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THE present Volume is one of a series discussing the Cultiva- 
tion of the Farm, its Live Stock, and its Cultivated Plants, the 
Farm and Estate Equipment, the Chemistry of Agriculture, 
and the Processes of Animal and Vegetable Life. Among the 
writers who have been engaged on them are Messrs. T. BOWICK, 
W. BURNESS, G. MURRAY, the late W. T. CARRINGTON, the Rev. 
MORTON, Professors J. BUCKMAN, J. WORTLEY-AXE, and J. 


J. C. M. 


THERE is no branch of English Agriculture 
which has more profited by the spirit of investi- 
gation and the practice of recording observations 
which have of late more or less possessed us all. 
To Mr. H. M. Jenkins, of the Koyal Agricultural 
Society, we are indebted for a knowledge of French 
and Danish Dairying, which has done a great deal 
during the past ten years to improve our own dairy 
practice. And to the rivalry and records of breeds 
and of individual animals on the other side of the 
Atlantic we owe a knowledge of the possibilities of 
milk and butter produce of which no idea formerly 
existed. It is not too much to say that the 
traveller and the enthusiast, the inventor and the 
chemist, have together of late years lifted what 


used to be the homeliest and most stagnant of all 
departments of our Agriculture into the very fore- 
most rank of all, so far as energy, activity, and all 
the other evidences of life are concerned. In the 
following pages, accordingly, along with the sub- 
stance of a former handbook 4 '' published many years 
ago for the present writer, there will be found not 
only those pages brought down to the present date 
and re-written and condensed, but much added 
information on Foreign Dairying, contributed by 
Mr. James Long, and a tolerably full account of 
the improved practice and experience in our own 

Dairy districts at home. 

J. C. M. 

* "Handbook of Dairy Husbandry," by J. Chalmers Morton. Long- 
mans. 1860. 






II. FOOD OF THE Cow ....... 15 


IV. MILK ...... r .... 51 


VI. CHEESE .......... 77 



INDEX 145 



A BOOK on Dairy Husbandry ought to describe the 
management of the farm so far as that is directed to the 
production of milk, as well as the processes of the dairy 
by which that milk is made to yield its various market- 
able products. 

The present Handbook is, however, one of a series ; and 
some of the topics included in an extended review of dairy 
farming have been discussed elsewhere. The particular 
management both of breeding stock and of the crops 
cultivated for their food has already been described. In 
the Handbook of the Livestock of the Farm, also, there 
are chapters on dairy and other breeds of cattle, and short 
instructions are given not only on the duties of the herds- 
man, but on those of the dairyman also ; and the reader 
will find, in a condensed form, some of the information 
which is more fully given here. Although, therefore, in the 
present Handbook it is intended to give shortly the answers 
of experience to such questions as What crops should 
be grown ? what cattle should be kept ? how should they 
be managed ? in order to the production of the largest 
quantity and best quality of milk ? yet our chief purpose 


is to give in full the information which the dairyman rather 
than the farmer needs, and in chapters on dairy statistics, 
on the food and choice and treatment of the cow, on milk, 
butter, cheese, and general management, and on foreign 
dairying, to describe the experiences of the dairy farmer 
and the manufacture of butter and cheese, as carried on 
in foreign countries and in our best dairy districts. 



Dairy Produce Milk Butter Cheese Stock and Produce per acre Stock 
and Produce of the Country. 

THE butter made from a given quantity of milk, is 
rarely more than 4 per cent., varying from one thirtieth to 
one twentieth of its weight. The cheese made from a 
given quantity of milk is generally less than one tenth 
part of its weight. The quantity of butter and of cheese 
which milk will yield depends upon the breed of the cow 
and its individual character ; upon the number of weeks or 
months during which it has already been in milk ; and 
upon the food which it receives. All these particulars are 
included in the general management of the dairy farm. But 
it also depends upon the methods of dairy management 
adopted, the details of time, of temperature, and of 
manipulation in churning, cheese-making, &c. Add to 
the influence of all these circumstances affecting the 
quality of dairy produce the fact that the quantity of milk 
which a given extent of land will yield varies enormously 
with the way in which it is cropped and stocked ; and it 
will be easily understood how the widest diversity of 
experience and opinion in dairy management comes to 

It may be observed here, although the chemistry of the 

B 2 


subject has been elsewhere discussed, that the quantity of 
butter and of cheese respectively which milk yields to the 
dairyman, differs materially from the quantity which it 
yields on examination by the chemist. The caseine, or 
strictly cheesy part of milk does not generally exceed 4 per 
cent, of its weight ; but the cheese of the dairy contains 
much besides the mere caseine of the laboratory; less 
than one third of it generally is caseine ; nearly one third 
of it in the richer kinds of cheese is butter ; more than 
one third of it often, when purchased by the factor, is 
water, and 3 or 4 per cent, of its weight is salt and other 
mineral matter. It may well be then that 4 per cent, of 
caseine in the milk should yield 10 per cent, or even more 
of marketable cheese. And so with the butter of the 
market; it differs considerably from the butter of the 
laboratory, containing in addition to the pure fatty matters 
of which alone the chemist takes account, 2 or 3 per cent. 
of cheese, and 15 or 16 per cent, of water. And if these 
additions do not increase the butter made in the dairy 
beyond that which is extracted in the laboratory, it is 
because so much is often lost in the former by the im- 
perfect means of separating it which are there adopted. 

The object of the dairy farmer being to derive the 
largest profit from his land, he crops the arable portion, 
and manages the pasturage so as to keep a full dairy 
stock ; these he selects of the best kinds, and from the best 
breeds for the produce of butter or of cheese, according to 
his purpose. Having thus insured the largest produce of 
the kind of milk desired, he regulates his dairy manage- 
ment so as to obtain from it, as cheaply as possible, as 
much of the best made cheese or butter as it will yield. 
Successful dairy farming thus implies a knowledge of the 


crops, the stock, and the dairy management best adapted 
to a profitable yield of butter or of cheese. And these are 
the three divisions under which it is proposed to arrange 
the details of dairy experience in the following pages, 
this preliminary section being devoted to a statement of 
its gross results in a considerable number and variety of 

The Yield of Milk. In the cases given the breed and 
the manner of feeding are mentioned, and the number of 
cows of which the experience recorded was true is stated 
when known. On the late A. B. Telfer's farm, Canning 
Park, near Ayr, whose dairy of forty-seven cows was of 
Ayrshire breed, the average yield was 30,660 gallons 
annually, or 650 gallons apiece. This is probably over 
an average yield, but from what an extraordinary variety 
of experience anything like an average must be calculated 
every dairy farmer knows. Thanks very much to the 
British Dairy Farmers' Association and the example of Mr. 
E. C. Tisdall, of the Holland Park Dairy, Kensington, one 
of its most energetic and public- spirited members, we have 
now many dairy records kept, and some of them have been 
published. Mr. J. N. Edwards, of St. Albans, who won 
the prize of the society for the best dairy record in 1883, 
reported that from 30 cows nearly always in milk he 
obtained in 40 weeks 13,630 gallons of milk, or 447 
gallons apiece in that time. The experience here was 
made up of maxima such as that of the cow "Mustard," 
which produced 1,100 gallons in twelve months, milking 
thirteen months continuously and yielding 1,279 gallons in 
all, and of others yielding 514, 322, 876, 490, 645, 917, and 
537 gallons respectively. Mr. J. T. Harrison, of Frocester 


Court, Stonehouse, Gloucestershire, reports a year's produce 
of 55 cows at 31,728 gallons, or 577 per cow, besides the 
milk used in weaning 43 calves ; these were cross-bred 
shorthorn cows. Mr. Boyd Kinnear reports the produce 
of a small dairy of Guernsey cows during ten years as 616 
gallons apiece. In the year 1883 eight cows yielded from 
481 to 660 gallons apiece, averaging 550 gallons. Five 
selected cows have their life history given. One was milked 
twelve years, averaging 553 gallons annually ; another nine 
years, averaging 743 gallons. Mr. Hosley, of Lord Bray- 
brooke's home farm at Audley End, near Saffron Walden, 
reports in the Agricultural Gazette of February 25th, 1885, 
the records of a Jersey dairy, of which the following are 
the principal items : twenty cows of all ages produced 
9,577 gallons, or 478 gallons apiece, of extraordinarily 
rich milk. The individual cows varied from 900 gallons 
annually to 230 gallons. The average per cow in three 
years was 445, 465, and 689 gallons for the cows under 
four years, between four and six, and over six years old 
respectively for 1882 ; and the corresponding figures for 
1883 and 1884 were 461, 443, and 483 for 1883, and 390, 
413, and 606 for 1884. 

From these instances it may be safely gathered that the 
average yield of well managed cows varies from 480 to 600 
gallons of milk a year, according to breed and size ; the 
smaller breeds, such as the Kerry, yielding considerably 
less than the former of these amounts ; and the larger 
Yorkshire, short-horned, and cross-breeds yielding as much 
or even more than the latter. 

It will also be understood that, by rich feeding and first- 
rate management, the average yield of a small dairy breed 
like the Ayrshire may be raised as high as 600 or 650 


gallons annually ; and that, by corresponding treatment of 
the larger breeds, their yield may be raised as high as 800 
gallons and upwards, as in some of the instances quoted. 
The experience of London dairymen proves, indeed, that 
these figures may be exceeded ; and where cows are kept 
solely for the provision of milk, and replaced by others at 
a loss of 6Z. or 11. apiece so soon as their yield falls below 
about six quarts a day, the annual yield of the large- 
framed Yorkshire cow may, by good feeding, be kept at 
nearly 1000 gallons annually on the average number of the 
herd in stall throughout the year. 

The Yield of Butter Mr. Haxton, in his article on 
Dairy Husbandry in the Agricultural Cydopcedia, speaks 
of churning 100 gallons of midsummer milk from Fife- 
shire cows, and obtaining 27J Ibs. of butter. This was at 
the very low rate of 1 Ib. to every 29 pints. Mr. Aiton, 
who has written on the Dairy Husbandry of Ayrshire, 
reports the milk of Ayrshire cattle as ordinarily yielding 
1 Ib. of butter to every 20 pints. 

The following are other instances of annual produce of 
butter per cow. Mr. Telfer's ordinary produce of butter 
from Ayrshire cows was lib. for 20J pints of milk, or 
rather more than 2J gallons; but when the milk was 
richest it yielded lib. per 18 pints, and when poorest lib. 
per 24 pints. 

Mr. Williams, county Cork, in one of the most 
fully detailed accounts that exists of dairy experience 
(Agricultural Gazette, 1855), stated that feeding " well- 
bred Irish cows " on grains nearly all the year round with 
grass in summer and hay in winter, he found that 384J 
gallons of summer milk yielded 13 6f Ibs. of butter, or 1 Ib. 


from 22 J pints of milk, and that 198f gallons of winter 
milk gave 81J Ibs. or 1 Ib. of butter from 19J pints. The 
whole year's yield was 583 gallons of milk and 218 Ibs. of 
butter per cow, or 1 Ib. to every 21 1- pints. 

The late Mr. Horsfall of Burley Hall, near Otley, found 
4 gallons of milk yield from 24 to 27 ozs. of butter, corre- 
sponding to 1 Ib. to every 21 and 18f pints respectively ; 
and his cows annually produced on an average 266 Ibs. of 
butter each. 

We have of late years been startled by extraordinary 
records of butter produce from America, where Jersey cows 
have been cultivated and stimulated to an almost incredible 
productiveness ; and in place of the respectable average of 
600 gallons annually, capable of yielding 2 cwt. of butter 
in the year, which is a good ordinary English experience, 
we are told of cows yielding twice and even three times as 
much. Mr. Hosley, of the Audley End Jersey Dairy, whose 
figures we have already quoted, gives the following averages 
for 1882, 1883, and 1884 respectively : cows under four 
years of age, 240 Ibs., 264 Ibs., and 194 Ibs. respectively 
for the milk as recorded above ; cows between four and six 
years of age, 281 Ibs., 268 Ibs., and 259 Ibs. respectively, 
and cows over six years of age, 353 Ibs., 274 Ibs., and 
311 Ibs. respectively. Over the whole herd in the three 
years the produce was 283 Ibs., 269 Ibs., and 257 Ibs. 
apiece. And some examples of extraordinary yield are 
given, almost rivalling the American reports. Thus, No. 8 
produced 407 Ibs. of butter in 49 weeks in 1882; No. 11 
in 1883, No. 10 and No. 17 in 1884 produced over 390 Ibs. 
each. We fear agricultural maxima have little influence on 
agricultural averages ; and while we do not refuse our belief 
to even the marvellous stories told of Eurotas and other 


extraordinary American Jerseys, we fear that in ordinary 
cases 1 Ib. of butter from 20 to 21 pints of milk and 
200 Ibs. of butter per annum, is more nearly the ordinary 
experience of the larger breeds of dairy cows in this 
country. How great the contrast presented by the Jersey 
under its best circumstances is to this, Mr. Hosley's ex- 
perience proves. His Jersey cows yielded a pound of 
butter to every 7 quarts in 1882, every 6f quarts in 1883, 
and every 7-f quarts in 1884, and varied from 12f quarts 
to a pound in the poorest instances to milk so rich that a 
pound of butter came from every 3f quarts. 

The Yield of Cheese The following are illustrative 
cases : Mr. White of Warrington, in his account of 
Cheshire cheese-making (Agricultural Society's Journal, 
vol. vi.) gave three instances in one of which from 211 
gallons of milk, 4 cheeses were made, weighing " a day or 
two after making " 22 6J- Ibs. ; this was at the rate of 1 Ib. for 
rather less than 7 J pints of milk. In two additional cases 
he reported that 43 gallons of milk yielded a cheese weighing 
47 Ibs. eight months after making, and 107 gallons yielded 
two cheeses, weighing 110 Ibs. a month after making. 
Adding them together, they indicated an average yield of 
1 Ib. of cheese from 7| pints. Mr. Haxton reported the 
produce of cheese in six Ayrshire dairies as being 1 Ib. to 
every 7f pints. The quantity yielded per gallon is greater 
in the autumn than in the spring ; and whereas in June it 
may take 11 Ibs. of milk to yield one of cheese, in 
September and October 9 Ibs. of milk will yield as much. 

In Dorsetshire, where milk is largely used for the pro- 
duction of butter and skim-milk cheese, it is stated that 
the average yield per cow is 168 Ibs. of the former, and 


about 200 Ibs. of the latter annually. Mr. M'Adam of 
Silverdale, near Newcastle, Staffordshire, reported of his 
dairy of 100 cows, that their milk produced 1 Ib. of 
cheese per gallon, equal to about 4J cwts. apiece per 
annum. There were given in the Agricultural Gazette, 
some years ago, the statistics of fifteen dairy farms, 
from which it appears, that 439 cows produced annually 
1604 cwts. of cheese, besides 5268 Ibs. of milk-butter, 
and 11,420 Ibs. of whey-butter, and rearing eighty- five 
calves. If we deduct thirty-nine cows for the milk for 
these calves, then it appears that the remainder pro- 
duced 4 cwts. of cheese, about 13 Ibs. of milk-butter, 
and 28 Ibs. of whey-butter annually a piece. To these we 
may add, from personal knowledge of the Gloucestershire 
dairy district, that while variations of season and conse- 
quent differences in the quantity of grass produced will 
occasion differences in the produce of cheese from as low 
as 3 cwts. to as high as even 5 cwts. per cow in extraordinary 
cases over whole dairies, the average yield of cheese on 
well managed dairy farms, where ordinary care is taken in 
the selection of cows and maintenance of the herd, 
approaches 4 cwts. per cow. Mr. White reported, as the 
average experience of dairy farmers in Cheshire, that on 
land worth 30s. per acre, 3 cwts. of cheese per cow is the 
average produce; "but in a few instances, 5 cwts. per 
cow, and even more, is sometimes made." It may be 
added, that in Ayrshire a stone (24 Ibs.) of cheese is 
generally made from 90 quarts of whole milk, or 1 Ib. of 
cheese from every 9J Ibs. of milk; and that the same 
quantity of skim milk cheese is made from one half more, 
or 135 to 140 quarts, i.e. 1 Ib. of cheese from every 14 Ibs. 
of skim milk. 


The "half coward" cheese of Gloucestershire, made 
from the whole milk of the morning mixed with the milk 
of the previous evening's meal, skimmed after 12 hours' 
standing, is yielded at a midway rate, as 1 Ih. from 11 or 
12 Ibs. of the milk from which it is made. 

Stock and Produce per Acre. On this point, four or 
five cases of actual experience may he quoted. In the case 
of the First Prize Dairy Farm, near Shrewsbury, in 1884, 
a herd of 50 cows on 185 acres, two-thirds pasture, pro- 
duced close on 5 cwts. of cheese per acre, besides some 30 
cwts. of butter in the year. Here the cows were a very 
good dairy shorthorn, fed liberally throughout the year. 
In other instances known to me 19 cows have produced 65 
cwts. of cheese, 77 cows have produced 320 cwts., 37 cows 
have produced 130 cwts., and 43 cows have produced 161 
cwts. in the year, besides varying small quantities of butter 
derived partly from the whey and partly from the evening's 
milk which is creamed, especially in the latter months of 
the year, when it is richer, before being added to the 
morning's milk. The following are other examples. The 
late Mr. Palm's farm at Stapleford Hall, near Tarvin, 
Chester, now in the occupation of Mr. John Lea, consisted 
of 180 acres of pasture land, and 65 acres of tillage, and 5 
acres of homestead and garden ; and it carried 52 dairy 
cows, besides 60 or 80 fatting sheep, and 40 or 50 ewes 
with their lambs, together with 15 or 20 calves, and as 
many yearling, and two-year-old heifers. Putting the 
average annual yield of cheese at fully 3 cwts. per cow, 
this amounts to 100 Ibs. of cheese per acre from the grass 
land, without taking account of the sales of other stock on 
the one hand, or the acreage of arable land on the other, 


from which, during winter, the herd is to some extent main- 
tained. Mr. White, of Warrington, says, in the Agricultural 
Society's Journal, vol. vi., that 15 to 18 cows are kept per 
100 acres of grass land, and that a cheese of 36 to 54 Ibs. 
is made daily from their milk during four or five months in 
summer. Assuming then that 45 Ihs. of cheese are made 
during each of 140 days, we have 350 Ibs. per cow, over 
18 cows, but only 63 Ibs. per acre over the 100 acres, owing 
to the large extent of land (more than 5 acres) allotted per 
cow. The 15 Gloucestershire dairy farms already referred 
to contain 1716 acres of pasture land and 258 acres of 
arable land. They produced 1600 cwts. of cheese, or 105 
Ibs. per acre (less than 4 acres are required per cow), 
besides keeping a stock on the whole of 85 calves and the 
same number of yearling, two-year-old, and three-year-old 
heifers, and a small flock (127) of sheep. The sales from 
this extent of land include in addition to this cheese 15 
tons of bacon, 350 young calves, 85 old cows, and 8 Ibs. of 
butter per acre. Mr. Caird in his "English Agriculture," 
in 1851, says, that of good grass land in Wiltshire, 2J acres 
are reckoned sufficient to support a cow throughout the 
year ; and, to give an idea of the quantity of stock actually 
kept in a particular instance, he adds : "We found a milking 
stock of 40 cows on a dairy farm of 120 acres." The 
same authority quotes the following particulars supplied to 
him in reference to Cheshire experience. " On 36 farms, 
containing 6600 acres 2200 of which were in tillage, a 
stock of 1176 cows, besides the necessary quantity of 
young cattle, is kept in this proportion : 

First class, 600 acres at 3 acres per cow, 200 cows. 
Second class, 800 3 ,, 226 

Third class, 3000 4 750 ,, 

f U >1TY 


These examples are, however, instances rather of average 
than of possible produce. Good dairy farms will keep a 
cow for at most every three acres of pasture, and under 
good management, with some arable land in addition, a 
smaller extent will suffice. The object of a book on the 
subject should be rather to present the maxima of agricul- 
tural experience, and thus stimulate progress, than to dwell 
merely on averages, though a knowledge of these is ne- 
cessary to a truthful statement of ordinary dairy statistics. 

Stock and Produce of the Country. In this paragraph 
we give such figures as the annual agricultural statistics of 
the country provide. It is significant of the growing 
extent of the share of the pastoral, grazing, and dairying 
interest in the agriculture of Great Britain that the area in 
permanent pasture has increased more than one- sixth during 
the past fifteen years. It was 12,735,897 acres in extent 
in 1869 ; it is 15,290,820 acres in 1884. Two and a-half 
millions of acres have been laid down with permanent 
grasses during this period. The number of cattle has 
also increased, though not in the same proportion. There 
were 5,313,473 cattle of all ages in 1869; there were 
6,269,141 of all ages in 1884. Of these 2,390,863 were 
cows and heifers in milk and in calf. The corresponding 
figures for the United Kingdom, including Ireland, were 
22,811,284 acres of permanent pasture in 1869, and 
25,667,206 acres in 1884; 9,078,282 cattle in 1869, 
10,097,943 in 1884, of which 3,724,528 were cows and 
heifers in milk and calf. With all deductions for those 
breeds which do little more than rear their calf, and for 
those breeds where the whole milk is devoted to the raising 
of stock and the fatting of veal, and considering, on the 


one hand, the small yield of some breeds and on the other the 
large quantity produced by cows now fed especially for the 
yield of milk, we may assume that the 3,724,528 cows yield 
nearly 1,200,000,000 gallons annually. Of this at least 
one-twelfth is taken for calves; and if the consumption of 
milk, which has very greatly increased of late years, be put 
at over one quarter of a pint apiece daily, say 14 gallons 
a year for each one of the population, 500,000,000 gallons 
thus consumed must be deducted, leaving 600,000,000 
gallons for the manufacture of cheese and butter, a quantity 
equal to the production of 580,000,000 Ibs. of cheese or 
240,000,000 Ibs. of butter, or perhaps we may say 
100,000,000 Ibs. of cheese and 200,000,000 Ibs. of butter 
a quantity which would provide about one-eighth of an ounce 
of cheese and one-quarter of an ounce of butter apiece per 
head of the population daily. That this is not enough, and 
that there is a growing deficiency in the home supply, is 
proved by the increasing quantity of butter and cheese which 
is annually imported, as appears from the following table : 





















































2,334,743 1,799,704 







The imports, it will be seen, have nearly doubled during 
the past sixteen years. 



Pasturage Summer and Winter Feeding Relations of Food to Pasture 
Malt and Barley Crops of the Dairy Farm, Ensilage Schemes of 
Cultivation for Dairy Farms. 

IT is intended in this chapter to describe actual practice 
in a number of instances of cow feeding ; to state such 
facts as are known on the relations of various foods to the 
yield and quality of milk; and to enumerate the crops 
proper for cultivation on a dairy farm. 

The Pood of the Cow in the common practice of our 
dairy districts is pasturage in summer, and hay and straw 
with, in some cases, a few turnips or mangold wurzel 
in winter. She will consume in depasturing from 1 to 
1J cwt. of grass daily, varying of course according to age 
and size ; or during seven months of grazing as much as 12 
to 16 tons of green food. Pastures which would by July 
have growth enough on them to make from 20 to 40 cwts. 
of hay, and which will when that is cut grow probably 
three-fifths as much grass after July 1 as they had grown 
before, will, if their growth be eaten down from week to 
week throughout the season have produced from 7 to 14 
tons of green food per acre. From 1J acre of the best 
grass lands to as much as 2J of the poorer class will thus 
be wanted for the summer maintenance of the cow. One 


acre of whole grass and the aftermath of another acre which 
had been mown for winter hay will in the former case be suffi- 
cient for a cow; and double that extent will be needed in the 
latter case. The cow will thus receive fully of a cwt. of hay 
daily during the five winter months. In Gloucestershire 
this is generally given it in the field ; the cattle being 
foddered morning and evening unsheltered ; and 2 J tons of 
hay a head are considered an ample winter's allowance. 
In Cheshire the dairy cows are more generally received 
into yards and stalls during winter : 2J or 3 acres of grass 
land per cow are the general allowance in order to supply 
sufficient summer pasturage and winter provender ; but the 
dairy farms in that county generally have a larger proportion 
of arable land attached to them, and it is common to give 
the cows turnips, mangold wurzel, and straw, as well as hay. 
The late Mr. Palin of Tarvin, near Chester, stated that his 
cows being gradually brought into yards towards winter, as 
the yield of milk ceases, are fed in stalls, first on man- 
gold wurzel leaves, then on turnip-tops, and then succes- 
sively on turnips, swedes, and mangold wurzel, along with 
cut straw and hay chaff. The feeding of dairy cows in 
Wigtonshire, includes If acre of pasture during summer, 
4 tons of turnips during winter, and 2 bushels of beans 
given as bean-meal at spring time of the year. In Fifeshire, 
the annual feeding of the dairy cow is put at 2 J acres of 
grass, 9 or 10 tons of turnips, and 30 cwts. of oat straw as 
fodder, together with 1 ton of wheat straw as litter. It is 
the practice now to treat the cow much more liberally 
during the winter months and when she is dry than used 
to be the rule. The bare condition in which, after calving, 
the cow was often turned out to grass in spring is now 
quite understood to be bad farm management. The large 


number of cows which are now brought to the pail in 
autumn for the provision of milk in winter for the supply 
of towns makes, of course, the distinction which used to 
obtain between winter and summer feeding no longer 
applicable, and the yield of milk is stimulated by the most 
liberal treatment. And when the object is to obtain the 
largest possible supply of milk during winter, house feeding 
is of course adopted. Here, great reliance is placed on 
grains, of which a bushel a day per cow or even more is 
given, together with 12 to 18 Ibs. of hay, and J cwt. of 
roots, chiefly mangold wurzel, or in place of the two last, 
abundance of cut green food, clover, vetches, &c. during 
summer. This with ample supply of water forms the 
daily food of the large Yorkshire cows to be found in 
London dairies. A common method is to pasture the 
cows in summer, giving them cut green food in addition 
towards autumn and in early summer, and feeding in 
stalls or yards on roots, grains, cake, and hay, and steamed 
messes during winter. The practice of giving warm mashes 
is more common in the north. For small Ayrshire cows, 
the following has been found a sufficient winter dietary on 
which to keep them in full milk : 30 to 40 Ibs. of boiled 
turnips, with 6 Ibs. of cut straw, and 3 Ibs. of bean-meal 
mashed up in them : straw ad lib. being supplied in 
addition. Mr. Horsfall's winter feeding was remarkably 
liberal, and he received his return for it in the fattening of 
his 'cows at the time they were giving milk. The following 
is the report to the English Agricultural Society of his 
management : He had for four years given his dairy cows 
rape-cake, of the kind termed " green " cake, which im- 
parted to the butter a finer flavour than any other kind of 
cake ; and in order to induce them to eat it, he blended it 



with one quarter the quantity of malt- dust, one quarter 
bran, and twice the quantity of a mixture in equal propor- 
tions of bean- straw, oat- straw, and oat- shells ; all well 
mixed up together, moistened, and steamed for one hour. 
This steamed food had a very fragrant odour, and was 
much relished by the cattle : it was given warm three 
times a day, at the rate of about 7 Ibs. to each cow (or 
21 Ibs. daily). Bean-meal was also scattered dry over the 
steamed food, cows in full milk getting 2 Ibs. per day, the 
others but little. When the animals had eaten up this 
steamed food and bean-meal, they were each supplied daily 
with 28 to 35 Ibs. of cabbages from October to December, 
of kohl-rabi till February, or of mangolds till grass time ; 
each cow having given to her, after each of the three 
feedings, 4 Ibs. of meadow hay (or 12 Ibs. daily). The 
roots were not cut, but given whole. The animals were 
twice a day allowed to drink as much water as they 
desired. Mr. Horsfall ultimately discontinued the use of 
bean-meal owing to its comparative price, and in its place, 
along with about 5 Ibs. of rape-cake, gave an additional 
allowance of malt coombs, and 2 or 3 Ibs. of Indian corn- 
meal per cow. On this food, in instances actually 
observed, his cows gave 14 quarts of milk a day, at the 
same time that they gained flesh at the rate of about one 
quarter of a cwt. per month. 

