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lbcatb'9 flDobern XanQuage Seriee 
A DANISH 



Dano-Norwegian Grammar 



p. GROTH, A.M. 



BOSTOxN, U.S.A. 
D. C. HEATH & CO., PUBLISHERS 

1894 





V 

MAR 3 ]^ 

889209 




Cor-YRIGHT, 1S94 

By P . G R O T H 

All rights reskrved 



PRESS OF 
BOSTON, U.S.A. 



F*REK ACE. 



A S a teacher of the Danish or Norwegian language to 
English speaking students I had very often felt the 
lack of a reliable grammar of the language, and finally I made 
up my mind to try to supply the want. Special couditions 
of which I have not been master have caused the time inter- 
vening between the writing of this book and its appearance 
in print to be a good deal longer than it ought to have been, 
i. e. about two years, and meanwhile there have appeared a 
couple of Danish or Norwegian grammars that may deserve 
this name. 

The reason why I have given my book the somewhat cum- 
bersome title of a " Danish and Dano-Norwegian Grammar " 
will be apparent from the ** Introduction." As regards the 
use of the book I would advise the student first to make up 
his mind, whether he wants to study the pure Danish language 
or the Dano-Norwegian language. This must to a large ex- 
tent depend upon personal and practical considerations. The 
tourist, the commercial traveller, the merchant may need to 
study one branch of the language or the other ; the literary 
student may wish to acquaint himself with genuine Danish, or 
he may wish to study the vernacular of BJ0rnson and Ibsen. 
As a general rule I would say that the Danish pronunciation of- 
fers, with its * 'glottal catch" and other peculiarities, more diffi- 
culties to the English speaking student than the Norwegian 
pronunciation. 



II 

The student who wants to study Danish must pass by 
§§ 81 to 146, while those who want to study Norwegian 
must pass directly from §§ 8 to 81. Besides, in the "Etymo- 
logy," attention is often called to certain rules as being pecu- 
liar to Danish, others to Norwegian. The student must 
select those he needs, and pass by those that refer to the 
language that he is not studying. 

I have added some ** Exercises " at the end of the book in 
order to help the student fix in his memory those rules and 
paradigms which he must know before he can, with any de- 
gree of success, commence reading the language. For those 
who wish more exercises I can recommend Mr. K. Brekke's 
excellent Lcereboy i Engelsk which is intended for Norwegian 
students of English, but may also to a certain extent be used 
the other way. The student may find an abundance of good 
readers prepared for use in the Danish and Norwegian 
schools. I mention only Otto Borchsenius and F. Winkel 
Horn's Dansk Lmsehog^ Eriksen and Paulsen's Norsk Lcese- 
bog, Pauss and Lassen's Lcesebog i Modersmaalet^ each of 
them in several volumes. As Dictionaries can be thoroughly 
recommended : A. Larsen's Dansk-Norsk Engelsk Ordbog 
and Kosing's Engelsk-Dansk Ordbog. To those who want to 
study the Norwegian form of the language I would recommend : 
I. Brynildsen's Norsk- engelsk ordbog and the same author's 
edition of Geelmuyden's Engelsk-norsk ordbog. The tourist 
will find Bennett's Phrasebook^ Olsvig's Words and Phrases 
and the same author's Yes and No valuable guides to famili- 
arity with the peculiarities of the language. 

This Grammar, besides being based upon my own studies 
and knowledge of the language, rests, as far as Danish U con- 
cerned, chiefly upon the works of Sweety Dahlerup and 
Jespersen^ Jessen, Bojeseti, Lefolii and B. T. Dahl^ and for 



Ill 

the Norwegian upon the grammars of LbkJce and Ilofgaard 
and the treatises of Storm, Western, Brekke and /. Aars, To 
those who desire a more detailed knowledge of the language 
than can be had from this book I would recommend Poestion's 
DdLnische Sprache and the same author's Lehrhuch der Nor- 
luegischen Sprache; both these books are excellent, and especi- 
ally the Danish Grammar has often been of use to me in 
writing this book. 

The several species of types that are peculiar to the 
Scandinavian languages compelled me to have this book set in 
a Danish Newspaper printing office in New York City, not prop- 
erly equipped for a work of this kind. On that account the ty- 
pographical appearance of the book is not in every respect as 
good as I would like it to have been. Deserving of special 
mention is the fact that the types ce and cb are everywhere in 
the book used promiscuously to represent the latter character 
except in §92 where the sign or is used a couple of times to 
denote and explain a variety of the sound of o. 

Finally I must acknowledge my debt of gratitude to Pro- 
fessor Dr. JoH. feTORM of the University of Christiania for 
kindly sending me those advance sheets of the 2d edition of 
his *'Englische Philologie" that were of use to me in preparing 
this grammar, to my honored friend Professor A. H. Palmer 
of Yale University for kindly reading through the larger part 
of the book in manuscript and making valuable suggestions, 
and, last but not least, to Mr. Chr. B0RS, late Consul of 
Norway and Sweden at New York, without whose munifici- 
ence, proverbial among Norwegians in New York, this book 
would never have seen the light of day. 

Brooklyn, N. Y., August 25th, 189 U. 

1*HEi AUTHOR. 



Contents. 



Page. Page. 

Introduction 1—2 

The Alphabet 3 

Danish Sounds 4 — 29 

Vowels 4 

Diphthongs 11 

Consonants 11 

Colloquial forms 21 

Accent 21 

Sentence accent 25 

Glottal Stop 26 

Quantity 28 

Norwegian Sounds 30 — 65 

Vowels 80 

Diphthongs 85 

Consonants 36 

Accent , 52 

Abbreviations 58 

Quantity 63 

Vowel Changes in inflection and word formation 66 

Etymology 67—131 

Articles — genders 67 

Nouns 70—83 

Gender of the nouns 70 

Formation of the possessive 76 

Syntactical remarks about the use of the pos- 
sessive 77 

Formation of the plural 78 



VI 

Page. Page. 

The Adjectives 83—91 

Declension of the adjectives 83 

Use of the definite form of the adjectives 86 

Agreement of the adjective -with its noun 87 

Comparison of adjectives 87 

Inflection and use of tht comparative and super- 
lative 90 

The Pronouns 91—99 

The jersonal pronouns 91 

The reflexive and leciprocal pionouns 92 

The possessive pronouns 93 

The demonstrative pronouns 94 

The interrogative pronouns 95 

The relative pronouns 96 

The indefinite pronouns 98 

The Numerals 99—102 

The Verbs 102-121 

Weak verbs 104 

Strong verbs 107 

Irregular verbs 113 

The use of the numbers 114 

The use of the tenses 114 

The use of the modes 116 

The passive voice 119 

Reflexive and impersonal verbs 121 

The Adverbs 122—124 

The Prepositions 124—1 6 

The Conjunctions 126—128 

The Interjections 128—129 

The order of the words in the sentence 129 — 180 

The Punctuation 131 

Exercises 132—143 



INTRODUCTION. 



SCANDINAVIAN LANGUAGES. HISTORY OF THE 
DANO-NORWEGIAN LANGUAGE. 



1. The Danish and Dano-Norwegian language belongs to the 
Scandinavian group of the Teutonic languages. This group com- 
prises, in modern times, besides the language already mentioned, the 
Swedish, Norwegian, Icelandic and Faroish languages. 

2. The earliest specimens of Scandinavian language are found in 
the Runic inscriptions, written in the earlier Runic characters and dat- 
ing as far back as the 4th century A. D. In these inscriptions the 
similarity with the other earlier specimens of Teutonic languages (espe- 
cially Gothic) is more prominent than the peculiar Scandinavian charac- 
teristics. 

3. During the Viking Age (750—1000 A. D.) the language of the 
Scandinavian nations underwent a very decided change. The Scandi 
navian peculiarities distinguishing the language from the other Teu- 
tonic idioms appear fully developed, and by and by dialectic differences 
between the languages of the several Scandinavian nations commence 
to assert themselves. 

4. In the Middle Ages the Danish and Swedish languages form one 
group that may be designated as the Eastern group of the Scandi- 
navian languages, having in common the monophthongification of origi- 
nal diphthongs, while the Danish language had a development of its 
own in the direction of substituting voiced stops (mediae) or even open 
consonants (spirants) for voiceless stops (tenues, hard consonants) after 



)i INTRODUCTIOiq-. 

a long vowel at the end of a word or syllable. The Norwegian language 
and its offspring the Icelandic tongue, on the other hand, form the 
Western group o:*" the Scandinavian languages, having in common 
the retention of the old diphthongs as diphthongs, but with some 
changes peculiar to each of the two languages. These two languages 
have, in common with the Swedish, retained the old voiceless stops. 

5. In the Middle Ages we have the most valuable literature in the 
Norwegian-Icelandic language, consisting chiefly of the Eddie 
songs, the Scaldic art poetry, the Sagas and the Laws, while 
the chief products of the earliest Danish literature are the provincial 
laws and popular songs (folk lore), the latter not being reduced to 
writing until later. 

6. When Norway in the latter part of the 14th century was united 
with Denmark, Norwegian literature fell into decay and Danish grew 
more and more to be the official language used in Court Documents, 
Royal Ordinances etc. In the latter part of the 17th century Norwe- 
gian authors again began to take an active part in the literature; but 
their language was Danish, this language having come to be adopted 
by the educated classes of the Norwegian people and chiefly by the 
inhabitants of the towns and cities, while the Norwegian language 
still remained the spoken idiom of most of the rural population. Still 
the language spoken and written by the educated classes in Norway 
was never pure Danish. Norwegian authors have always used some 
native words, taken from the rural dialects, in their writings, and 
while the official and professional people during the union with Den- 
mark affected as far as possible a correct Danish pronunciation, the 
tendency in Norway now, even though it be unconscious, is to natio- 
nalize the language more and more. This tendency is chiefly notice- 
able in the pronunciation (retaining the voiceless stops, tenues), but 
it also appears in the grammar, especially the syntax, and in the 
vocabulary. 

7. Thus it is that we have at the present time two kinds of Danish 
language, the pureDanish used in Denmark and by Danish authors, 
and the Dano-Norwegian used in Norway by most of the educated 
classes, especially in the cities, and by most of the Norwegian authors. 
Still it should be noted that the language s p o k e n in Norway even by 
educated people is far more national in its character than the one used 
in writing. 



THE ALPHABET. 3 

THE ALPHABET. 

8. The alphabet used in Danish and Dano-Norwegian lite- 
rature has the same letters as the English alphabet and besides 
these the signs JE (ae) and (0, 0, ). As for the sounds 
indicated by these letters see §§ 12, 13, 25, 26, 82, 91. 

The names of the vowels are represented by their sounds. 

The names of the consonants b, c, d, etc. are be, ce, de etc. (pro- 
nounce d like « in name.) ^ and A; are called h a a and k a a (a« pron. 
with a sound between 6> in h ol e and a in call), ;' is called jod (yod), g ge 
(pronounced like g in give), w is called "dobbelt ve" (double v), 2 zet 
pr. set. 

The Gothic characters are still in very common use, espe- 
cially in newspapers and popular books. These letters have the 
following forms : 



21 Q 


53b 


Sc 


2)b 


@e 


5f 


® 9 


§^ 3i 5i 


a 


b 


c 


d 


e 


f 


g 


h i j 


.^f 


?l 


50^ m 


9^n 


Oo 


s^p 


Oq 


9^r ® f 8 


k 


1 


m 


n 





P 


q 


r s 


%i 


Uu 


2Jd 


«$n) 


X? 


?)t) 


35 


Won 2)(j 


t 


u 


V 


w 


X 


y 


z 


ae 6 



Some authors also employ the sign a, borrowed from the 
Swedish language, to express the same sound as is usually in 
Danish and Dano- Norwegian literature denoted by a a (see 
above). 

Note. — Capital letters are still according to official Danish rules of 
spelling used at the beginning of substantives and adjectives employed 
as substantives, while the official Norwegian orthography only acknowl- 
edges capital letters in proper nouns. A great many Danish authors 
also have done away with capital letters in common nouns. 



The sounds of the Danish and the Dano-Norwegian branches 
of the language are so widely different, that it bas been found 
practical to treat of them in separate chapters. 



DANISH SOUIsTDS. 



DANISH SOUNDS. 

VOWELS. 

9. Table of Danish vowels classified according to their 
articulation. 

(A period' up in the line after a vowel indicates length of the vowel). 



Back. 


Mixed. 


Front. 




Not 
rounded. 


Rounded. 


Not 
rounded. 


Rounded. 


Not 
rounded. 


Rounded 


m 


Narrow 




u- 






i* 


y 


Wide 




U 






i 


y 


« 
^ 


Narrow 




0* 






e- e 


00- 


Wide 







8 




86 





1 


yarrow 




aa- 






86* 


0* 


Wide 


a 


aa 











[10. For the benefit of those not familiar with the phonetic terms as 
established by Mssrs. Bell, Sweet and others it is here remarked, tliat 
the terms "Back", "Mixed" and "Front" refer to the horizontal arti- 
culation of the tongue, indicating what part of the tongue has to be 
raised from its normal position in order to form such an articulation as 
to produce the vowel in question. Intermediate positions between 
those mentioned are designated by the names "advanced" or "outer" 
and "retracted" or "inner". 

The words "High", "Mid" and "Low" refer to the vertical posi- 
tion of the tongue. An intermediate position between two of these 
positions may be described as a lowering of the position immediately 
above or a raising of the one below. 



DANISH SOUNDS. 5 

The terms "Narrow" and "Wide" refer to the shape of the tongue. 
"In forming "narrow" soimds there is a feeling of tenseness in that part 
of the tongue where the sound is formed, the surface of the tongue 
being made more convex than in its natural "wide" shape in which it is 
relaxed and flattened". (Sweet). 

' 'Rounding is a contraction of the mouth cavity by lateral compres- 
sion of the cheek passage and narrowing of the lip aperture" (Sweet).] 

In Danish pronunciation of rounded vowels the rounding is accom 
panied by a projection of the lips so as to increase the length of the 
mouth cavity. 

Note 1. — The articulation of Danish a is really advanced back, that 
of e raised mid. The vowels aa {k) and o are both pronounced with the 
same rounding as o and u, respectively, in common European pronun- 
ciation. 

Note 2. — It should at once be noticed that in Danish pronunciation 
the lips play a more prominent part than in English, that the upper 
lip is never drawn so close to the teeth as in English pronunciation, 
and that the tongue normally has a more advanced and flattened posi- 
tion than with English speaking people. 



SOUND VALUE OF DANISH VOWELS AND THEIR 

GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION IN COMMON 

ORTHOGRAPHY. 



11. A has a sound very near that of English a in f a t h e r, 
although not quite as deep (somewhat palatalized). Ex. long: 
Gade street, J Je monkey ; short : Hath.2iX, Ta^ thanks. 

Note. The long a has in the vulgar Copenhagen pronunciation a 
sound very near English a in fa t prolonged The foreigner must avoid 
imitating this pronunciation. 

12. cd (long) has the same sound as English a^■ in a i r ; Ex. : 
Hoer array, vmre to be, svmve to hover. 

This sound is in orthography represented by e in: bedre better, der 
there, Jier here, deresi\ie\x, ere are, regjere to rule, Begjering government 



6 DAI^^ISH SOUNDS. 

(and upond the whole before — r), Legeme body, sptte (pr. sjaete) sixth, 
tjene to serve, fjer{d)e fourth, Stedet the place, udstede to issue, tilstede 
to permit and other derivatives of Sled; CJief chief. 

13. (B (short) has the same sound as English e in men; 
Ex. ; hmslig ngly, loegge to lay. 

This sound is in orthography as a rule represented by the sign e 
vs^hich is pronounced in this way in most cases w^hen it is short and at 
the same time stressed ; Ex. : denne this, Ven friend, eUke to love, Ende 
end, svensk Swedish. It is written (b when derived from a word with long 
sound of ce, written se, or from word with a, aa or ei in the root; Ex, : 
kmiiig affectionate (from ko&r dear), fcdde to fell (from Fold fall), ncRgte to 
deny (from 7he\ no); Haender hands (from Haand hand); furthermore in 
Prmst priest and some other words. 

14. e represents the sound of French e in e t e or of Eng- 
lish fl^ in name, but without the diphthongic element of the 
latter (more like the common American pronunciation of a). 
This is the common sound of e when it is long (except before 
?', see § 12) ; Ex, : se to see, Eeb rope, Snes score. 

^hen a word in one form has a long e, then it, as a rule, retains 
the same quality of the sound, even if the vowel in other forms of the 
word is shortened: hedt hot (neuter oihed), ZetZ^ searched (partcp. of lede). 
The short variety of the same sound is also found in the unstressed 
prefixes be — and ge — : bestemme to decide; Oemal consort; furthermore 
in some monosyllables ending in — d or — vi Bed bed (in garden), Fjed 
step, Drev pinion (but Sted see § 12). 

I 5 . This sound (e) is represented by the orthographical sign 
of i in a great many cases where the vowel is short ; especially 
is i pronounced this way before mm, mp, nt^ ng^ nk^ besides 
some other cases; Ex.: ii^syfc fish (pron, fesk), fiske to tsh, ridse to 
scratch, Pligt duty, ml will, Spil play, Pille pill, digte to make poetry, 
lidt a little (pron. let, but lidt suffered [partcp. of lide] pron lit), midt 
middle (pron. met, but mit mine pron. mit), Skin appearance, 2in tin, 
in the prefix mis, misbj'uge to misuse: Misda^der malefactor; unstressed in 
the derivative endings — ling, — 7iing: Tndling favorite, SUegtning relative. 
Some words may be spelt with either i or e: tusinde and tusende thousand, 



DANISH SOUNDS. 7 

Mrinde and jErende errand (these two words may also be pronounced 
with i). 

16. a has a sound approaching that of French e in que, 
English i in bird. This sound only occurs in unaccented 
syllables, and its orthographic sign is e. Ex. : Gave gift, 
Gacle street. 

Some words may be pronounced and spelt witli or without a (e); 
Ex.: tusind and tusinde thousand, hundred and hundrcde hurdred, 
jErind or lErinde errand, Billed{e) picture, Einhed{e) office, Arbeid{e) 
work, Legemie) body, Madam{e), Himinerig{e) kingdom of heaven, Tind{e) 
peak; in the words Herre Master, Frue Mistress, Madame, Eonge king, 
Fyrste prince, Greve count the final e is omitted before a name or another 
title; Heri'e is then spelt Hr. : Hr, Petersen Mr. P. 

17. Immediately after another stressed vowel 9 is often 
slurred in the pronunciation, so as almost to disappear : trodde 
believed. In some cases it is written but not pronounced at 
all ; it can never be pronounced immediately after a single vowel 
w^th glottal catch (see § 76) nor after a short stressed vowel. 
In some cases there may be a choice between a long stressed 
vowel with pronounced d and a short vowel without d. '±'he 
former is then used in more select language, and especially is 
the retaining of 9 common in the passive form; Ex. : slaaes to 
be beaten, but slaas to fight, slaaet and slaaH beaten, gaaet 
and gaaH gone. After i and u e \& commonly retained (but 
befri liberate, forny renew, without e because of glottal catch). 

An e is sometimes written without being pronounced, either to in- 
dicate length of the preceding vowel or to distinguish between different 
words of the same sound or words that although differing in sound 
would according to common rules have to be written in the same way. 
This e is called mute; Ex.: saa{e) saw, to distinguish it from saa so; 
fo{e)r (long o) went to distinguish from/(?r, prp. for (short open a). 

18. i has, when, long (i*), about the same sound as Eng- 
lish ee in s e e ; Ex. : Mine mien, Pibe pipe, smile to smile. 

AVhen short it has the same sound as English i in fill; 
this sound occurs a) when the same word in another form or 



8 DANISH SOUNDS. 

when the root word, from which the word in question is 
formed, has long i : mit my (ueut. of min), 8tri{d)t fought, prtcp. of 
stride, hvi{d)te to whitewash, derived from hvid white; b) before Id or U: 
Sild \\ermg, Milt rmlt; c) in some other words; Ex.: Kridt chalk, hid 
here (hither), Pisk whip, grisk greedy; d) in unstressed syllables; Ex.: 
Bival rival, ijuod against. 

The orthographic sign of this vowel is ^, except in de they, 
De you, where it is e. 

19. (ta (a) has a sound similar to English « in call, but 
closer. The long sound is as a rule written aa : Uaa blue, 
Naacle grace; but it is in some words denoted by o before v 
(except in diphthongs, see § 28) and g; Ex.: Bog book; Brog 
breeching, hroget variegated, Tclog prudent, Icoge to cook, Krog hook, 
kroget crooked, lore to promise, Svoger brother-in-law, Brog a good-for- 
nothing, Fjoghoohj, Sprog language, To^r expedition; unstressed in Orlog 
(naval) warfare, Orlov leave of absence (in the six last named words the 
vowel may be pronounced long and short); furthermore in hvor where, 
T<?rs^v7 Thursday, horte away, VortewnYt, vore ours, ^^^e eight, (pron. 
a-te, but the ordinal ottende the eighth with short vowel), and unstressed 
Alvor earnest. 

20. The short a-sound is as a rule denoted by the letter 
o; Ex.: Lod ^ ounce; Bohle bubble, Borg castle, hoppe to 
jump, Krojy body, loJcke to allure, vor our. 

The short sound of a is denoted by aa in some words formed by 
derivation or inflection of words with a long aa, and besides in some 
other words; Ex.: Uaat blue (neut. oiblaa), vaadt wet (neut. of vaad), 
Ska/insel mercy (from skaane to treat with leniency), Aadsel corpse, 
Aand spirit, Aande breath, Baand ribbon, Flaad flux, HaandhViU^, 
Zaa<Z fleece, laadden fleecy, en Maatte a mat, i^o^wf pus (but Raad council, 
long aa), saa so (when unstressed), Saald sieve (also written Sold), Vaand 
wand, Vaande jeopardy; and with secondary accent Undersaat a sub- 
ject, usaattes on bad terms. 

21. is a sound peculiar to the Scandinavian languages, 
midway between English o in toe and oo in too, but nearer 
the latter ; and it is spoken with the same rounding of t\Q {jp'tf 



DANISH SOUNDS. 9 

as the English oo. The sound of o when long is in orthogra- 
phy represented by o, which letter when representing a long 
vowel generally denotes this sound ; Ex. : stor large, Blod 
blood, god good, Sko shoe, Bro bridge (as for o with sound 
of long a see § 19). 

22. The short sound of o is represented in orthography by 
in the following cases: l) in words formed by inflection, derivation 
or composition from a root word or form with long o; Ex.: nordisTc 
Northern (from nor{d), Gods goods (from god good), (but godt neuter of 
god, pron. gat); 2) in unstressed first syllables before a single consonant: 
Hotel, Koloni, brodere to embroider (also in Hospital, Osteri); 3) in the 
following words: Kost broom, and bad, Onsdag Wednesday, Ost cheese, 
sort black, Torden thunder. 

23. Otherwise the short sound of o is represented in com- 
mon orthography by u^ which sign when representing a short 
vowel usually indicates this sound (except in the cases stated 
in § 24) ; Ex.: Dug dew (but Dvg table cloth with u'); &mu1c nice, Buk 
he-goat, luTche close, slukke extinguish, Hul hole, <fwm foolish, stum mute. 
Hummer lobster; unstressed in fordum formerly. Some words may be 
spelt with either u or o, the pronunciation in both cases being o; Ex.: 
Kunst and Konst art, Kummen and Kommen caraway, Kuffert and Koffert 
traveller's trunk. 

24. ^ represents a sound similar to the English oo, but 
closer; Ex.: Hus house, hruge to use, ud out. A short 
sound of w, similar to English u in full, occurs in some cases : 
1) in words derived from words or forms with long u ov y\ 
Ex. : Irugt parte, of hruge to use, fikudt parte, of skyde to 
shoot ; 2) in unstressed syllables ; Ex. : ugjbrlig impossible, 
Musik, Unifonn; 3) when u is followed by Id, It or sk\ Ex. : 
fuld full, Guld gold, suite to starve, fuske to bungle; 4) in 
the words : Krudt gunpowder, Lut lute, lurvet shabby, and 
some others (about lo in other cases representing the sound of 
see § 23). 

25. has a sound like French eu in pew, the English 



10 DANISH SOUNDS. 

language has no corresponding sound (to produce the sound 
one should say a as in English fate and at the same time 
hold the lips in almost the whistling position) ; Ex. : Fodsel 
hirth, Binder peasants, Smter sister, Stad blow, here to hear, 
lad sounded (impf. of lyde)^ SqIv silver, Im loose, Pmve trial, 
Bfdger books. The sound of is represented by the letter 
(0) always when it is long, and sometimes when short. But 
the short sound of is as a rule in writing represented by the 
sign of y ; Ex. : Tryh pressure, Stykhe piece, dryppe to drip, 
dyrhe to cultivate, Fyrste a prince, kysse to kiss, Lygte lan- 
tern, Lykhe fortune, Nytte utility, shylle to rinse, synke to 
sink. 

26- has a more open sound, like French ew in p e u p 1 e, 
German 0. (Pronounce English a in fat with the lips in a 
whistling position) ; Ex. : forste first, Berommelse fame, stbrre 
larger, Bjorn bear, Bonner prayers. Son son, forsomme to 
neglect. 

Note. In Danish spelling there is not as a rule made a consistent 
distinction between the signs o and 0, most writers using both signs 
promiscuously or either one exclusively.*) 6 is as a rule used before m, 
n ending a word, nn, rr, rn. (As for the sound and use of 6 as first 
part of a diphthong see § 28). 

27. y has the sound of French u, German ii; theEnglish 
language has no corresponding sound (to produce it the tongue 
takes the position for i, the lips that for u). The letter y 
represents this sound 1) when it is long; Ex. : jiyde to flow, 
adlyde to obey, sy to sew, 6 j entry n eyebrow, Tyv thief, Sky 
cloud; 2)when short, a) in case the root word or form has 
long y\ Ex. : dyU neuter af dyh deep, nyt neuter af ny new; 
b) in unstressed syllables; Ex. : Hypothek mortgage, Hyperhol^ 



*) As for consistency in pronunciation the Danish grammarian Dr. Jessen says, that 

it. IB Tint pasv in finrl t.wn iinrHnns whn nrrron r>n tliia rw-»int 



it is not easy to find two persons who a2:ree on this point 



DANISH SOUNDS. 11 

Fysik ; c) when y is followed by the combinations Id or It; 
Ex. : fylde to fill, Stylte stilt; d) in some other words; Ex.: 
Frygt fright, styg ugly, tyh thick. (As for the letter y re- 
presenting the sound of see § 25.) 



DANISH DIPHTHONGS. 



28. Danish spelling has the following Diphthongs: 
av^ ov, C8V, ov and aj^ ej\ oj, oj. 

The consonant part of these diphthongs has in spite of 
the peculiar Danish spelling with v and/ the sounds of w and 
t*). In the diphthongs of the w-series the vowel part retains 
its peculiar sound («, 0, tB, 0) ; Ex. : Havn harbor, hcevne to 
revenge, iiceviie to name, hovne to swell, Hdvl plane, Stbvle 
boot, Vrovl nonsense ; but in the i-series a and e are pro- 
nounced as «, and as a sound approaching a ; aj and ej are 
pronounced like English ?/ in m y, oj and oj like English oy in 
boy; vaje to wave and veje to weigh pronounced in the same 
manner; hoje to bend and Boje a buoy, both pronounced alike. 
Another sign for the diphthong ej is eg; Ex. :jeg pr. jaj ; Vegne 
in allevegne, everywhere (pron. vaina, e. g. rhyme : Vegne, Ily- 
giaJ7ic). 16 is now spelt sejsten, formerly sexten. Nogle (pr. 
naib) key; Vijidheutel (pron. venbaitl) braggart; hx^iin Zeus, 
Europa etc. eu is pronounced ov. 



DANISH CONSONANTS. 



29. The difference between tenues (p, t, k) and mediae 
(b, d, g) is not so much dependent upon the circumstance of 



") Some Danish grammarians think that the Danish diphthongs really have the con- 
souauta V and j for their second part. 



12 DANISH SOUNDS. 

the former being voiceless, the latter voiced, as is the case in 
English. But the Danish tenues are followed by a voiceless 
breath, thereby becoming aspirates. Thns the energy of ex- 
piration becomes the chief distinguishing feature between 
Danish tenues and mediae. 

In some cases' the tenues are written where the sound is 
really nearer to that of the mediae; thns JVordens Shuder (the 
ships of the North) and Nordens Glider (the gods of the North) 
are both pronounced in almost the same manner (sgiider)^ i. 
e. the aspiration of tenues does not take place after s and thus 
the chief characteristic of the hard sound disappears. The 
same rule applies to shut consonants written double in the 
middle of words, pp^ tt^ kk representing about the same sound 
as hh^ dd^ gg; Ex.: tykke thick, plur., and tygge to chew, 
Bcekke rivulets, and hegge both, Lapper patches, and Laiher 
paws, have the same sound, something between tenues and 
mediae. 

30. P has the hard aspirated sound of p-h (not ph=f) in 
the beginning of syllables : Poere pear, Penge money. Parade. 

The sound of p is written h before s and terminative t (te), the long 
root vowel at the same time being shortened; Ex.: Bibs currants, Stribs 
flogging, dpbt deep (neut. of dyb), droebte killed, impf. of drcebe, tabt 
lost, partcp. of tabe to lose. 

31. 1) After s, 2) when written double (jt^jt?) and 3) at the 
end of words the sign jt? represents the sound midway between 
p and ^, or a hard Z>; Ex. : spare to save (sb), pippe to peep 
up (pron. p-hibba), op up, pron. obb (bb in these cases indi- 
cating the hard sound of b). 

32. In some foreign words ph indicates the sound of / (see § 36). 
Pharisoeer, PJdlosoplii (more commonly now spelt with f). In Ps in 
Greek words p is mute: Psalme psalm (also written Salme); in others 
like Psykologi psychology, Psalter, Pseudonym, Ptolemmus it is sounded 
by some people, omitted by others. 



DANISH SOUNDS. 13 

33. ^ i'^ pronounced as the voiced labial stop (Engl, b) 1) 
in the beginning of a word or a syllable ; Ex. : hade to bathe, 
Brok hernia, Bloek ink, Taabe fool ; 2) at the end of a word 
or a syllable after along vowel ; Ex. : Gai gap, Stah stoff, 
Daah baptism. 

34. The sound midway between h andjo is represented by 
the sign of Z>, 1) at the end of a word or syllable after a short 
vowel ; Ex. : Lah paw, Grih vulture ; 2-) when written double 
between two vowels : Lahher paws, Rihhe rib. 

35. m like English m: Mad food, ham him; double m 
(mm) pronounced short: kom{m)e to come. 

36. /is a labiodental voiceless open consonant and has a 
sound similar to English f: faa few, Skuffe drawer, Etif 
deckhouse. 

In some words the sound of / is represented in writing by t: thus 
in the beginning of the foreign words: Veriiis varnisli, Viol, tiolet. Vio- 
lin, and also sometimes before t as in grovt rough (neut. of grov), havt 
had (prtcp. of liave) pron. groft, haft, which now also is the official way 
of spelling. 

Note. /S^ijfa^Z^r, stepfather, pronounced sif^ar, so also other com- 
pounds with stif- step- pronounced ste. 

37. V is a labiodental open voiced consonant similar in 
pronunciation to English v; it occurs in the beginning of 
words and after a consonant, after a long vowel and in for- 
eign words; Ex.: Faw(6?) water, Svoerd %^ovdi^ evig eternal, 
lavt low (neuter), Avis newspaper. 

In the pronunciation of the Copenhagen dialect v often 
takes the place of h after a vowel ; l0be pron. l0ve, Kohenhavn 
pron. K0venha\n; in some words both forms are written pro- 
miscuously: Knehcl and Knevel^ knevle and hnebh gag and 
to gag. 

The sound of v is written / in nf j^rtep. of, pron. av, aw (see 
§ 28), a. 



14 DANISH SOUNDS. 

38- For V being the sign of the w-sound in diphthongs, 
see § 28. Some words may be pronounced both with diph- 
thong (the vowel preceding v then being short) and with a long 

vowel and v, Ex.: Em sea pron, Ha'v or Haw, Shove forests pron. 
Ska've or Skdwe, over over, pron. a'ver or awer. The vowels a and o 
are mostly short before v (implying thediphthongic pronunciation), but 
there are some exceptions: bra'v brave, Grew grave, Kra'v claim, lav 
low, ga-v gave (impf. of give), gro'v dug (impf. af grave). 

39. Colloquially V is often dropped after I: 7ial{v) half, 
tol{v) 12, S0l(v) silver; after along vowel: hra{v) brave, ga{v) 
gave, gi(v) give, 'bli{v) become, Ue{v) became. Between two 
vowels, the second of which is 8, v is often dropped together 
with the following 9; Ex.: ha{ve) to have, gi(ve) to give, 
gi{ve)r gives, Ui{ye)r becomes, Hoved head, pron. Ho68 in its 
original meaning, but Hove6 in compound Avords used figura- 
tively: Hovedsag matter af chief importance, Hovedstad capi- 
tal, ha{ve) to have, imperf. pron. ha6e written havde. 

40. t an aspirated English t (t-h, but not an open (spi- 
rantic) sound like English th) ; Ex. : Tag roof, ti ten. After 
s the aspiration does not take place, so st sounds almost like 
sd: Sted 'plsLce, pron. Sde6. Also tt sounds almost like a d, 
but without voice: 7noette esiikfied (plur.), pron. mae'do (see 
§39). 

41. The sound of t is in Danish spelling in some words rendered 
by til in conformity with the old pronunciation; Ex.: thi (conjunction) 
for; Thing diet (to distinguish it in writing from Ting thing). Also in 
words of Greek origin: Theater, nirone, TlieoiH. 

42. i^ is at the end of the unstressed syllable in words of 
two syllables or more pronounced as a soft 6 (see § 46) ; espe- 
cially in participles and words with the definite article; Ex. : 
Mjet bent (boje6), Huset (6) the house. But in foreign words 
with the stress upon the second syllable t is pronounced as t: Serviet 
napkin. 



DANISH SOUNDS. 15 

43- i is written but not pronounced in adverbs ending 
in igt\ Ex.: tydeli{gt) plainly; in the article and pronoun 
de{t). 

44. In foreign words ti before a vowel as a rule is pronounced :is 
tsi; Ex.: partiel, Kvotient, Diffei'entiering differentiation; but tlio 
ending t ion is pronounced as sjon: Nation pron. Nasjon, Motion exer- 
cise, pron. Mosjon. 

45. d has a sound like English d, but less voiced, 1) in 
the beginning of words : Dal valley, Dok dock, din thine ; 2) 
in the middle and at the end of words after a consonant (if 
not mute (see § 47) ; Ex. : Olding old man, Forceldre parents, 
Byrd birth, Icerd learned ; 3) between two vowels, when the 
word is of foreign origin or a proper noun: Soda, Adam, 
Edda. 

46. The sign d also represents an open consonant with a 
sound similar to that of English soft th in father; in pro- 
nouncing this "soft" d (phonetic sign 6) the tip of the 
tongue is allowed to remain in the lower part of the mouth, 
while the front of the tongue is raised towards the gums and 
the breath is gently squeezed between the tongue and the 
gums. This sound occurs : 

1) in tlie middle of words between two vowels (also when written 
double: Padde toad, Kladde rough-draught; but Bredde breadth and 
F^<Z^ width, have closed dy, Ex.: bede to beg, grmde to cry, weep, Naade 
grace, Maade manner; 2) in the middle of words after a vowel before j, 
1, m, n, r and the genitive s\ Ex.: dadle to reproach, Sedler bills, rbdme 
to blush, hrydre to ^\)^CQ; 3) at the end of a word after a vowel; Ex.: 
Gud God. Stud bullock, Vid wit. Also when ending the first part of a 
compound word, even if the second part begins with a hard consonant; 
Ex.: Blodtah loss of blood, udsat exposed. 

47. d\Q written but not pronounced (mute) 1) in most 
cases after I and n\ Ex. : Gnl{d) gold, n{d) fire, smcBl{d)e to 
crack (a whip), Skul{d)er shoulder, hol(d)e to hold, Haan{d) 
hand, Venin(d)e lady friend. 



16 DANISH SOUNDS. 

Note, d is pronounced after I and n a) in derivative adjectives 
ending in — ig and — elig; Ex.: mandig manful, sandelig truthfully; 
b) when followed by r; Ex.: farandre to change, liindre to prohibit, 
Forceldre parents; c) in the ending — ende; Ex.: Icesende reading, 
Tidende news; d) in some specific words: Olding old man, JElde age, 
VoBlde power, Bande gang. Blonde lace, Grande neighbor, Kunde cus- 
tomer; and in foreign words: Indieii East India, Cylinder, Gelander 
bannisters. (F?2rfd grace, charm, pron. Onde, but yw^fe to favor, pron. 
onne). 

