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Full text of "The Dance of death : in a series of engravings on wood from designs attributed to Hans Holbein with a treatise on the subject"

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Presented to the 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 
LIBRARY 

by the 



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LIBRARY 

1980 





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HE DANGE0F DEAtH''' 



IN A SERIES OF ENGRAVINGS ON WOOD FROM 
DESIGNS ATTRIBUTED TO HANS HOLBEIN 
WITH A TREATISE ON THE SUBJECT BY 

FRANCIS DOUCE 



.^j..^. BY . 



- 5 0523 

HOLBEIN'S BIBLE CUTS 

CONSISTING OF NINETY ENGRAVINGS ON 
WOOD WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY 

THOMAS FROGNALL DIBDIN 




#v » 



LONDON 

GEORGE BELL & SONS 

1902 




lUeprinied from Stereotype plates.} 






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PREFACE, 




HE very ample discussion which the 
extremely popular subject of the Dance 
of Death has already undergone might 
seem to preclude the necessity of at- 
tempting to bestow on it any further 
elucidation ; nor would the present 
Essay have ever made its appearance, 
but for certain reasons which are necessary to be stated. 

The beautiful designs which have been, perhaps too 
implicitly, regarded as the invention of the justly celebrated 
painter, Hans Holbein, are chiefly known in this country 
by the inaccurate etchings of most of them by Wenceslaus 
Hollar, the copper-plates of which having fonnerly become 
the property of Mr. Edwards, of Pall Mall, were published 
by him, accompanied by a very hasty and imperfect 
dissertation ; which, with fewer faults, and considerable 
enlargement, is here again submitted to public attention. 
It is appended to a set of fac-similes of the above- 
mentioned elegant designs, and which, at a very liberal 
expense that has been incurred by the proprietor and 
publisher of this volume, have been executed with con- 
summate skill and fidelity by Messrs. Bonner and Byfield 

a2 



vi Preface. 

two of our best artists in the line of wood engraving. 
They may very justly be regarded as scarcely distinguishable 
from their fine originals. 

The remarks in the course of this Essay on a supposed 
German poet, under the name of Macaber, and the dis- 
cussion relating to Holbein's connexion with the Dance of 
Death, may perhaps be found interesting to the critical 
reader only ; but every admirer of ancient art will not fail 
to be gratified by an intimate acquaintance with one of its 
finest specimens in the copy which is here so faithfully 
exhibited. 

In the latest and best edition of some new designs for 
a Dance of Death, by Salomon Van Rusting, published by 
John George Meintel at Nuremberg, 1736, 8vo. there is an 
elaborate preface by him, with a greater portion of ver- 
bosity than information. He has placed undue confidence 
in his predecessor, Paul Christian Hilscher, whose work, 
printed at Dresden in 1705, had probably misled the 
truly learned Fabricius in what he has said concerning 
Macaber in his valuable work, the " Bibliotheca mediae et 
infimae aetatis." Meintel confesses his inability to point 
out the origin or the inventor of the subject. The last 
and completest work on the Dance, or Dances of Death, 
is that of the ingenious M. Peignot, so well and deservedly 
known by his numerous and useful books on bibliography. 
To this gentleman the present Essay has been occasionally 
indebted. He will, probably, at some future opportunity, 
remove the whimsical misnomer in his engraving of Death 
and the Idiot. 

The usual title, " The Dance of Death," which accon 
panics most of the printed works, is not altogethe 
appropriate. It may indeed belong to the old Macabe 
painting and other similar works where Death is reprf 
sented in a sort of dancing and grotesque attitude in th 



Preface. vii 

act of leading a single character ; but where the subject 
consists of several figures, yet still with occasional exception, 
they are rather to be regarded as elegant emblems of human 
mortality in the premature intrusion of an unwelcome and 
inexorable visitor. 

It must not be supposed that the republication of this 
singular work is intended to excite the lugubrious sen- 
sations of sanctified devotees, or of terrified sinners ; for, 
awful and impressive as must ever be the contemplation 
of our mortality in the mind of the philosopher and 
practiser of true religion, the mere sight of a skeleton 
cannot, as to them, excite any alarming sensation whatever 
It is chiefly addressed to the ardent admirers of ancient 
art and pictorial invention ; but nevertheless with a hope 
that it may excite a portion of that general attention to 
the labours of past ages, which reflects so much credit on 
the times in which we live. 

The widely scattered materials relating to the subject 
of the Dance of Death, and the difficulty of reconciling 
much discordant information, must apologize for a few 
repetitions in the course of this Essay, the regular progress 
of which has been too often interrupted by the manner in 
which matter of importance is so obscurely and defec- 
tively recorded ; instances of which are, the omission of 
the name of the painter in the otherwise important 
dedication to the first edition of the engravings on wood 
of the Dance of Death that was published at Lyons ; the 
uncertainty as to locality in some complimentary lines to 
Holbein by his friend Borbonius, and the want of more 
particulars in the account by Nieuhoff" of Holbein's 
painting at Whitehall 

The designs for the Dance of Death, published at 
Lyons in 1538, and hitherto regarded as the invention of 
Holbein, are, in the course of this Dissertation, referred 



viii Preface. 

to under the appellation of the Lyons wood-cuts; and with 
respect to the term Macaber, which has been so mis- 
takenly used as the name of a real author, it has been 
nevertheless preserved on the same principle that the word 
Gothic has been so generally adopted for the purpose of 
designating the pointed style of architecture in the Middle 
Ages. 

FxuiNcxs Douce. 



CONTENTS 



Chapter L 



Personification of Death, and other modes of representing h 
among the Ancients, and during the Middle Ages. — ErroneoiiB 
notions respecting Death. — Monumental absur lities. — Allegorical 
pageant of the Dance of Death represented in early times in 
churches and cemeteries. — Introduction of the infernal, or 
Dance of Macaber i 

Chapter IL 

Places where the Dance of Death was sculptured or depicted. — 
Usually accompanied by verses describing the asveral characters. — 
Other Metrical Compositions on the Dance i£ 

Chapter IIL 

Macaber not a German or any other poet, but a nonenity. — 
Corruption and confusion respecting this word. — Etymological 
errors concerning it — How connected with the Dance. — Trois 
mors et trois vifs. — Orgagna's painting in the Campo Santo at 
Pisa. — Its connexion with the trois mors et trois vifs, as well a« 
with the Macaber Dance. — Saint Macarius the real Macaber,— 
Paintings of this dance in various peaces. — At Minden; Church- 
yard of the Innocents at Paris; Dijon; Basle; Klingenthal; 
Lubeck ; Leipsic ; Anneberg ; Dresden ; Erfurt ; Nuremberg ; 
Berne; Lucerne; Amiens; Rouen; Fescamp; Blois; Strasburg; 
Berlin; Vienna; in Holland; Italy; Spain 24 

Chapter IV. 

P/facaber Dance in England. — St Paul's. — Salisbury. — Wortley 
Hall. — Hexham. — Croydon. — Tower of London. — Lines in Pierce 
Plowman's Vision supposed to refer to it ........ 44 



Contents. 



Chapter V. 

Li«t of editions of the Macaber Dance. — Printed Horse that contain 
it. — Manuscript Horae. — Other Manuscripts in which it occurs. — 
Various articles with letter-press, not being single prints, but con- 
nected with it ... , 48 

Chapter VI. 

Hans Holbein's connexion with the Dance of Death. — A dance of 
peasants at Basle. — Lyons edition of the Dance of Death, 1538. 
— Doubts as to any prior edition. — Dedication. to the edition of 
1538. — Mr. Ottley's opinion of it examined. — Artists supposed to 
have been connected with this work. — Holbein's name in none 
of the old editions. — Reperdius 69 

Chapter VH. 

Holbein's Bible cuts. — Examination of the claim of Hans Lutzen- 
berger as to the design or execution of the Lyons engravings of 
the Dance of Death. — Other works by him 83 

Chapter VIII. 

List of several editions of the Lyons work on the Dance of Death, 
with the mark of Lutzenberger. — Copies of them on wood. — 
Copies on copper by anonymous artists. — By Wenceslaus Hollar. 
— Other anonymous artists. — Nieuhoff Picard. — Rusting. — 
Mechel. — Crozat's drawings. — Deuchar. — Imitations of some of 
the subjects 91 

Chapter IX. 

Further examination of Holbein's title, — Borbonius. — Biographical 
notice of Holbein. — Painting of a Dance of Death at Whitehall 
by him \ii 

Chapter X. 
Other Dances of Death .119 

Chapter XI. 
Dances of Death, with such text only as describes the subjects, . I4I 



Contents. XI 

PtOl 

Charier XII. 
Books in which the subject is occasionally introduced 150 

Chapter XIII. 

IJuoks of emblems and fables. — Frontispieces, and title-pages, in some 
degree connected with the Dance of Death t Jo 

Chapter XIV. 
Single prints connected with the Dance of Death 168 

Chapter XV. 
Initial or capital Letters with the Dance of Death 189 

Chapter XVI. 
Paintings. — Drawings. — Miscellaneous ig6 

Chapter XVII. 

Trois vifs et trois morts. — Neg^o figure of Death. — Danj>e aux 
Aveugles 101 

Chapter XVIII. 

Errors of various writers who have introduced the •ahi«rt a(^ the 
Dance of Death f/16 




THE DANCE OF DEATH. 



-«aCRe- 



CHAPTER I. 

Perwuificatlon of Death, and other modes of representing it 
among the Ancients, and during the Middle Ages. — Er- 
roneous notions respecting Death. — Monumental absurdities. 
—Allegorical pageant of the Dance of Death represented 
in early times in churches and cemeteries. — Introduction of 
the infernal f or dance of Macaber. 

r^fE^ZmSiSHE manner in which the poets and 
'^f^»&a ' rrSlii^ artists of antiquity have symbolized or 
personified Death, has excited consi- 
derable discussion ; and the various 
opinions of Lessing, Herder, Klotz, 
anil other controversialists, have only 
tended to demonstrate that the ancients 
adopted many different modes to ac- 
complish this purpose. Some writers have maintained that 
they exclusively represented Death as a mere skeleton ; 
whilst others have contended that this figure, so frequently 
to be found upon gems and sepulchral monuments, was 
never intended to personify the extinction of human life, 
but only as a simple and abstract representation. They 
r? B 




2 The Dance of Death. 

insist that the ancients adopted a more elegant and alle- 
gorical method for this purpose ; that they represented 
human mortality by various symbols of destruction, as 
birds devouring lizards and serpents, or pecking fruits and 
flowers j by goats browsing on vines ; cocks fighting, or 
even by a Medusa's or Gorgon's head. The Romans seem 
to have adopted Homer's^ definition of Death as the eldest 
brother of Sleep ; and, accordingly, on several of their 
monumental and other sculptures we find two winged genii 
as the representatives of the above personages, and some- 
times a genius bearing a sepulchral vase on his shoulder, 
and with a torch reversed in one of his hands. It is very 
well known that the ancients often symbolized the human 
soul by the figure of a butterfly, an idea that is extremely 
obvious and appropriate, as well as elegant. In a very in- 
teresting sepulchral monument, engraved in p. 7 of Spon's 
Miscellanea Eruditae Antiquitatis, a prostrate corpse is 
seen, and over it a butterfly that has just escaped from 
the mouth of the deceased, or as Homer expresses it, 
" from the teeth's enclosure."^ The above excellent anti- 
quary has added the following very curious sepulchral in- 
scription that was found in Spain, " h^redibvs meis mando 

ETIAM CINERE VTMEO VOLITET EBRIVS PAPILIO OSSA IPSA 

TEGANT MEA," &c. Rejecting this heathen symbol altogether, 
the painters and engravers of the middle ages have sub- 
stituted a small human figure escaping from the mouths of 
dying persons, as it were, breathing out their souls. 

We have, however, the authority of Herodotus, that in 
the banquets of the Egyptians a person was introduced 
who carried round the table at which the guests were seated 
the figure of a dead body, placed on a coffin, exclaiming 
at the same time, " Behold this image of what your- 
selves will be ; eat and drink therefore, and be happy."' 
Montfau^on has referred to an ancient manuscript tO 
prove that this sentiment was conveyed in a Lacedaemonian 
proverb,^ and it occurs also in the beautiful poem of Coppa, 
ascribed to Virgil, in which he is supposed to invite , 

* Iliad, and after him Virgil, Mn, vi. 278. 

" Iliad IX. On an ancient gem likewise in Ficoroni's Gemm?e An- 
tiquae Litteratae, Tab. viii. No. i, a human skull typifies mortality, and 
a butterfly immortality. ^ Lib. ii. 78. * Diarium, p. 212, 



The Dance of Death. 3 

Mc-ecenas to a rural banquet. It concludes with these 
lines : — 

Pone merum et talos ; pereat qui crastina curat, 

Mors aurem vellens, vivite ait, venio. 

The phrase of pulling the ear is admonitory, that organ 
being regarded by the ancients as the seat of memory. 
It was customaiy also, and for the same reason, to take 
an oath by laying hold of the ear. It is impossible on this 
occasion to forget the passage in Isaiah xxii. 13, afterwards 
used by Saint Paul, on the beautiful parable in Luke xii. 
Plutarch also, in his banquet of the wise men, has 
remarked that the Egyptians exhibited a skeleton at their 
feasts to remind the parties of the brevity of human life ; 
the same custom, as adopted by the Romans, is exemplified 
in Petronius's description of the feast of Trimalchio, 
where a jointed puppet, as a skeleton, is brought in 
by a boy, and this practice is also noticed by Silius 
Jtalicus : 

/Egjptia tellus 

Claudit odorato post funua stantia Saxo 

Corpora, et a mensis exsanguera baud separat umbram.' 

Some have imagined that these skeletons were intended to 
represent the larvae and lemures, the good and evil 
shadows of the dead, that occasionally made their ap- 
pearance on earth. The larvae, or lares, were of a beneficent 
nature, friendly to man ; in other words, the good demon 
of Socrates. The lemures, spirits of mischief and wicked- 
ness. The larva in Petronius was designed to admonish 
only, not to terrify \ and this is proved from Seneca : 
" Nemo tam puer est ut Cerberum timeat et tenebras, et 
larvarum habitum nudis ossibus cohaerentium."^ There is, 
however, some confusion even among the ancients them- 
selves, as to the respective qualities of the larvae and 
lemures. Apuleius, in his noble and interesting defence 
against those who accused him of practising magic, tells 
them, " Tertium mendacium vestrum fuit, macilentam vel 
omninoevisceratamformam diri cadaverisfabricatam prorsus 
horribilem et larvalem ;" and afterwards, when producing 
the image of his peculiar Deity, which he usually carried 
• Lib. xiii. 1. 474. ^ Epist xjuv, 

B 2 



4 77ie Dance of Death, 

about him, he exclaims, " En vobis quern scelestus ille sce- 
letum nominabat ! Hiccine est sceletus ? Haeccine est 
larva? Hoccine est quod appellitabatis Daemonium."' 
It is among Christian writers and artists that the personifi- 
cation of Death as a skeleton is intended to convey terrific 
ideas, conformably to the system that Death is the punish- 
ment for original sin. 

The circumstances that lead to Death, and not oui 
actual dissolution, are alone of a terrific nature ; for 
Death is, in fact, the end and cure of all the previous 
sufferings and horrors with which it is so frequently 
accompanied. In the dark ages of monkish bigotry and 
superstition, the deluded people, seduced into a belief 
that the fear of Death was acceptable to the great and 
beneficent Author of their existence, appear to have derived 
one of their principal gratifications in contemplating this 
necessary termination of humanity, yet amidst ideas and 
impressions of the most horrible and disgusting nature : 
hence the frequent allusions to it, in all possible ways, 
among their preachers, and the personification of it in 
their books of religious offices, as well as in the paintings 
and sculptures of their ecclesiastical and other edifices. 
They seemed to have entirely banished from their recollec- 
tion the consolatory doctrines of the Gospel, which con- 
tribute so essentially to dissipate the terrors of Death, and 
which enable the more enlightened Christian to abide that 
event with the most perfect tranquillity of mind. There 
are, indeed, some exceptions to this remark, for we may 
still trace the imbecility of former ages on too many of 
our sepulchral monuments, which are occasionally tricked 
out with the silly appendages of Death's heads, bones, and 
other useless remains of mortality, equally repulsive to the 
imagination and to the elegance of art. 

If It be necessary on any occasion to personify Death, 
this were surely better accomplished by means of some 
graceful and impressive figure of the Angel of Death, for 
'vhom we have the authority of Scripture ; and such might 
become an established representative, I'he skulls and 
bones of modern, and the entire skeletons of former times, 
especially during the Middle Ages, had, probabJy, derived 
^ Apolog. p. 506, ^07, edit. Delph. 410. 



Hu Dance of Death. 5 

their origin fron. the vast quantities of sanctified human 
relics that were continually before the eyes, or otherwise 
in the recollection of the early Christians. But the favourite 
and principal emblem of mortality among our ancestors 
appears to have been the moral and allegorical pageant 
familiarly known by the appellation of the Dance of Deaths 
which it has, in part, derived from the grotesque, and often 
ludicrous attitudes of the figures that composed it, and 
especially from the active and sarcastical mockery of the 
ruthless tyrant upon its victims, which may be, in a great 
measure, attributed to the whims and notions of the artists 
who were employed to represent the subject 

It is very well known to have been the practice in very 
early times to profane the temples of the Deity with 
indecorous dancing and ludicrous processions, either within 
or near them, in imitation, probably, of similar proceedings 
in Pagan times. Strabo mentions a custom of this nature 
among the Celtiberians,* and it obtained also among several 
of the Northern nations before their conversion to Chris- 
tianity. A Roman council, under Pope Eugenius II. ih 
the ninth century, has thus noticed it : " Ut sacerdotes 
admoneant viros ac mulieres, qui festis diebus ad ecclesiam 
occurrunt, ne ballando et turpia verba decantando chores 
teneant, ac ducunt, similitudinem Paganorum peragendo." 
Canciani mentions an ancient bequest of money for a 
dance in honour of the Virgin.* 

These riotous and irreverent tripudists and caperers 
appear to have possessed themselves of the churchyards 
to exhibit their dancing fooleries, till this profanation of 
consecrated ground was punished, as monkish histories 
inform us, with divine vengeance. The well-known 
Nuremberg Chronicle'" has recorded, that in the time of 
the Emperor Henry the Second, whilst a priest was saying 
mass on Christmas Eve, in the church of Saint Magnus, 
in the diocese of Magdeburg, a company of eighteen men 
and ten women amused themselves with dancing and 
singing in the churchyard, to the hindrance of the priest 
in his duty. Notwithstanding his admonition, they refused 
to desist, and even derided the words he addressed to 
them. The priest being greatly provoked at their conduct^ 
' Lib. uL * Leg. Antiq. iil 84. ^ Folio cboxvu. 



6 The Dance of Death. 

prayed to God and Saint Magnus that they might remain 
dancing and singing for a whole year without intermission : 
and so it happened, neither dew nor rain falling upon 
them. Hunger and fatigue were set at defiance, nor were 
their shoes or garments in the least worn away. At the 
end of the year they were released from their situation by 
Herebert, the archbishop of the diocese in which the event 
took place, and obtained forgiveness before the altar of 
the church ; but not before the daughter of a priest and 
two others had perished ; the rest, after sleeping for the 
space of three whole nights, died soon afterwards. Ubert, 
one of the party, left this story behind him, which is 
elsewhere recorded, with some variation and additional 
matter. The dance is called St. Vitus's, and the girl is 
made the daughter of a churchwarden, who having taken 
her by the arm, it came off, but she continued dancing. 
By the continual motion of the dancers, they buried 
themselves in the earth to their waists. Many princes and 
others went to behold this strange spectacle, till the bishops 
of Cologne and Hildesheim, and some other devout priests, 
by their prayers, obtained the deliverance of the culprits ; 
four of the party, however, died immediately, some slept 
three days and three nights, some three years, and others 
had trembling in their limbs during the whole of their lives. 
The Nuremberg Chronicle, crowded as it is with wood-cut 
embellishments by the hand of Wohlgemuth, the master of 
Albert Diirer, has not omitted to exhibit the representations 
of the above unhappy persons, equally correct, no doubt, 
as the story itself, though the same warranty cannot be 
offered for a similar representation, in Gottfried's Chronicle, 
and that copious repertory of monstrosities, Boistuau and 
Belleforest's Histoires Prodigieuses. The Nuremberg Chro- 
nicle" has yet another relation on this subject of some 
persons who continued dancing and singing on a bridge 
whilst the eucharist was passing over it. The bridge gave 
way in the middle, and from one end of it 200 persons 
were precipitated into the river Moselle, the other end 
remaining so as to permit the priest and his host to pass 
uninjured. 

In that extremely curious work, the Manuel de P^ch^, 
»» Folio ccxvii. 



T)ie Dance of Death, f 

usually ascribed to Bishop Grosthead, the pious author, 
after much declamation against the vices of the times, has 
this passage : — 

Karoles ne lutes ne deit nul fere, 

En seint eglise ki me voil crere ; 

Kas en cimetere karoler, 

Utrage est grant u lutter.'' 

He then relates the story in the Nuremberg Chronicle, for 
which he quotes the book of Saint Clement. Grosthead's 
work was translated about the year 1300 into English verse 
by Robert Mannyng, commonly called Robert de Brunne, 
a Gilbertine canorL His translation often differs from his 
original, with much amplification and occasional illustrations 
by himself As the account of the Nuremberg story varies 
so materially, and as the scene is laid in England, it has 
been thought worth inserting. 

KaroUes wrastelynges or somour games, 

Whosoever haunteth any swyche shames, 

Yn cherche other yn cherche yerd. 

Of sacrilage he may be aferd ; 

Or entyrludes or syngynge, 

Or tabure bete or other pypynge ; 

All swyche thyng forboden es, 

Whyle the prest stondeth at mease ; 

But for to leve in cherche for to daunce, 

Y shall you telle a fidl grete chaunce. 

And y trow the most that fel, 

Ys sothe as y you telle. 

And fyl thys chaunce yn thys londe, 

Yn Ingland as y undyrstonde, 

Yn a kynges tyme that hyght Edward, 

Fyl this chaunce that was so hard. 

Hyt was upon crystemesse njTt 

That twelve folys a karolle dyrt, 

Yn Wodehed, as hyt were yn cuntek,^' 

TTiey come to a toune men calle Cowek : ^* 

The cherche of the toune that they to come, 

Ys of Seynt Magne that suffrcd martyrdome, 

Of Seynt Bukcestre hyt ys also, 

Seynt Magnes suster, that they come to ; 

Here names of all thus fonde y wryte. 

And as y wote now shal ye wyte 

Here lodesman'* that made hem glew," 



» BibL Reg. 10 B. xiv. and Harl. MS. 4657. " Contest. 

»* Q. Cowick in Yorkshire I « Lej;der. »» G'ee. 



The Dance of Death. 

Thus ys wryte he hyzte^^ Gerlew ; 

Twey maydens were yn here coveyne, 

Mayden Merswynde *^ and Wybessyne ; 

All these came thedyr for that enchesone, \ i_„t,*^ 

Of the prestes of the toune. / *^°?nty» 

The prest hyzt Robert as y can ame, 

Azone hyzt hys sone by name, 

Hys doghter that there men wulde have. 

Thus ys wryte that she hyzt Ave. 

Echone consented to o wyl. 

Who shuld go Ave out to tyl, 

They graunted echone out to sende, 

Bothe Wybessyne and Merswynde : 

These women zede and tolled ^^ her oute, 

Wyth hem to karoUe the cherche aboute, 

Benne ordeyned here karoUyng, 

Gerlew endyted what they shuld syng. 

Thys ys the karolle that they sunge. 

As telleth the Latyn tunge, 

Equitabat Bevo per sylvam frondosam 

Ducebat secum Merwyndam formosam 

Quid stamus cur non imus. 

By the levede^ wode rode Bevolyne, 

Wyth hym he ledde feyre Merwyne, 



A 



Why stonde we, why go we noght 
Thys ys the karolle that Grysly wroght, 
Thys songe sung they yn chercheyerd. 
Of foly were they nothyng aferd. 

The party continued dancing and carolling all the matins 
time, and till the mass began ; when the priest, hearing the 
noise, came out to the church porch, and desired them to 
leave off dancing, and come into the church to hear the 
service ; but they paid him no regard whatever, and con- 
tinued their dance. The priest, now extremely incensed, 
prayed to God in favour of St. Magnus, the patron of the 
church : 

That swych a venjeaunce were on hem sent. 

Are they out of that stede^^ were went. 

That myz|; ever ryzt so wende. 

Unto that tyme twelvemonth ende. 

Yn the Latyne that y fonde thore. 

He seyth not twelvemonth but evermore. i 

The priest had no sooner finished his prayer, than the hands j 
of the dancers were so locked together that none could/ 



separate them for a twelvemonth 

*' Called. ^^ A name borrowed from Merwyn, Abbess of Ramsey, 
temp. Reg. Edgari. i^ Took, 20 L^^fy, 21 ^\^^^ 




The Dance oj Death. 

The preste yede'' yn whan thys was done. 
And comaunded hys sone Azone, 
That shuld go swythe'after Ave, 

IOute of that karoUe algate to have ; 
But al to late that wurde was sayde, 'A\,"ibC ~" 

For on hem alle was the venjeaunce leyd. aN '^'"Z . 

Azonde wende weyl for to spede ''^*'^1b/' ^R^ 

Unto the karolle asswythe he yede ; ^** i-^^^ 

Hys syster by the arme he hente, 
And the arme fro the body wente ; 
Men wundred alle that there wore. 
And merveyle nowe ye here more ; y ". ,^'1'~'' ' 

P'or seythen he had the arme yn hand, '^ • • ♦ U i* { <") 

The body yode furth karoland. 
And nother body ne the arme 
13Ied never blode colde ne warme ; 
But was as drye with al the haunche, 
As of a stok were ryve a braunche. 

Azone carries his sister's arm to the priest his father, and 
tells him the consequences of his rash curse. The priest, 
after much lamentation, buries the arm. The next morning 
it rises out of the grave ; he buries it again, and again it 
rises. He buries it a third time, when it is cast out of the 
grave with considerable violence. He then carries it into 
the church that all might behold it. In the meantime the 
party continued dancing and singing, without taking any 
food or sleeping, " only a lepy wynke ; " nor were they in 
the least affected by the weather. Their hair and nails 
ceased to grow, and their garments were neither soiled nor 
discoloured ; but 

Sunge that songge that the wo wrozt, 
" Why stond we, why go we nozt." 

To see this curious and woful sight, the emperor travels 
from Rome, and orders his carpenters and other artificers 
to enclose them in a building ; but this could not be done, 
for what was set up one day fell down on the next, and no 
covering could be made to protect the sinners till the time 
of mercy that Christ had appointed had arrived ; when, at 
the expiration of the twelvemonth, and in the very same 
hour in which the priest had pronounced his curse upon 
them, they were separated, and " in the twynklyng of an 
eye " ran into the church and fell down in a swoon on the 
pavement, where they lay three da^s before they were 
« Went 



16 Tlie Dance of Death. 

restored. On their recovery they tell the priest that he 
will not long survive : 

For to thy long home sone shalt thou wende. 
All they ryse that yche tyde. 
But Ave she lay dede besyde. 

Her father dies soon afterwards. The emperor causes 
Ave's arm to be put into a vessel and suspended in the 
church as an example to the spectators. The rest of the 
party, although separated, travelled about, but always 
dancing ; and as they had been inseparable before, they 
were now not permitted to remain together. Four of 
them went hopping to Rome, their clothes undergoing 
no change, and their hair and nails not continuing to 
grow. 

Bruning the Bysshope of Seynt Tolous, 
Wrote thys tale so merveylous ; 
Setthe was hys name of more renoun, 
Men called him the Pope Leon ; 
Thys at the courte of Rome they wyte. 
And yn the kronykeles hyt ys write ; 
Yn many stedys ^ beyounde the see. 
More than ys yn thys cuntre : 
Tharfor men seye an weyl ys trowed, 
The nere the cherche the further fro God, 
So fare men here by thys tale, 
Some holde it but a trotevale,^ 
Yn other stedys hyt ys ful dere, 
And for grete merveyle they wyl hyt here. 

In the French copies the story is said to have been 
taken from the itinerary of St. Clement. The name of" 
the girl who lost her arm is Marcent, and her brother's 
John.*^ 

23 Places. « A falsehood. 

25 Whoever may be desirous of inspecting other authorities for the 
story, may consult Vincent of Beauvais, Speculum Historiale, lib. xxv. 
cap. lo ; Krantz, Saxonia, lib. iv. ; Trithemii Chron. Monast. Hii-saugi- 
ensis; Chronicon Engelhusii ap. Leibnitz. Script. Brunsvicens. IL 1083; 
Chronicon. S. ^gidii, ap. Leibnitz, iii. 582 ; Cantipranus de apibus ; 
& Caesarius Heisterbach. de Miraculis ; in whose works several veracious 
and amusing stories of other instances of divine vengeance against danc- 
ing in general may be found. The most entertaining of all the dancing 
stories is that of the friar and the boy, as it occurs among the popular 
penny histories, of which, in one edition at least, it is undoubtedly the 
very best. 



The Dance of Death. 1 1 

Previously to entering upon the immediate subject of 
this Essay, it may be permitted to observe, that a sort of 
Death's dance was not unknown to the ancients. It was 
the revelry of departed souls in Elysium, as may be 
collected from the end of the fourth ode of Anacreon. 
Among the Romans this practice is exemplified in the 
following lines of TibuUus : — 

Sed me, quod facilis tenero sum semper Amori, 

Ipsa Venus campos ducit in Elysios. 
Hie chorece cantusque vigent. . . ■'• 

And Virgil has likewise alluded to it : 

Pars pedibus plaudunt choreas et carmina dicunt*' 

In the year 1810 several fragments of sculptured sar- 
cophagi were accidentally discovered near Cuma, on one 
of which were represented three dancing skeletons,** 
indicating, as it is ingeniously supposed, that the passage 
from death to another state of existence has nothing in it 
that is sorrowful, or capable of exciting fear. They seem 
to throw some light on the above lines from Virgil and 
TibuUus. 

At a meeting of the Archaeological Society at Rome, in 
December, 1831, M. Kestner exhibited a Roman lamp on 
which were three dancing skeletons, and such are said to 
occur in one of the paintings at Pompeii. 

In the Grand Duke of Tuscany's museum at Florence 
there is an ancient gem, that, from its singularity and 
connexion with the present subject, is well deserving of 
notice. It represents an old man, probably a shepherd, 
clothed in a hairy garment. He sits upon a stone, his 
right foot resting on a globe, and is piping on a double 
flute, whilst a skeleton dances grotesquely before him. It 
might be a matter of some difficulty to explain the recondite 
meaning of this singular subject.*" 

Notwithstanding the interdiction in several councils 
against the practice of dancing in churches and church- 
yards, it was found impossible to abolish it altogether ; anJ 
it therefore became necessary that something of a similar 

» Lib. i. Eleg. iii. '" ^En. lib. vi. 1. 44. 

2* Millin, Magas. Encycl. 1813, torn. i. p. aoo. 
* Gori, Mus. FloreiUin. torn. i. pL ©i, No. 3. 



12 The Dance of Death. 

but more decorous, nature should be substituted, which, 
whilst it afforded recreation and amusement, might, at the 
same time, convey with it a moral and religious sensation. 
It is, therefore, extremely probable, that, in furtherance of 
this intention, the clergy contrived and introduced the 
Dance or Pageant of Death, or, as it was sometimes called, 
the Dance of Macaber, for reasons that will hereafter 
appear. Mr. Warton states, " that in many churches of 
France there was an ancient show, or mimickry, in which 
all ranks of life were personated by the ecclesiastics, who 
danced together, and disappeared one after another."** 
Again, speaking of Lydgate's poem on this subject, he 
says, " These verses, founded on a sort of spiritual masque- 
rade anciently celebrated in churches, &c."^^ M. Barante, 
in his History of the Dukes of Burgundy, adverting to the 
entertainments that took place at Paris when Philip le Bon 
visited that city in 1424, observes, "that these were not 
solely made for the nobility, the common people being 
likewise amused from the month of August to the following 
season of Lent with the Dance of Death in the church- 
yard of the Innocents, the English being particularly 
gratified with this exhibition, which included all ranks 
and conditions of men. Death being, morally, the principal 
character."^ Another French historian, M. de Villeneuve 
Bargemont, informs us that the Duke of Bedford celebrated 
his victory at Vemeuil by a festival in the centre of the 
French capital. The rest of what this writer has recorded 
on the subject before us will be best given in his own words : 
" Nous voulons parler de cette fameuse procession qu'on vit 
ddfiler dans les rues de Paris, sous le nom de danse Macabree 
ou infernale, epouvantable divertissement, auquel prdsidoit 
un squelette ceint du diademe royal, tenant un sceptre dans 
ses mains de'charnees et assis sur un trone resplendissant 
d'or et de pierreries. Ce spectacle repoussant, melange 
odieux de deuil et de joie, inconnu jusqu'alors, et qui nd 
s'est jamais renouveld, n'eut gubre pour temoins que dfr 
soldats e'trangers, ou quelques malheureux echappes k toi 
les fleaux reunis, et qui avoient vu descendre tous leurl 



■• Hist. Engl. Poetry, vol, ii. p. 43, edit 8vo. and Carpentier, Suppi 
Sd Ducang. v. Macbabaeorum chorea. ^^ Id. ii. 364. 

^ Hist, des Dues de Bourgogne, tora. v. p. i8ai. 



•4 



The Dance of Death, 13 

parens, tous leurs amis, dans ces s^pulcres qu*on d^pouil- 
loit alors de leurs ossemens."" A third French writer has 
also treated the Dance of Death as a spectacle exhibited in 
like manner to the people of Paris."* M. Peignot, to whom 
the reader is obliged for these historical notices in his 
ingenious researches on the present subject, very plausibly 
conceives that their authors have entirely mistaken the 
sense of an old chronicle or journal under Charles VL and 
VII. which he quotes in the following words : — " Item. L'an 
1424 fut faite la Danse Maratre (pour Macabre) aux Inno- 
cens, et fut comenctfe environ le moys d'Aoust et achev^e 
au karesme suivant. En l'an 1429 le cordelier Richard 
preschant aux Innocens estoit mont^ sur ung hault eschaf- 
faut qui estoit pr^s cie toise et demie de hault, le dos tournd 
vers les chamiers encontre la charounerie, \ I'endroit de la 
danse Macabre." He observes, that the Dance of Death 
at the Innocents, having been commenced in August and 
finished at the ensuing Lent, could not possibly be repre- 
sented by living persons, but was only a painting, the large 
dimensions of which required six months to complete it ; 
and that a single Death must, in the other case, have danced 
with every individual belonging to the scene." He might 
have added, that such a proceeding would have been totally 
at variance with the florid, but most inaccurate, description 
by M. Bargemont. The reader will, therefore, most probably 
feel inclined to adopt the opinion of M. Peignot, that the 
Dance of Death was not performed by living persons 
between 1424 and 1429. 

But although M. Peignot may have triumphantly demon- 
strated that this subject was not exhibited by living persons 
at the above place and period, it by no means follows that 
it was not so represented at some other time, and on some 
other spot. Accordingly, in the archives of the cathedral 
of Besanqon, there is preserved an article respecting a 
delivery made to one of the officers of Saint John the 
■ Evangelist of four measures of wine, to be given to those 
V'crsons who performed the Dance of Death after mass 



f^ 



" Hist de Ren^ d'Anjou, torn. i. p. 54. 

** Dulaure, Hist Physique, &c. de Paris, i8«i, torn. iL p. 55a. 

"* Recherches sur les Danses des Morts. Dijon et Pars, i8a6, 8vo. 

xxxiv. et seq. 



14 Tfie Dance of Death. 

was concluded. This is the article itself, "Sexcallus 
[seneschallus] solvat D. Joanni Caleti matriculario S. 
Joannis quatuor simasias vini per dictum matricularium 
exhibitas illis qui choream Machabeorum fecerunt lo Julii, 
1453, nuper lapsa hora misse in ecclesia S. Joannis Evan- 
geliste propter capitulum provinciale fratrum Minorum."^ 
This document then will set the matter completely at rest. 
At what time the personified exhibition of this pageant 
commenced, or when it was discontinued, cannot now be 
correctly ascertained. If, from a moral spectacle, it became 
a licentious ceremony, as is by no means improbable, in 
imitation of electing a boy-bishop, of the feast of fools, 
or other similar absurdities, its termination may be looked 
for in the authority of some ecclesiastical council at present 
not easily to be traced. 



^ Mercure de France, Sept. 1742. 
Machabaeorum chorea. 



Carpentier, Suppl. ad Ducang. v. 




CHAPTER II. 

Places where the Dance of Death 7vas sculptured or depicted. — 
Usually accompanied by verses describing the several charac- 
ters. — Other Metrical Compositions on the Dance. 




E find the Dance of Death often re- 
presented, not only on the walls, but 
in the windows of churches, in the 
cloisters of monasteries, and even on 
bridges, especially in Germany and 
Switzerland. It was sometimes painted 
on church screens, and occasionally 
sculptured on them, as well as upon 
the fronts of domestic dwellings. It occurs in many of 
the manuscript and illuminated service books of the Middle 
Ages, and frecjuent allusions to it are found in other manu- 
scripts, but very rarely in a perfect state, as to the number 
of subjects. 

Most of these representations were accompanied by 
descriptive or moral verses in different languages. Those 
which were added to the paintings of this subject in 
Germany appear to have differed very materially, and it 
is not now possible to ascertain which among them is 
the oldest. Those in the Basle painting are inserted in 
the editions published and engraved by Mathew Merian, 
but they had already occurred in the Decennalia humanae 
peregrinationis of Gaspar I.andismann in 1584. Some 
Latin verses were published by Melchior Goldasti at the 
enc' of his edition of the Speculum omnium statuum, a 
eel brated moral work by Roderic, Bishop of Zamora, 



1 6 The Dance of Death. 

1 6 13, 4to. He most probably copied them from one ot 
the early editions of the Danse Macabre, but without 
any comment whatever, the above title-page professing 
that they are added on account of the similarity of the 
subject. 

A Provencal poet, called Marcabres or Marcabrus, has 
been placed among the versifiers, but none of his works 
bear the least similitude to the subject ; and, moreover, the 
language itself is an objection. The English metrical 
translation will be noticed hereafter. Whether any of the 
paintings were accompanied by descriptive verses that 
might be considered as anterior to those ascribed to the 
supposed Macaber, cannot now be ascertained. 

There are likewise some Latin verses in imitation of 
those above mentioned, which, as well as the author of 
them, do not seem to have been noticed by any biographical 
or poetical writer. They occur at the end of a Latin play, 
entitled Susanna, Antverp. apud Michaelem Hillenium, 
MDXXXiii. As the volume is extremely rare, and the versesJ 
intimately connected with the present subject, it has been 
thought worth while to reprint them. After an elegy on 
the vanity and shortness of human life, and a Sa]. phic ode 
on the remembrance of Death, they follow under this title, 
" Plausus luctificae mortis ad modum dialogi extemporaliter 
ab Eusebio Candido lusus. Ad quem quique mortales 
invitantur omnes, cujuscujus sint conditionis : quibusque 
singulis Mors ipsa respondet." 

Luctificse mortis plausum bene cemite cuncti. 
Dum res Iseta, mori et viventes discite, namque 
Omnes ex aequo tandem hue properare necessum. 

Hie inducitur adolescens quaerens, et mors vel philosophi.s 
respondens. 

Vita quid est hominis ? Fumus super aream raissus- 
Vita quid est hominis ? Via mortis, dura laborum 
Colluvies, vita est hominis via longa doloris 
Perpetui. Vita quid est hominis ? cniciatus et error, 
Vita quid est hominis ? vestitus gramine multo, 
Floribus et variis campus, quem pai-va pruina 
ExpoUat, sic vitam hominum more impia tollit. 
Quamlibet ilia alacris, vegeta, aiit opulenta ne felix, 
Icta cadit modica crede aegritudine mortis. 
Et quamvis superes auro vel murice Crcesv m. 



Tfu Dance of Death. 17 

Longaevum aut annis vivendo Nestora vincas. 
Omnia mors sequat, viUe meta ultima mors est 

IMPERATOR. 

Quid fers ? Induperator ego, et moderamina rerum 
Gesto manu, domuit mors impia sceptra potentum. 

REX RHOMANUS. 

Quid fers ? en ego Rhomulidum rex. Mors manet 

PAPA. 

En ego Pontificum primus, signansque resignaiis. 
Et coelos oraque locos. Mors te manet ergo. 

CARDINALIS. 

Cardineo fulgens ego honore, et Episcopus ecce 
Mors manet ecce omnes, Phrygeus quos pileus omat. 

EPISCOPUS. 

Insula splendidior vestit mea, tempora latum 
Possideo imperium, multi mea jura tremiscunL 
Me dicant fraudis docti, producere lites 
Experti, aucupium docti numrnorum, et avemi 
Causidici, rixatores, rabulaeque forenses. 
Hos ego respicio, nihil attendens animarum, 
Ecclesiae mihi commissae populive salutem 
Sed satis est duros loculo infarcisse labores 
AgricolQm, et magnis placuisse heroibus orbis. 
Non tamen effugies mortis mala spicula durse. 

ECCLESIi« PR^LATUS. 

Ecclesise praelatus ego multis venerandus 
Muneribus sacris, proventibus officiorum. 
Comptior est vestis, popina frequentior oede 
Sacra, et psalmorum cantus mihi rarior ipso 
Talorum crepitu, Veneris quoque voce sonora. 
Morte cades, annos speras ubi vivere plures. 

CANONICUS. 

En ego melotam gesto. Mors saeva propinqtiat 

PASTOR. 

En parochus quoque pastor ego, mihi duke falemum 
Notius sede sacra : scortum mihi charius ipsa 
Est animae cura popxUL Mors te manet ergo. 

ABBAS. 

En abbas venio, Veneris quoque ventris amicus. 
Ccenobii rara est mihi cura, frequentior aula 
Magnorum heroum. Chorea saltabis eadem. 

PRIOR. 

En prior, omatus longa et splendente cuculla, 
Falce cades mortis. Mors aufcrt nomina honoris. 

PATER VESTALIUM. 

Nympharum pater ecce ego sum ventrosior, offis 
Pinguibus emacerans corpus. Mors te manet ipsa. 
C 



s8 The. Dance of Death. 

VESTALIS NYMPHA. 

En monialis ego, Vestae servire parata. 
Non te Vesta potest mortis subducere castris, 

LEGATUS. 

Legatus venio culparum vincla resolvens 
Omnia pro auro, abiens coelum vendo, infera clatbdtf 
Et quicquid patres szmxerunt, munere solvo 
Juribus a mortis non te legatio solvet. 

DOMINUS DOCTOR. 

Quid fers ? Ecce sophus, divina humanaque jura 
Calleo, et a populo doctor Rabbique salulor, 
Te manet expectans mors ultima linea rerum. 

MEDICUS. 

En ego sum medicus, vitam producere gnans, 
Venis lustratis morborum nomina dico, 
Non poteris durse mortis vitare sagittas. 

ASTRONOMUS. 

En ego stellarum motus et sydera novi, 
Et fati genus omne scio prsedicere cceli. 
Non potis es mortis durae prsescire sagittas. 

CURTISANUS. 

En me Rhoma potens multis sufFarsit onustum 
Muneribus sacris, proventibus, officiisque 
Non potes his mortis fugiens evadere tela. 

ADVOCATUS. 

Causarum patronus ego, producere doctus 

Lites, et loculos lingua vacuare loquaci 

Non te lingua loquax mortis subducet ab ictu. 

JUDEX. 

Justitiae judex quia simi, sub plebe salutor. 
Vertice me nudo populus veneratur adorans. 
Auri sacra fames pervertere saepe coegit 
Justitiam. Mors te manet sequans omnia falce. 

PRiETOR. 

Praetor ego populi, me praetor nemo quid audet. 
Accensor causis, per me stant omnia, namque 
Et dono et adimo vitam, cum rebus honorem. 
Munere conspecto, quod iniquum est jure triumpLat 
Emitto corvos, censura damno columbas. 
Hinc metuendus ero superis ereboque profundo. 
Te manet expectans Erebus Plutoque cruentus. 

CONSUL. 

Polleo consiliis, Consul dicorque salutor. 
Munere conspecto, quid iniquum est consulo rectum 
Quod rectum est flecto, nihil est quod nesciat auri 
Sacra fames, hinc ditor et undique fio opulentua 
Sed eris aetemum miser et mors impia toilet 



TJie Dance of Death. 19 

CAUSIDICUS. 

Causidicus ego sum, causas narrare peritus, 
Accior in causas, sed spes ubi fulserit auri 
Ad fraudes docta solers wtor l)ene lingua. 
Muto, commuto, jura inflecto atque reflecto. 
Et nihil est quod non astu pervinccre possim. 
Mors aequa expcctat properans te fulmine dire 
Nee poteris astu mortis praevertere tela. 

SCABINUS. 

Ecce Scabinus ego, scabo bursas, prorogo causas. 

Senatorque vocor, vulgus me poplite curvo, 

Muneribusque datis veneratur, fronte retecta. 

Nil moitem mcditor loculos quando impleo nummis 

Et dito hxredes nummis, vi, fmude receptis, 

Justitiam nummis, pro sanguine, munere, vendo. 

Quod rectum est curvo, quod cur\'um est munere rectiua 

Efficio, per me prorsus stant omnia jura. 

Non poteris durae mortis transire sagittas. 

LU DIM AGISTER. 

En ego pervigili cura extemoque'labore. 
Excolui juvenum ingenia, et praecepta Minerv3e 
Tradens consenui, cathedraeque piget sine fnictiL 
Quid dabitur fructus, tanti quae dona laboris ? 
Omnia mors aequans, vitx ultima meta laboris. 

MILES AURATUS. 

Miles ego auratus, fulgcnti murice et auro 
Splendidus in popalo. Mors te manet omnia perdeii& 

MILES ARMATUS. 

Miles ego armatus, qui bella ferocia gessi. 
Nullius occursum expavi, quam durus et audax. 
Ergo immunis ere. Mors te intrepida ipsa necabit 

MERCATOR. 

En ego mercator dives, maria omnia lustro 
Et terras, ut res crescant Mors te metet ipsa. 

FUCKARDUS. 
En ego fuckardus, loculos gesto asris onustos, 
Omnia per mundum coSmens, vendo atque revendtfc 
Heroes me solicitant, atque aera requirunt 
Haud est me lato quisquam modo ditior orbe. 
Mortis ego jura et frameas nihil ergo tremisco 
Morte cades, mors te rebus ipK)liabit opimis. 

QU^.STOR. 

Quaestor ego, loculos suffersi arcasque "apaces 
Est mihi pnenitidis fundata pecunia villis. 
Hac dives redimam dune discrimina morti« 
Te mors praeripiet nullo exorabilis auro. 

NAUCLERUS. 

En ego nauclerus spaciosa per aequora vectug, 
C 3 



90 'ITie Dance of Death. 

Non timui maris aut venti discrimina mille. 
Cymba tamen mortis capiet te quaeque voiantiu 

AGRICOLA. 

Agricola en ego sum, prseduro ssepe labore;, 
Et vigili exhaustus cura, sudore perenni, 
Victum prsetenuem quserens, sine fraude doloqnc 
Omnia pertentans, miseram ut traducerc possini 
Vitam, nee mundo me est infelicior alter. 
Moi-s tamen eduri fiet tibi meta laboris. 

ORATOR- 

Heroum interpres venio, fraudisque peritxis, 
Bellorum strepitus compono, et bella reduce, 
Meque petunt reges, populus miratur adorana. 
Nulla abiget fraudi lingueve peritia mortem. 

PRINCEPS BELLI. 

Fulmen ego belli, reges et regna subegi, 
Victor ego ex omni prseduro quamlibet ecce 
Marte fui, vitae hinc timeo discrimina nuUa. 
Te mors confodiet cauda Trigonis aquosi, 
Atque eris exanimis moriens uno ictu homo bul]x 

DIVES. 

Sum rerum felix, foecunda est prolis et uxor. 
Plena domus, Isetum pecus, et cellaria plena. 
Nil igitur metuo. Quid ais ? Mors te impia tolled 

PAUPER. 

Iro ego pauperior, Codroque tenuior omni, 
Despicior cunctis, nemo est qui sublevet heu hen. 
Hinc parcet veniens mors : nam nihil auferet a roc, 
Non sic evades, ditem cum paupere toUit 

FCEN ERATO R. 

Ut loculi intument auro, vi, fraude, doloque, 
Foenore nunc quaestum facio, furtoque rapinaque, 
Ut proles ditem, passim dicarque beatus. 
Per fas perque nefas corradens omnia quaero. 
Mors veniens furtim praedabitur, omnia tollens. 

ADOLESCENS. 

Sum juvenis, forma spectabilis, indole gaudens 
Maturusque aevi, nuUus praestantior alter, 
Moribus egregiis populo laudatus ab omni, 
PaUida, difformis mors auferet omnia raptim, 

PUELLA. 

Ecce puellarum pulcherrima, mortis iniquae 
Spicula nil meditor, juvenilibus et fruor annis, 
Meque proci expectant compti, facieque venusti. 
Stulta, quid in vana ape jactas ? Mors metet omn«i 
Difformes, pulchroaque simul cum paupere dices. 

NUNCIUS. 

Nuncius ecce ego sum, qui nuncia perfero peraix 



Tk€ Dancf of Death. %i 

Sed retrospectans post ter^, papae audio quidnam f 
Me tuba terrificans mortis vocat Heu moriendum est 

PERORATia 

Mortales igitur memores modo vivite laeti 
Instar venturi furis, discrimine nullo 
Cunctos rapturi passim ditesque inopesquew 
Stullus et insipiens vita qui sperat in ista, 
Instar quae fumi perit et cito desinit esse. 
Fac igitur tota virtuti incumbito mente. 
Quae nescit mortem, sed scandit ad ardua coell 
Quo nos 4 fatis ducat rex Juppiter, Amen. 

Plaudite nunc, animum cuncti retinete faventes. 

FINIS. 

Antwerpiae apud Michaelem Hillenium M.D.XXXIIII. Mense Maia 

A very early allusion to the Dance of Death occurs in a 
Latin poem, that seems to have been composed in the 
twelfth century by our celebrated countryman Walter dc 
Mapes, as it is found among other pieces that carry with 
them strong marks of his authorship. It is entitle I 
*' Lamentacio et deploracio pro Morte et consilium de 
vivente Deo."^ In its construction there is a striking 
resemblance to the common metrical stanzas that accom- 
pany the Macaber Dance. Many characters, commencing 
with that of the Pope, are introduced, all of whom bewail 
the uncontrollable influence of Death. This is a specimen 
of the work, extracted from two manuscripts : 

Cum mortem meditor nescit mihi causa dolori*, 
Nam cunctis horia mors venit ecce cita 
Pauperis et regis communis lex moriendi, 
Dat causam flendi si bene scripta leges. 
Gustato pomo missus transit sine morte 
Heu missa sorte labitur omnis homo. 

Vado mori Papa qui jussu regna Vado mori. Rex suni, quod honor, 

subegi quod gloria regum, 

Mors mihi regna tulit eccine vado Est via mors hominis regia vado 

mori. mori. 

Then follow similar stanzas, for presul, miles, monachus, 
legista, jurista, doctor, logicus, medicus, cantor, sapiens, 
dives, cultor, burgensis, nauta, pincema, pauper. 

In Sanchez's collection of Spanish poetry before the 
year 1400,' mention is made of a Rabbi Santo as a good 

* Bibl. Reg. 8 13. vi. Lansd. MS. 397. ' Madrid, 1779, 8vo. p. 179. 



2.2 The Dance of Death. 

poet, who lived about 1360. He was a Jew, and surgeon 
to Don Pedro. His real name seems to have been Mose, 
but he calls himself Don Santo Judio de Carrion. This 
j)erson is said to have written a moral poem, called " Danza 
General." It commences thus : 

Disc la Muerte. 

** Yo so la mnerte cierta a todas criaturas, 

Que son y seran en el mundo durante : 

Demando y digo O ame ! porque curas 

De vida tan breve en punto passante ? &a 

He then introduces a preacher, who announces Death to 
all persons, and advises them to be prepared by good 
works to enter his Dance, which is calculated for all 
degrees of mankind. 

Primaramente llama a su danza a dos doncellas, 

A esta mi danza trax de presente, 

Estas dos donzellas que vades fermosas : 

EJIas vinieron de muy malamente 

A oir mes canciones que son dolorosas, 

Mas non les valdran flores nin rosas, 

Nin las composturas que poner salian : 

De mi, si pudiesen parterra qnerrian, 

Mas non proveda ser, que son mis esposas. 

It may, however, be doubted whether the Jew Santo 
was the author of this Dance of Death, as it is by no 
means improbable that it may have been a subsequent 
work added to the manuscript referred to by Sanchez. 

In 1675, Makre Jacques Jacques, a canon of the 
cathedral of Ambrun, published a singular work, entitled 
" Le faut mourir et les excuses inutiles que Ton apporte 
k cette necessitd Le tout en vers burlesques." Rouen, 
1675, i2mo. It is written much in the style of Scarron 
and some other similar poets of the time. It commences 
with a humorous description given by Death of his 
proceedings with various persons in every part of the 
globe, which is followed by several dialogues between 
Death and the following characters : — i. The Pope. 2. A 
young lady betrothed. 3. A galley slave. 4. Guillot, 
who has lost his wife. 5. Don Diego Dalmazere, a Spanish 
hidalgo. 6. A king. 7. The young widow of a citizen. 
'6. A citizen. 9. A decrepit rich man. lo. A canoa. 



JJie Dame of Death. 2j 

f I. A blind man. 12. A poor peasant. 13. Tourmente, 
a poor soldier in the hospital. 14. A criminal in prison. 
15. A nun. 16. A physician. 17. An apothecary. 18. A 
lame beggar. 19. A rich usurer. 20. A merchant. 
21. A rich merchant As the book is unccmimon, the 
following specimen is given from the scene between Death 
and the young betrothed girl : 

LA MORT. 
A vous la bolle demoiselle, 
Je vous apporte une nouvelle, 
Qui certes vous surprendra fort. 
Cest qu'il faut penser 4 la mort. 
Tout vistement pli^s bagage, 
Car il faut faire ce voyage. 

LA DEMOISELLE. 

Qu'entend»-je ? Tout mon sens se perd 

Helas ! vous me prenez sans verd ; 

Cest tout i fait hors de raison 

Mourir dedans une saison 

Que je nc dois songer qu'4 rire, 

Je suis contrainte de vous dire, 

Que tr^s injuste est vostre choix, 

Parce que mourir je ne dois, 

N'estant qu'en ma quinzieme annec 

Voyez quelque vielle echinee, 

Qui n'ait en bouche point de dent ; 

Vous I'obligerez grandement 

De I'envoyer k I'autre monde, 

Puis qu'ici toujours elle gronde • 

Vous la prendrez tout 4 propos 

Et laissez moi dans le repos, 

Moi qui suis toute poupinette, 

Dans rembonpoint et joliettc, 

Qai n'aime qu'a me rejoiiir, 

Pc gr^ laiasez moi joozr, f aV 






CHAPTER III. 

Macaber not a German or any other poet^ but a nonenity — 
Corruption and confusion respecting this word. — Ety?nolo- 
gical errors concerning it. — How cojinected with the Dance. 
— Trois mors et irois vifs. — Orgagnd's painting in the 
Campo Santo at Pisa. — Its confiexion with the trois mors 
et trois vifs, as well as with the Macaber dance. — Saint 
Macarius the real Macaber. — Pamtings of this dance in 
various places. — At Minden; Churchyard of the Innocents 
at Paris; Dijoji; Basle; Klingenthal; Lubeck; leipsic ; 
Anneberg; Dresden; Erfurt; Nure?nberg; Berne; lu- 
cerne; A?niens; Rouen; Fescamp ; Bio is ; Strasburg; 
Berlin; Vienna; in Holland ; Italy ; Spain. 




E will now proceed to consider the 
origin of the name of Macaber, as con- 
nected with the Dance of Death, either 
as respects theverses that have usually 
accompanied it, or the paintings and 
representations of the Dance itself ; and 
first of the verses. 

It may^ without much hazard, be 
maintained that, notwithstanding these have been ascribed 
to a German poet called Macaber, there never was a Ger- 
man, or any poet whatever bearing such a name. The first 
mention of him appears to have been in a French edition 
of the Danse Macabre, with the following title, " Chorea 
ah eximio Macabro versibus Alemannicis edito, et k Petro 
Desrey emendata. Parisiis per Magistrum Guidorem 
Mercatorem pro Godefrido de Marnef. 1490, fol'o." 



Tfie Dance of Death. 2.«; 

This title, from its ambiguity, is deserving of little con- 
sideration as a matter of authority ; for if a comma be 
placed after the word Macabro, the title is equally ap- 
plicable to the author of the verses and to the painter 
or inventor of the Dance. As the subject had been 
represented in several places in Germany, and of course 
accomprnied with German descriptions, it is possible 
that Desrey might have translated and altered some or 
one of these, and, mistaking the real meaning of the word, 
have converted it into the name of an author. It may 
be asked in what German biography is such a person to 
be found I how it has happened that \}l\\% famous Macaber 
is so little known, or whether the name really has a 
Teutonic aspect? It was the above title in Desrey's 
work that misled the truly learned Fabricius inadvertently 
to introduce into his valuable work the article for Macaber 
as a German poet, and in a work to which it could not 
jiroperly belong.^ 

M. Peignot has very justly observed that the Danse 
Macabre had been very long known in France and else- 
where, not as a literar>' work, but as a painting ; and he 
further remarks that although the verses are German in 
the Basil painting, executed about 1440, similar verses 
in French were placed under the Dance at the Innocents 
at Paris in 1424.' 

At the beginning of the text in the early French edition 
of the Danse Macabre, we have only the words " la danse 
Macabre s'appelle," but no specific mention is made of the 
author of the verses. John Lydgate, in his translation of 
them from the French, and which was most probably 
adopted in many places in England where the painting 
occurred, speaks of " the Frenche Machabrees daunce," 
and " the daunce of Machabree." At the end, " Machabree 
the Doctoure" is abruptly and unconnectedly introduced 
at the bottom of the page. It is not in the French printed 
copy, from the text of which Lydgate certamly varies in 
several respects. It remains, therefore, to ascertain whether 
these words belong to Lydgate, or to whom else ; not that 
it is a matter of much importance. 

* Bibl. Med. et Inf. /Etat. torn. v. p. i. ' Recherches sur les Danses 
des Morts, pp. 79, 80. 



86 The Dance of Death. 

The earliest authority that has been traced for the 
name of " Danse Macabre," belongs to the painting at the 
Innocents, and occurs in the MS. diary of Charles VII. 
under the year 1424. It is also strangely called "Chorea 
Machabseorum," in 1453, ^s appears from the before cited 
document at St. John's church at Besan^on. Even the 
name of one Maccabrees, a Provencal poet of the four- 
teenth century, has been injudiciously connected with the 
subject, though his works are of a very different nature. 

Previously to attempting to account for the origin of 
the obscure and much controverted word Macaber, as 
applicable to the Dance itself, it may be necessary to 
advert to the opinions on that subject that have already 
appeared. It has been disguised under the several names 
of Macabre,^ Maccabees,^ Maratre,® and even Macrobius.* 
Sometimes it has been regarded as an epithet. The learned 
and excellent M. Van Praet, the guardian of the royal 
library at Paris, has conjectured that Macabre is derived 
from the Arabic Magbarah, magbourah, or magabir, all 
signifying a churchyard. M. Peignot seems to think that 
M. Van Praet intended to apply the word to the Dance 
itself;^ but it is impossible that the intelligent librarian was 
not aware that personified sculpture, as well as the moral 
nature of the subject, cannot belong to the Mahometan 
religion. Another etymology extremely well calculated to 
disturb the gravity of the present subject, is that of M. 
Villaret, the French historian, when adverting to the 
spectacle of the Danse Macabre, supposed to have been 
given by the English in the churchyard of the Innocents 
at Paris. Relying on this circumstance, he unceremo- 
niously decides that the name of the dance was likewise 
English ; and that Macabrie is compounded of the words, 
to make and to break. The same silly etymology is referred 
to as in some historical dictionary concerning the city of 
Paris by Mons Compan in his Dictionnaire de Danse, article 
Macaber ; and another which is equally improbable has 
been hazarded by the accomplished Marquis de Paulmy, 
who, noticing some editions of the Danse Macabre in his 

3 Passim. ^ Modern edition of the Danse Macabre. • Joumil 

de Charles VII. ^ Lansd. MS. No. 397 — 20. ^ Peignot, Recher- 

ches; \: 109. 



Tlie Dance of Death. »7 

fine library, now in the arsenal at Paris, very seriously states 
that Macaber is derived from two Greek words, which 
denote its meaning to be an infernal dance;* but if the 
Greek language were to be consulted on the occasion, 
the signification would turn out to be very different. 

It must not be left unnoticed that M. de Bure, in his 
account of the edition of the Danse Macabre, printed by 
Marchant, i486, has stated that the verses have been 
attributed to Michel Marot ; but the book is dated before 
Marot was born." 

Again, — As to the connexion between the word Macaber 
with the Dance itself. 

In the course of the thirteenth century there appeared a 
French metrical work under the name of " Li trois Mors et 
li trois Vis," /. e. Les trois Morts et les trois Vifs. In the 
noble library of the Duke de la Valliere, there were three 
apparently coeval manuscripts of it, differing, however, 
from each other, .but furnishing the names of two authors, 
Baudouin de Condc^ and Nicolas de Marginal.**^ These 
poems relate that three noble youths when hunting in a 
forest were intercepted by the like number of hideous 
spectres or images of Death, from whom they received a 
terrific lecture on the vanity of human grandeur. A very 
early, and perhaps the earliest, allusion to this vision, seems 
to occur in a painting by Andrew Orgagna in the Campo 
Santo at Pisa ; and although it varies a little from the 
description in the above-mentioned poems, the story is 
evidently the same. The painter has introduced three 
young men on horseback with coronets on their caps, 
and who are attended by several domestics whilst pursuing 
the amusement of hawking. They arrive at the cell of 
Saint Macarius an Egyptian Anachorite, who with one 
hand presents to them a label with this inscription, as 
well as it can be made out, " Se nostra mente fia ben morta 
tenendo risa qui la vista aflitta la vana gloria ci sara sconfitta 
la superbia e sara da morte ;" and with the other points to 
three open coffins, in which are a skeleton and two dead 
bodies, one of them a king. 

A similar vision, but not immediately connected with the 

' Melanj^e dune Grande Biblioth^que, torn. vii. p. 1%. • BibL 

Instruc. No. 3109. w Catal. La Valliere, 1736 — aa. 



»8 The Dance of Death. 

present subject, and hitherto unnoticed, occurs at the endl 
of the Latin verses ascribed to Macaber, in Goldasti'a 
edition of the Speculum omnium statuum a Roderico 
Zamorensi. Three persons appear to a hermit, whose 
name is not mentioned, in his sleep. The first is described 
as a man in a regal habit ; the second as a civilian, and the 
third as a beautiful female decorated with gold and jewels. 
Whilst these persons are vainly boasting of their respective 
conditions, they are encountered by three horrible spectres 
in the shape of dead human bodies covered with worms, who 
very' severely reprove them for their arrogance. This is 
evidently another version of the "Trois mors et trois vifs" 
in the text, but whether it be older or otherwise cannot 
easily be ascertained. It is composed in alternate rhymes, 
in the manner, and probably by the author of Philibert 
or Fulbert's vision of the dispute between the soul and the 
body, a work ascribed to S. Bernard, and sometimes to 
Walter de Mapes. There are translations of it both in 
French and English. 

For the mention of S. Macarius as the hermit in this 
painting by Orgagna, we are indebted to Vasari in his life 
of that artist ; and he had, no doubt, possessed himself of 
some traditionary information on the subject of it. He 
further informs us, that the person on horseback who is 
stopping his nostrils, is intended for Andrea Uguzzione 
della Fagivola. Above is a black and hideous figure of 
Death mowing down with his scythe all ranks and conditions 
of men, Vasari adds that Orgagna had crowded his picture 
with a great many inscriptions, most of which were oblite- 
rated by time. From one of them which he has preserved 
in his work, as addressed to some aged cripples, it should 
appear that, as in the Macaber Dance, Death apostrophises 
the several characters." Baldinucci, in his account of 
Orgagna, mentions this painting and the story of the Three 
Kings and Saint Macarius.^^ Morona likewise, in his Pisa 
illustrata, adopts the name of Macarius when describing 
the same subject. The figures in the picture are all portraits, 
and their names may be seen, but with some variation as 
to description, both in Vasari and Morona. ^^ 

" Vasari, Vite de Pittori, torn. i. p. 183, edit. 1568, 4to. ^2 Baldi- 
aucci, DJsegno, iL 65. ^3 Morona, Pisa Illustrata, i. 359. 



The Dance of Death. 29 

Now the story of Les trots mors et les irois vifs, was 
prefixed to the painting of the Macaber Dance in the 
churchyard of the Innocents at Paris, and had also been 
sculptured over the portal of the church, by order of the 
Duke de Berry in 1408.** It is found in numerous manu- 
script copies of Horae and other service-books prefixed to 
the burial office. All the printed editions of the Macaber 
Dance contain it, but with some variation, the figure of 
Saint Macarius in his cell not being always introduced. 
It occurs in many of the printed service-books, and in 
some of our own for the use of Salisbury. The earliest 
wood engraving of it is in the black book of the " 15 
signa Judicii," where two young men are running away to 
avoid the three Deaths, or skeletons, one of whom is 
rising from a grave. It is copied in Bibliotheca Spen- 
ceriana, vol. i. p. xxx. 

From the preceding statement then there is every reason 
to infer that the name of Macaber, so frequently and 
without authority applied to an unknown German poet, 
really belongs to the Saint, and that his name has undergone 
a slight and obvious corruption. The woid Macabre is 
found only in French authorities ; and the Saint's name, 
which, in the modern orthography of that language, is 
Macaire^ would, in many ancient manuscripts, be written 
Macabre instead of Macaure, the letter b being substituted 
for that of u from the caprice, ignorance, or carelessness in 
the transcribers. 

As no German copy of the verses describing the painting 
can, with any degree of certainty, be regarded as the original, 
we must substitute the Latin text, which may, perhaps, have 
an equal claim to originality. The author, at the beginning, 
has an address to the spectators, in which he tells them 
that the painting is called the Dance of Macaber. There 
is an end, therefore, of the name of Macaber, as the author 
of the verses, leaving it only as applicable to the painting, 
and almost if not altogether confirmatory of the preceding 
conjecture. The French version, from which Lydgate made 
his translation, nearly agrees with the Latin. Lydgate, 

" Du Breul, Antiq. de Pang, i6n,4to. p. 834, where the verses that 
accompany the sculpture are given. See likewise Sandrart, Acad. 
Pictune, p. 101. 



30 TJie Dance of Death. 

however, in the above address, has thought fit to use the 
word translator instead of author; but this is of no moment, 
any more than the words Machabrie the Doctour, which, not 
being in the French text, are most likely an interpolation. 
He likewise calls the work the daunce; and it may, once 
for all, be remarked, that scarcely any two versions of it 
will be found to correspond in all respects, every new 
editor assuming fresh liberties, according to the usual 
practice in former times. 

The ancient paintings of the Macaber Dance next 
demand our attention. Of these, the oldest on record 
was that of Minden in Westphalia, with the date 1383, and 
mentioned by Fabricius in his Biblioth. Med. et Infimae 
-<^tatis, tom. v. p. 2. It is to be wished that this statement 
had been accompanied with some authority; but the whole 
of the article is extremely careless and inaccurate. 

The earliest, of which the date has been satisfactorily 
defined, was that in the churchyard of the Innocents at 
Paris, and which has been already mentioned as having 
been painted in 1434. 

In the cloister of the church of the Sainte Chapelle at 
Dijon the Macaber Dance was painted by an artist whose 
name was Masongelle. It had disappeared and was for- 
gotten a long time ago, but its existence was discovered in 
the archives of the department by Mons. Boudot, an ardent 
investigator of the manners and customs of the Middle Ages. 
The date ascribed to this painting is 1436. The above 
church was destroyed in the revolution, previously to which 
another Macaber Dance existed in the church of Notre 
Dame in the above city. This was not a painting on the 
walls, but a piece of white embroidery on a black piece of 
stuff about two feet in height and very long. It was placed 
over the stalls in the choir on grand funeral ceremonies, 
and was also carried off with the other church movables, 
in the above-mentioned revolution.^^ Similar exhibitions, 
no doubt, prevailed in other pkces. 

The next Macaber Dance, in point of date, was the 

celebrated one at Basle, which has employed the pens and 

multiplied the errors of many writers and travellers. It 

was placed under cover in a sort of shed in the churchyard 

15 Peignot, Recherches, xxxvii. — xxxix 



The Dance of Death. 3t 

of the Dominican convent. It has been remarked b) one 
very competent to know the fact, that nearly all the convents 
of the Dominicans had a Dance of Death."* As these 
friars were preachers by profession, the subject must have 
been exceedingly useful in supplying texts and matter for 
their sermons. The present Dance is said to have been 
painted at the instance of the prelates who assisted at the 
Grand Council of Basle, that lasted from 1431 to 1443 < and 
in allusion, as supposed, to a plague that happened during 
its continuance. Plagues have also been assigned as the 
causes of other Dances of Death ; but there is no foundation 
whatever for such an opinion, as is demonstrable from what 
has been already stated ; and it has been also successfully 
combated by M. Peignot, who is nevertheless a little at 
variance with himself, when he after^vards introduces a 
conjecture that the painter of the first Dance imitated the 
violent motions and contortions of those affected by the 
plague in the dancing attitudes of the fivures of Death." 
The name of the original painter of this Basle work is 
unknown, and will probably ever remain so, for no depen- 
dence can be had on some vague conjectures, that without 
the smallest appearance of accuracy have been hazarded 
concerning it. It is on record that the old painting having 
become greatly injured by the ravages of time, John Hugh 
Klauber, an eminent painter at Basle, was employed to repair 
it in the year 1568, as appears from a Latin inscription 
placed on it at the time. This painter is said to have 
covered the decayed fresco with oil, and to have succeeded 
so well that no difference between his work and the original 
could be perceived. He was instructed to add the portrait 
of the celebrated (Ecolampadius in the act of preaching, 
in commemoration of his interference in the Reformation, 
that had not very long before taken place. He likewise 
introduced at the end of the painting, portraits of himself, 
his wife Barbara Hallerin, and their little son Hans Birich 
Klauber. The following inscription, placed on the painting 
on this occasion, is preserved in Hentzner's Itinerary, and 
elsewhere. 

*• Urtisii epitom. Hist Basiliensis, 15 «, 8vo. " Peignot, Recher- 
ches, xxvl — xxix. 



32' The Dance of Death, 

A. O. C. . 

Sebastiano Doppenstenio, Casparo Clugio Coss. 
Ronaventura a Bnino, Jacobo Rudio Tribb. PI. * 

Ilunc mortales chorum fabulse, temporis injuria vitiatum ^ 

Lucas Gebhart, lodoc. Pfister. Georgius Sporlinus fl. 

Hujus loci v^diles. ;© 

Integritati suae restituendum curavere ';^ 

Ut qui vocalis picturse divina monita securius audiunt 
Mutae saltern poeseos miserab. spectaculo ' 

Ad seriam philosophiam excitentur. 

0PATEA02 MAKPOT BIOT 
APXHN OPAMAKAPIOT. 

cio Id lxiix. 

In the year 1616 a further reparation took place, and 
some alterations in the design are said to have been then 
made. The above inscription, with an addition only of 
the names of the then existing magistrates of the city, was 
continued. A short time before, Matthew Merian the elder, 
a celebrated topographical draughtsman, had fortunately 
copied the older painting, of which he is supposed to have 
first published engravings in 1621, with all the inscriptions 
under the respective characters that were then remaining, 
but these could not possibly be the same in many respects 
that existed before the Reformation, and which are entirely 
lost. A proof of this may be gathered from the lines of 
the Pope's answer to Death, whom he is thus made to 
apostrophise : " Shall it be said that I, a God upon earth, 
a successor of St. Peter, a powerful prince, and a learned 
doctor, shall enduie thy insolent summons, or that, in 
obedience to thy decree, I should be compelled to ascertain 
whether the keys which I now possess will open for me 
the gate"^ of Paradise ? " None of the inscriptions relating 
to the Pope in other ancient paintings before the Refor- 
mation approach in the least to language of this kind. 

Merian speaks of a tradition that in the original painting 
the portrait of Pope Felix V. was introduced, as well as 
those of the Emperor Sigismund and Duke Albert 11. , all 
of whom were present at the council ; but admitting this 
to have been the fact, their respective features would scarcely 
remain after the subsequent alterations and repairs that 
took place. 

That intelligent traveller, Mons. Blainville, saw this 
painting in January, 1707. He states that as it had been 



The Dance of Death. 33 

**^ ucK injured by the weather, and many of the figures 

^^'^"aced, the Government caused it to be retouched by a 

^. "nter whom they imagined to be capable of repairing 

|y*^' ravages it had sustained, but that his execution was so 

"^^serable that they had much better have let it alone than 

^ . have had it so wretchedly bungled. He wholly rejects 

P^'iy retouching by Holbein. He particularizes two of the 

9!iost remarkable subjects ; namely, the fat jolly cook, whom 

^ Death seizes by the hand, carrying on his shoulder a spit 

with a capon ready larded, which he looks upon with a 

wishful eye, as if he regretted being obliged to set out 

before it was quite roasted. The other figure is that of the 

blind beggar led by his dog, whom Death snaps up with 

one hand, and with the other cuts the string by which the 

dog was tied to his master's arm." 

The very absurd ascription of the Basle painting to the 
pencil of Hans Holbein, who was bom near a century 
afterwards, has been adopted by several tourists, who have 
copied the errors of their predecessors, without taking the 
pains to make the necessary inquiries, or possessing the 
means of obtaining correct information. The name of 
Holbein, therefore, as combined with this painting, must be 
wholly laid aside, for there is no evidence that he was even 
employed to retouch it, as some have inadvertently stated ; 
it was altogether a work unworthy of his talents, nor does 
it, even in its latest state, exhibit the smallest indication of 
his style of painting. This matter will be resumed hereafter ; 
but, in the mean time, it may be necessary to correct the 
mistake of that truly learned and meritorious writer, John 
George Keysler, who, in his instructive and entertaining 
travels, has inadvertently stated that the Basle painting 
was executed by Hans Bock or Bok, a celebrated artist of 
that city ; ^" but it is well known that this person was not 
born till the year 1584. 

The Basle painting is no longer in existence ; for on 
the 2d of August, 1806, and for reasons that have not 
been precisely ascertained, an infuriated mob, in which 
were several women, who carried lanterns to light the 
expedition, tumultuously burst the inclosure which con- 
tained the painting, tore it piecemeal from the walls, and 
♦"Travels, L 376. "Travels. 138, edit. 410. 

D 



34 The Dance of Death. 

in a very short space of time completely succeeded in 
its total demolition, a few fragments only being still pre- 
served in the collection of Counsellor Vischer at his castle 
of Wildensheim, near Basle. This account of its destruction 
is recorded in Millin's Magazin Encyclopedique among the 
nouvelles litteraires for that year; but the Etrenne Hel- 
vetique for the above year has given a different account 
of the matter : it states that the painting having been once 
more renovated in the year 1703, fell afterwards into great 
decay, being entirely peeled from the wall — that this cir- 
cumstance had, in some degree, arisen from the occupation 
of the cloister by a ropemaker — that the wall having been 
found to stand much in the way of some new buildings 
erected near the spot, the magistrates ventured, but not 
without much hesitation, to remove the cloister, with its 
painting, altogether in the year 1805 — and that this occa- 
sioned some disturbance in the city among the common 
people, but more particularly with those who had resided 
in its neighbourhood, and conceived a renewed attachment 
to the painting. 

Of this Dance of Death very few specific copies have 
been made. M. Heinecken^ has stated that it was engraved 
in 1544, by Jobst Denneker of Augsburg; but he has 
confounded it with a work by this artist on the other 
Dance of Death ascribed to Holbein, and which will be 
duly noticed hereafter. The work which contained the 
earliest engravings of the Basle painting, can on this occa- 
sion be noticed only from a modern reprint of it under 
the following title : " Der Todten-Tantz wie derselbe in 
*der weitberuhmten Stadt Basel als ein Spiegel menslicher 
beschaffenheit gantz kuntlich mit lebendigen farben gemah- 
let, nicht ohne nutzliche vernunderung zu schen ist. Basel, 
bey Joh. Conrad und Joh. Jacob von Mechel, 1769, i2mo." 
That is, " The Dance of Death, painted most skilfully, and 
in lively colours, in the very famous town of Basel, as a 
mirror of human life, and not to be looked on without 
useful admiration." 

The first page has some pious verses on the painting 
in the church-yard of the Predicants, of which the present 

^ Heinecken, Dictionn. des Artistes, iii. 67, et iv. 595. He follows 
Keysler's error respecting Hans Bock. 