As regards the summer feeding of these cattle, Mr. 
Horsfall says : " During May, my cows are turned out 
on a rich pasture near the homestead : towards evening 
they are again housed for the night, when they are 
supplied with a mess of the steamed mixture and a little 
hay each morning and evening. During June, when the 
grasses are better grown, mown grass is given to them 


instead of hay, and they are also allowed two feeds of 
steamed mixture. This treatment is continued till October, 
when they are again wholly housed. In January, 1854, I 
commenced weighing my milch cows ; and I have con- 
tinued this practice once a month almost without omission. 
I find ihat cows in full milk yielding 12 to 16 quarts each 
per day vary but little in weight, some losing, others 
gaining, slightly. It is common for a cow to continue 
from six to eight months before she gives below 12 quarts 
per day, at which time she has usually, if not invariably, 
gained weight. The cows giving less than 12 quarts, and 
down to 5 quarts per day, are found when free from ail- 
ment to gain without exception. This gain, with an 
average yield of nearly 8 quarts per day, is at the rate of 
7 to 8 Ibs. per week each." This, of course, is only in the 
case of cows not in calf, intended to be dried and sold fat. 

Relations of Pood to Dairy Produce It is difficult to 
say of any agricultural result how much of it is due to any 
particular cause ; and in the case of dairy produce, so 
many causes contribute to the result that the difficulty is 
greatly increased. The breed, the individual character of 
the cow, its treatment, and the dairy management of its 
milk all, as well as the food which it receives, affect the 
quantity of butter or of cheese which is obtained from it : 
and thus any comparative experiments in order to ascertain 
the effect of particular foods must be carried on for a length 
of time before their results can be considered trustworthy. 

The following are experiments quoted in the Journal of 
the Albert Institution, Glasnevin, Dublin. The first table 
gives the result of a weekly observation of the food and 
produce of cows during the months named. During the 

c 2 



first week, 5 cows were observed, during the second, 7 cows, 

and during the others 6. 


Number of 
Quarts of 


Kind of Feeding which the Cattle received. 

Milk to 



1 Ib. of 

of Milk. 

of Butter 


May 27 

/ Clover and rye-grass, with a few \ 
\ hours' grazing . . . / 




June 28 
July 27 

Winter vetches, and grazing as above 
Clover and rye-glass, second cutting . 




Aug. 25 

Cabbages and grazing . . . . 




Sept. 29 Clover, third cutting 




Oct. 25 
Nov. 28 

Mangold-wurzel leaves and hay . . 
Mangold-wurzel leaves and hay . 




Dec. 19 

White turnips and barley straw . . 




The richness of the milk increases, as its quantity 
diminishes. This indeed appears to have had a more 
powerful influence than the varying character of the food. 
The ration of mangold leaves proved, however, an exception 
to this rule. The following is another series of weekly 
experiments lasting over several months. In the first week, 
the numher of cows observed was 7, and in the others 12. 

ft 4. A -L 


Number of 

j-/aro a/c 
which the 

Kind and Quantity of Feeding 
per Head Daily. 



Quarts of 
Milk to 

ment WAS 

Q ^ 
P H 



lib. of 





April 11 

( 70 Ibs. of mangold- wurzel and ) 
\ 50 Ibs. of turnips . . . ) 





July 11 

Italian rye-grass, ad libitum . 





Sept. 18 

Second cutting of clover . . . 





Sept. 25 

Cabbages ..... 





Oct. 2 

Mangold-wurzel leaves and cabbages 





Oct. 9 

Mangold-wurzel leaves alone . . 





Dec. 1 

I 50 Ibs. of mangold-wurzel and j 
j 60 Ibs. of turnips . . . j 







We have now to refer to the more exact, but shorter 
experiments of scientific men. Those of Boussingault, on 
his farm at Bechelbronn, in one case lasted over eight 
successive weeks, and in another over four successive 
weeks, with the following results : The foods given are 
named in the first column, the daily ration of the several 
foods being calculated according to a recognised table of 
equivalents, as equal in every case to 33 Ibs. of hay. 

Food given during successive 

of Milk 

Percentage composition of Milk. 

Casein. Butter. 







Hay .... 







Turnips and straw 







Wurzel and straw . . 







Raw potatoes and straw 







Hay .... 


Raw potatoes, salt, and 

straw . . . . 



Jerusalem artichokes 








Hay and clover . . 







Green clover 







It seems plain that the results of the first series, as indicated 
by the diminished yield of the cow on hay, were vitiated by 
the general diminished productiveness of the animal with 
the lapse of time. 

Another elaborate series of experiments on this subject 
was published by Dr. K. D. Thomson, who many years ago 
compared the effect of barley, malt, barley and molasses, 
barley and linseed, and bean-meal, in their effects on the 
quantity and quality of the milk yielded by two cows on 
these diets respectively, during successive periods, generally 
of 10 or 15 days. The following results are condensed 



from the tables in which he gives a summary of his 
observations : 

Duration of ! 

Daily Food consumed. 

Daily Milk. 

Yield of Butter 
per Cow. 





1 K 

Barley . . . 10 ) 


Hay . . . 29 ( 




i Malt ... 10i ) 
|Hay . . . 27iJ 



Barley . . 9 j 


Molasses . . . 2| > 



Hay ... 27 J 

Barley ... 8 j 


Linseed . . 4 > 



Hay ... 25$) 

Bean-meal . . 11 j 


Linseed ... ^ > 




[Hay . . . 24iJ 

There do not appear from these figures to he any very 
marked differences either in the quantity or quality of the 
milk produced from these varying foods. Dr. Thomson 
gave as the result of his whole series of experiments, the 
following conclusions, which are calculated from his tables, 
and may be taken as illustrative of the effects of the several 
dietaries which he tried upon the quantity of butter produced. 


Food consumed Daily calculated Dry. 



Produce from 
100 Ibs. of the 

tion of 




Dry Food. 



Grain, (be. 

r oou. 














Grass, daily . 10 '2 
Whole barley . 3 '9 




2 71 



Whole malt . 5 '3 







Crushed barley . 10 '2 







Crushed malt . 10 -2 







Barley,8'15; molasses 2*7 

31-85 20-35 





Barley and linseed 10'67 

32-25 21-8 





Peas . . 107 






It must be remembered that no information is given 
directly in this table on the cost of the butter or milk 
produced by these several feedings, though this may be 
calculated from it by any one who shall take the trouble. 
The maxims of ordinary experience are, however, to be 
taken as of superior importance to scientific observations 
of such limited duration : and these are (1), to maintain 
the cow in vigorous health, whatever may be the food 
provided (2), to give it unrestrained access to good water 
and (3), to change the food as often as possible, whether 
by turning into a fresh pasture, or by alteration of winter 
feeding in the stall. 

Crops and Foods for Dairy Stock. The cultivation 
of the crops suitable as food for dairy stock has been 
described in another Handbook. At present, a mere list 
will be given of these crops, with a reference to their 
probable yield per acre, the period of year during which 
each is available, &c. (1.) Pasturage. The grass of old 
meadows of good quality is the best possible summer food 
for dairy cows. They will thus consume from 1 cwt. 
upwards of green food daily. The annual yield of grass 
from meadows will vary from 7 tons per acre during the 
season up to 14. It is available in this climate generally, 
from early in May till the middle of November or later ? 
during which time an ordinary cow will consume from 10 
to 14 tons of green food. (2.) Hay, well made from good 
meadows, is the very best winter food for dairy cows. It 
is economised by the addition of straw and roots and meal, 
&c., but when given alone, must be supplied at the rate of 
J cwt. daily, or thereabouts, a-head. (3.) The Clovers 
afford capital grazing for young stock, and on arable dairy 


farms to milch cows also. They may yield on good land, 
well cultivated, in 2 or even 3 cuttings, if the season be 
favourable, 10, 6, and 4 tons respectively per acre ; or from 
12 to 18 tons per acre during the season. If the cattle 
are foddered, as in small dairies they may be, these and 
other green foods must be supplied at the rate of fully one 
cwt. each cow daily. They are available from June or 
July till October. (4.) Vetches sown in October, and 
again in April, May and June, may be made to provide a 
succession of food all through the summer, commencing in 
May. They yield one cutting, which may furnish from 6 
to 10 tons of green food per acre ; a very succulent food if 
given before its flowers appear ; and the better, therefore, for 
being cut 12 or 24 hours before use, in order to wither and 
harden somewhat. They may be given with good effect, 
cut up along with straw or chaff. (5.) Eye cut green is 
one of the earliest of spring foods ; sown shortly after 
midsummer it is available early in April, yielding perhaps 4 
or 5 tons per acre of green food, and more as the crop 
approaches maturity, when of course it becomes less useful 
as food. (6.) Italian Eye-grass is one of the best forage 
plants for cows when cultivated liberally. If manured 
abundantly after each cutting, especially if the dressing 
can be washed in by irrigation, another cutting, weighing 
10 or even 15 tons per acre, will be ready in a few weeks. 
And as many as five heavy cuttings have been obtained 
from it in the season on sewage farms. When sufficiently 
ripened, it is the best possible cut food that can be given 
to cows, inducing an abundant yield of excellent milk. 
(7.) Lucerne, on deep, rich, and sheltered soil will also 
yield a succession of cuttings of excellent food for cows, 
weighing, if the intervals between the rows be forked and 


manured after each cutting, from 6 to 8 tons per ' acre 
each. time. It is not always at once very welcome in cow 
food. There is a certain bitterness that is distasteful, 
and we have known of late when it has been given 
as a useful food cut up in the chaff-cutter and sweetened 
with the addition of a pint of treacle or 1 Ih. of coarse 
sugar, both of them cheap foods just now (1885). 
(8.) Sainfoin may be classed with the clovers as to 
quality and quantity of produce, but can rarely be cut more 
than once a year. It is available for several years on the 
same land, requiring of course to be manured if constantly 
cut ; suitable for rocky and calcareous soils, where clovers 
are not generally so successful ; and yielding probably 10 
to 12 tons of green food, under ordinary management, per 
acre. (9.) Gorse crushed, and given with other food, is 
liked by cows, and has been successfully used in dairies. 
It is available during November and the winter months, 
and, given at the rate of two bushels of the bruised 
material along with carrots, and a little hay, is one of the 
best winter foods for cows in milk. (10.) Rape is useful 
in early winter, less liable to affect the taste of the milk 
than some other green foods, and a very succulent and 
palatable food. Capable of being mown and brought in 
daily from the field, it is available as a daily food during 
September, October and November, and indeed formed a 
portion of Mr. Horsfall's feeding of his well-managed 
dairy herd. A crop of rape will yield from 10 to 12 tons 
of green food per acre. (11.) Cabbages of various sorts, 
open and hearted, early and late, are liked by cows, and 
may be made to yield a succession of food from May all 
through summer, and on till the end of the year. Land 
yielding successive crops of cabbages may be made to yield 


an enormous weight of food even 40 or 50 tons per acre 
during the season. Not more than half a cwt. a day, 
supplemented with more suhstantial food, should be given 
to a cow ; and care should he taken to remove any spoiled 
portions of the food, which, if consumed, would greatly 
aggravate the disagreeable flavour which, under the most 
careful management, they are apt to give to the milk. (12.) 
Turnips, common and Swedish, are given to cows, the 
former in early winter, the latter on till towards spring. 
They will yield from 10 up to 20, and even 25 tons per 
acre, hut they are faulty, owing to the taste which, without 
special management of the milk, they give to it. Sixty to 
eighty Ihs. of these roots daily, along with an unlimited 
supply of straw, is an ordinary daily ration. These roots 
are less liable to affect the milk if steamed, or even if 
merely pulped : 15 or 20 tons of common turnips per acre, 
and 12 to 15 tons of Swedish turnips, are an ordinary crop, 
but they are liable to so many casualties from weather, 
insects, &c., that no great dependence can be placed on 
them for a small dairy. (13.) Mangold Wurzels are the 
best root crop for winter and spring feeding of milch cows. 
They give a slightly bitter taste to the milk, and their 
extreme succulence as food is not favourable to the richness 
of the milk. Not more than f cwt. should be given daily 
when they are the sole dependence along with straw : and 
a smaller quantity along with richer food is better manage- 
ment in butter dairies. Thirty tons per acre can be grown 
more easily than 20 tons of turnips, and in the following 
spring and summer they are better food per ton. (14.) 
Kohl Rabi, is a hardy and useful crop on dairy farms, 
yielding perhaps 12 or 14 tons of stems, and a useful top 
as well, which cattle eat with relish. (15.) Carrots, 


especially the large Belgian sorts, can be grown with great 
advantage on a dairy farm ; 10 to 12 tons are a good 
ordinary crop. They do not give a disagreeable taste to the 
milk, and are extremely palatable to the cattle. Half a 
cwt. a day might be given along with other food. (16.) 
Parsnips, while not so palatable as carrots, and more 
proper to be given in a steamed or boiled mess, along with 
other food, are even more nutritive, and enrich the milk. 
Of the large Jersey parsnips, 10 or 12 tons per acre have 
been grown. (17.) Potatoes when steamed, if at hand in 
sufficient quantity for such a use, are excellent cow food ; 
and even raw they are sometimes used, but with less 
advantage. (18.) Straw of our various corn and pulse 
crops is used as winter fodder in the cow-yard. Cooked 
bean straw, if the crop has been well harvested and cut 
before it was dead ripe, is nutritious fodder. Pea- straw, 
if free from mildew, is also good food; and clean wheat 
and oat and barley straw is often almost the sole fodder of 
dry cows and young stock through the winter, with a very 
few turnips. If a portion of the straw be cut to chaff, and 
wetted with a hot and salt sort of linseed soup, made at the 
rate of about J a Ib. of the linseed to each of the cattle, 
store stock can thus be kept in very good condition through 
the winter. (19.) Meal of the various grains wheat, 
barley, oats, beans, peas also of linseed and Indian corn, 
is used more or less in cases where rich feeding of dairy 
cows is adopted. Bean, barley, and India-meal are probably 
more commonly used than any other, and the first seems 
especially fitted as food for cows in milk ; a pound or two 
sprinkled in the course of the day over the ration, cooked 
or otherwise, as the cow receives it, is generally well repaid. 
The relative uses of barley meal and malted barley have 


been already referred to. The experience of most practical 
men seems to be in favour of the malt. The only exact 
record of experience on the subject, however, asserts, what 
theory would predict, the superiority, as food, of the 
barley which has not undergone the malting process. 
Linseed, ground or bruised, forms a useful addition to the 
steamed or boiled mess given to the cow. The whole-meal 
of wheat, so long as wheat is no higher than 5s. a bushel, 
ought to displace some of the higher priced foods one has 
been accustomed hitherto to use. (20.) Cakes of our 
various oil-producing seeds, are among the best of cattle 
foods. Linseed cake stands highest on the list, and is the 
most costly. Cotton- seed cake produced from decorticated 
seed, has taken a high place among other cattle foods. 
(21.) Carob leans, a sweet pod eaten with great relish by 
sheep and cattle, is capital food for milch cows. (22.) 
Molasses are sometimes used as food for dairy cows, and 3 
or 4 Ibs. thrown over a mess of cooked chaff and a few 
turnips, induce to larger consumption of comparatively 
unpalatable food. In Dr. Thomson's experiments, molasses 
were proved to be a useful food. (23.) Of all the foods 
used in milk dairies, where cows are fed nearly all the year 
in the byre, nothing equals brewers' grains for stimu- 
lating the production of poor milk: from 2 to 4 pecks 
daily are given to each cow. Gradually mixing a little 
with their ordinary ration, they will ultimately take it 
greedily. Grains from the smaller breweries are believed 
to be the best. They and the waste liquor of distilleries 
are used largely in town dairies. Both, however, diminish 
in value with every improvement in the processes adopted 
for extracting the nutritive part of them in brewing or 
distilling. (24.) Salt should be placed within reach of the 


cow, and a lump to lick at in her manger is perhaps better 
than the direct addition of so many ounces daily in her food. 
We must not forget to mention, what is virtually a new 
source of succulent food in winter, the practice of ensilage 
which has lately been introduced to this country from the 
Continent, and which is being rapidly adopted in many 
districts of this country. Green grass, or rye, or clover is 
packed tightly in pits, and kept there under a pressure of 
1 cwt. or more per square foot of surface, and is found 
at the end of many months in a perfectly palatable con- 
dition for dairy stock, so as to be available all through the 
winter. Mr. Kirby, of Hook Farm near Bromley, has 
fed more than 100 cows during the past winter (1884-5) 
on the contents of his silos, in which mown grass cut the 
previous June had been cut into chaff, and packed and 
pressed. And this is now a not uncommon experience. 
Cows fed on 50 Ibs. of ensiled grass, with some 30 Ibs. of 
grains, and 2 or 3 Ibs. of cake, and as much barley-meal, 
yield abundant milk of admirable quality. When the 
grass is put at once under pressure, planks being placed 
upon it, and some two feet of clay piled on the planks, it 
comes out six months afterwards wet and sour, with a 
smell something between those of the brewhouse and the 
tanyard, but nevertheless very palatable to the cattle. It 
is possible, by allowing the piled grass to attain consider- 
able heat before pressure is applied, to avoid the sour 
fermentation, so that the stuff comes out sweet and with a 
pleasant odour ; and in this condition we should think it 
preferable as cow food. 

The Cropping of Laud for the Cow, notwithstanding 
the variety of foods available for her, is generally a very 


simple matter. Almost all the butter and cheese made in 
this country is made from grass-fed cows, and what there 
is of winter produce comes from hay, or occasionally roots, 
i. e. turnips and mangold wurzel, and straw ; while the 
milk with which our towns are supplied comes from 
brewers' grains, together with cut vetches and clover in 
summer, and hay and mangold wurzel in the winter. 
There is, however, room for a great deal of economy yet 
in the utilising of the dairy farm, by adapting its arable 
part more directly to cow-feeding, and so enabling the 
keeping of a larger stock of cattle. Let us take an instance 
or two of small farms available for dairy management, and 
see how far arable crops enable us to increase the stock of 
dairy cows beyond the " one to every three acres," which 
is the average of our ordinary dairy districts. The follow- 
ing paragraphs describe actual cases in which the advice 
of the writer was applied for : 

(1.) "Hill Side" had 15 acres of poor grass land and 
35 acres of arable land, 5 of which were in sainfoin. Let 
us see how many cows he could keep. The 20 acres of 
grass and sainfoin may be supposed to yield 200 tons of 
green food ; and of the 30 acres of arable land, 20 acres in 
clover, mangold wurzel, carrots, parsnips, and Swedish 
turnips, might produce annually nearly 400 tons; while the 
remaining 10 acres in grain crops would produce, say 15 
tons of straw : 580 tons of food, at 120 Ibs. each per day, 
would keep 26 or 27 cows throughout the year, and the 15 
tons of straw would litter them in winter. This calculation 
is on data which will hold true whether the grass be made 
into hay or not. And the following is a rotation which 
would bring out the quantities and kinds of produce sug- 
gested. It will be seen that the cattle will be much more 


easily kept in winter than in summer. It is for summer 
food that the difficulty will be felt. Let half the sainfoin 
and nearly half the grass land be mown each year, and 
5 acres of the arable land be in clover, to be cut and 
carried to the cattle in the house. The 30 acres of arable 
land may be divided into 6 fields of 5 acres each. 1st 
year, wheat sown with clover seeds ; 2nd year, clover ; 
3rd year, swedes ; 4th year, wheat ; 5th year, mangold 
wurzel ; 6th year, carrots. 

Summer food. Winter food. 

5 acres of clover ... 60 tons. 
5 , swedes .... 100 tons. 





mangold wurzel . . 80 ,, and 80 

carrots .... 30 ,, ,, 30 

sainfoin . . 30 ,, ,, 30 

meadow ... 80 . 60 

280 300 

Of course the 60 tons of grass produce put down to the 
column of winter food is given as hay, but that does not 
affect its valuation as food. Here, then, by so much arable 
produce we might be able to provide daily food through- 
out the year equal to the maintenance of a herd of 20 to 
25 cows on a poor farm of 50 acres. A medium farm of 
50 acres wholly of pasture would not, as a general rule, 
keep more than two-thirds of the stock for which food is 
thus provided. The crops supposed are heavy, but land 
liberally cultivated under such a rotation ought to yield 
good crops. 

(2.) The following is the case of a dairy farm of 35 acres 
of meadow and 25 acres of arable land. The cows are 
stall, box, or shed-fed during winter and during part of 
spring and autumn. Suppose them to be under shelter 


200 days in the year. Each cow must have ahout 8 Ih. of 
litter daily ; she may be kept comfortable with this, though 
it is certainly a scanty allowance ; she will thus require 
14 cwt. per annum, and 25 cows will need about 17 tons a 
year a quantity which may be supposed to grow on 12 
acres, the half of the arable land. 

The arable land, then, may be cropped thus : 

1 acre of lucerne. 

12 acres of grain crop, or 6 of wheat and 6 of oats. 
6 acres (after wheat) 2 of rye, 2 of Italian rye-grass, and 2 of vetches. 

These again succeeded by 6 acres of mangold wurzel. 
6 acres (after oats) 1 of parsnips, and 5 of carrots. 

Of the pasture land : 

18 acres may be mown, and 

17 acres depastured, each year. 

The following, accordingly, will be the produce of green 
food, besides the straw of the 12 acres of grain : 

18 acres of hay, equal to 30 tons of hay ; which may be con- 

sidered equal in green food, to 120 tons. 

18 acres of aftermath, equal to . . . . . . . 60 

17 acres depastured, equal to . . . . . .190 

1 acre of lucerne, equal to . . . . . . 10 

2 acres of rye, equal to ....... 15 

2 acres of Italian rye-grass, equal to . . . . . 25 

2 acres of vetches, equal to . . . . . . .20 

6 acres of mangold- wurzel, equal to . . . . . 170 

1 acre of parsnips, equal to 10 

5 acres of white carrots, equal to 60 

Or, in all 680 tons. 

a quantity equal to nearly 2 tons of green food a day, which 
will keep 30 to 35 cows very well. And the crops may all 


be used in proper season. Beginning with October ; till 
January, the cows will be feeding on grass, carrots, 
parsnips, and hay ; till April, on carrots, mangold wurzel, 
and hay ; till June, on mangold wurzel, rye, rye-grass, 
vetches, and hay ; during summer, on grass in the fields, 
lucerne, &c. The only difficulty will be in getting the 
wurzel after Italian rye-grass and vetches ; this must be 
done by spade ; and if each day, the piece mown be 
manured, dug, and planted with young plants from a seed- 
bed, I do not anticipate much difficulty. In addition to 
this stock, two horses will be kept, and food must be 
provided, or displaced, for them by the purchase of 40Z. 
worth of oats, meal, &c. It is plain that other crops might 
have a place in the scheme. Cabbages which admit of 
transplanting in a forward stage of growth from seed beds 
to any land from which the crop has just been taken will 
~be certain to have a place on such a dairy farm. 

These instances will be considered cases of high farming ; 
and the ordinary experience of dairy farmers, where only 
one cow is kept to every 3 or even 4 acres of pasture, is 
more generally improved upon in a less vigorous way by 
the cultivation of a few acres of roots, so as to economise 
the winter's consumption of hay, render less hay-making 
necessary, and make more acres of the pasture available 
for summer feeding ; thus enabling the keeping of more 
cows on summer feeding of grass, which is the most pro- 
ductive of milk. 

A large produce from the cabbage might be obtained by 
two crops being taken in rapid succession from the same land, 
viz. a crop of an early sort, planted as soon as the mowing 
of the vetches allows the land to be manured and worked ; 
and then a crop of the larger "Drumhead" sort dibbled 


in, as every fourth of the early cabbages is cut in spring, 
leaving the removal of the others to be effected during the 
months of May, June, and as they are required; the 
intervals between the then growing field cabbages to be 
dug and manured as they are thus cleared. Vetches, too, 
will need to be sown in successive patches, in order to yield 
a succession of food during the summer months. The 
difficulty of the autumn months, especially in a dry 
season, may generally be met by having the later cabbage 
crop in readiness ; sometimes, also, by some early sown 



Dairy Breeds : Shorthorns, Suffolk, Jersey, Guernsey, Ayrshire, and Kerry 
Individual Character : Age, Form, Other Characteristics Treatment of 
Cow: Housing, Health, Winter Milk, Diseases, Milking The Calf: 
Rearing and Feeding. 

THE various breeds of cattle known to English agri- 
culture, and their ordinary management, have been already 
described in a Handbook on the Live Stock of the Farm, 
but it is right that such peculiarities of breed, age, and 
individual character should be referred to, as ought to 
guide the choice of the purchaser. 

The Dairy Breeds of Cattle. Of the many distinct 
breeds of cattle cultivated in the United Kingdom, only 
four or five can be enumerated as strictly dairy breeds. 
Among these are the shorthorn, the Suffolk, the Channel 
Island breeds, the Ayrshire, and the Kerry. (1). The 
Shorthorns are more and more the principal dairy breed 
of these islands. In Gloucestershire there was, and still 
is to some extent, a dark red, or brindled cow, of medium 
size, with almost black extremities, though sometimes with 
a streak of white along the back : but it is now becoming 
rare. In Cheshire also there was a native breed more or 
less resembling the Lancashire and midland counties long- 
horned breed ; but either by substitution or by crossing, 

D 2 


the Yorkshire cow, essentially a shorthorn, is displacing 
it. This therefore is at present peculiarly the milk-pro- 
ducing breed of the country. In the midland counties the 
long-horned hreed does indeed still retain its place in dairy 
herds, and yields well enough to justify its retention. 
Elsewhere the Devon, a much smaller animal, yields hut a 
small quantity of milk ; the Hereford, an animal of nearly 
equal size, is also deficient in its yield, and in neither of 
these counties does the prevalence of a peculiar breed 
produce anything like a general dairy husbandry. The 
London milk dairies are thus almost exclusively of this 
short-horned Yorkshire cow, and excepting Suffolk, Ayr- 
shire, and the Channel Islands, it is extending more or 
less into every dairy district of the country. It has the 
advantage over all other sorts, that its calves make more 
valuable oxen, and its cows, after five or six years' milking, 
are more easily turned into beef. The milk, compared 
with that of other smaller breeds, is remarkable rather for 
quantity than quality, and therefore it is adapted either for 
direct consumption, or for the production of cheese, rather 
than of butter. For this reason, while taken for town 
dairies, and for the cheese-producing districts, the Ayrshire 
or the Channel Island sort are preferred by those who 
merely wish a home supply of dairy produce for the 
house. Good shorthorn cows are now offered for sale in 
almost every considerable market in the kingdom. The 
northern fairs, however, as those of Yarm, Northallerton, 
Darlington, and Newcastle-on-Tyne, furnish the best 
choice. The fairs of Northampton, Boston (Lincolnshire), 
Stow-in-the-Wold (Gloucestershire), are also noteworthy. 
The best young cows just calved are worth from 20Z. to 
25Z. apiece : prices, however, varying from year to year. 


