Skip to main content

Full text of "Davenport, past and present; including the early history, and personal and anecdotal reminiscences of Davenport; together with biographies, likenesses of its prominent men; compendious articles upon the physical, industrial, social and political characteristics of the city"

See other formats


^^ o 




71 § 








r^ ^10SAN( 




.OfCALIFOP^ ^orCAilfO/?^ 

'<?AavaaiH^ >t?Aav}i8n-3N^ 






2 s 





j^iUBRARY^/:, ^^lUBRARYf 

'•aoiiwjjo^ ^iojiwojo 


A,OfCAllFO% ^OFCAllFOftfc, , 


"jQi/Mriii jn' 




%130NVSO\^ '^/5a3AINa3WV^ %03nVDJO"^' '^tfOJIlVJJO^ 


.-i- <k; 


^^J"' ■«..ri^;" 




•c. :J.\.-C:^:^.iS^-: T'y'-'-^ -jijtisa^i? 









lersonal anb ^necbotal |lemiiustenas 










V-. •=;•^ ■.., •.n\\.-.vnn. >• 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1S58, by 


In the Cleilv's oiBce of the U. S. District Court of Iowa. 




P^ As Prefaces are in style, it is well that one should be written for the present 

work, although the author may not have anything particular to say, but which 

might as well as not be said in the body of the work. However, a few words 

may not be inappropriate. 

Lfj The present work has been prepared under no ordinary difficulties — the data 


being in ihe first part of the work, such as were afforded by the meaiories 
of " old settlers," no two of which ever agreed exactly in relating the same 
circumstance. Often would the author get a glimpse of a promising fact or 
anecdote, and after diligently hunting it through the mazes of a half dozen 
memories, would discover It to be a jack o' lantern ; or after finding it, having 
it corroborated by the "mouths of two or three witnesses," and having it 
printed, he would be most positively assured by some one that the thing in 
question was either entirely wrong, or a fable. However severe and disheart- 
ening the task has been, the author flatters himself that in almost every state- 
ment truth has been arrived at as near as is possible — for he has been 
carefuL in every case to get all the different versions, and to adopt the one 
having a majority in its favor. 

There have been other difficulties no less arduous, and much more disagree- 
able. In a work of this kind few are without an opinion as to what the book 
should contain, while not a few others are of course better judges of, and much 
more able (in their own opinion,) to write a book than the author. In looking 
over the printed sheets, exceptions would be taken to this or that — one wished 


no anecdotes, another nothing else — a third wished simple statistics— a fourth 
wished it to build up this particular interest or depress that, or make it a prose 
song of adulation to some reigning Jupiter in the financial Olympus of Daven- 
port. Others have ventured so far as to threaten to use their influence to 
suppress the work if it were not gotten up after a particular manner. Appre- 
ciating the absurdity, as well as despising such coercive measures in book 
making, the author aimed onlf to write a book for the majority, and corres- 
ponding with its title, trusting opposition would die away when its authors 
appreciated either its futility or unreasonableness. 

The author takes pleasure in acknowledging many obligations to Hon. G. C. 
R. Mitchel, G. L. Davenport, Esq., James Mckintosh, Esq., D. 0. Eldredge Esq., 
Willard Barrows, Esq., Mrs. Goldsmith, of Rock Island, Antoine LeClaire, 
Capt. James May, and others, who have afforded him information in regard to 
the early settlement of Davenport. 

We would acknowledge also indebtedness to Dr. C. C. Parky for the able 
article upon the geological character of Davenport, to Dr. T. J. Saunders for 
the article upon its Medical Topography, and Scott County Medical Society, to 
Add H. Sanders, Esq., for a notice of Mr. Wild, the artist, and to various 
Clergymen for information in regard to their respective Churches. 

Of the Future of Davenport, it has been thought best to spend no time in 
treating — a close perusal of the Past and Present will at once indicate the 

With a hope that Davenport Past and Present will meet with the approba- 
tion of the public to an extent commensurate with the labor of getting it up, 
the author leaves it. 

Davenport, April 5th, 1858. 



"Past and Present," ' 


Sankees and Musquakees — Black Hawk— Character, (fee — Tr.'aties of 1804 — Successive 
Treaties — Spii-it Cave on Pvock Island, 13 


Black Hawk Continued — Treaties — Remoyals — Invasions — Executive influence and Alarm 
— Crossing the Mississipiii — Stillman's Run — Retreat — Massacre at Bad Axe — Treaty — 
Close of Black Hawk's History, 20 


Meeting at Col. Davenport's — Site of Davenport — Proprietors — Sui-"ey— Cost of Pioneer 
Enterprises — Anecdote of a Politician— First Ball — Religious Services — Rockingham — 
Postmaster Appointed 33 


Indian Duel— Col. Taylor's Defeat in 1812 — Fight between Sacs and Foxes and Pottowato- 
mies — Burial of the Slain — Opening of River— First Marriage— Getty's Flouring Mill- 
Ferry Company — Jumping Claims — Intruder Expelled — Thrashing an Indian — Sacs and 
Foxes — Sioux Horse Thieves — Visit to Washington — Murder of an Indian at Moscow — 
Escape of Murderer — Population — Scott County Organized— Elections, 42 


Contest for County Seat— Newspaper Magniloquence— Dea:li of Bla^k Hawk— Old 
Burying Ground — Summary, 54 



Financial Condition of County— Militii*— Territorial C-iuncil— Moetings— Town of DaTon- 
port UrgiiiiiZfii— t^Iiowlli uf Villa;j;e— Navigiitiuii of Uock liivtr— First Cliurcli— Sub- 
scribers — i'iroD partuiout — Urii;iii:il Tcnipjrauce Society — ScliooU — Death of W. B. Con- 
way — Uesolutiunti, 



Close of 'S10— M'n-orri War— FinHncial StatcniPnt of year 1S39— New riection for Coiinty 

Seat— Result, • 80 


1841 — Finances — The Village — Puel— '^oiut House and .Tail — Davenport Gizette— Prince 
I)e Joiiiville— First Tilings— lS4;—Tvniperance— Bank— Population— .luilge VVilliauis — 
Bible Society — blections — lS-t;i— (iliiuches— hU-ctions— M.ijor Win. Uorilon— 1>44— iilec- 
tions — Stage Lines— 1846 — Murder of <Jol. Davenport — Indian Ceremony, 90 


From 1846 to 1854 — Railroads— Ripids Convention— Growth of City, &c., 4c., 101 


Opening of Chicago and Rock Island Railroad — Bridge Opposition — Laying Corner Stone 
Proceedings — Grow th of City — Statistics, &c. — Letter from W. Barrows, 114 


Temperance — Taxable Property — August Election — F.lection of Grn. Sargent — Tnaugaral 
Address — Improvements— Close of 1SC7— History of " Past" fini-nhed — Editorial from 
Gaaotte, 125 


Biography of Col. Qeo. Davenport, 145 


Biography of Antoine LeClaire, 167 


Biography of Geo. L. Davenport, 171 


Biography of James Mackintosh, 173 





Biography of G. C. K. Mitchell, 18X 


J Biography of Willard Barrows, • 183 


Biography of James May, 193 


Biography of Chas. Weston, 197 


Biography of LsRoy Dodge 201 


Biography of Iliram Price, 203 

C H A P T E R X X 1 1 I . 

Pioneer Settlers Association, Festival, Ac, •• 205 


Geologicftl Sketch of the City of Davenport, 249 


Medlcfcl Topography of Davenport, 253 


Scott County Medical Society, 265 


Manufactures and Industrial Products, 957 

Report of the Boaid of Trade, for 1857, 270 


Hoteli, 277 




Religious 282 


■Educiitional, , 292 


Military, 303 

Pire Department, 303 


Musical, • 305 

Artistic, 307 


The Press, 311 


Benevolent Orders — Masonic, 315 

I. 0. ofO. r., 316 

Census, 319 

List of OiBcers from the date of the first Charter to the present time 326 

City Vote, April, 1858, 328 

Appendix, 329 

Srrata, 335 




The province of the Historian, is less cause than effect 
— rather facts, than the mediate or immediate agencies of 
their production. Thus, in the present case, I might over- 
step the limits of duty by particular inquiry into the causes 
which have transformed the West from a wilderness to an 
Eden ; or by discussing the probabilities of the existence of 
some latent " serial law" of human operations, whose result 
is Progression ; or, less metaphysically, by inquiring 
whether railways, English capital, the influences of mo- 
narchial despotism, or omnipotent American enterprise, is 
the remote or immediate cause of these wonderful changes. 

For the present let the simple facts suffice — let it be 
enouo-h to know that tens of thousands of miles area have, 
within the memory of young men, been wrung from the 
grasp of luxuriant jSTature by systematic Act — that forests 
which yesterday were growing but to decay, are now em- 
ploying myriads of men in transforming them into the 
utilities of civilization— that the yell of marauding savages 
is still fresh on our ears, while its echoes are being caught 
up, and re-flung to the winds by the shriek of the locomo- 
tive, as the thunder of its approach heralds the advent of 


Enlightened Industry— that tlie tomahawk jet nnrnsted 
by age, is supplanted by the plow-share — that the music of 
■water-fiills, scarcely yet dead npon the ears of forest ham- 
adryads, is now absorbed in the busy hum of wheel and 
revolving saw and the clang of machinery, all ascending 
as the grand anthem of Progress — that echoes which yes- 
terday slept, or drowsily repeated the hum of forest-life, are 
to-day sending back the ten thousand voices of many- 
tomyned civilization. These facts — in their magnitude, in 
the li^''htning-like quickness of the transformations which 
they involve, and their kaleidescope beauty of results — ^will 
sufficiently interest non-philosophical readers, without a 
strict inquiry into their rationale. 

Let one devote iiimself more particularly to a contem- 
plation of the illin:iitable benefits conferred upon Hnmanity 
by the unlocking of such a store-house as the West — to the 
contem])lation of »iaic» of acres so rich that they need but \ 
" tickling to make them laugh" in the exuberance of joyous 
plenty — of its vast coal beds, and lead mines — and in short 
its profusion in all that contributes to wealth and happi- 
ness and where More's magnificent dream of Utopia 

iinds its nearest possible material interpretation — and he 
vfill have abundant opportunity for earnest reflection, while 
our present history will obtain ample material for its com- 

Lot us ixivn to *hem for a little, bj referring to " Past 
and Preseimt." 

Thirty years ago there was not, save the blackened re- 
mains of a chimney at Fort Madison, a single vestige of 
civilization from twenty miles below Keokuk to Galena, 
west of the Mississippi. That part of Wisconsin, now 
known as Iowa, was unknown — ^hervast fertile prairies and 
rich-stocked coal-beds were unworked ; and the populous, 
busy cities now spread over her bosom, and teeming with 


the vitalities of Industry, Wealth, Beauty, and Intelligence, 
were undreamed of by the wildest schemer of the age. 

Standing upon Rock Island then, one saw opposite him, 
on the Wisconsin side, but a waving, irregular semicircle 
of bluffs, inclosing an amphitheatre of some hundreds of 
yards iu breadth, and two miles in length. The floor or 
"bottom" of this amphitheatre sloped gently from the 
water to the foot of the bluffs, and in its quietness, and 
with its abrupt back-ground, whose many outlines seemed 
drawn by some tremulous artist-hand, against the sky, 
formed a pleasant and beautiful scene. Destitute of trees, 
covered with long prairie grass in Summer, and its snowy 
shroud in Winter, there was not much, however, to long 
interest our spectator. 

But could he, as he stood there at that moment, 
have been imbued with the power of piercing futurity for 
the short space of thirty years, he would have found very 
much to chain his attention. He would have seen at first 
a straggling cabin or two — a little longer, and more of them 
— the rude "tavern," the insignificant store — a few new 
sounds indicating the travail of Labor-birth. Years hurry 
along — a more commodious residence supplants the cabin, 
a "hotel" improves upon the "tavern," more stores are 
erected, the bluffs are invaded, and surveyors and stakes 
mark the outlines of a " city." But a little longer and the 
rude cabins disappear, and lines of brick houses, lofty ware- 
houses, and the church, mark the rapidity of the change. 

The "thirty years" vision ends, but as it fades away a 
dozen lofty spires reaching high in the blue ether ; palatial 
banks of brick and marble ; and regal residences sur- 
rounded by the green of woodland foliage ; massive colleges 
and seminaries ; long, wide streets, with smooth hard bot- 
toms, fringed by long lines of twinkling, brilliant gas-lights, 
and the vast white structure which spans the River, meet 
his view. As the sounds of his vision fade, there come 


upon his ear the pulsating of a score of steam-pipes, the 
sharp clang of a thousand hammers, the hoarse signals and 
deep throbs of passing steamboats, the thunders of long 
trains of freight and passenger cars, the scream of the loco- 
motive, the hum of a great crowd, each member busily 
evolving the problem of Progression, and in short the 
voices, the roar, and the murmur of a Great City. 

So much for "Past and Present" — for the transforma- 
tions of less than thirty years— for the magical operations 
of the Genius of Civilization, as she waves her wand over 
the silent unproductiveness of Nature. 

Having thus rapidly outlined a series of events, the next 
chapters will be devoted to developing them in detail. 
That the task both to reader and writer will prove pleasant, 
profitable, and interesting, is more than probable — it 
amounts to the character of a certainty. 



Saukees and Musquakees — Black Hawk — Character, &.c. — Treaties of 1804 — 
Successive Treaties — Spirit Cave on Rock Island. 

It would, perhaps, be well to devote a short space to the 
earlier history of this section, and collateral occurrences, 
before prosecuting the more direct objects of the present 
work. The relations of the Aborigines are so intimately 
interwoven with the pioneer history of every place in the 
West, and the character, doings and reverses of those re- 
markable men who once held an undisputed right to this 
vast continent, that a short digression, having bearing 
upon them, is pardonable, if not strongly desirable. 

The "trail" of the Indian bearing Westward — to Pov- 
erty, Starvation — to Death — to Annihilation, runs broad 
and hard-beaten direct through the scenes which adjoin 
our homes. The funeral march of once powerful tribes has 
but just passed the grounds covered with the monumental 
masonry of the Pale Faces — and their mournful tramp is 
scarcely stilled yet in our ears, although filled by the shouts 
of a new and strange multitude. 

The recent occurrence of such events, and their close 
alliance with this and adjacent portions of our country, 
give them a claim to our attention — although it must be 
necessarily but brief. 

In 1804, the Sauks, Saukees, or Sacs,* and Musquakees 
or Foxes, ceded to the United States, through General 
Harrison, all their lands lying on Rock River, and much 

* See A, end of Chapter III. 


elsewhere. The principal Sac village was at the point of 
land between the junction of the Mississippi and Rock 
Eiver — a point just below the present site of Davenport, on 
the Illinois side. There, according to tradition, had been 
a village for one hundred and fifty years. The entire 
country belonging to the tribes, bordered on the Mis- 
sissippi, and extended about seven hundred miles down 
the river from the mouth of the Wisconsin, reaching very 
nearly to the Missouri river. In 1820, they numbered 
about three thousand persons in all, of whom, perhaps, 
six hundred were warriors. 

The Sac village alluded to was commanded by the cel- 
ebrated Black Hawk, alias the pleasant verbal agglom- 
eration — Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak — who, as a warrior, is 
as well or better known than Tecumseh, or Phillip of Is^'ew 
England. The Musquakees, or Foxes, lived further north, 
and had, near the lead mines, their principal village. Still, 
notwithstanding the separation of the Sacs and Foxes, they 
were, in realit}-, but one tribe, as they hunted together, 
bad similar customs, and so far as unity of purpose was 
concerned in their enmity to the Sioux, and other nations, 
they were indissoluble. 

Black Hawk was the most celebrated "brave" of his 
nation. He had been in the service of England in 1812; 
had been an intimate friend of Tecumseh ; was ranked 
among the braves at the early age of sixteen, and at the 
age of twenty, or thereabouts, succeeded his father as 
chief, the latter having been killed in a bloody battle with 
the Cherokees. "With such a life — scarcely if ever defeated 
in battle — proud, imperious, and with a deep tinge of mel- 
ancholy in his later years — venerated by his braves, and 
feared by his enemies, he was no common man, nor would 
his nature admit of such treatment as might be endured 
patiently by ordinary or less strongly marked men. 


Of his personal appearance, the editor of the United 
States Literary Gazette, thus speaks, as he saw him in Phil- 
adelphia in 1833 : 

"He is ahout sixty-five, of middling size, with a head 
that would excite the envy of a phrenologist — one .of the 
finest that Heaven ever let fall on the head of an Indian. 

" The son of Black Hawk is a noble specimen of 
physical beauty — a model for those who would embody the 
idea of strength. He w\as painted, and had his hair cut in 
a strange fantasy." It was remarked by many in the same 
city at that time, that Black Hawk's "pyramidal forehead" 
strongly resembled Sir Walter Scott's, while others found 
in its peculiar outlines a very striking similaritj^ to those 
of the well-known Stephen Girard. Washington Irving, 
writing concerning him from Jefierson Barracks in Decem- 
ber, 1832, says: "He has a fine head, a Koman style of 
face, and a prepossessing countenance." Many of our 
older citizens, who knew him personally, describe him as 
embodying in his countenance an expression of deep cun- 
ning, and as rather lacking in intellectuality. He was, 
however, extremely superstitious, and it is more than prob- 
able that the war in which he engaged in '31 and '2 was 
owing largely to the influence of a half breed Winnebago 
and Sac Prophet, named Wabo-kieshiek, (White Cloud,) 
although his constitutional hatred of the Americans, and 
the unwarranted aggressions of the latter in many cases, 
undoubtedly materially assisted precipitating the matter. 
In all, however, he was, -with many failings, a great man — 
possessing a depth of character, a reach of means, energy, 
and patriotic feeling which, developed under the promotive 
and powerful influences of civilization, would have elevated 
him to the proud rank of those whom the world recognizes 
as •' Great." 

In regard to the treaty of 1804, there are two accounts. 


One rcgai'ds it as a hona fdc transaction, whereby the lands 
of the Sacs and Foxes were sold by responsible men of 
the tribes; and that it was further ratified by a part of the 
tribe in a treaty with Gov. Edwards and Auguste Choteau 
in Septenil)er 1815, and by another with the same commis- 
sioners in May 1816. These further allege, that the United 
States allowed the Indians to remain upon any portion of 
this land so long as it remained the property of the Gov- 
ernment, and that the lands occupied by the Sac village at 
Ilock River, had been surveyed and sold, and hence could 
no longer be justly occupied by the Indians.* 

The other account, which is that of Black Hawk himself, 
states quite a different story. It is, that an American hav- 
ing been killed by one of Black Hawk's men, the murderer 
was arrested and imprisoned at St. Louis. Four Indians 
were dispatched by the tribe to St. Louis to release the in- 
carcerated Indian " by paying for the person killed" — ac- 
cording to their custom. The return of the four is thus 
described by Black Hawk : 

" Quash-qua-me and party remained a long time absent. 
They at length returned, and encamped a short distance 
below the village — but did not come up that day — nor did 
any person approach their camp! They appeared to be 
dressed in fine coats, and had medals. From these cir- 
cumstances, we were in hopes that they had brought good 
news. Early the next morning the Council Lodge was 
crowded — Quash-qua-me and party came up, and gave the 
following account of their mission : 

' On their arrival at St. Louis they met their American 
father, and explained to him their business, and urged the 
release of their friend. The American Chief told them he 
wanted land — and they had agreed to give him some on 
the west side of the Mississippi, and some on the Illinois 

""Gov. Ford's history of Illinois. 



side, opposite the JetlVeon. "When tlie business was all 
arranged, they expected to have their friend released to 
come home with them. But about the time they were 
ready to start, their friend was let out of prison, who i^an 
a short distance, and was shot dead! This is all they could 
recollect of what was said or done. They had been drunk 
the greater part of the time they were in St. Louis !' 

"This is all myself or nation knew of the treaty of 1804. 
It has been explained to me since. I find, by that treaty, 
that all our country east of the Mississippi, and south of 
Jeffreon, was ceded to the United States for one thousand 
dollars a year !" 

It may be questioned whether the treaty at St. Louis 
was one concluded by authority of the tribes — although it 
is not in the least doubtful that, on the part of the Com- 
missioners, the proceeding was concluded in all fairness, 
and with the belief that the Indians who signed the treaty 
were instructed so to do by the Sacs and Foxes. Black 
Kawk is mistaken in some points of his statement. The 
treaty was signed by five Chiefs instead of four, one of 
whom, Pah-she-pa-ho, was a head chief among the Sacs. 
It was also made before Lieut. Pike ascended the Missis- 
sippi, instead of after, as stated by Black Hawk, as Pike 
did not leave St. Louis till August, 1805, on his expedition. 
In September 1815, both Sacs and Foxes concluded a 
new treaty, wherein the treaty of St. Louis was ratified, 
among other matters. This treaty was held at Portage des 
Sioux, and was a finale to the war with England of 1812, 
in which a part of the tribes, headed by Black Hawk, had 
fought against the Americans. This treaty was not signed 
by Black Hawk or his band, although signed largely by 
Chiefs of both tribes, who were fully empowered so to do. 
In May, 1816, another treaty was held at St. Louis, in 
which that of 1801 was recognized, and was signed by 
Black Hawk. 


One cannot donbt that these snceessive treaties were 
])iiKlin<^ upon the Sacs and Foxes, although the re- 
muneration was contemptibly smalh All this rich extent 
of land was made over for the pittance of some two 
thousand dollars (in goods,) down, and an annuity of one 
thousand, also in goods. That such treaties should also be 
held among the tribes, and not a distance, is obviously no 
more than fair. All complaint would thereafter be pre- 

In 1816, Fort Armstrong ivas erected upon Kock Island. 
It was a measure distasreful to the Indians, for reasons 
which we give in Black Hawk's own words : 

" We did not, however, object to their building the fort 
on the Island, but we were very sorry, as this was the best 
Island on the Mississippi, and had long been the resort of 
our young people during the summer. It was our garden 
(like the white people have near their big villages,) which 
supplied us with strawberries, blackberries, plums, apples, 
and nuts of various kinds; and its waters supplied us with 
pure fish, being situated in the rapids of the river. In my 
early life, I spent many happy days on this Island. A 
good spirit had care of it, who lived in a cave in the rocks 
immediately under the place where the Fort now stands, 
and has often been seen by our people. He was -white, with 
large wings like a sipan's, but ten times larger. We were 
particular not to make much noise in that part of the 
island which he inhabited, for fear of disturbing him. But 
the noise of the Fort has since driven him away, and no 
doubt a bad spirit has taken his place !" 

Not a few Davenport readers will recognize in this the 
base of the legend of Black Hawk's Cave, and liis going 
thither to consult with the good Genius of the place. A 
fit place, truly, was it, for the dwelling of the Red man's 
tutelar spirit! Facing the glorious river, which, fair as 


tlie Eridanus of Elysium, rolled before it, — with tlie 
music of its flow softly tilling the recesses of his retreat 
— with the poetry of moving waters ever dramatized 
before his eyes — on either side the prairie rolling back 
like an ocean of green, frozen to rigidity in some long, 
gentle swell — the shady island, with its luscious fruits, 
and a domain as lair as the Garden of Ilesperides — 
with the long, winding bluffs on either side, rolling 
away in the distance till, uniting above and below, they 
walled in as glorious a landscape of plain and hill, 
curve, rounding outlines of surface, water, foliage and sky, 
as ever artist-hand sketched, or artist-brain imagined — with 
all these circumstances, we do not wonder that the imag- 
inative Indian located in this peculiar spot his Guardian 
Genius ! 



BLack Hawk Continued— Treaties— Removals— Invasions— Executive Influence 
and Alarm — Crossing the Mississippi— Stillman's Run — Retreat — Massacre 
at Bad Axe — Treaty— Close of Black Hawk's History. 

In 1823, by the advice of tlie agent at Fort Armstrong, 
tlie larger portion of the Sacs and Foxes, headed hy 
*Keokuk, removed across the Mississippi. That portion of 
the Sac nation which, under the leadership of Black Hawk, 
had, by their fidelity to the British in 1812, earned the 
appellation of the "British Band," steadily refused to 
vacate the Sac village at Hock River. 

It has been ascribed to a spirit of rivalry — this difference 
between Keokuk and Black Hawk, which prevented 

* Keokuk. — The design of the present Chapter will not allow the name of 
Keokuk that prominence which his character deserves. He rose from obscurity 
to a Chieftainship by the mere force of his talents. He was a brave warrior, a 
firm friend to the Americans, and an orator without a rival among the tribes 
of the North-West. He was a Sac, and his name denotes the " AVatchful Fox." 
He eventually superseded Black Hawk, and was, for a long time, head chief of 
the Sac nation. 

The following description is taken from a cotemporaneous work : 
"In person, Keokuk is stout, graceful, and commanding, with fine features, 
and an intelligent countenance. His broad expanded chest, and muscular 
limbs, denote activity and physical strength; and he is known to excel in 
dancing, horsemanship, and all athletic exercises. * * * In point of 
intellect, and integrity of character, and the capacity for governing others, he 
is supposed to have no superior among the Indians. Bold, courageous, and 
skilful in war — mild, firm, and politic in peace. He has s^reat enterprise, and 
active impulses, with a freshness and enthusiasm of feeling, which might 
readily lead him astray, but for his quick perception of human character, his 
uncommon prudence, and his calm sound judgment. * ■><• * Such is 
Keokuk, the Watchful Fox, who prides himself upon being the friend of the 
white man. — Life of Black Ilawk ; Cincinnati. 



tlie latter from adopting the expedient operation of tlie 
former hj moving over the Mississippi. I cannot adopt 
this view — it may have had some influence, but it is en- 
tirely too trivial in its nature to influence the important 
step which Black Hawk took some few years after. Patri- 
otism, and the love of home — of the village where his 
tribe had lived for more than a century, and where every- 
thing which makes life honorable or desirable had orig- 
inated, had undoubtedly more influence in Black Hawk's 
decision than the mere desire of outvieing the rising 
splendor of Keokuk. He regarded the Americans as ag- 
gressors — he had fought against them in 1812 — his ances- 
tors — his father — himself had lived, hunted, fought, died, 
and were buried in the Sac village. He had grown old 
tlaere-— there slept his son ; there was every endearment 
which could be evolved from the past, as well of the savage 
as the refined — and he could not bring himself to leave 
them. There Jwere enough circumstances, apart from his 
dislike of the Americans, and their ruffianly aggressions, to 
explain why he left it unwillingly, and how, after leaving 
it, he returned with a "forlorn hope" to breast the whole 
force of the United States in an attempt to regain it. 

By the terms of the treaty with the United States, the 
Indians were to retain possession of their lands until they 
were sold to actual settlers. Some white families, however, 
who probably considered an Indian's title to life, land and 
liberty, as merely nominal, and of no account, w^hen 
measured against the "Eights" of the white man, moved 
on to the Sac village. Not content with thus actually 
stealing the land, they took advantage of Black Hawk's 
absence on a hunting expedition to not only fence in the 
Indians' cornfields, but to take possession of Black Hawk's 

These whites had established themselves in direct viola- 
tion of the treaty of 1804. They continued their aggres- 


sions — destroyed the Indians' corn, killed their domestic 
animals, and whipped their wives and children. ISIuch 
against the wishes of Black Hawk, they introduced a traffic 
in spirituous liquor, and made drunkenness and debauchery 
common. The remonstrances of Black Hawk, and other 
chiefs, were unavailing, equally in regard to the encroach- 
ments upon their lands, or the sale of spirituous liquors. 
The Indians were regarded as legitimate prey by these 
harpies — and appeals to their sense of justice or to their 
reason were alike unavailing. Black Hawk, upon one occa- 
sion, even took the trouble to put in practice a modern princi- 
ple of action — the Maine law — by knocking in the head of a 
barrel of whisky, which the owner had continued to vend 
in spite of the old chief's remonstrances. 

This condition of things continued until 1827. In the 
winter of this year, while the Indians were absent on their 
periodical hunt, the whites devised a famous scheme for 
getting rid of those upon whose lands they were intruding. 
It was a well conceived operation — although moralists 
would call it rather robbery than honorable policy. It was 
no less than to expedite the Indians on their destination 
over the Mississippi, by burning their lodges ! Accord- 
ingly, the torch was applied to some forty lodges, which 
were entirely consumed. When the Indians returned in 
the Spring, and required satisfaction for this unwarrantable 
outrage, they received only fresh insults. 

The wigwam of an Indian is inconsiderable — but still so 
far as rigid is concerned, there was, in the burning of these 
lodges, as clear a case of halter-deserving arson as ever fell 
under the jurisdiction of judicial ermine. To apply the in- 
cendiary torch to one's lodge, and to run the plough-share 
through the sacred mounds of ancestral graves, are no 
light provocations, although committed upon the Red man- 
When one adds to these, the indignity of Uovjs upon his 
own person, and worse, upon that of his wife and children, 


wi can nearly or quite excuse him if lie applies, as his 
remedy, the sharpest ^ea; talionis at his command. Especially 
is such a result excusable after warning, expostulations, 
and appeal to higher powers, have signally and utterly failed. 

There is always upon the frontier a set of reckless men, 
speculators, squatters, and loafers, who, devoid of principle 
and humanity, care less for the rights and lives of others, 
and especially for those of Indians, than they do for the 
same qualities in an irrational animal. Such men held 
possession of the frontiers in 1827, and such were they who 
had infringed upon the precincts of the Sac village. 

Under the seventh article of the treaty of 1804, it was 
provided ; " that as long as the lands which are now ceded 
to the United States remain their property, the Indians be- 
longing to said tribes, shall enjoy the privilege of living 
and hunting upon them." 

iSTone of the lands upon Rock River were brought into 
market until 1829, and consequently the Indians, prior to 
this time, had as much right to them as if they held them 
in fee simple. At this time, 1829, the lands purchased in the 
treaty in 1804-, were not olfered for sale within sixty miles 
of this point — yet for the unjustifiable purpose of getting 
rid of the Indians on Rock River, the lands upon which the 
Sac village stood were thrown into market. 

In the spring of 1830, when Black Hawk and his party 
returned from their winter's hunt, and commenced prepa- 
rations for planting, they were notified that the land was 
sold, and that they must remove west of the Mississippi. 
Unwilling, hov/ever, to remove, he visited Maiden to con- 
sult his "British Father," and returned by way of Detroit 
to see General Cass. Both advised him if he had not sold 
his land to remain quietly upon it, and he could not be dis- 
turbed. He returned late in the fall, and found his band 
absent upon their winter's hunt. Keokuk exerted himself 
stronglv this winter to induce Black Hawk's followers to 


desert liim, and to remove across the Mississippi. It was 
in vain. Their attachment to their village was stronger 
than any representations of the danger of such a course, 
and accordingly, in the Spring of 1831, they all returned. 
The agent at Hock Island immediately notified them to re- 
move, or troops would he sent to drive them off. 

In the meantime the squaws had commenced planting 
their corn, which the whites ploughed up. This enraged 
Black Hawk, and he threatened to remove the whites hy 
force if they persisted in such proceedings. The whites 
became alarmed — a startling memorial was drawn up, con- 
cluding, after enumerating a long list of outrages, with the 
astounding outrage of the "Indians going to a house, 
rolling out a barrel of whisky, and knocking in its head !" 
Terrifying rumors were circulated of border depredations 
committed by "General Black Hawk" and his "British 
Band." The Executive of Illinois promptly ordered out 
seven hundred militia to meet this " invasion." 

However, General Gaines ordered some ten companies 
to Rock Island, and with them proceeded there in June. 
A conference was held with Black Hawk, the result 
of which was, that he refused to leave. However, some 
sixteen hundred mounted militiamen having arrived. Gen. 
Gaines took possession of the Sac village, and Black Hawk 
retreated across the river. A treaty was then concluded, 
wherein Black Hawk agreed not to cross the river without 

Thus ended, for that year, this famous campaign — which, 
while being in reality buta squabblebetween Black Hawk's 
squaws, and the whites, about cornfields, and rights of way, 
was magnified by Gov. Reynolds into an actual invasion. 

In the Spring of 1832, Black Hawk received information 
from the Prophet that not only the British, but several 
tribes of Indians would assist him in recovering his lands. 
After vainly endeavoring to persuade^ Keokuk to join him, 


he started in April from liis rendezvous at Fort Madison, 
and, attended by liis band, mth their wives and children, 
landed at Rock River, and proceeded to ascend it. This 
was in violation of the treaty of the preceding year. He 
was ordered by Gen. Atkinson — then stationed at Fort 
Armstrong — to return ; but he refused on the grounds of 
his mission being a peaceful one, as he was proceeding to a 
"Winnebago village further up the river, there, by their in- 
vitation, to raise corn. 

After reaching the Winnebago village. Black Hawk 
ascertained that the tribe would not assist him, although 
willing that he should plant corn. He then determined to 
return along Rock River, and recross the Mississippi, as he 
had by this time learned that all the promised assistance 
from other tribes had failed. Before returning, he deter- 
mined to give a feast in honor of some Pottowatomies then 
visiting him. 

In the meantime. Gen. Atkinson, with six huijdred 
troops, had ascended Rock River in pursuit of Black Hawk, 
and at this time had arrived at Dixon's ferry, a point about 
half way from the Mississippi to Black Hawk's camp. 
There, Maj. Stillman, with some three hundred volunteers, 
proceeded forward on a scouting expedition. He proceeded 
up to Sycamore Creek, which was within a few miles of 
Black Hawk. 

The latter hearing that troops had been seen near him, 
immediately sent three young men with a flag of truce, to 
conduct them to his camp, for the purpose of a conference. 
These, upon approaching the troops, were taken j^^^i-'^oners, 
and one of iliem shot ! . Five others were despatched by the 
wary old chief to mark the result. These had not pro- 
ceeded far before they saw the troops coming toward them 
at a full gallop. Two of them were overtaken and killed, 
the other three reached the camp, and gave the alarm. All 
of Black Hawk's men were then absent, but about fifty. 


These immediately charged upon the advancing troops, 
and completely routed the valorous three hundred ! The 
retreat did not stop on reaching their camp, hut many not 
even deeming Gen. Atkinson's flag a sufficient defense, 
kept on fifty miles farther, to their own homes ! 

This was the famous "battle" of "Stillman's Run," and 
it, perhaps, conferred a more lasting notoriety upon those 
engaged in it, than "vrould have the hardest fought battle. 
The whole proceeding — from the firing upon the flag- 
bearers at the beginning, to their "turning tail" to the 
Indians at the end — is the most cowardly aflair on record. 
There is not a doubt but if the flag had been respected, 
and a conference held, that Black Hawk would have 
peaceably returned to the west side of the Mississippi. 

A bloody frontier war ensued. The "British Band" 
divided in squads, and attacked and butchered wherever 
they could find an opportunity. One thousand more troops 
■were ordered out, and Gen. Scott proceeded towards the 
scene of action with about the same number, having been 
despatched by the Secretary of War. The Indians were 
gradually driven north, and, as they reached the Wisconsin 
river, they were defeated, with a bloody loss, by Gen. 
Dodge, the former losing some forty of their braves, the 
latter but one. This decisive blow ended, in reality, the 
war. The women and children escaping down the Wis- 
consin on rafts, starved, or were shot by troops stationed 
along the river, with but a miserably small exception. 

Black Hawk, and his remaining party, attempted to 
reach the Mississippi by taking a direct line across the 
country, toward a point some forty miles above the mouth 
of the Wisconsin. After losing many by starvation, the 
flying band reached the river, and made preparations for 
crossing it — but the steamboat Warrior gave them another 
check. Regardless of a white flag, exhibited by them, the 
Captain let fly a six-pounder among them, and, to use his 



own elegant language, "if you ever saw straight blankets 
you saw them there !"=*' The next morning, the whole of 
Gen. Atkinson's army arrived in pursuit of the Indians, 
and inimediately attacked them. This "battle" was simply 
a massacre — the sharp-shooters amusing themselves by 
picking off the women and children, w^ho were endeavor- 
ing to cross the river. The most who escaped by crossing 
the river passed from Scyllad to Charybis — for they 
were attacked by a party of Sioux, and were either killed 
or taken prisoners. The " battle" of Bad Axe was simply 
a victory of overpowering numbers over a starved remnant 
of a brave tribe, and an indiscriminate massacre of men, 
women and children. From the unjustifiable act of the 
"Warrior in firing upon a flag of truce to the shooting of in- 
nocent women and harmless children, there is not much 
to admire. 

Black Hawk escaped, but was taken by a couple of 
treacherous Winnebagoes, and delivered, along with the 
Prophet, to General Street, August 27th, at Prairie du 
Chien. He was sent in a few days to Rock Island, where, 
on the 21st September, a new treaty was concluded be- 
tween the Whites and Indians. In consequence of cholera 
in the Fort, the treaty was held on the Wisconsin side — 
on the spot of ground now occupied by the Mississippi and 
Missouri Railroad buildings. 

It was at this treaty that Keokuk made a reserve of 
a section of land which was made over to the wife of 
Antoine Le Claire, on the single condition that the latter 
should build his house upon the spot of ground occupied 
by the marquee of Gen. Scott during the treaty. The re- 
sult of the treaty was, that the United States acquired from 
the Sacs and Foxes six millions of acres lying west of the 
Mississippi, which acquisition was known as the "Black 
Hawk Purchase," and subsequently as the "Iowa District." 

* See B, end of Chapter III. 


A reserve of forty miles square, known as "Keokuk's Ke- 
serve," was made in favor of that Chief on Iowa River. 

This land was purchased for twenty thousand dollars per 
annum for thirty years — the payment of the dehts of the 
tribe, and the support of a black and gun smith among 

This ends the brief notice of prominent events in the 
life of Black Hawk, and the celebrated "Black Hawk 
i^Yar" — than which latter there is scarcely a more farcical 
"v/ar" on record. Beginning in the aggressions of the 
whites, and lack of forbearance afterward with the less re- 
fined Indians — with bombast and cowardice, and violation 
of sacred pledges interspersing its sparse details of noble- 
ness, charity and bravery, it is not one which can or should 
reflect particular credit upon the part of the Whites. But 
let it pass — every year's inquiries are revealing these facts 
— and posterity will yet pass a righteous verdict upon its 

When Black Ilawk passed down the river, during a 
visit to Rock Island in the Spring of '33, we are informed 
by Lieut. Mitchell that, as he passed along below Rock 
Island, he " eried like a child," as his eye looked upon the 
site of his old village. There is something peculiarly aifect- 
iug in this incident, and it reveals no little of the Beautiful 
in the heart of the savage. He was in his sixty-fifth year 
— an old man. There were the rolling prairies of his beau- 
tiful village — the theatre of the great exploits of his whole 
life, which he was never to visit again. Expatriated, con- 
quered, thrust down from his high position, and igno- 
miniously treated, with the sight of boyhood and man- 
hood's home in the possession of the stranger-enemy, and 
with the prospect of a distant removal in his old age, from 
all that he valued — why should not the aged chief weep ? 
He died — and among all the famous events of " General 
Black Hawk's" history — among all his brave exploits, and 


magnanimous deeds, there is not one so lustrous as the aged 
man weeping as he passed his old home, and the graves of 
his kindred. 

Let Posterity do him at least the justice to own that 
there was in his acts a single one of poetic beauty, which 
is paralleled only in acts giving birth to " Thoughts that 
breathe, and words that burn." 

A. Indian Customs.— In closing these chapters, it may not be inappropriate to give a 
few of tlie customs, beliefs, &c., of the Sac and Fox tribes : 

Marriages. — Our women plant the corn, and as soon as Ihey get done, we make a feast, and 
dance the crane dance, in which they join us, dressed in their best, and decorated with feathers. 
At this feast our young braves select the young woman they wish to have for a wife. He then 
informs his mother, who calls on the mother of the girl, when the arrangement is made, and the 
time appointed for him to come. Uo goes to the lodge when all are asleep, (or pretend to be,) 
lights his matches, which have been provided for the purpose, and soon finds where his intended 
sleeps. lie then awakens her, and holds the light to his face, that she may know him— after 
which he places the light close to her. If she blows it out, the ceremony is ended, and he ap- 
pears in the lodge the next morning, as one of the family. If she does not blow out the light, 
but leaves it to burn out, he retires from the lodge. The next day he places himself in full view 
of it, and plays his tlute. The young women go out, one by one, to see who he is playing for. 
The tune changes, to let them know that he is not playing for them. When his intended makes 
her appearance at the door, he continues his courting tune, until she returns to the lodge. He 
then gives over jtlaying, and makes another trial at night, which generally turns out favorable. 
Durmg the first year they ascertain whether they can agree with each other, and can be happy — 
if not, they part, and each looks out again. If we were to live together, and disagree, we should 
be as foolish iis the whites. No indiscretion can banish a woman from her parental lodge— no 
difference how many children she may bring home, she is always welcome — the kettle is over the 
fire to feed them. 

Dances. — The crane dance often lasts two or three days. 'Wheu this is over, we feast again, 
and hav3 our national dance. The large square in the village is swept and prejjared for the pur- 
pose. The chiefs and old warriors, take seats on mats, which have been spread at the upper end 
of the square — the drummers and singers come next, and the bravrs and women form the sides, 
leaving a large space in the middle. The drums beat, and the singers commence. A warrior 
enters the square, keeping time with the music. Ho shows the manner ho started on a war 
party— how he approached the enemy — he strikes, and deseiibes the way he kille<l him. AI] join 
in applause. He then leaves the square, and another enters and takes his place. Such of our 
young men as have not been out in war parties, and killed an enemy, stand back ashamed — not 
being able to enter the square. I remember that I was ashamed to look where our young women 
stood, before I could take my stand in the square as a warrior. 

What pleasure it is to an oM warrior, to see his son come forward and relate his exploits — it 
makes him feel young, and induces him to enter the square, and ''fight his battles o'er again." 

This national dance makes our w.arriors. When I was traveling last summer, on a steam boat, 
ou a large river, going from New York to Albany, I was shown the place where the Americans 
dance their national dance [West Point]; where the old warriors recount to their young man, 
what they have done, to stimulate them to go and do likewise. This surprised me, as I did not 
think the whites understood our way of making braves. 

Labors, Wars, Keasts, &c.— When our national dance is over — our corn-fields hoed, and every 
weed dug up, and our corn about knee high, all our young men would start in a direction 
towards sun<lown, to hunt deer and bufi^xlo- being prepared, also, to kill Sioux, if any are found 
on our hunting grounds — a part of our old men and women to the lead mines to make lead — and 
the remainder of our people start to fish, and get mat stuff. Every one leaves the village, and 
remains about forty (is^i«t-^.<rhey then return : the hunting party bringing in dried buffalo and 
deer meat, and sometimes .5*02(3! scalps, wheu they are found trespassing on our hunting 
grounds. At other times they are met by a party of Sioux too strong for them, and are driven 
in. If the Sioux have killed the Sacks last, they expect to be retaliated upon, and will fly before 
them, and vice versa. Kacli party knows that the other has a right to retaliate, which induces 
those who have killed last, to give way before their enemy— as neither wisli to strike, except to 
avenge the death of their relatives. All our wars are predicated by the relatives of those killed; 
or by aggressions upon our hunting ground-i. 

The party from the lead mines biiii^' lead, and the others dried fish, and mats for our winter 
lodges. Presents are now made by each party; the first, giving to the others dried bufiiilo and 
deer, and they, in exchange, presenting them with lead, dried fish and mats. This is a hajipy 
season of the year— having plenty of provisions, such as beans, squashes, and other produce, with 
our dried meat and fish, we continue to make feasts and visit each other, until our corn is ripe. 

Soni" loilge in the villngo makes a feast daily to tlio Great Spirit. I cannot explain this so that 
tilt' white people would comprehend nie, us we have no regular standard among us. Kvery one 
makes his teasl as he thinks best, to please the Great Spirit, who has the care of all beings cre- 
ated. Others believer in two Spirits: one good and one bad, and make feasts for the Bad Spirit, 
to keep him quiet! If they can make peace with him, the Good Spirit will not hurt them ! For 
my part, 1 am of opinion, thai so far as we have reason, we have a right to use it, in determining 
whai. is right or wrong; and should jmrsue that pat+i which we believe to be right — believing, 
that " whatever is, is right." If the Great and Good Spirit wished us to believe and do as the 
whites, he could easily cliange our opinions, so that we wo.ild see, and think, and act as they do. 
We are nothing compMcil to His power, and we feel and know it. We have men among ua, like 
the whites, who pretend to know the right path, but will not consent to show it without pay t 
I have no faith in tlieir paths — but believe that every man must make his own path ! 

Origin of Corn. — 1 will here relate the manner in which corn first came. According to tra- 
dition, handed down lo oiu' people, a beautiful woman was seen to descend from the clouds, and 
alight upon the earth, by two of our ancestors, who had killed a deer, and were sitting by a fire, 
roasting apart of it to eat. They were astonished at seeing her, and concluded that she must bo 
hungry, and had smelt the meat — and inmiediately went to her, taking with them a piece of the 
rousted venison. Tliey presented it to her, and she eat — and told them to return to i,he spot 
where she was sitting, at the end of one year, and they would find a reward for their kindness 
and generosity. She then ascended to the clouds, and disappeared. The two men returned to 
their village, and explained to the nation what they had seen, done, and heard — but were 
laughed at by their people. When the period arrived, for them to visit this consecrated ground, 
where they were to find a reward for their attention to the beautiful woman of the clouds, they 
went with a large party, and found, where her right hand had rested on the ground, corn grow- 
ing — and whore the left hand had rested, beans — and immediately where she Lad been seated, 

The two first have, ever s'nce, been cultivated by our people, as our principal provisions — and 
the last used for smoking. Tlie white jieople have since found out the latter, and seems to relisli 
it as much as we do — as they use it in different ways, viz : smoking, snuffing and eating! 

Sports, &c. — We thank the Great Spirit for all the benefits he has conferred upon us. For my- 
self, I never take a drink of water from a spring, without being mindtul of his goodness. 

\Ve next have our great ball play — from three to five hundred on a side, play this game. We 
play for horses, guns, blankets, or any other kind of property we have. The successful party 
take the stakes, and all retire to oui lodges in peace and friendshijj. 

We next commence horse-racing, and continue our sport and feasting, until the corn is all se- 
cured. We then prepare to leave our village for our hunting grounds. The traders arrive, and 
give us credit for such articles as we want to clothe our families, and enable us to hunt. We first, 
however, hold a council with I hem, to ascertain the price they will give us for our skins, and 
^vhat they will charge us for goods. We inform them where we intend hunting — and tell them 
where to build their houses. At this place, we deposit part of our corn, and leave our old people. 
The traders have always been kind to them, and relieved them when in want, They were always 
much respected by our people — and never since we have been a nation, haS one of them been 
killed by any of our people. 

We disperse, in small jiartiei, to make our hunt, and as soon as it is over, wo return to our 
traders' establishment, with our skins, and remain feasting, playing cards, and other pastimes, 
until near the close of the winter. Onr young men then start on tlie beaver hunt; others to hunt 
raccoons and muskrats — and the remainder of our people go to the sugar cani|)s to make sugar. 
All leave our encampment, and appoint a place to meet on the Mississippi, so that we may return 
to our village together, in the spring. We always spent our time ijleasaiitly at the sugar camp. 
It being the season for wild fowl, we lived well, and always had jileiity, when the hunters came 
in. that we might make a feast for them. After this is over, we return to our village, acc<mi- 
panied, sometimes, by our traders. In this way, the year rolled round happily. But these are 
times that were ! 

B. Myself and band having no means to descend the Ouisconsin, I started, over a rugged 

country, to go to the Mississippi, intending to cross it, and return to my nation. Many of our 
people were compelled to goon foot, for want of horses, which, in consequence of their having had 
nothing to eat for a long time, caused our march to be very slow. At length we arrived at the 
iviississippi, having lost some of our old men and little children, who perished on the way with 

We had been here but a little while, before we saw a steam boat (the "Warrior,") coming. I 
told my braves not to shoiit, as I intended going on board, so that we might save our womeuand 
children. I knew the captain, (Throckmorton,) and was determined to give myself up to him. 
1 then sent for my white flag. While the messenger was gone, I took a small piece of white cot- 
ton, and put it on a pole, and called to the captain of the boat, and told him to send his little 
canoe ashore, and let me come on board. The people on the boat asked whether we were Sacs 
or Winnehagoes. I told a Winnebago to tell them that we were Sacs, and wan ted to give our- 
selves up! A Winnebago on the boat called to us "to ru7i and hide, thai the ivldtes were, going to 
shoot !" About this time one of my braves had jumped into the river, bearing a wiiite flag to the 

boat when another sprang in after him, and brought him to shore. The firing then commenced 

from the boat, which was returned by my braves, and continued for some time. Very few of my 


people were hurt after the first fire, having succeeded in getting behind old logs and trees, which 
shielded them from the enemy's fire. 

The Winnebago, on the steam boat, must either have misunderstood what was told, or did not 
tell it to the captain correctly ; because I am confident that he would not liave fired upon us. if 
he had known my wishes. I have always considered him a good man, and too great a brave to 
fire upon an enemy when sueing for quarters. 

After the boat left us, I told my people to cross, if they could, and wished : that I intended 
going into the Chippewa country. Some commenced crossing, and such as had determined to 
follow them, remained — only three lo<lges going with me. Next morning, at daybreak, a young 
man overtook me, and said that all my party had determined to cross the lMississipi)i — that a 
number had already got over safe, and that he had heard the white army last night within a 
few miles of tliem. I now began to fear that the whites would come up with my people, and kill 
them, before they could get across. I had determined to go and join the Chippewas; but re- 
flecting that by this I could only save myself, I concluded to return, and die with my people, if 
the Great Spirit would not give us another victory ! During our stay in the thicket, a party of 
whites came close by us, but passed on without discovering us ! 

Early in the morning a party of whites, being in advance of the army, came upon our people 
■who were attempting to cross the Mississippi. They tried to give themselves up — the whites' 
paid no attention to their entreaties — but commenced slaughtering them! In a little while the 
whole army arrived. Our braves, but few in number, finding that tlie enemy paid no regard to 
age or sex, and seeing that they were murdering helpless women and little children, determined 
to fight until they were Jdlled! As many women as could, commenced swimming the Mississippi 
with their children on their back.s A number of them were drowned, and some shot, before they 
could reach the opposite shore. 

One of my braves, who gave me this information, piled up some saddles before him, (when the 
fight commenced,) to shield himself from the enemy's fire, and killed three white men! But 
seeing that the whites were coming too close to him, he crawled to the bank of the river, without 
being perceived, and hid himself under it. until the enemy retired, lie then came to me and 
told me what had been done. After hearing this sorrowful news. I started, with my little party 
to the Winnebago village at Prairie La Cross. On my arrival there, I entered the lodge of one 
of the chiefs, and told him that I wished him to go with me to his father — that I intended to give 
myself up to the American war chief, aud die, if the Great Spirit saw proper! He said he would 
go with me. I then took my medicine bag, and addressed the chief. I told him that it was "the 

soul of the Sac nation — that it never had been dishonored in any battle- — take it, it is my life 

dearer than life — and give it to the American cliief !" He said he would keep it, and take care of 
it, and if I was suffered to live, he would send it to me. 

During my stay at the village, the squaws made me a white dress of deer skin. I then started 
with several Winnebagoes, and went to their agent, at Prairie du Chien, and gave myself up. 

On my arrival there, I found to my sorrow, that a large body of Sioux had pursued aud 
killed, a number of our women and children, who had got safely across the Mississippi. The 
whites ought not to have permitted such conduct — and none but cowards would ever have been 
guilty of such cruelty — which has always been practised on our nation by the Sioux. 

The massacre, which terminated the war, lasted about two hours. Our loss in killed was 
about si.xty, besides a number that were drowned. The loss of the enemy could not be ascertained 
by my braves, exjictly ; but they think that they killed about sixteen, during the action. 

We are indebted for the above details to the life of Black Hawk, dictated by himself, — Eb. 



Meeting at Col. Davenport's — Site of Davenport — Proprietors — Survey — Cost 
of Pioneer Enterprises — Anecdote of a Politician — First Ball — Religious Ser- 
vices — Rockingham — Postmaster Appointed. 

In the year 1833, there were one or two claims made 
upon the lands now occupied by the lower part of the city. 
The claim upon which the city was first laid out was con- 
tended for by a Dr. Spencer and Mr. McCloud. The mat- 
ter was finally settled by Mr. LeClaire buying them both 
out ; giving them for the quarter section one hundred and 
ffiy dollars ! A splendid illustration is this sale of the 
immense fortunes made in the "West, by politic fore- 
thought, and judicious investment. This claim laid to the 
"West of LeClaire's Reserve — the latter terminating at 
Harrison street. Below this street the city was first laid 

Having fenced in this portion, Mr. LeClaire cultivated 
it until it was sold to a Company in 1835. In the Fall of 
this year a company was formed for the purpose of pur- 
chasing and laying out a town site. They met at the 
house of Col. Davenport on Eock Island to discuss the 
matter. The following gentlemen Avere present : Maj. 
Wm. Gordon, Antoine LeClaire, Col. Geo. Davenport, 
Maj. Thos. Smith, Alex. McGregor, Levi S. Colton, and 
Philip Hambaugh. These gentleman, and Capt. James 
May, then in Pittsburg, composed the company which se- 


cured the site, and set in motion a train of circumstances, 
whose result is, a beautiful and flourishing city. The ne- 
cessity of a town between the upper and lower rapids — the 
unexampled fertility of the adjacent country — the mag- 
nificent beauty of the location — its freedom from malaria- 
breeding marshes, and facilities for drainage, the propin- 
quity of immense opportunity for water power, were reasons 
adduced for the choice of the location. Well did they 
choose, as the events of the last twenty years have amply 
established. In the Spring of the next year, the site was 
surveyed and laid out by Maj. Gordon, United States 
Surveyor, and one of the stockholders. The spot selected 
included the area bounded on the East by Harrison street, 
on the jSTorth by Seventh, West by Warren, and South by 
the river. It included thirty-six blocks, and six half-blocks 
— the latter being the portions lying adjacent to Warren, 
on the West. 

The cost of the entire site was two thousand dollars — or 
two hundred and fifty dollars per share — a price which now 
would purchase but a very indifferent building-lot in the 
least valued part of it. In May the lots were oflered at 
auction. A steamboat came up from St. Louis laden 
with passengers to attend the sale, and remained at the 
levee during its continuance, in order to afford the conve- 
niences of lodging, edibles, and the not less essential item 
of drinkables. The sale continued two days, but owing to 
the fact that the titles were simply such as were included 
in a squatter's claim — and purchasers fearful that such were 
not particularly good — only some fifty or sixty lots were 
sold, and these mostly to St. Louis speculators. The lots 
brought from ^300 to ^600 each — a smaller sum than the 
proprietors calculated upon. The remaining portion of the 
site was then divided among the proprietors. 

The emigration this year was but small — only some half 
dozen families coming in. The first Hotel or "tavern" 


was put np this year, and opened by Edward Powers ; and 
is still standing on the corner of Front street and l-Jipley. 
It was put up by Messrs. Davenport and LeClaire, and was 
called " Davenport Hotel"— in honor of the " city" — the 
latter receiving its cognomen from Col. Geo. Davenport, 
who long previous had been a resident of the Island, In 
reo-ard to its appearance, nothing need be said — all here 
have seen or can see it, while more distant readers are 
doubtlessly amply informed in regard to the appearance, 
character, extent, accommodations, &c., of pioneer "hotels." 
The next most prominent evidence of im'provcment was 
erected the same year by an old sea captain, named John 


It was that vademecum of civilization — that cotemporary, 
and often pioneer of church and school-house — a drinking 
saloon. It was a log-shanty, and stood on Front street, 
below Western Avenue. It was long a favorite resort of 
the politician and the thirsty ; and not a few grand social 
schemes and political intrigues were concocted beneath 
the genial influence of the suspiciously genuine liquids, 
vended by the retired and afiable " Captain." 

There, listening to the numerous reminiscences of Cap- 
tain Litch, and growing balmy under his genial "punches" 
until life and its projects were roseate as the cheek of 
Dawn, might be seen daily many who now stand deservedly 
among our first citizens. The "Maine Law" then lay 
unevolved in the convolutions of Neal Dow's brain. " E'ot 
to drink" would then be almost, or quite, sufficient to 
ostracise any man from a desirable social standing; and he 
who did not produce the bottle and glass upon the advent 
of a visitor, was deemed lacking in hospitality. " Take a 
drink," entered then as much into a portion of social econ- 
omy as " take a chair" does in the refinements of modern 
intercourse. The merchant preceded his customer's appli- 
cation by the proffer of a "smile"— all trades were pro- 



logued and finished by a resort to an imbibition — and in 
short, no enterprise, civil, social, religious, political, or 
otherwise, could well be inducted or concluded without 
the presence of a third party, in the shape of a dusky- 
visaged Bottle. 

Janies Mackintosh opened the first store, in the latter 
part of October, of this year; his stock consisted of a gen- 
eral assortment of Dry Goods, Groceries, Hardware, Pro- 
visions, &c., to a value of about five thousand dollars ; com- 
menced business in a log house, built by A, LeClaire, near 
the U. S. House, corner of Ripley and third streets. 

In December D. C. Eldridge also opened a large stock 
of Goods. Many may wonder where consumers were to 
be found for a "large &tock of goods" in a place ot less than 
a dozen families. It will much astonish such, as well as 
many others, to learn, that in the Spring of the next year 
(1837) the sum total of daily sales averaged one hundred 
AND FIFTY DOLLARS, of wliich thirty-three percent, was ca^sh. 

This apparent discrepancy of sales and buyers is ex- 
plained, when it is known that from the town opi)osite, and 
a long distance up and down the river, people came here 
to trade. 

Lumber was, at that time, brought from Cincinnati, and 
almost everything else from a distance. Flour at sixteen 
dollars per barrel. Pork at sixteen cents per pound, were 
brought from Cincinnati. Corn w^as imported from the 
Wabash River, and brought two dollars per bushel. The 
farm now occupied by Mr. McManus was bought by Dr. 
Hall, and paid for in this latter commodity, — the cost of 
the farm was five hundred bushels of corn. The Ferry 
also dates its existence from this year — it being a flat-bot- 
tomed craft, technically termed a ''mud-boat." This in 
1841 was superseded by an immense improvement in the 
shape of a horse-boat — which in time gave way to steam 
— the whole being crowned by the two magnificent and 


commodious steamboats constantly employed in transfer- 
ring a ^vide deep stream of freight and passengers from 
fcliore to shore. 

Our lady-readers may, perhaps, be interested in know- 
ing that the pioneer in conjugal love, cutting teeth, chicken 
pox, and baby talk, in Davenport, was a son of Mr. L. S. 
Colton, who first looked upon the light in the Fall of this 
year. The feeble wail of the first baby in Davenport has 
been echoed not a few times since, and daily grows wider 
and deeper in its volume, like the tiny spring-streamlet, 
widening eventually into a broad river. 

It will naturally be supposed that the character of social 
life was in some sort like the country — rather destitute of 
refinement. A gentleman relates a circumstance con- 
nected with a prominent politician of this State, and who 
has had the honor Irequently of saying " Mr. Speaker" in 
the halls of JSTational Legislation, that perhaps was the 
counterpart of a thousand others of the time. In the fall 
of '35 this gentleman, while passing up the Mississippi on 
a prospecting tour, made the acquaintance of the political 
gentleman at Burlington — where the latter came aboard 
the boat. He was at that time candidate for territorial 
delegate from Wisconsin. lie had scarcely gotten aboard 
before he ostentatiously displayed a pair of pistols, and 
which he occupied himself in handling, loading and fixing 
in various shapes, at intervals, during the passage to 
Galena. Arriving there, he solicited our informant to 
land, and proceed with him to the hotel. With his wife 
leaning upon his arm, the latter, followed closely in the 
•wake of the candidate for Congressional honors. As they 
reached the door of the stopping place, the opposition can- 
didate happened to step out to the threshold. Our political 
hero confronted him in an instant, and as he drew both 
his pistols, he remarked, without preface — 

"You are a G d bully, sir! Take your choice!" 

The other, however, declined a choice of the extended 


pistol-butts, and "made himself scarce." Both, however, 
relievd their irate tendencies, soon after, by a street fight, 
at Mineral Point, in which neither suffered according to 
the extent of the wishes of his antagonist. The effect upon 
our informant, and especially upon his wife, may easily be 
imagined. It may, however, be well to state, that the 
political gentleman alluded to is everywhere known for 
his courtesy and gentlemanly urbanity in every phase of 
his social life. 

The first law office in town was opened by A. McGregor, 
Esquire, in April. 

The first Religious discourse was delivered by Rev. Mr. 
Gavitt, a methodist, in the Spring, in the house of D. C. 
Eldridge. Preaching from an Episcopalian the same 

Religious services were held semi-occasionally at the 
house of Mr. LeClaire, in which a priest from Galena 
officiated. For other amusements, our settlers had at this 
period, besides preachers, steamboat arrivals, which every 
body went down to see, horse racing at the upper end of 
the present site of the city, which all, from the car- 
penter on the roof, to the merchant behind the counter, 
left to witness; sleigh-rides to the neighboring places, follow- 
ed by a dance, to which all went; balls at home, and wolf 
hunts. There was then quite as much, or more, positive 
enjoyment than now, for the reason that social caste was 
not there recognized, and all went in simply for enjoyment. 

The pioneer ball was held in Mr. LeClaire's house, Jan. 
8, 1836. Some forty couples were present, consisting of 
frontiersmen, officers from the Island, and others. The 
music was furnished by fiddles, from which no contempti- 
ble strains were occasionally drawn by Mr. LeClaire him- 
self. Prominent among the merry dancers were G. C. R. 
Mitchell, A. McGregor, G. L. Davenport, Joe Conway, and 
last but not least, and by far the lightest dancer in the 
room, the now portly figure of A. LeClaire. Most of 



the frontiersmen wore the coarsest species of" stogy boots," 
"making" as our informant says,"a most infernal clatter." 
The dresses of the ladies were generally rather more calcu- 
lated to promote comfort than ostentation. The party 
danced till sunrise, and then broke up — the gentlemen 
being, as a general thing, as genial as all the " punches" 
they could possibly contain, would make them. Joe Con- 
way, eccentric in his cups as well as his actions, upon 
reaching the ice to cross the river, found himself unable to 
either stand still or walk — he very ingeniously, therefore, 
compromised the matter by striking a sinuous and uncer- 
tain "dog-trot" and heading for all points of the Island 
miscellaneously. It is mistily believed by his companions 
that he succeeded in reaching it — although somewhat out 
of his original bearings. 

In the Fall of this year, Rockingham — a now deserted 
locality some few miles down the river — was laid out by 
a company, among whom were Gen. Sargent, Ebenezer 
Cook, Dr. Barrows, and others, of our now prominent cit- 
izens. It was thought a good locality, for the reason that 
it was opposite the embouchure of Rock Eiver, which was 
supposed to be navigable. Gen. Sargent states that he 
once ascended it in a steamboat to the distance of two 
hundred and ten miles ; and hence it was very reasonably 
supposed that an important junction might be formed with 
interior towns, and a heavy trade thereby supported. 

At the time of the purchase of the 13 lack Hawk dis- 
trict, it was placed under the jurisdiction of Michigan. 

In 1836, "Wisconsin was organized, arud by an act of the 
Legislature (which met for the first time at Belmont,) the 
"Black Hawk Purchase" was divided into two counties. A 
line beginning at Rock Island, and extending west to the 
Missouri River, divided them — the north one was called 
Julien Township, and Dubuque county, the south one 
Flint Hill Township, and Des Moines county. The county 
seat of the former was located at Dubuque. Davenport 


was in the latter jurisdiction. Soon after tlie District was 
divided into counties, at which time commenced a notable 
spirited contest between Davenport and Eockinham for 
possession of the county seat. Of this we shall speak in 
its proper place. 

In the Summer of this year, Mr. A. LeClaire was ap- 
pointed P. M. Mails came once each week from the East, 
via Chicago ; and once in two weeks from Dubuqiie via Dav- 
enport to Fort De Moine, (now Montrose). Postage at that 
time was twenty- five cents. The P. M. used to carry the mail 
across the river in his pocket ; and his percentage for the first 
three months was secenty-five ce7its ! The present P. M., 
with his two thousand boxes, and half dozen assistants, will 
easily recognize the difference. The mortality this year 
amounted to seven — the first of whom was Mrs. Tanney- 

In September, a treaty was held at East Davenport be- 
tween Gov, Dodge, U. S. Commissioner, and the Sacs and 
Foxes. The object of the treaty was to secure possession 
of the land bordering on Iowa River, and known as " Keo- 
kuk's Reserve." About a thousand chiefs and warriors 
■were present, and were encamped during the time just 
above Renwick's mill. 

The land in question amounted to 256,000 acres, and 
was purchased for seventy-five cents per acre, or $192,000 
— a very liberal price compared to what Government had 
heretofore paid, but " dog cheap" when we consider that 
in less than a year every foot of it was disposed of at ten 
shillings per acre. 

Catlin, in his "Korth American Indians" thus notices 
this affair : 

"The treaty itself, in all its forms, was a scene of interest, 
and Keokuk was the principal speaker on the occasion, being 
recognized as the head chief of the tribe, lie is a very 
subtle and dignified man, and well fitted to wield the des- 


tiiiies of his nation. The poor dethroned monarch, old 
BL^ck Hawk, was present, and looked an object of pity. 
With an old frock coat and brown hat on, and a cane in 
his hand, he stood the whole time outside of the group, 
and in dumb and dismal silence, with his sons by his side, 
and also his quondam, aid-de-camp Nahpope, and the 
Prophet. They were not allowed to speak, nor even sign 
the Treaty. Nahpope rose, however, and commenced a very 
earnest speech on the subject of temperance! but Gov. 
Dodge ordered him to sit down, (as being out of order,) 
which probably saved him from a much more iperemptory 
command from Keokuk, who was rising at that moment 
with looks on his face that the Devil might shrink from." 

The two tribes staid here nearly a fortnight, amusing 
themselves and others with characteristic games and dances. 
One amusement was " smoking horses." A party of 
loiuays came at the time, and wanted some horses of the 
Sacs and Foxes. Such of the latter as had horses to give 
away, mounted them, and commenced riding at full speed 
around the loways — then suddenly wheeling woukl en- 
deavor to ride straight through them, which was prevented 
by using small switches against the faces of the horses. 
After riding a half hour or so, a Sac rider would call to an 
loway to stand out, and then passing him at full speed, he 
would bring upon the naked back of the other, with the 
full force of his arm, a heavy whip of plaited rawhide, 
raisino" a "welt" as thick as one's finger. Then immedi- 
ately dismounting, he would place the bridle in the hands 
of the yelling victim, who was thereafter the owner of the 
horse. This ludicrous operation excited much sport among 
the spectators. It was a common custom among the Sacs 
and Foxes, and some other nations — the compliment being 
from time to time interchanged. 

This Treaty was the last ever held in this vicinity. 

There were seven houses in the old town limits at the 


close of the year. Log house of Capt. Litch, ditto of L. S. 
Cotton, ferryman; frame dwelling partly finished, and 
owned by a Mr. Shoals. It has been since known as the 
"Dillon House," {of wJdch a gentleman sirice Governor of the 
State was once hostler). Log House of James 'Kelly — (a 
tailor from Detroit, Mich.) — used by James Mcintosh as 
storehouse; log house of Wm. Allen, used for P. O. ; frame 
building, known as Davenport Hotel, and after as United 
States Hotel ; log house used by D. C. Eldredge as store. 
All these stand yet, except Dillon's and Litch's. 

The events narrated above are the prominent ones of 
1836. The year closed with a population of less than one 
hundred. Stephenson, (now Rock Island,) which had been 
laid out in 1834, possessed at this time a population of 
nearly five hundred. 



Inilian Duel — Col. Taylor's Defeat in 1820 — Fight between Sacs and Foxes 
and Pottowatomies — Burial of the Slain — Opening of River — First Mar- 
riage — Getty's Flouring Mill — Ferry Company — Jumping Claims — Intruder 
Expelled — Thrashing an Indian — Sacs and Foxes — Sioux Horse Thieves — 
Visit to Washington — Murder of an Indian at Moscow — Escape of Murderer 
— Population — Scott County Organized — Elections. 

In tlie Spring of '37, the first duel " on record," in Iowa, 
was fought between a couple of Winnebago Indians. A 
party of the tribe was here fishing, and encamped on 
Rock Island. A couple of young men were carousing at 
Stephenson, and, in a little while, commenced quarreling. 
The blow was passed. Too refined, by their intercourse 
with the whites, to avenge the blow with knife or tom- 
ahawk, they resorted to the code of honor. Unfortunately 
for one of them, the choice of weapons was not fully up to 
the prevailing principles of the code duello. One had a 
shot gun, the other wisely took the rifle. On the willow 
island, below the city, they drew up the required distance, 
and blazed away. The heavy lead of the cracking rifle 
was "too much" for the lighter pellets of its more noisy 
brother — the Shot Gun. The shot gun and its holder went 
down, and the latter was buried not far from the grave 
yard below the city, and upon the banks of the noble Mis- 
sissippi, whose everlasting voices hymned his advent to the 
Spirit Land. 

The Rifle hero fled to his home in Rock River country. 
But vengeance overtook him even there. The friends and 


relations of the slain clamored for the blood of tlie slayer 
— and the sister of the latter went for the survivor. She 
found him — entreated him to come back to Kock Island, 
and be killed, to appease the wrathful manes of the de- 
parted. Such logic was irresistable — he came — -and in a 
canoe paddled by his own sister, he reached the Island, 
singing his death song. A shallbw grave was dug, and 
kneeling upon its brink, his body tumbled into it, and his 
death song was hushed as the greedy knives of his execu- 
tioners drank the blood of his brave heart. Can the white 
man show a nobler act than this, among all his bravest 
deeds in the arena of the duellist. The chiaro oscuro of 
Spartan deeds presents no more beautiful blending of hero- 
ism and duty than this — nay, verily. 

This same "Willow Island, whereupon the shot gun hero 
bit the dust, is also memorable as being a spot upon which 
the immortal " Rough and Ready" once received, what 
Santa Anna ever failed to give him, namely, a military 
thrashing. In 1812, Col. Taylor, with two companies of 
Regulars, and accompanied by a Captain Rector, with two 
or three companies of Rangers, was proceeding down the 
river. The Indians, knowing his approach, had, under the 
superintendence of a Mr. Graham, (a man well known by 
many of our citizens,) fixed a small cannon among the 
sand hills, on the Illinois side, which they brought to bear 
most effectually upon the boats. The latter, galled by the 
fire, steered for the Island, but here they were assailed by 
a volley from an ambuscade. They resolved to land and 
clear the Island. Rector, and his rangers, sprang ashore, 
and each man took " cover" to fight the Indians in their 
own style. Taylor landed, and formed his men imme- 
diately in line to charge bayonets ! The thick growth of wil- 
lows would hardly admit a musket, much less a company, 
formed in line to charge. The serried lines formed a 
splendid target for the concealed copper-skins, and they 


were not tardy in availing themselves of the opportunity. 
To "cover" was not in the manuel — to "about face," and 
" quick time, march !" to the boats, was, and in the next 
minute, Taylor and his regulars, were shooting down the 
Mississippi as fast as stout oars and lusty "elbow-grease" 
could carry them. The rage of Capt. Rector, when he saw 
Col. Taylor "countermarching" on his own advance, was 
boundless — his first resolution was to order his men to fire 
upon the regulars, who were executing such a " masterly 
retreat" down the river, but the necessity of saving his 
lead for the Indians restrained him. If Col. Taylor after- 
wards earned the bays at Buena Vista and Monterey, he 
certainly could claim no more than the willow in his at- 
tempt to charge bayonets in line upon an ambuscade of 
Indians on Willow Island. 

In the Spring of this year a party of Sacs and Foxes, and 
another of Pottowatomie's were engaged in fishing, and 
were encamped in the "hollow" below Cannon's Mills. A 
keg of whisky induced a row, and the long knives of the 
belligerants soon settled it. Some dozen or more were en- 
gaged in the fight; and its expense was an unlimited 
quantity of ugly cuts, and two breathless braves. Face to 
face the two implacables were seated in the same grave, 
and the ground piled about them to the height of their 
waists, leaving their bodies, and ghastly visages, to front 
each other defiantly, and to j^resent a spectacle less seemly 
than characteristic of the Indian. Enemies in life, they 
rotted as lovingly in death, as brothers, and the ghastly 
grin which came upon one's fleshless jaws was imitated by 
the other, till the w^hilom foes seemed to find in each 
other's lineaments some horrible provocative to jollity. 

Some considerable alarm was felt at the time by the cit- 
izens, as the Indians, maddened by blood and whisky, went 
yelling through the streets, and a messenger was despatched 


to Montrose for assistance. The Indians, however, quieted 
down without doing further damage. 

The river which had closed the 20th December the 
winter previous, opened March 23d, of 1837, and a steam- 
boat came up the same day. 

The first case of matrimony, on record, occurred in 
the Spring. The happy couple who first "led oft*" the 
vast hymenial dance, and pioneered the long array of 
wedding favors, bliss, and incipient heaven, was a Mr. 
"Wm. B. Watts, and a niece of Antoine LeClaire. It may 
not be the best of logic, but still without a "first couple" 
there could be no second, or third, or any others — hence 
all who have married since, or who may hereafter, owe no 
small debt of gratitude to Mr. "Watts and lady. Why 
should not the day of their marriage be marked in the 
calendar as a Golden one — and be set apart as a day to 
be crowned with orange blossoms, and sacred to the wor- 
ship of Eros ? The suggestion is not a studied one — still it 
is none the less worthy of the profound consideration of 
all that vast crowd who since have gone to that matrimo- 
nial bourne "whence no man returns" — a bachelor. 

Mr. Watts, alluded to above, as is learned from a little 
reminiscence, experienced the truth of the idea, that lovers 
endure much tribulation. While "doina^" the as-reeable 
operation of courting, he met with a mishap, as unexpected 
as it was distressing and ludicrous. At the time, a Yankee 
teamster was employed by Mr. LeClaire, who experienced 
a variety of those soft, half-angelic and half-devilish feel- 
ings, yclept love, towards the lady whom Mr. Watts after 
married — and with his love there came jealousy toward his 
rival. With the latter's success, he grew revengeful ; and. 
diabolical, doubtless, were the schemes he devised, and 
the torments he inflicted, in imagination, upon his fortu- 
nate antagonist. One night Mr. Watts was spending the 
evening with the lady. The Yankee could contain his burst- 


ing indignation no longer — andlie shaved the tailofWatt's 
horse as smooth and naked as a roll of sausage ! The in- 
decorous appearance of his steed's caudal prolongation — 
his entire unwillingness to bestride such an institution, 
ma}' well be imagined. The transition from the low- 
whispered love-tales of the parlor to the clean-shaved tail 
of his steed, which, as Byron says, " glittered in bony 
whiteness, there," — from the " airy nothings" of one to the 
nothing hairij of the other — was entirely too sudden, and 
too vivid in its contrasts, to afford much else than exple- 
tives more profane than elegant. 

While hoping that his happiness may descend upon all, 
who, like him, are disposed to matrimony, yet let us wish 
that his mishaps will not also be en-tailed upon his suc- 

The graceful misses of ripe twent}", and younger, whose 
origin is proudly claimed by Davenport, will be pleased to 
learn that the predecessor of their sex in the dim-remem- 
bered mysteries of being born, was a daughter of D. C. 
Eldredge, who pioneered her sex in May of this year. It 
is a pleasure to add, that she " still lives" to enjoy the honor 
of having preceded the hosts of fair flowers which, in con- 
nection with not a few exotics, give grace and beauty to 
the magnificent parterre of our goodly city. 

The same gentleman who introduced the '• first daughter" 
also introduced the first flouring mill, one of "Getty's 
Patent Metallic Mills." It was somewhat larger than a 
coffee mill, and, as our informant states, " the motive- 
power was horse-flesh, and it was engineered b}'^ an Irish- 
man, a discharged soldier from the Fort, who was known, 
and will be remembered by all old settlers as "Joe Topin." 
Poor Joe has gone ! a victim to misplaced confidence in a 
whisky jug !" 

The present well-known and powerful Ferry Company 
dates its origin to this Spring — although not in its present 


corporate character. John Wilson bought out Mr. LeClaire 
for one thousand dollars, and, until 1839, teams, &c., were 
transported in a flat boat. 

Dr. A. E. Donaldson, from Pennsylvania, came in July 
of this year, and was, it is said, the first resident physician. 
His successors, in the short space of twenty years, have 
increased, if not by legions, at least fully in proportion to 
the demand. 

There was no lack of sociability among the Indians at 
this time. Parties would come in from the territory, en- 
camp near the town, and spend a few days in lounging and 
drinking whisky, then would leave,^and their place be sup- 
plied by others. That the Indian sometimes descends 
from his sublime stoicism to a vulgar curiosity, is illus- 
trated in a case related by Mr. Eldredge. Having sickness 
in his family, it was necessary to keep a light burning all 
night. Indians straggling about late, to yell, dance, and 
walk off the eflfects^of "fire-water," would be struck with 
the phenomenon of a light at such a time of night, and pro- 
portionally anxious to ascertain its cause ; mingled, no 
doubt, with a little very natural curiosity in regard to the 
night-arrangement of a white man's bed room. Hearing a 
noise at the window, one evening, Mr. Eldredge stole noise- 
lessly out at the back door, and passed around to the front, 
with a stout splinter of board in his hand. There stood a 
"son of the forest," upon tip-toe, peering over the window 
curtain, and undoubtedly cogitating upon the superior ap- 
pearance of a " white squaw" eyi chemisette. A stinging 
pain upon a part just below his wampum belt was the first 
intimation he received of the indecorousness of his pro- 
ceeding ; while a succession of rapid blows, to which he 
performed an impromptu dance, not laid down in the sal- 
tatory code of the Indian, and to which he yelled an ap- 
propriate accompaniment, convinced him also that every 
sweet has its bitter. He made threats after, of depriving 


his castigator of his "har" — but tlie latter at home 
for a few nights, and the Indian left, doubtless, well as- 
sured of the fact, that at bottom there is no real enjoyment 
in the satisfaction of that squaw-ish trait, curiosity. 

In September, a party of Sacs and Foxes came in to re- 
ceive the last annuity, which was paid them at Rock Island 
— Gen. Street, the Government agent, soon after removing 
to Racoon Forks, now Fort Des Moines. "While they were 
here, some of their scouts brought in word that a body of 
Sioux were in the "Timber," a place now occupied by 
Oakdale Cemetery. Their design was, undoubtedly, to 
wait until the Sacs and Foxes had received their usual 
annuity, and were oblivious in the " big drunk" which gen- 
erally succeeded these payments, and then to steal their 
horses. They failed, however, for scarcely had the scouts 
reported their presence, before three hundred Sac and 
Fox braves had streaked themselves -with war-paint, and 
followed by half the white population, were in their saddles, 
and after the Sioux. The Dacotahs (as the Sacs and Foxes 
termed the Sioux,) received notice of the approach of their 
intended prey, and seasonably decamped — thereby preserv- 
ing intact not a few of that valuable and highly ornamental 
article — their scalps. 

Old settlers recalling this occasion speak enthusiastically 
of Keokuk's eloquence — he having delivered a speech of 
some three hours in length, in which there was not a sin- 
gle repetition. "When one considers that the Chief spoke 
almost with the velocity of lightning, it is inferable that 
his mental reservoir was neither shallow nor indifferently 
well filled. 

Keokuk's eloquence on this occasion arose from the fact 
that Government had sent out one half their annuities in 
goods — instead of money — as was stipulated in the Treaty. 
The Indians very indignantly refused to receive them, and 
in consequence of this, and also in order to settle some 


difficulty witli the Sioux, a large party of Sacs and Foxes, 
Whites and Sioux, went on to Washington. While in 
"Washington a "grand talk" was held, in which the Sioux 
and Sacs and Foxes detailed their grievances. A Sioux 
chief remarked in his speech that " it was no use talking 
to the Sacs and Foxes — they were deaf — their ears should 
be bored out with a stick!" Keokuk listened to the Sioux 
Brave, while every vein and muscle swelled under his 
taunts almost to bursting. When the latter concluded 
he rose, and with his spear (his insignia of office,) in his 
hand, he said : 

" It is useless to bore out the ears of the Sioux with a 
stick — their skulls are too thick. They can only be bored 
out with this !" and the indignant Brave shook his iron- 
headed spear fiercely in the face of the scowling Sioux. 