Tfu Dance of Death. 35 

:xrork contains only ten subjects ; namely, the carc/inal, 
the abbess, the young woman, the piper, the je\\, the 
heathen man, the heathen woman, the cook, the painter, 
and the painter's wife. On the abbess there is the 
mark D. R., probably that of the engraver, two cuts by 
whom are mentioned in Bartsch's work." On the cut 
of the young woman there is the mark G S with the graving 
knife. They are coarsely executed, and with occasional 
variations of the figures in Merian's plates. The rest of the 
cuts, thirty-two in number, chiefly belong to the set usually 
called Holbein's. All the cuts in this miscellaneous volume 
have German verses at the top and bottom of each page 
with the subjects. If Jansen, who usually pillages some 
one else, can be trusted or understood, there was a prior 
edition of this book in 1606, with cuts having the last- 
mentioned mark, but which edition he calls the Dance of 
Death at Berne ;" a title, considering the mixture of sub- 
jects, as faulty as that of the present book, of which, or of 
some part of it, there must have been a still earlier edition 
than the above-mentioned one of 1606, as on the last cut 
but one of this volume there is the date 1576, and the 
letters G S with the knife. It is most probable that this 
artist completed the series of the Basle Dance, and that 
some of the blocks having fallen into the hands of the above 
printers, they made up and published the present mixed 
copy. Jost Amman is said to have engraved 49 plates of 
the Dance of Death in 1587. These are probably from the 
Basle painting." 

The completest copies of this painting that are now 
perhaps extant, are to be found in a well-known set o" 
engravings in copper, by Matthew Merian, the elder, the 
master of Hollar. There are great doubts as to their firs' 
appearance in 1621, as mentioned by Fuessli and Hei- 
necken, but editions are known to exist with the respective 
dates of 1649, 1696, 1698, 1725, 1744, 1756, and 17891 
Some of these are in German, and the rest are accompanied 
with a French translation by P. Viene. They are all parti- 
cularly described by Peignot." Merian states in his preface 
that he had copied the paintings several years before, and 

-' Peintre graveur, ix. 398. ** Essai sur TOrig. de la Gravure, :. lao. 
■ Hstnecken, Dictionn. des Artistes, i. aaa. ** Rechcrchr^, &c p. 71. 
D 2 



3 5 The Dance of Death, 

given his f lates to other persons to be published, adding 
that he had since redeemed and retouched them. He says 
this Dance was repaired in 1568 by Hans Hugo Klauber, a 
citizen of Basle, a fact also recorded on the cut of the 
painter himself, his wife, Barbara Hallerin, and his son, 
Hans Birich, by the before-named artist, G. S., and that it 
contained the portraits of Pope Felix V., the Emperor 
Sigismund, and Albert, King of the Romans, all of whom 
assisted at the Council of Basle in the middle of the 15th 
century, when the painting was probably executed. 

A greatly altered and modernised edition of Merian's 
work was published in 1778, 8vo., with the following title, 
" La Danse des Morts pour servir de miroir a la nature 
humaine, avec le costume dessin^ k la moderne, et des vers 
k chaques figures. Au Locle, chez S. Giradet, libraire." 
This is on an engraved frontispiece, copied from that in 
Merian. The letter-press is extracted from the French 
translation of Merian, and the plates, which are neatly 
etched, agree as to general design with his ; but the dresses 
of many of the characters are rather ludicrously modern- 
ised. Some moral pieces are added to this edition, and 
particularly an old and popular treatise, composed in 1593, 
entitled " L'Art de bien vivre et de bien mourir." 

A Dance of Death is recorded with the following title^ 
" Todtentantz durch alle Stande der Menschen," Leipsig, 
durch David de Necker, formschneider, 1572, 4to.^^ Whether 
this be a copy of the Basle or the Berne painting must be 
decided on inspection, or it may possibly be a later edition 
of the copy of the wood-cuts of Lyons, that will be men- 
tioned hereafter. 

In the little Basle, on the opposite side of the Rhine, 
Ihere was a nunnery called Klingenthal, erected towards the 
end of the 13th century. In an old cloister belonging to 
it, there are the remains of a Dance of Death painted on 
its walls, and said to have been much ruder in execution 
than that in the Dominican cemetery at Basle. On this 
painting there was the date 131 2. In the year 1766, one 
Emmanuel Ruchel, a baker by trade, but an enthusiastic 
admirer of the fine arts, made a copy in water colours of 

"^ Heller Gescliicl;e der holtzchein kunst, ISamberg, 1823, i2ma 
p. 126, 



TTie I?anj£ of Death, 37 

all that remained of this ancient painting, and which is 
preserved in the public library at Basle." 

The numerous mistakes that have been made by those 
writers who have mentioned the Basle painting have been 
already adverted to by M. Peignot, and are not, in this 
place, worthy of repetition.*' 'J'hat which requires most 
particular notice, and has been so frequently repeated, is 
the making Hans Holbein the painter of it, who was not 
born till a considerable time after its execution, and even 
for whose supposed retouching of a work, almost beneath 
his notice in point of art, there is not the slightest authority. 

In the small organ chapel, or, according to some, in the 
porch, of the church of St. Mary at Lubeck in Lower 
Alsace, there is, or was, a very ancient Dance of Death, 
said to have been painted in 1463. Dr. Nugent, who has 
given some account of it, says that it is much talked of in 
all parts of Germany ; that the figures were repaired at 
different times, as in 1588, 1642, and last of all in 1701. 
The verses that originally accompanied it were in Low 
Dutch, but at the last repair it was thought proper to 
change them for German verses which were written by 
Nathaniel Schlott of Dantzic. The Doctor has given an 
English translation of them, made for him by a young lady 
of Lubeck.^ This painting has been engraved, and will 
be again mentioned. Leipsic had also a Dance of Death, 
but no particulars of it seem to have been recorded. 

In 1525 a similar Dance was painted at Anneberg in 
Saxony, which Fabricius seems alone to have noticed. He 
also mentions another in 1534, at the palace of Duke George 

^ Basle Guide Book. ^ Recherchea, 1 1 et seq. 

* More on the subject of the Lubeck Dance of Death may be found in 
— I. An Anonymous work, which has on the last leaf, " Dodendantz, 
anno domini Mccccxcvi. Lubeck." a. "De Dodendantz fan Kaspar 
Scheit, na der utgave fan, 1558, unde de Lubecker fan, 1463." This is a 
poem of four sheets in small 8vo. without mention of the place where 
printed. 3. Some account of this painting by Ludwig Suhl. Lubeck, 
1783, 4to. 4. A poem, in rhyme, with wood-cuts, on 34 leaves, in 8vo. 
It is fully described from the Helms, library in Brun's Beitrage zu kriL 
Bearb. alter handschr. p. 321 et seq. 5. Jacob 4 Mellen Grundliche 
Nachbricht von Lubeck, 17 13, 8vo. p. 48. 6. Schlott Lubikischerg 
TodtenUntz. 1701. 8vo. 7. Berkenmeyer, le curi<ux antiquaire, 8vo, 
p. 530; and, 8. Nugent's Travels, i. 103. 8va 



38 The Dance of Death. 

at Dresden.® This is described in a German work written 
on the subject generally, by Paul Christian Hilscher, and 
published at Dresden, 1705, 8vo., and again at Bautzen, 
17 2 1, 8vo. It consisted of a long frieze sculptured in 
stone on the front of the building, containing twenty- 
seven figures. A view of this very curious structure, 
with the Dance itself, and also on a separate print, on 
a larger scale, varying considerably from the usual mode 
of representing the Macaber Dance, is given in Anthony 
"Wecken's Chronicle of Dresden, printed in German at 
Dresden, 1680, folio. It is said to have been removed in 
17 2 1 to the churchyard of Old Dresden. 

Nicolai Karamsin has given a very brief but ludicrous 
account of a Dance of Death in the cross aisle of the 
Orphan House at Erfurth;*' but Peignot places it in the 
convent of the Augustins, and seems to say that it was 
painted on the panels between the windows of the cell 
inhabited by Luther.^^ In all probability the same place is 
intended by both these writers. 

There is some reason to suppose that there was a Dance 
of Death at Nuremberg. Misson, describing a wedding in 
that city, states that the bridegroom and his company sat 
down on one side of the church and the bride on the other. 
Over each of their heads was a figure of Death upon the 
wall. This would seem very like a Dance of Death, if the 
circumstance of the figure being on both sides of the 
church did not excite a doubt on the subject. 

Whether there ever was a Macaber Dance at Berne of 
equal antiquity with that of Basle has not been ascertained : 
but Sandrart, in his article for Nicholas Manuel Deutch, a 
celebrated painter at Berne, in the beginning of the i6tb 
century, has recorded a Dance of Death painted by him in 
oil, and regrets that a work materially contributing to the 
celebrity of that city had been so extremely neglected that 
he had only been able to lay before the readers the follow- 
ing German rhymes which had been inscribed on it : 

Manuel aller welt figur, 

Hastu gemahlt uf diese mur 

Nu must sterben da, hilft kun fund : 

Bist nit sicher minut noch stund 

» Biblioth. Med. et inf. setat. v. a. * Travels, 1, 195. » Rech. xlfii 



The Dance of Death. 39 

Which he thus translates : 

Cunctorum in muris pictis ex arte figuris. 

Tu quoque decedes ; etsi hoc vix tempore credeib 

Then Manuel's answer : 

Kilf eineger Heiland ! dru ich dich bitt : 

Dann hie ist gar kein Bleibens nit 
So mir der Tod mein red wird stellen 
So bhut euch Gott. mein liebe Gscllea 

That is, in Latin : 

En tibi me credo, Deus, hoc dum sorte recedo 
Mors rapiat me, te, reliquos sociosque, valete ! 

To which account M. Fuseli adds, that this painting, 
equally remarkable for invention and character, was re- 
touched in 1553 ; and in 1560, to render the street in 
which it was placed more spacious, entirely demolished. 
There were, however, two copies of it preserved at Berne, 
both in water colours, one by Albrech Kauw, the other a 
copy from that by Wilhelm Stettler, a painter of Berne, 
and pupil of Conrad Meyer of Zurich. The painting is 
here said to have been va fresco on the wall of the Domi- 
nican cemetery.'^ 

The verses that accompanied this painting have been 
mentioned as containing sarcastical freedoms against the 
clergy ; and as Manuel had himself undergone some 
persecutions on the score of religion at the time of ihe 
Reformation, this is by no means improbable. There is 
even a tradition that he introduced portraits of some of 
his friends, who assisted in bringing about that event. 

In 1832, lithographic copies of the Berne painting, after 
the drawings of Stettler, were published at Berne, with a 
portrait of Manuel ; and a set of very beautiful drawings 
in colours, made by some artist at 13erne, either after those 
by Stettler or Kauw, in the public library, are in the 
possession of the writer of this essay. They, as well as 
the lithographic prints, exhibit Manuel's likeness in the 
subject of the painter. 

C)ne of the bridges at Lucerne was covered with a 

" Pilkington's Diet of Painters, p. 307, edit FuseH, who probably 
follows Fuseli's work on the Painters. Merian, Topogr. Helvetia;. 



40 The Dance of Death, 

Macaber Dance, executed by a painter named Meglinger, 
but at what time we are not informed. It is said to have 
been very well painted, but injured greatly by injudicious 
retouchings ; yet there seems to be a difference of opinion 
as to the merit of the paintings, which are or were thirty-six 
in number, and supposed to have been copied from the 
Basle dance. Lucerne has also another of the same kind 
in the burial-ground of the parish church of Im-hof. One 
of the subjects placed over the tomb of some canon, the 
founder of a musical society, is Death playing on the violin, 
and summoning the canon to follow him, who, not in the 
least terrified, marks the place in the book he was reading, 
and appears quite disposed to obey. This Dance is 
probably more modem than the other.^ The subject 
of Death performing on the above instrument to some 
person or other is by no means uncommon among the 
old painters, 

M. Maurice Rivoire, in his very excellent description 
of the cathedral of Amiens, mentions the cloister of the 
Machabees, originally called, says he, the cloister of 
Macabre, and, as he supposes, from the name of the 
author of the verses. He gives some lines that were on 
one of the walls, in which the Almighty commands Death 
to bring all mortals before him.** I'his cloister was 
destroyed about the year 1817, but not before the present 
writer had seen some vestiges of the painting that remained 
on one of the sides of the building. 

M. Peignot has a very probable conjecture that the 
churchyard of Saint Maclou, at Rouen, had a Macaber 
Dance, from a border or frieze that contains several 
emblematical subjects of mortality. The place had more 
than once been destroyed.^ On the pillars of the church 
at Fescamp, in Normandy, the Dance of Death was 
sculptured in stone, and it is in evidence that the castle 
of Blois had formerly this subject represented in some 
part of it. 

In the course of some recent alterations in the new 
church of the Protestants at Strasburg, formerly a Domi- 
nican convent, the workmen accidentally unco\ered a 

83 Peignot, Recherches, xlv. xlvi. ^ Rivoire, Descr. de I'Eglise 
Cathedrale d' Amiens. Amiens, 1806. 8vo. * Recherches, xlvil 



The Dance of Death. 4 1 

Dance of Death that had been whitewashed, either for 
the purpose of obliteration or concealment. This painting 
seems to differ from the usual Macaber Dance, not always 
confined like that to two figures only, but having occa- 
sionally several grouped together. M. Peignot has given 
some more curious particulars relating to it, extracted from 
a literary journal by M. Schweighaiuser, of Strasburg.'* 
It is to be hoped that engravings of it will be given. 

Chorier has mentioned the mills of Macabrey, and also 
a piece of land with the same appellation, which he saya 
was given to the chapter of St. Maurice at Vienne in 
Dauphin^, by one Marc Apvril, a citizen of that place 
He adds, that he is well aware of the Dance of Macabre. 
Is it not, therefore, probable, that the latter might have 
existed at Vienne, and have led to the corruption of the 
above citizen's name by the common people ? " 

Misson has noticed a Dance of Death in St. Mary's 
church at Berlin, and obscurely referred to another in 
some church at Nuremberg. 

Bruckmann, in his Epistolae Itinerariae, vol. v. epist. 
xxxii. describes several churches and other religious 
buildings at Vienna, and among them the monastery of 
the Augustinians, where, he says, there is a painting of 
a house with Death entering one of the windows by a 
ladder. 

In the same letter be describes a chapel of Death in 
the above monastery, which had been decorated with 
moral paintings by Father Abraham k St. Clara, one of 
the monks. Among these were, i. Death demolishing a 
student. 2. Death attacking a hunter who had just 
killed a stag. 3. Death in an apothecary's shop, break- 
ing the phials and medicine boxes. 4. Death playing at 
draughts with a nobleman. 5. Harlequin making grimaces 
at Death. A description of this chapel and its painting 
was published after the good father's decease. Nuremberg, 
17 10, 8vo. 

The only specimen of it in Holland that has occurred on 
the present occasion is in the celebrated Orange-SalU^ 
which constitutes th2 grand apartment of the coun:r> 

^ Rechcrches, xlviii ^ Recberches sur les antiquiles de ViMme. 

1659. :3mo. p. 15. 



42 The Dance of Death. 

seat belonging to the Prince of Orange in the wood 
adjacent to the Hague. In three of its compartments. 
Death is represented by skeletons darting their arrows 
against a host of opponents.^ 

Nor has Italy furnished any materials for the present 
essay. Blainville has, indeed, described a singular and 
whimsical representation of Death in the church of St. 
Peter the Martyr, at Naples, in the following words: — 
At the entrance on the left is a marble with a repre- 
sentation of Death in a grotesque form. He has two 
crowns on his head, with a hawk on his fist, as ready for 
hunting. Under his feet are extended a great number 
of persons of both sexes and of every age. He addresses 
them in these lines : 

Eo s6 la morte che caccio 
Sopera voi jente mondana. 
La malata e la sana, 
Di, e notte la percaccio ; 
Non fugge, vessuna intana 
Per scampare dal mio laczio 
Che tutto il mondo abbraczio, 
E tutta la jente humana 
Perche nessuno se conforta, 
Ma prenda spavento 
Ch'eo per comandamento 
Di prender a chi viene la sorte. 
Sia vi per gastigamento 
Questa figura di morte, 
E pensa vie di fare forte 
Tu via di salvamento. 

Opposite to the figure of Death is that of a man dressed 
like a tradesman or merchant, who throws a bag of money 
on a table, and speaks thus : 

Tutti ti volio dare 
Se mi lasci scampare. 

To wiiich Death answers : 

Se mi potesti dare 
Quanto si pote dimandare 
* Non te pote scampare la morte 

Se te viene la sorte. ^ 



I>;. Cogan's Tour to the Rhine, ii. 127. ^9 Travels, iii. 318, edit 4to 



Tlie Dance of Death. 43 

It can hardly be supposed that this subject was not 
known in Spain, though nothing relating to it seems to 
have been recorded, if we except the poem that has been 
mentioned in p. 25, but no Spanish painting has been 
specified that can be called a regular Macaber Dance. 
There are grounds, however, for believing that there 
was such a painting in the cathedral of Burgos, as a 
gentleman known to the author saw there the remains 
of a skeleton figure on a whitewaslied wall. 




CHAPTER IV. 

Macaber Dance in England. — St. PauVs. — Salisbury. — 
Worthy Hall. — Hexham. — Croydon. — Tozver of London. — 
Lines in Pierce Plo7V7naiis Vision supposed to rejer to it. 

E are next to examine this subject in 
relation to its existence in our own 
country. On the authority of the work 
ascribed to Walter de Mapes, already 
noticed in p. 21, it is not unreasonable 
to infer that paintings of the Macaber 
Dance were coeval with that writer, 
though no specimens of it that now 
remain will warrant the conclusion. We know that it 
existed at Old Saint Paul's. Stowe informs us that there 
was a .great cloister on the north side of the church, 
environing a plot of ground, of old time called Pardon 
churchyard. He then states, that " about this cloyster 
was artificially and richly painted the Dance of Machabray, 
or Dance of Death, commonly called the Dance of Paul's : 
the like whereof was painted about St. Innocent's cloyster 
at Paris : the meters or poesie of this Dance were trans- 
lated out of French into English, by John Lidgate, Monke 
of Bury, the picture of Death leadmg all estates ; at the 




T^g Dance of Death. 45 

dispence of Jenken Carpenter in the reigne of Henry the 
Sixt."' Lydgate's verses were first printed at the end of 
TottcH's edition o: the translation of his P'ail of Princes, 
from Boccaccio, 1554, folio, and afterwards in Sir W. 
Dugdale's History of St. Paul's cathedral.' In another 
place Stowe records that "on the loth April, 1549, the 
cloister of St. Paul's church, called Pardon churchyard, 
with the Dance of Death, commonly called the Dance 
of Paul's, about the same cloyster, costly and cunningly 
wrought, and the chappel in the midst of the same church- 
yard, were all begun to be pulled down." ' This spoliation 
was made by the Protector Somerset, in order to obtain 
materials for building his palace in the Strand.* 

The single figure that remained in the Hungerford 
chapel at Salisbury cathedral, previously to its demolition, 
was formerly known by the title of " Death and the Young 
Man," and was, undoubtedly, a portion of the Macaber 
Dance, as there was close to it another compartment 
belonging to the same subject. In 1748, a print of these 
figures was published, accompanied with the following 
inscription, which differs from that in Lydgate. The 
young man says : 

Alasse Dcthe alasse a blesful thyng thou were 
Yf thou woldyst snare us yn ouwre lustynesse. 
And cum to wretches that bethe of hevy clicre 
Whene thay ye clepe to slake their dystresse 
But owte alasse thyne own sely selfwyldnesse 
Crewelly wemeth me that seygh wayle and wepe 
To close there then that after ye doth clepe. 

• Sur\ay of London, p. 615, edit. 16 18, 4to. 

^ In Tottell's edition these verses are accompanied with a single wood- 
cut of Death leading up all ranks of mortals. This was afterwards 
Ci>pied by Hollar, as to general design, in Dugdale's St Pauls, and in 
tJie Monasticon. 

3 Annales, p. 596, edit. 163 1, folio. Sir Thomas More, treating of 
the remembrance of Death, has these words : " But if we not only here 
this word Death, but also let sink into our heartes, the very fantasye 
and depe ima^inacion thereof, we shall parceive therby that, we wer 
never so gretly moved by the beholding of the Daunce of Death 
pictured in Pottles, as we shal fele ourself stered and alte.-ed by the 
feling of that imaginacion in our hertes. And no marvell. For those 
pictures expresse only y« lothely figure of our dead bony botlies. biten 
away y* flesh," &c — Works, p. 77, edlL 1557, folio. 

* Heylin'a Hist of the Reformation, p. 73. 



46 The Dance of Death. 

Death answers : 

Grosless galante in all thy luste and pryde 
Remembyr that thou schalle onys dye 
Deth schall fro thy body thy sowle devyde 
Thou mayst him not escape certaynly 
To the dede bodyes cast down thyne ye 
Beholde thayme well consydere and see 
For such as thay ar such shalt thou be. 

This painting was made about the year 1460, and fiom 
the remaining specimen its destruction is extren ely to be 
regretted, as, judging from that of the young gallant, the 
dresses of the time would be correctly exhibited. 

In the chapel at Wortley Hall, in Gloucestershire, there 
was inscribed, and most likely painted, "an history and 
Daunce of Deathe of all estatts and degrees." This 
inscribed history was the same as Lydgate's, with some 
additional characters.' From a manuscript note by John 
Stowe, in his copy of Leland's Itinerary, it appears that 
there was a Dance of Death in the chui*ch of Stratford 
upon Avon : and the conjecture that Shakespeare, in a 
passage in Measure for Measure, might have remembered 
it, will not, perhaps, be deemed very extravagant. He 
there alludes to Death and the fool, a subject always 
introduced into the paintings in question.® 

On the upper part of the great screen which closes 
the entrance to the choir of the church at Hexham, in 
Northumberland, are the painted remains of a Dance of 
Death.^ These consist of the figures of a pope, a cardinal, 
and a king, which were copied by the ingenious John 
Carter, of well-deserved antiquarian memory. 

Vestiges of a Macaber Dance were not long since to 
be traced on the walls of the hall of the Archiepiscopal 
palace at Croydon, but so much obscured by time and 
neglect that no particular compa:rt;ment could be ascer- 
tained. 

The tapestries that decorated the walls of pakces, and 
other dwelling-places, were sometirr.es applied in extension 
of this moral subject. In the Tower of London, the original 

5 Cotton MS. Vesp. A. xxv. fo. 181. • Leland's Itin. vol. iv. 

part i. p. 69. — Meas. for Meas. Act iiu sc. i. ' Hutchinson's 

Northumberland, i. 98. 



The Dance of Deain 47 

and most ancient seat of our monarchs, there was some 
tapestry with the Macaber Dance * 

The following lines in that admirable satire, the Vision 
of Pierce Plowman, written about the year 1350, have 
evidently an illusion to the Dance, unless they might be 
thought to apply rather to the celebrated triumph of Death 
by Petrarch, of which some very early paintings, and many 
engravings, still exist : or they may even refer to some of 
the ancient representations of the infernal regions that 
follow Death on the Pale Horse of the Revelations, and 
in which is seen a grotesque intermixture of all classes 
of people.' 

Death came driving after, and all to dust pashed 
Kynges and Kaysers, Knightes and Popes, 
Learned and lewde : he ne let no man stande 
That he hitte even, he never stode after. 
Many a lovelv ladie and lemmans of knightes 
Swouned and swelted for sorrowe of Deathes dyntes. 

It is probable that many cathedrals and other edifices, 
civil as well as ecclesiastical, in France, Germany, England, 
and probably other European countries, were ornamented 
with paintings and sculpture of this extremely popular 
subject. 

8 Warton's H. E. Poetry, iu 43, ed. 8vo. 

' And see a portion of Orgagna's painting at the Campo Santo •! 
Pisa, meniioued before in p. </. 




CHAPTER V. 

List of editions of the Macaber Dance. — Pri?ited HorcB that 
contain it. — Manuscript Horce. — Other Ma?iuscripts in 
which it occurs. — Various articles with letter-press^ not 
being single prints ^ but connected with it. 




T remains only, so far as regards the 
Macaber Dance, to present the reader 
with a list of the several printed edi- 
tions of that celebrated work, and 
which, with many corrections and ad- 
ditions, has been chiefly extracted from 
M. Peignot's " Recherches historiques 
et litteraires sur les Danses des Morts," 
Paris et Dijon, 1826, 8vo. 

The article that should stand at the head of this list, 
if any reliance could be had on a supposed date, is the 
German edition, entitled, "Der Dotendantz mit figuren. 
Clage und Antwort Schon von alien staten der welt," 
small folio. This is mentioned in Braun Notitia de libris 
in Bibliotheca Monasterii ad SS. Udalricum et Afram 
Augustas, vol. ii. 62. The learned librarian expresses his 
doubts as to the date, which he supposes may be between 
1480 and 1500. He rejects a marginal note by the 
illuminator of the letters, indicating the date of 1459. 
Every page of this volume is divided into two columns, 
and accompanied with German verses, which may be 
either the original text, or a translation from the French 



The Dame of Death. 49 

verses in some early edition of the Macaber Dance in that 
language. It consists of twenty-two leaves, with wood-cuts 
of the Pope, Cardinal, Bishop, Abbot, &c. &c. accompanied 
by figures of Death. 

1. " La Danse Macabre imprim^e par ung nomm^ Guy 
Marchand, &c. Paris, 1485," small folio. Mons. Cham- 
pollion Figeac has given a very minute description of 
this extremely rare, and perhaps unique, volume, the only 
known copy of which is in the public library of Grenoble. 
This account is to be found in Millin's Magazin Encyclo- 
pt^dique, 181 1, vol. vi. p. 355, and thence by M. Peignot, 
in his Recherches, &c. 

2. "Ce present livre est appelle Miroer salutaire pour 
toutes gens, et de tous estatz, et est de grant utility et 
recreation pour pleuseurs ensegnemens tant en Latin 
comrae en Francoys lesquels il contient ainsi compose 
pour ceulx qui desirent acquerir leur salut : et qui le 
voudront avoir. La Danse Macabre nouvelle." At the 
end, " Cy finit la Danse Macabre hystoriee augmentee de 
pleuseurs nouveaux parsonnages (six) et beaux dis. et les 
trois mors et trois vif ensemble. Nouvellement ainsi com- 
posee et imprimee par Guyot Marchant demorant a Paris 
au grant hostel du college de Navarre en champ Gaillart 
Ian de grace, i486, le septieme jour de juing." A small 
folio of fifteen leaves, or thirty pages, twenty-four of which 
belong to the Danse Macabre, and six to the Trois morts 
et les trois vifs. 

On the authority of the above expression, " composee," 
and also on that of La Croix du Maine, Marchant has 
been made the author as well as the printer of the work ; 
but M. de la Monnoye is not of that opinion ; nor indeed 
is there any other metrical composition by this printer 
known to exist. 

3. "La Danse Macabre des femmes, &c. Paris, par 
Guyot Marchant, i486, le septieme jour de Juillet,** small 
folio, of fifteen leaves only. This is the first edition of the 
Macaber Dance of females ; and though thirty-two of them 
are described, the Queen and Duchess only are engraved. 
See No. 6 for the rest This and the preceding edition are 
also particularly described by Messrs. Champollion Figeac 
and Peignot. 



so The Dance of Death. 

4. " Chorea ab eximio Macabro versibus Alernanicis 
edita, et a Petro Desrey emendata. Parisiis per magistrum 
Guidonem Mercatorem pro Godeffrido de Marnef. 1490," 
folio. Papiilon thought the cuts were in the manner of the 
French artist Jollat, but without foundation, for they are 
much superior to any work by that artist, and of considerable 
merit. 

5. "La nouvelle Danse Macabre des hommes dicte 
miroer salutaire de toutes gens et de touts etats, &c. 
Paris, Guyot Marchant, 1490," folio. 

6. "La Danse Macabre des femmes, toute hystorie'e et 
augmentde de nouveaulx personnages, &c. Paris, Guyot 
Marchant, le 2 Mai, 1491," folio. This edition, the second 
of the Dance of females, has all the cuts with other additions. 
The list of the figures is in Peignot, but with some doubts 
on the accuracy of his description. 

7. An edition in the Low German dialect was printed at 
Lubeck, 1496, according to Vonder Hagen in his Deutschen 
Poesie, p. 459, who likewise mentions a Low German edition 
in prose, at the beginning of the 15th (he must mean i6th) 
century. He adds, that he has copied one page with cuts 
from Kindeling's Remains, but he does not say in what work. 

8. " La grant Danse Macabre des hommes et des femmes 
hystorice et augmentee de beaulx dits en Latin, &c. &c. 
Le tout compose en ryme Francoise et accompagne de 
figures. Lyon, le xviii jour de Fevrier, Fan 1499," folio. 
This is supposed to be the first edition that contains both 
the men and the women. 

9. There is a very singular work, entitled "Icy est le 
compost et kalendrier des Bergeres, &c. Imprime ^ Paris 
en lostel de beauregart en la rue Cloppin k lenseigne du 
roy Prestre Jhan. ou quel lieu sont k vendre, ou au lyon 
dargent en la rue Sainct Jaques." At the end, " Imprime 
k Paris par Guy Marchant maistre es ars ou lieu susdit. 
Le xvii iour daoust mil cccciiiixx'xix." This extremely rare 
volume is in the British Museum, and is mentioned by 
Dr. Dibdin, in vol. ii. p. 530 of his edition of Ames's 
typographical antiquities, and probably nowhere else. It 
is embellished with the same fine cuts that relate to the 
females in the edition of tlie Macaber Dance, Nos. 4 and 
II. The work begins with the words "Deux jeunes 



The Datice of Death, 51 

B,.rgeias seulelles," and appears to have been composed 
for females only, differing very materially from the well- 
known " Kalendricr dcs Bergcrs," though including matter 
common to both. 

10. "Chorea ab exiraio Macabro versibus Alemanicis 
edita et i Petro Desrey Trecacio quodam oratore nuper 
eraendata. Parisiis per Magistrum Guidonem Mercatorem 
pro Godeffrido Marnef. 15 Octob, 1499," fol»o, with cuts. 

1 1. " La Danse Macabre, &c. Ant. Verard." No date, but 
about 1500, small folio. A vellum copy of this rare edition 
is described by M, Van Praet in his catalogue of vellum 
books in the royal library at Paris. A copy is in the Archb. 
Cant, library at Lambeth. 

12. '* La Danse Macabre, &c. Ant. Verard." No date, but 
about 1500, folio. Some variations from No. 9 are pointed 
out by M. Van Praet. This magnificent volume on vellum, 
and bound in velvet, came from the library at Blois. It is 
a very large and thin folio, consisting of three or four leaves 
only, printed on pasteboard, with four pages or compart- 
ments on each leaf The cuts are illuminated in the usual 
manner of Verard's books. In the beginning it is marked 
" Marolles, No. 1601." It is probably imperfect, the fool 
not being among the figures, and all the females are wanting, 
though, perha])s, not originally in this edition. It is in the 
royal library at Paris, where there is another copy of the 
work printed by Verard, with coloured prints, but differing 
materially from the other in the press-work. It is a common- 
sized folio, and was purchased at the sale of the Count 
Macarthy's books.* 

13. " La grant Danse Macabre des hommes et des femmes, 
&c. Imprimee il Troyes par Nicolas Le Rouge demourant 
en la grant rue k I'enseigne de Venise aupr^s la belle croix." 
No date, folio. With very clever wood-cuts, probably the 
same as in the edition of 1490 ; and if so, they differ much 
from the manner of Jollat, and have not his well-known mark. 

14. " La grant Danse Macabre des hommes et des fem- 
mes, &c. Rouen, Guillaume de a Mare." No date, 4to. 
with cuts, and in the Roman letter. 

1 5. " La grande Danse Macabre des hommes et des femmes, 

* From the Author's own inspection. 

K 2 



52 T^e Dance of Death. 

ou est demonstre tous humains de tous estats estre du bransle 
de la Mort. Lyon, Olivier Arnoulet." No date, 4to. 

1 6. "La grant Danse Macabre des hommes et des fem- 
mes, &c. Lyon, Nourry, 1501," 4to. cuts. 

17. "La grant Danse Macabre des hommes et des fem- 
mes, &c. Imprimd k Genesve, 1503," 4to. cuts. 

18. "La Danse Macabre. Paris, Nicole de la Barre, 
1523," 4to, with very different cuts, and some characters 
omitted in former editions. 

1 9. " La grant Danse Macabre, &c. Paris, Nicole de la 
Barre, 1523," 41 o. with very indifferent cuts, and the omis- 
sion of some of the characters in preceding editions. 
This has been privately reprinted, 1820, by Mr. Dobree, 
from a copy in the British Museum, 

20. " La grant Danse Macabre des hommes et des fem- 
mes. Troyes, Le Rouge, 153 1," folio, cuts. 

21. "La grand Danse Macabre des hommes et des fem- 
mes. Paris, Denys Janot, 1533," ^^^' ^^^s- 

22. " La grand Danse Macabre des hommes et des fem- 
mes, tant en Latin qu'en Francoys. Paris, par Estienne 
Groulleau libraire jure en la rue neuve Nostre Dame ^ 
I'enseigne S. Jean Baptiste." No date, i6mo. cuts. The 
first edition of this size, and differing in some respects from 
the preceding. 

23. "La Grand Danse Macabre des hommes et des 
femmes, &c. Paris, Estienne Groulleau, 1550," i6mo. cuts. 

24. " La grande Danse des Morts, &c. Rouen, Morron." 
No date, 8vo. cuts. 

25. "Les Ixviii huictains ci-devant appellds la Danse 
Machabrey, par lesquels les Chrestiens de tous estats tout 
stimules et invites de penser a la mort. Paris, Jacques 
Varangue, 1589," 8vo. In Roman letter, without cuts. 

26. " La grande Danse Macabre des hommes et des fem- 
mes, &c. Troyes, Oudot," 1641, 4to. cuts. One of the 
bibliothbque bleue books. 

27. " La grande Danse Macabre des hommes et des fem- 
mes, renouvellee do vieux Gaulois en langage le plus poll de 
notre temps, &c. Troyes, Pierre Gamier rue du Temple." 
No date, but the privilege is in 1728, 4to. cuts. The, polished 
language is, of course, for the worse, and Macaber is called 
" des Machabees ;" no dQubt, the editor's improvement. 



Tlu Dance of Death, S3 

28. "La grande Danse Macabre des hommes €t des 
feinmes, renouvellde, &c, Troyes, chez la veuve Oudot, ct 
Jean Oudot fils, rue du Temple, 1729," 410. cuts. Nearly 
the same as No. 26. 

These inferior editions oontimied, tiU v«ry lately, to be 
occasionally reprinted for the use of the common people, 
and at the trifling expense of a very few sous. They are, 
nevertheless, of some value to those who feel interested in 
the subject, as containing tolerable copies of all the fine 
cuts in the preceding edition, No. 11. 

Dr. Dibdin saw in the puWic library at Munich a very 
old scries of a Macaber Dance, that had been inserted, by 
way of illustration, into a Gemmn nmnuscript of the Dance 
of Death. Of these he has given two subjects in his 
" Bibliographical Tour," vol. iii. p. 278. 

But it was not only in the above volumes that the very 
poi)ular subject of the Macaber Dance was particularly exhi- 
bited. It found its way into many of the beautiful service 
books, usually denominated Horae, or hours of the Virgin. 
These principally bdong to France, and their margins are 
frequently decorated nith the above Dance, with occasional 
variety of design. In most of them Death is accompanied 
with a single figure only, characters from both sexes being 
introduced. It would be impossible to furnish a complete 
list of them ; but it is presumed that the mention of several, 
and of the printers who introduced them, will not be 
tmacceptabk. 

No. I- " I^s Horas de ntrestra Senora con mtK^ios otros 
oficios y ora9iones.*' Printed in Paris by Nicolas Higmas 
for Simon Vostre, 1495, 8vo. It has two Dances of Death, 
the first of which is the usual Macaber Dance, with the 
following figures ; Le Pape, I'Empereur, le Cardinal, 
IWrchevesque, ie Chevatier, I'Evesqoe, i'Escuyer, I'Abe, le 
Prevost, le Roy, le Patriarche, le Connestabie, I'Astrolqgien, 
le Bourgoys, le Chanoine, le Moyne, I'Usurier, le Medesin, 
r.\moureux, I'Advocat, le Menestrier, le Marchant, le Char- 
treux, le Seigent, le Cure, le Laboureur, le Cordelier.'* 
Then the women : " La Royne, la Duchessc, la Regente, 
la Chevaliere, I'Abbesse, la Femme descine, la Pricure, la 
£)amoissele, la Bourgoise, la Cordeliere, la Femme daceul, 
la Nourice, la Theologienne, la nouvelle marice, la Femme 



54 ^<? Dance of Death. 

gross 3, la Veufve, la Marchande, la Ballive, la Chamberiere, 
la Recommanderese, la vielle Damoise, I'Espousee, la Mig- 
note, la Fille pucelle, la Garde d'accouchee, la jeune fille, 
la Religieuse, la Vielle, la Revenderesse, TAmoureuse, la 
Sorciere, la Bigote, la Sote, la Bergere, la Femnie aux 
Potences, la Femme de Village ; to which are added, 
I'Enfant, le Clerc, rErmite." 

The second Dance of Death is very different from the 
preceding, and consists of groups of figures. The subjects, 
which have never yet been described, are the following : 

1. Death sitting on a coffin in a church-yard. " Discite 
vos choream euncti qui cernitis istam." 

2. Death with Adam and Eve in Paradise. He draws 
Adam towards him. " Quid turn prosit honor glorie divitie." 

3. Death helping Cain to slay Abel. " Esto meorum qui 
pulvis eris et vermibus esca." 

4. Death holding by the garment a cardinal, followed by 
several persons. " In gelida putrens quando jacebis humo," 

5. Death mounted on a bull strikes three persons with 
his dart. " Vado mori dives auro vel copia rerum." 

6. Death seizing a man sitting at a table with a purse in 
his hand, and accompanied by two other persons. " Nullum 
respectum dat michi, vado mori." 

7. An armed knight killing an tinarmed man, Death 
assisting. " Fortium virorum est magis mortem contemnere 
vitam odisse." 

8. Death with a rod in his hand, standing upon a group 
of dead persons. " Stultum est timere quod vitari non 
potest." 

9. Death with a scythe, having mowed down several 
persons lying on the ground. " Est commune mori mors 
nulli parcit honori" 

10. A soldier introducing a woman to another man, who 
holds a scythe in his hand. Death stands behind. " Mors 
fera mors nequam mors nulli parcit et equara." 

1 1. Death strikes with his dart a prostrate female, who is 
attended by two others. " Hec tua vita brevis : que te 
delectat ubique." 

12. A man falling from a tower into the water. Death 
strikes him at the same time with his dart "Est vein* 
aura levis te mors expectat ubique." 



7^£ Dance of Death. 55 

13. A man strangling another, Death assisting. "Vita 
quid est hominis nisi res valiata ruinis." 

14. A man at the gallows, Death standing by " Est caro 
nostra cinis modo principium modo finis." 

15. A man about to be beheaded, Death assisting. 
" Quid sublime genus quid opes quid gloria prestant.** 

16. A king attended by several persons is struck by 
Death with his dart " Quid mihi nunc aderant hec mihi 
nunc abeunt." 

17. Two soldiers armed with battle-axes. Death pierces 
one of them with his dart " Ortus cuncta sues : repetunt 
matremque requirunt." 

18. Death strikes with his dart a woman lying in bed 
" Et redit in nihilum quod fuit ante nihil." 

19. Death aims his dart at a sleeping child in a cradie, 
two other figures attending. "A, a, a, vado raori, nil valet 
ipsa juventus." 

20. A man on the ground in a fit Death seizes him. 
Others attending. " Mors scita sed dubia nee fugienda 
venit" 

21. Death leads a man, followed by others. "Non sum 
securus hodie vel eras moriturus." 

22. Death interrupts a man and woman at their meal. 
" Intus sive foris est plurima causa timoris.** 

23. Death demolishes a group of minstrels, from one of 
whom he has taken a lute. " Viximus gaudentes, nunc 
morimur tristes et flentes." 

24. Death leads a hermit, followed by other persons. 
" Forte dies hec est ultima, vado mori." 

This Dance is also found in the Hone printed by Godar, 
Vostre, and Gilles Hardouyn, but with occasional variations, 
as to size and other matters, in the different blocks which 
they respectively used. The same designs have also been 
adopted, and in a very singular style of engraving, in a 
work printed by Antony Verard, that will be noticed 
elsewhere. 

Some of the cuts, for they are not all by the same artist, 
in this very rare and beautiful volume, and not found 
in others printed by or for Simon Vostre, may be very 
justly compared, in point of the delicacy of design and 
engraving, though on wood, with the celebrated pax of 



5<5 The Dance of Death. 

Maso Finiguerra at Florence, accurately copied in Mi 
Ottley's history of engraving. They are accompanied with 

this unappropriated mark Q 

No. II. "Ordinarium beate Marie "Virginis ad usum 
Cisterciensem impressum est caracteribus optimis una 
cum expensis honesti viri Symonis Vostre commorantis 
Parisiis in vico novo Dive Marie in intersignio Sancti 
Joannis Evangeliste, 1497," i2mo. This beautiful book 
is on vellum, with the same Danse Macabre as in the 
preceding, but the other cuts are different. 

No. III. " Hore presentes ad usum Sarum impresse 
fuerunt Parisiis per Philippum Pigouchet Anno Salutis 
Mccccxcviii die vero xvi Maii pro Symone Vostre libraric 
commorante, &c." 8vo. as above. 

Another beautiful volume on vellum, with the same 
Danse Macabre. He printed a similar volume of the 
same date, for the use of Rome, also on vellum. 

A volume of prayers, in 8vo. mentioned by M. Peignot, 
p. 145, after M. Raymond, but the title is not given. It is 
supposed to be anterior to 1500, and seems to contain the 
same personages in its Danse Macabre, as in the preceding 
volumes printed by Simon Vostre. 

No. IV. "Heures k I'usage de Soissons." Printed by 
Simon Vostre, on vellum, 1502, 8vo. With the same 
Danse Macabre. 

No. V. " Heures a Tusage de Rheims, nouvellement 
imprimees avec belles histoires, pour Simon Vostre," 
1502, 8vo. This is mentioned by M. Peignot, on the 
authority of Papillon. It was reprinted 1513, 8vo. and 
has the same cuts as above. 

No. VI. "Heures \ i'usage de Rome. Printed for 
Simon Vostre by Phil. Pigouchet,'* 1502, large 8vo. on 
vellum. With the same Danse Macabre. This truly mag- 
nificent volume, superior to all the preceding by the same 
printer in beauty of type and marginal decoration, differs 
from them in having stanzas at the bottom of each page ol 
the Dance, but which apply to the figure at tl: e top only. 
They are here giveu 



7 he Dance of Death. 57 



Vous qui vive/. certaiiiement 
Quoy qu'il tarde aiasi danserez 
Mais quand Dieu le scet seulement 
Avisez comme vous fcrez 

Dam Pape vous commencerez 
Comme le plus digne Seigiieur 
En ce point honorire serez 
Au grant maistre est deu I'honneur. 

KING. 

Mais maintenant toute haultesse 
Laisserez vous nestes pas seul 
Peu aurez de votre richesse 
Le plus riche n'a qung linseul 

Venez noble Roy couronne 
Renomme de force et prouesse 
Jadis fustez environne 
De grans pompes de grant noblesse. 

ARCHBISHOP. 

Que vous tirez la teste arriere 
Arche\'esque tirez vous pres, 
Avez vous peur qu'on ne vous fiere 
Ne doubtez vous viendres apr^ 

N'est pas tousjours la mort empres 
Tout homme suyvant coste a coste 
Rendre comment debtez et pres 
Une foys fault coustcra loste. 

SQUIRE. 

II n'est rien que ne preigne court 
Dansez et pensez de suyr 
Vous ne povez avoir secours 
II n'est qui mort puisse fuyr 

Avencez vous gent escuyer 
Qui scavez de danser les tours 
Lance porties et escuz hyer 
Aujourdhuy finerez voz jours. 

ASTROLOGER. 

Maistre pour vostre regarder 
En hault ne pour vostre clergie 
Ne pouvez la mort retarder 
Ci ne vault rien astrologie 

Toute la genealogie 

D' Adam qui fust le premier homme 

Mort prent se dit theologie 

Tous faxilt mourir pour une pomina 



58 ITie Dance of Death, 

MERCHANT. 

Vecy vostre dernier marche 
II convient que par cy passes 
De tout soing serez despechie 
Tel convoiste qui a assez 

Marcliant regardes par deca 
Plusieurs pays avez cerchie 
A pied a cheval de pieca 
Vous n'en serez plus empeschie. 

MONK. 

Ha maistre par la passeres 
N'est ja besoing de vous defendr» 
Plus homme nespouvan teres 
Apres Moyne sans plus attendre 

Ou pensez vous cy fault entendre 
Tantost aurez la bouche close 
Homme n'est fors que vent et cefKtPV 
Vie done est moult peu de chose. 

LOVER. 

Trop lavez ayme cest foleur 
Et a mourir peu regarde 
Tantost vous changerez couleur 
Beaulte n'est que ymage farde 

Gentil amoureux gent et frique 
Qui vous cuidez de grant valeur 
Vous estez pris la mort vous piquc 
Ce monde lairez a douleur. 

CtrRATE. 
Passez cure sans long songier 
Je sans questes habandonne 
Le vif le mort Soulier menger 
Mais vous serez aux vers domie 

Vous fustes jadis ordonne 
Miroir dautruy et exemplaire 
De voz faitz serez guerdonne 
A toute peine est deu salaire, 

CHILD. 

Sur tout du jour de la naissance 
Convient chascun a mort offrir 
Fol est qui n'en a congnoissance 
Qui plus vit plus a assouffrir 

Petit enfant naguerez ne 

Au monde aures peu de plaisancc 

A la danse sera mene 

Comme autre car mort a puissance. 



The Dance of Death. 59 

QUEEN. 

Noble Royne de beau corsage 
Gente et joyeuse a ladvenant 

iay de par le grant maistre charge 
)e vous enmener maintenant 

Et comme bien chose advenant 
Ceste danse coinmenseres 
Faictes devoir au remenant 
Vous qui viver ainsi feres. 

LADY. 

C'est bien chasse quand on pourchasac 
Chose a son ame meritoire 
Car au derrain mort tout enchasse 
Ceste vie est moult transitoire 

Gentille femme de chevalier 
Que tant aymes deduit et chasse 
I^es engins vous fault habiller 
Et suyvre le train de ma trasse. 

PRIORESS. 

Se vous avez sans fiction 
Tout vostre temps servi ^ Dieu 
Du cueur en sa religion 
La quelle vous avez vestue 

Celuy qui tous biens retribue 
Vous recompenserer loyalment 
A son vouloir en temps et lieu 
Bien fait requiert bon payment 

FRANCISCAN NUN. 
Se vos prieres sont bien dignen 
Elles vous vauldront devant Dien 
Rien ne valient soupirs ne signes 
Bone operacion tient lieu 

Femme de grande devocion 
Cloez voz heures et matines 
Et cessez contemplacion 
Car jamais nyres a matines. 

CHAMBER-MAID. 

Dictez jeune femme a la cruche 
Rcnommee bonne chambriere 
Respondez au moins quant on hndie 
Sans tenir si rude maniere 

Vous nirez plus a la riviere 
Baver au four na la fenestre 
Cest cy vostre joumee demiere 
Ausy tost meurt servant que maistm 



The Dance of Death, 

WIDOW. 

Cest belle chose de tenir 
Lestat ou on est appellee 
Et soy tousjours bien maintenif 
Vertus est tout par tout louee. 

Femme vesve venez avant 
Et vous avancez de venir 
Vous veez les aultres davant 
II convient une fois finir. 

LYING-IN NURSE. 

Venez ca garde dacouchees 

Dresse aves maintz bainz perdus 

Et ses cortines attachees 

Ou estoient beaux boucques p«i<hw 

Biens y ont estez despendus 

Tant de mots ditz que cest ung son^l 

Qui seront cher vendus 

En la fin tout mal vient en ron^e. 

SHEPHERDESS. 

Aux camps ni rez plus soir ne matin 
Veiller brebis ne garder bestes 
Rien ne sera de vous demain 
Apres les veilles sont les festes 

Pas ne vous oublieray derriere 
Venez apres moy sa la main 
Entendez plaisante bergiere 
Ou marcande cy main a main. 

OLD WOMAN. 

Et vous madame la gourree 
Vendu avez maintz surplis 
Done de largent est fourree 
Et en sont voz coffres remplis 

Apres tous souhaitz acomplis 
Convient tout laisser et ballier 
Selon la robe on fait le plis 
A tel potaige tel cuiller. 

WITCH. 

Est condannee comme meurtriero 
A mourir ne vivra plus gaire 
Je la maine en son cimitiere 
Cest belle chose de bien faire 

Oyez oyez on vous fait scavoir 
Que ceste vielle sorciere 
A fait mourir et decepvoir 
Plusieurs gens en mainte manicKC* 



The Dance of Death. 6i 

In the cut of the adoration of the shepherds their names 
are introduced as follows : Gobin le gay : le beau Roger ; 
Aloris ; Ysauber ; Alison, and Mahault. The same cut is 
in two or three other Horse mentioned in this list. 

No. VII. " H cures k I'usaige de Rouan. Simon Vostre, 
1508, 8vo." With the same Danse Macabre. 

No. VIII. " Horae ad usum Romanum. Thielman 
Kerver," 1508, 8vo. Vellum. With the same Danse 
Macabre. 

No. IX. "Hore christofere virginis Marie secundum 
usum Romanum ad longum absque aliquo recursu, &c." 
Parisiis. Simon Vostre, 1508, 8vo. M. Peignot has given 
a very minute description of this volume, with a list of the 
different persons in the Danse Macabre. 

No. X. " Heures k I'usage de . . . . Ant Verard," 1509, 
8vo. with the same Danse Macabre. 

No. XL " Heures \ I'usaige d' Angers. Simon Vostre," 
1 5 10, 8vo. With the same Danse Macabre. Particularly 
described by M. Peignot. 

No. XII. "Heures k I'usaige de Rome. Guil. Godar," 
1510, large 8vo. vellum illuminated. A magnificent book. 
It contains the Danse Macabre as in No. I. But it is 
remarkable for a third Dance of Death on the margins at 
bottom, consisting of small compartments with a single 
figure, but unaccompanied in the usual manner by Death, 
who, in various shapes and attitudes, is occasionally 
introduced. The characters are the following, without the 
arrangement commonly observed, and here given in the 
order in which they occur, i. l.a Prieuse. 2. La Garde 
dacouche. 3. L'Abesse. 4. Le Promoteur. 5. Le Cone- 
stable. 6. Le Moine, without a label. 7. La Vielle 
Demoiselle. 8. La Baillive. 9. La Duchesse. 10. Le 
Sergent. 11. La Nourrice. 12. La femme du Chevallier. 
13. La Damoiselle. 14. Le Maistre descole. 15. La 
Femme du village. 16. La Rescomanderese. 17. La 
Revenderese. 18. Le Laboureur. 19. La Bourgoise. 20. 
L'Usurier. 21. Le Pelerin. 22. Le Berger. 23. La 
Religieuse. 24. L'Home d'armes. 25. La Sorciere. 26. 
Le Petit enfant 27. Le Clerc 28. Le Patriarche. 29. 
Le Cardinal. 30. L'Empereur. 31. Le Roy. 32. La 
Marchande. 33. Le C\»rd 34. La Theologienne. 35. La 



62 Uie Dance of Death. 

Jeiine fille. 36. Le Sot 37. Le Hallebardier. 38. La 
Pucelle vierge. 39. L'Hermite. 40. L'Escuier. 41. La 
Chamberiere. 42. La Fenime de lescuier. 43. La Corde- 
liere. 44. La Femme veuve. 45. Le Chartreux. 46. La 
Royne. 47. La Regente. 48. La Bergere. 49. L'Advocat. 
50. L'Espousee. 51. La Femme amoureuse. 52. LaNou- 
velle Mariee. 53. Le Medecin. Wherever the figure of 
Death is introduced, he is accompanied with the motto 
" Amort, amort." 

No. XIIL " Hore ad usum Romanum. Thielman 
Kerver," 151 1, 8vo. Vellum, with the Danse Macabre. 

No. XIV. " Heures \ I'usage de Langres. Simon Vostre," 
151 2, 8vo. In the possession of Mons. G. M. Raymond, 
who has described it in Millin's " Magazin Encyclopedique," 
18 14, tom. iii. p. 13. Mentioned also by M. Peignot. 

No. XV. " Heures k I'usage de Paris. Simon Vostre," 
1515? 8vo. With the Danse Macabre, and the other 
mentioned in No. I. 

No. XVI. "Heures de Nostre Dame k I'usage de 
Troyes. Th. Englard, pour G. Goderet, vers 1520." 
Vellum. Described by M. Peignot. 

No. XVII. "Hore ad usum Romanum. Thielman 
Kerver," 1526, 8vo. Vellum. A beautiful volume. Pre- 
fixed to the Danse Macabre are two prints of the Trois 
morts et trois vifs. 

In all the above Horae the Macaber Dance is represented 
nearly alike in design, the variations being chiefly in the 
attitudes of the figures, which are cut on different blocks, 
except in a few instances where the printers have borrowed 
the latter from each other. Thus Vostre uses Verard's, 
and Pigouchet Godar's. The number of the subjects also 
varies, Vostre and Kerver having more than Verard, 
Godar, and Pigouchet. 

Exceptions to the above manner of representing the 
Macaber Dance, occur in two Horse of singular rarity, and 
which are therefore worthy of particular notice. 

No. XVIII. " Officium beatae Mariae Virginis ad usum 
Romane ecclesie. Impressum Lugduni expensis Bonini de 
Boninis Dalmatini, die xx martij, 1499." i2mo. On vellum. 
Here the designs are very different, and three of the subject^ 
are placed at the bottom of the page. I'hey consist of the 



1 



The Dance of Death. 63 

following personages, there being no females among them. 
It was reprinted by the same printer in 1521. 

Paj)a Artrologus 

Imperator Gives 

Cardiiiales. Canonicus. 

Archiepiscopus Scutifer 

Eques Abbas 

Episcopus. Pretor. 

Rex Monachus 

Patriarche Usurarius 

Capitanus. Medicus. 

Plebanus Mercator 

^^borator Certosinus 

Frater Minor. Nuncius. 

A mans Puer 

Advocatus Sacristanus 

Joculator. Ileremita. 

No. XIX. " Hore beate Marie Virginis ad usum insignis 
ac preclare ecclesie Sarum cum figuris passionis mysterium 
representatibus recenter additis. Impresse Parisiis per 
Johannem Bignon pro honesto viro Richardo Fakes, 
London, librario, et ibidem commorante cymeterie Sancti 
Pauli sub signo A. B. C." 152 1. A ledger-like T2mo. This 
Macaber Dance is unfortunately imperfect in the only copy 
of the book that has occurred. The figures that remain are 
those of the Pope, King, Cardinal, Patriarch, Judge, Arch- 
bishop, Knight, Mayor, and Earl. 

Under each subject are Lydgate's verses, with some 
slight variation ; and it is therefore very probable that we 
have here a copy, as to many of the figures, of the Dance 
that was painted at St. Paul's in compartments like the 
other Macaber Dance, and not as the group in Dugdale, 
which has been copied from a wood-cut at the end of 
Lydgate's " Fall of Prynces." As all the before-mentioned 
Hone were printed at Paris, with one exception only, and 
many of them at a very early period, it is equally probable 
that they may be copies of the Dance at the Innocents, 
unless a preference in that respect should be given to the 
figures in the French editions of the Danse Macabre. 

Manuscript Hor?e, or books of prayers, which contain 
the Macaber Dance, are in the next place deserving of our 



64 The Dance of Death. 

attention. These are extremely rare, and two only have» 
occurred on the present occasion. 

r. A manuscript Prayer-book of the fifteenth century is 
very briefly described by M. Peignot,^ which he states to 
be the only one that has come to his knowledge. 

2. An exquisitely beautiful volume, in large 8vo. bound 
in brass and velvet. It is a Latin Horse, elegantly written 
in Roman type at the beginning of the i6th century. It 
has a profusion of paintings, every page being decorated 
with a variety of subjects. These consist of stories from 
scripture, sports, games, trades, grotesques, &c. &c. the 
several employments of the months, which have also the 
signs of the zodiac, are worth describing, there being two 
sets for each month. 

January . — i. A man sitting at table, a servant bringing 
in a dish of viands. The white table-cloth is beauti- 
fully diapered. 2. Boys playing at the game called 
Hockey. 

February. — i. A man warming himself by a fire, a 
domestic bringing in faggots. 2. Men and women 
at table, two women cooking additional food in the 
same apartment. 

March. — i. A man pruning trees. 2. A priest confirming 
a group of people. 

April. — I. A man hawking. 2. A procession of pilgrims. 

May. — I. A gentleman and lady on the same horse. 
2. Two pairs of lovers : one of the men plays on a 
flute, the other holds a hawk on his fist. 

June. — I. A woman shearing sheep. 2. A bridal procession. 

July. — I. A man with a scythe about to reap. He drinks 
from his leathern bottle. 2. Boys and girls at the sport 
called Threading the needle. 

August. — I. A man reapii g with a sickle. 2. Blind man's 
buff. 

September. — i. A man sowing. 2. The games of hot 
cockles and 

October. — i. Making wine. 2. Several men repairing casks, 
the master of the vineyard directing. 

* Recbei'lies, p. 144. and see Catal. La Valliere, No. 295. 



The Dance of Death. 65 

November. — i. A man threshing acorns to feed liis hogs. 

2. Tennis. 
December. — i. Singeing a hog. 2. Boys pelting each other 

with snow-balls. 

The side margins have the following Danse Macabre, 
consisting as usual of two figtiies only : — Papa, Imperator, 
Cardinalis, Rex, Archiepiscopus, Comestabilis, Patriarcha, 
Eques auratus, Episcopus, Scutarius, Abbas, Prepositus, 
Astrologus, Mercator, Cordiger, Satelles, Usurarius, Advo- 
catus, Mimus, Infans, Heremita. 

The margins at bottom contain a great variety of 
emblems of mortality. Among these are the following : — 

1. A man presents a mirror to a lady, in which her face 
is reflected as a death's head. 

2. Death shoots an arrow at a man and woman. 

3. A man endeavouring to escape from Death is caught 
by him. 

4. Death transfixes a prostrate warrior with a spear. 

5. Two very grotesque Deaths, the one with a scythe, the 
other with a spade. 

6. A group of five Deaths, four dancing a round, the 
other drumming. 

7. Death on a bull, holding a dart in his hand. 

8. Death in a cemetery running away with a coffin and 
)ick-axe. 

9. Death digging a grave for two shrouded bodies on the 
ground. 

10. Death seizing a fool. 

11. Death seizing the master of a family. 

1 2. Death seizing Caillette, a celebrated fool mentioned 
by Rabelais, Des Periers, &c He is represented in the 
French translation of the Ship of Fools. 

13. Death seizing a beggar. 

14. Death seizing a man playing at tennis. 

15. Death striking the miller going to his mill. 

16. Death seizing Ragot, a famous beggar in the reign of 
Louis XII. He is mentioned by Rabelais. 

This precious volume is in the present writer's possession 
Other manuscripts connected with the Macaber Dance 
are the following : 

f 



66 Hie Dance of Death. 

1. No. 1849, a Colbert MS. in the King of France's library, 
appears to have been written towards the end of th': 
fifteenth century, and is splendidly illuminated on vellum, 
with figures of men and women led by Death, the designs 
not much differing from those in Verard's printed copy. 

2. Another manuscript in the same library, formerly 
No. 543 in that of Saint Victor, is at the end of a small 

V ume of miscellanies written on paper about the year 
1520 ; the text resembles that of the immediately preceding 
article, and occasionally varies from the printed editions. 
It has no illuminations. These are the only manuscript 
Macaber Dances in the royal library at Paris. 

3. A manuscript of the Dance of Death, in German, is 
in the library of Munich. See Dr. Dibdin's Bibliographical 
Tour, vol. iii. 278 ; and Vonder Hagen's History of German 
Poetry. Berlin, 18 12, 8vo. p. 459. The date of 1450 is 
given to this manuscript on the authority of Docen, in his 
Miscellanies, vol. ii. p. 148, and new Literary Advertiser 
for 1806, No. 22, p. 348. Vonder Hager also states that 
Docen has printed it in his Miscellanies, pp. 349—352, 
and 412 — 416. 

4. A manuscript in the Vatican, No. 314. See Von- 
der Hagen, ubi supra, who refers to Adelung, vol. ii. pp. 317, 
318, where the beginning and other extracts are given. 

5. In the Duke de la Valliere's catal. No. 2801, is " La 
Danse Macabre par personnages, in 4to. Sur papier du 
XV siecle, contenant 12 feuillets." 

In the course of this inquiry no manuscript, decorated 
with a regular series of a Dance of Death, has been 
discovered. 

The Abbe Rive left, in manuscript, a bibliography of all 
the editions of the Macaber Dance, which is at present, 
with other manuscripts by the Abbe, in the hands of M. 
Achard, a bookseller at Marseilles. See Peignot, Diction, 
de Bibliologie, iii. 384. 

The following articles, accompanied by letter-press, and 
distinguishable from single prints, appear to relate to the 
Macaber Dance. 

I. The Dance and song of Death is among books 
licensed to John Awdeley.^ 

' Herbert's typogr. antiq. p. 888, 



I 



Thf Dana of Death. 67 

a. ** The roll of the Daunce of Death, with pictures ana 
verses upon the same," was entered on the Stationers' 
books, 5th Jan. 1597, by Thomas Purfort, sen. and jun. 
The price was dd. This, as well as that licensed to Awdeley, 
was in all probability the Dance at St. Paul's. 

3. " Der Todten Tantz au Hertzog Georgens zu Sachsea 
schloss zu Dresden befindlich." /'. e, " Here is found the 
Dance of Death on the 'Saxon palace of Duke George 
at Dresden." It consists of twenty-seven characters, as 
follow : I. Death leading the way \ in his right hand he 
holds a drinking glass or cup, and in his left a trumpet 
which he is blowing. 2. Pope. 3. Cardinal. 4. Abbot. 
5. Bishop. 6. Canon. 7. Priest. 8. Monk. 9. Death 
beating a drum with bones. 10. Emperor. 11. King. 
12. Duke. 13. Nobleman. 14. Knight. 15. Gentleman. 
16. Judge, 17. Notary. 18. Soldier. 19. Peasant. 20. 
Beggar. 21. Abbess. 22. Duchess, 23. Old woman. 
24. Old man. 25. Child. 26. Old beggar. 27. Death 
with a scythe. This is a single print in the Chronicle of 
Dresden, by Antony Wecken, Dresden, 1680, folio, already 
mentioned in p. 38. 

4. In the catalogue of the library of R. Smith, which 
was sold by auction in 1682, is this article, "Dance of 
Death, in the cloyster of Paul's, with figures, very old." It 
was sold for six shillings to Mr. Mearne. 

5. A sort of Macaber Dance, in a Swiss almanac, 
consisting of eight subjects, and entitled " Ein Stuck aus 
dem Todten tantz," or, " a piece of a Dance of Death : " 
engraved on wood by Zimmerman with great spirit, after 
some very excellent designs. They are accompanied with 
dialogues between Death and the respective characters. 
I. The Postilion on horseback. Death, in a huge pair of 
jack-boots, seizes him by the arm with a view to unhorse 
him. 2. The Tinker. Death, with a skillet on his head, 
plunders the tinker's basket. 3. The Hussar on horseback, 
accompanied by Death, also mounted, and, like his comrade, 
wearing an enormous hat with a feather. 4. The Physician. 
Death habited as a modern beau, with chapeau-bras, brings 
his urinal to the Doctor for inspection. 5. The fraudulent 
Innkeeper, in the act of adulterating a cask of liquor, is 
seized and throttled by a very grotesque Death in the habit 



^\ 



6^ The Dance of Death, 

of an alewife, with a vessel at her back. 6. The Ploughman, 
holding his implements of husbandry, is seized by Death, 
who sits on a plough and carries a scythe in his left hand. 
7. The Grave-digger, is pulled by Death into the grave 
which he has just completed. 8. The lame Messenger, 
led by Death. The size of the print 1 1 by 64 inches. 

6.- Papillon states that Le Blond, an artist, then living at 
Orleans, engraved the Macaber Dance on wood for the 
Dominotiers, or vendors of coloured prints for the common 
people, and that the sheets, when put together, form a 
square of three feet, and have verses underneath each 
figure.* 

There is a German work entitled " The process or law- 
suit of Death," printed, and perhaps written, by Conrad 
Fyner in 1477 ; t)ut as it is not noticed in Panzer's list of 
German books, no further account of it can be given than 
that it is briefly mentioned by Joseph Heller, in a German 
work on the subject of engraving on wood, in which one 
cut from it is introduced, that exhibits Death conversing 
with a husbandman who holds a flail in one of his hands. 
It is probable that the book would be found to contain 
Other figures relating to a Macaber Dance. 

* Traits kut de U gra^'ur? en bois, i itt, %^ 




CHAPTER VI. 

Hans Holbein s connexion with the Dance of Death. — A dance 
of peasants at Basle. — Lyons edition of the Dance of Death, 
1538. — Doubts as to any prior edition. — Dedication to the 
edition of 1538. — Mr. Ottlefs opinion of it examined. — 
Artists supposed to have been connected with this work. — 
Holbein's name in none of the old editions. — Reperdius. 




HE name of Holbein has been so 
strongly intenvoven with the Dance 
of Death, that the latter is seldom 
mentioned without bringing to recol- 
lection that extraordinary artist. 

It would be a great waste of time 
and words to dwell specifically on the 
numerous errors of such writers as 
Papillon, Fournier, and several others, who have inad- 
vertently connected Holbein with the Macaber Dance, or 
to correct those of travellers who have spoken of the 
subject as it appeared in any shaj)e in the city of Basle. 
The opinions of those who have either supposed or stated 
that Holbein even retouched or repaired the old painting 
at Basle, are entitled to no credit whatever, unaccompanied 
as they are by necessary proofs. The names of the artists 
who were employed on that painting have been already 
adverted to, and are sufficiently detailed in the volumes of 
Merian and Peignot; and it is therefore unnecessar)- to 
repeat them. 



70 The Dance of Death. 

Evidence, but of a very slight and unsatisfactory nature, 
has been adduced that Holbein painted some kind of a 
Death's Dance on the walls of a house at Basle. Whether 
this was only a copy of the old Macaber subject, or some 
other of his own invention, cannot now be ascertained. 
Bishop Burnet, in his Letters from Switzerland,^ states that 
" there is a Dance which he painted on the walls of a house 
where he used to drink ; yet so worn out that very little is 
now to be seen, except shapes and postures, but these show 
the exquisiteness of the hand." It is much to be regretted 
that this painting was not in a state to have enabled the 
bishop to have been more particular in his description. 
He then mentions the older Dance, which he places " along 
the side of the convent of the Augustinians (meaning the 
Dominicans), now the French church, so worn out some 
time ago that they ordered the best painter they had to lay 
new colour on it, but this is so ill done, that one had 
rather see the dark shadow of Holbein's pencil than this 
coarse work." Here he speaks obscurely, and adopts the 
error that Holbein had some hand in it. 

Keysler, a man of considerable learning and ingenuity, 
and the author of a very excellent book of Travels, mentions 
the old painting at Basle, and adds, that " Holbein had also 
drawn and painted a Death's Dance, and had likewise 
painted, as it were, a duplicate of this piece on another 
house, but which time has entirely obliterated."^ We are 
here again left entirely in the dark as to the first mentioned 
painting, and its difference from the other. Charles Patin, 
an earlier authority than the two preceding travellers, and 
who was at Basle in 1 671, informs us that strangers behold, 
with a considerable degree of pleasure, the walls of a house 
at the corner of a little street in the above town, which are 
covered from top to bottom with paintings by Holbein, 
that would have done honour to the commands of a great 
prince, whilst they are, in fact, nothing more than the 
painter's reward to the master of a tavern for some meals 
that he had obtained.^ In the list of HcJbein's works, in 

* Letters containing an account of what seemed most remarkable in 
Switzerland, Italy, &c. By G. Burnet, D.D. Rotterdam, 1686, 8vo. 

f. 265. 2 Travels through Germany, &c. i. 138, edit 4to, 

Relations historiques et curieuses de voyages en AUemagne, &a 
Axnst i6o{< i2mo. p. 124. 



'"^-m 



The Dance of Death 7 1 

his edition of Erasmus's Moriae encomion, he .ikewise 
mentions the painting on a house in the Eisengassen, or 
Iron-street, near the Rhine bridge, and for which he is said 
to have received forty florins,* perhaps the same as that 
mentioned in his Travels 

This painting was still remaining in the year 1730, when 
Mr. Breval saw it, and described it as a dance 0/ boors, but 
in his opinion unworthy, as well as the Dance of Death 
in that city, of Holbein's hand.' These accounts of the 
paintings on houses are very obscure and contradictor}^, 
and the only way to reconcile them is by concluding that 
Holbein might have decorated the walls of some houses 
with a Dance of Death, and of others with a dance of 
peasants.* The latter subject would indeed be very much 
to the taste of an innkeeper, and the nature of his occupa- 
tion. Some of the writers on engraving have manifested 
their usual inaccuracy on the subject of Holbein's Dance 
of Peasants. Joubert says it has been engraved, but that 
it is " a peu pres introuvable."' Huber likewise makes 
them extremely rare, and adds, without the slightest 
authority, that Holbein engraved them.* There is, how- 
ever, no doubt that his beautiful pencil was employed on 
this subject in various ways, of which the following specimens 
are worthy of being recorded, i. In a set of initial letters 
frequently used in books printed at Basle and elsewhere. 
2. In an edition of Plutarch's works, printed by Cratander 
at Basle, 1530, folio, and afterwards introduced into Polydore 
Vergil's " Anglicre historiae libri viginti sex," printed at Basle, 
1540, in folio, where, on p. 3 at bottom, the subject is very 
elegantly treated. It occurs, also, in other books printed iu 
the same city. 3. In an edition of the " Nugae " of Nicolas 
Borbonius, Basle, 1540, i2mo. at p. 17, there is a dance of 
peasants replete with humour : and, 4. A vignette in the 
'irst page of an edition of Apicius, printed at Basle, 1541^ 
4to. without the printer's name. 

After all, there seems to be a fatality of ambiguity in the 

* See likewise Zuinger, Methodus Academica, Basle, 1577, 4to. p. 199. 

Remarks on several parts of Eurojje, 1738, vol. ii. p. 72. ' Peignot 
places the dance of peasants in the fish-market of Basle, as other writers 
nad the Dance of Death. Recherche*, p. 15. ^ Mannel de rAmateuf 
d'estampes, ii. 131. ^ Manuel des curieux, &c. i. ij6. 



A 



/j4-'' The Dance of Death. 

account of the Basle paintings ascribed to Holbein ; and 
that of the Dance of Death has not only been placed by 
several writers on the walls, inside and outside, of houses, 
but likewise in the fish-market ; on the walls of the church- 
yard of St. Peter ; and even in the cathedral itself of Basle ; 
and, therefore, amidst this chaos of description, it is abso- 
lutely impossible to arrive at any conclusion that can be 
deemed in any degree satisfactory. 

We are now to enter upon the investigation of a work 
which has been somewhat erroneously denominated a 
"Dance of Death," by most of the writers who have 
mentioned it. Such a title, however, is not to be found in 
any of its numerous editions. It is certainly not a dance, 
but rather, with slight exception, a series of admirable 
groups of persons of various characters, among whom 
Death is appropriately introduced as an emblem of man's 
mortality. It is of equal celebrity with the Macaber Dance, 
but in design and execution of considerable superiority, 
and with which the name of Hans Holbein has been so 
intimately connected, and that great painter so generally 
considered as its inventor, that even to doubt his claim to 
it will seem quite heretical to those who may have founded 
their opinion on internal evidence with respect to his style 
of composition. 

In the year 1538 there appeared a work with the fol- 
lowing title, " Les simulachres et historiees faces de la mort, 
autant elegamment pourtraictes, que artificiellement imagi- 
ndes." A Lyon Soubz lescu de Coloigne, 4to. and at the 
end, " Excudebant Lugduni Melchior et Caspar Trechsel 
fratres, 1538." It has forty-one cuts, most exquisitely de- 
signed and engraved on wood, in a manner which several 
modern artists only of England and Germany have been 
competent to rival. As to the designs of these truly elegant 
prints, no one who is at all skilled in the knowledge of 
Holbein's style and manner of grouping his figures, would 
hesitate immediately to ascribe them to that artist. Some 
persons have imagined that they had actually discovered 
the portrait of Holbein in the subject of the nun and her 
lover ; but the painter, whoever he may have been, is more 
likely to be represented in the last cut as one of the sup- 
porters of the escutcheon of Death. In these designs^ 




The Dance of Death. 

which are wholly different from the dull and oftefjt^mbi 
disgusting Macaber Dance, which is confined, with little 
exception, to two figures only, we have the most interesting 
assemblage of characters, among whom the skeletonized 
Death, with all the animation of a living person, forms the 
most important personage ; sometimes amusingly ludicrous, 
occasionally mischievous, but always busy and characteristi- 
cally occupied. 

Doubts have arisen whether the above can be regarded 
as the first edition of these justly celebrated engravings in 
the form of a volume accompanied with text. In the 
"Notices sur les graveurs," Besan^on, 1807, 8vo. a work 
ascribed to M. Malp^,' it is stated to have been originally 
published at Basle in 1530; and in M. Jansen's " Essai sur 
I'origine de la gravure," &c. Paris, 1808, 8vo. a work replete 
with plagiarisms, and the most glaring mistakes, the same 
assertion is repeated. This writer adds, but unsupported 
by any authority, that soon afterwards another edition 
appeared with Flemish verses. Both these authors, follow- 
ing their blind leader Papillon, have not ventured to state 
that they ever saw this supposed edition of 1530; and it 
may indeed be asked, who has ? Or in what catalogue of 
any library is it recorded ? Malpe' acknowledges that the 
earliest edition he had seen was that of 1538. M. Fuseli, 
in his edition of Pilkington's Dictionary of Painters, has 
appended a note to the article for Hans Holbein, where, 
alluding perhaps to the former edition of the present disser- 
tation, he remarks, that " Holbein's title to the Dance of 
Death would not have been called in question, had the 
ingenious author of the dissertation on that subject been 
acquainted with the German edition." This gentleman 
seems, however, to have inadvertently forgotten a former 
opinion which he had given in one of his lectures, where 
he says, "The scrupulous precision, the high finish, and the 
Titianesque colour of Hans Holbein would make the least 
part of his excellence, if his right to that series of emblem- 
atic groups known under the name of Holbein's Dance of 
Death had not, of late, been too successfully disputed." M. 
Fuseli would have rendered some service to this question 
by favouring us with an explicit account of the abovq 
• Some gi\'c it tc the At be BavcreL 



74 The Dance of Death. 

German edition, if he really intended by it a complete 
work; but it is most likely that he adverted to some 
separate impressions of the cuts with printed inscriptions 
on them, but which are only the titles of the respective 
characters or subjects. To such impressions M. Malpe has 
certainly referred, adding that they have, at top, passages 
from the Bible in German, and verses at bottom in the same 
language. Jansen follows him as to the verses at bottom 
only. Now, on forty-one of these separate impressions, in 
the collection of the accurate and laborious author of the 
best work on the origin and early history of engraving that 
has ever appeared, and on several others in the present 
writer's possession, neither texts of scripture, nor verses at 
bottom, are to be ifound, and nothing more than the above- 
mentioned German titles of the characters. M. Huber, in 
his " Manuel des curieux et des amateurs de I'art," vol. i. p. 
155, after inaccurately stating that Holbein engraved these 
cuts, proceeds to observe, that in order to form a proper 
judgment of their merit, it is necessary to see the earliest 
impressions, printed on one side only of the paper ; and 
refers to twenty-one of them in the cabinet of M. Otto, of 
Leipsig, but without stating any letter-press as belonging to 
them, or regarding them as a part of any German edition of 
the work. 

In the public library of Basle there are proof impressions, 
on four leaves, of all the cuts which had appeared in the 
edition of 1538, except that of the astrologer. Over each 
is the name of the subject printed in German, and without 
any verses or letter-press whatever at bottom, 

It is here necessary to mention that the first known 
edition in which these cuts were used, namely, that of 1538, 
was accompanied with French verses, descriptive of the 
subjects. In an edition that soon afterwards appeared, 
these French verses were translated into Latin by George 
^mylius, a German divine ; and in another edition, pub- 
lished at Basle, in 1554, the Latin verses were continued. 
In both these cases, had there been any former German 
verses, would they not have been retained in preference % 

There is a passage, however, in Gesner's Pandectae, a 
supplemental volume of great rarity to his well-known 
Bibiiotheca, that slightly adverts to a German edition of 



The Dance of Death. 75 

this work, and at the same time connects Holbein's name 
with it. It is as follows : " Imagines mortis expressae ab 
optimo pictore Johanne Holbein cum epigrammatibus Geo. 
i^mylii, excusae Francofurti et Lugduni apud Frellonios, 
quorum editio plures habet picturas. Vidi etiam cum 
metris Gallicis et Germanicis si bene nieniini." '° But Gesner 
writes from imperfect recollection only, and specifies no 
edition in German. It is most probable that he refers to an 
early copy of the cuts on a larger scale with a good deal of 
text in German, and printed and perhaps engraved by Jobst 
Denecker, at Augsburg, 1544, small folio. 