2) After r when the preceding vowel is long; Ex.: Bord 
table (pron. Bor), Or{d) word, Jor{d} earth (sometimes on the pulpit and 
in similar style pronounced Jord with short o and audible d); jor{d)et 
earthy, without d, jardet buried, with d. But when the preceding 
vowel is short d is pronounced after r: Fcerd voyage, and fcurdes to 
travel, {hut paafa3r{d)e abroad, afoot), Bprd hirth, Byrde hurden. 

Note. In nordish northern, the d is pronounced but in Norden it 
is not unless when signifying the three Scandinavian countries; nor{d)en- 
for to the north of, nor{d)enfra from the north etc. 

3) Before an — s (not being the genitive ending) (^ as a 
rule is not pronounced (and it is never pronounced before sk 
or between n and s) ; ie{d)st best, Lo(d)s pilot, in Stads of a 
city (gen.), but 8ta{d)s state, show. In compound words the —s 
as a rule originally is the genitive ending and therefore the d is pro- 
nounced; Ex.: Daadskraft energy, but Baa{d)smand boatswain, Baa{d)s- 
hage boat-hook; in adverbs which originally are genitive forms d is pro- 
nounced: allesteds etc., everywhere; in Ulfreds satisfied d, may be pro- 
nounced or not. 

4) Before t: go{d)t neuter of god good, spce(d)t neuter of 
speed tender, et Ri{d)t a ride. 

5) Before h in the words B0{d)ker cooper, Sne(d)ker 
joiner. 

48. In many words of frequent occurrence d between two 
vowels is dropped together with the following vowel when the 
latter is o; such words are Fader, Moder, Broder pron. Far, 
Mor, Bror father, mother, brother; in compounds also written 



DANISH SOUNDS. 17 

in the sliort form : Farfader father's father, but Fadermorder 
parricide, Mormor mother's mother, Fjeder or Fjer feather, 
Foder or Foer pron. for, fodder or lining (generally spelt 
with d in the former meaning Avithout it in the latter) ; Spar 
or Spa{de)r spades (in cards) but 8pader (spa6ar) spades (as a 
tool) ; han la{de)r he lets (praes. of la{de) to let), Kloe{de)r 
clothes, but Klceder cloths (generally called Sorier Klcede 
kinds of cloth), L(B(de)r leather, d is also in common con- 
versation dropped at the end of many words of common oc- 
currence : ^o(r/) good, han Io{d) he let, sto{d) stood, ve{d) with, 
jegve(d) I know y {h)va(d) what; also KjedelkQii\% pron. Kele. 

This dropping of the d may be used as a means of distinguishing 
two meanings of one word; thus md wide is pronounced xi when signi- 
fying wide in opposition to narrow: et Par m{d)e Buwer a pair of wide 
trousers; but ude?i videre without further (ado), or/ saamdere etc., den 
vide Verden the wide, wide world. 

49. n has the same sound as in English; ng has the same 
sound as English ng in singer; Ex. : Fmger finger, Sanger 
singer; the same sound is before k represented by n alone; so 
also in some foreign words before g\ Ex.: sanlce (pron. 
sangke) to gather, Enke (ngk) widow, Evangelium (ngg) 
gospel, TJngarn (ngg) Hungary. 

50. I has the same sound as in English. 

51. s never has the soft (voiced) sound of English s be- 
tween vowels. Ex. : Hiis house, sy to sew (s in both cases 
pronounced alike)* ^j represents one single sound, that of a 
palatalized s, similar in sound to English sli ; Ex. : ajelden sel- 
dom, Sjoel soul. 

German «c7t, English sh, French ch, g, j are by the Danes pro- 
nounced with this same sound in words borrowed from those lan- 
guages: Schak chess, Shavl shawl, Glioc onset, Chocolade, jaloux (sj.) 
genere (sj.) to worry. 

52. j is a palatal open voiced (except after k, p, t) con- 



18 DANISH SOUNDS. 

sonant corresponding in sound to English y before vowels; 
Ex. : ja yes, jeg (pron. jai) I. 

For j representing the sound of i in the second part of 
diphthongs see § 28. 

j is often written without being pronounced after Ic and g 
before ^, o and open e. K{j)mr dear, g{j)erne willingly. 
(According to t*he latest official rules of spelling this j is not 
to be written except in Danish names such as Kj0ge, I\J0ben- 
hav7i, where the use of j is optional). Before other vowels 
than those mentioned j is pronounced (except in the Copen- 
hagen dialect); Kjole dress coat, woman's gown; gjor(d)e did. 

53. ^^ is an aspirated tenuis; Tcalde pron. k-hal.o; the 
aspiration does not take place after s and when written double 
in the middle of words, see § 29. Ikke not, forming rhyme 
with Ugge^ SukTce sighs (plur.) forming rhyme with Vugge 
cradle, sJcal shall, pron. sgal. 

54. ^ is not so distinctly voiced as the corresponding 
English sound, to which it otherwise corresponds, g occurs 
1) in the beginning of words; Ex. : Gave gift, grave to dig, 
glide to slide, give to give; 2) in the middle of words a) when 
written double : ligge to lie, begge both ; b) between two vowels 
in foreign words : ^^2^r^ cucumber. Cigar; 3) in the end af 
words after a short vowel : styg ugly, Byg barley, ffiig cut, 
blow ; sometimes after a long vowel : ^g egg, definite form 
yEgget, where the double g (gg) is the sign of this sound and 
does not indicate the shortness of the preceding vowel. 

55. The sign of g also represents an open (spirantic) gut- 
tural voiced sound, similar to German g in legen, Tage. 
This sound never occurs in the beginning of words, but 1) in 
the middle of words between two vowels (but not after a short 



DANISH SOUNDS. 19 

CB or 6), or between a vowel and a voice consonant or two voice 
consonants; 2) at the end of words after a long vowel or 
a voice consonant; Ex. : bage to bake, vige to yield, sluge to 
devour, kogle to charm, vaague to awaken, Mmngde quantity. 

Note 1. For g serving as orthographical sign of the sound i in 
diphthongs see § 28. 

g represents this sound 1) after the vowels open e or o before I ov n 
or before a termination commencing with unstressed o; 2) in the end of 
words after a short open e, « or o; Ex. : Nbgle (oj) key, Egn (aj) region, 
jeg (aj) I, Leg (aj) play, meget (a jot) much, legede (aj9) played; 3) in the 
pronouns mig me, dig thee, you, sig him (her) self (pron. maj etc.). 
(Colloquially these pronouns are wlien unstressed pronounced ja, ma, 
do, so, at)d in church oratory and recitations the three last mentioned 
may be pronounced as written mig, dig, sig, but that is never the case 
with jeg). In stead of dejg dough, feig cowardly, sejg tough the official 
orthography now is dej, fej, sej. 

Note 2. g serves as the sign of the sound w in diphthongs (see 
§ 28) after the sound a written o) in : Bogti spawn, Sogn parish, 
Vogn wagon. (In stead of the former spelling, Laug guild, Snf/g saw, 
taug was silent, Ploug plough, Toug rope, there is now generally writ- 
ten Lav, Sav, tav, Plov, Tor. Wholly antiquated is the spelling Ilauge 
for Uave garden). 

56. In common every day pronunciation g is often drop- 
ped: 1) after long to in slu(g)e to devour, sti{g)e to suck, 
Kti{g)Ie bullet, Fu(g)l fowl, (the g was in these cases first 
assimilated to u and then dropped); 2) after long i in: U{g)e 
straight, direct, Pi{g)e girl, si{g)e to say, Skri{g) cry etc. (g 
in these cases was assimilated to j and then dropped) ; 3) af- 
ter I and r\ soel{g)e to sell; sp'6r{g)e to ask; impf. sol{g)te 
sold, spur{g)te (sporte) asked, dul(g)te concealed ; 4) In ta{ge)r 
takes, ta{ge) to take, to{g) took, slo{g) struck, la(gde) laid. 

57. The r commonly used by educated Danes is the un- 
trilled back or throat r, prod uced by raising the back of the 
tongue towards the roof of the pharynx ; this r is as a rule 
voiced, but it is voiceless after aspirated stops; it is never vo- 



20 DANISH SOU]?rDS. 

calic like English finals; Ex.: Raah cry, iroet tired, (Jian) 
Mer he runs. 

Note. In Jutland and in some other local dialects the r is pro- 
nounced with a strong trill, either front or uvular; the latter pronun 
elation is especially employed in the stage and pulpit language. 

R is dropped in the pronunciation of the appellative noun: Ka{r)l a 
man, laborer (in the derivative KceUuig, an old woman, r is not even 
retained in writing), but in the proper noun Kaii Charles, r retains its 
sound. 

58. h has the same sound as English h; it is pronounced 
before vowels in the beginning of a word or a syllable ; Ex. : 
han he, udholde to endure, Mq&Ikb ninny,. 

Note 1. In some words li is written before j and 'g without influ- 
encing the pronunciation: {R)mle rest, {ll)jul wheel. 

Note 2. A vowel ending a sentence is in Danish pronounced with 
a peculiar breath that may be compared with an h. This is not indi- 
cated in spelling; vi we, pron. (in the position mentioned) vili, nu now, 
pron. nuh. 

59. G only occurs in foreign words and is pronounced as s and h 
according to the same rules as in English; Ex.: Centrum, Scene, Accent. 

According to the latest official orthography c is only to be used in- 
dicating the sound of h before an other c that represents the sound of 
c; in all other cases it is to be replaced by k: Vokal, Konsonant. 

60. ch is in words of Greek origin pronounced as k and 
now also officially written that way; it indicates the same 
sound in the proper names Tycho and Munch^ but in words of 
French origin ch is usually pronounced as sj: Ghausse high- 
way, sch in words of German origin is pronounced like Dan- 
ish sj. Instead of a former sch (ch) there is now in many 
words regularly written sk : Droske cab, Manskct cuff, Mar- 
skal^ Marskandiser fripper, Skak chess, Skatol cabinet, Skak. 
shaft, 8kallotteldg eschalot. 

61. Q only occurs before v in foreign words, but it is now 
mostly in those of such words as are in popular use replaced 



DANISH SOUNDS 21 

by h. Kvinde woman is now only by very oldfashioned 
people spelt Quinde; Kvartet, Kvint. 

62. W only occurs in foreign words and has the sound of v. 
Wien Vienna. 

63. X according to the latest rules is to be replaced by Jcs in words 
of common use: seks six, Okse ox. 

64. Z represents the sound of 8 and is only used in foreign words. 
In words of German origin it is to be replaced by s:sitre to tremble, sire 
to adorn; in other foreign words it is to be retained: Zone, Zenit, Zelot. 



COLLOQUIAL FORMS. 



65. In colloquial language words of frequent occurrence and of no 
particular logical importance undergo some abbreviations and changes 
besides those already spoken of. Some of the most important of them 
may here be mentioned. 

at, to, before infinitives pronounced a. 

den is enclitically pronounced 'n: gi me'n for giv mig den give it me. 

det (which proclitically is pronounced cte .• deif) store Bus the big 
house) is enclitically pronounced '6: si 7}ie'6 for sig mig det tell it me. 

endnu yet, pron. inu. 

idet when, pron. ide' (see § 43). 

nej no, pron. na. 

og and, pron. a (thus taking the same form as the infinitive particle 
lit, with which it is often confounded). 

ogsaa also, pron. o'sa. 

skal shall pron. sga. 

til to, pron. t-he. 

tredive SO, pron. treSva. 

ml will, -pTXyn. ve. 



DANISH ACCENT. 



66. The accent stress in Danish as a rule rests on the 
root-syllable, which in most cases is the first syllable. The 



22 DANISH SOUNDS. 

accent stress is not in common writing indicated by any ortho- 
praphic sign. 

67. Some derivative suffixes take the accent: — ads, — inde, — i; 
Ex. : Mora'ds morass, Veni'nde lady friend, Vcerdi' value. 

68. Foreign words as a rule have the accent on the same syllable 
as in the language from which they have been adopted: Stude'nt, Kor- 
pora'l, Universite't, Fami'lie, Ame'rika. 

Note 1. In a few foreign words the accent is on another syllable 
than in the language from which they were taken; Ex.: Talle'rken dish 
plate, from Low G. Te'llerTcenj Bersce'rk from O. N. he'rserkr; Valky'rie 
from O. N. xa'lkyria. 

Note 2. In words ending in — or (adopted from the Latin) the ac- 
cent in plural moves according to the Latin rule: Profe'ssor, Prqfesso'rer 
(but with the definite article Prqfe'ssoren the professor). 

69. Adjectives derived in — ctgtig and — haftig (German 
endings) have the accent on the termination: harna''gtig 
childish, dela^gtig partaking, mandlia''ftig mannish; the same 
is also the case with most adjectives ending in — ish: parW'sk 
partial; poli^sh sly (but kri'-gerish warlike). 

The ending — lig often has the power of moving the ac- 
cent towards the ending of the word : soedva'-nlig customary 
(but Sm''dvane custom), eventy'-rlig marvellous (but E'-ventyr 
adventure), 

70. In compound words the first part as a rule takes 
the chief accent('), the first syllable of the second part 
a secondary a c c e n t (') ; Ex. : Hu^sWrer private tutor, 
Pr&^veaa\ trial year; Blo^insterpoHte flower pot. 

7 I . The chief accent is on the second part of compound 
words, a) in substantives; 1) in some Scandinavian local 
names: K&*he7iUa''V)i Copenhagen, Kd^rs0'"r; 2) in some com- 
pounds, where the second part qualifies the first part : Aar- 
Jiu^ndrcde century, AartuKmide millennium, Aarti^ decen- 
nium (but Fe'^maar lustrum); 3) in some titles: Borgme^ster 



DANISH SOUNDS. 23 

burgomaster, Gctierallb^jtnant lieutenant general; 4) in the 
words: nordo^st northeast, nordve'-st northwest etc., and in 
ShjcRrso^mmer month of June, Pebermy'-nte peppermint, 
S]carnty''de hemlock, Fastelahm shrovetide, SkjcBrtoWsdag 
Maundy Thursday, Langfre'-dag Good Friday ; 5) in words, 
the second part of which is lille : BarnliHle little child, Mor- 
UHle dear mother; 6) in some words the first part of which is 
a verbal stem, the second an adverb: Paso^p (dog's name), 
FarveH farewell ; b) in adjectives : 

1) in some adjective derivatives in -ig or -lig: agtvm'-rdig 
estimable, tilbQ^rlig proper, hoevngjeWrig vindictive, /rwzo '- 
dig frank, taalmo^dig patient (but Jio'-vmodig haughty), neder- 
drcB^gtig mean. But most compound adjectives formed in 
this manner have the accent on the first part of the composi- 
tion : ski^nhellig hypocritical, ma^ngesidig manysided, e^nsfor- 
inig uniform; no strict rules can be given, because the lan- 
guage of different persons differs even in the same words, and 
sometimes similar words differ without any apparent reason 
(Ex.: koWtvarig of short duration; but: langva^rig of long 
duration) and in some cases difference in accent serves to indi- 
cate difference of meaning; Ex.: enfoHdig simple minded, 
c^nfoldig yielding a return equal to the seed sown; 2) in ad- 
jectives derived in -som and -har: opfi'-ndsom inventive, ndf&'-r- 
har practicable; 3) in compound adjectives the first part of 
which is al: alvi^de^ide omniscient, ah?ice^gtig almighty, (de^ne 
alone; 4) in some other compound adjectives: lidjvelbaa''rGn 
nobel, hdjcB''del highly noble, hbjstcB^rei highly honored, med- 
W-dende sympathetic, tilfre^ds satisfied; 

c) compound adverbs the first part of which is der or her 
and the second part a preposition, are accentuated on the first 
part, if they commence the sentence ; if not, they are accen- 
tuated according to the logical importance of the component 



24 DANISH SOUNDS. 

parts (see § 75) : de'-ri har De Ret tliere you are right, hafi 
gik derfra^ med tunqt Hjerte he left (literally: went thence) 
with a heavy heart; e'-ngang once (but no more), enga'-ng once 
upon a time; desvcB^rre alass, desu'-den besides (but de'-sfor- 
uden besides), desli'ge in the same manner, de'-suagtet never 
the less, de'-sangaaende thereabout; also adverbs compound 
with saa- and livor- change accent according to the logical 
importance of the component parts: saasna^rt (som) as soon as 
(but saa^snart so soon), s aa^m eg et so much, saamoe'-nd indeed, 
saavi^dt as far as (but saaHedes thus, saa'' soon because), hvor- 
naa^'r when, hvorW-des how (but hvoWledes in what manner), 
Jivorda^'n how, livorveH albeit, hvorvi''dt whether. Compound 
adverbs consisting of a preposition with a following substan- 
tive or adjective used as substantive as a rule have the accent 
on the second part; Ex. : igce^re going on, afste'd off, overaHt 
everywhere, itu'' a sunder, eflerliaa''nden by and by, over sty'' r 
to naught, {komme) overe''ns (to come) to terms, foru'-den 
outside of, foro'-ven above, forne'-den below, tilsa'-mmen to- 
gether. (But o^verhaands, o^vervcettes exceedingly, apsides 
apart, fo'-rlods in advance). Furthermore may be noted: al- 
deHes wholly, fre7ndeHes further, soerdeH^s especially, allere^de 
already, alli^gevel though, maaske% hanshe'' perhaps, monstro'' 
I wonder. 

72. In words compound with the (originally German) 
prefixes he-, er-, /or-, ge- the accent as a rule is on the syllable 
following next to the prefix ; Ex. : hegri^be to understand, er- 
fa^re to ledivn^Forsfa'-nd sense, GeJiB^r (musical) ear. The origi- 
nally German prefix /or (Ger. ver) is to be distinguished from 
the originally Danish prefix of the same sound corresponding 
to English fore in such words as Fo''r7niddag forenoon, Fo^r- 
Mer forerunner. 

73. The Danish prefix u-, Eng un-, takes the accent ey- 



DANISH SOUNDS. 25 

cept in adjectives derived (chiefly from verbs) with the termi- 
nations -lig, -elig, -bar, -som. V-ro disquiet, U^aar bad year, 
usha^delig harmless, uanseHig insignificant (but u^adelig not 
of nobility), ntvi^vlsom indubitable. Note further the adjec- 
tives uvi^dende ignorant, umosHende speechless, ue^nig of a 
different opinion, iilcri'-stelig un-Christian, the conjunction 
ua'-gtet although, and the verbs uma'-ge (or u^mage) and ulei''- 
lige to trouble. 

74. The prefixes mis-, sam-, und-, van-, veder- as a rule have the 
accent; Ex.: Mi'sdmler evildoer, Sa'marhrjde co-operation, u'ndsige to 
defy, Va^n-art wickedness, Ve'derlag compensation, but adjectives de- 
rived in -elig and -som takes the acc-ent on the second part of the compo- 
sition: misWnksam suspicious (but Mi'stanhe suspicion), undgaa'elig 
avoidable, vedersty'ggelig abominable; and so do the following w^ords: 
3fi»u'nd€lse envy, Umlta'gelse exception, Undvi'gelse or U'ndvigelse es- 
cape, undta'gen except (but with inverted position of the words: e'n 
cdeneu'TidtageTi one only excepted), W7ic?»a3'?"% dispensable, samdrm'gtig 
unanimous, vana'rtig wicked, vanku'ndig ignorant. 



SENTENCE ACCENT. 



75. Different from the syllabic accent is the sentence or 
rhetoric accent, whereby a different stress is given to the dif- 
ferent words of the sentence according to their logical impor- 
tance. 

Pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions and other particles as 
well as auxiliary verbs are as a rule unaccented. When a 
word is used in the sentence without stress it is subject to dif- 
ferent changes, such as abbreviation of long sounds, loss of 
glottal stop (see § 76) and even loss of a part of their sub- 
stance (see §§ G5 and IG). 



26 DANISH SOUIsTDS. 

Sometimes the whole meaning of a sentence is changed by 
a change of accent: Min Ven gi'-k ige7i my friend left again, 
inin Ven gik ige^n my friend reappeared (as a ghost, haunted 
the house). 



GLOTTAL STOP. 



76. The accent stress (including in some cases the se- 
condary accent) takes in Danish in a gre vit many (originally) 
monosyllabic words the peculiar form ofaglottal stop or 
catch (Sweet), by the Danish grammarians called St^dtone or 
Toneliold. This glottal stop is produced by a temporary clos- 
ure of the glottis and a corresponding interruption of the 
voice, the result being a sound very similar to the one produ- 
ced by cough or hiccough. Those Danish dialects, therefore, 
which are especially given to the use of the glottal stop are 
said to ''hiccough the words forth". As the glottal stop con- 
sists in an interruption of the voice, it results that it can only 
occur in sounds that are produced or accompanied by an emis- 
sion of voice (vowels and voiced consonants). 

The accent stress of originally polysyllabic words is cha- 
racterized by the absence of the glottal stop. 

[The glottal stop is here indicated by (*).] 

77. The glottal stop chiefly occurs in the following cases 
(although there is some difference between the various dialects 
and also individually as to its use) : 

1) a great many monosyllables: Ma*nd man, Hu'^s house, 
faa* tew (always in monosyllables consisting of long vowel 
sound followed by consonant (excepting Fa^i\ Mo^r, Bro^r, 
Pe'-r, FovH which are originally dissyllabic) or short vowel 



DANISH SOUNDS. 27 

sound followed by two voiced consonants ; as a rule in those 
ending in a long vowel or diphthong; those consisting of short 
vowels followed by /i, m, ?i, tig with following voiceless con- 
sonant take the glottal stop in the dialect of Sealand, but not 
in that of Jutland, while r in this position is incompatible 
with glottal stop; sometimes it occurs in words having a short 
vowel before one single voiced consonant). 

2) many dissyllables in -eZ, -en and -er; Ex.: ^*sel 
donkey, Vin*ter winter, A*sen donkey. 

3) the radical syllable of many compound verbs, ad- 
jectives, adverbs and nouns derived from verbs, where the 
glottal stop is lacking in the non-compound words : Ex. : 
{h)JGms0^ge to visit, Me'-dskyV^dig accomplice, Ankla*ger 
accuser. 

4) in some foreign words : Kano^n^ Stude^nt^ Ame^ri/ca. 

78 . The glottal stop serves to distinguish pairs of words 
which otherwise would have the same sound : 

1) the definite form of monosyllables from that of dis-; 
syllables ending in -e, the former with, the latter without 
glottal stop. 

with glottal stop without glottal stop 

Aaii^den the spirit (Aand) Aand^en the breath {Aande) 
Sk&^det the lap {Sksdd) Skid'det the deed (of convey- 

ance, Skade) 
Btin*de7i the bottom (Bzmd) Bondmen the peasant {Bunde) 

2) the plural form of monosyllables, ending in -cr (with 
stop) and of dissyllables, ending in -r (without stop), 

with stop without stop 

Mulder ducks (And) End''er ends (Ende) 

Stcen^ger sticks {Stang) Stceng'-er hay-lofts (Stmige) 



28 DANISH sauiq^DS. 

3) the definite form of monosyllabic substantives (with stop) 
and corresponding' adjectives or participles (without stop). 

with stop Avithout stop 

8ej*let the sail sejTet sailed 

St0*vet the dust st&v^et dusty 

4) past participle plural of some weak verbs (with stop) 
and the corresponding imperfect tense (without stop) : Ex. : 

(de hleve) pi*nte they were tortured; (de) jji^nte they 
tortured ; 

5) some proper nouns (with stop) and corresponding ap- 
pellatives (without stop). 

with stop without stop 

Bn^gel Eng'-el angel 

JcB^ger JcB^ger hunter 

Kri{e)^ger Kri'-ger warrior 

M&lHer MaU'er miller 

6) present tense of some verbs (with stop) and the corre- 
sponding nouns (without stop) : 

with stop without stop 

{lian) maimer he paints MaVer painter 

" l0^ber he runs Lsh^er runner 

7) the definite form of some monosyllabic substantives 
(with stop) and verbal nouns ending in -en (without stop) ; 

TvivHen the doubt TvivHen doubting 

Sme^den the smith Sme'den forging. 



QUANTITY OF DANISH SOUNDS. 



79. Vowels and open consonants can be long or short; 
shut consonants (stops) are in the Danish language always short 



DANISH SOUNDS. 29 

Long sounds can only occur in accentuated syllables. A con- 
sonant written double between two vowels indicates that the 
preceding vowel is short, but final consonants are not written 
double to indicate shortness of preceding vowel except in a 
few cases where it may be done, when it is thought desirable 
to distinguish between two words that otherwise would look 
alike ; Ex. : Brud{cl) rupture, Brud bride, Diig{g) dew. Dug 
table cloth. 

Note. In the following words consonants are written double after 
a long vowel to Indicate the hard (non-spirantic) sound : Drcpgge grapnels, 
dosgge to coddle, Hceggen the bird cherry, Dvggeii the calf, Lfpgget the 
fold, tuck, Plaggen the colt, Skceqget the beard, Fa'^z/e/i the wall, jEggen 
the edge, JEgget the egg, Natbhet the beak ^7-^^r/6 breadth, FeWe width. 
The vowel is also long before double consonant in the following words: 
otte eight, sjette sixth, Sotten the sickness, jEtten the family, and in 
words derived by the termination -maessig : forlioldsmsisaig propor- 
tionate, etc. 

80. The quantity of consonants is not indicated in spell- 
ing. Long is the first of two soft consonants (?, m, 7i, r, ^, g) 
in intermediate position between two vowels, the preceding 
vowel then being short, accentuated and pronounced without 
glottal stop: hamre to hammer, liornet horned, Almagt omni- 
potence, Slenhord stone table. (But short consimant in r anise 
to say by rote, Skjorie shirt, Hor*net the horn). 



30 



KORWEGIAN" SOUNDS. 

NORWEGIAN SOUNDS. 



8 I . Table of the Norwegian vowels classified according 
to their place of articulation. 



Back. 


Mixed 


Front. 




Not 
rounded. 


Rour.ded . 


Not 
rounded. 


Rounded. 


Not 
rounded. 


Rounded. 


High, 


Narrow 









U 


i 


y 


Wide 














Mid. 


Narrow 




a- 






e 





Wide 




a 




V 


a 





Low. 


Narrow 










ae 


oe 


Wide 


a 













For the explanation of the technical terms: Back, Mixed, Front, 
High, Mid, Low, see § 10. 

Note, a is a little advanced, but not so much so as in Danish. 
Vulgarly and dialectically the long a may be pronounced further back 
and with a slight rounding, approaching the English aw in law. 

o is midway between high and mid and a midway between mid and 
loic, but both are pronounced with the rounding corresponding to the 
higher stage. 



ACOUSTIC VALUE OF THE NORWEGIAN VOWELS. 



82. a has the sound of English a m father, short or long. 
Ex. short: Hat hat, Mmii^d) man; long: Dag day, Sal hall. 



KORWEGIAN" SOUNDS. 31 

83. CB has tlie sound of English a in care ; it occurs long 
or short before r ; Ex. long : hcBre to bear, IcBve to teach, nmr 
near ; short : Fmrd conduct, voyage, Smerte pain, Verk work. 

Note. The orthographic sign of this sound may be, as seen from 
tlie above examples, ce or e; the former is used when the same word in 
another form or another kindred word has a or aa where the word in 
question has ae ; Ex, : Fvcrd derived from fare to travel, bsere to carry, 
impf. bar; fmrre fewer, comp. of faa; Kssrriiig old (or married) woman 
derived from Kar{l) man. Where this rule does not apply, i. e. wliere 
there is no such a or aa to judge by, then the long a-sound as a rule is 
written (B, the short e. But there are some exceptions. Ex. long sound 
written e: der there, er is, Erende message, fprde fourth, Tier here, 
igjer{d)e (or igj-a&re) going on, Jem iron, Jertegn sign, miracle. Short 
sound written (b: fordmrve to spoil, forf^rde to frighten; svarddes espe- 
cially, vserd (colloquially pronounced vvei't) worth, Dxrre worse. 

Obs. Veir weather, pron. vser 

84. ii long or short, like English e in "men"; Ex. short: 
ret right, slet even, bad, trost tired ; long : Glcede joy, Fcedre 
fathers, Stceder cities. 

Orthographic signs of the sound ii are m and e; their use 
corresponds to the rule given in § 83 note. Exceptions: 
a) long a written e: Eventyr fairy tale, ihjeH to death, Kjede 
chain, vever agile ; b) short ii written os : Drceg grapnel, Vceg 
wall, Grces grass, hceslig ugly, lemlceste to maim, Vceske 
satchel, Vce{d)ske fluid, rmd afraid, tr(Bi tired, EjcBft (vulgar) 
mouth, TcBft scent, Krceft cancer, Blcsk ink, Icekke to leak. 
Leek leak, Sprcek crack, sprcekke to crack, FceUe fellow, Trcel 
thrall, FceZi^ spring, Fo^ZJe power, (/7)r^Z2; vault, ^'^Z^-e sled, 
Frmnde relative, mnm to mind, faafwjigt useless, forfiQngelig 
vain, ITsevd prescriptive right. 

Note. In the dialect of Christiania and the southern part of Nor- 
way the long sound of a has been replaced by the long e, and the short 
sound of ^ is only half wide. 



32 norwegia:n' sounds. 

85. e like French 6 in '-'- eW\ English a in 
usually pronounced in America, i. e. without the diphthongic 
element. Short e only occurs in words formed by inflection 
or derivation from words with long e; Ex. : hre{d)t neuter 
form of hre{d) broad, Bredde breadth, derived from the same 
word ; Ex. long : Te tea, Ve{d) wood, hed (pron. het) hot. 

Orthographic sign of this sound is e. 

jSTote. In the dialect of Cliristiania and the southern part of Nor- 
way the long sound of e has been substituted for that of a, see § 84 note. 
On the other hand the short sound of e is in the speech of many, even 
educated, people in the course of being replaced by a half wide short si. 
As yet, however, the pronounciation of brat instead of bre(d)t may be 
considered as bordering on the vulgar. 

86. '^ short or long; it has the narrow sound of English ee 
in "see"; Ex. long: Vin wine, ii ten, i in; short: Vin{d) 
wind, U{d)t (neut.) little. Orthographic sign i, except in the 
word de (De) they, the, you. 

Note. For the pronunciation of mig, dig, sig see § 94. Before 
vowels i as a rule is pronounced so very short as to make it almost or 
wholly consonantic in character: Kastanie (pron. Kastar.je) chestnut, 
Familie (j) family, Kristiania (j, or as a very short i); as a short i also 
in Kariol carriole, Million; tredie the third is pronounced tredde or 
tredje. 

87. ^ lias the sound of German unaccented e in " Gabe," 
approaching French e in "que"; but often its articulation is 
more advanced and then it sounds almost like a short e. This 
is especially often the case in unaccented prefixes. 9 only 
occurs in unaccented syllables ; orthographic sign e ; Ex. : 
Gave gift, vsdre to be, iefale (o-a-o) to order. 

Note, the orthographic sign for a is i or e in tusin{d) or tusenid) 
thousand. 

88. ^ lias a sound approaching English a in call (but it is 
pronounced with a somewhat higher articulation; raised low 



N^ORWEGIAN SOUNDS. 33 

or lowered mid ; the rounding is the same as corresponds to 
the mid sound (o) in the European languages generally. 
It may he long or short, the short sound being somewhat 
wider than the long one. 

Note 1. Orthographic sign of the long soimd is as a rule aa (§.); 
Ex : Aal eel, graa grey, Vaar spring. 

Exceptions: before g and v the sound of a is usually written o: over 
over, doven lazy, love to promise, Skov forest, og and, Sprog language; 
but if ^ represents the sound of A; (see §122), then the sound of a is 
written aa (a): Maage mew, pron. mhJce (or mage), laageik) fog, 'caage{k) 
to wake, vart^^/i awake; also in Vang {g) bay, Ang (g) yoke. Observe 
also Fole (a) colt, lorsdag (a) Thursday, vor (a) our, fore a prefix {fore- 
bygge to prevent, Foremers foretop). 

NOTE 2. The orthographic sign of the short sound as a rule is o; 
Ex. : Lod half an ounze, hoUle to hold, Konge king. Exceptions: aa is as 
a rule written before nd, representing the sound nn: Baan{d) ribbon, 
Ilaan{d) hand; in the words Aadsel carcass, fraadse gourmaudize, and 
others; furthermore in forms or words derived from corresponding 
words with a longaa; Ex.: graat neut. of graa grey, Jia/ir{d)t neut. of 
haar{d) hard, etc. 

89. has no exact equivalent outside of the Scandinavian 
languages, although it comes very near to the sound of Eng- 
lish 00 in *'poor." Its place of articulation is midway between 
"high" and "mid," and the rounding corresponds to high (oo). 
It may be short or long. Orthographic sign for the long 
sound is o, for the short oor w; Ex. long: {jeg) lo (I) laughed, 
Horn horn, Hob multitude; Ex. short: Bonde peasant, op up 
(in Christiania pronounced ap), Buk (o) he-goat, tu7ig (o) 
heavy, u serves to represent this sound before ng, nk and as 
a rule before m ending a syllable or followed by another con- 
sonant, /, k and gt. Furthermore in the following words : 
Kunst art, Sptms bung. Eul, coal, is sometimes pronounced 
kol. 

90- Also the Scandinavian %c is a peculiar sound without 



34 NORWEGIAN SOUNDS. 

any exaco equivalent in English. It comes nearest to the 
English ?^ in * 'full" or "put." In pronouncing the Norwe- 
gian u the back of the tongue is raised towards the hard pal- 
ate and the point remains behind the lower incisors, while the 
lips are considerably protruding. Ex. long: Oud Qodi^ Ur 
w^atch, liul (adj.) hollow, BruclhY\&Q\ short: Brud breach, 
Gut boy, Hul hole (also pronounced Hoi). 

Note. For u being the orthographic sign of o see § 89. 

91- y has the tongue position of i, the lip rounding oiu. 
It sounds like German ii, French win *'lune," only still 
thinner, nearer to i. It may be short or long. Phonetic 
sign y. Ex. long: By town, syv seven, yde yield; short: yppe to raise, 
yste to make cheese, hygge to build. 

Note. For y being sometimes pronounced as o see § 92 note. 

92. o. 

is a rounded e and has a sound like French eu in "pen"; 
it only occurs long, but is never found before radical r; Ex, : 
island, d0 die, (Hunden) gj0r (the dog) barks, o is a 
rounded ce and has a sound like French eu in "peuple," 
German o in "Gotter." It occurs both short and long, long 
only before radical r. In this latter position, however, ihe 
dialect of Christiania has a still lower (more open) sound oe. 
Ex. o: so(c?)^ sweet (neut.), grd7i greened or od: Born or Bcerii 
children, gj'Or or gjc^r does, h'drlig or Jiodrlig audible. 

Note. The orthographic sign of all three sounds, 0, 6 and oe is in 
print as a rule 0, in writing 6. 

In a few words the sign y represents the sound of o : syt- 
ten (o) 17, syiti (p) "^O^fyrti (5, oe) 40. Also in some other 
words y may be pronounced as 6 : Lykke luck, Styhke piece, 
BrysthresLstyflyite to move. But the pronunciation as y is 
regularly heard among educated people. 



NORWEGIAN SOUNDS. 36 

NORWEGIAN DIPHTHONGS. 



93- The diphthong ic sounds occurring in the Norwegian 
language are : ai^ mi, oi, o^, odu. ai has a sound like English 
i in **mile." Ex. : Hai shark, Kai quay, vaie wave, float. 
In the word Mai May, a as a rule is pronounced long. 

94. (^i has the orthographic sign ei, which sign always 
represents the sound here indicated (not as in Danish: ai); 
Ex. : lei tedious, disagreeable; Vei road. 

In some words eg, ek, ig serve as signs for this diphthongic sound: 
yg I (pron. j«i). i^^Q ^e, dig you, sig himself etc. (pron. mcei etc.). seks- 
ten 16 (pron. sceisten). 

egl, egn are in the greater part of Norway pronounced cbU, 03in; but 
in the northern part ^^«. is pronounced engn; Ex.: I^egl (oei) nail, 2egl 
(oei) tile, JRegn (aein or engn) rain. In mathematics distinction is made 
between Keffle cone and Kiley^edge, lat. cuneus. But in everyday 
speech both words are pronounced alike; slaa Jc.]iler (i. e Kegler) play 
at ninepins, slaa ind en kjile (i. e. Kile) drive in a wedge. 

