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Full text of "The Dasaratha-Jataka. Being the Buddhist story of King Rama. The original Pali text with a translation and notes by V. Fausbøll"

PK 

4591 
J3 
1871 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/dasarathajatakabOOfausuoft 



THE 



DA8ARATHA- JATAKA, 

BEING THE BUDDHIST STORY OF 

KING RAMA. 

THE ORIGINAL PALI TEXT 

WITH 

A TRANSLATION 

AND 

NOTES 



BY 



V. FAUSB0LL. 



KOPENHAGEN. 

HAGERDP. 



LONDON. 

TRtJBNER & CO. 



PRINTED BY LOUIS KLEIN. 
1871. 







Price: 4 marks Danish. 




PREFACE. 



ready in 1860 I was preparing the following Jataka for 
the press, but finding that I could give only a very imperfect 
text, as I had but one MS. to publish it from, I laid it aside, 
being dissatisfied with my task. 

Since that time, however, a translation of it has been 
published by Alwis in his „Attanagalu-Vansa", Colombo 
1866, and from its contents, or rather from what it does 
not contain, Prof. Weber has last year, in his treatise on the 
Ramayana („Uber das R^mayana", Berlin 1870, aus den Ab- 
handlungen der konigl. Akademie der Wissenschaften), drawn 
such important inferences as to the redaction of the Ramayana 
that some scholars who take a lively interest in Indian lite- 
rature, and among them Prof. Weber himself, have deemed 
it necessary that the Pali original of the Dasaratha-Jataka 
should itself be laid before the public. This I have now been 
able to do through the kindness of Mr. Robert C. Childers 
who procured me a paper transcript of the Jataka from Cey- 
lon, and I venture to think that my text is now as correct 
as the present state of MSS. and Pali scholarship will allow; 
but for future researches, a few difficulties are still left, such 
as laddhassasesu, paleturii etc., riddles which can scarcely be 
solved until more texts are -published, so as to give us further 
materials for comparison. 

There are several tales in the Jataka-Book which treat 
of allaying sorrow. As a specimen of these, I have, in the 
Appendix, given a short one, viz. the Sujata- Jataka, the 
introduction of which is analogous to that of the Dasaratha- 
Jataka; verses 5-7 thereof are also to be found in Dhp. 
p. 96, and occur again in the Jataka's 365, 403, 441 and 
446. From the Sutta-Nipata I have also given, in the Ap- 
pendix, the Salla-Sutta which has 5 verses in common 
with the Dasaratha-Jataka, and I have further added the 



Devadhamma-Jataka which, as regards its subject, has 
some resemblance to the Dasaratha-Jataka, and of which the 
text now given is better, I believe, than that which is to be 
found in Dhp. p. 302. The Mahajanaka- Jataka is rather 
long, and too corrupt in our MS. to be printed from that 
alone, nor do I think its immediate publication absolutely 
necessary, as the Right Rev. Bishop P. Bigandet has already 
given a faithful abstract of it in his 5,Life, or Legend of 
Gaudama", Rangoon 1866, p. 412. 

With regard to the transliteration I have followed 
my former system except in two points: first, I have not 
considered it necessary to distinguish the letter h from h 
used only to mark the aspiration of another letter, as no 
confusion can take place, and so I have rejected h as ill- 
looking; secondly, I have adopted the horizontal line ~ to 
denote a long vowel, that I might have the advantage of 
reserving ' for the accentuation, and "" for contractions. On 
this point I follow in the track of Baudry, Bollensen, Muir, 
Rosen, Subhuti, Trumpp and others. I retain m, and reject ni, 
with the dot under the letter,* because this makes it appear 
as if the character belonged to the linguals. I also retain s, 
because the dot under it suggests the connection of this letter 
with the linguals. 

Vowels: a a, i i, u u, r f, Ir. 

Diphthongs: e ai, o au. Semi-consonants: m, h. 

Gutturals: k kh, g gh, n. 

Palatals: c ch, j jh, n, (5). 

Dentals: t th, d dh, n, (s), (1). 

Linguals: t th, d dh, n, (s), (1). 

Labials: p ph, b bh, m. 

Sibilants: 5, s, s, h. 

Semivowels: y, r, 1, 1, v. 



Dhammapadam. Ex tribus codicibus hauniensibus pa- 
lice edidit, latine vertit, excerptis ex commentario palico notisque 
illustravit V. Fausbiell. Haunia) 1855. 4 Danish dollars. 

Five Jatakas, containing a fairy Tale, a Comical Story, 
and Three Fables. In the Original Pali Text, with a Trans- 
lation and Notes, by V. Fausboll. Copenhagen 1861. 1 dollar 
3 marks Danish. 



THE DASARATHA-JATAKA. 

JCitba Lakkhana Sita ca ti. Idarii Sattha Jetavane 
viharanto ekaiii matapitikaiii kutumbikarii" arabbha katbesi. 
So hi pitari kalakate* sokabbibbuto sabbakiccani pahaya so- 
kanuvattako ahosi. Sattba paccusasamaye lokam olokento 
tassa sotapattipbalilpanissayam disva punadivase Savatthiyam'' 
pindaya caritva katabbattakicco bhikkbu uyyojetva ekam pac- 
chasamanam gabetva tassa geharh gantva vanditva flisinnam 
madburavacanena alapanto „socasi^ upasaka?" ti vatva ,,ama, 
bhante, pitusoko marii badbatiti" vutte „upasaka, poranaka- 
pandita attba^ lokadbamme tatvatc/ jananta pitari kalakate* 
appamattakam^ pi sokarii na kaririisii" ti vatva tena yacito 
atitam abari: 

Atlte'' Baraiiasiyarh Dasaratba-maharaja nama agati- 
gamanarii pabaya dbammena rajjarh karesi. Tassa solasannarii 
ittbisabassanam jettbika* aggamabesi dve putte ekafp ca dhitaram 
vijayi. Jettbaputto Rama-pandito abosi, dutiyo Lakkbana-ku- 
maro naraa, dbita Sita-de\i'^ nam a. Aparabbage aggamabesi 
kalam akasi. Raja tassa^ kalakataya"* cirarh'* sokavasarii gantva 
amaccebi sannapito*' tassa kattabbaparibararii katva annarii^ 

« C« kiitimbikam. ^ C« kalariikate. *= C° omits Savattbiyam. 
^ C** klm socasi. " C" attbavidbe. ^ C" tatbato. ^ C ap- 
pamattakam. ^ C omits atlte. ' C jetthaka. ^ C" ekam. 
^ C° -devi. ^ C nassa. ™ C" kalariikataya. " C ciram. 
C" cirataram. ^ C samnapito. ^ C amnarii. 

1 



aggamahesitthane thapesi. Sa rafino' piya ahosi, manapa. 
Sapi aparabhage gabbham ganhitva laddhagabbhaparihara puttam 
vijayi. Bharatakumaro"' ti 'ssa namarh kaririisu'*. Raja put- 
tasinehena „bhad(ie, vararii* te dammi, ganhahiti" aha. Sa ga- 
hitakarh katva thapetva kumarassa sattatthavassakale rajanam 
upasamkamitva ,;deva, tumhehi mayham puttassa varo dinno, 
idani 'ssa nam detha" ti aha. „Ganha^, bhadde" ti. „Deva, 
puttassa me rajjarii detha" ti". Raja accharam paharitva „nas- 
savasali, mayham dve putta aggikkhandha viya jalanti^, te 
marapetva tava puttassa rajjam yacasiti" tajjesi. Sa bhita 
sirigabbham pavisitva annesu'^ divasesu rajanam punappuna^ 
rajjam eva yaci. Raja tassa tarn varam adatva va cintesi: 
„matugamo nama akatannu* mittadubhP, ayam me kutapan- 
nam^ va kutalancam va katva putte ghatapeyya" ti so putte 
pakkosapetva tam attharii arocetva „tata", tumhakarii idha va- 
santanarii antarayo pi bhaveyya, turahe samantarajjam^ va 
araiinam*' va gantva mama dhumakale agantva kulasantakam 
rajjam ganheyyatha" ti vatva puna nemittake'^ pakkosapetva 
attano ayuparicchedam pucchitva „afinani^ dvadasa vassani pa- 
vattissantiti-^'^ sutva „tata^, ito dvadasavassaccayena agantva 
chattarii ussapeyyatha" ti aha. Te „sadhu" ti vatva pitararii 
vanditva rodanta pasada otarimsu. Sita-devi'^ „aham* pi-^ 
bhatikehi saddhiiii gamissamiti" pitaram vanditva rodanti^ 



^ C ramno. "^ C haratha- 



C" akarhsu 



varan. 