The forty-one separate impressions of the cuts in the 
collection of Mr. Ottley, as well as those in the present 
writer's possession, are printed on one side of the paper 
only, another argument that they were not intended to be 
used in any book ; and although they are extremely clear 
and distinct, many of them that were afterwards used in the 
various editions of the book are not less brilliant in ap- 
pearance. It is well known to those who are conversant 
with engravings on wood, that the earliest impressions are 
not always the best; a great deal depending on the care 
and skill with which they were taken from the blocks, and 
not a little on the quality of the paper. As they were most 
likely engraved at Basle by an excellent artist, of whom 
more will be said hereafter, and at the instance of the 
Lyons booksellers or publishers, it is very probable that a 
few impressions would be taken off with German titles only 
for the use of the people of Basle, or other persons using 
the German language. Proofs might also be wanted for the 
accommodation of amateurs or other curious persons, and 
therefore it would be only necessary to print the names or 
titles of the subjects. This conjecture derives additional 
support from the well-known literary intercourse between 
the cities of Lyons and Basle, and from their small distance 
from each other. On the whole, therefore, the Lyons 
edition of 1538 may be safely regarded as the earliest, until 
some other shall make its appearance with a well ascer- 
tained prior date, either in German or any other language. 

In the edition of 1538 there is a dedication not in any 
of the others, and of very considerable importance. It is a 

10 vh. uit, p. a<s. 



76 The Dance of Death. 

pious, quaint, and jingling address to Jeanne de Touszcle, 
Abbess of the convent of St. Peter, at Lyons, in which the 
author, whose name is obscurely stated to be Ouzele, com- 
pliments the good lady as the pattern of true religion, from 
her intimate acquaintance with the nature of Death, rushing, 
as it were, into his hands, by her entrance into the sepulchre 
of a cloister. He enlarges on the various modes of repre- 
senting the mortality of human nature, and contends that 
the image of Death has nothing terrific in the eyes of the 
Christian. He maintains that there is no better method of 
depicting mortality than by a dead person, especially by 
those images which so frequently occur on sepulchral mo- 
numents. Adverting then to the figures in the present 
work, he regrets the death of him who has here conceived 
[imaging] such elegant designs, greatly exceeding all other 
patterns of the kind, in like manner as the paintings of Apelles 
and Zeuxis have surpassed those of modern times. He ob- 
serves that these funereal histories, accompanied by their 
grave descriptions in rhyme, induce the admiring spectators 
to behold the dead as alive, and the living as dead ; which 
leads him to believe that Death, apprehensive lest this 
admirable painter should exhibit him so lively that he 
would no longer be feared as Death, and that he should 
thereby become immortal himself, had hastened his days to 
an end, and thus prevented him from completing many 
other figures which he had already designed, especially that 
of the carman crushed and wounded beneath his demolished 
wagon, the wheels and horses of which are so frightfully 
overthrown that as much horror is excited in beholding 
their downfall, as pleasure in contemplating the lickerishness 
of one of the Deaths, who is clandestinely sucking with a 
reed the wine in a bursting cask.^^ That in these imperfect 
subjects no one had dared to put the finishing hand, on 

" The dedicator has apparently in this place been guilty of a strange 
misconception. The Death is not sucking the wine from the cask, but 
in the act of untwisting the fastening to one of the hoops. Nor is the 
carman crushed beneath the wheels : on the contrary, he is represented 
as standing upright and wringing his hands in despair at what he 
beholds. It is true that this cut was not then completed, and might 
have undergone some subsequent alteration. He likewise speaks of 
the rainbow in the cut of the Last Judgment, as being at that time 
unfinished, which, however, is introduced in this first edition. 



Tlig Dance of Death. 77 

account of the boldness of their outline, shadow, and 
perspective, delineated in so graceful a manner, that by its 
contemplation one might indulge either in a joyful sorrow, 
or a melancholy pleasure. " Let antiquaries then," says he, 
" and lovers of ancient imagery, discover anything com- 
parable to these figures of Death, in which we behold the 
Empress of all living souls from the creation, trampling 
over Caesars, Emperors, and Kings, and with her scythe 
mowing down the tyrannical heroes of the earth." He 
concludes with admonishing the Abbess to take in good 
part this his sad but salutary present, and to persuade her 
devout nuns not only to keep it in their cells and 
dormitories, but in the cabinet of their memory, therein 
pursuing the counsel of St. Jerome, &c. 

The singularity of this curious and interesting dedication 
is deserving of the utmost attention. It seems ver}' strongly, 
if not decisively, to point out the edition to which it is 
prefixed, as the first ; and what is of still more importance, 
to deprive Holbein of any claim to the invention of the 
work. It most certainly uses such terms of art as can 
scarcely be mistaken as conveying any other sense than 
that of originality in design. There cannot be words of 
plainer import than those which describe the painter, as he 
is expressly called, delineating the subjects, and leaving 
several of them unfinished : and whoever the artist might 
have been, it clearly appears that he was not living in 1538. 
Now it is well known that Holbein's death did not take 
place before the year 1554, during the plague which 
ravaged London at that time. If, then, the expressions 
used in this dedication signify anything, it may surely be 
asked what becomes of any claim on the part of Holbein 
to the designs of the work in question, or does it not at 
least remain in a situation of doubt and difficulty ? 

It is, however, with no small hesitation that the author 
of the present dissertation still ventures to dispute, and 
even to deny, the title of Holbein to the invention of this 
Dance of Death, in opposition to his excellent and valued 
friend Mr. Ottley, whose opinion in matters of taste, as well 
as on the styles of the different masters in the old schools 
of painting and engraving, may be justly pronounced to 
be almost oracular. This gentleman has thus expressed 



78 The Dance of Dtath. 

himself : " It cannot be denied that were there nothing to 
oppose to this passage, it would seem to constitute very 
strong rvidence that Holbein, who did not die until the 
year 1554, was not the author of the designs in question ; 
but I am firmly persuaded that it refers in reality, not to the 
designer, but to the artist who had been employed, under 
his direction, to engrave the designs in wood, and whose 
name, there appears reason to believe, was Hans Lutzen- 
berger.^ Holbein, I am of opinion, had, shortly before the 
year 1538, sold the forty-one blocks which had been some 
time previously executed, to the booksellers of Lyons, and 
had at the same time given him a promise of others which 
he had lately designed, as a continuation of the series, and 
were then in the hands of the wood-engraver. The wood- 
engraver, I suppose, died before he had completed his task, 
and the correspondent of the bookseller, who had probably 
deferred his publication in expectation of the new blocks, 
wrote from Basle to Lyons to inform his friend of the 
disappointment occasioned by the artist's death. It is 
probable that this information was not given very circum- 
stantially, as to the real cause of the delay, and that the 
person who wrote the dedication of the book might have 
believed the designer and engraver to be one and the same 
person : it is still more probable that he thought the 
distinction of little consequence to his reader, and willingly 
omitted to go into details which would have rendered his 
quaint moralizing in the above passage less admissible. 
Besides, the additional cuts there spoken of (eight cuts of 
the Dance of Death and four of boys) were afterwards 
finished (doubtless by another wood-engraver, who had 
been brought up under the eye of Holbein), and are not 
apparently inferior, whether in respect of design or execution, 
to the others. In short, these designs have always been 
ascribed to Holbein, and designedly ranked amongst his 
finest works." ^^ 

Mr. Ottley having admitted that the edition of the Dance 
of Death, printed in quarto, at Lyons, 1538, is the earliest 
with which we are at present acquainted, proceeds to state 

^2 It would be of some importance if the date of Lutzenberger's death 
eovild be ascertained. ^^ An Inquiry into the Orgin and early History 
of Engraving, 1816, 4to. voL il p. 759. 



The Dance of Death. 79 

his belief th it the cuts had been previously and certainly 
used at Basle. He then alludes to the supposed Geiman 
edition, about the year 1530, but acknowledges that he had 
not been able to meet with or hear of any person who had 
seen it. He ne.\t introduces to his reader's notice, and 
afterwards describes at large, a set of forty-one impressions, 
being the complete series of the edition of 1538, except 
one, and taken off with the greatest clearness and brilliancy 
of effect, on one side of the paper only, each cut having 
over it its title printed in the German language, with 
movable type. He thinks it possible that they may 
originally have had German verses underneath, and texts 
of Scripture above, in addition to the titles ; a fact, he adds, 
not now to be ascertained, as the margins are clipped on the 
sides and at bottom. He says, it is greatly to be regretted 
that the blocks were never taken off with due diligence and 
good printing ink, after they got into the hands of the 
Lyons booksellers, and then introduces into his page two 
fac-similes of these cuts so admirably copied as to be almost 
undistinguishable from the originals.'* One may, indeed, 
regret with Mr. Ottley the general carelessness of the old 
printers in their mode of taking off impressions from blocks 
of wood when introducing them into their books, and which 
is so very unequally practised that, as already observed, the 
impressions are often clearer and more distinct in later 
than in preceding editions. The works of the old designers 
and engravers would, in many cases, have been much more 
highly appreciated, if they had had the same ju.stice done 
to them by the printers as the editorial taste and judgment 
of Mr. Ottley, combined with the skill of the workmen, 
have obtained in the decoration of his own book. With 
respect to the impressions of the cuts in question, when 
the blocks were in the hands of the Lyons booksellers, the 
fact is, that in some of their editions they are occasionally 
as fine as those separately printed off ; and at the moment 
of making this remark, an edition, published in 1547, at 
Lyons, is before the writer, in which many of the prints are 
uncommonly clear and even brilliant, a circumstance owing, 
in a great degree, to the nature of the paper on which thej 
are impressed. 

^* An Inquiry, &c. ii. 762. 



8o Tlie Dance of Death. 

It were almost to be wished that this perplexing evidence 
against Holbein's title to the invention of the work before 
us had never existed, and that he had consequently been 
left in the quiet possession of what so well accords with his 
exquisite pencil and extraordinary talents. Thus it is, that 
the person to whom we owe this stubborn testimony, has 
manifested a much more intimate acquaintance with the 
mode of conveying his pious ejaculations to the Lady 
Abbess in the quaintest language that could possibly have 
been chosen, than with the art of giving an accurate 
account of the prints in question. Yet it seems scarcely 
possible that he should have used the word imagined^ 
which undoubtedly expresses originality of invention, and 
not the mere act of copying, if he had referred to an 
engraver on wood, whom he would not have dignified with 
the appellation of a painter on whom he was bestowing the 
highest possible eulogium. There would also have been 
much less occasion for the author's hyperbolical fears on 
the part of Death in the case of an engraver, than in that 
of a painter. He has stated that the rainbow subject, 
meaning probably that of the Last Judgment, was left 
unfinished ; but it appears among the engravings in his 
edition. He must, therefore, have referred to a painting, 
with which likewise the expression "bold shadows and 
perspective," seem better to accord than with a slight 
engraving on wood. He had also seen the subject of the 
wagon with the wine casks in its unfinished state, and in 
this case we may almost with certainty pronounce it to have 
been a painting, as the cut of it does not appear in the first 
edition, furnishing, at the same time, an argument against 
Holbein's claim; nor may it be unimportant to add that 
the dedicator, a religious person, and probably a man ot 
some eminence, was much more likely to have been 
acquainted with the painter than with the engraver. The 
dedicator also stamps the work as originating at Lyons ; 
and Frellon, its printer, in a complaint against a Venetian 
bookseller, who pirated his edition, emphatically describes 
it as exclusively belonging to France. 

Again, it is improbable that the dedicator, whoever he 
was, should have preferred complimenting the engraver of 
the cuts, who, with all his consummate skill, must, in point 



The Dance of Death, 81 

of rank and genius, be placed below the painter or 
designer ; and it is at the same time remarkable that the 
name of Holbein is not adverted to in any of the early and 
genuine editions of the work, published at Lyons, or any 
other place, whilst his designs for the Bible have there been 
so pointedly noticed by his friend the poet Borbonius. 

It would be of some importance, if it could be shown 
that the engraver was dead in or before the year 1538, for 
that circumstance would contribute to strengthen Mr. 
Ottley's opinion : but should it be found that he did. not 
die in or before 1538, it would follow, of course, that the 
painter was the person adverted to in the dedication, and 
who consequently could not be Holbein. It becomes 
necessary, therefore, to endeavour at least to discover 
some other artist competent to the invention of the 
beautiful designs in question ; and whether the attempt 
be successful or otherwise, it may, perhaps, be not alto- 
gether misplaced or unprofitable. 

It must be recollected that Francis the First, on returning 
from his captivity at Pavia, imported with him a great many 
Italian and other artists, among whom were Leonardo da 
Vinci, Rosso, Primaticcio, &c. He is also known to have 
visited Lyons, a royal city at that time eminent in art of 
every kind, and especially in those of printing and engraving 
on wood ; as the many beautiful volumes published at that 
place, and embellished with the most elegant decorations 
in the graphic art, will at this moment sufficiently testify. 
In an edition of the "Nugae" of Nicolas Borbonius, the 
friend of Holbein, printed at Lyons, 1538, 8vo. are the 
following lines : 

De Hanso Ulbio, et Georgia Reperdio, pictoribus, 

Videre qui vult Parrhasium cum Zeuxide, 

Accersat k Britannia 
Hansum Ulbium, et Georgium Reperdium. 

Lugduno ab urbe Gallig. 

In these verses Reperdius is opposed to Holbein for the 
excellence of his art, in like manner as Parrhasius had 
been considered as the rival of Zeuxis. 

After such an eulogium it is greatly to be regretted that, 
notwithstanding a very diligent inquiry has been made 

G 



82 The Dance of Death. 

concerning an artist who, by the poet's compaiative view 
of him, is placed on the same footing with Holbein, and 
probably of the same school of painting, no particulars 
of his life or works have been discovered. It is clear 
from Borbonius's lines that he was then living at Lyons, 
and it is extremely probable that he might have begun the 
work in question, and have died before he could complete 
it, and that the Lyons publishers might afterwards have 
employed Holbein to finish what was left undone, as well 
as to make designs for additional subjects which appeared 
in the subsequent editions. Thus would Holbein be so 
connected with the work as to obtain in future such notice 
as would constitute him by general report the real inventor 
of it. If then there be any validity in what is here stated 
concerning Reperdius, the difficulty and obscurity in the 
preface to the Lyons edition of the Dance of Death in 
1538 will be removed, and Holbein remain in possession 
of a share at least in the composition of that inestimable 

work. The mark or monogram Jf ^ on one of the cuts 

cannot possibly belong to Holbein, but may possibly be 
that of the engraver, of whom more hereafter. 




CHAPTER VII. 

ffolbeiris Bible cuts. — Examination of the claim of Hans 
Lutzenberger as to the design or execution of the Lyons 
engravings of the Dance of Death. — Other 7uorks by him. 




T this time the celebrated designs for 
the illustration of the Old Testament, 
usually denominated Holbein's Bible, 
made their appearance, with the fol- 
lowing title, " Historiarum veteris in- 
strument! icones ad vivum expressie. 
Una cum brevi, sed quoad fieri potuit, 
dilucida earundem expositione. Lug- 
duni, sub scuto Coloniensi mdxxxviii." 4to. They were 
several times republished, with varied titles, and two 
additional cuts. Prefixed are some highly complimentary 
Latin verses by Holbein's friend, Nicolas Bourbon, better 
known by his Latinized name of Borbonius, who again 
introduces Parrhasius and Zeuxis in Elysium, and in con- 
versation with ApelleSj who laments that they had all been 
excelled by Holbein. 

These lines by Borbonius do not appear, among others 
addressed by him to Holbein, in the first edition of his 
"Nugae" in 1533, or indeed in any of the subsequent 
editions ; but it is certain that Borbonius was at Lyons 
in 1538, and might then have been called on by the 

G 2 



S4 The Dance of Death. 

publishers of the designs, with whom he was intimately 
connected, for the commendatory verses. 

The booksellers Frellon of Lyons, by some means with 
which we are not now acquainted, or indeed ever likely to 
be, became possessed of the copyright to these designs for 
the Old Testament. It is very clear that they had previously 
been in possession of those for the Dance of Death, and, 
finding the first four of them equally adapted to a Bible, 
they accordingly, and for the purpose of saving expense, 
made use of them in this Bible, though with diflferent 
descriptions, having, in all probability, employed the same 
engraver on wood as in the Dance of Death, a task to 
which he had already demonstrated himself to be fully 
competent. Now, if the Frellons had regarded Holbein 
as the designer of the " Simulachres et historiees faces de 
la Mort," would they not rather have introduced into 
that work the complimentary lines of Borbonius on some 
painting by Holbein of a Dance of Death, and A^hich 
will be hereafter more particularly adverted to, instead 
of inserting the very interesting and decisive dedication 
that has so emphatically referred to the then deceased 
painter of the above admirable composition ? 

Nor is it by any means a matter of certainty that 
Holbein was the designer of all the wood engravings 
belonging to the Bible in question. Whoever may take 
the pains to examine these biblical subjects with a strict 
and critical eye, will not only discover a very great 
difference in the style and drawing of them, but likewise 
a striking resemblance, in that respect, of several of them 
to those in the Dance of Death, as well as in the manner 
of engraving. The rest are in a bolder and broader style, 
in a careless but effective manner, corresponding altogether 
with such designs as are well ascertained to be Holbein's, 
and of which it would be impossible to produce a single 
one, that in point of delicacy of outline, or composition, 
accords with those in the Pance;^ and the judgment of 



• * The few engravings by or after Holbein tliat have liis nanie or its 
initials are to be found in his early frontispieces or vignettes to books 
printed at Basle. In 1548, two delicate wood-cuts, with his name, occur 
In Cr<inmer's Catechism. In the title-page to " a lytle treatise after 



The Dance of Death, 85 

those who are best acquainted with the works of Holbein 
is appealed to on this occasion. It is^ besides, extremely 
probable that the anonymous painter or designer of the 
Dance might have been employed also by the Frellons to 
execute a set of subjects for the Bible previously to his 
Death, and that Holbein was afterwards engaged to com- 
plete the work. 

A comparison of the 8th subject in the " Simulachres, 
&c." with that in the Bible for Esther i. 11. where the 
canopy ornamented with fleurs-de-lis is the same in both, 
will contribute to strengthen the above conjecture, as will 
both the cuts to demonstrate their Gallic origin. It is 
most certain that the king sitting at table in the Simulachres 
is intended for Francis I. which, if any one should doubt, 
let him look upon the miniature of that king, copied at 
p. 214 in Clarke's " Repertorium bibliographicum," from a 
drawir^ in a French MS. belonging to M. Beckford, or 
at a wood-cut in fo. xcxix b. of " L'histoire de Primaleon 
de Grece," Paris, 1550, folio, where the art in the latter will 
be found to resemble very much that in the "Simulachres." 
The portraits also of Francis by Thomas De Leu, Boissevin, 
and particularly that in the portraits of illustrious men 
edited by Beza at Geneva, may be mentioned for the like 
purpose. 

The admission in the course of the preceding remarks 
that Holbein might have been employed in some of the 
additional cuts that appeared in the editions of the Lyons 
Dance of Death which followed that of 1538, may seem at 



the maner of an Epystle wryten by the famous clerk, Doctor Urbanus 
Regius, &C." printed by Gwalter Lynne, 1548, 24010, there is a cut in 
the same style of art of Christ attended by his disciples, and pointing to 
a fugitive monk, whose sheep are scattered, and some devoured by a 
wolf. Above and below are the words, "John x. Ezech. xxxiiiL Mich. v. 
I am the good shepehearde. A good shepehearde geveth his lyfe for 
the shype. The hyred servaunt flyeth, because he is an hered servaunt, 
and carethnot for the shepe." On the cut at bottom, hans holbein. 
There is a fourth cut of this kind in the British Museum collection with 
Christ brought before Pilate ; and perhaps Holbein might have intended 
i series of small engravings for the New Testament ; but all these are in 
a simple outline and very different fror> the cuts in the Dance of Death, 
or Lyons Bible. It might be difficuli to refer to any other engraving* 
belonging to Holbein after the above year. 



86 The Dance of Death, 

variance with what has been advanced with respect to thtf 
Bible cuts ascribed to him. It is, however, by no means a 
matter of necessity that an artist with Holbein's talents 
should have been resorted to for the purpose of designing 
the additional cuts to the Lyons work. There were, 
during the middle of the i6th century, several artists 
equally competent to the undertaking, both as to invention 
and execution, as is demonstrable, among numerous other 
instances, from the spurious but beautiful Italian copy of 
the original cuts ; from the scarcely distinguishable copies 
of the Lyons Bible cuts, in an edition put forth by John 
Stelsius at Antwerp, 1561, and from the works of several 
artists, both designers and wood-engravers, in the books 
published by the French, Flemish, and Italian booksellers 
at that period. An interesting catalogue raisonn^ might 
be constructed, though with some difficulty, of such articles 
as were decorated with most exquisite and interesting 
embellishments. The above century was much richer in 
this respect than any one that succeeded it, displaying 
specimens of art that have only been rivalled, perhaps 
never outdone, by the very skilful engravers on wood 
of modern times. 

Our attention will, in the next place, be required to the 
excellent engraver of the Dance of Death, the thirty-sixth 
cut of which represents the Duchess sitting up in bed and 
accompanied with two figures of Death, one of which plays 
on a violin, whilst the other drags away the bed-clothes. 
On the base of one of the bed-posts is the mark or mono- 
gram fj^ , which has, among other artists, been incon- 
siderately ascribed to Holbein. That it was intended to 
express the name of the designer cannot be supported by 
evidence of any kind. We must then seek for its meaning 
as belonging to the engraver, and whose name was, in all 
probability, Hans Leuczellberger or Lutzenberger, some- 
times called Franck. M. de Mechel, the celebrated print- 
seller and engraver at Basle, addressed a letter to M. de 
Murr, in which he states that on a proof sheet of an 
alphabet in the library in that city, containing several 
small figures of a Dance of Death, he had found the above 
name. M. BruUiot remarks that he had seen some of the 



u ....... . 

^^Htettcrs o. this alphabet, but had not perceived on them 

either the name of Lutzenberger, or the mark J£^ ;' but 

M. de Mechel has not said that the mark was on the proof 
sheet, or on the letters themselves, but only the name of 

Lutzenberger, adding that the y\ ^ on the cut of the 

Duchess will throw some light on the matter, and that 
Holbein, although this monogram has been usually 
ascribed to him, never expressed his name by it, but 

used for that purpose an W joined to a g ; in which 

latter assertion M. de Mechel was by no means correct 

On another alphabet of a Dance of Peasants, in the 
possession of the writer of these pages, and undoubtedly by 
the same artists, M. de Mechel, to whom it was shown 
when in England, has written in pencil the following 

memorandum : "_£L S^^^ P^^ Hans (John) Lutzenberger, 

grav^ur en patrons \ Basle, vivant Ik au commencement du 
i6me siecle ;" but he has inadvertently transferred the 
remark to the wrong alphabet, though both were un- 
doubtedly the work of the same artist, as well as a third 
alphabet, equally beautiful, of groups of children. 

The late Pietro Zani, whose intimate experience in 
whatever relates to the art of engraving, together with 
the vast number of prints that had passed under his 
observation, must entitle his opinions to the highest con- 
sideration, has stated, in more places than one in his 
" Enciclopedia Metodica," that Holbein had no concern 
with the cuts of the Lyons Dance of Death, the engraving 
of which he decidedly ascribes to Hans Lutzenberger ; 
and, without any reference to the inscription on the proof 
of one of the alphabets in the library at Basle before- 
mentioned, which he had probably neither seen nor heard 
of, mentions the copy of one of the alphabets which he 
had seen at Dresden, and at once consigns it to Lutzen- 
berger. He promises to resume the subject at large in 

• Bnilliot, Diet de monogrammes, &c. Munich, 1817, 4I0. p. 418, 
where the letter from De Mechel is given. 



88 The Dance of Death, 

some future part of his immense work, which, if existing, 
h s not yet made its appearance. 

As the prints by this fine engraver are very few in 
number, and extremely rare, the following list of them may 
not be unacceptable. 

1. An oblong wood engraving, in length ii inches by 3|-. 
It represents, on one side, Christ requiring the attention of 
a group of eight persons, consisting of a monk, a peasant 
with a flail, a female, &c. to a lighted taper on a candela- 
brum placed in the middle of the print ; on the other side, 
a group of thirteen or fourteen persons, preceded by one 
who is looking into a pit in which is the word plato. 
Over his head is inscribed aristoteles ; he is followed by 
a pope, a bishop, monks, &c. &c. 

2. Another oblong wood engraving, 6^ inches by 2^, in 
two compartments, divided by a pillar. In one, the 
Judgment of Solomon ; in the other, Christ and the 
woman taken in adultery ; he writes something on the 
ground with his finger. It has the date 1539. 

3. Another, size as No. 2. An emperor is sitting in 
a court of justice with several spectators, attending some 
trial. This is doubtful. 

4. Another oblong print, \o\ inches by 3, and in two 
compartments, i. David prostrate before the Deity in the 
clouds, accompanied by Manasses and a youth, over whom 
is inscribed offen svnder. 2. A pope on a throne 
delivering some book, perhaps letters of indulgence, to a 
kneeling monk. This very beautiful print has been called 
" The Traffic of Indulgences," and is minutely and correctly 
described by Jansen.^ 

5. A print, 12 inches by 6, representing a combat in 
a wood between several naked persons and a troop of 
peasants armed with instruments of husbandry. Below on 

the left, the letters fj H . Annexed are two tablets, one 

of which is inscribed hans levczellbvrger fvrmschnider; 
on the other is an alphabet. Jansen has also mentioned 
this print.'* Brulliot describes a copy of it in the cabinet 

• Essai 3ur I'origine de la gravure, &c., torn. i. p. 260. 
* Id. p. 261. 



The Dance of Death. 89 

of prints belonging to the King of Bavaria, in which, 
besides the name, is the date mdxxii.* 

6. A print of a dagger or knife case, in length 9 inches. 
At top, a figure inscribed venvs has a lighted torch in one 
hand and a horn in the other ; she is accompanied by 
Cupid. In the middle two boys are playing, and at 
bottom three others standing, one with a helmet. 

7. A copy of Albert Diirer's decollation of John the 
Baptist, with the mark W L reversed, is mentioned by 

Zani as certainly belonging to this artist." In the index 
of names, he says, he finds his name thus written, hanns 

LVTZELBVRGER FORMSCHNIDER GENANT (chiamato) FRANCK, 

and calls him the true prince of engravers on wood. 

8. An alphabet with a Dance of Death, the subjects of 
which, with a few exceptions, are the same as those in the 
other Dance ; the designs, however, occasionally vary. In 
delicacy of drawing, in strength of character and in skill 
as to engraving, they may be justly pronounced superior to 
everything of the kind, and their excellence will probably 
remain a long time unrivalled. The figures are so small as 
almost to require the aid of lenses, the size of each letter 
being only an inch square. Zani had seen and admired 
this alphabet at Dresden.^ 

9. Another alphabet by the same artists. It is a Dance 
of Peasants, intermixed with other subjects, some of which 
are not of the most delicate nature. They are smaller 
than the letters in the preceding article, and are probably 
connected in point of design with the Dance of Peasants 
that Holbein is said to have painted at Basle. 

10. Another alphabet, also by the same artists. This is 
in all respects equal in beauty and merit to the others, and 
exhibits groups of boys in the most amusing and playful 
attitudes and employments. The size of the letters is little 
more than half an inch square. These children much 
resemble those which Holbein probably added to the later 
editions of the Lyons engravings.' 

' Diet de monogrammes, &c, torn. i. pp. 418, 499. « Enciclop. 
metod. par ii. vol. vii. p. 16. ' This beautiful series is given, io 

exact fac-simile, as Initial-letters to the Chapters of the present Volume; 

* All the above prints are in the author's possession, except No. 7, 
aud his copy of No. 5 has not the tablets with the name, &c 



go ' The Dance of Death. 

The proofs of the above alphabets may have been 
deposited by Lutzenberger in the public library of his 
native city. Whether they were cut on wood or on metal 
may admit of a doubt ; but there is reason to believe that 
the old printers and type-cutters occasionally used blocks 
of metal instead of wood for their figured initial letters, 
and the term Formschneider equally applies to those who 
engraved in relief on either of those materials. Nothing 
can exceed the beauty and spirit of the design in these 
alphabets, nor the extreme delicacy and accurate minute- 
ness of the engraving. 

The letters in these respective alphabets were intended 
for the use of printers, and especially those of Basle, as 
Cratander, Bebelius, and Isingrin. Copies and imitations 
of them ate to be found in many books printed at Zurich, 
Strasburg, Vienna, Augsburg, Frankfort, &c. and a few even 
in books printed at London by Waley, Purslowe, Marsh, 
and Nicholson, particularly in a quarto edition of Cover- 
dale's Bible, if printed in the latter city ; and one of them, 
a capital A, is in an edition of Stowe's Survey of London, 
1618, 4to. 

There is an unfortunate ambiguity connected with the 
marks that are found on ancient engravings in wood, and 
it has been a very great error on the part of all the writers 
who treat on such engravings, in referring the marks that 
accompanv them to the block-cutters, or as the Germans 
properly denominate them, the Formschneider s, whilst, 
perhaps, the greatest part of them really belong to the 
designers, as is undoubtedly the case with respect to Albert 
Diirer, Hans Schaufelin, Jost Amman, Tobias Stimmer, 
&c. It may be laid down as a rule that there is no certainty 
as to the marks of engravers, except where they are accom- 
panied with some implement of their art, especially a 
graving tool. Where the designer of the subject put his 
mark on the drawing which he made on, or for, the block, 
the engraver would, of course, copy it. Sometimes the 
marks of both designer and engraver are found on prints, 
and in these cases the ambiguity is consequently removed. 




CHAPTER VIII. 

List of several editions of the Lyons work on the Dance of 
Death, with the mark of Lutzenberger. — Copies of them on 
wood. — Copies on copper by anonymous artists. — By IVen- 
ceslaus Hollar. — Other anonymous artists. — Nieuhoff 
Pica rd. — Rusting, — Mechel. — Crozafs dra wings, — Deu- 
char, — Imitations of some of the subjects. 

I. 




wings, on 

2:eayton. 



ES Simulachres et histori^es faces de la 
Mort, autant elegamment pourtraictes, 
que artificiellement imagin^es. A Lyon, 
Soubz I'escu de Coloigne, mdxxxviii." 
At the end, "Excudebant Lugduni 
Melchior et Caspar Trechsel fratres, 
1538," 4to. On this title-page is a cut 
of a triple-headed figure crowned with 
a pedestal, over which a book with TNliOI 
Below, two serpents and two globes, with " usus 
This has, i. A dedication to Madame Jehanne 



me genuit. 

de Touszele. 2. Diverses tables de mort, non painctes, mais 
extraictes de Tescripture saincte, colore'es par Docteurs 
Ecclesiastiques, et umbrag^es par philosophes. 3. Over each 
print, passages from Scripture, allusive to the subject, in 
Latin, and at bottom the substance of them in four French 
verses. 4. Figures de la mort moralement descriptes et 
depeinctes selon Tauthorit^ de I'escripture, et des Sainctz 
Peres. 5. Les diverses mors des bons, et des niaulvais du 
viel, et nouveau testament. 6. Des sepultures des justes. 



ga The Dance tff JDeath, 

7. Memorables authoritez, et sentences des philosophes, et 
orateurs Payens pour confermer les vivans k non craindre 
la mort. 8. De la necessite de la mort qui ne laisse riens 
estre par durable." With forty-one cuts. This may be 
safely regarded as the first edition of the work. There is 
nothing in the title-page that indicates any preceding one. 

II. "Les Simulachres et histori^es faces de la mort, 
contenant la Medecine de I'ame, utile et necessaire non 
seulement aux malades mais k tous qui sont en bonne 
disposition corporelle. D'avantage, la forme et maniere 
de consoler les malades. Sermon de sainct Cecile Cyprian, 
intituld de Mortalite. Sermon de S. Jan Chrysostome, 
pour nous exhorter k patience : traictant aussi de la con- 
sommation de ce siecle, et du second advenement de Jesus 
Christ, de la joye eternelle des justes, de la peine et dam- 
nation des mauvais, et autres choses necessaires k un 
chascun chrestien, pour bien vivre et bien mourir. A 
Lyon, k I'escu de Coloigne, chez Jan et Frangois Frellon 
freres," 1542, i2mo. With forty-one cuts. Then a moral 
epistle to the reader, in French. The descriptions of the 
cuts in Latin and French as before, and the pieces 
expressed in the title-page. 

III. " Imagines Mortis. His accesserunt, Epigrammata, 
^ Gallico idiomate k Georgio ^mylio in Latinum translata. 
Ad haec, Medicina animse, tarn iis qui firma, qukm qui 
adversa corporis valetudine praediti sunt, maximb necessaria. 
Ratio consolandi ob morbi gravitatem periculosb decum- 
bentes. Quae his addita sunt, sequens pagina common- 
strabit. Lugduni, sub scuto Coloniensi, 1545." With the 
device of the crab and the butterfly. At the end, " Lugduni 
Excudebant Joannes et Franciscus Frellonii fratres," 1545, 
i2mo. The whole of the text is in Latin, and translated, 
except the scriptural passages, from the French, by George 
.^mylius, as he also states in some verses at the beginning ; 
but several of the mottoes at bottom are different and 
enlarged. It has forty-two cuts, the additional one, 
probably not by the former artist, being that of the beggar 
sitting on the ground before an arched gate : extremely 
fine, particularly the beggar's head. This subject has no 
connexion with the Dance of Death, and is placed in 
another part of the volume, though in subsequent editions 



The Dance of Death. 93 

incorporated with the other prints. The "Medicina animje" 
is very different from the French one. There is some reason 
for supposing that the Frellons had already printed an 
edition with ^mylius's text in 1542. This person was an 
eminent German divine of Mansfelt, and the author of 
many pious works. In the present edition the first cut of 
the creation exhibits a crack in the block from the top to 
the bottom, but it had been in that state in 1543, as 
appears from an impression of it in Holbein's Bible of that 
date. It is found so in all the subsequent editions of the 
present work, with the exception of those in Italian of 1549 
and in the Bible of 1549, in which the crack appears to 
have been closed, probably by cramping ; but the block 
again separated aftenvards. 

This edition is of some importance with respect to the 
question as to the priority of the publication of the work 
in France or Germany, or, in other words, whether at Lyons 
or Basle. It is accompanied by some lines addressed to 
the reader, which begin in the following manner : 

Accipe jncundo prxsentia carmina vultu, 

Seu Germane legis, sive ea Galle legis ; 
In quibus extremoe qualis sit mortis imago 

Reddidit imparibus Musa Latina modis 
Gallia qua dederat Upidis epigrammata verbis 

Tcutona convertens est imitata manus. 
Da veniam nobis doctissime Galle, videbis 

Versibus appositis reddit* si qua parum. 

Now, had the work been originally published in the German 
language, -^mylius, himself a German, would, as already 
observed, scarcely have preferred a French text for his 
Latin version. This circumstance furnishes likewise an 
argument against the supposed existence of German verses 
at the bottom of the early impressions of the cuts already 
mentioned. 

A copy of this edition, now in the library of the British 
Museum, was presented to Prince Edward by Dr. William 
Bill, accompanied with a Latin dedication, dated from 
Cambridge, 19th July, 1546, wherein he recommends the 
prince's attention to the figures in the book, in order to 
remind him that all must die to obtain immortality ; and 
enlarges on the necessity of living well. He concludes with 



94 Th^ Dance of Death. 

a wish that the Lord will long and happily pieserve his li^e, 
and that he may finally reign to all eternity with his most 
Christian father. Bill was appointed one of the King's 
chaplains in ordinary, 1551, and was made the first Dean 
of Westminster in the reign of Elizabeth. 

IV. "Imagines Mortis. Duodecim imaginibus praeter 
priores, totidemque inscriptionibus praeter epigrammata ^ 
Gallicis k Georgio ^mylio in Latinum versa, cumulatae. 
Quae his addita sunt, sequens pagina commonstrabit. 
Lugduni sub scuto Coloniensi, 1547." With the device 
of the crab and butterfly. At the end, "Excudebat 
Joannes Frellonius, 1547," i2mo. This edition has twelve 
more cuts than those of 1538 and 1542, and eleven more 
than that of 1545, being, the soldier, the gamblers, the 
drunkards, the fool, the robber, the blind man, the wine 
carrier, and four of boys. In all, fifty-three. Five of the 
additional cuts have a single line only in the frames, whilst 
the others have a double one. All are nearly equal in merit 
to those which first appeared in 1538. 

V. " Icones Mortis, Duodecim imaginibus praeter priores, 
totidemque inscriptionibus, praeter epigrammata h Gallicis 
k Georgio -^mylio in Latinum versa, cumulatae. Quae his 
addita sunt, sequens pagina commonstrabit, Lugduni sub 
scuto Coloniensi, 1547." i2mo. At the end, "Excudebat 
Johannes Frellonius, 1547." This edition contains fifty- 
three cuts, jind is precisely similar to the one described 
immediately before, except that it is entitled Icoms, instead 
of Imagines Mortis. 

VI. "Les Images de la Mort. Auxquelles sont ad- 
joustdes douze figures. Davantage, la medecine de I'ame, 
la consolation des malades, un sermon de mortality, par 
Sainct Cyprian, un sermon de patience, par Sainct Jehan 
Chrysostome. A Lyon. A I'escu de Cologne chez Jehan 
Frellon, 1547." With the device of the crab and butter- 
fly. At the end, " Imprime a Lyon k I'escu de Coloigne, 
par Jehan Frellon, 1547. i2mo." The verses at bottom 
of the cuts the same as in the edition of 1538, with similar 
ones for the additional. In all, fifty-three cuts. 

VII. " Simolachri historie, e figure de la morte. La 
medicina de I'anima. II modo, e la via di consolar 
gl'infenni, Un sermone di San Cipriano, de la mortality 



Tfu Dance of Death. 95 

Due orationi, I'un k Dio, e I'altra \ Christo. Un semione 
di S. Giovan. Chrisostomo, che ci essorta \ patienza. 
Aiuntovi di nuovo molte figure mai piu stampate. In 
Lyone appresso Giovan Frellone mdxlix." i2mo. With 
the device of the crab and butterfly. At the end, the same 
device on a larger scale in a circle. Fifty-three cuts. The 
scriptural passages are in latin. To this edition Frellon 
has prefixed a preface, in which he complains of a pirated 
copy of the work in Italian by a printer at Venice, which 
will be more particularly noticed hereafter. He maintains 
that the cuts in this spurious edition are far less beautiful 
than the French ones, and this passage goes very far in aid 
of the argument that they are not of German origin. 
Frellon, by way of revenge, and to save the trouble of 
making a new translation of the articles that compose the 
volume, makes use of that of his Italian competitor. 

VIII. " Icones Mortis. Duodecim Imaginibus prgeter 
priores, totidemque inscriptionibus, praeter epigrammata fe 
Gallicis \ Georgio ^mylio in Latinum versa, cumulatae. 
Quae his addita sunt, sequens pagina commonstrabit. 
Basileae, 1554. i2mo." With fifty-three cuts. It would 
not be very easy to account for the absence of the name of 
the Basle printer. 

IX. " Les Images de la Mort, auxquelles sont adjoustees 
dix sept figures. Davantage, la medecine de Tame. La 
consolation des malades. Un sermon de mortalite, par 
Saint Cyprian. Un sermon de patience, par Saint Jehan 
Chrysostome. A Lyon, par Jehan Frellon, 1562." With 
the device of the crab and butterfly. At the end, " A 
Lyon, par Symphorien Barbier." i2mo. This edition has 
five additional cuts, viz. i. A group of boys, as a triumphal 
procession, with military trophies. 2. The bride ; the 
husband plays on a lute, whilst Death leads the wife 
in tears. 3. The bridegroom led by Death blowing a 
trumpet. Both these subjects are appropriately described 
in the verses below. 4. A group of boy warriors, one on 
horseback with a standard. 5. Another group of boys, with 
drums, horns, and trumpets. These additional cuts are 
designed and engraved in the same masterly style as the 
others, but it is now impossible to ascertain the artists who 
have executed them. From the decorations to several 



9<5 The Dance of Death. 

books published at Lyons, it is very clear that there were 
persons in that city capable of the task. Holbein had been 
dead eight years, after a long residence in London. 

Du Verdier, in his Bibliothbque Fran^oise, mentions this 
edition, and adds that it was translated from the French 
into Latin, Italian, Spanish, German, and English;^ a 
statement that stands greatly in need of confirmation as 
to the last three languages, but this writer, on too many 
occasions, deserves but small compliment for his accuracy. 

X. " Imagines Mortis : item epigrammata b Gall, k G. 
-^milio in Latinum versa. Lugdun. Frellonius, 1574.** 
i2mo.^ 

XI. In 1654 a Dutch work appeared with the following 
title, "De Doodt vermaskert met swerelts ydelheyt afghedaen 
door G. V. Wolsschaten, verciert met de constighe Belden 
vanden maerden Schilder Hans Holbein." i.e. "Death 
masked, with the world's vanity, by G. V. AVolsschaten, 
ornamented with the ingenious images of the famous 
painter Hans Holbein. T'Antwerpen, by Petrus Bellerus." 
This is on an engraved frontispiece of a tablet, over which 
are spread a man's head and the skin of two arms supported 
by two Deaths blowing trumpets. Below, a spade, a pil- 
grim's staff, a sceptre, and a crosier, with a label, on which 
is " sceptra ligonibus aequat." Then follows another title- 
page, with the same words, and the addition of Geeraerdt 
Van Wolsschaten's designation, "Prevost van sijne coninck- 
lijcke Majesteyts Munten des Heertoogdoms van Brabant, 
&c. MDCLiv." i2mo. The author of the text, which is 
mixed up with poetry and historical matter, was prefect of 
the mint in the Duchy of Brabant.' This edition contains 
eighteen cuts, among which the following subjects are from 
the original blocks : i. Three boys. 2. The married 
couple. 3. The pedlar. 4. The shipwreck. 5. The^ 
beggar. 6. The corrupt judge. 7. The astrologer. 8. 
The old man. 9. The physician. 10. The priest with the) 
eucharist. 11. The monk. 12. The abbess. 13. The 

* Edit Javigny, iv. 559. ' This edition is given on the authority] 
of Peignot, p. 62, but has not been seen by the author of this work. 
In the year 1547, there were three editions, and it is not improbablei 
that, by the transposition of the last two figures, one of these might 
have been intended. ^ Foppen's Biblioth. Belgica, i. 363. 



The Dance cf Death. 97 

•Dbot. 14. The duke. Four others, viz. the child, the 
emperor, the countess, and the pope, are copies, and very 
badly engraved. The blocks of the originals a[.pear to 
have fallen into the hands of an artist, who probably 
resided at Antwerp, and several of them have his mark, 

^^yf^ i concerning which more will be said under one of 

the ensuing articles. As many engravings on wood by this 
person appeared in the middle of the sixteenth century, it 
is probable that he had already used these original blocks 
in some edition of the Dance of Death that does not seem 
to have been recorded. There are evident marks of re- 
touching in these cuts, but when they first appeared cannot 
now be ascertained. The mark might have been placed 
on them, either to denote ownership, according to the usual 
practice at that time, or to indicate that they had been 
repaired by that particular artist. 

All these editions, except that of 1574, have been seen 
and carefully examined on the present occasion : the 
supposed one of 1530 has not been included in this list, 
and remains to be seen and accurately described, if existing, 
by competent witnesses. 

Papillon, in his " Traitd sur la gravure en bois," has given 
in elaborate, but, as usual with him, a very faulty description 
jf these engravings. He enlarges on the beauty of the last 
cut with the allegorical coat of arms, and particularly on 
that of the gentleman whose right hand he states to be 
placed on its side, whilst it certainly is extended, and 
touches with the back of it the mantle on which the helmet 
and shield of arms are placed. He errs likewise in making 
the female look towards a sort of dog's head, according to 
him, under the mantle and right hand of her husband, 
which, he adds, might be taken for the pummel of his 
sword, and that she fondles this head with her right hand, 
&c. ; not one word of which is correct He says that a good 
impression of this print would be well worth a louis d'or 
to an amateur. He appears to have been in possession of 
the block belonging to the subject of the lovers preceded 
by Death with a drum ; but it had been spoiled by the strode 
of a plane. 



5^ The Dance of Death. 



COPILS OF THE ABOVE DESIGNS, AND ENGRAVED ALSO ON 
WOOD. 

I. At the head of these, in point of merit, must be 
placed the Italian spurious edition mentioned in No. VII. 
of the preceding list. It is entitled " Simolachri historic, 
e figure de la morte, ove si contiene la medicina de I'anima 
utile e necessaria, non solo k gli ammalati, ma tutte i sani. 
Et appresso, il modo, e la via di consolar gl'infermi. Un 
sermone di S. Cipriano, de la mortality. Due orationi. 
Tuna k Dio, e I'altra k Christo da dire appresso I'ammalato 
oppresso da grave infermitd. Un sermone di S. Giovan 
Chrisostomo, che ci essorta k patienza ; e che tratta de la 
consumatione del secolo presente, e del secondo avenimento 
di Jesu Christo, de la eterna felicita de giusti, de la pena 
e dannatione de rei ; et altre cose necessarie k ciascun 
Christiano, per ben vivere, e ben morire. Con gratia e 
privilegio de I'illustriss. Senato Vinitiano, per anni dieci. 
Appresso Vincenzo Vaugris al segno d'Erasmo, mdxlv." 
i2mo. With a device of the brazen serpent, repeated at 
the end. It has all the cuts in the genuine edition of the 
same date, except that of the beggar at the gate. It 
contains a very moral dedication to Signor Antonio Calergi 
by the publisher Vaugris or Valgrisi ; in which, with unjus- 
tifiable confidc^'ce, he enlarges on the great beauty of the 
work, the cuts in which are, in his estimation, not merely 
equal, but far superior to those in the French edition in 
design and engraving. They certainly approach the nearest 
to the fine originals of all the imitations, but will be found 

on comparison to be inferior. The mark ^L ^n the cut 

of the Duchess sitting up in bed, with the two Deaths, one 
of whom is fiddling,, whilst the other pulls at the clothes, is 
retained, but this could not be with a view to pass these 
engravings as originals, after what is stated in the dedication. 
An artist's eye will easily perceive the difference in spirit 
and decision of drawing. In the ensuing year 1546, 
Valgrisi republished this book in Latin, but without the 
dedication, and there are impressions of them on single 



The Dance of Death. 99 

sheets, one of which has at the bottom, "In Venetia-, 
MDLXViii. Fra. Valerio Faenzi Inquis. Apreso Luca Bertelli.'* 
So that they required a licence from the Inquisition. 

II. In the absence of any other Italian editions of the 
" Simolachri," it is necessary to mention that twenty-four of 
the last-mentioned cuts were introduced in a work of 
extreme rarity, and which has escaped the notice of biblio- 
graphers, entitled " Discorsi Morali dell' eccell. Sig. Fablo 
Glissenti contra il dispiacer del morire. Detto Athana- 
tophilia Venetia, 1609." 4to. These twenty-four were 
probably all that then remained ; and five others ot 
subjects belonging also to the "Simolachri," are inserted 
in this work, but very badly imitated, and two of them 
reversed. In the subject of the Pope there is in the 
original a brace of grotesque devils, one of which is 
completely erased in Glissenti, and a plug inserted where 
the other had been scooped out A similar rasure of a 
devil occurs in the subject of the two rich men in conver- 
sation, the demon blowing with a bellows into his ear, 
whilst a poor beggar in vain touches him to be heard. 
Besides these cuts, Glissenti's work is ornamented with 
a great number of others, connected in some way or other 
with the subject of Death, which the author discusses in 
almost every possible variety of manner. He appears to 
have been a physician, and an exceedingly pious man. 
His portrait is prefixed to every division of the work, 
which consists of five dialogues. 

There is another work by Glissenti, entitled " La Morte 
innamorata." Venet 1608, 24mo. with a dedication to 
Sir Henry Wotton, the English ambassador at Venice, by 
Elisabetta Glissenti Serenella, the author's niece ; in which, 
after stating that Sir Henry had seen it represented, she 
adds, that slve had ventured to have it printed for the 
purpose of offering it to him as a very humble donation, 
&c. It is a moral, dramatic, and allegorical fable of five 
acts, in which Man, to avoid Death, who has fallen in love 
with him, retires with his family to the country oi Long Life , 
where he takes up his abode in the house of the World, by 
whom and his wife Fraud, who is in strict friendship with 
Fortune, he is apparently made much of, and calculates 
on being very happy. Death follows the Man, and being 



lOO 77u Dance of Death. 

unknown in the above region, contrives, with the aid of 
Infirmity, the Man'*: nurse, to make him fall sick. The 
World being tired of his guest, and very desirous to get 
rid of, and plunder him of his property, under pretence of 
introducing him to Fortune, and consequent happiness, 
enters into a plot with Time to disguise Death, who is 
lodged in the same house with him, as Fortune, and thus 
to give him possession of the Man, who imagines that he 
is just about to secure Fortune. Each act of this piece is 
ornamented with some wood-cut that had been already 
introduced into the other work of Glissenti. 

III. In an anonymous work, entitled "Tromba sonora 
per richiamar i morti viventi dalla tomba della colpa alia 
vita della gratia. In Venetia, 1670." 8vo. of which 
there had already been three editions, there are six of the 
prints from the originals, as in the " Simolachri," &c. No. 
I. and a few others, the same as the additional ones to 
Glissenti's work. 

In another volume, entitled " II non plus ultra di tutte 
le scienze ricchezze honori, e diletti del mondo, &c. In 
Venetia, 1677." 24mo. there are twenty-five of the cuts 
as in the ' Simolachri,' and several others from those added 
to Glissenti. 

IV. A set of cuts which do not seem to have belonged 
to any work. They are very close copies of the originals. 
On the subject of the Duchess in bed, the letter S 
appears on the base of one of the pillars or posts, instead 
of the original ff^ , and it is also seen on the cut of the 

soldier pierced by the lance of Death. Two have the 
date 1546. In that of the monk, whom, in the original. 
Death seizes by the cowl or hood, the artist has made a 
whimsical alteration, by converting the hood into a fool's 
cap with bells and asses' ears, and the monk's wallet into a 
fool's bauble. It is probable that he was of the reformed 
religion. 

V. *< Imagines Mortis, his accesserunt epigrammata h 
Gallico idiomate \ Georgig 4^niylio in Latinum translata, 
&c. Coloniae apud haeredes Arnoldi Birckmanni, anno 
1555." i2mo. With fifty-three cuts. This may be regarded 
as a surreptitious edition of No. IV. of the originals b> 



7^ Dance of Death. loi 

H*^ , p. 194. The cuts are by the artist mentioned in No. 

IX. of those originals, whose mark is ,.^/7 , which is here 

found on five of them. They are all reversed, except the 
nobleman ; and although not devoid of merit, they are not 
only very inferior to the fine originals, but also to the 
Italian copies in No. I. The first two subjects are newly 
designed ; the two Devils in that of the Pope are omitted, 
and there are several variations, always for the worse, in 
many of the others, of which a tasteless example is found 
in that of Death and the soldier, where the thigh-bone, as 
the very appropriate weapon of Death, is here converted 

into the common-place dart The mark W a in the 

original cut of the Duchess in bed, is here omitted, with- 
out the substitution of any other. This edition was 
republished by the same persons, without any variation, 
successively in 1557, 1566, 1567, and 1573.* 

PapiUon, in his " Trait^ sur la gravure en bois,"* when 
noticing the above-mentioned mark, has, amidst the 
innumerable errors that abound in his otherwise curious 
work, been led into a mistake of an exceedingly ludicrous 
nature, by converting the owner of the mark into a cardinal. 
He had found it on the cuts to an edition of Faemo's 
fables, jjrinted at Antweqj, 1567, which is dedicated to 
Cardinal Borromeo by Silvio Antoniano, professor of 
Belles Lettres at Rome, afterwards secretary to Pope Pius 
IV. and at length himself a Cardinal. He was the editor 
of Faemo's work. Another of Papillon's blunders is 
equally curious and absurd. He had seen an edition 
of the Emblems of Sambucus, with cuts, bearing the 

mark ^yf^ , in which there is a fine portrait of the author 

with his favourite dog, and under the latter the word 
BOMBO, which PapiUon gravely states to be the name 
of the engraver ; and finding the same word on another 
of the emblems which has also the dog, he concludes 

that all the cuts which have not the jf^ were engraved 

* That of 1557 has a frontispiece with Death pointing to his hoar« 
g\asa when addressing a Gennan soldier. ' Tom. L p. 3^8. 535. 



102 TJie Dance of Death. 

by the same bombo. Had Papillon, a good artist in his 
time, hut an ignorant man, been able to comprehend the 
verses belonging to that particular emblem, he would have 
seen that the above word was merely the name of the 
dog, as Sambucus himself has declared, whilst paying 
a laudable tribute to the attachment of the faithful com- 
panion of his travels. Brulliot, in his article on the mark 

^A^^ has mentioned Papillon's ascription of it to Silvio 

Antoniano, but without correcting the blunder, as he ought 
to have done. This monogram appears on five of the 
cuts to the present edition of the " Imagines Mortis ; " 
but M. de Murr, , and his follower Janssen, are not 
warranted in supposing the rest of them to have been 
engraved by a different artist. 

It will perhaps not be deemed an unimportant digres- 
sion to introduce a few remarks concerning the owner 
of the above monogram. It is by no means clear whe- 
ther he was a designer or an engraver, or even both. 
There is a chiaroscuro print of a group of saints, engraved 
by Peter Kints, an obscure artist, with the name of Antony 
Sallaerts at length, and the mark. Here he appears as a 
designer. M. Malpe, the Besancon author of " Notices 
sur les graveurs," speaks of Sallaerts as an excellent painter, 
born at Brussels about 1576, which date cannot possibly 
apply to the artist in question ; but, at the same time, he 
adds, that he is said to have engraved on wood the cuts in 
a little catechism printed at Antwerp that have the mono« 

gram «>7^. These are certainly very beautiful, in ac- 
cordance with many others with the same mark, and very 
superior in design to those which have it in the " Imagines 
Mortis." M. Malp^ has also an article for Antony Silvyus 
or Silvius, born at Antwerp about 1525, and he mentions 
several books with engravings and the mark in question, 
which he gives to the same person. M. Brulliot expresses 
a doubt as to this artist ; but it is very certain there was a 
family of that name, and surnamed, or at least sometimes 
called, Bosche or Bush, which indeed is more likely to 
/.ave been the real Flemish name Latinized into SilviuSi 
^ Diet de MonognumaeSj coL f afik 



The Dance of Death. 103 

Foppens' has mentioned an Antony Silvius, a schoolmaster 
at Antwerp, in 1565, and several other members 01 this 
family. Two belonging to it were engravers, and another 
a writing master. 

Whether the artist in question was a Sallaerts 01 a 
Silvius, it is certain that Plantin, the celebrated printer, 
employed him to decorate several of his volumes, and it 
is to be regretted that an unsuccessful search has been 
made for him in Plantin's account-books, that were not 
long since preserved, with many articles belonging to 
him, in his house at Antwerp. His mark also appears 
in several books printed in England during the reign of 
Elizabeth, and particularly on a beautiful set of initial 
letters, some of which contain the story of Cupid and 
Psyche, from the supposed designs by Raphael, and other 
subjects from Ovid's Metamorphoses : these have been 

counterfeited, and perhaps in England. The initial Q, 

in this alphabet, with the subject of Leda and the swan, 
was inadvertently prefixed to the sacred name at the 
beginning of St. Paul's Epistle to the Hebrews in the 
Bishop's Bible, printed by Rd, Jugge in 1572, and in one 
of his Common Prayer-books. An elegant portrait of 

Edward VI. with the mark jf^ is likewise on Jugge's 

edition of the New Testament, 1552, 4to. ; and there is 
reason to believe that Jugge employed this artist, as the 
same monogram appears on a cut of his device of the 
pelican. 

VI. In the German volume, the title of which is already 
given in the first article of the engravings from the Basle 
painting,^ there are twenty-nine subjects belonging to the 
present work ; the rest relating to the Basle dance, except 
two or three that are not in either of them. These have 
fallen into the hands of a modern bookseller, but there 
can be no doubt that there were other editions which con- 
tained the whole set. The most of them have the letters 

G. S, ^^'i^h the graving tool, and one has the date 1576. 

The name of this artist is unknown ; but M. Bartsch hai 

7 Biblioth. Beigica, i. 92. * See p. 34. 



X04 The Dance of Death. 

mentioned several other engravings by him, omitting, how* 
ever, the present, which, it is to be observed, sometimes 
vary in design from the originals. 

VII. "Imagines Mortis illustratae epigrammatis Georgii 
-^mylii theol. doctoris. Fraxineus ^mylio Suo. Criminis 
ut poenam mortem mors sustulit una : sic te immortalem 
mortis imago facit." With a cut of Death and the old 
man. This is the middle part only of a work, entitled 
" Libellus Davidis Chytraei de morte et vita aeterna. Editio 
postrema ; cui additae sunt imagines mortis, illustrata Epi- 
grammatis D. Georgio ^mylio, Witebergae. Impressus a 
Matthaeo Welack, anno mdxc." i2mo. The cuts, fifty-three 
in number, are, on the whole, tolerably faithful, but coarsely 
engraved. In the subject of the Pope the two Devils are 
omitted, and, in that of the Counsellor, the Demon blowing 
with a bellows into his ear is also wanting. Some have the 

mark »^ , and one that of \)^, with a knife or graving tool. 

VIII. "Todtentanz durcn alle stendt der menschen, 
&c. furgebildet mit figuren. S. Gallen, 1581." 4to. See 
Janssen, " Essai sur I'origine de la gravure," i. 122, who 
seems to make them copies of the originals. 

IX. The last article in this list of the old copies, though 
prior in date to some of the preceding, is placed here as 
differing materially from them with respect to size. It is a 
small folio, with the following title, " Todtentantz, 

Das menschlichs leben anders nicht 

Dann nur ain laufF zum Tod 
Und Got ain nach seim glauben richt 

Dess findstu klaren tschaid 
O Mensch hierinn mit andacht lisz 

Und fassz zu hertzen das 
So wirdsttu Ewigs hayls gewisi 

Kanst sterben dester bas. 

MDXLIIIL 

Desine longsevos exposcere sedulus annos 

Inque bonis multos annumerare dies 
Atque hodie, fatale velit si rumpere filum ^ 

Atropos, impavido pectore disce mori. " 

At the end, " Gedruckt inn der kaiserlichen Reychst&tt 
Augspurg durch Jobst Denecker Formschneyder," This 
edition is not only valuable for its extreme rarity, but for 



TJie Dame of Death. io& 

the very accurute and spirited manner in which the fine 
original cuts are copied. It contains all the subjects that 
were then, published, but not arranged as those had been. 
It has the addition of one singular print, entitled " Der 
Eebrecher," /'. e. the Adulterer, representing a man dis- 
covering the adulterer in bed with his wife, and plunging 
his sword through both of them. Death guiding his hands. 
On the opposite page to each engraving there is a dialogue 
between Death and the party, and at bottom a Latin 
hexameter. The subject of the Pleader has the unknown 

mark ^Vt '> ^^^ °" ^^^^ °^ ^^ Duchess in bed, there is 
the date 1542. From the above colophon we are to infer 
that Dennecker, or as he is sometimes, and perhaps more 
properly, called De Necker or De Negher, was the engraver, 
as he is known to have executed many other engravings on 
wood, especially for Hans Schaufelin, with whom he was 
connected. He was also employed in the celebrated 
triumph of Maximilian, and in a collection of saints, to 
whom the family of that emperor was related. 

Ebert, in his " Bibliographisches Lexicon," Leipsig, 1821, 
4to. has mentioned some later editions of Dennecker's 
engravings. See the article Denecker, p. 972. 

X. " Emblems of Mortality, representing, in upwards ol 
fifty cuts. Death seizing all ranks and degrees of people, &c. 
Printed for T. Hodgson, in George's Court, St. John's Lane, 
Clerkenwell, 1789." i2mo. With an historical essay on the 
subject, and translations of the Latin verses in the "Imagines 
Mortis," by John Sidney Hawkins, Esq. The cuts were en- 
graved by the brother of the celebrated Bewick, of New- 
castle-upon-Tyne, and a pupil of Hodgson, who was an 
engraver on wood of some merit at that time. They are 
but indifferently executed, but would have been better had 
the artist been more liberally encouraged by the master, 
who was the publisher on his own account, Mr. Hawkins 
very kindly furnishing the letter-press. They are faithful 
copies of all the originals, except the first, which, con- 
taining a figure of the Deity habited as a Pope, was 
scrupulously exchanged for another design. A frontispiece 
is added, representing Death leading up all classes of men 
and women. 



Xo6 7ne Dance of Death. 

XL "The Dance of Death of the celebrated Hant 
Holbein, in a series of fifty-two engravings on wood by 
Mr. Bewick, with letter-press illustrations. 

What's yet in this 
* That bears the name of life ? Yet in this life 

Lie hid more thousand Deaths : yet Death we fear, 
That makes these odds all even. 

Shakspeare. 

London. William Charlton Wright." i2mo. With a fron- 
tispiece, partly copied from that in the preceding article, a 
common-place life of Holbein, and an introduction pillaged 
verbatim from an edition with Hollar's cuts, published by 
Mr. Edwards. The cuts, with two or three exceptions, are 
imitated from the originals, but all the human figures are 
ridiculously modernised. The text to the subjects is partly 
descriptions in prose, and partly Mr. Hawkins's verses, and 
the cuts, if Bewick's, very inferior to those in his other works. 

XH. " Emblems of Mortality, representing Death seizing 
all ranks and degrees of people. Imitated in a series of 
v/ood-cuts from a painting in the cemetery of the Domi- 
nican church at Basil in Switzerland, with appropriate texts 
of Scripture, and a poetical apostrophe to each, freely trans- 
lated from the Latin and French. London. Printed for 
Whittingham and Arliss, juvenile library, Paternoster-row." 
1 2 mo. The frontispiece and the rest of the cuts, with two 
exceptions, from the same blocks as those used for the last- 
mentioned edition. The preface, with very slight variation, 
is abridged from that by Mr. Hawkins in No. X. and 
the descriptive verses altogether the same as those in that 
edition. Both the last articles seem intended for popular 
and juvenile use. It will be immediately perceived that 
the title-page is erroneous in confounding the Basle Dance 
of Death with that in the volume itself. 

XIIL The last in this list is "Hans Holbein's Todten- 
tanz in 53 getreu nach den Holzschnitten lithographirten 
Blattern. Herausg^geben von J. Schlotthauer, K. Professor 
Mit erklarendem Texte. Munchen, 1832. Auf Kosten 
des Herausgebers," i2mo. or, " Hans Holbein's Dance of 
Death in fifty-three lithographic leaves, faithfully taken from 
wood engravings. Published by J. Schlotthauer, royal pro- 
fessor with explanatory text. Munich, :832. At the cost 



The Dance of Death. 107 

of the editors." This wo»k is executed in so beautiful and 
accurate a manner that it might easily be mistaken for the 
wood originals. 

The professor has substituted German verses, com- 
municated by a friend, instead of the former Latin onea 
He states that the subject will be taken up by Professor 
Massman, of Munich, whose work will satisfy all inquiries 
relating to it. Massman, however, has added to this volume 
a sort of explanatory appendix, in which some of the edi- 
tions are mentioned. He thinks it possible that the cholera 
may excite the same attention to this work as the plague 
had formerly excited to the old Macaber Dance at Basle, 
and concludes with a promise to treat the subject more a: 
large at some future time. 

COPIES OF THE SAME DESIGNS, ENGRAVED IN COPPER. 

I. " Todten Dantz durch alle stande und Geschlecht der 
Menschen, «&c." /. e. " Death's Dance through all ranks and 
conditions of men." This title is on a frontispiece repre- 
senting a gate of rustic architecture, at the top of which are 
two boy angels with emblems of mortality between them, 
and underneath are the three Fates. At the bottom, Adam 
and Eve with the tree of knowledge, each holding the apple 
presented by the serpent. Between them is a circular table, 
on which are eight skulls of a Pope, Emperor, Cardinal, &c. 
with appropriate mottoes in Latin. On the outer edge of 
the table statvtvm est omnibvs hominibvs semel mori 
POST HOC AVTEM iVDiciVM. In the centre the letters mvs, 
the terminating syllable of each motto. Before the gate 
are two pedestals, inscribed memento mori and memorare 
NOvissiMA, on which stand figures of Death supporting two 
pyramids or obelisks surmounted with skulls and a cross, 
and inscribed iter ad vitam. Below, " Eberh. Kieser 
excudit." This frontispiece is a copy of a large print 
engraved on wood long before. Without date, in quarto. 

The work consists of sixty prints within borders of 
flowers, &c. in the execution of which two difterent and 
anonymous artists have been employed. At the top ot 
each print is the name of the subject, accompanied with a 
passage from Scripture, and at the bottom three :ouplets O: 



io8 The Dance of Death. 

German verses. Most of the subjects are copied from the 
completest editions of the Lyons cuts, with occasional slight 
variations. They are not placed in the same order, and all 
are reversed, except Nos. 57 and 60. No. 12 is not re- 
versed, but very much altered, a sort of duplicate of the 
Miser. No. 50, the Jew, and No. 51, the Jewess, are 
entirely new. The latter is sitting at a table, on which is a 
heap of money, and Death appears to be giving effective 
directions to a demon to strangle her. No. 52 is also new. 
A castle within a hedge. Death enters one of the windows 
by a ladder, whilst a woman looks out of another.^ The 
subject is from Jeremiah, ch. ix. v. 21. " Death is come up 
into our windows," &c. In the subject of the Pope, the 
two Devils are omitted. Two military groups of boys, 
newly designed, are added. The following are copies from 
Aldegrever, Nos. i, 2, 3, 4, 6, 11, and 12. At the beginning 
and end of the book there are moral poems in the German 
language. 

II. Another edition of the same cuts. The title-page of 
the copy here described is unfortunately lost. It has a 
dedication in Latin to three patricians of Frankfort on the 
Maine by Daniel Meisner k Commenthaw, Boh, Poet. L. C. 
dated, according to the Roman capitals, in a passage from 
Psalm xlvi., in the year 1623. This is followed by the Latin 
epigram, or address to the reader, by Geo. ^mylius, whose 
translations of the original French couplets are also given, 
as well as the originals themselves. These are printed on 
pages opposite to the subjects, but they are often very care- 
lessly transposed. At the end the date 1623 is twice 
repeated by means of the Roman capitals in two verses 
from Psalms Ixxviii. and Ixiii., the one German, the other 
Latin. i2mo. 

III. "Icones Mortis sexaginta imaginibus totidemque 
inscriptionibus insignitae, versibus quoque Latinis et novis 
Germanicis illustratae. Vorbildungen desz Todtes, in 
sechtzig figuren durch alle Stande und Geschlechte, der- 
selbigen nichtige Sterblichkeit furzuweisen, ausgebracht, 
und mit Lateinischen und neuen Teutschen Verszlein 
erklaret, durch Johann Vogel. Bey Paulus Fursten Kuns- 

^ This is the same subject as that in the Augustan monastefy 
described in p. 41. 



The Dance of Death. 109 

thandlern zu finden." On the back of this printed 
title is an engraving of a hand issuing from the clouds 
and holding a pair of scales, in one of which is a skull, 
in the other a Papal tiara, sceptre, &c. weighing down 
the skull. On the beam of the scales an hour-glass and 
an open book with Arabic numerals. In the distance, at 
bottom, is seen a traveller reposing in a shed. Above is 
a label, inscribed " Metas et tempora libro," and below, 
"Ich Wage ziel und zeitten ab." Then follows a neatly 
engraved and regular title-page. At top, a winged skull 
surmounted with an hour-glass, and crossed with a spade 
and scythe. At bottom, three figures of Death sitting on 
the ground \ one of them plays on a hautboy, or trumpet, 
another on a bagpipe, and the third has a drum behind him. 
The middle exhibits a circular Dance of Death leading by 
the hand persons of all ranks, from the Emperor downwards. 
In the centre of this circle " Toden Tantz zu finden bey 
Paulus Furst Kunst handlern," and quite at the bottom of 
the page, " G. Stra, in. A. Khol fecit." Next comes an 
exhortation on Death to the reader in Latin verse, followed 
by several poems in German and Latin, those in German 
signed G. P. H. Immediately afterwards, and before the 
first cut of the work is another elegantly engraved fron- 
tispiece, representing an arched gate of stone surmounted 
with three skulls of a Pope, a Cardinal, and a King, between 
a vase of flowers on the right, and a pot of incense, a cock 
standing near it, on the left. On the keystone of the gate 
are two tilting lances in saltier, to which a shield and 
helmet are suspended. Through the arch is seen a 
chamber, in which there seems to be a bier, and near it a 
cross. On the left of the gate is a niche with a skull and 
bones in it Below are two large figures of Death. That 
on the left has a wreath of flowers round its head, and is 
beating a bell with a bone. Under him is an owl, and on 
the side of his left knee a scythe. The other Death has a 
cap and feather, in his right hand an hour-glass, the left 
pointing to the opposite figure. On the ground between 
them, a bow, a quiver of arrows, and a dart. On the left 
inner side of the gate a pot with holy water is suspended to 
a ring, the sprinkler being a bone. Further on, within the 
gate, is a fiat stone, on which are several skulls and bones^ 



no The Dance of Death. 

a snake biting one of the skulls. On the right-hand comei 
at bottom is the letter ^, perhaps the mark of the unknown 
engraver. The explanations on the pages opposite to each 
print are in German and Latin verses, the latter by ^mylius, 
with occasional variations. This edition has the sixty prints 
in the two preceding Nos., some of them having been re- 
touched ; and the cut of the King at table, No. 9, is by a 
different engraver from the artist of the same No. in the 
preceding 4to. edition. No. i. The present edition has 
also an additional engraving at the end, representing a gate, 
within which are seen several skulls and bones, other skulls 
in a niche, and in the distance a cemetery with coffins and 
crosses. Over the gate a skull on each side, and on the 
outer edge of the arch is the inscription, " Quis Rex, quis 
subditus hie est ? " At bottom, 



Hie sage wer es sagen kan 
War konig sey ? wer unterthan, 



Here let tell who may : 
Or, which be the king ? which the 
subject ? 
Paulus Furst Excu. 

The whole of the print in a border of skulls, bones, snakes, 
toads, and a lizard. Opposite to it the date 1647 is to be 
gathered from the Roman capitals in two scriptural quo- 
tations, the one in Latin, the other in German, ending with 
this colophon, " Gedruckt zu Nuremberg durch Christoft 
Lochner. In Verlegung Paul Fursten Kunsthandlern allda." 
i2mo. 

IV. A set of engravings, 8 inches by 8, of which the 
subject of the Pedlar only has occurred on the present 
occasion. Instead of the trump-marine, which one of the 
Deaths plays on in the original cut, this artist has substituted 
a violin, and added a landscape in the background. Below 
ar* these verses : — 

La Mort. 

Sus ? cesse ton traficq, car il fault \ ceste heure 

Que tu sente I'efFort de mon dard assere. 

Tu as assez vescu, il est temps que tu meure, 

Mon coup inevitable est pour toy prepare. 

Le Marchant. 
Et de grace pardon, arreste ta cholere. 
Je suis pauvre marchant appaise ta rigueur. 
Permete qu'encore un temps je vive en ceste terrc ; 
Et puis tu recevras Toffrande de mon cceur. 



TJie Dance of Death. :il 

V. A set of .hirty etchings by Wenceslaus Hollar, within 
elegant frames or borders designed by Diepenbecke, of which 
there are three varieties. The first of these has at the top a 
coffin with tapers ; at bottom, Death lying prostrate. The 
sides have figures of time and eternity. At bottom, Ab. 
Dtepenbecke inv. IV. Hollar fecit. The second has at top a 
Death's head crowned with the Papal tiara ; at bottom, a 
Death's head with cross-bones on a tablet, accompanied by 
a saw, a globe, armour, a gun, a drum, &c. On the sides are 
Hercules and Minerva. At bottom, Ab. Diepenbecke inv. W. 
Hollar fecit, 1651. The third has at top a Death's head, an 
hour-glass winged between two boys ; at bottom, a Death's 
head and cross-bones on a tablet between two boys holding 
hour-glasses. On the sides, Democritus and Heraclitus with 
fools' caps. This border has no inscription below. As these 
etchings are not numbered, the original arrangement of them 
cannot be ascertained. The names of Diepenbecke and Hol- 
lar are at the bottom of several of the borders, (S:c. On the 

subject of the Queen is the mark 1/J/, and on three others 

that of ^^y This is the first and most desirable state of 

the work, the borders having aftenvards fallen into the 
hands of Petau and Van Morle, two foreign printsellers, 
whose impressions are very inferior. It has not been 
ascertained what became of these elegant additions, but 
the work afterwards appeared without them, and with the 
additional mark ,^5. '• °^ every print, and intended for 
" Holbein invenit." It is very certain that Hollar himself did 
not place this mark on the prints j he has never introduced 
it in any of his copies from Holbein, always expressing 

that painter's name in these several ways : UJ , FW^^^/^ 

inv. Jiffijlic^f^ pinxit, H. Holbein inv. H. Holbein 

inventor. On one of his portraits from the Arundel 

collection he has placed "IfJ^jf^in, incidit in lignuitC 

It is not impossible that Hollar may have copied a bust 
carved in wood, or some other material, by Holbein, as 
Albert Diirer and other great artists are known to have 
practised sculpture in this manner. No copy, however, of 



II» The Dance of Death. 

this portrait has occurred in wood, and, if this be only a 
conjecture on the part of the engraver, the distance of time 
between the respective artists is an objection to its validity, 
though it is possible that Holbein might have engraved on 
wood, because there are prints which have all the appearance 
of belonging to him, that have his usual mark, accompanied 
by an engraving tool. There is no text to these etchings, 
except the Latin scriptural passages under each, that occur 
in the original editions in that language. As a sort of fron- 
tispiece to the work. Hollar has transferred the last cut 
of the allegorical shield of arms, supported by a lady and 
gentleman, to the beginning, with the appropriate title of 
MORTALiVM NOBiLiTAS. The Other subjects are, i. Adam 
and Eve in Paradise. 2. Their expulsion from Paradise. 
3. Adam digging. Eve spinning. 4. The Pope. 5. The 
Emperor. 6. The Empress. 7. The Queen. 8. The 
Cardinal. 9. The Duke. 10. The Bishop. 11. The 
Nobleman. 12. The Abbot. 13. The Abbess. 14. The 
Friar. 15. The Nun. 16. The Preacher. 17. The Phy- 
sician. 18. The Soldier, or Warrior. 19. The Advocate. 
20. The married couple. 21. The Duchess. 22. The 
Merchant. 23. The Pedlar. 24. The Miser. 25. The 
Waggoner with wine casks. 26. The Gamesters. 27. The 
Old Man. 28. The old Woman. 29. The Infant. Of 
these, Nos. i, 5, 6, 8, 9, 13, 14, 23, 27, and 28, correspond 
with the Lyons wood-cuts, except that in No. i a stag is 
omitted, and there are some variations ; in No. 6, the 
windows of the palace are altered ; in No. 13, a window 
is added to the house next to the nunnery ; and in No. 9, 
a figure is introduced, and the ducal palace much altered ; 
in No. 23, a sword is omitted. They are all reverses, except 
No. 5. The rest of the subjects are reversed, with one 

exception, from the copies by ^yy in the spurious edition 

first printed at Cologne in 1555, with occasional very slight 
variations. Hollar's copies from the original cuts are in a 
small degree less both in width and depth. In the subject 
of Death and the Soldier he has not shown his judgment 
in making use of the spurious edition rather than the far 
more elegant and interesting original;^" and it is remarkable 
"* Se« p. aQ. 



The Dance of Death. 113 

that this is the only print belonging to the spurious ones 
that is not reversed. 

It is very probable that Hollar executed this work at 
Antwerp, where, at the time of its date, he might have 
found Diepenbecke, and engaged him to make designs foi 
the borders which are etched on separate plates, thus sup- 
plying passe-par-touts that might be used at discretion. 
Many sets appear without the borders, which seem to 
have strayed, and perhaps to have been afterwards lost or 
destroyed. As Rubens is recorded to have admired the 
beauty of the original cuts, so it is to be supposed that 
Diepenbecke, his pupil, would entertain the same opinion 
of them, and that he might have suggested to Hollar the 
making etchings of them, undertaking himself to furnish 
appropriate borders. But how shall we account for the 
introduction of so many of the spurious and inferior de- 
signs, if he had the means of using the originals ? Many 
books were formerly excessively rare, which, from peculiar 
circumstances, not necessary to be here detailed, but well 
known to bibliographers and collectors, have since become 
comparatively common. Hollar might not have had an 
opportunity of meeting with a perfect copy of the original 
cuts, or he might, in some way or other, have been impeded 
in the use of them, when executing his work, and thus have 
been driven to the necessity of pursuing it by means of the 
.ipurious edition. These, however, are but conjectures, and 
It remains for every one to adopt his own opinion. 