95. oi only occurs in some foreign words; it has the same sound as 
English oy in "boy," but has a tendency to become assimilated with 5i: 
?iolloi halloo, Konvoi convoy. 

96- 111 oi the first element of the diphthong is the wide o, 
the second a wide 2/ ; Ex. : Aoi high, T'di cloth., foite to gad. 
bg in L'Ogn lie, Dogn day and night, as a rule represents the 
same sound, but in the northern part of the country those 
words are pronounced longn, dhign. N'dgel key is by some 
people pronounced n&iel, commonly n'dJckel. 

The word ^?/^^ country township is sometimes pronounced 
Ibid, but usually as it is spelt. The former pronunciation is 
still considered somewhat vulgar, although Ibsen uses it in 
"Brand" in the following rhyme: 

lusenfidgie mig af Bygden (5i), 
ikke hn "SMndt op til Jloiden. 



36 NOKWEGIAK SOUNDS. 

The sound of oi is in some foreign words represented by 
eu: Farmacetit (pron. soil) pharmacist, Lieutenant (pron. 
and now regularly spelt loitnant), 7ieutral {pi) neuter, Eugen 
(pron. bisjen). 

Q7. wu has a sound that comes very near the Cockney 
pronunciation of ou in * 'house." Orthographical sign au. 
Ex. : taus silent, August , Taiog rope. 

This diphthong is written eu in Europa. (But in Greek names 
Zeus etc. eu is pronounced ei)). 



NORWEGIAN CONSONANTS. 



98- P ^s in English; Ex. : Pave pope, Perige money, Pil 
arrow, op up. 

Note 1. Vulgar is a tendency to pronounce p before t as/; Ex.: 
kapein for Kaptein Captain, ska ft for skapt (written skabt) shaped. 
Note 2. The sound of _?9 is written 5 in the following cases: 
1) after short vowel before, mostly inflective, t and s: skabt (p) 
shaped, raabt (pron. o'ojyt) called, Krebs (y) crawfish, Skibshund (p) ship's 
dog, Labskaus {p) lobcscouse: Lcebe lip is often pronounced Ueppe, with 
short vowel. 

2) after a long vowel when p either ends a word or is followed 
by s> (see § 6 in fine) ; Ex. : Gah (p) yawn, gabe (pd) to yawn, 
Skrah (p) trash, skrahe (p) to scrape, Skab (p) wardrobe. 
Tab (p) loss, tabe (p) to lose, Kaabe (p) cloak, taabelig {b or 
p) foolish, Jcrybe (p) to creep. Among the younger generation of 
authors it is getting always more common to spell these words in ac 
cordance with the Norwegian pronunciation. It is only in a small part 
of the coast districts in the southernmost part of Norway that b in these 
words is pronounced as written, similarly to the pronunciation in Danish 
(see § 4). 



NORWEGIAN SOUNDS. 



37 



99. i sounds like English b; this sound occurs in the be- 
ginning, middle (chiefly in foreign words) and end of words; 
Ex. : By town, Ely lead, Hybel garret, Lab (pr. labb) paw. 

Note. Sometimes b interchanges with p after a long vowel (see § 98 
Note 2), h being reserved for a more elevated style or a figurative mean- 
ing; Ex.: 



dobe, p, to baptize. 

grihe, p, to catch. 

raabe (pr. rope) to call aloud, cry. 

Eaab (raap, rop) cry, call. 

skrobelig, p, fragile, frail. 
tabe, p, to lose. 



slebeii, p, ground, cut (slepet Olas, 

cut glass). 
ahabe, p, sig to act in an affected 

manner. 
Smbe (pr. Svepe) driving whip. 
— skab, p, in Ondskab, p, evilness, 

Troldskab, p, witchcraft; JSgte- 

skab, p, marriage. 

100. 'in bilabial nasal, like the English m; Ex. : maa must, 
om about, komme to come. Before/ m assumes a labiodental 
character, more rarely before v\ Ex. : Jomfru young woman, 
stewardess. 



Daab, b, baptism; Johannes den 
Dober John the Baptist. 

figuratively: en gribende Scene an 
impressive scene. 

raabe in some sentences figura- 
tively: hans Forbi^ydehe raaber 
om Ilcevn his crime cries for 
vengeance. 

Baab, b: Raabet paa Reformer the 
clamor for reforms. Raaber a 
speaking trumpet. 

figuratively: Kjodet er skrobeligt, 
b, the flesh is weak. 

fortabes, 6 (theol.) to be damned; 
et Fortabelsens Barn a child of 
perdition. 

et slebent, b, VoBsen a polished 
address. 

skabe, b, to create; Skabelse crea- 
tion. 

Sv'obe, 6b, scourge. 
— skab, b, in Kundskab (also p) 
knowledge, Videnskab, b, sci 
ence. 



38 XOliWEGIAJf SOUis'DS. 

101. /is a labiodental open sound like English f; Ex.: 
faa get, yuffe to push. 

Note 1. In the word af oi /is a sign for the sound of 'c, see § 102, 
Note 1. 

Note 2. In inflective forms of words, the stems of wliich end in 
"v" the sound of / is sometimes written "v": ha'ct (partcp.) pron. Imft 
had (colloquially pron. hat); see § 102 Note 2. 

102. V is a labiodental open voiced sound, not quite so 
sharply articulated as English v. Occurs both in the begin- 
ning, middle and at the end of words; Ex. : vi we, love to 
promise, 8hov forest. 

Note 1. In the word af of this sound has the orthographic sign/. 

Note 2. v is the ortliographic sign of the sound/ 1) before* and t 
in inflective forms of words, tlie stems of which end in v, when the 
vowel preceding v is short; if the preceding vowel is long, then v retains 
its sound; in some words both pronunciations (long vowel & v and short 
vowel &/) are admissible; Ex. : scutte iillivs (/) to dispatch (food); Livsens 
(/) of life, grovt {v or/) rough (neuter iovra) , paaskroivs {v or /) astride, 
ttlhays (v or /) at sea. Also revse (/) to castigate. Colloquially the 
imperfect lovede promised is pronounced lofte. 2) In the words: Viol 
(flower) violet, Violin, Violoncel. 

Note 3. v is written but not pronounced after I in lialiy) half, 
8el{Y)- self, So^(v) silver, tol{v) twelve, tol{v)te twelfth, Tyl{y)t dozen; 
furthermore in Pro{v)st dean, Tv2."(v)^ doubt (now regularly written Tvil), 
?ia(v)t had, bra{v) or hrav, plural pronounced brciDe or bra. 

For hli{ve)r gi(ve)r see § 140 c. 

103. t is Si voiceless dental stop, slightly aspirated, espe- 
cially in the beginning of words, but much less so than in Dan- 
ish. The aspiration is omitted after 5, t in this position thus 
representing a sound between t and d; Ex. : Tal number, Hat 
hat, Fotet potato, ato?^ big. 

th does not represent any other sound than t; it is used in some 
words of Greek origin and as a rule in the conjunction tJii for, to distin- 
guish it from the numeral ti ten, both words being pronounced alike. 
Sometimes also in 2Mng Session of court, Storthing name of Norwegian 



KORWEGIAN SOUNDS. 39 

parliament, to distinguish these words from Ting thing; furthermore in 
ThroruUijem, IJiorsdag Thursday; but these words are now generally 
spelt without 7i, 

Note 1. Ms written but not pronounced 1) in de{t) that, the (pron, 
art.) and in the enclitic definite article neuter; Ex.: iZMse(?) the house. 
In elevated speech, however, the t in this latter case usually retains its 
sound. 

2) in the words Grje8{t)giver country innkeeper, V(jer(t)shus inn, 

3) in the infinitive particle at to, colloquially pronounced k, thus 
distinguished from the conjunction at that, pronounced as written. In 
stead of Disputats disputation, Notits notice, etc., it is now the rule to 
write Bisputas, Notia, etc. 

Note 2. For tj in some words representing the sound of kj see 
§ 119 Note. 

104. The sound of t is represented by the sign d in many 
words finally and before d after a long vowel ; Ex. : bl0d (t) 
soft, bide (t) to bite, Band (t) boat, kaad (/) jolly, vaad (t) 
wet, Flaade (t) raft, Maade {t) manner, (bnt Saate hay-cock 
also spelt with ^, because it is a distinctly Norwegian word), 
Fad (t) dish,/ff6? {t) flat, Gade (t) street, lad (t) lazy. Mad (t) 
food., fed (t) fat, Gjed (t) goat, hed (f) hot, hede (t) to be called, 
lede (t) to search, Hvede {t) wheat, Sosde (t) seat (but gjcste to 
guard (grazing animals) spelt with t cfr. Saate), did (t) 
thither, hvid (t) while, hid {t) hither, lidcn (t) little, Fod (t) 
foot, mod (t) against. Bod (i) amende. Rod (t) root, rode (t) 
to rummage. Sod (t) soot, Grtid {t) grounds, lade (f) to stoop, 
Knude (t) knot, Lud (t) lye, Fude (i \ pillow. Stud (t) oxc, 
iude (t) to toot, Tud {t) spout, ud (t) cut, ude (t) out, bryde 
(t) break, Gryde (t) pot, Lyde (t) blecaish, sJcryde (t) to boast, 
skyde (t) to shoot, S7iyde (t) to blow / the nose), bsde {t) to pay 
a fine, Bader (t) fines, Flede {t) cream, Gmd (t) porridge, 
m0de (t) meeting, St0d (t) push, stode {t) to push, Skjade (t) 
deed of conveyance. 



40 



NORWEGIA?^ SOUNDS. 



Double consonant after short vowel : Nod pron. Nott nut, 
Fodder feet, pron. Fotter^ sidde to sit, pron. sitte. 

Note. For some of these words in specific meanings being 
pronounced with d, see § 106. 

105- d like English d; Ex. : da then, Uodi{g) bloody, reed 
(dd) afraid. 

Note. Where the Danish and the common Norwegian orthography- 
have d in the end or middle of words after a long vowel, the common 
Norwegian pronunciation as a rule either has t or drops the d. In the 
former case dJ corresponds to ON. t (see §§ 4& 6), in the latter to ON. 5. 

106. Some words written with d are pronounced Avith d 
or t according to the meaning. The voiced explosive as a rule 
occurs in learned words and those chiefly occurring in higher 
style. 



Jiyde, t, to float, to flow. 
grcede, t {grkte) to cry, to weep. 
Ej'od, tt, meat. 
Ude, t, to trust. 



Maade, t, manner. 

nyde, t, to take (food), nyde, t, godt 
af noget to draw profit of some- 
thing. 

raadden, tt, rotten, putrid. 

Mod, t, courage. 

Flade, d or t, plane. 

SkjQd, t, lap {Frakkesjbd coatlap), 
Skjodskind (shoemaker's) apron. 

vide, t, to know. 



d. 

fiydende d, liquid. 

begroide, d, to cry over. 

^od, ad, flesh. 

lillid, d, trust, imalidelig, d, trust- 
worthy. 

Note. Always Ude, d, to suffer. 

Maade, d, mode (gram.); 7ak i lige 
Maade thanks, the same to you. 

nyde, d, to enjoy, nydelig enjoy- 
able, pretty. 

raadden (morally) foul. 

modiy, courageous. 

always overfiadisk superficial. 

i Familiens Skjod in the bossom of 

the family, 
Videnskdb science, Viden know- 
ledge. 



NORWEGIAN SOUNDS. 



41 



t. 

ydre, tt, outer; Yderfrak, tt, over- 
coat; j/t^ra^, tt, outermost. 
bide t, to bite. 
blbd, t, soft. 
Flaade t, raft. 
foj'bryde, t, sig to offend, trespass. 

lade, t, let; ladesommn to make it 

appear that. (See also § 140). 
overlade, t, to leave; tillade, t, to 

allow. 

107. d is often written at the end or in the middle of 
words after a long vowel without being pronounced (see § 105 
Note). In rhetoric language the d may be retained in pro- 
nunciation, and in some words there are duplicate forms with 
or without d according to the meaning. 



d. 

yderst utmost, den yderste Dag the 

day of judgment. 
hidende pungent (answer, speech). 
bl'6dagtig effeminate. 
Flaade fleet. 
Foi'hryder criminal, ForbrydeUe 

crime. 
lade: det maa man lade ham, it 

must be admitted that he. 
tilsyneladende aoparently, lilla- 
permission. 



Without d. 

Bla{d) leaf, sheet, newspaper 



bli(d) gentle, bland. 
Blo{d) blood, at spytte Blo{d) to spit 
blood, blo{d)r6d) red as blood. 



b?'e(d) broad: der skalen bre{d) Ryg 
til at bare gode Dage it takes a 
broad back to carry god for- 
tune. 

Br'6{d) bread. 



With d. 

Nordiike Blade (name of news- 
paper), taige) Bladetfra Munden 
to speak one's mind, 

dit blide Aasyn your sweet face. 

Kjod og Blod flesh and blood, Blo- 
dets Baand the ties of blood; in 
many compounds: Blodbad car- 
nage, BlodJievn revenge for mur- 
der, Blodskam incest. 

de brede Bygder the broad parishes. 



vort daglige BrOd our daily bread; 
den en€S D'od, den andens Br'od 
one man's death, the other man's 
breath (literally: bread). 



42 



I^ORWEGIAiq- SOUNDS. 



Without d. 

dQ{d) dead; 
(colloquialiy may be used the 
genuine Norwegian form dau 
in the meaning of sluggish). 



Mo(d) high tide. 
gla{d) joyous. 

{/o{d) good. 

Raa{d) means, expedient: der er 
ingen Raa[d) med ham there is 
no outcome with him, det er iklce 
Baa{d) it is not possible, ye^ 7iar 
ikke Baa{d) I cannot afford, 
raad.los whhout an expedient. 

ro{d) red, en ro(df) Noese a red nose. 



stri{d), adj. headstrong. 

li{d) time, ingoid) 2i,d) plenty of 

time, alti{d) always. 
m{d) wide, en viid) Frahke a wide 

coat. 



With d. 

i)5^ death; 

dod og magteslbs null and void; d 
is always pronounced when the 
adjective is used as a noun: en 
dod a dead man, staa ap fra de 
dbde to rise from the dead . 

Flod river. 

et glad Budskab glad tidings, en 
glad Aften a merry night. 

den gode the good man, et Gode a 
blessing. 

Raad advice, en Statsraad {king's) 
minister, Kongens Raad the 
king's council, raadfore sig med 
en to seek somebody's advice. 



Tian er rod he is red (i. e. radical 
in politics), de r'Ode Hunde the 
red dogs (i. e, roseola). 

Stvid, subst. strife. 

lid time, usual form. 

en vid Horisont a wide horizon 
(i. e. scope of ideas), uden videre 
without further ado. 



109. d is always pronounced in Bad bath, Bod booth, 
Bryderi trouble, Daad deed, Ed oath, Fraade foam, Fred 
peace, Grbde crop, Gud God, Had hate, Hceder honor' led 
loathsome, Lyd sound, Naade grace, Odel allodial ownership; 
as a rule in Bud message, always when this word indicates 
messenger, 

d also as a rule is pronounced in derivatives; 'EiX.: fredelig peaceful, 
Qlxde joy, raadelig advisable. 



NORWEGIAN^ SOUNDS. 43 

109. nd and Id are as a rule pronounced nn and II: Mand 
(nn) man, Mund {nn) mouth, hold {II) cold, Kulde {lie) 
Bubst. cold, liolde {lie) to hold, volde {lie) to cause. 

d is pronounced as d after l before r: Alder age, Bul- 
der noice, Hulder wood nymph, Skulder shoulder; and in 
the following words : Glide company, hilde to snare, Kilde 
fountain, Olding old man, ^Ide age, Vcelde ipower ; further- 
more in derivative words when the ending commences in a 
vowel: gylden golden, heldig fortunate (but Hel{d) fortune). 

d is pronounced after n before r and I: andre others, 
handle to deal, Handel (pr. handl) a deal; d is also pro- 
nounced in derivatives : sa7idelig verily, sandig sandy ; also as 
a rule in Kvinde woman, Minde reminiscence ; jeg liar i Sinde 
I have in mind (but jeg gjorde det i Sinne I did it in anger), 
Kunde customer. 

110. ^ is mute 1) before s a) after a short vowel, in which 
case ds is pronounced ss : he{d)st best, Bi{d)sel bridle, bi{d)sh 
snappish, Pla{d)s place, Kry{d)s cross, hind quarter, jE?w((^)si^ 
funny, and many others ; b) in some words after a long vowel : 
Lo{d)s pilot, lo{d)se to pilot, Seila{d)s sailing, Straha{d)s 
(or is) exertion; c) between 7i and s: BrcBn(d)sel fuel, 
7nin{d)ske to decrease (the orthographic rule is to write d be- 
tween n and 6^ in the words derived from primitives with d: 
Ex.: Han{d)ske glove, from JIaand hand; but danse to 
dance, GrcB7ise\umi, etc.); 2) before t when a d belonging 
to the stem comes before an inflective t: Ex.: god — {jo{d)t 
good, Hod — U'6{d)t soft lide — li{d)t (part.) suffer; [before^ 
of a derivative ending d is retained in writing when the end- 
ing consists of t alone; Ex.: et Skri{d)t a step, et Ri{d)t a 
ride ; but changed into t when the ending consists of t with a 
following vowel : god — gotte sig to regal one's self. ] 

111. d h mute in some words after r ; the preceding 



44 NORWEGIAI^ SOUNDS. 

vowel is usually long; Ex.: Jor(d) earth, Fjor{d) fjord, 
OjcBr{d)e fence, Or{d) word, Nor{d)mand (short o) Norwegian. 

In the following words d is pronounced after r (the preceding vowel 

in that case is short): Bord border, Byrd birth, Fmrd voyage (but paa- 

f(jer[d)e astir), Hjord herd, hoirde to harden, losrd learned, Mord murder: 

Verden the world, prde to inter, Norden the North, (but nor{d)enfra from 

the North, nor{d)enfJGlds north of the mountains). 

112- s is a voiceless open blade sound; the voiced (soft) 
s (z) of English and other languages does not exist in Nor- 
wegian; Ex. : se to see, losse to read, Hus house. 

I I 3- sj or s^j have about the same sound as English s^; 
Ex. : 8jd sea, sjelden seldom, Skjorte shirt, Skjort skirt. Be 
fore i and y this sound is written sh. Ex. : Ski Norwegian 
snowshoe. Sky cloud ; also before e in the following words : 
Ske spoon, (at) ske to happen, maaske^ kanske (also pro- 
nounced k) perhaps, Besked information, leskeden modest, 
skele to squint, SkeUt skeleton, (at) skeie (ud) to lead a dis- 
solute life ; before oi in : Skbite smack, Skbiter skates (but 
Skbi fun, /S'^o^er mischief maker, with k). 

The same sound may in foreign words be rendered by sch, sh, g, ch, 
j, 8, according tho the spelling of the language from which the word is 
borrowed: C/ief, Geni, Bagagejaloux, Journal, Kalesche. Bi-osche hrooch, 
Puncli, ScJuih chess, March, Revision, Mission, Addition, Direktion, (but 
Kwtient pr. kvotsient in 3 syllables and Konsoriium partnership, pr^ 
konsortsium in 4 syllables). 

114.^ bas about the same sound as in English ; Ex. : lide 
to suffer, Laar thigh, Pil arrow, spille to play ; for II is in 
some words written Id (see § 109). 

I is written but not pronounced before y in the words Lja 
or Ljaa scythe, Ljore opening in the roof for the smoke to 
pass out, X/om echo, Zya/i place near Christiania; further- 
more in : Karl man, and its compounds (pronounced and 
of ten written Kar \ Stakkar o, yfVQich^ Dan. Stakkel\ but in 



KORWEGIAN SOUN^DS. 45 

Husharlene the housecarles pr. /) ; and in skal shall, often 
pron. ska\ and til to often pron. te. 

Note. After point r, I in the eastern part of Norway assumes a 
supradental character, being formed against the gums, and r is reduced 
to a gliding sound; Ex : Karl (natfie), farlig dangerous, Perle pearl. 

115. In eastern Norway the Old Norse combination r6 has devel- 
oped into a peculiar sound of inverted 7' or I, being pronounced by in- 
verting the tongue and raising the point up towards the hard palate and 
then bringing it forward with a smack. The inverted or "cacuminal" 
sound produced in this manner makes upon the foreigner the impression 
of being an r, while to the Norwegians it appears to be an I; it is called 
the thick 1; Ex.: Svelvik (O. N. Svei'dmls.), name of a place. This sound 
is considered vulgar, but it is often used colloquially in Eastern Nor- 
way, even instead of common I; Ex.: R\asse class, Aa\ eel, Ola 
(name). 

116. n like English n: nu now, Bon prayer, vcB7i7ie to 
accustom. 

The sound of nn is written nd in a great many words (see 
§ 109). Of words spelt with nn or n (if final) may be noted: 
Bonne bean, Bon prayer (plur, of both : Bonner, but Bonder 
peasants, with the same ?^-sound) ; e7i FiiiJie a pimple, but at 
jinde to find, at kunne to be able \hviijeg himde (nn) I could], 
Skin light, appearance (at skhme to shine), but Skind (nn) 
skin, Skinne rail, Vantro disbelief (but Vaiidfarve water 
color). 

Note. When n is preceded by an r, then i-t in the eastern part of 
Norway assumes a supradental character, the r being reduced to a mere 
gliding sound. Other dental sounds are affected in the same way by a 
preceding r, and these combined sounds of r & following dental repre- 
sent the same sounds that in the Sanskrit Grammar are called cerebral 
(murdhanja). 

117. ng represent a single sound, the guttural nasal con- 
sonant, like English ng m singer; Ex. : synge to sing, tu7ig 
heavy. 



46 KORWEGIAK SOUNDS. 

Before k the same sound is represented by n alone; Ex.: lanke {ngk) 
thought, Boenk bench. 

The same is also sometimes the case before g in foreign words, 7ig 
thus representing the sound of 7igg: Kongo, Uagarn Hungary; and in 
words of French origin also in otli^r cases; Ex.: halanccre (ngs) to 
balance. Sometimes also in compound words u. k or g may affect a pre 
ceding dental n so as to make it guttural : Haan{d)kla'.{d:e {ngk) towel; 
but as a rule both sounds remain the same as in the separate words; 
Angiver (hj) informer, angaa (n-g) to concern. In some words of French 
origin ng is pronounced ngsj (sj representing the sound of Engl. s7i, see 
§ 113); Ex. : rangere pron. rangsjere, to rank, but tangere (ngg) to touch. 

118. T in Norway as a rule is a trilled point consonant. 
Before a voice consonant or vowel it is voiced, before a voiceless 
consonant it is generally voiceless. It is formed by allowing 
the point of the tongue to vibrate against the gums while the 
breath of air passes trough. It is always distinctly pro- 
nounced, never modified like final r in English ; Ex. : Et/ fame, 
Eor rudder, hore to hear. 

Note 1. In the south-western part of Norway is used an uvular r. 

Note 2. The alveolar ?• exerts a peculiar influence on a following 
dental sound t, d, I, n, «(see§§ 114 note, llGnote). In polished language 
these supradental varieties of the front sounds as a rule are avoided 
after a short vowel as vulgar, except rs; Ex.: Vers verse (pron. almost 
versh). Person (pron. almost pershon). 

119. kj is a medio-palatal fricative sound corresponding 
to German ch in i c h. The English language has no corre- 
sponding sound although the middle sound produced in Eng- 
lish between t and y in such combinations as not yet, donH 
you has a certain resemblance to it. The sound is produced 
by raising the middle of the tongue towards the palate with- 
out touching it, while at the same time the point of the 
tongue is lowered behind the lower teeth and the side edges 
of the tongue touch the second molars. The orthographic 
sign is kj except before i and y when it is h\ Ex. : kjore to 



KORWEGIAIf SOUNDS. 47 

drive, Icjmr dear, Kirhe church, Kys kiss. The sign of k repre- 
sents this sound also before e in the words Kegle cone, Kemi chemistry, 
Kerub. (But Keiser emperor with k). 

Note. The sound of kj is written tj in Jield oyster catcher (a bird), 
and Ijern a small lake, Ijor tether, Ijcere tar. 

120. y is the voiced sound corresponding to the voiceless 
Jcj^ pronounced like English y in yawn. 

This sound is represented 1) by/, usually; Ex. :ja yes, jeg 
(jei) I, Jul Christmas, Mjd{d) mead, Lmje line, tredje (also 
pron. tredde) third, Jbde jew. 2) by g before i (except Jih 
jib, jMe gybe) and sometimes before y ; Ex. : gift married, 
gik went, gyldeii golden. (But Jyde Jutlander, Jylland Jut- 
land. And in foreign words g may retain its proper sound 
before these vowels: Gigaiit, ^gypten^ Religion \ so also in 
Gyda woman's name) and sometimes in give (see § 140 c). 3) 
by gj sometimes before other vowels than the two above men- 
tioned: gjalde to resound, Gjed (pron. je*t) goat, jeg gjor{d)e 
I did, Gj(Bld debt. 4) by lij in a few words; Hjalte hilt, ihjel 
to death, Hjelm helmet, Hjem Home, Hje7nmel warrant, Hjerne 
brain, Bjalmar, Hjerte heart, Hjord herd, Hjort hart, Hjul 
wheel, Hjmlp help, Hjbrne corner. 5) by Ij in Ljaa, Ljore, 
Ljan (see § 114). 

(For skj, sj and ^/ see §§ 113 & 119). 

121- k has the sound of En^dish ^ but more aspirated ; 
not so much so, however, as in Danish. The letter k represents 
this sound before consonants (except /, see § 119), back vowels 
(«, 0, n) and unstressed f/^ont and mid vowels (9, {) and at 
the end of words ; Ex. : kaste to throw, Klo claw. Knee knee 
(take care not to make the ^ mute as in English!), Laks 
salmon, like to like. Viking, Raak lane of water (cut in the 
ice), Tak (Jck) thanks. 

Note. When a word is spelt with k after a long vowel it is a sign 



48 NORWEGIAN SOUNDS. 

that the word is originally Norwegian and does not occur in the Danish 
language. (See § 122). 

122. 'J^he sound of k is in many words represented in 
writing by the letter </; 1) after a short vowel before 5 or ^; 2) 
after a long vowel at the end of words or before d\ Ex. : 1) 
Slags (aks) kind (but Slags of a battle), Krigsflaade (ks) 
navy, Rigs{k%)-advokat attorney general, hugsere (ks) to tow, 
Jagt (kt) chase, lagt (kt) laid, Digt (kt) poem, sligt (kt) 
(nent.) such, siygt (kt) ugly, stegt (kt) ptc. fried, Vcegt (kt) 
weight; 2) Ager (k) field, hag (k) behind. Eager (k) baker, 
hruge (k) to use, Beg (k) beech, />*?^^ (k) table cloth, Ilage (k) 
chin, Hidg{k) hawk, Lage (k) brine, Lagen (k) (bed)-sheet 
(but Lager (g) stock in store), Leg (k) play, lege (k) to play, 
myg (k) pliable [but Myg {gg) mosquito], syg (k) sick, ryge 
(k) to smoke (intr.), roge (k) to smoke (trans.), Spiger (k) 
nail, Tag (k) roof, grasp, rig (k) rich, lig (k) adj. like, Forlig 
(k or g) agreement, /oWiV/e (k or g) to reconcile \h\xi Forligel- 
seshommission (g) commissioners of arbitratioD] , Taage (k) fog. 

Note. Often in these words the pronunciations as g and k inter- 
change with each other, the former being considered more polite and 
appropriate for elevated style . 

In the following words there are double forms (with k and g) partly 
with a different meaning. 

with h with g. 

Bog book pr. bo*k. Bog pr. Bag more polite. 

Flag sometimes pron. flak in Flag (a*g or agg) national en- 

Isfiag flake of Ice, Skjorte- sign. 

flag (k or g) shirtlap. 

klog (pr. klo'k) sagacious; eriklog {kg) Kone^^\^Qwom?iTi 

lian er ikke rigtig klog (i.e.on supernatural things); 

(k) he is not quite in his det er meget klogt gjort that 

right senses, jeg er lige (k) is a very clever move, af Ska- 

klog (k) I am just as wise de hliver man klog damage 

as I used to be. makes wise. 



NORWEGIAN SOUNDS, 



49 



Rige (k) empire, et stort 
Rige (k) a great empire. 



Sag (k) matter, enfarU(g) 
Sag(k)a. dangerous thing, 
dei er ingen Sag (k) it is 
a very easy matter, sag- 
soge (k, k) to sue. 

Srnag (k) taste, e7i tiiehage- 
li(g) Sniag (k) i Mu7ide7i 
(nn) a disagreeable taste 
in the mouth; det liar 
Mersmag (k) it has a 
morish taste. 

vaage (k) to watch ; vaage 
(k) over en syg to watch 
a sick person ; Vaage(k)- 
kone a sick-nurse. 



Naturrigerne (g) the kingdoms 
of nature, Guds Rige (g) the 
kingdom of God, del tyshe 
Rige the German empire, 
Frankrige (g) France (but 
Sverige lyron. Sverie or Sverje, 
Sweden). 

Sagen the matter, saglig perti- 
nent (strictly to the point). 
Sag f brer lawyer. 

Note: always Sag (g) saw. 

Smag (g) taste, god Smag good 

taste, 
S77iagfuld{g, ll)tasteful, elegant, 
Smagen er forskjellig taste dif- 
fers. 



vaager (g) og beder watch and 
pray. 



Aag (sometimes pron. 
yoke, oxbow. 



elk) gaa under Aaqet (g) to walk 
under the yoke ; mit Aag (g) 
er gav?iU{gt), my yoke is use- 
ful. 
123. ^ is written but not pronounced in the words: 
Au(k)tio7ij 3hd(k)t fine, 7nul(k)tere to fine, E7igels{k)7nand 
Englishman; sometimes k is also dropped in pronouncing 
Frans{k)7)ia?id Frenchman, and always in Fra7is{k)hr'6{d) 
French rolls. 

Note 1. For Tc being the orthographic sign of kj see § 119. 
Note 2 There are still many people who instead of ks write ce; 
Ex. : sexten or seksten pron. seisten see § 94. 

Note 3. The sound of k is still sometimes written q before u, 
pron. kxi: Quadrat square, as a rule now written Kmdrat, Aquavit 
(pron. akkevit) Norwegian gin, now as a rule written Akevit. 



50 NORWEGIAN SOUNDS. 

124. 9 has the sound of English g in *'give", **go"; Ex. : 
gaa to go, gli(de) to slide, Gnier miser, grave to dig, jage to 
hunt, Norge Norway, Dag day, Sprog (ag) language. Tog (ag) 
train, Svcslg gullet, 8org grief, JJe?^ holidays, Big elk, 51?Zg 
tallow. 

Note 1. In some of these words, after I and r, g is sometimes pro- 
nounced as ;, but this pronunciation is considered vulgar. 

Note 2. For g as the sign of k see § 122 note; for the pronunciation 
varying between g and k see § 122 note; for g and gj being signs of j 
see § 120, 2 and 3; gid would, o that, gide to prevail upon one's self to, 
are pronounced with g before i. 

For g representing i as second part of diphthongs see §§ 94 and 96. 
For g representing the sound of sj in foreign words see § 113. 

Note 3. g sometimes before n represents the sound of ng: Agn 
pron. angn, bait, Magnus pron. Mangnus or Magnus, Vogn pron. 
vongn. So also in the western and northern part of Norway in Egn, 
Logn etc. (see § 94 and 96). 

125. 9 is written but not pronounced: 

1) in adjectives and adverbs ending in — ig (lig) : storag- 
ti{g) haughty, /(Q5rfZ/(^) ready, aldri{g) never: also when the 
plural ending e is added g remains mute; Ex. : mcBrkeli{g)e 
Ting strange things ; and if the neutral ending t is added that 
also is mute: Huse{t) er fcerdi{gt) the house is ready. 

2) after the diphthongs ei and au : sei{g) tough, Dei{g) 
dough, Bau{g) bow. 

2) in the word o{g) and, and in some compounds of Dag' 
godda{g) good day (how do you do), Manda{g) Monday, Tirs- 
da(g) Tuesday etc. ; sometimes in Ru{g) (or rugg). 

4) after a long vowel before /: Fu{g)l bird, Kic{g)le ball, 
Pry{g)l thrashing (but g always pronounced before I after a 
short vowel: Ex. : Hagl hail). 

5) sometimes after Z and r before an unstressed vowel: 



NORWEGIAN SOUNDS. 51 

imorges (rr) this morning, i7nor{g)en to-morrow. Sometimes 
the meaning changes according as g is pronounced or not : 

g not pronounced : g pronounced : 

folge (11) to follow ; en Folge (g) a consequence, 

et Folge (11) a company. folgende following, Folgescet- 

ning consequent (sentence), 
folgevcerdig worth following. 
scelge (11) to sell, sol{g)te Scelger (Ig) a salesman. 

sold. 
spbrge (rr) to ask, Spdr{g)s- sporgende inquiring, Sporge- 
maal question. scet?img interrogative sen- 

tence. 
126« ^ has before vowels the sound of English h ; Ex. : 
han he, Haab hope, holde to hold, hilse to greet. 

Note. A mute 7i is written before j and© in the following words: 
Hjerne brain, Hjelm helmet, ihjel to death, Hjerte heart, Hjort hart, 
H]ord\iQx6., H]em home, Hpil wheel, H']a^lp help, H]brne corner, liwaid) 
what, livem, hvo who, hvis whose, if, liTilken which, /it'or where (and 
compounds thereof hxorfor why etc.), Hval whale, Hvnlp whelp, livis 
sharp, Jivcesse to whet, iZt'd"^ wheat, Ilveps wasp, Arer each, Ilverda(g) 
week day, Jiverken neither, Hderv task, hverve to enlist, Jixid vfhite, 
hvidte to whiten, Ilvil rest, Jivine to shriek, Uvirvel whirlpool, hviske to 
whisper, JiYisleto hiss, Hvitting whiting, 'KvcbIv vault, hvoese to hiss. 

Note. In the western and northern part of Norway the pronomi- 
nal words spelt with hv are regularly pronounced with k: kem, ka etc., 
while some others are pronounced with Jcv: kvass, kvit, kvalp etc. 

This pronunciation is not used by polite society, but the traveller 
may come across it. 

127. ^ ill some foreign words represents the sound of ks 
(many people still use this sign to express the same combina- 
tion of sounds also in domestic words, see § 123 note 2) ; Ex. : 
orthodox^ Oxyd^ extraordinoer^ Examen. At the beginning of 
words of Greek origin it is usually pronounced s : Xerxes (pr. 
serses), Xylograf. 



52 NORWEGIAN SOUl^DS. 

I 28- ^ is also used in some foreign words to represent the 
sound of s : Zehra^ Zelot. 

I 29- 6 is used in foreign words representing the sound of 
s ; Ex. : Ceder cedar, Centaur^ Ceremo?ii, Cigar, musicere to 
make music. In foreign words where it formerly was used to 
express the sound of k it is now the rule to write k. Greek 
proper nouns are now usually written and pronounced with 
k: Kimon, Kyros. 



NORWEGIAN ACCENT. 



130. In Norwegian speech a distinction must be made 
between the accent-stress and the musical accent. 

131. The accent stress as a rule rests upon the first syl- 
lable, which at the same time generally is the radical syllable. 
A secondary stress is sometimes, especially in compound words, 
laid on o following syllable, i. e. in most cases on the first syl- 
lable of the second part of the compound; Ex. : Bo''r{d)t(B'ppe 
table cover, La^mpeshjcs'rm lampshade, Gla'-sme^ster glazier. 
(' denotes primary accent, 'secondary accent). 

132- The accent strees is on another syllable than the first. 

1) in some foreign words; Ex.: Genera% Gogna'-c Apo- 
stro'f, Apothe^k. 

2) in words (of German origin) with the prefixes he-, ge-, 
cr-, which never have the stress on the first syllable; Ex.: 
hegri'-he to understand, GevcsW shot-gun, GemaH consort, er- 
faWe to learn, hekje'-nde to acknowledge, etc. 

Note. In vulgar speech tliese words are accented on the first syl- 
lable; hearbei'de to adapt has usually the stress on the first syllable when 
meaning to belabor. 