(2.) The Suffolk, a hornless red breed, is of great excel- 
lence for the dairy. Like all good dairy animals, its cows 
are narrow and small before, compared with the develop- 
ment of the hind-quarters. They are good milkers, and 
as the Suffolk dairies are mostly managed for the produc- 
tion of butter, the milk is of tolerably good quality. 
The Suffolk breed yields probably a larger quantity of 
milk in proportion to its size than any other in the 
island, and it deserves therefore more attention, as 
furnishing suitable animals for small home dairies, than, 
except in its own district, it has received. The polled 
Suffolk cow is purchasable at almost any of the fairs in 
Suffolk and the adjoining counties. 

(3.) The Jersey and Guernsey breeds, in which, faults as a 
fattening animal, and merits as a milk producer, generally 
both in an exaggerated form, are combined, are the 
favourites of the small or household dairy. The great, 
almost deer-like beauty of the head, and indeed, in well-bred 
Jersey cattle, of their whole form, makes it an ornament 
to the park ; the unequalled richness of its milk enables it 
to meet a demand for cream ; and its small size makes it 
at once less mischievous in winter in the field, and more 
easily managed in the house. The quality of its milk is so 
good, that not unfrequently one (or more) of this breed is 
kept even in large dairies, where the large-framed York- 
shire cow forms the majority of the herd, for the sake of 
the enrichment of their produce by the mixture of its own. 
The best fair at which to purchase Channel Island cows is 
that held on Trinity Monday at Southampton. Sales by 
auction are, however, almost weekly advertised in the 
London papers, where these, and other imported breeds, 
are offered. The price reached is 20 guineas, and higher, 


for a well-bred young cow. The fawn-like Jersey has an 
equal rival in the yellow and white Guernsey, a larger 
cow, yielding as much or more milk of an equal quality, 
with a frame and character hetter calculated either to carry 
heef or to admit of crossing with other heef-producing 
breeds. Mr. Hosley, of Audley End, near Saffron Walden, 
has lately published the results of three years' records of 
dairy yield in Lord Braybrooke's Jersey herd. The average 
yield of cream over the entire herd in 1882, 1883, and 
1884 has been 15*5, 15*8, and 14'7 per cent, of the milk 
respectively ; the highest in any cow was no less than 
33-0, 32'0, and 32*5 respectively. The yield of butter from 
milk varied from 54- to 17 J ounces per gallon in different 
cows, the average being 9, 9 J, and 8 J ounces per gallon over 
the whole herd in the three years ; the milk to a pound of 
butter on the average was 7, 6-J, and^7J quarts in 1882, 
1883, and 1884 respectively ; and the total yield of milk 
we have already reported as varying from 750 to 3600 
quarts per annum. It is plain that a breed, of which this 
is a possible record, must possess the very highest dairy 

(4.) The Ayrshire, though too small for the productive 
pastures of our English dairy districts, and involving, 
owing to the greater number that must be kept on a given 
extent of ground, more labour than the larger dairy breeds 
there prevalent, is one of the most useful dairy animals we 
have. It possesses more perfectly, perhaps, than any other 
sort, the external features which a good dairy cow ought to 
exhibit, and withal, it displays a greater aptitude to fatten 
than other small dairy cattle generally have. It yields 
a remarkable quantity of excellent milk, which, if less rich 
than that of the Guernsey or Jersey cow, is better adapted 


for cheese-making. It is generally short-horned, red and 
white, small boned, and with light forequarters. Good 
Ayrshire cows are to be obtained at all west of Scotland 
fairs and markets. The best bred animals have a "fancy" 
price, and as much as 18Z. to 20Z. are asked for good 
young cattle in milk. 

(5.) The Dutch, a large black and white breed, large 
horned and somewhat ungainly in appearance, is now in 
great repute both in this country and America for their 
large yield of milk, which, however, is of poor quality. 

(6.) The Kerry breed of cattle are remarkable for their 
small size, and comparatively with it their large yield of 
extremely rich milk. This character they possess in 
common with other small and mountain breeds of cattle. 
The Anglesea breed, for instance, a small race of black 
cattle, are spoken of as deserving more attention for the 
dairy than they receive. And the small Breton cow is 
another of the same class, which is being imported in 
considerable numbers for household dairy use. None of 
these small breeds are, however, comparable with the 
Ayrshire, the Suffolk, or the Channel Island cow for such 
purposes, and still less can they compete with the two 
first named, or with the shorthorns, for use on large 
dairy farms. 

Age and individual Character. It is these, of course, 
and chiefly these that must guide the purchaser of 
a cow. The breeds that have been named will guide a 
choice, simply because in them individual character does 
receive, to a certain extent, a classification. Thus, the 
characteristics of a cow embrace such particulars as size, 
docility, form, aptitude to fatten, and proved productiveness 


as to milk ; but the cows of any given breed more or less 
resemble one another in all these points, and a reference 
therefore has been made to those particular breeds in 
which, as regards fitness for the dairy, the combination of 
all these qualities is best. It is, however, the actual 
possession of these characters in the individual, and not 
its belonging to a dairy breed of acknowledged excellence, 
that constitutes its merit ; and it may be well, therefore, 
to point out those particulars with which excellence for the 
dairy is generally connected. (1.) As to age* there is 
nothing more unprofitable than an old cow. In the 
ordinary practice of the dairy, the cow is kept probably five 
or six years in milk, being sold when eight or nine years 
old ; this is the general practice, simply because at that 
age the quantity, and especially the quality, of her milk 
falls off so much, that it is better to replace her with a 
younger animal ; but as a cow is sometimes of such first- 
rate quality as to induce her owner to keep her as long as 
she will breed, so oftentimes it is well to part with an 
inferior cow after a year or two's experience of her. The 
cow is generally at her prime after her third calf. In 
Ayrshire, when cows are let to dairymen, three heifers 
with their first calf are put as equal to two cows. (2.) As 
to form, a good cow, of whatever size, is generally 
lighter in her forequarters than behind ; she should be 
especially wide and deep at the loins, her skin should 
handle soft, her udder should be of full size, and the teats 
should be placed symmetrically on it, and it should be 
ascertained that they are all perfect that the cow has not,. 

* For indications of age, and many other particulars not specially called 
for in a Handbook of Dairy Husbandry, see ' ' Handbook of the Live Stock 
of the Farm" (Messrs. Bradbury and Agnew.) 


as it is said, lost any of her " quarters." * The milk veins 
in connection with the udder should he prominent and large. 
The head should he rather long and narrow, and the neck 
rather thin than otherwise ; the extremities generally 
should he fine. (3.) Among other characteristics of a 
good dairy cow, quietness and docility of temperament is a 
point of capital importance. A notice here, too, may he 
given of what is regarded generally as a curious specula- 
tion, rather than as having any certain foundation in ex- 
perience. M. Guenon, of Bordeaux, has professed to he ahle 
to determine the quantity of milk which a cow will yield, 
and the numher of months during which she will maintain 
that yield, hy an examination of certain local marks on the 
thighs and hinder part of the animal. The notion is, that 
cows are good milkers in proportion to the extent of 
surface on the thigh, and backside generally, which is 
covered hy reversed hair. The farther upwards, and the 
wider there, that this surface of upward growing hair 
extends, the hetter is the cow as a milker. An attempt 
is made to connect this " escutcheon," as it is called, 
surface with the arterial arrangements for the supply 
of blood to the milk- secreting apparatus within the udder ; 
hut M. Guenon's theory, such as it is, does, we believe, 
depend simply upon the alleged observation of good milk- 
ing qualities in animals which exhibit this peculiarity in 
a remarkable degree. The late Mr. Haxton in his book, 

* This would really constitute a loss of one-quarter of her milk ; for the 
udder is not a bag from which the teats are four common outlets for the 
fluid it contains. Each of these outlets has connected with it a separate 
apparatus for the secretion of milk ; so that, on the one hand, if one fail 
or be diseased, wholesome nourishment for the young may still be obtained 
from the others ; but so also on the other, that the loss of a teat is equal 
to a real loss of one-fourth the milk-producing ability of the animal. 


entitled, " How to choose a good Milk Cow," * declared that 
his own examination of many dairies, expressly for the 
purpose, led him to the conclusion, that M. Guenon's 
marks of a good milk cow are really trustworthy. 

Treatment of the Cow The proper treatment of the 
cow in milk, which has heen separated from its calf, 
consists simply in giving it suitable food and water at 
regular times, allowing it sufficient exercise for its health, 
keeping it clean and warm, and milking it properly and 
regularly. The subject of food has been already suffi- 
ciently discussed, and the necessity, especially when 
comparatively dry food is given, of an ample supply of 
water being allowed, has been insisted on. Where the 
animal is house-fed, it should be fed on succulent and dry 
food alternately, and at least three times a day, allowing 
ample intervals for rumination. In any case she should 
be allowed access to a pasture or a yard for exercise during 
the middle of the day in winter, and early and late during 
summer. But it is of course much the better plan, where 
possible, to have daily access to the pasture field for food 
as well as exercise all round the year. (1.) The coiv-house 
may be a mere shed with a trough along its inner side, 
and upright posts every 6J feet or thereabouts, carrying a 
sliding ring and neck strap, by which two cows are attached 
each to its place ; this shed should be open to the south, 
and be partly closed against the weather by wattled gates, 
or otherwise, in winter. Or it maybe a series of "boxes," 
which may be 9 feet square, or, 8 feet by 10, in which the 
cow remains during the winter season, being littered daily, 

* Blackie, Glasgow. 


rising in her lair by the continual addition of the hard 
trod straw and excrement. The trough in this case 
must be capable of being raised as the floor of the box 
rises, and if it be hung on two pins at each end between 
two uprights bored every three inches or so to receive these 
pins, this raising can be easily effected ; and there will be 
this additional advantage, that by withdrawing the upper 
pin at either end after the food has been consumed, the 
trough will turn over bottom upwards, so as to hinder the 
cow from dirtying it. If the cow be confined permanently 
in this way, water must be " laid on " to troughs to which 
the cows have access. Much the most common cow-house, 
however, is that in which a double row of cows is tied in 
couples to a long manger at either side, leaving a wide 
interval in the centre enabling the easy removal of the 
dung and the easy bringing in of litter. A sufficiency of 
this for warmth and cleanliness must be provided ; 10 to 
15 Ibs. a day apiece will be needed in the boxes : rather 
less will suffice for stalls. Except in box-feeding, the dung 
should be removed at least every morning and evening, and 
fresh litter supplied at night. It is an additional security 
for cleanliness, and a comfort and advantage to the animals, 
if they are occasionally curry-combed. The cows stand in 
couples between posts 6J feet apart, and the lair, wide 
enough to give ample standing room when the cow is feeding 
at the manger, should have a wide gutter along its 
further edge to receive the dung and urine. In all cases 
ample space and sufficient ventilation should be provided, and 
at all times, of course, kind and gentle treatment must 
be insisted on. An animal so sensitive as a cow, whose 
produce is dependent so much upon its health and even 
temper, abundantly rewards quietness, and punctuality, and 


liberality of treatment. On the subject of patience and 
gentleness in dealing with the cow, it may be well to add, 
that they are especially needed in dealing with a heifer 
rearing her first calf, and just commencing to be milked. 

(2.) Health. The cow goes with young 9 months and a 
week, or thereabouts. Of 760 cows, whose period was 
observed by Lord Spencer, 600 calved between the 279th 
day and the 291st day, and the births were pretty evenly 
distributed over the intervening period, reaching a maximum 
about the 284th day. 314 cows calved before the 284th 
day, and 310 cows calved after the 285th day ; and it is 
noteworthy that a larger proportion of bull calves came at 
late births, and a larger proportion of cow calves at the 
earlier births. Thus of 381 calves dropped after the 284th 
day, 233 were males and 148 females ; and of 294 calves 
dropped before the 284th day, 135 were male and 159 were 
female. On the whole, the number of males produced by 
this very large number of cows was considerably above that 
of females. 

Of abortion it must suffice to say, that while sometimes 
owing to ill-health at the time of its occurrence, it is 
probably often produced by eating ergotted grass in autumn ; 
and as a security against this it is well to let the cows run 
rather on aftermath at that season than on imperfectly 
grazed pasturage where bents and seed stems of various 
grasses are generally found exhibiting the ergotted condi- 
tion.* In the ordinary practice of our dairy districts, 

* Ergot is a diseased state of the seed of rye and certain grasses a mal- 
formation of growth, owing to the attack of a parasitic fungus. It is a 
popular belief, generally ridiculed, however, that the keeping of a donkey 
or a goat with the herd will hinder this slipping of the calf. It is possible 
that a preference of this animal for the drier bents liable to ergot, may be 
at once the explanation and the justification of this belief. 


where it is desired that the cows be in full milk, and their 
calves all, or nearly all, weaned by the time they turn out 
to grass, it is common to let the bull run with them from 
the end of May, or thereabouts. Winter Milk. When 
a constant supply of milk, required whether for the 
market or for merely home use in a household, is 
to be supplied continuously throughout the year, it is 
necessary either to have a summer and a winter cow, 
by giving them access to the bull in summer and in 
winter respectively, or to change the cow at a considerable 
loss, when she begins to dry, for one more recently calved. 
The cow should be let dry at least six weeks before calving, 
and two months is a better time. Simply ceasing to milk 
it is sufficient for this purpose. If you give it somewhat 
drier food and less water for a few days, the secretion of 
milk soon ceases ; but if any swelling or inflammation of 
the udder ensues, hot fomentation is a sufficient remedy. 
The parturition of the cow takes place generally without 
the need of any assistance, but in case of difficulty a 
properly qualified practitioner must be called in. Before 
calving, and immediately afterwards, the cow should 
be carefully nursed, and receive warm mashes twice a 
day with her usual food ; and these are made simply by 
pouring boiling water over bran a peck or thereabouts at 
a time letting it remain until cold enough to give it as 
food- Steamed turnips may be mashed up with it, and a 
pint of oatmeal mashed in will make it still more nourishing. 
In calves the "hask" or " hoose," a cough produced by 
worms in the windpipe, is prevented by good water and 
sufficient food ; and may possibly be cured by limewater, 
" half a pint daily," or turpentine in linseed oil, " one 
ounce in four, once a week." This should be taken along 


with entire change of food, as, for instance, removal to old 
sainfoin in an upland district. Quarter-ill is another 
disease of young animals, producing almost sudden death, 
often owing to sudden change of food or exposure to cold. 
It is best prevented by uniform treatment as to feeding, and 
warm and comfortable housing. Hoven, in which the 
stomach is distended by the gases produced during 
imperfect digestion, is the consequence of greedy or rapid 
feeding on succulent food. An ounce of hartshorn in a 
pint of water will greatly relieve ; if not, the left flank is 
sometimes stabbed downwards between the hip bone and 
rib, and the gases liberated a "trochar," leaving a 
" canula " in the wound allowing the passage of the gas, 
being used for the purpose. Purging in calves is generally 
treated by a dram or two of carbonate of soda given 
in warm milk, which helps to dissolve the indigestible 
curd in the stomach. Two ounces of mutton fat dis- 
solved in a quart of warm milk is sometimes given to 
a calf thus affected, with good effect; in cows, chalk 
and opium are the remedies. Redwater is a disease 
of the liver, accompanied by scouring, and dark-coloured 
urine ; the medicine should contain calomel and Epsom 
salts. The drop after calving, a paralysis, is to be pre- 
vented by allowing the cow sufficient exercise, and keeping 
her in good health before calving. The foot and mouth 
disease is accompanied by sore feet and blistered mouth. 
The mouth should be washed with alum- water and treacle, 
and the cows should be carefully nursed, and fed if neces- 
sary on linseed mashes, gruel, and other soft food. Pleuro- 
pneumonia, an infectious disease of the lungs, may possibly 
be cured if taken at the earliest symptom, commencing as 
it generally does with " a little short cough, and staring 


coat." In addition to medical treatment, good nursing 
and linseed mashes as food are required. Diseases of the 
skin, as mange and lice, are to be avoided by cleanliness 
and curry-combing, also by good feeding, which keeps the 
animal in vigorous health, and able and willing to clean 
itself ; and they may be cured by thoroughly rubbing in 
tobacco- water. When owing to any wound or disease in the 
teat blood appears in the milk, the teats should be well 
fomented with warm water, milked with gentleness, and 
the following ointment afterwards applied to them, 
"Palm oil 3 ozs., yellow wax 1 oz., acetate of lead 2 drs., 
alum 1 dr. To be well incorporated together, and applied 
daily after milking." Warts on the udder, which are 
often a great nuisance, are removable " simply by the 
knife or cautery, or ligature when the cow is not in milk." 
It must suffice to add here, that for these short notices, 
the value of most of which has been verified in our own 
experience, we are indebted to Mr. W. C. Spooner ; and we 
conclude as we began, by advising that, except where mere 
nursing will suffice, the veterinary surgeon be consulted. 

(3.) Milking. On the right performance of this opera- 
tion depends a good deal of the produce which it obtains. 
It should be effected gently, quickly, and perfectly the 
first because everything that soothes the animal is bene- 
ficial, the last both because the milk-secretion is thereby 
unchecked, and because the last-drawn milk is much the 
richest. The whole subject, however, was so well treated 
in a paragraph which appeared some years ago in the 
Ayrshire Agriculturist, that we extract it here : 

" The milking of cows resolves itself naturally into two 
heads, viz., how to milk, and when to milk. If every drop 
of milk in the cow's udder be not carefully removed at each 


milking, the secretion will gradually diminish in propor- 
tion to the quantity each day left behind. But another 
reason why every drop of milk should be taken away is to 
be found in the well-known fact, that the last milk is 
doubly as good as the first milk hence, if not removed, 
there is not merely equal, but double loss. Milking should 
be conducted with skill and tenderness all chucking or 
plucking at the teats should be avoided. A gentle and 
expert milker will not only clear the udder with greater 
ease than a rough and inexperienced person, but will do so 
with far more comfort to the cow, who will stand pleased 
and quiet, placidly chewing the cud, and testifying by her 
manner and attitude that she experiences pleasure rather 
than annoyance from the operation. Cows will not yield 
their milk to a person they dislike or dread. The ordinary 
practice is to milk cows twice daily at about 5 o'clock in 
the morning, or in winter as soon after daylight as possible, 
and again at the same hour in the afternoon, thus leaving 
12 hours' interval between each milking." 

It should be added, that cleanliness in milking should 
be observed the hands should be clean and the udder too. 
In practice the milkers wash their hands, but not the 
udder of the cow ; and a clean milker, that is, one who 
does not wet his hands with the milk when milking, will 
milk a dry udder without dirtying the milk, even though 
the udder be not clean. In large dairies milking lasts 
about an hour each time, and 8 or 9 cows are allotted to 
each man. 

The Treatment of the Calf, when intended for veal 
or for beef, has been already to some extent discussed.* 

* See Handbook of the Live Stock of the Farm. Bradbury, Agnew, & Co. 


When the heifer calf is reared for dairy purposes, less 
forcing food is required and even desirable. Ample exer- 
cise, too, is necessary. The rules to be observed are to give 
the milk, whether it be new or skimmed, of the natural 
temperature, to be obtained by warming a portion of it 
before mixing with the rest ; and perfectly sweet ; to take 
care that calves are brought into shelter at night, at least 
till June and again after September, and to keep them few 
together in the field. After a few days they are fed from 
the pail, by getting them to suck the fingers under the 
surface of the milk ; giving them at first two quarts a-piece 
in the morning, and two quarts a-piece at night ; and it is 
well to tie them up for the purpose, and to let them 
remain tied up for twenty minutes or more after being fed, 
else they take to sucking and plaguing one another. A 
little hay in a network bag is hung here and there in the 
calves' house, that they may learn to suck and eat it. 
During the first winter, a little hay is given along with 
turnips and mangold wurzel and a little bit of oilcake daily 
benefits them. The ensuing summer is spent in second 
year's clover, or old sainfoin as pasture, and in the case of 
the more precocious breeds, they are often put to the bull 
at sixteen months old. They are fed during their second 
winter on a full allowance of roots and straw with a morsel 
of good hay or oilcake in addition. To keep up a herd of 
dairy cows, about one fifth their number of heifer calves 
must be reared each year ; these are almost invariably 
selected from the calves of the herd, the remainder being 
sold as soon as possible after birth. If, however, it be 
desired to rear heifer calves for sale as young cows, it is 
good policy to purchase them from the best dairies, even 
though you pay 3L a-piece for what elsewhere would not 


cost one half as much. Taking them in succession, 
a couple at a time, and eking out with hay tea, and meal, 
and linseed, ten calves may very well be reared in the course 
of the season on the milk of a single cow. It is well to 
leave the calf with its mother for a week or two in the case 
of young cows ; they are better milked by their young ; 
and if carefully stripped in addition at least once a day by 
hand, are likely to yield more milk, and to yield it more 
easily in the future than if the calf be taken early from it, 
as it may from older cows. 

It is proper that mention should be made here of the 
various artificial calf foods, by Messrs. Bowick, Messrs. 
Bibby, and other manufacturers, by which the use of milk 
in calf feeding may be economised, and by which skim 
milk may be enriched. Ample experience exists of their 
efficiency for this purpose : and of the saving which they 
enable the farmer to make. The use of hay tea, too, has 
long been known as a great help in economical calf rearing. 



Composition The Dairy The Taste of Milk Adulteration. 

The Composition of Milk Milk is essentially an 
emulsion of oily matters in a water containing albumen 
and casein (cheese) and a sugar in solution. Its oil floats 
in it in the form of globules, varying from -aoVo th to T-oW^h 
part of an inch in diameter. If the milk be kept at rest, 
these globules will rise to its surface and form a coating of 
oream in which, along with still a portion of water holding 
various substances in solution, they form a fluid which 
upon being violently agitated, thus rupturing the globules 
and enabling them to unite, separates into the butter 
which these form, and the " butter-milk," containing 
water, casein, sugar, &c., which they leave behind. The 
composition of milk, in so far as these buttery globules are 
concerned, is ascertained in a rough way by an instrument 
called a lactometer or lactoscope. In one form it consists 
of a glass tube five inches long, held upright in a frame 
and graduated downwards in a scale dividing the contents 
below the zero mark into 100 parts. On being filled up 
to the zero mark and left at rest the mechanical separation 
of the buttery globules (cream) takes place, and the 
quantity of this cream in lOOths of the whole quantity of 

E 2 


milk may be read off upon the scale by the thickness of 
the layer which it exhibits. A series of such tubes in a 
frame are needed for comparing in this way the milk of 
different cows. 

Another instrument, for the same purpose, depends for 
its indications on the fact that opacity of milk depends 
upon the corpuscles of fatty matter which are suspended 
in it, and that consequently the more cream it contains the 
greater will be the obstacle opposed to the passage of light. 
It consists of two tubes, one of which may be pushed into 
the other like the joints of a telescope, and the end of each 
tube is closed with glass, so that when milk is poured into 
the outer tube by a small opening on the side, by pushing 
in the inner tube, a layer of milk of any thickness may be 
obtained. The apparatus is placed on a stand, and the 
value of the milk is estimated by the thickness of the 
layer of it through which the light of a small wax 
taper at a fixed distance can be observed, the value of 
the milk being in the inverse ratio of the transparency ; 
for the larger the amount, of fat present, the greater, of 
course, will be the opacity. The thickness of the layer 
of milk is measured by a scale on the instrument, and a 
table sold with it shows the percentage of cream to which 
it corresponds. 

These and other devices are expedients for determining by 
mere observation the relative quality of different samples of 
milk. For the exact determination of its composition a 
tedious process of analysis is required, on being subjected 
to which it is shown to consist of casein, butter, sugar of 
milk and water, besides soluble and insoluble mineral 
matters. The quantities of these in a sample of milk 
vary very considerably. 



The milk of different animals varies in composition, 
as will be plain from the following table. 









100 parts. 











Casein . 











Butter . 











Ash. . 
Water . 








6-081 5-28 
0'34 0-58 
91-65 86'bO 


} 89-6 

Total . 







100 'CO 1 100-06 



Of these analyses, 1 and 4 are by Dr. Lyon Playfair ; 3 
is the average of 2 analyses by Haidlen ; 5 is the average 
of 5 analyses by Peligot ; and 2, 5, 7, 8, and 9 are by Henry 
and Chevallier. 

As regards the milk of the cow, it differs in composi- 
tion, as has been already said, according to the breed, age, 
and food of the animal. It also varies exceedingly ac- 
cording to the period since the birth of the calf. Thus, 
the first- drawn milk produced during the labour and excite- 
ment of parturition contains an extraordinary quantity of 
casein, and is otherwise different from ordinary milk ; no 
doubt naturally beneficially so to the young in the first day 
or two of its life, during which time the milk not used by it 
and drawn from the cow is unfit for any other use, and is 
thrown to the pigs' trough. If this "colostric " condition, 
as it is termed, of the milk be prolonged, the purgative 
effect, beneficial at first, which it produces on the calf, 
becomes injurious. Too generous feeding after parturition, 
we are informed by Professor Simonds,* tends to the 

* Vol. XIX. of the Journal Eng. Agr. Soc. 


maintenance of this relaxing condition of the milk. And 
he also remarks that a period of rest from milking before 
the next birth is necessary in order that time be given to 
the milk- secreting organs for the provision of the material 
to which the altered state of the milk is then due. How 
very much the milk is thus altered, is shown by analyses 
by Henry and Chevallier, who found in the first milk of the 
cow, ass, and goat respectively 15' 1, 11*6, and 24 '5 per 
cent, of casein : differing enormously from the figures given 
above. The following table gives the results of numerous 
analyses of ordinary cow's milk : 


in 100 













4'22 4-0 
4-92 4'6 









Sugar . 
Ash . 





4-35| 2-79 
591 -52 









87-02 87-19 






Of these, No. 1 is the average of 10 analyses, by 
Boussingault, of milk from cows about 200 days after 
calving, and fed upon the whole on rather poor rations. 
No. 2 is the average of 8 analyses, by Playfair, of autumn 
milk, from a shorthorn cow, whose period of calving was 
not known ; she was fed on rich food. No. 3 is another 
by Playfair, "the average of several analyses taken when 
the cow was in the field." No. 4 is an analysis by Henry 
and Chevallier : 5 is by Dr. K. D. Thomson * of milk 
from grass-fed cows ; and 6 is the average of two samples. 

Thomson on the Food of Animals. Longman. 

MILK. 55 

of remarkably poor milk supplied to the union workhouse, 
Belfast. Nos. 7 and 8 are examples of rich and poor milk 
respectively quoted in a recent lecture by Dr. John A. 
Voelcker ; 9 is an analysis, at Giessen, by Haidlen ; and 
10 is the average of 12 analyses, at Bechelbronn (Alsace), 
by Boussingault.* 

These tables, together with the intimation that casein, 
the essential matter of cheese, is soluble in alkaline solu- 
tions, and is so held dissolved in milk that the butter of 
milk is a compound of several oily matters of different com- 
position, and produced in various proportions, according to 
such circumstances as the food and the temperature of the 
period that the sugar of milk is capable of transformation 
by the mere re-arrangement of its elements into a substance 
having acid properties, and therefore called lactic acid 
that this re-arrangement is effected by almost any disturb- 
ance of a chemical nature, such as the presence of a ferment 
itself in process of decomposition that, in fact, any sub- 
stance in contact with it, undergoing chemical transforma- 
tion, acts as a ferment on it, so that decaying matters in its 
neighbourhood, and air carrying filthy odours, the product 
of such decay, are thus ferment enough for the purpose 
that the curd of milk itself, in the presence of warm air, 
thus undergoes such chemical transformations, and be- 
comes a ferment that rennet, itself a ferment [the word 
may stand, whatever theory of its action be adopted], deals 
with the solvent whatever it is by which the casein is held 
dissolved in the milk so as to release the latter, which re- 
sumes its form as curd insoluble in water : These par- 

* For 1, 9, and 10, see Boussingault's "Rural Economy." Others 
are taken from the Journal of the Agr. Soc., and Johnston's Lectures 
on Agr. Chemistry, and Dr. Thomson on the Food of Animals. 


ticulars must for the present suffice on the suhject of the 
composition of milk. 

