Skip to main content

Full text of "History of the Ottoman Empire, from its establishment, till the year 1828"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book lhal w;ls preserved for general ions on library shelves before il was carefully scanned by Google as pari of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

Il has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one thai was never subject 

to copy right or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often dillicull lo discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher lo a library and linally lo you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud lo partner with libraries lo digili/e public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order lo keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial panics, including placing Icchnical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make n on -commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request thai you use these files for 
personal, non -commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort lo Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each lile is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use. remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 

countries. Whether a book is slill in copyright varies from country lo country, and we can'l offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through I lie lull lexl of 1 1 us book on I lie web 
al |_-.:. :.-.-:: / / books . qooqle . com/| 

SIZV 1? 3.7. 1 (i) 







THE USCOCS ; &c. &c. 



Ac. Arc, Ac. 

VOL. I. 








London : 

Spottiswoodb and Shaw, 









Cftitf mark i* Iniafotto, 






In giving an account of countries not generally 
known, or visited, like Dalmatia, Montenegro, and 
Herzeg6vina, I have thought it would increase 
their interest to accompany it with some remarks 
on the origin of the people, who now inhabit them, 
and with a summary of their history. 

Every one is aware of the interest attached to 
countries that abound in early associations, and the 
comparative indifference with which monuments 
of by-gone days are viewed, when no historical 
recollections are connected with them: a strong 
proof of which may be found in the impressions of 
every one who visits any of the most imperfect 
remains at Rome, and the absence of those enthusi- 
astic feelings, when he sees the more perfect re- 
mains at Nlmes, and other places, whose history is 
less known. The same remark applies to the 
mention of places destitute of historical associa- 
tions, or, at least, those with whose history we are 
unacquainted. I have, therefore, endeavoured to 
supply the interest, which the mere names of dis- 
tricts or towns would fail to afford, by noticing 
the events that took place there, as well as the 

A 3 



part performed by the inhabitants in the history 
of their country ; and a description of Dalmatia 
and the neighbouring districts, during the strug- 
gles between Hungary and Venice, or the Venetians 
and the Turks, may explain the associations at- 
tached to many places by the people themselves. 

In mentioning the Slavonians, I have thought it 
might be satisfactory to have some account of their 
early origin, religion, and customs; and to see how 
they are connected with each other ; especially as 
the movement going on among them may possibly 
lead to the union of the various offsets of that 
race, and as greater importance is attached to 
them at the present than at any previous period. 
Of the probability of the success of the Pansla- 
vistic movement, I have ventured to offer very few 
remarks ; and, since they were written, events have 
taken place in Europe, the effect of which will 
depend on the sympathy or hostility of the Germans, 
the policy of Austria, or the inclination of Russia 
to uphold a Slavonic confederation under her pro- 
tection. On these, however, it is useless to specu- 
late, as time will enable every one to see the 

I have occasionally had a difficulty in spelling 
some Slavonic words, in consequence of the various 
modes adopted by different authors ; some, for in- 
stance, writing Macarsca, or Macarska ; Citluk, or 
Chitluk ;Cherni, or Tzerni; Cettina, or Tzettina; 
Harvoie, or Harvoye ; Strucca, or Struccha ; Pro- 


log, or Prologh ; Xabliak, or Zsabliac ; Pogitel, or 
Pocitegl, &c; and, in words ending in cut, pro- 
nounced atZj I have doubted whether to follow 
the orthography, or the pronunciation. I must, 
therefore, request the reader to excuse any dis- 
crepancies that may appear in these and similar 
cases; and if any of the names of the Servian 
Kings, in the History of Ragusa, are at variance 
with my list in the Appendix C, this is owing to 
my having followed the authority of Appendini, in 
that History, and the reader is referred to the list 
itself, for more certain information on that very 
intricate question. 

The dialect of Slavonic spoken in Dalmatia I 
have called " Illyric ;" and if some have used " Illy- 
rian," as the general name of one of the principal 
divisions of the Slavonic tongue*, including the 
Servian, Dalmatian, and others, I consider myself 
justified in so applying it, as it is the name used 
by the Dalmatians themselves for their own dialect. 

In my map of Dalmatia, the coast, and the posi- 
tion of the towns, are from a survey by the Aus- 
trian Government ; the mountain ranges from my 
own observations, as is also the course of the 
Narenta to Mostar, neither of which are given in 
that survey. The part containing Montenegro is 
based on Colonel Kauai's map; the corrections 
being made by the eye, as I did not take my in- 
struments with me, from Dalmatia.f 

* See Vol. I. p. 30. • f See abore, Vol. L p. 560. 


I have frequently had occasion to notice the help 
I have received from the various works of Farlati, 
Lucio, Catalinich, Albinoni's Memorie, Petter, 
and many others ; I also feel it to be a pleasing 
duty to say how much I have been indebted to 
the kindness of some friends, who have aided me 
throughout the whole course of my work ; and I 
most gratefully acknowledge my obligations to 
Mrs. Higford Burr, whose intimate knowledge of 
Italian enabled her to afford me much valuable 
assistance*; to Count Valerian Krasinski, whose 
name I have so often occasion to mention, for very 
full information respecting the Slavonians ; and to 
Professor Carrara, of Spalato, for his courtesy, in 
sending me books,* and various documents, relating 
to Dalmatia, as well as during my sojourn there. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Burr, indeed, I am indebted, 
in a great measure, for having been enabled so 
quickly to complete my visit to many places in 
the Mediterranean ; which, without the convenient 
transport of a yacht, would have required much 
more of the time I afterwards devoted to Dalmatia ; 
and I have great pleasure in expressing my sense 
of their friendly offices on that occasion, as well as 
since my return to England. 

* I am indebted to Mrs. Burr for the History of the Uscocs 
from Minucci and Fra Paolo ; the diaries of 1571, and 1574 ; 
the "last Count of Veglia," and many useful extracts in various 
parts of the work. 


Throughout the course of this work I have avoided 
as much as possible whatever was not immediately 
connected with Dalmatia and Montenegro: this 
will account for the mere passing notice given of 
Pola, and other places in Istria ; and if I have con- 
fined my description of the palace of Spdlato to a 
much narrower compass than the importance of 
that monument deserves, it is from its having been 
so well, and so amply, described by Adams. 

With the same view, of avoiding questions 
foreign to the subject, I omitted some observations 
respecting the name of Amun, on a sphinx at 
Sp&ato (in the note of p. 136. Vol. I.) ; one of 
which I may be allowed to mention here : " It is 
remarkable that the Re of Amun-re has not been 
erased (a circumstance which I have observed on 
many other Egyptian monuments), and this leads 
me to think that the previous name was Atin-re, 
a deity probably introduced instead of Amun, or 
Amun-re, by the foreign kings who ruled Egypt 
just before the time of Amunoph III., and that 
Amun, or Amun-re, was restored to the Egyptian 
Pantheon on the return of the rule of the native 
princes." This I notice with a view to direct 
attention to similar erasures, and substitutions, on 
Egyptian monuments, wherever they may be found. 

March, 1848. 

P.S. — Since the present work was written, great 
changes have taken place in Europe; and as its 

[a 4] 


publication has been, and still may be, delayed, the 
opinions I have ventured to offer respecting the 
Slavonic movement may appear a little after date ; 
I must therefore request the reader indulgently to 
consider that they were penned at a time, when 
there was not the most remote prospect of recent 
events. But though the revolutionary movement 
took place while the latter part of the eighth chap* 
ter was going through the press, I did not then 
find it necessary to alter the opinions I had already 
expressed on the subject of Panslavism, and the 
policy of a great northern power ; nor do I now 
see any reason to revoke them. Circumstances 
may occur, before this work reaches the public, 
which may advance that policy, or even direct it 
into a course not yet intended ; but unless events 
take an unlooked-for turn, there is reason to be- 
lieve she will steadily pursue her long intended 
schemes, and use her Slavonic influence to promote 
her first object, — an advance upon Turkey ; and 
that she will not yet employ it directly in other 
parts of Europe, unless induced to do so by the 
force of circumstances. 

This will not, however, prevent that influence 
being also extended westward, at the same moment, 
among the Slavonic populations out of Turkey, as 
in Gallicia, and other districts ; the recent revival 
of the enmity of the Slavonians against the Ger- 
mans has tended most opportunely to further her 
views ; and notwithstanding the great changes that 


have occurred since this work was begun, I feel 
little reason to alter the opinions expressed in one 
of the first pages *, written more than a year be- 
fore the French revolution of February, 1848. 

I avail myself of this opportunity to Bay, that 
those who are interested in Panslavism and the 
Slavonians may find a satisfactory account in a 
work, just published, by Count Valerian Krasinski f , 
whose name I have often had occasion to mention 
in the following pages, and from whose MSS. I have 
so frequently borrowed. 

August, 1848. 

• In p. 5. Vol. L 

f "Panslavism and Germanism." Newby, 1848. 



f - 




The Interest attached to Dalmatia. — Language. — Origin and 
Religion of the Slavonians. — Alphabet. — First Arrival of 
the Slavonians in Dalmatia. — Extent and General Features 
of Dalmatia .... - Page 1 

CHAP. n. 

The Coast of Istria. — Pirano. — Parenzo. — Pola. — The 
Quarnero. — Fiume. — The Islands of Veglia, and Arbe. — 
Story of the last Count of Veglia. — Zara - - 42 



Sebenico. — Spalato, Palace of Diocletian. — Salona. — Clissa. 
— I Castelli. — Trail. — Isles of Brazza and Solta - 92 


Excursion into the Interior, from Spalato by the Eerka to Knin 
and Sign, and return to Spalato, by Salona - - 189 



Lesina. — Curzola. — Ragusa. — History of Ragusa. — Govern- 
ment. — Commerce. — Literature. — Castel-Nuovo. — Cat- 
taro. — Return to Spalato - Page 243 



Population. — Customs. — Government, and State of the 
Country. — The Yladika. — History. — Cattaro to Tzetinie. 
— Journey to Ostrok, and Return by Ridka to Tzetinie. — 
Hospitality of the Yladika. — Return to Cattaro, and to 
Spalato. — Jews - ... 402 j 




VOL. I. 

Sebenico, (and the Islands.) (lithog.) 
(see VoL L p. 96.) ... 

Zara Cathedral - 

General View of Spalato, with Clissa in the 

distance - 
Porta Aurea, Diocletian's Palace, Spalato 
Court before the Vestibule, Diocletian's Palace, 

Spalato - 
Temple of Jupiter, now the Cathedral, Spalato 
Kollo Danse at Salona ... 

Val d'Ombla, near Ragusa - 
Cattaro, (and Mount Lovcen above it) 
Pass to Montenegro, above Cattaro 
Approach to Tzetinie, (with the Lake of Scu- 
tari, and the Albanian mountains) 
























r - 


Almifwa, with the Mount Mossor Range above Poglizza, 

(see Vol. II. p. 194.) (lithog.) - Frontispiece. 

Prfgitel, on the Narenta, in Herzegrfvina - (woodcut) 46 

Yesaro of Imdschi ; and the Mountains of 

Herzegovina in the distance - - (id.) 137 

Map of Dalmatia and Montenegro - at the end. 

The two Pedigrees to follow page 454. of the Second Volume. 


Page 9. for " x**W re^t "X^ "" 

79, 80. for " Jadera," read, " Iadera." 

92. note 1. for "See the History in Chapter V." read, "See the 

History in Chapter IX." 
131. last line but 4, for " Carlo," read, « Charles, King of Naples." 
151. last line but 3, for " Jader," read, " Iader." 
183. line 8, for " of Hungarian time,** read, " also of Venetian time." 
238. last line but 4. for " road ; that/' read, " road, that." 
261. note 2, for " Chapter VII." read, " Chapter VI. p. 551." 
268. note, for " 400 widows," read, '• 300 widows." 

309. note 3, for " also called Ourosh," read, " called Radoslav." 

310. add note on Tehomil, in line 11, " Appendini is wrong, Simeon 

and Tehomil are the same persons. See Appendix C." 
313. line 6. date omitted ; after a.d. put " 1 333— 1343." 
442. line 20. for " makes him," read, " make him." 
461. add note, on the word " family," in line 18. 

«* The office of patriarch, among the Ncstorians, is hereditary in one 
family, as in Montenegro ; he is also forbidden to marry, and the civil 
and ecclesiastical authority are both vested in him." 



The Interest attached to Dalmatia. — Language. — Origin 
and Religion of the Slavonians. — Alphabet. — First Ar- 
rival of the Slavonians in Dalmatia. — Extent and 
General Features of Dalmatia. 

Few parts of Europe are so little known as the 
countries lying between the Danube and the 
northern frontier of Greece, though highly in- 
teresting from events connected with their past and 
present condition, and even from the prospect that 
dawns upon some of them, of becoming once more 
free from the despotism of the Turks, under which 
they have for ages groaned. 

The circumstances that rescued Dalmatia from 
a similar fate render that country still more re- 
markable in the history of a period, when the 
crescent threatened to extend its desolating sway 
into the heart of Europe ; while the defence of 
that portion of the Slavonic territory under the 
dominion of Venice does honour to the republic, 
which stood forth as Europe's great bulwark, 



and the champion of Christianity, in the hour of 

And though living, as we do, at a period when 
their remembrance has nearly faded away, it is 
interesting to recall the history of those glorious 
struggles, and to recollect how much a small strip 
of country contributed to prevent the progress of 
the Turks, in their advance into Europe. 

When Kara Mustafa was pressing the second 
siege of Vienna, and Europe was alarmed at his 
almost successful attempt to obtain possession of 
that important position, Venice was maintaining 
herself, and defeating the Turkish arms in Dalmatia, 
and all the most important fortresses were already 
secured by the valour of Foscolo. 

To those who are acquainted with the history of 
that eventful period, Dalmatia offers many interest- 
ing reminiscences ; the castles and strongholds 
of the country are still shown as the respected 
monuments of glorious times; and nowhere are 
the manners of the people more primitive, or their 
costumes more varied, than in the towns and 
villages of the interior. 

At Spalato the palace of Diocletian is an object 
of the highest interest to the architect and the 
antiquary ; the fortress of Clissa, — whose pos- 
session was the object of the fiercest contests, 
from the time of Tiberius to the present century, 
and which was, at various periods, in the hands of 
the Illyrians and the Romans, the Venetians, Hun- 


garians, and Turks, the Uscocs, and the Templars, 
the counts of Bribir and the Croatians, the French, 
and the Austrians, — belongs to ancient as well as 
modern history ; Zara, and other places, possess 
associations, connected with early, as well as later, 
times ; and the island of Lissa, and numerous sea- 
ports along the coast of Dalmatia recall to an 
Englishman the brilliant achievements of our navy 
during the last war. 

In Ragusa too, a feeling of sympathy is awakened 
by the noble defence of its liberty, despite the in- 
trigues of the fickle Slavonic princes, or the subse- 
quent rivalry of the Venetians and Turks ; by the 
total and unmerited downfall of its prosperity ; and 
by the position it held in commerce and literature. 
It was there that our Richard Cceur de Lion was 
shipwrecked, on his return from Palestine* ; and the 
merchants of Ragusa were long known in England 
for the rich argosies that derived their name from 
that city. 

Still further to the south, another remarkable 
state, which still retains its independence, though 
threatened by the repeated invasions of powerful 
Turkish armies, claims a post in the sympathies of 
Europe, in common with the Circassians and other 
defenders of their liberty ; and the fact of Monte- 
negro being still governed by the only remaining 
military bishop, who leads his hardy mountaineers 

* See the History of Bagusa, in Chapter V. 

B 2 


to war and victory, renders it one of the most 
interesting countries in tie world. 

Italian is spoken in all the seaports of Dalmatia; 
but the language of the country is a dialect of the 
Slavonic, which alone is used by the peasants in 
the interior ; and the same is exclusively employed 
throughout Montenegro, with this difference, that 
it is far purer than the Illyric of Dalmatia, and 
claims for itself the denomination of Servian, show- 
ing the origin of the people, who are proud of being 
an offset of the ancient kingdom of Dushan. 

It is not from their history that the Dalmatians 
and Montenegrins derive their only interest, but 
also from being members of the great Slavonic 
race, to which the progress of events is beginning 
to call attention, and which promises to take a con- 
spicuous position in eastern Europe. 

It will not therefore be foreign to the subject to 
preface my notice of Dalmatia with a few remarks 
on the origin of the Slavonians, the part they per- 
formed in the early history of Europe, and their 
first introduction into the country. Of the grow- 
ing importance of that race, and the influence it is 
likely to enjoy, we may judge from the fact of its 
amounting already to more than seventy millions 
of souls ; and if it has not yet enjoyed the pre- 
eminence which has distinguished many other 
people, this may be attributed to the particular 
current of events j and it is reasonable to suppose 
that it only awaits the opportunity, which appears 


to be afforded to all nations in their turn, of ob- 
taining celebrity and power. 

One of its branches has indeed been distin- 
guished in modern times; and the wars of the 
Poles with the Turks have rendered their name for 
ever illustrious ; and if Poland has fallen, another 
nation, whose chief elements are Slavonic, is rising 
rapidly to power ; and never had that race so great 
a claim upon the attention of Europe, as at the 
present moment. Already do the Slavonic* tribes 
look to Russia as their head, through whom they 
hope to rise to a prominent position in the scale of 
European races ; and anxiously may Europe watch 
the result of this moment. Even Poland begins to 
forget the sufferings of Warsaw, in the hope of 
sharing the honour reflected upon it by the rise of 
the leading Slavonic power ; the distant and se- 
cluded Montenegrin rejoices in the increasing im- 
portance of that widely extended family, of which 
he is a member; and other Slavonic populations 
feel the community of origin and religion with the 

It is for Germany to watch the result ; and well 
may it be for Europe if France, instead of indulging 
in useless hatred of England, shall prepare for 
the moment when Russia will call forth the 
strength of her Slavonic influence. 

* Sometimes most improperly written Sclavonic ; an error 

which ought not to have been made by any one who remembered 

the origin of our word " slave." It should properly be Slavic. 

b 3 


Of the first arrival of the Slavonians* in Europe, 
and of the period when they established themselves 
there, nothing is known. According to the Ger- 
man historian Herder f , they were first met with 
on the Don amongst the Goths, and afterwards 
on the Danube amidst the Huns and Bulgarians, 
in conjunction with which nations they often dis- 
turbed the Roman empire. He considers them less 
warlike than the Germans, " preferring to obtain 
quiet possession of lands evacuated by the Teu- 
tonic tribes, rather than gain them by force of 
arms." On the north side of the Carpathian moun- 
tains their settlements extended from Lune- 
burg, over Mecklenburg, Pomerania, Brandenburg, 
Saxony, Lusatia, Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Poland, 
and Russia; and beyond those mountains, where 
already, at an early period, they were settled in 
Moldavia and Wallachia, they continued spreading 
further and further, until they were admitted into 
Dalmatia. The kingdoms of Slavonia, Bosnia, 
Servia, and Dalmatia were gradually formed by 
them ; and at last their possessions extended from 
the Don to the Elbe, and from the Baltic to the 
Adriatic. They were numerous in Pannonia ; and 

* In my account of this people I have borrowed largely from 
Count Valerian Krasinski, whose valuable contributions to our 
literature, by his Reformation of Poland, the Court of Sigis- 
mund Augustus, and numerous articles in the Cyclopaedia, 
Reviews, &c, are well known and justly esteemed. 

| Ideen zur Philosophie der Menscheit, voL iv., quoted by 


they reached from Friuli over the S. E. corner of 
Germany, so that their territory ended with Styria, 
Carinthia, and Carniola. 

But though nothing is known of their first 
arrival in Europe, a comparison of their language 
with the Zend and Sanscrit alone suffices to prove 
them to be one of the Indo-Germanic or Indo- 
European tribes, who emigrated from Central Asia, 
long before the existence of historical records, and 
who were the parents of the Greek, Latin, Slavonic, 
and German, as well as of the Scandinavian, and 
other Gothic, races. 

The common origin of Slavonic, and of our 
own tongue, also accounts for the " analogy " 
remarked by Brerewood, Fortis, and others, be- 
tween English and Slavonic (or Illyric) words; 
instances of which have been found in atina^ 
" stone ; " brate, " brother : " aestra, " sister ; " and 
many more : and we need not be surprised at its 
resemblance to other languages, which are offsets 
of the same parent stock in Central Asia. But 
some, instead of perceiving the common origin of 
the Slavonic, with that of other Indo-European 
tongues, have erroneously derived it from the 
Latin ; though the number of those who speak it, 
and the extent of the countries over which it 
spread, at a most remote period, sufficiently prove 
the fallacy of such an opinion. Nor is there any 
probability that the arrival of the Slavonians in 
Europe was coeval, as some imagine, with the 

B 4 


irruption of the Huns, Avars, and other Asiatic 
tribes, who immigrated in the fifth century. This 
is disproved by the same facts, as well as by their 
agricultural and commercial habits, at so early a 
period; and there is little doubt, from their lan- 
guage, that they arrived at the same remote era 
as the Germans, the Latins, and the Greets. 

If any doubt existed regarding the origin of the 
Slavonic language, the formation of the words 
would decide the question, and show that it came 
from the same fountain-head as the other Indo-Eu- 
ropean tongues : its mode of deriving them from 
old roots, depending as it does on a fixed and 
consistent process, establishes the fact that the 
Slavonic did not borrow its words from a secondary 
source ; and its direct relation to the Sanscrit 
proves it to be an offset from the parent stock, 
without having passed through a transition 

Though the subject is one of great interest, from 
its connexion with the early peopling of Europe, 
it is not my intention to prolong the inquiry, and 
enter fully into this intricate question: I shall 
therefore only compare the Slavonic, with the Latin 
and Sanscrit, numbers, which will suffice to show a 
far closer affinity to the latter, than to the Latin, 
the German, or the Greek. 

* See Bopp's Comparative Grammar. 














► « h. 

3 <5 g 


a « ^ "3 * g 

.a ma-mii*! 111 


* i I i i ~ n 


i h 

s ,§ 3 

a J 

S tS 

§ & s a a "3 J '^ S 







»H 09 9)1*<()(ONCO0|Oh«OQ 

# 3 








Many proofs of this might also be adduced from 
a comparison of words in those languages, but I 
will only mention the following : put, " a way," or 
" path ; " — Sanscrit, pathy, patha ; V&k, " wolf; " 
— Sanscrit, vuka ; svyet, " light ; " — Sanscrit, sveta 
(sweta), "white;" voda (woda), "water;" — San- 
scrit, uda *, &c. ; and many others, which resemble 
the Sanscrit, are totally unlike the Latin or the 

It is also a curious factf that the Slavonians have 
names for animals, not natives of the countries 
they inhabit, as werblud, or viMond, "camel;" 
slon, or slogn, " elephant;" obesidna, (in Polish, 
malpa,) or molpa), "monkey;" which are not de- 
rived from other languages of Europe, and which 
must therefore have been brought by them from 
the East, at the period of their migration from that 
cradle of mankind. 

Some Slavonian writers, with an enthusiasm 
quite patriotic, have not only disproved the possi- 
bility of their language being derived from Latin, 
but have gone into the opposite extreme, of making 
it the parent of every other " speech." Homer's 
Iliad has been pronounced, word for word, Sla- 
vonic ; Adam and Eve are said to have spoken this 
language ; and the distant Himalaya have been 
thought to derive their name from the sentence 
" there is snow." It is curious to see how the 

* The Greek v$«p. f Krasinski. 


proof of our first parents talking Slavonic is esta- 
blished by these etymologists ; and though we may 
smile on being told that God, in calling Adam, 
said, "od-amo" "come here;" and on inquiring 
where his wife was, that Adam answered, " evoye" 
" here she is ; " yet these are gravely put forth 
" to prove the antiquity " of the Slavonic language, 
and the origin of the names of our first parents. 

The favourite derivation of the name Slavonian, 
is Slava, " glory," which is shown to be constantly 
used in the composition of names, as Vladislav, 
"ruler of glory," Stanislav, "establisher of glory;" 
while others maintain that it is from Sfovo, 
" word," or " speech," used as a distinguishing ex- 
pression, in opposition to Niemetz, " dumb," by 
which they designated the Germans, whose lan- 
guage they could not understand. This appellation 
is still retained by them ; and from it the Turks 
and Arabs have derived the name Nemsa, which 
is adopted, throughout the Levant, to denote 
the Germans. Niem, " foreign," was also used in 
contradistinction to Slavonic ; and since the ori- 
ginal mode of writing Slavonic and Slavonian was 
Slovanski, and Slovianin, instead of Slavinski and 
Slavianin, there is reason to prefer Slovo to Slava, 
as the origin of their name. 

The Slavonians are first mentioned by Jornandes, 
under the names of Winidi, or Venedi # , Antes, and 

* Whence the Wends. KrasinAi. 


Sclavini. These appear to have been the three 
principal tribes; and the two last, according to 
Procopius, were included under the general name 
of Spori. This word Erasinski thinks to be a cor- 
ruption of Serbi, which is their ancient national 
appellation ; but it may, perhaps, owe its origin to 
Sbor # , " assembly," from the common meetings of 
the nation, since their laws and government, in early 
times, depended on the popular voice. They lived 
principally on the banks of the Vistula f, and along 
the southern coast of the Baltic, which doubtless 
received from them the name of Venedian Gulf." % 
Their first connection with history, worthy of 
notice, is in the beginning of the sixth century, 
when a portion of this tribe went southward, 
and having attacked, and even defeated, the By- 
zantine troops, advanced upon Constantinople ; 
and it required all the courage and wisdom of 
Belisarius to free the capital from their aggressions, 
and from the dread of a threatened assault. Re- 
tiring thence, they settled on the Danube §, and 
continued their inroads upon the empire, until 
conquered by the Avars, towards the close of the 
sixth century. From this state of humiliation, 

* Sbor, from Sberat, " to assemble." Soviet, or sovyet, is a 
" council." 

t Plin. iv. 13. Tacitus, 46. 

% Ptolemy calls that part Venedicus sinus, and places the 
Venedae on the east bank of the Vistula. 

§ Gibbon, yii. c. 42. p. 281. 


however, they succeeded in freeing themselves; 
and they finally entered into a treaty with the 
Emperor Heraclius, for the expulsion of the Avars 
from Illyria. This brought them, for the first 
time, to the Adriatic ; an event which I shall 
have occasion to mention more fully hereafter. 

The encouragement given them by the Caesars, 
to settle within the Imperial territory, spread the 
Slavonians over many of the Byzantine provinces ; 
from enemies, they became allies ; and their con- 
quests over the Avars led to their establishment in 
Slavonia, Rascia, Croatia, Servia, Bosnia, Herze- 
govina, and Dalmatia. It is with this portion of 
the Slavonians that the subject of Dalmatia is 
connected; but it may not be altogether out of 
place to mention the northern division of this nu- 
merous race, interesting as it is from the advanced 
state of civilisation, to which it attained at an early 
period, and from the melancholy fate that awaited 
it at the hands of its German neighbours. 

Whether it was from the opportunity afforded 
them of settling in countries, which more migra- 
tory and more warlike tribes had abandoned, or to 
a natural bias towards agricultural and commer- 
cial pursuits, that the northern Slavonians differed 
from their southern brethren in their habits, and 
assumed a peaceable rather than an aggressive 
character ; certain it is, that they established com- 
mercial intercourse with their neighbours at a 
very early period, and traded in corn, cattle, and 


the produce of their industry. Many towns were 
built by them on the shores of the Baltic, of which 
Arcona on the Isle of Riigen was one of the most 
noted ; and Vineta, at the mouth of the Oder, be- 
came the greatest emporium of its day. Kiev, on 
the Dnieper, and Novgorod # , on the Wolkhow f, 
were also founded by them ; and they united the 
commerce of the Black Sea with that of the Baltic. 
But the danger of attending solely to peaceable 
pursuits, in the midst of warlike and uncivilised 
neighbours, was soon severely felt ; their wealth 
was too tempting, their defenceless security too 
opportune, the plea of religion too plausible an 
excuse not to be taken advantage of, and the 
Franks J would not conscientiously permit the 
idolatrous Slavonians to enjoy the credit, or the 
advantages, of commercial enterprise. This at- 
tempt at spoliation was carried out more fully by 
the Saxons; the lands were divided among the 
bishops and nobles ; the people were reduced to 
bondage ; and the name of Slav has been retained, 
with various modifications, to the present day, to 
denote the condition of a Slave. Other nations 
were not slow in profiting by the general plunder, 
and Vineta was destroyed by the Danes ; but the 
death-blow was given to the commerce of the 

* The "New City." f Or Volkof. 

} Gibbon (vol. ix. c. 49. p. 184.) thinks their conquest and 
conversion to be later than the time of Charlemagne ; but the 
authority of Eginhart is of too great weight to be doubted. 


Slavonians by the northern Germans. Nor have 
their descendants been freed from the state of op- 
pression, to which they were doomed at so early 
a period ; and though history has shown how capa- 
ble they have been of changing the ploughshare 
for the sword, and how gallantly they have shared 
in the wars of Europe, nearly all the Slavonic 
tribes have been for ages under the yoke of foreign 

The career of the southern Slavonians differed 
from that of their northern brethren. Obliged by 
an overgrown population, or from the inroads of 
invading tribes, to quit their country, or preferring 
aggressive warfare to industrious pursuits, they 
overran the Greek provinces of the empire, into 
which, as early as the year 527, they had made 
destructive inroads. We find them at one time 
threatening Constantinople ; at another taken into 
pay by the emperors ; and again invading the em- 
pire in the reign of the Second Tiberius, during the 
war with Persia. This led to their subjugation 
by the Avars, at the instigation of the Byzantine 
court ; after which they are found, in 626, serving 
under the banners of their masters in their attack 
on Constantinople. 

The employment of a foreign tribe, for the 
expulsion of a troublesome neighbour, brought 

* The Dukes of Mecklenburg are the only real Slavonic 
dynasty now existing. 


about the same result that was witnessed in our 
own island, after the departure of the Romans ; 
the invoked aid becoming a greater evil than the 
vexations it was called upon to check. The pro- 
vinces of the emperor were ravaged, his ambas- 
sadors insulted, and his confidence mocked by the 
basest perfidy ; till at length the insolence of the 
Avars, and the grasping ambition of their Khan, 
exhausted the patience of the Byzantine court.* 

Their cruelties also became insupportable to their 
oppressed vassals. The Slavonians suffered every 
kind of indignity at home, and in battle their lives 
were " exposed to the first assault," that the swords 
of the enemy might be " blunted, before they en* 
countered the native valour of the Avars." f 

They therefore formed the resolution of freeing 
themselves from their oppressors, in which they 
were encouraged by their Bohemian brethren ; and 
Samo, a Frank, having put himself at their head, 
defeated the Avars, and once more restored them 
to freedom, (a. d. 624.) Availing itself of so 
favourable an opportunity of ridding the Imperial 
provinces of those Scythian strangers, the By- 
zantine court once more sought an alliance with 
the Slavonians ; and Heraclius invited the tribe of 
Chorvates, or Chrobati, to drive them from IUyria, 
and occupy that province as vassals of the empire. 
(a.d. 634.) 

* Gibbon, viii. c. 46. p. 194. f Ibid. p. 200. 


These Chrobati lived on the northern side of 
the Carpathian mountains, in what is now southern 
Poland, or Gallicia. 

Quitting their country, they advanced with con* 
siderable forces into Dalmatia, and, after a war of 
about five years' duration, succeeded in reducing 
the Avars to subjection. About the same time the 
Serbs sought, and obtained, permission from the 
emperor to settle in the countries to the east of the 
Chrobati, extending from the Save into Hungary, 
over the modern Servia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Mon- 
tenegro, and Venetian Albania; and their new 
possessions were divided into five provinces *, each 
having its ruler, subject to the prince of Servia, 
who was a vassal of the emperor. This connexion 
with the Byzantine court, and their occupation of 
provinces, some of which had embraced Christianity 
as early as the age of the Apostlesf , naturally led 
to the conversion of the Slavonian strangers; 
and the Chrobati and Serbs were converted to 
Christianity about the year 640. The northern 
Slavonians continued to be Pagans until a very 
late period; and indeed, when compared to the 
other nations of Europe, they are remarkable for 
their lengthened adherence to the rites of idolatry ; 
which were maintained atArkona, the capital of 
the Isle of Riigen, till 1168. 

* Called Giupa, or Jupa. 

f Titos was in Dalmatia in the time of St. Paul, 2 Ep. 
Tim. iv. 10. 


The religion of the pagan Slavonians bore no 
great resemblance to that of other neighbouring 
nations ; and seems to suggest a distant, perhaps 
an Asiatic, origin. The two principles of good and 
evil were acknowledged by them, at least by the 
Slavonians of the Baltic ; the former called Biel 
Bog, the " white god," the other Tzerni (or Chemi) 
Bog, the " black god," which was represented under 
the form of a lion. Procopius says, " The Slavonians 
worship one God, the maker of thunder *, whom 
they consider to be the only Lord of the Universe, 
and to whom they offer cattle and various kinds ol 
victims. . • . They also worship rivers, nymphs, 
and some other deities." 

" This," observes Krasinski, "agrees with Nestor's 
account of their religion, from which we learn that 
the chief Slavonic deity worshipped at Kiof ( Kiev), 
Novgorod, and other towns, was Penm, that is, 
' thunder.' He also says there were at Kiof (Kiev) 
the idols of the gods Dajebog, Volos, Stribog, Khors, 
JScfiBagl, and Mokosh ; " but these two last appear to 
be of Finnish orgin. Stribog was the god of winds, 
and Volos presided over flocks and herds. Their 
principal divinity was Sviantovid, or Sviantovit, (that 
is, " holy sight," or " holy warrior,") whose fane and 
idol were at Arkona, in the Isle of Rugen ; and are 

* Northern nations seem to be fond of the god of thunder ; 
and while the vine-growing Italian's exclamation is " Cospetto 
di Bacco," we prefer the cloud-compelling " Jove," and a Ger- 
man's oath assumes the form of " thunder and lightning.*' 


thus described by Saxo Grammaticus. " In the 
midst of the town was a level place, on which stood 
the temple, beautifully constructed of wood. . . . 
The exterior wall was of exquisite workmanship, 
and painted with figures of different things, exe- 
cuted in a rude and imperfect manner. It had 
only one entrance. The exterior consisted of a wall 
covered with a roof painted red ; but the interior, 
supported by four posts, had, instead of walls, 
hangings of tapestry, the whole being compre- 
hended under a common roof. The idol which stood 
in that edifice, much larger than the natural size 
of a man, had four heads and two bodies, of which 
one was turned to the right, the other to the left. 
Its beards were carefully combed, and the hair of 
its heads closely shorn. It held in its right hand a 
horn made of different metals, which was filled once 
a year with wine* by the priest, who performed its 
worship. Its left arm was bent on its side, in the 
form of a bow .... and not far from the idol 
were disposed the saddle, bridle, and other things 
belonging to the god ; among which the most con- 
spicuous was his sword, of a very large size, with a 
silver hilt, and a scabbard of excellent workman- 
ship. His festival took place once a year, after the 
harvest. On this occasion all the people assembled 
before the temple, and the priest having brought 

* Krosinski thinks more probably mead, the national Sla- 
vonic beverage. This word is evidently of Slavonic origin, 
med (pronounced meud) signifying " honey." 

c 2 


out the horn from the hand of the idol, augured 
from its contents the prospects of the new year. If 
the quantity of the liquor had decreased, a scarcity 
was prognosticated ; but no diminution indicated 
abundance. It was then filled again for the ensuing 
year ; and the rest of the day was spent in feasting ; 
excesses in eating and drinking being considered 
tokens of piety. Every man and woman paid 
annually a piece of money for the support of the 
temple and its idol. The third part of the spoils 
taken from the enemy was set apart for the god ; 
and three hundred horsemen, who were devoted to 
his service, gave the whole of their booty to his 
priest. A white horse was consecrated to him, 
which none but the priest could feed, or ride ; and 
it was believed that the deity sometimes fought on 
this horse against their enemies." He had also 
other fanes in different places. 

The principal Divinities, after Sviantovid, wor- 
shipped in Riigen, were the seven- faced Rugevit, 
supposed to have been the god of war, with seven 
swords by his side, and an eighth in his hand; 
Porevit, with five faces ; and Porenut, with four 
faces, and a fifth placed in his breast, which he 
held by its beard. He is supposed to have been 
the god of the seasons.* 

Another great deity was Radegast f , represented 

• Pora, in Polish, " season." 

f Or Radigost, from rod, "glad," and gost, "guest," as if 


in the form of a naked man with the head of a lion 
or of a dog, surmounted by a bird. In his right 
hand he held a battle-axe, and in his left a bull's 
head. Some suppose him to have been the god of 
war. Woda was also figured as a warrior ; but he 
appears only to be the Scandinavian Woden: 
Proven was the god of justice ; and Chislobog, with 
a crescent, was the god of numbers." * 

The Eastern Slavonians worshipped Perun, the 
god of thunder, — Fbfosjthegod of flocks,— Koledaf, 
the god of festivals, — and Kupdla, who presided 
over the fruits of the earth, and who received 
sacrifices on the 23rd of June. It is from him 
that St. John, whose fete falls on the same day, has 
received, in many parts of Poland and Russia, the 
name of St. John Kupala. 

There was another god, called Svarog, answer- 
ing to Vulcan, who is mentioned in the old Russian 
Chronicle of Volhynia, composed in the thirteenth 
century ; where his name is, strangely enough, 
supposed to be that of the Egyptian Hephaestus 
(Pthah) ; and allusion is made to the worship of 
the god of fire in a Russian MS. of 1523, lately 
discovered, containing a discourse, by an un- 
known writer, on the superstitions of the Slavo- 

the god of hospitality; but some derive it from rat, an 
" armament," and thus account for his being the god of war. 

* Like the Egyptian Thoth, who was the moon and the god 
of numbers and writing. . 

f His fete day was the 24th December, and his name is now 
used in Poland for " Christmas" or " Christmas-box" 

c 3 


nians.* " There are Christians," he says, " who 
believe in Perun, in Khors, and Mokoshf , in Sim, 
and Regl, and in Vilas J (" fairies "), who, as these 
ignorant people say, are three times nine sisters. 
They believe them to be all gods and goddesses, 
and they make offerings to them of cakes, called 
Korovay §, and sacrifice hens to them, and they 
adore the fire, which they call Svarqjich." || 

This fire-worship, and the origin of the name 
Svarog ^[, seem to connect that deity with the sun ; 
and the resemblance of the word with Sourug and 
Surya, the Indian names of the sun, is another 
trace of the early Asiatic origin of the Slavonians. 

There is reason to believe that the southern 
Slavonians had many of the same deities, and super- 
stitious observances, as their northern brethren ; 
but their early conversion prevented the establish- 
ment of idolatry in the Illyrian provinces ; and if 
the term Bog, " god " is retained by them, it is 
merely like the Deus of the Latins, without any 
reference to their ancient belief. It cannot there- 
fore be supposed that the numerous circular 
mounds, in Dalmatia and Herzegovina, are in any 

* I am indebted for this account of the deities to Krasinski. 

f Said by Nestor to have had their idols at Kiof (Kiev). 

J A belief still prevalent in Dalmatia : see the superstitions 
of the Morlacchi, in Chap. YIIL 

§ A name still given to the wedding cake by the modern 

|| Svarojich, the patronymic of Svarog. 

% From svar, svor, " the zodiac." 


way connected with the old pagan worship, or with 
the Gorodishchas* \ common in some Slavonic coun- 
tries, if the latter were really places of worship. 
The modern account of the Dalmatian mounds is, 
that they were raised in compliance with a vow, 
and thence called Zadroosbinajf ; though to me they 
appear merely tumuli, similar to those found in 
many other countries, both of Europe and Asia. 
They are only heaps of loose stones, varying in 
size ; and in some places stone tombs have been 
raised close to them, showing that those spots 
were peculiarly chosen for the burial of the dead. 

The early Slavonians appear, from their cere- 
monies for the repose of the soul, to have believed 
in its immortality, and in a future state ; though 
this has been questioned by some writers. Their 
funerals were celebrated with games and banquets. 
The favourite horse of the deceased was killed at 
his tomb ; and his body was sometimes burnt, at 
others buried in the ground. This varied in dif- 
ferent tribes ; and Nestor relates that, even in his 
time, which was more than a century after the 
introduction of the Christian religion into Russia, 
the Krivitches and Viatiches burnt their dead, and 
laid their ashes in vessels placed on posts near the 
highways ; whilst the Polanes always buried their 
dead in the earth, even before their conversion to 

* From grod, grad, " inclosure " or " city." 
f " For friendship." 

c 4 


Christianity.* But the most remarkable fact con- 
nected with their funerals is, that widows generally 
burnt themselves on the funeral pile of their hus- 
bands, which cannot fail to call to mind the Suttees 
of Hindoostan ; and which, with the resemblance 
of their language, and the character of their many- 
faced and many-armed gods, appears to indicate 
a connection with India. The earliest mention 
of Suttees in India is in the Vedas, which date 880 
years before our era; and they are noticed by 
Cicero and other ancient writers. But the custom 
is also said by Herodotus f to have existed among 
the Crestonians of Thrace, and it was found among 
the Scandinavians.^ 

The government of the early Slavonic nations 
had a popular form, and Procopius tells us "they 
obey not the rule of a single man, but from the 
most remote times have lived under a democracy." 
It is, however, certain that though their public 
affairs were settled by popular assemblies (traces 
of which have existed till a very late period among 
some of them), the executive government was 
vested in a more limited body, and the supreme 
jurisdiction was committed to the hands of a sove- 
reign, aided by a senate composed of the wealthy 
and influential chiefs of the land. Those who came 
to Dalmatia had their princes ; and other Slavo- 

* Krasinski. 

t Herodot. 5. 5. 

J Mallet, Introd. Hist. Denmark, vol. i. c. 13. 


nians acknowledged an hereditary sovereign, as 
well as a class of nobles, from the earliest periods 
of their history. Nor do those inherited rights 
interfere with the existence of popular assemblies : 
the office of ruler of Montenegro is hereditary 
in the same family, as are the rights of the aris- 
tocracy amongst that Slavonic race ; though the as- 
sembly of the people has always existed there, and 
has power to deliberate on measures regarding the 
public good, and even to resist abuses, if attempted 
by the hereditary chiefs. 

The custom of holding their assemblies in the 
open air was very ancient, and was adopted by the 
old republics of Novgorod and Plescow, as well as 
by that of Poglizza in Dalmatia, till its extinction 
in 1807 ; and the same continues in Montenegro to 
the present day. 

The principal dignities amongst the Slavonians 
were the Pan, Jupan*, Voyevoda, Boyar, Kniazfj 
and Kral.% 

The title of Pan was given to the ruler of 
Croatia in the time of Constantine Porphyro- 
genitus, and the Austrian governor of that pro- 
vince is still called Ban. The principal nobles 
in Hungary, and Bohemia, were also styled Pan, 
during the middle ages. The same appellation 
was formerly given in Poland to the first dignities 
of the state, and it now signifies " Lord" " M r ." or 

# Or Giupan. f Kniez, or Knez. 

X Ktoly Kragly or Cragl ; the Crallis of the Gipsey language. 


" Sir" Jupan was the chief of a province, called 
in Slavonic, Jupa. Voyevoda* literally means 
"leader of war," like the Latin Dux, the Saxon 
Beretog, and the German Eerzog ; but its signifi- 
cation varied in different countries, and in Car- 
niola it was given to the sovereign, and in Poland 
to the judge. Boyar, from boy " fight," is also an 
ancient title ; and Kniaz or Kniez is used in the 
Cyrillic version of the Scriptures for " prince." It is 
still applied to princes in Russia, and to chiefs of 
villages, or communities, in Servia.f Being derived 
from Kon, "horse," it is supposed to have been 
originally a title answering to " knight ; " J but in 
Dalmatia it has always been thought to correspond 
to " count ; " and the " great count " of Poglizza 
was called Veliki, or Veli, Eniaz. 

Krai signifies " king," and is supposed to be de- 
rived from Kara, " punishment," indicative of the 
office and power of the sovereign.§ Gospodar || , or 
Gospar, corrupted into Ospodar, answers to " mas- 
ter" or "gentleman," Gospodine,to "sir," in address- 
ing any one, and Gospa, or Gospodinia , to " lady." 

Of the Slavonic language I have already ob- 
served, that it belongs to the Indo-European 

* Voivoda, or Voywoda, from Voi, " war." 

| The account of these titles is from Krasinski. 

X May knecht and cniht of the German and Saxon be from 
the same root ? 

§ Some think it an Armenian word. 

|| Gospod "Lord/ as Gospod Bog "Lord God," in the 
Cyrillic version. 


family, and that its introduction is coeval with 
that of the Teutonic, Greek, and Latin. " It con- 
sists of various dialects, the principal of which are 
the Bohemian, Polish, Lusatian or Wend, Russian, 
Bulgarian, Illyrian, Croatian, and Carinthian ; and 
it may be divided into two principal branches — 
the western, and the south-eastern, of which 

" I. The former contains the following languages: 
" 1. Bohemian, subdivided into the Bohemian 
proper, spoken, in Bohemia, and Moravia, by a 
population of 4,414,000, — and the Hungaro-Bohe- 
mian, spoken by a population of 2,753,000, known 
under the name of Slovaks, and inhabiting the 
northern part of Hungary. The difference be- 
tween the two dialects is not considerable, and 
the literary productions of the Slovaks are com- 
posed in the dialect of Bohemia proper. The 
modern language of Bohemia was introduced into 
that country, when the Slavonians migrated thither, 
towards the end of the fifth century." According to 
Tacitus, Bohemia had already been colonised, be- 
fore the time of Caesar, by the Boii, a Celtic race 
from Gaul*, whence it received the name of Boie- 

* Strabo, 7. Tacitus M..Germ. 28. In Caesar's time some 
of the Boii were in Gaul, on the upper Loire and Allier. The 
name of Voles he mentions (6. 22.) seems to be the Teutonic 
" Volk." Livy (5. 35.) says [other Boii, coming from Gaul by 
the Penine pass, settled in Cisalpine Gaul (about the modern 
Parma), driving out the Etrurians and Umbrians ; others lived 
in Pannonia, to the south of the Lacus Peiso (now Neusiedler 
See, in Hungary) ; and those who were driven from Boiemum 


mum*, probably from the German Bojenheim, or 
" land of the Boii. ,, This people were afterwards 
expelled from the country by the Marcomanni, 
who had come from their abode at the sources of the 
Rhine ancl Danube f; and these, again, having, left 
it during the migration of the Germanic nations, 
Bohemia was occupied by the ancestors of the pre- 
sent Slavonic inhabitants. " They are called, by 
themselves and by other Slavonians, i Chekh ' 

" 2. Polish, subdivided into the dialects of great 
or north-western Poland, of little or southern Po- 
land, and the Mazovian of eastern Poland. The 
Cassubian is considered the remains of the lost 
Pomeranian dialect. The population speaking the 
Polish dialects amounted, in 1842, to 9,365,0004 

"3. Lusatian, subdivided into the dialects of 
upper and lower Lusatia, and spoken by a popu- 
lation of 142,000, living under the dominion of 
Prussia and Saxony, and known by the name of 
Wends (Vends). 

" II. The south-eastern branch contains the fol- 
lowing : — 

settled between the JEnum (Inn) and Isarus (Iser), in the 
modern Bavaria. 

* Tacitus M. Germ. 28. The Helvetians and Boii were 
both Gallic nations. 

t Tacitus M. Germ. 28. 

J The Poles are called Lekh. This word (in Bohemian) 
was formerly used to denote a " noble/ as well as a " land- 
owner." Pole means " field." 


"1. The Russian , subdivided into these dia- 
lects : — 

" a. Great Russian, or Muscovite, which may be 
further divided into the four subdialects of Moscow, 
Novgorod, Suzdal, and the Trans- Volgian or Za- 
volgski. It contains an admixture of Finnish, from 
which other Slavonic dialects are free, and many 
Eastern words imported during the Tartar domina- 
tion of two centuries (1241 — 1477). It is spoken 
by the population of the north-eastern part of the 
Russian empire, amounting, in 1842, to 35,314,000 ; 
and is the literary and official language of the coun- 
try. Though the Finnish population exists in Rus- 
sia, that language has also been absorbed by the 
Slavonic, and it is the influence of Finnish words 
that has made the Russian so much softer than 
other Slavonic dialects. 

" b. The Little Russian, called the Rusniack, or 
Ruthenian *, is perhaps the most harmonious of all 
the Slavonic dialects, and constitutes a kind of 
transition between the western and south-eastern 
branches of the Slavonic tongue. It is used in the 
ancient southern provinces of Poland, now be- 
longing to Russia and Austria, extending from 
the Carpathian mountains and the Dniester to 
the Russian provinces of Mohilov, Smolensk, Orel, 
Kursk, and Voroniej, by a population of 13,144,000. 
Its literature is very limited, consisting chiefly of 

* A Latin word given in the middle ages. 


ballads and songs. There are 635,000 of the Mcdo 
Busses, or little Russians, in Hungary. 

" c. The dialect of White Russia, spoken by a 
population of 2,726,000, inhabiting the province of 
White Russia, and other parts of the ancient grand 
duchy of Lithuania. It was the official language 
of Lithuania till about the middle of the seven- 
teenth century. 

" 2. The Bulgarian is used by a population of 
3,587,000. The Scriptures were translated by 
Cyrillus and Methodius into that idiom, in the 
ninth century ; though the present Bulgarian differs 
a little from the language of the Bible.* The 
modern Bulgarian f has no literature; but it is re- 
markable from being the only Slavonic dialect 
having the article, which is always placed at the 
end of the substantive.^ It does not, however, 
prevent the latter being declined, in the same 
manner as in the other Slavonic dialects. 

" 3. The Illyrian, subdivided into the following 
dialects : — 

" a. Servian, composed § of the subdialects of 

* A Bulgarian New Testament was published in London 
in 1828. 

f Bulgar is an Asiatic name. They were probably from the 
Upper Volga, and became Slavonic, being absorbed in the 
conquered people. 

\ It is masculine, feminine, and neuter. This article " the " is 
the same as the pronoun " this '' of other Slavonic dialects, and 
therefore corresponds rather to the Latin Ate, h<ec, hoc, than 
to the German or French definite articles. 

§ According to Vuk Stefanovich Karacich, 



Servia proper, Montenegro, Bosnia, Herzegovina, 
and Dalmatia, and which is spoken by a population 
of 5,296,000, of whom 2,594,000 live under the 
Austrian dominion, 950,000 in the principality of 
Servia proper, 100,000 in Montenegro, 1,552,000 
in Bosnia, Herzegovina, and other Turkish domi- 
nions, and 100,000 in Russia, whither they emi- 
grated at various times, chiefly in the time of the 
Empress Elizabeth, and mostly from Hungary, in 
consequence of an attempt of Maria Theresa to 
convert them to the Romish church, 

" b. Croatian, confined to a population of 801,000, 
under the dominion of Austria. 

" c. Carinthian, spoken by a population of 
1,138,000, belonging to Austria." * 

" It has been a question, whether the Slavonians 
possessed any written alphabet of their own, before 
their conversion to Christianity. The Bulgarian 
monk Khrabr, who lived in the tenth or eleventh 
century, says that they had none when they were 
Pagans, but that they wrote with lines and incisions; 
and that after their conversion, they used the Greek 
and Latin letters, until the invention of the Cyrillic 
alphabet. Runic, however, seems to have been 
adopted on some of their idols.f 

" The Cyrillic alphabet was called after Cyrillus, 
who was sent in 863, with his brother Methodius, 

* Krasinski, from Szaffarik's Slavonic Ethnography. 

f The old religion, the language, and the ancient and 
modern state of the Slavonians, will be fully explained in a 
work now preparing by Krasinski. 


into Moravia, by the Emperor Michael, at the request 
of the recently and partially converted Slavonians, 
to translate the Scriptures into their language, and 
instruct them in their Christian duties ; and that 
alphabet having been adopted by the Slavonic 
nations, its use in the Liturgy was afterwards 
allowed by the Popes*, to those who abandoned 
the Eastern for the Western church." f 

It continued to be employed by them in their 
church service, till the middle of the eleventh cen- 
tury ; but in the course of time, another Slavonic 
alphabet was substituted in its stead, called Glagolic, 
or Glagolitic ; and the Cyrillic was only retained by 
the Slavonians of the Greek church, as the Russians, 
Servians, Walachians, Bulgarians, and others, who 
still use it in their religious service, and in ordinary 
books. The invention of the Glagolitic is ascribed 
to St. Jerome, which is, however, disproved by his 
having lived in the fourth century. Its name is 
said to be taken from the fourth letter, glagol, or g ; 
though it seems more reasonable to derive it from 
glagol, " word " or " speech." J It is also called 
Jeronymiana, from its reputed inventor. 

The same opposition does not seem to have been 
raised against it, as against the Cyrillic ; which was 
denounced by the council of Salona, in 1060 ; and 

* Allowed to the Moravians by Pope Adrian IL and 
Giovanni VIII. ; and to the Dalmatians by Pope Giovanni X. 
in 914—928. 

f Krasinski. % Whence glagolati, " to speak." 


the use of the Glagolitic was sanctioned by a bull 
of Pope Innocent IV., in 1248, in the Liturgy of 
the Dalmatian and other Illyrian Romanists. Since 
that time it has continued to be employed by them, 
and the priests still read and write the Glagolitic 
character. This permission, granted and continued 
by the papal see, is the more remarkable, as the 
use of Latin has always been insisted upon in 
other churches under Roman jurisdiction, to the 
exclusion of the language of the country. 

The Cyrillic is taken from the Greek, with cer- 
tain conventional characters for unusual sounds; 
but the Glagolitic is quite fanciful, unlike any 
other, inconvenient, and perplexing * ; probably the 
invention of some monk in the 11th or 12th cen- 
tury, and ascribed to St. Jerome, to give it import- 
ance. The alphabet known in Dalmatia as the 
Bukviza, or Bucvisdno, is called from Buc, the name 
of the second letter B; but this is only another 
name of the Glagolitic. 

The Illyric language is called, in the provinces 
where it is spoken, naski, signifying "ours," or 
IUirskee ; but though it has its own character, it is 
now generally written and printed in Latin letters ; 
and in order to imitate the sounds unknown in 

* The following may give an idea of the character : — 

A+B 1P.I5.LiKi 

R 3.T on. 


Italian, and other languages, it has been found 
necessary to give a particular force to some of 
them, as in writing their W, m, or;, for which they 
use a?, and some others. 

> " The ancient Slavonians ' are described as tall, 
and of very strong make ; their complexion was not 
very white, and their hair was of a reddish colour. 
They could easily support hunger, thirst, heat, 
cold, and want of covering, and were dirty in their 
habits. They lived in miserable huts, and they 
often changed their place of abode. They went 
into battle without shirt or cloak, and their only 
covering was a pair of short trousers. They wore 
no defensive armour, but some had shields ; and 
their offensive weapons were spears. They had 
also bows with poisoned arrows. They fought on 
foot, and were very expert in assailing an enemy 
among defiles, in woods, and in every place diffi- 
cult of access. In these conflicts they displayed 
extraordinary address, inveigling their opponents 
into ambuscades by feigned retreats."" Procopius 
relates a story of the dexterity displayed by a 
Slavonian, belonging to the army of Belisarius, in 
seizing an unsuspecting Goth, and bringing him 
into the camp ; and the Emperor Maurice, in his 
Strategicon, mentions their peculiar cunning in 
battle, and the necessity of being prepared against 
it. ' They like not/ he observes, l to fight in the 
open field, nor in close combat, but prefer forests 
and difficult passes, where the mode of warfare is 


natural to them. They frequently offer a booty to 
their enemy, and then, feigning flight, they conceal 
themselves in the woods, and assail him unawares. 

The most favourable time, therefore, for" 

attacking them is the winter, when the leaves are 
off the trees, when food is scarce, and the cold 
severe.' "• \ 

The above account cannot fail to strike every 
one who is acquainted with the modern Monte- 
negrins, and their mode of fighting ; nor does the 
mention of another peculiarity by early writers, 
the use of the cithara, recal less forcibly the habits 
of that people, whose^ bards constantly sing to an 
admiring audience the glorious deeds of their war- 
riors, accompanying themselves with their favourite 
gusla. This instrument has been employed by all 
the Slavonic tribes from the earliest times ; and the 
name guslar, or player on the cithara, being applied 
to a " wizard," appears to argue the use of it in 
the days of their Pagan superstitions. It has only 
one string, stretched from a long neck over a 
round body, like a guitar, and is played with a bow.f 

Ancient and modern Illyria differ greatly in 
their extent, as their inhabitants do in their origin 
and language. Illyria, or Illyricum, under the 
Romans, included the provinces of the Danube, 
" esteemed the most warlike of the empire ; but 
they deserve to be more particularly considered 

* Krasinski. 

f See below, Chapter VI. on the Montenegrins. 

D 2 



under the names of Rhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia, 
Dalmatia, Dacia, Mcesia, Thrace, Macedonia, and 
Greece."* In the present century an Illyrian 
kingdom was formed by Napoleon out of Dalmatia, 
and other provinces belonging to Austria, some of 
which are still included under that title ; but the 
name is now conventional, the Illyrians of the pre- 
sent day having no connection with the ancient 
inhabitants. And though the language of Dalmatia 
and the neighbouring provinces is called Illyrian, 
and many modern writers have run into the error 
of supposing it the same as that of their early 
predecessors, who occupied the country when con- 
quered by the Romans, the fact of its being a 
Slavonic dialect, and the known period of the 
arrival of the Slavonians, suffice to disprove this, 
and show that it can bear no more relation to the 
ancient Illyrian than to the Epirotef , the Mace- 
donian, or the Thracian. Nor has the modern 
Epirote, or Albanian J, any resemblance to the 
Slavonic dialects. 

Modern Dalmatia contains the principal part of 
the ancient province of that name, as well as of 
Liburnia ; but ancient Dalmatia was confined 
within the river Drilo (now the Drino of Albania) 
and the Titius § (now La Kerka) ; and Liburnia ex- 

* Gibbon, i. c. 1. p. 35. f Strabo, vii. p. 224, 225. 

% The modern Albanians, called Arnauts by the Turks, style 
themselves Skipitar. 

§ Ptolemy, ii. 17. Plin. iii. 22. 


tended thence to the borders of Istria, from which it 
was separated by the stream of the modern Fiume, 
or Fiumera. Dalmatia now extends from about 
42° 9' N. lat., or thirteen miles S. of Budua, to lat 
44° 25', about nineteen miles north of Zara, the 
capital ; where it is joined by part of Croatia, which 
occupies the remaining portion of Liburnia to the 
north. It has also many islands, mostly lying 
parallel to the coast ; two of which, Pago and Arbe, 
extend its limits as far north as latitude 44° 51'. 
In breadth it is very limited, not exceeding forty 
miles in any part; and in the narrowest, near Ra- 
gusa, about two, from the sea to the Turkish fron • 
tier of Herzeg6vina. Its limits have been extended, 
at various times, under the rule of the Venetians, 
from cessions made by the Turks ; and it now 
contains 3655 Italian square miles, or, according 
to the official returns, 2,222,990 ^w^en, or acres. 

Under the Austrians, it has been divided into 
the four CircoU, or departments of Zara, Spalato, 
Ragusa, and Cattaro, containing respectively eight, 
ten, five, and three, distretti, or districts.* Under 
the Venetians, the present circoli of Zara and 

* Those in the circolo of Zara are Pago, Arbe, Zara, Obbro- 
vazzo, Knin, Scarddna, Dernis, and Sebenico : of Spalato, Trail, 
Spalato, Sign, Almissa, Imoschi, Brazza, Lissa, L£sina, 
Macarsca, and Fort-Opus : of Ragusa, Curzola, Sabioncello, 
Slano, Ragusa, and Ragusa- Vecchia : of Cattaro, Castel nuovo, 
Cattaro, and Budua ; again subdivided into communes, which 
in the Zara Circolo amount to 249, in that of Spalato to 251 ; of 
Ragusa to 140, and in the Circolo of Cattaro to 104. See Ch. II. 

d 3 


Spalato, with the Isle of Curzola (now belonging 
to that of Ragusa), and the islands in the Gulf 
of Quarnero, constituted Dalmatia proper, and the 
circolo of Cattato was styled (Venetian) Albania. 

The number of jugeri (acres) and Mafter # , in 
these circoli) with the proportion and quality of 
the land in each, may be seen in the following table ; 
from which it appears that the greatest proportion 
consists of pastures, the next of wood, and then 
arable land, and vineyards. (See next page.) 

The face of the country is very varied: a 
ridge of lofty limestone mountains f separates the 
northern portion from Turkey, and another runs 
nearly parallel with the coasty close to which it 
approaches in the vicinity of Spalato, and extends 
thence to Montenegro and Albania. The highest 
peaks are Orien, 6332 feet; Dinara, 6040 feet; and 
Pastovo, 5929 feet ; and the largest and loftiest part 
of the northern range is that of Velebich, to the 
north-east of Zara, which measures 5439 feet. 

The inland parts of Dalmatia are diversified by 
undulatory ground, hills, and high mountains; 
many of the latter having the saitie rugged, barren, 
aspect as those of the coast, which are said to have 
been once covered with soil and trees, since washed 
by the rains into the sea. Here and there, indeed, 

* The klafter is a measure of 6 feet, or about 6 feet 3 inches 

| Known partly as Mount Prolog, partly under other names ; 
the Mons Ardius, Bebius, and other divisions of that range. 










(O c« 

<p t- 




04 W> 

CO o* 

ao oo 
« «o 






00 Of 

U) tO 




Of 00 








oo »o 




r« «S 

v> 00 
00 91 


00 -i 

-* 00 
«- 00 

Of «-• 



* CO 

04 tO 

04 tO 

« 00 

* oo 

00 Q 
00 g 








of o 

00 -i 

ff Of 
O ^ 


to 00 
Of «0 




00 ~ 

~« A 



tp to 





oo «o 

Of A 


to * 

A A 


tO A 
00 «o 

U) to 


r» oo 

<p ^ 





O t* 
00 00 

-« 00 



«- O 

«o 00 



to «* 




»- 00 

to o 

00 3 


Of 00 
00 A 
-I V) 


00 ** 

r- Of 

to 3« 

«0 A 


t» 00 
00 ~* 




CO «0 

co t» 

Of ** 

~ Of 
CO « 
Of Of 

Wi I- 

00 A 


A O 

00 «c 

r v 

A ** 

t» © 

00 00 

Of »c 





A *) 
to t* 

Of ~* 







V) CO 

<o v) 

«5 o 
o u) 

00 A 
Of A 




f- Of 


x> 4 


some trees remain to show that the tradition is not 
entirely destitute of foundation, but bareness is the 
general character of the hilly parts of Dalmatia ; 
and it is singular that the northern sides are 
usually less barren than the southern. Though a 
few pine trees grow in the peninsula of Sabioncello, 
and some other places, the country is badly sup- 
plied with timber ; nor is firewood abundant, a de- 
ficiency which the coal of Dernis might supply, 
were the people more alive to its use; but some 
of the islands produce pines and brushwood in 
great abundance, particularly Curzola, which in 
former times furnished the Venetian arsenal with 
timber, and has still the greatest quantity of wood 
in this part of the Adriatic* 

The soil of Dalmatia, though not rich, is good ; 
and the produce suffices for the limited population 
of the country; and though many parts consist 
merely of bare rock, it would seem, if Strabo's 
account be true, when he describes the land as 
" sterile, unsuited to agriculture, and barely af- 
fording a subsistence to the inhabitants," that it 
is now more fertile than in ancient times. The 
peasants, however ignorant they may be, are 
tractable and capable of great bodily exertion, and 
only require proper instruction to direct their 
labours ; the rivers offer ample means for irrigation, 
the establishment of manufactures, and other pur- 
poses ; and the most unusual advantages are pos- 
sessed by Dalmatia in the number, security, and 

* See Chapter V. on Curzola. 



commodiousness of its seaports. In this latter 
respect it offers a striking contrast to the opposite 
coast of Italy, which actually boasts no one good 
port from Chioggia to Otranto ; confirming most 
fully the remark of Strabo that " the whole coast 
of Illyria is well furnished with ports, as well on 
the mainland, as in the neighbouring islands, while 
the opposite coast of Italy is without harbours." * 
But, like the other recommendations it enjoys, these 
are all disregarded ; the Dalmatian ports are sacri- 
ficed to the benefit of Trieste ; and the trade of 
Turkey will probably never resume its former 
course to this province. 

Neglect, indeed, seems at all times to have been 
its fate. Strabo says, " The country, which, with 
the exception of a few rugged spots, abounds every- 
where with the olive and the vine, has always been 
neglected ; and its worth has been unknown, pro- 
bably in consequence of the wildness and predatory 
habits of its inhabitants." The Venetians even 
purposely avoided every measure that could enrich, 
or better the condition of, the people, in order, 
more easily, to rule Dalmatia, while they supplied 
their army from its hardy peasantry ; and, however 
incredible it may appear, the Venetian Senate 
openly interfered to prevent the establishment of 
schools in that country. Printing was also for- 
bidden there ; and the Venetians severely punished 
one of their people, for having dared to establish a 
press in the independent city of Ragusst. 

* Strabo, 7. 


The coast of "Istria. — Pirano. — Parenzo. — Polo.— The 
Quamero. — Fiume. — The Islands of Veglia, and Arbe. 
— Story of the last Count of Veglia. — Zara. 

The voyage from Trieste to Zara is more than 
usually interesting, from the steamers passing 
within sight of the towns, on the coast of Istria. 
You perceive St. Andrea, Capo d'lstria, Isola, 
Pirano, Omdgo, and others which have witnessed, 
and often suffered from, the wars of Venice, and 
have, in later times, been exposed to the attacks of 
the French, Austriana, and English, during the 
last and present centuries. 

Capo d'lstria was formerly called JSgida, and 
afterwards, Juatinopolis, from the uncle of Justi- 
nian ; and a fabulous tradition has attributed its 
foundation to the people of Colchis. Charlemagne 
had once possession of it ; after which, it came into 
the hands of the Patriarchs of Aquileia, and then, 


in the tenth century, was taken by the Venetians ; 
and though wrested from them by the Genoese, in 
the fourteenth century, it was restored, in 1478, to 
Venice, in whose hands it continued till Istria was 
ceded to the Austrians. It is less unhealthy than 
the other towns on this coast, and contains a popu- 
lation of about 5000 inhabitants. The square, 
though small, is a curious and quaint specimen of 
the Venetian style ; but the town contains little 
worthy of notice. I ought, however, to except two 
knockers, which are the envy and admiration of 
the collectors of similar curiosities ; and fortunately 
for their owners, the knocker-stealing folly has not 
yet penetrated to Capo d'Istria. 

Pir&no, on a projecting point of land, with its 
church, backed by the castle, and the adjoining 
heights, is beautiful, from whatever point it is 
seen; and after passing a promontory, you per- 
ceive Om&go, sitting on the water's edge ; and the 
inland Buia beyond, with its church crowning the 
hill on which it stands. It was between Pirdno 
and Parenzo that Ziani, in 1177, defeated the 
combined fleet of Pisa, Genoa, and Ancona, under 
the command of Otho, the son of the emperor 
Frederic Barbarossa, who was made prisoner, and 
carried to Venice ; and this victory is remarkable 
for having given rise to the ceremony performed 
by the Doges of wedding the Adriatic. For when 
the victorious fleet returned to the Lido, Pope 
Alexander III., then a fugitive at Venice, gave his 


ring to Ziani, authorising him and his successors, 
annually, to proclaim their right to the sovereignty 
of the Adriatic, and subject it to the rule of 
Venice, " as a wife to that of her husband." 

Parenzo, the successor of Parentium, is remark- 
able for a church, in the Byzantine style, founded 
by Bishop Eufrasius in 540, which is said to have a 
semicircular apse behind the altar, with the bishop's 
throne, and seats on either side for the clergy, in- 
stances of which are now so rarely met with. It 
was here that Pisani took refuge, after his defeat 
by the Genoese fleet, in 1379 ; and Parentium, like 
JEgida, was distinguished in old times as the abode 
of Roman citizens.* 

Rovigno, with its lofty spire, and the headlands 
and islands to the southward, backed by the distant 
Monte Maggiore, is a pretty object from the sea ; 
but Pola, lying in a deep bay, is not seen, and till 
lately no steamers touched there. 

Pola, and its neighbourhood, are subject to a 
bad malaria fever, which begins in August. The 
port is excellent, landlocked, easily defended, and 
capable of holding a fleet of any size ; and the Aus- 
trians, taking the hint from Napoleon, contemplate 
making it their great naval dep6t. 

As you approach the town, the amphitheatre 
appears to stand on the shore ; the exterior is so 
perfect^that it scarcely seems to deserve the name of 
a ruin ; and it looks the same to you, as it did of 

• Plin. iii. 19. 


old to the Roman, as he stood in with his galley, 
1500 years ago. It has a basement story, over 
which are two tiers of arches, with Tuscan half 
columns between them; and above these is the 
usual upper story, pierced with square windows. 
In this, and most respects, it resembles other am- 
phitheatres, but differs from them in having four 
square towers, projecting from the exterior circle, 
at certain intervals, probably for the staircases; 
of which I remember no other instance, except, 
perhaps, in the small ruined amphitheatre of 
Treves. Though the outside is well preserved, 
nothing remains of the interior ; and some have 
supposed the seats were of wood ; yet it is evident 
that those on the hill side were cut in the rock, 
and many of the stone seats have been found, 
some bearing the names, or initials, of their owners. 
They measure 1 ft. 2§ in. in width ; and the total 
dimensions of the amphitheatre are about 430 feet 
in length, by 350 in breadth, and 80 in height. 

Pola has been so fully described*, that I shall 
only notice it very briefly. According to Pliny 
and Pomponius Mela, the Colchians were the 
founders of Pola, as of many other places in the 
Adriatic ; but the name given it by the Romans, 
during the empire, was Pietas Julia, from the 
daughter f of Augustus, at whose request it was 

* See Cassas's Travels and Allason's Pola. 
t Not as some think from Julia Domna, being mentioned by 
PUny (iii. 19.). 


restored, after its partial destruction by Julius 
Caesar, in revenge for having favoured the cause of 

It was at Pola, that Crispus was put to death by 
his father, Constantine, through the false accusa- 
tion of his step-mother, Fausta. 

In 1148 the Doge, Dominico Morosini, rendered 
Pola tributary to Venice; and forty-four years 
afterwards it was seized by the Pisans ;• but being 
speedily recovered by Enrico Dandolo, it con- 
tinued in quiet possession of the Venetians until 
1228, when, having rebelled, it was nearly all de- 
stroyed by Giacomo Tiepolo. Towards the end of 
the fourteenth century Pola fell into the hands of 
the Genoese ; whose fleet wintered there in 1378, 
previous to the capture of Chioggia ; and after the 
defeat of the Genoese, it remained in the power of 
Venice, until the whole of Istria was ceded to the 
Austrians in 1815. 

The temple of Rome and Augustus is in a very 
good state of preservation, and is now a Museum, 
containing the different objects found at Pola. It is a 
very graceful building ; prostyle, and of the Corin- 
thian order. In ancient times it stood on the forum, 
with its companion, which was dedicated to Diana, 
and which still occupies one end of the place. The 
front, however, is built over, and concealed, by the 
palace of the Venetian governor, and more than half 
the ancient forum is occupied by modern houses. 

The arch, or gateway, called Porta Aurea, is 


well preserved ; and, though it has the fault of 
being wanting in depth, is an elegant specimen of 
Roman triumphal arch. The inscription on the 
frieze says it was built by Salvia Postuma, at her 
own expense, to Lucius Sergius Lepidus, -ZEdile, 
and military tribune of the twenty-ninth Legion, 
whose statue stood on a pedestal, formed by the 
attic, over the centre. Other statues were at each 
corner, of two members of the same family, whose 
names are also inscribed below ; and on each side 
of the arch are two Corinthian half-columns. 

The Porta Gemina is a double gate, with a compo- 
site half-column between each archway. It was also 
an entrance into the town ; and on the hill above is 
another Roman gate, lately discovered in making 
repairs to the citadel ; which appears to have been 
a postern, opening upon the street leading from the 
Porta Gemina. Though small, it is of good work. 

The Duomo, or Cathedral, is curious from its 
early date, and the resemblance it bears to the old 
Basilicas. It is said to stand on the site of a 
Roman temple. At the altar end is an ascent of 
several steps; the best specimen of which now 
remaining is in the Duomo of Torcelli, near 
Venice, where the bishop's throne and seats of the 
clergy are still in their original state. 

Among other antiques preserved in this church 
are the font, which was an ancient piscina, orna- 
mented with a recumbent figure of Venus (or a 
Nymph), and two Cupids, on two of its sides; and 


the capital of a column, formed of a basket with 
birds, instead of volutes, supporting the corners of 
the abacus. 

There is a Greek church at Pola, to the left on 
entering from the amphitheatre, with some curious 
carved and painted screens. It is used by the 
people of Per6e, a Greek village, about seven miles 
from Pola, inhabited by Greek refugees, who retain 
their peculiar costume. At Pola itself there are 
only three families of the Greek church. 

Much wood grows about Pola, as throughout 
Istria, where the hills differ very much in appear- 
ance from the barren rocky mountains of Dalmatia ; 
and the country abounds in vines, olives, and 
grain. Pola, which Dante mentions, "near to the 
Quarn^ro," * is about ten miles from the pro- 
montory, where the Eastern entrance of Quarn^ro 
begins ; that gulf, so well known for its dangerous 
navigation, and the dread of sailors going up to 
Fiume. And so strong is the wind in this part, 
when the violent N. E., or Bora, (Boreas) blows, 
that even steamers are unable to make head 
against it. 

In going to Fiume you pass the Isle of Cherso 
to the right. The soil is rocky ; it has very little 
corn, but produces wine, honey, and abundance of 

* " Sicome a Pola, presso del Quarnaro, 

Che Italia chiude, e i suoi termini bagna." 

Dante, Infer, ix. 113. 

Chap. II.] CHERSO — FIUME. 49 

cattle ; and in the interior is a lake seven miles in 

When under the Venetians it had about 5000 
inhabitants, and the revenues of Cherso and the 
neighbouring Ossero were 1273 ducats, of which 
630 were paid in duties to the Republic. 

The hills to the left are clothed with wood, 
sometimes sloping gradually to the sea, sometimes 
presenting an abrupt face to the water. 

Fiume is prettily placed at the end of the gulf; 
and its red-tiled houses, its white church towers, 
and the castle, on a wooded height above, have a 
picturesque effect. The castle, called Tersatto*, 
belongs to Count Nugent, who distinguished him- 
self so greatly as an Austrian general, in the last 
war with France ; when his co-operation with the 
British fleet had the gratifying effect of furthering 
the views of the allies, at the same time that it 
afforded him the satisfaction of displaying his 
military talents in the presence of his countrymen ; 
for, though he has long been in the service of Aus- 
tria, Count Nugent is an Irishman. His brilliant 
services are, indeed, too well known to require any 
comment, but personal obligation may excuse the 
mention of his courtesy, which I am happy to have 
an opportunity of acknowledging. 

I have heard that the column put up at Marengo 
by the French is deposited there. 

* From the old town of Tarsatica, mentioned by Pliny and 



Fiume, in Slavonic Ri£ka, is the port of Hun- 
gary, and contains about 8000 or 9000 inhabitants. 
It stands on a small stream, called Fiumera ; from 
which it derives its name, Fiume (or Fiumera), 
like the Slavonic Ri£ka, signifying "river." It 
has succeeded to Vitopolis, or the city of St. Vito, 
which, however, was not a town of ancient date, 
and no Roman town appears to have occupied the 
exact site of the modern Fiume. It was first given 
to Hungary by Maria Theresa in 1777, and was 
finally united to that kingdom in 1822. 

In leaving Fiume, the Dalmatian steamer passes 
between the Isle of Cherso and Veglia.* Veglia 
has excellent harbours; and the valleys, if cul- 
tivated, might be productive as of old, when the 
island was rich in timber and pasture land,, and 
produced abundance of grain, oil, and wine. The 
Illyrian snails, mentioned by Pliny, are very 
numerous in Veglia. They were considered great 
delicacies by the Romans, and Fulvius Hirpinus 
had preserves of them at his villa, where they were 
kept for the table, f 

It was during a long period an independent 
state, until ceded to Venice by Count Giovanni 
Frangipani, in the fifteenth century ; and as a very 
curious account is given by the Commissioner sent 
from Venice in 1481, to inquire into the state of the 

* Or Veggia, the Cyractica of Strabo, vii. p. 315. 
] Plin. ix. 56. 

Chap. II.] THE I8LE OP VEGLIA. 51 

island, illustrating the manners of those times, I 
shall introduce some extracts from his reports : — 

. . . u The ancient government of Veglia, as far 
as can be made out from its records, was a re* 
public, composed of nobles and people. Three 
orders of magistrates were chosen from the nobles, 
and one from the people ; and the count, who was 
the chief of the state, received his appointment for 
one year, as well as the viscount, judge, and 
officers; during which period, the count was 
absolute, and governed with the aid of his council. 

That the island was often a prey to corsairs 

is evident, from the circumstance that a grand feast 
is held every year, to this day, to commemorate 

its deliverance from piracy ; and a certain 

ancient convention, made in 1133, proves that the 
people gladly placed themselves under the wings of 
the glorious Evangelist, and, by public consent, 
built and dedicated a church to St. Mark, in per- 
petual remembrance of the benefits they owed to 

" In 1260, when Messer Rainiero Zen was doge, 
your Serenity's predecessors gave the island in fief 
to the two noble brothers Zuane Schinella, surnamed 
Frangipani, and their heirs male, on certain condi- 
tions, and also with the proviso that it was to revert 
to the Venetians. The year after their investiture, 
Bela, King of Hungary, flying from the Tartars, took 

B 2 


refuge in Veglia. The islanders, afraid that the 
Tartars might find their way after him from the 
main land, raised a large sum of money, with which 
Bela went back and reconquered Hungary ; and in 
consideration of this gift, he bestowed on, the 
counts the city of Segna, for which they did 
homage to the Hungarian kings, though, as lords 
of the island, they were the vassals of Venice. 
From their natural inclination to barbarous man- 
ners, they soon began to attach themselves to the 
Hungarian crown, and alienate themselves from 

the Venetian Republic, in return for which 

they were confirmed in the government of Segna, 
and obtained new privileges from Ladislas*, the 
successor of Bela 

" The Ban Nicolo Zuane left nine sons, amongst 
whom he divided his dominions ; and these quarrel- 
ling with each other, and disregarding the con- 
dition by which they held Veglia, of maintaining 
inviolate the ancient customs and liberties of the 
people, began to consider themselves absolute lords 

of the soil Count Zuane at last contrived 

to obtain entire possession of the island; and 
solemnly placing himself under the protection of 
St. Mark, he made a will, bequeathing his fief to 
the Republic in default of heirs male, as a safe- 
guard against his brothers' repeated attempts to 
deprive him of it. 

" Haying thus baffled their endeavours, he 

* Vladislav. 


began (according to the customs of his false and 
deceitful ancestors) to intrigue with the King of 
Hungary, and in 1460, proposed to help him in 
his war with the Emperor Frederic, by invading 
the neighbouring Imperial territory, on condition 
that he should govern such castles as he could 
take ; and the more to ingratiate himself with the 
Hungarian king, he sent him his son Count Anzolo, 

who was killed during the campaign The 

emperor forthwith complained to the Venetian 
government, and required the punishment of the 
offender ; but the Republic interceded in his behalf, 

and obtained his pardon ; notwithstanding 

which he secretly placed himself under the king's 
protection, and despatched a large body of troops 
to his aid ; who not only made war on the emperor, 
but did not hesitate to massacre such of the subjects 

of Venice as came in their way 

" Incensed at this conduct, the Republic sent an 
ambassador to menace him with punishment ; 
upon which he renewed his friendship with Hun- 
gary, and at the same time made court to Ferdi- 
nand of Naples, causing one of his sons to enter 
his service ; to whom the Neapolitan king promised 
300 ducats a-year, and a suitable establishment in 

marriage Ferdinand soon afterwards made 

an alliance with Hungary ; and Count Zuane per- 
suaded him that he ought to try and obtain the 
city of Segna, hoping by that means to ingratiate 
himself with the Neapolitan king, and marry 

E 3 


Count Nicolo his son, to a daughter of the Duke 
of Urbino. But neither the king, nor her father, 
would consent to the match, for fear of displeasing 
the Republic ; and finding himself thwarted in his 
hopes of a Neapolitan connexion, through his son, 
Zuane endeavoured to ally himself with the King 
of Hungary, through his daughter, by marrying 
her to a cousin of the king's ; and having invited 
him to Veglia, offered as a condition of their union, 
to bequeath him the island after his death. This 
act, by which he disinherited his own son, was 
done under the pretence that he was unhealthy, 
and not likely to live, — but the real motive was 
because he thought him disposed to favour the 
Republic, in consequence of his mother being a 

Venetian Moreover, he sent a present of 

money to the Sangiac of Bosnia, and instigated 
him to do much harm to the emperor, and also to 
the Signory, peace not having yet been made be- 
tween the Turks and the Republic 

" About the same time, his brother Count Bar- 
tule died without children, and he contrived to 
procure royal letters patent of inheritance, to the 

prejudice of the other brothers his co-heirs; 

and while he was contending for the possession of 
this property, Count Martino, another brother, fell 
sick, and Zuane, hearing that he was likely to die, 
hastened to make use of the royal letters, and seize 
on his estates also. He even took the castles of 
Novi, and Brebiera, before Count Martino had 


ceased to live ; when the dying man, incensed at 
his rapacity, made a will constituting the King of 
Hungary his heir. 

" The moment Count Martino was dead, the king 
wrote to Zuane, requiring him to surrender the 
property to the royal authorities ; but the Count, 
insolent with success, refused to do so, and tried 
to induce the Republic to support his usurpation. 
Whereon the king sent the Magyar Blasius*, who 
soon put the Count and his people to flight, and 
retook the castles with all their artillery and amu- 
nition ; so that his countship began to perceive 
that he had awakened the sleeping lion, and, 
trembling lest the Hungarians should cross over to 
the island, sent a humble entreaty to the Magyar 
Blasius, that he would pacify the royal indignation. 
.... But there was only one argument of persua- 
sion with the greedy captain, who reckoned on 
fingering a few thousand ducats ; while the Count, 
equally greedy, thought to drive the bargain with 
a few hundreds. These two wolves could there- 
fore by no means agree 

" Meanwhile Zuane, having spent much treasure, 
without fruit and without honour, bethought him- 
self of laying a tax on his people of 3500 ducats, 
to pay his expenses; which unlucky expedient 
exasperated men's minds, and excited the whole 
island to conspire against him They de- 

* This name of the " Hungarian " is curiously converted 
into " Major Bias." 

B 4 


spatched messengers secretly to the Magyar Bla- 
sius, praying him to cross over to the island ; where 
they looked out for him, as the Jews did for the 
Messiah. The veteran soldier instantly saw how 
easily he might obtain possession of the island; 
and, after communicating with the king, he applied 
to Marin Zunco, captain of Segna, for a sufficient 
number of vessels to convey his troops speedily to 

Veglia Zunco, for his own objects, eagerly 

seconded the project, and they instantly began 

their preparations Zuane, in great alarm, 

wrote to the Republic ; and to excite the more 
pity, he sent to Venice the Lady Countess his wife, 
and afterwards Count Niccolo his son, saying that 
he had no means of providing for their safety in 
the island And your Highnesses having com- 
passionately resolved on sending a secretary, to 
intercede with the Magyar Blasius, and avert the 
royal displeasure, it was my fate to be chosen for 

this undertaking 

"On the 1st of February, 1480, I embarked 
for Segna ; but was detained so long by contrary 
winds that, when I arrived, I found the Hungarians 
had crossed to the island, and were bombarding 

Castelmuccio Journeying thither, I proceeded 

to discuss the matter with the Magyar He 

showed me his troops, saying, * These, though 
scantily arrayed, and badly armed, are stout men 
and brave, and are greedy to ease you of some of 
your wealth ; ' then pointing to the rock of Castel- 
muccio, which he was bombarding, l If you want/ 

Chap.IL] the last count of veglia. 57 

quoth he, ' to master a wild horse, you must first 
bridle him, then saddle him, and then mount him, 
— the head of the horse I want to ride is Castel- 
muccio, which I look to have in two days, and I 
shall then go to Veglia to girth on the saddle.' .... 
When I exhorted him to abandon such an unjust 
enterprise, he burst forth into invectives against 
the tyrrany and wickedness of the Count, with 
bitter words full of wrath; .... and finally told 
me he dared not disobey his king's commands, but 
must continue the war. I clearly saw that he 
hoped to get possession of the island, before succour 
in good earnest arrived from Venice, .... there- 
fore, leaving the Magyar Blasius, I returned to 
Veglia ; and the Count, hearing my report, gave 
way to the most abject terror. 

" The Provveditore, well acquainted with the 
science of defence, meanwhile, ordered the fortifica- 
tions to be repaired ; and behold ! five days after- 
wards, the Hungarians, having taken Castelmuccio, 
encamped before the city, and bombarded it with 
two large, and several smaller, mortars ; they then 
attacked the port, damaged three galleys, and sank 
the one belonging to the Provveditore; but his 
greatness was nowise intimidated, and maintained 

a brave defence Two large cannon battered 

the walls incessantly, and a perpetual shower of 
balls was kept up on the streets and houses, which 
we returned as well as we could, without a single 
interval of rest ; but the Hungarians were 


6000 strong, well provided with ammunition, and 
elated at the capture of Castelmuccio. Moreover, 
they had the whole island with them, the inhabit- 
ants declaring that they would sooner die, sooner 
have the Turk for a master, than submit to the 

cruel tyranny of the Count Zuane 

" In this situation we were exposed to two equal 
dangers, of the Hungarians taking the city by 
assault, and of the citizens rising in a body and 
cutting us to pieces Whereupon, calling to- 
gether the Provveditore and the Count, and the 
principal citizens, I said that, being so lately come 
from Venice, I could speak with certainty of the 
intentions of your Serenity ; that I knew all 
your resources would not be withheld, if necessary 
to prevent their falling into the hands of such a 
powerful neighbour; and that I did not doubt of 
an active and sufficient succour ; although in conse- 
quence of the severity of the weather, and the conti- 
nuance of contrary winds, it could not be as prompt 
and speedy as might be wished. But I confessed that 
a much greater cause of uneasiness weighed on my 
mind, which, despite my reluctance to refer to it, 
the urgent peril of our situation compelled me to lay 
before them: and this was the character of the Count 
himself, who, hated as he was by the whole popu- 
lation, would involve us in destruction along with 
him : that he had as many enemies within the 
walls as without, and that his immediate followers, 
in whom he placed such confidence, would be the 


first to betray us to the Hungarians, being mostly 
subjects of their king, and having relations and 
property in his dominions : . . . . that I could per- 
ceive one only remedy to ensure the public safety, 
namely, to represent to the people that they always 
were, and ought to remain, lieges of the Republic, 
and to induce the Count freely to renounce his 
seigneurie to St. Mark, rather than see his people 
fall a prey to the cruel and haughty Hungarians ; 
for that it was certain, if we could once persuade 
the people they were really and truly under the 
Venetian Government, we should have them on 
our side to a man, and thereby disconcert the Hun- 
garians, who undertook the enterprise in the hope 
of being seconded by the populace. 

"When I had spoken, the Proweditore and all the 
council highly applauded my words ; and the Count 
Zuane, having listened with great attention, re- 
plied, ' I see what the secretary says is true ; do 
what you think fit : above all, delay is perilous.' 
Immediately, the whole population being assembled 
before the palace, — the Proweditore, the nobles, 
courtiers, sailors, and townspeople, — the Count 
Zuane spoke in these words : — ' My brothers, I am 
a son of the illustrious Signory of Venice, and my 
ancestors held this state from the Republic. Know- 
ing that my forces are not sufficient to protect you 
from the peril of this invasion, sooner than you 
should fall a prey to Hungary, it is my will that 
you return to the allegiance of St. Mark. Before 


you all, I renounce this domain to the serene Re- 
public, I restore it to the hands of her Proweditore, 
and as my last command, I require you all, who 
now hear me, to become her subjects and vassals, 
to swear to her homage" and fealty.' Whereupon 
all swore ; and, even the courtiers, with great re- 
luctance, were forced to submit. The Proweditore 
received the oaths in the name of your Serenity, 
encouraging the people to be of good cheer, now 
they were under the government of St. Mark, 
whose subjects none dared molest; and, moreover, 
proclaimed free grace and pardon to whomsoever, 
having revolted from Count Zuane, and gone over 
to the Hungarians, would return to the allegiance 

of your Serenity The people having taken 

the oath of fealty, the shout of ' St. Mark! ' ' St. 
Mark!' resounded from every side; the great 
standard of St. Mark was unfurled on the fortress ; 
and Piero Corvachiavin, the Count's Castellan, was 
ordered by the Proweditore to surrender forthwith 
the command to Messer Andrea Querini, Captain 

of the great Galley 

" Tidings of this event soon spread 1 among the 
Hungarian host, to their great consternation ; for, 
having built all their hopes on the co-operation of 
the Veglians, they began to tremble for their own 
safe retreat from the island. The inhabitants, who 
at first had been willing to supply all their wants, 
not only deserted them and refused provisions, but 
began to attack and cut off their foraging parties, 


well -knowing they should enjoy far greater se- 
curity under the glorious wings of St. Mark, than 
beneath the stern rule of Hungary. 

" Whereupon, seeing that our resources increased 
as theirs diminished, from day to day, they raised 
the bombardment of St. Francesco in alarm, and 
fortified their camp at St. Lorenzo 

"Thus under the benign government of St. Mark, 
the city began to breathe ; and those who in Count 
Zuane's time had concealed themselves, that they 
might not be called on to help his cause, now came 
forth from all sides, and even women, of every age 
and condition, eagerly assisted in the defence. At 
length, to the final discomfiture of the Hungarian 
host, four galleys sailed in, sent by the Captain- 
General Messer Antonio Loredano, for the relief of 
Veglia. The Magyar Blasius being thus besieged 
himself, where he sought to besiege others, and 
wanting provisions, especially wine, (without which 
it is notorious that this nation cannot exist,) he 

had recourse to cunning, but seeing that 

his intrigues were vain, the following morning 
he marched his whole host to Castelmuccio, and 
wrote to me for a safe-conduct to leave the 

" It was accorded in full; upon condition, that he 
should take nothing out of the island but what he 
brought in; and that he should consign the for- 
tress of Castelmuccio to the authorities of Veglia, 
when he should be free to quit with his army ; and 


boats and galleys should be at his service, to convey 
him to the main. He received the safe-conduct in 
a towering rage, and declared that his men would 
suffer any thing, and sooner eat one another, than 
bring such shame on their king, as to give up a 
fortress he had fairly conquered, and meant to keep 
with a garrison of two hundred, or three hundred, 
men for his Majesty. To this the Proweditore did 
not reply, leaving hunger to reason with him ; but 
while matters stood thus, Messer Vettor Soranzo, 
Captain-General of Venice in the Levant, appeared 
in the offing ; and the Magyar, perceiving his case 
hopeless, and his troops perishing from starvation, 
threw himself on his mercy, gave up Castelmuccio, 

and evacuated the island 

" No sooner did Count Zuane hear that the Hun- 
garians had left the island, than, to prevent the 
notion of his having given up his dominions to the 
Republic gaining ground among the people, he sent 
round to the villages his rascally courtiers, to levy 
anew the contributions, which were the immediate 
cause of all his troubles ; with orders to plunder, 
and punish, those who had any way favoured 
the invaders ; so that the whole island was again 
in commotion, and for fear of their lives, many 
sought to depart with the Hungarians, leaving 
their lands and houses. To allay this ferment, the 
Proweditore caused proclamations to be distri- 
buted, in the Slavonic tongue, all over the country, 
promising free pardon and safety for person and 

Chaf.IL] the last count of veglia. 63 

property, in the name of your Serenity, and soon 
after sailed with the fleet for the Levant. 