NORWEGIA.N SOUNDS. 53 

3) in some words with the prefix /or representing the Ger- 
man ver; Ex. : ForfaHter author, /or^aa' sig to offend, for- 
fo^re to seduce, For7nc\ft reason; h\it: fo^ranstalte to cause to 
be done^ fo^rarbeide to manufacture, i^o'rSw^ prohibition (but 
forby^de to prohibit), Fo^rbund alliance {hu.t for bi^nde sig to 
agree), Fo^rhold relation (but forJioHde sig to behave), FoW- 
lag publishing, Fo'-rlmgger publisher (but forlce'-gge to pu- 
blish), Fo'rmue competency, Fo^rsog attemt (but forso'-ge to 
try), Fo^rsvar defence (but forsva^re to defend, ForsvaWer 
defender). When /or represents the preposition /er (G-erm. 
fiir, vor, Eng. fore) then it has the stress: Fo'-rbbn interces- 
sion, i^o'rjyer^ promuntory, Fo^rgaard fore court, Fo'-rhmng 
curtain, FoWtand foretooth, Fo'rnavn Christian name, Fo^r- 
fald impediment {hut for faHden decayed). 

4) words with the negative prefix u (Eng. un-, in-) as a 
rule have the stress on the first syllable ; Ex. : W-naade dis- 
grace ; but adjectives ending in -elig and those ending in -lig 
which are derived from verbs and denote a feasibility have the 
stress on that syllable of the second part of the compound, 
which had the accent before the composition took place ; Ex. : 
ubelia''gGUg disagreeable, umuHig impossible, usaa^rlig invul- 
nerable, ugjo^rlig not feasible. Also a great many other ad- 
jectives in 'lig and -ig have the stress on the second part of 
i\ifi com^ovixidi: icanst(B''ndig indecent, tiscBdva^nlig unusual, 
uheHdig unfortunate, ua^gtet although, but ufarlig not dan- 
gerous, u^personlig impersonal, u^naturlig unnatural or una- 
tu'rlig. 

5) The sufi&xes -inde and -ri generally have the stress : 
Loereri^nde (lady) teacher, GeneraW-nde general's wife, Hyk- 
leri'- hypocrisy, Tyveri^ theft, (but Svi'-neri and Gri''seri 
piggery, filthiness take the stress on the first syllable). The 
sufiixes -else and -ning usually when added to compound words 



54 KORWEGiAN" sou:n^ds. 

cause the accent to be moved forward to the second part of 
the compound; Ex.: mis^unde to envy, but Misu^ndelse 
envy, TilvcB^relse existence, Tilskih^kelse dispensation (by 
providence) but tiVskikke to dispense, IndU^dnmg introduc- 
tion but i^ndlede to introduce); in A^fsmttelse removal, TJ^d- 
foreZse execution, 0'i^ersd3?^^e/se translation, A'-fledning deriva- 
tion, U'-dtapning draining and some others the accent is on 
the first syllable. Some derivative adjectives with -Z^'^, -^^ 
(cfr. No. 4) and -som have the stress on another syllable than 
the first (most of these words are of German origin) ; Ex. : op- 
ri'-gtig sincere, cerimWdig reverend, forsmHlig iutentional (but 
FoWsmt intention), veldce^dig charitable, alvo^rlig serious (but 
AHvor esLTnest). 

6) note the following words: Taller^ken plate, Vidun^der 
miracle, undta'-gen except, Hense'-ende regard, vedkom^mende 
mfor mit Vedkom^mende as far as I am concerned (but ved'- 
kommende pertaining to). 

133- Compound words as a rule have the principal stress 
on their first part (see § 131); Ex. : Ho^vedpine (pron, Ho^de- 
pine) headache, Hus''hovme' ster majordomus. But in some 
words the stress is on the second part of the composition : 

1) in some titles and geographical names; Ex. : OberstloiH- 
nant lieutenant colonel, Stifta^mtmand high civil official, 
Kristianssa''7id, FredrikshaHd (but Fre''drikstad), Ostin''dien 
East India ; furthermore i^^o's^ southeast, Nordve^st north 
west etc. Velbaa^renhed lordship (and other words composed 
with vel- : Velgj earning deed of charity, Velansfoe^ndighed pro- 
priety, velsma''gende savory, velsi^gne to bless, Velsi^gnelse 
blessing (but VelHevnet luxurious living, VeVmagt vigor, veP- 
skaht well shaped etc.), Skoma^ger shoemaker, Budei'-e milk- 
maid, SmaagutHer little boys, Smaapi^ger little girls (but 
Smaa^jenter little girls, has the stress on the first part) ; some 



NORWEGIAN SOUNDS. 55 

words composed with halv half : halvanden one and a half, 
halvsjette five and a half; AaWhundrede century and Aa^rtu- 
sinde milennium as a rule have the accent on their first part 
(aar) but may also have it on the second. 

2) compounds the first part of which are prepositions have 
the stress on the first part when the word as a whole belongs 
to the same class of words as its second part, but on the second 
part when this is governed by the preposition ; Ex : O^verlioved 
(pron. O'verhode) chief, headman, but overlio'-vedet (pr. over- 
ho'de) upon the whole, tilsjo^s on sea, tiUa*7ids on land, igaar^ 
yesterday, imor^ge?i to-morrow, For^sommer spring, ForHid 
past tense, but forti^den for the time being. Obs. Ffterret'- 
ning news, but W'nderretnmg or Under reHning information, 
forhi^ by, hnt fo^rbigaa to pass by. 

des is unstressed when indicating a comparison : desvce^rre 
the worse, alass, desme^re the more etc. ; but when it repre- 
sents the old gen. of demonstrative pronoun ruled by the sec- 
ond part of the composition it has the stress: des^aarsag on 
that account, des^'angaaende thereabout, des'-foruden moreover 
besides that (but desu^den besides, des forme^ deist for that rea- 
son), t in adverbial compounds never has the stress: imo'-d 
against, igje'"n again, ibla^7idt among; saa is stressed when in- 
dicating manner: saaHydende reading as follows, 5«a'^•«/c?e^ 
so called ; but unstressed when indicating degree : saasna^rt as 
soon, saafre'-mt provided, saavi^dt as far as. 

KanlKB^ndeperhaipB, maashe^ (pr. maasje' or maaske') per- 
haps ; but ka^nske (pr. ka'nska or ka'nsja) perhaps. 

134. Different from the stress accent is the musical ac- 
cent. There are two kinds of musical accent employed in single 
words, the monosyllabic and the dissyllabic. The former is 
used in (original) monosyllables and in so far corresponds with 
the Danish '*St0dtone" (Glottal catch), while the dissyllabic 
accent belongs to (originally) dissyllabic or polysyllabic words. 



56 NORWEGIAN SOUNDS. 

135- The monosyllabic accent begins in a very low tone 
and ascends to a somewhat higher pitch, about a third or a 
fourth. This somewhat higher pitch is the regular base of 
the voice. 

136- The dissyllabic accent begins in a strong medium 
tone, descends about a third and ascends in the weak final syl- 
lable again about a fourth. 

[137. From professor Johan Storm's "Englische Philolo- 
gie" are taken the following "tunes" of words with monosyl- 
labic and dissyllabic accent. As many originally monosyllabic 
words in the present language have two syllables, there will 
among the words with monosyllabic accent be found many 
dissyllables. 

Eastern Norway (Christiania). 
I. Monosyllabic accent. 

p=j^- J. J I J m 

td-lsn. sO'tan. oe'-ka-m.: 

II. Dissyllabic (compound) accent. 

I ''-" J J. J " n Jl l J ; J^ ^" J J J' i \ 

ma- 71971 77ia!-7i^n,. TnaTb-ns-shi-Ti^ ma7i-7iesk<f-7i9. 

Western Norway (Bergen). 
I. Monosyllabic accent. II. Dissyllabic (compound) accent. 



jet vtcC - naiv. 

so'-lan. 



(ja yes, Solen the sun, Bogerne the books, Maanen the 
moon, Menneskene the human beings)]. 



NORWEGIAN SOUNDS. 



138. ^y their different musical accent are distinguished 
many pairs of otherwise consonous words. Monosyllabic words 
with the affixed definite article are, as far as the accent is con- 
cerned, considered as monosyllables. 



Simple or monosyllabic 
accent (') 
Aynen (pron. am 'man), amen. 

Bonder (pr. Bonnar) plasants. 



Bund-en ('nn) the bottom. 

Dyr-et (') the animal. 

Haar-et (haa'ret or haa're(t) 
the hair). 

Koh'''ken the cook (male, in- 
definite: Kok). 

Lom'-men the loon (Colymbus 
arcticus, ind. Lom). 

Sval^-en the balcony. 

Vl{d)en the wool. 

Jceger (name). 

Mailer (name). 

(jeg) bcerer (I) carry, (jeg) 
drager (I) draw. 

(jeg) l(Bgger (I) lay. 

(jeg) Vdher (p) (I) run. 
(jeg) IcBser (I) read, 
(jeg) piber (piper) (I) pipe, 
(jeg) sJcriver (I) write, 
(jeg) scetfer (I) set. 
(jeg) scBl{g)er (I) sell. 



Compound or dissyllabic 

accent (') 

Ammen (pron. am'men) the 

wet nurse. 
^o;i7ier beans (sing. B0nne), 

^owTier prayers (sing. Ben) 

pron. Ben'nar. 
himden ('nn) tied. 
dyre expensive (plur.). 
haar^et hairy. 

Kok''ke-n the cook (woman). 
Lomm-en (') the pocket. 

Svale-n the swallow. 

ul(d)en woolly. 

Jwger hunter. 

M'oller miller. 

Bcerer carrier, (en) Drager 

(a) porter. 
Legger (pr. laegger) calves (of 

the legs). 
Loler (p) runner. 
Loeser a reader. 
Piier (pipar) pipes. 
Skriver penman. 
Soetter typesetter. 
Scelger (g sounded) a seller. 



58 NORWEGIAN SOUNDS. 

The present tense of the strong verbs have the simple 
tone, that of the weak verbs the compound tone. The plural 
form of a great many nouns which in the old language formed 
their plural in — r still retains the simple tone, while those 
words which in the old language formed their plural in — ar 
and — ir have the compound tone. 

139. The musical accent of the words may be modified 
by the sentence or the tonic accent. Thus e. g. a gradual 
raising of the pitch of the voice through the whole sentence 
indicates a question or something unfinished, where a conti- 
nuation of the sentence may be looked for. 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



140- III colloquial language there are used a great many 
abbreviations which do not occur in the more solemn language 
used on the pulpit, in recitals etc. 

These abbreviations chiefly consist in the dropping of the 
syllables de^ ^«(ke), ve^ especially in verbs; most of the words 
affected by these abbreviations are in some figurative or not 
very frequent meanings exempt therefrom. Especially may 
be noticed that the abbreviation as a rule does not take place 
in pres. partcp. (ending in ■cnde)^ and before suffixes com- 
mencing with -e, -er, -en^ -eheiitc.) and in pres. and inf, pass, 
(ending in -es). 

a) abbreviations consisting in the omission of de: 
de dropped. de retained. 

be(de) to ask, pray, also be(de) Bededag day of prayer, Tilhe- 
til Gud pray to God. delse adoration. 



NORWEGIAN SOUNDS, 



59 



de dropped. 
hl'6{d)e to bleed. 

hry{de) (in past tense brydde) 
to trouble, bry sit Hode med 
(spelt: bryde sit Hoved) to 
trouble one's head about 
something. 

hry{de) sig 07n to mind. 

bry{de) en Gut med en Jente 
to tease a boy about a girl. 

byide) to offer, by(de) paa no- 
get to give a bid for some- 
thing or to invite to partake 
of something. 

fb{de) to bear (give birth) and 
to feed (especially is the 
abbreviation the rule in this 
latter meaning), sultefo sine 
Kreaturer to starve one's 
cattle. 

gli{de) to glide. 

glcB(de) to gladden jeg glcB{de)r 
7nig til de{t) I anticipate it 
with pleasure. 

klce{de) to dress, at klce{de) 
paa en to dress somebody, 
det Jclm(de)r Dern godt it fits 
you well, KlcB(de)r clothes, 
HaandMce{de) towel, Kloe- 
{de)sbbrste clothes brush. 

la{de) et Gevoer to load a gun. 

la{d) det vcere let that be, i. e. 
don't do that (see § 106). 



de retained. 

mit Hjcerte bidder my heart 
bleeds. 

bryde to break (a wholly dif- 
ferent word, pres. tense 
pron. bryte, past tense brbd 
(pron. br0t). 



byde command, Loven byder 
the law commands, smlge til 
hoistbydende to sell to the 
highest bidder. 

du skal fbde en Son thou 
shallt bear a son, Fbdeland 
country of birth. Fbdemid- 
del aliment. 



Glidebane a slide. 

Glcede joy, de{t) glceder mig 

at hbre I am glad to hear it. 

behlcede et Embede to fill an 
office, Klcede cloth, sort 
Klcede black broadcloth, 
Ligklcede pall. 



Ladested small town (without 

a city charter). 
lade to leave undone. 



60 



NORWEGIAN SOUNDS. 



de dropped. 

li{de) to suffer, jeg li(de)r ondt 
I suffer hardships. 



det li{de)r langt paa Dag it is 
passing late into the day. 

ri{de) or ri{d)Q to ride on 
horseback, en Ei(de)tur a 
horseback ride. 

raa{de) to advise, Mennesket 
spaar^ Gud raar man pro- 
poses, God disposes. 

ska{de) to injure, de{t) kan 
ikke ska{de) it can do no 
harm. 



smede, pron. ami, to forge, at 
smi Jem to forge iron. 



spre(de) to spread, Epidemien 
spre(de)r sig over hele Byen 
the epidemie spreads all over 
the town. 



stri(de) to strive, at stri(de) 
med noget to strive with so- 
mething, at stri{de) imod to 
be opposed to. 



de retained. 

lide af en Sygdom to suffer 
from a disease, Lideformen 
the passive voice, lide Skih- 
hrud paa sin Tro to make 
shipwreck concerning one's 
faith. 

Tiden lider time is passing. 



^eW^erahorse trainer, Ride- 
kunst the art of riding. 

forraade to betray, tilraade to 
counsel, Omraade territory, 
Raaderum free scope. 

skade is the more common 
form in polite language ; det 
skader ikke at forsbge there 
is no harm done in trying. 

af Skade Ui{ve)r man klog 
injury makes wise. 

man maa smede, mens Jernet 
er varmt you must strike 
while the iron is hot. 

jeg skal sprede mine Fiender 
I shall scatter my enemies, 
du maa sbrge for at ad- 
sprede ham you must take 
care to divert his thoughts. 

det strider mod Fornuften it 
is against all reason, at stri- 
de den sidste Strid to fight 
the last battle, to die. 



NORWEGIAN SOUNDS. 



61 



de dropped. 

ir(B{de) to step, at trcB{de) en 
paa Foden to step on some- 
body's toes, trce{d) «/* retire! 



bety{de) to signify, livad iety- 
{de)r dette'i what is the 
meaning of this? 



{ 



va{de) to wade. 



Bro{de)r brother, Fa{de)r fa- 
ther, Mo{de)r mother when 
signifying the degree of 
relationship; also in com- 
pounds : Farhror father's 
brother, Farfar father's fa- 
ther, Farmor^ Morfar^ Mor- 
mor and Morbror, Brorshab 
(p) : der er Met Bromkap i 
Kortspil relationship (bro- 
therhood) is of ho avail in 
cards. 



Sadel saddle, pron. Sal in 8a- 
{de)lmager a saddler, uphol- 
sterer, in other cases usually 
pronounced Sale: sidde fast 
i SaZen to have a firm seat. 



de retained. 

trcede i e7is Fodspor to follow 
one's example, det optrceder 
i Form af it appears in the 
shape of ; at tiltrmde et Em- 
hede to enter upon an office. 

at hetyde en noget to give so- 
mebody something to un- 
derstand, at tyde en Ind- 
skrift to decipher an in- 
scription, antyde to inti- 
mate, hentyde to allude. 

Vadefu(g)l wading bird, Va- 
dested ford. 

Broder, Fader, Moder figura- 
tively : en Broder i Aanden 
a brother in the spirit, Em- 
hedsbroder a brother officer, 
Fostbroder sworn brother, 
Brodermordiv3,tvic,idiQ, Bro- 
derkys brotherly kiss, bro- 
derlig fraternal, den hellige 
Fader the holy father, Fa- 
dermord parricide, Fader- 
mordere sideboards, Fader- 
hjcerte paternal heart, hun 
er allerede Moder she is al- 
ready a mother, Moderglmde 
maternal joy. 



62 



NORWEGIAN SOUNDS. 



b) abbreviations by dropping ge. 



ge dropped. 

dra{ge) to draw, dra{ge) Pu- 
sten to draw the breath, 
dra{ge) Kje^idsel paa to re- 
cognize, dra(ge) en Slutning 
to draw a conclusion, he- 
dra{ge) to defraud, jeg liar 
draget (pr. drad) ham hele 
Vejen I have been dragging 
him all the way. 

si(ge) or si{g)e to say, pres. 
tense always si{ge)r, past. 
sa(gde), imp. si(g)y passiv 
si(g)es. 



ta{ge) to take, past tense tog 
pron. tok or to, imper. ta, 
ptcp. tag en, taget pron. co- 
loquially tatt. 

Morgen pron. mar'n morning, 
imar'n to-morrow, imorges 
pron. imarres early this 
morning. 

?io{ge)n, no{g)en no(g)e(t) any- 
body, anything. 



ge retained. 

drage intr. to depart, med 
draget Svcerd with drawn 
sword, jeg andrager om Ud- 
sceltelse I apply for a respite, 
Tildragelse happening (and 
other derivatives). 



sige: 120, sigcr og skriver et 
hundrede og tyve 120 — say 
one hundred and twenty — , 
efter sigende according to 
report, Frasigelse resigna- 
tion (and other derivatives). 

tage sometimes in religious 
diction and always in some 
derivatives: Aniagelse su.^- 
position, Fritagelse exemp- 
tion, etc. 

Morge7idu7id har Guld i 
Mund early to rise makes a 
man wealthy, Morgendjer- 
ne (a name). 

nogenlunde fairly, nogensinde 
at any time (sometimes 
pron. nagen — ). 



c) abbreviations by dropping ve. 
ve dropped. 
bli{ve) to become, remain, Uive 



ve retained. 



past tense Me(v), prtcp. 
vet (pron. blit). 



ble- 



m pres. 
derivatives. 



ptcp. and some 



NORWEGIAN SOUNDS. 



63 



ve dropped. 

fly(ve) or fiy(v)e to flie, i fly- 
(v)ende Fart in a flying 
hurry, paaflyende Flcekken 
(somewh. vulg.) right here 
on the spot. 

gi{ve) to give, gi{v) mig det 
give it me, prtcp. givet pr. 
git (in these abbreviated 
colloquial forms g is pro- 
nounced as/ (see § 118, 2). 



lia{ve) to have, pres. written 
and pronounced jeg hai\ 
past tense spelt liavde pron. 
hadde, prtc. liavt pron liatt. 

Hoved pron. hode head: et 
godt Hode a clever person, 
ondt i Hode{t) pains in the 
head, Hodepine^ Hodeverk 
headache (always spelt Ho- 
vedpine etc. ) 



ve retained. 

medflyve7ide Faner with ban- 
ners flying, den flyvende 
Hollcender the flying Dutch- 
man, en Flyvemaskine a 
flying machine, et Flyve- 
Uad a pamphlet. 

der gives Folk som there are 
people who, anse nog et for 
givet consider something as 
given, en given Storrelse a 
given quantity (in the un- 
abridged forms g usually 
is pronounced as g). 

liavende having, passive haves 
or ha(v)es. 



Hoved chief: Hovedmanden 
the head, the leader, Ho- 
vedvmrk principal work. 



QUANTITY. 



141. Vowels are long 1) in monosyllables when ending 
the word ; Ex. : gaa to go, Ko cow. {Nu now has long or 
short vowel according as it has the sentence stress or not : 
nu^ kommer jeg here I am, nu kom^mer jeg I am coming now). 
2) in the accented syllable of dissyllables and polysyllables 
when followed by a single consonant with following vowel: 



64 NORWEGiA?^ sou:n^ds. 

los'se to read, Pr0've test, JVaa'de grace. Exceptions: Abor 
perch (pron. abbor), Fur7i fir tree (pron. furru), Lever (vv) 
liver, Moro (rr) fun, JVidwg (dd) villain, traitor. 

142. Vowels are short when followed by two or more 
consonants or a double consonant; Ex. : hoppe to jump, mork 
dark, mange many. 

Note 1. Before*^ a vowel may be short or long; Ex.: long: 
B(Bst wild beast, mest most; short: Hest horse, Vest waistcoat. If the 
t belongs to an ending of inflection, then a preceding long vowel as a 
rule retains its length: Jue'st hoarse (neut. of hges), blm'st prtcp, of blcese 
to blow ''but Bloest, wind), loe'st prtc. of loese to read; in the same manner 
a vowel is treated before I, n, r, with following inflective t:fid 'Ue past tense 
oifole to feel, gu'lt yellow, neut. of gul, me'nte past tense of mene to 
mean, hb'rt prtcp. of liore to hear. 

Note 2. Before r(<Z) the vowel is long (see § 109); Ex.: Jo-r{d) 
earth etc ; but Sveerd sword , Hjoi^d herd with short vowel and pro- 
nounced d. 

Note 3. Before dl, dr, gr, pr and t?' the preceding vowel as a rule 
is long, but may also be short; Ex.: long : adle to ennoble, bedre better, 
magre lean (iplur ), kapre to capture, (make a prize of). Theatret the 
theater; short: snadre to cackle, pludre to jabber. 

143. Ill monosyllables ending in a single consonant the 
vowel may be long or short. It is as a rule long before Z>, g, d, 
whether they be pronounced as written or asjo, k, t (or mute d) ; 
Ex. : Hadb hope, Tog (a) expedition, Bad bath. Gab (p) gap. 
Tag (k) roof, hag (k) behind, lad (t) lazy. 

Note. Short is the vowel in some words ending in one of the 
above mentioned consonants (the consonant in that case being pro- 
nounced long); Ex.: Zaa^' cover, pron. lakk (but ()jenloag eyelid as 
wiitten), Leg, gg, leg, Vd^g, gg, wall, Ryg, gg, back, tig, gg, imper. of 
tigge to beg, Ug, gg, imper. of ligge to lie, Lab, bb, paw, Flabfhh, chaps. 

144. A vowel followed by a single /, 7i, r, 5, may be long 
or short, the consonant in the latter case being pronounced 
long; Ex. : Hid, 11, hole, but hu'l hollow, /or, rr, for, hntfo'r 



NORWEGIAN SOUNDS. 65 

travelled, visy ss, certain, but vi's wise, Jl/e'w injury, but 77ien, 
nn, but; a vowel followed by a single m is short except in U'm 
vapor. 

145. A vowel before a single final k, p, t sl3 a. rule is 
short, the consonant then being pronounced long ; Ex. : Tak, 
kk, thanks, Hoj), pp, jump. Hat, tt, hat. 

Exceptions are some specific Norwegian words which 
have never been accepted into the Danish literature and there- 
fore never have been spelled in accordanee with Danish pro- 
nunciation: Aat food of fishes, Laat sound (=Danish Lyd), 
laak (being) in poor healt, Raah a lane of water through the 
ice. Lop a kind of wooden box. 

Note. In compound words the component parts retain their ori- 
ginal quantity; Ex. : Tog-tabel a Railroad time table, Mod-stand (pr. Mot- 
stand) opposition. 

146. A consonant is always long after a stressed short 
vowel ; when an unstressed vowel follows then the consonant 
is written double ; Hid hole, plur. HulleVy Siqjpe soup, Smor 
butter {S7ndrret the butter). 

Note 1. It will be seen from the above examples that if during 
the inflection of words ending in a single consonant with a preceding 
short vowel the consonant comes before a termination commencing in 
a vowel then the consonant is written double. 

Note 2. Some foreign words retain Iheir original spelling but are 
pronounced in accordance with the above rule; Ex. : Artikel (pr. artik- 
kel) article, Ainen (pr. Ammen), Titel (pr. Tittel) title. A consonant 
written double after an unstressed vowel is pronounced short; Ex. : Tal- 
lerken (pr. Tale'rken) plate. Parallel (pr. Parale'll). 

Note 3. A consonant is not written double before another conso- 
nant even if it be long; Ex.: gammel old, plur. gamle (pr. gammle); ex- 
cept in compound words: Ex. : Manddrab homicide (Mand-drab). Along 
consonant is not as a rule written double at the end of words, except in a 
few cases to avoid ambiguity; Ex.: rm certain, to distinguish it from 
7)1' s wise. 



66 VOWEL CHANGES. 



VOWEL CHANGES IN INFLECTION AND WORD FORMATION. 



147. The Dane-Norwegian language employs two most 
important kinds of vowel changes, which the Danish and Nor- 
wegian grammarians call '-'•Afiyd''' and '•'■Omlyd''\ in English 
generally called * 'gradation" and * 'mutation". 

148. By gradation (Aflyd, ablaut) we understand that 
system of the language enabling it out of the same root to 
form several stems by using different vowels ; this principle 
is of great importance in the inflection of the verbs, but it 
also plays an important part in word formation; Ex. : hmre to 
bear, har bore, haaren borne, hinde to bind, handt bound, 
Baand ribbon, Bundt bunch, tage take, tog took. 

149. By mutation (Omlyd, umlaut) is understood the 
change of a vowel caused by assimilation to a following vo- 
wel (i, ii) or consonant (;). The sound causing the change 
has in the present language as a rule disappeared, but it is shown 
by a comparison with the earlier stages of the language. The 
principle of mutation is active both in inflection and in 
word formation. The u-umlaut is now in inflection found only 
in the word Barn child, plur. Born. 

By the i-umlaut the following changes are caused: 
a — (b: Fader father, plur. Fcsdre, falde to fall, /V^p/^e to fell. 
aa — (b: Haand hand, plur. Hcender. 

— 0: Moder mother, plur. M&dre^ Blod blood, hUde to bleed. 
u — y : tung heavy, comp. tyngre^ huld gracious, liylde to swear 

allegiance to. 

Note. In the i-umlaut it is a following front sound tliat influences 
(palatalizes) a preceding hack sound. 



ETYMOLOGY. 67 



ETYMOLOGY. 



ARTICLES. — GEKDERS. 



150. The Dano-Norwegian language has a definite and 
an indefinite article. The definite article has two forms, one 
employed in connection with a noun alone, the other used 
with a noun qualified by an adjective or with an adjective, 
alone. The former is called the post-positive article (also the 
definite article of the substantives). The latter is called the 
prae-positive article (also the definite article of the adjectives). 

151. The Dano Norwegian language has two genders, 
common gender and neuter. The former comprises both 
the masculine and feminine of the old language. 

Note. In colloquial Norwegian speech there is still sometimes 
made a distinction between the masculine and feminine genders. The 
cases where such distinction is made will be mentioned in their proper 
places. 

152. The post-positive article is: 

conlmon gender. neuter. plural. 

-en (-w) -et {-t) -ne (-ene). 

gen. -ens -ets -nes {-enes). 

Ex. : Hest-en the horse, Hus-et the house, Iluse-ne the houses, 
M(B7igde-n the quantity, Vmrelse-t the room, McBud-ene the 
men. Thus it appears that the forms -n, -t are used in con- 
nection with nouns ending in -e and the form e^ie in con- 
nection with words forming their plural without an ending. 

Note 1. This article was originally a demonstrative pronoun 
which in the old language has the form of hinn, liitt, Idnir and by 
being used enclitically with nouns gradually lost its independent charac- 
ter and a part of its substance. This enclitic definite article is one of 



68 ETYMOtOGY. 

the chief characteristics distinguishing the Scandinavian languages 
from the other Teutonic tongues. 

Note 2. The enclitic (post-positive) article, besides being used 
with substantives standing alone, is employed with substantives quali- 
fied by the following adjectives: al all, hegge both, selv self; Ex. : al Ma- 
den all the food, selve Kongen or Kongen selv the king himself, begge 
Brbdrene both the brothers. 

153. The prae-positive definite article is : 
comm. gender. neuter. plural. 

den de(t) de 

den store Man(d) the great man, de(t) nye Hus the new house; 
plur. : de store Mceiid the great men. This article may also 
be employed with an adjective alone when used substantively : 
den gode the good (man), de(t) skjonne the beautiful, beauty. 

Note 1. With the following adjectives the postpositive and the 
prsepositive article may be used promiscuously: Jiel whole, haU half; 
Ex. : lule Dagen or den Jiele Dag the whole day, Tiahe Riget or det halve 
Rige half the kingdom, storste, mindste Belen the g: eater, smaller part. 
Sometimes, mostly in poetry, the postpositive article may be used where 
the prsepositive is regularly employed: et Shud af gamle Heltestammfn 
a scion of the old stock of heroes, Svenske Kysten or den svenske Kyst 
the Swedish coast. 

Note 3 Colloquially it is common in Norway to use both the 
post-positive and the prae-positive article at the same time with nouns 
qualified by an adjective; Ex.: den store Manden the big man. In the 
same manner the postpositive article is in Norwegian often added to 
nouns determined by demonstrative pronouns: i denne Villaen in this 
villa here; den Manden der that man there. This is not used in Danish. 

Note 3. The prsepositive article is sometimes in poetry and religi- 
ous style used with nouns not qualified by adjectives; Ex : Brevet til de 
Romere the Epistle to the Romans, de Vover saa sagtelig trille the waves 
roll leisurely along. 

Note 4. The prsepositive article is originally the same word as 
the demonstrative pronoun den, det, de which has lost its logical stress 
and consequently its accent stress and has come to be considered as a 
mere prefix. 



ETYMOLOGY. 09 

154. Some words are in Danish used without an article, 
while the English language requires the article with the same 
words; Ex.: Fer^/e/i the world, Verden er stor the world is 
great (but i Kunstverdenen in the world of art), Ho j ester et 
the Supreme Court, Rektor the Principal (of the School). 

Furthermore may be noted that the article is never affixed 
to a noun that is qualified by a genitive ; Kongeiis Slot the 
palace of the king, Nahoens Hus the house of the neighbor. 
But if a complement {af of, with a noun) is used instead of 
genitive, then the article is used : Ejereii af Huset or Hicsets 
Ejer the owner of the house. 

Sometimes the praepositive article may be omitted with 
superlatives i^ors^e Gaiig the first time, overste Stokvcerk the 
top floor, med storsie Fornbjelse with the greatest pleasure. 
But in all these cases the article may also be used. 

155. The indefinite article has the form: 

common gender. neuter. 

en et 

Ex. : eii Man(d) a man, et Hus a house. 

Note 1. The indefinite article was originally the numeral e/i one. 

Note 2. The indefinite article always has its place before the noun 
and also before a qualifying adjective: en Mand, en star Maud. But when 
the noun is connected with an interrogative word or an adjective quali- 
fied ly the adverb saa so, and/^?* too, then the artic'e is placed after 
tlie interrogative word, or adjective; Ex.: hvilkeii en Mand what a man? 
hvor start et Eus what a big house! sqa ungt et Menneske such a youth! 
for tyk en Hals too thick a neck. In connection with mangen the article 
has its place after that word but before another adjective: mangen en 
Mand many a man, mangen en tapper Mand many a brave man. In con- 
nection with saadan such, the article may be placed before or after that 
word: saadan en 'hland or en saadan Mand. In connection with a 
comparative and jo — desto the article is placed between the comparative 
and the noun; Ex.: jo iy^kere en Ilals han har, desto snarere skal den 



70 ETYMOLOGY. 

hugges over the thicker a neck he has, the quicker he shall be dccap-^ 
itated. (In this case the article is more commonly omitted). 

Note 3. The indefinite article is used in connection with numerals 
to indicate an approximate number; Ex.: Hr. S'drensen var lier ifjorteii 
Bage Mr. 8. stayed here about two weeks. 



NOUNS. 



GENDER OF THE NOUNS. 



156. The genders of the nouns are only of importance 
syntactically, in so far as the adjective or the article assume 
different forms in conformity with the gender of the noun 
qualified by them. No generally binding rules can be given 
for the genders of the nouns in Djlnish-Norwegian, but the 
following intimations may be of some help: 

1) Most words denoting living beings are of common gender. 
En Mand a man, en Hest a horse, e7i Hiind a dog, en Ko a 
cow, en Flue a fly. 

Note 1. Some nouns comprising the natural masculine and femi- 
nine genders are neuter; Kvaeget, the cattle; Folket the people (also the 
compounds: et Mandfolk, et Kvindjolk a male, female individual), Men- 
neshet man (generally), et Dyr an animal, etSvin a hog, et Faar a sheep, et 
JEsel a donkey. Also several words indicating the young ones of animals: 
etLam a lamb, et Fol a colt, et Kid a kid. 

2) Names of trees, plants and stones are as a rule 
of common gender : Bogen the beech, en Eg an oak, Rugen the 
rye, Graniten the granite, Flinten the flint. 

Note 2. Neuter are: et Blad a leaf, et Bmr a berry; (but in com- 
pounds common gender in Norwegian when used collectively; Ex.: 



ETYMOLOGY. 71 

Multebc^reii staorrQd over hele Myren the cloudberry stands red all over 
ihe bog;, et Grccs a grass, et Straa a straw, et Irce a tree. 

3) Names of seasons, months, days and other divi- 
sions of time are mostly common gender. Hasten the fall, 
Vinieren the winter, Dagen the day. 

Note 3. Aaret the year, et D'ogn day & night, et Minuta. minute (but 
paa Minuten this very minute). 

4) Names of wind and weather: Ostenvinden the East 
wind, Sneen the snow, Stormen the storm. (But Hagl hail, 
may be c. and n. and Regn rain is in Norway usually n. , 
Vejret the weather). 

5) Names of rivers and lakes: den hlaa Donau the 
blue D., RhinenthQ Ehine, den gronne Gjendin the green G. 

6) Names of sciences : Filologie7i^ Medicinen^ Mathema- 
tiken. 

157. 1) Most collective nouns and names of substances 
are of neuter gender: Trceet the wood, Blyet the lead, Jern^t 
the iron, >S^aaZe^ the steel. But Malmen the ore, Uldenihe 
wool, Melken the milk, Vmen the wine, and others. 

2) Names af countries and cii'iQ Bidet lille Danmark 
the little Denmark, det mcegtige Rom the mighty R. 

3) Names of m o u n t a i n s : c?e^ Jwje Mont Blanc the high 
M. B., det ildsprudende JEtna the fire spouting M. 

Note. Names of letters are in Denmark usually of neuter, in Nor- 
way of common gender: et start (Nor. en stor) A a capital A. Also in 
Denmark et Bogstav a letter, i \ Norway en Bogstav. Names ot languages 
are of common gender when combined with the post-positive article^ 
FranskentlxQ French language, Grc&sken Greek; but paa godt Norsk in 
good Norwegian. 

158- The following nominal suffixes form words af com- 
mon gender: 1) -hed^ -inde, -ing, {-Ung^ -ning) -er (nomiua 
agentis), -e/i (nomina actionis), -ske, -dom\ Ex.: Storhed 



72 ETYMOLOGY. 

greatness, Lo&rerinde (lady) teacher, Stilling position, Virk- 
nmg effect, GjmsUng gosling, Beiler suitor, Vahlen vacilla- 
tion, Barndom childhood. 

2) as a rule -sel^ -else, -e (in derivatives of adjectives), -d, 
-t, -st,; FcBrdsel trsk^ic (but ef Fmngsel prison, et Stceiigsel bar, 
et Bidsel a bit, bridle). For else guidance (but et Spogelse a 
ghost, et Vcerelse a room), /S'^?/r^•e strenght, Hbjde height, (but 
Market the darkness), Byrd birth, Fcerd behavior, Kunst art, 
Magt power (but et SJcridt a step). 

3) Foreign words ending in -ion, -isme, -tet, -ur, -us: 
Kommunionen, Radikalismen, en Kalamitet (but Uiiiversite- 
tet), en Kultus, en Habitus , Eulturen (but et Kreatur) ; Dik- 
tatur may be used both as c. and n, 

159- 1) Nouns having the same form as the stem of verbs 
are usually neuter; Ex. : Badet the bath {lade to bathe), Kal- 
det the call (kalde to call), Raabet the cry {raahe to cry). 

Note. This rule does not apply in cases where the verb is derived 
from the corresponding noun (although, of course, also in that case the 
noun may be neuter); thus we have en Drom 2i &re2im. {at drbmme io 
dream), en Leg a play {at legato play), Irosien the comfort (a^ trijite to 
comfort). Also Bi-ik drink, Grav grave, Hjcelp help, aS^7-«/ punishment, 
Strid strife, Jbrst thirst are common gender, and so are words ending in 
■gt as Frygten the fright {atfrygte to fear), and those in -ang, to which 
correspond verbs in -inge iynge), Sangen the song {at synge to sing), 
Klangen the sound {at klinge to sound). 