C« 



ganhahi. ^ C" adds vatva. ^ C« jalanta. ^ C amnesu. y C" 
punappunam. ^ C akatamnu. ^ both MSS. mittadubhi. ^ C* 
kutapakkham. ^ C ghatapeyyasi, C" ghateyya. " both MSS 
tata. * C" gamantaram. '^ C ararhnam. ^ C" nimittake brah- 
mane. * C amfiarh. ^ both MSS. pavattissatiti. ^ C" tata. 
^ C« -devi. »■ C° aham. ^ Q" omits pi. ^ both MSS. rodanti. 



I 



nikkhami^ Te*" tayo pi" mahajanaparivara** nikkhamitva maha- 
janarii nivattetva anupubbena Himavantarh pavisitva sampanno- 
dake sulabhaphalaphale padese assamarh mapetva phalaphalena 
yapenta^ vasimsu. Lakkhana-pandito pana Sita ca Rama- 
panditam yacitva „tumhe amhakarh pitutthane thita, tasma 
assame yeva hotha, mayam phalaphalam aharitva tumhe po- 
sessama'' ti patinnam'^ ganhimsu. Tato patthaya Rama-pan- 
(lito tatth' eva hoti. Itare'' phalaphale^ aharitva tarii patijag- 
giiiisu. Evarn tesam phalaphalena yapetva vasantanam Dasa- 
ratha-maharaja puttasokena navame samvacchare kalam akasi. 
Tassa sarlrakiccam karetva devi' „attano puttassa Bharata- 
kumarassa chattam ussapetha" ti aha. Amacca pana „chatta- 
samika aranne" vasantiti" na adaiiisu^ Bharata-kumaro „mama 
bhatararii Rama-panditarii aranna"^ anetva chattam ussapessa- 
miti" panca rajakakudhabhandani gahetva caturafiginiya senaya 
tassa vasanatthanaiii patva avidure khandhavararh nivaretva^ 
katipayehi amaccehi saddhim Lakkhana-panditassa ca Sitaya 
ca arafinarii^ gatakale assamapadarii pavisitva assamapada- 
dvare sutthuthapitakancanarupikarh'^ viya Rama-panditarii 
nirasakarii sukhanisinnam upasaiiikamitva vanditva ekamantaih 
thito ranno^ pavattim arocetva saddhirh amaccehi padesu pa- 
titva rodi". Rama-pandito n'eva soci na rodi*, indriyavika- 
ramattarii pi ^ssa nahosi. Bharatassa pana roditva nisinnakale 
sayanhasamaye itare dve phalaphalam adaya agamirhsu*. Rama- 
pandito cintesi : „ime dahara, mayham viya pariganhanapafina'^ 

' C" nikkhanta. "^ C« omits te. " C« addsjana. « C« maha- 
parivara. ^ C" yapento. ^ C patiriifiam. ** C* adds dve. 
* C" phalaphalam. * C" devi. « C aramne. ^ C" nadamsu. 
' C aramfia, C° arannato. ^ C" katva tattha nivasetva. * C 
aramfiam, ^ C" thapitakancanarupakarii. ^ C ramno, " C" 
rodati. * C" paridevi. '^ C* alapimsu. ^ C -pamfia. 

1» 



etesaih n'atthi, sahasa 'pita te® mato* ti vutte sokarii dhare- 
turii-^ asakkontanam hadayam pi tesam phaleyya, upayena te 
udakaih otaretva etarn pavattim savessamiti^". Atha nesaiii 
purato ekam udakatthanam dassetva „tumhe'' aticirena agata, 
idarii vo dandakammam hotu, imarii udakarii otaritva tittha- 
tha*" ti upaddhagatharii tava aha: 

1" „Etha Lakkhana Sita ca, 
ubho otaratliodakan" ti. 

Tass^attho: ,,ethaLakkhaiia Sita ca", agaccantu, „ubhopiotha- 
ratha imarii-^ udakan*' ti. Te ekavacanena^ otaritva at- 
thaiiisu. Atha nesam tairi^ pavattim arocento sesaiii upaddha- 
gatham aha : 

1^ „Ev^yarii Bharato aha: 
'raja Dasaratho mato''' ti. 

Te pitu matasasanarii sutva va visanna"* ahesurii. Puna pi 
nesam kathesi, puna*^ visanna"^ ahesun ti. Evarh yavatatiyam 
visannitaiii'' patte te amacca ukkhipitva udaka niharitva lad- 
dhassasesu(?). Sabbe^ afinamannam* roditva paridevitva nisi- 
dimsu. Tada Bharata-kumaro cintesi: „mayham bhata Lak- 
khana-kumaro' bhaginf ca Sita-devi* pitu matasasanam sutva 
va sokam sandharetum na sakkonti", Rama-pandito pana na 
socati*' na paridevati, kin nu kho c/assa^ asocanakaranarii, 
pucchissami nan" ti so tarii pucchanto dutiyarii gatham aha: 



« C* vo. f C" sandharetum. ^ C" arocessamiti. ^ C" adds 
va. * C titthata. ^ C" omits iraarii. ^ C" ekavacaneneva. 
^ C" pitu. "^ (y- visanni, C visamna. " C« adds pi te. "" C" 
omits this word C visamnitam. ^' C" te sabbe. * C amna- 
mamnarh. »• C^ adds ca. ' C« bhagini. ' C« -devi. « C« 
asakkonti. *" C" neva soci. ^ C« kho tassa. 



2. ,,Kena Rama ppabhavena^' 
socitabbarti na socasi, 
pitararii kalakatarh^ sutva 
na tarn pasahate* dukhan^" ti. 

Tattha pabhavena" ti anubhavena; na tarn pasahate* ti 
evaruparii dukham kena karanena tarn na pileti, kirn te aso- 
canakaranaiii, kathehi tava nan'' ti. Ath' assa Rama-pandito 
attano asocanakaranam kathento** : 

3. „Yam na sakka paletum* 
posen^lapitari/ bahum, 
sa kissa^ vinnu'* medhavl* 
attanam upatapaye. 

4. Dahara ca hi vuddha-^ ca 
ye bala ye ca pandita 
addha* c'eva daUdda^ ca, 
sabbe raaccuparayana. 

5. Phalanam iva pakkanam 
niccam papatana"* bhayaiii, 
evarh jatanam" maccanarii 
niccam maranato bhayaiii. 



y C** sabhavena. ^ C« kalamkatam. * C" sahassate. ^ both 
MSS. dukkhan. *» C" sabhavena. * C* sahassate dukkhan. 
'^ C* no. ^ C adds aha. « C" nipaletum. ^ C sattanarii 
lapatarh. ^ C" takissa. ^ C virhnu. * both MSS. medhavi. 
?" C iiddha. ^ C addho. ^ C« dalidda. "* C papatato, C« pa- 
tanato. ^ C« jatana. 



6. Sayam eke na dissanti 
pato dittha bahujjana, 
pato eke na dissanti 
sayarh dittha bahujjana. 

7. Paridevayamano ce 
kancid attham udabbahe 
sammulho^ hirhsam"' attanam, 
kayira^ c'enarh* vicakkhano. 

8. Kiso vivanno bhavati 
hiihsam attanam attano, 
na tena peta palenti, 
nirattha paridevana**. 

9. Yatha saranam adittam 
varina parinibbaye*, 
evam pi dhiro sutava 
medhavi' pandito naro 
khippam uppatitam sokaiii, 
vato tularii" va, dharhsaye. 

10. Eko va macco" acceti 
eko va jayate kule, 
sannogaparama tv-eva* 
sambhoga^ sabbapaninam. 



" C" sammulho. "" C" hisam. ^ C" kayira. « C venam. 
*■ C paridevata. * C" varina va nibbapaye. ^ both MSS. me- 
dhavi. " C tularii. *' C" macco eko va. ' C samnogapara- 
mattheva, C" samyogaparamatvevarii. ^ C" saiiibhoga. 




11. Tasma hi dhirassa bahussutassa, 
sampassato lokam imam paran ca, 
annaya'^ dhammarii, hadayam manafi ca 
soka mabantapi na tapayanti. 

