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Full text of "Das Leiden unsers Herren Jhesu Christi"

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A 15th-Century German Brangelary 

Intended for populär use, rather 
than for a Church or monaßtery. 
V/ritten on paper, it has more than 
three hundred illustrations. 



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A Fiftecnth-Century German Evangelary 



By MARGARET MUNSTERBERG 



Ju^ nyj' 



THE Library has recently acquired a German manuscript 
of the Passion intendecl for populär use rather than for 
a church or monastery. It is a finely preserved folio vol- 
ume of 109 paper leaves, with more than three hundred illus- 
trations and an impressive full-page picture. The book was 
written in the middle or latter half of the fifteenth Century; the 
German script, two columns to a page, is in a strong, heavy 
hand, with rubrics at the heads of sections. Initial letters are 
painted red and green; a number enclose sketches of human 
faces. Words have occasionally been crossed out and rewritten ; 
at the end of the narrative the scribe has replaced the "Amen" 
in black ink with one in red. 

No Compiler or scribe is named, but an epilogue of six leaves, 
addressed to a friend named Jos[eph], is signed by Johannes 
Braxatoris of Elwang[en], who may have been the Illustrator. 
The expert arrangement of Gospel passages and the familiarity 
with Church Fathers and scholastics, as well as the translation 
from the Latin, suggest that the Compiler received help from 
one of the monasteries of the city. This translation is forceful 
and simple. A noteworthy characteristic is the frequent use of 
Minne — a word associated with Minnelied (love song) rather 
than with the Caritas of the Vulgate. 

The narrative, which is based on all four Gospels, begins 
with the Sunday before Palm Sunday and ends with the Resur- 
rection. It is interwoven with commentary and quotations. In 
his desire for systematic presentation, the Compiler often re- 
sorted to enumeration. For example, there were four succes- 
sive ways in which tlie enemies of Jesus plotted to kill him; for 
four reasons Christ defended Mary Magdalene's act of anoint- 
ing him; fifteen "great things" took place in the house where 
the Last Supper was held; for seven reasons Christ bowed his 
head on the Gross. "Da ist ein fraug" (there is a question) in- 
troduces manj^ a passage of ingenious exposition; and signifi- 
cant points are emphasized with the exhortation "Merck" 
(note!). 

The passages beginning with "O" suggest the "seven Os" 
or "fifteen Os" of the sorrows of Mary in the Books of Hours. 
The portions pertaining to Mary are of special significance 
since, in contrast to the fairly canonical representation of the 
rest, they are leg-endary. In medieval Germany the populär 
Marian literature took the form of the so-called Marienklagen 
(Laments of Mary); and the "Unser Frauen Klage" (Our 
Lad3r's Lament) of the thirteenth Century was especially popu- 
lär. Besides the lyrical expressions, there were the narrative 
Marienleben (Lives of Mary), which had their sources in the 
apocryphal Gospels. Most important among the latter is the 
Protevangeliimi, or Gospel of James the Minor, designed espe- 
cially for the glorification of Mary. Although not accepted by 
the Roman Church in ancient times, from the sixth Century on 
this gospel was used in medieval homilies. That it was taken 
seriously at the time when the Library's volume was made ap- 
pears from the Statement (on f.iSr.) : "As we read in the book 
of the life of our Lord, which was written by St. James the 
Minor, whom Scripture calls a brother of Christ . . ." 

The manuscript includes comments from more than forty 
authorities. The prophets Isaiah and Jeremiah are each quoted 
at least nine times, the Psalms five times, and there are refer- 
ences to Joshua, Solomon, Ezekiel, Job, and the historian Jo- 
sephits.^The most frequently consulted authority is St. Augus- 





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