2) The following suffixes as a rule form words of neuter 
gender: -domme, ■e?ide, -maal, -ri, -skab; 7ned mit Vidende 
with my knowledge, (but i en Henseende in one respect, den- 
ne Tidende this news, en Tiende a tithe), Kongedmnmet the 
kingdom, et Spbrgsmaal a question, Tyveriet the theft, Bage- 
riet baker's shop, niit Kjeruhkah my knowledge, JEgteskabet 
marriage (but derivatives of adjectives are of common gender: 
Troskaberi the faithfulness, Ondskaben the wickedness). 



ETYMOLOGY. 



73 



3) Foreign words ending in -iv^ -ment, -om, -urn are 
neuter; et Komplernent (hut en Komplwient); et Ultimatum^ 
et Arkiv^ et Axiotn. 

160. Compound words have the gender of the last com- 
ponent part: en Bordplade a table slab, et Hesteben a horse's 
leg. 

Exceptions: En Qdeland a spendthrift, en Graaskjoeg a greybeard, 
et Folkefoird a race, et Gjenfard a ghost, et Vidnesbyrd a testimony, dette 
Perlemo{de)r this mother-of-pearl, Brandevinet the brandy, Forskjellen the 
difference (but Grcendseskjellet the border line). 

161. Some words imply a different meaning according as 
they are used in common gender or neuter. In other cases 
originally different words have the same sound, but disagree 
in gender. 

common gender 
Arken the ark. 
en Bid (Norw. Bit, Bete) a 

bit, piece. 
en Bo (in compounds Nabo 

etc. a neighbor). 
en Brug a custom. 



en Buk a he-goat. 
Felten the campaign. - 
en Fro a frog. 
en Fyr a fellow, chap. 
en Folge a consequence. 
Lejen the rent. 
en Lem a trap. 
en Lod share, lot. 
en Nogle a key. 

en Raad (in compounds : Stats- 
raad, etc.) a councillor. 



neuter 
et Ark a, sheet (of paper). 
et Bid (dd) a bite. 

et Bo an estate. 

et Brug (Norw.) establish- 
ment, concern. 
et Bilk a bow. 
Feltet the field, sphere. 
et Fro a seed. 
et Fyr a light-house. 
et Folge a retinue. 
Lejet the couch. 
et Lem a piember. 
et Lod a weight. 
et Nbgh (D.) a ball (of yarn) 
et Raad a council, advice. 



74 



ETYMOLOGY. 



common gender 
Rimen the hoar frost. 
Risen the rice. 
en Segl (D.) a sickle. 

en Skrift a (hand) writing. 
en Spand (D., e^ Spand N.) a 

pail. 
en Stift a, tack. 
en Som a seam. 
en Ting a thing. 
en Tryk a print. 

en Trceh a draught (of air). 
Vaaren the spring. 

en Vcerge a guardian. 
en Vcev a tissue. 
Vcelde power {i al siii Vcelde 
in all his might). 

en ^sel (D., et ^. N.) an ass. 



neuter 
Rimet the rhyme. 
Riset the fagots, rod. 
et S'gl a seal (also et Sejl a 

sail), 
c^ Skrift a writing, a book. 
et Spand a span, a team. 

et Stift a diocese. 
et Som (D., ew /Som N.) a nail. 
et Thing (Ting) assembly. 
et Tryk (N. also et T.) a 

pressure. 
et Trcek a feature. 
et Vaar (D., N. et Var) a 

cover. 
et Vcerge a weapon, 
wo^e^ Voev nonsense. 
Vcelde (N. in compounds 

Enevosldet the absolute 

monarchy; D. Enevoelden), 
et yUsel a donkey. 



In some words the gender is not quite fixed, so they some- 
times appear as neuter, at other times as of common gender. 
Ex. : Fond (D. en and et^ N. always et) fund, Helbred (D., 
always c. N.) health, Katalog (D., always c. N.) catalogue, 
Lak (D. c. and n., No. always n.) sealiug wax, Log (D. al- 
ways c. N.) onion; Tarv requirements. Sometimes the gender 
differs in Danish and Norwegian, as can be seen from some 
of the examples given above; -ffor<^i?i^e/z^ is in D. n., in N. 
c. Kind cheek, D. c, N. mostly n. 

162. Something different from the question of gram- 
matical gender is the circumstance that the language in some 



ETYMOLOGY. 75 

cases has different words to denote the natural genders. Thus 
the genders can be distinguished: 

1) by adding the feminine ending -inde , to the masculine 
word: Greve count — Grevinde countess; Lcerer teacher — 
Leer er inde female teacher ; Love lion — Lbvinde lioness ; 

2) by adding the feminine ending -ske to the masculine 
word; Opvarter waiter — Opvarterske waitress (usually Op- 
vartningsjomfrue7i)\ Beridrr riding-master, circus-rider — 
Beriderske female rider. 

Note. The ending -ske is usually applied to denote persons of 
lower position than -inde, but sometimes both may be used: Sangerinde 
and Sangerske (less common) songstress. 

3) by adding the words -kone woman, -pige girl, -jomfru 
miss to the masculine words or to the corresponding verbs : 
Vaskerkoneny Vaskerpigen the laundress, BadekoneUy Bade- 

jomfruen the woman attendant (at the bath), but Badetjene- 
ren the man attendant. 

4) in some foreign words the foreign feminine endings 
are retained : Baronesse^ Comtesse, Prtns'essey Restauratrice 
woman restaurant keeper. 

5) The two natural genders of animals arc usually denoted 
by Han he and Hun she placed before the name : Hanbj'drUy 
Hunhj'Orn (N". Bmgse^ Binne) he-bear, she-bear Hankat^ Hun- 
kat(N. Ay (Bite) tom-cat, tib-cat. But in some cases there are 
different words for the two genders Ex. : Buk — Gjed he-goat, 
she-goat, Vceder — Faar (N". Sau) ram — sheep, ewe. 



IN^FLECTIOX OF NOUNS. 



162b. The nouns of the Danish and Dano-Norwegian 
lanojuao^e have two cases and two nu mbers. The cases 
are : nominative and possessive (genitive). 



76 ETYMOLOGY. 

163. The formation of the possessive. The posses- 
sive is formed by adding -s to the nominative (but without 
apostrophe). 

S. PI. 

Nom. Mand Maend. 

Poss. Mands Maend s. 

When the noun has the postpositive definite article, the s 
is added to the latter : 

Nom. Manden Maendene Huset Husene. 

Poss. Mandens Maendenes Husets Husenes, 

Note 1. Nouns ending in s {z, x) form their possessive by adding 
€s; Ex.: den lille Oaases Mening the opinion of that little goos. Para- 
dises rindende Kilde the running fountain of Paradise; paa et forgyldt 
Paladsesflade lag on the flat roof of a guilt palace. But as a rule the 
possessive form of these words, except in the definite form, is avoided. 
Proper nouns ending in — s may have their possessive of same form as 
the nominative, only adding an apostrophe, or an s with preceding 
apostrophe may be added. Ex.: Sokrates' of Socrates, Valders's 
Fjelddale the mountain valleys of Valders. Biblical nouns are sometimes 
used with the Latin geu. form: ifose Z^w Moses' law, Pauli Breve St. 
Paul's epistles. 

Note 2. A prepositional complement following the noun which it 
determines is considered as one word with it and the possessive sis added 
to the complement: Kongen af Danmarks Brystsukker the king of Den- 
marks barley sugar (a kind of coagh drops), Reiseren over alle Pusseres 
Rige the realm of the Emperor of all Russians. 

When several nouns are used to denote one person or thing only the 
last word gets the s: Kong Olavs Hoer the army of king O. 

Note 3 Some names of cities, especially those ending in a vowel, 
have their possessive (when employed as definitive genitive) like the 
nominative: Kristiania By, Krisiiaiiia Universitet etc. the city of Ch., 
the university of Ch., but Kristianias Indbyggere the inhabitants of Ch. 
In tlie same manner: Uamar Stift the diocese of H., Kalliindborg By, 
Sor'6 Academi, Aalhorg Skole the school of Aa., Koyigsberg Solvvaerk the 
silver mines of K. (but Bergens By, Irondhjems Domkir^e the Cathedral 
of T. Kj'6be/,?iavns Universitet the um\eTsitj of Copenhagen). 



ETYMOLOGY. 77 

Note 4. In the old language the possessive « was added both to the 
article and the noun; Ex : land, gen. landsins. A rest of this mode of 
inflection is found in such expressions as: Zrt«rf«^n« ffc»«^ a country bill 
of fare, Livsens Irce the tree of life, du er DMsens you are a dead man. 
Also such forms as: Hjartens Lyst the desire of the heart, Alterens Sa- 
kramente the Lord's supper, find their explanation in the old language 
where the genitive of the definite article neuter had the form of 1 n s 
(or n 8 ), not ets {U) as now. A rest of an old genitive plur. is found in 
such expressions as: tilTiaande {gai en tilhaande to assist one); tilgrunde 
to the bottom, tilgode due, tilfulde fully, tilbage back,(0. N. til lianda to 
the hands etc). 

164. Syntactical remarks abou t the use of 
the possessive. The possessive is employed to convey 
the meaning of possessive, subjective, objective and definitive 
genitive. In stead of the possessive may in some meanings 
be used a complement with af (or colloquially til). Han er 
Son af sin Fader and Tian er siji Faders Son he is a son of his 
father, Hunden til Pedersen and Pedersens Hund P's dog. 
The possessive meaning i. e. the pure relation of property 
can, different from English, never be expressed by af. If two 
kinds of genitive (poss. and obj. or sub j. and oh j.) occur in 
connection with one word, then the objective genitive must 
be expressed by aj. Thus it is wrong to say : Hr. Pedersens 
A f straff else af Hr. Kristensen to indicate the punishment of 
Mr P. by Mr. K. ; it means Mr. P's punishment of Mr. K. 

A peculiar use of the possessive form is to express a past 
time in such expressions as: igaaraftes last night, iaftes 
last night (but iaften this night) ; iforgaars the day before 
yesterday, ilwstes last fall, ivaares last spring. 

The possessive form is very common as the first part of com- 
pound words :Lands7na7idcouiitryma,iijF'rigsskib warship, ska- 
t/esZos indemnified (probably analogously with this latter word 
are formed the following with irregular genitive in -es:frugtes- 



78 ETYMOLOGY. 

Ids fruitless, magteslos, kraftesUs powerless, stundeslbs fidgety, 
trosteslos disconsolate). The genitive is especially frequently 
used when the first part of the composition is itself a compound 
word : Kirketaarnsur a church steeple clock (but Taarnur a 
tower clock) : Sandstetismur a sand stone wall (but Sten7)iur a 
stone wall) Such possessives may sometimes be found as first part 
of a composition even if there is no corresponding nominative; 
Ex. : Fralandsvind a land breeze ( Vmde7i stam' fra Land 
the breeze sets from land). 

Note: Neither possessive nor a/ is used to connect a name of ma- 
terial to a name of measure: ei Glas Ol a glass of beer, en J^loske Vina. 
bottle of wine, en, londe Poteter a barrel of potatoes etc. 

165. Remains of an old gen. plur. are found in a great many 
compound words the first part of which ends in c (0. N. a). 
Sengested bedstead, Stolebeyi chair's leg, Barneaar years of 
childhood (Bornebal childrens ball, Bornehave kindergarten 
are exclusively Danish, in N. they say — or are taught to 
say — Barnebal, Barnehave). 

166. Remains ofan old d a t i v e is found in the ad- 
verbial phrases: ad Aare next year, itide in due time, 
alive, paafcerde abroad, at work, igjcere in progress, etc. 



THE FORMATION OF THE PLURAL. 



167. The plural is formed in the following manners : 
J) by adding r or er to the singular, with or without 
"mutation" (see § 149). 

II) by adding e to the singular, in a few cases with "muta- 
tion." 

III) the plural has the same form as the singular, except 
that in a few cases the vowel is changed by "mutation". 



ETYMOLOGY. 



79 



168- First Declension. 
Paradigms: Flaade fleet, 
sul^ Kjedel kettle : 



Rige empire, Tand tooth, Kon- 



Inubi. iSing. 


Def. Sing. 


Indef. Plur. 


Def, Plur. 


N. 


Flaade 


Flaaden 


Flaader 


Flaaderne. 


Poss. 


Flaades 


Flaadens 


Flaaders 


Flaadernes, 


N". 


Rige 


Riget 


Riger 


Rigerne 


Poss. 


Riges 


Rigets 


Rigers 


Rigernes. 


N. 


Tand 


Tanden 


Taender 


Taenderne. 


Poss. 


Tands 


Tandens 


TaBnders 


Taendernes. 


N. 


Konsul 


Konsulen 


Konsuler 


Konsulerne. 


Poss. 


Konsuls 


Konsulens 


Konsulers 


Konsulernes. 



N. Kjedel Kjedlen Kjedler Kjedlerne. 

Poss. Kjedels Kjedlens Kjedlers Kjedlernes. 

Remarks. 1) Words ending in an unaccented -e add -r. 
Exceptions: Oieeye, has plural Oine; Tilfcelde ca^e, and Ore a 
coin have plural the same as singular. Antiquated is Oren 
plur. of 6Ve ear, and. 0/cs7ie (Oxue) plur. of Okse (Oxe); 
Menneske man (generally) has plur. Mennesker but def. form 
Menneskene^ Bonde peasant forms it plural with "mutation": 
Bonder. 

2). Words ending in stressed vowel (or an unaccented 
vowel that is not e) add -er: Toga -Togaer\ Mo heath Moer. 
Except. : Ska shoe plur. same as sing. 

3) The folloving monosyllables form their plural with -e r 
and * 'mutation". 

And duck; Mark a weight (^Ib. also unchanged in plural) ; 
Rand border, Sta7id state, (condition of life), Stang pole, 
Tajig thongs, Haand hand, 8tad city, Kraft i^oyfQT. (Plural: 
jrUnder (N.) Mcerker^ Rcejider, Stcender^ Stcenger, Tcenqer, 
ffcBnder, Stceder^ KrcBfter). N. Skaak shaft (of a sleigh) 



80 ETYMOLOGY. 

plur. Skjoeker. Bod fine, plur. B'oder ; Fod foot, pi. Fodder ; 
Eod root, pi. Rodder-, Bog hook^ pi. B'6ger\ N. Glo{d) live 
coal, pi. Ol'oder (or 6^/or) ; N. Not seine, plur. Nbter. Raa 
yard (ship's), Jba toe, A7o claw, have their pi. D. Roeer, 
7Wr, A7oer (se § 17) ; N. Titer, Iter, Kl'dr. Ko cow, D. 
pi. Kjoer or A"(>er (se § 17). N. Kjor (Def. Kjorne or N. 
Aj/'i/re/ic). 

Most of these words, in spite of consisting in plural of 
two syllables, have the monosyllabic accent (see §§ D. 76, 
N. 134). 

4) A great many monosyllables of common gender form 
their plural in -cr without mutation ; Ex.: Aander spirits, 
Sager cases, Floder rivers, and with doubling of final conso- 
nant : Sonner sons, Knapper buttons ; and N. Gutter boys. 

In some words the Danish and the Norwegian forms of 
the language disagree: Plads place, D. Pladser, N. Pladse. 

Also the following neuter monnosyllables form their plu- 
ral in -er : Bryst breast, Gods estate, Hul hole. Lent member. 
Loft ceiling, Funkt point, Skjbrt skirt, Syn sight, Vcerk 
work; so also the polysyllables: Bryllup wedding, Hoved 
head, Herred township. Hundred, Tusind thousand, Lcerred 
linen, Linned linen. Marked fair. 

5) Words ending in -e 1, en, -i n g, -h e d, -s k a b and 
derivative -s t {f) and d : Gjoester guests, Funster arts, Togter 
expeditions, Bygder settlements. Words ending in -e 1 and 
some ending in -e n drop their e before the ending : Fjedel 
kettle, Kjedler, Lagen (bed)sheet, Lagner or Lagener. 

In the same manner : Foged sheriff, plur. Fogder, 

Note: Olding old man, Slcegtning kinsman, Ingling young man 
as a rule form their plural in -e, but may also take -er: Engel angel, 
Djcevel devil, Himmel heaven form their plural by adding -e and drop- 
ping the e of their second syllable: Engle, Djaivle, Himle (see § 169). 



ETYMOLOGY. 81 

6) Most foreign words add -er: Kons'jiUr^ Patriarker^ 
Prindser etc. But Vest plur. Veste. Foreign words ending 
in um drop their um before -er: Verbum — Verier, But 
Album — Albums or Albumer. Pretiosum — Pretiosa. 

Also proper nouns used in plural to denote several persons 
of same name. Ex. : Hedviger^ Orstederne but OhlenscliVix,gere. 
Furthermore other classes of words (not adjectives) used 
substantively : Jaerne og Neierne the yeas and noes. 

169. Second Declension. 

Paradigms: Stol chair, Hat hat, Fader father. 





Indef. Sing. 


Def. Sing. 


Indef. Plur. 


Def. Plur. 


N. 


Stol 


Stolen 


Stole 


Stolene. 


P. 


Stols 


Stolens 


Stoles 


Stolenes. 


N. 


Hat 


Hatten 


Hatte 


Hattene. 


P. 


Hats 


Hattens 


Hattes 


Hattenes. 


N. 


Fa(de)r 


Fa(de)ren 


Faedre 


Faedrene. 


P. 


Fa(de)rs 


Fa(de)reus 


Faedres 


Faedrenes. 



Most monosyllables of common gender ending in a con- 
sonant follow this declension. Also words ending in -e r 
irrespective of gender ; some of these drop the e of their last 
syllable before the e of the ending : Ager field, plural Agre; 
Fingre fingers, Skuldre shoulders. 

But most words ending in -e r retain the e of the second 
syllable in plural: Ankere anchors, Boegere cups, TJndere 
wonders. Especially all nouns denoting persons belonging to 
a trade or nationality or engaged in an occupation, ending in 
-e r : Bagere bakers, Sanger e singers, Tyskere Germans. Words 
ending in plural in -ere drop their last e before the article : 
Bcegere — Bcegerne, 

Note. In Denmark they say: en Danslcer, pi. Danskerne, a Dane, 
and en ISvensker, pi. Svenskerne, a Swede. 

In Norway they say: en Danske, plur. Dansker, and en Svenske, 
plur. Svensker. 



82 ETYMOLOGY. 

The following words form their plural in -e with * 'muta- 
tion": Bro{d)er brother, Br6dre\ Moder mother, M'6dre\ 
Fader father, Fmdre ; Batter daughter, Ddtre. 

Note 2. Colloquially it is common in Norway to give those words 
of common gender, which in the literary language take plural -e, the 
ending -er: Hester, Hunder, Hatter etc. Also the neuters Huser, Gulver 
etc., but most neutei s are unchanged in plural; Ex.: J5o?"(? table, lag 
roof. Before the article -ne the r is dropped in the pronunciation, so 
they say: Hestene, Hattene, Guttene etc. Broder etc. never add -er. 

170. Third Declension. 
Paradigm: Ord word. 

N. Ord Ordet Ord Ordene. 

P. Ords Ordets Ords Ordenes. 

Most neuters ending in a consonant follow this declension. 
Exceptions: ^ort? table, ^?'ev letter, G^w/y floor, ^?^5 house, 
JVa2;;i name, ^S'^iZ* ship, aSo^^j parish. Tag roof, Toug (N. Tang) 
rope and some others take -e : Borde etc. ; others take -e r (see 
§ 1G5, 4 and 5, and § 169 note 2.) ''Mutation" without any 
ending have •. J/a^it:? man, plur. Mce7id\ Gaas goose, plur. 
GjcBS (D. also GcBs) Barn child has plural Born and Barne- 
ham grandchild pi. Bornehorn. These are the only remains 
of the U-mutation of the old language. In Norway they say 
(and have commenced to write) : pi. Bar7i and Bariiebarn (the 
same as singular). 

171. Some nouns have regularly no plural on account of their 
signification. Such are proper and collective nouns, names of 
substances, and abstract nouns indicating a quality. Ex. : 
Bjornson, Jem iron, Godlied goodness. So also words, which 
otherwise take a plural, when they are used collectively. Ex. : 
Har dufaaet meget Fish (or mange Fish) idag have you caught 
many fish to-day. "Words indicating measures or values when 
ending in a consonant have, as a rule, in that meaning and 



I 



ETYMOLOGY. 83 

when connected with a numeral, no plural. Ex. : To Fod Vand 
two feet of water (but to Fudder two foet, as part of the 
body). Other such words: Alen ell, Meier, Fad cask, Anker 
anker, Daler Dollar, Glas glass. But Kroiie crown (coin), 
T(>?iJe barrel, and others ending in -e take plural; also Pot 
(Folte) quart, OkseJioved hog's head, plur, Oksehoveder, 
Mark (i lb) may have plur. N. Mcerker, but also unchanged, 
Bar/ quire, plur. Buyer, Favn cord and fathom pi. Fame. 
LcBst, last (two Reg. tons) pi. Lcester. Also: en Hcer paa 1000 
Mand an army of 1000 men. 

Other nouns only occur in plural ; Ex. : ForcBldre parents, 
Forfoedre ancestors, Soskende brothers and sisters (at least one 
of each), Penge money, Indvolde entrails, Briller eyeglasses, 
Tyvekoster (also Koder alone) stolen property, H'dns chickens. 

Others have singular but in a different meaning from the 
plural: Kloeder clothes, but Klcede cloth (see also § 140), 
Kopper (Smaakopper) smallpox, but Kop — Kopper cup, Mid- 
ler means (money), Middel means (instrument). 

Note: Colloquially it is common to say: Jeg er gode Venner raed 
ham I am on friendly terms with him. 



THE ADJECTIVES. 



I. Declension of Adjectives. 

172. The adjectives have a strong or indefinite and 
a weak or definite form. 

173. The indefinite form has its neuter ending in t, its 
plural in -e. The definite form has the ending -e all through 



84 ETYMOLOGY. 

Paradigm : lang long. 

c. g. neut. plur. 

Indefinite lang langt lange. 

Definite lange lange lange. 

Note. The definite form of the adjective raay be used as a sub- 
stantive and may then take the possessive ending -s; Ex,: Defattiges 
Glosder er{e) af en anden Art end de riges the pleasures of the poor are of 
another kind than those of the rich. 

Note 2. A remnant of an old accusative singular m is found in 
poetical language: paa IlQienlqftssal in the high vaulted hall; i dyhen 
Dal in the deep valley. 

174- The following adjectives do not add any t in the 
neuter : 

1) Adjectives ending in a distinctly derivative sk: Ex. : 
krigersk warlike, Norsk Norwegian. But rask quick, falsk 
false, /ns^ and /er5^ fresh add t: et raskt L'oh a quick run. 

2) Adjectives ending in a vowel ; except aa : et sanddru 
Menneske a truthful person; et stille Fa^^ a quiet lake; ^^ 
ode 8ted a desolate place. But ei Uaat Baand a blue ribbon. 
Exceptions are further : ny new, fri free, N. stb steady ; neut. 
nyt^frit, stot, 

3) Adjectives ending in -t; Ex. : let easy; and some adjec- 
tives ending in -d: glad joyful, lad lazy, led loathsome, kaad 
wanton, reed frightened, loerd learned, fremmed strange and 
foreign words such as absurd, nitid, solid, splendid. 

4) Furthermore those ending in -e s or -s with preceding 
consonant: f miles common, af sides out of the way; and ny- 
modens newfangled, stakkels poor, gjoeiigs current. 

Note, With adjectives ending in -i g or -1 i g a Hs added in neuter 
in writing, but neither g nor t is pronounced; see §§ (D.) 43 and 
(N.) 125. 

I 75- A long vowel with or without a following d (Danish 
pron. 6, Norw. mute or pron. t) is shortened before the t of 



ETYMOLOGY. 85 

the neuter; Bx. : blaat of blaa blue, bU(d)t of blid (D. pr. 
bli6, N. bli-) mild; bld{d)t of Mod (D. pr. bl06, N. bl0t). 

I 76. The following pronominal adjectives ending in -en 
drop their 7i before the t of the neuter : 7negen — meget much, 
mangen — mangt many, nogen some, ingen — intet none ; an- 
den — andet other, Jivilken — hvilket which, en — et one, din — 
dit your, mm — mit my, sin— sit his, her ; N. Iide7i — lidet. 
So also past participles ending in -en: shreven — skrevet 
written, ege7i — eget in the meaning of own ; but in the mean- 
ing of peculiar egent : et egetit Me?i?ieske a peculiar person ; 
smregen, seer eget and s(Br egent peculiar, voxen — voxent adult, 
and in the same manner other adjectives which were originally 
past prtcpls. but are now used as pure adjectives : et voxent 
Menneske a grown-up person; but Jian er voxel he has grown. 

Note. The adjective liden is now obsolete in Danish, only occasion- 
ally used in poetry, while it still continues to be the regular form in 
Norwegian. In Danish they use the originally definite form lille both 
as definite and indefinite, both as neuter and common gender. As plural 
of D. lille N. liden is employed »maa. 

\^^. Adjectives ending in -el, -en and -er drop the e of 
their last syllable before e of the plural or definite form : 
gammel — gamle old, mager — magre lean, haven — hovne swollen. 

Adjectives ending in an unstressed -e t form their plural 
and definite form in -e d e ; Ex. : stribet — stribede stripet, but 
let — lette light, violet — violette. 

Note. In Norwegian colloquial language the adjectives ending in 
-et are often given the form of -ete, even in the indefinite form; Ex.: 
stHpete striped, Veien er sienete the road is stony. 

178. The following adjectives do not add any -e in plural 
or in the definite form : 

1) Those ending in -e: stille quiet, cegte genuine, ode 
desolate. 



86 ETYMOLOGY. 

2) Those ending in -es or -s wiih preceding ccnsonant. 
Exception : tilfreds satisfied always takes the -e, and aficegs 
obsolete, dagliydags commonplace, and gammeldags old- 
fashioned may take it; Ex. : det altid tilfredse Barn the al- 
ways satisfied child. 

3) Most adjectives ending in a stressed vowel ; Ex. : Maa 
blue, tro faithful, cedru sober, Uy bashful ; fri and ny may in 
D. be written and pronounced with or without -e, frie and 
nye or fri and ny ; in Norwegian always with -e : nye^ frie ; 
so also N. stoe. 

179. The following adjectives lack the definite form in 
-e : megen much, anden other, egen own (but egen peculiar, 
egne), N. Uden has the definite form lille. 

The.-e adjectives also have irregular plurals: megen — 
mange, anden — andre\ Uden uses as plural smaa small; faa 
few occurs only in plural ; smaa, however, may also occur in 
singular, mostly neuter with collective words: smaat Kvceg 
small cattle, den smaa the little one. 

Note. In Norwegian colloquial language anden may take the defi- 
nite form den andre in stead of den anden the other. 

180. Indeclinable are, besides those adjectives ending in 
-e, -es or -s with preceding consonant mentioned in §§ 174, 
4 and 178, land 2, the following : idel sheer, lutter mere, nok 
sufficient, kvit rid of, alene alone (only used predicatively), 
var in the expression blive var to become aware of (but N. 
adj. var cautious, is declinable). Also lig like, equal may in 
mathematics and elsewhere be used unchanged : et Tal lig 
Summen af to andre a number equal to the sum of two others. 

181. Use of the definite form of the adjectives: 
The definite form of the adjective is used 1) after the definite 
article : det store Hus the big house ; 2) after a possessive pro- 



ETYMOLOGY. 87 

noun or a genitive; Ex. : min nye Hat my new hat; jnin Ku- 
sines lyse Parasol my cousin's light parasol ; 3) after a de- 
monstrative pronoun and after the relative pronoun hvilken 
which ; Ex. : dette h'die TrcB this high tree, hin sorte Kat that 
black cat. Han reddede med personlig Livsfare ti Menneske- 
liv, hvilken tapre Handling skaffede ham en Medalje he saved 
with danger for his own life ten human lives, which brave 
deed procured him a medal ; 4) in expressions of address and 
in apposition to a personal pronoun : Kjcere Ven Dear friend, 
jeg elendige Mand I miserable man. 

Note. For examples of the definite form of the adjective used with 
the postpositive article see § 153, Note 1. 

182. Agreement of the adjective with its 
noun. The adjective must agree with its noun in gender 
and number both as attribute, apposition and predi- 
cate. Et stort Hus a big house, store Huse big houses; 
Husety et stort rodfnalet the house, a big red one, Hnset er 
stort the house is big. Vore Ansigter er(e) solbrcendte our 
faces are sunburnt. (As for the superlative forming an ex- 
ception as predicate see § 189.) 



II. COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 



183- The adjectives form their comparatives in -ere 
(-re), superlative in -e s t (-st). 

glad — glad gladere gladest. 

rig — rich rigere rigest. 

Adjectives ending in -e add only -r e and -s t. 
ringe — slight ringere ri7iqest 



88 ETYMOLOGY. 

Adjectives ending in an unaccented -ig (-lig) -som add 
in superlative only -s t : 
fattig — poor fattigere fattigst, 

misom — easily contented nbisommere noisomst. 

Adjectives ending in a single consonant with preceding 
short vowel double their final consonant before the compara- 
tive and superlative terminations : 

smuk — nice smukkere smukkest. 

Adjectives ending in an unstressed -el, -en, (see § 187, 1) 
-e r drop the -e before the comp. and superl. endings : 
mdel — noble CBdlere cedlest. 

fager — fair fagrere fagrest. 

fuldkommen — perfect fuldkomnere Juldkom7iest. 

184. The following adjectives form their comparative 
and superlative by adding -re (-ere) and -st and at the 
same time modifying the radical vowel by mutation: 



tmg — young 


yngre 


yngst. 


stor — great 


storre 


storst. 


tung — heavy 


iyngre 


tyngst. 


or 


tungere 


tungest. 


lang — long 


Icengere 


IcBngst. 


and irregularly: 






faa — few 


Jcerre 


fcerrest, 



185. The following adjectives form their comparatives 
and superlatives of a different stem from the positive: 
gammel — old wldre celdst. 

god — good hedre bedst. 

lille (liden) — little mindre mindst. 

mange — many Here flest. 

meget — much mere mest. 

ond — bad vcBrre vcersf. 



ETYMOLOGY. 89 

The adjective (and adv.) wfl?r near forms its comparative 
and superlative by adding -m ere, -m est: n(Brmere ncermest. 
In the same manner the adj. fjern far in Danish forms the 
comp. fjoermer^ but only in the meaning of the off (horse). 

186. The following comparatives and superlatives have 
no corresponding adjectives as positive (but there are corie- 
sponding adverbs) : 

{nede — down) nedre — lower nederst. 

(oven — above) bvre — upper overst. 

{ude — without) ydre — outer yderst (N. also pr. ytterst). 

{bag — behind) N. lagre — hind bagerst — hindmost. 

{inde — within indre — inner inderst. 

(midt — middle) midtre midterst, 

{frem — forward) fremmere (or fremre) fremmest (or fremst). 

The following adjectives occur only in the comparative : 
nordre northern, soiidre southern, ostre eastern, vestre western. 

In the superlative alone occur : ncest neKt^forst first, forrest 
foremost, sidst last, ypperst supreme, mellemst middle. 

187. The following adjectives do not form any compara- 
tive and superlative. To denote the comparative and super- 
lative meaning mere more and 7nest most are placed before the 
positive : 

1) Most adjectives derived in -sk (-isk) -en and -e t : 
mere kriyersk more warlike, 7nest morderisk most murderous. 
{^Mi friskere fresher, raskere quicker, hadskere more rancor- 
ous, glubskere more ferocious, harskere more rancid.) Vaa- 
gen — awake, mere vaagen, inest vaagen. (But modfiere more 
mature.) 2) Adjectives ending in -es or -s with preceding 
consonant: mere, mest af sides, more, most out-of-the way; 
mere, mest gjcengs, more, most currer^t; also mere fremmed 
most strange. 3) Participles: w^ere/orsZaae^ more beaten, et 



90 ETYMOLOGY. 

mere vindende VcBsen a more prepossessing manner. (But a 
few participles which have come to be used completely as adjec- 
tives may form comparative and superlative : Icerdere more \Q2ir- 
ned ; fuldko77inere more perfect). 

Some adjectives do not form any comparative and super- 
lative on account of their signification; such are evig eternal, 
udbdelig immortal etc. 



INFLECTION AND USE OF THE COMPARATIVE 
AND SUPERLATIVE. 



188. The comparative has only the form ending in -e : 
den hedre Del the better part ; et storre Hus a larger house. 
When used as a substantive it may take the genitive -s : det 
gode er det hedres Fiende the good [is the enemy of the better. 

Note. Observe the use of the comparative to denote a pretty high 
degree. En oeldre Ilerre an elderly gentleman ; et storre Forretningshns 
quite a large business house; mindre less is used as a less emphatic ne 
gative than ikke not, or a negative prefix. Det var en mindre smuk Frem- 
gangsmaade that was not a very nice way of doing. 

189. The superlative has as a rule the definite form 
when connected with a noun: Deji ledste Mand the best man. 
Det smukkeste T'oi the nicest cloth. But it occurs also in the 
indefinite form : jeg liar storst Lyst til ikke at gjore det I feel 
most inclined not to do it [but: jeg har den storste Lyst (a/ 
Verden) til ikke at gjore det I have the greatest mind not do 
it]. When used as a predicate the superlative as a rule is in- 
declinable, but may also take the definite article, and accord- 
ingly the definite form. Dette Hus er st'drst this house is 
largest. Disse Bcsr er iedst these berries are the best. But 
also : dette Hus er det storste this house is the largest. 



ETYMOLOGY. 91 

Note. The superlative may be emphasized by aller placed before 
the superlative: allerbedst best of all; allerstbrst largest of all. This alUr 
is an old gen. plur. (O. N. allra of allr all). 



The Pronouns. 



I. THE PERSOli^AL PRONOUNS. 

190. The personal pronouns have a nominative and an 
oblique case, and some of them also have a possessive case. 
The personal pronoun for the 3d person has separate forms for 
masculine and feminine. 

2d person. 3d person. 
Masc. Fem. 
du han hun 

— hans hendes 

dig ham hende 

de 
eders, (jers) deres 

eder, jer dem 

[jeg pron. Dan. jai, jae, Nor. jei; mig^ dig pron. Dan. mai, 
dai, mae, dae, Nor. mei, dei.) 

Note 1. jeg and du have no corresponding possessive forms ; in 
their stead are used the possessive pronouns (see § 192). Instead of 
poss. vores (which is mostly colloquial Danish) the poss. pron. vor is 
usually employed, while eders is more common than the corresponding 
poss. pron. jer. An antiquated form is hannem for liam him. de they 
is originally a demonstrative pronoun corresponding to the singular 
den, det. Analogously with haimevi is formed dennem for cfem. 

Note 2. I)u2u\i^dig thou, you is only used between members of 
the same family or near relatives (1st or 2d cousins) or between intimate 
friends (schoolmates or people acquainted since childhood, or those who 
have drunk ' 'dun"), thus entering into a kind of fraternity that places 





1st 


person. 


Sing. Nom. 




jeg 


Poss. 




— 


Obi. 




mig 


Plur. Nom. 




vi 


Poss. 




— (vo 


Obi. 




OS 



92 ETYMOLOGY. 

them upon a footing of intimacy. Tlie act of drinking ' 'dus' is per- 
formed with certain ceremonies. 

Note 3. Colloquially Tian and hun are often used referring to ani- 
mals according to their natural gender, and in N. colloquially or rather 
vulgarly even to things according to thegender (masculine or feminine) 
which the noun in question has in colloquial Norwegian language. 



II. THE REFLEXIVE AND RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS. 



191a. The reflexive pronoun is sig (pronounce D, sai, N. 
sei), which can only be used in dependent functions, corre- 
sponding to a subjeot of 3d person, when the direct or indirect 
object is the same person or thing as the subject ; Ex. han slog 
sig he hurt himself ; N. de satte sig paa Bcenhene they sat down 
upon the benches (but D. as a rule de satte dem, because in 
modern Danish sig is very rarely used referring to a subject of 
plural). 

Sig is never used reflexively to De you : slog De Dem ? 
did you hurt yourself ? 

Observe: liver for sig each for himself, separately. 

19Ib. Reciprocal pronouns are hinandeii and hvermidre^ 
one another each other. Hinanden should, according to the 
grammarians, be used referring to a subject consisting of two 
parties, liverandre to three or more. Ex. : Han og hun saa hin- 
anden for for ste Gang he and she saw each other for the first 
time. Allefaldt om Halsenpaa hverandre they all threw them- 
selves upon one another's necks. 

