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•ooovdiaff to rtodTvd optnUma, oocht not to bHypen, are Um 
dhep»i i i> a .*'~8m John Hbxschbl. 


G. ^• 


CarUioH &f C^., Publishers. 



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btet^ uxaOSaei taActti OonsroM. fai the j«ar 18T1, tf 

Tn the Ofllce of the Llbrariaa of OmsmH, at WaAinp»*m^ 

StereotrpM at the 

iroMR5*8 piiiNTiNo nouss* 

Coroer Arcun; A and Bighth StrMi, 
Kow York. 



«« an perpbtmOf remindad that the han of tho ipiritnal irorld are ia 
tilftit mam laws of Nature, whom obU ga ttoo, ope i a ti oo, and effect are all in tha 
and ooarae of thinga.**~AliaTLL. 

OxK of the best kn^wn and most brilliant among tho triamphs of 
astronomical science was the prediction, in advance of actual dis- 
oorerj, of the existence and, approximately, of the place in the 
beaTcna, of a planet belonging to our solar system and revolving 
outside of Uranus. 

Gertain data had long been known to astronomers : as that plan- 
rCa, if subject to the mm*tf attraction only, would revolve in ellipses ; 
bat that« being Kubjcct also, in a feeble but appreciable degree, to 
the attrartion of each otTier, this minor influonoc caus(*H thrm to 
deviate* from their tniL' elliptic palliM; and tliat tlicHo perturbations, 
as they arc called, are ealeul:i)>l<*, so that each planet's exiU't place 
on any given day, \»int or future, can be ai»certained. 

Again, thovgh Uranus was di^coven^d as late as 1781, this planet 
had been seen, mistaken for a fixed star which afterward disap- 
peaird, and its place registere<l as 8uch, as early as 1000 ; and it 
had hem so noted, at intervals, by several observers Uiroughout 
tile rightemth century. 

It was also admitted that discrepancies exist c<l between the ob- 
■erred places thus ascertained to have been occupied by Uranus, and 
the places which, it seemed, that planet ought to have occupied, all 
known pcrtarlnng influences being calculated ; and when, after ac- 
tnal discovery, its tables were accurately kq)t for % «ci\.ca oi l^'vv 
jl va# tutiber Mmr rt a lno d that tbu dijicrc|)ancy bei^msca lYic \s&3iv^ 


and the observed positions of the planot gnidually increased up to 
the year 1823; then became stationary; then began to decrease. 
Tills indicated the permanent existence of an occolt disturbing 
cause. That cause might bo a planet exterior to Uranus. 

With these data and assuming certain probable postulates as to 
the orbit and the mean distance from the sim of the supposed per- 
turbing planet — after profound investigations exhausting the re- 
sources of analogy — a young Parisian observer* wrote to one of the 
principal astronomers of the Berlin Observatory, telling him where 
the required planet ought to be, and asking him to look for it. It 
was found that very night ; and at less than two diameters of the 
moon's disk from the indicated spot. 

If some Le Yerrier of Spiritual Science had taken note, twenty- 
five years ago, of certain perturbing agencies of which the effects 
were visible throughout the religious world, he might have made a 
prediction more important than that of the French astronomer. 

For even tlion it could have been discerned — ^what, however, is 
inu(;h more evident to-day — that an old belief was about to disap- 
pear from civilized society ; a change which brings momentous re- 
sults in its train. 

Tliis crliange is from belief in the exceptional and the miraculous 
to a settled conviction that it does not enter into Gtod's economy, 
as manifested in Ilis works, to operate here except mediately, 
through the instrumentality of natural laws; or to suspend or 
change these laws on special occasions ; or, as men do, to make 
temporary laws for a certain age of the world and discontinue these 
throughout succeeding generations. In other words, the civilized 

* Lr Vrrribr. Mr. J. 0. Adams, oC the TTnirersity of Cambridge, witlKxit knowing 

what the other \v(k4 about, had engaged in a similar investigatioii and obtained a aimilai 

result, except that the spot indicated by him was nearly five innar diameters distant from 

the true one. Dr. (kL^e, of Berlin, to whom Le Yerrier wrote, received the totter on the 

S3d of November, 1846 ; and during the night ol tihQ ^ffi&-a4ti:v Kovember, he, aided t^ 


wofid is gradofllly wttling down to the aasorance that, natural law\ 
la uniTenal, invariabld, penistent 

The adTent of this change conceded, a thonghtfol observer, en* 
dowedwith prolcptic faculty, might have foreshadowed some of iU 

If natand law be inyariable, then either the wonderfol woiIes as- 
cribed by the erangelists to Christ and his disdplee were not per- 
formed, or else they were not miracles. 

If they were not performed, then Christ, assuming to perform 
them, lent hinwelf, as R6nan and others have all(^;cd, to deception. 
This theory disparages his person and discredits his teachings. 

But if they were performed ondcr natural law, and if natural 
laws endure from gracration to generation, then, inasmuch as the 
Mine laws mider whidi these signs and wonders occurred must exist 
itill« we may expect somewhat similar phenomena at any time. 

But an acQto observer, looking over the whole ground, might 
have detected more than this. 

Ilo wouhl have found two antagonistic schools of religious opin- 
ion ; the one baaing spiritual truth on the miraculous and tlie in- 
fallible, chiefly repreaientcd in a Church of vast power, fifteen hun- 
dred years old, which has hold hur own against bold and active 
advenaries, and even increased in the relative as well as the actual 
Domber of her adherents for the last three hundred years: the 
ocfaer, dating iNick throe hundred and fifty years only, affiliating 
more or less with the spirit of the age, and so placing herself in the 
line of progreas ; yvt with less imposing antecedents, with fewer 
■dbefi.'nta, and, abis ! with adherents weakened in influence by a 
large admixture of Indifferents, and still more weakened by intes- 
tine duMDsions on questions of vital moment ; even on the religious 
ihibbolcth of the day — the question of uniform rule, or miracle ; 
maMj of this latter Church still holding to the opinion that to 
•baadoQ tfae doctrine of the Ifiraculoua is to dra:^ t!bA "vo^ ^ 



Apparently a very unequal contest -the outlook quite disooupig 
ing ! Our spiritual Lo Yerrier nught at first so regard it, just as 
bis namesake may have felt discouraged when he first confronted 
the difficulty of predicting where ^an unknown world could be 

Yet if our observer had abiding faith in the ultimate prevalence 
alike of Christianity and of the doctrine of natural law, he might, 
in casting about for a way out of difficulty, have come upon a prac- 
tical solution. 

History would inform him that the works of Christ and his dis- 
ciples, mistaken by the Jews for miracles, effectively arrested the 
attention of a semi-barbarous age, incapable of appreciating the in- 
trinsic value and moral beauty of the doctrines taught. And anal- 
ogy might suggest to him that if phenomena more or less resem- 
bling these could be witnessed at the present day, and if they were 
not weighted down by claims to be miraculous, they might produce 
on modem indifference a somewhat similar impression. Then, if 
he had faith that God, who has bestowed to overflowing the means 
to supply our physical wants, would, in His own good time, pro- 
vide also for our spiritual needs — ^it might occur to him that the 
appearance, under our eyes, of powers and gifts more or less similar 
to those of apostolic times, was not unlikely to be the means em- 
ployed. And, if he was a Christian, this surmise would be con- 
firmed by reading that Jesus, himself exercising these powers and 
gifts, promised to his followers after his death similar faculties;* 
evidently not regarding them as exclusively his, or as restricted to 
the age he lived in. 

Guided by such premises as these, our supposed observer of 

twenty-five years since — though living at a time when the terms 

"medium'* and ** manifestations" (in their modem sense) had not 

yet come np—^might have predicted the speedy appearance and recog^ 

/nli4m among ui of Sfibitual Phenomena^ resembling those which 

• John ziv. 1ft. 

• AposUos' 1»bon: | An Le Vorrier, 

tebk [)o*tulsti?m wnitf. in 19i0, to 

o bo found In the bcaroia; ici 

1 duktiBS (ibKi-ver have written to b friend, in 

c jrmr, tkcUring'wIuiit vu^JU mion tu bo witnessed on earth. ) 


Tbe oenrntDM anung us of spiritaol pliOKimrna nndrr law not 
nal; litnils I« rcEondlB Sni{itiire and Houn'l phUocopb]'; not only 
hrlpt tv atlot tbe doctrine of tbe universal reign o( Uw ; not only 
cxpIaiM kfid mndnna thn ({mnnil Mxuncy of tlie goainl nuv 
niivn; but it doot tanob more tb«a tbi^ 11 rap|>1iM to a alrug- . 
gltng rcllglMH mlnoritjr. grvMij in wunt uf iiid, th«< mtiani of 
Xtrui^a^ to Ui[bt, cvQi lx-Ior« unlwlicvorn in Scripture, Um gnat ' 
tnMh «if IniflKirtalllv ; aaii il fumiHha) to Uist aunio minority, com 
luMlkng aijalnBt nrtAtlj superior nututiiaa, other puwerful orgrumi^i- 
l«li«« mill mi tv^cBti; nerdi-d in (li<f *Lrifi!. 

Ln* ogntl c owwdi-TaltoM tlun ibcw- would nuffice in jjroof that 
llw Mbjnl tnattal of in thic volume ii uf luupeakidilu iinpiirtnncd 
iD liia UiUnaU aUkd of xinm and uf Chrutiunitf. 

b Ui» fuUowin^ pa^CB I Mck to *how thai Religion, auth u 
OnM (aaghl, ihiiogli aura to prernll In the tnd, ka yet, fur the 
boM laatd |iii—<iil . ua ona luiixl by ibe htntta onltalMi under tho 
' ^tmtt mt Infallilitilt;, m tJie olber bf the vi^iroas pioneen of 
-•iMoea: aad that in tliia atnit <<sparinHaital cTidmce of ttaocudat- 
iM« of awdam tiiiritoal pU'nomcna, if it i»n \k boil, nould aaalat 
'>" bajrosd aiu aa wi o- I mwIe to Rbow, aUo, that if we bat olvorro 
-< fflapawtfilaly ■* Um Baritn Mtfcmimer did, we aUall obtain, m 
•■" tb« mili^ and tlu Inw di a r ocie r of Uwae pbtDonMma, proof aa 
atimtvt aa ihat wbjch dammatmted tho rxin^nao of oar Intert- 
( -tiadpUart. 

T««lt« foara B0t 1 MdwTowd to ud la ckaring \hn ^m^. Kk 
Viaam ktd onathaal^bmi Mca, but odL twugi^nod. M » V^kuA J 

for a century, ^o had Epiritual phenomena been obserred and noted 
from time to time in tlie past, yet not theo taken for what they 
really were — occurrences under law. / Begarding them in this light, 
I brought what seemed the best authiniticat«d among them to pub- 
lic notice' 

In the present work, partly historical though chiefly filled with 
detached narratires in way of illastration, I could not well avoid 
touching inddontatly on certain doctrines which seem to me less 
beneficial tlian popular. If I have not snccocded — as who fully 
succeeds ? — in dealing candidly and dispassionately with contending 
creeds, it has not been for lack of earnest endeavor. 

I was tempted into the field which I here oonqiy chiefiy by a 
profound conviction that it afford* pheaemumal proof of a lift to 
come. But phenomenal proof i« &r more convincing than historical 
evidence. Htid the cicctrio telegraph been invented and employed 
for a brief period two thousand yean ago, and had telegraphy then 
become one of the lost arts, the old records of its temporary ttiumpb, 
how well attestcdsoever, if unsupported by modem example, would 
have created but feeble belief to-day. 

Such reflections outweighed the reluctance one fecla in bringing 
forward what has loin fo^a time under tlie world's taboo. Nor am 
I over-sangnine, nor especially desirous, of speedy result. New 
ideas, how true soever, are seldom respectable, in the worldly sense 
of the term. Like self-made men they win their way to distinction 
— as it is beet they should — but slowly, by their own merits. 

The reader will find some repetition in this volume. In discussiny 
a subject with which the public mind bos little familiarity it is difH- 
cult to avoid this; and, in such a discussion, a certain amount of 
iteration has its nse. 




BwjTUnt L BTATKMmror&uujtxrr S$ 

hrilioB «< Clog;.— K*ptj >(ii lu* lu na«<liii.--A utotiiauaj 
VaBief (Bpmctkslil*.— Prnblenu) iiropoMid lor aiiluUon, 
BacTMMi t. BtifXEaoB akd IlEveiuiE§ or Eablt PitoTii^aT- 


ot Pitnemtaaitia in ttatj ^mltii.— Ho«t of Europe 

- K-jf — lij" .iiiLlrtik !b liWa—TberfartJon faring 

Oft.:. (vit-AUiatKiu of MuriiHwr*! SjkI iW 

«0. .-oiiui in EUigluiul: in Uio Uoiiwd 

Bnmu^ i -i 1 &1 i,.;l:rl]S(l TllliMBELTU«... . 3 

TlBriUiii 'ii r'-.' riiiiLf.^i !■ ■, .■imliJio (nBord 

iBMilScient f:t|>lniulioi.v .'f Uiti elsli- 

Itifnlh kkI iH)UiiI«i'(iiT<:J'i i^urica. 

■■mnsl HoWKxiiuiW rni . in:»T 3 

ItafBa oC laToIlfUItlj.— Umi Umk b* tdlBlotu EmgitMT— 
TiteMpha a< Sohnoe.— Gnnd tniUi in Pntiatanluni. 

toDTKMiS. Tint m AT Makbobh axoatGekct* 4 

tMlaer and ZwiagU at MnbiDs.— Lntlicr'* adtiad onor.— 
Ckltia'a ua. 

BBurwii fl. Tim FtwrrMsi ash ti» Fatb or S»:«vKTrii .... n 
■htiH* wMI (EmtMnpwtin*. — S4rT«ti>« in l*art*. In Vlrnu*, 
•■d in <lMii>T>.~Ria (mat work. .&aapca from Virntu>, ii 
tiM tar hlaaphnnur a&d oiaiUiinnnl to be bitmed olim. — 
CaMaTaalMn in hLdir^ conff fd aad nppUadPtl. — ConiJ 
•uA m^ HinqBnrF 

SBCTunT. taijttipt:* ToLKBATtoK TnitKa IIcxnRKtt Tkam 

CMlaHc— Booinwa.— Jwiayli — Ttrtnally m lotoiatiim in Urn 

Smenvn It SAt.tnrr Domixn or tub Bitmiuinui T 

Tb«<r B«l — [il AomuUnii't inltiMum— Tlia " ImtJtnt«a.~ — 
fUrin'a Idua nn bnoiaii dsiinritji'. nrigin of evil. {imlMin- 
ban. and irnriB — IncndiUe ksgtba to wiaA he mrnt. — 
Oiaiteawai with Latbn; —LoUht gn tiaanoaa KUncneek, 
and bU •HUo«t«nrka_Sabtalhaiid»onUyi&Xi«ib«ii 
O^^ -Mian* aad D'AJnbeil Huaui *m » \)*Mk. 

Xll 00NTENT8. 

