the ques- 
tions by negotiation and to secure thereby permanent peace. 
With that object in view, Our competent authorities, by 
Our order, made proposals to Russia, and frequent con- 
ferences were held during the course of six months. Russia, 
however, never met such proposals in a spirit of conciliation, 
but by her wanton delays put off the settlement of the ques- 
tion, and by ostensibly advocating peace on the one hand, 
while she was, on the other, extending her naval and military 
preparations, sought to accomplish her own selfish designs. 

" We cannot in the least admit that Russia had from 
the first any serious or genuine desire for peace. She had 
rejected the proposals of Our Government ; the safety of 
Korea is in danger ; the vital interests of Our Empire are 
menaced. The guarantees for the future which we have 
failed to secure by peaceful negotiations, We can now only 
seek by an appeal to arms. 

" It is Our earnest wish that by the loyalty and valour of 
Our faithful subjects, peace may soon be permanently restored 
and the glory of Our Empire preserved." 

The rapid action of the Japanese in attacking Port 
Arthur immediately after the negotiations were broken off, 
caused the Russians to bring against them the justification of 
charge of treachery. I cannot, of course, dis- J a P ane se action, 
cuss all the pros and cons of this subject, but the following 



4 : o Dai Nippon 

are the conclusions of Dr. T. J. Lawrence, Lecturer on 
International Law in the Royal Naval College, Greenwich. 
After sketching the course of events which preceded the 
outbreak of the war, Dr. Lawrence states that " the accusa- 
tion of treachery rests entirely upon the assumption that 
International Law imposes upon belligerents the duty of 
making to one another a formal declaration of war before 
commencing hostilities. Never was assumption more 
groundless. Nearly every war of the last two centuries has 
been commenced without a declaration. Sometimes one 
has been issued, as in the present case, a greater or less time 
after the forces of the combatants have begun their work of 
conflict. Sometimes there has been none from the beginning 
to the end of a war. Occasionally a manifesto by a State 
to its own subjects, or a diplomatic circular sent to foreign 
Governments, has taken the place of a formal notice delivered 
to the enemy. The constant practice has been for the 
better-prepared State to strike a sudden blow at her unready 
adversary, whatever form or absence of form seemed advis- 
able at the moment. Nor is there in this anything that 
necessarily involves bad faith. A period of negotiation 
precedes a period of hostility. As relations grow more and 
more strained, a prudent State prepares for eventualities. 
Very often an ultimatum is presented ; that is to say, a 
demand, the refusal of which will be followed by war. The 
rupture of diplomatic relations is the constant precursor of 
armed conflict. Unless the first blow falls, like a bolt from 
the blue, in a period of profound peace, without previous 
complaint and demand for redress, there is nothing in it 
which savours of treachery." Dr. Lawrence illustrates his 
conclusions by historical precedents and proceeds to say : — 
" Unless we are prepared to maintain the ridiculous proposi- 
tion that the law of nations, instead of being deduced from 
the practice of nations, has no connection whatever with it, 
we must acquit Japan of the charge made against her. 
Instead of being guilty of a breach of International Law, 
she went beyond it by giving her adversary ample notice of 



Recent Events 4 1 1 

what he might expect. Relations between the two Powers 
had been strained for a long time. There would have been 
no treachery in a sudden attack. But the note delivered on 
6th February by the Japanese representative at St. Petersburg 
not only broke off diplomatic intercourse — an act which is 
constantly followed by immediate war — but also expressly 
stated that Japan must take such measures as she thought 
fit for her own safety. Its exact words were : ' The Imperial 
Government reserve to themselves the right to take such 
independent action as they may deem best to consolidate 
and defend their menaced position, as well as to protect 
their established rights and legitimate interests.' The 
merest tyro in diplomacy knows what this meant. It was a 
distinct warning that hostilities might be expected at any 
moment, and the first blow was not struck till about sixty 
hours after it had been given. As a matter of fact, Russia 
was not taken unawares. She had expected war for some 
time, and had prepared for it, though her preparations were 
ill-conceived and badly carried out." l 

On the other hand, Sir John Macdonell, C.B., LL.D., has 
some doubts on the subject. He says : " On the night of 
the 8th or 9th Admiral Togo torpedoed the Russian vessels 
at Port Arthur. It was an attack of surprise. Was it a 
treacherous and disloyal act ? The question must be put 
with the knowledge that a nation which is patient may be 
duped ; that the first blow counts much ; and that under 
cover of continuing negotiations a country unprepared might 
deprive another better equipped of its advantages. But it is 
a nice question whether the negotiations had reached, on the 
8th or 9th of February, a point at which discussion had been 
abandoned, and both sides had accepted the arbitrament of 
battle. I will only say that the recent precedent is of evil 
omen, and that it is to be feared that, in future, we may see 
blows struck, not merely without formal notice, but while 
diplomatists are still debating. I am not expressing an 
opinion on the particular act in saying that there has been 

1 War and Neutrality in the Far East, pp. 27-32. 



412 Dai Nippon 

an unfortunate — perhaps inevitable — retrogression. Since 
1870 there has been a tendency to abide by the old rule, 
which regarded a war without a declaration or ultimatum as 
disloyal." 1 Baron Suyematsu, a high Japanese authority, 
while appreciating Sir John Macdonell's contention that no 
blows should be struck without adequate warning or while 
diplomatists are still debating the matters in dispute, under- 
takes to prove that Japan, so far from taking her enemy 
unawares, did actually do precisely as Sir John Macdonell is 
anxious to show she ought to have done, and that, in the 
sense of his comment on the operations, there was no room 
for the Russians to be surprised in any degree whatever. I 
can only give a brief resume of Baron Suyematsu's facts and 
arguments ; for details the original article must be consulted. 2 
He gives an outline of the negotiations which were carried 
on at the end of last and the beginning of this year, and 
makes it quite clear that the Japanese Government pressed 
on the Russian Government the urgent necessity of accelerat- 
ing the despatch of an answer to the proposals of the 
Japanese Government as much as possible, because further 
prolongation of the existing conditions was not only undesir- 
able but dangerous. On the evening of the 31st of January 
Count Lamsdorff admitted to Mr. Kurino, the Japanese 
representative at St. Petersburg, that he fully appreciated the 
gravity of the situation. Notwithstanding this admission, 
the delay continued, and it was not until the fifth day after 
this interview which Mr. Kurino had with Count Lamsdorff. 
and the third day after the reply had been promised to be 
given, namely, on the 5th of February 1904, at 2.15 P.M., 
that Baron Komura (the Secretary of State for Foreign 
Affairs in Japan) telegraphed to Mr. Kurino that further 
prolongation of the existing situation being inadmissible, the 
Imperial Government had decided to terminate the pending 
negotiations. After a statement of the position of the 
Japanese Government on the subject under dispute (and 

1 The Nineteenth Century, July 1904, p. 147. 
2 Ibid., August 1904, p. 174. 



Recent Events 4 1 3 

which was for the most part embodied in the Declaration of 
War already quoted) Baron Komura's communication con- 
cluded with the sentence mentioned by Dr. Lawrence, 
reserving the right of the Japanese Government to take such 
independent action as they may deem best to consolidate 
and defend their menaced position, as well as to protect their 
established rights and legitimate interests. 

Simultaneously with the presentation of Baron Komura's 
note, Mr. Kurino was instructed to write to Count 
Lamsdorff and inform him that as the efforts of the Japanese 
Government to arrive at an honourable understanding with 
the Russian Government had been unsuccessful, it was his 
intention to take his departure from St. Petersburg, with the 
Staff of the Imperial Legation. These notes were pre- 
sented to Count Lamsdorff by Mr. Kurino on the 6th of 
February, at 4 P.M., and on the same day Baron Komura 
conveyed a formal intimation to Baron Rosen, the Russian 
Minister in Tokyo, in the sense that : — " Whereas the 
Japanese Government had made every effort to arrive at an 
amicable settlement of the Manchurian question with Russia, 
the latter had not evinced any disposition to reciprocate 
this peaceful purpose. Therefore Japan could not continue 
the diplomatic conferences. She was regretfully compelled 
to take independent action for the protection of her rights 
and interests, and she must decline to accept the responsi- 
bility of any incidents that might occur in consequence." 

A perusal of these despatches should have left no doubt 
on the minds of the Russian statesmen that Japan had finally, 
though reluctantly, arrived at the conclusion that war was 
inevitable. As Baron Suyematsu puts it : " The wording 
is polite, but who can doubt that it was a clear notice of 
war ? " 

Those in command of the Russian fleet were evidently 
quite aware that their Government were determined on war, 
for as Baron Suyematsu points out : — " At the moment when 
Admiral Togo actually made his attack the Russian ships 
lay outside the harbour in a perfect battle array, in front of 



414 



Dai Nippon 



the shore forts and batteries of the fortress, a position that 
they had taken up on their return from their cruise to the 
south-eastward. Wherein was the unpreparedness ? If the 
officers of the Russian ships were caught in an unguarded 
moment, blame must not be imputed to the Japanese. The 
cause must rather be sought in a misconception on the part 
of the Russians of the watchful strategy which the situation 
demanded. The facts are, moreover, that the Russian ships 
had lain under a full head of steam for days off the Port 
Arthur entrance, had been continually using their search- 
lights as though they apprehended an attack, the battleships 
had their decks cleared for action, and the instant that the 
first torpedo was launched the Russians opened fire on the 
Japanese boats." 