The preservation of milk in its natural composition, and 
therefore in its sweetness, may he effected hy heating it in 
"bottles or metallic vessels up to the boiling point, and then 
closing them hermetically. The air is thus expelled to 
which the chemical changes involved in the souring of 
milk are due ; and, moreover, the curd which under the 
influence of air acts as the disturbing ferment, loses for a 
time, until again exposed to air,* its power of entering on 
these chemical changes after being raised to the boiling 
temperature. In this way milk is made capable of becom- 
ing an article of commerce, and will be acceptable as a 
drink after months of keeping. Condensed milk which is 
milk subjected to evaporation so that more than one-half 
of water is dissipated, and the whole reduced to a thickened 
glutinous mass, to which in some cases sugar has been 
added is now largely manufactured, and is especially 
serviceable for use on shipboard, where it will keep fresh for 

For the period during which milk is kept for the separa- 
tion of its cream, its sweetness is to be maintained simply 
by keeping it cool and in perfectly clean vessels and per- 
fectly clean air. It is in this way that we avoid the opera- 
tion of all external ferments, and hold in check the chemical 
alterations which they promote, to which the souring and 
other injurious changes in the condition of milk are due. 

The Dairy. In order to keep milk sweet, and for the 
proper management of the processes which its manufactured 

* So that repeated heating of milk, nearly to the boiling point, at inter- 
vals of 24 hours, or thereabouts, will keep it sweet, though it be exposed 
to air during those intervals. 

MILK. 57 

products undergo, certain rooms must be set apart 
expressly for the purpose. The milk-room should be cool, 
for the reasons just stated ; and a somewhat sunken floor, 
a shaded or thatched roof, and an aspect to the north and 
east are therefore desirable. 

In it there are shelves on which the vessels to contain 
milk are to be arranged. The shelf and the floor are better 
of stone than of wood, as being less absorbent of anything, 
whether milk or dirt or damp, which may act as a ferment. 
The room should be away from any drain or dungheap ; it 
should not be near any store of food, whether the larder of 
the house or the feeding- stalls of the farmery. The air 
which enters it should, if possible, be free from the taint 
which any such neighbourhood more or less produces. The 
drier, toft, the air is, the better : and therefore it is better 
that a dairy be kept clean by keeping out the dirt, by 
rubbing and by brushing, than by washing. Practically, 
however, the floor and shelves of the milk-room are kept 
clean by washing. By strict attention to cleanliness and 
ventilation, and by as far as possible excluding a summer 
temperature, those causes which tend to the souring of 
milk are excluded or held in check. And so it is made to 
yield good butter, and good cheese. 

The Taste of Milk is affected by the food of the 
cows, and in its turn is communicated to the butter and 
the cheese made from it. In the latter case, if it can be 
artificially removed, this must be done before the curd is 
set : in the former case the attempt at removal is some- 
times made after churning has been done. In both, how- 
ever, it is best to attempt the removal of the aroma from 
the milk. It occurs in the milk of cows at pasture, some- 


times when the buttercup is in full bloom, or when wild 
garlic has been eaten. It is, however, a more general 
difficulty during winter time, when cows receive turnips, 
cabbages, and mangold wurzel. In all cases, the best 
method is to attempt by heat to dissipate the aroma. This 
is to some extent possible, by cooking the food to which 
the taste is owing : a mess of steamed turnips and bean- 
meal, and oatmeal and linseed will produce perfectly sweet 
milk. But if after milking, it be found to possess the dis- 
agreeable taste, then if it be placed in hot water and 
allowed to steam for half an hour or so before placing it in 
the vessels in the dairy, the taste and smell will in great 
measure leave it. The following are among the devices 
our correspondents have adopted for the more thorough 
expulsion of the taste. 

No. 1 has found chloride of lime very effectual to'remove 
from butter the taste of turnips, or any other bad flavour. 
A drachm of it to every expected pound of butter is put 
into the water of the second washing, after it is taken out 
of the churn, and the butter well but rapidly kneaded in it. 

No. 2 says : Do not feed your cows with turnips until 
they have been previously milked, by which means the 
animal has twelve hours to get rid of the flavour of the 
vegetable. Good hay must also be given in sufficient 
quantity. Great cleanliness must be maintained not only 
in the dairy but in the cow-house. No stale pieces of 
turnip should on any account be allowed to remain in the 
manger, which should be cleaned out before feeding. 

No. 3 says : We had cows on grass last year, and their 
cream and butter had an acrid taste in the spring-time. 
We had about a dessert- spoonful of saltpetre dissolved in 
water, and put into every gallon of milk before it was 

MILK. 59 

churned, and a small bit of common salt was put into the 
milk-pan when the milk was brought in from the cows. 
The cream was put to stand in boiling water for half an 
hour, and frequently stirred while the water cooled before 
it was churned. Ultimately we had good butter, but cer- 
tainly not till after this season of the year had passed. 

No. 4 recommends, that as soon as the milk is brought 
into the dairy (warm from the cows), there should be poured 
into it half a pint of boiling-water to every gallon of milk ; 
cover it over with a cloth four times doubled for half an 
hour ; then strain and pour it into milk dishes to stand for 
cream. The cloth will absorb the steam and entirely re- 
move any unpleasant taste. 

No. 5 has occupied a farm of 500 acres, and kept a large 
dairy of cows, and never had the taste of turnips in the 
butter. The application of hot-water and steam, at different 
times, to the milk and cream, entirely took away all flavour 
of the turnip. 

No. 6 says : My butter is made from the milk of cows 
fed, morning and evening, on swedes : the only precaution 
adopted is that the cream, before being placed in the churn, 
should stand in a room with a fire, and raised to the tem- 
perature of 65 Fahr. 

No. 7 says : If you collect so many gallons of cream 
before churning, put that number of half pints of vinegar 
into. the jar to begin with, and churn when the usual quan- 
tity is collected. 

No. 8 makes a strong solution of nitre, and adds a 
dessert-spoonful of it to every two gallons of milk as it is 
brought in from the cow. 

No. 9 says : My cows were fed last winter on mangold 
wurzel cut into shreds with a Moody's (Frome) turnip- 


cutter, and mixed with hay and straw-chaff. The butter 
was made twice a week, and was good in flavour, but 
crumbled. In the spring I was able to add rape to the 
above food, the butter immediately changed to a good 
texture, and improved in flavour ; this change I attribute 
to the oily nature of the rape plant. To this it may be 
added that there are many testimonies to the fact that 
pulping roots before giving them to cows does tend to dissi- 
pate their disagreeable aroma, and so to insure good milk. 

No. 10 recommends the preventive system it is better 
than the curative. If cows eat old and decayed grass in the 
meadows you cannot have good butter; if they get at 
strong- scented herbs the butter will partake of the smell ; 
if the cream is mismanaged before and during churning, 
you must not expect pleasant butter ; if your cows are too 
stale milked, the butter will be rancid. If cleanliness and 
attention to the diet of the cows be looked to, cases of 
failure will be very rare. 

No. 11 asserts that turnip-milk will not keep so long as 
grass-milk, but gets rancid ; and this is increased by the 
practice of keeping the churn near the fire in winter, which 
is sometimes done. 

No. 12 says : When the cream is in the churn, and the 
proper temperature gained (57), I put in a little chloride 
of lime mixed in a little water. Of course the quantity 
depends upon its pureness, and also upon the degree of 
taint. I put as much as will lie upon a sixpence to three 
gallons. One or two trials will ascertain the proper quan- 
tity. Too much gives a disagreeable flavour, a little im- 
proves it and gives a sweet nutty taste. 

No. 13 has given his milch cows for fifty years turnips 
regularly in the winter, and both milk and butter have 

MILK. 61 

been perfectly good. The turnips are swedes or Aberdeen 
yellows, and lie takes them up in October and carefully cuts 
off every bit of leaf and root, and stacks them in a dry 
cellar in his cow-yard ; if every bit of leaf be not carefully 
cut off it will taint the milk. 

No. 14 says : Let the dairymaid, before going to milk 
her cows, place on the fire her kettle filled with water ; and 
on her return to the dairy with the new milk, add to every 
gallon of milk a sixteenth, or half-pint of boiling water ; 
stir both a minute or two, and after a short interval pour 
them out into the lead, earthenware, or (as the case may 
be) glass bowls. I practised this method the whole of last 
winter (and am doing the same now), when my cows had as 
many swede turnips as they could eat, and not the slightest 
trace of the turnip flavour can be discovered. The water 
must be boiling when added, or the experiment fails. 

As an additional cause of distaste in milk, we refer to the 
so-called "bulling" of the cows, a periodical excitement, 
which disturbs the whole system, and seems to be the only 
explanation possible of some cases of bad milk and butter, 
especially of those which occur when the cows are first 
turned out to grass after calving. 

Adulterations of Milk are confined to admixtures of 
water, or of portions of skim-milk. Adulterations of these 
kinds are still not uncommonly practised, as the records of 
our police courts abundantly testify. Under recent legis- 
lation all sales of food are presumed to be under the 
inspection of qualified analytical officers ; and of milk, as 
of other articles, analyses are continually being made when 
there is reason to suspect dishonesty, under which any 
abnormal poverty of milk is immediately detected. And 


when the quality, either as regards the percentage of cream 
or of total solids, is found to fall beneath a certain very 
moderate standard, the seller is liable to fine by the magis- 
trate. Apart, however, from direct addition of water, the 
most general cause of the inferiority of town milk no doubt 
exists in the quality of the food. When grains and dis- 
tillery wash are the main feeding they receive, the milk is 
poor, altogether apart from adulterations. 

The mention above of the Inspector and Public Analyst 
reminds us of the . Butterine, Oleo-margarine, and other 
artificial substitutes for butter and for cheese, which cer- 
tainly, however, are no part of English dairy husbandry, 
and cannot, indeed, be sold as dairy produce without a 
breach of the law. We do not propose to describe the 
processes by which milk, deprived of its cream, and re- 
enriched by the addition of oils and fatty matters obtained 
from the fat of beef, is made to produce an artificial butter 
or an artificial cheese. These manufactured articles are, 
however, when cleanly made, perfectly wholesome food; 
and butterine, especially, is largely imported into England 
from Holland and America and is being more and more 
consumed in this and other countries. 



Composition Cream Churning Implements for the Butter Dairy. 

The Composition of Butter varies somewhat with the 
method of its manufacture. If made from whole milk or 
from scalded cream, it contains more cheesy matter than 
if made from cream in the ordinary way, And this is an 
important matter, not only as affecting its taste, but also 
as affecting its keeping properties, for it is to this cheesy 
part, and its activity as a ferment, that the tendency of 
butter to decay is chiefly owing. But the composition of 
butter also varies to some extent with the circumstances 
of its manufacture. Its essential part consists of various 
kinds of fatty matter, liquid and solid, and it is largely on 
the feeding of the cows, and the temperature of the weather, 
&c., that the proportion of these several oils present in the 
butter, and its consequent firmness or softness, depends. 
The following are among the published analyses of 
butter : 






Pure Fats .... 




Casein .... 









Essentially, butter is composed of solid and liquid fats, 
margarine and elaine, and in addition to these oils, there 
may be present in very small and varying quantity, a 
number of other substances, of fragrant, or, some of them, 
of fetid odour. They are derived from changes produced 
in the sugar of milk and in the oils of butter processes 
accompanied by the absorption of the oxygen of the air 
which are excited and maintained by the presence of the 
cheesy part of the butter, which is here most liable to be 
acted on by ferments, just as it is in milk itself. 

Cream forms a proportion of milk, varying according 
to the richness of the whole fluid, and the poorness of the 
remainder. And there are as many proportions between 
the one and the other as there are instances in which the 
point has been ascertained. 

The following is from a correspondent in Gloucester : 
20 quarts of milk in hot weather yield If quarts of cream, 
or about 9 per cent.; and one-fourth more, or 11 per cent., 
in colder weather. In Mr. Williams' dairy, Co. Cork, the 
average of the year's milk produced 12 per cent, of cream 
12 pints of cream and rather more than 5 Ibs. of butter 
per 100 pints of new milk. The average yield of Mr. T. 
Scott's English dairies, quoted some years ago before the 
Agricultural Society, was 1 quart of cream for every 12 
quarts of milk, or little more than 8 J per cent, of a cream 
yielding 15 ozs. of butter per quart. In Mr. Horsfall's 
dairy, to which reference has already been made, the cream 
did not exceed 6J per cent, of the milk. 

Some of the differences thus observed are no doubt 
owing to original differences in the quality of the milk ; 
but this last case is due to an extraordinary density of the 


cream obtained; for the milk was of at least ordinary 
quality, while the cream was so rich as to yield 25 ozs. of 
butter per quart, the ordinary yield being not much more 
than half that quantity. These differences depend, as has 
already been said, on differences of breed and of individual 
character ; on differences of the period after calving when the 
samples have been examined ; and on differences of feeding. 

The quantity of butter obtainable from milk, except 
when the whole milk is churned, depends, other things 
being equal, upon the perfect separation of its cream. To 
this end the milk is poured through a hair sieve for the 
separation of any hair or other dirt, into vessels, where it 
stands some four inches deep; and after standing 12 hours 
it is skimmed by a thin almost flat tin dish, containing 
holes through which milk flows easily, and cream with 
difficulty. It may be skimmed a second time in the same 
way after another 12 hours, the milk after the first 
skimming being shifted into clean pans and set there for 
the next ; or the milk may be, and very often is, left 24 or 
even 36 hours before being skimmed, and then it may be 
either skimmed, or the milk is drawn off beneath it either 
through a plug, if it be a shallow leaden cistern, or 
through a syphon if it be of glass or earthenware. 

Probably the greatest quantity of milk in this country 
is set for cream in leaden cisterns about 4 or 5 inches 
deep : the next commonest pan is of brown earthenware, 
white inside, some 21 inches across at top, and 4 inches 
deep or thereabouts, and a foot or more wide at bottom. 
Vessels of tinned iron of similar shape are also commonly 
used for the purpose. Glass milk-pans are now much in 
vogue ; exceedingly clean, as dirt is so much more easily 
seen on them ; they are more brittle than the earthenware. 


The late Mr. Duncan, of Bradwell, near Stony Strat- 
ford, told us : " When I first took to dairying on a large 
scale, I laid out 20Z. in glass pans. On further acquaint- 
ance with them, I have come to the conclusion that they 
are the cheapest things (even at 4s. each) that a farmer 
can use ; for they are washed, and wiped, and kept clean 
with 300 per cent, less trouhle than 'leads.' My glass 
pans are ahout 20 inches in diameter : I do not like larger 
ones. They hold ahout 5 quarts each." 

Besides these several materials, stone cisterns or vessels 
cut out of what are called milk stones in Derbyshire, or 
out of common slate, are in use in some dairies. 

As to the asserted differences ^ in the yield of cream from 
milk set in different kinds of pans, that must arise if the 
milk in each was of the same depth, from their influence 
respectively on the temperature of the milk. 

Butter-making. There are wide differences of manage- 
ment recently introduced into English dairy management 
from ahroad. In the " Cooley " system milk is set in cylin- 
drical vessels in ice-cold water ; and there is thus an im- 
provement in both the quantity and quality of the cream and 
in the rapidity of its separation. By means of the centri- 
fugal separator cream is taken more thoroughly from the 
milk, as well as more immediately, than in any other way ; 
and the quantity and quality of the butter are improved. 
To revert to ordinary management, however, let it be added 
to the above, (1) that each day's skimming, or, rather, 
the cream separated at each operation, at whatever 
interval it be taken, is commonly placed in the cream- 
crock, a vessel which may be of earthenware or tin ; 
(2) that at each addition to the store in this vessel, and, 


indeed, the oftener the better, the whole is mixed up 
together by means of a wooden stirrer kept there for the 
purpose ; (3) that when the last skimming of the milk is 
accomplished, the remainder of skim-milk is either placed 
together in a large wooden tub, whence it is drawn for 
sale, or where it is set for cheese, either by itself or added 
to the whole milk of another meal, or it may at once be 
placed among the store of food for the pig ; and (4) that 
as soon as the vessels are emptied in which the milk has 
been set for cream, they are to be well washed and dried 
and placed ready for the reception of the next meal of 
milk ; the washing being done first with warm water, and 
then with swillings of cold water in the case of glass, 
earthenware, or tin and with water and wood-ashes 
scoured to and fro over the surface, and abundant swillings 
with cold water in the case of leaden cisterns. This com- 
pletes the case of milk and cream management under the 
ordinary plan. 

In Devonshire the milk is set for cream in tinned 
vessels or pans of iron or brass, of more than the common 
depth of milk-pans ; and after 12 hours' standing or more, 
these are placed upon a furnace till the first steam is seen 
in blisters under it, after which they stand till the milk is 
cool, and then the cream is collected with a skimmer in the 
usual way, or it may be even lifted with the hand. It is 
kept thereafter in the cream-crock for a few days, or until 
enough is gathered, when butter is easily made from it by 
" flapping " it, as it is called, with the hand in a tub for 
about ten minutes or less. In some cases these tin vessels 
are never moved when full of milk, but placed upon the 
horizontal flue of a furnace which serves as shelf. After 
12 hours' standing the fire is lighted, and the milk heated 

F 2 


until the cream blisters, when the fire is withdrawn and 
the milk cools, and in another 12 hours is ready for the 
separation of its cream. 

The best maxims for the guidance of the butter dairy 
which have yet been published are those given in the tract 
entitled " Hints on Butter-making," * by Mr. H. M. 
Jenkins, the Secretary to the Koyal Agricultural Society 
of England, of which extracts are here given : 

Clean all dairy utensils. 

Cool the milk directly it is brought into the dairy, by 
placing the cans in a running stream, or by any other 
available method. 

Set the milk, at a temperature not exceeding 55, in 
glazed earthenware or tin pans. 

Skim the milk carefully with a perforated tin saucer 
after it has stood twelve hours, carefully taking cream 
unmixed with milk. A second skimming of cream, twelve 
hours afterwards, should not be added until immediately 
before churning, and the most delicate butter is made with 
the first skimming only. 

Keep the cream, until the time for churning, in the 
coldest place available if sweet-cream butter is to be made ; 
but if sour-cream butter for keeping purposes is to be 
made, the cream should be gently warmed to about 64 
Fahr., and the souring process commenced by the addition 
of a little sour cream or buttermilk. Sweet-cream butter 
is better for immediate consumption, as fresh butter, but it 
does not keep well, and the percentage of butter obtained 
from a given quantity of sweet cream is 3 to 4 per cent, 
less than from the same quantity of sour cream. Covered 
earthenware or tin vessels should be used. 

* "Hints on Butter-making." Published at 12, Hanover Square, London, 


Churn the cream at a temperature of 57 to 60 in a 
Tevolving barrel or a midfeather churn, fitted with a spigot. 
The more simple the churn the better, because it is more 
easily cleaned. The churning should be done with regu- 
larity, at the speed which experience recommends. 

Ventilate the churn frequently during the first ten 
minutes by removing the ventilating peg for a few seconds. 

Listen attentively to the sound of the cream, and when 
it changes in the least degree stop the churning, and 
ascertain whether the butter has come, and if it is in 
globules no larger than a pin's head, withdraw the butter- 
milk. To avoid loss, pass the butter-milk through a hair- 
sieve, which will retain any particles of butter that may 
-escape with the butter-milk, and return them to the churn. 

Wash the butter thoroughly with cold water by half 
filling the churn, giving it three or four turns and then 
withdrawing it in the same way as the butter-milk. 
Repeat the washing until the water comes out of the churn 
as clear as it was when it was put in. 

Take out the butter with a pair of wooden patters or a 
hair-sieve, and do not touch it with the hand. 

Press out the water still in the butter by passing it 
under a kneading board, or by working it gently with the 
wooden patters. Care should be taken not to destroy the 
4t grain " of the butter by careless or superfluous working. 

The butter " comes " first, as we have said, in flakes and 
particles, which are washed, as already stated, by successive 
additions of cold water; and at length, becoming united 
by the continued revolution of the beaters, form lumps, 
when churning may be stopped. These lumps are taken 
out by wooden patters and pressed together. The rule 
now is to avoid handling it directly, but till lately the dairy- 


maid having previously well rinsed her hands and arms in 
cold water, and rubbed them with a little salt, placed the 
whole mass either in a pan of cold spring water to harden, 
or when no washing had been allowed, in a shallow empty 
wooden vessel. In the latter case the butter was repeatedly 
kneaded with the thick part of the open hand, and the 
butter-milk separated by this pressure, and mopped up as 
it appeared, with a canvas cloth which should be constantly 
wrung dry. On the thorough separation of this butter- 
milk depends a good deal of the keeping and sweetness of 
the butter ; and though it involves more labour, it can be 
done in this dry way by perseverance in kneading and 
beating it with the cloth, and then mopping up the milky 
liquid. The whole process is, however, now accomplished 
by a revolving kneading apparatus referred to in a following 
paragraph. When washed, the milk can with less labour 
be equally well separated ; but excessive washing of butter 
certainly separates some of that to which the fulness of its 
flavour is due. If the churning is done too rapidly, the 
buttery parts sometimes are not sufficiently viscous to 
cohere, and the butter assumes a granular texture, which 
renders it difficult to mould. The same fault sometimes 
arises in the case of cream from the milk of cows that have 
long calved. After a sufficient kneading or washing with 
cool hands, finely powdered salt is added to it, according to 
taste, certainly not more than 3 or 4 ounces per stone, and 
well mixed with it by the hand ; the whole is then divided 
out in half pounds, and made into rolls, lumps, or prints, 
as the case may be. 

In the curing of butter, the object is to bring every 
particle of the caseous ferment, present more or less in 
all butter, into contact with salt, or sugar, or substances 

BUTTER. / 1 

of that class, and so check its own tendency to decay, and 
its consequent action on the butter itself. It is important, 
therefore, to bring about the entire and thorough mixture 
of the salt with the butter. 

We may add here the following recipe for "boiled butter," 
a form in which butter is preserved in Piedmont : " Into 
a clean copper pan (better, no doubt, tinned) put any 
quantity of butter, say from 20 to 40 Ibs., and place it 
over a very gentle fire, so that it may melt slowly ; and let 
the heat be so graduated that the melted mass does not 
come to the boil in less than about two hours. During 
all this time the butter must be frequently stirred, say 
once in five or ten minutes, so that the whole mass may 
be thoroughly intermixed, and the top and bottom change 
places from time to time. When the melted mass boils, 
the fire is to be so regulated as to keep the butter at a 
gentle boil for about two hours more, the stirring being 
still continued, but not necessarily so frequently as before. 
The vessel is then to be removed from the fire, and set 
aside to cool and settle, still gradually; this process of 
cooling being supposed also to require about two hours. 
The melted mass is then, while still quite liquid, to be 
carefully poured into the crock or jar in which it is to be 
kept. In the process of cooling there is deposited a 
whitish cheesy sediment proportioned to the quantity of 
butter, which is to be carefully prevented from inter- 
mixture with the preserved butter." This is taken from 
Dr. Forbes' Physician's Holiday (Murray) : he states 
further that some add a little salt in the boiling. 

Lastly, when butter becomes rancid, it seems, from the 
experience of a Belgian agriculturist, quoted in the Agri- 
cultural Gazette, to be .possible to remove the bad smell 


and disagreeable taste by beating or mixing it in fresh 
water with chloride of lime. The operation consists in 
beating the butter in a sufficient quantity of water, in 
which put " 25 or 30 drops of chloride of lime " to 2 Ibs. 
of butter. After having mixed it till all its parts are in 
contact with the water, it may be left in it for an hour or 
two, and afterwards withdrawn, and washed anew in fresh 
water. Another correspondent recommends that the butter 
should be kneaded with fresh milk, and then with pure 
water. He states that, by this treatment, the butter is 
rendered fresh and pure in flavour as when recently 
made. He ascribes this result to the fact that butyric 
acid, to which the rancid odour and taste are owing, is 
readily soluble in fresh milk, and is thus removed. 

Churning (1.) In those cases where whole milk 
is churned for butter, the churn is a fixture. It is 
an upright somewhat conical vessel, made so, however, 
only in order to secure the tightness of its hooping, 
and it is of various dimensions, from three feet and 
upwards in height, and from fifteen inches in dia- 
meter, according to the quantity of milk to be treated. 
This milk is churned when about three days old, 
varying according to the weather, being first -allowed 
to cool and then placed in large wooden vats to become 
sour. The practice is to place it in coolers, as in ordinary 
dairies, until it has acquired the temperature of the air, 
thereafter to pour it into large wooden vats capable of 
holding two meals at a time, where it sours ; and if churn- 
ing is done twice or three times a week, to put into the 
churn all the milk which has become sour, whether it 
be sixty, forty-eight, or only twenty-four hours old ; 


never, however, putting sweet milk into the churn along 
with the sour, as if milk becomes sour by churning, 
or otherwise' than in the natural way, the buttermilk soon 
becomes rancid and unsaleable, whereas the butter-milk 
from milk soured naturally retains an agreeable and sale- 
able quality for a much longer time. The milk in summer 
is churned at the natural temperature; in winter hot 
water is poured in with it till it is raised to 65 or 70. 
In winter, too, when cows are fed on turnips, the milk is 
poured at once into the churn and allowed to sour there ; 
and, being hindered as much as possible from cooling, and 
afterwards heated by the addition of hot water, or by the 
insertion for a time of a tin vessel full of hot water, the 
butter does not retain the taste of the turnip. The 
churning commences and is carried on for three hours, 
a regular stroke of the plunging float-board being an 
essential part of the process, and a rate of forty to 
forty-five strokes per minute being maintained. This 
regularity is attained by the use of steam or water power, 
it being in the case of the larger churns too laborious for 
manual labour. The after-management of the butter, 
when it has "come," is the same whatever method of 
churning is adopted. 

Whatever churn is adopted, it is washed out first with 
scalding water, and then with cold water before using 
it. .The cream in winter is raised to a temperature of 
55 to 60 by the addition of hot water ; or, as in some 
churns is possible, by standing the whole apparatus in a 
tub containing water of that temperature. A common 
plan is to let cold water stand in the churn for an hour 
before using it in summer, and to let hot water stand in 
it for some time in like manner in winter. 


Churns of very many kinds are made. The up- 
right churn has heen already named. The "barrel churn, 
in which the cream fills one half or more of a horizontal 
cask slung in a framework, provided with shelves project- 
ing from the inside half-way towards the axis, and the 
whole turned slowly with the handle. The hox churn, 
in which the vessel holding the cream is stationary, and the 
churn is agitated hy a revolving series of heaters arranged 
around a horizontal axis, is very common. 