Sbctioit 0. What Lesson dobs the History of tub Eefos- 

iiation teach? 90 

How long BhaU we wait? — Foundation of popolar theology. — 
Freer opinions of Luther. 

Section 10. Spirit and Teachings of Christianitt com- 
pared wrm THOSE OF Calyinistic and 
Lutheran Theologt 07 

^taster-pdnoiple of Christianitj. — ^Profanations of Christian 
name. — CalTinism and Lntheranism and Ghiistianitj com- 
pared. — ^Who inherit HeaTen ? — ^Fascination of CalTin^s Theol- 

Section 11. Effect on Morautt of certain fatorttb 

Doctrines of thb Reformers 110 

All human actions bear frnit — ^Effect inseparable from canse. — 
The scape-goat. — Meicj^ not sacrifice. — Belief neither crime 
nor Tirtue. — Christ before FmiL — ^We must not pieach coward- 
ice. — True humiljt^. — Overmuch introspection. — ^Power of 
faith and loTe.— HeU. 

Section 12. Corroboration from Hiotort 136 

' Luther's deepondeiK7. — Iron rule in Ckmeva. — Comedy and 
Tragedy. — The Scottish kiric>-PuzitanB ooorageous and 
cruS. — Quakers. — Boger Williama, — ^Laws to hang childzen. 
— Worid*8 debt to the Befonners. 

Section 13. dnuanANTrr, shorn of Parasitic Creeds, a 

Prooresbivb Scibhcb 141 

TTifaTlThiltty anests p rogr e s s . — Gmmnaiolatry the wont idol- 
atry. — Safto without doctrine of plenaxy inspiration. — ^Mir- 
acles or law? — Temide and Baden PowelL — Conscience 

Section 14. Spiritualism necessary to confirm the Truths, 

AND assure the PROGRESS. OF ClIRISTIAXITY . . 154 

Benan^s leadership. — TwoTariant theories. — The Indifferents. — 
Deism unsatisfactory. — Did B|Mritna1 gifts cease? — Christ 
never taught the miraculous, nor a finalify. — Ecclesiastical 
** miracles** discredited. — In^nration the origin of all relig 
ions. — ^Accordance of Spiritualism with Christianity. — The 
doctrines of Spiritualism. — It teaches no speculatiTe dirin- 
ity. — It denounces no religion. — ^Proof of immortality impera- 
tively needed. — Sacred ^ity of investigation. 

rorcHESo coM3n7:sicATiox op bbugious kxowledgb 


Of HuMJOi TsWAJJJMOJtn • • 185 

Subject pnfjpoa&L—Tbm gtmdL ^ iw^ 

Ib^nnf rQ.— llie tn)B iiKaimt uiUHbiUt7.~>ChaTich of 
Boav* lUiiiiKlioliL — TmwInUoiu nod cniuin <i Satiptare, — 
Ktui Jftnua' WiitrucUwm— l^iof of iiiunorlalitj inflispen- 

ciiAiTr.H n. 


r lBlallIUbt7, ScnjidcisD. nod a thlnl clftmcat. — Whv AUIKI Epirit- 
nliMn *a Uto r— DaUpt In Jt»t1.— Pii»*fc-ii.ii.-\Vit(jhi ,^in. — 
OkiM^ tMBtoiMit of ttMaeinlliMnn-' 
— Iltt tafitUbbi WaoltiDgs — A baibrt,. 
tken^nnteaMble.—Pharnaar belief ill' 
iKI — A loM a)'port(m*tT. ^Vovrintfi] ( 
Qa»kH«><> n^^l Kn.,).i(i!..ttfl!.i,t..r. (!,. juJ . 

_ Hb)Mt In liul bunb.— Vilinl biiilnUionli.— TheiH 
it kUriltciioai.— TaoUinoHi-*: Sfvwl<mirt» forth fw 

- u Ike Ubcr. -DmOQ "f '^'" -■ •^.. -.<.■. i-cnt^ 

-.1 Pnoai ma.-!,. 



.■mt Ajn> PnucbirM 

|ili>oMnL— Pbj^cal uul ^.puitQml Koiiuio] 



I Cmmo r«vAU.T vnnawimo tSi 

I ItBMtKiUtDtaWL— Tb«*iniH[i>«MWM: wiMt Olsk' 
Mrfttr B^« ttf— dnoffcd User ot wdhoi'K \^I«.— k 
M*>:braricn.~-^nwriilaa amn after AMak.-^%atA^ 
•o £Wfi>nh.-SpwklBc far InlbHMM.— "^nq ft 

XIV ooirrENTS. 

villa was sold at a loss. — A xnidnight viaitor. — ^Appantioii of a 
rei>entant domeetio. — ^Bepentanoe among ^' spirits in prison." 


Animals pergeivinq SpmiTUAL PHSNOifSNA ^03 

What befell a Swiss officer. — The dog, cat, and canazy-bird : 
how affected. — ^What preceded a child's death. — The dog in 
the Wolfridge wood : its life-long terror. 

Universauty op Spiritual Manifbstatioks 810 

Is Spiritualism a superstitious epidemic ? — Bell-ringing in Eng- 
land : a cluster of narratiyes. — Satan in the bells. ---Captain 
IVIarryat and the Lady of Bumham Green. — The House of 
Mystery. — ^Endemical disturbances throughout a hundred 
years. — ^Knock and it shall be opened. 


Spiritual Phenomena sometimes result in SEEMiNa 

TRiFLEa 836 

The butler's ghost: Lord Erskine's testimony. — A fashionable 
lady's ** dog-ears and folds." — A mere trifle predicted. 



TnB Spirit-rap 843 

With Leah and Kate Fox. — The spirit-rap tested throughout a 
house ; on water ; in trees ; on a ledge of sea-shore rock. — 
Seeing the raps. — Touched by the agency which spirit-raps. — 
A phosphorescent light raps on a door. — Spirit-hands melt 
away. — Poundings by a homicide. — Tremendous knockings: 
house shaken. — Visit to a haunted house. — Overpowering 
clatter. — Effect of sudden light. 

MoviNa Ponderable Bodies by occult Aoenct 8G1 

Crucial test : Robert Chambers present. — Table, weighing one 
hundred and twenty pounds, suspended in air. — Table, flung 
into the air, rotates. — Terrible power shown. 


Direct Spirit WRrriNa 899 

Baron de Guldenstubbe : his experiences in direct writing. - - 
Stiangely si^ggestiyel — My own experiences. — Seeing an 
illuminated huid wxite.--SpeQime&a ot wxitasi^. — Q«a. thA 
seaaeB be irasted f— Direct writing by 8BA*^l[^--^1B«fisinMii.-» 



BzperioooM of Mr. LiTennoce and of Mn. John Dayis.-^ 
Wnting oa hamui hand and arm. — ^Letten i^ppear and fade 
under aathor*t eyec 

fipiBiT Toucnss 891 

In Naples with Mr. Home. — Prince Lnlgi's experience. — Spirit- ' 
toadiee bgr gaa-lifl^t in New Toric.— The diffiooltiea of dia- 



Stubbobh facts ooHinECTiNa TWO Worlds 890 

A Spirit arxangea its woridly affaiis. — Sister Elizabeth and the 
xegiater. — The grandmother'B promiae and apparition. 

A Cas of Idehtitt Thbeb Hundbsd Yeabs old. 409 

Hnmaa lote bridges the golf : 00 may philanthropj. — Earth- 
Iwnding inflnencea.— The spinet — N. G. Baoh'a dream; his 
hand writea^ — The parchment. — Haltftitarini — Henry in. ; 
aong oompoaed by him. — Marie de Cidves. — ^M. Baxm^a oer- 



An old promise kept. — Proof of identity from 500 miles off. — 
Apparition of the betrothed. — Typioed test. — Portrait with 



Tkb Gbbat Faith- Abticub of the Fibst Cezititbt 451 

Ea4y fihristian fidlh baaed on Ghrist'a apparition.~Stady of 
apparitiona impnriiant. 



False Ideas touching ghosts, veiy injnrions.— Appearance soon 
after dciafh 


Mt aww MxrmmiEifcm rovcBao ApPABm0R%, •••••»••««•«• ^S^ 



ghost speaks. — luierraption. — Spiritaal soolptaze. — ^Appazi* 
\ tion in Boston. — Plan of locality. — Shining raiment. 

A NEAR Relative snows herself, THRouanouT five ybabs, 


Mr. Livermore^s testimony. — The crucial test. — Figure re- 
flected in mirror. — Exhibition of rare beauty. — Corroboration 
throughout years. — Figure throws shadow on wall. — ^Appari- 
tions seen through three hundred sittings. — Spirit-flowers. — 
Additional witnesses. — Mr. Livermore^s letter to author. 

What Apparitions are and how formed 502 

The spiritual body. — A temporary induement. — Spiritaal sculp- 
ture. — An imperfect apparition completed. 




Cures by Spiritual Agency 510 

Christ^s mission. — Marquis de Guibert^s hospital — Cure through 
Leah Fox. — The. instantaneous cure. — Insanity cured by 
spiritual influence : two examples. 

Other Spiritual Gifts 525 

Gifts of prophecy, of discerning of spirits, of tongues, of work- 
ing of *' miracles,^* of seeing the hidden past, all exemplified 
in our day. — The proleptic gift. 





Roman Catholic argument. — ^An alt^matiTe. — ^What should be 
discarded, and what retained. 


What underlies Christ's teachings, as Foundation- 
motive, 537 

When comes the Xingdom of Heaven ? — The h\mger and thirst. 

— Christ aeeka to awaken the sLumbexmg love ol ^<^ Biglht. 

^^Sjb promiaef on oonditioiui — QaestaoDiiig ^'^ '^u^*^'^^^^^'^^^ 



Ada, bfunaii, aH enlail their appropriate lesoltB 112, 113 

AdTentore, Midnight, in the WoLCridge Wood 80^-300 

Anglican Chnrdi makes advanocs to Greek Choicb. 219 

ABimali hare apiritoal peroeptiona 802-309 

Anointed, The 200 

Apparition immediately after death 288, 450 

Apparition in shining raiment 474 

Apparition, Subjective, of the betrothed 440 

Apparxtiotts, Stndy of, important 454 

Apparitions, My own experience touching 450-481 

Apparitifm, an, seen, felt, and heard 402, 403 

Apparition in Boston: plan of rooms where seen 475 

Apparitions in New York : seen throughout five years by Mr. 

Lirermore 4f?2-499 

Appariuotts, what they arc, and how formed 502-508 

Apparition, at first imperfect, afterward completed 508 

Atoofrment, Vicarious, according to Luther. 84 

Aogustine, St., his early life and vast influence 73 

Baidh. X. G., his dream, 415 ; writiDg by imprcflsion 418 

lUiltararini, Henry Ill.^s favorite musician 429 

Bralings bells yi2-in4 

Belief neither crim«» nor virtue 117 

B«rU-ringing, unczplaine<i, Cluftter of namitivcs regarding ;»! 2-320 

Belisi, Satan in the, scares a bell-hanger 310 

Bishop. ACatbolio. his mistake 210 

Borxiham Green, The Lady of 323 

Bums, Robert, his compassion for Uie devil 132 

Botier, Apparition of a, seen by Lord Kntkiuo 837 

Calvin, his oonsistorial court and its tyranny 12S-131 

Calvin, his share in Servetus' death. 01, 02, 08 

Calvin, his doctrines. 74-62 

Calvinism and Christianity compared 102-105 

Canco of Scri pture. 19 1 , 1 92 

Cbambers, Robert, Tert sugge.<ited by 302 

Children, laws condemning them to death. 131 , 138, 139 

Christ, his office, 2<{7 ; his birth, 209 ; his powers conditional 271 

Chnst SL-eks to awaken the 8lumlieriDg love of the Eight. . . . 538, 539 
Christ's teachings : what uudcrlioM them, as foundation-motive. . . 530 

Christ'^ promise touching spiritual gfts. 197, 54(1 

nK>raIihr, Ujuter-principh underlying \V^U>^ 

^, pnf/koMtioDM of its wunc ' WVViiV 

• V 



Glmstendcini, Chlet pbaeoBot lel^^iona belief in 214 

Cicero, hiapsjcbioal Tieir of inspimtioii. 240 

Clo^y, PoaLtion of £4 

OompootB with devil : Christ did not believe in them. 209, S03 

Gocsclenoe. the snpreme interpreter 153, 163, 183 

Creed B of Christendom: table of chief phases of belirf. 214 

Crucial test touubing an apparition 4SS 

Cuio, instantaneous, 5)7 

Cuies hy spiritnal agency 510-634 

Curea hy mognetiiim in M. de Oojbert'n hospital SIS 

Cures of insanity by epiritiiftl influeoce 623 

D'Alenbert, his Boeptictam and his benevolence 88 

Darwin, his theoiy discloaei no link betwofln brute and man. . 263, S63 

Davia, Mra. Johu, example of spirit- willing. S65 

Decree, a, quaint old one, indoreint; GalTin'a "Institutes" (II 

DeiBm. Simple, nneoniiU and unsatisfactory IMI, 1W) 

Demcmiao theory iiuphilosophical and unt^uble SI2-314 

Dopmrity, Original, Calvin's ideas on 75-77 

Devil, Effect of beUef in 189,210, Sll 

Diderot, hia opinions ; impriscced for teaching' them fit) 