After the return from Washington, Mr. LeClaire, G. L. 
Davenport, and others, started to " haul" out the goods 
which the Indians had refused, and which Government had 
decided to present to the Indians. They started for Mos- 
cow, (then a trading Station,) in Cedar county, and on the 
route met an Indian, who was on his way to Rock Island, 
to complain that one of his tribe had been murdered at 
Moscow by a White. Mr. LeClaire sent a man with him, 
and the remainder pushed on to Moscow. When they ar- 
rived, they learned the circumstances of the murder. A 
party of Indians had been dancing and drinking at a 
whisky shop in Moscow, during which, a couple of white 
men in amusing their refined propensities, had been 
betting which could JaioeJc a drunken Indian the farthest. 
One would induce an Indian to approach, by holding out 
some whisky, and when he approached the bait the other 
would strike him, and mark the distance at which he fell. 
Then the other empiric would try the force of his flexors 
and extensors, by changing places, and knocking the next 
Indian who came up for the whisky. The Indians, natural- 


]y enough, grew enraged at such treatment, and a row en- 
sued. JDuring the excitement, the stove-pipe was knocked 
down, which so enraged one of the whites, that he struck 
one of the Indians, and fractured his skull, and continued 
his action by kicking the Indian out doors, and then con- 
cluded his humane operations by punching the insensible 
body with a rail ! 

G. C. R. Mitchell was sent for, the body of the murdered 
brave was exhumed, an examination had, and an effort 
made to convict the pale-faced murderer. Moscow was, at 
that time, a rallying point for thieves, counterfeiters, and 
rogues generally — the accused sent around for his friends, 
and, on the day of examination, some sixty of his friends — 
a ruffianly, God-forsaken crowd, were present. The justice 
did not dare to convict him — he Avas released on straw- 
bail, and was afterwards acquitted at Dubuque, as hanging 
a white man for the simple offence of murdering an Indian 
did not enter the ethics of the age. 

After his trial he returned to Moscow, and sent for the 
relatives" of the murdered Indian — promising to pay them 
the usual satisfaction. They came, and agreed to accept a 
certain number of horses as satisfaction, which were to be 
paid on a certain day. The day came, as did. the Indians, 
but the treacherous creditor, with his family, had fled to 
Illinois ! Filled with disappointment, the Indians, on their 
return from Cedar River, met, on their trail, an inoffensive 

Methodist, itenerant, preacher, named whom 

they unmercifully sacrificed, to appease the manes of 
their slaughtered brother. The thinking reader will 
duly consider the morality of the actors in this anecdote. 
Moralization is perfectly useless. 

In October a notable case of trover occurred. It was the 
first trouble of note among the squatters, and it involved 
the last act of moment of the judicial proceedings of 
Dubuque county. Maj. Wilson had a claim, (which he was 


holding for Messrs. Davenport and LeClaire,) upon the 
ground now occupied by Mount Ida Female College, which 
was "jumped" by a man from Stephenson, named Stephens. 
Sheriff Cummings was sent for from Dubuque to oust the 
intruder, and with a posse of some fifty men, (about all in 
Davenport,) he proceeded to the spot, and ordered the gen- 
tleman to vacate. 

But Mr. Stephens, either enjoying the superlative beauty 
of the prospect — or foreseeing the stately edifice which 
would, in time, arise upon the spot, or else actuated by 
simple mulishness, very firmly, not to say impolitely and 
profanely, refused to comply — threatening dire vengeance 
upon the first who should touch him, with divers tire-arms 
and bowie-knives, with which he had fortified his position. 
Sheriff Cummings, however, proved himself equal to the 
trying emergency, for, sending for a yoke of oxen, and a 
strong chain, he proceeded to put in practice a new theory 
of expulsion. The chain was fastened to a corner log, the 
cattle started, and, in a remarkably brief space of time, 
Mr. Stephens bolted out to prevent the consequence which 
might happen from falling timbers. He was shown imme- 
diately the most direct route to Stephenson, of which in- 
formation he availed himself forthwith, and gave up, there- 
after, the precarious employment of jumping claims in 

The posse which assisted Sheriff Camming, at this time, 
was a portion of a Confederation, which was com- 
posed of the inhabitants, generally, of Davenport, Rock- 
ingham, and adjacent settlements. It was organized March, 
'37, had regular laws, officers, &c., and was intended for 
the regulation of Claims, and the settlement of disputes 
connected therewith. One of its laws provided that no 
man could hold more than half a section of land. A book 
was kept, in which every member registered his claim, his 
name, the locality of his claim, and with the addition of 


one dollar, as initiation fee, he was entitled to all the hen- 
efits and protection of the society. 

The first Brick Yard was constructed, this year under the 
auspices and ownership of our present worthy Sheriff — 
Harvey II. Leonard. 

The religious services this year, and for some year or 
two after, were among Protestants, held in one place — a 
house belonging to D. C. Eldredge. Occasional services 
were held there by Clergymen from the Methodists, Pres- 
byterian, Disciples, Congregational, and, at longer inter- 
vals, from the Episcopalian. Everybody attended these 
services, for the various denominations had, as yet, assumed 
no individuality. It cannot be stated, with certainty, 
whether a proportional fructification followed these labors, 
yet good influences were probably disseminated, which 
time, sooner or later, practically developed. 

The population at the close of this year was about one 
hundred and fifty — six new houses had been erected, on 
the new site, making in all fifteen. The River did not 
close until February 13th, of 1838 — a day or two before 
the memorable election for county seat. 

The Wisconsin Legislature met in December of this year 
at Burlington. An act was passed at this session creating 
Scott county, the boundaries of which were as follows : 

" Beginning at a point in the middle of the main channel 
of the Mississippi river, where the line dividing one and 
two, east of the fifth principal meridian intersects the same ; 
thence north, with said range-line, to the line dividing 
township seventy-eight and seventy-nine north ; thence west 
with said line, to the fifth principal meridian ; thence north 
with said meridian to the line dividing townships eighty 
and eighty-one north ; thence east with said line to a point 
where the said line intersects or crosses the Wapasipinica 
river ; thence down the middle of the main channel of said 
river to its mouth ; thence due east to the middle of the 


main channel to tlie place of beginning; shall be, and the 
same is hereby constituted, a separate county, to be called 

The same act also provides for the election for county 
seat, between Eockingham and Davenport, which election 
" shall be held at H. W. Higgin's Hotel in Rockingham, 
John II. McGregor's Hotel in Davenport, and the house of 
J. A. Richards, at the house of E. Parkhurst, in Parkhurst, 
(above LeClaire,) on the thirdMonday in February of 1838." 
An act also provided for the election of three County Com- 
missioners — which board of Commissioners represented the 
County in all suits and County business of whatever nature. 

An act was also passed at this session, giving a Charter 
to certain persons, the authority to act as trustees of the 
"Davenport Manual Labor College." This scheme of a 
Manual Labor College was a fine one, but it never 
amounted to anything for two reasons — a lack of students, 
and a want of money. It evinced, however, a most com- 
mendable desire upon the part of those engaged in it to 
promote educational interests — a desire which since has 
been practically developed into as fine a Common School 
system, and other Institutes as may be found west of the 
most forward sea-board communities. 

The number of acres in the County is two hundred and 
eighty thousand, five hundred and sixteen. Swamp Lands, 
ten thousand five hundred and sixteen acres; and the 
number liable to taxation, two hundred and seventy-four 
thousand. Davenport is thus defined : All the sections 
(fractional) contained in township seventy-eight. Range, 
three East, fifth Meridian, in all, twenty-one thousand, 
seven hundred and forty acres. The survey of the latter 
■was completed in March of 1837. 
■ Lots (which on the old site are laid out 84x150) sold 
during this year for from fifty to two hundred dollars — a 
decrease in value from the year previous. 



Contest for County Seat — Importation from Dubuque — Result — County Com- 
missionei's — Renewal of County Seat Contest — Newspaper Magniloquence — 
Death of Black Hawk — Old Burying Ground — Summary. 

The act providing for an election for County Seat, to 
take place in February of 1838, absorbed alroost every- 
thing else at the commencement of this year. The advan- 
tages occurring to the locality which should hold the seat 
of justice, were sufficiently important to be worthy of no 
small sacrifice. Appreciating this fact, the inhabitants of 
both places entered into the contest with a determination 
to win at every hazard — and the encounter, headed in each 
case by men of means, and keen practical sagacity, was no 
child's play, as will be presently seen. 

The leading men on the Rockingham side were Dr. Bar- 
rows, "Willard Barrows, Gen. G. B. Sargent, Ebenezer 
Cook, John P. Cook, a Mr. Clark, of Buffalo ; Mr. Robert- 
son, John Sullivan, and a Mr. Theller. 

Under the Davenport standard were rallied G. L. Dav- 
enport, James Mcintosh, Antoine LeClaire, G. C. R, 
Mitchell, Levi S. Colton, D. C. Eldredge, Sheriff Wilson, 
and Captain Fitch — although the latter is suspected by 
Posterity of praying " Good Lord ! Good Devil !" 

Readers will recognize in the above not only men of 
shrewd perception and indefatigable perseverance, but also 
in the first-named, a few who have left their first love, and 


who now consider Davenport as " fondly tlieir own" as 
ever they did Rockingham. Headed by such men, the 
battle was long, sanguinary and tcrr/'Jic, if one may be al- 
lowed the latitude of moderate hyperbole. 

The matter probably began by each party counting noses, 
and a discovery upon one side or the other that there was 
a deficiency. Which side first became aware of the fact, 
and resolved to supplj' it from abroad, it may be expedient 
not to question too closely — suflice it, that a short time 
before the day of election both parties were engaged in 
recruiting legal voters — Rockingham in Cedar county, and 
Davenport in Dubuque. An individual, named Bellows 
holding a carte blanche from some seven Davenporters — 
who suddenly discovered that Davenport was in want of 
laborers — started to Dubuque in the capacity of recruiting 
Sergeant. He proved himself a most excellent one, for a 
day or two prior to the election he returned with eleve7i 
sleigh-loads of miners, who, in consideration of one doll^,r 
per diem, food and whisky, and all other expenses, had 
agreed to labor a few days in Davenport, where they had 
understood there was a scarcity of hands at that particular 
juncture. To assert that they knew anything of a pend- 
ing election, were, perhaps, unwise, and, mayhap, at the 
same time, unjust to the worthy gentlemen who had hired 
them. Their arrival was the beginning of a grand carni- 
val. Houses were illuminated, bonfires streaked the face 
of scowling night with roseate joy, processions were formed, 
gunpowder exploded, whisky gurgled everlastingly, and 
men with tumblers in hand, and elbows bent, were every- 
where looking skyward. 

The memorable nineteenth of February made its appear- 
ance — the day appointed by Legislative powers as the day 
of election. The town was filled with miners-rr-roi^ring, 
patriotically drunk. They were Americans— to vote 
is the glorious, blood-bought, inaheriable right of Ameri- 


cans, and so they voted. They were the fiercest, raggedest, 
most God-forsakcu crowd under the heavens — to challenge 
them was useless, for to them perjury was nothing ; to at- 
tempt forcible resistance were madness, and so, what could 
our citizens do but let them vote unchallenged and unre- 
sisted, as they wisely did ? 

The miners voted, and left soon after. They drank 
during their brief sojourn three hundred gallons of whisky, 
and other liquors, and cost those who brought them, for 
transportation, and other expenses, over |3,000 ! It may 
be well to state that $1200 of this amount was absorbed by 
Mr. Bellows — he having received the amount towards pay- 
ing their expenses, but which he put into his own pocket, 
together with |300 which he received for his own services. 

Upon counting votes, it appeared that Davenport was 
ahead — the Dubuque miners were too many for the Cedar 
county wood-choppers. The returns were sent to Dubuque, 
to the Sheriff and Commissioners, but their decision was 
valueless, for Dr. Barrows had visited Gov. Dodge, and 
made such representations of the stupendous frauds com- 
mitted on the part of Davenport, that' the election was an- 
nulled. So ended the first battle — with emaciated pocket- 
books, both parties rested on their arms. Rockingham, 
however, had the advantage, for the County Commis- 
sioners were elected the next month from Rockingham, 
and also met there. 

Maj. "Wilson — now of Rock Island — received the first 
appointment of Sherifli'in Scott county. 

In the Spring of this year, A. LeClaire laid out an ad- 
dition to the site of two blocks in width, extending from 
Harrison street to Brady, and up to Seventh. It is known 
as LeClaire's First Addition. This addition lay upon the 
Reserve, and as the title was perfect, it was a desirable 
locality. Lots were sold on long time — in prices ranging 
from one hundred to five hundred dollars, with the proviso 


that each buyer should improve his lot, within one year, to 
the amount of five hundred dollars. Some thirty houses 
were built upon it during the year, which was the first 
marked improvement in the growth of the place. 

It may, perhaps, be not uninteresting to give the first 
day's proceeding of the Board of Commissioners. It met 
at the store of H. W. Higgins, in Rockingham : 

" Present — Benj. F. Pike, and Andrew W. Campbell. 

The Board proceeded to the appointment of a Clerk. 

Ordered — That Ebenezer Cook be appointed Clerk to 
the Board. 

Ebenezer Cook having appeared in pursuance of his ap- 
pointment, and taken the oath of office, entered upon his 
duties as Clerk. 

Ordered — That the Clerk take the necessary steps to 
procure from the Secretary of the Territory, a seal for the 
use of this Board. 

Ordered — That this Bjarl do meet, at its April Session, 
in the tovvn of Rockingham. 

Ordered — That Benj. F. Pike be allowed three dollars 
for one day's service as County Commissioner. 

Ordered — That Andrew W. Carier be allowed three dol- 
lars for one day's service as County Commissioner. 

Ordered — That Ebenezer Cook be allowed three dollars 
for one day's service as Clerk. 

And the Board a'ljourned to Session in course." 

It will be seen that the largest " service" by which they 
claimed three dollars, was the labor of voting themselves 
the amount. Alfred Carter was the third Commissioner 
elected, but he did not participate in the laborious "ser- 
vices" of the first sitting. 

July fourth was marked not only as the era of our 
National Independence, but as the day also upon which 
the District of Iowa was separated from Wisconsin, and be- 
came the Territory of Iowa; Robt. Lucas, of Ohio, was 


appointed Governor, and Wm. B. Conway, of Pennsylvania, 
Secretary. The Counties of Scott, Muscatine, Louisa, 
Slaughter and Jolmson, were constituted the Second 
Judicial District, and were assigned to Joseph "Williams. 
The District Court met for the first time, the '' first Thurs- 
day after the first Monday in October" at Davenport. At 
this time, Wisconsin had thirteen counties, and 18,148 in- 
habitants'; Iowa sixteen counties, and a population of 22,859. 
Scott and Clinton counties formed one election District, 
and elected one member to the Council, and two to the 
House of the Territorial Legislature. 

In the Summer of this year, the first brick house was 
erected by D. C. Eldredge. It is still standing on the 
south-east corner of Main and Third streets. ISTearly at 
the same time, the brick building, now used by the Sisters 
in Catholic Block, was completed as a Church. The first 
Presbyterian organization was completed this year. 

At a special session of the "Wisconsin Legislature, held in 
June of this year, at Burlington, an act was passed for 
the holding of a new election in Scott county, for the seat 
of justice, to be held on the third Monday of August. 
It provided a sixty day's residence as qualification for a 

Then the war began again. The most liberal induce- 
ments were held out for settlers — lots were sold at half or 
quarter prices, or given away to secure residents. Rock- 
ingham, which was subject to partial inundation in times 
of high water, was subject to many a witticism and carrica- 
ture. Among the latter, was a Mr. Hedges, represented 
as wading the slough that surrounds the town, with his 
wife upon his back, and the water breast-high — this was 
founded upon fact. Another pictured Gen. Sargent, lead- 
ing a company of men to the polls. The men hesitate 
upon the brink of the slough, but the General bravely 
plunges in, and wades to the middle. " Come on, men. 


its only so deep !" cries he as he turns to his company, with 
the water reaching close to his neck. James Mcintosh, 
and others, commenced the work of a thorough canvass, 
and the "din of preparation" resounded loud and deep 
from both camps, prognosticating another furious struggle. 

About this time, Mr. A. Logan made his appearance 
with materials for a printing office. There was no little 
strife between Rockingham and Davenport, as to which 
should obtain 'him. Extremely liberal offers were made 
him on both sides — such as now would gladden the heart 
of the printer with a joy unknown to modern supporters of 
these type-sticking pilgrims. Both places recognized the 
infinite benefit which a paper would render them in build- 
ing up the towns — of the emigration it would influence, 
and the reputation which it would give the place abroad. 
Another election was impending for County Seat, and the 
aid of a paper would be to either side invaluable. Whether 
Mr. Logan was influenced mainly by the liberal offers 
made him, or by the superior locality of Davenport- 
certain it is, however, that one fourth day of August, 1838, 
there appeared the first number of the " Iowa Sun and 
Davenport and Rock Island Neivs; which — as w^e learn 
from its salutatory — is designed " to cast its rays over the 
moral and political landscape, regardless of those petty 
interests and local considerations which might contract its 
beams." And in order to more readily accomplish this, 
we are further told that, "we have selected the center 
(Davenport,) of the system around which all our territorial 
interests harmoniously revolve." 

The election was held, and Rockingham had a majority 
of fifteen votes. Mr. James Mcintosh, and John Forrest, 
Esq , after some hard riding, and much swearing, (in a 
legal way of course,) secured affidavits — in many cases from 
the voters themselves — proving that twenty fraudulent 
votes were cast on the Rockingham side. These being 


transmitted to the Sheriff and Commissioners at Dubnque, 
were acted upon by them, and resulted in their declaring, 
on the eighth of Septeml)er, that the seat ofjustice should 
be permanently located at Davenport. Rockingham, 
however, carried the matter before the judicial tribunals, 
where it remained a year or so, and where we shall meet it 
again in its proper place. 

In dismissing the subject, until it is met again in 1840, 
it will not be amiss to insert a note in regard to both 
places, and the contest, for which we are indebted to the 
veteran pen of VVillard Barrows, Esq., — formerly a resident 
of Rockingham, but now one of Davenport's most esteemed 
citizens : 

" Rockingham was laid out by Col. John Sullivan, of 
Lyonsville, Ohio, and A. II. Davenport, Esq., now of 
LeClaire, in this County, and although the ground upon 
which it was located, much of it, was low, and subject to 
overflow, yet its situation, directly opposite the mouth of 
Rock River, which, at that time, was supposed to be nav- 
igable, gave it so much importance as to attract attention 
— so much so, that in 1838 and '9, it contained some 
twenty-five or thirty houses. The early settlers of Rock- 
ingham were an enterprising and intelligent people, and 
noted for their hospitality and social intercourse with one- 
another, many of whom are now among the most respecta- 
ble citizens of Davenport. 

One of the most prominent causes of its downfall and 
decay, was the long and unsettled question of the County 
Seat. For several years the struggle was carried on be- 
tween Rockingham and Davenport, with varied success to 
either party. All the ingenuity and wit of the parties were 
resorted to — the Law of the Territory, at that time, in re- 
gard to such questions, was anything but pointed; and 
great latitude was given to construe it to suit the wants of 
either party. At the elections held for the decision of 


the case between the two towns, the inhabitants of 
of Illinois were invited over to vote. Men were imported 
from Dubuque and Galena at great expense — the ballot- 
box was stufied, and the poll-books showed a population 
that, for years after, it was hard to find. The final settle- 
ment of the question, however, was arrived at, by the 
citizens of Davenport agreeing to build the Court House 
and Jail free of expense to the County, which they did. 
The tieaty of peace was made at Rockingham in the winter 
of 1840, and ratified by a ball given at the Rockingham 
Hotel, where not less than fifty couple were in attendance, 
among whom were some of our Hargest and wealthiest 

During the whole of this contest, there was the utmost 
good feeling and gentlemanly conduct apparent in the 
whole transaction, and, to this time, it is often the source 
of much merriment among the actors of that day ; and is 
looked upon only as the ^^ freaks and follies" of a frontier 

In September a stock company was formed to erect a 
School House — shares ten dollars. A meeting of stockhold- 
ers was called the 16th to elect a building committee, &c. 
Some members held more than one share, and were thereby 
entitled to more than one vote, but some ultra-Democrat 
moved that all should fare alike in this particular. It was 
voted down, and, thereupon, the indignant Jupiter Tonans 
thus discoursed. For a specimen of tall traveling by such 
a varicose-legged apparatus as his Pegasus must have been, 
it is unequalled. 

"That insatiable thirst for power, which is so dominant in 
man as well as beast, requires an Argus to watch and detect 
its Jinius (!) windings, and a Herculean force to destroy 
its hydra machinations' If that noble and magnanimous 

* Mr. LeClaire. 


bird, which we liave adopted for onr emblem, should hear 
such sentiments avowed, and would not eagerly part with 
every quill to record damnation to the principle, I would 
pluck her from her towering Erhj, and make her the com- 
panion of owls and ravens ! Is there a star in the splendid 
galaxy which bespangles our banner, that would not blush 
in token of disapprobation to such sentiments, I would 
blot it forever from the pure etherial ether in which it 
shines !" 

The assertion, ex nihilo, nihiljit seems contravened in this 
case — for all this burst of eloquence about that conirostral 
bird — the Eagle — and the bannered-star and Jinius (!) and 
Argus, grew from the resolution of a company of stock- 
holders to allow a member having four shares to have four 
votes 1 Sorry is my pen that it cannot confer immortality 
upon the writer of the above, as cotemporaneous records 
make no mention of his name — nor do they even mention 
whether the Eagle handed over her quills, or the " star 
blushed," or whether either or both received the dire pun- 
ishment which "Anthony"* threatened. We but know 
that the Eagle still roosts in the solitary grandeur of her 
" Eriy" and that the Star still waves proudly in "etherial 
ether" over the " land of the free and home of the, brave." 

The county commenced improving rapidly — roads were 
laid to its limits from all parts, and emigration began 
slowly to dot the back country with log-houses and wheat- 
stacks. The village for two years had passed from its 
ruder character, and was beginning to assume prominence 
abroad as a healthy, and one of the most beautiful localities 
on the Mississippi. A writer, in August of that year, thus 
says of Davenport : 

" Two years ago it had but one family, now upwards of 
thirty, and has three large store buildings, a large hotel, 

* This was the name appended to the communication. 


two groceries, two forwarding and commission houses, and 
an elegant brick chapel has been commenced : and more 
than one hundred dwellings will be under contract the en- 
suing year. Now, as I stand here overlooking the rapid 
increase and improvement, (in spite of all the uncertainty 
of preemption titles,) I think it requires but little faith to 
call Davenport an embryo Cincinnati." 

Keen-visioned seer! Posterity will, undoubtedly, at 
some future time, recognize his prophetic character. 

A writer in the " Army and Navy Register,'' of that 
date, says : " At our feet, and on the gentle declivity 
between the bluff and the river, is situated the village of 
Davenport. The location is not exceeded by any on the 
Mississippi, or in the world, either for health, beauty, or 
the fertility of its soil." Any quantity of extracts similar 
in import, might be given from cotemporary papers, show- 
ing the high position which our place at once took in the 
public estimation, as being unequalled in the superb beauty 
of its location. 

In regard to the fertility of the soil, the Sun, of Septem- 
ber, says : " We yesterday saw a Water Melon, raised 
about one and a half miles west of the village, which 
measured four feet one way, and three and a half the other 
— and weighed forty and a half pounds. Another gentle- 
man has a pumpkin vine, on which, he says, he counted 
sixty-eight good sized pumpkins !" These facts speak volumes 
for the farming country adjacent to Davenport. 

The editor of the Sun has not a few articles in his sheet 
eulogistical of the mammoth vegetables which, frojn time 
to time, were laid upon his table, by subscribers anxious 
for a " puff" — of the soil. He was once, how^ever, badly 
soldi Mr. D. A. Burrows resolved to astonish him, and 
for this purpose stuck a half dozen, or more, large potatoes 
so nicely together with pegs, that thej^ seemed one growth. 
The editor was hugely delighted with the present. It was 


to Other potatoes what elephants are to mice — and he 
trumpeted the fact accordingly, defying any other soil 
under the sun to produce its equal. It hung in the sanc- 
tum a long time, and was a source of patriotic pride both 
to the worthy editor and all spectators. But one day a 
piece of the monster fell oft — and revealed a hard woody 
substance protruding, which excited curiosity. A nearer 
examination revealed a peg, and a little more revealed 
the entire internal economy of the potatoe. The worthy 
votary of the Quill was highly incensed at the de- 
noument, and did not pufii" a mammoth vegetable for three 
whole weeks. 

At the first election, held under the new territorial law, 
in September, P. H. Engle, for Delegate to Congress, re- 
ceived three hundred and nine votes. The whole number 
of votes cast for Delegate was four hundred and twenty- 
six. J. W. Parker, for member of Council, two hundred 
and forty-four — for Representatives, J. A. Burchard, -and 
Gr. "W. Harlan received, the former, two hundred and 
thirty-four, the latter, two hundred and three. The Dis- 
trict included Scott and Clinton counties. 

In the next month the first District Court met. On mo- 
tion of G. C. P. Mitchell, Esq., W. B. Conway, James 
Grant, Rufus Harvey, Simon Meredith, Edward Southwick, 
and J. Wilson Dewy, Esqs., were admitted. On motion of 
Mr. "Woods, J. W. Parker was also admitted. This, from 
the Iowa Sun, is all the notice we have of the doings of 
this, our first District Court Organization. 

"We are also informed in the same paper, that the editor, 
"after considerable enquiry," has ascertained that "sheep 
do well here." This is not particularly important, save 
that it recalls an anecdote of that well-known gentleman, 
Mons. A. LeClaire — as he was termed in those daj^s. 

It seems that some one engaged in the sheep business, 
had secured Mr. LeClaire's service to transport a large 


flock of sheep across the river — as he wished to reach some 
point on this side ,and the on\j available ferriage was to be 
obtained here. After getting them over, the sheep driver 
sheared them, and was indebted to Mr. LeClaire also for 
pasture during the operation. Upon leaving, he presented 
Mr. LeClaire the fleeces as payment for his trouble, and 
went on. Wool was then worth some forty cents a pound, 
and the large pile was almost a moderate fortune to any 
one. But Mr. LeClaire did not then know as much of 
wool as he did of interpreting — it seemed simply a huge 
pile of refuse, utterly valueless. Accordingly he sum- 
moned his men, ordered them to pile brush on the wool, 
and set fire to it! It was done, and, as he traveled off, 
with fingers upon his nose to shut out the intolerable 
fume of the burning wool, he concluded that " such a 
cursed stench was poor pay for all his trouble !" Most 
readers, who have ever " smelt wollen," will join heartily 
in his conclusion. 

D. C. Eldredge was appointed P. M. this Fall. Mails 
came from the East and left via Stephenson, Sundays ; to 
and from the North via Dubuque, weekly; do. West via 
Sanbornton, weekly; and do. from South via Burlington, 
twice each week. 

On the third of October, Black Hawk breathed his last, 
at his village on Des Moines River. He was buried near 
the banks of the river, in a sitting posture, as is customary 
with his tribe. His hands grasped his cane, and his body 
was surrounded by stakes, which united at the top. A 
large number of whites were present, and did honor to the 
occasion of his interment by their sympatljy and numbers. 
Ko monument rears itself to mark the resting-place of his 
dust— nor does he need it. His deeds have conferred a 
name upon him, which will outlast a dozen granite piles — 
a name which will last as long as Patriotism shall be re- 
membered as a Virtue. 


The Burial place of Davenport was, at this time, on the 
Blufls, near the corner of Sixth and Farnam streets, on the 
ground now occupied by the house and lot of Willard Bar- 
rows. Dr. Emerson, a gentleman well-known as the 
original owner of Dred Scott was buried here. The re- 
mains have since been removed. The same spot was also 
the target-ground for the cannon of the Fort, before it was 
dismantled. Many an iron relic will yet be exhumed 
when the blufl:"is graded — if such ever will happen. 

The population of the County at the close of 1838, was 
one thousand. The number of boats passing averaged 
about five per diem. The river closed December seven- 
teenth. "Wheat was worth twenty-five cents per bushel ; 
Oats thirty-five cents ; Potatoes one dollar. Pine lumber 
was brought from Cincinnati, and was worth from forty 
dollars to sixty dollars per thousand. Oak lumber was 
sawed in the neighborhood, and was worth thirty-five dol- 
lars per thousand. About two thousand bushels of wheat 
were raised in the County. The number of buildings in 
the village was about fifty. 

The receipts of the County were four hundred ninety- 
seven dollars fifty three cents, and its expenses seven 
hundred eighty-one dollars fifty cents. 

The building this year was mostly upon the Addition of 
A. LeClaire — the title to this was unexceptional, while 
purchasers were fearful of that by which the site below 
Harrison street was held. The number of buildings 
erected made it a busy year — while the tide of emigration, 
which was setting into, and flowing through, made money 
plenty, and every department of industry active. Still this 
activity was simply relative — :in general there was not 
much to do, save to watch claims, and bide the eft'ects of 
time. A Lyceum was started at Stephenson this winter, 
'in which some of our citizens joined. Social enjoyment 


consisted mainly in discussing apple-toddies, the patriot 
war, and speculating upon the probabilities of Davenport's 
reaching a hundred thousand inhabitants. 



Financial Condition of County — Militia — Territorial Council — Meetings — Town 
of Davenport Organized — Growth of Village — Navigation of Rock River — 
First Church — Subscribers — Fire Department — Original Temperance Society 
— Schools — Death of W. B. Conway — Resolutions. 

It may be a matter of curiosity to many to know the ex- 
penses and receipts, in detail, of the County, during the 
first year of its existence. The following is the statement 
for the year ending January, 1839 : 


For licenses to merchants and pedlars, $120 75 

" " " tavern keepers, 74 75 

« " " ferry " 23 00 
Fine against Boile & McConnel for selling goods 

without a license, 10 00 

Tax on John Wilson's ferry charter, 20 00 
From collector of taxes, on account of tax list of 

1838, 24^ 03 

$497 53 


Expenses of meeting of Commissioners, including 
pay of Commissioners, Clerk, Sherifi", and 
rent of rooms, $138 00 

Expenses of laying out new roads, 166 75 



















Book and stationary for use of County, 

Expenses of five elections, 

Expenses District Court, October Term, 

Extra services of Clerk, 

Expenses of copies of road law, ferry law, (fee, 

Excess, $781 50 

The tax list for 1838, was eight hundred ninety-one dol- 
lars forty cents, of which only some two hundred forty- 
nine dollars three cents had been collected. If all had 
been, there would have remained to the County a balance 
of three hundred fifty-eight dollars forty cents. 

This statement will give the reader a very fair idea of 
the financial condition of the County at that time. 

An act having been passed by the Territorial Legislature 
to organize and discipline the Militia of the Territory, Gov. 
Lucas, in June, issued a general order dividing the Terri- 
tory into Military districts. The counties of Scott, Cedar, 
and Linn, formed the first regiment, and a part of the 
second brigade, and were included in the third General 
Division. John H. Sullivan, of Scott county, was ap- 
pointed one of the Aids-de-Camp to the Commander-in- 
Chief. Only one drill was ever had here, which will be 
noticed in its proper place. 

The first session of the Territorial Legislature was by no 
means harmonious. The Governor endeavored to check 
the expenditures of the Legislature, which was resented by 
the latter; and a resolution was passed, in which they 
assert that the Governor " is not invested with advisatory 
or restraining powers over the Legislature, further than the 
disapproval of bills, memorials, and resolutions, presented for 
his signature." A committee, also, consisting of James W. 


Grimes, C. Swan, Laurel Summers, and Hawkins Taylor, 
reported that the Governor had no right to veto certain 
bills of expenditure passed by the Legislature. 

This Report created considerable excitement, and meet- 
ings were held everywhere to take action upon it. One 
was held at the house of Col. T. C. Eads, in Parkhurst, at 
which Gov. Lucas was cordially upheld, his patriotism 
eulogised, and his statesmanship, virtues, and private life, 
unequivocally lauded and endorsed. 

The following appointments were made by the Legisla- 
ture and Governor for Scott county : Willard Barrows, 
Notary Public ; Ebenezer Cook, Judge of Probate ; Adrian 
H. Davenport, Sheriff; Isaac A. Hedges, and John Porter? 
Justices of Peace for Scott county. 

The town of Davenport was incorporated by this Legis- 
lature. The first election for township officers was held 
April first. Rodolphus Bennett was elected Mayor, Frazer 
"Wilson :Recorder, and Dr. A. C. Donaldson, D. C. Eldredge, 
Jobn Forrest, Thomas Dillon, and Capt. John Litch, 

The river opened February twenty-eighth. There was, 
during this winter, scarcely any snow, and the whole season 
was more like Spring than aught else. Business opened 
briskly this Spring, as the following from the April number 
of the Sun shows : " Since the opening of navigation our 
lovely little village has been thronged with travelers and 
emigrants. The tide of emigration is so great to this place, 
that it is almost impossible to procure houses to accommo- 
date them ; although our carpenters are busily engaged in 
putting up houses, yet still, they are filled as fast as erected, 
and the demand appears to increase. The demand is so 
great that it requires six or eight houses to be completed 
weekly to supply the wants of emigrants. Forty or fifty 
lots have been sold the past week. Our wharves, or rather 
our shores, are crowded with families and merchandize. 


Our farmers have sowed their spring- wheat, oats, and flax, 
and our prairies are iu many places covered with a mantle 
of green, bespangled with the most beautiful flowers !" 

These facts, for people in Pennsylvania, j^ew York, and 
the New England States, are full of interest. Such a time, 
as early iu April, Eastern farmers are scarcely, if ever, free 
from snow-banks and chilling winds, a contrast which shows 
the immense superiority of Iowa in geniality. 

The steamboat arrivals were from one to seven each day. 

The Town Council held its first Session April twentieth. 
James M. Boling was appointed Treasurer, Wm. Nichols 
Street Commissioner, and "W. H. Patten Marshal. 

An advertisement, iu April, states that the light draught 
keel-boat, G. M. Searl, will start from Stephenson, and go up 
Pock Piver to Rockford. It need scarcely be added that 
boats do not now ascend this stream. ( 

A company was organized about this time, which was 
called the " Pock Piver and Mississippi Steam l^avigation 
Company." Their object is indicated in the name. 
Daniel G. Gornsey, G. C. P. Mitchell, and Sylvester Tal- 
cott, were Directors, Antoine LeClaire Treasurer, and Geo. 
Mj^ers, Secretary. Although most of these gentlemen have 
now a sufficiency of the world's goods, it is not probable 
that they made a very large share by the navigation of 
Pock Piver. 

The extensive pineries of Wisconsin began to send their 
products to Davenport this year by way of rafts — and 
brought from thirty dollars to thirty-live dollars per 
thousand feet. 

At the third meeting of the Town Council, in May, Dr. 
Donaldson resigned his seat, and Andrew F. Pussel was 
appointed to till the vacancy. On motion, it was Pesolved, 
That the temporary seal of this Council be an American 
twenty-five cent piece. 

On the twenty-third of May, St. Anthony's Church was 


dedicated by Rt. Rev. Bishop Loras, of Dubuque, assisted 
by Very Rev. S. Muzzuchelli. The Catholic Advocate thus 
speaks of the matter, after liighly complimenting the 
beauty of the place : 

" Mr. Antoine LeClaire, a wealthy Frenchman, and a 
zealous and exemplary Christian, in partnership with Mr. 
Davenport, has generously granted to the Catholic Congre- 
gation, in the very centre of the town, a whole square, in- 
cluding ten lots, in the middle of which he has built, partly 
at his own expense, a fine brick Church, with a school- 
room attached. * * * In order to lay in Daven- 
port a lasting foundation for the Catholic religion, our 
Bishop has purchased half a square for a hospital, and 
several other lots for purposes of the same kind. * * 
* The Church has St. Peter for its primary, and St, 
Anthony for its secondary patron." 

The Rev. Mr. Pelamourgues, who first assumed charge 
of the Church, still retains it. 

As this was the first Church erected in Davenport, it 
may not be uninteresting to publish the list of subscribers, 
and other matters connected with its foundation : 

" At a meeting of the Catholics of Davenport and vicinity, 
held on the first day of December, 1839, for the purpose of 
regulating the Church accounts of said town, the following 
resolutions were unanimously adopted : 

1. Resolved, That a Board of three Trustees be regularly 
elected by the Congregation, to open a subscription, collect 
its amounts, and pay all standing debts incurred for the 
purchase of the ground and for the building of St. Anthony's 
Church of Davenport. 

2. Resolved, That the Trustees be elected for the term 
of three years, and that after said period, a new election of 
Trustees shall be made. 

3. Resolued, That the Rev. John A. Pelamourgues, 

... 1 




Antoine LeClaire, an( 

1 Geo. L. 

Davenport, be 

the Trustees 

of the Catholic Cong 


of Davenport and vicinity. 

for the purpose and time above mentioned. 









Antoine LeClaire, 

$2500 00 

$3500 00 

Bishop M. Loras, 

150 00 

150 00 

Rev. S. Muzzuchelli, 

50 00 

20 00 

Rev. J. A. M. Pelamourgues, 

50 00 

22 00 

Kathaniel Mitchell, 

20 00 

20 00 

G. C. R. Mitchell, 

20 00 

20 00 

Adam JS'oel, 

25 00 

■ i 

John Noel, 

25 00 


George L. Davenport, 

25 00 

George Meyers, 

25 00 

David Barry, 

25 00 

Richard Shial, 

25 00 

C. Harold, 

25 00 

W. B. Watts, 

20 00 

10 00 

Otho G. M'Lain, 

15 00 

Michael Riley, 

15 00 

Narcisse Terten, 

25 00 

James 'Kelly, 

10 00 

Patrick Fox, 

10 00 

Thomas 'Kelly, 

10 00 

Patrick Carrol, 

10 00 

Alexis LeClaire, 

10 00 

10 00 

David LeClaire, 

10 00 

10 00 

James Lindsey, 

10 00 

James Wicka, 

8 00 

3 00 



Harvey Sturdevant, 

5 00 

Patrick Ilogau, 

5 00 

Louis G. Trudeau, 

5 00 

John Brossard, 

5 00 

Joliu Trucks, 

15 00 




Mrs. Margaret LeClaire, 

25 00 

10 00 

Mrs. Conway, 

15 00 

15 00 

Mrs. Kuth Trucks, 

10 00 

10 00 

Mrs. Annie Finch, 

5 00 

Miss Felicite LeClaire, 

5 00 

Mary Trucks, 

5 00 

Mary Long, 

5 00 

Matilda Long, 

5 00 

Mary Finch, 

1 00 

Sarah Ann Lindsey, 

5 00 


A Lot 320 feet square in the town of Davenport, 

$2500 00 

Brick for building the Church, 

827 00 

Lumber and Shingles, 

843 25 


167 60 

Glass, putty, paints, oil painting, 

and glazing. 

206 00 

Mason work, 

488 00 

Carpenter work, 

589 00 


263 50 

A bell. 

102 00 

Sundry articles for the Altar, 

107 00 

Three Stoves, 

45 75 

Fuel, and two days labor. 

14 00 

LeClaire's Second Addition was 

laid out in May. It ex- 

tended East from Brady street, and included sixteen blocks 


of ten lots each. Some sixty lots were sold the first week, 
on all of which the purchasers bound themselves to erect 
dwellings in time, varying from six to twelve months. 

The District Court held its second session in May. But 
little business was done, and there was not, we are told, a 
"single indictment against a resident of Scott county." 
Good for the morals of our worthy predecessors. 

In the August election of this year, there were three 
tickets put in nomination. One from Davenport, another 
at Rockingham, and a third called the Union ticket. The 
Rockingham faction elected their Representatives — Laurel 
Summers and J. M. Robertson — two out of the three County 
Commissioners; Treasurer, Ira Cook; Assessor, and most 
of the lesser officers. Davenport elected A. F. Russel, 
Surveyor, and J. Work, County Commissioner. 

The Davenport Ticket for Representatives were G. C. R. 
Mitchell and Abner Beard. The election turned mainly 
upon the County Seat difficulty; and it is seen that Rock- 
ingham this time was ahead. This was owing to a union 
with the town of LeClaire ; — the latter place being induced 
to work against Davenport, in order to, at some future time, 
secure a division of the county, with LeClaire as County 
Seat. To assist in bringing this about was the price paid 
by Rockingham to LeClaire for its assistance — and most 
egregiously were our up-river friends of LeClaire humbug- 
ged by this promise. 

The level established by the town Council, from which 
all grades were to be taken, was the "south door sill" of 
Antoine LeClaire's store on Front street. "When anything 
was reported as being so much above or below level, it 
was understood to mean simply so much above or below 
the said door sill. The same meeting organized the first 
Fire Department. This consisted in obliging every man 
inhabiting a house to have in his possession two fire-buckets, 
and to use them in case of a fire. 


The original Temperance Society made its appearance 
about this time. The Rev. Mr. Turner claims its paternity. 
lie lectured twice so powerfully, that his total abstinance 
pledge received fifty-six signatures at once. The Mayor, 
Mr. Bennett, was its first President, upon its organization, 
August sixth. It commenced with some eighty members. 
A "Female Seminary" was opened in September by the 
Misses O'llara. The " Davenport Forum" also made its 
debut about this time. The " Rock Island Seminary" was 
also in existence at this time, under the care of Rev. M. 
Hummer. A common school was also opened about the 
same time by a Mr. Blood. 

About the first of October, or thereabouts, a steam ferry 
boat was started between this place and Stephenson by 
John Wilson. It was a small institution, comparatively, 
but was infinitely superior to the flat boats which had 
hitherto labored between the two places. 

N'ovember sixth was a dark day in the calendar of events 
— ^for it is marked as one upon which the gifted "Wm. B. 
Conway, Secretary of the Territory, departed from his 
sphere of usefulness, and from the presence of friends and 
admirers, "to return no more." He died at Burlington, 
and his body was received here on the ninth, by a Commit 
tee appointed for the purpose, and was conveyed to St. 
Anthony's Church, where the solemn services for the dead 
were performed by the Rev. Father Pelamorgues. A meet- 
ing was held on the morning of the ninth, whose proceed- 
ings are given in full : 

Public Meeting. — At a meeting of the citizens of Dav- 
enport, convened at Davenport Hotel on Saturday, Nov. 9, 
1839, to testify their respect for the memory of William B. 
Conway deceased, late Secretary of the Territory of Iowa, 
T. S. Hoge was called to the chair, and G. C. R. Mitchell 
appointed Secretary. 

On motion, it was ordered that John H. Thorington, 


Thomas S. lloge, Duncan C. Eldredge, Ira Cook, G. C. R. 
Mitchell, Richard Pearce, Antoine Le Claire and John 
Owens, be appointed a Committee to make the necessary 
arrangements for the funeral of the deceased, and also to 
draft and report resolutions expressive of the sense of this 

The committee having retired for a short time reported 
the following resolutions which were unanimously adopted. 

Resolved, That this meeting has heard with the most 
profound regret of the death of William B. Conway, Esq. 
late Secretary of the Territory of Iowa. Possessing a 
mind richly cultivated and improved, a disposition amiable 
and kind, he was generous and hospitable ; of manners 
the most bland and courteous, respected, honored and be- 
loved by all who knew him. We feel that in his death 
tills neighborhood has lost its brightest ornament and the 
Territory one of its ablest and most worthy officers and 
highly valued citizens. 

2. Resolved, That this meeting sincerely condole with 
the tamily of the deceased, in their severe and deep afflic- 
tion, and pray that He who tempers the blast to the shorn 
lamb, may support and protect them. 

8. Resolved, That as a mark of respect for the memory 
of the deceased, we will wear the usual badge of mourning 
for thirty days. 

4. Resolved, That the proceedings of this meeting be 
signed by the chairman and Secretary, and the Iowa Sun 
and other papers throughout the Territory be requested to 
publish the same. 

5. Resolved, That Antoine LeClaire and G. C. E. 
Mitchell be and they are hereby appointed a committee to 
deliver a copy of the proceedings of this meeting to the re- 
spected Widow of the deceased. 

TIL S. IIOGE, Chairman. 
G. C. R. Mitchell, Secretary. 


On the eleventh, a meeting of the Bar of the Territory of 
Iowa was held at Burlington to testify respect to the 
memory of the deceased, and the following was their ex- 

" A distressing dispensation of Providence having de- 
prived us of the society of one of our body, whom, during 
his residence among us, we had learned warmly to esteem, 
we feel called upon to express our deep regret for his un- 
timely death, and of the estimation which his amiable and 
excellent qualities universally commanded. Therefore — 

Resolved, That our brother, the late William B. Conway, 
had, by his amiable manners, unexceptionable deportment, 
as a member of the Bar, greatly endeared himself to his 
associates, the members of the Bar, of the Territory, gen- 

Resolved, That by his death the Bar has been deprived 
of an able member, the Territory of a faithful officer and 
valuable citizen, ourselves of a devoted friend, and his wife 
and child of their only protector. 

Resolved., That we take this method of expressing our 
deep regret at his untimely death, and of our condolence 
with the relatives of the deceased, and of bearing testimo- 
ny to his many virtues. 

Resolved, That we testify our respect for the memory 
of our deceased brother by wearing the usual badge of 
mourning for thirty days. 

Resolved, That David Rorer, Esq., present these resolu- 
tions to the Supreme Court of the Territory for the purpose 
of having them entered on the record of the Court. 


"Wm. J. A. Bradford, Secretary. 

Burlington, Nov. 11, 1839. 

A paint shop, by Riddle & Morton, a wagon shop, by S. 
P. Whitney, and a drug store, by C. Lesslie, were opened 


this year, and were the " first" of each kind. Four 
churches were also organized — Congregational, Disciple, 
Baptist, and Catholic. 



Close of 1839 — Missouri War— Financial Statement of year 1839 — New Election 
for County Seat — Result. 

The celebrated "Missouri "War" is ascribed to about this 
date. It arose from a dispute in regard to boundary — two 
lines having been run. The northern one cut oif a strip of 
Iowa some six or eight miles in width, and from this portion 
Missouri endeavored to collect taxes. The inhabitants re- 
fused to pay them, and the Missouri authorities endeavored, 
by sending a Sheriff, to enforce payment. A fight ensued, 
and an lowau was killed, and several taken prisoners. The 
news spread along the River counties and created intense 
excitement. War was supposed to be impending, or to 
have actually begun. 

Col. Dodge, an individual somewhat noted as the one 
who, in connection with Theller, had been imprisoned by 
the Canadian authorities for a participation in the " Patriot 
"War," had lately arrived here, after breaking jail in 
Canada. His arrival was opportune — a call for volunteers 
to march against Missouri was circulated, and was re- 
sponded to by some three hundred men, who made Daven- 
port their rendezvous on the proposed day of marching. 
A motley crowd was it ! Arms were of every kind 
imaginable, from pitchforks to blunderbusses, and Queen 
Anne Muskets. One of the Colonels wore a common rusty 
grass scythe for a sword, while Capt. Higginson, of Com- 



pany A, had been fortunate enough to find an old sword 
that an Indian had pawned for whisky, which he elegantly 
belted around him with a heavy log chain. 

The Parade ground was in front of the ground now occu- 
pied by the Scott House. Refreshments were plenty, and 
"steam" was being rapidly developed for a start, when 
word came that peace was restored — Missouri having re- 
signed her claim to the disputed ground. The army was 
immediately disbanded, in a style that would do honor to 
the palmiest revels of Bacchus. Speeches were made, 
toasts drunk, and a host of manoeuvers, not in the military 
code, were performed, to the great amusement of all. Some 
in the excess of patriotism and whisky, started on alone to 
Missouri, but lay down in the road before traveling far, and 
slept away their valor. A private, named Gunn, was 
found hacking a log, with his gun and sword bent nearly 
double, under the impression that the inanimate body was 
a Missourian. 

Frequent allusions have been made, thus far, to the 
many "good times" had by the old settlers. It will not 
be inferred from it that they were dissipated or drunkards. 
Far from it. Some of the brightest lights now in the 
Church, at the Bar, and in private life, are those very men. 
They but complied with the character of the times, while 
absent from social refinements, and the elegance of older 
towns ; almost all strangers to each other, and craving for 
that excitement, which now is indulged in the intercourse 
of hosts of friends, and friendly relations of long standing, 
they could not well do otherwise than they did. Mostly 
men from large cities, they were ennuied by the compar- 
ative quiet of a frontier life, and to vary their listless lives 
resorted to stimulants, or whatever else would afford ex- 

The following was the financial condition of Scott county 
at the beginning of the year 1840. It will show as well or 



better than anything else, the condition and growth of the 
county for the year past. As such facts are important, an 
apology is not deemed necessary for the introduction of 
the entire statement as made by the Commissioners. 


Received for licenses to merchants, 

grocers, tavern keepers, ferries 

and pedlars, $ 369 49 

Received on account of tax list of 1 838, 649 53 

" onaccountof tax list of 1839, 1410 92 

" for fines and docket fees, 149 00 

12578 94 


For expenses of laying out new roads, 

" of meetings of Commissioners, 

" rent of room for District Court for 

Commissioners and Clerks, 
" of elections for 1838, 

" extra services of Sherifi", 1838, 

" a « u 1839, 

*' of District Court for 1838, 

« " " " 1839, 

" of printing, 

" books, stationary, and furniture 

for offices, 89 73 

" service of Clerk of board of Com- 

missioners, 163 00 

" of elections for 1839, 91 10 

" taking and keeping prisoners, 115 12 

" of assessing property, 1839, 64 00 

" map of Scott county, 10 00 

$360 25 



















For expenses paid for support of poor, 

Attorney's Fee, 

laying out a territorial road from 
Davenport to County Seat of 
Linn county, 

amount refunded on account of 
excessive tax, 1838, 

amount refunded on account of 
excessive tax, 1839, 

amount paid treasurer for his com- 
mission for the years 1838 and 

36 00 
25 00 

113 50 

30 00 

8 15 

79 42 

$1804 63 


The Board of Commissioners have made allow- 
ances on sundry accounts in the j^ears 1838 
and 1839, amounting in all to $2506 71 

Of which amount the Treasurer has paid 2140 91 

And his vouchers have been examined and can- 

Leaving the sum of 365 80 

Yet due from the County to individuals, as ap- 
pears from the books of said Commissioners. 

There is to be added to the above amount of 
$2506 71 the sum of $79 42, for amount of 
commission paid Treasurer, 79 42 

The county has received from sundry sources in 
the years 1838 and 1839, as will appear from 
reference to the statements published, the 
sum of $3076 47 

By the above statement it will be seen that there is in 
the County Treasury, at this time, the sum of $856 14, and 
that there is yet due from the County to individuals, the 


sum of $305 80, leaving a balance in the County Treasury, 
subject to future disposition by the Commissioners, of 
§490 34. 



Jxock'mgham, Jan. 9, 1840. County Commissioners. 

In January a call for a meeting to organize an Agricul- 
tural Society, was put forth by A. LeClaire, G. C. R. 
Mitchell, andJames Hall. The call was responded to, and 
a Society organized by appointing A. McGregor President, 
G. C. R. Mitchell Vice President, John Forrest Secretary, 
A. LeClaire Treasurer, and C. Rowe, James Hall, E. L. 
Davis, J. L. B. Franks, Isaac Hawley, Ira Cook, and 
Thomas Dillon, Directors. 

The river did not close opposite Davenport until January 
14th. It, however, closed above the upper rapids in Decem- 
ber, and at Burlington January first. 

The several township elections were held in April. John 
H. Thoriugton was elected Mayor, Frazer Wilson Recorder, 
and Geo. L. Davenport, S. F. "Whiting, J. "VV. Parker, John 
Forrest, and William Nichols, Trustees. 

The river opened March first, and emigrants began to 
arrive immediately. There were, at the time, about one 
hundred houses in the village. 

In May of this year the land sales for the original Du- 
buque county were held at Dubuque. Almost the entire 
Claim Confederation attended, " armed to the teeth," in 
order to prevent operations from speculators. G. C. R. 
Mitchell, Esq., was appointed bidder for the Confederation, 
and as fast as the lots were put up they were struck off at 
one dollar twenty-five cents per acre. An Adjudicating 
Committee was appointed from the Confederation, before 
whom all disputes, in regard to claims, were settled, and 
thus the matter was speedily and harmoniously settled. 



Two Patents, covering the old town limits, were given, one 
in 1840, and the other in 1841. 

In July the Supreme Court gave its decision upon the 
application of certain persons in Eockingham for a writ of 
mandamus against the Dubuque Commissioners, command- 
ing them to make an entry upon their minutes to the effect 
that Rockingham was the County Seat, 
the order of the Court : 

The following is 


The United States at the relation of 
James H. Davenport, et al, 
The County Commissioners of 
Dubuque County : 
And now this day came the parties, by their Attornies, 
and the arguments of Council being concluded, and all the 
premises being fully examined into, and being understood 
by the Court : It is ordered by the Court here, that the 
motion of the relators be refused, and that the defendants 
go hence without day, and recover of said relators the 
costs of the Court in this behalf expended, for which ex- 
ecution may issue. 

I do hereby certify, that the above is a true copy of an 
order made in the above entitled cause, as appears on the 
records of the said Supreme Court. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my 
[Seal.] hand and affixed the temporary seal of said 
Supreme Court, this tenth day of July, 1840. 

Supreme Court, Iowa Territory. 
The Court stated, in its opinion, that " we are clearly of 
opinion that we have no jurisdiction over the matter, and 
the motion for a peremptory mandamus will, of course, be 


A petition signed by three hundred and twenty-six in- 
habitants of Scott county, was immediately sent to the 
Legislature. It prayed for a new election. An Act was 
passed, in wdiich was provided, that an election for County 
Seat of Scott county should be held on the fourth Monday 
in August, and that the electors should vote for Davenport 
or Rockingham, or the north-west fractional quarter of sec- 
tion number thirty-four, township number seventy-eight, 
north of range four, east of the fifth principal meridian. 
This latter point w^as at the mouth of Duck Creek, and 
was an unimproved portion of land of some ninety acres, 
which was to be donated, if it were decided that this 
should be the County Seat. 

A bond was entered into, by many of our citizens, agree- 
ing to give certain lots, or monies, if Davenport should be 
selected. Mr. LeClaire agrees in it to give certain speci- 
fied lots, or three thousand dollars in money — G. Daven- 
port certain lots, or twelve hundred dollars. A very lib- 
eral subscription of sums ranging from five to five hundred 
dollars, was made over to the County Treasurer in the 
form of a bond. To make the matter doubly sure, a bond 
was entered into with the County by Messrs. A. LeClaire, 
Geo. Davenport, A. W. McGregor, J. H. Thorington, John 
Owens, Harvey Leonard, James Hall, R. Mcintosh, Jr., 
and "Wm. ISTichols, in which they agreed to erect the Court 
House and Jail free of expense to the County, upon con- 
dition that the other bond should be made over to them. 

On the twenty-fourth of August the election was held. 
Davenport received three hundred and eighteen votes, and 
the point at the mouth of Duck Creek two hundred and 
twenty-one, giving the former a majority of ninety-seven. 
Rockingham voted against Davenport, with the exception 
of sixteen votes. This vote put a quietus on the matter, 
and terminated the long and spirited contest which had 
raged for over two years. It was not without its useful- 


ness, for it developed the publie-spiritedness of both places, 
and gave to all engaged in it a very memorable lesson on 
the philosophy of Expenditures. It would be a heavy sum 
that would give the total of monies expended, liquor drank, 
2i\\di finesse wasted in the conflict. 

Party lines began to be drawn somewhat at the local 
election of October. A. C. Dodge, Democratic Delegate 
to Congress, received at the same election two hundred 
and sixty-two votes ; Rich, the Whig candidate, received 
one hundred and seventy-two in the County. J. W. Parker 
was elected to the Council over James Grant, by a majority 
of four. Laurel Summers and J. M. Robertson, Repre- 
sentatives; A. H. Davenport, SheriiF; J. D. Evans, Re- 
corder ; Ira Cook, Treasurer ; Ebenezer Cook, Judge of 
Probate, and E. Parkhurst, Public Administrator. It was 
not, however, until 1842 that separate Whig and LocoFoco 
tickets were put in nomination, and party lines distinctly 

The subject of a Western Armory was much talked of at 
this time. Among other points Rock Island was prominent, 
as one affording facilities for the establishment of such an 
institution. Fuel in abundance — immense water-power, 
facilities for shipment of materials, the healthfulness of the 
location, its connection, by the Mississippi, with important 
places, and the seaboard, were reasons justly urged for the 
selection of this point. Meetings were held, the usual 
preamble and resolutions were passed, in all places in the 
West. A committee from Washington made an examina- 
tion of Rock Island, and other places, but nothing ever re- 
sulted from it. 

The subject of a Bank in Davenport was also much 
agitated, but nothing ever came of it more than speeches, 
memorials and resolutions. 

A prominent institution of these times was the Daven- 
port Lyceum, Every week they discussed this thing or 


that — including questions of every nature, social, political 
or moral. It was doubtless the origin of much good. It is 
to be inferred, however, that in course of time they de- 
scended from the high plane of purpose which they originally 
stood upon, for, the following notice appears in the Decem- 
ber number of the Sun : 

" Our Lyceum is becoming the subject of ridicule to 
many persons in our village, Ko subject, they saj', can be 
discussed, but such as will tickle the fancy of weak females. 
Our Lyceum, it is true, converts what should be a hall of 
science, into a room to panegyrize the ladies ; and, indeed, 
we have heard the most fulsome eulogies passed upon their 
character, in order to acquire the approving smiles of those 
present. If courtship is a science, then indeed is our 
Lyceum a most excellent school." 

The records of all time, from the case of Adam to that of 
Cleopatra, and down to the Davenport Lyceum, are instinct 
with precedent and examples of men who have sacrificed 
upon the altar of feminity. 

From the report of the County Commissioners, at the 
close of 1840, we learn that the receipts of the County were 
one thousand six hundred thirty-five dollars and six cents, 
and its expenditures two thousand one hundred twenty-one 
dollars and thirty-seven cents. Davenport possessed at 
the time a population of about six hundred. LeClaire 
House was finished at an expense of thirty-five thousand 
dollars, and was by far the finest hotel on the Upper Mis- 
sissippi. Beneath it was a Reading Room, which, under 
the enterprise of Mr. Eldredge, afforded some thirty or 
forty leading papers ; and a Barber Shop and Post Office. 
It was the grand center of attraction for everybody, and 
did more, perhaps, to promote the growth of intellectual 
intercourse than any other influence. Its capacious par- 
lors, reading rooms, its superiority in the elegancies of life 
to anything else in the West, made it deservedly attractive, 


and liiglilj beneficial in its influences. Mr. LeClaire de- 
serves no little honor for the liberal plan upon which he 
conceived and executed LeClaire House — for its comple- 
tion done more to build up the place than anything else of 
the day. 

When it is considered that since the commencement of 
the town, the entire Union was staggering under the effects 
of the financial crisis of 1837 ; and that communication 
with the East was a long and tedious operation, the growth 
of Davenport is wonderful, and demonstrates most fully, 
that it was based entirely upon a substantial and perma- 
nent base. Had Davenport been a mere paper town, its 
beauty and healthfulness of location a myth, its advantages 
fictitious, it must, at that time, have become prostrated. 
On the contrary, it gradually increased — everything con- 
nected with it being so substantial and real, that capitalists 
everywhere confidently invested in it, and as confidently 
improved their possessions. 




1841 — Finances — The Village — Duel — Court House and Jail — Dayenport 
Gazette — Prince De Joinville — First Things — 1842 — Temperance — Bank 
— Population — Judge Williams — Bible Society — Elections — 1843 — Churches 
— Elections — Major Wm. Gordon — 1844 — Elections — Stage Lines — 1845 — 
Murder of Col. Davenport^Indian Ceremony. 



Eeceived for licenses to merchants, 

pedlars, grocers, and fines, $571 82 

Received on account of tax list of 1839, 131 81 

" on account oftax list of 1840, 748 05 

" for fines and docket fees, 178 50 

" from Sheriif, for estrays sold, 4 88 

$1635 06 


For laying out County roads, $117 50 

" laying out Territorial roads, 315 31 

" rent of rooms for District Court, for Com- 

mis-sioners and Clerks, 96 00 

" expenses of election 1840, 118 50 

" extra services of Sheriflf 1840, 88 50 






117 40 







25 00 





For expenses of printing, books, stationery, and 

furniture for offices, 99 17 

" services of the Clerk of the Board of County 

" expenses of assessing 1840, 

" support of poor, 

" amount refunded for excessive tax, 

" expenses of meeting of Commissioners, 

" expenses of taking and keeping prisoners, 

" Attorney's fees, 

" costs against the County, 

" expenses of District Court 1840, 

$2121 37 

County Commissioners. 
Davenport, Jan. 7, 1841. 

The River opened March fourteenth. At the April 
election, J. W. Parker was elected Mayor, John Pope 
Recorder, and J. M. Witherwax, Harvey Leonard, T. K. 
Mills, T. McLosky, and Seth F. Whitney, Trustees. 

The condition of the village, yet laboring from the 
effects of the "crisis" of '37, may be well understood from 
the following extract from an April number of the Sun : 

" The times are hard, and business of all kinds dull. 
Money, even counterfeit paper, and bogus, have almost 
totally disappeared. (No other money having been current 
here since the last land sales.) Emigrants continue to 
pour into the Promised Land by tens, hundreds, and 
thousands — filling up the back country with an industrious 
and enterprising population. 

Notwithstanding all these evils, and many others of an 
embarrassing nature, frame buildings are going up daily, 


and several Lriok dwellings are being erected. Our mer- 
chants are not doing so good a business as we could wish, 
owing to the scarcity and uncertainty of money, but still 
we believe that those who advertise most liberally do a re- 
spectable business. 

Six hundred dollars was paid for barrels and hogshead 
alone, by one house, in this place, to coopers at Cincinnati, 
Ohio. This money would have remained amongst us if 
coopers had been here to perform the work. A good 
cooper is much wanted here. Blacksmiths are said to be 
also in demand. A hatter could not find a more advan- 
tageous locatton in any part of the earth than this place 
presents at present. There are about one thousand heads 
in this country to cover, and no hatter in the Territory 
above Burlington. Furs, and other articles for manufac- 
turing hats, can be procured here in abundance. To be 
sure, coon skins have commanded an extravagant price for 
the last six or eight months, but as soon as the log cabin 
delusion subsides, we opine that coon furs will depreciate 
as fast as irredeemable bank paper. We, therefore, advise 
a hatter, a cooper, and a blacksmith, to locate in our 
pleasant, healthy, and thriving village." 

A duel, the second on record in Iowa, and the first 
among white men, occurred in this year, between Messrs. 
Egnor and Fitoh. Love, as is the case generally, was the 
cause of the emeuie, and pistols alone could quell it. They 
met early one morning on the banks of a stream below 
Davenport — which stream, in consequence, has been im- 
mortalized as "Bloody Run." They fired, and returned 
to the city unharmed, save that Egnor' s arm was bandaged, 
and carried in a sling. Posterity is divided in regard to 
the nature of the wound — a minority asserting that it was 
caused by a bullet, while the remainder assert that neither 
pistol had anything more deadly in it than powder and 


Eeaclers who have perused the account of the " First 
Duel," spoken of in a previous chapter, will doubtless see 
much more to admire in the first than in the second 
— although the actors in the former were the ignorant, un- 
civilized Indians. 

The Court House and Jail were finished this year, and 
presented to the County, free of cost, as provided for in 
the bond, before noticed. Too much honor cannot be given 
to the gentlemen by whose liberality and enterprise these 
valuable privileges were conferred upon Davenport. The 
immense superiority of our place over every other in the 
county would have availed nothing, had not events been 
controlled by a liberal expenditure of what, at that time, 
was no easy thing to obtain, viz : cash. 

In August the Davenport Weekly Gazette was started by 
Alfred Sanders ; and it took prominence immediately in 
Journalism as a finely printed and ably edited sheet. It 
espoused "Whig principles, and has occupied a leading 
position in politics to the present time. It eventually ex- 
panded into the Daily and Tri-weekly and weekly Gazette, 
and has undoubtedly amply remunerated its enterprising 

ISTovember fourth. Prince De Joinville and suit stopped a 
short time at LeClaire House, while on their travels West- 
ward. His freedom from ostentation and aristocratic ex- 
clusiveness was the theme of general remark ; and -would 
serve besides as an exemplary model to many who unlike 
him lack the privileges of lofty birth, and are unduly 
elevated by the possession of wealth. He was strictly re- 
publican in his doings; and seemed always to be simply a 

Newhall, in 1841, thus writes in regard to Davenport : 

" This town was laid out in 1835-6, on a reserve belong- 
ing to Antoine LeClaire, Esq. It is the seat of justice for 
Scott county, and is situated nearly opposite to the lower 


end of Rock Island, on a handsome elevation, with a beau- 
tiful range of sloping hills in its rear. It is about three 
hundred and fifty miles above St. Louis, by water, eighty 
miles above Burlington, and ninety-five below Dubuque. 
The town of Stephenson, on the opposite shore, with the 
glittering dome of its court house, the mouth of Rock 
River a few miles below, the picturesque and antiquated 
fortifications on Rock Island, w^ith its beautiful villa,* the 
charming residence of LeClaire, the magnificent hotel over- 
looking the white cottages of Davenport, and the adjacent 
village of Rockingham — all form a combination of pic- 
turesque beauty, seldom if ever surpassed. I have ap- 
proached this point from all its bearings, and whether 
viewed from river or bluff", it is like a beauteous picture 
varied in all its lights and shades. I well remember the 
first and lasting impression it produced upon my feelings; 
it was on a bright sunny morning in August, in the year 
1836, the sun was fast dispelling the glittering dews, and 
every drooping flower was lifting its smiling crest ; on the 
low^a shore might be seen occasionally a gaily painted 
warrior of the Sacs and Foxes riding along the heights, his 
painted form partiall}' exposed to view as his scarlet blanket 
waved to the breeze, his light feathers and gaudy trappings 
being in admirable contrast with the verdure-clad hills ; 
then did I feel the utter incompetency to describe so 
beautiful a scene*— then could I have invoked the pencil of 
the painter, or the pen of the poet. 

The distant reader may be skeptical concerning this high- 
wrought description. At this I marvel not. The author 
is aware of the difficulty of conveying entirely correct ideas 
of a region to those who have never traveled beyond the 
threshold of home ; especially in delineating this (in com- 
mon parlance) land of the " squatters ;" as if, forsooth, the 

* The residence of Col. George Davenport. 



land of soug, of Arcadian groves, and shady bowers, must 
needs be in sunny Italy, or classic Greece. 

I will, however, add the corroborating testimonj^ of one 
or two graphic writers, to convince the reader that nature 
here has been lavish of her beauties as well as her bounties. 

' The country around Rock Island is, in our opinion, the 
most charming that the eye ever beheld. Rock Island is, 
of itself, one of the greatest natural beauties on the Mis- 
sissippi. The " old fort," not to speak of its military asso- 
ciation, is, in truth, an object on which the eye delights to 
dwell. The flourishing town of Stephenson, upon the 
Illinois shore, adds greatly to the attractions of the scene ; 
and Davenport, with its extended plains, its sloping lawns, 
and wooded bluffs, completes one of the most perfect 
pictures that ever delighted the eyes of man. The interior 
of the territory is rich, beautiful, and productive from end 
to end. Enterprising and industrious farmers may flock in 
from all quarters, and find a rich reward for moderate toil. 
The interior is healthy, and every section of land admits of 
easy cultivation.' 

A correspondent of the New York Star, a gentleman of 
much taste, writing trom Rock Island, says : 

" There are some bright spots in this rude world which 
exceed our most sanguine expectations, and this is one of 

" In beauty of the surrounding scenery, both on the 
Upper Mississippi and the Crystal Rock, I have found 
imaged all the charms I had pictured in my youthful imag- 
ination while reading a description of the happy valley in 
Rasselas, but which I never expected to see in the world of 
reality. The Father of Waters is a giant even here, three 
hundred and fifty miles above St. Louis ; it is estimated to 
be over a mile and a quarter wide, and is one hundred 
miles below Dubuque, and about five hundred miles below 
the head of navigation, at the Falls of St. Anthony." 


Tlio location of Davenport is a healthy one. Its position, 
near the foot of the rapids, will cause it to become a place 
of commercial importance. Water-power, building stone, 
and bituminous coal, are convenient, and a sufficiency of 
timber will be found upon the bluffs and neighboring 
streams. It has beQn laid oiF on a liberal plan, evincing an 
enlightened judgment contemplating the benefits to be 
conferred upon future generations." 

The question of a location for an Armory was again 
agitated this year, and a Committee from Washington gave 
the Island a thorough examination. Several families came 
on from the East with a view to a connection with its 
establishment, but the result, as heretofore, was simply 
reports, and no action. 

In the Fall and Winter of this year game was abundant 
in the county. A respectable marksman would average 
two or three deer per day, while snipe and quail could be 
bagged by the score. 

The first shoe store was opened this year by L. B. Col- 
lamer, and a butcher's stall by a Mr. Armitage. A harness 
shop was also opened by Jacob Lailor ; and the watch- 
making and jewelry business was pioneered by R. L. 
Linbaugh. The population at the close of 1841, was about 
seven hundred — and about sixty thousand bushels of wheat 
were raised in the county, which was worth from forty-five 
to sixty cents per bushel. 

The year 1842 seems to have improved rapidly upon its 
predecessors in many particulars — one of which was in the 
use of liquor. "Tell your readers" — says a writer in the 
Gazette— ^'^ that a passenger yesterday traveled all over 
your place without being able to get a glass of whisky !'' 
The immortal Capt. Litch must have rested uneasily in his 
grave (if dead,) at the promulgation of such a heinous 
sentiment in his once powerful dominions. Powerful must 
have been the rush of the ball set in motion by Rev. Mr. 


Tarner to have so soon and effectually bowled down all 
the toddy-shops which stood so thickly but a short time 

By an act approved in February of this year, the inhab- 
itants of Davenport were incorporated a body politic, &c., 
under the name of the "Mayor and Aldermen of the Town 
ot Davenport." The town was divided into three wards, 
each of which elected two Aldermen. That portion west 
of Harrison street was the First Ward ; and that lying 
between Brady and Harrison streets the Second, and that 
lying East of Brady street constituted the Third. 

The Bank question was again agitated this year, and 
meetings were held, and reports published, but the result 
was the same — amounting to nothing more than simple 

The population in August amounted to eight hundred 
and seventeen ; and about one hundred thousand bushels 
of wheat were raised in the county. Winter wheat was 
raised in the county which was worth fifty cents, and 
Spring do. thirty cents. 

Two Churches had already been built ; and two more 
were in process of erection — Methodist and Baptist. An 
Episcopal society was organized — making in all six Church 

Judge Williams was re-appointed as Judge of District 
Court. His administration was of a character calculated to 
excite neither particular admiration nor dislike. 

The Scott County Bible Society was organized Septem- 
ber thirteen of this year. L. L. Hoge was elected 

The Commissioners appointed to report upon the location 
of a point for a Western Armory, reported in favor of 
Fort Massac — a situation on the Ohio River, in Illinois. 
It is needless to add that Fort Massac was not adopted. 


In the elections for this year, E. Christie was elected to 
the Council, and J. M. Robertson to the House of Repre- 

The expenses of the County for '42 were two thousand 
one hundred thirty-one dollars forty-seven cents — the re- 
ceipts were one thousand four hundred fifty-eight dollars 
fifty-two cents. 

It will be needless to dwell minutely upon the details of 
each year — it is, therefore, thought best to hurry over the 
prominent events of several years, until one is reached 
remarkable as an era in the growth of Davenport. The 
tedious route by which emigrants reached the place, pre- 
vented a development of more than ordinary rapidity — and 
it was not until railroad connection with the East had been 
established that those marvels in the growth of the place 
were exhibited. 

1843. Seven Churches in town, viz: One Baptist, one 
Catholic, one Congregationalist, one Presbyterian, one 
Methodist, one Episcopal, and one Disciples. G. C. R. 
Mitchell, for Representative, received two hundred and 
forty-one votes, and his opponent, James Grant, two 
hundred and eighteen. Jas. Thorington was elected Judge 
of Probate, and the whole Whig Ticket elected, with the 
exception of Mr. Davenport for Collector. County Re- 
ceipts one thousand six hundred forty-four dollars seventy- 
eight cents. Expenditures, two thousand five hundred 
fifty dollars sixty cents. 

About this year Maj. William Gordon, one of the 
original proprietors of Davenport, disappeared. He had 
proceeded from St. Louis up the Missouri River, and the 
last ever known of him was at a short distance beyond the 
frontiers. It is supposed that he was overtaken by a storm, 
and frozen to death. It is believed by some that he made 
his way to California, but this lacks confirmation. A per- 


son representing liim was afterward ascertained to be 
another Gordon. 

He was a remarkable man — a Tennesseean by birth, and 
a son of Capt. Gordon, who commanded a company of 
Spies under General Jackson in the Creek "War. Major 
Gordon was liberally educated, and had spent several years 
in the Rocky Mountains, in some capacity under the 
American Fur Company. 

He was an elegant and engaging conversationalist — 
spicy, original, and humorous. His fund of anecdote was 
endless, and of a character that always drew a crowd of 
interested listeners. There was a small dash of eccentricity 
in his character. Mr. Davenport, of LeClaire, relates, that 
upon one occasion he called upon Gordon. Some one 
asked the latter for some money to make some purchase for 
the company present. "Help yourself," said he, as he 
pointed to an inverted tub in the corner of his cabin. 

He lifted the tub, and revealed the Major's "pile," to 
the amount of some fifty or sixty dollars, lying under it ! 
Thus he kept his money, and revealed by it his confidence 
in human nature, and those about him. 

Some difficulty occurred between himself and another 
resident of Davenport named Nye. The latter suspected 
the Major of some attempt upon the liberality of his wife. 
Calling at Nye's house at one time, Nye waylaid him, and 
as he came out struck him down with a club, and then 
stabbed him. Gordon fired at Nye, but owing to damp- 
ness, and a thick coat worn by the latter, the ball did not 
penetrate beyond the clothing. Gordon was carried home, 
and lay for months unable to rise or help himself. He 
never used a bed, but always slept and lay, during his sick- 
ness, on some buffalo robes on the floor, with his feet to 
the fire. 

Did space permit, many interesting incidents might 
be given relative to his conversational powers, his pas- 


sionate nature, and originalities. At the time of his 
disappearance he was aged about fifty. lie was unmarried 
till the later portion of his life, and then to one who had 
long lived with him in every capacity, save the title of wife. 
She was, however, an affectionate, and otherwise worthy 

1844. In August, E. Cook, Geo. B. Sargent, and James 
Jack, were nominated by the Whigs as candidates for the 
Convention to form a State Constitution. Messrs. Campbell 
and Grant, Democrats, and E. Cook, were elected. 
Campbell three hundred and eight votes, Grant two 
hundred and ninety-six. Cook two hundred and seventy- 
five. At the same election the whole Democratic ticket, 
with the exception of Cook, was elected. County Re- 
ceipts, three thousand nine hundred fifty-three dollars 
seventy-seven cents — Expenditures, four thousand three 
hundred eight dollars sixty cents. (It will not be supposed 
from reports thus far given, that the County was con- 
tinually falling behind; but on the contrary, the balance 
was in most cases in favor of the county. The seeming 
preponderance of expenses over receipts arose from the 
fact that at the time of making each report, there was 
always a certain amount of taxes due and unpaid. This 
latter amount was always large enough to leave the balance 
in favor of the County. 

Stage lines wore established this year to Dubuque and 
Burlington, and the contract obtained by Bennet and 

1845. River closed February fifth. Population of town 
one thousand. Vote upon Constitution in April two 
hundred and ninety-one against, and one hundred and 
sixty-nine for, in the county. Mr. D. C. Eldredge who had 
held the Post Office until July resigned, and John Forrest, 
Esq., was appointed his successor. 

July fourth was marked as being the one upon which the 


venerable Col. Davenport was most cruelly murdered. 
Particulars of the sad aiFair will be given in his Biography. 
He was a favorite of the Sacs and Foxes ; and appended is 
a ceremony, which was performed over his grave. It is 
from the ready pen of Alfred Sanders, Esq. : 

"An Indian Ceremony. — On last Friday afternoon we 
wer& witness to a strange and interesting ceremony per- 
formed by the Indians over the remains of Mr. Davenport, 
who was murdered at his residence on Rock Island on the 
4th inst. Upon proceeding to the beautiful spot selected 
as his last resting place, in the rear of his mansion on Rock 
Island, we found the War Chief and braves of the band of 
Fox Indians, then encamped in the vicinity of this place, 
reclining on the grass around his grave, at the head of 
which was planted a white cedar post some seven or eight 
feet in height. 

The ceremony began by two of the braves rising and 
walking to the post, upon which, with paint, they began 
to inscribe certain characters, while a third brave, armed 
with an eniblematic war club, after drinking to the health 
of the deceased from a cup placed at the base of the post, 
walked three times around the grave, in an opposite direc- 
tion to the course of the sun, at each revolution delivering 
a speech with sundry gestures and emphatic motions in the 
direction of the north-east. When he had ceased he passed 
the club to another brave, who went through the same 
ceremony, passing but once round the grave, and so in suc- 
cession with each one of the braves. This ceremony, 
doubtless, would appear pantomimic to one unacquainted 
with the habits or language of the Indians, but after a full 
interpretation of their proceedings they would be found in 
character with this traditionary people. 

In walking around the grave in a contrary direction to 
the course of the sun, they wished to convey the idea that 
the ceremony was an original one. Ip their speeches they 


informed the Great Spirit that Mr. Davenport was their 
friend, and they wished the Great Spirit to open the door 
to him, and to take charge of liim. The enemies whom 
they had slain they called upon to act in capacity of wait- 
ers to Mr. Davenport in the spirit-land — they believing 
that they have unlimited power over the spirits of those 
whom they have slain in battle. Their gestures towards 
the north-east were made in allusion to their great enemies, 
the Sioux, who live in that direction. They recounted 
their deeds of battle, with the number that they had slain 
and taken prisoners. Upon the post were painted, in 
hieroglyphics, the number of the enemy that they had 
slain, those taken prisoners, together with the tribe and 
station of the brave. For instance, the feats of Wau-co- 
shaw-she, the Chief, were thus portrayed. Ten headless 
fio-ures were painted, which signified that he had killed ten 
men. Four others were then added, one of them smaller 
than the others, signifying that he had taken four prison- 
ers, one of whom was a child. A line was then run from 
one ligure to another, terminating in a plume, signifying 
that all had been accomplished by a chief. Afox was then 
painted over the plume, which plainly told that the chief 
was of the Fox tribe of Indians. These characters are so 
expressive that if an Indian of any tribe whatsoever were 
to see them, he would at once understand them. 

Following the sign of Pau-tau-co-to, who thus proved 
himself a warrior of high degree, were placed twenty head- 
less figures, being the number of the Sioux that he had 

The ceremony of painting the post was followed by a 
feast, prepared for the occasion, which by them -was cer- 
tainly deemed the most agreeable part of the proceedings. 
Meats, vegetables, and pies, were served up in such profu- 
sion that many armsful of the fragments were carried off 
— it being a part of the ceremony, which is religiously 


observed, that all the victuals left upon such an occasion 
are to be taken to their homes. At a dog feast, which is 
frequently given by themselves, and to which white men 
are occasionally invited, the guest is either obliged to eat 
all that is placed before him, or hire some other person to 
do 80, else it is considered a great breach of hospitality. 

"With the feast terminated the exercises of the afternoon, 
which were not only interesting but highly instructive to 
those who witnessed them. 



From 1846 to 1854 — Railroads — Rapids Convention — Growth of City, &c., &c. 

1846. As readers familiar with the history of Iowa are 
aware, the State Constitution, alluded to under the year 
1844, was not approved by Congress. A second Conven- 
tion was held this year, and the other Constitution was 
limited and amended, in which form it met the approbation 
of the Federal Power, and in December, Iowa became a 
member of the confederated States. 

In the August election, E. S. Wing, Democrat, was 
elected representative overE. Cook, by a majority of three. 
A. H. Davenport was elected Sheriff; James Thorington 
Judge of Probate over Piatt Smith. 

A Plow factory was started by a Mr. BechteL The first 
steam flouring mill opened by A. C. Fulton. A Board of 
Trustees for Iowa College was chosen. 