The copper-plates of the above thirty etchings appear to 
have fallen into the hands of an English noble family, from 
which the late Mr. James Edwards, a bookseller of well 
merited celebrity, obtained them, and about the year 1794 
caused many impressions to be taken off after they had 
been rebitten with great care, so as to prevent that injury, 
with respect to outline, which usually takes place where 
etchings or engravings upon copper are retouched. Pre- 
viously to this event good impressions must have been 
extremely rare, at least on the Continent, as they are not 
found in the very rich collections of Winckler or Brandes, 
nor are they mentioned by the foreign writers on engraving. 
To Mr. Edwards's publication of Hollar's prints there was 
prefixed a short dissertation on the Dance of Death, whicli 
. 1 



114 The Dance of Death. 

is here again submitted t3 public attention in a considerably 
enlarged form, and corrected from the errors and imper- 
fections into which its author had been misled by preceding 
writers on the subject, and by the paucity of the materials 
which he was then able to obtain. This edition was 
reprinted verbatim, and with the same etchings, in 1816, 
for J. Coxhead, in Holy\vell Street, Strand, but without any 
mention of the former, and accompanied with the addition 
of a brief memoir of Holbein. 

It is most likely that Hollar, having discovered the error 
which he had committed in copying the spurious engravings 
before mentioned, and subsequently procured a set of 
genuine impressions, resolved to make another set of 
etchings from the original work, four only of which he 
appears to have executed, his death probably taking place 
before they could be completed. These are, i. The Pope 
crowning the Emperor, with " Moriatur sacerdos magnus." 
2. The rich man disregarding the beggar, with " Qui 
obturat aurem suam ad clamorem pauperis," &c. and the 
four Latin lines, " Consulitis, dites," &c. at bottom, as in 
the original. It is beautifully and most faithfully copied, 

^^^^iRuittlrv inv. Hollar fecit. 3. The Ploughman, with 

" In sudore vultus," &c. 4. The Robber, with " Domine 
vim patior." 

In Dugdale's "History of St. Paul's," and also in the 
Monasticon, there is a single etching by Hollar of Death 
leading all ranks of people. It is only an improved copy 
of an old wood-cut in Lydgate's works, already mentioned 
in p. 45, and which is altogether imaginary, not being taken ^ 
from any real series of the Dance. 

VI. " Varii e veri ritratte della morte disegnati in] 
immagini, ed espressi in Essempii al peccatore duro dij 
cuore, dal padre Gio. Battista Marmi della compagnia d« 
Giesu. Venetia, 1669." 8vo. It has several engraving 
among which are the following, after the original designs 
I. Queen. 2. Nobleman. 3. Merchant. 4. Garablei 
5. Physician. 6. Miser. The last five being close copit 
from the same subjects, in the Basle edit 1769, No. V. 
the copies in wood. 

VIL " Theatrum mortis humanae tripartitum. L 



7h^ Dama of Death. iiS 

Saiium Mortis. II. Pars. Vana genera Morii:i. III. Pars. 
Pienas- Daninatorum continens, cum figuris aeneis illus- 
tratum." Then the same repeated in Genuan, with the 
addition " Durch Joannem Weichardura Valvasor. Lih. 
Bar. cum facultate superiorum, et special! privilegio Sac 
Caes. Majest. Gedruckt zu Laybach, und zu finden bei 
Johann Kaptista Mayr, in Saltzburg. Anno 1682." 4to. 
Prefixed is an engraved frontispiece representing a ruined 
arch, under which is a coffin, and before it the King of 
Terrors between two other figures of Death mounted 
respectively on an elephant and cameL In the foreground, 
Adam and Eve, tied to the forbidden tree of knowledge, 
between several other Deaths variously employed. Two 
men digging graves, &c Underneath, W. inven. W- 
excud. Jo. Koch del. And. Trost sculp. Wagenpurgi in 
Camiola." It is the first part only with which we are 
concerned. The artist, with very little exception, has 
followed and reversed the spurious wood-cuts of 1555, by 
^^y^*. To the groups of boys, he has added a Death 

leading them on. 

VIIL "De Doodt vermaskert met des werelts ydelheyt 
afghedaen door Ceeraerdt Van Wolschaten." This is 
another edition of No. IX. of the original wood-cuts, 
here engraved on copper. The text is the same as that ot 
1654, with the addition of seven leaves, including a cut ot 
Death leading all ranks of men. In that of the Pedlar the 
artist has introduced some figures in the distance of the 
original soldUr. Among other variations the costume ot 
the time of William III. is sometimes very ludicrously 
adopted, especially in the frontispiece, where the author 
is represented writing at a desk, and near him two figures 
of a man in a full bottom wig, and a woman with a mask 
and a perpendicular cap in several stories, usually called a 
Fontange, both having skeleton faces. At bottom, the m.irk 

iLlj-f- • This edition was printed at Antwerp by Jan 

Baptist Jacobs, without date, but the privilege has that of 
1698. i2mo. 

IX. " Imagines Mortis, or the Dead Dance of Hans 
Holbej-n, painter ol King Henry the VIIL" This title is 
la 



ti6 The Dance of Death. 

on a copper-plate within a border, and accompanied witll 
nineteen etchings on copper, by Nieuhoff Piccard, a person 
who will be more particularly adverted to hereafter. They 
consist of, I. The emblem of Mortality, a. The temptation. 
3. The expulsion from Paradise. 4. Adam digging. Eve 
spinning. 5. Concert of Deaths. 6. The infant. 7. The 
new-married couple. 8. The Duke. 9. The Advocate. 
10. The Abbot. 11. The Monk. 12. The Abbess. 13. 
The Soldier. 14. The Merchant. 15. The Pedlar. 16. 
The Fool. 17. The Blind Man. 18. The Old Woman. 
19. The Old Man. The designs, with some occasional 
variations, correspond with those in the original wood-cuts. 
The plates of these etchings must have passed into the 
hands of some English printsellers, as broken sets of them 
have not long since been seen, one only of which, namely, 
that of the Temptation, had these lines on it 

^' AH that e'er had breath 
Must dance after Death," 

with the date 1720. Several were then numbered at 
bottom with Arabic numerals. 

X. " Schau-platz des Todes, oder Todten Tanz, von Sal. 
Van Rusting Med- Doct. in Nieder-Teutscher-Sprache nun 
aber in Hoch Teutscher mit nothigen Anmerckungen 
herausgegeben von Johann Georg. Meintel, Hochfurstl 
Brandenburg-Onolt^bachischen pfarrer zu Petersaurach." 
Nurnberg, 1736. 8vo. Or, "The Theatre of Death, or 
Dance of Death, by Sol. Van Rusting, doctor of medicine, 
in Low German language, but now in High German, with 
necessary notes by John George Meintel, in the service of 
his Serene Highness of Brandenburg, and parson of Peter- 
saurach." It is said to have been originally published in 
1707, which is very probable, as Rusting, of whom very 
little is recorded, was born about 1650. In the early part 
of his life he practised as an army surgeon. He was a 
great admirer c^nd follower of the doctrines of Balthasar 
Bekker in his " Monde enchantd" There are editions in 
Dutch only, 1735 and 1741, i2mo. the plates being copies. 
In the above-mentioned edition by Meintel there is an 
elaborate preface, with some account of the Dance of 
Death, and its editions, but replete with the grossest errors, 



Th^ Dance of Death, 117 

inlo which he has been misled by Hilscher, and some other 
writers. His text is accompanied with a profusion of notes, 
altogether of a pious and moral nature. 

Rusting's work, consists of thirty neat engravings, of 
which the following are copied from the Lyons wood-cuts. 
I. The King, much varied. 2. The Astrologer. 3. The 
Soldier. 4. The Monk. 5. The Old Man. 6. The 
Pedlat The rest are, on the whole, original designs, yet 
with occasional hints from the Lyons cuts ; the best of 
them are, the Masquerade, the Rope-dancer, and the 
Skaiters. The frontispiece is in two compartments ; the 
upper one. Death crowned, sitting on a throne, on each side 
of him a Death trumpeter ; the lower, a fantastic Dance of 
seven Deaths, near a crowned skeleton lying on a couch. 

XI. ** Le triomphe de la Mort." A Basle, 1780, folio. 
This is the first part of a collection of the works of Hans 
Holbein, engraved and published by M. Chretien de 
Mechel, a celebrated artist, and formerly a printseller in 
the above city. It has a dedication to George III. followed 
by explanations in French of the subjects, in number 46, 
and in the following order : — No. i. A Frontispiece, repre- 
senting a tablet of stone, on one side of which Holbein 
appears behind a curtain, which is drawn aside by Death 
in order to exhibit to him the grand spectacle of the scenes of 
human life which he is intended to paint; this is further de- 
signated by a heap of the attributes of greatness, dignities, 
wealth, arts, and sciences, intermixed with Deaths' heads, all 
of which are trampled under foot by Death himself. At 
bottom, Lucan's line, " Mors sceptra ligonibus jequat." 
The tablet is surmounted by a medallion of Holbein, 
supported by two genii, one of whom decorates the 
portrait with flowers, whilst another lets loose a butterfly, 
and a third is employed in blowing bubbles. On the 
tablet itself is a second title, " Le triomphe de la mort, 
grave' d'apr^s les dessins originaux de Jean Holbein par 
Chr". de Mechel, graveur \ Basle, mdcclxxx." This 
frontispiece has been purposely inverted for the present 
work. The other subjects are : — No. 2. The Temptation. 
3. Expulsion from Paradise. 4. Adam digging. Eve spin- 
ning. 5. The Pope. 6. The Cardinal. 7. The Duke. 8. 
The Bishop. 9. The Canon. 10. The Monk. 11. The 



1 1 8 The Dance of Dea \ 

Abbot. 12. The Abbess. 13. The Preacher. 14. The 
Priest. 15. The Physician. 16, The Astrologer. 17. The 
Emperor. 18. The King. 19. The Empress. 20. The 
Queen. 21. The Duchess. 22. The Countess. 23. The 
New-married Couple. 24. The Nun. 25. The Nobleman. 
26. The Knight. 27. The Gentleman. 28. The Soldier. 
29. The Judge. 30. ITie Counsellor. 31. The Advocate. 
32. The Merchant. 33. The Pedlar. 34. The Shipwreck. 
35. The Wine-carrier. 36. The Ploughman. 37. The Miser. 
38. The Robber. 39. The Drunkard. 40. The Gamblers. 
41. The Old Man. 42. The Old Woman. 43. The Blind 
Man. 44. The Beggar. 45. The Infant. 46. The Fool. 

M. Mechel has added another print on this subject, viz. 
the sheath of a dagger, a design for a chaser. It is im- 
possible to exceed the beauty and skill that are manifested 
in this fine piece of art. The figures are, a king, queen, 
warrior, a young woman, a monk, and an infant, all of 
whom most unwillingly accompany Death in the Dance. 
The despair of the king, the dejection of the queen, ac- 
companied by her little dog, the terror of the soldier who 
hears the drum of Death, the struggling of the female, the 
reluctance of the monk, and the sorrow of the poor infant, 
are depicted with equal spirit and veracity. The original 
drawing is in the public library at Basle, and ascribed to 
Holbein. There is a general agreement between these 
engravings and the original wood-cuts. Twenty-three are 
reversed. In No. 13 the jaw-bone in the hand of Death 
is not distinct. In No. 16 a cross is added, and in No. 17 
two heads. 

Mr. Coxe, in his "Travels in Switzerland," has given some 
account of the drawings copied as above by M. de Mechel, 
in whose possession he saw them. He states that they were 
sketched with a pen, and slightly shaded with Indian ink. 
He mentions M. de Mechel's conjecture that they were 
once in the Arundel collection, and infers from thence that 
they were copied by Hollar, which, however, from what has 
been already stated on the subject of Hollar's print of the 
Soldier and Death, as well as from other variations, could 
not have been the case. Mr. Coxe proceeds to say that 
four of the subjects in M. de Mechel's work are not in the 
drawings; but were copied from Hollar. It were to be 



TJ>c Dance of Death 119 

wished that he had specified them. The particulars that 
follow were obtained by the compiler of the present dis- 
sertation from M. de Mechel himself when he was in 
London. He had not been able to trace the drawings 
previously to their falling into the hands of M. de Crozat," 
at whose sale, about 177 i, they were purchased by Coun- 
sellor Fleischmann of Strasburg ; and M. de Mechel having 
very emphatically expressed his admiration of them whilst 
they were in the possession of M. Fleischmann, that 
gentleman very generously offered them as a present to 
him. M. de Mechel, however, declined the offer, but 
retpiested they might be deposited in the public library at 
Dasle, among other precious remains of Holbein's art. This 
arrangement, however, did not take place, and it happened 
in the mean time that two nephews of Prince Gallitzin, 
minister from Russia to the court of Vienna, havir.g occa- 
sion to visit M. Fleischmann, then much advanced in years, 
and his memory much impaired, prevailed on him to 
concede the drawings to their uncle, who, on learning from 
M. de Mechel what had originally passed between hniiself 
and M. Fleischmann, sent the drawings to him, with jjer- 
mission to engrave and publish them, which was accord- 
ingly done, after they had been detained two years for that 
purpose. They afterwards passed into the Emperor of 
Russia's collection of fine arts at Petersburg. 

It were greatly to be wished that some person qualified 
like Mr. Ottley, if such a one can be found, would take 
the trouble to enter on a critical examination of these 
drawings in their present state, with a view to ascertain, as 
nearly as possible, whether they carry indisputable marks 
of Holbein's art and manner of execution, or whether, 
as may well be suspected, they are nothing more than 
copies, either by himself or some other person, from the 
original wood engravings. 

M. de Mechel had begun this work in 177 1, when he 
had engraved the first four subjects, including a frontispiece 
totally different from that in the volume here described. 

'^ It has been stated that they were in the Arandelian collection, 
whence they passed into the Netherlands, where forty-six of them 
becaii'e the property of Jan Bockhorst the jiainter, commonly ciiied 
Long John. See Crozat's catalojjue. 



lao The Dance of Death. 

There are likewise variations in the other three. He wai 
extremely solicitous that these should be cancelled. These 
four prints are in the author's possession. 

XIL David Deuchar, sometimes called the Scottish 
Worlidge, who has etched many prints after Ostade and 
the Dutch masters, published a set of etchings by himself, 
with the following printed title : " The Dances of Death 
through the various stages of human life, wherein the 
capriciousness of that tyrant is exhibited in forty-six copper- 
plates, done from the original designs, which were cut in 
wood and afterwards painted by John Holbein in the town 
house at Basle, to which is prefixed a description of each 
plate in French and English, with the Scripture text from 
which the designs were taken. Edinburgh, mdcclxxxviii." 
Before this most inaccurate title are two engraved leaves, 
on one of which is Deuchar's portrait, in a medallion, sup- 
ported by Adam and Eve holding the forbidden fruit 
Over the medallion, the three Fates, the whole within 
an arch before a pediment. On each side, a plain column, 
supporting a pyramid, &c. On the other leaf a copy of the 
engraved title to M. de Mechel's work with the substitution 
of Deuchar's name. After the printed title is a portrait, as 
may be supposed, of Holbein, within a border containing 
six ovals of various subjects, and a short preface or account 
of that artist, but accompanied with some very inaccurate 
statements. The subjects are enclosed, like Hollar's, within 
four different borders, separately engraved, three of them 
borrowed, with a slight variation in one, from Diepenbecke, 
the fourth being probably Deuchar's invention. The etchings 
of the Dance of Death are forty-six in number, accompanied 
with De Mechel's description and English translation. At 
the end is the emblematical print of mortality, but not 
described, with the dagger sheath, copied from De Mechel. 
Thirty of these etchings are immediately copied from 
Hollar, No. X. having the distance altered. The rest are 
taken from the spurious wood copies of the originals b> 

^^^^ with variation in No. XVHL; and in No. XXXIX. 

and XLIII. Deuchar has introduced winged hour-glasses. 
These etchings are very inferior to those by Hollar. The 
head of Eve in No. IH. resembles that of a periwigged 



The Dance of Death. 1 21 

Frenchman of the time of Louis XIV. ; but many of the 
subjects are very superior to others, and entitled to much 
commendation. 

XIII. The last in this list is " Der Todtentanz, ein 
Gedicht von Ludwig Bechstein mit 48 Kupfern in treuen 
Conturen nach H. Holbein. Leipzig. 183 1." i2mo. ; or, 
" Death's Dance, a poem by Ludwig Bechstein, with forty- 
eight engravings in faithful outlines from H. Holbein." 
These very elegant etchings are by Frenzel, inspector of 
the gallery of engravings of the King of Saxony at Dresden. 
The poem, which is an epic one, relates entirely to the 
power of Death over mankind. 

It is necessary to mention that the artist who made 
the designs for the Lyons Dance of Death is not altogether 
original with respect to a few of them. Thus, in the sub- 
ject of Adam digging and Eve spinning, he has partly 
copied an ancient wood engraving that occurs in some of 
the Horae printed by Francis Regnault at Paris. In the 
subject of the Queen, and on that of the Duke and 
Duchess, he has made some use of those of Death and the 
Fool, and Death and the Hermit, in the old Dance at 
Basle. On the other hand, he has been imitated, i. in " La 
Periere Theatre des bons engins. 1561," 24mo. where the 
rich man bribing the judge is introduced at fo. td. 2. The 
figure of the Swiss gentleman in " Recueil de la diversity 
des habits," Paris, 1567, i2mo. is copied from the last 
print in the Lyons book. 3. From the same print the 
Death's head has been introduced in an old wood engraving, 
that will be more particularly described hereafter. 4. Bre- 
biette, in a small etching on copper, has copied the Lyons 
Ploughman. 5. Mr. Dance, in his painting of Garrick, has 
evidently made use of the gentleman who lifts up his sword 
against Death. The copies of the portrait of Francis I. 
have been already noticed. 

Other imitations of the Lyons cuts are, i. A wood en- 
graving of Adam digging and Eve spinning, by Com. Van 
Sichem in the " Bibel's tresor," Amst 1646, 4to. 2. The 
Astrologer, a small circular print on copper by Le Blond. 
3. The Bridegroom, an anonymous modem engraving on 
wood. 4. The Miser, a small modem and anonymouf 
print on copper. 




CHAPTER IX. 



Further examination of Holbein's title. — Borhonius. — Biogra- 
phical notice of Holbeift. — Painting of a Dance of Death at 
Whitehall by him. 




T may be necessary in the next place to 
make some further inquiry respecting 
the connexion that Holbein is supposed 
to have had at any time with the subject 
of the Dance of Death. 

The numerous errors that have been 
fallen into in making Holbein a partici- 
pator in any manner whatever with the old Basle Macaber 
Dance, have been already noticed, and arc indeed not 
worth the trouble of refuting. It is wholly improbable that 
he would interfere with so rude a piece of art ; nor has his 
name been recorded among the artists who are known to 
have retouched or repaired it. The Macaber Dance at 
Basle, or anywhere else, is, therefore, with respect to 
Holbein, to be altogether laid aside ; and if the argument 
before deduced from the important dedication to the 
edition of the justly celebrated wood-cuts published at 
Lyons in 1538 be of any value, his claim to their invention, 
at4east to those in the first edition, must also be rejected.* 

^ On the same dedication are founded the opinions of Zani, De«Murr, 
Meintel, and some others. 



Tlie Dance of Death, i aj 

There is indeed but very slight evidence, and none con- 
temporar)', that he painted any Dance of Death at Basle. 
The indefinite statements of Bishop Burnet and M. Patin, 
together with those of the numerous and careless travellers 
who have followed blind leaders, and too often copied each 
other without the means or inclination of obtaining correct 
information, are deserving of very little attention. The 
circumstance of Holbein's having painted a Dance of 
Peasants somewhere in the above city, in conjunction with 
the usual mistake of ascribing to him the old Macaber 
Dance, seems to have occasioned the above erroneous 
statements as to a Dance of Death by his pencil. It is 
hardly possible that Zuinger, almost a contemporary, when 
describing the Dance of Peasants and other paintings by 
Holbein at Basle, would have omitted the mention of any 
Dance of Death :' but even admitting the former existence 
of such a painting, it would not constitute him the inventor 
of the designs in the Lyons work. He might have imitated 
or copied those designs, or the wood-cuts themselves, 
or perhaps have painted subjects that were different from 
either. 

We are now to take into consideration some very clear 
and important evidence that Holbein actually did paint a 
Dance of Death. This is to be found in the Nug<z of 
Borbonius in the following verses : 

De fitorU picta ii Hattso pictore nobili. 

Dum mortis I lansus pictor imaginum exprirait, 
Tanta arte mortem retulit, ut mors vivere 
Videatur ipsa : et ipse se immortalibus 
Parem Diis fecerit, oi')€ris hujus glorix' 

It has been already demonstrated that these lines could 
not refer to the old painting of the Macaber Dance at the 
Dominican convent, whilst, from the important dedication 
to the edition of the wood-cuts first published at Lyons in 
1538, it is next to impossible that that work could then 
have been in Borbonius's contemplation. It appears from 
several places in his "Nugce" that he was in England in 1535, 
at which time Holbein drew his portrait in such a manner 

' Zuinger, M:thodus apodemica. Basil, 1557. 4to. p. 199. ' P* 437» 
rdit. Lugd. api.;l Gryphium, and p. 44;, edit. Basil. 



124 1^^ Dance of Death, 

as to excite his gratitude and admiration in another copy 
of verses.* This was probably the chalk drawing still pre- 
served in the fine collection of portraits of the eminent 
persons in the court of Henry VIII. formerly at Kensington, 
and thence removed to Buckingham House, and which has 
been copied in an elegant wood-cut, that first appeared in the 
edition of the Paidagogeion of Borbonius, Lyons, 1536, and 
afterwards in two editions of his " Nugae." It is inscribed 

NIC. BORBONIVS VANDOP. ANNO ^ETATIS XXXII. 1 535. He 

returned to Lyons in 1536, and it is known that he was 
there in 1538, when he probably wrote the complimentary 
lines in Holbein's Biblical designs a short time before their 
publication, either out of friendship to the painter, or at 
the instance of the Lyons publisher with whom he was 
certainly connected. 

Now if Borbonius, during his residence at Lyons, had 
been assured that the designs in the wood-cuts of the Dance 
of Death were the production of Holbein, would not his 
before-mentioned lines on that subject have been likewise 
introduced into the Lyons edition of it, or at least into 
some subsequent editions, in none of which is any mention 
whatever made of Holbein, although the work was con- 
tinued even after the death of that artist % The appli- 
cation, therefore, of Borbonius's lines must be sought for 
elsewhere ; but it is greatly to be regretted that he has not 
adverted to the place where the painting, as he seems to 
call it, was made. 

Very soon after the calamitous fire at Whitehall in 1697, 
which consumed nearly the whole of that palace, a person 
calling himself T. Nieuhoff Piccard, probably belonging to 
the household of William the Third, and a man who 
appears to have been an amateur artist, made the etchings 
in the article IX. already described in p. 130. Copies of 
them were presented to some of his friends, with manuscript 
dedications to them. Three of these copies have been seen 
by the author of this Dissertation ; and as the dedications 
differ from each other, and are of very considerable im- 
portance on the present occasion, the following extracte 
from them are here translated and transcribed : — 

* Nugae, lib. vi. carm. n. 



Th€ Dance cf Death. 125 



"To Mynheer Heymans. 

"Sir, — The costly palace of Whitehall, erected by 
Cardinal Wolsey, and the residence of King Henry VIII. 
contains, among other performances of art, a Dance of 
Deathy painted by Holbein in its galleries, which, through 
an unfortunate conflagration, has been reduced to ashes ; 
and even the little work which he has engraved with his 
own hand, and which I have copied as near as possible, is 
so scarce, that it is known only to a few lovers of art. 
And since the court has thought proper, in consideration 
of your singular deserts, to cause a dwelling to be built for 
you at Whitehall, I imagined it would not be disagreeable 
to you to be made acquainted with the former decorations 
of that palace. It will not appear strange that the artist 
should have chosen the above subject for ornamenting the 
royal walls, if we consider that the founder of the Greek 
monarchy directed that he should be daily reminded of 
the admonition, ' Remember, Philip, that thou art a man.' 
In like manner did Holbein with his pencil give tongues to 
these walls to impress not only the king and his court, but 
every one who viewed them with the same reflection." 

He then proceeds to describe each of the subjects, and 
concludes with some moral observations. 

In another copy of these etchings the dedication is to 
" The high, noble, and well-born Lord William Benting, 
Lord of Rhoon, Pendreght," &c 

"Sir, — In the course of my constant love and pursuit of 
works of art, it has been my good fortune to meet with that 
scarce little work of Hans Holbein neatly engraved jn 
wood, and which he himself had painted as large as li.'e in 
fresco on the walls of Whitehall. In the copy whicii I 
presume to lay before you, as being born in the same 
palace, I have followed the original as nearly as possible, 
and considering the partiality which every one has for the 
place of his birth, a description of what is remarkable and 
curious therein and now no longer existing on account of 
Its destruction by a fatal fire, must needs prove acceptable, 



126 The Dance of Death. 

as no other remains whatever have been left of that once 
so famous court of King Henry VIII. built by Cardina. 
Wolsey, than your own dwelling." 

He then repeats the story of Philip of Macedon, and the 
account of the subjects of his etchings. 

At the end of this dedication there is a fragment of 
another, the beginning of which is lost. The following 
passages only in it are worthy of notice : — " The residence 
of King William." "I flatter myself with a familiar ac- 
quaintance with Death, since I have already lived long 
enough to seem to be buried alive," &c. In other respects, 
the same, in substance, as the preceding. 

It is almost needless to advert to M. Nieuhoff Piccard's 
mistake in asserting that Holbein made the engravings 
which he copied ; but it would have been of some 
importance if, instead of his pious ejaculations, he had 
described all the subjects that Holbein painted on the walls 
of the galleries at Whitehall. He must have used some 
edition of the wood-cuts posterior to that of 1545, which 
did not contain the subjects of the German Soldier, the 
Fool, and the Blind Man, all of which he has introduced. 
It is possible, however, that he has given us all the subjects 
that were then remaining, the rest having become decayed 
or obliterated from dampness and neglect, and even those 
which then existed would soon afterwards perish when the 
remains of the old palace were removed. His copies are 
by no means faithful, and seem to be rather the production 
of an amateur than of a regular artist. For his greater 
convenience, he appears to have preferred using the wood 
engravings instead of the paintings ; and it is greatly to be 
regretted that we have no better or further account of them, 
especially of the time at which they were executed. The 
lives of Holbein that we possess are uniformly defective in 
chronological arrangement. There seems to be a doubt 
whether the Earl of Arundel recommended him to visit 
England ; but certain it is that in the year 1526 he came 
to London with a letter of that date addressed by Erasmus 
to Sir Thomas More, accompanied with his portrait, with 
which More was so well satisfied that he retained him at 
his house at Chelsea upwards of two years, until Henry 



The Dance of Death. 127 

VIII., from admiration of his works, appointed him hi.l 
painter, with apartments at Whitehall. In 1529 he 
visited Basle, but returned to England in 1530. In 1535 
he drew the portrait of his friend Nicholas Bourbon or 
Borbonius at London, probably the before-mentioned 
crayon drawing at Buckingham House, or some duplicate 
of it. In 1538 he painted the portrait of Sir Richard 
Southwell, a privy counsellor to Henry VIII., which was 
afterwards in the gallery of the Grand Duke of Tuscany.* 
About this time the magistrates of the city of Basle settled 
an annuity on him, but conditionally that he should return 
in two years to his native place and family, with which 
terms he certainly did not comply, preferring to remain in 
England. In the last-mentioned year he was sent by the 
king into Burgundy to paint the portrait of the Duchess of 
Milan, and in 1539 to Germany to paint that of Anne of 
Cleves. In some household accounts of Henry VI 11. 
there are payments to him in 1538, 1539, i540> ^^id 1541, 
on account of his salary, which appears to have been thirty 
pounds per annum." From this time little more is re- 
corded of him till 1553, when he painted Queen Mar)''s 
portrait, and shortly afterwards died of the plague in 
London in 1554. 

In the absence of positive evidence, it may surely be 
allowed to substitute probable conjecture ; and as it cannot 
be clearly proved that Holbein painted a Dance of Death 
at Basle, may not the before-mentioned verses of Borbonius 
refer to his painting at Whitehall, and which the poet must 
himself have seen \ It is no objection that Borbonius 
remained a year only in England, when his portrait was 
painted by his friend Holbein in 1535, or that the verses 
did not make their appearance till 1538, for they seem 
rather to fix the date of the painting, if really belonging to 
it, between those years ; and it is not unreasonable to 
suppose that Borbonius would hold some intercourse with 
the painter, even after leaving England, as is indeed 
aj)parent from other compliments bestowed on him in his 
" Nugns,*' the contents of which are by no means chrono- 

' B.ilcliiiucci notizie d' e professori del disegno, torn. iiL p. 317, 4to. 
edit, v/hcre the inscription on it is given. • Norfolk MS. 97, now 

in the British Museum. 



t2S The Dance of Death. 

logically arranged, and many of the poems known to have 
been written long before their publication. The lines in 
question might have been written anywhere, and at any 
time, and this may be very safely stated until the real time 
in which the Whitehall painting was made shall be as- 
certained. 

In one of Vanderdort's manuscript catalogues of the pic- 
tures and rarities transported from St. James's to Whitehall, 
and placed there in the newly-erected cabinet room of 
Charles L, and in which several works by Holbein are 
mentioned, there is the following article : — " A little piece 
w here Death, with a green garland about his head, stretching 
both his arms to apprehend a Pilate in the habit of one of 
the spiritual Prince Electors of Germany. Copied by Isaac 
Oliver from Holbein."' There cannot be a doubt that this 
refers to the subject of the Elector, as painted by Holbein 
\\\ the Dance of Death at Whitehall, proving at the same 
time the identity of the painting with the wood-cuts, what- 
ever may be the inference. 

Sandrart, after noticing a remarkable portrait of Henry 
VIII. at Whitehall, states, that " there yet remains in that 
palace another work by Holbein that constitutes him the 
Apelles of the time."® This is certainly very like an 
allusion to a Dance of Death. 

It is by no means improbable that Mathew Prior may 
have alluded to Holbein's painting at Whitehall, as it is not 
likely that he would be acquainted with any other. 

Our term of life depends not on our deed. 

Before our birth our funeral was decreed. 

Nor awed by ioresight, nor misled by chance; 

Imperious death directs the ebon lance, 

Peoples great Henry's tombs, and leads up Holbein's Dance. 

Ode to the Memory of George Villief% 



7 HarL MS. 4718. ^ ^cad. Pictur. «39. 



THE CREATION. 



'^P^^' 


n 


Wi 


'^1 


^^^^vkm 


i^l 


^^^yHpS 


M 


rTsai^^^- r :^^:^ 


r| 



Forvia: it D^'/niftiis Dcus homincm dc itmo Urra, ^i. 
Gen. i. 



The Deity is seen taking Eve from the siile of Adam. 



II 



THE TEMPTATION. 





1 


M 




1 


« 


ssWi^a^^^^ "fate ' 


i 


s^^^K^^K 




m 



Quia audisti vocem uxor is incs, et comedisti de ligno^ 6^^. " — 
Gen. iii. 



Eve has just received the forbidden fruit from the serpent, 
who, on the authority of venerable Bede, is here, as well as 
in most ancient representations of the subject, depicted with 
a female human face. She holds it up to Adam, and entices 
hijn to gather more of it from the tree. 



Ill 

THE EXPULSION. 



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" Ernisif eum Dominum Dens de Paradiso Toluptalis, ui 
opirarchir Urram de qud stimptus est.'''' — Gen. iii. 

Adam and Eve are preceded by Death, who plays on a 
vielle, or beggar's lyre, as if demonstrating his joy at the 
victory he haj> obtained over naan. 



Qa 



IV. 



THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE FALI* 




*' Maledida terra in opcre tuo, in lahoribiis comedes cuncti 
diebns vita tua:, donee revertaris, dr=r." — Gen. iii. 

Adam is digging the ground, assisted by Death. In the 
distance Eve is suckling her first-born, and holding a distaff. 
%Vhence the proverb in many languages : 

When Adam delved and Eve span, 
Where was then the gentleman ? 



A CEMETERY. 




" r^, v^, va habitatttibtis in terra --K^oc. viU. 
In which several Deaths are assembled, most of whom 
a e playmg on noisy instrument, of music, as a generd 
summons to mortals to attend them ^ 



VI. 



THE POPE. 




" Moriatur sacerdos magnits.'''' — ^Josue xx. 

He is crowning an Emperor, who kneels before him, two 
Cardinals attending, one of whom is ludicrously personated 
by Death. In the background are bishops, &c. Death 
embraces the Pope with one hand, and with the other leans 
on a crutch. Two grotesque Devils are introduced into the 
cut, one of whom hovers over the Pope ; the other, in the air, 
holds a diploma, to which several seals are appended. 



VII. 



THE EMPEROR. 




"Dispone domui tuct, moricris, enim tu, et non vives^ — 
Isaiae xxxviiL 

Seated on a throne, and attended by his courtiers, he seems 
to be listening to, or deciding, the complaint of a poor man 
who is kneeling before him, against his rich oppressor, whom 
the Emperor, holding the sword of justice, seems to regard 
with an angry countenance. Behind him Death lays hands 
\x\MiVi his crown. 



viri. 

THE KING. 




" Si ait ft Rex Jwdie est, et eras viorietur : nemo eiiim ex 
regibus alttid habiiity — Ecclesiast. x. et Sapient, vii. 

He is silting at his repast before a well-covered table, 
under a canopy studded with fleurs-de-lis. Death intrudes 
himself as a cupbearer, and presents the King with probably 
his last draught. The figure of the king seems intended as a 
portiait of Francis 1. 



IX. 



THE CARDINAL. 




" Va qui just i^catis impiunt pro mutter ihts, et justitiam justi 
aufcrtis ab <•<?." — Isaix v. 

There is some difficulty in ascertaining the real meaning of 
the designer of this subject. It has been described as the 
Cardinal receiving the bull of his appointment, or as a rich 
man making a purchase of indulgences. The latter interpre- 
t.ntion seems warranted by the Latin motto. Death is twisting 
oir the Cardinal's hat. 



THE EMPRESS. 




" Gradientes in superbia potest Dens hiimiliare.'''' — Dan. iv. 

Gorgeously attired and attended by her maids of honour, 
slie is intercepted in her walk by Death in the character of a 
shrivelled old woman, who points to an open grave, and 
seems to say, ' ' To this you must come at last, " 



XL 
THE QUEEN. 




*' Mulieres opuUnta surgite, et audite vocem meam : post diet 
et annum, et vos conturbemini. "* — Isaix xxxii. 

She has just issued from her palace, when Death un- 
expectedly appears and forcibly drags her away. Her jester, 
in whose habiliments Death has ludicrously attired himself, 
endeavours in vain to protect his mistress. A female atten- 
dant is violently screaming. Death holds up his hourglass 
to indicate the arrival of the 'xtal hour. 



XII. 
THE BISHOP. 




" Percutiam pastorem, et dispergentur oves gregis." — Mat. 
xxvi.; Mar. xiv. 

Quietly resigned to his fate he is led away by Death, whilst 
the loss of the worthy Pastor is symbolically deplored by the 
flight and terror of several shepherds in the distance amidst 
their flocks. The setting sun is very judiciously introduced. 



XIII. 
THE DUKE. 




' Prinaps indnetttr moerore, et quiescere faciam superbiam 
potentium." — Ezech. viii. 

Attended by his courtiers, he is accosted in the street for 
charity by a poor beggar woman with her child. He disdain- 
fully turns aside from her supplication, whilst Death, fantasti- 
cally crowned with leaves, xmexpectedly lays violent hands 
upon him. 



XIV. 



THE ABBOT. 




" Ipse morietttr, quia non habuit disciplinavi, et in multitit' 
dine siultitice stcce decipiettir. " 

Death having despoiled him of his mitre and crosier, drags 
him away. The Abbot resists with all his might, and is 
about to throw his breviary at his adversary. 



XV. 



THE ABBESS. 




" Laudaz'i magis mortuos quam vix'entesy — Ecdes. iv. 

Death, grotesquely crowned with flags, seizes the poor 
Abbess by her scapulary. A Nun at the convent gate, with 
uplifted hands, bewails the fate of her superior. 



XVI. 



THE GENTLEMAN. 




" Quis est homo qui vivet, et non videbit mortem, eruet aui- 
mam suam de maim iiiferi ? " 

He vainly, with uplifted sword, endeavours to liberate him- 
self from the grasp of Death. The hour-glass is placed on 
his bier. 



XVII. 



THE CANON. 




" Ecce approf'inquat hora.^'' — Mat. xxvn. 

Death holds up his hour-glass to him as he is entering a 
cathedral. They are followed by a noble person wiiii a hawk 
on his fist, his buffoon or jester, and a little boy. 



XVIII 
THE JUDGE. 




** Disperdam jitdicem de medio ejus.'''' — Amos ii. 

He is deciding a cause between a rich and a poor man. 
From the former he is about to receive a bribe. Deatli 
behind him snatches his staff of office from one of his hands. 



XIX. 
THE ADVOCATE. 




" Callidus vidit malum, etabscottdit se : innocens pertransiit, 
et afflutits est damtto.^'' — Proverb, xxii. 

The rich client is putting a fee into the hands of the 
dishonest lawyer, to which Death also contributes, but 
reminds him at the same time that his glass is run out. To 
this admonition he seems to pay little regard, fully occupied 
in counting the money. Behind this group is the poor suitor, 
wringing his hands, and lamentmg that his poverty disables 
him from coping with his wealthy adversary. 
R 3 



XX. 



THE MAGISTRATE. 



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" ()«/ oblurat aurem suam ad clamorem pauperis, et ipse 
clamabit, et non exaudietur. " — Proverb, xxi. 

A Demon is blowing corruption into the ear of a magistrate, 
who has turned his back on a poor man, whilst he is in close 
conversation with another person, to whose story he seems 
emphatically attentive. Death at his feet with an hour-glass 
and spade. 



XXL 



THE PREACHER. 




r'r qiti dicitis malum bonum, et bonum malum; ponentes 
Uucbras lucem, et lucem tenebras : ponentes amarttm in 
dulce, et dulce in amarum. " — Isaiae v. 



Death with a stole about his neck stands behind the 
preacher, and holds a jaw-bone over his head, typifying 
perhaps thereby that he is the best preacher of the two. 



XXII. 



THE PRIEST. 




*' Sum quidem et ego niortalis homo. " - Sap. vii. 

He is carrying the viaticum, or sacrament, to some dying 
person. Attendants follow with tapers and holy water. 
Death strides on before, with bell and lanthom, to announce 
the coming of the priest 



XXIII. 



THE MENDICANT FRIAR. 




" SedenUs in tenebris, et in umbra mortis, vinctos in men- 
dicitatt'.''^ — Psal. cvi. 

He is just entering his convent with his money-box and 
wallet. Death seizes him by the cowl, and forcibly drags 
him away. 



XXIV. 

THE NUN. 





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" iS'j'/ Z'/a ^«<^ videtur homini justa : novissima aittem ejus 
deducunt hominem ad mortem.'''' — Proverb, iv. 

Here is a mixture of gallantry and religion. The young 
lady has admitted her lover into her apartment. She is 
kneeling before an altar, and hesitates whether to persist in 
her devotions or listen to the amorous music of the young 
man, who, seated on a bed, touches a theorbo lute. Death 
extinguishes the candles on the altar, by which the designer 
of the subject probably intimates the punishment of unlawful 
love. 



XXV. 



THE OLD WOMAN. 




" Mdior est mors quam vita. " — Eccle. xxx. 

She is accompanied by two Deaths, one of whom, playing 
on a stickado, or wooden psalter, precedes her. She seems 
more attentive to her rosary of bones than to the music, 
whilst the other Death impatiently urges her forward with 
blows. 



XXVI. 



THE PHYSICIAN. 



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" Medice, cura te ipsumy — Luc. iv. 

He holds out his hand to receive, for inspection, a urinal 
which Death presents to him, and which contains the water 
of a decrepit old man whom he introduces, and seems to say 
to the physician " Canst thou cure this man who is already 
in my power ? " 



XXVII. 



THE ASTROLOGER. 





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•* Indica mihi si nosti omnia. Sciebas quod tiasciturus esses, 
tt nunurum dieriim tuoriim noveras V — Job xxxviii. 

He is seen in his study, looking attentively at a suspendetl 
sphere. Death holds out a skull to him, and seems, in 
mockery, to say, " Here is a better subject for your con- 
templation." 



XXX. 



THE SHIP IN A TEMPEST. 




" Qui volunt ditcscere, incuhint in tetitationem et laqiteum, et 
cupiditates multas, stiiltas, ac noxtas, qucB demergitnr 
homines in exitinm et interitum" — i ad Tim. vi. 

Death is vigorously employed in breaking the mast. The 
owner of the vessel is wringing his hands in despair. One 
man seems perfectly resigned to his impending fate. 



XXXI. 



THE KXIGHT. 





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" ^w/'/Vc? morientiir, d in m.dia nocte turbabuntur popuU, et 
auferent vioknttim absque manu. "—Job xxxiv. 

After escaping the perils in his numerous combats, lie «* 
vanquished by Death, whom he ineffectually resists. 



XXXII. 



THE COUNT. 




" Qtioniam cum interierit, non sumet secum omnia, tieque 
cum eo descendet gloria ejus. " — Psal. xlviii. 

Death, in the character of a ragged peasant, revenges him- 
self against his proud oppressor by crushing him with his own 
armour. On the ground lie a helmet, crest, and flail. 



XXXIIT. 



THE OLD MAN. 




" Spiritus mens attemiabitur, dies mei breviabuntur, et solum 
mi hi siiperest sepulchrum" —loh xvii. 

Death leads his aged victim to the grave, beguiling him 
with the music of a dulcimer. 



XXXIV. 



THE COUNTESS. 




' Ducuntin bonis dies suos, etittpundo adiiiferna desceiidunt.'''' 
Job xxi. 

She receives from an attendant the splendid dress and 
ornaments with which she is about to equip herself. On a 
chest are seen a mirror, a brush, and the hour-glass of Death, 
who, standing behind her, places on her neck a collar of 
bones. 



XXXV. 

THE NEW-MARRIED LADY. 




''Me et tc sola mors separabity — Ruth i. 

She is accompanied by her husband, who endeavours to 
divert her attention from Death, who is insidiously dancing 
before them and beating a tambour. 



^ i 



XXXVI. 

THE DUCHESS 



*'De ledulo super quern ascendisti, non descendes, sed morte 
niorieris. " — 4 Reg. i. 

She is sitting up, dressed, in her bed, at the foot of which 
are two Deaths, one of whom plays on a violin, the other is 
pulling the clothes from the bed. 



XXXVII. 
THE PEDLAR. 




*' VeniU ad me, omnes qui laboratis, et onerati estis.^ — 
Mat xi. 

Accompanied by his dog, and heavily laden, he is pro- 
ceeding on his way, when he is intercepted by Death, who 
forcibly pulls him back. Another Death is playing on a 
trump- marine. 



xxxviir. 

THE HUSBANDMAN 




" In sudore vuTius tut vescerps pane tuo. "^ — Gen. lii. 

He is assisted by Death, who conducts the horses of his 
plough. 



XXXIX 



THE CHILD. 




*' Homo nalus de nmllere, hrez't vtvens Umport, rephlur 
miiltis miseriis : qui quasi Jlos egreditur, et conUritur, €t 
fugit velut umbra** — Job xiv. 

A female cottager is preparing her family mess, whea 
Death enters and carries off the youngest of her children. 






XL. 

THE SOLDIER. 




" Cumfortis armatus custodit atrium sunm, &'c. Si aulem 
fortior eo supemeniens vicerit mm, universa ejus arma 
au/ert, in quibtis confidebat." — Luc. xi. 

He is engaged in unequal combat with Death, who simply 
attacks him with a bone. On the ground lie some of his 
demolished companions. In the distance, Death is beating a 
drum, and leading on a company of soldiers to battle. 



\^ v:o 



XLL 



THE GAMESTERS. 




(.Oi. 




" Quid prodest homini, si universum mundum lucretur., 
animce auUm sua detrimentum tatiaturV — Mat. xvi. 

Death and the Devil are disputing the possession of one of 
the gamesters, whom both have seized. Another seems tp 
be interceding with the Devil on behalf of his companion, 
whilst a third is scraping together all the money on the table. 



XLIL 



THE DRUNKARDS. 




" Ne inebriemini vino, in quo est luxiiria" — Ephes. v. 

They are assembled in a brothel, and intemperately 
feasting. Death pours liquor from a flagon into the mouth 
of one of the party. 



XLIII 
THE IDIOT FOOL. 



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•' Quasi agtfus lasciznens, et ignoratis, nescit quod ad vinculo 
stultus trahatury — Proven vii. 

Il-e is mocking Death, by putting his finger in his mouth, 
and at the same time endeavouring to strike him with his 
bladder-bauble. Death smiling, and amused at his efforts, 
leads him away in a dancing attitude, playing at the same 
time on a bagpipe. 



XLIV. 



THE ROBBER. 




" Domine, vim patior.^^ — Isaise xxxviii. 

Whilst he is about to plunder a poor market-woman of her 
property, Death comes behind and lays violent hands on him. 



XLV. 



THE BLIND MAN. 




" Cacus camm ducit : et ambo infoveam cadunC* — Mat xv. 

Carefully measuring his steps, and unconscious of his 
perilous situation, he is led on by Death, who with one hand 
takes him by the cloak, both parties having hold of his staff. 



XLVL 

THE WAGGONER. 




** Corruit in curru suo." — i Chron, xxiL 

His cart, loaded with wine casks, has been overturned, and 
one of his horses thrown down by two mischievous Deaths. 
One of them is carrying off a wheel, and the other is 
employed in wrenching off a tie that had secured one of the 
hoops of the casks. The poor affrighted waggoner is clasping 
his hands together in despair. 



XLVII, 

THE BEGGAR. 



"Miser ego homo! quis me I i he rah it de cor pore mortis 
hujtisV* — Rom. vii. 

Almost naked, his hands joined together, and his head 
turned upwards as in the agonies of death, he is sitting on 
straw near the gate of some building, perhaps an hospital, 
into which several persons are entering, and some of them 
pointing to him as an object fit to be admitted. On the 
ground lie his crutches, and one of his legs is swathed with a 
bandage. A female is looking on him from a window of the 
building. 



XLVIIL 
THE LAST JUDGMENT. 



•■^ Memorare novissima, et in (cternuin non peccabis,'''' — 
Eccle. vil 

Christ sitting on a rainbow, and surrounded by a group 
of angels, patriarchs, &c. rests his feet on a globe of the 
universe. Below are several naked figures risen from their 
graves, and stretching out their hands in the act of imploring 
judgment and mercy. 



XLIX. 



THE ALLEGORICAL ESCUTCHEON OF DEATH. 




The coat or shield is fractured in several places. On it is a 
skull, and at top the crest as a helmet surmounted by two 
arm-bones, the hands of which are grasping a ragged piece of 
stone, and between them is placed an hour-glass. The sup- 
porters are a gentleman and lady in the dresses of the times. 
In the description of this cut Papillon has committed some 
very absurd mistakes, already noticed in p. 97. 




T 2 




L • i 



ICONES VETERIS TESTAMENTI; 

ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE OLD TESTAMENT, 

ENGRAVED ON WOOD, 

VttOU DESIGNS BY HANS HOLBBIN. 



INTRODUCTION. 



It is just possible that the reader may not have forgotten 
some beautifully executed fac-similes/ from a once cele- 
brated Work, which, in its entire and original form, now 
claims his particular attention. When exercised in the 
task of selecting those fac-similes, I could have little antici- 
pated the gratification afforded me, in being engaged, by the 
Publisher of this Volume, to become the humble instrument 
of making such a Work more generally familiar to the 
Public. 

Little indeed is requisite by way of prefatory observation ; 
and yet it would be offering something like violence to 
one's feelings, to suffer such a volume to go abroad without 
some attempt to disarm scepticism respecting doubts which 
may be entertained of the authenticity of these " Images " 
— as the performance of Hans Holbein. Not only is the 
testimony of Vandoperanus (in the Latin verses prefixed 
to these cuts) express and positive, in assigning them to 
Hans Holbein — but the intrinsic evidence arising from 
the Compositions themselves is not less express and 
positive. No man, conversant with the works of Holbein, 
can deprive that great man of the honour here due to his 
name. That it was, however, a Work executed in his 
earlier years, and before he had quitted Basle for England, 
in 1526, is most certain : and, if so, the Original Drawings 

* Bibliographical Decameron, vol. L pp. 174 — 180. 



ii INTRODUCTION. 

were in all probability in distemper : as no well authen- 
ticated water-coloured drawing is known to have been 
executed by him abroad. My authority is Walpole, to 
whom the Reader is referred below.^ 

The first Edition of this popular Work appeared in 1538, 
and the second in 1539. Of the intervening Editions, 
between the latter and that of 1547, the following, it is 
presumed, is a tolerably accurate list.^ In 1549 there 
appeared, for the first time, an English version of the 
different passages of Scripture subjoined to elucidate the 
cuts : all the previous editions having only Latin, Spanish, 
or Latin and French, Extracts. It is clear that the Author 
of this English version was a Foreigner. I have presumed 
to think that Lutzelberger* might have engraved these 

2 Anecdotes of Painting, Dallawa^^s Edition : 1826 — 8, vol. i. pp. 118, 
120. It is somewhat singular, that Walpole, in enumerating Hol- 
bein's earlier works abroad, does not notice the original Drawings of 
this identical Work. See p. 128, &c. It might, prim^ facie, appear 
that these Drawings were among "the hundred and three genuine 
Sketches," in the possession of Amerbach, relating chiefly to the life ot 
Christ 

3 List of the Editions. 

1538 Historia Veteris Instrumenti, Icones ad vivum expressae, 4to. 

Lugduni, sub scuto coloniensi. Excudebant Lugduni Melchior et 

Caspar Trechsel, 1538. 
J 5 39 Historia Veteris Testamenti, 4to. Lugduni, sub scuto coloniensi, 

1539- 
1543 Historia Veteris Testamenti, 4to. Lugduni, sub scuto coloniensi, 

apud Joannem et Franciscum Frellonios, fratres. MD.XL.III. 
1547 Icones Historiarum Veteris Testamenti. Lugdiini, apud Johannem 

Frellonium, 4to, 1547. 
1549 Retratos o Tablas de las Historias del Testamento viejo, hechas y 

dii buxadas por un muy primo y sotil artifice. Lion de Francia, 

1549- 

1549 Ths Images of the Old Testament lately expressed, set forthe 

in Ynglishe and Frenche, vuith a playn and brief exposition, 

Printid at Lyons by Johan Frellon, the yere of our Lord Cod 1549. 

* All the editions appear to be printed from the same blocks, except 

a pirated one with the following title : "Mistoriaru Veteris Testamenti 

Icones ad viuum expressae. Pana apud Petrum Regnault, sub tribua 

coronis Coloniae, via ad diuum Jacobum, 1544," — in which the subjects 

are somewhat altered, and reversed. 



INTRODUCTION. Ill 

designs ; and I am willing to believe that the original 
Blocks themselves, like those for the triumphs of the 
Emperor Maximilian, are yet in existence.* Why the 
Work was first published at Lyons instead of Basle, seems 
to be a sort of puzzle for which no very satisfactory solution 
can be offered : unless it be from the presumed superiority 
of art in the former city. And why the publication of the 
Work itself was delayed so long, does not appear to 
be sufficiently evident. The original Publishers of it were 
Melchior and Caspar Trechsel ; and Frellon seems to have 
been, latterly, both Editor and Publisher. Giles Corrozet 
was, in all probability, the author of the French metrical 
version. 

The intention of Frellon, in this beautiful publication, 
was to gratify the taste for art which was then generally 
prevailing ; but to gratify it with objects more worthy of 
chaste eyes to gaze upon. That Editor tells us, in his 
address "to the Christian Reader," (subjoined below,") 
that "instead of figures of Venus and Diana, and 
libidinous forms of other Goddesses, which only injure 
the mind by error, or poison it by depravity," he has 
exhibited " subjects connected with holy writ, which point, 
finger-like, to the penetralia of Hagiography." The attempt 

' Bibliographical Decameron; voL L p. 178: and Bibliographical 
Tour, vol. iii. p. 529, &c Edit 1831. 

' Franciscus Frellonius Christiano lectori S. 

En tibi, Christiane lector, sacrorum canonum tabulas, cum earundem 
et Latina et Gallica interpretatione officiose exhibemus : Illud in primis 
admonentes, ut reiectis Veneris et Dianoe caeteranimque deanim libidi- 
nosis imaginibus, quce animum vel errore impediunt, vel turpitudine 
labefactant, ad has sacrosanctas Iconas, quae Hagiographorum penetralia 
digito commonstrant, omnes tui conatus referantur. Quid enim pulchrius, 
aut Christiano homine dignius, qu^ ad has res animum adiicere, quar 
solae fidei mysteria sapiunt, et Deum creatorem nostrum vnice amare, ac 
veram religionem profiteri praecipunt ? Tuum igitur erit hunc nostrum 
laborem aequo animo suscipere, ac caeteros commonefacere, ut eiusmodi 
omnia ad Dei largitoris beneficentissimi gloriam, et honorem dirigere 
meminerint. Vale, Lector, et fiuere. 



iv INTRODUCTION. 

was as commendable as the success of it was complete : 
and I can conceive fewer works in the sixteenth century 
likely to do more good — either by awakening the virtuous 
curiosity of youth, or by gratifying the religious principles 
of the aged. My recollection does not furnish me with 
any volume since the days of Pfister, to the present, so 
well calculated to accomplish these laudable objects.^ 

Before I say a few words upon the comparative merits 
of some of the compositions, it may be as well to reprint, 
in the order in which they appear in the earlier impressions, 
the commendatory prefixes of Vandoperanus and Corrozet : 
the latter being among the most fluent popular French 
writers of his day.® 

NICOLAI BORBONII VANDOPERANI 

POETiE LINGONENSIS AD LECTOREM CARMEN, 

Nvper in Elysio cum fort^ erraret Apelles, 

Vn^ aderat Zeusis, Parrhasiusque comes. 
Hi duo multa satis fundebant verba : sed ille 

Interei mcerens, et taciturnus erat. 
Mirantur comites, farique hortantur, et vrgent : 

Suspirans imo pectore Cous, ait : 
O famae ignari, superis quae nuper ab oris 

( Vana vtinam) Stygias venit ad vsq ; domos : 
Scilicet, esse hodie quendam ex mortalibus vnum, 

Ostendat qui me vosque fuisse nihil ; 
Qui nos declaret pictores nomine tantiim, 

Picturseque omneis ante fuisse rudes. 
Holbius est homini m men, qui nomina nostra 

Obscura ex clans ac prop^ nulla facit. 

' In regard to Pfister, I allude to what may be called the first 
PICTURE book of any portion of the Bible, with a date (1462), in his 
highly curious and extraordinarily rare "Histories of J-oseph, Daniel, 
Judith, and Esther,*' printed by him in 1462 : of which work a pretty 
fair notion may be formed by consulting the Bibl. Spenceriana, vol. i. 
pp. 94 — 100. Lord Spencer's is the only known copy of it in the kingdom. 

^ Some copious and amusing extracts of the poetry of this bard, re- 
lating to the early history of Paris, may be seen in the Bibliographical 
Tour, voL ii. p. 123, &c. Edit 1821. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Talis apud Manes querimonia fertur : et illos 

Sic equidem merit6 censeo posse queri. 
Nam tabulam siquis videat, quam pinxerit Hunsua 

Holbius, ille artis gloria prima suae : 
Protinus exclamet, Potuit Deus edere monstrum 

Quod video : humanx non potuere manus. 
Icones hx sacrse tanti sunt (optime lector) 

Artificis, dignum quod venereris opus. 
Proderit hac pictura animum jiauisse salubri. 

Quae tibi diuinas exprimit historias, 
Tradidit arcano qu-i^cunque volumine Moses 

Totque alii vates, gens agitata Deo, 
His HANSI tabulis repraesentantur : et vnk 

Interpres rerum sermo Latinus adest. 
Haec legito. Valeat rapti Ganymedis amator : 

Sintque procul Cypriae turpia furta deae. 

Eiusdem Borbonij Poetce. 

'0\$'iaKol/s (pyov itpKfo tovto X*P<^*' 
La^in? idem peni ad verbum. 

Cemere vis, hospes, simulacra simillima v'.uis I 
Hoc opus Holbinae nobile ceme manus. 



GILLES CORROZET 

AUX LECTEURS, 

En regardant ceste tapisserie 

L'oeil corporel, qui se tome, et uarie, 

Y peut auoir un singulier plaisir, 

Lequel engendre au cceur certain desir 

D'aimer son Dieu, qui a faict tant de chose* 

Dedans la letre, et saincte Bible encloses. 

Ces beaux portraictz seruiront dexemplaire, 
Monstrant qu'il fault au Seigneur Dieu compLaire^ 
Excitercnt de luy faire seruice, 
Retireront de tout peche, et uice : 
Quand ilz seront insculpez en I'esprit, 
Comme ilz sont painctz, et couchez par escrit 

Donques ostez de voz maisons, et salles 
Tant de tapis, et de painctures salles. 



n INTRODUCTION, 

Ostez Venus, et son filz Cupido, 
Ostez Heleine, et Phyllis, et Dido, 
Ostez du tout fables et poesies ; 
Et receuez meilleures fantasies. 

Mettez au lieu, et soyent uoz chambres ceinctea 
Des dictz sacrez, et des histoires sainctes, 
Telles que sont celles que uoyez cy 
En ce liuret Et si faites ainsi, 
Grandz et petis, les ieunes et les uieulx, 
Auront plaisir, et au coeur et au yeulx. 

Plus que moins. 

On casting even a cursory view over the graphic atti ac- 
tions of this volume, we are quickly impressed with a sense 
of the general tone of character, or of merit, of the whole : 
wishing however that those subjects, almost purely archi- 
tectural, or relating to the ceremonies or interior of the 
Temple, had been omitted. Still they might have their 
portion of instruction for youth. Of the subjects, purely 
and professedly historical, I would take leave to recommend 
the mode of treatment of those of Abraham entertaining 
the two Angels (No. 3), Moses explaining and enforcing the 
precepts of the Almighty (No. 26), Nathan and David (No. 
39), Abishag and David (No. 42), Hiram and Solomon (No. 
^Z)ythe Genealogy of Adam (No. 50), almost the whole of the 
History of Job (No. 61), Daniel (No. 77), Hosea (No. 79), 
Amos zxidi Jonas (Nos. 81, 82), Tobit(^o. 85), as particularly 
deserving of admiration. Perhaps, generally speaking, the 
figures are too short and robust, and the heads in several 
instances too large : but there is a firmness, a strength, and 
breadth of effect about the whole, which pronounce, in an 
instant, that they are the productions of no ordinary 
pencil. Many of the heads, considered apart, are full ot 
grandeur of expression. At Nos. 65, 66, two subjects, of 
a very opposite character, follow each other : — the one, 
the Fool with a set of children denying their Maker (Ps. 
liii.) ; the other, the very bold embodying of the Psalmist's 



INTRODUCTION. VI 1 

expression of ''Christ sitting at the right hand of his 
Father." The dress and management of the Fool is in 
Holbein's best and apparently favourite style. The repre- 
sentation of the Almighty is grand, from its quiet dignity and 
composure ; but that of the Messiah is a failure : the figure 
being at once meagre and commonplace. In such subjects 
most artists fail : and it may be no very unpardonable 
heresy to pronounce, that, sometimes, we are not perfectly 
satisfied with them in the designs of Michael Angelo and 
Raffaelle. 

It only remains to observe, that the ensuing Cuts are as 
faithful representations of the originals as can well nigh be 
conceived : that they are the united eflforts of a Brother 
and a Sister" engaged in the laborious profession of Wood- 
Cutters — with whose talents the Public have been a long 
time gratified. It will be evident that the Publisher could 
not have been influenced by the hope of much gain ; as 
even a very extensive sale, at a moderate price, could 
hardly remunerate him for the expenses incurred. Such, 
however, as the volume is, in a country, and at a period 
(of the keenest competition in graphic publications of 
every description) like the present, it is offered alike to the 
notice and patronage of the Public. 

T. F. D. 



' John and Mary Byfieki. 



CHAPTER X. 



Other Dances of Death, 







1 



AVING thus disposed of the two most 
ancient and important works on the 
subject in question, others of a similar 
nature, but with designs altogether dif- 
ferent, and introduced into various books, 
remain to be noticed, and such are the 
following : — 
I. " Les loups ravissans fait et com- 
post par maistre Robert Gobin i)restre, maistre des ars 
licencie en decret, doyen de crestient^ de Laigny sur 
Marne au dyocese de Paris, advocat en court d'eglise. 
Imprim^ pour Anthoine Verard ^ Paris." 4to. without date, 
but about 1500. This is a very bitter satire, in the form 
of a dream, against the clergy in general, but more particu- 
larly against Popes John XXII. and Boniface VIII. A 
wolf, in a lecture to his children, instructs them in every 
kind of vice and wickedness, but is opposed, and his doc- 
trines refuted, by an allegorical personage called Holy 
Doctrine. In a second vision Death appears to the author, 
accompanied by Fate, War, Famine, and Mortality. All 
classes of society are formed into a Dance, as the author 
chooses to call it, and the work is accompanied with twenty- 
one very singular engravmgs on wood, executed in a style 



130 ^ne Dance of Death. 

perhaps nowhere else to be met with. The designs are the 
same as those in the second Dance of the Horae, printed 
by Higman for Vostre, No. I. page 53. 

II. "A booke of Christian prayers, collected out of the 
ancient writers," &c. Printed by J. Day, 1569. 4to. 
Afterwards in 1578, 1581, 1590, and 1609. It is more 
frequently mentioned under the title of "Queen Elizabeth's 
prayer-book," a most unsuitable title, when it is recollected 
how sharply this haughty dame rebuked the Dean of Christ- 
church for presenting a Common Prayer to her which had 
been purposely ornamented with cuts by him.^ This book 
was most probably compiled by the celebrated John Fox, 
and is accompanied with elegant borders in the margins of 
every leaf cut in wood by an unknown artist, whose mark is 
^ , though they have been most unwarrantably ascribed 
to Holbein, and even to Agnes Frey, the wife of Albert 
Dur^r,' who "is' not known with" any certainty to have 
practised the art of engraving. At the end is a Dance 
of Death different from every other of the kind, and of 
singular interest, as exhibiting the costume of its time with 
respect to all ranks and conditions of life, male and female. 
In the library at Lambeth Paldce, No. 1049, there is a copy 
of this book in Greek, Latin,, Italian, Spanish, English, and 
French, printed by J. Day, 1569, 8vo. It was given by 
Archb. Tillotson, and from a memorandum in it supposed 
to have been the Queen's own copy. The cut of the Queen 
kneeling was used so late as 1652, in Benlowes' Theophila. 
oome of the cuts have the unexplained mark (^ . 

These are the characters : — "The Emperor, the King; the 
Duke, the Marques, the Baron, the Vicount, the Archbishop, 
the Bishop, the Doctor, the Preacher, the Lord, the Knight, 
the Esquire, the Gentleman, the Judge, the Justice, the 
Serjeant at law, the Attorney, the Mayor, the Shirife, the 
Bailife, the Constable, the Physitian, the Astronomer, the 
Herauld, the Sergeant at arms, the Trurapetter, the 
Pursevant, the Dromme, the Fife, the Captaine, the 
Souldier, the Marchant, the Citizen, the Printers (in two 
compartments), the Rich Man, the Aged Man, the Artificer, 

* Sf.rype's Annals, i. 273. where the curious^ialogue that ensued on 
t\; occasion is prescrvecL 



73fcr Dance of Death, 131 

ttie Hu-sbandman, the Musicians (in two compartment.s), 
the Shepheard, the Foole, the Beggar, the Roge, of Youth, 
of Infancie." Then the females: — "The Empresse, the 
Queene, the Princes, the Duchesse, the Countesse, the 
\'icountesse, the Baronnesse, the Lady, the Judge's Wife, 
the Lawyer's Wife, the Gentlewoman, the Alderman's ^^"ife, 
the Marchantes Wife, the Citizen's Wife, the Rich Man's 
Wife, the Young Woman, the Mayde, the Damosell, the 
Farmar's Wife, the Husbandman's Wife, the Countriwoman, 
the Nurse, the Shepheard's Wife, the Aged Woman, the 
Creeple, the Poore Woman, the Infant, the (female) Foole." 
All these are designed in a masterly manner, and delicately 
engraved. The figures of the Deaths occasionally abound 
in much humour, and always with appropriate characters. 
The names of the unknown artists were worthy of being 
recorded. 

IlL " Icones mortis, sexaginta imaginibus totidemque in- 
scriptionibus insignitae, versibus quoque Latinis et novis Ger- 
manicis illu.stratae. Norimbergce Christ. Lockner, 1 648." 8vo.* 

IV. ** Rudolph Meyers S : Todten dantz ergiintzet und 
heraus gegeben durch Conrad Meyern Maaler in Zurich, 
im jahr 1650." On an engraved title-page, representing 
an angel blowing a trumpet, with a motto from the 
Apocalypse, Death or Time holds a lettered label with 
the above inscription or title. In the background groups 
of small figures allusive to the last judgment. Then 
follows a printed title : — "Sterbenspiegel, das ist sonnenklare 
Vorstellung menschlicher Nichtigkeit durch alle Stand und 
Geschlechter : vermittlest 60 dienstlicher kupferblatteren 
lehrreicher uberschriflften und beweglicher zu vier stimmen 
auszgesetzter Todtengesangen, vor disem angefangen durrh 
Rudolffen Meyern S. von Zurich, &c. Jetzaber zu erwekung 
nothwendiger Todsbetrachtung, verachtung irdischer eytel- 
keit, und beliebung seliger ewigkeit, zu end gebracht und 
verlegt durch Conrad Meyern Maaler in Zurich und 
daselbsten bey ihme zu finden. Getruckt zu Zurich bey 
Johann Jacob Bodmer, mdcl." 4to. That is : — The Mirror 
of Death, that is, a brilliant representation of human 
nothingness in all ranks and conditions, by means of 60 
appropriate copper-plates, spiritual superscriptions, and 

* Catal. de la biblioth^rt du Roi. ii. 153. 



132 The Dajice of Death. 

nic\'ing songs of Death, arranged for four voices, formerly 
commenced by Rudolph Meyer of Zurich, &c. but now 
brought to an end and completed, for the awaking of a 
necessary consideration of Death, a contempt of earthly 
vanity, and a love of blissful eternity, by Conrad Meyer of 
Zurich, of whom they are to be had. Printed at Zurich, 
by John Jacob Bodmer, mdcl. 

The objects are the following : — i. The Creation, a. 
The Fall. 3. Expulsion from Paradise. 4. Punishment 
of Man. 5. Triumph of Death. 6. An allegorical 
frontispiece relating to the class of the Clergy. 6. The 
Pope. 7. The Cardinal. 8. The Bishop. 9. The Abbot, 
fo. The Abbess. 11. The Priest. 12. The Monk. 13. 
The Hermit. 14. The Preacher. 15. An allegorical 
frontispiece to the class of Rulers and Governors. .15. 
The Emperor. 16. The Empress. 17. The King. 18. 
The Queen. 19. The Prince Elector. 20. The Earl and 
Countess. 21. The Knight. 23. The Nobleman. 23. 
The Judge. 24. The Steward, Widow, and Orphan. 25. 
The Captain. 26. An allegorical frontispiece to the Lower 
Classes. 26. The Physician. 27. The Astrologer. 28. 
The Merchant. 29. The Painter and his kindred : among 
these the old man is Dietrich Meyern ; the painter 
resembles the portrait of Conrad Meyern in Sandrart, 
and the man at the table is probably Rudolph Meyern. 
30. The Handcraftsman. 31. The Architect. 32. The 
Innkeeper. 33. The Cook. 34. The Ploughman. 35. 
The Man and Maid Servant. 36. The old Man. 37. 
The old Woman. 38. The Lovers. 39. The Child. 
40. The Soldier. 41. The Pedlar. 42. The Highwaym.an. 
43. The Quack Doctor. 44. The Blind Man. 45. The 
Beggar. 46. The Jew. 47. The Usurer. 48. The 
Gamesters. 49. The Drunkards. 50. The Gluttons. 51. 
The Fool. 53. The Certainty of Dealh. 53. The 
Uncertainty of Death. 54. The Last Judgment. 55. 
Christ's Victory. 56. Salvation. 57. True and False 
Religion. 

The text consists chiefly of Death's apostrophe to his 
victims, with their remonstrances, verses under each subject, 
and various other matters. At the end are pious songs and 
psalms set to music This work was jointly executed b^ 



The Dance of Death, 133 

two excellent artists, Rudolph and Conrad Meyer or 
Meyem, natives of Zurich. The designs are chiefly by 
Rudolph, and the etchings by Conrad, consisting of sixty 
very masterly compositions. The grouping of the figures 
is admirable, and the versatile representations of Death 
most .skilfully characterised. Many of the subjects are 
greatly indebted to the Lyons wood engravings. 

In 1657 and 1759 there appeared other editions of 
the latter, with this title, "Die menschliche Sterblichkeit 
under dem titel Todten Tanz in lxi original-kupfem, von 
Rudolf und Conrad Meyem beruhmten kunstmahlern 
in Zuiich abermal herausgegeben, nebst neuen, dazu 
dienenden, moralischen versen und ueberschriften." That 
is, " Human mortality, under the title of the Dance of 
Death, in 61 original copper prints of Rudolph and 
Conrad Meyer, renowned painters at Zurich, to whicli 
are added appropriate moral verses and inscriptions." 
Hamburg and Leipsig, 1759, 4to. The prolegomena are 
entirely different from those in the other edition, and 
an elaborate preface is added, giving an account of several 
editions of the Dance of Death. Instead of the Captain, 
No. 25, the Ensign is substituted, and the Cook is newly 
designed. Some of the numbers of the subjects are mis- 
placed. The etchings have been retouched, and on many 
the date of 1637 is seen, which had nowhere occurred in 
the first edition here described. 

In 1704 copies of 52 of these etchings were publisiied 
at Augsbui^, under the title of "Tripudium mortis pec 
victoriam super camem universae orbis terras erectura 
Ab A. C. Redelio S. C. M. L. P." on a label held by 
Death as before. Then the German title : — " Erbaulicher 
Sterb-Spiegel, das ist sonnen-klahre vorstellung mensch- 
licher nichtigkeit durch alle stande und geschlechter : 
vermittelst schoner kupffern, lehr-reicher bey-schrifften 
und hertz-beweglich angehangter Todten-Iieder ehmahls 
herausgegeben durch Rudolph und Conrad Meyem 
mahlern in Zurich ; anjetzo aber mit Lateinischen unter- 
schrifften der kupffer vemiehret und aussgezieret von dera 
Welt-beruhmten Poeten Augustino Casimiro Redelio, Belg. 
Mech. Sac. Cnes. Majest. L. P. Augsburg zu finden bey 
Johann Philipp Steu'ner. Druckts, Abraham Gugger. 



134 The Dance of Death. 

1704." 4to. That is, "An edifying mirror of mortality, 
representing the nullity of man through all stations and 
generations, by means of beautiful engravings in copper, 
instructive inscriptions, and heart-moving lays of Death, 
as an appendix to the work formerly edited by Rudolph 
and Conrad Meyern of Zurich, but now published with 
Latin inscriptions and engravings, augmented and renewed 
by the worldly-renowned poet Augwstin Casimir Redel," &c. 

In this edition the Pope and all the other religious 
characters are omitted, probably by design. The etchings 
are very inferior to the fine originals, and without the name 
of the artist. The dresses are frequently modernised in the 
fashion of the time, and other variations are occasionally 
introduced. 

V. " Den Algemeynen Dooden Spiegel van Pater Abraham 
\ Sancta Clara," /. e. The universal mirror of Death of 
Father Abraham ^ Sancta Clara, on a frontispiece en- 
graved on copper, with a medallion of the author, and 
various allegorical figures. Then the printed title : — " Den 
Algeymeynen Dooden Spiegel ofte de Capelle der Dooden 
waerin alle Menschen sich al lacchende oft al weenende 
op recht konnen beschouwen, verciert met aerdige historien, 
Sin-rycke gedichten ende seelenleerende Beeldt-schetsen op 
gestelt door den eerweerdigen Pater Abraham k Sancta 
Clara, Difinitor der Provincie van het order der onge- 
«vchoende Augustynen,end Predickant van syne Keyserlycke 
Majesteyt Leopoldus. Getrouwelyck overgeset uyt het 
hoogh-duyts in onse Nederduytsche Taele. Tot Brussel, 
by de Wed. G. Jacobs tegen de Baert-brugge in de 
Dpickerye, 1730." i2mo. i.e. "The universal mirror 
of Death taken from the chapel of the dead ; in which 
all men may see themselves properly, whether laughing or 
weeping, ornamented with pretty stories, spirited poems, 
and instructive prints, arranged by Father Abraham k Sancta 
Clara, of the Augustinian order, ano preacher to his 
Imperial Majesty Leopold, and faithfully translated out 
of High Dutch into our Netherlandish language." 

The work consists of sixty-seven engravings on wood 
within borders, and of very indifferent execution in all 
respects; the text a mixture of prose and poetry of ft 
religious nature, allusive to the subjects which are not 



The Dance of Death. 135 

oniformly a Dance of Death. The best among them are 
the Painter, p. 45 ; the Drunkard, p. 75 ; the Dancing 
Couple, Death playing the Flageolet, p. 103 ; the Fowler, 
p. 113 ; the Hen-pecked Husband, p. 139 ; the Courtezan, 
p. 147 ; the Musfcian, p. 193; the Gamester, p. 221 ; and 
the Blind Beggar, p. 289. 

VI. " Geistliche Todts-Gedancken bey allerhand Ge- 
mahlden und Tchildereyn in abbildung Interschiedlichen 
geschlechts, alters, standes, und wurdend persohnen sich 
des Todes zu erinneren aus dessen lehrdie tugende zu uben 
und die Sund zu meyden. Erstlich in kupfer entworffen 
nachmaler durch sittliche erortherung und aberlegung unter 
Todten-farben in vorschein gebracht, dardurch zumheyl 
der seelen im gemuth des geneighten lesers ein lebendige 
forcht und embsige versorg des Todes zu erwecken. Cum 
permissu superiorum. Passau, Gedruckt bey Frederich 
Gabriel Mangold, hochfurst. hof buchdruckern, 1753. 
Lintz, verlegts Frantz Anton I?ger, Burgerl. Buchhandlern 
allda." Folio. In English : — "The Spiritual Dance of Death 
in all kinds of pictures and representations, whereby 
persons of every age, sex, rank, and dignity, may be 
reminded of Death, from which lesson they may exercise 
themselves in virtue, and avoid sin. First put upon copper, 
and afterwards, through moral considerations and inves- 
tigations brought to light in Death's own colours, thereby 
for the good of the souls of the well-inclined readers to 
awaken in them a lively fear and diligent anticipation of 
Death." 

The subjects are : — i. The Creation. 2. Temptation. 
3. Expulsion. 4. Punishment. 5. A charnel-house, with 
various figures of Death, three in the background dancing. 
6. The Pope. 7. Cardinal. 8. Bishop. 9. Abbot. 10. 
Canon. 11. Preacher. 12. Chaplain. 13. Monk. 14. 
Abbess. 15. Nun. 16. Emperor. 17. Empress. 18. 
King. 19. Queen. 20. Prince. 21. Princess. 22. Earl. 
23. Countess. 24. Knight. 25. Nobleman. 26. Judge. 
27. Counsellor. 28. Advocate. 29. Physician. 30. 
Astrologer. 31. Rich Man. 32. Merchant. 33. Ship- 
wreck. 34. Lovers. 35. Child. 36. Old man. 37. Old 
woman. 38. Carrier. 39. Pedlar. 40. Ploughman. 41. 
Soldier. 42. Gamesters. 43. Drunkards. 44. Murderet 



134 The Dance of Death, 

1704." 4to. That is, "An edifying mirror of mortality, 
representing the nullity of man through all stations and 
generations, by means of beautiful engravings in copp«r, 
instructive inscriptions, and heart-moving lays of Death, 
as an appendix to the work formerly edited by Rudolph 
and Conrad Meyern of Zurich, but now published with 
Latin inscriptions and engravings, augmented and renewed 
by the worldly-renowned poet Augnstin Casimir Redel," &c. 

In this edition the Pope and all the other religious 
characters are omitted, probably by design. The etchings 
are very inferior to the fine originals, and without the name 
of tJie artist. The dresses are frequently modernised in the 
fashion of the time, and other variations are occasionally 
introduced. 

V. " Den Algemeynen Dooden Spiegel van Pater Abraham 
^ Sancta Clara," /. e. The universal mirror of Death of 
Father Abraham k Sancta Clara, on a frontispiece en- 
graved on copper, with a medallion of the author, and 
various allegorical figures. Then the printed title : — " Den 
Algeymeynen Dooden Spiegel ofte de Capelle der Dooden 
waerin alle Menschen sich al lacchende oft al weenende 
op recht konnen beschouwen, verciert met aerdige historien, 
Sin-rycke gedichten ende seelenleerende Beeldt-schetsen op 
gestelt door den eerweerdigen Pater Abraham \ Sancta 
Clara, Difinitor der Provincie van het order der onge- 
schoende Augustynen, end Predickant van syne Keyserlycke 
Majesteyt Leopoldus. Getrouwelyck overgeset uyt het 
hoogh-duyts in onse Nederduytsche Taele. Tot Brussel, 
by de Wed. G. Jacobs tegen de Baert-brugge in de 
Dnickerye, 1730." i2mo. i.e. "The universal mirror 
of Death taken from the chapel of the dead ; in which 
all men may see themselves properly, whether laughing or 
weeping, ornamented with pretty stories, spirited poems, 
and instructive prints, arranged by Father Abraham \ Sancta 
Clara, of the Augustinian order, ano preacher to his 
Imperial Majesty Leopold, and faithfully translated out 
of High Dutch into our Netherlandish language." 