The best proof of the determination of the Russian 
Government to settle the matter in dispute by the arbitra- 
ment of war is to be found in its actions for a year previous 
to the close of the negotiations. It had promised to 
complete the evacuation of Manchuria in April 1903, but 
instead of doing so, it strengthened its position as rapidly as 
possible. During that year, it despatched to Far Eastern 
waters 



Three battleships 
One armoured cruiser 
Five other cruisers 
Seven destroyers . 
One gunboat 
Two mine-laying craft 



Combined Tonnage 
38,488 

7,727 
26,417 

2,45° 
i,344 
6,000 



Seven other destroyers were sent by rail to Port Arthur 
and there put together, while two vessels of the " Volunteer " 
Fleet were armed and hoisted the Russian naval ensign at 
Vladivostock. Considerable numbers of troops were sent to 
Manchuria ; but as I have already remarked it was evidently 
the intention of the Russian Government to have a sufficient 
naval force in Eastern waters to settle the conflict without 
any operations in Manchuria or Korea. ' How in the face 



Recent Events 415 

of all these facts the Russian Government could complain of 
having been taken unawares is incomprehensible, and the 
charge of treachery seems to have been made for the purpose 
of covering the want of attention and skill on the part of 
those in command of the fleet. If it had not been for the 
self-restraint of the Japanese Government, war might have 
broken out some months before it actually did, when the 
Russians were still more unprepared than they were on the 
9th of February. 

The operations carried on by the Japanese in the war, 
both by land and sea, have fully justified the opinions which 
I have expressed in the preceding chapters. Events 
Their intense patriotism has caused them to of the war - 
perform deeds of daring which have won for them the 
admiration of the world, their skill in strategy and in the 
application of the latest scientific methods in all they have 
done, has made them almost uniformly successful in their 
operations. They have demonstrated the importance of the 
work of the engineer. The railways which have been built 
in Japan have been fully utilised to convey men and 
materials and the ships to transport them oversea. The 
telegraphs have been used to communicate instructions and 
to keep the authorities informed regarding movements and 
requirements. The dockyards and shipbuilding yards have 
been ready to undertake repairs, and the arsenals and 
machine shops to turn out war material of all kinds as well 
as appliances which aid operations in the field. Light 
railways have been laid down on the way to battlefields and 
wireless telegraphy and telephones to convey instructions to 
the soldiers ; in short, all the latest applications of mechani- 
cal, electrical, and chemical science have been freely and 
intelligently employed. 

The barest notice of the events of the war is all that, 
meantime, I can give, not only on account of want of space, 
but also because the war has, to a large extent, been fought 
in camera and the circumstances attending it are only im- 
perfectly known to outsiders. The Japanese have shown 



4 1 6 Dai Nippon 

that they look upon war as a serious matter and not simply 
as a game which is useful for the supply of interesting copy 
for the newspapers. Their strategy has been most skilful, 
but they did not think it part of their duty to allow 
correspondents to communicate their plans to the world and 
to the enemy, and it is probable that they have established 
a precedent which will become of universal application. If 
this be the case, the occupation of war correspondents is 
gone for ever. It would be well if those responsible for 
newspapers exercised some of the self-control of the Japanese 
and were more careful about the news they publish. In the 
absence of anything authentic, the reports of coolies or of 
other equally untrustworthy persons have been telegraphed 
round the world and announced on flaring bills, only to be 
contradicted or ignored in the next issue of the papers. It 
almost seems as if an extension of Japanese methods were 
required in order to prevent the newspapers becoming public 
nuisances if not public dangers. 

The assaults by the Japanese forces on Port Arthur, 
both by land and by sea, when accurately described will rank 
among the most heroic struggles in the history of the world. 
The sending of men to sink themselves and their ships in 
the fairway of Port Arthur, and the storming of the heights 
of Nanshan show that the Japanese military and naval 
commanders are able to reckon on a national instinct which 
Western peoples are scarcely able to appreciate in its full 
significance. The advance on the strong position of the 
Russians at Kinchau proves that Japanese soldiers do not 
hesitate to sacrifice themselves in order to gain the object 
they have in view. Wasteful self-immolation, however, is 
no part of their programme. It is stated that the Emperor 
has kept back the final assault on Port Arthur so that lives 
might not be uselessly sacrificed. He has at the same time 
shown a great regard for his enemies and has given orders 
that non-combatants may have an opportunity of leaving 
Port Arthur. The strategy of General Kuroki and the other 
Japanese leaders has been carried out with all the delibera- 



Recent Events 4 1 7 

tion and skill of a game of chess. Military discipline and 
scientific training, of course, account for a good deal of the 
success which has attended the arms of the Japanese, but 
they do not give a complete explanation. A national 
consciousness of unprecedented intensity has enabled the 
Japanese army and navy to achieve ends of incommensur- 
able magnitude. 

At the date of writing this, events of great importance 
are proceeding rapidly. The Port Arthur fleet of the 
Russians has been dispersed, the Vladivostock fleet has 
been in part destroyed and the remainder badly damaged. 
The final assault on Port Arthur is impending and the 
operations in other parts of Manchuria are rapidly bringing 
matters to a crisis. For our present purpose it is not 
necessary to follow them further. Enough has been said 
to demonstrate the truth of the opinions expressed in 
the preceding chapters, and to show the results of the 
training to which Japan has subjected itself. The sequel 
must be left to another opportunity. 

One of the most interesting revelations to the peoples 
of the West regarding the Japanese character has been the 
behaviour of the troops during war-time. Behaviour of 
After referring to the absence of all attempts J a P anese troops, 
to intensify racial hatred, Sir John Macdonell remarks 
that : — " Not more remarkable is the swift assimilation by 
Japan of the resources of military science than the assimila- 
tion, rapid and complete, of the best traditions, the 
courtesies and amenities of European warfare. Experience 
shows that if hostilities are long continued, passions kept in 
check at last break loose ; the vanquished are irritated and 
desperate ; the victors become impatient at resistance 
unreasonably continued. But, so far as things have gone, 
one may say that a non-Christian State has set an example 
to Christian nations in the conduct of war (as far as it is 
possible) on the lines of civilisation. The superior prestige 

of the West for humanity is gone. Touches of humanity 
(B207) 2 E 



4 1 8 Dai Nippon 

and sympathy, never wanting in war, have abounded. The 
Japanese have tended their wounded adversaries and have 
resorted to no shabby subterfuges ; and on the death of 
Admiral Makaroff they paid the tribute of brave men to a 
fallen foe. They have paid for what they have taken. 
They have made friends of the population in which they 
have moved. Already the ring of European nations whose 
consent has made International Law is broken in upon 
by the admission of Turkey and Japan. International Law 
cannot be quite what it was if it henceforth expresses the 
consent of powerful Asiatic non-Christian States as well as 
of European nations." l It is a remarkable fact that 
although the International Arbitration Tribunal was formed 
on the suggestion of the Czar, the Japanese have adhered 
more scrupulously to the rules of the Hague Convention 
than the Russians. In a recent interview Count Katsura, 
the Prime Minister of Japan, said that he did not think that 
any Government in the world at the outbreak of war ever 
took such pains as the Government of Japan has taken to 
emphasise to all the duty of conducting the war in strict 
accordance with the principles of humanity and the usages 
of International Law. Immediately upon the opening of 
hostilities, communications were sent to all the Governors 
of Prefectures reminding them of their responsibilities and 
especially with regard to any Russians that might be residing 
within their jurisdiction. Under the authority of the 
Minister of Education, directions were issued by which all 
the students in the empire, from the young men in the 
higher institutions of learning down to the children in the 
primary schools, have been instructed as to the principles 
and duties to be observed. In addition to this, communica- 
tions were sent to the recognised representatives of all the 
religious bodies in the country — Buddhists, Shintoists, and 
Christians alike — asking them to take pains to discountenance 
any wrong tendencies among the more ignorant of the 
people. Among the points emphasised by the Government 
1 The Nineteenth Century, July 1904; p. 145. 



Recent Events 419 

are these : — That the war is one between the State of Japan 
and the State of Russia ; that it is not waged against 
individuals ; that individuals of all nationalities, peacefully 
attending to their business, are to suffer no molestation or 
annoyance whatever ; and that questions of religion do not 
enter into the war at all. 

Perhaps the best proof of the power of self-restraint of 
the Japanese is to be found in the conduct of the great body 
of the people during war - time. I lived in j apan - m 
Japan during the Satsuma rebellion, and al- war-time. 
though affairs were sometimes in a very critical condition, 
there were no signs of alarm or even much to show an 
ordinary observer that there was anything serious going on. 
The arrangements which were made to meet the crisis were 
carried out quietly. When victory at last came to the 
Imperial Government there was no exultation, simply an 
official announcement that the war was at an end. Similarly 
in the war with China in 1894-5, there was little to show to 
visitors that the country was at war, everything being done 
in a quiet systematic manner. 