" The illustrious General, when he had seen the 
last Hungarian quit the shore, returned to Veglia, 
where he was assailed with fresh complaints of 
the Count. He accordingly ordained, that each 
and all persons were at full liberty, without fear of 
punishment, to tear in pieces any of Count Zuane's 
bravos who attempted to molest them ; whereupon, 
the Count smothering his rage, ceased his persecu- 
tions, hoping to return to his prey as soon as his 

Magnificence had departed But your 

Serenity's far-seeing wisdom, taking into considera- 
tion the rapacity of this cruel noble, ordered the 
aforesaid illustrious General to despatch the Count 
to Venice, before he joined the army in the Levant ; 
leaving me in Veglia to await further commands. 
And this was immediately done 

11 On leaving Veglia, the Count regulated the 
administration of the island, deputing his authority 
to his lieutenant, assisted by three judges, tax* 
gatherers, and other officials ; and no sooner was 
he on board Messer Polo da Canal's galley, than 
all the people of Veglia began to rejoice, with feast- 
ing, and ringing of bells, and solemn prayers for 
his eternal exile from their country, . . . . ; and 
when, four or five days after his departure, his 
judges began to form their court, and administer 
laws to the community, the people rose like the 
sea in a storm, exclaiming that they had no lord 


but your Serenity, and would obey none but the 
deputies of their beloved Republic. Whereat I, 
knowing how the whole island, from one end to the 
other, abhorred the very name of the Count, more 
than a man, bitten by a mad dog, hates water, per- 
ceived the necessity of calming the public mind, 
and to that end, associated myself with the judges, 
in the name of your Serenity, to administer justice. 
" My next step raised the hopes of the nobles, — 
who had been the victims of the Count's policy, in 
filling all offices of honour and emolument with his 
foreign mercenaries from the mainland, to the ex- 
clusion of the islanders, — by restoring them to the 
chief commands in their several districts ; when the 
robbers I had displaced wrote to their master, and, 
at the same time, maliciously spread reports that 
your Serenity was going to restore the Count forth- 
with to his fief ; upon which the excited populace 
thronged to my house, crying out in despair, that 
if the tyrant returned, they were ready to a man 
to quit house and home, and leave their beloved 
island a desert rock, or call in the Turk to their 
aid, if your Serenity refused to protect them. In 
spite of all I could say, I found it impossible to 

pacify them entirely ; and the deliberations 

of your Serenity at Venice being retarded, they 
came to me, begging permission to send two of the 
principal men of the island, as ambassadors for the 
rest to Venice, to present the earnest prayer of the 
afflicted people, to be protected from the oppres- 

Chap.IL] the last count of veglia. 65 

sions of their cruel lord, and recognised subjects of 
the glorious St. Mark 

" At length the Prefect, Messer Luigi Lando, 
having, with powerful arguments, convinced the 
King of Hungary of the right of jurisdiction 
possessed by St. Mark over the island, returned 
from Budua, and touched at Veglia. The whole 
community flocked to meet him, with transports of 
joy, which I cannot attempt to describe ; . . . . and 
finally, constrained by sovereign justice, your 
Serenity, for the infringement of his oath as your 
vassal — for other innumerable offences — and for 
pity of his ill-used suffering people — decided on 
resuming the lordship of all the territory, formerly 
conceded to the ancestors of the Count Zuane — a 
decision equally opportune, necessary, and just 

"Moreover, with greater regard to clemency, than 
to the crimes and unworthiness of this tyrant, your 
Serenity provided that, on condition of his residing 
quietly in Venice, he should receive a yearly 
revenue of 1000 ducats, and for his daughter 
a dowry of 4000 ducats, out of the public purse. 
But despite this just and merciful sentence, the 
tyrant fled secretly with his followers, and all 
that he could carry off, to Duke Sigismund of 
Austria ; being no more able to exist in a free city, 
where he could tyrannise over nobody, than night 

can abide the rising of the sun He left his 

wife, a lady of the house of Morosini, behind him ; 
and the signory still allow her four hundred ducats 


a year, besides a dowry for her daughter Caterina ; 
who married, first, a grandson of the Doge, Francesco 
Dandolo ; and, secondly, Andrea Foscolo ; but died 
without heirs. 

" And to the intent that the world may know, 
how your Serenity was not moved to deprive this 
Count of his lordship, on account of his breach of 
feud alone, but also that plain justice required a 
powerful and Christian state to interfere, for the 
prevention of such enormous iniquity, I will make 
a short summary of his innumerable crimes, which 
will astonish every man, and by which his flagi- 
tious life may be estimated I will only 

slightly glance at his heretical opinions, such as 
his denying a future life, prohibiting the christen- 
ing of his children, usurping the administration of 
spiritual affairs (saying that he was pope in his 
own dominions), and offering a licence to any 
priest, for four ducats, to keep a mistress, — by all 
which he brought ruin and desolation on the church. 

.... "In the time of Pope Calistus, a friar of 
St. Francis was sent into Croatia and Veglia, in 
the name of his Holiness, to preach a Crusade 
against the Turks ; and when he had collected to the 
amount of nearly 1000 ducats, besides jewels and 
rich vestments, Count Zuane caused him to be 
stopped, and stripped of the whole — a trick he 

often played to friars begging alms He also 

encouraged his followers to commit piracy on the 
high seas ; and on one occasion, Messer Francesco 


Bembo and Messer Andrea Contarini having come 
to Veglia, to complain of a robbery committed on 
Messer Zuan di Marco da Pago, and representing 
to the Count that he could not expect with im- 
punity to violate the jurisdiction of your Serenity 
on the high sea, the Count haughtily asked, i who 
has bestowed the sovereignty of the ocean on the 
Venetians V and these Signori having energetically 
responded, i His Holiness the Pope/ he immediately 
answered, 'the Pope could not give what was not his.' 

"Another time he fixed his eyes on 

a merchant, called Carlo Gottesalati of Parma, who 
had arrived with jewels and pearls of great value, 
to sell at Veglia. At his departure, the Count sent 
after him his pirate galley, and seized on all he had, 
letting him barely escape with his life; and the 
stolen ornaments were afterwards publicly worn by 
his daughter, without any attempt at concealment. 

.... " Count Radichio, brother of the late King 
of Bosnia, who had been taken and killed by the 
Turks, flying with his wife and family from the 
slaughter that desolated his native country, wan- 
dered in search of a new home, where he might live 
in melancholy privacy ; and, hearing that Arbe was 
under the government of your Serenity, he deter- 
mined to make it his retreat, hoping to find there 
a refuge for his afflicted family. He had rescued 
some gold and jewels from the ruin of his house, 
and a few retainers followed his desperate fortunes. 

Count Zuane, forthwith, began to devise how he 

F 2 


might best entrap him ; and sent his ambassador, 
the apostate Friar Matteo, to condole with him on 
his misfortunes, and invite him to come and reside at 
Veglia ; observing, that his monotonous life at Arbe 
must be intolerable to one, who had been accustomed 
to courts and camps, and assuring his Bosnian 
Highness that, if he came, he should freely share 
the good fortune God had given the Lord of Veglia. 
" The unfortunate man was easily persuaded to 
trust these kindly offers, and with his family and 
remaining property removed to Veglia. The Count 
received him hospitably, and for some time all 
went smoothly. But very soon, taking the tone of 
a friendly counsellor, Zuane began to insinuate that 
Radichio might retrieve his fortunes by pursuing 
his military career; and exhorted him to join the 
standard of the King of Hungary, who, he said, 
for the love and friendship he bore to him, would 
doubtless receive Radichio with all honour; — 
adding, that there was nothing to prevent his pay- 
ing the King of Hungary a visit, as he could leave 
his family free of charge in a safe asylum. 

" The hapless nobleman, completely blinded, set out 
accordingly ; leaving, with many tears, his wife and 
children in Count Zuane's custody. He had hardly 
passed the mountains ere he fell sick and died, by 
poison, as was universally believed; and what 
happened proved the truth of the report, since 
Count Zuane immediately laid hands on the trea- 
sure; imprisoning the wife and her children, on 


whose wretched bodies every species of torture 
was employed, to make them confess the amount of 
their jewels and gold. Every day they were sub- 
jected to fresh cruelties. One day, Dianco, a 
Bosnian noble, expired under the agony, and they 
buried him like a dog, in the night, giving out that 
he had hung himself. The miserable lady, on 
whom God had bestowed great tenacity of life, was 
all maimed and disfigured, while her daughters 
were, after many torments, stripped to their under 
garments, and turned out to beg their bread. 

" The diabolical Count then, having given their 
mother in charge to certain rich citizens, sent Fra 
Matteo to her, and proposed to set her at liberty, on 
condition that she would swear she had bribed her 
guardians with 200 ducats to let her escape. She 
replied, 'that her soul was in the hands of God, 
and her shattered body dead to further suffering ; 
and that far from being ready to cause the de- 
struction of those, who were as innocent as herself, 
she dared him, a traitorous host and barbarous 
sovereign as he was, to do his worst, and send 
her welcome Death.' 

" Fra Matteo returned to the Count with this 
reply, which did not save the citizens from being 
imprisoned and tortured, on this false pretence; 
but one of the noble lady's servants, surviving the 
torture, entered the convent of the Osservanti at 
Veglia, whose office it was to minister to the 
prisoners; and, watching his opportunity, con- 

F 3 


trived her escape in the habit of a monk ; and so 
she at last slipped through the tyrant's fingers. 

" Furious at her flight, he wreaked his vengeance 
on the monastery, imprisoned the monks, and 
confiscated their revenues. 

"One venerable father, in particular, who had 
been the lady's confessor, he tortured on the rack ; 
tiU by means of a large sum of money, collected by 
begging through the island in fetters, he bought 
his liberty, and is now living a holy hermit at the 
shrine of St. Leonardo 

" A relation of Count Radichio's, one Messer 
Paolo, who had followed him to Veglia, alarmed at 
these disastrous events, sought to flee speedily 
with his wife and daughter from the island ; but 
he had hardly got out to sea, when he was dis- 
covered, and stopped by theFrangipaneschi corsairs, 
who stripped him of money, jewels, and wardrobe, 
leaving the ladies barely their shifts. Thus reduced 
to beggary, he went over in despair to the Turks, 
swearing that, some time or other, he would have 
his revenge; which kept Count Zuane always in 
alarm, whenever the Turks were on the opposite 
shore, lest he should persuade them to cross over 
to the island 

" One year, a certain merchant having arrived 
from the mainland with corn, and applied to his 
lordship for a licence to sell the same, the Count 
referred him to the magistrate of the interior, who 
gave him the necessary permission; on which he 

I . 


landed, but had no sooner begun to sell than he 
was clapped into prison, fined 25 ducats, and his 
corn seized and confiscated, on the pretext that his 
licence was irregular, having been issued by the 
magistrate instead of the Count 

" There was a priest in Veglia, called Zuane, 
who was reputed very rich. The Count accord- 
ingly applied to him for the loan of 300 ducats ; 
and on his trying to evade the request, upon the 
plea of not having the money by him, he was im- 
mediately thrown into prison, and all that he had 
was taken from him. After a long confinement he 
was released, and escaping from Veglia he fled to 
Fiume, where he died in great poverty 

"One day, at Castelmuccio, the Count pre- 
tended to have forgotten to bring his purse over 
with him from Veglia, and sent into the village to 
borrow 8 or 10 ducats; which he said should 
be repaid, when he sent for his money to Veglia. 
A poor old woman who, with many years toil, had 
unluckily for herself scraped together 5 good 
Veglian ducats, fell into the trap, and in her loyalty 
and simplicity brought them to lend her lord ; but 
this Nero, judging the poor old creature must have 
more besides, had her seized and put to the torture, 
to make her confess where she kept her hoard, so 
that she expired upon the rack, and was buried like 
a dog 

" Pichiotto di Minchielo, a citizen and merchant 
of Veglia, who had been many years in trade, was 

F 4 


accounted well to do, at least for those parts, and 
had no children, but a good many nephews and 
other relations. When he was on the point of death, 
the Count sent his creature, Fra Matteo, to search ' 
his house ; when his avarice not being satisfied 
with 500 ducats in gold, which was all that could 
be found, he summoned all his relations, ten in 
number, saying, < Pichiotto had much more money 
•than appears, he must have given it in charge to 
you;' and so making them pay each 200 ducats 
a-piece, he reduced them all to poverty 

" Another relation of this same Pichiotto, Stephen 
by name, was pointed out to the Count as a man of 
substance, whereupon he was seized, and 200 ducats 
found in his possession were taken, on the same plea 
of the money being Pichiotto's, left in his care. 
The poor man died of a broken heart ; upon which 
his Lordship imprisoned his two daughters, one a 
nun, the other married to Gaudente Filinic, and 
had them beaten till they were half dead, and 
could not stand upright. But not being able to 
get out of them whether their father had left any 
more money, he confiscated their houses, cattle, 
and vineyards; so that the poor nun and her 
sister at this moment beg their bread from door 
to door 

" There was also at Veglia a citizen called 
Minchielo, who had the reputation of being well 
off. The Count, according to custom, sent to 
borrow money of him ; and as he tried to excuse 


himself, on the plea of extreme poverty, the tyrant 
instantly had him lodged in a damp pestiferous 
dungeon, at the bottom of a tower, and put him to 
the most atrocious tortures, hanging him up by the 
feet, so that stretching himself to the utmost he 
could just touch the ground with his head, till he 
gladly paid 100 ducats to get out, and died shortly 
afterwards. The very night of his decease, Zuane, 
imagining that he must have left a good deal of 
money, sent his creature Matteo to search the 
house. The afflicted widow, with her young 
daughter, aged fourteen years, were dragged from 
their beds to the torture, and received so many 
stripes that they fainted, and were supposed to 
have expired. On their recovery, the miserable 
creatures, to obtain respite from torment, declared 
that the money was concealed at Cherso, and the 
Count immediately sent to fetch it. But when the 
search proved fruitless, his fury exceeded all 
bounds, and he caused them to be stripped, and 
stretched on the rack till every bone was broken, 
and blood streamed from every pore, so that it was 
a miracle how any breath remained in their 
wretched bodies; and not being susceptible of fur- 
ther torment by that means, the butcher invented 
new devilries by fire and lime, to the grief and 
horror of the whole island. 

" He was thus wreaking his barbarities on these 
innocent martyrs, when the war with the Hun- 
garians began, and gave him something else to 


think about. I do not speak from mere hearsay ; 
I saw with my own eyes, and touched with my own 
hands, those bleeding wounds ; for when the most 
worthy Pro weditore Messer Jacopo Venier arrived, 
the people with one accord called on him to liberate 
these poor wretches. He opened the gates of their 
fetid dungeon, and caused these miserable corses, 
most wonderful to relate, still breathing, to be 
conveyed to their own home; from whence their 
souls soon took flight to heaven, to implore justice 
at the throne of the Almighty, and invoke blessings 
on your gracious Serenity, who has mercifully con- 
descended to liberate the island from the fangs of 
such an insatiable Dragon." 

On the main-land, between Veglia and Arbe, is 
Segna, once belonging to the famous, or infamous, 
Uscocs, who infested the Adriatic during the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Placed in a 
recess of the Bay of Quarnero, Segna was covered, 
at that time, on the land side, by a barrier of un- 
cleared forests and mountains, traversed by rare 
and intricate defiles ; and numerous winding chan- 
nels, amidst reefs and islets, with a stormy shallow 
sea, rendered the port inaccessible, except to boats 
of light burthen. The dangers of the Quarnero, 
indeed, have always been proverbial, among the 
mariners of the Adriatic ; and, in the time of the 
Uscocs, it was believed that, by lighting a fire in a 
certain cave, they had the power of raising an off- 
shore gale, under which no vessel could live. 

Chap. II.] THE USCOCS. 75 

The origin of the Uscocs * was the union of an 
independent body of men, resolved on resisting, 
and freeing themselves from, the tyranny of the 
Turks. Their name in Slavonic signifies one who 
"jumps away," and is applied to a deserter, or a 
refugee. Their numbers soon increased, and they 
obtained possession of Clissa, which continued to be 
their stronghold, until taken from them by the 
Turks in 1537; when the Archduke Ferdinand 
gave them the town of Segna, and other places on 
the coast, where they were joined by many of 
the Morlacchi of Dalmatia, and freebooters from 
other countries. Their attacks, which had been 
at first directed against the Turks, in process 
of time extended to all who traded in the Adriatic ; 
till their piracies, and unheard-of barbarities, having 
at length drawn upon them the hostility of the 
Venetians, the Uscocs were removed from the 
coast, and a new abode was assigned to them in 
Croatia, principally about the city of Carlstadt. 

Beyond Veglia are Arbe and Pago to the east, 
and Ossero to the west ; rocky islands producing 
little but wine, thinly inhabited, and rendered 
doubly barren by the Bora, which sweeps over 
them violently in winter. 

Lossin Grande and Lossin Piccolo are the prin- 
cipal harbours in the Isle of Ossero, and are often 

* The History of the Uscocs (Uscocchi) has been written by 
Minuccio Minucci Archbishop of Zara, Fra Paolo, and others. 
See below, the History of Dalmatin, in Chapter IX. 


visited by the Dalmatian steamers. Lossin Piccolo 
has an excellent port, formed by a deep bay, two 
miles and a half in length ; at the extremity of 
which stands the town, partly on the shore, and 
partly on a height crowned by a church. 

The place is thriving ; and the inhabitants being 
good sailors, many ships in the Austrian navy, 
and merchant service, are manned from Lossino. 
I counted twenty square-rigged vessels, barques, 
and brigs, in harbour there, in December ; and the 
total number belonging to the place are about 
thirty, far exceeding that of any other Dalmatian 
port. The town, which is well built, contains 
upwards of 2500 inhabitants. The productions are 
principally wine and oil, the island being destitute 
of grain ; but it is surprising to find that, notwith- 
standing the cold winds of winter, the climate is 
sufficiently warm for date-trees. 

A remarkable fact is stated by Lucio # , that the 
Isle of Arbe made an agreement with the doge,Otho 
Orseolo, in 1018, to furnish Venice with an annual 
tribute of ten pounds of silk, or in default to pay 
five pounds of pure gold ; which has been supposed 
to prove that silk worms were reared at that early 
period in Dalmatia; though there appears more 
reason to believe the silk was introduced there by 
the Byzantine trade, f 

* Lucio, lib. 2. c. viii. p. 80. See below, the History of 

f See Gibbon, c. 40. 


Fortis mentions a curious custom in the Isle of 
Pago, which seems to have been invented as an 
inducement to wives to take care of their husbands. 
" The women of Pago," he says, " and particularly 
those who have been married but a short time, if 
their husbands happen to die, tear their hair out in 
good earnest, and scatter it on the coffin ; and this 
ceremony is so much consecrated by custom, that 
no woman, even though she had notoriously hated 
her husband, would fail in performing it." The 
island is of very unusual shape, with a large inland 
bay, which is, however, far from being a safe harbour 
in winter. 

Upon the main-land, on the other side of the 
Canal della Morlacca, is the town of Carlopago*, in 
a barren rocky district. It succeeded to Scrissa, a 
castle of the Counts of Corbavia, which, after their 
extinction, passed into the hands of the Uscocs, 
from whom it was taken by the Venetians in 1616; 
and Scrissa having been destroyed, Carlopago was 
afterwards built there, as a depdt for the commerce 
of Croatia. Fortis gives a melancholy account of the 
treatment of the people in this, the Lika, district 
of Croatia, by the Austrians. He states that " the 
passage from the Ottoman to the Austrian yoke 
reduced the inhabitants to the most miserable con- 
dition;" and that "the smallest complaint was 
called sedition, and punished with barbarous 
severity f;" but it may be doubted if they had any 

• Or Carlobago. f Fortis, p. 526. 


reason to complain of the change, after what they 
had suffered under the Turks. 

Nona, which is in a bay, at the projecting point 
of land to the south of Pago, was once celebrated 
under the Croatian kings, but now possesses no re- 
mains of its former consequence ; nor are there any 
ruins of the old Roman city of iEnona. Inland 
to the eastward is the river Zermagna, whose pre- 
cipitous banks are said to be particularly wild 
and picturesque ; and the Castle of Novigrad, near 
this river, is remarkable for having been the scene 
of the imprisonment, and death, of Elizabeth Queen 
of Hungary.* 

Of the numerous islands that lie off this coast, 
few are of any great use, except to render the 
navigation secure, as through a succession of lakes ; 
and it was this security, and the cover afforded to 
small craft, that made them in former times the 
resort of pirates. Cherso, Veglia, and Ossero belong 
to Istria ; Pago and Arbe to Dalmatia. 

Uglian, the ancient Lissa, is noted for its mar- 
bles; and this, and some other islands, obtained 
a momentary importance during the wars of the 

Zara, the capital of Dalmatia, is better known 
from the famous siege it stood, against the com- 
bined forces of the Venetians and French, at the 
commencement of the fourth Crusade, than for 
its previous history ; though it was f a place of 
importance in Roman times, and the capital of 

* See below, the History of Dalmatia, in Chapter IX. 
f See the History, in Chapter IX. 

Chap.H] ZARA — ROMAN GATE. 79 

Liburnia, a country comprised between the two 
rivers Tedanius and Titius, the modern Zermagna 
and Kerka. It was then called Jadera, and in the 
middle ages Diadora, and was a Roman colony. 

Little remains of the ancient city. The sea-gate, 
called Porta di San Chrysogono, is of Roman time ; 
but report speaks of its having been brought to 
Zara, from the ruins of jEnona ; and, from the word 
" emporium " in the inscription, it probably stood 
near some market-place. It was erected in compliance 
with the will of Melia Anniana, to the memory of 
her husband* The inscription is : 




The gate is of a single arch, with a Corinthian 
pilaster at each side, supporting an entablature; 
and we learn from the inscription that, like the 
Porta Aurea at Pola, it was surmounted by statues. 

Above it is another inscription, recording an event 
of great European celebrity, the victorj 7 of Lepanto ; 
which no one can look upon, without partaking in 
some degree of the enthusiasm felt at the period, 
when this record was put up. 

There are two Corinthian columns, one in the 
open space near the church of St. Simeone, and the 
other at the Piazza delle Erbe ; both which were 
probably placed in their present position by the 
Venetians. On the latter are remains of the winged 
lion of St, Mark; and attached to the shaft are 


chains, by which criminals were fastened "in the 
time of the republic. Not far from this is the 
church of St. Donato, now a military storehouse ; 
where an inscription is said by Farlati to have 
been found, dedicated " to Juno by Apuleia Quinta, 
the daughter of Marcus." 

Another he gives* proves that the worship of 
Tsis and Serapis was in vogue at Jadera — 

" Isidi Serapidi Liberi 

Libera voto 

Suscepto pro salute 

Scapulas filii sui 
P. Quinctius Paris 
s. 1. m. w 

which has been thought to confirm the assertion 
"that when the Romans went into Illyria, they 
found that worship established there." But the 
existence of those rites at so early a period in 
Illyria may be doubted ; and it is more probable 
that they were introduced there, after its conquest 
by the Romans. 

He also shows from the expression "Parens 
colonise," applied to Augustus, in another inscrip- 
tion, that Jadera was indebted for its foundation 
to that emperor ; who fortified it " with walls and 
towers," subsequently repaired by one "Titus 
Julius Optatus." 

The mention of Publius Cornelius Dolabella, 
" legatus propraetor," or governor of the province, 
in the time of Tiberius, in two other inscriptions 
found at Zara and Ragusa Yecchia, has led to 

* Farlati, vol. v. p. 3. See also Wheeler, p. 11. 


much discussion, even to the present day. But it 
is evident he was not the Dolabella, who married 
Tullia the daughter of Cicero, but the one men- 
tioned by Paterculus, who governed IUyricum, 
about a.d. 14. 

The Duomo, or Cathedral of Zara, is an interest- 
ing building of Lombard style, erected in the 
thirteenth century by Enrico Dandolo, after the 
city had been taken by the Venetian and French 
crusaders ; doubtless with a view to deprecate the 
displeasure of Pope Innocent, who had severely 
censured the Venetians for their sacrilegious con- 
duct, in pillaging the churches of Zara. The 
fa£ade is ornamented with the small round-headed 
blank arches, common in Lombard and Norman 
monuments, which extend also along the exterior 
of the aisles and clerestory. 

It is composed of three parts ; the centre corres- 
ponds to, and terminates, the nave, and the sides 
the two aisles ; each having its entrance by a door- 
way, ornamented with a succession of small co- 
lumns, supporting the usual recessed semicircular 
arches, and a tympanum sculptured with the Lamb 
and sacred figures. The jambs and lintels are 
ornamented with arabesque patterns ; and the 
columns, as well as the corresponding ovolos of 
the arches, have the cable moulding. 

In the centre of the fagade are two rosette win- 
dows, one over the other, the upper one opening 
on the clerestory, and introduced at a later time, 



The interior has been altered, but the original parts 
are readily traced ; and the raised portion at the 
east end, as well as the general form of the build- 
ing, calls to mind the old basilica. The arches of 
the nave, which have single flat soffits, and a 
slight horse-shoe form, rest on plain round columns ; 
over them is a spacious triforium ; and at the top 
of the clerestory is a frightful segmental window, 
of late riding-school style. There are some carved 
wooden stalls ; but the chief merit of this cathedral 
consists in the style of the architecture, in which 
respect it is one of the most remarkable buildings, 
of Christian time, in Dalmatia. 

The church of Sta. Maria has round-headed 
arches ; and attached to it is a Benedictine nun- 
nery, founded in 1066, by the sister of Cresimir, 
king of Croatia. The old tower was built by 
Coloman, king of Hungary, in 1105, after his con- 
quest of Dalmatia. 

Petter speaks of a painting by Titian, in the 
church of Sta. Maria ; and in that of S. Simeone is a 
sarcophagus, containing the bones of the saint, 
which is said to have been placed there by Eliza- 
beth queen of Hungary. * The inventory of relics, 
in the different churches of Zara, given by Farlatif, 
might satisfy the most credulous, or the most devout. 
They amount at least to fifty or sixty; consist- 
ing of fingers, heads, and entire bodies of saints, 

* Petter, p. 94. f Farlati, vol. v. p. 9. 


with pieces of the true cross ; and if we smile at 
the introduction of " articulus ex digito S. Joannis 
Baptistaa," or " ex lacte B. V. in vasculo argenteo," 
we may, in reading of " reliquiae S. Joannis B. et 
aliorum Divorum" or "plures Divorum reliquiaB," 
feel surprise at the singular mention of saints, 
under the same title as the gods, and emperors of 

St. Elia is the only Greek church at Zara. On 
the right side they show a chapel, which at the 
time of the French occupation was the only sanc- 
tuary possessed by the Greek Christians there ; and 
this being represented to the commandant, the 
whole church was ceded to them by his order, and 
has continued in their possession to the present 
day. The steeple is of late Venetian style. 

Zara is well built, clean, and tolerably paved. 
The population amounts to 6860. It stands on a 
promontory, connected with the mainland by a 
narrow isthmus, through which a ditch was cut by 
the Venetians, that carried the sea-water entirely 
round the works. It was often besieged and taken, 
during the wars between the Venetians and Hun- 
garians ; the authority of the Doge was frequently 
assailed, and the governor expelled, by the dis- 
affected inhabitants ; and even the Genoese had 
temporary possession of the city, during their 
struggles with Venice. But the importance of its 
position was too great for the Venetians to allow 
its remaining independent, or in the possession of 

G 2 


any other power ; and the recovery of Zara was 
always one of their principal objects. 

Long before the Turks advanced into Dalmatia, 
Zara was firmly held within the grasp of Venice, 
and its strong defences were a security against any 
attacks of those invaders; the dread of whose 
cruelties prevented all disaffection of the Zaratines 
against the Republic, and united the other maritime 
towns in a common cause with the Venetians. 

The works are still kept up, and the winged lion, 
as usual in Venetian fortifications, figures in many 
conspicuous places; but they are no longer re- 
quired, and some of the cisterns, or pozze di Zara % 
have been made out of the casemates. 

The port is secure, and well defended by the 
works of the town, which are strong on the east 
side ; where there is a large gateway, called Porta 
di terra ferma, ornamented with Doric columns 
and triglyphs, of the style common in works of the 
renaissance, and built by the celebrated San Mi- 
chieli, or by his nephew Gian Girolamo. 

This and the Porta di Marina, on the north side, 
are the only gates of Zara, the other two being 
merely sallyports. 

The fosse before the eastern wall is used as a 
place of refuge for boats. Close to it is the public 
garden : on entering, you pass by a sort of hemi- 
cyclion, or semicircular seat, with columns, in 
imitation of the antique ; and beyond, in an alcove, 
are some inscriptions. Two of these were sent 


from Vido, the ancient Narona, and another is in 
the Glagolitic character of Slavonic. 

Zara possesses a small museum, a theatre, and a 
casino. There are also a lyceum, a central school 
of theology, and other places of public instruction ; 
and a court of appeal, and another of prima istanza, 
as well as ordinary courts of judicature and police. 
Zara is the see of the metropolitan of Dalmatia; 
Spalato and Ragusa having no longer an arch- 
bishop ; and the bishoprics of Dalmatia are Sebenico, 
Spalato, Lesina, Ragusa, and Cattaro. 

The statutes of Zara are supposed to have been 
compiled in the beginning of the fourteenth cen- 
tury. * 

The land has sunk very much, since the time of 
the Romans; and many ancient pavements have 
been found below the level of the sea. 

The town is not well supplied with water ; and 
in ancient times an aqueduct is supposed to have 
brought it from the small river Kakma, by Torrette, 
on the way to Zara Vecchia, remains of which are 
still seen in that direction ; and Fortis says that an 
inscription was found at Zara, stating it to have 
been made by Trajan. 

The district about Zara is called Kotar. 

The land is far from fertile ; and all the little 
soil they have is enclosed by the peasants within 
stone walls, as at Malta, to prevent the rains 
washing it off into the sea. They grow a very 

* Catalinich, vol. iii. p. 54. 

O 3 


small quantity of corn ; and the chief productions 
are wine and oil, which are considered good. The 
Maraschino of Zara is well known. It is made 
from the stone and kernel of the Marasca, or wild 

The hills in the neighbourhood are low, but the 
lofty Villebich is seen in the distance, which is one 
of the highest ranges in Dalmatia. The climate is 
not considered healthy in summer, but Zara is not 
subject to the malaria that prevails in some other 
parts of Dalmatia. 

Cavaliere Turzsky, who is the Governor of Dal- 
matia, resides at Zara. As I was the bearer of a 
letter to him from Count Nugent, he gave me every 
assistance during my stay in Dalmatia ; which I 
have much plelre in acknowledging, as well 
as the courtesy of Madame, who unites the most 
amiable manners to the natural goodness of the 
Germans. Cavaliere Turzsky is the General com- 
manding the forces, as well as Civil Governor of 
the province ; and he is assisted in his official civil 
duties by an aulic councillor, and five councillors of 

The whole of Dalmatia is divided into the four 
circoli, or departments, of — 1. Zara; 2. Spalato; 
3. Ragusa; and 4. Cattaro.* Each circolo is 
governed by a Capo, or Capitano, Circolare ; who 
superintends the police, and all the civil adminis- 

* See above, p. 37. 


tration, and resides at the capital of the depart- 

The circolo is divided into distretti (districts), or 
preture ; (that of Zara containing 8 ; Spalato, 10 ; 
Ragusa, 5 ; and Cattaro, 3 ;) in the chief town of 
which a Pretore resides, nominated by the Governor 
of Dalmatia. He is second to the Capo Circolare, 
and has the management of the police ; and in the 
same town is the Podestd, who is Capo Comunale, 
and regulates all the affairs of the six, ten, or 
twelve communes*, within his jurisdiction, assisted 
by a council, composed of four assessors, and twelve 
consiglieri comunali, who overlook the lighting of 
the town, night patroles, inns, public expenses, and 
all parish business. They hold the office for three 
years, and are appointed by the council, previous to 
its going out, but must be confirmed by the 
Governor of Dalmatia, as the podestd by the Emperor 
himself. The pretore is also appointed by the 
Emperor, at the recommendation of the Governor 
of Dalmatia. Under the pretore is the sirdar, who 
is lieutenant of the territorial force, or country 
police, called pandouri. These armed peasants 
serve without pay, doing duty by turns for a day 
or two each, according to their number. 

Every circolo has also a colonel of the territorial 
force, who commands all the sirdars ; and that of 
Zara has ten sirdars and fifteen vice-sirdars. 

* Or comunes. 
q 4 


There are also a sindaco, and vice-sindaco ; who 
live in some small town, and whose jurisdiction ex- 
tends over several parishes.* The sindaco answers 
to Capovilla. 

The population of all the Circoli of Dalmatia, in 
1833, consisted of 

Slavonians ..... 340,000 
Italians, mostly from Venice - 16,000 

Albanians (of the Borgo Erizzo) - - 882 

Jews (chiefly from Spain) at Spalato and Ragusa - 510 


and in 1844 amounted to 403,421, of whom 

323,271 were Roman Catholics. 
664 United Greeks. 
77,690 Greeks. 
483 Jews. 
27 Protestants. 
1,286 Members of religious houses. 


showing an increase, which Carrara states to be of 
62,133 in 16 years, from 1828 to 1844. 

The various posts in Dalmatia are not looked 
upon as very eligible ; and few are either lucrative 
or desirable, except, perhaps, that of governor. 
Even this is far less agreeable than many others, 
held by men of the same rank ; and the total isola- 
tion in which he lives, the want of society for his 
family, and the distance from Vienna, are great 
objections. Many of the other government officers, 

* The Sindacato of Vergoraz extends over six parishes and 
sixteen villages, with a population of 7000 inhabitants. 


not natives of Dalmatia, look upon an employment 
there as banishment ; and are only satisfied with 
it, from the idea that it may lead to something 
better ; and a very general remark is, that " Dal- 
matia is the Siberia of Austria." For the Italian 
regiments, it is perhaps a welcome post, from the 
similarity of manners and language in the large 
towns ; and the Austrians, finding that the isolated 
position of the country, and the quiet demeanour 
of the inhabitants, relieve them from the fear of 
political intrigues, do not scruple to employ those 
troops in Dalmatia. 

The Dalmatians are indeed very quiet under the 
"paternal government ;" its policy throws no posi- 
tive obstacles in the way of improvement, as did 
that of the Venetians ; and the fault is rather that 
it fails sufficiently to encourage, than that it di- 
rectly opposes, beneficial measures. 

But the effect of the general feeling, or the wishes 
of the employ is, that their stay may be temporary, 
cannot be otherwise than injurious to the country ; 
and the natural consequence is, that few care to 
suggest any improvements ; and the little interest 
felt at Vienna, respecting Dalmatia, is no induce- 
ment to any one to propose them. 

You often meet very agreeable persons in Dal- 
matia, both Austrians and natives ; and the former, 
whether military men or civilians, are disposed to 
be courteous and sociable; but since that ill-advised 
political plot, concocted by the Italians at Corfu, 


in 1844, the Austrian government does not en- 
courage too intimate an intercourse with the En- 
glish ; and officers of the "imperial-royal" navy are 
ordered to abstain from associating too much with 
them. In compliance therefore with these instruc- 
tions, whenever a ship enters Malta, or other ports, 
the officers pay visits of ceremony to those of 
British men-of-war, but avoid all advances towards 
sociable intercourse ; which is the more to be re- 
gretted, as the Austrian officers, both of the navy 
and army, are agreeable and intelligent. 

The feeling of the Austrian government towards 
its foreign subjects often leads many an employ^ 
to make a display of bitterness, in speaking of 
them, which is sometimes real, sometimes put on, 
to court the good will of the higher powers ; and 
I once witnessed a performance of this kind, in the 
presence of several Dalmatians. 

The conversation turned upon an event that had 
recently occurred in a Dalmatian town ; where, in 
a quarrel between some soldiers and the people, 
two of the former had been killed. How many 
of the other party had been injured did not appear; 
that was immaterial to the speaker, and he decided 
that, as the offenders were unknown, the whole of 
the population ought to be " decimated and shot," 
and the butchery of any number of Dalmatians 
was thought a fit way of remedying the incapacity 
of the police. 

On hearing this recommendation given, and 


welcomed by persons holding official stations, I 
could not help suggesting that we were living in 
the nineteenth century, and that I was surprised to 
find any European, of a state calling itself civilised, 
propose so atrocious a measure. 

I was doubtless soon afterwards placed under 
the surveillance of "the police ; but as I never inter- 
fered in politics, I cared little for their espionnage ; 
and if men laid themselves open to a reply, by the 
expression of sentiments worthy of barbarians, it 
was not my fault ; and so insulting was the re- 
mark considered by the Dalmatians present, that 
they afterwards thanked me for having checked 
a conversation, which they would have been com- 
pelled to listen to, without daring to object. 

92 [Chap. III. 

CHAR in. 


Sebenico. — Spalato, Palace of Diocletian. — Salona. — 
Clissa. — I Castelli. — Trail. — Isles of Brazza and 

The voyage from Zara to Sebenico takes about 
six hours by the steamer. 

About a mile to the south of Zara is the village 
of Borgo Erizzo (Eritzo), inhabited by Albanians, 
who settled there eighty years ago. They were 
brought to Dalmatia by the metropolitan of Zara, 
named Zmaievich, a Bocchese, or native of the 
Bocche di Cattaro, who had been archbishop of 

Zara Vecchia (in Illyric, Stari-Zadar) stands on 
the coast, about sixteen miles to the S. E. of the 
Dalmatian capital. It was formerly a considerable 
town, but is now reduced to a village, of between 
four and five hundred inhabitants. It is supposed 
to have stood on, or near, the site of the ancient 
Blandona, which was distant 20 M. P. from Jadera. 
In the low ages it was called Bielograd *, " the 
white city," and was destroyed by the Venetians f, 
under Ordelafo Faliero, in 1115. 

* See the history, in Chap. V. 

| According to Lucio, Dandolo, and others; and not, as 
Palladio Fusco says, by the Zaratines, in Lucio, p. 453. 


Vrana, which often figures in the history of 
Dalmatia*, is not the successor of any ancient 
town, but is remarkable as the residence of the 
Knights Templars, in the twelfth, thirteenth, and 
fourteenth centuries ; its fortified monastery having 
been confirmed to them, in the twelfth century, by 
the king of Hungary. f At one time it fell into the 
hands of the Turks; but after its destruction, by 
the Venetians, it ceased to be inhabited, its walls 
fell to decay, and the ruins are still seen amidst the 
modern houses. 

The sites of some old towns occur to the south- 
ward and eastward, but without remains of con- 
sequence. Nadin, or Nadino, on the road from 
Zara to Knin, marks the site of Nedinum, of which 
nothing now exists. It is said to have been de- 
stroyed by the Goths. The Venetians afterwards 
fortified it with a tower, on an elevated position, 
from which the approach of an enemy might be 
observed and signalised. It was twice taken by 
the Turks, and twice recovered by the Venetians ; 
but on their evacuation, in 1684, the Turks so 
completely destroyed it, that all the works and 
buildings required to be entirely rebuilt. 

The remains of Asseria, or Assessia J, may be 
seen at Podgraje, where the circuit of the town is 
still visible. Fortis says the circumference mea- 

• See the History in Chap. IX. a. d. 1186—1196. 
f See the Knights Templars, in the History. Chap. IX. 
X About twenty-seven miles from Zara to the East See 
Fortis, p. 32. 


sures 3600 Roman feet, and the space enclosed 
within the walls forms an oblong polygon. The 
thickness of these fortifications is about eight feet, 
but at the narrowest extremity, which falls towards 
the. foot of the hill, they are eleven feet thick, and 
in some parts their height, in his time, reached " to 
near thirty feet." On the N.E. side are traces of a 
gate ; the curve of whose arch was then visible, and 
some of the inhabitants remembered to have seen 
it entire. The walls are lined within, and without, 
with Dalmatian marble; and some of the stones 
measure ten feet in length. The city is mentioned 
by Pliny and Ptolemy. The former speaks of the 
people as " the free Asseriates," who attended the 
Conventus, or Congress, of Scardona ; and this 
people, who created their own magistrates, and 
were governed by their own municipal laws, were 
no doubt (as Fortis observes) more rich and 
powerful than any of their neighbours. The posi- 
tion of the place has led to its modern name ; Pod- 
graje, signifying " under the hill." 

Sebenico stands on the inner side of a lake, or 
bay, the entrance to which is by a narrow and 
rather tortuous canal*, with steep rocky sides, 
easily defended, and difficult of access to sailing 
vessels without a leading wind. On a low tongue 
of land, at the south side of the entrance, is the 
fort of San Nicolo, built in 1546, by San Michieli, 
during the rule of the Venetians ; and at the other 

* Called of St. Antonio. 

Chap. HI.] 8EBENIC0. 95 

extremity of the passage, where it opens on the 
bay, the French constructed a small redoubt, now 

Near this canal, a tower formerly stood, which 
was occupied by the nobles of Sebenico, when 
in 1410 they were expelled from the city by the 
populace, for having sided with the Venetians, the 
people being warmly attached to the Hungarian 
rule. They vainly endeavoured to fight their way 
back; and the remonstrances of Sigismund, king 
of Hungary, were equally ineffectual to induce 
their opponents to receive them ; till, out of pa- 
tience with their obstinacy, Sigismund seized the 
leaders of the popular party, and punished them 
with death. The patricians then returned to their 
homes. But having thus alienated the affections 
of his adherents, Sigismund shortly afterwards lost 
the city, which entered into a treaty with the 

The port is very secure, and the water, both 
there and in the channel, is deep. Sebenico is 
commanded by the castle of St. Anna, built on a 
rocky eminence immediately above it. There are 
two other castles on higher ground behind this. 
The uppermost one, called S. Giovanni, is still 
kept in repair ; and the lower one, which is dis- 
mantled, bears the name of II Barone, in comme- 
moration of the gallant defence it made under 
Barone di Degenfeld, in 1648, against the Turks. 

When the Venetians were at war with the Turks, 


and Sebenico was exposed to attacks from the land 
side, these forts were its principal protection, com- 
manded as it was by the high ground to the east- 
ward; but they are now of little use, except to 
prevent a coup de main ; and the road, made from 
the interior over this pass, has taken much from 
their efficiency. By this road, most of the coal 
from the Dernis mines is conveyed in carts to 
Sebenico, a distance of about twenty-six miles. 

In former times, and even before the construction 
of the two upper forts, the difficulty of ascending 
this hill was looked upon by the Venetians as the 
security of the place, and is mentioned in a report 
on Sebenico *, which says, " the Monte Giovanni 
commands the castle (of S. Anna), and would 
destroy . it entirely, but the ascent of the hill is 
very rough, and cannon could, with difficulty, be 
brought up it ; though, to render the city quite 
secure on the land side, it is necessary to erect a 
castle, however small, upon the hill." The sug- 
gestion was followed, and the two forts were made 
there, to complete the defences of Sebenico. 

These hills are part of the range of Monte Tartari. 
The view from the heights above the town is very 
extensive, and gives a good idea of the general 
scenery of the coast of Dalmatia, with its numerous 

The principal object of interest in Sebenico is 
the Cathedral, or Duomo, commenced in 1415, 

* Published by Solitro in his " Document! Storici," p. 102. 


and completed in 1555. Though of a mixed style 
of architecture, partaking of the Gothic and the 
Cinque-cento, it has some merits, and the effect 
of the interior is pleasing. The roof is remark- 
able, being entirely of stone slabs, forming a semi • 
cylindrical vault. The nave is separated from the 
aisles by five columns on either side, supporting 
pointed arches. The vertical line is continued 
from the columns up the wall of the clerestory, to 
the top of the building, by means of pilasters, from 
which a soffit, or flat groin, follows the curve of the 
roof to the opposite pilaster. The west end is 
light and graceful ; and the combination of Gothic 
and Graco-Italian ornaments in the exterior of the 
apse is well managed ; but the facade is heavy and 
graceless. It stands on the north side of the prin- 
cipal square, and faces the Loggie ; which are now 
converted into a Cafij and assembly rooms. 

Though Sebenico is small, and its streets are 
irregular, many of the houses are handsome, and 
well built for a Dalmatian town; and it has a 
pretty appearance from the water. Near the 
western gate, leading from the bay, is a Latin in- 
scription* of late time, containing the name of 








• H 


Constans ; but it does not belong to Sebenico, 
which cannot claim the honour of having succeeded 
to any city of Roman time ; and Fortis says, " it 
was brought from the internal part of the territory 
called Campo di Sopra, where probably in ancient 
times Tariona stood," Fortis * mentions a curious 
ceremony at Sebenico, of electing a king for fifteen 
days, about Christmas ; but this, like many other 
Dalmatian customs, has ceased to exist. 

The costumes of the women, if not more singu- 
lar, are more graceful at Sebenico, than in other 
parts of Dalmatia.f They wear a short cloth 
pelisse, generally red, green, or blue, fastened at 
the waist by a gold clasp ; and their hair is bound 
round the head in two large plaits, interwoven with 
a red ribbon. The dress of the men differs little 
from that worn by the Morlacchi, in other places. 

Some picturesque groups may often be seen on 
the quay, where the steamer is moored while taking 
in coal, and many an amusing scene occurs on 
that occasion. The coal is brought on board by 
women, who, as usual in Dalmatia, are the porters 
and wheelbarrows of the place, while the pigtailed 
men employ themselves in more agreeable occu- 


* Fortis, pp. 134. 136. See other peculiarities mentioned by 

f See the costumes in Carrara's Dalmazia descritta. 


pations. The large blocks of coal have a promising 
appearance, and, from the quantity taken on board, 
any one might suppose it was a cargo for sale 
at some other port ; but the speedy disappearance 
of the large stacks you stumble over on deck, in 
leaving Sebenico, shows how incapable it is of 
satisfying the moderate appetite of an Austrian 
steamer, even on the shortest voyage. 

When the steamer arrives at a convenient hour, 
there is time to visit the falls of the Kerka, in a 
four-oared boat, and every facility for doing this 
is given by the obliging civility of the Austrian 
Lloyd's Company. The Austrian police is also in- 
dulgent enough not to require the visat of a pass- 
port, for that excursion ; and all that is necessary 
is the permit from the board of health. 

The population of Sebenico is 2767, of whom 
229 are of the Greek Church ; and the two suburbs 
contain 2374 Roman Catholics, and 220 Greeks. 
In 1298 it was made a Roman Catholic see ; and 
in 1810 a Greek bishop was also established there, 
during the rule of the French, who has since been 
translated to Zara. 

Sebenico is noted for two varieties of wine, one 
the Vino Tartaro, which is thought to resemble 
Madeira, white and strong ; the other called, like 
the liqueur, Maraschino, which has a flavour of 
Malaga. Besides that liqueur, two others are made 
in Dalmatia ; one from the Suslna, a sort of damson, 
the other from the Loto fruit. 

H 2 


Dalmatia produces many wines, which are strong 
and full bodied ; but most of them have the fault 
of being sweet, owing to the grapes remaining too 
long upon the vines, befflre they are gathered for 
pressing. It is from this that they have received 
the name of Prosecco. Neglect, too, in choosing the 
fruit is another fault of the Dalmatians, in their 
process of making wine ; and there is no doubt that, 
if the grapes were properly selected, and pressed 
when less ripe, the wine would be much better, 
and might take its proper station among those of 

The Vugdva, a white wine of the isle of Brazza, 
is sweet, and bears some resemblance to Fronti- 
gnac ; but the white Malvasia, which is also much 
esteemed, is dry, with an aromatic flavour, and not 
sweet. The Vin di Rosa, or Rose wine of Almissa, 
has a very delicious flavour, and is called Prosecco, 
and Muscato. There are also the Vino di Spiaggia, 
from Lesina, of a sweet flavour, and considered 
one of the best common wines of the country ; the 
Alarzemino, from Teodo, in the neighbourhood of 
Cattaro, and many others of less note. Dalmatia 
possesses no effervescing wine like the Rif6sco, 
made in the neighbourhood of Trieste, which de- 
serves to be more known. It is very delicate, and 
seldom found good, even at Trieste. There are 
two kinds, red and white ; the former, which re- 
sembles a Mousseux claret, is the best. 

Schiavone, who died in 1582, and Martin Rota, 

Chap. EX] SEBENICO. 101 

the painter and engraver, were natives of Sebenico; 
the Veranzios, Difhico, and many other men dis- 
tinguished in literature, were born there ; and 
Fortis says, that, " in the sixteenth century, the arts 
and sciences flourished in Sebenico, more than in 
any other town of Dalmatia." 

Lucio ascribes its foundation to the Croatians ; 
but Giustiniani states that it was built by the 
Uscocs, who, living on the high wall where the 
castle now stands, as soon as they descried any 
vessel near the shore, went out in their boats to 
plunder it ; and that having built some cottages, 
and surrounded them with pallisades, called Sibue, 
the town, which afterwards grew up there, received 
the name of " Sibenico." After the destruction of 
Scardona, the new city increased in size, and esta- 
blished a government of its own ; but, being sub- 
sequently oppressed by the Hungarians, it gave 
itself up to the Venetians, on the 12th July, 1412. 

Some have erroneously supposed it to be the 
Sicum of Pliny and Ptolemy, the Siclis of the 
Peutinger table ; which was on the sea shore, several 
miles to the east of Tragurium (Trail), on the road 
to Salona. 

Sebenico is noted for a rare species of fish, called 
Dentali delta Corona, the Sparus gibbosus*, so 
called from a crest upon its head. It is much 
esteemed, and said only to be found in Dalmatia, 
and at Constantinople. The palamidi, one of the 

* See Petter, and Carrara's Dalmazia descritta, p. 85. 

h 3 


best fish on this coast, is also common at Sebenico. 
It resembles a large mackerel, and sometimes weighs 
about ten pounds. Mullet, and many other ex- 
cellent fish, are caught at Sebenico ; but, as Fortis* 
observes, " the fishing is not practised in a better 
manner than agriculture," and the fishermen attend 
to little else, besides the daily provision required 
for the tables of Sebenico and Scardona. 

The river Eerka runs into the bay, a little to 
the N.W. of the town, between rocky banks; 
and, long before reaching Scardona, the water is 
perfectly fresh. The rocks, as throughout Dal- 
matia, are calcareous ; and the islands about Sebe- 
nico are famed for their coral, and for sponges. 
Coral is found in the greatest abundance off the 
isle of Bua, near Trail ; and the best sponges at 
Trapani, a rock near the isle of Zlarin. 

The island of Zlarin, or Zlari, opposite the mouth 
of the canal, is said to have been called the Isle of 
"Gold," from its fertility f, producing as it does 
much wine and oil ; but, however it may deserve 
this title, the word " gold, " in Illyric, is not Zlari, 
but Zlato. X 

There is little to interest the traveller, in coasting 
from Sebenico to Spalato. In two hours and a 
half you come to a dangerous rock, just above the 
water's edge ; and soon after this is the promon- 

•■ Fortis, p. 137. 

f Wheeler says " from its pleasantness." 

t Zlato "gold ; * ser&ro "silver." 


Chap. HI.] THE WOLF AND THE A6S. 103 

tory of La Planca. A heavy surf often dashes over 
this low rocky shelf in bad weather, being exposed 
to the force of the open sea ; which, to the north- 
ward and southward of it, is broken by intervening 
islands. On one occasion, when trying to pass this 
headland, the steamer I was in could not face the 
wind, and we were obliged to put back into the 
port of Rog6snizza*, until the storm had abated; 
and such is the abundance of harbours and creeks 
along the whole Dalmatian coast, that no vessel 
need be at a loss for a place of refuge ; as, in former 
times, no pirate was in want of a sheltered spot, in 
which to lie concealed, or wait for a prize. La 
Planca is the Promontorium Diomedis ; and near 
it is the boundary line between the circoli, or de- 
partments, of Zara and Spalato. 

On the gentle slope behind it is a small church, 
or chapel; in passing which a stranger will pro- 
bably hear, from some one on board, the following 
story of an ass catching a wolf. 

A man having left an ass, tied by a rope to the 
open door of the church, went down to the shore, 
and being absent some time, the ass, tired of stand- 
ing exposed to the sun, walked as far as the rope 
would allow it into the church. A wolf passing 
by, attracted by the hope of food, went into the 
passage after it, upon which the terrified ass rush- 
ing out, pulled to the door, and left the wolf a pri- 
soner within. When the man returned, he per- 

* Rog6snitza. See below, the History of the Uscocs, Ch. IX. 

H 4 


ceived the alarm of the ass, and cautiously looking 
in saw the wolf, which, with assistance, was taken 
and killed. 

On passing this promontory, the change in the 
climate is perceptible; some plants unknown to 
the north of it begin to appear there, and the Sci- 
rocco, or S. E. wind, becomes far more prevalent to 
the southward of La Planca. Of this I had a con- 
vincing proof on my return from Spalato. The 
wind was blowing from the S.E., but no sooner 
had we doubled this point, than we were met by a 
northerly breeze ; though, in looking back, we 
found that all the boats still continued upon the 
same tack, and long afterwards we could see, from 
the appearance of the Biocovo mountain, the un- 
changed course of the Scirocco. 

To give an idea of the winds, I have drawn up 
the accompanying table for the year 1844, taken 
from the observations made at Zara, which will 
show how much more prevalent the Scirocco is 
than any other wind, even in that part of Dal- 
matia ; and there is no doubt that, at Spalato, it 
blows during more than 100 days in the 365, or 
between one fourth and one third of the whole 

The observations* are taken twice a-day, about 
sunrise and 2 p.m. 

• Those for 27th and 28th of December, 1844, 1 have not been 
able to ascertain. The remaining number consists, therefore, of 
728 observations for 364 days. 

Chap. in. j PREVALENT 


Dec. 29 to 31 IncL 




January, 1844... 








Feb. (leap year),.. 











































































Dec to 26 incl... 






















a in 

364 a 



The above list contains the names of the prin- 
cipal winds ; but the modern compass used in the 
Adriatic, and the greater part of the Mediterranean, 
is divided into thirty-two points*, like our own. 

The relaxing nature of the Sciroccof is well 
known. Its name is taken from the Arabic Sherk, 
the " East ; " as Gharbin, often applied by the sailors 
to the Libeccio or S.W., is from Gharb, the " West." 
The Greco or N. E. is called B6ra, principally on 

• See Fig. 1. t Corrupted into Scilocco. 


the coast of Istria, where its extraordinary force is 
much dreaded in winter ; and B<5ra is evidently a 
corruption of the Boreas of the ancients, which 
was N. to the Greeks, and N. E. to the Italians. 

Horace describes the Notus as the prevalent wind 
of the Adriatic 41 ; and he also speaks of " Auster," as 
the wind which most influenced that sea, calling it 
" Dux inquieti turbidus Hadriae ;"f which does not 
appear to agree with the frequency of the Scirocco, or 
S.E. ; for the notus, both of the Greeks and Romans, 
is always put for the south, and N J2TO£ is marked 
as the name of that wind, on the south side of the 
tower of Andronicus Cyrrhestes at Athens. Auster 
is also used for the south by the Romans ; and it 
is remarkable that the word is still retained in the 
Ostro of the Italians, who give it to the south; 
while their Libeccio answers to the Latin libs. 

It does not appear that the Romans always di- 
vided the quarter circle into our four parts of 22£ 
degrees, or eight points of ll£ J, but generally into 
two of 45 ° § ; and even into three of 30° each, which 

* He says, 

"Nee timuit prcecipitem Africum 
Decertantem Aquilonibus, 
Nee tristes Hyadas, nee rabiem Noti, 

Quo non arbiter Hadriae 
Mqjor, tollere seu ponere vult freta.* — I. Od. 3 — 14. 

f Hor. m. Od. 3—5. 

X Beloe (Herodot 7.) gives the names of the thirty-two 
§ See Pig- 3. 



Were determined from each cardinal point by the 
radius 60°. * The whole circle or compass, according 
to this last division, had twelve points, and there 
were then none to c<?rrespond exactly with our N. E., 
N.W., S.E., and S.W. Thus, between S. and E. 
.were two, Euronotus, and Vulturnus f , of 30° each, 
which is the arrangement mentioned by Seneca. J 






* See Fig. 2. 

f The Scirocco is the Vulturnus of Pliny, (lib. ii. c 47.) 
which, he says, was a warm wind. 

% Seneca says, "Quidam illos duodecim faciunt. Quatuor 
enim coeli partes in ternas dividunt, singulis ventis binos 
suffectos dant/' &c. Nat Quaest. 1. 5. c. 16. See Fig. 2. 

Chap, m.] 



Pliny gives one only between each cardinal point *, 
and says other four are sometimes added ; which. 

Kg- 3. 

however, could not be done but by the division of 
30 degrees each f ; nor could his solstitial and winter 
risings and settings of the sun extend to 45 degrees. 
The Greek compass was divided into eight winds, 
the names of which, according to the Tower at 
Athens J, were Boreas, N. ; Kaikias, N. E. ; Api- 
liotes, E. ; Euros, S. E. ; Notus, S. ; Libs, S.W. ; 
ZephyruSy W. ; and Skirdn, N. W. ; and this agrees 

* Columella uses the same division. De Re Rust. lib. xi. 
c. 2. 4. See Fig. 3. 

f As in Fig. 2. 

X Of this tower, or Horologium, of Cyrrhestes, see Varro, De 
Re Rust. 3. 5. 17*, and Vitruvius, 1. 6. 



nearly with their names and distribution given by 

In the distance, to the S. or S. S. E. of La Planca, 
is seen the island of Lissa, memorable in modern 
times for the glorious victory, obtained by Sir 
William Hoste over the French squadron, in 1811. f 
It was formerly called Issa, and is said to have 
been colonised by the Syracusans, as early as the 
reign of Dionysius the Elder, and to have been 
itself the parent of Tragurium and Epetium (Trail 
and Stobretz). It was here that Teuta, the widow 

* The Chinese divide each quarter of their compass into six 
points ; e. g. two between N. and N.E. and two between N.E. 

f See the History. 

Chat. IIL] 188 A, NOW LI88A. Ill 

of Agron, King of IHyria, put to death one of the 
Roman ambassadors, who had been sent to com- 
plain of the piracies of her subjects, while she was 
engaged in besieging Issa. And this, together with 
the desire to protect the islands, led to the first 
Ulyric war, B.C. 229.* That Issa remained free 
for a long period is proved by its coins f, which 
also show that the island was noted for its wine, as 
in later times ; bearing as they do an amphora on 
one side, and on the other a vine with leaves. 

The Issans were famed for their maritime skill ; 
and their beaked ships, called Lemhi Issiaci, are 
mentioned by Livy and other authors.^ They 
became allies of the Romans at a very early period, 
and on some occasions rendered them essential ser- 
vice, particularly in the war with Philip of Macedon, 
against whom they sent an auxiliary force of twenty 
ships. They were therefore protected by the Ro- 
mans, until those conquerors, having obtained pos- 
session of Dalmatia, annexed the island to their all 
absorbing empire. Appian calls it Esson, and the 
Anonymus Ravennas Issia ; it appears also to have 
been sometimes styled Isauria. 

Lissa has frequently been confounded with Lis- 

* See beginning of the History. 

f Petter, p. 149. 

J The vessels of Issa were included tinder the name of 
" Liburnian." Apollodorus Rhodius says, " The Liburnians 
inhabited these islands;" and Strabo calls "Issa the most 
noted of the Liburnian islands." lib. vii. 



sus, a town of Epirus, on the left bank of the 
Drilo, and with Lissa, an island now called San 
Michele, or Uglian, which forms the canal of Zara. 
It is high, and is seen at a considerable distance. 
It has two ports; the larger one on the N. E. 
side, with a town of the same name. The soil is 
barren ; and the chief produce is wine, which, with 
the fisheries, paid, under the Venetians, about 
8000 ducats a-year.* 

In approaching the Isle of Biia, a distant glimpse 
is obtained of the town of Trail, with its lofty steeple. 
In the hills behind it are the quarries of S. Elia, 
from which the stone was taken for building the 
palace of Diocletian at Spalato. 

During the wars between the Venetians and 
Turks, the latter extended their confines as far as 
this range of hills ; often laying waste the lands 
below, and inflicting great injuries on the pea- 
sants, who were obliged to seek shelter in the for- 
tified Castelli on the shore, f 

The Isle of Biia is said to have derived its name 
from the bull of Phalaris ; but how this happened 
does not appear. Others say it was so called from 
bearing some resemblance to a bull's hide in shape ; 
though a more probable etymology is suggested in 
its pasture lands and the number of cattle, for 
which it was once noted. Little of that boasted 
fertility now remains, except towards the western 

• In 1575. f See the History, 1571. 


extremity ; and the rest consists principally of the 
barren grey limestone rock so common in Dal- 
matia. The asphaltum of the Isle of Biia has 
been described by Fortis*; and a new mine was 
discovered there in 1845, near Porto Mandolar. 
The island in ancient times bore the name of 
Boas f ; and during the later periods of the Roman 
empire it was used as a place of exile. In the 
reign of Julian many state offenders were con- 
fined there; Jovian the heretic was banished to 
Boas by order of Theodosius ; and it served for a 
long time as a place of banishment, for those con- 
demned for heresy, and political offences. J 

It is connected with the main land at Trail by 
a bridge; whence it extends in a south-easterly 
direction nearly to Spalato, forming an inland bay ; 
on the north side of which is the Riviera dei Cas- 
telli, and to the eastward the small stream of the 
Giadro, running into it at Salona. 

After passing the Isle of Biia, and the hill called 
Mofite Marglian§, known by its stone cross, you 
enter the port of Spalato. 

# Fortis, p. 176. Petter is wrong in disbelieving its ex- 
istence there. 

f Also Babus, Babua, Bovo, Boa, Boas, and Bubaria, cor- 
rupted into Barbaria. 

X It was here that the religious society of " the Fishermen " 
was established in 1579, by Bishop Auguatin Valerius, sent by 
Gregory XTTL, as his apostolic visiter to Dalmatia. 

§ Not Marian. 



Like other towns, which have belonged to the 
Venetians, Spalato retains evident signs of the cus- 
toms and government of that people, in the steeples, 
the windows, the stone balconies, the chimnies, and 
the winged Lion of St. Mark; and the language 
bears the stamp of the Venetian dialect, as in other 
seaport towns of Dalmatia. The port is small, and 
is now frequented by few vessels larger than tra~ 
baccolos } and other small craft; though the water 
is sufficiently deep for steamers and brigs. 

On landing from the steamer, travellers have to 
go through the ordeal of a custom-house and pass- 
port office ; though it must be confessed they are 
exposed to less vexation, and inconvenience, than in 
most seaports. 

The Austrians, indeed, are very indulgent to 
strangers in Dalmatia, and any one may land, and 
visit the places, where the steamers stop, without 

Spalato, in Illyric Split, is the chief town of the 
Circolo of the same name, the second city of t)al- 
matia, after Zara, and a Bishop's see. The greater 
part of it is built within the precincts of Diocle- 
tian's palace, which has given its name to Spalato*, 
corrupted from Palatiumf ; and the whole town is 

* Porphyrogenitus says, "Aspalathum signifies rota/7 palace," 
but without explaining it ; and Thomas the archdeacon derives 
it from " Spatiosum palatium," (c. 10. in Lucio, p. 319.) 

•f Probably from Salonee palatium, or S. Palatium. The 
" Salon® palatium latum (or latum)" was the origin of the 

Chap.IH] the lazaretto. 115 

computed to contain rather more than nine thou- 
sand inhabitants, of which the suburbs, or Borghi, 
have about five thousand eight hundred. 

Near the south-east angle of the palace is the 
Lazaretto, on a projecting point of land, which 
forms the eastern side of the port. It was 
formerly used for goods, and persons performing 
quarantine, when the caravans came from Turkey 
to Spalato. But after the plague of 1816 had 
committed great ravages in the Borghi of Spalato, 
it was thought more prudent to abolish this Laza- 
retto, and, to the great detriment of the town, the 
caravans were no longer admitted * ; though it is 
difficult to understand the wisdom of giving up a 
lucrative trade, because the plague once broke out 
there.f Since that time its extensive circuit has 
contained magazines, a theatre, prisons, a small 
Capucin convent, a custom-house, and artillery 

The inhabitants of Spalato are nearly all Roman 
Catholics ; but some are of the Greek church, and 
thirteen are Protestants. J There are also about 

motto on the seal of Spalato, " Palatium laetum Spalatum 
Salon® quietum." It has also been called Spalathion, Aspa- 
latum, Spaletum, Spalatium, or Speletium; and some have 
written it Spalatro. See Mic. Madio, in Lucio, p. 376. 

* Petter says the Turks obtained the right of carrying goods 
to, and from, Spalato by the treaty of Passarovitz, in 1718. 

f The caravans have been restored, and the salt trade with 
Turkey has been again permitted to Spalato, since I left it 

X Carrara's Dalmazia descritta. See Chapter VII. 

i 2 



three hundred and twenty Jews, many of whom 
wear the turban and oriental costume ; and in no 
place could a better study for Shylock be found than 
at SpalatQ. They are mostly descendants of the 
Jews who were expelled from Spain, in 1493, and 
who established themselves in Smyrna, Salonica, 
and other places in Europe and Asia. One colony 
then settled at Spalato, notwithstanding the rigid 
restrictions imposed upon them by the Venetians *, 
who obliged them to live in a particular part of the 
town, as at Venice, called the Ghetto. The same 
name is applied to the Jews' quarter at Rome, to 
which they are confined even at the present day, 
as in the East; though the present enlightened 
Pope intends to remove the restriction. To the 
credit of the Austrians, it has long been abolished 
in Dalmatiaj where the Jews enjoy the same privi- 
leges, as in the most civilised towns of Europe. 

The streets are narrow, tortuous, and badly 
paved, mostly with small flat stones; and the 
houses have neither size, nor architectural beauty, 
to recommend them. They are, however, much 
cleaner within than many in Italy. 

The people are civil to strangers, and take a 
pride in witnessing the admiration bestowed on the 
interesting palace of Diocletian, to which Spalato is 
indebted for its existence ; and whose solid walls 
have so often protected it, from the attacks of 
pirates and other enemies. 

* Catalinich, iv. p. 249. 

Chap.III.] the spalatines. 117 

The higher classes, however, keep very much to 
themselves, and see little or no society ; not, I 
believe, from that pride of which they are accused 
by the Zaratines, but because their habits disincline 
them to it. The rich, too, live principally on their 
own estates, and there is no one to lead, or form, a 
fashionable world in Spalato ; nor have they any 
great wish to amalgamate with the Austrians, and 
the most that will be done, by the present attempt 
to induce some degree of sociability, will probably 
be confined to the Cassino. A stranger is there- 
fore left to his own resources ; and no one inter- 
rupts his occupations, or his leisure hours, with 
calls or invitations; though this does not imply 
any want of civility on the part of individuals, and 
I was indebted for much kindness to Professor 
Carrara, to the Counts Grisogono and Dudan, the 
family of Bratanich, and others, as well as to the 
Marchese Gravisi, colonel of the rifle regiment 
there ; who gave me every assistance during my 
stay at Spalato. 

In early times, the town was confined within the 
limits of the palace ; and it was not till it received 
the protection of the Hungarians and Venetians, 
that it extended beyond the precincts of that build- 
ing. The arches in the external walls were filled 
up with masonry, as soon as the hostile irruption 
of barbarians obliged them to provide for defence : 
some of the gates and towers were repaired, and 
altered at various times ; and the remains of Hun- 

i a 


garian additions are still seen above the northern 
gate, or Porta Aurea, and in other parts of the 
walls. A castle was also built, in the beginning of 
the fifteenth century, by the Bosnian general, Har- 
voye ; who had been created Duke of Spalato by 
Ladislas, the rival of the Hungarian King Sigis- 
mund ; with the pretended object of protecting the 
city and the port, though in reality to repress all 
outbreaks of the people; and its large octagonal 
tower, which is still seen there, bears the name of 
" Torre d' Harvoje." On the sea shore, close to this 
tower, was afterwards erected " the castle of 

The Venetians, in 1645 and 1670, enclosed the 
town with regular curtains and bastions, down to 
the sea ; and on a height to the eastward, about 
1200 feet from the walls, they erected a fort com- 
manding the town, called Grippi. 

In a Venetian report on the state of Dalmatia, 
published by Solitro*, Spalato is represented as 
" incapable of resisting artillery, though it might 
have nothing to fear from a coup de main ; " and its 
chief protection was then thought to be the distant 
" tower of Salona, and the fortress of Sasso, about 
three miles " to the eastward ; both which belonged 
to it. But these two strongholds, " the eyes of the 
territory, were fraudulently and basely given into 
the hands of the enemy ; who, after having taken 
possession of them, delivered up the traitors to 

* Monumenti Storici, p. 102. 

Chap.IIL] fortifications of spalato. 119 

the Count of Spalato, who hanged them for their 

" The Venetian General Schulenburg, the gallant 
defender of Corfu (who died in 1745), having 
declared the works of Spalato to be indefensible, 
the inhabitants were allowed to erect private dwell- 
ings on the ramparts ; and Marshal Marmont, in 
1807 — 1809, ordered the castle to be pulled down, 
to make room for the Marina. Some of the walls 
were then cleared away, and Spalato has now 
become an open town."* 

Portions of the Venetian fortifications still re- 
main, on the east and north side ; and on one of 
the curtains is the winged lion of St. Mark, with 
an inscription containing the names of Leonardo 
Lauredano and Dandolo, fixing the date of it in 
the beginning of the sixteenth century. 

The fort of Grippi is equally incapable of with- 
standing a siege ; and the French in 1809, and in 
1813, retired from it, on the approach of the 
Austrians, and shut themselves up in Clissa. 

On the west side of Spalato, between the town 
and the Borgo Grande, Marmont began a public 
garden, which is still unfinished ; and close to it is 
a spring of sulphureous water, running into the sea. 
The quality of the water is very similar to that of 
other sulphureous springs f, and it is used for baths. 

* Petter, p. 112. 

| Ten Venetian pounds contain 1340 grains muriate of soda, 
54 muriate magnesia, 20 muriate lime; 390 sulphate of soda, 

i 4 


The origin of Spalato dates from the building of 
the palace of Diocletian in 303 a.d., and the subse- 
quent destruction of Salona in the seventh cen- 
After a reign of twenty years, " Diocletian exe- 
cuted his memorable resolution of abdicating the 
empire," and acquired the glory of giving to the 
world the most remarkable, if not the first, example 
of a resignation*, which has not been very fre- 
quently imitated by succeeding monarchs. With- 
drawing to Salona, he passed the last nine years of 
his life in seclusion, where the building of a palace 
in the neighbourhood, and the superintendence of 
his garden, occupied his leisure hours; and the 
satisfaction he derived from those pursuits is suf- 
ficiently proved by his well-known answer to 
Maximian, when urging him to re-assume the pur- 
ple, "If I could show you the cabbages I have 
planted with my own hands at Salona, you would 
no longer urge me to relinquish the enjoyment of 
happiness for the pursuit of power." f 

The building of the palace occupied twelve years. 
The stone was brought from the quarries of Tra- 
gurium, the modern Trail, which, as Gibbon justly 

130 sulphate of magnesia, 46 carbonate of soda. The specific 
gravity is to distilled rain water as 1*025 to 1. Petter, 
p. 118. 

* The first was Ptolemy Lagus, King of Egypt. Justin, 
xvi. 2. 

f " Utinam Salonis olera nostris manibus insita invisere 
posses, de resumendo imperio non judicares." Gibbon, c. xiii. 


observes, is a beautiful stone, " very little inferior 
to marble itself." * 

The island of Brazza also claims the honour of 
having supplied a portion of the materials used in 
its coLruction ; the record of which is said to be 
kept up, by the name of the village near the spot 
whence the stone was taken ; which is called 
SpHtska or " Spalatine," from the Illyric name of 
the town, Split. 

Little is known of the palace, or its occupants, 
after the death of Diocletian. It is supposed then 
to have come into the possession of the magis- 
trates of Salona, and part of it was still kept as 
a state palace, and part was occupied by the 
Gynaeciumf , or manufactory* In the following 
century it was inhabited by Julius Nepos, who, 
having been deprived of the Imperial dignity, and 
driven from Ravenna by Orestes, the father of 
Augustulus, obtained permission from Glycerius, 
then bishop of Salona, to occupy the palace. This 
Glycerius had been previously dispossessed of the 
throne by Julius Nepos, and had been compelled 
by him to accept that ecclesiastical office ; it was 
therefore with a true Christian feeling that he re- 
ceived the fugitive prince, and became the bene- 
factor of his rival, a. d. 474. But the same palace, 
where he was so generously received by Glycerius, 
was soon afterwards the scene of the violent end 
of Julius Nepos ; and Odiva, one of his murderers, 

* Gibbon, c xiii. f See below, p. 130. 


made himself master of Dalmatia, which he ruled 
for one year, until put to death by Odoacer, king 
of the Heruli, a. d. 481. 

From that time, until the destruction of Salona in 
639, nothing is recorded of the palace, except that 
when Totila obtained possession of Salona, towards 
the middle of the sixth century, he spared the 
building, contenting himself with the erasure of the 
imperial emblems and inscriptions; but, on the 
taking of Salona by the Avars, the palace assumed 
a marked post in the history of Dalmatia, which led 
to the foundation of a new city within its precincts. 
Some of the houseless Salonitans, who preferred a 
neighbouring place of shelter to a flight by sea, or 
who had not the means of reaching the islands, took 
refuge in it from the fury of the Avars ; its strong 
walls, its rooms above, and its subterraneous 
chambers below, afforded them protection, and an 
abode ; and no attempts were made by the invaders 
to molest them. 

Soon afterwards, about the middle of the 
seventh century, many of the Salonitans, who 
had fled to the neighbouring islands, returned, 
at the instigation of one of the nobles, named 
Severus Magnus, to the Continent, and took up 
their abode in the palace ; and having obtained 
permission from the Emperor of Constantinople 
to occupy it, and an order having been sent to the 
Serbs to abstain from molesting them, their num- 
bers were soon increased by the arrival of others 


of their compatriots. Spalato was, from that pe- 
riod, considered a Roman city; and " Asphalatum, 
Rausium, Tetrangurium, Diodora*, Vecla, and 
Opsora," are said by Porphyrogenitus to have been 
particularly reserved by the Romans, to the total 
exclusion of the Slavi. Spalato had also, in later 
times, the honour of being the city, where the kings 
of Dalmatia were crowned, f 

Soon after the establishment of the Salonitan 
refugees at Spalato, Giovanni of Ravenna was 
despatched by the pope to regulate the ecclesiasti- 
cal affairs of Dalmatia ; and it being decided that 
the church of Spalato should succeed that of Salona, 
he was appointed to govern it, with the new title 
of Archbishop. J This was about the year 650. 

To further the views of the clergy, Severus 
ceded the portion of the palace allotted to him, con- 
sisting of the imperial apartments and the corner 
tower, to the Archbishop for his residence ; and the 
temple of Jupiter, having been purified in proper 
form, was consecrated to the worship of the 
true God, and the Virgin Mary. § The body of 
St. Doimo, (Domnius), was soon after brought 
from Salona, and deposited within the new Cathe- 
dral, which was then dedicated to him, and has 

* Ragusa, Trau, and Zara. Appending vol. i. p. 87. 
f Antonio Proculiano, p. 40. Carrara's Cbiesa di Spalato, 
p. 66. 

J Salona bad only been a bisbopric. 

§ Thomas Arcbidiaconus, c. z. xi. in Lucio, pp. 319, 820. 


since borne the name of the Church of St. Doimo. 
He was the first bishop of Salona, and is said to 
have been sent into Dalmatia by St. Peter, and 
to have been put to death during the reign of 
Trajan, in 104 or 107 a. d. * 

The palace is nearly a square, terminated at the 
four corners by a quadrangular tower. Its faces 
correspond nearly with the four points of the com- 
pass; and on the south it looks upon the port. 
This front measures* 521 feet, or with the square 
tower at each extremity, 598 feet 8 inches ; and the 
eastern and western sides are 705 feet 6 inches, f 
Its greatest diameter from north to south, without 
the tower, is 646 feet 3 inches ; and from east to 
west 539 feet 4 inches, including the walls ; which 
gives a superficial content of 348*175 square feet J, 
independent of the towers, or with them about 
352*614, being little more than eight acres. 

The entire building was composed of two prin- 
cipal sections, the southernmost of which contained 
the two temples, and the private apartments of the 
emperor. Two streets intersected each other at 
right angles, nearly in the centre of it. The prin- 
cipal one led from the Porta Aurea, the main en- 

* Farlati, vol. i. pp. 305. 404. 430. 488. Thomas Archidia- 
conus, in Lucio, p. 320. 

t Adams gives 592, and 698. I measured it several times ; 
but if he used a chain, perhaps he is more correct. 

J Adams gives 413*216, as he squares the whole dimensions, 
698 by 592. But the towers are only projections. 


trance on the north front, to a spacious court before 
the vestibule ; the other ran in a direct line from 
the western to the eastern gate, and crossed the 
main street just below the court ; and as I find the 
pavement of the street was two feet lower than the 
court, it is evident there was an ascent to it by two 
or three steps. 

Little now remains to explain the distribution 
of the various parts of the interior, and we can only 
judge of this from the baths of the same emperor 
at Rome, and from the architectural instructions 
given by Vitruvius. It is from these that Adams, 
in his valuable work, has composed his ingenious 
restoration of the palace ; and of the accuracy of 
his labours I can form a good estimate, from having 
myself made a plan of the ruins. 

That he saw the remains in a better state than 
they are at present is evident, and many portions 
then visible are now concealed beneath the walls of 
houses. He was, however, led into an error re- 
specting the street, that runs from the eastern to 
the western gate, where he lays down a succession 
of arches on piers, forming the covered corridor on 
each side ; instead of which I find columns, sup- 
porting a flat architrave and cornice, as at Pompeii, 
Antinoe, and other Roman towns; and a similar 
corridor with columns probably extended on either 
side of the other street, from the Porta Aurea to 
the court of the vestibule. The outer walls are 
seven feet thick: they are nearly all perfect and 


exposed to view, except on the western side ; and 
all the towers of the angles are standing, except 
that on the S. W. corner. 

Ciccarelli states that, when the limits of the 
palace were found insufficient for the increasing 
population of Spalato, part of the western wall was 
pulled down, and a new circuit substituted; and 
he attributes the falling of the S. W. tower to an 
accident. On this occasion "a porphyry sarco- 
phagus was discovered in a cavity, within the 
thickest part of its walls, bearing the single name 
of Diocletian in ancient characters. At each 
corner was a terra-cotta lamp of excellent work- 
manship, and in the middle of the sarcophagus an 
urn of Parian marble, containing the ashes." 
There was also a sort of medallion, representing 
a man wearing a helmet, and armour on his breast, 
with a beard^ whom he conjectures to be the 
emperor ; accounting for the unusual circumstance 
of the beard, by supposing that during his retire- 
ment he had adopted that custom of his native 

The eastern gate, or Porta iEnea, is destroyed ; 
but the principal, and most highly decorated, en- 
trance, the Porta Aurea^ " the Golden Gate," is 
nearly perfect. In the lower part is a gateway 
with rich mouldings, and above is a row of seven 
arches, once supported on porphyry columns rest- 
ing on consols, which were taken away by the 
Venetians to adorn their city. 


All the gates, except the Porta Argentea, were 
defended by two octagonal towers. One of these 
still remains on the north side of the western gate ; 
and, though enclosed within part of a modern 
building, sufficient may be seen to ascertain its 
exact form and dimensions. 

The soil has accumulated to a considerable height 
against the exterior of the northern wall ; and the 
gateway of the Porta Aurea is buried nearly to its 
lintel ; but on the inside, and throughout the streets, 
the original level remains almost the same; the 
houses having, in many instances, retained the same 
ground floor as when first occupied. Dwelling- 
houses are, or have been, attached to the interior 
of the walls in every part, in some places conceal- 
ing them entirely ; and they rise considerably above 
the summit of the southern fa9ade, the basement 
story of which is encumbered with paltry shops. 

The principal remains in the interior were 
about the court of the vestibule, which still forms 
the public square. On each side is a row of six 
large granite columns of the Corinthian order, 
supporting arches*, which have the peculiarity of 
springing immediately from the capitals, and are 
I believe the first instance of this style ; which was 

* The intercolumniatioDS are not all the same : the three first 
measure 8 feet 9 inches ; the fourth 8, 8 J ; the fifth of the stair- 
case to the temple 10, 4 J; the next 9, 10; and the last 9 feet 
4 inches, causing a slight difference in the height of the 


imitated by the Saracens, and the architects of the 
low ages. 

A flight of steps led to the portico of the 
vestibule, the fa9ade of which occupies the whole 
breadth of this court, and consists of four columns 
supporting a triangular pediment. This also pre- 
sents an architectural novelty, in an arch rising 
from the two central columns into the tympanum ; 
and though not the earliest instance, it is one of 
the few that remain; and I do not remember to 
have seen any older than the one at Damascus, 
which appears to be of the age of the Antonines. 

On the east of the court stands the Temple of Jupi- 
ter, now the Duomo, or Cathedral, of Spalato. Before 
its highly ornamented door was a portico, which 
was taken down when the campanile, or tower, was 
added in the fourteenth century ; and at the same 
time were removed the two sphinxes, that stood on 
either side of the steps ; one of which has since been 
placed on a wall to the left, as you approach the 
vestibule. Its conversion into a Christian church 
caused considerable alterations in the interior. The 
inner recess was opened into a choir, that on the 
north was enlarged into a chapel, and the niches 
on the eastern side were adapted to receive altars. 
Windows were also made in the walls, to admit 
more light; the only one that existed originally 
being an arched aperture over the door, which is 
now concealed by the organ loft. 

The architecture offends against the rules of 

Chap, m.] TEMPLE, NOW THE DUOMO. 129 

good taste, having the imperfections of broken 
entablatures carried to an extreme, with heavy 
cornices, projecting to correspond with the position 
of the columns. The proportion, too, of the upper 
columns ill accords with that of the lower part of 
the edifice. These faults, however, evince a far 
less degraded taste, than the sculptures of the 
frieze, which runs round the building, under the 
upper cornice; representing Cupids riding, or in 
chariots ; hunting boars, hares, lions, and stags ; or 
supporting rude medallions. 

Nevertheless, the general effect of this building 
is imposing, and its high state of preservation 
makes it a very interesting monument; for, with 
the exception of some of the capitals, and cornices, 
over the small columns, nearly the whole of the 
interior is original. The style too of the masonry, 
and its solidity, are undeniable merits ; and above 
all, the admirable construction of the dome. This 
is of brick ; the rest of the building of large blocks 
of Trail stone. 

The brickwork of the dome consists of a succes- 
sion of small arches, one standing on the other, in the 
form of scales, till they reach the upper, or centre, 
part; where they are succeeded by concentric cir- 
cles, as in ordinary cupolas. The total height of 
the temple inside, from the pavement to the sum- 
mit of the dome, is 78 feet 4 inches. 

The outer walls of the building are plain, and 
that part above the peristyle has no other mould- 



ings than the cornice. The roof, which is well pro- 
portioned, is covered with tiles ; and at the apex is 
a sort of leaf and cone ornament, resting on the 
shoulders of animals. 

From the subjects of the bas-reliefs, in the inte- 
rior, it might be supposed that this temple had 
been dedicated to Diana, rather than to Jupiter. 
It is true that its name rests on no ancient autho- 
rity ; and Thomas the archdeacon, who died in the 
thirteenth century, is the first who calls it the 
" temple of Jupiter ; " but the particular honours 
paid to that deity at Salona, and the assumption of 
the title of Jovius by Diocletian, are in favour of 
received tradition. The Notitia also mentions the 
u Procurator Gynsecii Jovensis Dalmatiae Aspalato," 
among the government officers in the time of the 
younger Theodosius; which has been thought to 
connect the name of Jove with the building ; though 
the epithet " Jovense," applied to the Gynaecium, 
was only taken from the title Jovius # , assumed by 
the emperor. 

This Gynsecium was established, after the death 
of Diocletian, in his palace at Spalato. It was a 
manufactory for making cloths, particularly those 
which were annually distributed to the troops ; and, 
as women alone were employed there, it received the 
name of Gyncecium. Several public establishments 
of this kind existed in various places, each super- 
intended by a " Procurator " under the " Comes 

* " His soldiers were also called " Joviani." 


sacrarum largitionum," who resided at Salona, 
when that city was the capital of the province. 

The cathedral contains nothing remarkable, of 
Christian time, except, perhaps, the angels sup- 
porting a " Holy of Holies " over the altar, which 
are an ingenious piece of mechanism, worthy of the 
great man who devised it, the celebrated De Do- 
minis. The weight borne by those slight wooden 
figures is very great ; but an iron bar strengthens 
them within, and the balance of the whole is kept 
up by a judicious counter-pressure. There is also 
the bishop's, or archbishop's, throne at the end of 
the choir, with steps leading up to it ; which is rarely 
found in any church of the present day. It was 
placed there, in imitation of ancient usage, by De 
Dominis, after his elevation to the see of Spalato in 
1602. But an objection was made to the throne 
being higher than the " Holy of Holies ; " and it 
was in order to obviate this, that he contrived the 
curious piece of mechanism, by which the angels 
hold it above the level of the throne. 

The lofty square Campanile, or tower, was the 
work of an architect, Nicolo Tuardoi or Twardi*; 
and Maria the wife of Carlo, and Elizabeth of Hun- 
gary, assisted the Spalatines in its completion. It 
is remarkable for the boldness of its construction, 
and were it amidst less interesting monuments 
would claim greater admiration. Its total height 

* Catalinich says that it was begun by Maria, and finished 
by Elizabeth, wife of Louis of Hungary, about 1360. 

k 2 


is 173 feet (or 199 above the sea*), and it consists 
of six stories, including the cupola. According to 
tradition, the two upper stories were thrown down 
by lightning, and the small octagonal lantern, or 
cupola, was added after that accident. The lower 
story, which stands on the basement of the temple, 
is a compact mass of masonry, pierced by an arch- 
way covering the ascent to the door; the upper 
part is a hollow square, ornamented with detached 
columns between its round-headed arches. These 
columns are of various styles, principally brought 
from Salona ; and several blocks of stone, used in 
its construction, came from the same ruins. 

On some of these are remains of inscriptions, and 
sculpture ; the most remarkable of which is at the 
S.W. angle of the western face, on the third story, 
bearing the representation of a sacrifice, probably to 
Juno, whose statue is seen behind the altar. On 
one side the priestess is pouring out a libation, and 
behind her are the figures of Mars, and Bellona (?), 
on the other Jupiter, Minerva, and Hercules. 

Two of the inscriptions are of the time of 
Tiberius, but much defaced. Sufficient, however, 
remains to show the words " Colonia Salonitana ; " 
and the other mentions "the road made from 
Salona to the Castellum DaBsitiatiumf, distant J 156 

* Measured by the sextant. 

f Pliny places the Dsesitiates in Dalraatia, with the Ceraunii, 
Daorizi, and Diocleatas, between the Naro and Drilo. 

X About 143 English miles, which bring it very near 


(Roman) miles," the position of which is unknown. 
Lucio gives another fragment, which relates to the 
opening of "the Gabinian way from Salona to 
Andetrium," by the same emperor. * In the other 
little can be read, beyond the title " Legatus Pro- 
praetor," borne by the governors of Dalmatia under 
the emperors. 

Over the door of the cathedral is the tomb of 
Margaret, the daughter of Bela IV. of Hungary, 
who died at Clissa in 1241, a few months after 
her cousin William, the son of Baldwin, emperor 
of Constantinople, to whom she was betrothed, had 
died at Trail, f Her sister Catharine is also buried 
in the same tomb. 

The tower of the cathedral rising from an embat- 
tled castle, intended to signify, rather than repre- 
sent, the palace, has been chosen for the arms of 

About 115 feet from the opposite side of the 
court, and facing the Temple of Jupiter, is that 
of Esculapius. It stands at the upper end of a 
TemenoSj or sacred enclosure, 100 feet broad and 
165 long. A similar Temenos enclosed the other 
Temple ; and it is probable they were both planted 
with trees. The interior of the cella, though simple, 
is ornamented with a rich projecting cornice, and 
carved lacunaria in its vaulted stone ceiling, which 
continues in a perfect state of preservation, and is 
a curious specimen of an ancient roof. The cor- 

* Lucio, p. 34., and Wheeler, p. 19. f See the History. 

K 3 


nice and frieze, of the exterior, are also well pre- 
served, particularly at the back. The bas-reliefs 
of the frieze represent Cupids plucking grapes, 
amidst trees and vases, and lions and leopards 
resting their paws on vases ; from which this tem- 
ple might seem rather to have belonged to Bacchus, 
than to the God of medicine. But, considering 
how much Esculapius was honoured in the country, 
it is not surprising that Diocletian should dedicate 
one of the temples to him. So esteemed, indeed, 
was this deity by the Romans, that, during the 
great plague ( 462), they sent to Greece, 
and brought away his statue, in the form of a ser- 
pent, from Epidaurus, to stay the calamity.* 

Two sarcophagi have been placed in the area 
before the door, which were brought from Salona ; 
on one is represented a spirited boar hunt, the 
other is of no interest. 

This temple, converted into a baptistry, has 
been dedicated to St. John ; and it is to their con- 
secration to religious purposes by the Christians, 
that both these ancient sanctuaries are indebted for 
their preservation. The steeple, that formerly dis- 
figured the temple of Esculapius, has been taken 
down ; and the removal of the houses, that conceal 
the back part, would be a still greater improvement. 

It might be difficult to disencumber all the other 
remains, of the unsightly mass of modern buildings; 
but it is gratifying to find that the government has 

* Valer. Max. lib. i. c. 8. 


interfered, to prevent their further mutilation to 
suit private convenience ; and though the stranger 
is shocked to see windows of houses cut through 
the arches of the court, intercolumniations filled 
up with petty shops, and the peristyle of the great 
temple masked by modern houses, it is satisfactory 
to know that these monuments are now secured 
against future vandalisms, or neglect. 

It is true that the Austrians have long been in- 
different to the valuable mine of antiquities, left 
unexplored at Salona ; but the reproach they have 
so long merited is in a fair way of removal, and the 
collection of Spalato may at length be rendered 
worthy of the name of a government museum ; 
and, though the annual allowance for excavation 
is limited to 800 florins (80/.), there is every 
reason to hope that, under the management of its 
present director, the Abbate Professor Carrara, this 
desirable result will soon be attained. 

Spalato, which is distinguished for many learned 
men, eminent in science and literature, may be 
proud of the Abbate Francesco Carrara, who adds 
to profound erudition the most amiable qualities, 
and is equally an ornament to his profession and 
to society. 