The work consists of sixty-seven engravings on wood 
within borders, and of very indifferent execution in all 
respects; the text a mixture of prose and poetry of ^ 
religious nature, allusive to the subjects which are not 



Tkc Dance of Dtath, 135 

aniformly a Dance of Death. The best among them are 
the Painter, j\ 45; the Drunkard, p. 75; the Dancing 
Couple, Death playing the flageolet, p. 103 ; the Fowler, 
p. 113 ; the Hen-pecked Husband, p. 139 ; the Courtezan, 
p. T47 ; the Musfcian, p. 193 ; the Gamester, p. 221 ; and 
the Blind Beggar, p. 289. 

VI. " Geistliche Todts-Gedancken bey allerhand Ge- 
mahlden und Tchildereyn in abbildung Interschiedlichen 
geschlechts, alters, standes, und wurdend persohnen sich 
dcs Todes zu erinneren aus dessen lehrdie tugende zu uben 
und die Sund zu meyden. Erstlich in kupfer entworffen 
nachmaler durch sittliche erortherung und aberlegung unter 
Todten-farben in vorschein gebracht, dardurch zumheyl 
der seelen im gemuth des geneighten lesers ein lebendige 
forcht und embsige versorg des Todes zu erwecken. Cum 
permissu superiorum, Passau, Gedruckt bey Frederich 
Gabriel Mangold, hochfurst. hof buchdruckern, 1753. 
Lintz, verlegts Frantz Anton Dger, Burgerl. Buchhandlern 
allda." Folio. In English : — "The Spiritual Dance of Death 
in all kinds of pictures and representations, whereby 
persons of every age, sex, rank, and dignity, may be 
reminded of Death, from which lesson they may exercise 
themselves in virtue, and avoid sin. First put upon copper, 
and afterwards, through moral considerations and inves- 
tigations brought to light in Death's own colours, thereby 
for the good of the souls of the well-inclined readers to 
awaken in them a lively fear and diligent anticipation of 
Death." 

The subjects are : — i. The Creation. 2. Temptation. 
3. Expulsion. 4. Punishment. 5. A charnel-house, with 
various figures of Death, three in the background dancing. 
6. The Pope. 7. Cardinal. 8. Bishop. 9. Abbot. 10. 
Canon. 11. Preacher. 12. Chaplain. 13. Monk. 14. 
Abbess. 15. Nun. 16. Emperor. 17. Empress. 18. 
King. 19. Queen. 20. Prince. 21. Princess. 22. Earl. 
23. Countess. 24. Knight. 25. Nobleman. 26. Judge. 
27. Counsellor. 28. Advocate. 29. Physician. 30. 
Astrologer. 31. Rich Man. 32. Merchant. 33. Ship- 
wreck. 34. Lovers. 35. Child. 36. Old man. 37. Old 
woman. 38. Carrier. 39. Pedlar. 40. Ploughman. 41. 
Soldier. 42. Gamesters. 43. Drunkards. 44. Murderer. 



136 The Dance of Death. 

45. Fool. 46. Blind Man. 47. Beggar. 48. Hermit 
49. Corruption. 50. Last Judgment. 51. Allegory of 
Death's Arms, &c. 

The designs and some of the engravings are by M. 
Rentz, for the most part original, with occasional hints 
from the Lyons wood-cuts. 

Another edition with some variation was printed at 
Hamburg, 1759, folio. 

Vn. In the Lauenburg Calendar for 1792, are twelve 
designs by Chodowiecki for a Dance of Death. These 
are: — i. The Pope. 2. The King. 3. The Queen. 4. The 
General. 5. The Genealogist. 6. The Physician. 7. The 
Mother. 8. The Sentinel. 9. The Fish Woman. 10. 
The Beggar. 11. The Fille de joye and Bawd. 12. The 
Infant. 

VI 11. A Dance of Death in one of the Berne Almanacs, 
consisting of the sixteen foilowing subjects : — i. Death, 
fantastically dressed as a beau, seizes the city maiden. 2. 
Death wearing a Kevenhuller hat, takes the housemaid's 
broom from her. 3. Death seizes a terrified washerwoman. 
4. He takes some of the apple-woman's fruit out of her 
basket. 5. The cellar-maid or tapster, standing at the 
door of an alehouse, is summoned by Death to accompany 
him. 6. He lays violent hands upon an abusive strumpet, 
7. In the habit of an old woman he lays hold of a midwife 
with a newly-born infant in her hands. 8. With a shroud 
thrown over his shoulder, he summons the female mourner. 
9. In the character of a young man with a chapeau bras, he 
brings a urinal for the physician's inspection. 10. The 
life -guardsman is accompanied by Death also on horseback 
and wearing an enormous military hat. 11. Death with a 
skillet on his head plunders the tinker's basket. 12. 
Death in a pair of jack-boots leads the postilion. 13. 
'I'he lame beggar led by Death. 14. Death standing in a 
grave pulls the grave-digger towards him by the leg. 15. 
Death seated on a plough with a scythe in his left hand, 
seizes the farmer, who carries several implements of hus- 
bandry on his shoulders. 16. The fraudulent inn-keeper 
in the act of adulterating his liquor in the cask, is throttled 
by Death, who carries an ale vessel at his back. These 
figures are cut on wood, in a free and masterly manner by 



Tht Dame of Death. 137 

Zimmerman, an ariist much employed in the decoration ol 
these calendars. The prints are accompanied with dia- 
logues between Death and the respective parties. 

IX. " Freund Heins Erscheinungen in Holbeins Manier 
von J. R. Schellenberg Winterthur, bey Heinrich Stiener 
undComp. 1785." 8vo. That is : "Friend Hein's appearance 
in the manner of Holbein, by J. R. Schellenberg." The 
preface states that from the poverty of the German language 
in synonymous expressions for the allegorical or ideal 
Death, the author has ventured to coin the jocose appel- 
lation of Friend Hein, which will be understood from 
its resemblance to Hain or Hayn, a word signifying a grove. 
The sagacity of the German reader will perhaps discover 
the analogy. The subjects are twenty-four in number, as 
follow : — 

1. Love interrupted. The lovers are caught by Death 
in a net, and in no very decent attitude. 

2. Suicide. A man shoots himself with a pistol, and 
falls into the arms of Death. 

3. Death in the character of a beau visits a lady at her 
toilet. 

4. The Aeronaut. The balloon takes fire, and the 
aeronaut is precipitated. 

5. Death's visit to the school. He enters at a door 
inscribed silentium, and puts the scholars to flight. 

6. Bad distribution of alms. 

7. Expectation deluded. Death disguised as a fine lady 
lays hands upon a beau, who seems to have expected a 
verj' different sort of visitor. 

8. Unwelcome officiousness. Death feeding an infant 
with poison, the nurse wringing her hands in despair. 

9. The dissolution of the monastery. The Abbot, fol- 
lowed by his monks, receives the fatal summons in a letter 
delivered to him by Death. 

10. The comi)any of a friend. An aged man near a 
grave wrings his hands. Death behind directs his attention 
to heaven. 

11. The lottery gambler. Death presents nim with the 
unlucky ticket. 

12. The woman of Vienna and the woman of Rome 
Death seizes one, and points to the other. 



1.38 The Dance of Death. 

13. The Usurer. Death shuts him into his money 
chest. 

14. The Glutton. Death seizes him at table, and 
forcibly pours wine down his throat. 

15. The Rope-dancer. Death mounted on an ass, and 
fantastically apparelled, enters the circle of spectators, and 
seizes the performer by one of his legs. 

16. The lodge of secrecy (freemasonry). Death intro- 
duces a novice blindfold to the lodge. 

17. The recruiting Officer. Death enlists some country 
fellows, a fiddler preceding. 

18. Berthold Swartz. Death ignites the contents of the 
mortar, and blows up the monk. In the usual represen- 
tations of this story, the Devil is always placed near the 
monk. 

19. The Duel. A man strikes with a sword at Death, 
who is lifting up the valves of a window. 

20. The plunder of the falling-trap. Death demolishes 
a student by throwing a bookcase filled with books upon 
him. 

21. Silence surrendered. Death appears to a school- 
mistress. The children, terrified, escape. 

22. The privilege of the strong. Death lays violent 
hands on a lady, whom her male companions in vain 
endeavour to protect. 

23. The apothecary. Death enters his shop, and directs 
his attention to the poor patients who are coming in. 

24. The conclusion. Two anatomists joining hands are 
both embraced by Death. 

The best of these subjects are Nos. 4, 13, 14, 15, and 
18. The text is a mixture of prose and verse. 

X. " The English Dance of Death, from the designs of 
Thomas Rowlandson, with metrical illustrations by the 
author of Doctor Syntax." 2 vols. 8vo. 18 15-18 16. 
Ackermann. 

• In seventy-two coloured engravings. Among these the 
most prominent and appropriate are — The last Chase ; the 
-Recruit ; the Catchpole ; the Death-blow ; the Dram-shop ; 
the Skaiters ; the Duel ; the Kitchen ; the Toast-master ; 
the Gallant's downfall ; and the fall of four in hand. The 
rest are comparatively feeble and irrelevant, and many of 



I 



The Dance of Death. 1.^9 

the subjects ill-chosen, and devoid of that humour v hich 
might have been expected from the pencil of Rowiandson, 
whose grotesque predominates as usual in the groups. 

XI. " Death's doings, consisting of numerous original 
compositions in prose and verse, the friendly contributions 
of various writers, principally intended as illustrations of 
twenty-four plates designed and etched by R. Dagley, 
author of ' Select gems from the-antique,' &c. 1826." 8vo. 

From the intrinsic value and well-deserved success of 
this work, a new edition was almost immediately called for, 
which received many important additions from the modest 
and ingenious author. Among these a new frontispiece, 
from the design of Adrian Van Venne, the celebrated 
Dutch poet and painter, is particularly to be noticed. 
This edition is likewise enriched with numerous elegant 
contributions, both in prose and verse, from some of the 
best writers of the age. 

XII. A modern French Dance of Death, under the title 
of " Voyage pour TEterniti;, service general des omnibils 
acc«fl^rds, de'part \ toute heure et de tous les points du 
globe." Par J. Grand ville. No date, but about 1830. A 
series of nine lithographic engravings, including the frontis- 
piece. Oblong 4to. These are the subjects : — 

1. Frontispiece. Death conducting passengers in hts 
omnibus to the cemetery of P^re la Chaise. 1 

2. *' Cest ici le dernier relai." Death as a postilion gives 
notice to a traveller encumbered with his baggage, &c. ; 

3. " Vais-je bien ? . . . . vous avancez horriblement" 
Death enters a watchmaker's shop, and shows his hour- 
glass to the master and his apprentice. 

4. "Monsieur le Baron, on vous demande. — Dites que 
je n'y suis pas." Death having entered the apartment, the 
valet communicates his summons to his gouty master lying 
on a couch. 

5. " Soyez tranquille, j'ai un gar^on qui ne se trompe 
jamais." The apothecary addresses these words to some 
cautious patients whilst he fills a vessel which they have 
brought to his shop. Death, as an apprentice in anothef 
room, pounds medicines in a mortar. 

6. " Voilk, Messieurs, un plat de mon mdtien** A feast 
Death as a waiter enters with a plate of poisonous fruit 



140 The Dance of Death. 

7. " Voulez-vous monter chez moi, mon petit Monsiejr, 
vous n'en serez pas fache, allez." Death, tricked out as a 
fille de joie with a mask, entices a youth introduced by a 
companion. 

8. " — Pour une consultation, Docteur, j'en suis jVous 
suis . . " Death in the character of an undertaker, his 
hearse behind, invites an old man to follow him. 

9. " Oui, Madame, ce sera bien la promenade la plus 
delicieuse ! une voiture dans le dernier gout ! un cheval 
qui fend I'air, et le meilleur groom de France." Death, 
habited as a beau, conducts a lady, followed by her maid, 
to a carriage in waiting. 

XIII. " The British Dance of Death, exemplified by a 
series of engravings from drawings by Van Assen, with 
explanatory and moral essays. Printed by and for George 
Smeeton, Royal Arcade, Pall Mall." 8vo. No date. With a 
frontispiece designed by Geo. Cruikshank, representing a 
crowned sitting Death, holding a scythe in one hand, and 
with the other leaning on a globe. This is circular in the 
middle. Over it two small compartments of Death striking 
an infant in the cradle, and a sick man. At bottom, two 
others of Death demolishing a glutton and a drunkard. 
A short preface states that the work is on the plan of " the 
celebrated designs of Holbein," meaning of course the 
Lyons work, but to which it has not the smallest resem- 
blance, and refers to Lord Orford for the mention of the 
Basle dance, which, as having two or sometimes three 
figures only, it does resemble. It then states that the late 
Mr. Van Assen had no intention of publishing these 
designs, which now appear in compliance with the wishes 
of many of his friends to possess them. They are very 
neatly engraved, and tinted in imitation of the original 
drawings, but are wholly destitute of that humour which 
might have been expected from the pencil of the ingenious 
inventor, and which he has manifested on many other 
occasions. The subjects are the following : — i. The Infant. 
2. Juvenile piety. 3. The Student. 4. The Sempstress. 
5. The musical Student. 6. The Dancer. 7. The female 
Student. 8. The Lovers. 9. The industrious Wife. 10. 
The Warrior. 11. The Pugilists. 12. The Glutton. 13, 
The Drunkard. 14. The Watchman. 15. The Fish- 



77ie Dance of Death. 141 

woman. 16. The Physician. 17. The Miser. 18. Old 
Age. Death with his dart is standing near all these figures, 
but does not seem to be noticed by any of them. 

XIV. A Dance of Death in Danish rimes is mentioned 
in Nyerup's " Bidragh til den Danske digtakunst historie." 
1800. i2mo. 

XV. John Nixon Coleraine, an amateur, and secretary 
to the original Beef-steak Club, etched a Dance of Death 
for ladies' fans. He died only a few years ago. Published 
by Mr. Fores, of Piccadilly, who had the copper-plates 
but of which no impressions arc now remaining. 




CHAPTER XL 



Dayices of Deaths with such text only as describes the subjects. 




I. 

IX small circles on a single sheet, 
engraved on copper by Israel Van 
Meckenen. i. Christ sitting on his 
cross. 2. Three skulls on a table. 3. 
Death and the Pope. 4. Death riding 
on a lion, and the Patriarch. 5. Death 
and the Standard-bearer. 6. Death 
and the Lady. At top " memento 
mori," at bottom " Israhel V. M." 

II. A Dance of Death, engraved on copper, by Henry 
Aldegrever. i. Creation of Eve. 2. Adam and Eve 
eating the forbidden fruit. 3. Expulsion from Paradise. 
4. Adam digging, Eve spinning. 5. Death and the Pope. 
6. Death and the Cardinal. 7. Death and the Bishop. 8. 
Death and the Abbot. All these have the date 1541, and 
with some variations follow the Lyons wood-cuts. They 
have scriptural texts in Latin. i2mo. The whole wer6 
afterwards copied in a work by Kieser, already described, 
p. 107. 

III. A Dance of Death, consisting of eight subjects- 
engraved on copper by an unknown artist, whose mark is 

^. I. Death beating a drum, precedes a lady and 



The Dance of Death.- 1^3; 

gentleman accompanied by a little dog. 2. Death playing 
on a stickado, precedes a lady and gentleman dancing 
back to back, below an hour-glass. 3. Death, with an 
hour-glass in his right hand, lays his left on the shoulder, 
of a gentleman taking hold of a lady with his right hand, 
and carrying a hawk with his left. 4. Death crowned with 
a garland, and holding an hour-glass in his left hand, 
stands between a lady and gentleman joining hands. 5. 
Death, with a fool's cap and hood, a dagger of lath, and 
a bladder, holds up an hour-glass with his right hand ; 
with his left he seizes the hand of a terrified lady 
accompanied by a gentleman, who endea\ours to thrust 
away the unwelcome companion. 6. Another couple led 
by Death. 7. Death with a cap and feathers holds an 
hour-glass in his righthand, and with his left seizes a lady, 
whom a gentleman endeavours to draw away from him. 
All have the date 1562. i2mo. Size, 3 inches by 2. 
They are described also in Bartsch, " Peintre graveur," ix. 
482, and have been sometimes erroneously ascribed to. 
Aklegrever. 

iV. A Dance of Death, extremely well executed on, 
wood, the designs of which have been taken from a set 
of initial letters, that will hereafter be particularly des- 
cribed. They are upright, and measure 2 inches by. 
i|. Each subject is accompanied with two German 
verses. 

V. On the back of the title-page to " Die kleyn furstlich 
Chronica," Strasb. 1544, 4to. are three subjects that, 
appear to be part of a series, i. Death and the Pope, 
who has a book and triple crosier. Death kneels to him 
whilst he plays on a tabor and drum. 2. Death and the 
King. Death blows a trumpet. 3. Death shoots an arrow 
at a warrior armed with sword and battle-axe. All these, 
figures are accompanied with German verses, and are neatly 
engraved on wood. » 

VI. A series of single figures, etcaed with great spirit by 
Giovanni Maria Mitelli. They are not accompanied by 
Death, but hold dialogues with him in Italian stanzas. 
The characters are, i. The Astrologer. 2. The Doctor of 
universal science. 3. The Hunter. 4. The Mathematic an, 
5. The Idolater. They are not mentioned in Bartscl: nor 



i'44 The Dance of Death. 

in any other list of the works of engravers. It is pos. ible 
that there are more of them. 

VII. The five Deaths, etched by Delia Bella, i. A 
terrific figure of Death on a galloping horse. In his left 
hand a trumpet, to which a flag, agitated by the wind, 
is attached. In the background, several human skeletons, 
variously employed. 2. Death carrying off an infant in his 
arms. In the background, the churchyard of the Innocents 
at Paris. 3. Death walking away with a young child on 
his back. In the distance, another view of the above 
cemetery. 4. Death carrying off a female on his shoulders, 
with her head downwards, followed at a distance by 
another Death holding a corpse in his arms. 5. Death 
dragging a reluctant old man towards a grave, in which 
another Death, with an hour-glass in his hand, awaits him. 
All these are extremely fine, and executed in the artist's 
best time. There is a sixth of the series, representing 
Death throwing a young man into a well, but it is very inferior 
to the others. It was begun by Delia Bella a short time before 
his death, and finished by his pupil Galestruzzi, about 1664. 
Delia Bella likewise etched a long print of the triumph of 
Death. 

VIII. A single anonymous French engraving on copper, 
14^ by 6^, containing three subjects, i. Death and the 
Soldier. 2. Death standing with a pruning-knife in his 
right hand, and a winged hour-glass in his left. Under 
him are three prostrate females : one plays on a violin ; the 
next, who represents Pride, holds a peacock in one hand 
and a mirror in the other : the third has a flower in her 
left hand. 3. Death and the Lady. He holds an hour- 
glass and dart, and she a flower in her right hand. Under 
each subject are French verses. This may perhaps be one 
only of a set. 

IX. A Gennan Dance of Death, in eight oblong en- 
gravings on copper, 11 by 8 J, consisting of eight sheets 
and twenty-five subjects, as follow : — i. A fantastic figure 
of a Death, with a cap and feathers, in the attitude of 
dancing and playing on a flute. He is followed by another 
dancing skeleton carrying a coffin on his shoulder. 2, 
Pope. 3. Emperor. 4. Empress. 5. Cardinal. 6. King 
J-, Bishop 8. Duie or General. 9. Abbot. 10. Knight 



The Dance of Death. 145 

II. Carthusian. 12. Burgomaster. 13. Canon. 14. 
Nobleman. 15. Physician. 16. Usurer. 17. Chaplain. 
18. Bailiff or Steward. 19. Churchwarden. 20. Merchant 
21. Hermit. 22. Peasant. 23. Young Man. 24. Maiden 
25. Child. This is a complete set of the prints, repre- 
senting the Liibeck painting, already described in p. 37. 
In the translation of the inscriptions, as given by Dr. 
Nugent, two more characters are added at the end, viz. the 
Dancing Master and the Fencing Master. On the spectator's 
left hand of No. i. of these engravings, is a column con- 
taining the following inscription in German, — in English 
as follows : — " Silence, foolhardy one, whoever thou art, 
who, with needless words, profanest this holy place. This 
is no chapel for talking, but thy sure place is in Death's 
Dance. Silence then, silence, and let the painting on these 
silent walls commune with thee, and convince thee that 
man is and will be earth :" and on Nos. 4 and 5, the 
words " Zu finden in Lubeck bey Christian Gotfried 
Donatius." 

X. The following entry is in the Stationers' books : — 

»8 b. v'^Januarij [1597.] 

Tho. Purfoote, sen. 'I Entered their c. Mr. Dix and Wm. M. The 

Tho. Purfoote, jun. > roll of the Daunce of Death, with pictures 

) and verses upon the same VI</. 

XI. In the catalogue of the library of R. Smith, secretary 
of the Poultry Compter, which was sold by auction in 
1682, is this article : — " Dance of Death in the cloyster of 
Paul's, with figures, very old." Probably a single sheet. 

XII. This print is a copy, with a few variations, of a 
much older one engraved on wood, and probably unique, 
in the very curious collection of single sheets and black 
letter ballads, belonging to George Daniel, Esquire, of 
Islington. The figures are executed in a style of con- 
siderable merit, and each of them is described in a stanza 
of four lines. It may probably be the same as No. i or 
No. 2, mentioned in pp. 66 and 67, or either of Nos. x. or xi. 
described above. " The Dance of Death ; " a single 
sheet, engraved on copper, with the following figures • — In 
the middle. Death leading the king ; the beggar hand in 
hand with the king ; Death leading the old man, followed 
by a child ; the fool ; the wise man, as an astrologer, led 

1. 



146 The Dance of Death. 

by Death. On the spectator's left hand, Death bringing a 
man before a judge ; with the motto, " The greatest judge 
that sits in honour's seat, must come to grave, where't boots 
not to intreate." A man and woman in a brothel, Death 
behind ; with the motto, '* Leave, wanton youth, thou must 
no longer stay ; if once I call all mortals must obey." On 
the opposite side, the Miser and Death; the motto, "Come, 
worldling, come, gold hath no power to save ; leave it thou 
shalt, and dance with me to grave." Death and the 
prisoner ; the motto, " Prisoner arise, ile ease thy fetterd 
feet, and now betake thee to thy winding sheet." In the 
middle of the print sits a minstrel on a stool formed of 
bones placed on a coffin with a pick-axe and spade. He 
plays on a tabor and pipe ; with this motto, " Sickness, 
despaire, sword, famine, sudden death, all these do serve 
as minstrells unto Death \ the beggar, king, fool, and 
profound, courtier and clown, all dance this round." 
Under the above figures is a poem of sixty-six lines on the 
power of Death, beginning thus : — 

" Yea, Adam's brood and earthly wights which breathe now on the earth. 
Come dance this dance, and mark the song of this most mighty Death. 
Full well my power is known and seen in all the world about, 
When I do strike of force do yeeld both noble, wise, and stout, &c. 

Printed cuUored and sould by R. Walton at the Globe and 
Compasses at the West end of St. Paules church turning 
down towards Ludgate." 

XIII. A large anonymous German engraving on copper, 
in folio. In the middle is a circular Dance of Death, with 
nine females, from the Empress to the Fool. In the four 
corners, two persons kneeling before a crucifix ; saints in 
heaven ; the temptation ; and the infernal regions. At top, 
a frame with these verses : — 

Vulneris en nostri certam solamque medelam 
En data divina prsemia larga manu. 

Der Todt Christi zunicht hat gmacht 
Den Todt und's Leben wider bracht. 

At bottom in a similar frame : — 

Per unius peccatum Mors intravit in munduitti 
Den Todt und ewig hellisch pein 
Hat veruhrsagt die Sund allein. 



7^ Dance of Death, i^f 

Tliis is within i broad frame, containing a Dance of Death, 
in twelve ovals. The names of the characters are in 
German : — i. The Pope. 2. Emperor. 3. King. 4, 
Cardinal. 5. Bishop. 6. Duke. 7. Earl. 8. Gentleman. 
9. Citizen. 10. Peasant 11. Soldier and Beggar. 12. 
Fool and Child. Under each subject is an appropriate 
inscription in Latin and German. In the middle at top, a 
Death's head and bones, an hour-glass and a dial. In the 
middle at bottom, a lamp burning on a Death's head, and 
a pot of holy water with an aspergillum. On tlie sides, 
in the middle, funereal implements, 

XIV. Heinecken, in his " Dictionnaire des Graveurs,'' 
iii. 77, mentions a Dance of Death engraved about 1740 
by Maurice Bodenehr of Friburg, but without any further 
notice, 

XV. Another very large print, 2 feet by i^, in mezzo- 
tinto, the subject as in No. 10, but the figures varied, 
and much better drawn. At bottom, "Joh, El. Ridinger 
excud. Aug. Vindel." 

XVI. Newton's Dances of Death. Published July 12, 
1796, by Wm. Holland, No. 50, Oxford Street, consisting 
of the following grotesque subjects engraved on copper. 
The size 6 inches by 5. i. Auctioneer. 2. Lawyer. 3. 
Old Maid on Death's back. 4. Gamblers. 5. Scolding 
Wife. 6. Apple-woman. 7. Blind Beggar. 8. Distressed 
Poet and Bailiff. 9. Undertaker. 10. Sleeping Lady. 
II. Old Woman and her Cats. 12. Gouty Parson feeding 
on a tythe pig. 12*. Same subject differently treated. 13. 
Sailor and Sweetheart. 14. Physician, Grave-digger, and 
Death dancing a round. 15. Market-man. 16. Doctor, sick 
Patient, and Nurse. 17. Watchman. 18. Grave-digger 
putting a corpse into the grave. 19. Old maid reading, 
Death extinguishes the candle. 20. Grave-digger making 
a grave. 21. Old Woman. 22. Barber. 23. Lady and 
Death reflected in the mirror. 24. Waiter. 25. Amorous 
Old Man and Young Woman. 26. Jew Old Clothes-man. 
27. Miser. 28. Female Gin-drinker. 

XVII. The Dance of Death modernised. Published 
July 13, 1800, and designed by G. M. Woodward, Bernera 
Street, Oxford Street Contains the following caricature* 
Sixe 5 by 4^. 



14? The Dance of Death. 

1. King. " Return the diadem and I'll follow you." 

2. Cardinal. " Zounds, take care of my great toe, or I 
shall never rise higher than a cardinal." 

3. Bishop. " I cannot go, I am a bishop.** 

4. Old Man. " My good friend, I am too old, I assure 
you." 

5. Dancing-master. "I never practised such an Alle- 
mande as this since I have been a dancing-master." 

6. Alderman. " If you detain me in this way, my venison 
will be quite cold." 

7. Methodist Preacher. " If you won*t take I, I'll never 
mention you or the Devil in my sarmons as long as I 
lives." 

8. Parson. " I can't leave my company till I've finished 
my pipe and bottle." 

9. Schoolmaster. " I am only a poor schoolmaster, and 
sets good examples in the willage," 

ID. Miser. "Spare my money, and I'll go contented.** 

11. Politician. "Stay till I have finished the news- 
paper, for I am told there is great intelligence from the 
Continent' 

1 2. Press-gang Sailor. " Why, d — me, I'm one of your 
apprentices." 

13. Beggar. "This is the universal dance from a king 
to a beggar." 

14. Jockey. " I assure you I am engaged at Newmarket." 

15. Undertaker. "A pretty dance this for an under- 
taker." 

1 6. Gouty Man. " Buzaglo's exercise was nothing to this." 

17. Poet. "I am but a poor poet, and always praised 
the ode to your honour written by the late King of 
Prussia." 

18. Physician. "Here's fine encouragement for the 
faculty." 

19. Lawyer. <'The law is always exempt by the 
statutes." 

20. Old Maid. "Let me but stay till I am married, 
and I'll ask no longer time." 

21. Fine Lady. "Don't be so boisterous, you flthy 
wretch. I am a woman of fashion.'* 

92, Empress, *' Fellow, I 4m an enjpress.'* 



The Datue of Death. I^^ 

43. Young Lady. " Indeed, Sir, I am too young." 

24. Old Bawd. "You may call me old bawd, if you 
please, but I am sure I have always been a friend to youi 
worship." 

XVIII. Bonaparte's Dance of Death. Invented, drawn, 
and etched by Richard Newton. 7 by 5, 

I. Stabbed at Malta. 2. Drowned at Alexandria. 3. 
Strangled at Cairo. 4. Shot by a Tripoline gentleman. 
5. Devoured by wild beasts in the desert 6. Alive io 
Paris. 




CHAPTER XII. 



Books in which the subject ds occasionally introduced. 




O offer anything in the shape of a per- 
fect list of these, would be to attempt 
an impossibility, and therefore such only 
as have come under the author's imme- 
diate inspection are here presented to 
the curious reader. The same remark 
will apply to the list of single prints that 
follows. 

There is a very singular book, printed, as supposed, 
about 1460, at Bamberg, by Albert Pfister. It is in Ger- 
man, and a sort of moral allegory in the shape of com- 
plaints against Death, with his answers to these accusations. 
It is very particularly described from the only known per- 
fect copy in the royal library at Paris, by M. Camus, in vol. 
ii. of " Memoires de I'lnstitut. nationale des sciences, etc. : 
litte'rature et beaux arts," p. 6 et seq. It contains five en- 
gravings on wood, the first of which represents Death 
seated on a throne. Before him stands a man with an 
infant to complain that Death has taken the mother, who 
is seen wrapped in a shroud upon a tomb. The second 
cut represents Death also on a throne with the same 



Thg Dance of Death. 151 

person as before, making his complaint, accompanied by 
several other persons at the feet of Death, sorrowfully 
deposing the attributes of their respective conditions, and 
at the head of them a Pope kneeling with one knee on the 
ground. The third cut has two figures of Death, one of 
which, on foot, mows down several boys and girls ; the 
other is on horseback, and pursues some cavaliers, against 
whom he shoots his arrows. The fourth cut is in two 
compartments, the upper representing, as before, a man 
complaining to Death seated on a throne with a crown on 
his head. Below, on the spectator's left hand, is a con- 
vent whence several monks are issuing towards a garden 
encircled with hurdles, in which is a tree laden with fruit, 
by the side of a river ; a woman is seen crowning a child 
with a chaplet, near whom stands another female in con- 
versation with a young man. M. Camus, in the course of 
his description of this cut, has fallen into a very ludicrous 
error. He mistakes the very plain and obvious gate of the 
garden for a board, on which, he says, " Several characters 
are engraved which may be meant to signify the arts and 
sciences, none of ivhich are competent to protection against the 
attacks of Death'' These supposed characters, however, 
are nothing more than the flowered hinges, ring or knocker 
and lock of the door, which stands ajar. The fifth cut is 
described ?3 follows, and probably with greater accuracy 
than in M, Camus, by Dr. Dibdin, from a single leaf of 
this very curious work in the " Bibliotheca Spenceriana," 
vol. i. p. 10 (, accompanied with a copy of part of it only : — 
" Above the figures there seen sits the Almighty upon a 
throne, with an attendant angel on each side. He is 
putting the forefinger of his left hand into the centre of his 
right, and upon each of the hands is an eye, denoting, I 
presume, the omniscience of the Deity." The fac-simile 
cut partly corresponds with M. Camus's description of 
Death, and the complainant before Christ seated on a 
throne in a heaven interspersed with stars. The above 
fourth cut among these is on a single leaf in the possession 
of the author, which had Dr. Dibdin seen, he would not 
have introduced M. Camus's erroneous account of it, who 
has also referred to Heinecken's " Ide'e," /tc. p. 276, where 
It certainly is not in the French edition ot 1771, ovo. 



I5a The Dance of Death. 

In the celebrated Nuremberg Chronicle, printed in that 
city, 1493, large folio, there is at fo. cclxiiii. a fine wood-cut 
of three Deaths dancing hand in hand, another playing to 
them on a hautboy. Below is a skeleton rising from a 
grave. It is inscribed imago mortis. 

In the " Stultifera navis " of Sebastian Brant, originally 
printed in German at Basle and Nuremberg, 1494, are 
several prints, finely cut on wood, in which Death is intro- 
duced. In an edition printed at Basle, 1572, i2mo. with 
elegant wood engravings, after the designs of Christopher 
Maurer, and which differ very materially from those in the 
early editions, there is a cut of great merit to the verses 
that have for their title, " Qui alios judicat." It represents 
a man on his death-bed ; and as the poet's intention is to 
condemn the folly of those who, judging falsely or un- 
charitably of others, forget that they must die themselves. 
Death is introduced as pulling a stool from under a fool, 
who sits by the bedside of the dying man. In the original 
cut the fool is tumbling into the jaws of hell, which, as usual, 
is represented by a monstrous dragon. 

In the " Calendrier des Bergers," Paris, 1500, folio, at 
sign. g. 6, is a terrific figure of Death on the pale horse; 
and at sign. g. 5, Death in a cemetery, with crosses and 
monuments ; in his left hand the lid of a coffin in which 
his left foot is placed. These cuts are not in the English 
translation. 

"Ortulus Rosarum," circa 1500, i2mo. A wood-cut of 
Death, bearing a coffin on his shoulder, leading a group 
consisting of a pope, a cardinal, &c. 

In the dialogue " Of lyfe and death," at the end of " the 
Dialoges of creatures moralysed," probably printed abroad 
without date or printer's name soon after 1500, are two 
engravings in wood, one representing Death appearing to 
a man with a falcon on his fist, the other Death with his 
spade leading an emperor, a king, and a duke. The latter 
is not found in the Latin editions of this work, and has 
probably formed a part of some very old Dance of Death. 

In an edition of " Boetius de consolatione," Strasburg, 
1 50 1, folio, is a figure of Death on a lean horse throwing 
his dart at a group of warriors. 

In the " Freidanck," Strasburg, 1508, 4to. near the end 



Tfu Dance of Death. 159 

is a wood-cut of a garden, in which two men and two 
women are feasting at a table. They are interrupted by 
the unexpected appearance of Death, who forcibly seizes 
one of the party, whilst the rest make their escape. 

In the " Mortilogus " of Conrad Reitter, Prior of Nord- 
lingen, printed at Augsburg by Erhard Oglin and Geo. 
Nadler, 1508, 4to. there is a wood-cut of Death in a church- 
yard, holding a spade with one hand, and with the other 
showing his hour-glass to a young soldier ; and another of 
Death shooting an arrow at a flying man. 

In " Heures \ I'usaige de Sens," printed at Paris by Jean 
de Brie, 151 2, 8vo. the month of December in the calendar 
is figured by Death pulling an old man towards a grave ; 
a subject which is, perhaps, nowhere else to be found as a 
representation of that month. It is certainly appropriate, 
as being at once the symbol of the termination of the year 
and of man's life. 

In the "Chevalier de la Tour," printed by Guillaume 
Eustace, Paris, 1514, folio, theie is an allegorical cut, very 
finely engraved on wood, at fo. xxii. nearly filling the page. 
The subject is the expulsion of Adam and Eve from 
Paradise, the gate of which exhibits a regular entrance, with 
round towers and portcullis. Behind this gate is seen the 
forbidden tree, at the bottom of which is the Devil, seem- 
ingly rejoicing at the expulsion, with an apple in his hand. 
Near the gate stands the angel with his sword, and a cross 
on his head. Between him and the parties expelled is a 
picturesque figure of Death with a scythe ready for action. 

" Horae ad usum Romanum," printed for Geoff"rey Tory 
of Tours, 1525. Before the " Vigiliae Mortuonim" is a wood- 
cut of a winged Death holding a clock in one hand ; with 
the other he strikes to the ground and tramples on several 
men and women. Near him is a tree with a crow uttering 
CRAS CRAS. In another edition, dated 1527, is a different 
cut of a crowned figure of Death mounted on a black mule 
and holding a scythe and hour-glass. He is trampling on 
several dead bodies, and is preceded by another Death, 
armed also with a scythe, whilst a third behind strikes the 
mule, who stops to devour one of the prostrate figures. 
Above is a crow. 

In a beautiful "Officium Virg." printed at Venice, 1525, 



154 ^^ Dance of Death. 

i2mo. is a vignette of Death aiming an arrow at a gioup 
consisting of a pope, cardinal, &c. Another Death is be- 
hind, on the spectator's left. 

In " Heares de Notre Dame mises en reyne," &c. bi 
Pierre Gringoire, 1527, 8vo. there is a cut at fo. Ix. before 
the " vigilles de la mort," of a king lying on a bier in a chapel 
with tapers burning, several mourners attending, and on 
the ground a pot of holy water. A hideous figure of Death 
holding a scythe in one hand, and a horn in the other, 
tramples on the body of the deceased monarch. 

In a folio missal for the use of Salisbury, printed at 
Paris by Francis Regnault, 1531, there is a singular cut 
prefixed to the "Officium Mortuorum," representing two 
Deaths seizing a body that has the horrible appearance of 
having been some time in its grave. 

In a Flemish metrical translation of Pope Innocent 
Ill's work, " De vilitate conditionis humanse," Ghend, 1543, 
i2mo. there is a wood-cut of Death emerging from hell, 
armed with a dart and a three-pronged fork, with which he 
attacks a party taking their repast at a table. 

In the cuts to the Old Testament, l r'^ntifullv engraved 
on wood by Solomon or Le petit Bernard, Lyons, 1553, 
i2mo. Death is introduced in the vision of Ezekiel, ch. 
xxxvii. In this work the expulsion from Paradise is 
imitated from the same subject in the Lyons wood-cuts. 

In " Hawes's History of Graund Amoure and la bel 
Pucell, called the Pastime of Pleasure," printed by R. 
Tottel, 1555, 4to. are two prints ; the first exhibits a female 
seated on a throne, in contemplation of several men and 
animals, some of whom are lying dead at her feet ; behind 
the throne Death is seen armed with a dart, which he seems 
to have been just making use of : there is no allusion to it 
in the text, and it must have been intended for some other 
work. The second print has two figures of Death and a 
young man, whom he threatens with a sort of mace in his 
right hand, whilst he holds a pick-axe with his left. 

"Imagmes elegantissimae quae multum lucis ad intelli- 
gendos doctrinae Christianae locos adferre possunt, collectas 
E Johann Cogelero verbi divini ministro, Stetini." Viteberg, 
1560, i2mo. It contains a wood-print, finely executed, of 
the following subject: — In the front Death, armed with a 



The Dance of Vcaf* 155 

hunting-spcar, pushes a naked figure into the mouth of heh, 
in which are seen a pope and two monks. Behind this 
group, Moses, with a pair of bulls' horns, and attended by 
two Jews, holds the tables of the law. In the distance the 
temptation, and the brazen serpent. 

A German translation of the well-known block book, 
the "Ars Moriendi," was printed at Dilingen, 1569, i2mo. 
with several additional engravings on wood. It is perhaps 
the last publication of the work. On the title-page is an 
oval cut, representing a winged boy sleeping on a skull, 
and Death shooting an arrow at him. The first cut exhibits 
a sort of Death's Dance, in eight small compartments, i. 
A woman in bed just delivered of a child, with which Death 
is running away. 2. A man sitting at a table : Death seizes 
him behind, and pulls him over the bench on which he is 
sitting. 3. Death drowning a man in a river. 4. Flames 
of fire issue from a house : Death tramples on a man 
endeavouring to escape. 5. Two men fighting, one of 
whom pierces the other with his sword. The wounded 
man is .seized by Death, the other by the Devil. 6. A man 
on horseback is seized by Death, also mounted behind. 7. 
Death holds his hour-glass to a man on his death-bed. 8. 
Death leading an aged man to the grave. At the end of 
this curious volume is a singular cut, entitled " Symbolum 
M. Joannis Stotzinger Presbyteri Dilingensis." It exhibits 
a young man sitting at a table, on which is a violin, music- 
books, and an hour-glass. On the table is written respice 
FIN EM. Near him his guardian angel holding a label, in- 
scribed ANGELVS ASTAT. Behind them Death about to 
strike the young man with his dart, and over him mors 
MiNATVR. At the end of the table Conscience as a female, 
whom a serpent bites, with the label conscientia mordet, 
and near her the Devil, with the label diabolvs accvsat. 
Above is the Deity looking down, and the motto devs 

VIDET. 

"II Cavallero Determinado," Antwerp, 1591, 4to. A 
translation from the French romance of Olivier de la 
Marche, with etchings by Vander Borcht. The last print 
represents Death, armed with a coffin-lid as a shield, 
attacking a knight on horseback. In several of the other 
prints Death is represented under the name of Atropos, as 



I $6 The Dance of Death. 

president in tournaments. In other editions the cuts are 

on wood by the artist with the mark ^y^^* 

In the margins of some of the " Horae," printed by Thiel- 
man Kerver, there are several grotesque figures of Death, 
independently of the usual Dance. 

In many of the Bibles that have prints to the Revelations, 
that of Death on the pale horse is to be noticed. 

In Petrarch's work " De remediis utriusque fortunae," both 
in the German and Latin editions, there are several cuts 
that relate materially to the subject It may be as well to 
mention that this work has been improperly ascribed to 
Petrarch. 

In many of the old editions of Petrarch's works which 
contain the triumphs, that of Death is usually accompanied 
with some terrific print of Death in a car drawn by oxen, 
trampling upon all conditions of men from the pope to the 
beggar. 

" Guilleville, Pterin de la vie humaine." The pilgrim 
is conducted by Abstinence into a refectory, where he sees 
many figures of Death in the act of feeding several persons 
sitting at table. These are good people long deceased, who 
during. their lives have been bountiful to their fellow- 
creatures. At the end, the pilgrim is struck by Death with 
two darts whilst on his bed. 

Death kicking at a man, his wife, and child. From some 
book printed at Strasburg in the i6th century. 

Death, as an ecclesiastic, sitting on the ground and 
writing in a book. Another Death, holding an inscribed 
paper in one hand, seizes with the other a man pointing to 
a similar paper j the Deity in a cloud looking on From 
the same book. 

" Mors," a Latin comedy, by William Drury, a professor 
of poetry and rhetoric in the English college-'at Douay. 
It was acted in the refectory of the college and elsewhere, 
and with considerable applause, which it very well deserved. 
There is as much, and sometimes more, wit and humour in 
it than are found in many English farces. It was printed 
at Douay, 1628, i2mo. with two other Latin plays, but not 
of equal interest. 

A moral and poetical drama, in eleven scenes, entitled 



The Dance of Death. 157 

•Youth's Tragedy, by T. S." 1671 and 1707, 4to. in which 
the interlocutors are, Youth, the Devil, Wisdom, Time, 
Death, and the Soul. It is miserable stuff. 

"La Historia della Morte," Trevigi, 1674, 410. four 
leaves only. It is a poem in octave stanzas. The author, 
wandering in a wood, is overwhelmed with tears in re- 
flecting on the approach of Death, and his omnipotent 
dominion over mankind. He is suddenly accosted by the 
king of terrors, who is thus described : — 

Un ombra mi coperse prestamente 
Che mi fece tremar in cotal sorte ; 
EU'era magra, e longa in sua figure, 
Che chi la vede perde gioco, e festa. 
Dente d'acciaio haveva in bocca oscura. 
Coma di ferro due sopra la testa, 
Ella mi fe tremar dalla paura, &c 

The work consists of a long dialogue between the paities. 
The author inquires of Death if he was bom of father and 
mother. Death answers that he was created by Jesus 
Christ, " che e signor giocondo," with the other angels ; 
that after Adam's sin he was called Death. The author 
tells him that he seems rather to be a malignant spirit, and 
presses for some further information. He is referred to the 
Bible, and the account of David's destroying angel :— 

Quando Roma jjer jne fu tribulata 
Gregorio videmi con suo occhio honesto 
Con una spada ch'era insanguinata 
Al castel de Sant Angelo chiamato 
Da r hora in qua cosi fu appellate. 

This corresponds with the usual story, that during a plague 
Gregory saw an angel hovering over the castle, who, on the 
Pope's looking up to him, immediately sheathed his flaming 
sword. More questions are then propounded by Death, 
particularly as to the use of his horns and teeth, and the 
curiosity of the author is most condescendingly gratified. 

Bishop Warburton and Mr. Malone have referred to old 
Moralities, in which the fool escaping from the pursuit of 
Death is introduced. Ritson has denied the existence of 
any such farces, and he is perhaps right with respect to 
printed ones ; but vestiges of such a drama were observed 
several years ago at the fair of Bristol by the present 



tS^ l^ie Dajice of Death. 

writer. See the notes to " Measure for Measure," Act III 
Sc. I, and to Pericles, Act III. Sc. 2. 

In " Musart Adolescens Academicus sub institutione 
Salomonis," Duaci, 1633, i2mo. is an engraving on copper 
of a modem Bacchus astride upon a wine-cask drawn by 
two tigers. In one hand he holds a thyrsus composed of 
grapes and vine-leaves, and in the other a cup or vase, 
from which a serpent springs, to indicate poison. Behind 
this Bacchus Death is seated, armed with his scythe and 
lying in wait for him. The motto, " Vesani calices quid 
non fecere," a parody on the line, " Fecundi calices quern 
non fecere disertum?" Horat. lib. i. epist. 5. 1. 19. 

In "Christopher Van Sichem's Bibel's Tresoor," 1646, 
4to. there is a wood-cut of Death assisting Adam to dig 
the ground, partly copied from the subject of " the Curse," 
in the work printed at Lyons. 

In " De Chertablon, manibre de se bien preparer \ la 
mort," &c. Anvers, 1700, 4to. there is an allegorical print, 
in which a man is led by his guardian angel to the dwelling 
of Faith, Hope, and Charity, but is violently seized by 
Death, who points to his last habitation, in the shape of a 
sepulchral monument. 

In Luyken's "Onwaardige wereld," Amst. 17 10, i2mo. 
are three allegorical engravings relating to this subject. 

In a very singular book, entitled "Confusio disposita 
rosis rhetorico-poeticis fragrans, sive quatuor lusus satyrico- 
morales, &c. authore Josepho Melchiore Francisco a Glarus, 
dicto Tschudi de Greplang," Augsburg, 1725, i2mo. are 
the following subjects : — i. The world as Spring, represented 
by a fine lady in a flower-garden. Death and the Devil 
behind her. 2. Death and the Devil lying in wait for the 
miser. 3. Death and the Devil hewing down the barren 
fig-tree. 4. A group of dancers at a ball interrupted by 
Death. 5. Death striking a lady in bed attended by her 
waiting-maid. 6. Death gives the coup de grace to a 
drunken fellow who had fallen down-stairs. 7. Death 
mounted on a skeleton-horse dashes among a group of rich 
men counting their gold, &c. 8. A rich man refused 
entrance into heaven. He has been brought to the gate in 
a sedan chair, carried by a couple of Deaths in full-bottom 
periwigs. 



The Dance of Death. 159 

Jn Luykcn's ' Vonken der lief de Jezus," Amst. 1727, 
l2mo. are several engravings relating to the subject In 
one of them Death pouis a draught into the mouth of a 
sick man in bed. 

In Moncriefs "March of Intellect," 1830, i8mo. scene 
a workhouse, Death brings in a bowl of soup, a fabel on 
the ground, inscribed " Death in the pot" An engraving 
in wood after Cruikshank. 

In Jan Huygen's " Beginselen van Gods koninr^k," Amst. 
1738, i2mo. with engravings by Luyken, a dying man 
attended by his physician and friends ; Death at the head 
of the bed eagerly lying in wait for him. 

In one of the livraisons of " Gothe's Balladen und 
Romanzen," 1831, in folio, with beautiful marginal deco- 
rations, there is a Dance of Death in a churchyard, 
accompanied with a description, of which an English 
translation is inserted in the "Literary Gazette" for 1832, 
p. 731, under the title of "The Skeleton Dance," with a 
reference to another indifferent version in the " Souvenir." 

The vrcll-known subjects of Death and the old man with 
the bundle of sticks, &c and Cupid and Death in man^ 
editions of />Isopian fables. 



vl^ 




CHAPTER XIII. 

Books of emblems and fables. — Frontispieces and title-pages^ in 
some degree connected with the Dance of Death. 

EMBLEMS AND FABLES. 




T is very seldom that in this numerous 
and amusing class of books a subject 
relating to Death, either moral or of a 
ludicrous nature, does not occur. It 
may be sufficient to notice a few of 
them. 

" La Morosophie de Guillaume de la 
Perri^re," 1553, i2mo. 
** Embilmes ou devises Chretiennes," par Georgette de 
Montenaye, 1571, 4to. 

"Le Imprese del S. Gab. Symeoni." Lyons, 1574, 4to. 
"Enchiridion artis pingendi, fingendi et sculpendi. Auth. 
Justo Ammanno, Tig." Francof. 1578, 4to, This is one of 
Jost Amman's emblematical books in wood, and contains 
at the end a figure of Death about to cut off two lovers 
with his scythe, Cupid hovering over them. 

•'Apologi creaturarum." Plantin, 1590, 4to. with elegant 
etchings by Marc Gerard. It has one subject only of 
Death summoning a youth with a hawk on his fist to a 
churchyard in the background. 






1 

I 



77ie Dance of Death. V'-' '^J^i"'^ ^ 

Reusner's " aureolorum emblematum liber singularis," 
Argentorati, 1591, i2mo. A print of Death taking away 
a lady who has been stung by a serpent ; designed and 
engraved by Tobias Stimmer. 

" De Bry Proscenium vitae humanae," Francof. 1592 and 
1627, 4to. This collection has two subjects: — i. Death 
and the Young Man. 2. Death and the Virgin. 

"Jani Jacobi Boissardi Emblematum liber, a Theodoro 
de Bry sculpta." Francof. 1593. Contains one print, 
entitled " Sola virtus est funeris expers." The three Fates, 
one of whom holds a tablet with sic visvm svperis. 
Death attending with his hour-glass. Below, crowns, 
sceptres, and various emblems of human vanity. On 
the spectator's left, a figure of Virtue standing, with 
sword and shield. 

"De Bry Emblemata." Francof 1593, 4to. The last 
emblem has Death striking an old man, who still clings 
to the world, represented as a globe. 

" Rolandini variar. imaginum,' lib. iii. Panormi, 1595, 
i2mo. 

"Alciati Emblemata," one of the cailiest books of its 
kind, and a favourite that has passed through a great many 
editions. 

"Typotii symbola divina et humana Pontificum Impe- 
ratorum, Regum," &c. Francofurti, 1601, folio. 

"Friderich's Emblems," 161 7, 8vo. Several engravings 
on the subject. 

" Das emeuerte Stamm- und Stechbiichlein." By Fabian 
Athyr. Nuremberg, 1654. Small obi. 4to. 

" Mannichii Emblemata," Nuremberg, 1624, 4to. 

" Minne Beelden toe-ghepast de Lievende Jonckheyt," 
Amst 1635, i2mo. The cuts on <he subject are extremely 
grotesque and singular. 

" Sciographia Cosmica." A description of the principal 
towns and cities in the world, with views engraved by Paul 
Fuist, and appropriate emblems. By Daniel Meisner : in 
eight parts. Nuremberg, 1637. Oblong 4to, In the print 
of the town of Freyburg, Death stands near an old man, 
and holds a clock in one hand. In that of the city of 
Toledo, Death accompanies a female who has a mirror in 
her hand. 



1 62 The Dance of Death, 

In the same work, at vol. A. 4, is a figure of Death 
trampling on Envy, with the motto, "Der Todt macht dem 
Neyd ein ende." At A. 39, Death intercepting a traveller; 
the motto, "Vitam morti obviam procedit." At A 74, 
Death standing near a city; the motto, "Tros Tyriusve 
mihi nullo discrimine habetur." At C. 9, a man and 
woman in the chains of matrimony, which Death dissolves 
by striking the chain with a bone; the motto, "Conjugii 
vinculum firmissimum est." At C. 30, Death about to 
mow down a philosopher holding a clock ; the motto, 
"Omnis dies, omnis hora, quam nihil sumus ostendit." 
At E. 32, Death standing in the middle of a parterre of 
flowers, holding in one hand a branch of laurel, in the 
other a palm-branch; the motto, "Ante mortem nullus 
beatus est." At E. 35, Death shooting with a cross-bow 
at a miser before his chest of money ; the motto, " Nee 
divitiis nee auro." At E. 44, Death seizes a young man 
writing the words, " sic visum superis " on a tablet ; the 
motto, "Viva virtus est funeris expers." At G. 32, Death 
pursues a king and a peasant, all on horseback ; the motto, 
" Mors sceptra ligonibus aequat." At G. ^d, a woman 
looking in a mirror sees Death, who stands behind her 
reflected ; the motto, " Tota vita sapientis est meditatio 
mortis." At H. dd, a company of drunkards. Death 
strikes one of them behind when drinking ; the motto, 
"Malus inter poculo mos est." At H. 80, Death cuts 
down a genealogical tree, with a young man and woman ; 
the motto, " Juventus proponit, mors disponit" 

" Conrad Buno Driestandige Sinnbilder," 1643. Ob- 
long 4to. 

"Amoris divini et humani antipathia." Antw. 1670. 
i2mo. 

" Typotii Symbola varia diversorum principum sacro- 
sanctae ecclesiae et sacri Imperii Romani." Arnheiin, 
1679. i2mo. 

In Sluiter's "Somer en winter leven," Amst. 1687, i2mo. 
is a figure of Death knocking at the door of a house and 
alarming the inhabitants with his unexpected visit. The 
designer most probably had in his recollection Horace's 
" Mors aequo pede pulsat pauperum tabernas reguraque 
turres." 



The Dance of Death. 163 

"Euterpae soboles, hoc est emblemata varia," &c. with 
stanzas in Latin and German to each print. No date. 
Oblong 4to. The engravings by Peter Rollo. Republished 
at Paris, with this title : — " Le Centre de I'Amour, &c. A 
Paris chez Cupidon." Same form, and without date. This 
edition has several additional cuts. 

"Rollenhagii nucleus Emblematum." The cuts by 
Crispin de Passe. 

In Herman Krul's " Eerlyche tytkorting," &c. a Dutch 
book of emblems, 4to. n. d. there are some subjects in 
which Death is allegorically introduced, and sometimes 
in a very ludicrous manner. 

Death enters the study of a seated philosopher, from 
whose mouth and breast proceed rays of light, and 
presents him with an hour-glass. Below a grave, over 
which hangs one foot of the philosopher. A. Venne 
invent. Obi. 5^ by 4^. 

" Catz's Emblems," in a variety of forms and editions, 
containing several prints relating to the subject 

" 0th. Vaenii Emblemata Horatiana." Several editions, 
with the same prints. 

"Le Centre de I'Amour ddcouvert soubs divers em- 
blesmes galans et facetieux. A Paris chez Cupidon." 
Obi. 4to. without date. One print only of a man sitting 
in a chair, seized by Death whilst admiring a female, 
who, not liking the intrusion, is making her escape. The 
book contains several very singular subjects, accompanied 
by Latin and German explanations. It occurs also under the 
tide of " Euterpie soboles, hoc est emblemata varia eleganti 
jocorum mistura," &c. 

"Fables nouvelles par M. de la Motte." 4to edition. 
Amsterd. 1727, i2mo. 

" Apophthegmata S>-mbolica, &c. per A. C. Redelium 
Belgam." Augsburg, 1700. Oblong 4to. Death and the 
soldier ; Death interrupting a feast ; Death and the miser ; 
Death and the old man ; Death drawing the curtain of lifo, 
fee &c. 

" Choice emblems, divine and moral." 1732. lamo. 



M a 



i^4 The Dance of Death. 



FRONTISPIECES AND TITLE-PAGES TO BOOKS. 

"Arent Bosman." This is the title to an old Dutch 
legend of a man who had a vision of hell, which is related 
much in the manner of those of Tundale and others. It 
was printed at Antwerp in 1504, 4to. The frontispiece 
has a figure of Death in pursuit of a terrified young man, 
and may probably belong to some other work. 

On a portion of the finely-engraved wood frontispiece 
to "Joh. de Bromyard Summa predicantium," Nuremberg, 
15 1 8, folio, Death with scythe and hour-glass stands on 
an urn, supported by four persons, and terrifies several 
others who are taking flight and stumbling over each other. 

"Schauspiel Menschliches Lebens." Frankfort, 1596, 4to. 
Another edition in Latin, entitled "Theatrum vitae humanae," 
by J. Boissard, the engravings by De Bry. At the top of 
the elegant title or frontispiece to this work is an oblong 
oval of a marriage, interrupted by Death, who seizes the 
bridegroom. At bottom a similar oval of Death digging 
the grave of an old man who is looking into it. On one 
side of the page, Death striking an infant in its cradle ; on 
the other, a merchant about to ship his goods is intercepted 
by Death. 

On the title-page to a German jeu (Tesprit, in ridicule 
of some anonymous pedant, there is a wood-cut of Death 
mounted backwards on an ass, and near him a fool ham- 
mering a block of some kind on an anvil. The title of 
this satirical morsel is : — " Res Mira. Asinus sex linguarum 
jucundissimis anagrammatismis et epigrammatibus oneratus, 
tractionibus, depositionibus, et fustuariis probb dedolatus, 
hero suo remissus, ac instar prodromi praemissus, donee 
meliora sequantur, Asininitates aboleantur, virique boni 
restituantur : ubi etiam ostenditur ab asino salso intentata 
vitia non esse vitia. Ob variam ejus jucunditatem, suavita- 
tem et versuum leporem recusus, anno 1625." The address 
to the reader is dated from Giessen, 19th June, 1606, and 
the object of the satire disguised under the name of Jonas 
Melidaeus. 



The Dance of Death. 165 

" Les Consolations de TAme fidelle contre les frayeurs 
de la mort, par Charles Drelincourt." Amsterdam, 1660. 
8vo. 

" Deugden Spoor De Vijfte Der-Eeringe Aen de Medi- 
cijas met sampt Monsieur Toncker Doctor Koe-Beest ende 
alle sijne Complicen." Death introduces an old man to 
a physician who is inspecting a urinal. i2mo. 

Death leading an old man with a crutch, near a charnel- 
house, inscribed memento mori. At top these verses : — 
II faut sans differer me suivre 

Tu dois etre pret i parlir 
Dieu ne t'a fait si longtemps vivre 
Que pour t'aprendre 4 bien mourir. 
At Amsterdam chez Henri Desbordes. Another print, with 
the same design. " Se vendent k Londres par Daniel Du 
Chemin." On a spade, the monogram J-J. . 8vo. 

"Reflexions sur les grands hommes." In the foreground 
various pranks of Death. In the distance, a churchyard 
with a regular dance, in a circle, of men, women and 
Deaths, two of the latter sitting on a monument and 
playing on a violin and violoncello. Engraved by A. D. 
Putter. 1 2mo. 

" La Danse Macabre, or Death's Duell," by W. C. /. e. 
Colman. Printed by Wm. Stansby, no date, i2mo. It has 
an elegantly engraved frontispiece by T. Cecil, with eight 
compartments, exhibiting Death with the pope, the emperor, 
the priest, the nobles, the painter, the priest, and the 
peasant. The poem, in six-line stanzas, is of considerable 
merit, and entirely moral on the subject of Death, but it is 
not the Macaber Dance of Lydgate. At the end, the 
author apologises for the title of his book, which, he says, 
was injuriously conferred by Roger Muchill upon a sermon 
of Dr. Donne's, and adds a satirical epistle against 
" Muchill that never did good." There certainly was a 
sermon by Donne, published by Muchill or Michel, with 
the title of " Death's Duell." 

There appears to have been another edition of this book, 
the title-page only of which is preserved among Bagford's 
collections among the Harl. MSS. No. 5930. It has the 
same printed title, with the initials W. C. and the name of 
W. Stansby. It is also without date. This frontispiece \% 



1 66 The Dance of Death. 

on a curtain held by two winged boys. At the top, a figure" 
of Death, at bottom another of Time kneeling on a globe. 
In the right-hand corner, which is torn, there seems to have 
been a hand coup^, with a bracelet as a crest ; in the left, a 
coat of arms with a cross boutonn^ arg. and sable, and 
four mullets, arg. and sable. On each side, four oval com- 
partments, with the following subjects : — i. A pope, a car- 
dinal, and four bishops. 2. Several monks and friars. 3. 
Several magistrates. 4. A schoolmaster reading to his 
pupils. 5. An emperor, a king, a queen, a duke, a duchess, 
and a male attendant. 6. A group of noblemen or gentle- 
men. 7. A painter painting a figure of Death ; in the back- 
ground a woman who seems to be purchasing articles of 
dress. 8. Two men with spades, one of them digging. 
This very beautiful print is engraved by T. Cecil. On the 
top of each of the above compartments, Death holds a 
string with both his hands. 

" Theatrum omnium miserarum." A theatre filled with 
a vast number of people. In the centre, an obelisk on a 
pedestal, behind which is a small stage with persons sitting. 
In the foreground, Death holding a cord, with which three 
naked figures are bound, and another Death with a naked 
figure in a net. Between these figures symbols of the 
world, the flesh, and the Devil. 4to. 

"Les Consolations de I'Ame fidelle contre les frayeurs 
de la mort." Death holds his scythe over a group of per- 
sons, consisting of an old man and a child near a grave, 
who are followed by a king, queen, and a shepherd, with 
various pious inscriptions. 8vo. 

" La manibre de se bien preparer \ la mort, par M. de 
Chertablon." An vers, 1700, 4to. 

In an engraved frontispiece, a figure of Time or Death, 
trampling upon a heap of articles expressive of worldly 
pomp and grandeur, strikes one end of his scythe against 
the door of a building, on which is inscribed " statvtvm 

EST OMNIBVS HOMINIBVS. SEMEL MORI. Hcbr. ix." 

At the bottom, within a frame ornamented with emblems 
of mortality, a sarcophagus with the skeleton of a man 
raised from it. Two Deaths are standing near, one of 
whom blows a trumpet, the other points upward with one 
hand, and holds a scythe in the other. On one side of the 



The Dance of Death 1O7 

sarcophagus are several females weeping ; on the other, a 
philosopher sitting, who addresses a group -of sovereigns, 
&c. who are looking at the skeleton. 

"Palingenii Zodiacus Vitas." Rotterdam, 1722. i2mo. 
Death seizes a sitting figure crowned with laurel, perhaps 
intended for Virtue, who clings to a bust of Minerva, &c. 

Death leading a bishop holding his crozier. He is pre- 
ceded by another Death as a bellman with bell and 
lanthorn. Above, emblems of mortality over a label, in- 
scribed "A Vision." i2mo. 

Scene, a churchyard. Death holding an hour-glass in 
one hand, levels his dart at a young man in the habit of an 
ecclesiastic, with a mask in his hand. "Worlidge inv. 
Boitard sculp." The book unknown. 8vo. 

Three figures of Death uncovering a circular mirror, with 
a group of persons dying, &c. At bottom, ingredimvr, 

CVNCTI. DIVES. CVM. PAUPEKE. MIXTVS. J. Sturt SCUlp. 

Death touching a globe, on which is inscribed vanity, 
appears to a man in bed. " Hayman inv. C. Grignion sc." 
8vo. 

To a little French work, entitled " Spectriana," Paris, 
18 1 7, 24mo. there is a frontispiece on copper representing 
the subject of one of the stories. A figure of Death en- 
cumbered with chains beckons to an armed man to follow 
him into a cave. 




CHAPTER XIV. 



Single prints connected with the Dance of Death. 



1500 — 1600. 

vN.B. The right and left hands are those of the spectator, 
on losod are so specified. ) 



The print! 




N ancient engraving, in the manner of 
Israel Van Meckenen. Death is playing 
at chess with a king, who is alarmed at 
an impending check-mate. A pope, 
cardinal, bishop, and other persons are 
looking on. Above are three labels, 
Bartsch, x. 55, No. 32. 

Albert Diirer's knight preceded by 
Death, and followed by a demon, a well-known and beau- 
tiful engraving. 

A very scarce and curious engraving, representing the 
interior of a brothel. At the feet of a bed a man is sitting 
by a woman almost naked, who puts her hand into his 
purse, and clandestinely delivers the money she takes from 
it to a fellow standing behind one of the curtains. On 
the opposite side is a grinning fool making significant signs 
with his fingers to a figure of Death peeping in at a window 
This singular print has the mark L upon it, and is some- 
thing in the manner of Lucas Van Leyden, but is not 



TJie Dance of Death. 169 

mentioned in Bartsch's catalogue of his prints. Upright, 
Ik by 5i. 

A small etching, very delicately executed, and ascribed 
to Lucas Van Leyden, whose manner it certainly resembles. 
At a table on the left a family of old and young persons 
are assembled. They are startled by the appearance of a 
hideous figure of Death with a long beard and his head 
covered. Near him is a young female, crowned with a 
chaplet of flowers, holding in her hand a skull, Death's 
head, and an hour-glass, and which the father of the family 
turns round to contemplate. Above is an angel or genius 
shooting an arrow at the family, and as it were at random. 
At top on the right is the letter L, and the date 1523. See 
Bartsch, vol. vii. p. 435. Oblong, 5^ by 4. 

A small upright print of Death with a spade on his 
shoulder, and leading an armed soldier. The mark L below 
on a tablet. Not mentioned by Bartsch. 

A small circular engraving, of several persons feasting 
and daiicmg. Death lies in wait behind a sort of canopy. 
Probably a brothel scene, as part of the story of the 
prodigal son. The mark is L. Not noticed by Bartsch. 
A reverse of this engraving, marked S. 
An engraving on wood of Death presenting an hour-glass, 
surmounted by a dial, to a soldier who holds with both 
his hands a long battle-axe. The parties seem to be con- 
versing. With Albert Diirer's mark, and the date 15 10. 
It has several German verses. See Bartsch, vii. 145, No. 
132. 

A wood-print of Death in a tree pointing with his right 
hand to a crow on his left, with which he holds an hour- 
glass. At the foot of the tree an old German soldier 
holding a sword pointed to the ground. On his left, 
another soldier with a long pike. A female sitting by the 
side of a large river with a lap-dog. The mark of Urs 

Graaf AjjC and the date 1524 on the tree. Upright, 8 by 4 J. 

Death as a buffoon, with cap, bauble, and hour-glass, 
leading a lady. The motto, omnem in hominf venvsta- 
TKM MORS ABOLET. With the mark and date |5B '541. 

Bartsch, viil 174. 
An engraving of Adam and Eve near the tree of life, 



£70 The Dance of Death. 

which is singularly represented by Death entwined with a 
serpent. Adam holds in one hand a flaming sword, and 
with the other receives the apple from Eve, who has taken 
it from the serpent's mouth. At top is a tablet with the 

mark and date Js£ 1543. A copy from Barthol. Beham 
Bartsch, viii. 116. 

Death seizing a naked female. A small upright engraving 
The motto, omnem in homine venvstatem mors abolet 
With the mark and date T$R 1546. Bartsch, viii. 175. 

A small upright engraving, representing Death with three 
naked women, one of whom he holds by the hair of her 
head. A lascivious print. The mark T^^ on a label at 

bottom. Bartsch, viii. 176, who calls the women sor- 
ceresses. 

A small upright engraving of Death holding an hour- 
glass and dial to a soldier with a halberd. At top, the 
the mark and date J6g 1532. Bartsch, viii. 276. 

An upright engraving of Death seizing a soldier, who 
struggles to escape from him. Below, an hour-glass. In 

a corner at top, the mark fC^ 

An upright engraving of Death trampling upon a van- 
quished soldier, who endeavours to parry with his sword a 
blow that with one hand his adversary aims at him, whilst 
with the other he breaks the soldier's spear. In a corner 

at top, the mark JgQ A truly terrific print, engraved 

also by _^. Bartsch, viii. 277. 

A naked female seized by a naked man in a very in- 
decent manner. Death who is behind seizes the man, 
whose left hand is placed on a little boy taking money 
out of a bag. The motto, ho : mors vltima linea rervm, 

with the mark and date J^ 1529. See Bartsch, viii. 176. 

Near the end of an English Primer, printed at Paris, 
1538, 4to. is a small print of Death leading a pope, 
engraved with great spirit on wood, but it has certainly 
not formed part of a series of a Dance of Death. 

An upright engraving of a pair of lovers interrupted 



The Dance of Death. 171 

by Death with scythe and hour-glas!/, with the mark 
and date f-f^ 1550. Not in Bartsch. 

A small wood-print of a gentleman conducting a lady, 
whose train is held up by Death with one hand, whilst 
he holds up an hour-glass with the other. In a comer 
below, the supposed mark of Jost de Negher, . ■y . 
Upright, 2 by i{. r. 

A German anonymous wood-piint of the prodigal 
son at a brothel, a female fool attending. Death unex- 
pectedly appears and takes him by the hand, whilst 
another female is caressing him. Oblong, 4^^ by 4. 

An upright engraving on wood, 14 by 11, of a naked 
female on a couch. Death with a spade and hour- 
glass approaches her. With her left hand she holds 
one corner of a counterpane, Death seizing the other, 
and trampling upon it. Under the counterpane, and at 
the foot of the couch is a dead and naked man grasping 
a sword in one hand. There is no indication of the 
artist of this singular print. 

An upright wood engraving, 14^ by 11, of a whole 
length naked female turning her head to a mirror, which 
she holds behind her with both hands. Death, unnoticed, 
with an hour-glass, enters the apartment ; before him a 
wheel. On the left at bottom a blank tablet, and near the 
woman's left foot a large wing. 

An engraving on wood by David Hopfer of Death 
and the Devil surprising a worldly dame, who admires 
herself in a mirror. Oblong, 8 inches by 5^. 

An upright engraving of a lady holding in one hand a bunch 
of roses and in the other a glove. Death behind with his 
hour-glass ; the motto, omnem in homine venvstatem mors 
ABOLET. and the mark F. B. Bartsch, ix. 464. 

A wood-print of Death seizing a child. On the left, 
at top, is a blank tablet. Upright, 2\ by 2. 

A small oblong anonymous engraving of a naked female 
asleep on a couch. A winged Death places an hour-glass 
on her shoulder. A lascivious print. 

An ancient anonymous wood-print : scene, a forest 
Death habited as a woodman, with a hatchet at his girdle 
and a scythe, shoots his arrows into a youth with a large 
plume of feathers, a female and a man -ying prostrate on 



1-72 The Dance of Death, 

the ground ; near them are two dead infants with amputated 
arms ; the whole group at the foot of a tree. In the 
background, a stag wounded by an arrow, probably by the 
young man. 4to. size. 

A small wood-cut of Death seizing a child Anony- 
mous, in the manner of A, Diirer. 2\ by i^. 

A very old oblong wood-cut, which appears to have 
been part of a Dutch or Flemish Macaber Dance. The 
subjects are. Death and the Pope, with " Die doot seyt," 
" die paens seyt," &c. and the Cardinal with " Die doot 
seyt," and " Die Cardinael seyt." There have been verses 
under each character. 9^ by 6\. 

A small wood-print of a tree, in which are four men, one 
of whom falls from the tree into a grave at the foot of it 
Death, as a woodman, cuts down the tree with a hatchet 
In the background, another nmn fallen into a grave. 

A figure of Death as a naked old man with a long beard. 
He leans on a pedestal, on which are placed a skull and an 
hour-glass, and with his left hand draws towards him a 
draped female, who holds a globe in her left hand. At the 
bottom of the print, mors omnia mvtat, with the unknown 

monogram B^*^. Upright, 5 inches by 2f. It is a very 

rare print on copper, not mentioned by Bartsch. 

A small anonymous wood-print of Death playing on 
a vielle, or beggar's lyre. 

An ancient anonymous copper engraving of Death 
standing on a bier, and laying hands upon a youth over 
whom are the words, " Ach got min sal ich," and over 
Death, "hie her by mich." Both inscriptions on labels. 
Bartsch, x. p. 54, No. 30. 

An allegorical engraving on copper by Cuerenhert, 
after Martin Heemskirk, 1550. A naked man bestrides 
a large sack of money, on which a figure or statue ot 
Hope is standing. Death with one hand levels his dart 
at the terrified man, and holds a circle in the other. 
The money is falling from the sack, and appears to have 
demolished the hour-glass of Death. Upright, 11 inches 
by 8. At bottom, these lines : — 

Maer als hemdie eininghe doot comt veer ogea 
Dan vint hii hem doer iidele hope bedrogen. 

There is a smaller copy of it. 



The Dance of Death, 173 

A circular engraving, 2 inches diameter, of a pair 
of lovers in a garden. The lady is playing on a harp ; 
her companion's lute is on the ground. They are ac- 
companied by a fool, and Death behind is standing with 
a dart in his hand ready for aim at the youthful couple. 

A very large engraving on wood tinted in chiaroscuro. 
It represents a sort of triumphal arch at the top of which 
is a Death's head, above, an hour-glass between two arm- 
bones, that support a stone ; evidently borrowed from the 
last cut of the arms of Death in the Lyons wood-cuts. 
Underneath, the three Fates between obelisks crowned 
with Deaths' heads and crosses, with the words MNHMO- 
NEYE AnO^I'YXEIN and ITER AD VITAM. In the 
middle, a circle with eight compartments, in which are 
skeleton heads of a pope, an emperor, &c. with mottoes. 
In the extremity of the circle, the words " Post hoc autem 
judicium statutum est omnibus hominibus semel mori." 
The above obelisks are supported by whole length figures 
of Death, near which are shields with bonis bona and malis 
MALA. On the pedestals that support the figures of Death 
are shields inscribed memento mori and memorare novis- 
siMA. Underneath the circle, a sort of table monument with 
Death's head brackets, and on its plinth a sceptre, car- 
dinal's cross, abbot's crozier, a vessel with money, and two 
books. Between the brackets, in capitals : — 

TRIA SUNT VERE 

QViE ME FACIVNT 

FLERE. 

And underneath in italics : — 

Primum quidem durum, quia scio me moriturum. 
Secundum vero plango, quia moriar, et nescio quando. 
Tertium autem flebo, quia nescio ubi manebo. 

In a corner at bottom, "III. D. Petro Caballo J. C 
Poutrdm Pelig. D. Steph. ordinisq. milit Sen M. D. 
Hetr : Auaitori mon : Joh. Fortuna Fortunius Invea 
Seni MDLXXXviii." It is a very fine print, en- 
graved with considerable spirit 



171 The Dance of Death. 



1600 — 1700. 

A very beautiful engraving by John Wierx, of a large 
party feasting and dancing, with music, in a garden. 
Death suddenly enters, and strikes a young female sup- 
ported by her partner. At bottom, " Medio, lusu, risuque 
rapimur aetemum cruciandi." Oblong, 6^ by 4^. 

Its companion — Death, crowned with serpents, drags 
away a falling female, round whom he has affixed his 
chain, which is in vain held back by one of the party 
who supplicates for mercy. At bottom these lines : — 

Divitibus mors dura venit, redimita corona 
Anguifera, et risus ultimo luctus habet. 

On the top of the print, " O mors quam amara est 
memoria tua homini pacem habenti in substantiis suis," 
&c. Eccl. cap. xli. 

An allegorical print by one of the Wierxes, after H. 
Van Balen. The Virgin Mary and a man are kneeling 
before and imploring Christ, who is about to strike a 
bell suspended to the branch of a tree, the root of which 
Death cuts with an axe, whilst the Devil assists in pulling 
at it with a rope. Upright, 4^ by 3^. 

Time holding a mirror to two lovers, Death behind 
waiting for them. At bottom, " Luxuries predulce malum 
cui tempus," &c. Engraved by Jerom Wierx. Oblong, 
12 by 8. 

An allegorical engraving by Jerom Wierx, after Martin 
De Vos, with four moral stanzas at bottom, beginning 
"Gratia magna Dei caelo demittitur alto." A figure of 
Faith directs the attention of a man, accompanied with 
two infants, to a variety of worldly vanities scattered in a 
sunbeam. On the right, a miser counting his gold is 
seized and stricken by Death. At top, four lines of Latin 
and Dutch. Oblong, 13 by 10. 

A rare etching, by Rembrandt, of a youthful couple 
surprised by Death. Date, 1639. Upright, 4|- by 3. 

Rembrandt's "Hour of Death." An old man sitting 
in a tent is visited by a young female. He points to a 
figure of Death with spade and hour-glass. Upright, 
51 by 3^. 



The Dance of Death. 17 r 

An engraving by De Bry. In the middle, an oblong 
oval, representing a marriage, Death attending. On the 
sides, grotesques of apes, goats, &c. At bottom, S. P. and 
these lines : — 

Ordo licet reliquos sit proestantissimus inter 
Conjugium, heu nimium saepe doloris habet 

Oblong, 5^ by 2^. 

Its companion — Death digging a grave for an old man, 
who looks into it. Psal. xlix. and xc. 

An engraving by Crispin de Pas of Death standing 
behind an old man, who endeavours, by means of his 
money spread upon a table, to entice a young female, 
who takes refuge in the arms of her young lover. At 
bottom, the following dialogue : — 



Nil aurei ? nil te coronati juvant ? 
Argentcis referto bulga nil raovet ? 

MORS. 

Varies quid at Senex amores expetis : 

Tumulum tuae finemque vitae respice. 

JUVENIS. 

Quid aureorum me beabit copia. 
Amore si privata sim dulcissimo. 