In the present war with Russia the same calm has been 
preserved. In a circular which has been issued by the chief 
Chambers of Commerce in Japan, it is pointed out that none 
of the arrangements for the convenience of visitors who 
wish to enjoy the attractions of the country have been dis- 
located, but that " on the contrary, to the many objects of 
interest which invite inspection in normal years, there was 
added the remarkable spectacle of an insular people preserv- 
ing a demeanour of absolute calm and imperturbability while 
engaged in a struggle for life or death with the greatest of 
continental military Powers. Since the outbreak of this war, 
as well as during the period of suspense that preceded it, 
the quiet self-possessed attitude of the Japanese people has 
been a theme of constant admiration and surprise to foreign 
onlookers, and has been described in eulogistic terms by 
foreign journalists. In truth, the country is just as it has 
always been. The Japanese people are not swayed by any 



420 Dai Nippon 

frenzy of revenge or fired by any heat of territorial ambition. 
They are fighting for what they believe to be the minimum 
of their just right ; for the cause of free institutions ; the 
cause of security against the spread of military despotism ; 
the cause of a commercial field untrammelled for all, and the 
cause of lasting peace : causes which they have fervently 
embraced and for which they are ready to make any sacrifice. 
Under such circumstances this war has not impaired in the 
slightest degree the friendly feeling entertained by the 
Japanese nation for the peoples of Europe and America. 
On the contrary, it has greatly intensified that feeling, inas- 
much as the crisis has elicited throughout nearly the whole 
of the Occident expressions of sympathy with Japan, which 
she welcomes with profound gratitude and satisfaction. She 
appreciates that the purpose for which she is shedding blood 
and treasure have the full endorsement of the enlightened 
nations of the West, and she sees that by lending her whole 
strength to the promotion of those purposes, she has drawn 
greatly closer the bonds of amity between herself and the 
Occident." All this goes to prove that Japan will not use 
the results of the war, however victorious she may be, for 
purposes of merely national aggrandisement, but that while 
safeguarding her own interests and keeping in mind her 
mission in the Far East, she will do nothing which will 
forfeit the goodwill of Europe and America. 

The most remarkable feature in the domestic situation 
in Japan at the present time is the admirable reticence 
observed by the influential political parties and their organs. 
In view of the momentous issues at stake, all are agreed in 
refraining from saying or writing anything calculated to 
cause disunion or the appearance of it, and are united in 
giving the Government their support in bringing the war to 
a successful issue. That they are able to do this they are 
perfectly confident, and the events of the war justify their 
confidence. Its cost, so far, has proved to be less than was 
expected, it having been carried on at an expenditure 
equivalent to only two-thirds of the original estimate. They 



Recent Events 421 

appreciate perfectly that the war may be a protracted one ; 
but if Russia is prepared to resort to the last extreme in 
order to maintain her national honour, Japan will not hesitate 
to sacrifice her last farthing in order to come out victorious 
from a struggle involving her very existence. 

The question has often been asked during the past few 
months — What is the secret of the weakness which has 
been shown by Russia since the beginning of The secret of 
the war with Japan ? The complete answer to Russia ' s failure. 
that question would involve a disquisition on the educational, 
economical, social, and religious conditions of the Land of 
the Czar. Dr. Emil Reich has pointed out that, " Every one 
of the great Western nations has had to stand the test of a 
triple trial before it could reach its actual condition. It has 
had to pass through an intellectual Renaissance, a religious 
Reformation, and a political Revolution. And we may 
suppose that Russia will not escape the necessity of passing 
through a like series of stages." Russia dare not educate 
her people, and the consequence is that three out of every 
four are illiterate. Hierarchy and bureaucracy alike dis- 
courage the schools of the local councils. The universities 
are being more and more dominated by stupid officialism, 
and freedom of thought and teaching is impossible. An 
attempt has been made to build up modern industries under 
a system of protection which fosters artificial conditions and 
perpetuates antiquated methods, and thus throws a great 
burden on the agricultural classes. These latter are very 
often drunken and barbarous, and their methods of work 
entirely wanting in the applications of modern science. The 
bureaucracy is corrupt and brutal, and there is no intelligent 
public opinion to correct abuses. The most hopeless barrier 
to Russian progress, however, is the Greek Church, which 
has sterilised and paralysed both the intellectual and the 
moral powers of the people. The Russians are, for the most 
part, patriotic, for their religion is also a patriotism ; but it 
is not to be compared to the burning patriotism of the 
Japanese, which causes them to look upon death for their 



422 Dai Nippon 

country as the highest honour for which they can compete. 
The Russian soldiers are no doubt brave when put in a 
position of danger, but for the most part it is mere brute 
courage, without that intellectual activity and scientific 
knowledge which are the most important factors in modern 
warfare. Many of them have been forced into the army 
against their wills and have little enthusiasm for the work, a 
considerable proportion indeed have a strong aversion to it. 
From men like these little is to be expected. The Russian 
Government has still to learn that the most powerful means 
either of offence or defence in a modern State is a well- 
educated enthusiastic people. 

Another cause of the failure of Russia is the contempt 
in which they have held the Japanese. Those responsible 
for the negotiations preceding the outbreak of war seem to 
have had a very inadequate idea of the developments which 
had taken place in Japan and of the forces which had pro- 
duced these developments. On this subject Baron Suyematsu 
has remarked : " In the eyes of the Russians there was no such 
Japan as they have, or rather the world has, begun to see 
since the opening of the war. They trusted, no doubt, either 
to be able to bluff through or crush at a blow if necessary. 
Even in the battle of the Yalu, nay, even in the battle of 
Kinchow, or Wafangu, they were unable to believe that the 
Japanese were not after all ' monkeys with the brain of 
birds ' ! Only a little time ago an eminent French states- 
man told me that France understood Japan little ; Russia 
still less. It was the sole cause of the present unfortunate 
war. ' In that respect,' he continued, ' England was sharper, 
for she understood the Far East, and, consequently, the 
changing circumstances of the world, before any other 
Occidental nation.' " 

While the Japanese owe much to their utilisation of 

Western science, appliances, and methods, the secret of their 

The secret of phenomenal success in every department of 

japan's success. na tional life lies in the spirit with which they 

have been animated. In a previous chapter I have given a 



Recent Events 423 

sketch of what is involved in that spirit, but a study of the 
doings in Japan of the past thirty years is its best illustration, 
if not explanation. I may, however, repeat a sentence or 
two of what I have quoted from Dr. Nitobe : " Needless to 
repeat," he says, " what has grown a trite saying, that it is the 
spirit that quickeneth, without which the best of implements 
profiteth but little. The most improved guns and cannon 
do not shoot of their own accord ; the most modern 
educational system does not make a coward a hero. No ! 
What won the battles on the Yalu, in Korea and Manchuria, 
was the ghosts of our fathers, guiding our hands and beating 
in our hearts. They are not dead those ghosts, the spirits 
of our warlike ancestors. To those who have eyes to see, 
they are clearly visible." These are not simply the opinions 
of a philosopher (some might be inclined to call him a 
mystic) like Dr. Nitobe ; they are held even more strongly 
by the practical and by the fighting men. A few months 
ago Engineer-Captain Matsuo, one of my Kobu-Daigakko 
students, came to Glasgow to bid me good-bye before return- 
ing to Japan after he had despatched the cruisers Kasuga 
and Nisshin, and in the course of my conversation I 
showed him the chapter of this book which dealt with the 
army and navy, and he asked me to make it quite clear that 
while he valued Western ships and appliances he attached 
far more importance to the spirit which animated the men in 
charge of them. 

The present war has shown most distinctly that the 
spirit of Old Japan still lives in its modern army and navy. 
I can only give one or two illustrations. When volunteers 
were asked to undertake the blocking of Port Arthur, over 
2000 offered themselves for the dangerous task, and some of 
the applications were written with the blood of the men who 
sent them in. Seventy-seven officers and men were selected, 
and the farewell ceremonies which were held were of a strik- 
ing and touching nature. On board the battleship Asama 
Captain Yashiro took a large silver cup presented to him by 
H.I.H. the Crown Prince, and filling it with water (it being 



424 Da i Nippon 

an old Japanese custom to drink water on the occasion of 
permanent parting between near relatives), thus addressed the 
volunteers : " In sending you now on the duty of blocking 
the harbour entrance of Port Arthur, which affords you one 
chance out of thousands to return alive, I feel as if I were 
sending my beloved sons. But if I had one hundred sons, 
I would send them all on such a bold adventure as this, and 
had I only one son I should wish to do the same with him. 
In performing your duty, if you happen to lose your left 
hand, work with your right ; if you lose both hands, work 
with both feet ; if you lose both feet, work with your head, 
and faithfully carry out the orders of your commander. I 
send you to the place of death, and I have no doubt that 
you are quite ready to die. However, I do not mean to 
advise you to despise your life nor to run needless risks in 
trying to establish a great name. What I ask you all is 
to perform your duty regardless of your life. The cup of 
water I give you now is not meant to give you encourage- 
ment but to constitute you as representatives of the bravery 
of the Asama. A great shame it would be if our men 
needed Dutch courage to go to the place of death ! I look 
forward to a joyous day when I see you again coming back 
with success. Submit your life to the will of Heaven and 
calmly perform your onerous duty." 