The black granite sphinx in the court, near the 
vestibule, is of Egyptian workmanship, and from 
its style is evidently of early Pharaonic time, pro- 
bably of the eighteenth dynasty.* This is also 

* Perhaps of Amunoph HE. 
k 4 


shown by the figures, and names, of the captives 
sculptured round its base. There is a royal oval 
on a sort of vase, or altar, it holds between its 
hands, but too much defaced to be deciphered. 
Instead of paws, it has human hands ; instances of 
which occur in Egyptian monuments, of very early 
time; though this has been supposed to argue 
against its being either ancient, or Egyptian, and 
the row of captives has been mistaken for a rude 
ornament of some ignorant sculptor. There is, 
however, no doubt of its genuineness; and it was 
brought from Egypt, perhaps for the express pur- 
pose of ornamenting the palace of Diocletian.* 

A portion of another sphinx may be seen at the 
house of Count Cindro, in the street leading from 
the Porta Ferrea. It is of a hard white limestone, 
nearly resembling marble. It bears the name of 
Amunoph III. on the breast. The king is said to 
be " beloved of Amunre, Lord of the Regions, Lord 
of Heaven," which, with the style of the sculpture, 
proves that it came originally from Thebes. 

The hieroglyphic legend of Amun has been 
altered on this, as on other monuments of the 
same period. f On the plinth are the name of 
Amunoph, and figures of the Phoenix in an atti- 
tude of prayer ; and in the hieroglyphics, on one 

* See above, p. 128. 

t The restoration of the name of Amun took place in, or 
before, the reign of Osirei, the third successor of Amunoph III. 
See my Modern Egypt, vol. ii. p. 55., and Ancient Egyptians, 
vol. iv. p. 244. 


side, mention is made of the God Ra, and on the 
other are the names of " Pthah," and (Thoth) " the 
Lord of Oshmoun." 

The other portions of the palace that remain 
consist, principally, of arcades on square pillars; 
some of which, in the N. W. section, support an 
entablature with mouldings, showing that they 
extended round an open court. On many of the 
stones are characters, which, from their being 
found in various parts of the building, are evi- 
dently quarry marks, and not intended to direct 
the position of the blocks ; though, as is reasonable 
to suppose, several with the same characters occur 
near each other.* 

The Romans, it is true, were at no period re- 
markable for pure architectural taste, and had 
departed very far from the proportions and style 
of Greek models, long before the age of Diocletian ; 
yet this palace may still be admired, for the solidity 
of its construction, and the application of those 
principles, for which the Roman architects deserve 
their share of praise. The pleasing effect of the 
arches in the exterior of this palace and in the court, 
the solid gateways, the masonry of the two temples, 
and above all the curiously-constructed domef, 
cannot fail to excite admiration ; and every one, 
who is curious about the transition of styles, may 
find much to interest him, in the peculiarities here 

* PO, AO, E, ZII, HP, are among the most common, 
f See above, p. 129. 


exhibited. Of these the most remarkable are the 
arches in the court, springing from the capitals of 
columns, without any intervening member * ; the 
columns resting on a projecting cornice over a lower 
set of columns, as in the interior of the great 
temple f; the arch in an architrave, which has been 
the origin J of the so-called Venetian window ; the 
arch within a pediment § ; the rope moulding ; the 
cheveron, or zigzag, which occurs on all the brackets, 
and along the whole cornice of the great temple ; 
and the lintel of the Porta Aurea, which is a flat 
arch, composed of several stones, with their sides 
indented and fitting into each other. || These may 
serve to show how directly the Saracens, and archi- 
tects of the low ages, borrowed from Roman models 
many of the characteristics, which have been looked 
upon as the offspring of their taste. The rope and 
the cheveron mouldings, attributed to the Normans, 
were common in the later periods of Roman archi- 
tecture ; the indented stones of flat lintels, varied 
into numerous complicated shapes by Saracenic 
caprice, were from the same origin ; and many 
other supposed inventions of those periods, doubt* 
less, existed in the later monuments of the empire. 
One of these, indeed, to which Rickman gave the 
name of " long and short," I find to have been in 

• See p. 127. f See p. 129. 

J See the facade in the general view of Spalato. 

§ See p. 128. 9 and woodcut, of the court of the vestibule. 

|| See woodcut of the Porta Aurea. 


common use about the reign of Justinian ; and the 
tapia work in Saracenic walls is the same that was 
employed by Roman builders. 

From what I have observed of Roman monu- 
ments, I am disposed to go even further, and to 
derive from them the vertical line itself, which has 
always been considered the peculiar mark of Gothic, 
or church, architecture, in contradistinction to the 
horizontal, which characterises the Greek style. 
No one, indeed, can fail to perceive that the vertical 
line is a marked feature of Roman buildings. In 
an arch of triumph, that line begins with the 
column, and its pedestal ; obliges the entablature to 
project, to correspond with it ; and then, continuing 
to the attic, terminates in a statue ; which carries 
the eye to the summit of the edifice. The same 
occurs in all Roman monuments, which are not 
mere imitations of Greek taste. 

Another fact is also remarkable, that, though 
Gothic architecture never prevailed in Rome, the 
same vertical line may be found in all its churches ; 
where, besides the columns, projecting entabla- 
tures, attics, and statues, it extends up the sides of 
a cupola, runs in bands over the dome, and thence 
continuing to the top of the lantern, ends only in 
the cross that crowns the apex of the edifice. 

But as these questions are not immediately con- 
nected with Dalmatia, I refrain from going more 
fully into them. 

Spalato possesses a museum ; though, as I have 


before observed, with the opportunities afforded by 
the rich treasures buried at Salona, a stranger is 
surprised to find it contains so little worthy of 

The most interesting object is a statue of Venus, 
found at Salona in 1840; the head of which is 
unfortunately wanting, as well as the arms, and the 
right leg. It measures 3 feet 11 inches, to the top 
of the shoulder. The style is good, but the Cupid 
at the side is of inferior workmanship. On the 
pedestal is the dedication VENERI VICTRICI. 
There are also a robed female figure, about 6 feet 
6 inches high, with this inscription on the plinth, 
LOLLIjE SECVNM FILM! ; a good head of 
Juno ; and an inferior one of a goddess, found in 
the same spot as the Venus ; a few statues of no 
merit ; a fragment of Corinthian column, with its 
entablature ; several glass vases, bottles, and 
cinerary urns ; beads, wooden combs, glass pins, 
terra-cotta lamps, and other small objects. There 
is also a large sarcophagus, or stone coffin, found 
in 1844 by Professor Carrara, at Salona ; which is 
interesting from its inscription, mentioning persons 
of the name of Albucius, who held the offices of 
Decurio and -/Edile, at Salona and Issa.* In the 

^EDIL • MARIT • ET • C • ALB VC • C • F • TR • PROCI- 




court-yard is a stela, raised to the memory of a 
young man, Marcus Ulpius Veratius, by his parents ; 
and many other inscriptions, one of which is a 
dedication to Esculapius. 

In the walls of private houses are some inscrip- 
tions; and in one I observed an altar to the 
"DIS SYRIS," dedicated by one of the same 
Albucii, mentioned on the sarcophagus. There 
are also a dedication to Jupiter, and another to 
M. Aurelius Antoninus.* On the staircase of 
another house is a bas relief, representing a battle 
of Centaurs and Lapith*, with other fragments ; 
and the late director of the museum possesses 
various antiques, among which is the statue of 
a Roman emperor, of good style. The feet are 
lost as well as the head ; but the statue is remark- 
able for this peculiarity, that the head has been 
movable, fitting into a hollow made purposely to re- 
ceive it : showing that it changed, with the change 
of Caesars ; the body suiting equally well each suc- 
ceeding emperor. This ingenious idea might be 





pot xxnn P • P • COHINDL 



conveniently adopted at the present day, and is 
worthy the attention of public institutions, sculp- 
tors, and dealers in portraits.* In the same col- 
lection are several Cippi, part of a small robed 
female statue, and many other objects of Roman 
work ; and the ex-director is said to have a fine 
cabinet of coins and gems, which the public is not 
permitted to see. 

In the walls of the archivescovato, or Arch- 
bishop's palace, are numerous inscriptions, many 
of which have been published by Farlati, and 
Muratori ; others are built into the walls of a house 
in the northern suburb of Spalato, with a draped 
figure of a woman bearing a vase on her head ; and 
some are in a private house, in that neighbourhood. 
The greater part have been found at Salona ; and as 
the inscriptions are principally sepulchral, they throw 
little light on the public monuments, or the history, 
of that place ; but one, a dedication to Jupiter and 
Claudius Caesar, lately brought from thence, pos- 
sesses more interest, and may possibly lead to the 
discovery of the building, to which it belonged.f 

* In countries where the talent of artists is sacrificed to 
portraits, it would be highly beneficial to lay a very heavy tax 
on all those objects of vanity, and impediments to art 

J I • ' M ET 



PORTICVM • V • S • L • M • LOC • ACCEP • D.D. 

See below, on Salona. 


The largest piece of sculpture is in the church 
of St. Francesco, in the Borgo Grande, at the foot 
of Mount Marglian. It is now the altar of that 
church. The subject is the passage of the Red Sea. 
The figures are in relief, but of a late period, as 
the subject and the execution suffice to show. 

From the summit of the neighbouring Mount 
Marglian is a fine view of Spalato, which it en- 
tirely commands. In the distance, to the eastward, 
are the range of Mount Mossor, the elevated valley 
of the Poglizzan republic, and Mount Bi6covo * ; 
and in the horizon to the S. £. the pointed cone of 
Mount Csmina, near Vergoraz. To the E. N. E. 
is the fortress of Clissa, beyond Salona, with the 
lofty Prolog range behind it, already covered with 
Bnow in the early part of the winter ; to the N. W. 
is Monte Caprario, once within the Turkish fron- 
tier ; and to the westward extends the inland Bay 
of the Castelli, which terminates, on one side, at 
Trail, on the other, at Salona. Just below Mount 
Marglian is a promontory of the same name, where 
a temple of Diana once stood, succeeded in later 
times by the Church of Saint George ; and this is 
the spot marked " ad Dianam " in the Peutinger 
table, the Dianion of the Anonymus Ravennas.f 

The Archbishop's palace, which stands nearly 
behind the cathedral, is noted for having been the 

* Biocovo is 5899 feet high, Mossor (Mosor) 4464. 
t Peri plus Maris Adriatici, lib. vii. No. 14. 


abode of the " celebrated De Dominis * ; " who added 
the upper part, as his study and observatory, while 
engaged in his important experiments on light and 
optics. They even show the window, whence he 
discovered the theory of the prismatic colours, by 
the falling drops of water; which was published in a 
work printed at Venice in 1611 f, describing the 
nature of the rainbow ; and it is gratifying to find 
that Newton does that justice to his discoveries, 
which was very unfairly withheld by Descartes, 
though following his explanations. J 

Marc- Antonio de Dominis was descended from a 
noble family of Arbe, where he was born. Edu- 
cated at the Illyrian College of the Jesuits, in 
Loretto, where he passed about twenty years of his 
life, he obtained through them the mathematical 
chair at Padua, and subsequently the professorship 
of philosophy at Brescia ; after which, through the 
influence of the Emperor Rodolph II., he was ap- 
pointed by Clement VIII. to the bishopric of Segna, 
vacant by the death of his uncle § , who was killed 
before Clissa, in a vain endeavour to relieve the 
garrison, when besieged by the Turks in that 
fortress, a.d. 1596. 

His conduct during the difficult questions that 

* NewtOD, Optic, lib. i. part 2. Pr. ix. 
f De Radiis Visfis ac Lucis, written in 1590. 
X Newton says, "Porro eandem explicandi ration em per- 
secutus est Cartesius in meteoris suis." 
§ See the History in Chapter IX. 

Chap. IN.] DE DOMINIS. 145 

arose between the Austrians and Venetians, re- 
specting the Uscocs, and his endeavours to check 
their piracies, obtained for him universal esteem ; 
and he was translated in 1602 to the Archbishopric 
of Spalato. The same ardour for philosophical 
pursuits, which he had always felt, did not di- 
minish, in consequence of this appointment ; and 
there is little doubt, had his time been less occupied 
with official avocations, and unfortunately with 
vexations, to which he was exposed during a great 
part of his life, his talents would have had more 
opportunity of displaying themselves. 

His character in private, his humane and dis- 
interested kindness, while the terrible plague of 
1607 raged at Spalato, and his general conduct 
in public*, do honour to his memory; though 
he cannot be absolved from the charge of great 
bitterness, to those who offended him; which is 
sufficiently proved by his letter to Andreuzzi, bishop 
of Trail, beginning, " Saul, Saul, why persecutest 
thou me ? " and by his subsequent excommunica- 
tion of the bishop. Even his friends lamented 
his quarrel with Andreuzzi ; and no excuse can be 
offered for the desertion of his province, and his 
subsequent fickle conduct in religion. 

For no sooner had the Vatican interfered in the 
affair of Traii f , and an accusation been preferred 

* Farlati, vol. iii. p. 483. Ciccarelli, ii. p. 38 — 52. 
f Ciccarelli, p. 43., whose account is more reasonable than 

VOL. I. L 


against him to Paul V. by the Spalatines, than De 
Dominis left Dalmatia, and withdrawing to Venice, at 
the close of the year 1615, vacated his see in favour 
of his nephew Sforza Ponzoni. A warm dissension 
had at that time occurred, between the Pope and 
the Venetians ; and De Dominis wrote in favour of 
the Republic. The Inquisition condemned his 
work ; and, in his anger against the Court of Rome, 
he resolved on retiring to a Protestant country. 
He first went into Germany, where he visited 
Heidelberg * and other places ; and at length ac- 
cepted the invitation of Bedell, chaplain to Sir 
Henry Wotton, the ambassador of James I. at 
Venice, to accompany him to England. There, 
having abjured Papacy, he wrote a work entitled 
" Scoglio del Naufragio Christiano," and another 
" De Republic^ Ecclesiastic^," in which he assailed 
the authority of the Pope, and the doctrines of 

Besides these unbecoming attacks on the head 
of that Church, in which he had held a distin- 
guished post, the conduct of De Dominis is de- 
serving of censure for breach of confidence, in 
publishing a manuscript History of the Council of 
Trent, lent him by its author, Fra Paolo Sarpi ; 
whose indignation was justly roused by this act, 
and by finding that he had made several additions 

* Where be published his Reasons for leaving his See, after- 
wards reprinted in London in 1617. 

Chap. III.] DE DOMINIS. 147 

of his own, and had prefaced it with a dedication 
to James I., containing many sarcasms against the 
Pope. It is, however, only just to observe, that 
the change in his religious tenets did not arise, 
solely, from a feeling of animosity against the 
Vatican ; he had been disposed to doubt the truth 
of those things taught by the Church of Borne *, 
while pursuing his theological studies; and had 
only abstained from noticing them, out of respect 
to the career he had adopted. 

His reception in England was very cordial : he 
found a liberal patron in the King ; and he was made 
Dean of Windsor. At length, his friend and rela- 
tion, Gregory XV., alarmed at the defection of so 
eminent a man, solicited him, through Gondomar, 
the Spanish ambassador, to return to the Roman 
Catholic communion ; and, yielding to his persua- 
sion, he went to Italy in 1622, and was received 
at Rome by Gregory, with all the forgiveness, and 
charity, that became a Christian pontiff. 

But on the death of his protector, that toleration 
and forgiveness were withdrawn ; and he was ex- 
posed to the vengeance of an offended hierarchy. 
They accused him of a correspondence with heretics ; 
an offence highly improbable, and one of which no 
one, in his situation, would have been indiscreet 
enough, even if he had the wish, to be guilty : his 
fate was decreed ; he was imprisoned in the Castle 
of St. Angelo, where, in 1625, his life was cut 

• Farlati, iii. p. 481. 
l 2 


short, as some suppose, by poison ; and his body 
was afterwards condemned to be burnt in the 
Campo dei Fiori *, together with his writings. 

Having mentioned De Dominis, it may not be out 
of place to notice the names, at least, of other dis- 
tinguished natives of Dalmatia ; as the Emperors 
Claudius Gothicus and Diocletian, the Popes Caio 
and Giovanni IV., San Girolamo (St. Jerome), 
Francesco Patrizio, Ghetaldi, G. Boglivi, Boscovich, 
the Archdeacon Tommaso, Mica Madio, S. Agostino 
Casotti, Marco Marulo, Antonio Veranzio, Lodovico 
Cerca, Gian-Francesco Gondola, Coriolano Cippico, 
Bartolomeo Cassio, Giovanni Lucio, Farlati, Saraca, 
Tuberone, Bobali, Giov. Patrizio, Benedetto Stay, 
Giov. Domenico Stratico, Raimondo Cunich, Ber- 
nardo Zamagra, Simeone Statico, Faustino Gagliuffi, 
Nicolo Tommas^o, &c. ; and though it may scarcely 
be right to admit a renegade, among those who have 
done honour to their country, the name of Goher f , 
the General of Moez, Caliph of Karawan, who 
founded Cairo, is too remarkable to be omitted. 

The situation of Spalato is, by far, the most 
agreeable of all the cities of Dalmatia. The 
climate is healthy, the heat of summer moderate, 
and the cold of winter not severe. In all these 
respects Dalmatia is very preferable to Greece; and 
with the exception of the Narenta district, Salona, 

* "Where Mollio and other reformers were burnt, 
"f According to Luccari, in his History of Ragusa, from 
Giovanni Leone. See celebrated men of Ragusa, in Ch. V. 

Chap. III.] CLIMATE. 149 

Knin, and a few other places in the interior, it is 
free from fevers. 

The thermometer seldom ranges very much be- 
low the freezing point, and the maximum of heat 
is about 88° or 89° Fahr. in June and July, or 
rather more to the southward, about Ragusa and 
Cattaro. The winter is short, and snow rarely 
lies for any time, except on the hills. The high 
ranges of the Velebich *, Biocovo, and Prolog, are 
covered with snow towards the end of November, 
and, when the wind blows from the north, the cold 
is much felt at Spalato ; but it seldom lasts, and a 
scirocco, so disagreeable in summer, soon comes to 
remove the cold of the land wind. The succession 
of lofty mountains, in the interior, make it much 
colder in Herzegovina; and the Bosnian winter 
sets in many weeks earlier than in Dalmatia, and 
with great severity. 

Consumption and rheumatism are said to be 
common in Dalmatia, and even at Spalato, but 
probably not more so than in Italy ; and judging 
from the general productions, the oranges standing 
out all the year, and the appearance of palm-trees, 
which thrive there, the climate may be compared 
to that of Naples, or Calabria. This is consistent 
with the range of the thermometer, in different 
months throughout the year, and with what I ob- 
served during my stay, from August till January. 

The drives and walks, in the neighbourhood of 

♦ See above, p. 88. 

L 3 


Spalato, are particularly enjoyable; the scenery 
is pleasing ; and the Riviera dei Castelli, on the 
north side of the Bay of Salona, is well worthy 
of a visit. Spalato is supposed to be the scene 
of Shakspeare's Twelfth Night, which he lays in 
" Illyria." 

The Paludi is a short evening's walk, where there 
is a Franciscan Convent, standing near the water's 
edge, with a garden, and an extensive view over 
the bay reaching to Trail. The Friars are most 
hospitable ; and any one, who is introduced by a 
friend, may be gratified by a sight of two curiously- 
illuminated books, the work of one of their order, 
theFrate Bernadini Rasmilovich,. of Spalato, in 1675. 
They possess additional interest to a Dalmatian, from 
the colours having been extracted from plants of 
the country. In the garden, the most striking ob- 
ject, next to the delicious grapes, is an inscription 
built into the wall of the Convent. It has the 
appearance of one of those literary forgeries of the 
seventeenth century * ; but even if it be so, it is a 






Chap. III.] ROAD TO SALONA. 151 

curiosity; and the expressions it contains are often 
adopted in tombstones of Roman times. The low 
marshy land, to the southward of the Convent, has 
given the name of I Paludi to this spot. 

Returning to the high road, and following it to the 
northward, you have a fine view over the bay, the 
curious peninsula of Urania, now Vranizza ( Vrag- 
nitza), and Salona. The extremity of this peninsula 
is occupied by a village of the same name, contain- 
ing about thirty houses, with a church ; which are 
said to stand, partly on the site of a large building, 
connected in former times with the trade of Salona ; 
and partly on that of a villa of the archbishop of 
Spalato, destroyed by the Venetians about 1204. 
The inhabitants are fishermen and peasants. 

A good carriage road leads from Spalato to 
Salona, a distance of about three miles and a 
half. On the way, the conduits that carried water 
to Spalato may be seen, by the road-side, and 
a short distance before you reach Salona, seven 
arches of the Roman aqueduct appear in the dis- 
tance, to the eastward. The water came from the 
source of the Giadro, where the fountain of Dio- 
cletian is still shown ; and the conduit which 
supplied the palace of Spalato, is said to have 
entered that building near the Porta Aurea. 

Salona stood on the north side of the Jader, now 
II Giadro. The road crosses the river at the same 
spot as of old, and one of the arches of the 
modern bridge is of Roman time. The city was 

L 4 


known to the Romans by the names of Salona and 
Salo, but most usually by that of Salonae. Appen- 
dini * supposes the name to have been " Slauna in 
Illyric," which he derives from the Slavonic slav, 
and translates " glorious ; " and he gives the same 
Slavonic origin to Alvona, Scardona, Sidrona, and 
Flanona, which he converts into Launa, Sgradna, 
Sridna, and Flauna. The mistake is obvious ; when 
we recollect that the Slavonic tribes did not come 
into the country, for ages after those names were in 
common use, and their language was different from 
the ancient Illyric. But Appendini is not the only 
one, who has fallen into this error. 

The position of Salona, described by Lucan, 

"Qua maris Adriaci longas ferit unda Salonas, 
Et tepidum in molles Zephyros excurrit Iader," 

agrees with its oblong form, traceable in the ruins, 
and with the course of the river. A little below 
the bridge, the Giadro opens into the long inland 
bay of Salona ; and on crossing it, a road runs off 
to the left towards the Castelli, and to the right 
into the modern village, which occupies a very 
small portion of the south-east corner of the old 

Though the public buildings and houses of 
ancient Salona have been destroyed, sufficient re- 
mains of the wall, to show the position, as well as 
the size, of the city; and the arch of the bridge 
proves that the course of the river is still un- 

* Storia di Ragusa, vol. i. c. xi. p. 80. note. 

Chap. III.] SALON A, 153 

changed. There is a portion of well-built masonry, 
in the form of a crescent, to the left of the bridge, 
on the modern Castelli road, which shows that in 
former times the bay extended to this spot, and that 
the bridge crossed the river at its mouth. This, 
indeed, agrees with the tradition of the place ; and 
the continuation of the ancient sea-wall may be 
traced beyond it to the westward. This wall, 
therefore, formed one side of the port of Salona. 

The city consisted of two parts, the eastern and 
western; and the latter stands on rather higher 
ground, though not on a hill, as Caesar would lead 
us to suppose, when he describes Salona " in edito 
colle." The only rising ground consists of a slope 
on the north, along which the wall on that side is 
built ; and it is difficult to account for Caesar's re- 
mark, unless we suppose he confounded Salona 
with the neighbouring Anderium (Clissa). 

But in order to render the description of Salona, 
and the state of its ruins, more intelligible, it is 
necessary to make some observations on the history 
of the city, and its destruction. 

Of the origin of Salona no record exists ; though 
in the absence of any thing certain, the uncertain 
position of a town, called Hyllenis by Apollonius 
Rhodius, has been forced * into an agreement with 
that of Salona ; Farlati f has pressed the Argonauts 

* Apollonius says, " A great number of islands in that part 
made the access through them difficult to sailors." 

| The learned Farlati was the Montfaucon of Dalmatia. 



to become its founders; and Mica Madio* finds 
that Salona existed in the time of the Trojan war, 
and sent seventy-two armed gallies to assist the 
Greeks against Priam. Little, indeed, is known 
of Salona before the time of Julius Caesar. After 
the destruction of Delminium, it became the capital 
of Dalmatia, about 133 B.C. ; and it was first taken 
by L. Csecilius Metellus, in 117 B.C. f It was 
besieged a second time, and opened its gates to 
Cn. Cosconius, B.C. 78; and, during the civil 
war between Pompey and Caesar, it was twice 
attacked by M. Octavius, without success. Having 
espoused the cause of Brutus and Cassius, it was 
besieged by C. Asinius Pollio (b.c. 42), and, after 
its capture on that occasion, it remained in posses- 
sion of Octavianus. 

Nothing remarkable occurred after this conquest, 
except the siege it maintained against Bato, the 
Dalmatian general, during his wars with the Ro- 
mans, (a.d. 6.) The Salonitan garrison defended 
itself valiantly against the enemy, and Bato being 
wounded by a stone from a balista, withdrew his 
his army. Salona had been made a Roman colony 
at its second capture ; it afterwards received the 
title of Colonia Martia Julia Salona, and of Colonia 
Claudia Augusta Pia Veteranorum ; and, under 
Augustus, it was the chief town of a " Conventus 

* Mich. Madii Histor. c. 15. in Lucio. He lived at the 
beginning of the fourteenth century. 
| See the History. 



Romanorum," * to which it gave the name of 
" Salonitanus." 

From the time it received a colony, it was 
looked upon as the great bulwark of the Roman 
conquests, on that side of the Adriatic ; and when 
Gabinius was forced by the Dalmatians to take 
refuge within its walls, the Roman citizens who 
inhabited Salona were renowned for their courage 
and fidelity, f 

It bore various titles, according to the changes 
that took place in the administration of the pro- 
vince; it was styled RespublicaJ, Conventus, Co- 
lonia, Metropolis, Praefectura, and Prjetorium ; and 
in Christian times it was a bishop's see, founded 
by St. Doimo§, and was occupied by sixty-one 
bishops in succession. 

Under the early emperors, it had been embel- 
lished with many public buildings ; but their 
number and splendour were greatly increased by 
Diocletian, who, according to Porphyrogenitus, 
completely " rebuilt " the city. 

No great change took place, during nearly two 
centuries, after the reign of that emperor. 

* See the History. 

t Hirtius B. Alexandr. c. 43. " Salonam . . . oppidum 
maritimum quod cives Romani fortissimi fidelissimique in cole- 

J Carrara's Chiesa di Spalato, p. 10., on the authority of an 
ancient inscription. 

§ See above, p. 123. 


It is unnecessary to enter into the discussion 
respecting the pretended invasion of Dalmatia, and 
the capture of Salona, by Attila, in the middle of 
the fifth century ; but the fact noticed by Lucio, 
" that no writer has mentioned it among the deeds 
of that conqueror," and the distance Salona lay out 
of his way to Italy, argue greatly against it. 

In 481, Salona was taken by Odoacer King of 
the Heruli*; and again by Totila, in the sixth 
century, after it had been recovered from the 
Goths, (a.d. 535) in the reign of Justinian. 

Little is known of these later sieges, except that it 
was partly destroyed ; and that, after Mundus, the 
general of Justinian, had rescued Salona from the 
Goths, in 535, they once more re-occupied it. That 
the walls were not then in a condition to withstand a 
siege, is evident from the Gothic general Grippa not 
venturing to await the attack of Constantianus 
within Salona; and Procopiusf expressly speaks 
of the " many gaps in the ruined walls." 

The first care of the Roman general, in ob- 
taining possession of the city, was to repair them, 
and improve its defences by making a deep 
ditch ; and having collected the troops from 
other garrisons, he awaited the approach of the 
combined forces of Asinarius and Ulesigalus, who 

* See above, p. 122. and the History in Chapter IX. 
•f Procopiua says, " Moenia magna parte hiantia minis, ' 
lib. i. p. 158. 

Chap. III.] SIEGE8 OF SALONA. 157 

had been sent by the Gothic King Vitiges to 
recover Salona, and re-conquer the whole of Dal- 
matian The place was speedily invested by sea and 
land; Ulesigalus had been furnished with many 
long ships of peculiar construction expressly for 
the siege, as well as the usual engines of attack ; 
and notwithstanding a vigorous sortie made by Con- 
stantianus on the sea-side, the Goths continued to 
press the siege with great obstinacy. They at length 
retired ; and from that time Salona remained un- 
disturbed, except by the momentary invasion of 
Totila, until its final destruction in the seventh 

It soon recovered from these disasters, and it was 
from Salona that Belisarius, in 544, and Narses, in 
552, set out, with a numerous army, to rescue 
Italy from Totila and the Goths. 

Past calamities had not taught the Salonitans to 
prepare against future dangers: they had long 
enjoyed a fancied state of security; their whole 
thoughts were absorbed in luxury and dissipation ; 
and the first approach of an enemy showed how 
incapable they were, of acting in defence of their 
city, and their homes. The Avars * invaded Dal- 
matia ; and in 639, having obtained possession of 
Clissa, (as Porphyrogenitus states) by assuming 

* The mistake of Porphyrogenitus, in supposing the Avars 
and Slavi the same people, probably arose from their haying 
fought so long under the same banners. 


the arms and dress of Roman soldiers*, they 
advanced to Salona. The terrified inhabitants 
thought only of saving their lives, and their pro- 
perty ; and, after a short and ineffectual resistance, 
they fled to the coast, and took refuge in the 
islands. The town was pillaged and burnt, and 
from that time Salona has been deserted, and in 
ruins, f 

With these historical facts before us, it is interest- 
ing to observe the present state of the place, which 
offers many illustrations of past events. The por- 
tions of its defences repaired at various periods 
may be traced : an inscription lately discovered by 
Professor Carrara, shows that the walls and towers 
were repaired by Valentinian II. and Theodosius ; 
and the ditch of Constantianus is distinctly seen 
on the north side. Here and there, it has been 
filled up with earth, and cultivated, but its position 
cannot be mistaken, and in places its original breadth 
may be ascertained. A very small portion of the 
wall remains on the east side, and nearly all traces of 
it are lost towards the river ; but the northern por- 
tion is well preserved, and the triangular front, or 
salient angle of many of its towers may be traced. 

* An improbable story, or excuse for the garrison. 

f Appendini (vol. i. p. 84.) thinks that Salona was not des- 
troyed till 691, when the Serbs and Chrobatas came into the 
country ; but their animosity was directed against the Avars, 
and not, as he supposes, against the Romans, who invited them 
into Dalmatia. 

Chap, in.] STATE OP THE RUINS. 159 

Near the N. E. corner are some stones of large 
dimensions ; and though much has been destroyed, 
and reconstructed in the barbaric style, the dis- 
position of the numerous towers affords a curious 
illustration of the Roman system of fortification, 
and fully accounts for the praise given by Caesar 
to the works of Salona. The general style of the 
masonry in the walls of the eastern division of the 
town is rude ; they appear to have been repaired 
in haste ; and some, which consist of alternate 
square and flat stones, are evidently of late 
time. Their direction is very irregular, probably 
to suit the ground ; but their strength is shown by 
their numerous solid towers, some square, others 
fronted with one or two triangular projections, 
with a very short curtain between them ; and at 
the upper part is a double parapet of great height, 
that might be called two walls, with an intermediate 
passage ; instances of which I have seen, in other 
Roman fortresses. 

In the western portion of the town are the 
theatre, and what is called the amphitheatre. Of 
the former some portion of the proscenium re- 
mains, as well as the solid piers of arches, built 
of square stone, with bevelled edges, about 6£ feet 
diameter, and 10 feet apart. This seems to agree 
with a remark of Thomas the Archdeacon, that 
" the only edifice left standing, after the destruc- 
tion of Salona, was the theatre, in the western part 


of the city * ; " but it is possible that he may allude 
to the supposed amphitheatre, at the extreme corner 
to the N. W. 

Much of that elliptical building still remains, 
and six arches of the outer circle are entire. The 
entrance, which was of good solid masonry, was 
on the E. side, and measured about 38 feet by 20*6 
in breadth ; and near it I observed the key-stone 
of a large arch, that probably covered it. From 
its dimensions, this was evidently not an amphi- 
theatre ; the whole length, with the entrance passage, 
being 324 feet, and the breadth, from the arches to 
the opposite side, about 191 feet; which, deducting 
for the space occupied by the seats on both sides, 
leaves only about 118 feet for the breadth of the 
arena, or less than half its length. 

The walls of the town either abutted against 
the sides, or barely enclosed it ; and it may once 
have stood outside them, and have been taken into 
the circuit in dangerous times. A portion of the 
wall to the south of it is evidently of early Roman 
date, though Ionic volutes and mouldings, on some 
of the stones, show they had belonged to older 
monuments ; and from this part another wall runs 
off, nearly at a right angle, which appears again by 
the road side, about 115 paces to the westward, and 
in a still more perfect state 30 paces further on. 

It is of very large stones, with bevelled edges, 

* Arcidiacono Tommaso, in Lucio, p. 319. 



admirably put together, and of a style which re- 
sembles Greek masonry. Some of the blocks are 
13 feet long, and 2 high. I traced it in the same 
direction to the distance of 573 paces, or about 
1440 feet ; and about 200 paces farther on, is a 
line of rock resembling masonry, which may have 
been used as a continuation of the defences of the 
city. On the north side of the wall the sarcophagus 
of the Albucii family was discovered, and other 
tombs are met with hereabouts. 

This wall may have been used to protect the 
entrance to the river and the port, or may have 
belonged to the older city, before the Romans 
came into Dalmatia, when Salona was already a 
place of importance * ; and the character of its 
masonry is the more remarkable, as it seems to 
point out a connection with the Greeks. 

Some distance beyond the above-mentioned rock, 
to the right of the Trfiti road, is an ancient tomb, 
hewn in the limestone hill, now the chapel of St. Caio 
(Cajo), a native of Salona, who became Pope, and 
returned home in the form of a saint. He was put 
to death by Diocletian, a.d. 296, and was buried 
at Rome, in the Calisti cemetery, on the Appian 
Way. His brother St. Gabinius, and many others, 

* Strabo (lib. vii. p. 315.) says: — eirelra .... kcu fy twp 
AaX/xartwv xapaX/a, teal to kirivtiov avr&v SaAwv. "Eoti 3c twv 
wo\vv ypovov iroXefjifjffayTiov wpog Pwjia/ovc to eOvoq tovto, 
icaroiWac & eg\ev ^okoyovq cic iciyTJiKovra, &v rtvac teal x6\eic 
ZaXiova rt Koi Hpiafitava, Kal Ncvt'av, teat S/ywrcov, to te viov ko\ 
to iraXaiby, &c tviirpriGtv 6 ZtfiaoroQ. 

VOL. I. M 


also from Salona, suffered martyrdom on that occa- 
sion ; and Salona had the singular honour of giving 
an emperor, a pope, and a list of martyrs at the 
same period, and as some suppose from the same 
family.* The tomb is small, consisting of a cell 
with a sarcophagus, also cut out of the rock, which 
contained the body of its first possessor, who was 
probably a Greek. On the front of it are sculptures 
in relief, consisting of three compartments. In one, 
Hercules is represented bringing away Cerberus 
from Hades ; in the next he leads by the hand a 
woman, who might be taken for Iole, but that she 
seems too much alarmed, and too reluctant ; and 
in the third, he is shooting with a bow at the 
apples of the Hesperides, which are guarded by a 

Little is known of the public buildings of Salona 
from ancient writers ; except that, besides the 
Curia, the Qucestura, the forum, temples, theatres, 
gymnasia, and other public edifices usual in Ro- 
man cities, it had a temple of Jupiter. The position 
of that temple has not been ascertained ; but two 
inscriptions alluding to it have been found at Sa- 
lona, one containing a dedication to Jupiter and 
the Emperor Claudius f, the other of the time of 
" L. jElius Caesar," about the year 137 a.d. Sa- 
lona had also a manufactory of armour, a baphium, 
or dyeing works, a gynaecium, and a treasury. 

* The Aurelia Valeria. J See above, p. 142. 


These four, which are mentioned in the " No- 
titia" of the empire, belonged to the state; and 
were superintended by officers, called " Procura- 
tores" under the " Comes sacrarum largitionum" 

At the baphium, woollen, and afterwards silken, 
stuffs were dyed purple, for the use of the em- 
peror ; which could only be done in these govern- 
ment establishments, according to a law, first 
issued in the reign of Nero; and the severity of 
later enactments made it a capital offence for any 
individual to infringe it. The gynaecium has been 
mentioned.* In the treasury, all the money of the 
tribute, the salaries of the magistrates, and the pay 
of the troops were deposited ; and it is supposed 
that Salona also possessed a mint. But tradition 
has not been fortunate in the choice of its site; 
having fixed upon a ruined edifice, on the east of 
the town, which was built by the Archbishop of 
Spalato, in 1347, to keep off the depredations of 
the Servian garrison of Clissa.f 

Salona also possessed a grand navale^ or dock- 
yard; which seems, from Strabo's account J, to 
have been the only one, deserving that name, 
on the whole Dalmatian coast; and its harbour, 
capable of containing any number of ships, was 
sheltered from the effects of tempests, and was 
defended by strong castles on each side of the 

* See page 130. f Se e Catalinich, vol. iii. pp. 64, 65. 
t Strabo, lib. 7. 

u 2 



Porphyrogenitus affirms that Salona was half 
the size of Constantinople ; and, with the suburbs, 
it has been estimated at six miles in length ; but 
these statements are exaggerated ; and though its 
great extent from east to west justly obtained for 
it the title of €t longas Salonas" it is certain that 
the length of six miles would exceed the truth, 
even if the whole distance to Clissa were included 
in it. Numerous inscriptions have been found at 
Salona, many of which have been carried to Spa- 
lato ; but some are still seen there, generally built 
into the walls of houses. They are mostly fu- 

The Giadro, or Iader f, which rises in, or issues 
from, the skirts of Mt. Mossor, between MravinzeJ 
and Clissa, and about two miles and a half from 
Salona, is a small river, sufficiently rapid to be 
used for turning mills. It is composed of several 
smaller streams, which unite in one, above the 
bridge of Salona, and a little below this it enters 
the sea. The Iader was always famed for its ex- 
cellent trout ; but lest it should be supposed that 
Diocletian abdicated his throne for their sake, the 
Abbate Fortis takes up the matter seriously, and 

* Though I have copied the inscriptions of Dalmatia, they 
are not all of sufficient importance to be introduced here ; and 
many have been given by Farlati (end of vol. ii.), by Spon, and 
others, and some in the Archaeologia. 

| Called also Ider, and Salon us. 

\ N.N.W. of Mravinze. 


observes that "some author, who must have been a 
much better judge of good eating, than of the 
actions of great men, took occasion to write, that 
Diocletian (acting worse than Esau) renounced 
the pleasure of commanding almost all the then 
known earth, to eat quietly these fishes, in his mag- 
nificent retirement at Spalato I believe 

it must have been a delicious habitation, and to 
strengthen this belief, I imagine the neighbouring 
mountain to have been covered with ancient woods ; 

but it is certain that a turn for philosophy, 

and perhaps a trait of wise policy, were the motives 
of Diocletian's retirement ; ...... and notwith- 
standing all the ill that Christian authors have 
written, one copying the other, of this Dalmatine 
Emperor, perhaps with greater piety than impar- 
tiality, or truth, it must be confessed that he was a 
man of extraordinary merit."* 

Salona is famed for woodcocks ; and the mouth 
of the river is frequented by the Ibis, and a great 
quantity of waterfowl, in the early part of the 
year ; but the exhalations from their marshy resorts 
cause bad fevers in summer and autumn. 

The birds of Dalmatia are numerous ; " amount- 
ing to 326 species, out of the 514 which are natives 
of Europe." f Among them are several species of 
eagles, the Percnopterus, and other vultures ; and 
the museum of Vienna has been enriched with a 

* Fortis, p. 207. f Carrara, p. 76. 79. 

m 3 


large collection from that country. The common 
and red-legged partridges are in great abundance, 
and sportsmen may find ample amusement in Dal- 
matiaTeither with the gun or rod. 

A great fair is held every year at Salona, on the 
8th of September, to which all the people of the 
neighbourhood look forward, with anticipations of 
feasting, business, and amusement. 

It is a curious sight, and the concourse of people 
is very great. The costumes are numerous and 
varied ; among which the most remarkable are those 
of the pretty Castellane women, of the townspeople 
and peasantry of Sign and Sebenico, and of the 
peasantry, and the borghesi, of Spalato. Many come 
from the Turkish frontier ; and sometimes a few 
Turks from Herzegovina, whose dress differs not 
very much from that of the Morlacchi who wear 
the turban. The costumes of the women are the 
most numerous and remarkable, those of the men 
varying much less, in the different districts of Dal- 
matia ; but the colours in both are striking, and 
admirably suited for a picture. Blue and red are 
the most predominant. 

All Spalato is, of course, at the fair : and the 
road to Salona is thronged with carriages of every 
description, horsemen, and pedestrians. The mix- 
ture of the men's hats, red caps, and turbans, and 
the bonnets and Frank dresses of the Spalatine 
ladies, contrasted with the varied costumes of the 
country-women, present one of the most singular 

Chap. HI.] FAIR OF SALON A. 167 

sights to be seen in Europe ; and to a stranger the 
language adds in no small degree to its novelty. 

Some business is done, as well as pleasure ; and 
a great number of cattle, sheep, and pigs are 
bought and sold, as well as various stuffs, trinkets, 
and the usual goods exhibited at fairs. Long 
before mid-day, the groups of peasants have 
thronged the road, not to say street, of Salona ; 
some attend the small church, picturesquely placed 
upon a green surrounded by the small streams of 
the Giadro, and shaded with trees; while others 
rove about, seeking their friends, looking at, and 
looked at by, strangers as they pass ; and all are 
intent on the amusements of the day, and the 
prospect of a feast. 

Eating and drinking soon begin. On all sides, 
sheep are seen roasting whole on wooden spits, in 
the open air; and an entire flock is speedily 
converted into mutton. Small knots of hungry 
friends are formed in every direction : some seated 
on a bank under the trees, others in as many 
houses as will hold them, some on the grass by the 
road-side regardless of sun and dust, and a few 
quiet families have boats prepared for their recep- 

In the meantime, the hat-wearing townspeople 
from Spalato and other places, as they pace up and 
down bowing to an occasional acquaintance, view 
with complacent pity the primitive recreations of 
the simple peasantry ; and arm-in-arm civilisation, 

M 4 


with its propriety and affectation, is here strangely 
contrasted with the hearty mirth of the unrefined 
Morlacchi. At the f£te of Bubastis in Egypt, more 
wine was consumed than during all the rest of the 
year ; and the same may, perhaps, be said of the fair 
of Salona ; but some years ago the resemblance of 
the two f£tes was still more strikingly like, and the 
fights that "came off" were worthy of Bubastis, 
or of Donnybrook. This was "in the good old 
times " of Venetian rule, when any one was allowed 
to take the law into his own hands, and settle with 
his enemy, without troubling a magistrate. The 
Morlacco then waited for the fair of Salona, to 
pay off old scores of revenge, and on this day 
of retaliation many scenes of bloodshed took 

The Austrian government has put a stop to the 
barbarous system; all now passes off with good- 
humoured conviviality; and if some sirdars, or 
rural police officers, attend, with their armed pan- 
dodrs, to prevent irregularities, this is the only 
precaution taken on an occasion, which formerly 
required the presence of a military force. The 
dress of these pandodrs is the same as of the other 
Morlacchi, who are all armed ; and their sole dis- 
tinction is a small flat plume of brass feathers, 
worn in the turban. 

The dance of the Morlacchi is the most interest- 
ing sight at the fair. It sometimes begins before 
dinner, but is kept up with greater spirit after- 


wards. They call it Collo *, from being, like most 
of their national dances, in a circle. A man gene- 
rally has one partner, sometimes two, but always 
at his right side. In dancing, he takes her right 
hand with his, while she supports herself by hold- 
ing his girdle with her left ; and when he has two 
partners, the one nearest him holds in her right 
hand that of her companion, who with her left 
takes the right hand of the man ; and each set 
dances forward in a line, round the circle. The 
step is rude, as in most of the Slavonic dances, 
including the polka, and radovdtschka ; and the 
music, which is primitive, is confined to a three- 
stringed violin. 

The distance that many have to go, and the 
early habits of the people, prevent the " festivities 
being kept up till a late hour ; " which, with the 
regulations of a cautious police, ensure the quiet 
termination of this lively scene. 

About two miles and a quarter f to the E. N. E. of 
Salona, is the fortress of Clissa J, famed from early 
times for its strong and advantageous position, 
on a rocky height between Monte Caprario and 
Mt. Mossor. The road that led to it from Salona 
was called Via Gabiniana ; which, according to an 

* Collo, or Kollo, signifies " Circle." There is another CoUo y 
danced by women at marriage fetes, which I shall mention 

f By the road three miles. 

\ In Ulyric, Klis, or Clis. 


inscription found at Salona, appears to have been 
made by Tiberius. 

Clissa was known to the Romans by the name of 
Andetrium * or Anderium, and (in later times) of 
Clausura *f, the origin of the modern Clissa. 

Perched on an isolated rocky eminence, inac- 
cessible on three sides, and situated on the moun- 
tain pass from the interior, it was the outpost and 
key of Salona, and commanded the approach to it 
from the N.E. The importance of such a position 
was felt by every army that invaded, or held pos- 
session of, this part of Dalmatia ; Clissa was there- 
fore a point against which their attacks were 
always directed, and it has been remarkable for 
the many sieges it withstood. It was occupied at 
various periods by the Romans J, the Hungarians, 
and others §; it was besieged by the Tartars in 
1241 ; and, in the wars between the Turks, Hunga- 

* The inscriptions call it Andetrium ; Strabo, Andretrium ; 
Ptolemy, Andecrium ; Dio Cassius, Anderion ; Pliny, Mande- 
trium ; the Peutinger table, Andretium ; and Porphyrogenitus, 
f From its closing the pass. 

J This inscription has been lately found there by Professor 
Carrara : 




§ See Catalinich, iii. p. 76., and above, pp. 3. and 163. 


rians, and Venetians, it was several times taken and 
retaken. The Uscocs* took it by surprise from 
the Turks in 1596, and held possession of it for a 
few months ; and it had previously been entrusted 
by Andrew II., King of Hungary, to the care of 
the Knights Templars, in 1217.f 

In a ravine, on the S.E. of the fortress, the 
traces of a Roman camp are said to be still visible, 
as well as an inscription carved on the rock ; both 
which are supposed to be contemporary with its 
siege under Tiberius. J 

It continues to be kept in a state of defence, and 
is garrisoned by Austrian troops. The works are 
irregular, constructed to suit the nature of the 
ground. The view from it, looking towards the 
sea, which is very beautiful, amply repays the ride 
from Spalato; and admission is easily obtained, 
through an order from the commandant. 

The road from Sign to Spalato passes close to 
the fortress ; and about a mile before reaching it, 
the tracks of wheels may be seen in the rock, 
which some suppose to be traces of the old Roman 
way, so advantageously supplanted by the modern 
carriage road from Sign. Others think them to 
be of more recent time, and that they mark the 
passage of the Turkish artillery to Clissa; but 
whatever their origin may be, the spot has received 

* See the History, a.d. 1536, and 1596. 

f See the History. 

J See the History, a.d. 6. 


the name of Koqinobardo, as a memorial of this old 
carriage road.* 

On the heights about Clissa are several small 
towers, built by the Turks, when watching an 
opportunity for suprising the fortress. 

About thirteen miles and a half to the westward 
of Salona is Trail, at the opposite extremity of the 
bay. In going from Spalato to Trail, the shortest 
way is by water ; the most independent of wind 
and weather, in a carriage round the bay by 
Salona. The drive is very agreeable, particularly 
in the spring ; and the land about the Castelli is 
the most productive, and the best cultivated, that 
I have seen in Dalmatia. It is confined to a 
narrow strip, between the sea and the slope of the 
Cabanif mountains, called Riviera dei Castdli; 
where industry has not neglected the natural ad- 
vantages of the soil ; and it abounds in vines, 
olives, and other productions. The Spalatines 
consider it " the Tempe of Dalmatia." 

After leaving Salona, you pass in succession 
these Castelli, which are villages built in the 
neighbourhood of old castles, from which they 
derive their name. The castles themselves were 
constructed, in the fifteenth and sixteenth cen- 
turies, by certain nobles, to whom the land was 

* Cocchio, Kocia, " a carriage w in Ulyric. These words are 
borrowed from Italian. 

f The hills of Trail, and the Monte Caprario, are part of this 
range ; which extends to Mt. Mossor, on the S. of Clissa. 


granted by the Venetians, on condition of their 
erecting places of refuge for the peasants, during 
the wars with the Turks. A body of armed men 
lived within them ; and on the approach of danger, 
the flocks and herds were protected beneath the 
walls; and at harvest time the peasantry had a 
place of security for their crops, within range of 
the castle guns. 

In form, they were all very much alike : a square, 
of two stories, with towers at the angles ; and the 
interior consisted of an open court, with a corridor 
at the side opposite the entrance, over which were 
open galleries and staircases, communicating with 
the rooms. The entrance was on the north side, 
and the approach was by a drawbridge, over the 
moat, that surrounded it on three sides, the fourth 


being washed by the sea * ; on which side was a 
postern, securing a communication with the bay. 

There were originally sixteen castles; half of 
which number only now remain ; some belonging 
to Spalato, the others to Trail. Their names, 
beginning from the east, are, 1. Castel Su9uraz*f, 
founded by the Archbishop of Spalato ; 2. C. 
Abbadessa, which belonged to the Abbess of a 
nunnery ; 3. C. C&mbio, still in the possession of a 
family of that name : which three belong to Spa- 
lato, and the rest to Trad: 4. C. Vettiiri, still inha- 
bited by that family ; 5. C. Vecchio ; 6. C. Novo ; 
7. C. Stafil&>; and 8. C. Papdli, the two last so 
called from families now extinct. 

To these castles the villages have, in later times, 
been attached, which consist of well-built stone 
houses. The inhabitants are industrious and 
thriving, and the costume of the Castellane women 
is one of the most singular in Dalmatia. It would 
even be graceful were the waist less short, which is 
carried to an extreme, and too much tightened for 
comfort. These women have also the strange fancy 
of making themselves appear flat breasted ; while 
the petticoat, condemned, as in other Dalmatian 
costumes, to sit in fixed plaits, is made very round 
and full, in order to set off a small waist, of which 
they are particularly proud. Their small white 

* This description applies particularly to C. Vettiiri. 
f The 9 is used in Dalmatia for our ch, or the Italian c 
before e and t. 

Chap, ni.] LORDS OF THE CASTLE. 175 

head-dress is also singular, as well as their yellow 
stockings, and the large buckles of their black 
shoes; and they are remarkable for the massive 
silver chain holding their clasp-knife, and for the 
buttons of their boddice.* 

When I went to Trail, in company with my 
friend, Professor Carrara, we passed the night, in 
going and returning, at the hospitable mansion of 
the Count Duddn, who shares with Count Cdmbio 
the rights of Seigneurie at the Castel Cambio.*f" 

The old feudal rights are now nearly all aban- 
doned. Among the few things still claimed by 
them are the head of every pig killed on the manor, 
and a hen, once a year, from every house with a 
fire-place, or from every family. Formerly the 
Lord of the Castle received one of every eleven 
measures of olives, as well as the tongue of every 
ox that was killed, he, in return, being obliged 
to provide a slaughtering-block, and, on receiving 
the tongue, to give a cake of bread : which he still 
does, as an acknowledgment for the pig's head. 
These rights are, I believe, only retained by the 
Counts C&mbio and Dud&n. 

On approaching Castel Vetttiri, we turned off 
the road, to look at the old castle. It gives a 
very good idea of their general character, stand- 
ing alone, close by the water's edge. Before the 
postern, in the sea front, is a small port, formed by 

* See the Costumes in Carrara's Dalmazia descritta. 
f This castle is about five miles and a half from Salona. 


a low stone wall, which protects boats from the 
slight roll of this inland bay, in blowing weather. 

Castel Vettiiri was built in the sixteenth cen- 
tury. A little beyond the last houses, to the N. W. 
of the village, are vestiges of a Roman, station, where 
a column, with a dedicatory inscription to M. Jul. 
Philippus, has been lately found, as well as much 
pottery, and Roman tiles. This was perhaps the 
site of Siclis*, mentioned in the Peutinger table, 
the Sicum of Pliny and Ptolemy, where Claudius 
is said to have quartered the veterans, f It is about 
seven miles from Salona, and 6^ from Trail. J 

By the road side, between this and Spalato, are 
numerous heaps of stones, cleared from off the 
the land ; which in a deserted country might easily 
pass for tumuli. No ancient remains are found at 

• See above, p. 101. t Hin - "■- 22. 

% Some place it at the point of Tarze, a mile to the W. of 
C. Stafileo. 


any of the Castelli, but Roman coins and inscribed 
stones are said to be met with, occasionally, in the 
neighbourhood of Castel Su9uraz. 

When they were gathering the olives, towards 
the middle of December, I went to see Sig r . Danillo, 
who has an estate at the Castelli, in order to learn 
something respecting an insect, that commits great 
depredations in the olive trees, to which he has 
paid particular attention. It is the grub, or cater- 
pillar, of the Phalama escula. The egg having 
been deposited in the wood of an olive tree, the 
grub bores a broad round passage for itself in the 
length of the branch, beneath the bark. Nothing 
is seen outside, and an unpractised eye fails to 
detect even the original aperture ; which is closed 
by a substance resembling the wood. On cutting 
open this part, a long cylindrical cavity is seen; 
and by following the direction of it, with a long 
wire, they destroy the insect, and prevent further 
injury to the tree. It appears that measures have 
only been taken of late to kill them, and these 
grubs have long been allowed to commit their 
depredations with impunity. 

Castel Vecchio is separated from C. Novo by a 
small rivulet ; and a little more than a mile from 
Trai the road passes by a copious spring, at a 
place called I Molini, from "the mills" it turns. 
So abundant is the water, that it forms a lake of 
great depth, at the very spot where it rises ; and 
falling thence into the fields below, it runs into the 

VOL. I. N 


sea, which is- only a few hundred feet from the 
source; being probably supplied by the water of 
some stream in the interior, which percolates 
through cavities of the limestone rocks. 

The road to Tr&ii is excellent. It was made by 
the French, as a branch of the great military way 
from the Narenta ; and havingiL centred by 
the Austrians from Trad to Zara, it is there joined 
by another, that goes to Vienna through Croatia, 
crossing the great range of Mt. Velebich. 

The approach to Trail is pretty ; and the 
town, which is well placed, has a picturesque 
appearance, with its lofty steeple, and the hills, 
wood, and water, that surround it. Trail stands 
on a peninsula, washed on three sides by the sea, 
which has been converted into an island by a 
fosse on the north side. Its fortifications are now 
no longer kept up, and part of the wall has been 
pulled down ; the aggressions of the Turks being 
dreaded no more by the Traurines ; and the de- 
fences of Trail, like the Knights of Malta, are of 
by-gone utility.* They have also the disadvantage 
of being commanded by the Isle of Bfca. Part of 
the town stands on that island ; to which it is con- 
nected by a bridge, between three and four hundred 
feet long, having an opening in the centre, with a 
drawbridge for the passage of masted boats. 

It has lately been proposed to widen this opening, 

* Since the revival of the order of St. John has been pro- 
posed, the walls of Trail may still have hopes. 

Chap. III.] 8T. GIOVANNI OF TRAU. 179 

to enable steamers to pass, on their way to Spalato, 
which would be a great benefit to the town, and 
very agreeable to the passengers ; but it seems that 
the government will not render any assistance, 
and the commune is not rich, or wise, enough to 
undertake it. The cost, however, would be trifling, 
and as the bridge will soon need repairs, it would 
only be necessary to add a small sum to the ex- 
penses already required. 

Over the principal gate, on the land side, is the 
lion of St. Mark, and from the stones beneath it 
grows a stunted cypress, which is looked upon with 
more than usual respect, from its having sprung 
up, through the holy influence of St. Giovanni 
Ursini. He was bishop of Trail (in 1064-84), and 
in his capacity of patron and protector of the place, 
has, of course, wrought many miracles.* The re- 
covery of his arm from the Venetians, who carried 
it away in 1171, was looked upon as an important 
event, in the history of Tr&ii ; and his body, now 
reposes in a marble sarcophagus at the altar. 
Though it is well known that the body was 
brought back from the sea-shore, where it had 
been left by the plunderers of the tomb; the 
credulous believe it to have been found near the 
well in the cathedral, on the right as you approach 
the choir; and to commemorate this event, the 
saint is said to have caused a bay-tree to grow 

* Farlati, vol iv. p. 310. 319. 331. See the History, a.d. 

VOL. I. * H 2 


(unseen) in the well, as if for the very purpose of 
concealing it. * He has also a chapel, richly carved ; 
which was built, and dedicated to him, in the seven- 
teenth century.f 

The Traurines are proud of their cathedral. It 
was commenced in 1213 ; the old one having been 
destroyed by the Saracens in 1120. The entrance, 
at the west end, is ornamented with a profusion 
of sculpture in stone, representing men as well 
as camels, bears, elephants, and other animals, 
with arabesques on the jambs and arches. At 
the side are large figures of Adam and Eve, 
of rude style; and the lions of those days are 
among the architectural ornaments, projecting on 
the right and left upon brackets. The whole has 
a rich effect ; and though not of any very great 
merit, as a specimen of mediaeval doorway, is wor- 
thy of notice in Dalmatia, which boasts not the 
rich churches found in other parts of Europe. The 
interior is heavy, particularly the massive pillars 
separating the nave from the aisles. It has some 
carved wooden stalls ; and the two figures under 
the canopy of the altar are admired. 

In this cathedral is the tomb of William, son of 
Baldwin, the Latin Emperor of Constantinople, 

* A bucket once brought up a leaf, which was thought to 
account for its being heard to rustle among the branches when 
let down. The " Dignus vindice nodus" does not appear. 

| The first chapel to him was built in 1348. Farlati, vol. ii. 
p. 380. 


who died at Trail* in 1241-2 ; and it is noted, 
among the churches of Dalmatia, for the number 
and value of its sacred utensils, and silver orna- 

There are some pictures of Palma Giovine, of 
stiff style, another of Matteini, a Venetian artist of 
late time, and in the sacristy a small one on slate, 
representing Jephtha's daughter. 

The best picture in Trail is at the Dominican 
convent, said to be of Palma Vecchio ; but it is 
badly preserved. 

Attached to the cathedral is the baptistry, which 
has a richly sculptured frieze of angels, or Cupids. 
At the end is a bas-relief of St. Jerome, suffering 
his untempting temptation in a cavern ; for which 
the sculptor has availed himself of a stone of two 
colours, brown and white ; producing the singular 
effect of a gigantic cameo. 

The tower of the cathedral is a fine structure, in 
the pointed style; and the windows of the first 
story, above the basement, have a little of the 
Moorish character, in the trellised panel above 

In the public square are the remains of the 
Loggie^ said to have been built by the Hungarians, 
and repaired by the Venetians, whose winged lion 
has been introduced, as usual ; as if a presentiment 
of their downfal hinted the necessity of leaving 
this oft-repeated memorial of their greatness. The 

* See page 133. 

H 3 


building is very small, open on two sides, with 
columns supporting the roof, and closed on the 
other two by solid walls. These Loggie were a sort 
of town-hall, where the affairs of the commune 
were transacted, and justice was administered; 
though, in the later days of the Republic, the 
courts of justice were generally held in the palace 
of the Count. " In early times, they were also 
used for certain public ffctes, where the principal 
ladies, in national costume, opened the ball with 
the dance called Skdci-qori* and tanczi; and some 
iron instruments of punishment are still shown 
there, presenting the curious anomaly of a place 
destined to pleasure and pain." The stone seats of 
the judges still remain, as well as a large stone 
slab, or table; and "behind, on the wall, are 

sculptured the emblems of justice."! 

Trail has a population of about 3500 inha- 
bitants; of whom three are Protestants. It has 
several churches, but none containing any object 
of interest. The walls on the south side are 
curious ; and near the N.W. extremity is an open 
space, where, on a projecting point of land, 
stands a picturesque ruined castle, called Camer- 
lengo. It is said to have been built by the Vene- 
tians at the end of the fourteenth century, dur- 
ing the wars of the Guelphs and Ghibelins, and 

* Literally "jumping up," which recalls the name of our 

| Catalinich, voL iv. p. 209. 

Chap.IH] CASTLES AT TRAfr. 183 

received its name from being the residence of the 
camerlengOj or chamberlain. I was told that the 
Austrian government had intended to destroy it ; 
but we may hope that mankind is now sufficiently 
enlightened to respect historical monuments, when 
they do not interfere with improvement, and that 
this interesting ruin will be suffered to remain, as 
well as its neighbour, a smaller castle, of Hun- 
garian time. 

Between these, but thrust into the sea, in order 
to justify the approach to it by a sort of bridge of 
steps, is another historical monument of French 
time. It is called "La Gforiette" and is a little 
round templet* ', or open lantern on columns, in 
style and name worthy of a tea-garden. 

I observed some palm-trees, one bearing clusters 
of yellow dates. But they never ripen before the 
cold of winter sets in, and then, being exposed, fall 
off. The people pretend that this tree was planted 
in 1730, and began to fruit in 1820. 

One of the best views about TrSii is from the 
opposite Isle of Bua. The whole town is seen, 
backed by the hills of St. Elia, and the trees of the 
cultivated land, which has the appearance of a 
garden, and extends along the shore to Seghetto 
on the west, and to the Castelli on the east. 
Mount St. Elia is noted for its quarries, which 
gave rise to the expression "Marmore notum" 

* They call it un tempietto, a " templet," or " templing." 

H 4 


applied by Pliny to Tragurium*, the ancient 
Trail; and supplied the stone for the palace of 
Diocletian. The quarries are still worked; the 
stone is excellent, and is much used for the public 
buildings in this part of Dalmatia. 

When on the high ground of the Isle of Biiaf, 
you look down on the bay of Okrouk (or Ocruch) 
to the southward, a beautiful harbour, defended 
from every wind, and capable of containing the 
largest fleet. Another fine view is from the road 
to Sebenico, near the quarries of St. Elia. 

Trail, in Illyric Troghir, in Latin Tragurium, 
was founded by a colony from IssaJ, at a very 
remote period. Porphyrogenitus calls it Tetran- 
gurium, and describes it as an island, or rather 
peninsula, joined by a narrow neck of land to the 
continent ; a position that led Pliny § and others to 
call it an island. The narrow neck of land was 
afterwards cut through, and the advantage of this 
defence was felt, in the attacks made in later times 
upon the city. In 1241, it was besieged by the 
Tartars ||, in pursuit of Bela IV., who had fled before 
them to Trail ; when the impediments offered by 
the ditch were the safety of the place; and the 
Tartars, detained before its walls, finding their food 
and forage exhausted, were obliged to retreat. The 
fidelity and courage of the inhabitants were also 

* Plin. iii. 22. f See above, p. 112. 

\ Strabo, vii. p. 315. 

§ Plin. iii. 21. Strabo, vii. p. 315. Q See the History. 

Chap, m.] LUCIO. — PBTBONIUS. 185 

conspicuous on this occasion, and neither bribes 
nor threats could induce them to abandon the 
Hungarian king, or to betray the place of his re- 
tirement, on a rock about two miles from the city, 
which still preserves the name of Kraglievaz.* 

Trail was the birth-place of the celebrated his- 
torian of Dalmatia, Giovanni Lucio, who died in 
1679. Lucio was of an ancient family, which 
claimed descent from the Romans. The Traurines, 
indeed, boast more Roman blood, than any other 
Dalmatians. Pliny speaks of Tragurium as being 
inhabited by Roman citizens f; in the time of 
Porphyrogenitus, it was one of those towns where 
the people were called Romans J; and the names 
of the Ccelian, Lucian, Statilian, and many other 
families, are still retained among their descendants. 

It was here that the fragment of Petronius 
Arbiter was discovered in 1665, by Dr. Pierre Petit, 
amongst the books of a learned Traurine, Dr. 
Statelius, " in which, among others, the Coena Tri- 
malchionis is very amply related." § Wheeler saw 
it there in 1675, when the discussions were going 
on among the learned, respecting its authenticity, 
which did not cease until it found its way into the 
library of Paris. 

* Or Kralievatz, the " King's place," I e. " abode." 
f Plin. iii. 22. 

j In contradistinction to the Slavi, settled in Dalmatia. See 
p. 123. 
§ Wheeler. Voyage from Venice to Constantinople, p. 23. 


Trail is also the place where the Peutinger table 
was found, which has been so useful in eluci- 
dating the ancient geography of the country. 

During the unsettled state of Dalmatia, in the 
thirteenth century, Trail, Spalato, and Sebenico, 
were enabled to form themselves into three inde- 
pendent republics ; when the contact of their terri- 
tories necessarily led to frequent disputes ; and the 
wars, between Trail and Spalato, not only disturbed 
the tranquillity of all that part of Dalmatia, but 
became a source of infinite trouble to the Hun- 
garian king, and to the Bans of Bosnia and Sla- 
vonia. And it was not until danger threatened 
the whole territory, that they forgot their dif- 
ferences, and united in a common cause. 

Opposite Spalato are the two islands of Brazza 
and Solta. The latter is famous for its honey, and 
not for its apples, as is generally supposed ; Pog- 
lizza being the district where the famed Dalmatian 
apples are grown. They are excellent, and in 
flavour resemble golden pippins, but the number 
produced in Dalmatia is not great, and apples are 
brought to Spalato from Puglia. 

Solta is a small island, containing about 1740 
inhabitants ; the soil is fertile ; in the centre of it, is 
a rich valley abounding in vines, olives, almonds, 
and grain ; and it supplies Spalato and Trail with 
firewood. If the inhabitants were industrious, the 
island would produce much more ; and they might 
make the rosemary oil and aqua-regia, as at L6sina, 



since the plant abounds there ; and the honey of 
Solta is indebted for its flavour to the flower of the 
rosemary. The island was formerly called Olyntha* ; 
and Solentium, or Solentum, according to the Peu- 
tinger table, and the Anonymus Ravennas. 

Brazza, to the eastward of Solta, is the largest 
and most populous island of Dalmatia, with 15,495 
inhabitants. It is thirty-two miles long, reaching 
from before Spalato nearly to Macarsca, but of 
unequal breadth, never exceeding nine miles. 
Though, from the rocky nature of the soil, it pro- 
duces little grain, Brazza has always been famed 
for its honey, its cheese, and, above all, for the 
wine called Vugdva, the Frontignac of Dalmatia f ; 
a name which no Spalatine can hear pronounced, 
without pleasing recollections of his country and 
the table. Pliny praises the excellence of its kids J ; 
and, " in fact," says Fortis, " not only the kids, 
but also the lambs acquire a particular exquisite- 
ness of taste, by the pasture of that island." § " The 
lentiscus grows there in great plenty," as in the 
other islands of Dalmatia, " and the poor peasants 
make oil of the berries, when there is a scarcity of 
olives;" but it has a strong smell, and is therefore 
disagreeable, if used for cooking. 

The principal town is Neresi ; said to be so called 
from the reservoirs of water near it, though there 

* Or Olynta. t See above, p. 100. 

\ " Capris laudata Brattia." Flin. iii. 26. 
§ Fortis, p. 342. 


seems no reason for deriving its name from Greek.* 
Here the Count resided in the days of Venetian 
rule. During the French occupation of Dalmatia, 
Brazza was taken by the Russians ; who destroyed 
the small battery erected by the French, to com- 
mand the narrow channel between it and Solta ; 
and the communication with Lesina being cut 
off, the French were blockaded in the port of 
Spalato ; which shows the advantageous position 
of the island of Brazza, for all operations connected 
with this part of the coast, and explains the im- 
portance attached in former times to its possession. 

On the northern shore of Brazza is the village of 
Splitska, which received this name, " Spalatine," 
from its quarries having supplied some of the stone 
used in building the palace of Diocletian. 

The ancient name of Brazza, according to Pliny, 
Antoninus, and the Peutinger table, was Bractia, 
or Brattia ; Polybius calls it Brectia ; Scylax and 
Licophron, Cratia, or Crathis ; and Porphyro- 
genitus, Bartzo.f 

These are the principal places in the immediate 
vicinity of Spalato ; and I shall have occasion to 
mention the islands of Lesina and Curzola, in con- 
tinuing my journey to the southward. 

* In ancient Greek, "water" was v8«p, but the modern 
veppo may be traced in veapoc, and in the old names of Nereus, 
and the Nereids. 

f By the Greeks it was called Elaphussa, and by some 

Chap. IV.] 189 



Provided with letters, which are indispensable, for 
travelling in the interior of Dalmatia, I left Spalato 
(August 29.) by the steamer for Sebenico ; and, 
after passing a few agreeable hours there, with Dr. 
Fontana, I hired a four-oared boat, and in two 
hours and a quarter reached Scardona. This, like 
other similar excursions, is subject to certain 
delays, as the boatmen are obliged to have their 
passes examined by the health-office, before they 
can go from, or pass by, Sebenico ; and if the office 
is closed, the journey must be deferred to another 
day. That it is nothing more than a police regu- 
lation is sufficiently obvious: for, to conjure up 
any suspicion of plague on board a boat, which 
every one has seen all day lying at the quay of 
Sebenico, would be ludicrous in the extreme ; but 
the passenger is thereby secure against any attempt, 
on the part of the boatmen, to rob or murder him ; 
to which it is supposed there might be a tempta- 
tion, were his departure, under their particular 
charge, not registered at the office. 


Though, as Fortis observes, the people here- 
abouts do not pay much attention to agriculture, 
or their fisheries, they take advantage of every 
small hollow containing cultivable soil, for raising 
grapes ; and some of the vineyards in the bay, and 
on the Eerka, are carefully placed amidst rocks, 
and supported by sloping walls, having a broad 
splay from within, to allow the branches to spread 
over them. 

Soon after leaving Sebenico, at the N.W. ex- 
tremity of the bay, where the Kerka runs into it, 
are the peculiar strata mentioned by Fortis *, and 
the perforated rock called Supplia-stina. 

The course of the river here lies through rocks ; 
and after ascending it for about three miles, you 
come to the lake of Scardona, or Proclian, which is 
considerably larger than that of Sebenico. Fortis 
says that " between the mouths of the two streams, 
Goducchia and Jujova, both which fall into the 
lake of Scardona, the Romans had a settlement. 
The vestiges are scarcely perceptible, and yet they 
merit attention, as they afford a manifest proof of 
the rise of the ordinary level of the lake, which 
ebbs and flows according to the tide. There is 
also a long wharf under water, which joins the 
point of the peninsula formed by the two rivers to 
the isolated rock of Sustipanaz. On this rock is a 
ruined church, which in other times was perhaps 
a temple of the Gentiles." f 

* Fortis, p. 138. f Ibid « P- 133 - 

Chap. IV.] SCARDONA. 191 

Scardona has succeeded to the ancient Scardon, 
or Scardona, which was a place of considerable 
importance, as is evident from its having been one 
of the three Conventus of Dalmatia, under the 
empire. But it does not occupy the site of the 
old city, which was probably further to the west- 
ward ; though, from the position assigned to it by 
Ptolemy, some have imagined that it stood on the 
opposite, or eastern bank of the Kerka. This river 
is the Titius of the ancients, which was used in 
very early times, as the means of communication 
with the interior, "goods being transported by 
it to the towns of Scardon and Liburna, and to 
the inland Dalmatians."* It is of considerable 
breadth, but has no bridge at Scardona, and the 
only way of crossing it is by ferry-boats. 

Scardona, in IUyric, Scardin, or Scradin, has 
about 1200 inhabitants. It succeeded to Belgrade f, 
in 1115, as a bishop's see; and afterwards became 
a stronghold of the counts of Bribir, from 1245 to 
1353. On the rock above the town are the ruins 
of a castle, built or repaired by the Turks, who had 
possession of the place from 1522 till 1646. The 
water here is fresh, and the fish very abundant. 
To the eastward of the town is a marsh, which 
renders it unhealthy in summer, when tertian 
fevers are very prevalent. Many of the houses 

* Strabo, vii. p. 315. 

| Or Zara Vecchia. See the History, a.d. 1115. 


of Scardona are good, for so small a town, con- 
sisting as it does of little more than one street; 
but the position is far from advantageous. About 
half the inhabitants are of the Greek church. 

Scardona boasts an inn, with accommodation of 
a primitive kind ; and having passed one night there, 
I went next morning to the falls, which are three- 
quarters of an hour off, and are called Scardinski- 
slap*, or Cascate delta Kerka. Some persons manage 
to see them, during the short stay of the steamer 
at Sebenioo, by starting immediately, and returning 
the same evening ; or by sleeping at Scardona, and 
going to the falls very early next morning, during 
the long days of summer. As I intended to ascend 
the river, above the falls, it was necessary to send 
to the monks of Vissovaz to provide me with a 
boat ; and through the kindness of the Abbate 
Cilotti of Scardona, a message was despatched the 
night before, to make this request. 

The falls are divided into two parts, one to the 
right, the other to the left, as you approach them, 
the latter containing the greatest quantity of water. 
When the river is full, the effect of these falls 
must be very striking, heightened by the trees 
that grow about them, and the yellow colour of 
the rocks. The hills, however, on either side are 
bare, and add little to the beauty of the scenery. 

The height of the greatest single fall is said to 

* Or " Falls of Scardona," answering to Scardonicus lapsus. 


be twenty-five feet *, and the breadth of the whole 
space in that part is about 250 feet. There are 
also a few CascateUi, beyond it, to the left. Below 
the falls are some mills ; and when many boats with 
their white sails are seen amidst the trees, as you 
approach, the whole forms a very picturesque scene. 

After a walk of ten minutes above the falls, I 
found the boat waiting for me ; which the monks 
of Vissovaz f had sent to take me to their convent, 
a row of an hour and a half. The Eerka is here 
joined by the torrent Cicola, which, rising on the 
slope of Mount Sfilaja, passes close to Dernis ; and 
widening considerably above the falls, varies in 
breadth to the convent, which stands upon an 
island in the middle of the stream. The hills on 
either bank are of the usual grey limestone, and 
mostly bare, though covered here and there with 

The Isle of Vissovaz is a very picturesque object, 
with the tower, and red-tiled roof, of the convent, 
appearing in the midst of trees. The monks are 
of the order of St. Francis. The original founders 
of the convent were Augustines ; but in 1445 they 
were succeeded by the Franciscans, who have ever 
since retained possession of it. In former times it 
was called "Pietra bianca," and the "Church of San 
Paolo ;" the name of Vissovaz % signifying " place of 

* The difference of the level of the Kerka, above and below 
the falls, has been reckoned 172 feet, 
f Pronounced Vissovatz. 
J From the neuter verb vizzilti t€ to hang." 

VOL. I. O 


hanging," having been given it from the execution 
of two priests, who were hanged on an elm tree, by 
the Turkish Governor of Scardona. The two dis- 
tricts of Scardona and Dernis had, at that time, 
their frontier of separation through the island, and 
the two governors happened to be sworn enemies. 
The convent itself stood within the jurisdiction of 
Scardona ; and the monks having placed themselves 
under the protection of the Governor of Dernis, 
his rival of Scardona landed on the island, and 
finding two old priests in the convent, hung them, 
in token of his authority and his vengeance. 

In 1645-48, the Turks were driven out of all 
that part of Dalmatia, by the Venetians ; and on 
their retirement, being allowed to transfer their 
property to the Christians who lived there, the 
then Governor of Scardona left to the convent of 
Vissovaz the mills of Roncislap, which the monks 
possess to this day ; the grant having been respected 
by the Venetians, as it still is by the Austrians. 
The convent has some land on the shore of the 
Kerka, laid out in an olive plantation and fields. 

The weather was beginning to be cooler at the 
end of August, and when the Bora, or north-east 
wind, blew, it appeared cold. Such is the effect of 
this wind, that the change from heat to cold is 
immediate ; and when it ceases, the previous heat 
is felt as before, — a sudden variation that often 
causes consumption in Dalmatia, though the real 
home of the Bora is in the neighbourhood of Trieste. 
The monks assured me the thermometer ranges as 

Chap. IV.] THE MONKS' LETTER. 195 

high as 30° Reaum. (99£° Fahr.), but this is pro- 
bably in a position of reflected heat. 

After profiting by the hospitality of the Franciscan 
fathers, in the shape of as good a dinner as a fast-day 
would allow, I began to talk of departure ; but I 
found I could not proceed on my journey as 
expeditiously as I had intended, my friends not 
being able to convey me any farther than the 
next falls. It was therefore necessary to write 
a letter to the Greek convent of St. Archangelo, to 
request those monks to send their boat to the other 
side of the falls of Roncislap, which are about an 
hour's row above the island of Vissovaz; for 
there are no carriages on the banks of the Eerka, 
and no boats for hire in these secluded regions. 

When the letter came to be concocted, a grand 
consultation took place among the fathers, whether 
the archimandrite of that convent would attend to 
their request; and I began to have some mis- 
givings, about the possibility of proceeding. It 
was remarked that they had not been in the habit 
of holding any communication with the Greek 
community, and it * would be exceedingly un- 
pleasant to lay themselves open to an affront. 

" Did you ever go as far as the convent ?" said an 
old father to a more .restless and locomotive Fran- 
ciscan; and a negative answer seemed to put an 
end to the incipient letter ; when one of the party 
suggested that those Greeks had shown themselves 
very civil, on some occasion, and the writer of the 

o 2 


epistle once more resumed his spectacles and his 
pen. " They are," he observed, " after all, like our- 
selves; and must be glad to see a stranger who 
comes from afar ; and besides, our letter may have 
the effect of commencing a friendly intercourse 
with them, which we may have no reason to 
regret." Another, the padre Girolamo Luigi 
Werdoliack, volunteered to accompany me, if a 
favourable answer was returned, and the letter 
was accordingly written, sealed, and sent; and I 
remained with the monks of Vissovaz till the next 
morning. They were all very obliging, parti- 
cularly Padre Girolamo, who was my companion in 
every excursion I made from the convent, and after- 
wards gave me letters to his family at Imoschi. 

An early answer arrived from the archimandrite, 
borne by one of the boatmen, who announced the 
welcome that awaited me at the Greek convent, and 
the arrival of the boat at the falls ; and I left the 
hospitable Franciscans, with the good padre, for 
St. Archangelo. 

The hills about Vissovaz are high, and the 
green banks of the Kerka are backed by trees and 
bushes, extending some distance up the ascents; and 
the river, which is of considerable breadth in this 
part, suddenly contracts, a little above the island, 
into a narrow channel ; which appears to have forced 
its way through the lofty rocks, that overhang it on 
either side. 

After continuing for some time through this 


picturesque channel, we perceived at the extremity 
of a reach the cascades of Roncislap, falling amidst 
the thick bushes that clothe the rocks. The dense 
mass of wild figs and vines, rising above the yellow 
rocks, and the streams falling from among them, 
into the calm and spacious basin below, backed by 
grey craggy limestone hills, offer a very good 
subject for the pencil; and when the river is full 
the effect must be beautiful. These vines and fig- 
trees also extend along the base of the hills, by the 
water's edge, for some distance above and below the 
falls. Of the grapes they make wine, which is said 
to be good, and mousseux like champagne. 

The water of the Kerka, as of many other Dal- 
matian streams, has a petrifying quality, and 
covers the rocks with a coarse stalagmitic deposit. 
Much rock has also been formed by it under the 
water, below the falls; and these newly-created 
ledges are seen projecting over great depths beneath 
them. Here, as above the lower falls, are water- 
lillies, rushes, and reeds, which make it very 
unhealthy in summer. 

A company has established a dep6t for coal, a 
little below the falls, communicating by a road with 
the mines of Derais, and has gone to a great and 
useless expense, without ascertaining the probability 
of success. Every thing is on a large scale, and the 
spacious barge moored at the shore looks like an 
emblem of their gigantic plans, and unemployed 
means. It has been suggested to make a canal, or 

o 3 


a railroad, from above these falls to the lake of 
Scard6na, for the transport of the coal, both which 
are very feasible ; but it may be a question whether 
the coal is worth the expense, or deserving better 
carriage than the rude carts of the Morlacchi, which 
now take it to Sebenico. It is a variety of glanz 
coal, composed of very small distinct concretions, 
every grain of which has a perfect corfchoidal 
fracture, with much lustre, and is very inferior in 
point of heating power. 

The Austrian steam company, it is true, per- 
sist in using it, because it is cheap ; but the wisdom 
of employing coal of bad quality may be doubted ; 
and the quantity required to be taken on board, the 
constant necessity of putting on coals to keep up the 
fires, and the utter inability of their steamers to 
make way against a moderate breeze, are great 
objections to the coal of Dernis. It has also the 
effect of causing much smoke, and the large flakes 
of soot that fall from the chimney upon the awning 
actually burn holes in it, till it looks like a sail 
riddled with grape-shot ; and I remember one day 
seeing the awning on fire, from one of these 
showers of soot ; when the captain calmly ordered 
it to be put out, as if it was a common occurrence. 

A Russian consul, who happened to be on board, 
and who was not much accustomed to the smoky 
doings of steamers, seemed to be deeply impressed 
with the inconvenience of the falling flakes of soot. 
His voice had rarely been heard during the voyage, 


and he appeared to shun communication with his 
fellow passengers ; when, one afternoon, the awning 
not being up, he burst forth into these startling 
remarks, uttered with a broad Slavonic accent: 
" Que ces baateaux k vaapeur sont sales ! par suite 
de maaladie, il y a dix ans que je ne me zuis paas 
lavv£, mais maintenant j'ai zenti le bezoin de me 
lawer, et je me zuis law&" His general appearance 
was by no means at variance with this announce- 
ment; and if his distant behaviour towards the 
rest of the party arose from due consideration for 
their nerves, he deserved more credit for com- 
passion, than for cleanliness ; but though the soot 
may have excited his displeasure, and have so far 
overcome his hydrophobia as to induce him to 
submit to an ablution, it is but fair to state that 
the Austrian steamers offer no cause of complaint 
below decks; and, indeed, those that go to Constan- 
tinople, and other places in the Levant, are cleaner 
than any, except British men-of-war, in the Medi- 

At the falls are the mills bequeathed by the 
Turks to the monks of Vissovaz. The name 
jfonci-slap, or ifoAonsz-slap, is supposed to be taken 
from some Hungarian; but they are sometimes 
styled slap only, or " the falls." Though inferior 
in size to those of Scard6na, they are not deficient 
in beauty, owing to the water falling from amidst 
green bushes ; and the cascades of Roncislap have 
an advantage in the surrounding scenery. Across 

o 4 


the streams, that run between the densely clothed 
rocks above the falls, is a bridge, 390 paces (or 
about 980 feet) long, of sixty-three low arches. 
Its general height does not exceed twelve feet, and 
its breadth is between seven and eight. The 
Austrians, I am told, intend to enlarge it, in 
order that carts may cross the Kerka at this point, 
which will be a great advantage to the country. 
It is said to have been built by the Turks, who had 
the southern, while the Venetians occupied the 
northern bank ; and the possession of the bridge 
was secured by a tete de pont 

After walking a quarter of a mile, we found the 
boat waiting to take us to the convent of St. Arch- 
angelo, which we reached in an hour and three- 
quarters. The river is again confined in this part 
to a narrow channel, between lofty precipitous 
rocks, and wild scenery. At the side and near the 
base of a hill, overlooking the plain through which 
the Kerka winds, stands the convent of St. Arch- 
angelo. The inmates are Greeks, governed by an 
archimandrite who resides there, and whose truly 
Slavonic name is Stefano Knezovich ; a very gen- 
tlemanly man, with the manners of one educated 
in a European capital. 

I found the convent remarkably clean ; and the 
monks fortunately were not fasting, as at Vissovaz. 
There were five fathers in residence; and, judging 
from their treatment of strangers, it is evident they 
are not less worthy of being styled "the hospitable 


calogeri of St. Archangelo," than when Fortis visited 
their convent. * He mentions a tradition, that St. 
Paul celebrated mass there, in a little chapel con- 
tiguous to the convent, to which the Morlacchi of 
the Greek church flock with great devotion. He also 
speaks of many vestiges of ancient Roman habita- 
tions, on the road from Knin to this place, but of 
no importance. The convent lands are cultivated 
by peasants in its employ, and from these the 
revenues are principally derived. The superior 
has also 200 oxen, each let to the peasants for 
100 quintals of grain a-year. 

The ordinary portraits displayed in Dalmatian 
houses are, as might be expected, of the Emperor 
of Austria, and others of the reigning family ; and 
in a monastery, a pope, a founder, or a few 
saints ornament the walls; but in the convent 
of St. Archangelo, the Emperor of Russia (who 
stands nearly in the same relative position to the 
Patriarch of Constantinople, as a Sultan to an 
obsolete Caliph), and some worthies of the Greek 
church, occupy the posts of honour, and Cyrillic in- 
scriptions take the place of Latin and Italian. The 
same is the case in all the convents of non-united 
Greeks, in these Slavonic regions. 

Many of the hills hereabouts are well wooded, and 
in the fields some Indian corn is cultivated. Fevers 
are not uncommon in July and August, though the si- 
tuation is much more healthy than Scardona, or Knin. 

On leaving the convent, the superior lent me his 


horse, to take me to Kistagne, and sent my baggage 
by some of the peasants, who had come to the river 
from Kistagne to fetch water. The toil of carrying 
it up this hill is very great; it is therefore the 
occupation of women, who are here, as in Monte- 
negro, the beasts of burden, and often transport 
very great weights for a long distance ; so that my 
light baggage was a very welcome change, instead 
of their ordinary loads. 

The reason of their having been employed, on 
this unusual duty, was a misunderstanding between 
the monks and the sird&r of Kistagne, which pre- 
vented my obtaining horses to take me from the 
convent. The archimandrite had written, on my 
arrival, to the sirddr, to request him to send horses 
the next morning, to convey me and my chattels 
to Kistagne ; and as the letter was thought to be 
too much in the shape of a command, the man in 
authority would not obey, and on the principle of 
" quicquid delirant reges plectuntur Achivi," I was 
left to find my way as I could. No horses came ; 
and though the archimandrite was in high spirits, 
at the recent arrival of a decoration from St. Peters- 
burgh, his equanimity was a little ruffled by this 
marked disregard to his letter. He was, however, 
determined I should not feel the inconvenience, and 
he provided for my transport to Kistagne. 

Arrived there, it was necessary to procuijjiorte ses 
to continue my journey, and I called on the sird&r, 
not without some misgivings as to the agreeable- 


ness of the interview. After numerous apologies, 
he explained that the imperious style of the letter, 
and the tone of importance 80 often assumed by the 
monks, made it necessary to give them a lesson, 
the consequences of which he regretted had fallen 
on me ; and I must confess that he did all in his 
power to efface the impression of it, by his civility 
during my stay at Kistagne, and by furnishing me 
with letters, and other useful assistance, for my 

Kistagne, or rather the portion of that scattered 
village, called Quartiere, from the troops stationed 
there, is about half an hour's walk from the con- 
vent. The road, which was made by the monks, is 
good ; and at the summit of the ascent is a carriage 
way. The stone of the hill is a white schistous 
limestone, breaking up readily into slabs of any 
size and thickness, and very convenient for build- 
ing walls, or for roofing. 

The B6rablew all day (September 1.), and it was 
very cold, which, after the heat of Spalato, was 
not disagreeable; though it seemed to threaten a 
sudden change of season, and gave me a false alarm 
of the approach of winter. 

Quartiere is the residence of a sirddr ; an office 
answering to post-master. He is also captain of 
the territorial force, under the colonel who com- 
mands all the sirdArs of the district. The name is 
Turkish, as is that of the arambasha, who holds 
the next rank under him. 


The sird&rs, being magistrates, may settle all 
questions of an amount not exceeding 10 florins*, 
and their authority is maintained by a force of 
territorial guards, called Pandoor, or Serrejan, 
armed peasants, who serve in rotation gratis, 
taking it by turns to do duty for one or two days, 
according to circumstances, and who may be called 
on in great numbers if required. 

The territorial force was first established by the 
Venetians ; and " every maritime district had its. 
colonel, sirddr, and arambass^ (arambasha). The 
maritime towns of Zara, Spalato, Trfih, and Sebe- 
nico had a colonel and a captain; Almissa a 
colonel-superintendent; Macarsca a colonel; Na- 
renta a superintendent, with the special prerogative 
of judging all civil and even criminal causes, 
except grave cases, which were referred to the 
Proweditor-general of Dalmatia. The castles of 
TrSii, and the Isle of Solta, had a governor; but all 
the other islands were exempt from this military 
system, and the inhabitants were exclusively des- 
tined to the service of the navy. Besides the 
territorial troops, which could be called upon at 
any time by the state, the Venetians had eleven 
regiments of Dalmatian regular infantry paid by 
the government, and two of light cavalry, called 
mounted Croatians (Croati a cavallo)" f Of these, 

* One pound English. The Sirdar's pay is fifty-five florins 
a month, about sixty-six pounds a year. 

f Catalinich, vol. iii. p. 174. See above, p. 87. 


the territorial Pandoors alone remain, all the gar- 
rison duty being now performed by Austrian in- 
fantry ; and there are no cavalry in Dalmatia. 

Kistagne consists of about 120 houses, scattered 
over the plain; and at Quartiere is an inn, es- 
tablished by the Convent of St. Archangelo. The 
people are mostly of the Greek Church, and in the 
ten villages of this neighbourhood there are only 
five Roman Catholic families. They are uncouth 
Morlacchi peasants. Their dress is a sort of com- 
promise between Turkish and Hungarian, and they 
are all armed. They seem a quiet, well-disposed 
people ; but I was told of some serious frays that 
happened the year before my visit, and required 
the interference of an armed force. Strangers, 
however, were even then quite safe ; these hostili- 
ties being directed solely against each other, in 
consequence of some party, or family, feud. 

The plain is extensive, and fertile, producing 
wheat, and Indian corn, as well as mulberries and 
other trees; and the soil, which is of a reddish 
colour, may be considered a fair specimen of the 
arable land of Dalmatia. It is reckoned six hours 
in length, and four in breadth, bounded on the east 
by the Turkish frontier of Bosnia, and on the 
north by Croatia. To the east is the district and 
mountain of Promina, and in the plain, looking 
towards Knin, is a tower : one of the many mo- 
numents of Turkish rule in this part of Dal- 
matia. About fourteen miles to the S. E. is Dernis, 


formerly a large town, and now a village, known 
only for its coal. Dernis continued in the hands 
of the Turks until 1647. It has a ruined castle on 
an eminence, near the torrent Cicola ; which runs 
here and there over a rocky bed, and is crossed 
by a stone bridge about three miles from the town. 

The ancient Liburnian city of Promona fs 
supposed by Fortis * to have stood near the road 
from Dernis to Enin, not far from the Monte 
Cavallo ; and he even states that vestiges of the 
wall, fifty stadia in extent, built by Augustus f, 
while besieging the Dalmatians in Promona, may 
still be seen on the tops of the craggy hills in that 
direction. There is every reason to believe that 
Promona stood on the skirts of the mountain, 
which, with the neighbouring district, now bears 
the name of Promina ; but as the Peutinger table 
places it on the road from Burnum to Salona, we 
should rather look for it on the S. W. side of 
that mountain, in the direction of Dernis, and con- 
sequently very far from the neighbourhood of 
Monte Cavallo. 

The distance from Quartiere to Scardona is 
reckoned four hours ; to Zara, eight in a carriage, 
or eleven on foot ; to Knin four and a half hours to 
five, or three and a half in a carriage. The road 
from Knin to Zara passes by Kistagne, Ostrovizza, 
Bencovaz, and NadinJ, the site of the ancient 

» Fortis, p. 99. J See the History. 

} Or Nadino, see p. 93. 