Its companion — Death with his hour-glass stands behind 
an old woman, who offers money to a youth turning in 
disdain to his young mistress. At bottom, these lines : — 

JUVENIS. 

Facie esse quid mihi gratius posset tua 
Ipsius haud Corinthi gaza divitis. 

VETULA. 

Formam quid ah miselle nudam respicis 
Cum plus beare possit auri copia. 

MORS. 

At tu juventa quid torquere frustra anus 

Quin jam sepulchri instantis es potius memor. 

Both oblong, 6 by 4. 

An engraving by Bosse of a queen reposing on a tent- 
bed : Death peeps in through the curtains, another Death 
stands at the corner of the bed, whilst a female with a 



I J 6 T7ie Dance of Death. 

shield, inscribed pietas, levels a dart at the queen 
Underneathj these verses : — 

Grand Dieu je suis done le victime 

Qu'une vengeance legitime 

Doit immoler a tes autels 
Je n'ay point de repos qui n'augmente ma peine 
Et les tristes objets d'une face mhumaine 

Me sont autant de coups mortals. 

Oblong, 4i by 3. 

An engraving by John Sadeler, after Stradanus, of an old 
couple, with their children and grandchildren, in the kitchen 
of a farm-house. Death enters, fantastically crowned with 
flowers and an hour-glass, and with a bagpipe in his left 
hand. Round his right ann and body is a chain with a 
hook at the extremity. He offers his right hand to the old 
woman, who on her knees is imploring him for a little more 
delay. In the background, a man conducted to prison \ 
beegars, receiving alms, &c. At bottom, these lines : — 

Pauperibus mors grata venit ; redimita corona 
Florifera, et luctus ultima risus habet 

On the top of the print, " O mors, bonum est judicium 
tuum homini indigenti, et qui minoratur viribus, defecto 
aetate," &c. Eccl. cap. xli. Oblong, 1 1 by 8^. 

An exceedingly clever etching by Tiepolo of a group of 
various persons, to whom Death, sitting on the ground and 
habited grotesquely as an old woman, is reading a lecture. 
Oblong, 7 by 51. 

A small circle, engraved by Le Blond, of Death appearing 
to the astrologer, copied from the same subject in the Lyons 
wood-cuts. 

A print, painted and engraved by John Lyvijus, of two 
card-players quarrelling. Death seizes and strikes at them 
with a bone. Below, 

Rixas atque odia satagit dispergere serpens, 
Antiquus, cuncta at jurgia morte cadunt. 

Oblong, 10 by 7^. 

An engraving by Langlois. Death with a basket at his 
shoulder, on which sits an owl, and holding with one hand 
a lantern, seizes the dice of a gambler sitting at a table 
v/ith his winnings spread before him. At top, these verses : — 



The Dance of Death. 177 

Alanne, O le pipeur, chassez, chassez le moy, 
Je ne veux pas jouer \ la raffle avec toy. 

LA MORT. 

A la raffle je joue avec toutes personnes ; 

Toutes pieces je prcnds, tant meschantes que bonnes. 

At bottom, a dialogue between the gambler and Death in 
verse, beginning "J'ay ramend ma chance, il n'y a plus 
remade." Upright, 10 by 7^. 

A print by De Gheyn, but wanting his name, of an 
elegantly attired lady, with a feather on her head, and a fan- 
mirror in her hand. She is accompanied by Death, hand- 
somely attired, with a similar feather, and holding an hour 
glass. At bottom. 

Qui gcnio indulges, media inter gaudia morti 
Non dubiae certum sis memor esse locum. 

Upright, 8 by 5^. 

Hollar's etching in Dugdale's Monasticon and his History 
of St. Paul's, from the old wood-cut in Lydgate's Dance of 
Macaber, already described, and an outline copy in Mr. 
Edwards's publication of Hollar's Dance of Death. 

Death and two Misers, iif by 10. Engraved by Michael 
Pregel, 16 16. At bottom, six Latin lines, beginning "Si 
mihi divitiae sint omnes totius orbis." 

An oblong allegorical print, 14 by 10^. Death and Time 
at war with man and animals. In the foreground, Death 
levels three arrows at a numerous group of mortals of all 
ranks and conditions, who endeavour, in every possible 
way, to repel his attack. In the background, he shoots a 
single arrow at various animals. It is a very rare and 
beautiful engraving by Bolsverd, after Vinck-boons, dated 
1 6 10. At bottom, six lines in Latin, by J. Semmius, 
beginning '* Cernis ut imperio succumbant omnia Mortis." 

An oblong print, 18^ by 13, entitled " Alle mans vrees," 
J. <?. " Every man's terror," and engraved by Cornelius Van 
Dalen, after Adrian Van Venne. It exhibits Death armed 
with a spade, and overturning and putting to flight a variety 
of persons. At bottom, four stanzas of Dutch verses, 
beginning " Dits de vrees van alle man." 

A large allegorical oblong engraving, 18^ by 13, by Peter 
Nolpe, after Peter Potter. On the left, a figure of Religion, 

M 



I 



178 The Dance of Death. 

an angel hovering oVer her with a crown and palm-bran cK 
She points to several figures bearing crosses, and ascending 
a steep hill to heaven. On the right, the Devil blowing 
into the ear of a female, representing worldly vanity. In 
the middle, Death beating a drum to a man and woman 
dancing. In the background, several groups of people 
variously employed, and a city in flames. 

An anonymous Venetian engraving of Death striking a 
lady sitting at a table covered with various fruits, a lute, &c. 
She falls into the arms of her lover or protector. Oblong, 
9i by 7. 

A print, after Martin Heemskirk, of Charon ferrying 
over souls. On the right, a winged Death supporting an 
emperor about to enter the fatal boat. Below, four lines 
beginning " Sed terris debentur opes, quas linquere fato.*' 

An oblong engraving, 14 by 12, after John Cossiers. 
On the right. Death, entering at a door, seizes a young 
man. In the middle, a music-master teaching a lady the 
lute. Death near them holding a violin and music-book. 
On the left, in another apartment, Death in a dancing 
attitude, with a double bagpipe, leads an aged man with a 
rosary in his left hand, and leaning on a staff with his right. 
At bottom, three stanzas of French verses, beginning " La 
Mort qui n'a point d'oreilles." 

A very small wood-print, that seems to have belonged 
to some English book, about 1600. It represents Death 
behind a female, who sees his reflected image in a mirror 
which she holds, instead of her own, i^ by i\. 

The Devil's Ruff"-shop, into which a young gallant 
introduces his mistress, whose ruff" one of the Devils is 
stiff"ening with a poking-stick. Death, with a ruff on 
his neck, waits at the door, near which is a coffin. This 
very curious satirical print, after Martin De Vos, is covered 
with inscriptions in French and Dutch. Oblong, 11^ by 8. 

A small anonymous engraving of two Deaths hand 
in hand ; the one holds a flower, the other two serpents ; 
a man and woman also hand in hand ; the latter holds a 
flower in her hand ; they are preceded by a little boy on 
a cock-horse and a girl with a doll. Underneath, four lines, 
beginning "Quid sit, quid fuerit, quid tandem aliquando 
futurum." 



The Dance of Death. 179 

An anonymous engraving of a young gallant looking up 
to an image of Hope placed on a bag of money, near which 
plate, jewels, and money lie scattered on the ground. 
Death enters at a door, holding a circle in one hand and a 
dart with the other, in a menacing attitude. At bottom, 
these Latin lines : 

Namque ubi Mors trucibu* supra caput adstitit armis, 
Hei quam tunc nullo pondere nummus erit 

The same in Dutch. Upright, 8^ by 6. This print was 
afterwards copied in a reduced form into a book of emblems, 
with the title, " Stulte hoc nocte repetent animam tuam," 
with verses in Latin, French, and German. 

A small anonymous wood engraving of five Deaths 
dancing in a circle ; the motto, dooden dans op lestem, 
i.e. the last Dance of Death. 

A very clever etching of a winged and laurelled Death 
playing on the bagpipe, and making his appearance to 
an old couple at table. The man puts off his cap and 
takes the visitor by the hand, as if to bid him welcome. 
Eelow, two Dutch lines, beginning " Maerdie hier sterven," 
&c. At top, on the left, " W. V. Valckert, in. fe. 161 2." 
Oblong, 8J by 6|. 

A very complicated and anonymous allegorical print 
vith a great variety of figures. In the middle. Death 
is striking with a sledge-hammer at a soul placed in a 
crucible over a sort of furnace. A demon with bellows 
is blowing the fire, and a female, representing the world, 
is adding fuel to it In various parts of the print are 
Dutch inscriptions. Oblong, 10^ by 6. 

Two old misers, a man and a woman. She weighs the 
gold, and he enters it in a book. Death with an hour- 
glass peeps in at one window, and the Devil at another. 
On the left stands a demon with a book and a purse of 
money. On the right, in a corner, I. V. brvg : F. " Se 
vend chez Audran, rue S. Jaques aux deux piliera d'or." 
An upright mezzotint, ii| by %\. 

Two old misers, a man and a woman. He holds a jjnirse, 
and she weighs the money. Death behind lies in wait for 
them. Below, a French stanza, beginning " Fol en cette 
nuit on te redemande ton ame," and the same in Latia 
Below, " J. Meheux, sculp. A Paris ':hez Audran, rue St 

N 2 



i8o The Dance of Death. 

Jaques aux deax piliers d'or." An upright mezzotint, lo 

An oval engraving in a frame of slips of trees. Death 
pulling down a fruit-tree ; a hand in a cloud cutting a 
flower with a sickle. Motto, " Fortiora frango, tenera meto." 
Upright, 6i by 4. 

An anonymous engraving of a lady sitting at her toilet. 
She starts at the reflected image of Death standing behind 
her, in her looking-glass. Her lover stands near her in the 
act of drawing his sword to repel the unwelcome visitor. 
Upright, 7:1 by 6 J. To some such print or painting, 
Hamlet, holding a skull in his hand, evidently alludes in 
Act V. Sc. I ; " Now get you to my lady's chamber, and 
tell her, let her paint an inch thick, to this favour she must 
come." 

A print of the Tree of Knowledge, the serpent holding 
the apple in his mouth. Below, several animals, as in the 
usual representations of Paradise. On one side a youth on 
horseback with a hawk on his fist ; on the other. Death 
strikes at him with his dart. On the right, at bottom, the 
letters " R. P. ex." and these verses : — 

Nor noble, valiant, youthfiill or wine, have 
The least exemption from the gloomy grave. 

Upright, 6 by 4. 

A large oblong engraving, on copper, 22 by 17. On the 
left is an arched cavern, from which issue two Deaths, one 
of whom holds a string, the end of which is attached to an 
owl, placed as a bird-decoy, on a pillar in the middle of 
the print. Under the string, three men reading. On the 
left, near a tree, is a ghastly sitting figure, whose head has 
been flayed. On the opposite side below, a musical group 
of three men and a woman. In the background, several 
men caught in a net; near them. Death with a hound 
pursuing three persons who are about to be intercepted by 
a net spread between two trees. In the distance, a vessel 
with a Death's head on the inflated sail. On the top of the 
arched cavern, a group of seven persons, one of whom, a 
female, points to the interior of an urn ; near them a flying 
angel holding a blank shield of arms. In the middle oi 
the print, at bottom, some inscription has been erased. 



The Dance of Death, 181 

A print, entitled " Cursus Mundi." A woman holds, in 
one hand, a broken vessel with live coals ; in the other, a 
lamp, at which a little boy is about to light a candle. 
Death appears on the left. At bottom, a Latin inscription, 
stating that the picture was painted by William Panneels, 
the scholar of Rubens, in 1631, and that it is in the palace 
of Anselni Casimir, archbishop of Mentz. Upright, 9^ 
by6f 

A small anonymous engraving of Death sitting on a 
large fractured bass-viol, near which, on the ground, is a 
broken violin. 

An elegant small and anonymous engraving of a young 
soldier, whom Death strikes with his dart whilst he despoils 
him of his hat and feather. At bottom, six couplets of 
French verses, beginning " Retire toy de moy, O monstre 
insatiable." Upright, 3! by 2|. 

A small anonymous engraving of a merchant watching 
the embarkation of his goods. Death behind waiting for 
him. Motto from Psalm xxxix., " Computat et parcit, nee quis 
sit noverit hseres," &c. Upright, 3^ by i^. 

Its companion — Death striking a child in a cradle. Job 
xiv. : " Vita brevis hominum variis obnoxia curis," &c. 
These were probably part of a series. 

An anonymous engraving of a man on his death-bed. 
On one side, the vision of a bishop saint in a cloud ; on 
the other. Death has just entered the room to receive his 
victim. Oblong, 5^ by 2^. 

An anonymous engraving of a woman sitting under a 
tree. Sin, as a boy, with peccatvm inscribed on his fore- 
head, delivers a globe, on which a serpent is entwined, to 
Death. At bottom, " A muliere initium factum est peccati, 
et per illam omnes morimur." Eccl. c. xxv. 

A small anonymous engraving of Death interrupting a 
Turkish sultan at fable. In the background, another Turk 
contemplating a heap of skulls. 

A mezzotint by Gole, of Death appearing to a miser, 
treading on an hour-glass and playing on the violin. In 
the background, a room in which is Death seizing a young 
man. The floor is covered with youthful instruments of 
recreation. This subject has been painted by Old Franks 
and Otho Vaenius, Upright, 9 by 6|. Another mezzotini 



1 82 21ic Dance of Death. 

of the same subject by P. Schenck is mentioned by Peigtiot. 
p. 19. It is inscribed "Mortis ingrata musica." 

A very singular, anonymous, and unintelligible engraving 
of a figure that seems intended for a blacksmith, who holds 
a large hammer in his hand. On his right, two monks, and 
behind him, Death folding his arms to his breast. Below, 
writing implements, &c. Upright, 4 by 3. 

The triumphal car of Time drawn by genii, and accom- 
panied by a pope, cardinal, emperor, king, queen, &c. At 
the top of the car. Death blows a trumpet, to which a 
banner is suspended, with " Je trompe tout le monde." In 
the background a running fountain, with "Ainsi passe la 
gloire du monde." An anonymous upright engraving, 4 b> 

A very neat engraving by Le Blon of several European 
coins. In the centre, a room in which Death strikes at two 
misers, a man and a woman sitting at a table covered with 
money. On the table-cloth, " Luc. 12 ca." 

Its companion — Death and the Miser. The design from 
the same subject in the Lyons wood-cuts. A label on the 
wall, with "Luc. 12." Oblong, 6^ by 3|. 

A German anonymous print, apparently from a book of 
emblems, representing Death waiting with a scythe to cut 
off the following persons : — i. A lady. 2. A gentleman. 
3. An advocate. 4. A soldier : and, 5. A preacher. Each 
has an inscription, i. Ich todt euch alle (I kill you all). 
2. Ich erfrew euch alle (I rejoice you all). 3. Ich verehr 
euch alle (I honour you all). 4. Ich red fiir euch alle (I 
speak for you all). 5. Ich fecht fiir euch alle (I fight for 
you all). 6. Ich bett fiir euch alle (I pray for you all). 
With verses at bottom, in Latin and German. Oblong, 5^ 
by 4. 

An anonymous engraving of a naked youth who with a 
sword strikes at the head of Death pursuing another youth. 
Oblong, 9| by 5^. 

An upright engraving, 5^ by 4, representing a young man 
on horseback holding a hawk on his fist, and surrounded 
V)y various animals. Death holding an hour-glass, strikes 
at him with his dart. Behind, the Tree of Knowledge, with 
the serpent and apple. At bottom, on the right, are the 
initials " T. P. ex." 



The Dance of Death. 1S3 

An engravir.g of the Duke of Savoy, who, attended by 
his guards, receives petitions from various persons. Before 
him stands in a cloud the angel of Death, who points 
towards heaven. At bottom, on the left, " Delphinus 
pinxit. Brambilla del. 1676," and on the right, ** Nobilis 
de Pienc S. R. C. Prim, cselator f. Taur." Oblong, 10.^ 
by 74. 

An engraving by De Gheyn, entitled " Vanitas, Idelheit." 
A lady is sitting at a table, on which is a box of jewels and 
a heap of money. A hideous female Death strikes at her 
with a flaming dart, which, at the same time, scatters the 
leaves of a flower which she holds in her left hand. Up- 
right, 9 by 7. 

A very small circular wood-cut, apparently some printer's 
device, representing an old and a young man holding up a 
mirror, in which is reflected the figure of Death standing 
behind them, with the motto, " Beholde your glory." 

An anonymous print of Death and the Miser. Death 
seizes his money, which he conveys into a dish. Upright, 
Z\ t)y 2|. It is a copy from the same subject in the Lyons 
wood-cuts. 

1700^1800. 

An anonymous modem copy of Death and the Bride- 
groom, copied from the Lyons wood-cuts, edition 1562. 

An etching of Death, with an hour-glass in one hand 
and a cane in the other, entering a room where a poor poet 
has been writing, and who would willingly dispense with 
the visit. At bottom, " And when Death himself knocked 
at my door, ye bade him come again ; and in so gay a tone 
of careless indiff"erence did ye do it, that he doubted of his 
commission. There must certainly be some mistake in 
this matter, quoth he." The same in Italian. This is one 
of Patch's caricatures after Ghezzi. Upright, 16^ by 12. 

A print entitled " Time's lecture to man," with eight 
stanzas in verse, beginning " Why start you at that ske- 
leton ? " It consists of three divisions. At top a young man 
starts at the appearance of Time and Death. Under the 
youth, " Calcanda semel via lethi." At each extremity of 
this division is a figure of Death sitting on a monument 



1 84 The Dame of Death. 

The verses, in double columns, are plared between two 
borders with compartments. That on the right, a skull 
crowned with a mitre ; an angel with a censer ; Time carry- 
ing off a female on his back ; Death with an infant in his 
arms; Death on horseback with a flag; Death wrestling 
with a man. The border on the left has a skull with a 
regal crown ; an angel dancing with a book ; Death carry- 
ing off an old man ; Death leading a child ; Death with a 
naked corpse ; Death digging a grave. At bottom, " Sold 
by Clarke and Pine, engravers, in Castle Yard, near 
Chancery Lane, T. Witham, frame-maker, in Long Lane, 
near West Smithfield, London." With a vignette of three 
Deaths' heads. 13 by 9^. 

There is a very singular ancient gem engraved in " Passeri 
de Gemmis Astriferis," tom. ii. p. 248, representing a ske- 
leton Death standing in a car drawn by two animals that 
may be intended for lions ; he holds a whip in his hand, 
and is driving over other skeletons. It is covered with 
barbarous and unintelligible words in Greek characters, and 
is to be classed among those gems which are used as 
amulets or for magical purposes. It seems to have sug- 
gested some of the designs that accompany the old editions 
of Petrarch's " Triumph of Death." 

A folio mezzotint of J. Daniel von Menzel, an Austrian 
hussar. Behind him is a figure of Death with the hussar's 
hat on his head, by whom he is seized. There are some 
German verses, and below : — . 

Mon ami, avec moi k la danse 
C'est pour vous la juste recompense. 

The print is dated 1744. 

A Dutch anonymous oblong engraving on coppet, 10^ 
by 10, entitled " Bombario, o dood ! te schendig in de 
nood." Death leads a large group of various characters. 
At bottom, verses beginning " De Boertjes knappen al 
teraaaL" On each side caricatures inscribed Democritus 
and Heraclitus. It is one of the numerous caricatures on 
the famous South Sea or Mississippi bubble. 

An engraving, published by Darly, entitled " Macaronies 
drawn after the life." On the left, a macaroni standing. 
On the floor, dice and dice-box. On a table, curds and 



TJu Danu of Death. 185 

two books. On the right, Death with a spade, leaning on 
a sarcophagus, inscribed " Here lies interred Dicky Daffo- 
dil," &c. Oblong, 9 by 6. 

A very clever private etching by Colonel Turner, of the 
Guards, 1799, representing, in the foreground, three Deaths 
dancing in most grotesque attitudes. In the distance several 
groups of skeletons, some of whom are dancing, one ot 
them beating a drum. Oblong, 5^ by 3^. 

A small engraving by Chodowiecki. Death appears to a 
medical student sitting at a table ; underneath these lines : — 

De gr$,ce ^pargne moi, jc me fais medecin, 
Tu recevras de moi la moitie des malades 

Upright, 3^ by 2. 

The same slightly retouched, with German verses. 

A small engraving, by Chodowiecki, of Death approach- 
ing a dying man attended by his family and a physician. 
Oblong, 2^ by 2. 

A modem engraving, entitled " An emblem of a modern 
marriage." Death habited as a beau stands by a lady, who 
points to a monument inscribed " Requiescat in pace.** 
Above, a weeping Cupid with an inverted torch. At bottom — 

. . . . No smiles for us the Godhead wears. 
His torch inverted and his face in tears. 

Drawn by M. H. from a sketch cut with a diamond on a 
pane of glass. Published according to Act of Parliament, 
June 15, 1775. 

A modem caricature, entitled "A patch for t'other eye." 
Death is about to place a patch on the right eye of an old 
general, who has one already on the other. His hat and 
truncheon lie on the ground, and he is drawing his sword 
for the purpose of opposing the intention of his grim 
adversary, exclaiming, at the same time, " Oh, G — d d — n 
ye, if that's your sport, have at ye." Upright, 8 inches by 7. 

A small engraving by Chr. de Mechel, 1775, of an 
apothecary's shop. He holds up a urinal to a patient who 
comes to consult him, behind whom Death is standing and 
laying hands upon him. Below, these verses : — 

Docteur, en vain tu projetres 
De prononcer sur cette eau. 



i85 The Dance of Death. 

La mort rit de tes recettes 
Et conduit I'homme au tombeau. 

Oblong, 4 by 3. 

An anonymous and spirited etching of Death obse- 
quiously, and with his arms crossed, entering a room in 
which is a woman in bed with three infants. With uplifted 
arms she screams at the sight of the apparition. Below in 
a corner the husband, accompanied with four other 
children. Upright, 11 by 10^. 

"The lawyer's last circuit." He is attacked by four 
Deaths mounted on skeleton horses. He is placed behind 
one of them, and all gallop off with him. A road-post 
inscribed " Road to hell." Below, the lines from Hamlet, 
"Where be his quiddits now? his quillets, his cases, his 
tenures, and his tricks," &c. Published April 25, 1782, by 
R. Smith, opposite the Pantheon, Oxford Street. Oblong, 
10 by 6^. 

1800. 

A modern wood-cut of a drinking and smoking party. 
Demons of destruction hover over them in the characters 
of Poverty, Apoplexy, Madness, Dropsy, and Gout. In the 
bowl on the table is a monstrous head inscribed " Disease." 
Behind, a gigantic figure of Death with scythe and hour- 
glass. Oblong, 3^ by 3. 

A Sketch by Samuel Ireland, after Mortimer, in imitation 
of a chalk drawing, apparently exhibiting an Englishman, 
a Dutchman, and a Spaniard. Death behind stretching his 
arms upon all of them. Oblong, lo^ by 8. 

A wood-print entitled " Das betriibte Brautfest." Death 
seizes a man looking at a table covered with wedding-cakes, 
&c. From a modern Swiss almanack. Oblong, 6|^ by 5|. 

A mezzotint of a physician, who, attending a sick patient 
in bed, is attacked by a group of Deaths bearing standards, 
inscribed " Despair," " I^'amour," " Omnia vincit amor," and 
** Luxury." Oblong, 1 1 by ^\. 

An etching from a drawing by Van Venue of Death 
preaching from a charnel-house to a group of people. 
His text-book rests on the figure of a skeleton as a reading- 
desk. It is prefixed to Mr. Dagley's "Death's Doings,* 
mentioned in p. 139. Oblong, 5^ by 4^. 



The Dance of Death. 187 

Mr. Dagley, in the second edition of his " Death's 
Doings," p. 9, mentions a print of "a man draining an 
enormous bowl, and Death standing ready to confiim the 
title of the print, *the last drop.'" 

An etching by Dagley, after Birch, of Baxter, a famous 
cricketer, bowled out by Death. Below, his portrait at full 
length. Oblong, 9 by 7. 

" Sketches of the celebrated skeletons, originally designed 
on the long wall between Turnham Green and Brentford." 
Etchings of various groups ; the subjects, billiards, draughts, 
cards, dice, toss and pitch. Oblong, 18 by 11. 

" Humorous sketches of skeletons engaged in the various 
sciences of Singing, Dancing, Music, Oratory, Painting, and 
Sculpture." Drawn by H. Heathcote Russell, as a com- 
panion to the skeletons copied from the long wall at 
Brentford. Published 3d June, 1830. Same size as the 
preceding print. 

A lithographic print of a conjurer pointing with his magic 
wand to a table on which are cups, a lantern, &c. In the 
background, the Devil running away with a baker, and 
a group of three dancing Deaths. Below, birds in cages, 
cards, &c. Oblong, 8 by 6. 

A small modem wood-cut of Death seizing a lady at a 
ball. He is disguised as one of the party. Underneath, 
" Death leads the dance." — Young, Night 5. 

From " The Christian's Pocket Magazine." Oblong, 2\ 
by li 

A design for the ballad of Leonora, by Lady Diana 
Beauclerc. A spectre, as Death, carrying off a lady on 
horseback, and striking her with his dart. Other Death- 
like spectres waiting for her. Oblong, iif by 9. 

A small modern engraving of Death presenting a smelling- 
bottle to a fainting butcher with one hand, and with the 
other fanning him. The motto, " A butcher, overcome with 
extreme sensibility, is as strangely revived." 

A modern halfpenny wood-cut of several groups, among 
which is a man presenting an old woman to Death. The 
raotto, " Death come for a wicked woman." 

An oval etching, by Harding, entitled " Death and the 
Doctor." Upright, 4^ by 3^ 

A modem etching of Death striking a sleeping lady 



i88 7^ Dance of Death. 

leaning on a table, on which little imps are dancing. At 
bottom, " Marks fecit." Oblong, 4 by 3. 

An anonymous modern wood-cut of Death seizing a 
usurer, over whom another Death is throwing a counterpane. 
Square, 4 by 4. 

An etching, entitled "The Last Drop.** A fat citizen 
draining a punch-bowl. Death behind is about to strike 
him with his dart. Upright, 8^ by 6^. 

In an elegant series of prints, illustrative of the poetical 
works of Gothe, there is a poem of seven stanzas, entitled 
" Der Todtentanz," where the embellishment represents 
a churchyard, in which several groups of skeletons are 
introduced, some of them rising, or just raised, from their 
graves ; others in the attitude of dancing together or pre- 
paring for a dance. These prints are beautifully etched in 
outline in the manner of the drawings in the margins of 
Albert Diirer's Prayer-book in the library of Munich. 

Prefixed to a poem by Edward Quillinan, in a volume of 
wood-cuts used at the press of Lee Priory, the seat of Sir 
Egerton Brydges, entitled " Death to Doctor Quackery," 
there is an elegant wood-cut, representing Death hob-and- 
nobbing with the Doctor at a table. 

In the same volume is another wood-cut on the subject 
of a dance given by the Lord of Death in Clifton Halls. 
A motley group of various characters are dancing in a circle 
whilst Death plays the fiddle. 

In 1832 was published at Paris " La Danse des Morts, 
ballade dddi^e a Madame la Comtesse de Tryon Mont- 
alembert. Paroles et Musique de P. Merruau." The 
subject is as follows : — A girl named Lise is admonished by 
her mother not to dance on a Saturday, the day on which 
Satan calls the dead to the infernal Sabbat. She promises 
obedience, but whilst her mother is napping, escapes to the 
ball. She forgets the midnight hour, when a company of 
damned souls, led by Satan, enter the ball-room hand-in- 
hand, exclaiming, " Make way for Death." All the party 
escape, except Lise, who suddenly finds herself encircled by 
skeletons, who continue dancing round her. From that 
time, on every Saturday at midnight, there is heard under- 
ground, in the churchyard, the lamentation of a soul forcibly 
detained, and exclaiming, " G'rls, beware of dancing Satan I" 



The Dance of Death. 189 

At the head of this ballad is a lithographic print of the 
terrified Lise in Satan's clutches, surrounded by dancing, 
piping, and fiddling Deaths. 

About the same time there appeared a silly ballad, set to 
music, entitled " The Cork Leg," accompanied by a print in 
which the man with the cork leg falling on the ground drops 
his leg. It is seized by Death, who stalks away with it in a 
very grotesque manner. 




CHAPTER XV 

Initial or capital Letters with the Dance of Death. 

T is very well known that the use of ini- 
tial or capital letters, especially with 
figures of any kind, is not coeval with 
the invention of printing. It was some 
time before they were introduced at all, 
a blank being left, or else a small letter 
printed for the illuminators to cover or 
fill up, as they had been accustomed to 
do in manuscripts ; for, although the art of printing nearly 
put an end to the occupation of that ingenious class of 
artists, they continued to be employed by the early printers 
to decorate their books with elegant initials, and parti- 
cularly to illuminate the first pages of them with beautiful 
borders of foliage or animals, for the purpose of giving 
them the appearance of manuscripts. 

It has more than once been most erroneously asserted 
by bibliographers and writers on typography, that Erhard 
Ratdolt, a printer at Venice, was the first person who made 
use of initial letters about the year 1477 ; for mstances are 
not wanting of their introduction into some of the earliest 
printed be oks. Among the latter the most beautiful spe» 



ipc The Dance of Death. 

cimen of an ornamented capital letter is the B in the Psaltei 
of 1457, of which Dr. Dibdin has given a very faithful copy 
in vol. i. p. 107, of the "Bibliotheca Spenceriana." This 
truly elegant letter seems to have been regarded as the 
only one of its kind ; but, in a fragment of an undescribed 
missal in folio, printed in the same type as the above- 
mentioned Psalter, there is an equally beautiful initial T, 
prefixed to the "Te igitur" canon of the mass. It is 
ornamented with flowers and foliage, and in both these 
precious volumes there are many other smaller capitals, 
but whether printed with the other type, or afterwards 
stamped, may admit of some doubt. This unique and 
valuable fragment is in the collection of the present writer. 

As the art of printing advanced, the initial letters 
assumed every possible variety of form, with respect to the 
subjects with which they were ornamented. Incidents 
from Scripture and profane history, animals of every kind, 
and the most ludicrous grotesques, constitute the general 
materials ; nor has the Dance of Death been forgotten. 
It was first introduced into the books printed at Basle by 
Bebelius and Cratander about the year 1530, and for one 
or the other of these celebrated printers an alphabet of 
initial letters was constructed, which, in elegance of design 
and delicacy of engraving, have scarcely ever been equalled, 
and certainly never exceeded. Whether they were engraved 
in relief on blocks of type or printer's metal, in the manner 
of wood-cutting, or executed in wood in the usual manner, 
is a matter of doubt, and likely to remain so. They may 
in every point of view be regarded as the chef d'oeuvre of 
ancient block engraving, and to copy them successfully at 
this time might require the utmost efforts of such artists as 
Harvey, Jackson, and Byfield.^ 

A proof-set of this alphabet, in the possession of the 
present writer, was shown to M. de Mechel when he was 
in London, on which occasion he stated that he had seen 
in the public library of Basle another proof-set on a single 
sheet, with the inscription "Hans Lutzelberger," who is 

1 These initial letters have already been mentioned in pp. 89, 90. 
The elegant initials in Dr. Henderson's excellent work on modem wines, 
and those in Dr. Nott's Bristol edition of Decker's Gull's Horn-book, 
should not pass unnoticed on this occasion. 



The Dance of Death. 191 

elsewhere called Formschneider^ or block-cutter, of which he 
has written a memorandum on the leaf containing the first 
above-mentioned set of proofs. M. de Mechel, with great 
probability, inferred that this person was either the designer 
or engraver of the alphabet, as well as of the cuts to the 
'^ Historit^es faces de la mort," on one of which, as already 

stated, the mark J^ ^^ placed ;' but to whomsoever this 

mark may turn out to belong, certain it is that Holbein 
never made use of it.' These letters measure precisely i 
inch by \ of an inch, and the subjects are as follow : — 

A. A group of Deaths passing through a cemetery 
covered with skulls. One of them blows a trumpet, and 
another plays on a tabor and pipe. 

B. Two Deaths seize upon a pope, on whom a demon 
fastens, to prevent their dragging him along. 

C. An emperor in the clutches of two Deaths, one of 
whom he resists, whilst the other pulls off his crown. 

D. A king thrown to the ground and forcibly dragged 
away by two Deaths. 

E. Death and the cardinal. 

F. An empress sitting in a chair is attacked by two 
Deaths, one of whom lifts up her petticoat. 

G. A queen seized by two Deaths, one of whom plays 
on a fife. 

H. A bishop led away by Death. 

I. A duke with his hands clasped in despair is seized 
behind by Death in the grotesque figure of an old woman. 

K. Death with a furred cap and mantle, and a flail in 
his right hand, seizes the nobleman. 

L. Death in the habit of a priest with a vessel of holy 
water takes possession of the canon. 

M. Death behind a physician in his study lays his hand 
on a urinal which he is inspecting. 

N. One Death lays hold on a miser, whilst another 
carries off his money from a table. 

O. Death carries off a terrified monk. 

P. Combat between Death and the soldier. 

See before in p. 86. ' Zani aaw this alphabet at Dresden, and 
ascribes it likewise to Lutzenberger. See his Enciclop. Metoclica, Par. 
L voL X. p. 467. 



192 The Dance of Death. 

Q. Death very quietly leads away a nun. 

R. Death and the fool, who strikes at him with his 
bauble. 

S. Exhibits two Deaths, one of whom is in a very 
licentious action with a female, whilst the other runs off 
with an hour-glass on his back. 

T. A minstrel with his pipe, lying prostrate on the 
ground, is dragged away by one Death, whilst another 
pours something from a vessel into his mouth. 

V. A man on horseback endeavouring to escape from 
Death, is seized by him behind. 

W. Death and the hermit. 

X. Death and the Devil among the gamblers. 

Y. Death, the nurse, and the infant. 

Z. The last Judgment. 

But they were not only used at Basle by Bebelius 
Isingrin and Cratander, but also at Strasburg by Wolf- 
gang Cephaleus, and probably by other printers ; because 
in an edition of Huttichius's "Romanorum principum 
effigies," printed by Cephaleus at Strasburg in 1552, they 
appear in a very worn and much used condition. In his 
Greek Bible of 1526, near half the alphabet were used, 
some of them by different hands. 

They were separately published in a very small volume 
without date, each letter being accompanied with appro- 
priate scriptural allusions taken from the Vulgate Bible. 

They were badly copied, and with occasional variations, 
for books printed at Strasburg by J. Schott about 1540. 
Same size as the originals. The same initials were used 
by Henry Stainer of Augsburg in 1530. 

Schott also used two other sets of a larger size, the same 
subjects with variations, and which occur likewise in books 
printed at Frankfort about 1550 by Cyriacus Jacob. 

Christopher Froschover, of Zurich, used two alphabets 
with the Dance of Death. In Gesner's "Bibliotheca 
Universalis," printed by him in 1545, folio, he used the 
letters A, B, C in indifferent copies of the originals with 
some variation. In a Vulgate Bible, printed by him in 
1544, he uses the A and C of the same alphabet, and also 
the following letters, with different subjects, viz. F. Death 
blowing a trumpet in his left hand, with the right seizes a 



The Dame of Death. 193 

fnar holding his beads and endeavouring to escape. O. 
Death and the Swiss soldier with his battle-axe ; and, S. a 
queen between two Deaths, one of whom leads her, the 
other holds up her train. The Gesner has also a Q from 
the same alphabet of Death and the nun. This second 
alphabet is coarsely engraved on wood, and both are of 
the same size as the originals. 

In Francolin's '* Rerum prjeclare gestarum, intra et extra 
moenia civitatis Viennensis, pedestri et equestri pruilio, 
terra et aqua, elapso Mense Junio Anni Domini mdlx. 
clegantissimis iconibus ad vivum illustratarum, in laudem 
et gloriam sere, poten. invictissimique principis et Domini, 
Domini Ferdinandi electi Roma : imperatoris, &c. Vienna 
excudebat Raphael Hofhalter," f^x fo. xxii. b. the letter D is 
closely copied in wood from the original, and appears to 
have been much used. This very rare work is extremely 
interesting for its large and spirited etchings of the various 
ceremonies on the above occasion, but more particularly 
for the tournaments. It is also valuable for the marks of 
the artists, some of which are quite unknown. 

Other copies of them on wood occur in English books, 
but whether the whole alphabet was copied would be 
difficult to ascertain. In a Coverdale's Bible, printed by 
James Nicolson in Southwark, the letters A, I, and T 
occur. The subject of the A is that of the fool and 
Death, from the R of the originals, with the addition of 
the fool's bauble on the ground : the two other letters are 
like the originals. The size 2 inclies by i^. The same 
letters, and no others, occur in a folio English Bible, the 
date of which has not been ascertained, it being only a 
fragment. The A is found as lale as 1 618 in an edition of 
Stowe's " Survey of Ix)ndon." In all these letters large 
white spots are on the b^ickground, which might be taken 
for worm-holes, but are not so. Ihe I occurs in J. Waley's 
"table of yeres of kings," 1567, la-mo. 

An X and a T, i\ inch square, with the same subjects 
as in the originals, and not only closely copied, but nearly 
as well engraved on wood, are in the author's collection. 
Their locality has not been traced. 

Hollar etched the first six letters of the alphabi t from 
the initials described in p. 190. They are rather largei 



194 The Dance of Death. 

than the originals, but greatly inferior to them in spirit anJ 
effect. 

Two oth'ir alphabets, the one of peasants dancing, the 
other of boys playing, by the same artists, have been 
already described in p. 89, and were also used by the 
Basle and other printers. 

In *' Braunii Civitates Orbis Terrarum," Par. I. No. 37, 
edit. 1576, there is an H, i^ inch square. The subject, 
Death leading a pope on horseback. It is engraved on 
wood with much spirit. 

In " Prodicion y destierro de los Moriscos de Castilla, 
per F. Marcos de Guadalajara y Xavier," Pamplona, 
1 614, 4to. there is an initial E cut in wood with the 
subject of the cardinal, varied from that in Lutzenberger's 
alphabet. 

A Greek n on wood, with Death leading away the pope, 
was used by Cephalaeus in a Testament. 

In Fulwell's "Flower of Fame," printed by W. Hoskins, 
1575) 4^0- is an initial of Death leading a king, probably 
belonging to some alphabet. 

An S rudely cut on wood, with Death seizing two 
children, was used by the English printers, J. Herford 
and T. Marshe. 

An A well cut on wood, representing Death striking a 
miser, who is counting his money at a table. It occurs at 
fol. 5 of Quad's " Fasciculus Geographicus," Cologne, 1608, 
small folio, printed by John Buxemacher. 

An R indifferently cut on wood, 2 inches square. 
The subject, Death in a grave pulls an old man towards 
him. A boy making his escape. From some unknown 
book. 

An S indifferently cut on wood, 2 inches square. Death 
shovelling two skulls, one crowned, into a grave. On 
the shovel the word idem, and below, the initials of 
the engraver or designer, I. F. From some unknown 
book. 

An H, i^ inch square, very beautifully cut on wood. 
The letter is surrounded by a group of people, over 
whom Death below is drawing a net. It is from some 
Dutch book of emblems, about 1640. 

.In M cut on wood in p. 353 of a Suetonius, edited by 



ITie Dance of Death. 195 

Charl.s Patin, and printed 1675, 4to. " Basle typis Gena- 
thianis." The subject is Death seizing Cupid. Size, i^ 
inch square. 

A W, 2^ inches square, engraved on copper, with the initials 
of Michael Burghers. A large palm-tree in the middle : 
Death with his scythe approaches a shepherd sitting on a 
bank and tending his flock. 

In the second volume of Braun and Hogenberg, "Civitates 
Orbis Terrarum," and prefixed to a complimentary letter 
from Remaglus Lymburgus, a physician and canon; of 
Li^ge, there is an initial letter about i^ inch square, 
representing a pope and an emperor playing at cards. 
They are interrupted by Death, who offers them a cup, 
which he holds in his left hand whilst he points to them 
with his right. Other figures are introduced. This letter 
is very finely engraved on wood. 

In Vol. II. p. 118 (misprinted 208) of Stcinwich's 
" Bibliothecai Ecclesiasticae," Colon. Agrip. 1599, fo^iOj 
there is a single initial letter V only, which may have 
been part of an alphabet with a Dance of Death. The 
subject is Death and the queen. The size nearly an inch 
square. 

At fol. I. of " F. Marco de Guadalajara y Xavier, Me- 
morable expulsion y justissimo destierro de los Moriscos 
de Espaiia," Pamplona, 16 13, 4to. there is an initial E, 
finely drawn and engraved on wood. The subject has 
been taken from two cuts in the Lyons Dance of Death, 
viz. the cardinal and the emperor. From the first, the 
figures of the cardinal and Death seizing his hat; and 
from the other, the figures of the kneeling man, and of 
Death seizing the emperor's crown, are introduced as a 
complete group in the above initial letter. Size, i\ inch 
square. 

In p. (id of the same work there is another letter that 
has probably belonged to a set of initials with a Dance of 
Death. It is an H, and copied from the subject of the 
bishop taken by Death from his flock, in the Lyons series. 
It is engraved in a different and inferior style from that 
last mentioned, yet with considerable spirit. Size, i^ inch 



o a 



"^ ' CHAPTER XVI. 

Paintings. — Dra wings. — Miscellaneous. 




ENE of Anjou is said to have painted 
a sort of Death's Dance at Avignon, 
which was destroyed in the French 
Revolution. 

In one of the wardrobe accounts of 
Henry VIII. a picture at Westminster is 
thus described : — " Item, a table with the 
picture of a woman playing upon a lute, 
and an old manne holding a glasse in th' one hande and a 
deadde mannes headde in th' other hande." (MS. Harl. 
No. 1419.) 

A round painting in oil, by or from Hans Holbein. 
The subject, an old man making love to a young girl. 
Death pulling him back, hints at the consequences, whilst 
the absurdity is manifested by the presence of a fool, with 
cockscomb and bauble, on the other side. Diameter, 15 
inches. From the striking resemblance in the features of 
the old lover to those of Erasmus, there is no doubt that 
Holbein intended by this group to retort upon his friend, 
who, on one of the drawings which Holbein had inserted 
in a copy of Erasmus's " Praise of Folly," now in the public 
library at Basle, and which represented a fat epicure at 
table embracing a wench, had written the name of Holbein, 
in allusion to his well-known intemperance. In the present 
writer's possession. 

The small painting by Isaac Oliver, from Holbein, for- 
merly at >Whitehall, of Death with a green garland, &c 
already more particularly described at p. 128, 



iiie Dance of Death. 197 

A small painting in oil, by Old Franks, of a gouty old 
miser startled at the unexpected appearance of Death, who 
approaches him playing on a violin, one of his feet resting 
on an hour-glass. In the distance, and in another room. 
Death is seen in conversation with a sitting gentleman. 
Upright, i\ inches by 5|. 

The same subject, painted in oil by Otho Vaenius, in 
which a guitar is substituted for the violin. This picture 
was in the collection ol Richard Cosway, Esquire. Up- 
right, 12 by 6, and is now belonging to the present writer. 

A Mr. Knowles, a modern artist, is said to have painted 
a miser counting his hoard, and Death putting an extin- 
guisher over him. 

At p. 460 of the Memoirs of that most ingenious artist, 
Charles Alfred Stothard, by his widow, mention is made of 
an old picturj at Nettlecombe Hall, Somersetshire, belong- 
ing to its owner, a clergyman, of a Dance of Death. 

Mr. Tyssen, a bookseller at Bristol, is said to possess a 
will of the 15th century, in which the testator bequeaths 
a painting of the Dance of Death. 

DRAWINGS. 

In a beautifully illuminated Psalter, supposed to have 
been made for Richard II. and preserved among the 
Cotton MSS. Domit. xvii. is a very singular painting, 
representing part of the choir of a cathedral, with ten 
monks sitting in their stalls, and chanting the service. At 
the top of these stalls, and behind, are five grotesque 
Deaths looking down on the monks. One of the Deaths 
has a cardinal's hat, two have baronial crowns on their 
heads, and those of the remaining two are decorated with 
a sort of imperial crown, shaped like the papal tiara. A 
])riest celebrates mass at the altar, before which another 
priest or monk prostrates himself What the object of the 
painter was in the introduction of these singular figures of 
Death is difficult to comprehend. 

In the manuscript and illuminated copies of the " Ro- 
mance of the Rose," the " Pelerin de la vie humaine," and 
the "Chevalier Deliber^," representations of Death as 
Atropos are introduced. 

A very ancient and masterly drawing of Death and the 



198 The Dance of Death. 

beggar, the outlines black on a blue ground, tinted with 
white and red. The figures '\^^ at bottom indicate its 
having been part of a Macaber Dance. Upright, 5^ by 4. 
In the author's possession. 

Sir Thomas Lawrence had four very small drawings by 
Callot, that seemed to be part of an intended series of a 
Dance of Death, i. Death and the bishop. 2. Death 
and the soldier. 3. Death and the fool. 4. Death and 
the old woman. 

An extremely fine drawing by Rembrandt of four Deaths, 
their hands joined in a dance, their faces outwards. One 
has a then fashionable female cap on his head, and another 
a cap and feather. Upright, 9^ by 6^. In the author's 
possession. 

A very singular drawing in pen-and-ink and bistre. In 
the middle, a sitting figure of a naked man holding a 
spindle, whilst an old woman, leaning over a tub on a 
bench, cuts the thread which he has drawn out. Near the 
old woman Death peeps in behind a wall. Close to the 
be^ich is a woman sitting on the ground mending a piece of 
liiien, a child leaning on her shoulder. On the other side 
iSf a sitting female weaving, and another woman in an 
ubright posture, and stretching one of her hands towards a 
sneE Oblong, ii:|- by 8. In the author's possession. 
/ An anonymous drawing in pen and ink of a Death 
Embracing a naked woman. His companion is mounted 
.i>n the back of another naked female, and holds a dart in 
each hand. Oblong, 4 by 3:^. In the author's possession. 
A single sheet, containing four subjects, skilfully drawn 
with a pen and tinted in Indian ink. i. An allegorical, 
but unknown figure sitting on a globe, with a sort of sceptre 
in his right hand. Death seizes him by his garment with 
great vigour, and endeavours to pull him from his seat. 

2. Two men eating and drinking at a table. Death, un- 
perceived, enters the room, and levels his dart at them. 

3. Death seizes two naked persons very amorously situated. 

4. Death seizes a miser counting his money. In the author's 
possession. 

Twenty-four very beautiful coloured drawings by & 
modern artist, from those in the public library at Beme 



The Dance of Death. 199 

that were copied by Stettler fVom Kauw's drawings of the 
original painting by Nicolas Manuel Deutsch. In the 
author's possession, together with lithographic CQpies of 
them that have been recently published at Berne.^ 

A modern Indian ink drawing of a drunken party of men 
and women. Death above in a cloud levels his dart at 
them. Upright, 5^^ by 3^. In the author's possession. 

A spirited drawing in Indian ink of two Deaths as 
pugilists, with their bottle-holders. Oblong, 7 by 4^. In 
the author's possession. 

A pen-and-ink tinted drawing, entitled "The I^st Drop." 
A female seated before a table on which is a bottle of gin 
or brandy. She is drinking a glass of it, Death standing 
by and directing his dart at her. In the author's 
possession. 

Mr. Dagley, in the second edition of his " Death's Doings,'" 
p. 7, has noticed some very masterly designs chalked on a 
wall bordering the road from Tumham Green towards 
Kew Bridge. They exhibited figures of Death as a skeleton 
ludicrously occupied with gamblers, dancers, boxers, &c. all 
of the natural size. They were unfortunately swept away 
before any copies were made to perpetuate them, as they 
well deserved. It was stated in the Times newspaper that 
these sketches were made by a nephew of Mr. Baron 
Garrow, then living in retirement near the spot, but who 
afterwards obtained a situation in India. These drawings 
were made in 181 9. 

Four very clever coloured drawings by Rowlandson, 
being probably a portion of an unfinished series of a 
Death's Dance, i. The Suicide. A man seated near a 
table is in the act of discharging a pistol at his head. The 
sudden and terrific appearance of Death, who, starting 
from behind a curtain, significantly stares at him through 
an eye-glasa. One of the candles is thrown down, and a 
wine-glass jerked out of the hand of the suicide, who, from 
a broken sword and a hat with a cockade, seems intended 
for some ruined soldier of fashion. A female servant, 
alarmed at the report of the pistol, rushes into the apart- 
ment. Below, these verses : — 

' See before, p. 39. 



coo The Dajicc of Death. 

Death smiles, and seems his dart to hide, 
When he beholds the suicide. 

2. The Good Man, Death, and the Doctor. A young 
clergyman reads prayers to the dying man ; the females of 
his family are shedding tears. Death unceremoniously 
shoves out the physician, who puts one hand behind him, 
as expecting a fee, whilst with the other he lifts his cane to 
his nostrils. Below, these lines : — 

No scene so blest in Virtue's eyes, 
As when the man of virtue dies. 

3. The Honeymoon. A gouty old fellow seated on a 
sofa with his youthful bride, who puts her hand through 
a window for a military lover to kiss it. A table covered 
with a dessert, wine, &c. Death, stretching over a screen, 
pours something from a bottle into the glass which the 
husband holds in his hand. Below, these verses : — 

When the old fool has drunk his wine, 
And gone to rest, I will be thine. 

4. The Fortune-teller. Some females enter the conjurer's 
study to have their fortunes told. Death seizes the back 
of his chair and oversets him. Below, these verses : — 

All fates he vow'd to him were known. 
And yet he could not tell his own. 

These drawings are oblong, 9 by 5 inches. In the author's 
possession. Another drawing by Rowlandson, entitled 
" Death and the Drunkards." Five topers are sitting at a 
table and enjoying their punch. Death suddenly enters 
and violently seizes one of them. Another perceives the 
unwelcome and terrific intruder, whilst the rest are too 
intent on their liquor to be disturbed at the moment. It is 
a very spirited and masterly performance. 1 1 inches by 9. 
Li the author's possession. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

A circular carving on wood, with the mark of Hans 
Schaufelin ^^, representing Death seizing a naked female, 
who turns her head from him with a very melancholy 



7^he Dance of Death. 201 

visage. It is executed in a masterly manner. Diameter, 
4 inches. In the author's possession. 

In Boxgrove Church, Sussex, there is a splendid and 
elaborately sculptured monument of the Lords Delawarr; 
and on the side which has not been engraved in Mr. 
Dallaway's history of the county, there are two figures of 
Death and a female, wholly unconnected with the other 
subjects on the tomb. These figures are 9I inches in height, 
and of rude design. Many persons will probably re- 
member to have seen among the ballads, &c. that were 
formerly, and are still exhibited on some walls in the 
metropolis, a poem, entitled " Death and the Lady." This 
is usually accompanied with a wood-cut, resembling the 
above figures. It is proper to mention likewise on this 
occasion the old alliterative poem in Bishop Percy's famous 
manuscript, entitled Death and Liffe, the subject of 
which is a vision wherein the poet sees a contest for 
superiority between " our Lady Dame Life," and the " ugly 
fiend, Dame Death.** See Percy's " Reliques of Ancient 
English Poetry," in the " Essay on the Metre of Piers Plow- 
man's Vision." Whether there may have been any con- 
nexion between these respective subjects must be left to 
the decision of others. There is certainly some reason to 
suppose so. 

The sculptures at Berlin and Fescamp have been already 
described. 

Among the subjects of tapestry at the Tower of London, 
the most ancient residence of our kings, was " The Dance 
of Macabre." See the inventory of King Henry VIIl.'s 
Guardrobe, &c. in MS. Harl. 1419, fol. 5. 

Two panes of glass with a portion of a Dance of Death. 

1. Three Deaths, that appear to have been placed at the 
beginning of the Dance. Over them, in a character of the 
time of Henry VII. these lines : — 

ev'ry man to be contented w* his chaunce. 

And when it shall please God to folowe my daunce. 

2. Death and the Pope. No verses. Size, upright, 8^^ by 
7 inches. In the author's possession. They have probably 
belonged to a Macaber Dance in the windows of some 
church. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

Trois vifs ei trois fnorts. — Negro figure of Death. — Danse 
mix Aveugles. 



1 


1 



HE first of these subjects, as connected 
Nvith the Macaber Dance, has been al- 
ready introduced at pp. 28, 29 ; what is 
now added will not, it is presumed, be 
thought unworthy of notice. 

It is needless to repeat the descrip- 
tions that have been given by M. Peig- 
not of the manuscripts in the Duke de 
la Valli^re's catalogue. The following are some of the 
printed volumes in which representations of the Trois vifs 
et trois morts occur. 

They are to be found in all the editions of the Danse 
Macabre that have already been described, and in the 
following HorcC and other service-books of the CathoHc 
Church. 

"Horae ad usum Sarum," 1495, no place, no printer. 
4to. Three Deaths, three horsemen with hawks and 
hounds. The hermit, to whom the vision appeared, in 
his cell. 

" Heures k I'usage de Rome." Paris. Nicolas Higman, 
for Guil. Eustace, 1506, i2mo. 

" Horae ad usum Traject." 1513. i8mo. 
"Breviarium seu horarium domesticum ad usum Sarum." 
Paris, F. Byrckman, 1516. Large folio. Three Deaths and 
three young men. 



The Dance of Death. 303 

" Horoe ad uaum Romanum." Paris. Thielman Ken'er, 
1522. 8vo. And again, 1535. 4^0. 

A Dutch Hone. Paris. Thielman Kerver, 1522. 8va 

" Heures \ I'usage do Paris." Thielman Kerver's widow, 
(525. 8vo. 

" Missale ad usum Sarum." Paris, 1527. Folio. Three 
horsemen as noblemen, but without hawks or hounds. 

"Enchiridion preclare ecclesie Sarum." Paris. Thiel- 
man Kerver, 1528. 32mo. 

" Hone ad usum fratrum predicatorum ordinis S. 
Dominici." Paris. Thielman Kerver, 1529. 8vo. 

" Horae ad usum Romanum." Paris. Yolande Bon- 
homme, widow of T. Kerver, 1531. 8vo. 

''Missale ad usum Sarum." Paris. F. Regnault, 1531. 
Three Deaths only ; different from the others. 

" Prayer of Salisbur)'." Paris. Francois Regnault, 153 1, 
1 2 mo. 

" Horse ad usum Sarum." Paris. Widow of Thielman 
Kerver, 1532. i2mo. 

" Heures ^ I'usage de Paris." Francois Regnault, 1535. 
i2mo. 

" Hone ad usum Romanum." Paris. Gilles Hardouyn, 
1537. i8mo. The subject is different from all the others, 
and very curiously treated. 

" Heures \ I'usage de Paris." Thielman Kerver, 1558. 
i2rao. 

" Heures \ I'usage de Rome." Paris. Thielman Kerver, 
1573. i2mo. 

"Heures \ I'usage de Paris." Jacques Kerver, 1573. 
i2mo. And again, 1575. i2mo. 

In " The Contemplation of Sinners," printed by Wynkyn 
de Worde. 4to. 

All the above articles are in the collections of the author 
of this dissertation. 

In an elegant MS. Horae, in the Hari. Coll. No. 2917, 
i2mo. three Deaths appear to a pope, an emperor, and 
king coming out of a church. All the parties are crowned. 

At the end of Desrey's " Macabri speculum choreae 
mortuorum," a hermit sees a vision of a king, a legislator, 
and a vain female. They are all lectured by skeletons in 
their own likenesses. 



J04 The Dance of Death. 

In a manuscript collection of unpublished aid chiciiy 
pious poems of John Awdeley, a blind poet and canon of 
the monastery of Haghmon, in Shropshire, anno 1426, 
there is one on the " Trois vifs et trots mortsl'' in alliterative 
Verses, and composed in a very grand and terrific style. 



NEGRO FIGURE OF DEATH. 

In some degree connected with the old painting of the 
Macaber Dance in the churchyard of the Innocents at 
Paris, was that of a black man over a vaulted roof, con* 
structed by the celebrated N. Flamel, about the year 1390. 
This is supposed to have perished with the Danse Macabre ; 
but a copy of the figure has been preserved in some of the 
printed editions of the Dance. It exhibits a Negro blowing 
a trumpet, and was certainly intended as a personification 
of Death. In one of the oldest of the above editions he 
is accompanied with these verses : — 

Cry de Mort. 

Tost, tost, tost, que chacun savance 
Main a main venir k la danse 
De Mort, danser la convient, 
Tous et a plusieurs nen souvient. 
Venez hommes femmes et enfans, 
Teunee et vieulx, petis et grans, 
Ung tout seul nen eschapperoit, 
Pour miUe escuz si les donnoit, &c. 

Before the females in the Dance the figure is repeated, with 
a second " Cry de Mort : " — 

Tost, tost, venez femmes danser 
Apres les hommes incontinents, 
Et gardez vous bien de verser, 
Car vous danserez vrayment ; 
Mon comet come bien souvent 
Apres les petis et les grans. 
Despecte vous legierement, 
Apres la pluye vient le beau temps. 

These lines are differently given in the various printea 
copies of the Danse Macabre. 

This figure is not to be confounded with an alabaster 
statue of Death that remained in the churchyard of the 



TTu Dance of Death. 205 

Innocents, when it was entirely destroyed in 1786. It had 
been usually regarded as the work of Germain Pilon, but 
with greater probability belonged to Francois Gentil, a 
sculptor at Troyes, about 1540. It was transplanted to 
Notie Dame, after being bronzed and repaired, by M. 
Deseine, a distinguished artist. It was saved from the fury 
of the iconoclast revolutionists by M. Le Noir, and depo- 
sited in the Museum which he so patriotically establi^ed 
in the Rue des petits Augustins, but it has since disappeared. 
It was an upright skeleton figure, holding in one hand a 
lance which pointed to a shield with this inscription : — 

II n'est vivant, tant soit plein d'art, 

Ne de force pour resistance. 
Que je ne frappe de mon dart, 

Pour bailler aux vers leur pitance. 

Priez Dieu pour les trespasses. 

1: is engraved in the second volume of M. Le Noir's 
" Musde des monumens Fran9ais," and also in his " Histoire 
des arts en France," No. 91. 

DANSE AUX AVEUGLES. 

There is a poetical work, in some degree connected with 
the subject of this dissertation, that ought not to be over- 
looked. It was composed by one Pierre Michault, of 
whom little more seems to be known than that he was in 
the service of Charles, Count of Charolois, son of Philip le 
Bon, Duke of Burgundy. It is entitled " La Danse aux 
Aveugles," and the object of it is to show that all men are 
subject to the influence of three blind guides. Love, Fortune, 
and Death, before whom several persons are whimsically 
made to dance. It is a dialogue in a dream between the 
Author and Understanding, and the respective blind guides 
describe themselves, their nature, and power over mankind, 
in ten-line stanzas, of which the following is the first of 
those which are pronounced by Death : — 

Je suis la Mort de nature ennemie, 
Qui tous vivans finablement consomme, 
Anichillant 4 tous humains la vie, 
Reduis en terre et en cendre tout homme 
Je suis la mort qui dure me sumomni*». 



»o6 The Dana of Death. 

Pour ce qu'il fault que maine tout affin ; 

Je nay parent, amy, frere ou affin 

Que ne face tout rediger en pouldre, 

Et suis de Dieu ad ce comniise affin, 

Que Ton me double autant que tonnant fouldre. 

Some of the editions are ornamented with cuts, in which 
Death is occasionally introduced, and that portion of the 
work which exclusively relates to him seems to have been 
separately published, M. Goujet* having mentioned that he 
had seen a copy in vellum, containing twelve leaves, with 
an engraving to every one of the stanzas, twenty-three in 
number. More is unnecessary to be added, as M. Peignot 
has elaborately and very completely handled the subject 
in his interesting " Recherches sur les Danses des Morts." 
Dijon, 1826. 8vo. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

Errors of various writers who have introduced the subject of 
the Dance of Death. 

O enumerate even a moiety of these mis- 
takes would almost occupy a separate 
volume, but it may be as well to notice 
some of them which are to be found in 
works of common occurrence. 

Travellers. — The erroneous remark? 
of Bishop Burnet and Mr. Coxe have 
been already adverted to. See pp. 70, 
118, and 123. 

Misson seems to regard the old Danse Macabre as the 
work of Holbein. 

The Rev. Robert Gray, in " Letters during the course of 
a Tour through Germany and Switzerland in the years 17 91 
and 1792," has stated that Mechel has engraved Rubens' s 
designs from the Dance of Death, now perishing on the 
walls of the churchyard of the Predicant convent, wher^ 
it was sketched in 1431. 

» Biblioth. Frar.q. torn. x. p. 436. 




The Dame of Death. 207 

Mr. Wood, in his " View of the History of Switzerland." 
as quoted in the Monthly Review, Nov. 1799, p. 290, states, 
that " the Dance of Death in the churchyard of the Predi- 
cants has been falsely ascribed to Holbein, as it is proved 
that it was painted long after the death of that artist, and not 
before he was born, as the honourable Horace Walpole 
supposes." Here the corrector stands in need himself of 
correction, unless it be possible that he is not fairly quoted 
by the reviewer. 

Miss Williams, in her Swiss Tour, 1798, when speaking of 
the Basle Dance of Death, says it was painted by Kleber, a 
/>///// of Holbein. 

Those intelligent and amusing travellers, Breval, Keysler, 
and Blainville, have carefully avoided the above strange 
mistakes. 

Writers on Painting and Engraving. — Meyssens, in 
his article for Holbein in " the effigies of the Painters," 
mentions his ** Death's Dance, in the town-hall of Basle, 
the design whereof he first neatly cut in wood and afterwards 
painted, which appeared so fine to the learned Erasmus," 
&c. English edition, 1694, p. 15. 

Felibien, in his " Entretiens sur les Vies des Peintres," 
follows Meyssens as to the painting in the town-hall. 

Le Comte places the supposed painting by Holbein in 
the fish-market, and in other respects copies Meyssens. 
"Cabinet des Singularitds," &c tom. iii. p. 323, edit 1702, 
1 2 mo. 

BuUart not only places the painting in the town-hall of 
Hasle, but adds, that he afterwards engraved it in wood. 
" Acad, des Sciences et des Arts," tonL ii. p. 412. 

Mr. Evelyn, in his " Sculptura," the only one of his works 
that does him no credit, and which is a meagre and extremely 
inaccurate compilation, when speaking of Holbein, actually 
runs riot in error and misconception. He calls him a Dane. 
He makes what he terms " the licentiousness of the friars 
and nuns," meaning probably Hollar's sixteen etchings after 
Holbein's satire on monks and friars and other members of 
the Romish Church as the persecutors of Christ, and also 
the " Dance Machabre and Mortis imago," to have been 
cut in wood, and one or both of the latter to have been 
painted in the church at Basle. Mr. Evelyn's own copy oi 



2o8 The Dance of Death. 

this work, with several additions in manuscript, is in the 
possession of Mr. Taylor, a retired and ingenious artist, of 
Cirencester-place. He probably intended to reprint it, and 
opposite the above-mentioned word " Dane " has inserted a 
query. 

Sandrart places the Dance of Death in the fish-market at 
Basle, and makes Holbein the painter as well as the en- 
graver. "Acad, artis pictoriae," p. 238, edit. 1683, folio. 

Baldinucci speaks of twenty prints of the Dance of 
Death painted by Holbein in the Senate-house of Basle. 
" Notizie deprofessori del disegno," &c. tom, iii. pp. 313 and 

319- 

M. Descamps inadvertently ascribes the old Dance Oi 
Death on the walls of the churchyard of Saint Peter to the 
pencil of Holbein. "Vie des Peintres Flamands," &c 
1753. 8vo. Tom. i. p. 75. 

Papillon, in his account of the Dance of Death, abounds 
with inaccuracies. He says, that a magistrate of Basle 
employed him to paint a Dance of Death in the fish-market, 
near a churchyard : that the work greatly increased his 
reputation, and made much noise in the world, although it 
has many anatomical defects ; that he engraved this painting 
on small blocks of wood with unparalleled beauty and 
delicacy. He supposes that they first appeared in 1530 at 
Basle or Zurich, and, as he thinks, with a title and German 
verses on each print. Now he had never seen any edition 
so early as 1530, nor any of the cuts with German verses, 
and having probably been misled on this occasion, he has 
been the cause of misleading many subsequent writers, as 
Fournier, Huber, Strutt, &c. He adopts the error as to 

the mark rf j on the thirty-sixth subject belonging to 

Holbein. He is entirely ignorant of the nature and 
character of the fool or idiot in No. xliii. whom he terms 
" un homme lascif qui a leve le devant de sa robbe : " and^ 
to crown the whole, he makes the old Macaber Dance an 
imitation of that ascribed to Holbein. 

De Murr, in tom. ii. p. 535 of his " Bibliothfeque de 
Peinture," &c. servilely copies Papillon in all that he has 
said on the subject, with some additional errors of his own. 

The Abbe Fontenai, in the article ^7r Holbein in his 



77ie Dance of Death, 209 

' Dictionnaire des Artistes," Paris, 1776, 8vo. not only 
makes him the painter of the old Macaber Dance, but 
places it in the town-house at Basle. 

Mr. Walpole, or rather Vertue, in the "Anecdotes of 
Painting in England," corrects the error of those who give 
the old Macaber Dance to Holbein, but inadvertently 
makes that which is usually ascribed to him to have been 
borrowed from the other. 

Messrs. Huber and Rost make Holbein the engraver ol 
the Lyons wood-cuts, and suppose the original drawings to 
be preserved in the public library at Basle. They pro- 
bably allude to the problematical drawings that were 
used by M. de Mechel, and which are now in Russia. 
" Manuel des curieux et des amateurs de I'art." Tom. i. 

P- 155- 

In the "Notices sur les Graveurs," Besan^on, 1807, 8vo. 
a work that has, by some writers, been given to M. Malpe, 
and by others to the Abb^ Baverel, Papillon is followed 
with respect to the supposed edition of 1530, and its 
German verses. 

Mr. Janssen is more inaccurate than any of his prede- 
cessors, some of whom have occasionally misled him. He 
makes Albert Diirer the inventor of the designs, the greater 
part of which, he says, are from the Dance of Death at 
Berne. He adopts the edition of 1530, and the German 
verses. He condemns the title-page of the edition of 1562 
for stating an addition of seventeen plates, whereas, says 
he, there are but five ; but the editor meant only that there 
were seventeen more cuts than in the original, which had 
only forty-one. 

Miscellaneous Writers. — Charles Patin, a libeller oi 
the English nation, has made Holbein the engraver on wood 
of a Dance of Death, which, he says, is " not much unlike 
that in the churchyard of the Predicants at Basle, painted, 
as some say, from the life, by Holbein." He ought to have 
known that this work was executed near a century before 
Holbein was born. " Erasmi stultitiae laus." Basilece, 1676, 
Bvo. at the end of the list of Holbein's works. 

Martinibre, in his "Geographical Dictionary," makes 
Holbein the inventor of the Macaber Dance at Basle. 

Goujct, in his very useful " Bibliothbque Frangoise," tom. 
p 



2IO The Dance of Death. 

X. p. 436, has erroneously stated that the Lyons engravings 
on wood were by the celebrated artist Salomon Bernard, 
usually called " Le petit Bernard." The mistake is very 
pardonable, as it appears that Bernard chiefly worked in 
the above city. 

M. Compan, in his " Dictionnaire de Danse," 1787, 
i2mo. under the article Macabree, very gravely asserts 
that the author took his work from the Maccabees, "qui, 
comme tout le monde scait, dans^rent, et en ont fait epoque 
pour les morts." He then quotes some lines from a modem 
edition of the Danse Macabre, where the word Machabkes 
is ignorantly substituted for " Machabre." 

M. Foumier states that Holbein painted a Dance of 
Death in the fish-market at Basle, reduced it, and engraved 
it. " Dissertation sur Timprimerie," p. 70. 

Mr. Warton has converted the imaginary Machabree 
into a French poet, but corrects himself in his "History of 
English Poetry." He supposes the single cut in Lydgate to 
represent all the figures that were in St. Paul's cloister. 
He atones for these errors in referring to Holbein's cuts in 
Cranmer's Catechism, as entirely different in style from 
those published at Lyons, but which he thinks are probably 
the work of Albert Diirer, and also in his conjecture that 
the painter Reperdius might have been concerned in the 
latter. See "Observations on the Fairy Queen of Spenser," 
vol. ii. p. 116, &c. In his most elegant and instructive 
" History of English Poetry" he relapses into error when he 
states that Holbein painted a Dance of Death in the 
Augustine monastery at Basle in 1543, and that Georgius 
^mylius published this Dance at Lyons, 1542, one year 
before Holbein's painting at Basle appeared. " History of 
English Poetry," vol. ii. p. 364, edit. Price. 

The Marquis de Paulmy ascribes the old Macaber Dance 
at Basle to Holbein, and adds, "le sujet et I'exdcution en 
sont aussi singuliers que ridicules." " Melanges tires d'une 
grande bibliothbque," tom. Ff. 371. 

M. Champollion Figeac in Millin's " Magasin encyclop^ 
dique," 181 1, tom. vi. has an article on an edition of the 
" Danse Macabre anterieure k celle de i486." In this 
article he states that Holbein painted a fresco Dance of 
Death at Basle near the end of the 15th century (Holbein 



The Dance of Death. an 

«v'as not born till 1498 !) ; that this Dance resembled the 
Danse Macabre, all the characters of which are in Holbein's 
style ; that it is still more like the Dance in the " Monasticon 
Anglicanum" in a single print ; and that the English Dance 
belongs to John Porey, an author who appears, however, to be 
unknown to all biographers. We should have been obliged 
to M. Figeac if he had mentioned where he met with this 
John Porey, whom he again mentions, but in such a manner 
as to leave a doubt whether he means to consider him 
as a poet or a painter. Even M. Millin himself, from 
whom more accuracy might have been expected, speaks 
of Holbein's work as at the Dominican convent at Basle. 

The "Nouveau Dictionnaire Historique," 1789, 8vo. 
gives the painting on the walls of the cemetery of St. 
Peter at Basle, to Holbein, confounding the two works as 
some other French biographical dictionaries have done, 
especially one that has cited an edition of the Danse 
Macabre in i486 as the first of Holbein's painting, though 
it immediately afterwards states that artist to have been 
born in 1498. 

In that excellent work, the " Biographic Universelle," in 
42 vols. 8vo. 181 1 — 1828, M. Ponce, under the article 
" Holbein," inaccurately refers to " the Dance of Death 
painted in 1543 on the walls of a cemetery at Basle," at 
the same time properly remarking that it was not Holbein's. 
He refers to the supposed original drawings of Holbein's 
work at Petersburg that were engraved by De Mechel, and 
concludes his brief note with a reference to a dissertation 
of M. Raymond in Millin's " Magasin encyclopddique," 
1 8 14, tom. V. which is nothing more than a simple notice 
of two editions of the Danse Macabre, described in the 
present dissertation. 

There is likewise in the " Biographic Universellt; ' an 
article entitled " Macaber, poete Allemand," by M. Weiss, 
and it is to be regretted that a writer whose learning and 
research are so eminently conspicuous in many of the 
best lives in the work, should have permitted himself to 
be misled in much that he has said, by the errors of 
Champollion Figeac in the " Magasin enc)dopddique.*' 
He certainly doubts the existence of Macaber as a writer, 
but inclines to M. Van Praet*s Arabic Magbarah. He 
p 2 



II a The Dance of Death, 

states, that the English version of the Macaber Dance 
belongs to John Porey, a poet who remains unknown even to 
his countrymen, and is inserted in the " Monasticon Angli- 
canum." Now this unknown poet, who is likewise adopted 
by M. Peignot, is merely the person who contributed Hollar's 
plate in the " Monasticon," already mentioned in p. 45, and 
whose coat of arms is at the top of that plate, with the 
following inscription : — " Quo praesentes et posteri Mortis, ut 
vidimis, omni Ordini communis, sint magis memores, posuit 
lOHANNES POREY." M. Weiss has likewise inadvertently 
adopted the error that Holbein painted the old Dance of 
Macaber in the convent of the Augustines at Basle. 

Two recently published Dances of Death have come to 
hand, too late to have been noticed in their proper places. 

1. "Der Todtentanz. Ein Gedicht von Ludwig Bech- 
stein, mit 48 Kupfern in treuen Conturen nach H. Holbein 
Leipzig bei Friedrich August Leo, 183 1." 8vo. These 
prints are executed in a faithful and elegant outline, and 
accompanied with modern German verses. 

2. " Hans Holbein's Todtentanz in 53 getreu nach den 
Holzschnitten lithographirten Blattern. Herausgegeben 
von J. Schlotthauer k. Professor. Mit erklarenden Texte. 
MiJnchen, 1832. Auf Kosten des Herausgebers." i2mo. 
The prints are most accurately and elegantly lithographed 
in imitation of wood engraving. The descriptions are in 
German verse, and accompanied with some brief prefatory 
matter by Dr. H. F. Massmann, which is said to have been 
amplified in one of the German journals or reviews. 

And lastly — The Reviewer of the first edition of the 
present dissertation, prefixed to Mr. Edwards's engravings 
or etchings by Wenceslaus Hollar, has displayed con- 
siderable ingenuity in his attempt to correct supposed 
errors, by a lavish substitution of many of his own, some 
of which are the following : — 

That the Dance of Death is found in carvings in wood in 
the choirs of churches. Not a single instance can be pro- 
»iuced. 

That Hollar's etchings are on wood. 

** Black letter " is corrected to " Black letters." 

That the book would have been more complete if Lyd- 
gate's stanzas had been quoted, in common with others 




HOLBEIN'S ALPHABET. 














HOLBEIN'S ALPHABET. 













> 



The Dance of Death 213 

in " Piers Plowman'' Now all the stanzas of Lydgate are 
given, and not a single one is to be found in " Piers 
Plowman." 

And this reviewer most ingeniously and scientificalty de- 
nominates the skeleton figure of Death " the Gothic monster 
of Holbein !" 



A short time after the completion of the present Dis 
sertation, the author accidentally became possessed of a 
recently published German life of Holbein, in which not 
a single addition of importance to what has been gleaned 
from preceding writers can possibly be found. It contains 
a general, but extremely superficial account of the works 
of that artist, including the Dance of Death, which, as a 
matter of course, is ascribed to him. As the author, a Mr. 
Ulrich liegner, who is said to be a Siviss gentleman and 
amateur, has not conducted himself with that urbanity and 
politeness which might have been looked for from such a 
character, and has thought proper, in adverting to the slight 
Essay by the present writer, prefixed, at the instance of the 
late Mr. Edwards, to his publication of Hollar's etchings 
of the Dance of Death, to speak of it with a degree ot 
contempt, which, even with all its imperfections, others 
may think it may not have deserved ; the above gentleman 
will have but little reason to complain should he meet 
with a somewhat uncourteous retort in the cou:-.se of the 
following remarks on his compilation. 

Had Mr. Hegner written with a becoming diffidence in 
his opinions, his work might have commanded and deserved 
respect, though greatly abounding in error and false conceit. 
He has undertaken a task for which he has shown himself 
wholly unqualified, and with much unseemly arrogance, 
and its usual concomitant, ignorance, has assumed to 
himself a monopoly of information on the subject which 
he discusses. His arguments, if worthy of the name, are, 
generally speaking, of a most weak and flimsy texture. 
In support of his dogmatical opinion that the original 
designs for the Lyons Dance of Death exclusively belong 
to Holbein he has not adduced a single fact He has not 



ti4 The IJa?ice of Death. 

been in possession of a tenth part of the materials that 
were necessary for the proper investigation of his subject, 
nor does he appear to have even seen them. The very 
best judges of whatever relates to the history and art of 
engraving are quite satisfied that most of the persons who 
have written on them, with the exception of Mr. Ottley, 
and of the modest and urbane Monsieur Peignot, are liable 
to the charge of extreme inaccuracy and imperfection in 
their treatment of the Dance of Death; and the list of 
such writers may now be closed with the addition of Herr 
Hegner. 

Some of his positions are now to be stated and exa- 
mined. 

He makes Holbein the author of a new Dance of Death in 
the Crozat or Gallitzin drawings in Indian ink which have 
been already described in the present dissertation, adding 
that he also engraved them, and suppressing any mention 
in this place of the monogram on one of the cuts which he 
elsewhere admits not to belong to Holbein. Soon afterwards, 
and with very good reason, he doubts the originality of the 
drawings, which he says M. de Mechel caused to be copied 
by Rudolph Schellenberg, a skilful artist, already men- 
tioned as the author of a Dance of Death of his own 
invention ; and proceeds to state, that from these copies 
De Mechel employed some inferior persons in his service 
to make engravings ; advancing all this without the accom- 
paniment of any proof whatever, and in direct contradiction 
to De Mechel's authority of having himself engraved them. 
An apparently bitter enemy to De Mechel, whose posthu- 
mous materials, now in the library at Basle, he nevertheless 
admits to have used for his work, he invidiously enlarges 
on the discrepancies between his engravings and the 
Lyons wood-cuts, both in size and manner ; and then 
concludes that they were copied from the wood-cuts, the 
copyist allowing himself the privilege of making arbitrary 
variations, especially in the figure of the Eve in the second 
cut, which, he says, is of the family of Boucher, who, in 
spite of Hegner's opinion, is regarded by better judges as 
a clever painter. Whether the remarks on any deviations 
of De Mechel's prints from the Crozat drawings are just 
or otherwise can now be decided by comparison only, and 



The Dance of Death. 2 1 5 

Hegner does not appear to nave seen them, or at least 
does not tell us so. His criticisms on the iierit of the 
engravings in De Mechel's work cainot b-i justified; for 
though they may occasionally be faulty, t.iey are very 
neatly, and many will think beautifully, executed 

What Hegner has said respecting the alphabets o*" initial 
letters, is at once futile and inaccurate ; bu' his omment 
on Hans Lutzenberger deserve? the severest censure. Ad- 
verting to the mscription with the name of this fine artist 
on one of the sets of the initials, he terms him " an 
itinerant bookseller^ who had bought the blocks and put his 
name on them ; " and this after having himself referred to 
a print on which Lutzenberger is called Formschneider, 
/. e. woodcutter : ma'f ing in this instance a clumsy and 
dishonest effort to get rid of an excellent engraver, who 
stands so recorded in opposition to his own untenable 
system. 