Diaturbonces, Bndemicol, Ibroaghoat one hundred years 330-333 

Doctrines of the Keformera , 70-89 

Doottines t") be diHcarded 034 

Doctrines to be retained. , 5!J3 

Dog ondor the window, it05 ; in the WoUriOge Wood. 30a 

Domestic invasion, The 387 

EiEktDC, Lord, sees appairition of his f aUicr'a butler. 337 

Evil, Glimiise ofa thnoiy of 187 

Kvil in man cannot be good in God. 119 

Futh, Bational, its power for good 1^ 

Ptuth-articlo, Great, of firit century 4JJ1-454 

Faabionable lady'a logic touching; apparitions tiSiS 

Flowers, Spiritual, appear and duappeor 403, 404 

Foster, Cborlea, powerful teet-medimn 380-3QO, 443 

Fox, Leah and Kate, U43 ; Leah, An eventfiil hour with 400 

Fox, Kate, uttinga with hei. 3Q4, 3S7, 375 -, apparitiona seen 

through ber mediumship, during fite years 433-400 

Fraiilia, Benjamin, hia eidoion appears. 401-403,400 

Ohost, A, BpealCB 408 

Gifts, Spintual, have not ceaaed, 101 ; ptomiaed by Cbriut, 163; 

d««irii)ile, 1G4 ; appear in ps.ttiatic times. 100 

Gift of toDgnesin IWMO 178 

Good deeds to the poor and helpless, service to God 107 

thmndmoUiei's promise, 404 ; fulfilled 407 

Greek CbuTOb 33 (note), ai7-aiU , 

Onldcnstubb£, Baron de, examples of spirit-wntiag 370-378 

UeJI. Tbeologicaliiteaot... ._^_^^.,.: 'WM 


Home, D. DanglM, Searioiis with 891 

Hbose-haimtiiicr, Character of eyidenoe in proof of 831-884 

HooM-haimtixi^, Examples of, 820-827, 357 

House of Mjsteiy 825 

Humility, True basis of 123 

Identity of Spirits, Nomerooa proofs of 896-450 

Identity of Spirits, A case of, three hundred years old 409-4^^ 

InuDortality, proof of it the ji^at desideratum 17^), 194, 452 

IndiJfcrcnoe as to religion ; its great preyalence 15S 

Infallibility, Dogma of , 43 ; a dangerous popular error 207 

Infallibilitj utterly untenable, 143-145 ; no danger in dispcn- 

sing with this doctrine 146, 147 

InspiratifiQy what it is, 242 ; origin of all religions 109, 243 

InsptrmtioD, of genius, 255 ; poetical, 256 ; musical 258 

Insanity cured by spiritaal influenoe 5^, 524 

Institotes, CalTin*s 74 

Intemperanoe, Startling statistioal item oonoeming 110, 111 

laterrentioQ, Direct, of God does not happen 185 

King James* instructions to translators of Bible 193 

Labor-power : its yast increase since 1760 45 

Lady of Bumham Green : midnight adventure 323 

Law, universal and unchangeable, reign of 148-151 

Light, suddenly struck, what spiritual phenomena it disclosed. . . . 35S 

Lirermnre, Bfr., his testimony as to spirit-writing 384 

LsTcnnore, Mr. , his experience as to apparitions 482-499 

LiTcrmorc^Mr., additional witnesses confirm his testimony 405 

LiTcrmorr, Mr., his letter to author 500 

Loyola : his character and influenoe 34 

' Liugi. Prince, of Naples, Anecdote of, 238 ; his experience IKKi 

Lominoos hand, seeing it write 375-377 

Luther, at Worms, 48, 49; at Marburg, 50; his intolerance .... 51, 5*3 

Luther, his doctrine of yioarious atonement 84-86 

Luther, his ideas on charity and on works 85, 86 

Luther, his free opinions, 94 ; rejects St. James 96 

Lutberaoism and Christianitj compared 105 

Vaeanlay, on religions progress 44, 143 

Magsetiser, A French, his alarm 250-251 

Maid and ocxdc; the author's first experience in Spiritualism. . . . 283 

Marburg: meeting there between Luther and Zwingli 50 

Marie de Cl^Tes, ladte-loFe of Henry 1 II., of Franco 427 

Marryat, Flormoe. her testimony regarding apparitions 321 

MarT>'at. Captain, his midnight adycnture 3^1, 324 

Materialism found to be chcMTlcM on full trial 190 

Mercy not sacrifice, Christ's doctrine 116 

Midnight risi tor . A 296 

Miradea, Opinians on \^ 

Miimafm, Ciuist does not apcMk of thom , , . • V^ 

Mumak^ iSnnkm att km J, diMOtmdited by ProUstaiO*! ! .V. . .V. \^VKl 



Morality, effect of certain orthodox doctrines on 110 

Morgan, Lady, her ^'dog-cars-and-folda" explanation of the 

cause of alleged apparitions , 888 

Moriscoes, expatnation of 81 

Moving i>ondcrablo bodies by occult agency 861-^67 

Music, old, found by N. G. Bach, fac-simile of 410 

Mysteiry, The house of 825 

Numbers, comparative, of Protestants and Catholics . .- 81-83 

NumlKsr of Spiritualists 288-233 

Number of Quakers, 223 ; of Swedenborgians 228 

Opportunity, A golden, lost by Catholic Church 217 

Orthodox theology founded on two of Paul's epistles 92, 98 

Parables of Christ versus doctrines of Reformers 106, 107 

Paralysis of motor nerve suddenly cured 518 

Parchment, Old, autograph of Henry III. ; fao-simile of 420 

Persecution of early Christians : its effect 80 

Pope and Austrian government at issue 218 

Possession, in Jesus' day 200 

Predestination : Calxin's idea of 77 

Problem, The great 184 

Prolcptic, or prophetic gift 520 

Protestants applaud Calvin's part in Servetus' death 09 

Protestantism : its successes, 27 ; its reverses 80 

Protestantism, Grand truth in 48 

Public opinion opposed to doctrine of the infallible 189 

Puritans, Calvinism among, 184; their laws 135, 138, 189 

Quakers, their persecution by Puritans 135-137 

Quakers, their original doctrines, their mistakes, their failure 221-224' 
Questioning the uncxijlored * 542 

Rappings, spiritual, see Spirit-rap 342-300 

Reformers, Doctrines of 70-89 

Reformers, the world's debt to them 140 

R6nan, whither he leads us, 155 ; his Christianity 538 

Repentance in the next world, Example of 299 

Repentance, mode of exit for '^spirits in prison" 300 

Repentant housekeeper, The 297 

Right, Hunger and thirst after the 537 

Rochester Kuockings, see Spirit-rap 342 

Roman Catholic argument 531 

Roman Catholicism : its gains in England, 32 ; in America 88 

Roman Catholicism : its reformation, 34 ; its doctrines 40-48 

Babbath and Lord's Day, according to Augsbmig Confession. . . 86, 87 

Balcm witchcraft : its origin and its frightful effects 206, 207 

Bcapc-goat, The Jewish, involves a fal^ principle 115 

Soeptiicism in eightoeniAi century , 88 

Sdcnoe and SpiritatdiBm xieed differing modea ot ts»a)aD«^. %l^ Vl% 

nfDRX. xxi 


Bdentifto leseaich lertricted by Chnrdi of Borne 42 

Sdentific tests of ipiritoal phenomena recentlj obtahied in 

London 278, 279 

Kiric : its tyranny 132,183 

SeeaUritm gaining ground, 215 ; espedxdly in England 216 

SenBCS, Hnnum, are they nntmstworthy ? 380 

Berrctns, 53 ; hie creed, 54 ; trial and death G4-G9 

Sinter Elizabeth : example of ** discerning of spirits" 401 

Socrates, his demon, 240 ; his opinions on Spiritnalism 244-2-13 

Somnambulic increase of intelligence 252, 258 

•' Sod of God," True interpretation of 274, 275 

Bong, Original, composed by Henry III. of France 422, 423 

Soathey*s opinion touching the use of spiritual phenomena 8^)3 

Spinet, of Boltazarini ; engraving of 413 

Spirit arranging its earthly affairs 807-400 

Spirit-hands melting away, note 351, 352 

Spirit-rap, the proofs of 342-3C0 

Spirit-nqis throughout an entire house, 344 ; on the water, 345 : 

in trees, 845 ; on a sea-shore ledge of rock 846, 347 

Spirit-raps, seeing them made by a luminous hammer 846^-351 

Spirit-raps, in phase of violent poundings 353-350 

Spirit-toadies, examples of, 301-3U5 ; by gaslight 895 

Spirit-writing, facsimUes of 872, 873, 378, 388 

Spirit-writing, Direct, various examples 300-380 

^lirit-writing on human arm and hand, Examples of 380-300 

^liritaal aid needed 25 

Spiritual body. The 503 

Spiritual gifts of our own time 525-528 

Spiritual phenomena, Southey's opinion as to their use 333 

Spiritual phenomena sometimes result in trifles 330-341 

Spiritual phenomena, their universality 310-335 

Spiritoal sculpture, 472 ; example of 505 

Spiritualism, Modem, was it a superstitioos epidemic? 311 

^aritualitfm, summary of its doctrines 171-175 

Spiritualism accords with Christianity 170 

Spiritualism denounces no religion 177 

Spiiitoalism. why came it so late ? 108 

Spiritualism, dangera of, when unworthily prosecuted 208, 200 

Spiritualism, number of its adherenU 2:33-235 

Spiritualism, how it should be studied 237-240 

lyi jl^i^iam an unprecedented step in 204 

Spiritualism, The author*s first experience in 282-280 

Spiritualism rpgardi*d as a domestic invasion 287 

Spiritualism, Modem, a necessary aid to Christianity 154-170 

Spiritnaliiits, Temporary schism amon^ 235 

Slaie of nun here determines his state hereafter 114, 172, 173 

Stitementof subject 18;) 

fttartonary policy impracticable 20 

Btotisrirs of Protestantism and Catholicism 31-33 

Swdanbotgianism. its grand troths, 226 ; its grave exiora, md 

CKHMsquent tailum ^tS^-^CJ^ 

r.whMtbefeUbim 'tfja 

n^ dom Doi eaq^Uin C^Uholio saooeaM . \\ ^ 

Xxii INDEX. 

Table, A heaTj, suspended in the air, without contact 868. 864 

Table, A, is flung into the air and rotates 868h-867 

Terrible power exhibited in a private parlor. 866 

Tests, typical and literal 443 

Titanic steps of the world 260, 261 

Toleration unknown in sixteenth century 70, 71 

Trance-speaking, Involuntary, example of 291, 293 

Translations of Scripture •. 191 

Trifle, A, predicted 340 

Truth, A grand, in ProtestantiBm 48 

Violet, an English lady : episode regarding her, 434-450 ; her por- 
trait obtained, 448 ; her apparition 474 

Wesley disturbances: a lesson they teach 212 

Wcstphalian treaties 80 

What befell a Swiss officer 802 

Why a villa was sold at a loss 205 

Witchcraft caused by belief in devil, 201 ; its horrors, 

202; in Salem 206,207 

Writing, Spirit, direct, 869 ; on human arm and hand 880, 800 








** To ereiy thing there is asoaaon, andatimo toevecyporpoeeimdex 
ib« h e a f gfn ,"— EccLKSiABTES. 

For every man, accordiug to his light and couvictioii, tliero 
exists a certain duty to society , be it humble or elevated, 
evinced in words or in daily acts. If, after jetdous watch set 
on motive and strict diligence in probing the verity and weigh- 
ing the worth of what one may liave to say, the convic- 
tion still abides that it ought to be said, one uiiiy be uufidthful 
in remaining silent. Witli such ci\ro und under kucIi inipres- 
■ion I tender to you wliat follows. 

My work has this one claim, at least, on your attcMition, that 
what is tlierein set forth, alloyeil with misconception and cir- 
cuuLscribed by short-sight tliough it be, has l)een written n4ig- 
ioosly under the dictate of candor and of conscience, us if 
every word were to be Liid ut the foot of tlie Almighty's 

Vou wiUaJoiiV the gnve imiH)rUuiCii of my auV>j\3C\.-\\\v\X.X.*ix^ 


since it refers, first to the present state of theology and the re- 
ligious needs of the world ; incidentally to the reality of plen- 
ary inspiration ; again, to the character of what, in the gospels 
and epistles, are termed sometimes' Bigna and wonders, some- 
times spiritual gifts ; and, finally and specialty, to the question 
whether phenomena analogous to these have come to light in 
the present age. 

A just view of these subjects, vital beyond measure as they 
arc, is unspeakably essential to the advancement of man's spir- 
itual part. It is to you we may properly turn for this. Your 
office, in itself considered and looking to the eminence of its du- 
ties, is the highest upon earth ; for the spiritual part is the man 
— is and will be in other phase of life than this. You ought 
to be the leaders of mankind. But zeal, learning, and the siu- 
cerest piety even, suffice not for the maintenance of such a posi* 
tion. As the world grows older, the letter of the ancient law, 
ecclesiastical or secular, governs less, and the spirit of the age 
more. * They only can lead the world's advance who act upon 
this truth. 

A layman, inviting your attention as I do, has this apology : 
that, within the immunities of your churches, you are not fa- 
vorably situated to hear outside truth. I think you hear l^ss 
of it than any other body of men. It is a privilege fiuught with 
temptation to speak once a week, year after year, secure against 
challenge or reply : for it tends to mislead speaker and hearers 
alike. Among those who approach you the greater number 
mistake submissive acquiescence for respect: but the best 
token of respect, in addressing any man, or any class of men, is 
outspoken frankness and plain dealing. 

The common result of your position is to restrict, within sec- 
tarian limits, your habitual periscope. And thus others, trans- 
gressing routine bounds, may have come upon fields of research 
>vhich you, within the pale, disparaging them as barren, never 
B4;o. If, for example, any among you have given as much time 
and thought as I to the question whether, in our own day as in 
times gone by, deinz&DS of another world oooacdonally infiuenoe. 

B to bo 

snorfCAL AID yuKoat. 

I or pril, tbo concarns of this, it baa not bcm mj gond ll 
to know it. Y»t, (lisoiwerfy pnrauod, Ihere ia no in- ■ 
ore li^liiuate, aonv rvAcliiuf; &rt]i<^r in iU etliical and 
nJjjpouB rooiiUs. yoT it il w, ]>uniuuig such enidics, who 
•koold dnfRuiJ oar eoono; it ia ihey that negloct Uiem who 
propnrljr be cnllid upon U> show wai-rani for tbeir neglect, 
is K bnliiT jiiMificd h/ tha hiilary of tbe world tlutt Ood 
U toMti ut Adiuiro frcwh knowledge tn meuaui? comnum- 
witli Ilia w«nl«, Mid nt tU« timr) wlicn ho bt^oo(ues ablo 
Lvi^ »gB baa it* Kjx^ial nordx, indtiKtiisl, polili- 
iritiuJ. 1 tJiink tbero aro strong rvssons for tho 
tlMt,Mt thcprRHTRttime, wolarJc, to e<iatAinwhoI«MimD, ' 
Cutfaa and to correct old cirrors that havo bcm 
tboae, direct aid from epiiitual tiourcea. If the 
by Uh £v-ai»gviiata be a record villi any valid 
lo Mitbenliintjr, it eutera into God'a eoononijr to gntnt 
unto BMin, at certain times, «iii:h aid. It is a iiumtiun of fiwt 
lo be decti]'^ \iy puper iriidt'nce, wh«t}it.'r He in aiipplying it 
CVrlMU It i> ibat Ibu bi*taiticid ruLvrda of two tliciaauiid 
api, riaiiihii^ulani-, £ul Id Lmidj; hunm tu tlio fru>.in<|iiinu)( . 
id of to-dav llir KUiio convictiona whii:b thtnj wivDgitt in 

I Miidc-m brlinf in tlio UnauMi urgcnllj' neoda fruak- . 
I aJditiitnal oupporC 
Thia will iipponr ibv ratbn-, if wd (can dispninonalclj tli* __. 
Mtoal jioeitiou »f ihn r«<ligioiis world] its attitodn toward 
MHtos and iLii •lil^mua in wUcli it flnda itaelf whether it ao- 

npta or njcviit llio acn«dit«i] diiicovcriES of tku day. Tlis 
I tbonglitfiil among ynar oiuuber cannot have falM to 

t "DouUa to till: woiU'a clill4-Ii«>rt nnknawn 

Too little o( too moirh wc biow. 
And aig:b( b ntUt and fUlh U ilmw : 
V%a powM- to lott to aeU-deoetTe 
am aAaOm- /mm at isaJta-baUam." 

WaimA. TltfMitfMM 


mark tho signs of the times. Thej must feel that a stationary 
policy is no longer i)racticable. Scepticism is silently, bat 
surely, undermining once-popu]ar doctrines : tho old ground is 
giving way under our feet. 