12. So 'harh'^ dassan^ ca bhokkhan" ca, 
bharissami* ca natake, 
sesarii sampalayissami*', 
kiccam evarii'^ vijanato" ti 

mabi^ gatbahi aniccataiii pakasesi. Tattha paletun^ ti^ rak- 
khitum, lap i tan'' ti* lapantanaiii-'', idam vuttaiii boti : „tata 
Bharata, yam° sattanam jivitam bahum pi vippalapantanam* 
purisanarii ekenapi'^ 'ma upacchijjiti^' na sakka rakkhitum so"* 
dani madiso attba lokadhamme tatvato" jananto vinnu" me- 
dhavi^ panditomaranapariyosanajivitesu'^ sattesu matesu kissa 
attanam upatapaye, kimkarana anupakarena*" sokadukkbena 
attanaih santapeyya" ti; dahara ca ti gathaya* „maccu nam^ 
esa, tata Bbarata, n*eva suvannarupakasadisanarh daharanam' 
khattiyakumarakadinaili, na vuddhippattanam mabayodbanam, 
na balanarii" puthujjanasattanam^, na buddbadmam"' panditanam, 
na'^ cakkavattiadinarii^' issaranarii, na nirasanavasananaiii^ da- 

* C amnaya. ^ C abarh. ^ C" yasan. " C« bhogan. *C 
bbariya, C" bhariyapi. '^ C° saiimialayissami. ^ C" etaiii. 

* C" adds dasabi. ^ C paleturii, C* nipaletun. ^ Q m. ^ Q 
lapitan, C" lapataih. * C ni. ^ C lapannanaih. ° C saiii. ^ €** 
vilapantanarii. ^ C" ekenapi. ^ C" na paccbijjitu. "* C" poso. 
» C tatvato, C* tatbato. ° G vimnii. ^ both MSS. medhavi. 
^ C maranapariyosanejlvitesu. ^ both MSS. anupakarena. * C 
gatba. * C" omits daharanam. " C" omits na balanarii. ^ C" 
putbusattanarii. "" C adds na. ' C" omits na. ^ C" cakka- 
vattiyadinarii. ^ C nirasavasananarii. 



8 



liddanam^ lajjati®, sabbe p' ime satta maccupaiayana, 
maranamukhe sambhagga" bhavanti yeva" ti dassanattharii 
vuttarh; papatana ti^ patanato*, idarh vuttarh hoti: jjatha'*, 
tata Bharata, pakkanam phalanarii pakkakalato patthaya Mdani 
vanta chijjitva^ patissanti, idani patissantiti' patanato bbayarh^ 
niccaih dhuvam ekamsikam eva bhavati^, evarii asarhkaniya- 
bhavato'^ evamjatanam maccanam pi ekamsikam yeva mara- 
nato bhayarh*, na h' atthi-' so khano valayo va'^ yattha tesam 
maranaiti na asariikitabbaih^ bhaveyya" ti; say an ti vikale 
imina rattibhage"* ditthanaiii divasabhage" divasabhage ca 
ditthanam*' rattibhage adassanarii dipeti; kancid^ atthan ti 
'pita me putto me' ti adihi paride vay amano'^ ce^ poso 
sammulho attanaiii himsanto kilamanto appamattakam pi 
attharii* ahareyya^; kayira" c'enaiii" vieak khano ti"^ atha 
pandito puriso^ paridevam kareyya, yasma pana^ paridevanto 
mataiii va anetiim afifiam va tassa vaddhim katurii na sakkoti 
tasma niratthakatta paridevitassa pandita na paridevanti^ ; 
attanam attano ti attano attabhavam sokaparidevadukkhena 
himsanto; n a ten a ti tena paridevena paralokam gata satta 
na palenti na yapenti"; nirattha ti tasma tesam matasatta- 
nam ayarii paridevana niratthaka; s a ran an ti nivasageham, 

<* both MSS. daliddanam. ^ C lajjati. " C" sambhaggavi- 
bhagga, C sambhagga. ^ C" omits papatana ti. '^ C" adds ti. 
^ C* adds hi. « C pijjitva, C" jijjitva. ^ C« tesam. ^ both 
MSS. bhavanti. ^ C" asamganiyato. ' C bhaye. ^ C« natthi. 
* C adds ya. ^ C« asamkitabbam. "^ C*^ adds ca. " C 
omits divasabhage, C" adds ca aditthanarh. ° C dittha. ^ C" 
kincid. « C" paridevamano. '^ C" va. * C* adds na. ' C" 
adds na kareyya. " C" kayira. "" C cetaiii. "^ C omits ti, 
y C" adds evam. * C na. * C amnarii. * C" paridevantiti. 
** C" omits na yapenti. 



9 



idarh \uttam hoti: yatha pandito puriso attano vasan;igare aditte'' 
pajjitva'' ^?) ghatasahassena varina'' nam'' nibbapayat' eva, 
evarh dhiro uppatitarii-^ sokarii khippam^ nibbapaye. tularii 
«ya ca vato yatha thaturii'* na* sakkoti evaih dhamsaye vid- 
Ihamsayeyya-^ ti attho; eko va macco'^ ti „ettha, tata Bha- 
rata, ime satta kammassaka nama, tatha hi paralokarii gacchanto 
satto eko va acceti^ atikamati, khattiyadikuie. jayamano pi 
eko va gantva jayati; tattha tattha pana*" natimittasamyo- 
gavasena" 'ayarh me pita ayarii mata ayarii mitto* ti saiiiyo- 
gaparama tv-eva sambhoga sabbapaninam, para- 
matthena pana tisu'' bhavesu kammassaka^ v'ete satta" ti*; 
tasma ti^ yasma tesarii* sattanam natimittasariiyogam* nati- 
mittaparibhogam" thapetva ito paraiii annaiii*' n'atthi tasma 
sampassato* iman^ ca paran^ csl^ lokarii nanabhavavinabhavam 
eva samma passato^, anfiaya" dhamman ti atthavidhalo- 
kadhammam janitva, hadayaiii manan capi^ idarh ubha- 
yam pi*^ cittass* eva namam, idarh vuttarh hoti: 

„Labho alabho ayaso yaso^ ca 

ninda* pasarhsa-^ ca siikhan ca dukkharh^ 

ete anicca manujesu dhamma, 

ma soca kirn socasi Potthapada" ti 

* C aditto. " C* mahantam pi vosanarh anapajjitva. '^ C" 
varipanina. * C* omits narh. -^ both MSS. uppattitarh. ^ C" 
khippam eva. ^ C" santhaturh. * C omits na. ^ C* vid- 
dharhseyya. ^ C" adds accetl. ^ C accayeti. "* C" puna. 
" C« -sarhyogena. '^ C« adds pi. p C« kammassa. * C« 
adds attho. ** C" omits tasma ti. * C" etesarh. * C -sarh- 
vegarh. " C" natimittaparibhogamittam. " C arhnarh. ^ C" 
adds pi. y C" imarh. ^ C" pararh, C para. ^ C omits ca. 

* C passanto. « C arhnaya. ^ C* ca. ^ C" omits pi. ^ C" 
yaso ayaso. «C'»nindarh. -^C^pasariisan. ^ C" sukharh dukkhaiica. 