But this rule of the grammarians is rarely observed in the 
spoken language. 



ETYMOLOGY. 93 

III. THE POSSESSIVE PRON^OUNS. 



192. The possessive pronouns are : 

Ist person sing. 2d person sing. 3d pers. refl. (sing. & pi ) 
com. neut. com. neut. com. neut. 
Sing, min mit din dit sin sit 

Plur. mine dine si?ie 

1st person plur. 2d person plur. 
Sing, vor vort jer jert 

Plur. vore jere 

In stead oi jer ^ jert, jere the gen. of the pers. pronoun eders 
is usually employed. 

193, sin, sit, sine is only in Norway used referring to a 
subject of plur. In Denmark it is a rule to say : Herrerne tog(e) 
deres Hatte the gentlemen took their hats ; in Norway they 
say : fferrerrie tog sine Hatte. 

Sin may refer to another word than the subject in such 
combinations as: Giv liver sit give each one his due. 

When there besides the predicate verb is another verb (infini- 
tive or participle) in the sentence sin may refer to the subject 
of either of these verbal forms, thus causing some ambiguity : 
Hr. Federsen bad Pig en liente sin Hat: Mr. P. asked the ser- 
vant girl to fetch his hat. But Hr. Pedersen had sin Ven tcende 
si7i Cigar Mr. P. asked his friend to light his (whose?) cigar. 
Hanfajidt ham liggende i sin Seng he found him lying in his 
bed (whose?). Si7i may also refer to the logical subject of a 
noun indicating action: hendes Karnp for sin Kongemagt her 
fight for her royal power. 

194, The possessive pronouns replace the missing genitive 
forms of the personal pronouns and are used in the same mean- 
ings and ways as the genitive of the nouns (see § 164). Observe 



94 ETYMOLOGY. 

the idiomatic expressions : din Dumrian you fool ! dit Fcb you 
ass! etc. 

The possessive pronouns cannot be combined with the 
pre-positive definite article. But in Norwegian they can 
colloquially be combined with nouns that have the postpositive 
definite article, in which case the pronoun is placed behind ; 
Ex. : Vennen min my friend. 



IV. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 




195. Demonstrative 


pronouns are : de7i that, denne this, 


Mn that, yonder. 






0. G. N. 


0. G. N. 


0. G. N. 


Sing. Nom. den det 


denne dette 


hin hint 


Gen. dens dets 


dennes dettes 


hints hints 


Plur. Nom. de 


disse 


hine 


Gen. deres 


disses 


hines 



Obi. dem 
When these pronouns are used adjecti^ely, they are only 
subject to inflection as to numbers ; Ex. : Han valgte de Mmnd 
he chose those men ; disse 3Ienneskers Oine er forbUndede 
the eyes of those people are blinded. Hin that, yonder is 
mostly a literary word ; colloquially it is as a rule replaced by 
den der that there, det is often used where the English 
language requires the adv. so: trot^ De det 9 do you think 60. 

Note, det is used without stress like the English it as subj. of im- 
personal verbs, or as an "indicator" if the real subject is another 
sentence: det regner it rains; det fortodles, at Kongen er dod it is said that 
the king is dead ; se efter, Jivad det er, som staar paa look what it is, that 
is the matter. 



ETYMOLOGY. 95 

196. Among the demonstrative pronouns are as a rule, 
counted the pronominal adjectives slig such; saadan such; 
hegge both; samme same; selv self. Slig has n. sligty pi. sligey 
saadariy n. saadant^ plur. saadanne. All these forms can take 
the gen. -s if the word is used substantively, begge and samme 
can take the genitive -s when used alone, but are otherwise 
indeclinable, selv is indeclinable, except that when used before 
a noun with the postpositive def . article it may add an -e : selve 
Manden the man himself. Observe that selv in Dano-Norwegian 
is used alone: jeg skal gjore det selv I shal do it myself. The 
adv. saa may in some cases be used as a pronoun : i saa Til- 
fcelde in such a case, i saa Maade in that respect, i saa Hen- 
seende in that respect. 



V. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 



197. Interrogative pronouns are: hvo^ hvem which, hvad 
what, hvilken which. (The initial -h is mute in all these pro- 
nouns, see §§ D. 58, N. 126). Hvo and Jivem refers to per- 
sons and are only used substantively. They have the genitive 
/i?;i5 whose; hvo \^ becoming obsolete and is chiefly used in 
poetry and elevated style. Hvad when used substantively only 
refers to things; when used as an adjective it may qualify na- 
mes of living beings as well as of things and irrespective of 
gender. Hvilkeyi is used adjectively and has the neuter hvil- 
ket pi. hvilke. When the interrogative pronouns are ruled by 
a preposition, the latter can be placed before the pronoun or 
at the end of the sentence. Ex. Hvem, er der who is there? 
Hvo ved, hvor ncer 7nig er min Ende'i who knows how near my 
end might be? Hvis B'Oger er det? whose books is it? Hvad si- 
ger De what do you say? Hvad Tjeneste kan jeg gjore Bern 



96 ETYMOLOGY. 

what service can I do you? Hvilke Lande er{e) de rigeste? 
what countries are the richest? Hvilkeii Kjole har liun paa? 
what dress does she wear? Af livem har Defaaet Bogeyif from 
whom did you get the book? or Hvern har Defaaet Boqen af? 
Til hvem har han sagt detf To whom has he told it? or Hvem 
har han sagt det til? 

Hvad for en what, neut. hvadforet^ plur. hvadfor is used 
adjecfively. Hvadfor en Mand er dette? what man is this? 
Hvadfor et Hus er dette? or hvad er dette for et Hus? what 
house is this? Hvadfor Kjor er dette? what cows are these? 
(Obs. the use of the neuter dette in all these queries.) Note: 
Hvilken may be used in exclamations : Hvilken Udsigt ! what 
a view ! Hvilken Skjonhed what a beauty. The same meaning 
may in Danish be expressed by : sikken^ contraction for se hvil- 
ken see what a ; Ex. sikken en nydelig Dame what a beautiful 
lady, and in Norwegian by for en: For en Sorg, what a grief ! 
For en Dumrian du er! what a fool you are ! 



VI. RELATIVE PRONOUN^S. 



1 98. Kelative pronouns are: som, der, hvilken, hvem. 
Som and der are used substantively and are not inflected. As 
genitive is used hvis whose. Hvilken is used both adjectively 
and substantively and is inflected as the interrogative pronoun 
of the same form. Som is the general relative pronoun, which 
is used when there is no special reason to employ one of the 
others. It must always have the first place in the sentence 
and therefore when it should follow after a preposition this 
latter must be placed adverbially at the end of the sentence. 
der can only be used as subject and is chiefly employed when 
there is another som near by so as to avoid confusion and ca- 



ETYMOLOGY. 97 

cophony ; Ex, : den Mand som var her the man who was here. 
Det saa ud^ som om den Mand^ der var her, var syg it 
looked as if the man who was here was sick. Det Synspunkt, 
som han saa Sagen fra, var ikke det rigtige the point of view 
from which he looked at the matter was not the right one. 

hvem only refers to persons and can never be used as sub- 
ject ; Ex. : en Gjcest hvem fyrstelig j^reshevisning tilkommer 
a guest to whom princely honor is due. 

hvilken refers to persons and things. The neuter hvilket 
sometines refers not to any single word in the preceding sen- 
tence, but to the whole sentence ; Ex. : der hlev en skarp Frost 
med haardt Veir, hvilket Hedningerne tilskrev Gudernes Vrede 
a piercing cold set in with rough weather, something that the 
heathen attributed to the wrath of the gods. With the 
same meaning may be used hvad what, a pronoun that other- 
wise only refers to the word alt all, everything; Ex. : alt, hvad 
jeg har, er dit everything I have is yours. 

Note. The relative pronoun may be omitted except as subject; Ex, : 
den eneste Ko, han eiede, blevfunden d'6d the only cow he owned was found 
dead. In antiquated language and sometimes in poetry the relative may 
be omitted also as subject, but then the verb must be preceded by an- 
other word; Ex.: allesmaa Fugle, i Skoren rar all the little birds that 
were in the wood; den Mand, Tier staar the man, who stands here. 

199. ^^0, hvem, hvad, may sometimes perform functions 
at the same time in the principal and in the subordinate pro- 
position. They are then called indefinite relative pro- 
nouns. After these pronouns may sometimes be added som 
or der, in which case these indefinite relative pronouns to a 
certain extent act as demonstratives. Hvo som staar, se til, 
at han ikke f alder whoever stands, see that he does not fall. 
Hvem der gjbr det, skal miste sit Liv whoever does that, shall 
lose his life. Hvad du har gjort, er tilstrcekkeligt what you 



98 ETYMOLOGY. 

have done, is sufficient. The indefinite meaning is emphasized 
in: hvemsomhelst sorn whoever, hvadsomhelsf som whatever, 
livilkensomlielst sojii whichever. 



VII. i:n^definite proi^ouns. 



200. Indefinite pronouns are: man^ en, liver, enhver, 
enhversomhelst, hvilkensomhelst, hve^nsomhelst, hvadsomheUt. 

man corresponds to the French o n, German man. Eng- 
lish has no exact equivalent. It can only be used as subject; 
Ex. : man siger they say, it is said. 

en is originally the numeral one ; it has the same meaning as 
ma7i^ but is not in its use limited to being subject of the 
sentence ; Ex. : det gjor en ondt at se saadanne Krmfter gaa 
tilspilde it pains a man to see such abilities wasted. 

hver or enhver each, every; gen. livers, enlivers; neut. 
hvert, ethvert; alle og enhver each and everyone; liver eneste 
every single one; enhver somhelst, hvemsomhelst everybody; 
hvilkensomhelst, neut. hvilketsomhelst, plur. hvilkesomhelst 
which(so)ever, any; hvadsomheUt what(so)ever, anything. 
These pronouns together with the relative som form indefinite 
relative pronouns (see § 199). 

201. Among the indefinite pronouns are as a rule counted 
the indefinite numerals: 7ioge7i some one, mangen many a, 
ingen none, alle all, somme some, anden other. 

nogen some one, neut. noget, gen. nogens, 7iogets, plur. 
nogle, gen. nogles. nogen also means any ; then it has plur. 
?io^e?i (like singular). Har De nogen Penge? Have you 
any money ? Ja, jeg har nogle Kroner. Yes, I have a few 



ETYMOLOGY. 99 

crowns. Instead of 7ioget used substantively may be said 
nogenting something, anything. 

Note. Colloquially the plur. is always nogen, in eastern Norway 
pron. non, iioj/i. 

mamjen many a, neut. mangt ; usually occurring in plur 
7nange many, gen. mangens^ mangts, inanges. Jeg har mange 
Penge I have much money. Mangen en many a, neut. mangt 
et, ingen none, neut. inlet, plur. i7igen, gen. ingens, intets. 
Ingen may be connected with a noun in plur. or in singular; 
plural is used whenever in affirmative case a plural would 
have been expected ; Ex. : der var ingen Mennesker der there 
were no people there; intet Menneske har set ham nobody has 
seen him. Emphasized iiigensomhelst none whatever. Instead 
of intet used substantively may be said ingenting nothing. 

anden other, neut. andet, plur. andre, gen. a^idres etc. 
nogle — andre some — others, en — en anden one — another. 

al all, neut. alt, plur. alle, gen, alts, alles; the common 
gender sing, can not be used as a substantive and acQordingly 
cannot take the gen. s; subst. alting everything, altsaynmen, 
allesammen all and every one. 

somme some is a somewhat antiquated word ; somrne Kjmr- 
ringer ere slige some women are that way. 



THE NUMERALS. 



202. The following is a list of the numerals: 

Cardinals. B. Ordinals. 

1 en {een), neut. et {et, D. eet, N. ett) forste 

3 to andet 

3 tre tredie 



100 ETYMOLOGY. 


A. Cardinals. 


B. Ordinals. 


4 fire 


fjerde 


5 fem 


femte 


6 seks {sex) 


sjette 


7 syv 


syvende 


8 otte 


ottende 


9 ni 


niende 


10 ti 


tiende 


11 elleve 


ellevte 


12 ifoZv 


tolvte 


13 tretten 


trettende 


14 fjorten 


fjortende 


15 femten 


femtende 


16 N. seksten (sexten), 


sextende 


D. sejsten 




17 5y//e/j 


syttende 


18 a^/fe?^ 


attende 


19 mY^e?i 


nittende 


20 ifi/t^e 


tyvende 


21 e?i 0^ ^?/ve 


enogtyvende 


22 ^0 0^ if^ve 


toogtyvende 


30 tredive, N. also ^re^^^ 


tredivtCy N. also trettiende 


35 fern og tredive 


femogtredivte 


40 D. fyrretyvc^ fyrre. 


D; fyrretyvende, 


N. j^r^i, f0rti, f&r 


N. firtiende^ fartiende 


50 D. halvtredsindstyve, halv- 


D. halvtredsindstyvende. 


tredSf N. /em^i 


N. femtiende 


GO D. tresindstyve, tres^ 


D. tresindstyvende^ 


N. 56^5^ i 


N. sekstiende 


70 D. lialvfjerdsindstyve^ lialv- 


D. halv/jerdsindstyvende, 


fjerds^ N. sytti 


N. syttiende 


80 D. firsi7idstyve, firs, 


D. firsindstyve7ide, 


N. o/^/, o^/e^/ 


N. ot He fide 



ETYMOLOGY. 101 

A. Cardinals. B. Ordinals. 

90 D. halvfemsindstyve^ halv- D. halvfemsindstyvende, 

fems^ N. niti^ nitti N. nittiende 

100 hundrede 

101 hundrede oq en^ hundrede og for ste 
neut. Hundrede og et 

129 hundrede og ni og tyve hundrede og ni og tyvende 

1000 tusi7id(e), N. tusend{e) 

The cardinals are all uninflected save en^ neut. et^ which, 
to distinguish it from the indefinite article, is often written 
(D.) een, (N.) en\ neut. (D.) eet^ (N.) et^ ett. But with the 
definite article always den ene. 

203. The ordinals are used only in the weak or definite 
form, excepting anden second ; den anden the second or the 
other (N. colloquially den andre)^ plur. andre others. 

hundred(e) and tusind{e) have no corresponding ordinals. 
In arithmetics the cardinals are also used as ordinals, but 
otherwise the use of the ordinals of these words is avoided as 
much as possible. En Hu7idrededel one hundredth part; en 
Tusindedel one thousandth part. (D.) Jeg siger dig det for 
ni og halvfemsindstyvende Gang; (N".) Jeg siger dig det for 
ni og nittiende Gang I tell you so for the hundredth time. 

204. The cardinals halvtredsindstyve 50 etc. are ex- 
clusively used in Denmark and by the older generation in 
southern Norway. Femti, seksti etc. are used in most parts 
of Norway by all ages and classes of the people and by the 
younger generation all over the country. The abbreviated 
form halvtreds etc. are only used when the numerals occur 
alone, the full forms are used in connection with a noun. 
For halvtredsindstyve Aar siden fifty years ago. / Aaret femti 
in the year fifty. 



102 ETYMOLOGY. 

Note. The forms tresindstyve etc. are to be explained in the follow- 
ing manner: ire-si7ids-tyve==thTee times twenty, siiids is a form of an old 
noun occurring in denne sinde this time, nogensiiide anytime etc. For 
explanation of the forms halvtred^sindstyve etc. see § 205. 

205. One and a half is called halvanden^ 2^ halvtredje^ 
3 J halvfjerde etc. (hence halvtredsindstyve etc. see § 204). 

At 3 o'cl. is: Klokken tre; half past two: Klokhen halv trej 
halvfire, halv f em etc. Ten minutes past five: H Minuter 
over fern; ten minutes off three: ti Minuter i tre (or til tre); 
fifteen minutes past six • et Kvarter over seks; it is twenty mi- 
nutes past five : Klokken mangier ti Minuter paa (or i) lialv- 
seks ; at 7.40 : tiMmuter over halv otte ; at 9.45 : tre Kvarter til 
ti. It is 9.45 : Klokken mangier et Kvarter paa ti, 

selvanden^ selvtredje etc. with one, two etc. others ; jeg var 
her igaar selvtredje I was here yesterday with two others. 

en Trediedel one third ; en Fjerdedel one fourth etc. ; ni 
Tyvendedele nine twentieth parts. 

Obs. en Procent one percent, pro anno per annum. 

For detforste in the first place, for det andet in the second 
place, for det tredje etc. in the third place etc. 

Note, et Sties a score (the unity always used by the sale of eggs) 
en lylvt a dozen (boards etc.) et Dusin a dozen (buttons etc.) et Gros 12 
dozen 



THE VERBS. 



206. The verbs in the Danish and Dano-Norwegian lan- 
guage have separate forms for voices, tenses and to a certain 
extent modes and numbers. 

The forms of the verbs are either simple or compound 
(formed by means of an auxiliary verb). 



ETYMOLOGY. 103 

The verbs are divided into two classes — the weak (also 
called regular) and the strong (or irregular) according to 
the formation of the imperfect and past participle. 

207. The present tense of all verbs is formed alike, 
namely by adding -er (in a few cases -r) to the theme of the 
verb (or -r to the infinitive form) ; Ex. : jeg elsk-er I love ; 
han hring-er he brings ; du IcBS-er you read ; han tru-er he 
threatens. Present plural is in written language, when 
used, formed by dropping the final -r of the singular. 

The infinitive is formed by adding -e to the theme of 
the verb : elsk-e^ bring-e, tru-e. 

Some verbs the root of which ends in a stressed vowel form 
t:ieir present by adding only -r and use their root unchanged 
as infinitive; Ex. : staa stand, pres. staar\ gaa go, pres. gaar\ 
at bo to reside ; at do to die ; at sy to sew ; at se to see. 

Some verbs have double forms in infinitive, with or with- 
out -e: du or due to be fit; di or die to suck; fri or frie, be- 
fri or befrie to liberate; vi or vie to wed, to consecrate ; /orwy 
or fornye to renew; all these verbs in Danish form their pre- 
sent in -e r : duei\ dier etc. 

Note: In Norwegian the infinitive of these verbs is with the excep- 
tion of fri and hefH forme J in -e. 

-e is written and pronounced in the following verbs: bie 
to wait; tie to be silent; grue to dread; kue to cow; true to 
threaten; skrue to screw; hie to blaze; bejae to answer in the 
affirmative. 

The present participle of all verbs is formed by 
adding -e7ide to the theme of the verb: Vdb-ende running, 
gaaende walking. 

The passive or medial voic is formed in -e s and 
iu a few cases in -s. 



104 ETYMOLOGY. 

A. WEAK VERBS. 

208. The weak verbs are divided into three classes; those 
belonging to the first class form their imperfect in 
-e d e, their past participle in -et. 

I. PARADIGM or VERBS OF THE IST CLASS. 

elske to love. 



A. Active. 










1) Simple forms. 










Ind. 


Subj. 


Imp. 


Inf. 


Partcpl. 


Pres. : Sing, elsk-er^ 


elsk-e 


elsk, 


at elsk-e 


elsk-ende 


Plur. elsk-e 




elsk-er 







Imperf. {jeg etc., vi etc.) 
elske- de 

2) Forms compound with past participle: 
Perfect. : Sing har elsket at have elsket 

Plur. have elsket 
Pluperf. : (sing, and plur.) havde elsket 

3) Forms compound with pres. infinitive: 

Future : Sing, skal or vil elske at skulle or ville elske 

Plur. skulle or ville elske 
Conditional (sing, and plur.) skulde or vilde elske 

4. Doubly compound forms : 
Compound future: 

Sing, skal or vil have elsket at skulle or ville have elsket 
Plur. skulle or ville have elsket 



B. Passive. 




1) Simple forms : 




Ind. 


Infinitive. 


Present : elskes 


at elskes 


Imperf. : elskedes 





Past Partcpl. : elsket 



ETYMOLOGY. 105 

2) Compound forms: 

Ind. Inf. 

Pres. : Sing, lliver elsket at blive elsTcet 

Plur. blive elskede 

3) Doubly compound forms : 

Perfect : Sing, er hleven elsket at vcere Meven elsket 

or har vceret elsket or at have vceret elsket 

Plur. ere hlevne elskede or have vceret elskede 
Pluperf. : Sing, var hleven elsket or havde vceret elsket 

Plur. vare ilevne elskede or havde vceret elskede 
Fut. : Sing, skal or vil blive elsket at skulle or ville blive 
or skal elskes elsket or at skulle elskts 

Plur. skulle or ville blive elskede or skulle elskes 
Conditional : skulde or vilde blive elsket or skulde elskes 

209. In this manner are inflected almost all derivative 
verbs ending in a vowel or in a combination of consonants 
with which the ending -t e does not readily agree. 

In poetry verbs ending in a vowel often drop -e before the 
ending -d e, and an apostrophe is written in its place, befrVde. 
In Norway verbs ending in a vowel colloquially form their 
imperf . in -d d e and this form is now often used also in lite- 
rature, naadde reached; trodde believed; etc. instead of 
naaede, troede. 

In forms such as elskede the final -e is often dropped collo- 
quially and in poetry : elsked^ for elskede. In Norway it 
takes the form elsket , a form that also is commencing to ap- 
pear in the literature. 

Verbs ending in -1 e and -r e with a preceding consonant 
have their imperative of the same form as their infinitive : 
handle! act ; logre, wag your tail ! But imperative of such 



106 ETYMOLOGY. 

words is in writing as much as possible avoided and colloqui- 
ally handl! logr! are the common forms. Verbs in -u e with 
preceding consonant form their imperative regularly : vaagn 
op^ wake up; syyn hen! languish. 

210. Verbs belonging to the secondclass form their 
imperfect by adding -te, past participle by adding 
-t without change of the radical vowel. 

Inf. ai rose to praise, pres. roser^ impf . roste^ past parte, rost. 

(The other forms can easily be formed by comparison with 
the paradigm given of the first class). 

In this manner are conjugated a great number of verbs en- 
ding in a single consonant (-b, -d, -g, -I, -r, -n, -s) with a 
preceding long vowel, or in the double consonant -m m or the 
combinations -1 d and -ng; Ex.: raabe to cry, raabte (but 
haabe to hope, Jiaahede) ; koge to cook, kogte (but toge to march 
in procession, togede) ; tomme to empty, tomte (but svomme 
swim, svommede coll. svbmte. 

Obs. have to have, pres. har^ pi. have^ impf. havde; do 
to die, impf. dode^ ptcp. dod; she happen, imp. skete or ske- 
de, ptcp. i<keet. 

211, Verbs of the third class add in impf, -te (-de), 
partcp. -t and at the same time change the radical vowel 
from -SB or -0 in infinitive to resp. -a and -u (-0) in impf. 

Note: This change of vowel is explained by the fact that the infi- 
nitive of these verbs which in the old language ended in -j a, has the 
form with mutation, while in imperf . there was no reason for mutation, 
so the original radical vowel again appeared there (retro mutation, G. 
Rilckumlaut, D. Ojenomlyd). 

To this class belong : 

kvcele to stifle, kvalte kvalt, 

Imgge to lay, lagde lagt. 



ETYMOLOGY. 




scBtte to set, 


satte 


sat. 


tcBlle to count, 


talte 


talt 


rceklce^) to stretch, 


rakte 


rakt. 


strcekke**) to stretch, 


strakte 


strakt. 


tcekke to roof. 


takte 


takt. 


vcekke to arouse. 


vakte 


vakt. 


vonne to accustom, 


vante 


vant. 


trcBde to tread, to step 


traadte 


traadt. 


dolge conceal 


dulgte 


dulgt. 


folge follow 


fulgte 


fulqt. 


sporge ask 


spurgte 


spurgt. 


smore smear 


smurte 


smurt. 


Irregular : 






scelge sell 


solgte 


solgt. 


s*^e say 


sagde 


sagt 


bri7ige bring 


bragte 


hragt. 



107 



NoteI: voenne, toekke, straekke, «fl?kk<? as a rule follow the first 
class: voennede, vcennet etc.; this is in N. always the cas^wi h toekke. 

Note 2: bnnge is an originally German word and has retained its 
German inflexion. The Old Norse form of sige was segjn. which explains 
the modern imperf . sagde. Of eie to own sometimes in poetry occurs the 
antiqu. imperf. aaite 

Note 3: Present of gjore is gjor and of sparge colloquially and in 
antiquated style sp'6r, a form that is commeucing to be introduced 
again into Norw. literature. 



STRONG VERBS. 



2i2. The strong verbs form their imperfect by changing 
the vowel (gradation, ablaut, Aflyd) without any termi- 



*) But N. r(xkke to reach is strong: rak, rulcket. 
**) But N. stroBkke til to be sufficient: itrak, strukket. 



108 ETYMOLOGY. 

nal addition. Past. ptcp. in these verbs regularly has the 
ending -en for common gender and -et for neuter, but of 
many verbs only the latter form can be used, and others while 
forming a strong imperf. form their prtcp. according to the 
weak conjugation. The vowel of the participle is sometimes 
that of the present, sometimes that of the imperf. 

The strong verbs are divided into 6 classes depending upon 
the vowels occurring in the diiferent forms (gradation series) ; 

1. i (cB, e) a u 

2. i (e) a i (e) or aa 
Z. i e e (i) 

b. a a 

6. No apparent gradation, in historical grammars 
called the reduplicating class. 

213. Class I. 
i («, e) — a — u. Ex. : hinde to bind, bandt, bunden; 
sprmkke to crack, sprak^ sprukken; finde to find; rmde to 
run (of running water) ; spinde to spin ; stinke to stink (ptcp. 
stinket); svi'nde to vanish ; tvinde to twist ; viiide to win ; 
klinge to sound (ptcp. klinget); springe to spring ; svinge to 
swing ; tvinge to force ; syyige to sing {sang, sungeii, poet, and 
ant. sjunge)\ synke to sink {sank, sunket); slippe to let go; 
briste to burst (inf.); drikke to drink {drak, drukket; druk- 
ken adj. drunk); stikke to stab (poet, and ant. stmge, stak, 
stung67i) ; brcekke to break ; N. rc^kke to reach ; N. strcekke til 
to sufl&ce ; troekke to draw ; fornemme to perceive (ptcpl. for- 
nemmet or fornummet) i hjcelpe to help; N. brcende to burn, 
(intr. brandt, ptcp. brcBndt\ D. impf. brceridte); h(B7ige to hsmg, 
hang or Timngte, hcengt; N. slcenge to loiter {slang, slo&ngt; but 



^) N. rende, rendte, rendt to rnn. 



ETYMOLOGY. 109 

D. N. slcBnge to fling, sloengte); gjcelde*) to be worth, to refer 
to (gjaldt^ gj(Bldt) ; N. smmlde to make a noise {smaldt orsmcel- 
dede, smceldte, ptc. smceldt); skjcelve to shiver, (skjalv or 
skjcBlvede, N. slcah\ skjcelvet); JcnoeTclce to crack, Jcncehkede or 
knaky knmkket; sprcette to sprawl, imperf. N. sprat, D. sprmt- 
tede, sprosttet; skvcette to get a start, N. skvat, skvcettede, 
skvcettet. 

Note 1. When there is a double set of forms in imperf., a strong 
one and a weak one, the strong form has originally represented the in- 
transitive meaning, the weak form the transitive; Ex.: han strakie sin 
Haand ud he stretched his hand forth; Pengene strak ikke til the money 
was not sufficient; Uuset brandt op the house burned down; jeg hrcendte 
win« /SH5e I burned my ships; pg skvat tilside I jumped aside; Pigen 
skvcetfede Vand paa mig the girl splashed water on me ; jeg Imngte min 
Hat paa Enagen I hung my hat on the rack; Manden liang i Oalgen the 
man was hanging in the gallows. 

Note 2. Antiquated and poet. Danish are the imperf. plurals: 
funde, runde, svunde, sprunge, stunge, sunge, drukke, lijulpe. 

214. Class 11. 

i (e) — a — i {e) or aa. Ex. : give to give, gav, givetj 
lede to pray, iad, ledt (bedet). To this class belong: give to 
give ; gide to prevail upon one's self to, gad, gidet; sidde to 
sit, sad, siddetj kvcsde to sing, kvad, kvcedet; voere to be, var, 
voeret; bcere to wear, bar, baaren; skjcere to cut, skar, skaa 
ren; stjcele to steal, stjal, stjaalen; se to se, saa, seet; ligge to 
lie, laa, ligget; cede to eat, aad, osdt. 

Note 1. dr^be to kill, although regularly following the weak 
conjugation {droebte, drcebt) occurs in N. poetry in the Strang impf. 
drap: han drapfar he killed my father (Bjornson). 

Note 2. To the infinitive tmre, to be, corresponds the pres. {]eg) er 
I am (pi. ere), but overvaire, to be present at, has pres overvddrer, imp. 
overvar, , and undvssre to be without, undvddrer, undvasrede. 

*) always weak: undgjoelde to pay the penalty of, gjengjo'Me to 
requite. 



110 ETYMOLOGY. 

Note 3. Some of these verbs may in Danish form their impf . pln- 
ral in -e: hare, aade etc. 

215. Class III. 

i — e — e (i). 'Ex.igribe to csitch., greb, greien; bide tohite, 
bed^ bidt; hvine to shriek, hven or hvmede, hvmte, hvinet); 
grme to grin (N. gren^ D. gri7iede or grmte, grinet); trine to 
step {tren^ trinet); gribe to catch ; hiibe to pinch; j9iZ>e to pipe 
( j9eZ>, j^e^e^) ; slihe to grind {sleb^ slebet, N. pron. slipt; sleben 
adj. polished); blive to become (blev^ bleven); drive to drive; 
Jiive to heave (impf. D. hivede, N. Jiev, hevet); rive to tear; 
skrive to write (all these as blive) ; bide; glide to slide {gled^ gle- 
deUf N. pron. glidd); lide to wear on {led^ leden) ; lide to suf- 
fer {led^ lidt); ride to ride (red^ redely N. pron. ridd) ; shride 
to proceed (skred, skredet); slide to wear (s/e^Z, sZiV/^) ; S7nide 
to fling {smed^ smidt) ; 5^rzG?e to fight (stred, stridt) ; sviWe to 
singe {svedf svedeti, N. pron. svidd); wide to wringe (vred, 
vreden, N. pron. vridd) ; ^i^e (pron. Nor. kjikhe) to peep 
(^e^ or kigede^ keget or kiget); snige to sneak (s/ie^, sneget) ; 
5Vi^e to deceive (sw^, svegen) ; vi^e to yield (ve^, veget). 

Note. These verbs may in Danish form their ipf. pi. in -e: Ucoe, 
vege etc. (but not beds, because that would be liable to be confounded 
with bede plur. pres. of at hede to pray). 

216. Class IV. 

y — — to (o, y). Ex. : krybe to crawl, krob^ kroben; 
bryde to break, brad, brudt; fyge to drift (prtc. /o^e/) ; ryge*) 
to smoke (del ryger it smokes), rog, roget; stryge to stroke 
(ptcp. strbgen); klyve to climb (N. imperf. klbv^ D. klyvede^ 
ptc. N. klbvet, D. klyvet)', N. .s^z^e to push {skjbv, skjbvet); 
Jlyve to fly (J^o^, Jibiet) ; Z?/2^e to lie (Z6^, ^oi'e^) ; %t?e to bid 



*) Usually intr. ; in transitive meaning is in Norway used r'6ge : at 
roge lohak to smoke tobacco (impf. rbgte, ptcp. rbgt). 



ETYMOLOGY. Ill 

(ptc. buden, budt) ; hryde *) to break ; flyde to flow (ptc. 
fiydt) ; gyde to pour {gjod or D. god, gydt) ; lyde to obey (ptc. 
lydt) ; nyde to enjoy {nydt) ; skryde to boast (skrydt) ; 57jy^e 
to cheat) — ptc. snydt ; skyde to shoot {skjod, ptc. skudi) ; 
fortryde to regret (ptc. fortrudt) ; betyde to signify (D. Z>e^06? 
or beiydede^ N. betydde*"^) or ^e^ot^, ptc. betydet) ; syfZe to boil 
(generally 5?/c?et?e, prt. sydet)\ fnyse to fret (/;i05 orfnyste, 
ptc. fnyset, pi^yst) ; /r«/A^e to be cold (/ro5 — /rosset) ; ^?/se to 
shudder (^(yos, ^os, ^ys^e — 9yst)\ nyse to sneeze (ptc. nyst). 

Note. The imperfect /r6«, /7i5«, 7iO«, p;5« do not regularly form 
any plural in — e in Danish, tod is in Danish an antiquated imperf. of 
iude to howl, while in Norway ^6^ is impf. of tyte to ooze out, 

217. Class V. 
a- 0- a. 
befale to command {befalede or ant. befol, befalet); gale to crow 
{galede or gol, galet); fare to travel (/or, faret); lade to let 
(Zot?, ladet) ; ^r«z;e to dig {gravede or ^roz;, gravet); drage to 
draw (^ro^, drageii); jage to hunt {jagede ov jog, jaqen); tage 
to take (^0^, tag en). 

Irregular are : 
slaa to strike (s%, slaaet or slagen); staa to stand (5^0^, 
staaet); svcerge to swear (svor, svoren); le to laugh (/o, Ze5^); 

Note: befalede is now exclusively used in common speech : so is 
galede; jagede is more common than its corresponding strong form, jage 
is always weak when it indicates to go hunting. Han blev slagen he was 
conquered: 7ian blev slaaet he was struck. 



* Not to be confounded with hryde to trouble, in Danish regularly 
conjugated : impf. bvM — ptc. brydt (or brudt), N. brydde (or br'6d}, ptc. 
brydd. That these two words are originally different is seen from the 
fact that bryde to trouble in Norway is pronounced bry, while bryde to 
break is pronounced bryte. 

**) Always betydede when signifying: gave to understand. 



112 ETYMOLOGY. 

An antiquated inf. and present for staa and staar is siande, stander; 
imperative stat, plur. stander, parte, standet. 

Antiquated is vov for vcevede of vceve to weave ; also vog 
imfpf. of me in the meaning : to kill; in the meaning : to 
weigh, in which it is now exclusively used in common speech 
veie has impf. veiede. 

218. Class VI. 

Apparently no gradation in the different tenses. The 

following verbs belong to this class : 

Ibhe to run, lob Ibhet, 

sove to sleep, sov sovet, 

grosde^) to weep, grosd grcBdt. 

D. hedde (N. hede) to be called, hed (D. also hedte)^ hedt, 

hugge to cut, N. Img (D. commonly huggede)^ hugget, 
komme to come, horn hommen. 

falde to fall, faldt falden*"^) faldto 

M^e to hold, holdt holdt.\) 

To this class are also counted : 

faa to get, fik Jaaet (IST. pron. fkt, ) 

gaa to go, gik gaaet (N. pron. glit. ) 

Wholly irregular is : tie to be silent, taug (N. tiede, pron. 
tidde,) ptcp. tiet. 

Note: None of these verbs form an impf. plural in -e. 

219. When there are two sets of verbs, one strong and 
one weak, the former originally was intransitive the latter 
transitive. But this difference, to a great extent, has been wi- 
ped out, both forms now being largely used promiscuously; 



*)N. also graate. **)falden usually refers to a moral downfall ;/a^- 
denfra Ilimlen {Jiimmelfalden) fallen from the skies, struck with amaze 
meut. \)Uoldcn is an adj. well-to-do. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



113 



see remarks to hcengte and hang, hrcendte and hrandt 
(213 Note 1) It is very common in Norway to say: jeq 
liar lagt i min Seng I have laid in my bed, (ptcp. of Icegge to 
lay) instead of: jeg liar ligget i min Seng I have been lying in 
my bed, (ptcp. of ligge to lie) ; in the same manner : jeg liar 
nu sat her en Time I have now set here an hour (ptc. of soette 
to set) instead of : jeg har nu siddet her en Time I have now 
been sitting here for an hour. But in the following pairs of 
verbs the distinction is complete : springe — sprcenge to spring 
and to burst, falde—fcelde to fall and to fell ; synke, scenke 
to sink (intr. and trans.) 



IRREGULAR VERS. 



220. The following 
Pres. 

Sing. Plur. 

kan can kunne 
skal shall skulle 
hbr ought to l)br 
tor dare tor 
maa must maa 

(subj. maatte) 
vil will ville 
ved know vide 



verbs have an irregular inflection. 