Nedinum. Ostrovizza was remarkable for an 
incident, owing to which the Venetians lost the 
castle, during their wars with Sigisinund, in the 
fifteenth century. The Venetian Prefect had mar- 
ried the daughter of a countryman, whose brother, 
a soldier in the Hungarian service, used frequently 
to come and visit her. She managed to procure him 
opportunities of examining the walls, and becoming 
acquainted with the weak points of the castle; 
and under cover of a dark night, the Hungarians 
scaled the rock, and took the fortress, making the 
garrison prisoners of war ; a circumstance which 
gave rise to a law, prohibiting Venetian soldiers of 
the garrison of Sebenico from marrying peasant 

A little to the right of the road in going to 
Enin, and nearly one hour and a half from Quar- 
tiere, are the Roman arches called Soupiaia *, or 
gli archi Romani, which point out the site of the 
ancient city of Burnum. 

I left Quartiere a little after nine in the morn- 
ing (Sept. 3.), and had scarcely reached a cross by 
the road side, about a quarter of a mile from the 
arches, when I was overtaken by the sirddr, who 
had followedy me with the kind intention of show- 
ing me the ruins, and the cascade of the Eerka. 
Near the cross are some stones, which appear to 
have been taken from old Roman tombs ; if, as I 

* Or Supplia Zarkva, the " perforated church." 


was told, the following inscription was found on 
one of them, which is now removed to Enin. 

DIS • MAN • SAC ■ 

I observed a fragment with PON, in very large 
characters, seven inches long; and in the same 
spot several coins have been found, with some 
engraved stones. 

The arches are evidently the remains of a large 
gateway, or triumphal entrance to the city ; and 

an inscription found there shows they were built 
by a decree of the Decuriones, in honour of Adrian. 
We searched in vain for this inscription, which I 
afterwards learnt had been concealed, to prevent 

Chap. IV.] SITE OF BUBNUM. 209 

its destruction by the peasants, until an oppor- 
tunity offered for removing it to Knin ; and I am 
indebted for the following copy of it to Count 
Paulovich, who is preparing to publish his re- 
searches on Knin and its vicinity. 


Of the arches two only are now entire; the 
larger and loftier centre arch having fallen down, 
as well as the two at the western end : they stand 
nearly due east and west, and were doubtless one 
of the entrances to the city. Some suppose them 
to be the remains of an arch of triumph, erected by 
the Roman legions in honour of Trajan, on his 
return from Dacia ; but I know of no authority to 
justify this conjecture, which is moreover disproved 
by the above inscription. The breadth of the 
centre arch is nine paces, with piers measuring 
five paces, by one and a quarter in thickness ; the 
others are four and a half in span, on piers 
measuring three and a half paces in length. 

The traces of mouldings may be seen, as well as 
the capital of a Corinthian pilaster, on the jamb of 
the centre arch ; and Fortis conjectures, "from 
the mouldings and cornices being equal on both 
sides, that they were intended to stand isolated," 
and were " a triumphal monument of five arches." 

vol. i. p 


When Fortis saw them, in 1774, the centre arch 
was still entire; but he mentions no inscription. 
He is correct in supposing them to mark the site of 
Burnum, the Liburna* of Strabo ; which is con- 
firmed by the position assigned to it in the Peu- 
tinger table, on the right bank of the Titius above 
Scardona, twenty-four miles from Nedinum. It 
was to this city that the Goths under Ulesigalusf 
retired, after having been defeated by the Romans 
at Scardona, in their attempt to regain possession of 
Dalmatia, during the reign of Justinian. Burnum 
was one of the principal cities of Liburnia; and 
under the Empire the inhabitants belonged to the 
conventus, or congress, of Scardona. It stood on 
the Titius ; and Strabo says goods were taken up 
that river from the sea, to " Scardon and Liburna." 

It is probable that the city stood on the south of 
the arches, and occupied the space between them 
and the river, which is distant about one-third of a 
mile. On its steep bank I observed the remains of 
Roman masonry, of small stones ; and in the midst 
of this were two small tubes, apparently conduits 
for water, running into the rock to the northward, 
and nearly at the top of the bank. 

The Kerka here falls over crags of considerable 
height, and a little above are other cascades amidst 
rocks and bushes ; which, with the winding course 
of the river, offer a very picturesque scene, though 

* Fortis, p. 103. Strabo vii. p. 315. 

"f A general of Vitiges, the Gothic king. See above, p. 157. 


it is much narrower than at Roncislap, or at the 
falls of Scardona. To the north of the arches are 
three tombs, built of stones, and covered with a 
single slab, serving as a lid. They are said to be 
of ordinary style, and probably of late time. We 
could not find them, though the sirdar had been 
there before ; and no other remains of Burnum are 
visible, except fragments of stones collected in 
heaps about this spot. 

They cultivate some millet here, and the panizzo 
{Pankum miliaceum), which is a smaller grain, and 
is used for making bread, as well as the Holcus 
Sorghum. This last is much grown in Dalmatia.* 
From the arches to Knin is a ride of about three 
hours and a half. Half way from Kistagne to Knin 
is Baducich, and in the plain surrounding this 
village are numerous small oak bushes. 

The position of the fortress of Knin is very 
imposing; and before the use of cannon it must 
have been impregnable. Though now commanded 
by a neighbouring height, it is still a place of great 
strength; and its importance as a military post, 
during the wars between the Turks and Venetians, 
was fully appreciated by those competitors for the 
dominion of Dalmatia. The convenience of its situ- 
ation had already been well understood by the Counts 

* This recalls the remark of Strabo respecting the lapodes, 
who dwelt under Mount Albius, " living in their poor country 
chiefly on zea and millet." 

p 2 


and Kings of Croatia* ; as it afterwards was, in the 
fourteenth century, by the Hungarian Kings, who 
often held their court there ; and it was at Knin 
that Sigismund passed the winter of 1396, after 
the fatal battle of Nicopolis, when on his way from 
Ragusa into Hungary. 

It subsequently fell into the hands of the Turks, 
having been wrested by them from the Hungarians, 
in 1522 ; and in their possession it remained 125 
years ; when it was taken, in 1647, by the Venetian 
General Foscolo, and again by Cornaro about forty 
years afterwards f ; from which time it continued in 
the hands of the Venetians. Each of these added 
to its fortifications, which improved with the pro- 
gress of military science. After the downfal of 
Venice it was occupied by the French, who also 
strengthened the works; but in 1813 it passed into 
the hands of the Austrians, and since that time has 
been garrisoned by their troops. 

Knin, in the public records styled Tnin, Tininium, 
or Tinninium, is supposed to be the Arduba of the 
ancients ; which was " famous, not so much for 
the defence it made against Germanicus. as for the 
untameable courage of the women, who rather 
chose to throw themselves and children into the 
fire, or the river, than become slaves to the vic- 
torious Romans." FortisJ is fully justified in 

* See the History, in the eleventh century. 

t See the History, a.d. 1687. J Fortis, p. 96. 


saying that " no place now found, on either of the 
rivers, Kerka or Cettina, agrees better than Knin 
with the description given by Dion Cassius of the 
castle of Arduba ;" while he allows that " the 
historian mentions only one river, and not a con- 
fluence of two, and calls it rapid, which agrees not 
with the Kerka " in that part of its course. The 
position of the fortress, on a narrow neck of land, 
watered on two sides by the Kerka, and by its 
tributary the Butimschiza on the north, is certainly 
remarkable; and though Dion's expression, " almost 
entirely surrounded by a rapid river running at its 
base," does not exactly apply to Knin, still, allow- 
ance may be made for the vagueness of a general 
description ; and it would be excusable in him to 
suppose the two streams branches of the same river. 
The position, indeed, is too advantageous to have 
been neglected ; some fortified place must always 
have stood there, and no description corresponds so 
well with it as that of Arduba. 

The road from Zara to Kistagne crosses the 
Butimschiza by a bridge, a little before it reaches 
Knin, and then enters the town on the east side. 

The houses stand partly on the slope of the hill 
below the fortress, partly on the bank of the Kerka, 
which runs at the base of the rock on the south, 
and winding round it to the west, is joined by the 
Butimschiza* a short distance below the bridge. 
The town is small, and some of the houses near 

* Another stream joins this, before it enters the Kerka. 

p 3 


the river are of wood, which gives to that part of 
Knin a Turkish character. 

The plain, which lies on the S. and S. E. of 
Knin, is fertile, and produces abundance of Indian 
corn, Sorghum, and other grain ; but the inunda- 
tions during the winter and spring months, and 
the stagnant pools formed by the river in the 
neighbourhood, render the town very unhealthy in 
autumn. Indeed the Eerka, instead of running 
freely through the plain, is allowed to stagnate in 
a lake abounding in rushes, immediately below the 
town ; and the Cossovizza, which runs into it from 
the southward nearly at a right angle, when swollen 
by the rains, impedes its course, and forces its 
waters over the lowlands. A further impediment 
is the narrowness of the channel, between the hill 
of Knin and Mount Verbnik ; and the junction of 
the Butimschiza also tends to retard the course of 
the Kerka, by the quantity of gravel it brings into 
its bed. 

But these disadvantages, and the prevalence 
of fevers at Knin, are attributable to the neglect 
of man, rather than to its position ; for, situated as 
that lake is above the falls of the Kerka, nothing 
can be more simple and obvious than the mode 
of regulating the flow of the stream; and by 
merely opening a larger passage at the falls, 
and the construction of an intermediate weir and 
sluices, the quantity of water in the upper part of 
its course might be adjusted with precision. The 


overflowing of its banks would thus be prevented, 
and every stagnant pond be drained ; all which 
might be done at a trifling expense, amply repaid 
by the advantages to agriculture, and what is of 
consequence to the people by the improvement of 
the climate. But the indifference to the drainage 
of the country, and the health of the inhabitants, is 
a crying evil in Dalmatia, which is still more ap- 
parent in the valley of the Narenta. 

It is also to be regretted that the Austrians, 
with all their paternal care, do so little to better 
the condition, and advance the useful acquire- 
ments, of the Dalmatian peasantry, who are left 
in entire ignorance of any system of agriculture, 
and know as little about the advantages or im- 
provement of land, as their ancestors in the 
days of mediaeval darkness. For the encourage- 
ment of schools the Austrian government deserves 
credit, and, after the neglect of their Venetian 
rulers, the Dalmatians have reason to rejoice in a 
wiser and better system ; but something more is 
wanting for the instruction of an agricultural popu- 
lation, whom a limited knowledge of reading will 
not teach skill in husbandry, nor the mode of 
improving land, nor the importance of new and 
useful productions. 

Their implements of husbandry are on a par 
with those of the unenlightened inhabitants of 
Asia Minor, and the primitive waggons used in 
the neighbourhood of Knin called to mind those of 

P 4 


the plains about Mount Ida ; the land is tilled as 
in the remote provinces of Turkey, and the ploughs 

of the Morlacchi are often inferior to those of Herze- 
govina. Nor has Dalmatia any manufactures really 
deserving that name; and the quality and dye of 
the common cloth, called Rascia, used by the pea- 
sants, are of the worst description. Nor is the pro- 
duction of silk sufficiently encouraged, though the 
soil is well suited to the growth of the mulberry 
tree ; and I have seen some of immense size, about 
Fort Opus, as well as near Perasto and, in the 
Bocche di Cattaro. Hemp, and many other useful 
productions, might also be extensively cultivated in 
Dalmatia. But even the great fall of water in the 
rivers is unheeded, though so well suited to the 
establishment of mills ; and there are none on the 
strong streams of this country, except those forgrind- 


ing corn, some of which were made by the Turks ; 
and however incredible it may appear, all the wheat 
of the valley of the Narenta is sent to be ground in 

Iron, too, though found in Dalmatia, is imported 
from Turkey; and the people appear to be in- 
different to the productions, and capabilities of 
their country. Dalmatia, however, is not rich in 
metals ; and Fortis thinks that the only mine is one 
of iron, not far from Signf , though he heard of rich 
mines at Hotton, in the territory of Enin. 

"There is no doubt," he adds, " that Dalmatia, in 
ancient times, produced a great quantity of gold, as 
several writers testify. Pliny J, among others, who 
had an opportunity of knowing it, says that under 
the Emperor Nero, fifty pounds of gold were taken 
daily from the mines of that province, and that it was 
found on the surface of the ground. Floras writes 
that Vibius, who was sent by Augustus to subdue 
the Dalmatians, obliged that fierce people to work 
in the mines, and to cleanse the gold. Martial 
likewise, writing to Macer, calls Dalmatia terra 
aurifera, and it seems to have been his opinion that 
the country about Salona particularly deserved 
that appellation.§ And it appears by a verse of 

* See pages 194. 199., and below, on the Narenta, Chap. VII. 
and Imoschi, Chap. VIII. 
f Fortis, p. 111. 
$ Plin. xxxiii. 4. 
§ " Ibis litoreas, Macer, Salonas, 

Felix aurifera colone terne." — Martial. Fortis, p. 112. 


Statius, in his Epithalamium of Stella, that the gold 
of Dalmatia was become a proverb : — 

* Robora Dalmatico fulgent satiata metallo,' 

a passage that permits us not to doubt of either 
the existence, or abundance, of this precious metal." 

Fortis totally disbelieves the existence of " gold 
and silver mines in the mountains along the coast, 
properly called Dalmatia ;" though he thinks that 
"the inland mountain of Promina may perhaps 
contain mines, as some Dalmatian writers affirm." 
But the report that " the small river Hyader (at 
Salona) carries from its sources some little gold 
dust in its sand," he found, on inquiry, to be 
"without the least foundation." He also states 
that the reputed quicksilver mine* at Subidolaz, 
above Sebenico, does not exist, and from all he 
could observe, " it seems probable, that no valuable 
mines are to be found in the calcareous mountains 
adjacent to the sea, nor in the vallies watered by 
the Kerka, and the Cettina." " The ancient mines 
were probably further up the country, when the 
confines of the province reached further inwards ; 
and if it be true that gold dust is actually found 
in the sand of the river Travrick in Bosnia, perhaps 
the rich mine, of which Pliny speaks, is to be looked 
for along the course of that river, and about its 
sources." f 

The Dalmatians maintain the existence of gold 

* There is one near Trigl. J Fortis, p. 113. 


mines in the country, in old times, and the ancient 
name of Mount Mossor, mons aureus, is said to have 
been given it from that mineral production ; though 
they confess that gold is no longer brought down 
in the sand of the Giadro. * Farlati f and other 
writers mention the authorities quoted by Fortis in 
support of the fact ; and add to that evidence an 
inscription on a coin of Hadrian, bearing the words 
Met. Delm. or MetaUum Delmaticum. But from all I 
could learn on the subject, Dalmatia possesses no 
gold or silver mines ; though on the east side of 
the Mount Gniath, which separates Herzegovina 
from the upper part of the valley of the Cettina, it 
is confidently asserted that the Turks possess a 
gold mine ; and if little is known of its produce, or 
its position, this is owing to the difficulties thrown 
in the way of strangers visiting it; the Turks 
carefully concealing the valuable secret from their 
neighbours. If it really exists, there is great rea- 
son to suppose it to be the one mentioned by Pliny ; 
that mountain being within the limits of ancient 

Tertian agues J are very prevalent at Knin in 
the autumn, particularly in August and September; 
when no one can venture to sleep out of doors, or 
with open windows. Indeed at all seasons, through- 

* Or Iader, at Salona. 
t Farlati, vol. i. p. 167. 

} Verbena boiled in beef broth and strained, is used in 
Dalmatia for this fever. I know not with what effect. 


out Dalmatia, a decided prejudice exists against 
sleeping with the windows open; and even at 
Spalato I was always told of the danger of this 
comfortable custom ; from which, however, I never 
felt any bad effects. 

Knin boasts no antiquities. Some inscriptions 
have been found in the neighbourhood, copies of 
which were given me by Count Paulovich, who en- 
tertained me very hospitably during my stay there ; 
and one of them, discovered in a village near Enin, 
contains a dedication to Jupiter — 



The other, from a place on the river, about one 
hour from Enin, where they suppose a bridge for- 
merly stood, consists merely of initial letters : — 

M* A-S • 
Q»B -R- 
F-N- V-S- 

the last line being probably the usual votum libens 
solvit. Near it were found the broken shafts of 
pillars, leaden tubes, and a spiral column. 

At the house of the Pretore is a Roman tombstone, 
brought from Burnum, or some other place, which 
was erected in accordance with the will of the de- 
ceased by his freedman Pantagathus. 

Chap. IV.] CUKIOUS ROCK. 221 

• • • DIV • • " 

• • RD • LEG • XI ■ C • 
xxxxm • T • F • IVSSIT 
LIB • F • C • 

Fortis mentions many coins of Antoninus Pius, 
found at Knin ; which are more common, through- 
out Dalmatia, than of any other emperor. 

Three roads unite at Enin : one from Zara and 
Kistagne ; another from Verlicca and Sign ; and 
the third from Dernis, which enters the town on 
the west side by a bridge over the Kerka. A short 
distance to the south of Enin, on the road to 
Dernis, is a curious mass of rock on Mount Verbnik, 
which has been the subject of much controversy. 
Fortis says *, " half way up the hill, there is an 
irregular prominent mass of a friable inferior sort 
of granite, the breadth of which above ground is 
about 200 feet." It certainly appears to be a small- 
grained granite, or granitello; and, if so, it is 
singular in Dalmatia, which boasts no primitive 
rocks; but I observed that it was traversed by 
small filaments of a white substance, which, from 
its effervescing under sulphuric acid, proved to be 
calcareous. It dips towards the E. S. E. and appears 
to run under the Monte Cavallo. 

* Fortis, p. 97, 98., who gives a detailed account of these 
hills. See also a recent work " Storia della Dalmazia, by 
the Consigliere Menis, publishing at Zara. 


Among the other rocks in the neighbourhood 
are argillaceous schists, marl, sandstone, transition 
limestone, and some containing iron. The only 
indication of primitive formations, that I met with, 
in Dalmatia, were rolled granite pebbles in the bed 
of the Narenta ; but these were brought from the 
upper part of its course, in the interior of Herze- 
g6vina, far above Mostar; all about and below 
that city being secondary, as throughout Dalmatia. 

The Dernis road separates Mount Verbnik* 
from Monte Cavallo, below which the Cossovizza f 
runs into the Kerka. 

The road from Knin to Verlicca skirts the plain 
to the eastward, and crosses the Kerka by a bridge 
at Top6glie, a distance of three quarters of an hour 
from Knin. That town, with the citadel on its 
bluff rock, has a striking effect from Top6glie, and 
the plain is diversified by trees and the stream of 
the Kerka. 

Top6glie is a small village, or hamlet, consisting 
of a few huts, with a mill close to the bridge. A 
short way above it, the river falls over a ridge of 
rocks, of the same height as the adjacent hills, that 
border and enclose the plain. When the river is 
full, this cascade must be very picturesque ; but 
the upper part of the stream which forms it, being 
merely a torrent, is dry in summer. The falls 

* From Verbna, " a willow." 

f Or Cossovschiza, from Cossovo (Kosovo) " hay," or " cut 
grass," or " a blackbird." 


then cease to exist, and the only source of the 
Kerka is from a cavern beneath those rocks ; for 

the river has two sources, one in this cavern, close 
to Topoglie, the other a torrent from the mountain 
of Dinara. The rocks at the falls are furrowed 
into deep smooth channels; and their edges, over- 
grown by long grass and moss, serve to show the 
character of the cataract when in action. The 
water leaves the same stalactitic deposit as at 
Roncislap and Scardona ; and the strata in this part 
are remarkable for their peculiar form and position. 
The cavern whence the Kerka issues extends to 
a great distance under the rocks. Fortis, with his 


companion, Mr. Hervey *, tried to explore it in a 
boat ; but their lights being soon extinguished, by 
the water dropping from the roof of the under- 
ground passage, and having advanced to a spot 
where the river falls with great noise, they found 
their boat began to take in so much water that 
they were obliged to return. 

Leaving Top6glie, we crossed the low hills, and 
then passed successively the villages of Pola9a, 
Turich, and Chievo. At Turich are vestiges of 
ancient remains, with Roman bricks. In little 
more than two hours after leaving Top6glie, we 
descended to an undulating plain partially culti- 
vated. To the right, distant about a mile and a half, 
was a peaked hiU, called Kojak (or Kozsak) ; and 
the lofty Mount Dinaraf, about three miles to the 
left ; the range of Mount Gniath, half of which is 
in Dalmatia, and half in Herzegovina, lying beyond 
to the eastward. On the other side of this is the 
gold mine already mentioned, about which the 
Turks maintain so much secrecy. J The Gniath 
range is separated from Mount Dinara by a valley ; 
in which the Cettina § rises, at the foot of a low 
hill, similar to that above the cavern of the Kerka. 
Its four sources, after uniting at a place called 
Vrilo Cettina, form one stream, — the Tilurus of 
the ancients, and the modern Cettina, — which 

# Afterwards Bishop of Londonderry. Fortis, p. 94. 

f See above, p. 38. 

X See above, p. 219. § Or Tsettina. 


waters the plains of Sign and Trigl, and, after 
forming two fine cascades at Doudr6, runs into the 
sea at Almissa. 

Fortis is right in saying that no city, called 
Cettina, existed, either in ancient or modern times ; 
but near the Sorgenti di Cettina many antiquities 
are found, and Latin inscriptions* 

The sources are near the village of Jarebiza, and 
form small lakes abounding in trout and other 
fish. The rocks are clothed with the usual deposit 
from the water, and a cavern there is much 
spoken of in Dalmatia, for the beauty of its stalac- 
tites. The church of San Salvatore *, near these 
sources, is said to have belonged to the Knights 
Templars; and in the wall is an ancient Latin 
inscription, probably sepulchral. There are also 
numerous tombs, with stone slabs, frequently of 
great size. The tombs are without inscriptions; 
but, from the account given me of them, I conclude 
they are of old Christian time, like those at L6- 
quicich, on the road to Imoschi ; which is confirmed 
by what Fortis says of the " arms in bas-relief" 
sculptured upon them. I was told of some re- 
mains, of uncertain date, at Lucovach, near the 
sources ; and at Koss6ie, half an hour from Ver- 

* This is on the authority of a person I met at Verlicca ; for 
being anxious to see the fair of Salona, I had no time to spare 
for a visit to the sources of the Cettina. Fortis speaks of a 
church called of the Ascension, and of old stones there, p. 224. 

VOL. I. Q 


licca, is a ruin, probably of modern date, and once a 
place of refiige from the Turks. 

At the point where the road from Knin descends 
towards Verlicca, is an extensive view over the val- 
ley of the Cettina, studded here and there with vil- 
lages, and bounded on either side by hills. A great 
part of the valley, and the bases of the mountains, 
are here clothed with brushwood, mostly oaks, ju- 
nipers, white thorns, and elms ; all stunted bushes; 
from which I put up some Hoopoes* and wild 
pigeons ; but I was surprised to find so few birds, 
during my journeys in the interior, considering the 
number that frequent the country, f Half an hour 
after the last descent, we passed some large stone 
slabs, probably tombs of the old Christian inhabi- 
tants. Near them was a well, at which several 
women were employed in drawing water, recalling 
very forcibly a scene in the east ; where, indeed, the 
female part of the community is not condemned to 
greater drudgery, than among the Morlacchi of 

On a rocky eminence, a quarter of an hour 
farther, is part of the scattered village of Shtiko ; 
which, like others in Dalmatia, extends over a large 
space ; and so scattered are many of them, that it is 
often difficult to fix their exact position on a map, 
or to ascertain their distance from each other. The 
land hereabouts is badly cultivated and much 
neglected. Now and then the usual Dalmatian 

* Upupa Epops. f See above, p. 165. 


threshing-floors are seen by the roadside; which 
consist of a round level space in the open air, 
paved with flat stones, and sometimes surrounded 
by a low stone wall ; and there is little beauty in 
this part of the journey, until you come in sight of 
Verlicca, which is distant from Knin five hours and 
a half, or about sixteen miles. 

Verlicca is remarkable for its castle on the point 
of an isolated rock, detached from the craggy cliff 
that terminates the Sfilaja range of hills, which calls 
to mind some of those on the Rhine and Moselle, and 
was built for the same kind of warfare. It was be- 
sieged and taken by the Turks ; who, disregarding 
the conditions of its surrender, massacred all within 
it ; a piece of treachery by no means unusual in 
Turkish history, and one which had the effect of 
inducing the Venetian garrison of Sign to maintain 
a desperate and effectual resistance, though at* 
tacked by a superior force. 

As there are no inns in these Dalmatian towns, I 
had provided myself with letters ; and being recom- 
mended to the Sindaco and the Sirdar, I had no 
difficulty in obtaining a comfortable lodging. 

Verlicca (Verlikka) has three churches — one be- 
longing to the Roman Catholics, one to the Greeks, 
and one to the united Greeks ; the two former 
with steeples in the Venetian style, the other of 
the undecorated Methodist order, recently built at 
the southern extremity of the town. Near it is 

the path leading to the springs; which, though 

a 2 


containing much magnesia, supply the town with 
water; and none other is used by the inhabitants. 
Strangers however find its medicinal properties dis- 
agreeable * ; and those, who prefer wine to mag- 
nesia, may find an agreeable substitute for this 
water in the Malvasia, a dry aromatic white wine, 
which, unlike the greater part of those in Dalmatia, 
is not sweet. Women are constantly employed 
carrying the water, in small kegs, on their backs, 
to the town, which is about one-eighth of a mile off. 
The view of the town, with the church steeples, 
and the ruined castle on the craggy rock above, is 
very picturesque ; and the country about Verlicca 
is pretty. It has no ancient remains; but the 
sirdar showed me some square stone cinerary urns, 
or coffins, with Latin inscriptions, brought from 
Stragine, near the village of Podosoie, on the road 
to Sign. One measured 17 inches in length by 
13 in height, another 1 foot 7 inches by 1 foot 
3 inches ; and the hollow part in the centre, that 
contained the ashes, was about 1 foot square, and 
5 inches deep. I copied the inscriptions from two 
of them : 






* According to the analysis given by Petter, a pound con- 
tains 1*633 grains muriate of lime; 1*116 grains muriate of 
magnesia; 0*650 grains carbonate of lime; 0*316 grains car- 
bonate of magnesia ; and 0*550 grains silex (sciliceo), p. 128. 


the other three being covered up, and inaccessible, 
from the number of things heaped upon them. 
Another, built into the wall of a house, on the 
road towards the springs, was found at Mdtkovine, 
about one hour and a half from Verlicca, near 
Cogliane, on the way to Sign ; where a few traces 
of ruins are still visible : 





The upper part of this block is ornamented by two 
round arches beneath a pediment. 

In the sandstone rocks to the S. of Verlicca 
several bodies have been found, but of what time 
my informant could not tell me. I also heard of a 
quantity of asbestos in the neighbourhood, but no 
one could point out its exact locality. 

The climate of Verlicca is reckoned healthy, and 
fevers are rare at any season. The land is good, 
and is capable of improvement. 

The general aspect of the country throughout 
the inland parts of Dalmatia differs very much 
from that of the coast, where the soil of the moun- 
tain slopes has been washed into the sea, while 
that from their inner face has been deposited in 
the valleys. 

There is consequently more cultivation in the 
interior ; wood is more abundant, both in the plains 
and on the mountain sides ; poplars and other trees 

Q 3 


thrive in the valleys; and there is much grass 

The country has some cattle, mostly short- 
homed, sheep, pigs, and horses, though they are 
not numerous ; and the Dalmatian horse, which is 
usually of a chesnut colour, is remarkably small. 

My journey was performed with these ponies, the 
hire of which varies from thirty-one carantdni to one 
florin (about twelve pence to two shillings), a-day. 

The road from Verlicca to Sign lies through the 
valley, on the right bank of the Cettina. At 
C6gliane Inferiore is a bridge of fifteen arches, 
which we crossed, in order to visit the convent of 
Dragovich, situated in a woody glen. The ap- 
proach to it is by a narrow valley, at the side of a 
small stream. The convent, buried amidst trees, 
is not visible until close upon it ; and the water, 
the overhanging trees, and the well- wooded rocks 
above, offer a picturesque scene as you approach it. 

Being just one o'clock, the monks were at dinner 
when we arrived. I would not disturb them ; so 
that I can say nothing of the interior ; which, how- 
ever, from what I could learn, contains no object 
of interest. It is a little out of the way, in going 
to Sign ; but when the water is low, the detour is 
not great, as the river may be forded lower down, 
and you may then rejoin the road, without having 
to go back by the bridge of Cogliane. Over the 
stream, that runs from the glen of Dragovich, and 
falls into the Cettina, is a bridge of eleven arches. 

Cmp.IV.J the has. 231 

We crossed it on leaving the convent; and soon 
afterwards forded the river. The convent is about 
seven miles from Verlicca ; and the whole distance 
from that town to Sign is about twenty miles. 

It rained nearly the whole way, and we halted 
at a small inn, or Han (Kkan), by the road side, 
about two miles from the glen. Like many Mor- 

lacchi houses, it consisted of a ground-floor and a 
loft, the ascent to which was by a ladder in the 
middle of the room. The fire was on a raised 
hearth on the floor, at one end ; the horses and 
mules occupied another corner ; and one part was 
partitioned off" with wicker-work, covered over with 
plaster, to form a parlour, containing the counter of 


the host, a table, and some of the ordinary wooden 
stools, or chairs, of the Morlacchi. Here passengers, 
•who preferred eating apart from their four-footed 
companions, were accommodated : and the daughter 
of the host, wearing her dowry of coins, waited upon 
every new-comer, while her mother superintended 
the fire in the adjoining room. 

After refreshing the horses, and getting rid of as 
much rain water as possible, we left the Han, and 
re-entered the unceasing storm. There is little 
cultivation in this part ; the hills are covered with 
bushes, which do as well for the traveller, and far 
better if he delights in wild scenery, but are not 
very profitable to the peasant or the revenue. 
Four miles and a half beyond the small village of 
Ribarich, we came to a descent, with the river on 
our left, and a fine view in front ; and at this moment 
the rain seemed most indulgently to cease, which 
enabled us to enjoy it. Before us the lofty Mount 
Mossor was conspicuous ; to the left the range of 
Mount Prolog, on the skirts of which, perched on a 
rock, might be seen the castle of Dovicich*; and 
the undulating plain, between us and Sign, was 
diversified with fields, woods, and villages. One of 
these, Ervaz (Ervatz), we reached in little more 
than half an hour. 

It stands on an elevated knoll; and its small 
white church crowning the summit, its scattered 
houses amidst trees, and the distant view over the 

* Or Odovicich. 

Chap. IV.] BAZAAR OF HAN. 233 

plain bounded by mountains, form a beautiful 
landscape. Most of the houses are thatched. 

In half an hour more we came to Chitluk, the 
ancient iEquum or Ecuum, lying about half a mile 
to the east of the road. The remains are few; 
consisting merely of a wall and some tombs, now 
scarcely visible. 

The country is here very pretty, from the 
wooded knolls and varied aspect of the broken 
ground, and the same kind of scenery extends to 
Sign. The first view of that town is striking, as 
the road descends from the high ground to the 
valley. On the left is the church ; in front, the 
clock tower upon a rock rising in the midst of the 
houses, and immediately above the town to the 
right stands the castle, on an isolated craggy height. 

Beyond is a ravine, separating it from an 
elevated plateau, which is backed by a lofty moun- 
tain, — part of the range that extends to the neigh- 
bourhood of Clissa. 

Sign contains about 2000 inhabitants. It was 
long the bulwark of the Venetians against the 
Turks, whose frontier is now seven miles off. A 
bazaar or market is held twice a week, on Monday 
and Thursday, at a place called Han, about five 
miles from Sign, within the Dalmatian territory. 
Ever since the plague of 1815, Han has been 
appointed for the reception of the Turkish cara- 
vans, which, according to the treaty of Passarovitz, 
had until then the privilege of going to Spalato. 


The caravans are escorted by soldiers from Billi- 
brig, on the confines, to Han, and are taken back 
in the same manner; in order to prevent smuggling, 
or an infringement of the quarantine regulations. 
Another bazaar is held about four hours from 
Sign, on Wednesdays and Fridays; and there is 
another, distant about six hours. Formerly, these 
points of intercourse with Turkey were more 
numerous than at present: the trade has now 
passed into other channels ; and the Turks find it 
more profitable to send the greater proportion of 
their exports at once to Zara, than to supply the 
limited consumption of the small towns, in the 
interior of the country. 

Salt, and a few other productions of Dalmatia, 
are sought by the Turks at the bazaar of Unka, near 
Metcovich; and Imoschi, and a few other places, 
are still frequented by them; but the principal 
trade is with Zara ; which has succeeded to most 
of the advantages once enjoyed by Spalato, in the 
visits of the caravans. * 

To afford some idea of the exports and imports, 
between Dalmatia and Turkey, I shall give the 
published report of five Turkish caravans, that 
came from Bosnia and Herzegovina in September, 
1844. " They were from Saraivo, Mostar, Popovo, 
Gusco, Stolatz, Taslegia, Foccia, and Trebigne, and 

* The bazaar, and the right of selling salt, have been now 
restored to Spalato. See above, p. 115. ; and below, Chap. VIII., 
on Imoschi. 

Chap. IV.] CARAVANS. — SIGN. 235 

consisted of 272 persons, with 621 horses. They 
brought 234 horseloads of wool ; 4 of hareskins ; 
2 of butter ; 1 of wax ; 67 of wood and charcoal ; — 
and exported 52,031 fund* of salt; 30,858 fti. of 
coffee and sugar; 14,688 fti. of cotton, manufac- 
tured and in thread; 7286 fti. of rice; 2163 fti. 
of paper; 2421 fti. of raw steel; 1000 fti. of tin 
in rods; 766 fti. of wrought copper ; 2170 fti. of 
balls and shot ; 857 fti. of chemical preparations ; 
622 fti. of colours ; 3338 fti. of soap ; 6434 fti. of 
dried fruits ; 4188 fti. of olive oil ; 432 fti. of rum ; 
and 1912 fti. of earthenware, cloths, furs, glass, 
rubbia, and French beans." 

A cattle fair is held at Sign every Saturday, 
which is attended by very few Turks, owing to the 
impediments of quarantine. 

Nothing is known of the origin of Sign ; but the 
castle is said to have been built by the Turks, 
either towards the close of the sixteenth, or the 
beginning of the seventeenth century. It had a 
triple wall of circuit, and was supplied with water 
by two wells ; but it is now a ruin. 

It was taken by the Venetians under Cornaro, in 
1686, and confirmed to them by the treaty of 
Carlovitz in 1698: and they continued in undis- 
puted possession of it until 1715, when the Pasha 
of Bosnia endeavoured to recover it, and invested 
the place with 40,000 men.f Undismayed at the 

* One funto is fourteen ounces. 

t See the History in Chap. IX., a.d. 1715. 


approach of this overwheming force, the brave 
Balbi, with his small but courageous garrison, 
refused to surrender the castle, and repulsed all 
the assaults of the Turks-, who were at length 
forced to retire; and in commemoration of this 
glorious defence, an annual tilting f§te (giostra) was 
instituted, which is continued to the present day. 
It is celebrated with all the pomp of olden times ; 
but, instead of the anniversary of the siege, it is 
transferred to the 19th of April, the f§te-day of the 

" The privilege of tilting is confined to natives of 
Sign and its territory. Every one is required to 
appear dressed in the ancient national costume, 
with the Tartar cap, called Kalpak, surmounted by 
a white heron's plume, or with flowers interlaced in 
it. He is to wear a sword, to carry a lance, and to 
be mounted on a good horse richly caparisoned. 

" In tilting, each cavalier, with his lance couched, 
rides at full speed, and tries to strike an iron ring 
suspended by a string." The ring is about seven 
inches in diameter, of thick wire, in three con- 
centric circles, sufficiently far apart to admit the 
point of a lance. The circles count one, two, and 
three ; and every one is allowed to tilt at this ring 
three times. " Three umpires decide, and proclaim 
the victor. If the cavalier loses a spur, or his 
plume, if any thing falls from him, or if his horse 
throws a shoe, the point he may make by striking 
the ring, during that course, does not count. 

Chap. IV.] TILTING f£tE. 237 

" The opening of the giostra is in this manner : — 
The foot-men, richly dressed and armed, advance 
two by two before the cavaliers. In the usual 
annual exhibitions, each cavalier has one foot-man ; 
and, on extraordinary occasions, besides the foot- 
man, he has a padrino (godfather), well mounted 
and equipped. After the foot-men, come three 
persons in line, one carrying a shield, and the 
other two by his side bearing a sort of ancient 
club ; then a fine manige horse, led by the hand, 
with large housings, and complete trappings richly 
ornamented, followed by two cavaliers, one the 
adjutant, the other the ensign- bearer. Next comes 
the Maestro di Campo, accompanied by the two 
senior justers, and followed by all the others, 
marching two by two. The rear of the procession 
is brought up by the Chiauss*, who rides alone, 
and whose duty is to maintain order during the 

" Under the Venetians, the Republic granted an 
annual prize of 500 Dalmatian lire, about 50 florins f; 
and its representative at Sign gave a grand enter- 
tainment. The territorial colonel also provided a 
prize, consisting of some ells of scarlet; and the 
adjutant of the Eraina, and the sirdars, presented a 
little cloth to the victor. These prizes were sub- 
jected to certain alterations under the Austrians, 
till 1818, when the emperor, Francis I., having been 

* Ciaoos, or ch6wes, a Turkish title for beadle, or sergeant. 
| Fire pounds English. 


present at the ceremony, established a prize of 
100 florins ; and the fortunate victor on that occa- 
sion received a diamond ring from the emperor." * 

There are no remains of antiquity at Sign, nor 
does it appear to occupy the site of any ancient 
town. Many coins are found in the district, par- 
ticularly at Ottok, about five miles off, on the other 
side of the Cettina, and at Ditymo, about two 
hours from Sign ; and Sig. Antonio Bullian has a 
collection at Sign, consisting chiefly of Consular 
coins, and those of the empire. 

The appearance of Sign, with the castle rising 
above it, is scarcely less striking from the Spalato 
road, than on the approach from the southward ; 
and its situation in a part of the rich valley of the 
Cettina, diversified with hills and undulating 
ground, bounded by mountains on the right and 
left, is superior to most of the inland towns. 
There is also much cultivation in the neighbour- 

Strolling out of Sign, along the Spalato road, 
I crossed a bridge of one arch over a small torrent 
bed, dry in summer and boasting very little water 
in winter ; and about two miles farther on came to 
the branch road ; that goes to Trigl and Vergoraz, 
and thence to the south of the province, under the 
name of u Strada Napoleone." 

Trigl stands on the Cettina ; and on a height, 
near that river, is Gardun, the successor of an 

* Catalinich, vol. iv. p. 154—156. note. 

Chap. IV.] MARKET AT SIGN. 239 

ancient Roman town, of which some vestiges may 
still be traced ; and in the neighbourhood of Trigl 
is a quicksilver mine. 

Meeting numbers of country people on their 
way to Sign, and thinking that the town promised 
more amusing scenes than my walk in search of 
the picturesque, I retraced my steps, and found 
Sign full of life and costumes. In the streets was 
a market, in the outskirts a large cattle fair ; and a 
concourse of speculators from different towns, and 
blue-legged Morlacchi from the country, thronged 
the place. Here and there groups of intimate 
friends, or intimate enemies, were discussing their 
purchases ; many adjourned to settle their accounts 
over the bottle ; and now and then a stray ox, 
breaking through the crowd, was seen to interrupt 
a serious bargain, as he rushed up a side street to 
escape his rightful owner. One old man had only 
just time to vociferate " bdgati" when he was pre- 
cipitated headlong into a basket of tomatas, to the 
great discomfiture of his pistols and yatagan; 
which the Morlacco, like the Turk, carries in an 
appendage projecting from his girdle, like the gal- 
lery of a building. Some benevolent bystanders 
appeased his rage, and the clamours of the women, 
whose vegetables had been the principal sufferers ; 
and the Morlacco's arms having been properly ar- 
ranged in front, and his sack and pigtail behind, 
he disappeared in the crowd. 

A Turk soon afterwards passed down the street 


on horseback, with all the dignity of a man con- 
scious of his contempt for giaours ; he noticed no 
one ; and, as far as I could see him, he seemed to 
be conveyed through the mass of living beings, like 
an apparition, holding no converse with earthly 
creatures. He had performed his quarantine, and 
no one had any further right to molest him ; he 
therefore displayed the pride he felt ; and his atti- 
tude of affected dignity varied between those of a 
bully and Don Giovanni. 

The costumes on all these occasions, in Dal- 
matia, are very interesting to a stranger, and the 
combination of their colours is always good. The 
female dress of the Sign peasantry is neat, and less 
overloaded with ornaments than in most parts of 
the country ; and the lace kerchief, or fillet, worn 
over the red cap of the girls, is tasteful, as is their 
mode of arranging the hair in two large plaits. 
Married women have a round white head-dress, 
which has neither form nor colour to recommend 
it ; the rest of the costume is much the same for 
women and girls, and consists of a long blue cloth 
Jubbeh or pelisse, a red apron, and red Turkish 
shoes, with stockings worked in patterns of various 
colours. The dress of the men resembles that *of 
many other Morlacchi. The towns-women of Sign 
wear a costume more like an ordinary European 
dress, which is not inelegant ; and the hair, inter- 
woven at the back of the head with a coloured silk 
band, secured by large silver pins, is tastefully 

Chap. IV.] SIGN TO SPALATO. 241 

Women in mourning have the same kind of cos- 
tume in black ; as is the custom throughout Dal- 

In the midst of all the bustle and business going 
on at Sign, I found some difficulty in obtaining 
horses to take me to Sp&lato ; but a letter to the 
sird&r removed every impediment : and after a few 
hours' delay, the animals being brought out, I 
prepared to start from the not very splendid inn. 
" Can you ride in that ? " asked the ostler, pointing 
to a huge Turkish saddle, that nearly concealed the 
whole animal, with stirrups that might pass for a 
pair of coal-scuttles ; and finding that I was accus- 
tomed to the use, as well as sight, of that un- 
European horse-furniture, he seemed well satisfied ; 
observing, at the same time, that it was fortunate, 
as there was no other to be had. 

It was certainly not in very good preservation : 
it might be called an antique, and was a mixture 
of gaudy patch-work and decayed finery ; but I was 
glad to take what I could get, and my only question 
in return was whether the horse could trot ; which 
being settled, I posted off, leaving my guide and 
baggage to come after me ; for, thanks to the Aus- 
trian police, there is no fear of robbers appropriat- 
ing a portmanteau in Dalmatia; the interesting 
days of adventure, and Haiduk banditti, have 
passed ; and the Morlacchi have ceased to covet, or, 
at least to take, other men's goods. 

The only objects of interest, between Sign and 

VOL. I. R 


SpAlato, are the fortress of Clissa *, and the ruins 
of Salona f ; and the first view of Clissa, backed by 
the sea and the Isle of Brazza, is very imposing. 
The road is good, and about one mile before reach- 
ing Clissa, the marks of ruts cut deep in the rock 
may be traced, which some suppose to be the 
tracks of chariot wheels, on the old Gabinian way. J 

Descending these mountains by a winding road, 
you come in three quarters of an hour to Salona, 
and then, in about the same time, to SpAlato ; the 
total distance from Sign being twenty-one miles. 

A few relics of Roman time are met with in 
this part of the country, principally at the villages 
of Much Inferiore, and Superiore, about eight miles 
to the westward of Sign, where some remains and 
coins are found ; and report speaks of the ruins of 
an ancient town, called by the people Trajanskigrad 
(Trajan's City), though this title is given to many 
other sites of Roman towns in Dalmatia. § 

• See above, p. 169. f See above, p. 153. to 163. 

J See, p. 169. 171. § Petter, p. 107. 

Chap. V.] 243 



The voyage by the steamer * from Sp&lato to Le- 
sina occupies about three hours ; from Lesina to Ciir- 
zola five and a half, to six ; and from Ciirzola to 
Ragusa six and a half, to seven hours. 

Long before reaching the port of L&ina, Fort 
San Nicolo, on a height to the N.E. of the town, is 
seen over an intervening headland. In front of the 
port is an island, which appears to be placed there 
as a natural breakwater ; though it is not a suffi- 
cient defence against the Srirocco, and vessels are 
far from being secure during the storms of winter. 
It does however afford protection against the S*W. ; 
and the Isole Spalraadore are an additional security 
on that side. A fort has been built on the island, 
which, with a battery on the shore to the S.E. and 
another on the opposite side, commands the en- 
trance. Immediately above the town is the Fort 
Spagnuolo, and the more distant San Nicolo on the 
hill behind. Fort Spagnuolo was built by Charles V. 
when the Spaniards had joined the Venetians 

* The fare of the first class to Ragusa is seven florins and 
a half; or to Cattaro ten florins, equal to one pound English. 

r 2 


against the Turks; and, with a small battery at 
the port, was the sole defence of the place, until 
the French erected that of San Nicolo; which 
stands on a hill 800 feet above the level of the sea, 
a short way inland. In front of some of these 
forts aloes have been planted, as a sort of chevaux- 
de-frise ; and though they seem to thrive in that 
capacity, vegetation is by no means luxuriant in 
the immediate neighbourhood of the town, which 
produces only a few caruba* trees, one or two 
palms, fig trees, and some bushes that grow amidst 
the rocks. The Isle of L^sina is famed for its figs. 
They are dried, and put up in small drums, or 
kegs, which are sold at 20 carantdni each f ; and 
though inferior in size to ordinary figs, they are 
very sweet and good. 

L£sina is more noted for its rosemary oil, called 
Oleum anihos, or quintessenza, much used in the 
composition of fine soap. The rosemary water, or 
Aqua regia, is also made there J ; as well as a wine 
called Vino di Spiaggia, one of the most esteemed 
in Dalmatia.§ 

The island abounds in corn, oil, saffron, honey, 
and other productions. Under the Venetians 
it was very flourishing and populous; wool, 
sheep, and cheese, were among the exports ; and 
it derived considerable profit from the sale of salt 
fish, which the Venetian government might have 

* Ceratonia Si U qua. f About eight-pence English. 

$ And in the I. of Brazza. § See above, p. 100. 


improved, to the benefit of the state, had they un- 
derstood the principles of political economy, and 
relieved the island from injudicious duties on salt. 
The same remark applies to the present system of 
the Austrians, whose revenue would be greatly in- 
creased by abandoning, or reducing, that impost. 
The Dalmatians justly complain that they are pre- 
vented from following a lucrative trade by the 
artificial dearness of salt, in a country where the 
coasts abound in fish, and where the occupation 
would be beneficial to the people and the govern- 
ment. For not only would the revenue increase, 
and trade be encouraged, but a good school would 
be established for the navy, which the Austrians 
are anxious to improve ; and the gradual decay of 
Dalmatian trade might, in some degree, be stopped 
by this, and a few other alterations in their fiscal 

The town of L^sina is well placed on the curve 
of a small bay, backed by hills ; and presents many 
good pictures, in its Venetian architecture, and the 
rich yellow colour of the houses. 

On the left, as you enter the port, is a tower, or- 
namented with three tiers of round-headed arches, 
which belonged to a church destroyed some years 
ago by lightning. Near the centre of the quay, or 
Marina, are the Loggie, built by the celebrated Vero- 
nese architect San Michieli, and bearing the winged 
lion of St. Mark. The building is small, fronted with 
seven open round arches on columns, and has a 

B 3 


light elegant appearance. Attached to it is a clock 
tower. Unfortunately, during the attempts of the 
Russians to dislodge the French from L£sina, in 
1807, this edifice was much damaged by the fire 
of their ships, and the battery they had erected on 
the island * ; and it is probable that if the French 
had not retired into the fort Spagnuolo, the Loggie 
would have suffered more serious injuries. The 
marks of the shot, still seen upon it, serve as a 
memorial of this fruitless attempt of the Russians f, 
and of the gallant defence made by the French. 

The Loggie J , in the time of the Venetians, was 
a sort of Town Hall, in which justice, or at least 
punishment, was administered; and the room is 
still shown where criminals were subjected to the 
torture. In the open space before this building is 
a flag staff, with the date of 1735, which once bore 
the banner of the Republic. 

The church to the eastward, at some distance from 
the port, is the cathedral of the Bishop of L£sina 
and Lissa. It contains nothing of interest ; and 
the carved wooden stalls are not worth visiting. 

To the S.E. of the town, on the point of land 
near the sea, is the convent of Franciscans, said to 
contain a picture representing the marriage in 
Cana, attributed by some to Titian. 

During the wars between the Venetians and the 

* Or rock, called Galesnik. 

f See Catalinich, vol. iv. p. 105., and the History. 

% See above, p. 181. 

Chap. V.] SIZE OF LESINA. 247 

Sultan, in the sixteenth century, the town of L£sina 
was partly burnt by the Turks, under Uluz Ali, 
who landed on the island. It was at that time a 
place of great importance ; and being on the way 
from the Levant, and from Puglia, to Venice, most 
vessels going to, and from, that city touched at 
L6sina. It also derived considerable profit from 
the fisheries of Lissa ; the duties on sardelle alone 
being then let for 4000 ducats a year.* 

The Isle of L&ina is very long and narrow, 
being forty-two miles in length, and two and a half 
in breadth, or from six to seven in the broadest 
part ; and the resemblance it is supposed to bear 
to a " shoemaker's awl " is said to be the origin of 
its name. The population is reckoned at 12,539 f; 
and it contains 54,291 ^w^m, or acres; of which 
1107 are uncultivated ; 29,285 are covered with 
trees or bushes, and 9042 with vines. 

L^sina was the ancient Pharos Insula. J Accord- 
ing to Scimnus§ and Strabo||, it was colonised 
from the Isle of Paros by Greek settlers, from 
whom it was called Paros, and afterwards Pharos 
and Pharia ; and Diodorus says the Parians settled 

* Solitro's Documenti Storici, p. 90. 

f In 1575 it contained 3034 inhabitants. 

% By Scylax and Agathemerus it is called Pharos, as well as 
by Diodorus (xv. 13.) and Polybius (iii. 18.); by Ptolemy and 
Pliny, Pharia ; and by Stephanus of Byzantium, Pharon. 

§ See Farlati, i. p. 197. ; Fortis, p. 328. 

| Strabo (vii.) says, "Pharos, formerly Paros, a colony of 
the Parians." 

R 4 


in this island, in consequence of the command of 
an oracle, ordering them to send a colony into the 
Adriatic. Here they founded a small republic, 
of which a coin is still extant.* Pliny and Ptolemy 
speak of the island and city, under the same name, 
Pharia ; and Polybius says the latter was strongly 
fortified. That city, the ancient capital, stood at 
Start Ghrad or " Citta Vecchia," a long way from 
the present L^sina, towards the north side of the 
island f ; a situation perhaps preferable in those 
days; though, for the purposes of modern com- 
merce, the present L^sina has greatly the advan- 
tage over the more sheltered port of Citta Vecchia, 
or its neighbour Verbosa. 

In ancient times, the Isle of Pharos yielded only 
to Lissa in celebrity ; and the people continued to 
enjoy their liberty until conquered by Agron, 
king of Illyria ; whose widow afterwards became 
so remarkable in the history of her country, and 
whose murder of a Roman ambassador brought the 
first consular fleet and army into this part of the 

Pharos was the birth-place of Demetrius, sur- 
named Pharius; who having been made governor 
of this island, as well as of Corcyra, Apollonia, and 
other places, by Agron, basely deserted his widow, 
Queen Teuta, and betrayed them into the hands 

* Fortis, p. 328. 

\ Nearly eight miles due east of L&ina. 


of the Romans. As a reward for his treachery, 
he received the government of Pharos, and some 
cities on the coast; till, about nine years after- 
wards, having excited the Illyrians to acts of 
aggression against the Romans, he brought the 
vengeance of that republic upon them, and upon his 
native city; which was besieged by the consul, 
L. jEmilius Paulus, by sea and land, b.c. 219. 
Demetrius, having escaped into Macedonia, left the 
city to suffer for his crimes, and Pharos was 

The island was noted as a place of refuge from 
persecution, and the burial-ground of many Chris- 
tian martyrs, on which account it received the title 
of "sacred."* It is also supposed that the "Africa," 
mentioned in the history of St. Athanasius, was the 
Isle of Pharia, and that the name was a corruption 
of Apharia.f 

At the decline of the empire, L^sina often 
changed masters, and continued a long time in the 
hands of the Narentines; it afterwards had par- 
ticular lords, the last of whom, Aliota Capenna, 
ceded it to the Republic of Venice, in 1424. J 

Its Slavonic name is Bvar, a corruption of the 
ancient Pharos ; and in Italian it is called L£sina, or 
Liesina. It contains some marbles, one of which is 

* Farlati (i. 470.) mentions catacombs of early Christians at 

f See Farlati, vol. i. p. 28. 44. 197. 469, 470. 733. 
% Fortis, p. 329. 


the so-called Rosso di Cattaro, of a dark red colour* ; 
and Fortis mentions some slate rocks at Zukova 
and Verbagn, containing " the skeletons of fishes." 
He also speaks of a hill on the road from Yerbosca 
to Gelsa " of a fluviatic concretion, left there by 
some ancient river now lost/' and he describes 
the breccia of Gelsa f as a beautiful stone, taking a 
polish equal to "that of the finest breccia at 

During the wars with the Turks, L£sina was the 
rendezvous of the Venetian fleet, on its way to and 
from Corfu ; and after the war had ceased, it con- 
tinued to be the principal outpost for the protec- 
tion of commerce in the Adriatic. An arsenal was 
also established there, supplied with every requisite 
for refitting a fleet ; the walls of which still attest 
the solidity of its construction. But in 1776 
Curzola took its place, as the maritime station of 
the Venetians, being found more conveniently situ- 
ated for watching the southern part of Dalmatia, 
and possessing a safer and more commodious 

Some distance to the eastward is the monastery 
of Sta. Domenica, built in a fissure of the pre- 
cipitous cliff, a short way from the shore. It is 
seen from the sea, and the solitary cypress that 
grows there is also said to be visible, by men of 

* It takes its name from Cattaro, where it is most abundant. 
See Fortis, p. 330. 
f Gelso is a " mulberry tree." 

Chap. V.] ARSENAL OF LES1NA. 251 

long sight and imagination. It was suppressed by 
the French, and is now unoccupied. 

The eastern extremity of the Isle of L£sina runs 
into the gulf, or canal, of the Narenta; between 
which and Curzola projects the peninsula of Sabi- 
oncello, a high point of land, in appearance very 
like one of the islands of this coast. It is long and 
narrow, and united to the mainland by a small 
neck near Slano, not more than one mile across ; 
its total length being about forty miles, and general 
breadth four. A narrow channel separates it from 
the Isle of Curzola, extending from near the pictu- 
resque village of Racischie to the town of Curzola. 

Racischie stands on a small cove backed by 
wooded heights ; and, as in former times, supplies 
Venice and other places with firewood. 

The Isle of Curzola abounds in trees and brush- 
wood, which grow down to the water's edge, par- 
ticularly on the south side; offering a striking 
contrast to the opposite shores of Lesina, and the 
Dalmatian coast; and the pines in the interior 
are of great size. It supplied the Venetian ar- 
senal with timber ; and the proportion of land 
covered with wood is still 43,471 acres, out of a 
total of 57,130. There are also 5336 acres of 
vineyards, 4607 of arable land, 2885 of pastures, 
128 of gardens, 615 uncultivated, and 82 occupied 
by buildings. In no other island, or department of 
Dalmatia, does the proportion of woodland reach 
half the total number of acres, except Lesina, Sa- 


bioncello, and Imoschi, where it is respectively 
29,285 to 54,291 ; 23,418 to 45,419 ; and 65,039 
to 111,526. 

The people of Curzola have always been skilled 
in ship-building, which is still their most profitable 
employment. Vessels of from 400 to 550 tons are 
built there; and the boats, frequently sent to Trieste 
on speculation, or to order, are very good. 

The town of Curzola has 1846, the whole com- 
mune 4268, inhabitants ; a population very far short 
of that under the Venetians*, when eight, and even 
ten, square-rigged vessels were seen on the stocks 
at the same time. The chief exports consist of wine, 
oil, sardette, stone, timber, ships, boats, and firewood. 

It stands at the end of a projecting promon- 
tory, which the Venetians separated from the 
mainland by a ditch ; and the walls, strengthened 
with towers, were partly washed by the sea. It 
had been walled round, before it fell into the hands 
of the Venetians ; who, though they added con- 
siderably to the works, failed to complete its de- 
fences, and left it commanded f on the land side ; 
an oversight, which was not remedied until the 
French built the fort on the hill to the southward, 
when they had possession of it during the late 

* They pretend that it contained 7000, and that the seventh 
part of the houses are now uninhabited. In 1575 the popu- 
lation was rated at 1084. 

■j" This is not omitted in the report of the Venetian Com- 
missioners in 1575, given by Solitro, p. 87. 

Chap. V J C URZOLA . — PORTS. 253 

war. And this was not before they had found the 
disadvantage of leaving so convenient a lodgment 
for an enemy. 

The fort, with its round tower *, commands the 
approach to the two ports, and, with the guns of 
the town, completely defends the channel between 
it and the Peninsula of Sabioncello. 

These ports, separated by the tongue of land 
occupied by the town and its suburb, or borgo, are 
safe in certain winds ; but another small bay, be- 
yond the eastern port, is found to answer better in 
winter, and is an excellent harbour. It was in this 
that the Venetian fleet, consisting of thirty gallies, 
was stationed ; and its security, together with the 
position of the island, induced the Republic to 
transfer the place of rendezvous from Lesina to 
Curzola. It has the strange name of Porto 
Pedocchio, from a rock towards the middle of it, 
where the galley slaves were accustomed to cleanse 
their clothes. The steamers anchor there in winter, 
and a carriage road has been made to it from the 
town, communicating also with the interior of the 

The view of Curzola from that side is very good ; 
standing, as it does, on a projecting point of land, 
washed on three sides by the sea, and backed by 
the lofty Monte Vipero on the opposite coast of 
Sabioncello ; and the houses, built on a knoll, rise 

* The French began it, the English added the round tower, 
and the Austrian 8 completed it. 


one above the other, and are crowned by the cathe- 
dral, which occupies the summit. 

This part is called the Citta, in contradistinction 
to the Borgo, or suburb, which stands on the inner 
part of the same neck of land, and which has 
lately been much increased ; for though begun 150 
years ago, under the rule of the Venetians, it was 
only in later times, when all fear of Turkish aggres- 
sion had subsided, that any one could with safety 
live outside the walls. 


When Curzola was under the Venetians, its con- 
dition was most flourishing, and the increasing 
population made it necessary to add this suburb, 
principally for the accommodation of shipwrights ; 
while the wealthier inhabitants had their villas 
about two miles " out of town," at Cernova*, which 
has now grown into a village. 

Owing to the confined limits of the town, the 
houses stand very close together, the streets are 
very narrow, sometimes with steps as at Malta, and 
it has no open spaces of any size. There is a small 
square, as you enter the gate from the suburbs, 
which is interesting from the style of its buildings ; 
and at the upper part of the street leading from it 
is the cathedral, f The west front is ornamented 
with a rosette window, and a foiled corbel table 
running up the gable, under which is a bust, ab- 
surdly supposed to be of " Diocletian's Empress ; " J 
and the doorway has twisted columns, supporting 
a pointed arch within a semicircular hood. The 
tower was probably added at a later time to the 
original building ; and no part appears older than 
the thirteenth or fourteenth century. The Greek 
Church, now dedicated to " Tutti Santi" is appro- 
priated by the Roman Catholics ; there being only 
two Greek families remaining in the town. 

Curzola boasts an inn. It is in the Borgo, and 

* Zernova, or Tzernova. The Venetian ce answers to tze, 
f Curzola is no longer a bishop's see. See above, p. 85. 
\ Farlati (vi. 068.) thinks of Maria, the wife of Bela IV. 


though small, is cleaner and more comfortable than 
many in larger towns, of r&puted civilised countries ; 
and the people, as throughout Dalmatia, are re- 
markably civil. The wealth of Curzola was formerly 
very great, and the inhabitants boast that it had as 
many as thirty-two jewellers established there ; but 
what is more remarkable, the statutes of the city 
reach as far back as the year 1214; and there is 
reason to believe them to be more ancient than of 
any town in this province. The appearance of the 
houses fully testifies to the truth of its flourishing 
condition, under the Venetians ; and though small, 
(owing to the confined limits of the town,) it is 
evident they were frequently richly ornamented. 
Their style is Venetian ; and the arts and rule of 
Venice are recognised by their massive stone bal- 
conies, chimnies, and doorways; as well as by 
the winged lion, in various attitudes, on the city 
walls, and by the arms of the Doges, who built or 
repaired them. 

The Isle of Curzola is called in Illyric Kor<;ula, 
or Karkar ; and its ancient name, Corcyra nigra, 
is supposed to have been derived from the dark 
colour of the pine trees and brushwood covering 
the hills, particularly on the south side ; which 
gave that appearance to the island, when approached 
from the open sea.* 

Of the early colonisation of Corcyra nothing is 

* Farlati, vol. i. p. 198. He mentions a Phoenician inscription 
there, vol. vi. p. 363. 


known; some attribute it to the Phoenicians; and 
Strabo says the city was founded by the Cnidians. 
It was probably at one time in the possession of 
the Liburnian8 ; and was afterwards subject to the 
different powers that ruled the Adriatic; until its 
capture by the Venetians, under the Doge Pietro 
Urseolo II. , at the close of the tenth century.* 

In 1298, a naval battle was fought there, between 
the Venetians and Genoese, in which the latter were 
victorious, and the Proweditore Andrea Dandolo 
was taken prisoner. Exulting in their success, 
the Genoese loaded their illustrious captive with 
chains, and exposed him to the gaze of the whole 
fleet ; but before they reached home, Dandolo de- 
prived them of this barbarous triumph : for leaping 
from the bench of the galley, he dashed his head 
against the side, and was borne on shore a corpse. 

The celebrated traveller, Marco Polo, who com- 
manded a galley in this action, was also wounded 
and taken prisoner ; and to this misfortune we are 
indebted for the written history of his travels ; 
since, to beguile the tediousness of four years' cap- 
tivity, he committed his adventures to paper ; and, 
owing to the surprise and admiration they excited, 
even among the Genoese, he obtained his freedom. 

Curzola was made a bishop's see, under the Arch- 
bishop of Ragusa, in the fourteenth century ; but in 
1420 it fell again into the hands of the Venetians, 

* See the History in Chapter IX. 
VOL. I. S 


and was incorporated into the province of Vene- 
tian Dalmatia. Its capture is said to h&ve been 
owing to " a pleasant stratagem/' thus related by 
Wheeler.* " The Venetians had a little island, 
called Saint Mark, so near to Ragusa, that it com- 
manded the town, and yet nearer a little rock, that 
had no more plain ground on the top, than would 
be sufficient to lay the foundation of a little house. 
Hither the Venetians, upon some high disgust, sent 
men one night, who built a fort of paste-board, 
painted of the colour of earth, which made it look 
like a strong rampart, and thereon planted wooden 
cannons, to the great amazement of the towns- 
people next morning j which in effect put them 
into such a fright, that they sent presently to 
parley, and were glad to come off for the island 
of Curzola, in exchange of that pitiful rock. They 
stood for the Scoglio of Saint Mark also ; but the 
Venetians would not part with that; and so they 
lost Curzola." 

In 1485, Frederic of Arragon endeavoured to 
obtain possession of it, in the name of Ferdinand, 
King of Naples, who pretended to certain rights in 
Dalmatia ; but the bravery of the inhabitants re- 
pelled all his attempts, and they defended the city 
with the same success, as on a previous occasion 
against the Saracens. 

Curzola was again celebrated for its resistance 
to the Turks, in the summer of 1571 ; and that not 

* Wheeler, p. 26. 


through the strength or valour of the garrison, but 
through the courage of the women. The famous 
Algerine corsair, Uluz-Ali*, having taken Dul- 
cigno, Antivari, and Budua, appeared with a con- 
siderable fleet before Curzola. Alarmed at the 
force of the Turks, the name of Uluz-Ali, and the 
state of the works, commanded as they were on 
the land side, the Governor Antonio Balbi, un- 
like his namesake of Sign f, abandoned the place, 
with the garrison, and a large portion of the in- 
habitants. The Turks seeing no signs of opposition, 
were preparing to land ; when, on a sudden, the 
women having put on morions, and whatever 
armour they could obtain, appeared on the ram- 
parts ; and the Turks, supposing the garrison to be 
on the alert, continued their voyage to L&ina.J 
This preservation of Curzola was the more remark- 
able, as the same fleet, joined by another Turkish 
corsair, Kara-kooch, so alarmed the Venetians, that 
they had serious thoughts of fortifying the Lido. 

But the advance of the Turks to Venice was 
merely a bravado. The fear lest the combined fleets 
should blockade them in the Gulph, induced them 
to retire to the Morea: where, in the following 
October, Uluz-Ali performed so distinguished a 
part in the battle of Lepanto, and saved the only 
remnant of the Turkish fleet. 

* He was a Calabrian renegade. 

f Georgio Balbi, in 1716. See p. 236. 

t Solitro's Documenti Storici, p. 87. note. 

8 2 


In 1806 the Russians twice obtained possession 
of Curzola. The first time, having put into it too 
small a garrison, they were speedily dislodged by 
the French, from the opposite shore of Sabioncello; 
but their fleet returning with an additional force 
of 600 Montenegrins, the French were again obliged 
to evacuate the town, the Russians having taken 
up a commanding position on the heights of San 
Biagio. The Island was restored to France in 
1807, at the treaty of Tilsit; but in 1813, it fell 
into the hands of the English, who retained posses- 
sion of it till July 15. 1815 ; when it was ceded 
with Lissa, Lagosta, and Mezzo, to the Austrians; 
and the occupation of Curzola by the English is 
commemorated by a Latin inscription, at the en- 
trance to the row of semicircular seats*, outside 
the town, on the road to Porto Pedocchio. f 

* These stone seats, in imitation of a hemicyclion outside 
ancient Greek towns, are met with in other parts of Dalmatku 





This island, by a singular series of events, has 
once more come under the provincial jurisdiction 
of Ragusa, and is now included in that Circolo* 

I observed a tree at Curzola, which I afterwards 
met with very frequently in other places, parti- 
cularly in Herzegovina. It bears many names, as 
well as fruit. In English it is called the nettle- 
tree ; in Italian, Loto ; in Illyric, CoschUa f or 
Cdstzla; and by botanists, Celtis Australis. In 
Istria it has the name of Loddnia, and at Imoschi 
of Pelegrino. In appearance it is like a cherry- 
tree, in growth, in the leaves, and even in its fruit ; 
and it has sometimes been mistaken for the 
Marasca, which gives the well-known Dalmatian 

The low hills about the Porto Pedocchio, as in 
many other parts of the island, are covered with 
brushwood, consisting principally of Lentiscus, 
myrtle, arbutus, cistus, and heath ; and a short 
distance beyond is an avenue of cypresses, leading 
up a hill to the small church (not convent) of 
St. Antony. The ascent is by steps ; and from the 
summit is a fine view of Curzola, on one side, and 
of the coast, towards the mountains of Monte- 
negro, on the other. 

Just below the island, and between two and 
three miles S. E. of the town of Curzola J, is seen 

* See the History of Ragusa, in this chapter, and above, p. 37. 
f By some Coschella or Coshella. See below, Chapter VII. 
% It has been said that the people of Curzola and Sa- 

s 3 


the rock of Verbnik, with a village of the same 
name. It is also called Scoglio di Petrara, and 
is famed for its stone, which is exported to Trieste, 
Venice, and even to Turkey. The houses of Cur- 
zola, and many at Venice, are built of it, and 
Turkish tombstones are made at Verbnik, for ex- 
portation to the East. It is a hard white even- 
grained limestone ; and has the recommendation of 
being very durable. The quarries were first opened 
by the Romans. 

The same stratum is found in a small rock to the 
northward, between Verbnik and the Isle of Badia. 

There are other quarries in the Isle of Curzola ; 
but the stone is not of the same quality as that of 
Verbnik, which is superior for building purposes to 
any in Dalmatia, excepting that of St. Elia, near 

The convent of Badia (or Abadia) is the only 
building on that island, which lies to the eastward 
of Curzola ; and it has no other inmates than the 
superior, and one monk, with the servants belong- 
ing to the convent. Its secluded position is well 
adapted for meditation ; but it unfortunately in- 
duced some robbers to meditate an attack upon it; 
and availing themselves of the solitude of the place, 
and the peaceable habits of the fathers, they pillaged 

bioncello are in the habit of keeping tame jackals; but though 
they abound in the island, particularly about Blatta, neither 
jackals nor wolves are kept, except, as in other countries, from 
curiosity. They are also found in the Isle of Giupan. 


the convent. This happened about twelve years 
ago ; but it happened only once : the well-regulated 
Austrian police has prevented a repetition of so un- 
pleasant a visit, and the monks have ever since re- 
mained unmolested. 

Another, calamity, however, befel them a few 
years ago, when the steeple and great altar were de- 
stroyed by lightning ; and that portion is of recent 
construction. The Convent is said to have been 
founded in the fourteenth century ; and over the 
door leading to the cloisters, which were added at 
a later time, is the date 1477. These cloisters have 
pointed arches, on light columns extending round a 
small court. The Church is large, for the size of 
the Convent ; and in a side chapel is an altar, of 
much higher pretensions than might be expected 
in this secluded place; being ornamented, like 
those of Italy, with marble columns, and built en- 
tirely of stone. 

The costumes seen in the town of Curzola, on 
market-days and festas, are curious ; particularly 
those of Lombarda and Blatta, and the boorish 
dresses of C^rnova, Ciara, Sm6eviza, and Popndta. 
Many women also cross over from Sabioncello, 
whose costume is one of the most singular in 
Dalraatia. Blatta is, next to Curzola, the most 
important place in the island, containing 2600 in- 
habitants*; and it was probably the successor of an 
ancient town, as Greek coins of very early time are 

* The whole commune has 5135 inhabitants. 

8 4 


found there * The Isle of Lagosta has also its 
peculiar costume; and indeed the variety f in Dal- 
matia is greater than any country, not excepting 

Lagosta lies nine miles to the south of Curzola. 
Its name is Lastovo in Illyric ; and in ancient times 
it was called Ladesta.J It produces vines, olives, 
and other fruit trees ; and exports some wine, fish, 
and coral. Theopompus reckons it among the 
possessions of the Liburnians ; whose authority 
probably extended, at one period, over all the 
islands of Dalmatia; and Appendini gives an inscrip- 
tion of the time of Vespasian, which shows that it 
was a Roman colony, and that some of the Lagos- 
tines had distinguished themselves in the fleet of 
Ravenna, and obtained the rights of Roman citizen- 
ship^ Dandolo also bears witness to the courage 
of the inhabitants, in resisting the Venetians under 
the Doge Urseolo ; who, with difficulty, reduced the 
island in 997 ; till which time it had belonged to 
the Dukes of Chelmo. It afterwards came into the 
possession of Ragusa, being sold to that Republic 
by Stephen, king of Rascia, surnamed Krapalo.|| 

In 1309 Stephen Ourosh (Orosio), king of Servia, 

* Fetter, p. 180. 

| See many of them in Carrara's Dalmazia descritta. 

f And Lastodon ; the Lastobon of Porphyrogenitus, and the 
Ladestris of the Feutinger table. 

§ In the Palazzo Barberini at Rome, given by Gruter and 
others. Appendini, vol. i. p. 47. and 285. 

|| Krapavaz, or Krastavaz, in Slavonic, " the leper." 

Chap. V.] ISLE OP LAGOSTA. 265 

perceiving the unsettled state of Lagosta, and the 
desire of the inhabitants to give themselves up to 
Venice, endeavoured to obtain possession of it ; but 
the prudence of the Ragusan senate thwarted his 
plans ; and a second attempt of the Lagostines to 
rid the island of the Kagusans, in 1602, was 
frustrated by the timely discovery of the plot, and 
the courage of the Count* Serafino Zamagna. 

When the French were in possession of Dal- 
matia, they fortified this island; it was however 
taken from them, in 1813, by the English, to the 
great satisfaction of the inhabitants, who assisted 
in starving the garrison into a surrender. 

There is nothing worthy of remark, on the voyage 
between Curzola and Ragusa, except the Isle of 
Meleda, which lies about halfway. It is a long narrow 
island, and hilly like the others on this coast, with 
several good harbours, though in other respects of no 
importance, producing little more than vines and 
fruit trees. Its ancient name was Melita or Meleta ; 
so called, like its namesake Melita or Malta, from the 
excellence of its honey f: and some J have claimed 
for it the honour of being the island where St. Paul 
was shipwrecked. The advocates of that opinion 

# The usual title of the Governors, under the Ragusan and 
Venetian Republics. 

f Some suppose it to be the Melita famed for its dogs, men- 
tioned by Pliny ; though Malta is evidently that island, and the 
breed still exists there. See Lucio, p. 456. 

J Even Porphyrogenitus. Farlati, vol. i. p. 199. 


may be shown the very place where he landed, with 
the same certainty as at Malta ; but another better 
authenticated lion in Meleda is the site of the palace 
of Agesilaus, vestiges of which still remain*, at a 
spot called Palazzo, and which was built by the 
father of the poet Oppian, Agesilaus of Cilicia, when 
banished to the island in the reign of Septimius 

Meleda belonged to Ragusa as early as 1142 ; 
and in 1572 it suffered from the depredations of 
the Turks under Uluz Ali. It was once famed for 
a convent ' of Benedictines, The chief town is 
Babinopoglic, on the south side of the island, con- 
taining about 600 inhabitants. 

In modern times Meleda has only been known 
for a singular phenomenon, which in 1812, and the 
two following years, and again in 1823, gave the 
scientific world a subject for discussion. It had 
the effect of loud thunder ; whence it received the 
name of " Detonazioni di Meleda f " ; and the cause 
was attributed to subterraneous agency. 

Between Meleda and Ragusa are the islands of 
Giupan, Mezzo, and Calamotta, which were given, 
or sold J, to Ragusa, in 1080, by Silvester, king of 

* Farlati, vol. i. p. 300., and Appending i. p. 263. note. 

f Petter, p. 184. and Carrara Dalra. Desc. p. 44. This is 
perhaps similar to the phenomenon in South America, men- 
tioned by Humboldt. 

J Appendini says, " given," Luccari, " sold," which is more 

Chap. V.] ISLE OF GIUPAN. 2€7 . 

Dalmatia. They are well cultivated ; and, produc- 
ing abundance of excellent wine and oil, are con- 
sidered the most valuable part of the Ragusan 
territory. Near them are some smaller islands; 
and the whole cluster was formerly called Elaphites 
Insula*, from their supposed resemblance to a 
stag ; of which Giupan formed the head, the small 
Ruda the neck, Mezzo the body, and Calamotta the 
haunches ; the tail being completed by the rock of 
Grebeni, or Pettini. 

Giupan has been supposed to be the Cerossusf of 
Apollonius Rhodius ; and the Tauris mentioned by 
Hirtius ; though from his account of the retreat of 
Octavius from that island to Issa, after his defeat 
by Vatinius, its position might be looked for nearer 
Issa ; and some have thought " the port, and narrow 
sea" where they fought, to have been at Curzola. 
Those who suppose Giupan to be Tauris fix the 
port at San Luca. 

The account of Hirtius is that Octavius, who 
was a partizan of Pompey, having been obliged by 
Vatinius to raise the siege of Epidaurus, retired 
with his fleet to Tauris; and perceiving that his 
adversary was following him unprepared, and 
ignorant of his position, Octavius advanced from 
the port to attack him. They fought in a narrow 
sea; and Vatinius, being the victor, entered the 
same port from which Octavius had just before 

* Plin. iii. c. 26. 

f From icipac, " the horn" it was thought to resemble. 


sailed out to give him battle ; and, after three days, 
pursued him to Issa, where he supposed him to 
have taken refuge. 

Giupan, which is the largest of these islands, is 
exceedingly fertile, and the inhabitants are noted 
for their skill in cultivating the olive. Like Cur- 
zola it abounds in jackals. 

Mezzo, in Illyric Lopud, is not inferior to Giupan 
in fertility, which has made it the theme of several 
Ragusan poets. On the west side is an excellent 
harbour, protected by a fort. The scenery about it 
is very beautiful. In the church is a memorial of 
Charles V., and a group of the Virgin and the twelve 
Apostles, of a single piece of wood, which is said to 
have come " from the Royal Chapel in London."* 

This island was taken by the English in 1813, 
and continued in our possession until July 1815. f 

Calamotta, or Calafodia, in Illyric Collocep, is 
equally famed for its culture of the olive ; but the 
produce and population J of these islands have been 
greatly diminished by the decrease of commerce, 
which in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries was 
very thriving. Luccari pretends that Calamotta 
was Homer's Island of Calypso; though the real 
site of Ogygia, or the Isle of Calypso, is supposed 
to have been close to Italy, off Lacinium, a pro- 
montory of the Bruttii. 

* Appending i. p. 260. note, 
f See above, p. 260. 

} See below, in the History of Ragusa, the story of 400 
widows of the name of Vincenza, in the Isle of Mezzo. 

Chap. V.] GBAV6SA VAL D'OMBLA. 269 

When there is a prospect of bad weather, the 
steamers go to the more secure, and almost land- 
locked, bay of Grav6sa, in preference to that of 
Ragusa, which is exposed, particularly to the S. E. 
Indeed, it is evident that the city ought to have 
been built on this bay ; and nothing but attachment 
to their native town, and that reluctance to abandon 
a place hallowed by early associations, which are 
common to all countries and ages, can account for 
the inhabitants not quitting Ragusa for this spot ; 
particularly after the city had been destroyed by 
earthquakes, and had become insecure on the 
introduction of gunpowder and artillery. 

The port of Grav6sa has also the name of Santa 
Croce ; and it was called Grav6sa from the ancient 
Agravonitae, who are mentioned by Livy as the 
inhabitants of this coast* 

At Grav6sa the rich Ragusans had their villas, 
and the gardens, in which they took so much 
delight; and when Ragusa was in its days of 
prosperity, the wealth of its nobles and merchants 
was immense. 

Opening on this bay is the Valley of Ombla 
(Val d'Ombla), one of the most beautiful spots in 
Dalmatia. For though the Ragusans pride them- 
selves on their own name, and abhor that of Dal- 
matians, we may be allowed to include Ragusa 
and its neighbourhood under that general term; 
and now that the Venetian Republic no longer 


exists, they may not regret being part of that 

The entrance of the Val d'Ombla is a short way 
to the N. W. of Gravosa ; and an hour's row brings 
you to the end of that picturesque valley. At the 
first village, on entering it, is a sulphureous spring, 
very similar to that of Spalato. Advancing up the 
estuary, or loch, the beauty of the scenery increases ; 
and, as its course is winding, a diversity of views 
present themselves. The lower part of the hills is 
covered with a variety of foliage ; amidst which the 
dark green of the cypress contrasts well with the 
grey olive, that thrives here, and bears much fruit ; 
and rock and wood, hamlet and villa, mingled to- . 
gether and reflected in the water, with the circle of 
mountains above, form a succession of beautiful 
pictures ; a principal feature of which is the Church 
of the Franciscan Convent, standing on a point of 
land, near the end of the valley ; where the river 
expands into the loch.* 

This river is the ancient Ario, or Arion. 

The Val d'Ombla is not the only lion in the 
neighbourhood of Ragusa : Canosa, about seven 
miles to the N.W. of Gravosa, is famed for some 
very large plane trees, and for the peculiar care 

* The size of this sheet of water, and the short distance from 
which the river comes, before it expands into this great breadth, 
are alluded to in the verses of Elio Cervino : 

" Danubio, et Nilo non vilior Ombla fuisset. 
Si modo progressus posset habere suos." 


with which the peasants there cultivate the olive : 
and about half a mile to the S.E. of Ragusa is the 
grotto, or Spila, Betina, in a garden belonging to 
the Saracca family. It is on the coast, at the 
foot of Mount Bergdto, opposite the Isle of La- 
croma, and is remarkable for having been the 
place of retirement of the celebrated mathematician 
and philosopher, Marino Ghetaldi ; from whose sur- 
name, " B£t6," given him by the common people, 
this grotto was called " Betina. 79 

Ghetaldi is said to have made many of those ex- 
periments and calculations, during his stay here *, 
which have rendered his name so celebrated ; and 
the knowledge of magic, attributed to him by the 
sailors of the Adriatic, was owing to his having 
verified the experiment of Archimedes, by burning 
a boat with lenses, f Marino Ghetaldi was born in 
1566, and died in 1627. J 

From Gravosa to Ragusa is rather more than a 
mile. The road is good ; but as there is nothing to 
run upon it, one feels inclined to think it of no very 
great use to the public; and this very forcibly 
strikes those who, in walking to and from Ragusa, 
in heavy rain, find themselves and baggage well 
soaked. And however excusable it may be to em- 
ploy the peasants to carry burdens, in those wild 

* See Appendini Storia di Ragusa, vol. ii. p. 46. 
f Buffon has, unjustly, the merit of being the first to test 
the experiment. 

X See below, on the celebrated men of Ragusa. 


parts of Dalmatia, where no roads exist, there is no 
reason for making them beasts of burden, where they 
could find a better and more suitable occupation, 
and where a commodious road is open for a more 
convenient kind of conveyance. 

Another vexation is, that if a stranger arrives at 
the city gates in the middle of the day, when the* 
Custom House is closed, and the employes are 
dining, or asleep, he must wait, even though wet 
through, till three o'clock, when the dinner and the 
siesta are over ; which, to say the least of it, is 
disagreeable. He has also a difficulty in compre- 
hending why any Custom House should exist at 
these ports, for goods or persons coming from 
other parts of Dalmatia, or from Trieste ; and he is 
surprised to find an Austrian province placed on 
the same footing as a foreign country. The first 
inconvenience ought to be removed, by the Austrian 
Lloyd's Company providing conveyances of some 
kind from Gravosa to Ragusa ; and the abolition of 
the second by the Austrian government would only 
be an act of justice to the Dalmatians. 

The views on the road are good, both on looking 
back over the bay of Gravosa, and on approaching 
Ragusa. The bay, backed by mountains, the gar- 
dens and sides of the hills about the village of Gra- 
vosa, the mouth of the Val d'Ombla, the dark 
cypresses contrasting in colour and form with the 
other trees, and the rapid descent of the ground, 
form a beautiful picture ; and at a turn of the 

Chap. V.] RAGUSA. 273 

road, about half way to the town, is a spot furnished 
with seats, called La Vista, which is frequented by 
the Ragusans in their evening walks. The descent 
to Ragusa, passing between the gardens of a su- 
burb, filled with oleanders, vines, aloes, and fruit 
trees, also offers other beautiful views : here and 
there you catch glimpses of parts of the city, stand- 
ing on a height in front ; on the right is a rock 
rising from the sea, crowned by a fort ; and high 
above Ragusa, on a hill to the left, is Fort " Impe- 
riale," built by the French, which commands the 
whole place, and the approach to it by land and 

Ragusa, the capital of one of the four Circoli, or 
departments of Dalmatia, is a highly interesting 
city, both from its history and its appearance. The 
houses have much the character of Venetian build- 
ings ; and there is an air of former wealth about it, 
which inspires a feeling of regret for its bygone 
greatness. The effects of the earthquakes, visible 
at every turn, — the melancholy records of the past, 
— recal the dreadful sufferings endured by the Ragu- 
sans: and the streets, paved with fragments of 
stone, bearing imperfect inscriptions and family 
arms, seem intended to show the inhabitants the 
possibility of a recurrence of similar misfortunes. 

Here, for the first time, the winged lion of St. 
Mark ceases to appear; and the absence of this 
emblem of Venetian subjugation, the boast of the 
Ragusans, cannot fail to inspire every one with 

VOL. I. T 


respect for a people, who preserved their country 
from the all- absorbing power of Venice. 

But before I mention the events of a late period, 
or describe the city and ite institutions, it will be 
necessary to take a cursory view of the history of 
Ragusa* and examine the steps that led to its in- 
dependence and prosperity. 

Of the foundation of Ragusa nothing certain is 
known. Luccari says that it took place in 265 
A. D., when Epidaurus was destroyed by the Goths ; 
and that when the Sarmatians scoured Illyria, in 
the reign of Probus (a.d. 283), the Epidaurians, 
who had taken up their abode in the castles of 
Breno, abandoned them, and fled to Ragusa. He 
also states that it was walled in, and increased, by 
refugees from Salona, in the seventh century. 

Appending and others, date the final destruction 
of Epidaurus much later ; and Porphyrogenitus f ,. 
who ascribed the building of Rausium to re- 
fugees from Epidaurus, says this city " was de- 
stroyed by the Slavi." The name of Rausium he 
derives from the rocks or precipices, where they 
established their new abode ; and Rausium, or 
Rausia J, in process of time, was altered into Ra- 

* Every one acquainted with Appendini's Storia di Ragusa 
will perceive that the following account is principally derived 
from that work. 

| He wrote in 949 a.d. 

X It had the names of Rausia, Lavusa, Labusa, Raugia, 
Rachusa, and at last Ragusa. 


It is, however, probable that Rausium (or Ra- 
gusa) was founded long before Epidaurus was finally 
destroyed, and that the various irruptions of bar- 
barians, in the third and succeeding centuries, had 
led to the original establishment of this place of 
refuge. The size of the new town thus increased, 
gradually, by different accessions of emigrants, 
during those troubled times * ; till at length, after 
the destruction of Epidauros and Salona, it ac- 
quired the population and importance of a city. 

Ragusa was therefore justly looked upon as the 
successor of Epidaurus ; and in after times, by a 
strange transfer of name, the village that grew up 
on the site of Epidaurus obtained the appellation 
of « Old Ragusa." f 

Rausium is mentioned by Porphyrogenitus as 
one of the Roman cities of Dalmatia, with Aspha- 
latum, Tetrangurium, Diodora, Vecla, and Opsora J, 
whose inhabitants in his time were called Romans, 
while the towns of the interior were possessed by 
the Slavi. 

I will not enter into the oft-discussed question 
respecting the claims of Ragusa to the rank of 
metropolitan see of Dalmatia, on the destruction 
of Salona, in 639 : which have been so fully dis- 

* The origin of all places established under similar circum- 
stances is gradual, like that of Venice ; and this will account for 
the various dates assigned to the foundation of Ragusa. 

t Ragusa Vecchia ; in Ulyric Zaptal. 

X Spalato, Trail, Zara, Veglia, and Ossora. 

t 2 


proved by the Spalatines. Judging from the evi- 
dence on both sides, and the authorities they quote, 
it does appear that, though many Salonitans fled 
to Ragusa, and to the islands of Solta, Brazza, 
Lesina, Lissa, and Curzola, the principal part of 
the population united at Spalato ; and though both 
had archbishops, the claims of Spalato to the me- 
tropolitan rights of Salona were fully established, 
by the decision of Giovanni di Ravenna, the Le- 
gate Apostolic, who was sent to Dalmatia by Pope 
Giovani IV.*, in the seventh century, and who 
was made Archbishop of Spalato by Pope Martin I. 
" On the nomination of this prelate, permission 
was granted that Spalato should enjoy the privi- 
leges of the entire dignity, previously enjoyed by 
Salona ;"f and the title of Bishop, till that time 
given to the Diocesans of Salona, was changed to 

Indeed the very statement of Porphyrogeni- 
tus, who says that certain individuals J went to 
Ragusa, though quoted by Appendini to support 
the claims of this city, argues rather in favour of 
Spalato, and tends to show that the main portion 
of the Salonitans did not settle at Ragusa. 

* Giovanni, a Dalmatian, was Pope for one year and nine 
months, a.d. 640; Theodoras I. for seven years and five 
months ; and these were succeeded by Martin I. in 649. 

I Thomas Archid., Ch. XI. See above, p. 123. 155. 

X He gives their names. See Appendini, vol. i. p. 85. Car- 
rara's Chiesa di Spalato, p. 26. 


Though the accession of the Salonitan emigrants 
was a benefit to the infant city, Ragusa was long 
in a state of alarm from the hostile Slavonians at 
Trebigne, and only owed its safety to its inacces- 
sible position. The population, however, increased ; 
and the rock on which it was first built, and from 
which it derived the name of Rausium*, soon 
proved to be too confined a space for its increasing 
numbers. Four times, its limits were extended 
before the year 949 ; and in the thirteenth century 
part of the Monte Sergio was cleared of wood, and 
enclosed within the walls ; and it is to this that 
Ragusa has been indebted for its Slavonic name, 
Dubrovniky (taken from Dubrava, "an oak wood;")f 
which, by a strange perversion, the Turks have 
corrupted into Dobro- Venedih, " good Venice." 

The security of this position was the reason of 
their selecting a spot so unfavourable to its future 
development ; and this alone can account for Ragusa 
not having been built on the Bay of Gravosa, or 
on one of the many natural harbours that abound 
along the coast. 

The events that occurred during the infancy of 
Ragusa are not less uncertain, than the era of its 
foundation. Some attribute the aggrandisement 
of the new city to the friendship of Paulimir, the 

* Appendini says that till after 1 100 a.d., the sea passed 
over the site of modern Ragusa. If so, it could only have been 
over a small part of it. 

f From Dub, " oak." 

t 3 


grandson of the unfortunate Radoslav, who was 
driven from the throne of Croatia by his son Ciaslav. 
Paulimir, recalled by his subjects from Rome, on 
the death of his uncle, was hospitably received 
at Ragusa, and is said, during his stay there, to 
have established the senate and aristocracy of that 
state. But neither his visit, nor the exact period 
when he lived, are known for certain ; and all that 
can be ascertained is, that the Ragusans had even 
before his time frequent contests with the 

. _ '70Q 

Slavonians of Trebigne ; and about the end 
of the eighth century they defeated the Saracen 
pirate Spucento. 

This victory was attributed, by the credulous, to 
Orlando ; and his statue, placed over the gate of 
the arsenal, recorded the death of the Corsair. But 
Orlando *, to this part of the world, is what Antar 
is to the East ; the amphitheatre of Pola is called 
" The house of Orlando ; " and his name is given 
to the statue of a man in complete plate armour, 
which once stood in the Piazza of Ragusa.f 

The next event of importance was a victory 
gained over the people of Tribunia % and Zacul- 

* Very aptly called "Materies illustris fabularum, qu® hac 
aetate viguerunt." Brietius. 

t Now lying in the court of the palace. I shall mention it 
hereafter. See Appendini, vol. i. p. 96. 

X Tribunia, or Terbunia, a province belonging to the King of 
Servia, beginning about Cattaro, and extending northwards 
to Ragusa, and into part of Herzegdvina. Trebigne was its 


mia * ; and a treaty made with the Ban of Tribu- 
nia, in 831, conferred important advantages on 
the Ragusans. Some years after this, 
the Saracens, having pillaged and burnt 
Budua, Risano, and Cattaro, attacked Ragusa; 
when the place was gallantly defended for fifteen 
months ; and the Greek emperor, Basilius, having 
sent 100 ships to assist the besieged, the Saracens 
retired to Bari, on the Italian coast. With a view 
to avenge this affront, and to rid Italy of those 
strangers, a powerful expedition was set on foot 
by the Greek emperor, with the assistance of the 
Pope, and the King of France ; the allied forces 
assembled at Ragusa ; and the Slavonians, provided 
by the Republic with ships, sailed with the rest of 
the fleet to the coast of Puglia.f Bari was cap- 
tured after a four years' siege J ; and Dal- 
matia was freed from further fear of the 

The Narentines, a Serb- Slavonic race, who pos- 
sessed the country lying between the Cettina and 
Narenta, had at this time acquired considerable 

* Zacnlmia was one of the four Jupas (or Giupas) belonging 
to the King of Servia, in Eastern Dalmatia. It extended from 
Ragusa to the river Narenta. See Appendini, vol. i. p. 148. 
It is also put for Chelmo, or Chulmia, and for Herzegdvina. 
See Farlati, voL iv. p. 190. 