10 



imesarii atthannarii lokadhamnianaiii yena temx^ cittena na- 
yanti tassa* ca(- ?) aniccatarii natva thitassa dhirassa pitiputta- 
maranadivatthukapp mahanta'^ soka hadayaiii na tapayantiti, 
etarii va^ atthavidharii lokadhammam natva thitassa hadaya- 
vatthun ca nianaii ca mahantdpi soka na tapayantiti"^, evam 
ettha attho datthabbo; so harii dassan ca bhokkhan ca" 
ti gathaya** „tata Bharata, andhabalasattanarii^' viya mama ro- 
danam* paridevanaiii nama n^nucchavikarii^, aham* pana pitu 
accayena tassa thane thatva kapanadinam* danaiii thanantara- 
rahanam thanantaram yasarahanam yasarh dassami", pitara*' 
me paribhuttanayena issariyam bhunjissami, natake^ poses- 
sami, avasesan ca attano parijanadikarii janarh palayissami^/, 
dhammikasamanabrahmananarii dhammikarakkhavaranaguttim* 
karissamiti" ; evam hi vijauato panditapurisassa anurupa- 
kiccan'^ ti attho. Parisa imarh^ Rama-panditassa" aniccata- 
pakasanirii dhammadesanaiii^ sutva nissoka ahosi*'. Tato Bha- 
rata-kumaro'^ Rama-panditarh vanditva 5,Baranasi-rajjam^ pa- 
ticchatha"-^ ti aha. „Tata. Lakkhanan ca Sita-devin ca gahetva 
gantva rajjarii anusasatha" ti. ,,Tumhe pana^ deva" ti. „Tata, 
mama pita 'dvadasavassaccayendgantva'* rajjarii kareyyasiti*' 



^ C" kenaci. ^ C" tan. ^ C" pitu puttassa maranadivatthuka. 
^ C" mahantapi. ^ C" evarii pi. "^ C« tapayauti. " C« so 
harh yasan ca bhogan ca. ° C" yathayan. ^ C" andhaba- 
ianaiii sattanarii. « C" rodana. ^ C" na anu-. * C" aharh. 
* C kapanadinarii , C" adds danarahanam. ** C dassamlti. 
^ C tara. * C" adds ca. ^ C* palessami, "^ C -varana- 
guntiih, C" -varanagutti. "^ C" anuruparii kiccan. ^ C ima, 
C« idarh. « C* omits Rama. * C -pakasanadham-. ^ C« 
ahesurii, ^ C" -kumarena. *= C Baranasi-. ^ C" sariipa- 
ticchatha. ^ C* adds kirii. ^ C" -dvadasavassaccayena 
agantva. * C" kareyyaslti. 



I 



11 



raaih avoca, aharh idan' eva gacchanto tassa vacanakaro nama 
na homi-', annani'^ pana' tliii vassani atikkamitva agami^sa- 
raiti". ,,Ettakam kalaiii ko rajjaih karessattti." „Tumhe ka- 
rotha™" ti. „Na mayarh" karessama" ti. „Tena hi yava 
mama agamana° ima paduka karessantiti" attano tinapaduka 
omuncitva adasi. Te tayo pi jana^ paduka gahetva Rama- 
panditam* vanditva mahajanaparivuta Baraiiasim agamariisu. 
Tini sariivaccharani*" paduka rajjam karesuiii. Amacca tina- 
paduka rajapallaiiike thapetva attarii vinicchinanti. Sace* dub- 
binicchito hoti paduka annamannam' patihannanti". Taya 
safinaya" puna vinicchinanti. Sammavinicchitakale paduka 
nissadda sannisidanti. Rama-pandito* tinnam* samvacchara- 
nam accayena aranna^ nikkhamitva Baranasinagaram^ patva*^ 
uyyanarii pavisi. Tassagatabhavam^ natva kumara amaccaparivuta 
uyyanarh gantva Sitam aggamahesim katva ubhinnam pi abhi- 
sekaih karirhsu." Evarii abhisekappatto Mahasatto alamkata- 
rathe thatva mahantena parivarena nagaram pavisltva padak- 
khinam katva Sucandaka-pasadavarassa mahatalam abhiruyha^ 
tato patthaya solasavassasahassani dhammena rajjarii karetva*^ 
saggapadarh*^ puresi. 

Dasavassasahassani 
satthivassasatani ca 



^ C" vacanakaro nahosi. ^ C arhnani. ^ C pana, C* pi. 
"* C" karetha. « C omits na mayaiii, C" na mayham. ° C" 
mamagamana. p C pivijana. * C omits Rama. "" C" adds 
hi. * C omits sace. * C ariinan^amnarii. " C patihamnanti. 
" C*» naya, C samnaya. * C" tinnaih. y C arariina. " both 
MSS. -si-. "^ C« gantva. ^ C" tassa agamanabhavarii. « C** 
akariisu. * C" abhiruhi. "" C" karitva aynpariyosane. ^ C** 
saggapuram. 



12 



kambugivo* mahabahu 
Ramo rajjam akarayiti 

ayarh abhisambnddhagatha^ tarn attharh dipeti.^ Tattha 
kambugivo* ti suvannalihasagivoC?)'' suvannam hi kambun* 
ti viiccati. 

Sattha imarh-^ desanam'' aharitva^ jatakaiii samodhanesi: 
- saccapariyosane kutumbiko sotapattiphale patitthahi'" - Tada 
Dasaratha-maharaja Suddhodana-maharaja" ahosi, mata Maha- 
maya,'' Sita Rahula-mata , Bharato Anando, Lakkhano Sari- 
putto, parisa Buddha-parisa, Rama-pandito^ aham e\a ti. 
Dasaratha-jatakaiti.* 



* C* kaiiibuglvo. ^ C<* abhisaihbuddha-. ^ C« pakaseti. 
^ C" suvannalingasadisagivo. ' C" kaiiibCi. ^ C" idarii. * C* 
dharamadesanam. ^ C* adds saccani pakasetva. "* C" patit- 
thasi. " C" sirisuddhodana-. ^ C" mahamayadevi. ^ C* 
adds pana. * C" adds sattaraam. 



13 



THE DASARATHA-BIRTH. 



,,^^01116 La kk ha 11 a and Sit a." This the Master related, 
(while) living at Jetavana, concerning a householder 
whose father had died. For he, when (his) father was dead, 
overcome with grief, abandoned all work and became a slave to 
grief. The Master, at the time of dawn, surveying the w^orld 
and seeing his (the householder's) happiness in (the possession 
of) the fruits of the state of a sotapanna, after walking about 
in Savatthi on the following day, and after holding (his) re- 
past, sent away the bhikkhus, and taking (with him only) 
one samana as an attendant, went to his (the householder's) 
house. Accosting in a mild voice him who had sat down 
after bowing (to the Master), he said: ,,dost thou grieve, 
upasaka?'^ and having been answered: „yes, Lord, grief for 
(my) father oppresses me," he rejoined: „0 upasaka, the sages 
of old knowing thoroughly the eight realities (of life), when 
the father (of any of them) had died, did not in the least 
grieve," and (when) called on by him he told a story: 

In (times) past (there lived) in Bar an a si a great king. 
Dasaratha byname, (who) after abandoning a reckless life 
reigned with justice. His queen (who was) the head-wife of 
16000 women bore (unto him) two sons and one daughter. 
The elder son was the sage Rama by name, the second the 
prince La k khan a, the daughter the princess Sita by name. 
Afterwards the queen died. Tlie king, when she was dead, 



14 



after having for a long time given way to the sway of 
sorrow (was at length) brought to reason by (his) ministers, 
(and) when he had performed the necessary funeral ceremo- 
nies he set another in the place of queen. She became dear 
(and) pleasing to the king. She afterwards having conceived and 
having gone through the ceremonies (on occasion) of her concep- 
tion, bore a son. They named him prince Bharata. From love 
to (this) son the king said: „(my) dear, I grant thee a boon, 
accept it." She having accepted (it, but) leaving it in abey- 
ance (for a while), at the time, when the prince was (about) 
seven (or) eight years (old) went to the king and said: 
„Lord, a boon was conferred by you upon my son, now 
grant it him." „Take (it, my) dear." „Lord, give the king- 
dom to my son." The king snapping his fingers (angrily at 
her) reprimanded (her saying): ,, wretched outcast,my two sons 
shine like masses of fire, thou askest (me to give) the kingdom 
to thy son after having put them both to death." She (was 
at first) terrified (and) entered the inner apartment, (but) on 
subsequent days she again and again asked the king for the 
kingdom. The king, however, not granting her that boon, 
thought: „women, as (well) known, are ungrateful (and) 
treacherous, this one either by writing false letters or by re- 
sorting to mean bribery will have my sons killed," (and) so 
having summoned (liis) sons (and) told them the matter (he 
said) : „(my) dears, if you (continue to) live here, there may 
be obstacles (in your way), go (therefore) to a neighbouring 
kingdom or to the forest, come back at time of my funeral 
pyre and seize upon the paternal kingdom," (and) so having 
said, after again calling the astrologers and asking (them) the 
limit of his life, and hearing that another twelve years would 
pass (before his death) he said: 55(my) dears, after the lapse 
of twelve years (hence) return and raise the (royal) urn- 