Among the volunteers was Commander Takeo Hirose, 
who will always be remembered as one of the heroes of 
the war. Before the first attempt on Port Arthur he 
wrote : " How can I refuse to die as a patriotic sacrifice for 
my country ? It will be a glorious death to go down with 
the ship at the entrance to Port Arthur." Before the second 
attempt, in which he perished, he wrote : " Knowing that 
the souls of the brave return seven times to this world to 
serve their country, I sacrifice with confidence this life, and 
expecting now to achieve final success I will go on board 
the ship cheerfully." These and similar words are now 
printed on picture post-cards and sent all over Japan and 
indeed to Japanese in all parts of the world. Their en- 



Recent Events 425 

thusiasm is thus raised to the highest pitch, and all merely 
personal considerations are put aside for what is believed to 
be the welfare or need of the country. This enthusiasm is 
the main cause of the success of Japan, in the arts both of 
peace and war, and her experience proves that a nation 
becomes whatever she believes herself to be. Without 
attempting to discuss all the transcendental effects of the 
beliefs of the Japanese, there can be no doubt that the practi- 
cal results are embodied in the rule which every one from 
the highest to the lowest unflinchingly obeys, namely, that 
" it is the imperative duty of man in his capacity of a 
subject, to sacrifice his private interests to the public good. 
Egoism forbids co-operation, and without co-operation there 
cannot be any great achievement." The application of this 
rule to its logical conclusion will take the Japanese a long 
way and will enable them to solve many of the social 
problems of the present time, the true meanings of which 
are only beginning to be dimly perceived by the statesmen 
of the West. The war with Russia is still in progress, and 
its immediate results are uncertain, but whatever they may 
be, we cannot doubt that it has opened a new chapter in the 
history, not only of Japan, but of the world, and when that 
is adequately written, the debt which is due to the Britain 
of the East will be fully recognised. 

Meantime, Great Britain should not be above learning a 
few lessons from Japan. I do not propose to enter into the 
lessons in military and naval administration Lessons for 
and strategy, which no doubt will be taken to Great Bntain - 
heart by the proper authorities, but there are matters of 
more general interest on which a few remarks may be made. 
Already, indeed, Lord Selborne, the First Lord of the 
Admiralty, has in Parliament been directing attention to 
various lessons which may be learned from Japanese 
experience. He attached the greatest importance to the 
quality of the personnel, and he insisted that the officers and 
men were of more importance than the ships. This, as I 
have tried to make clear, has long been recognised by the 



426 Dai Nippon 

Japanese. What is true of the army and navy is true of 
every department of national life. The real measure of the 
importance and even of the power of a nation is to be found 
ultimately in the quality of its people. 

The evolution in this country has been comparatively 
slow, and many of our industrial developments are due to 
conditions which are rapidly disappearing. Our supplies of 
raw materials in our most important manufactures, especially 
those connected with iron and steel, are becoming scarce and 
therefore expensive, and many of our manufacturers continue 
to use methods and appliances which are out of date on 
account of recent advances of science. Other countries, 
notably France, Germany, the United States, and above all 
Japan, have developed their educational arrangements and 
applied the results to national affairs in such a way as to 
affect profoundly economic and social conditions at home 
and trade abroad. We have seen that the educational 
arrangements of Japan are very complete, and that those 
who have had the advantage of them have been fitted to 
take an active and intelligent part in the great developments 
which have taken place. 

Five years after my arrival in Japan I drew up a 
somewhat exhaustive report on the work which we had 
accomplished, and indicated some of the aims which ought 
to be kept in view. I took occasion to point out that in 
many respects engineering education in Great Britain was 
very defective, and for this I was criticised by some of the 
foreign residents and even by some of my colleagues. 
Since that time, practically all the improvements which we 
had adopted in the Imperial College of Engineering, Japan, 
are to be found in almost all the colleges in this 
country. Engineering is no longer taught as a single 
subject but as a group of allied subjects, and the field which 
was formerly supposed to be taken up by one professor or 
lecturer is now divided among several, and engineering 
laboratories are parts of the equipment of every well- 
organised college. Two or three years ago, when Lord 



Recent Events 427 

Kelvin was inaugurating the James Watt engineering labora- 
tory in Glasgow University, he reminded his audience that 
the Imperial College of Engineering, Japan, was the first 
educational institution which had a laboratory of this kind. 
The experimental and graphical methods introduced into 
every department of its course are now common in all the 
colleges of this country. The method of combining 
theory and practice in the training of engineers which I 
introduced into Japan is now being strongly recommended 
under the name of the " sandwich " system of apprenticeship. 
I am not, however, so sure that the spirit which animated 
the professors and students in Japan is yet very common in 
Britain. The distinction between instruction — the mere 
collection of facts and figures — and real education is not 
sufficiently kept in mind. The Japanese students were not 
crammed ; they were trained to think and to act for them- 
selves, and their subsequent careers have fully proved the 
success of the methods adopted. We have seen that in the 
arts of peace and war they have applied their knowledge in 
a manner which has surprised the world. 

Probably, however, the chief lesson to be learned from 
Japan is the need for a truly national spirit for the 
accomplishment of great ends. The present war has shown 
most distinctly that Japanese soldiers and sailors are care- 
less of personal survival if they feel that they are taking 
part in the accomplishment of a national aim. It is, of 
course, in war that this spirit is most distinctly shown, 
because in industry, trade, and political life merely personal 
interests are apt to interfere, but even in these the Japanese 
have shown that considerations of national welfare come 
before everything else. The guiding principles enunciated 
by the Emperor when he ascended the throne have always 
been kept in mind, not only by himself and the Government 
but also by the people, and the national policy has been 
directed to the attainment of the objects in view. Educa- 
tion, industry, the army and navy, foreign politics ; in short, 
the national life was subordinated to the attainment of these 



428 Dai A T ippon 

objects. Plans were carefully drawn out in every department, 
and were carried out with great deliberation. The national 
life was conscious. 

Can we say that this is the case in Britain ? Is it not 
rather true that we have no real national policy, and that 
our statesmen drift according to their own whims or to 
what may be called accidental circumstances ? Our greatest 
need is a conscious national aim to which all our efforts 
would be constantly directed, and to which the latest 
developments of science would be efficiently applied. In 
this connection, however, science must not be used in its 
limited sense, but include all that is essential to individual 
and national welfare. 

In one of his last addresses on technical education the 
late Professor Huxley pointed out the dangers of a one- 
sided treatment of the subject, and urged the necessity of 
keeping an anxious eye upon those measures which are 
necessary for the preservation of that stable and sound 
condition of the whole social organism which is the essential 
condition of real progress, and a chief end of all education. 
He added : " You will recollect that some time ago there 
was a scandal and a great outcry about certain cutlasses 
and bayonets which had been supplied to our troops and 
sailors. These warlike implements were polished as bright 
as rubbing could make them ; they were very well sharpened ; 
they looked lovely. But when they were applied to the test 
of the work of war they broke and they bent, and proved 
more likely to hurt the hand of him that used them than 
to do any harm to the enemy. Let me apply that analogy 
to the effect of education, which is a sharpening and 
polishing of the mind. You may develop the intellectual 
side of people as far as you like, and you may confer on 
them all the skill that training and instruction can give ; 
but if there is not, underneath all that outside form and 
superficial polish, the firm fibre of healthy manhood and 
earnest desire to do well, your labour is absolutely in vain." 
Much of the time, money, and energy at present spent on 



Recent Events 429 

education is spent in vain because this advice is overlooked. 
The applications of physical and natural science by them- 
selves may simply sharpen the tools which may drive us 
to destruction. The scientific method must be applied to 
ethics, sociology, and politics, and above all to the training 
of men and women, healthy in body, acute in mind, and 
animated with high ideals of individual, civic, and national 
duty. A writer in a daily paper says with a great amount 
of truth, " What makes Japan particularly valuable as an 
exemplar for us is, that the virtues in which it specially 
excels are precisely those we most need and lack. Among 
our most unpleasant traits are the worship and display of 
wealth, the lack of general courtesy, the insensibility to 
the charms of art, the feverish absorption in needless work, 
and the consequent inability to enjoy elegant leisure." 