-f See the History in Chapter IX. 

J Bari was again taken from the Saracens, in the eleventh 
century, by the Normans. 

§ See Gibbon, c. 56. 

T 4 


power. Defying the authority of the Greek em- 
perors, they levied contributions on the maritime 
towns of Dalmatia ; they became the dread of all 
the neighbouring Slavonian princes ; and Venice, 
for more than a century and a half, was forced to 
purchase the safety of her commerce, by the pay- 
ment of an annual tribute. The Ragusans already 
perceiving the ambitious views of Venice upon 
Dalmatia, gladly united with them in thwarting her 
schemes ; and Vito Bobali, a man of great talent 
and courage, left his native city, with many other 
Ragusans, to offer his services to Mulis, Prince of 
the Narentines. 

Sensible of the disgrace of paying tribute to 
these marauders, and alarmed at the friendly in- 
tercourse subsisting between them and the Ra- 
gusans, the Venetian Republic resolved on making 
an effort to prevent this confederacy, and weaken 
the power of the Narentines. A fleet was there- 
fore sent from Venice, with the ostensible object of 
a voyage to the Levant; which, with every de- 
monstration of peaceable intentions, visited Ragusa. 

One division anchored in the bay of Grav6sa, the 
other under the rocky island of Lacroma. The 
admiral landed and paid a visit to the authorities 
of the city, and expressed his intention of con- 
tinuing his voyage, as soon as he had taken in 
water and provisions. The suspicions of the Ra- 
gusans were, however, awakened by intelligence, 
received from a priest, that the Venetians had 

Chap. V.] 



hostile intentions against them ; and on the advance 
of their fleet from Lacroma towards the 
city, and of their troops on the side of 
Grav6sa, the citizens were on the alert, and 
thwarted their intentions. 

Such is the account given by the Ragusans ; and 
their legend states that the knowledge of the de- 
signs of the Venetians was imparted to the priest 
by St. Biagio, in a dream ; in consequence of which 
the Ragusans chose that saint to be the patron of 
their city * ; and have ever since represented him 
in the arms of Ragusa ; which are a castle, with 
three towers, and the saint, in the dress of a Bishop, 
over the door. 

Warned by the danger they had escaped, the 

* St. Sergio and St. Bacco had been the patrons of Ragusa, 
until this time ; to whom Paulimir erected a church in 691. 
Appending i. p. 239. 244. 


Ragusans increased their fortifications ; and these 
precautions enabled them to resist the attacks of 

Samuel King of the Bulgarians ; who, soon 
AD - 9m afterwards, laid waste a great part of Dal- 
matia. The influence of Ragusa was also increased, 
at this time, by the friendship of Otho II. and the 
Greek Emperor. For, the growing jealousy of the 
Greeks, against the rising power and pretensions of 
Venice, readily inclined them to an alliance with 

the enemies of that Republic ; and Michele 

A.D. 983. x . 

Monaco was sent from Constantinople, to 
conclude a treaty of commerce and friendship with 

Informed of this event, the Venetian senate 
despatched two envoys to Ragusa, to propose 
an advantageous treaty of commerce, to offer to 
restore a valuable merchant ship that had been 
seized by their gallies, and to apologise for the 
affront offered that city by their admiral; who, 
they declared, had acted without orders, and had 
received the censures of the Republic. In reply, 
the Ragusans observed, that the agreement en- 
tered into with the Greek Emperor prevented 
their making other arrangements ; they " felt 
persuaded the Venetian senate could never be 
guilty of an act of treachery or injustice, and they 
only regretted that its admirals were not actuated 
by the same honourable feelings." They also ex- 
pressed their wishes, for the future good under- 
standing between the Republic of Venice and 


In the meantime, open hostilities had commenc- 
ed between the Byzantine Emperor and the 

A.D. 983. 

Venetians ; and the Greek fleet, which had 
according to treaty been provided with pilots at 
Ragusa, sailed for the coast of Istria. It had 
scarcely reached Pok, when the Venetians sent 
envoys to propose terms of peace ; and a treaty was 
made, by which they agreed to restore all the pos- 
sessions of the Greek Emperor in the Archipelago, 
to pay 500,000 ducats for the expenses of the war, 
to send twelve nobles, and among them Maurizio, 
the son of the Doge Memmo, as hostages, and to 
indemnify the Kagusans for their losses with the 
sum of 250,000 ducats. Of these 120,000 were 
paid; but on the departure of the Byzantine 
admiral, the remittance of the remainder was post- 
poned ; and the hint thrown out by the Venetians, 
that the Greek fleet had been brought into the 
Adriatic by the Ragusans, showed that Venice only 
awaited an opportunity of injuring Ragusa. 

The continual piracies of the Narentines having 
at length raised against them the animosity 
of many of the Slavonian princes, as well 
as of the free towns of Dalmatia, and of the Greek 
Emperor, the Venetians gladly seized the oppor- 
tunity for crushing this formidable enemy of their 
commerce. A powerful fleet was equipped, and 
the Doge Pietro Orseolo II. set sail from 
Venice in the spring of 997, for the coast 
of Dalmatia. 


Welcomed by the towns of Istria with every 
demonstration of friendship*, the Doge proceeded 
to Zara ; where he found the sympathies of all Dal- 
matia enlisted in favour of Venice ; and as the 
alliance of Ragusa with the Greek Emperor had 
secured the neutrality of that city, the moment 
was most opportune for attacking the Narentines ; 
who, destitute of allies, and already weakened by a 
war with Samuel King of Bulgaria, and Otho II., 
were not in a condition to offer an effectual resist- 
ance ; and the capture of forty of their principal mer- 
chants, who had taken a passage from Puglia in a 
Ragusan vessel, tended greatly to dishearten them. 
Trail, Spalato, and other free cities swore allegiance 
to Venice, as well as the I. of Lenigrad, or Mortar, 
and other islands and towns, belonging to the Croa- 
tiansf ; and the Doge, having subdued Curzola and 
Lagosta, obliged the Narentines to sue for peace. 
The right of tribute was abolished ; all acts of 
piracy were to discontinue for ever ; and six host- 
ages were given up to the Venetians, for the fulfil- 
ment of their engagements. J 

These successes, Dandolo and other Venetian 
writers affirm, induced the Ragusans to send a depu- 
tation to the Doge§, headed by their archbishop ||, 

* See the history in Chapter IX. f And other Slavonians. 
J See the history in Chap. IX. 
§ While still at Lagosta. 

[| A bishop according to Dandolo ; Appendini says an arch- 
bishop and three nobles. 


offering to put themselves under the rule and pro- 
tection of Venice ; but Michele Salonitano, Appen- 
ding and the Ragusan annalists deny* that any 
submission was tendered, and maintain that the 
object of this mission was to obtain compensation 
for the vessel, that had been seized off Curzola, 
having on board the Narentine merchants ; when 
their demands were rejected ; and the Doge soon 
afterwards returned to Venice. 

Fourteen years later, a treaty of commerce was 
made (according to the same annalists) 
between Venice and Ragusa, on the basis 
of mutual advantages to the two states ; which, 
with other documents, proves that Ragusa had not 
submitted to the authority of Venice ; and another 
attempt of the Venetians, under the Doge Dome- 
nico Contarini, in 1050 f, after the reduction of 
Zara, to obtain possession of Ragusa, confirms this 
assertion. It is also proved by the fact of Stephen, 
King of Dalmatia and Croatia, having previously 

* It may appear strange that, with the recollection of past 
grievances, the Venetians should not attack Ragusa, after they 
had defeated the Narentines, and that the Ragusans should not 
join their friends, and try to humble the power of Venice. On 
the other hand, if Ragusa had surrendered to the Doge, how is 
it we hear nothing of Venetian rule there ? The alliance of the 
Ragusans with the Greeks had obliged them to desert the 
Narentines, and there could be no pretext for hostilities against 
Ragusa. See Appendini, i. p. 163. 

f Appendini says in 1038 ; but Contarini was not made Doge 
till 1041, and this rebellion of Zara was in favour of Peter 
Cresimir, Bang of Croatia. See Farlati, vol. i. p. 223. 


given to Ragusa a territory twenty-five miles in 
length, extending from Epidaurus to Valdinoce, in- 
cluding the valleys of Breno, and Ombla, Gravosa, 
and Malfi ; which he would not have done had the 
country been subject to Venice ; this cession of ter- 
ritory being made in token of gratitude, for the re- 
covery of his health, when he visited the church of 
St. Stefano, in Ragusa. He also founded a church 
in each of those towns* ; and such was the confi- 
dence placed in the friendship of the Ragusans, that 
when he died his Queen, Margarita, retired to 

These marks of favour shown to the Ragusans 
were highly displeasing toBogoslavf) King of Dal- 
matia ; he demanded that Margarita and her wealth 
should be given up to him ; and, on the rejection of 
his claims, he besieged Ragusa with 10,000 men. 
But though the suburbs and the country were laid 
waste with fire and sword, before he was compelled 
to retire, and his unjust hostilities had inflicted 
serious injuries on the Republic, the Ragusans did 
not allow their resentment to interfere with that 
generosity, for which they were always so remark- 
able ; and when, at the death of Bogoslav, popular 
tumults obliged his widow Siva and her son Sil- 
vester to fly their country, they found an asylum 
at Ragusa. Nor did Silvester prove himself un- 

* Appending vol. i. p. 252. 

f Son of Prelimir, and cousin of Stephen and Margarita. He 
is also called Boleslav, and. son of Plerimir, Lucio, p. 448. 


worthy of their friendship ; and being at length 
restored, through the intercession of the Ragusans, 
he acknowledged their hospitality by ceding * to 
them the islands of Calamotta, Mezzo, and Giupan.f 

The Ragusans shortly afterwards entered into a 
treaty with Robert Guiscard, King of Puglia 
and Calabria, against the Emperor Alexius 
Comnenus and the Doge Domenico Silvio ; but the 
benefits they expected from this alliance were pre- 
vented by the death of the Norman king. 

While Venice was using every endeavour to re- 
cover her influence in Northern Dalmatia, Bodino, 
who had usurped the throne of Servia from his 
uncle Radoslav, obtained possession of the Southern 
part of the country ; and his siege of Ragusa may 
be considered the first event of importance, in the 
history of that Republic. 

His career commenced, as ruler of Bulgaria ;' to 
the government of which he had been appointed by 
his father, King Mikaglia J; when, having assumed 
the title pf Emperor, he was attacked by the Byzan- 
tine forces, made prisoner, and banished to Antioch. 

His uncle, Radoslav, found means secretly to pro- 
cure his release, and treated him like his own son ; 
when requiting his kindness with ingratitude, he 

* Luccari says he sold them, which is more probable. 

f The ancient Elaphites insula, not from the stags that 
abounded there, but from their appearance. See Appending 
p. 255. note, and above, p. 267. Giupan, Jupan, or Joopan, 
from Jupa " province," and Pan or Ban " Governor." 

J Who married the widow of Dobroslav. 


intrigued with the people against him, and usurped 
the throne. The unfortunate Radoslav was forced 
to fly, with his wife Giuliana, and his son Branislav, 
to Trebigne ; and having bestowed certain lands 
on the monks of Lacroma, with the church of 
St. Pietro in Breno, sought, in his last days, con- 
solation in religion and charitable deeds, for the 
sufferings he had endured. 

Bodino then made himself master of Rascia, and 
Bosnia; and, on the death of Robert Guiscard, 
having obtained possession of Durazzo, established 
a friendly intercourse with the Greek emperor, 
and restored him that city which had been taken 
from him by the Normans. But so long as the 
sons of Radoslav were at liberty, Bodino felt his 
throne insecure. He therefore induced Branislav 
to attend a fete at Scutari ; when, on pretence of 
his being engaged in a conspiracy, he loaded him 
with chains, and threw him into prison, with his 
brother Gradislav, and his son Predika. 

Hearing of this treachery, all the otjier rela- 
tions of Branislav fled to Ragusa; and Bodino, 
enraged at their reception, sent to tell the senate, 
" that the relations of his uncle Radoslav being 
guilty of high treason against his crown, he 
required them to be instantly delivered up ; and if 
this was refused, the conqueror of the Rascians 
and the Bosnians would fly his eagle, to the de- 
struction of Ragusa." " In the conviction," re- 
plied the senate, " that our mediation ought to 

Chap. V.] SIEGE OP RAGUSA. 289 

reconcile you with your cousins, we have received 
them among us, and have treated them as their 
rank and merits deserve. It being, moreover, the 
custom of our city not to deny an asylum to any ; 
but to protect every one who comes to us in adver- 
sity ; we hope it will not displease you that they 
remain with us, until you are fully convinced of 
their innocence. They recognise you for the sove- 
reign of all the states you possess, and pray you to 
liberate their relations, and permit them to enjoy 
the few lands which the King Radoslav left them : 
we, in the meanwhile, trust in God's grace, that He 
will grant us the same success in this cause, which 
we had in those of Siva, of Silvester, and of Do- 
broslav; whom we finally reconciled with their 

Bodino, finding that neither entreaties, nor threats, 
could prevail on the Senate to deliver them 

- . .. A.D. 1089. 

up to him, vowed to destroy the city ; and 
having raised a formidable army, encamped on 
the skirts of Mount Bergato. 

The siege lasted seven years. During that 
period, many gallant deeds of arms were performed 
by the Ragusans, and by the partisans of Bra- 
nislav, who had fled from Trebigne. Cocciapar, 
a brother of Branislav, distinguished himself above 
all others ; and one night, having made a sortie at 
the head of a resolute band, penetrated under cover 
of the darkness to the tent of Chosarre, the brother 
of Bodino's wife Jaquinta, and killed him with a 

vol. i. u 


spear. The infuriated queen immediately per- 
suaded her husband to put Branislav to death, with 
his brother, and the young Predika, on the tomb of 
Chosarre ; and Bodino, yielding to her instigations, 
caused them to be beheaded, in the sight of the 
whole city. 

The effect of this barbarous act was very dif- 
ferent from the intentions of Bodino : it deprived 
him of every chance of success, and freed Ragusa 
from his presence ; for the cruel death of Branislav, 
who was beloved by the Servians, roused their 
indignation ; and Bodino was obliged to raise the 
siege of Ragusa, and return to appease the tumult 
at home. He did not, however, abandon all hopes 
of recommencing the siege ; and a strong garrison 
was left in a castle, he had built, on the spot now 
occupied by the church of St. Nicol6. 

Shortly before his departure, an incident occur- 
red which is curiously illustrative of the manners 
of those times. The Archbishop of Ragusa, ac- 
companied by the Abbot of Lacroma, repaired to 
the camp of Bodino, and boldly reproving him for 
the murder of his relations, exhorted him to re- 
pentance ; when, moved by this forcible appeal to his 
conscience, Bodino ordered a monument to be raised 
to their memory, in the Isle of Lacroma * ; and at 
the close of his life f, with a view of expiating his 

* Called sometimes Isle of Croma ; and Isola La Croma. 

f He is said to have been buried at Ragusa, or in Lacroma ; 
but no inscription was found to record this fact, at the destruc 
tion of the town, in 1667. 


crimes, " he bestowed on the monks of Lacroma * 
the valley of Gionchetto ; which is separated from 
that of Breno by Mount Bergato." 

Ragusa once more enjoyed tranquillity; while 
the rest of Dalmatia was disturbed by the 
inroads of the Normans, under Count Roger; " l °"' 
and so great was the dread of their name, that the 
Venetians and Hungarians, laying aside their 
jealousies, united for some time against the com- 
mon enemy. 

On the death of Bodino, the Ragusans resolved 
to reduce the Servian castle ; which, 

A 1 Till A.D. 1100-02. 

after eleven years, was accomplished by 
the aid of some mariners of Antivari, who found 
their intercourse with the port of Ragusa 
greatly impeded by the garrison. Having 
brought a large cargo of wine, which they sold at 
a very low price, they easily persuaded the Ser- 
vian soldiers to purchase it ; at the same time that 
the two commanders of the castle, having been 
bribed by the Ragusans, granted permission to 
the greater portion of the garrison to leave the 
fortress, and enjoy the festivities of Easter. With 
these preconcerted measures, there was little diffi- 
culty in surprising the guards ; those who resisted 
were killed ; and quarter was given to all who sur- 
rendered, on condition of not carrying arms against 

* The convent of Lacroma was founded in 1023, and given 
to the monks of St. Benedetto. 

u 2 


To record this joyful event, the castle was re- 
placed by the church of St. Nicold ; the bridge, that 
reached from the arch, called Lonciariza, to what 
is now the custom-house, was destroyed; and 
the ancient walls, which, from the centre of the 
present city, looked towards Mount Sergio, were 
taken down. The channel of the sea, which ran 
on that side, was then filled up, and made into the 
present Piazza ; and the part of the town, called 
Prieki, was enclosed by a wall. The Isle of Me- 
leda was also ceded to Ragusa by Dessan, Duke 
of Chelmo, the son of Ourosh I., who, though he 
usurped the crown of Servia, is celebrated for 
having made that country independent of the By- 
zantine court. 

A religious schism shortly afterwards happened, 
in which the neighbouring princes took 
" part. A synod convoked by order of Anas- 
tasius IV. was found to be unable to suppress 
it, and nearly all the Slavonian bishops refused 
obedience to the primate of Ragusa. The result 
was, that many of the orthodox Catholic laymen 
withdrew to Ragusa, where they were received 
with marked favour, and several were admitted to 
the rank of nobles. 

Barich, Ban of Bosnia, alarmed at the number 
of emigrations from his country, wrote to the 
Senate, threatening, if any more Bosnians were 
admitted into Ragusa, to make war upon the Re- 
public. The reply of the Ragusans was firm and 


dignified. They denied any wish to harbour mal- 
contents; but at the same time reminded the Ban 
of the agreement, existing between him and Ra- 
gusa, which granted to the subjects of both the 
right of domicile in their respective dominions ; 
and they depended on the justness of their own 
cause, in the event of his proceeding to hostilities. 

Barich was not long in entering the Ra- 
gusan territory ; and, at the head of 10,000 A.D.1159. 
men ravaged the district of Breno. 

The following year, he returned with a larger 
force ; but being defeated, while on his march, 
near Trebigne, by the Ragusans under Mi- 
chele Bobali, he was obliged to conclude a peace ; 
by which he agreed to indemnify the Republic for 
the expenses of the war, and to send every year 
to the Senate two greyhounds and two white 
horses. Permission was also granted to the sub- 
jects of Bosnia and Ragusa to enter either state, 
without hinderance, or the payment of any impost. 

The dissensions of the Church still continued ; 
and the same defiance was shown to the authority 
of the primate of Ragusa. But the Republic ob- 
tained an accession of territory, despite the ill-will of 
her Slavonian neighbours, without having recourse 
to arms. A noble, named Decusio, had received 
from the emperor Manuel Comnenus the plain of 
the Canali, or Sciarnoviza, and, on the marriage of 
his daughter with Miccaccio, a citizen of Ragusa, 
this district was given as her dowry. 

u 3 


Dessan, now King of Servia, from a friend, 
became the enemy of Ragusa. The sons 
"of Gradikna *, whose kingdom he and 
his father had usurped, having prevailed on the 
Emperor Manuel to espouse their cause, Dessan 
was compelled to do homage to him for his 
crown, and to promise obedience to the mandates 
of Constantinople. But no sooner had the Greek 
forces been withdrawn, than Dessan forgot his pro- 
mises, and obliged Radoslav and his brothers to 
fly from Montenegro, the only part of their father's 
dominions which remained in their possession ; and, 
enraged at their obtaining an asylum at Ragusa, 
Dessan declared war upon that Republic. 

The fear of invasion obliged the Ragusans, for 
several years, to keep a strong force upon the fron- 
tier, which entailed a considerable expense upon 
them; but though the inconvenience was felt at 
the time, it ultimately proved highly conducive to 
the safety of the city, by enabling it to resist the 
attacks of the Venetians. 

About the same period, a rupture occurred be- 
tween the Emperor Manuel and the Venetians; 
Ragusa sided with the Greeks; and the free cities 
of Dalmatia, offended at the conduct of Venice in 
making their church subject to the Patriarch of 
Grado, threw off their allegiance, and admitted the 
Byzantine troops. 

Spalato, after a vigorous resistance, was taken by 

* They*succeeded George and Archirizi, the sons of Bod i no. 
See the Servian Kings in Appendix C. 


the Greeks ; and all the towns of Dalmatia, except 
Zara, fell into their hands. In vain the Doge 
Vitale*, with a fleet of thirty sailf, endeavoured 
to recal them to their allegiance, and expel the 
Imperial garrisons ; and on his taking five gallies 
belonging to Ancona, under the pretext that they 
would join the Greeks against the Republic, Manuel 
seized all the Venetian merchants at Constantinople, 
and confiscated their property. 

Great was the indignation excited at Venice, by 
this infringement of the law of nations. A formi- 
dable fleet, of twenty ships and 100 gallies, was 
immediately equipped, and the Doge set sail, 
determined to take signal vengeance on the re- 
volted towns of Dalmatia, and punish the perfidy 
of the Greeks. The authority of Venice was 
speedily restored throughout Istria, and at Trail ; 
and Ragusa was vigorously attacked. But the 
strength of the place, the courage of the garrison, 
and the large force then in their pay, enabled the 
Ragusans to repel every assault ; and Vitale, im- 
patient of delay, and anxious to accomplish the 
principal object of the expedition, continued his 
voyage to the Archipelago. 

The disastrous termination of that expedition, the 
calamities it brought on Venice by the introduction 

* Michieli, or Micheli, Vitale II. See the History in Chap- 
ter IX. 

•f Appendini, i. 267., who quotes Bonfinius, and other 


v 4 


of the plague, and the tragical death of the Doge, 
are well known ; but the account of the attack on 
Ragusa, related by Dandolo and others, differs 
greatly from that given by the Ragusan annalists. 

Dandolo, who is followed by Muratori and others, 
says the Venetians, on their way to Negropont, 
obtained possession of Ragusa, which had rebelled, 
and given itself up to the Greek Emperor. Appen- 
ding however, shows that other authors omit all 
mention of its capture, and maintains that docu- 
ments exist, to prove it was alwaj r s free from the 
Venetians, before the year 1204. It was also in- 
dependent of Constantinople, though under the 
protection of the eastern empire. 

Moreover, he adds, in 1172, the year following 
the attack of Vitale, Ragusa, in order not to become 
a party to the quarrel between the Greeks and Vene- 
tians, placed itself under the protection of Wil- 
liam II., the Norman King of Sicily, who engaged 
to defend the Republic against foreign aggression. 
This treaty is still in existence ; and the fact of the 
Normans being, at that time, on terms of friendship 
with the Doge, shows that the Venetians had no 
claims on Ragusa, and did not consider the Nor- 
man protection an interference with their rights 
over that city. 

Religious dissension increased in Dalmatia. 

Nemagna, the son of Dessan, who was 

King of Servia, and Grand-Jupan of Rascia, 

took part with the recusant bishops, laid waste the 

plain of Breno, and besieged Ragusa. The place 


defied all his attacks, and he retired into his own 
dominions, contenting himself, for the present, 
in forbidding the Slavonian bishops* to obey 
the Archbishop of Ragusa. He afterwards 
equipped a large fleet, intending to block- 
ade Ragusa by sea and land : but the fleet was 
defeated by Michele Bobali, off Pali or Poglizza, 
in Albania, which, in commemoration of this vic- 
tory, received the name of Porto di Ragusa ; and 
another squadron under the command of Stra- 
scimir, a brother of Nemagna, which was block- 
ading the Isles of Curzola and Lissa, also fell into 
the hands of the Ragusan admiral. 

Ragusa was soon afterwards besieged, a second 
time, by Nemagna, with an army of 20,000 
horse, and 30,000 foot. But the want of 
provisions caused so much confusion in the camp, 
that in six days he withdrew his forces ; and, finding 
that no advantages could be gained by continuing 
hostilities, he made a treaty with the Republic. 

The peace with the King of Servia induced the 
other Slavonian princes to seek the friendship of 
Ragusa; and Nemagna proposed that the bishops 
in his states, who had been excommunicated by 
Pope Alexander III., should be reconciled to, and 
acknowledge, the Metropolitan of Ragusa. But 
the mode of adjusting the question, which required 
the Senate to pay 1000 sequins, being considered 

* Bishops of Budua, Cattaro, Dolcigno, Svacia, Scodra, 
Durazzo, Drivasto, Polato, Sorbia, Bosnia, Trebigne, and 


inconsistent with religion, his offers were declined ; 

and his envoy was dismissed, with a courteous 


The ill success of the war, between Ne- 
magna and the Byzantine Emperor, Isaac 

a.d. ii9o. . ° _ _ y . , . - n 

Angelus Comnenus, induced the former 

to send to inquire if an asylum would be 
granted to him and his family, in case events 
should compel them to leave their country; and, 
though persecuted by the House of Nemagna for 
thirty years, the Republic, true to its maxim of 
assisting the unfortunate, promised them the pro- 
tection they desired. Nor was this generous con- 
duct lost upon the neighbouring Slavonic princes. 
They saw in the Ragusans an independent people, 
who, disregarding their own advantage, boldly 
maintained the promises they made, without fear- 
ing the displeasure of the most powerful states : 
and they admired their courage, in offering to 
shelter the Nemagna family, at a moment when the 
Greeks were victorious, and had already reason to 
be offended with Ragusa. Even the Counts Barich, 
Berislav, and Draghimir, Lords of Zaculmia, re- 
paired to Ragusa to proffer their friendship; and 
they engaged to prevent the Kacich and Almissans 
molesting the Ragusan traders. 

The death of William II. of Sicily, in 1189, and 
the difficulties that beset his successor 

A D. 1192. 

Tancred, having left the Ragusans without 
protection, and exposed to the ancient hatred of 


Venice, they once more claimed the friendship of 
the Byzantine court; and the same year was 
marked by a singular event, which rendered it re- 
markable in the annals of Ragusa ; and which is of 
more than ordinary interest, as it relates to the 
adventures of Richard Coeur de Lion, and shows 
the exact place of his first landing, which has 
hitherto been uncertain. 

Richard, on his return from Palestine, having 
been overtaken by a severe storm, after leaving 
Corfu made a vow that he would build a church 
to the Holy Virgin, on whatever spot he might 
first land ; and having reached the Isle of Lacroma, 
proceeded to make the necessary preparations for 
the fulfilment of his promise. In this island was a 
celebrated convent of Benedictines*; and Richard 
having destined 1 00,000 marks for the building of 
the church, commissioned the monks to superintend 
its erection. 

As soon as the Rettore, and the other authorities 
of Ragusa, heard of his arrival, they invited him to 
visit their city; where he was received with every 
demonstration of respect, and with all the hospi- 
table attention due to so distinguished a guest f ; 

* See above, p. 291. 

t Richard had not then any need of disguise ; nor could he 
have concealed his name, as Hoveden states, arriving as he did 
in a vessel, every sailor on board of which knew who he was. 
Moreover, the character of Hugh the merchant, if really 
assumed by him, was only necessary on his second landing 
" near Aquileiu." 


and having urged him to alter his vow, and found 
the church in Ragusa, they promised to obtain for 
him a dispensation from Rome, and also to erect 
another in Lacroma at the expense of the Re- 
public* Richard consented, on condition that the 
Abbot of Lacroma, assisted by the monks of his 
order, should there celebrate mass every year, on 
the feast of the Purification ; and " the good king 
having borrowed a large sum of money for the pur- 
pose," which was increased by donations from the 
inhabitants, built the Cathedral of Ragusa, " which, 
for regularity of design and beauty of ornament, was 
unequalled in Illyria." f It was unfortunately de- 
stroyed by the great earthquake of 1667 ; and with 
its destruction terminated the privileges of the 
abbot and monks of Lacroma. But the fact of 
their having been, till then, maintained, sufficiently 
proves the truth of the Ragusan account of 
Richard's landing at their city ; and the Emperor 
Henry, when he stated, in his letter to Philip of 
France, that Richard had been wrecked " near 
Istria, between Aquileia and Venice," was evidently 
misled by a vague report; which confounded his 
landing there, after his departure from Ragusa, with 
his previous escape from shipwreck.J And this is 
further confirmed by public documents of Ragusa. 

* Appendini. Luccari, lib. i., and Farlati, vol. vi. p. 89, 90. 
t Appendini, vol. i. p. 272. Farlati, (vi. 90.), and Von Engel 
(Hist. Ragusa, p. 87.) say it was the cathedral, 
f Farlati, vi. p. 90. 


The account of his arrival at the Isle of Lacroma 
is highly satisfactory, as it clears up a disputed 
point, and explains the statement of Hoveden, who 
calls the place of his landing " Gazere apud Raguse." 
The notion of the place being Zara was derived from 
the resemblance of part of the name Gazere to that 
of the Dalmatian capital ; though there is little 
doubt that the word is Arabic, meaning " island" 
and that it had been adopted, like many others, by 
the Crusaders.* 

After the death of Nemagna, his son Tehomil 
reigned one year, and was succeeded by 
his brother Simeon, who left the kingdom 
to his three sons, Stephen, Velkanf , and Rasko. 

Stephen retained the titles of King, and Grand- 
Jupan, of Servia ; Velkan styled himself King of 
Dioclea and the maritime cities of Albania, residing 

* " Infra vero Quadragesimam, rex Angliae firmavit Blanch- 
ward et Galatiam et Gazere. Et in die Paschse, tenuit ibi 
commune festum extra villain in tentoriis." 

" Venit itaque rex Angliae ad Cayphas, et aegrotavit ibi, et 
perrexit inde Accon, et ibi intravit busciam magnam, post 
festum S. Michaelis, octavo idus Octobris, feria quinta, et infra 
mensem post diem ilium applicuit in insula de Cuuerfu, et in- 
travit naviculam, et navigavit usque ad tres galeas quas vidit ex 
opposito in Romania, et conduxit eas usque ad Raguse pro 200 
marcis argenti, et postea rediit ad busciam suam, et praedictas 
galeae cum eo, et ipse paravit eas, et assumpsit secum Baldewinum 
advocatum Bithynise, et alios viginte socios, et intravit unam 
de praedictis galeis ; et cum applicuisset prope Gazere apud 
Raguse, noluit indicare quod esset rex Angliae, sed peregrini 
essent." — Roger de Hoveden, Annal., pp. 716, 717. 

f Or Volkan Nemagna. Von Engel (p. 89.) says* he was 
Grand-Jupan of Chelmo. 


sometimes at Scutari, and sometimes at Antivari ; 
and Rasko, under the name of Saba, having retired 
to the convent of Monte-Santo, became Abbot, and 
afterwards Archbishop of Servia. His exemplary 
life obtained for him the title of Saint, among the 
Servians and Greeks*, and the Duchy of Santo Saba 
received its name from his tomb. 

The friendship of Stephen for the Ragusans did 
not influence Velkan, who renewed the old dis- 
putes between the Bishop of Antivari, and Bernardo, 
the Primate of Ragusa ; and he even proceeded 
to hostilities against the Republic, and obtained 
from Innocent III. the title of Metropolitan for the 
see of Antivari. f 

Though this terminated the discussions be- 
tween the two churches, which had led 

a.d.1 199-1203. , . . i ./. . . 

to so much animosity and strife, intrigue 
and party-feeling had been carried too far, to ad- 
mit of reconciliation ; and Bernardo no longer con- 
sidered it safe to remain at Ragusa. He therefore 
requested, and obtained permission from the Pope, 
to vacate his province ; and having been nominated 
to other ecclesiastical dignities in England, he came 
to this country, furnished with a letter from Inno- 
cent III. to King John ; recommending him to his 
royal protection, and "conferring upon him the 

* Also acknowledged by the Latins, but not in their calendar, 
nor in their catalogue of saints. 

f Kulin was Ban of Bosnia at this time. See the Paterenes 
in Chap. VI L 


bishopric of Carlisle ;" * a copy of which letter is 
contained in that written by John to Golfred, Arch- 
bishop of York f, in whose diocese Bernardo received 
his new appointment. 

" To the venerable father in Christ, our very 
dear Golfred, by the grace of God, Archbishop of 
York, John, by the like grace, King of England, 
Lord of Ireland, Duke of Normandy, and Aqui- 
taine, and Count of Anjou, health. 

" We have received the letters of our Lord the 
Pope, in these words : — 

" * Innocent, bishop and servant of the servants 
of God, to his beloved son John, the illustrious King 
of England, health and our apostolic benediction. 

u c At the urgent entreaty of our venerable brother, 
the archbishop of Ragusa, we have thought right 
to relieve him from the care and duties, with which 
he was charged over the church of Ragusa, because 
he was unable to remain there in safety, and ran a 
risk of his life if he ventured to return thither. But 
lest the said archbishop, to the discredit of our mi- 
nistry, should suffer a loss of temporalities ; we, out 
of the benignity of the apostolic see, grant to him 
the bishopric of Carlisle, and the church of Mele- 
bum, with all thereunto appertaining, graciously 

* Farlati, vi. p. 89. ; who censures Richardson for speaking 
of Bernardo, as a " certain anonymous Slavonian bishop,** and 
giving the date 1201, instead of 1204. 

f Or Geoffrey, son of Henry II. and the Fair Rosamond. 


conferred on him through your beneficence and 
liberality, and by the concession of our venerable 
brother Golfred, archbishop of York, in order to 
relieve his wants; and claiming the attention of 
your royal Serenity, we exhort you, as touching 
the aforesaid archbishop, to consider him recom- 
mended to you by the urgency of our prayers, and 
by your regard for the pontifical office. May you 
commiserate his necessities, succour his distress, 
and increase these present benefits, by your illus- 
trious munificence ; and in so doing you will show 
your regard for the King of kings, who is the High 
Priest for ever, since that which is spent on his 
ministers may be considered as bestowed on Him. 

" ' Given to the bearer, on the sixth year of our 
Pontificate *, on the ides of May.' 

" We therefore, in compliance with the request 
received from our Lord the Pope, have, out of our 
munificence and liberality, conceded to the Ragu- 
san archbishop the aforesaid bishopric of Carlisle ; 
charging you to treat him, in every respect, as your 
pastor and bishop. — Witness the Lord Archbishop 
of Canterbury, at Merleb, on the tenth day of 

New dissensions soon afterwards broke out at 

Ragusa. Damiano Juda, who had filled 

" the office of first magistrate, under the title 

of Count, or President, refused, at the expiration of 

* That is, a.d. 1203. 


the year, to relinquish his authority; and having 
ingratiated himself into the favour of the people, 
and bribed a numerous body of troops, he forbade 
the meeting of the Great Council, and assumed to 
himself absolute power. In answer to the objec- 
tions of the nobles, he pretended to justify his 
conduct, by representing the bad effects of dissen- 
sion in the state ; and by urging the necessity of 
taking measures for protecting the city, against 
foreign aggression ; the danger of which had become 
doubly imminent, in consequence of the capture of 
Constantinople by the Venetians. To ensure this 
object, he contended, that unlimited authority was 
required ; and he concluded by assuring them, that 
he was ready to relinquish it, as soon as the neces- 
sary measures had been adopted for the safety of 
the state. 

The family of Bobali, full of patriotic feeling, 
and confident in the esteem of all classes, openly 
denounced his ambitious designs; but his power 
was too firmly fixed to be overthrown by their 
efforts. Damiano ordered them to be arrested, and 
they were obliged to fly into Bosnia. 

Damiano had ruled two years, when PirroBenessa, 
his son-in-law, indignant at his tyrrany, and seeing 
that every attempt to deprive him of power would 
be attended with danger to the state, supported as 
he was by the popular voice and by a strong guard, 
secretly convoked a meeting of the nobles, and 
recommended an appeal to some foreign power. 

vol. i. x 


The only one at that time capable of aiding them 
was Venice ; and they determined to request the 
Doge to release them from the tyrrany of Damiano ; 
on condition that nothing should be attempted 
against the liberties of Ragusa. Michele and Vito 
Bobali in vain endeavoured to impress upon their 
countrymen, that the Venetians would never render 
that assistance, without substituting one of their 
own nobles in the room of Damiano ; who, with the 
support of a foreign power, would be far more dan- 
gerous to their liberty than an ambitious citizen : 
these prudent councils were overruled ; and Benessa 
was secretly sent to Venice, as envoy from the 
nobles of Ragusa. 

The Venetians gladly consented to undertake 
their cause ; on condition that the Ragusans should 
receive a Venetian governor ; when Benessa, fore- 
seeing the danger of a refusal, after the Venetians 
had become acquainted with the state of the city, 
was forced to comply with those terms. But, in 
order to avoid open violence, they had recourse to 
artifice. The Patriarch Morosini happened, at the 
time, to be setting off for Constantinople ; and the 
Venetian senate, under pretence of sending rich 
presents to the new emperor, appointed two ambas- 
sadors, with a large suite, to accompany him, 
escorted by two well-equipped gallies ; with direc- 
tions, that they should follow the instructions of 

On reaching Ragusa, Benessa announced to 


Damiano the arrival of the Patriarch and the am- 
bassadors, " who had turned out of their way, to 
offer him their salutations." They were therefore 
invited to dine at the palace ; and, on leaving the 
table, they induced Damiano to accompany them 
to the ship, " that he might see the presents des- 
tined for the emperor." He had scarcely stepped 
on board, when he found himself a prisoner ; and 
upbraiding the Venetians for their treachery, and 
accusing his son-in-law of parricide, he dashed his 
head against the bulwarks of the ship, and fell dead 
upon the deck. 

The Venetian Count, Lorenzo Quirini, was, accord- 
ins: to agreement, received as Count of the 

A. d. 1204. 

Republic * ; but the Ragusans soon began 
to be sensible of the yoke they had imposed on 
themselves; and in order to neutralise his in- 
fluence, they made a treaty with the Cattarines, 
by which each agreed to assist the other, and es- 
tablish a friendly and commercial inter- 


course : and though the treaty was highly 

* This calls to mind the conduct of the Italian Republics, 
who chose foreign governors, in order to check the factions, to 
which they were exposed from ambitious citizens ; the first 
example, as Muratori states, being set by Yerona, which chose 
for its governor Azzo, Marquis of Este, at the beginning of the 
thirteenth century. The same was done by the Florentines, 
who in 1303 were governed by a Lucchese, and in 1342 placed 
the Duke of Athens at the head of their Republic ; and the 
history of Siena, Pisa, Rimini, Ferrara, and other cities offer 
similar examples. 

x 2 


displeasing to Giovanni Dandolo, the successor * 
of Lorenzo, having been made without his consent, 
it tended to uphold the hopes of the Ragusans, and 
showed that the Senate (as agreed upon with 
Venice) was independent of his authority. Dan- 
dolo, however, still retained his office, to the great 
dissatisfaction of the Ragusans ; and nothing 
worthy of notice occurred at this time, except the 
arrival of St. Francis, in 1219, on his way to the 
Holy Land.f 

At length an event took place, which, for a 
time, enabled the Ragusans to rid their 
a.d.1230. ^ ^ ^ Venetian Count. The Greek em- 
peror, John Vataces, united with the Genoese, was 
making every effort to check the power of Venice, 
by sea, and prevent their attack on Candia : the 
Ragusans therefore, dexterously ingratiating them- 
selves with those enemies of Venice, induced them 
to appear with their combined fleet before Ragusa ; 
when, feigning alarm, the Senate represented to 
Dandolo the danger to which he exposed his per- 
son and the city, and persuaded him to withdraw 
to Venice, in a Ragusan vessel. Two years 
after this, fear of the ill-will of the Ve- 
" netians, and dissensions in the city, induced 

* Some suppose there were two counts, before Dandolo, who 
ruled ten years, and Dandolo sixteen, till 1230. Farlati (vi.109.) 
calls him Marco Dandolo, and says Orbinus thinks these events 
happened much later, in 1261 ; but Morosini was made 
Patriarch in 1204. See Gibbon, c 61- 

f See the History of Dalmatia, in Chapter IX. a.d. 1219 


the Senate to solicit the return of the Venetian 
Count ; and Dandolo was reappointed for two years. 
At the same time a treaty was made to regulate 
the commerce of Ragusa; which engaged to aid 
the Venetians with two gallies, in the suppression 
of piracy ; and the Count was to be changed every 
two years.* 

The equipment of these gallies was of more im- 
mediate service to the Ragusans, than they 
anticipated; for, the Almissans having plun- 
dered some of their merchants, they were enabled 
thereby effectually to resent the injury ; and their 
appearance at the mouth of the Cettina had not 
only the effect of recovering the captured goods, 
but the Count of Almissa entered into an engage- 
ment, to abstain from all acts of piracy onRagusan 
vessels ; and even if ordered by his master, the King 
of Hungary, to aid in any war against Ragusa, he 
promised to supply the smallest contingent. 

The hostility of Stephen Ourosh f, the Servian 
king, who had succeeded his father 
Stephen J, and the unwillingness of the 
Venetian Count to interpose the influence of the 
Venetian name, induced the Ragusans to seek the 
alliance of the Emperor Michael, and of Radoslav, 
Jupan of Chelmo. The attempts of Ourosh were 
therefore limited to a descent on the plain of 
Breno, and the demand that the Ragusans should 

* See this treaty in Appending vol. i. p. 279. 
f Sarnamed Milutin. $ Also called Ourosh. 

x 3 


accept a Servian instead of a Venetian governor ; 
but finding that this proposition was treated with 
contempt, and that the Ragusans were well pre- 
pared to resist his pretensions, he thought the 
moment unfavourable for his views against the Re- 
public; and arrangements having been entered into, 
for an amicable adjustment of their differences, 
no further hostilities were attempted by the Ser- 
vians till his death, which happened in 1283. 

It was about this time, in 1272, that the statutes 
of Ragusa were framed, which afterwards under- 
went various modifications, until 1358; when the 
laws of that Republic were revised, and received 
considerable additions.* 

Stephen Ouroshwas succeeded by his natural son, 
of the same name ; whose first transaction with the 
Ragusans was an attempt to defraud them of a 
large sum of money, entrusted to their custody by 
the Jupan Dessan, the nephew of the late King 
of Servia ; in which he was successful, through the 
agency of certain deputies from Cattaro, who ap- 
peared as witnesses to a forged document. On the 
discovery of the fraud, envoys were sent to reclaim 
the money ; and as no redress could be ob- 

a.d. 1288. . 

tained, war was declared by the Republic 
against the Cattarines. This, as might be expected, 
brought on hostilities with Ourosh ; who, having 
sided with Cattaro, invaded the Ragusan territory, 

• Catalinich, iii. p. 55. 


plundered the suburbs, and obliged the inhabitants 
to take refuge within the city; which was then 
afflicted by a violent epidemic. Nor was this the 
only calamity that befel Ragusa : a dread- 

, , a.d. 12^6-7. 

ful fire broke out, which consumed all the 
dwelling-houses ; and such was the despair of the 
people, that serious thoughts were entertained of 
quitting the city, and flying to Sicily, Puglia, or some 
town on the Dalmatian coast. The prudence of one 
of the patricians, Vicenzo Vukassovich, alone calmed 
their despair ; subscriptions were raised to assist 
the needy; and the Senate adopted measures for 
rebuilding the houses. And profiting by this 
melancholy accident, the city was improved, by 
giving to the streets a more convenient, and re- 
gular, distribution. 

Another calamity speedily followed, though at- 
tended with less serious results than at 
first expected. The Venetians, engaged A ° 1298 - 
in a formidable struggle with the Genoese, re- 
quired from Ragusa the aid of four gallies, 
which were immediately to join their fleet. The 
demand, at such a moment, was embarrassing ; the 
losses so lately sustained by the Ragusans increased 
the difficulty of complying with it ; and their gal- 
lies were wanted for the protection of their own 
interests ; but regard for the treaty urged them to 
make every sacrifice, and the gallies were sent. 
The hostile fleets met off Curzola ; the Venetians 
were defeated ; and the Provveditore, Andrea Dan- 

x 4 


dolo, was taken prisoner.* Fortune, however, 
favoured the Ragusans, who by an unexpected 
accident saved their gallies ; and this enabled them 
soon after to defeat the Cattarines. 
The battle of Curzola had so crippled the Vene- 
tians, that they were incapable for some 


time of keeping the sea ; and Ourosh, profit- 
ing by the opportunity, endeavoured to obtain 
possession of Lagosta, which the Ragusans 
' had bought of Stephen, King of Rascia f , 
and which had rebelled, with a view of giving itself 
up to the Venetians. But the prudence of the 
Senate induced the islanders to return to their alle- 
giance ; and the hostile intentions of Ourosh were 
also thwarted by the politic conduct of the Ragu- 
sans. For hearing that Ourosh was about 
"to marry the daughter of Philip, Prince of 
Tarento, they sent to offer him a galley to bring 
over his bride ; and, pacified by this act of courtesy, 
he accepted the offer, and in return ceded to Ra- 
gusa the lands above Breno, called Deceni. 

The Venetian and Ragusan fleet once more 
united, against the Genoese and the Emperor 

a. d. 1324. 

" ' Andronicus ; and the Venetians, having 
gained over Trail, Sebenico, and Spalato, from the 
Hungarians, proceeded to punish the Almissan 

* See the History of Dalmatia ; and above, p. 257. 

t Of the family of Nemagna, and surnamed Krapalo, or 
Krapavaz, the "leper." See above, p. 264. Appending i. 283. 
286.; and Farlati, vi. p. 113. 123. 


Chap. V.] LOUIS OF HUNGARY. 313 

pirates, who had carried off the Abbot of Lacroma. 
A fresh succession of quarrels and accommodations 
followed, between the Ragusans and Ourosh, until 
the death of that prince ; when his son and successor, 
Stephen Dushan,made an alliance with the Republic, 
granted it permission to send consuls into 
Rascia, Servia, and Bosnia, to superintend 
the trade with those countries, and ceded to it the 
peninsula of Punta. 

The affairs of Venice, Hungary, and Slavonia, 
now began to assume a new character ; and 

. A. d. 1345. 

the attention of all was fixed on the rising 
power of Louis of Hungary.* Venice, though vic- 
torious, agreed to a truce with him for A . D . 
eight years; and Stephen Cotroman, Ban ,347 "~ 135u 
of Bosnia, promised him his daughter Elizabeth 
in marriage ; despite the threats of Stephen Du- 
shan ; who, in order to intimidate the Ban, and 
oblige him to accept the hand of his son Ourosh, 
pillaged Bosnia. The violent conduct of Stephen 
was unavailing ; Cotroman, with his daughter, took 
refuge in the fortress of Bobovaz ; and Elizabeth 
was married to Louis. Her father was, shortly 
after, succeeded by his nephew Tuartko, the son of 
Vladislav, who, as a vassal of Hungary, was pro- 
moted to the rank of king. 

Foreseeing the future power of Louis, the Ragu- 
sans, as early as 1345, had entered into secret 

* Lodovico, or Ludwig, generally known as Louis of Hun- 
gary. See the History in Chapter IX., a.d. 1342. and 1346. 


intelligence with the Hungarian king. Elias Sa- 
raca, archbishop of Ragusa, having been sent by 
Clement VI. as nuncio to Stephen Dushan, in 
order to induce him to return, with the other Sla- 
vonic princes, to the bosom of the Catholic church, 
and to direct his arms against the Turks, visited 
the court of Hungary, according to instructions 
from Ragusa ; and expressed the wish of his coun- 
trymen, to place themselves under the protection 
of Louis. As soon, therefore, as the truce between 
the Hungarians and the Doge had expired, the 
Ragusans prepared to break off all connexion with 
Venice ; (which, though it always rigidly exacted 
their co-operation, whenever it was required, made 
no efforts to protect them in the hour of need;) and 
when the Venetians demanded the assistance of the 
four Ragusan gallies, one only was sent ; while, to 
lull suspicion, the Senate gave permission to all the 
citizens to enter the Venetian service against Louis, 
well knowing that none would avail themselves 
of it. Friendly communications also continued to 
be kept up with the Servian Emperor, Stephen 
Dushan, who visited Ragusa, in 1354. 

The Venetians, at the same time, sought to 
take advantage of the hold they possessed over 
Ragusa ; and anxious to secure a position, from 
which they might again advance into Dalma- 
tia, they sent two Procuratori of St. Mark to 
repair the works of Ragusa and Stagno ; and with 
a view of strengthening the bonds of friendship 


between the two republics, granted several com- 
mercial privileges to the Ragusans. They, on their 
side, received the Procuratori with every mark of 
distinction ; and at their departure, wrote letters of 
condolence to the Doge, on the loss of Zara ; and 
thus, by mutual demonstrations of good will, each 
party endeavoured to conceal their real motives. 

Meanwhile, all Dalmatia had fallen into the hands 
of Louis ; and, on arranging the preliminaries of 
peace, the Venetians proposed to cede to the 

. i i i /» i /» a.d. 1358. 

Hungarians the whole of the country from 
Istria to Durazzo, and to include Ragusa. But 
the agreement made with the Hungarian Diet, by 
the archbishop Saraca, guaranteed the independ- 
ence of the Republic, and disproved the claims of 
Venice to sovereign rights over Ragusa ; and no- 
thing resulted from that treaty, injurious to its 
interests, or its liberty. 

The following year, a change took place in the 
government of Ragusa, by the removal of 
the Venetian count *, and the appointment 
of three native Patricians to supply his place, and 
superintend the affairs of the Republic, with the 
title of Rettori ; and though this measure ef- 
fectually put an end to the authority of Venice 
over Ragusa, it was done with so much courtesy 
and circumspection, that an open rupture was 
avoided ; and the Venetians were satisfied with the 

* Marco Superanzio. 


prospect of recovering their position there, at a 
more convenient moment. The external and in- 
ternal state of affairs continued nearly on the same 
footing ; and if the hostility of the Lords of Chehno 
and the Cattarines, for a time, disturbed the tran- 
quillity of Ragusa, peace was soon restored ; and 
the friendship of the Hungarians augured well for 
the future security of the Republic. 

The whole of Slavonia was now a prey to dis- 
order. In Bosnia the barons were for some time 
in rebellion against Tuartko * ; and on the death of 
Ourosh V., the last of the house of Nemagna, Vuka- 
shin, one of the first barons of the realm, 
" obtained possession of the crown of Servia. 

The Ragusans, perceiving the rising power of the 
Turks, (who had been invited f by Sigismund, the 
son of the usurper Alexander, King of Bulgaria, to 
assist him against his brothers,) sent an embassy 
to Brusa, to claim the friendship and protection of 
the Emir Orcan. J This request, made by a distant 
state, was readily acceded to ; and on the annual 

* The Ban Tuartko was made King of Bosnia, by Louis, and 
afterwards obtained possession of Rascia and Santo Saba. See 
the llistory in Chapter IX. 

t The Turks were first invited into Europe by Cantacuzene 
in 1341. See Gibbon, chap. 64. 

J Appendini styles him Sultan; but that title was not 
adopted till the reign of Bajazet, the son of Amurath I., the 
son of Orcan. Gibbon, c. 64. The treaty with Orcan was 
still preserved at Ragusa in 1801, with his name sealed in ink, 
according to the eastern custom. Orcan died in 1360. 


payment of 500 sequins, Orcan granted all the 
privileges regarding commerce, and all the pro- 
mises of protection, which were required. 

The enmity of the Cattarines, who had deserted 
the cause of Hungary for that of the Ve- 
netians, at length led to an open rupture 
between Venice and Ragusa; and when the Genoese, 
for the fourth time, entered the Adriatic, they were 
joined by the Ragusans. 

United with Louis, Charles of Durazzo, Francesco 
di Carrara, and the Patriarch of Aquileia, the 
Genoese had wrested Istria from the Doge; 
and the triumphant Doria having taken Chioggia, 
and threatened Venice, no notice could be taken of 
the open hostility of Ragusa ; but on the defeat of 
the Genoese, the Venetian fleet scoured the coast 
of Dalmatia, and inflicted severe injuries on the 
commerce of the Ragusans. The maritime towns, 
from Punta to Valdinoce, were sacked ; the trade 
with the Narenta was intercepted ; and it was 
not until a treaty had been concluded be- 
tween the Doge and the allied powers, that 
Ragusa was relieved from the vengeance of the 

On the death of Louis, King of Hungary, Venice 
hoped to regain a footing in Dalmatia ; but 
the union of the cities, assisted by Tuartko, 
and the nominal protection of Hungary, still pre- 
vented those designs. " The misfortunes of Charles, 


who was crowned King of Hungary only to lose his 
life, the imprisonment of the Queen Maria, 
the tragical death of Elizabeth*, and the dis- 
sensions of the Slavonian princes, (who, instead of 
joining Sigismund to oppose the Turks, fought 
among themselves, and invited them to be arbiters of 
their quarrels,) tended to consolidate that union, and 
confer advantages on the Ragusansf ;" and, secured 
by her friendly relations with the Turks from the 
general destruction, that soon after befel the neigh- 
bouring states, Ragusa maintained an independent 
position ; which enabled her to become an asylum 
for those who were driven from their country, on 
the advance of the Ottoman conquerors. 

The terror caused by the victory of Bajazet at 

Nicopolis, and the flight of Sigismund, 

paved the way for the fall of the Slavonian 

princes; many of whom, to retain possession of 

their states, became tributary to the Sultan ; and 

this led to the direct interference of the Turks. 

The kind reception given by the Ragusans to 

Sigismund, after his defeat J, induced him 

to promote their views, in the purchase of 

* See the History in Chapter IX. 

T Appending vol. i. p. 297. 

£ According to Gibbon, (c. lxiv.) Sigismund fled to Con- 
stantinople by the Danube and Black Sea; and Froissart 
(c. lxxxii.) says he found a small vessel belonging to the Grand- 
master of Rhodes, in which he went down the river. This 
accounts for his return by Ragusa. Appending p. 297. 


the district of Primorie, or Terrenuove* from 
Ostoya, the young King of Bosnia ; and his intention 
of preparing another expedition against the Turks 
was seconded by the prayers, and donations, of 
the Ragusan clergy. Domestic troubles prevented 
his design. Nor did the Turks pursue their suc- 
cesses against the Hungarians: the attention of 
Bajazet was called to another quarter ; his defeat 
by Tamerlane, in 1402, ended in his captivity and 
death ; and his successors made no advances against 
the Slavonians, until invited into Bosnia by the dis- 
putes of Tuartko II. and Ostoya, about thirteen 
years afterwards, t 

Sigismund, on leaving Ragusa, passed the winter 
of 1396 at Knin, when he returned to Hungary; 
and some time after this, the French nobles, who 
had been made prisoners by Bajazet, at the battle 
of Nicopolis, touched at Ragusa on their way home, 
having been ransomed from captivity. J 

The joy caused in Ragusa, by the cession of the 
district of Primorie, was disturbed by the 
state of Hungary, at the death of Maria, the 
wife of Sigismund. A strong party had arisen in 

* It extends from Valdinoce to Stagno. 

f See the History, Chapter IX. 

% Froissart, c 90. On leaving Rhodes, they touched at 
Modon, Colefo (Corfu ?), the Isle of Garre (Zante ?), the Isle 
of Chifolignie (Cephalonia), Ragusa, Clarence (Chiarenza ?), and 
Parense (Parenzo ?), and thence went to Venice. Some of these 
are evidently out of their proper order. 


favour of Ladislas (Vladislav) of Sicily, the son of 

Charles; Sigismund was made prisoner, and all 

the cities of Dalmatia fell into the hands of his 

rival. The endeavours of Ragusa to re- 

A.D. 1403. . _ . , . 

main neuter in this struggle were useless ; 
and on its declaring in favour of Sigismund, Ostoya, 
in concert with Ladislas, invaded the Ragusan ter- 
ritory. But Sigismund, once more free, was enabled 
to protect the Republic; and Harvoye, Duke of 
Spalato, who had rendered signal service to La- 
dislas previous to his arrival in Dalmatia, 
* was induced by bribery to desert him, and 
join the cause of Sigismund. 

The result of these changes was the defeat of 
Ostoya, and the expulsion of Ladislas from 
Dalmatia. Zara, which was still held by a 
Neapolitan garrison, was sold by him to the Vene- 
tians, together witK Novigrad, the Isle of Pago, 
and all other places over which he claimed juris- 
diction, for 100,000 ducats; and the Venetians 
pretended that Ragusa was included in this agree- 
ment. But the alliance of Sigismund secured it 
against their pretensions ; and though the loss of 
Sebenico and other places, together with the 
treachery of Harvoye, weakened his cause in Dal- 
matia, he was still in a condition to uphold the 
rights of that Republic. 

Harvoye, accustomed to the indulgence of his 
arbitrary will, had offended the court of Hungary, 
and was denounced to Sigismund ; when, foreseeing 


his loss of influence with the King, he entered into a 
secret correspondence with the Sultan Mahomet ; 
which being discovered by the Spalatines, he was de- 
prived of his dukedom, and declared a rebel These 
events induced Sigismund to make a treaty, 
for five years, with the Venetians ; though 
it did not affect the condition of Ragusa, which still 
continued under the protection of Hungary; and 
her independence was at length acknowledged by 
the Venetians. 

The district of the Canali was bought in 1427, 
by the Ragusans, for 24,000 sequins, 

ad 1419—1427 

from the Voivoda Radoslav Paulovich ; 
their commerce was extended in Asia and Africa ; 
and this was considered one of the most flourishing 
periods of the Republic. 

Peace was soon afterwards definitively arranged, 
between Sigismund and the Venetians, who 

. , a.d. 1493. 

foresaw with anxiety the approach of a new 
and formidable rival. It was evident that the 
affairs of the Slavonic states were becoming, 
everyday, more and more critical; their downfal 
promised to advance the growing power of the 
Turks; and the various interests of several little 
princes, far less versed in the arts of politics and 
war than the Osmanlis, to whom they were already 
tributary, prevented their uniting in a common 
cause, for their own safety. 

" For nearly twenty years the Turks, profiting 
by their imprudence, had taken part in all their 

VOL. I. Y 


disputes, and always turned them to their own 
advantage; while the King of Bosnia, as Lord 
paramount, either took provinces from one chief- 
tain, to bestow them on another, or usurped them 
for himself. Stephen Vukovich, despot of Servia, 
having given one daughter in marriage to the 
nephew of the Empress Barbara, and another to 
Sultan Amurath, thought himself firmly settled on 
his throne ; and felt little interest in the welfare of 
the other Slavonic princes; Sigismund, a good 
artless man, born rather for peace than war, and 
always unfortunate, had lost his influence in Dal- 
matia and Slavonia ; and the Sultan only waited, 
until the two rival candidates for Herzegovina, 
Radoslav Paulovich and Stephen Cosaccia, should 
weaken themselves and invite him to settle their 
dispute." * 

The Turk at length, master of the whole of 
Bosnia, sought to include Ragusa amongst 

A.D. 1437. i • »i ii 

his tributary states; but the treaty pre- 
viously made with Orcan saved her from this 
ignominy, and she was enabled to preserve her 
independence. By rejecting the advantageous of- 
fers of Paulovich to sell Trebigne to her, and of 
the Queen of Hungary, to put her in possession of 
the Eraina and Almissa, she avoided giving offence 
to the Sultan, to Venice, and to Cosaccia ; and, by 
strict neutrality, preserved the friendship both of 
the Hungarians and Turks. 

* Appending i. p. 303. 


But it waa difficult long to prevent a subject of 
dispute; and the reception of George, 
King of Servia, who had fled from An- 
tivari to Ragusa, with immense wealth, so enraged 
Amurath, that he threatened to destroy the city, 
unless the fugitive was given into his hands. The 
Ragusans, true to their maxim of respecting the 
rights of hospitality, ensured his safety, by sending 
him in a galley to Scardona, whence he fled to 
Buda; and the Sultan, admiring their generous 
conduct, allowed his anger to be appeased by a 
present of money, as an acknowledgment of his 

The conduct of the Ragusans might have been 
expected to secure the friendship of 

01 • • 1 x xi a.d. 1442— 1445. 

every Slavonic prince : but the mere 
question respecting the sale of salt sufficed to rouse 
the anger of Stephen Cosaccia, and he invaded the 
Ragusan territory. A battle was fought on the 
plain of Canali, in which the Ragusans were de- 
feated; and Cosaccia, after ravaging the whole 
country to Breno and Gravosa, laid siege to Ra- 
gusa. The Senate, finding that the Venetians were 
in league with their enemy, sent an envoy 
to Pope Nicholas V. ; who persuaded them 
to withdraw from the alliance of a schismatic, 
against a Catholic state; and an offer was made 
to Cosaccia to terminate the war, by paying him the 
sum of 10,000 sequins. And perceiving, soon after- 
wards, that he was threatened by the Hungarians and 

T 2 


Turks, Cosaccia accepted the offer, and continued 
until his death on terms of real, or pretended, 
friendship with Ragusa. He even attended the 
Council of State, as his uncle Sandagl Hranich, Duke 
of Chelmo, had before done in 1434, and gave his 
vote as a Ragusan noble, — a privilege, to which he 
w^s by birth entitled ; and on quitting the city, he 
left his son Stephen to be educated there; who 
afterwards turned out a monster of treachery and 

After some years, Stephen and the other Slavonic 
princes, hemmed in on all sides by the 

a » 145Q 

" 14S9 - Turks, who had already invaded Herze- 
govina, began to perceive that their ruin was 
inevitable. Ragusa also felt her danger. But 
this did not prevent her giving an asylum to the 
inhabitants of Popovo and Trebigne ; she received 
the noble Tribuniote families, when driven from 
their estates by the Turks, and even supplied the 
Ban of Croatia with arms, at the request of the 
King of Hungary; until, at length, the anger of 
Sultan Mahomet being roused against the Republic, 
(which was excited still more, on hearing that one of 
its generals commanded a corps of Hungarians 
against him,) he seized all the Ragusan merchants 
in his dominions, and confiscated their property. 

Constantinople having fallen in 1453, and the 
whole of Thrace, Servia, and Bosnia, with part of 
Hungary, being in his power, Mahomet resolved 
on the conquest of the maritime cities of Dalmatia ; 


and concentrating his forces at Sutieska in Bosnia, 
he advanced upon Ragusa. Destitute of allies, 
or of the means of effectual resistance, the terri- 
fied inhabitants fled to the churches, to depre- 
cate the calamity that threatened them; and the 
people, joining in the procession of Corpus Domini, 
united their lamentations with the prayers of the 
clergy. In the midst of this scene of despair, a 
courier arrived from the Pasha of Roumelia, ex- 
horting the Ragusans to send ambassadors to the 
Sultan, who had gone back to Thrace; and the 
Senate having acted on this suggestion received for 
answer, that peace should be granted, on condition 
of the whole country being ceded to the Ottoman 
rule, with the exception of the city of Ragusa. 

The consternation caused by this announcement 
was scarcely less, than if the city had been 
lost. All was indecision in the Senate ; 
until Nicole Serafino, who had been admitted to 
their deliberations, suggested this reply : " That the 
whole country should be ceded to him, according to 
his wish, and that the Ragusans would give up their 
city to the King of Hungary." His ingenuity 
saved the Republic : Mahomet ordered the siege to 
be abandoned, and renounced all intention of mo- 
lesting the Ragusans. A popular tradition, how- 
ever, ascribed their deliverance to St. Biagio ; and 
pretended that Mahomet, having asked the ambas- 
sador to show him a portrait of their Patron Saint, 
declared that an old man of similar countenance 

T 3 


had appeared, and frightened his horse, as he rode 
on his way to Ragusa, and threatened him with 
death, unless he changed his projects. 

The departure of the Turks did not make the 
Senate neglectful of precautions for the future. 
New fortifications were added ; and to remove all 
cover for an enemy near the works, the houses, and 
even the chapels of the suburbs, were destroyed. 
Application was also made to several Christian 
princes for assistance ; and Pius II., from whom 
the works of the Rivellino received the name 
of Fortezza Pia, seconded their request. Other 
calamities soon befel Ragusa. A fire broke out in 
the palace ; which, with the exception of the trea- 
sury and archives, was entirely destroyed; many 
wl Hlled by the explo»io n of. powder magazine 

in the cellars; and this was followed 
"by the plague, which in three years 
carried off 2000 people. The neighbouring states 
were also a source of anxiety to Ragusa. Bosnia 
had already become a Turkish province, divided 
into several Sangiakates* ; and the half of Herze- 
govina was overrun by the Osmanlis. 

" Anna, wife of Lazarus, despot of Servia f, with 
her children, the queens of Thomas and Stephen, 
Kings of Bosnia, the family of the Herzog and of his 
sons, those of Vladkovich and George Count of 

* Or Beyliks, districts governed by a Bey (Bek), or Sangiak. 

f Appending i. 307. But Helena was his wife, and she suc- 
ceeded George. See Chapter IX. ; and the Kings of Servia, in 
Appendix C. 


Blagai, with several others, took refuge in the city, 
or territory, of Ragusa. Many also of the Impe- 
rial families of the Lascaris, the Comneni *, and 
the Pakeologi, with other distinguished persons, fled 
from Greece, and found an asylum there." 

The death of the Herzog, Stephen Cosaccia, who 
by his will nominated the Ragusan Senate 

AD. 1466 

his executors, brought fresh troubles on 
the Republic, owing to the dissensions among his 
heirs; who on every disputed point had recourse 
either to the Hungarians, or the Turks, to support 
their extravagant claims ; till at length Essi Bek, 
Sangiak of Triconesi, marched through Herzegovina 
with a large force ; and taking possession 
of Trebigne, Popovo, Castel Nuovo, 
Risano, and a portion of the Ragusan territory, 
appointed a governor over that part of the country, 
and expelled Vladislav and Vladko, the younger 
sons of the Herzogf Stephen. Thus terminated, 
after seven centuries, the tumultuous and unsettled 
rule of the Slavonians. 

All hopes of extending their territory were now 
taken from the Ragusans, hemmed in by the Turks, 
whose religious scruples forbade their relinquishing 
a country they had once occupied, unless driven 

* Appending i. 807. Gibbon says, " David, and the whole 
Comnenian race, were sacrificed to the jealousy or avarice of 
the Conqueror. 1 ' Chap, lxviii. a. d. 1461. 

f From this title of Herzog, or " Duke," the Duchy of Santo 
Saba received the name of Herzegovina. 

T 4 


from it by force ; and they were obliged to adopt 
a new course of policy. They therefore sought to 
propitiate the Sultan, and the most influential 
members of the divan, and established friendly 
intercourse with the pashas of neighbouring pro- 
vinces ; and having obtained permission from the 
Pope to trade with the infidels, their port soon 
became the emporium of Eastern commerce. The 
advantages Ragusa thus enjoyed soon increased 
public and private wealth ; and it was to her flou- 
rishing condition that she was indebted, for the ad- 
vances made in literature and the arts of refinement. 
An event afterwards happened which brought the 
Ragusans once more in contact with the 
Venetians. Some Ragusan ships having 
been forced by Cardinal Ippolito to take part in 
the war of Alfonso Duke of Ferrara, and the Ve- 
netian fleet being defeated, the Doge published a 
manifesto, condemning every Ragusan vessel that 
entered a Venetian port to pay 100 gold ducats 
as anchorage dues, and 20 per cent, on all mer- 
chandise, in addition to other imposts. This, which 
amounted to a prohibition to trade in Venetian 
harbours, induced the Ragusans to turn their at- 
tentions toward the Levant and the ocean; and 
large vessels were built to trade with Egypt, 
France, Spain, and England; while smaller ones 
were engaged in the traffic with Sicily, Puglia, and 
other parts of Italy. * 

* Appending i. p. 214. 


The manufacture of cloth was then established 
for the Italian and Turkish markets: 
and the very impediments raised by the ** M89> lWk 
Venetians were the means of promoting the com- 
merce of Ragusa; which, under the protection of 
the Porte, was enabled to compete with Venice. 
A new treaty concluded with Alfonso King of 
Naples, and afterwards continued by his successors, 
also opened new outlets, entirely independent of the 

But an unexpected enemy at the Turkish court 
threatened the interests of Ragusa. The 

a.d. 1493. 

eldest son of Stephen Cosaccia, who had 
been educated at Ragusa, and was afterwards given 
up by his father as a hostage to Mahomet II., had 
abjured his faith, and had been raised to the rank 
of Pasha, under the name of Ahmet.* And think- 
ing to intimidate the Ragusans, he put forward 
claims upon his father's property, and threatened 
them with the hostility of the Porte, if not imme- 
diately satisfied. In vain the Senate produced a 
written proof, signed by his own hand, of his having 
received all he was entitled to; in vain they ap- 
pealed to the Emperor Frederic, and to Pope Alex- 
ander; Bajazet, though disposed to befriend the 
Ragusans, maintained the claims of his son-in-law; 
and no reasoning could satisfy him, until 100,000 
sequins had been paid, to compromise the dispute. 
The difficulties they had encountered tended to 

* See the History in Chapter IX. 


call forth the energies of the Ragusans ; nor was 
this last quarrel with the Sultan without beneficial 
effects, as it secured to them still farther the pro- 
tection of the Porte. 

The Venetians, driven to extremities by the 
famous league of Cambray, revoked 

jud. 1500-1509. ,. ,. ~.. Jrt , . ,t* 

their edict of 1484 against the Ragu- 
sans, and granted them many commercial privileges; 
amply, and seasonably, compensating for the loss of 
five ships, which, with all other Christian vessels 
in the port of Alexandria, had been sequestered 
by " Aboonusr Gaur, Sultan of Egypt *, in retalia- 
tion for three taken from him by the knights of 
Rhodes." The plague afterwards broke 
out at Ragusa, having been brought from 
Ancona in some woollen stuffs. Vainly the people 
vented their anger on the unfortunate merchant, 
who was carried through the city on a cart, and 
tortured: the contagion increased; and the Senate 
with all the inhabitants fled to Gravosa ; leaving 
only 200 soldiers, and six of the nobles, in the 
works, and two galleys to guard the port. At 
length, after six months, and the death of 20,000 
souls, it ceased most opportunely; enabling the 
survivors to prepare for the defence of their city 
against the Moors, who, with a fleet of twenty- 
four sail, entered the Adriatic, in the hope of sur- 
prising Ragusa; when meeting with a vigorous, 

* This must have been Sultan El Ghdree, or perhaps Kait- 
bay, called £1 Ashraf Aboo '1 Nusr e'Zaheree. 


and unexpected, resistance, they gave up the attack, 
and retired from the Adriatic. 

The advantages enjoyed by the Ragusans, in 
their trade with Spain, was now inter- 
rupted by the sudden displeasure of 
Charles V. ; in consequence of their having refused 
to comply with certain demands, made upon them 
by his brother, the Emperor Ferdinand. At Fiume 
and Segna, in Sicily, and throughout the kingdom 
of Naples, their ships and goods were sequestered ; 
and it was not until great efforts had been made 
for a reconciliation, and their ships were required 
for his intended expedition against Tunis, that 
Charles recalled his manifesto, and restored to the 
Ragusans their former privileges. 

It may be questioned whether the enmity, or the 
friendship, of the Spanish monarch was most in- 
jurious to Ragusa. During the several years that 
their vessels were in the service of Charles V, and 
his successors, more than 300 were sacrificed in 
the Spanish wars * ; eighteen galleons were lost in 
the expedition against Tunis f; six only, out of 

* Banduri gives a list of 178 ships lost in 70 years, from 
1584 to 1654; besides the squadron under Martolossi and 
Mascibradi, lost in the war against the French and Dutch. 
Appending i. p. 216. note. 

t So great was the number of men lost by the Ragusans in 
the storm, that it gave rise to the saying " three hundred Yin- 
cenzas widowed " " Trista Yizaa udovizaa ; " and 300 women 
of that name, in the island of Mezzo, are said to have lost 
their husbands on that occasion. Though exaggerated, this 


fourteen, were saved from the disastrous attempt 
upon Algiers, in the time of the famous Hassan 
Barbarossa * ; and six others were lost, in a third 
expedition against Tripoli, under Duke Giovanni 
della Cerda. 

The relations of the Republic with the Porte 
were, at this period, most favourable. 
Sultan Suleyman even condescended to 
inform the Senate of his victories over the Per- 
sians, and announced his benevolent disposition 
towards the Christians.f The friendship, how- 
ever, of the Turks brought down upon Ragusa the 
ill-will of Ferdinand of Hungary, and other princes: 
Paul III. forbade the sale of arms and all military 
stores to the Ragusans; and, at the instigation of 
the Venetians, his legate requested them to unite 
against the Porte, and furnish five galleys, with 
10,000 sequins for the expenses of the war. 

Astonished at this request, the Senate promised 
to send an ambassador to Rome, and Clemente 
Ragnina, a man of great ability, was selected for the 
mission. The event fully justified their choice ; the 
Pope engaged to pacify the Venetians and Hunga- 
rians ; and Ragusa was freed from the hostile menaces 
of the Turks ; who were preparing an army in Bosnia, 
to counteract the suspected indecision of the Senate. 

Though Ragusa was now on friendly terms with 

shows how large must have been the population of that island, 
and how great the injury it sustained. 

* He was a Sardinian renegade. 

f Appending p. 312., says he founded a church, and convent. 


Charles V. and the Pope, it was not without anxiety 
that she beheld the arrival of their fleet at Ragusa 
Vecchia; and the depredations, committed by a 
detached squadron on the Isle of Mezzo, justified 
their apprehensions. The Patriarch of Aquileia, 
who was commander-in-chief, made every excuse 
for the insult, and requited the inhabitants for the 
losses they had sustained ; but on the return of the 
unsuccessful expedition of the allies from Prevesa 
to the Gulf of Cattaro, the Ragusan territory was 
again seriously threatened ; and the Venetians ad- 
vised an attack upon Ragusa as the ally of the 
Turks. This was opposed by Doria the admiral, 
and by Gonzaga, Viceroy of Naples ; who main- 
tained that the Pope and the Emperor wished hos- 
tilities to be directed solely against the Infidels, 
and not against a Christian state ; and it was finally 
resolved that they should attack Castel Nuovo. 

Thirteen thousand infantry were accordingly 
landed, with twenty-two pieces of cannon; and 
thirty Spaniards were put on board each Venetian 
ship, at the suggestion of Doria and of Gonzaga, 
who attributed to the Venetians the failure of their 
late expedition. The town was besieged by land and 
sea; breaches were speedily made in the walls ; and 
the Turkish commandant fled in the night, with 
200 horse, to the hills, leaving the city with 1 800 
people to the mercy of the Christians. 

On hearing of this event, the Ragusans sent 
ambassadors to request the admiral to respect their 


territory. They were received with courtesy ; and 
being informed by Doria that Vincenzo Capello, and 
Marco Grimani had designs against their liberty, 
intelligence was despatched to Ragusa ; where pre- 
parations were immediately made, for resisting 
any attempts against the city. All the buildings 
of the suburbs, from St. Giacomo to the three 
churches, were pulled down, and the trees and 
gardens were destroyed. They also took another 
effectual precaution. Doria was requested by the 
Senate, to allow his engineer to build the fortress 
called Mincetta, to strengthen the Rivellino, and to 
alter the eastern gate. 

No sooner had the fleet sailed from Castel Nuovo, 
than the Spanish garrison pillaged the 
territory of the Canali, carried off the 
inhabitants, and committed far greater excesses 
than the Turks, or the Slavonians ; and in addition to 
these, and other misfortunes, which then befel the 
Ragusans, was the capture of several vessels at 
Ragusa Vecchia by the Venetians. But the refusal 
of Sultan Suleyman to listen to any overtures of 
peace from the Doge, until the Ragusan ships had 
been restored, and the re-capture of Castel Nuovo 
by the redoubtable Barbarossa, relieved the Ragu- 
sans from their difficulties, and from the presence 
of troublesome neighbours. 

Peace was at length settled between Suleyman 
and the Venetians, and Ragusa seemed to 
be free from all cause of anxiety ; when 

Chap. V.] - DRAGUT AND ULUZ-ALI. 335 

the French, in their hostility to the Spaniards, 
prevailed on the Sultan to invade Sicily and the 
kingdom of Naples ; and the Turkish fleet returned 
into the Adriatic under the famous Dragut, and 
soon afterwards entered the waters of Ragusa. 
Anxious to court the good will of the Ottoman 
admiral, the Ragusans loaded him with presents ; 
and he promised, in return, to respect their flag ; 
but, while ravaging the coasts of Puglia and Cala- 
bria, he seized several Ragusan ships, and having 
taken out their cargoes turned them adrift. In vain 
the Senate appealed to the Sultan ; Dragut was 
master of the fleet ; and the Ragusans, in order to 
avoid him, sought other outlets for their 
trade, in the Mediterranean, and the 
ocean. They then joined the king of Spain, in an 
attack on Tripoli and Gerbi ; and found, too late, 
that it would have been better to expose them- 
selves, in the Adriatic, and the Archipelago, to 
Turkish corsairs, or Venetian cruisers. 

Uluz-Ali having soon afterwards occupied the 
Isle of Ohio, by order of Suleyman, entered 
the Adriatic with 134 sail, and inflicted 
dreadful ravages on the islands and coast of Dal- 
matia, carrying off men and women into captivity. 
On this occasion, the Senate of Ragusa gave a noble 
proof of humanity ; and succeeded, partly by en- 
treaty, and partly by money, in rescuing the Dal- 
matians from slavery, and restoring them to their 
country : those, too, who chose to remain at Ragusa 


found an asylum there, and the orphans, who had 
lost their parents and their homes, were maintained 
at the expense of the state. It was at this period 
that the towers were erected on the islands and the 
sea coast, which are still seen in various parts of 
the country. 

While Sultan Selim was preparing to attack the 
kingdom of Cyprus, the Turkish fleet 
re-entered the Adriatic, and pillaged the 
coast of Dalmatia. The Ragusans were again 
alarmed ; and their fears were increased by the dis- 
pleasure of Selim, at their friendship for Philip II. 
They succeeded, however, by presents and nego- 
tiation, in regaining the good will of the Sultan ; 
and the Turkish fleet shortly after sailed for the 

These frequent alarms induced the Ragusans 
to make further additions to the defences of 
their city : the fort of Sta. Margarita was erected 
on the south side ; and while the other works were 
in progress, Giovanni Flori was despatched to 
Philip II., to beg him to receive the Republic under 
his protection. Their cause, warmly advocated by 
Pope Pius V., received a still further recommen- 
dation, in their conduct to Marc' Antonio Colonna, 
the admiral of the Papal and Spanish fleets, and to 
Sforza Pallavicini, the Venetian general, whom they 
saved from shipwreck : and they were yet more 
remarkable for their generosity, in the protection 
given to the Venetian captain, Francesco Trono, 


when pursued by the redoubtable Karakooch * ; 
for not only did they prefer exposing their coast 
to the resentment of the Turks, rather than refuse 
a stranger the protection of a neutral port, but 
they even paid a ransom for his safety. 

On the conclusion of the league between the 
Pope, the King of Spain, and the Vene- 
tians, the Ragusan Senate, recollecting 
the injuries inflicted by the allies in the time of 
Paul III., commissioned their envoy Gondola, to 
solicit the Pope and the other princes, to respect the 
Ragusan territory, and prevent any acts of aggres- 
sion, during the voyage of the combined fleets. A 
clause was therefore introduced into the treaty, 
" that no hostility should be committed against the 
Republic of Ragusa, or its territory, without positive 
orders from the Pope, for some great reason." 

The welcome reception given to the allied fleet, 
at Ragusa, after their victory of Lepanto, 
once more excited the animosity of the 
Osmanlis ; the country was invaded by large 
bodies of troops from Bosnia, and some Turkish 
corsairs pillaged the Isle of Meleda. But the 
good understanding between the Ragusans and 
the Sultan was soon restored ; and that city 
was selected by him as the place, where, after 
the Spaniards had lost Tunis and Goletta, an 

* Karakooch, " the eagle," literally " the black bird." Kara- 
gios, the Turkish " punch," signifies " the black eye," 

VOL. I. Z 


interchange of prisoners should be made. More 
than sixty Christians of distinction, and 
an equal number of Turks, among whom 
were several Sangiaks, arrived at Ragusa ; and, being 
introduced into the chamber of the Grand Council, 
received from the Rettore the announcement of 
their liberation. 

The religious movement in Germany began to 
find some partisans in Ragusa, at this period, par- 
ticularly among the literati, whom Appendini con- 
siders "always the first to favour such changes ;" 
when the prompt measures of the Senate suppressed 
the growing spirit of innovation, and the Ragusan 
clergy congratulated themselves on being relieved 
from the fear of religious schism. 

The attachment of the Ragusans to the interests 
of Spain again doomed them to severe 
losses ; and forty of their largest ships, 
sent to aid in the conquest of Portugal, were 
wrecked in a violent storm off the port of Lisbon. 
Ragusa was also subject, about this time, to another 
vexation. The Usgocs*, who originally combined 
together for the purpose of attacking the Osmanlis, 
during the wars against Suleyman and Selim, and 
who, afterwards, under the protection of the House 
of Austria assailed both Christians and Turks, 
had established the most artful and vexatious 
system of piracy throughout the Adriatic. The 
Ragusans, as early as 1535, had been obliged to 

* See the end of the History in Chapter IX. 

Chap. V.] USCOCS. — LAGOSTANS. 339 

arm several gallies and gun-boats, in the Gulf of 
Narenta, and had built a small fort at Stagno 
Piccolo, with a view to check their depredations, 
and rid the sea of their presence ; and whenever 
any one of them was taken prisoner he was put 
to death. In one of these encounters, the father 
of a certain Giorge Danizzich, one of the voivodas 
of Segna, was killed ; and all the Uscocs united to 
avenge his death. The Senate therefore sent two 
captains to Punta in 1577, and armed the whole 
peninsula; till at length, the losses in life and 
property becoming serious, they appealed to Gregory 
XIII. ; who, finding that persuasion was useless 
with these lawless marauders, sent for Danizzich 
to Rome, and assigning him a pension, prevailed 
on the Uscocs to desist from piracy against the 
Ragusan flag. 

No sooner was this settled, than the Lagostans, 
under pretence that their privileges were 
infringed, rebelled, and resolved on giving 
themselves up to the Venetians ; but Serafino Za- 
magna, count, or governor, of the island, apprised 
of their intentions by some fishermen of Gravosa, 
with timely address secured the castle, and over- 
awed the people. A strong force was also sent 
from Ragusa ; and the Venetian fleet perceiving, 
from the standard of St. Biagio on the castle, that 
their partisans were discovered, retired to Curzola ; 
and when complaints were made to the Provveditore 
of this breach of faith, he denied any sinister inten- 

z 2 


tions on the part of the Venetians, and pretended 
that the presence of the fleet was only to prevent 
any disorders, of which the Uscocs might take 

It was not long before the inroads of those 
pirates again became a subject of anxiety 
to the Ragusans. Landing in the Valley 
of the Ombla, they had made forays as far as 
Cattaro, pillaged Trebigne, and retired with their 
booty to the Narenta ; eluding the pursuit of the 
soldiers sent to intercept their return ; when the 
Turks, holding the Ragusans responsible for the 
violation of their territory, threatened to take pos- 
session of the plain of Canali. The Senate did all 
in its power to deprecate the anger of the Porte, 
and, at the same time that it offered every excuse 
and explanation, sent envoys to Fiume, requesting 
the interference of the Imperial authority, to 
prevent the recurrence of similar outrages. But 
this representation met no better success than that 
of the Pope, and of the Venetians ; and when the 
war broke out between the Duke of Savoy and 
Venice on one side, and Philip III. and Ferdinand 
on the other, the Uscocs were taken into pay to act 
against the Venetians. 

The Ragusans, on that occasion, declared in 
favour of Spain. Little, however, occurred 
worthy of note during the war. The Duke of 
Ossuna, viceroy of Naples, sent a fleet into 
the Adriatic ; and Venice made great preparations 


against Austria and Spain ; but the mediation of 
France adjusted the differences between Philip and 
the Duke of Savoy, and a reconciliation being 
effected between Austria and Venice, peace was 
signed in 1617 ; by which it was agreed that the 
piracies of the Uscocs should be suppressed, and 
Ferdinand was obliged to remove this horde of mis- 
creants from Segna, into the interior of Croatia.* 

The friendship of the Turks was still maintained 
towards Ragusa ; and the momentary dis- 
pleasure of Abbas Pasha of Bosnia was 
speedily converted into good-will to the Republic. 
The advantages of Turkish protection were indeed 
often felt by the Ragusans ; and though humiliat- 
ing to a Christian state, which was obliged to send 
a deputation, headed by a noble, to congratulate 
every new Pasha of Bosnia on his accession, the 
benefits their commerce derived from it compen- 
sated for the degradation. The external relations 
of the Republic with other powers were equally 
satisfactory; trade flourished, and the Ragusans 
were enjoying all the blessings of peace and in- 
dustry ; when, in the morning of the 6th of April, 
1667, a calamity happened, by which their city was 
nearly all destroyed. 

The calm stillness of the atmosphere was little 
suspected to be an indication of approach- 

• it /» - a.d. 1667. 

mg danger ; and the terrors ot an earth- 

* See the History, jld. 1596, and the end of Chapter IX. 

z 3 


quake were only announced by the effects of the 
sudden shock itself, which destroyed every building 
except the fortresses, the lazaretto, and some edifices 
of solid construction. The sun had scarcely risen 
two hours; the inhabitants were mostly in their 
houses, or at prayers in the churches ; and 5000 
individuals were in an instant buried beneath 
the ruins. The crash of falling walls, the rocking 
of the earth, the groans of the dying, and the tears 
of those who had escaped, presented a scene of 
horror and dismay.* The ships in the port were 
dashed against each other, the sea rose to an un- 
usual height, the wells were dried up, and a dense 
cloud of sand filled the air. No one felt secure ; 
the dread of a second shock appalled the boldest ; 
and fear only subsided, to give place to grief, 
for the death or sufferings of relatives and 
friends. All had to lament the loss of some one 
who was dear to them; and the deaths of the 
Rettore Ghetaldi and other distinguished citizens 
were felt to be a public misfortune. Nine tenths of 
the clergy were killed ; and a whole school of boys, 
who some days afterwards were heard to cry for 
water, beneath the fallen walls, perished miserably, 
without the means of rescue. Smaller shocks con- 
tinued at intervals ; many persons fled to Grav6sa ; 
and so great was the fear of approaching the 

* This calamity has been described by Giacomo Palmotta, of 
Raguso, in an Illyric poem, which is much esteemed. See 
Appending vol. ii. p. 268. 


ruins and tottering walls, that none thought of 
extinguishing the fires, that had been kindled 
among the fallen rafters of the houses, and the 
public ovens. A strong wind springing up spread 
the flames in every direction ; and no sooner had 
the fire ceased, than a band of Morlacchi, who had 
come to the market, began to pillage whatever the 
fire had spared ; while the inhabitants, intent upon 
their own safety, or engaged in assisting their 
friends, were unable to interfere; and those who 
ventured to oppose them were murdered, for 
defending the property they had saved. 

The Senate, in the mean time, neglected no duty 
of humanity required at such a moment ; and every 
effort was made to check disorder, and repair the 
calamity. The gates were shut, to exclude other 
bands of Morlacchi, who were coming from the 
hills ; and measures were immediately taken, to 
rescue the wounded from the ruins. 

Confidence was at length restored j and the 
people, encouraged by the advice and example of the 
nobles, having overcome the first impulse of fear, 
which had suggested the abandonment of their city, 
made every effort to rebuild their habitations. Four 
families only followed the example of the arch- 
bishop ; who, with some monks, and numerous nuns, 
fled to Ancona. 

It may, however, be doubted whether the re- 
building of the city in the same spot, which had 
been the scene of this and other similar catastrophes, 

z 4- 


was a prudent step. The city had been before 
visited by a violent earthquake, in 1520, which con- 
tinued during twenty months ; another happened 
in 1639 ; and this, of 1667, occurring after so short 
an interval, might be thought to justify any appre- 
hensions for the future ; and it is certain that the 
country about Grav6sa offered many more eligible 
sites for a city ; having hitherto been secure from 
the effects of earthquakes, and being far better suited 
for defence, since the invention of artillery, than 
the commanded position of Ragusa. 

The sympathies of all the neighbouring states 
were enlisted in favour of the Ragusans, at this 
critical moment; and Clement IX. used all his 
influence to protect and assist them. Kara Mustafa 
alone, the savage conqueror of Cyprus, insensible 
to their sufferings, threatened, under the pretext of 
imaginary claims, to attack the rising city. In vain 
were four of the most distinguished citizens* of 
Ragusa sent to Silistria and Constantinople, to plead 
for their compatriots : they were treated with the 
insolence habitual to a barbarian despot ; and were 
detained in prison for several months. Kara Mus- 
tapha then, on his departure for the siege of Vienna, 
repeated his threats, which he promised to fulfil 
after the capture of the Austrian capital ; but his 
opportune death freed Ragusa from these 

a.d. 1683. . . ° . 

apprehensions, and a prospect seemed to 

* Nicolo Bona, and Marino Gozze to Silistria, and Marino 
Caboza and Vladislav Buchia to Constantinople. 


open for the enjoyment of her previous tranquillity ; 
when the league between the Emperor Leopold, the 
King of Poland, and Venice, under the auspices of 
Innocent XL, once more disquieted the Senate. 

The presence of a fleet, cruising in the neighbour- 
ing sea, and of a land force at Castel Nuovo, Subzi, 
and Zarina, garrisoned by Haiduks, were serious 
obstacles to the commerce of Ragusa, and to the 
safety of her territory. At length, the treaty of 
Carlovitz in 1699, and of Passarovitz in 1718, re- 
stored the amicable relations of the Republics of 
Venice and Ragusa; and it was stipulated in a 
separate article * that, " in order not to impede the 
intercourse between the dominions of the Grand 
Signor and the state of Ragusa, the Venetians 
should evacuate Popovo, Zarina, Subzi, and other 
places in the vicinity, and a free communication 
should be left between the territories of the Porte 
and of Ragusa, on the side of Risano." 

From this time the history of Ragusa offers little 
of interest f; few events interrupted its career; and 
the condition of its existence having been settled be- 
tween the Venetians and Turks, the previous causes of 
quarrel were removed ; and Ragusa was left to enjoy 
its liberty, and its commerce, without molestation. 

But at the beginning of the present century its 

* In the ninth article ; and the same was less clearly inserted 
in the second article of the treaty of Carlovitz. 

t See Von Engel's History of Ragusa, pp. 262. 266. 269. 277. 


liberty., and its very existence as a state, were des- 
tined to be overthrown, by a people whose inter- 
ference distance might have rendered improbable, 
and whose efforts to establish free institutions 
might have been supposed to proclaim them the 
friends, rather than the enemies, of liberty in other 

The territory of Ragusa was entered in 1806 by 
the French, the city was occupied by their army, 
and though the Ragusans had refused admission to 
the Russians, the enemies of France, and had ab- 
stained from every act that could be construed into 
hostility to her, their independence and liberty were 
disregarded, and their republic was suppressed. 

This was not their only misfortune. 

The inability of the French to protect the state, 
they had thus " annexed," brought grievous calami- 
ties on the Ragusans, whose country was exposed 
to the horrors of war, and was left a prey to the 
desolating inroads of the worst of enemies, the re- 
lentless Montenegrins ; and it was not till the pro- 
perty of this prosperous and industrious people had 
been sacrificed by land and sea, that they were fully 
aware of the consequences of a nominal " protec- 
tion," or sensible of the wise and patriotic advice of 
their illustrious countryman, Count Caboga. 