15 



brella." They said „vvelV' bowed to (their) father and de- 
scended from the palace weeping. The princess Sita (saying) : 
.,1 too will go away with my dear brothers," bowed to her 
father and went out weeping. These three having gone out 
surrounded by a multitude (of people), and having, after 
sending back the multitude, gradually entered the Hima- 
vanta, built a hermitage in a region abounding with water 
(and) where various kinds of fruits were easily to be had, 
and resided (there) subsisting on fruits. The sage 
Lakkhana, however, and Sita, demanding of the sage Rama 
(said) : „you stand in our father's place, therefore do you 
stay at the hermitage, we will bring fruits and nourish 
you," and so they took (his) promise. From that (moment) 
the sage Rama remains there. The others brought fruits 
and watched over him. (While) they were residing (there), 
living on fruits, the great king Dasaratha ended his days 
from sorrow for his sons in the ninth year (after their de- 
parture). Having finished the funeral rites over him the 
queen said : „Raise the umbrella for my son, prince Bharata." 
But the ministers (said): „the masters of the umbrella live in 
the forest, (and) so (they) did not allow it. The prince Bha- 
rata (saying to himself): „I will bring my brother the sage 
Rama from the forest and raise the umbrella (for him)," took 
the five royal insignia, reached with a four-fold army his 
dwelling-place, and after halting the army at a short distance 
entered the hermitage with a few attendants at a time, when 
the sage Lakkhana and Sita had gone to the forest. Having 
approached the sage Rama, who was sitting at ease and 
without desires at the door of the hermitage like a fixed 
golden statue, and having bowed (to him) and, while standing 
apart, told the tidings of the king('s death), he fell down at 
(his) feet together with the attendants and wept. The sage 



16 



Rama neither grieved nor wept, there was not even the 
slightest commotion of his senses. While Bharata was thus 
sitting weeping, the other two at the evening-time came back 
bringing (with them) various kinds of fruits. (Then) the sage 
Rama thought : „These are young, they have no discriminative 
understanding, as I have; if on a sudden they are told: 'your 
father is dead,' they will not be able to bear the sorrow, 
(but) their hearts will break ; by some means I will get them 
to go down into the water and (then) I will tell (them) these 
tidings." Then showing them a pool in front of them (he 
said) : „At length you have come, this be your punishment, 
go down into this water and stay (there," and) so (having 
said) he at the same time pronounced the (first) half-stanza : 

1 a. ,,Come Lakkhana and Sita, 
both go down into the water." 

They, at (his) mere call, went down and stayed (there). 
Then telling them those tidings, he pronounced the (other) 
half-stanza : 
1 b. „Thus says this Bharata: 

'The king Dasaratha is dead'." 

Hearing the tidings of (their) father's death, they became in- 
sensible. He again told them, (and) they again became in- 
sensible. Thus for the third time having become insensible, 
the attendants raised them up, took (them) out of the water 
and comforted (them). They all sat mutually crying and la- 
menting. Then prince Bharata thought: „my brother prince 
Lakkhana and (my) sister princess Sita, having heard the ti- 
dings of (their) father's death, are not able to restrain their 
sorrow, but the sage Rama mourns not (and) laments not, 
what can be the reason of his not mourning, I will ask him," 
(and) so asking him he pronounced the second stanza: 



17 



2. „By what strength (of mind), o Rama, 

dost thou not mourn what is to be mourned; 
having heard (that thy) father (is) dead 
pain does not overwhelm thee." 

Then the sage Rama, telling him the reason of his not 
mourning, (said) : 

3. „What cannot be preserved 

by man, even if much bewailed. 

for such a thing's sake why should the intelligent (and) 

distress himself. [wise (man) 

4. For both the young and the old, 

(those) who (are) foolish and (those) who (are) wise, 
both the rich and the poor, 
all (are) tending to death. 

5. As ripe fruits 

always are in danger of falling, 

so born mortals 

always are in danger of death. 

6. In the evening some are not seen (any more) 
(although) in the morning many were seen; 
(and) in the morning some are not seen, 
(although) in the evening many were seen. 

7. If by lamenting 

the fool who (only) injures himself, 

gains anything, — 

let the wise (man) do the same, too. 



18 



8. (But) he (only) becomes lean (and) sallow, 
(while) injuring his own self, 

(and) the dead are not saved, 
lamentation (therefore) is of no avail. 

9. As a house on fire 

is exstinguished by water, 

so also the pensive, well informed, 

intelligent, wise man 

rapidly drives away arisen sorrow 

as the wind a tuft of cutton. 

10. Alone a mortal passes away, 
alone he is born in a family; 
but the enjoyment of all beings 

has association for its highest (aim). 

11. Therefore sorrows, even if they be great, do not rack 
the heart and mind of the wise (and) learned (man), 
of him, who sees through this world and the next 
after having known the law. 

12. I however will give and enjoy, 
and I will maintain (my) relations, 
the rest I will protect; 

such is a wise (man^s) vocation;*' 

(and) thus by these stanzas he elucidated the uncertainty (of 
all things). The assembly having heard this religious dis- 
course of the sage Rama, elucidating the uncertainty (of all 
things), became free from sorrow. Then prince Bharata 
bowing to the sage Rama, said: „accept the kingdom of Ba- 
ranasi." ^(My) dear, take Lakkhana and the princess Sita 



19 

and go and rule the kingdom." „But you, Lord?" ),(My) 
dear, my father said to me, 'after the lapse of twelve years 
then come and rule*, if I go now I shall not fulfil his words, 
but having passed three years more (here) I will come." „Who 
shall reign during that time?" „Do you reign." ,,We shall 
not." „Well then, until my return these shoes shall reign," 
so (saying) he took off his straw-shoes and gave (them to 
Bharata). Those three persons, having taken the shoes and 
bowed to the sage Rama, went to BaranasI, surrounded by a 
multitude (of people). For three years the shoes reigned. 
The ministers, after placing the straw-shoes on the royal 
couch, consider the case. If it be badly considered, the shoes 
strike against each other. (Taking warning) by this sign they 
again consider (the case). At the time when the case is 
duly considered the shoes sit together noiselessly. The sage 
Rama at the end of three years went out of the forest, and 
on reaching the city of Baranasi entered the Park. Having 
learned his arrival the princes, surrounded by the ministers, 
went to the Park, and after making Sita queen they anointed 
them both. Thus having received the (royal) unction, Maha- 
satta standing on an adorned chariot, entered the city with a 
large retinue, and after a reverential salutation having ascended 
the upper story of the magnificent palace Sucandaka, he from 
that time reigned with justice during 16000 years, and (then) 
went to heaven. 

„During ten thousand years 
and sixty centuries 
the fine-necked and great- armed 
Rama reigned." 

This stanza by him who possessed universal knowledge illu- 
strates the matter. 

2* 



20 



The Master having given this instruction, summed up the 
jataka thus: — at the end of the (exposition of the four) 
truths the householder remained in (possession of) the fruits 
of a sotapanna — At that time the great king Dasaratha 
was the great king Suddhodana, the mother (of Rama) Maha- 
maya, Sita the mother of Rahula, Bharata Ananda, Lakkhana 
Sariputta, the assembly the assembly of Buddha, (and) the 
sage Rama myself. The Dasaratha-Birth. 



NOTES. 



To constitute the text of this Jataka I have had two Singha- 
lese MSS., viz. that ofCopenhagen described in Westergaard's 
Codd. Orient, p. 36 (C), and a Paper Transcript which 
Mr. Childers has kindly procured for me from Ceylon (C"). 
The text of the former being evidently the older, I have 
founded my edition on that, and I have not ventured to in- 
troduce the ameliorations of the latter into the text, excepting 
only double-nasals instead of anusvara and a nasal. 