These remarks apply to a greater or less extent to all 
the nations of the world, but there are a few lessons in 
what may be called world politics to which Lessons for 
attention may be drawn. the nations of 

The first indeed should be evident to all who 
have taken any interest in Eastern peoples, and it is the 
profoundly significant phenomena of history, that the West, 
by itself, is impotent to exert directly a real and vital 
influence upon the East. Japan, which seems a striking 
proof to the contrary, is its strongest confirmation. As a 
Japanese writer from whom I have quoted insists : " It was 
some small degree of self-recognition that re-made Japan, 
and enabled her to weather the storm under which so much 
of the Oriental world went down," and he generalises that 
" it must be a renewal of the same self-consciousness that 
shall build up Asia again into her ancient steadfastness and 
strength." Probably it will be replied that it is no part 
of the plan (so far as they have any plan) of the Western 
Powers to help Asia to attain this object. If this be so, 
they are simply using the East for selfish purposes, and 
their efforts are doomed to failure. 

The second lesson which it is hoped the nations of the 



43° Dai Nippon 

world will take to heart is that, in so far at least as Japan, 
China, and Korea are concerned, there must be a profound 
change in the methods of dealing with these nations. The 
days of crooked diplomacy, gunboat policy, veiled threats 
and monstrous indemnities must be looked upon as past, and 
all questions must be discussed and settled on a basis of 
international equity. I have already expressed the opinion 
that if the bogey of the " Yellow Peril " ever becomes a 
reality, it will be on account of the conduct of some of the 
Western Powers, whose aggressions will drive the peoples of 
the Far East into militarism. Neither Japan nor China has 
shown the slightest signs of aggression, they simply ask to 
be treated with justice and to be allowed to develop on their 
own lines. I believe Count Okuma when he says : " The 
China-Japan war was the outcome of the feeling that Korea 
under the suzerainty of China was a constant menace to the 
future prosperity of our Empire. The same feeling is the 
cause of the present war, for Korea in the possession of 
Russia means the loss of our national independence. How 
patient we were during the protracted and tedious negotia- 
tions with Russia all the world knows. The war is not the 
result of any racial hatred, or of the spirit of revenge, or of 
aggressive designs. Having been forced upon us, it is purely 
defensive. When the war is concluded the whole world will 
be surprised to see, as after the war with China, that not 
a trace of enmity or any ill - feeling exists towards our 
temporary enemy. Not even towards the Russians shall we 
cease to possess the feeling of amity, which comes from 
confidence in our own strength, and from the fact that 
through 2500 years of our history we have never known 
defeat ; and as in the past, so in the future, it will be our 
sole guide in our efforts to attain a high stage of Western 
civilisation." 

This is not merely a personal opinion on the part of 
Count Okuma, it is a national sentiment which was clearly 
reflected in an Imperial proclamation of 21st April 1895, in 
which the following passages occur : — " We deem it that the 



Recent Events 431 

development of the prestige of the country could be obtained 
only by peace. It is Our mission which We inherited from 
Our ancestors that peace should be maintained in an effectual 
way. The foundations of the great policy of Our ancestors 
have been made more stable. We desire that, together with 
Our people, We be specially guarded against arrogance or 
relaxation. It is what We highly object to, that the people 
should become arrogant by being puffed up with triumph, 
and despise others rashly, which would go towards losing 
the respect of Foreign Powers. Since the development of 
the nation can be obtained by peace, it is a divine duty 
imposed upon us by Our ancestors, and it has been Our 
intention and endeavour since Our accession to the Throne to 
maintain peace, so as to enjoy it constantly. . . . We are 
positively against insulting others and falling into idle pride 
by being elated by victories, and against losing the confidence 
of Our friendly States." 

The action of Russia in seizing and in some cases 
destroying neutral merchant vessels because they were 
supposed to be carrying contraband of war has raised some 
difficult questions of International Law, which will require 
very careful consideration. It is impossible to say whether 
the difficulties which have arisen are due to deliberate 
Russian diplomacy or to the indiscretion of Russian naval 
officers ; but it is evident that the Russian Government's 
declaration as to what it proposes to treat as contraband, and 
therefore, subject to seizure is unprecedently wide in its 
terms, and attempts to carry it out are certain to bring 
Russia at once into hostility with the established law of 
nations. Articles which are the common exchange of 
peaceful life and commerce are by the precedents of that law 
not legally attachable, unless it can be shown that they are 
intended for the use of the military forces of the country of 
their destination. It has been laid down as unchallengeable 
by a great jurist that " to divert food from a large population 
where no immediate military end is in view would be to 
stop all neutral trading during a war." The action of 



432 Dai Nippon 

Russia has been further complicated by the use to which the 
" Volunteer " Fleet has been put, not only when its position 
is considered from a general legal point of view, but also 
because of the special treaty obligations of Russia in con- 
nection with the Black Sea. If the doings of Russia be 
allowed to pass unchallenged, an end would be put to all 
peaceful commerce when any two Powers happened to be at 
war. Evidently the nations of the world must come to a 
distinct understanding on these points, not only on account 
of their bearings on the present war, but also in view of 
future possibilities. Russia cannot be allowed to become a 
law unto herself. 

Meantime I shall only mention another lesson which 
ought to be learned by the nations of the world in their 
dealings with Eastern peoples, and that is the necessity of 
looking from an international point of view at the political 
questions which arise. As ethical philosophy is no longer 
purely individualistic, so in like manner practical politics 
can no longer be purely national. The engineer has shrunk 
the world into small dimensions, and the social and economic 
conditions of the various countries are closely connected. 
Statesmen must therefore study what may be called the 
dynamics of politics if they wish to carry on their work in a 
rational manner. We have been told very often recently 
that we must think " Imperially." I would rather put it 
that we must think " Internationally," and I am convinced 
that the greatest real successes will fall to those statesmen 
who are international in their conceptions and not insular 
and individual. In this respect the statesmen of Japan have 
given an example to the nations of the world, as in all their 
actions they have dealt with the other Powers with perfect 
frankness. This has been the case for years past, but it has 
been strikingly shown since the outbreak of war with Russia. 
The British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs when he 
concluded the alliance with Japan showed that he recognised 
the international nature of many of the problems in the Far 
East, and that alliance was the first definite, public and 



Recent Events 



433 



intelligible measure taken to prevent chaos in that part of 
the world. As a well-known American statesman put it : 
" The immediate effect of the announcement of this treaty 
was to bring the world to its senses. Contemporaneously 
with its publication, our State Department sent a memo- 
randum both to Pekin and St. Petersburg, asserting in 
plain terms that the situation in Manchuria was a distinct 
breach of the stipulations of treaties between China and 
Foreign Powers, not only damaging the rights of American 
citizens by exposing them to discriminations, but tending 
also to cripple the Chinese Empire in the discharge of its 
international obligations. The terms of this memorandum 
indicate that it was written with the text of the Anglo- 
Japanese treaty within easy reach." Even the Governments 
of Russia, France, and Germany approved of the treaty, and 
the Russian official press said that it contained exactly the 
idea they had long cherished, a statement which may be 
taken as an index of the sincerity of Russian professions. 
If Britain and the other Powers named had shown a little 
more distinctly than they did that they really meant what 
they said, the war would not have broken out. Russia's 
diplomats are too shrewd men of the world to have allowed 
a conflict not simply with Japan but also with the other most 
powerful nations. Meantime Japan is fighting not only her 
own battle for freedom, it might almost be said for exist- 
ence ; she is also fighting the battle of Europe and America 
for liberty to develop international trade and intercourse, and 
to bring about a closer union of East and West. 

August 1 6, 1904. 



(B 20 7 ) 2 p 



APPENDICES 



APPENDIX A 

Japanese Weights, Measures, and Moneys, with English 
and French Equivalents 



Japan. 


Great Britain. 


■ 
France. 


Ri .... 


2.4403382 miles. 


3.9272727 kilometres. 


Ri (Marine) . 


1. 1506873 miles. 


1. 85 1 81 82 kilometres. 


Square Ri 


5.9552506 square miles. 


15.423471 1 kilometres 
caries. 


Square C/io = 10 Tan 


2.4507204 acres. 


99-1735537 ares. ! 


Tsubo .... 


3.9538290 square yards. 


3.3057S51 metres carres. 


Kokn = i o To — i oo Slid 


39-7033!30 gallons. 1 
4.9629141 bushels. J 




(Liquid). 


1.8039068 hectolitres. 


R~oku = 10 70=100 Slid 




(Dry). 






Koku (capacity of vessel). 


T V of ton. 


1*5 de tonne. 


R'wan= iooo Mo?nme 


8.2673297 lbs. (Avoir.) \ 
10.0471021 ,, (Troy.) / 






3.7500000 kilogrammes. 


Kin .... 


1.3227727 lbs. (Avoir. )\ 
1.6075363 „ (Troy.) / 


6.0000000 hectogrammes. 


Momme. 


2. 1 164364 drams(Avoir.)"\ 






2.4113045 dwts. (Troy.)/ 


3.7500000 grams. 


Yen =ioo Sen = iooo 


2.582 shillings. 


2. 5S3 francs. 


Rin= 10,000 Mo. 







437 



APPENDIX B 

Treaty of Alliance with Great Britain 

Agreement betzveen Great Britain and Japan , signed at 
London, January 30, 1902. 