Implements for a Butter Dairy. They must he 
provided in quantity sufficient for the largest daily yield of 
milk throughout the year. Twenty-five cows may he sup- 
posed likely, during the height of the season, to yield 100 
gallons a day, and when milk is left only 24 hours to set 
up cream, this will need 50 square feet of surface, 4 inches 
deep, or as this is rather deep, say 60 square feet of surface 
of cistern, or more, if vessels with sloping edges be used 
in which to place it for cream : nearly 3, therefore, of the 
ordinary vessels would he needed for every cow. Now, 100 
gallons would, in the course of 24 hours, throw up 10 
gallons of cream, and if the churning is done twice a week, 
a 30-gallon churn, working 15 gallons at a time, and used 
twice on churning days will suffice; 5 or 6 cream crocks of 
earthenware, or vessels of tin, capable of holding 4 gallons 
a-piece, will be needed to hold the cream. A flat butter 
tub in which to make the butter, and scales and butter prints, 
will be needed for making it up, and clean maple butter 
boards, if there be no marble slab, for placing it on in the cool 
dairy until it is sold. Besides this, of course pails for taking 
the milk, 3 will suffice for 25 cows, and a sieve through which 
to pour it into the pans, will be needed. For a small dairy, 


as of two cows, much smaller provision is required. A 
single pail, a hair sieve, half a dozen glass milk vessels, 
two earthenware cream crocks, each capable of holding a 
couple of gallons of cream, an American box churn, or one 
of any other make, capable of churning 3 gallons at a time, a 
butter tub, prints, butter scales, &c., are all that is needed. 
The various appliances now in use in large butter dairies 
include many implements and machines unthought of 
a few years ago. A refrigerator (Lawrence's) presents 
double vertical corrugated surfaces, over which the milk 
trickles from above, and is collected below, being made cool 
by cold water passing upwards between them and escaping 
at top. The immediate cooling of the milk is necessary 
when it is despatched by railway for consumption at a 
distance ; and it is desirable at all times and in every case. 
Fixed barrel churns, vertical or horizontal, with axles 
carrying flappers ; barrel churns revolving on horizontal 
bearings, carrying flanges from the circumference inwards, 
which lift and dash the contents as the whole revolves ; 
revolving barrel churns, cylindrical or hexagonal, the axis 
of motion being arranged somewhat diagonally, which 
gives an additional emphasis and complicity to the dash of 
the contents as they revolve, and has the advantage of a 
special position of rest, which enables the drawing off of 
the contents without risk end-over-end churns in which 
the axles or bearings are placed transversely to the length 
of the barrel, whose contents are flung from end to end as 
the whole revolves horizontal oscillating churns, in which 
the cream is thrown first to one end and then the other of 
a suspended cradle with somewhat less violence than in the 
other case : All these are so many methods by which the 
cream is made to yield up its butter ; and it is understood 


now that no torture or violent rapidity of movement is 
required for this purpose that the texture of the butter 
ultimately is rather injured than otherwise hy what may be 
called a destructive violence or rapidity of movement. The 
butter being removed, as already said, is dealt with by a 
worker, which in all its many forms is essentially just a 
deeply corrugated cylinder made to press and roll over the 
butter on the table, where it is submitted to this kneading. 
The machine which has produced and will produce 
the greatest change of practice in our butter dairies is the 
centrifugal cream separator. Of this, too, several forms 
exist, all of them acting by a substitution for the force of 
gravity in separating the cream, which is the lighter 
portion of the contents of the milk, the action of a centri- 
fugal force which can, of course, be raised beyond that of 
gravity to any extent by increasing the velocity of revolu- 
tion. The whole milk as brought from the cow pours 
continuously into an enclosed flattish cylindrical vessel, 
capable of holding 2 or 3 gallons. This revolves from 
3,000 to 6,000 times a minute, and the water of the milk 
carrying curd and sugar in solution, flies to the outer rim 
of the revolving mass, the cream collecting in the centre ; 
and each, as the whole milk continues to pour in, passes 
into the tube properly placed to receive it, and is delivered 
at its separate exit: a rich thick cream pouring from 
one, and the poorest skim-milk veritable " sky-blue " 
pouring from the other. Skim-milk may thus be had 
" fresh from the cow; " and it will no doubt command the 
value which really belongs to it as food, now that it can be 
had unspoiled, as hitherto it has been, by the know- 
ledge that it is 36 or 48 hours old, and is on the eve of 
becoming sour. 



Composition Curd Various Cheeses : Gloucester, Cheshire, Dunlop, Cheddar, 
Derbyshire, Lancashire, Stilton Utensils of the Cheese Dairy. 

The Composition of Cheese depends, of course, upon 
the mode of its manufacture. The following analyses of 
actual specimens by the late Professor Johnston may 
still be accepted as trustworthy; and they probably still 
represent average quantities of the several cheeses 
named : 

Ingredients per 




North Wilts. 


1st Spe- 

2nd Spe- 



Water . . 







Caseiii . / 







Butter . . 







Saline matter . 













The quantity of butter present, to which the richness of 
the cheese is due, depends, first, on the quality of the 
milk, next, on its cream being all retained when it is set 
for curd ; and, lastly, on the process of manufacture being 
conducted so carefully, that the curd" shall retain its 
butter, none of it being allowed to escape with the whey. 


The Formation of the Curd is effected by any agent 
which will set the casein of the milk free from the solvent 
"by which in fresh milk it is held in solution. And the 
subsequent treatment, which it receives in the processes 
of cheese-making, has for its object simply the separation 
of this water, together with the addition throughout it of 
such a quantity of salt as may check any tendency of the 
curd to decay. The artificial ferment used is called rennet. 
A calf's stomach, called a " veil," either with or without its 
content of curdled milk, is salted and packed away for 
months, with others, in a jar. "Water which has stood 
upon it, after this, is rennet; and a certain portion, varying 
according to the exact recipe of its preparation, from half 
a pint upwards, is added to, say, 100 gallons of the milk 
to be " set." 

Notwithstanding that a general definition of the process 
may be given in these terms, yet upon the niceties of the 
various recipes adopted in the preparation and use of this 
rennet depends much of the varying quality of the cheese 
produced by it. In practice, these prepared " veils" 
are purchaseable of the grocers in all cheese-making 
districts, who keep them in a salt pickle. They are pur- 
chased a year old or more, in winter, at the rate of about 
two for every cow, that quantity being used according to 
Gloucestershire practice in the preparation of the rennet 
needed by the milk which each cow will yield. These veils, 
according to one method, being delivered in a wet state, 
are placed in a saturated brine, 6 to every 2 gallons, and a 
30 to 40-gallon cask (old olive jars are very suitable) is 
prepared at once. The liquid is ready for use in about 
2 months, and it improves with age, unless diluted by the 
addition of more brine, in which case fresh veils must 


be added to it. In other cases a piece of a dry veil is 
soaked overnight in half-a-pint of water, and this is the 
rennet used on the morrow. Latterly a prepared essence 
is being used in preference to home-made rennet, with, it 
is said, more uniformity of result ; for on the quality of 
the rennet as well as on other things the resultant cheese 
depends. Veils vary considerably in size. Irish veils 
weigh from 6 to 8 ounces each, and the numbers specified 
are to be taken as applying to those of average weight. 
For details of their use we must refer to the detailed 
account, given in the following paragraphs, of the several 
methods of cheese-making. 

The Accommodation needed for Cheese - making 

varies in different districts. Everywhere, however, the 
same instructions as to cleanliness are of course impera- 
tive. In Gloucestershire a room on the north side of the 
farmhouse serves for holding the milk, whether set in 
pans on shelves for cream, or in the cheese-tub on the 
floor for curd. Here too are the leaden cisterns in which 
the whey stands, a foot deep, for cream, and from which, 
after skimming, it drains away to the pig's vault. On the 
north side of this room is a paved shed, in which churning 
is done, and in which vessels are placed to dry ; and at one 
end of this shed is a wash-house (with the well close by), 
with furnace and boiler, in which milk may be warmed, 
and where the vessels are washed. In addition to this, 
there is a cheese-room, generally a loft over the dairy ; but 
forjhot summer weather a detached and cool airy place is to 
be preferred. Here on the wooden floor and on wooden 
shelves the cheese are placed almost close together and 
turned repeatedly, until ripe for sale. 


Gloucester Cheese -making. Under ordinary manage- 
ment, the Gloucester cheese is made twice a day. The 
morning's milk is heated or cooled to about 80 in one 
or more large vessels of from 80 to 100 gallons : a pint 
and a half or {hereabouts of rennet is added to every 
100 gallons : in an hour's time or so, when the curd has 
set, the curd-breaker, a wire sieve, fixed on the end of a 
pole, is slowly and repeatedly drawn hither and thither 
through the mass, the whey is baled out, the curd is 
pressed by the hand, crumbled fine, and placed in a cloth 
and in the cheese vat under a press for 12 hours ; it is 
then salted and turned, and again put under the press. 
It is kept there as long as there is press-room for it, and 
afterwards transferred to the dairy shelves, where it is 
turned at intervals, and where it gradually ripens. The 
whey baled out of the curd-tub stands and throws up a 
cream, from which an inferior butter is made. The less the 
quantity of cream that rises, the more of course is the 
butter left in the cheese ; and the more gentle the manage- 
ment of the curd and the removal of the whey, the less is 
the quantity of this cream that rises on it. 

Keevil's patent curd machine, now largely used in 
the county, consists of a cylindrical tin vessel, which is 
used as a cheese-tub, with a drainer up the side from top 
to bottom, through which the whey escapes, and with a 
revolving frame of vertical and horizontal wires, by which 
the curd is systematically broken. 

It needs, after the curd has set, that a few cuts through 
it with a knife be made, else this revolving framework of 
wires will carry the whole mass of curd with it, which will 
thus escape without being cut ; after this, the revolving 
wire cutter is pushed round with extreme slowness ; and 


gradually the mass of curd is thus systematically reduced 
to little fragments, and sinks, and the clear green whey is 
drawn off through the strainer. It has been separated so 
gradually, that it throws up little or no cream on stand- 
ing, and therefore it at once goes to the pig's vault. 
Keevil's machine is a fixture on the dairy floor ; it is con- 
nected with an outside hopper, through which the milkmen 
pour the contents of their pails, and thus they never enter 
the dairy. It may he a jacketed vessel, and thus receive 
hot or cold water around it for the regulation of the tempe- 
rature of its contents. This or other similar machines 
has long been adopted in Gloucestershire, with, we under- 
stand, satisfaction to those who have broken through the 
ordinary practice of the district by employing it. 

Cheshire Cheese-making requires the use of a milk- 
house, where the evening's milk is placed to cool, a dairy 
where the cheese-tub stands, into which the morning's 
milk is at once poured, and where there is a furnace and 
boilers for scalding the whey and for boiling water ; where 
also the cheese presses stand and (if there be no drying 
house) whence the cheeses, after pressure, are finally 
removed to the cheese-room or store. The cheeses vary in 
size from \ cwt. upwards. 

Cheese is made only once a day, and in small dairies 
sometimes once only in two days ; a cool place in which to 
keep the milk is therefore indispensable. The rennet used 
in Cheshire dairies is made fresh from the veils each day. 
Two bits of 2 or 3 square inches are cut off them, and 
put into half a pint of warm water the day before use, 
along with a tea-spoonful of salt, and this effusion is the 
rennet, and suffices for 50 or 60 gallons of milk. The 


following may be taken as the ordinary history of a 
Cheshire cheese : The cows are milked at night, and the 
milk poured through a sieve into tin pans on the floor of 
the milkhouse. This milk is skimmed in the morning, and 
then poured into the large tub where the curd is " set." As 
the morning's milking proceeds, the pailsful are brought one 
after another and poured through the sieve into this tub. 
A pan of milk, containing more or less, according to the 
quantity whose temperature is to be raised sufficiently high 
by the addition of it, is warmed by floating in a boiler in 
the dairy ; and, when sufficiently hot, the whole of the cream 
just taken is mixed with it, and the whole thus warmed is 
poured at last into the tub, which thus contains the whole 
milk, cream and all, of both " meals." The temperature 
of the milk when well mixed should be about 75 Fahr. 
The liquid colouring matter, " annatto," about half a gill, 
dissolved in half a pint of warm water, is added to the 100 
or 120 gallons which may be then in the tub as the produce of 
40 cows a half-handful of saltpetre may be thrown in with 
a view of correcting the bitterness which is to be detected 
while the butter-cups are in full leaf ; and the rennet, about 
a pint of brine, in which two or three little bits of the 
prepared calves' veils have been steeped over night, is added 
to the milk, which is then left for an hour covered up till 
the curd has fully formed. It is then cut slowly with a 
wire curd-breaker, and the curd sinking, the whey is baled 
out ; the curd is collected and squeezed both by hand and 
the direct pressure of a weight above a board placed upon 
it, and the last of the whey being removed, it is lifted 
either into a basket or into one of the large Cheshire 
cheese vats (" thrusting tubs "), pierced with holes for the 
further escape of fluid the lower part being a wooden 


cylindrical vat, and the upper a tinned cylinder slipping 
into it as the curd on pressure sinks. After a certain 
pressure in this form, the curd is removed and cut 
and broken by hand or by a curd mill, and from 1 to 2 Ibs. 
of fine salt is scattered over it, according to the weight of 
the cheese ; about 1 Ib. to every 40 Ibs. of cheese is a 
common quantity. The whole curd being then rebroken, 
is refilled into the vat, into which a cheese cloth has 
previously been placed. It is then put gradually under 
pressure, which after the second or third day amounts to 
many hundredweights upon each cheese. 

Every day the cheese is turned and wrapped in fresh 
cloths ; and on the seventh or eighth day of this treatment, 
or as soon as dry, it is removed to the loft and there 
swathed around with strong girthing, and placed on a 
bench. By and by it is laid, still swathed as before, on a 
layer of straw on the floor of the room, and there it lies till 
from ten weeks to four months old, when it is ready for 

In some dairies, in order to the perfect extraction of the 
whey, skewers are used on the first day to pierce it, being 
thrust repeatedly into it through the holes in the cheese 
vat, in order to the formation of drains for the liquid. The 
whey is heated in a boiler ; some drainings from the cheese 
of the previous day, commonly called " thrustings," are 
added to it ; and after a first skimming some sour butter- 
milk is thrown into the boiler, and then the heat raised to 
180 Fahr., when it iss kimmed again. By the first skim- 
ming a cream called " fleetings " is obtained, yielding a 
very good butter; and by the second, a substance used 
principally for feeding calves ; the whey is afterwards given 
to the pigs. Excepting a portion of the cream used in the 

G 2 


house, and that which thus comes from the whey, the 
Cheshire cheese is a whole-milk cheese, and as rich, there- 
fore, as any that is made. 

The use of colouring matter does not in any way improve 
the cheese, nor add to its value, and in many dairies it is 
altogether discontinued. 

The Dunlop Cheese-making differs from the Cheshire 
in the use of stale rennet, as in Gloucestershire ; in the 
greater heat, 85 or 90 Fahr., of the milk when the rennet 
is added a tablespoonful to every 20 gallons and in the 
consequent extreme rapidity of the setting of the curd, 
which is ready for cutting in a quarter of an hour. The 
curd is put up in cheeses of 28 to 36 Ibs. weight ; they 
are whole-milk cheeses, made night and morning in dairies 
of sufficient size ; and where enough milk is not provided at 
one meal, then, as in Cheshire, the evening's milk, after 
being skimmed, is heated to the requisite temperature, and 
with the cream is added to the morning's meal ; and the 
whole is set for curd at the temperature stated. Dunlop 
cheeses are of a fat and mild tasted character. Their 
management after the setting of the curd is very much the 
same as that of Cheshire. 

Cheddar Cheese-making differs from that already de- 
scribed, chiefly in the scalding of the curd ; which is done 
by heating a portion of the whey, and letting the curd 
remain in it for a considerable time at a temperature even, 
above the natural heat of the milk. The following is a 
description of the dairy management of the late Mr. Harding, 
at Compton Dando, Somersetshire. The milk is poured from 
the pails through a sieve into a receiver outside, from which 


a pipe conveys it through the wall to the cheese-tub or to 
the coolers. A canvas bag is also placed over the inside 
end of the pipe, so that a douhle precaution is used against 
impurities entering with the milk. 

The rennet is prepared by steeping perhaps five veils at 
once, and this usually suffices for two weeks, in which time 
about 21 cwt. of cheese may be made. 

Immediately after the morning milking, the evening and 
morning milk are put together into the tub. The tem- 
perature of the whole is brought to 80 by heating a small 
quantity of the evening milk. After the rennet is added, 
an hour is requisite for coagulation. At eight o'clock the 
curd is partially broken, and allowed to subside a few 
minutes, in order that a small quantity of whey may be 
drawn off to be heated. This whey is put into a tin vessel 
and placed in a boiler in an adjoining apartment, to be 
heated in hot water. The curd is most carefully and 
minutely broken, and then as much of the heated whey is 
mixed with it as suffices to raise it to 80, the temperature 
at which the rennet was added. Nothing more is done to 
it for another hour. 

A little after 9 o'clock a few pailfuls of whey are drawn 
off and heated to a higher temperature than at 8 o'clock. 
The curd is then broken as minutely as before, and after 
this is carefully done, an assistant pours several pailfuls of 
the- heated whey into the mass. During the pouring in of 
the whey the stirring with the breakers is actively con- 
tinued, in order to mix the whole regularly, and not to 
allow any portion of the curd to become overheated. The 
temperature at this time is raised to 100, as ascertained 
by the thermometer, and the stirring is continued a con- 
siderable time, until the minutely broken pieces of curd 


acquire a certain degree of consistency. The curd is then 
left half an hour to subside. 

At the expiry of the half hour the curd has settled to the 
bottom of the tub. Drawing off the whey is the next 
operation. The greater proportion is lifted in a large tin 
bowl, and poured through a hair sieve into the adjoining 
coolers. As it runs into the leads it appears to be very 
pure. When the whey above the mass of curd is thus 
removed, a spigot is turned at the bottom of the tub, and 
the remainder is allowed to drain off, which it does very 
rapidly without any pressure being required. To facilitate 
this part of the work the tub is made with a convex bottom, 
and the curd is cut from the sides of the tub and placed on 
the elevated centre. It is carefully heaped up, and then 
left for an hour with no other pressure than its own weight. 
After this interval it is cut across in large slices, turned 
over once on the centre of the tub, and left in a heap as 
before for half an hour. The whey drips away towards the 
side of the tub, and runs off at the spigot ; and no pressure 
being applied, it continues to come away comparatively 
pure. After undergoing these easy manipulations, and 
lying untouched during the intervals that have been men- 
tioned, the curd is ripe for the application of pressure. But 
great care is taken not to put it into the vat to be pressed 
at too high a temperature. If the heat be above 60 and 
it usually is higher at this time the curd is broken a 
little by the hand and thrown upon a lead cooler until 
it is brought down to the desired temperature. 

The after-management of the cheese resembles that of 
Cheshire. A little salt, 1J Ibs. per cwt. or thereabouts, is 
added to the crumbled curd, and it is mingled and broken 
by the curd mill. The cheese vats are placed under the 


machine, and are piled one above the other as the curd falls 
down. A cloth is put over each vat when the breaking is 
over, the curd is reversed in the cloth, put back into the 
vat, covered up, and placed in the press for about three 
quarters of an hour. After this, the cheese is taken out, 
and a cloth wrung out of warm water is put on it. It is 
again changed at two and at six o'clock, after which dry 
cloths are put on it. Care is taken that the cheese fills the 
vat properly. To accomplish this, the vats, at making up, 
are filled rather full, and the edges of the cheese are pared 
in the afternoon. Next morning the cheese is rubbed on 
both sides with salt, and the same cloth is put on again. 
On the third morning it is treated in a similar manner. 
The cheese is put into the vat without a cloth on the 
fourth morning, and a little salt is rubbed over it to keep it 
from adhering to the wood. After the fourth morning, it 
is reversed in the vat, without a cloth, each morning, until 
the process is complete about the sixth or seventh 

Keevil's or other similar apparatus is now generally used, 
by which a jacketed cheese tub of tin may be surrounded 
by a stream of hot water ; and so the milk and whey retained 
at any temperature that is required, without the necessity 
of removing [large quantities of milk or whey to a boiler 
every time of cheese-making for the purpose of being heated. 

Derbyshire Cheese-making does not differ materially 
from that which obtains in Gloucestershire in making a 
thick (double Gloucester) cheese. It is usual to make but 
once a day, unless in very hot weather, when it may be 
doubtful if the milk can be got cool and kept sweet during 
the night, in which case cheese is made in the evening as 


well as morning. In general, however, the evening's milk 
is put in thin layers in the cheese-tub and other vessels to 
cool during the night, tin vessels of cold water being put 
to stand it in in order to subject it to as large a cooling 
surface as possible. In the morning, if much cream has 
risen, it is partly skimmed, and, if necessary, warmed up 
with some milk and added to the morning's milk, so as to 
bring the whole to about 80. In the summer time, how- 
ever, the rennet has often to be added when the milk is 
naturally warmer than this. Enough fresh-made rennet 
is added to set the whole in an hour or less. After the 
curd has been broken with the common sieve curd-braker, 
used gently for a sufficient time, a presser is used a sort 
of heavy metallic sieve " follower," which sinks gradually 
through the whey and ultimately lies upon the curd, en- 
abling the baling out of the whey. After this has been 
for the most part taken out, this follower is forced hard 
down en the curd so as to squeeze and still further separate 
the whey from it. The curd may then be slightly salted, 
though this is not always done at that time. It is broken 
by hand into a vat and pressed ; taken out and broken up 
again, re-vatted and again pressed ; and this may be done 
more than once as often, indeed, as seems to be required, 
It is at length finally vatted, in sizes of about 4 to the cwt.; 
its whole surface is made to take in as much salt as it will 
hold by rubbing and pressing ; this gets liquified by the 
exuding moisture and is absorbed. It is dry-clothed and 
changed in the press daily, and is in the press four or five 
days before being finally removed to the cheese-room, where 
it is turned at gradually-increasing intervals until ready 
for the market. 

In some districts, and notably in Lancashire, no salt is 


put in the curd, but the cheeses, after two or three days' 
pressing, are placed in brine for a week, in which they float, 
going in soft at first and coming out hardened. They are 
taken thence to the cheese-room, and turned daily till sold. 

Stilton Cheese is made chiefly in Leicestershire, from 
the whole milk of the morning to which more or less (often 
none) of the cream of the evening's meal has been added. 
The following is a recipe : 

The utensils required in its manufacture are the same 
as those in ordinary use, excepting the cheese-vat, which 
in this case is a tin-plate cylinder, 10 inches high, and 
25 inches round it, without top or bottom, having the 
sides pierced with holes to let out the whey. The rennet 
is made in the same way as usual. About 9 gallons of 
new milk, and, if to be very rich, the cream off 2 or 3 gallons 
of milk (the cream to be warmed before being put to the 
milk), are used in the manufacture of one cheese. If suffi- 
cient new milk cannot be obtained, the night's "milk and 
cream are to be used with the morning's milk, as well as 
the extra cream. The rennet is to be put in when it is of 
the natural temperature of new milk. When it has become 
curd, it is not broken as in Gloucestershire and elsewhere, 
but a canvas strainer is laid in a cheese-basket, and the 
curd put into it, breaking it as little as possible ; the cross 
corners are drawn together, and it remains in this way 
some hours, until sufficiently firm to slice. It is laid in 
the vat in slices, a layer of curd and a sprinkling of salt 
alternately ; this is continued until the vat is full, then a 
flat square piece of board is placed at the top of the vat, 
one having been previously laid at the bottom ; and placing 
one hand at the top, and the other underneath, the cheese 


is to be turned over very quickly: its own weight is a 
sufficient pressure. Keep turning it every two or three 
hours, and two or three times the next day. It is to be 
kept in the vat three or four days, according to the 
firmness of it. When taken out, a thin piece of calico is 
to be dipped in boiling water, and wrung out, and then to 
be pinned tightly round the cheese. This cloth remains 
on it until it is thoroughly dry. The cheese should be 
turned twice a day : it does not require any more salt than 
that which is put in with the curd. There is a great deal 
of trouble with this kind of cheese ; from the constant 
dampness of the skin it is apt to get fly-blown maggots 
are the result and the cheese is destroyed. 

Of other English makes we merely refer to Bath, truckle, 
and sage cheese. 

Truckle Cheese. Truckle cheeses are made in vats from 
6 to 9 inches deep, and about 9 inches across. When the 
vat is about half full a small tablespoonful of fine salt 
should be put into the middle of the cheese, and well rubbed 
into the curd, taking care that it does not spread to the 
outside, which would cause it to separate, and be of injury 
to the cheese. In making truckle cheeses the curd should 
be quite sweet, thoroughly crumbled, and made as dry as 
possible before filling the vats, and it should be pressed very 
firmly in with the hands, and allowed to remain in the press 
four or five days turning them every day, and salting them 
three times. Truckle cheeses are better for being kept 12 
months. They are in some dairies made throughout the 
whole season. There is, however, a risk, under ordinary 
management, of their bulging and heaving during the ex- 
treme heat of the summer owing to fermentation ; and this 


difficulty does therefore in most dairies confine the making 
of this sort of cheese to the autumn months, when less 
heat interferes with the ripening of it. 

Sage Cheese should be kept twelve months before 
it is fit for use. Bruise a quantity of sage in a mortar, 
also a little spinach for the sake of the juice, which will 
give a green colour, the sage alone not being bright enough 
in itself ; these juices, squeezed together through a cloth 
and added to about a pailful of milk with a proper propor- 
tion of rennet, will make enough sage curd for one thick 
cheese. When the whey is drawn from this in the usual 
manner, the curd will be found of a much deeper colour 
than might be expected from the pale green given to the 
milk. This sage curd should be kept quite separate from 
the bulk. When ready for the vats, having been crumbled 
into small particles separately, some of the green curd 
should be mixed with the other (about one-third is 
sufficient), either by laying it in rows or mixing it together 
in the vat ; care should be taken that none of the whey 
drawn from it gets into that intended for butter, or it will 
give it the flavour of the sage. The after-management of 
this cheese is the same as that of other thick cheeses. 

Bath. Cheese. Take one gallon of new milk, and add 
three* quarts of cold water, with about two or three table - 
spoonsful of rennet, and when turned into tender curd take 
it out gently with the skimming dish, and lay it on a sieve, 
but do not break it ; the whey will thus drain sufficiently 
from it before placing it on a cloth in a small square vat made 
for the purpose, about an inch and a half thick, and about 
9 or 10 wide. The above quantity of curd will be, as 


nearly as can be ascertained, enough for one cheese ; it 
requires to have one or two dry cloths applied to it, and in 
two days it may be taken out of the vat and placed between 
two pewter plates and turned every day, the plates being 
wiped dry. It will generally be fit for use in a week or 
nine days. 

Utensils for the Cheese Dairy Besides the ordinary 
milking-pails, and sieve through which the milk is 
poured from them, a deep cheese-tub, to stand on the 
floor of the dairy, in which the curd is set, is required, 
holding 4 gallons, or thereabouts, for every cow in the 
dairy. It costs Id. to 9d. per gallon. A " ladder " is 
needed to rest across this tub for carrying the sieve 
through which the milk is poured. Curd-breakers, double or 
triple knives, and an open wire-work sieve, to be thrust to 
and fro, are required. A curd-mill, costing from 20s. 
upwards, being simply a hopper, at the bottom of which 
is a cylinder studded with short radial arms revolving 
between corresponding pins fixed in the sides of the trough, 
and passing the curd placed in the hopper in a crumbled 
state, is also needed. Keevil's curd-breaking and cheese- 
making apparatus is, as we have said, largely used. Vats or 
leads of sufficient capacity to hold the whey, where it is set 
for cream, are also needed. Cheese-vats, in which the 
curd is pressed into the form of the future cheese ; and 
cheese-presses, either direct masses of stone lifted by 
winch and rope and pulley, or lever presses, are needed. 
The heaviest of the former consists of a block of stone, of 
nearly 3 feet cube, and weighing 20 to 30 cwt. The latter are 
of various forms, and produce, by the action of a small weight, 
whatever pressure is desired. They cost about 50s. ; or, 


if two together in one frame, about 5Z., and may be used to 
exert a pressure varying from 1 cwt. up to 30 cwt., or even 
more. We may also name here, as a recent invention with 
probably a future, a series of cheese-shelves arranged in 
a book-case form, i. e., closed on one side, and slung on 
two pivots, enabling it to be swung round, bottom upwards, 
so that the top of each shelf containing cheese becomes, 
in its turn, the floor on which those cheeses rest ; and the 
whole work of turning a number of cheeses is done at once. 