Imperf. Partcp. Inf. 

kunde ku7inet at kunne 

skulde skullet at skulle 

hurde hurdet at iurde 

turde turdet at turde 

maatte maattet at maatte 



vilde 
vidste 



villet 
vidst 



at ville 
at vide 



These verbs are in historical grammars generally called 
preteritopresents, because the forms now used as their pre- 
sent tenses are original imperfects. Hence the change of 
vowel between pres. sing, and plural {ved — vide, skal — skulle). 



114 ETYMOLOGY. 

To this class also belongs the antiquated imperf . aatte ptc. aatt 
owned corresponding to the present inf. eie^ regular impf. and 
ptc. eiede, eiet; also mon and monne used in antiquated style 
promiscuously as pres. or imperf. periphrastically with infi- 
nitives like English doth and did. 



THE USE OF THE NUMBERS. 



t221. In colloquial language there is no distinction be- 
tween singular and plural, the singular form being used with 
plural as well as with singular subjects. In written language 
the plural, form in the present tense is still retained by most 
Danish authors and according to official Danish rules of 
spelling, while most Norwegian authors and the official Nor- 
wegian rules of spelling have dropped the distinction between 
singular and plural. In the imperf. of the weak verbs there 
can be no distinction. In the imperf. of the strong verbs the 
rule is about the same as in the present, although the plural 
form of some verbs is avoided even by Danish authors as stated 
in §§ 216 note, 218 note. As a general rule it can be said 
that the imperf. plural is not formed whenever it would have 
the same form as the present plural. In poetry plural or sin- 
gular forms are used promiscuously with a subject in the plu- 
ral according tothe necessities of prosody. Ex. : Kvinder selv 
stod op og strede (Bj0rnson) even women arose and fought 
(arose to fight). 



THE USE OF THE TENSES. 



222. The present tense is often employed with future 
meaning, Ex. : jeg reiser imorgen I shall depart to-morrow ; 



ETYMOLOGY. 115 

naar jeg ser ham, skal jeg hilse ham fra dig when I see 
him I shall bring him your greeting. 

The present tense may also be employed to signify the past. 
Igaar medens jeg qaar paa Gaden ser jeg pludselig en Mand 
komme lobende imod mig yesterday while walking in the street 
I suddenly see a man coming running towards me. 

223. The imperfect is used in conditional sentences 
referring to the present as in English ; Ex. hvis jeg vidste 
haiis Navn, saa vilde jeg fortcelle dig det if I knew his 
name I should tell it to you. In the same manner the plu- 
perfect is used in conditional sentences referring to the 
past ; om jeg havde set ham, skulde jeg nok ikke have ladet ham 
lobe if I had seen him I should certainly not have let him skip. 

224. In the future tense skal and vil as a rule have retain- 
ed some of their original signification of duty and necessity 
or will and desire and they are used accordingly. There is no 
distinction as to the use in the different persons as in English. 
Skal is used in promises: jeg skal sikkert have Eloederne 
foerdiy i rette Tid I shall surely have the suit ready in time. 
For the use of skal and vil in the passive voice see §233. 

The compound future more commonly takes the form oifaar 
elsket (/fl«r with pastptc.) instead oi skal have elsket. Ex. naar 
jeg faar gjort det, skal jeg lade Dem det vide when I shall 
have done it (or when I get it done) I shall give you word. 

In Norwegian /«« with infinitive is used to express neces- 
sity : jeg faar nok gjore det, enten jeg vil eller ikke I guess I 
shall have to do it whether I want to or not, (cfr. Engl. I've 
got to do it. ) 

225. Some intransitive verbs indicating a change form 
their perfect by means of vcere instead of have, when it is in- 
tended to express only that something has taken place with- 



116 ETYMOLOGY. 

out emphasizing the notion of action. Han er gaaei he is 
gone. Mill Fader er reist for en Time siden my father left 
(has left) an hour ago ; Blomsten var visnet^ for jeg fih den 
the flower had faded before I got it. But: jeg har gaaet fern 
Mil idag I have walked five miles to-day. Min Ven har reist 
fern Oange over Atlanterhavet my friend has crossed the At- 
lantic five times. 



THE USE OF THE MODES. 



226, The subjunctive which only occurs in the present 
tense and has the same form as the infinitive is used in an op- 
tative or concessive meaning : Leve Foedrelandet ! Long live 
our native land ! det koste hvad det vil i. e. at all hazards. 

227. The infinitive is as a rule used together with the 
particle at to. Jeg bnsker at tale med Dem I wish to speak 
to you. The infinitive is used without at after the so called 
modal auxiliaries hurde^ gide, kunne, maatte, monne, skulle, 
turde, ville; Ex. jeg tor paastaa^ at han er en stor Slyngel I dare 
assert that he is a great scoundrel. Du hor gjbre det you 
ought to do it. If bor (in antiquated style) is used imperson- 
ally in the meaning of ** behoves to," then the following in- 
finitive takes at : eder lor at give efter it behoves you to yield. 
The infinitive is also after some verbs used without at when 
it is a predicate to the object of the sentence, the same as in 
English: jeg han hore Hjertet hanke I can hear the heart 
beat. Han lod de andre faa et langt Forspring (N. For- 
spra7ig)h.e allowed the others to get a good lead. After other 
verbs the infinitive with at is used : je^/ fandt ham at vcere en 
hrav Mand I found him to be an honest man (more common: 



ETYMOLOGY. 117 

jeg fandt^ at han var etc. ) Jeg bad ham komme^ at komme 
or om at komme I asked him to come. 

After lade to let, in the meaning of "to have" with a 
participle, "to cause to be done," the Dano-Norwegian lan- 
guage uses infinitive with an object of its own, placed before 
the infinitive : ye^ lod Huset bygge I had the house built; 
Generalen lod Forrcederen skyde the general ordered the traitor 
to be shot. 

228. The infinitive is used after prepositions, where in 
English the gerund is employed — the Dano-Norwegian Ian- 
gauge having no gerund ; any preposition may govern the in- 
finitive ; Ex. De gjorde ret i at sige det til ham you did right 
iu telling it to him; jeg er kommen hid for at tale med Don I 
came here to speak to you; )eg reiste til Markedetfor at kjobe 
en Hest I went to the fair to buy a horse ; efter at have sagt 
Farvel gik han sin Yei (after) having bidden farewell he went 
away ; det gaar langsomt ined at faa samlet Pengene there is 
tardy progress in collecting the money ; for at tjene Penge of- 
rede han sit gode Navn og Rygte in order to make money he 
sacrificed his good name and reputation. 

229. The present participle cannot be used periphrastically 
with the verb at vcere^ to be, as in English. I was just 
thinking about what to do must be rendered : 
jeg tcenkte netop paa, hvad der var at gjore. " The widow 
was mending the clothes of her youngest son," must be ren- 
dered : Enken holdt paa at gjore island sin yngste 8bns Klce 
der. Note the use of the participle in the following senten- 
ces : han kom Ibbende he came running ; han blev staaende he 
remained standing or : he came to a stand still. A second 
verb connected with such a participle by og^ and, is not put 
in participial form but in the infinitive : han hlev staaende 



118 ETYMOLOGY. 

midt paa Gulvet og glo he remained standing in the middle of 
the floor, staring. 

Colloquially and vulgarly a present participle in-s is some- 
times formed without any passive signification. Han komgaa- 
endes he came walking. Or with signification of what is to be 
done (cfr. lat. gerundive), Kong en er veniendes the king is 
to be expected. Sometimes, especially in advertisements, the 
active participle is used with signification of passive: mif 
iboende Hus the house I live in ; et lyggende Skih a ship that 
is being built (cfr. the Engl, expression : efforts are making. ) 

Note. Expressions like the following : ' * Having made the 
necessary preparations Mr. Jones at once started on his voyage" can 
not in Dano-Norwegian be rendered by means of a participle : efter at 
have fiildendt sine Forberedelser tiltraadte han straks sin Reise. 

230. The past participle in compound tenses formed by 
means of the auxiliary have is indeclinable ; the past participle 
in compound tenses formed by means of the auxiliary vcere 
follows the gender and number of the subject in so far as it is 
susceptible to the corresponding inflection : Han er gaaet he 
is gone ; de er (e) gaaede they are gone ; jeg erkommen I have 
come ; vi er{e) komne we have come ; jeg er hleven (colloqui- 
ally N. hlit) meget syg I have grown very ill ; vi er{e) hlevne 
forvistefra vort Fxdreland we have been expelled from our 
native country (colloquially in Norway : vi er hlit (or Met) for- 
vist. ) 

The past participle is often used as an adjective and may 
in that capacity also be employed as a substantive; the par- 
ticiple of intransitive verbs may then have an active signifl- 
cation : en hortreist Mand a man who has departed ; et for- 
taht Faar a lost sheep. 



ETYMOLOGY 119 



THE PASSIVE VOICE. 



231. As is seen from the paradigm § 208 the passive may 
be formed through all its tenses by means of the auxiliary 
blive; but in the present, imperfect and infinitive (according- 
ly also in the future) there also occurs another form ending 
in — es. 

Note 1. The passive in-^ is a formation peculiar to the Scandi- 
navian group of the Teutonic languages. It was originally a medial 
or reflexive formation, the terminal s being derived from original-«A; 
(representing the reflexive pronoun O. N. sik.) This original reflexive 
signification is retained in many vs^ords; sdngstes — sengste sig to be alarm- 
ed; harmes, vredes to get angry ; undres-unckre sig to wonder, etc. 

Note 2. The form in -s is sometimes used in a reciprocal signi- 
fication : vi sees igjen we are going to see each other {i. e. to meet) again; 
modes to meet ; tredffes to meet ; slaas to fight ; kappes to vie with each 
other; kives io q}i2tXTt\\ strides to dispute; nsebbes to bill; mundhugges 
to quarrel"; enes to agree, etc. 

Sometimes the verb is used this way in connection with a preposi- 
tion where the pronoun contained in the reflexive verb must be taken to 
be governed by the preposition ; Ex, at tales ved to speak with each 
other (in Norway they still say dialectically tale ved en\ generally tale 
med en) ; the preposition is used adverbially in skilles ad to separate, 
fdlges ad to go to-gether ; hjddlpes ad to assist each other. 

232. Some verbs which only occur in passive form and 
some others, that have both an active and a passive form, but 
with an entirely different meaning, are called deponent 
verbs; Ex. lykkes to succeed ; hhies to be ashamed ; Icstujes 
to long ; flsZc/es to grow old ; mindes to remember {h\xt minde 
to remind), ^/i^e5 to exist {h\xi Jinde to find), gives to exist (G. 
es gieb,t' from give to give). These deponent verbs, and to this 



120 ETYMOLOGY. 

class are also counted many of the above mentioned recipro- 
cal verbs, form a deponent participle ; Ex. det liar lykkedes 
(also lykkets^ lyktes) mig I have succeeded in — ; jeg har Iceng- 
tes I have been longing. But this form is not very much in 
use and is generally avoided, whenever possible. 

233. The two passive forms may in some instances be used 
promiscuously. But the form in-5 is much more common 
than the other one, especially in the present tense and the in- 
finitive (after the verbs skal^ maa^ h'dr etc.) The imperfect 
of the compound form occurs much more frequently than the 
present. 

The compound form {blive rost to be praised) signifies the 
complete passivity, where all action on the part of the subject 
is wholly excluded, hence it is used to denote the single re- 
corded fact, while the form in-5 is used to denote a common 
condition or general rule. 

The imperfect in-5 is not used of strong verbs with radical 
vowel a in imperf. followed by two or more consonants: (not 
saiiges but) blev sungen was sung; (not tvanges but) hlev 
ivungen was forced; (not drakkes but) hlev drukket was 
drunk; (not stjales but) Uev stjaalen was stolen; note: fa^id- 
tes existed, but blev fiuiden was found; gaves existed, but 
blev given was given. . 

In the future passive the form jeg nil roses cannot be 
used except to denote: I wish to be praised. The simple 
future is either :ye^ skal roses ox jeg skal or vil blive ros^; Ex. 
vilde liun inviteres ? did she wish to be invited (E. Brandes : 
En Politiker.) The reason is that the verb vil and the ending 
in-5 both imply so much activity, that they combined cannot 
possibly convey a passive meaning. 



ETYMOLOGY 121 



REFLEXIVE AND IMPERSONAL VERBS. 



234. Reflexive verbs are those that always have as 
their object a pronoun denoting the same person as the sub- 
ject ; Ex. at skamrne sig to feel ashamed ; jeg skammer mig I 
feel ashamed, han skammer sig^ vi skamm£(r) 05, 1 skamme[7') 
eder^ de ska7nme(r) sig. 

Transitive verbs may be used reflexively; Ex. at slaa sig 
to hurt one's self {at slaa to beat); at vise sig to appear {at 
vise to show). 

Note. At hsende, at hsende sig, at hsendes all indicate : to happen : 
da hsendte det, at — , da hsendtes det, at — , da hsendte det sig, at — then it 
happened that. 

235. Impersonal verbs are those that have only the 
demonstrative pronoun neut. det as subject ; Ex. det regner it 
rains ; det sner it snows, etc. ; det dages it dawns ; det vaares 
spring comes ; or there may be a definite subject of the 3d 
person ; Ex, Forsbget mislykkedes the attempt was unsuccess- 
full. E)i Ulykke hcendte a misfortune happened (only the 
active hcende can be used in this manner, not hoendes or hcende 
sig.) 

Any passive form may be used impersonally ; intransitive 
verbs cannot be used in passive, except impersonally. Such 
intransitive verbs used impersonally do not take the subject 
det^ but in its stead the demonstrative adverb der is used ; 
Ex. der reises meget i Norge i Sommer there is much travel 
going on in Norway this summer. In poetry der may be 
omitted: nit tales jo lydt om, at Folket er vakt now they talk 
so much about the people being aroused. 



122 ETYMOLOGY. 



THE ADVERBS. 



236. The neuter form of most adjectives can be used as 
an adverb : snart soon ; lioit high or highly ; smukt nicely ; 
godt well etc. 

Note. Of adjectives ending in -ig, -lig in Norway the common 
gender form is used as adverbs but in Denmark the neuter: D. oprigtigt, 
N. oprigtig candidly ; D. aQrligt, N. sdvlig honestly (iu both cases pro- 
nounced oprigti, serli). 

Adverbs may furthermore be formed of adjectives (and 
partly of nouns) by the following endings : 

1. — lig : snarlig soon; nylig recently; storlig greatly (of 
nouns: dieUikkelig instantly; hovedsaqelig chiefly; fcRngslig 
only in connection with the verb anliolde : fcengslig anholde 
to arrest, derived tromfoengsel prison). 

2. — vis, heldigvis happily; Igkkeligvis h.a,p-pi\j; tydelig- 
vis plainly (of nouns delvis partly; parvis in pairs; skevis by 
one spoonful). 

3. — e: lare only; ilde ill; vide widely ;^yerne willingly; 
D. grumyne highly. 

Note. To the adjective god good correspond the adverbs godt 
and zel. Sometimes both may be used promiscuously : jeg ved det godt 
and jeg ved det vel I know it well. In other cases one of them alone can 
be employed : lev vel live well {i. e. good bye) ; sov godt sleep well (but sov 
vel og dr'6m beliageligt sleep well and have agreeable dreams) ; vel is also 
used by adjectives and adverbs in the meaning of rather : det er vel 
meget af det gode it is rather much of a good thing (not quite as strong 
as : det er for meget). 



ETYMOLOGY. 123 

237. Adverbs which have the same form as the neuter (or 
in Norwegian in some cases the common) gender of the ad- 
jectives are susceptible of comparison : 

snart soon snarere snarest 

h'dit highly hoiere hbiest (or hoif^t) 

Ex. jeg sidder hbiest oppe i Trceet I am highest up in the 
tree ; jeg er hoist ulykkelig I am most unhappy. 

Also some ending in — e : 

loenge long (time) Icengere or Icenger Icengst 
(also: langt Icengere or Icenger Icengst) 

ofte often far oftere oftest 

The following adverbs have a different stem in compara- 
tive and superlative from that of the positive; 

vel well hedre hedst 

ilde badly vcerre vcerst 

gjerne willingly hellere or heller rather heist 
Jeg vil heller danse end synge I will rather dance than 
than sing (but it is rather a large house — det er et temmelig 
stort Hus.) 

*J38. The adverbs are generally by grammarians divided 
according to their use in the sentence into demonstrative, re- 
lative, interrogative and indefinite, or according to their signi- 
fication into adverbs of time, place, mode, degree etc. We 
shall here only mention some peculiarities in the formation 
and use of some adverbs : 

tort away (to a place) horte Q,yf2kj (in a place) 

derhen thither derhenne there 

hvorhen whither hvorhenne where 

frem forth fremme in front 

ind in (to a place) inde in (in a place). 



124 ETYMOLOGY. 

hjem home hjemme at home 

ned down (to a place) nede down (in a place) 

op np (to a place) oppe np (in a place) 

ud out (to a place) tcde out (in a place) 



since for lang Tid siden long ago 

saaledes \ ^, hvorledes ) , 

^ thus , , ^ how. 

saadan ) hvordan ) 

saadaii and hvordan may also be used as adjectives; saaledes 

and hvorledes only as adverbs. 

The affirmative adverb ja is used in answer to a positive 

query, jo to a negative. Har Hr. Perse^i vceret her idag 9 Ja. 

Has Mr. P. been here to-day ? Yes. Har ikJce Hr. Persen 

vceret her idag? Has not Mr. P. been here to-day ? Jo Yes. 

Note. The more the better is in D.-N. jo mere desto (or des) bedre; 
jo mere vigik, desto Isengere syntes vi at vsere hortefra vort Maal the more 
we walked along the farther we seemed to be from our destination ; col- 
loquially there may also be said jo tnere jo hedre in the same meaning. 

239. About the demonstrative local adverb der and the 
interrog.-rel. local adv. hvor can be noticed that they are 
used in many compounds without any local signification re- 
presenting the dem. pronoun neuter del and the relative- 
interr. hvilket; derpaa thereupon ; derefter thereafter ; der for 
therefore ; hvorefter after which ; hvor for why. 



THE PREPOSITION'S. 



240. The prepositions do not in the language as it is to- 
day govern any case, except that in the pronouns which have 
separate forms for the subjective and objective case, the latter 
always follows the preposition: hos mig with me; til ham to 



ETYMOLOGY. 125 

hi!ii; der er intet ondt i ham there is nothing bad about him; 
/ Ruset in the house ;j9«a Qaden in the street. 

Note. In some phrases the ancient cases have been retained as 
governed by prepositions ; the nouns either end in -e or -s, the latter 
being the genitive singular, the former representing an original genitive 
plural (in the ancient language ending in -a) or dative singular (in the 
ancient language ending in -i) ; in some cases the preposition and the noun 
governed by it are written together in one word, so as to show that tlii3 
whole expression now is considered as an adverb ; Ex. : ihsande (dat 
sing ) at hand ; Hive alive ; Hide in due, good time, igjudre in progress ; 
isinde in mind ; {gaa en) tiUiaande to assist somebody (literally go 
him to the hands ; gen. pi.) ; tillands on shore ; tilsos (N. tils^^s) at sea ; 
tihands at sea; tilskihs on a. ship; tilbords at table (but tilhestoi\\iOTs,e- 
back); have en tilbedste to make fun of one ; 7iave noget tilgode to have 
something coming due ; til Ihinge at the court session. 

241. In relative sentences introduced by som the preposi- 
tion comes at the end of the sentence; Ex. min Ven, som j eg 
ikke paa Icenge har liort fra^ er d'dd my friend, from whom I 
have not had any news for a long time, has died ; sometimes 
a preposition may be used adverbially at the end of the sen- 
tence : en Hat med et sort Baand omkring a hat with a black 
ribbon around it; Kai'l har faaet en stor Tavle at shrive 
paa Charles has got 2L big slate to write on; nu har han faaet 
sig en Vogn, han han hjore rundt i now he has got a carriage 
in which to ride around. 

r!42. As to the distinction between i in and paa on may 
be noticed that paa is always used in connection with the 
name of islands and in Norway with the names of certain 
(especially minor) towns ; Ex. paa Sjoelland in Zealand ; paa 
Bornholm in B. ; paa Island in Iceland (but i Englandy i 
Irland); paa Moss at Moss; paa Kongsberg at K. ; yaa Fre- 
drihshald at F. ; (but i Fredriksslad, i Kristiania^ i Dram- 
171671, i Shien^ i Bergen, i Stavanger, i Trondhjem). The 



126 ETYMOLOGY. 

use varies also with the names of different districts ; paa 
Hedemarken in H. ; i Osterdalen in 0. 

Af of ; fra from : En af os one of our number ; en Mand 
fra Byen a man from the city; Johnsen er fra Aarhus J. is 
from A. ; Jeg reiste fra Kristiania til Bergen I went from 
Chr. to B. A rich merchant of Copenhagen (is 
in D.-N.) en rig Kjdhmand i Kohenliavn^ but a r. m. of 
this city en rig Kjbhmand her af Byen ; Hekla af Kjbhenhavn 
H. of Copenhagen. 

Note. The following prepositional phrases are used as preposi- 
tions : istedenfor {3,\^o Wiitten i Steden for, i Stedetfor) instead of; paa 
Orund af on account of ; i Anledning af on tlie occasion of; i Rrajt «/ 
in virtue of ; md Hjmlp afhj means of. 



CO^JUN-CTIONS. 



243. The conjunctions are divided into co-ordinating and 
sub-ordinating ; both these classes are again divided accord- 
ing to their signification into several subdivisions. 

The grammarians mostly enumerate the conjunctions be- 
longing to the several classes, but we shall here only mention 
those of special importance or about the use of which there is 
anything to remark. 

A. Co-ordinating : 

og and ; baade — og both —and ; in the same meaning : saa vel — 
som as well — as: jeg saarel som du or saavel jeg som du I as 
well as you; dels — dels partly — partly; snart — snart now — 
now ; han er snart kold, (og) snart varm now he feels cold, 
now warm; eller or; enten — eller either — or; hverken — eller 
neither — nor ; ihi for ; men but. 



ETYMOLOGY. 127 

B. Subordinating : 
da when, as; indicates both time and cause; da han kom^ var 
jeg allerede gaaet when he came I was already gone ; da han liar 
forhrudt sig, maa han straffes as he has offended, he must 
be punished; siden since (temp, and cdi.\x^dX)\forsaavidt (som) 
in so far as; hvis^ derso7n, om if; hvis ikhe^ inedmindre if not, 
unless; skjont, endskjonty omendskjbnt although, admit some- 
thing actually existing; om end^ selv om though, even if, 
admit something supposed ; at that : jeg ved at De har vmret 
her I know that you have been here ; at may also be omitted : 
jeg ved De har vosrei her I know you have been here ; forat 
in order that. Ex. : Kjbbmayiden sendte sin Son til Udlan- 
det, forat han skulde Icere Sprog the merchant sent his son 
abroad in order that he should learn languages (also forat 
Icere Sprog to study languages, see §228 ;) jeg Icegger op Penge^ 
forat jeg kan nyde en Borgfri Alderdo7n I lay money by in or- 
der to be able to enjoy a comfortable old age (or for at kuniie 
nyde en sorgfri Alder dom)\ jeg gav ham en Krone ^ forat han 
skulde give den til Tiggeren I gave him a Crown to give to the 
beggar. The infinitive construction is regularly employed 
when the infinitive and the predicate verb have the same sub- 
ject, and often when the subject of the infinitive is the object 
of the predicate verb; in other cases /ora^ must be used with a 
sentence. (Obs. for with an infinitive at written separately : 
for aty while the conjunction is written as one word : forat) ; 
forat ikke (or after a verb signifying fear forat) lest ; Ex. 
Borgerne brcendte Byen^ forat den ikke skulde falde i Fien- 
dens HoBtider the citizens burned the town, lest it should fall 
into the hands of the enemies; Borgerne var hang e for ^ at 
Byen skulde falde i Fieyidernes Hcender the citizens were 
afraid, lest the town should fall into the hands of the enemies ; 
saa at so as to ; Ex. mine Reisefceller har forladt mig^ saa at (or 



128 ETYMOLOGY. 

only : saa) jeg er 7iu ganske alene my traveling companions have 
left me, so I am now perfectly alone ; Stedet er saa ode, at det er 
formeligt uhyggeligt the place is so desolate that it is (or : as 
to be) dismal ; eiid than ; han er storre eiidjeg he is larger than 
I (colloquially is said : ha7i er storre end mig he is larger than 
me — but only: Hr. Persen liar et storre Hus end jeg Mr. P. 
has a larger house than I) ; dette er noget ganske andet, end 
hvad vi saa igaar this is something quite different from what 
we saw yesterday. 



IlsrTERJECTlONS. 



244. The interjections proper are natural sounds, hardly 
to be counted among the forms of articulate speech, conse- 
quently they are beyond the domain of grammar. We shall 
here only mention that the D.-N. equivalents of h al 1 o o hallo, 
halloiy hei are not used as a salute ; as regards interjectional 
phrases may be mentioned that the equivalents of h ow d o 
y o u d hvorledes liar Be det, hvorledes staar det til med 
Dem are only used when it is really intended to ask about 
somebody's health. Asa simple greeting is employed: god 
Dag good day ! [god Morgen, god Aften, good morning, good 
evening, and when leaving god Nat good night). Om Forla- 
delse! beg your pardon! undskyldl excuse me; tor jeg spbrge'^ 
if I may ask ? Tak ! thanks, thank you. Mange Tak, Tu- 
sind Tak many thanks, a thousand thanks! ingen Aarsag ! 
don't mention it, not at all ; vcersgo I (i. e. veer saa god, in 
which form it is written) if you please, please (when fetching 
or offering somebody something) ; vosr saa ve7ilig (N. veer saa 
snil) at gjbre det for mig please do it for me; strax paa Oie- 
Uikket at once, right away. 



ETYMOLOGY. 129 

The English Sir in yes, sir; no, sir is not trans- 
lated unless when speaking to a superior or a person, of rank 
in which case the title is added : ja, Hr. Kaptain (N. Kap- 
tein) yes. Captain ; 7zei, Hr. General no, General. But ma*m, 
madam, is translated Frue (Mrs.) or Frbken (Miss) accord- 
ing to circumstances: Nei, Frbken^ det tror jeg ikke no 
ma'm, I don't think so; Nei, Friie^ det linr jeg aldrig sagt 
no, ma'm ; that I have never said. 



THE ORDER OF THE WORDS IN^ THE SENTENCE. 



245. In a sentence consisting only of subject and predi- 
cate the former is placed before the latter; Manden kommer 
the man comes; if the position is inverted, then the sentence 
assumes an interrogative meaning : Kommer Manden 9 does 
the man come? If the predicate has an object the order of 
the words is as follows: subj. — pred. — obj. ; Hesten har Ryt- 
teren the horse carried the rider. The indirect object is 
placed before the direct object: Fader gav Johan Bogen 
father gave John the book; in interrogative sentences only 
the position of subj. and predicate is inverted: Gav Fader 
Johan Bogen 9 did father give J. the book. An adjective as 
attribute is placed before the noun : en stor Ifund, den store 
Hund a big dog, the big dog ; so also a genitive before the 
noun governing it: Mandens Hus the man's house; Ciceros 
Taler the speeches of Cicero. An adverb determining an ad- 
jective or other adveib is placed before the word which it de- 
termines, but an adverb determining a verb is placed after it : 
eyi meget smuk Mand a very handsome man; Karl gik meget 
hurtigt Charles walked veiy fast. 



130 ETYMOLOGY. 

Note. The personal pronouns and the demonstrative plural 6l£ 
having retained their objective form {mig, dig, etc.) may in dependent 
function exchange position with the subject without causing ambiguity: 
Ham saa jeg him I saw ; hende gav jeg mine bedste 1 anker to her I gave my 
best thoughts. "When it is desired to emphasize any certain part of the 
sentence it may be given the first place in the sentence ; in that case the 
subject always follows after the predicate : JoJian gav lian en Bog og Marie 
en nydelig Duklce he gave Johnny a book, but Mary a beautiful doll. 

246. Interrogative and relative words (pronouns, adverbs 
and particles) and all conjunctions always take the first place. 
In interrogative sentences the predicate always precedes the 
subject, if the latter is not itself the interrogative word : hvad 
har du der 9 What have you got there ? if the predicate is a 
compound form of the verb the subject is placed immediately 
after the auxiliary: hvor har du vceretf Where have you 
been. 

In relative sentences the subject follows immediately after 
the relative word, if this latter is not itself subject: det Hus, 
som du har kjoM er meget daarligt the house, which you 
have bought is very poor. Overall^ hvor han har vceretf har 
han gjort sig forhadt wherever he has been he has made him- 
self disliked. 

After conjunctions the words as a rule follow in the ordi- 
nary succession: naar jeg kommer til By en skaljeg kjohe mig 
nye Klceder when I go to town I shall buy myself a new suit 
of clothes. 

Note 1. The inverted position of interrogative sentences is some- 
times used in conditional propositions when the conjunction is omitted: 
kommer jeg til By en, skaljeg hilse din Moderfra dig or hvis jeg kommer til 
Byen, skal etc. if I come to town I shall bring your mother your greet- 
ings. 

Note 2. Antiquated and chiefly used in official and commercial 
correspondence is the custom of inverting the subject and predicate 
after ogand; Ex. denne Feiltagelse var meget uheldig, og formener Depar- 
tementet, at den burde have vs&retundgaaetthis error was very unpleasant 
and the Department believes that it ought to have been avoided. 



ETYMOLOGY. 131 

247. As to p u n c t u a t i o n the D. N. language follows 
about the same rules as the English, excepting that comma 
is always used between the principal and the subordinate pro- 
position. Comma is also used before independent proposi- 
tions introduced by og and, and before single words connected 
by men but. Before complete sentences introduced by men 
but, semicolon is used. Sig mig^ hvad du har gjort! Tell 
me what you have done! Den Rmg, som jeg havde paa Fin- 
ger en^ er kommet hort the ring I had on the finger has been 
lost. Min Sdster Jortaltey at hendes Bog^ som hun havde lagt 
fra sig paa Bordet for en Time sideii^var Jorsvunden^ da Imn 
kom tilbage til Vcsrelset : My sister told me that her book 
which she had left on the tableau hour ago had disappeared, 
when £he returned to the room. 



132 EXERCISES. 



EXERCISES. 



at vcere to be 

Jeg^ duy (De), ha?i er I am etc. 

vi^ /, de er{e) we are etc. 
(see § 221). 

Jeg, du, {De)^ han var I was etc, 

vi^ /, de var{e) we were etc. 
at have to have. 

Jeg, de, {De), han har I have etc. 

vi, /, de have we have etc. 

Jeg, du, (De), han havde I had etc. 

vi, /, de havde I had etc. 
Kat cat ; Horn (u. ) horn ; , Ro&v fox ; 

Hits (n.) house ; Maane moon ; Hale tail ; 

/Tes^ horse; /i'ocow; *'/or big; 

iVcese nose; Haar (n.) hair; Mand man; 

Bonde farmer ; Zow^ lang Mark field. 

(§§ 150 — 155) Katten har Nasse, og (and) Maanen har 
Horn, og Raeven har Haar paa (ow) Halen. Katten har en 
lang llale. Koen har Horn, men (but) Hesten har ikke 
(7iot), Bonden har en Hest og en Ko. Den lange Naese, som 



EXERCISES. 133 

{which) Mauden har, forskj0nner {beautifies) ham (Am)ikke. 
Maanen skinnede {shone) paa det store Hus. I Huset var der 
en Kat med {with) lang Hale. 

The horse and the cow were in the house, but tlie man was in the 
field. He was IooaIu^ at {saa paa) the moon. The man has a long 
nose, but no {ikke noget) hair on liis (use def. art.) head (Hoved, pron. 
hode). The house is large. The moo a shines on the large house and 
on the field, on the horse, on the cow and on the cat. 

(§ 161.) I Arken var ikke et Ark Papir {paper) at faa 
{to he had). Men der var en Buk, som gjorde {made) et dybt 
{low) Buk for Noa, da {when) ban {he) med eit {his) Falge 
forlod {left) Arken. Fyren havde fandet {found) Big et 
Leie i Fyret, men ban betalte {paid) ingen {no) Leie, Bar- 
net {child) bar en Vserge, men Soldaten {soldier) bar et 
Vaerge. 

This (denne) draught is a special (eiendommeligt) feature of this 

Y (dette) house. The fellow had the clioice ( Valget) between {iiiellem) the 

rice and the rod. A soldier without {uden) weapon is a miserable 

(elendig) fellow. The father (fader) is [the] guardian of {foi') his child. 

(§ 16.3.) Form the possessive of the following words, 
with and witbout tbe article : 

Slot (n.) castle. Tag (n.) roof. Farve color. 

Bog book. Hjcerte heart. Ven friend. 

Bind (n.) cover. Fiende enemy. 

Et Tags, Tagets. En Farves, Farvens. Bogens. Mit 
{my) Hjpertes, Hjaertets. En Vens, Vennens. Min {my) 
Vens Bog har et r0dt {red) Bind. Bogens Bind er r0dt. Bin- 
dets Farve er red. Den rede Farve er HjaBrtets Farve. Far- 
ven paa ( NB . ) Bogens Bind er red. Vaer {be) din {your) 
\ Yens Ven. 



134 EXERCISES. 

The roof of the castle. The color of the roof of the castle is red. 
Be not the friend of your enemy's friend. My friend's enemy is my 
(min) enemy. 

(§ 168.) Form the plural of the following words with and 
without the article : 

Have garden. Lampe lamp. Stue parlor. 

Kirke church. Skuffe drawer. Vmrelse room. 

Muffe muff. By city. So (N. Sjo) sea. 

Mark field. Skaal bowl. Son son. 

Ven. Blomst flower. 

Min Vens S0nner er(e) min Sens Venner. Min Ven har 
ingen {no) Fiender. Mit Hus har to {two) Stuer og fire 
(fo'ivr) smaa {small) Vaerelser. Paa Markerne rundt {around) 
Byen er der mange {many) Blomster. Brooklyn har mango 
Kirker. Kirkernes Tal {number) er stort {large). 

The friends of my son are sons of my friend. The enemies of my 
(mine) friends are not my friends. My house has two {to) gardens. In 
(^) the gardens are {er der) many flowers. 

(§ 169.) Form the plural of the following words : 
Dor door Sten stone Kniv knife. 

Dag day Dal valley Elv river. 

Fjeld mountain Boek brook Fjord. 

Kat cat Snedker joiner Amerikaner American. 

Skomager shoemaker Skrcedder tailor. 

Dette Vaerelse har to Dere. I Norge er der mange Baek- 
ke, fulde {full) af 0rret {trout). Elve og Baekke, Fjorde og 
Sj0er, Fjelde og Dale er Norge fuldt {full) bi. Mine Bredre 
har mange Venner, og mine Sostre har mange Veninder. 
Faedre og Sonner. . 



EXERCISES. 135 

These (disse) mountains and valleys with {med) their (D. deres, N. 
si?ie) rivers and brooks are rather {temmelig) monotonous (ensformige). 
Shoemakers and tailors are useful {nyttige) members (Medlemmer) of 
society (Samfundet). 

(§§ 170 — 171). Decline the following neuter words: 
Flag flag; Beyi bone, leg; pi. also feet; Aar year; Dosk 
deck. Vceddelob horse race. 

Udstillingsbygningen {the exposition building) var deko. 
reret (decorated) med alle Nationers Flag. Mine Ben er(e) 
0mme (sore). Mine Foraeldre og S0skende have (N. har) 
mange Penge, men jeg har ingen. Min Vens Klaeder er(e) 
a f K 1 36 d e (broadcloth); men mine er(e) af Vadmel (rus- 
set). For mange Aar siden (for siden ago) havde jeg ogsaa 
mange Penge. Denne Mand er seks (six) Fod h0i (tall). 

The ship has two decks. The distance {Af stand) between (mellem) 
the decks is eight (otte) feet. Have you money, then you have {saa har 
du) food {Mad) and clothes. 

(§§ 172 — 177.) Decline the following adjectives : 
stor big ; smuk nice ; tarn tame, domesticated ; kostbar ex- 
pensive ; billig cheap ; erigelsk English ; fransk French ; 
^k^ smooth; om tender, sore ; ^«r5^ severe, stern; haard 
hard; varm warm; sund healthy; vanskelig difficult; 
nmpel simple; kjolig cool; lydig obedient. — 

folges ad go together. 

Hesten, Hunden, Koen og Katten er tamme Dyr 
(ayiimals). Smukke Klaeder er(e) i Regelen (as a rule) kost- 
bare; det billige (what is cheap) er sjelden (seldorn) smukt. 
Et barskt Vaesen (fnanner) og et 0mt Hjerte f0lges ofte 
(often) ad, og det gjer ogsaa (a7id so do) et glat Ansigt og et 
haardt Hjerte. 