The Governments of Great Britain and Japan, actuated 
solely by a desire to maintain the status quo and general 
peace in the Extreme East, being, moreover, specially 
interested in maintaining the independence and territorial 
integrity of the Empire of China and the Empire of Korea 
and in securing equal opportunities in those countries for 
the commerce and industry of all nations, hereby agree as 
follows : — 

Article I 

The High Contracting Parties having mutually re- 
cognised the independence of China and of Korea, declare 
themselves to be entirely uninfluenced by any aggressive 
tendencies in either country. Having in view, however, 
their special interests, of which those of Great Britain relate 
principally to China, while Japan in addition to the interests 
which she possesses in China is interested in a peculiar 
degree politically, as well as commercially and industrially, 
in Korea, the High Contracting Parties recognise that it 
will be admissible for either of them to take such measures 
as may be indispensable in order to safeguard those interests 
if threatened either by the aggressive action of any other 
Power, or by disturbances arising in China or Korea, and 

438 



Appendix B 439 

necessitating the intervention of either of the High Contract- 
ing Parties for the protection of the lives and property of its 
subjects. 

Artilce II 

If either Great Britain or Japan, in the defence of their 
respective interests as above described, should become 
involved in war with another Power, the other High 
Contracting Party will maintain a strict neutrality, and use 
its efforts to prevent other Powers from joining in hostilities 
against its ally. 

Article III 

If in the above event any other Power or Powers should 
join in hostilities against that ally, the other High Contract- 
ing Party will come to its assistance, and will conduct the 
war in common, and make peace in mutual agreement with it. 

Article IV 

The High Contracting Parties agree that neither of 
them will, without consulting the other, enter into separate 
arrangements with another Power to the prejudice of the 
interests above described. 

Article V 

Whenever, in the opinion of either Great Britain or 
Japan, the above-mentioned interests are in jeopardy, the 
two Governments will communicate with one another fully 
and frankly. 

Article VI 

The present agreement shall come into effect immedi- 
ately after the date of its signature, and remain in force for 
five years from that date. In case neither of the High 
Contracting Parties should have notified twelve months 
before the expiration of the said five years the intention of 



440 Dai Nippon 

terminating it, it shall remain binding until the expiration 
of one year from the day on which either of the High 
Contracting Parties shall have denounced it. But if, when 
the date fixed for its expiration arrives, either ally is 
actually engaged in war, the alliance shall, ipso facto, 
continue until peace is concluded. 

In faith whereof, the Undersigned, duly authorised by 
their respective Governments, have signed this 
Agreement, and have affixed hereto their seals. 

Done in duplicate at London the 30th January 1902. 

(L. S.) (Signed) Lansdowne, 

His Britannic Majesty's Principal Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs. 

(L. S.) (Signed) Hayashi, 

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleyiipotentiary 
oj His Majesty the Emperor of fapan 
at the Court of St. fames. 

With this treaty as published (Japan, November 1902) 
appeared the following explanatory letter from Lord 
Lansdowne to Sir Claude Macdonald, British Minister in 
Tokyo : — 

The Marquis of Lansdowne to Sir C. Macdonald 

Foreign Office, 30M fanuary 1902. 

SIR — I have signed to-day with the Japanese Minister 
an Agreement between Great Britain and Japan, of which a 
copy is enclosed in this despatch. 

This Agreement may be regarded as the outcome of the 
events which have taken place in the Far East, and of the 
part taken by Great Britain and Japan in dealing with them. 

Throughout the troubles and complications which arose 
in China consequent upon the Boxer outbreak and the 
attack upon the Peking Legations, the two Powers have 
been in close and uninterrupted communication, and have 
been actuated by similar views. 



Appendix B 44 1 

We have each of us desired that the integrity and 
independence of the Chinese Empire should be preserved, 
that there should be no disturbance of the territorial status 
quo either in China or in the adjoining regions, that all 
nations should, within those regions, as well as within the 
limits of the Chinese Empire, be afforded equal opportunities 
for the development of their commerce and industry, and 
that peace should not only be restored, but should, for the 
future, be maintained. 

From the frequent exchanges of views which have taken 
place between the two Governments, and from the discovery 
that their Far Eastern policy was identical, it has resulted 
that each side has expressed the desire that their common 
policy should find expression in an international contract ot 
binding validity. 

We have thought it desirable to record in the Preamble 
of that instrument the main objects of our common policy 
in the Far East, to which I have already referred, and in the 
first Article we join in entirely disclaiming any aggressive 
tendencies either in China or Korea. We have, however, 
thought it necessary also to place on record the view enter- 
tained by both the High Contracting Parties that, should 
their interests as above described be endangered, it will be 
admissible for either of them to take such measures as may 
be indispensable in order to safeguard those interests, and 
words have been added which will render it clear that such 
precautionary measures might become necessary and might 
be legitimately taken, not only in the case of aggressive 
action or of an actual attack by some other Power, but in 
the event of disturbances arising of a character to necessitate 
the intervention of either of the High Contracting Parties 
for the protection of the lives and property of its subjects. 

The principal obligations undertaken mutually by the 
High Contracting Parties are those of maintaining a strict 
neutrality in the event of either of them becoming involved 
in war, and of coming to one another's assistance in the 
event of either of them being confronted by the opposition 



44 2 Dai Nippon 

of more than one hostile Power. Under the remaining 
provisions of the Agreement, the High Contracting Parties 
undertake that neither of them will, without consultation 
with the other, enter into separate arrangements with another 
Power to the prejudice of the interests described in the 
Agreement, and that whenever those interests are in jeopardy 
they will communicate with one another fully and frankly. 

The concluding Article has reference to the duration of 
the Agreement, which, after five years, is terminable by 
either of the High Contracting Parties at one year's notice. 

His Majesty's Government have been largely influenced 
in their decision to enter into this important contract by 
the conviction that it contains no provisions which can 
be regarded as an indication of aggressive or self-seeking 
tendencies in the regions to which it applies. 

It has been concluded purely as a measure of precaution 
to be invoked, should occasion arise, in the defence of 
important British interests. It in no way threatens the 
present position or the legitimate interests of other Powers. 
On the contrary, that part of it which renders either of the 
High Contracting Parties liable to be called upon by the 
other for assistance can operate only when one of the allies 
has found himself obliged to go to war in defence of interests 
which are common to both, when the circumstances in which 
he has taken this step are such as to establish that the 
quarrel has not been of his own seeking, and when, being 
engaged in his own defence, he finds himself threatened, not 
by a single Power, but by a hostile coalition. 

His Majesty's Government trust that the Agreement 
may be found of mutual advantage to the two countries, that 
it will make for the preservation of peace, and that, should 
peace unfortunately be broken, it will have the effect of 
restricting the area of hostilities. — I am, etc. 

LANSDOWNE. 



APPENDIX C 

Some of the More Important Recent Books, etc., 
on Japan. 

Japanese Government Reports issued by the various Departments. 

British and American Consular Reports. 

Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan. 

Transactions of the Japan Society, London. 

Murray's Handbook of Japan, by Chamberlain and Mason. Latest 

edition. 
Chamberlain, Professor B. H. — Things Japanese. London, 1902. 
Yamawaki, H. — Japan in the Beginning of the Twentieth 

Century. Tokyo, 1903. 
Stead, Alfred (Editor). — Japan by the Japanese ; a Survey by its 

highest Authorities. London, 1904. 

This is a valuable collection of papers written by distinguished 

Japanese statesmen and administrators. It was published 

after my book was printed. 

Brinkley, Captain F. — Japan and China, 12 vols. London, 1903. 

, Article on " Japan " in supplementary volumes of Encyclopedia 

Britannica. 
Von Wenckstein. — Bibliographv of the Japanese Empire. London, 

1895. 
Oliphant, L. — Narrative of the Earl of Elgin's Mission to China 

and Japan. Edinburgh and London, 1859. 
Alcock, Sir R. — The Capital of the Tycoon. London, 1863. 
Black, J. R. — Young Japan. Yokohama, 1880. 
Adams, F. D. — History of Japan. London, 1875. 
Griffis, W. E. — The Mikado's Empire. New York, 1876. 

, Townsend Harris, First American Envoy. London, 1895. 

Mounsey, A. H. — The Satsuma Rebellion. London, 1879. 
Murray, D. — The Story of Japan. New edition. London, 

1904. 

443 



444 Dai Nippon 

Reed, Sir E. J. — Japan : its History, Traditions, and Religions. 

London, 1880. 
Dickens and Lane-Poole. — Life of Sir Harry Parkes. London, 

1894. 
Bird, Miss (Mrs. Bishop). — Unbeaten Tracks in Japan. London, 

1888. 
Diosy, A. — The New Far East. London, 1904. 
Von Siebold, A. — Japan's Accession to the Comity of Nations. 

London, 1901. 
Knapp, A. M. — Feudal and Modern Japan. London, 1898. 
Norman, H. — The Real Japan. London and New York, 1892. 
, Peoples and Politics in the Far East. London and New 

York, 1896. 
Stead, A. — Japan, our Ally. London, 1902. 
Curzon, G. N. (now Lord). — Problems of the Far East. London, 

1896. 
Davidson, J. W. — The Island of Formosa, Past and Present. 

Yokohama and London, 1903. 
Brownell, C. L. — The Heart of Japan. London, 1903. 
Fraser, Mrs. H. — A Diplomatist's Wife in Japan. London, 1899. 
Rittner, G. H. — Impressions of Japan. London, 1904. 
Morris, J. — Advance, Japan. London, 1895. 