Insects affecting Cheese. Cheeses are liable to the 
attacks of various insects, the principal of which are the 
cheese-mite and the cheese-fly, Piophila casei, whose 
maggots are the well-known jumper. The cheese-fly, 
we may add, is a little greenish-black fly, with yellowish 
head and legs. In order to escape its attacks, the cheeses 
should be pressed dry, and so made as not to crack ; they 
should also be repeatedly wiped with a flannel cloth, and 
turned on boards kept clean by scrubbing and occasional 
rubbing with fresh oil. 



Dairying and Grazing Profitable Use of Milk Cropping of a Dairy Farm. 

Dairying or Grazing. A tenant of grass land has 
the choice of many modes of turning it to account. If it 
be very rich grazing ground, he may devote it wholly to 
the feeding of heef : if very poor grass land with some 
arahle attached, he may devote it wholly to the rearing of 
young stock, bringing up five to ten calves to every cow he 
keeps. Under more ordinary circumstances he may keep 
either a butter dairy or a cheese dairy ; or it may be his 
interest to use the milk in fattening veal. The nature of 
the market for his produce will probably determine his 
choice. It is no part of our plan to discuss the relative 
merits of grazing and dairying here, but there is one point 
of the comparison which ought to be alluded to, and that 
is the immense draught made upon the resources of the 
land by any system which involves the annual sale of the 
milk, either whole or manufactured, as the sole produce of 
the land. 

Milk contains a good deal of those parts of the earth of 
soils on which their fertility very much depends. As the 
sole food of the young, it feeds their bones as well as their 
flesh, and in its mineral part, therefore, is to be found the 
mineral part of bones, as well as the alkaline and other 


mineral substances held in solution in the juices of the 
living animal. 1000 parts of milk contain from 5 to 7 
parts of ash or mineral matter ; and this consists about 
one half of phosphate of lime (bone-earth), and the rest of 
soda and alkaline salts. The following is a detailed 
analysis of two samples. 

Ingredients of 1000 Ibs. of milk : 

l. 2. 

Phosphate of lime 2*31 Ibs. 3 '44 Ibs. 

magnesia . . . . 0'42 0*62 

iron 0*07 

Chloride of potassium . . . . 1 '44 

sodium . . . . 0'24 

Free soda . . . 0'42 


4-90 677 

If a cow yields 600 gallons of milk a year, then, 
whether this be sold away altogether, or converted into 
cheese for sale, or set for cream and made into butter and 
skim-milk cheese, or given to young stock to be afterwards 
sold, these products being sold off the farm, it loses in this 
way from 30 to 40 Ibs. of mineral matter from its soil. 

This is no doubt a small quantity ; but continued for 
a long series of years it undoubtedly tells upon the 
fertility of the soil, and is a loss to which rich grazing 
grounds, where full grown animals are brought simply to 
be fattened, are not subject. In illustration of the per- 
petual drain of phosphates which the cheese manufacture 
entails upon the soil, it may be mentioned here that the 
dairy pastures of Cheshire have been wonderfully im- 
proved by the addition of bone dust as a top-dressing 
to the land, a manure which supplies just those ingredients 
of which the cheese had deprived it. 


The most profitable use of Milk. This necessarily 
depends altogether on the market. (1.) To sell the whole 
milk direct to the consumer is probably the most 
profitable method. One penny a pint is a common whole- 
sale price to the cow keeper. His cows may yield under 
varying treatment from 600 to 1000 gallons annually, and 
thus return from 20Z. to 33/. annually a-piece. (2.) To 
make milk into butter and skim-milk cheese, may, at the 
yield of 600 gallons annually, and calculating 22 pints per 
Ib. of butter and 1J gallon per Ib. of skim milk cheese, 
yield as follows : 


600 gallons of milk = 60 gallons of cream = 210 Ibs. of 

butter, &tls. 4d 14 

540 gallons of skim-milk = 360 Ibs. of cheese, at 4d. per Ib. 6 

Total annual yield per cow .... 20 

(3.) To make milk wholly into cheese may, with a yield 
of 600 gallons of milk, result in 5 cwts. of cheese per 
annum; a very unusual produce, however; and this at 64s. 
per cwt., a moderate price, results in an annual produce of 
<16 per cow, to which must be added, perhaps, 50s. worth 
of butter and bacon, or 13 10s. in all. The more common 
produce, however, is : 


4 cwts. at 64.9 12 6 

Together with the extras 2 10 

Or, in all 15 6 per cow. 

(4.) To use the milk wholly for fatting veal, at the rate 
of 10, 16, 20, 24, 27, 30, and 32 gallons in seven succes- 
sive weeks, using 160 gallons or thereabouts in that time 
for producing about 1 cwt. of veal, will enable each cow thus 


to fatten 4 cwts. or more of veal per annum ; and this at 
the price of 41. per cwt. would yield 16L annually per cow. 
From this, however, must be deducted the cost of whatever 
other food the calves consume, and also a certain sum at 
which the risk attending the management of young stock 
must he valued a risk which does not accompany the other 
modes of turning milk into money. 

It may thus be assumed, after making sundry deductions, 
that 24L, 20Z., 18?., and perhaps 16L may be taken as the 
produce of well-managed cows, in milk, butter, cheese, 
and veal respectively ; the value of the calf, 30s. or 35s., 
when a week or ten days old, has to be added. It will, 
however, be generally felt that, excepting, perhaps, the 
first of these cases, these figures stand too high for 
ordinary experience ; and certainly that which is true of 
well-managed individual cows is not necessarily true of a 
whole herd, however perfect the management may be. In 
illustration of this, two facts may be mentioned, one of 
which entirely corroborates our estimate ; but the other, 
the more trustworthy of the two, considerably discounts 
it. 1. The dairy statistics of 15 farms in Gloucestershire 
already referred to (pp. 10, 12, 16), prove that in the year 
of their collection 439 cows produced 1604 cwts. of cheese ; 
5268 Ibs. of milk-butter, 11,420 Ibs. of whey-butter, 
besides a sale of 354 calves and of 1756 score Ibs. of bacon. 
The total sales at present prices would stand thus : 

s. d. 

1,604 cwts. of cheese, at 3 4s 4,84416 

5, 268 Ibs. of butter, at Is. 4^ 351 4 

11,420 Ibs. of whey butter, at Is. . . . 571 

354 calves, at 1 5s 442 10 

1,756 scores of bacon, at 10s 878 

439 cows produced 7,087 10 



This was equal to 16L 3s. per cow, corresponding very 
nearly to the figures given as true of the money produce 
of cheese-making. 2. The other fact is that in many large 
dairy districts it is common for the farmers to let their 
cows for the year to a dairyman, agreeing to set apart 
certain pastures for them, and to give them certain quanti- 
ties of fodder, and of green and other food. The hirer of 
the cows has the use of all the accommodation which the 
farmery affords, the use of dairy utensils, &c., and he 
undertakes the entire management of the animals, and 
of their produce, which helongs to him while they remain 
in his hands. And the fact to which we allude is, that 
the farmer is willing to let his cows to the " bower," as he 
is called in Wigtonshire, for from 101. to 12L apiece: which, 
if their average produce realises 14L or 15L, seems to leave 
a small enough margin for the lahour and the profit of the 
dairyman who hires them. 

The Cropping of a Dairy Farm has already heen 
considered (see page 23). We refer to it again under this 
section to insist on the great advantage to large dairy 
farms of a considerable portion of the land being arable. 
The ability to maintain cows during the winter season 
when dry or not yielding milk enough for the maintenance 
of the general dairy management on roots and straw, 
instead of hay, and thus to set apart a larger portion of 
the grass for summer pasture to its own great advantage, 
and to the greater productiveness of the cows at their most 
productive period, cannot be overrated. If every 100 acres 
of grass land, being at the rate of more than 1J acres per 
cow of whole summer pasture, together with the aftermath 
of a corresponding quantity needed for winter hay, will 


maintain a herd "of 30 dairy cows, then any source of 
winter feeding which will displace two-thirds of the hay 
required will set free for pasturage two-thirds of the ex- 
tent of grass-land to be mown. It is not too much to 
say that by 30 acres under arable culture as much winter 
food will be provided as by 50 acres of grass-land mown. 
Supposing, then, these 100 acres to be divided into 80 
acres pasture and 20 acres arable, it is plain that of the 
half of this pasture (40 acres), which ordinarily would 
fall to be mown, at least two-thirds (26 acres), would be 
set free by the winter food (straw and green crops) yielded 
by the 20 acres arable : and the stock capable of being 
kept on the remaining 80 acres pasture, as compared with 
that on the 100 acres of whole pasture, depends on the 
relative summer produce of 66 acres whole grass and 
14 acres aftermath, as compared with that of 50 acres 
whole pasture and 50 acres aftermath. There cannot be 
a doubt that the former will yield more food than the 
latter, and at the most productive time of the year, while 
the land will at the same time, under this plan, be more 
likely to increase from year to year in value. It thus 
appears that a larger dairy stock can be kept upon a 
farm so managed, while, at the same time, one-half of 
the arable land will be yielding its valuable produce of 
grain for sale. It seems, however, also to be certain that 
the use of home-grown grain, bean and pea-meal, oats and 
-corn wheat, is economical and desirable while the prices are 
so low as they have been in 1884-5. 

Let me add as a postscript that the selection and main- 
tenance of the herd gentle, regular, and punctual treat- 
ment 'of the animals throughout the year ; provision of 

H 2 


sufficient wholesome food for them, and abundant water, 
with frequent change of pasturage when at milk these 
are the special maxims of successful dairying. If on the 
one side of these we have . the proper cultivation and 
management of the land, and on the other, cleanly, care- 
ful, and skilful management in the dairy, then a maximum 
of dairy produce may be expected. But this depends 
essentially on the health, and therefore on the treatment, 
of the animals which yield it. If one word more be 
permitted it should contain the answer of an old dairy 
farmer when asked as to the secret of his success. It 
had come principally, he said, of seeing for himself that 
his cows were always thoroughly milked out. 



DENMARK. FRANCE : French Cheeses, Brie, Coulommiers, Gerome', 
Journiac, Livarot, Mont d'Or, Neufchatel, Mignot, Pont 1'Evgque, 
St. Marcellin, St. Remy. GERMANY : Limburg and Backstein 
cheeses. HOLLAND : Edam and Gouda cheese, Delft butter. ITALY : 
Gorgonzola, Parmesan, Ricotta cheeses. SWITZERLAND: Emmen- 
thaler, Gruyere, Vacherin, Schabzieger. 


IT is not necessary to enter fully into the system of 
dairying in Denmark, as far greater space would be required 
than the limits of this work permit. It may he remarked, 
however, that Danish dairying, though hut of recent creation, 
so energetically has it been conducted, has become, if we con- 
sider the size of the country, the most prominent of any in 
Europe. It is true, however, that cheesemaking is here still 
in its infancy, and that there is practically no cheese which 
is essentially Danish, made in any considerable quantity. 

The butter of Denmark is now so famous in this 
country, that it not only obtains a higher price than the 
best British, but it often beats the choicest samples from 
Erance ; and this the French authorities themselves admit 
with regret, and so highly do they rate the work of the 
Danes, that a Danish dairy has recently been travelling to 
the various French exhibitions. At the present moment, 
the centrifugal separator is doing immense work in 


Denmark, and the system is as follows : The cows are 
milked very early in the morning, and the milk is 
immediately cooled and passed through the separator ; hut 
the cream is not churned on the same day. It is, 
however, placed in vats where a small quantity of sour 
material is added, in order that it may he sufficiently sour 
for churning on the following morning, it having heen 
proved heyond douht that hutter made from sour cream 
not only keeps hetter, hut is produced in larger quantities. 
The barrel and Holstein churns are in general use, and 
churning is continued until the hutter comes in small 
grains, when the hutter milk is run off, and the hutter 
carefully washed in the churn with very cold water ; for 
upon many of the farms ice is used for the purpose of 
keeping everything cool. Where the butter-worker is not 
used, though this, like the separator, is now becoming 
popular, the butter is worked and made up by hand either 
upon a small table or in a wooden trough. Here the dairy- 
maid thoroughly manipulates it, and as each piece is 
kneaded, it is laid aside and salt strewn upon the top, 
when the remaining pieces as fast as they are finished are 
placed upon it and salted in a similar manner. "When all 
the butter has been worked, and the pile is complete, it is 
cut down in slices, and these are again kneaded with the 
hand in order to thoroughly amalgamate the salt with the 
butter. In hot weather ice is used to keep it solid, but it 
is quickly packed in kegs and sent to the exporter. 

A great deal of attention is paid by the Danish Govern- 
ment to the proper instruction of young people destined 
for agriculture ; and the majority of the best dairy farmers 
who are sufficiently interested are provided with pupils 
sent by the Professor of Agriculture, or obtained by them- 


selves. These remain at the farm from twelve to eighteen 
months, paying a small fee for the time they are there. 
They manage and milk the cows, assist on the farm, even 
to mowing and harvesting, and are taught in the most 
complete manner the whole routine of dairy work. Each 
pupil is supplied with a small book in which is a slip for 
each day, and upon this he enters the returns of his 
department and endeavours to show a better weekly return 
than his competitors. These figures are checked by the 
head dairy-maid, who also keeps a book showing the 
quantity of milk obtained, and cream and butter yielded, 
with minor details which are very necessary in a large 
dairy. Where the cream separator is not used, the Swartz 
system is generally adopted. This consists of a vat some 
9 ft. by 2j- to 3 ft. and some 2 ft. in depth, which is built 
of concrete or brick lined with cement. At one end is a 
tap for the supply of water, and at the other an outlet 
pipe to carry surplus water away. This vat is usually 
built in the milk room on the coldest side of the house, 
and is in summer daily provided with ice, which is allowed 
to float in the water. As the milk is brought in it 
is strained and poured into the Swartz cans, which are oval 
in shape, 24 inches deep, by about 8 inches wide, and 
16 inches long. The milk remains in these cans from 10 
to .12 hours, when the cream has all risen and is 
skimmed off. The skim milk is then taken away either for 
manufacture into cheese, or for the house and the cattle, 
and the next milking is poured in. This system is 
extremely simple, but cannot be properly conducted at a 
higher temperature than 45 F. If, therefore, a cold 
spring of water can be obtained which will not rise higher 
than this, ice will not be required, but in reality an 


exceptionally cool milk room is required in addition to the 
water. Ice is generally preserved in Denmark, either in 
barns or square yards, with four brick walls, and if well 
buried in sawdust and examined weekly so that crevices 
may be filled up by treading the sawdust in, little difficulty 
is found in keeping it until the end of the summer, and 
frequently indeed until a second summer. 

In Sweden and Norway the system of butter making is 
very similar, the best dairies being in the south of Sweden, 
in which part we have seen the work conducted. There is 
very little difference between the Danish and Swedish 
systems, and at the present time it is the aim of both 
Swedes and Norwegians to carry out the Danish system in 
its entirety, and to obtain Danish prices. The cream 
separator is now being largely used in these countries, and 
almost every improved appliance is being adopted. The 
Swedish system of setting is found everywhere ; but the 
cattle are by no means so good as those in Denmark. The 
only cheese worthy of the name which is made in .these 
countries and which is special to them, is the " Myseost/' 
which is made from whey, and largely composed of the 
sugar of milk, as most people can tell by the peculiar 
grittiness felt in eating it. Its colour is generally green, 
and although sweet, its flavour is by no means agreeable, 
and a taste for it has to be acquired before it can be 
enjoyed. The whey is boiled upon the fire until almost 
three parts have evaporated, it being continually stirred 
the while. During the process the top or cream of the 
whey which had previously been skimmed off, is added, 
and when a scum or foam appears upon the surface this 
process ceases. As may be supposed after so much 
evaporation of water, the residuum has become a sticky 


paste, which, as we saw at Madame Nielsen's, was poured 
into a kind of mortar and there beaten with a pestle by 
seven or eight dairy-maids in turn, until it was ready to 
place in the mould, where it remained for pressure foi 
about two or three days, when it was sold to be eaten 
fresh. This cheese can be improved by the addition of new 
milk or cream during the process of heating. 


Although the dairy is part and parcel of the system 
of agriculture in almost every part of France, it is 
hardly necessary, perhaps, to say, that it is much more 
extensive, and far more perfect in its arrangements in the 
Northern than in the Southern departments, where the 
culture of the grape is more suitable to the climate, and 
congenial to the people. It is true that the cultivation of 
the breed of dairy cattle and the manufacture of the 
famous cheeses peculiar to France, are conducted in 
many districts in the centre and west of the country ; but 
perhaps there are none which can approach those of 
Calvados and La Manche, whether it be in the manufacture 
of cheese and butter, the system of cropping for dairy 
purposes, or the production of the highest quality of dairy 
cattle. This being the case, the general remarks which 
follow have particular reference to those departments, 
which may be taken as an example of the highest class of 
dairy farming in France. 

The cows principally preferred are those of the Cotentin 
race large fleshy animals of fine quality, and magnificent 
milkers. These animals, together with the luxuriant pas- 
ture of these departments of Normandy, have much to 
do with the system which has been adopted and raised to 


such a pitch of celebrity. While it is the custom to house 
the cattle in winter, and to feed them upon hay, which is 
seldom huilt in ricks, hut placed in the barn in small 
bundles of about lOlbs. each, with mangolds, turnips, and 
even carrots, they have a great idea of summer pasturing ; 
and, to such an extent is this conducted, that we have seen 
herds of cattle turned into meadows with two feet of 
grass, almost ready for the scythe, and into which the dairy- 
maids went three times a day for the purpose of milking. 
This is, indeed, a common custom ; and in large dairies, 
with the aid of the deep brass Cannes, holding from four to 
eight gallons, which are carried upon the head of the girl, 
or placed in panniers, two upon either side of the back of a 
donkey, the milk is all obtained without the necessity of 
driving the cattle home. The dairy-maid, like the labourer, 
is a hard-working and invaluable servant, whom it would 
be difficult to equal in this country. When the milk is 
taken to the farm, it is first strained, and then poured into 
earthenware pans, which somewhat resemble in shape the 
galvanised iron pail used in this country, being much 
larger at the top than at the bottom. Sometimes, however, 
these pans are almost oval in shape, and similar in 
diameter at the top to the bottom, with a handle on 
either side, so that the system of setting the milk is quite 
different from that adopted in England, and is rather a deep 
than a shallow one. The milk room, too, is entirely 
different from those common in England. It is generally 
a plain apartment with a flagged floor, and a drain down 
the centre. The milk pans are either set upon a small 
raised stone or brick shelf upon two or three sides, or 
within a wide gutter, which is formed by brickwork being 
set about twenty inches from the wall, this being either 


partially filled with water, or arranged for water to be 
continually running through. In some milk rooms, how- 
ever, there is hardly any system ; the milk cans being placed 
at one end of the apartment in any position on the main floor. 
As a rule the churning and working of the butter is not 
conducted in this apartment, which is reserved entirely 
for milk. There are three systems adopted in raising the 
cream. Sometimes it is skimmed from entirely sweet 
milk ; and the butter made from this cream is usually sent 
to Paris, and obtains the highest possible prices, for the 
Parisians are famous for the quality of their butter. In 
other dairies the cream is allowed to sour, and is not taken 
off the milk until the latter has turned, and is frequently 
found in a state of curd. The farmers believe that they 
obtain a larger yield of butter by this means, which is 
possible, considering that they must take up some curd 
with it, and they find that it procures a fuller flavour,- 
which is preferred by a certain class of consumers. This 
butter also keeps better if it is thoroughly well made, but 
not unless. Another system which we have seen adopted 
in the department of La Manche, is that of artificially 
souring the milk. The milk room is usually placed behind 
the kitchen, so that a communication can be made between 
the flue and the milk room. At a certain time in the day 
a tap is turned, and a quantity of hot air is sent into the 
milk room, which is at all other times exceptionally cool, 
and the sudden change turns the milk. In these cases we 
were astonished to find, upon lifting the cream in the pans 
with the skimmer, that the milk underneath was an 
absolutely thick curd, and it appears to us impossible that 
butter can be made without the introduction of a certain 
percentage of this. The farmer uses the curd for two 


purposes : in some cases for his men, and in other cases 
for his calves ; each calf being entirely fed upon it until it 
is fit for the Paris butcher, when it is sent up in the form 
of large veal. In churning, which practice is, generally 
speaking, conducted in time for the markets of the district 
once or twice a week, as the case may be, the barrel churn 
is almost invariably used, and in large dairies two are 
worked at the same time by means of a connection through 
the wall, with horse-gear outside. A number of different 
churns have at times been exhibited in these departments, 
but the farmers do not take to them, and the barrel may be 
seen everywhere. The churn is generally turned at a slow 
pace until the granular butter is formed ; and much 
importance is attached to this, for the cleansing, and we 
may almost say, the working of the butter is conducted 
within the churn. This could not possibly be done if it 
were converted into lumps before churning was stopped. 
Where salt is used, it is almost invariably mixed with the 
butter in the churn, and any practical dairyman will, after 
a few moments' reflection, see that there can be no better 
opportunity of thoroughly amalgamating it by means of 
brine with the butter, than by pouring it into the churn 
while the butter is in this granular form. Every 
particle of butter-milk is washed out, and the butter can be 
salted to the greatest nicety by means of careful washing 
after the brining process, thus modifying the strength of 
the salt to the required taste. When this is done the 
butter is taken out, very slightly worked, and made up into 
huge lumps or cones, and placed in baskets of appropriate 
size, ready for market, or despatch by rail. Naturally, in 
some cases, it is put into pots either for the merchant or 
for shipment : in others it is prepared, as we have 


frequently seen it in London sliops, in pound or half-pound 
rolls, or in kilogrammes or half-kilogrammes. The 
churning process usually takes place in an apartment 
adjoining the milk room, also paved with stone, and 
plentifully supplied with water, these two articles being 
made a sine qua non with the French dairy farmer. On 
the best dairy farms there is generally a drainage system 
for carrying waste milk and butter-milk into the pig- 
geries, although these are sometimes at a considerable 

Cheeses. It might almost be said that the cheeses of 
France are more numerous than those of all the rest of 
E urope put together. We should not be surprised if this were 
the case : at all events the number is very large, although 
many of the cheeses are quite local and almost identical with 
those made in other parts of the country and known under 
other names. Pouriau, a recognised authority upon dairy- 
farming in France, names a large number of cheeses in his 
recent work, and divides them into two classes, hard and 
soft ; the latter being sub-divided into new and ripe cheeses, 
and the former into, (1) pressed and salted, and, (2) cooked, 
heated, and pressed cheeses. New cheeses are found in 
almost every market in France, and in several forms. 
Thus they are made by large milk dealers in the cities 
from surplus milk which they cannot hope to dispose of 
in any other way. Small farmers manufacture them from 
skim milk and send them into the markets in a very tasty 
form at a very low price, while others with greater skill 
make new milk cheeses, or cheeses combined of new milk 
and cream, reaping good prices from these, and giving them 
names such as Bondons, Neufchatel, Normandie, Malakoif, 


double cream, etc. The perfected or refined soft cheeses, 
which are seldom sold until completely ripe, and which are 
both made and ripened, and purchased and ripened by the 
farmers, include those of Normandy the principal of 
which are the Camembert, Livarot, Pont 1'Eveque, 
Mignot those of the departments of Seine, Marne, Oise, 
Meuse, etc., which include the Brie in its various forms, 
e.g., the Brie de ferme, Brie courant, Brie de saison, the 
Coulommiers Brie also the Troyes, Barberey, Eroy, and 
the Chaource ; also imitations of both Brie and Coulom- 
miers. Again, among numerous other soft cheeses popular 
in France are the Mont. d'Or, the Port du Salut, the 
Kollot, Marolles, Langres, Void, the Gerome, St. 
Florentin, Olivet, Bourgogne, Macquelines, Thury, 
Munster, Compiegnes, and the Senecterre. Among these 
may also be included what are called fromages a pate 
ferine, such as the Roquefort, the imitation Roquefort, the 
Septmoncel, Gex,Mont-Cenis, Sassenage, Cantal, Languiole, 
and a variety of other cheeses of the Auvergne. There are 
also Hollandes Francaise, or French-made Dutch, and 
fromage de Bergues, these being all pressed and salted. 
Among the remainder or really hard cheeses we have the 
Gruyere and its imitations, the Rangeport, Port du Salut, 
and the fromages of the Pyrenees, also a variety of others 
made from the milk of goats and sheep. 

The descriptions in the sequel relate to a selected 
number of varieties which are at the head of their re- 
spective classes, and which are slightly varied in different 

* See also " British Dairy Farming," illustrated by the writer of these 
lines, published by Chapman & Hall, in which this department is 
exhaustively treated. 


Brie In the manufacture of the Brie cheese the rennet 
is added to the milk as the latter comes from the cow, and 
in a general way one particular make, that of Boll, is pre- 
ferred rather than home-made rennet. Thus it is always 
of one strength, and a proper quantity can he added with- 
out difficulty. Eight twentieths of a cuhic centimetre are 
used for each litre of milk. The mixture is set in a tin 
vessel holding ahout forty litres, and after being slightly 
stirred with a spoon it is left in a room at a temperature 
of 65 F. It may he added that in summer time, in spite 
of the evenness of the temperature, six twentieths only are 
required to obtain the same result. At the end of four 
hours the curd has become firm and elastic to the touch. 
It is the"n placed in moulds made of tinned iron ; two being 
used for each cheese, and varying in diameter, some 
cheeses being twelve inches across, and others not more 
than half that size. The top mould fits into the bottom 
one, and the curd is filled to its rim so that when it has 
drained and sunk considerably this is taken off. The top 
mould is 2 inches, and the bottom 2^ inches in depth. 
The curd is fit to move when the whey rests on the top 
quite clear and bright. For ladling it into the moulds a 
flat tinned iron plate slightly concave is used. The moulds 
stand upon small round boards called planchettes, upon 
which straw mats are laid, the boards being placed upon 
fluted benches made of cement, from which the whey 
drains off. At the end of 3 hours, when the top mould 
is taken off, a dry mat is placed on the top of the curd, and 
a clean board laid over this when the cheese in the bottom 
mould is inverted and left to drain for 8 to 10 hours. Next 
day fresh mats are used in the same manner, the straws 
being laid in a contrary way to those of the previous 


day, so that the cheese is marked evenly on each side. 
The mould is next removed and the plain cheese left upon 
the sloping boards, having been first salted with very fine 
salt, sprinkled by the left hand and spread by the right, by 
means of a goose quill. At the end of 12 hours each 
cheese is laid upon a round willow frame called a clayette, 
which is placed on the top of the cheese, this being at once 
inverted and the mat beneath removed. The cheese is 
next taken to the drying-room, and salted on the rim and 
the outer face, and placed upon shelves to dry, plenty of 
air being necessary, and this should be passed through the 
room in as energetic a manner as possible. The cheese is 
turned morning and evening, a clean clayette being used 
each time. On the 2nd day a white mould appears in large 
patches, and when this has covered the face of the cheese 
it is taken to another apartment where the currents of air 
are stronger, but are regulated at will as it may be found 
necessary to hasten or retard the development of ripening. 
Here, the cheeses are placed upon dry mats resting upon 
boards and turned every 24 hours, the mats being changed 
each time. The mould becomes blue at the end of a month, 
when it is the custom of the farmers to sell the cheeses 
either for immediate consumption or for further ripening 
by the merchants. 