Not that there is cause for alarm except to those who think 
tho v/orld can be saved by dint of drag-chains only. Religion 
is in no moi*o danger of subversion than are the eternal hills of 
sinking away, for its foundations in the soul are firmer than theirs 
in the solid earth : but opinions that cannot stand before tho 
\vorld's growth must, sooner or later, be subverted, do what you 
will in their defence. It is in vain that wo cling to antiquated 
perplexities of doctrine, if it shall prove that these have become 
as much out of place under the lights of the nineteenth century 
as would be the belief of five hundred years ago that the pil- 
lars of Hercules marked the western boundary of the eaiiiL 

Beyond doubt many of your number are earnest in theip 
convictions that what they deem Orthodoxy needs no spiritual 
influx to sustain its progress or rectify its errors ; that it has 
no unphilosopliical spirit to be reformed, nor any pernicious 
fallacies to be retracted. But if they are right in this, some 
problems connected with the liistoiy of Protestantism are of 
very difficult solution. 

I allude to ceii^in incidents for which we must go back some 
three hundrcd and fifty years, and which connect themselves 
with the rise and progress of the gi-eat Reformation — with its 
wonderfid successes and its remarkable i-everses — especially 
during the first century and a quarter of its gi'owth. 

§ 2. Successes and Reverses of early Protestantism. 

It vms on the tenth of December, in the year 1520, that 

bravo Martin Luther burnt the Papal bull of excommunication 

which Leo X. had reluctantly launched against him. Less than 

half a century passed — the German miner^a son and his Medi- 

oaaa opponent both having died tho ^Yni« — wad V^<b «^\f^ ol 

OREAT srocmsis. 27'' 

11m refarawil roU^oo hod >pn»ul to the moet disUmt and ab> 
•nue eomer* nf Eiiropr^ "What an immooM enipira liad 
PrMMtautum ootufuarvd in liio «p&m of IbrtT j-oars ! — an eupirA 
rMtcbinf tmm ImUixI to tko Pyrenoes, from rinland to thA> 
nnmit of tli« Italian Alps." * 

Tha wLols of tbal vast empire iiu>d nut, indeed, kodp defiru- 
tirelj o*«r to the new Auth. lu £nf;Uud, Suotland, Dvumark, 
Sveden, belaud, Livonia, Pruania, Saxony, Hmm, Wiirlemburjt, 
and iJm Palauikate ; in lite nortbeni Ketlierlanda and in several 
aaloiM of Bwilaerlaad ; the lieturmation luul comjiletcly trl> 
vapbed : wliilo Ibmugkout Francx.-, Bolgium, Buvarin, Bolieuua, 
Waaipkalia, Auairia, Poland, und Hiiu)iiu7, tUonj^U tlie ixii- 
iHt reinaiiMKl iind«ci<lMl, Ibo K^mtta of LutLer or of Ciilvia < 
kad talvn atrong huld of tba public mind. In France, for es- 
MHpla, iIm) Rfafmed doctrincn, in tlti-ir Oalviniatio pbaae, Uwl . 
cTwy pmvincn of tbe kinpRlom ; in Brittany and Nor- ■ 
I GMcijuy and in lAngondoe, in Puitoii, Toiiraino, , 
IhMiphirii, a iiiAiority openly profpwod tba 
ii- " Yunr Higltui-w," wt-olo till? Vi'ni-liiiti wo- 
ttlieljliturt of Pntikcv, in 1561, to thn D<^-, " inay 
4 tlwt, witb tbn axoo|>tian of thn lonror claiuHui who 
' fiiflju-'nt the cfaurrii«,atl the rent have fnUini' 
aamy, aapecially tiM* nobU-a, anil klmiHt withont a ninglo cxntp- 
1*0(1, tb« mnn undxT fmlT." JIv wyii funhor that not only 
piiint», nonka, and nnnn liad ailuptod tfaia hKnwy, bat 
biibapa and laany of ibn nnat enuaiderabhi pnlate* ; adding' 

a> ,%MMna and lisTmirmti Ontario, Tnoulatal by Ba 
X r^^ »T>i, LoMlna. 1M0. Va !1 ]' 18. 

!«■• too f>F<p»>t tnfenvKin iaU'rMpt iJiia hM Aittd», I omll tl 
ha(i*e( Ifaai ti» maAimt will nter, for raciUMtion of lay nunllfs, t) 
t^ «^k tUatf, OM of tlw BMa tnlanatfaiitenntribaliaM tobiitanyUiat 
hw apfiaand duhi>|t lb« |inii»t u e utiuy ; or it ho prtfosa ooapon- 


'owof iUak*'* work, lu vbkdi.a finrjiafeafanbGl an.llnn An&«iftk^ 
Th> lai— oWrfiui of Auka'a *iKJ[ In OwnoD iZMi BMMtOtV 



that imprisonment, stripes, and the stake, having only served t« 
aggravate matters, had been abandoned, and that the liberated 
prisoners went about congratulating each other that they had 
won the battle against adversaries whom they were learning 
to call the Papists.* 

In Prussian Poland, the right of the chief towns to the 
exorcise of religion, according to the Lutheran forms, was con- 
firmed by express chai'ters in 1557 and 1558 ; while, in Po- 
land proper, Protestants even obtained possession of bishops' 
Bees. In Hungary, in the year 1554, a Lutheran was elected 
palatine of the empire. In Bavaria a large majority of the 
nobles had embraced the new doctrines, and the duke himself 
occasionally attended Protestant worship. • In Austria, the 
revolution of sentiment was still greater ; the nobles studied at 
Wittenberg, under professors who had been Luther's disciples ; 
the colleges of Austria proper were filled with Protestants, and 
it was asserted that about a thirtieth f of the inliabitcmts only 
remained faithful to the Pope. In the Netherlands, the dead- 
liest persecutions failed to effect their object. The ferocity, 
scarcely human, of Alva, the putting to death, as it was calcu- 
lated, of thirty thousand Protestants in the Low Countries 
alone, had been unavailing to arrest the progress of the new 
opinions. Spain and Italy — themselves not without taint of 
heretical doctrine — were the only European countries, of any 

* Mtciieli. These detaOs will he f omid in his Bdaziane dcUe cose di 
Francin Vanno 15G1. I have held strictly to his expressions : ** glori- 
ondosi," he says, '^ che aveano guadagnoto la lite contra i Papisti, co^ 
chiamavano c chiamano 11 lore adversarii.*' 

A foreign minister of the day may be sapposed to have informed 
himself carcftdly on such matters, and one representing a Calhollo 
country was more likely to underrate than to over-estimate the progress; 
of the Protestant movement. 

f Macaolay has it one tfiirteentk. In the latest edition of Rankers 

work In the original G(erman (vol. 11. p. 9), I find it tliirtieUi, as above : 

*^Man wollte rochnen daas veillelcht nur noch der dreiszigste Thelldor 

Elnwohner KathoUach geblieben aci : " d'^ni^^fnlly o^kprcssed, it will b« 

obsei-ved, as to the autlioritgr. 

FISOSPECT IN 1568. 29 

iioportanoey that could be r^arded, after a struggle of half a 
oentuiy, as still loyal to the Holy See.* 

Now, if we imagine a man of fair parts and competent fore* 
sight, a spectator throughout the religious struggle of the six- 
teenth century, and one whose convictions coincided with those 
of Luther and bis adherents ; if we suppose this man, when 
two-thirds of the century had elapsed, looking narrowly at the 
changes wrought by the Reformation, and reflecting upon the 
probable religious future of Euro{>e ; what must have been 
his antici|)atioas ? Can we doubt his reasonable conviction 
that three or four decades more would witness the expiring 
throes of that venerable system of ecclesiastical polity, endowed 
with more than antediluvian vitalitv, which, from the Seven 
Hilla, had stretched its spiritual sceptre over the world 

* Some of the most reliable Catbolio authors of that day may be 
cited in proof that Ranke has not exaggomted the situation. Paolo 
Tiepolo. Kpoken of by his contemporaries as a man of good bead and 
•soellent heart, resided nearly throe years as Veuctiun ambassador at 
ibc com! of Pius V. Uo was there ia 1508, and has left, written in 
that jcar, a anmll work entitled : Rdazione di Dmna al tempo di Pio 
J V. t Pw V, Thence I take the following : 

** Speaking of these European countries alone, which were wont not 
only to yield obedience to the Pope, but also to conform in oil their 
lites to tbs customs of the Roman Church, celebrating their offices in 
the Latin tongue; it is ascertained that England, Scotland, Denmark, 
Korway, Sweden — in fine, all the northern countries — are alienated 
from him. Germany is almost entirely lost ; Bohemia and Poland ore 
in great part infected ; the Low Ckmntrics of Flanders are so thoroughly 
eormpted , that even under the remedies ( ! ) which the Duke of Alva feels 
eoapeUed to employ against them, they will hardly return to their 
farmer health. Finally France, by reason of these bad humors 
iqnesti mal hnmori) is full of confusion. Thus it appears that there 
remains to the Pontificate nothing healthy and secure (non pore cho 
sia restato altro di sane o sicuro al pontefice) save only Sixiiu and Italy 
•ad a few iilaiids, together with certain districts in Dolmatia and 

Uis •ridmtt that In Borne itself, in 1(>C8, Boman CaOMA^osui 
AsA^ ^ As Mopporten, to be in imminent dangox oi dyu^ oat. 


throughout a longer series of centuries than the successors of 
Komulus themselves had ruled from the Eternal City? 

Yet how marvellously wide of the tinith were such expects 
tioDs, then cherished by millions I * Eighty years passed ; tho 
contest had been waged and had subsided ; and in 1G48 the 
rights and the boxmdaries of the rival Churches were deter- 
mined by treaty. But how determined? Of the European 
countries which, in 1568, might have been regarded as the 
Debatable Land of theological controversy, every one without 
an exception, — France and Austria and Belgium; Bavaria, 
Bohemia, Poland, and Hungary ; even Westphalia where the 
partitioning treaties were signed f — had fallen back into the 
Roman faith.J Not only had Protestantism lost them all, but^ 
after the lapse of two hundred years more, she has never re- 
gained 011"^. There is not a single European nation that la 
Pi'otcstanl to-day, except those that had become Protestant 
more .than three hundi'ed years ago. 

We, Christians outside of the Boman faith, have much to 
allege in reply. We claim that the national downfall of Spain 
from a proud preeminence was mainly due to the influence of 

* By Luther himself, among them He said : '^ The Pope is the last 
blazo iu the lamp, which will go out, And ere long be extinguished, the 
last -instrument of the deva"— LumER's Table Talk, p. 196. And 
again : ' *• The Pope Btands like a tottering wall about to be overthrown.*' 
— Sameicork, p. 331. 

f Yet Westphalia, like the rest of Northern Europe, had been over- 
run, during the preceding century, by Lutheran doctrines. The town- 
council of Paderbom had been Protestant ; in Munster most of the 
priests had married ; and the ruling Duke, William of Gleves, appar- 
ently anxious to conciliate both parties, had received the sacrament in 
his private chapel, sometimes according to the Catholic, sometimes ao- 
cDrding to the Protestant form. 

\ I would avoid the use of the terms Boman Church, Bomanism, 

Eoman Catholic — grating to the cars of many honest believers in Papal 

infallibility — ^if I could do so without virtually admitting the claim of 

the Church of Rome to be tA« universal Church. Catholicity is a neo- 

eaaai-y element of any Faith that is to become the religion of dvHIsi^ 


ITKIATICX <IF «i.iRIW-i>K8. 81 

: CUoitli;* Ihat civilimtion hnM b«ea retarded in 
t !■ Ireloixt by mmiJiir ngencr ; nnil, in a general wa;. 
of wt-B]|li,cuCerfiriM', utiil intdiifpuncelias been 
rtwrlb of HieUMiDdsn-attaliliahn) hvtbe (<cace of \Vnt- 
|i1m1m tluut aouUi of il : ni'vi-rttu'liits tlio gcogrnpliical fiviDticr 
iMtwera Uw tMr« rvli^inro, as th«i ngrnod njioii, haii aciirorlv 
baoa duui^'J ut nil from that day ta iMk. i^o f&r u tbi^ ooro- 
|Hnlif« nuiBtwfi itri'rotistanUknd KomniiiMtM have varied aintic 
tkal |«UM WM nrndv, tlui Tiuintion lias l>efn in favor of tlio 
! OiotTiL.f Kvcn ia uoiiiitrii's die iuokL Uioiv 

* Th* MtMinlDaUon of the ADiIovimm. gtou Ibe SL Darth>)Ioiii*w 
■aMMBW, 4<rimlto to p«t^ ptopottion befoni llio giant wnnii; paipe- 
ti»t»il. at tbo tmUfBtlon of tbn SpouUh Ctmruli, in thu eupBtfiAtkai of 
Uhi HuritBDM, Um tmlioiip; tvuiniuit tif ilw Mootiab nation. "Abnnt 
*■• vffikM of tlia iBiNt indOKtiiotu inhabitants of Spnin were ImotAil 
oal lika wHi beoaU, bocuuo Urn alnivnly (•! (Iiinr rrllipoui opinitma 
«M dottUfnl."— BCTKUL, //ulory oT (■(nUuili'm iXun Vmk Ed. 1(M3|, 
*il ft. p, U. CaaatltM UtDUBuidB wsto butcbcml cia Uil' rood to 
AMe*. and hanltok ii< t^ionauid* mote iwciibcd. nlien out Ioom 
«■ K ^n|> BBaiL. hj Um airDnla of the Botlnuina nnil iij fuiiiiiia iu tlia 
AoMrt. Tlw aafc«(r imdnile putk-ulnni 'if tiiiHwholrule oiicm£c uul 
■f Um nim t» 8|— ihh provpotit; >ud ponrr Uwt followed It, will bn 
*> — l i , vOk aini>li BiitKanUi&tloD, In llio obtiittr Iium wit'udi 1 hava 
^MtMl. V«*n WW natlM ao Uirrjt'ty and tu BponUly paal«l>ii4 a* 
•pHM f ga «BB of Uie ifi^dart vriinu ■«aiiut bunuDltj t>v«r tMrpctntcd 
If a poopte daUnluf lo bodiUluil, 

Caa. for » (■« bapoMAM nurd* in l.liii ccaiDcctlae, Darwin'* D«- 
«M4iirJr«it, toLLpp- 171. i::2:iNE»'T«ikEd.t 

t Jbssrilof lo tlMi bist inoilnni lUituUcol autboritiM tliara vote m 

• yaw IMH — Dol of the total povnlatlun of Um wodd. mmbcriBg 

TMai Munlwr of CaiboUa. „ tlM.4il4.0DO 

Total MiDlnr of l>nKMtanta........ KO.SU.OOO 

I, fa Aartfie, Uia total* for Um hum Ttar wbk : 

TMbI tnimhor of CaliMlka 143,117.500 

TatalMBilMirafPiotaaUiiU Oti.lEW.OUO 

» ttwafa* OadMkt,it wiU b* Obaanwl, («• «Mry /VQ(aiti>a(.,(& 

hrapc t»4^. 


oughly Protestant and in our own times, the inroads of Cathol- 
icism ou the prevailing fiiith have been such as must arousOi 
iu tlioughtful minds, grave reflections. In a third of a cen* 
tui y, to wit from 1833 to 1867, the number of Catholic churchei 
iu Great Britain had more than doubled, while the number c\ 
C-alholic seminaries had increased upward of five-fold. Up to the 
year 1833 — the year when the great Tractarian movement had 
birth in Oxford — there was not in the British Isles a single con- 
vent or one Catholic school : but within thirty-four years there- 
after there M'cre founded in Great Britain neau'ly three hundred 
of the former, and nearly four hundred and fifty of the latter. 
Surely a very notewoi-thy progress made in the present age and 
iu the most Protestant country of the world, by the Church ol 
Rome ! * 

But it is in our own country, above every other, ihat the 
recent gains of Komanism u|>on Protestantism are the most re- 
markable. At the close of the two centuries and a half that 
elapsed from the first settlement of Virginia to the year 1859, 
the number of Catholics in the United States hod run up to two 

there are the inemberB of the Eastern phase of Catholicism, agTeeingf 
with the Western in a general way, even on the subject of the infallible 
authority of the Church, except that they restrict that infallible au- 
thonty to the CEcuraenical Councils. (IlagenbacVs Hht^ry of DoC' 
triiuif, vol ii. p. 234.) In 18G8 they outnumbered the Protestants in 
Europe, there being, in that quarter of the world — 

Total included in Greek and other Eastern Churches. .. 09,783,000. 