1847. In April, James Grant was elected District Judge 
of the Second Judicial District, by a majority of four 
hundred and forty-eight. The District comprised Jackson, 
Delaware, Dubuque, Clayton, Scott, Muscatine, Clinton, 
Jones, and Cedar counties. In June the population of 
Davenport was, in the corporate limits, nine hundred and 
eighteen. A new paper, called the Democratic Banner, 
was commenced. The Banking house of Messrs. Cook & 
Sargent was opened this year, and was the first house of 
the kind in Davenport. They opened in a small house 


near or on the corner of Main and Second streets. Tlae 
transition of the enterprising firm from the small one- 
storied shanty in which they made their debut to the mag- 
nificent four-storied marble structure in which they are now 
located, is no less an indication of the magnitude of their 
projective and executive abilities than it is of the rapid 
growth and high state of development reached by our city. 

The preparatory department of Iowa College was this 
year opened. 

1848. A noticeable event of this year was the death of 
an individual named Jas. R. Stubbs. He was born in 1797, 
and graduated at West Point with high honor. He was 
stationed at Fort Armstrong, on Hock Island, in 1822, and 
in 1826 he served under his brother-in-law, Judge McLean, 
in the Post Office Department. He afterwards removed to 
Cincinnati, and for some three or four years served in the 
Post Office and Clerk's Department of that city. "While 
there it is supposed that he was involved in some unfortu- 
nate love-matter, for his character was thoroughly and 
essentially changed. He returned to Davenport in 1833, 
and after '37, for eight years, lived a recluse in a sort of 
cave excavated in a mound at East Davenport. There, 
with no other companion than his pets — a pig, dog, or cat, 
or all — he passed a rigidly secluded life. Byron, in his 
misanthropy, petted a bear, and Stubbs, in his, petted a 
pig. He would occasionally walk into town, with his 
family all at his heels. For some two years before his 
death he was induced to come forth from his hermitage. 
He was elected Justice of the Peace, which station he 
filled up to his death with an impartial and incorruptible 
integrity. His residence was in the small brick tenement 
on the north-east corner of Main and Third streets, in 
which he kept Bachelor's Hall. Judge Mitchell relates 
that upon several occasions, while passing Stubbs' house, 
late at night, he heard a violent clamor as if a furious alter- 


cation were beius: carried on within. Curiosity prompted 
liim to open the door one evening, when the noise was at 
its loudest, to ascertain the cause. Instead of a half dozen 
persons, as he expected, about to engage in a free and 
deadly fight, there were only Stubbs and his cat ! The 
latter was seated upon his knee, and listening demurely to 
his master, who was cursing him with every anathema in 
the vernacular, profane or sacred. Master Tom's offense 
seemed to be an amorous habit, which he had fallen into, 
of paying nocturnal visitations to the feline residents of the 

Stubbs was a man of unflinching honesty, and in posses- 
sion of a liberal education; and had not the unfortunate 
event, before alluded to, occurred to aff'ect his life, he 
Avould undoubtedly have bequeathed his name to pos- 
terity, as a legacy honorable and respected. lie died May 
21st, aged about fifty-one years. 

1849 was distinguished more particularly as being one in 
which strong efforts were made to secure the improvement 
oftheEapids. Two Conventions were held — one in July, 
and the other in October. The first was slimly attended, 
but in the last, four States and one Territory were repre- 
sented, by about one hundred and fifty delegates. 

One resolution passed, states that the improvement of 
the Rapids is a work which concerns the whole universe. 
The plan of improvement recommended in the report of 
Major Lee was endorsed, and it was urged that he should 
receive the appointment of prosecuting the aff'air. The 
Rapids are not yet fully improved. In another place, statis- 
tics will be given of the Rapids, the amounts appropriated 
for their improvement, results, &c. 

The following will exhibit the commercial business of 
1849, and will further act as data from which increase of 
business may hereafter be determined. 






Pine and Oak Lumber, 

790,000 feet. 



Square Timber, 

6,000 feet. 

Reaping Machines, 






30,200 bbls. 


1,425 " 


720 " 


16,700 bush. 


200 " 


300 " 


11,160 " 


5,020 " 

Flax Seed, 

120 " 

Bran and Shorts, 

320,000 bbls. 


20,400 " 


212 hhds. 

This amount of business, although since very much en- , 
larged, was by no means small for a town possessing no 
railroad, or other communication beyond the high water 
privileges granted by the Mississippi. Improved farms, 
within three or four miles of Davenport, were worth about 
fifteen dollars per acre — seven miles out, ten dollars to 
twelve dollars per acre. Unimproved prairie lands, at a 
distance of six or seven miles out, were worth about four 
dollars per acre. Population of county about five thousand 
five hundred. Twenty-two thousand acres of land in the 
county were entered at the Land OfB.ce at Iowa City. In 
the next year twenty-two thousand forty-one were entered 
at the same place. 


1850 may be properly deemed the year at which Daven- 
port commenced that development which has at once 
given it a first rank among large cities, and excited the 
wonder and taxed the credulity of all cognizant of the fact. 
Previous to this year there had been no more to promote 
the growth of the location than its extraordinary healthful- 
ness, beauty, and the possession of a rich dependent 
country lying adjacent. The emigrant came from the East, 
either by the long and expensive route afforded by a pas- 
sage down the Ohio, and up the Mississippi, or else by the 
scarcely less dear mode of wagon emigration. Mails were 
infrequent and vexatious in their arrivals — the luxuries of 
an advanced refinement were numerically few — manufac- 
tories were undeveloped ; and but little existed to induce 
emigration and settlement, save a fertile soil, an admirable 
position, and/a{^7i in the developments of the future. 

Under such circumstances it is hardly to be supposed 
that Davenport would display the marvelous in its devel- 
opment. The year 1850, however, began a new era. 

The prospect of a connection with the great cities of the 
j^ast — of being a point touched by the line of commercial 
importance, which is always drawn westward from great 
maritime cities — the possession of three steam-mills, gave 
Davenport an impetus, whose character is equalled in but 
few cases. 

The importance of a railroad connection with the East 
was duly appreciated by the inhabitants of the County. 
The project of a railroad to LaSalle, Illinois, connecting 
there with the canal to Chicago, met with so much favor 
that the stock (seventy-five thousand dollars,) assigned as 
the quota of Scott county was taken even before Eock 
Island county had discovered the merits of the undertaking. 
At the same time that the railroad question was agitated, 


the subject of bridging the Mississippi was also included, 
as was the building of the road from Davenport to Council 

The organization for the R. I. & La Salle R. R. was 
completed in November. Judge Grant was elected Presi- 
dent. Eighty-five thousand dollars in stock was taken by 
Scott county. 

In February, 1851, a City Charter was obtained from the 
Legislature, and in March was adopted, by a vote of ninety- 
seven for, and seventy-one against. This meagre vote 
shows a most surprising indifference, on the part of the 
citizens in regard to the matter. Chas. Weston was elected 
Mayor, H. Leonard and A. Wygant, Aldermen First Ward ; 
Dr. Barrows and N. Squires Second, and E. Cook, and H. 
Price, Third do. 

Geo. B. Sargent received in April the appointment of 
Surveyor General in place of Gen. Booth, Democrat. 

John D. Evans, H. S. Finley, and Ira Cook, were ap- 
pointed deputies from Scott county. 

In April, the books opened for subscription to the Chi- 
cago and Rock Island Railroad, were 'closed, the full 
amount (three hundred thousand dollars,) required by law 
having been subscribed. Judge Grant was chosen Presi- 
dent of the Road. 

At the August election Wm. Burris was elected County 
Judge, and Harvey Leonard Sheriff — which, by the way, 
he still remains. 

January first, 1853, the Mississippi and Missouri Railroad 
Company was organized. Its members were John B. Jer- 
vis, Joseph E. Sheffield, Henry Farnam, John M. Wilson, 
N. B. Judd, Ebenezer Cook, James Grant, John P. Cook, 
and Hiram Price. The capital stock was six million dol- 
lars, of shares of one hundred dollars each. The corpora- 
tion was to continue fifty years from date. Five per cent 
of subscription was to be paid down, and the remainder in 


instalments of not more than twenty per cent of the full 
amount, and at intervals of not less than three months. 
The highest amount of indebtedness which could be incur- 
red was four millions of dollars. In May their first election 
was held. John A. Dix, of New York, was elected Presi- 

September first, 1853, the first ground was broken on the 
Road. Particulars are given from the Gazette of the third 
inst. : 

" The Railroad Jubilee. — Last Thursday was a day big 
with important results to Davenport. On that day the first 
shovel full of earth was thrown up on the Mississippi and 
Missouri Railroad. Or, it may be with propriety we can 
say, on the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad west of the Mis- 
sissippi river. The act itself was trivial, but in view of the 
important results it heralded, 'twas thought best to accom- 
pany^ it with some parade that would establish the day as 
one to be commemorated. And inasmuch as there was 
some honor attached to the act of being the first man to 
throw up a shovel full of earth in the great enterprise, by 
common consent that privilege was assigned our enter- 
prising fellow citizen, Mons. Antoine LeClaire. 

About half past ten o'clock, the citizens of Davenport, 
Rock Island, and vicinities, assembled in front of the 
LeClaire Buildings, formed a procession, and proceeded to 
the corner of Fifth and Rock Island streets, where the 
great work was to be commenced. In the procession were 
included the two brass bands of this city, the Odd Fellows 
in regalia, the German Yerein Society, and a large vehicle, 
drawn by four horses, containing Mr. Burnell, and some 
thirty-five or forty men who are employed at his saw-mill. 

After assembling on the ground, Rev. A. Louderback, 
of the Episcopalian Church, offered up an excellent and 
appropriate prayer for the occasion, in which he beseeched 


the Most High to prosper the work, and to protect in 
health those who gave their time and services to the great 

After prayer, Hon. Jno. P. Cook ascended the stand, 
and entertained the audience with an extempore address 
of about an half hour's length, in which he spoke of the 
years of struggle that the citizens of Davenport had ex- 
perienced to bring about this great work, how, year after 
year, they had petitioned Congress in vain for a grant of 
lands to aid them in constructing a link in the great 
national highway, and that finally despairing of ever ac- 
complishing anything so long as they depended upon their 
federal parent for aid, they had thrown themselves upon 
their own resources, and now were about to reap the re- 
v,'ard of their enterprise. Still they were indebted for their 
success to the fortuitous circumstance that placed in their 
way, and enlisted the hearty co-operation of the Kailroad 
King in the West, Mr. Farnam, and which had now given 
us a Contractor in Mr. Carmichael, who was experienced 
in Railroad building, and able as willing to put the cars 
through to Towa City in the shortest given space of time. 
Citizens of five or six years standing would regard the 
present occasion as one of deep interest, but to those who 
had past the last twelve or fifteen years of their lives in 
Davenport; those who had pitched their tents here when 
but few houses occupied the site so recently reclaimed from 
the Indians, the present must indeed be an occasion of re- 
joicing, one fraught with the most pleasing associations. 
Soon the locomotive would leave our bustling city, bear on 
its burden to the Capital of the State, and ere long lave 
itself in the waters of the Missouri. Soon a bridge would 
span the great Father of Waters, and a continuous line of 
Kailroad connect us with all the great marts of the East. 
Our prospects are bright, the gloomiest need not despond. 

It was expected that Jas. Knox, Esq., of Rock Island, 


would also address the assembly on the occasion, but he 
not being present, Mr. Fulton, the Marshal of the day, an- 
nounced the important crisis to have arrived when the soil 
was to be broken on the great Mississippi and Missouri 
Railroad route. Whereupon Mr. LeClaire descended from 
the stand, pulled off his coat amid the cheers of the crowd, 
and proceeded in a workmanlike manner to give the first 
touch to the great iron thoroughfare west of the Mississippi 

During the intervals while assembled, the bands en- 
livened the scene by performing some of the most appro- 
priate airs, and the members of the Verein Society sung, 
while a small company of artillerymen from the old 
country having in charge the " castiron," and stationed on 
a neighboring eminence, made the welkin ring. 

Quite a respectable number of the citizens of Rock Island, 
we were pleased to observe, were on the ground, manifest- 
ing that interest which an enterprise of such great and 
mutual importance to the two cities was likely to beget in 
the minds of right-thinking men. "We hope soon to recip- 
rocate their visit, and participate with them in the celebra- 
tion of the first arrival of the locomotive, through from 
Chicago, in their flourishing city. 

We have heard the whole number of persons present es- 
timated at two thousand. Harmoniously and quietly, at 
the order of the Marshal, the citizens again formed in pro- 
cession, and marched to the LeClaire House, where, at two 
o'clock, the Messrs. Lowry served up an excellent dinner, 
of which from one hundred and fifty to two hundred per- 
sons partook. Thus terminated peaceably, and so far as 
we know, without engendering an unkind thought, the 
celebration of an event, that regarded with respect to the 
character and extent of the work it proclaimed, is the most 
momentous in the history of our youthful and progressive 


A vote was taken in September in regard to the County 
subscribing for the road. Only three hundred and nine 
votes were cast, but of these only ten were opposed to sub- 
scribing. The amounts taken in all were seventy-five 
thousand dollars by the city, fifty thousand dollars by the 
count}^ and one hundred thousand dollars by individual 




Ojjening of Chicago and Rock Islantl Eailroad — Bridge Opposition — Laying 
Corner Stone — Proceedings — Growth of City — Statistics, &c. — Letter from 
W. Barrows. 

February 22d, 1854, was remarkable not only as the an- 
niversary of the birth-day of Washington, but as the one 
upon which a connection, b}' railway, was completed be- 
tween the Atlantic and the Mississippi. Davenport, for 
some reasons best known to Rock Island, was not general- 
ly invited to attend the celebration, which the occurrence 
irave rise to. JSTot behind hand in enthusiasm, a ffun was 
brought forth, whose thunder was but a faint echo of the 
joy the citizens felt over the event. A splendid illumina- 
tion was also gotten up at night, and quite as much or 
more jubilation was expressed on this as on the Rock 
Island side, 

A few extracts from the Chicago PreBS will show the 
character of the initiation of the grand event: 

" On Wednesday last, the 22d inst, that event looked 
forward to for years with so much interest by our citizens 
- — the connection of the Mississippi with Lake Michigan by 
a continuous line of Railroad — was consummated. The 
honor of arriving first at this important goal belongs to the 
Chicago and Rock Island road — an honor, by the way, well 
worthy the Herculean efforts which have been made to 
achieve it. In February, 1851, the legislature chartered 


the company — in October of the same year the contract for 
its construction and equipment was taken — in April, 1852, 
the first estimate for work upon it was paid — and in Feb- 
ruary, 1854 — three years from its charter, and twenty-two 
months after ground had been broken upon it — the work 
is completed, and cars are running daily its entire length 
— one hundred and eiglity-one miles ! This is certainly a 
proud monument to all who have been instrumental in 
pushing the work forward to completion, and especially so 
to those sagacious and energetic men who have had it in 
special charge — Messrs. Sheffield and Farnam. 

On Wednesday morning, the 22d inst., at half past eight 
o'clock, the Mayor and Common Council of the City of 
Chicago, and a number of citizens, in all about two 
hundred and lifty, left the depot of the Rock Island road, 
in a train of six splendid passenger cars from the manufac- 
tory of A. B. Stone & Co., of this city, for an excursion to 
Rock Island, in honor of the completion of the road. The 
day was one of the most delightful of the season, and the 
genial sunshine, and the exhilerating atmosphere, chimed 
in well with the exultant spirit, which sparkled in the eye 
and shone in the countenance of every one of that goodly 
company. The train was tastefully ornamented with flags 
and evergreens, and its arrival at the different towns along 
the line was greeted with the shouts of the people, and the 
firing of cannons. At Joliet, Morris, Ottawa, Lasalle, Peru, 
Tiskilwa, Geneseo, Moline, and other places, accessions 
were made to our numbers, and when the train arrived at 
Rock Island there could not have been less than three 
hundred and fifty persons on it. 

The reception at Rock Island was a magnificent specta- 
cle. Thousands of people lined the streets, and crowded 
, the doors and windows. Fair ladies waved their kerchiefs 
and stout men and youths shouted exultingly, while ever 
and anon the thunder of Col. Swift's gun went boomino- 


across tlie Mississippi, arousing the echoes from the majes- 
tic bhifts. It was a glorious day for Rock Island, and for 
her neighboring city across the river. The citizens of 
those places had looked forward to it for years, some of 
them with fear and trembling, lest their eyes should not 
behold it. Hundreds of people from the contiguous 
country, both in Illinois and Iowa, had come in to witness 
the scene, and to mingle their shouts and congratulations 
with their city neighbors. Delegations were there from 
most of the river towns from Dubuque to St. Louis, and 
some had come from the far interior towns of Iowa, for 
they knew that the arrival of the iron horse upon the banks 
of the Mississippi was but an earnest of his speedily ap- 
pearing beyond it, and stretching away on his destined 
course toward the Pacific. We think we are not above the 
mark in estimating the number present, on the arrival of 
the train at from five to six thousand persons. 


The speeches were highly appropriate to the occasion, 
and elicited, throughout, enthusiastic applause from the 
vast concourse. While the things were transpiring within, 
a grand spectacle was witnessed without. The two cities 
of Hock Island and Davenport were most beautifully illu- 
minated. The windows of stores, private residences, and 
public buildings, were lit up on both sides of the river, and 
the lights reflected back from the bosom of the Mississippi, 
were indefinitely multiplied, the whole presenting a scene 
of imposing grandeur. After the reading of the regular 
toasts, a large portion of the company, headed by the 
Moline brass band, marched in procession through the 
principal streets of the city. Others remained in the depot 
until a late hour, Mr. Bally, of Rock Island, presiding, . 
where speeches and sentiments beguiled the passing hours. 


We regret that our limits precluded a report of the many 
good things that were offered. 

Much credit is due to the people of Rock Island for the 
handsome manner in which the celebration was gotten up 
and conducted, and for the hospitable manner in which 
private houses were thrown open to accommodate the mul- 
titude of strangers. The people of Davenport and Moline 
also threw open their mansions with the same hospitable 
spirit, and we think everybody was comfortably provided 

In concluding our notice of the opening of this road, we 
wish once more to allude to the successful manner of its 
prosecution. The history of Railroads presents no parallel 
to it. Some companies may have built a greater number of 
miles of road in as short a period, but never before has in- 
dividual enterprise shouldered and borne forward so rapidly 
to a triumphant completion such a work as this. And let 
it not be forgotten that a large portion of the road has been 
built in the face of a stringent money market. But while 
many companies have been compelled to hold up from this 
cause, Messrs. Sheffield & Farnam have moved steadily on- 
ward with their great work as though no cloud had dark- 
ened the financial sky of the country. Surely there is a 
triumph for which they may justly feel an honest pride. 

We desire, also, to do justice to the faithful and zealous 
labors of William Jervis, Esq., the Chief Engineer of this 
road. From the beginning he has been always at his post, 
and to his skill and efficiency much of the credit for the 
admirable character of the work, and its speedy completion, 
is due. But we must close, without further enumeration. 
All honor to all the men who have in any way aided in the 
advancement of this great enterprise." 

The completion of the Chicago and Rock Island Road, 
and the commencement of its continuation — the M. & M. 


It. 11. — naturally led to the adoption of means, whereby 
the two roads might be connected. A bridge across the 
Mississippi had long been foreseen as a necessity, and now 
as the scheme approached practical development, there 
■was, all along the river, the most inveterate opposition. 

St. Louis, which hitherto had enjoyed a monopoly in 
"Western Commerce, Avas rampant in its opposition to the 
scheme. The Chamber of Commerce " Resolved" that a 
brido-e was unconstitutional, an obstruction to navigation, 
dangerous, and that it v^as the duty of every Western State, 
river city, and town, to take immediate action to prevent 
the erection of such a structure. A Resolution was also 
passed by the City Fathers of St. Louis, instructing the 
Mayor of the city to apply to the Supreme Court of the 
United States for an injunction, restraining the building of 
the Bridge. 

Certain old-fashioned dogmas, having origin at a time 
when men understood less than now the true principles of 
commercial industry, governed St. Louis, and other places, 
in their hatred to the bridge. It was a dogma founded 
upon the most intense selfishness, and as devoid of liber- 
ality as the system of monopoly which once disgraced the 
legislation of France. That Davenport, Iowa City, or 
Council Bluffs, had no right to be connected with Chicago 
and New York ; and that St, Louis possessed some predom- 
inant and indisputable" claim to their commerce, seemed to 
have been the base of action taken by the latter city. Such 
principles are obsolete, and it is not hazardous to assert 
that an iron band will yet unite the broad prairies of Illi- 
nois to the magnificent Levee of St. Louis. Stranger 
thino-s than this have happened in the changes undergone 
by popular opinion. 

The opposition of rival towns was not all the opposition 
experienced by the Bridge — for it had to contend against 


even a national, or rather Southern jealousy. Shortly 
after its commencement under permission from the State 
of Illinois, an order was issued from the "War Department, 
commanding the Marshal, for the District of Illinois, to 
clear the Island of all trespassers. This was done in face 
of the fact that the Island had been abandoned as a military 
reserve by both of Davis' predecessors — Poinset and Marcy 
— and had been turned over to the Land Office Department 
for sale. Davis probably feared that the Bridge would 
materially interfere with the prospects of the Southern 
Pacific Railroad. This order, however, to clear the Island 
of all trespassers, was not construed as he probably in- 
tended, for it was not made applicable to the Bridge Com- 
pany, and its operatives. 

The corner stone of the Bridge was laid September 1st, 
1854. A meeting was organized, the stone laid, and ap- 
propriate speeches made by Joseph Knox, Esq., of Rock 
Island, and Hon. James Grant, of Davenport. Among the 
sentiments of the former were some worthy of preservation, 
as having bearing upon the opposition hitherto extended 
to the Bridge. They are as follows : 

" All History proves the great path of the "World's Com- 
merce to be from East to West ; from India to Assyria and 
Egypt, from Egypt to Greece and Rome, from Rome to 
Spain and England, and from England to our own free 
America. It is certainly the duty of all wise men not to 
retard this "Westward progress, but rather to hasten it, 
bearing with it, as it does, that blessed trinity. Commerce, 
Civilization, and Christianity ; and that we regard all oppo- 
sition to the workings of this great historic law as among 
the insanest of follies." 

'''■Resolved, That in John "Warner, the Contractor for 
the building of the Bridge, we recognize a man who,by reason 
of natural capacity, and long experience, is eminently fitted 
for the great work in his charge. We congratulate him upon 


his success thus far, and trust that the winds and waves and 
seasons may be propitious to him, until he shall have bound 
together the Eastern and Western halves of this great val- 
ley with an eternal clasp of oak and granite. The first 
Bridge across the Mississippi ! It will be monumental to 
his memory, and perpetuate his name as long as the great 
river it spans flows in majesty beneath it !" 

The year 1854 was distinguished as a busy one. It 
speaks well for the character of Davenport, that the founda- 
tions of her prosperity were never on paper, but were laid 
deep and permanent in the Industry of her inhabitants. 
The growth of the town has always been concomitant with 
the settling of the back country, the establishment of man- 
ufacturing interests, and the development of other resources. 
There has been at no time a retrogression, or a stand-still, 
indicating a fictitious progress, or an over-growth. Thus, 
in 1854, the population increased nearly or quite three 
thousand. The base of this growth was the railroad con- 
nection, six saw mills, turning out from twenty to thirty 
thousand feet of lumber each per day ; two foundries and 
machine shops ; some twenty-four run of burrs, dozens of 
smith and wagon shops, one wholesale plow factory, turn- 
ing out one hundred plows per week, one Pork pack- 
ing establishment, and a County population of about 
thirteen thousand. In these statistics will be recognized 
a solid and lasting base of prosperity, not to be quashed as 
a speculative bubble, or destroyed by a financial "crisis." 

The following communication, from a series in the Dav- 
enport Co7nmercial, by Willard Barrows, Esq., will give 
readers a correct idea of the city at that date ; 

" Davenport ranks with any other city in the "West, as 
well in a statistical point of view, as in the beauty and natu- 
ral commercial importance of its location. It contains 
about six thousand inhabitants ; one hundred and twenty- 


five stores, all told ; three regular Banking Houses ; ten 
Land Agencies; six steam mills of various kinds — one of 
which (Burrows & Prettyrnan's) manufactures one hundred 
and seventy-five barrels of flour per day ; one Foundry and 
Machine shop ; seven Blacksmith shops ; four Saddle, Har- 
ness and other leather manufacturing establishments of 
various kinds ; nine churches ; seven public houses ; the 
Iowa College; two public school-houses; one of which 
cost upwards of six thousand dollars, built of stone, be- 
sides private schools ; one Masonic Lodge, two Lodges of 
L 0. 0. F., one Division of Sons of Temperance, and one 
Maine Law Club ; fourteen Doctors, and twentj^-two Law- 
yers ; (don't be frightened at the two last items !) We 
have a good County Poor House, with farm attached ; one 
tri-weekly, and four weekly newspapers. 

Scott county, of which Davenport is the County Seat, is 
one of the best river Counties in the State, and fast settling 
by enterprising farmers, mostly from Pennsylvania, iS"e-w 
York, and Ohio. Until recently we have, in common with 
other towns upon the Mississippi river, had to depend en- 
tirely upon steamboat navigation to carry off" our surplus 
produce, but now a direct communication by Eailroad 
through Chicago to New York is open, which has greatly 
enhanced the value of produce. 

Davenport being situated at the foot of the upper rapids 
of the Mississippi river, can, with a moderate capital, bring 
into requisition one of the greatest water-powers in the 
world ; and we doubt not, the time is not far distant when 
eastern capitalists will procure it, and take hold with energy 
and success. The Rock Island and Chicago Railroad ter- 
minates at Rock Island. The Mississippi and Missouri 
Railroad, is now in progress of construction from this place 
to Council Blufts, a distance of three hundred miles, the 
first division of which, to Iowa City, fifty-seven miles, will 
be completed by the first of December, and the cars ruu- 


ning. These two roads are to be connected at Rock Island 
and Davenport, by a bridge across tlie Mississippi river, 
now in course of construction. This bridge, over the main 
channel of the river, on the Iowa side, will be one thousand 
five hundred and eighty-two feet, divided into five spans of 
two hundred and fifty feet each in the clear ; the bed of 
the river is rock, a good foundation. The slough, on the 
Illinois shore, is four hundred and seventy-four feet, also 
rock bottom. The bridge, on the Iowa side, is to be built 
with a draw for steamboat navigation ; the draw to turn on 
a pier, or similar to a turn-table, and to be closed only for 
the passage of cars, upon given signals. The bridge is to 
be twenty-one feet above high-water mark ; the estimated 
cost is two hundred and iSfty thousand dollars, to be com- 
pleted the first of December, 1855. The time now occu- 
pied by railway from Davenport to New York City is three 
days; to Chicago from eight A. M., to four P. M., for five 
dollars, and from Chicago to JSTew York, twenty dollars. 
Thus, for twenty-five dollars, and three days time, can east- 
ern citizens see " Iowa as it is." Steamers are generally in 
readiness on the arrival of the cars, to convey passengers 
up or down the Mississippi river. Three and four trains 
of passenger cars per day running over the road. 

Much has been said of late respecting the sale of Eock 
Island by the Government, to whom most of it belongs ; 
that such will be the case, I can hardly believe. It is 
under the jurisdiction of the War Department, and has, 
till this time, been reserved from sale with a view of 
making it the great western depot for munitions of war : 
" Ko where (says Gen. Jessup, in his recent letter to the 
Secretary of War,) west of the Alleghany mountains, is 
there a better place for the manufacture of implements of 
war than Rock Island." The water power at the head of 
the Island is immense; the Island is high, above all over- 
flow, and healthy, and we anticipate that in less than ten 


years, it will be the manufacturing place and deposit for 
all Government stores, requisite for our frontier, even to 
the Pacific Ocean. 

The long and much agitated question of removing the 
obstructions in the rapids of the Mississippi, is now settled. 
Congress has made the requisite appropriations. The sur- 
veys of the channel have been made, the contracts let, and 
the contractors upon the ground ready to proceed when the 
water will permit — two hundred and fifty thousand dollars 
will be spent upon the rapids, and the same amount in build- 
ing the bridge in the next two years, beside the railroad 
depots and manufacturing houses requisite to stock the Eail- 
roads of Iowa. 

Have we not then some claim in point of position as a 
town ; may we not look forward to days of prosperity ? are 
we not on the line of the great thoroughfare across the 
State of Iowa to Council Bluifs, Fort Laramie, to the South 
Pass, Salt Lake, and to the Pacific Ocean ! Is it then to 
be wondered at, that our town has doubled its inhabitants 
in the last three years, that four hundred houses were built 
here during the last year, and as many more anticipated; 
that there is not a room ten foot square to rent in the city, 
and that the public houses, and private boarding houses, 
cannot accommodate the people who are emigrating to this 
country ? Is it surprising that real estate commands such 
high rates, and that money is worth twenty per cent ? 

Where, let me ask, are the hordes of starving Europe to 
find a home but in the Great West ? "We cannot expect in 
this age to wait the slow progress of the settlement of 
former years. Twenty years ago there were less than five 
thousand white inhabitants between the Lakes and the 
Pacific Ocean ! ISTow there is nearly two millions. Fifteen 
years ago Chicago brought her breadstutfs from Eastern 
States ; now she exports each year not less than five mil- 


lion bushels of grain, and one hundred and twenty thousand 
barrels of beef and pork. 

Seventeen years ago, I was three weeks making the 
journey from New York, by canal and steamboat, to Dav- 
port, but now it is performed in three days, and soon will 
be done in two. Six years ago Chicago had not a foot of 
railroad completed, now there is nearly five hundred miles 
completed within the limits of the State, and over two 
thousand in process of construction. Should the fertile 
soil of Iowa, Illinois, or Wisconsin, be less valuable, now 
that it is placed within two or three days of New York, 
than the barren, sterile hills of the Hudson were when it 
took a week to reach the market ! The West is still in its 
infancy. It has not yet become of age, not yet passed out 
of its teens. Its resources have not yet been developed. 
It only wants capital, and the handicraft of man to make 
it the garden of the ivoiicl ! Egypt, with her Nile, may do 
to rehearse in song, but the valley of the Mississippi, when 
properly developed, can never be excelled." 

Bavenpori, May, 1854. 





Temperance — Taxable Propei'ty — August Election — Election of Gen. Sargent 
— Inaugural Address — Improvemeats — Close of 1857 — History of "Past' 
finished — Editorial from Gazette. 

That ball set in sucla powerful motion by the moral arm 
of Neal Dow, did not stop among the rocks and pines of 
New England,!but rolled across the continent, till it leaped 
even that majestic cold-water institution — the Mississippi. 
In April, of 1855, a vote was taken upon the passage of a 
Prohibitory Law. In Davenport, the result would have 
delighted the originator of "legal suasion." In Davenport 
Precinct eight hundred and seventy-seven votes were cast 
for and against the Law, of which five hundred and seventy- 
one were in favor of the Law. Enos Tichenor was elected 
Mayor by the dominant party. Le Claire gave a majority 
for the law of one hundred and sixty-one. The majority 
in the County in favor was six hundred and thirty. The 
highest number of votes cast in the county was one thousand 
eight hundred and seventy-seven. 

The Temperance ticket in August, headed by "Wm. Bur- 
ris, for County Judge, was, however, defeated by sixteen 
votes. W. L. Cook was elected Judge, and H. Leonard 
Sheriff. James McCosh was elected as Recorder on the 
Temperance ticket by a majority of thirty-three. The 
whole number of votes cast in the County was one thousand 


uine hundred and fifty-one — in tbe township one thousand 
and fifteen. 

The value of taxable property in Davenport township 
for 1855 was — 
Total value of land and improvements, $1,424,439 

" '- town lots, 1,859,417 

Capital employed in merchandize, 258,334 

" " " manufactures, 84,729 

Monies and Credits, 497,138 

Corporation Stocks, 86,121 

Furniture, 37,944 

This, with other property, amounted to a sum total of 
four million four hundred and eight thousand four hundred 
and thirty-three dollars. 

The following statement will show the manufacturing 
interests of Davenport, May 1856, as compiled by a writer 
for the Chicago Press : 

Hands employed five hundred and twenty-six, capital 
five hundred and eighty-six thousand, value of manufac- 
tures for the year past one million five hundred and twenty- 
two thousand five hundred and sixteen dollars. The sales 
of lumber amounted to seventeen million four hundred and 
twenty thousand one hundred and eighty-seven feet, six 
million four hundred and nicety-six thousand shingles, and 
eight million lath. Of this amount, ten million feet was 
manufactured here, three million five hundred thousand 
from Chicago, and balance rafted down the river. These 
statements do not include the manufactories of East Dav- 
enport — that place not being in the corporate limits of the 
city. Twenty thousand eight hundred hogs were packed, 
and four hundred and fifty-four thousand bushels of wheat 
bought in. 

April 2l8t, the locomotive " Des Moines" crossed the 
Mississippi Bridge, being the first thing of the kind. At- 
tempts were made to celebrate the event, but failed. 


However, the era will not be forgotten, although unrecog- 
nized by the salvo of artillery, or the plaudits of enthusiasm. 

May 6th, 1856, the steamboat Effie Afton, while endeav- 
oring to pass through the draw, was struck by a wind, 
and driven against a pier. She took lire, and communi- 
cated to the Bridge the destructive element. A portion 
was burned, and the steamer was a total wreck. Allusion 
is made to this, because a suit Avas soon after commenced 
against the Bridge Company by the owners of the boat, in 
which some highly important principles were evolved. 
They will be spoken of in their place. 

In August, 1856, the strong feeling, originating under 
the Kansas-lSTebraska Act, materially changed the political 
character of the hitherto Democratic County. Timothy 
Davis, Republican Congressional Candidate, received one 
thousand four hundred and seventy- two votes in the County, 
and his opponent. Shepherd Leffler, ten hundred and thirty- 
six. W. J. Rusch was elected over G. C. S. Dow, for 
State Senator, by about the same majority. Rogers, 
Wing, and Barner, were elected Representatives over 
Dodge, Parkhurst, and Smajlfield. J. AV. Stewart was 
elected Prosecuting Attorney over John Johns, Jr., and 
J. D. Patton, County Clerk. For a convention to form 
a new State Constitution there was one thousand seven 
hundred and four votes; against eighty-nine. 

In March 1857, Gen. Geo. B. Sargent was nominated as 
an independent candidate for the Mayoralty. B. B. 
Woodward was nominated to the same office by the Repub- 
licans. Gen. Sargent was elected by seventy-eight major- 
ity, together with the principal nominees of the Democratic 
ticket. John Johns was elected Police Magistrate by fifty- 
two majority. H. W. Mitchel, Marshal, E. Peck Clerk, S. 
Sylvester, Treasurer. 

At the same election there were in the County forty-one 
majority for Mills, Republican candidate for District Judge 


— three hundred and ninetj^-eightraajoritj against heensing 
the sale of spiritous liquors. The Judicial District had, a 
short time previous, been reorganized, owing to the fact 
that its immense extent precluded the possibility of the 
Court doing one-half of the business which it engendered. 
The new District included Scott, Clinton, and Jackson 
counties. G. C. R. Mitchell, independent candidate, was 

The improvements projected under the new municipal 
regime, headed by Gen. Sargent, were extremely liberal. 
Extracts from the Mayor's Inaugural will at once express 
the condition of the city, and the improvements recom- 
mended : 

" The Treasurer's* report of 31st ult., exhibits very clearly 

*CITY treasurer's REPORT. 


Balance received from Treasurer last year, $2,563 06 

Dividends on C. & R. T. R. R. Stock, 5,440 OO 

Taxes in arrear foryear 1855, 1,048 09 

Road fund in arrear year 1855, 1,849 75 

City Clerk Licenses, Cemetery Lots, &'c., 434 45 

Mayor for fines, 58 00 

Redemption of Lot for Taxes, 3 00 

Marshal Taxes for 1856, 14,600 39 

Real Estate owners on account paving Main street^ 718 25 

Real Estate owners macadam izinp; Front street, 1,602 08 

Sale of ten City Bond loans of 1856, 5,000 OO 

Sale eighty-four shares C. & R. L R. R. Stock, 8,400 OO 

Two fractional shares C. & R. I. R. R. Stock, 100 OO 

Dividends on M. & M. R. R. Stock, 3,648 00 

$45,465 07 


Current expenses as per city orders, $7,246 22 

Interest commission, and expense on C. & R. I. R. R. Bonds, 5,025 00 

" " " on M. & M. R. R. Bonds, 7,631 61 

Cash paid from Treasury for Road work, 6,931 73 

" Street Commissioner, road fund, Mayor's order, 1,849 75 

" on account paving Main street, 2,563 00 


the financial state of the City. It shows that the Finances 
are in an excellent condition. 

It is a source of just pride that, thus far, in our Municipal 
history, we have always been able to meet our obligations 
promptly and fully, in consequence of which no city in the 
West deservedly enjoys a better reputation or credit than 
our own. 

The Treasurer, in his report, does not include among the 
liabilities of the City the indebtedness to the Chicago and 
Rock Island Railroad, consisting of Bonds .due May 1st, 
1863, for fifty thousand dollars, and Bonds to Mississippi 
and Missouri Railroad, due August 1st, 1865, for seventy- 
five thousand dollars ; nor among the assets of the City, 
five hundred shares in Chicago and Rock Island Railroad, 
fifty thousand dollars, and seven hundred and fifty shares. 

Cash paid on account Macadamizing Front street, 2,088 62 

" " Brady street and steamboat landing, 1,197 92 

" " Macadamizing Main street, 510 50 

" Revising Ordinances, 250 00 

*' On account printing and binding Ordinances, 600 00 

" Note and interest on account Road fund, 1,081 67 

" Interest Commission and expense on Davenport Gas Stock, 204 00 

$37,081 02 


27 Shares C. & R. I. Railroad Stock @ $100, $2,700 00 

Interest Scrip Mississippi and MissourL Railroad Company, 54 14 

40 Shares Davenport Gas Light and Coke Company, 1,000 00 

162 shares Mississippi and Missouri Railroad stock @ $100, 16,200 00 

Estimated amount due from County Treasurer to Road Fund, 4,000 00 

Due from Real Estate owners on Main street, 1,845 00 

" " " " Front street, 60 96 

Cash in the Treasury, 8,384 C5 

City Tax List for 1856, 1,900 00 

Due from City Clerk, 634 00 

$39,778 15 
Deduct estimated Expenditures due and maturing, 5,000 00 

Leaving nominally a balance over indebtedness, $44,778 15 



seventy-five thousand dollars, in the Mississippi and Mis- 
souri Railroad, for which the Bonds above alluded to were 

It is a source of gratification that the issuing of Bonds 
to these Railroad Companies has been of such vital import- 
ance to the advancement of our City, securing, as it did, 
the building of these roads, and thus bringing large acces- 
sions to our Municipal population, wealth and resources. 
During the past year, the dividends on the Chicago and 
Rock Island Railroad brought into the Treasury some six 
thousiind dollars, more than enough to pay the interest on 
the Bonds. The liberal policy pursued towards these Rail- 
roads should be extended to other public improvements of 
equally essential importance to our City, and full as certain 
to add largely to our prosperity. 


Of the fifty-nine thousand dollars loan, voted last year. 
Bonds to the amount of nine thousand dollars only have 
been issued. The loan was divided as follows : Twenty- 
five thousand dollars for filling out and grading Steam Boat 
Landing ; less than three thousand dollars of which sum 
has been, as yet, expended. Mr. McCammon has a con- 
tract for grading Brady and Seventh streets, and filling up 
the Levee. According to the recent estimate of the City 
Engineer, it will not cost over twelve thousand dollars to 
fill between Harrison and Brady streets. The balance of 
the money will be subject to the order of the Council. I 
would urge that the Levee be Macadamized as soon as 
practicable, after the filling in is completed, in order to 
prevent damage by the action of the river current. 

Ten thousand dollars were appropriated for "Water works. 
A Committee have been making examinations for suitable 
grounds, who have, from time to time, reported. Although 
the order for this loan was made early last summer, no 


ground has been decided upon. It is highly important that 
measures should be taken immediately to secure a proper 
site for Water Works, and the necessary surveying and en- 
gineering done to furnish an estimate of the cost of pro- 
curing for the City a constant supply of pure water. As 
soon as such estimates are completed and dpproved by the 
Council, I would urge the issuing of Bonds for the amount 
required, and the building of said Water Works at once. 

Ten thousand dollars for Fire Engines and apparatus. 
Of this amount five thousand five hundred dollars will have 
been expended (when the Fire Engines arrive here, being 
now on the way, via. New Orleans,) in the purchase of two 
Fire Engines, and necessary hose and appendages. The 
balance can be expended for a lot and Engine House, or 
towards the building of Cisterns. Either will come within 
the purview of the loan. 

In this connection, I would urge a liberal appropriation 
to the Fire Department for outfit, &c., and that a lot be 
purchased, and an Engine House erected, as soon as prac- 

Four thousand dollars for taking stock in the " Daven- 
port Gas Light and Coke Company." This was taken with 
an understanding that seventy-five street lamps were to be 
immediately erected. One semi-annual payment of 
interest has already been made, and no signs of street lamps 
yet appear. The Gas Company should be required, at 
once, to fulfi.1 their part of this agreement. The delay that 
has already occurred is unjustifiable, 


Among the many important matters demanding early 
attention, are the securing of a suitable lot for, and build- 
ing thereon, a Hospital, at a cost of, at least, fifteen thou- 
sand dollars. The securing of a lot for, and building a 
City Prison, at a cost of about the same amount. A Citv 


Hall, with offices for all the city officers, and a court room 
for the Police Magistrate, and such other judicial officers 
as may, from time to time, be added to the city Judiciary, 
with a fire proof vault or safe, for the keeping of valuable 
city papers, should be constructed at a cost of not less than 
twenty thousand dollars. In the upper story of this build- 
ing could be built a large Hall, which would, if properly 
managed, pay at least ten per cent, on the entire cost. 

I would suggest the propriety of borrowing fifty thousand 
dollars, on Bonds of the city, principal payable in twenty 
years, for this purpose. 


There has been an urgent necessity for the improvement 
of the streets, &c., in almost every part of the city. I 
would urge prompt action on these matters now, even if the 
necessary funds have to be borrowed on the bonds of the 
city, as the best economy and policy. Good and substantial 
crossings should be made in every part of the city where 
citizens have been taxed for sidewalks ; and a contract 
should be made with some responsible party to keep such 
crossings in good passable condition during the entire 

The principal streets in the city should be graded with- 
out delay, particularly as a large amount of Macadamizing 
will probably be done this season, and the road fund will 
be entirely inadequate. This Fund is not sufficient to 
make the ordinary street repairs. Other permanent im- 
provements must be provided for by making a loan. A 
loan of one hundred thousand dollars for this purpose would 
be desirable. 

Past experience has shown that the Council should never 
permit a single yard of dirt to be hauled upon the streets, 


but where tliej are in bad condition, they should be im- 
proved by ploughing in the gutters, and rounding up, as in 
almost every instance the dirt must be removed below the 
surface grade for permanent improvements, like that of 
Macadamizing. There is one idea in connection with 
grading of streets, to which I would call your particular 
attention. It is easily seen how large a quantity of land 
can be made by an expenditure of twelve thousand dollars 
on the Levee. An expenditure of fifty thousand dollars 
more would make enough land to pay the entire cost of 
making. The River is shallow in front of the city ; and 
by extending the Levee, a better landing can be had than 
now ; and the old landing could be cut up into lots, and 
sold for building purposes. 


A general system of sewerage should be at once adopted. 
There is no city in the world where nature has done more 
towards a natural drainage than in our own ; yet a judicious 
system of sewerage commenced now, and carried out, will 
add immensely to the health of the city, and save, in after 
years, thousands of dollars, and hundreds of hves. 


Its situation, at the intersection of the two great arterial 
trade currents of the country, would alone give it consid- 
eration and importance ; yet, with rivals above and below 
generally competing with us for pre-eminence, we must 
not stay our own efforts. Although much has been done 
more remains to be done. It will not do for us to rest con- 
tent with the success of past exertions, nor trust our future 
to the natural course of events, but with combined and 
well directed efforts on our part, the continued success and 
growth of our city are beyond doubt. 

Situated on the most magnificent natural highway upon 


the ITorth American continent, and on what must eventu- 
ally be the main line of interoceanic communication, being 
the only point at which the Mississippi has been bridged, 
and in all probability destined for many years to be the 
only such point in a State that has untold wealth in its 
fertile soil, and commanding all its central position, there 
surely can be no uncertainty as to its future importance. 
Its past History, too, gives large promise. It has reached 
its present development with a rapidity unknown, except 
in Western experience. Its founders, and its first citizens, 
are yet active in our midst, and to these, whose experience 
has been its experience, as they look back upon its insig- 
nificant beginnings, its early struggles, its times of doubt, 
and remember the few short years that have sufficed for 
the growth and prosperity of to-day, no speculation, as to 
its future importance, can seem unreasonable or extrava- 

The recommendations of Mayor Sargent were not un- 
heeded. Appropriations, for the various purposes specified, 
were made, and the improvement during the year was 
rapid beyond precedent. Over thirteen hundred Houses 
were erected, dating from August 1st, 1856, to the close of 
the year 1857, two miles^ of street Macadamized, four and 
a half miles of gas pipe laid, over two hundred and fifty 
street lamps erected, and thirteen miles of sidewalk laid. 

This sidewalk estimate includes none above the Eailroad 
Bridge, none in East Davenport, and none in North Daven- 
port, except Brady street, though they are all within the 
city limits ; these would certainly eke out the measures to 
twenty miles of sidewalk in the city of Davenport. 

The assessed property of the city increased from one 
hundred thousand dollars, in 1851, to one million five 
hundred thousand dollars in 1854, to three million dollars 
in 1855, to three million five hundred and fifty thousand 


dollars in 1856, and for the present year amounts to five 
million two hundred and twenty-five thousand ninety-one 
dollars and ninety-one cents. 

A magnificent Engine House was huilt at an expense of 
five thousand dollars, and engines, with hose carts, &c., 
purchased. The "Independent Fire Engine and Hose 
Company" had organized some time previously under a 
Charter from the Legislature, and to them was committed 
the care of the Engine House, and fixtures. 


The number of houses erected in Dai-evport during the year 
ending with 1857 : 

Front street, eleven squares, 39 

Second street, twelve squares, 56 

Third street, thirty squares, 126 

Fourth street, fourteen squares, 42 

Fifth street, thirteen squares, 33 

Sixth street, thirteen squares, 37 

All in the city limits west of Warren and the bluff, 

to the river, except Third street, 112 

Seventh, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th, 111 

Renwick's mill to bridge avenue, 10 

LeClaire's common, (laborers' cottages,) 22 

Fulton's addition, 22 

East Davenport, 33 

Fulton and Fejary's subdivision, 20 

Korth Davenport street, 250 

Part of city bounded east by Harrison street, south 

by Seventh street, and north and west by city 

line, 150 

Built outside of city line, 106 

Total, 1214 


iN'iimber of miles of street Macadamized, 2 

" " sidewalk laid, 13 

" " gas pipe laid, 4J 

" " street graded and not yet Macad- 

amized, 4 

" street lamps erected, 250 

Cost of twenty-one buildings erected during the past 

year, $511,000. Cost of one building, $75,000 

At the August election. Col. Chas. Weston, Democrat, 
was elected County Judge, James McCosh, Kepublican, 
Recorder, and H. Leonard, Democrat, Sheriff. The vote 
for the new Constitution received a majority in its favor, 
and in all other respects, save the two above-mentioned 
officers, the Republican measures were victorious. 

The year 1857 closed, after having, to the full, equalled 
its predecessors in the progress and benefits which it car- 
ried to our city. The population increased to eighteen 
thousand, immense improvements were projected and ex- 
ecuted, real estate steadily rose in value, and every 
element of prosperity was rapid and sure in its develop- 
ment. The financial revulsion of the Fall, affected us 
somewhat, but to an extent remarkable for its meagreness. 
Ample facts in regard to this will be afforded hereafter. 

The "Winter of '57 and '8 was, up to the time of writing,* 
the most remarkable on record. The river was as clear of 
ice as it was under the sweltering influences of a July sun, 
while the weather was like the balmyness of Spring. 

The prominent occurrence, of the early part of '58, was 
a difficulty between the municipal authorities and the 
Firemen. The former framed an Ordinance, creating cer- 
tain new offices in the Fire Department, which were to be 
filled independently of the Firemen. The latter rebelled 
— refused to attend fires, and held meetings denunciatory 

* February 5th, 1858. 


of the action of the authorities. The Council was firm in 
resistance, and matters seemed likely to assume a most 
unpleasant aspect. Mayor Sargent, however, happened to 
attend a fire, when he was nearly mobbed by some Ger- 
mans, indignant at some real or fancied wrong in relation 
to one of their Aldermanic representatives. The Firemen 
rallied round the Mayor, afiibrding him a guard of honor 
and protection. The result was that they received their 
Engines again, and a satisfactory compromise effected in 
regard to the Fire Ordinances. 

Business during the Winter was, as in all other places, 
dull, owing to the derangement of financial affairs, but 
owing to the soundness of business, there were less than 
half a dozen failures — a fact that challenges equality in 
any other p]ace, East or West. Of these failures there 
were but two of consequence. 

The " Past" is finished — but a review of the [field will 
not be attempted till the " Present" has been minutely 
scanned. Then reflections, which our progress hitherto 
affords, will be indulged in. 

As an appropriate finish, the following article, from the 
pen of an editorial cofrere, is appended. It was written 
May, 1857 : 

" Five years ago Davenport was only distinguished as 
the most beautiful village on the Mississippi river. Rest- 
ing upon the western bank of this great river, and nestling 
in the bosom of a grand amphitheatre, formed by a crescent 
of bluffs circling around the plain, a half mile back from 
the river in front — the cliff's of Rock Island parting the 
crystal waves, and old Fort Armstrong resting upon these 
walls of stone — the village of Rock Island opposite, and the 
iver coiling off" in the distance, glittering like a silver 


thread for miles — certainly no lovelier spot ever gladdened 
the eyes of man, than Davenport as a village. It then had 
only about seventeen hundred, or two thousand inhabitants. 
Now, we have a population of from fourteen to fifteen 
thousand people, all actively engaged in business, all in- 
tent upon developing to the utmost the great advantages 
of the place, all striving to continue the growth so re- 
markably commenced, and with every incentive to ener- 
getic action. Within five years, Davenport has changed 
from the village to the first city in Iowa, and she is now as 
remarkable for her commerce, trade and manufactures, for 
all the attributes of a flourishing city, as five years ago she 
was for her loveliness as a village. Last fall, we published 
a full list of the manufactures of Davenport. Our own 
citizens were astonished at the extent and variety of man- 
ufactures in the city, and the aggregate annual amount of 
manutactured articles. Since then, the list has been largely 
increased, and this season will mark an augmentation as 
remarkable as any year's increase since our village history. 
Upon no surer foundation for prosperity can a young city 
rest, than upon her manufactures — but when with these 
are linked so great a river and railroad, or commercial ad- 
vantages, as Davenport enjoys, who can tell when or where 
the prosperity and progress marking our city, at this time, 
may cease ? The people of Davenport feel justly proud of 
the manufactures of their city. While rival cities are de- 
pending almost entirely upon their commercial advantages, 
and resting their whole future upon this or that railroad 
enterprise, we, enjoying, probably, all their advantages of 
this nature, place a strong reliance upon the influence of 
various and extended and rapidly increasing manufactures, 
to carry forward that prosperity so happily begun, and so 
wonderfully marking our present history. We consider 
this no weak reliance, when we reflect upon the amount of 
capital invested in manufactures at this point, the number 


of persons engaged, and the numbers flocking here for em- 
ployment, in response to the demand, the independence 
given us of distant communities in so many particulars, and 
the standard men of means who are continually coming 
into our midst to open new branches of mechanics. We 
anticipate that our list of next fall will show an increase in 
capital, amount of manufactures, number of hands em- 
ployed, &c., of fully one-third over our last year's statistics. 

Commercially, we are situated far enough on the river 
above St. Louis to be entirely independent of the influences 
of that city, and near enough to avail ourselves of its ad- 
vantages as a market of demand and supply. "We are at 
the foot of the upper Rapids, and the center of one of the 
richest and most thickly settled regions of country in the 
great Mississippi Valley. We have direct connection with 
Chicago by railroad, a distance of eight or nine hours travel, 
and through its railroad with the East, &c. "With the in- 
terior we are connected by the Mississippi and Missouri 
Railroad, some time since finished to Iowa City, the capitol of 
the State, and doing an excellent business, and now fast 
being built to connect us with the Missouri river. This 
road is already a great artery of trade and travel, and every 
month is increasing its business, and its value to this city. 
Of other roads in contemplation, we have not now space to 
speak. At this point, the great bridge crosses the Missis- 
sippi, the only bridge spanning this vast body of water in 
its whole length, from St. Anthony to the Gulf. It is 
evident that other roads must be drawn to this point to 
obtain a bridge crossing. Indirectly, we consider the 
bridge of immense importance to our city. In itself, it is 
a magnificent structure, and one in which we feel a par- 
donable pride. We claim commercial advantages for Dav- 
enport second to those of no other point above St. Louis. 

The very fact of the country, back of Davenport, being 
80 thickly settled, farm after farm stretching out in every 


direction, like a vast garden, and villages dotting the 
prairie at every stream and grove, with .the continued in- 
flux of immigrants, of the best stamina, is, in itself, per- 
haps, suflicient to demonstrate that the wonderful growth 
of our city is but the natural result of plain causes, and 
must continue so long as the causes exist. We have the 
back country, and the people in the back country, to sus- 
tain a far larger city than Davenport now is. 

The population of Davenport is principally composed of 
the most substantial classes of Eastern people. 'New Eng- 
land is largely represented in our midst, with enough of 
Western leaven to add go-ahead energy to backbone ! 
The clime is nearly assimilated to that of IsTew England — 
cold dry winters, and delightful summers. At this time, 
there is a great deal of cash capital coming from the East 
to this place seeking investment. Consequent upon this, 
in part, there is an immense amount of property changing 
hands, and we have heard of no sale this season, nor do we 
expect to hear of one made under ordinary circumstances, 
in which the seller receives not a full remunerative price. 
Property in the city, and about the city, is steadily in- 
creasing in value, with no prospect of cessation, much less 
of revulsion. It is 7iot above what it should be, even if our 
city had no prospect of future swift growth — but on the 
contrary, it must continue improving with the progress of 
the city. Property in several other upper Mississippi cities, 
not really so large as Davenport, is almost or quite double 
what it is here, and rents proportionately higher. In those 
places a revulsion should be expected. Perhaps it were 
better for their real prosperity that it should speedily take 
place, as the present condition of things is driving to other 
points the very men calculated most to build up a city. A 
portion of our daily increase of population is made up of 
mechanics, and others, who cannot go to other places if they 
so desire. 


Thus much we have hastily sketched of our own city as 
it is. We have not the space to give many interesting 
fates connected with our city, or to more than barely touch 
upon those things in which the stranger is most interested. 
Davenport is healthy and prosperous. The man of capital, 
or the man depending upon his skill, or strong arm alone, 
for success, and seeking a new home, should turn his eyes 
to this place. Let him come and examine for himself. 
He will fiiid at this point, on both sides of the river, nearly 
thirty thousand people, with capital and labor unitedly ex- 
erting their wonderful influence, and more capital and labor 
in demand. He will see evidences of prosperity and pro- 
gress for which he may vainly seek among the younger or 
smaller cities of the East or South. Let him become one 
of us, and uniting his energies and industry to ours, grow 
and prosper with us." 


.- - .^ -A 






George Davenport was born in the year 1*783, in Lincolnshire, England, and, 
at the age of seventeen years, was placed with an Uncle (master of a Mer- 
chant ship) to learn the seafaring business. During the next three years, he 
visited many seaports on the Baltic, and of France, Spain, and Portugal. In 
the fall of 1803, the ship sailed with a cargo from Liverpool for St. Peters- 
burgh, and shortly afterits arrival an embargo was laid upon all the English 
vessels in that port — the vessels taken possession of, and their crews thrown 
into prison by the Russian Government. The crew of Mr. Davenport's vessel 
were confined in an old stone church, where they remained during a long and 
dreary winter, suffering very much from cold and hunger. In the Spring they 
were released, and their vessel restored to them. After returning home, their 
next voyage was from Liverpool to New York, with a cargo of goods — this was 
in the summer of 1804. They arrived safely at their destination, and had dis- 
charged their load, and taken in a cargo for Liverpool, and were on the eve of 
sailing, when an accident took place, which changed the whole course of his 
life. Every thing was in readiness for sailing, they had commenced to heave 
up the anchor, when one of the sailors was knocked overboard. Standing 
near the stern, at the side of the vessel, Mr. D. saw the accident, and imme- 
diately jumped into a small boat, and caught the sailor by the hair as he was 
going down the last time — drawing him up, and holding him until they came 
to his assistance. In jumping into the boat, he struck one of the seats, and 
fractured his leg very badly ; and there being no surgeon on board, the Captain 
had him taken to the city, and placed in the hospital, with directions for every 



possible care to be taken of him. After remaining there some two months, he 
•was advised to go into the country to recruit his health. Acting upon this 
advice, he went to New Jersey, and stopped at the pleasant village of Rahway, 
where he remained some time, and then went to Carlisle, Pennsylvania. While 
here, he became acquainted with a young officer, Lieut. Lawrence, who was re- 
cruiting for the army. Taking quite a liking for him, he proposed, that if he 
would enlist he would get him the appointment of Sergeant, which proposition 
was accepted, and he received tlie appointment of Sergeant in Capt. McLeary's 
Company of the First Regiment of Infantry. He then went to Harrisburg on 
a recruiting expeditions, and remained until they had enlisted the number of 
men required, after which they returned to Carlisle Barracks, and remained 
until the Spring of 1806, occupied in drilling, and learning all the arts of war. 

They then received orders to join the army at New Orleans, under the com- 
mand of Gen. Wilkinson. They walked across the mountains to Pittsburgh, 
and there they procured boats, and rowed down the river to New Orleans. 

On their arrival at that city, they were kept constantly at work repairing 
and building new fortifications, and putting the place in a state of defence. 
During that Summer, the soldiers suffered very much from sickness. In the 
Fall, the troops received orders to march to Sabine River, against the 
Spaniards ; which expedition has since been known as the " Sabine Expe- 
dition." The troops were placed in keel boats, and worked their way up the 
Mississippi and Red River, suffering every kind of hardship and fatigue, hot 
weather, bad water, and any quantity of musquitoes could afford, before they 
arrived at Nachetochez. During this trip, Mr. D. steered one of the boats, 
and came very near being drowned. In consequence of the boats sheering 
and swinging around, the steering oar knocked him into the river, but fortu- 
nately, as he came up, he seized hold of the blade of the oar, and held on 
until he was rescued. After remaining here a short time, he was sent by Gen. 
Wilkinson with dispatches to " Fort Adams," on the Mississippi. He took one 
man with him, got his provisions into a canoe, and started down Red River. 
When they had reached the great bend, they met with an accident, that came 
near losing them their lives. The canoe struck a snag, and upget them in the 
river, but by clinging to the drift wood, they made out to reach the shore, 
making a narrow escape with their lives. Losing their canoe, and all of their 
provisions, they were now obliged to strike across the country to the Missis- 
sippi, traveling over swamps, bayous, sloughs, having frequently to get logs 
together, and make rafts to cross on. 

During this travel, they were nearly eaten up by musquitoes. At night 
they would build a fire, and make a dense smoke, to keep them off. While one 
of them would sleep, the other would watch, keep up the fire, and looking out 
for " Alligators." They were several days in reaching "Fort Adams," and 
were nearly worn out, living only upon what berries and wild fruit they could 

Peace being made with the Spaniards, Gen. Wilkinson returned with the 


troops to New Orleans, and as soon as they arrived, they commenced to put 
the place in a state of defence against the "Burr Expedition," which was on 
its way down the river. There was great excitement in the city. The military 
were kept constantly on duty, and in a short time the city was declared under 
Martial Law. During this time, Mr. D. was on duty as " Orderly" to Gen. 
"Wilkinson. About the middle of December, 1806, he was sent with a guard to 
arrest Dr. Errick BoUman, which was effected about twelve o'clock at night. 
They surrounded the house, posting sentinels around it to prevent any possible 
escape. When they knocked at the door, a person came and opened it, and 
enquired what they wanted. They replied " Dr. BoUman." The person 
stated the Doctor was not there. They, however, entered, searched the 
house, and found the Doctor in his room, dressing himself, when they arrested 
him for " Treason," taking him down to the Fort for safe keeping. 

During the stay of the troops in New Orleans, they suffered dreadfully from 
sickness, not being accustomed to the climate. It frequently became Mr. D.'s 
turn to take charge of the men detailed to bury the dead. This was a dread- 
ful duty. The graves could not be sunk more than three feet, owing to the 
water being so near the surface, while the men had to bail out the water as 
they dug the graves ; and when the coffin was put in, they had to hold it down 
with their spades until the grave could be filled up with earth to keep the 
coffin from floating. The sun's scorching heat, and the intolerable stench from 
the shallow graves, made this the hardest duty that was possible for any one to 
perform, and a great many lost their lives from the effects of it. After the 
arrest of "Burr," and his associates, and every thing had quieted down, most 
of the troops were sent to Natchez, Fort Adams, and other more healthy places. 

In the Spring of 1807, Mr. D. was sent with a party of troops to the Hom- 
ichita River, in the Choctaw Country, where they built a Block House, and 
remained there until Fall, when they returned to Natchez. Mr. D. then re- 
ceived orders to go on a recruiting expedition to fill the regiment, which was 
nearly decimated by losses from sickness. He sailed from New Orleans to 
Philadelphia, where he enlisted quite a number of men; going from there to 
Baltimore, and thence to Winchester, Virginia, 1809. Here he remained until 
the Spring of 1810, when he was ordered West to join his regiment. They 
walked over the mountains to Pittsburgh. Here they procured keel boats, 
and proceeded down the Ohio, then up the Mississippi and Missouri to the 
Barracks, at Bellcfontaine. lie remained here until the Summer of 1812, when 
he went with Capt. Owens' Company, in boats, up the Mississippi, to an Island 
just below the mouth of the Illinois. Here they built temporary fortifications, 
and remained until Fall, to protect St. Louis and the settlements from being 
attacked by the Indians. 

About this time. Gen. Howard organized an expedition to go against the 
Indians on the Illinois river, at Peoria Lake, where the Pottawotamies had 
several villages. The regular troops were ordered to proceed by water to 
Peoria, while the rangers and volunteers proceeded across the country. They 

got their keel boats in readiness, and had the " Cargo Boxes" double planked, 
so as to make them ball proof — made loop and port holes for musketry and 
light pieces of cannon. They arrived at the foot of Peoria Lake -without see- 
ing any Indians — landed their men, and commenced to build a Block House on 
the top of a high bank, which overlooked the prairie for some distance. After 
finishing this, they sunk a -well to supply it with water. Having arranged 
things so as to draw up the water with a sweep, it was necessary to have a 
grape vine to attach to the pole. Mr. D. having noticed some grape vines in 
the woods, a short distance from the Block House, took a man with him to get 
one, and soon found the article in question. They cut it, and were trimming 
it, when an unusual sound attracted their attention. They became alarmed, 
and started for the Fort, and when they reached the edge of the timber he 
climbed a tree to reconnoiter the prairie in the direction of the Block House, 
and to his horror be beheld the prairie swarming with Indians, moving toward 
the Block House. He descended as fast as possible, and told his companion 
that their only chance of escape was by getting under the bank, and running 
for their lives along the shore of the lake, endeavoring thus to reach the 
Block House before the Indians discovered them. They started, but were not 
half way to the Fort before the battle commenced. The firing from the Block 
House, and the yells of the Indians on the prairie above them, increased their 
speed "considerable," and they made, perhaps, the fastest time ever known. 
When they approached near the Block House, they found it was impossible to 
reach it, as the Indians were nearer than they were, and their only chance now 
was to get to the gun boats at the lake. "When they were about half way to 
the boats, the Indians discovered them, and commenced firing at them, and, 
yelling like a pack of devils, made towards the boats. This alarmed the men 
on board, who commenced to push out into the lake, but, fortunately, one of 
the boats grounded on a sand bar, which accident saved Mr. D. and his com- 
panion. They rushed into the water, and, wading to the boat, put their 
shoulders to the bow, and pushed it into deep water. During all this time the 
Indians were firing at them, and the balls kept whizing by, making it anything 
but comfortable. They soon got on board, and under cover. Mr. D. deter- 
mined on revenge, and pointing one of the small cannon, he took good aim at 
the red skins, and applied the match. The gun missed fire. While hunting for 
a primer, some one elevated the piece too high. AYhen he applied the match, 
the piece went ofi" with a tremendous explosion, so much so that he thought 
the whole boat was blown up. The muzzle of the gun had been elevated 
above the edge of the port hole, and when it went off, the whole load struck 
the side of the boat. By this time the brisk fire kept up from the Block House 
and boats, obliged the Indians to retreat. 

Nothing of any importance occurred until about the first of December, when 
a large party of Pottawottamies arrived with a " white flag," and sent in three 
of their Chiefs to the Fort, and proposed to meet the Commanding oflScer in 
Council. This was agreed to, and arrangements were made for the meeting a 


certain number of Chiefs and Braves in Council. A place and time were agreed 
upon, and when the time arrived, about forty of the principal Chiefs and 
Braves approached the place, dressed in their full Indian costume, headed by 
their principal Chief, the old Black Partridge. They were met by the Com- 
manding officer, and all the officers of the post. After shaking hands, and 
passing around the Peace Pipe, the old Chief explained his business. They 
wished to be friends with the Americans, to stop war, and make a treaty of 
peace with him. The Commanding officer complimented them for the decision, 
and promised to send their talk to the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Gen. 
Clark, at St. Louis, as he had no orders or authority to treat with them. He 
proposed that they should send a delegation of their Chiefs and Warriors to St. 
Louis, and he agreed to send some of his soldiers with them, to see them safe 
through the white settlements. This was agreed to. So they selected thirteen 
of their principal men, and one woman. The Commander ordered Mr. Daven- 
port to select four trusty men, and take charge of the Indians, and escort them 
to St. Louis. This was rather an unpleasant duty, for five men to start out 
with a lot of hostile Indians, but it had to be done — there was nothing to be 
done but to obey orders, and accordingly he got a sufficient supply of pro- 
visions, and placed them aboard of a Perogue, and embarking his party, 
started down the Illinois river. The principal Chiefs were Gomo, Senatchwine, 
Shiggashack, Comas, and Black Partridge. They had traveled but one day, 
when the river froze up, obliging them to abandon their boat, and travel by 
land. Each took a small quantity of provisions, the remainder was rolled up, 
and placed in a hollow tree. With the provisions, they also had a small keg 
of whisky, and after giving each one of the party a dram, it was proposed to 
hide it with the provisions, so that the Indians could have it on their return, 
but the old Black Partridge insisted that they should drink it all then. Mr. D. 
told him he could not do so. He then directed them to move on, and his men 
to follow in the rear, while he remained to put away the keg of liquor. After 
they were out of sight, he took the keg and concealed it in a different place 
from that mentioned to the Indians, having become alarmed at their con- 
duct, and being afraid they would return, and take the liquor, and get drunk. 
In that case, they were sure to have trouble, and, perhaps, lose their lives. 
Hq soon overtook the company, but all day the Old Black Partridge was very 
moody and discontented. At night they encamped on a point of the river • 
and be managed to place the Indians on the point, and his own camp behind 
them, so that they could not go back without his knowing it. Each had a 
guard to watch the other. They traveled, in this cautious manner, two or 
three days, when they discovered a smoke across the prairie, which alarmed 
the Indians. They stated that there was a large war party of Sacs out, and 
thought from the smoke it must be them, and if they saw them they would be 
killed, they could not be saved from these formidable braves. This was not 
very comfortable news, but they avoided the danger by avoiding the prairie 
and following the timber, and making no fii-e at night. They traveled on for a 


nuftiber of days, and when they began to approach the Mississippi a new 
danger began to threaten the imagination of the Indians. The ISangers were 
ordered to scour the country as far up as the mouth of the Illinois, and there 
was great danger of falling in with them, and their firing on them before the 
Rangers discovered that there were any whites with them. When camping at 
night, the whites hung their hats and coats upon poles, so that in case of an 
approach of the Rangers, the Indians would not be fired upon. 

In this way they traveled, and, after suffering very much from the inclem- 
ency of the weather, and from hunger, they arrived at St. Louis, and were 
very well received, and were soon called to the Council Chamber, and a treaty 
concluded with the Indians, who left five of their number as hostages for its 

Gov. Clark enquired of Mr. Davenport " how it had been possible for him, 
and his party, to reach the white settlements without being seen by the 
Rangers, who were ordered to guard the frontiers from a surprise by the 
Indians ?" Mr. Davenport replied, " that he had not seen any thing of the 
Rangers, nor any signs of their ever having been to the mouth of the Illinois." 
Some of the ofiBcers of the Rangers were present, and overheard the conversa- 
tion, and when they left, they swore they would show Mr. Davenport's party 
whether there were rangers on the look out or not. 

Gov. Clark supplied the Chiefs with presents and provisions, and directed 
Mr. Davenport to take the party up the river in a Perogue, and land them at 
the mouth of the Illinois river, on the north side, so that they might return 
home in safety. After getting every thing in order, they started on their re- 
turn. They were obliged to keep on the Missouri side all the way up, for fear 
of the Rangers firing on them, as they were very angry at the statements that 
had been made by Mr. Davenport, and had sworn vengeance against him and 
his party on their return. They, however, reached home in safety. 

Mr. Davenport returned to Bellefontaine, and remained there until the Spring 
of 1814, when the first regiment was ordered to join Gen. Brown on the 
Canada line. They shipped on keel boats, and went down the Mississippi, 
and up the Ohio to Pittsburgh. They then crossed over the mountains by 
forced marches, until they arrived at the town of Erie. They immediately 
embarked on two vessels, and sailed to Fort Erie, where they were ordered* to 
be reviewed. They put themselves in as good order as possible, paraded, and 
received orders at once to march to Lundy's Lane, and arrived in time to be 
in the hottest part of the battle. This was very hard service, as they had just 
performed a long and fatiguing journey without an hour's rest. But the army 
was hard pressed, and had need of every man that could be brought into 
action during the battle. Mr. Davenport had to assist in taking one of the 
officers, who was severely wounded, from the field, and laid his musket down 
to perform the service, and when he returned it was gone. He soon found one 
by the side of a British soldier, which he took, and found to be one of the 
" Glengarian Muskets," a very excellent exchange for the one he had lost, 


(this old relic is still kept in the family, in memory of the war.) Mr. Daven- 
port was in many very perilous situations during this service time, often being 
placed on piquet-guard duty, and during the siege of *' Fort Erie," he was on 
duty at one of the batteries night and day, with scarcely a moment's rest. He 
was also on duty at Black Rock, in charge of a battery, a part of the time. 
At the time of the " sortie," he was one of the attacking party which drove 
the British from their works. After the seige was over, the troops crossed 
back again to Buffalo, and the First Regiment marched to Pittsburgh, and 
then by boats to Bellefontaine. After being there a short time, his term of 
service expired, and he got an honorable discharge, having given his adopted 
country ten years of very active duty, and of the very best part of his life. At 
this time, he was employed by Col. AVm. Morrison, of Kentucky, Government 
Contractor, as his agent to supply the troops with provisions — the Commissary 
Department being at that time under the management of the Contractors. He 
now came to St. Louis, and took charge of several keel boats, loaded with the 
necessary provisions. A large drove of cattle were also purchased, and driven 
through the country. They started up the river, and arrived at the mouth of 
the Des Moines River late in the Fall, and concluded to stop there for the 
Winter ; and built a number of log huts for the men, and for storing the pro- 
visions. It being so late, it was difficult to build huts in sufficient numbers. 
The best he could do, was to put poles into the ground, and nail up green 
hides for siding and roofing, and when they got dry, they made a tolerably 
warm house. This ^Post was called " Cantonment Davis." The next year, 
" Fort Edwards" was built here. 

In the Spring of 1816, the Eighth Regiment, and a Company of Riflemen, 
under the command of Col. Lawrence, (the very same ofiBcer and friend with 
whom Mr. Davenport had enlisted ten years before,) embarked on boats, 
and started up the river. They arrived at the mouth of Rock River, &,nd ex- 
amined the country for a site for a Fort, and the result was the selecting of 
the lower end of Rock Island as the most suitable point. They landed on 
Rock Island on the tenth of May, 1816. As soon as they had completed their 
encampment, he employed the soldiers to cut logs, and built store houses for 
the provisions, and had a bake house and oven put up. This was the first 
building ever erected on this Island. iThe soldiers now set to work to build 
the Fort, which was named " Fort Armstrong." At this time, there lived a 
large body of Indians in the vicinity, numbering some ten thousand, divided 
in three villages, one on the East side of the River, near the foot of the Island, 
called " Waupellow Village," and about three miles South, on the bank of 
Rock River, stood the famous village of " Black Hawk," and on the West side 
of the River stood a small village named after an old Brave, " Oskosh." Upon 
the first arrival of the troops on the Island, the Indians were very much dis- 
satisfied, but the officers took great pains to gain their friendship by making 
them many presents, and they soon became reconciled, and were most excel- 
lent neighbors. During the first Summer they would frequently bring over 


supplies of sweet corn, beans, pumpkins, and such other vegetables as they 
raised, and present them to Mr. Davenport, and the officers, with the remark) 
that they had raised none, and that they themselves had plenty, invariably 
refusing to take any pay. 

During the first Summer an incident occurred, which gave Mr. Davenport an 
Indian name. Some of his cattle having strayed oflf the Island, he took some 
men, and went over to look for them, in the bottom, at the mouth of Rock 
River, but not iinding them, they were returning along the bank of the river, 
in front of the Indian village. When opposite some of the lodges, a party of 
drunken Indians came rushing out towards them — his men took to their heels, 
but he stood his ground ; some dozen of the drunken Indians seized him by 
the arms, legs, and coat-tail, while another drunken fellow held a large black 
bottle in his hand, and would stagger up and try to hit him on the head with 
it, which blow would require all his strength to dodge. This manoeuver was 
repeated a number of times, until he was nearly exhausted, and had about 
made up his mind that the " cursed Indian"' would break his head with the 
bottle, when an old Indian, a friend of his, happened to see what was going 
on, when he cried out " Saganosh, Saganosh!" ("he is an Englishman.") 
These words operated like magic — they loosed holds, and commenced to shake 
him by the hands, and endeavored to be the cleverest fellows in the world. He 
was ever afterward known, by the different tribes, as " Saganosh." At this 
time he resided near the Fort, and continued to supply the troops with pro- 
visions, but in the second year, he built a double log cabin and store-house 
adjoining, about a half mile from the Fort, and where the present residence is. 
He now, with what little money he had saved, purchased a small stock of 
Indian goods, and commenced the " Indian Trader." At this time there was 
a large tribe of Winnebagoes, or, as the French called them. Peons, that in- 
habited Rock River country and the Winnebago Swamps. This tribe had a 
very bad name, and were always very hostile and treacherous, and they had 
been in the habit, for several years before, when a trader came among them 
with goods, to kill him, and take the goods, as the easiest way of making ja 
short bargain, so that the French traders had been afraid, for some time, to 
go among them. Mr. Davenport, not knowing much about the Indians at this 
time, and hearing that they had large quantities of furs, and that no traders 
had visited them for some time, concluded that this would be the best place 
for him to trade in. As soon as the French Traders, (most of whom were in 
the employ of the American Fur Company,) heard of it, they advised him not 
to attempt it, as he would be killed and robbed, but he determined to try it, 
and fitted out five or six pack-horses, loaded them with goods, and taking two 
Canadians, Gokey and Degree, with him, started up Rock River. They soon 
reached the Winnebago encampment. He immediately got the Chiefs and 
principal men together, and made them a " talk." He told them he had heard 
that they were in want of many kind of goods, and that they had plenty of 
furs, so he had come up to trade with them, but that before he had started he 


had been told that they were a very bad people, and was advised not to go 
among them, but he did not believe these stories, and that he had come among 
them to see fov himself. The Chiefs shook him by the hand, and expressed 
great satisfaction at the confidence he had in them, and assured him if he 
would trade with them, he should never have cause to complain. They then 
sent a cryer through the different encampments, to announce the arrival of a 
trader, and that they must treat him well. He now unpacked his horses, 
and placed his goods in one of the lodges, which was offered him. He com- 
menced to trade, and soon sold all his goods, and had received the best kind 
of Furs in payment, and at very good profits. He now loaded up his horses, 
and started back with Gokey, leaving Degree in charge of a part o£ the Furs, 
while he returned to get another supply of goods. He now visited all the dif- 
ferent encampments, and met with very good treatment — his trade soon in- 
creased so largely that he established several trading posts on Rock River, and 
maintained them for many years, making a very profitable business. 

At this early time, most of the Indian goods were brought from " Mackinac" 
through Green Bay, then up the Fox River to the "Portage," there packed 
across to the Wisconsin River, then down the Mississippi in " Mackinaw Boats." 
He once sent an order to Mackinaw for an assortment of Indian goods, camp- 
ing equipage, four hands, and a Mackinaw boat, and everything complete, was 
delivered to them at Rock Island. 

His employees were Canadians, hired for three years, at one hundred and 
twenty-five dollars per year, and were very faithful hands. Shortly after he 
had commenced trading up Rock River he made a very narrow escape. About 
this time several war parties had gone to attack the settlements, one of which 
had been unfortunate, and had lost some of their men, so that, on their return 
the relations of those that were killed felt very hostile, and determined to be 
revenged at the first opportunity. Not knowing anything of this state of 
things, Mr. Davenport packed up some goods on four or five horses, taking 
Gokey with him, and started up Rock River. They arrived at Prophets Town, 
and went immediately to their old friend, "Wetaico's Lodge." The old man 
met them, but seemed much alarmed. He shook them by the hand, and said 
he was very sorry they had come at this time; lie was afraid they would be 
killed, as there was a war party just about to start from the upper end of the 
village, headed by the " Crane," who had lost some relatives, but that he 
would do all he could to save them. Tais was said to them in the Chippewa 
Tongue, as that was generally used by the traders. He invited them to sit 
down, when the yells of an approaching party of Indians was heard. He told 
them to keep cool, and show no signs of alarm. In a few minutes a large 
crowd surrounded the lodge, whooping and yelling like so many " devils.' 
The old man now stepped to the door of his lodge, and enquired what they 
wanted, (in the Winnebago language.) They replied that " they had come to 
kill the white men." The old man now made tliem a long speech, claiming 
the rights of hospitality, and the sacredness of his lodge. He told them they 



were fools ! "Why be in so great a hurrj'? That they had plenty'of time, as 
the trader was going to encamp just below the village, and would remain three 
or four days to trade! This seemed reasonable, and the crowd assented to it, 
and retired. The old man returned, and said he could save them, but they 
must follow strictly his council. He then directed them to go just below the 
Tillage, and pitch their teni near the bank of the river— unpack their goods, 
turn out their horses, and make every preparation for remaining several days, 
and in the meantime he would place a light canoe .and paddles a little way 
below their tent, and as soon as it was dark, to slip away from their camp- 
fire, jump into the canoe, and float down the river until they were out of hear- 
ing of the village, and then to paddle for their lives, but to lay by in the high 
grass in the day time, as they might be pursued, and headed off across some 
of the bends of the river. They followed his advice strictly, put up their tent 
built a fire, and spanceled their horses, arranged their goods, and made 
preparations for cooking. Some few Indians came to them, and desired to 
trade, but they put them off until nest day, on the score of fatigue. They 
did this to throw them off their guard. The hours seemed very long, but 
darkness came at last, and they stole away from their encampment, reached 
the canoe, and floated quietly down the river, and as soon as they were out of 
sight of the camp-fires, they began to paddle their canoe swiftly down Rock 
River. Several times, during the night, they saw camp-fires ahead of 4hem, 
on the bank of the river, and were obliged to drift past them on""the opposite 
side, under the shadow of the bank. As soon as it was day-light, they landed, 
hauled their canoe into the tall grass, and concealed themselves during the 
day, and when it was dark, they started again, and paddled all night. Next 
morning they found themselves at the mouth of Rock River, and soon reached 
Rock Island. 

Sometime afterwards "Old Wetaico" visited Rock Island, when he gave an 
account of what occurred. The next morning after the escape, he said, the 
whole village turned out — men, women, and children, marched down to the 
tent headed by the "Crane" and his war party, armed with their tomahawks?, 
bows and arrows, and painted — singing their "war song," and beating their 
drums. They advanced, dancing their war dance, and surrounded the tent. 
But they soon found " that white man is very uncertain." 