The very important and indelible expressions in the 
dedication to the first known edition of the Lyons wood- 
cuts, he very modestly terms " a play upon words," and 
endeavours to account for the death of the painter by 
supposing Holbein's absence in England would warrant 
the language of the dedication. This is indeed a most 
desperate argument. Frellon, the publisher and proprietor 
of the work, must have known better than to have permitted 
the dedication to accompany his edition had it been sus- 
ceptible of so silly a construction. 

He again adheres to the improbable notion that Holbein 
engraved the cuts to the Lyons book, and this in defiance 

of the mark or monogram Jf^ which this painter never 

used ; nor will a single print with Holbein's accredited 
name be found to bear the slightest resemblance to the 
style of the wood-cuts. Even those in Cranmer's catechism, 
which approach the nearest to them, are in a different 
manner. His earlier engravings on wood, whether in 
design only, or as the engraver, resemble those by Urs 
Graaf, who, as well as Holbein, decorated the frontispieces 
or titles to many of the books printed at Basle. It is not 
improbable that Urs Graaf was at that time a pupil ol 
Holbein, 



21 C The Dance of Death. 

Hegner next endeavours to annihilate the painting at 
Whitehall recorded in Nieuhoff's etchings and dedications, 
but still by arguments of an entirely negative kind. He 
lays much stress on this painting not being specifically 
mentioned by Sandrart or Van Mander, who were in 
England ; but where does it appear that the latter, during 
his short stay in this country, had visited Whitehall ? Even 
admitting that both these persons had seen that palace, it 
is most probable that the fresco painting of the Dance of 
Death, would, from length of time, dampness of the walls, 
and neglect, have been in a condition that would not warrant 
the exhibition of it, and it was, moreover, placed in a 
gallery which scarcely formed, at that time, a part of 
Whitehall, and which was, probably, not shown to visitors. 
It must not, however, be omitted to mention that Sandrart, 
in p. 239 of his Acad. Pict. states, though ambiguously, 
that " there was still remaining at Whitehall a work by 
Holbein that would constitute him the Apelles of his time,'* 
an expression which we may remember had been also 
applied to Holbein by his friend Borbonius in the com- 
plimentary lines on a Dance of Death. 

Herr Hegner has thought fit to speak of Mr. T. 
Nieuhofif in terms of indecorous and unjust contempt, 
describing him as " an unknown and unimportant Dutch 
copper-plate engraver," and arraigning his evidence as 
being in manuscript only; as if manuscripts that have 
never been printed were of no authority. But where has 
Hegner discovered that Nieuhoff was a Dutch copper- 
plate engraver, by which is meant a professed artist ; or 
even though he had been such, would that circumstance 
vitiate his testimony % In his dedication to Lord William 
Benting the expressions allusive to his ardent love of the 
arts, seem to constitute him an amateur attempter of etching; 
for what he has left us in that way is indeed of a very 
subordinate character, and unworthy of a professed artist. 
He appears to have been one of the Dutchmen who accom- 
panied King William to England, and to have had apartments 
assigned to him at Whitehall. At the end of his dedication 
to Lord W. Benting, he calls himself an old servant of that 
person's father, and subscribes himself "your and your 
illustrious family's most obedient and humble servant." 



71u Dance of Death 217 

The identification of William Benting must be left to 
the sagacity of others. He could not have been the Earl 
of Portland created in 1689, or he would have been 
addressed accordingly. He is, moreover, described as a 
youth bom at Whitehall, and then residing there, and 
whose dwelling consisted of nearly the whole of the palace 
that remained after the fire. 

Again, — We have before us a person living in the palace 
of Whitehall anterior to its destruction, testifying what he 
had himself seen, and addressing one who could not be 
imposed upon, as residing also in the palace. There seems 
to be no possible motive on the part of Nieuhoff for stating 
an untruth, and his most clear and unimpeachable tes- 
timony is opposed by Hegner's wild and weak conjectures, 
and chiefly by the negative argument that a few strangers 
who visited England in a hasty manner have not mentioned 
the painting in question at Whitehall, amidst those inac- 
curate and superficial accounts of England which, with 
little exception, have been given by foreign travellers. 
Among these Hegner has selected Patin and Sandrart. 
Before adducing the former, he would have done well to 
have looked at his very imperfect and erroneous account of 
Holbein's works, in his edition of the MfiPIAS ErKQMION 
of Erasmus ; and, with respect to the latter, the stamp of 
inaccuracy has been long afl[ixed to most of the works he 
has published. He has mentioned, that being in company 
with Rubens in a Dutch passage-boat "the conversation 
fell upon Holbein's book of cuts, representing the Dance 
of Death ; that Rubens gave them the highest encomiums, 
advising him, who was then a young man, to set the highest 
value upon them, informing him, at the same time, that he 
in his youth had copied them."^ On this passage Mr. 
Warton has well remarked that if Rubens styled these prints 
Holbein's, in familiar conversation, it was but calling them 
by the name which the world had given them, and by which 
they were generally known ; and that Sandrart has, in 
another place, confounded them with the Basle painting.' 

To conclude, — Juvenal's "hoc volo, sic jubeo, sit pro 
rati one voluntas," may be regarded as Herr Hegner's 

* Sandrart, Acad. Pict p. 141. * Obs. on Spenser, II. 117, ir3, ir> 



2i8 The Dance of Death. 

literary motto. He has advocated the vague traditions ol 
unauthenticated Dances of Death by Holbein, and has 
made a most unjustifiable attempt to deprive that truly 
great artist of the only painting on the subject which really 
appears to belong to him. Yet, if by fair and candid 
argument, supported by the necessary proofs, the usual and 
long standing claim on the part of Holbein can be sub- 
stantiated, no one will thereby be more highly gratified 
than the author of this dissertation. 



MARKS OF ENGRAVERSL 



G S. 35, 103. 

xli 82,86,87,89,98,100, 
loi, 191, 208. 

Hldss. 

S. 100. 

*.^ lOI, 102, 103, 112, 
115, 120, 156. 

NX/. 04. 

T* 104. 
: no. 

\w. .... 
^. .... 

rn III. 

MlloCleirt. inv. iii, 114. 
H. H-OLBEIN, inv. i.i. 



W. 1x5. 

M142, 170. 
FF165. 

L 168. 
^ 169. 
P& 169. 
^ 170. 

ISf 170- 
i-M.7.. 

6 171. 

&n^ 172 
I. F. 194. 

7SL 198. 

\PV200. 



MARKS 01 ENGRAVERS. 

These are the marks erroneously given to Holbein 

BI. Hi. rL HL#B. rB. rxi. 



And these the marks which really belong to him, 


HH. 


n. H. 


HANS HOLR 


HANS HOLBEN. 


HANS HOLBEIN. 


Mmj^ 


fj'ihr 


•K-^-H 


•Hf' 


m 






HOLBEIN'S 
SCRIPTURE CUTS. 



THE DELUGE. 




Genesis VII. 23. 



And every living substance was destroyed which was 
upon the face of the ground, both man, and cattle, and 
the creeping things, and the fowl of the heaven ; and 
they were destroyed from the earth : and Noah only 
remained alive, and they that were with him in the 
ark. 



GEhESis VII. 23. 



LATIN. 

Et dele* it omnem substantiam, quae erat super terram, 
ab homine usque ad pecus, tarn reptile quam volucres 
cceli : et deleta sunt de terra : remansit autem solus 
Noe, et qui cum eo erant in area. 

FRENCH. 

Tout ce done qui subsistoit sur la tene fut extermine, 
depuis les hommes jusqu'aux b^tes, jusqu'aux reptiles, 
jusqu'aux oiseaux des cieux. Et ils furent exterminez 
de dessus la terre : No^ demeura de reste et ce qui ^toit 
avec lui daiiS YaiCne. 

ITALIAN. 

E fu sterminata ogni cosa sussistente, ch'era sopra la 
faccia della terra, dagli huomini fino alle bestie, e i 
rettili e gli uccelli del cielo : furono, dico, sterminati 
d'in su la terra : e Noe solo scampb, con quelli ch'erano 
con lui nell'arca. 

SPANISH. 

Y rayd toda substancia que habia sobre la tierra, desde 
el hombre hasta la bestia, tanto los reptiles, como las 
aves del cielo : y fu^ron raidos de la tierra : y quedd 
solamente No^, y los que con ^1 estaban en el area. 



ut 



II. 



THE TOWER OF BABEL. 




Genesis XL 4. 



And they said, Go to, let us build us a city and a 
tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us 
make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the 
face of the whole earth. 



Genesis XL 4. 



LATIN. 

Et dixerunt : Venite, faciamus nobis civitatem, et 
turrira, cujus culmen pertingat ad coelum : et celebreraus 
nomen nostrum antequam dividamur in universas terras. 

FRENCH. 

Puis ils dirent, Venez, bitissons-nous une ville, et 
une tour de laquelle le soramet aille jusqu'aux cieux ; et 
nous acqu^rons de la renomra^e, de peur nous ne soyoni 
dispersez sur toute la terre. 

ITALIAN. 

Poi dissero, or su, edifichiamci una citt^ ed una torre, 
la cui sommita giunga fino al cielo, ed acquistiamci fama : 
che talora noi non siamo dispersi sopra la faccia di 
tutta la terra. 

SPANISH. 

Y dixdron : Venid, edifiqu^monos una ciudad y una 
torre, cuya cumbre llegue hasta el cielo : y hagamos 
cdebre nuestro nombre, intes de esparcimos per todas 
las tienas. 



III. 



ABRAHAM ENTERTAINETH THREE ANGELS. 




Genesis XVIII. 2. 



And he lift up his eyes and looked, and lo, three men 
stood by him : and when he saw them, he ran to meet 
them from the tent door, and bowed himself toward the 
ground. 



Genesis XVIII. 2. 



LATIN. 



Cumque elevasset oculos, apparuerunt ei tres viri 
ttantes prope eum : quos cum vidisset, cucurrit in occur- 
8um eorum de ostio tabernaculi, et adoravit in terram- 

FRENCH. 

Car levant ses yeux, il regarda : et voici, trois person- 
nages venoient vers lui : et d^s qu'il les eut apper9Uf, 
il courut au devant d'cux dfes I'entr^e de sa tente, et se 
prostema en terre. 

ITALIAN. 

Ed egli, alzati gli occhi, riguardb, ed ecco, tre huomini 
si presentarcno a lui : e come gli hebbe veduti, corse 
loro incontro dall' entrata del padiglione, e s'inchinb 
verso terra. 

SPANISH. 

Y habiendo alzado los ojos, se le apareci^ron tres 
varones puestos en pie junto i el : y quando los vi<5, 
corrid desde la puerU de la tienda i recibirlos, 6 
indindse i tierra. 



IV. 



THE TRIAL OF ABRAHAM'S FAITH. 




Genesis XXII. lo. 



And Abraham stretched forth his hand, and took 
the knife to slay his son. 



Genesis XXII. la 



LATIN. 

Extenditque manum, et arripuit gladium, ut immolaret 
filiiim suum. 

FRENCH. 

Puis Abraliam avan^ant sa main, prit le couteau pour 
forger son fils. 

ITALIAN. 

Ed Abraham stese la mano, e prese 11 coltello per 
iscannare il suo figliuolo. 

SPANISH. 

Y extendid su mano^ y tomd el cuchillo para degoilar i 
su hija 



JACOB DECEIVETH HIS FATHER AND OBTAINETH 
THE BLESSING. 




Genesis XXVII. 21. 



And Isaac said unto Jacob, Come near, I pray thee, 
that I may feel thee, my son, whether thou be my very 
son Esau or not. 



GtNESIS XXVII. 21. 



LATIN. 

Dixitque Isaac : Accede hue, ut tangam te fili mi, et 
probem utrum tu sis filius meus Esau, an non. 

FRENCH. 

Ft Isaac dit h. Jacob, Mon fils approche-toi, je te prie, 
et je te taterai, savoir si tu es mon fils Esaii meme. 
ou non. 

ITALIAN. 

Ed Isaac disse a lacob, Deh, appressati, figliuol mio, 
ch'io ti tasti, per saper se tu sei pure il mio figliuolo 
Esau, o no. 

SPANISH. 

Y dixo Isaac : Ll(fgate acd para palparte, hijo mio, y 
reconocer, si tu eres mi hijo Esaii, 6 na 



VL 



JOSEPH CAST INTO A PIT. 




Genesis XXXVII. 28. 



Then there passed by Midianites merchantmen ; and 
they drew and lifted up Joseph out of the pit, and 
sold Joseph to the Ishmeelites for twenty pieces of 
silver : and they brought Joseph into Egypt. 






Genesis XXXVII. a8. 



LATIN. 



Et prsetereuntibus Madianitis negotiatoribus, extra* 
hentes eum de cisterna, vendiderunt eum Ismaelitis, 
viginti argenteis : qui duxerunt eum in Egyptum. 

FRENCH. 

Et comme les marchands Madianites passoient, ils 
tir^rent et firent remonter Joseph de la fosse, et le 
vendirent aux Ismaelites vingt pieces d'argent : et ces 
gens-lk emraent^rent Joseph en Egypte. 

ITALIAN. 

E come que' mercatanti Madianiti passavano, essi 
trasseto e fecero saler losef fuor di quella fossa, e per 
venti sicli d'argento lo vendettero a quegl' Ismaeliti : 
ed essi lo menarono in Egitto. 

SPANISH. 

Y pasando unos Madianitas mercaderes, sacindoU 
de la cisterna, le vendition i los Israaelitas per veinte 
monedas de plata : los quales le lleviron i Egipta 



VII. 



PHARAOH'S TWO DREAMS. 




Genesis XLI. 8 



And it came to pass in the morning that his spirit 
was troubled ; and he sent and called for all the magi- 
cians of Egypt, and all the wise men thereof : and 
Pharaoh told them his dream ; but there was none 
that could interpret them unto Pharaoh. 



X 



Genesis XLI. 8. 



LATIN. 

Et facto manb, pavore perterritus, misit ad omnes 
conjectores ^^Jgypli, cunctosque sapientes : et accersitis 
narravit somnium. nee erat qui interpretaretur. 

FRENCH. 

Et sur le matin son esprit fut effrayd, et il envoya 
appeller tous les Magiciens et tous les sages d'Egypte, 
et leur rdcita ses songes, mais il n'y avoit personne qui 
les lui interpr^tat. 

ITALIAN. 

E venuta la mattina, lo spirito suo fu conturbato : e 
mandb a chiamar tutti i magi ed i Savi d'Egitto, e raccontb 
loro i suoi sogni : ma non vi fu alcuno che gli potesse 
interpretare a Faraone. 

SPANISH 

Y venida la manana espantado y despavorido, envio i 
Uamar d todos los adivinos, y d todos los sabios do 
Egipto ; y convocados les cont6 el suefto. y no habia 
qaien lo interpretase. 



VIII. 



JACOB BLESSETH JOSEPH AND HIS TWO SONS. 




Genesis XLVIII. 14. 



And Israel stretched out his right hand, and laid It 
upon Ephraim's head, who was the younger, and his 
left hand upon Manasseh's head, guiding his hands 
wittingly ; for Manasseh was the firstborn. 



Genesis XLVIII. 14. 



LATIN. 

Qui extendens raanum dexteram, posuil super caput 
Ephraim minoris fratris : sinistram autem super caput 
Manasse qui major natu erat, commutans manus. 

FRENCH. 

Et Israel avan9a sa main droite, et la mit sur la t6te 
d*Ephraim qui dtoit le plus jeune, et il mit sa main gauche 
sur la t§te de Manassd : il posa ainsi ses mains de propos 
ddib^rd, bienque Manass^ fut I'alnd 

ITALIAN. 

Ed Israel porse la sua man destra, e la pose sopra'l 
capo d'Efraim, ch'era il minore, e pose la sinistra sopra'l 
capo di Manasse : e benchb Manasse fosse il primo- 
genito, nondimeno avvedutamente pose cos\ le manl 

SPANISH. 

El qual extendiendo la mano derecha, la puso sobre 
la cabeza de Ephraim, que era el hermano menor, y la 
izquierda sobre la cabeza de Manassas, que era el mayor 
en edad, trocando las manos. 



IX. 



THE DEATH OF JOSEPH. 




Genesis L. 26. 



So Joseph died, being an hundred and ten years old : 
and they embalmed him, and he was put in a coffin in 
Egypt. 



GicKCsis L. a6 



LATIN. 

Mortuus est, expletis centum decern vitae suse annis. Et 
condJtus aromatibus, repositus est in loculo'in ^gypto. 

FRENCH. 

Puis Joseph mourut, ag^ de cent et dix ans: et on 
Tembauraa, et on le mit dans un cercueil en Egypte. 

ITALIAN. 

Poi losef raori, essendo d'eti di cento dieci anni : e fu 
imbalsimato, e posto in un cataletto in Egitto. 

SPANISH. 

Muri6, cumplidos los ciento y diez aiios de su vida. 
Y habi^ndole embalsaraado, fu^ depositado en una caxa 
en Egipto. 



SL a 



GOD APPEARETH TO MOSES IN A BURNING BUSH. 




Exodus III. 5. 



And he said, Draw not nigh hither : put off thy shoes 
from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest ia 
holy ground. 



Exodus IIL 5. 



LATIN. 

At ille : Ne appropies, inquit, hue : Solve calceamentum 
de pedibus tuis : iocus enim, in quo stas, terra sancta est 

FRENCH. 

Et Dieu dit, N'approche point d'ici, D^chausse les 
souliers de tes pieds : car le lieu ob tu es arr^td est une 
terre sainte. 

ITALIAN. 

Ed Iddio gli disse, Non appressarti in qua : tratti le 
scarpe da' piedi : perciocche il luogo, sopra'l quale tu 
stai, h terra santa. 

SPANISH. 

Y dl dixo : No te acerques aci : desata el calzado 
de tus pies ; porque el lugar, en que estis, tiena santa es. 



I 



XL 



PHARAOH CHTDETH MOSES AND AARON FOR 
THEIR MESSAGE. 




Exodus V. 2. 



And Pharaoh said, Who is the Lord, that I should 
obey his voice to let Israel go ? I know not the Lord, 
neither will I let Israel go. 



Exodus V. «. 



LATIN. 

At ille respondit : quis est Dominus ut audiam vocem 
ejus, et dimittam Israel ? nescio Dorainum, et Israel nor. 
dimittam. 

FRENCH. 

Mais Pharaon dit : qui est rEterael, que j'ob^isse h. 
sa voix, pour laisser aller Israeli Je ne connois point 
TEtemel, et m6me je ne laisserai point aller Israel. 

ITALIAN. 

Ma Faraone disse, Chi fe il Signore, ch'io ubbidisca 
alia sua voce, per lasciare andare Israel 1 lo non conosco 
il Signore, ed anche non lascerb andare Israel 

SPANISH. 

Pero d respondid : j Quien es el Seftor, para que 
obedezca i su voz, y dexe ir i Israd ? No cocozco 
al Sefior, ni dexard ir i IsradL 



I 



XIT. 



PHARAOH PURSUETH THE ISRAELITES. 




Exodus XIV. 28. 



And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, 
and the horsemen, and all the host of Pharaoh that 
came into the sea after them; there remained not so 
much as one of them. 



Exodus XIV. a8. 



LATIN. 

Reversaeque sunt aquae, et operuerunt currus et equitei 
cuncti exercitus Pharaonis, qui sequentes ingressi fuerant 
mare : nee unus quidem superfuit ex eis. 

FRENCH. 

Car les eaux retournbrent et couvrirent les chariots 
et les gens de cheval de toute I'arm^e de Pharaon, qui 
dtoient entrez aprbs les Israelites dans la mer : et il n'en 
resta pas un seul. 

ITALIAN. 

E Tacque ritornarono, e coprirono i carri, ed i cavalieri 
di tutto r esercito di Faraone, i quali erano entrati dentro 
al mare dietro agl' Israeliti : e'non iscampb di loro pure uno. 

SPANISH. 

Y se volvi^ron las aguas, y cubri^ron los carros y la 
caballerfa de todo el ex^rcito de Pharadn, que habian 
entrado en la mar en su seguimiento : ni uno solo quedd 
de ellos. 



XIII. 



THE ISRAELITES MURMUR FOR WANT OF 
BREAD. 




Exodus XVI. 4. 



Then said the Lord unto Moses, Behold, I will rain 
bread from heaven for you ; and the people shall go 
out and gather a certain rate every day, that I may 
prove them, whether they will walk in my law, or no. 



Exotas XVI. 4. 



LATIN. 

Dixit aulem Dominus ad Moysen : Ecce ego pluam 
vobis panes de coelo : egrediatur populus, et colligat 
quae sufficiunt per singulos dies : ut tentem eum utrum 
ambulet in lege mea, an non. 

FRENCH. 

Alors TEtemel dit k Moyse : Voici, je vais vous faire 
pleuvoir des cieux du pain, et le peuple sortira, et en 
recueillira pour chaque jour ce qu'il lui en faut, afin que 
j'dprouve s'il marchera ou non dans ma Loi. 

ITALIAN. 

E'l Signore disse a Moise, Ecco, io vi farb piovere del 
pane dal cielo : e'l popolo uscir^, e ne raccoglierk di d\ 
in di quanto gliene bisogner^ per giomo : acciocchb io lo 
provi se egli caminerii nella mia Legge, o nb. 

SPANISH. 

Y dixo el Seftor i Moisds : He aquf, que yo os Uover^ 
panes del cielo : saiga ei pueblo, y recoja lo que basta 
para cada dia : para hacer de 6\ prueba, si anda en mi 
Ifi}', 6 no. 



XIV. 



THE FEARFUL PRESENCE OF GOD UPON THE 
MOUNT. 




Exodus XIX. i8. 



And Mount Sinai was altogether on a smoke, because 
the Lord descended upon it in fire : and the smoke 
thereof ascended as the smoke of a furnace, and the 
whole mount quaked greatly. 



Exodus XIX. la 



LATIH. 



Totus autem raons Sinai fumabat : eb qubd descen- 
disset Dominus super eum in igne, et ascenderet fumus 
ex eo quasi de fomace : erdtque omnis mons terribilis. 

FRENCH. 

Or le mont de Sinai ^toit tout en fum^e, parce que 
I'Eternel y dtoit descendu en feu : et sa fumde, montoit 
comme la fum^e d'une fouraaise, et toute la montagne 
tremjbloit fort 

ITALIAN. 

Or il monte di Sinai fumava tutto : perciocchb il 
Signore era sceso sopra esso in fuoco : e'l fumo ne saliva 
a guisa di fumo di foraace : e tutto'l monte tremava forte. 

SPANISH. 

Y todo el monte Sfnai humeaba : porque habia descen- 
dido el Senor sobre d en fuego, y subia el humo de el 
como de un homo : y todo el monte estaba terrible. 



XV. 



THE ARK, THE MERCY-SEAT, THE CHERUBIM, 
THE TABLE, AND THE CANDLESTICK- 



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Exodus XXV. 21, 22. 

And thou shalt put the mercy-seat above upon the ark ; 
and in the ark thou shalt put the testimony that I shall 
give thee. 

And there will I meet with thee, and I will commune 
with thee from above the mercy-seat, from between the 
two cherubim which are upon the ark of the testimony, of 
all things which I will give thee in commandment unto 
the children of Israel 



Exodus XXV. 21, 22 



LATIN. 

In qua f ones testimonium quod dabo tibi. Inde pne- 
cipiam et loquar ad te supra propitiatorium, ac de medio 
duorum Cherubim, qui enint super arcam testimonii, 
cuncta quae mandabo per te filiis Israel 

FRENCH. 

Et tu poseras le propitiatoire en haut sur I'Arche ; et 
tu mettras dans I'Arche le T^moignage que je te don- 
nerai. 

Et je me trouverai-1^ avec toi, et je te dirai de dessus 
le propitiatoire d'entre les deux Ch^rubins qui seront sur 
I'Arche du Tdmoignage, toutes les choses que je te cora- 
manderai pour les enfans d'IsraeL 

ITALIAN. 

E metti il Coperchio in su I'Arca disopra, e nell' Area 
metti la Testimonianza ch'io ti darb. 

Ed io mi troverb quivi presente teco, e parlerb teco 
d'in sul Coperchio, di mezzo i due Cherubini che saranno 
sopra I'Arca della Testimonianza : e ti dirb tutte le cose 
che ti comanderb di proporre a'figliuoli d'Israd. 

SPANISH. 

En la que pondrds el testimonio que te dard 
Desde alH dar^ mis drdenes, y te hablar^ sobre el 
propiciatorio, y de en medio de los dos Querubines, que 
cstarin sobre el area del testimonio, todo lo que yo man- 
dard por ti i los hijos de Israel 



XVII 



THE BURNT OFFERINGS 




Leviticus i. 2. 



Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, 
If any man of you bring an offering unto the Lord, ye 
shall bring your offering of the cattle, even of the herd, 
and of the flock. 



LllVlTlCUS I. 9. 



LATIN. 

Loquere filiis Israel et dices ad eos : Homo, qui ob- 
tulerit ex vobis hostiam Domino de pecoribus, id est, 
de bobus et ovibus offerens victimas. 

FRENCH. 

Parle aux enfans d'Israel, et dis-leur : Quand quelqu uri 
d'entre vous fera une offrande k TEtemel, il fera son 
oflfrande de gros ou de menu bdtaiL 

ITALIAN. 

Parla a' figliuoii d'Israel, e d\ loro, Quando alcun 
di voi offerira una offerta al Signore, se quella h d'animali 
qfferite le vostre oflferte di buoi, o di pecore, o di capre. 

SPANISH. 

Habla i los hijos de Israe'l, y les dirds : El hombre 
de entre vosotros, que ofreciere Vi Senor hostia de los 
ganados, esto es, el que ofrezca victimas de bueyes <5 de 
ovejas. 



y a 



XVIII. 



MOSES CONSECRATETH AARON AND HIS SONS. 




Leviticus VIII. i — 3. 



And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, Take Aaron 
and his sons with him, and the garments, and the 
anointing oil, and a bullock for the sin offering, and 
two rams, and a basket of unleavened bread ; 

And gather thou all the congregation together unto 
the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. 



Leviticus VIIL i — 3. 



LATIN. 

Locutusque est Dominus ad Moysen, dicens : lolle 
Aaron cum filiis suis, vestes eorura, et unctionis oleum, 
vitulum pro peccato, duos arietes, canistrum cum azymis, 
et congregabis omnera ccetum ad ostium tabcrnaculi. 

FRENCH. 

L'Eternel parla aussi k Moyse, disant : Prends Aaron 
et ses fils avec lui, les vetemens, I'huile de I'onction, et 
un veau pour le sacrifice pour le pdchd, deux briers, 
et une corbeille de pains sans levain. 

ITALIAN. 

II Signore parlb oltr'a ci5 a Moise : dicendo, Prendi 
Aaron, ed i suoi figliuoli con lui : ed i vestiraenti, el' 
olio deir Untione, ed il giovenco per lo sacrificio per 
lo peccato, ed i due montoni e'l paniere degli azzimi. 

Ed aduna tutta la raunaaza, all' entrata del tabernacolo 
della convenenza. 

SPANISH. 

Y hablo el Seftor i Moists, diciendo : Toma i Aardn 
y i sus hijos, sus vestidos, y el oleo de la uncion, el becerro 
por el pecado, dos cameros, un canastillo con dzymos. 

Y congregards todo el pueblo i la puerta del taber- 
naculo. 



XIX. 



NADAB AND ABIHU KILLED BY FIRE. 




Leviticus X. i, 2. 



And Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron, took 
either of them his censer, and put fire therein, and put 
incense thereon, and offered strange fire before the 
Lord, which he commanded them not. 

And there went out fire from the Lord, and devoured 
them, and they died before the Lord 



Leviticus X. t, i. 

LATIN. 

Arreptisque Nadab et Abiu, filii Aaron thuribulis, po- 
suerunt ignem, et incensum de super, offerentes coram 
Domino ignem alienum : quod eis preceptum non erat 
Egressusque ignis k Domino devoravit eos, et niortui 
sunt coram Domino. 

FRENCH. 

Or les fils d'Aaron, Nadab et Abihu, prirent chacun 
leur encensoir, et y mirent du feu, et du parfum dessus, 
et ils oflfrirent devant TEtemal du feu Strange, ce qn'il 
ne leur avoit point command^ 

Et le feu sortit de devant TEtemel, et il les d^vora, 
et ils moururent devant TEternel. 

ITALIAN. 

Or Nadab, ed Abihu, figliuoli d'Aaron, presero cias- 
cuno il suo turibolo, e vi posero dentro del fuoco, e vi 
misero su dello'ncenso ; e presentarono davanti al Sig- 
nore del fuoco strano : il che egli non havea lor co- 
mandato. 

Ed un fuoco usc\ dal cospetto del Signore, il quale 
gli divampb : ed essi morirono davanti al Signore. 

SPANISH. 

Y habiendo tornado Naddb y Abiii hijos de Aardn los 
incensarios, pusidron fuego 6 incienso en ellos, ofreci- 
endo delante del Senor, fuego extrano : lo qual no les 
habia sido mandado. 

Y habiendo salido fuego del Scftor, los devoro, y 
murieron delante del Senor. 



XX. 

CERTAIN MORAL AND CEREMONIAL LAWS 
COMMANDED BY GOD. 




Leviticus XIX. i, 2. 

And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 

Speak unto all the congregation of the children of 
Israel, and say unto them. Ye shall be holy ; for I the 
Lord your God am holy. 



Leviticus XIX. i, a. 



LATIN. 

Locutus est Dominus ad Moysen, dicens : Loquere 
ad omnem coetum filiorum Israel et dices ad eos : Sancti 
estote, quia ego sanctus sum, Dominus Deus vester. 

FRENCH. 

L'Eteniel park aussi k Moyse, disant : 

Parle k toute I'assembMe des enfans d'Israel, et dis- 
leur : Soyez saints : car je suis saint, moi qui suis 
I'Etemel votre Dieu. 

ITALIAN. 

II Signore parlb ancora a Moise : dicendo, 

Parla a tutta la raunanza de' figliuoli d'Israel : e d\ 

loro, Siate santi : perciocchfe io il Signore Iddio vostro, 

son santo. 

SPANISH. 

Hablo el Senor d Moises diciendo : 

Habla i toda la congregacion de los hijos de Israel, 
y les dirds : Sed santos, porque yo santo soy, el S^f.or 
Dies vuestro. 



XXI. 



GOD COMMANDETH MOSES TO NUMBER THE 
PEOPLE. 




Numbers I. 19. 



As the Lord commanded Moses, so he numbered them 
in the Wilderness of Sinai. 



Numbers I. ra 



LATIN. 



Sicut praeceperat Dominus Moysi : Numeratique sun 
in deserto Sinai. 



FRENCH. 



Selon que TEtemel I'avoit command^ k Moyse : Et il 
les compta au desert de Sinai. 

ITALIAN. 

Come il Signore havea comandato a Moise, egli gli 
annoverb nel diserto di Sinai. 

SPANISH. 

Como el Senor lo habia mandado d Moists Y se 
hizo la numeracion en el desierto de Sinal 



XXII. 



THE ORDER OF THE TRIBES IN THEIR TENTS 
AND IN THEIR MARCHES. 



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Numbers II. 2. 



Every man of the children of Israel shall pitch by 
his own standard, with the ensign of their father's house : 
far off about the tabernacle of the congregation shall 
they pitch. 



Numbers II. s. 



LATIN. 



Singuli per turmas, signa, atque vexilla, et domos 
cognationum suarum, castrametabuntur filii Israel, per 
gyrum tabemaculi fcederis. 

FRENCH. 

Les enfans d'Israel camperont chacun sous sa banni^re, 
avec les enseignes des raaisons de leurs pbres, tout autour 
du Tabernacle d'assignation, vis-k-vis de luu 

ITALIAN. 

Accampinsi i figliuoli d'Israel, ciascuno presso alia sua 
bandiera, distinti per I'insegne delle lor famiglie paterne : 
accampinsi dirincontro al Tabemacolo deila convenenza, 
d'ogn' intomo. 

SPANISH. 

Los hijos de Israel acamparin al rededor del taber- 
ndculo de la alianza, cada uno por los esquadrones, 
insignias, y estandartes, y casas de sus parentelas. 



XXIII. 



THE REBELLION OF KORAH, DATIIAN, AND ABIRAM, 




Numbers XVI. ^2 

They, and all that appertained to them, went down 
alive into the pit, and the earth closed upon them : and 
they perished from among the congregation. 



Numbers XVt 3^ 



LATIN. 

Descendenintque vivi in infernum operti humo, et 
peiierunt de medio multitudinis. 

FRENCH. 

lis descendirent done eux, et tous ceux qui leur 
appartenoient, vivans dans le gouflfre : Et la terre les 
couvrit, et ils perirent ainsi du milieu de Tassemblde. 

ITALIAN. 

E scesero vivi nell' inferno, insieme con tutto quello 
ch'apparteneva loro : e la terra gli coperse, ed essi pe- 
rirono d'infra la raunanza. 

SPANISH. 

Y descendi^ron vivos al infierao cubiertos de tierra, 
y pereci^ron de en medio de la multitud. 



XXIV. 



THE BRAZEN SERPENT. 




Numbers XXI. 9. 

And Moses made a serpent of brass, and put it upon a 
pole, and it came to pass, that if a serpent had bitten any 
man, when he beheld the serpent of brass, he lived. 



Numbers XXI. 9. 



LATIN. 

Fecit ergo Moyses Serpentem ?eneum, et posuit eum 
pro signo : quern cum percussi aspicerent. sanabantur. 

FRENCH. 

Moyse done fit un serpent d'airain, et le mit sur une 
perche : et il arrivoit que quand quelque serpent avoit 
mordu un homme, s'il regardoit le serpent d'airain, il 
^toit gue'ri, 

ITAUAN. 

E Moise fece un serpente di rame, e lo mise sopra una 
antenna : ed avveniva che, se un serpente havea morso al- 
cuno, ed egli riguardava al serpente di rame, egli scampava. 

SPANISH. 

Hizo pues Moists una Serpiente de bronce, y la puso 
por seiial, y los heridos que la miraban eran sanados. 



XXV. 



THE MIDIANITES SPOILED, AND BALAAM SLAIN. 




Numbers XXXL 9. 



And the children of Israel took all the women of 
Midian captives, and their little ones, and took the spoil 
of all their cattle, and all their flocks, and all their goods. 



Numbers XXXI. ^ 



lATIN. 

Ceperuntque muiieres eonim, et parvulos, oirniaquc 
pecoro, et cunctam supellectilera : quidquid habere po- 
tuerant depopulati sunt. 

FRENCH. 

Et les enfans d'Israel emmenbrent prisonnibres les 
fenimes de Madian, avec leurs petits enfans : et ils pille- 
rent teut leur gros et menu Wtail, et tout ce qui dtoit en 
leur puissance. 

ITALIAN. 

Ed i figliuoli d'Israel ne menarono prigioni le donne di 
Madian, ed i lor piccioli fanciulli : e predarono tutto'l lo" 
grosso e minuto bestiame, e tutte le lor faculti, 

SPA.MSH. 

Y tomdron sus mugeres, y sus hijos, y todos los 
ganados, y todos los muebles : saquedron quanto pudieron 
alcanzar. 



2 a 



XXVI. 



MOSES REHEARSETH THE STORY OF ISRAEI/S 
PASSAGE THROUGH THE WILDERNESS. 




Deuteronomy I. 3. 



And it came to pass in the fortieth year, in the eleventh 
month, on the first day of the month, that Moses spake 
unto the children of Israel, according unto all that the 
Lord had given him in commandment unto them. 



Deuteronomy I. 



LATIN. 

Quadragesirao anno, undecimo mense, prima die mensis, 
locutus est Moyses ad filios Israel omnia quae preceperat 
illi Dominus, ut diceret eis. 

FRENCH, 

Or, en la quaranti^me ann^e, au premier jour du 
onzi^me mois, Moyse dit aux enfans d'Israel tout ce que 
I'Etemel lui avoit command^ de leur dire. 

ITALIAN. 

Or I'anno quarantesimo, a calendi deH'undecimo mese, 
Moise parl6 a' figliuoli d'Israel, secondo tutto cio chtl 
Signore gli havea comandato di dir loro. 

SPANISH. 

En el ano quadragdsimo, en el undecimo mes, el 
primer dia del mes habl(5 Moists i los hijos de Isra^ 
todas las cosas que le mand<5 el Senor que les dixera. 



XXVII. 



MOSES EXHORTETH TO OBEDIENCE FROM 
GODS PAST DEALINGS. 




Deuteronomy IV. i, 



Now therefore hearken, O Israel, unto the statutes and 
unto the judgments, which I teach you, for to do them, 
that ye may live, and go in and possess the land which 
the Lord God of your fathers giveth you. 



Deuteronomy IV. i. 



LATIN. 

Et nunc Israel audi praecepta et judicia, quae ego doceo 
te : ut faciens ea, vivas, et ingrediens possideas Terram, 
quam Dominus Deus patrum vestrorum daturus est vobis. 

FRENCH. 

Maintenant Israel dcoute ces statuts et ces ordon- 
nances que je t'enseigne pour les faire, afin que vous 
viviez, et que vous entriez au pays que I'Eternel le Dieu 
de vos pbres vous donne, et que vous le poss^diez. 

ITALIAN. 

Ora dun que, Israel attendi agli statuti ed alle legge, le 
quali io t'insegno, acciocch^ tu le metti in opera : affin 
che voi viviate, ed entriate nel paese, che'l Signore Iddio 
d^ vostri padri vi dk, e lo possediate. 

SPANISH, 

Pues ahora Isra^ oye los preceptos y los juicios, que 
yo te enseiio, para que haci^ndolos, vivas, y entrando 
poseas la Tierra, que el Senor el Dios de vuestros padres 
OS ha de dar. 



XXVIII. 



A PROPHET TO ARISE LIKE UNTO MOSES. 




Deuteronomy XVIII. 15. 



The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a prophet 
from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me ; 
unto hirn ye shall hearken. 



Dexttironomy XVIII. 15. 



LATIN. 

Prophetura de gente tua et de fratribus tuis sicut me, 
suscitabit tibi Dominus Deus tuus : ipsura audies. 

FRENCH. 

L'Eternel ton Dieu te suscitera un Prophbte comme 
moi d'entre tes frferes ; vous I'dcouterez. 

ITALIAN. 

II Signore Iddio tuo ti susciterh. un Profeta come me, 
del mezzo di te, de' tuoi fratelli : esso ascoltate. 

SPANISH. 

El Senor Dios tuyo levantard para t( de tu nacion, y 
de entre tus hermanos un Prop beta como yo : d dl oirds. 



XXIX 



THIRTY AND ONE KINGS SMITTEN BY JOSHUA. 




Joshua XII. 7. 

And these are the kings of the country which Joshua 
and the children of Israel smote on this side Jordan, on 
the west, from Baal-gad, in the valley of Lebanon, even 
unto the mount Halak, that goeth up to Seir ; which 
Joshua gave unto the tribe of Israel for a possession 
according to their divisions. 



Joshua XII. 7. 

LATIN. 

Hi sunt reges Terrae, quos percussit Josue, et filii 
Israel, trans Jordanem ad Occidentalem plagam, h. Baal- 
gad in campo Libani, usque ad montem cujus pars 
ascendit in Seir : tradiditque earn Josue in possessionem 
tribubus Israel, singulis partes suas. 

FRENCH. 

Et ce sont ici les Rois du pays que Josud, et les enfans 
d'Israel battirent en-de^a du Jourdain vers I'Occident, 
depuis Bahal-Gad en la campagne du Liban, jusqu'k la 
montagne de Halak, qui monte vers Sdhir, et que Josue 
donna aux tribus d'Israel en possession selon leurs 
portions. 

ITALIAN. 

E questi sono li ih del paese, i quali Josue, ed i figliuoli 
d'Israel percossero di qua dal Jordano, verso occidente : 
da Baal-gad, nella Valle del Libano, infino al monte 
Halac, che sale verso Seir : il qual paese Josue diede a 
possedere alle tribli d'Israel, secondo i loro spartimentd 

SPANISH. 

Estos son los Reyes del pais, i los que derrotd Josud y 
los hijos de Isra^ de la otra parte del Jordan al lado 
occidental, desde Baalgdd en el campo, del Libano hasta 
el monte, del que una parte sube dcia Seir : y Josu^ lo did 
en posesion i las tribu? de Israd, i cada una su porcion. 



XXX. 

ADONI-BEZEK REQUITED FOR HIS CRUELTY. 




Judges I. 6. 

But Adoni-bezek fled ; and they pursued after him, 
and caught him, and cut ofif his thumbs and his great 
toes 



JUDGES I. 6. 



LATIN. 

Fugit autem Adonibezec : quem persecuti comprehen 
derent, cassis suraraitatibus manuura ejus ac pcaum. 

FRENCH. 

Et Adoni-bdzek s'enfuit, mais ils le poursuivirent ; et 
I'ayant saisi, ils lui coup^rent les pouces des mains et des 
pieds. 

ITALIAN. 

Ed Adonibezec fcggl : ma essi lo perseguitarono : e 
presolo, gli tagliarono i diti grossi delle raani, e de' piedi. 

SPANISH. 

Y huy6 Adonibezec : al que habiendo seguido en el 
alcance prendi^ron, y cortiron las extremidades de las 
manos y de los pies de dL 



XXXL 



RUTH GLEANETH IN THE FIELDS OF BOAZ, 




Ruth II. 5. 



Then said Boaz unto his servant that was set over the 
reapers, Whose damsel is this ? 



Rut I IL 5. 



L/ITIN. 



Dixitque Booz juveni, qui messoribus preerat : Cujui 
est haec puella I 



FRENCH. 



Puis Booz dit k son Serviteur qui ^toit commis sur les 
moissonneurs : A qui est cette jeune fille 1 



ITALIAN. 



Poi Booz disse al suo servidore ordinate sopra I 
mietitori, Di cui 6 questa giovane ? 



SPANISH. 



Y dixo Booz al joven, que cuidaba de los segadores : 
De quien es esta muchacha ? 



XXXII. 



HANNAH IN GRIEF PRAYETH FOR A CHILD. 




I Samuel I. lo. 



And she was in bitterness of soul, and prayed unto the 
Lord, and wept sore. 



I Samuel I. id. 



LATIW. 

CUm esset Anna amaro animo, oravit ad Dommuni, 
flens largiter. 

FRENCH. 

Elle done ayant le cceur plein d'amertume, pria I'Eter 
nel, en r^pandant beaucoup de larmes. 

ITALIAN. 

Ed, essendo in amaritudine d'animo, pregb il Signore 
e piagnea dirottamente. 

SPANISH. 

Anna con un corazon Ueno de amargura, oro al Se&or, 
!erramando copiosas Idgrimas. 



A A 



XXXIII. 



SAMUEL ANOINTETH SAUL. 




1 Samuel X. i. 



Then Samuel took a vial of oil, and poured it upon his 
head, and kissed him, and said. Is it not because the Lord 
hath anointed thee to be captain over his inheritance ? 



I Samuel X i. 



LATIN. 

Tulit autem Samuel lenticulam olei, et effudit super 
caput ejus, et deosculatus est eum, et ait : 

Ecce, unxit te Dominus super hereditatem suam in 
Drincipem, et liberabis populum suum de manibus inimi- 

frum ejus, qui in circuitu ejus sunt. Et hoc tibi signum, 
ia unxit te Deus in principera. 



FRENCH. 

Or Samuel avoit pris une fiole d'huile, qu'il r^pandit 
sur la t^te de Saul : puis il le baisa, et lui dit : L'Eternel 
ne t'a-t-il pas oint sur son heritage, afin d'en 6tre le con- 
ducteur ? 

ITALIAN. 

rl Or Samuel havea preso un picciol vase d'olio e lo versb 
m sul capo d'esso, e lo bacib, e disse : Non h egli vero 
phe'l Signore t'ha unto per conduttore sopra la sua 
hereditk ? 
SPANISH. 

Y Tomo Samud una ampolla de aceyte, la derramd 
sobre la cabeza de SaiSl, y le besd, y dixo : He aquf que 
el Sefior te ha ungido por Principe sobre su heredad, y 
librards i su pueblo de las manos de sus enemigos, que 
le rodean. Y esta serd la senal de que Dios te ha ungido 
por Principe. 

A A 7 



XXXIV. 



DAVID KILLETH GDLIATH. 




I Samuel XVII. 49. 

And David put his hand in his bag, and took thence a 
stone, and slang it, and smote the Philistine in his fore- 
head, that the stone sunk into his forehead ; and he fell 
upon his face to the earth. 



Samuel XVII. 49 



LATIN. 



£t misit manum suam in peram, tulitque anum lapidcm, 
ei funda jecit, et circumducens percussit Philisthaeum in 
fronte : et infixus est lapis in fronte ejus, et cecidit in 
faciem suam super terram. 



FRENCH. 



Alors David mit la main k sa panetibre, et en prit une 
pierre, et la jette avec sa fronde, et il en frappa le Philistin 
au front, tellement que la pierre s'enfon9a dans son 
front, et il tomba le visage centre terre. 

ITALIAN. 

E David mise la mano a quel suo arnese, e ne prese 
una pietra : e trattala con la frombola, percosse il Filisteo 
nella fronte : e la pietra gli si ficcb nella fronte, ed egli 
cadde boccone a terra. 

SPANISH. 

Y metid su mano en el zurron, y sac(5 una piedra, que 
dispard con la honda, y ddndole vuelta, hiri6 al Philisthdo 
en la frente : y la piedra qued6 hincada en su frenle, y 
03 yd en tierra sobre su rostro. 



XXXV. 



DAVID SAVETH KEILAH. 




I Samuel XXIII. 5. 



So David and his men went to Keilah, and fought with 
the Philistines, and brought away their cattle, and smote 
them with a great slaughter. So David saved the in- 
habitants of Keilah. 



I 



I Samuel XXIII. 5. 



LATIN. 

Abiit ergo David, et viri ejus, in Ceilam, et pi ^avit 
adversum Philisthaeos, et abegit jumenta eorum, et per- 
cussit eos plaga magna : et salvavit David habitatores 
Ceilae. 

FRENCH. 

Alors David s'en alia avec ses gens K K^ila, et com- 
battit les Philistins, et eramena leur b^tail, et il en fit un 
grand carnage : ainsi David ddlivra les habitans de 
Ke'hila. 

ITALIAN. 

David adunque and6, con la sua gente, in Cheila, e 
combattfe contr* a'Filistei, e ne menb il lor bestiame, e gli 
percosse d'una grande sconfitta : e liberb gli habitant! 
di Cheila. 

SPANISH. 

March(5 pues David y su gente para Ceila, y pele6 
contra los Philisthdos, y llevdse sus ganados, y los hirid 
con gran mortandad : y salvd David d los moradores Je 
Ceila. 



XXXVI. 



DAVID LAMENTETH OVER SAUL AND JONATHAN. 




2 Samuel I. ii. 



Then David took hold on his clothes, and rent them 
and likewise all the men that were with him. 



I Samukl L t;. 



LATIN. 



Apprehendens autem David vesliraenia sua scidit, 
omnesque viri qui erant cum eo. 



FRENCH. 



Alors David prit ses vetemens, et les ddchira : tous les 
hommes aussi qui dtoient avec lui, en firent de meme. 



ITALIAN. 

Allora David prese i suoi vestimenti, e gli straccib. II 
simigliante fecero ancora tutti gli huomini ch'erano con 

lui. 

SPANISH. 

David entonces asiendo de sus vestidos, los rasg6, v 
todos los horabres que estaban cm {\. 



XXXVII. 



DAVID SMITETH HADADEZER AND THE SYRIANS. 




2 Samuel VIII. 3. 



David smote also Hadadezer, the son of Rehob, king 
of Zobah, as he went to recover his border at the river 
Euphrates. 



I 



9 Samuel VIIL 



LATIN. 

Et percussit David Adarezer filium Rohob regain 
Soba, quando profectus est ut dominaretur super flumen 
Euphraten. 

FRENCH. 

David battit aussi Hadadh^zer fils de R^ob, Roi de 
Tsoba, qui alloit pour r^tablir la domination sur le fleuve 
d'Euphrate. 

ITALIAN. 

David oltr'a cib percosse Hadadezer, figliuolo di 
Rehob, re de Soba, andando por ridurre il paese sotto 
alia sua mano fino al fiume Eufrate. 

SPANISH. 

Destrozd tambien David i Adarezdr hijo de Rohob 
Rey de Soba, quando sali<5 para extender sus doiniaioa 
lasta el rio Euphrate:--. 



XXXVIII. 



URIAH SLAIN BY DAVID'S CONTRIVANCE. 







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2 Samuel XL 14. 



And it came to pass in the morning, that David wrote 
a letter to Joab, and sent it by the hand of Uriah. 



9 Samuel XI. 14. 



LATIN. 

Factum est ergo manb, et scripsit David epistolAiB &J 
Joab : misitque per manum Uriae. 

FRENCH. 

Et le lendemam matin David ^crivit k Joab, et envoya 
sa lettre par les mains d'Urie. 

ITALIAN. 

E la mattina seguente David scrisse una lettera a Joab, 
e gliela mandb per Una. 

SPANISH. 

Megd pues la mafiana, y escribid David una cvtfi A 
Joab : y se la envid por mano de Unas. 



XXXIX. 



NATHAN REPROVETH DAVID BY A PARABLE. 




2 Samuel XII. 7. 
And Nathan said to David, Thou art the man. 



2 SAMUft XII. 7. 
LATIN. 

Dixit autem Nathan ad David : Tu es ille vir. 

FRENCH. 

Alors Nathan dit k David : Tu es cet horame-13L 

ITALIAN. 

Allora Natan disse a David, Tu sei quell' huoraa 

SPANISH. 

Mas Nathin dixo i David : Tu eres aquel hombre 



XL. 



JOAB'S ARTIFICE TO BRING HOME ABSALOM. 




2 Samuel XIV. 4. 



And when the woman of Tekoah spake to the king, 
she fell on her face to the ground, and did obeisance, 
and said, Help, O King. 



9 Samuel XIV. 4 



LATIN. 



Itaque cum ingressa fuit mulier Thecuitis ad regem, 
cecidit coram eo super terram, et adoravit, et dixit : 
Serva me rex. 



FRENCH, 



La femme TAohite done parla au Roi ; et tomba sur 
son visage en terre, et se prostema, et dit : O Roi, 
aide-moi. 



ITALIAN. 



Quella donna Tecoita adunque andb a parlare al rb, 
e si gittb in terra sopra la sua faccia, e si prosternb : e 
disse, Salvami, o rh. 



SPANISH. 



Y asf habiendo entrado al Rey la muger Thecuita, 
postr6se en ticrra delante de el, >• le adord, y dixo ; O 
Rey, sdlvame 



B B 



XLI. 



AMASA IS SLAIN BY JOAB. 




Samuel XX. lo. 

But Amasa took no heed to the sword that was m 
Joab's hand : so he smote him therewith in the fifth rib, 
and shed out his bowels to the ground, and struck him 
not again ; and he died. 



3 Samukl XX. lO. 



lATIN. 

Porrb Amasa non observavit gladium, quern habebat 
Joab, qui percussit eum in latere, et effudit intestina ejus 
in terram, nee secundum vulnus apposuit, et mortuus est 

FRENCH. 

Or Hamasa ne prenoit point garde k I'dpde qui 6to\t en 
la main de Joab : et Joab Ten frappa k la cinquit^me cote, 
et il rdpandit ses entrailles en terre, sans le frapper une 
seconde fois, et il mourut. 

ITALIAN. 

Ed Amasa non si prendeva guardia della spada che 
Joab havea in mano. Ed egU lo percosse nelle cinque 
coste, e sparse I'interiora d'esso in terra, d'un sul colpo, 
senza raddoppiarlo. Cos\ egli morl. 

SPANISH. 

Y Amasa no hizo reparo en la espada, que tenia Jodb, 
el qual le hirlo en un costado, y le ech(5 las tripas en tierra, 
y sin asegundarle otro golpe, muri(5. 



K P 9 



XLII. 



ABISHAG CHERISHETII DAVID. 




I I Kings I. 3. 

So they sought for a fair damsel throughout :>11 {\\c 
coasts of Israel, and found Abishag a Shunammitc, and 
brought her to the king. 



: KiNos I. a. 



LATIN. 

Qusesicrunt igitur adolesccntulam spcciosam m omnibus 
finibus Israel, ct invcncrunt Abisag Sunamitidcm, ct ad- 
duxerunt earn ad rcgcm. 

FRENCH. 

On chcrche done dans toutes Ics contr(;es d'Israel une 
fillc qui fOt belle : et on trouva Abisag Scunamite, qu'on 
amcna au Roi. 

ITALIAN. 

Ccrcarono adunque, per tutte le contrade d'Israel, una 
l)clla fanciulla : o trovarono Abisag Sunamita, c la con- 
dusscro al rb. 

SPANISH. 

Buscdron pues en todos los t^rminos de Isra^ una 
joYcncita hermosa, y halldron i Abis^ de Sundm, y 
Uevdronsela al Rey. 



XLIII. 



HIRAM SENDETH TO CONGRATULATE SOLOMON. 




Kings V. i. 



And Hiram, king of Tyre, sent his servants unto 
Solomon ; for he had heard that they had anointed him 
king in the room of his father ; for Hiram was ever a 
lover of David. 



T Kings V. i. 



LATIN. 

Misit quoque Hiram rex Tyri servos suos ad Salo- 
monem : audivit enim qu6d ipsum unxissent regem pro 
patre ejus : quia amicus fuerat Hiram David omni tempore. 

FRENCH. 

Et Hiram, Roi de Tyr, envoya ses serviteurs vers 
Salomon, ayant appris qu'on I'avoit oint pour Roi h. la 
place de son pbre, car Hiram avoit toujours aim^ David. 

ITALIAN. 

Or Hiram, rh di Tiro, havendo udito che Salomone 
era stato unto rfe, in luogo di suo padre, gli mando i suoi 
servidori : perciocchfe Hiram era sempre stato amico di 
David. 

SPANISH. 

Envio tambien Hirim Rey de Tiro sus criados i 
Salomon : porque habia oido que le habian ungido Rey 
en lugar de su padre : por quanto Hir^ habia sido 
siempre amigo de David. 



XLIV. 



JEROBOAM SENDETH HIS WIFE IN DISGUISE 
TO INQUIRE OF AHIJAH THE PROPHET. 




I Kings XIV. 12. 



Arise thou therefore, get thee to thine own house 
when thy feet enter into the city, the child shall die. 



and 



I Kings XIV. r». 



LATIN. 



Tu igitur surge, et vade in domum tuam : et in ipso 
ntroitu pedum tuorura in urbem, morietur puer. 

FRENCH. 

Toi done Mve-toi, et va-t-en dans ta raaison : aussitot 
que tes pieds entreront dans la ville, I'enfant mourra. 

ITALIAN. 

Or tu, levati, vattene a casa tua : in quello stante che i 
tuoi piedi entreranno nella cittk, il fanciullo morrk. 

SPANISH. 

Tu pues levdntate, y vete i tu casa : y en el punto 
mismo en que entrardn tus pies en la ciudad, morird el 
muchacha 



XLV. 



ELIJAH PRAYING, IS ANSWERED BY FIRE FROM HEAVEN. 




I Kings XVIII. 38. 



Then the fire of the Lord fell, and consumed the 
burnt sacrifice, and the wood, and the stones, and the 
dust, and licked up the water that was in the trenclL 



I Kings XVIII. 38. 



^^F LATIN. 

Cecidit autem ignis Domini, et voravit holocaustum, et 
ligna, et lapides, pulverem quoque, et aquara quae erat in 
aquaeductu lambens. 

FRENCH. 

Alors le feu de TEternel tomba, et il consuma I'holo- 
causte, et le bois, et les pierres, et le poudre, et il huma 
toute I'eau qui etoit au canal. 

ITALIAN. 

AUora cadde fuoco del Signore, e consumb I'holo- 
causto, e le legne, e le pietre, e la polvere : e lamb! 
I'acqua ch'era nel condotto. 

SPANISH. 

Y cayd fuego del Senor, y devord el holocausto, y la 
lena, y las piedras, lamiendo aun el polvo, y el agua, que 
habia en el aqiieducto. 



XLVI. 



BEARS DESTROY THE CHILDREN THAT MOCKED ELISHA. 




2 Kings II. 23. 



And he went up from thence unto Bethel : and as he 
was going up by the way, there came forth little children 
out of the city, and mocked him, and said unto him, Go 
up, thou bald head ; go up, thou bald head. 



2 Kings II. 33. 



LATIN. 

Ascendit autem inde in Bethel : cumque ascenderet 
per viam, pueri parvi egressi sunt de civitate, et illude- 
bant ei, dicentes : Ascende calve, ascende calve. 

FRENCH. 

Et de Ik il monta k Bethel : et comme il montoit par 
le chemin, des jeunes gardens sortirent de la ville, qui se 
moquoient de lui, et disoient : Monte chauve, monte 
chauve. 

ITALIAN. 

Poi di la egli sail in B^tel : e, come egli saliva per la 
via, certi piccioH fanciulli uscirono fuor della cittk e lo 
befTavano, e gli dicevano, Sali calvo, saK calvo. 

SP\NISH. 

Y subid desde alH i Bethd : y quando subia por el 
camino, sali^ron de la ciudad unos muchachuelos, y Ic 
escarnecion, diciendo : Sube, calvo, sube, calvo. 



XLVII. 



ATHALIAH PRESSING FORWARD INTO THE TEMPLE 
IS SEIZED AND SLAIN. 




2 Kings XL 14. 



And when she looked, behold the king stood by a 
pillar, as the manner was, and the princes and the 
trumpeters by the king, and all the people of the land 
rejoiced, and blew with trumpets : and Athaliah rent her 
clothes, and cried, Treason, Treason. 



a Kings Xl. ia. 



lATIN. 



Vidit regem stantem super tribunal juxta morem, et 
can tores et tubas prope eum, omnemque populum terrae 
letantem et canentem tubis : et scidit vestimenta sua, 
claraavitque : Conjuratio, conjuratio. 

FRENCH. 

Et elle regarda, et voil^ le Roi ^toit pr^s de la colonne, 
selon la coutume des Rois, et les Capitaines et les trom- 
pettes etoient pr^s du Roi, et tout le peuple du pays etoit 
dans la joie, et on sonnoit des trompettes. Alors 
Hathalie ddchira ses vetemens, et cria : Conjuration, 
conjuration ! 

ITAUAN. 

E riguardb : ed ecco'l vh, che stava in pih sopra la pila, 
«econdol costume : ed i capitani, e trombettieri erano 
presso del ih ; e tutto'l popolo del paese era allegro, e 
sonava con le trombe. Allora Atalia si straccib le vesti, 
e grido, Congiura, congiura. 

SPANISH. 

Vid al Rey que estaba sobre el trono segun costumbre, 
y los cantores, y las trompetas junto i e'l, y todo el 
pueblo de la tierra en regocijo, y tocando las trompetas : 
y rasg6 sus vestiduras, y grito : Conjuracion, conjuracioc. 



XLVIIL 



AHAZ REIGNETH VERY WICKEDLY. 




2 Kings XVL 12. 



And when the king was come from Damascus, the 
king saw the altar : and the king approached to the altar, 
and offered thereon. 



2 Kings XVI. 12. 



LATIN. 

Cumque venisset rex de Damasco, vidit altare, et 
veneratus est illud : ascenditque et immolavit holocausta, 
ct sacrificium suum. 

FRENCH. 

Et quand le Roi Achaz fut revenu de Damas, et qu'il 
eut vu I'autel, il s'en approcha, et fit oflfrir sur cet autel. 

ITALIAN. 

E quando'l ih fu venuto di Damasco, ed hebbe veduto 
Taltare, s'accostb ad esso, ed offerse sopra esso sacrificii. 

SPANISH. 

Y habiendo llegado el Rey, de Damasco, vi6 el altar, 
y lo venerd : y subio i el, y ofreci<5 holocaustos, y su 
acrificia 



cc 



XLIX. 



JOSIAH DESTROYETH IDOLATRY. 



2 Kings XXIII. 2. 

And the king went up into the house of the Lord, and 
all the men of Judah and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem 
with him, and the priests, and the prophets, and all the 
people, both small and great : and he read in their ears 
all the words of the book of the covenant which was 
found in the house of the Lord. 



2 Kings XXIII. 2. 



LATIN. 



Ascenditque rex templum Domini, et omnes viri Juda, 
universique qui habitabant in Jerusalem cum eo sacer- 
dotes et prophetae, et omnis populus k parvo usque ad 
magnum : legitque cunctis audientibus omnia verba libri 
foederis, qui inventus est in domo Domini. 

FRENCH. 

Et le Roi monta k la maison de TEtemel, et tous les 
hommes de Juda, et tous les habitans de Jerusalem 
^toient avec lui : les sacri6cateurs y ^toient aussi et les 
proph^tes, et tout le peuple, depuis le plus petit jusqu'au 
plus grand ; et ils entendirent lire toutes les paroles du 
livre de I'alliance, qui avoit 6t6 trouvd dans la maison de 
TEternel. 

ITALIAN. 

E'l rh sali nella casa del Signore, con tutti gli huomini 
principali di Juda, e tutti gli habitanti di Jerusalem, ed i 
sacerdoti, ed i profeti, e tutto'l popolo, dal minore al 
maggiore : ed egli lesse, in lor presenza, tutte le parole 
del libro del Patto, il quale era stato trovato nella casa 
•iel Signore. 

SPANISH. 

Y subi6 el Rey al templo del Senor, y con il todos los 
varones de Judd, y todos los que moraban en Jerusalem, 
los Sacerdotes y los Prophetas, y todo el pueblo desde 
el menor hasta el mayor : y ley6 oydndolo todos todas 
las palabras del Libro de la alianza, que fu^ hallado en 
la casa del Seizor. 

c c a 



THE GENEALOGY FROM ADAM RECITED. 




I Chronicles IX. t, 



So all Israel were reckoned by genealogies ; and, 
behold, they were written in the book of the Kings of 
Israel and Judah, who were carried away to Babylon for 
their transgression. 



I Chronicles IX. i 

LATIN. 

Universus ergo Israel dinumeratus est : et summa eorum 
scripta est in Libro regum Israel, et Juda : translatique 
sunt in Babylonem propter delictum suum, 

FRENCH. 

A insi on fit la gdn^ogie de tous ceux d'Israel, et voilk 
ils sont Merits au livre des Rois d'Israel : et ceux de Juda 
furent transport's k Babylon k cause de leurs crimes. 

ITALIAN. 

iJos{ tutti gl'Israeliti furono annoverati per le lor 
generationi : ed ecco, sono descritti nel Libro delli rh 
d*Israel. Or, dopo che que' di Juda furono stati menati 
in cattivitk in Babilonia, per li lor misfatti. 

SPANISH. 

Fue pues contado todo Isra^ : y la suma de ellos fu6 
escrita en el Libro de los Reyes de Isra^, y de Judd : y 
fu'ron transportados i Babylonia por su pecado. 



LI. 



THE OVERTHROW AND DEATH OF SAUL. 




I Chronicles X. io. 



And they put his armour in the house of their gods, 
and fastened his head in the temple of Dagon. 



I Chronicles X. lo. 



LATIN. 



Arraa autem ejus consecraverunt in fano dei sui, el 
caput affixerunt in templo Dagon. 

FRENCH. 

Et ils mirent ses armes au Temple de leur dieu, et ils 
attach^rent sa t^te dans la maison de Dagon. 

ITALIAN. 

E posero rarrai di Saul nel tempio de' loro dii ; ed 
appiccarono il suo teschio nel tempio di Dagon. 

SPANISH. 

Y consagrdron sus armas en el tempio de sus dios, y 
clavdron la cabeza en ei tempio de Dagon. 



LII. 



DAVID APPOINTETH A BAND OF SINGERS AND 
MUSIC TO PRAISE THE LORD. 



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I Chronicles XVI. 4. 



And he appointed certain of the Levites to minister 
before the ark of the Lord, and to record, and to thank 
and praise the Lord God of Israel. 



I Chroniclrs X*V1. 4. 

LATHI. 

Constituitque coram area Domini de Levitis, qui minis- 
trarent, et recordarentur operum ejus, et glorificarent 
atque laudarent Dominum Deum Israel. 

FRENCH. 

Et il ^tablit quelques-uns des Invites devant I'Arche 
de TEtemel pour y faire le service, pour cdldbrer, pour 
rendre graces, et pour louer le Dieu d'lsraeL 

ITALIAN. 

Ed ordinb d'infra i Leviti, alcuni ministri per ramme- 
morare, e per celebrare, e per lodare il Signore Iddio 
d' Israel, davanti all* Area del Signore. 

SPANISH. 

Y senald de entre los Levitas los que habian de 
ministrar delante del area del Seiior, y hacer conmerao- 
racion de sus obras, y glorificar, y alabar al Senor Dios de 
Isra^ 



LIIL 



THE SOLEMN OFFERING OF SOLOMON AT GIBEON. 




2 Chronicles L 6. 



And Solomon went up thither to the brazen altar before 
the Lord, which was at the tabernacle of the congregation, 
and offered a thousand burnt offerings upon it. 



2 CHPONirurs I. (5 



LATIN. 



Ascenditque Salomon ad aitare aeneum, coram tabef 
naculo foederis Domini, et obtulit in eo mille hostiaa 

FRENCH. 

Et Salomon offrit-L\ devant TEternel, sur Tautel d'airain 
qui ^toit aupr^s du Tabernacle, mille holocaustes. 

ITALIAN. 

E Salomone ofFerse quivi, davanti al Signore, sopra 
I'Altar di rame, ch'era nel Tabemacolo della convenenza, 
mille holocausti. 

SPANISH. 

Y subi6 Salomon al de altar bronce, delante del taber- 
niculo de la alianza del Seftor, y ofrecid en el mil vlctimas. 



LIV. 

SOLOMON BLESSETH THE PEOPLE, AND 
PRAISETH GOD. 




2 Chronicles VL 12. 



And he stood before the altar of the Lord in the 
presence of all the congregation of Israel, and spread 
forth his hands. 



a Chronicles VI. la. 



lATIN. 



Stetit ergo coram altari Domini ex adverse universera 
multitudinis Israel et extendit manus suas. 

FRENCH. 

Iriiis il se tint debout devant Tautel de TEtemel, en la 
presence de toute Tassemblde d'Israel, et il ^tendit ses 
mains. 

ITALIAN. 

Poi Salomone si presentb davanti all' Altare del Signore 
in presenza di tutta la raunanza d'Israel, e spiegb le palme 
delle sue mani. 

SPANISH. 

Se puso pues en pie delante del altar del Senor enfrente 
de toda la multitud de Israd, y extendi<5 sus manoa. 



LV. 



SHISHAK SPOILETH JERUSALEM. 




2 Chronicles XII. 9. 



So Shishak king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem, 
and took away the treasures of the house of the Lord, 
and the treasures of the king's house ; he took all : he 
carried away also the shields of gold which Solomon 
had made. 



2 Chronicles XII. 9. 



LATIN. 



Recessit itaque Sesac rex iEgypti ab Jerusalem, sublatis 
thesauris domus Domini, et domus regis, omniaque secum 
tulit, et clypeos aureos, quos fecerat Salomon. 



FRENCH. 



Scis^ak done Roi d'Egypte monta centre Jerusalem, 
et prit les trdsors de la maison de I'Etemel, et les tr^sors 
de la maison royale ; il prit tout : il prit aussi les boucliers 
d'or que Salomon avoit faits. 



ITALIAN. 



Sisac adunque, rh d'Egitto, sail contr'a Jerusalem, e 
prese i tesori della casa del Signore, ed i tesori della casa 
del r^ ; egli prese ogni cosa : prese ancora gli scudi d'oro 
che Salomone havea fatti. 



SPANISH. 



Retir6se pues Sesic Rey de Egipto de Jerusalem, 
llevdndose los tesoros de la casa del Senor, y de la ca.sa 
del Rey, y llevdlo todo consigo, y los broqueles de 010, 
que habia hecho Salomon. 



LVI. 



AN ANGEL DESTROYETH THE ASSYRIAN HOST. 



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2 Chronicles XXXII. 21. 



And the Lord sent an angel, which cut off all the mighty 
men of valour, and the leaders and captains in the camp 
0/ the king of Assyria. 



a Chronicles XXXII. ar. 



LATIN. 

Et misit Dominus angelum, qui percussit omnem virum 
robustum, et bellatorera, et principem exercitus regis 
Ass)rrionim. 

FRENCH. 

Et TEtemel envoya un Ange, qui extermina entiferement 
tous les hommes forts et vaillans, et les chefs et les capi- 
taines qui ^toient dans le camp du Roi des Assyriens. 

ITALIAN. 

E'l Signore mandb un Angelo, il quale distrusso ogni 
valente huomo, ed ogni Capo, e Capitano ch'era nel 
campo del rb degli Assirii. 

SPANISH. 

Y envi6 el Senor un Angel, que matd i todo hombre 
fuerte, y valeroso, y al General del ex^rcito del Rey dc 
los Asirios. 



D D 



LVII. 



JOSIAH CAUSETH A SOLEMN PASSOVER TO BE KEF: 




2 Chronicles XXXV. i. 



Moreover Josiah kept a passover unto the Lord in 
Jerusalem : and they killed the passover on the fourteentl 
day of the first month. 



t Chronicles XXXV. i. 



lATIN. 



Fecit autem Josias in Jerusalem Phase Domino, quod 
immolatum est quartadecima die mensis primi. 

FRENCH. 

Or Josias c^lt^Dra la ptque k I'Eternel k Jerusalem, et 
on dgorgea la pique le quatorzi^me jour du premier mols. 

ITALIAN. 

Or Josia face la Pasqua al Signore in Jerusalem : e quella 
fu scannata nel quartodecimo giomo del primo mese. 

SPANISH. 

Celebro tambien Josias en Jerusale'nc la Pasqua del 
Senor que fu^ inmolada el dia catorce del primer mes. 



o D 3 



1 

LVIIL 
CYRUS RESTORETH THE VESSELS OF THE TEMPLE. 


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Ezra L 6. 



And all they that were about them strengthened thei 
hands with vessels of silver, with gold, with goods, an( 
with beasts, and with precious things, beside all ths 
was willingly offered. 



Ezra i. o. 



LATIN. 



Universique qui eiant in circuitu adjuvenint maniis 
eonim in vasis argenteis et aureis, in substantia et 
jumentis, in supellectili, exceptis his, quae sponte 
obtulerant. 



FRENCH. 



It tous ceux qui ^toient autour d'eux ies encouragbrent, 
en leur foumissant des vases d'argent, de I'or, des biens, 
des montures, et des choses pr^cieuses, outre tout ce 
qu'on offrit volontaireraent. 

ITALIAN. 

E tutti i lor vicini d'ogn' intorno sowennero loro di 
vasellamenti d'argento, d'oro, di faculty e di bestie da 
vettura, e di cose pretiose : oltr'a tutto quello che fu 
volontariaraente offerto. 

SPANISH. 

Y todos los que estaban en los contomos, les ayudiron, 
poniendo en sus manos vasos de plata y oro, con hacienda 
y bestias, y con alhajas, ademds de lo que espontdnea- 
mente habian ofrecido. 



LIX. 



NEHEMIAH MOURNETH, FASTETH, AND PRAYETH. 




Nehemiah I. 3. 



And they said unto me, the remnant that are left of 
the captivity there in the province are in great affliction 
and reproach : the wall of Jerusalem also is broken down, 
and the gates thereof aie burned with fire. 



i 



Nehemiah I. 3 



^^M LATIN. 

Et dixenint mihi : qui remanserunt, relicti sunt de 
captivitate ibi in provincia, in afflictione magna sunt, et 
in opprobrio : et murus Jerusalem dissipatus est, et portae 
ejus combustae sunt igni. 

FRENCH. 

Et ils me dirent : Ceux qui sont rest^s de la captivity 
sont-li dans la province dans une grande misbre et en 
opprobre, et la muraille de Jerusalem demeure ddtruite, 
et ses portes ont ^t^ bruises par le feu. 

ITALIAN. 

Ed essi mi dissero, Quelli che son rimasi della cattivitk 
son Ik nella provincia, in gran miseria, e vituperio : e le 
mura de Jerusalem restano rotte, e le sue porte arse col 
fuoco. 

SPANISH. 

Y me respondi^ron : Los que queddron del cautiverio, 
y fu^ron dexados alii en la provincia, «e hallan en grande 
afliccion y oprobrio : y el muro de Jerusalem ha side 
deshecho y sus puertas quemadas i, fuej^o. 



LX. 



ESTHER IS CROWNED QUEEN. 




Esther II. 17. 

And the king loved Esther above all the women, and 
she obtained grace and favour in his sight more than 
all the virgins; so that he set the royal crown upon her 
head, and made her queen instead of Vashti. 



Esther II. 17. 



LATIN. 

Et adamavit earn rex plus qukm omnes mulieres, 
habuitque gratiam et misericordiam coram eo super 
omnes mulieres, et posuit diadema regni in capite ejus, 
fecitque eam regnare in loco Vasthl 

FRENCH. 

Et le Roi aima plus Ester que toutes les autres femmes, 
et elle gagna ses bonnes graces et sa bienveillance plus 
que toutes les autres vierges ; il mit la couronne du 
royaume sur sa tete, et il I'dtablit pour Reine h, la place 
de Vas^ti. 

ITALIAN. 

E'l rh amb Ester sopra tutte I'altre femmine : ed ella 
acquistb la sua gratia, e benivolenza, pib che tutte I'altre 
vergini : \k onde egli le pose la corona reale in sul capo, 
e la costitul reina in luogo di Vastl 

SPANISH. 

Y el Rey la amd mas que i todas las otras mugeres, 
y halld gracia y favor delante de 61 mas que todas las 
mugeres, y puso sobre su cabeza la corona Real, y la 
hizo Reyna en lugar de Vasthi. 



LXI. 



JOB REBUKETH HIS WIFE. 




Job II. 9. 

Then said his wife unto him, Dost thou still retain 
thine integrity ? curse God, and die. 



1 



Job il. 9. 



LATIN 

Dixit autem illi uxor sua : Adhuc tu permanes in 
siraplicitate tua 1 benedic Deo et morere. 

FRENCH. 

Et sa ferame lui dit : Tu conserveras encore ton 
int^grit^ ! B^nis Dieu, et meurs. 

ITALIAN. 

E la sua moglie gli disse, Ancora perseveri tu nella 
tua integrity ? benedici Iddio, e muori. 



SPANISH. 



Y su muger le dixo : i Aun te estis tu en tu simplici- 
dad ? bend ice i Dios, y mudretc. 



LXIL 



ELIPHAZ REPROVETH JOB FOR JUSTIFYING HIMSELF. 



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Job XV. i, 2. 

Then answered Eliphaz the Temanite, and said, 
Should a wise man utter vain knowledge, and fill his 
belly with the east wind ? 



i 



Job XV. i, ». 



LATIN. 

Respondens autem Eliphaz Themanites, dixit : 
Numquid sapiens respondebit quasi in ventum loqufcs 
et implebit ardore stomachum suum ? 

FRENCH. 

Alors Eliphaz, Th^manite, prit la parole, et dit 

Un homme sage dans ses r^ponses prononcera-t-il def 

opinions vaines, et remplira-t-il son coeur du veni 

d'Orient ? 

ITALIAN. 

Ed Elifaz T^manita rispose : e disse, 
Dee un huomo savio pronuntiare opinioni vane, ed 
empiersi il ventre di vento Orientale 1 

SPANISH. 

Y respondiendo Eliphdz de Themdn dixo : 
I Por Ventura un horabre sa^io responderi come si 
hablase al viento, y Uenerd de ardor su estdmago f 



LXIIL 



GOD ANSWERETH JOB O.UT OF THE WHIRLWIND. 




Job XXXVIII. i, 2. 

Then the Lord answered Job out of the whirlwind, 
and said, 

Who is this that darkeneth counsel by words without 
knowledge ? 



Job XXXVIIL i, « 



^Ip LATIN. 

^H Respondens autem Dominus Job de turbine, dixit : 
^HQuis est iste involvens sententias sermonibus imperitis ? 

FRENCH. 

Alors TEtemel rdpondit d un tourbillon h. Job, et dit : 
Qui est celui-ci qui obscurcit mon conseii par des 
paroles sans science ? 

ITALIAN. 

Allora il Signore rispose a Job da un turbo : e disse 
Chi fe cestui, che oscura il consiglio con ragionament! 
senza scienza ? 