Matapitika, so both MSS.; it ought, I suppose, to be 
written with a short i, but as the Burmese MS. of Jataka 
346 which I give below, reads matapittika I have not dared 
to alter it. Kutumbika (S. kutumbin) is in Pali some- 
times written kutimbika. Kalakata is sometimes written 
kalamkata which I suppose to be an innovation. Upanissaya, 
in my translation of this word I have followed Clough who in 
his Singhalese Dictionary (see upanigraya) renders it by ,, hap- 
piness, fortune." By Tumour (Mahawanso p. 36,4) it is translated 
„perfection in piety", otherwise pp. 24. 34. Alwis (Attanagalu- 
Vansa p. 175) renders the passage: ,, perceived that this person 
was predestined to attain the paths.*' But should not the word 



21 

rather mean: confidence, tirin belief, security? To show the 
use ol* it I quote the following passages, Jat. 70: evarii 
tasmirii arahattam (MS. arahantam) patte dhammasabhayam 
katha udapadi : avuso, evarupassa nama arahattassa (MS. aran- 
tassa) upanissaye sati ayasma Cittahattha-Sariputto chakkhat- 
turii uppabbajito, aho mahadoso puthujjanabhavo ti ; Jat. 41 : 
pacchimabhavikasattarii na sakka nasetuiii, antoghate dipo viya 
hi 'ssa hadaye arahattassa upanissayo jalati (MS. jalani) ; 
Jat. 461: Brahmalokam gantva Baka-brahmuno (MS. -no) 
ditthirii bhinditva dasannariiBrahnia-sahassanarh arahattam adasi, 
anusariivaccharam tisu Mancalesu carikaiii caramano u p a n i s - 
sayasampannanarh manussanam saranani c^eva silani ca magga- 
phalani ca deti. See further Dhp. p. 79,i9-2o, and p. 399,ii. 
Uyyojetva, comp. Five Jat. p. 10,4 from the bottom. Attha 
lokadhamma, Alwis (Attanag. p. 176): „the eightfold realities 
of life". Maharajal have in my Two Jatakas (Journal of R. A" 
S. New Series vol. 5 p. 1) wrongly translated ., emperor", see 
Westergaard^s „0m de indiske Kejserhuse fra det 4-10. Aar- 
hundrede p. 7. Agatigamana, comp. Clough's Singh. Diet. 
In elucidation of this word I quote the beginning of Ganda- 
tinduka-jataka: Atite pana Kampilla-ratthe Uttarapancala-na- 
gare Paficalo nama raja agatigamane thito adhammena 
pamatto rajjarii karesi. Ath* assa amaccadayo sabbe pi 
adhammika jata. Balipilita (MS. -pi-) ratthavasino (MS. -va-) 
puttadare adaya ararhfie miga viya carimsu. Gamatthane gamo 
nama na hosi. Manussa rajapurisabhayena diva gehe vasitum 
na sakkonti, gehani kanthakasakhahi parikkhipitva arune (MS. 
-ne) uggacchante yeva ararhnaiii pavisanti. Diva rajapurisa 
vilumpanti, rattirii cora. Tada Bodhisatto bahinagare ganda- 
tindurukkhe devata hutva nibbatti, anusarhvacchararii rarhno 
santika sahassagghanakarh balikammarii labhati. So cintesi: 
ayam raja pamatto sakalarattham vinassati etc. Parihara 



22 



comp. Jat. 447: aparabhage Bodhisatto matari kalakataya 
tassa sariraparihararii katva Karandakarh assamapadaiii 
nama gato. Jat, 530: sa gabbhassa patitthitabhavam natva 
rariifio arocesi. Raja (MS. raja) gabbhaparihararii dapesi; 
comp. Dhp. p. 78,6; pJ20,i5. According to Abhidhana (Subhuti's 
Edition v. 1002) parihara is --= vajjana, sakkara and. 
rakkhana, it must therefore, I think, be understood concerning 
any act, by which one seeks to honour another person, in 
the present case concerning certain ceremonies that have taken 
place at the funeral and at the conception of the queen. Al- 
wis renders: „he performed what was necessary to be done" 
and „she who received the (necessary) protection to the 
foetus." Gahitakaiii katva thapetva comp. Jat. 530: 
Canda-deviyapi vararii adasi. Sa gahitakam katva tha- 

pesi Canda-devi (MS. -devi) tarn pavattirii sutva raja- 

naiii upasaiiikamitva „deva, tumhehi mayham varo dinno, maya 
ca gahita (gahito?) gahitake katva thapito, tarn me Mani detha" 
t). ,,Ganha deviti" (MS. deviti). „Puttassa me rajjam detha" 
ti. Alwis: „behaving as if (she had) accepted." Acchara 
is rendered by Clough (Singh. Diet.) ,jSnapping the fingers," 
comp. Wilson and B. & R. at acchurita. Jat. 355 : .,imam m- 
haritum vattatiti". „Sadh^ avuso, nihara" ti. Thero „ma 
idha vasiti" accharam paharitva nihari. Jat. 524: „Nanda, tvam 
anovadako panditanarh vacanarii na karosi (MS. karoti), ahaih 
jettho, matapitaro mamam eva bhara, aham eva te patijaggis- 
sami, tvarii idha vasiturh na lacchasi, aniiattha yahiti" tassa 
accharam pahari. Nassa Mr. Childers thinks to be the impe- 
rative of n as = S.nag, and he consequently translates: „perish". 
But to me it rather appears to be an adjective, comp. S. 
nagyat. Alwis has passed over the word in silence. Jat. 451 : 
tarn sutva Bodhisatto tassa „nassavasali kim kathesi, kame 
sukharh nama kuto, viparinamadukkha hi ete" ti garahanto 



23 

sesagatha abhasi. Monatsbericht der Ak. d. W. zu Berlin 1859 p. 
331. V as all instead of vasall? = S vrsall, Abhidhana v. 503 
dough (Singh. Diet) at vasala, „a man of the lowest caste, an 
out-cast'^; comp. dough's Pali Gram. p. 143. Sirigabbha, Jat. 
450 : rajadhitri tarii divasarh rattibhage supihitesu dvaresu tha- 
pite arakkhe sattabhumakapasadavaratale alaiiikatasirigabbhe 
ekika niccala attano silam avajjamana nisidi. Jat. 451 : ath' 
assa aggamahesi „ayam raja Paccekabuddhanam dhammakatharh 
(MS.dhammariikatharii) sutva ukkanthitarQpo, amhehi saddhim 
akathetva sirigabbham pavittho, pariganhissami tava nan" ti. 
Jat. 481: atha raja Sumedharii aha: „bhadde puttarh patthe- 
hiti." „Sadhu'' ti pannarasuposathe atthangasamannagatarh 
uposatharii samadaya sirigabbhe silani avajjamana kappiya- 
mancake nisidi. This word seems to mean the same as gabbha 
(see S. garbha, garbhagrha), an inner apartment, Abhidhana 
by dough p. 26 (by Subhuti v. 214). Matugama, Abhi- 
dhana V. 231, S. matrgrama, see Burnoufs Lotus p. 393. 
Akatannu = S. akrtajna. In Dhp. at v. 97 and v. 383 it 
is used in a different meaning. Mittadiibhi, this word oc- 
curs m the following different forms: mittaddu, mittadu; 
mittadubha, mittadiibha; mittadubhika, mittadubhaka; mitta- 
dubhi, mittadubbhi, all of which correspond with the San- 
scritic mitradruh, see B. & R. and Wilson. I know not 
whether it is to be written with a short or long u, the doub- 
ling of the b in one instance seems to point to a preceding 
long syllable. Alwis: „envious*'. Panna, a letter, S. parna. 
To show, that writing and books were in full use at the time 
when the legends of the Jataka-Book originated I make the 
following extracts: Jat. 424: amacca „Harita-tapaso evam 
akasiti" ranno pannarii pahinirhsu; comp. Five Jat. p. 5,9. 
Jat. 209: j.ekarii pana gatharii bandhitva pannarii likhitva 
kakamariisarii pacapetva pannafi ca marhsaii ca setavatthena 