Owing to the bad feeling of this part of the tribe, he did not go among them 
for some time afterward. The Winnebagoes frequently came down to the 
Island to trade, in small parties, but they appeared very sullen and shy. They 
did not like to visit the Fort much. Mr. Davenport felt satisfied that if they 
got a good opportunity they would kill some of the whites. 

In 1818, Mr. Davenport gave up the agency of supplying the troops, and 
turned his attention entirely to the Indian trade. He made arrangements for 
building him a house and store, and got the commanding officer (Col. Morgan,) 
to point out the place where he could build without interfering with the Forts. 
The place selected was the one where his late residence now stands. He put 


up a double log cabin, with a chimney between them. He now went to St. 
Louis, and purchased a supply of goods and provisions, and bought a small 
keel boat, ("Flying 3etsey,") loaded her with them, and returned to Rock 
Island. " 

Heretofore, Mr. Davenport had confined his trade principally to the Winne- 
bagoes, but he now corrioienced to trade with the Sacs and Foxes, in opposition 
to the "American Fur Company's" traders. During the Winter he was con- 
stantly traversing the prairies of Iowa, and visiting every encampment in per- 
son. He, in this way, selected all the best furs, while the old French traders 
had very little energy, and Seldom left their trading post. In the Spring, he 
would have all his furs and skins nicely packed and prepared — feathers all 
sacked, bees-wax and deers tallow all barreled — then would load his boat, and 
go to St. Louis, and sell his cargo, which always commanded the highest 
market price, owing to the good condition in which everything was put up. 

It was customary, with the Sac and Fox Indians, residing in this vicinity, 
when they had finished planting their corn, for the young men to go on a 
Summer hunt for Bufi'alo and Deer, while the old men, and most of the women 
would go up to the "lead mines" in their canoes, and dig mineral, smelt 
it in log furnaces, and return back again about the time their corn would be 
fit to eat. On these occasions he would load his keel boat with provisions, 
and,, a few goods, and go up to Fever River, (or, " Mau-cau-pi-a-sepo," or 
Small^^o}: liiver, as the Indians called it,) and trade with Elfe Indians for their 
lead. He also visited the mines on the West side of the Mississippi, (where 
the Dubuque mines were,) and obtained large quantities of lead of them, 
which branch ofjgBj^trade was very valuable. 

In the Fall orT^O, Mr. Davenport, and his family, came very near being 
massacred by the Winnebagoes. A party of twenty of whom, headed by the 
" Crane," arrived about sun-down, and said they wanted to trade. He told 
them he never opened his store after sun-down, that they would have to wait 
until next day. At this, they seemed to be very much dissatisfied, but he in- 
vited them into the room occupied by his men, (adjoining the room he lived 
in,) and gave them plenty to eat, and pipes and tobacco, and told them they 
could sleep on the floor, in front of the fire. At this time, he had only two 
men at home, Jerome, and another trader. About bed time, Jerome came into 
his room, and told him he did not like the conduct of the Indians, that they 
did not act right, that they had laid down without taking oif their moccasins, 
or other things, and that he was afraid to sleep in the room with them, and 
that they intended to do some mischief. He told Jerome to bring in the other 
man, and their blankets, and sleep on the floor. The two rooms were divided 
by a chimney, with a short passage at one side, from one room to the other* 
with a door at each end. Jerome, and the man, came in with their blankets 
and guns, and laid down on the floor, with their guns beside them. Soon 
after, one of the Indians came in, and said he wished to sleep on the floor as 
the other room was rather crowded. He secured permission to do so. As 


soon as the men had laid down, Mr. Davenport examined every thing, to see 
that the guns were all in their proper places, as he generally kept a number 
always loaded, standing against the wall ready, in case of an attack. He then- 
put a sack of sweet corn against the door, (locks were scarce in those days,) 
and retired to bed, but not to sleep. About the middle of the night, Jerome 
turned over, and, in doing so, rattled his powder horn. This alarmed the 
Indian, who sprang to his feet, and, giving a yell, rushed into the other room. 
By this time, Mr. Davenport, and his men, were up, with their guns in their 
hands, and when the Indians, in the other room, came rushing through the 
narrow passage, leveled their guns at them, and told them to move back, or 
they would fire on them. The Indians saw that they were prepared to fire, so 
they retreated, and shut the door at their end of the passage, and placed every 
thing they could find against it, to barricade it. Mr. Davenport did the same 
at the other end, and, with his men, stood on guard until sun-rise, expecting 
every moment some kind of attack would be made on them, but during the 
whole time they could not htar the least noise. As soon as it was light, they 
began to reconnoiter, but could not see any thing of the Indians — they had 

Some time afterwards, Mr. Davenport learned that the party had started out 
with the intention of killing the whole family, and plundering the store. 
Their plan, at first, was to get Mr. Davenport into the store, where they in- 
tended to tomahawk him, and then kill the rest without firing a |^n, for fear 
of alarming the Fort. Their next move was to place the Indian in the room to 
sleep, so that he could get up, when all was asleep, and tomahawk as many 
as he could, and at the same time to give a yell, as a signal that they should 
come to his assistance. But a "guilty conscience" frightened him, when the 
Frenchman moved. He thought he was going to take the start of him. Fail- 
ing in this attempt, they still kept prowling about the neighborhood, watching 
for any straggler who might venture out alone. They at last succeeded. Two 
soldiers got permission to go into the woods to cut a stick for-axe helves. 
They were cautioned not to go far from the Fort, but at sun-down, when the 
roll was called, it was found they were missing, and fearing they might be lost 
in the woods, one of the cannon was fired oif, so they might know the direc- 
tion of the Fort. Next morning, Lieut. Stubbs, and a party of soldiers came 
up to Mr. Davenport's house, and informed him that the two men were missing. 
He stated that he heard, the day before, about noon, the report of two guns, 
and had no doubt they were killed. He then got all of his men, and with the 
soldiers, formed a line, and struck across the Island in the direction of the 
sound of the gun, and when they had reached the middle of the Island, they 
found their bodies. Both had been shot and scalped ! 

In 1822, Mr. Davenport established a trading post at Fever River, in charge 
of " Amos Farrar." This was a very good point, at this time, for trade with 
the Indians, for furs and lead. He also had trading houses at Flint Hills, 
mouth of the Iowa River, Waupsipinica, and Makquoketa Pavers, besides 

\ /HS£:n..<Lyy)^^. 

three on Rock River. To attend to them all, and have them properly sup- 
plied, kept him constantly traveling from one post to another, sometimes on 
foot, sometimes in a canoe, and sometimes on horseback. His principal depot 
■was on Rock Island. Here all the furs and skins had to be collected together, 
and here the out-fits of goods vrere made up, and sent off into the different 
parts of the country. 

In 1823, the first steamboat arrived — the " Virginia." She was loaded with 
provisions for Prairie du Chien, and was from Wheeling. Mr. Davenport was 
called upon to Pilot her over the Rapids. He took his old "Patroon Debuts" 
with him. They were three or four days getting over. At this time quite a 
number of persons went up to Fever River to work the mines. Col. Wm, 
Johnson, of Kentucky, had obtained permission of the government to work the 
mines, and passed up the river with several keel boats loaded with provisions 
and tools. In a short time quite a village was formed at Fever River. 

Two magistrates were appointed about this time by Gov. Cass, of Michigan 
Territory. The following letter, written at the request of some of the inhab- 
itants, will show the state of feeling at the idea of being in that Territory: 

"Rock Island, January; 1825. 

Sir : About a year ago two magistrates' commissions were forwarded by 
Gov. Cass, of Michigan, to two respectable inhabitants of Fever River. They 
were recommended by a gentleman from Michigan, then concerned in a com- 
mercial way at that place, on the presumption that it belonged to Michigan, 
and one of the gentlemen so appointed acted by virtue of his commission. 
The people were dissatisfied at the idea of being attached to a Territory so re- 
mote, and with whom, in a whole age, they could have no social intercourse. 
Last Spring they had the pleasure of finding that the settlements on Fever 
River rightfully belonged to Illinois — upon which, the magistrate acting under 
the authority of Michigan, declined, and since sent on a formal resignation. 
Of course, they are at present in an awkward situation, in the absence of civil 
authority, and it is the cordial wish of the permanent population of that 
place, that no time may be lost in appointing the persons (recommended by 
them some time since as magistrates,) namely, Moses Meeker, and John 

Most Respectfully, Sir, Yours, 


D. D. Smith, Esq., Atlas, Pike county, Illinois. 

N. B. Have the goodness to send me a prompt reply, (by the Military ex- 
press, who pass through your town,) stating, circumstantially, all the forms 
necessary to the completion of the business, as I am much concerned in the 
ultimate welfare of the upper country, and you will much oblige. 

I am informed that lately the Sheriff of Prairie du Chien (Crawford county, 
Michigan Territory,) visited the mines people, and exacted poll tax from them, 
some of whom were simple enough to pay, others manfully refused, and it 
gave umbrage to all. G. D." 


The mails were carried, at this time, by express, from the Fort; the nearest 
Post Office was at Clarksville, Missouri. In the Spring of 1825, Mr. Daven- 
port received the following letter : 

" General Post Office, ") 
Washinffton Cily, 23d April, 1825. / 

Sir: From the information I have received, I conclude it will be agreeable 
to you to accept of the office of Post Master, at I'vock Island, Missouri. I 
herewith send you a copy of the law for regulating the Post Office, a key for 
opening the mail, and forms, and directions conformable therewith. You will 
find these at the Clarksville Post Office, Missouri. After executing the bond, 
and taking the oath, you may proceed in the duties of the ofiice without wait- 
ing for a commission. 

I am, sir, your most obedient servant, 

To Ml*. George Davenport." 

In the Fall, Mr. Davenport received his commission, but it was two or three 
years before he took the oath of office, as their were no officer to administer it. 
In the Fall of 1826, Mr. Bostwick, Pr. agent of the " American Fur Com- 
pany," arrived at Rock Island, and made an arrangement with him to become 
a member of that Company, purchased all his goods, trading posts, &c. Gave 
him the management of the trade from the mouth of the Iowa River up to 
Turkey River. Mr. Russel Farnam having charge of the trade below, and 
his main depot at " Fort Edwards." Mr. Rollette had charge of the trade 
above — his principal depot at " Prairie du Chien." 

A few extracts from his daily record may give some idea of the " times :" 
1826. Oct. 21. Thos Forsyth, Indian Agent, and Dr. Craig, left here on 
Capt. Culver's keel boat for St. Louis. 

Oct. 30. Mr. Rollette's keel boat passed down. Mr. Ingraham on board. 
" SI. Mr. Lamalease left here for Rock River to build trading house. 
" " Lieut. Clarke arrived with keel boat loaded with corn for St. 

Oct. 31. Brought mail. Sent mail by Lieut. Clarke for Prairie du Chien. 
Nov. 1. Great fire across the river — all our hay stacks burnt. 
" " Russel Farnam arrived in keel boat Oregon. 

" " Mr. Burk, a Virginian, arrived, who had been lost sixteen days on 
Rock River. 

Nov. 4. Mr. Farnam left for St. Louis. 

" " Mr. Burk left for the mines — furnished him with a horse. 
Nov. 5. Mr. Man's keel boat passed down from lead mines. 

" " John K. Forsyth arrived from trading house on Rock River. 
Nov. 6. Casnor, and my men, arrived with a canoe load of "coal" from 
Rock Pi,iver. 

Nov. 6. Keel boat " Oliver Perry" came in sight ; put to, on account of 
the wind; arrived on the 7th. 


Nov. 8. " Oliver Perry" passed up at 9 o'clock A. M. ; two bark canoes ar- 
rived from the mines; laid by on account of the wind : Capt. Lowe on board. 

Nov. 9. Keel boat Missouri arrived at ten o'clock, and departed at three. 

Nov. 13. Boat arrived from Rock River. 

Nov. 15. Winnebago Chief, Carimonue, arrived from Waupsipinica. 

Nov. 20. Keel boat Missouri, Capt. Otis Reynolds, from the mines, loaded 
with lead, for Davenport & Co. Martin Smith, and two men, arrived, to es- 
tablish a wood-yard at the mouth of Rock Piiver. 

In the Spring 1827, Mr. Davenport started on a visit to hia native place in 
England, after an absence of twenty-three years. He remained here about a 
year — visited London, and all the principal cities. He returned in May, 1828, 
to Rock Island. During this year, the first settlements were made in this 
vicinity. Two families (Judge Pence and his son,) arrived on the 9th day of 
December, at Black Hawk's village, and moved into the Indian houses. One 
of them occupied Black Hawk's Lodge. Several more families came directly 
after, among whom were John Spencer, Jonah Case, Wm. Brasher, Kinah 
Wells, Joshua Vandruff, Arc by Allen, Geo. Harland, Thos. Hubbard, and Jno. 
Danforth. On the 27th December, Mr. Davenport's daily record says : " Geo. 
Wells came down for provisions, he having settled on the Rapids. He makes 
the tenth settler in our neighborhood, and one preacher, Rev. John Kinney, 
who preached the first time on the Island 29th January, 1829." During the 
first year the settlers suffered very great hardships, and Mr. Davenport fur- 
nished many of them provisions and groceries, until they got their farms under 
cultivation, and raised a crop. 

In the Spring of 1829, the Indians returned to their village, and found the 
whites occupying their houses and corn-fields. Mr. Davenport used all his in- 
fluence with the Indians to induce them to remove to the West side of the 
Mississippi, and partly succeeded. Waupello removed his village to Musca- 
tine Slough, and Keokuk, with part of the Sacs, removed to Iowa river ; 
but Black Hawk, and the remainder of the Sacs, refused to go, claiming that 
they never had sold their lands. 

In Mr. Davenport's record we find, August 5th : Steamboat Josephine, with 
two keel boats, arrived ; purchased one thousand bushels of corn to pay the 
Fox Chiefs for their improvements. August 14. The Fox Chiefs refused to 
receive the corn, for fear of being blamed by the Sacs for selling their village. 

The Indian Agent, and the commanding officer, used every argument to get 
Black Hawk to move West of the Mississippi, but without eflfect. In 1830, Mr. 
Davenport visited Washington City to see the President, (Gen. Jackson,) and 
Secretary of War, and recommended that the Government pay the Indians a 
few thousand dollars, (which they could well afford to do,) and that from his 
knowledge of their character, and customs, he felt satisfied that they would 
remove without any further trouble to the Government. This plan was not 
approved of by the President, who declared that they should move off. 

In the Spring of 1831, the Indians again returned to their village, and 


shortly afterwards, Gen. Gaines, with four or five companies of Infantry, ar- 
rived. Gov. Reynolds also received a requisition for a number of companies 
of mounted volunteers, which were soon raised, and were on their way to 
Rock River, under command of Gen. Joseph Duncan. Shortly after, Gen. 
Gaines arrived. He notified Black Hawk to meet him in Council at the 
Agency, (which was half a mile from the Fort.) On the day appointed Black 
Hawk, and a large number of Warriors, arrived on the South side of the 
Island, and marched across to the Council Chamber. They were dressed in 
the full war costume, and most of them armed with bows and arrows, and 
war clubs, and what seemed singular, it was noticed that their bows were all 
bent, and ready for use. 

Directly afterwards Gen. Gaines arrived with his Staff Officers and an Or- 
derly, but had no guard. They entered the Council Room and ai ranged them- 
selves at one end, while Black Hawk and his party occupied the other three 
sides and the center. Mr. Davenport noticed that they acted in very bold and 
defiant manner, and that the friendly Indians appeared to be much alarmed. 
He went to one of the ofiicers and advised him to send tTie Orderly as quickly 
as i^ossible to the Fort and have a strong guard sent up, which was done at 
once. The Council commenced by Gen. Gaines addressing them, and stating 
why he had come, and that they must move off or he would be compelled to 
use force. He made the enquiry, "who this Black Hawk was, that was giving 
the Government so much trouble?" This offended Black Hawk very much, 
and the Indians became very excited. They began to call across the room to 
one another, and seemed to try to increase the excitement of those on the outer 
side, by their yells and whooping; but fortunately the guard now came up, 
which fact, Mr. Davenport thought, was all that saved them from being 
attacked and massacred. 

The first Black Hawk war now commenced, but was of short duration. 
When the large number of volunteers arrived in sight of the village, Black 
Hawk thought they were too strong to fight, and accordingly he moved to 
the west side of the river during the night. In the Spring of 1832 Black Hawk 
returned with his party, more hostile than ever. The inhabitants all flocked 
into the Fort with their families, for protection. Mr. Davenport fortified his 
house, built a stockade around it with baslions at two corners, in order to use 
a small swivel for protecting the sides, and had his men all well armed, and 
their places pointed out in case of an attack. He had been informed that the 
Black Hawk party had determined in council, that he and two others (Gen. 
Clark and the Indian Agent,) should be killed, as they had done so much to 
weaken their party. " Neapope " was appointed to carry out this threat ; but 
Black Hawk having passed on up Rock River and the troop following him, the 
people here were not molested. 

During the Black Hawk war Mr. Davenport received a commission from 
Gov. Reynolds, appointing him acting Quarter Master General, with the rank 
of Colonel. In the latter part of the Summer of 1832 the Cholera broke out 


among the troops on the Island, and raged fearfully for about ten days ; one 
hundred died out of a population of four hundreJ; every person was dread- 
fully alarmed. An incident occured during this time which will show the 
state of feeling. Mr. Davenport, Mr. LeClaire, and a young Officer were 
standing together in front of the store oue niorning. The Officer had been 
giving them an account of the number of deaths and new cases, when an 
Orderly came up to them with a message from Gen. Scott to Mr. LeClaire, 
requesting him to come down to the Fort as soon as possible. Mr. LeClau'e 
looked at Mr. Davenport to know what excuse to make. Mr. Davenport, after 
a moment, replied to the Orderly to tell Gen. Scott that Mr. LeClaire could not 
come, as he was quite sick. The Officer and Orderly laughed heartily at Mr. 
Davenport and Mr. LeClaire being so much alarmed; but nest morning the 
first news they received from the Fort, was, that these two men were dead. 

At the time the cholera broke out at Fort Armstrong, there was two Fox 
Chiefs confined in the guard-house for killing the Menomouies at Prairie du 
Chien, and had been given up by their nation as the leaders, on the demand 
of our Government, and were awaiting their trial. Mr. Davenport interceded 
for them with the Commanding officer, to let them out of their prison, and 
give them the range of the Island, with a promise that they should be forth- 
coming when they were wanted. The lodiaos were released, and they pledged 
their word not to leave the Island uutU perm'tled to do so by the proper au- 
thorities. Dui'ing all the time the feavi'al e[)idemic raged upon the Island, and 
every person was fleeing from it, that could get away, these two Chiefs remained 
on the Island, hunting and fishing, and when the sickness had subsided, they 
presented themselves at the Fort to await their trial, thus showing how bind- 
ing a pledge of this kind was with this tribe of Indians. Mr. Davenport, for 
many years, was in the haljit of crediting the Chiefs of the difi"erent villages 
for from fifty to sixty thousand dollars worih of goods annually, having nothing 
but their word pledged for the payment of them, which they always faithfully 

In 1833, Mr. Davenport built his late residence, and moved out of his " Old 
Cabin." In 1834, Rock Island county was organized, and John Spencer, John 
Vannatte and Mr. Davenport, were elected the first County Commissioners of 
that county. The county seat was located, and the town of Stephenson laid 
out, (now the city of Rock Island,) and the lots sold at public sale. Thej 
established roads, and built bridges, in various parts of the county. They 
were re-elected several times, and their administration of the affairs of the 
county gave very general satisfoctiou to the people. 

In the Fall of 1835, Mr. D.iveutioi t, Maj. Smith, Maj. Gordon, Mr. Rambaugh, 
Mr. McGregor, Mr. CoUon,and Capt. May, purchased a claim of Mr. LeClaire 
(he retaining an eighth part,) upon which to lay out a town. The proprietors 
agreed to name it Davenport, in honor of their friend, Mr. Davenport. The 
town was surveyed and laid out by Major Gordon, assisted by Mr. Bennett, 



who were, at this time, engaged by Government to survey Mr. LeClaire's 
" Reserves." 

In the Spring of 1836, Mr. Davenport sold the site upon which the famous 
" Rock Island City" was laid out, (near the mouth of Rock River,) retaining a 
quarter interest. In the Fall of that year, he, and some others, purchased an 
interest in Mr. LeClaire's Reserve at the head of the Rapids, upon which they 
laid out a town, which they named LeClaire, in honor of Mr. LeClaire; and 
about the same time he purchased an interest in the town of Port Byron, on 
the opposite side of the River, thus becoming interested in the rise and pro- 
gress of all the towns in this vicinity. 

In the Fall of 1837, Mr. Davenport accompanied Keokuk, Wapello, 
Poweshiek, Black Hawk, and about forty of the principal Chiefs and Braves of 
the Sac and Fox nation, to Washington City, and assisted Government, by his 
influence with the Indians, in making a very good purchase of a large portion 
of Iowa. 

About this time, Mr. Davenport purchased an interest in Mr. LeClaire's Re- 
serve, adjoining the town, upon which they laid out the first addition to the 
town of Davenport, of about twelve blocks, and the following season another 
addition was laid out by Mr. LeClaire, of which Mr. Davenport purchased one 
third interest. 

In the Spring of 1838, Mr. Davenport and Mr. LeClaire bought a large stock 
of goods, and opened a store, under the firm of Davenport & LeClaire, on the 
corner of Front and Main streets ,• this was considered the.largest store in the 
country for some time. Persons came a great distance to purchase their 
goods and provisions. 

Mr. Davenport still continued the Indian trade at bis- store on Rock Island. 
The Indians came in from the Iowa, DesMoines, and Cedar Rivers, about every 
three months, for their supplies. 

In 1838, Mr. Davenport received the following letter from one of the Pro- 
prietors of Davenport, who was sutler to the troops in Florida, which may be 
interesting to some of the readers of this work : 

Tampa Bay, September 3, 1858. 

Dear Sir : I have no doubt you have long since concluded that a certain 
person, P. G. Hambaugh, is " Co-ga-co ;" I did anticipate the pleasure of re- 
turning to your place ere this, but have been disappointed. I have no doubt 
but you know as much about the Florida war as I do ; there will be another 
winter campaign, but whether on a large or small scale I am not able to say. 
Some gentleman in Havana has proposed furnishing " blood hounds" for the 
purpose of hunting down the Indians in the Ilammocks, and his plan is looked 
upon by a majority of experienced officers as the most feasible one yet sug- 
gested. The Government will, I presume, condemn this mode of warfare, how- 
ever, as being too inhuman to be practiced by a civilized nation, and it is too 
expensive to be undertaken by any individual. 

I am told Davenport goes ahead. I wish to God I was there, with a few 


thousand dollars. What is the prospect of securing the town to the proprie- 
tors by pre-emption ? I hope you and Mr. LeClaire will use every exertion to 
do so, and also to protect my interest while I am absent. I make this request 
because I shall undoubtedly (if I live,) return there, and make it my permanent 
residence; nothing keeps me in this infernal country but the prospect of 
making enough to place me in easy circumstances when I return, and another 
winter's campaign will do it, unless I meet with some unforseen misfortune. 
Write to me, and give me all the local news ; tell me if Davenport is the 
" County Seat," and if it is to be the "Capital of Iowa;" tell me who the 
prominent men about Davenport are. What has become of Gordon ? 
Remember me to all my friends, and particularly to " Mosquakee." 

Your friend, 

In the fall of 1841, the Indian payments were made at the Agency on Des 
Moines River. The Indians from all the different villages gathered there to 
receive their annuities. Mr. Davenport, and most of the Indian traders, at- 
tended there, during the payment. Gov. Lucas, Superintendent of Indian 
Affairs in Iowa, made an attempt to make a treaty with the Sacs and Foxes to 
purchase all their lands within the State, but utterly failed. He had deter- 
mined he would make a treaty with the Indians without the assistance of the 
Traders, and that they should have nothing to do with it. He was partic- 
ularly opposed to the American Fur Company, (then Pr. Chouteauju & Co.) 
He ordered them to retire to their trading house, about a mile from the 
Agency, and posted a guard of dragoons at the house, to prevent any commu- 
nication with the Indians. Among those that were placed under guard with 
Mr. Davenport, was Mr. LeClaire, as he was considered friendly with the Fur 
Company and the Indians. When he had assembled the Chiefs and Braves of 
the two tribes, he made them his proposition — to buy their country. The 
Chiefs replied, that they always consulted their old friends, whom they had 
known for many years, and had the greatest confidence in, and that they had 
understood their old Traders had been placed under guard, and not allowed to 
have any communication with them, they, therefore, declined making any 
treaty with him. 

In 1842, Gov. Chambers made a treaty with the Sacs and Foxes. He took 
a different plan. He told the Chiefs to select any of their white friends they 
might choose, to assist them in making a treaty. They selected Mr. Daven- 
port, Mr. LeClaire, Mr. Sanford, and Mr. Phelps. By this treaty the Indians 
sold all of their lands within the State of Iowa, and agreed to remove West of 
the Missouri River. 

After this treaty, Mr. Davenport withdrew from the Fur Company, and gave 
up the Indian trade, being engaged in this business about twenty-three years, 
during which time he had made twenty ti-ips to St. Louis with his keel 
boat. The shortest time in coming from St. Louis to Rock Island was eleven 
days, having a fair wind most of the time. The longest trip was forty days. 


Mr. Davenport now devoted hia time to the improvement of his property in 
Davenport and Rock Island. About this time he laid out an addiiion to the 
flourishing town of Moline. 

Mr. Davenport was of a very free and generous disposition, very jovial, and 
Tery fond of company. He now, generally, spent the Wiaters in St. Louis or 
WashingtouCity. If he traveled on a steamboat, or while at his hotel, he would 
always have a crowd around him, listening to his anecdotes and stories. He 
never sued any one in his life, and could not bear to see any one in distress 
without trying to relieve them. He enjoyed excellent health and spirits, and 
had the jirospect of living roany years to enjoy the comforts for which be had 
toiled so bard for many years, but he was struck down by the hand of one of 
a band of robbers, in his own home, on the fourth of July, 1S45. He died 
aged sisty-two years. 

The following lines were written by Dr. E. Keskup, who was present: 

Hark ! Wliat that sound that makes the angler 

Cast his rod aside. Hark ! again ; that cry, 

'Tis murder ! — tlie dreadful words are 

Eehoe.! back th(S woodland duongli, while 

Consternation wild is graven deeply in the lines of every face; 

Tiie heart, first clseck'd, now leaps witli tumultuous throe, and the warm blood, 

'A'hat was woni to rviu its circuit mUdly through, clogs the swollen vein. 

"i'was a sad seme. Upon his dying bed, abused, despoil'd, lay one 

■VVUoui wp (so long had he sojourned on that fair isle,) had look'd upon as portion 

or the apoi ; 
Jlis long lah' haix dishoverd by tlio brutal hand. 

Ills Ufa was ebbing fast, as flow'd the gushing heart's blood from his wound, 
How chaug'd t)i<5 scene, that in the morn 

Was joy and gla*.lut«s ; pity and dii8i>air or schemes of dark revenge, 
"Were trac'd upon each varying face, 

And ciieu with heavy lieart the throng wound slow their homeward way. 
Tlie voice of love was still, aud all was mute 
And sad, and silcut, as the gi-aTO. 

In concluding the life of Col. Davenport, it may be well to add a few lines 
regarding bis life apart from the mere incidents in which he was involved. 

His life, as has been seen, was a long and active one — the position he oc- 
cupied required anything but a human drone to fill it — and his whole career, 
from beginning to close, was replete with ceaseless activity. Although of 
trans-atlantic extraction, he was the true type of the American — possessing 
indomitable resolution, a restless desire to progress, with an invincible deter- 
mination to overcome obstacles, and achieve success. Added to these qual- 
ities, was an eminent ability to read human nature, to resolve its problems, 
and array the prejudices, motives, hostilities, or what not, of all about him, in 
a manner that finally best aided his own undertakings. Especially was this 
last circumstance prominent in all his dealings with the Red Man. He read 
them as liien, approached them as such, and by this humane and judicious pro- 
cedure, received in almost all cases from them such treatment as men extend 


to each other. He was worthy of all honor for the love borne him by the 
savage — it is an evidence that, like the philanthropic and immortal Pejjn, he 
rose above the vulgar and inhuman prejudices of the age, and found in the 
Indian, if not a brother, at least a conscientious being, who could be driven 
to deeds of revenge and carnage by ill-treatment, or could be made a firm, 
reliable, honorable friend, by treating him as a man. 

Much as Mr. Davenport's courage, perseverance, enterprise, and ability, de- 
mand admiration, there is still something more than these commanding our 
respect and honor — something which is more lustrous than wealth, better 
than position or title — it was his Humanity ! Had men of his bias dealt with 
Black Hawk, and his " British Band," less gory scalp locks would have 
decked the belts of warring savages — less blood have been shed, and the entire 
fearful drama of devastation, slaughter, and carnage, which was enacted 
upon our frontiers a few years since, would have been wholly omitted. 

Honor to his ashes — he sleeps in a grave whose proud epitaph reads — 





Antoine LeClaiue was born December 15, 1797, at St. Joseph, Michigan. 
His father was a Canadian Frenchman, his mother the grand daughter of a 
Pottowottomie Chief. At this time ^the territory of the North-west, out of 
which half a dozen mighty States have been formed, was peopled almost solely 
by the red man, with here and there one of a different race, fearless enough to 
brave the perils of a frontier life, among the dusky denizens of the wilderness • 
the father of Antoine Le Claire was one of these. 

In 1808, he established a trading post at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, exchanging 
manufactured articles for various kinds of furs. In 1809, he engaged more ex- 
tensively in the business, in connection .with John Kinsey, at Chicago, (Fort 
Dearborn then,) Illinois. In 1812, though surrounded with the Indian tribes 
with whom he was trading, and who, through the influence of British emis- 
saries, were generally hostile to the United States, Mr. LeClaire espoused the 
American cause, engaged actively in the service — was in the contest at Peoria, 
where, with others, he was taken prisoner. The prisoners were confined at 
Alton, Illinois, but were released during the same year. 

About this period, at the solicitation of Gov. Clarke, of Missouri, Antoine 
LeClaire entered the Government service, and was placed at school, that he 
might acquire a proper knowledge of the English language. In 1818, he 
acted as interpreter under Capt. Davenport, at Fort Armstrong; and the same 
year returned to Peoria, where, in 1820, he married the daughter of the 
Sac Chief, Acoqua, (the Kettle.) The same year he was sent to Arkansas, to 
watch the movements of the Indians in that locality. He was returned to 
Fort Armstrong in 182Y, and was present as interpreter in 1832, when the 
treaty was made by which the United States purchased of the Sac and Fox 
tribes the territory West of the Mississippi River. 

In consequence of cholera among the soldiers at Fort Armstrong, the treaty, 
which would otherwise have been held in the Fort, was transferred to the 


Iowa sliore opposite. Here the great Chief of the Sacs, Keoliuk, made a re- 
serve of a section of land, which he douated to Mr. LeGlaire'.* wife, requiring, 
as an only condition, that Mr. LeChiire should build his house on the section, 
and on the s[)0t then occupied by tlie marquee oi'Gen. Si-ott in making the 
treaty; wliich condition he afterwards fdled io the letter. The Sacs and Foxes 
also gave him another section at the head of the Rapids, where LeClaire now 
stands. The Pottowottowies, in the treaty of Prairie du Chien, reserved two 
sections on the Illinois side, which tliej" [iresented to Mr. LeClaire. The 
flourishing town of iMoliue is situated on this .leserve. 

The treaty was ratified by Congress the following Winter. In the Spring of 
1833, Mr. LeClaire erected a small building, or " shanty," in the then Fox 
village, " Morgan," which had occupied this ground for years previous. Of 
the tribe having this as their head-quarters, Maquojjom was the head warrior^ 
and Poiveshiek head chief. In the fall of 1834, the Sac and Fox Indians left 
here for the Cedar River. 

In ]8o3, Mr. LeClaire was appointed Post Masler at Davenport, and also 
Justice of tlie Peace, to settle all matters of diuerence between the whiles and 
Indians. His jurisdiction extended over all the territory purchased of the 
Sacs and Foxes West of ihe Mississippi, from Dubuque, on the North, to Rur- 
lington on the South. Tbe [lopulalion of Rurliiigton was, at this time, about 
two hundred, that of Dubuque about two hiindved and fifty. 

Mr. LeClaire is an accomplished Linguist — speaking some twelve or four- 
teen Indian dialects, as well as French and English, and was present as Inter- 
preter, among other treaties, at that with the Great and Little Osages at St. 
Louis, 1825, with the Kansas at St. Louis, 1823, with the Chippewas at Prairie 
du Chien in 1829, with the Winnebagoes at the same place, in August, same 
year; at the same place in 182G, with Sacs and Foxes, same place with Win- 
nebagoes in 1832, at Fort Armstrong, held on Iowa side, with Sacs and Foxes 
at Davenport, vvitli Sfics and Foxes in ISSfi, at V.'ashinglon, with same tribes 
in IBS'?, with same tribes at Sac arid Fox Agency in Iowa Territory in 1842. 

Mr. LeClaire was one of the proprietors of the town of Davenport, and is 
still one of its MCiive business men. He is possessed of great wealth ; has im- 
proved the ciiy by a liiieral exjieiidiiure of a large income, in erectingChurches, 
and otiier pub'^c tiu'ldi-jg-, ;^t iils iioniciliaie expense. The line Church of 
St. Murt^aret — v.'Iiose spii'e reaches '"roiu the loiiy bluff till it would almost 
seem to louch the qiret Stars, or to ruinj^le with the cloudy glories of a Sum- 
mer's day was Iiu'Il and i'l'mished by Uio mnnincence of Mr. LeClaire. 

Every wiiere over ilie fair ciiy of Davenpoii are scali.ered iniprovements, each 
of which elegantly and appropriately memorializes his generosity. 

His progress from the smaD white house, on the depot f;rounds, to the 
palatial bric!; mansion on llie idufrs— his pliysicnl increase from the &raall 
frame of iliirty years ago. to ihe portly embodimenL of Mr. LeClaire of to-day, 
present a fine lypC; i)olli of liis increase in weaitii. and the growlli of the dtj', 
which he mainly founded. It is to be regretted that a liistory of his life, em- 


bracing its lesser details, could not have been obtained — as his whole course 
has been replete with stirring incident, and romantic adventure. His name, 
however, will not soon be forgotten — it is inscribed in the national archives, 
is perpetuated in a thousand forms — in spire and altar, in wall and street — in 
the city of his adoption, while still more enduringly than all these memorials 
of parchment, wood-work, and masonry, it is written upon the hearts of all 
who know him, the fact that he is a — Philanthropist and Chris riAU. 

Correction. — Mrs. LeClaire was the grand-daughter of Acoqua. Her father 
was Antoine LePage, a Canadian. (The above was not received in time to be 
put in its proper place.) 




) '/< ^ 





George L. Davenport •was born on Rock Island, in the Fall of 181t, and is 
the eldest son of Col. Geo. Davenport, and was the first white child born in 
this section of the country. For eight or nine years he had few playmates, 
but the Indian boys ; he, therefore, learned to talk their language about as 
soon as he did the English. In 1827, he was sent to Cincinnati, and went to 
school one year, and then returned to the Island, and was placed in the store 
of the American Fur Company, where he remained until this trading post was 
given up, upon the removal of the Indians, in 1837, to the DesMoines River. 
He was, at any early age, adopted into the Fox tribe, and was called after the 
nation, " Mosquake," and was always a great favorite with them. He made, 
frequently, trips into the Indian country, with goods for the different trading 
posts, and attended all the Indian payments on the DesMoines River. In 1832, 
he made the first " claim" West of the Mississippi, and in the Fall of 1837, he 
accompanied the Sac and Fox delegation of Chiefs to Washington City, and 
also visited other large cities. On his return, he lived upon his claim, in order 
to secure a pre-emption. In 1838, he was in the store of Davenport & LeClaire. 
In 1839 he married, and commenced business for himself, and continued 
to attend to business very closely for sixteen years. In 1850, he, in connec- 
tion with Mr. LeClaire, built the first Foundry and Machine shops in this city. 
They built the first steam engine, and made the first castings in this city. He 
continued in this business five years, when he sold out, and retired from 

Mr. Davenport has done much toward the improvement of the city has 

built a fine block, is liberal in his encouragement of enterprise, and in difTusing 
judiciously his ample fortune. To him, as well as Mr. LeClaire, are confided 
the reminiscences of pioneer life in this country, and but few lovers of the 
deeds and things connected with the past, have ever visited this country with- 


out being indebted to him for many courtesies, and valuable information. 
He is still in the prime of life, "straight as an arrow," and has before him 
many years of usefulness and enjoyment. 










The subject of this memoir is a native of Dundee, Scotland. His name 
("Son of the First,") denotes his origin from one of the oldest, and one of the 
most powerful Highland Clans, whose blood has been shed for Scotland in 
every battle field, from the invasion of the Romans to the battle of Culloden. 
Almost destroyed in their eiforts for the restoration of the Stuarts, in 1715 
they composed a large portion of the invading army in England, and were the 
last to abandon the cause — fighting the last battle. 

In 1745, the Slogan again sounded, and one thousand warriors raised their 
banner for Stuart; they conquerei in every field, until a difference of opinion 
amongst the leaders l.ed to a retreat from England, and the defeat of Cullodeu 
followed, but had all fought with the devoted bravery of Clan Chalten, and had 
their allies proved true, Cumberland could not have laid waste their country 
for fifty miles around, sparing neither age nor sex. 

John Mackintosh, the Grandfather of Mr. Mackintosh, being in possession of 
a portion of the family estates, of course was in arms, and was severely 
wounded at Culloden. He escaped that night from a field where no quarter 
was given, from the horrors that followed— the burning of cottages,and slaughter 
helpless women and children. All was lost but honor, his estates being 
attainted as a follower of Stuart, the balance of his days were spent in obscu- 
rity and poverty. 

The subject of this memoir remembers him well, and has often heard him 
describe the war of " 45," and the charge of the Mackintosh division at Cul- 
loden, when Cumberland's ranks went down before them, from the centre of 
the line of battle, where they fought. They were victors— but not being sup- 

ported by their left wing, defeat was the consequence. Five hundred of these 
warriors fell, as described by Campbell, in Lochiel's Warning : 

" Shall Victor oxult, or in death be laid low 

With his back to the field, atd his face to the foe, 

Leaving in baUle, no blot oa his name, 

Look proudly to Heaven, from the death bed of fame." 

In the language of Ex-Governor Mackintosh, of Georgia, the legal feudal 
head of the race — " we are iveak and broken now, we are not what ive once have 
been." The old veteran bore the mark of a sabre cut on his face, received in 
boarding an English vessel in the war of 1812, when a Lieutenant in the 
American Navy. The tear was in his eye as he spoke; before his vision 
passed the heroic deeds of his Ancestors, the war of 1715, when his great 
grandfather commanded, his death in exile, his grandfather, with the remains 
of his men, emigrating to Georgia, his brave defence of the Georgian frontiers 
against Spain, the breaking out of the Revolution, when his father, (General 
Laughlin Mackintosh,) and uncle, equipped a body of troops, and took the 
field for the Colonies ; and well did they pay their oppressors for the wrongs 
they had done them. He thought of his brother, who fell leading the charge 
at Molina de la Rey, of the mountains and valleys of the Highlands. He 
heard the Slogan of Clan Chattan, when thousands of warriors would answer 
the call, and well might the old veteran exclaim, " we are not what we once 
have been," but the glory and fame of the Sons of the First will live forever. 

When about eight years of age, the subject of this memoir lost his grand- 
father, the soldier of CuUoden, and soon after, his mother, which, in some 
measure, broke up the family. It was then decided to emigrate to America, 
and his father, a carpenter, by unremitting industry for a number of years, 
accumulated enough for that purpose. His son James doing his part during 
this period, laboring in a flax factory from twelve to fifteen hours per day for 
five years, to attain the desired object. They arrived in Montreal in Septem- 
ber, 1817. In the Spring following, Mr. Mackintosh selected the trade of a 
book-seller and book-binder, which was the first opportunity he had of ac- 
quiring an education. He had labored from early boyhood, having little time 
for study, in order to come to the United States, which had always been his 
great object. He traveled some years in the middle and Southern States. 
Came West in 1828, and carried on a book-bindery in Cincinnati in 1830, 'SI, 
but finding it unprofitable, sold out — went to Indianapolis, and bound the 
Code of Indiana for 1831. Romantic and adventurous, he then attached him- 
self to the Oregon Expedition, then organizing in Boston, and, with Hall J. 
Kelly, and Captain Brown, formerly of the Greek service, endeavored to raise 
a company in Cincinnati to settle on the Columbia River. At one time there 
were nearly two thousand men ready to sail for Oregon, but it was thought 
necessary to introduce a bill in Congress for some encouragement and protec- 
tion. This led to an inquiry as to what position the United States occupied 


with Great Britain regarding Oregon, which proved that neither power, by 
their treaty, could colonize, or take possession, without each giving to the other 
one year's notice. This was discouraging to the Expedition. A portion of it, 
however, went from Boston, taking the land route by St. Louis, under Captain 
Wythe, but were unfortunate, having some fighting on the route, but a portion 
got through ; many, however, turned back. The same Spring, Mr. Mackintosh 
went to New Orleans, intending to go round Cape Horn, but finding no oppor- 
tunity, returned to Louisville, Kentucky. Still exerting himself in the cause — 
having no other means of support, but what he earned at his trade ; and there 
was not then, as there is now, such a desire to emigrate West. 

In the Spring of 1833, H. J. Kelly came West, the remains of the original 
Expedition having sailed from New York, and again the enterprise bid fair to 
succeed ; Mr. Mackintosh went to New Orleans. The Company had passports 
from Gen, Jackson, President of the U. S., and letters to Santa Anna, President of 
Mexico, requesting that power to give such friendly aid as either nation, by 
their treaty, would accord to the other, in passing through that territory. 
The route was by Vera Cruz, and the City of Mexico, to Accapulco, where 
vessels were to convey them to Oregon. So far, all had gone well, but a 
scheme had been laid by a portion of the men to seize the Indian goods 
belonging to the Company, and go to Texas, which they attempted to carry 
out. This led to their arrest, and confinement in the calaboose. Vexatious 
law suits followed, which totally broke up the Expedition. H. J. Kelly went 
alone through Mexico to Oregon. Mr. Mackintosh having spent his last dol- 
lar in the cause, was, for the second time, left in the midst of cholera and yel- 
low fever. He next worked for means to move West, to St. Louis, to join the 
hunters, and in that way yet meet Kelly in Oregon, but it was too late. The 
last party had gone. Then, with two of the Company that remained with him, 
he crossed, on foot, the States of Illinois and Indiana, to the Ohio River. After 
being some months in Cincinnati, and anxious to raise means to reach Oregon, 
he went to Nashville, where he was profitably employed for several years. 
When he was traveling through Illinois and Indiana in 1833, he saw some of 
the volunteers from the Black Hawk War, and began to turn his attention to 
that region, determining to locate on the frontiers somewhere. He left Nash- 
ville in the Fall of '35, and after spending some months in St. Louis, started 
on horseback to examine the country. At that day, and at that time of the 
year, this was a trip of some interest. He traveled iu company with two others 
as far as Warsaw, Illinois. There was nothing on the journey of particular 
interest; but at this point the journey had to be prosecuted alone. The 
promised land was in sight, but it seemed like parting with civilization. He 
crossed the Mississippi in the night to Keokuk, carrying his saddle and port- 
manteau on his back, and leaving his horse on an Island, which was brought 
over by some Canadians in the course of the night. On entering the only 
building there, a curious sight presented itself. A ball was going on, of an as- 
semblage of half breeds, French traders, Indians, Americans, &c. There was 


not much chance to rest here, besides running considerable risk of losing what 
he had. Having, when coining through Illinois, met with Lieutenant Lee, of 
Fort Armstrong, who had been with the party surveying the boundary line of 
the Territory, he received a description of the route to Rock Island, and let- 
ters of introduction to the officers of Fort DesMoines and Fort Armstrong. 
Our traveler, after spending the night with this motley party, proceeded to 
Fort DesMoines, now Montrose, then occupied by several companies of 
Dragoons, and presented his letters ; was introduced to a son of Black Hawk, 
and his sister. The young Chief had lately received a fine sword from the 
officers, and was very proud of it. Both he and his sister were good looking^ 
and dressed in good taste. He then proceeded with Col. Knapp to Fort Mad- 
ison, and some time after dark, stopped a short time with Black Hawk's band 
of Indians, who were preparing to make sugar, and reached Fort Madison 
about midnight. The only house there was the Colonel's, the proprietor of 
the town. On coming to Skunk River, it was thought impossible to cross, but 
our traveler was persevering, and so he attempted it. He crossed on foot, the 
ice cracking under his feet, with his saddle and saddle bags on his back. His 
horse followed, breaking the ice before him ; and he arrived at Burlington that 
evening. Here a town was commenced, and there were eight or ten houses. 
Next morning, he had to swim Flint Hill Creek, through the floating ice, as 
there were no ferries or bridges. He stopped that night near the Iowa River, 
and spent some time next morning in Black Hawk's village, where Wapello now 
is. He visited the old Chief's tent; the Indians were out on a hunt. He 
crossed the Iowa River at some risk — stopped that night at Thornton, but found 
no food for man or beast, and left at day-break next morning for the trading 
house, now Muscatine. Some miles below, a family were encamped, and 
they having plenty of corn, the traveler's horse was fed, and the saddle-bags 
filled in case of need. The family were faring sumptuously on honey, from a 
bee tree they had cut. An invitation was given, and gladly accepted. That 
was an intei-esting group, sitting around the stump of that tree, with chips 
for plates, and nothing but honey for breakfast. The next station was the 
trading house, and our traveler, who intended reaching Pine Creek that night, 
unfortunately took the wrong trail, and found himself on Cedar River, near 
Poweshiek village. The weather turned suddenly cold, and being wet, having 
waded a creek full of floating ice, the only hope left was to get to the village. 
But that proved impossible. The river was open, and being unacquainted 
with the ford, to attempt it would have been madness, and to go back was 
equally difficult, as the creek was to cross, the bottom wide, and the trail two 
feet deep in water. There was no alternative but to camp, without fire or 
food. Matches were not common in those days — the fire-works had been lost, 
and the grass was too wet to strike fire with the pistol. He made a bed of 
leaves and grass, wound himself in his blanket, and lay down at the foot of a 
Btump, to which he tied his horse, who fared the best, as his supper was in 
the saddle bags. That was a night to " try men's souls" — the howling of the 


storm, and the still louder howling of the wolves, made the night terrific. 
Sleep was out of the question. 

It froze hard enough by morning to cross the creek, or the river. He ar- 
rived at the trading house by noon, nothing the worse of his cold lodging, with 
a good appetite for dinner, having eaten nothing but the honey for three days 
and two nights. Resting there that night, he proceeded next day to Pine 
Creek, where the accommodation was good for that period, and the next day 
he arrived at Frank's Claim, below Rockingham, which he purchased. Start- 
ing next morning before breakfast, he came in sight of Fort Armstrong. At 
sunrise, the flag went up, the morning gun fired, and the drums beat ; the air 
was cold and bracing, and the beautiful panoramic view that opened on the trav- 
eler's sight, was exciting. He had traveled in various climes, and seen many 
fair lands, but never had been so enraptured as on that morning ; although in 
mid winter, it never looked so well as then. He exclaimed — "this is the 
place I have looked for, here I will set my stake !" He partook of an excel- 
lent breakfast with Antoine LeClaire, who accompanied him over to the Fort 
and introduced him to Keokuk, and other Indian Chiefs, who all gave him a 
warm invitation to their village. But time pressed, and there was still a lone- 
some journey to perform to Michigan, and after spending a week or two with 
his brother, and making arrangements for both to locate at Davenport, he re- 
turned to his future home. Business calling him to Nashville, the favorite 
horse that had so nobly carried him through so many scenes, was sold to Mr. 

He returned in September, and in October brought on a general stock of 
goods, amounting to some five thousand dollars, and done a fair business 
during the following winter. Provisions were scarce, and he made several 
trips to Illinois to obtain a supply. On one occasion, it nearly cost him his 
life. In crossing a fifteen mile prairie, one of those sudden changes took 
place which often occur in this climate, in which several persons were frozen 
to death in different parts of the country, and some lost hands and feet. He 
came through with hands and face badly frozen, and was incapable of doing 
much business the balance of the winter. The following year the great 
financial crisis was severely felt here, and but little business could be done. 
He was actively engaged in every enterprise beneficial to the town. That 
Summer he had the first road surveyed, and a furrow plowhed twenty-six 
miles on the road to Dubuque, at his own expense ; laying out one night in 
the prairie, in a storm of thunder and rain, the horses got away, and he was 
obliged to pack the saddles ; the nearest grove being then unsettled, was 
called Saddle Grove, now Long Grove. The county seat question being the all 
absorbing topic of the day at this time, took a large portion of his time. He 
w&s the most active of the Davenport party, until that contest was decided in 

The first purchase from the Sacs and Foxes was forty miles wide, from Rock 



Island. The second was made in the Fall of '3*7, and was twenty-six miles 
•wide, running due West from the forty-mile post. In May, 'S8, General 
Street organized a party to examine the new purchase, and select a village 
site and agency for the Indians, West of the new boundary. The Sacs and 
Foxes were then at war with the Sioux. The party were composed of General 
Street, Indian Agent, George L. Davenport, Mr. Mackintosh, Louis Hebert, 
then an employee of the Government, H. Sturdevant, Indian Blacksmith, and 
W. Russel, Surveyor, and from thirty to forty Chiefs and Braves, commanded 
by Poweshiek, mounted on good horses, with a tent, and well armed with rifles, 
cutlasses, and pistols. 

General Street rode in his carriage. The Indians that accompanied them 
from Pavenport were dressed as whites, to deceive the Sioux. The party 
started on a bee line for the forty-mile post — encamped the first night at a 
small grove, south of Posten's Grove — pitched the tent — spanceled the horses, 
fared sumptaously on venison, and retired for the night ; but their sleep was 
short. About midnight a storm of thunder and lightning disturbed their 
slumbers. The rain descended in torrents, the creek overflowed its banks 
and the sleepers were roused from their watery bed. The wind had blown 
the tent from its fastenings, and was, for some time, held by Mackintosh and 
Davenport, lying on their backs in the water. The balance of that dark stormy 
night was spent exposed to the storm, with their blankets around them, until 
day dawned. After breakfost, they renewed their march, trusting to the sun 
to dry their clothes. All the streams were up, which they had to swim. 

Genera] Street's carriage was an incumbrance, but on one occasion helped 
him over the stream. It got fastened on the steep bank of the channel, the 
tongue resting on the opposite side, but the current was so rapid it could not 
stay there long. To enable the General to cross without falling in, Mr. Mack- 
intosh and Hebert took, the water shoulder deep, each a carriage wheel, 
to. hold against the cnrrent, and steady the steps of the timid General. Hebert, 
fond of a joke, several times whispered to his colleague to let go the wheel, 
that he might have the fun of seeing the General iounder in the stream ; but 
he got safely over. However, Hebert had his laugh to his heart's content 
before night. There were more streams to swim that day, and it had to be 
done Indian fashion. It required considerable tact to get the provisions and 
arms over dry, and they frequently tied their clothes on their horses necks for 
that purpose. On several occasions, some of the party swimming on horse- 
back, and the banks being steep, went over the horses beads, and had to swim 
down the rapid current before they could get out. On one occasion, after 
getting over the provisions, it was discovered that a bag of sugar was forgot- 
ten. All had crossed but Mr. Mackintosh, when Hebert proposed that he 
would wade into the deep water, and Mr. Mackintosh do the same, then pitch 
the bag to Hebert. In doing this, it did not occur, that in making the neces- 
sary effort, a reaction would follow. Hebert caught the sugar, but Mackintosh 
went into ten feet of water, head foremost. The current was rapid, the banks 


steep, and he had to swim some sixty rods before he got out. The yell of the 
Indians, and laugh of the whites, were general. They encamped that 
night at Rock Creek, and next day discovered the forty mile post. They 
reached Cedar River, where the General's carriage was left ; the horses swam 
the river, and the men got over in a canoe. Then the Indians appeared in 
their war costume, as the white man's territory was behind — the Rubicon was 
crossed, and the language of "Rob Roy" came to mind — " Dinna mister or 
Campbell me, my foot is on my native heath, and my name is McGregor!" 
So felt the Indians after crossing their boundary. The surveys commenced. 
One of the chain carriers getting lame, it was necessary to get an Indian to 
take his place. The party were then entering the big woods. The Indians 
fearing an ambush, insisted on an advance guard, before consenting that one 
of their men should carry the chain. Messrs. Mackintosh and Davenport vol- 
unteered to fill the post, and the company went on in military order. They 
camped that night in heavy timber, the Indians carefully selecting the ground 
— a creek in a bend, of horse-shoe shape, high rocky banks on one side, and 
level ground, covered with logs and heavy standing timber, on the other. That 
night the Indians were unusually gloomy, and seemed to fear a surprise, and 
after supper, "Old Crow" told Mr. Davenport that he believed the Sioux were 
on their trail, that the fire must be put out, the tent struck, and they must lay 
on their arms all night. The fire was put out, but as four of the whites were 
asleep, it was thought best not to disturb them. Messrs. Mackintosh and 
Davenport stood guard till day-break. That night was one of interest ; it was 
still, clear, and starry. The Indians were scattered behind logs, but could no* 
be seen or heard. The two sentinels kept watch by the tent, going, occasionally, 
into the heavy timber, and attentively listening to discover an attempt at sur- 
prise, frequently being disturbed by the scream of some animal, that seemed 
more like an imitation than .the natural sound. 

Near day-break, the guard being fatigued, lay down at the opening of the 
tent, not intending to sleep, but were getting into a doze, when the yell of the 
Indians, and the firing of their rifles, aroused them. They thought that the 
Sioux were upon them ; they were soon up, and ready for the combat, but lo, 
they were their friends. The night being past, the danger was over, and 
they commenced shouting their war song of victory. 

The tents were struck, and the survey continued. At night, the Indians 
carefully selected the camp in the slough of the Iowa River, but their alarm 
still continued, and they feared the Sioux would attack their village. The 
General called a council of war, and through Mr. Davenport, as Interpreter, 
told them that the risks he had run, the exposure of his person, the undignified 
appearance he had often presented, when crossing the streams, leaving his 
comfortable quarters at Rock Island, were all for their benefit. But they were 
still gloomy, aud fearful of the massacre of their women and children, and 
only four of them volunteered to remain. In the night, while fatigue over- 



powered the whites with sleep, they made canoes from the bark of the linn tree, 
and crossed the Iowa, and not a vestige of them remained at day-break, save 
the four volunteers. 

A village site was selected that day, which was occupied by them until the 
next treaty, but not being satisfactory to the General, they turned their course 
northward, with the intention of going to Cedar Rapids, where a town of some 
importance has since sprung up. Through the course of the day, the re- 
luctance of the Indians to proceed, proved they could not long be relied upon. 
Towards evening, they came in sight of a grove, and imagining they saw the 
smoke of a Sioux camp, refused to proceed. Mr. Mackintosh rode on in 
advance of the party, and found no cause for alarm, but there was evidence 
of a large party of Indians having encamped there lately. Buffalo and war 
trails radiated in every direction — Deer River was also in sight, where a bat- 
tle had been fought the year previous. They encamped there that night, and 
the next morning found their volunteer Indians had gone, and for the first 
time the dragoon spancels had got loose from their horses, which occupied them 
an hour or two in finding. 

The provisions were nearly out, and although some of the party desired to 
proceed a day or two longer, General Street ordered a return to the settlement, 
having only partially effected the object of the Expedition. On returning to 
Davenport, Mr. Mackintosh again took part in the election for county seat, 
having to proceed to Dubuque and Burlington, and again canvass the county. 
In 1840 he was one of the Commissioners appointed by act of the Legislature 
to lay out a road to Dubuque. During that year the most important matters 
that effected the welfare of the county were settled — the county seat question, 
the laying of roads, and the public lands coming into market ; in all of which 
he took an active part. For years after this, financial affairs were still in 
a bad condition, he suffering like many others, after getting his farm in some 
degree of improvement. He was for some years Territorial and State Binder 
for Iowa, the first Public Binder for Minnesota, and established the first Book 
Bindery in Davenport. For the last four or five years his whole time has been 
occupied in developing his property. 

He has expended more money in opening streets than all the proprietors 
put together. He has been over thirty years in the north-west and south- 
west, twenty-two years of which has been In Iowa and Minnesota. He is now 
fifty-four years of age, with robust health, and bids fair to enjoy his hard 
arnings to a period of life not far behind some* of his ancestors. He is very 
social — fond of a good anecdote, which he tells or listens to with hearty good 
humour — is extremely liberal, and is one of Davenport's most valued citizens. 








JuDGB Mitchell was bora December 3, 1803, at Dandridge, Jefiferson county, 
East Tennessee. He was educated at East Tennessee College, (now " E. Ten- 
nessee University,") in Knoxville, Tennessee, and was a member of its first 
graduating class in the Fall of 1822. His parents having removed to Law- 
rence county, Alabama, he proceeded thither after graduating, and commenced 
studying law with Judge A. F. Hopkins, (now of Mobile,) and was admitted to 
practice in 1825. He practiced in Alabama until ISSi, and spent a winter in 
a tour among Eastern cities, and in the Spring of 1835, came AVest, after visit- 
ing St. Louis, Chicago, Galena, and Dubuque. 

Liking this portion of the country, and anticipating the results of its admi- 
rable location, he purchased a squatter's right — the tract of land upon which he 
at present resides. He erected a cabin, (which stood on Fifth street, just west 
of DeSoto street,) and resided in it until 183Y, or two years. At that time 
what now constitutes Iowa was attached to Michigan, and until Wisconsin 
was formed, there was neither law nor ofiScers of any kind west of the Missis- 
sippi. For several years the principal professional business of lawyers in the 
territory was limited to litigation in regard to claim titles, or " Squatter's 
Rights." Judge Mitchell added to this species of practice, somewhat in the 
courts of Rock Island county, which were at that time organized. 

In 1843, he was elected to the House of R-epresentatives of the Iowa Terri- 
torial Legislature. He was nominated as Congressional Representative from 
the State, in 1846, but was defeated. 

He was elected Mayor of Davenport in 1856, and in April, 1857, was nom- 
inated by a meeting of the Bar, and elected Judge of the Fourteenth Judicial 
District— composed of the counties of Scott, Clinton, and Jackson. Ho was 
elected to this office by a handsome majority, although the Republican party 
nominated and ran a party and opposition candidate, and had a large majority 


upon almost every other one of their ticket. He filled this oflBlce until the Fall 
of 1857, and then resigned, owing to ill health, and with a design of removing 
to a warmer climate. 

Judge Mitchell was always a Whig, until that party dissolved, or became 
inducted with Free Soilism, and other of its modern characteristics ; since 
then he has acted with the Democratic party in full faith in its nationality. 

As a jurist, Judge Mitchell takes a high position — he is profoundly discrim- 
inative — a keen, careful analyst, and one whose deductions are always reliably 
correct. His mental processes are seemingly slow, but in reality rapid, for 
while others would dash to a conclusion (often the wrong one,) with an im- 
perfect view of a few contiguous facts, he traverses the whole ground, omitting 
nothing, however seemingly trivial or great; and although he may be twice as 
long in evolving a question as another, he performs ten times the labor, and his 
conclusion is in the same proportion more worthy of credence. If he has one 
trait more prominent than another, it is his thorough comprehensiveness — his 
ability to include everything in his examination of a subject, and add to this 
a nice instinctive and cultivated perception of the character and weight of a 
fact, and one may see why he rarely goes wrong, or commits errors in conclu- 

In regard to his everyday life — that portion of a man's being which all are 
interested in knowing — we shall say much less than the excellence of the sub- 
ject would admit. Wealthy, with cultivated literary taste, and a choice and 
ample library, he now enjoys life as only one surrounded by such circumstances 
can. Fresh, instructive, and engaging in his conversation, he takes a high 
rank as a social companion, and as one who can be instructive, amusing, and 
brilliant, without effort. 





WiLLARD Bareows was born in Monson, Massachusetts, in 1806. At the 
age of ten yeras, his father remoTed, with his family, to New Braintree, where 
the subject of this notice spent most of his youthful days, enjoying the ben- 
efits of New England Common Schools, and, at the age of fifteen, was 
placed at the Worcester Academy. His mind, from his boyhood, seems to 
have been bent on travel and exploration. He loved to roam over the rocks 
and hills of his native land, and often, at an early age, accompanied an old 
mountain hunter in his night rambles after " coons," among the precipices 
and glens for which that county is noted. He left the paternal roof at the age 
of fifteen, and after spending some time in Pomfret and Thompson, in Con- 
necticut, at school, he passed two years at Brimfield, at his Uncles, and, in 
1827, located in Elizabeth Town, New Jersey. He was for jpanj years a very ac- 
ceptable teacher of youth in that place, and married there in 1832. His nataral 
love of the " wild and beautiful" in nature, led him to select as his profession, 
for life, that of a surveyor and engineer. His first introduction to his profes- 
sion was on a contract with the Government in 1885, to close up the public 
surveys of the Choctaw Indian Purchase in the cypress swamps and cane- 
brakes, on the Yazoo and Sunflower Rivers, in the State of Mississippi. 

This expedition was full of danger, and interesting incident. 

In the Winter of 1836 and "7, a sudden and unusual rise in the Mississippi 
cut him off from any communication with the world — his supplies grew short) 
and he was driven, with his party, to the severest hardships, and for many weeks 
they were forced to live upon short allowance. The whole country was covered 
with water, except the few ridges that appeared above the flood. The country 
was uninhabited. The larger game, by instinct, had fled the country, and for 
several weeks he, and his party, lived upon the fruit of the Persimmon tree 
and the Oppossum. These animals being slow of locomotion, had only time to 


reach the higher ridges of land, and were easily taken, and then eaten, with- 
out bread or salt. Occasionally an owl or hawk was killed. 

About the first of March, the water subsided, and the whole party, after 
many hardships and privations, reached a settlement upon the banks of the 
Mississippi, nearly opposite the mouth of the Arkansas River, and procuring 
canoes, descended the river to Vicksburg and Natchez. After making his 
report to the Surveyor General, at Jackson, in that State, he ascended the 
Mississippi to St. Louis, and hearing much of Wisconsin Territory, determined 
to visit the country, and then ascend the river to Galena, and return to New 
Jersey by way of Chicago and the Lakes. About the first of May, 1837, we 
find him on board the old Olive Branch Steamer, bound for Galena. 

Here he first became acquainted with Col. George Davenport and D. C. 
Eldridge, citizens of this place. Much persuasion was used by these gentle- 
men to induce Mr. Barrows to stop at Davenport, and make it his home. He 
seems to have thought but little about it, until he found himself sailing along 
the shores of Scott county. " When," he says in a letter afterwards to a friend, 
in explanation of his object in settling in the far West, — "the beauty of 
the landscape, the richness of the soil, the salubrity of the climate, and, above 
all, the rich and rolling prairies, which seemed to me so easily cultivated, were 
inducements enough for me, or any one else to settle." Mr. Barrows landed 
at Davenport, and soon after, he, with Gen. Sargent, and two others, were 
mounted, and on a trip of exploration to the Cedar River, then but little known. 

Mr. Barrows was so favorably struck with the beauty and prospects of the 
country, that he determined at once to remain for a season, and, accordingly, 
reported himself to the Surveyor General's office for the North West, then 
located at Cincinnati, and he was that Fall engaged upon the first surveys of 
Iowa. During that Winter he was upon the Wapsipinecon River, having left 
here in October, and did not return until the first of April, and lost but three 
days, during that wiqter, of actual labor, being in camp with nothing but a 
common canvas tent. " The succeeding winter," says Mr. Barrows, " was 
much the same in its mildness, and resembled the present winter here, (ISSt 
and '8.") 

The Indians, at this time, were his only neighbors and friends, always sup- 
plying his camp with plenty of venison, turkeys, geese and ducks, and main- 
taining the most friendly relations. 

In the Spring of 1838, he returned to New Jersey, having been absent from 
his family for nearly two years, and returned with them in July of that year, 
and settled in Rockingham, five miles below Davenport. The most direct route 
at that time, from New York to the far West, was by way of the Pennsylvania 
canal to Pittsburgh, down the Ohio River, and up the Mississippi River to St. 
Louis, and thence to Rock Island. The time necessary for this trip, at that 
day, was four weeks. 

In 1840, Mr. Barrows was engaged in the survey of the Islands of the Mis- 
sissippi, from the mouth of Rock River to Quincy, Illinois. 


In 1841 aud '42 the public surveys being suspended, he turned his attention 
to farming, and being Justice of the Peace, Post Master, and Notary Public, at 
Rockingham, his time was occupied in discharging these duties until the 
Spring of 1843, when he was sent into the country lying north of the Wiscon- 
sin River, called the Kickapoo Country, to perform the surveys of that rough, 
broken, uninhabited land, where he spent most of that season, 

It was, while engaged upon this work, that his depot of provisions was 
plundered by some straggling bands of the Winnebago Indians, and himself 
and party reduced almost to starvation. Mr. Barrows had left the camp in 
the Kickapoo River country for Prairie du Chien after provisions. Upon his 
return to the Kickapoo, with supplies, he found the whole country laid waste 
by a Tornado. The country through which he had to pass to his camp, some 
seventy miles, was heavily timbered, and the eifects of the storm were almost 
utter destruction for miles in extent — the forest was torn up by its roots, trees 
of immense sise were twisted and hurled in every imaginable shape, and piled 
up in unlimited confusion. The occasion was one demanding prompt, vigor- 
ous action — and Mr. Barrows found himself equal to it. He first made the 
attempt to follow his old trail, and cut his way through, with the help only of 
a few Indians, who love anything better than work, but, after two days of 
hard labor, gave it up, having made only two and a half miles. His next, 
and only chance of reaching his men, who were fastened in by the tornado, 
and whom he knew to be in a starving condition, was to ascend the Kickapoo, 
with Indians, in canoes, until he should reach a point opposite his camp, and 
beyond the tornado, when he could pack out supplies through the wilderness, 
and reach his camp in time to save his men, if no serious obstacles opposed. 
The Indians took up the provisions, and Mr. Barrows went up by land, with 
one pack-horse only. The provisions were landed, the Indians discharged, 
and Mr. Barrows left alone upon the banks of the stream, just as the sun was 
setting. That night he carried his provisions about half a mile, into the forest, 
and cached them as well as he could, and early the next morning set out with 
a small bag of flour, and a little pork, on his pack-horse, upon his unknown 
and perilous journey, to reach his starving camp, full of intense anxiety as to 
the fate of his mission, and those whom he desired to save. Any one who has 
ever visited this portion of Wisconsin, can well imagine the difficulties to be 
overcome. It is the country formerly owned by the Winnebago Indians, and 
purchased from them by Gov. Dodge in 1834 — and very correctly named the 
" Sugar Loaves of Wisconsin." It is almost impassable for man or beast — 
abounding in steep precipices, high and inaccessible points of rocks, deep 
ravines, and impenetrable thickets. It was through this country that the cel- 
ebrated Chief, Black Hawk, led his trusty followers, after his defeat at Dixon, 
on Rock River, and Buffalo Grove, while on his way to Bad Axe, where he was 
captured. And it was among these very hills and dells, that Col. Atchison, in 
pursuit of Black Hawk, got entangled, and abandoned his wagons, baggage, 
&c., with the loss of many of his horses. No man, with pack-horses, can cut 



his way over five or ten miles per day. Without any trail, or even maps of 
the country to guide him, Mr. Barrows persevered, alone, with only his faith- 
ful horse, to accompany him, with indomitable courage and perseverance, 
swimming the streams that opposed his course, and resting only when 
darkness compelled him. On the fourth day, to his great joy, and surprise 
he struck an old outward bound trail, made by himself and men, in his first 
entrance into the country. It was near dark, and his camp-fire was kindled, 
his solitary meal was eaten, and in blanket, alone in the dense wilderness, he 
slept again till daylight, when he was upon the trail, familiar to him, that 
led to the camp. He had gone but a few hundred yards among the deep glens, 
when, on turning an abrupt bluflF, he came suddenly upon one of his men, who 
informed him that another of the party was a short distance behind in a 
starving condition, and too weak to proceed ; that others of the party were 
left at the camp, two days previous, in dispair of receiving any help, as they 
supposed him murdered by the Indians, and that they had been unable to kill 
game of any kind, except one small pheasant ; that they had eaten the two bear 
dogs, and boiled up the bones with nettles for soup, and that they had had 
nothing for six days, but such wild berries as they could chance to find. They 
said they had boiled coffee, of which they had plenty, and drunk quite freely 
at first, but its effects upon them were very unpleasant, and at times even dis- 
tressing, and that they had abandoned it. They were not long in reaching 
the companion of the first man, to whom he soon gave, in small portions, some 
food, and hastened forward to the camp ; here he found the rest of his men, in 
a pitiable condition of emaciation, and with looks of wildness and despair that 
was distressing to witness. They had settled down into the belief that he was 
either dead or hopelessly lost. They had awaited in confidence too long, with- 
out an effort to save themselves, by leaving the country, and, perhaps, not 
having confidence in themselves sufficient to find their way out of the wilder- 

•' The camp presented a scene," says Mr. Barrows, " that I could not look 
upon without tears. Upon a log were stretched the skins of our bear dogs, 
while their bones were bleaching around the camp. Some harness had been 
cut up, and roasted, to eat, and many extremes resorted to to relieve them 
from utter destruction. The next morning we commenced our slow march 
back to the depot of provisions, which I had made upon the Kickapoo River. 
The scanty supply that I had taken with me, was now being exhausted with 
fearful rapidity, and we hastened our march, to reach the depot, that we 
might once more be fed with plenty. But what was our surprise and conster- 
nation, when we reached it, to find it plundered of its precious contents, and 
all carried away 1 Our misfortunes seemed still to hang over us, and we felt 
that our sufferings were not at an end. Our only chance of escape now was, 
to ascend the Eackapoo some twenty miles further, to a ford, the place where 
Black Hawk crossed in his flight to Bad Axe, where his last battle was 
fought. This we accomplished, and then struck across the prairie country 



towards Prairie du Chien. On the third day we reached a settlement, where 
we remained a week to recruit. There were remnants of the Winnebago tribe 
of Indians encamped near this place. We informed them of our loss, and in- 
stituted search through the entire camp, but found nothing. The chief of this 
band told us, that some Eoot River Indians had been on a hunt in that neigh- 
borhood, and had gone to Prairie du Chien. I pursued them, but on my ar- 
rival there, found they had left for Root River. Many articles of our clothing, 
that had been plundered from the depot, were found in the liquor-shops of 
Prairie du Chien, which had been sold by this strolling band of Indians. Our 
pack-horses, that strayed away at the time of the hurricane, were found some 
four weeks afterward, and brought into camp. Thus, by their absence, our 
party were compelled to eat dog instead of horse flesh I" 

Up to this date, nothing definite was known of the Territory lying between 
the waters of the Mississippi and Missouri. The title to the lands bordering 
upon the Mississippi were being extinguished slowly, and in small parcels. 
The Winnebagoes occupied a strip running from the Mississippi River, at 
Prairie du Chien, to the Des Moines River, forty miles in width, called 
"Neutral Grounds." The Pottowattomies had removed from Rock River, 
Illinois, to the Western side of this State, bordering on the Missouri. But 
few, if any but Indians, had ever crossed this Territory to the Missouri. 
Trappers and hunters told many highly colored tales of the beauty of the 
country, of its glassy lakes, with pebled shores, the abode of vast herds 
of buffalo, elk, and deer ; of feathered game, and of the finney tribe. The 
spirit of enterprise, the lore of research, and of Nature's grand solitude, 
again prompted Mr. Barrows to shoulder his rifle and start upon the trail of 
the red man. He wrote to Gov. Lucas, the Secretary of State, the Surveyor 
General, and others, proposing to explore the country lying between the two 
rivers, sketch its topography, and project a map of all the country lying 
between these rivers, as far North as the forty-third parallel. This was ac- 
complished in three successive years. On his first tour he experienced many 
hinderances and difficulties from the Winnebago Indians. He had ascended 
the Wabisipinica River to the boundary line of the Neutral Grounds, early in 
September; built him a cabin for a winter depot, but could get no communi- 
cation with the Chief of that nation, until the return of the Indians from their 
annual payment at Prairie du Chien, which was not until the first of Novem- 

The Chief's village was some five miles from his cabin. Mr. Barrows had 
furnished himself with a native youth from the Mission School at Fort Atkin- 
son for interpreter. The arrival of the Chief, Chos-chun-ca, (Big Wave,) was 
at last announced, Mr. Barrows invitation presented in due form for the Chief 
to visit him in his cabin, which was not upon his grounds. At the time ap- 
pointed, the Chief made his appearance, with some twelve of his warriors. 

" He was clothed," says Mr, Barrows, " in a buffalo over-coat, a stove-pipe 
hat, and a pair of green spectacles. These had recently been presented by some 


oflicers and friends at the Fort. I exhibited my passport from Gov. Chambers, 
and told him I wished to go across his country, to make a picture of it, to 
Bhow his great father, the President. 

After hearing me, and examining, with much minuteness, my maps and 
sketches, some of which he corrected, he refused, with much earnestness, 
my passage into his country for any such purpose. He said that he very well 
knew the object his great father had in sending me there, and that he had no 
great respect for the " Big Captain at Washington," if he took such a course 
to find out the value of his land — that if I found it good and pleasant for the 
white man to live upon, it would be well, and his father would purchase it, 
but if I found it bad, he would give him but liUle money for it, and, therefore, 
I should not go." 

After many entreaties and presents, Mr. Barrows found it of no use, and, 
leaving part of his men at the depot, he set out, with but one man, across the 
country, to Fort Atkinson, one hundred and twenty-five miles, on Turkey 
River, without any map or trail, and with full expectation of being overtaken by 
the Indians, and brought back. But on the first day out, a dense fog covered 
the prairie, and it rained in torrents for twenty-four hours, overflowing the 
banks of all the streams, which made it necessary to swim it themselves and 
horses. On the second day, near night, they came back to the first night's 
camp, in a small grove, having been lost in the fog and rain the whole time, 
and traveling at good rates. It cleared up after a snow storm, and he reached 
the Fort on the fifth day. The Rev. Mr. Lowry, who had charge of the Mis- 
sion School, at that place, gave him a passport across the country, and wrote 
a letter to the Chief, which, being interpreted to him, he was allowed to pro- 
ceed. Not, however, until he had made him presents of corn, pipes and 

" Barrows' New Map of Iowa, with Notes," was published in 1854, by Doolit- 
tle & Munson, Cincinnati ; and was a work, at that day, of much importance. 
The Legislature ordered copies for each member, and for the ofiQcers of State. 
Many works since written on Iowa have been largely indebted to this valuable 
little work. It is brief, yet comprehensive, in its character, easy and vigorous, 
and was the cause of satisfjing a wide-spread enquiry East in regard to the 
character and resources of Iowa. 

From 1845 to '60, Mr. Barrows was engaged most of the time in the surveys 
of the Government, and those of the County which he had charge of for many 
years as County Surveyor, often making excursions into the newly settled 
portions of the State, examining the most prominent points of location, in 
many of which he has made, we believe, some very important investments. His 
knowledge of Iowa, as a State, is probably as extensive and correct as that of 
any man who ever traveled over it, and his judgment upon Real Estate invest- 
ment has been of the most judicious and satisfactory character, not only to him- 
self, but to those for whom he has operated as an agent. His present business 
is that of a Land Agent, and a partner in the house of Barrows & Millard 


of Sioux City, Iowa, and Barrows, Millard & Co., Omaha City, N. T. In the 
Spring of 1850, business of all kinds being dull in the West, he seized upon 
the opportunity to gratify his long and ardent desire to visit the plains, the 
Rocky Mountains, and the shores of the Pacific. 

This was a project of long standing in his mind, and he entered upon it 
with much earnestness and vigor. Being fully equipped for such an expe- 
dition, he crossed the State of Iowa early in March, and left the Missouri River 
opposite Council Bluffs, in company with a California train, on the 23d of 
April, following the north fork of Platte River, through the present territory 
of Nebraska, to Fort Laramie, through the Black Hills, and thence up the 
Sweet-water River to the South Pass of the Rocky Mountains. 

His outfit consisted of a light two-horse wagon, with five horses, and two 

The year 1850, was one long to be remembered by those who passed over 
the route to California. The season was cold and backward, grass did not 
grow sufficient for forage until May, and for some two weeks of the early part 
of the journey, the animals were fed upon dry grass chopped, and rolled in 
wheat flour, and browsed upon shrubs and trees cut for that purpose. This 
misfortune, at the beginning, so reduced Mr. Barrows' horses, as well as others, 
that one after another of his team gave out, and either died, or was left by the 

He left bis wagon on the Humbolt, making pack-saddles for the horses that 
were left ; and abandoning every thing but a few clothes, and his surveying 
instruments, he, with his men, traveled on foot upwards of four hundred miles 
before reaching the base of the Nevada Mountains, at which place he was left 
with only one horse to pass the mountains with, and which died soon after 
reaching California, where he arrived the I5th of July. One of his men died 
soon after his arrival. 

A very interesting account of this trip was given by Mr. Barrows in a series 
of letters from California, published in the Democratic Banner of this city, at 
that time, describing, in most vivid colors, the difficulties and dangers, trials 
and hardships, of a journey to the Pacific. His description of the South Pass, 
in the mountains, so long looked upon as the great barrier to all communica- 
tion with the Pacific by Railway, is the most graphic and satisfactory we ever 
remember to have read of this celebrated land-mark of the mountains. He 
details, in full, the face of the country in ascending the Platte and Sweet- 
Water Rivers, and at all the most prominent points, gives the latitude, longi- 
tude, and altitude, showing the feasibility of a Railroad thus far to the Pacific 
which has since been fully endorsed by more scientific research. We cannot 
here refrain from giving a single extract from one of his letters : 

" The South Pass," says Mr. Barrows, " is far different in its appearance 
to what I had imagined, from any description that I had ever seen. It is true 
but little was known of it, and much less written. I had imagined some chasm 
or deep cut in the mountains, through which we would bo compelled to wind 


our way, or that I might, perhaps, find a pathway rent apart in the mountains 
by some great volcanic action, and thus we should find our perilous way 
through this wonderful Pass. 

" But it is far different. It is a beautiful prairie country, even upon the 
summit level ; and no one, with ordinary observation, can possibly mistake the 
spot, marked by Fremont as the highest point attained in the Pass. 

" For days, the traveler, in his gradual assent, finds all the streams running 
back towards the Atlantic, and as he follows up the last rivulet to the summit, 
and passes over a level space of a quarter of a mile, all the little brooks and 
streamlets begin to run for the Pacific. Then you have passed the summit of 
the Rocky Mountains ! I cannot describe my feelings, as I stood and gazed 
from the lofty eminence upon all that is good and noble in the works of 
Creation. A sense of solitude pervades the whole scene. Upon the right 
hand, away to the North, are the Wind River Mountains, with their tops 
covered with perpetual snow, and although some sixty miles distant, yet so 
clear and transparent is the atmosphere in this high altitude, we could even 
discern bodies of trees, and the drifted snow, as it hung over the rocky pre- 
cipices. The antelope, or the mountain goat, can be seen feeding in quiet for 
miles distant, and the hunter is often deceived in his approach to animals of 
the chase. The purity of the atmosphere is such, that the traveler feels 
buoyed up with unusual vigor, and speeds his way with uncommon ease and 
rapidity. Before you lies the Great Basin, five hundred miles in extent, and 
as far as the eye can extend, nothing can be seen but a vast plane, sleeping 
amid the solitude and grandeur that has filled this desolate region since its 

" This Pass has derived its name, probably, from a depression of the moun- 
tain chain at this place, and is seen only when at a distance of a hundred 
miles. As the traveler approaches from such a distance, it has the appearance 
of a gap, or cut, but when in it, it is one vast space." 

Mr. Barrows spent the Summer in California, traveling much of the time. 
As the rainy season approached, he left there for Central America, and thenco 
to Cuba, where he spent some time, and returned to Iowa early in 1851. 

From that time until the present, Mr. Barrows has resided in Davenport, 
busying himself in attending to his lands. Land Business, and in erecting a 
capacious and handsome residence. This last, is about half way up the bluffs, 
nearly opposite the Island, and overlooks a magnificent view of natural and 
architectural beauty. The house is ample, finely finished, and prejected upon 
a plan that marks its owner as a man of taste. 

Mr. Barrows, we are happy to add, has secured, as the result of his active 
life, an ample fortune, which no one is better qualified than himself, by 
education, habit, and inclination, to enjoy. 