Conlommiers. In the manufacture of Coulommiers, 
which resembles Brie in almost every particular, the 
rennet should not be added at a temperature exceeding 
77 F. The quantity per litre of milk is from 1J to 3 
twentieths of a cubic centimetre according to the season, 
the curd standing 36 hours in an apartment at 64 F. 
before it is touched, when it is softer and less elastic than 


that obtained in the manufacture of the Brie. The re- 
maining portion of the process resembles that of the Brie ; 
but it may be added that the cheese is much smaller in 
diameter, ripens much quicker, and can in fact be eaten 
with greater relish on the eighth or tenth day from its 
manufacture, when the Brie at this period would be taste- 

Gerome. This is a soft round cheese, weighing from 
4 Ibs. to 8 Ibs., and sometimes made with the addition of 
aniseed. The milk is coagulated at the temperature at 
which it comes from the cow, and is placed in a deep 
copper vat holding some 40 quarts, and covered with a lid, 
in the centre of which is a wooden funnel. To the bottom 
of this is attached a cloth for straining. The rennet, as 
in most cases in France, is home-made, and the quantity 
added varies according to its strength, which can be ascer- 
tained with a little practice. The curds and whey are 
divided with a ladle in half an hour, and the vat covered 
for a second half hour, when the division is continued 
until the curd has formed into small pieces about the size of 
a nut. When this has been accomplished it is taken out 
and put into cylindrical moulds 5 to 9 inches in diameter, 
two being used to each cheese, the one fitting into the other. 
The larger one is pierced with a number of holes for 
drainage. The height of the two moulds when fixed is 
about 14 inches. At the end of 12 hours the curd will 
have sunk into the bottom mould, when the top is taken 
off. It is now called a cheese, and changed into a fresh 
clean mould, and placed upside down upon a shelf. In 6 
hours it is again turned, and it is twice turned during the 
two following days. When draining, the cheeses are 


always put upon a sloping shelf from which the whey can 
run off. The temperature of the room in which they are 
made is ahout 60 F. Salting is next performed, the two 
surfaces being well sprinkled, and this operation is re- 
peated every 3 or 4 days, the cheeses being turned each 
time. Turning is continued for 3 days after salting, and 
the surfaces moistened with tepid water. When a dry 
crust has formed, they are removed to the drying room, 
or se'choir, in which large numbers are kept in a small 
space, the aeration and temperature being perfect. When 
thoroughly dry, the Gerome cheeses are taken to the cave or 
ripening cellar, where they must be carefully managed. 
The largest remain here some 3 to 4 months, and are 
frequently turned and washed with slightly tepid water 
during the time. As soon as they are brick- red in 
appearance, and sufficiently firm to yield to the pressure 
of the finger, they are marketed. A good Gerome is firm, 
rich, and oily, with a few small holes in the centre, in this 
respect somewhat resembling Gruyere. 

Livarot. One of the most popular cheeses in France, 
and one which is not only profitable in its manufacture, 
but well adapted for production by our dairy farmers, is the 
Livarot, which takes its name from the town of Livarot 
in the department of Calvados, the principal centre of its 
manufacture. To the workmen, who consume immense 
quantities of it, it is almost indispensable. The milk 
taken from the cow is creamed on the following day and 
poured into large wooden tubs, holding about 50 gallons, 
being then brought to the temperature which it possessed 
on leaving the cow. The rennet is then added, in summer 
1, and in winter 2 dessertspoonfuls being required for 


every 6 gallons of milk. As a rule this is made on the 
premises, several calves' stomachs being cured together, 
for each of which a large spoonful of salt and 3 glasses of 
water are used. In 1 or 2 hours, the coagulation is com- 
plete, when the curd is hroken up and laid upon rushes 
or a clean cloth. Before placing in the moulds, it is 
necessary that the curd should he reduced to small 
cubes no larger than lumps of sugar. After having been 
left to drain for a quarter of an hour, the curd is placed 
in the circular wooden moulds where it completely drains 
.-and attains a proper consistence. This result can be 
obtained in 3 or 4 hours if it is warmed, but the quality 
of the cheese will be impaired. Moreover it must not be 
left too long in the moulds 1 to 4 days, according to the 
season of the year and temperature, being quite sufficient. 
'The moulds are turned over one hour after the curd has 
been placed in them, and this operation is repeated half-a- 
dozen times before the cheeses are released. They are 
salted with the hand and left for 4 or 5 days on inclined wood 
or stone tables, and then taken to the hdloir, or market. 
The hdloir is an apartment with windows let into opposite 
walls, through which a current of air passes for the 
purpose of desiccating the cheeses placed in them in various 
stages upon the lath racks, which have been previously 
covered with straw. In this place they are left for 15 
to 30 days, and then taken to the cave, all the apertures 
of which are closed, and uniform temperature kept. In conse- 
quence of the gas given off from the cheese, the walls are 
not made of brick or stone, but of mortar mixed with 
chopped hay. The cheeses, placed on planks, are turned 
twice weekly in winter, and three times weekly in summer, 
'being slightly wetted each time with pure water, and salted 

i 2 


afresh when necessary. At the end of 8 or 10 days in 
the cave they are set on their edges on a species of sedge 
to assist the process of drying. They remain in the cave 
for 3 to 6 months, according to their size, and, when packed 
for transmission to market, are coloured with anatto. It 
requires about 5 pints of milk to make a cheese ; and Sep- 
tember and October are the months chosen in which to 
commence the process of manufacture. Several makers of 
Livarot cheeses manufacture from 5,000 to 8,000 dozen in 
a season, besides purchasing many white ones to perfect in 
their own caves, which sell at 3|- to 8f francs per dozen, 
and ultimately realise 15 to 20 francs, or, during Lent, 20 
to 30 francs. At the Lisieux market, one of the best in 
the department, three varieties of cheese are sold white 
cheese, which is eaten fresh and is most delicious, at 2d. 
retail, or 1.20 to 2 francs the dozen : Carnembert of 
medium quality from 4 to 5.50 francs : and Livarot, which 
varies from 9 to 11 francs the dozen while at St. Pierre 
about 1,000 dozen are sold in the market every week, at 
an average of 7 francs the dozen. At the markets of 
Yimoutiers, Livarot, Lisieux, St. Pierre, and at Lisieux 
Station, very large quantities are also sold ; and, since 
1866, the total value of the cheeses manufactured has more 
than doubled. 

Journiac This cheese is made to resemble Koquefort, 
but instead of being manufactured from ewes' milk it is en- 
tirely composed of the milk of the cow. The following is 
the system adopted at the farm of M. Laforce, who resides 
some 3,300 feet above the level of the sea. When the 
milk comes from the cow it is poured into a wooden pan, 
made of fir, which will hold the milk from a hundred cows. 


It is then carried to the cheese-room, and the rennet is im- 
mediately added. After the curdling and the separation of 
the whey are complete the curd is placed in cheese-moulds 
made of tinned iron, in which it is left to drain for three or 
four days, and afterwards carried to the cave, which is kept 
at a uniform temperature of 77 F., where it is constantly 
watched and attended to hy special workmen. Every cheese 
is turned daily and frequently sprinkled with fine white 
salt. After a short time they are removed to other caves, 
which are much colder and provided with strong currents of 
air. Here they are stood upon their sides and pricked to 
the centre with needles in order to place in contact with the 
air a fine meal composed of rye, wheat, and barleymeal, 
which, at the moment of placing the curd in the cheese- 
moulds, was laid within the body of the cheese. This 
composition, when properly made, gives rise to the forma- 
tion of a blue mould in the interior of the cheeses ; and if 
the colour is of a fine blue it is classed as first quality, 
providing of course it is of equal taste. During the time 
the cheeses remain in the second cave they are daily rolled 
and scraped, in order to avoid spontaneous growth of fungi. 
They are usually ripe at the end of two months and de- 
spatched for sale in cases holding one dozen each. 

Mont d'Or. These very delicious small cheeses are 
made of new milk, either by the addition of the morn- 
ing's to the evening's, or twice a day. The rennet is not 
added to the milk but the milk to the rennet, this being 
placed in the vessel in which setting is to take place. 
When thoroughly firm the curd is broken up and placed in 
single hoops, similar to those used for Coulommiers, these 
however being placed upon larger hoops, which are made of 


wood, and on the top of these a couple of straw mats are- 
laid to encourage draining and prevent curd passing 
through. The diameter of the metal hoop is from 12 to 
13 centimetres and that of the wooden a shade more, the 
height of each being about 8 centimetres. When the 
moulds are filled, they are placed upon a fluted inclined 
shelf in order to drain, each cheese being turned at the end 
of two hours, when clean mats replace the wet ones. Next 
day the same process takes place, when they are carried to 
the sechoir for further drying ; shelves covered with rye 
straw being provided for the purpose, and the cheeses being 
here taken out of the mould. Turning takes place four 
times a day, but there is no salting other than that which 
results from a continual damping of each surface with 
brine. When sufficiently dry, at the end of two or three 
days the cheeses are removed to the ripening room, where 
they remain for a week during warm, and a fortnight in 
cold, weather. 

Roquefort It is only necessary to refer to the Koque- 
fort cheese to state that it is made of sheep's milk, that the 
system of manufacture is somewhat intricate, and that, as 
it is not likely to be attempted in this country, we do not 
deem it necessary to give a detailed description. 

Neufchatel. This little cheese, which takes its name 
from the little town in the Brie district, in the department 
of Seine Inferieure, is largely imitated by milk dealers in 
London, who find the system a ready way for disposing of 
"their surplus and sometimes spoiled milk. It is sold in 
both its ripe and white forms, as well as from poor and rich 
milk respectively : those made from skimmed milk being 


largely consumed by the poorer classes. The milk is co- 
agulated in vessels holding about 12 quarts, the rennet 
being added when the temperature is about 90 F. The 
pans are left from 36 to 48 hours, after which the curd is 
deposited in cloths which are hung to drain over square 
forms, the corners of the cloths being fixed to the corners 
of the moulds. It is next put into a dry cloth and slightly 
pressed for 9 hours or more if the whey is not extracted. 
It being now tolerably solid, it is placed in small cylindrical 
moulds, which give it its shape, salted at the ends, placed 
on planks in rows, and carried to the perfecting or ripening 
cellar. In a few days a white mould appears, and it is then 
ready for the market as a new cheese. If this is to be com- 
plete it remains much longer and is regularly turned. One 
pound of milk is estimated to make a cheese, so that as a 
gallon will make ten, and the poorest cheeses realise a penny 
each, the maker does remarkably well with his milk. Natu- 
rally the prices vary according to the quality, some makers 
preferring to add cream to the milk, while others use skim 
milk only. There are a variety of ways of manufacturing 
these white cheeses, whether they are to be ripened or not. 
In some cases a mould is used which resembles a small box 
about 3 inches high by 4 inches square, holes being pierced 
in the sides. In other cases a similar box is used, which 
stands upon four legs ; and in others again a heart-shaped 
wicker frame is adopted, or a round mould of wood in which 
holes are similarly pierced. The curd of skim milk is used 
in several forms for the manufacture of fresh soft cheeses, 
and is even sold in its new state for that purpose. In some 
cases where it has been made at a temperature of 80 F., it 
is mixed with a small quantity of cream, and when the two 
are thoroughly amalgamated the mixture is put into small 


moulds, and left to drain ; but the curd must be particularly 
soft or the amalgamation will not be perfect. Sometimes, 
however, it is placed in fine cloths and hung over square 
moulds, or from the ceiling of the dairy. Little cheeses of 
this nature can be made in so many ways that it is not sur- 
prising the French take so much trouble to understand and 
manufacture them, and that we should be able to see such 
numbers of different varieties in their country markets. 

Camembert. Perhaps this is the most popular of any 
French cheese among English consumers. It was invented 
nearly a century ago by Marie Fontaine, ancestress of M. 
Cyrille Paynel, the most famous maker of the present day, 
whose farm at Mesnil Mauger we visited, to learn the pro- 
cess of manufacture, a few years ago. It takes its name 
from the commune of Camembert, in which Mdlle. Fon- 
taine resided. The cheese is made from whole milk, and 
cream is not added as is popularly supposed. There are 
imitations made of partially skimmed milk, but they do not 
possess the quality of the real article. A portion of the 
morning's milk is added to the milk of the previous even- 
ing, this being heated in a tub to the temperature of 95 F. 
when the rennet is added, this depending chiefly upon its 
strength and the time of the year. 

As an even quality of rennet is very important, some 
makers prefer to manufacture their own. M. Paynel uses 
one dessertspoonful to twenty litres of milk, and about 
fifty per cent, more in winter. When mixed, the milk is 
stirred for two or three minutes to assist its coagulation. 
It is then covered and left for between five and six hours 
according to the season, and when the finger can be laid 
upon the surface without curd adhering, it is ready for 


work. The curd is next taken out with spoons, and placed 
in small cylindrical metal moulds, some four inches in dia- 
meter, in which the cheese is shaped. These are open at 
both ends, and stand upon small rush mats which are laid 
upon sloping tables with gutters at the ledge for carrying 
off the whey as it runs down from the cheeses. As a rule 
2 litres of milk are required to make each cheese. After 
remaining all day in the moulds, the cheeses can be removed 
with ease. They are then turned, and the faces placed 
upon clean mats, the new faces being powdered with fine salt, 
and the cheeses left to drain until the next day. They are 
now taken out of the moulds, rapidly salted, placed upon 
wooden shelves, and left for two or three days until they are 
ready to send to the drying-room, where they are laid upon 
shelves covered with straw. This drying room, or hdloir, 
is specially designed to admit as much air as possible, the 
more energetic the current the better, although it must not 
be carried straight through from window to window but 
arranged so as to affect the whole apartment, as shelves are 
placed from top to bottom. The windows must also be 
covered with fine wire gauze to prevent the entrance of 
insects and dust. The cheeses must be daily examined 
while under the drying process, and turned or removed as 
may be required. They remain in this apartment from 
20 to 25 days according to the season. If the weather is 
damp, the process must be hastened by admitting more air, 
otherwise they become too soft and are likely to spoil. 
During the first week, they are turned daily, and afterwards 
every other day. About the third day, small brown spots 
are seen upon the surface or skin, and in another week 
they become covered here and there with fine white patches, 
and as further days pass these change to a yellow, and then 


to a reddish yellow. They are not removed until they 
have commenced to sweat and no longer stick to the fingers 
when touched. The next process is that of ripening in the 
cave de perfection, or curing cellar, which is an apartment 
with glazed windows and interior shutters arranged to pre- 
vent the entrance of the sun. The temperature must he 
mild about 50 F.-^-and the apartment slightly humid. 
Too much moisture is not desirable, and the floors are often 
paved to prevent this. Shelves are built round the room, 
and upon these, cheeses are placed according to their age. 
As they are taken from the top, the lower tiers are removed 
up and space left for new cheeses as they arrive a foot 
dividing each shelf. The cheeses remain here from 20 to 
30 days, during which time the most constant attention is 
paid to them, for they are turned almost every day, and 
every phase of fermentation watched, and assisted or 
checked as may be found necessary. In some cases they 
are made all the year round, large dealers purchasing the 
cheeses from the smaller makers in their new state, and 
drying and ripening them themselves in their own specially 
prepared apartments. 

The most imperfect ripening is that of summer, hence 
cheeses are seldom made by farmers during the hot months. 
When the process is complete, each cheese is wrapped in 
paper and packed away in sixes, and again wrapped up and 
packed in wooden cases or willow baskets in wheat chaff, 
and despatched to the markets. In the best season they 
reach 6s. 6d. to 7s. 6d. a dozen, but in summer they are 
often sold as low as 4s. realizing, however, lOrf. to Is. 
each in the London markets. Upon the average, it takes 
2 litres to make a cheese of 300 grammes or about 10J 
ounces. M. Paynel uses 1000 litres of milk daily when 



making Camemberts, and consequently turns out some 500 
cheeses per day, these yielding him an average of 6s. Qd. a 
dozen. A good Cotentin cow is expected to give 3000 litres 
of milk or about 1600 cheeses, which, at 5s. 6d. a dozen, 
would be nearly 35. In the department of Calvados many 
farmers make from 10,000 to 160,000 cheeses each ; while 
from the village of Mesnil Mauger, where M. Paynel resides, 
twenty-four makers in one season made 62,000 dozen. 

Mignot. This cheese receives its name from the family 
of Mignot, who were the first to make it. It is made 
in two varieties, the new or white cheese produced from 
April to September, and the Mignot passe from September 
to April, the latter being the more valuable. The milk of 
the morning is creamed in the evening, and mixed with the 
evening's milk. It is then heated until it slightly scalds 
the finger, when it is poured into earthen vessels and a 
spoonful of rennet added to every 40 litres. It is next 
placed near the fire, and left from 8 p. m. until 6 the 
following morning, being covered the while with a double 
cloth with a small hole in the top to prevent souring. The 
coagulation is very slow, but when it is effected, the work 
of manufacture is proceeded with, as in the case of the Pont 
1'fevequewith the exception that the Mignot is drained less 
than that cheese. In making the white cheese, the mid- 
day milk is skimmed in the evening, and mixed with the 
evening's milk, both being warmed as before mentioned. It 
is then placed in earthenware vessels and covered with a cloth 
until the next morning, when it is skimmed and used with 
the new milk of the morning, after which the rennet is 
added. The rest of the process is as for the Mignot 
passe, both cheeses being subjected to very slow drainage 


of the whey. They are rapidly made, salted upon the 
evening of the day they are put in the moulds, dried 
almost without air, and despatched to market a day or two 
afterwards. When ripe, the Mignot has a rich golden 
colour, and resembles the Livarot and Pont 1'fiveque in 
flavour. It is made in both round and square forms, and 
reaches 4s. to 5s. a dozen in winter. 

Pont TEveque. This popular little cheese is made in 
the district of the town from which it takes its name, between 
Lisieux and Honfleur. Its original name was Angelot, 
or, as some think, Augelot from the valley of the Auge 
Oise. It is now made in 3 qualities, according to the 
quantity of cream used in its manufacture. In the first 
quality the fleurette, or first cream, is added to new milk 
after milking; or with some makers pure milk is used alone. 
The second quality is made from the morning's milk, which 
has been added to the evening's milk after skimming; 
while the third quality is made from the skim milk of 3 milk- 
ings, without any addition of new milk. In autumn 4 
milkings are sometimes mixed, but in summer seldom 
more than 2 ; while in winter 5 and even 6 are occasion- 
ally used. In making cheeses from new milk, the latter is 
placed upon the fire until luke-warm, when the rennet is 
added, and as in the case of the Camembert, just sufficient 
is used to cause coagulation, too much giving a disagree- 
able flavour, and causing too active a separation. No 
rule as to quantity can be given, this being ascertained 
only by practice, with the particular rennet. The milk is 
stirred with the hand, and left for about 15 minutes, when 
the whole becomes set. It is then cut to the bottom of 
the vessel with a wooden knife, and left 5 minutes after 


being covered with a cloth. The curd is next taken out, 
and laid upon reed mats, called glottes, where it is left to 
drain for a short time. The square moulds, made of ash or 
beech, are then filled with curd and placed upon the same 
mats until drainage is complete, these being turned several 
times during the half hour following the operation, and 
many more times during the clay. After being continually 
placed upon fresh dry mats of a similar kind, in 48 hours, 
the cheeses are taken from the mould, and salted with fine 
dry white salt. One side is salted in the morning and the 
other in the evening, only a small quantity of salt being 
used. They are then taken to the sechoir, or drying-room, 
and placed upon long shelves suspended from the ceiling. 
This apartment is aired or ventilated, as described above. 
The cheeses remain equi- distant from one another for 2 
or 3 days, and are turned only once a day, and when 
dry they are carried to the ripening cave or cellar, and laid 
close to each other in boxes, this close proximity being 
supposed to assist their ripening. Great care must, how- 
ever, be exercised : they must be frequently examined, and 
turned over every 2 days, and afterwards stood upright, 
and finally flat one upon the top of the other. They 
remain from 3 to 4 months in this apartment, according 
to their size and quality ; the richest remaining for a less 
period than the poorest, and if these are small and thin, 
15 to 20 days is often sufficient to perfect them. Poor 
cheeses which are kept for a long period, . sometimes 
become too hard, when they are enveloped in a cloth 
damped with whey, this process making them more tender. 
A well-made Pont 1'fiveque cheese retains its qualities 
for a year, and even two years if properly taken care of; 
but it must be prevented from coming into contact with 


damp and too much air. The richest cheeses are made in 
the autumn, the midsummer cheeses heing generally from 
milk which has heen skimmed for butter-making. This 
cheese has a tendency to harden, but this is prevented in a 
great measure, by the addition of a little boiling water in 
the milk when it is put together. Milk used for the 
manufacture of this cheese in summer must not exceed a 
lukewarm heat, or it will become too hard, whereas in 
autumn and winter the makers prefer that it should 
slightly burn the finger. 

In making the second quality of cheese, a litre of boiling 
water is generally added to 6 or 7 litres of milk, a little 
more being used in autumn than in summer. In making 
the third quality the makers simply boil the water which is 
poured into the milk, the latter not being heated at all. 
Great care, however, is needed, as old milk is liable to turn. 
This cheese must be eaten quickly, as it will not keep more 
than about 3 months, but otherwise it is almost as fine as 
cheese made from whole milk. It becomes a velvety blue 
in 3 weeks, shewing that it is ripe, when it should be at 
once marketed. To make a good cheese valued at Is. 3d. 
4 litres of new milk are required ; and 5 to 6 litres for a 
two-franc, or Is. Sd. cheese : thus 4 litres valued in 
England at about Id. produces a cheese worth double the 
money, in addition to the whey, which would increase the 
return. The richest of these Pont I'feveque cheeses, 
called " Bespoken " and made of two-thirds whole milk 
and one -third cream, are seldom marketed, but reach from 
30 to 40 francs per dozen, and are found upon the tables 
of the rich in Paris, and other parts of France. Many of 
the farmers in the district manufacture from 4,000 to 
5,000 cheeses per annum. 


St. Marcellin. This cheese is made from goat's milk, 
unskimmed, and derives its name from the district in 
which it is made. The cheeses weigh from ahout 4 to 4J 
ounces, and, if eaten fresh, must be consumed within twenty- 
four hours. In hot weather they are considered particularly 
agreeahle, though called cheeses of the third quality. The 
rennet is manufactured according to the custom of each 
particular farmer, hut is generally made from calves' veils 
and white dry wine. No definite rule can be given as to 
the quantity to be used, as this varies with different 
makers, and according to its strength, but a little practice 
will determine this point. If too much is used the cheese 
becomes slightly sour. In winter the milk is heated a 
little before working commences, but not in summer. 
When the milk is curdled, it is placed into small goblets 
or mugs, holding about 2 pints, which are perforated all 
over the surface. In these the curd is placed, and after it 
is sufficiently drained, and unable to lose its form, it is 
quickly salted, taken from the moulds, and placed in an 
apartment upon a shelf, on which is a layer of rye straw. 
This apartment must be well aerated, and in a sheltered 
position, and the cheeses turned and salted daily during 
the hot weather : once every 2 days being sufficient in the 
cold season. When they commence to dry, the crust 
assumes a yellowish colour, and then a blue : and in this 
state may be marketed as cheeses of the second quality. 
In order to make a more perfect article the cheeses are 
placed in a closed compartment in a cellar, being always 
placed upon straw. Here they take a blue, and then a 
yellow mould, and are considered to be of the best or first 
quality. The chief feature in the manufacture of the 
St. Marcellin cheeses is, that the most rigid cleanliness in 


every operation is observed. The second and third 
qualities of these cheeses can also he made from un- 
skimmed cow's-milk, while good cheeses may he manu- 
factured by adding to the goat's milk 25 per cent, of milk 
from the cow. It is questionable, however, whether we in 
this country can make so tasty an article in the absence of 
the peculiar and exceptional pasturage cultivated by the 
French farmers of the district in which this cheese is 

St. Remy The milk and rennet are put together for 
the manufacture of this cheese at a temperature of 95 F. : 
10 to 12 grammes a third or a little over a third of an 
ounce of rennet being used for every 100 litres of milk. 
If the milk is not set direct from the cow, it must be 
warmed until it reaches the required temperature. St. Remy 
cheese is sometimes made from mixed milk, and sometimes 
from new milk, according to the system of the maker. 
The curd is usually formed in from 20 to 25 minutes; 
but if at the end of this time it is not fit for use, a small 
additional quantity of rennet is added, without re-warming 
the milk. When firm it is cut into pieces with a utensil 
made for the purpose to assist the separation, and it is 
then left for half-an-hour, after which the whey is removed 
and the curd placed in the moulds, which are allowed to 
stand upon a sloping table until late in the afternoon, or 
6 or 7 hours from the time of commencing the work, when 
they are turned and left to drain until the next morning. 
They are then salted for the first time, and again turned 
and left for 24 hours. Next day they are again slightly 
salted, and when fairly dry are placed upon small plates or 
dishes, and stood upon shelves and turned 2 or 3 times 


daily ; the plates, which are of wood, being moistened each 
time. If they become at all hard they are washed with 
lukewarm skim milk, with the aid of a brush. When 
thoroughly drained they are put upon drying shelves until 
quite dry, and fit for the refining cave ; but before being 
taken here they are usually passed through some fresh 
water whatever the season of the year may be. When in 
the cave, which is a particularly cool cellar, they are 
washed at least twice a week in summer with a brush, care 
being taken to remove all mouldiness as it appears ; but 
the washing is not needed so much as they proceed in the 
ripening process. 


There are a variety of systems in force in the different 
countries of which this nation is composed, but it is 
not necessary to refer to any other than the North 
German one, for in South Germany butter-making as 
well as cheese-making is conducted in an old fashioned 
manner, and would afford no instruction to the modern 
dairy farmer. North Germany is becoming a famous 
dairy district, more especially since the first factory was 
built at Kiel, this having been but the precursor of many 
others which are now in full work in various parts of 
Sleswig, Holstein, Brunswick, and Hanover. Perhaps the 
most intelligent portion of North German dairying is in 
connection with these factories, to which the farmers send 
their milk for conversion into butter and cheese, and 
receive a sufficient sum to pay them well for their trouble* 
Home dairying in Germany is neither advanced nor 
especially intelligent, and cannot compare with that of 


either France or Denmark ; but scientific dairying is equal 
to that of either country, for perhaps German scientists in 
this department have no superior in Europe. As in 
Denmark, it is the custom in the factories to manufacture 
butter which is sent out in little round pots with covers, 
and which hold a kilogramme (a little over 2 Ibs.) ; these 
being usually salted, when they will keep for a length 
of time. The butter is invariably made from cream which 
has been soured whether it has been separated by the 
centrifugal machine or raised in the Swartz vat; and it 
is almost invariably churned in a vertical churn known in 
this country as the Holstein. As a general rule, the 
farmers who conduct their own dairies, churn until the 
butter has become solid, when they fail to thoroughly 
cleanse it, and often salt it too highly. The Germans, 
however, like a well developed flavour, and scarcely realize 
that they are behind neighbouring nations in dairy 
management. In all the factories a proper system is 
conducted, the milk heated and cooled after its arrival, 
skimmed by the Danish, Laval, Lefeldt, or Fesca machines ; 
and the skim and butter-milks largely used in the manu- 
facture of cheese. All factories sell cream neat in two 
qualities, as is sometimes done in London ; and they also 
sell skim-milk and butter- milk to the poor, their vans 
being seen in every large city, with the taps of the cream, 
and new skim, and butter-milk, outside, with the prices of 
the day painted over each. The Germans also use their 
butter-milk for their horses, for which it is a valuable food, 
and pays much better than giving . it to pigs. Pigs, 
however, are largely kept for the purpose of consuming the 
whey and such milk as cannot otherwise be disposed of. 
There is perhaps more care taken to prepare foods for the 


poorer classes than in any other dairying country ; for, in 
addition to the milk above mentioned, curds are largely 
sold at l%d. a pound, much of which is made from 
butter-milk, while skim-milk sells at S^d., and butter-milk 
at 5d. a gallon. The principal cheeses made in Germany 
are also particularly adapted for consumption by the poorer 
classes, and of these we may name specially the Limburg 
and Backstein ; the latter being made in varieties known as 
Lab kase, Hartz kase, and Sauer kase, although there 
are a variety of sour cheeses made in Germany. 