24 



palivethetva rajamuddikaya lafichetva pesessami, yadi pandito 
bhavissati pannarii vacetva kakamaiiisabhavarri natva aga- 
missati, noce n^gamissatiti" so 5,puni.ianadin" ti iniarii gatharii 
panne likhi. Jat. 433: so aparabhage matapitunnaih acca- 
yena sabbaissariyarii patipajji. AtW ekadivasarii ratanakottha- 
garani viloketva varapallarhkamajjhagato suvannapattam ahara- 
petva „ettakam dhanarh asiikena uppaditam, ettakam asukena" 
ti pubbafiatihi suvannapatte likhitani akkharani disva 
cintesi. Jat. 483: „Himavante catutthaya pabbatarajiya su- 
vannaYanno (MS. -nne) more carati, tassa mariisaiii khaditva 
ajaramara honti ti" suvannapatte likhapetva pattasara- 
manjusayam thapetva kalam akasi. Ath' ariiiio raja ahosi. So 
patte akkharani disva „ajaramaro bhavissamiti" tassa gahanat- 
thaya (MS. gahana-) ekarii luddarii pesesi. Jat. 381 : apara- 
bhage raja kalam akasi. Mahasatto tassa sarirapariharam 
karetva vinicchaye potthakarh likhapetva „imarii pottha- 
karii olokenta attain tireyyatha" ti vatva mahajanassa dhammam 
desetva appamadena ovaditva sabbesam rodantanaih paride- 
vantanam eva saddhirh Cullatundilena arannam pavisi. Pot- 
thaka, a book, Abhidhana v. j006, S. pustaka. Jat. 122: 
Bodhisatto mahavibhavo setthi ahosi. Tassa bhariya puttarii 
vijayi. Dasi (MS. dasi) pi \ssa tarii divasam yeva puttam 
vijayi. Te ekato vaddhiiiisu. Setthiputte (MS. -putto) le- 
kharh sikkhante ca daso pi *ssa phalakaiii vahamano gantva 
ten* eva saddhirh lekharti sikkhi. (Santike-Nidana: evaiii 
imehi karanehi mahamagge solasa lekha akacldhamano nisidi. 
Tasmim samaye Tanha Arati Raga ti tisso Mara-dhitaro 
„pita no na pamnayati, kaharn nu kho etarahiti" olokayamana 
tarii domanassappattam bhumirh likhamanarii disva pitu 
santikaiii gantva „kasm^si tata dukkhi (MS. dukkhi) domanasso" 
ti pucchiriisu.) Lanca, Abhidhana v. 824; Jat. 77: „bhante, ekarii 
ubhatomukharii assarii addasarii, tassa dvisu passesu yavasaiii 



25 



(lend, so dvihi mukhehi khadati. Ayarh me pancamo (MS* 
-me) supino, imassa ko vipako" ti. „Imasslipi anagate adham- 
mikarajakale yeva vipako bhavissati. Anagatasmim hi adham- 
mikabalarajano adhammike lokamanusse vinicchaye thapessanti. 
Te papa pumfiesii anadara bala sabhayarh nisiditva vinicchayam 
denta ubhinnam pi atthapaccatthikanam hatthato Ian cam 
gahetva khadissanti, asso viya dvihi mukhehi yavasam." This 
word is evidently the same as the Mahrattic lariica meaning 
„bribe" (see Molesworth). A corresponding word in Sanscrit 
I cannot trace. Dhumakala, Jat. 410: .,na may ham ghara- 
vasena attho, aharh tumhe upatthahitva tumhakarh dhuma- 
kale pabbajissami." Santaka, Abhidhana v. 728: dependent 
upon; with, together with, accompanying. Jat. 538: „amma, 
tvam kassa santaka?" Jat. 54: sabban tesam santakam 
gahetva. Nemittaka, see Clough's Sing. Diet, at naimittika: 
a necromancer, a fortune teller, an astrologer ; comp. B. & R. 
at naimittaka. Ussapeyyatha potential of the causative of 
S. ut-gri; comp. Burnoufs Lotus p. 323. Phalaphala we 
might think should be resolved into phala-aphala, if we look 
to the following verses in .Jat. 524: 

Aharh So no, maharaja, 
tapaso sahitamvato, 
bharami matapitaro 
rattindivam atandito. 
Etam phalan ca mulan ca 
aharitva, disampati, 
posemi matapitaro 
pubbe katam anussaran ti; 

and 

Kacci nu bhoto kusalaiii, kacci bhoto anamayarh, 

kacci unchena (MS. unjena) yapetha, kacci mulaphala bahu; 



26 



further to the following passage from Jat. 532: te assame tha- 
petva vana raulaphalani aharati ; but against it speaks a pas- 
sage in Jat. 409: ekarh rukkhaili amy ha phalaphalam 
ganhati, and we must therefore consider it as a compound of 
phala-phala with the elongation of the combining vowel, comp. 
Westergaard's Sanskrit Formlsere§ 408, and Childers' Pali-English 
Diet. Article A. Alwis: „herbs and fruits." Yapeti = 
S. yapayati, causative of ya, to pass the time, see Benfey and 
B. &R.; in Pali used in the derived sense of ,, living upon" 
when construed with an instrumental. Patijaggimsu, aorist 
of patijagar** (S.jagr), see Clough's Pali Verbs p. 17, 17, g being 
doubled on account of the latent r, and a being shortened 
before the double consonant. Other forms of the verb will 
be found at Dhp. vv. 39. 60. 157. Sarlrakiccam karetva, 
having performed the body-act, i. e. the funeral ceremonies. 
This phrase is often used in this sense in Pali, although not, 
I think, in Sanscrit. Kakudha, Abhidhana v. 879 and v. 
358, is always written so in Pali, in S. kakuda. B hand a 
= S. bhanda. Rupika, B. &R.: „Figur, Bildniss." Nira- 
saka is derived from asa (S. aga), desire, Abhidhana v. 162; 
comp. Dhp. vv. 97. 410. In Suttanipata I find a similar 
adjective nirasa in the following verse: 

yamhi na maya vasati na mano, 
yo vitalobho amamo niraso 
panunnakodho abhinibbutatto, 
so brahmano sokamalarii ahasi, 
tathagato arahati purajasam. 

Alwis: „in the enjoyment of health," Ek am ant a, see Five 
Jat. p. 22. Sayanha, so both MSS. Mahawansa p. 2,5 
from the b. sayanha, S. sayahna. Pariganhanapanna, 
comprehensive or discriminative intellect. Alwis: 5,The wisdom 



27 



of taking things easy, of accepting all things with complai- 
sance, of submitting to every condition of life." Savessami, 
causative of su (S. gru), Clough's Pali Verbs p. 15,2i. 16,26. 
Upaddha = addha (S. ardha), a part, a half, Abhidhana 
V. 53. Agacchantu, one would here expect the second 
person, not the third. Evayarh = evarii ayarh. Sasana 
(S. easana), a message, Abhidhana by Subhati v. 992, by 
Clough p. 128,15. Laddhassasesu, so both MSS. The 
text seems to have been corrupted. I suppose we are to 
read laddhassasesura, and consider this, as Prof. Westergaard 
has suggested to me, as a denominative of the compound 
adjective laddhassasa (S. labdhagvasa), confident; accor- 
dingly the meaning must be: „They made them (feel) confident, 
they comforted, consoled them." Posa, Abhidhana v. 227. 
Posen alapitaiii bahiirii, I have, as usual, adopted the 
reading of C, and resolve posenalapitam into posena alapitarii, 
taking the latter in the same sense as lapitam. But the Com- 
mentator, taking the latter in the same sense as lapatarii. But 
the Commentator seems to have read lapatam which C*also 
has, and this then must be understood as a genitive absolute. 
Sa is, according to the Commentary, to be referred to vinnii. 
Kissa I suppose we must resolve into kim ass a, m having 
dropped from kim (comp. Dhp. p. 268) and ki assa having 
become ki 'ssa in a similar mariner as we read in Jat. 460: 
.Janasandhava-kumaro ti 'ssa namaiii karimsu . . . mahajana 
pi 'ssa ovade thatva tani dasa thananl piiretva saggaparayano 
ahosi. If the Commentator is right in taking kissa as the 
genitive of kirii = kirhkarana, then we must supply ,,for 
such a thing's sake" in order to make the' construction cor« 
rect Dahara, this verse and vv. 5.7.8.9 are also found 
in the Salla-sutta of Suttanipata which I give below. Vuddha, 
Dhp. p. 289. Da lid da is also written dalidda, Abhidhana 



28 

V. 739, S. daridra. Addha, if we may believe Moggallana, 
answers to S. adliya (Abhidhana v. 725: ibbha, addha, dha- 
nin = Amarakosa: ibhya, adhya, dhanin), but it might also, I 
think, be considered == S. rddha, Par ay ana is in Pali 
written with a dental n, see Abhidh. vv. 858. 962. Pha- 
la nam etc., this verse is found in Ramayana (per Gorresio 
vol. 2 p. 421 V. 4) in the following shape; 

Yatha phalanarii pakvanaiii 
nanyatra patanad bhayarh 
evam naranarh jatanarii 
nanyatra maranad bhayarh. 