These events, and the operations consequent 
upon the retreat of the Russians and Montenegrins 
from the Ragusan territory, belong more properly 


to the general history of Dalmatia * ; but one 
circumstance relating particularly to Ragusa hap- 
pened in the beginning of 1814, when the city JL 
taken from the French, by the united arms of the 
English and the Austrians. 

This was done without loss ; and though the 
French kept up a heavy fire from all the works, 
they no sooner found that the English guns had been 
dragged up the mountain, and placed in battery 
against Fort Imperial, than they surrendered by 
capitulation ; and Ragusa from that time has formed 
part of the Austrian province of Dalmatia. 

The form of Government f at Ragusa was an . 
aristocratic republic ; which, after the year 1 204, 
when first governed by a Venetian Count, was 
assimilated to that of Venice ; the * state consisting 
of three councils, and the inhabitants being divided 
into three classes, the nobles or patricians, the 
commons, and the artisans; which last had no 
share in the government. The commons, or citi- 
zens, consisted of the two fraternities, of St. An- 
tonio, and St. Lazzaro; and the members were 
eligible to various public offices, on the nomination 
of the Senate. 

The Great, or General, Council, included all the 
nobles, above the age of eighteen, and had the 
privilege of appointing the Bettore, or Chief of the 

* See the History. 

| Appending vol. i. p. 185 — 190. 


Republic, who was nominated to his post on the 
25th of every month, as well as of electing the new, 
and of confirming the old, members of the Senate. 
Annually, on the 1 5th of December, it selected the 
magistrates for the city, and the districts ; and it 
confirmed the laws, condemned to death, and per- 
formed other duties of government. 

The second council, called the Pregati, or the 
Senate, was composed of forty-five members, or 
senators. Its authority was of such importance 
that no appeal was allowed from its decisions : it 
imposed taxes and duties, consulted on all the 
most important affairs of the state, received appeals 
in civil cases, appointed ambassadors, made peace 
and war, sent commissioners every three years to 
the districts, proclaimed new laws, and regulated 
every thing connected with political and fiscal mat- 
ters. It met four times every week, and two at 
a later period, and also whenever any peculiar 
emergency required. 

The select, or lesser. Council, composed of seven 
senators and the Rettore, held not only the execu- 
tive power over the ordinary, and extraordinary, 
branches of public administration, which were fixed 
by the Great Council and the Pregati, but decided 
civil and political, as well as minor criminal, cases. 
Its office was to execute the laws of the senate, to 
manage the correspondence with foreign powers, 
and the governors of the state ; affixing to them 
the public seal, and signing them with the name 

Chap. V.] OFFICES OF THE 8TATE. 349 

of "the Rettore and Councillors of the Republic 
of Ragusa" It also gave audiences to foreign 
ambassadors, to the archbishop, and the ministers 
of religion, as well as to foreigners of distinction ; it 
received appeals, and petitions for the other coun- 
cils, superintended the good order of the state, and 
brought before the Senate all those questions, over 
which its authority did not extend. It continued 
in office one year ; and its functions may be said 
to correspond to those of a sovereign. 

The chief of the Republic, who was at first called 
Priore, then Count, and afterwards Rettore, con- 
tinued in office one month, during which time he 
resided in the palace, and only appeared in public 
on particular occasions. In his charge were the 
keys of the city, and all the public documents: 
and his duty was to convoke the Great Council, 
and that of the Pregati, and to propose subjects for 
their discussion; though he was only entitled to 
one vote, like every other senator. 

Among the chief magistrates, the three Provvedi- 
tori of the Republic held a very exalted position ; 
and their office continued for one year. Superior 
to all others, except the Great Council and that of 
the Pregati, they had the power of suspending the 
laws, or their execution, until a cause had been 
re-examined by the Senate ; and their duty was to 
prevent any thing being done contrary to the 

Criminal cases were decided by a tribunal com- 


posed of four members ; with the right of appeal to 
the three Proweditori, who, after examining the 
evidence, submitted it to the Senate ; and when the 
affair was complicated, the judges themselves often 
referred it to the Pregati. Civil causes were judged 
by a tribunal composed of four members, called 
" Consoli deUe cause civili." 

The public treasury was administered by three 
persons, styled " Tesorieri di Sta. Maria ; " and 
the Mint, the health office, and other depart- 
ments had their respective boards : the members 
of which were only chosen from the Senators. 

Of the offices of second rank, the most impor- 
tant was that called " dette Cinque Bagioni" the 
duty of which was to check public accounts. 

There were also many more of the first and 
second class, connected with the custom-house and 
excise, weights and measures, the supply of water, 
police, public safety, and other matters : but all 
persons employed in the various departments were 
chosen by votes of the Senate ; so that not only 
was the government aristocratic, but every em- 
ployment was dependent on the Patricians, and 
those they nominated. But the abuses that crept 
into the Venetian Republic were happily unknown 
in Ragusa ; the patriotic conduct of the nobles 
prevented that discord, arising from the clashing 
interests of the aristocracy and people, which occa- 
sioned such incessant feuds in other Republics; 
and with the exception of the attempted usurpation 

Chap. V.] COMMERCE OF fcAGUSA. 351 

of Damiano Juda, and a dispute between the old and 
new noblesse, in 1763, nothing occurred to disturb 
the general harmony of all classes at Ragusa. The 
position, however, of this state, exposed it to con- 
stant alarms ; surrounded as it was by troublesome 
neighbours, and subject alternately to the intrigues 
and ambition of Venice, the unsettled and dis- 
cordant projects of the Slavonian princes, the 
unstable friendship of the Hungarians, the selfish 
views of the Spaniards, and the capricious insolence 
of the Turks, to the ignominy of whose protection 
the hostility of Venice obliged it to submit ; and 
the whole career of the Ragusan Republic was a 
struggle for self-preservation, and the maintenance 
of its independence in the midst of constant danger. 
But by her judicious policy, Ragusa succeeded 
in securing her own liberty, and even afforded at 
all times an asylum to the unfortunate, with a 
noble disregard for the menaces of an offended and 
powerful neighbour ; and for two centuries she was 
the medium of communication between the states 
of Christian Europe and the Turks. 

Commerce. — Ragusa was noted, from a very early 
time, for its commerce. Its position, the limited 
extent of the lands fit for cultivation, and the con- 
sequent necessity of supplying the various wants 
of the inhabitants from abroad, made it dependent 
on trade ; and Porphyrogenitus shows that, as early 
as 868, its vessels were sufficiently numerous to 



transport the Slavonians and other troops, in the 
expedition against Bari, from Dalmatia to the coast 
of Italy. 

In 980, a Ragusan ship was captured by the 
Venetians, having a cargo worth 25,000 ducats; 
and, in 997, another of about half that value ; which 
shows the state of its trade at that time, and the 
early rivalry of those two republics. In 1080 the 
Ragusans assisted Guiscard with two armed gallies, 
when he defeated the forces of Alexius Comnenus 
and the Doge Domenico Silvio near Durazzo ; and 
in 1240 a treaty was made with the Almissans, 
which proves that the Ragusan commerce already 
extended to the eastern, and western, shores of the 

From that time their trade continued to increase : 
and, in the fifteenth century, it assumed an imposing 
character ; which was promoted by the permission, 
from the Holy See, to trade with the Infidels. 

The friendly relations, existing between the Ra- 
gusans and the Porte, enabled them to enjoy an 
undisturbed traffic, when other flags were exposed 
to the depredations of the Moslems ; much of the 
carrying trade fell into their hands ; and the pri- 
vilege they obtained by treaty, to receive into their 
port ships of states at war with the Porte, con- 
ferred a great benefit on the commerce of Ragusa. 

With Spain their trade was on a very great 
scale ; and from the number of ships lost when in 
alliance with that country, some idea may be 


formed of the extent of the mercantile navy of 
Ragusa ; more than 300 captains, with their vessels, 
having been at various periods in the service of 
Charles V. and his successors. 

They also traded with the English, and Dutch ; 
and some of their ships went to India, and the 
American coast. With the Dutch they had inti- 
mate commercial relations; and the advantages 
they enjoyed in England are shown by a letter 
written to the Senate by Cromwell, who granted 
them numerous commercial privileges in every 
English port. There are also some interesting 
letters of Archbishop Beccatello to Cardinal Pole, 
published by Cardinal Quirini, in which he recom- 
mends to his friendly offices the Ragusan merchants 
settled in England. 

Many of their ships were of great size, and the 
name Argosies, or Ragosies*, was derived from 
the large merchant ships of Ragusa. But the 
increasing trade of the Dutch and English inflicted 
great injuries on that of Ragusa ; and, after the great 
earthquake of 1667, its marine consisted of little 
more than trabaccoli, and small craft. Soon after 
this, it revived, for a short period ; and during the 
siege of Gibraltar great profit was made by the Ra- 
gusans ; since which time it has undergone various 
changes; and Ragusa, unable to compete with a 
port that enjoys so many privileges as Trieste, has 

* Appending vol. i. p. 214. who quotes Ricaut. 
VOL. I. A A 


now not more than seven brigs, and the whole 
circolo has scarcely forty vessels, of sufficient size 
to trade with the Levant, and other distant coun- 
tries. The manufactures too of Ragusa no longer 
flourish; and they are confined to silk handker- 
chiefs, and a few unimportant articles. 

The land trade of Ragusa, with its eastern neigh- 
bours, was not less prosperous than its maritime 
commerce. The fickleness of the Slavonic princes, 
though at first a disadvantage, was ultimately a 
benefit to the Ragusans, as it led them to look 
for commercial intercourse with the Levant; but 
when the Turks were settled in Bosnia, the trade 
with the interior received a fresh impulse; and 
this was increased by Ragusa becoming the 
point of contact between Egypt, Syria, Barbary, 
and the Western Turks. Caravans visited the 
city to receive from, and pour into, it numerous 
exports and imports; among which were hides, 
wax, wool, silks, and stuffs of various kinds ; and it 
derived a great profit from its cloth, and other 
woollen fabrics established at Ragusa* in 1490, 
as well as from the silk looms, introduced from 
Tuscany in 1530, and from oil, coral, glass, salt, 
shoes, and various manufactures. 

Such was the flourishing condition of the city 
that it contained, with the suburbs, 40,000 inha- 
bitants!; and its importance, as a place of commerce, 

* See above, p. 329., and Appendini, i. pp. 210. 226. 
j The whole commune has now only 6318 inhabitants. 


is fully proved by the well-known wealth of its 
merchants, during the fifteenth and sixteenth cen- 
turies, by the number of its trading ships and other 
vessels, and by the sums expended by the state at 
various periods. 

Education. — The care bestowed on education in 
Ragusa rendered the people greatly superior to the 
Dalmatians under Venetian rule; who were pur- 
posely kept in ignorance, by the narrow policy of 
that government ; and in order to enable their sons 
to enjoy all the benefits of the best instruction, it 
was customary for parents to send them to the uni- 
versities of Italy. The consequences of this inter- 
course with Italy were, that the Ragusans spoke 
better Italian than any other people in Dalmatia, 
were more refined in manners, and more distin- 
guished in literary and scientific pursuits. 

Of their character, Watkins, an unbiassed au- 
thority, gives a very favourable picture. He lauds 
the conduct of the nobles, and upper classes ; to 
whom he attributes all the qualities that result 
from a love of virtue, and a refined education, 
unalloyed by the vices and deceit, common to people 
in immediate contact with foreigners. And distin- 
guished for learning without ostentation, and for 
great politeness and hospitality without envy, they 
appeared to him to have so few defects, that he 
scrupled not to pronounce them the best and hap- 
piest community, with which he was acquainted. 

A A 2 


In literature and science, the Ragusans have 
indeed held a very conspicuous position: as the 
names of the mathematicians Ghetaldi, Boscovich, 
and Gradi, and of the historians Tuberone, Cerva, 
and Banduri fully testify. Bona, Benessa, Saraca, 
Giorgio, the Cabogas, Luccari, Stay, and many more, 
were remarkable for their talents; the Bobalis, 
Giorgi, Bune, and others, were celebrated in the 
armies and fleets of the Republic; and Ragusa boasts 
several poets, whose names and works are still 
popular in the country. Of these the most distin- 
guished was Gian-Francesco-Gondola *, author of 
the Gsmanide, a Slavonic (or Illyric) poem in 
twenty cantos, describing the wars of the Turks 
and Poles, in 1622. He is looked upon as the 
Homer of their language ; and was greatly superior 
to Giorgi, Palmotta, or any other who followed, or 
preceded, him. 

It would be tedious to enumerate all the men of 
talent, whose names are celebrated by their coun- 
trymen; but I must not omit to mention that 
Ragusa also produced some women, distinguished 
in the world of letters ; the most noted of whom 
was Floria Zuzzeri. She was born about 1555, 
and in 1577 married an Italian noble, Bartolomeo 
Pescioni, of Florence; where, as at Ragusa, she 

* Gondola died in 1638, at the age of fifty. See Appending ii. 
pp. 233. 262. A work is now publishing at Ragusa of all the 
distinguished natives of' that city, with portraits. 


established her reputation for poetry, and the taste 
of a highly cultivated mind. 

The celebrated Ghetaldi, and Boscovich deserve 
more particular notice, having held so distinguished 
a place among the mathematicians and philosophers 
of Europe. 

Marino Ghetaldi was born at Ragusa in 1566, of 
a noble family, originally from Tarentum. At an 
early age he was sent to Rome, and then to Paris, 
where he continued his studies under Francis 
Vieta. He afterwards travelled, in order to be- 
come acquainted with the learned men of his time, 
visiting Germany, Belgium, France, and England ; 
in which last country he remained two years. 

Among his principal friends were Clavio, Cardinal 
Olivario, Pinelli, and Fra Paolo Sarpi. Of a most 
estimable disposition, he had all the virtues that 
adorn a private individual, and all the talents re- 
quired for a public man ; and his maxim, " malim 
scire guam nosci, discere quam docere" shows the 
unpretending modesty of his character. His prin- 
cipal works are Promotus Archimedes, on the 
Gravity of Bodies: 2. Some Propositions on the 
Parabola, first discovered and published in 1 603 : 
3. Apollonius Redivivus : 4. Supplementum Apol- 
lonii Galli : 5. A Collection of various Problems : 
and, 6. De Resolutione et Compositione Mathe- 
matics (lib. 8.), a posthumous work published at 
Rome in 1630, seven years before the Algebra of 
Descartes. It is this which gives him so high a 

A A 3 



position, as a mathematician. " Descartes is always 
considered to have been the first to introduce the 
application of algebra to geometry, and he was 
doubtless the first to apply the analyses to curves, 
and to demonstrate their properties, constructing 
equations above the second degree with the inter- 
section of the same curves ; but it is equally cer- 
tain, that the first step* was made by Ghetaldif, 
in the construction of equations of the first and 
second degrees." J 

Ghetaldi is said also to have been preparing, at 
the time of his death, two other works, on the 
Burning Glass, and the Rays of Vision, and Light, 
and the Rainbow. 

It was from the experiments he made, to verify 
the use of burning glasses by Archimedes, that his 
fame has been preserved among the common people 
of Ragusa ; who, recording the tradition of his having 
burnt a boat by those means, speak of him as the 
Magician B6t£; and the cave on the shore, near 
Ragusa, to which he often retired, has hence re- 
ceived the name of Spilla Betina.§ He died in 1624, 
at the age of fifty-eight. 

Ruggiero Guiseppe Boscovich, one of the most 
eminent mathematicians and philosophers of Eu- 
rope, was born at Ragusa in 1711. He was the 

* This was also due to Francois Vieta, who wrote in 1600. 

f They also ascribe to him the invention of the telescope. 

J Appendini, vol. ii. p. 47. 

§ See above, p. 271. 


son of Nicolo Boscovich and Paola Betera, both 
citizens of Ragusa. 

His parents, preferring the old rigorous mode of 
education, consigned him to the care of the Jesuits ; 
and after completing his studies at Rome, his 
learning became so well known, that John V. of 
Portugal applied to him to survey a portion of 
Brazil, and to measure a degree of the Meridian, in 
order to combine with that of Quito, determined by 
the French academicians. But Cardinal Gonzaga, 
unwilling that he should quit Rome, employed him 
on the same service, in the Pontifical states ; where 
he was also consulted, respecting the best means of 
remedying some deficiencies in the support of the 
dome of St. Peter's ; and was made a member of 
the commission, appointed to devise the best plan 
for draining the Pontine marshes. 

He afterwards visited Vienna and Paris ; and in 
1759 came to England, on a mission from Ragusa. 

The English, suspecting that the Ragusans had 
permitted some French ships to be fitted out in 
their port, had made representations against this 
supposed infringement of their neutrality; and 
Boscovich was commissioned by the Senate, to 
assure the British government that their appre- 
hensions were groundless, and to convince them of 
the good faith of the Republic. After he had ful- 
filled these duties, he remained here three years ; 
during which time he became acquainted with Dr. 
Johnson ; by whom his talents do not appear to have 

A A 4 


been so well understood, or appreciated, as by the 
Royal Society. Received by the President (Lord 
Macclesfield) and the Council, with the greatest dis- 
tinction, he was elected a Fellow of the Society * ; 
and he was afterwards invited to accompany the 
scientific party, sent to California in 1769, to 
observe the transit of Venus over the sun's disk. 
To his extreme regret, he was obliged to decline 
the invitation, as all Jesuits had been forbidden 
the Spanish dominions, and as his mission required 
him to go back to Ragusa; and his attempt to 
reach Constantinople, in time for the same observa- 
tion, was also unsuccessful. 

Preferring the land journey to a voyage by sea, 
he returned, with the British ambassador, through 
the provinces of the ancient Illyricum ; and in 1764 
revisited Italy, where he accepted the chair of Ma- 
thematics, in the University of Pavia; and, four 
years afterwards, held, for a short time, the post of 
Professor of Optics and Astronomy, at Milan. 

On the final suppression of the Jesuits, in 1773, 
Boscovich resolved on going to Paris, at the 
invitation of the Comte de Vergennes, minister of 
foreign affairs, whom he had known at Constan- 
tinople; and he became one of the directors of 
optics, in the service of the French navy, with a 
salary of 8000 livres ; till, being offended at Bou- 
guer's obtaining the merit of inventing his method 

* He dedicated a Poem on Eclipses to the Royal Society. 


for calculating the orbits of comets, he left that 
city in 1783; and four years afterwards died at 
Milan, on the 13th of February 1787, at the age of 

The writings of Boscovich, on mechanics, hy- 
drodynamics, physics, optics, astronomy, and dif- 
ferent philosophical and mathematical subjects, are 
surprising for their variety, and the great know- 
ledge they display ; and he was one of the first who 
adopted the Newtonian system on the Continent, 
which he introduced at Rome in 1743. His dis- 
sertation (published in 1736) de Macvlis Solaribus 
is also much esteemed ; in which is given, for the 
first time, the geometrical solution of the astro- 
nomical problem of the Equator and rotation of the 
sun ; determined by three observations of a spot. 

His Latin poetry was remarkable for great ele- 
gance and force ; and he had the singular talent of 
giving the details of positive science and calcu- 
lation, in his verse compositions ; but the work, for 
which he has acquired the greatest celebrity, is his 
" new system of natural philosophy, which has 
occupied much of the attention of the learned, and 
which alone will render his name immortal." * 

Reflecting on the past history of Ragusa, every 
one who visits it must be impressed with the 

* A long notice of this work, and of his life, is given in the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica. Nearly all the above is extracted 
from Appending who also gives a full account of his life and 
writings. Vol. ii. pp. 50 — 64. 


melancholy state, to which it is now reduced. So 
great is the decrease in the number of its inhabit- 
ants, that they do not exceed 6318 * in the whole 
commune ; and the quantity of shipping, that once 
visited its port, is diminished in a similar ratio. 
The streets look deserted ; grass grows between the 
stones ; and the absence of that activity, which indi- 
cates a flourishing trade, sadly contrasts with the 
evident signs of its ancient prosperity, in the style 
of its buildings. 

Notwithstanding the fallen condition of the city, 
the people bear the mark of their former supe- 
riority ; but whatever may be its present, or future, 
fate, the hospitable protection given by Ragusa to 
the unfortunate must ever be, for an Englishman, a 
high claim to respect ; and that Republic may justly 
be proud of a history, marked by generous and noble 
actions, and a career unsullied, to the last, by the 
corruptions of a declining state. Their language, 
though gradually falling into the Venetianisms of 
the other Dalmatian towns, still retains some of 
that pure Italian idiom, for which it was always 
noted ; they have still a taste for literature ; and 
the libraries of Ragusa are supplied with good, and 
even rare, works. . 

The main street, called the Corso, is about 1000 
feet in length, extending in a straight line through 

* Of these only 279 are Greeks, and 146 Jews. According 
to Carrara, there are only nineteen more Greeks, in the whole 
circolo of Ragusa. 


the town, from the western, to the sea, gate. It is of 
proportionate width, with a commodious side pave- 
ment, and the houses are regular and good, though 
of unpretending architecture. At the west end 
are the Church of the Redeemer, the Francis- 
can Convent, and a public fountain ; and at the 
other extremity are the Clock-tower, the Custom- 
house, and a small place between them and the 
Cathedral. Another spacious street meets this at 
right angles, and extends from the Cathedral to the 

The rest of the streets are narrow, and some 
have steps, as at Curzola ; but they are not less 
clean and well paved, and some of them present 
very picturesque vistas. No indifference to clean- 
liness, so often observable in the south of Europe, 
shocks the stranger ; no half-clothed beggar insists 
on charity by importunate demands, or forces com- 
passion by an unsightly appearance of distress; and 
the decline of prosperity has not been allowed to 
induce, or permit, a display of poverty. The houses 
are strongly built, and of excellent stone; many 
have the handsome balconies, with treble win- 
dows, common in Venetian towns; and the general 
character of Ragusa is that of *a neat and clean 
town. Before some of the smaller houses, in the 
back streets, are vines, trained over lattice work, 
which give them a cheerful appearance, and offer 
a melancholy contrast to the ruined walls of those 
destroyed by the great earthquake ; several of them 


having been left in the state to which they were 
then reduced, as if to record the entire destruction, 
or impoverishment, of the families, to whom they 

No place offers more gloomy reminiscences of 
the effects of an earthquake than Ragusa ; its very 
streets are paved with sad mementos of 1667 ; and 
the destruction of the town brought with it the 
downfal of its prosperity. Once every twenty years 
these awful visits are repeated ; though none have 
occurred with the same fatal violence as in 1667 ; 
and the last, which happened on September 14. 
1843 *, followed by several small shocks, was not 
sufficient to injure any of the houses. But this 
frequent return of earthquakes shows the danger, 
to which Ragusa is always exposed ; and the folly 
of not having removed to a safer and better spot 
is proved by the fact, that no shocks have, on any 
occasion, been felt either at Gravosa, or in the 
suburbs of the city. The principal buildings at 
Ragusa are the Palace, Custom-house, Cathedral, 
Franciscan Convent, the Jesuits, afterwards the 
Schuole Pie, and many other churches and con- 
vents, which are so numerous that they occupy 
a very large potion of the whole city. In 
no place indeed is the profusion of sacred build- 
ings greater than at Ragusa ; and when it is re- 

* At 5 p.m. the atmosphere serene, a few small clouds, wind 
E.N.E. and N.W., barometer 28-5J, thermometer 19° R r . 74f ° 


membered that every noble family had its own 
chapel, we cease to wonder at the number, or at 
the merit claimed by the Ragusans, of being " the 
supporters of religion, and the authority of the 

The Palace, which is in the Florentine style, is 
interesting from its associations; having existed 
during the most flourishing days of the Republic. 
It was the residence of the chief of the state, called 
at different times Priore, Conte, and Rettore ; and 
is now occupied by the Capo Circolare, or Governor 
of the district, of Ragusa. 

The original building was nearly all destroyed 
by the great fires, which happened in 1023*, 1 296 f* 
and 1459 ; so that it does not date previous to the 
fifteenth century, no portion of it having been 
saved from the last fire, except the treasury and 
archives. It withstood the earthquake of 1667, 
which only destroyed the roof and first floor ; but 
some even of the lower part seems to be as late as 
the sixteenth century; to which time I should 
ascribe the columns, supporting the arched corridor 
of the entrance front ; in opposition to the popular 
belief that " they were brought from Epidaurus, 

* Luccari says on the 21st of March, the feast of St. Bene- 
detto, when nearly all the city was destroyed. The church 
and convent of that saint were vowed at that time, and after- 
wards built on the Isle of Diomeda, now Tremidi ; but accord- 
ing to Appending the architect was brought from Tremidi, to 
build the church on the Isle of Lacroma. 

t Farlati says 1297, and mentions the plague, in 1456. 


where they belonged to the temple of Esculapius." 
Some go so far as to point out the Greek deity, on 

one of the capitals, who is no other than a mortal 
alchemist, holding a book in one hand, and resting 
the other on a shelf, surrounded by bottles and 
various appurtenances of his craft, among which 
is an alembic, in the very act of distilling.* The 
other capitals ornamented with Cupids, or angels, 
and mouldings imitative of Greek style, sufficiently 
show the age to which tbey belong. 

The court within is open in the centre, and sur- 

* The art of distilling was introduced into Europe in 1150, 
by the Moors of Spain. A still in Arabic ia called dist or dust. 
Alembic is also Arabic. 


rounded by a corridor on arches. It has a hand- 
some staircase on one side ; and round the upper 
part runs another corridor; the whole very similar 
to some of the palaces of Italy. In this court is a 
bust of Michael Prazato (or Prazetz), of the Isle of 
Lopud *, who bequeathed a large sum of money to 
the Republic. It bears the date 1638. 

Near it is a square kind of pillar, once used for 
supporting the flag-staff of the standard of St. 
Biagio, in the time of the Republic ; and afterwards 
applied to a similar purpose by the Austrians, until 
January 6. 1824, when it was blown down by a 
storm. At the back is a groove for fastening the 
staff ; at the sides are represented two Gothic win- 
dows, one over the other ; and in front is the figure 
of a knight in plate armour, who is said to represent 
Roland, or Orlando. It formerly stood on the square, 
or place, before the custom-house and cathedral, 
near the sea gatef ; and round it a small space 
was railed off, between four columns, where public 
edicts were proclaimed. The Ragusans say that 
it indicated the right of judgment, or of holding 
courts, and was a token of the supreme jurisdiction 
enjoyed by the city, as the capital of the province ; 
a meaning attached to similar figures in Germany, 
which were also intended to denote the supreme 
civil authority, and the right of inflicting capital 
punishment ; and were, in like manner, distinguished 

* Or Isola di Mezzo. 

I See Appending vol. i. p. 96 — 98. 


by the name of Roland.* This peculiar symbol of 
civil jurisdiction is curious ; but it is still more 
remarkable, that the favourite hero of German, 
French, and Italian romance, should have obtained 
the same traditional honours in Dalmatia. 

The custom of hoisting the standard, on certain 
days, and occasions of public rejoicing, was common, 
not only in Ragusa, but at Venice and other towns ; 
and the spot was generally a public square f, or an 
open space near the port. 

The custom-house stands at the eastern extremity 
of the main street, close to the Porta Plocce, or sea- 
gate. It is built in the Venetian style, with a triple 
window in the centre, and single side windows, on 
the first floor ; and before the entrance is a covered 
corridor on arches. The interior consists of an 
open court, with arches on columns on two sides, 
leading to several magazines, each of which is 
dedicated to a particular saint, whose name is 
written over the door. The office of the original 
custom-house is dedicated to " St. Michael the Arch- 
angel," with the motto " Render unto Caesar the 
things that are Caesar's ; " and over the arch at the 
upper end of the court, where all the goods were 

* Appendini (p. 96.) quotes Grifiandr. Tract, de Weich- 
bildis Saxonic. c. 73. " Idem fere statuis urbium Saxonicarum 
contigit, quse cum primoWeichbildi dicerentur, ac jurisdiction em, 
sive territorium civitatis denotarent, factum est, ut imperita 
plebs videns colossos istos . . . Rulandos vulgo cognominaret." 

f At Venice on the Piazza of St. Mark. 


weighed, is a Latin inscription, relating to just 
weights, and ending "pondero cum merces pon- 
derat ipse Deus." 

Besides the custom-house, this building formerly 
contained the mint, which occupied the eastern 
side. The place is shown where the dies were 
fixed, at the end of a long room ; and in an adjoin- 
ing chamber they melted the metal. The whole is 
of very solid construction, the stones fastened 
together with lead ; and it is one of the few build- 
ings that survived the great earthquake of 1667- 
The cathedral is dedicated to St. Biagio, who seems 
to have succeeded St. Sergius, and St. Bacchus, as 
protector of Ragusa.* It is in the Italian style, 
not remarkable for its architecture ; but rather for 
the numerous relics it contains. 

The church and convent of the Franciscans are 
spacious, and the cloisters are handsome. I was 
indebted for much kindness to the superior, Padre 
Sebastiano Francovich, during my stay at Ragusa ; 
and in the library of one of the monks was shown 
a collection of curious and rare books. The church 
adjoining it, called Chiesa del Redentoref, was 
founded in compliance with a vow, made by the 
nobles of Ragusa, during the earthquake of 1520. 

* See above, p. 281. Farlati says this did not happen till 
about 1026 ; when the head of St. Biagio, or Blasius, was 
brought from Armenia, or from Cappadocia. 

t Appendini says the Church of the Ascension was founded 
at that time by a vow of the nobles. Vol. i. p. 324. note. 

VOL. I. B B 


In style it bears some resemblance, externally, to 
the Cathedral of Sebenico, though it is much smaller. 
Before it is a fountain, supplied by an aqueduct 
from Gionchetto, (a village distant about two miles 
and a half,) having the date 1438. 

The approach to the church and convent of the 
Jesuits is by a flight of steps, which looks like a 
humble imitation of the ascent to the TrinitA at 
Rome. This church is considered the finest building 
in Ragusa. It is of the seventeenth century, in the 
Greco-Italian style of that period ; and contains the 
tomb of the celebrated Boscovich, who died at Milan 
in 1787. After the order of Jesuits was suppressed 
in 1773, this building was given to the Padri Sco- 
lopi*, to whom the church still belongs, the convent 
being converted into a military hospital. Near it 
is the Piazza delle Erbe ; which, on market days, is 
crowded with peasants in various costumes. 

The building, which would have offered the 
greatest interest to an Englishman, from having 
been founded by Richard Coeur de Lion, on his re- 
turn from the Holy Landf, was the old cathedral; 
but this was unfortunately destroyed in 1667 ; 
and nothing now remains of those early times. 

Ragusa boasts a small inn, the Corona d'Unghe* 
ria ; and there is no difficulty in hiring rooms in 
the town. 

The city lies in a hollow, with an ascent on either 

* A strange corruption of Delle Schuole Pie. 
f See above, p. 299. 

Chap. V.] PORT OF RAGUSA. 371 

side ; and from its position, backed by dry rocky 
hills, is very hot in summer. Near the N.E. corner 
of the walls is a tower, called Mincetto ; and, on the 
east, the fort of Rivellino, or Fortezza Pia. The 
fort San Lorenzo stands on a rock in the sea, to the 
west, which is seen as you approach the town from 
Gravosa, through the suburb of Pille. The walls, 
with projecting towers as at Curzola, resemble those 
of the middle ages, and are little adapted to resist 
the modern improvements in military science. On 
the summit of Monte Sergio, 1443 feet above the 
level of the sea, stands the Forte Imperiale, erected 
by the French during their occupation of Dalmatia ; 
to which a zigzag road leads from the town. 

The port which is on the east side of Ragusa is 
very small, scarcely large enough for half-a-dozen 
square-rigged vessels; and, indeed, all ships, in- 
cluding the steamers, prefer the spacious and secure 
bay of Gravosa, particularly in winter, when the 
roadstead of Ragusa is far from safe. 

The custom-house and other parts of the town 
bear marks of the attack of the Russians * in 1806, 
as the country still shows the effect of the ruth- 
less pillage of the Montenegrins ; and some of 
the ruined houses of the Borgo Pille attest the 
destruction of the western suburb, which was 
nearly all burnt on that occasion. 

Ragusa has two suburbs, one on the east, called 

* See the History. 

BB 2 


Borgo Plocce, the other on the west, called Borgo 
Pille, corresponding to the two gates of the same 
name. Outside the Porta Plocce, or sea-gate, is 
the Lazaretto ; and near it is a large space, sur- 
rounded by a wall, where the bazaar is held, three 
times a week.* The Turkish caravan meets at 
Bergato, near the confines of Herzegovina, about 
three miles from Ragusa, and is escorted by a 
guard to the bazaar ; whence it is reconducted, in 
the same manner, in the evening. Ragusa has 
neither carriages, nor draught horses, every thing 
being carried by porters; and the sedan chairs, 
employed in former times by the nobles, are now 
nearly out of use. 

Ragusa has no longer an archbishop, but is 
merely a bishop's see ; and the metropolitan of all 
Daimatia is the archbishop of Zara, the capital of 
the province. 

The costumes of the men in the city, and its 
vicinity, have more of the Turkish character, "than 
those of the Morlacchi. That of Breno is the most 
remarkable; though the dress of the Brenese women 
is neither peculiar nor elegant, and might be pro- 
nounced Italian. The women of Canali wear a 
singular costume, and often adopt the opanche, or 
sandals of the mountaineers ; and this is the one 
most frequently seen in the town, on market days. 

In going from Ragusa by land to Cattaro, or to 

• Petter, p. 171. 


the Narenta, it is necessary to be accompanied by 
a guardiano, or health officer, as the road passes 
through the Turkish territory ; which extends down 
to the sea, at Klek to the north, and at Suttorina 
to the south; though the road itself belongs to 
Austria. This singular arrangement is owing to 
a religious prejudice of the Turks, forbidding them 
to sell, or voluntarily to cede, any possessions to 
Christians ; and these two slips of land, which they 
occupied, in order to separate the Ragusan from 
the Venetian states, are still retained by the Porte, 
and leave the territory of Ragusa isolated from the 
rest of Dalmatia. In return for this selfish policy, 
the Austrians prevent their using the sea in that 
part, for military purposes, and no Turkish troops 
are allowed to land on the coast. 

To the S.E. of the port is the island of La- 
croma, so often mentioned in the History of Ra- 
gusa ; lying on the right, as you leave it for Cattaro ; 
the voyage to which, by the steamer, takes six 
hours. You pass in sight of Ragusa Vecchia, the 
ancient Epidaurus, which is in a small bay, about 
seven miles from Ragusa. It is called in Illyric 

Epidaurus was founded, B.C. 689, by a Greek 
colony, as some suppose from Epidaurus in La- 
conia. As in the two cities of the same name, in 
Peloponnesus, Esculapius was the principal deity 
of the Illyrian Epidaurus. His temple was cele- 
brated, and tradition speaks of a cavern, the abode 

BB 3 


of the serpent consecrated to him, which is still 
shown near the town. But Ragusa Vecchia no 
longer contains any remains of Epidaurus ; and all 
memorials of its site are confined to inscriptions, 
fragments of walls, coins, and other things found 
by excavation. 

It had a small port, which was much frequented 
in early times, and under the Romans it became a 
colony*, with the name of Colonia Epidaurus, or 
Colonia Asclepitana Epidaurensis. It passed into 
their hands in 168 B.C. ; but no notice occurs of it 
until the civil war of Pompey and Caesar, when 
having declared in favour of the latter it was 
besieged by Octavius. The opportune arrival of 
Vatinius relieved it ; and nothing more occurred, 
until a revolt of the Epidaurians, against the Ro- 
mans, called for the interference of the Proconsul 
C. Asinius Pollio ; who reduced them to obedience, 
and obtained, as we are told by his friend Horace, 
the honour of a " Dalmatian triumph." f 

From that time Epidaurus preserved its fidelity 
to Rome ; in the long war of Augustus and 
Tiberius against the Illyrians, it remained firm to 

* Or Epidaurum. See Plin. iii. c. 22., and the inscriptions 
found there. 

f Hor. lib. ii. od. 1. : — 

"Pollio, .. . 

Cui laurus seternos honores 
Dal mat i co peperit triumpho." 

He is supposed also to have taken Salon a. 

Chap. V.] CASTEL NUOVO. 375 

the Roman cause ; and it continued to be a useful 
colony, until its destruction in the third century,* 

The modern town of Ragusa Vecchia is now so 
much reduced, that the commune has only 521 
houses, with a population of 3102 souls. 

Near it is the supposed site of the rocks of 
Cadmus and Harmonia, or Hermione ; where a 
tomb, or temple, was raised to their honour. The 
position, however, of that monument seems as 
doubtful as the history of those celebrated indi- 
viduals; and the abode and tomb of Cadmus, 
placed by ancient writers in different parts of the 
country, seem rather to have been within the 
confines of modern Albania, f 

On entering the Bocche di Cattaro, the " mouths," 
or Gulf, of Cattaro, you pass, on the left, the narrow 
point of land belonging to Turkey, which separates 
the districts of Ragusa and Cattaro ; and in front 
is Castel Nuovo, which looks as if placed to watch 
the entrance of this splendid harbour. 

Castel Niiovo was founded by Stephen Tuartko 
I.J, King of Bosnia, in 1373, and the fort above the 
suburbs, to the N. W., by the Spaniards in the reign 
of Charles V., which was afterwards enlarged by the 
Venetians. The walls have been much injured, by 

* See above, p. 274. Farlati says it was recaptured in 1538. 

f The Enchelei were at war with the Illyrians at his arrival ; 
but Pliny (Hi. 21.) ascribes the "Encheleae" to Liburnia, and 
Lucio thinks the old name of Ulyria was Enchelia. 

} See the History. 

b b 4 


the numerous sieges it has sustained, and by the 
effect of earthquakes; and Castel Nuovo, Budua, 
and Cattaro, all suffered from that of 1667. 

The country about the Gulf of Cattaro be- 
longed, in the fourteenth century, to the Hun- 
garians; but the possession of the strong fortress 
of Castel Nuovo, which he had built while enjoying 
the friendship of Louis, induced Tuartko to extend 
his dominions; and, forgetting the gratitude he 
owed to his benefactor, he no sooner found the 
affairs of Hungary in disorder, than he wrested all 
the neighbouring country from his daughter Maria, 
and expelled the Hungarians. 

In the beginning of the following century, it 
was retaken from his son, Tuartko II.; after 
which, in 1483, it fell into the hands of the 
Turks, who kept possession of it till 1538, 
when it was taken from them by the Spaniards 
and Venetians.* It was recaptured, the following 
year, by the famous Barbarossa, who put the 
garrison to the sword; but, in 1687, it was again 
besieged by the Venetians and Maltese, under Cor- 
naro f ; when the Pasha of Bosnia, coming to its 
relief with 4000 men, was defeated ; and from that 
time it remained in the power of Venice, until the 

* See above, p. 333. Farlati says it was recaptured in 1538. 

f See the History. A vain attempt had been made by them 
in 1572, when, however, the Turkish fort of Varbagna, three 
miles from it, was destroyed, and the blockade of Cattaro re- 
moved. — Solitro. 


fall of the Republic, at the close of the eighteenth 

In 1806, the Russians held possession of Castel 
Nuovo, together with all the Bocche di Cattaro, 
until given up to France by the treaty of Tilsit, in 
1807; in October 1813 it was captured by the 
English; and in 1814 was occupied by the Aus- 
trians, in whose possession it has since remained. 

Over one of the gates, the Porta-terra, is an in- 
scription recording its possession by the Turks. 

Castel Nuovo is the largest town, though not 
the capital, of the Circolo of Cattaro ; and the com- 
mune contains 7019 inhabitants, of whom 6447 are 
of the Greek church. 

Near Castel Nuovo is the burying-ground of 
the Spanish Jews ; and not far from the town is 
the fountain of Mili, celebrated for the death of 
two rival lovers; from which circumstance its 
name Mili, "pleasant," was changed to Nemili, 
"the cruel."* 

The country about Castel Nuovo is very beau- 
tiful : and here begins that grand scenery, which 
has made the Gulf of Cattaro so celebrated. The 
forms of the mountains are bold and rugged ; the 
sides are clothed with trees, studded with houses ; 

* Whence the Epigram of the Portuguese Poet, Flavio 
Eborense : — 

" Gratus eram prius, et vicinae commodus urbi, 
Nunc vocor indigno nomine Nemylius. 
Causa mali notus est : discordia tristis amantum 
Ilia nocet Liquids quid meruistis aquae ? " 


and, here and there, are a church steeple perched 
on a height, and a village below seeming to rise 
from the edge of the water, in which it is reflected. 
As you proceed onwards, a succession of different 
views present themselves ; and the mountains, rising 
on either side, with a majestic sweep, from the 
water, sometimes scarcely leaving room for a village 
on the shore, give this winding Gulf the appearance 
of an inland lake. At one time you are in a bay, half 
a mile across, which expands to a breadth of three 
miles ; you then pass through narrow channels, to a 
succession of land-locked bays ; and so great is the 
area of water, that the fleets of all Europe would 
occupy but a small portion of this splendid har- 
bour, whose depth would allow them to anchor 
close to the shore. 

During my first voyage from Spalato, the Capo 
Circolare of Cattaro was on board the steamer; 
and on entering the Gulf, the whole shore was lined 
with people, and resounded with vivas, and the 
report of fire-arms ; showing the estimation in which 
Signior Ivatich is held, by those under his jurisdic- 
tion. That he is worthy of this popular demon- 
stration is universally allowed ; and in private life, 
both at Cattaro, and in his native town, Spalato, his 
amiable manners have gained for him the esteem 
of all classes. 

From the entrance of the Bocche to Cattaro, the 
steamer takes about two hours ; and near Combur, 
three miles beyond Castel Nuovo, is a narrow part, 


which may be called the third mouth, Bocca*, of 
the Gulf of Cattaro ; and, six miles farther up, is 
another still narrower mouth, leading from the 
inner bay of Castel Nuovo to those of Risano and 
Cattaro. It is not more than 1140 feet broad, and 
is called Le Catene, from the chains, that once closed 
the passage : for, being at that time considered the 
entrance to the port of Cattaro, chains were placed 
across it by Louis King of Hungary, in 1381, in 
order to exclude the Venetians. 

After passing through this channel, the scenery 
becomes more wild, than on the fertile territory of 
Castel Nuovo. On the right are the wooded 
heights of Stolivo, with the village of Upper Stolivo 
nestled among trees ; on the left the craggy moun- 
tains extend, in a curve, to the bay of Risano ; and in 
front is the town of Perasto, with its lofty steeple, 
on a point of land separating the bay of Risano 
from that of Cattaro ; where it stands at the base 
of a rocky mountain, which barely leaves room for 
the town by the water's edge. On the slope, im- 
mediately above the houses, is the fort of Santa- 
Croce, built by the inhabitants, at the time that the 
Turks had possession of the neighbouring coast. 
The wails are in the style of those days. 

* They reckon six Bocche, " mouths," or narrow straits, in 
succession : first, the entrance between the Point of Ostro and 
the Bock of Zaniza ; second, between the Point of Cobilla and 
Lustiza ; third, at Combur ; fourth, that of Sta. Domenica ; fifth, 
of Le Catene ; and the sixth, of Perzagno. 


In tho open space, before Perasto, are the small 
islands of St. Giorgio, and La Madonna. The church 
of La Madonna is looked upon with great venera- 
tion, and is decorated with numerous votive offer- 
ings, and pictures, one of which is attributed to 
St. Luke. 

It represents the Virgin, here called la Madonna 
dello Scalpello ; to whose picture a miraculous 
legend is attached, not less pleasing to credulity, 
than that of the Holy House of Loretto ; which also 
reposed for a time in Dalmatia, previous to its 
flight to Italy. Tradition states that the picture 
was transported, in 1452, by an unknown hand, 
from Negropont to this rock ; and being seen 
amidst lighted candles, by some fishermen, it was 
removed to the church of Perasto. The next night 
it returned to the island; and the same having 
been repeated three times, it was presumed that 
the picture preferred remaining there. A suitable 
abode was therefore prepared for it ; but the 
church which now stands there was not founded till 

The arrival of the picture in the island is cele- 
brated with great rejoicings, every year, on the 
12th of July; and, on the Sundays of May and 
June, it is taken with great solemnity to Perasto ; 
where it is exhibited to the devout, in commemo- 
ration of a victory obtained over the Turks, in 
1654, by the interposition of the Madonna dello 

* Petter, p. 194. 

Chap. V.] RISANO. 381 

Scalpello ; when the infidels, having come in great 
numbers from Risano and Castel Nuovo, to destroy 
Perasto, were frightened from their purpose by 
her appearance, under the form of an old woman. 
A grand festival is also kept, on the 15th of August, 
the day of the Assumption ; when a national ball is 
given, remarkable for the variety of the costumes. 

Risano stands on rising ground, at the extremity 
of a beautiful bay, that runs up to the northward 
from Perasto. It is the successor of the ancient 
Rhisinum, or Rhizinium*, a Roman colony, and 
once the most important town in this part of 
the country; which gave the name Rhizonicus 
Sinus to the whole Gulf, since known as that of 

The whole commune of Risano now contains 
only 3916 inhabitants, who, with the exception of 
18, are of the Greek Church. In the town are some 
remains of the Roman Rhizinium f, and between 
three or four hundred feet from the parish church 
is a mosaic pavement. J Coins are also found there. 
About a quarter of an hour's walk from Risano is a 
cavern, seventy or eighty feet above the level of 

* Plin. iii. 22. " A town of Roman citizens," as well as 
Ascrivium, Butua, and Olchinium. 

f This was not the place, to which Queen Teuta fled, as 
many have supposed ; and Polybius expressly says that Rizona 
was at a distance from the sea, on the river Rhizon. It was 
between Doclea (Dioclea) and Scodra. 

J Petter, p. 196. 


the sea ; from which a torrent runs in winter, and 
falls into the bay.* 

At Risano the costume is very remarkable. The 
men wear a green frock-coat, open in front, and 
confined by a sash round the waist, in which hand- 
somely-wrought pistols, and a yatagan or knife, are 
carried. Over this is a jacket of the same colour, 
ornamented with gold clasps and braiding; and on 
the head is a red Fez cap, with a gold tassel. A 
pair of full black trousers, reaching to the knee, 
fall over red cloth leggins (tusluk) richly em- 
broidered; and the whole dress is curiously ter- 
minated with white stockings, and black shoes. A 
pipe, and a gun inlaid with mother-of-pearl, are 
also necessary appendages. 

The general costume of the inhabitants of the 
Bocche di Cattaro, or Bocchesi, is far from be- 
ing graceful, or becoming ; its black colour gives 
it a gloomy character, scarcely relieved by the 
silver buttons that ornament it ; or by their 
silver-handled pistols, dagger, and sword. Nor do 
a black round hat and black cravat make it less 
unbecoming. The full black trousers, bound at 
the waist by a red sash, and falling at the knee 
over a pair of boots, or over black stockings and 
shoes, look very bad ; and this mixture of European 
and Eastern attire has a somewhat ludicrous ap- 
pearance. It is said to be originally Spanish ; but 

* Petter. It is uncertain where the cavern was, mentioned 
by Pliny, ii. 45. 

Chap. V.] THE BOCCHESI. 383 

the trousers bear a greater resemblance to those 
of the Greek boatmen, in form, if not in colour ; 
and the costume of the Podestd, or head of the com- 
mune, may be a compromise between the Bocchese 
and the Hungarian. The townspeople of Cattaro 
wear the usual European dress, as in all the large 
sea ports of Dalmatia. 

Out of 13,848, the whole population of the 
Bocche, 7050 are of the Greek Church ; and 9 are 
Jews, living in Cattaro. They are an industrious 
and energetic people; who have given frequent 
proof of their courage, during the wars with the 
Turks, and when our fleet was engaged on their 
coast in 1814. 

They have still frequent calls upon their warlike 
propensities, in defending their property from the 
Montenegrins ; whose predatory visits, particularly 
during the long winter nights, keep them in con- 
stant alarm : and as a great many of the men are 
absent, on board their trading vessels, the duty of 
protecting their property devolves on a very small 
number, and is even sometimes left to the women 
alone. The Austrians, however, aid in keeping off 
these troublesome visiters, by a cordon of riflemen. 

The habits of the Bocchesi are peculiar * ; and 
though they possess a narrow strip of land, con- 
fined between the mountains and the sea, their 
industry has made them the richest people of Dal- 
matia. The great object, of every one, is to 

* Petter, p. 201, 202. 


secure a comfortable livelihood by commercial 
speculation. They are therefore principally en- 
gaged in foreign trade ; and when a Bocchese, after 
a number of voyages, has accumulated sufficient 
wealth to retire from business, he returns to his 
native country; and his children, following the 
example of their father, continue the same routine, 
until they are, in like manner, enabled to realise a 
fortune. Their houses are clean and well built, 
with a great appearance of comfort ; and many are 
prettily placed in the midst of gardens. 

But the Bocchese loves retirement, and leads the 
same solitary life, to which he was accustomed on 
board his ship ; and the marriages of his children 
are mostly among the people of his district, so that 
the different families are generally related to each 

The climate of the Bocche is healthy, and the 
dryness of the soil prevents fevers ; which, with so 
much reflected heat, would, in a damp situation, 
be very prevalent ; and though the summer is op- 
pressive, the weather in autumn is very enjoyable. 
The cold is more severe there, than in many more 
northernly parts of the Dalmatian coast, owing to 
the immediate vicinity of mountains; which also, 
cause a greater quantity of rain. 

A succession of beautiful views present themselves, 
between Perasto and Cattaro ; and on approaching 
the end of the Gulf, the peak of Mount Lovcen ap- 

# Petter, p. 202. 

Chap. V.] THE BOCCHESI. 385 

pears above the rugged hill of Cattaro. On the 
left, you pass the picturesque village of D6br6ta *, 
with its church on a projecting point of land, 
backed by neat houses and gardens ; above which 
rise the range of mountains, that separate this 
valley from Montenegro. Near it was the site of 
a Roman town ; which is shown by fragments of 
mosaic work, conduits, and other remains. 

The inhabitants of D6br6ta, who are all Roman 
Catholics, are a very wealthy people ; they possess 
a great number of ships, and have much capital 
embarked in trade. The appearance of their dwel- 
lings, and the air of comfort they show, sufficiently 
prove the prosperity of their possessors ; and the 
people of D6br6ta are in more easy circumstances, 
than any other of the Bocchesi. 

Their houses, which are of stone, well built, and 
roofed with red tiles, are frequently surrounded by 
high walls, to protect them from the nocturnal 
depredations of the Montenegrin robbers. For 
though this part of the valley seems to be effectu- 
ally guarded, by a barrier of precipitous rocks, on 
the side of Montenegro, those wild people find no 
difficulty in coming down, even by night ; and 
whenever they find the men absent, they scruple 
not to enter a house by force. Nor is the pro- 
tection of a few German soldiers sufficient to check 
their robberies; and it seems extraordinary that 

* From Dobro, "good." 
VOL. I. C C 


the Austrians, who are so strict about the pass- 
ports of harmless and inoffensive strangers, should 
be so indifferent to the visits of these people, who 
really inflict injuries on the industrious community. 

Every other individual is condemned to have his 
passport signed, countersigned, examined, regis- 
tered, and suspected, if not rejected, from whatever 
country he may come; while the same Montenegrins, 
who are known at night to commit robberies, 
whenever an opportunity offers, are permitted to 
roam about all day unimpeded ; and if any check 
is imposed on them it is by a passport given to a 
party of several individuals, so that no single one 
is responsible for it. I am little inclined to defend 
the custom of calling for passports at every turn, 
in the interior of a country, convinced as I am of 
its being vexatious and unjust, and unnecessary 
for the detection of the bad : and if a police is 
effective, it will arrest criminals, without suspecting, 
or molesting the innocent. But if honest people 
are to be visited by this infliction, surely the dis- 
honest might at least be subjected to it; and it 
should be used for police, not for political, purposes. 

It is perhaps from the conviction of its inutility 
that the system is relaxed towards the Montenegrins; 
though the objection to it on that score is not 
greater in this, than in all other cases. For it is 
very certain, that criminals are as easily detected, 
in countries where there are no passports, as in 
those where the system is most rigorous; and a 


passport is frequently the very means by which 
escape is ensured. The man who wishes to evade 
the police always takes care to have his passport 
en rlgle; it is his duty to himself: many have 
therefore passed through a whole country, at a time 
when every police officer was on the look-out for 
them, by having false passports, quite en rlgle; and 
thus the supposed means of detection have proved 
the means of escape. 

The vexation of the system falls principally on the 
innocent man, who is tormented with impediments 
to his honest calling ; who, if sent for, on a sudden, 
to visit a dying friend, or his nearest relation, is 
obliged to wait for hours, or till the following day, 
to have his passport signed ; and who, if he omits 
to show it, and present himself, as he passes through 
a town, to the police, may be arrested as a criminal, 
and obliged to retrace his steps for miles, as if he 
had committed 8 ome great offence against society. 

But not only is the system inadequate, for the 
purposes of detection ; it is even injurious to the 
interests of society ; and a knave is often enabled 
to practise his deceptions, under cover of his fic- 
titious passport. A remarkable proof of this oc- 
curred a few years ago, when a band of swindlers 
defrauded some of the principal bankers of Europe, 
and were actually aided (unintentionally) by the 
police : who, when applied to by the mercantile 
houses, reported their passports to be en rhgle, and 
thus stopped further inquiry, by vouching for the 

c c 2 


honesty of the rogues. Of what advantage then is 
this system? Why is the community taxed to 
pay a number of useless employ is ? and really, if 
the police takes upon itself to be the insurance 
office of society, it ought r in a case like the above, 
to be held responsible for the money, obtained 
through its agency. 

There is a regulation in the Austrian States, which 
was mentioned to me by a high functionary under 
that government, as one not to be neglected ; and 
which shows how necessary it is to have a passport 
made out for every part of Europe, before visiting the 
Imperial dominions. According to this, if a passport 
is vise (for instance) at Zara " for Cattaro," and 
the traveller wishes, on his arrival there, to go to 
Montenegro, he cannot do so, unless he returns the 
whole way to Zara, and obtains a fresh visat for that 
country; "because the police of Zara may have 
had some reasons, for giving him permission to go 
only to Cattaro." And thus the unsuspecting in- 
dividual presents himself every where, with a stigma 
attached to him, of being, if not a guilt} 7 , at least a 
suspected, person. That every country should have 
a right to admit, or reject, any one at the frontier, 
not provided with proper guarantees, is only just; 
but that he should afterwards be subjected to con- 
stant vexation, and suspicion, amounting frequently 
to a positive condemnation, is insulting, and de- 
grading ; and we are surprised to find that, in the 
nineteenth century, Europe can tolerate the maxim 

Chap. V.] CATTAB0. 389 

thus inculcated, that " every one is guilty, until he 
proves himself innocent ; " which is the principle of 
the silly, and vexatious, system of passports. 

About a mile and a half beyond D6br6ta is 
Cattaro, in Illyric Cottor, the capital of the Circolo 
of the same name. It is surrounded by a wall with 
towers ; and, on the north side, is defended by a 
solid rampart, and ditch. Immediately above it, on 
a rugged rock, isolated at the upper part from the 
rest of the mountain, is a castle, connected with 
the town by a zigzag wall, pierced with abundant 
loopholes, and here and there with embrasures 
for cannon. 

The Austrian s keep one battalion of Cacciatori 
in, and about, Cattaro ; who, when I visited it, were 
Italians from Lombardy. There is very little 
arable, or cultivable, land near the town ; and the 
Cattarines, like the other Bocchesi, are mostly 
engaged in trade. 

The whole commune of Cattaro contains 3550 
inhabitants ; of whom 2384 are Roman Catholics, 
1157 of the Greek Church, and 9 Jews; and out 
of 34,326, the population of the whole Circolo, 
only 9819 are Roman Catholics, and 24,498 are 
Greeks. In the town are two Greek churches, one 
of which resembles those of Athens, in its style and 
architecture^ though it is much less interesting. 

The town contains nothing remarkable; the 
streets are narrow ; and the houses are much the 
same, as in other places under the Venetians, whose 

cc s 


rule is, as usual, recorded by the winged lion. It 
has three gates, two of which are closed at sun-set ; 
but that on the sea-side remains open till eleven ; 
and, when the steamer is there, till midnight. Out- 
side the eastern gate is the bazaar, or market, 
which calls to mind the agora of the old Greek 
towns, placed, as that originally was, without the 
walls. It is held every Tuesday, Thursday, and 
Saturday, and is frequented by the Montenegrins, 
who supply Cattaro with provisions of various 
kinds, and on this score may be considered very 
useful neighbours. For though some people may 
try to persuade themselves, or others, that the per- 
mission to attend the bazaar is a privilege to the 
Montenegrins, it is very well known that Cattaro 
is far more benefited by them, than they are by 
Cattaro; which, indeed, is dependent upon them 
for many of the most important necessaries of life. 
And if the spacious road, constructed up the moun- 
tain pass, to the frontier of Montenegro, facilitates 
the communication with that country, the advantage 
is on the side of the Austrians; and every im- 
provement made by the Vl&dika*, in the portion 
belonging to him, tends to the insecurity of his 

No one, indeed, can believe that a military road is 
required for those mountaineers to come to market, 
who still prefer making short cuts, in going up and 

* The Bishop who governs Montenegro. 


down, to following its long zigzags ; and it is evi- 
dently more adapted for the transport of artillery 
and troops towards Tzetinie, than for the con- 
veyance of eggs and potatoes to Cattaro. 

The Montenegrin women, who attend the market, 
are allowed to go into the town ; but the number 
of the men admitted is limited, and they are 
obliged to leave their arms at the guard-house. 
An impost is levied on all the goods sold at the 
bazaar, when they enter Cattaro ; or, if intended 
to pass through the country, they only pay a mo- 
derate transit duty ; but when the plague is known 
to be in Turkey, the same sanitary restrictions are 
adopted towards Montenegro, as towards that 
country ; the people are excluded from Cattaro, 
and men and goods are condemned to the usual 
process of imprisonment and fumigation. The 
costumes of the Montenegrins, both men and 
women, are very picturesque ; and the groups sit- 
ting among the trees, or under the sheds, that pro- 
tect them during the deluges of rain which not 
unfrequently fall at Cattaro, are good studies for 
an artist ; and a stranger may find much to interest 
him, in the appearance, and independent bearing, 
of these primitive mountaineers. 

Here some perianiki, the Vladika's guards, who 
have come to make purchases at Cattaro, display 
their rich dress, and silver-hilted arms ; there a dis- 
tinguished warrior, with the usual strucca over his 
shoulder, perhaps trailing on the ground as he 

c c 4 


walks, proclaims, by a medal on his breast, that 
he has taken many Turkish heads, as trophies, to 
Tzetinie; women examine each others' kerchiefs, 
or trinkets, they have just bought in the town ; and 
a knot of young men, with all the airs common to 
dandies, stand, with their caps on one side, and a 
natty stick under the arm, discussing the trifles of 
Montenegrin chitchat. A few Austrian soldiers 
are present, to prevent irregularities; and specu- 
lators from Cattaro, whose sombre dresses contrast 
with the varied colours of the Montenegrin cos- 
tumes, make bargains with the women, as they sit by 
their baskets, or buy sheep, fire-wood, or vegetables, 
of some poor mountaineer, with the complacent 
smile that denotes the profit they contemplate from 
the purchase. 

The imports into Cattaro far exceed the exports 
to Montenegro, both in quantity and quality ; fire- 
wood, potatoes, and many other articles are exclu- 
sively supplied from that country ; and the town 
is dependent upon it for nearly all the provisions 
consumed there; which could not be obtained so 
conveniently, or at so reasonable a price, from any 
other quarter. The duties levied at the custom- 
house of Cattaro, on goods from Montenegro, are 
said to amount, annually, to from 27,500 to 29,800 
florins.* The principle articles are Scoranza (dry 
fish, resembling sardines), smoke-dried meat, sheep, 

• £2750 to £2980 English. 


oxen, pigs, pork, cheese, potatoes, butter, cabbages, 
and other vegetables, wax, honey, fish, tallow, 
hides (woollen and hair), wool, tortoise shells, 
fowls, Indian corn, ice, fruit, Turkish, and common 
Montenegrin, tobacco, charcoal, &c. ; as well as the 
leaves and wood of the Scottano*, the former for 
tanning, the latter for its yellow dye. These, as 
well as the Scoranza, and the Castradina, or mut- 
ton hams, are principally for re-exportation to 
Venice and other places; and, with a few more, 
pass through the transit office. 

On entering Cattaro from the sea, the same 
scrutiny is used by the custom-house, as in other 
Dalmatian ports, whether the goods are from 
abroad, or from any other part of the province ; 
and so stringent are the regulations against tobacco, 
that the introduction of any quantity subjects the 
offender to the loss of it, and a fine of sixteen 
florins the funto. f This is intended as a protection 
to the appallatori, or farmers of the duties on that 
article. Notwithstanding this severity, contraband 
Turkish tobacco is used by every one on the 
frontier; that of the appalto being very indifferent; 
and the facility of obtaining smuggled tobacco is, 
as usual, in the direct ratio of the penalty. In- 
deed, a very good quality of this most profitable 
crop might be grown in Dalmatia, but this is not 
permitted ; and the government neglects an oppor- 

• Rhus Cotinus f U of a Chilogramme* 


tunity of benefiting the revenue, by admitting the 
best kinds on the payment of a higher duty. 

There is certainly no reason why people should be 
condemned to use what is bad, when a good article 
is to be obtained ; the prohibition is a direct en- 
couragement to smuggling ; and, in the mean time, 
the Dalmatians, who buy a little licensed tobacco, 
(in order to have it in their bags for show), contrive 
to smoke the contraband Turkish ; all which is done, 
in their quiet way, without any of the Tobacco- 
machia now going on in Milan, between the Italians 
and the authorities. 

Cattaro stands on the site of the Roman city of 
Ascrivium. * Porphyrogenitus calls it Decatera ; 
a name given, as he supposes, from its position on 
the narrow gulf ; and some derive Cattaro from the 
quantity of rain that falls there f ; but etymology 
is conveniently elastic ; and the same word, in 
which some see rain and Catarrhs, has suggested to 
others the idea of its pure air. 

The Moors, or Saracens, of Sicily, took " Butua, 
Rosa, and the lower town of Decatera J," in 867 
a.d. ; after which the inhabitants returned, with 
those of Rhizinium, and fortified the rock of the pre- 
sent citadel ; though some ascribe the origin of the 
modern Cattaro to refugees, from a city of the same 
name in Bosnia, destroyed by the Hungarians, in 

* Plin. iii. 26. f From Karappuv, 

\ Porphyrogenitus says, "Butuam, et Rosam, et inferiora 


889. Cattaro afterwards enjoyed its liberty and 
republican form of government, under the protec- 
tion of the kings of Servia, until 1178 ; during 
which period money was coined there called tri/oni, 
from the figure, stamped on one side, of St. Trifone, 
the patron of the city. * It subsequently passed 
under the dominion of the Greek Emperors ; and 
in 1197 again returned to the protection of Servia. f 

The Knights Templars J also had possession of 
Cattaro, for a short time, as well as of Clissa, Enin, 
Novigrad, and Vrana ; and some of these continued 
to be their last strongholds, in Dalmatia, until their 
order was suppressed, in 1312. 

On the death of Stephen Ourosh, the son of the 
Emperor Dushan, in 1367, the Cattarines seeing 
the inability of the Servians to defend them, put 
themselves under the protection of Louis, King of 
Hungary; and this they enjoyed, until the town 
was taken by the Venetians, in 1378 § ; who, at 
the peace of 1381, restored it once more to 
Hungary. After the death of Louis, in 1382, 
Tuartko L, King of Bosnia, obtained possession of 
Cattaro ; and it continued in the hands of the 
Bosnians, until the reign of Ostoya Christich; 
when it regained its liberty. During that period 
it was at constant war with Ragusa, and the princes 

* Petter, p. 187. f Farlati, vi. 435. 

J See the History in Chapter IX., a.d. 1190. 
§ Appendini (i. 296.) says the Cattarines rebelled from 
Louis, in 1371, and (for a time) joined the Venetians. 


of Zenta ; but, in 1419, finding the Ragusans too 
formidable, and fearing the increasing power of the 
Turks, the Cattarines gave themselves up to the 
Venetian admiral, Peter Loredano, on condition of 
preserving their laws, magistrates, and various 

Cattaro does not boast statutes, of the same 
early date as some Dalmatian towns. Like Nona, 
Sebenico, Lesina, and Brazza, it was a Sla- 
vonian city, and was late in adopting those of the 
neighbouring communities; it continued a long 
time without written laws; and its statutes are 
supposed to have been copied from those of the 
Roman cities, which had preserved their ancient 
institutions, after the invasion of the Avars. * 

It suffered much from various causes, even after 
the end of the fifteenth century. It was besieged 
by the Turks in 1538 f, and 1657 ; and great injury 
was done to the town and the inhabitants, by the 
earthquakes of 1563 and 1667, and by the plague 
of 1572. On the downfal of the Venetian Repub- 
lic, in 1797, it passed into the hands of Austria; 
and in 1806, when Dalmatia was ceded to the 
French, Cattaro was seized by the Russians, who 
held it, till the treaty of Tilsit obliged them to 
evacuate the country. At the close of 1813 it was 
taken by the English under Hoste ; to whose ex- 

* Catalinich, iii. p. 55* 

f After the recapture of Castel Nuovo by Barbarossa, which 
Appendini places in 1539. See Farlati, vi. 488. 


traordinary skill, in carrying heavy guns up the 
cra ggy mountains that command it, the highest 
compliment was paid by the French Commandant, 
whose decided opinion had pronounced the impos- 
sibility of making a battery there. The place, how- 
ever, was taken in ten days, with the loss of one 
man ; and General Gauthier, and all the garrison, 
surrendered prisoners of war. 

During the attack on the French in Cattaro, 
and the neighbourhood, the Bocchesi made great 
professions of friendship and assistance; but no 
sooner did they see the guns of the fortress of St. 
George removed on board the Bacchante, than the 
communes of Perasto began to manifest displeasure ; 
which led the English to suppose that their friend- 
ship was rather owing to a dread of the Montene- 
grins, than to the desire of liberating their country. 

The co-operation of the Vladika, or Bishop, of 
Montenegro, was more cordial, and the Montene- 
grins assisted in blockading Cattaro, as sworn 
enemies of the French ; when, unfortunately, the 
Austrians excited their ill-will, by putting forth 
claims to sovereignty over their free country ; which 
was perhaps increased, by a secret wish, on their 
part, to obtain possession of Cattaro for themselves. 
The consequence was their refusal to allow the 
Austrian troops to pass through the country, from 
Castel Nuovo to Cattaro ; which caused consider- 
able embarrassment to all parties, and provoked 
the displeasure of the British Government ; General 


Metutenovich * withdrew his troops ; and Cattaro, 
being left in the hands of the civil magistrates, was 
occupied by the Montenegrins till the 14th of 
June, 1814; when it was ceded to Austria: and 
the Vladika withdrew to Tzetinie. 

Cattaro is inconveniently placed, under an arid 
rock ; and during the hot season is a perfect oven, 
until September ; when the weather begins to be 
cooler, and the evenings are very enjoyable. Though 
the thermometer does not range in summer above 
22°, or 26° Rr.f in the shade, the confined position 
of the town makes the heat very oppressive ; and 
though, in winter, the thermometer seldom falls 
below the freezing point, and ice lasts only a few 
days, the cold is much felt; violent storms are of 
frequent occurrence; and the town is exposed to 
gusts of piercing wind, rushing down from the lofty 
Lovcen, or Mount Sella, which rises immediately 
behind the citadel, and is then covered with snow. 
Rain falls in great quantities, during the winter 
months, often lasting for several days, after 
it has once set in; and as the change generally 
begins about the end of September, those who wish 
to visit Montenegro should not leave Cattaro later 
than the beginning, or middle, of September. 

The position of the town has also the dis- 
advantage of being subject to dense fogs at that 
season, and, lying under the western face of one of 

* Probably Milutinovich. t 8 U° a nd 9°i° Fahr. 

Ion J Murray, Albemarle S' 


Chap. V.] MARRIAGE AT d6br6tA. 399 

the highest mountains in Dalmatia, it is deprived of 
more than an hour's sun every morning ; while the 
hills, on the opposite side, shut out the light very 
early in the evening. The climate, however, is 

To say the port is good and safe is little 
praise to one of the finest in the world; and the 
whole gulf, or canal, offers a succession of excellent 
harbours. On the level ground at the extremity 
of the bay is the public walk, which goes round, by 
the water's edge, towards the village of Mulla ; but 
the custom of closing the gates of Cattaro at an 
early hour takes away from the pleasure of this 
excursion, at the very time it is most enjoyable. 

While at Cattaro, I went to see a marriage at the 
village of D6br6ta, The ceremonies were very 
similar to those practised by the Morlacchi, on the 
same occasion.* Twelve or thirteen women, friends 
of the family, in gala dresses, danced in a circle f, 
singing a slow and rather plaintive song, near the 
house of the bridegroom, while waiting for the 
bride. After some time, she arrived in a boat; 
and having landed, walked to the church, under a 
large umbrella, decorated with gold tassels and 
handkerchiefs, evidently an imitation of the canopy 
in the marriage processions of the East. In the 

* See the marriage ceremonies of the Morlacchi, in Chap- 
ter VIII. 

■f The kollo, or circle, is the figure of all their dances, though 
the steps differ. This circle was open at one end. 


meantime, the men, having assembled, walked in 
procession to the court before the church door, 
and danced in a circle ; a performance which, with 
their silver-mounted arms, and black Bocchese 
dress, had a very singular effect. The women 
then came up, two by two, to the church j and the 
whole party having gone in, the bride and bride- 
groom knelt at the altar, supported on either side 
by the compari.* The marriage service was then 
read by a priest, and they all repaired to the house 
of the bride's father, to enjoy the festivities usual 
on the occasion. The costume worn by the women 
was similar to that of Mulla, and the other villages 
at this end of the gulf; the most remarkable part 
of which was the short embroidered jacket, and the 
headdress, composed of a swarm of large gold- 
headed pins, covering the whole of the back part of 
the head, and flowing coloured ribands. The 
women of D6br6ta, who are pretty, pride them- 
selves on their delicate complexions; but the 
jealousy of their neighbours declares that they 
bleed themselves in the foot, in order to keep up 
the paleness they affect. 

At the end of the bay of Cattaro a valley opens 
between the mountains, through which the road 
leads to Budua, distant about eleven or twelve 
miles. It is the last town of consequence in Dal- 
matia, or, as this part was formerly called, Venetian 

* Bridegroom's men. 

Chap. VJ BUDUA. 401 

Budua, the Butua of Pliny, was one of the 
Roman cities of Dalmatia. In the ninth century it 
was destroyed by the Saracens; and in 1571 was 
taken and nearly all burnt by the Turks, who again 
besieged it in 1687 with an army of 10,000 men, 
under the Pasha of Scutari ; on which occasion it 
was gallantly defended by the Venetian General 

It is fortified in the old style, with simple walls 
and towers, and on the south is a castle on a rock. 
The territory about it is very limited, being con- 
fined to a narrow strip of land between the moun- 
tains and the sea ; and the whole commune contains 
only 937 inhabitants. 

VOL. I. D D 




Population. — Customs. — Government, and State of the 
Country. — The Vladiha. — History. — Cattaroto Tzetinie. 
— Journey to Ostrok, and Return by Rieka to Tzetinie. — 
Hospitality of the Vladika. — Return to Cattaro 9 and to 
Spalato. — Jews. 

After a short stay at Cattaro, I made preparations 
for a journey to Montenegro ; and having been 
furnished with a letter to the Vladika from Signor 
Ivatich, the Governor of the Circolo of Cattaro, 
I promised myself all the satisfaction from my 
visit to that country, which I afterwards enjoyed. 

Of the courtesy and hospitality of the Vladika, 
indeed, I cannot speak too highly ; and the friendly 
feelings he entertains towards strangers, who are 
interested in his country, contribute greatly to the 
pleasure of a visit to Montenegro. 

I shall first mention the state of the country, its 
government, and history. 

The name of Montenegro *, or the " black moun- 
tain," is supposed to be taken from the dark ap- 

* Properly Montenero, but in the Venetian dialect Monte- 
negro, and the people are called Montenegrin!. 


pearance of its wooded hills, which in former times 
were more thickly clothed with trees and bushes, 
than at present. By the Turks it is called Kara- 
dagh, and by the Montenegrins themselves, Tzer- 
nog6ra *, both which have the same meaning ; and 
the name of the people is, in their own language, 

The country formed the S.W. corner of the old 
kingdom of Servia ; which, under Stephen Dushan, 
towards the middle of the fourteenth century, was 
bounded by the Adriatic, the Black Sea, the Archi- 
pelago, and the Danube. 

The position of Montenegro is between 42° 10', 
and 42° 56' N. latitude, and 18° 41' and 20° 22' 
E. longitude, including the Kftchi, or Kutskaf , dis- 
trict, which is the most easterly, but which has 
recently separated itself from Montenegro. The 
country is bounded on the west by the Circolo of 
Cattaro, on the north by the Turkish province of 
Herzeg6vina and part of Bosnia, and on the east 
and south by Albania. The superficial extent is 
reckoned at 80, or 90, geographical square leagues ; 
or by some at 300 Italian square miles, and the 
circuit at about 70 J ; and the whole country is 

* Cernogora, or Tzernogora. The Russian Czerno, and the 
Southern Slavonian Tzerno, signify " black." The Venetians 
too pronounce ce as Tse, which explains its being written by 
them " Cernogora." 

t Koochee, Kootchka, or Koochka. 

t Petter, p. 209. 

dd 2 


divided into eight departments, or Ndhia* 7 each 
composed of several communes. They are, 1. Ka- 
tiinska N&hia, with nine communes ; 2. Riekska f , 
with five; 3. Lieschanska, with three; 4. Tzer- 
nitska, with seven; 5. Bielopavlichi, with three; 
6. Piperi, with three; 7. Moratska J, with three; 
and 8. Kutska, with five communes. The four last 
N&hias are called the first, second, third, and 
fourth Berda, and give an additional title to the 
Bishop, who is styled " Vladika of Montenegro and 
Berda" Each commune (plemena) is superintended 
by a Kniez § , and a berakddr || ; and the Nahia is 
governed by a Sirddr % and a Voivoda **, which 
offices are confined to certain families, and descend 
from father to son. 

The Kutska Nahia was originally independent 
of Montenegro, but, about 1835-36, the people put 
themselves under the authority of the Vladika, sent 
a senator to Tzetinie f f , and enjoyed the privileges 

* This word has been adopted from the Tiirksl It is originally- 
Arabic, and means " portion," " direction," &c. 

f The Slavonic termination ski, ska> is like the Latin icus, 
tea ; as Praski, Persicus ; Sabalskanski, Transbalcanicus. 

} Or Rovatska-Moratska. 

§ Or Kniaz, " count." 

|| A Turkish word, signifying " flag-bearer," like the Italian 

% A Turkish title also. 

** Or Voyevoddy "leader in war, 1 ' like Dux, or Herzog. 
See above, p. 26. 

\\ Or Tzetinye ; by the Venetians written Cettigne. In 
giving so many Slavonic names, it may be as well to observe 
that the accent is generally on the last syllable but one. 


of the other departments ; until taking umbrage at 
the imposition of taxes, they seceded in 1843 from 
their allegiance, and are now the bitterest enemies 
of Montenegro. Another great reason of this ani- 
mosity was their being the only Roman Catholics in 
the country, which prevented their uniting cor- 
dially with the other subjects of the Vladika; for 
neither party is behindhand in sectarian prejudice ; 
and the hatred of a rival sect seems quite as natural 
to the Montenegrins of the Greek church, as to 
their religious opponents, whom they charitably 
stigmatise by the name of Piessiavira*, "dogs' 
faith," an epithet they liberally bestowed upon the 
French, and upon the Ragusans in 1806, while 
they were plundering the Ragusan territory. The 
K&chi live at the extreme east of Montenegro, on 
the confines of Albania; next to them are the 
Piperi, the great champions of Montenegrin liberty 
on that side, who are the most warlike and active 
enemies of the Turks, and are able to bring up- 
wards of 4000 muskets into the field. 

The population of the whole country is estimated 
at from 80,000 to 107,000 souls; some reckon 
21,000 families, or 105,000 inhabitants; but from 
the best authority obtained in the country, the 
nearest computation is "about 100,000." The num- 
ber of fighting men amounts to 20,000 ; and in 

* From Piess " dog." ViaJJa oddly enough calls one of the 
Ndhias " Piessiwaska," vol. i. p. 83. 

dp 3 


case of need many old men, still capable of bearing 
arms, may be called out for the defence of the 
country. This proportion of fighting men is re- 
markable ; but though it far exceeds that allowed 
by Montesquieu, it must be remembered that he 
had in view the population in civilised communities, 
and the proportion given by some others does not 
differ very widely from that in Montenegro. 

Of the eight Ndhias, or departments, the Katun- 
ska has 24,000 inhabitants; the Tzernitska 12,000; 
the Rietska 11,300; the Lieschanska 4800; the 
Bielopavlichi 14,000; the Piperi 8500; the Ro- 
vatska-Moratska 9100; and the Kutska 16,300; 
on the supposition that the total, in Montenegro 
and the Berdas amount to 100,000 ; which is an 
approximate calculation, no exact census having 
been made of the population of the country. 

Montenegro contains few towns. It may indeed 
be doubted whether any deserve that name ; for a 
town there would be a village in any other country, 
and the largest does not contain a population of 
1200 souls. None of them are walled, and few 
can be said to have any streets; the houses are 
frequently detached, and in some so scattered, and 
distant from each other, that they appear rather to 
be farm-houses, or cottages, than the component 
parts of one village. Those, however, which stand 
close together, have only a common wall between 
them, as in towns in other countries ; and they 
are * generally better built, than when detached in 
the scattered villages ; where, in some of the most 


mountainous, and secluded, parts of the country, 
they are of the rudest construction. 

The total number of towns, and villages, in the 
country is between two and three hundred. They 
are principally situated in hollows, and on the 
slopes of mountains, but none on the points of hills 
difficult of access, as in the neighbouring provinces 
of Turkey ; plainly indicating the fearless inde- 
pendence of the Montenegrin, who feels secure in 
the natural strength of his country, and requires 
no measures of defence beyond his own courage. 
This is most remarkable in the province of Bielo- 
pavlich, where the distance from Albania to Her- 
zeg6vina is not more than twelve miles, and where 
nearly the whole space is occupied by the Valley 
of the Zetta.* And no one can visit that part of 
the country, without the strongest admiration for 
the valour of this people ; who are, at least, deserv- 
ing of respect for the preservation of their inde- 
pendence, in defiance of all the efforts of the Turks. 

It is not in going from Cattaro to Tzetinie, a 
distance of five hours' march, that any one can 
judge of Montenegro, or the Montenegrins, or of the 
manner in which their country is flanked and in- 
dented by the Turkish territory ; and in order to 
form an opinion of their character, and the difficulty 
of their position, a visit should be made to the 
two frontiers towards Niksich and Spuss. This 

* Tzetta, or Zeta, was the old name of Montenegro, when it 
belonged to Servia in the fourteenth century. 



would sufficiently refute many erroneous notions 
common at Cattaro, where some of the Bocchesi, 
and even of the Austrians, refuse to the Montene- 
grins the credit of courage ; and Petter not only 
declares, that in personal valour they are inferior 
to the Bocchesi, but that the only merit they 
possess is in defending their homes, or in fighting 
behind walls. He adds that in their encounters 
with the French, in 1806-7, when out of their own 
country, they gave no proofs of bravery, and 
showed themselves greatly afraid of artillery. * 
But without stopping to canvass so unfair a state- 
ment, it is sufficient to observe that their inde- 
pendence, their wars with the Turks, and their 
whole history, abundantly establish their character 
for courage ; and Vialla, and others, who have had 
opportunities of j udging from their own experience, 
bear ample testimony to it. 

Many anecdotes are related of the bravery of 
both men and women. During the war with the 
Turks in 1796, Giuro Lottocich was confined to 
his bed by a broken leg, but hearing of the battle 
in which Kara Mahmood (Bushatlia) was defeated 
and slain, he insisted upon being carried out to a 
rock, from whence he could fire on the enemy; 
which, in spite of every remonstrance, he continued 
to do, supported against a rock, for three whole 
hours ; and when they told him of the victory, he 

* Petter, p. 231. 


exclaimed, "It is time, indeed, for I have no more 
cartridges, and I should have died of rage, if I had 
been forced to surrender." 

Vialla relates another, which occurred some 
years ago, in the Cevo district. Four Monte- 
negrins, and their sister, aged twenty-one, going 
on a pilgrimage to the shrine of St. Basilio, 
were waylaid by seven Turks, in a rocky defile, 
so narrow that they could only thread it one 
by one ; and hardly had they entered, between the 
precipices that bordered it on either side, when an 
unexpected discharge of fire-arms killed one brother, 
and desperately wounded another. To retrace 
their steps was impossible, without meeting certain 
and shameful death, since to turn their backs would 
give their enemy the opportunity of destroying 
them at pleasure. 

The two who were unhurt therefore advanced, 
and returned the fire, killing two Turks, — while 
the wounded one, supporting himself against a 
rock, fired also, and mortally injured two others, 
but was killed himself in the act. His sister taking 
his gun, loaded and fired again simultaneously with 
her two brothers, but at the same instant one 
of them dropped down dead. The two surviving 
Turks then rushed furiously at the only remaining 
Montenegrin, who, however, laid open the skull of 
one of them with his yatagan, before receiving his 
own death-blow. The hapless sister, who had all 
the time kept up a constant fire, stood for an in- 


stent irresolute ; when suddenly assuming an air of 
terror and supplication, she entreated for mercy, but 
the Turk, enraged at the death of his companions, 
was brutal enough to take advantage of the un- 
happy girl's seeming agony, and only promised her 
life at the price of her honour. Hesitating at first, 
she pretended to listen to the villain's proposal, 
but no sooner did she see him thrown off his guard, 
than she buried in his body the knife she carried 
at her girdle. Although mortally wounded, the 
Turk endeavoured to make the most of his failing 
strength, and plucking the dagger from his side, 
staggered towards the courageous girl ; who, driven 
to despair, threw herself on her relentless foe, 
and with superhuman energy, hurled him down 
the neighbouring precipice, at the very moment, 
when some shepherds, attracted by the continued 
firing, arrived just too late for the rescue.* 

It is the knowledge of his own power, to protect 
his family and his home, which makes the Monte- 
negrin live without dread of his many neighbouring 
enemies; the rugged barriers of rocky moun- 
tains, that surround his village, are his sentinels 
to prevent a surprise.; and never did the Turks 
make an inroad upon Montenegro, whether in 
large or small numbers, without paying dearly for 
the injuries they inflicted. 

Of the Montenegrin villages, \iot more than 

* Vialla, i. pp. 90. and 1.50. 


twenty-five or thirty are on the banks of rivers * ; 
for vallies, properly so called, are rare in thejcoun- 
try, and the only f streams that water those rocky 
districts are the Zetta J of Bielopavlich, the Mora9a, 
the Rieka-Tzernovichi §, and the Tzernitza. || 

These all run into the lake of Scutari ; the Zetta 
joins the Moraga, a little to the north of Podg6ritza, 
and enters the lake near Zsabliak ^f , close to the 
Ri^ka-Tzernovichi ; and the mouth of the Tzernitza 
lies about four miles farther to the south. There 
are also some small rivulets, as the Orochovka, 
Sagavatz, Sitnitza, and other tributaries of the 
Zetta; but none of them are more than eight 
miles in length, and the largest river, the Zetta, 
has only a course of seventeen miles, before its 
junction with the Mora9a.** 

The general aspect of Montenegro is that of a 
succession of elevated ridges, diversified here and 
there by a lofty mountain peak, and, in some parts, 
looking like a sea of immense waves turned into 

* The villages are not "generally in vallies on banks of 
rivers," as has been stated. 

f The Ribnitza is in the Kuchi, or Kutska Nahia, and there- 
fore no longer a river of Montenegro. 

J The Zetta, or Ceta, pronounced Tzetta. 

§ Rieka signifies " river." 

|| Or Tzernizza, pronounced Tzernitza, or Tzernitsa. 

1" Or Xabliak, sometimes written Zabliak. The Slavonic 
Xy or zs, is pronounced like the French j. 

** Moracha, Moratsa, or Moraksa, which separates the 
Pi peri from the Kuchi. 


stone. Trees and bushes grow amidst the crags ; 
and, in the rugged district of Oevo, the fissures in 
the rocks are like a glacier, which no horse could 
pass over without breaking its legs. The moun- 
tains are all limestone, as in Dalmatia ; but in no 
part of that country do they appear to be tossed 
about, as in Montenegro ; where a circuitous track, 
barely indicated by some large loose stones, calling 
itself a road, enables a man on foot with difficulty 
to pass from the crest of one ascent to another. 
And some idea of the rugged character of the 
country may be formed, from the impression of the 
people themselves, who say that " when God was 
in the act of distributing stones over the earth, the 
bag that held them burst, and let them all fall 
upon Montenegro."* 

The principal mountains are L6vcen, or Monte 
Sella; Schtirovnik; Stavor; Garach, or Garacs; 
Pusti-Lis&tz, in the Katunska-Ndhia ; Doberschtik, 
in the Riekska ; and Sutorman, in the Tzernitska ; 
the lofty Komf, between the Kutska-N&hia and 
Albania, being now no longer a mountain of Monte- 

The most common trees of the country are, 
oaks and ilex, ash, beech, firs, walnuts, hazel, 

* See an excellent article by Krasinski on u Montenegro," in 
the British and Foreign Quarterly Review for July, 1840. 

f The Turkish name for " mountain," from the Arabic Kom, 
"mount," answering to the Latin cumulus. It is given to 
several mountains in European Turkey, generally isolated 


wild pears, poplars, willows, and alders; vines, 
peaches, pomegranates, olives, mulberry, and 
other fruit trees are also cultivated there; but 
the most valuable wood is the Scottano*, chiefly 
grown in the Cevo district, which is exported, 
even to France. The wood gives a yellow dye, and 
the leaves f are used for tanning leather. 

The underwood on the hills consists principally 
of arbutus, juniper, rosemary, myrtle, blackberry, 
and other brambles, as well as the common bushes 
found in Dalmatia ; and some parts of the country 
are said J to produce larches, cypresses, pines, 
yews, chesnuts, planes, and limes. 

The chief productions cultivated there are Indian 
corn, and potatoes; cabbages, cauliflowers, and 
tobacco are also grown in great quantities; and 
vegetables are among the principal exports of 
Montenegro. Potatoes indeed have been a most 
profitable acquisition to the poor mountaineer^ as 
well for home consumption as for exportation ; and 
they are indebted for them to the late Vladika, 
who introduced them, in 1786, on his return from 

In the department of Tzernitza, between the 
Lake of Scutari and Dalmatia, the variety of pro- 
ductions is much greater than in any part of the 
country, and the wine made there is considered, if 
not better, more wholesome, than that of Dalmatia. 

* The Rhus Cotinus. f The leaves are called Sumak. 

} Vialla, ii. p. 98. 


The Valley of Bielopavlich has also some excellent 
land for grain, and the Indian corn grows there 
luxuriantly, some, that I passed through, being as 
high as a man on horseback ; but the soil of Tzer- 
nitza is far more fertile; and it abounds in vines, 
olives, carubas, almonds, figs, apples, excellent 
quinces, walnuts, pomegranates, and other fruits, 
as well as honey, and the usual productions of the 
country. The people of Tzernitza are consequently 
the most wealthy of the Montenegrins ; and that is 
the only part of the country, where they have made 
any advancement in agriculture. 

From what has been said, it will be very evident, 
that Montenegro is not a country for horses; which 
are very rare, and were only introduced a few years 
ago, by the present Vladika. No one is mounted, 
except the chiefs, and the Perianik Guards, whose 
knowledge of riding has been derived from an 
Italian instructor, employed by the Vladika. Greece, 
which was always remarkable for the small pro- 
portion of level vale to the mountains, had its 
plains of Argolis, Attica, and other districts, but 
Montenegro has scarcely one deserving of that 
name, and justly merits the exclusive appellation of 
" the Black Mountain." Wherever a plain of any 
extent is seen, it belongs to the Turks; and the 
rocky Montenegro seems to be cast upon the level 
space, that should have continued from Albania to 
Herzeg6vina. There is, however, no deficiency of 
cattle in the country ; and sheep, goats, and pigs, 
are very numerous. 


One of the most important productions of 
Montenegro are fish, which are abundant, and of 
excellent quality. The Scoranze (a species of 
Cyprinus*), of the Rieka, and Lake Scutari, are a 
great article of commerce; they are dried and 
salted, and exported to Trieste, Venice, and other 
places ; and they produce an annual revenue of from 
14,000 to 16,000 florins.f In size and flavour they 
resemble Sardines, and are excellent, whether salted 
or fresh. The trout of Montenegro are also cele- 
brated ; and some are of immense size. I saw two 
kinds, during my visit to Ostrok J, one of which, of 
a light salmon colour, was most excellent. The 
eels§, are also highly esteemed ; and the Carpione ||, 
Cevolo ^[, and others of less note, abound in the 
rivers, and in the Lake of Sciitari.** 

Game is not very abundant, though red-legged 
partridges frequent the hills ; and there are many 
hares; but birds are not seen there in any great 
numbers, and I seldom met with any but Royston 
crows, and magpies, except in the neighbourhood 
of the Lake. 

The houses are of stone, generally with thatched 
roofs ; but many are covered partly, or entirely, 

* It has been called Alburnus Scoranza, by Professor Carrara. 

t £1400 to £1600. See above, p. 392. 

J See below, on the Convents of Ostrok. 

§ Called bizetti, or bisatti, in the Venetian dialect. 

|| Cyprinus Carpio. Linn. 

% Mugil Cephalus. Linn. 

** See the fish, in Carrara's Dalmazia descr., p. 83. 


with wooden shingles *, a mode of roofing very 
common in Slavonic countries. Some of the better 
kinds are roofed with tiles, on which large stones, 
the primitive nails of Montenegro, are ranged in 
squares, to keep them from being torn off by the 
wind. Each house generally contains one or two 
rooms on the ground-floor, with a loft above, 
occupying the space between the gables; where 
they keep their Indian corn, and other stores. The 
ascent to it is by a ladder, applied to a square hole 
in its floor, calling itself a door ; and this floor, 
which performs the part of ceiling to the lower 
room, is frequently of wicker work, laid on rafters 
running from wall to wall. 

The lower room is at once the parlour, sleeping 
room, and kitchen ; but in the small villages the 
houses have no loft ; and their style of building is 
very primitive ; the walls being merely of rude 
stones without cement, and the roof the coarsest 
thatch. In the better kind of houses is a bedstead, 
standing in one corner of the room, which is a 
fixture, as in those of the rich Morlacchi. It may 
be styled a large bench, and generally consists of 
planks resting on a simple frame, having the head 
and one side to the wall ; and a foot-board, with a 
post running up to the ceiling, completes the whole 
wood work. Those, who can afford it, have a large 
mattrass and quilt, or blankets, but no Montenegrin 
bed is encumbered with curtains, or sheets ; and the 

* Called gont by the Poles. 


only extras seen upon it are intended for warmth ; 
in which the Strucche * perform an essential part. 
Native visiters are satisfied to roll themselves up 
in their Strucche, and lie on the floor, which is the 
bare earth; and the poorer people, who cannot 
afford bedsteads, do the same at their own homes : 
though this is no great hardship to the Monte- 
negrin, who is accustomed, as long as the season 
will allow him, to sleep out of doors, upon the 
ground, or on a bench made of stones and mud. 
But whether in or out of the house, in a bed or on 
the ground, the Montenegrin always keeps on his 
clothes ; his arms are close to his side ; and when 
roused by any alarm, or by the approach of morning, 
he is up at the shortest notice ; and no toilette in- 
tervenes, on ordinary occasions, between his rising 
and his pipe. 