His life has been a stirring and useful one ; for, while ever laboring to 
secure a competence, he has at no time been unmindful of the claims o 
society upon each of its members, and has, therefore, at various times, given 


letters to the public, containing valuable scientific, and other information, 
while his work upon the map of Iowa has done more to disseminate a knowledge 
of our State than anything of the kind ever published. 

In regard to his social character, Mr. Barrows takes a high rank. He pos- 
sesses an illimitable fund of anecdote, pointed as to witticism, and valuable 
for their informationj: and he enjoys the sparkling bon mot of conversation with 
the fine relish of a Frenchman. His own portly form shaking with laughter 
over some reminiscence of the ludicrous, and a choice audience roaring with 
mirthfulness, is a common sight to all who have the pleasure of his ac- 

Liberal, charitable, a Christian, the possessor of a fortune, respected, en- 
joying the best of health, and with social relations, harmonious, and desirable, 
Mr. Barrows now rests after his eventful life, and it is the sincere wish of all 
who know him, that many years will yet be his portion, which may be as 
pleasant and happy as his early life has been laborious and active. 




James Mat was born on the 1st day of October, 1804, in Cape Girardeau 
county, Missouri. His father and mother went from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 
in 1803, and, with some of their relatives, were among the " early settlers" 
of the now Great North West. The history of the family from the year 1798 
when the Grand-father of the present James May was forced to leave Ireland, 
with his family, in consequence of his active participation in the cause of civil 
and religious liberty in his native country, with the incidents of their frontier 
lives in the North-west, and Texas, where some of them emigrated many years 
since, would make an interesting volume. 

The father and family of Capt. May left St. Genevieve on a keel boat, bound 
for Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in the Spring of 1807. The crew of the keel 
boat, from sickness and fatigue, became unable to work the boat to Louisville. 
Alexander May (the father of Capt. May,) was obliged to work hard for several 
days to reach that point. At Louisville, the Patroon (or Captain,) of the 
keel boat abandoned the trip to Pittsburgh, and Mr. May was left there with 
his family and effects. No boat was to be obtained that was going up the 
River, but he determined to proceed, and for this purpose procured the best 
thing available — which was an old oak skiff. In this he placed his family, 
some six hundred pounds of lead, cooking utensils, &c., and started from 
Louisville up the River. His progress to Pittsburgh — a distance of stz hundred 
miles — evinced that he was a man as well of nerve as of immense physical en- 
durance. With only the help of one man for three days on the rout, he rowed 
the boat alone the entire distance, receiving only such assistance as his wife 
could render by steering the boat. The Grand-mother cared for one child 
Mrs. May for the youngest with one arm, while acting as helms-woman with 
the other. Mr. May's hands were so contracted from the length of time they 
had been closed about the oars, that for years he could not straighten them 





and they were so calloused tbat he could, without pain, hold red-hot coals in 
them. There was more heroism in this long journey than is visible at the first 

Capt. May commenced flat-boating on the Ohio in 1822, and continued in 
this business until 1827, when he obtained the mastership of the steamboat 
Shamrock ; and,made the first voyage on her from Pittsburgh to Galena, which 
was the first business trip ever made on the Upper Mississippi, by a steam-boat — 
that is, from St. Louis to Galena. Steamboats had before ascended with 
military troops and stores, but had always after returned to their trade at other 

Capt. May continued on the Upper Mississippi, as Master of a steamboat, 
until 1834, or a period of seven years.' During this time he saw much of 
Indian and other life, and was personally cognizant of many scenes connected 
with Black Hawk, Keokuk, and the war of 1832. He brought Gen. Gaines 
and suite to Rock Island in* 1831, at the time of the memorable interview be- 
tween that ofBcer and Black Hawk. We give an account of the affair in Capt. 
May's own words : 

"A few hours after our arrival at Fort Armstrong, Gen. Gaines concluded 
to send for the Chiefs and Braves of the Band to hold a council with them, and 
desired me to remain with the Boat until the council could be held, which was 
appointed to be the next day. 

" Black Hawk, with a considerable number of Chiefs and Braves, came to 
the council chamber, which was a log building some distance from the Fort. 
The Indians were all armed, each with various implements, in full preparation 
for war. They made bold and defiant demonstrations in the council chamber, 
and used even impertinent language to Gen. Gaines and his officers. (I stood 
by the side of an Indian trader, who interpreted to me.) Every officer and 
white man in the chamber knew there was imminent danger, as the Indians were 
all efficiently armed, and not an officer or white man in the room had a weapon. 

" Mr. Antoine LeClaire was the interpreter, and did his duty on that oc- 
casion most admirably. His judicious, cautious, and conciliatory management, 
on that day, was, I believe, the means of saving the lives of many officers and 
men, as well as his own life. He, as well as all who were witnesses of the 
council, saw the imminent danger." 

On the trip down to St. Louis, (before bringing up Gen. Gaines,) Keokuk, 
and several other Chiefs, accompanied by an interpreter, were passengers with 
Capt. May. They stopped at Yellow Banks, where Black Hawk and his Band 
were encamped. At the solicitation of Capt. May, and others, Keokuk landed, 
and made the disaffected party a most eloquent speech, advising them to avoid 
strife with the whites, and to quietly remove west of the Mississippi. It is 
needless to add that his advice was unheeded. 

Keokuk was a passenger with Capt. May on another occasion. Having ex- 
perienced much difficulty, at various times, in crossing the Upper and Lower 
Rapids, Capt. May had become impressed with the idea that, in course of time, 


towns must be built at the head and foot of each Rapids — in fact it may, in 
justice to him, be claimed that he was thefirst to suggest the location of towns 
on the spots now occupied by the important cities of Davenport and LeClaire. 
On this occasion he strenuously urged upon Keokuk the importance of reserv- 
ing to his nation a portion of land thirty or forty miles square in this vicinity, 
when the land was purchased by Government. Keokuk seems to have disre- 
garded his advice, however much it may have impressed him at the time. 

As an illustration of Indian ingenuity, he relates that when near the mouth 
of Iowa River in 1831, they noticed that the surface of the Mississippi was 
covered with floating leaves. An Indian trader on board explained the curi- 
osity by stating that Indians somewhere above had been fen-ying their horses 
over the river. This was the case, for when they arrived at New Boston they 
found several hundred Indians and horses that had but just finished crossing. 
Their ferry-boats were constructed by placing half a dozen canoes side by side, 
six inches or a foot apart. Poles were then laid traversely across the canoes, 
and the whole well covered with leaves. This made a perfectly safe, and most 
ingenious craft. 

After leaving the River in 1834, Capt. May entered in business with John 
Andoe, tf Pittsburgh, under the firm of May & Andoe They carried on an 
extensive Grocery,Commission, Receiving, and Forwarding,as well as Steamboat 
Building business. During his business career, Capt. May superintended the 
building of over fifty steamboats, and more than twice as many barges, and 
other boats. 

He was one of the original proprietors of Davenport — although not 
until 1847 a resident of the place. He owns largely, both here and at 
LeClaire, having purchased in full faith of the vast improvement which 
time would evolve in both places. He is now one of our wealthiest iahab- 
itants. He is a thorough believer in the West — labors hard for its interests 
with tongue and pen. His nature is kind, genial, and pacific — as a superior 
business man, the past can amply witness. 

We cannot better conclude our hasty sketch, than by giving an extract 
from a note sent us in reply to one soliciting the leading circumstances of his 

" I have made many visits to this country since the year 1827, and have had 
familiar acquaintance with many thousands of the inhabitants during the past 
thirty years, and have watched with interest the progress of improvement ou 
and near the Mississippi River. Year after year the progress seemed wonder- 
ful. Indeed, the immense increase of population, with the vast evidences of 
enterprise, skill, perseverance, talent, and capital, scattered over the land 
within the past twelve years, seems to me now more like magic than reality. 
Then, again, when I philosophise, in my rude way, I feel persuaded that even 
this wonderfully rapid and apparently magic progress cannot for many years 
be retarded, or if temporarily obstructed, the suspension must be of short du- 
ration, and the progress be the more rapid and permanent thereafter. This 


point, and say a distance of twenty miles above, is certainly the most attrac- 
tive point to be found from St. Anthony Falls to the mouth of the Missis- 
sippi. I feel safe, in the assertion, that there are very few spots on the face 
of this earth that has many more natural advantages, in the same space, than 
has been conferred by Providence on this twenty miles square. The salubrity 
of the climate, depth and fertility of soil, contiguity to markets and facility for 
transportation and importation, are blessings pertaining peculiarly to this 
location on the Father of Waters. 

Besides the enjoyment of all these in an eminent degree, we have tributary 
to this point, or on the tract, an excellent quality, and almost inexhaustable 
quantity, of timber, stone, stone coal, lime sand, (of superior quality for glass 
making,) lead, iron, &c., thus we have facilities to procure all elements and 
implements for manufactures on an extensive scale. The Valley of the Mis- 
sissippi and tributaries, with the Rail and other roads, concentrating at this 
point, make this one of the most desirable points for judicious investment, for 
extensive operations in manufacturing establishments, that can be found in the 
United States. 

We have, at this point, the Rapids, which are, in a low and moderate stage 
of the River, an impediment to Navigation, which is an advantage, as it makes 
an anchorage, and a portio of the year, a terminus at two points — Dav- 
enport and LeClaire. On this tract, consequently, those two points must, in 
ii few _^trtis, grow t'l be great Commercial, Manufacturing, and Produce 
iJepi)t.- ; Jiiid with the obvious advantages presented in the intervening space 
ou the uiiirgin of the River, from Davenport to LeClaire, ere many years 
it will wear more the aspect of a Manufacturing Town than a "country place." 

One fact more having bearing upon Capt. May may be added in regard to 
that portion of a man's character which induces him to tenaciously adhere to 
what he believes to be the true faith, whether religious or political. Capt. 
May says : 

" Myself and Mr. John Andoe were in the Financial Storm of ISS?, as well 
as for some time before and after that date, and were the only Wholesale Grocers 
and Commission Merchants in the city of Pittsburgh who were Anti-United 
States Bank Democrats, and am proud to say that we both still adhere to the 
same political faith." 




Judge Weston was born May, 1811, in Washington county. New York. He 
was the youngest son of Hon. Roswell Weston, Judge in the Court of Common 
Pleas. The subject of our biography graduated at an early age at the Renn- 
salaer Institute, of Troy, and, in 1832, commenced reading law under his father 
and Gen. Orville Clark — who were then in partnership. He remained with 
them some two years, and then transferred his studies to the office of Hon. 
Esek Cowen — who was afterwards one of the Justices of the Supreme Court 
of the State. 

Several of the highest lawyers of the day were cotemporary with Judge 
Weston at the time — Hon. Mark Skinner, now of Chicago, and Nicholas Hill, 
Jr., of Albany, New York, studying in the same office, and Hon. Daniel 
UUman, and Hon. Ed. Sandford, being admitted to the Bar of the Supreme 
Court in the same class of examination in 1836. 

Judge Weston engaged for nearly a year, after his admission, in practicing 
law in his father's office, and then through the representations of some pro- 
prietors of the " Half Breed Tract," who resided in New York, he was induced 
to start for the West. The glowing enthusiasm of the owners of jthe " Half- 
Breed Tract," was, however, lost in his case, for, instead of proceeding thither' 
he went to Burlington. He reached that place in December, 1837, having 
crossed the country in the first stage (owned by the well-known Frink,) that 
ever went through from Chicago. His advent in Iowa was not as pleasant as 
it is now, when Steam Ferry Boats have supplanted shaky flat-boats, and pre- 
carious " dug-outs." The Mississippi was crowded with floating ice, and he 
nearly lost his life in crossing — he, however, succeeded, but more dead than 

He entered the small hotel, and after warming himself, and recovering a 


living amount of energy, ho surveyed the company present. There "were a 
couple of gentlemen who attracted his attention — one was a rather loose, un- 
dandified young man, with a particularly large head, and stack of hair, 
each member of vrhich rose erect in proud independence of the others. 
His companion was a rather sharp-looking individual, and was armed cap-a.pie, 
in stout old homespun, of true Vermont origin. Both were young men — and 
either would have attracted considerable attention in Broadway. Judge 
Weston received an introduction ; the first was Mr. Grimes, and the other Mr. 
Starr. Mr. Grimes, better known as Jas. W. Grimes, has since been Governor of 
Iowa, and is now United States Senator, while Mr. Starr is one of the first law- 
yers in the West. These were Judge Weston's first acquaintances west of 
the River, and both illustrated admirably the fact, that " appearances are de- 

He commenced the practice of law in Burlington, and continued so to do for 
a year or more, alternating his legal duties with trips into the back country 
for the purposes of health, adventure, or excitement. On one of these occa- 
sions, himself, and H. W. Starr, were spending a short time with Jerry Smith, 
a well known Indian trader of that time. While there, Black Hawk and his 
son arrived, and pitched their tents in the vicinity. He was very sociable, 
but most religious in his dislike of his rival, Keokuk. Starr, in order to test 
his feelings, said to the old Chief: ^'Keokuk oc-qua-nish-a-shin V (" Keokuk 
is a good mnn, is he not?") Rising, with fury in his eyes, and all his bitter 
disappointments crowding his memory and bolstering up his wrath, the old 
Brave thundered out, ^^ Keokuk car-win, nish-a-shin !" ("Keokuk is not a 
good man !) It is impossible to render in English the full and emphatic mean- 
ing contained in either question or reply, but more especially so in case of the 

Judge Weston was with W. B. Conway during his sickness and death ; and 
soon after the occurrence of that deplorable event, he was appointed Fiscal 
Agent for the Territory, and exercised the duties of the Secretary of the Ter- 
ritory, in place of Mr. Conway. 

In 1838, he was appointed Judge Advocate General, by Gov. Lucas, with the 
title of Colonel. 

In 1839, by the death of incumbent Van Alen, he was appointed United States 
Attorney for the Territor}', by Mr. Van Buren, which office he held until 1843. 

In 1840, he removed to Davenport, and purchased a quarter section of land, 
which he afterward increased to a farm of several hundred acres. He was 
not, however, signally successful as a farmer — it generally costing him a third 
more to raise his own beef, butter, and wheat, than it would to have paid the 
cash for them. He, therefore, abandoned the pursuit of Agricultural prom- 
inence under such difficulties, married, and moved into the city, where he has 
since resided. 

He was elected Mayor in 1851, and County Judge in 1857, which office he 
at present fills, in a manner at once satisfiictory to his constituents, and hon- 

orable to the ermine. It may be added that none more than himself are 
suaviter in modo, and hence the difficult relations of his office are always pre- 
served in a manner that leaves none other than pleasurable impressions — how- 
ever inharmonious or antagonistic be the influences with which he may have to 

He is now in the enjoyment of an honorable independence, has fine tastes and 
means for their gratification. His progenitors are noted for longevity — his father 
being now eighty-seven — and he himself will probably extend the term of his 
life and enjoyment to an equal extent. That such may be the case, not one 
will otherwise wish, as his urbanity, genial sympathies, and classic tastes, have 
acquired for him the friendship and respect of all who know him. 



CAPT. LeROY dodge. 

Capt. Dodge was bora in December, 1811, in Herkimer county, New York. 
His father was a farmer, and his sons received such educational opportunities 
as are usually given to farmer's children — hard work in the Summer, and the 
advantages of a District School in the Winter. Mr. Dodge made his debut in 
active life, outside of the farm, as a school teacher — which pursuit he fol- 
lowed some three winters. Of his success in this department, we cannot speak 
positively — but as he possesses a peculiarity of doing everything well, it can 
be inferred with a tolerable degree of certainty, that his endeavors to " teach 
the young idea to shoot" we-e rewarded with due and proper results. 

In 1833, he started West — spent one year in Ohio, then footed it to Lake 
Michigan, crossing in a small schooner to Detroit, and in due time reached 
Chicago. He finished his pedestrian tour by footing it to Joliet, and from 
thence to Dubuque, at which place he obtained a situation as Clerk, with G. 
W. Atchison. 

He remained in this situation one and a half years, and then commenced 
life upon the Father of Waters — the Mississippi. He started as Clerk, and 
fought his way by dint^of perseverance and industry from the Clerk's Desk to 
the Wheel House, and from thence to the " Captain's OfEce" — evincing 
throughout these transformations the indisputable fact that labor is the price 
of success. In the Fall of the same year — 1836 — that he commenced on the 
River, he located in Rockingham, and has carried on farming in connection 
with steamboating ever since. In 1852, he represented Scott county in the 
State Legislature, as a Democrat — a character, by the way, which he has ever 
uncompromisingly sustained. 

He was married in 1846, but subsequently lost his wife. He married again, 
and the same unfortunate case has again resulted — he is once more a widower. 

Capt. Dodge is still engaged in steamboating, although he does not, as 
formerly, navigate the whole upper river — his trips being confined to running 



a packet between Keokuk and Davenport. His Boat — tlie " Ben Campbell" — 
is a well known and favorite institution among [those who have had occasion 
for river transportation along that portion of the Mississippi. 

Like many of our pioneers, Capt. Dodge has accumulated an ample compe- 
tence, but unlike that of many others, it is in nowise the result of accident. 
No Genius of the Lamp erected it in a single night — no sudden and unex- 
pected fluctuations of fortune's tide carried him where he now is. Every stone 
in the superstructure of his fortune was hewn and piled by his own arm — and 
commenced under circumstances that would have discouraged any one with 
less'perseverance than he possesses. The most marked trait in his character 
is dettrmination — it is seen in all his actions, and its firm unflinching character 
is traced in every featuro and expression of his face, as though wroughv in 





Mr. Price was born January, 1814, in Washington county, Pennsylvania. 
He removed, in 1819, to Mifflin county, Pennsylvania, in 1822 to Huntingdon 
county, in the same State, and in the Fall of 1844 he came to Davenport, 
which place has since been his residence. 

His capital in business was one hundred dollars, and with this he started as 
a ilerchant. His small pecuniary effects, however, were made up in other of 
his possessions — he had determined perseverance, inviolate integrity, good 
business tact, was temperate to the full, and keenly conscientious. With this 
capital he started into the work, and in a few years had erected upon it a fine 

He continued in the Mercantile business until 1848. In 1847 he was elected 
the first School Fund Commissioner of Scott county, which office he held nine 
years. In 1848 he was elected Recorder and Treasurer of Scott county, which 
positions he filled for eight years, after which he declined being a candidate for 
re-election. The length of time which he was continued in these offices is a 
high compliment to the manner in which he filled them. 

Mr. Price has always taken a decided and consistent position in favor of the 
cause of Temperance. He was one of those who, in February, 1848, organized 
the Grand Division of the Sons of Temperance for the State of Iowa, and was 
elected first Grand Worthy A. ; and after. Grand Worthy Patriarch for the 
State. He has been elected every year, since the organization of the Grand 
Division of Iowa, as representative to the Nat.onal Division of North 
America. In 1847 he was instrumental in organizing the present Division of 
Sons of Temperance in this city, and was elected the first W. P. In 1854, 
he was elected President of the " Maine Law Alliance" of the State ; and he 
filled this position in a manner which, while effectual toward the end in view, 
invariably held the respect of its most inveterate opponents. 


lie was Treasurer for the Scott County Bible Society for the years 1851, '2, 
'6 and '7, and President for years 1854 and '5. 

Mr. Price is entitled to an infinite deal of honor for the jjart he has taken in 
this section towards the construction of our Railroads. He was one of the 
first, West of the Mississippi, who agitated a railroad connection with the 
Atlantic, and it is owing as much or more to his efforts than to those of any 
other one, that our city and county were induced to subscribe to the project. 

He also lent his exertions to the Mississippi and Missouri Railroad — which, 
when completed, will unite us with the Missouri River, and eventually with 
the Pacific. He was one of it^ corporators, and traveled the entire length of 
the line to the Missouri, procuring right of way for the road — holding meet- 
ings in the counties through which the line runs, for the purpose of securing 
the interests of and making friends for the M. & M. R. R., and eventually 
succeeded in driving off a project for a rival road. 

His present business connections are a partnership in the Publishing House 
of Luse, Lane & Co. ; another in the Henry County Coal Company, and he is also 
Secretary, Cashier, and one of the Directors, of the Mississippi and Missouri 

Mr. Price is one of the few living, but much quoted, examples of whatperse- 
Terance, untiring industry, and, above all, integrity, will accomplish. In four- 
teen years each dollar of his original hundred has been reproduced in a 
thousand ; and with them all is the conviction that they are the fruit of honest 

His views and position upon Temperance have given him a prominence 
possessed by no other private citizen in the State, and yet, with this prom- 
inence, and his strong blows in warring against the serried hosts of antagonistic 
men and principles, there is not, we venture to say, a man of his opponents 
who does not respect the singular honesty of his endeavors, and his entire free- 
dom from all effort to gain either personal or political popularity. It need not 
be added that he is liberal — the character we have thus far given him, fully 
indicates it. Added to this trait, he possesses the utmost regularity of habits 
— rising invariably at six o'clock, well-knowing that life is short, and its hours 

With an expression of regret that his fervent, philanthropic exertions upon 
the Temperance question have not met with the full success which their 
character and end deserve, and of satisfaction that his life has practically de- 
monstrated the success of correct principles, we leave him to the considera- 
tion of our readers. 




The foregoing, althoi 

gh including the prominent men of Davenport, does 

not contain all who are prominent, either from long residence, the possession 

of ability, public spirit, 

or such other qualities as entitle their possessors to 

prominence in any com 

munity. There are others here whose biographies 

would confer honor upon 

any work — among whom are Dr. Barrows, Hon. John 

P. Cook, Ebenezer Cook 

Hon. James Grant, Gen. Geo. B. Sargent, D. C. Eld- 

ridge, John Forrest, Andrew Logan, J. M. D. Burrows, Harvey Leonard, and 

not a few others. Circumstances, however, forbid a lengthened mention, 

however much each deserves it. 

The following are th 

3 names of settlers who came to Scott county on 

and previous to 1840, with the year of their coming:- 


Antoine LeClaire, 1833, 

John Burnsides, Ira C. Van Tuyl, 

George L. Davenport, 

Sam'l. Sullivan, Henry B. Armel, 

G. C. R. Mitchel, 1835, 

Samuel Little, Tfaos. H. Armel, 

'Dr. E. S. Barrows, 

James E. Burnsides, E. B. Armel, 

James M. Bowling, 1835, 

James O'Kelly, Jesse Armel, 

A. H. Davenport, 

Wm. 0. Hall, William Armel, 

James Mcintosh, 

A. E. B. Hall, Jackson Armel, 

Capt. Leroy Dodge, 

Andrew J. Hyde, James Armel, 

D. C. Eldridge, 

George Hyde, David Barry, 

Lewis L. Clark, 

E. W. H. Winfield, John Carter, 

Charles H. Eldridge, 

Etheral Camp, Charles Carter, 

Wm. S. Cook, 

Benj. Wright, Claudius McLaffliu, 

Ebenezer Cook, 

Capt. James E. llurry, Widow John Robinson, 

John P. Cook, 

Mrs. A. W. M'Gregor, Joseph P. Robinson, 

Wm. Vantuyl, 

William Velie, Perry Clark, 

Jabez A. Burchard, 

Col. T. C. Eads, Andrew Ringlesby, 

Roswell H. Spencer, 

Stephen Henly, Strather Ringlesby, 

Adam Noel, 

Jesse Henly, Eph. Lane, 

John Noel, 

Foster Campbell, Wm. Lane, 

Henry C. Morehead, 

John P. Cooper, Geo. W. Thorn, 

John Armel, 

John D. Richey, Stephen Thompson, 

Edward Rickar, 

Rufus Catlin, Wm. Thompson, 

Louis Hibbert, 1831, 

Robert Wilson, G. W. Franks, 



Daviil LeClaire, 
Lee I. Hull, 
I. M. T. Hall, 
David Sullivan, 
V\\ R. Shoemaker, 
Wade Monday, l8o3, 

Peter Wilson, 
Henry Gabbert, 
Daniel Berryman, 
William Hubbard, 
J. H. Sullivan, 
Jules Bumberg, 

Goodrich Hubbard. 
Jerremiah Hubbard, 
Wm. White, 
James Davenport, 

Henry Buraberg, 


Archer, killed at Rockingham lS3l.* 

Brown, J. M., Tipton, N. V. 


Cook, Ira, Sr., 1854.* 

Cook, Ira, Jr., Fort DesMoine, 

Camp, Jas. JI., Linn county, Iowa, 

Campbell, A. W., died in California,"'^ 

Campbell, Geo., California, 

Chuver, Capt. J., St. Louis, 

Camp, Wm. Mt. Vernon, , 

Cline, Oregon, 

Carroll, John, Sr.,'^' 

Carroll, Wm., Rock Island, 

Davenport, M., 1852,* 

Davenport, Jas., Illinoig, 

Davis, Daniel, Tipton, 

Dutro, Wm., St. Louis, 

Dodge, Cha?., Rochester, Iowa, 

Davenport, Otho, HI, 

Gabbart, David, 1855,* 

Gardner, Wm., unknown, 

Giberson, Daniel, 1840,* 

Hall, A. P.,* 

Hall, J. H.,* 

Hall, W. W.,* 

Henby, Stephen J.,* 

Higgins, H. W., Illinois, 

Higgins, Jno. V., Illinois, 

Higgins, Henry, Illinois, 

Hanks, Wm., Minnesota, 

Hazlett, Jas., Lvons, 

Harold, C, St. Louis, 

Harrison, Richard, Mia. Point, 

Hubbard, Asael,* 

Hulse, Stephen'* 

Harrison, Henry, unknown, 


Hacker, John, drowned,* 

Kale, Wra., St. Louis, 

Lingo, Wm., St. Louis, 

Lane, Wilcox, Oregon. 

Davenport, Baily Rock Island, 

Higginson, J. C, Dubuque, 

Baptiste, Merchant,* 

Pike, B. F., California, 

Little. Frances,* 

Lee, Edward, Canada, 

Lingo, Edward, St. Louis, 

Lingo, Thos., St. Louis, 

Lindsay, Thos. came 1835, 1839.* 

Lindsay, Asa, came 1835, 1839,* 

McGregor, A. W., 1835, ISST,* 

McLean, 0. G., 1850,* 

Morehead. Joseph, Insane Hospital, 0., 

McLean, Reuben, St. Louis, 

McCoy, J ,* 

Mountain, Sam'l., St. Louis, 

Mitchell, (G.C. R.'s father,)Va., 1840,* 

Noel Joseph, 1839,* 


Parker Jonathan, .Ir.,* 

Powers, Moses, California, 

Pope, Jno., Maquoketa, 

Powers, H., Lewiston, N. Y., 

Palmer, David,* 

Parkhurst, J. W.,* 

Ricker, Rufus, Sr.,* 

Sullivan, J. H., Ohio, 

Shepherd, E. H.,New York, 

Sebert, Andrew, 1858,* 

Sturdevant, Harvey, 1848,* 

Shays, John,* 

Stubbs, Jas., Captain, 1848,* 


Topen, Joseph, 1856,* 

Tannerhill, California, 

Turner, Jas., unknown. 

Van Allen, 1838, 

VanDyke, Amos,* 

Watts, Wm. B., unknown, 

Wilson, Frazier, Rock Island, 

Wilcox, William, Dr., 1842,* 

Wilcox, Fred., California, 

Wilcox, Wm., Jr., Illinois, 

White, Wra., Alton, Illinois, . 

White, James, Alton, Illinois. 

Butler, G. H., 


Bronson, Titus,* 

Bennum, Wm., Illinois, 



Gavitt, Rev. Wm., Ohio, 
Sboles, Stanton,* 
Wilson, James,* 
AVarren, Geo.,* 
Wilson, John, Kansas, 

Colton, L. S.,* 

Gordon, Maj. Wm.,* 

Emmerson, Dr., 1844,* 

Biimberg, I;.,* 

Eumberg, Alex., Hampton, Illinois, 


Samuel Lyter, 

Harvey Leonard, 

Gen. G. B. Sargent, 

John L. CoiBn, 

Willard Barrows, 

John M. Lyter, 

E. S. Morey, 

Capt. John Coleman, 

Levi Williams, 

Nathaniel Squires, 

John Forrest, 

John F. Dillon, 

Rev. J. A. Pelamorgues, 

Rev. Enoch Mead, 

Rodolphus Bennet, 

Frank Bennet, 

J. M.*D. Burrows, 

Mrs. Wallace, 

Louis A. Macklot, 


Elisha G. Burrows, 
H. H. Peas, 
Capt. Isaac Hawley, 
George Hawley, 
Daniel Hawley, 
Christopher howe, 
Louis Glberson, 
John Willis, 
Elihu Alvord, 
C. C. Alvord, 
Samuel Alford, 
George Alvord, 
Robert Humphrey, 
John Haywood, 
James Robinson, 
James Mead, 
James M. Leonard, 
J. S. Brown, 
0. F. Meyers, 


John Porter, 
Daniel S. Porter, 
Phillip Baker, 
Vincent Carter, 
Caleb Dunn, 
Edwin Dunn, 
Alyett Dunn, 
Charles Averell, 
Edward Averell, 
Jeremiah Hewett, 
Porter McKinstry, 
Noble McKinstry, 
Andrew Coleman, 
James Coleman, 
George McCosh, 
Anson Rowe, 
Mrs. Finch, 
Mary Trucks, 
Mr. Ackerman, 


Coleman, Foster, Illinois, 
Coleman, Jas., Sr., 1852,* 
Coleman, Robinson, Illinois, 
Dwigging, Robert, 1st, CeJar county, 
Dwiggins, Robert, 2d, Cedar county, 
Dwiggin.«,J.,died '5ti, boiler explosion,* 
Dwiggins, Andrew, Cedar county, 
Dillon, Timothy,* 
Dillon, Thomas.* 
Dunn, John H.,* 
Donaldson, A. C, California, 
Davis, Garret, Camden, 111., 
Dwiggins, Calahan, Cedar county, 
Dwiggings, James, Cedar county, 
Dillon, Timothy, Jr., drowned 1S41,* 
Eldridge, William, died in California, 
Eldridge, Wm. P., died in Texas, 
Eaeley, Milington, Wisconsin, 
Easley, Franklin, Wisconsin, 
Easley, William, California, 
Foy, John,* 
Franks, V. B., 1835, Va., Port Byron, 

Matteer, George, California, 

i\IcGranahen, John, Kansas, 

MoGranahan, Augustus, died in Cal., 

Norris, Aaron B., Council Bluffs, 

NefF, Robert, St. Louis, 

Perrin, Frank, New Orleans, 

Pigman, Muscatine county, 

Pigman, Jeff., Muscatine county, 

Quinn, John, Ohio, 

Russell, A. F., Danville, Pennsylvania, 

Robinson, John, killed,* 

Einglesby, Lewis, 1855,* 

Ringwalt, Samuel, Downington, Pa., 

Rowe, S. Dr., Lawrence, Mich., 

Rowe, Nelson, Iowa City, 

Ilinglesby, John, 185.5,* 

Ringlesby, H.,died in California 1858, 

Rowe, William,* 

Rowe, B. F.,* 

Sheller, John S., Burlington, 

Shoemaker, William R., Fort Riley, 

Shepherd, S. H., N. Y., 

/ ' 



Finley, A. W., 1845*, 

Sibly, David, died in Wisconsin, 

Giilagher, John, Cedar county, Sherman, Samuel, drowned,* | | 

Gano, Aaron C.,* 

Smith, Capt. M.,* 

Howell, H. S., Wisconsin 

Trux, Abram, 1838,* 

Haywood, Thomas, ^1850, 

^- Trux, John, 1838, 

llawley, E., Philadelphia 

, Whiting, Seth L , Elmira, New York, 

Mills, i. K., Fort Riley, 

Hallock, Wm., Mt. Pleasant, 

Davis, Edward, Pa., 

Briggs, Ansel, California, 

Davis, Dan., Tipton, 

Reilly, R., Pa., 

Ilallock, J. G., Mt. Pleasant, Fipps, Chas., Dubuque, | 

Brown, S. S., New York, 

Whiting, Stephen, California, 

Colt, Geo., unknown, 

Knap, Eph., Minnesota, 

Ennis, John, Philadelphia, Pierce, Wm., Dubuque, | 

Ennis, Mr., Philadelphia, 

Wilson. Dr., Wisconsin, 

Sutherland, John, St. Louis, Hedges, Samuel,* | 

Chamberlain, Wm.,* 

Hedges, Wheeler, Cincinnati, 

Finch, A.,* 

Smith, Lionel,* 

Wade, Hampton,* 

Hedges, Isaac,* 

Kelly, Thomas, Mexico, 

Smith, John,* 

Lathrop, L., drowned, 

Thorn, Henry,* 

Warren, Wilber,*^ 

8ETTLEE3 OP 1838. 

Andrew Logan, 

John Carver, George W. Fenno, 

Augustus C., 

John Shuck, Charles Fenno, 

0. C. Logan, 

Obed Donaldson, William Fenno, 

Col. John D. Evans, 

Sam'l. Wyscowber, Amos Fenno, 

Cheeney Munger, 

Benj. Mathews, Adam Donaldson, 

James McGuire, 

James Baker, Joseph Elder, 

Joseph C. Quinn, 

William Baker, Dennis R. Fuller, 

James Quinn, 

James Grant, Zenas Blackman, 

Wm. D. Quinn, 

Levi Moore, John Willis, 

Alexander Brownlee, 

Marion Moore, Col. Charles Weston, 

James Brownlee, 

Elias Moore, George C. Havill, 

Winchester Sherman, 

Samuel Freeman, Irad Noble, 

John W. Wiley, 

Lemuel White, James T. Carter, 

Sylvester Wiley, 

John White, Ebenezer Carver, 

Joseph Mounts, 

Nathan Blackman, Levi Williams, 

Robert Christie, 

John K. James, J. W. Williams, 

John Rubey, 

Pat. McGuire, John Pope, 

Aug. Pope, 

Abel Pope, 


Barclay, Samuel, Jr., St. 

Paul, Hutt, Hiram, Moline, 

Barclay, Sam'l., Sr., 1839,* ' LeClaire, Alexis, 1840,* | 

Berryman, J. M., Ohio, 

Leech, Capt.,* 

Bishop, Stephen, Canada, 

Moore, Elias,* 

Burgess, Kansas, 

Mitchell, Jas., runaway, 

Burnell, Abram, 1840,* 

Moss, L., 1842,* 

Cooper, Hanry, Dubuque, 

Mounts, M , 1853,* 

Cooper, Austin, Dubuque 

, Mars, Samuel, Hlinois, 

-< "" 1 

Daily, George, Canton, Iowa, 
Gill, Elias, Alton, 
Gill, George, died 1839, 
Hinckle, Charles, Galena, 
Higginson, Samuel P., Pekin, 
Hill, Irad, Michigan, 
Hoge, David, 18-17,* 
Ilutt, Abram, DeVVitt, 
Parkhurst, Sterling,* 
Peters, A. D., 1845,* 
Parr, Muscatine, 
Quinn, Joseph C, Ohio, 
Conley, T. J. 
Dubois, John, New York, 
Scott, Jonah, 
White, S. H. Moline, 
Bardwell, 0., Galena, 
Hale, Asa, Galena, 
LaPage, Louis, Illinois, 
Clark, Wm., unknown, 
Meredith, S.,* 

Noble, Revile, Minnesota, 
Noble, George, Minnesota, 
Noble, * 

Nichols, William,* 
Nichols, F. S., Australia, 
Parkei', J. M., Florence, 
Peters, W. H., Rhinfick, New York, 
Piersol, John, Camanche, 
Parkhurst, E.,* 
Robertson, John, Illinois, 
Sullivan, Lucien, New York, 
Wright, Benjamin, Sr.,* 
Warren, Alphonse, Minnesota, 
Swartout, N. Illinois, 
Krarger, S.,* 

McCoy, James B., Mt. Morris, 111., 
Conway, W. Wm.,* 
Courtney, E., Dubuque, 
Patten, Jackson, California, 
Patten, Thomas, California, 
Walling, Geo.,* 
Walling, Wm.,* 


John Owens, 
John Eldridge, 
James Rumbold, 
B. F. Coates, 
Benj. Coates, Jr., 
William Coates, 
N. M. Rambo, 
James Thorington, 
John Thorington, 
John Morton, 
L. J. Center, 
James McCosh, 
Samuel Parker, 
J. M. Witherwax, 
R. S. Craig, 
Silas Glaspell, 
Isaac S. Glaspell, 
Barton Glaspell, 
Gabriel McArthur, 
Robt. Criswell, 
Moses Parmalee, 
Henry Parmalee, 
Walter Parmalee, 


John Hixon and sons, 
Lewis Burrows, 
David Durrows, 
Christian Cober, 
Leonard Cooper, 
H. S. Finley, 
Horace Bradley, 
James Lindsey, ■ 
I. T. Lindsey, 
A. A. Lindsey, 
A. H, Owens, 
Wm. S. Collins, 
George E. W. Hoge, 
Israel Hall, 
John Carroll, and moth 
Wm. Carroll, 
D. B. Shaw, 
John Leamen, 
J. H. Morton, 
Coonrad Reed, 
Wm. Pairaalee, 
James Parmalee, 
arles Lesslie, Laurel 

George F. Hall, 

VVilliam Inslee, 

Roderick Center, 

Joshua Maw, 

Wm. Newby, 

llobt. Nev7by, 

Nathan Newby, 

E. A. Evans, 

John Trucks, 

Abram Trucks. 

William Lovel, 

Michael Cooper, 

Raphael Cooper, 

Michael Grace, 
er, James Hale, 

Osmar S. McKown, 

Alibone Morton, 

Wm. Todd, 

Volney Warren, 

Edward Buruell, 

John Friday, 

Montgomery Thompson, 

Chtrles Metteer, 



Arbell, Frederick, 1842,* 
Brown, Judson, Port Byron, 


Little, Jas., New Orleans, 
McLot, John N., 1850,* 



Brown, William, 1816,* 

Buck, Beujamin, drowned,* 

Coleman, Charles, 1848,* 

Downer, Erastus, Illinois, 

Elder, C, drowned 1846,* 

Fisher, Samuel, Philadelphia, 

Fisher, John, San Francisco, 

Fisher, James, Miniapolis, 

Fitzpatrick, E., Dubuque, 

Foster, Asa,* 

Glaspel, Jas., Sr., died 1847, 

Glaspel, Enos,* 

Glaspel, Jas., Jr.,* 

Gates, drowned,* 

Wetmore, Wm., Ky., 

Hoge, Thomas S., New York, 

Holbrook, Rev, J. C. Dubuque, 

Belkin, Henry,* 

Churchill, Chis., Illinois, 

Boyington, Dr., 

Coody, Dr., 

Tattle, Calvin, Wisconsin, 

Squires, John, N. Y., 

Hunger, W., Chicago, 
Nye, died 1840,* 
Owens, John, Jr., Illinois, 
Owens, Jas., Illinois,* 
Perrin, Aaron, California, 
Perrin, John, California, 
Perrin, Isaac, California, 
Perrin, Theodore, 1845,* 
Riddle, H. B., died 1856,* 
Sherman, Abel, Alabama, 
Sherman, Luke, New York, 
Sherman, Samuel,* 
Smith, M. Capt., drowned, 
Sloper, Samuel,* 
Snoir, Jarcd,* 
Thorington, J no., Sr.,* 
Shays, John, Ohio, 
Squires, Isaac, St. Louis, 
Moran, Wm., 
West, Narcisse Yarten, 
Kingsly, Joseph, Pa., 
Taylor, Reese, Maquoketa, 
Taylor, Peter, Kansas, 


R. M. Prettyman, 
Alfred Sanders, 
David McKown, 
Gilbert McKown, 
Stephen Schoolfield, 
S. Burnell, 
Dr. Hiram Brown, 
Dr. Cyrus G. Blood, 
David Buckwalter, 
Henry Buchneau, 

M. G. McLoskey 

Wm. Briggs, 

L. Walling and brother, 

G. Tapley, 

Andrew Doyle, 

Andrew J. Lawes, 

Thomas Kerns, 

W. W. McCammon, 

Alex. AYells, 

Joseph Gaymon, 

Yital Bucheau 

David Ilawley, 

Bartholemew Wells, 

Peter Trainer, 

Michael AIcNemara, 


Wm. H. Gayle, 


Sam'l. Stevens, 

Thomas Wood, Sen., 

A. A. McLoskey, 

John Letting, 


Armitage, J., Canada, 

Buckwalter, Joseph, 1854,* 

Buckwalter, Daniel, 1847,* 

Baker, Morris,* 


Bardwell, Doct., Linn county, Pa., 


Clark, Doct., California, 

Cark, Dennas, Wisconsin, 

Chin, Richard, St. Louis, 

Gafney, Barney, 1840,* 
Grover, Erastus, Massachusetts, 
Guyer, Samuels, Ohio, 
Howard, M., 1843,* 
Hogan, Patrick, 1856,* 
Kelly, Thomas, Louisiana, 
McClosky, Robert J., 1848, 
Moyer, Albert, Pennsylvania, 
McGranahan, Geo., Kansas, 
Nichols, John, St. Louis, 


Coleman, Finley, Illinois, Leonard, Sam'l., LeClaire, 

Wood, Thomas, Jr., 111., Grover, N. B., 

Criswell, Robert, LeClaire, Tapley, G. Linn, Mass., 

Nichols, Wm., 1852,* 

Appropriate and pertinent to the Biographies, are the proceedings of the 
Pioneer Settlers AssociAnox of Scott Codntt, and their First Annual 
Festival, held on Monday evening of February 2 2d, at the Burtis House, in 
the city of Davenport, 

At a meeting of old settlers of Scott county, who became residents prior to 
December 31, 1840, held in LeClaire Hall, Davenport, pursuant to a notice in 
the daily papers, on the evening of Saturday, January 23, 1858, some sixty 
persons were assembled. The meeting was called to order by Duncan C 
Eldridge, Esq., whereupon Ebenezer Cook, Esq., was elected Chairman, and 
John Coffin, Secretary, of the meeting. 

The Chairman, on taking his seat, expressed, with a few happy remarks, the 
pleasure which it gave him to meet so many of his old friends on this occasion, 
and alluded to the warm interest he had always felt in those who had stood 
side by side with him in the hardships and struggles incident to the early set- 
tlement of this county. He said, " that if there was anything of good about 
him, if he had ever been of any service to this community, and in fact for all 
he was at this day, he felt himself indebted to the early settlers of this county, 
who had always stood by him ; that he had always been willing to divide the 
last crust of bread with any one of them that needed, and he prayed to God, 
that as long as he lived, he might be disposed to divide with them the last 
shirt on his back, if any one of them required it." 

On motion of James Mcintosh, Esq., a Committee of five was appointed by 
the Chair to draft a Preamble and Resolutions for organizing the Association. 

The Chair appointed James Mcintosh, Willard Barrows, John F. Dillon, D. 
C. Eldridge, and Edward Ricker, Esquires, said Committee. 

While the Committee was absent, the meeting was entertained by Wm. 
McCammon, Esq., and by the Hon. John P. Cook. 

The Committee then presented the following Preamble and Resolutions, 
which were unanimously adopted: 

Whereas, it was our destiny, as American citizens, excited by a spirit of 
laudable enterprise, to be the pioneers in the settlement of this fair and fertile 
section of our State : and, whereas, it seems desirable that we should perpet- 
uate the memory of that settlement, and from time to time recall the history 
of the past, so rich in incident of great and varied interest, therefore, be it — 

Resolved, That all those who became residents of the Territory, now known 
as Scott county, in Iowa, prior to December 31, 1840, form themselves into a 
society, the object of which shall be to extend the right hand of fellowship to 
all those who have lived through the honorable conflict of the past to share 
and enjoy the prosperity of the present, and to interchange congratulations. 

that their early struggles and hardships have resulted in a growth and devel- 
opment almost without a parallel. 

Resolved, That this Associatioe be known by the name of 

Resolved., That its officers shall consist of a President, ten Vice Presidents, 
a Secretary and Treasurer; and an Executive Committee of five members, said 
committee to be appointed by the President. 

Resolved, That a committee of three members be appointed by the Chair, to 
draft a Constitution and By-Laws to be submitted for adoption at the next 

Resolved, That a committee of five members be appointed to make arrange- 
ments for a festival to be held in this city, on the 22d day of February, 1858. 
Resolved, That tickets of invitation be sent to all "Pioneer Settlers" who 
have since become non-residents of this county. 

Considerable discussion on the subject of a name, and the word " Pioneer," 
having to the raids of many present a sacredness in this connection, it was 
moved by the Hon. Jno. P. Cook, and voted, that the blank bo filled, so that 
the resolution as framed, stands thus : 

Resolved, That this Association be known by the name of " The Pioneer 
Settlers' Association of Scott county." 

The chair appointed Judge Weston, Jno. F. Dillon, and C. C. Alvord, 
Esquires, committee on Constitution and By-Laws; and appointed Willard 
Bairows A. H. Owens, James Mcintosh, Geo. L. Davenport, and D. C. Eldridge, 
Esquires, a committee on the festival. 

The Association then proceeded to elect its first ofBcers, which resulted in 
the choice of the following named gentlemen : 

Ebenezer Cook, Esq., "] 

Duncan C. Eldridge, Esq., 
Willard Barrows, Esq., 
John Owens, Esq., 

Robert Christie, Esq., \ Vice Presidents. 

Jabez A. Burchard, Esq., 
Adrian H. Davenport, Esq., 
Alexander Brownlee, Esq., 
LeRoy Dodge, Esq., J 

Dr. E. S. Barrows, Corresponding Secretary. 
John L. Coffin, Recording Secretary. 
Geo. B. Sargent, Esq., Treasurer. 
John L. Coffin, Secretary. 

Tickets having been issued, including Old Settlers, Press, Clergy, and 
Author and Publishers of " Davenport Past and Present," there was on Mon- 
day night of the 22nd of February, a crowded assemblage in the magnificent 
Halls and Parlors of the " Burtis House." A happier crowd, and one whose 
sympathies and affections were so freely and harmoniously developed, never, 
perhaps, assembled in such numbers. Formality, caste, old feuds, dislikes, 
and all unkindnesses, were merged, and disappeared in the joyous friendliness 


that filled each heart — lips were wreathed in smiles, white locks were haloed 
with the sunshine of the occasion — hard, stern features, that for years had 
scowled upon life's difficulties, lost their rigidity, and reflected only happiness. 
It was more, in all respects, like an assembling of loving brothers around the 
household hearth after long years of separation — there was the same cordial 
warmth of greeting, the same a3"ectionate enquiries, and the same happy yield- 
ing to the spirit of the occasion. INot less, perhaps, than eight hundred were 
present — the oldest of whom was Mr. Elihu Alvord, who had attained the ripe 
old age of eighty-three. 

The assembly was called to order by Ebenezer Cook, Esq., and the President^ 
Antoine LeClaike, took his seat. After the Davenport Brass Band had dis- 
coursed a fine piece of music, a cane presentation took place. The cane was 
of native hickory, mounted with a costly gold head, upon which was engraved 
— "Pioneer Settlers' Association of Scott county, organized January, 1858." 
On the lower part of the head was engraved the name of the first President, 
Antoine LeClaire, with space for the name of all succeeding ones — as the cane 
is to be handed down from President to President until the last Old Settler has 
departed to another life. The presentation was made by John F. Dillon, ac- 
companied by a short speech in his felicitous and poetical style. He said — 

Mr. President: — I am charged with the grateful duty of presenting you 
with this insignia of your office. You, who were the first to pioneer the way 
to this lovely spot, lovelier and richer than the land " flowing with milk and 
honey." You, who have used the wealth it has been your good fortune to 
acquii'e, in constant endeavors to promote the growth fc,nd advance the inter- 
ests of our city and country — you, who are confessed first in the esteem of 
all old pioneers, have been unanimously elected our first President. Happy 
are we, that your life has been bounteously lengthened out to behold this night. 
Happy that we are able to bestow upon you this testimonial of our regard. 

What endeared recollections, and thronging visions this occasion mixst call 
up and inspire"! Who would not fondly "give the hope of years" to enjoy the 
satisfaction and delight that must to-night be yours ! A thousand incidents 
strike the electric chain of memory, and in the light of its corruscations the 
past comes back again, and glows vividly before you ! How pleasant, at 
times, to retouch memories that are being moss-grown, to retint the fast fading 
pictures of life ! 

The changes you have seen, how astonishing! The like whereof will be 
sought for in vain, in the realities of history, and in the dreams of poetry. 

Since the world began, it has never in any age or country exhibited a 
growth so solid, and a development so amazing as that which you yourself 
have witnessed. So rapid and thorough is the progress of improvement, that 
the memorials of our early settlement are fast passing away. Scarcely a 
trace or vestige of the primitive log-cabin remains ; and the inquiry might be 
pertinently raised, not " have we a Bourbon," but " have we a log-cabin 
among us ?" These have been succeeded by comfortable and elegant dwel- 


lings — but Tvliy specify changes when specification were endless. All, all is 
changed, save the unchanging sky above us, and the changeless river that 
rolls by us ; magnificent river ! 

" Time writes no wrinUles on thine azure brow, 

and without avouching its geological accuracy let me add — 

Suoli as creation's dawn beheld thou rollest now." 

now often in the quiet watches of the night, when I have beheld the glory 
of the one, reflected in and increased by that of the other, has my heart melted 
with gratitude, that aspiring mau could not reacli the heavens to cover them 
with signs and placards, or mar the beauty of earth's glorious water courses. 
Especially have you observed, sir, with intense interest, the growth of our fair 
and proud young city. 

This interest has no* been the indiiferent interest of a mere spectator, but 
with you it has partaken of a warmer nature ; it has claimed kindred with a 
paternal solicitude, and without demur has had its claim allowed. 

Our feeble infancy — our slow growth — our precarious situation — our 
gloomy prospects awakened for awhile the most tender concern and anxious 
forebodings. These dark daya happily have passed away, we trust, to return 
never more; and Davenport to-day, in size and beauty, stands peerless among 
rivals, — the " Queen City" of Iowa. Well may we rejoice to-night with you, 
in the triumphs of a faith in our destiny, that has suifered all things, endured 
all things, hoped all things even unto the end. But these exultant feelings, 
and grateful reflections come to us mingled, and tinged, and softened, and 
subdued with those of a sadder nature. While we have been busy, time and 
death have not been idle. 

r>ut I may not further indulge in reflections that crowd for utterance, save 
to say, that this cane, made from a stick of native growth, and skilfully 
fashioned by the hand of a member of our Association, is the distinctive, and 
we think fitting and appropriate badge of your otTice. As such, it is intended 
to bo preserved with jealous care, and to be transmitted successively from 
President to President, until our Society shall be no more ! 

Ou it will bo found engraved your own name — the name of our Association, 
and the date of its organization. 

It affords me unfeigned pleasui'e, sir, in behalf of the "Pioneer Settlers' As- 
sociation of Scott county," to present this ensign pf office and honor to you 
— i\iQ first President, wondering, who, of those present, shall enjoy the envi- 
able, yet melancholy distinction of being the last. 

This effort was highly applauded, after which the President, through E. 
Cook, Esq., responded as follows : 

"Mr. Dillon: — I receive this cane, the ensignia of my office, as President 
of the "Pioneer Settlers' Association of Scott County," with great pleasure, 


not alone because I shall take pride in its exhibition, not alone because of its 
beautiful and skilful workmanship, not alone for tbe very flattering remarks 
attendant upon its presentation, either of which causes would justify the feel- 
ing, but chiefly because it is, and is intended by the Association as a tangible, 
memento of the past, and of the early history of the settlement of our country, 
to be handed down, I trust, to future generations, to be jjreserved for all time ; 
to be exhibited to thousands upon thousands of our descendents yet unborn, 
as having been designed, made, and handled by their forefathers, the first set- 
tlers of Scott county. 

With this cane, shall go down, I trust, the records of our Association, and if 
the members are faithful, and furnish, as required by the Constitution, the 
leading incidents of their lives, connected with their settlement and habitation 
in this county, to be placed upon the records, how interesting to those who 
come after us will be this cane, as a tangible memorial of their forefathers, 
long since crumbled into the dust from which they came, and whose history, 
to a greater or less extent, is written in the records before them. 

Methinks, as I look into the far, far future, I see within the limits of our 
count}', a noble Building, dedicated to some noble Public objects, and there, 
in some suitable and proper place, are deposited the records and testimonials 
of this Association. Within its walls is a living crowd, pressing forward, 
eager to see and persue the record, to see and touch the memorials handed 
down with it, and I hear them say, "These were sent down to us from our 
forefathers — here is written a history of the first settlement of this beautiful 
land, of the trials and hardships endured, and of the triumphs won by them. 
Let them be preserved forever." 

Ladies and gentlemen, members of this Association, let me charge upon you 
that you impress upon your children, and cliildrens' children, that they hold 
it as a sacred duty, when we shall all have passed away from earth, to pre- 
serve, intact, the records and memorials of our Association, and to transmit 
them unimpaired to future generations- 

You have been pleased, sir, to allude in very flattering terms to me, per- 
sonally. If I have, in the course of a long life spent here, entitled myself to, 
and won the respect of my fellow men, particularly the Old Settlers of the 
county, I am amply repaid for any and all exertions I may have been able to 
make to aid in advancing the interests and prosperity of our beloved city and 

If I have acquired wealth, it is to the settlement of the country that I am 
indebted for it, for of what value would have been the land on which this city 
and the city of LeCIaire is built, except from the fact that you, gentlemen, of* 
this Association, settled upon and improved the lands of the county, and 
thereby enabled us to built up a city ? So that, gentlemen, we see that we are 
dependent, to a greater or less extent, upon one another, and when we so act 
as to confer a benefit upon the community, we really are benefitting ourselves. 


The Association has been pleased to elect mo their fi st President. I take 
this, the first opportunity afforded afforded me to return my sincere and heart- 
felt thanks for this expression of confidence and respect. The object and aim 
. of this organization is so eminently and apparently proper, that it is needless 
for me here to advert to it, other than to say that I am rejoiced that the step 
has been taken, and that there is the interest manifested in the subject that is 
apparent here to-night, and I trust that interest will be kept up and main- 
tained by every member so long as he shall live. 

This cane, made as you say, from a stick of native growth, is a fit and 
proper emblem of the ofiBce for which it is designed, for in the ordinary course 
of things it is to be presumed that your Presidents will be men advanced in 
years, who will require its aid and support. It is, too, a fit and proper em- 
blem, as it will remind your future Presidents that their predecessors who 
have leaned upon it for support, have passed down the vale of time into 
eternity, whither they must soon follow, and surrender it again to aid and sup- 
port some other aged man down the s.ame path, until, at last, the last man of 
your Association shall grasp it, and in the performance of his sad duty, pro- 
vide for it, and other memorials, a place of deposit, which we trust shall be 
kept sacred forever." 

" After the ceremony of the Cane Presentation was concluded, the " First 
Annual Address" was delivered by Hon. John P. Cook. It is a splendid pro- 
duction, aud presents in its combinations the finest blending of philosophyi 
humor, wit, and pathos, that ever was delivered in Davenport. We give it 
entire, although it lacks the forcible expression, easy emphasis, and generally 
graceful oratory of the speaker : 

*' Mr. President, and Ladies and Gentlemen : 

Through the politeness of the committee appointed to arrange for this occa- 
sion, it has befallen to my lot to address your association, on this the first 
festival of the Pioneers of Scott County. 

The interest manifested in this organization, this large assembly, and the 
familiar nod of recognition passing from one to another, attest the perfect hap- 
piness we all feel in this union, made genial by the hardships of the past, the 
joy of the present, and hopes for the future. 

In the West such a society is neither new nor uncommon. The first set- 
tlers of Illinois, Wisconsin, and of many of the older counties in our own 
beautiful Iowa, have been drawn together by that fraternal regard which is 
always warm in the honest heart of an " old pioneer." 

If, in the excitement of business, and the duties of life, we have hitherto 
neglected to come together, as the pioneers of Scott county, the greater reason 
BOW exists, that we should nourish this infant association, and make it pro- 
motive of every good and noble sympathy of the heart. 

Our organization is now complete, our names are enrolled, and with the ex- 
ception of absentees, and such as have not yet joined, although entitled to 


membership, our ranks are full, and under our constitution there can be no 
accession to our number, other than exceptions named. With a just appre- 
ciation of the memory of the dead, you have procured the names of those who 
settled in this county prior to 1840, but who now no longer live, so that your 
records will perpetuate their names, who have "acted well their part," and 
now sleep beneath the cold clods of the valley, as ours, who have survived to 
consummate this organization. In thus recordin;? the names of the dead, who 
were our companions in frontier life, we but open a record that will soon con- 
tain the names of all who now stand recorded as livinrj members of this asso- 

One by one we shall pass away, and at each returning festival some 
familiar face will be missed at the board, some chair will be vacant, and the 
record of the living will be shortened to lengthen the record of the dead, 
while the void in our ranks can never, never be filled. 

As years roll on, those of us who may be living at the end of the first de- 
cade, will realize the fearful work of death among us. 

A little longer, yet a little longer, and a score of years shall have passed 
away, leaving but a few to cherish the memory of the departed, and to cling 
closely, ah ! how closely, to each other. 

Who shall presume to lift the veil, and name the pioneer who will then 
answer to the Secretary's roll call ? 

A little longer, and still a little longer, and the youngest among us will have 
reached his three score years and ten, and no one may know, until time un- 
folds the eternal decree, who of our number will be the last survivor of the 
pioneers of Scott county ! 

While we may not penetrate the dim future, nor name those who shall hold 
the last meeting, keep the last festival — though, alas ! more solemn than festive 
it will be — and perform the last rites, ere this association ceases to exist, yet 
we may imagine its closing scenes, and admonish one another to prove faith- 
ful and true till the last one shall have passed from earth. 

You have procured a cane, and have had inscribed thereon, " Pioneer Set- 
tlers' Association, organized January, 1858, Scott County, Iowa," and pre- 
sented it to your President, with instructions that it be handed down to his 
last successor in ofBce. That successor lives, and if not here with us to-day 
in. propria persona, he is with us in spirit, and in well wishes, and is destined 
to officiate at the last act of your association. 

For a moment give free scope to the imagination, and go with me to a period 
thirty, forty, perhaps fifty years hence, and behold here a city of two hundred 
thousand inhabitants, all eager to act their part in the business of life, run- 
ning hither and thither, jostling each other in the crowd, some seeking the 
profits of commerce, some collecting the news of the day, some chasing 
pleasure, some bent on mischief, some bound for the station house of a bal- 
loon about to be wafted across the continent with a full load of human beings, 
who expect to dine in New York on the same day, some about to seat them- 


selves in the cars of .an atmospheric railway, advertised to go through to the 
seaboard in two Lours, without change of cars, and amid the confusion, splen- 
dor and enterprise, let us, on the 22d day of that February, enter the spacious 
building on Twenty-Fifth street, and see congregated the last of the Scott 
county pioneers. There sits the President, surrounded by the survivors, 
numbering five, perhaps more, faithful hearts, whose whitened locks, and 
trembling limbs, denote them children of a century, past and gone. 

They are looking back over the lost years, and with vivid recollections of 
the early history of our own country, are recounting many of the hardships 
and incidents of frontier life ; they recall the first festival of the association, 
and mention the names, and drop tears to the memory of many assembled here 
to-day ; they have before them the record of the association, and it tells of 
your annual meetings and festivals — your official doings — the names of your 
officers — andit faithfully preserves the history of many incidents in the ex- 
istence of your association. 

Some venerable patriarch selected from that little band delivers the annual 
address, and ho wants not matters of interest, appropriate to the occasion, to 
talk about, and with which to hold the attention of his hearers. 

With a faithful and vivid recollection of early times, and early associations, 
he pictures the past, and compares it with the realities about him, until 

" Fond memory brings tho light 
Of other days around them.'' 

Is that the last festival ? Another year rolls around, and that cane supports 
the aged frame of the President to the Festive Hall, where he meets 
friends young and old ; but one. a solitary one shall grasp his hand, and ex- 
claim — 

" We two alone remain, tho rest are gone, all gone I" 

In the ordinary course of nature, it is reasonable to suppose, that the 
younger members of the association will be among the last survivors of our 
number, and upon them will fall the duty of closing our records, and pro- 
viding a depository for everything pertaining to the association. 

Young man! that duty may be yours; act well your part through life, that 
we may have a worthy representative in closing an association so auspiciously 

Teach your children to venerate the land they are to inhabit, and impress 
upon them the duty they owe to their native home, and their pioneer fore- 

Leave to them as a rich legacy the pleasing duty of providing a fitting re- 
ceptacle for the records and meiuorials of the association, that they, and their 
children's children, may ever find a faithful history of the early pioneers, and 
of the settlement of the country. 


Admonish them, that when the spirit of the last one of us takes its flight 
from earthly scenes — the sad and interesting duty will devolve r.pon them, to 
follow the remains to their last resting place ; to perform the closing scenes in 
our history, and to write the last chapter of our record. 

To the minds of some, such an association may seem of small importance 
and doubtful existence; but I doubt whether a society could be organized in 
the West with stronger ties of friendship and sympathy than one will find 
among the " Old Settlers." 

We have all had our strifes, our political, local, and social disagreements, 
and shall doubtless continue to have them"; but they are soon forgiven and 
forgotten, and we turn to the bright side of the picture, and call to mind the 
early scenes in our settlement here, while the generous promptings of the 
heart bind us more closely together. 

There is no period in man's life at which he is not more or less dependent 
upon his fellow man, and the experience of every day admonishes us that wo 
should cultivate the christian virtues and neighborly kindness — and while we 
should manifest these towards all who come in contact with us, they are 
doubly due to those who shared our early toils and privations, and have ever 
been ready to lend a helping hand to the "Old Settlers." 

The history of the early settlement of Scott county is replete with interest- 
ing incidents, and to those of us who first " squatted" and located our claima 
upon " Uncle Sam's" land, it is a satisfaction to look back to that period, and 
compare Scott county then with Scott county now. No one here to-day can 
claim a settlement anterior to that of our worthy President, and certainly no 
one has done more than he in aiding and encouraging the first settlers ; and I 
may be permitted thus publicly to record the humble acknowledgments of my 
father's family to him, who was the first to extend his hand, to offer hospi- 
tality, and to welcome us to our prairie home. I was but a boy then, yet how 
well do I remember the scene when I landed one bright May morning in 1836, 
within four squares of the spot where we are now assembled. 

The ground upon which "mine host" of the Burtis House has erected this 
spacious hotel, was a corn field, and two cabins below Main street constituted 
the improvements of the embryo " City of Davenport ;" some half a dozen 
houses across the river in the then village of Stephenson marked the spot 
where now stands our twin sister city. 

The booming of the morning gun from Fort Armstrong warned the red man 
that Uncle Sam's troops were in possession of their island home, and assured 
the pioneer of protection and safety. The daily movements of noble steamers 
upon the bosom of our majestic river told us that the way was opened to im- 
migration ; while the unclaimed acres invited the husbandman to one of the 
finest soils ever warmed by the sun of Heaven. 

Need we wonder that the old chieftain, Black Hawk, and his noble band 


refused to yield up the country to their white brethren ? Can we blame them 
for clinging to this lovely spot, and for lingering around the graves of their 

•' O'er the fate of the Indian, 
The Great Spirit lias cast 
The spell of the white man, 
His glory is past. 

While we may not stay the arm of destiny, that is fast sweeping away the 
aborigines of this continent as a distinctive race, we may question the policy 
that would exterminate them, and should throw the broad mantle of charity 
over their acts. 

While bounteous nature had done fully her share in making this country an 
inviting field for the immigrant, it required the genius and enterprise of man 
to develop its resources, and plant its towns and villages. 

Towns in those days were laid out with reference to natural advantages pre- 
sented by the Mississippi River and its tributaries, and hence every spot of 
ground along the river above high water mark (and some below,) was sur- 
veyed, platted, pictured, and named. 

I will not undertake the task of recalling the names even of all the early 
cities in Scott county, but I must not pass in silence the contest for supremacy 
between Davenport and Rockingham. The history of this struggle for the 
county seat of Scott is so fresh in my memory that I can almost hear one of 
the " old guard" singing — 

" Here we are, a happy, happy band, 
On the banks of Rockingham." 

Davenport claimed the seat of justice, because of her central locality, her high 
and dry site, her beautiful surroundings, and her many other natural advan- 
tages, which we all now concede and realize — while Rockingham expected to 
become the great centrepot of commerce in consequence of the rich trade that 
was destined (as she supposed,) to flow from the fertile valley of Rock River. 

No one, in those days, expected to live long enough to see the iron horse 
flying over this western prairie, with its freights of human life, rich mer- 
chandize from the East, andthe still more valuable products of the West. 

Our ideas about traveling and commerce had not advanced beyond a light 
draught steamer, and John Frink's mud wagon. The wisdom and foresight of 
the statesmen of Illinois were directed to producing slack water navigation in 
Rock River, and a very decided amount of capital, energy, and enterprise, was 
devoted to building up Rockingham, in order that she might reap the benefit 
of the prosperous trade about to be opened with the Suckers in the rich val- 
ley of that river. 

I think I see the steamer Gipsey, with the boys on board, ready to start out 
on an experimental trip from the port of Rockingham, bound for Fox River, 


with a cargo of sundries, consisting chiefly of scoo-ti-op-o, '■^ corn bread and 
common doins ;'' Scoo-ti-op-o, ^' chicfcin Jixins and uncommon doins." Captain 
Gray mounts the hurricane deck, rings the bell, and gives the word to the 
natives on shore to "cast off the starn hawser." The old {?iyosc?/ moves ; that pon- 
derous pile of green oak lumber fastened to her stern slowly revolves, remind- 
ing one of the current wheels we sometimes eee on the rapids of a river- 
Away she goes, and the crowd on her decks give us ihree cheers at parting' 
while young Rockingham returns nine yells and a whoop. 

Such an event as opening the navigation of Rock River, with a stern-wheeler, 
was one of too much importance in its local bearing upon the future of corner 
lots, for Davenport to wish the Gipsey a safe trip, and the first impediment to 
the voyage, and the place where Davenport hopes centered, was at the rapids 
near Vandruf's Island. 

While the "old Gipsctf slowly ploughed her way through the waters of 
Rock River, a delegation of Davenporters cut across by land to the Vandruf 
rapids, to witness the experiment. The old steamer pushed on, and boldly 
approached the rushing waters, and fearful boulders ahead, to the tune of 
Yankee Doodle, whistled by the wind instruments on board, with the varia- 
tions. The Davenporters lay in ambush, watching the movements of the 
steamer, and wondering if such'a, craft could possibly ascend such a current. 
Oh, unfortunate Miss Gipset/ ! why did you run your nose between those 
sunken boulders, and bring everything up standing? Why destroy the 
precious stores laid in for the trip, by smashing up glass and stone ware, thus 
rendering you" passengers and crew forlorn and sjnritless ? Will you give it up 
so ? A yell from the " sepoys" in ambush decides the question. The order is 
given, and all hands boldly jump overboard, and never tire or faint until their 
craft has cleared the treacherous rocks, and is once more in smooth water. 

I think I see around me some of the mariners who helped " work the ship" 
on that occasion, and who made the round trip, and returned wiser, if not 
better, fresh water coveys. 

Who among you, recollecting the incidents of those stirring times, will ever 
forget the first county-seat question ? Certainly, not the prominent actors on 
either side, many of whom are with us to-day? The "border ruffians" of 
Missouri did not originate the idea of invading an adjoining territory in order 
to help their friends at an important election ; nor can Mr. Calhoun claim to 
be the first man to record names whose owners were not at the ballot box- 
We had a " border" and a "Delaware crossing" long before Kansas was 
thought of, and, to use an expression of one of my pioneer friends, there was 
some "tall doings" on our borders, and on our crossing. 

The Suckers furnished a goodly number for both parties, but the delegations 
from " Snake Diggins" and Moscow, (the former headed by a two-fisted miner, 
and the latter by the " old bogus coon,") increased the population of Scott 
county in one day to a number that astonished the unsophisticated, and 
threatened the depopulation of some of our sister counties. 


Fire days before the election, both parties were certain of success, for each 
party supposed that it had outwitted the other in importing voters. The day 
of election arrived, and so did the imported parties, rejoicing in the glorious 
principles of "squatter sovereignty," and believing in the regulation of domes- 
tic institutions in their own way, subject only to the party that could poll the 
most votes, and make the returns show it. 

The result of this election indicated a very respectable population in the 
county in point of numbers, and proved that Davenport had colonized the 
most votes. The returns were made to the Governor, who refused to issue a 
certificate, in consequence of alleged illegal voting, and the Legislature again 
provided for another election, and that the result should be recorded on the 
records of the Commissioners of Dubuque county. 

The election came oif, and Rockingham claimed the victory — while Daven- 
port declared that the whole thing was illegal and void. From the popular 
arena the contest was transferred before the Commissioners of Dubuque 
county, thence to the Courts, thence to the Legislature, and finally back again 
to the ordeal of " popular sovereignty." 

Immediate preparations were made for another struggle, and now three or 
four different points were brought before the people for the prize. Rocking- 
ham saw that she stood no chance in a triangular fight with her old competi- 
tor, and at once determined to form an alliance with another rival candidate, 
located near the mouth of Duck Creek, so that the last contest was really 
between Davenport and the Duck Creek cornfield. 

The records of this county show that Davenport was triumphant, and the 
question was thus forever settled. The important incidents of this last election 
were not of sufficient interest to me at the time, to impress my mind with 
more than one idea about them. I saw something " going up," and broke for 
" old Cedar." 

Rockingham no longer rivals Davenport, but in vindication of the truth of 
History, injustice to those who once inhabited the place, and in honor of two 
of the "old Rockingham guard," who still cling to her soil, I may be permit- 
ted to say, that she was once a great place, and weil watered. 

Daring the time of the contest for the county seat, an event transpired 
which must not be omitted, in speaking of the history of our settlement. A 
dispute arose between the State of Missouri, and the then Territory of Iowa 
as to the boundary line between them, and so determined were the authorities 
on both sides to exercise jurisdiction over the disputed territory, that it re- 
sulted, in what is known to the Old Settlers, as the "Missouri War." 

There were warriors in those days ; and I should do injustice to the patri- 
otism of that period, if I neglected to notice the military daring of the volun- 
teers, who rushed to the standard (and rations) of the commander-in-chief, in 
obedience to his call. 

The Sheriff of a border county in Iowa undertook to enforce the collection 
of taxes in the disputed Territory. He was arrested by the authorities 


of Missouri. The executive of Iowa demanded his release. It was refused ; 
and to rescue this Sheriff, Governor Lucas ordered out the militia, and called 
for volunteers. " My voice is now for war" — was the patriotic response of 
every true "Hawkeye." The county seat question was forgotten in the more 
important duty of driving the invaders from our soil. Davenport and Rock- 
ingham men met, embraced, buckled on their armor, and side by side shouted 
their war cry — '-^ death to ike'Fukes.'" The officers in command held a 
council of war, audit was decided that Davenport should be the head quarters 
of the Scott County Army, in order that the troops might be inspired by the 
sight of old Fort Armstrong, and at the same time occupy a position so near 
the Fort, that a safe retreat would be at hand, in case of an attack from the 

On the day appointed for the first drill, the whole country marched to the 
standard of the gallant Colonel in command, and Davenport witnessed one of 
the most spirited military reviews that ever took place within her limits. The 
line was formed on the bank of the river, fronting toward the enemy's country, 
the right resting against a cotton wood tree, the left in close proximity to the 
Ferry House. There they stood, veterans of iron nerve and dauntless courage, 
presenting a sight that would have daunted the most desperate foe, and as- 
suring the women and children that they would defend their homes to the 
death, against the " border ruffians" from the Des Moines River. 

The weapons, carried by some of these volunteer patriots, were not satisfac- 
tory to the commanding officers, and about one-fourth of the army were 
ordered out of the ranks, and their services dispensed with, unless they would 
procure others of a different character, and more in accordance with the Army 
regulations. The objectionable weapons consisted of a plough-colter, carried 
in a link of a large log-chain, which the valiant soldier had over his shoulder. 
Another was a sheet iron sword about six feet in length, fastened to a rope 
strap. Another was an old-fashioned tin sausage stuffer. Another an old 
musket without a lock, and the balance of like character. 

The order was given for the owners of these mondescript weapons to march 
out of the ranks three steps. The order was obeyed. The ranks closed up, 
and the offending soldiers were discharged with a reprimand. 

I am not prepared to say that the commanding ofHcer was justified, in thus 
summarily discharging so many men, who were ready and anxious to serve 
their country ; and the result proved, that the amount of bravery dismissed 
was equal to that retained ; for no sooner were the discharged soldiers clear of 
the line of the regiment, than they formed a company of cavalry, a company of 
dragoons, and a companj- which they called the " Squad," andthen, under the 
superior generalship of their leader, the knight of the six foot sword, they 
made a bold charge upon the regulars, broke their line, drove not a few of 
them into the river, some into, and some around the Ferry House, some into 
the grocery, and some out of town ; thus defeating and dispersing the regular 
army without the loss of a man on either side. 


This conflict was disastrous in its results to the regular army, and before 
the forces could again bo collected, peace was declared and the army dis- 

This unlooked for cessation of hostilities was a severe blow to the military 
aspirations of the " Hawkeyes," and disappointed the just expectations of 
those who had hoped to distinguish themselves in the defence of our Terri- 
torial rights. The disappointment was not felt by the army of Scott county 
alone. Numerous companies had been formed elsewhere, and had started for 
the seat of war, with supplies for the campaign. 

A company of about thirty left an adjoining county, under the leadership of 
a chieftain, who often used to say that he could "whip his weight in wild 
cats," and who has since represented you in the National Congress— has been 
upon your Supreme Bench, and has also been Chief Justice of California. 

He started out with thirty men, and six baggage wagons, well loaded with 
supplies for his little army, and, being determined to keep up the ainrits of his 
men, he freighted five of his wagons with whisky. 

The question of boundary was subsequently submitted to the Supreme 
Court of the United States, and the disputed Territory given to Iowa. 

At the commencement of the year 1840, this county contained about twenty- 
five hundred inhabitants, of which number, about five hundred resided in 
Davenport. To-day your county boasts of a population of thirty thousand^ 
and this city claims eighteen thousand of that number. 

In 1840, at the head of the Rock Island Rapids, on the spot where now 
stands the city of LeClaire, with a population of twenty-five hundred, grew a 
dense forest. 

In 1840, the fertile, beautiful prairies of old Scott were lying undisturbed 
by the husbandman; to-day they are teeming with industrious, happy owners 
of the soil. 

In 1840, there was but one steam-engine in operation within the borders of 
your county, and that one was at Rockingham. To-day you may count them 
by hundreds along the bank of your river, from Buffalo to Princeton, on our 
prairies, and in our groves. 

In 1840, every face you met was a familiar one, and the greeting a greeting 
of recognition. To-day the oldest inhabitant hardly knows his next door 

In 1840, it took from three to five days to go to Chicago, and thirteen to 
New York. To-day the lightning train puts you in Chicago in eight hours 
and in New York in forty. 

In 1840, the young men of this Association were happy children, sporting 
upon the village green, and making the welkin ring with merry laughter and 
innocent joy. To-day they are men aspiring to a position in life, that shall 
o-ive them honor among their fellow men. 

In 1840, the mothers and daughters of Scott county were happy in their 


cabin homes, and could pass in and out through the cabin doors. To-day the 
mothers and daughters occupy no more space in this open country — than the 
dear good creatures are entitled to. 

In 1840, we were looking forward to a time when our then territory should 
become strong enough to add another member to the Federal Union, and con- 
vince our Eastern friends of the truth of '' Westward the star of empire takes its 
toay." To-day our most sanguine expectations are far more than realized, and 
we regard with pride our noble State, its prospective future, and the induce- 
ments it holds out to the thousands at the East, who still cling to that "Old 
Fogy"' three inch soil, which, with patient cultivation, yields white beans, 
buckwheat cakes, and pumpkin pies. 

Mr. President — This day is the anniversary of the birth day of George 
Washington — our Washington — and we have chosen it as the day for our 
present and future festivals. 

It is a day on which every true American citizen does some act in honor, or 
gives some thought to the memory of the father of his country. That memory 
is the sacred heritage of the people he established, and no generation of that 
people shall pass away without leaving some memento that he was indeed firsj 
in the hearts of his countrymen. 

Some one has truthfully written, that " the first word of American infancy 
should be mother ; the second father; the third Washington." Although it is 
well that we, as American citizens, should, on this his anniversary day, 
linger for a while at his tomb, and renew our patriotism, yet, too, it is em- 
inently fitting, that, assembled as pioneers, with the sympathies and feelings 
of pioneers all aroused within us, we should go to that tomb to-day, and re- 
member that he, too, was a pioneer, and that in him burned strongly that bold 
adventurous, persevering spirit that makes the pioneer ; that he, too, endured 
pioneer hardships and privations, compared with which, ours sink into insig- 

In his youth he was a pioneer surveyor in the then wilds of his native State, 
and many of the boundaries then established by him may be found to-day. In 
his early manhood he was selected by the Governor of Virginia as a pioneer 
envoy through the wilderness to the French Commandant on the Ohio. He 
was a pioneer in leading a little army against the French and Indians, in de- 
fence of the Virginia frontier, and thus early in his military career did he be- 
come known among his savage foes as the "spirit-protected man, who would 
be a chief of nations, for he could not die in battle." He was a pioneer in 
everything that tended to advance the prosperity and happiness of his native 

He was the pioneer of freedom in our legislative halls ; on the battle-field ; 
through the long dark days of that terriVjlo struggle ; through the period of 
doubt and confusion that succeeded ; and his wisdom and patriotism, equal to 
all emergencies, at last led us into the haven of rest, of peace, of prosperity. 



Ills life is a part of his country's history; and as living he laid the corner 
stone of this vast confederation of States, that year by year is waxing greater 
among the nations of the earth, so, though dead, his maxims and example, if 
we adhere to the one, and imitate the other, shall produce a history more 
glorious than that of the past; shall nourish a greatness that time shall but 
add to and confirm; and the unborn generations shall rise up, and revere him 
as God's chosen instrument of blessing to their land. Let his wisdom and his 
patriotism ever pervade and guard the land he loved — let his spirit be with us 
to-day ; and as each turning year brings round again our festival day, let us 
ever remember that it is also the day that marks the birth of George 


After supper, Judge Grant proceeded to read the Regular Toasts as follows : 

1. Washington! — No nation can claim, no country can appropriate him to 
itself. His fame is the common property of patriots throughout the civilized 

2. The Early Pioneers of Scott County — The hardships and privations of a 
frontier life justly entitle them to the esteem of all those who enjoy the 
fruits of their early struggles : their posterity shall rise up and call them 

It is a matter of regret that the forvner, and especially the latter of these 
was not responded to. No toast of the evening was worthy of more eloquence 
than " The Early Pioneers of Scott County" — their hardships, energy, influ- 
ence, and all their character and surroundings were worthy of the best oratory 
of the evening. 

3. The Pioneer Dead — May their names be preserved, their hardships re- 
membered, and memories cherished, by their survivors, by their descend- 
ants, and by all who enjoy the goodly heritage to which they led the way. 
Responded to by Hon. James Grant, who said — 

Mk. Chairman: — I cannot respond to the sentiment just uttered, without 
interrupting, for a moment, the current of your joyous thoughts, while I ask 
you to drop a tear to the memory of the dead. 

Of all this numerous assembly there are few, to whom death has not come 
nigh, since they first encountered the privations and toils of a settlement west 
of the great river. 

Some have lost a father or a mother, some a brother or a sister, some a 
husband or a wife, and many, many have seen their children wither and fade 
as if struck by the hand of an avenging God. 

It is no exaggeration, that, since we first came here, in a single season of 
great calamity, incident to the exposures of every new settlement, one-tenth 
of our then small population was swept away. 

Death, sir, is ever terrible; whether he knocks at the palace or the cottage 


gate, at the bridal chamber, or when the mother, for the first time feels her 
first-born's breath — 

The tear, the groan, the pall, the bier, 
And all we know or dread or fear 
Of agony are his. 

But he came upon our departed friends when they were just entering a 
new world, upon the prairie land, before the spring flowers of prosperity were 
opened to their view ; when the cabin was unthatched, and the physician, and 
the minister of God were far away. 

They died on the spot where they were taking the place of the red man, 
and preparing anew theatre for civilization, arts, morals, and liberty. 

Early they departed, but not till their eyes were greeted by the dawning of 
the day, and they beheld, in the dim mist of the morning, the budding promise 
of the wilderness, and friends, and sons, and daughters, to enjoy the goodly 
land which they had but seen. 