The Limburg Cheese, which is also largely made in 
Belgium, and which is almost the only dairy product at all 
famous in that country, is manufactured from skim-milk, 
and realizes in North Germany about 2Jd. a pound to the 
maker, selling retail at 3d. each. It is made from milk at 
a temperature of about 95 F., sufficient rennet being 
added to set the curd in 40 minutes. There is no great 
art in its manufacture, for immediately it is fit to work, 
the curd is ladled out of the vat and placed in the moulds 
upon a table made for the purpose. This table may be 
2 yards long by 2J feet broad, one end being higher than 
the other. It is divided by movable partitions, which may 
be made of wood or tin, so that when these are placed in 
there are a number of moulds or divisions four inches 
square. These divisions are perforated, and along the 
bottom of the table are very small fluted channels for 
carrying off the whey. Sometimes the curd is placed in 
the tables before the divisions are inserted, these being 
placed in the curd when it has become firm. On the 
following day the cheeses are formed, taken out and salted, 
being turned several times for three days upon the shelves 

K 2 


upon which they stand, when they are taken to the drying- 
room, and remain sometimes for a considerable period. 
Occasionally the Limhurg is sold fresh, but it may be kept 
until thoroughly ripe, at the end of two or three months, 
when it obtains a higher price. 100 litres of milk (22 gal- 
lons) usually make 8 kilogrammes (about 18 Ibs.) of cheese. 

The Hartz Ease is made from skimmed sour milk at a 
temperature of 90 F., the whey being completely separated 
from the curd by the process. At the end of a few hours 
the curd is dipped out of the vat and placed on a similar 
table to that used for the Limburg, but in addition 
it is pressed by weights which are put upon the top of 
each cheese. In a short time the curd is then placed in 
a mixing tub and salted at the rate of 1 ounce to 3 pounds. 
It is then ground, worked, and once more placed in the 
moulds upon the table. They are again slightly pressed, 
and then taken out of the moulds and put upon the shelves 
of the cheese-room to dry, being turned at first twice a day, 
and afterwards once only. They are then taken to the 
curing- cellar; but unlike the French, who encourage a 
growth of fungus, this is destroyed as rapidly as it 
appears, by being brushed off. 

Backsteiu There are a variety of systems by which 
this cheese is made, although they do not differ much ; but 
it is manufactured either from skim or half- skimmed milk 
at a similar temperature to the Limburg, being also con- 
verted into curd in the same period of time. After setting, 
instead of being immediately placed on the cheese-table, it 
is cut up into cubes to allow the whey to drain, and 
afterwards again cut into cubes for the same purpose. It 


is next placed in the wooded moulds similar to those used 
for Limburg ; and when sufficiently drained, each cheese is 
taken out and treated in a similar manner to that we have 
described above for the Limburg. There are also a variety 
of cheeses known by other names made in North Germany, 
but the manufacture is similar to that already described. 
In the South, however, there are a few kinds which need 
not be referred to, as they resemble in almost everything 
but name those which we have described as being made in 
France and Switzerland. 


The chief dairying districts in the Netherlands are 
North and South Holland and Friesland, each of which 
has its specialite. In the first, the famous Edam or round 
Dutch cheese is manufactured, together with the almost 
equally well-known Campine butter; in the second, the 
flat Dutch or Gouda cheese is a staple industry in ad- 
dition to the butter of Delft ; while Friesland is, perhaps, 
more famous than either for its butter, one port alone in 
this country having exported 400 tons in one season. In 
North Holland it is the custom of the dairy farmers to sell 
their worst calves at a month, rearing the best for the 
dairy, and it is remarkable that throughout Holland larger 
numbers of cattle are kept per acre than perhaps in any 
other dairying country. The system of setting milk is, 
generally, similar to that in England by means of the open 
pans, although in many cases the Swartz system is fashion- 
able. In South Holland the best farmers expect to realise 
660 gallons of milk per cow, one gallon making a pound of 
cheese ; and we are not surprised at this, for the size and 


milking qualities of Dutch cows are generally known. In 
the best dairies it is customary to skim at 12 hours to 
make the first quality of butter, and at 24 for the second, 
but 24 and 36 hours' skimming are most frequent with 
the smaller farmers. 

In the manufacture of Delft butter the milk is first 
cooled in copper vessels, which stand in very cold water 
for 2 hours. It is then transferred into shallow pans in a 
cool dairy, skimming taking place at 12, 18, and 24 hours. 
The churns used are exceedingly primitive and much 
inferior to those adopted in this country. The working is 
done by hand, and the salting and packing exceedingly 
well-managed ; but as a general rule it is not thoroughly 
well- washed nor too carefully made. Although an immense 
quantity of butter is imported into this country from 
Holland, there is very little of high quality, or such as our 
makers need attempt to imitate, the greater part of it being 
an imitation, in the art of producing which the Dutch seem 
to have long taken the lead, for there are numerous 
factories in Holland, and large quantities of poor butter, 
especially Campine, made for the purposes of mixing with 
and giving a character to, the imitation. 

Edam. The most famous dairy products of Holland so 
far as British consumers are concerned, are the Edam and 
Gouda cheeses. The former is the round, red Dutch, and 
is made as follows : The rennet is added to the milk at a 
temperature of 90 F., and in 20 to 25 minutes, it is cut with 
an instrument resembling a lyre with a dozen strings. After 
standing for a short time for the separation to take place, 
the whey is taken out and the curd afterwards thoroughly 
worked by the hand; and, when fit, it is placed in the 


moulds which, in the case of this cheese, being globular, 
are divided into halves. The moulds, being full, are 
placed together, and pressed as tightly as possible. The 
solid curd is then taken out, a cloth wrapped round it, 
placed in fresh moulds, and subjected to pressure in a 
lever press until the next day. The moulds are placed in 
dishes to catch the whey, and the same pressure is generally 
made to answer for several cheeses. At the end of this 
time the cheese cloth is removed, and the cheese placed in 
a semicircular mould with a foot to it, and several holes 
perforated in the sides. A piece of flat board is then 
placed on the top, and it is then put under the press. 
After sufficient pressure has been obtained, the cheeses 
are salted and turned daily for 8 or 10 days, at the end of 
which time they are soaked in water and rubbed over with 
linseed oil. 

Gouda In the manufacture of the flat Dutch or Gouda 
cheese there is some similarity to the Edam system ; the 
rennet coagulating the milk in about 40 minutes, after 
which time the curd is gently cut and the whey allowed 
to separate for 10 minutes, when it is again manipulated ; 
and after another rest the curd settles at the bottom of 
the vat, and the whey is drawn off. Hot whey is next 
mixed with the curd to sustain its warmth, and it is again 
allowed to remain for a short time, when this is taken out 
with a utensil specially made for baling. The curd is 
afterwards well-worked and evenly broken up. It is then 
pressed in the bottom of the vat and again broken up, as a 
mill is not used. It is afterwards placed in perforated 
moulds (being previously covered with cloth) which are 
immediately put to press, the pressure being increased 


regularly until the following day, when it is turned and 
provided with a clean cloth. The cheeses are then laid in 
salt and water, where they remain for 3 days, after which 
they are washed with whey and taken to the drying-room. 
Here they are placed upon shelves, and daily turned until 
the second week, when turning is performed every other 
day. At the end of a month they are fit for sale, hut it is 
the custom of some of the hetter makers to keep them for 
a much longer period, when the flavour is considerably 
improved and the consistence is more mellow. The Gouda 
cheese is generally made of new milk but, as in all cheeses, 
there are many farmers who skim the milk once before they 
set it to curd. 


Butter -making in Italy is not conducted upon a prin- 
ciple which can by any means be termed modern or per- 
fect. Upon small farms, the cream, which is raised in 
open pans, often made of wood, is churned in cylindrical 
churns, the beaters within being turned instead of the churn 
itself. This is the general custom in Lombardy. In Pied- 
mont it is quite common for the farmer to place his cream 
at 50 F. into a round box, called a Purragie, which has a 
kind of spoon attached to the axle. This is turned by a 
crank and the revolution of the spoon is upon the inside of 
the periphery of the box. This process is rather laborious 
and requires the services of two men. " The dairyman of 
Parma," we are told, "beats his milk with a cream 
whipper, and skilfully lets the floating cream, which gathers 
into a bucket, overflow into a fine-edged wooden bowl and 
thence into the churn." In summer 10 pounds of ice are 


added to 30 quarts of cream, while in winter the cream is 
heated, the temperature heing usually kept at from 57 to 
67 F., the Italians permitting a pretty wide margin. 
When in the churn the cream is beaten by two men alter- 
nately with a butter beater attached to a frame, this being 
raised and lowered by leverage. The butter forms in about 
40 to 45 minutes, water being added if formation is desired 
quickly, and ice if it is necessary to retard it. The butter 
is worked by hand, formed in large lumps, and left to 
drain. In some parts of Italy it is customary to keep 
butter in bladders, a method which is considered very con- 
venient, and which enables it to be kept for a length of 

Cheese factories abound in Italy, and numbers have been 
started since the year 1873-74, when the Government 
offered large prizes and gold medals to the best-managed 
associations. In Sicily, strange to say, small dairymen, 
instead of daily manipulating their own milk, take it to the 
large cow-keepers, until they have delivered some 300 
quarts. They then receive that quantity back at one time 
and deal with it in the manufacture of butter or cheese, this 
system of reciprocity being found mutually beneficial. The 
Italian cheeses known in England are the Parmesan and 
the Gorgonzola, the last-named of which the writer has 
visited Lombardy to see in course of manufacture. 

Gorgonzola. In making this cheese the milk is coagu- 
lated while warm from the cow, great attention being paid 
to the preparation of the rennet, and the quantity re- 
quired being only ascertained by experience. The curd is 
set in from 15 to 20 minutes. The whey is then separated 
as much as possible, and the curd hung up to drain in coarse 


strainers. This process is conducted twice daily after each 
milking. The curd which has been dealt with in the 
morning, and which is placed in round wooden flexible 
moulds, in which a cloth is first laid, is placed upon an in- 
clined table, upon which the chaff of some rye has been 
laid. By the time the evening's curd is ready that of the 
morning is naturally cold, but the cheese is composed of the 
two, the cold curd being placed in the centre and the warm at 
the top and bottom. Thus each cheese is made up of three 
layers, and as the hot and cold curd never properly combine, 
two sets of interstices are, as it were, created, in which, as 
it matures, the well-known green mould forms, and adds to 
the cheese the delightful flavour which is so much approved 
of in this country. During the first day of manufacture the 
curd is turned three times, and on the next morning it is 
put into a clean cloth and salted, this process being con- 
tinued for at least a week, sometimes more, and 1 ounce of 
salt generally used to about 8 pounds of curd. In some 
cases the salting operation is conducted by a special process 
of turning and pressing against a salted surface, this giving 
a better crust to the cheese. The wooden mould within 
which the curd was placed in the first instance is not re- 
moved until the fourth day, when the cheese has commenced 
to ferment. At the end of 25 days a good cheese is gener- 
ally a pinkish white in colour ; but if it is inferior it becomes 
nearly black, the crust in this case being soft, and the body 
of the cheese rapidly deteriorating. If, however, the crust 
is hard, washing in brine will improve it. The temperature 
of the cheese-room is usually between 57 and 67 F. 
The ripening commences in April and frequently continues 
until August. One gallon of milk usually makes 1 Ib. of 
Gcrgonzola cheese. 


The Parmesan, or Formaygio di Grana, cheese is very 
largely made in Italy. In its manufacture the milk is 
heated, according to its condition and age, from 77 to 
86 F., although this is somewhat guess-work, for the dis- 
tinction is invariably made by hand. The rennet is then 
added in the proportion of a ounce to 500 gallons. This 
rennet is dissolved by using a pestle in small wooden uten- 
sils made for the purpose, and filtering it through fine 
sieves, through which it oozes into the milk vat. The curd, 
having formed, is broken with a utensil called a rotilla, a 
disc being at the bottom end. The working is continued for 
forty minutes, with intervals every now and then, that the 
curd may be consolidated but not hardened. When the whey 
is removed, \ an ounce of saffron is added to the contents of 
the vat per 80 gallons. The pan containing the curd is next 
placed upon the fire and heated for nearly an hour up to a 
temperature of 112 F., being stirred during the time with 
the utensil named above. When the curd has broken up into 
minute particles it is removed from the fire and a quantity 
of the cold whey, which had been drained off, is added to 
the mixture to assist the curd in forming in a mass at the 
bottom, where it is gathered and squeezed with the disc of 
the rotilla. It is then loosened and drawn to the surface, 
where it is collected in a cheese cloth, and lifted out into a 
mould and there left in its wet state for an hour. After 
this it is placed in a box made of beech and bound with 
hoops. A cloth is placed over it, and a wooden follower, 
upon the top of which heavy weights are laid. In this 
state the whey is pressed out ; but, after a few hours, it is 
again dipped in the whey, but returned to the mould after 
being enveloped in buckram, this, by means of the pres- 
sure, giving the cheese the peculiar print which is always 


seen upon its crust. After some hours it is salted and then 
dipped in salt water and again pressed between the boards. 
The salting process is continued every other day for a fort- 
night, when it is taken to the curing-room and occasionally 
scraped, being finally well rubbed with oil. 

There is a cheese made in various parts of Italy similar 
to the whey cheeses which are made in two or three 
English counties. This is called Kicotta. The curd, if we 
may so call the solids obtained from the whey, is the 
solid matter remaining in the milk after the extraction of 
the casein and fat. This is sometimes placed in a vessel 
of cold water, well shaken, and afterwards pressed with the 
hand. In half an hour the surface of the water is covered 
with a scum. This is the fat or butter of the ricotta. In 
making the cheese, the whey is boiled, a little of the sour 
whey from the last making being first added. In this 
process, a scum also rises which may be used at once in 
the form of butter or converted into a regular cheese. It 
may be improved by several modes of salting and curing, 
or by the addition of sweet milk or cream. 


Dairy farming in Switzerland is an important national 
industry ; but in the mountainous cantons which are shut 
off from the outer world for almost half of the year, and 
where the cattle graze, and the cheeses are made at an 
altitude of some 7000 feet, the system is exceedingly 
primitive. In these districts it is customary for one or 
two men to take the entire cattle of the valley to the moun- 
tains for the summer, to live with them, milk them, and 
make the cheeses, a hut being provided for the purpose. 


Once a month the owners below visit the herds and test the 
quantity of each cow's yield ; and by this means the cheeses 
are divided, and the herdsmen paid. In the more fertile 
cantons, such as Zurich, Zug, Lucerne, and Schwytz, the 
young cattle are grazed upon the mountains, but the cows 
are housed the whole year round, getting grass during 
summer and hay during winter, cake and corn being almost 
unknown to the farmers. The milk is usually set in 
shallow wooden pans similar to the English, for almost 
every dairy utensil is made of wood in Switzerland. The 
cream is churned sweet, the churns resembling a Gruyere 
cheese or a small millstone in shape, and they are conse- 
quently difficult to manipulate and impossible to clean. The 
butter is exceedingly good and seldom salted, but it must be 
eaten fresh, for it will not keep. In cheese -making, unless 
in the factories and on the best farms, the milk is turned 
by a primitive kind of rennet made of vinegar and sour whey 
in which pieces of bread are placed ; and except the very 
beautiful copper cheese kettles, the finest appliance of the 
kind which we know, there are no good dairy utensils 
made in the country. The principal cheeses are Emmen- 
thaler which we call Gruyere ; Gruyere, which in the 
country is often a real skim milk cheese ; Vacherin ; and 

Emmentlialer In this manufacture the milk must be 
at a temperature of from 93 to 96 F. If, however, the 
milk is extra rich, it may be a degree higher, whereas, for 
poor milk it should be a degree lower. Again, as in 
summer cooling is slower than in winter, it is not 
necessary that the temperature should be quite so high. 
The quantity of rennet added is usually 3 Ibs. to 650 or 700 


Ibs. of milk, this rennet however heing specially prepared 
by each maker. At the expiration of from 20 to 40 
minutes, the curd has become firm and gelatinous, and 
manipulation then commenees. In the first place it is cut 
.through slowly and regularly with a wooden knife called a 
sabre de bois which reaches to the bottom of the kettle. 
It is then left for a short time for the whey to divide from 
the curd, and afterwards heated afresh to a much higher 
temperature before it is again cut up. The breaking of the 
curd continues for some time, until at last it is entirely 
disunited from the whey, gets harder, and formed into 
small grains. The operator then takes a large cloth, 
stretches a metal band across one end, and this he dips to 
the very bottom of the kettle beneath the curd, which is 
ingeniously gathered into the cloth. The metal band is 
then disengaged, the four corners of the cloth affixed to a 
hook suspended over the vat, and the whole is immediately 
swung across and dropped into the centre of a huge gruyere 
hoop which is placed upon a table. Here it is worked into 
shape, cleverly covered with dry cloths, the hoop pulled 
tightly, and the cheese well bound within it. It is then 
placed in the cheese press, where it remains for about three 
hours, a pressure of eighteen pounds being devoted to each 
pound of cheese. After this, it is taken out and provided 
with clean cloths and again pressed, the changing of the 
cloths taking place four, five, and even six times during the 
day. The next morning the cheese is again taken out and 
placed upon a table for salting, being first well scraped or 
pared. The salt is laid upon the surface, and well brushed 
in with a brush provided for the purpose, about 4 Ibs. of 
salt being used for 100 Ibs. of cheese. It is then taken 
to the cheese-room and placed upon a shelf, and here it is 


that it is either perfected or spoiled, for if the temperature 
is too low, it becomes hard and solid, and, if too high, it 
swells and large holes are formed within. If, however, the 
maker tests each cheese with his finger daily, there is 
little fear of any being spoiled. 

Gruyere. Gruyere in Switzerland is a half-fat cheese, 
the evening's milk being skimmed and then added to the 
milk of the morning, the latter being heated to a tempera- 
ture of 110 F. before the addition of the evening's milk, 
so that the mean temperature of the mixture is about 
93 F. before the rennet is added. The system of adding 
rennet is controlled by a simple experiment which the 
maker employs, adding 1 spoonful to 3 spoonfuls of milk 
before the bulk of the milk is touched. If this minute 
quantity sets in 60 to 80 seconds, all well and good, and he 
is satisfied of the strength of the rennet. As a general 
rule, the proportion is 1 part rennet to 140 parts of milk. 
When set, the curd is cut, as in the case of the Emmen- 
thaler. The remainder of the system of manufacture very 
much resembles that described above. A hundred pounds 
of milk usually make 8 to 11 Ibs. of Emmenthaler cheese, 
or 5 Ibs. to 6 Ibs. of the poorer Gruyere. 

Vaclierin. The Vacherin cheese is chiefly made in 
Canton Fribourg. New milk is heated to a temperature of 
100 to 104 F., and after the curd has set, it is gently 
divided with a net made for the purpose, and left for an 
hour, when the whey will be found at the top of the vessel. 
This is then baled out and the curd placed in a mould, in 
which it is left to drain for 15 minutes, being wrapped in 
a cloth and slightly pressed. The cheese is turned, and 


the cloth changed four times during the day, in order that 
the whey may be completely pressed out or absorbed. It 
is taken out of the mould the next day and laid upon 
a clean cloth and left to dry and ripen, being turned and 
the cloth changed every second day. 

Schabzieger. This cheese, which is famous in some 
parts of Switzerland, is chiefly made from the albuminous 
portions of the milk called sere, and also from the curd of 
skimmed milk ; and strange to say, the more completely the 
milk is skimmed the more successful is the manufacture of 
the cheese. The milk is heated until boiling point, when 
a quantity of cold butter-milk is added, little by little. 
Next a small quantity of azi a prepared sour butter- 
milk is added, and the mixture removed from the fire. 
Coagulation will now have taken place, and the mass 
is stirred with a large spoon, and after being allowed 
to stand for a short time the solid portion is taken out and 
placed in boxes prepared for the purpose, pressed, and then 
subjected to a heat of 60 F. in order to start fermentation. 
This is but the beginning of the manufacture, for it is 
allowed to ferment for some weeks, when the cheese is 
ground and salted, and a small portion of herb named 
Melilotus coerulea which is finely pulverised, added, to impart 
the well-known flavour of the zieger. The cheese is now 
beaten, and made up into very small conical shapes. It is 
estimated that 30 Ibs. of skim-milk make 3 J Ibs. of schab- 
zieger, which is not eaten as is ordinary cheese, but mixed 
with butter, and spread upon bread. 



Acre, yield per, 11 
Adulteration of milk, 


Age and character of cows, 39 
Albert Institution, 20 
Arable dairy farms, 98 
Artificial foods, 50 
Ash of milk, 95 
Ass milk, 53 
Ayrshire cow, 36, 38 

produce, 5, 7, 9 

BACKSTEIN cheese, 132 
Bath cheese, 91 
Boiled butter, 71 
Boussingault's rations, 21 
analyses, 53 
Brewers' grains, 2*8 
Brie cheese, 111 
Butterine, 62 
Butter, 63 

making, 66 

statistics, 3 

yield, 7 


Caird's English Agriculture, 12 

Cakes, Oil, 28 

Calf rearing, 49 

Camembert cheese, 120 

Carob beans, 28 

Carrots, 26 

Cheddar cheese, 77, 84 

Cheese, 77 

press, 92 

room, 79 

yield, 9 
Cheshire cheese, 81 

experience, 10, 12, 13 
Choice of cow, 35 
Churning, 72 

Churns, 75 
Clean milking, 100 
Clover, 23 
Colostric milk, 53 
Cooley system, the, 66 
Cotentin breed of cows, 105 
Coulommiers cheese, 112 
Cowhouse, 42 
Cream, 64 

Crops for the dairy, 23 
Curd formation, 78 
mill, 92 

DAIRY breeds, 35 

examples, 5 

farms, 30 

for milk, 57 
Denmark dairying, 101 
Derbyshire cheese, 87 
Devonshire cream, 67 
Discrepancies, 67 
Drying the cow, 45 
Dunlop cheese, 77, 84 
Dutch cattle, 39 

EDAM cheese, 135 
Education for dairying, 102 
Emmen thaler cheese, 141 
Ensilage, 29 
Ergot, 44 

Escutcheon, the, 41 
Ewe's milk, 53 

FIFESHIRE experience, 13 
"Fleetings," 83 
Food and produce, 19 
Food of cow, 15 
Foot-and-mouth disease, 46 
Foreign dairying, 101 
France, 105 
French cheeses, 109 

GENERAL management, 94 
Gentleness and punctuality, 99 
German dairying, 129 
Gerome cheese, 113 
Glo'ster cheese, 77, 80 
Gloucester experience, 10, 12, 16 
Gloucestershire cow, 36 

statistics, 97 

Goat milk, 53 
Gorgonzola cheese, 137 
Gorse, 25 
Gouda cheese, 135 
Grazing or dairying, 95 
Gruyere cheese, 143 
Guernsey cattle, 37 
produce, 6 

HARTZ kase, 132 

Hask or hoose, 45 

Hay, 23 

Health, 44 

Holland dairying, 133 

Hosley's experience, Mr., 8 

Horsfall's practice, Mr., 8, 17 

Hovcn, 46 



Imports of dairy produce, 14 
Insects affecting cheese, 93 
Irish cows, 7 
Italian rye-grass, 24 
Italy, 136 

JENKINS' rules, Mr. H. M., 68 
Jersey cattle, 37 

produce, 6, 8 
Journiac cheese, 116 

KEEVIL'S curdbreaker, 87 
Kerry cattle, 39 
Kohl rabi, 26 

Lancashire cheese, 88 
Lea's experience, Mr. John, 11 
Limburg cheese, 141 
Livarot cheese, 114 
Lucerne, 24 

McADAM's experience, Mr., 10 

Malt and barley, 22 ' 

Mangel wurzel, 26 

Mare's milk, 53 

Meal, 27 

Mignot cheese, 123 

Milk, best use of, 96 

composition of, 51, 53, 54 

sale, 96 

yield, 5 
Milking, 47 
Molasses, 28 

Mont d' Or cheese, 117 

NEUPCHATEL cheese, 118 
North Wilts cheese, 77 


PALIN'S experience, Mr., 11, 16 
Parmesan cheese, 139 
Parsnips, 27 
Pasturage, 23 
Pleuro-pneumonia, 46 
Pont 1'Eveque cheese, 124 
Potatos, 27 
Purging, 46 


RANCID butter, 71 

Kape as cow food, 25 

Redwater, 46 

Refrigerator, 75 

Remedies for ill-tasted butter, 58 

Roquefort cheese, 118 

Rye, 24 

SAGE cheese, 91 
Sainfoin, 25 

St. Marcellin cheese, 127 
St. Remy cheese, 128 
Salt, 28 

Schabzieger cheese, 144 
Schemes of cultivation, 30 
Separators, 76 
Shorthorns, 35 
Shrewsbury prize farm, 11 
Skim-milk cheese, 9, 77 
Skin diseases, 47 
Statistics, dairy, 13 
Stilton cheese, 89 
Stock and produce, 13 
Straw, 27 
Suffolk cattle, 37 
Summer food, 16 
Swartz system, 103 
Sweden and Norway, 104 
Switzerland, 140 

TASTE of milk, 59 

Thomson's experiments, Dr. R. D., 21 

" Thrustings," 83 

Truckle cheese, 90 

VACHERIN cheese, 143 
Veal, 96 
Vetches, 24 

WARTS, 47 
Water-supply, 43 
Whey, 83 

Wigtonshire experience, 16 
Winter food, 16 
milk, 45 
Woman's milk, 53 

YORKSHIRE cow, 36 





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gilt edges ; 6s. 6d. in cloth, gilt edges. 

ROMFORD'S HOUNDS, Illustrated by JOHN LEECH. See page 9. 



PEOPLE. Medium Svo, cloth, price 9s. 


page 12. 
SCOTT'S POETRY (Handy- Yolume). See page 8. 

WAVERLEY NOVELS (Handy- Yolume). See page 4. 
SCOTT (Handy- Yolume) NOYELS POETRY. See page 5. 

With Diagrams. 12mo, sewed, price Is. 6d. 

Small crown Svo, cloth, price 2*. 6d. 


page 9. 

SPORTING WORKS. See page 9. 


STRAPMORE. By WEEDER. See page 1 2. 


Society, with the names of aU the Members, and with all the Toasts and Songs. 
By WALTER ARNOLD. A few copies only. Small quarto, half morocco, with 
several photographs, price 10s. 6d. 

TENNIEL (JOHN), CARTOONS E^&Jff]| ,, See page 11. 

TOM MOODY'S TALES. .^kARK 'fazxpity %ith Illustrations by 
"PHIZ" (H. K. Browne). j#rown Svo, cloth eitVa/gilt/edges, price 5s. 

VENICE. From LORD BYR^'^^hilde Harold/ Printed in gold and 
colours. Wit 
Five Guineas. 

colours. With 31 large-size^, Original Drawingjr-tfy LINLEY SAMBOURNE. Price 

YOUNG TROUBLESOME; or, Master Jacky's Holidays. A Series 

of Coloured Plates by JOHN LEECH. Price 7s. 6d. 





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YB 16436