136 EXERCISES 

The big city has mauy nice and expensive houses. A tame lion 
(Love) is like {som) a big cat Cheap and healthy residences (Boliger) 
are difficult to get (skaffe) in a big city. Tne cool night is very refresh- 
ing (foifriskeude) after {efte?') the warm da.y. . A nice child {Ba7'n,ji.) 
ought always to {burde altid) be obedient. 

(§§ 178—182). Decline the following adjectives : 
sagte soft; blaa^ tro^ fri, 

egeiiy megen, afsides, nymodens. 

Den frie Mand og den frie Kvinde {woman) blev prokla- 
meret {were proclaimed) for alle Vinde {wmds). Min egen 
Stue. Kongens eget Slot. Det ham {him) egne Vaesen. 

New-fangled ideas. Out-of the- way towns. This man's eyes 
{i^ine) are blue. A nice suit {Smt) of clothes made isyet) of blue 
cloth. 

(§§ 183 — 189). Compare the following adjectives : 
kold co\&\ 50C? sweet; J/oc/ soft; 

venlig friendly ; from pious ; ung ; 

ond ; gammel. 

Min Broder er yngre end jeg, men jeg har et venligere 
Vaesen. Det st0rste Hus er ikke altid {always) det smnk- 
keste. De aeldste Bern er(e) de vaerste. Det nederste Trin 
{step) var ganske glat {slippery). Hr, Jensen er Iserdere end 
Hr . Kristensen. Verdens {in the tvorld) st0rste Mand er ikke 
netop {exactly) den, som {who) veier {weighs) mest. Den 
yngste af de to Brodre er den smukkeste. 

My father has the largest house in the block {Kvartalet) It has 
more windows ( Fi'nrfwer) than {end) the other houses. The younger 
girl {Pige) is the handsomer. [N.B. Use the superlative inD 
N. in this case !] 

(§§ 190 — 194). Har du min Bog ? Nei, men jeg saa 
{saw) den {it) nu nylig {just now), Hvor {where) var den? 



EXERCISES. 137 

Den var paa Bordet i mit Vaerelse. Jeg har ikke lagt (placed) 
den der (there). Nei, din Moder lagde (placed) den der. 
Saa du hende gJ0re (do) det (it) ! Nei, men him har selv 
(§196) fortalt (told) mig det. Min Broder fortalte (told) mig 
ogsaa (also)^ at (that) han havde seet (seen) den der. Den 
Den nnge Mand har nylig mistet (lost) his S0n. 

I have a nice little horse; have you seen it ? My father gave (gav) 
jt o me, and I thanked {takkede) him. Does {kan) your brother ride ? 
No, he does not ride ; but my sister does. She rides better 
than I do myself (§ 196). Once {engang) &\iq \o&\. {mistede) (§ 245 note) 
her hat while riding horseback (mens Jiun var ude og red). My parents 
(F<?ra'M?'e) have lost five {fern) of their [N B, different in Danish and 
in Norwegian] children. 

(§§195 — 198.) Hvem er denne Mand med den lange 
Naese? Det er en Landstryger (^r«m^), som saelger (sells) 
Blikt0i (tinware). Undertiden (sometimes) etjaeler (steals) 
han lidt fra saadanne Folk (people)^ som ikke holder (keep) 
deres (D., sine N.) D0re lukkede (closed). Hvor sover (sleeps) 
han ? Hvem giver (gives) ham Mad (food) ? Hvem faar 
(get) han Penge af ? Han sover paa Marken, han spiser 
hvad han kan faa, og Penge har han ikke. 

Who has got {har) my book? Which book do you mean (mener) ? 
By {af) whom is the book? Whose book is ii? Mine, of course {natur- 
ligms). It is the book, that I placed oa this table an hour ago. 

(§§ 200, 201). Man siger (say)^ at nogen har vseret 
(been) her og ringet (rung the hell). Men da (as) ingen luk- 
kede op (opened the door), gik (tvent away) de. Det kan ikke 
have vaeret nogen af vore Venner. Nei, det var nogle frem- 
mede (strange) Mennesker (people). Mangen Mand gaar 
((foes) hungrig (hungry) tilsengs (tu bed), som man ikke vilde 
(would) tro (believe) det cm (about). 



138 EXERCISES. 

They think that everybody can do this thing, but they are mistaken 
(tagefeil). Nobody can learn {Ixre) a foreign {fremmed) language (Sprog 
n.) without persistent {ihoerdig) work {Arheide n.). Some called {kaldte) 
him a hero (^Helt), others a humbug (Humbugmager). Many a heart is 
aching (bl'dder). 

(§§ 202 — 205). Der er trehnndrede og fern og seksti 
Dage i et Aar. Et Minut har seksti Sekunder (tresindtyve 
Sekunder). Min S0ster er tolv Aar gammel. Tolv Gange 
tolv er hundrede og fire og fyrretyve (or: firti). For tyve 
Aar siden var jeg halvandet Aar gammel. En Centimeter er 
to Femtedels Tomme {inch). Han har sine Penge staaende 
{standing) paa {at) seks Procents Rente. 

Some months (Maaneder) have 30 days and others have 31. One 
month, February, has only 28 days. The war (Krigen) lasted (varede) 
seven years. Seven times seven is 49. 20 years asjo this big town was 
nothing but (ikke andet end) a little village (Landsby) My friend rises 
{staar op) at 6 in the morning {om Morgenen) and goes to bed {gaar til 
sengs) at 10 in the evening (om Aftenen). 

(§ 208). Conjugate the following verbs: 
hie to wait, hoppe to jump, plaiite to plant, 

onske to wish, of re to sacrifice, spend, salve to anoint, 

raade to advise, vente to wait, hakke to peck. 

Jeg har nu {now) ventet paa ham i en halv Time {hour)^ 
men nu kan jeg ikke bie laenger. Jeg vil raade Dem til at 
vente en Stund {tvhile) til {more), Nei, jeg har allerede 
{already) ofret for {too) megen Tid {ti7ne) paa ham. Jeg 
skulde have ventet en Stund til, hvis jeg ikke havde havt 
det saa travlt {been so busy), Se den lille Spurv {sparrow)^ 
som hopper udenfor Vinduet {window) og hakker i Vin 
dueskarjnen {wiiidow frame) . Den venter paa at faa {to yet) 
sin Frokost {breakfast) . 



EXERCISES. 139 

Whom do you wish to see (at tale med) ? I wish to see your father? 
Please {vser saa god at) wait a while, he is not in (Jijemme) just now (netop 
i C)iehliJcket) I can o ly {hare) wait 5 minutes. Cannot you spend any 
more time on him, he will be in (Jcommer tilbage) at 5 sharp (paa Slaget 
fern). What do you advise me to do ? 

(§§ 210 — 211). Conjugate the following verbs; 

tahe to lose, sluge to devour, lede to seek, 

tale to speak, betale to pay, laane to borrow, to lend, 

?05e to loosen, so^^^e to set, Sfl3^^e52^ tositdown (§234), 

folge to follow. 

Fienderne tabte det forste Slag {battle). Paa Slagmarken 
(battlefield) var mange Folk {people) ^ som ledte efter deres 
(N. sine) Venner. Min Ven talte ikke til mig hele Aftenen. 
Det var, fordi {because) jeg har laant ham Penge, som han ikke 
kan betale tilbage {back). Han havde sat sig, dog {yet) stod 
han op {got tip) og fulgte mig til Doren. 

He spoke slowly (langsomt), as if (som om) he did not wish his 
'audience {lilhbrere) to lose a single {eneste) syllable (Stavelse). An honest 
{cerlig) man pays back with interest {Rente) what he borrows Sit down 
and wait a little while, then I shall follow you to church (Kirke). 

(§§ 213 and 214.) Skibet begyndte {commenced) at synke 
ti Minuter efter Sammenst0det {collision). Alle Passagererne 
{passengers) sprang til Baadene {boats) ^ som var(e) bundne 
saa fast, at man maatte hugge dem Jes {loose). Matroserne 
{sailors) havde drukket adskilligt {co7isiderably) og vilde ikke 
slippe Passagerne ned i Baadene f0rst. Tiggeren {tramp) 
bad f0rst om Penge, men da de ingen gav him, kom {came) 
han igjen {again) om Aftenen og stjal, hvad de ikke vilde 
{would) give ham . Han havde seet Pengene ligge i en aaben 
Komodeskuffe {bureau drawer). 



140 EXERCISES. 

I found a dog, tied to the fence (GjcBrde); it ran to- wards (mod) me 
as far (langt) as the chain (Ldenke) would allow (tillade) it [to] It was 
very ihirsty {torst), it had not drunk water ( Vand) the whole day. I 
helped it to get out {komme ud af) the chain and gave it something to 
eat. While {medens) I was sitting (§ 229) by the roadside, I saw a man 
cutting {skjddre, use inf.) grass in the field. Another man was helping 
nim. 

(§§ 215—217). Da Musen {mouse) kreb frem {forth) af 
af sit Hul {hole)y greb Katten den og vilde aede den. Men 
f0rst vilde den lege {play) lidt men den. Den slap den, lige- 
som {as) om {if) den vilde lade {allow) den lobe {run)^ men 
saa {then) greb den den igjen og bed den ihjsel {to death). 
Det ryger fra Skorstenen {chim7iey)^ mens jeg r0ger min Ci- 
gar og nyder den. Medens du jagede Harer {hares) og skj0d 
Raeve, jog {chased) jeg Fienden ud af Landet. Fienderne 
blev(e) slagne i tre Slag {battles)^ og mange af dem blev(e) 
tagne tilfangne {made priso7iers), 

I only ikun) obeyed [see § 245 in fine] your order {Befaling) when I 
chased the pigs (Svinene) out (ud) of the garden (Have) They had dug 
themselves an entrance (Vei) under the ftnce. They took the eame 
way back again, and they pushed (skjQv til) each others in their 
efforts (translate i. th, e.: idet de anstrsengte aig for) to get (komme) 
forst ud. 

(§§218—220). Naar {when) kom din Broder? Han 
kom for nogle Dage eiden ; nu skal han netop {just) gaa ud. 
Han gav mig en Velociped {bicycle)^ og Kristian fik et ud. 
maerket {excellent) Gevaer {gtin). Jeg laa og sov, da min 
Broder kom, men stod {got) straks {at once) op, da jeg horte 
det ringe paa Klokken {the bell), Jeg kan ikke gJ0re, hvad 
du beder mig om. Jo du bkal og maa gJ0re det. Tor De 
ikke gaa forbi Kirkegaarden {cemetery) om Natten ? Jo, jeg 
er ikke bange {afraid) for Sp0gelser {ghosts). 



EXERCISES. 141 

I know I ought to do it, but I dare not do it now. Yes, you must 
do it What is your name, my friend ? John is my Christian name 
{Fornavn) and Johnson is my family name {Efternann). Did you sleep 
well last night (inat), Mr. Johnson? Yes, thank you. I slept very 
well and did not get up (get up : staa op) till {f^') it (Klokk€?i) w&s 
after (over) 8. Did you really (mrkelig) stay in bed (ligge) as long as 
that. Yes, I have often stayed in bed longer than (end) that. 

(§§ 234 to 235). Jeg skammer mig over at se, hvor (how) 
lidet jeg virkelig ved . Det haender undertiden, (sometimes), 
at man ikke ved, hvad man skal gJ0re. Det siges, at Kongen 
kommer (§ 222) hid (here) i Sommer (this summer). Det er 
blevet mig fortalt (I have been told^), at ti Skibe forliste (were 
lost) i den frygtelige Orkan (hurricane), som blaeste (blew) 
ifredags (last Friday). 

I was told that I could come whenever I wanted to {saa ojle jeg havde 
Lyst). Don't you feel ashamed that you did not know this? Ko, I 
do not feel ashamed. You ought to do {gi'6re det), at least (i det 
mindste). How did this thing happen ? 

(§§ 237 — 237.) Hr. Jones har bes0gt (visited) os oftere i 
den senere Tid (of late), end ban gjorde l0r (formerly) . Ja, 
og ban har vaeret laenger hver Gang. Hvor laenge er det, 
siden du saa ham sidst (the last time) ? Jeg saa ham for en 
Time siden. Vil De heist danse eller synge ? Jeg vil gjerne 
begge Dele (do both). Hvor reiser De hen ? Jeg reiser til 
Norge og taenker, jeg bliver to Maaneder borte (taenker, jeg 
bliver borte — expect to be gone). Har De ikke seet mine 
Handsker (gloves)'^ Jo, jeg har. 



^) What is in the active the indirect object should not in D.-N. be 
made subject in passive. Some authors follow the English rule 
in that respect, but it is not considered good language. 



1 42 EXERCISES. 

How long do you expect to be gone ? Four months. I would 
like to stay {Ulve der) longer, because {fordi) it is so long since I 
was there the last time. Why do you like better to dance than to sing? 
Because there is more fun {Mora) in it. Have you £een your father's 
hat? Yes, I have. Have not you seen your father's hat? Yes, I 
have 

(§§ 240—242). Hvem har han h0rt {heard) det af ? Af 
mig kan han ikke have h0rt del. Paa Island er der ingen 
Kj0reveie (carriage roads) y saa der maa man overalt reise til- 
hest; men i Irland er der gode Veie. Min Broder Karl har 
vaeret tils0s i 25 Aar, saa det er nu paatide {about twie), at 
han slaar sig ned {settles) tillands. Paa Grund af den taette 
{thick) Taage {fog), kunde vort Skib ikke komme ind til 
Bryggen {pier). 

Where do you come from ? From Iceland. Have you been a 
long time in Iceland ? Yes, I have been there quite {temmelig) long, 
and everywhere we had to travel around on hors-back, because they 
had no roads there. By {med) which ship did you come from Ame: ica ? 
By the "Island " of Copenhagen. Have you been in any of ihe cities 
of Norway ? Yes, I have been in Christiania and Bergen, and at 
Kongsberg and Fredriksstad. 

(§ 243). '* Dine Penge eller dit Liv" {life) er et haardt 
Valg {choice) ; men vaerre er det at miste baade Pengene og 
Livet. I Byens Udkant {outskirts) bor der mange fattige 
{poor), som hverken har Mad eller Klaeder. Naar {when) du 
ikke yil h0re, maa du f0le {must he made to feel). J eg maa 
straffe {punish) dig, forat du kan blive en brav {good) 
Mand. Min S0ster har en smukkere Hat en du. Jeg har 
ingen bedre Ven end dig. Han er saa glad {happy), at han 
naesten ikke {hardly) kan lade vasre at (1. v. a. — abstain from) 
hoppe {jiimp) h0it op i Veiret {air). 



EXERCISES. 143 

I give you this punishment (Stmf) in order to improve (forbedre) 
your morals {Seeder). I make (lader) you study in order that you may 
be a useful {nyttigt) member {Medlem) of society (Samfundet). When 
{naar) I come here, I wish (^6nsker) to see everybody happy. When 
(da*) I came home I saw many sad [bedr'6vede) ii\c^'s{An8igter). Neither 
my mother, nor my s'ster had fcuch a nice hat as you had. A judgment 
{Dom) must either be right (rigtig) or wrong (gal), and it cannot be 
bo h right and wrong at the same time. 

(§§ 245 -246). Hvem bar De talt med {seen) ? Jeg har 
talt med Deres Broder. Er det min aeldste Broder, De har 
talt med ? Hvor er min Hat ? Deres Hat er her. Han gav 
en Tigger {beggar^ sin nye Hat. Hvem gav han sin gamle 
Frak (coat). Traeffer (meet) jeg dig her igjen, skal jeg lade 
(have) dig kaste (throw) ud af Vinduet. 

Whom did you see? Where did you get (faa) that hat? I got it 
at the hatter's (hos Hattemageren), and I gave my old hat to a beggar. 
If I ever (nogensinde) see you again, I shall ceitainly {visselig) be most 
(scBi'deles) happy. 



*) " When " referring lo a single occurrence of the past is da, when re- 
ferring to the future is nam: Da, besides time, indicates cause, 
naar, besides time, indicates condition. 



24 GERMAN-. 

Lessings Minna von Barnhelm, 

Based upon the text of Boxberc;er, in Joseph Kurschner's " Deutsche National- 
Literature." By Sylvester Primer, Prof, of Mod. Lang, in the University of 
Texas. 240 pages. Cloth. Price by mail, 70 cts. Introduction price; 60 cts. 

LESSING may be said to have created the modern German stage, 
and his "Minna" is not only the first real German comedy 
but also the very best that the German literature has produced. 

This edition contains: (i) Introduction. (2) {a) Biographical 
Sketcli ; {b^ The development of the German drama and Lessing's 
influence upon it ; (^) The position and influence of this work in 
German comedy; {d^ Synopsis of the characters and their develop- 
ment in the play. (3) Text, followed by Notes and a Bibliography. 

Prof. H. C. G. Brandt, Hamilton The Critic, New York: It is thebest- 



College, in " Modern Language A'oies " : 
Though edited again and again at home 
and abroad, it has never been so well 
edited before. {June, 1890.) 

Prof. Waller Deering, Vander- 
bilt Univ. : Throughout the whole book 
Prof. Primer shows a fine appreciation of 
the student's needs. A perusal of the 
book leaves an impression of well-rounded 
completeness and scholarly thoroughness, 
which is indeed refreshing. 



provided text of this famous German 
comedy that we have. It is a monument 
in succinct form of patient research, helf>- 
ful historical annotations, and practical 
insight into the needs of students. 

{Sept. 27, 1890.) 
Literarisches Cent^alblatt,Z,«>- 
2/>.■ Ref. wiisste keine Ausgabe der 
" Minna" anzugeben, die so erschopfend 
und dabei so anregend ware wie diese. 

{July 26, 1890.) 



Lessings Nathan Der Weise. 

Edited, with introduction and analytical and critical notes and a Bibliogfraphy by 
Sylvester Primer, Professor of Teutonic Languages, University of Texas. 
Cloth. 338 pages. Introduction price, $1.00. By mail, j^Lio. 

IF we except Goethe's Faust, no German poem has received so much 
special study as Nathan der Weise. It occupies the most promi- 
nent place in German Literature, after Faust, and is the most magnifi- 
cent monument of Lessing's poetic genius. It deserves a place in the 
study of German, not only as a work of art, but also for the deep 
philosophical and scientific truths which it discusses. 

The Introduction discusses amply the religious and philosophic 
back-ground of the drama, and gives a synopsis 6f the characters with 
their development in the play. The Notes aim to leave no real diffi- 
culty unexplained, and in the light of the best scholarship of to-day to 
interpret faithfully the thought of the author. 



GERMAN. 



25 



Schiller^ s Wilhelm TelL 

Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by R. W. Deering, Ph.D., Professoi 
of Germanic Languages, Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio. Cloth. 
280 pages. Introduction price, 60 cents. Mailing price, 70 cents. 

THE present edition not only provides the play with adequate notes, 
which explain the linguistic difficulties and the historical and 
legendary allusions in the text, but also aims to increase the student's 
appreciation of the master's great work by enlisting his interest in the 
leading literary questions connected with it. The Introduction has 
thus included a critical analysis of the play, a concise account of the 
development of the Tell Legend and its relation to the real history of 
the Swiss struggle for liberty. A short Bibliography, including the 
best reference books, is added. This edition lias a map. 



James O. Griflan, Asst. Prof. of\ 
German, Leland Stajijord Univ. : I 
am especially pleased with it, ind find 
the introduction and notes most satis- 
factory. We shall use this edition in our 
classes. 

A. R. Hohlfeld, Prof, of Gertnan, 
Vanderbilt Univ. : An excellent edition. 
The work of a thorough scholar and suc- 
cessful teacher. I shall introduce it. 

Wilhelm Bernhardt, Director of 
German in the High Schools, Washing- 
ton, D.C.: At last a worthy American 
edition. I shall use it with my classes. 

J. T. Hatfield, Prof, of German, 
Northwestern Univ. : I am greatly grati- 
fied to find it so satisfactory. I introduce 
it at once. 

Milton S. Churchill, Prof of 
Mod. Langs., Illinois Coll., Jacksonville: 
I consider it a very excellent edition ; in 
many particulars much superior to other 
school editions. We shall undoubtedly 
use it next year. 

Edwin P. Norton,' Prof of Mod. 
Langs., Olivet Coll., Mich.: I am de- 
lighted with it. It suits me better than 
any other edition of this beautiful master- 
piece. I shall introduce it. 



Starr W. Cutting, Asst. Prof, of 
German, Univ. of Chicago : It is an 
excellent bit of editorial and typographical 
work, and will find a place in our next 
year's programme of courses. 

Thomas Logie, Prof, of Mod. 
Langs., Rutgers Coll. : By far the best 
edition yet published. 

Ottilie Herholz, Prof, of German, 
Vassar Coll. : I like it very much, and 
shall recommend it in our catalogue. 

Dr. Theo. Neumann, hist, of Mod. 
Langs., Rivervicw Acad. Poughkeepsie, 
N. Y. : I have looked forward to this 
edition and was sure it would be a fine 
one ; now I must say that it is beyond my 
expectations, not only because of its 
elegant exterior, its beautiful ])rint and the 
convenient arrangement of the whole, but 
by far more because of its careful and 
well chosen notes and the welcome intro- 
duction, which I have read with great 
delight. 

F. A. Dauer, Prof, of Mod. Langs., 
Geneva Nor. School, Ohio : It will be 
permanently used here. The introduction 
shows most careful research and scholar- 
ship, and the notes are prepared with 
closest attention to the needs of the 
pupils. 



26 GERMAN. 



Schiller's Maria Stuart, 

Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by Lewis A. Rhoades, Ph.D., Cornell Uni- 
versity. Cloth. 254 pages. Introduction price, 60 cts. Mailing puce, 70 ct>. 

THIS edition has been prepared with constant attention to the latest 
and best literary work in German on this great tragedy, and with 
a constant regard for the wants of students in school as well as college. 
The introduction contains a scholarly account of the genesis of the 
drama, and Schiller's historical sources, a critical discussion of the 
drama, the characters, the language and the meter. The notes explain 
fully all historical allusions, discuss grammatical peculiarities, and trans- 
late expressions which might not be made clear by an intelligent use 
of a German dictionary. 



ScheffeVs Ekkehard, 



Abbreviated and edited with English notes by Carla Wenckebach, Professor 
of the German Language and Literature, Wellesley College. Cloth. 241 pages. 
70 cents. 

THIS is one of the very greatest works in German fiction ; a wonder- 
fully vivid picture of life in the middle ages, full of interest, with 
many touches of humor, strong characterizations and attractive narra- 
tive. In order to bring it within suitable limits for use as a text-book, 
large omissions have been necessary, but this has been done so as to 
leave the narrative intact. 

A. R. Hohlfleld, Prof, of German, H. H. Boyesen, Prof, of German, 

Vanderbilt Univ. : I am delighted with Columbia Coll. : I have examined it with 

it. In this form it will be possible to use pleasure. It is a very entertaining and 

this masterpiece of German fiction for serviceable text-book. 

class work. The work seems to have ^ ^ Wells, Prof, of Mod. Langs., 

been very skillfully done. 1 shall use it in ^„y^_ ^y ^^j^ ^^^^^^/^ . fhe editor has pre- 

our course. served with great skill the spirit of the 

-_ „-. ^ , „ ^ ^ ^ I whole. I am convinced that the impres- 

C. W. Cabeen. Prof of German, \ ^.^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^.^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^.,j j^^ 

Oberlin Col.: You have done Amencan ^^^^^^j^n ^^e same as if the unabridged 
students of German a service m present- ^^^^j ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ . ^^^ ^^^.^^ ^^^^.^^^^ 
mg th,s excellent edition. I shall take . ^^^ Ekkehard occupies in Ger- 

great pleasure m ordering it for class use. ^^^ historical fiction, should suffice to 
J. T. Hatfield. Prof of G.rma«, ^"'""^^"^ ^V*" f 1- I shall introduce the 
.VorlAwesiern Univ. : 1 am more than ^"^^ immediately. 

pleased with it. It is an admirable con- E, R. Ruggles, Prof of German, 
tribution to the study of German. I Dartmouth College. : I have put it on the 
expect to introduce it next year. list of books to be used. 



GERMAN. 



27 



Schiller s yungfrau von Orleans, 



Edited, with an Introduction and Notes, by Benj. W. Wells, Ph.D. 
pages. Cloth. Mailing price, 70 cents. Introduction price, 60 cents. 



248 



THIS edition has grown out of the needs of the editor's class 
room. Die Jungfrau is, on the whole, in his opinion, the best 
book with which to begin the study of the German classics. 

The language is in general simple and clear, and offers few diffi' 
culties to students in their third or even theli second term. But the 
drama has not hitherto been provided with a body of notes adequate to 
enable the student to enter fully into the spirit of the period and of the 
characters. 

The Introduction contains an account of the genesis of the drama^ 
its production on the stage, the MSS. and early editions, the metrical 
structure, and the historical sources, together with Schiller's addi- 
tions and alterations. The notes are mainly grammatical and histor- 
ical. At the end is an appendix on the Regimen of Verbs and the 
Subjunctive Mood as they appear in the drama. Also a map. 



H. S. White, Prof, of German, Cor- 
nell Univ.: The commentary contains 
much that is valuable. 

H. H. Boyesen, Prof of German 
Lang, and Lit., Columbia Coll., N. Y. : 
It is a very creditable piece of work, the 
text being remarkably free from errors and 
the notes furnishing all supplementary in- 
formation with commendable accuracy and 
conciseness. 

E. R. Buggies, Prof, of Mod. Langs., 
Chandler Scientific Department, Dart- 
mouth Coll.: The Introduction and Bio- 
graphical notices seem to me admirable 
and ought to be helpful and stimulating 
alike to instructor and student. 

Geo. O. Curme, Prof, of Mod. 
Langs., Cornell Coll., la.: Am very 
much pleased with Die Jungfrau von Or- 
leans and will use it next year and per- 



manently establish it in our course. The 
edition is the best with which I am 
acquainted. 

Thos. L. Angell, Prof of German, 
Bates Coll., Lewiston, Me.: Your " Jung- 
frau von Orleans " introduced by me this 
year is an excellent work. 

Carl F. Kolbe, A. M., Prof of Mod, 
Langs., Buchtel Coll., Ohio: For seven- 
teen years I have read the Jungfrau von 
Orleans, with my classes, considering this 
drama, the best with which to begin tlie 
study of the German Classics. Of all the 
editions which have come to my knowledge 
during this time, the one just now edited 
by Dr. Benj. W. Wells is unquestionably 
the best. I rejoice that such an edition 
has come at last to gladden both students 
and teachers. 



GERMAN. 



29 



Goethe s Hermann und Dorothea. 

With introduction, commentary, bibliography and index to notes by Water- 
MANN T. Hewett, M, a., Ph.D., Professor of the German Language and Lit- 
erature in Cornell University. Cloth. 293 pages. Introduction price, 80 cts. 
Price by mail, 90 cents. 

THE present edition is based on Goethe's final revision as contained 
in his collected works, which were being published at the time of 
his death. It gives also the readings of the earlier editions. The 
editor, in the preparation of this edition, has sought to lead from the 
study of this poem to a larger knowledge of the language, and espe- 
cially to acquaintance with the thoughts of the author as illustrated in 
this and in his other writings. 

Hence the notes have not been confined to brief grammatical ex- 
planations, but an effort has been made to interpret the poem from 
the poet himself. The sources of the poem, the author's language and 
the language of the time have been carefully studied. The history of 
the composition of the poem has been shown more fully by the recent 
publications of the Weimar Goethe Society, especially as contained in 
Goethe's Diary and Letters, and use has been made of these fresh 
materials. 

It is believed that this edition will not only guide to an intelhgent 
knowledge of the poem itself, but afford useful material for the critical 
study of the language and writings of the author. 



Dr.G.Von Loeper, the distinguished 

editor of Goethe's Works : Professor 
Hewett's edition of Hermann und Dor- 
othea has given me a very high opinion 
of the standard of literary studies in 
America. Professor Hewett in -Amer- 
ica, and M. Chuquet in France have 
attained the highest plane of excellence 
in those studies in the domain of classical 
German. 

Prof. Edward Dowden, LL.D., 
of the University of Dublin^ and Presi- 
dent of the English Goethe Society: It 
seems to me admirable edited and very 
valuable both for student and teacher. 
I am exceedingly glad to have it among 
my Goethe books. 



Dr. C. Ruland, Director of the Goethe 
Museum in Weimar: I have read your 
excellent introduction and looked tlirough 
some of your notes and can only con- 
gratulate your countrymen on having 
Goethe's poem brought near to them in 
such a superior manner. Such editions do 
infinitely more good than a great deal of 
our dry-as-dust Goethe philology. 

H. H. Boyesen, Prof. Germanic 
Languages and Literature, Columbia 
College, New York: I have already de- 
monstrated my appreciation of Professor 
Hewett's excellent edition of Hermann 
und Dorothea by adopting it as a text- 
book in my classes. It is a beautiful 
book and exceedingly well done. 



GERMAN. 



Goethe s Dichtung und IVahrheit. 

First four Books. Edited especially for this Series, with Introduction and 
Notes, byC. A. Buchheim, Professor of German, King's College, London, and 
editor of the Clarendon Press Series of German Classics. Cloth. 339 
pages. Introduction price,^i.oo. Price by mail, jpi.io. 

DICHTUNG und Wahrheit furnishes desirable reading for German 
classes, because it represents some of Goethe's most finished 
prose, and because of its interest as valuable autobiographical informa- 
tion. Three books of this work are recommended by the Commission 
of New England Colleges to be used in preparation for entrance on 
advanced requirements in German. 



Goethe s Torquato Tasso, 



Edited by Calvin Thomas, Professor of Germanic Languages and Literatures, 
Univ. of Michigan. 246 pages. Cloth. Price, by mail, 85 cents. Introduction 
price, 75 cents. 

THAT "Torquato Tasso," one of Goethe's most important and 
characteristic works, has not hitherto been more generally read 
in American institutions of learning is doubtless due mainly to the 
fact that no satisfactory edition of the play was procurable. Pro- 
fessor Thomas has endeavored to make an edition befitting the present 
status of Goethe scholarship. The- text is based upon a careful exam- 
ination of all the extant sources of information. An ample Introduc- 
tion describes the genesis of the drama, traces out its relation to its 
author's life, and discusses its ethical import. The notes are written 
not for the beginner in German who needs instruction upon the rudi- 
mentary facts of the language, but for students who are presumed to 
have acquired at least a budding interest in the higher aspects of Ger- 
man literature. 



H. C. G. Brandt, Prof, of German, 
Hamilton Coll.: The introduction is ex- 
cellent, arid shows the thorough " Goethe 
Kenner." The notes are adapted to the 
needs of the grade of students that are 
able to undertake this masterpiece. 

Mod. Lang. Notes, Baltimore, Md.: 



The editor addresses himself rather to the 
student of literature, the student of Goe- 
the, than to the student of German lan- 
guage in and for itself. Considered 
from this point of view, the book must 
certainly be pronounced the best edition of 
a German Classic issued in this country. 



GERMAN. 



31 



Goethe's Faust. 

Erstcr und Zweiter Theil. Two volumes. Edited by Calvin Thomas, Pro- 
fessor of the Germanic Languages and Literatures, University of Michigan, 
Part L Cloth. 43s pages. Introduction price, Si. 12. By mail, $1.25. 

THE distinctive feature of this edition of Faust — at least its most 
prominent distinctive feature — is that it presents the entire 
poem. Hitherto, although the First Part has been repeatedly edited, 
no complete edition of the work has been prepared for English-speak- 
ing students. The reason of this state of aftairs is not hard to com- 
prehend ; it lies in the all too general neglect of the Second Part. 
Notwithstanding that this portion of the drama has been several times 
translated, and notwithstanding that individual scholars have long 
since felt its power and recognized its value, it has been slow in win- 
ning its way to the general favor that it deserves. 

It is believed that American students of Goethe will now welcome 
a complete American edition of the poefs great work. The vol- 
umes are edited throughout on philological principles. The aim is, 
first, to throw light upon real difficulties of the text ; at the same 
time the larger questions of criticism and interpretation are not neg- 
le<:ted even if they must be treated briefly. \^Part II. in preparation. 

Kuno Prancke, AssH. Prof, of Ger- 
man, Harvard Univ., in " The Nation: 
It is not too much to say that of all the 



editions which thus far have appeared in 
this country or in England, this is by all 
odds the most scholarly and comprehen- 
sive. Its distinguishing feature is the 
spirit of directness and common sense 
that pervades it from beginning to end. 
It will mark an important step in the 
history of Goethe study in America. 

M. D. Learned, AssH. Prof, of Ger- 
man, lohn Hopkins Univ.: A vast stride 
forward in Faust study in America. This 
edition is marked by comprehensiveness 
of plan, wise selection of material, and 
clearness of statement. 

A. H. Palmer, Prof, of German 
Lang, and Lit., Yale Univ.: Beyond 
question the best edition with English 
apparatus. 



L. E. Horning, Prof, of German^ 
Victoria Univ., Toronto, Otit.: It is as per- 
fect as an edition of Faust can well be, 
and it is pleasant to find an editor who 
can be in full sympathy with his work 
without losing his balance. 

Henry B. Longden, Prof, of Ger- 
man, De Pauw Univ. : I am delighted 
with it, and know of no edition comparable 
to it. I shall use it with my class. 

A. R. Hohlfeld, Prof, of German, 
Vanderbilt Univ.: I am delighted with 
the edition, which is not only eminently 
useful, but also a credit to the country. 
I have already introduced it. 

Literarisches Centralblatt, 
Leipzig: Wir wollen uns alles Bekrittelns 
enthalten, angesichts eines Buches, das 
im Ganzen durchaus lobenswerth er- 
scheint. 



Modern Languages. 



BOOKS FOR 

BEGINNERS. 



GERMAN. — Sheldon's Short German Grammar. (Price, 60 cents.) 

For those who liave studied other languages and wish to learn to read German. 

Harris' German Lessons. ) Price, 60 cents.) 

An Elementary Grammar, adapted for a short course or as introductory. 

Joynes-Meissner German Grami7iar. 

Part I., "Shorter German Grammar," 80 cents; complete Grammar, $1.12. 

jfoynes^ German Reader for Beginners. (Price, 90 cents.) 

An introduction to reading; with notes, vocabulary and English Exercises. 

Deutsch^s Select German Reader. (Price, 90 cents.) 

With notes and vocabulary. May, bo used with or without a grammar. 

Boisen''s Preparatory German Prose. (Price, 90 cents.) 
Excellent selections of prose with full suggestive notes. 

Van der Sfnisseti's Grifnni's Aldrchen and Der Taucher. (75 cents.j 
In Roman type. With full notes and vocabulary. 



vocabulary. ^^ .J Q 

:ice,;wcetlfej59b " -^/^ 

3tes aii^vocaftulary: ■ 



Super'^s Andersen'' s Mdrchen. (Price, 
Graded, as far as possible, and with notes ; 

Faitlhaber''s One Year Course in Gerjuan. (Price, 60 cents.) 
A brief synopsis of German Grammar, with reading exercises. 

FRENCH. — Edgren's Compendious French Grammar. 

Part I., Xh& essentials of French Grammar, 35 cents. Complete book, $1.12. 

Grandi^ent^s Short French Grafnmar. (Price, 75 cents ; 

An Elementary Grammar, adapted for a short course or as introductory. 

Grandgent''s Materials for French Composition. (12 cents each.) 
Pamphlets based on Super's Reader and other texts. 

Super's Preparatory French Reader. (Price, So cents.) 

Graded and interesting reading for school or college. With notes and vocabulary 

Houghton'' s French by Reading. (Price, ^1.12.) 
For home or school. Elementary grammar and reading. 

Lyon and de Larpent^s French Translation Book. (Price, 60 cents.) 
A very easy Reader with English exercises for reproduction. 

Joynes' French Fairy Tales. (Price, 35 cents.) 

With notes, vocabulary and English exercises based on the text. 

ITALIAN. — Grandgenfs Short Ltalian Grammar. (Price, 80 cents.^ 
All the Grammar needed for a short course. 
GrandgenCs Ltalian Composition. (Price 60 cents.) 

SPANISH. — Edgren's Short Spanish Grammar. (Price, 80 cent= ^ 
All the grammar needed for a short course. 

Todd's Cervantes' Don Quixote. (In press.) 
Twelve chapters with notes and vocabulary. 

Ybarra's Practical Method in Spanish. (Price, ;^i.20.) 



D. C. HEATH & CO., Publishers, 

BOSTON, NEW YORK, CHICAOO AND LONDON. 



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