Though too manj' of them the hand of "angel woman ministered not in their 
last hour, yet the rouGch hand of manhood, softened by the sympathy of sor- 
row, was never wanted in the day of their calamity, and the pioneer, though 
not versed in the set phrases of cultivated society, was ever present, with 
gentle voice, and gentler deeds. 

" To speak the last, the parting word, 
Which, when all other sounds decay, 
Is still like distant music heard. 
That tender farewell on the shore 
Of this rude world when all is o'er." 

We know not if the dead visit this earth, or take note of our actions, but if 
they do, their spirits are hovering over us this night, and their hearts made 
glad, that God is smiling upon us, that we are permitted to live, and enjoy 
this pleasant hour ; that we have reaped the reward of those toils and suffer- 
ings under which they were doomed to fall. 

No storied urn or animated bust marks the spot where the pioneers sleep 
their last sleep. They are buried beneath the huge oak, whose shade they 
never see, or under the high head-land of the Mississippi, against which the 
whistling winds and warring tempests are silent to them. 

Their good deeds should be their monument. The glory of their fair and 
virtuous actions is above all the escutcheons on the tombs of the great. 

Honor, then, to the memory of those brave men, and brave women, who lost 
their lives in fighting the battle of civilization on the frontier. 

They encountered no human foes ; their last acts are not stained with 
blood ; their conquests were made with the plough and the spade, and not with 
the cannon and the musket; and though they fell in the beginning of the con- 
tlict, and in the heat of the day, they won the battle, and left us to enjoy the 

Every smiling field and green meadow ; every school, every college, every 
church, every village, this city, with all its wealth and pomp and pride, shall 
be their monuments, recalling their memory, heralding their triumph, and 
honoring their virtues. 

'« How sleep the good, who sink to rest 
By all their country's wishes blest 
When Spring, with dewy fingers cold. 
Returns to deck their hallowed mould. 
She there shall dress a sweeter sod, 
Than fairy's feet have ever trod. 
By fairy bands, their knell is rung, 
By forms unseen their dirge is sung, 
There honor comes a pilgrim grey 
To bless the turf that wraps their clay, 
Aud freedom shall awhile repair 
To dwell a weeping hermit there." 

4. The Star of Empire— ^hQn in its western progress its rays of light fell 
upon the virgin soil of Iowa, a new destiny was conceived, which in its birth, 
like the " Star in the East," has brought forth its wise men to worship. 
Responded to by Rev. G. F. Magoun, who, after a few introductory remarks, 

read the following fine Poem— the production of a young lady— Miss Mary 

E. Meai>— an " old settler" by birthright : 


As oft, at eve, by flreBides bright and warm, 
Some sailor group are gathered, while they tell 
Of journeya far, — of conflict with the storm, — 
Of dangers they have braved so long and well, — 
So round this ample board we meet to-night, 
And many a tale of Olden Time recite. 

Once roamed the Indian all these vales among, 
The deer sprung startled from his stealthy tread. 
The fearful war-whoop through the forest rung, 
The deadly arrow from its quiver sped ; 
B\it now we sit,— at twilight's soft decline, — , 
In peace beneath the shadow of the vine. 

If e'er to conquering warrior has been owed 
The glory of an honored, world-wide name ; 
If e'er on noble souls has been bestowed 
That lofty homage which is truest fame; 
If e'er in history's jiage or classic verse 
Our country's Fathers have been justly praised; 
In humbler strains we surely may rehearse 
The deeds of those b^' whom our hearths were 

raised ; 
Who left their kindred to return no more, 
And reared their altars on this wild-wood shore. 

All are not here : Where sinks the emerald 

In long, dull surges toward the glowing West, 
Lies many a heart as noble and as brave 
As e'er was laid beneath the sod to rest. 

They dropped the acorn on the barren glade, — 
At noon we rest beneath the oak tree's shade. 

We meet again ; the scattered band unite 
In social converse as in days of yore ; 
No! Not as when, within the ruddy light 
Of oak boughs blazing at the cabin door, 
We sat and talked the winter night away, 
Till morning streaked the Eastern hills with 

No more the Red Men round our dwelling prowl. 
No foes lies ambushed in each leafy bovver. 
No more the wolf's swift spring or sndden howl 
Startles the sleeper at the midnight hour ; 
Nor leaping flames before the rapid gale 
Speed like the waves when wintry storms 

From lonely Ahmstrong'S now-dismantled fort 
Down the still stream no martial strains are 

In stately towns where busy crowds resort, 
The chciiful sounds of labor greet the morn. 
J'riim Iiitppy homes the voice of mirth floats by. 
And plashing waves and laughing winds reply. 

Oft have I heard the times recounted o'er, 
When every cabin window was a door, 
When corn was firuuud upou a lantern's side. 
And doors by latch-sti'ings to the timbers tied; 



Small was the store a lawless horde to tempt, 
From thieves and robbers happily exempt. 

Howe'er that bo, of this there is no doubt 

In those good times the latch-strings all hung 

And neighboring friend and stranger guest 

might share 
Tho roof tree's slielter and the simple fare; 
E'en now the cabin ten by twelve is seen 
AVhere on a time 'tis said there lodged fifteen I 

But mingled with these recollections gay 
Tliere wakes a sadder, gentler strain for thoao 
Who like some castle crumbling to decay 
Were doomed to ruin when the new arose. 

'Tis eve, the stars with silv'ry sheen 

Rise silently and slow, 
The pallid moon looks out between, 

The waves repose below. 
And not the dipping of an oar 
Breaks on the stillness of the shore, 

ArYas it the whisper of tho breeze 

Sighing among the tangled grass ? 
"Was it the moaning of the trees 

"When far above the storm clouds pass? 
Oh no, in silence still and deep. 
The tiniest flower is lulled to sleep. 

But there are sounds, — I hear them now, 

They swell along the plain; 
'Tis not the murmer of the rill, 

'Tis not the dash of rain, — 
And can tliere be a foot bO light 
To stir the rustling leaves to night ? 

There is, — along the slant hill-slde, 

Where darksome forests bow, 
Singly the dusky figures glide, — 

Look 3'ou can see them now! 
Pause! 'tis a band of Indian braves — 
Who come to seek their chieftains' graves. 

Disturb them not, as silently 
These well Ivnown paths they trace, 

Not long among us may there be 
Kemnants of that old race. 

Thej' fade as fades tlie morning ray 

Before the glowing eye of day. 

A little time they linger hero, 

Unoared for and unknown, 
To shed a solitary tear. 

O'er comrades lost and gone. 
Silent and sad they gathej- round 
tome lonely, undistinguished mound. 

nark! all the solemn woods along, 

A soft and saddened lay 
As if some heart in plaintive song, 

Would pour itself away. 
List! while the mournful cadence swells 
Clear as the tone of evening bells. 

" Still roll the river waves as blue 
A« when we launched the bark canoe. 
Or when we plied the dripping oar 

Beneath tho shelter of the shore, 
Still sings the lark a welcome guest. 
Still folds the dove her wings to rest, 
Still the gi-een arching forests spread 
Their boughs as widely overhead, 
But 'neath their shadow now, alas ! 
Ko more our bounding warriors pass. 
Silent where once their footsteps fell. 
Land of oiu- birth, farewell, farewell;!" 
Soft echo answers to the trembling lay ; 
'Jieath heavy shadows glides tho group away. 

Oh! kindly sun! Oh! soft benignant day ! 
At thy glad dawn the darkness takes its flight, 
The sombre hues of twilight melt away, 
And sunrise bathes tho Eastern hills with light. 
So smiled the morn with beauty all aglow 
On this fair land some twenty years ago ! 
Faint the light blushes up the dewy skies. 
From cot and couch the cheerful dwellers rise, 
The cabin windows ope, wide fly the doors, 
The fiugal wife brings out her garnered stores. 
The gleeful children, with their sun-browned 

Forsake the house and sport in open air, 

While soon,— the duties of the morning'done 

Some stripling youth, with ready dog and "-an 
Koams through the woods, if haply he may brin" 
From its far height the wild bird on the wing, " 
Or 'mid the rustling forest chance to hear 
The short, sharp panting of the startled deer 
And proud, though weary, from the chase may 

Back to his cot the noon and evening fare." 
One seeks in pastures far the truant cow ' 
Another yokes the cattle to the plow, ' 
Or marches slow the well trained pair beside ; 
(Plain wagon seats were then no bar to pride-^ 
Well was the place of coach and four supplied') 
So glides the day until at eve they meet. 
Children and sire, each in his 'customed seat, 
While plenty smokes upon the cheerful board 
And clear cold wine the sparkUng streams 

Well the day's ventures do the hours beguile 
The dullest face oft wears a gladsome smile. ' 
Now blue eyed "baby" sings herself to rest' 
Safe cradled iu an ancient, lidless chest. 
Hark, from the farthest corner '• Charlie's" call 
For " Pa" to make a rabbit on the wall. 
Then comes the time for little hunter '• Ben " 
To d.ay he surely found a lion's den. ' 

But closed are '• Allie's" eyes, her drooping head 
Finds the soft pillow of her little bed. 
The hours pass cheerly till all softly creep 
Away to childhood's light, unconscious sleep — 
And starlight, peeping through the half-closed 

Kisses the sleepers on the cabin floor. 

How fled the years in humble scenes like these 
U ith much to sadden, more, far more to please' 
And who shall tell, that in this later day— 
When life has grown more earnest and less 

A richer pleasure through its current thrills 
Than in those cots among the breezy hills? 

Simple their juys, their days in quiet spent 

Hope for a watchword, for a shield content,— 

Till Plow at length beneath their forming Mows Only the calm clear voice of IIopo should whisper 
A iiarden from the wilderness arose. litre to-mght. 

Glad faces are around us, sweet tones upon tho 

And the glance of fond affection meets our 

greeting everywhere. 

There are blessings from the aged, kind wishes 

from the young, 
And joy her rosy radiance lias o'er our gathering 


We will hail the fleeting moments where the 

Past and Present stand, 
One with a darksome cypress wreath, one with 

a snow-white wand. 

We will hail the glorious Future with her cup 

of bliss untried, 
Wo will hail the white winged maiden Hope that 

blushes at her side. 

And the rich delicious Present shall trip rejoicing 
As lightly as the winged wind across a Southern 

Lo ' As we gaze along the slender piers 
Which b«ar aloft the lengthening arch of years, 
As we retrace the first faint morning ray 
And glance rejoicing to this noon-tido day, 
Glad hopes, bright visions o'er our bosoms 

And the full heart finds utterance in song. 

Oh noble West ! Oh mighty West I 

Oh ever bright and free, — 
Thy prairies ,by tho breeze caressed, 

Koll wave-like as the sea. 
And through the long and tangled grass 
The sunbeam's golden fingers pass. 

Thy streams are like the streams of Time, — 

i'heir source we cannot see, 
We only hear the water's chime 

Ih-eak low and musically, 
And hear the plashing waves, like rain, 
Dash on the shore, then sink again. 

No pilgrim comes with weary feet 

O'ermany a desert mile, 
His prayer or promise to repeat 

Beneath some sacred pile, 
Nor counts the solitary hours 
Beneath a city's ruined towers. 

But in this world so fresh and young, 

Which like the goddess from the foam 
To life full grown and radiant sprung. 

Lies thiit dear spot OuR Home. 
And round its portals Love and Truth 
Shall wind the wreaths of endless youth. 

Hushed is the song, a sadder strain were not for 

hours so bright, 
6. The History of Scott County— ^hm we open this book, -sve find inscribed 

on every page the gospel of both peace and plenty— proclaiming perennial 

blessings to all whose faith is accompanied by works. 

Responded to by Mr. J. A. Birchard, of Pleasant Valley, in a brief address, 
in which he spoke as follows : 

Ma. President:— The history of any new country must necessarily be one of 
trials, hardships, and piivations. The pioneers have to leave the land of their 
birth, the home of their childhood, the hearthstone around which centered all 
their'earlyjoys and sorrows— the district school-bouse where they received the 
rudiments,'if notthe whole of their education— the villnge church where they 
assembled weekly to worship their Creator— the friends of their youth and early 
manhood. These must all be left, and it is like tearing a young sapling from 
its mother earth. 

New associations must be formd, new homes must be made, new school- 
houses and churches built. But, compared with the trials and hardships of 
the first settlers in the States east of us, if we except those of our neighbor 
across the river, ours are not worth talking about. 

There, many of them packed their goods and little ones two or three hundred 

But tears are quivering on the moistened cheek, 
A glance on life's receding track we cast. 

Our voice is mute, our lips refuse to speak, 
Ourhearts o'erflow with memories of the past. 

Oh ! Friends op Old ! we meet again to night, 
Our hopes and wishes as of yore to blend. 
Thus will we keep the links of friendship bright, 
Thus will we journey onward to the end. 
And hand to hand in cordial greeting pressed, 
We'll breathe a blessing on the glorious West. 


miles on horseback through an almost trackless wilderness, and were four or 
five weeks in making the journey. Then their difficulties with the Indians — 
when I tell j-ou that I was born in the valley of the Susquehanna, in the 
county where the massacre of Wyoming occurred, you will believe me, sir, 
when I tell you that many of the tales of suffering that I have heard are too 
horrible to relate. Before they could raise an ear of corn they had a heavy 
forest to remove, that took twenty or thirty hard days work to the acre. Then 
they had the rocks and stumps to contend with for years. I have serious 
doubts whether a merciful Creator, that always does all things well, ever in- 
tended the country for the habitation of civilized and christianized man. It is 
the natural home of the speckled trout, the wild deer, and the Indian. 

For us a bountiful Providence had provided an excellent highway to get 
here, and when here a prolific soil ready for the plow, and pasturage sufficient 
for the flocks and herds of Labon and Jacob, and their sons, for a dozen gen- 

It is true, that from 1839 to '44 we thought we had some rather hard times 
— when it took a bushel of wheat to buy a yard of calico, and a hundred pounds 
of pork to pay for as many of salt. But these were very different hard times 
from what they have in the old country ; there it is starvation times that they 
call hard. If we could not get the two dollars & day, we could get the roast 
beef, and upon t':e whole, we had a pretty good time of it. 

I first crossed the Mississippi in a canoe, nearly where the bridge now 
stands. This was in July 1836. I presume there were not more than tl;ree 
hundred inhabitants then in the county. You, Mr. President, and your ferry- 
man, Mr. Colton, were the only settlers in Davenport, and Mr. Eleazer Park- 
hurst, the only one at LeClaire. 

At that time there was not, to my knowledge, a single mile of Railroad 
between the Mississippi River and the Alleghany Mountains. 

The iron horse, except at the portage road in Pennsylvania, had never tasted 
the waters that flow through our noble river to the Gulf. Now the amount that 
he consumes daily would have floated the entire navy of the United States at 
the time of the revolution ; and the amount of produce that he moves from 
this fertile valley towards a market in the same time would make a full 
freight for it. 

The last time that I crossed the river was upon my return last fall from a 
visit to my friends in my native State, and I crossed at the same place, but 
how differently. I crossed the great father of waters as it cannot be crossed 
at any other point from its source to its mouth — upon a noble structure, a 
proud monument to the enterprise and perseverance of the inhabitants of the 
twin cities. To the pioneers of Davenport belongs a very large share of the 
credit for this truly magnificent improvement. 

The train upon which I crossed was brought over by a locomotive, named 
after one of our prominent pioneers. We landed where, when I first crossed 


the river, stood the lone cabin of our worthy President. What do I find now ? 
A young city teeming with life, and containing a larger population and more 
wealth than was then contained in Galena, St. Louis, and Chicago. 

I think, sir, that we have proved our faith by our woi-ks, and if any man is 
skeptical upon the sentiment contained in the text, let him take a ride any 
pleasant day along the river, from Buffalo to Princeton, from thence through 
the prairie to Blue Grass, and he will become a convert to the " Gospel both 
of peace and plenty." 

We have formed the new associations, — that they have been pleasant ones I 
have the best evidence in the world around me this evening. 

We have transplanted the young sapling, it has taken deep root in a con- 
genial soil and became a sturdy tree. 

We have made the new homes, raised the new altars, built the new school- 
houses and churches. To do this required men ; men of iron nerve, of strong 
arms and large hearts, and such were the pioneers of Scott county. 

6. The City of Davenport — The Pet and the Pride of glorious "old Scott;'' 
crown jewel of the Upper Mississippi ; the rose of Sharon and the lily of the 

Responded to by Hon. Jas. Thorington, in whose off-hand remarks were 
mingled the humor and good sense which are so characteristic of the Speaker. 
Unfortunately, it has not been possible to obtain a copy of his remarks. 

7. The Race that occupied the land be/ore us — Men in physical ability, stoics in 
morals : They are our brothers. 

Rev. Mr. Powers responded to this, and spoke as follows : 

Mr. President: — It is fitting, amid the stirring, local and national associ- 
ations of this hour, to remember that stern race whose fair heritage we pos- 
sess. Their hunting grounds have become our harvest-fields; the sites of 
their wigwams are thriving settlements and industrious marts ; household 
sounds and christian worship are heard where resounded their war cry ; and 
on their trail the iron railway shoots toward the setting sun. 

Though children of the wilderness, rude, sanguinary, and superstitious, still 
their savage humanity is redeemed by many heroic virtues. As magnanimous 
in friendship as they were implacable in revenge ; as sagacious in council as 
dauntless in war— ever patient, intrepid, self-reliant, imperturbable in success 
or defeat, with their darkest traits are always blended lines of light, which 
reveal the nobler qualities of the man. 

Indian history, sir, is not barren of pathetic incident and brilliant example. 
Heroes and patriots live in its exciting chronicles. And whether we contem- 
plate the noble constancy of King Philip, the magnanimity of Massasoit, the 
tenderness of Pocahontas, the eloquent enthusiasm of Garangula and Red 
Jacket, the chivalrous heroism of Tecumseh, or the fervid patriotism of Black 
Hawk, we recognize types of character which claim our sympathy, and com- 
mand our admiration. 

Though the Indian saw, in the trophies of advancing civilization, fruitful 


lands and peaceful arts, the ornaments and amenities of life, still we can honor 
that sentiment which inspired his devotion to the rude fieedom of his native 
wilds, and provoked resistance to the aggressive pioneer with all the arts of 
subtle strategy and force, even when the shadow of doom was dark upon him. 
Yes, we can honor him, for the land that we loved was the land of his fathers, 
and he felt that their voices spoke to him of duty and patriotism from their 

But the memory of this peculiar race shall not piss away, though they have 
left no monuments in brass and marble to plead for them from ruin and 
decay. It is perpetuated in the appellations of mighty waters and everlasting 
lands. Their legends whisper in every wind, in falling leaf, and feathery 
snow, and in all the cadences of the woods and shores. And while our har- 
vests ripen under auspicious suns, while the blue rivers bear our commerce to 
the sea, while a srrateful people enjoy the blessings of the Great Father of us 
all, the story of their pastimes and their prowess, shall be repeated in the 
homes of the happy and the free. 

8. Anioine LeClaire—F'irst in settlement — first in efforts to make our city 
peerless among rivals — first in the esteem of his fellow citizens — first 
President of this society ; may " his shadow never be less." 

Responded to by E, Cook, Esq , who regretted that the reply had not been 
committed to abler men— a regret wholly uncalled for, as he did not fail in 
doing the subject full justice. His laudations of Mr. were recognized 
as correct and merited. 

9. Marquette and Joliet- -The Pioneers of Pioneers. History, poetry, fiction, 
exhibit nowhere a heroism so lofty, a daring so noble, an ambition so pure, 
and faith so lovely, as may be found in the oft-neglected but simple and 
touching story of the first white men who trod the soil of Iowa, 
Respomled to by John F. Dillon, who said — 

Mr. Ch^irmax: — No sentiment has been offered to-night, to which I could 
more heartily respond, than to that. In my judgment it is eminently pertinent. 
I may possibly amplify, but can scarcely hope to add to the thoughts it con- 
cisely embraces. Its language is no' that of exaggeration. 

If I heard aright, Marquette and Joliet are styled " the Pioneers of Pioneers." 
Literally and strictly true. Beyond cavil, they were the first white men that 
set foot upon the soil of Iowa. Nor was the advent of the pale face so recent 
as we are apt to imagine. About fitty years only after the landing of the 
Pilgrims— nearly sixty years jorwr to the founding and settlement of Georgia 
by the enlightened and chivalric Oglethorpe — almost ten years before William 
Penn made his famous treaty with the natives, distinguished as being almost 
the only treaty ever made with the ill-starred race, 

"Never sworn to, and never broken," 
did the illustrious Marquette and Joliet visit lovely Iowa,— the State we are 


proud to call our own! In striciest verity, then, thej are tbe Pioneers of 

Somctliing, me thought I beard in the sentiment about their heroism and 
daring 1 and something about their unquestioning Faith and pure Ambition 1 

How gladly, under other circumstances, would I talk upon this interesting, 
this suggestive theme 1 But it would be vastly imprudent to risk an excursion 
to this Enchanted Ground, where one would infallibly be tempted to linger 
longer than the proprieties of the occasion, and the advanced hour of the 
night would warrant. A few words, then, and a few only, must suffice. We 
must be content to glance at, without entering upon, the delightful land. 

The whole West, the Mississippi Valley, at the time of which I speak, was an 
unexplored wilderness. More than a century had elapsed since the discovery 
of the Mississippi by the romantic De Soto, wbo, though he found not gold in 
its sands, most fittingly found a grave beneath its waters, — yet nothing more 
than its bare existence was known. 

No European knew where it rose or where it discharged its mighty floods. 
Marquette knew of it only from the reports of the natives as the "Great 
River" lying somewhere in the distant West, and whose banks were reputed to 
be thronged with blood-thirsty savages, and whose waters were said to abound 
in destructive monsters. 

He felt animated to attempt its discovery; and nobly dared to brave every 
danger, and endure every hardship incident to the perilous undertaking. 
Why did he seek it ? and how 9 

He sought it not as thousands in our own day have sought a distant land in 
our own Continent, and a still more distant island in a distant ocean, for Gold! 
He sought it not for wordly fame, or worldly ends. He sought it as an hum- 
ble Missionary for the purpose of proclaiming the Gospel, and erecting the 
standard of Christianity among the tribes that he thought to find residing upon 
its banks. I see in imagination, Marquette and Joliet, with but five attendaxits, 
and two guides, leave the last white settlement, and boldly pushing forward 
they knew not where, among hostile and unknown tribes. 

Their guides can aid them no further, and the guides return. Submitting 
to the guidance of Providence, with their light canoes upon their backs, they 
at length find tbe Wisconsin. Unlike the streams they had left behind, this 
flowed towards the setting sun. They patiently follow its current for an en- 
tire week, when lo ! the long sought for River, as magnificent then as it is 
to-day, burst upon their enraptured vision. 

Day after day they sailed down its waters. They certainly passed, mayhaps 
landed at the place where our flourishing city now stands. 

Near the southern boundary of our State they aayr foot prints on the sands of 
the river shore. They landed, — anticipating, but not dreading, death at every 
step, and kept upon the trail until it led to an Indian village upon the banks 
of the Des Moines. 


Their courage and heroism faltered not for a moment. They boldly ad- 
vanced, and Marquette proclaimed to the astonished natives God and the 
doctrines and mysteries of the faith which he taught. 

The remarks of the eloquent gentleman who responded to number seven i 
remind me of the first words of these natives on the banks of the Des Moines, 
on beholding Marquette and his companions: " We are men," said they. And 
men they were. They are our brothers. They were recognized as such by 
Marquette " in his labors of love." 

Do the departed look down upon us ? If so, with what astonishment must 
these early Voyageurs behold the miraculous growth and development of the 
country they were the first to point out and visit. 

We love to imagine, as they trod these shores, in the majestic solitudes of 
nature, that they heard the tramp of the coming millions I and had visions of 
the Empires that have since arisen so marvelously upon the banks of the Great 
River they were the first to explore. 

They founded no cities. They left no permanent monuments behind them ! 
Yet a generous posterity will not willingly let their names perish. So far as 
they, or their " simple and touching story" is concerned, no " Old Mortality" 
is needed by the " Pioneer Settlers" assembled here to-night. So long as yon 
river fiows, it will water their memories, and preserve them fresh and green 1 

10. The Pioneer Press of Scott County. 

Mr. Andi-ew Logan was first called upon, and made some brief but peitinent 
remarks in regard to the reception and growth of the Press in Davenport. He 
was followed by Alfred Sanders, Esq., Senior Editor of the Gazette, who spoke 
as follows : 

Mr. Chairman : — la responding to that sentiment, permit me to express my 
pleasure in meeting so many of my fellow citizens, those whose features and 
voices have so long been familiar to me. I love to look upon their smiling 
faces, many of which, alas ! since they first were familiar to my sight, have 
become worn and furrowed by time, while their locks have grown thin and 
blanched by age. But we are all passing away — we that were boys and girls 
a few years since, are now the fathers and mothers of boys and girls, and the 
responsibility that devolved upon our parents now rests upon us. Another 
score of years and our children will be the actors in the drama of life, and we 
either be spectators or have reti"ed altogether from the stage of action. 

When the portals of manhood first opened to me, and the wide world lay 
spread out, inviting me to select a locality, I started upon a tour of over two 
thousand miles. I viewed many towns on my route, but the one that presented 
the strongest attractions, that off"ered the most inducements for me to return 
and make it my home, was the then insignificant but beautiful town of Daven- 
port, at that lime a small village of some five hundred inhabitants. 

In the same year of my life I came and declared my intention of becoming a 
citizen, and the next year returned and brought with me my press, my partner 



in businfs — I might almost add, my partner in life, as sbe immediately fol- 
lowed — . n I (I'anitd my stakes for I fe. 

We laniled lure on the Uih day of Augu^^t, 1841, on one of the smallest 
steamers that ever aseend-d the Mississippi River. In crossing the Lower 
R.ipid.s we had iapileover, the power oftlie engine not being sufficient to pro- 
pil the little steamer a^aiust the current! We were four diiys thence in reaching 
the town of Davenport. As we landed here, the good people of the village 
crowded down to the wharf to see and aid in diserab.irking the new press, and 
so eflfectually did they succeed in the latter particular, that they managed 
before they got it ashore to bury it beneaih the waves of the Father of Waters 1 
Thus it was baptized., and I trust it never did discridit to the town it repre- 
sented, the cause it advocated, nor — the ghostly fathers that administered the 
ordinance I 

That we saw hard times for many years in the publication of the Gazette, 
every old settler from per-onal experience knows to be the fact, but being 
blessed with a spirit that never says die, we persevered, and the paper now 
Stands as one of the institutions of the West. 

With pride I say it, Mr. Chairman, — as I presume it to be the only instance 
oa record in the West — that although we had to purchase all our paper and 
materials in the East, and have them brought out by the slow and tedious 
course of the Ohio and Mis^issifipi rivers, and although we had our paper 
sunk, and burned, and delayed by every accident incident to so long a transpor- 
tation, and although my assistants were sick, and I alone had to fill every 
department of the paper, from writing its editorials, and setting the type, to 
working at press, and rolling for papers, yet, during the sixteen and a half 
years I have controlled the Gazette, it never has missed a single number. 

Of all those connected with the press in the State of Iowa, or in the entire 
region of country west of the Mississippi River, from its source to its ou'let, at 
the time I commenced the publication of the Davenport Gazette, not a single 
one remains in that capacity — they are all gone, a few to other occupations, but 
the great majority of them to the bourne whence no traveler returns. I stand 
alone, and yet not alone — there are more editors this day in the city of Daven- 
port than there were then in the entire State of Iowa, and throughout the 
West — who can number them ? 

I will but add, that if an acccuntability attaches to us old settlers, for our 
agency in inducing many persons to leave the comfjrtsand luxuries of Eastern 
homes to take up their abode here, where they were denied those luxuries, 
that I will have full as much to answer for as any of you ; but if I have no 
worse reflection to vex my last hours than the thought of my instrumentality in 
inducing good people to make Davenport their homes, I shall certainly depart 
in peace. 

11. The Pioneer Children — They are now brave young men and fair young 
women; may their lives, if not as eventful, be as useful as those of their 


Responded to by G. W. Hoge, in a very creditable speech. He said : 

One of Scott County's Earliest Born, — it is with no little pleasure, Mr. 
President, that I respond to this call, which recognizes me as such ; and to 
the toast, in which we, the " children of the soil," are so kindly remembered. 

There are hours, sir, in the lives of all, which, from attendant circumstances 
become eras — landmarks a ong the pathway of life, to which memory will ever 
revert, with undiminished interest. Such an one will the present occasion be • 
and by none will it be remembered with a truer, or more lasting pleasure, 
than by us, the junior members of this noble family — us, "the Pioneer Child- 
ren of Scott County." 

Born here, many of us, at a time when but a few scattered, and lowly 
dwellings, marked the site of the now populous and opulent city of Davenport 
— while our beauteous State, herself, was vet in embryo — our interest in Scott 
county has been no less deep , our affection for her no less fervent than their's 
who, emigrants from other States, came here to find a second home on our 
boundless prairies, or beside our noble river. 

We, sir, had no sacred ties to sever — no happy firesides in far Eastern homes 
to regret — here, was our first, our only home — we knew no ether and we 
cared for none. To us, the ivorld was bounded on the East by the Mississippi, and 
Davenport ivas its Metropolis. 

Scott county, sir, has been, as it were, our twin Sister; we have grown with 
her growth, and strengthened with her strength— her friends are our friends, 
and her prosperity our "chief joy." 

Here, sir, has been the theatre of all our joys, and all our sorrows. Here 
cradled in the arms of Pioneer mothers, the days of our early childhood passed 
as one bright, unbroken dream; and as days lengthened into years, and the 
babe became the boy, by the side of Pioneer fathers, we have explored to us 
the unbounded expanse of the seedland, or the harvest-field ; happy thouo-h 
we could not work, to carry the sickle, or the hoe ; and wishing that we were 
men, that we, too, might hold the plough, or reap the grain, or drive a prairie 

Or we have stood, while the "sounding aisles of the dim woods rang" to the 
strokes of the Pioneer's axe, and watched the big chips fly, until the mighty 
oak reeled — tottered — and fell, with a crash that woke the woodland echoes 
for many a rood. How we longed to be woodsmen then I 

And here, sir, on many a long, bright Summer's day, we sat in the rustic 
school-house, striving to comprehend the mysteries of spelling book or primer 
until released from study — gamboling in unrestrained freedom on nature's 
own green carpeting, spread before the door — a merry band, we shouted our 
delight, unrestricted by city ordinances. 

And when the week slipped by, and Sabbath morning smiled, with reverence 
we sat in the little weather-beaten church, while, in heartfelt terms the 
Pioneers praised the name of their fathers' God for this their fair inheritance 
and earnestly besought his choicest blessings on their prairie homes. 


Such, sir, were our joys — we had our sorrows, too. For, ever and anon, a 
dark cloud of gloom gathered over the little settlement, as some loved one was 
taken from our midst by the hand of the destroyer. 

A father, perhaps — well-beloved — stricken down in the pride of his man- 
hood ; or some tender mother is gone — leaving sad and desolate, a heretofore 
happy hearth. Or, perchance, the prattling babe — the light and sunshine of 
the cottage circle — unfolded its little wings, and soared, a white-robed cherub, 
to its starry home. Or the merry, light-hearted child — the joyous sharer in 
oar youthful sports — left us, with aching hearts and quivering lips, to mourn 
his early grave. 

But this is too sad a theme — there is another — a brighter one — to which we 
gladly turn. 

The birth-right, sir, is not alone to us of the " sterner sex" — for I can look 
around me here to-night, and see many a sparkling eye, whose first bright 
glance lit up the loneliness of a settler's cabin — many a coral lip, whose first 
sweet smil gla Idened a Pioneer mother's heart. And the witchery of these 
bright glances has been round us ever. These sweet smiles — like the guerdon 
of the boy and man — gave zest to all our youthful pleasures, as to-night they 
throw enchantment round this festive scene. 

And where, Mr. President — whether as now, gracing the crowded assembly, 
or in the home circle, filling and adorning alike the various stations of daughter, 
sister, wife, or all combined — where, I ask, will you find a lovelier galaxy than 
these, the Pioneer daughters of Scott county? And, sir, all of this gentle sister- 
hood are not with us on this occasion. 

The snow lies lightly o'er some well-remembered forms that sleep in yonder 
grave-yard., for a time, have left us,, whom we hope, ere long, to greet 
again. Others — and we miss them all — on distant shrines have placed their 
household gods. But we feel assured, sir, that if these absent ones know of 
this, our social gathering, their hearts are with us in our joy ; for while 

"Through other scenes their footsteps roam, 

Still hither must their hearts expand — 
There is their loved — adopted home — 

T/iis, this, is stiU their naiiM land /" 

"What wonder then, Mr. President, that we love this soil, hallowed by 
such associations ? What wonder, that in our eyes, Scott county is the 
"fairest land the sun shines on ?" 

We glory in this our birth-place. We glory in the noble stock from which we 
sprung. May, they, sir, never have cause to blush for us ! 

12. The City of LeClaire — Our young and prosperous rival. Let Davenport 

look well to her laurels. 

Mr. Laurel Summers, Esq., of LeClaire, was to have responded to this toast, 
but was obliged to send a letter of regret. Judge Grant made some humorous 


remarks in comparison of Davenport and LeClaire, bringing in some excellent 

13. Woman — The pride and ornament of the proudest palace — the joy and 

sunshine of the humblest cabin. 

Hiram Price, Esq., responded in his usual felicitous style to this universally 
popular toast. He said : — 

Mr. Cuairman : — I am called upon to respond to the sentiment, that 
" Woman is the pride and ornament of the proudest Palace, and the joy and 
sunshine of the humblest Cabin." 

Well, sir nobody doubts that, do they ? There is but one side to that sub- 
ject, and consequently no chance for an argument. Woman ! I rather like the 
name, it seems like coming back to first principles, and while I am well satis- 
fied that she is justly entitled to an abler advocate, and better representative 
than myself, yet I am bold to assert that the declaration contained in that 
toast is literally and emphatically true. 

You might have gone further, sir, and added to the reading, the words 

'^ and generally pretty hard to get ahead of^' for certain I am, that all present 
will agree with me, when I say that it is daily becoming a more difficult task 
to get around them. 

" The pride and ornament of the proudest Palace." Yes, sir, of this there can 
be no question, and yet what I may say upon this point, must of necessity be 
more the result of historical, than experimental knowledge. But sir when 
you talk of her as being the joy and sunshine of the humblest Cabin, I can 

speak from experience — on the subject of Cabins I am at home. I've been there 

as boy and man I have builded them, and lived in them, and to-night memory 
runs back to the days of my boyhood, and calls up before my mental vision 
the image of my mother, as she appeared to me in those days, at once the joy 
and the sunshine of my cabin home. 

"Whether viewed from this stand point, or from one a little further down the 
stream of time, where with her who for near a quarter of a century has shared 
the lights and shades of life with me, and who accompanies me to this festive 
hall to-night, I commenced the battle of life in the world, — in either case and 
from every point of observation, I am furnished with evidence to conclusively 
establish the fact, that woman is the joy and sunshine of the Cabin. 

The homes of America 1 Yea, the homes of the World, all proclaim with 
united voice that Woman is not only the Pride of the Palace, but that she is 
emphatically the Joy and Sunshine of the Cabin. 

In this world, Palaces are for the few. Cabins for the million. Amono- the 
domicils of earth. Cabins are the rule. Palaces the exception. But whether in 
the Palace, or in the Cabin, it is in the heme circle that woman finds her 
proper sphere, her true element. It is from that centre that her influences 
radiate, revealing fountains of joy, and reservoirs of sunshine wherever her 
voice is heard in the territory of christian organization, and much, very much 
of what the world possesses of happiness is attributable to that influence. 


True, there have been occasional instances, where woman has stepped out of 
this sphere, and for a time has, with meteoric flashes, fixed the gaze, and 
attracted the attention of an astonished world. Such, for instance, as the 
Maid of Saragossa, Joan of Arc, and last, though not least, Florence 
Nightingale, the latter of whom was, and is, at once the pride of all 
Palaces, and the joy and sunshine of all Cabins ; but these are exceptions 
to the rule, and only prove the rule to be that the home circle is woman's true 
kingdom. Without her, man would be a savage, a hairy faced, unshaven 
savage, for without her smooth and smiling face constantly before him, he 
would not have been sufficiently civilized to shave. 

'Twas for these, among other reasons, that the declaration went forth from 
above, that it was not good for man to be alone. And, Mr. Chairman, it is but 
a few months since one of the christian powers of Europe was compelled to 
send out a ship load of women to one of their Island Colonies, to prevent their 
colonists from relapsing into barbarism. That, sir, was emphatically a ship 
load of joy and sunshine for the Cabins of that Colony. 

It is true, sir, that without this influence, 

" Man may climb the slippery steep. 
Where wealth and hun r lofty shine — 

An J love of gold may tempt the deep. 
Or downward seek the Indian mine"^ 

but in all that enobles, all that elevates, all that raises from earth and points 
Heavenward, in all that feeds and fills his higher nature,^he will be deficient- 
And even now, sir, I hear from afar the lamentation of one of earth's most 
favored and gifted sons, as from the exalted position to which he had climbed 
in search of happiness and fame, he exclaims — 

" I miss thee, my mother, in the long Winter nighta, 

I remember the tales thou wouldst tell — 
The romance of wild fancy, the legend of fright — 

Ah! who could e'er tell them so well? 
Tl.y corner's now vacant, thy chair is removed — 
■ It was kind to take that from my eye ; , 

But the relics are round me, the loved and the prized 

To call up the pure and the sorrowful sigh." 

This, sir, speaks of an influence deep and high. An influence upon which 
more than any one human agency, depends the destiny of our country. It 
speaks in language not to be mistaken, giving tone and shape and color to 
the Pulpit, the Press, and the Forum. It is the power behind the Throne 
greater than the Throne itself. 

And now to the women present — the women of Scott county. In view of 

the extent and importance of their influence, may I not be allowed to say, in 
the language of one of the gifted of their own sex — 

" Up woman to thy duty ! Now'a 

The day, and novv's the hour 
To use thy boasted influence — 

To prove thy magic power! 
Unloose thy tongue — the word of trath 

That would a household save, 
If spoken well, perchance may snatch 

A thousand from the grave! 
On in thy work with strong free heart, 

Thy mission's from above ! 
Tou cannot fail if you are true, 

For ail the work is love 1 
And " God is Love ;" and woman's sphere 

Of love and hope was given 
To draw the wanderer from his sina, 

And point him up to Heaven !" 

To the "Pioneer Settlers," permit me, in closing, to say, that the sincere 
desire of my heart is, that you may never lack pride for your Palaces, or joy 
and sunshine for your Cabins, and may you live to enjoy many such happy 
reunions as this in future time, and when all shall be numbered with the 
" Pioneer Dead," may you all have a brighter and a happier reunion in the 
land of the " Great Hereafter." 


Sent by Laurel Summers. 

Scott County — Unsurpassed in beauty and fertility of soil ; may her " Old Set. 

tiers live to enjoy their annual festivals. 

Judge Grant introduced with very appropriate remarks, and a eulogy upon 
his subject — " The memory of Col. Davenport," which was drunk standing and 
in silence. 

Willard Barrows, Esq., was next called upon, and made a few impromtu 
but heartfelt and pertinent remarks. The present gathering was, he said, the 
fruit of long cherished hope on his part, and there never before had been 
a moment in his life in which such emotions possessed him as at the present. 
It was a blending of the brightened joys, and softened sorrows and hardships 
of the Past, with the serene quietness and social sympathies of the Present. 
They were thirsty soldiers who had met by cool waters after the hot labor of 
a weary campaign of years. They were victors, scarred and toilworn, but 
secure of the future, and save a saddened memory, as here and there an old 
familiar face was wanting, and thought traced its upturned lineaments upon 
some distant battle field, there was no cause save for rejoicing. 



Mr. Barrows spoke In a similar strain for a few moments, and closed his 
remarks by saying that he felt to-night like one of old who loved her friends, 
and whose memorable words of affection shall live forever : " Entreat me not 
to leave thee or forsake thee — for whither thou goest, I will go ; thy people 
shall be my people, and thy God my God — where thou diest I will die, and 
there will I be buried I" — and when I shall have gone to that *' bourne from 
whence no traveler returns," the greatest boon I can ask is, that my grave 
may be surrounded by the " Pioneer Settlers Association of Scott County !" 
His modest fear of saying too much, unfortunately, overcame the wishes of his 
auditors to listen to him longer. It is, perhaps, owing to him more than any 
other that the idea of an " Old Settlers" reunion became a practical fact — 
shaped to the fair and goodly proportions which it possessed. 

All honor to his efforts, which resulted so happily, and may scores of re- 
turning Festivals afford yearly gratitude to his name as well as to those of 
others who labored to originate them. 

By Col. T. C. Eads: 
The Old Settlers of Scott County — Drawn together by the indissoluble ties of a 
common fate — a relationship stronger than than that of blood; no power, 
save Him who governs the world, shall sever the brotherhood till the last of 
the noble band shall sink into an honored grave, and leave posterity to say : 
He was a man. 
By W. Allen : 
The Pioneer Settlers of Scott County — May the noble spirit which prompted them 
to attempt the civilization of this magnificent wilderness, to mould and en- 
ergize the souls of their descendants, that the Creator's grand dei*igu in the 
settlement of this beautiful land may be speedily accomplished, and its re- 
sults be manifested by the countless spires that shall direct to heaven, from 
every town and village, the thoughts of a free and happy people. 
By a Lady: 
Dr. J. J. Burtis — The gentlemanly and agreeable proprietor of this palatial 
Hotel, may he be completely successful in his benevolent plan for public 
entertainment, and his brightest anticipations be more than realized. 
By C. C. Altoud: 
The Sons and Daughters of the Old Settlers — May they imitate us in perseverance, 

frugality and industry, and their seed not go begging bread. 
The Matrons of this Association — Our help, comfort, and consolation in every 
time of need, and the fruits of their labor now follow them. 
During these toasts three hearty cheers were given for Dr. Burtis, the host. 



Bellaire, 0., February 8, 1858. 
Gentlemen : — I feel much complimented by your remembrance of me, and 
the invitation to the Festival of the " Pioneer Settlers' Association," on the 
22d inst. I regret very much that I cannot be with you on that occasion — 
the first re-union of those, still living, who were associated in the founding of 
society in your county, will be an event of unusual interest. The recollec- 
tions awakened by it will have some things to sadden, but more to excite grat- 
ulation. Twenty years make but a short period in the history of communities ; 
but it is a long one in individual experience, more especially when the suc- 
cession of events is a truer guage of time than the change of seasons. More 
than twenty years have gone by since the most of those who can be denom- 
inated the Pioneers of Scott county, settled in what was then Wisconsin Ter- 
ritory. Since that time what changes have come to all — what trials to many 1 
Some have passed away ; but most of those remaining are able to claim that 
the occurrences which have built up the prosperity of your State, have dealt 
kindly with their individual fortunes, and repaid them for all the hardships 
and sacrifices they endured in the first ten years of their pioneer experience. 
These are the considerations which, with greater or less intensity, according 
to the respective fortunes that have attended the members of your association, 
will more obviously link themselves with the reminiscences of the Festival. 
But there is a moral point of view in which the retrospection will have less of 
individuality, and, therefore, a higher and more refined sense of gratulation. 
In the migration to that country, each of us had our individual purpose to ac- 
complish — some possibly sordid and narrow — others, doubtless, broad and 
elevated, with visions of enlarged usefulness and a great future for the country 
they had adopted. But whatever may have been our motives or dreams, the 
seven years of hard times which succeeded 1837, (operating with peculiar se- 
verity upon a country so isolated from market as Iowa then was,) brought 
everything to the grinding standard of a struggle for bare subsistence. But 
through all this struggle and gloom a great purpose was being accomplished : 

" Thelre is a Providence that shapes our ends. 
Rough hew them as we will." 

The very difficulties of the country were preparing it for a brighter day. 
Every plough-furrow — every axe-stroke were unwitting but sure agencies in 
the development of the country, and in advancing it towards that day of 
awakening — that complete and active civilization of which the Locomotive is 
the true representative. Twenty years elapsed, and the struggling pioneers of 
Iowa found themselves the fathers of a great and prosperous State. 

In the spring of 1835, I settled upon the Illinois shore, where Stephenson 
(now Rock Island,) was afterwards located. In 1836, I removed to the w«st 


side of the Mississippi, into what was then Michigan Territory, afterwards 
Wisconsin, and now Iowa. In 1840, I joined you in the organization of the 
Chicago & Rocli Island Railroad Company. These epochs tell the history of 
my pioneership. In them I cannot boast that I accomplished much for my- 
self; but I thank God that I have done something — or at least I hope so — for 
my fellow-man. 

You have placed two periods, conspicuously different in themselves, in jux- 
taposition upon your card — 1840 and 1858, — Iowa as it was, and Iowa as it is. 
What a contrast the two pictures present! The rapid colonization of Ohio and 
Kentucky were marvels in their day, but tl.ey are marvels no longer. Wiscon- 
sin may claiai a parallel with Iowa; and Minnesota may boast a leap into 
Statehood of still greater apparent vigor ; but not, when it is considered thit, 
for the want of railroad connection with the seaboard, the first ten years of 
Iowa were practically lost to her. 

Allow me, in conclusion, to hope that there will be many and pleasant re- 
unions of the " Pioneer Settlers' Association." 

Very truly yours, etc., 


Fruit Hill Classical Institute, Mass., ") 
February 9th, 1858. J 

Gentlemen : — Your note and invitation were transmitted to me by my 
father. I thank you very much for your kind invitation and welcome. It is 
with much regret that I am obliged to inform you, that impossibilities, which 
cannot be surmounted, will prevent my joining you in the approaching festi- 
val. But although I cannot be present in person, still my best wishes are with 
you. I rejoice that I am a Hawkeye, and 1 feel proud of the State of my na- 
tivity — may she continue to advance as rapidly as she has for the past twenty 
years, till she shall become the leading State in the Union. The " Pioneer 
children" — may they always remain true to their native State, and never dis- 
grace the land of their birth. 


Fozboro, February 15th, 1858. 
Gentlemen : — I regret very much that circumstances are such that I cannot 
comply with your kind invitation to attend the first festival of the "Pioneer 
Settlers' Association of Scott County," Iowa; yet while absent in body, let me 
assure you I shall be with you in spirit. It is a long time since I lived among 
you and then but eighteen months, yet I have always felt an interest in your 
prosperity, and have kept myself "posted up," by taking one of your good 
papers. My heart has often yearned for some of your " good things," and yet 
I have never felt that strong desire to be one day with you as I now do. 


May the same God that has been •with and highly blessed you, lead you 
safely through this world up to our homes in the skies. 

Yours truly, 


Jacksonville, III., Feb. 15, 1858. 
Gentlemen : — T received a letter a few days since from Mr. W. Barrows, in 
which was enclosed a card of invitation to a grand festival of the "old folks 
at home." Nothing could afford me more pleasure, than for myself and family 
to be present with you on the occasion mentioned — to meet with friends of 
former years, especially the hardy pioneers whose energy, toil and efforts have 
caused such wonderful developments in all that contributes to the happiness 
of man, would be a source of enjoyment, which would produce feelings in my 
heart of the most delightful character; but circumstances beyond my control 
will prevent my being present — and with many thanks to the committee for 
their invitation, I close with the following sentiment : " The pioneers of the 
West" — they were men of strong nerve and warm hearts ; by their sacrifice, 
toil, and efforts, they have caused the solitary places to be glad, and the wild- 
erness to bloom and blossom as the rose — may their memory be sacred ! 


Dubuque, Feb. 1, 1858. 
Gentlemen : — I have received an invitation from the Pioneer Settlers' Asso- 
ciation, of Davenport, to be present at their approaching Festival, on the 22nd 
of February, and to respond to a toast in reference to the " Pioneer Dead." I 
regret that it will not be in my power to comply with the request, as my duties 
here will not allow me to be absent from home at that time. It would give 
me great pleasure to meet those who will assemble on that occasion, and to 
renew old acquaintanceship formed many years ago, while at the same time I 
should experience some pain from reminiscences of trials endured in former 
days, and from the absence of many former friends departed. It was at Dav- 
enport that I first trod the soil of my adopted State, about nineteen years ago. 
Your large and flourishing city was then but a hamlet, and no one could have 
rationally predicted its present prosperity from what was then visible. It is 
one of the most pleasant facts in my history, that I was enabled, with a few 
others, to found the Congregational Church, now so large and influential for 
good in your city. It is my sincere desire that the past success of the secular 
and religious enterprise of your citizens may be only a slight earnest of what 
is yet in store for them. With many thanks for the distinguished honor con- 
ferred upon me in assigning me a part in your anticipated exercises on the oc- 
casion referred to, I am, 

Very respectfully yours, 



New York, Feb. 11, 1588. 

Gkntlemen : — Permit me to tender my grateful acknowledgment to the 
members of your association, for their kind remembrance o€ the "Absent 
Pioneers of Iowa." 

I regret exceedingly that business will not permit my joining you on the 
interesting occasion of your first celebration, as it would give me intense 
pleasure to renew so many delightful reminiscences of the past, with those 
whom I have ever considered the advance-guard of your flourishing State, in 
her progress to her present greatness. 

Although I cannot be with you in person, I shall be particularly interested 
in the event. 

May Heaven crown your feast with gladness, and grant you a long lease of 
years, in which to enjoy the fruits of your early labors. 

Very truly yours, 


LeClaire, Feb. 20, 1858. 

Hon. James Geant : — Dear Sir : I am fearful that I shall not be able to 
attend the festival of the old pioneers of Scott county on the 22d inst., in your 
city. I have a severe cold, and am quite unwell to-day — trust, however, I 
shall be better on Monday. If so, I shall certainly be down. After witnessing 
the struggles of the "Old Settlers" for nearly twenty-one years, I feel like 
rejoicing when they rejoice, feasting when they feast, and mourning when they 

In the event that I am too indisposed to come down, and there should be no 
person from here to respond to the twelfth regular toast, please do so yourself. 
I know I am safe in saying that our people would feel safe with their interests 
confided to your hands. 

I think a good many of our old citizens will be down, but very few of them 
are public speakers. 

I send you a volunteer toast, to be read if I cannot come. 

Truly yours, 


Danville, Pa., Feb. 15, 1858. 

Gentlemen : — Accept my thanks for the card of invitation to the " First 
Festival of the Pioneer Association," and also for your kind note accompany- 
ing it. 

There are no memories more cherished and fresh in my heart than those of 
my residence among you, from 1837 to 1841; and it would afi^ord me great 
pleasure to meet with my old friends on the occasion of the Festival, but I 
cannot. My heart will be there, however, beating in unison with your highest 
aspirations for the future prosperity of your beautiful city and county, and the 
long life and happiness of all the pioneers. 


There is not in this great country a spot more sacred to my memory than 
Davenport. The beauty of its situation ; its salubrity ; the old associates, and 
familiar faces of friends are always present to my thoughts, and I never fail to 
speak favorably for them to friends here when the West is the subject of dis- 
course. Living, as I do, on the banks of the Susquehanna, whose waters are 
like crystal, and surrounded by landscapes, the grandeur and beauty of which 
are perhaps unsurpassed, they seem to me not comparable to the scene from 
the bluffs below Davenport, looking south and east, and bringing into our view 
the Twin Cities, the upper Kapids of the great Mississippi, embracing the 
beautiful Rock Island, etc. 

It is a cherished purpose of my heart to visit my once home at Davenport at as 
early a day as possible, when I hope to renew many of my old friendships. 

I have also, in .the name of my wife, and daughter born in Davenport, to 
thank you for the invitation, and assure you that it would afford them very 
great happiness to visit their old home, and join the festival. 

May the sun of prosperity ever shine on all of you, until " gathered as a 
shock of corn fully ripe." 

With sincere regard, 



In response to a loud call at the close of the Festival, John P. Cook, Esq., 
sang " Oft, in tl e Stilly Night." It was finely given, and warmly applauded. 
The sweet voices of fair women joined in from different parts of the hall, and 
the effect was delightful. Finally, at 1 o'clock, " Auld-Lang-Syne" was sung 
in general chorus, and the " Old Settlers' Festival" was a happy memory of 
the past. 



The external features, and internal resources of any given district of 
country, are intimately connected with its future history. Frum its external 
features we gather in the main a knowledge of those habitable qualities which 
render it more or less det*iiable fur civilized abodes. In its geographical 
position we learn the commercial advantages which attach to its location, as 
being accessible or mi-re remote, from bu.«ine«s centres. 

From a knowledge of its internal resources, we obtain the clearest insif^ht 
to its productive capacities, determining in great measure the extent and 
character of its future population. 

Hence it is that an accurate geological view of any district, affording in- 
formation, both as regards external features and internal resources, is import- 
ant and useful as a key to its future history. 

The Geologic4il substratum upon which the city of Davenport is located is 
a white or light gray limestone, characterized by its fossils to belong to the 
Hamilton group of Devonian Rocks. This limestone crops out along the river 
banks, of the upper portion of the city. It presents, near East Davenport, 
perpendicular cliffs, varying in height from 15 to 25 feet above low water mark ; 
thence occupying the bed of the Mississippi river, it forms the lowest chain in 
the course of the Rock Island rapids, re-appearing again, similar in character 
on Rock Island proper, and the corresponding left bank of the Mississippi. 
The shores of both banks of the river are here strewn with water-worn pebbles 
of this white limestone, variously mixed with smaller fragments ot transported 
igneous rocks, including agates, cornelians, and numerous forms of porphyry. 
This bed of limestone underlies the whole city of Davenport, appearing on 
or near the surface at its south-eastern border, extending from East Davenport 
to Perry street. Thence to the western limits of the city it is more deeply 
covered und*r alluvial deposites. This rock, together with its alluvial cover- 
ing, forms a gentle ascending slope from the river bank to the irregular line 
of bluff hills, which here bound the valley of the Mississippi. Where this 
rock is largely developed in steep mural faces, as adjoining and just below 


East Davenport, the bluffs approach near the river bank, leaving little or no 
space for bottom levels. This gives a somewhat rugged character to this 
locality. In following the western course of the river the limestone dips lower 
beneath the surface, and the bluffs recede, thus giving greater width to the 
valley portion of the city towards its western border. 

The bluff formation, attaining an average elevation of 150 feet above the 
river level, presents on its outer edge abrupt slopes and rounded crests, com- 
manding extensive views of the course of the river above and below. Extend- 
ing back from the river, this formation is cut up with deeply trenched valleys, 
variously branched and thence emerging on the upland prairie beyond. 

These several features collectively, combine a pleasing variety of external 
scenery, and oft'er grading facilities easy of application, and well suited for 
the purposes of drainage. 


Referring more particularly to the special characters of the formations above 
alluded to, we notice the underlying limestone strata to be composed of a series 
of distinct beds, varying considerably in structure and composition. 

First of these in a descending order is an irregular shaly bed, containing 
the gre^vter part of the fossils which serve to characterize this formation. 
These strata are more largely developed to the south and west, being the com- 
mon surface rock on both sides of the Mississippi, some eight or ten miles below 
the city, at and adjoining the town of New Buffalo. In this latter locality the 
rocks are replete with fossils easily procured, and in fine state of preservation. 
Within the limits of the city this bed is exposed at only one locality, formerly 
known as LeClaire quarry, now foot of Farnara street. The rock here crops 
out jiast at the foot of the bluff, at an elevation of about forty feet above the 
river level. 

To this fossiliferous bed succeeds the more common surface exposure, con- 
sisting of a white or light colored rock of slatey texture, weathering on ex- 
posure into thin irregular fragments. This character of rock shows a variable 
thickness of from five to twenty feet, and is well exhibited at the lower point 
of Rock Island, forming the greater part of the exposed rocky cliff on which 
old Fort Armstrong was built. 

To this slatey rock succeeds a more compact bed, mostly massive and heavy 
bedded. Its texture varies from that of a close irregular breccia of light color, 
and exceedingly brittle to loose strata of blue argilaceous rock, readily disin- 
tegrating on exposure to the atmosphere. Intermediate to these we generally 
notice several seams of a more earthy gray rock occurring in even beds, and 
frequently containing masses of fibrous gypsum. These latter seams furnish 
the best quality of building rock in this vicinity, being in fact the only rock 
suitable for dressing under the hammer. This seam is of very variable thick- 
ness, being in some places entirely wanting, while in adjoining localities it 
attains a thickness of several feet. The main bulk of the limestone quarries, 


being made up of the heavy bedded and irregular seamed rock, is only suit- 
able for foundations or rough ashlar work. 

Aside from building purposes this limestone contains no minerals of any 
economical value, occasional spabgles of sulphurate of zinc or moderate sized 
crystals of calcareous spar being the only nlinerals worthy of note. The 
slatey surface layers are employed for conversion into quick-lime, but the pro- 
duct is of rather indifferent quality. 

One peculiarity of this limestone formation deserves more than a passing 
notice, both from its singularity and also its connexion ^ith the subterranean 
distribution of water. This peculiarity consists in the frequent occurrence of 
fissures filled in with clay, evidently infiltrated from above. These fissures or 
clay seams may be frequently noticed in the perpendicular face of quarries, 
here they are seen interrupting the regular series of rock strata with masses of 
grayish, very adhesive clay. These seams vary in width from a few inches to 
several feet, and are frequently bottle-shaped, narrowing above and bulging 
out below. Prof. Hall, State Geologist, is inclined to the opinion that this 
clay is cotemporaneous with the underlying fire-clay of adjoining coal meas- 
ures, and that these fissures were filled up at the same period that coal was 
in process of formation. These clay seams are frequently met with in digging 
wells or deep cellar foundations, in which situations they are often accom- 
panied with living springs of water. From such sources are evidently derived 
the supplies of water from artesian borings, which have been made with par- 
tial success in various parts of the city. 


The bluff formation constitutes a well marked step in the series of quarter- 
nary deposites, succeeding the drift or boulder era, and anterior to the recent 
surface alluvium. This formation, generally of considerable thickness, cor- 
responding to the height of the bluff hills, forms the substratum of the up- 
land prairies. It is composed of a great variety of earthy materials, includ- 
ing finely pulverulent marls, beds of coarse sand and gravel, aggregations 
resembling hard-pan or pudding-stone, overlaid by a variable layer of yellow 
clay, and gradually blending with the present surface soil. These several 
features indicate this formation as resulting from the deposition of extensive 
fresh water lakes, having variable currents and mostly shallow waters. Not 
unfrequeutly well excavations bring to view a buried soil of rich vegetable 
mould now covered up by twenty feet or more of lacustrine deposites, con- 
taining fresh water shells. This earlier surface soil supported a rank arbores- 
cent vegetation, and is proved by buried remains, to have been the roaming 
places of the now extinct tribes of the gigantic Mastodon and Northern 
Elephant. The upper clay in the bluff series, is everywhere extensively used 
for the manufacture of brick. 

A fine sectional view of the general features of this bluff formation may be 
Been in the cutting along the west side of Harrison street, opposite Sixth street. 


It would be interesting, did space allow to present some facts, in regard to 
the supplj of coal in this district, but this must be left lor another occasion. 
It will be sufficient here to state, that the only reliable supply of coal for this 
section of country is to be obtained from the Rock River coal basin. This 
has been recently opened to market by two Railroads, and is successfully 
worked by three distinct mining companies. The present facilities are sufiS- 
cient to meet the local demand, and the source of supply is ample for all 
future wants. 

— '/: 




Ever since the influx of the white population commenced, Davenport has 
been noted for the healthiness of its location. Situated in latitude 41j° north 
it has a climate which partakes neither of the extreme severity of the higher 
regions, nor of the lassitude incident to more southern situations. At appro- 
priate seasons of the year it is decidedly cold or warm, and is not subject to 
such intermediate weather as characterizes so much of the country near the 
seaboard, and which is so prolific in the elimination of disease in its various 
forms. The country on both sides of the Mississippi, at the commencement 
of the Upper Rapids and where the great Bridge spans the stream, is marked 
by high bluffs of gradual ascent. LJelow, these elevations recede from the river, 
and above they hug it more closely. On the Iowa side a large fan-like plateau 
is formed, varying from a few hundred yards to perhaps a mile in width, gra- 
dually rising to the base of the hills, none of it subject to inundation, and 
every foot of which is susceptible of the most complete drainage. Upon this 
the business portion of the city is situated. It is rarely, if ever, the case that 
stagnant pools are to be found anywhere upon this surface. Hence, miasmatic 
diseases are seldom encountered in their epidemic form. Added to this, on 
account of the city being situated on an east and west reach of the river 
which soon inclines to the southward after leaving the town, the prevailing 
winds come from a dry and healthy quarter, in fact, almost directly from the 
rolling prairie. Having reached the crest of the bluffs, the country northward 
gently undulates to a stream called Duck Creek, about one and a half or two 
miles from the river, and running parallel with it the length of the cily 
bounds. This creek empties into the Mississippi about five miles above the 
bridge, and possesses the peculiarity of seeking its estuary up the Rapids . 
That portion of the promontory (if it may be so called,) formed by the streams, 
and which is enclosed within the municipal limits, is being rapidly covered 


•with handsome residences, more than one hundred feet above the water, and 
made accessible by means of streets. Some of the finest and healthiest spots 
which the lover of ease and retirement could desire, are to be found between 
LeClaire's residence and East Davenport, spread over the sloping hill-sides. 
In winter shielded from the blast of the north, and in summer accessible to 
the refreshing breezes of the west, with no marshes or superabundance of de- 
caying vegetable matter to inspire dread, with a full view of the busy river 
and overlooking, withal, the Twin-Cities, this portion of Davenport has always 
seemed as though calculated to satisfy the most fastidious, and is destined to 
become the resort of many seeking a permanent, desirable, and beautiful 
home. Irregularities in living, unnecessary exposure, or any want of proper 
care as regards health, will, in the very best climate, produce disease. Hence, 
medical men are in demand the world over. But, the fact is asserted, that 
Davenport during the probation of a full generation, has proved its claim to 
being situated in one of the most salubrious atmospheres of which our coun- 
try can boast. The mortality of the place is uncommonly small, and the type 
of disease in its development, undergoes such modification as is agreeable 
alike to patient and practitioner. An accomplished physician, of long stand- 
ing, has been known to state, that he never knew of an original case of phthisis 
pulmonalis in the city, and that all persons affected in that way, by residing 
in this locality, have had their unpleasant symptoms mitigated and their lives 
prolonged. The population is composed of persons of regular habits, as a gen- 
eral rule ; and this fact assists materially in giving to Davenport its wide-spread 
reputation for healthiness. In former times, when only a rural village on the 
Upper Mississippi, the place would be crowded throughout the summer months 
by families from St. Louis, seeking relaxation and enjoyment. The advent of 
a dense population has deprived the spot of a certain charm for sportsmen, but 
has in nowise diminished the invigorating breezes which gave so much zest 
to their expeditions in fishing and fowling, and which, after all, contributed 
the most to the enjoyment of life. * 




Notice having been given througli the public prints, that a meeting would be 
held for the purpose of organizing a Medical Society for the County of Scott, 
nine regular members of the profession met at the office of Drs. Witherwax 
and Carter, (Third street, west of Brady,) on the ]8th of October, 1856. Dr. 
Jas, Thistle presided, and Dr. Tomson acted as Secretary. Committees were 
appointed to report upon the several subjects of Constitution and By-Laws, 
Code of Ethics, and Fee Bill, and the meeting adjourned to meet ten days 
subsequently. On the 28th of October, thirteen physicians met at the office 
of Drs. Fountain and Adler, (Second street, between Brady and Main,) re- 
ceived the reports of the respective Committees, adopted a Constitution and 
By-Laws, as well as the Code of Ethics recommended by the American Med- 
ical Association, and proceeded to elect the following permanent officers, to 
serve for one year : 

President, Dr. Egbert S. Barrows ; Vice President, Dr. Lyman Carpenter ; 
Secretary, Dr. J. J. Tomson ; Treasurer, Dr. James Thistle, and Censors, Drs. 
T. J. Saunders, Jno. M. Adler, and J. W. H. Baker. 

Although regular meetings four times a year had been agreed upon, calling 
this the Anniversary, yet the necessity seemed to exist for a special meeting, 
and the members agreed to meet again in two weeks. The Society convened 
in the Young Mens' Literary Association Hall, (Post Office Building,) on the 
11th of November, Dr. Carpenter, Vice President, occupying the Chair. At 
this meeting a Fee Bill was adopted, and the members generally signed the 
Constitution. January 27th, ISSY, the first regular quarterly meeting took 
place at the office of Drs. Fountain and Adler, the President taking the Chair. 
A resolution was adopted, and a committee appointed relative to forming a 
union with the Rock Island County Medical Society. Drs. Barrows and 
Saunders were elected delegates to the American Medical Association, to con- 
vene in Nashville, Tenn., the succeeding May. The second quarterly meeting 


took place in the Council Chamber, at the corner of Brady and Third streets, 
April 28th, the President filling the Chair. The members of the Rock Island 
Medical Society were admitted as Honorary members, and entitled to all 
privileges, save voting. Dr. Patrick Gregg, former and first President of that 
Association, read an eloquent and instructive address, by special invitation. 
Dr. Baker was appointed to deliver an essay at the next, or a future meeting. 
Drs. Fountain, Thistle, Carter, Pelton, and Barrows, were appointed delegates 
to the State Society, to meet at Iowa City the following June. The third 
quarterly meeting met at the Council Chamber, July 28th, the Vice President 
in the Chair. The annual meeting convened at the same place, October 27th, 
Dr. 0. C. Parry presiding at the morning, and the Vice President at the after- 
noon session. Resolutions were adopted, making the annual meeting to occur 
the last Tuesday in January, and postponing the election of officers until that 
period, and continuing the existing organization. A committee, consisting of 
Drs. Carter, Thistle, and Adler, was appointed to revise the Constitution and 
By-Laws. The annual meeting assembled at the same place January 26th, 
1858, Dr. Fountain presiding. The afternoon session (vas held at the office of 
Dr. Baker, the same gentleman in the Chair. Officers for the year were 
elected as follows : 

President, Dr. Th. J. Saunders ; Vice President, Dr. James Thistle ; Secretary, 
Dr. A. H. Ames ; Treasurer, Dr. J. J. Tomson ; Censors, Drs. J. W. H. Baker, 
E. J. Fountain, and Jno. M. Adler. Dr. Baker read an Essay, agreeably to 
appointment. Dr. C. C. Parry was appointed Essayist for the next meeting. 

The number of members at the present time is about twenty, three-fourths 
of whom reside in the city of Davenport. The object of the Society is " to pro- 
mote the diffusion of true Medical Science among its members, and to elevate 
the character of the profession in the community." At the various meetings 
many interesting cases have been brought forward and discussed, calculated 
to impart instruction, and a general basis of action has been instituted, the 
efiTect of which will be, to define the rights and duties of practitioners agree- 
ably to the rules and regulations laid down by the highest medical authority 
of the country. Among a newly settled people, baneful irregularities are apt 
to be imputed to the profession generally, unless there is an organization, 
zealous in its guardianship of the portals of Medicine. Without there is a 
charmed line over which mere empirics cannot pass, and which is constantly 
kept visible to the public eye, the votaries of Science have to suffer deprecia- 
tion by being classed with irresponsible practitioners, noted only for the ex- 
cess of their ignorance, and the audacity of their pretensions. Already are 
the effects to be seen, of a close combination on the part of those properly 
qualified for taking upon themselves the responsibility for practising the heal- 
ing art. Uniformity of action, courteous relations, and a keen desire to pro- 
mote the general welfare, are apparent among the members, and the prospect 
now is, that the medical corps of Davenport and vicinity will stand at no 
distant day pre-eminent in the valley of the Upper Mississippi. 


1 m m m • .■ M H '^ 


« I i I 

"*i':;|i'w!lw!;,;-''!f;|ifr '■■'f'M^ii 







W. L. Carboli,, in Grigg's Block.^-Mr. Carroll has designed some of the 
finest public and private structures in the city, among which are Iowa College, 
Engine House, Grigg's Block, Haviland's and H. H. Smith's residences, School 
Houses in Districts 4 and 7 ; besides a host of School and Court Houses, 
Churches, and Private Dwellings in various parts of the Country. His claims 
to superiority are scarcely questioned in the West. 

J. L. Cochrane. — Among Mr. Cochrane's best efforts are Metropolitan Hall ; 
Lambrite's residence ; St. Luke's churcli, superintended by Squires ; and 
Willard Barrows' residence. 

Octave Roberts. — NickoUs' Block. 


"Philadelphia Bakery," Schiucker & Matthes. — Brady street, betweea 
Front and Second streets. 

"Union Bakery," J. Mbtzger. — No. 18 Second street. — Capital, $3,000- 
Raw Material per year, $6,000. Value manufactures per year, $10,000. 
Established 18.")4. 

D. MooRB. — 20 Front st. — Capital, $5,000. Raw material per year, $8,000. 
Established 1842. This was the first one of the sort, of note, established in 
Davenport. The old house was lately burned, but is being rebuilt. 

F. ZAiiRftER. — 149 Fourth street. — Five hands. 

W. Rape's "Pacific Bakery. — Harrison street. 

There are several smaller Bakeries in town, not enumerated. 




Jones, Chapin & Co. — Corner Fifth and Fillmore streets. — Employ twenty 
hands, and turns out from 1000 to 1200 per week. 

J. M. D. Burrows. — Oo Telegraph Road. — Twenty-eight men turn out about 
75,000 flour barrels per year, besides a large amount of pork cooperage. 

Wilson, Pkrry & Co. — Corner of Bridge Avenue and Front streets. — Run a 
twelve horse power engine. Employs fifteen to twenty hands at $3 per diem. 
Capital $5,000. Use in raw material per year $20.000. Value of manufactures 
per year $35,000. Established 185*7. 

There are three other Cooper Shops in the city besides the foregoing, and 
also one patent Wash-Tub and a Chair Factory. 


H. A. Kent. — Alley opposite Post Office. — A carriage shop attached by 
John Murphey. 

Some dozen shops in town. 


Moore & Garrett. — 43 Brady street. — Capital $1,500. Raw material per 
year $3 500. Product $10,000. Established 1854. 

F. H. Griggs & Co.— 25 Brady street.— Capital $1 500. Value of raw ma- 
terial per year $3,500. Product $10,000. Employ ten hands at the aggregate 
cost of $3,500 per annum. Mr. Griggs deserves honorable mention for the 
use he has made of his capital. He has invested it liberally in city improve- 
ments, among which are some fine brick buildings, known as "Griggs Block." 
His investments have all tended to build up and ornament the city, and to 
contribute materially to its permanent prosperity. 

D. B. Carleton. — 96 Brady street. 

C. Staiil. — Harrison street. 

T. 0. Russell. — Main stn et. 

A. Galleu. — 54 Perry street. 

H. Fuhlendorff. — Main street near Second. 

J. M. Skllen. — Corner Second and Harrison streets. — Employs 14 hands. 

J. C. To»D.— 84 Brady street. 

Asht'N & Freeman. — Brady street, above Post Office. 

Fuller & Hubbard. — Second street, near Metropolitan Block. — This firm 
has the reputation of doing as good work, and of possessing as much, or more 
enterprise in their peculiar df^partment, than any other firm in the West. 
Their work is of tihe very best order, and afforded at prices which will com- 
pMre honorably with the best Eastern establishments. 

There are many other establishments of this kind in town. 



Matthias Frahm.— Harrison street. — Capital, $30,000. Use yearly 10,000 
bushels Barley, and 8,000 pounds Hops. Brew 4,000 barrels Beer, worth 
$36,000. Established 1851. The first year the establishnaent brewed 150 
barrels Beer, and used only some 350 bushels Barley. It is one of the largest 
Breweries in this State. 

Dr. T. Drkis. — Main street, above seventh. 

Thos. B. Carter's Ale and Porter Brewery. — Near East Davenport. 


Bakek & Clark. — Harrison street, between seventh and eighth streets. — 
Capital $3 000. Employ twenty men. Made 130,000 last year, worth $9,200. 
Use Hall & Adams Press, a decided improvement on the old system. Intend 
to double their operations this year. 

There are three yards in the western part of the town, in rear of J. M. D. 
Burrows' residence, and employ from fifty to sixty hands. 

Jxo. RocEE. — Gaines street. — Made 140,000 last year. Twenty hands. 

Harvey Leonard commenced making Bricks in Davenport, in June 83 7, 
made about 300,000 ; in 1838 made about 500,000 ; in 1839 made about 500,000 ; 
in 1840 made about 800,000; in 1841 made about 500,000; in 1842 made 
about 500,000; in 1843 made about 100,000; in 1844 made about 200,000 ; 
in 1845 made about 200,000; in 184G made about 500,000; in 1847 made 
about 600,000; in 1848 made about 600,000; in 1849 made about 600,000; 
in 1850 made about 300,000. — Leonard & Hebert in 1851 made about 1,400,000; 
in 1852 made about 1,500,000; in 1853 made about 1,500,000. — Leonard in 
1854 made about 1,200,000; in 1855 made about 1,200,000.— Leonard & 
Hebert in 1856 made about 1,300,000; in 185'7 made about 1,300,000. — Com- 
menced in 1838 laying brickj in 1839, Eldrid & Leonard Brick Laying and 
Plastering. 1840 making, laying, and plastering. During that period burned 
very nearly all the lime used in the city. The number of hands employed 
ranges from six to sixty ; common laborers wages by the month from twenty 
to thirty ''oUars; brick layers wages ranging from two to three dollars per 
day. The first brick building in the city was built by Leonard, in 1838, on the 
corner of third and Main streets ; the second brick building (the Catholic 
church) built by Adam, John, and Joseph Noel. During the first six years of 
the time Mr. Leonard did all the brick work done in the city, among which 
were the Court House, Jail, LeChxire House, and Macklot and Webb's dwellings. 
Leonard & Hebert's brick yard is now situated on James Mcintosh's land, west 
of Scott street and north of eighth street, within the city limits. 

H. Del^s. — Fourteen men. Makes about 90,000 per year. 



D. T. Young. — Second street, above Rock Island street. — Capital $6,000. 
Value of manufactures per year $12,000. Employs fifteen men at $10 to $15 
per week. 

John A. Nikrau. — Corner Fourth and Gaines sts. — Value of manufactures 
per year $4,000. 

Davis, Bro. & Fraser. — On Perry street above Fourth. — This firm, although 
lately come to Davenport, have established a wide reputation for excellence in 
their craft ; particularly in the diflBcult department of stair-building, in which 
they have no rivals. All are practical and excellent draughtsmen, and possess 
in connection with their practical skill, in wood-work a thorough scientific 
knowledge of architecture. One of the best specimens of their work may be 
seen in a counter at the Banking House of Messrs. Hill, Allen & Co., which is 
by far the best specimen of fine workmanship in the West. 

James Crawford. — Corner Iowa and Second street. 

E. T. & E. L. Johnson. — Second street, between Rock Island and Perry. 
Okndorf Brothers. — Carpenters and Builders, on Main street between Fifth 

and Sixth. 

Jacob Kenton. — On Main street, in rear of Judge Grant's Block. 

J. RoMBOLD, Jr. — On alley rear of Congregational church. 

I. N Field & Sanders. — On Perry street, between Second and Third sts. — 
This firm have done some very fine Jobs, one of which is the counter in 
Jacoby's Drug Store. 

Coates & Patchen. — Alley between Fifth and Sixth, and between Brady 
and Perry streets. 

John Hawley. — Corner Main and Park streets. 

W. S. Collins. — Opposite Trinity Church, Rock Island street. 

F. H. McClelland. — Corner Rock Island and Second streets. 

John Hornby. — On Bluffs, Sixth street, between Main and Brady streets. 

G. W. Hall. — Third street, between Ripley and Scott streets. 
P. X. FiTZPATRiCK. — Near Jail, on Fifth street. 

H. & J. GauDAKER. — On Iowa street, between Second and Third streets. 
N. Squiers. — Oldest Builder in Davenport, and Superintendent of St. Luke's 

Noel & Marget. — Corner Harrison and J'ront streets. 

J. B. Davis. — Sixth street, between Rock Island and Perry streets. 

L. R. Allen. — Boards at " Pennsylvania House." 


Andrews & Burr. — Fourth street, between Brady and Perry. — Large first 
class eastern establishment, with heavy branch establishment on Secgnd street, 
between Rock Island and Iowa streets. 


G, Hagek & Co.— Third street near Harrison.— Capital $7 000. Employ 
twelve hands at $1.50 per diem. Raw material per year $1,000. Value of 
product $10,000. 

Saddler & Horseman. — Corner Gaines and Front streets. 

A. & G. WoEBER. — Corner Harrison and Third streets. — Among the best, if 
not the best, workmen in the West in every department of their trade. Their 
work will bear comparison with the finest ever turned out from eastern work- 
shops. Capital $8000. Eighteen hands, at $1.50 per day. Produced last 
year $40,000. Established 1854. 

Keuse & EcKHARDT. — Comer Second and Gaines streets. 

Goos & Leisner. — Gaines street, north of Third. 

Schmidt & Rodler. — Second street, near Scott. 

Rhode & Finke. — Harrison street, below Second. 

C. Stelting. — Scott street, near Second. 


H. Haak & Co. — Second street between Harrison and Ripley. 

Nicholas Kuhnen. — 34 Second street, and also one corner Main and Second 
streets. — Manufactures $12,000 worth per year. 

Jeffbet & Carmichael. — 42 Second street. — Manufacture yearly 1,200,000 
Cigars, at $25 per thousand. Brand 50,000 papers Smoking Tobacco, and 
brand 5,000 cases Chewing Tobacco a year. 

Kasten. — Main street, between Front and Second. 

There are many other shops in town, of whom space will not allow us to 


Dr. C. Pierrucci. — 60 Brady street. 
E. Bailt.— 86 Brady street. 


Adams — Photographist, Ambrotypist, and Daguerrean, on Brady street near 
Third. — This is one of the best establishments west of Buffalo. Mr. Adams 
Photographed the Portraits for this work. They speak for themselves. 

Taylor's Gallery. — Davenport's Block. 

W. A. Nesbit. — Corner of Brady and Second streets. — Sphereotypist and 

Schuler's Daguerrean Rooms. — On Main street, next to Nickolls' Block. 


Chas. Goodrich, Dental Surgeon. — On Brady st., two doors below Third. — 
Dr. Goodrich has taken high rank in his profession as a careful and skilful 


operator. He has undergone the test of many years experience, and has in 
all cases, thus far, proved himself superior iu all matters relating to operative 

James Morrow. — On Fourth st., near Main. — Dr. Morrow is of an inventive 
mind, artistic in his taste, and prepared to execute everything in a superior 

Julius Cheseerough. — In Merwin's Block. 

R. D. Myers. — On Second street near Perry street. 

C. ,H. Bartlett. — Corner Brady and Fourth streets. 


Francis .Jacoby. — Corner Perry and Fourth streets. — Mr. Jacoby has one of 
the finest Drug Stores in town, and the elegant external and internal character 
of his establishment, together with a skilful Prescriptiouist, indicates fully the 
fact, that his arrangements are all of a superior order. 

Tayloe & Ballord. — LeClaire Block. 

W. W. McCammon & Co., " Union Drug Store." — On Brady street, between 
Second and Third. — This is a fii'st class establishment, and is under the su- 
perintendence of Mr. Reger, whose ripe skill in putting up prescriptions is 
the result of long and close experience. 

Stephenson & Carnahan. — LeClaire Block. 

Allison & McBride. — On Second street, next to Cook & Sargent's Bank. 

Ditzen & Co. — 97 Second street. 


J. M. D. Burrows, "Albion Mills." — Corner Front and Perry sts. — Engine 
140 horse power. Established in 1847, and commenced January 1848, with a 
capacity of manufacturing 1200 barrels per week. In 1855 it was remedied 
and rebuilt, with a capacity of turning out 2500 barrels per week. Manu- 
factured the past year 80,000 barrels flour, at an average value of $4.50 per 
barrel. Hiram Johnson, head miller. 

D. A. Burrows. — On River, foot of Mound st. — Engine sixty horse power. 
Capital $65,000. Raw material per year $300,000. Employ twenty-eight 
hands at $1 50 per day. 

GiLLET, Green & Co. — Front street below Ripley. — Capital $16,000. Grind 
per year 50.000 bushels. Established 1854. Two engmes, sixty horse power. 

Graham & Kepner. — On River, foot of Mound street. — Engine fifty horse 
power. Ten hands. Coat of wheat, coal, barrels, hands, &c., per year 
$99,300. Turn out 30,000 barrels flour per year, $120,000. Value of bran, 
shorts, &c., $13,000. 