At the present time, tlierufore, kji8 t/uiu one fourth of (he ChruttiaM 
in Z^'/r^?^^ are Protestant. 

For these and other details see Schem's Ecdt'dastiail Almunac for 
1809 (noticed in a subsequent note), pp. 81, 83, etc. 

* In the Report for the year 1807-8 of the Scottish lirfarmation 
SocU'ttf (founded m Scotland, in 1800, to ** resist the aggressions oi 
Catholicism''), tables arc give-n, showing the exact numbers, which sun 
up as follows : 

Chan,he^ Canv«>U. "^^^L^ School.. 

In J8S3 iiheie were 497 none. 3 none. 

*'1867 " " 1,143 a»4 \^ 4Aa 


millions and a half only : but at the end of the nine years that 
saooeeded (namely in 18G8), that number had doubled. 
Twelve years ago they were but a twelfth part of our popula- 
tion ; to-day they constitute, probably, more than a seventh. 

If we suppose the two great divisions of the Christian Churcli) 
respe^vely, to go on increasing among us at the same ratic 
for four terms of nine years each from 18G8, the Catholics of 
the United States would, at the end of that time, exceed the 
Protestants in number by several millions."^ 

How wonderful, if one admits that Reason and Scripture 
were on the side of the Reformers, is all this ! Fi*om the usual 
Protestant standpoint, how beset with difficulties in explana- 
tion ! 

§ 3. Inadequate Causes sugqestino themselves. 

Some minor causes bearing on this ebb and flow of opinion, 
yet accessory only, one readily perceives. The startling i)rog- 
resi of the Lutheran movement, even during the first decade 
or two, convinced the astute Court of Rome, that thorough 

* Sdiem's '' EcdesiaflticAl Tear-book '' for 18G0, and bis Ecclesiastical 
for 18GD, both published in this coontry bj a most pains* 
German statistician, professor of Hebrew in Dickinson College, 

hare the well-earned reputation of being the most trustworthy docu- 

BCBti extant among us on the subject of modem religious statistics. 
In tba first of these (at page 14) I find 
Number of ProtcstanU in the United States in 1859. . . 21 ,000,000 

Komber of Catholics in the United States in 1850 2,500,000 

And in the second (at page 81) 

Number of Protestants in the United States in 1868. . . 27,000.000 

Number of CathoUcs in the United States in 1808 5,000,000 

Showing that the Catholics hod increased, in the nine years from 1859 

to 1BII8, on€ hundred per cent., while the Protestants hod increased, in 

the mme time, Um than tttenty-niue per cent. 
Those who will verify the calculation of f utoro increase^ supposing it 

to oowthiBa at tb# mme nlMtire ratio for four tenna oi ninft ^e»x#^ai^ 
witbib0jmrl868, will find that in l«yV.\:diJt\airvU«lftr 


reformation within could alone enable it to resist the gitint 
Reformation without. This conviction showed itself in the 
changed character of the Pontiffs chosen. Before the standard 
of heresy was raised on the banks of the Elbe, it had been a 
Sixtus lY., with his inhumanity and his unblushing nepotism ; 
an Alexander VI., with his sensuality, and those children ol 
his, the infamous Borgias ; at best, the elegant luxury and lav- 
ish prodigality of a Leo X. But when the storm from Witten- 
berg swept over the land, and the time of need came, then 
there succeeded to these the corrective influence of such men as 
Paul III., earnest,* intelligent, and sagacious, and Paul IV., 
austere, impulsive, inflexible, and ruled by a single devotion, 
that of restoring to its primitive purity the ancient faith. And 
more home-reaching than the power of any Pope was the influ- 
ence of a manf as remarkable in his way as the great Beformer 
himself ; unlike him as one man could well be to another, yet aa 
fiercely in earnest, as indissolubly wedded, body and soul, to 
one idea. As Luther was the animating spirit of the reforma- 
tory movement, so was Loyola of the reactionary one. And, 
for a time, the sway exercised over the religious mind of Eu- 
rope and its dependencies, by the Spaniard, with his intensity 
and his asceticism, was little loss than that which the stubborn 

and warm-hearted Grerman exerted. 


three years from to-day^ there would be eighty millions of Catholics to 
less tluin. seventy-five mUUons of Protestants, in the American Union. 

It is veiy far from being my belief that any such result is compatible 
with the spirit of God's economy and the ceaseless maroh of human prog- 
ress. But to avert it, some religions influences that have been at 
work for three hundred years must undeigo radical ohong^. 

♦ This Pontiff, expressing to the Emperor Charles V., in 1537, his de- 
termination to carry out internal reform in the Church, writes : ^* Sarii 
con cffetto, e non con parole.'* It was to be in deeds, not words. 

f Ignatius Loyola's public career commenced twenty years later than 

Martin Luther's. The bull establishing the new Order was g^rantcd, at 

Loyola's earnest instance, by Pope Paul III. , in 1540. The Order of 

Jesaatwaa isnpjoressed in 1773, but restored in 1814 : in each case by 

Papal antboiity. 


TIi^ tluBg* sn to lie taken iaXo acrouat ; but do va find i) 
tknm m aolulicii) of iIm difGi^ully ? If llie vicra of the Papntq 
tnm wvmM out, ita cntira of o|tiuti>u rL-niuinotJ. If I*<i[>c 
like Ike tliinl autl foitriL ruul and Piua V., and Urf^oN 
Xlll^* BUflUUDcd Ui« li'JDur tuid the diubo of the Ciitlio]{i| 
OiunA : if Lojolft ami liin <n»djutora guve u> it lliRir for 
awl Umut livnst win) tbi!ro u^it, opposed to tlicso, LuUier il 
0>1 'riBMMlMaUnrthou Mid Zwingli, and abort of other npostlei 
of tlw IWoraMtiou, •« abli) luid u devotiid worknr« as ttoy o 
wkkb OathalkiuD cauld boaat ? 

The iword, uhImmI, wan uxud agutuit the innovators : but p 
HontiMi, unlisa ita Mvority tend towonl cxtcrmuiationi ta i 

* Tb* lut tvD, hovoTcr, Plui uiil GnyoT}'. witJi the ilrawbark of 
■■ Iwhwimiii «pitit at |i««iwou(iun. Tjiu V. c«mplain«1 tliat the Icodor 
ti ih» Frb(1i Catkobra. C^aut Hantafioni, failr.d toobrj'tbi' • 
ha had fifca Ua ta lak« no Dn^pir.not priKmcc, Imt " liuUnUy Co kill ^ 
•nrry IimMio thai Ml iulo Iiia hamdi." Hera an> liia biugmphst'i 
word* : " no ii dokl del Oonta tlie oon avcuo ii iwioiuulunciito di In 
u— I al a d" auKuaoar aaUw iguaJiiiu(ui) linretico gll Iowd toduU) a 
iMal"— Tila M Pit V., \ij CvnatK. 

Wbeo tlie aom of Uie nuwMcn of 8t, BulliuluiDew (1i)73) n 
O wf y MIX. , ba cdokcatBd that ytcnterrDt li^afoloain ] 
Saa UUgt, I caa Had ao (ooadaUoa tnr tha ii{ioliitf7, niniKtiaM oSmi 
bf Callirulici lor tkia; luuarlj, titat Gnyvrj wils i|;9oiaiit at tLo tinw, 
Ifcat it <Ma a (cantal ainamcrp. It U ULTrdibk tlul a n--Uswiu vaovv 
wwltatilTliw Iki daalli. kiaaalil. uf Btt^thouMuil )ti>rvti» JitAXKK, 
ilMkir. iVJO, 2ab(Ar(n, U. iu-}, ahoalrl not liam b««ti kn<7wn In lu 
k«« ikancter, and ak tha uriwatdaf. to «> wrJlicrTrd ami wellln- 
fM«ad a oaoit aa thai ol Bonie ; to aajr nolliiug ot iJao too. \haX tfao 
KoMiifc Cbnfdi haa alaar* b«)ilUaiJclilaDilailiit;ta»un>"**'>**<i7> 
tr ae^ be. br tiw da«Ui'p«aaitj'. 

f U la ta ta botaa fa nbid alaa, tliat Cba atam OiMdp&M and 1ikWt« 
anrtarity rT tbe Mdv ti 3mi»t hdad, «m las*, Into a aptrtt «( Mmpro- 
Min viXli tbe vlaaa aad vnm tba nrimaa ol lb* afc SfMakiag o( ttta 
AiMka ia llw nuildla of tha MTtcBlMntli oeUlauj. Raukn Mfi: " Tha 
» ■i*^^**'^'* tlicai had fall*3) bclarR the trwurfatjciiia aad 
• of tbo woHd, aad Uwlr aola muImto* now waa to nuka 
laaUnJ, Irt tint mraaa te vtaiA ttuej vCi^V 


sufficient, if unaided by mental and moral agencies, to arrest a 
reformatory movement so powerful and widespread as was that 
of Lutheranism in 1570. It proved insufficient in the early 
ages to check a weaker sect, the primitive Chiistians; although, 
under Decius in the middle of the third century, and yet more 
especially £fty years later under Dioclesian and Galerius, it 
showed itself in forms of death and of torture mariced by a 
ferocity unparalleled in the history of the world. The madyrs 
in tliose days, greedy of death as the surest entrance to heaven, 
denounced themselves, by hundreds, to the. authorities; • and 
their religious teochera found it necessary to exert their utmost 
authority in order to check this species of self-immolation. 
The spirit of the new religion passed unquenched through the 
fiery trial. 

The counter-revolution which set in toward the close of the 
sixteenth century was evidently a recoil of opinion fer more 
than a repression by force. Outside of Spain and Italy, no 
authority to the Inquisition was conceded, after the date of the 
Keformation, by temporal sovereigns; Spain was the chief 
scene of its horrore.! Nor can we ascribe to victories in the 

in the inmost depths of the heart of man wore thus changred into mere 
outward acts. A slight turn of the thoughts was held to exonerate 
from aU guilt."— iZ/ir^^ of the Popes, III. pp. 139, 143. 

* If Tcrtullian may bo trusted, the entire population of a small 
town in Asia presented themselves before the proconsul, proclaiming 
their faith in Christianity and entreating him to carry into effect the 
Imperial decree and put them all to death. When, partially acceding 
to their supplication, ho had executed a few and dismissed the rest, 
these departed bitterly grieving that they had been deemed unworthy 
of the glorious martyr-crown, 

f The number of victims who suffered under the Spanish Inquisi- 
tion will never be accurately known, yet it was undoubtedly greater 
than that of all the martyrs under the Pagan persecutions of the first 
three centuries. It is to be conceded that the Protestant faith was ac- 
tually crushed out of existenoe in Spain, by the death of obdurate her- 
etics and the extremity of terror in the survivors. At one time, about 
1558, ^* thero were converts in almost all the towns and in many of the 
yiUag'ee of the ancient JoDgdom of Leon.^^ — OMLcCuiiL, B^omuOiouia 


field the loe aeo , in converts and in territory, of the Reformers. 
When the war waged hy the Smalcaldo League of Protestants 
•ffiinst. Charles V. was terminated hy Alva^s victory at Miihl- 
bei^y* that seemingly disastrous defeat scarcely at all arrested 
the progress of the new &ith. Even to the terrihle night of St. 
Bartholomew and the horrors that succeeded it, though for the 
time they undonhtedly crushed hope and spirit among the 
Huguenots, we cannot trace the state of feeling which prevailed 
throog^ont France, twenty years after the massacre, when Henry 
IV., Protestant and fearless soldier as he was, finding himself 
about to be deserted even by the most gallant of those Hugue- 
not nobles whose swords had won for bim the battle of Ivry, 
was fain to abjure his religion in order to secure a throne.f 

No. Neither fortune of arms nor suffering by persecution ; 
neither the serpent-wisdom of an Order of which the members 
were all things to all men, nor the cleansing of those shameless 
corruptions which had so scandalized the Augustinian monk, 
Martin Luther, when in 1510 ho visited degenerate Home — not 
any one of these incidents, nor all of them combined, can be 
accepted as even plausible explanation why Protestantism, 
after virtually conquering three-fourths of Europe in one half 
oentury, lost, in the next eighty years, full one-half of all she 
had gained. 

Lost, and never recovered it ; not after ten generations had 
; not down to the present day. 

fiptit^ London, 1^29, p. 231.) A Catholic hisUnian (Paramo, Eist. 
JnqvmHon^), nys : ** Had not the Inquisition taken caie in time, the 
Protestant religion would hare nm throogh Spain like wildfire.** But 
that wuy institation took the alarm in 1558 ; the first anto-da-fd was 
celebrated May 21 , 1559« at Yalladolid, in presence of Don Carlos and 
the Qoean I>owager; and ero five years had passed* Protestantism was 
Itterally exterminated, from the Pyrenees to the Atlantic. 

• In 1547. 

t *^ Even the Protestant cleigy had the wisdom to exhort the king, 
(Henry lY.) to retam into the bosom of the Cath<dio Church. Calvia* 
ism, py the bardemome ansterities of its moitl cenvixQa^ tos&iibSbWs) 
Ai^V/fip MUnctiaa ibr the nobles. *'--QKKYISim; iRtredwetVaiiVs 


If still there lingers in your minds a doubtr whether one it 
justified in concluding that the reactionary movement dating 
from 1570 cannot be explained, as the result of incidental and 
extraneous agencies ; or if you fall back, perhaps, on the posi- 
tion that the Reformation was premature in so rude a century 
as the sixteenth ; then I pray you to interpret another episode 
in the history of the Lutheran movement, occurring two hun* 
dred years after Luther's time. 