SPANISH. 

Y respondiendo el Senor d Job desde un torbellino 
dixo ; I Qui^n es ese, que envuelve sentencias cor. 
indoctos discursos 1 



LXIV. 



THE HAPPINESS OF THE GODLY. 




Psalm I. i. 



Blessed is the man, that walketh not in the counsel of 
the ungodly, nor standeth in the way of sinners, nor 
sitteth in the seat of the scornful. 



Psalm 1. i. 



LATIN. 

Beatus vir, qui non abiit in consilio impiorum, ct in 
via peccatorum non stetit, et in cathedra pestilentice non 
sedit : 

FRENCH. 

Heureux rhomrae qui ne marche point suivant le 
conseil des mdchans, qui ne s'arrete point dans la voie 
des pdcheurs, et qui ne s'assied point au banc des 
moqueurs. 

ITALIAN 

Beato rhuomo, che non h carainato nel consiglio degli 
empi, e non s'b fermato nella via de' peccatori, e non 
b seduto nella sedia degli schernitori, 

SPANISH. 

Bienaventurado el hombre que no anduvo en consejo 
de impios, y en camino de pecadores no se pard, y en 
cited ra de pestilencia no se sento : 



E E 



L 



LXV. 



THE GENERAL CORRUPTION OF MANKIND. 




Psalm LIU. i. 
The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God. 



Psalm LIII. i 

LATIN. 

Dixit insipiens in corde suo : Non est Deus. 

FRENCH, 

L'insens^ dit en son coeur : il n'y a point de DieiL 

ITALLVN. 

Lo stolto ha detto nel suo cuore, non v'fe Dio. 

SPANISH. 

Dixo el necio ec su corazon : No hay Dioa 



i 



E E 2 



LXVI. 



A PREDICTION OF THE KINGDOM OF CHRIST. 



Psalm CX. i 

The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right 
hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool. 



Psalm CX. j 

LATIN. 

Dixit Dominus Domino meo : Sede k dextris meis : 
Donee ponam inimicos tuos, scabellum pedum tuorum. 

FRENCH. 

L'Eterael a dit k mon Seigneur, Sieds-toi k ma droite, 
jusqu'k ce que j'aie mis tes ennemis pour le marche pied 
ie tes pieds. 

ITALIAN. 

II Signore ha detto al mio Signore, Siedi alia mia 
destra, infino attanto ch'io habbia posti i tuoi nimici per 
iscannello de' tuoi piedi. 

SPANISH. 

Dixo el Seftor d mi Seiior : Si^ntate i mi derecha : 
hasta que pongas i tus enemigos, por peana de tus pies. 



LXVII. 



THE LOVE OF THE CHURCH UNTO CHRIST. 



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Song of Solomon I. 14. 



My beloved is unto me as a cluster of camphire in the 
vineyards of En-gedi. 



Song or Solomon I. 14. 



LATIN. 

Botrus cypri dilectus meus mihi, in vineis Engaddl 

FRENCH. 

Men bien-aimd m'est comme une grappe de troenc 
dans les vignes d'Henguddi. 

ITALIAN. 

II mio araico m'^ un grappolo di cipro nelle vigne 
d*En-ghedi. 

SPANISH. 

Racimo de cypro es mi amado para mi ^n las ifaa 
de Engaddi. 



LXVIII. 



ISAIAH COMPLAINETH OF JUDAH'S REBELLION. 




Isaiah L 4. 

Ah, sinful nation, a people laden with iniquity, a seed 
of evil doers, children that are corrupters : they have 
forsaken the Lord, they have provoked the Holy One 
of Israel unto anger, they are gone away backward. 



Isaiah i. 4. 



LATIN. 

Vae genti peccatrici, populo gravi iniquitate, semini 
nequam, filiis sceleratis : dereliquerunt Dorainum, bias- 
phemaverunt sanctum Israel, abalienati sunt retrorsum. 

FRENCH. 

Ah ! nation pdcheresse, peuple charg^ d'iniquitd, race 
de gens malins, enfans qui ne font que se corrompre : 
ils ont abandonnd I'Eternel, ils ont irritd avec radpris le 
Saint d' Israel, ils se sont retournds en arribre. 

ITALIAN. 

Guai alia natione peccatrice, al popolo carico d'ini- 
quit^, alia schiatta de' maligni, a' figliuoli perduti : hanno 
abbandonato il Signore, hanno dispettato il Santo d'Israel, 
si sono alienati, e rivolti indietro. 

SPANISH. 

Ay de la nacion pecadora, del pueblo cargado de ini- 
quidad, raza maligna, hijos malvados : abandondron al 
Senor, blasfemdron al Santo de Israeli, engagenaronse. 
volviendose atris. 



LXIX. 



THE VISION OF ISAIAH. 




Isaiah VI. 6. 



Then flew one of the seraphim unto me, having a live 
coal in his hand, which he had taken with the tongs from 
off the altar. 



Isaiah VI. 6, 



LATIN. 



Et volavit ad me unus de Seraphim, et in manu ejus 
calculus, quem forcipe tulerat de altari. 

FRENCH. 

Mais Tun des Seraphins vola vers moi, ayant dans sa 
main un charbon vif, qu'il avoit pris de dessus I'autel avec 
des pincettes. 

ITALIAN. 

Ed uno de' Serafini volb a me, havendo in mano un 
carbone acceso, il quale egli havea preso con le molle 
d'in su I'altare. 

SPANISH. 

Y vol6 dcia mf uno de los Seraohines, y en su mano nna 
piedrecita, que con una tenaza habia tomado del altar. 



LXX. 



THE RETURN OF THE SUN'S SHADOW TEN DEGREES 
UPON THE DIAL OF AHAZ. 




Isaiah XXXVIII. 8. 



Behold I will bring again the shadow of the degrees 
which is gone down in the sun-dial of Ahaz, ten degrees 
backward. So the sun returned ten degrees, by which 
degrees it was .gone down. 



Isaiah XXXVIII. 8. 



LATIN. 



Ecce ego reverti faciam umbram linearum, per quas 
descenderat in horologio Achaz in sole, retrorsum decern 
lineis : et reversus est sol decern lineis per gradus, quos 
descenderat. 

FRENCH. 

Voici ; je vais faire r^trograder I'ombre des degr^s par 
lesquels elle est descendue au cadran d'Achaz, de dix 
degr^s en arri^re avec le Soleil : et le Soleil r^trogada de 
dix degrds par lesquels 11 ^toit descendu. 

ITALIAN. 

Ecco, dice il Signore, io di presente farb ritomar 
Tombra dell' horologio la quale b gik discesa nell' horo- 
logio dal sole d'Achaz, indietro di dieci gradi. E'l sole 
ritornb indietro di dieci gradi, per li gradi per le quali 
gik era disceso. 

SPANISH. 

He aqui que yo hard que la sombra de las lineas por 
las que ha baxado en el relox de Achaz en el Sol, vuelva 
diez lineas atras. Y retrocedi6 el Sol diez lineas por los 
grades, per donde habia baxado. 



LXXI. 



THE VISION OF EZEKIEL, 




EZEKIEL I. 28. 



This was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of 
the Lord. And when I saw it, I fell upon my face, and I 
heard a voice of one that spake. 



EZEKIEL I. 28. 



LATIN. 

Haec visio similitudini.s gloriae Domini, et vidi, et cecidi 
in faciem meam, et audivi vocem loquentis. 

FRENCH. 

Cest-lk la forme de la representation de la gloire de 
I'Eternel : et I'ayant vue je tombai sur mon visage, et 
j'entendis une voix qui parloiL 

ITALIAN. 

Questo fu I'aspetto della somiglianza della gloria deJ 
Signore ; la quale come io hebbi veduta, caddi sopra le 
mia faccia, ed udii la voce d'uno che parlava. 

SPANISH. 

Est^ fue la vision de la semejanza de la gloria de Dios. 
Y vi, y cai sobre mi rostro, y oi la voz de uno, que 
habiaba. 



I.XXII. 



EZEKIEL'S VISION OF THE MODEL OF A CITY. 



PRONS PORTE 
' LX » C V B I 



ALTITYDINIS 
T OKVM ' 




EZEKIEL XL. 2 



In the visions of God brought he me into the land of 
Israel, and set me upon a very high mountain, by which 
was as the frame of a city on the south. 



EZEKIEL XL 2. 



JJVTIX. 

In visionibus Dei adduxit me in terram Israel, et diaisit 
me super montem excelsum nimis : super quem erat 
quasi sedificium civitatis vergentis ad Austrum. 

FRENCH. 

II m'amena done dans des visions de Dieu, au pais 
d'Israel, et il me posa sur une fort haute montagne, sur 
laquelle du c6t6 du Midi, il y avoit comme le Mtiment 
d'une ville. 

ITAUAN. 

Egli mi menb nel paese d'Israel, in visioni di Dio : e 
mi posb sopra un monte altissirao, sopra'l quale, dal 
Mezzodl, v*era come un edificio di cittk 

SPANISH. 

En visiones de Dios me llev6 i tierra de Israel, y me 
dex6 sobre un monte muy alto : sobre el qual habia come 
edificio de una ciudad, que miraba dcia el Mediodia. 



I 



F F 



LXXIII. 



GOD'S GLORY RETURNETH INTO THE TEMPLE. 




EZEKIEL XLIIL 4: 

And the glory of the Lord came into the house by the 
way of the gate whose prospect is toward the east. 



EZEK EL XLIII. 4. 
LATIN. 

Et Majestas Domiiii ingressa est templum per viam 
porta;, quae respiciebat ad Orientem, 

FRENCH. 

Et la gloire de TEtemel entre dans la maison par le 
chemin de la porte qui regardoit le chemin de I'Orient. 

ITALIAN. 

E la gloria del Signore entrb nella casa per la via della 
porta che riguardava verso'l Levante. 

SPANISH. 

Y la magestad del Senor entrd en el templo por li 
parte de la puerta, que miraba dcia el Oriente. 



r » a 



LXXIV. 
THE VISION OF THE HOLY WATERS. 




EZEKIEL XLVII. I. 

Afterward he brought me again unto the door of the 
house ; and, behold, waters issued out from under the 
threshold of the house eastward : for the forefront of the 
house stood toward the east, and the waters came down 
from under, from the right side of the house, at the south 
side of the altar. 



EZEKIEL XLVII. 1 



LATIN. 



Et convertit me ad portam domus et ecce aquae egre- 
diebantur subter limen domus ad Orientem : fades enim 
domus respiciebat ad Orientem : aquae autem descendebant 
in latus templi dextrum ad meridiem altaris. 

FRENCH. 

Ensuite il me fit revenir I'entrde de la maison, et voici, 
des eaux qui sortoient de dessous le seuil de la maison 
vers rOrient, car le devant de la maison dtoit vers I'Orient : 
et ces eaux descendoient de dessous, du c6t6 droit de la 
maison de devers le c6t6 meridional de I'autel. 

ITALIAN. 

Poi egli mi rimeno all'entrata d^lla casa : ed ecco, 
deH'acque uscivano disotto alia soglia della casa, verso'l 
Levante : perciocchb la casa era verso'l Levante : e quell' 
acque scendevano di sotto, dal lato destro della casa 
dalla parte meridionale dell' Altare. 

SPANISH. 

Y me hizo volver dcia la puerta de la casa : y he aqul 
como salian aguas debaxo del umbral de la casa acia el 
Oriente : porque la fachada de la casa miraba icia. el 
Oriente : y las aguas descendian al lado derecho del 
teraplo icia el Mediodia del Altar. 



LXXV. 



SHADRACH, MESHACH, AND ABEDNEGO CAST 
INTO THE FIRE. 




Daniel III. 23. 

And these three men, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed- 
nego, fell down bound into the midst of the burning 
fiery furnace. 






Daniel III. 23. 

L.\T1N. 

Viri autem hi *.res, id est, Sidrach, Misach, et Abdenago, 
ceciderunt in medio camino ignis ardentis colligati. 

FRENCH. 

Et ces trois hommes-lk, savoir Sadrac, M^sac, et Habed- 
n^o tombferent tous li^s au milieu de la fournaise embras^e, 

ITALIAN. 

E que' tre huomini, Sadrac, Mesac, ed Abednego, 
caddero legati nel mezzo della fornace del fuoco ardente. 

SPANISH. 

Y est OS tres varoces Sidrdch. Misdch, y Abdenago. 
cay^ron atados en medio del homo de fuego ardiendo. 



LXXVL 



DANIEL'S VISION OF THE FOUR BEASTS. 




Daniel VII. 3. 



And four great beasts came up from the sea, diverse 
one from another. 



Daki^l VII 3. 

LATIN. 

Et quatuor bestiae grandes ascendebant de mari diversae 
inter se. 

FRENCH 

Ensuite quatre grandes b^tes mont^ent de la mer, 
diffdrentes Tune de I'autre. 

ITAUAN. 

E quattro gran bestie salivano fuor del mare, differenti 
Tuna dair altra. 

SPANISH. 

Y quatro grardes bestias subian de la mer diversas 
CLtre si 



LXXVIL 



GABRIEL COMFORTETH DANIEL. 





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H/ P^j^^^^ 'M^^l^:^^ 


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Daniel VIII. 17. 



So he came near where I stood : and when he came, 
I was afraid, and fell upon my face : but he said unto 
me, Understand, O son of man, for at the time of the 
end shall be the vision. 



Di*NfEL VIII. 17. 



LATIN. 

Et venit. et stedt juxtk ubi ego stabam : cumque 
venisset, pavens corrui in faciem meam, et ait ad me : 
Intellige fill honiinis, quoniam in tempore finis comple- 
bitur visio. 

FRENCH. 

Et Gabriel vint prbs du lieu oii je me tenois : et quand 
il fut venu, je fus ^pouvantd, et je tombai sur ma face, 
et il me dit : Fils de I'homme, ^coute, car il y a un terns 
marqu^ pour cette vision. 

ITALIAN. 

Ed esso venne presso del luogo dove io stava : e, 
quando fu venuto, io fui spaventato, e caddi sopra la 
mia faccia : ed egli mi disse, Intendi, figliuol d'huomo ; 
perciocchfe questa visione 6 per Io tempo della fine. 

SPANISH. 

Y vino, y se pard cerca del lugar en donde yo estaba ; 
y luego que llegd, de temor caf sobre mi rostro, y me 
dixo : Hijo de hombre, entiende como csta vision se 
cumpliri al fin i su tiempa 



I 



LXXVIII. 



THE OVERTHROW OF PERSIA FORETOLD. 




Daniel XI. i. 



Also I, in the first year of Darius the Mede, even J 
stood to confirm and to strengthen him. 



T>A2nn XL i 



LAIIN. 



Ego autem ab anno primo Darit Medi stabam ut coD' 
fortaretur, et roboraretur. 

FRENCH. 

Or la premiere annde du rbgne de Darius le M^de, 
j'assistois pour I'aider et pour le fortifier. 

ITALIAN. 

Or io, neir anno primo di Dario Medo, sono state 
presente per confortarlo, e per fortificarlo. 

6PANISH. 

Y yo desde el primer ano de Darlo el Medo, le asistia 
para alentarle y fortificarle. 



LXXIX. 



THE PROPHECY OF HOSEA. 



HoSEA I. I. 

The word of the Lord that came unto Hosea, the son 
of Beeri, in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and 
Hezekiah, kings of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam 
the son of Joash king of Israel. 



HosrA I I. 



LATIN. 

Verbum Dommu quod factum est ad Osee filium 
Been, in diebus Oziae, Joathan, Achaz, Ezechke, regum 
juda, et in diebus Jeroboam filii Joas regis Israel 

FRENCH. 

La parole de TEtemel qui fut adressee k Os^e, fils de 
B^eri, au tems d'Hozias, de Jotham, d'Achaz et d'Ezechias, 
Rois de Juda, et au tems de Jeroboam, fils de Joas, 
Roi d'Israel. 

ITALIAN. 

La parola del Signore, che fu indirizzata ad Hosea, 
figliuolo di Beeri, a d\ d'Uzzia, di Jotam, d'Achaz, 
d'Ezechia, rh di Juda : ed a' d\ di Jeroboam, figliuolo di 
Joas, rfe d'Israel. 

SPANISH. 

Palabra del Senor que vino d Os^s hi jo de Beeri, en 
los dias de Ozias, de Joathan, de Achaz, de Ezechias, 
Reyes de Judi, y en los dias de Jeroboim hijo de Jois 
Rey de Israel 



LXXXI. 



THE PROPHECY OF AMOS. 




Amos I. i. 

The words of Amos, who was among the herdmen of 
Tekoa, which he saw concerning Israel, in the days of 
Uzziah, king of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam thej 
son of Joash, king of Israel, two years before the earth- j 
quake. 



Amos I. I. 



LATIN. 



Verba Amos, qui fuit in pastoribus de Thecue : quJB 
vidit super Israel in diebus Oziae regis Juda, et in diebus 
Jeroboam filii Joas regis Israel, ante duos annos lerrae- 
motus. 

FRENCH. 

Les paroles d'Amos, qui dtoit d'entre les bergers de 
Tekoah, lesquelles il entendit en vision touchant Israel 
du tems d'Hozias Roi de Juda, et de Jdroboam fils de Joas 
Roi d'Israel, deux ans avant le tremblement de terre. 

ITALIAN. 

Le parole d'Amos, che era de' mandriali di Tecoa ; le 
quali gli furono rioclate in visione intorno ad Israel, i di 
d'Uzzia, r^ di Juda : ed a' di di Jeroboam, figliuolo di Joas, 
re d'Israel : due anni avanti il tremuoto. 

SPANISH. 

Palabras de Am6s, que fue uno de los pastores de 
Thecue, de lo que vi6 sobre Israel en tiempo de Ozias 
Rey de Judii, y en tiempo de Jeroboam hijo de Jois Rey 
de Israel, dos anos dntes del terremoto. 



G G 2 



LXXXII. 



JONAH REPINING AT GOD'S MERCY. 




Jonah IV. 5. 

So Jonah went out of the city, and sat on the east sid 
of the city, and there made him a booth, and sat under i 
in the shadow, till he might see what would become c 
the city. 



)ONAH IV. 5. 



LATIN. 

Et egressus est Jonas de civitate, et sedit contra Orien- 
tem civitatis, et fecit sibimet umbraculum ibi, et sedabat 
subter illud in umbra, donee videret quid accideret civitati. 

FRENCH. 

Alors Jonas sortit de la ville, et s'assit du c6t6 de 
rOrient de la ville, et se fit-Ik une cabane, et se tint d 
I'ombre sous elle, jusqu'h. ce qu'il vit ce qui arriveroit k la 
ville. 

ITALIAN. 

E Jona uscl della cittk, e si pose a sedere dal Levante 
della cittk : e si fece quioi un frascato, e sedette sotto esso 
air ombra, fin che vedesse cib ch' awerrebbe nella citt^ 

SPANISH. 

Y sali6 Jonds de la ciudad, y se sentd irente i la puerta 
Oriental de la ciudad : y se hizo allf una cabana, y se 
estaba sentado baxo de ella i, I2 sombra, hasta ver qu^ 
,aconteceria i la ciudad- 



Lxxxm. 



HABAKKUK COMPLAINING OF THE DaQUmf 
0¥ THE LAND. 




Haeakkuk L 2. 

O Lord, how long shall I cry, and thou wilt not hear 
even cry out tmto thee of violence, and thou wilt 
tavet 



nol 



Hahakkuk 1. a. 



TATIN. 

Usquequb Domine clamabo, et non exautlies 1 vocifer- 
ibor ad te vim patiens, et non salvabis 1 

FRENCH. 

Eternel, jusques h quand crierai-je, sans que tu 
dcoutes 1 jusques h. quand crierai-je vers toi : Violence, 
sans que tu ddlivres ? 

ITALIAN. 

Infino a quando, o Signore, griderb io, e tu non m'esau- 
dirai 1 infino a quando sclamerb a te, Violenza, e tu non 
salverai 1 

SPANISH. 

1 Hasta qudndo, Seftor, clamard, y no oiris ? i dar^ 
voces d t( en la violencia que sufro, y no me salvards 1 



LXXXIV. 



ZECHARIAH EXHORTETH TO REPENTANCE. 




Zechariah I. 3. 



Therefore say unto them, thus saith the Lord of hosts ; 
Turn ye unto me, saith the Lord of hosts, and I will turn 
urtto you, saith the Lord of hosts. 



Zechariah I. 3. 



LATIN. 

Et dices ad eos : Hsec dicit Dominus exercituuni : 
Convertimini ad me, ait Dominus exercituum : et con- 
vertar ad vos, dicit Dominus exercituum. 

FRENCH. 

C'est pourquoi tu leur diras : Ainsi a dit I'Etemel 
des armies : Retouraez vous vers moi, dit TEternel des 
armies, et je me retoumerai vers vous, dit TEtemel des 
armdes. 

ITALIAN. 

Ma tu, di loro, Cosl ha detto il Signore degli eserciti, 
Convertitevi a me, dice il Signore degli eserciti, ed io mi 
k rivolgerb a voi : ha detto il Signore degli eserciti. 

SPANISH. 

Mas les diris A estos : Asf dice el Senor de los ex^r- 
J citos : Volveos i mi, dice el Senor de los ex^rcitos, y yo 
me volverd i vosotros, dice el Senor de los ex^rcitos 



LXXXV. 



TOBIT BECOMETH BLIND. 




ToBiT II. lO. 



And I knew not that tnere were sparrows in the wall, 
and mine eyes being open, the sparrows muted warm 
dung into mine eyes ; and I went to the physicians, but 
they helped me not : moreover Achiarchus did nourish 
me, until I went into Elymais. 



TOBIT II. lO. 

LATIN. 

Et ex indo hirundinem dormienti illi calida stercora 
inciderent super oculos ejus, fieretque coecus. 

FRENCH. 

Je ne m'apergus point qu'il y eut des nids de passeraux 
dans la muraille ; les ordures de ces oiseaux tombbrent 
chaudes sur mes yeux qui n'dtoient pas couverts, et il s'y 
forma des taches blanches ; je consultai inutilement les 
mddecins ; Achiachar eut soin de raoi jusqu'k mon depart 
pour Elimais. 

ITALIAN. 

Ed, havendo io gli occhi aperti, i passeri mi sgombe- 
rarano della stereo caldo negli occhi : onde mi venuero 
de' panni negli occhi. Ed io andai a' medici, ma non 
mi porsero alcun giovamento. Intanto Achiachar mi 
nudriva, fin ch'io andai in Elimais. 

SPANISH. 

Y unos paxaros, que yo no sabia que estavan en la 
pared, echaron su estior col caliente en mis ajos, que 
tenia abiertos : y hicieronserae nuves en ellos : y viniendo 
k los medicos, nunca me ayudaron : entre tanto Achi- 
achar me dava de comer hastaque me vine k Elimayda. 



LXXXVI. 



JUDITH AND HER MAID GO FORTH UNTO THE 
ASSYRIAN CAMP. 




Judith X. 6. 

Thus they went forth to the gate of the city of Bethulia, 
and found standing there Ozias, and the ancients of the 
city, Chabris and Charmis. 



Judith X. 6. 



LATIN. 

Cumque venissent ad portara civitatis, invenerunt 
exspectantem Oziam et presbyteros civitatis. 

FRENCH. 

Ceux-ci ob^irent, Judith sortit avec sa servante, les 
hommes de la ville la virent descendre ; mais lorsqu'elle 
eut traverse la valine, elle disparut k leurs regards. 

ITALIAN. 

Poi uscirono amendue insieme verso la porta della 
citik di Betulia, e trovarono Ozia, e gli Antiani della 
cittil, Cabri, e Carmi, ch'erano ordinati sopra quella porta. 

SPANISH. 

Y quando vinieron k la puerta de la ciudad, hallaron h, 
Ozias y a los Ancianos de la ciudad Chabris y Charrais 
que la estavan esperanda 



LXXXVIL 
JUDITII CUTTETII OFF THE HEAD OF HOLOFERNES. 




Judith XIII. 8. 

And she smote twice upon his neck with all her might, 
and she took away his head from him. 



Judith XIII. 3. 

LATIN. 

Et percussit bis in cervicem ejus, et abscidit caput ejus 
et abstulit conopeum ejus h. columnis, et evoluit corpus 
ejus truncum. 

FRENCH. 

Elle frappa deux fois le cou d'Holopheme de toute sa 
force, et sdpara la t^te du corps ; elle roula le corps hors 
du lit, et d^tacha le pavilion des colonnes ; peu de terns 
aprbs elle sortit, et donna k la premiere de ses femmes la 
tete d'Holopheme. 

ITALIAN. 

E colpl due volte con tutta la sua forza sopra'l collo 
d'esso, e gli spiccb il capo : poi voltolb lo'm busto gu\ dal 
letto, e trasse il padiglione a basso d'in su le colonne. 

I SPANISH. 

Y diole dos golpes quanto pudo en la ceviz, y cortoli 
I la cabe^a : y quito su pavellon dc las colunas, y trastornd 
el cuerpo de la cama. 



LXXXVIII. 



HISTORY OF SUSANNA. 




Susanna I. 45. 



Therefore when she was led to be put to death, the 
Lord raised up the holy spirit of a young youth, whose 
name was Daniel. 



bUSANNA 1. 45 
IJVTIN. 

Cumque duceretur ad mortem suscitavit Dom'mus 
spiritum sanctum pueri junioris, cujus nomen Daniel. 

FRENCH. 

On la menoit au supplice, et Dieu inspira un jeune 
enfant appeld Daniel. 

ITALIAN. 

E, mentre ella era menafa a morire, Iddio eccito il 
santo spirito d'un giovane fanciullo, il cui nome era 
Daniel. 

SPANISH. 

Y llevando la k la muerte, el Senor despertd el espiritu 
Sancto de un rauchacho de poea edad Uamado DanJeL 



H H 



LXXXIX. 



DANIEL IN THE DEN OF LIONS. 




Bel and the Dragon I. 36. 

Then the angel of the Lord took him by the crown, 
and bare him by the hair of his head, and through the 
vehemency of his spirit set him in Babylon over the den. 



Bel and the Dragon I. 36. 



LATIN. 



Et apprendit eum Angelus Domini in vertice ejus, et 
portavit eum capillo capitis sui, posuitque eum in Baby- 
lone supra lacum in impetu spiritus sui. 



FRENCH. 



L'Ange du Seigneur le prit par le sommet de la t^te, et 
le portant par ses cheveux dans un tourbillon de vent, il 
le posa h. Babylone au dessus de la fosse. 

ITALIAN. 

E I'Angelo del Signore lo prese per la sommitk del 
capo : e, portandolo per la chioma del suo capo, per 
[ I'empito del suo spirit©, in Babilonia ; lo posb disopra 
alia fossa de' leoni, 

SPANISH. 

Entouces el Angel lo tom6 por la mollera, y per una 
^ feuedeja de su cabe^a lo llev6, y con el impetu de sa 
i fespiritu lo puso en Babylonia sobre el fosso. 

11 



ri H 2 



xc. 



SIGNS AND TOKENS SEEN AT JERUSALEM. 




2 Maccabees V. 2. 



And then it happened, that through all the city, for the 
space almost of forty days, there were seen horsemen run- 
nmg in the air, in cloth of gold, and armed with lances, 
like a band of soldiers. 



a Maccadees V. a. 



LATIN. 



Contigit autem per universam Jerosolyiiioum civitatein 
videri diebus quadraginta per acra equites discurrentes, 
auratas stolas habentes, et hastis, quasi cohortes,. armatos. 

FRENCH. 

On vit alors pendant quarante jours dans I'air, des 
cavaliers qui y couroient couverts d'habits dor^s, et ami^s 
de lances comme pour faire la guerre. 

ITALIAN. 

Ed avvenne che, per lo spatio d'intorno a quaranta 
giomi, per tutta la cittk di Jerusalem, si videro neH'aria 
covrer cavalieri, con robe dorate, e lance ; armati, ed in 
ordinanza, 

SPANISH. 

Y acontecc6 que por espac^o de quarenta dias fueron 
vistos por toda la ciudad cavalleros, discurriendo por el 
ayre con vestiduras doradas, y armados de lan^as como 
de guerra. 



INDEX. 



iEMYLius, Geo. his verses, 74. 

Alciatus, his emblems the earliest work of the kind, i6l, 
Aldegrever, his Dance of Death, 14a. 
Almanac, a Swiss one, with a Dance of Death, 67, 186. 
Alphabets, several curious, 89, 190, 19a. 
Amman, Jost, a Dance of Death by him, 35. 
Ars moriendi, some account of the last edition of it, 155. 
Athyr, "Stamm-und Stechbuchlein, " a rare and singular bo:)k of 
emblems, 161. 

Baldmucci, a mistake by him corrected, 208. 

Basle, destruction of its celebrated painting of the Dance of Death, 33 ; 

engravings of it, 34. 
Beauclerc, Lady Diana, her ballad of Leonora, 187. 
Bechstein, Ludwie, his edition of the Lyons wood-cuts, 121. 
Beham, Barthol. his Dance of Death, 170. 
Bernard, le petit, his fine wood-cuts to the Old Testament, 154. 
Berne almanac, a Dance of Death in one of them, 1 36. 
Bock, Hans, not the painter of the Basle Dance of Death, 33. 
Bodenehr, Maurice, a Dance of Death by him, 147. 
** Boetius de consolatione, " a figure of Death in an old edition of it, 151. 
Bonaparte, Napoleon, a Dance of Death relating to him, 149. 
Books in which a Dance of Death is occasionally introduced, 150. 
Borbonius, Nicolas, his portrait, 114. 

his verses, 81, 83, 123. 
in England, 113. 
Bosman, Arent, a singular old Dutch legend relating to him, 164. 
Hosse, a curious engraving by him, 175. 
Boxgrove church in Sussex, sculpture in, 101. 
Brant, Sebastian, his stultifera navis, 153. 
Bromiard, John de, his "Summa predicantium, " a fine froncispiecf to 

it, 164. 
Buno, Conrad, a book of emblems by him, 163. 
Burnet, Bishop, his ambiguous account of a Dance of Death at Basl^ 

70, I '3- 



468 Index, 

Calendrier des Bergers, 152. 

Callot, drawings by him of a Dance of Death in the collection of Sii 

Tho. Lawrence, 198. 
Camus, M. de, a ludicrous mistake by him, 151. 
Catz's emblems, 163, 
Cavallero determinado, 155. 

Centre de lamour, a singular book of emblems, 163. 
Chertablon, "Maniere de se bien preparer a la mort," 158. 
"Chevalier de la tour," a singular print from this curious romance, 153. 
Chodowiecki, his engravings relating to the Dance of Death, 136, 185. 
Chorier, his "Antiqutles de Vienne," 41. 
Cogeler, "Imagines elegantissimae, &c." 154. 
Coleraine, I. Nixon, his Dance of Death on a fan, 141. 
Colman's "Death's duell," 165 

Compan, M. his mistake about a Dance of Death, 2 10. 
Coppa, a poem ascribed to Virgil, 2. 
Cossiers, John, a curious print after him, 178. 
Coverdale's Bible, with initials of a Dance of Death, 193. 
Coxe's Travels in Switzerland, some account in them of M. Crozat'i 

drawings, 118. 
Crozat, M. de, account of some supposed drawings by Holbein in his 

collection, 119. 

Dagger, design for the sheath of one, by Holbein, 118. 
Dagley's " Death's Doings, " 139, 187, 199. 

Dance of Death, a pageant, 5 ; Danish one, 141 ; known to the 

ancients, 11 ; one at Pompeii, 11 ; the term sometimes improperly 

used, 72 ; verses belonging to it, 15 ; where sculptured and painted, 

15. 

Dance, Mr. the painter, his imitation of a subject in the Dance of 

Death in his portrait of Mr. Gp,nick, 121. 
Dances of Deatii, with such text only as describes the subject, 142. 
anonymous, 142, 143, 144, 145. 
at the following places : — 
Amiens, 40. Klingenthal, 36. 

Anneberg, 37. Leipsic, 37. 

Avignon, 196. Lubeck, 37. 

Basle, 30. Lucerne, 39. 

Berlin, 41. Minden, 30. 

Berne, 38. Nuremberg, 38. 

Blois, 40. Paris, 12, 26, 29. 

Croydon, 46. Rouen, 40. 

Dijon, 30. Salisbury, 45. 

Dresden, 38, St. Paul's, 44, 67. 

Erfurth, 38. Spain, 43. 

Fescamp, 40. Strasburg, 40. 

Hexham, 46. Tower of London, 4.6. 

Holland, 41. Vienne, in Dauphine, 41. 

Italy, 42. Wortley Hall, 46. 

Dancing in temples and churchyards, 5. 
Daniel, Mr. an unique print of a Dance of Death in his possession, 145 



Ind&x. 47* 

Holbein, engravings by him with his name, 84. 

his Bible prints, 84. 

his connexion with the Dance of Death, 69, 123. 

his death, in 1554, lay. 

his name not in the early editions of the Lyons wood-cuts, 81. 

lives of him very defective, 126. 

more particulars relating to him, 116. 

not the painter of the Dance of Death at Basle, 33, 37, nj. 

paints a Dance of Death at Whitehall, 125. 

satirical painting of Erasmus by him, 197. 
Hollar, his copies of the Dance of Death, iii. 
Hopfer, David, his print of Death and the Devil, 171. 
Horje, manuscripts of this service book, with the Macaber Dance, 53 ; 

printed copies of it with the same, and some similar designs, 64. 
Huber and Rust, their mistake concerning Holbein, 209. 

iacques, Maitre, his " le faut raoarir, " 33. 
ansen, his mistake concerning the Dance of Death, 209. 
mitations of and from the Lyons wood-cuts, iii. 
Initial letters with a Dance of Death, 189, 190, 193. 
Innocent III. Pope, his work " de vUitate condjtionis humanae," 154. 

Karamsin, Nicolai, his account of a Dance of Death, 38. 

Kauw, his drawing of a Dance of Death, at Berne, 199. 

Kerver, Thielman, his editions of " Horae," 156. 

Klauber, John Hugh, a painter of a Dance of Death at Basle, 31, 36. 

Langlois, an engraving by him described, 176. 

Larvae and lemur cs, confusion among the ancients as to their respective 

qualities, 3. 
" Last drop," an etching so entitled, 188 ; a drawing of the same 

subject, 190, 
Lavenberg calendar, prints by Chodowiecki in it, 136. 
Lawrence, Sir Thomas, drawings by Callot of a Dance of Death in his 

possession, 198. 
" Lawyer's last circuit," a caricature print, 186. 
Le Blon, a circular print by him described, 176. 
1/e Comte, his mistake concerning the Dance of Death, 107. 
Lubeck, a Dance of Death there, 145. 
Lutzenberger, Hans, the engraver of the Lyons wood-cuts of the Dance 

of Death, 86 ; various prints by him, 86 ; alphabets by him, 88. 
Luy ken's Emblems, 158, 159. 
Lydgate, his Verses to the Macaber Dance, 35, 45, 
I-yons, all the editions of the wood-cuU of the Dance of Death pub 
lished there described, 7a, 91. 

copies of them by Hollar, 1 1 1. 
copies of them on copper, 107. 
copies of them on wood, 98. 
various imitations of some of them, 121. 
Lyvijus, John, a print by him of two card-players, 1 76. 



L 



470 Index, 

Fleischmann, Counsellor, of Strasburg, drawings of a Dance of Death 

in his possession, 119. 
Fontenai, Abbe, his mistake concerning the Dance of Death, 208. 
Fool and Death in old moralities, 157. 
Foumier, his mistake concerning the Dance of Death, 270. 
Fox, John, "Book of Christian Prayers," compiled by him, 130. 
Francis I. an importer of fine artists into France, 81. 
Francolin, a rare work by him described, 193. 
Freidanck, 152. 
Friderich's emblems, 161. 

Frontispieces connected with the Dance of Death described, 164. 
Fulbert's vision of the dispute between the soiil and the body, 28. 
Fuseli, Mr. his opinion concerning the Dance of Death, 73. 
Fyner, Conrad, his process or law-suit of Death, 68. 

Gallitzin, Prince, some supposed drawings by Holbein of a Dance of 

Death in his possession, 1 19. 
Gem, an ancient one, with a skeleton as the representative of Death, 1 84. 
Gerard, Mark, some etchings of fables by him, 160. 
Gesner's Pandectse, remarks on a passage in that work, 74. 
Ghezzi, a figure of Death among his caricatures, 183. 
Glarus, Franciscus k, his "Confusio disposita, &c" noticed as a very 

singular work, 158. 
Glass, painted, with a Dance of Death, 201. 
Glissenti, his " Discorsi morali, " 99. 

his " Morte inamorata, " 99. 
Gobin le gay, a name of one of the shepherds in an old print of the 

Adoration, 61. 
Gobin, Robert, his ''loups ravissans," remarkable for a Dance of 

Death, 129. 
Goethe, a Dance of Death in one of his works, 159, 188. 
Gole, a mezzotinto by him of Death and the Miser, 181. 
Goujet, his mistake about the Dance of Death at Basle, 209. 
Graaf, Urs, a print by him, and his monogram described, 169. 
Grandville, " Voyage pour I'eternite, " 139. 1 

Gray, Rev. Robert, his mistake about the Dance of Death at Basle, 206. 
Gringoire, Pierre, his "Heures de Notre Dame," 154. j 

Grosthead, story from his " Manuel de Peche," 6. 
Guilleville, " Pelerin de la vie humaine, " 156. 

Harding, an etching by him of "Death and the Doctor," 187, 
Hawes's " Pastime of Heasure," two prints from it described, 154. 
Heemskirk, Martin, a print by him described, 172, 178. 
Hegner, his life of Holbein, 213. 
Heymans, Mjoiheer, a dedication to him, 125. 
Historia della Morte, a poem so called, 157. 
Holbein, a German, life of him by Hegner, 213. f 

ambiguity with respect to the paintings at Basle ascribecj[ 
to him, 71. 

dance of peasants by him, 71. 



Indocc. 47 * 

Holbein, engravings by him with his name, 84. 

his Bible prints, 84. 

his connexion with the Dance of Death, 69, H3. 

his death, in 1554, 127. 

his name not in the early editions of the Lyons wood-cuts, 81. 

lives of him very defective, ia6. 

more particulars relating to him, ia6. 

not the painter of the Dance of Death at Basle, 33, 37, 117. 

paints a Dance of Death at Whitehall, 135. 

satirical painting of Erasmus by him, 197. 
Hollar, his copies of the Dance of Death, iii. 
Hopfer, David, his print of Death and the Devil, 171. 
Horse, manuscripts of this service book, with the Macaber Dance, 53 ; 

printed copies of it with the same, and some similar designs, 64. 
Huber and Rust, their mistake concerning Holbein, 109. 

iacques, Maitre, his "le faut mourir," 11. 
ansen, his misuke concerning the Dance of Death, 109. 
mitations of and from the Lyons wood-cuts, m. 
Initial letters with a Dance of Death, 189, 190, 193. 
Innocent III. Pope, his work " de vilitate conditionis humanae," 154. 

Karamsin, Nicolai, his account of a Dance of Death, 38. 

Kauw, his drawing of a Dance of Death, at Berne, 199, 

Kerver, Thielman, his editions of " Hone," 156. 

Klauber, John Hugh, a painter of a Dance of Death at Basle, 31, 36. 

Langlois, an engraving by him described, 176. 

Larvae and lemurcs, confusion among the ancients as to their respective 

qualities, 3. 
" Last drop," an etching so entitled, 188 ; a drawing of the same 

subject, 190. 
Lavenberg calendar, prints by Chodowiecki in it, 136. 
Lawrence, Sir Thomas, drawings by Callot of a Dance of Death in his 

possession, 198. 
** Lawyer's last circuit," a caricature print, 186. 
Le Blon, a circular print by him described, 176. 
Le Comte, his mistake concerning the Dance of Death, 107. 
Lubeck, a Dance of Deatli there, 145. 
Lutzenberger, Hans, the engraver of the Lyons wood-cuts of the Dance 

of Death, 86 ; various prints by him, 86 ; alphabets by him, 88. 
Luyken's Emblems, 158, 159. 

Lydgate, his Verses to the Macaber Dance, 15, 45. 
I^yons, all the editions of the wood-cuts of the Dance of Death pub 
lished there described, 72, 91. 

copies of them by Hollar, 1 1 1. 
copies of them on copper, 107. 
copies of them on wood, 98. 
various imitations of some of them, 121. 
Lyvijus, John, a print by him of two card-players, 1 76. 



472 Index. 

Macaber, a word falsely applied as the name of a supposed Geitnsii 
poet, 24, «9. 

its etymology discussed, 25, 29. 
Macaber Dance, 12, 24. 

copies or engravings of it as painted at Basle, 34. 
destruction of the painting at Basle, 33. 
manuscripts in which it is represented, 63. 
not painted by Holbein, 33. 
printed books in which it is represented, 49. 
representations of it at the following places : — 
Amiens, 40. Klingenthal, 30. 

Anneberg, 37. Lubeck, 37. 

Basle, 30. Lucerne, 39. 

Berhn, 41. Minden, 30. 

Berne, 38. Naples, 42. 

Burgos, 43. Rouen, 40. 

Croydon, 46. Salisbury, 45. 

Dijon, 30. St. Paul's, 4.4, 67. 

Dresden, 38, 67. Strasburg, 40. 

Erfurth, 38. Tower of London, 46. 

Hexham, 46. Vienne, 41. 

Holland, 41. Wortley Hall, 46. 

Macarius, Saint, painting of a legend relating to him, by Orgagna, at 

the Campo Santo, 27, 28. 
Malpe, M. his mistake concerning the Dance of Death, 209. 
Mannichius, 161. 

Manuel de Peche, by Grosthead, 6. 
Mapes, Walter de, an allusion by him to a Dance of Death, 21. 

vision of a dispute between the soul and the body, ascribed 
to him, 27. 
Marks or monograms of engravers, their uncertainty, 90. 
Marmi, Gio. Battista, his " Ritratte della Morte, " 114. 
Mechel, Chretien de, 117, 185, 214. 
Meckenen, Israel Van, a Dance of Death by him, 142. 
Meisner, his "Sciographia Cosmica," 16 J. 
Melidaeus, Jonas, a satirical work under this disguised name, entitled 

''Resmira," 164. 
Meyers, Rodolph, his Dance of Death, 131. 
Meyssens, his mistake concerning the Dance of Death, 207. 
Miwal, an undescribed one, in the type of the psalter of 1457, 190. 
Misson, the traveller, his mistake concerning the Dance of Death, 206. 
Mitelli, Gio. Maria, a kind of Death's Dance, by him, 143. 
Moncrief, his " March of Intellect," quoted for a print after'Cruikshank, 

169. 
Montenaye, Georgette de, her emblems, 160. 
*' Mars,* an excellent Latin comedy, by William Drury, 156. 
Mortimer, a sketch by him of Death seizing several persons, 186. 
Mortilogus, 153. 

Negro figure of Death, 204. 
Newton's Dances of Death, 147. 






Judex. 473 

Nieuhoff, Piccard, ii6, H4. 

Nuremberg Chronicle, a cut from it described, 15a; 1 story from it, 5. 

(^Id Franks, a curious painting by him, 181, 197. 

Oliver, Isaac, his copy of a painting by Holbein, at Whitehall, n8, 

196. 
Orgagna, Andrea, his painting at the Campo Santo, 18. 
Ortulus Rosarum, 153. 

Otho Vrenius, a curious painting by him, 181, 197. 
Ottley, Mr. his opinion in favour of Holbein as the designer of the 

Lyons wood-cuts, 77. 

proof impressions of the Lyons wood-cuts in his valuable 

collection, 75. 

Palingenius, his " Zodiacus Vitrc," a frontispiece to this work described, 

167. 
Panneels, William, a scholar of Rubens, mention of a painting by 

him, iSr. 
Papillon, his ludicrous mistakes noticed, 97, lor. 
Patin, Charles, a traveller, and a libeller of the English, 70, 113, 209. 
Paulmy, Marquis de, his mistake concerning the Dance of Death, iio. 
Paul's, St. mention of the Dance of Death formerly there, 45, 145 
Peasants, a dance of, painted at Basle, by Holbein, 71 
Peignot, M. author of " Les Danses de Mort," an interesting work, 

preface. 

his misconception relating to John Porey, 1\^, 
Perriere, his "Morosophie," 160. 
Petrarch, his triumph of Death, 156, 184. 

his work "de remediis utriusque fortunae," 156. 
Pfister, Albert, his "Tribunal Mortis," 150. 
Piccard, Nieuhoff, 116, 124. 
Piere Plowman, lines from, 47. 

Porey, John, a mistake concerning him corrected, 111. 
Potter, P. an allegorical engraving after him, 177. 
Prints, single, relating to the Dance of Death, list of, 168. 
Prior, Matthew, his lines on the Dance of Death, 128. 
Psalter of 1457, a beautiful initial letter in it noticed, 190. 

of Richard IL, a manuscript in the British Museum, 197. 

Rabbi Santo, a Jewish poet, about 1360, 21. 

Ratdolt, a Venetian printer, not, as usually supposed, th*; in^entcr ol 

initial or capital letters, 189. 
Rembrandt, drawing of a Dance of Death by him, 198 etclbig bf 

him, 174. 
Rene, of Anjou, painted a Dance of Death, 196. 
Reperdius, Geo. an eminent painter at Lyons, 81. 
Re\'elations, prints of the, 156. 
Reusner, his emblems, 161. 

Rive, Abbe, his bibliography of the Macaber Dance, 66. 
Rivoire, his history of Amiens commended, 40. 



474 Index, 

Roderic, Bishop of Zamora, 15, 28. 

Rolandini's emblems, 161. 

RoUenhagius's emblems, 163. 

Roll of the Dance of Death, 1597, 145. 

Rowlandson's Dance of Death, 138, 199, 20a 

Rusting, Salomon Van, his Dance of Death, 116. 



^, 



some account of this monogram, 10 1 ; its owner employed by 
Plantin, the famous printer at Antwerp, 103. 

Salisbury missal, singular cut in one, 154. 

Saliaerts, an artist supposed to have been employed by Plantin the 
celebrated printer, 102, 103. 

Sancta Clara, Abraham, a description of his "universal mirror of 
Death," 134. 

Sandrart, his notice of a work by Holbein at Whitehall, 128. 

Schauffelin, Hans, a carving on wood by him described, 200. 

Schellenberg, I. R. a Dance of Death by him, 137. 

Schlotthaver, his edition of a Dance of Death, 212, 

Silvius, or Sylvius, Antony, an artist at Antwerp, account of a mono- 
gram supposed to belong to him, 102. 

Skeleton, use made of the human, by the ancients, 2. 

" Spectriana," a modem French work, frontispiece to it described, 167. 

Stelsius, his edition of a spurious copy of Holbein's Bible cuts, 86. 

Stettler, his drawings of the Macaber Dance of Death at Berne, 198. 

** Stotzinger symbolum," description of a cut so entitled, 155. 

Stradanus, an engraving after him described, 176. 

Susanna, a Latin play, 16. 

Symeoni, "Imprese," 160. 

Tapestry at the Tower of London, 201. 

"Theatrum Mortis," a work with a Dance of Death described, 1 14. 

Tiepolo, a clever etching by him described, 176. 

Title-pages connected with the Dance of Death, list of, 164. 

Tory, Geoffrey, Horae printed by him described, 153. 

Tower of London, tapestry formerly there of a Dance of Death, 201. 

Trois mors et trois vifs, 27, 29, 208. 

Turner, Col. a Dance of Death by him, 185. 

Tumham Green, some account of chalk drawings of a Dance of Death 

on a wall there, 187, 199. 
Typotii symbola, 161, 162. 

Urs Graaf, his engravings noticed, 215. 

Vaenius, Otho, some of his works mentioned, 163, 181. 

Valckert, a clever etching by him described, 179! 

Van Assen, a Dance of Death by hiai, 140. 

Van Ley den, Lucas, 169. 

Van Meckenen, Israel, his Dance of Death in circles, u*. 

Van Sichem, his prints to the Bible, 158. 



Jndex. 

Van Vennt, prints after him, 139, 163, 176, 186. 
Verses that accompany the Dance of Death, 15 
Von Menzel, 184. 
"Voyage pour I'etemite," a modem Da:.ce of Death, 



475 



139- 



VValpole, Mr. his mistake concerning the Dance of Death, 209. 
Warton, Mr. his remarks on the Dance of Death, a 10. 
Weiss, Mr. author of some of the best lives in the " Biographie Uni 
verselle, " misled in his article "Macaber" by ChampoUion Figeac, 

213. 

Whitehall, fire at, 125 ; painting of a Dance of Death there by 

Holbein, 125. 
Wierbc, John, some prints by him described, 174. 
Williams, Miss, her mistake concerning the Dance of Death at Basle, 

in her Swiss tour, 207. 
Wolschaten, Geeraerdt Van, a Dance of Death by him, 115. 
Wood, engravings on, the first impressions of them not always the 

best, 75. 
Wood, Mr. his mistake concerning the Dance of Death in his "View 

of Switzerland," 207. 

Youth's Tragedy," a moral drama, 1671, 157. 



Zani, Abbate, of opinion that Holbein had no concern in the 

wood-cuts of the Dance of Death, 87, 89, 123. 
Zuinger, his account of paintings at Ba.slc, 123. 



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12 



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Contained tn h 



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JUVENAL. PERSIUS S L- 
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KANT S CrlUque of Pure Reason. 
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john. Sj. 

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H 



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LANE'S Arabian Nights' Enter- 
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LANZI'S History of Painting in 
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LAPPENBERG'S History of 
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LECTURES ON PAINTING, 

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LONQUS. DaphnlB and Chloe. 
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MiCHELET. 

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Homer's Ulad. Edited by 

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Illustrated by the entire Series of ! 
Flaxman's Designs. 51. | 

Homer's Odyssey, with the 

Battle of Frogs and Mice, Hymns, 
&c., by other translators. Edited 
by the Rev. J. S. Watson, M.A. 
With the entire Series of Flax- 
man's Designs. 5^. 

Life, including many of his 

Letters. By Roliert Camrthers. 
With numerous Illustrations. 5^. 

POUSHKIN'S Prose Tales: The 
Captain's Daughter — Doubrovsky 
— The Queen of Spades — An 
Amateur Peasant Girl— The Shot 
— The Snow Storm — The Post- 
master — The Coffin Maker — 
Kirdjali — The Egyptian Nights — 
Peter the Great's Negro. Trans- 
lated by T. Ke»ne 3r. hd. 



PRESCOTT'S Conquest of 
Mexico. Copyright edition, with 
the notes by John Foster Kirk, 
and an introduction bv G. P. 
Winship. 3 vols. 3J. o</. each. 

Conquest of Peru. Copyright 

edition, with the notes of John 
Foster Kirk. 2 vols. 3J. td. each. 

Reign of Ferdinand and 

Isabella. Copyright edition, 
with the notes of John Foster 
Kirk. 3 vols. y. 6d. each. 

PROPERTIUS. Translated by 
Rev. P. J. F. Gantillon, M.A., 
and accompanied by Poetical 
Versions, from various sources. 
35. 6d. 

PROVERBS, Handbook of. Con 
taining an entire Republicatior. 
of Ray's Collection of English 
Proverbs, with his additions froii; 
Foreign Languages and a com- 
plete Alphabetical Index; in which 
are introduced large additions as 
well of Proverbs as of Sayings, 
Sentences, Maxims, and Phrases, 
collected by II. G. Bohn. $1. 

PROVERBS, A Polyglot of 
Foreign. Comprising French, 
Italian, German, Dutch, Spanish, 
Portuguese, and Danish. Willi 
English Translations & a General 
Index by H. G. Bohn. $s. 

POTTERY AND PORCELAIN, 
and other Objects of Vertu. Com 
prising an Illustrated Catalogue o. 
the Bernal Collection of Work 
of Art, with the prices at which 
they were sold by auction, anii 
names of the possessors. To which 
are added, an Introductory Lecture 
on Pottery and Porcelain, and an 
Engraved List of all the known 
Marks and Monograms. By I lenry 
G. Bohn. With numerous Wood 
Engravings, 5^. ; or with Coloured 
Illustrations, los. 6d. 

PROUT'S (Father) Rellques. Col- 
lected and arranged by Rev, F. 
Mahony. New issue, with 21 
Etchings by D. Maclise, R.A. 
Nearly 600 pages. Sj. 



20 



An Alphabetical List of Books 



QUINTILIAN'S Institutes of 
Oratory, or Education of an 
Orator. Translated by the Rev. 
J. S. Watson, M.A. 2 vols. ^s. 
each. 

RACINE'S (Jean) Dramatic 
Works. A metrical English ver- 
sion. By R. Bruce Boswell, M.A. 
Oxon. 2 vols. 35. dd. each. 

RANKE'S History of ths Popes, 
during the Last Four Centuries. 
Translated by E. Foster. Mrs. 
Foster's translation revised, with 
considerable additions, by G. R. 
Dennis, B.A. 3 vols. 3^. dd. each. 

History of Servia and the 

Servian Revolution. With an 
Account of the Insurrection in 
Bosnia. Translated by Mrs. Kerr. 
3J. dd. 

REOREATIONS in SHOOTING. 
By • Craven.' With 62 Engravings 
on Wood after Harvey, and 9 
Engravings on Steel, chiefly after 
A. Cooper, R.A. 5^. 

RENNIE'S Insect Archlteotxire. 
Revised and enlarged by Rev. 
J. G. Wood, M.A. With 186 
Woodcut Illustrations. 5^. 

REYNOLD'S (Sir J.) Literary 
Works. Edited by H. W. Beechy. 
2 vols. 3^. dd. each. 

RICARDO on the Principles of 
Political Economy and Taxa- 
tion, Edited by E. C. K. Conner, 
M.A. 5^. 

RICHTER (Jean Paul Frledrlch). 
Levana, a Treatise on Education: 
together with the Autobiography 
(a Fragment), and a short Pre- 
fatory Memoir. 3J. dd. 

Flower, Fruit, and Thorn 

Pieces, or the Wedded Life, Death, 
and Marriage of Firmian Stanis- 
laus Siebenkaes, Parish Advocate 
in the Parish of Kuhschnapptel. 
Newly translated by Lt. Col. Alex. 
Ewing. 3^. dd 



ROGER DE HOVEDEN'S An- 
nals of English History, com- 
prising the History of England 
and of other Countries of Europe 
from A.D. 732 to A. D. I20I. 
Translated by H. T. Riley, M.A. 
2 vols. 5J. each. 

ROGER OF WENDOVER'S 

Flowers of History, com-.irising 
the History of England from the 
Descent of the Saxons to a.d. 
i235,formerly ascribed to Matthew 
Paris. Translated by J. A. Giles, 
D.C.L. 2 vols. 5j. each. 

[ Vol. II. out of print. 

ROME In the NINETEENTH 
CENTURY. Containing a com- 
pleie Account of the Ruins of the 
Ancient City, the Remains of the 
Middle Ages, and the Monuments 
of Modern Times. By C. A. Eaton. 
With 34 Steel Engravings. 2 vols. 
5 J. each. 

See Burn. 

ROSCOE'S (W.) Life and Pontl- 
flcate of Leo X. Final edition, 
revised by Thomas Roscoe. 2 
vols. 3J. 6d. each. 

Life of Lorenzo de' Medlol, 

called * the Magnificent.' With 
his poems, letters, cfec loth 
Ekiition, revised, with Memoir of 
Roscoe by his Son. y. dd. 

RUSSIA. History of, from the 
earliest Period, compiled from 
the most authentic sources by 
Walter K. Kelly. With Portraits. 
2 vols. 3 J dd. each. 

SALLUST, FLORUS. and VEL- 
LEIUS PATERCULUS. 
Translated by J. S.Watson, M.A. 

SCHILLER'S Works. Translated 
by various hands. 7 vols. 3^. dd. 
each : — 

I.— History of the Thirty Years' 
War. 



Contained in Bohn's Libraries. 



21 



Schiller's Works contintud. 

II. — History of the Revolt in the 
Netherlands, the Trials of 
Counts Egmont and Horn, 
the Siege of Antwerp, and 
the Disturbances in France 
preceding the Reign of 
Henry IV. 

III. — Don Carlos, Mary Stuart, 
Maid of Orleans, Bride of 
Messina, together with the 
Use of the Chorus in 
Tragedy (a short Essay). 
These Dramas are all 
translated in metre. 

IV.— Robbers (with SchiUer's 
original Preface), Fiesco, 
Love and Intrigue, De- 
metrius, Ghost Seer, Sport 
of Divinity. 

The Dramas in this 
volume are translated into 
Prose. 
V — Poems. 

VI. — Essays, .^thetical and Philo- 
sophical 
VII.— Wallenstein's Camp, Pic- 
colomini and Death of 
Wallenstein, William Tell. 

SCHILLER and GOETHE. 
Oorrespondenoe between, from 
A.D. 1794- 1805. Translated by 
L. Dora Schmitz. 2 vols. 31. bd. 
each. 

SOHLEGEL'S (F.) Lectures on 
the Philosophy of Life and the 
Philosophy of Language. Trans- 
lated by the Rev. A. J . W. Mor- 
rison, M.A. 3J. 6d. 

Lectxires on the History of 

Literature, Ancient and Modern. 
Translated from the German. y.6a. 

Lecttires on the Philosophy 

of History. Translated by J. B. 
Robertson. 3^. 6d. 

SCHLE GEL'S Lectures on 
Modern History, together with 
the Lectures entitled Cxsar and 



Alexander, and The Beginning of 
our History. Translated by L. 
Purcell and R. H. Whitetock. 
V.(>d. 

JBsthetlo and Miscellaneous 

Works. Translated by E. J. 
Millington. 31. 6d. 

SOHLEGEL (A. W.) Lectures 
on Dramatic Art and Literature. 
Translated by J. Black. Revised 
Edition, by the Rev. A. J. W. 
Morrison, M.A. 3J. (>d. 

SCHOPENHAUER on the Pour- 
fold Root of the Principle of 
Sufficient Reason, and On the 
WUl In Nature. Translated by 
Madame Hillebrand. 5^. 

Essays. Selected and Trans- 
lated. With a Biographical Intro- 
duction and Sketch of his Philo- 
.sophy, by E. Belfort Bax. 5^. 

SCHOUW'S Earth, Plants, and 
Man. Translated by A. Henfrey- 
With coloured Map of the Gc 
graphy of Plants. 55. 

SCHUMANN (Robert). His Life 
and Works, by August Reissmann. 
Translated by A. L. Alger. 3^. 6<' 

Early Letters. Originally pul) 

Wished by his Wife. Translated 
by May Herbert. With a Preface 
by Sir George Grove, D.C.L 

zs.ed. 

SENECA on Benefits. Newl> 
translated by A. Stewart, M.A. 
y. td. 

-s — Minor Essays and On Clem- 
ency. Translated by A. Stewart, 
M.A. 5J. 

SHAKESPEARE DOCU- 
MENTS. Arranged by D. H. 
Lambert, B.A. y. 6d. 

SHAKESPEARE'S DramaUo 
Art. The History and Character 
of Shakespeare's Plays. By Dr. 
Hermann Ulrici. Translated by 
L. Dura Schmitz. 2 vols. 3^. 6d. 
each. 



22 



An Alphabetical List of Books 



SHAKESPEARS (WlUlam). A 
Literary Biography by Karl EIze, 
Ph.D., LL.D. Translated by 
L. Dora Schmitz. 55, 

SKARPE (S.) The History of 
Egypt, from the Earliest Times 
till the Conquest by the Arabs, 
A.D. 640. By Samuel Sharpe. 
2 Maps and upwards of 400 Illus- 
trative Woodcuts. 2 vols. 5^. each. 

SHERIDAN'S Dramatic Works, 
Complete. With Life by G. G. S. 

SISMONDI'S History of the 
Literature of the South 01 
Europe. Translated by Thomas 
Roscoe. 2 vols. 3^, 6d. each. 

SMITH'S Synonyms and An- 
tonyms, or Kindred. Words and 
their Opposites. Revised Edi- 
tion. $s. 

Synonyms Discriminated. 

A Dictionary of Synonymous 
Words in the English Language, 
showing the Accurate signification 
of words of similar meaning. 
Edited by the Rev. H. Percy 
Smith, M.A. 6s. 

SMITH'S (Adam) The Wealth of 
Nations. Edited by E. Belfort 
Bax. 2 vols. y. 6d, each. 

Theory of Moral Sentiments. 

With a Memoir of the Author by 
Dugald Stewart. 3s. 6d. 

SMYTH'S (Professor) Lectureg 
on Modem History. 2 vols. 
3 J. 6d. each, 

SMYTH'S (Professor) Lectures 
on the French Revolution. 
2 vols. 3J. 6d. each. 

SMITH'S ( Pye ) Geology and 
Scripture. 2nd Edition. 5J. 

SMOLLETT'S Adventures oi 
Roderick Random. With short 
Memoir and Bibliography, and 
Cruikshank's Illustrations. 3^. 6d. 



SMOLLETT'S Adventures of 
Peregrine Pickle. With Biblio- 
graphy and Cruikshank's Illus- 
trations. 2 vols. 3^. 6d. each. 

The Expedition of Hum- 
phry Clinker. With Bibliography 
and Cruikshank's Illustrations. 
3^.6^. 

SOCRATES (sumamed 'Scholas- 
tlcus '). The Ecclesiastical His- 
tory of (a. d. 305-445). Translated 
from the Greek. 5^. 

SOPHOCLES, The Tragedies 01. 
A New Prose Translation, with 
Memoir, Notes, &c., by E. P. 
Coleridge, M.A. gy. 

SOUTHEY'S Life of Nelson. 
With Portraits, Plans, and up- 
wards of 50 Engravings on Steel 
and Wood. 5^. 

Life of Wesley, and the Rise 

and Progress of Methodism, ^s. 

Robert Southey. The Story 

of his Life written in his Letters. 
Edited by John Dennis. 3J. 6d. 

SOZOMEN'S Ecclesiastical His- 
tory. Translated from the Greek. 
Together with the Ecclesiasti- 
cal History of Philostor- 
GIUS, as epitomised by Photius. 
Translated by Rev. E. Walford, 
M.A. 5'. 

SPINOZA'S Chief Works. Trans- 
lated, with Introduction,byR.H.M. 
Elwes. 2 vols. Sj. each. 

STANLEY'S Classified Synopsis 
of the Principal Painters of the 
Dutch and Flemish Schools. 
By George Stanley. 5^. 

STARLING'S (Miss) Noble Deeds 
of Women. With 14 Steel En- 
gravings. 5^. 

STAUNTON'S Chess - Player's 
Handbook. 5^^. 

Che.«JS Praxis. A Supplement 

to the Chess-player's Handbook. 
55. 



Contained in Bohns Libraries. 



23 



STAUNTON'S Chess - player's 
Companion. Comprising a Trea- 
tise on Odds, Collection of Match 
Games, and a Selection of Original 
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Chess Tournament of 1851. 

With Introduction and Notes. 5r. 

STOCKHAEDT'S Experimental 
Chemistry. Edited by C. W. 
Heaton, F.C.S. Sj. 

STOWE (Mrs. H.B.)XJnole Tom's 
Cabin. Illustrated. 3j. W. 

STRABO'S Geography. Trans- 
lated by W. Falconer, M.A., 
and II. C. Hamilton. 3 vols. 
5J. each. 

STRICKLAND'S (Agnes) Lives 
of the Queens of England, from 
the Norman Conquest. Revised 
Edition. With 6 Portraits. 6 vols. 
5f. each. 

Life of Mary Queen of Scots. 

2 vols. 5 J. each. 

Lives of the Tudor and Stuart 

Princesses. With Portraits. 5; 

STUART and REVETT'S Anti- 
quities of Athens, and other 
Monuments of Greece. With 71 
Plates engraved on Steel, and 
numerous Woodcut Capitals. 55. 

SUETONIUS' Lives of the Twelve 
CsEsars and Lives of the Gram- 
marians. Thomson's translation, 
revised by T. Forester. 55. 

SWIFT'S Prose Works. Edited 
by Temple Scott. With a Bio- 
graphical Introduction by the Right 
Hon. W. E. H. Lecky, M.P. 
With Portraits and Facsimiles. 
12 vols. 3J. dd. each. 

[ Vols. I.-XI. ready. 
I.— A Tale of a Tub, The Battle 
of the Books, and other 
early works. Edited by 
Temple Scott. With a 
Biographical Introduction 
by W. E. H. Lecky. 



Swift's Pkose Wokhs co»rimud. 
1 1 . —The Journal to Stella. Edited 
by Frederick Ryland,M.A. 
With 2 Portraits and Fac- 
simile. 
IIL& 1 V. — Writings on Religion and 
the Church. 
V. — Historical and Political 

Tracts (English). 
VI.— The Drapier's Letters. 
With facsimiles of Wood's 
Coinage, &c. 
VII. — Historical and Political 
Tracts (Irish). 
VIII.— Gulliver's Travels. Edited 
by G. R. Dennis. With 
Portrait and Maps. 
IX. — Contributions to Periodicals. 
X. — Historical Writings. 
XI. — Literary Essays. 
XII.— Index and Bibliography, &:c. 
[In preparation. 

TACITUS. The Works of. Liter- 
ally translated. 2 vols. 5J. each. 

TASSO'S Jerusalem Delivered. 
Translated into English Spenserian 
Verse by J. H. Wiffen. With 8 
Engravings on Steel and 24 Wood- 
cuts by Thurston. 51. 

TAYLOR'S (Bishop Jeremy) 
Holy Living and Dying, y. 6d. 

TEN -BRINK.- See Brink. 

TERENCE and PH^DRUS. 
Literally translated by II. T. Riley, 
M. A. To which is added. Smart's 
Metrical Version of Phx-drus. 5f. 

THEOCRITUS. BION, MOS- 
CHUS, and TYRTiEUS. Liter- 
ally translated by the Rev. J. 
Banks, M.A. To which are ap- 
pended the Metrical Versions of 
Chapman. $s, 

THEODORET and EVAGRIUS. 
Histories of the Church from a.d. 
332 to A.D. 427; and from A.D. 
431 to A.D. 544. Translated. Sj. 



24 



An Alphabetical List of Books 



THIERRY'S History of the 
Conquest of England by the 
Normans. Translated by Wil- 
liam Hazlitt. 2 vols. y. 6d. each, 

THXJCYDIDES. The Pelopon- 
nesian War. Literally translated 
by the Rev. H. Dale. 2 vols. 
3J. 6ci. each. 

An Analysis and Summary 

of. By J. T. Wheeler. $s. 

THUDICHXJM (J. L. W.) A Trea 
tlse on Wines. Illustrated. 5^ 

URE'S (Dr. A.) Cotton Manufao 
ture of Great Britain. Edited 
by P. L. Simmonds. 2 vols. 5j, 
each. 

Philosophy of Manufactures 

Edited by P. L. Simmonds. 7j. 6d. 

VASARI'S Lives of the most 
Eminent Painters, Sculptors, 
and Architects. Translated by 
Mrs. J. Foster, with a Commen 
tary by J. P. Richter, Ph.D. 6 
vols. y. 6d. each. 

VIRGIL. A Literal Prose Trans- 
lation by A, Hamilton Bryce, 
LL.D. With Portrait. 3^. 6d, 

VOLTAIRE'S Tales. Translated 
by R. B. Boswell. Containing 
Bebouc, Memnon, Candide, L'ln- 
g6nu, and other Tales. 3^. 6d. 

WALTON'S Complete Angler. 
Edited by Edward Jesse. With 
Portrait and 203 Engravings on 
Wood and 26 Engravings on 
Steel. 5^. 

Lives of Donne, Hooker, &o. 

New Edition revised by A. H. 
Bullen, with a Memoir of Izaak 
Walton by Wm. Dowling. With 
numerous Illustrations. 5^. 

WELLINGTON, Life of. By * An 
Old Soldier.' From the materials 
of Maxwell. With Index and 18 
Steel Engravings. 5^. 



WELLINGTON, Victories of. 
See Maxwell. 

WERNER'S Templars in 
Cyprus. Translated by E. A. M. 
Lewis. 3J. 6d. 

WESTROPP (H. M.) A Hand- 
book of Archaeology, Egyptian, 
Greek, Etruscan, Roman. Illus- 
trated. 5 J. 

WHITE'S Natural History ox 
Selbome. With Notes by Sir 
William Jardine. Edited by Ed- 
ward Jesse. With 40 Portraits 
and coloured Plates. 5^. 

WHEATLEY'S A Rational Illus- 
tration of the Book of Common 
Prayer. 3^, 6d. 

WHEELER'S Noted Names of 
Fiction, Dictionary of. 5^. 

WIESELER'S Chronological 
Synopsis of the Four Gospels. 
Translated by the Rev. Canon 
Venables. 3j. 6d. 

WILLIAM of M ALME SBURY'S 
Chronicle of the Kings of Eng- 
land. Translated by the Rev. J. 
Sharpe. Edited by J. A. Giles, 
D.C.L. 5 J. 

XENOPHON'S Works. Trans- 
lated by the Rev. J. S. Watson, 
M.A., and the Rev." H. Dale. In 
3 vols. 5^. each. 

YOUNG (Arthur). Travels in 
France during the years 1787, 
1788, and 1789. Edited by 
M. Betham Edwards. 3j. 6d. 

Tour in Ireland, with 

General Observations on the state 
of the country during the years 
1776 - 79. Edited by A. W. 
Ilutton. With Complete Biblio- 
graphy by J. P. Anderson, and 
Map. 2 vols. y. 6d. each. 

YULE-TIDE STORIES. A Col- 
lection of Scandinavian and North- 
German Popular Tales and Tra- 
ditions. Edited by B. Thorpe. SJ. 



THE YORK LIBRARY 

A NEW sp:ries of reprints on thin paper. 

lf'i//i specially desi^^ned title-pages, Inndiug, and end-papers. 

Fcap. 8vo. in cloth, 2s. net ; 
In leather, 3s. net. 

•The Votk Library is noticeable by reason of the wisdom and intelli 
gence displayed in the choice of unhackneyed classics. ... A mo^ 
attractive series of reprints. * . . The size and style of the volumes are 
exactly what they should ht.^—Hookman. 

The folloiuing volumes are now ready : 

CHARLOTTE BRONTE'S JANE EYRE. 

BURNEY'S EVELINA. Edited, with an Introduction and 

Notes, by Annie Rainr Elms. 
BURNEY'S CECILIA. Edited by Annie Raine Ellis. 2 vol> 

BURTON'S ANATOMY OF MELANCHOLY. Edited by the 
Rev. A. R. Shili.eto, M.A.. with Introduction by A H. Hullen. 3 vols. 

BURTON'S (SIR RICHARD) PILGRIMAGE TO AL- 
MADINAII AND MECCAH. With Introduction by .Stanley Lank- 
POOLE. 2 vols. 

CERVANTES' DON QUIXOTE. Motteux's Translation, re- 
vised. With LocKH art's Life and Notes. 2 vols. 

CLASSIC TALES : Johnson's Rasselas, Goldsmith's Vicar 
OK Wakefield. Sterne's vSenti.mental Journey, Walhole's 
Castle of Otranto. With Introduction by C. S. Fearenside, M.A. 

COLERIDGE'S AIDS TO REFLECTION, and the Confessions 
of an Inquiring Spirit. 

COLERIDGE'S FRIEND. A series of Essays on Morals, 

Politics, and Religion. 

COLERIDGE'S TABLE TALK AND OMNIANA. Arranged 
and Edited by T. AsiiE, B.A. 

COLERIDGE'S LECTURES AND NOTES ON SHAKE- 
SPE.ARE. and other English Poets. Edited by T. Asiie. B.A. 

DRAPER'S HISTORY OF THE INTELLECTUAL DE 

VELOPMENT OF EUROPE. 2 vols. 
EBERS' AN EGYPTIAN PRINCESS. Translated by E. S. 

BUCHHEIM. 

GEORGE ELIOT'S ADAM BEDE. 

EMERSON'S WORKS. A new edition in 5 volumes, with the 

Te.\t edited and collated by George Sampson. 
FIELDING'S TOM JONES (2 vols.), AMELIA (i vol.), JOSEPH 

ANDREWS (I vol.). 

GASKELL'S SYLVIA'S LOVERS. 



The York 'Lm^A.^st— continued. 

GESTA ROMANORUM, or Entertaining Moral Stories in- 
vented by the Monks. Translated from the Latin by the Rev. Charles 
Swan. Revised edition, by Wvnnard Hooper, M.A. 

GOETHE'S FAUST. Translated by Anna Swanwick, LL.D. 
Revised edition, with an Introduction and Bibliography by Karl Brbul, 
Litt.D., Ph.D. 

GOETHE'S POETRY AND TRUTH FROM MY OWN LIFE. 
Translated by M, Steele-Smith, with Introduction and Bibliography by 
Karl Breul, Litt.D. 

HAWTHORNE'S TRANSFORMATION (The Marble Faun). 

HOOPER'S WATERLOO : THE DOWNFALL OF THE 
FIRST NAPOLEON. With Maps and Plans. 

IRVING'S SKETCH BOOK. 

IRVING'S BRACEBRIDGE HALL, OR THE HUMOURISTS. 

JAMESON'S SHAKESPEARE'S HEROINES. Characteris- 
tics of Women : Moral, Poetical, and Historical. 

LAMB'S ESSAYS. Including the Essays of EHa, Last Essays 
of Elia, and Eliana. 

MARCUS AURELIUS ANTONINUS, THE THOUGHTS 

OF. Translated by George Long, M.A. With an Essay on Marcus 
Aurelius by Matthew Arnold. 

MARRY ATS MR. MIDSHIPMAN EASY. With 8 lUustra- 
trations. i vol. PETER SIMPLE. With 8 Illustrations, i vol. 

MIGNET'S HISTORY OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION, 
from 1789 to 1 814. 

MONTAIGNE'S ESSAYS. Cotton's translation. Revised by 
W. C. Hazlitt. 3 vols. 

MOTLEYS RISE OF THE DUTCH REPUBLIC. With a 
Biographical Introduction by MONCURE D. Conway. 3 vols. 

PASCAL'S THOUGHTS. Translated from the Text of M. 
AUGUSTE MoLiNiER by C. Kegan Paul. Third edition. 

PLUTARCH'S LIVES. Translated, with Notes and a Life by 
Aubrey Stewart, M.A., and George Long, M.A. 4 vols. 

RANKE'S HISTORY OF THE POPES, during the Last Four 
Centuries. Mrs. Foster's translation. Revised by G. R. Dennis. 3 vols. 

SWIFT'S GULLIVER'S TRAVELS. Edited, with Introduction 
and Notes, by G. R. Dennis, with facsimiles of the original illustrations. 

SWIFT'S JOURNAL TO STELLA. Edited, with Introduction 

and Notes, by F. Ryland, M.A. 

TROLLOPE'S BARSETSHIRE NOVELS.— THE WARDEN 
(i vol.), BARCHESTER TOWERS (i vol.), DR. THORNE (i vol.), 
FRAMLEY PARSONAGE (i vol.), SMALL HOUSE AT ALLING- 
TON (2 vols.), LAST CHRONICLE OF BARSET (2 vols.). 

VOLTAIRE'S ZADIG AND OTHER TALES. Translated by 
R. Bruce Bos well. 

ARTHUR YOUNG'S TRAVELS IN FRANCE, during the 
years 1787, 1788, and 1789. Edited with Introduction and Notes, by M. 
Betham Edwards. 

Other Volumes are in Preparation, 



BELL'S HANDBOOKS 

OP 

THE GREAT MASTERS 

IN PAINTING AND SCULPTURE. 

Edited by G. C. WILLIAMSON, Litt.D. 

NEW AND CHEAPER REISSUE. 

Post 8vo. With 40 Illustrations and Photogravure Frontispiece. 3^. 6d. net each 



The following Volumes have been issued : 
BOTTICELLI. By A. Streeter, 2nd Edition. 
BRUNELLESCin. By Leader Scott. 
CORREGGIO. By Selwyn Brinton, M.A. 2nd Edition. 
CARLO CRIVELLI. By G. McNeil Rushforth, M.A. 
DELLA ROBBIA. By the Marchesa Burlamacchi. 2nd Edition. 
ANDREA DEL SARTO. By H. Guinness. 2nd Edition. 
DONATELLO. By Hope Rka. 2nd Edition. 
GERARD DOU. By Dr. W, Martin. Translated by Clara Bell. 
GAUDENZIO FERRARL By Ethel Halsey. 
FRANCIA, By George C. Williamson, Litt.D. 
GIORGIONE. By Hkrbbbt Cook, M.A. 
GIOTTO. By F. Mason Perkins. 
FRANS HALS. By Gerald S. Davies, M.A. 

BERNARDINO LUINI. By George C. Williamson, Litt.D. 3rd Edition 
LEONARDO DA VINCI. By Edward McCurdy, M.A. 
MANTEGNA. By Maud Cruttwell. 
MEMLINC. By W. II. James Weale. 
MICHEL ANGELO. By Lord Ronald Sutherland Gower, M.A. 

F.S.A. 
PERUGINO. By G. C. Williamson, Litt.D. 2nd Edition. 
PIERO DELLA FRANCESCA. By W. G. Waters, M.A. 
PINTORICCHIO. By Evelyn March Phillipps. 
RAPHAEL. By H. StRachey. 2nd Edition. 
REMBRANDT. By Malcolm Bell. 2nd Edition. 
RUBENS. By Hope Rea. 

LUCA SIGNORELLI. By Maud Cruttwell. 2nd Edition. 
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