The embers of the fire, which had been covered 
up with ashes the night before, are then scraped 
up, and the usual habits of the day begin ; unless, 
as often happens, the male part of the family has 
been on a nocturnal foray into Turkey ; when the 
women, left alone, are looking out for the return 
of the men, laden with the pillage of their neigh- 
bours. The fire-place, which is in another corner 
of the room, is a raised hearth on the floor, with a 
cauldron suspended from a ring above ; it also 

* Pronounced Str<5oke\ They are like the Spanish Manta> 
and are worn also in parts of Dalmatia, to the south of the 

VOL. I. E E 


serves as an oven, the Montenegrin bread being 
merely dough baked in the ashes, as by the Arabs 
now, and by the Patriarchs of old, and without 
leaven. Chimneys are an unknown luxury in most 
Montenegrin houses, and the smoke escapes as 
it can. 

The furniture is not abundant, consisting of a 
bench, a few wooden stools, and a simple table; 
and the only brilliant-looking objects in the house 
are the arms, and dresses, of the inmates. Clocks, 
or watches, are also luxuries unknown to Monte- 
negro, except at Tzetinie and the convents; and 
the only mode of ascertaining time is by watching 
the sun, or by common hour-glasses, and an occa- 
sional sun-dial.* 

In some of the wildest parts of the mountain 
districts, the houses, or huts, are inferior even to 
the cabins of Ireland, made of rough stones piled 
one on the other, or of mere wicker work, and 
covered with the rudest thatch, the whole building 
being merely a few feet high. The poverty of this 
people, their pig, and their potatoes, are also points 
of resemblance with the Irish : and I regret to find, 
that, since I visited the country, they have in like 
manner been suffering from the failure of the 
potato crop, upon which they depend so much for 
their subsistence. 

* They have not improved much since Vialla's time. See 
Vialla, vol. i. p. 157. 


Few houses in Montenegro have an upper story, ex- 
cept at Tzetinie, Ri6ka, and some other places ; where 
they are better built than in the generality of the 
villages, of solid stone, and roofed with tiles. Warm 
houses are indeed very requisite there in winter, 
when it is very cold ; the level of the whole country 
being considerably above the sea, amidst lofty peaks 
covered with snow during many months, and sub- 
ject to stormy winds, that blow over a long range 
of bleak mountains. The climate, however, is 
healthy, and these hardy people are remarkable 
for longevity. Colonel Vialla de Sommi&res * 
mentions a family he saw, in the village of Schie- 
clich, near N6gosh, which reckoned six generations. 
The great-grandfather was 117 years old, his son 
100, his grandson 82, and great-grandson 60, and 
the son of this last, who was 43, had a son aged 21, 
whose child was 2 years old ; according well with 
the reputation, enjoyed by the people of these 
countries, in old times, when Dando, the Illyrian, 
was reputed to have reached the age of 500 years, f 
Life was not subject, among the " prisca gens 
mortalium," to the common-place reality of a parish 
register ; and the Montenegrins are probably not 
particular, even now, to a few decads ; but however' 
much truth might deduct from the veteran of 117, 

* He was governor of the circolo of Catlaro, when in the 
possession of the French, voL i. p. 1 23. 
f Plin. vii. 48. 

BE 2 


certain it is that they frequently reach a good, and 
hale, old age. 

Both men and women are very robust ; and they 
are known to carry as much as 200 funti, (about 
175 pounds,) on their shoulders, over the steepest 
and most rugged rocks. All appear muscular, 
strong, and hardy, in Montenegro ; and the knotted 
trees, as they grow amidst the crags, seem to be 
emblematical of their country, and in character 
with the tough sinewy fibre of the inhabitants. 

But though able, the men are seldom inclined, 
to carry any thing, or take any trouble they can 
transfer to the women, who are the beasts of bur- 
then in Montenegro ; and I have seen women toil- 
ing up the steepest hills, under loads which men 
seldom carry in other countries. They are, there- 
fore, very muscular and strong; and the beauty 
they frequently possess, is soon lost by the hard 
and coarse complexions they acquire ; their youth 
being generally exhausted by laborious, and un- 
feminine, occupations. The sheaves of Indian corn, 
the bundles of wood, and every thing required for 
the house, or the granary, are carried by women ; 
and the men are supposed to be too much interested 
about the nobler pursuits of war, or pillage, to 
have time to attend to meaner labours. 

As soon as the tillage of the lands is performed, 
they think they have done all the duties incumbent 
upon men; the inferior drudgeiy is the province of 


the women ; and the Montenegrin toils only when 
his inclination demands the effort. The men, there- 
fore, (as is often the case in that state of society,) 
whenever active and exciting pursuits are wanting, 
instead of returning to participate in, or lighten, 
the toils necessity had imposed on the women, are 
contented to smoke the pipe of idleness, or indulge 
in desultory talk ; imagining that they maintain the 
dignity of their sex, by reducing women to the 
condition of slaves. The Montenegrin woman not 
only kisses the hand of her husband, as in the East, 
but also of strangers ; and a traveller, as he passes 
through the country, is surprised to receive this 
strange token of welcome, at the house where he 
lodges, and even on the road. It must however 
be remembered, that he is thus honoured as the 
guest, whose visit is sanctioned by the Vladika, and 
his hospitable reception depends on his being ac- 
companied by some attendant from the capital. 

In Turkey, and in Montenegro, man is equally 
" a despot, and woman a slave ; " but the difference 
in the two countries is, that in one she is an object 
of caprice, and part of the establishment, as a horse 
is a member of its master's stud ; in the other, she 
is the working beast of burthen, and his substi- 
tute in all laborious tasks. But the Montenegrin 
woman has the advantage of being in a Christian 
community ; and however arduous her duties, she 
is the helpmate of her husband, and is not de- 
graded to the condition of a mere component part 

E E 3 


of the harem. She is still his companion, his only 
partner, the only mother of his children ; and she 
sees not the reproach of her position in the splen- 
dour of her dress, or the show of kindness lavished 
upon her by her lord and master, from motives of 
self-gratification. At the same time, however de- 
graded the condition of women in the East, they 
have one great consolation, in the affection of their 
children; who are far more attached to their 
mothers, than in many more civilised communities ; 
and no oriental youth is deluded, by a false idea of 
manliness, into disrespect towards either of his 

The Montenegrin has the same custom, that 
prevails in the East, and among the Morlacchi, of 
avoiding all mention of his wife before a stranger ; 
and, whenever he is obliged to speak of her, he 
makes an apology, by saying, " Da prostite moja 
xena" " begging your pardon, my wife f ; " " saving 
your presence," or something of the kind; as if 
his dignity would be insulted by the mention of 
a woman. She, however, does not see any de- 
gradation in this mode of treatment ; custom has 
reconciled her to it; and she displays the same 
humility of manner to the stranger, that she is in 
the habit of showing to the men of her family. 

• The very terms of abuse in the East, which arc directed 
against the parents, imply the strong attachment borne to them ; 
it being more offensive to abuse them than the individual 

f Petter, p. 233. 


But at the same time, as might be expected, that 
strong attachment, which a better treatment would 
ensure, is often wanting : and her services are per- 
formed, as a duty, rather than from motives of af- 

The marriage ceremonies are very like those of 
the Morlacchi, and are celebrated with great signs 
of rejoicing. Eating and drinking form a principal 
part of the festivity, with the noisy discharge of 
guns and pistols : and the duration of the enter- 
tainment depends on the condition of the parties. 
" When a young man resolves on marrying, he 
expresses his wish to the oldest and nearest rela- 
tion of his family, who repairs to the house of the 
girl, and asks her parents to consent to the match. 
This is seldom refused ; but if the girl objects to 
the suitor, he induces some of his friends to join 
him and carry her off: which done, he obtains the 
blessing of a priest, and the matter is then ar- 
ranged with the parents. The bride only receives 
her clothes, and some cattle, for her dowry. 1 ' * 

In some parts, principally on the eastern side of 
Montenegro, a few mules and asses are employed 
to share the labours of the women ; but carts are 
unknown, and nearly all the goods, brought to the 
market of Cattaro, are carried by men, or women. 

The cultivation of the lands is principally en- 
trusted to the men, who sometimes also tend the 

• Tetter, p. 233. 

E £ 4 



sheep ; but from long established habit, and the 
constant prospect of an attack from the Turks, 
they never lay aside their arms ; and the Monte- 
negrin has as warlike an aspect in these peaceful 
occupations, as on the enemy's frontier. The office 
of shepherd is generally delegated to children, who 
often beguile the time by playing a simple and 
plaintive air, upon a primitive pipe, perched on a 
rock, or reposing in the classic shade of a " spread- 
ing beech-tree." 

Agriculture is in a very primitive state, and ex- 
cept in the valley of Bielopavlich, and a few other 
parts of the country, the land is all cultivated with 
the spade. The plough is very simple, consisting 

of a wooden share, with long sloping slides, or 
cheeks, reaching to the holder, and placed at a very 
acute angle with the horizontal foot. It has only 
one handle, or holder, like that used in Greece, 
about Nauplia and Argos ; which is equally simple, 


though the position of the few parts it is composed 
of varies a little; and both are drawn by two 
oxen, yoked to the pole. 

No cultivable soil is neglected ; every piece 
of land, a few feet square capable of tillage, is 
planted with Indian-corn, potatoes, or some other 
useful produce ; and no means are left untried by 
the Montenegrins, to obtain a livelihood by labour, 
and augment the exports of their country. 

Notwithstanding all their efforts to multiply its 
productions, the means of obtaining a sufficiency 
of food does not keep pace with the increase of 
population ; and though they export provisions to 
foreign markets, many, who are poor, find them- 
selves destitute of the necessaries of life. Frequent 
migrations, therefore, take place, especially after 
years of scarcity ; and now that the Vladika has 
put a stop to their former unlimited system of 
robbery, those who hold the rank of poor, in that 
poor country, are forced to seek a livelihood, and a 
home, in more productive regions. They mostly go 
into Servia, which may be called the parent of 
Montenegro*; but those who have been distin- 
guished in war are retained by their compatriots, 
and subscriptions are raised to furnish them with 
the means of subsistence. 

Indeed, their feelings of attachment to Servia 
seem never to have been forgotten ; and in 1809, 

* See above, p. 294. and p. 403. 


when Tzerni George was successfully opposing .the 
power of the Porte, many Montenegrins joined 
his standard; and the late Vladika, in a poem 
composed on the occasion, shows how ready they 
were to second the views of the Servian hero, for 
driving the Turks out of Bosnia and Herzeg6vina.* 
The rising of the Christians in those countries, in 
fact, actually began ; and the Montenegrins still 
talk of the expulsion of the Turks, with the most 
sanguine hopes ; which they say the countenance 
of the European powers would speedily enable 
them to realise. 

The principal market for the produce of Monte- 
negro is Cattaro ; some is also sold at Budua, and 
Fortenuovo, near Castel-Lastua, as well as in the 
towns of Turkey, during the casual truces with 
that country ; but dried fish, and a few other 
articles, are sent to more distant places. 

Though so near the sea, that a stone might al- 
most be thrown into it, from the mountains over- 
hanging Cattaro, the Montenegrins have no port ; 
nor does their territory, in any part, come down to 
the shore; and they are dependent on the Austrians 
for permission to pass all goods intended for ex- 
portation, or received from abroad, by the Adriatic. 
This is a great disadvantage to the Montenegrins ; 
and it would certainly be highly conducive to their 
prosperity, and to their progress in civilisation, if 

* See Ranke's Servia, p. 226. ; and " La Serbie," by Bys- 


their territory reached to the sea, and enabled 
them to enjoy the advantages of direct commercial 
communication with other people. It would not, 
however, be desirable, either for themselves or 
others, that they should have possession of any 
stronghold, like Cattaro, which they once greatly 
coveted ; and nothing would be required, but a port 
for the purposes of trade, A road for civilisation 
would thus be opened into the interior, which 
might tend to a peaceable, and commercial, 
intercourse with the Turks of Bosnia and Herze- 
g6vina, and bid fair to improve the condition of 
those who profited by it ; and, while we admit the 
impracticability of giving a port to Montenegro, 
we may hope that the Austrians will take advan- 
tage of the opportunity they have, of conferring, 
and deriving, the benefits likely to arise, from a 
more intimate communication with all those coun- 

The promotion of civilisation there may, some 
day, be of importance, and be attended by very 
desirable results; far more than could be hoped 
for from an intercourse with the adjoining pro- 
vince of Albania, which has not the same prospect 
of coming in contact with other nations, as the 
Slavonic race. It would indeed be difficult to 
civilise, or improve, the Albanians; whose savage 
habits are so little suited for the encouragement 
of industry, and who frequently outrage the 
common feelings of humanity ; and few hopes 


can, as yet, be entertained of a country, where ex- 
cesses are committed, similar to those that happened 
four years ago; when some Moslems, having at- 
tacked a Christian village, were not satisfied with 
the murder of the men, but actually obliged the 
women to roast their own children at the fires, 
kindled from their burning houses. 

The numerous sheep and goats reared by the 
Montenegrins afford them a very profitable supply of 
wool, and cheese, for exportation ; their smoke-dried 
mutton (called Castradina) pays an annual duty at 
Cattaro, of from 2000 to 2600 florins ; and the 
mutton hams of Montenegro are highly esteemed, 
and are sold for exportation to Istria, Venice, and 

The Exports * of Montenegro are : smoked mut- 
ton (Castradina) salt fish (Scoranza), wax, honey, 
hides, tallow, cheese, butter, Scottano wood and 
leaves (for yellow dye and tanning), fire-wood, 
charcoal, cattle, sheep, pigs, and pork, fowls, (a few 
horses, and tobacco, brought from Turkey,) wool, 
ice, tortoise-shells, quinces, figs, olives, walnuts, and 
various fruits, Indian corn, potatoes, cabbages, cauli- 
flowers, and other vegetables, silk (to Turkey), 
common tobacco grown in Montenegro, &c. 

The Imports are cattle, and some horses, as well 
as tobacco, from Turkey, and meat, for exportation ; 

* For the duties paid at the custom- house of Cattaro, see 
above, p. 392. ; and as the exports are nearly all to that place, 
the above are much the same as those already mentioned. 


salt, copper, iron, oil, baccala, salt fish, wax candles, 
wine, brandy, coffee, sugar, arms, gunpowder, 
lead, flints, glass, shoes, opanche sandals, cloth, 
linen and cotton stuffs, handkerchiefs, Fez caps, 
rice, grain, (sometimes, when the harvest is bad,) 
leather, &c. 

Taxes. — The taxes are levied on each hearth, or 
family. The custom has been to divide them into 
three classes, which paid one, two, and three florins 
a-year for every house, or family; and the total 
now amounts to about 28,000 or 30,000 florins 
a-year. There is also an appalto of tobacco, which 
brings in annually about 200 florins. 

The revenue amounts to from 76,450 to 78,450 
florins*, including the 10,000 sequins, about 
47,000 florins, given by Russia, for the govern- 
ment expenses ; Montenegro being under the pro- 
tection of the Czar. 

The family, or house, tax 28,000 to 30,000 

Duty on salt 200 200 

Duty on fish 250 250 

Duty on dry meat - 200 200 

Land of different convents let by the Vladika 

to peasants ----- 600 600 

Appalto of tobacco - - - - 200 200 

29,450 31,450 
Given by Russia 47,000 47,000 

76,450 or 78,450 

£7645 to £7845 English. 


The price of a sheep is about four zwanzigers, or 
2s. &d. English ; and the daily wages of a man in 
Montenegro are twenty carantani.* They coin no 
money; all that is current there being dollars, 
zwanzigers f, and other Austrian coins, as well as 
Turkish paras; though these last are generally 
used as female ornaments. 

The manufactures of Montenegro, if they can 
be so called, are confined to some of their house- 
hold furniture, and wearing apparel ; and may be 
on a par with the manufactures of the Bedouins, 
or Arabs of the desert. The principal are the 
strucche J, woollen stuffs, answering the same pur- 
pose as the Scotch plaid, and the Spanish Manta, 
and performing the office of cloak and blanket, to 
men and women. The coarse woollen coloured 
aprons of the women, some of the sandals, the 
socks, and other parts of their dress, are made by 
members of the family : the women also embroider 
with the needle ; and the shirt sleeves, and borders 
of their cloth dresses are neatly worked in silk, and 
patterns of coloured cloth. 

There are few Montenegrins who exercise any 
trade ; though some perform the offices of black- 
smiths, farriers, or whatever else the immediate 
wants of a village may require ; and their principal 
occupation, next to agriculture, is fishing, which 

* Or one zwanziger, eight-pence English. 

f Pieces of 20 carantani, the third part of a florin. 

X Or str6ok£, see p. 417. 


they find very profitable ; particularly in the Lake 
of Scutari. Guns, and other arms are of foreign 
manufacture ; and the skill of the Montenegrin is 
confined to mending them, when slightly injured. 
He also contrives to make some gunpowder, when 
unable to purchase it at a foreign market ; and the 
charcoal he uses is from hazelwood, which abounds 
in the country. A very great number of his 
weapons have been taken from the Turks, and 
many a Montenegrin is seen clad in the entire dress 
of some Turkish adversary he has slain ; but I did 
not see, in any house, those trophies of war, " the 
skulls of enemies, killed by the master," which is 
probably owing to the slayer of a Turk being 
rewarded by the Vladika for the presentation of 
his head. For such is the savage warfare of this 
people, that the heads * of the slain are exposed as 
trophies, and medals are given to those who have 
taken a stated number. 

The arms of the Montenegrins consist of guns, 
pistols, and yatagansf, or long knives for cut 
and thrust, worn in their girdles ; and the Vladika 
has lately introduced some rifles, and a few cannon. 
Their guns are very long, and carry to a great 
distance ; the slender stocks are often inlaid with 
mother-of-pearl, or steel ornaments ; and the locks 
are flint and steel. They have no match-locks. 

* I shall have occasion to mention this again, 
t Sometimes called Hanjar, or Khangiar; a name taken from 
the Turkish, as well as Yatagan, or more properly Yatakan, 


They are very good marksmen, and their unerring 
shot is quickly followed by the use of the yatagan, 
when they can close with their enemy. Their 
mode of fighting is generally from behind rocks, 
when their foes are numerous ; and the nature of 
their country enables them to adopt this mode of 
warfare, to great advantage. The Turks have more 
than once overrun Montenegro with large armies, 
ravaged the vallies, and burnt the villages and 
crops; but the mountain fastnesses have always 
been intact, and the invader has paid dearly for 
his advance, in the losses that accompanied his 

But in order to give a just view of their customs 
in war, and their mode of fighting, I shall borrow 
from the account of an eye-witness, M. Broniewski.* 
He says : " A Montenegrin is always armed, and 
carries about, during his most peaceful occupation, 
a riflef (a gun), pistols, a yatagan, and a cartouch- 
box. The Montenegrins spend their leisure time 
in firing at a target, and are accustomed to this 

exercise from their boyish years Being 

inured to hardships and privations, they perform 
without fatigue, and in high spirits, very long and 
forced marches ; . . . . they climb the steepest rocks, 

• Given in the British and Foreign Review, p. 136. He 
was an officer in the Russian fleet, under Admiral Siniavin, 
and travelled in Montenegro. 

f They are not rifles, but smooth-barrelled guns, of great 


with great facility, and bear with the greatest 
patience hunger, thirst, and every kind of priva- 
tion. When the enemy is defeated and retiring, 
they pursue him with such rapidity, that they 
supply the want of cavalry, which it is impossible 
to employ in their mountainous country 

" Inhabiting mountains which present, at every 
step, passes, where a handful of brave men may 
arrest the progress of an army, they are not 
afraid of a surprise, particularly as they have on 
their frontier a constant guard ; and the whole of 
their force may be collected, within twenty-four 
hours, upon the threatened point. When the 
enemy is in great force, they burn their villages, 
devastate their fields, and, after having enticed 
him into the mountains, they surround him, and 
attack him in a most desperate manner. When the 
country is in danger, the Montenegrins forget all 
personal feelings of private advantage and enmity : 
they obey the orders of their chief, and, like gallant 
republicans, they consider it a happiness, and a 
grace of God, to die in battle. It is in such a case 
that they appear as real warriors : but, beyond the 
limits of their country, they are savage barbarians, 
who destroy every thing with fire and sword, 

" Their ideas about war are entirely different 
from those adopted by civilized nations. They cut 
off the heads of those enemies whom they take with 
arms in their hands, and spare only those who sur- 
render before the battle. The property they take 

VOL. I. F F 


from the enemy is considered by them as their 
own, and as a reward of courage. They literally 
defend themselves to the last extremity : a Monte- 
negrin never craves for mercy ; and whenever one 
of them is severely wounded, and it is impossible 
to save him from the enemy, his own comrades cut 
off his head. When, at the attack of Clobuk, a 
little detachment of our troops was obliged to re- 
treat, an officer of stout-make, and no longer young, 
fell on the ground from exhaustion. A Monte- 
negrin perceiving it, ran immediately to him, and, 
having drawn his yatagan, said, * You are very brave, 
and must wish that I should cut off your head : say 
a prayer, and make the sign of the cross. 1 The 
officer, horrified at the proposition, made an effort 
to rise, and rejoined his comrades with the assist* 
ance of the friendly Montenegrin. They consider 
all those taken by the enemy as killed. They 
carry out of the battle their wounded comrades on 
their shoulders; and be it said to their honour, 
they acted in the same manner by our officers and 

". Like the Circassians, they are constantly making 
forays in small parties, for the plunder of cattle, and 

consider such expeditions as feats of chivalry 

Being safe in their habitations, where nobody dares 
to molest them, they continue their depredations 
with impunity, disregarding the threats of the 

Divan, and the hatred of their neighbours 

Arms, a small loaf of bread, a cheese, some garlic, 

Chap. VL] CONDUCT IN WAR. 435 

a little brandy, an old garment, and two pair of 
sandals made of raw hide, form all the equipage of 
the Montenegrins. On their march they do not 
seek any shelter from rain or cold. In rainy 
weather the Montenegrin wraps his head with the 

strooka, lies down on the ground and sleeps 

very comfortably. Three or four hours of repose 
are quite sufficient for his rest, and the remainder 
of his time is occupied in constant exertion. 

" It is impossible to retain them in the reserve ; 
and it seems they cannot calmly bear the view of 
the enemy. When they have expended all their 
cartouches, they humbly request every officer they 
meet with to give them some ; and as soon as they 
have received them, they run headlong into the 

further line When there is no enemy in 

sight they sing and dance, and go on pillaging ; in 
which we must give them the credit of being per- 
fect masters; although they are not acquainted 
with the high-sounding names of contribution, re- 
quisition, forced loans, &c. They call pillage simply 
' pillage/ and have no hesitation in confessing it. 

" Their usual manner of fighting is as follows : — 
If they are in great force they conceal themselves 
in ravines, and send out only a small number of 
shooters, who, by retreating, lead the enemy into 
the ambush; here, after having surrounded him, 
they attack him, usually preferring on such occa- 
sions swords to fire-arms ; because they rely on 

FF 2 


their personal strength and bravery, in which they 
generally have the advantage over their enemies. 
When their numbers are inferior, they choose some 
advantageous position on high rocks ; where, pro- 
nouncing every kind of abuse against their enemies, 
they challenge them to combat. Their attacks are 
mostly made during the night, because their prin- 
cipal system is surprise. 

" However small their force may be, they always 
try to wear out the enemy, by constantly harassing 
him. The best French voltigeurs, on the advanced 
posts, were always destroyed by them; and the 
enemy's generals found it more advantageous to 
remain under the cover of their cannon, of which 
the Montenegrins were not at all fond. However, 
they soon became accustomed to them, and sup- 
ported by our rifles they bravely mounted the 

" The tactics of the Montenegrins are confined 
to being skilful marksmen. A stone, a hole, a 
tree, offer them a cover from the enemy. Firing 
usually in a prostrate position on the ground, they 
are not easily hit, whilst their rapid and sure shots 
carry destruction into the closed ranks of a regular 
army. They have, besides, a very practised eye 
for judging of distance; they thoroughly under- 
stand how to take advantage of the ground ; and 
as they usually fight retreating, the French, who 
took it for a sign of fear, constantly fell into their 
ambushes ; as for themselves, they are so cautious, 


that the most skilful manoeuvres cannot deceive 

" Their extraordinary boldness frequently tri- 
umphed over the skill of the experienced bands of 
the French. Attacking the columns of the enemy 
in front and flank, and acting separately, without 
any other system than the inspirations of personal 
courage, they were not afraid of the terrible bat- 
talion fire of the French infantry 

" The Montenegrins cannot withstand regular 
troops beyond their mountains; because, destroy- 
ing every thing with fire and sword, they cannot 
long keep the field; and the advantage of their 
courage in assisting our troops, and the fruits of 
victory, were lost by their want of order. During 
the siege of Eagusa, it was never possible to know 
how many of them were actually under arms, 
because they were constantly going to their homes 
with spoil, whilst others joined the army in their 
places, and after a few days of indefatigable exer- 
tion, returned to the mountains, to carry away 
some insignificant trifle. 

" It is impossible to undertake any distant 
expedition, and consequently to accomplish any 
thing of importance with them. In one respect 
they have a great advantage over regular troops, 
by their great skill in mountain warfare, although 
they are completely ignorant of the military art. 
In the first place they are very lightly dressed, 
are exceedingly good marksmen, and reload with 

rr 3 


much more rapidity than regular soldiers 

The Montenegrins dispersed, and deliberately firing 
from a lying position on the closed rank of the 
enemy, are not afraid to attack columns composed 
of 1000 men, with numbers not exceeding 100 or 
150. In a pitched battle their movements can be 
ascertained only by the direction of their standards. 
They have certain signal-cries, which are uttered 
when they are* to join in a compact body, for 
attacking the weaker points of the enemy. As 
soon as such a signal is given, they rush furiously 
onwards, break into the squares, and, at all events, 
create a great deal of disorder in the enemy's ranks. 
It was a terrible spectacle to see the Montenegrins 
rushing forwards, with heads of slaughtered enemies 
suspended from their necks and shoulders, and 
uttering savage yells. * They can be employed by 
a regular army with great advantage, for fighting 
on the advanced posts, for seizing the enemy's con- 
voys, destroying his magazines, &c. &c. 

" The Russian commander-in-chief had much 
difficulty in persuading them not to cut off the 
heads of their prisoners. He finally succeeded, not 
only in this (chiefly by paying them a ducat for 
every prisoner), but, what was more difficult, in 
persuading them, with the assistance of the Vladika, 
to embark for an expedition on board ship ; a thing 
which they had never done before Not- 
withstanding that they were treated with the 
greatest kindness, they proved very troublesome 


guests. Whenever the captain invited their chiefs 
to breakfast, they all entered the cabin ; and having 
observed that more dishes were served to officers, 
than to common sailors, they wanted to have a 
similar fare. When the fortress of Curzola was 
taken, and the feast of Easter was approaching, 
they gave the captain no repose, entreating him to 
accelerate his return to Cattaro ; but when it was 
explained to them, that the vessel could not ad- 
vance against the wind, they fell into great 
despondency When at last the ship ap- 
proached the entrance of Bocca di Cattaro, and 
they caught a sight of their own black mountains, 
they uttered joyous acclamations, and began to 
sing and dance. On taking leave, they affec- 
tionately embraced the captain and the officers, 
and invited those to whom they had taken a liking 
to pay them a visit. But when the sailors told 
them they could not leave the ship, without the 
permission of their superiors, they were much 
astonished, and said, ' If you like to do a thing, 
what right has another to forbid you?' "* 

The foregoing statement is perfectly borne out by 
what I- learnt in the country, either by my own 
personal observation, or from the reports of others. 
The armed guard watching the movements of the 
enemy is stationed on the Turkish frontier of Her- 
zeg6vina, as an outpost to Ostrok ; the decapitation 

* British and Foreign Review, p. 139, 140. 

f r 4 


of their prisoners, their frugal mode of living, and 
their skill as marksmen, are confirmed by all who 
visit Montenegro; and their mode of warfare is 
represented, by all who have witnessed it, to be 
* precisely as described by M. Broniewski. 

As in the heroic times, they taunt their enemies, 
and provoke them to battle ; they spoil the fallen 
foe ; all their best-dressed wariors are clad in the 
dresses of the slain ; and many a reproachful speech, 
made at the siege of Troy, might be adopted by a 
modern poet, in describing the contests of the Mon- 
tenegrins and the Turks. 

Their artful mode of fighting, their capability of 
bearing hunger, thirst, and other privations, their 
way of living, and various habits, forcibly call to 
mind the description, given by Procopius *, of the 
ancient Slavonians ; and the use of the Cithara f is 
still retained in their favourite g&sla. J 

This instrument is remarkable from having only 
one string §, which is stretched over a long neck, 
and a wooden body covered with parchment; its 
general shape being rather like a guitar. It is 
played with a bow. The sound is plaintive, and 
monotonous; and it is principally used as an 

* See above, p. 35. 

•f The origin of the name chitarra (guitar), and pronounced, 
as the accent on KiOapa shows, in the same way. 

J Pronounced gussla, or goossla. 

§ The ancient Monochordium was an Arab invention ; (see 
J. Pollux, iv. 9.) and the modern Rahdb of Cairo has one 


accompaniment to the voice ; the performer singing 
the glorious wars of Montenegrin, and Servian, 
heroes ; of Tzerni George, and Milosh Obrenovich ; 
of Tzernoievich, and Milosh Obilich ; or of the far- 
famed Scander-beg, under whom their ancestors 
fought against the Turks. 

It is interesting to see a custom of old times still 
retained, while the deeds it celebrates are of daily 
occurrence ; in other countries the bards, and the 
subjects of their songs, belong only to history and 
tradition, but in Montenegro they are both realities 
of the present day. There is not, however, any 
class of people, who can properly be styled bards ; 
the sturdiest warrior is in the habit of accompany- 
ing the g&sla ; and the effect of the song is increased 
by the well-known character of the performer. 

In character and disposition the Montenegrins 
are, like most mountaineers, hospitable, and cour- 
teous to strangers ; and have a friendly feeling 
towards those, who sympathise with their high 
notions of independence, and devotion to their 
country. They are cheerful in manner; and, 
though uncivilised, by no means uncouth. Their 
hatred of the Turks is excessive ; they detest, and 
execrate them ; and the brilliant victories they 
have obtained over them excite the Montenegrins 
to a belief, that the mere supply of bread, powder, 
and ball, with the countenance of European powers, 
would enable them to overrun the greater part of 
Herzeg6vina and Albania. 


In their enthusiasm, they forget that their suc- 
cesses have been mainly owing to the nature of the 
country they have to defend; and neither their 
courage, nor their mode of fighting, would give 
them the same advantage against the numbers, or 
the cavalry, of their enemies in the open field, on 
Turkish ground; much less would they succeed 
in the attack of fortified towns, without the aid 
of artillery. 

It is, nevertheless, a noble spirit that suggests 
this belief ; it is the feeling of a brave people, and 
not the result of blind prejudice, or vanity ; for 
the Montenegrin never withholds from the Turk 
the merit of great valour, and, like a brave man, 
has the generosity to acknowledge a virtue in his 
enemy, which he thinks it his duty, and believes 
it his habit, to surpass. It is not the courage, 
but the cruelty, of the Turks, which inspires him 
with hatred ; and the sufferings inflicted upon his 
country, by their inroads, makes him look upon 
them with feelings of ferocious vengeance. 

These savage sentiments are kept alive by the 
barbarous custom, adopted by both parties, of 
cutting off the heads of the wounded, and the dead ; 
the consequences of which are destructive of all 
the conditions of fair warfare, and preclude the 
possibility of peace. The bitter remembrance of 
the past is constantly revived by the horrors of 
the present ; and the love of revenge, which 
strongly marks the character of the Montenegrin, 


makes him insensible to reason, or justice, and 
places the Turks, in his opinion, out of the pale of 
human beings. He dreams only of vengeance ; he 
cares little for the means employed ; and the man, 
who should make any excuse for not persecuting 
those enemies of his country and his faith, would 
be treated with ignominy and contempt. Even 
the sanctity of a truce is "not always sufficient to 
restrain him ; and hatred of the Turk is para- 
mount to all ordinary considerations of honour or 

The injuries they have constantly received from 
the Turks, the habits they have acquired by pillag- 
ing them, and the credit attached to a successful 
foray, have sanctioned among fhem the custom of 
robbery, which their poverty tends to keep up: 
and the poor Montenegrin sees no reason why he 
should not help himself to the goods of his neigh- 
bours. But unfortunately, the robbing propensity 
has not been confined to his enemy's property; and 
the Dalmatians have suffered from his depreda- 
tions, which have obtained for him an unenviable 
notoriety. He does not, however, extend it to 
strangers travelling in his country ; and the moment 
that, having entered his country, they obtain his 
protection, their persons and their goods enjoy the 
same kind of security, that is given by the bread 
and salt of the Arab. 

The reception of strangers in Montenegro is 
somewhat embarrassing to an Englishman, un- 


accustomed to be kissed by every man of a family 
he visits. Men kiss each other in other countries ; 
but I never saw people so lavish of their salutes ; 
and what is worse, upon the mouth. They are 
indefatigable in the distribution of these friendly 
tokens, however great the number of persons they 
have to encounter. When doomed to undergo this 
ordeal, and all chance of escape was cut off, I 
always contrived to make a straight lunge with my 
head, over my adversary's, I should say my friend's, 
shoulder; and only withdrew it when his kind 
intentions had time to subside; and then imme- 
diately opened the snuff-box of politeness, or found 
some subject of complimentary conversation, to 
prevent his pondering over my strange behaviour. 
The women only kiss a stranger's hand * ; and on 
no occasion does one feel how advantageously the 
two sexes might change places, as when welcomed 
to a Montenegrin house. 

An Englishman must also be much struck, both 
in Montenegro and Dalmatia, with the use of the 
word "yesjf" as their affirmative. In Dalmatia 
it is more usually pronounced, as written, "yest;" 
but the Montenegrins frequently soften it into 
"yes;" and the negative "ne" or "nay" is not 
less English in sound* But " yest" is the third 

* See above, p. 421. 

t Our old affirmatives were yea and ay. The ancient 
Saxon is yise. 


person of the Slavonic verb to be : the present of 
which is — 

yessum * I am, yesmo we are, 

yessi thou art, yesti ye are, 

yest he is, yessoo they are ; 

where we readily trace the resemblance to the sum, 
es, est, of the Latin, derived from the same common 
origin as the Slavonic. 

Another custom of the Montenegrins on receiving 
visiters, has a claim to the literal meaning of 
striking ; inasmuch as it endangers the person of 
the individual it is intended to honour. For while 
the innocent stranger approaches the place, where 
his presence is expected, he is received with a salute 
of muskets, which pointed downwards, and fired 
with ball among the rocks, through which he is 
slowly pursuing a winding path, may, by the glance 
of a bullet, as easily be his death-warrant for the 
next world, as a sign of welcome in this. 

Like the Turks, they think a loud report adds 
to the honour done to their guest, and to the satis- 
faction of the firer ; and the unremoved tail of the 
ball heightens the charm, by the peculiar twang it 
gives, on passing through the air. Trouble is also 

• In the Slavonic of and 

the Bible it is in Sanscrit, 

Yesm Yesmy Asmi Smas 

Vest Yeste Asi Stha 

Yest StUy Asti Sand. 


saved by leaving it; the cartridge is more easily 
fastened on, and it has the cruel merit of inflicting 
a more lacerating wound upon an enemy. Like 
the Turks, again, they are persuaded every thing 
is written ; that no one can be killed, or hurt, unless 
fate has so ordained it ; and if fated, an event must 
happen, in spite of all precautions to prevent it. 
They, therefore, take none, in such cases ; though 
they do shield themselves behind rocks to attack, 
or avoid, an enemy; which is one of many similar 
paradoxes of human credulity, and an instance of 
the difference between theory and practice. 

Their mode of living is very hardy and primi- 
tive, and their food simple ; consisting of coarse 
unleavened bread, made of Indian corn, polenta, 
cheese, milk, and vegetables. Meat and fish are 
rarely eaten, except on great occasions, or when a 
stranger is welcomed. They are fond of wine, but 
few can afford to drink it,*except on certain fes- 
tivals ; when they consume a great quantity, espe- 
cially at the f§te of St. Elias, which is celebrated 
with great pomp.* Brandy and all spirituous 
liquors have great charms for the Montenegrins ; 
but the use of them is very limited, and few have 
the opportunity, or the means, of obtaining them, 
except those who visit Cattaro. 

The habits of the people in the interior are very 
srimple, and their poverty generally prevents their 
indulging in excesses. But when they can afford 

* Petter. 



it, the bowl of conviviality passes freely, and they 
think that no guest is properly honoured, nor 
enjoys his reception, without a great consumption 
of wine. 

They have a few games : the principal one 8 I 
saw were bowls, and a sort of quoits ; and they per- 
form various feats of agility and strength. They 
are also celebrated for their skill in leaping. Of 
this I had often heard, before my visit to the 
country ; and when at Tzetinie, the Vladika kindly 
proposed to give me an opportunity of witnessing 
it. Some boys were first called, who made a very 
fair display of agility ; but the men jumped twenty 
feet, in a level space, on turf, with a short run. 

The Montenegrins are superstitious, and as they 
pass a church, cross thehiselves over and over 
again, for which they are ridiculed by the Cat- 
tarines ; who, when they see them make this ex- 
travagant show of religion, hint that their respect 
for crosses is consistent with their readiness to add 
to their number by the road side. For in this part 
of the world, as in Italy, and other Roman Catholic 
countries, a cross is always put up, by the road-side, 
to mark the spot of a murder. It must, however, 
be observed, that the Morlacchi are not much be- 
hind the Montenegrins in those external signs of 
devotion, whenever they pass a church, a cross, or 
some traditional relic. The notion about evil 
spirits, and the injury they do to man, is equally 
prevalent among the Montenegrins, and the Mor- 


lacchi # , who ascribe all misfortunes to the agency 
of demons ; and the custom of howling at funerals, 
and many other peculiarities, are common to both 

I always imagined that the habit of using the 
name of God, on every trivial occasion, was most 
prevalent in the East ; but the Montenegrins may 
compete with any Oriental in this respect; and 
every expression they use is accompanied by 
" B6gami," " B6gati f," and that too, even by 
priests ; which the Dalmatians very justly consider 
both irreligious, and vulgar. 

In religion the Montenegrins are all of the Greek 
Church, now that the Kfttska department has de- 
tached itself from Montenegro ; which adds to the 
influence exercised in the country by Russia, the 
Czar being the head of the Church, and the Vladika 
being invested with the episcopal office at St. 

The principal convents are those of Tzetinie, 
Ostrok, and St. Stefano, which last was founded by 
King Velkan Nemagna J, ' in the Moratska n&hia, 
or department of Mora£a. 

• See the customs of the Morlacchi, in Chapter VIII. 

t "My God," "thy God," fromBoga, " God," a name which, 
by a strange perversion, like the Daimon (Daemon) of the 
Greeks, has received with us a very different, and absurd 

t See above, p. 301. Appendini is wrong in calling his 
father Simeon "brother" of Stephen, or Tehomil; they were 
the same. See list of Servian Kings in Appendix C. 


There was another at Stanievich *, in the com- 
mune of Budua, which had been given to the 
Montenegrins by the Venetian government, but 
which was ceded by the Vladika, a few years ago, 
to the Austrians, on receiving a certain compen- 
sation in money ; no foreign state being allowed to 
possess a convent, within the Imperial territory. 

They have no knowledge of medicine, but pre- 
judice does not prevent their applying to foreigners, 
who possess it; and not only the Vladika, but 
other persons of rank in the country, gladly avail 
themselves of medical advice at Cattaro. The cli- 
mate, however, , their frugal mode of living, and 
their active habits render illness very unusual; 
and few cripples are seen in the country. Their 
healthy condition also enables them to recover 
speedily from wounds, and other severe accidents ; 
which in a more civilised st&te would often be 
fatal; and they have the usual skill of all wild 
people, in curing external injuries ; like the Arabs, 
and others who lead an unartificial life. Much is, 
of course, left to nature, and the simplest remedies 
are sufficient. 

Education is still in embryo, and many even of 
the priests know not how to read or write. 
The Vladika has lately f established two schools ; 
one at Tzetinie, for thirty boys, the other at Do- 
broskos&o, for twenty-four. There are several 

* Stagnievich, or Stanovich. f ^ n 1841. 

VOL. I. Q Q 


classes at each ; and they learn writing, reading, 
and Slavonic grammar, arithmetic, Servian his- 
tory, geography, and the catechism. Tzetinie also 
boasts a printing press; and it is a remarkable 
fact, that works in the Cyrillic character were 
printed in Montenegro, as early as the beginning 
of the sixteenth century. * 

The language of Montenegro is a dialect of the 
Slavonic, and is considered very pure ; not being 
corrupted by the admission of foreign words. The 
Montenegrins themselves call it a Servian dialect ; 
which is perhaps a proper distinction, as they were 
an offset of Servia, and once formed part of that 
kingdom f; and Krasinski says "it is considered 
the nearest of all the Slavonian dialects to the 
original Slavonic tongue ; L e. that into which the 
Scriptures were translated by St. Cyril and Metho- 
dius, in the ninth century, and which continues 
still to be the sacred tongue, of all the Slavonian 
nations who follow the Eastern Church." J 

They have therefore some reason to distinguish 
it from the Illyric, which it so nearly resembles, 
but which is corrupted by the introduction of many 
Italian words ; as the Bosnian, and other Slavonic 
dialects in Turkey, are by Turkish expressions. 

The Montenegrins are not deficient in intellect, 

* See below, the History of Montenegro, 
t See above, p. 30., and p. 403. ; and below, the History of 

% British and Foreign Review, No. xxi. p. 112. 


Chap. VI.] FEATURES. — VOICE. 45 1 

which only requires to be properly cultivated ; and 
the Cattarines even allow that they are capable of 
considerable mental acquirements. They have 
generally good foreheads ; but the face is not well 
shaped, being rather square (which is particularly 
observable in the women), with rather high cheek- 
bones, and the lower jaw projecting a little at the 
side. Many are, nevertheless, very handsome. 
Their eyes are rather near, than far apart, mostly 
hazel, and some few light blue. The hair is 
brown, sometimes dark, but rarely black. 

The profile of the men has generally a decided 
outline, with a moderate aquiline, or a straight, 
nose ; but neither of the extravagant dimensions 
found in the Turkish face, nor of the retroussi shape 
sometimes seen in Northern Europe. Their eyes 
are very animated, though without the fierce expres- 
sion of the Turks, except when excited by anger. 
In stature they are much above middle height; 
some are very tall ; and they are well proportioned. 
Their voices are powerful, and I have often heard 
them carrying on a conversation at a distance, not 
by shouts, but with a clear, distinct pronunciation ; 
which can only be the result of experience, and the 
habit of communicating with each other from 
mountain to mountain. I observed the same 
among the Morlacchi, of the interior of Dalmatia. 

Vialla * says they keep up long conversations, at 
the distance of half a league ; and the writer of " A 

♦ Vialla, vol. i. p. 181. 

GG 2 


Ramble in Montenegro" thus bears testimony to 
the strength of their lungs : — " We passed a village 
at a small distance, and lay on our oars to hear the 
news : most of the people were absent ; but one, a 
great man, was seated on the hut-top, with a few 
idlers round him. This was the chief president of 
the Senate, — the speaker of the house in short; 
and undoubtedly, if stentorian lungs are of any use 
for that office in a Montenegrian parliament, he 
was most amply qualified. For twenty minutes 
this eminent man conversed with us — the distance 
at first being about a quarter of a mile, and pro- 
bably it might be three miles, or more, before he 
was finally out of hearing." * These feats recall 
the fifty-voice power of Stentor, and the perform- 
ance of the Egyptian, in the army of Darius (em- 
ployed to vociferate distant commands), when he 
gave instructions to Histiaeus across the Ister. f 

The dress of the men bears some resemblance to 
the Albanian ; but they have no fost&n, and their 
white shirt falls over a pair of full blue trousers, 
which extend a little below the knee. They wear a 
white, or yellow, cloth frock, reaching almost to the 
knee, secured by a sash round the waist : under it is 
a red cloth vest, and over it a red, or green, jacket 
without sleeves, both richly embroidered ; and the 
whole is covered with a jacket, bordered with fur. 

* Blackwood's Magazine, January, 1835, p. 42. 
t Herodot. iv. 141. 


On the head they wear a red Fez cap, and a turban, 
generally white, or red ; below which projects, at 
the back of the neck, a long lock of hair. In this 
they also resemble the Albanians, as in the absence 
of beards. The fore part of the head is shaved, as 
far as the line of the ear, behind which the hair is 
allowed to grow to a great length ; but they never 
have the long pigtail of the Morlacchi. Though all 
wear mustaches, none have beards, except the 
monks, and those priests who are intended for the 
offices of Bishop, and Archimandrite, and who 
properly belong to the monastic order. Besides 
the sash, they have a leather girdle, for holding 
pistols and yatagan, like the Albanians, Turks, 
and Morlacchi; and pouches, with various useful 
and ornamental bags, are fastened to a strap below 
the sash. Men and women carry the struccha over 
one shoulder. That of the women is varied in 
colour ; the other generally brown. 

The female dress consists of a frock, or pelisse, of 
white cloth, without sleeves, and open in front, like 
that of the men*, but much longer, reaching nearly 
to the ankles, and trimmed with various devices, 
in braiding, or coloured cloth, and tassels ; and in 
front are several gold ornaments. Around the 
neck are numerous chains, gold coins, and collars ; 
they wear earrings, and pendants fastened to their 
plaited locks of hair : and the red cap of the girls is 

* See woodcut, representing the interior of a Montenegrin 

o g 3 


covered, in front, with a mass of small silver Turk- 
ish coins, mostly paras, arranged like scales ; over 
which is an embroidered veil, falling upon the 
shoulders. The red cap of the married women, 
instead of the paras, has a black silk border, and on 
gala days a bandeau of gold ornaments, generally 
half covered by a coloured veil, fastened on the 
top of the head by a gold-headed pin. The shirt 
has its front, and its long loose open sleeves, worked 
with silk of various colours and patterns, or gold 
thread; it frequently reaches to the ankles, but 
sometimes only to the waist, and the apron then 
supplies the place of the lower part. This apron is 
of coloured worsted, or cloth, with a deep fringe 
along the bottom ; and the girdle is studded with 
three or four rows of real, or false, red cornelians.* 
Short socks, worked in coloured worsted, are drawn 
over the feet of their coarse white stockings ; and 
men and women wear opanche (sandals), like those 
of the Morlacchi. With these opanche they run 
over the most rugged, and slippery, rocks, with the 
greatest agility ; and the comfort to the foot, when 
accustomed to them, is said to be greater than in 
any other sandal. The sole is made of untanned 
ox hide, with the hair taken off, and that side 

The government of Montenegro may be called 
republican, all affairs relating to the public good 

* An imitation, in composition, is bought, and used, by the 
poorer people. 


being settled in the general assembly. The same 
privilege of discussion is enjoyed by the people, as in 
other Slavonic communities, of ancient, and modern, 
times; and if the government is not democratic, as 
among the early Slavonians (mentioned by Pro- 
copius), respect for the popular rights is duly main- 
tained, and every village, or department, has the 
right of electing its own chiefs. And though the 
reforms, made by the present Vladika, have made a 
considerable change in the mode of government, in 
the enactment, and administration, of laws, and 
in the establishment of a Senate, the voice of the 
people has still its weight, in all matters relating to 
the common interests of the country. Indeed, the 
ruler of Montenegro ought to be appointed to his 
office by the popular voice, and the general diet 
has the right of his election. But the supreme 
power, as in some other Slavonic countries, has 
long since been confined to one family ; and unless 
a good reason could be assigned, has always been 
given to the immediate heir ; so that the elective 
principle, in the appointment of the chief magistrate, 
has not for many years been really carried out. 

The voice, too, of the Vladika has always had far 
greater weight, in the deliberative assembly, than is 
consistent with independent votes ; and if he was for- 
merly unable to punish crimes, this was rather owing 
to the want of laws, than to any inclination to resist 
his authority. His influence has latterly become 
stronger; it has assumed the character of legal 

G G 4 


right, and the republican principle in Montenegro 
is nearly confined to external form. He has also 
united in his person all the temporal, as well as 
spiritual power ; he is the sole ruler of the country; 
and the appointment of a Vladika now depends on 
the Emperor of Russia ; the choice being "confined 
to the single family of Petrovich. 

In a semicircular recess, formed by the rocks on 
one side of the plain of Tzetinie, and about half a 
mile to the southward of the town, is a level piece 
of grass land, with a thicket of low poplar trees. 
Here the diet is held, from which the spot has 
received the name of mali sbor *, " the small assem- 
bly." When any matter is to be discussed, the 
people meet in this their Runimede, or " meadow of 
council;" and partly on the level space, partly on 
the rocks, receive from the Vladika notice of the 
question proposed. The duration of the discussion 
is limited to a certain time ; at the expiration of 
which, the assembly is expected to come to a de- 
cision ; and when " the monastery's bell orders si- 
lence, notwithstanding the most animated discussion, 
it is instantly restored. The Metropolitan asks again 
what is their decision, and whether they agree to 
his proposal, or not? The answer is always the 
same, ' Budi po to oyemu, Vladika^ — * Let it be as 
thou wishest, Vladika.' " f 

Until the late reforms, the power of the Vladika 

* Sborit " to assemble." 

f Krasinski, British and Foreign Review, p. 112. 

Chap. VL] BLOOD FEUDS. 457 

was much more limited, being rather a moral in- 
fluence, than an actual jurisdiction. He had no 
right to punish any one for the greatest crimes ; 
and though he might interpose his episcopal 
authority, and threaten with excommunication, 
his commands might be defied ; and he was obeyed 
rather out of respect for his holy office, for his 
superior understanding, and from a belief that he 
acted from just and wise motives. In the absence 
of laws, every one defended his own cause by force ; 
none were amenable to justice; and none were 
deterred by fear of punishment, which none had 
the right to inflict. Blood was avenged by blood, 
and the lex talionis was carried out, much in the 
same way as among other people in a primitive 
state of society. If "the murderer had left 
the country, this vengeance fell on his nearest 
relation. He in turn found new avengers, and 
sometimes whole villages made war in this way, 
so that neither governor, nor Vladika, could stop 
the effusion of blood." Families were obliged to 
avenge the violent deaths, that happened in their 
villages; and villages, or even whole districts, to 
" take the part of their inhabitants, against those 
of another village, or district. Truces were some- 
times established between the hostile parties, as, 
for instance, when they had common, or adjoining, 
fields to cultivate. In cases where one party stood 
more in need of the truce than the opposite one, 
it must pay for it ; and the attack of a foreign 


enemy alone established a general truce for all 
private hostilities." 

Like the Arabs, they frequently settle grave 
questions by arbitration, when not brought before 
a legal tribunal ; though there is nothing cor- 
responding to the tents of refuge among the 
Bedouins, or the cities of refuge among the 
Israelites of old. In Montenegro, when the case 
is to be amicably adjusted, each side chooses 
"an equal number of arbiters, amounting from 
ten to forty. These arbiters, called Kmeti, re- 
ceive the complaints of both parties, minutely 
examine. all the circumstances of the case, and 
estimate a gun-shot wound, or a yatagan* cut, 
not according to the injury inflicted, but according 
to that which might have been done: and after 
mature deliberation, they give a verdict, from 
which there is no appeal. The guilty party is con- 
demned to pay a fine, one wound being generally 
taxed at 10, two at 20, and a murder at 120, 
ducats." f "In cases of homicide, the guilty person 
is obliged to beg pardon publicly, .with the fol- 
lowing ceremonies : — The judges and spectators 
form a large circle, in the midst of which the 
culprit, having suspended from his neck a gun, or 
a poniard, must creep on his knees to the feet of the 
offended party, who, taking the weapon from his 

* I substitute this for " sabre," the latter not being a weapon 
of the country. 

t British and Foreign Review, p. 114. 

Chap. VI.] THEFT. — THE VLADIKA. 459 

neck, raises him, and embraces him, saying, l God 
pardon you!' The spectators congratulate, with 
joyous acclamation, the reconciled enemies; who 
not only forgive their mutual injuries, but often 
become sincere friends. This ceremony, which 
is called the ' circle of blood,' is concluded by a 
feast, given at the expense of the guilty party, of 
which all the spectators partake." * 

" Theft is mulcted by paying the sevenfold 
value of the stolen object : " which is a more severe 
law than with the Arabs, who, .like the Israel- 
ites, " restore fourfold." The Montenegrins " have 
a curious manner of recovering this, without ex- 
posing the guilty person. The individual, who 
has been despoiled, publicly announces the thing 
stolen, together with the sum which he will give 
for its restoration. If any one happens to know 
the author of the theft, he does not denounce him, 
but sends him word, by an intermediate person, 
that his crime is detected, and that he should not 
delay to reconcile himself to the injured party, by 
the restoration of the stolen object. When the 
thief perceives that he is known, he restores, by 
means of these goers-between, the stolen thing to 
its owner, who remains ignorant of his name." 

These imperfect, and primitive, customs are now 
beginning to give place to the authority of es- 
tablished laws ; and the Vladika, with great firm- 
ness and wisdom, has commenced a system of 

* See some other customs in the same article, p. 115. 


administration, likely to be highly beneficial to his 
country : the effects of which are already sensibly 

Besides his offices of high priest, judge, legis- 
lator, and civil governor, the Vladika is com- 
mander-in-chief of the array ; and he is the only 
remaining instance of the military bishops, who 
played so distinguished a part in the wars of the 
middle ages. Nor is he inferior to those of former 
days, in courage, or warlike prowess ; and no man 
in the country can point a cannon, or a rifle, with 
more precision than the Vladika ; for which he is 
principally indebted to his early education ; having 
intended to follow the military profession, until 
circumstances required him to enter the church, 
and become the Prince-Bishop of his country. 

He has the privilege of ordaining priests. Each 
pays thirty dollars for admission to holy orders ; 
and when a batch is ordained, as recently of fifty 
individuals, the fees give a little addition to the 
revenue of the state. 

At one period the offices of bishop and governor 
of Montenegro were distinct ; and the civil au- 
thority was in the hands of a prince of the family 
of Tzerrfoievich *, until the year 1516 ; but, from 
that time, the spiritual and temporal power have 
been generally vested in the Vladikas. The family 
of Radonich, however, enjoyed, for a long period, 
the post of governors ; and though the office was 

* See below, the History of Montenegro. 


properly elective, and depended on the choice of 
the chiefs, or sometimes of the whole nation, it had 
been made hereditary in that family. 

Under the late Vladika, the authority of the 
governor became merely nominal, and at length, in 
1832, it was entirely suppressed; in consequence of 
the then governor making an attempt to get 
all the power into his hands, or, as some say, in- 
tending to betray the country to the Austrians. 
He was expelled with his whole family, and re- 
tired into the Austrian states; since which time 
the sole authority, civil and military, as well as 
spiritual, has been vested in the Vladika alone. 

The title of Vladika signifies " Prince," or 
"Ruler* ;" and the office is hereditary in the house 
of Petrovich ; but as every Vladika is consecrated 
bishop, and cannot marry, the succession always 
falls to a nephew, or some other of the family. 
This fact, of the episcopal office being hereditary, 
is singular, considering the doctrines of Christians, 
in regard to Apostolic succession ; though it is 
true that each member of the family, who succeeds 
to the office, is duly ordained, according to the 
rites of the Greek Church. 

The Vladika is president of the Senate, which is 
composed of twelve members, with a vice-pre- 
sident, one of their body ; an office now held by 
the cousin of the Vladika, George Petrovich, who, 

* Written Wladyka. Vladainstevo signifies " government,*' 
" authority, r or, more properly, " command." 


in right of his seniority, and being the son of an 
elder brother of the late Vladika, would have suc- 
ceeded to the government of the country, had he 
not preferred the profession of arms to that of the 
church. He was long in Russia, and held a high 
military rank in the service of the Czar. 

In spiritual matters, the Archimandrite, who re- 
sides at the convent of Ostrok, is the second person 
after the Vladika. He has also power of life and 
death, though all complicated cases are referred to 
the Vladika himself. The other persons in au- 
thority are the Segretario referente ; the Cancelliere, 
called also Segretaiio delta Commissione ; the Cap- 
tain of Perianiki ; and forty Captains or Pretors, 
who are provincial judges. Thirty Perianiki* 
compose the body-guard of the Vladika, who are 
selected from the principal families in the country, 
and who, on condition of doing duty, properly 
armed, dressed, and mounted, receive ten dollars 
a year, for the keep of a horse. There are also 800 
national guards, distributed in the different pro- 
vinces, where they have the power of deciding 
respecting affairs of minor importance, and render- 
ing summary justice, in their capacity of police 

The secretary of the Vladika is Signor Mileko- 
vich, a man of considerable talent, born and edu- 
cated in Russia, whose family, originally from 
Herzeg6^ina, has been for some years settled at 

* Perianik is perhaps from Pero, a " feather." 


Ragusa. There are also at Tzetinie some refugees 
from Austria, who have been taken into the service 
of the Vladika, but who occupy no post connected 
with the government of the country, and are only 
there on sufferance. 

The first reforms, in the government and insti- 
tutions of Montenegro, were introduced by the 
lateVladika, whose influence paved the way for 
the authority now possessed by his successor. The 
respect paid to him, and the fear of his anathema, 
have passed down to the present ruler of the 
country ; and the name of Pietro Petrovich pos- 
sesses a charm in the minds of the Montenegrins. 
For, like some other dignitaries of the church, the 
Bishop of Montenegro may choose his name, when 
consecrated to that office, and the present Vladika 
has taken the same as his uncle and predecessor, 

Besides the beneficial changes, introduced during 
his rule, the late Vladika may be said to have be- 
queathed certain ameliorations, in the advice and 
suggestions he gave his countrymen before his 
death; the formation of the Senate*, and the 
harmony established among the Montenegrins, 
were owing to his fatherly care ; and he not only 
recommended them " to maintain concord, and 

* " A judicial tribunal called (by the Turkish name) Kuluk, 
which consisted of sixty chieftains," with fixed salaries, had 
been established before by the Emperor Paul, " but as nobody 
would submit to their authority, the tribunal was abolished, 
after a year's duration." — British and Foreign Review, p. 128. 


establish a legal order in the country," but, " re- 
peating the same injunction in his will, he con- 
jured them to swear over his coffin, to preserve a 
general truce amongst districts, villages, families, 
and individuals, for the space of six months, in 
order that this time might be employed for the 
organization of a new mode of government."* His 
death happened on the 30th October f , 1830. 

His nephew, whom he had recommended as his 
successor, was then admitted to holy orders ; but, 
being only fifteen years of age, and too young to 
take the reins of ,go vernment, or receive tne epis- 
copal dignity, a locum tenens was appointed, and 
S r . Ivanovich J was sent from Russia to govern the 
country, until the consecration of the new Vladika. 
This took place at St. Petersburgh on the 18th of 
August §, 1833. The youthful Bishop then returned 
to his own country; and the order of St. Anne, of 
the first class, was afterwards conferred upon him. 

That the present Vladika is worthy to succeed 
his talented predecessor is fully shown by many 
acts of his administration ; and neither the oppo- 
sition he has met with, from some of his intractable 
subjects, nor the difficulties of his isolated position, 
have prevented his carrying out his projects with 
firmness and discretion. " Our neighbours," he 

* British and Foreign Review, p. 1 46. 

t The 18th October, old style. 

f Or Vacovich. 

§ 6th August, old style. 


observed to me, "have stigmatised the Montenegrins 
as robbers and assassins * ; but I am determined 
that they shall not be so, and will show that they 
are as capable of improvement, and civilisation, as 
any other people." In his endeavours to improve 
their condition, he has already done wonders: 
the security and good order he has established 
throughout the country, are highly creditable to 
his justice and ability ; and were it not for their 
extreme poverty, and the privations to which they 
are so frequently exposed, he would have been 
able to carry out his intentions of suppressing 
robbery, even across the frontier. Already are the 
people less uncouth in their manners, more dis- 
posed to welcome strangers, more cordial and frank 
in their demeanour, and less averse to improve- 
ments and innovation; and appreciating the ad- 
vantages of wise laws, they have learnt to respect 
them, and to abandon the dangerous habit of main- 
taining their own cause by force. 

To overcome this has been one of the Vladika's 
greatest difficulties ; and an apparently insufferable 
objection stood in the way of carrying into execu- 
tion any laws, which condemned an offender to 
death. For such was the inflexible character that 
marked their custom of retaliation, that no one 
could be found to undertake the office of execu- 
tioner : his own life was certain to be sacrificed to 
the vengeance of the culprit's family ; no plea of 

* Brockhaus says, " a free community of assassins." 
VOL. I. H H 


justice would satisfy them : and the punishment of 
a capital crime defied the authority of the Vladika 

To defeat the course of revenge, and to place the 
executioner beyond its reach, the following expe- 
dient has been adopted. Whenever a culprit is 
condemned to die, a number of persons are ap- 
pointed to fire upon him at a given sign, and as no 
one can be fixed upon as the author of his death, 
the relations no longer consider themselves bound 
to revenge it ; and thus the abolition of a barba- 
rous custom has been effected, which formerly 
entailed on whole families interminable feuds, and 
presented a bar to every attempt at civilisation, or 

The moral power of the Vladika, and the fear of 
excommunication have done much to bring about 
his reforms ; and far greater difficulties would have 
been experienced by any governor, whose authority 
was not backed by the influence of religion ; for, 
notwithstanding, some of his first measures met 
with much opposition ; particularly in those cases 
where it was found necessary to pronounce exist- 
ing blood feuds to be at an end, "without the 
usual compensation in money, and the ceremony of 
the culprit's humiliation*;" "many villages and 
other communities refusing to surrender criminals 
belonging to them, and considering it a disgrace 

* British and Foreign Review, p. 148. 


to permit them to be sought for, and taken in the 
midst of them." 

" The following manner of proceeding against 
murderers has been adopted by the present Govern- 
ment. * Though the communities refuse to seize or 
deliver up the culprits, or to permit the Senate to 
pursue, and imprison them, the Government has at 
last succeeded in effecting so much, that the com- 
munities shall no longer oppose the burning down 
the house of the murderer, and the confiscation of 
his cattle (generally the sole property of the Mon- 
tenegrins), by which his family become free from 
the vengeance of blood ; the murderer himself 
is outlawed; and the confiscated cattle divided 
amongst those who executed the sentence against 
him. Although, on account of this share in the 
confiscated property, many chiefs of villages, as 
well as other persons, present themselves to assist 
at the above mentioned executions, there is always 
a long hesitation amongst them as to who shall 
take the lead. It happened once at Cettigne 
(Tzetinie), that an execution was delayed from 
day to day during a whole week ; and generally, 
nobody is willing to act, until compelled by the 
authority of the Vladika. 

" The murderer being thus deprived of house and 
property, generally takes refuge in some remote 
cavern, where he leads a robber's life ; many emi- 
grate into Turkey, whither they are sometimes 
followed by their families. In other cases the 

HH 2 

j i 


unfortunate family of a murderer finds an asylum 
in the house of some relation. Barbarous and cruel 
as this mode of proceeding is, it is perhaps the only 
possible means of replacing by a legal order the 
state of society, which still exists in Montenegro. 
Whenever there is a possibility of catching the 
culprit, and of inflicting on him the merited 
punishment, the property of his family remains 
untouched." * 

Fines are now established for every offence, and 
whoever wounds another in a quarrel is arrested ; 
and his arms, being taken from him, are kept a* a 
deposit, until the fine is paid. Half the sum goes 
to the Vladika, the rest is divided between the 
senators, and the officers of government. And in 
order to show that the Vladika and the laws are in 
earnest, a prison has been set up at Tzetinie ; where 
culprits are immured, without the advantages 
of being fed at the government expense ; and every 
one depends, during his confinement, for his bread 
and water, on his family or friends. 

The poverty of the Montenegrins is certainly a 
great bar to their civilisation ; but notwithstanding 
this, they are neither mercenary, nor selfish ; and 
while I was travelling in the interior of the country, 
poor people often ran out of their cottages to 
give me fruit, or whatever they had ; and when on 
one occasion I offered them money, their reply was, 
" this is to welcome you ; we are at home, you are 

* British and Foreign Review, p. 147. 


a stranger ; and had we known you would offer to 
pay us, we would not have brought it." 

The Vladika has constructed roads in various 
parts of the country, which, though an improve- 
ment on the old mountain paths, are very primi- 
tive, being paved with large irregular stones, and 
fit only for mules and mountain horses ; but every 
thing is by comparison, and after passing from the 
old tracks, they have at least the appearance of being 
made by human hands. The means of communi- 
cation are certainly of great advantage to the 
people ; but at the same time it may be dangerous 
to render them too convenient for their neighbours : 
the strength of Montenegro has always been the 
inaccessible character of its mountains; and the 
improvement .of roads, and the introduction of 
too many innovations, may interfere with the secu- 
rity of the country. 

The Montenegrins have lately suffered some 
losses of territory, independent of the defection of 
the Kutska department, which have increased their 
embarrassments and their poverty ; and they have 
not escaped the failure of the crops, which now 
afflicts many parts of Europe. But this last cala- 
mity has afforded the generous Vladika an oppor- 
tunity of proving his sincere, and devoted, love for 
his country ; and he has sold his jewels, and what- 
ever valuables he possessed, to purchase food for 
his people. 

In 1843, the Montenegrins were obliged to cede 

H H 3 


to Herzeg6vina a portion of territory, at Grdhovo, 
on the northern frontier, with the " condition " 
that the religion of the inhabitants should be 
respected, that they should continue under the 
jurisdiction of the Vladika in all spiritual matters, 
and that nothing more than the payment of tribute 
should be exacted from them. This, however, 
can scarcely be called a condition, as it is the 
usual fate of a province conquered by the Moslems ; 
who exact tribute from all their rayah subjects, 
while they allow the patriarchs, or spiritual chiefs, 
to use their privileges in matters of religion ; and 
the moral effect of the cession, both in Turkey 
and Montenegro, has been highly prejudicial to 
the Montenegrins. 

But a still more severe blow has been inflicted, by 
the capture of Vranina, and Lessandro, by the Alba- 
nians. Standing at the northern extremity of the 
Lake of Sciitari, these islands command the mouth 
of the Rieka-Tzernovichi, and interfere with the 
fisheries ; which are a great source of revenue to the 
country ; and so great an injury has been thereby 
inflicted on the neighbouring department of Tzer- 
nitza,that fears have been entertained, lest the people 
of that N&hia should secede from Montenegro, and 
thus deprive the country of its most fertile districts. 

This would be a grievous calamity : there is also 
another event, which, for the interests of the coun- 
try, and of humanity, it is to be hoped will never 
occur, the retirement of the Vladika from Mon- 


tenegro. It has been said, that he may b§ 
driven to this sad resolution by the many diffi- 
culties, and disappointments, he has to encounter, 
and the little sympathy shown by other states 
towards his people, in their struggles with the 
Turks, together with the discontent of some dis- 
tricts at his innovations. It is also reasonable 
to suppose that his solitary position, among the 
illiterate and unrefined Montenegrins, must be 
exceedingly irksome to a man of education, accus- 
tomed to associate with civilised individuals ; and it 
certainly requires great self-denial, and a devoted 
love for his country, to reconcile him to his ar- 
duous duties. 

After all the admirable measures he has adopted, 
for the benefit of the people he governs, his loss 
would be severely felt ; and if he has found a diffi- 
culty in overcoming the prejudices, and preventing 
the excesses, in which they had always been ac- 
customed to indulge, few others would have the 
energy, or the talent to continue his reforms ; and 
his departure from the country would be the signal 
for a return to all the irregularities of former times. 

Besides his talents as a governor, the Vladika 
has the merit of being a distinguished Servian, or 
Slavonian, poet ; and he unites all the qualities of 
a good soldier, and an able diplomatist. He is 
also a member of several learned societies of Eu- 
rope; and having been educated partly at Castel 
Nuovo in Dalmatia, and partly in Russia, and 

H H 4 


having visited the courts of Vienna, and St. Peters- 
burgh, he has enjoyed the advantages of European 
society ; and his mode of living sufficiently shows 
that he appreciates the comforts, and elegances, of 
refinement. He was born in 1815, at Erakovich, 
one of the villages in the commune of N£gosh *, 
from which he derives the affix to his name 
'Petrovicli-Negosh ; he is styled " Monsignore " and 
"Eminenza;" and in the address "Illustr . e 
Reverend Monsignor Pietro Petrovich-Negosh, 
Vladika di Montenegro e Berda" he bears a title 
taken from the Eastern f division of the country. 
He is also styled, in official documents, Metropolitan 
of Skenderia, or Sciitari. 

With a people like the Montenegrins, the merit 
of excelling in military exercises is a great recom- 
mendation in their chief; and though, in these days, 
it may appear a singular accomplishment for a 
bishop, to hit with a rifle a lemon, thrown into the 
air by one of his attendants, this feat of the Vladika 
adds to the confidence he enjoys amongst his troops. 
His appearance too is not a little in his favour; 
and his majestic height, of about six feet eight 
inches, may well command the respect of a pri- 
mitive and warlike race. He is also handsome, 
and well proportioned to his height. He has a 
small beard, and his long dark hair flows over the 
back of his neck, his head being covered with a red 

* Niegosh, or Gnegosh. f See above, p. 404. 


Fez cap. His eyebrow is arched ; and the expres- 
sion of his countenance is mild and amiable. 

His general costume is military, like that of the 
country, though richer, and covered with a scarlet 
pelisse, bordered with fur. He wears the full 
short blue trousers of the Montenegrins, with white 
stockings, and black shoes ; and two rather sin- 
gular additions to his dress are a black silk cravat, 
and black kid gloves. 


His pontifical robes are very different ; but these 
he seldom wears. They consist of a long robe open 

in front, over another of the same length, girded 
by a sash round the waist ; and his head is covered 
with the black round upright cap, usually worn by 
Greek priests ; from which a black veil falls over 
his shoulders. 

His manners are particularly prepossessing, and 
his conversation is sensible, and agreeable. His 
observations on history, and politics, and on the 
many subjects he delights in discussing, show great 
discernment, and an excellent memory ; and his 
enthusiasm for his country cannot fail to command 
admiration and esteem. Kind, hospitable, and cour- 
teous, he takes a pleasure in the visits of foreigners, 
and is particularly desirous that the English should- 


feel an interest in the welfare of his country ; which, 
from the vicinity of Corfu, and from the fact of the 
Montenegrins having co-operated with us, in our 
attacks against the French in the Bocche di Cat- 
taro, he thinks has some claim upon our friendly 
notice. This he repeated more than once, during 
my frequent conversations with him ; but I could 
not of course explain that, though their co-opera- 
tion was accepted by our fleet, the British govern- 
ment was greatly averse to it, and even expressed 
a regret, in the despatches sent to Captain Hoste, 
that he had made common cause with a people, 
whose mode of warfare was so little consistent with 
the customs of civilised nations. The direct inter- 
position of Russia in favour of Montenegro, and 
the subsidies received from that power, are also an 
impediment to any direct show of friendship on 
our part ; which would not be very agreeable to 
Austria, and not quite fair to Turkey, with whom 
we are at peace. 

During my interview with the Vladika, I had 
an opportunity of adverting to the barbarous cus- 
tom, adopted by his people and the Turks, of cut- 
ting off the heads of their enemies, and exposing 
them on stakes, as trophies of victory, and revenge ; 
and I was delighted to find him fully alive to the 
evil results of this practice, and desirous of its 
discontinuance. " But," he added, " you, who have 
long known the Turks, will understand how im- 
possible it is for us to be the first to abandon it, 


or to propose that it should be abolished ; they 
would inevitably attribute our humane intentions 
to fear, and, in - their usual way, requite us with 
increased vexations. Our making any propositions 
pf the kind would almost be tantamount to an 
invitation to invade our territory ; and I must con- 
tinue to regret, what I cannot venture, for our own 
security, to discontinue." 

I could not but confess that he was perfectly 
right in his estimation of the. Turkish character, 
which long and painful experience has taught his 
countrymen, to understand ; I acknowledged the 
impossibility of doing this, unaided by some inter- 
mediate advocate; and I determined within my- 
self, if I ever went into any of the neighbouring 
Osmanli provinces, to leave no means untried, to 
make the Turks sensible of the injurious tendency 
of this odious practice. My wishes were gratified 
about two months later, on going into Herze- 
govina ; and I shall have occasion to mention the 
result of my interview with the Vizir, in describing 
my visit to Mostar.* 

History of Montenegro In early times, Mon- 
tenegro formed part of ancient IUyricum, and 
belonged to the district of the Labeates, of which 
Scodra, now Sctitari, was the capital. As the 
history of the country, at those remote periods, 
is not connected with the modern inhabitants, it 

* See below, Chapter VII. 


is sufficient to say that the present Montenegro 
was a district of Servia, when that country was 
ruled by its own kings.* " Montenegro was then 
called Zeta f , and was governed by a prince, de- 
pendent on the Servian monarch." About the 
period of the arrival of the Turks in Europe, that 
kingdom had attained a certain degree of conse- 
quence, especially in the reign of Stephen Dushan, 
whose sway (from 1333 to 1356) extended from 
the Adriatic to the Black Sea, and from the Archi- 
pelago to the Danube. " But the victory gained 
by the army of Sultan Amurath J I., (Murad) a.d. 
1389, in the plain of Kosovo §, where the Servian 
King Lazarus lost his throne and his life, made the 
kingdom of Servia tributary to the Porte," which 
appointed a king, or despot, over the country in 
1390; and sixty-nine years afterwards, Servia 
became a province of Turkey. || 

" On the death of King Lazarus % Zeta secured 

* See above, p. 294. 

f Or Zenta, which was divided into Upper and Lower 
Zenta, the latter extending to the Lake of Scutari, hence called 
Lake of Zenta. Farlati considers Zenta distinct from Mon- 
tenegro. See vol. i. 161. and vi. 463. 

$ Some of the names of Turkish and Arab sultans have been 
strangely perverted. We call Murad Amurath, but still Murad 
Bey is not Amurath Bey. 

§ Cosovo, or K6s6vo-P616. 

|| See the History in Chap. IX.; and Kings of Servia, Ap- 
pendix, C. 

% For the greater part of this summary of Montenegrin 
History (marked in inverted commas), I am indebted to the 



its independence, under the rule of Prince George 
Balsha*, who had married the Despina, a daughter 
of the Servian monarch. Stratzimir, their son, 
being called from his dark complexion Tzernoie 
('black'), gave his name to the family of Tzer- 
noievich f ; " for, as with the Atridae, and others 
in Greek history, the family names of the Slavo- 
nians are frequently borrowed from some early 
patronymic ; " and Stephen Tzernoie vich, the son 
of Stratzimir, was the first to adopt the name of 
4 Son of Tzernoie.' " % " Stephen was a contem- 
porary of the famous Albanian, George Castriot, 
better known as Scander-beg; whose courageous 
efforts against the Turks he seconded, by send- 
ing him a corps of hardy mountaineers, under the 
command of his second son Bozsidar." § 

" Stephen left three sons ; Ivan, Bozsidar, and 
Andrew, surnamed the valiant Arnaiit (Albanian), 
the first of whom succeeded his father as prince of 
Zeta ; but on the death of Scander-beg, in 1467, the 
Turks, having overrun Albania, and soon afterwards 
obtained possession of Herzeg6vina, turned their 

kindness of the Vladika, at whose request it was drawn up 
for me by his secretary. 

* See Appending i. p. 294., and Farlati, vi. 422. 452. 

f Or Chernojevich, "son of Chernoje, ,, or Tzernoye. In 
Russian and Polish, Cz is used for Tz of some other Slavonic 
dialects ; Tzerno is Czerno, or Czarno (pronounced Cerno, or 
Char no), and Tzar is written Czar. 

X See Farlati, vi. 463. 946. 

§ Bojidar, or Boxidar, " divine gift." 


arms against this independent country ; and Ivan, 
finding himself threatened by the formidable arms 
of the Porte, applied to Venice for assistance. Fail- 
ing in his appeal to the Republic, he was thrown 
upon his own resources ; and when, after a valiant 
resistance, he saw the utter impossibility of with- 
standing his powerful enemy, he abandoned the 
town of Zsabliak, which had been the residence of 
himself and his predecessors, and retired to a more 
secure and mountainous part of the country. He 
there founded the Convent of Tzetinie, and trans- 
ferred the metropolitan see to the new capital. 
This took place in 1485 ;" and Zsabliak has since 
that time continued to be a frontier town of 

" George Tzernoievich, who succeeded his father 
Ivan, was the last secular ruler of Montenegro. 
He had married a Venetian lady of the family of 
Mocenigo, and some years afterwards, having no 
children, she prevailed upon him to quit his 
country, and retire with her to her native city. 
He therefore, with the consent of the people, trans- 
ferred the government of Montenegro to the hands 
of the spiritual chiefs, and withdrew to Venice in 
1516.* The Metropolitan Germen then assumed 

* Luccari gives the following rather confused account of the 

• Tzernoievich family. " In the time of Stefano, despot of 

Servia, the people brought from Puglia Stefano Zernogoraz 

(by some called Mavro Monte), cousin of Balsa, late Signor 

of Zenta, who obtained possession of Dolcigno, Smohoviza, and 


the supreme direction of affairs; and from that 
time the theocratic form of government dates its 
commencement in Montenegro." * 

" During the period of his rule, George Tzernoie- 
vich had not been neglectful of the interests of his 
people; and previous to his abdication, he esta- 
blished many useful institutions in the country ; the 
most remarkable of which was a printing press, 
whe* many books of the CtoJ Servile 
printed, some of which are the oldest specimens of 
works in the Cyrillic character, dating as early as 
the year 1494." 

" During a whole century the Turks managed to 
obtain an influence in Montenegro, not so much by 

Zernogora (Montenegro), on the extreme parts of Slavonia, a 
little way from Cape Pali, celebrated by Posidonius, under the 
name of Nympheeum Promontorium. He retired into Zernogora, 
and drew a curtain of thick walls round Xabliak, on the river 
Moracsa. In 1423 he fortified Smohoviza, and allowed the 
Ragusans to trade with Zernogora, which produces honey, 
grain, horses, and cattle. From this Stefano came the family 
of Zernoevichi, who ruled Montenegro till 1515." (Lib. iii. 

p. 285.) "In the reign of Sultan Selim, Ivan Zernoevich, 

Signor of Montenegro, being drawn to a conference in the plain 
of Cimouschi, in Zenta, was killed, and his young son Peter 
being sent to the Porte, embraced Islamism, and was named 
Iscander. But being sent in 1512 by Sultan Suleyman with an 
army, he conquered his native country for the Turks, and drove 
out Stefano ; who, on the death of Ivan Zernoevich, had been 
left in Zernogora by his brother Gregory, so that the govern- 
ment which began with Stefano I. in 1433, ended with the 
fourth of that name, the seventh of the Signors of Zernogora, 
in 1516." 

* See above, p. 460. 


force of arms as by a wily policy ; " many of the 
people, having embraced Islamism, entered the ser- 
vice of the Porte; and Montenegro was looked 
upon as a portion of the pashalic of Scutari. 

" The Turks found, at length, that all their 
hopes of obtaining permanent possession of the 
country were fruitless ; " they suffered great losses, 
during the various inroads they made into the 
country ; and the Montenegrins were always ready 
to co-operate with the Venetians, in their wars 
against the Porte. And though 30,000 men 
traversed, and laid waste, the valley of Bielopav- 
lich, and other exposed parts of the country, those 
hardy mountaineers successfully harassed their 
formidable armies, and plainly showed them that 
Montenegro was not worth the risk and trouble 
of a conquest. 

Disappointment, however, did not allay the re- 
sentment of the Turks; "and in 1623 Suleyman, 
Pasha of Sciitari, advanced with a powerful army 
from Albania, to attack the intractable Monte- 
negrins. Overcoming all opposition, he penetrated 
to Tzetinie, where he destroyed the convent, and 
inflicted serious injuries on the surrounding dis- 
trict; but he was soon obliged to abandon the 
country, and retire into Albania, after sustaining 
severe losses, with the disgrace of being unable to 
subdue the Montenegrins." 

" Towards the close of the seventeenth century, 
Daniele Petrovich-Negosh was elected Vladika. 



From that time the Episcopal dignity has con- 
tinued in the Petrovich family, and the successors 
of Daniele were Basilio, Pietro, Savo, Pietro the 
late, and Pietro the present, Vladika. 

" In the year 1 706, the Turks of Herzeg6vina 
attacked Montenegro; but this expedition met with 
a total defeat; and 157 Turks, who were taken 
prisoners, suffered the ignominy of being ransomed 
for the same number of pigs." The Montenegrins, 
soon afterwards, sought the protection of Russia, 
and for this purpose declared themselves subjects 
of Peter the Great. They took the oath of alle- 
giance to the Czar, who in return promised them 
protection, while they engaged to co-operate with 
the Russians, in their wars against the Porte. " In 
compliance, therefore, with the order of Peter the 
Great, the Montenegrins in 1711 took up arms, and 
made several incursions into the Turkish territory. 

" Incensed at this affront, the Porte ordered the 
Sarasker, Ahmet Pasha, to march an army of 
60,000 men into Montenegro, the following year ; 
and one of the most obstinate battles was fought, 
that had hitherto taken place between the Monte- 
negrins and the Turks. Of the former 318 were 
left dead on the field, and the Vladika Daniele was 
wounded; they had, however, the satisfaction of 
gaining a complete victory, and the glory of taking 
eighty-six standards from the enemy." 

" Another, and more formidable, expedition, was 
sent in 1714, under the Grand Vizir, Duman 


Pasha Kiuprili *, who, at the head of 120,000 men, 
invaded Montenegro, in concert with the Pashas 
of Bosnia and Herzeg6vina." Before their army 
entered the country, the Turks were guilty 
of an act of treachery, which may fully account 
for, though it does not excuse, the disregard of 
international rights felt by the Montenegrins, in 
their dealings with the Osmanlis ; and shows the 
odious conduct of the Turk, towards those he 
thinks he can deceive with impunity. Terms of 
peace were proposed to the Montenegrins, and 
they were requested to send commissioners into 
the Turkish territory, to settle its conditions. A 
safe conduct having been granted, thirty-seven 
Montenegrin chiefs repaired to the Vizir's camp ; 
but no sooner had they arrived, than they were 
treacherously seized ; and this was the signal for 
the army to cross the frontier. 

Indignation, added to their natural courage, 
urged the Montenegrins to a desperate resistance; 
until, overwhelmed by numbers, and defeated at 
Zftrnik, they found themselves unable to check the 
advance of the Turks ; " who again penetrated to 
to Tzetinie, burnt the convent, which had been 
rebuilt by the Vladika Daniele, pillaged and de- 
stroyed the villages, and laid waste the country 
with fire and sword." The inhabitants fled to the 
mountains; while those of the western districts, 

* The Montenegrins call him Duman Kjuprilich ; Von Ham- 
mer Nauman Cupragli ; others Kiuperli, and Kuprili. 

ii 2 


who were cut off, by the advance of the Turkish 
army, from the secure fastnesses of the interior, 
took refuge in the Dalmatian territory; whither 
they were followed by the Turks, who butchered 
them without regard to age or sex, and carried 
away upwards of 2000 into captivity. * 

The Vladika himself found an asylum in Cat- 
taro ; the governor of which generously refused to 
deliver him to the demands of the Turks; and 
though the Venetian force, stationed on the coast, 
was unable to afford assistance to the other re- 
fugees, or prevent the violation of their territory, 
nothing that sympathy could do was wanting to 
alleviate their sufferings. This was afterwards put 
forth by the Osmanlis, as one of the grievances, in 
their declaration of war against the Republic. 

That the Montenegrins had a strong claim on the 
sympathies of Venice, from having so long, and so 
often, co-operated with her, in the wars against the 
Porte, is undoubted ; but it is equally certain that 
the Venetians did afford them all the protection in 
their power, on this occasion ; and the assertion of 
the Montenegrins, that they had connived at the 
cruelties inflicted by the Turks, is proved to be un- 
just, by the complaint put forth in the manifesto of 
the Porte. 

The war that followed, between the Turks and 
Venetians, was the means of saving Montenegro 

* British and Foreign Review, p. 123. 


from further calamities ; the country was abandoned 
by the invaders; and the same army afterwards 
marched southwards, to attack the Venetians in the 

On the departure of the Turks, the fugitive 
Montenegrins returned from their places of con- 
cealment, re-established themselves once more in 
the vallies, and rebuilt their ruined villages ; and 
they soon afterwards, in 1718, sought to revenge 
themselves on the Turks, by acting as allies of the 
Venetians. During all this period, the Montenegrins 
continued to be subsidised by Russia ; and it was 
only a short time before the invasion of Duman 
Pasha, that the Vladika received 35,000 ducats 
from the court of St. Petersburgh, for the expenses 
of his government. 

" Many gallant deeds of arms are recorded by 
the Montenegrins, during their wars against the 
Turks ; one of the most noted of which was in 1750, 
when Nikatz Tomanovich, with forty valiant com- 
panions, penetrated through a Turkish army of 
20,000 men, killed the Kehia Pasha, and succeeded, 
though desperately wounded, in cutting his way 
back with a few surviving comrades, and effecting 
his escape." 

" In 1767 an adventurer arrived in Montenegro, 
named Stiepan Mali, (little Stefano, or Stephen,) 
passing himself off as the Russian Emperor, 
Peter III. ; " who had been strangled by order of 

ii 3 


Catherine*, in 1762.f Though proclaimed an im- 
postor by the Vladika, he gained over many indi- 
viduals in the country ; and succeeded in obtaining 
several adherents, among the Greek population ot 
the Bocche di Cattaro, particularly at Risano ; and 
such was the enthusiasm excited in his favour 
throughout Montenegro, that the Russian court 
thought it prudent to send Prince Dolgorouki to 
Tzetinie, to undeceive the Montenegrins, and expose 
his pretensions. This proved to be of no use ; and 
even though the chiefs, convened to the presence 
of the Vladika, heard the declaration of Prince 
Dolgorouki, and were assured that Peter III. was 
dead, little effect was produced by the announce- 
ment ; and Stephen continued to command the re- 
spect, and impose on the credulity, of the greater 
part of the population. And when the Vladika had 
succeeded, by an artifice, in securing his person, 
and had confined him in an upper room of the con- 
vent, he had the address to persuade the people, 

* It has been shown, in the present " century of invention" that 
the long-received opinion of the Empress Catherine's character 
is erroneous ; our Mary has also been proved a gentle and hu- 
mane queen ; every stigma has been removed from Richard III. ; 
the Turks are no longer the cruel people we have been taught 
to believe ; and we only now want panegyrists of Nero, and 
some other Roman Emperors, to give the charm of novelty to 
the dulness of authentic history. 

t Six other impostors arose about this time, the last of whom, 
the Cossak Pugatschef, maintained himself in Russia against 
the forces of Catherine, from 1773 to 1775; when he was taken, 
and put to death. 


that this event only tended to prove the truth of 
his assertions ; " for," said he, " you see yourselves 
that Prince Dolgorouki acknowledges me to be the 
emperor, because otherwise he would not have 
placed me above himself, but under himself." 

The Montenegrins were, therefore, only the more 
convinced of the truth of his story ; Prince Dolgo- 
rouki left the country, without effecting the object 
of his mission ; and Stephen Mali continued to enjoy 
his influence over the Montenegrins, for nearly four 

During the war of 1768, he seems to have 
excited the enthusiasm of these mountaineers, to 
make great efforts against the Turks, by whom he 
was looked upon as an agent of Russia; but his 
own personal courage not being such as could com- 
mand the respect of the Montenegrins, who looked 
for extraordinary proofs of heroism, in a man called 
to be their leader, he soon forfeited in war the 
popularity he had obtained in peace ; and having 
lost his sight, by the springing of a mine, he retired 
to the convent of Stanievich ; where he was mur- 
dered by a Greek, at the instigation of the Pasha of 
Scutari.* Many, however, who forget the par- 
ticulars of his history, still talk of him with respect 
in Montenegro ; and his successful efforts in sup- 
pressing theft have doubtless contributed, in some 
degree, to the reforms introduced at a later period. 

* This account of Stephen Mali is principally taken from the 

British and Foreign Review, pp. 124—127. 

ii 4 


" It was during this war, of 1768, that the Porte, 
at the persuasion of the Venetians, gave orders to 
three Vizirs to invade Montenegro ; and an army 
of 180,000 Turks entered the country, pillaged 
and burnt the villages, and at length reduced the 
people to the greatest straits. The principal cause 
of their difficulties was the dearness of ammunition, 
in consequence of a proclamation of the Republic, 
prohibiting any Venetian subject, under pain of 
death, to sell ammunition to the Montenegrins; 
and a single cartridge cost a sequin. But 
though nearly deprived of the means of defence, 
these mountaineers resisted every attempt of the 
Turks to subjugate their country ; and, despite 
their sufferings, maintained their independence in 
the unequal conflict." 

"During the Russo- Austrian war against the 
Turks, in 1787 — 1791, the Montenegrins, with 
400 Austrian soldiers, under Major Vukassovich, 
made incursions into Albania, pillaged several vil- 
lages, and defied the Turks within their own 
territories. At length, in 1796, the Pasha of Scii- 
tari raised a formidable army, and invaded Monte- 
negro." In the mean time, the peace of Sistovo had 
taken place in 1791 ; when the two powers, which 
had profited so much by the co-operation of 
the Montenegrins, forgetting their services, and 
omitting to stipulate for the recognition of their in- 
dependence, the Montenegrins were left to their own 
resources. And nobly indeed did they maintain 


their freedom, against the overwhelming power of 
the Porte ; after having resisted every attempt, to 
induce them to acknowledge its authority over 
their country. 

" The battle which was fought with the Pasha of 
Sciitari was the most glorious and decisive, of all 
that ever took place between the Montenegrins and 
the Turks;" it established the independence of 
Montenegro ; and the moral effect, both in that 
country, and in Turkey, has continued to the 
present day. The Montenegrins were commanded 
by their late Vladika, Pietro Petrovich. 

Having chosen a favourable spot for opposing 
the enemy, he posted 5000 men in a difficult pass, 
with orders to distribute their red Fez caps over the 
rocks *, to light numerous fires at night, and to do 
every thing to make the Turks believe the whole 
army was before them, whilst he led the main body, 
by a forced march, to their rear. Next morning 
the Turks advanced to force the pass; but the 
difficult nature of the ground, the narrowness of 
the way that led up the steep ascent, and the firm- 
ness of those who defended it, made superiority of 
numbers of no avail ; and the front and flanking 
fire of 5000 good marksmen kept the whole force 
of the enemy at bay, until noon ; when the Vladika, 
attacking them in the rear, decided the fate of the 
battle. The Turks, now no longer assailants, were 

* This is frequently done by the Turks in fighting behind 
walls, to mislead the enemy's fire. 


obliged to defend themselves between their two 
foes ; and after an obstinate fight of three days and 
nights, were nearly all cut to pieces : 30,000 Turks 
were killed, and " among them the Pasha of 
Albania, Kara Mahmood Bushatlia, whose head 
was cut off," and is still kept at Tzetinie, as a trophy 
of the victory. The effect of this defeat has never 
been forgotten by the Turks ; no similar expedition 
has since been sent against Montenegro ; and the 
interest frequently made, to obtain the head of 
the Pasha, shows how sensitive they are to their 

At the close of the last, and beginning of the 
present, century, the Montenegrins were actively 
employed in aiding the Russians against the 
French * ; and it was during that period that they 
assisted them, in the attack on Ragusa, and the 
capture of Curzola. The Russians too, in their 
turn, seconded the attacks of the Montenegrins on 
the fortresses of Clobuk f and Niksich. 