An episode connected with the days of the French encyclo- 
pedists, when Voltaire derided; when D'Alembert and Did- 
erot wrote ; when Paine discoursed of an age of reason, and 
Volney of the ruin of empires. In those dajrs men witnessed, 
some with amazement and terror, some with exultation, what 
seemed a concerted attack upon all that was most ancient in 
opinion, and all that is usually held most sacred in religion. Let 
Macaulay, who has graphically described this uprising of scepti- 
cism, often allied with talent and learning, sometimes with phi- 
lanthropy, briefly sum up to us the result : 

" During the eighteenth century the influence of the Church 
of Rome was constantly on the decline. Unbelief made exten- 
sive conquests in all the Catholic countries of Europe, and in 
some countries obtained a complete ascendency. The Papacy 
was at length brought so low as to bo an object of derision to 
infidels, and of pity rather than of hatred to Protestants.* 
During the nineteenth centuiy this fallen Church has been 
gi-adually rising from her depressed state and reconquering her 
old dominion. No person who calmly reflects on what, within 
the last few years^f has passed in Spain, in Italy, in South 
America, in Ireland, in the Netherlands, in Prussia, and even 
in France, can doubt that her power over the hearts and minds 
of men is now greater than it was when the ^ Encyclopedia ' 

* Bankers histoiy fully bears oat Macaulay's view of the situation. 
After giving the particulars of the death, in France, of the aged and 
deposed Pius YI., in Axigust, 1799, he adds : *^ In fact it seemed as if thi 
papal power wBa now forever at an end." — ^voL ill. p. 226. 
fTbia was wziUen in 1B40. 


■ltd the * PhHonojiihic^t Di«tion»i7 ' appeared. It is snivl; I 
nnuritalilu lliai, uintlior tho iDontl rfToliitioTi of the eightopntli I 
oentury, nor tho nior»I iwunt^r-rnvoliitirin of tho ninrrtwntb, 
y parM>pdblt) ilegrrw, bnvo nildt^d tn the doinnin of I 
tDtAiuitJMm. Piiring the fornier poriod whutcver was loRt [ 
) CBtiioliciimi wvi lont aiito to ChriHtiiUkit;; diii'ing the latt^'r, 
inod by C'hriatuuiity waa rcgiiitied bIho by J 
t ihriuld nntiiriilly luive eipodijd IIiaI. toauy ] 
f from NupunttttioQ to iiilidality, or fifim in- I 
ratition, would h»vf: Knpped ni ma inter- I 
1 potiit. . , . Wp think it a tnont rcmarkniilo fact | 
ttwt no CluuUkD notioD wliiiili ^lid not bdnpt thn prindplra 
tke BefunwUion brfora tlio cud of (lio sixtwnth cfimttiry, shoulil I 
ever have i^wptod th»m. Catholic oommunitios havc<, « 
tiut tinwi, ImoofiM luGdel aud becunie Catholic again, but nons | 
Wva boDonw ProtdrtonU" * 

MocanUy is ri^t. All thio w most rcmorkabli?. Ho to I 
whoa it aappliM not tlinmo fpr oamnat meditation muat h»% 
f oontract<-d in circio of thongbL 

g 1. How Kxruuc TKB roKEGOiifo Episodes ? 

All tliKl hu liMD «aJd and btLievod of Ii union [RsigreM— -how I 
iglity Tni>h is,lK>WMtr« to prnToil over Krror— is it ptml 

•UACxVLAra &Uf«. K*w Tork U. «f 18W. vol. Hi. pp. 1 
TteBxtBwit is fran Ua vdnhnitod nilaw of IUBka> JBttrf/ei 
■ (Iw B«fi»iiii*tk>n and It* t»A\ 
putAtawiat^woA Itaiamlli. lammiDpaUad todifhr Iran II 
I, and in put hare followed, U> n 
tajy »a»j o( (ad*. 

U oi^a to IM bomo 1b mind. In caoDtictian with tfao nactionafy 
MVtaMwttaEatMciICathoUdmMlioTaapcduDaat ■> oocmRlnK dntng 
Ab Mrtj pBCtlM uf tfc> jw— it aan^iy. thrt tbtttamnvl 'iba\MCc&. 


fable ? * Or are we to believe that it is not against Error thai 
Protestantism is losing the battle ? 

Wo have had recent official reminders what some of th^ 
( laims of Roman Catholicism are. That Christ himself has 
invested the Pope with full authority to rule and govern the 
Universal Church; that the Pope may properly issue decrees, 
by his assured knowledge, by his own impulse and by the ful- 
ness of his apostolic power ; that such decrees shall remain in 
force in all time to come, and shall never, on any plea, be re- 
voked, or limited, or questioned, even though an CScumenical 
Council, including the college of Cardinals, unanimously con- 
sents to their revocation.* 

Other claims, asserted and maintained by the Church of 
Home, may be culled from equally authentic soiirces.f The 

* Sec, in confirmation, the *^ Gonstitation** issued by the present 
Pope, under date of December 4, 1869, to provide for the contingency 
of his death during the recent (Ecumenical Council. It affirms that 
*^ te the Roman Pontiffs . . . our Lord Jesus Christ gave the full 
power te feed, rule, and govern the Universal Church." The Pope 
then goes on to declare : ^' Of our certain knowledge, our motion, and 
in the plenitude of our Apostolic power, we decree and ordain," eto., 
(giving details, excluding the council from all share in the election of 
a Pope, and declaring null and void whatever they may do, until a 
successor to the Papal chair shall be so chosen). Then he proceeds : 
* ^ This decision must not be questioned, attacked, refuted, invalidated, 
retracted, legally revoked, or submitted to discussion. . . . We 
declare null and void whatever shall be done te the contraiy, during the 
vacancy of the Apostolic See, by any authority whatever, whether by 
the authority of the Council of the Vatican, or of any other Gilcumenical 
Council ; even with the unanimous consent of the Cardinals that now 
are, or at any future time may be." And the document winds up by 
proclaiming that whoever shall *^ call in question this our declaration, 
decree, and will," or shall " dare to infringe them," or shall " make 
such an attempt," '* let him know that he incurs the indignation of 
Almighty God and of the blessed Apostles Peter and Paul." — Transla- 
tion made for the (London) Vatican, and officially published in the 
(New York) CathcUe Beginter of January 22, 1870. 
f As from the Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent, which 
commenced ita aeasiana in Beoember, 1545, tweooLtv-^ve yewa %X\«t ^qa 


unwritten tnulitions of tho ** Holy Catholic Church,'^ as Having 
been handed down to it from Christ, aro to be received with 
the same veneration txH tho Holy Scriptures ; of which last the 
Vulgate is tho only authorized translation.* Tradition is to be 
received because the Holy Ghost dwells perpetually in the 
Church ; tho Vulgate, because the Church of Rome, which 
adojits it, has been kept free from all errors by the special 
gra4.*e of God. The seven sacraments f are divinely ordained ; 
they aro referred to Clirist, since the institutes of the Church of 
Christ aro communicated to that Church not by Scripture 
alone, bat by tradition. Justification is not to be obtained by 
Cuith alone. The sinner is justified (so the Council of Trent 
voted), ^ through tho merit of the most sacred passion and by 
the i>ower of the Holy Ghost. . . . While man observes 
the commands of God and the Church, by tho help of faith and 
through ffood works^ he grows in righteousness and is justified 
more and more.*^| Justification, however, cannot dispense 
with the sacraments, by which it eitlier begins, or when begun 
is continued, or when lost is regained.] All religious instruc- 
tion, all interpretation of Scripture, must be given by ecclesias- 
tical authority aloue.^ Tho vi<siblc Chui*ch is also tho true 

o utbr eak of the Beformation. Theee docaments {Cnnonfti H Deereta 
O'tidHU Tridfntini^ Boma, 1504) were passed chiefly during Sessions 
ir. to viL, xiit. xiv. , and xxi. to xxv. They will be found in the IliMtO' 
ria dii Concilio Tridrutino, by Sarpi, 1029. The Profemo Fidn Tri- 
dntHn^r, drawn np (a.d. 15<M) by order of Pope Pins lY., embodies 
them. It was subscribed by oil candidates, may be regazded as the 
Coofeaion of Faith of the Roman Church, and as having settled, for 
R^raian CathoUctsm as against tho Protestant heresy, all the chief 
points of doctrine. In Sarpi's work (at page 241 and elsewhere) will 
be foond discussions on these matters. 

• CmnL Triilent, Sessio IV. 

t Namely : 1. Dnptinn; 2. Confirmation; 8. The Encharist ; 4. Pen* 
anoa ; 5. Oidert ; 0. Marriage ; 7. Extreme Unction. Luther and Melano- 
IboQ were inclined to add to the two usual Protestant sactamenta (Jte 
wit, Bajirtan aad tbe TAmI*a Sapper) a third, that oi P«ukdo^. 
/BAMn: Semio VL, c. VIL, § la | BeadoVn. ^ «ic«bo\H. 


Church, and no religious existence can be recognized out of hei 

With these doctiines was included the seclusion of thtf 
Bible even in its Latin version, much more in the vernacular, 
from perusal by any one not an ecclesiasticf 

Then, in later documents, we find tho ideas of the Roman 
(/hurch, touching the relations between science and religion, 
an- 1 the definition of the Papal claim to infallibility in religious 
teacliings. Scientific research must not, on pain of anathema^ 
be prosecuted in a spirit of freedom, if, in its progress, science 
should assert what contravenes the doctrines of the Ghurch.| 
And forasmuch as ^Hhis See of St. Peter ever remains free 
from all error," when its sovereign head, the Pope, speaking 
^^in virtue of his supremo apostolic authority," defines any 
^< doctrine of faith *or morals, to be held by the univeraal 
Church," he is infallible ; and therefore '^ such definitions of the 

* In addition, of counc, axe to be noted the well-known Bomaoisl 
doctrines of the Real Presence, Intoroeesion of Saints, Abaolntion by 
the Priesthood, and Purgatory indudiiig the efficacy of prayexs for the 

f Anterior to any translations of tho Bible into modem langoages, 
the Vulgate had been dedarcd, to all persons not in sacred orders, a 
scaled volume. The QScumenical Council held at Toulouse, in 1229, 
passed a canon, prohibiting the laity from having tho books of the Old 
and New Testament. — ConciL Tolos. Canon 14: Sabbti CoUeety vol. 
xi p. 427. 

X '''■It any one shall say that human sciences ought to bo pursued in 
such a spirit of freedom that one may be allowed to hold as true their 
assertions, even when opposed to revealed doctrine ; and that such as- 
sertions may not be condemned by the Church ; let him be anathema." 

^^ If any one shall say that it may, at any time, come to xniss in the 
progress of science, that the doctrines set forth by the Church must be 
taken in another sense than that in which the Church has ever received, 
and yet receives them ; let him be anathema." 

The above, translated for tho (New York) Catholic Worlds by some ol 
tho bishope attending the Council, are sections 2 and 3 of Canon IV. 
of the {EcameDJcal Council of the Vatican, promulgated April 24, 1870u 
^-Soo CatMie TFMa for June, 1870. 




Titn™*" PonUlTuti lnefurnuib1» (imforraabilM) of thnnsdvM 
■ad not by tame ot Ihe txiuai^iit uf tho CUiirah tlicreto." 
dop u M, *!•», not to lie r<iulnuIi<-U:<(l on pain of ftuathema.' 

Tbo fmmUiir nli^otis iilai&, Uhvi, agaiiiBt wliicb ProtMitaDfl 
iMB, (luting llirue Mutums, baa faUt'd to mako brad, 
vubirtanUallr ihr*i>: A Spiritual Sovereign of OhnsIindoBl 
(<t)«c(M), ftnm tiiiM t> time, bjr a Coll*^ of Cardinals), dEvinelyi 
ffrdainnd, tn&llibl«, aiitliorixed b3r tba Dnity to diotitt^, «itbiiut\1 
■pp«»1, (bp relipoD and tlw tnoniU of tlio world. A Uuiver' ■ 
nl Ohvrcb ID whtch tlto llnljr UhoHt |iprpol.iial1y dwolbi, keep- I 
ing H tno from ftll error, and of wbich tho traditimis ai« ^ I 
C((iial autiionty with Btripturo; both Uing d<^rivt>il thrangk 1 
plcnuy in^tintiaD of Qo<l. No ontr&ncc into Heaven except ' 
tor IhoH who nniw th« ncranxnita. Na mcape from Hell 
cxMpt b^ obedtMW* to the Uoiveml Cbnrcb's oommaudfl. No 
«riitgiic« of irilglon outMilL' of tlio UuiverBal Church. Denial < 

* la Cfaattar TT. of tbfl Dcgvuttie Dmrte en tAn Chfinh ^ ChriHf i 
■Mid hj lb* aEsuMmkal Cunadl. ami Kppraied ti? tbc Poiw, Jo]}' If 
lerOi atlM deftning Iku diarki!t«c of Aputnlio t«iiahiii|r. It [« added j 

TUi ajaMotlf IrMdiing all tlut vimmblu latium bare vmhriLocHl, i 
Hm b^y QfllivSnx doctor* Imto rcT^rml mid foUonod, kuowins n 
iMrtafaify t^t thM Sm of SL Pf(«r trvor miiKitut fmo from all • 
ta Ibe Kiitifl jinnaiiB at our Lord and Sariour to thv F 

in tbe ■tmw olinplrr. " W« tfu^li and ddlno V 
fcetriar iUtIiwI; mtnlBd, tlut dImtd tlic Itoman PuatifT >prak« It 
attlttdrA, Xk»k k, wlMa In tbn cirrcUo of hji afllc^ of {nutoi and ti 
of aO Cfcitelana, awl ia tirtua of hi* «ii<nTin» Ap«tollc aothorily. i 
4^aM that a doetnna of fiitb nr inonli ia to bci hcM hj tbH I'nlTrn 
Clm^ 1m poBivoi, tbrmicb tba Divim aalalsnM pT<nniH^d U 
Ik* ftainlt PvliT. thai IcUIIihlUty with wblcb the Dirinn lUdoc 
vOM Ui Clmrch to be cmdtnml. in i^aAag a doolriiM of faiUi 4 
■Mralt ; and, tliei«f««, Ibat Mwb dritaltjoiw of Uir Btnoaa Pcotiir M 
tfMfonaaliifl of Ibnaanlita, and not bj fomi of tb* ca 

ttt, *Ueh God forliU, to e 
-CaOdk VorU In « 

44 maoaui.ay'8 akqumknt against the 

to the human soul (outside the Catholic priesthood) of th€ 
right to interpret Scripture. Subordination of scientific facta 
to the Church's doctrines. Finally, a solemn curse denounced 
against all who oppose or deny any canon promulgated by the 

Does it seem to you that Truth ought to have been poweriess, 
for centuries, against prescripts such as these? — ^that, in all 
tliat time^ against a Church styling itself infallible, she should 
have lost ground instead of making progress? One of the 
most powerful and cultivated intellects of the century, not Ro- 
man Catholic, seems to have taken refuge in that conclusion, 
lu the essay from which I have quoted Macaulay says : 

'^ We often hear it said that the world is constantly becom- 
ing more and more enlightened, and that this enlightening muat 
be iUvorable to Protestantism and un&vorable to Catholicism. 
We wish that we could think so. But we see great reason to 
doubt whether this is a well-founded expectation. • . • As 
to the great question what becomes of man after death we do 
not sec that a highly educated European, left to his unassisted 
reason, is more likely to be in the right than a Blackfoot In- 
dian. . . . Nor is revealed religion in the nature of a pro- 
gi'cssive science. All divine ti'uth is, according to the doctrine of 
the Protestant Churches, recorded in certain books. It is plain, 
therefore, that in divinity there cannot be a progress analogous 
to that which is constantly taking place in pharmacy, geology, 
and navigation. A Christian of the fifth century with a Bible, 
is on a par with a Christian of the nineteenth century with a 
Bible, candor and natural acuteness being, of course, supposed 
equal. ... It seems to us, therefore, that we have no se- 
curity for the futxire against the prevalence of any theological 
error that has ever prevailed in time past among Christian 
men." * 

The gist of this is, that, under a system of revealed teach* 

• ♦ 

^ Jfaeauiatf's Esmyi : ^'^ lii. pp. 8^X^-3^. 


in^ there is no religiotiB progress, nor any reasonable hope 
for the prevalence of spiritual truth« 

Are you content to rest in a conviction thus hopeless ? Are 
TOO content to labor in your vocation under such discourage- 
ment as this? 