" Hawkeye Mills," by Jacob Weaver. — Corner Perry and Third streets. — 
Engine twenty horse power. Capital $6,000. Turn out 200 barrels a week. 




John Collins. — Front street, east of Perry. — Engine ten horse power. Cap- 
ital $9,000 Raw material per year $20,000. Value of manufactures per 
year $40,000. Eighteen hands, at $1.50 to $2.50 per day. 

Knostman, Timpke & Co. — Corner Housel and Second streets. — Engine six 
horse power. Capital $3,000. Raw material per year $6,000. Employ seven 
hands at $1 to $1.50 per day. Building, three rooms, and contemplate en- 
larging soon. All of the firm are practical mechanics. 

Wm. Campbell, CaHinet and Jobbing Shop. — In alley opposite Post Office. 

J. B. Riches, Prospect Turning Shop. — Gaines street, corner of Seventh. — 
Engine six horse power. 

P. P. Sdmons. — On River, near foot of Bridge Avenue. — Manufactures 
"Excelsior Mattress Material." Engine ten horse power. 

John Wierum, Turning Shop. — Gaines street, between Third and Fourth. — 
Engine fifteen horse power. 

J. K. Mills & Co. — Corner Farnam and Third streets. — Employ forty men. 
Wages per year $22,000, at $1.75 per day, per hand. Capital $40,000. Value 
of furniture per year, $16,000. Planing, $7,700. Sash, blinds, and doors, 
$11,000. Job work, $2,800. Total value of manufactures, per year, $37,000. 
Engine twenty-five horse power. Their Agencies at Iowa City and Rock 
Island, sell also a large amount flooring, siding, and other lumber. Machinery, 
one engine lathe, three turning lathes, one scroll saw, moulding machine, three 
plowers, sticking machine, split saw, six cii^cular saws, two tenanting saws ; 
two morticing, two boring, and one dovetailing machine ; screw cutter and 
turning machine. 

McNeil & Bbo. — Corner Second and Perry streets. 


Julius Koch. — Harrison street. 

M. H. Heidenheimek. — 11 Main street. 


A. B. Alston. — Davenport Block, Second street. 
C. W. Vekder, — Second stree:), near Brady. 


"Davenport Steam Gas and Lead Pipe Works, and Brass Foundry," by 
P. Merwin. — 81 and 83 Perry street. — Gas and Steam Fitting, Plumbing, &c., 
in all its various branches; Brass Goods of every description manufactured 
to oraer. Also, on hand and ready to be just put up at short notice. Chan- 
daliers. Pendants, Shower Baths, Wash Basins, Brackets, Glass Globes, Bath 
Tubs, Water Tanks, &c. The attention of Machinists, Engine, and Boiler 


Builders, is invited to the large assortment of Brass and Iron Fitting con- 
stantly on hand, such as Safety Valves, Steam Guages, Water Guages, Guago 
Cocks, Globe Valves, Oil Valves, Heaters, Boiler Pumps, Oil Cups, Regulator 
Valves, Check Valves, Whistles, &c. Wrought Iron Pipe, with all kinds of 
Fittings for connecting Boilers, Engines, Pumps, &c., fitted to order and sent 
to any part of the country ready to connect. Pipe and Fittings supplied to 
the trade on reasonable terms. — Mr. Merwin deserves honorable notice for the 
enterprise he has exhibited. He is but a young man, has invested in a fine 
brick building, and furnished it as noticed above. This establishment is the 
only one of the kind in the State, and is in all respects of a high character. 

F. B. Abbott, Machine Shop, and mp.nufacturer of Carter's Patent Oscilla- 
ting Engine Pumps. — LeClaire street, near Third. — Double engine, six horse 
power. Capital $15,000. Mostly a Repairing and Jobbing Shop. 

"Excelsior Agricultural Works, and Machine Shop," John Herrman. — 
Gaines street, between Third and Fourth sts. — Capital $1,000. Manufactui'es 
Agricultural Implements principally. Mowing and Reaping Machines, Straw 
and Stalk Cutters, Corn Shellers, &c. 

Davis, Watson & Co., " Washington Machine Works." — Corner Third street, 
near Railroad Bridge. — Capital $25,000. Raw material used per year, $16,000. 
Manufactures $40,000. Employ twenty hands, at $2 per day. Engine twenty- 
four horse power. Pitts' Patent Thrashing Machine, turn out two to three per 

John Annable & Son, Screw Bolt Manufactory. — LeClaire St., near Third. — 
Make from 2000 to 3000 Bolts per day, besides Jobbing. Business for last 
vear $2,000. Not much capital required in the business. 

Jemme, Donnelly & Lea, " Davenport Iron Works." — Rock Island street, near 
Second. — Engine twenty horse power. Do a large business in heavy machinery 
and house building castings. Capital $18,000. Raw material per year $15,000. 
Value of manufacturies, per year. $100,000. Employ fifty-five hands. Esta- 
blished 1856. Attached tc the establishment are a Blacksmith Shop, Brass 
Foundry, and Pattern Shop. One of the heaviest establishments of the kind 
in the State. 

S. Miller, Machine, Jobbing, and Repairing Shop. — Gaines st., near Second. 

TowNSEND, Smith & Co. — Fourth street, opposite Catholic Cemetery. — En- 
gine eight horse power. Make Oscillating Engines, &c. 

"Mississippi & Missouri Railroai Locomotive Works and Car Factory." — 
At Railroad Depot. — Engine sixty horse powpr. A. Kimball, Foreman of 
Machine Works ; M. Wright, Foreman of Smithry ; and S. W. Remer, Foreman 
of Car Works. Capital $54,000. Raw material, per year, $10.000. Esta- 
blished 1856. 

"LeClaire Machine Works," corner Front and Scott streets. — This is the 
oldest Foundry in town; was built by LeClaire & Davenport in 1851, and 
owned by them until 1856, when it vas bought by Mr. Donahue, its present 


proprietor. The Machine Shop is leased by Townsend, Hays & (.o.. while 
the Foundry is carried on by Mr. Donahue. Capital $50,000, Forty ia in d 
at $30,000 per annum. Mantjfactures per year $150,000. Raw material per 
year $30,000. Engine thirty horse power. 

W. Skinner & Co., " Davenport Plow Factory." — Corner Rock Island and 
Third streets. — Engine twenty horse power. This establishment was started 
in 1846 by John Bechtel, better known as '^Honest John." It is now the 
largest establishment in the State, and has established a wide reputation for 
the superiority of its workmanship, aud the excellence of many improvements 
introduced by the inventive genius of Mr. Skinner. He has made many re- 
markable and decided improvements in his line of business. Capital $25,000. 
Raw material, per annum, $20,000. Value of manufactures, per year, $45,000. 
Thirty hands, at $2 per day. Made last year, 3,500 Plows, 200 Cultivators, 
200 double and single Shovel Plows, Harrows Horse-rakes, &c. 

J. Whitson & Co., "Massillion Machine Works." — Front st., near Famam. 
Engine 20 horse power. Makers of Massillon Threshing Machines, &c. 


Parker & Spearing. — 13 Second street, opposite LeClaire Row. Forty 

horses, with proportionate number of vehicles. Run two Omnibusses and one 
four horse Hack to DeWitt to connect C. I. & N. R. R. This is by far the 
largest Livery establishment in the city, and possesses accommodations in its 
line of the very first character. They have some of the finest carriages 
sleighs, and the most elegant turnouts in the West. It is a pleasure to notice 
the fact, that their efforts to obtain excellence in their department are fully 
appreciated by the public, as is evinced in the amount of business done by 

High & Co. — Harrison street, next to Scott House. — Twenty-five horses and 
other accommodations to match. The Messrs, High & Co. have heretofore de- 
servedly reaped a large amount of public patronage, from the fact, that they 
never fail in their efforts to give satisfaction. Their "rigs" are unexception- 
able, and their drivers the neplus ultra of the Jehu-ic stamp. For a tramp or 
a hunting tour across the glorious prairie-country back of our city, there is no 
better companion, bon vivant, or careful driver, than either of the gentlemen 
of the firm, as the author's experience can testify. 

H. Smith. — Alley opposite Post Office. — Twenty horses. 

Thomson & Hill. — 55 Second street. — Fifteen horses, three carriaf^es six 
buggies, and two riding horses. 

J. J. SoMERS & Co. — Main street, between Third and Fourth. Six horses 

two open and two top buggies, and one carriage. 

J. H. Camp & Co. — Harrison street, between Second and Third. Fourteen 

horses, and eight carriages. 



There is also a Livery nnd Sale stable in the Alley in rear of LeClaire House, 
besides one other stable in town. 

This business is perhaps one of the best paying in the West. Prices ranRe 
from three to five dollars per day, for single horse and carriage, -without 
drivers; and six to ten dollars with driver. Double teams are from five to ten 
dollars per day, with or without driver. 


S. T. Allen, Saw Mill with Lath Machine. — Corner Warren and Front sts. — 
Engine forty horse power. Lately burned down. 

BuRNELL, GiLLET & Co., Saw Mill, Sash, Door, and Blind Factory, with Lath 
and Shingle Machine attached.— Corner Scott and Front streets. — Two engines, 
one-hundred horse power. Capital $125,000. Manufacture yearly G, 000,000 
feet Lumber, 3,000,000 Lath, 4,000,000 Shingles, at a total value of $160,000. 
Doors, Sash, and Blinds, per year, $15,000. Employ ninety hands, at an 
average of $1.65 per day. Established 1850. Machinery, two upright and 
two rotary saws ; can saw 50,000 feet per day, of twelve hours. 

Cannon & French, Saw and Plaining Mill, Sash, Door, and Blind Factory. — 
On River near Myrtle street. — Engine eighty horse power. Capital lYS.OOO. 
Employ eighty hands, three Salesmen, and one Bookkeeper. Real Estate 
$50,000. Cost of logs for past year (4,014, 770 feet,) $43,635. Labor for year, 
$18,000. Value of product from April 4th, 1857, to December 19th, 1857, 
$91,045. Sales for past year $112,202.88. Manufactured from April 4th, '57, 
to December 19th, 1857, 1,721,100 Lath; sawed Shingles, 1,019,500; shaved 
Shingles, 695,000 ; Pickets sawed, 25,400. Machinery, one Muley, one Rotary, 
one Lathing, and one Slab Saw ; Shingle Machine ; Norcross' Patent Planing 
Mill, for dressing Flooring ; one Siding Saw, and Farwis' Patent Planing Mill 
for two inch lumber. 

Cotes & Davies, Lumber Dealers and Manufacturers of Sash, Doors, Blinds, 
and dressed Lumber.— Corner Harrison and Fourth streets. — Established 1851. 
Capital $75,000. Thirty hands, at $1.50 per day. Value of product for 1857, 
$61,715.28. Sale of lumber, same year, $112,286.25. Engine twenty-five 
horse power. 

N. Kkndall & Co., Saw Mill and Lath Machine. — Corner Front and Warren 
streets. — Engine thirty horse power. Capital $50,000. Raw material used 
per year, $40,000. Value of manufactures $70,000. Labor $11,000. Thirty- 
five hands. 

Renwick & Son, Saw Mill, with Lath, Shingle, and Stave Machines attached^ 
— On River above Railroad Bridge. --Engine forty horse power. Capital 
$50,000. Raw material, per year, $25,000. Thirty hands, at $1.25, per day. 
Manufacture per year 3,000,000 feet Lumber, 2,O0O,000 Lath, 2,000,000 Shin- 
gles, 1,000,000 barrel staves, 1,000,000 barrel heads. Machinery, nine Saws, 
one Heading Machine, one Jointing Machine, one Stave Machine, one Shingle 

JOB pLM.,,,^, 



-roo^ " r.^ 


"'"blani- bjoks gc stationery ^rff''^. 




Machine. Established 1854. TTse no fuel but saw dust. Value of product 
per year §60.000. 

Samuel Stanchfield, Saw and Plaining Mill, Lath and Shingle Factory. — 
Main street, East Davenport.— Capital $20,000. Sawed last year 2,500,000 
feet, valued $20,000. Has a Planing Mill attached. 

S. Fuller's Lumber Yard. — Corner Iowa and Fourth sts. — Capital $10,000. 
Aggregate sales of sawed Lumber, per year, $25,000. Established 1856. 


John Davis. — Perry street, north of Second. 

B. Wathan. — Main street, near Second. 

W. H. Guthrie. — Main street, between Front and Second. — Makes Mantles, 
Cemetry Work, such as Monuments, Grave Stones, Cenotaphes, Spires, Tablets, 
&c., in the best style of the art. Mr. Guthrie's work has deservedly given him 
a wide reputation throughout the West. Employs sis men 


Mrs. Jones. — Corner Second and Brady. 

Wellan & Baker. — Corner Brady and Second, over Crampton's Store. 

Mr. Tyler. — No. 6, Forrest Block. 

A. A. Crampton. — Corner Brady and Second streets. 

E. A. MooRE. — No. 19 Second Street. 

Mrs. R. Renwick. — No. 90 Brady street. 


n. S. Finlet. — On Second street, west end of the city. — Mr. Finley com- 
menced this business in 1839, and after Herculean efforts has succeeded in 
establishing one of the finest and largest nurseries in the West. 


John Zimmerman. — Sixth street, between Iowa and LeClaire streets. — First 
class establishment, and only one in city. Just completed a splendid instru- 
ment for A. LeClaire, at a cost of $1,000. 


LusE, Lane & Co. — No. 55 Perry street. — The only Book Publishing House 
in the State. Capital $30,000. Business for last year, $28,000. Employ 
20 to 25 hands ; viz.: in Bindery twelve, Composing Room five, Press Room three, 
Store three. The size of this Establishment, and its enterprise in having pio- 
neered book-publishing in Iowa, deserves a particular notice. They own and 
occupy a building, three stories, twenty feet front by ninety-six deep. Their 

Press Room is furnished with a Chronometer Engine of two horse power, one 
Medium Hoe Press, one Adams Press, one Adams Card Press, and two Ilnnd 
Presses. The Composing Room contains 412 founts of Type, 260 of which 
are placed in a Revolving Rack, a most ingenious and room-saving invention 
by Mr. Chester Barney, the Foreman of the Printing Office. The Bindery 
has two Standing Presses, (made by S. 0. Shorey, of Davenport,) two Hikock's 
Ruling Machines, one Paging Machine, seven Hand Presses, and one Stabbing 
Machine. — They have published during the past year the Debates of the Con- 
stitutional Convention, in two large sized oct. volumes of 600 pages each, and 
also the Iowa Form Book; besides a multitude of Blank Books for nearly every 
County in the State, and for m?.ny of adjacent States. They have ample fa- 
cilities for doing every kind of work as well and cheap as it can be done East. 
A large Store Room is on the lower floor, amply ."supplied with Stationery, 
Law Blanks, and in short everything pertaining to the business. Established 
Sanders & Bro., Oazttte Office. See article on " Press." 
John Johns, Jr., & Co,, News Office. See article on "Press." 
Richardson & West, Democrat Office. See article on "Press." 
Lischer & Co., Der Demokrat. See article on "Press." 


E. S. Moore. — Third street near Ripley. 

RuFUS Wright. — Post Office Building, up stairs. — Mr. Wright has done much 
to confer honor upon himself apart from excellence in his Sign Painting. He 
is a fine artist, and has executed some Portraits and Landscapes of high ex- 
cellence. Among his best works are a magnificent view of Davenport, (now 
being lithographed,) the "Banished Lord," "Rest at Eve," and the "Lost 
Children." Mr. Wright is still a young man, and possesses a most promising 

A. D. Jewell, House, Sign, and Ornamental Painter. — Third street, one 
door east of Brady. 

C. D. Glime. — Third street, near Brady. 

Cook & Hopkins. — Main street, back of LeClaire House. 

WiLLARD, dealer in Sash, Doors and Blinds, and Sign and House Painter. — 
Corner Second and Harrison streets. 


E. Arndt & RrEHE. — Foot of Ainsworth street. 
H. RcGGS. — On Second, near Ainsworth street. — $8,000 per annum. 
Thomas Winkless. — On River, foot of Bridge Avenue. 
John C. Matthes. — On River, below City Cemetry. — $25,000 per annum. 
Employs five men. 



John F. Miller. — Second street, near Gaines. — Manufactures 300 bottles 
per day. 


R. H. Parks & Co. — Metropolitan Block. 

J. S. Drake & Co., dealers in Clothing and Gents' Furnishing Goods. — 
22 West Second street. 

T. S. Gilbert, Draper and Tailor.— 5 Franklin Block. 

R. Krause & Co. — McManus' Block, Second street. — Employs six men. 

N. HusEN. — 119 Second street. 

F. Schnabel. — Harrison sti-eet. 

P. L. Cone. — Employs nine men. 

Latimer. — Corner Brady and Third streets. 

Mrs. Stoddast. — 32 Perry street. 


H. Winch.— On Rockingham Road.— $10,000 per year. 
Only one in town. 


Smith & Remington.— 39 Second street.— Capital $3,000. Raw Material 
per year $10,000. This firm has done an increasing business for the year past 
nearly doubling, notwithstanding the hardness of the times. 

Graham & Early.— 22 Front street.— Manufacture $5,000 worth per annum. 

Brunner & Cassel.— 67 Harrison street. — Manufacturers of Smoke Stacks, 
Mill and Engine Machinery, and general Tin Jobbery. 

Wickersham & Williams.— 4 Burrows' Block.— Capital $5,000. Product 
per year $12,000. 


I. Hall. — Brady street, near Third. — Only one in town, and eminently fitted 
for the position. 


John Betts. — Second street, between Rock Island and Third. 
L. Waepfner. — Second street. 
J. Ledermeier. — Third street. 

Antoine Iten. — Corner Front and Brown streets. — 1000 barrels per annum. 



A. C. Billon & Co. — 8 LeClaire Row. 
W. R. LiNDSEY. — Brady street. — Engraver, Repairer, &c. 
J. Grevsmuehl. — Second street, near Harrison. 

Wallace & Ingalls, dealers iu Musical Instruments, Watches, &c. — 24 
Second street. 

Wm. Effey. — Second street, near Ripley. 

H. Langmack. — Second street, between Main and Harrison. 

R. & J. Nelson. — 60 Brady street. 

Appropriate to the present article is the Report of the Board of Trade, 
made at the close of I8b1, which sums up the various matters of business, 
expressed in detail by the foregoing. 


The footings in some erf the principal branches of trade for the year ending 
December 31st, 1857, show an aggregate for the business in the same of 
$14,435,812.24. Of this amount $8, 539, 744.28 has been Banking and Ex- 
change; $2,628,602.57 sales of Merchandise ; $1,158,000.00 sales of Grain 
and Provisions; $353,000.00 sales ofConsignments and Forwarding; $751,030.00 
Manufacturing not estimated in sales ; $450,029.00 Freight and Cartage ; 
$555,406.39 Lumber, Doors, Sash, &c. 

The Banking department shows an aggregate of $6,616,737.34 for Exchange, 
and $1,923,006.94 for Discounts. 

The sales of Merchandise, together with the stock on hand, show as follows : 


Agricultural Implementa, $ 25,000 00 $ 12,000 00 

Boots and Shoes, 72,000 00 34,000 00 

Books, Wall Paper, etc 34,000 00 12,000 00 

ISakery, Confectionery, etc., 8,000 00 3,000 00 

Clotliing, 164,700 00 61,000 00 

Dry Goods, 600,902 o7 164,500 00 

I'urniture, Matrasses, Carpeting, 89.000 00 44,300 00 

Groceries, 771,800 00 163,000 00 

Hardware, Iron, and Nails, 264,500 00 120,600 00 

Hats, Caps, and I'ur, 34,000 00 14,000 00 

Jewelry, Watches, etc., 27,000 00 18,600 00 

Leather and Saddlery Hardware, 87,000 00 24,200 00 

Millinery, 42.000 00 12,700 00 

Drugs, Paints, Oils, etc., 70,000 00 35,300 00 

Queensware, 25,000 00 18,000 00 

Stoves, House Furnishing, etc., 125,000 00 44,000 00 

Assorted Merchandise, 116,200 00 16,700 00 

Tobacco and Cigars, 59,000 00 14,000 00 

Wines and Liquors, 13,600 00 7,000 00 

Total Stock on hand, $818,700 00 

Owing to the monetary difficulties, which came down upon us so suddenly 
in October, there has been a falling off in all branches of trade. In no de- 
partment have the figures been so affected as in the Banking. During sixty 
of the last ninety days, Exchange has not been procurable at any price, or 


under any circumstances, except in very small sums. Notwithstanding this, 
our local business has suffered far less diminution than was at first appre- 

With an encouraging activity in their affairs and operations, our merchants 
have slowly, but steadily, met their liabilities at home and abroad, with a 
manifestation of promptness that, under tho circumstances, has received the 
hearty approbation of their correspondents, and preserved intact the high 
standing they have previously maintained. 

Careful inquiries have developed the fact beyond dispute that, during the 
last few months, we have bad important accessions to our trade, from various 
sections of the country hitherto tributary to other points. It is presuming 
very little to say, that the acquaintances thus formed, cannot but result mu- 
tually advantageous. Whether the first introduction was the result of purely 
superior inducements in stock and prices, which our merchants are ever ready 
to offer, or more directly the effect of the local currency, that has been so ex- 
clusively the agent of our transactions, is not left for decision here, and indeed 
it is no matter, having gained so much of a point, it only remains to re- 
tain it. 

The high price of exchange has operated more manifestly upon the stocks of 
grocers, in the articles of coffee, sugar, and molasses, and has maintained the 
price of these articles, at quotations much above the ordinary margin between 
this and Eastern and Southern markets. The indications being favorable for 
a speedy equalization of funds, we may reasonably hope for an improvement 
in these articles, and a corresponding increase of sales of the same. 

The estimates of Grain and Provisions exhibit as follows : 


Bushels Wheat, 1,019,000 $5U9,000 

Bushels Barley, 34.000 13,600 

Barrels Flour, 175,800 879,000 

Tons shipped stuff, etc Si&iO 129,600 

Bushels Potatoes, 20,000 5,000 

Bushels Onions, 25,000 12,500 

Barrels Pork, .3,500 52,000 

Tierces Bacon, 1.250 32,000 

Of the wheat received during the comprised period, there was manufactured 
into flour eight hundred and seventy-nine thousand bushels. 

The number of Hogs packed at this point was thirteen thousand. 
The estimated value for the same, after allowing for the wheat, etc., manu- 
factured, is $1,158,000. 

The Commission and Forwarding Business, with an aggregate of $353,000, 
shows an advance of freight and charges of $150,000. 

The following list of different branches of manufacture shows for 

Agricultural Implements, $ 49,000 

Boots and Shoes, 20,000 

Book Binding, Printing, etc., 108,000 

Bakeries and Confectionary, ;'.5,000 

Clothing, 28,000 

Carriages, Wagons, etc., 87,000 

Furniture and Matrasses, 07,000 

Plows, Castings, and Iron Work, 205,000 

Paints, Oils, etc., 4,0O0 

Stove Furnishing, etc., 10,000 

Cooperage, 105,130 

liUniber, Sash, etc., 235,154 

I'lour, Peed, etc., 957,000 

Hog Product, 113,715 

Sundry Manufactures, 32,909 


la no year have the crops of the country been more abundant than the 
present, yet owing to the great falling oft" in price, as compared with the 
former years, the receipts have fallen far short of the amount due. During 
the early months of the year, prices ranged at a point that offered great in- 
ducements to the producer, and large quantities of seed were planted. 

The exuberant crop, with a falling off in demand, followed by the financial 
troubles, created such a sudden and heavy diminution of price, as to induce 
growers of grains to sell no more than they were compelled to do. 

The opening year, however, offering no assurance of an improvement, there 
has been an increased disposition to sell, and consequently a marked improve- 
ment in receipts. 

There are few points in the West where the manufacture of flour is more 
largely engaged in. 

The value of this department alone approximates one million dollars, while 
the brands of the different mills enjoy an enviable reputation in foreign 

The crop of barley promised a great abundance, but the result of heavy 
rains at the period of early harvest vt^as a bitter disappointment and loss to 
the farmers, and a greatly deteriorated quality of grain. Much of the gather- 
ing has been grown or dampened, so that the prices have ranged from the low 
quotation of twenty cents per bushel to fifty cents per bushel. 

In common with other sections of the country, there has been an extensive 
disease among Neoshannock potatoes. Pinkeyes appearing the most healthy, 
have been most sought after. Large quantities have been exported, but stim- 
ulated by the excessive prices of last spring, the crop was heavy. There 
are many held in the country, in the hopes of advanced prices upon the re- 
sumption of navigation in the spring. 

An important and distinctive feature in our list of productions, is the cul- 
ture of onions. The annual crop is largely in excess of any other point in the 
West, and indeed enters creditably into competition with the great district of 
Wethersfield, so long famous for onions. In no soil is the crop grown more 
easily, profitably, or satisfactorily. The average price for the year has been 
fifty cents per bushel, with a total receipt of twenty-five thousand bushels. 
The shipments have been liberal with a fair stock on hand. 

The Hog crop at this point has never assumed the importance that has 
characterized the same at other places of some less size. Operatious have 
been confined to a few dealers, so that competition has never been sufficient 
to raise prices, or invite a supply exceeding the demand. There is no State 
better adapted for the raising of stock and culture of the necessary food than 
our own. Fertile, well watered, with almost limitless extent of natural pas- 
tures, and a soil responding generously to the rudest advances of cultivation, 
but a few years will elapse before we will assume that importance in this par- 
ticular we are eminently qualified to maintain; it is but little to anticipate 

^ssas^jv' \sssss^^ l^ajtj^^^ " 



L_^''i 'A^^-' l^f l^~r""Kj! 





i^J-'^ I 


ifc^- tM^i'- /i^ 

^4M t4n 






that the superiority of our position and advantages will largely identify us 
with such a result and make this city an extensive depot of provisions. 

The Oomtuission and Forwarding Business, which this year shows au aggre- 
gate of over one-third of a tniliion, is rapidly inc. easing in importance. As 
the Mi-sissippi and Missouri Railroad is extended, so will our products in- 
crease, and the same, whether seeking an Eastern or Southern market, must, 
on transhipment here, give employment to a large amount of labor and 


The solid growth and importance of a city is admitted by all political econ- 
omists to be based upon the manufacturing interest contained therein — and 
while we are deScieut in none of the elements necessary for the growth and 
success of a great mart, i' is mostly upon our unequalled facilities for manu- 
factures that our anticipations of the future aie based. 

Favored as we are by nature in our loc ttion, with every advantage for the 
convenient association of the different agencies required in the transformation 
of raw material into the necessaries of society, it requires only the most 
casuiil observation to discern our future importance; scarcely one stranger 
pa.fses without being impressed with this great fact, while to those who give 
more attention to the subject, favorable results geometrically increase. 

Already we have attained importance; already we have arrested and given 
employment to capital seeking profiiable investments. The success that has 
attended effurts already begun, connected with the facility of furnishing the 
raw ii.aterial — be it Lead from our own borders. Copper from Superior, Iron 
from Missouri, Lumber from Wiscoi^sin or Michi>ian, Hard Wood from Indiana, 
Cotton from Southern States, all of which can be brout^ht to our door without 
reshipnieat, added to Coal for fuel from meadows and fields whereon we raise 
abundant supplies of food for the thousands whose labor is transforming the 
crude materials we gather — cannot fail to favorably attract the attention of 
the capitalist and citizen, and induce to a citizenship among us, a portion of 
the best talent and enrrgy ot the country. Already are we conceded the 
superiority of manufacturing facilities, and already is a wide area of territory 
dependent upon us for those supplies we can more economically produce than 
import. Every mile of Railroad that is completed to the West, as well as 
every acre of raw prairie that is broken for cultivation, increases our manu- 
facturing importance ; in no age has the march of emigration been more 
rapid and ccmtinual, and in no case has a larger percentage of population 
accumulated than in our own State; legitimate causes produce legitimate re- 
sults. No city has had a more rapid, vigorous, and continued improvement 
than our own, and no improvement has been founded upon a more permanent 
basis, viz: — manufactures. 

There is scarcely a branch of this class of industry that might not be en- 
tered into successfully. Mills, machine shops, etc., are already established, 



yet these can be duplicated and the supply not exceed the demand. Cotton 
and woolen mills, paper manufacturers, foundries, shops for agricultural im- 
plements, and all the various kinds of handicraft will meet a welcome and 
a support upon the occasion of their advent. 

Here the expense of living is moderate, and the price of real estate governed 
by its value for actual use; for the proprietor, unequalled sites of residence 
present themselves, while the mechanic and laborer can find abundant places 
for a home, at terms to suit the most limited means ; for the purposes of 
business no city has a site superior, while few can equal our own. 

The estimate for Lumber, shows the following aggregates: 

The receipts have been in feet 22.21^,'2l6 

Tlie nniniipr of Lath received ami manufactiirerl, 6,795.000 

Tlie iiun]i)er Sliingles received and uiimufactured 5,2 4,750 

The number I'icl^eta manufactured, 31,463 

Of the receipts fourteen million seven hundred and seventy-five thousand 
two hundred and sixteen feet have been by river, and seven million four 
hundred and thirty-eight thousand feet by railroad. 

The amount of freight and charges paid here for the year have been 
$450,029.00. Of this the amount of railroad charges was $401,470.00. And 
the amount of river charges was $48, .559. 00. 

The aggregate exports and imports for the same time have been, as nearly 
as can be ascertained, ninety-three thousand six hundred and eighty-three 
Ions. Of this amount forty thousand five hundred and eighty-four tons are 
exports, and fifty-three thousand and ninety-nine tons imports. Of the ex- 
ports thirty-four thousand one hundred and fifty-seven tons were by railroad, 
and six thousand four hundred and twenty-seven by river. Of the imports 
forty-seven thousand and twenty-nine tons were by railroad, and six thousand 
and seventy tons by river. Total river tonnage, twelve thousand four hundred 
and ninety-seven. Total railroad tonnage, eighty-one thousand one hundred 
and eighty-six. 

The whole number of steamboat arrivals and departures have been one 
thousand five hundred and eighty-seven. Of this number nine hundred and 
sixty have been boats running to this point exclusively, and six: hundred and 
twenty-seven transient boats. 

The number of boats that have passed the railroad bridge is one thousand 
and sixty-seven ; and the number of rafts six hundred. The number of col- 
lisions of boats with the bridge has been twenty-five ; of which eight sustained 
injury, and seventeen sustained no injury. The number of rafts colliding with 
the bridge has been thirty; of which about two-thirds sustained injury, and 
one-third no injury. In no case was the injury sustained serious, with the 
exception of a few rafts. 

The river opened on Thursday, February 26th, the ice moving slightly. It 
again became gorged on the 28th, and remained stationary until March 25th, 
when it again broke loose, and permitted boats to reach the landing. The 
first boat of the season was the Fire Canoe, and half an hour later the Cone- 


wago. The first boat that passed the bridge was the Conewago, bound up ; 
and the last boat the Cremonia on the 25th of December, bound down. On 
the 25th of March the ferry commenced regular trips for the season. 

Up to the time of closing this report, the river has not frozen over at this 

The first raft passed down the 18th of March, and the last one the 18th of 

Of the rafts passing down the bridge more than one-half were manufact- 
ured lumber. 

It is a matter of interest to note the comparative magnitude of the river 
and railroad business of the city, and the statements assume greater interest, 
in connection with the strong influence that has been exerted for the removal 
of this important connection between great Eastern and Western overland 

St. Louis, with a greatly preponderating river over railroad business, attri- 
butes to this bridge, the greatest injury her business has received. The ad- 
mission calls attention to the fact, that an immense interest has found a more 
favorable and profitable accommodation than before ; an interest that is daily 
increasing, and if not at present, soon will become of greater importance than 
the inconveniences presented to any opposing interest. In this view, and aside 
from any local benefits that may accrue, it would seem to any but the most 
selfish prejudice, a retrogressive policy ihit would disturb so great a general 

There has been received here during the year by railroad : 

Lumber, in feet, 7,43S,000 

Shingles, .' 3,370,000 

Railroad Iron, tous, 1.593 

Coal, tons, 13J095 

Oats, buHliels. 33,843 

Barley, bushels, 4,688 

Corn, bushels 75,834 

Wheat, bushels, 183,297 

Pork, lbs., 862,385 

Pork, bbls., 3,956 

Machinery, lbs., 183,436 

Barrels of Flour, 4,410 

Wool, lbs., 18,306 

Of the above the entire estimates for Lumber, Shingles, Railroad Iron, Coal, 
and Corn were received by the Chicago and Rock Island Railroad. And the 
entire amount of Wheat, Pork, Flour, and Wool, was received by the Missis- 
sippi and Missouri Railroad. The remainder was received as follows : By 
Chicago and Rock Island Railroad, Oats 29,380 bushels, Barley 2,316 bushels. 
By Mississippi and Missouri Railroad, Oats 4,463 bushels, Barley 2,372 bushels. 

In addition to this there has been passed over the Mississippi and Missouri 

Railroad : 

Barrels of Flour, 29,302 

Bushels of I'otat oes, 2,996 

Bushi Is of Oats, 4.330 

Bushels of !!orn 40,258 

Bushels of Wiieai 235,217 

Pounds of Wool, 25,416 

The totnl number of pounds passed over this road, for the year, has been 
one hundred and thirty million six hundred and ninety-five thousand five 
hundred and sixty- six pounds. 

While the receipts by river have been larpje and intere^'ting, no reliable 
records of the different articles exist upon which tables can be founded. The 
amount of Lumber received in feet hai? been lourteen million seven hundred 
and seventy-five thousand two hundred and sixteen. 

The following is a list of a portion of the exports by river and railroad: 


Uiishrls WluMt 3il.(l72 57,9:!6 94.008 

Bu>hplH Hiiilev 1S.388 2.279 20.fi67 

BHrrels Kloni- '. 19.819 86..509 10(1319 

T.iiiH Coh] 5,047 5617 

Feot Liiiiibci 9,000 16.039,112 16.048112 

^hinglvs, 5,890,000 6,890,000 

In addition to the above, there has been shipped from this port as follows : 

Buslii'ls Oiiiiiiis 18 620 

Bushels Biirl.'v lfi.372 

BusliflsCoin iM.-al 1 -iOO 

BnshflsOatf; 376 

Tons !:-l)ip t=t,nfl. 976 

Barrels Lard 297 

Packages lliilter 138 

Tiereea Bacon 1.280 

Barrels Pork 1-372 

Hides 1.'13 

Wagoii.s ami Cairiages 26 

Barrels Fruit 32 

Packages Kiiriiiture, 961 

Packages Merchandise, 1.615 

Packages Groceries 800 

Pai'kages Queensware 63 

Packages Ilaritware , 659 

Packages Plows 507 

Packages .Agricultural linpleineuts, 620 

Buinlles ."^asli 90 

Pork Barrels 254 

Sack ^eeds 100 

Sack Wool 11 

Buleii Guuiiitb, 291 

Secretary of Board of Trade. 
Datbnport, Iowa, January 1st, 1858. 

, — 





Located on corner of Towa and Fifth streets. — Dr. J. J. Btrtts, Proprietor. 

This house is by far the best Hotel in the West, and in deed contra'^iction 
is challenged, when it is asserted, that the "Burtis House" for elegance, ac- 
v/Omraodation, beauty of structure, and in all its details, is inferior to no House 
in the United States. For this last reason a particular description will not be 
deemed amiss, and will furthermore fully evidence the assertion of its superi- 

The " Burti? House" is a simple Dining Room, surrounded on three sides 
by Parlors, Halls, Bedrooms, Closets, &c., risinsr to the height of five stories, 
including basement. The whole structure is 1!8 feet on Fifih street, and 109 
feet on Iowa street. The Dining Room is 39 by 81 feet, supported by iron 
columns, and magnificently frescoed tiy Messis. Patterson & Hildebrt'nd. 

In the Basement there is the Engine Room, containing an engine of thirty- 
five horse power, which, in connection with one of Worthington's pumps, 
forces the water to a tank in the fifth story, from which in hot and cold jets 
it is distributed to every Hall in the house. The boiler in this room was 
made by Walworth, Hubbard & Co., of Chicago. The boiler, steam and 
gas fitting, and plumbing, was made by Mr. Merwin of this city. There are 
also upon this floor a Laundry Room, veined by steam pipes ; a Restaurant, 
Billiard Room, Bar Room, Smoking Room, Barber Shop, Bath Room, and three 
Store Rooms, together with a multiplicity of smaller rooms, closets, &c., un- 
necessary to mention. 

On the first floor is found the Rotunda, a marble-floored, lofty, and roomy 
arrangement, with trumpets, bells, &c., beautifully frescoed, together with three 
imposing stair cases, leading respectively to the Ladies, Gents, and other 


rooms above. It communicates by wide Halls with the Ladies and Gents' 
Parlors on this floor, with external entrances, and with the stairways above 
alluded to. Upon this floor are also the Dining Room (by far the most splen- 
did specimen of architectural beauty in the West,) Reading Room, Ladies Par- 
lors with folding doors, Wash and Private rooms, the latter projected in all 
particulars similar to those of St. Nicholas Hotel, New York City. 

Passing from this floor to the second, by either of the beautifully constructed 
staircases, one is compelled to admire the work of Mr. Walker, one of the best 
Stairway Builders in the West. On the second floor are Parlors, with bed- 
rooms attached. Linen closets, suits of bed-rooms and parlors attached for 
the use of several families. The servants rooms are detached from other 
parts of the house, and like every other room in the house, are well warmed 
and ventilated. Each room is warmed by steam, and cooking is done by the 
same means. Every room is lofty, and from most of them magnificent views 
of Bluff or River scenery are obtainable. The Dining Room, occupying as it 
does the centre of the house, is lighted from front, rear and skylight. Its 
being located in the precise spot it is, makes it a vast improvement over every- 
thing else of the kind. The Rotunda is in all respects a fine specimen of de- 
sign and finish, and successfully challenges comparison. 

There are 150 sleeping rooms in the house ; basement 18 rooms ; first floor 
18, exclusive of the Rotunda ; and the remainder of the rooms are distributed 
on the floors above. The House itself is on the Railroad, and but a few steps 
from the Depot, thus saving to travelers the expense of Omnibus bill. 

In concluding the notice of the "Burtis House," it is but justice to the 
excellence of the parties to state, that the head builder is Mr. \Vm. Poole ; 
the plasterers Messrs. Rambo & Crimp; J. H. Morton, Painter; John Hillar, 
Stone Mason ; McManus & Wilkinson, Brick Masons ; the marble flooring by 
Ed. Wathan; and the Iron Castings by Jamme, Donnelly & Lea. The whole 
superstructure was designed by Dr. Burtis, assisted in part by Messrs. Under- 
wood & Cochrane, and "last, but not least," by Mr. Carroll. 

In regard to Dr. Burtis but little need be said — as former Lessee of " LeClaire 
House," and of the house in Lexington, Mo., he gained a reputation for man- 
agement in the Hotel business, which no eulogy can heighten. There is but 
a small share of western travel for a few years back, that has not been in- 
debted to Dr. Burtis for those gentlemanly and hospitable attentions that tend 
so much to lessen the discomforts of travel, and to ameliorate the hardships 
of absence from home. 

The Furniture, which is of the very best quality, was furnished in New 
York. Mattrasses, Linen, Bedding, Carpets, &c., of A. T. Stewart ; Table 
Furniture from Haughout & Co., 488 Broadway, New York ; and the other 
articles from various other establishments. 

The whole house is lighted by Gas, and in every respect superior to any 
other in the United States. 


To omit adding that Dr. Burtis possesses as his assistant Frank Kendrick, 
would be to leave unsaid one of the most valuable facts in regard to the 
" Burtis House." To all who know him, nothing need be said, in regard to his 
qualifications — to others it need merely be said, that he is — a gentleman. 

leclaire house. 

This House is so well known to the traveling community, that any notice of 
it is almost superfluous. It was built in 1839, at a cost of §35,000, by Antoine 
LeClaire, and was at the time a marvel of beauty and magnitude; and was 
not excelled anywhere in the Mississippi Valley. It was for a time Davenport 
proper, — inasmuch as it was the rallying point for all residents of the city, and 
during the Summer was a resort for visitors from St. Louis and other southern 
cities, who came here with their families to ruralize, hunt, escape warm 
weather and yellow fever. 

It was first taken by Mr. Hulse, then Chapman, next Miller, then Dr. Burtis 
(the present proprietor of the late finished Burtis House,) and is now kept 
by Messrs. Batteman, Swits & Schuyler. 

The arrivals for the past year have averaged thirty-five per day, and the 
average of regular boarders has been about seventy. 

On Third Street, between Rock Island and Perry streets. 
This House, now a very popular one, has undergone some remarkable trans- 
formations. It was originally a Nunnery, then a dwelling, a third rate hotel, 
and finally under the enterprising management of its present proprietor A. H. 
Cole, Esq., it has assumed the proportions, comforts, and appurtenances of a 
first-class House. Number of boarders forty-five. Number of rooms sixty. 

C. Davis, Proprietor. 
This House on the corner of Iowa and Fourth streets, has lately been largely 
increased in size. It is built of stone and its dimensions are sixty-four feet 
front, one hundred and thirty feet deep and five stories in height, and contains 
one hundred and two rooms. Number of boarders one hundred and twenty. 
It has one of the best wells attached to it in the city, being cut through solid 
rock to the depth of 150 feet, at a cost of $1,000. The gentlemanly proprie- 
tor, Mr. Davis, is a veteran in the business, and has long been identified with 
the buiiiness of Hotel Keeping in Davenport. He is one of the oldest settlers 
and deservedly enjoys a large amount of public patronage. Attached to the 
basement is a Billiard and Refreshment Saloon. 

William Axderson, Proprietor. — 76 Second street. 



Corner Third and Iowa streets. — Benj. Denton, Proprietor. 

Size fifty- seven by sixty-four. Forty rooms, and accommodation for one 

hundred boarders. Tliis p(.pular house is kept on Temperance principles, — 

has a barber-shop attached. Mtt. Dknton is from Poughkeepsie, N. Y., and is 

deservedly liked by his many friends. 

E. L. LiNDLEY, Proprietor. — 68 Second street. 

William Egbert, Proprietor. — Rock Island, between Fifth and Sixth streets. 

J. K. Bhodes, Proprietor.— On Harrison street, between Front and Second. 
Sixteen rooms. Boarders average forty. 

F. Steinee, Proprietor. — Corner Main and Front streets. 
Sixteen rooms. Can accommodate thirty boarders. 

Second street, between Main and Harrison. — VV. Davis, Proprietor. 
Sixteen rooms. Can accommodate twenty-five boarders. 

Jas, Merritt, Proprietor. — Alain street between Second and Third. 
Twelve rooms. Average fifteen boarders. 

F. Haisch, Proprietor. — Front street, between Harrison and Main. 

Sixteen rooms. Average thirty boarders. 

Jos. LuDERSCHER, Proprietor. — On Front street, between Main and Brady. 
Eighteen rooms. Average thirty boarders. 

Corner Second street and Washington Square. 

S&i "^iiiilllilisi' I'i'' lili!li™iliii'n''!'il 



Corner Harrison and Front streets. — J. J. Humphrey, Proprietor. 

Size 50 by lOD feet, four stories high, one hundred rooms. Average sixty 
boarders. This house has one of the finest locations in the city. It fronts the 
River and comnii ids a view of Rocli Island City, the Island, Fort Armstrong, 
Mississippi Bridge, and a long stretch of beautiful scenery up and down the 
River. It is the nearest point to the Steamboat Landing, and possesses in its 
elegant structure, fine view, excellent accommodation, and worthj' landlord, 
high claims to the patronage of the public. Board $1.50 per day for transient, 
and $6.00 to $8.00 per week for permanent boarders. 






E^taVlishefl in the Spring: of 1838; Pastor, .James D. Mason ; Members, one 
butidred and ninety; Church, forij-five by i-eventy feet, with basement; Sun- 
day School, about one hundred pupils ; Volumes in Library, eight hundred 
and forty-one. 


Thi« Church was organized on the 30th day of July, 1839. by Rev. Albert 
Ha'e, now pastor of a Presbyterian Church in Springfield, IIH' ois, and then 
Agent of the " American Home .Missionary Society." Two Congregatinnal 
Churches then existed in the Teriitory of Iowa, those of Denmark and Dan- 
ville. The same year a Congregational Church was formed in Fairfield, and 
the next year one at Farmington. These are the five oldest Congregatitmal 
Churches in the Slate, The original members of this Church were twelve in 
number. All brought letters from other Chur<hes — two from the First Con- 
gregational Church in Qaincy, Illinois ; three fmm the First Congregational 
Church iu Brat'leboro,' Vtrmont; fiur from the First Presbyterian Church in 
Giilesburg, Illinois, and three, from the First Presbyteiian Cbuich in Daven- 
port, Missionary explorers had reported a town here of "five hundred" 
people, and that '^ Steyhennon," in Illinois, had "six hundred." Those who 
united in the new Church organization were, at the lime, sustaining a Sabbath 
School and a Prayer Meeting. " Principles. By Laws, Articles of Faith, and 
a Covenant," were adopted, (Mr. Hale in ihe Chaii,) and two deacons elected. 
In all these things the pattern of the Orthodox Puritan Churches otNew Eng- 
land was followed. At first, sermons were read by one of the deacons, on 
the Subbath, in a room hired for public worship. The first ordained minister 


who preach- (I to them wns R-'v. J. P Stuart, of Stephenson. Mr S. was com- 
rais-iioiK (1 by the A-nerican Home Mis-ionary Saciety for " Stephenson and 
vifuiity" in August 1839, and preiic'ieil in Davenport, as part of that "vicin- 
ity," from July, 1840, to the beginning of winter. In September, 1841, a call 
was extended to the Rev. Reuben Gaylord, since pastor at Danville, now at 
0(11 iha City, N. T., which was not accepted. The same month, Rev A. B. 
Hitchcock, from the Theological Department of Yale College, was invited to 
minister to the Church, and commissioned 'y the American Home Missionary 
Society as a missionary for this place. The Church thpn numbered fifteen or 
eighteen metnbers. Mr. Hitchcock remained till September 1843, when be ac- 
cepted an invitation to take charge of a Church at Moline. During his minis- 
try thirty two members wire received. In 1844, Rev. Ephraim Adams, of 
Mount Pleasant, was invited to minister to the Church, and commissioned in 
November of that year. Mr. Adams was installed some time in the summer of 
1847 as pastor, — the first pastor. The Church was aided by the American 
Home Mist^ionary Society in sustaining its minister till November, 1852. Mr. 
A<lams continued pastor till 185.5. During his ministry one hundred and 
severity-eight persons were added to the Church, forty-seven of whom united 
at the communion in March 1855, the last preceding Mr. Adam's resignation. 
The present pastor commenced his labors in June, 1855, was called to the 
pastorship in November of thit year, and installed January 2d, 185G. During 
his ministry one hundred and thirty-two persons have been received to the 
Church. It now numbers two hundred and forty members. 

Others, besides those mentioned above, have ministered to the Church for 
shorter periods of lime; among them Rov. Oliver Emerson, Jr., for many 
years since pastor at Sahula, during a number of months in 1841. 

The place of worship has been several times changed. The Church was 
organized in the small school building on the west side of Main street, near 
Fdurth, and opposite St. Anthony's, Catholic Church. Afterward, Sabbath 
service was held at the foot of Harrison street, on the Levee, then at the foot 
of Brady, then on Harrison, near Fourth, and then in the Main Street School 
Hiuse again. The present Church building, on Fifth street, was erected in 
1844. It has been enlarged twice — in 185-2, and in 1855. Its original dimen- 
sions were twenty-eight feet by thirty-eight; present size, forty by sixty-two 

The Church owns three contiguous lots on the corner of Fifth and Main 
street — on one of which the place of worship now stands — extending, in all, 
one hundred and ninety-two feet on Fifth street, by one hundred and fifty feet 
on Main street. The corner lot on Main street was purchased in August, 1855t 
with a view to the erecti(m of a larger house of worship. The present edifice 
is altogether insufficient for the wants of the congregation. 

The regular Sabbath services are held in the morn ng and evening; and 
the afternoon of the Sabbath is devoted to the Sabbnth School. The Monthly 
Concert of Prayer for the conversion of the world is held on the first Monday 


evening of each monlb, and on other Alnndny cvenirig? a Young People's meet- 
ing. Priiyir nieeliiigs (Cor ludiet^) on AVcdne^da}- afternoon, lUid (for all) on 
TLursdiiy evening. Social riittlings to promote i>ersonal acquaintance are 
occas^ionally held. 

The present officers of the Church are as follows : 

Pastor, Rev. George F. Slagoun ; Deacons, David Gower, F. B. Abbott, 
Charles S. Sbelton ; Sunday School Superintendents, Charles S. Sbelton, E. 
Alden ; Librarian, Jerome C Lambrite ; Church Committee, John L. Davies, J. 
R. Shepherd, J. B. Sutton ; Clerk, J. Smith Connor ; Treasurer, H. L. Bullen, 

The Sfibbath School numbers something over two hundred scholars; library 
three hundred volumes; Church library one hundred and fifty -one volumes. 
There is a Young People's Association for doitiggood, of forty members. The 
benevolent contributions of the Church last year were three thousand six 
hundred and thirty-two dollars. 


The organization of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Diocese of lovra 
was effected at Muscatine in August 1853: but the election of a Bishop did 
not take place until the first of June, 1854. The Convention sat in Daven- 
port, in the basement-room of the First Presbyterian Church, Trinity not 
being ready for use. The Rt. Riv. Pr. Kimper, Missionary Bishop of the 
North-west, presided. The balloting resulted in the election of the Rev. Henry 
W. Lee, D. D., then Rector of St. Lukt's Church, Rochester, N. Y. The 
Bishop-elect was consecrated in Rochester in October of the same year, and 
scon entered upon his new duties. Having made his fiist visitation to the 
Diocese, he selected Davenport as his place of residence, it being, in his judg- 
ment, the most eligible and convenient point with reference to his duties. 
The Diocese of Iowa includes the entire State; and from thirteen parishes, 
and eight clergymen in 1854, it has increased to thirty parishes and twenty- 
five clergymen in January, 1858. Bishop Lee, at the present time, has also 
the Episcopal charge of the Territory of Nebraska ; this being, however, but 
a temporary arrangement. 


The first and regular services of the Protestant Episcopal Church were 
commenced in Davenport on Thursday, the 14lh day of October, 1841, by the 
Rev. Z. H. Goldsmith, who was appointed as a Missionary to the Station by 
the Domestic Committee of the Board of Missions of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church — his time being divided at intervals between Davenport and Rocking- 
ham, which latter place, at the time, promised to be of the most importance. 
A Parish was rt-gularly organized at Davenport on Thursday, the 4th op 
November, 1841, by the name and title of "Trinity Church Parish;" and a 


Vestry was elected, resulting in the following choice : Ira Cook, J. W. Parker, 
W. W. Dodge, Ebenezer Cook, H. 8. Fiuley. 

The regular meetings of the Parish for public worship were held during a 
succession of years, and until November of 1853, in the small frame building 
still standing on the -west side of Main street, between Fourth and F fth 
streets, occupying the middle lot of that half block, when it was abandoned as 
no longer tenantuble. Divine services were held during the same Tvinter of 
1853, and until April of 1854, in the store room at the north-east corner of 
Rock Island and Second streets, and from April, until the completion and oc- 
cupancy of the new edifice of Trinity church, in August of 1854, in the house 
of the present Rector, Rev. A. Louderback, known as the Emerson House, on 
Second street, between Rock Island and Pen-y streets. 

The incumbency of the Rev. Z. H. Goldsmith continued until the spring of 
1849, when, in ilie following year, he was displaced from the ministry, and 
continued to reside here until his death, which occurred in the summer of 
1853. The resignation of the Rev. Z. H. Goldsmith, which occurred on the first 
of April, 1840, was followed by the call and settlement of the present Rector, 
Rev. Alfred Louderback, as Rector and Missionary, on the 5th of May follow- 
ing, making a vacancy of one month in the Parish — since which time he has 
continued in uninterrupted charge of the Church. When he assumed the 
charge of the Parish and Station, at a salary of two hundred dollars per an- 
num, with a like sura from the Domestic Committee, he found the Parish in 
debt some s-even hundred dollars— or twice the amount of what the church 
lot and building were then considered worth— with about nine communicants 
in all, and an immense and increasing prejudice against the Church, and with 
but little prospect of its permanent and successful establishment. Patient, 
continued, and persevering efforts, however, amidst no ordinary discourage- 
m.nts, have met with success. For, frequently, after careful preparation for 
the duties of the pulpit, there would not be over ten or fifteen persons present 
to join ill the services, and listen to the sermon ; while, at the same time, the 
Parish was without a Surplice, or Communion set, a Melodeoii, a Sunday School 
library, or any of those external appliances and aids so necessary to give effect 
and interest to the public services, because the poverty of the congregation 
would not admit of procuring them. At the expiration of the second year 
these necessary aids reve obtained, and also a complete set of plans from Mr. 
Frank Wills, of New York city, who generously furnished them at a trifling 
cost. A subscription was, at the same time, started with a view to building 
the present edifice of Trinity Church, and on the 5th of May, 1852, just three 
years from the time the present Rector assumed charge, the corner-itone was 
laid by the Right Rev. Bishop Kemper, D. D , then in Episcopal charge of 
Iowa, as yet unorganized into a Diocese. The walls rose to their proper height 
during that year, and remained bare the following winter, until the spring of 
1853, when the roof was put on, and the building plastered and floored, and 
the windows roughly closed up, in which condition it stood until the spring of 


1854, w en it WHS determined to finish it off. Contracts were made ncoonl- 
inply, and its occupation entered upon by the congregntion on Sunday, the 
20th day of August, of the same year, 1854. The original cost of the two 
lotH in 1851, and now owned by the Parish, was five hundred d dhvrs — the cost 
of the eiiifice about ten thousand dollars — the organ, one of Erben's build, of 
New York city, and the generons gift of Gen. George B. Sargent, sev^n hund- 
red dollars — in addition to which, the Parish holds about eiglit or nine acres 
of ground, being a part of the " Pine Hill Cemetery," as a burial ground for 
their dead — being, in all, a property worth, at the lowen estimate, over twenty 
thousand dollars, and all in a perfectly safe condition. In conducting the 
Parish to this gratifying state of outward, temporal prosperity, much credit and 
praise are due to the untiring interest, generosity, and zeal of Mr. Ebenezer 
Cook, who has been the constant friend and liberal t-upporter of the Parish 
throughout its entire history, without mentioning what is due to the efforts of 
the Rector. 

The whole number of communicants, which have been connected with the 
Parish, at various times, is about one hundred and forty. Number of bap- 
tisms — adults, twenty-two; infants, one hundred and nineteen; making in 
all one hundred and forty-one. Confirmations, thirty-four ; marriages, thirty- 
eight; burials, eighty-one; present number of cotnmunicants about sisiy-live. 
Size of the Church at present, about seventy-five feet long, by thirty-five feet 
broad, in the clear, exclusive of chancel recess, with a view to enlargement, 
at a future day, by the addition of transcepts, so as to make a cruciform 
building. Capable of seating about three hundred persons at present ; when 
enlarged, as plans call for, affording sittings for about one thousand persons. 
Parochial Library, for the reading of the congregation, mostly imported 
English works, of near four hundred volumes, the generous gift of Ebenezer 
Cook. Sunday School Library of about one hundred and forry volumes. 
Sunday School scholars, about sixty; teachers, six; Rector, ^superintendent. 
".Parochial Association" meets the first and third Tues-day evenings in every 
month, except during Lent, at the houses of Parishoners, with a view to pro- 
moting acquaintance, and sociality among the meujbers of the congregation, 
and exciting a deeper interest in the welfare of the Parish. Church chaiis 
purchased, from the avails of that association, at a cost of about one hundred 
and seventy-five dollars, being the contribution of one dime per month from 
members, with one dime, also, as entrance fee. 

On the 2d of April, 1856, canonical consent being asked for the organization 
of a new Parish by a few families formerly connected with Trinity Church, and 
others uniting, the requisite leave was granted, whic resulted in the existence 
of St. Luke's Parish, without any detriment to the old organization. 



E.stfibl shed April 4lh, 185fi; Piistor, Horatio N. Powers; Number of mem- 
bers, foit.v ; Size of Cliiirch one bunJred and twelve feet by forty-five, with 
basement fouiteeu feet high, contaiuing five rooms. Size of Sunday School, 
thirty fecholars. 


E'tiiblisbed June l*t, 1842; Pastor, Geo. Dijon Bowen; Members, three 
hundred and seventy five; Cliurch, forty-four by sixty-eight feet, with base- 
ment; Suiidiiy School, one hundred and seventy-five jjupils ; Volumes in 
Library, three hundred. 

At the organization of this Church, in June, 1842, the society consisted of 
about twenty members, and were possessed of no Church property of any kind. 
Since which time, another Church has been formed from it, to wit, " Wesley 
Chapel," and the old organized Church now numbers three hundred and 
seveuty-five members, with a neat and comfortable Church, forty-fourby sixty- 
ei ',ht feet, with end galery, and class rooms and lecture room below, the whole 
Church, above and below, lighted with gas. 

There is also a Parsonage building on the same lot, twenty-four by forty- 
five feet, two storie;", with basemenr, and also on rear of same lot, a neat and 
comfortable house for the use of the Sexton. 

The entire Church property is vested in Trustees, and is char of debt. 


Established 1856; Pastor, D. C. Worts; Members, sixty; Church, forty by 
sixty ft-et; Sunday School, ninety pupils; Volumes in Library, two hundred 
and fifty. 

Rev. J. P. Linderman organized the Society, and was its first pastor. 


E'^tablisbed November 25th, 1855; Pastor, Jacob Steck ; Members, twenty, 
five; Sunday School, seventy-five scholars; Volumes in Library, three hund- 

Tiiis Society has yet no Church edifice, but has one in contemplation, which 
will be finished next Summer. 


This Church is situated on the south-east corner of Scott and Eleventh 
streets, on a lot of ground donated by Alp. James Mcintosh. It is a neat, plain 


frame building, thirty five by forty-five feet, and calculated to seat between 
three and four hundred persons. It was founded A. D. 1856. 

The congregation numbers about sixty members, and is under the Pastoral 
care of Rev. Samuel M. Hutchison. They have a Sabbath School of thirty- 
one scholars, and six teachers, with a library of one hundred and seventy-five 

It may be observed that this Church is in its infancy, and is the only one of 
the kind in Davenport. It belongs to a large and influential bram h of thy 
Presbyterian family, which originated in a union of Associate Presbyterians 
and Reformed Presbyterians, who came from Scotland and Ireland, as Mis- 
sionaries, prior to the revolution, and in the year 1782, they united together, 
and retaining their primitive names in one, have since been known by the 
name of Associate Reformed Presbyterians. An effort has been made to unite 
this body With the Associate Presbyterians — if this proves successful, it may 
change the name of this Church to United or Union Presbyterian. 


Established May 4,1857; Pastor, D. F. Packard; Members, twenty-one; 
number of Congregation, one hundred; Sunday School, twenty-five pupils; 
Volumes in Library, two hundred and fifty. 


Established Oct. 7, 1B51 ; Pastor, I. Butterfield ; Members, three hundred ; 
size of Church, forty-four by eighty-six feet ; Sunday School, two hundred 
and twenty-five pupils; Teachers, twenty-three; (Mission School, one hundred 
pupils ; Teachers, ten ;) Volumes in Library, five hundred ; Mission School, 
three hundred. 

This Church was organized Oct. 7th, 1851, with sixteen members. They had 
no Pastor, or place of worship. 

Their first Pastor, Rev. E. Miles, commenced his labors the first of the fol- 
lowing June, and closed them June 1st, 1857, leaving the Church with one 
hundred and fifty members, and a well constructed house of worship, forty- 
four by eiglity-six feet. 

Their present Pastor, Rev. I. Butterfield, commenced his labors June 1st, 
1857, since which time the congregation has more than doubled. They have 
also a Mission School of one hundred scholars, ten teachers, and a Library of 
three hundred volumes. 


Established 1839; Pastor, N. S. Bastion; Members, eighty; Church, forty- 
five by seventy-five feet — brick, on stone foundation ; Eliz ibethan architecture. 
Sunday School, seventy scholars ; Volumes in Library, six hundred. 

Church erected in 1855 — corner Main and Sixth streets 



Established 1855; Pastor, Jean Baptiste Baumgartner; Members, about 
three hundred and thirty-three ; Church between Fifth and Sixth streets ; Sun- 
day School in the Church. No Library. 


Established October 1856 ; Pastor, H. Cosgrove ; Members, about one 
thousand ; Church, forty by eighty feet ; Sunday School, sixty children ; Vol- 
umes in Library, four hundred and sixty. 

This Church was built by Mr. A. LeClaire, and the block on which it stands 
was given by the same. 


Established 1838 ; Pastor, J. A. M. Pelamourgues ; Members, three thousand ; 
Church, forty-four by eighty-four feet ; School, four hundred pupils ; Volumes 
in Library, five hundred. 


Established July 19, 1851 ; Pastor, A. Frowein ; Members, nineteen ; Church, 
twenty-five by forty feet ; Sunday School, thirty pupils ; Volumes in Library, 


Established July 28th, 1839 ; Pastor, Eli Regal ; Members, one hundred and 
sixty-seven; Church, forty by seventy-five feet, with basement; Sunday 
School, fifty-five scholars ; Volumes in Library, two hundred. 

This Church was organized at an early day, and with but few members, and 
although for many years without a preacher, yet it has steadily increased in 
numbers. Since its organization, no serious cause for disagreement has 
arisen among the members, but disclaiming human creeds and traditions, and 
acknowledging the Bible as the only rule of faith and practice, all differences 
being thus referred, have been speedily and most satisfactorily settled. The 
Church is now in a healthy and highly prosperous condition. 


On Sunday, March 14, 1858, a "Society of Free Inquirers" was organized, 
in the Court House — Jonathan Parker in the Chair, and Th. Guelich Secretary. 
Dr. Hall, Robt. Mcintosh, and Th. Guelich, were appointed a committee on 
Constitution, &c. 





The Scott County Bible Society, auxiliary to the American Bible Society, 
was organized in the city of Davenport on the 13th day of September, A. D. 1842, 
at which time a Constitution was formed and adopted, which continued with- 
out material alteration or amendment until the present time. 
The oiBcers elected at the organization were — 
Rev. D. Worthington, President ; Charles Leslie, Secretary. 
And at the subsequent anniversary meetings the minutes of the Society show 
the following election of officers : 

In 1843, Rev. Z. H. Goldsmith, President; Rev. D. Worthington, Secretary ; 
Wm. L. Cook, Treasurer. 

Who continued until 1847, when — 

Rev. Z. H. Goldsmith was elected President ; Rev. Ephraim Adams, Secre- 
tary ; Wm. L. Cook, Treasurer. 

In 1848, Rev. Ephraim Adams, President; Asa Prescott, Secretary; Alfred 
Saunders, Treasurer. 

In 1849, Rev. Ephraim Adams, President; Asa Prescott, Secretary; Rufus 
Ricker, Treasurer. 

In 1850, Rev, J. D. Mason, President; Rev. Asa Prescott, Secretary; Rufus 
Ricker, Treasurer. 

In 1851, Rev. J. D. Mason, President ; H. Price, Treasurer ; Rev. H. L. 
Bullen, Secretary. 

In 1852, Rev. J. D. Mason, President ; H. Price, Treasurer; Rev. H. L. Bul- 
len, Secretary. 

In 1853, Rev. J. D. Mason, President; Prof. D. S. Sheldon, Secretary; Jno. 
H. Morton, Treasurer. 

In 1854, H. Price, President; Rev. J. D. Mason, Secretary ; James L. Dal- 
zell. Treasurer. 

In 1855, H. Price, President; Rev. J. D. Mason, Secretary, Jas. M. Dalzell, 

In 1856, Strong Burnell, President; Rev. J. D. Mason, Secretary; H. Price, 

In 1857, H. T. Slaymaker, President; Rev. J. D. Mason, Secretary; H. Price, 
Treasur r. 

And the Treasurer's books show also that the aggregate receipts have been 
eleven hundred and one dollars and forty-seven cents. The receips for the 
first year were nine dollars and thirty-seven cents, and for the last year three 
hundred and forty-eight dollars, showing a steady increase in the collections 
of the Society, equal if not exceeding the increase in wealth and population of 
the county. 

This money has all been expended in the purchase of bibles and testaments 
in different languages, which have been distributed (except some which are 


now on hand,) among the inhabitants of this city and county, without any 
distinction of sect or party. 

The Depository of this Society is at present at the Publishing House of 
Luse, Lane & Co., No. 55 Per-y street, between Second and Third streets, 
Davenport. The names of persons contributing to the funds of the Society 
are registered on the Treasurer's book, and thereby become members of the 

RECAPiTcri-A.TioN. — Church Members, 5,'700 ; Sunday School Pupils, 1,096> 
Sunday School Libraries, 8,819 volumes. 



The State of Iowa possesses a liberarEducational system — having obtained 
from Congress a grant of five hundred thousand acres of land, whose proceedg 
are devoted entirely to the support of Common and Academic Schools. While 
the State has taken such a high position in the encouragement of Education, 
Davenport is in nowise behind. Schools are ample in number, and first in 
character ; and this is equally applicable to both public and private institu- 
tions. The buildings belonging to the public schools are almost without ex- 
ception, costly and commodious structures, which combine at once elegance, 
consideration of health and convenience. 


ScHooii District No. 2. — There are in this District nine hundred and seventy- 
six children entitled to school privileges, and an average attendance of two 
hundred and fifty. 

The District was organized 1853, and the same year a stone house was erected 
corner of Perry and Seventh streets, at a cost of eight thousand dollars. It 
is two stories in height, with a basement residence for the Principal, and will 
comfortably accommodate five hundred scholars. 

The School is graded — having Private, Intermediate, and Grammar School 
Departments. There are included in the branches taught, besides the com- 
mon, Higher Mathematics, Philosophy, Chemistry, Astronomy, Physiology, 
History, Drawing, Book Keeping, &c. 

J. H. Bowers, Principal ; Miss Sarah TJradley, Assistant in Grammar School ; 
Miss Julia Humphrey, Intermediate Department ; Misses Mary Slater and 
Elizabeth Bowers, Primary Department. 

School District No. 17. — District organized, and brick school house sufiB- 


cient for niaety scholars— erected in 1855 — on Sixteenth street, between Main 
and Harrison street. There are now in the District three hundred and ninety- 
three school children. 

This winter the school-house accommodations were found to be entirely in- 
sufficient, and three schools were, therefore, opened as follows : 

First School — (in brick school house,) average attendance, one hundred and 
twenty. Frank M'Clellan, Teacher ; Miss A. M. Lindsley, Assistant. 

Second School — On Brady street, north of Locust. Average attendance, 
forty-nine. Peter Van Ornam, Teacher. 

Third School — Corner of Rock Island and Locust street. Average attend- 
ance, thirty. Miss E. J. Kelly, Teacher. 

School District No. 5. — This District returns three hundred and three 
school children, with ninety as the average attendance. 

There is a fine two story stone school-house, forty by twenty-five feet, and 
capable of accommodating about one hundred and twenty scholars ; corner of 
Second and Pine streets ; it was erected in 1855, and enlarged in 1857 — cost 
three thousand dollars. 

The District was organized in 1850. J. 8. Coates, Teacher ; Mrs. A. W.Reed, 

This District embraces the Third street West End settlement, and extends 
beyond the city limits. 

School District No. 7. — Organized in 1850, There are now twelve hundred 
school children, with an average attendance in the public school of three hund- 
red and eighty. In 1857, a large, and handsome brick school-house, 42 by 62 
feet, and three stories, (with grounds for calisthenic exercises attached,) was 
erected, at a cost of about sixteen thousand dollars ; corner of Warren and 
Sixth streets. 

The school is thoroughly graded, and in addition to common studies, em- 
braces all the higher branches of a complete English education. 

A. S. KLesell, Principal ; Miss M. A. Scofield, Assistant in Grammar School ; 
Miss M. M. Townley, Secondary Department ; Miss Helen Lusk, Secondary De- 
partment ; Miss M. M. Lyon, first Assistant in Primary Department ; Miss 
Sarah E. Washburn, and Miss C. E. Williams, Primary Department. 

School District No. 10. — Organized in 1854. Children in District, two 
hundred and thirty-seven ; average attendance, sixty-eight. 

There is a respectable frame school-house, capable of accommodating eighty 
scholars, on Main street, west of Mound, (East Davenport.) 

A. M. Geiger, Teacher ; Miss Cornelia M'Carn, Assistant. 


German and English School. — Established in 1857, in the St. Kunigunda 
Catholic Church ; has sixty scholars. Henry Koehler, Teacher. 

Catholic School. — Large two story frame school-house on Church Square, 


rear of St. Anthony's Church, erected in 1856 ; which was, however, only an 
addition to other school buildings near at hand. This school was first opened 
in ;s,., by Rev. J. A. M. Pelamourgues. There are now about forty-seven 
scholars in attendance. 

Rev. J. A. M. Pelamourgues, Principal ; J. D. Smith, and Mrs. Sullivan, 
Assistants in Male Department. 

Eight Sisters conduct the Female Department. 

German School. — Brick school-house, corner Warren and Fourth streets. 
Established in 1853 ; sixty-two scholars. John H. True, Teacher. 

Select Schools. — L. C. Burwell, in Grigg's Hall block — thirty-two scholars. 

Miss Byron, in Fonst's block — fifteen scholars. 

Misses Lyon & Munn, corner Perry and Fifth streets — thirty-five scholars. 

Misses Severance & Bennett, in Bailey's Hall. 

Mrs. Stevens,. on Main street, above Eighth — eighteen scholars. 

"W. Wier, on Main street, opposite Catholic Church — twelve scholars. 

Mrs. N. Crockett, Young's Block, Brady street — twenty scholars. 

German and American Instit0Te — On Scott street, between Third and 
Fourth. W. Riepe and Louise Riepe, teachers — thirty scholars. Ladies' and 
Boys' Departments. 

Davenport Commercial College — In Jacoby's new building, corner of Third 
and Perry streets. The course embraces Double Entry Book-keeping, as ap- 
plicable to every branch of Trade, viz : Wholesale, Retail, Forwarding and 
Commission, Banking, Steam Boating, Joint Stock and Compound Company 
Business, both Individual and Partnership, and as comprehensive as at any 
similar Institution in the United States. 

Commercial Calculations and Correspondence form a part of the course, 
together with a course of Lectures on Commercial Law, by an able lecturer. 
There is in connection with the Institution, and under the immediate super- 
vision of the Principals, a Ladies Department, in which Book-keeping and 
Penmanship will be thoroughly taught. Every facility will be afforded to 
pupils to enable them to complete the course in the shortest possible time. 
J. C. Lopez, Principal ; W. H. Pratt, Assistant Principal. 

Mount Ida Female College. — This Institution was organized in Davenport, 
and commenced its first Session on the Vth day of September, 1857, under the 
direction of Rev. M. McEendree Tooke, A. M., and Lady, through whose in- 
strumentality the " Mount Ida College Association" has recently been or- 
ganized, and under whose auspices this College is placed. 

The principal object of this Association is the promotion of the higher 
educational interests of the Young Ladies of the West. 

The unfinished building, formerly designated as the " Ladies College," which 
was commenced and prosecuted with commendable energy for a time, by Mr. 
T. H. Codding, has recently been purchased, and is now being fitted up in the 
most approved style of Eastern Colleges. The Boarding Hall, (now neatly 


finished,) and dormitories, are sufSciently commodious to accommodate one 
hundred Young Ladies as boarders. The Session Rooms have just been fur- 
nished with the nicest styles of Boston furniture, diagonally arranged, and the 
three commodious parlors have been neatly papered, grained, carpeted, and 
furnished with new and elegant pianos, &c., for the accommodation of the 
Musical and Ornamental Department. 

The building itself, is a substantial brick edifice, four stories high, and when 
enlarged and completed, as now designed, with two wings, each fronting the 
river on Third street thirty-five feet, and extending northward, parallel with 
Bridge and College avenues, eighty feet, making in all a front of one hundred 
and thirty feet by eighty, rear, and finished with appropriate embellishments, 
verandahs, oDservatory, &c., with grounds beautifully laid out, and newly 
fenced — will cost, it is thought, inclusive of the beautiful plat of four acres of 
ground upon which it is situated, between seventy-five and one hundred 
thousand dollars, and will accommodate from three to five hundred students. 

The College is situated on a delightful eminence in the eastern part of the 
city, surrounded by a beautiful grove, overlooking the main part of the city of 
Davenport, with her sister cities of Rock Island and Moline in full view, and 
commands a most enchanting view of the celebrated "Father of Waters" for a 
distance of nearly sixteen miles, with its life-like steamers passing and re- 
passing almost every hour. 

This combines most charmingly for educational purposes, all the advantages 
both of country and city location, and in general healthfulness, purity of 
moral atmosphere, sublimity and beauty of scenery, is not excelled, it is 
thought, by that of any similar Institution of this nation. The central 
position also of this enterprise, will always render it easy of access from all 
points of compass — from North and South, by the palace-like Packets upon the 
Mississippi; and from east and west, by the Chicago and Rock Island Rail- 
road, which crosses the Mississippi upon the magnificent Railroad Bridge near 
Fort Armstrong, in full view of the College edifice, and the Mississippi and 
Missouri Railroad passing on Westward through the interior of Iowa, inter- 
sected by various railroad branches. 

Four Departments are established in this Institution, viz : 

1. A Model School for Misses. 

2. An Academic Department, preparatory to entering the Collegiate. 

3. A Collegiate Department, embracing substantially the Scientific and 
Classical course recently established for Female Colleges, by a Convention of 
Presidents of Colleges held at Cincinnati, Ohio. 

4. A Musical and Ornamental Department. 

This College being incorporated with the highest collegiate powers, full and 
formal Diplomas conferring appropriate literai-y degrees, are awarded to those 
Young Ladies who sustain a satisfactory examination in the prescribed course 
of study, or such other branches as may by the Faculty and Curators be 
deemed an equivalent. 


Facuity. — Rev. M. McKendree Tooke, A. M., President, Prof, of Intellectual 
and Moral Science, and Belles Lettres. 

Rev. D. R. Carrier, A. M., Prof, of Ancient Languages and Mathematics. 

Mrs. L. P. Tooke, M. P. L., Adj. Prin., Prof, of Modern Languages, and 
Ornamental Branches. 

Mrs. D. R. Carrier, M. P. L., Teacher of Natural Science and higher English 

Miss Matie J. Tooke, Teacher of Vocal and Instrumental Music. 

Mrs. Mary A. Soule, Assistant Teacher in Academic and Model School De- 

Miss Lucia A. Crandall, Assistant Teacher on Piano Forte and Guitar. 

Rev. Justus Soule, Steward, and Financial Agent. 

A large and intelligent Board of Council and Visitors, have been selected 
from this and adjacent cities. The following gentlemen have been already 
chosen as Directors or Curators in the College Association : 

Col. Adrian H. Davenport, of LeClaire ; George McCullough, Esq., of Iowa 
City ; Hon. Judge Cook, Willard Barrows, Esq., Prof. J. Dial, and Rev. M. M. 
Tooke, of Davenport. 

Additional Directors are hereafter to be chosen in this Asaooiation. 


While it is true that the improvement of our city, and the development of 
the county are important and desirable, yet they are not more important than 
the improvement of the minds and morals of our children. And although the 
attention of many of our Western people has been largely centered upon trade 
and speculation, and the development of the physical resources of the country, 
yet the time has now come when our citizens are beginning to recognize their 
responsibility in reference to the proper education of their children. Large 
and commodious buildings have been erected in this city, for the advancement 
of our public schools. A college for young gentlemen has also been estab- 
lished in this city, by the Congregational Church, and efforts are now 
being made for the establishment of a first class Female College also in 
this place, to which we shall refer in the sequel. That '* woman is the ornament of 
the palace, and the sunshine of the cabin" in every country where she is properly 
educated, is a truth generally conceded. And if it be true that society in all 
its forms, is to a large extent dependent upon and indebted to the influence of 
woman for its elevation and success, how appropriate in anticipating the 
interests of society in the future, that we now encourage the proper education 
of the Young Ladies of our country. 

We have no hesitation in affirming, that a thorough education is the richest 
patrimony that parents can possibly confer upon their daughters. And what 

* CoHtributed by M. M. Tooke. 


we mean by a thorough education is not merely to enable them to read, write, 
and cipher a little, as was thought quite sufficient for our grandmothers in 
olden times, not a little smattering in a few of the more fashionable accom- 
plishments merely, nor is it to become mere " book worms," and look down 
with polite horror upon the appropriate duties of the "true woman" in domes- 
tic life, but a solid, thorough, and useful education of body, TKinrf, and htart, such 
as will fit them for the sober realities and high responsibilities of life. Such 
an education will be to them emphatically 2i fortune in person, which they can 
never lose, but which will raise them to positions of honor, influence, and use- 
fulness in the midst of the most elevated state of society. Let me whisper in 
every parent's ear, and suggest to him that ^'^ it will pay ," thus to educate 
his daughter. Suppose you look at this subject a moment in the light simply 
of pecuniary gain — of mere dollars and cents — (the only sense through which 
many are capable of seeing with clea ness in this age of speculation and in- 
vestment-) Suppose that daughter of thine should be thrown out upon her 
own resources for a livelihood. Under such circumstances, with ordinary ca- 
pacity of mind, and health of body, she could earn say one hundrod dollars a 
year at ordinary service without an education. But with a thorough educa- 
tion, as an accomplished Instructor, she can earn from three to five hundred 
dollars a year. Subtracting the one hundred say from four hundred, we have 
an annual income to be credited to education of three hundred dollars. Now 
suppose it costs to educate that daughter, in tuition books, and extra ex- 
penses, exclusive of board, (for these she must have whether she attends school 
or not,) say four hundred dollars. We have then an annual income upon the 
capital actually invested in her education of seventy-five per cent — a much 
better interest you see than is realized on most bank or railroad stock in these 
days! Besides, this is a permanent and imperishable investment. Ordinary 
investments in the mere perishable may " take to themselves wings and fly 
away," but this we believe will not only be permanent and available here in 
this lite, but to some good extent when this mortal shall put on immortality. 
But may we not come to fathers and brothers on this subject with a nobler 
motive for the education of their daughters and sisters, than the assurance 
that it " will pay" in dollars and cents ? Can you in the pride and manliness 
of your hearts, look upon those beloved /amtZ^ jewels, sparkling even in their 
uncultivated beauty, and deny them this heaven-sent boon? Nay 1 would you 
not rather use your influence to polish those " gems of immortality," and fit 
them not only to shine as lights in the world below, but as radiant and still 
brightning stars in the coronet of Angels and of God, in brighter worlds on 

Pause a moment, and gaze upon the nature of mind itself. See those powers 
of thought — of genius — those towering susceptibilities and lofty aspirations of 
Boul longing for activity, yearning for appropriate exercise and development — 
and will you lend your influence to cripple their energies? or will you allow 
them to become stultified or dwarfed by inactivity or neglect in youth? How 



many painful regrets have been scattered along the pathway of thousands, in 
after years, because of such early neglects I ouppose you give that blooming 
daughter a farm, or thousands in bank stocli, instead of an education, she will 
feel and kment her deficiencies and inferiority as long as she lives, and regret 
in vain that a large portion of that dowcry had not been expended in her ed- 
ucation, which' would have been worth more to her than ten thousand times 
the same amount of earthly treasures. 

Looking away from the benefits which the subjects of female education 
themselves shall realize, to the influence which female refinement would exert 
upon the young men of our country, in stimulating them to greater mental 
activity and laudable emulation, we find a prominent reason for its promotion. 
Besides it would obviate the necessity of our educated sons of promise becom- 
ing associated with companions of no mental culture, whose tastes and pecu- 
liarities must almost necessarily produce a disparity and alienation of feeling 
between thena, destructive of domestic peace and happiness, and promotive of 
drunkenness and dissipation. Already is it intimated that because of a want 
of opportunity for mental culture on the part of the young ladies of the West 
the young men, in a similar ratio, are relaxing their mental energies, and but 
few are aspiring to graduation in any of our colleges. Be this as it may, the 
masses of our citizens in this rich and fertile country are destined to be 
wealthy, and ere long these noble bluffs and beautiful prairies will be dotted 
over Vi'ith lovely mansions and palatial dwellings, and to become the regula- 
tors, the ornaments, the "sunshine," the '-joy," of these mansions and palaces, 
the daughters of the West should be enlightened and refined. Indeed, all the 
circumstances of this beautiful West, and of the age in which we live, require 
the constant elevation of the female mind. Our new States are now demand- 
ing thousands of teachers for our primary schools. And as in the older States, 
the larger proportion of the education of our youth has been most honorably 
conducted by females, so also must the daughters of the West be trained for 
this great work if we would ever properly educate the masses. 