The influence previously acquired by Russia, 
among the Montenegrins, was then greatly increased; 
and it is still kept up, by the interest she takes 
in their behalf. Their attachment to the Czar, 
the dependence they feel upon his aid, their 
undisguised hatred of other nations, and the spirit 
of Panslavism that pervades Montenegro, abun- 

* For an interesting account of these events, see the British 
and Foreign Review, pp. 128—146. 
f See p. 434. 


dantly prove the use that will be made of these 
mountaineers, if ever the objects of Russia re- 
quire their co-operation, together with others of the 
same race in the Ottoman Empire ; whose hetero- 
geneous composition is partly made up of Slavonic 

Hemmed in, as the Montenegrins are, by their 
enemies, the Turks, it was natural that they should 
seek the good will, and even the protection, of some 
powerful state ; and it must be confessed, as Colonel 
Vialla* observes, that they could scarcely doubt 
whether to apply "to Austria, or Russia. The 
similarity of religious doctrines sufficed to make 
them decide in favour of the latter. If the Vladika 
had preferred serving the interests of Austria, he 
would soon have been tormented by the high eccle- 
siastical authorities of Vienna, who would have 
tried to subject him to their formidable supremacy, 
and perhaps to oblige him by degrees to conform to 
the Roman rites ; or at least to draw over many of 
the priesthood, allured by the favours of a jealous 
Court. Besides, the immediate vicinity of the 
Austrian troops was more dangerous to the inde- 
pendence of Montenegro, than the remote position 
of Russia; .... all which considerations could 
only induce the Vladika to take the measures he 
has adopted." 

Russia, at the same time that she tries to crush 

* Vialla, voL i. p. 385. 


the liberty of Circassia, encourages for her own 
purposes the independence of Montenegro ; and it 
is curious to hear the same advocates of a crusade 
against freedom, expressing their admiration of the 
independent Montenegrin. But the motive is ob- 
vious ; and it is not impossible, that the security of 
the Turkish Empire may depend, greatly, on the 
conduct of the Slavonic tribes. There appears, 
however, little reason to believe, that Russian 
influence is likely to spread into Dalmatia ; and the 
Dalmatians are probably premature in supposing, 
that " Russia has already employed its agents, to 
discover whether they are beginning to be suscep- 
tible of the knout." 

At the general peace of 1815, Montenegro was 
allowed to remain in its previous state of inde- 
pendence, neither Turkey nor Austria having been 
thought to have those claims upon the country, 
which some have vainly set up for them ; for 
though it may have been found convenient for 
Leopold II., and the Turks (in the treaty of 
Sistovo, concluded between them in 1791), to pro- 
claim Montenegro to belong to Turkey, the country 
was unconquered, and belonged to neither of the 
" high contracting " parties. Moreover, though the 
Venetians may previously, in 1718, have pretended 
to cede to Turkey, what they never possessed ; and 
though some may call " Montenegro a portion of 
the Pashalic of Sciitari," its independence is as well 
established as that of any other state; and the 


protection of Russia is an additional guarantee 
against all claims of Turkish sovereignty. 

Since the peace of 1815, the Montenegrins have 
been constantly at war with the Porte ; sometimes 
invading the enemy's territory, sometimes repelling 
inroads of the Turks ; in one of which the convent 
of Mora9a * was gallantly defended by Ivan Knezo- 
vich f, with 200 men, against a large army J of 

But without stopping to notice in detail all 
these conflicts, it may suffice to mention the fol- 
lowing, which are more particularly spoken of in 
the country; and which, being derived from a 
manuscript account, given me by an eye-witness, 
who kept a diary of all the occurrences at the time, 
serve to give a good notion of the affrays between 
the Montenegrins and Turks, and the character of 
their warfare. 

" Cetdgne (Tzetinie), June 8. 1839. — " The first 
hostilities, this year, between the Montenegrins 
and the Turks, began at a village named Gerbangi, 
consisting of about forty families of the Greek 
church, near Podg6ritza, in the Ottoman territory ; 
which had revolted, nine years before, from Monte- 
negro. A small troop of Montenegrins, being de- 
ft See above, p. 448. Moraca, or Moracha, called St. Stefano. 
f Or Kniezovich. I shall mention him, in speaking of the 
convent at Ostrok. 

% They say 20,000. They count the Turks in round num- 


tached from the village of Lestiani, burned all 
their houses, killed four, mortally wounded eight, 
and succeeded in cutting off the head of one, which 
was carried to Cettigne ; they also captured forty 
muskets, besides repossessing themselves of the 
lands. Thus the unfortunate people of Gerbangi, 
driven off by the Turks on the other side, found 
themselves and their families roofless on these 
desolate mountains, and equally abandoned by both 
Montenegrins and Turks." 

" Bielopavlich, June 16. 1839. — At about an 
hour's journey from the village of Chinvilaz, are 
a score of huts, inhabited by Montenegrin shep- 
herds. The Turks of Sp&ss made a sortie, and, 
going round three miles, set fire to them in two 
places, at three o'clock a. m. The unfortunate shep- 
herds defended themselves as well as they could, 
until the people of Chinvilaz, seeing the fire, came 
to their assistance, 100 strong. In this first en- 
counter, the Montenegrins lost — eight killed, and 
forty-six wounded ; but the Turks only succeeded 
in carrying away one head. It was impossible to 
ascertain the Turkish loss, as they fought on the 
banks of the river Zetta, which divides theirs from 
the Montenegrin territory. The Montenegrins then 
valorously attacked a body of 3000 men, with their 
small band, and sent nineteen Turkish heads to 
Cettigne (Tzetinie), and forty-nine guns orna- 
mented with silver. The same morning the Turks 
made another attack, on the opposite side of the 


river; when the Montenegrins, in number about 100, 
scarcely fired their guns, but fought hand to hand 
with their yatagans, and routed the Turks on 
every side. This battle lasted three hours, and the 
Montenegrins took no less than thirty-six heads, 
three standards, three beautiful horses with their 
equipments in silver, three sabres silver-mounted, 
more than seventy fire-arms, large and small, and 
nine yatagans, all mounted in silver." 

" Cettigne , June 17. — Monsignore immediately 
sent to Bielopavlich, to order the captain to bring 
the Turkish heads, and the arms, banners, and 
horses, to Cettigne; which command was imme- 
diately executed. 

" They entered Cettigne, each man bearing in 
triumph the heads of the Turks, he had vanquished, 
with shouting and firing of guns. 

" The same day, after dinner, the Vladika ordered 
that every one should bring his heads to the plain 
of Cettigne, and, forming a great circle, Monsignore 
placed himself in the midst, with the President, 
and all the Senate ; called out the warriors one by 
one; and embracing each, hung round his neck 
a silver medal by a red cord, in the name of our 
holy religion, our country, and our Emperor*, 
Nicolai Paulovich ; and this honour he bestowed, 
to the intent that they might know how to defend 
themselves bravely against the rascally Turks." 

* This may be a mistake of the writer ; but the Czar is 
looked up to by the Montenegrins at least as their protector. 


" On the 22d of June, a messenger arrived from 
the captain of Zagoraz to Monsignore, with tidings 
that they had found eighteen dead bodies of Turks 
in the Zetta ; and the Agha, commanding at Spftss, 
wrote to a friend, complaining of the number of 
dead, and wounded, at Sp&ss. Altogether, the Turks 
lost 103 killed, and 300 wounded. Among the 
slain were the son of the brother of the former 
Vizir of Sciitari, now at Constantinople ; the son of 
the Vizir now in command, and the son of the 
Capitan of Bar (Antivari). The Montenegrin loss 
was seventeen killed, and forty-two wounded." 

" It is said the Vizir intends to attack Monte- 
negro with 32,000 men, as soon as possible." 

This formidable invasion, however, never took 
place; and the Montenegrins have only had to 
repel the occasional attacks of small bodies of 
Turks, whom they have always defeated, except in 
the campaign of Grahovo, and when the Isle of 
Vranina was taken by surprise, during a truce, by 
the Albanians. 

Another gallant action took place in 1 840, " when 
seventy Montenegrins, in the open field, withstood 
the attack of several thousand * Turks, and having 
made breastworks with the bodies of their fallen 
foes, maintained the unequal conflict till night; 
when forty, who survived, forced their way through 
the hostile army, and escaped with their lives." 

* My informant said " about 10,000." 


Again, " on the 21st September of the same year, 
at break of day, about 6000 Albanians came to 
Salkovina, and attacked a house, defended by 
Milosh B^rakddr*, with twenty-six valiant com- 
rades. But neither the numbers, nor the boldness, 
of the enemy could shake their courage ; and though 
the Albanians succeeded in setting fire to some hay 
within the house, and approached so close, that they 
seized and bent some of the barrels of the Mon- 
tenegrin guns, as they protruded from the loop- 
holes, the place was successfully defended, with the 
loss of only ten men ; and the enemy retired in the 
night, carrying with them their wounded and their 
dead." Tn memory of this gallant action, the 
Vladika has preserved the guns, in a room of his 
palace at Tzetinie ; and their distorted barrels, as 
they hang against the wall, record the valour of the 
B£rakd£r and his companions.! 

Journey from Cattaro to Tzetinie All things 

being prepared for my departure from Cattaro, 
and having secured the services of a guide, in the 
person of a Corfiote, known by the distinguished 
name of Cesare Petrarca J, I found myself well 

* Or Bayrakdar; a Turkish word signifying " standard- 

f The two last actions were related to me by the Vladika's 

% The same described by the author of a " Ramble in Mon- 
tenegro," as performing the various duties of "hairdresser, 
auctioneer and appraiser, ex-courier, formerly chef de cuisine 
to the Vladika, interpreter, and gunner." 

VOL. I. K K 


provided for the journey. And so it proved; for 
Cesar, or Petrarch, was a civil and excellent guide, 
and had accompanied nearly all the few travellers who 
have visited Tzetinie, where he was well known. And 
though he had never before penetrated to Cevo and 
Ostrok, in the interior, I found that his good humour 
always gained friends there also, the moment he 
had an opportunity of making a few pretty speeches 
to our hosts. 

Horses were engaged from a Montenegrin, who 
rejoiced in the very common name of Spiro. We 
found him waiting for us at the bazaar, outside 
the gate of Cattaro ; and my light baggage being 
speedily packed, we proceeded up the zigzag road 
to the Montenegrin frontier. 

The view that opened over the canal of Cattaro, 
as we wound up the ascent, was beautiful ; every 
turn seemed to present a finer prospect of its in- 
dented shores, studded with villages, reflected in 
the deep still water below ; and the craggy grey 
mountains towering on all sides above the bays and 
headlands, rose one behind the other, like an im- 
mense model. 

This road has only been made a few years. It 
is very well constructed, and has a very easy 
ascent ; but it has this fault, that the apertures for 
the passage of the water courses are scarcely large 
enough, which may endanger its solidity during 
very heavy rains. The loopholes of the citadel of 
Cattaro rake the road, as it winds up the mountain 



side, and across the shallow ravine immediately 
beneath them ; and on coming to a level with the 
top of that fortress, you catch a glimpse of the 
Budua road, and the small fort commanding it, 
which combines the line of defence with Cattaro. 

Amidst the rocks, immediately below the walls 
of the citadel, is the small Morlacco hamlet of 
Spigliari, consisting of nine houses ; a number to 
which it has always been limited, from the belief 
that some calamity is sure to happen the moment 
it is exceeded. The inhabitants are constantly 
exposed to the robberies of the Montenegrins, by 
whom their houses have frequently been plundered ; 
but such is the force of habit, that they prefer it to 
any other spot ; and no offer of a more secure place 
of abode can induce them to leave it. These nine 
families are very industrious, and the women are 
remarkable for their beauty. 

The road extends some distance beyond the level 
of the citadel, to the frontier ; where it is joined 
by another, the work of the Vladika, of very inferior 
construction, which continues to the summit of the 
pass, and thence to N£gosh, and Tzetinie. The 
Montenegrins have marked its direction at intervals 
by stones, placed as a guide to passengers in the 
winter's snow ; which often lies in very deep drifts, 
particularly in the steep and narrow part of the 
pass, where many persons have been lost, in at- 
tempting to cross the mountain in the depth of 

K K 2 


This pass is very strong, and might be easily 
defended by a few resolute marksmen. The Aus- 
trians had intended, when I was there in 1844, to 
erect a fort immediately on the frontier, which is 
a considerable distance above the citadel of Cattaro ; 
but this was objected to by the Vladika, and no 
good reason being assigned for such a work, on the 
score of defence^ it was abandoned. 

Part of the mountain, on this side, was ceded to 
the Austrians by the Vladika a few years ago, on the 
payment of a sum of money, by which the frontier 
has been extended higher than formerly, up its rug- 
ged slope ; and the constant theme of conversation at 
Cattaro seemed to be the possibility of the imperial 
troops marching to Tzetinie ; plainly showing the 
wish, if not the hope, of their obtaining possession 
of that country. 

But to conquer those brave independent people 
would require a far greater sacrifice of men and 
money, than Austria might feel disposed to make ; 
and no advantage could accrue to her from the 
conquest, to compensate for the injustice. An 
army might march through the vallies, and destroy 
the villages, as the Turks have done, but the 
people would fetill be unconquered ; and it would 
take a long time to subdue the mountain fastnesses. 
Nor would the Austrian project of sending Tyrolese, 
and other mountaineers, be available, in a difficult 
and unknown country, entirely destitute of the 
means of obtaining food ; and the attack of such 


mountains would require far greater precaution, 
and force, than the defence. 

Twenty thousand fighting men, besides the old 
and young, capable of bearing arms in case of need, 
would be a formidable enemy on their own soil ; and 
an attack on Montenegro might entail other embar- 
rassments, from its being under the protection of 

Indeed the Austrians had a little specimen of 
Montenegrin fighting, in 1840; when, in endea- 
vouring to take forcible possession of some disputed 
territory, near Budua, they were defeated; and 
that, too, not in the mountain fastnesses of Monte- 
negro. The contest was for a piece of land, which 
the Austrians had occupied, in the neighbourhood 
of Eopatz, to the N.E. of Castel Lastua; and the 
battle took place at Pastovicchio near the frontier 
of Tzernitza. The matter was afterwards settled 
amicably, and the Yladika ceded the disputed ter- 
ritory, on the receipt of an equivalent in money. 
But, to prevent any disputes for the future, the 
three forts of Mt. Eopatz, St. Spiridion, and 
Pressik, were erected ; and in order to exclude the 
Montenegrins entirely from Dalmatia, the Aus- 
trians purchased from them the Greek convent of 
Stanievich, which had been given to Montenegro 
by the Venetians. 

That the Austrians should have a prejudice 
against the Montenegrins is very natural. They 
are troublesome neighbours ; and their robberies 

KK 3 


give just cause of complaint. Besides, their wild 
and savage habits render them disagreeable, both 
as friends and foes ; and during the encounter with 
the Austrians in 1840, that quiet, well-behaved, 
people were justly shocked at their barbarous 
enemies treating them like Turks, and decapitating 
every soldier who fell into their hands. 

An anecdote was told me, of a scene which 
occurred on that occasion. Two Austrian riflemen, 
finding themselves hard pressed by some of the 
advancing Montenegrins, and despairing of escape, 
threw themselves down on the ground, pertending 
to be dead. The Montenegrins immediately ran 
up to the nearest one, and supposing him to be 
killed, cut off his head ; when the other, seeing it 
was of no use to be dead, started up, and rushed 
headlong down precipices; thinking it better to have 
any number of bruises, than fall into the hands of 
so relentless an enemy. 

Vialla speaks of the same mode of treating the 
French * they killed, or captured. General Del- 
gorgues, when taken in an ambuscade outside the 
walls of Ragusa, was instantly decapitated; and 
during the siege of Castel Nuovo, "four Monte- 
negrins amused themselves by playing at bowls with 
the heads of four Frenchmen, exclaiming every 
now and then : ' See, how capitally these French 
heads roll !' a cruel piece of irony," says Vialla, " in 
allusion to the Ughreti attributed to us."f 

* See above, p. 438. t Vialla, vol. i. p. 145. 




On arriving at the top of the pass, the lofty peak 
of Lovcen rises immediately above to the right, 
and an undulating broken plain continues thence 
to N6gosh.* This is a small district, with a plain 
about half a mile in length, surrounded by hills ; 
and consists of several villages, Erakovich the 
birth-place of the present Vladika, Raichevich, 
Velikral, and Kopito. The houses are of stone, 
partly thatched, and partly covered with wooden 
shingles, a common mode of roofing in Slavonic 
countries. The principal productions are potatoes, 
with some Indian corn ; and the tops of the sur- 
rounding hills are clothed with low wood. 

From the summit of the pass to the N6gosh 
district is about a mile and a half; and the journey 
thence to Tzetinie occupies three hours and a 
quarter. The total from Cattaro to Tzetinie may 
be reckoned at six hours, and the return to Cattaro 
at five. 

There is nothing remarkable on the road; the 
mountains are wild and rugged; but about half 
way from N£gosh is a fine view, over the districts of 
Tzernitza and Rieka, the Lake of Scutari f , and the 
distant mountains of Albania ; and the same appears 
again, at the beginning of the descent to the valley 
of Tzetinie. J This valley is about two miles and a 
quarter in length, and from one quarter to one third 
in breadth. It is a perfectly level plain, partly cul- 

* Niegosb or Gniegosh. f Or Lake of Zenta. 

% See Plate. 

K K 4 


tivated, partly grass-land. On the foot of the hills 
that surround it, are the villages of Baitse, Ponzi, 
and Donikrai; the houses of which are scattered 
amongst the rocks ; of rude construction, and 
mostly thatched. 

The valley takes a sharp bend about the centre, 
from S. E. to S. S. W. ; and here, behind a project- 
ing ridge of rocks, is the town of Tzetinie, consist- 
ing of nineteen or twenty houses, the palace of the 
Vladika, and the convent. The houses are tiled, 
and are better built than the generality in Monte- 
negro ; but among them I little expected to find 
two inns. One is kept by a Cattarine, and his 
wife, and, though small, possesses the advantage of 
a clean bed-room, which in Montenegro is an agree- 
able novelty. 

The palace is a long white- washed building, of a 
single story over the ground floor, rather like a 
barrack, with an open court before and behind it, 
and surrounded by a wall, flanked at each corner 
by a small round tower. The rooms all open on a 
long corridor ; at the upper end of which are the 
apartments of the Vladika himself. The principal 
one is the billiard-room, which serves as audience- 
chamber, dining-room, and ordinaiy parlour ; and 
adjoining it is a smaller apartment, called the 
library, containing a few books, and many pipes, 
and furnished rather for winter than summer. 
The walls of the billiard-room are ornamented with 
rifles, and other arms ; and on one side are several 


distorted guns, kept as a memento of Montenegrin 

The Vladika is very fond, if not of playing, 
at least of seeing others play, billiards ; and 
some of his guards, or his aide-de-camp, are fre- 
quently engaged in amusing him with their skill. 
Smoking is the habit of every one in Montenegro ; 
and the Vladika indulges in segars and cheroots, 
as well as the Turkish pipe. His segars are 
allowed by the Austrians to pass through the 
custom-house of Cattaro, like other goods intended 
for transit; and the Vladika receives journals, 

* See above, p. 497- 


books, and money, without impediment. He does 
not always appear to be fortunate in his agents ; 
who sometimes send a wrong parcel. One of them, 
a few years ago, on receiving a packet containing a 
large sum of money, converted the contents into 
two cannon-balls, and forwarded them to the 
Vladika* ; and, while I was there, a similar mistake 
was made, in a remittance from Cattaro.f He is 
more fortunate with his segars. 

In the court, before the palace door, are some 
old cannon taken from the Turks. 

At table, the Vladika has adopted European 
customs; but I was surprised to find breakfast 
laid out exactly as in an English house; and 
among other unexpected luxuries was fresh butter, 
which I had not met with in any part of Dalmatia. 
He sometimes dines alone ; but his cousin Giorgio 
Petrovich, and his aide-de-camp, are frequently 
invited ; and they were always of the party at the 
palace, when I dined there. 

The language he prefers speaking to strangers is 
French, though he understands Italian, and Ger- 
man ; but few of the Montenegrins know any other 
than Slavonic. 

A few weeks previously, Lord Clarence Paget 
had taken his ship, the " L'Aigle," up the Gulf of 
Cattaro, and had made a visit to Tzetinie ; where 

* Ramble in Montenegro, p. 36. note, 
f The Cattarines call the Montenegrins " robbers ;* what 
the Montenegrins call these mistakes I did not hear. 


he appears to have received a better welcome than 
at the Austrian port. For on firing a salute, no 
notice was taken of it ; the officer in command at 
Cattaro not considering that he was authorised in 
putting his government to the expense of powder ; 
and it was not till another officer took upon him- 
self to be responsible for its value, that (after a 
delay of an hour) the salute was returned. 

The Vladika seemed much pleased with that 
visit ; and expressed a hope that Prince George of 
Cambridge, who was then at Corfu, would go to 
Montenegro ; from the idea, that the visit of per- 
sons holding official situations might be beneficial 
to his countrymen, and raise them in the estimation 
of their neighbours. He also hoped that this occa- 
sional intercourse might interest us in behalf of the 
Montenegrins, and perhaps induce us to use our 
influence, to restrain the Albanians from molesting 
them, and even establish a peace. 

The loss of the Isle of Vranina was a subject 
of deep regret, as well as the treachery of the 
Albanians in seizing that island, during a truce ; 
and this led the Vladika to mention a visit he had 
received from an English lady and her husband, 
while he was engaged in an attempt to retake it, in 
the autumn of 1843. 

" Are all English women," he asked, " as cou- 
rageous as Mrs. L ? One day, while in our 

position, firing upon the Turks, I was told that an 
Englishman and his wife had been to Tzetinie, and 


finding that I was with the army, were coming to 
me there. I was not without alarm for their safety, 
as I knew they had to pass a spot exposed to the 
enemy's fire ; but in the meantime on they came, 
and arrived in the evening at our camp.* 

" While at dinner, the Turks opened a fire upon 
our redoubt, and their shot passed over us fre- 
quently ; but she seemed rather to enjoy the novelty, 
and was amused at my question, ' Bien, Madame, 
comment trouvez-vous cette musique V I was much 
struck with her courage, as were all present ; and 
many a man would have found the spot much less 

" I have sent," he continued, " to Constantinople, 
and have applied to the Russian court to intercede, 
and enable us to recover our island f, promising 
for the present to wait, in the hope that justice will 
be done us. In the meantime I have bought some 
cannon, and plenty of round-shot, with which we 
intend making another attempt to retake it, if 
we cannot succeed by negotiation ; and though we 
failed last year, we are now better provided with 
the means of attack, and the Montenegrins have 
plenty of courage to attempt the assault." 

I found the Vladika fully aware of the compara- 
tive power, and resources, of the different European 

* See a very amusing account of a " Ramble in Montenegro? 
in Blackwood, January, 1845. 

f See above, p. 470., and below, on my return from Ostrok 
to Ri&a. 


states; and he has great facility in recollecting 
the minute details of their statistics. His mode 
of viewing the questions of their external policy 
reminded me,, very much, of the conversations I 
have often had with Russians, en the same sub- 
ject ; and thia is readily accounted for, by the fre- 
quent intercourse he has with that people, and the 
bias he received during his sojourn at St. Peters- 

Just above the palace stands the convent, on the 
slope of the rocky hills at the west side of the valley. 
The original convent was in the plain below, a short 
distance from the palace front, vestiges of which 
may still be seen. It was founded by Ivan Tzer- 
noievich in 1485, and was destroyed by the Turks 
in 1623, and again in 1714*, when the present site 
was chosen, for greater security. 

In the convent are kept the treasure, the splendid 
pontifical robes and mitres, of the Yladika and his 
predecessor ; deposited in large trunks, with some 
handsome chalices, croziers, and other priestly 
articles. The dresses are of rich brocade ; and the 
mitres of the present and late Yladika, both gifts 
from Emperors of Russia, are ornamented with 
precious stones. 

I observed that the arms of Montenegro are an 
oval shield, with three bends sinister, on an imperial 
eagle, crowned; above is a sort of ducal coronet, 

* See above, pp. 479. 481. 483. 


with a cross* passed through it, and below the 
eagle is a lion passant. 

The most remarkable object in the convent is the 
coffin of St. Pietro, the late Vladika ; who has been 
canonised by his successor, and whose embalmed 
body is shown to the devout, clad in pontifical 
robes, and is looked upon with feelings of great 

He died in October, 1830. He was much esteemed 
by his people, whom he ruled fifty-three years ; his 
anathema, or his blessing, was thought to be the 
cause of good or evil ; and such was the respect felt 
for him, that the Montenegrins swore by his name.f 

Profiting by this feeling, his successor admitted 
him at once into the Host of Saints : his body was 
taken from the obscure tomb, and put up in the 
church ; and a plate was laid on his coffin, to invite 
the donations of pious visiters. A certain sum is 
thus collected annually from these contributions, 
and many votive offerings attest the miraculous 
cures effected through his intercession. 

The reverence shown by the Montenegrins to his 
remains is very great ; and I saw one person pros- 
trate himself on the ground, and creep towards the 
coffin, in this humiliating attitude. But he was 

* With the lower limb longer than the other two, like the 
Latin cross. 

f This, and his elevation to sainthood, remind us of 

" Jurandasque tuum per nomen ponimus aras." 

Hor. Ep. i. lib. 2. 16. 


not a native ; he had been obliged to fly from the 
Austrian territories for forgery, and was seeking to 
establish a new reputation by a display of religious 

As yet a proper sanctuary has not been made for 
St. Pietro ; but the canonisation seems to answer 
well, though he was so lately on earth, within the 
recollection of many individuals. 

The Russian Synod, and the Czar himself, are said 
not to be quite pleased at this premature measure * ; 
but as the Montenegrins are satisfied, and freely 
contribute their donations, it may now be thought 
impolitic, to check the current of their belief and 
their liberality. 

The convent, like all these establishments in 
Montenegro, contains very few monks, and is little 
more than an appendage to the church, and a re- 
pository of the public chest, and holy objects. 
Stanievich was, in like manner, a fortified post 
against the Turks ; the Mora9a convent is the same ; 
and Ostrok is the stronghold of Montenegro. 

On a rock, immediately above the convent, is a 
round tower, pierced with embrasures, but without 
cannon ; on which I counted the heads of twenty 
Turks, fixed upon stakes, round the parapet, the 
trophies of Montenegrin victory ; and below, scat- 
tered upon the rock, were the fragments of other 
skulls, which had fallen to pieces by time ; a strange 
spectacle in a Christian country, in Europe, and in 

* " Scire velim, pretium Sanctis quotus arroget annus." 


the immediate vicinity of a convent and a bishop's 
palace. It would be in vain to expect that, in such 

a condition, the features could be well preserved, or 
to look for the Turkish physiognomy, in these 
heads, many of which have been exposed for years 
in this position, but the face of one young man 
was remarkable ; and the contraction of the upper 
lip, exposing a row of white teeth, conveyed an 
expression of horror, which seemed to show that he 
had suffered much, either from fright or pain, at 
the moment of death. 

The plain of Tzetinie is mostly grass land, and 


the portion which is cultivated produces very small 
crops of stunted Indian corn, some potatoes, and 
cabbages. Nor is the grass, which is much mixed 
with fern, in sufficient abundance to furnish hay 
for the winter ; and the keep of a horse is conse- 
quently very expensive. Petter is therefore wrong, 
in stating that this valley " is considered the most 
fertile in the country," and no one who has visited 
the district of Bielopavlich, or of Tzernitza, would 
pay this compliment to the neighbourhood of 

After a stay of two days, at this the smallest 
capital of Europe, or probably of the world, I pre- 
pared to start for the interior of Montenegro ; and 
had reason to be grateful to the Vladika, for the 
assistance I received from him, in the prosecu- 
tion of my journey ; in addition to which, finding, 
during our conversation on the previous evening, 
that I took an interest in the struggles of the Mon- 
tenegrins against the Turks, he promised that his 
secretary should draw up an outline of the principal 
occurrences in their history, and some statistical 
details, by the time I returned from Ostrok ; which 
has been the groundwork, of what I have intro- 
duced on those subjects.* 

The Montenegrins have a prejudice against the 
European dress, particularly thg hat, or indeed 
against any other covering to the head, than the 
turban, or the Fez. "Have you a red cap?" 

* See above, p. 476. 
VOL. I. L L 


inquired the Vladika ; and on my answering in the 
negative, he sent for one, which he begged me to 
wear on the journey ; " not," he continued, " that 
the people would make any remarks about your 
dress, but they like the Fez, and it is just as well 
to wear it, if equally convenient to you." 

There is often great difficulty in hiring a horse *, 
or any other animal in Montenegro ; and all that 
could be found was one mule. After some time, a 
young man volunteered to carry my luggage, and 
such is the strength and activity of these moun- 
taineers, that my portmanteau was more easily, 
and safely, taken up and down the hills, than if 
entrusted to the most sure-footed quadruped. 

Leaving Tzetinie, I took the road by the singularly 
wild mountain district of Cevo ; accompanied by 
one of the mounted PerianiH, the Guardia nobile of 
Montenegro; and the Vladika very kindly sent 
with me the tutor of his nephews, a Croatian named 

Our road lay by the village of Donikrai, where 
the Vladika has built a fountain, or reservoir, for 
rain water; a very useful work, and one which 
might be made in many other parts of the country, 
to great advantage. Here we began to ascend the 
hills, bordering the plain of Tzetinie on that side, 
and soon afterwards found ourselves going up and 
down, over the tops of mountain ridges, resembling 
the waves of an immense petrified sea. The road 

* They charge three florins, or six shillings, a day for a 


continued, all the rest of the day, over the rugged 
crests of these barren rocky heights; and no sooner 
had we ascended one, than we descended to climb 
another, that rose before us. Here and there were 
small oak bushes, striving for a difficult existence in 
the clefts of rocks; which, as throughout Monte- 
negro, are all limestone. There was no riding ; it 
was fortunate the animals escaped with unbroken 
legs, and no one would willingly risk his neck, by 
remaining in the saddle ; even if he were unac- 
customed to mountain walking. 

After a slow march, of little more than one hour, 
we came to the small village of Petrovdo, consisting 


of a few thatched cottages, or huts, and a church 
on the bank above. It is surrounded by barren 
rocks, and the people are very poor. On our right 
was the lofty peak of Mount Stavor ; and about three 
quarters of a mile off, under a pointed mountain, was 
Miliavich, in a hollow basin surrounded by hills. 

Another hour brought us to Podbftkovo, a name 
signifying " under the beech tree." In this strag- 
gling village we stopped to lunch, at the house of 
a reverend captain of the Guards ; for, like other 
military chiefs of Montenegro, he was a priest, and 
united, as of old, the two offices of killing bodies, 
and saving souls. He was a most hospitable indi- 
vidual ; and did justice to the two professions, by 
the convivial freedom, with which he passed, and 
delighted in, the bottle. 

Here the road from N6gosh joins that of Tzetinie ; 
and paths branch off to Volkovich, distant about 
one mile, and to Koucista, about two miles from 
Podbftkovo. On the neighbouring mountains much 
hazelwood grows, which is used for the charcoal 
of gunpowder ; there are also many poplar trees, 
called Yessik *, which have a strong resinous scent, 
like those at Mali-sbor, in the plain of Tzetinie. The 
sheep about Podbftkovo are much larger, and finer, 
than at Tzetinie, and are a great resource to the 
inhabitants of this wild district. 

We left the military priest's house at a quarter 
past eleven, our road continuing to cross the 

* It resembles the black Italian poplar. 


same kind of mountain ridges as before ; above 
which, in our rear, we perceived the lofty peak 
of Mount Lovcen. While passing through this 
lonely region, nothing is seen but an endless re- 
petition of rock. In the apparent solitude, you 
are startled by the bark of a dog ; you see no man, 
no village ; but, looking to the right or left, you 
perceive a hut, perched behind a rock, and below, 
a piece of land, in a hollow a few feet square, 
planted with potatoes or Indian corn, which is equi- 
valent to a small estate, in these barren districts. 

The road was made by theVladika about two 
years ago, and is much frequented on market days. 
Here and there it is tolerable ; but a tolerable road 
in Montenegro is very rough, and in some parts of 
the country surpasses in rudeness any thing of the 
kind, even in Syria ; where, in the mountain dis- 
tricts, if a wall has fallen down by the wayside, it 
is difficult to say which is the wall, and which the 
road ; I was therefore far from being consoled, on 
learning that, bad as it was, the part we were to 
traverse next day was infinitely worse. 

With these gloomy anticipations, we thought it 
as well to spare the horse of the Perianik, and my 
mule, as much as possible, beforehand ; and we 
halted for an hour, at half-past twelve, about a 
mile to the south of the village of Doub, and about 
the same distance "beyond the church of St. Elia, 
which we had passed to our left. 

The mountains hereabouts have a greater num- 

LL 3 


ber of peaks, than are usual in limestone regions ; 
the district is called Biritza ; and in the centre of 
it is the village of Risna, where a large well has 
lately been made by the Vladika, to catch the rain- 
water, cased with stones, and very like those in 
many parts of Dalmatia. 

The people of Risna were very civil ; but won- 
dered what a stranger, in a Frank dress, could 
possibly want in these secluded regions, and how 
he could take the trouble of traversing so dreary 
and rocky a country, for no ostensible object. It 
was in vain to attribute it to curiosity, or any 
other motive, known or unknown to them; and 
they could only conclude that, if Montenegro was 
not the only mountainous country in the world, it 
must, at all events, have some other great merits, 
to bring a foreigner so far over such a stony tract. 

The oaks here are all trimmed, in order to make 
them grow upright. The other trees are prin- 
cipally wild pears, alders, and ash. The strata dip 
to the W. N. W., at an angle of twenty degrees. 

After a march of seven hours, from Tzetinie, we 
reached Mishke, the principal village of the Cevo 
district, surrounded by hills. It stands close to 
another village called Voinitze, in a small plain, 
with some arable soil and grass land. Here were 
fought several fierce battles with the Turks ; and 
Mishke is memorable for a great victory over 
them, and for the death of Mustai Pasha ; the skin 
of whose head is still kept at Tzetinie, and has been 


in vain demanded, as a favour, by his family from 
the conquerors. 

The men of Cevo are reputed great warriors, and 
are always making forays into the Turkish terri- 
tory ; and though at the time I was there, a truce 
subsisted between them and Herzeg6vina, they were 
planning a plundering excursion into that country. 

We went to the house of the son of the principal 
senator of the province, and were received with 
every token of hospitality, out of respect to the 
Vladika, with whose recommendation we were 
travelling. Our host, Pietro Mukotich, was about 
two-and-twenty years of age, a fine-looking moun- 
taineer, with a young and pretty wife, named 
Helena ; and. as I found them both very ready to 
oblige, I ventured to inquire if I might be allowed 
to sketch their rich costumes, on which I bestowed 
a proper degree of admiration. 

The proposal was very graciously received, and 
every one present seemed to enjoy the novelty of 
the idea ; being the first time they had witnessed 
such a proceeding. Helena was the first to stand 
for her portrait, not so much from any lady's privi- 
lege of priority, as because she was doomed to en- 
counter the first stare of curiosity ; but great was 
the difficulty to keep her in the same position, long 
enough to finish one half of the outline ; and 
it required much persuasion, and many pretty 
speeches, to prevail on her to remain. However, 
when all was over, the sight of the coloured 



drawing, and the satisfaction of the party, recon- 
ciled her to this disagreeable trial of patience ; and 
I endeavoured to show my sense of the favour she 
had conferred, by an opportune present, and apolo- 
gies for the trouble I had given her. 

In the mean time, her husband decked himself 
in his gala dress ; and the numerous cloth coats, and 
jackets, fur pelisse, arms, and turban he wore, almost 
made him faint under the operation ; so that, like 
birds shot for their plumage, this innocent and 
obliging couple paid dearly for their finery. 


As it ended in affording them both amusement, 
all went off very well, and our evening passed 
most cheerfully ; the party being increased by a 
visit from some strangers of the village; dusky 
mountaineers, well known for warlike deeds; who, 
sitting down on wooden stools, began to talk of " a 
foray across the border." 

The little I understood of the language sufficed 
to explain the subject of the conversation ; and, on 
inquiry, I found the expedition was to take place 
immediately. " Is there not," I asked, " a truce, 
at this moment, between you and the Turks of 
Herzeg6vina ? " They laughed, and seemed much 
amused at my scruples. " We don't mind that," 
said a stern swarthy man, taking his pipe from his 
mouth, and shaking his head to and fro, " they are 
Turks : " and all agreed that the Turks were fair 
game. " Besides," they said, " it is only to be a 
plundering excursion;" and they evidently con- 
sidered, that any one refusing to join in a maraud- 
ing expedition into Turkey at any time, or in an 
open attack during a war, would be unworthy the 
name of a brave man. They seemed to treat the 
matter, like boys, in " the good old times," who 
robbed orchards ; the courage it showed being in 
proportion to the risk ; and scruples of conscience 
were laughed at, as a want of spirit. 

To the credit of the Vladika, however, it must 
be allowed, that he does all in his power to prevent 
these robberies; and time will doubtless work a 



change in the opinions of the Montenegrins, and 
define the actual difference between meum and 
tuum, even towards their enemies. 

Passing immediately from the civilised commu- 
nities of Europe, and witnessing the habits and 
opinions of men, not yet emerged from a state of 
barbarism, whose ideas of right and wrong are, if at 
all, obscurely defined, a stranger is forcibly struck 
with the contrast, and finds himself introduced 
into a state of society, which he would fein 
persuade himself existed only in by-gone times. 
So long have the advantages of civilisation been 
known in Europe, so long have we been accustomed 
to look with horror upon every deviation from the 
established rules of justice and humanity, that we 
almost forget the existence of a period, when men 
were regardless of them. We censure the still 
uncivilised state, as if we could find no parallel in 
our own history, when we were in a similar con- 
dition ; and this remark recals to my recollection 
the observations of a German, I met in Dalmatia, 
while conversing with him about the habits of the 

After he had mentioned several occurrences of 
English and Scotch history, with which he ap- 
peared well acquainted, "what think you," he 
observed, " of the state of society, in those times ? 
Were the border forays of the English and Scotch 
more excusable than those of the Montenegrins ? 
And how much more natural is the unforgiving 


hatred of the Montenegrins against the Turks, the 
enemies of their country and their faith, than the 
relentless strife of Highland clans, with those of 
their own race and religion! Has not many an 
old castle, in other parts of Europe, witnessed 
scenes as bad as any enacted by these people ? I 
do not wish to exculpate the Montenegrins ; but 
theirs is still a dark age, and some allowance may 
be made for their uncivilised condition." 

Our dinner at Mishke consisted of the favourite 
dish in Montenegro, Dalmatia, and Turkey, a sheep 
roasted whole, and a few accessories ; after which 
pipes and coffee having been discussed, in Oriental 
style, all parties retired to rest. The house, which 
was unusually large, consisted of two rooms ; one 
of them, with the large family bed in the corner, 
was set apart for my use, and the fire being 
smothered in its ashes, and all the doors and un- 
glazed windows closed up, the defence of this 
dwelling, as of the whole village, was committed 
to those practical penates, the dogs ; who watched 
on the outside. I could not but congratulate 
myself, on going to rest, that I was not on the 
other side of the border ; where Montenegrin habits 
might have the effect of interfering materially 
with sleep ; and as long as I did not imprudently 
venture out of doors, where the dogs, inexperienced 
in what we consider a true Christian dress, would 
have pulled me to pieces for a Turk, I had nothing 
to fear either from enemies or friends. 


Early in the morning I awoke, with a conscious- 
ness of the difficult journey we had to encounter, 
over roads, which we were told were bad, even for 
Montenegro; and unencumbered with breakfast, 
we ascended the steep mountain slope, that shades 
Mishke from the morning sun. Arrived at the 
summit, we descended again, only to climb a still 
higher range; and passing the hamlet of L&spa, 
we scaled two other craggy heights, covered with 
oak and ash. From this point we had a more 
than usually extended view, over rocky mountains 
clothed with trees, so abrupt and pointed, and of 
such varied shapes, as to look more like granite 
than limestone; the road still continuing over 
similarly rugged ascents and descents, amidst 
mountain crests; and if the bag of stones burst 
over Montenegro, it was certainly in this part, that 
the greatest fall took place; which might even 
have been thought, in olden times, to be the battle 
field of the Gods and Titans. I did not meet with 
any traces of the Roman road, said by Colonel 
Vialla to cross the country "between Cevo and 
Rettichi," which " went from Risano to Constanti- 

After a march of two hours and a half we halted 
for an hour, under some beech trees. The view was 
characteristic of Montenegro. It promised us no im- 
provement in the road, and the same kind of rocky 
ridges presented themselves in succession before 
us. A precipitous isolated hill with a flat summit, 

Chap. VI.] VALfi OF ORANIDO. 525 

looking like an acropolis, was pointed out as the 
direction of our route ; with the range of G&rach * 
beyond it, about six miles in a line from our halt. 
That lofty mountain overlooks the valley of Bielo- 
pavlich, and is one of the highest in Montenegro. 
The trees, near which we sat, in the full enjoy- 
ment of some dry bread, were all stunted in 
growth ; and knotted, gnarled, and twisted, they 
seemed to bear a nearer resemblance to the dis- 
torted shape of the cork, than to the usual cha- 
racter of the spreading beech tree. Briars and 
blackberries f also grew there, as in many parts 
of Dalmatia, with some hazel, starting from the 
crevices of the rock. 
I In another hour and a half the small, but beau- 

tiful, vale of Oranido opened suddenly upon us ; the 
approach to which is through a wood of luxuriant 
beeches, differing from those we passed before, as 
much as the rich verdure, beneath them, from the 
barren crags we had just traversed. It is about 
three quarters of a mile long, and about 1000 feet 
broad ; and the sweep of the mountain sides, that 
enclose it, is particularly graceful. On descending, 
the view is very pretty, looking towards the moun- 
| tain range above Ostrok, with the bright green 

f sward in the immediate foreground. Above, to 

the south, is the citadel-like rock seen from our 
halt ; and amidst the beech trees, near the centre 
of the valley, is a well or reservoir of water ; which, 

* Or Garacs. t Called « Mora." 

» • 


when we arrived, was surrounded by picturesque 
groups of men tending their flocks. 

From the summit of the pass at the other 
end, is an extensive prospect, looking down to 
the valley of Bielopavlich, backed by the Ostrok 
mountains; on the right is the long slope of 
Mount G&rach, covered with brushwood, and in 
the distance the Turkish town of Spfiss *, with an 
isolated fortified rock above it, worthy to be the 
site of an ancient Greek acropolis. It has a popu- 
lation of about 900 souls, and stands in the plain, 
close to the river Zetta, beyond the lowlands of 

And plainly does this view disclose the secret of 
Montenegrin liberty ; depending as it does on the 
inaccessible nature of the country. There, is seen the 
limit, beyond which Turkish conquest cannot ex- 
tend; and their possession of the champaign country 
illustrates the usual custom of the Turks, in seizing 
all the most productive lands. This has ever been 
their aim ; and that plundering horde has appro- 
priated some of the richest portions of the Roman 
Empire, which its blighting influence has often re- 
duced below the level of far less fertile regions. 

The pass from Oranido has been the scene of many 
a desperate contest between the Montenegrins and 
Turks, whose frontier formerly extended much fur- 
ther into Montenegro, towards Mishke, than at pre- 

* Pronounced Spooss. 


sent. From that spot to Ostrok, the distance, in a 
direct line, is about six or seven miles ; but the path 
winds considerably, both in going down to, and 
ascending from, the valley, so that it took us four 
hours * to reach the convent ; and though it was a 
relief, after the long confinement amidst rocks, to 
have an open view before us, there was little reason 
to congratulate ourselves on a better road. On 
the way, I observed several trees called Drennina, 
bearing a small juicy fruit, of a sweet flavour, rather 
like a plum.f The tree grows to the height of our 
ordinary fruit trees, and is without thorns. I 
believe it to be the Cornus magenta^ or Cornel tree. 
In descending, we passed through a wood of 
ash and oak, which covers the undulating rocky 
ground ; and in about two hours, came to Dren- 
6vstitza, in the hollow between two hills. In 
another half hour we reached the banks of the 
Zetta, or Boiana, which we forded. The stream is 
small, very clear and rapid, even at this season 
(about the middle of September), and is famous 
for its trout. It runs through the valley of Bielo- 
pavlich, and after passing Sp&ss, joins the Morafa J, 
which falls into the Lake of Scutari. 

* From Mishke to Ostrok takes eight hours and a half. 

t The tree is called Drennina> and the fruit drin, or dren. 
It seems to be the same as the Russian deren, the Bohemian and 
Bosnian drin, and the Croatian drench. The fruit is red, and 
of an oblong shape, flattened a little at each end, about five- 
eighths of an inch long, and three-eighths broad. 

J Moracha, or Moraksa. The 9 is pronounced as ch. 


The valley here is half a mile broad, and is prin- 
cipally sown with Indian corn. We soon crossed 
the fields, and ascended the opposite hills to Rostzi, 

a village with a small church, from which a paved 
road leads to Ostrok. 


A letter had been despatched the day before from 
Mishke, to announce our intended visit ; and we 
were received by a discharge of muskets, as we 
wound up the road towards the convent, A dozen 
guards, who constantly keep watch at this important 
position, had been ordered by the superior to wel- 
come us with a volley; and the whistling balls, 
fired downwards amidst the rocks, seemed as if 
they were intended to hurry us towards the hospi- 
table place of shelter. The prospect of a stray 
ball, glancing from a stone, was certainly enough 
to prevent any loitering by the way ; and though 
accustomed to an Attah-Kerim-exposure to random 
shots, while living in the East, I was not sorry 
when we were no longer below the level of their 

On reaching the court of the convent, another 
ordeal awaited me; and I plainly saw I was to 
undergo the osculation of two large priests, who 
were already engaged in conveying tokens of wel- 
come to all they could encounter, with feelings of 
Christian brotherhood. After this epidemic of 
affection had subsided, and every person in the 
convent had communicated it to all my companions, 
I was welcomed to Ostrok by the Archimandrite. 
He is the superior of the convent, and the next in 
rank after the Vladika; of whose enlarged views 
he is an able seconder. He is about forty years of 
age ; and, though not of the same gigantic stature 
as the Metropolitan, is much above the ordinary 



height. Like all the other priestly chiefs of Monte- 
negro, he is highly distinguished in war ; and the 
energy and talent, he has often displayed, fit him 
for the command of this important post, in the 
immediate vicinity of the Turkish frontier. 

During the absence of any interpreter, I was 
obliged to keep up a precarious conversation with 
him in Slavonic, as no one in these out of the way 
regions knows any other language. My attempts 
amused him very much ; we became at once great 
friends ; and in this I found another of the many 
proofs, I have so often had, of the advantage, not 
so much of knowing a language, as, of showing a 
readiness to converse with others, and abandoning 
that forbidding reserve, which has frequently made 
the English disliked by foreigners. 

In the mean time an elderly priest came in, a man 
of quiet demeanour, who asked me various questions, 
some of which I in vain attempted to understand. 
While I was answering " No " where I ought to have 
said "Yes," (for it is much easier to make remarks, 
than reply to queries,) I was fortunately relieved 
from my embarrassment by the arrival of Signor 
Giacovich, who performed for me the office of in- 
terpreter. He also gave me to understand that the 
reverend priest P6p£ Yovan, or Ivan Knezovich*, 
was the most renowned and gallant warrior of 
Montenegro, and the same who, twenty years ago, 
had defended the convent of Mora^a with 200 men, 

* Or Kniezovich, t. e. " Fitz-connt." 


against 20,000 Albanians.* " He lives," he added, 
" in the very midst of the Turks, in the neighbour- 
hood of Spftss; and he has fought, and defeated 
them, in many battles, without ever having been 
wounded ; though balls have struck his pistols, and 
his dress, and numbers have fallen at his side." 

As this account interested me, I could not help 
asking P6p£ Yovan about his exploits against the 
Turks, and the nature of their wars. " They are 
very courageous," he replied, "and though we 
hate them, we admire their valour. They advance 
gallantly to the charge, and often have I been 
sorry to see some of their brave leaders fall by 
our fire. But their mode of fighting does not suit 
our country ; their cavalry is of little use out of 
the plain ; their power depends on numbers ; and, 
when their masses cannot act, they are only in 
each other's way. Besides, they are better in a 
sudden attack, than in a long-continued fight, and 
in close combat they cannot stand against us for a 
moment, unless vastly superior in numbers. - With 
regard to myself, I have been very fortunate: 
Providence has been pleased to spare me, and I am 
now old, without ever having been hurt in battle ; 
but I have lost my two sons, which is a great 
bereavement to me. However, they fell fighting 
for their country, and I must not repine." 

It was pleasing to see the mild, unassuming 
manner of the old warrior, so consistent with real 

* Mentioned in the History. See above, p. 493. 

M M 2 



courage; and when, on my return to Tzetinie, 
I told the Vladika of my meeting him at Ostrok, 
his expressions of regard for him showed the high 
estimation, in which he is held throughout the 

" What is your Christian name ?" he asked, and 
on finding it was the same as his own, he rose from 
his seat, and embraced me, saying, " As we are 
namesakes, we must look upon each other as 

On the return of the Archimandrite, who had 
left us to superintend some arrangements in the 
interior of the convent, dinner was announced, 
and we sat down to the most delicious trout, made 
doubly acceptable after our hard day's journey. 

There are two kinds, one white, the other of a 
salmon colour, both caught in the Zetta ; but they 
have always a small supply for the table, kept in 
a reservoir in the upper convent. The white trout 
is called Sktta, the other Liepien *, which is of a far 
better flavour; but the former grows to a larger 
size, and some have been caught weighing twenty 
okasj or sixty pounds. There was no lack of wine ; 
of which the Montenegrins are very fond. " You 
must do justice to our wine," said the superior: " I 
hope you think it good." I gave it the praise it 
merited, and observed that " whenever I had visited 
a convent, I always found the monks had excellent 
water, but that they took care to drink good wine ; " 

* Or Leepien, perhaps from liepo, " fine," or " beautiful." 

Chap. VI.] THE G^SLA. 533 

at which he was much entertained, and laughingly 
said, that it was the " most malicious remark " he 
had " ever heard against monks." 

On my regretting that the warrior priest was 
not of our party, he told me he was fasting, and 
'had gone to attend vespers in the church, but 
would come and pass the evening with us. "After 
dinner, it was proposed that I should hear their 
gfala, or Slavonic violin *, and some of the songs of 
their bards; which, on a frontier constantly re- 
sounding with the din of arms, are hailed with 
delight by every Montenegrin, c Independent of 
the gratification of my curiosity ,^1 was glad to 
have the opportunity of witnessing the stirring 
effect produced by these songs. ^ The subjects 
related to their contests with their enemies, the 
vain hopes of the Turks to subdue their country, 
and the glorious victories obtained over them, both 
by themselves, and the heroes of Serviaf; in some of 
which the armed bard may have had his share of 
glory. For like Taillefer, the minstrel of William 
the Conqueror, these men are warriors; and no 
one would venture to sing of deeds he could not 
emulate. The sounds of the gfela were not accord- 
ing to European taste, and the tune was only 
varied by the intonation of the voice ; but the en- 
thusiasm of the performer compensated for the 
monotony of the one-stringed instrument. 

* Rather than Guitar, as it is usually called, see pp. 35. 440. 
\ See above, p. 441. 

M M 3 


Pope Yovan, or, as some called him, " the old 
General," returned during the performance; pro- 
bably in time to hear some of his own exploits, 
recorded in the national songs of his countrymen. 
The evening passed most agreeably, and the cheer- 
ful manners of this old warrior, together with the* 
friendly hospitality of the Archimandrite, banished 
all recollection of the day's fatigue, and we sat up 
half the night. All I regretted was knowing so 
little of the language ; for however good an inter- 
preter may be, he is a poor substitute for direct 

P6p6 Yovan, in speaking of Bielopavlich, stated 
that the inhabitants of that department were origi- 
nally descended from one Paul (Pavlo) the son of 
Dukagin Lecca, governor of a province of Servia, 
under King Lazarus*, who in 1389 fled from the 
fatal field of Kosovo, and established himself 
there, f Lecca was of the town of Druegina, and 
his son Paolo being remarkable for the light colour 
of his hair, was called " Bielo " " white," and gave 
the name to this Nahia. J 

From him, according to the tradition of the 
country, 3000 fighting men now derive their de- 
scent; one of whom is Ivan Knezovich himself, 
the twelfth descendant of Bielo Pavlo. 

* See above, p. 477. 

f The River Zetta, or Zeta, has the same name that was 
given in those times to Montenegro. See p. 477. 

J Bielo Pavlo -vich shortened into Bielopavlich, " the sons of 
white Paul." It is singular that there should have been, at the 
other side of Montenegro, the family of Tzernoievich. 


In some parts of Montenegro the people are 
descended from Christian emigrants from Herze- 
g6vina, others are from Podg6ritza, and some origi- 
nally from the neighbourhood of Spilss, and 
Zsabliak ; to which places the dominion of Monte- 
negro formerly extended.* 

The priests in Montenegro are not allowed to 
marry more than once, as is the rule in the Greek, 
Coptic, and some other churches ; following, to the 
letter, the injunction, "Let the deacons be the 
husbands of one wife : " though they disregard the 
same command to the bishops f ; who are obliged to 
remain single. Nor is any one permitted to wear 
a beard, unless he is a Kahiero (Caloyer), or as- 
pires to the office of Bishop, or of Archimandrite. 

There are two convents at Ostrok, one of which 
occupies a cavern in the side of a perpendicular 
limestone mountain, and is the great stronghold 
of Montenegro. The other is on the slope of 
the mountain below it, and is also an advanta- 
geous position, owing to the broken nature of the 
ground, and the trees that surround it. There is 
no town at Ostrok, but merely buildings attached 
to the convent. It stands at the northern extremity 
of the country, about three or four miles from the 
frontier of Herzeg6vina ; and behind its mountain 
range to the eastward, are the Piperi and Moratska 

Next morning I .proposed a visit to the Turkish 

• See above, p. 479. f l Tim - »"• 2 - 12 - 

M M 4 

•.i 1 -* 


frontier, which is a little more than an hour's walk 
from Ostrok. The proposition seemed to give great 
satisfaction, and the Archimandrite mounted me 
on his favourite charger. Our course lay over the 
broken high ground, overlooking the valley of Zetta, 
beneath the line of perpendicular cliffs of the upper 
convent ; which continued to skirt our road, nearly 
the whole way, to the right. 

In three quarters of an hour we came to a hollow 
ravine, where the year before, in August, 1843, a 
Turkish deputation returning from Ostrok was at- 
tacked by the Montenegrins ; for which disgraceful 
act they try to excuse themselves, by affirming that, 
according to the intelligence they had received, the 
Turks intended to assassinate the Vladika, who 
was then at Ostrok. One account states that the 
Vizir of Herzeg6vina proposed to the Vladika to 
meet at Sliva, each with a retinue of 400 armed 
followers, who were to be left at a distance 
during the conference. The Vladika therefore re- 
paired to Ostrok ; but while awaiting the announce- 
ment of the Vizir's approach to Sliva, he was sur- 
prised by the arrival at the convent of a deputation 
of twenty-two Turks, headed by the Governor of 
Niksich. They came with a message, requesting 
the Vladika to repair to the place of rendezvous, 
where the son of the Vizir would join him from 
Niksich, his father being too old to ride so far. 

This change in the arrangements excited some 
suspicions; the Vladika refused to see the depu- 


tation, and ordered them immediately to quit 
the country. And having heard, from a Turkish 
informant, that they intended to attack him, if 
he went to Sliva, with a body of concealed 
troops, he gave orders that the embassy should be 
accompanied to the frontier by an armed guard, to 
protect them from the anger excited among the 
Montenegrins by this report. The precaution was 
of no avail. They were attacked on their arrival at 
this ravine, a little before the summit of the pass, 
and nine out of twenty-two were killed; among 
whom was the governor of Niksich. The rest 
escaped ; with the exception of four Christians, 
who accompanied the embassy, but who, being of 
the same religion as the Montenegrins, were allowed 
to depart with their lives, after having been stripped 
of their clothes, and whatever else they had. 

It was fortunate for the son of the Vizir, that he did 
not go himself to Ostrok, which, I afterwards learnt 
in Herzeg6vina, had been his intention ; but whether 
true or not, I will not pretend to determine ; nor 
can I give any opinion respecting the statement of 
the Montenegrins, and the suspected treachery of 
the Turks. Both parties accuse each other of 
" treachery;" and the Montenegrins, accustomed to 
Turkish duplicity, may have magnified a report, 
and acted on impulse, without much inquiry ; but, 
be this as it may, there is no excuse for attacking a 
flag of truce, and the fact, of the Turks having done 
the same to them before, in no way removes the 


stigma of this atrocious act. Had it not occurred, a 
good understanding might have been satisfactorily 
brought about, between the Montenegrins and the 
Turks ; and this, as I shall have occasion to show, 
defeated all hopes of a reconciliation between them. 

From the ravine we ascended the pass, whence 
there is an extensive view over the valley of Bielo- 
pavlich, and the distant lake of Scutari ; and be- 
low, at some distance to the left, are the sources of 
the Zetta. The mountain cliffs, that skirted our 
road to the right, soon afterwards terminated, 
turning off abruptly to the eastward. They are 
called in this part Planinitza *, " the small moun- 
tain." We then came to Sliva, on the brow of the 
descent towards Herzeg6vina ; from which to the 
Turkish frontier is about three quarters of a mile. 
Niksich, at the opposite end of a level plain, is about 
four miles off; and on the edge of the same plain 
you see the Turkish villages of Trebbes, Touriache, 
and Ozrinich, with the hamlet of Clichevo.f 

Niksich is the capital of a Jupa J, or district of 
the same name, and contains about 6000 inhabi- 
tants. It stands at the foot of some low hills, and 
with its minarets and cypresses, has all the cha- 
racter of a Turkish town. Through the plain 
winds the shallow river, or rather torrent, Ponor ; 
which, in the summer, is without water. It is the 

• The diminutive of Planina " mountain." 

f Or Touriace, Ozrinitch, and Clicevo. 

X Written variously, Jupa, Giupa, Xupa, and Zsupa. 


boundary line, at this part, between Montenegro and 
Herzeg6vina ; and, between it and the foot of the 
Sliva hills, is a small piece of cultivated land, 
a quarter of a mile broad, belonging to the Monte- 
negrins, which is generally sown with Indian corn. 

At Sliva * are some miserable huts, or man-styes, 
worthy of the ancient Slavonians f , with low walls 
of rough stones, or wicker work, covered with im- 
perfect thatch, perched among rocks, with a few 
patches of cultivated land about them ; the produce 
of which is frequently destroyed by the Turks, be- 
fore it is ripe. 

The contrast of the barren rocky Montenegro, and 
the fine Turkish plain, is here as striking as on the 
Albanian side; and in these rocks you see the 
habits, and the liberty, of the Montenegrins. 

On going down to the Ponor, I found a body of 
armed mountaineers, who, with the guards sent to 
accompany me from the convent, formed a very 
picturesque group. They were richly clad, mostly 
in the silver-fronted dresses of the Turks they 
had spoiled in battle, and were armed to the very 
chin. The appearance of the Archimandrite's white 
charger sufficed to ensure me a good reception, 
and, as I afterwards understood, the fact of a 
stranger going down to the Turkish frontier was 
an additional recommendation. The quiet docile 
horse, which had picked its way, with gentle and 

* Sliva signifies a " plum-tree." 
f See above, p. 34. 


cautious steps, over our stony path, was no sooner 
on this level spot, than he showed all the fire of the 
war-horse ; and as I had learnt the Memlook exer- 
cise in Egypt, I put him through the evolutions of 
the Gereetj but without knowing how much this 
amusement was gaining for me the good-will of 
these mountaineers. 

A guard is always stationed in this spot, to pre- 
vent, or give notice of, any inroad of the Turks ; 
and so scrupulously do they resent any approach 
towards their frontier, that no Turk can come within 
musket-shot, without being fired at ; though his 
innocent intentions might not aspire to any thing, 
beyond a visit to his own fields. The consequence 
is, that those near the frontier are tilled by Chris- 
tians, who are not amenable to powder and ball; 
and the appearance of a Turk is considered, by the 
Montenegrins, a sure indication of intended hos- 

Returning to Ostrok, we met some Christians of 
Herzeg6vina, who had been " to adore " St. Basilio, 
in the convent. They were remarkably fine men, 
much taller, and more muscular, even than the 
Montenegrins, who are far above the average size. 
One party had their women with them. As they 
passed, they all saluted us, with a strange inclina- 
tion of the head sideways towards us, as if present- 
ing it to be cut off; a singular sign of submissive 
respect I never met with, even in the East. 

On inquiring about the Montenegrin truces with 


the Turks, I was told that they are made until a 
particular f$te ; when they are renewed or not, ac- 
cording to circumstances. They even express a 
hope of settling a peace by commission ; but the 
difficulty, according to the Montenegrins, arises 
from an unwillingness, on the part of the Turks, to 
treat with them on an equality ; and the sad event 
of last year has been an additional impediment. 
The Vizir, they allow, is very courteous, in his 
intercourse with the Vladika ; and when the latter 
sent a sum of money, to purchase a horse in 
Herzeg6vina, the Turk returned it ; and selecting 
one from his own stud, begged him to accept it, 
as a mark of friendship. On the other hand, they 
complain that the Turks always pretend to con- 
sider them an inferior, or a conquered, race ; who 
are not deserving to be treated like an independent 
people ; which is certainly true ; for when the ques- 
tion of a reconciliation with Montenegro was mooted 
at Constantinople, the Porte affected to have a right 
of jurisdiction over the country, and put forth a 
claim of vassalage to the Sultan. 

In the afternoon, I went, with the Archimandrite, 
to visit the upper convent of Ostrok. The paved 
road winds through a thicket of trees, and the ascent 
occupies half an hour. The view is very extensive, 
looking over the valley of Bielopdvlich, with the 
Albanian mountains in the distance ; and in front is 
Mount G&rach *, with the Zetta flowing below. The 

* Or Garatz. 


convent itself is built in a spacious cavern, at 
rises to the 
tbove it; and 
intain being 
the building 
:ted from any 
from above, 
x> some dis- 
ow, the only 
access to it 
is by the 
steep nar- 
row road, 
might be 
easily de- 
fended by 
a few men, 
any num- 
ber of as- 
It is 
not sur- 
that the 
have always failed, before this impregnable position ; 


and no force has, during their repeated attacks, been 
able to make any impression on it. 

About seventy years ago *, it was besieged by 
30,000 Turks, for several months ; when every effort 
was made to set fire to, and destroy, the buildings, 
by lighted brands, and stones, hurled from above ; 
but all glanced off into the depths below; and 
though defended only by thirty men, the enemy 
was obliged to retire with immense loss. The Turks 
had laid waste every thing in the neighbourhood, 
with fire and sword ; they had burnt the lower con- 
vent, which had already been destroyed nine times 
before ; and they had advanced to a ledge of rocks, 
a short distance to the south of the cavern ; where, 
stopped by an impassable precipice, they were all 
picked off by those within, and this last effort was 
the signal for their retreat. 

The position of this convent calls to mind that 
of Megaspelion, in the Morea, which withstood so 
long the attacks of Ibrahim Pasha ; but the whole 
of the ground before it being precipitous, except 
the road, it is even stronger than the Greek con- 
vent. Within it are the principal powder maga- 
zine of Montenegro, and plenty of provisions 
for a long siege, with a large reservoir of water, 
containing some trout ; which, however, are more 
connected with the luxury of the table, than the 
wants of a garrison. Among other curiosities 
they show a vine, trained over trellis-work, which 

* Probably in 1768. See above, p. 488. 


is a pleasant relief to the bareness of this rocky 
retreat. As in Turkey, few precautions are 
taken against the explosion of the gunpowder, 
which would suffice to blow up the whole cavern, 
and put an end to both the convents at once : I be- 
lieve no one of our party went into the room, where 
it is kept, with his lighted pipe ; but that was the 
extent of their caution ; and the two convents, as 
well as ourselves, were in much less danger, when 
the door had been closed, between us and the 
powder barrels, and uncovered cartridges. 

In the convent is the tomb of San Basilio. He 
was a Bishop of Herzegovina, who, in the latter part 
of his life, became a hermit, and retired to this 
cavern. His death happened about 170 years ago; 
and his embalmed body, deposited in a coffin, still 
claims the veneration of the Greek Christians of 
Montenegro, and the neighbouring countries. A 
plate is always ready for the votive offerings of 
devout pilgrims to his tomb, and the sums obtained 
by these donations add considerably to the re- 
venues of the convent. The eight Christians we 
met, on their return to Herzeg6vina, gave ten 
dollars each, and one of the party fifty ; the Bos- 
nians frequently make very large presents, and one 
of them was known to give 100 sequins. A certain 
quantity of money is always left in the plate, like 
the honey in a bee-hive, to encourage the con- 
tinuance of these contributions ; while the surplus 
is applied to practical purposes. 


Even Turks have sometimes visited his tomb, 
during a peace, to ask a blessing from the saint ; 
and to the credit of the Moslems be it said, that 
they look upon a holy man with veneration, even 
though belonging to another religion ; and I have 
seen them enter a church, with a respect which 
might well take the place of that offensive curiosity, 
with which travellers so often visit a place of 
worship, dedicated to the same God they serve, 
because it belongs to members of a different sect. 

Though the ascent, from the lower to the upper 
convent, is sufficiently steep for those on foot, some 
pilgrims have been known to go the whole way on 
their knees, probably when their wealth was not 
equal to their piety ; this act of devotion serving 
as a substitute for a large donation. 

A hermit now lives here, who has come from 
Turkey, to pass the rest of his days in this holy re- 
treat, and acquire by self-denial the title of saint, 
after his death. He has been made guardian of 
the convent, and is the only inmate of the place. 
That he is sincere I have no doubt, and no fears 
need be entertained of his fidelity ; but it seems a 
dangerous risk to confide this stronghold to the 
custody of a single man, who might easily be mur- 
dered by a pretended pilgrim, bribed by the Turks 
to visit the convent on a plea of devotion. But it 
is the nature of a free, and brave, people to confide 
in their own security, and even sometimes to be 
improvident ; no country takes fewer precautions, 

VOL. I. N N 


against the aggressions of an enemy, than England 
and America ; and (unlike some others, which are 
devoid of the innate feelings of liberty,) they make 
no extraordinary preparations for war, against 
those with whom they are at peace. 

On returning to the lower convent, I was sur- 
prised to find that my gereet evolutions, and my 
visit to the frontier had gained me much good-will. 
" Our people," said the Archimandrite, " were much 
gratified by your having gone down to the Turkish 
border ; no stranger has ever done this before, and 
they thought it a compliment. They were also 
pleased with your Mernlook riding ; and you must 
allow me to offer you the use of my horse, for your 
return to Tzetinie." With many thanks for his 
kindness, I begged him to spare it the fatiguing 
journey ; but his offer was sincere, and he really 
wished me to accept it ; which I did, with many 
expressions of gratitude for this, as well as all 
other acts of courtesy and hospitality, during my 
stay at Ostrok. 

Next morning I left the convent; and it was 
not without regret that I bid adieu to the Archi- 
mandrite, and the brave P<5p£ Ivan. Of their 
friendly reception I cannot speak in too high 
terms ; indeed, I never met with greater kindness 
than in Montenegro ; and I feel sure, that all who 
visit the country will have reason to praise the 
hospitality of these wild mountaineers. 

On leaving Ostrok, we descended by the village 


of Rostzi, beneath the ledge of rocks on which the 
convent stands ; and in an hour reached the plain 
of the Zetta. The soil of the surrounding hills is 
fertile, and their cultivated sides are mostly divided 
into fields ; which, with the valley of the Zetta, 
constitute the principal part of the Bielopavlichi 
department; and here the Indian corn grows to 
the height of five and six feet, and, in places, as high 
as a man on horseback. A few small rivulets run 
from the mountains to the river, which, in size and 
appearance, is like one of our Welsh streams ; widen- 
ing as it proceeds in its course: the banks are 
productive, and bordered with willows ; and here 
and there are small islands, covered with Indian 
corn. In about three quarters of an hour, we 
reached a very pretty ford ; the hilly bank, on the 
opposite side, being covered with trees, overhanging 
the Zetta, which is here, at this season, about three 
feet deep. Twenty-five minutes brought us to the 
village of Kouiava, on a low hill to our left, about 
one mile and a half from the ford, and in forty 
more we arrived at Fruttak; where we were re- 
ceived by a wealthy landowner, the father of our 
host's wife at Mishke. A profusion of fruit was 
placed before us; grapes, pomegranates, walnuts, 
and peaches, with bread, and an abundant supply 
of wine; and Signor Giacovich had so much to 
talk about, that we remained there for more 
than two hours. Having been so recently at 
Mishke, we were doubly welcome, from the good 

N N 2 


tidings we brought with us ; and the mother of 
Helena Mukotich, being resolved that I should not 
depart without a memento of herself, presented me 
with some of her own handy-work ; consisting of 
a pair of Montenegrin socks, intended for the par- 
ticular use of her spouse. 

The narrow portion of the valley is here scarcely 
half a mile in breadth, and runs from S. to S.S.E. 
One mile and a half from Fruttak is the village of 
Orial&ka-Boscovichi, and the same distance beyond 
it is Glavitza, opposite the southern extremity 
of Mount Gdrach. In little more than an hour, we 
began to ascend the low hills to the westward, 
leaving the fine cultivated plain of Bielopavlich to 
our left, which is here about seven miles in breadth ; 
and which, though it might appear to invite the 
Turks to overrun it, is protected and flanked, on 
the E. and W., by the mountainous parts of 
Montenegro. The view from the summit of these 
hills is very extensive, looking down to Spftss and 
Podg6ritza*, backed by the Piperi, Kutska, and 
Albanian mountains. In another three quarters 
of an hour, we reached one of the villages of Zaga- 
rach f, in a hollow, on the other side of the hills ; 
where we halted for the night. 

Zagarach is the collective name of the district ; 

* Properly written Podgorizza, signifying " under the hiU," 
and so called from its position. 

t Names ending in ch, as Garach, Zagarach, &c. are pro- 
nounced Garatch, Zagaratch, &c. 


and the village, like others in Montenegro, is scat- 
tered over a considerable space, partly in the valley, 
partly on the slope of the hills. It is five hours 
and a half, or about fifteen miles from Ostrok. 

The people of the house, where we took up our 
quarters, were very civil, and did all they could to 
welcome us hospitably. A sheep was instantly 
caught up, to be converted into roast mutton, and 
every thing our hosts could afford was offered for 
our use. But the abode was far from comfortable, 
and we were doomed to associate with the pigs, 
who were unwilling to leave their wonted haunts, 
for the sake of any intrusive travellers. Taking 
little pleasure in their society, I proposed a walk 
into the fields, while dinner was preparing ; and 
here we met some men from the neighbouring 
cottages, with whom we entered into conversation. 
But they seemed far less civil, or sociable, than any 
I had met with ; and I afterwards learnt that they 
have the character of being more rude, and in- 
hospitable, than any of the Montenegrins, Throw- 
ing off, therefore, the dust of their fields, we 
returned to the pigs ; and with the assistance of 
sticks and stones, were enabled to get through our 
dinner, without any direct assault on the dishes, or 
ourselves, either from those animals, or from the 
hungry dogs which crowded about us, with looks 
of mingled longing and displeasure. 

At length night came, and I retired to what 
appeared a clean, comfortable, bed of straw. But I 

NN 3 


soon found that sleep was out of the question ; the 
whole place seemed to be alive : even Egypt could 
scarcely compete with Zagarach for its plague of 
fleas ; which gave a practical contradiction to the 
notion, of night being " the season when all nature 
is at rest." I was not sorry to see the daylight 
through the open tiles ; and leaving Zagarach with- 
out any regrets, about six o'clock we ascended the 
hills to the S.W., where we found a number of 
people weeping, and singing a doleful dirge, for 
the departure of their friends, whom poverty had 
obliged to emigrate into Servia.* 

Below, to our left, were the sources of a small 
stream, called Sagavatz ; and an hour's march from 
Zagarach brought us to the summit of the hills ; 
whence, after scrambling, for about two hours, over 
a rocky road, we descended to a small valley, and 
the scattered village of Buronia. In forty minutes 
more we reached Gradatz f , on the slope of a hill, 
from which is a commanding view, over the Lake 
of Sciitari, and the Ri£ka. Above it is a pointed 
mountain, crowned by a church, distant about 
three quarters of a mile. Much tobacco is grown 
here, but of a quality very inferior to that of 
Bosnia, which is so highly esteemed throughout 

In three quarters of an hour, we came to Perza, 

* Sec above, p. 425. 

f A name signifying " old town." 

Chap. VI.] ISLE OF VRANINA. 551 

which, as well as Gradatz, is in the Lieschanska 

Here another fine prospect opened towards the 
Islands of Vr&nina, and Lessandro, at the north 
end of the Sctitari lake ; and, while in sight of them, 
we perceived the Turks trying the range of a gun, 
for the erection of a new battery, to strengthen 
their defences against the Montenegrins. Vr&nina 
originally belonged to Turkey, but being inhabited 
by Christians, was given up by them, a few years 
ago, to the Montenegrins, in whose hands it re- 
mained till 1843 ; when the Albanians, finding the 
Vladika fully engaged in a war with Herzeg6vina, 
and unprepared for their hostility during a truce, 
took possession of it. In vain did the Montene- 
grins object to their treachery ; the Turks fortified 
it ; and, when attacked by the Vladika, in the autumn 
of the same year *, it was found to be too strong 
for a coup de main, and it still continues in the 
hands of the Albanians. 

We soon afterwards came to a paved road, lately 
made by the Vladika, which, though a relief after 
the rocky tracks we had just passed, was very 
rough. Here we met with several Loto, or nettle- 
trees, called Coschella.f In its general character, 
this tree bears some resemblance to the cherry, 
and the dry sweet fruit is not unlike the wild 
gean, in appearance, with a flavour more like the 

* See above, pp. 470. 507. 
f See above, p. 261. 

n n 4 


Caruba. Its botanical name is Celtis Australia; 
but it is not, as some have imagined, the Marasca, 
or wild cherry, which has given its name to the 
Maraschino of Dalmatia ; though a liqueur is also 
made from the pounded fruit and kernels of the 
loto, which resembles Kirsche- Wosser. 

Forty minutes brought us to Piperi ; a village of 
the same name as the N&hia, on the other side of 
Spftss. It is the first place in the Ri£ka district. 

We here met a man wearing a silver medal 
attached to a riband, which he had received as a 
reward for his valour, in cutting off numerous 
heads of Turks. 

In another half hour, we came to the village 
of Meterees, under a rocky eminence, where I had 
another instance of the disinterested hospitality of 
the Montenegrins I had so often witnessed. Some 
of the cottagers brought us wine, and a quantity 
of fruit ; and though money is so great an object 
to these poor people, nothing would induce them 
to receive any return for their presents ; and they 
were even offended at the offer. From this place, 
to the steep descent of the Ri£ka valley, is about a 
mile. The valley is very narrow, and is confined 
between precipitous hills, mostly overgrown with 
brushwood. In the centre winds the river Tzer- 
novichi, and the level space on either side of it 
is nearly all marsh, which, from the malaria it 
generates, causes fevers in the hot season. From 
the road, as it descends the hill, are seen the Isle 


of Vranina, with its double summit, the small 
Lesendria, and several rocks scattered about the 

northern extremity of the lake j on the shore are 
some villages, of the Tzemitska Nahia ; and, in the 
distance beyond, the mountains above Antivari. 
The town of Zsabliak lies a short way from the 
mouth of the Moraca, which also runs into the lake, 
very near the Tzernovichi, but is screened from 
view, by a projecting point of the hills on the left. 
In another hour we reached the village, or town, 
of Ri£ka, the capital of this department ; having 
passed on the way the village of Nasinjong. Ri6ka 
stands on the bank of the Tzernovichi, from which 


it has received its name ; Ri£ka signifying " the 
river," whence the Italians have called the town 
" La Fuim^ra." It is surrounded by hills, in a 
picturesque position, with a most unhealthy cli- 
mate. Here we stopped to rest ourselves,- and our 
jaded animals ; but all endeavours to find a black- 
smith, to shoe the Archimandrite's horse, were un- 
availing, perhaps from being a f§te-day ; and I was 
under the necessity of taking it on to Tzetinie, 
with the loss of two of its shoes. Though I dis- 
mounted, and walked the greater part of the way, 
to and from Ri£ka, to spare it as much as possible, 
I found, to my great regret, that it suffered from 
the journey ; and, notwithstanding all I could say, 
the groom, who had charge of it, left Tzetinie 
the same night, on his return to Ostrok ; though 
I had exacted from him a promise, that he would 
remain there till the following day. 

We stopped two hours at Ri^ka ; and while re- 
freshing ourselves with coffee, the most reviving 
beverage after a hard walk, dinner was prepared at 
the small inn ; to which I was glad to retire from 
the gaze of the inquisitive population, who crowded 
into the caf«S, to examine, and inquire about, the 

We had some of the fish, caught in the river, 
and the Lake of Sciitari, called Scoranza *, which 
resemble Sardines in size and flavour. They 

* See above, p. 393. 415. 


are excellent, whether fresh or salted ; and a long 
walk over Montenegrin roads did not dimmish 
their merits. The quantity caught is very great, 
and they are a source of wealth to the people of the 
Ri£ka valley, and the borders of the lake ; who dry 
and export them to Cattaro, Venice, and other 
places. The scoranza is only found in fresh water. 
The fishery employs many people ; it produces an- 
nually about 16,000 florins*, and there is a village 
consisting of eighty houses, inhabited only during 
the season, by those employed in drying fish. 

There are also very large trout in the Lake of 
Scutari ; and one was sent to Zara, and thence to 
Vienna, as a curiosity, which is said to have 
weighed eighty okas.f 

The inn at Rifta is kept by the widow of a ser- 
vant of the Vladika, who was hanged for having 
engaged to poison his master, on the promise of a 
bribe from the Turks. They seem, on more than 
one occasion, to have made similar attempts to 
compass his death ; and the following story of the 
Priest Stevo (or Stefano) is curiously illustrative 
of the cunning of the Osmanli. 

Having fled from Herzeg6vina, to escape the re- 
sentment of the Vizir, P6p£ Stevo took refuge in 
Montenegro, where he soon obtained a situation in 
the service of the Vladika ; upon which, finding he 

* £1600 English. The duty on fish paid to the government 
is 250 florins. 

f 120 pounds English ! 


was no longer within his reach, the Vizir devised 
this stratagem to satisfy his revenge. He entered 
into a negotiation with him, promising to pay him 
a large sum, if he would consent to poison the 
Vladika. The priest, as was expected, wrote a 
reply, and inquired what the amount of the reward 
would be ; and no sooner had he thus committed 
himself on paper, than the Vizir sent the proofs of 
his guilt to the Vladika ; who ordered him to be 
hanged; and thus the revenge of the Vizir was 
gratified, at the same time that he had the credit 
of conferring a favour on the Vladika, by denounc- 
ing a traitor. 

The houses of Ri£ka are better than in most 
villages of Montenegro, being built of stone, and 
roofed with tiles. It is a very flourishing place, 
and many of the inhabitants are refugees from Pod- 
g6ritza, in Albania ; which is a large town, contain- 
ing from ten to eleven thousand inhabitants, founded 
in Christian times before the Turkish conquest ; and 
fortified, as well as' Zsabliak, by Tugemir * in the 
tenth century. 

The Albanians on the confines of Montenegro, 
and Dalmatia, are mostly Christians ; and in Scii- 
tari, which contains about 60,000 inhabitants, there 
are 20,000 Roman Catholics, who are very nume- 
rous in all parts of that Pashalic. The Pasha of 

* Luccari's History of Ragusa, i. 22. He was the third pre- 
decessor of St. Vladimir, and a contemporary of the Emperor 
Samuel, of Bulgaria. Lucio, p. 294. Catalinich, ii. p. 234. 

Chap. VI.] RI^KA TO TZETINIE. 557 

Sciitari is under the Vizir of Roumelia, who lives 
at Novi Bazar, and is called Roumeli- Valesi, Albania 
having no hereditary Vizir, but merely a Pasha ap- 
pointed by the Porte. Nor have the Governors of 
the other western provinces any longer the title of 
Vizir ; much less is the office hereditary ; and the 
Vizir of Herzeg6vina only enjoys it, from having 
been appointed before the new regulations. 

On leaving Ri£ka for Tzetinie, the road runs 
through the valley of the Tzernovichi, where we 
passed some people, dressed in gala costume, play- 
ing at bowls ; a game very common in Montenegro, 
as well as in Dalmatia among the Morlacchi. We 
continued, for the distance of a mile, on the left 
bank of the river, which there makes a sharp bend, 
coming from between some rugged cliffs ; and at 
this spot is a steep ascent of the hills, half a mile 
in length, or to the very summit rather more than 
three quarters. It is a pass, that might be easily 
defended by a body of resolute men ; and with the 
river, and the descent at the other end of the valley, 
it contributes greatly to the security of Bi£ka. 

In three quarters of an hour we descended to a 
vale, well cultivated, and prettily situated among 
the hills. On the opposite side is a pointed moun- 
tain peak, and on the slope of the hills stands the 
village of Dobroskos&o *, where the Vladika has 
established one of his schools.f From Ri£ka to 
this place is about three miles, and from Do- 

* " The good Village." f See above, p. 449. 


broskoselo to Tzetinie two and three quarters, 
which we reached at nine in the evening ; the time 
occupied in the journey from Zagarach to Ri£ka 
being seven hours and a quarter. 

The Vladika received me with his usual kind- 
ness of manner ; and, with the feelings natural to 
one, who was conscious of having done so much to 
improve and civilise his people, asked me many 
questions, respecting the impressions conveyed by 
the appearance of the country. " You have 
seen," he observed, "the greater part of Monte- 
negro. What do you think of the people? do 
they appear to you to be the assassins and bar- 
barians, some people pretend to consider them ? I 
hope you found them all well-behaved and civil; 
they are poor, but that does not prevent their being 
hospitable and generous." 

Acknowledging the favourable impressions I had 
received, in all the districts I had visited, I par- 
ticularly noticed the kindness of the Archimandrite, 
and P6p6 Ivan Knezovich, whom by mistake I 
called u the general." — " Why," said the Vladika, 
" did you not bring him with you ? he would have 
been delighted to come, had you proposed it ; he is a 
great favourite with us all, and is highly, and justly, 
respected throughout Montenegro. I am glad you 
met him ; and that you were pleased altogether with 
your journey ; some of the roads are bad, but we are 
gradually improving them, and, in some places, they 
are in a very fair condition. They tell me of your 


Memlook riding at Ostrok; I should like to see 
it, and after dinner, if you please, we will have 
the horses, and take a ride together in the plain. 
You shall have a grey, which was given me by 
the Pasha." Accordingly, after dinner the horses 
came. The Yladika mounted a small chesnut 
Arabian, which, for his size and weight, was very 
small ; the grey was a larger animal, also a great 
favourite, which is in the habit of following him like 
a dog, on the grassy plain of Tzetinie, where he 
frequently walks to and fro, listening to applications 
on public business. 

After I had made some of the usual evolutions, the 
Vladika put his Arabian at full speed, and I do not 
know whether I was most surprised at his activity, 
or at the facility with which his horse carried him. 

I had afterwards a specimen of the skill of the 
Montenegrins in leaping; and then walked with 
the Vladika, up and down his favourite promenade 
upon the turf, until our return to the palace. 

Some persons came in, upon various questions of 
business; and as soon as they had retired, the 
Vladika's aide-de-camp, and one of the Perianiks, 
withdrawing their pistols and yatagan from their, 
girdles, began a game of billiards, while pipes and 
coffee were introduced, in Oriental style. Our 
conversation mostly turned upon the resources, 
aud various populations of Europe ; and the policy 
of some countries towards Montenegro; when I 
had an opportunity of mentioning the fact of the 


Turks increasing their fortifications of Vranina, 
and their trying the range of cannon, which I had 
seen on my way to Ri£ka. 

"I must wait a little longer," he said, "the 
matter is pending in Constantinople ; but we shall 
take it, in spite of their preparations, if we once 
begin, and I have stated my determination to do 
so, if they do not arrange the matter speedily." 

On inquiring about the best written accounts of 
Montenegro, he seemed to think that few had seen 
sufficient of the country to be able to describe it ; 
those who visit it being generally contented with 
the short journey to Tzetinie; and he regretted 
much that no good map had been made of the 
country. " But I have sent for instruments," he 
added, " and intend to entrust its execution to my 
aide-de-camp, Signor Vucovich, who has engaged 
to undertake it." 

There is a map, by Colonel Karagai, which gives 
a general view of the country and its divisions, and 
is the best that has yet been made, without pre- 
tending to be an accurate survey of Montenegro ; 
and I regret exceedingly that I had no instruments 
with me, to enable me to make even a general out- 
line of it, and fix the principal points ; I can there- 
fore only give a very imperfect one of my own, 
based upon that of Colonel Kara^i ; in which the 
alterations are introduced by the eye, and by mea- 
sured distances. 

If I have spoken highly of the kindness and 



hospitality of the Vladika, it is from a sense of the 
obligation I feel to him, and the propriety of paying 
a just tribute to that benevolence, which induces 
him to welcome strangers with courtesy ; and I am 
the more anxious to do this, as certain persons, Ger- 
mans, after having met with far more attention than 
they appear to have deserved, thought fit to make 
very unjust statements respecting the Vladika, and 
their reception in Montenegro. But, though much 
displeased, the Vladika has not allowed this to in- 
fluence his conduct to other strangers: and his 
hospitality is not less conspicuous in the treatment 
of those refugees, whom misfortune obliges to fly 
from the neighbouring states. 

I have endeavoured to give an unprejudiced 
account of Montenegro, and the Montenegrins : I 
have censured them for their robberies, their dis- 
regard of truces, and their attack on the em- 
bassy to Ostrok ; but I have also shown that the 
noble defence of their liberty, against the over- 
whelming power of Turkey, deserves the highest 
admiration and respect; and taking into consi- 
deration the rude and lawless state, in which they 
have so long been accustomed to live, and the 
character of their wars with the Turks, it is not 
difficult to account for their ignorance of civilised 
customs. On the wise endeavours of the Vladika 
to introduce laws and civilisation, sufficient praise 
cannot be bestowed ; every friend of humanity must 
wish to see his benevolent intentions realized ; and 

VOL. I. oo 


his merit is sufficiently evident, from the improved 
state of the people, since his accession to the Vladikate. 

I have also much pleasure in adding, that I 
have since heard the Vladika has instituted a mili- 
tary order, called of Milosh Obilich, the Servian 
hero, who killed Sultan Amurath in his own 
camp, before the battle of Kosovo-P61£, in 1389 ; 
which customary European mode of rewarding 
valour may, it is reasonable to hope, be the pre- 
lude to a more civilised warfare. 

On my return to Dalmatia, I was accompanied 
by a Perianik, who was decorated with a medal, for 
his prowess in relieving Turks of their heads ; and 
I returned to the inn at Cattaro, kept by very 
obliging people, who made up by civility for want 
of luxuries or comfort ; though it was by no means 
inferior to the generality of those in Dalmatia. 
As usual, the rooms were supposed to be orna- 
mented by French coloured prints ; and in one was 
a picture of St. Antony, of Padua ; which, if dedi- 
cated ("by permission") to all the animals, would 
scarcely have been thought worthy of its patrons. 

Among the on dits of Cattaro was a story, which 
told badly for the honour of an Austrian officer, 
who, after having abused the confidence of a girl he 
had promised to marry, excused himself from per- 
forming his engagements, on the convenient plea of 
his parents refusing their consent. But it is not 
in an Austrian garrisoned town alone that leave of 
absence, and the pretended interference of a father, 
are known to relieve gallant lovers from trouble- 


Chap. VI. ] THE JEWS. 563 

some promises ; the same is occasionally resorted 
to by other men of chivalry ; and I remember a case 
in the Mediterranean, where the father, on being ap- 
plied to by the friends of the lady, denied either hav- 
ing refused, or having been consulted in the matter ; 
and the escape of the faithless one was only owing 
to his being accidentally ordered to a distant station. 

From Cattaro I returned by the steamer to Spa- 
lato, and arrived there on the 28th of September, 
The following day the Jews began their feast of Ta- 
bernacles. The balconies, within the courts of their 
houses, were fitted up with awnings, to represent 
tents, under which they took their meals ; being for- 
bidden to eat within the house, during that festival. 

While on the subject of the Jews, I may men- 
tion a circumstance, which I have long since 
remarked, and which is deserving of inquiry. .While 
in Egypt, I observed, that the Jews were readily 
distinguished from other Orientals, by their very 
light pale complexions, their small features, light 
hazel, and often blue, eyes, and, in many instances, 
by red hair ; and on going into Syria, I was de- 
termined to ascertain whether these peculiarities 
were the same there, or whether they had the large 
noses, and strongly marked features, of our 
European Jews. I examined their faces in various 
towns ; and when at Jerusalem, I went for this pur- 
pose into the Jews' quarter, and (taking care to 
converse in Arabic with those I met, in order to be 
sure they had not come from other countries,) I 
found that their features had not the character met 


with in the West ; that the nose was nearly straight ; 
the eyes hazel •, sometimes blue ; the hair often 
light, and even red; the complexionf that of a 
Northern race, white and pink ; and that the children 
had the fresh colour of Europeans. I also observed, 
that the contour of the face was very like that given 
by the old masters to our Saviour, and the features far 
more soft, and beautiful, than those of the European 
Jews. I will not now offer any theory on this sub- 
ject ; and will only add one more fact, that while the 
Eastern differ so much from the Western Jews, they 
are also unlike the other Syrians, many of whom have 
the large features we see in the Jews of Europe. 

I will mention another remark relating to the 
Jews, which is at variance with received opinion. 
The modern square Hebrew character is generally 
supposed to have been brought back by them from 
Babylon, after the captivity ; but this is obviously 
an error, repeated without inquiry, as the letters 
used by the Babylonians had the arrow-headed 
form, and none are found in that country at all 
resembling the Hebrew. It is true the Samaritan 
was the Jewish character, before that captivity ; but 
it by no means follows that the other was derived 
from Babylon ; the Jews would scarcely adopt it 
from those hated Gentiles ; and they might as easily 
invent it, as any other people. 

* Called " honey colour " in the East. 
t Comp. 1 Samuel, xvii. 42. 




3 2044 020 036 299 


Harvard College Widener Library 
Cambridge, MA 021 38 (61 7) 495-241 3