Carey & Marshman (vol.3 p.41 1 ) and Schlegel (vol. 2 pars 1 p.321 ) 
read: narasya jatasya. Pato=S. pratar. Bahujjana written 
with two j's, either for the sake of the metre (comp.Dhp. v. 320, 
Mahaw.p. 79), or, as I rather suppose, by false analogy from 
puthujjana. U d a b b a h e, potential of ud + a + bah (bah^ brah", 
bruh" = vuddhiyam ; Dhatupatha) of which verb I have met 
with the following forms: abbaha, abbahe, abbahi, abbulha 
(Dhp. p. 96), abbahitva, nibbahanti, paribbiilha. Kayira, I 
have not ventured to reject this form as it is repeated in the 
Commentary, although it is usually written kayira which C" 
has also adopted. Peta = S. preta. Palenti the Com- 
mentator renders by „yapenti," but I am unable to catch the 
meaning of this rendering. According to the context the verb 
must be understood, it seems, passively, I have however not 
met with any other instances of this kind. Parinibbaye 
instead of parinibbaye on account of the metre. Sutava, 
nominative of sutavant = S. 9rutavant, Clough (Singh. Diet.) 
at „srutavanta^': skilled in religious science, well versed in re- 
ligious instructions. Tula, see B. &R.; compare the following 
verse from Jat. 1 29 : 



29 



Daddallamana (MS. -mana) aganchum 
Tanhaya (MS. adds: ca) Arati Raga. 
Ta tattha panudi (MS. panudi) Sattha 
tularii bhattham va maluto (MS. maluko) ti. 
Daddallamana = S. jajvalyamana; bhattha = S. bhrasta; 
maluta =■ S. maruta. ' Eko etc., a fragment of this verse is 
still to be found in Ramayana per C. Gorresio vol. 2 p. 429 
V. 12; Carey & M. vol. 3 p. 431 ; Schlegel vol. 2 pars 1 
p. 331), where we read: 

yad eko jayate jantur 
eka eva vinagyati. 
Tveva i.e. iti eva, see Dhp. p. 279. Dassarii and bhokkharii 
are the first persons singular of the future tense in the attano- 
pada of the verbs da and bhuj. Ettaka, see Dhp. p. 350. 
Paduka, Abhidh. v. 358. Pallariika, Abhidh. v. 308, S. 
paryanka. Saggapadarii puresi, he filled, completed i.e. 
finished the way to heaven; instead of saggapadarii is also 
used saggapatharii. Abhisambuddhagatha, this compound 
word often recurs at the conclusion of a story, but I am yet 
in a great doubt as to how it is to be understood. First the 
meaning of abhisambuddha seems doubtful, and secondly the 
compound may be understood as a karmadharaya or as a 
tatpurusa. Kambugiva, see B.&R., comp. Abhidhana v.263. 



30 



V. 1, 2. THE SUJATA-JATAKA. 

iVin nu santaramano va ti. Idarii Sattha Jetavane 
viharanto matapitikarh* kutumbikam arabbha kathesi. So kira 
pitari mate paridevamano carati^, sokarh vinodetum na sak- 
koti''. Sattha tassa sotapattiphalupanissayam disva Savatthiyam 
pindaya caritva pacchasamanam adaya tassa^ geharh gantva-^ 
pannattasane sannisinnam^ „kim upasaka socasiti" \atva „ama 
bhante'' ti vutte „avuso, poranakapandita panditanam kathaih'^ 
sutva pitari kalakate* na sociriisu*' ti vatva tena yacito 
atltarii ahari: 

Atite Baranasiyarii Brahmadatte rajjam karente 
Bodhisatto kutumbikagehe nibbatti. Sujato kumaro ti ^ssa 
iiamam karimsu. Tassa vayappattassa pitamaho kalam akasi. Ath' 
assa pita pitu kalakiriyato ^ patthaya sokasamappito alahanato 
atthini aharitva attano arame mattikathupam katva tani tattha 
nidahitva gatagatavelaya'^ thuparii pupphehi pujetva avajjanto^ 
paridevati, n'eva nahayati na vilimpati"^ na bhunjati na kam- 
naante vicareti". Tarn disva Bodhisatto .,pita me ayyakassa 

** C matapika, B matapittikam. * B vicarati. *^ B asakkon- 
tena. * C omits tassa. •'' B gamtva. ^ C samnisinnarii, B 
nisinno tarn vanditva nisinnaiii. ^ B vacanarh. * B kalafi- 
kate. ^ B kalankatakato. ^ B gatagata-. ^ C has altered 
avijjanto into avijjhanto. "* B limmati, C vilimpati. " C 
vidacareti. 



matakalato patthaya sokabhibhuto carati, thapetva kho" pana 
raarh anno^ etarn sannapetum^ na sakkoti, ekena nam upayena 
nissokarii karissamiti" bahinagare^ ekarii matagonarh® disva 
tinan ca paniyafi ca abaritva tassa purato katva* „khacla 
khada. piva piva*" ti vadati". Agatagata tarii disva „samma 
Sujata, kim ummattako si, matagonassa*' tinodakarii desiti" 
vadanti. So kinci na pativadati. Ath^ assa pitu santikarh 
gantva-^ „putto te ummattako jato, matagonassa tinodakarii 
detiti" ahariisu. Tarn sutva kutumbikassa pitusoko apagato 
puttasoko patitthito. So vegena gantva* „nanu tvam tata Su- 
jata pandito^, kiriikarana matagonassa'' tinodakarii desiti" vatva 
dve gatha abhasi: 

1. „Kin nu santaramano va 
layitva haritarii'' tinarii 
•khada khada' ti lapasi 
gatasattarii"' jaraggavarii. 

2. Na hi annena panena 
mato gono samutthahe, 
tan^ ca tuccharii vilapasi 
yatha tarii dummati tatha" ti. 

Tattha santaramano va ti turito viya*^ hutva; layitva ti 
lunitva^; lapasiti vilapasi"; gatasattarii''' jaraggavan ti 
gatajivitarii jinnarii^ gonarii ; yatha tan ti ettha tan ti'' ni- 

° B omits kho. p C ariino. * C sariina-. ^ B pahigame. 
^ both MSS. -gonarii. * B thapetva. ' B khadahi pivahi. «B 
arabha. "" C -gonassa. ^ B vegenagariitva. y B adds ti. 
^ B harikarii. '" B gatasantarii. ^ B tvan. '^ B omits viya. 
^ Bluncitva. ° C vipalapi. ^ Cjinnarii, Bjinno. "^ C omits 
ettha tan ti. 



32 



patamattam, yatha dummati appanno^ vippalapeyya* tatha 
tvaiii tuccharii abhutarii^ vippalapasitR Tato Bodhisatto dve 
gatha abhasi: 

3. jjTath' eva titthati sisarh 
hatthapada ca valadhi'', 
sota tath' eva titthanti*, 
manne-^, gono samutthahe. 

4. N' ev* ayyakassa sisan ca*= 
hatthapada ca^ dissare, 
rudam*" niattikathupasmiih** 
nanu tvan neva^ dummatiti»" 

Tattha t a th e v a ti yatha pubbe thitarh tath' eva titthati ; m a n fi e 
ti etesarh sisadinam tath' eva thitatta ayarh gono samuttha- 
heyya ti mannami; nevayyakassa ti ayyakassa pana sisarii 
va^ hatthapada va^ na dissanti, pitthipada va na dissare ti 
pi patho; nanu tvan ileva dummatiti aharii tava sisadini 
passanto evarh karomi, tvam pana na^ kind passasi, jhapi- 
tatthanato atthini aharitva thuparh^ katva paridevasi, iti marii 
paticca satagunena* tvara eva* dummati", bhijjanadhamma tata 
samkhara bhijjanti"^ tattha ka paridevana^ ti. Tarn sutva 
Bodhisattassa pita „manaa putto pandito, idhalokaparalokakiccarii 
janati, mama sannapanatthaya"^ etarii kammam akasiti'' cin- 
tetva „tata Sujata panclita, 'sabbe samkhara anicca* ti me 

^ B appamanno. * B vilapeyya. ^ B omits abhutarh. 
^ B vilapaslti. ^ C valadi. * B titthati. ^ C mamne. 
^ C sisam va. ^ B na. *" B rudaiii. ""■ B mattikatupasmi. 
° B tvamnneva. ^ B ca. ^ B omits na. '' B mittakathu- 
^ B adds sahassaguiiena nu. * B tvamnneva. " both MSS. 
dummatiti. "' C bhijjantiti. *" B parivedana. "" C sariina-. 



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