The triumphs, in our day, of art and science, especially in the- 
prodnction of material wealth, have been vast beyond all for- 
mer precedent. In 17G0 every species of thread was spun on 
the single wheel; water and wind were the chief inanimate 
motors ; and the horse or the dromedary was the fleetest mes- 
senger, except when the intelligence it bore was occasionally 
antici[)ated by the beacon-fire on the hill-top, or by signal from 
the cross-bar and the pivoted arm of that clumsy expedient 
which was dignified, in those days, by the name of telegraph. 
Then came a sudden irruption of industrial inventions, fabu- 
lous in their results. Have you looked into that subject ? 11 
yoQ consult the best English statisticians you will find that in 
tlie British isles alone, within little more than a centuiy, the 
increased power obtained through labor-saving machinery 
er|ual8 the adult manual labor out of two worlds as jiopulous 
as our own.* 

Again, aside £i*om industrial enterprise, there are the start- 

* Bj fiogltsh polttiQal economirts the indiistrial inventions since 1760 
•Bt vaiionaly set down as famishing a power equivalent to the unaided 
labor of from fire hundred to seven hundred millions of adults. The 
mean of these — six hundred millions— may be aMumcd as near the 
tmth. But as the average avidlable manual labor of anv given popula- 
tion is umally estimated as equal to that which might be performed by 
oae-fomth of that population if all were working adultn, it follows that 
the labor of six hundred millions of adult woricers is equal to the man- 
ual power which resides in a population of two thousand four hundred 
mUlioos. in other words, of nearly twice the present population of our 

Our statistics, in the United StaU^s furnish no sufncient data for a 
■fanOar ealcniation. The amount of mechanical powec 0(na\ax«^ \a 
pflfMikiSki]^ thoagb rmst and ever incsrsaung ^»^*^»^g ^Aa% vi^tti^B^ ^^^^K 


ling discoveries in the more abstruse departments of sdeno^ 
connected with such names as Faraday, Darwin, Tjrndal, Hux' 

Is the great, eternal law of progi*ess to operate in every de» 
partment of knowledge save one — ^the most important of all? 
Is ovory thing to move on except religion? There has been a 
Galileo to enlighten our ignorance touching the orbit of the 
earth and the motion of the sun ; a Newton to explain to us 
the career of planets and systems of planets throughout the 
heavens ; a Harvey to detect the circulation of the blood ; a 
Humboldt to unveil for us the Cosmos ; a Bacon to organize 
the exploration of all fields of earthly knowledge. In every 
department of material and intellectual science, the advance 
has been from conquest to conquest. But in pneumatology is 
the end already reached ? .Has an investigator of religion no 
longer a legitimate vocation ? Shall we say of its doctrines, as 
a Scottish philosopher did of the learned foundations of Europe 
that tlioy are not without their lesson for the historian of the 
human miud : immovably moored to the same station by the 
strength of their cables and the weight of their anchors, they 
serve to mark the velocity with which, as it passes them, the 
rest of the world is borne along. 

I thank God that I do not believe this. If it were true, life 
would be of little worth. How heart-sinking — how utterly 
unworthy — tlie conception that, under the Divine Economy, 
that grand privilege of progress to which man owes all he ever 
"svas or ever will be is denied to the science of the Soul, while 
inhering in every other I 

It is not of the arcana of Theology that I am speaking ; it is 
of man^s soul, not of God^s essence. I do not believe that we 
of this earth shall ever make progress in the literature of the 
planet Jupiter, or in the language 8i)oken by the inhabitants of 
Saturn. There is what to man is the unknowable ; and outside 
the sphere of the knowable, human progress cannot be. Ex- 
cept so far as GoiVa works around us adumbrate their Author 
Mnd His attribaiea, I do not thiiik ihst \>y tBiiT<^\uik^Ni^ ^aa^ 


Hi. ■ 


ia duooroing tlie Cro&toi 
or lli* judttnwttiu ; soriasf that tlic»e nre not sa oura, 
ibte iiixl iiiut finiliag ouL Wlien wn press on Id 
qtMat vf aodi myMerirs, tba pomr of tlio hi^eet intoUeot cx- 
ptrta bci&um it kIUuiui an object, as WAves on a troubled ocean 
bmak and loan timawdvea in tb« vnat exjHtnm. 

B'idmee is iflUlertd nl) ovt^r God'm wnrks of infinito iutelli- 
gnnet), uMvy, lorn. Uut wbctt wo umIc to know wlmt were th< 
Umty'a vpnnfie ifil«tittonk tii tin; original civntion of nutn, fol 
wbat icjriNMv He jvrmits nvit otid miser}', &»in He hinwclf 
vxiatB — wbrn <n mh obriut anniyxtng tlio divina h_v]>Ostwni 
(b« Itko— «c com? opon mjTNtai-tm which it is not prohnblo thaX^, 
evm in tfao Mixt world, we shall harn vision to |ir.iietrnt« or 
aoaioi to mIto. 

UAcanUy'a MgaBMOt, theo, majr bo admitted, so far aa it op* 
pinto tlwabBtnun- portioDB of »i>ecul>ttivettioulog]r; butoul] 
abautiw tlunlogical du«tmii»« un among tlie uuknowi 

f^inntiud ocnmcw, I firniljr beli«< 
iiUidyiR){ it, atiil tlioivfurv of udvuiicin^ 
branchna. When wt^ iltvbmi tiuit Truth is niif^ty 
inuNt D»t orifpt Hinntual troth ; for that 

Wliy Calviniinn, why l.uthitiuiiKm, p 
Um! RnnUfi rbiTK^h, may br> oxplniiuxl wtlhoi 
Pliri^itanity Un-kn tlw rlomnnt of j>r>3gmM. 
t&e wbftltaaaM! tmllis wliidi the Iti'fiMination put fortlt, it 
doulitAdly ownl ilo hidf ofutiiry of pntgmm. Th« hypotl) 
fip-f*— . that whilo i'r<rlt3Btauliiui may havo approHchitd, 
maty myteta, nearer to tti« Lrulli lluiii Roman CVtholiciRiii, il otbor Biattiin, havu failrd to inn?l lhi> wwiU oPlho 
and nay kavn nude ndiod nualakAs tit opiniou (hat havsi 
ptwcd ttul to ita ndranMBidit. 

■ teU Liatlwr. juMoliiiw Mh'^iwba tbui ha practued: "I«l Om 
I TIiAm^ fMd will In OiasaplaUe to tlwe.O man. and •(•cDiate uAwVCk 
i f iKrt«, t^r rfaja aod thy wlwntaciH, Vm^unt QmS% 


Tlie grand tnith inherent in Protestantism, and through 
which, in the sixteenth century, chiefly came the wonderful im- 
petus it received, is one that has stirred men's hearts ever since 
they began to think and to reason. Luther touched upon it : 
" Argue will I, and write, and exhort," he said, " but compel 
will I no one." * If he is not entitled to be called the Apostle 
of freedom in thought and speech, it is because, when men first 
emerge to the light, its effulgence is wont to blind them ; and 
thus the world advances only step by step. If the Wittenberg 
Doctor had done nothing moi'e tlian to demand, and to obtain, 
for the people the right to read in the vernacular the sayings 
and doings of Christ, instead of taking the Christian system, at 
second hand, from a privileged Order, that one deed would en- 
title him to the eternal gratitude of mankind. Luther was not 
tolerant, ho was not consistent ; but how outspoken and fear- 
less was he, even when life was at stake ! We cannot think of 
him without calling to mind the celebrated words : " I will 
go," he said, when on the anival of the summons to appear 
before tlie Diet of Worms, faint-hearted friends augured for him 
the fate of Huss, — " I will go, if there were as many devila 

'*' ^* — doch zwlngon will ich Niemand/* The expression occurs in hia 
first sermon on his return from Wartburg. {LuVicfs Works^ voL xviii 
p. 256. ) Similar nentimcnts are found elsewhere throughout his earlier 

Hallam reminds us that we should be caxeful, in considering the 
Beformation as part of the history of mankind, not to be misled by the 
idea that Luther contended for freedom of inquiry and boundless 
privilege of individual judgment. {Literature of Europe, Boston Ed. 
1804; vol. L pp. 306-7.) 

But I think we should not deny merit to those who may have ad- 
vanced, if it be but a few steps, on the road to mental enfranchisement, 
because, clogged by the intolerant and dogmatical spirit of their age, 
they failed to go farther. 

I shall have occasion also, before closing these remarks, to show, 
that Luther held, and boldly expressed, advanced ideas on the subjeol 
o/litoraliem and plenary inspiration. 


dierc an there ai-c tiles on tho roofs of the houses.'' He went, 
aud the world \%i]i long remember the issue* 

§ 5. The Sin at Marburg and at Geneva. 

Deep must be the regret felt by every friend of the fearless 
Wittenbergcr, in calling to mind that histoiy was soon to pre- 
sent the reverse of tho medal. Eight years later, Luther was 
summoned by Philip, Landgrave of llesse, to another me€[^ng; 
this time at Marburg ; f not, as before, to face enij>eror, and 
nobles, and ecclesiarchs ; but, in friendship to confer with a 
man as bravo and honest as himself; a follow-soldier in tho 
gimd fight of faith, stout Ulrich Zwingli ; who brought with 
him other of the Swiss Reformers, Thev diirtn-cd on the 
doctrine of the EucharLst,| and the Landgrave hoped to recon- 

• ** Littio monk," said the yetcran commander Frcundsbcrg, tapping 
him (m tho ebouldor as ho entered tho hall — "'' littio monk, littio monk, 
th<Ki art on a fiav;^;^ more perilous than any I have ever known on tho 
UritHiicA Ixittlc fioldn Bot if thou art ri«;ht, fear not ! God will sus- 
tain th<'c'* Quaint and nndaunte<l that monk stood l>efore nobles of 
thf* Ylmpiru and dignitaries of the Church. Wheu adinc»nishetl that 
oi^Tufut was unfit, and that tho Diet wanted only a btruig-htforwurd 
ansirer as to whether be would recant, he said they should have an 
axttwcT that ^* hod ncitlier boniM nor teeth ** (die wcdcr ilutucr uoch 
ZJhoc habcn soil *'; ; and it was that well-known one : '' I am com^eience- 
boufid in God's Word, and cannot and dare not reamt ; since it is 
nuitber safe nor udnMiible to do anything against conscience. Uerc I 
ftand ; I cannot otherwise ; God help me ! Amen ! " 

f A town of H* Kne CasHcl, on the Lahn. 

X Lather l< in the ** real presence *' of Catholicism ; defending 
his oi»inioii with his nmial plump dircrctncFS, in hi» treatise : iMtM «//< 
W^Tte Chrinti^ "dasisimoin IxiU.^' etc., fkttc/i fftit nU/wn ; and in Lis 
Cromm Bclrntt(niMti (1528). Ho hsys (alluding to the text, Mut- 
Ihcw srvi. 26; : " We arv) not sueli fi»ols os not to understand thcHO 
wotda. If tb«7 are not dear, I dcm't know how to talk Ciecmau. Am 
I noi to ^nuprvhtj.! wlwn a iiuui puts a loaf of breuA WU>t^* \\\v, iwvA 
jsy*/ Tat/', r,./. i/lIs Li a iojif uf bruid;* and i.'juu, ''^jkv»,^V\uV. 



cile this difference ; but each held to his opinion. At the close 
Zwingli exclaimed : " Let us confess our union in all things in 
which we agree, and as for the rest let us i*emember that we are 
brothers." The Landgrave again earnestly urged concord. 
Zwingli, addressing the Wittenberg doctors, said: "There is 
no one on earth with whom I more desire to be united than 
with you." Then the noble Swiss Reformer, bursting into 
tears and approaching Luther, extended his hand. The obdu- 
rate German rejected it. " You have a different spirit from 
ours," was all he said.* 

Ah, I^Iartin Luther! Valiant wert thou in defence of the 
modicum of holy truth thou sawest ; and, for that, honored 
forever be thy name! But at Marburg, like other disciples 
before thee, tliou kncwest not what spirit thou weiii of. Quick 

this is a glass of winc^? In the same manner, when Christ says, 
' Take, eat, this is my body,' every child must understand that he 
speaks of that which he gives to his disciples." — Luther*a Works, 
Walcb's Ed. HaUc, 1740-53, vol. xx. p. 918. 

And again, in his lAirger Catechiinn^ Art. LoriVn Supper (p. 554), 
ho Hays: '^ A Imndred thon«and devils, with a pack of visionaries to 
boot, may come jit me, asking : * How can bread and wine bo Christ's 
body and blood ? ' still I know that all the Spirits, and all the learned 
heads ibat can be linnpe<l together, haven't as much wisdom as God's 
Majesty has in his least little finger." 

Zwingli, on the contrary, regarded the words in question simply as a 
trope, like the other words of Christ : '* I am the true vine : ... ye 
are the branches" (John xv. 1, 5). '*The bread," he said, "re- 
mains the same, but the dignity of the Lord's Supper gives it value," — 
IIagenbacu : History of Doctrines^ vol. ii. p. 313 (New York Ed. 

* It was in 1529. Two years later, Zwingli gave his life, on the 
battlefield, for the Protestant cause. One wonders what Luther's sen- 
sations may have been when the news reached him. 

Since writing the above, I find, in a biography of Luther by one of 

his warmest admirers, the following: ''When Luther heard of the 

death of the brave Swiss, on the sanguinary field of Cappcl, fightings 

for tho liberties of his country, there is no nympathy, but a grating 

harshness in the tone in which he received the sad news." — TULliOCH ; 

^£^^^^*f^e/i€licformati(m, London, 1859, p. 0^. 


to oondemn what to thy short-sight loomed up, though but a 
mote in another's eye, blind to the beam iu thine own, when 
thou rejectedst the hand of thy gentle, weeping brother, who 
came to thee suing for peace as becomes a child of God, the 
Christian was dead within thee : it was that Evil Spirit of self- 
loTe, which thy fancy had so often personified as Demon, that 
ruled the hour. Heaven help those who, in this, ai*e still fol- 
lowing thy ei ring lead ! 