, Japan and its Trade. London, 1902. 

Watson, W. P. — Japan, Aspects and Destinies. London, 1904 
Davidson, A. M. C. — Present Day Japan. London, 1904. 
Hartshorne, A. C — Japan and her People. London, 1904. 
Del Mar, W. — Around the World through Japan. London, 

1903. 
Ransome, S. — Japan in Transition. London, 1899. 
Leroy-Beaulieu, P. — The Awakening of the East. London, 1900. 
Clement, E. W. — Handbook of Modern Japan. Chicago and 

London, 1904. 
Scherer, J. A. B. — Japan To-day. London, 1904. 
Weston, W. — The Japanese Alps. London, 1896. 
Dickson, W. G. — Gleanings from Japan. Edinburgh, 1889. 
Dixon, W. G. — The Land of the Morning. Edinburgh, 1882. 
Peery, R. B. — The Gist of Japan. Edinburgh, 1896. 
Vladimir. — The China-Japan War. London, 1896. 
Eastlake and Yamada. — Heroic Japan. Yokohama, 1896. 
Jane, F. J. — The Imperial Japanese Navy. London, 1904. 
Nitobe, I. — Bushido, the Soul of Japan. Tokyo, 1901. 
Hearn, L. — Kokoro and other Works. London, 1896, etc. 
Lowell, P. — The Soul of the Far East. Boston, 1896. 



Appendix C 445 

Gulick, S. L. — Evolution of the Japanese. New York and London, 

1903. 
Okakura, K. — The Ideals of the East. London, 1903. 
Griffis, W. E. — The Religions of Japan. London, 1895. 
Mitford, A. B. — Tales of Old Japan. London, 1876. 
Hayashi, Viscount. — For his People. London, 1903. 
Watanna, O. — The Wooing of Wistaria. London, 1902. 
Aston, W. G. — History of Japanese Literature. London, 1899. 
Chamberlain, Prof. B. H. — The Classical Poetry of the Japanese. 

London, 1880. 
Riordan and Takayanagi. — Sunrise Stories. London, 1896. 
Lewis, R. E. — The Educational Conquest of the Far East. New 

York and London, 1903. 
Miyamori, A. — Life of Yukichi Fukazawa. Tokyo, 1902. 
Griffis, W. E. — Yerbeck of Japan. Edinburgh and London, 1901. 
Bacon, A. M. — Japanese Girls and Women. Boston and London, 

1891. 
Rein, J. J. — Japan, Travels and Researches. London, 1884. 

, The Industries of Japan. London, 1889. 

Anderson, W. — Pictorial Arts of Japan. Boston, 1886. 

Gonse, L. — L'Art Japonaise. Paris, 1883. 

Audsley and Bowes. — Ceramic Art of Japan. Liverpool, 1875. 

Huish, M. B. — Japan and its Art. London, 1889. 

Hartman, S. — Japanese Art. Boston and London, 1904. 

Morse, E. S. — Japanese Homes and their Surroundings. New 

York, 1903. 
Piggott, F. T. — Music and Musical Instruments in Japan. 

London, 1903. 
Conder, J. — Landscape Gardening in Japan. Tokyo, 1893. 

Reference should also be made to the bibliographical notes at 
the end of each chapter of this book, and also, when possible, to 
files of the daily newspapers published in English in Japan, especi- 
ally the Japan Daily Mail and the Japan Times. 



INDEX 



Administration, problems of, 280 

Administrative bodies, functions of, 284 

Agriculture : in Old Japan, 238 ; new 
conditions, 240 ; improvements in, 
• 241 ; means for encouraging, 245 ; 
legislation on, 246 

Alliance with Great Britain, 76, 329, 438 

Army and navy, 109 ; development of, 
in 

Art, characteristics of Japanese, 205 

Art and music education, 95 

Art industries : art in Old Japan 204 ; 
Western influences, 206 ; Japanese 
Art Society, 207 ; criticism of foreign 
art, 20S ; modern conditions, 209 ; 
Eastern ideals, 210 ; art and economic 
conditions, 211 ; present conditions in 
Japan, 212 ; comparison with India, 
214 ; future of Japanese art industries, 
216 

Asia, Japan in, 391 

Asia, task of, 385 

Assembly, deliberative, 53 

Associations, technical, 185 

Balance of trade against Japan, 227 

Banking system, 304 

Books on Japan, 443 

Brinkley Captain, opinions on : Japanese 

religion, 38 ; men of the Revolution, 

52 ; Japanese officers, 113 ; Japanese 

press, 175 ; foreign advisers, 193 ; 

Japanese art, 213 ; foreign treaties, 

316, 330 
Britain, Great : alliance with, 329, 438 ; 

lessons for, 425 
Britain of the East, ambition to become, 

342 ; geographical advantages of 

Japan, 334 
Budgets, family, 373-75 
Budgets, national, in 1893 and 1903, 

298, 299 
Building industry, 177 



" Bushido," 32 

Business relations, international, 331 

Cabinet, functions of, 283 
Capital in Japan, future of, 394 
Chemical industries, 176 
China : war with, 71 ; results of war 
with, 73 ; aggression of Russia and 
Germany in, 74 ; results of, 75 ; re- 
sults on Japanese policy, 74 ; Japanese 
influence in, 349 
Chinese opinions and ideals, 349 
Code of Education in Japan, 82 
College of Engineering (Imperial). See 

Kobu-Daigakko 
Colonies, military, 254 
Combinations of employers and workers, 

191. 393 
Commerce : in Old Japan, 219 ; results 
of new conditions, 220 ; development 
of foreign trade, 222 ; exports and 
imports, 222 ; distribution of foreign 
trade, 224 ; balance of trade against 
Japan, 227 ; current prices, 228 ; 
provisions for encouraging commerce, 
229 ; commercial and industrial 
guilds, 231 ; tariffs, 231 ; commercial 
morality of Japanese merchants, 43, 
232 ; position of foreign merchants, 

234 
Confucian philosophy of life, 384 
Consular (foreign) tribunals, 315 
Cotton spinning, 171 

Debt, national, 303 
Deliberative assembly, 53 
Development on Western lines, 68 
Diplomacy, future of, 429, 432 
Distribution of Japan's foreign trade, 

224 
Dockyards and shipbuilding yards, 122, 

165 
Duty to State, 39 



447 



44 8 



Dai Nippon 



East and West, relations of, 46, 401, 

429 
Eastern people and Western thought, 46 
Economic forces in Japan, 342 
Education in Great Britain, 426 
Education : in Old Japan, 79 ; foreign 
schools, beginning of, 81 ; Code of 
Education, 83 ; primary, 85 ; second- 
ary, 87 ; university, 88 ; technical, 
93 ; art and music, 95 ; special 
schools, 97 ; private institutions, 101 ; 
moral, 104 ; results of, 106 ; statistics, 

98, 99 

Educators, some Japanese, 21 

Embassy to United States and Europe, 
1. 26, 55 

Emigration to Korea and China, 264 ; 
to other foreign countries, 265 

Emperor : always source of power, 16 ; 
proclamation of, on accession, 27 ; 
religion of, 41 ; position in Japanese 
Constitution, 275 ; proclamation of 
war with Russia, 408 ; peaceful inten- 
tions of, 431 

Empire, extent of Japanese, 76 

Engineering, civil and mechanical, 162 

Ethics in Japan, future of, 394 

Ethics in the West, future of, 402 

Exhibitions, industrial, 189 

Exports and imports, 222 

Extra-territoriality, discussions on, 316 

Factory work of women and children, 

378 

Farmers and labourers, economic con- 
ditions of, 373 

Feudalism, fall of, 48 

Finance : financial position at Restora- 
tion, 292 , taxation, old and new, 

293 ; problems before new Govern- 
ment, 294 ; financial administration, 

294 ; Land Tax, 296 ; Budgets for 
1893 and 1903, 298, 299 ; burden on 
the people, 301 ; national debt, 303 ; 
local finances, 304 ; banking system, 
305 ; present financial conditions, 
307 ; future financial policy, 386 

Fish and marine products, 246 
Food, importation of, 249 
Food supply, 238 
Foreign advisers, 193 
Foreign capital in Japan, 198 
Foreign consular tribunals, 315 
Foreign industries, introduction of, 151 
Foreign merchants in Japan, 234 
Foreign policy of Japan : diplomatic 
action, 344 ; opinions of statesmen, 