The progressive character of the age in which we live requires a more 
thorough education of the female mind among us. The education of the past 
will not answer for the future, and those who^would keep up with the world's 
progress, and help to mould its character, and hasten and consumate its bright- 
ness, by the ushering in of that auspicious period, long echoed by ancient 
Prophets, when " Wisdom and knowledge shall be the stability of our times, 
and strength of salvation," must encour.ige the educators of the race. 

The signs of the times are beckoning onward the determined, the energetic 
the noble spirited daughters of the West to higher attainments. The wealth " 
of the country is rapidly increasing, educational institutions are being multi- 
plied among us — expenses are diminished — parents are waking up to the im- 
portance of female education, and will do anything in their power to encourage 
and aid a beloved daughter longing for improvement, and struggling for an 
education. Mount Ida Female College, recently organized in this place, an 


account of whicb we have just given, is destined at no distant day, we trust, to 
become not only the Queen of the " Queen City," but the Queen of the West 
itself, and constitute an efiScient instrumentality in the accomplishment of this 
great and glorious work. And it is hoped that all our citizens, friendly to the 
cause of female education in the West, will in some substantial manner bid her 
*' God speed" in this labor of love. 


Febuary 5tb, 1858, a numbej of ladies met at the residence of Charles E. 
Putnam, Esq., and organized the "Ladies' Education Society, of Davenport, 
Iowa." Art. 1, of their Constitution reads as follows: "This association 
shall be called 'The Ladies' Education Society,' the object of which shall be to 
assist promising and suitable young ladies in obtaining au Education." Mrs, 
K.Christie, President; Mrs. S. Burwell, Vice President; Mrs. Dr. Shelton, 
Secretary; Mrs. Chas. E. Putnam, Treasuress. There is also a Board of 
thirteen Directresses. 


The first movements toward the establishment of a College in Iowa, accord- 
ing to what is known as the " New England plan" — the plan of Harvard, Yale, 
Brown, Bowdoin, Dartmouth, Amherst, &c., &c., — were made in the years 
1841-4. In the Spring of 1844, a called meeting was held at Denmark, Lee 
county. Those who attended it were principally Congregational and Presby- 
terian ministers, and christians of those denominations, with some others. The 
first plan was to secure a township of land, and College colony. A gentleman 
in Kesauqua ofi"ered a tract in Buchanan county, with a water power on the 
Wapsipinecon River for the purpose. A committee (Rev. J. A. Reed, of Fair- 
field, Seth Richards, Esq., of Bentonsport, and Jonas Houghton, Esq., of Far- 
mington,) were appointed to examine locations. This committee called a meet- 
ing in April, 1844, to report. Thirteen persons were present, who then formed 
the " Iowa College Association." The committee made a favorable report, an 
agent was appointed to collect funds in the East, with which to enter the land, 
and certain regulations were adopted. At the East, however, the agent was 
discouraged, and prevented from collecting funds, and this part of the plan 
was given up in accordance with the suggestions of a meeting of friends of 
Western Education, held in the city of Boston, May 28 and 29, 1844. It was 
decided first to get a location, when the institution itself could commence ope- 
rations, and then attempt to secure an endowment. After several meetings, it 
was concluded (1846) to locate at Davenport; "provided the citizens would 
raise $1500 for buildings, and furnish certain specified grounds for a site." At 
a meeting held Jan. 20, 1847, it was voted, notwithstanding the conditions were 
not fully complied with, to commence operations at Davenport, with the under- 



standing that the subscriptions should be increased as much as possible. The 
members of the Association had pledged themselves to ''raise $100 each" in 
the State, and " through private friends in the East." Some of them made 
great efforts and sacrifices to do this. Christian ladies, living in different 
parts of the State, did nobly in the work. With these funds, and those secured 
in the town, the first building was erected, (near Western Avenue, between 
Sixth and Seventh streets — now the residence of S. S. Gillet, Esq.) It was a 
small one story brick edifice, with a plain cupola. About this time twelve 
trustees were elected by the Association, two of them residents of Davenport. 
The trustees were incorporated under the Statute, June 4, 1847. The threat- 
ened deficiency in the funds was provided for at a meeting of the original 
"College Association," and "trustees" held conjointly that day, by a resolu- 
tion binding those present to pay the same within one year from date, " pro- 
vided the amount does not exceed $600," (not an inconsiderable sum at that 
stage of the history of the Territory.) The Institution was opened November, 
1848, with one teacher, Rev. Prof. Ripley. The first College Class was formed 
in 1850. Since that time instruction has been sustained, though much inter- 
rupted in 1844-5, by the abandonment of the old site, on account of the con- 
templated cutting of streets through it. 

Seven young men have graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Arts, the 
first class of two in the year 1854. The Institution generally has about a 
hundred students — of whom ten are in the College proper. During the last 
year young ladies have been admitted to the advanced classes. About twenty 
have been in attendance. 

Candidates for a'mission to the Freshman Class must be fourteen years of 
age, present adequate testimonials of good moral character, and sustain a 
satisfactory examination in English Grammar, Geography, Arithmetic, Alge- 
bra, (through Simple Equations,) Latin Grammar, Caesar's Commentaries, 
Cicero's Select Orations, Virgil, Greek Grammar, and the Anabasis — or their 

The stated times for the examination of candidates are — the day before the 
close of the Summer Term, and the day before the commencement of the Fall 

Candidates for admission to advanced standing, in addition to the abovC) 
must sustain an examination in those studies to which the class they propose 
to enter has attended ; and if from another College, a certificate of their good 
standing in the same must be presented to the Faculty. 

The studies pursued in the College proper are those required in the first In- 
stitutions of the East. ■ An elevated grade of scholarship is aimed at, rather 
than the securing of the attendance of Inrge numbers. The instructors are all 
liberally educated men, of first rate competency and experience in their pro- 

The new site — of ten acres — between Brady and Harrison streets, above 
Tenth — was purchased in March, 1854 — and the Boarding House erected 


thereon that year. The present College edifice was erected in 1855, at a cost 
of $22,000. W. L. Carroll, architect. It crowns the highest point of land in 
the city limits, and commands an extensive view of the river, the neighboring 
region of Illinois, and the country for miles back of Davenport. Travelers 
pronounced the prospect from the observatory unsurpassed. The building 
itself is one of the finest structures in the State. 

It is built of limestone; three stories high, with a basement; and contains 
a large room for the use of the Preparatory and English Departments, which, 
for the present, will also be used for a Chapel ; a Laboratory ; rooms for 
Library, Cabinet, Apparatus, Literary Societies, and Recitations; and in the 
third- story, twelve rooms for Students. 

With these enlarged facilities for Educational purposes at their command, 
the Trustees of the College are confident in the expectation that they can fully 
meet the wants of our rapidly increasing population, and furnish, on our own 
soil, at a reasonable expense, the means of a thorough and complete Education. 

The Library of the College contains upwards of 1800 volumes, and is open 
to all the Departments. 

The Chrestomathian Society has also a Library of its own, of some 500 
volumes ; for most of which they are indebted to recent donations from their 

The Apparatus is suflScient to illustrate the principles of Natural Philoso- 
phy, Chemistry and Astronomy. 

Collections have been made in Mineralogy, Zoology, and Botany. 

Commencement is held on Wednesday, the last day of the third term. (In 
1858, on Wednesday, July 14.) There are three College terms in the year, two 
of thirteen, and one of fourteen weeks. 

The government of the College is intended to secure the best moral influence. 
Besides the daily religious exercises for all, the students from abroad are ex- 
pected to attend some place of religious worship on the Sabbath, designated 
by their parents or guardians. 

The Institution is not under the control of any religious denomination, but 
of its own board of trustees. They are as follows: 

Rev. Asa Turner, Denmark ; Rev. John C. Holbrook, Dubuque ; Rev. Julius 

A. Reed, Davenport ; Rev. Harvey Adams, Farmington ; Rev. Alden B. Rob- 
bins, Muscatine ; Rev. Ephraim Adams, Dacorah ; Rev. William Salter, Burling- 
ton ; Rev. 0. Emerson, Dewitt ; H. Q. Jennison, Esq., Muscatine; James 
McManus, Esq., Davenport; Charles Atkinson, Esq., Moline; Rev. J. B. Grin- 
nell, Grinnell; Rev. J. Guernsey, Dubuque; F. H. Stone, Esq., Muscatine; 
Joseph Lambrite, Esq., Davenport ; Jacob Butler, Esq., Muscatine; Gen. Geo. 

B. Sargent, Davenport ; Rev. Geo. F. Magoun, Davenport. 

The officers of the Board are — Rev. A. B. Robbins, President; Rev. Geo. F. 
Magoun, Clerk ; Joseph Lambrite, Esq., Treasurer ; Rev. Julius A. Reed 
Financial Agent ; Prof. H. L. Bullen, Librarian. 

Faculty. — Rev. Erastus Ripley, Carter Professor of Ancient Languages ; 


Rev. H. L. Bullen, Professor Mathematics and Natural Philosophy; D.S. Shel- 
don, M. A., Professor of Chemistry and Natural Science; Rev. D. Lane, M. A., 
Professor of Mental and Moral Philosophy. 

The partial endowment of the College has been obtained from charitable 
persons in this and other States. Peley W. Carter, Esq., of Waterbury, Con- 
necticut, gave, in IS.jl), $5,000 towards the Classical Professorship. One other 
professorship is partially endowed. A benevolent gentleman in the State con- 
templates the endowment of Chairs of Practical Science. Within the last year, 
Hon. Geo. B. Sargent has established a medal fund, from which one gold 
and two silver medals are awarded — for scholarship — in the manner designated 
by the donor — each commencement. 

The prospects of the Institution have been much impaired of late by the 
proposed extension of one of the streets of the city through the centre of its 
beautiful grounds. If carried out, this plan will oblige a second removal to 
some site not liable to encroachment. 




The first permanent organization in Davenport Tvas that of the Davenport 
Rifle Corps — a German Company. They now number forty men, Capt. Haupt ; 
First Lieutant, Scherer ; Orderly Sergeant, Winegardner. 

The next Company organized was an American Company — the Davenport 
City Artillery. It was organized June, 1857, under the auspices of Capt. 
Schuyler — whose indefatigable exertions have more than anything else brought 
the Company to its present character. 

Offickrs.^C. N. Schuyler, Captain ; W. W. Gallaer, 1st Lieutenant ; 2nd do., 
Chas. C. Harris; 3d do., John Johns. Forty men and two six pounders. 

Davenport City Guards (German.) The officers of this Company are mostly 
old soldiers from Schleswig-Holstein. Organized Feb., 1858. Captain, F. 
Unrow ; 1st Lieutenant, Steward; 2nd Lieutenant, John Hempel; Orderly 
Sergeant, D. Hempel. Forty men. 

Davenport Sarsfield Guards, (Irish.) Not organized fully. 


The Fire Department of Davenport never assumed prominence for efficient 
service until the ipatter was taken in hand by R. M. Littler, formerly of Cin- 
cinnati. Through his efforts a Company was organized July 26, 1856, and two 
of Honeyman's best Engines purchased, which arrived May, 1857. The Com- 
pany organized was the " Independent Fire Engine and Hose Company, No. 1." 
R. M. Littler was elected President. In February, 1858, the Fire Department 
was reorganized, and in March R. M. Littler was elected Chief Engineer over 


0. S. McNiel by a majority of twenty. The entire vote waa two hundred and 
fifty-four. Christian Mueller was unanimously elected First Assistant, and 
E. A. Tellibine, Second, over D. Moore. 

The organization now consists of — 

" Independent Fire Engine and Hose Company, No. 1." — Two Engines, two 
Hose' Carts- Fifteen hundred feet of Hose. Cost $6500. Chris. Buckholter 
and Isaac Cummings, Foremen of Engines, and John Gundaker Foremen of 
Hose. One hundred and twenty-five sets of equipments, and one hundred and 
twenty members. Engine House on Brady street, near Fifth. Cost $6,000. 

" Fire King Company, No. 2." — Organized 1857. Snyth's Engine, and eight 
hundred feet of hose. Marsh Noe, Foreman. House in Davenport's Block. 
One hundred and nineteen men. 

" Pioneer Hook and Ladder Company, No. 1." — Organized December, 1857. 
Ninety men. Chas. Eyser and H. La Franz, Foremen. House on Third street, 
near Washington Square. 

"Engine Company No. 3." — House with Pioneer No. 1, Hook and Ladder — 
sixty-four men. Officers to be elected 2d Monday in April. 

^t^^ OAVENPOBT *-°CAf 







Davenport, among its other excellencies, possesses its quota of musical 
talent — albeit its development is not particularly marked, as a general thing, 
among our Church choirs. In fact, save a few sopranos like Mrs. Davie, Misses 
Sylvester and Scarborough, and in basso and tenore the brothers Davis, and 
Mr. Davie, and a few others of all classes, the bulk of musical ability, both 
vocal and instrumental, rests with our German population. Strausser, as a 
violinist, and Braeunlich and Schlegel, as pianists, take a front rank among 
amateur musicians. In the department of vocal music we have the Philhar- 
monic Society, formed 5th of August, 1856, and its first meeting, for the 
practice of vocal music, held I2th of August, 1856. 

Its object is the improvement of the members (male and female) in the cul- 
ture of vocal music. 

During the first winter of its existence it gave six performances. During the 
present winter ('57 and '58,) it will probably give four or five; one of which 
will be Handel's Oratorio of the "Messiah," with orchestral accompaniments, 
the vocal parts given by about fifty voices ; the instrumental parts by a band 
of seventeen performers. 

The Society's regular meetings are held every Tuesday evening, during the 
winter, at the old St. Luke's Church, Brady street, at 7 o'clock. When neces- 
sary, rehearsals are also held on Friday evenings. 

The number of performing members is about forty, and is increasing. There 
is also a body of subscribing or non-performing members. 

TheofiBcers el-cted 2d March, 1858, are- 
President, General Geo. B. Sargent ; Vice President, S. W. Barber ; Treasurer, 
J. C. Wallace; Secretary, J. J. Ingalls; Finance Committee, S. W. Barber; 
Wm. Morehouse, S. M. Harley ; Musical Director, Chas. H. Davie. 





This Society was organized June, 1851, under the folloiving officers: A. 

F. Mast, President; G. Schlegel, Secretury ; Aug. Smallfield, Cashier, and G. 
Wiehle, Musical Director. 

In June, 185-1, a flag was presented to the Society by the Ladies ofEa-ven 
port, as a compliment to their efforts and success. At the "Western Singing 
Festival," held at Chicago in June, 1857, the Maenner Chor took the second 
prize, and we believe intend Da Capo in future cases. It now has music and 
instruments worth one thousand dollars, and has at present twenty-two active 
and thirty-four honorary members. The following are its officers:' 

A. Miedke, President; A. Bruns, Vice President; T. Holm, Recording Sec- 
retary ; R. Krouse, Corresponding Secretary; A. G. Smallfield, Cashier; G. 

G. Schlegel, Musical Director. 


Twenty members. Riepe, Director. This is a branch of the "Turner 
Society." Practice twice a week. 


Founded March 9th, 1858. Asa Hull, President ; Chas. Burr, Secretary. 

This Society numbers some twenty-five members, and is a sort of succession 
of a Society formerly under the charge ot Mr. Hull. It possesses the elements 
of a good Musical Institution, which time will develope into no, second-rate 


Glee Club — twenty-five members. Practice two nights in each week. 
Jacob Strasser, Director. 


Swiss Glee Club meets once each week. Twenty members. Albert Snhnyder, 


" Majo's String Band." — First and Second Violins, Bass Viol, Cornet a 
Piston and Picolo. 

" German Rifle Band." — Storm, Leader. Three Altos, Tenor Horn, Baritone, 
Tuber, and two Drums. 

'* White's Cotillion Band." — First and Second Violins, Clarionet, Flute, Cor- 


net, First and Second Trumpet, First and Second French Horns, First Bar- 
itone and Contra Bass. 

" White's Brass Band" — First and Second Eb, First and Second Bb, two 
Tenors, two Baritones, First and Second Bass, two Altos, and two Drums. 

"Independent Brass Band." — Ten Sax Horns, and two Drums. 


Hanging high upon the wall of a city parlor, is a living memory of the vil- 
lage of Davenport, just as it is limned and lined and colored in the recollec- 
tions of " old settlers." It is a paint and canvass memory, and though the 
hand that thus in form and color faithfully reflected what the eye saw, has 
long since mouldered in the dust, yet its writing on the wall is as a memory 
to all who peruse it, of the surpassing village grace and loveliness which in 
olden times distinguished Davenport. It is well that he whose skill has left 
us this undying memory of our village life, should have a page in this book as 
a memoir of himself. When the tongues which may tell us of the olden times 
are silenced forever, and the men who lived in those days have passed away, 
it may be that from some wall, browned with age, shall creep the mouldy forms 
and colorings of a far-back memory, brushing away the dust and cobwebs of 
intervening space, and revealing grass-robed plains and tree-covered bluflfs, 
clustering white houses on the river's graveled beach, gray cliffs rising ^from 
the dark-flowing waters and up-bearing the old fort ruins, and the thousand 
physical details of what was once literal life and reality. And it may be, that 
a yellow and faded leaf from this book, shall then summon a phantom memory 
of one whose eye saw all this, even as we now trust it gazes upon scenes of 
celestial beauty, and the cunning of whose hand in faithful shades and shadows 
mirrored the vision upon canvass. 

When we recollect how distinguished was Davenport in its village days for 
remarkable loveliness, and the number of strangers who summer after sum- 
mer came here to revel among its surrounding beauties, it seems strange that 
but this single painting, and a few lithograph copies of it, are all we have as a 
record of the physical appearance of this place before its hundreds of people 
became thousands, and the village had swelled into a city. We may well 
imagine that the skill of amateur artists was often tasked to delineate upon 
paper or canvass the glowing scenery and beautiful towns which at this point 
found intimate connection with historical associations. But whatever their 
trials and their success, only a single painting and its copies now exist, to the 
knowledge of the writer, by which the stranger in the new city may form a 
correct idea of the long time past appearance of Davenport, and assuming which 
as data he may judge of our subsequent progress. Probably it is from this 

fact, that we 3et a higher value upon the artist to whom we feel a debt of grati- 
tude for this painting. 

Among the strangers from St. Louis who visited Davenport in the Spring of 
1845, was John Casper Wild, a gentleman of considerable reputation as a 
landscape and portrait painter, and lithograph ist. He was a tall spare man of 
about forty years, with long raven black hair, whiskers and moustache, and 
restless brown eyes. He had, at times, a worn and haggard look, the result, 
doubtless, of ill health, and a life-long battle with the world for the bare 
means of subsistence. He was uncommunicative as to his own life, but it is 
an impression of the writer's that he was born in poverty, reared among the 
trials of indigence, from which, unaided, he sought to emerge, and in his ma- 
turity, a good artist, but poor financier, so that his history was a continued 
struggle. It is but little wonder then, that through the clouds which so con- 
stantly surrounded him, he could see but little sunshine. On his arrival here, 
he was totally dependent upon his talent. He soon commenced work, and 
produced this painting of Davenport and Rock Island, as one picture. From 
this a limited number of beautifully colored lithograph copies were taken, for 
those who would buy. Alas ! poor Wild — the pictures which now would 
bring their weight in gold, had then a dull and weary sale. This view was not 
only faithful in its details, and beautiful as a picture, but it proved Mr. Wild 
an artist of high talent. 

It is worthy of mention, that the artist lithographed his own picture in stone, 
and made and colored the impressions himself. It has been remarked, that 
so fine a specimen of lithographing cannot now be done in the metropolis of 
the country. 

Mr. Wild afterwards commenced a second painting of Davenport, viewed 
from another point, but it was never finished. The same summer he made 
paintings, from which lithograph copies were taken, of Dubuque, Galena, Mus- 
catine and Moline. All these sketches were distinguished for their correctness 
and beauty. He worked rapidly but well, and a practical knowledge of lith- 
ography was useful in securing correct copies of his works. The writer of 
this accompanied Mr. Wild on a trip to the Falls of St. Anthony, in 1846, in 
which excursion he made a number of small sketches, but they never were 
reproduced on canvass. The painting of Davenport and Rock Island truly 
represents the young cities as they slept in 1845, upon the green banks of the 
great river, before the rushing winds and waves of progress had broken their 
slumbers. There are but few copies of this painting now in the possession of 
our citizens, and it is needless to say that the lapse of time, and the intervening 
wonderful changes in the aspect of our city, render these pictures invaluable 
to their owners. 

In '8' , Mr. Wild, who continued residing in Davenport, painted a fancy 
sketch, of which it may be right to make a particular note, as it was the 
nearest approach to an artistical smile of which Mr. Wild was ever known to be 


guilty. He had neither humor of his own, nor an appreciation of humor in 
others. He looked tragedy, thought tragedy, and his conversation outside of 
business and art, was never much more cheerful than tragedy. This little oil 
sketch represented three notable characters of the village, each of whom, at 
that time, wis personally known to almost every man, woman and child in the 
place. They were collected at the well-remembered ferry-house, and near 
the equally well-remembered old bell-post. The bell there suspended was 
then furiously jingled, and often with disagreeable pertinacity, by those who 
wished to call the old ferryman, Mr. John Wilson, from the opposite side. 
The ringer was generally considered under personal obligation to stand to his 
post some time, in company with his horse and vehicle, if he had any to cross 
over, so that the ferryman might with proper deliberation determine whether 
the skiflF or hors3-ferry-boat were required by the nature of the cargo. The 
large person of Mr. LeClaire sits in a buggy, to which is attached the notable 
eld white horse that used to drag his master about the place. Close by stands 
Mr. Gilbert McKown, whose store was on Front street, a few steps distance, 
but whose burly figure and good humored face, seen on any street, seemed a 
part and parcel of the town, and directly identified with its corporate existence. 
The third figure is Sam Fisher, as he was familiarly called by every acquaint- 
ance. He then lived in the house now owned and occupied by Mr. Geo. L. 
Davenport, at the corner of Brady and Third streets. Sam Fisher was the 
best fisher in the town, a good story-teller, and had a most marvellous mem- 
ory of past times and incidents, of facts and dates, which united to some 
peculiar eccentricities of character, exclusively and honestly his own. made 
him a conspicuous character. One of his smaller eccentricities is shown in the 
picture. He is standing with his pants drawn up to the top of one boot, and 
down to the sole of the other — using a favorite gesture, and evidently doing 
the talking, of course. These three persons are now alive, and two of them 
continue residents of Davenport. The picture is in the possession of Hon. G. 
C. R. Mitchell, who, by the way, ought to have figured in the painting. 

Mr. Wild was a native of Zurich, Switzerland. He went to Paris when 
young, where he resided fifteen years, and then emigrated to the United States. 
He lived several years in Philadelphia, where he finished some views for Atkin- 
son's Casket, a Panorama of Philadelphia, and a view of Napoleon's Marshals 
on horse-back. In the Spring of 1841, he went to St. Louis, and remained 
there till he removed here. At St. Louis, he commenced a periodical called 
" The Valley of the Mississippi Illustrated" — edited by Louis Faulk Thomas 
the views by Mr. Wild. Only ten numbers were issued. Mr. Wild died in 
Davenport, in the year 1846. When sick, he was kindly taken to the residence 
of Mrs. Webb, now occupied by Mr. Henry, where he received the attentions 
of a son during the long illness which preceded his death. While thus lying 
on his death-bed, the home of his boyhood seemed a beautiful picture before 
his eyes, and he expressed a longing desire to die at Zurich. This was not 


granted him, but kind hands softened the last shadowy penclUngs of his life, 
and laid him gently among the Summer flowers. 

Mr. R. Wright has been spoken of heretofore. In addition to him we have 
Mrs. Codding, whose principal work is a painting of Davenport, which, for 
fidelity, is scarcely excelled. 

Mr. Wolfe, a former resident of Davenport, displayed much genius in several 
performances in Landscape and Portrait Painting. 




It is a telling indication of the enterprise and good sense of the pioneers of 
the County, that one of their earliest movements was to secure the benefits of 
that omniprtsent Americanism — a Newspaper. They were fortunate in secur- 
ing the very man they did to undertake the enterprise — one who possessed 
the peculiarity of having a deal of practical good sense, and one who was 
neither scholar enough to play the role of a pedantic essayist, or philosophical 
enough to treat his readers to a hebdominal dish of metaphysics, as is not un- 
frequently the case of those handling the Quill Editorial at the present day. 
Such was Andrew Logan, who in August, 1838, issued the first number of the 
^^lowa Sun, and Davenport and Rock Island Hews," — a title as lengthy as signi- 
ficant. Right well did the Sun battle for the interests of the City, County, and 
State; and we do its editor no more than justice, when it is asserted that his 
share towards building up Davenport, and inducing hither many a rich freight 
of immigration, was none of the least felt or important. The Sun was a 
weekly, democratic, underwent one enlargement, and was continued until 
1841, when it was succeeded by the 


The Gazette was started as a Weekly, imperial size (22 by 32,) six columns, 
by Alfred Sanders. In 1848 it was enlarged to a seven column paper. 
August 1st, 1853, the Tri-Weekly Gazette was commenced, and was succeeded 
by the Daily Gazette in October, 1854. The Weekly and Daily are still pub- 
lished, and are of the largest size. It was edited by Alfred Sanders up to 
1857, and published by him until 1843, when he associated with him Mr. Davis. 
The latter gentleman continued until January 1st, 1857, a member of the firm, 
and was then succeeded by Add. H. Sanders, brother of the principal proprie- 


tor, and former editor of the Evansville (Ind.) Journal. The firm now — editorial 
and publishing — is Sanders & Bro. 

The Gazette has now been an institution of the country for some seventeen 
years, — a length of existence that suflBciently guarantees its permanency. 
The Senior, Alfred Sanders, is of scholarly attainments, particularly in Natural 
History, and has thus far been thoroughly identified, both with the West and 
Journalism. He has never missed issuing a number of the Gazette since its 
beginning, and has often achieved this, under circumstances which would have 
daunted men of less energy, or of less pride in their profession. As a writer 
he is less brilliant than solid, rather shy of ornament, and prefers generally 
to present facts in puris naturalibus. He writes earnestly, and will in many 
cases carry conviction simply from the deep air of conviction — of faith — 
which his articles present. Did space permit, we might allude more at length 
both to his character as a writer, and his efforts, enterprise, preseverance, 
and sagacity, in developing the interests both of his party and Davenport. 
We need not dwell upon these points, however well deserving they are of 
eulogy, as he is well enough known to render either panegyric or particular 
notice superfluous. 

His brother, Add. H. Sanders, has acquired no unenviable reputation as a 
ready, sparkling, and piquant writer. He is largely imaginative has a keen 
appreciation of the humourous, notices instinctively the ludicrous both in men 
and things, and possesses the rare faculty of easy and graceful expression. 
Many of the best waifs of anecdotal literature, which periodically appear and 
disappear upon the waves of Journalism, owe to him their existence. We 
cannot but regret that he has not entirely turned his attention to descrip- 
tion and other departments having origin in the possession of a ready pen, 
active fancy, and much imagination. 

We are happy to be able to add that the long and arduous labors of the 
proprietors of the Gazette have not been unrewarded. Their present estab- 
lishment consists of two editors, three carriers, and some eighteen compositors, 
pressmen, &c. They use a Steam Engine of six horse power, Taylors' Steam 
Press, Hoe's Card, Ruggles' Card, American Steam, two Hand Diamond Job, 
and Wells' Power Job Presses. 


This sheet was started by Alexander Montgomery in 1848, as a Democratic 
sheet. In the winter of 1848 and 1849 it fell under the charge and ownership 
of R. Smithem, and in the Spring of 184^ it was transferred to T. D. Eagal, 
who held it until 1851. J. W. Wheeler then took charge of it, but soon after 
sold out to Austin Corbin, who in 1852 was bought out by R. S. Millar. He 
sold to T. D. Eagal in 1853, who continued its publication until 1855, when 
it was bought by Messrs. Hildreth, Richardson & West, and was changed to 
the Iowa State Democrat, under which name it is still published. Of the in- 


fluence and character of tlie Banner we cannot speak from observation, — it, 
however, done much andoubtedly towards preserving an efficient organization 
of the party whose intereit is advocated. 


This sheet was established November 1855, by H. Price and others. It was 
published by A. P. Luse & Co. 

Tbe Organ did good services for its party for about one year, and was then 


This sheet was published for a few months in the Fall of 185S, with a view 
to aid the election of Millard Fillmore to the Presidency. It was edited by 
the well known Col. Wm. Brown. 


Notice has been taken before of the origin of this paper in 1855. The 
Daily was commenced in October 1856, enlarged from seven to eight columns 
in April, 18-37, to nine in October 1857. The Democrat was started with a 
Hand Press, and a debt of some .$1500. It now is printed by Steam, and has 
amply remunerated its enterprising proprietors. The establishment has one 
Washington Hand Press, a Steam Cylinder Press, Hoe's Medium Large Cylinder 
Press, Ruggles' Rotary Circular and Card Press, and some twelve hands, be- 
sides an ample stock of other material. A Weekly is also published. 

The Democrat is now conducted by Messrs. Richardson & West, than 
whom the editorial and publishing fraternities, posses no more enterprising, 
gentlemanly, or reliable members. They have achieved a success on their 
paper, which at once indicates their energy and the character of the West. 

Mr. Hildreth died in September of 1857. The following obituary is taken 
from the State Democrat : 

" Mr. Hildreth was born in .Johnstown, Fulton county, N. Y., September 
J 2th, A. D. 1809, which would make him just 48 years old to-day. Mr. Hild- 
reth was a son of Matthias B. Hildreth, Esq., formerly Attorney General of 
the State of New York. His life has been an eventtul one, filled with the 
lights and shades of prosperity and adversity. He was left an orphan at the 
age of fifieen, and inherited a large fortune. He was a graduate of Union 
College of that State, after which he engaged in the wTiolesale dry goods and 
jobbing trade in Albany, N. Y. After a few years he became embarrassed in 
business and failed, and lost his entire fortune in the failure. He then re- 
moved to Johnstown, N. Y., and was there elected a magistrate and Master in 



Previous to bis engaging in business in Albany, he received the appointment 
bj commission, of Major in the Staff of Gov. Troup. 

He was married in Johnstown, in 1839, to Mrs. A. E. J. West, who survives 
to mourn his loss. 

From Johnstown be removed to Kenosha, Wisconsin, in 1848, where he was 
universally beloved and esteemed, and was there elected to many offices of 
honor and trust, which he filled to the entire satisfaction of all parties. He ' 
moved to Peoria, State of Hlinois, in 185C, and became associated in the pub- 
lication of a journal called the Daily Morning Hews. From Peoria he moved 
to Davenport in October, 1855, and in company with Messrs. Richardson and 
West, purchased the old Banner newspaper of T. D. Eagal, Esq., and with 
them commenced the publication of the Daily Iowa State Democrat, of which 
he was the Senior Editor until his lamented decease. 

Mr. Hildreth was a man of most generous impulses, and had a faculty of 
making and retaining friends. He was a fast and reliable friend, a kind hus- 
band, and an Old School Jeffersonian Democrat. He v/as uncompromising in 
his political views, but he never allowed politics to intrude into his social or 
business relations. All who knew him, esteemed him for his generous heart. 
In his death his family has lost a valuable friend, the public a generous hearted 
citizen, and the Democratic party one of its strong pillars." 


This sheet, Daily and Weekly, was started by Harrington & Wilkie, September 
1856. It continued in their possession over a year, and was then purchased 
by John Johns, Jr., & Co. The News is Administration Democratic, and 
takes a leading position in Journalism. It is edited by John Johns, Jr., Ed- 
ward L. Kerr, and Chas. C. Harris. All are good writers, — the first two in 
political discussions and essays, and the last as a perpetrator of " good things," 
ludicrous, witty, and otherwise. 

The News has a good Job Office, containing a Guernsey's Power Press, Hand 
Presses, and ample other material appertaining to such a department. 

DER DEMOKRAT, (German.) 

Republican— Daily, Tri-Weekly, and Weekly. Started 1851, by T. Guelich, 
and now published by H. Lischer & Co. Edited by Theo. Olshausen. 


Monthly, by Allen & Clark. This sheet takes a first class position among 
papers of its kind. Its Financial articles during the past winter have been 
of the ablest character, and have done much towards sustaining the credit 
and advancing the interests of Davenport abroad. Started Mai, 1857. 





Tuscan Lodge, No. 57, of F. & A. Masons, was organized under a charter 
issued by the M. W. Grand Lodge of Iowa, June 6th, 1855. 

D. H. Wl^eeler was W. Master for 1855 and '6— H. W. Mitchell was W. 
Master for 1856 and '1. 

The Present officers of the Lodge are — 

0. S. McNeil, W. M.; Edwin S-nith. S. W. ; Sam'L Perry, J. W. ; M, H. 
Hall, Sec'y. ; R. D. Myers, Treas, ; H. D. Neely, S. D. ; John Monath, J. D. ; G. 
W. Jones, Tyler. 

The Lodge meets every Friday evening in their Hall, LeClaire Block, corner 
of Second and Brady streets. Regular meetings the Friday on or before the 
full moon in each month. Members eighty-seven. 

Davenport Lodge No. 37, of Free and Accepted Masons, was organized 
under a charter issued by the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of the State of 
Iowa, June 8th, A. D. 1853. A. L. 5853. 

Austin Corbin was Worshipful Master for 1853-4. Wm. L. Cook wag Wor- 
shipful Master for 1854-55. Jno. A. Boyde was Worshipful Master for 1855-66. 
Wm. B. Barnes was Worshipful Master for 1856-57. 

The present officers of the Lodge are — 

C. Stewart Ells, W. Master; Wm. S. Minier, S. W. ; Chas. E. Fuller, J. W. ; 
A. Walker, Sec'y. ; P. Merwin, Treas. ; J. D. Kelly, S. D. ; Jno. Qranlees, J. D. ; 
J. Johnson, Tyler. Lodge meets every Monday evening at their Hall, Merwin's 
Building, Perry street. Regular communications on every Monday evening 
before full moon. Number of members, seventy-aix. 


I. O. OF O. F. 

Davenport Lodgb, No. '7, instituted April 23, 1847, bj D. D. G. Sine, Jolin 
G. Potts. Cbartei" members, Jas. Tlioriugton, Ste. Scliofield, Thos. V. Dlake- 
more, S. McCormick, V. M. Firor. 

First officer,'^ — N. G., Jas. Thornington ; V. G., S. McCormick ; B. Sec, T. V. 
Blakemore ; T., V. M. Firor. 

July Ist — N. G., Jas. Thorington ; V. G., L. J. Centre ; R. S., Jas. McManus : 
T., V. M. Firor. 

January 1st. 18-18 — N. G., L. J. Center; V. G., Jas. McManus : R. S., John 
Pope ; T., Lewis Hamilton. 

July 1st, 1848— N. G., Jas. McManus; V. G., John Pope: R. S., M. D. West- 
lake; P. S., Jas. Tborington; T., Lewis Hamilton. 

January 1st, 1849— N. G., John Pope; V. G., Cbas. Weston; U. S., H. 
Brewster ; P. S., Jas. Thorington ; T., Geo. B. Sargent. 

July 1st— N. G., Chas. Weston; V. G., H. Brewster; R. S., Jno. D. Evans; 
P. S., Jas. Thorington ; T., Jao._ H. Morton. 

January 1st, 1850— N. G., A. Sawyer; V. G., M. D. Westlake; R. S., C. 
Weston; P. S., Jas. Thorington; T., John H. Morton. 

July 1st— N. G., M. D. Westlake; V. G., A. S. Nugent; R. S., H. Price; P. 
S., N. M. Rambo ; T., Jno. H. Morton. 

January 1st, 1851— N. G., A. S. Nugent ; V. G , H. Price ; R. S., A. Sawyer ; 
P. S., N. M. Rambo ; T. Jno. H. Morton. 

July 1st— N. G., H, Price ; V. G.,N. M. Rambo ; R. S., Willard Barrows ; P. 
S., Job M. Woodward ; T., Jno. H. Morton. 

January 1st, 1852— N, G., N. M. Rambo; V. G., Willard Barrows, R. S., 
Thos. S. Arrison ; P. S., A. Sawyer ; T., Jno. H. Morton. 

July 1st— N. G., Willard JBarrows ; V. G., Thos. S. Arrison ; R. S., B. B. 
Woodward; P. S., J. M. Woodward; T., Jno. H. Morton. 

January 1st, 1853— N. G., Thos. S. Arrison ; V. G., B. B. Woodward; R. S., 
N. M. Rambo , P. S., J. M. Woodward ; T., Jno. H. Morton. 

July 1st— N. G., B. B. Woodward; V. G., Hiram Johnson ; R. S., H. J. 
Hughes ; P. S., Jno. Bechtel; T., Jno. H. Morton. 

January 1st, 1854 — N. G., Hiram Johnson : V. G., H. J. Hughes ; R. S., J. 
C. Fuller; P. S., Jas. Thorington; T., Jno. H. Morton. 

July 1st— N. G., H. J. Hughes; V. G., J. C. Fuller; R. S., J. H. Dumont; 
P. S., B. B., Woodward; T., Israel Hall. 

January 1st, 1855— N. G., J. C. Fuller; V. G., John Hornby; R. S., Jas. 
Wickersham ; P. S., B. B. Woodward ; T., I. Hall ; 

July 1st— N. G., Jno. Hornby ; V. G., Thos. Allum; R. S., J. D. Patton ; P. 
S., B. B. Woodward ; T., I. Hall. 

January 1st, 1856~N. G., Thos. Allum; T. G., J. H. Dumont ; R. S., M. D. 
Snyder; P. S., B. B. Woodward ; T., L Hall. 

July 1st— N. G., J. H. Dumont ; V. G., M. D. Snyder ; R. S., A. E. Barrow ; 
P. S., B. B. Woodward ; T., I. Hall. 

January 1st, 1857— N. G., M. D. Snyder; V. G., A. H. Barrow; R. S., J. 
W. Danah ; P. S., B. B. Woodward ; T., I. Hall. 

July lst~N. G., A. H. Barrow; V. G., J. W. Danah; R. S., Jno. H. Bell; 
P. S., B. B. Woodward; T., I, Hall. 

January 1st, 1858— N. G., J. W. Danah ; V. G., Jno. H. Bell ; R. S., J. B. 
Leake; P. S., B. B. Woodward; T., I. Hall. One hundred and seventy-five 

State Encampment, No. 3, 1. 0. 0. F., was instituted April 22d, 1848, by D. 
D. G. Sire, John G. Potts. Charter members, James Thorington, R. M. Pret- 
tyman, John H. Morton, Thos. V. Blakemore, Lewis Hamilton, M. D. West- 
lake, L. J. Center. 

Officers— C. P., James Thorington ; H. P., Jno. H. Morton ; S. W., T. V. 
Blakemore ; J. W., L. J. Center ; S., R. M. Prettyman ; T., Lewis Hamilton. 

January 1st., ls.49— C. P., Chas. Weston; H. P., Geo. B. Sargent ; S. W., A. 
Nugent; J. W., R. M. Prettyman ; S., Jas. Thorington; T., Jno. H. Morton. 

July 1st.— C. P., Jno. D. Evans; H. H., L. J. Center ; S. W., John Pope ; J. 
W., R, M. Prettyman ; S., Jas. Thorington; T., Jno. H. Morton. 

January 1st., 1850 — C. P., Thos. V. Blakemore ; H. P., Lewis Hamilton; S. 
W., R. M. Prettyman; J. W., Chas. Weston ; S., Geo. B. Sargent; T.,Jno. H. 

July 1st.— C. P , Aaron S. Nugent; H. P., M. D. Westlake ; S. W., N. M. 
Rambo ; J. W., Abijah Sawyer; S., Jas. Thorington; T., Jno. H. Morton. 

January 1st, 1851— C. P., Nathan M. Rambo; H. P., C. M. Peck ; S. W., A. 
Sawyer ; J. W., L. J. Center; S., M. D. Westlake; T., Jno. H. Morton. 

August, 1851, the State Encampment renewed its Charter, and on the 1st day 
of October, 1855, reclaimed it again. 

Officers January 1st, 1856— C. P., A. H. Barrow ; H. P., C. M. Peck ; S. W., 
William Pool; J. W., S. N. Stevens ; S., B. B. Woodward; T., L. C. Dessaint. 

July 1st— C. P., William Pool ; H. P., B. B. Woodwiird ; S. W , M. D Snyder; 
J. W., S. N, Stevens ; S., S. K. Barkley ; T., L. C. Dessaint. 

Sanuary 1st, 1857— C. P., M. D. Snyder; H. P., Wra. Pool; S. W., Marsh 
Noe; J. W., L. S. Johnson ; S., M. Dalzell ; T., L. C. Dessaint. 

July 1st— C. P., B. B. Woodward; H. P., A. H. Barrow; S. W., J. W. Dar- 
rah; J. \Y., J. J. Humphrey; S., Jno. H. Bell ; T., Wm. Pool. 

January 1st, 1858— C. P., J. W. Darrah ; H. P., Wm. B. Kerns; 8. W., Jno. 
H. Bell ; J. W., Jac Metzger ; S., L. S. Johnson ; T., Wm. Pool. Thirty-three 

Scott Lodge, No. 37, I. 0. 0. F., instituted January 13, 1852, by James 
Thornington, D. D. G. M. Charter members, Thos. V. Blakemore, Jr., Jno. A. 
Boyd, Wm. Howard, Wm. Sims, Wm. H. White, Geo. G. Arndt, R. Roberts, A. 
Smallfiald, and Thos. V. Blakemore, Sr. 

Officers— N G., Wm Sims ; V G,, Wm Howard ; R S., Wm H White ; T., Jno 
A Boyd. 


July 1st, 1852— N G., Wm Howard ; V G., H S Finley ; P S., H Reichenbach, 
T., Jno A Boyd. 

January 1st, 1853— N G., H S Finley ; V G., John Weeks ; R S., Geo G. 
Arndt ; P S., T V Blakemore ; T., Jno A Boyd. 

July 1st— N G., Wm P Bailey ; V G., Geo G Arndt ; R S., Jno Hornby ; P S., 
T V Blakemore ; T., Jno A Boyd. 

January 1st, 1854— N G, Geo G Arndt ; V G, Ephraim T Johnson ; R S, 
Edward L Johnson ; P S, T V Blakemore ; T, Jno A Boyd. 

July 1st— N G, A Smallfield; V G, E T Johnston ; R S, E L Johnston; P 
S, T V Blakemore ; T, Jno A Boyd. 

January 1st, 1855— N G, E T Johnston; V G, E L Johnston-; R S, John A 
Rode ; P S, Isaac Maas ; T, John A Boyd. 

July ] St— N G, E L Johnston ; V G, Isaac Maas ; R S, A Smallfield ; T, Jno 
A Boyd. 

January 1st, 1856— N G, J A Rhode ; V G, L W Steinberg ; R S, F Mahuke ; 
P S, A Smallfield ; T, F Dittmer. 

July 1st— N G, L W Steinberg ; V G, F Mahuke ; R S, C J H Eyser ; P S, A 
Smallfield ; T, F Dittmer. 

January 1st, 1857— N G, F Mahuke; VG, F Dittmer; R S, H Seifiert; P S, 
L W Steinberg; T, Glaus WulflF. 

July 1st— N G, F Dittmer ; V G, C WulfF; R S, Jac Metzger ; P S, L W 
Steinberg ; T, H Rhode. 

January 1st, 1838— N G, Glaus Wulflf; V G, Jac Metzger; R S, Chas A 
Wodz ; P S, F Dittmer ; T, H Rhode. 

Twin City Degree Lodge. No, 1, I 0. 0. F., instituted March 2lst, 1856. 
Charter members, Jas. Tborington, A. H. Barrow, H. Price, Wm. Pool, B. B. 
Woodward, J. D Patton, Geo. W. Arndt. 

Officers— D M, Wm Pool ; D D M,.L W Steinberg ; A D M, Geo G Ardnt ; S, 
B B Woodward ; T, A H Barrow. 

July 1st— D M, Wm Pool ; D D M, L W Steinberg ; A D M, Geo W Hall ; S, 
B B Woodward ; T, J W Danah. 

January 5tb, 1857— D M, Wm Pool ; D D M, L W Steinberg; A D M, Wm 
B Kerns ; S, B B Woodward ; T, J W Danah. 

July 1st— D M, B B Woodward ; D D M, L W Steinberg ; A D M, Wm Pool ; 
S, John H Bell ; T, J W Danah. 

January 1st, 1858— D M, Wm B Kerns; D D M, L W Steinberg ; A D M, 
Wm Pool ; S, Jno H Bell ; T, J W Danah. 


The order of the Sods of'Tcmperance was established in Davenport, on 
the 5th day of October, 184*7, bj the organization of Scott Division, No. 1- 

The organization was effected by a dispensation of the National Division 
of North America to T. S. Battelle, the then acting Deputy for the State of 

At the institution ot this Division, H. Price was elected W. P., and Enos 
Tichenor, W. A., and operations were commenced in the loft of an old school 
house, with a membership of eleven. 

The prejudice existing in the minds of many good men against Secret So- 
cieties, has exerted an influence unfavorable to the success of this Society, 
but nolwiihstanding the opposition from this and various other sources, Scott 
Division has continued to increase in numbers and in interest, having during 
the time that has elapsed since her organization, enrolled the names of hund- 
reds among her members and marshaled them to the contest against the great 
enemy of the human race. 

It is worthy of remark that the first prohibitory Liquor Law of the State of 
Iowa was drawn up by a member of this Division, and the printing and speak- 
ing, and writing, and lobbying necessary to secure its passage through the 
Legislature, was done by members of this Division. 

The meeting nights of this Division from the commencement has' been Fri- 
day, and whether the j}Iace has been attractive or otherwise, the time has been 
strictly observed and no omission suffered to mar the record. 

This Division has furnished three G. W. P.'s and two G. Scribes ; but the 
brightest feature connected with her history is the fact that at the present 
time there are many men included in her membership who have been literally 
taken from the gutter and restored to their families, to usefulness and respec- 
tability, and who but for this organization would be filling dishonored graves, 
or, if living, be a disgrace and a curse to themselves and the community. 

At the present time the Division occupies a splendid room on Brady between 
Front and Second streets ; is free from debt, and has money in her Treasury. 

- • 
























































Auction and Commission, 















Agricultural Implement Dealers, 



Baggage Master, 





















Bar Keepers, 




Bell Hanger, 



Basket Makers, 












Bill Broker, 











Book Keeper, 






Book Binders, 










Boarding House Keepers, 







Book Seller, 





Boat Builiers, 




Boiler Makers, 




Brick Makers, 


















Bridge Builders, 


























Carpet Dealers, 



Cabinet Mukcrs, 







Carriage Trimmer, 



Carriage and wagon maker, 








Cement Roofer, 




Chair makers, 





Car makers, 











rs 1 T3 

-c \ 




'" ^ 





C3 1 OS 






^ i ^ 





^ ; Ts 






w O 


r- ; M 






Civil Engineers,' 




City Treasurer, 



" Marshal, 



" Clerk, 





4 30 






Clerk of Courts, 

































Commission Merchants, 






CoQuty Surveyor, 



" Commissioner, 






Coal Dealers, 










Cotton Spinner, 










Crockery Dealers, 





2 ! 1 




























- 1 


Deputy Sheriff, 





















Express Agent, 
























Flour Dealer, 



Fruit Dealers, 

i 3 




: Fur Dealer, 


1 II 

Furniture Dealers, 




Gas Fixtures, 

















, — . ____ 


























































Hat and Cap Dealers, 




Hardware Dealers, 







Horn Worker, 



Hotel Keepers, 






Ice Dealers, 





Insurance Agents, 




Iron Dealer, 



Iron Manufcturers, 



"Jack of all Trades," 







Justices of the Peace, 










Land Agents, 













Law Students, 








Land Holder, (A. LeClaire,) 



Leather Dealers, 




Lime Makers, 




Livery Men, 















Lumber Dealers, 















Marble Workers, 



















Mattress Maker, 



Master Mechanic, 



Machine Peddler, 























Medical Students, 



Merchant Tailors, 










Mill Wrights, 













Music Teachers, 
















News Dealer, 

Notaries Tublic, 


(Jverseei" Poor, 


Pattern Makers, 

Paper Carriers, 





Paper Hanger, 

Piano Maker, 

Piano Mender, 


Plow Makers, 

Post Master, 


Pork Packers, 

Professor Mathematics, 

Professor Book-keeping;, 

Professor Languages, 

Prof. Mental and Moral Philoso' 



Pump Makers, 


Real Estate Dealers, 


Road Master, 

R. R. Repairers, 

R. R. Superintendent, 



Saloon Keepers, 

Sash 'and Blind Makers, 


Segar Makers, 




Secretary Railroad, 

Segar Peddler, 

Sausage Maker, 

Saddle and Harness Makers, 

Silver Plater, 

Shingle Maker, 






































323 ' 




























■rJ . 
















12 1 31 






Shoe Dealers, 









Shoe Cutters, 






Soap Makers, 




1 2 





Straw Goods Makers, 



Stove Dealers, 

i 1 









Starch Makers, 



Stair Builders, 



Steamboat Captains, 



Stone Cutter, 



Steam Fitters, 







Switch Tenders, 




13 1 31 16 













1 1 






S6 37 






1 3 15 






' 9 


1 i 1 




1 2 




Traveling Agents, 








Trunk Makers, 



Umbrella Makers, 















Varnish Makers, 

i 1 

1 i 

Vegetable Dealers, 





8 14 














Well Diggers, 

1 1 3 






Wheat Buyers, 




Wood Buyers, 




Wood Sawyers, 










13 rd 





M F-l 





e3 (^ 






















































































Saxe Coburg, 




































West India, 











S. America, 

New Brunswick, 



Isle of Jersey, 













Costa Rica, 


Nova Scotia, 




















































1 ?.: uen, 













j Demsted, 









































First ,\^ard, 


SecouJ Ward, 










5 13 

Third Ward, 











Fourth Ward, 











Fifth Ward, 











Sixth Ward, 






















The census of Davenport Township for 1856, showed a population of 12,821. 
The above returns show the city to have a population of 16,677. Estimating 
the inhabitants of the township, outside of the city, to be about 1500, and we 
have a total of about 18.000, or an increase of fifty per cent in eighteen months. 

Of the population of the city, (including a majority of nativities unknown,) 
fifty per cent are Americans, about twelve per cent Irish, about twenty per 
cent Germans, and a little less than two per cent English — leaving a balance 
of sixteen per cent to be divided among unknown and other nativities, 



60 1852 



1858 (March,) 


The increase of Cincinnati for twenty years from its formation was from 750 
inhabitants to 9,602; of Pittsburg, at the same time, 1,565 to 7,243 ; Louisville 
600 to 4,012 ; New Orleans, 9,650 to 27,658. The greatest increase exhibited 
by any one of these for any five years was 110 per cent, while that of Daven- 
port for the last five years has been nearly 400 per cent. 



1839. — Mayor, Rodolphus Bennett; Recorder, Frazier Wilson; Treasurer, 
James M. Bowling; Marshal, George Colt. 

1840. — Mayor, John H. Thoriugtou ; Recorder, Frazier Wilson; Treasurer, 
James M. Bowling; Marshal, William B. Watts. 

1841. — Mayor, Jonathan W. Parker ; Recorder, John Pope ; Treasurer, 
James M. Bowling ; Marshal, William B. "Watts. 

1842. — Mayor, Harvey Leonard ; Ptecorder, J. W. Parker; Treasurer, James 
M. Bowling ; Marshal, Gilbert B. McKown. 

1848. — (New Charter granted.) — Mayor, James Thorington ; Clerk, Jona- 
than W. Parker ; Treasurer, John Evans ; Marshal, Jared N. Snow. 

1844. — Mayor, James Thorington; Clerk, Levi Davis; Treasurer, John 
Evans ; Marshal, Jared N. Snow. 

1845. — Mayor, James Thorington; Clerk, John Pope; Treasurer, John 
Evans ; Marshal, Samuel Lyter. 

1846. — Mayor, James Thorington; Clerk, John Pope; Treasurer, John 
Evans ; Marshal, Samuel Lyter. 

184Y. — Mayor, James M. Bowling ; Clerk, James Thorington ; Treasurer, 
; Marshal, John Evans. 

1848. — Mayor, James M. Bowling; Clerk, James Thorington ; Treasurer, 
John Evans ; Marshal, Samuel Parker. 

1849. — Mayor, Jonathan Parker ; Clerk, James Thorington ; Treasurer, 
John Evans ; Marshal, Lockwood J. Center. 

1850. — (Charter Amended.) — Mayor, James Hall ; Clerk, James Thorington; 
Treasurer, John Evans ; Marshal, L. J. Center. 

1851. — (New Charter.) — Mayor, Charles Weston ; Clerk, A. F. Mast ; Marshal, 
Patrick Courtney; Treasurer, L. B. Collaraer. 

Aldermen — First Ward, Adam Weigand, Harvey Leonard ; Second Ward, 
Egbt. S. Barrows, Nathanthiel Squires ; Second Ward, Ebenezer Cook, Hiram 

1852. — Mayor, John Jordan ; Clerk, A. F. Mast ; Marshal, Samuel Parker; 
Treasurer, William Van Tuyl. 

Aldermen — First Ward, Harvey Leonard, Adam Weigand ; Second Ward, 
Nathaniel Squires, John P. Cook ; Third Ward, Hiram Price, John Bechtel. 

1853. — Mayor, John A. Boyd; Clerk, Richard K. Allen; Marshal, Samuel 
Parker ; Treasurer, Jessamine Drake. 

Aldermen — First Ward, Adam Weigand, John Weeks ; Second ,Ward, John 
P. Cook, Joseph Kingerlee ; Third Ward, Hiram Price, William Gray. 

1854. — Mayor, James Grant ; Clerk, B. B. Woodward; Marshal, L. J. Center ; 
Treasurer, L. B. CoUamer. 

Aldermen — First Ward, H. Wilhelme, G, G. Arndt ; Second Ward, Chas. J. 


H. Eyser, E. A. Gerdtzen ; Third Ward, B. Atkinson, D. P. McKown ; Fourth 
Ward— Heury H. Smith, Ebenezer Cook; Fifth Ward, William Burris, A. A. 

1855. — Mayor, Edos Tichenor; Clerk, B. B. Woodward; Marshal Samuel 
Parker; Treasurer, William Van Tuyl. 

Aldermen— First Ward, G. G. Arndt, Gilbert C. R. Mitchell ; Second Ward, 
E. A. Gerdtzen, Charles J. H. Eyser; Third Ward, D. P. McKown, Austin 
Corbin; Fourth Ward, Ebenezer Cook, Hiram Price; Fifth Ward, Anthony A. 
McLoskey, Alfred H. Owens; Sixth Ward, Joseph Lambrite, Samuel Sadoris. 

1856.— Mayor, G. C. R. Mitchell; Clerk, Wm. Hall; Treasurer, Samuel 
Sylvester; Marshal, John H. Taylor. 

Aldermen— First Ward, James O'Brien, John Schuett ; Second Ward, C. J. 
H. Eyser, Aug. Smallfield ; Third Ward — Austin Corbin, James M. Bowling ; 
Fourth Ward, Hiram Price, John Forrest; Fifth Ward, W. S. Kinsey, S. R. 
Barkley; Sixth Ward, Sam. Sadoris, Joseph Lambrite. 

1857.— Mayor, Geo B. Sargent ; Marshal, H. W. Mitchell ; Clerk, E. Peck ; 
Treasurer, Samuel Sylvester. 

Aldermen. — First Ward, J. W. Cannon, A. Jennings ; Second Ward, H. Ram- 
ming, Theo. Guelich ; Third Ward, J. M. Bcrling, Austin Corbin; Fourth 
Ward, John Forrest, J. C. Washburne ; Fifth Ward, James O'Brien, Geo. E. 
Hubbell, vice A. LeClaire, resigned ; Sixth Ward, Wm. Guy, J. H. Sears. 

1858. — Mayor, Ebenezer Cook; Marshal, John Becbtel ; Treasurer, Lorenzo 
Schricker; Clerk, Hallei Kilbourn. 

Aldermen — First Ward, John M. Cannon, I. P. Coates ; Second Ward, Theo. 
Guelich, Henry Ramming; Third Ward, Austin Corbin, James Mackintosh; 
Fourth Ward, Thomas H. Morley, John C. Washburne; Fifth Ward, Geo. E. 
Hubbell, James O'Brien; Sixth Ward, Robt. Christie, J. H. Sears. 






















For Mayor, 








For Marshal, 








For Treasurer, 








For Clerk, 








For Alderman, 








Number of Ballots Cast, 










Friend Wilkie: — As I am informed you intend in your forthcoming History of "Davenport 
Past and Present" to give some incidents referring to the Black Hawk War, I will give you, from 
recollection, a statement of some facts that you may arrange for your book, and put in a shajie 
that win interest your readers. 

As I before stated, I carried Gen. Gaines, several officers, and as many XJ. S. Troops from Jeffer- 
son Barracks to Rock Island, in 1831, as I could accommodate on the steamboat JSnterpriae. I 
was in the Council Chamber when Black Hawk aud his Chiefs aL-d Braves were apparently very 
near destroying the lives of the U. S. Officers, and every other white man in the Council Chamber. 
I know the fact, that Gen. Gaines, the officers of the U. S. Army, the Indian Agent, (who was 
the next year killed by the Black Hawk Band,) Mr. Antoine LeClaire, Indian Interpreter, Mr. 
George Davenport, Mr. Eussel Farnham, and some others, all done their duty most humanely to 
conciliate and reconcile that desperate band of marauders, that separated themselves from tha 
then friendly nation of Indians, called " Sac and Fox," whose principal Chiefs were men of talent, 
discretion and prudence, and who commanded the respect of officers and traders who had business 
and intercourse with them. 

I know that Gen. Gaines was extremely humane and conciliatory, in 18-31,' toward Black 
Hawk and his band, and I know, too, that all the gentlemen I named above, contributed their 
advice and influence to procure a reconciliation. This disaffected Band had with them a con- 
siderable number of Squaws and Pappooses (women and children,) which I know, from conversa- 
tion at that time with Gen. Gaines, Officcers, Traders, Agent and Interpretoi-, was a prominent 
reason, concurred in by all, to induce extraordinary efforts for conciliation towards this Band of 
inhuman and ill governed out-laws. 

.It is a matter of history, that this Band made a Treaty, received valuable presents from the 
U. S. Government, made promise of permanent peace, and returned to their own country in 1831. 

In the Spring of 1832, they reorganized with renewed strength from the means they obtained 
by the Treaty stipulations from the United States, and commenced their work of death 
and destruction on defenceless inhabitants, at many points, both along the River, and in the 
interior of the State of Illinois. 

I was at Galena with my steamboat Dove in 1832, when two survivors, out of nine, came into 
Galena, and brought intelligence of the murder of their seven companions, one of whom was the 
U. S. Indian Agent of the Sacs and Foxes, Mr. Felix St. Vrain, who was a humane and most 
worthy gentleman, as well as popular Agent with the Chiefs and Indians generally. I knew him 
well, and in common with all who were acquainted with his character, respectedhim highly. 

It happened that Gen. George W. Jones, our present U. S. Senator, who was tlien in Lead 
Smeltiug and Merehantile business some miles from the towu, cameTin that morning, and in a 
few minutesjafter, he heard of the probable murder of Felix St. Vrain, his brother-in-law. (Tho 
two that canio in said that Mr. St. Vrain, when they last saw him, was a quarter of a mile from 
them, and they heard severtil rifle shots.) When he mounted his horse to start, I was with him, 
and begged of him to wait an hour, until some friends could bo raised to go with him ; and I 
know, too, that several of his friends tried to prevail upon him to^delay until ho could havo 
several go with him. 

The excitement that morning was intense. The trifling participation I had in tho matter gave 
me knowledge of a fact that is highly creditable to Gen. Jones, and I will state it with the hope 
that you will make it a matter of history. . 

Being then intimate with Mr. Jone?, I took some interest in detaining him; I think I hold tho 
rein of the bridle, and told him it would be rash imprudence for him to go before he procured at 
least a few companions. He told me he felt it his duty to go immediately. He said to me—-' My 
friend, if I can get to my poor brother-in-law even a few minutes before any one olse, to staunch 
his wounds, and save his life, I will bo doing my duty ; therefore I will not wait " 

Off he went. I started that day for St. Louis ; stopped at Rock Island, and called to sec my 
friend, J/ajw George Davenport; found him and his family (as all the inhabitants along the river 
were,) in a state of excitement and dread. His tables and sideboard woro covered with jjowder- 
horns, cartridges, pistols, &c. ; guns in corners, and a swivel at the door. 

When ho was informed of tho proliablo murder of Mr. St. Vrain, ho seemed deeply grieved, 
evincing generous and laudable solicitude for the wife aud children of Mr. St. Vrain, who woro 
residing in the Government Council House on tho Island. 





Slajor Davenport and myself went to see Mrs. St. Train. We advised her, as there was great 
danger to Ijor iiud lier family there, to go down on my boat, as they would be safe at St. Gen- 
evieve, wlierc her piirents and connections lived. 

She seemed to know by intuition that her husband was killed. We did not give her oven an 
intimation of the doleful news we had heard, but she seemed convinced that he was killed. The 
deep alliiction of the mother and her children that night was really distressing. The family went 
to St. Louis with me. When I returned to Galena, 1 learned that a party ol several started in a 
few minutes after Mr. Jones, but did not overtake him until they were some six miles from 
Galena. They found the dead body of Felix St. Vrain, I think, some fourteen miles from Galena. 
The heart was cut out, and head and hand's cut ofl'; the corpse wasldentified by the despatches* 
and papers that were left undisturbed in his pockets. I thought then, and think still that there 
are but few me?i, under the circumstances, possessing the courage and magnanimity to act as 
Gen. George W. Jones acted on that occasion. 

The day 1 arrived at Galena, the news came that daily and nightly murders and depredations 
were committed by the lilack Hawk Band at various points, which created tremendous excite- 
ment. Col. Strode had several companies mustered, and proclaimed martial law — which required 
every able-bodied man to go into service. There was a good supply of patriotic and brave, as well 
as efficient men there then ; hundreds of miners left their diggings, and came into Galena. There 
were a number, however, who preferred remaining in the town to soldiering. Several that were 
extremely active and fine healthy looking men, at dancing parties, reported themselves as inva- 
lids, and exposed internal and external diseases ; some made liberal offers to the Medical faculty 
on condition that they should be rejected as unfit for service. 

Col. Strode pressed my steamboot, crew and self, and we got ready in a few hours. 

A short time before w"e started, m* Second Engineer left the boat ; I went to see him. He told 
me he was afraid he might be killed, and did not want to run the risk. I gave him half an hour to 
make up his mind to go on board, and attend to his duty as an officer of the steamboat Dove, or 
I would have him put in the ranks of the Army as a Private, with the brand of a coward on him. 
He immediately went on board, and he and the otlier Engineer very properly requested plank to 
be put up to shield them aft of the boilers. We shielded the Pilots from view also by putting 
plank on each side of the Pilot Wheel House. 

On our way down, between Galena and Rock Island, we found Mr. Davidson's house had been 
attacked the night before. Several rifle shots had been fired into the room that the family occu- 
pied. A small block house that they had built the year before, .as Mr. Davidson said, "to please the 
women," saved the lives of that family. Mr. Davidson's was the only house there then ; now the 
flourishing town ot Savanna is on that location. 

We saw at another point, near where Cordova is now situated, a fire still burning, where the 
Indians had camped, and the trail where they had traveled, but found no Indians. We returned 
to Galena, and went up from there to Prairie du Chien, (Fort Crawford.) We heard of Indians 
being on or near an Island a short distauce above Dubuque, a few hours before we arrived there. 
Whilst we were in service we had on board a Company of about eighty. It was called the " Spy 
Company," officers and privates all acted alike, and I think were.gentlemen. I have been inti- 
;,VM- wiih, and met many of them from time to time since. They were a choice Company of 
i'i^^ne^ ~. and acquitted themselves well during the war, and many of them have been since, and 
are now distinguished gentlemen in this country. I have read several misrepresentations re- 
garding the conduct of the U. S. Government towards the Black Hawk Band, as well as untruth- 
ful apologies published to excuse that marauding murderer's party. 

Several of the prominent officers in that war have efficiently and honorably filled high places 
as distinguished Democrats in the Councils of the nation. Instance Governors^Reynolds and 
Dodge, Gen. G. W. Jones, and others. 

I had intimate acquaintance with many officers, agents, interpreters. Traders, and Indian 
Chiefs, from 182V up to this time, and when opportunity offered I tried to learn the truth. 

Now, when I look back, I cannot call to mind a single instance where there was an act of in- 
humanity or oppression encouraged by the Administration of the United States, or the Illinois 
State Government. Nor do I know of a single case of an official or trader giving cause to this 
Band to commence the war. I do know that thousands of the innocent and unoffending inhab- 
itants of Illinois and Wisconsin were driven from their homes, had their property destroyed, 
families seriously inconvenienced, and several inhuman butcheries of men who had no part in 
the war. were committed by those Indians before the United States army made an attack on 
them, i know that the privations, distress, dread, and intense anxiety of the white inhabitants, 
caused by the actions and demonstration of this Band of out-laws, were general and wide-spread 
over the"State of Illinois and Territory of Wisconsin, from the Spring of 1831, to the end of the 
war, which was terminated by the memorable battle of " Bad Axe"— where, by general (and I 
have reason to believe true,) report. Gov. Henry Dodge, Ex-United States Senator of Wisconsin, 
gained high honors by his brave and noble conduct in the command of that division of the army. 
1 have frequently heard his officers speak of his admirable military skill. He had, in the war of 
1812, acquired an enviable reputation as Captain of a Company of Volunteers from St. Genevive, 
Missouri. j ,, ^ i. 

I could add many incidents of those times that might interest some of your readers, but have 

*Mr. St. Vrain was sent from Gen. Atkinson's Army, on Rock River, with Despatches to 
Galeua, with eight escorts. 




not spare time to prepare tlietn ; whaf I have written is hastily scratched on the paper from 
memory, but, nevertheless, I have aimed to state facts. 

[By request of the writer of the above, who is a personal friend of Jix-Gov. Reynolrls, and^also 
by request of Ex-Gov. Reynolds himsejf, we append the following account of tiio lilack Huwk 
AVar, from " Annals of the West," by Messrs. Perkins and Pecli : J 

As this portion of Illinois history has been mucli misunder.-^tood, and consequently misrepre- 
sented in several publications, we shall give the facts of the casu, but in a very condensed form : 

1st. The Sauks and Foxes had no original right, in the Indian sense even, to any portion of 
Illinois. They were intruders on the countrj- of the Santeaurs and loways. 

2Qd. The head chiefs sold their claim to their lands in Illinois and Southern Wisconsin, to 
the United;States, in;.1804.* 

3rd. This treaty was violated by all that portion of the united tribes, which committed hostil- 
ities against the United States, and joined the British during the war. The portions of the tribes 
that remained peaceable, re-conflrmed the treaty of 1804, at Portage des Sioux, September 13th, 
1815. The hostile part of the nation, in 1816, .professed repentance for their misdeeds, obtained 
forgiveness, ar.d the treaty of 1804 was again renewed and re-enacted, 

4th. Black Hawk never was a chief; never recognized as such by Indian authority, or by the 
United States. He was a brave, in Indian parlance, gathered around him a small party of disaf- 
fected spirits, refused to attend the negotiations of 1816; went lo Canada, proclaimed himself and 
his party British subjects, and received presents from that quarter. 

5th. Another treaty was made in full council, " with the chiefs, warriors, and head men of 
the Sac and Fox tribes," at Fort Armstrong, [Rock Island,] September 3rd, 1822, by the agent of 
the United States, in which the treaty of 1804, is referred to and ratified. And still another 
treaty was made by ten regularly delegated chiefs and head men, and Governor Clark on the 
part of the United S ates, in Washington City, the 4th of August, 1824. In this treaty they sell, 
for a valuable consideration, all their title to the northern portion of the State of Missouri, from 
the Mississippi to the western boundary of that State. At this treaty the United States granted 
the strip of country between the Mississippi and Dcs Moines river, to certain half-breeds of that 
nation. And on all the lands they had claimed south and easi of this line, they are not to be per- 
mitted to settle or hunt, after the first day of January, 1S26. 

6th. In the treaty of 1804, the Sauks and Foxes were permitted to reside and hunt on the 
Ian 1 sold, while it remained the property of the United States. 

AVriters, and especially Brown, have retained the story of Black Hawk, and by this means mis- 
represented this whole business. Brown has given Indian speeches, in place of authentic public 
documents and treaties. Drake, in his '• JSook of the Indians" in many respects a valuable anti- 
quarian work, has made great mistakes.f This work abounds with errors, concerning the causes 
and the management of the Black Hawk affair. 

7th. Another treaty was lield at Prairie du Chien, in 1825, with the Sauks, Foxes, Winneba- 
goes, Chippeways, Sioux, and other North-western Indians. The object was to settle the long 
existing hostilities among these tribes, in which the United States Government exercised the 
office of mediator. In 1827, a party of twenty-four Chippeways, on a visit to Fort Snelling, was 
attacked by a band of Sioux, and eight of their number killed and wounded. The commander at 
Fort Snelling caused four of the Sioux, who had committed this murder, to be delivered to the 
Chippeways, by whom they were shot. Red Bird, a Sioux Chief, determined to retaliate, and got 
defeated. Being derided by his own nation, he resolved -to attack the white people, whom he re- 
garded as allies of the Chippeways ; and on the 27th of July, two men in the vicinity of Prairie 
du Chien, were killed, and a third wounded. At the same period hostile demonstrations werb 
made by some Winnebagoes, and Black Hawk's party of the Sauks, in the vicinity of the lead 
mines, which caused much alarm. About the 28th of July, two keel-boats, conveying military 
stores to Fort Snelling, were attacked by hostile Sioux, Winnebagoes and Saulcs, two of their 
crew were killed, and four wounded. The party was con^manded by Red Bird, but Black Hawk 
was of the party. General Atkinson marched a detachment of troops into the Winnebago country, 
captured Red Bird and six other Indians, and committed them to prison in Prairie du Chien, for 
trial. Red Bird died in prison. A part of the others were convicted and executed in December, 

About this year, the President issued a proclamation, according to law, and the country about 
the mouth of Rock River, which had been previously surveyed, was sold, and the year following, 
was taken possession of by American families. Some time previous to this, after the death of old 
Quashquame, Keokuk was appointed chief of the Sauk nation. The United States gave due 
notice to the Indians to leave the country, east of the Mississippi, and Keokuk made the same 
proclamation to the Sauks, and a portion of the nation, with their regular chiefs, with Keokuk at 
their head, peaceably retired across the Mississippi. Up to this period, Black Hawk continued 
his annual visits to Maiden, and received his annuity for allegiance to the British government. 
He would not recognize Keokuk as chief, but gathered about him all the restless spirits of his 
tribe, many of whom were young, and fired with the ambition of becoming "braves," and set up 
himself for a chief. 

Black Hawk was not a Pontiac, or a Tecumthe, Ho had neither the talent or the influence to 
fr)rm any comprehensive scheme of action, yet ho made an abortive attempt to unite all the 
Indians of the West, from Rock River to Mexico, in a war against the United States. 

* Indian Treaties. 

■j- Book v. chapter viii. pp. 141 to 165. 


In tho memoir ho dictated, and LeClairo wrote, ho states, " runners were sent to the Arkansas, 
lied lUvor and Texas — not on the subject of our lauds, but on a secret mission, which I am not, 
at present, iiormitted to explain." Tlxe mission was no secret wlien the memoir waf written. It 
was to arouse up tho Indians to attack the white settlements, through tho long line of frontier, 
at the same time. 

Still another treaty, and tho seventh in succession, was made with the Sauks and Foxes, on 
the lotli of July, 1830, in which they again confirmed the preceding treaties, and promised to re- 
move from Illinois to the territory West of the Mississippi. This was no new cession, but a recog- 
nition of the former treaties by tho proper authorities of the nation, aud a renewed pledge of 
fidelity to tho United States. 

During all tliis time Black Hawk was gaining accessions to his party. Like Tecumthe, he, 
too, had his Prophet — whose influence over the superstitious savages was not witliout effect. 

In 1S30, an arrangement was made by the Americans, who had purchased the livud above the 
mouth of Rock Kiver, and the Indians that remained, to live as neigiibors ; the latter cultivating 
their old fields. Their enclosures consisted of stakes stuck in the ground, and small poles tied 
with strips of bark transversely. The Indians left for their Summer's hunt, and returned when 
their corn was in the milk — gathered it, and turned their horses into the fields, cultivated by the 
Americans, to gather their crop. Some depredations were committed on their hogs aud other 
property. The Indians departed on their winter's hunt, but returned early in the spring of 1S31, 
under the g\iidance of Black Hawk, and committed depredations on the frontier settlements. 
Their leader was a cunning, shrewd Indian, aud trained his party to commit various depreda- 
tions on tho property of the frontier inhabitants, but not to attack, or kill any person. His 
policy was to provoke the Americans to make war on him, and thus seem to fight in defense of 
Indian right.s, and tho " graves of their fathers." Numerous affidavits, from persons of un- 
questionable integrity, sworn to before the proper officers, were made out and sent to Governor 
Reynolds, attesting to these aud many other facts. We have examined these documents, knew, 
personally, some who subscribed to them, and others from good testimony. Black Hawk had 
about five liundrcd Indians in training, with horses, well provided with arms, and invaded the 
State of lUinois with hostile designs. These fivcts were known to the Uovernor and other officers 
of tho State. Consequently, Governor Reynolds, on the 28th of May, 1831, made a call for volun- 
teers, and communicated the facts to General Gaines of this military district, and made a call for 
regular troops. The State was invaded by a hostile band of savages, under an avowed enemy of 
the United States. The military turned out to the number of twelve hundred or more, on horse- 
back, and under command of the late General Joseph Duncan, marched to Rock River. 

The regular troops went up the Mississippi in June. Black Hawk and his men, alarmed at 
this formidable appearance, recrossed the Mississippi, sent a white flag, and made a treaty, in 
which the United States agreed to furnish them a large amount of corn and other necessaries, if 
they would observe the treaty. 

In the spring of 1832, Black Hawk, with his party, again crossed tho Mississippi to the valley 
of Jiock River, notwithstanding he was warned against doing sc by General Atkinson, who com- 
manded at Fort Armstrong, in Rock Island. Troops, both regular and militia, were at onco 
mustered, aud marched in the pursuit of the native band. Among the troops was a party of 
vohmteers under Major Stillman, who, on the 1-tth of May, was out upon a tour of observation, 
and close in tho neighborhood of the savages. On that evening, having discovered a party of 
Indians, the whites galloped forward to attack the savage band, but were met with so much 
energy and determination, that they took to their heels in utter consternation. Tho whites 
were" one hundred and seventy-five in number ; the Indians from five to six hundred. Of this 
party, twenty-five followed the retreating battalion, after night, for several miles. Eleven whites 
were killed and shockingly mangled, and several wounded, home four or five Indians were 
known to be killed. This action was at Stillman's Run, in the eastern part of Ogle county, about 
twenty-five miles above Dixon. 

Peace was now hopeless, and although Keokuk, the legitimate chief of the nation, controlled a 
majority, the temptation of war and plunder was too strong for those who followed Black Hawk. 

We now quote from the first edition of the Annals, with some emendations : — 

On the 21st of May, a party of warriors, about seventy in number, attacked the Indian Creek 
settlement, in LaSalle county, Illinois, killed fifteen persons, and took two young women prison- 
ers ; these were afterwards returned to their frionds, late in July, through the efforts of the Win- 
neb'ar'oes. On tho following day, a party of spies was attacked, and four of them slain, and other 
massacres followed. Meanwhile three thousand Illinois militia had been ordered out, who 
rendezvoused upon the 20th of Juno, near Peru ; these marched forward to Rock River, where 
they were joined by the United States troops, the whole being under command of General Atkin- 
son. Six hundred mounted men were also ordered out, while General Scott, with nine compa- 
nies of artillery, hastened from the sea-board, by tho way of the lakes to Chicago, moving with 
such celerity, that some of his troops, we are told, actually went eigliteen hundred miles in 
eighteen days; passing in that time from Fort Monroe, on the Chesapeake, to Chicago. Long 
before the artillerists could reach the scene of action, however, the western troops had com- 
menced the conllict in earnest, and before they did reach the field, had closed it. On the 24th of 
June, Bliick Hawk and his two hundred warriors were repulsed by Major Demint, with but one 
hundred and fifty militia : this skirmish took place between Rock River and Galena. The army 
then continued to move up Rock River, near the head of which it was understood that tho main 
party of the hostile Indians was collected; and as provisions were scarce, and hard to convey in 
Buch a country, a detachment was sent forward to Fort Winnebago, at tho portage between the 


Wisconsin and Fox rivers, to procure supplies. This detachment, hearing of Black Hawk's army, 
pursued and overtook them on the 21st of July, near the Wisconsin river, and in the neighbor- 
hood of the Blue Mounds. General Henry, who commanded the party, formed with his troops 
three sides of a hollow square, and in that order received the attack of the Indians; two attempts 
to break the ranks were made by the natives in vain ; and then a general charge was made by 
the whole body of Americans, and with such success that, it is said, fifty-two of the red men 
were left dead upon the field, while but ono American was killed, and eight wounded. 

Before this action, Henry had sent word of his motions to the main army, by whom he was 
immediately rejoined, and on the 28th of July, the whole crossed the Wisconsin in pursuit of 
Black Hawk, who was retiring toward the Mississippi. Upon the bank of that river, nearly op- 
posite the Upper loway, the Indians were overtaken, and again defeated, on the 2nd of August, 
with a loss of one hundred and fifty men, while of the whites but eighteen fell. This battle en- 
tirely broke the power of Black Hawk; he fled, but was seized by the Winnebagoes, and_upon the 
27th, was delivered to the officers of the United States, at Prairie du Chien. 

General Scott, during the montlis of July and August, was contending with a worse than 
Indian foe. The Asiatic cholera had just reached Canada; passing up the St. Lawrence to De- 
troit, it overtook the western-bound armament, and thenceforth the camp became a hospital. 
On the Sth of July, his thinned ranks landed at Fort Dearborn, or Chicago, but it was late in 
August before they reached the Mississippi. The number of that band who died from the 
cholera, must have been at least seven times as great as that of all who fell in battle. There 
were several other skirmishes of the troops with the Indians, and a number of individuals 
murdered ; making in all, about seventy-five.persons killed in these actions, or murdered on the 

In September, the Indian troubles were closed by a treaty, which relinquished to the white 
men thirty millions of acres of land, for which stipulated annuities were to be paid; constituting 
now the eastern portion of the State of Iowa, to which the only real claim of the Sauks and Foxes 
was their depredations on the unoffending loways, about one hundred and thirty years since. 
To Keokuk and his party, a reservation of forty miles square was given, in consideration of his 
fidelity ; while Black Hawk and his family were sent as hostages to Fort Monroe in the Chesa- 
peake, where they remained till June, 1833. The chief afterwards returned to his native wilds, 
where he died. 

Black Hawk cannot rank with Pontiac or Tecnmthe ; he fought only for revenge, and showed 
no intellectual power; but he was a fearless man. 

EEE A T A . 

Page 252 states that there is no reliable source of coal in this coanty. This 
is a mistake — Coal is abundant, as experience and Owens Report both show. 

Page 21, omit last word of 13th line. 

Page 46, read " Topin" for last word of 4th line from bottom. 

Page 104. In 12th line omit " over Piatt Smith," and read the same words 
after "forty-eight" in 18th line. 

Page 216, read " fallen" for " befallen" in 16th line from bottom. 



1^ "^/saaAiNfiiW^^ 



Los Angeles 

This book i|( DUE on.the last date stamped below. 


;Aavaair# ^^^oxamin'^ 

^9 %uCj 








vsm^ •^AaJAiNd^w 






§ 1 ii-^ ^ 


^.OF CAllFOfiV 



t3 1 ii— ' ^ 


?> VI — f ^ 







^.OFfAllFOff^ ^OFCAllFOff^ 

^ JN ^ 

^<yojiiv3jo>^ %oi\]m^'^ ^smmm^ 

soi^"^ "^AaaAiNiijwv^ ^<?Aavii8n^^ >&Aiivii8in'^ "<rii]ONvsoi^