345 ; Japan and Korea, 352 ; claims 
of Japan, 354, 362 ; case for Russia, 
357 ; effects of financial policy, 388 ; 
ultimate solution of problems, 388 
Foreigners : early relations with, 19 ; 
arrival of (modern), 23 ; attitude of 
Japanese towards, 53 ; intercourse 
with, 379 ; status of, 195 
Forestry, improvements in Japanese, 156 
Formosa : expedition to, 64 ; ceded to 
Japan, 256 ; Japanese population of, 
256 ; administration of, 259 ; educa- 
tion, justice, etc., 259; railways, 
shipping, etc., 260 ; products and 
foreign trade, 262 ; effects of Japanese 
occupation, 262 

Geographical advantages of Japan, 334 

Government, central, 53, 281 

Government, constitutional : first principle 
enunciated by Emperor, 269 ; first 
attempts at, 270 ; evolution of, 271 ; 
National Assembly, 273 ; Constitution, 
Marquis Ito on, 274 ; Constitution, 
difficulties in working, 275 ; legislation, 
278 ; future of, 389 

Government factories, 177 

Government, local, 289 

Guilds, commercial and industrial, 231 

Hara-kiri, 39 

Hayashi, Viscount : Secretary of Em- 
bassy, 2 ; Chief Commissioner 
Engineering College, 3 ; services in 
China, Japan, and St. Petersburg, 3 ; 
Japanese Minister in London, 3 ; 
Treaty of Alliance with Great Britain, 
440 

Health, national, 378 

History, early Japanese, 14 

History, methods of, 404 

Hokkaido : history of, 253 ; military 
colonies in, 254; agriculture, etc., 
254; railways, mining, etc., 255; 
immigration and population, 255 

India and Japan, 214 

Industrial competition with foreign 
nations, 335 

Industrial developments : introduction 
of foreign industries, 151 ; conditions 
of native industries, 152 ; methods of 
native industries, 153 ; mining and 
metallurgy, 157 ; civil and mechanical 
engineering, 162 ; Imperial Mint, 163 ; 
shipbuilding and shipping, 164 ; sub- 



Index 



449 



sidies for shipbuilding and shipping, 
169 ; cotton spinning, 171 ; silk in- 
dustries, 173 ; printing industry, 174 ; 
chemical industries, 176 ; building 
industry, 177 ; Government factories, 
177 ; manufacturing establishments, 
180 ; working hours and wages, 182 ; 
industrial training, 182 ; technical 
associations, 184 ; patents, trade 
marks, etc., 185; industrial legisla- 
tion, 191 

Industrial influence of Japanese, 337, 
338 

Industrial training, 183 

Industries, Japanese, 152 

International relations, 311 

Inventions, Japanese, 187 

Ito, Marquis : member of Embassy to 
Britain, 2 ; founds Engineering 
College, 2 ; early history, 25 ; Japanese 
Constitution, 274 ; Treaty with China, 
73 ; President of Privy Council, 284 ; 
opinions of, 277, 363, 396 

Japan, books on, 443 

Japan, necessity for a strong, 33 

Japan in war-time, 419 

Japan's success, secret of, 422 

Japanese action, justification of, 409 

Japanese ambitions regarding commerce 

and industry, 200 
Japanese Empire, extent of, 76 
Japanese history, early, 14 
Japanese history, making of, 405 
Japanese industrial influence : in Far 

East, 337, 351 ; in the West, 338 
Japanese industries, 153 
Japanese inventions, 187 
Japanese mind, 31, 35, 39 
Japanese power in Far East, 125 
Japanese soldiers in Boxer troubles, 

I2 5 
Japanese troops, behaviour of, 417 
Japanese weights and measures, 437 
Justice, administration of, 286 

Kaitakushi, department of, 253 
Kobu-Daigakko (Imperial College of 
Engineering) : institution of, 1 ; staff 
of, 3 ; work of, 3 ; courses of study 
of, 5 ; success of students, 6 ; results 
of work of, 7, 13, 129, 361 ; history 
of, 89 
Korea : early relations with, 59 ; diffi- 
culties with, 69 ; China, relations with, 
70 ; Japan, relations with, 352 
(b 207) 



Labour and social problems, 193, 380 

Lansdowne (Lord) on Treaty of Alli- 
ance, 440 

Laws affecting foreigners, 331 

Legislation : industrial, 191 ; general, 
278 ; affecting foreigners, 331 

Lessons for Great Britain, 425 

Lessons for nations of the world, 429 

Life in Old Japan, 365 

Life of common people, 371 

Life of well-to-do classes, 370 

Lighthouses, 144 

Liu-Kiu (Loo-Choo) Islands, 64 

Local finances, 304 

Local government, 288 

Manufacturing establishments, 180 

Manufacturing industries, future of, 387 

Marine engineering, 168 

Matheson, H. M., London, 1, 25 

Mental characteristics of Japanese, 44 

Mercantile marine, 140 

Merchants, foreign, position of, 234 

Mind, the Japanese, 31 

Mining and metallurgy, 157, 158 

Mint, the Imperial, 163 

Modern conditions of life in Japan, 368 

Moral education, 104 

Morality, commercial, 43, 232 

Motives of Japanese, 31 

National health, 378 

National ideals and economics, 383 

Navy : foundation of modern Japanese 
navy, 115 ; Naval College in Tokyo, 
117; development of, 118; present 
conditions of, 121 ; naval officers, 
training of, 123 

Nobility, new orders of, 274 

Officers, military, training of, 113 

Officers, naval, training of, 123 

Officials, grades of, 288 

Old Japan : education in, 79 ; industry 
in, 152 ; commerce in, 219 ; agri- 
culture in, 238 ; life in, 365 

Orders in the State, 17 

Oriental and Occidental thought, 34, 46 

Originality of Japanese, 47 

Parkes, Sir Harry S. , 27, 319 
Parliament, Japanese, 275 
Patents and trade marks, 185 
Population and food supply, 238 
Population, pressure of, 251 
Po r t.s and harbours, 144 

2 G 



45o 



Dai Nipp07i 



Postal services, 148 

Press in Japan, 175 

Prices current in Japan, 228 

Primary education, 85 

Printing industry, 174 

Privy Council, functions of, 284 

Progress, lines of, 54 

Railways : beginning of railways in 
Japan, 132 ; history of railway con- 
struction, 133 ; working and financial 
returns, 136 ; legislation, 137 
Rankine, Professor, Glasgow Univer- 
sity, 1 
Religion, Japanese, 36, 285 
Religion in Japan, future of, 396 
Representative institutions, agitation for, 

67 
Revolution, men of, 52 
Revolution, problems of, 51 
Revolution, spirit of, 49, 396 
River improvements, 139 
Roads under feudal system, 130 
Russia and Japan : early relations, 60 ; 
Saghalin, cession of, 63 ; results on 
Japanese affairs, 63 ; Japanese foreign 
policy, 354, 362 ; case for Russia, 
357 ; Russian ideas, 358 ; expansion 
of Russia, 359 ; negotiations with 
Russia, 405 ; war with Russia, 407 ; 
Russian preparations for war, 414 ; 
Russia's failure, secret of, 421 

Satsuma Rebellion, 65 
Schools, private, 101 
Schools, special, 97 
Schools, technical, 93, 183 
Secondary education, 87 
Shipbuilding, statistics of, 164 
Shipping, modern mercantile marine, 

140 
Shogun (Tycoon) : legal position of, 15 ; 

false ideas of, 17 ; treaties with, 23 
Shogunate, fall of, 18, 24 
Silk industries, 173 
Social problems in Britain, 11 
Social problems in Japan, 12, 380 
Social results in Japan, 365 
Spirit of the Revolution, 49, 396 
State, duty to, 39 
Statistics of education, 98 
Steel work, Government, 161 



Students, Japanese, 47 

Students, university, 91, 92 

Subsidies for shipping and shipbuilding, 

169 
Sugar, sake", tobacco, etc., 243 

Tariffs, 231 

Tea, 242 

Technical associations, 185 

Technical education, 93 

Telegraphs, 145 

Telephones, 147 

Textile industries, 174 

Thought, constituents of Japanese, 35 

Timber, supply of, 155 

Tourists in Japan, 379 

Trade, foreign, of Japan, 222 

Training, industrial, 93, 183 

Treaties with Foreign Powers, 23, 312, 

3*3. 3 28 
Treaties (revised), Imperial Rescript on, 

328 
Treaty of Alliance with Great Britain, 

438 
Treaty of Shimonoseki, 73 
Treaty revision, 318, 320-6 
Treaty with Great Britain revised, 327 

Universities, Tokyo and Kyoto, 89 

Wages of workmen, 183 

War, contraband of, 431 

War, events of, with Russia, 415 

War: with Formosa, 118; with China, 

119 ; with Russia, 407 
War, proclamation of, with Russia, 408 
Weights and measures, Japanese, 437 
Women and children, factory work o f . 

378 
Women in Japan, 375 
Working hours and wages, 182 
Workshops, engineering, 162 
World politics, 432 

Yamao, Viscount ; student in Glasgow, 
2 ; Vice-Minister of Public Works, 2 ; 
early history, 25 ; President of Institu- 
tion of Engineers, 185 

"Yellow Peril," 392, 430 

Yezo, see Hokkaido 

Young men who became leaders, 25 






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