This radical error ran through the Great Beformer^s life. 
While one cannot read his ^^ Table Talk,'' * without warming 
under the blunt geniality of the man, nor without admiring the 
force of his rough-he wings, yet his unchristian asperity toward 
his opponents — alas ! the spirit of his ago among controversial- 
ists — is as directly opposed to the gentle teachings of his 
Master, as if the Wittenberg doctor had never looked into the 
Testament, or read the Sermon on the Mount. 

We might excuse him, |)erhap3, considering how he was per- 
•ecu ted, for saying : '^ Seeing the Pope is Antichrist, I believe 
him to be a devil incarnate; '^f we may find apology even for 
this : ** He that says the Gospel requires works for salvation, I 
say, flat and plain, is a liar.'' J But what sliall we say of the 
t«M-ms he applies to one of the most distinguished scholars of 
the age, the intimate of Sii' Tiiomas More, one who revived the 

^ Dr. Martin Luther*B CoQaquia MmwUa^ cr hin Dimne Di8C4>uriie$ 
at Atf Table : gathered, with the wrapulotiB ponctilioiumeRs of a Bos- 
weO, firom the mouth of Luther, by two of his most intimate friends 
and disciples (Lantcrbach and Aorifabcr), translated by Hazlitt, Lon- 
don, 1849. 

Under an edict issnod by the Emperor Rudolph II., 80.000 copies of 
this woric (then to be foond in almost every parish of the empire) are 
Mid to ha?e been burnt. 

t '* Table Talk,*" p. 195. One of Luther^s works Is entiUed : Ihn 
l\tp$ttk^m 2U Ihm torn Teufd fffttiftft ; that is : The Raman J\ipacy, 
an Iruititution of the DftU. The expression qnotod above is but one 
of a hundred (some much more abusive), which he *^ thundered," as 
his sdmircn were wont to exprera it, a^nst the Chuxch ctt \\Am^^\\A 
head aaJ ite deigj. Tbo mace of steel was hia wcapofiL 


study of tho Scriptures in the original tongues, publishing, in 
15 IG, tho first edition of the Greek Testament £1*001 manuscripts 
— a man who, like himself, had been condemned as a heretic 
by Roman Catholic authority — what shall we say of his abus« 
of such a man, whose worst faults were timidity and oonserva- 
live moderation? ** Erasmus of Rotterdam," said Luther, "ia 
the vik'st miscreant that ever disgi*aced the earth. , . . 
Wlicuovor I pray, I pray for a curse upon Erasmus." * 

It is to be admitted, however, that Luther is not the expo- 
nent of that phase of early Protestantism which led men the far- 
thest astray from the paths of charity and justice. A man, 
K(^cou(l only to himself in prominence as a Reformer, with more 
learning, and, in the sense of the schools, an acuter intellect 
than liUther — one more polished, too, and far more cold-blooded 
than the bluif and hearty Wittenberger — this man, John Cal- 
vin, sinned far more grievously than the other, not against 
lii^ht and knowledge — for the stem Genevan is not to be taxed 
with insincerity — but against the Spirit that can alone reform 
the heart of man — against that holy Spirit, without which tho 
most elociucnt master of all mysteries and all knowledge is but 
as sounding brass or a tinkling cymbal. 

One of tho forty -one horesies charged against Luther in Leo's 
bull of excommunication was that he (Luther) had declared it 
to be " against the will of the Holy Ghost to burn heretics." 
But Calvin was accessory to that very persecution imto death 
for opinion's sake which the other, at the outset of his career 
as a Reformer, had thus emphatically .condemned. 

That I may not be held to have made light assertion here 
touching an impoi*tant episode in Idstory which I had not care- 
fully examined, I pray you to bear with me while I briefly re- 
call tho chief incidents connected with the burning as a heretic, 

* TahU 7alk^ p. 283. The immediate cause of this outburst seems 
to have been Erasmus* expression of opinion that tho Epistle to thn 
ItonioDs, iriatevcr it might have been at a former period, was not appli* 
cubJa to tho state of things hi tho sixteenth ccntuiy. Vl^si^aiQ \«ms^A 

0EBTETU8. 63 

by the Frotestauts of Geneva, of a fellow Christian, in the yeal 
15^)3. The story has hcen told by an eminent Protestant di- 
\'uwy with 081*0^11 impartiality * and an exceeding minuteness 
of detail : and there are still extant numerous official, or other- 
wiflo trustworthy anthoiities by which to test the historian's 

§ 6. Thx Fortunes and the Fate of Sebvetus. 

Michael Serveto (or, as he is usually called, Servetus) was 
bom in the year 1509, in Villa Nuova, a town in the kingdom 
of Aragon which had, thii-ty-fivo yeai-s befoi-o, become part of 
the kingdom of Spain. lie was of reputable birth ; his parents 
being Catholic and his father an advocate in good standing and 
notary of the town. lie was probably educated for the Church, 
in a Spanish Convent ; but ho emigrated from his native coun- 
try at the ago of nineteen, never to return to it. lie was of 
feeble constitution, afllicted with hernia from his birth, and, ac- 

* Maflheim*8 narrative bears, throoghoat, the impress of truth. 
Deeply feeling the delicacy of his task, ho says, at tho outset: **It 
k eamcr to pass unhurt between two fires burning close to each other 
than to relate, in such faithion that no one shall be offcn<1ed or exasper- 
ated, the history of a man who had so many bitter enemies and stroug 
friends. The deep emotions which ariao when wo look into such 
a history — emotions of pity, of Ioyo, of anger, of hatred — tcud to mis- 
lead even tho man who sets the strictest guard on his canscicnce. . . 
I appcoach this work with' entire calmness and tranquillity of heart 
(mit einer vuUigen Oelasscnheit nnd Stille dcs Heneius) mid take with 
me the earnest resolve at onoe to put down all sentiment that might 
disturb that calm. ... I deprecate but one thing— of all imputations 
the most shameful — that I shall knowingly pervert or 8ui»i>rL'W the 
truth.** — llosiIElM: Oau'liiehU drji inruhmtrn SjmhUcJuii ArUten, 
IfichiiflM Sercfta; Helmntaedt. 174S, pp. 4, 5. 

This history, which I Itelievo has nerer been tTanKlntr<1, oxtonds, 
with its numerous accompanying documents, to 528 quarto i>agcs, dis- 
pbjinf an elabonite aad exhaattive research laicly V> >m l<raxi()L o^VcM^ 



cording to his own declaration, it was on account of his infirm 
liealth that he never married. He seems to have been earnest 
and studious from his youth up ; audit is not improbable that 
incipient symptoms of heresy may have been the cause why, at 
so early an age, he left the place of his bii-th. It is certain 
that tliree years after his emigration he had already abandoned 
the Komish faith, and become imbued with the religious ideas 
that were to rule his life. These three years wei-e chiefly spent 
in study at the University of Toulouse. 

When but twenty-two years of age, to wit in 1530, he visited, 
at Basel, a noted Swiss Beformer, Johann Hausschein, better 
known under the Greek name he assumed, of CEcolampadius ; 
frankly laying before him his creed. It appears to have been 
substantially as follows : 

1'liere is one God almighty, and none other beside him, single 
not complex, who through his Word and through the Holy Ghost, 
cieated all things. There is one only Lord, Jesus Christ, the 
Son of God, begotten by the eternal "Word of the Father and 
given by God to men as Saviour and Redeemer: He prays to 
the Father for us ; and through his prayers and by the agency 
of angels, we receive the Holy Ghost.* 

CEcolampadius, the chief leader of the new religious movement 
in Basel and a man highly esteemed all over Switzerland, was 
by nature of mild and gentle character for that age ; yet he 
was sorely tried by the eagerness, and what ho must have 

♦MosjiEiM: OesdiichU dea MicJiael Serveto^ p. 16. HoTTraoBB: 
SchiDcitzcr KircIiengescJd^iU^ voL ii. p. 94. Throughout Servetus' 
works, when he seeks minutely to define his idea of the nature and 
divinity of Christ, his expressions are not very intelligible : a common 
fault among the theologians of that age, to say nothing of our own. 

Here is Calvin's definition of the Trinity : ** There is in the Father a 
proper hypostasis, which is conspicuous in the Son; and thence, also, 
we may easily infer the hyix)stasis of the Son which distinguishes him 
from the Father. The same reasoning is applicable to the Holy Spirit. 
But this is not a distinction of the essence which it is unlawful to 
represent aa any other than simple and undivided.'^ — Inst.^ Book 1, 
C'^m J 3, §2. 


deemed the prosumption, of a scarcely-bearded youtL, who 
pressed upou him, a fktlier in Israel, doctrines savoring ol 
AriiiniBiii, and held argument with one of more than twice his 
own age, as man to man, on terms of frank equality. They 
|iarted, as honest men often do, mutually incensed ; * the Span- 
iard protesting that he sliould ever recognize Christ as the Son 
of God ; the Swiss insisting that if his opponent intended to be 
a Chriiktiau, he must acknowledge Christ to be the uncreated 
and eternal Sou of God, of identical substance with the Father. 
It was the same dispute, unsettled yet, that had convulsed the 
Council of Nice, twelve hundred years before, between the ad- 
vocates of the orthodox Mumoorunan and those of the hetero« 
dox Ilomowusian doctrine. 

A little knowledge of the world would have convinced 
Sen'ctus that if his doctrines were thus harshly repulsc;d hy a 
man of (Ecolampadius^ easy temper, they would be certain to 
create a storm of indignation among the Reformers generally. 
But not perceiving this, or, if he i>erceived it, undet^^rred by 
prudence and canied away by the conviction that ho had a 
mission from God, the young Spaniard printed, in Strasbui^ 
in 1531, his work on the ** Errors of the Tnuity." f 

^ When Scrrctus, next year, went to Strasburg ho complained to 
Bnoer. a noted Reformer residing thcrOf of CEcolampadius* harsh 
tremtment. Buccr probably wrote on the subject to (Ecolampadius : at 
ail cTrnts there is a letter extant addressed by the latter to Buccr in 
which ho exculpates himself in these wonls: '' I will be mild in other 
thzngs, bat not when I hear Jesus Christ blasphemed.*' — Rucuat : 
HUtoire dt In Brformation de Suinne^ vol. iii. Book 7. 

f De Trimtatis Erroiibus^ Libri S<ptem. As a specimen of the obscur- 
ity of definition to which I have referred, take the following from this 
work : ** Christ was preformed in the Divine mind ; ho was a certain 
mode of existence which God constituted in himself, that he might 
make himself visible to us ; namoly by de^cTibiug the ciligios of Ji*sus 
Christ in Himself.** (Crat Chrititus in mente divina pra^fonnatus ; erat 
quidcm modus se habcudi, quern in se ii»so Dcus dL$iK>6nit, nt Rt>i[>sun 
nobm palefaceret, scilicet Jcsu Chnsti etngicm in to d^rXwsn^^r^ 
LihwiLp, no. 


It had a large circulation, and an exasperating effect. CBoo* 
liiinpadius, writing to Buccr to exonerate his countrymen from 
nil sympathy with such a heresy, adds that '* he knew not how 
tliat beast had slii)ped into Switzerland." * And Bucer, usu 
ally iemp(jrato in language for a theologian of the sixteenth 
century, ju'oached violently against Servetus, declaring " that 
the heretic ought to be disembowelled and torn to pieces." f 

The lleformers felt the more outraged because the Catholics 
throw it uj) to them that this new Arianism of Servetus (as 
they called it) was the legitimate offspring of the Keformation. 
It became unsafe for the rash innovator either in Switzerland 
or in Germany. He took refuge in France, at first in Lyons, 
nfterwards in Paris, where, for years, he studied the profession 
of medicine, obtaining a degree both in that science and in arts, 
lie lectured, also, on astronomy and mathematics, and, as it ap- 
peared, not to obscure audiences; having had distinguished 
men among his hearers, one of these being the learned Peter 
Palmer or Palmerius, afterwards, fortunately for Servetus, a 
(liirnitarv of the Koman Church. Then ho issued a medical 
work, got into serious trouble with the Paris faculty, and left 
Paris in consequence, in 1540. In 1542 he settled at Vienne, 
a town on the Ilhone, some twenty-five miles south of Lyons ; 
his chief inducement being that his former friend and patron, 
Palmier, wjus then Catholic Archbishop of the place. There, 
also, he found wanri well-wishers in the Archbishop's brother, 
the Prior, Jean Palmier, in lloclicfort., President of the medical 
faculty, and in a former intimate friend and fellow-student in 
Paris, Jean Porellus, the Archbishop's physician. In Vienne, 
he issued two works ; a revised edition, with notes and emenda- 

* EjH.^tola Zitviglii ct (Ecolampadii, vol. iv. p. 801. 

f Calviii is the authority for this. After Servetus' death, he wrote 
clef ending his conduct to a friend : ** Is [he is speaking of Servetus] est, 
do (pio fidolis Christi minister, ct sanctas mcmoriie D. Buccrus, quum 
alio(iui mansuoto cssct ingcnio, pro suggestu prouunciavit : dignum esse, 
griJ af-ulsja viijccribus disccrpcrctur.*'— Calcini Ejnstola, CLVL ad Sul 
cerum, p. 294 (Ed. AmsteJod. 1507, page 90). 


tioiis, of that great thesaurus of ancient cosmical knowledge, 
by Ptolemjy which Humljoldt characterizes as a colossal pro- 
duction ; and a new edition of the Vulgate, with a preface and 

Ten years ho 8])ent at Vienne, the most tranquil of hia 
stormy life ; his practice as physician daily increasing through 
the fiivor of influential friends, to whom, as he gracefully ex- 
preased it in the dedication of his PtolemasuSy his obligations 
were as great as were those of the students of geography to 
IHolemy himself During tliis time, he silently confonned to 
the rites of the Catholic Church ; constrained thereto, doubt- 
IcfSB, by a sense of the extreme rashness of alienating those 
benevolent patrons to whom he owed not hLs pi*esent easy cir- 
cumstances only, but the protection of his life. 

After a time, however, ho became restless, accusing himself 
ihaty by such conformity, ho was paltering with his conscience, 
and neglecting the work which God had laid upon him. IIo 
souglit to renew, with ^alvin, a theological correspondence 
which he had begun ten years before. Calvin^s biogra])hers 
state that in setting before the Genevese Reformer what ho 
considered to bo his (Calvin^8)*depai'turo from true Christian 
doctrine, Scr>'etus admonLshed him with much asj)ority ; and 
this is doubtless true; for the Spaniard's zeal, like that of 
almost all the Reformers of that day, was mingled with arro- 
gance. We may suppose it was for this reason that Calvin re- 
plied not a word to the other^s repeated missives.* 


^ It ought not, however, in this connection, to be forgotten that Cal- 
vin, yean before, permitted a spirit of the coarsest reviling against his 
opponent to break oat even in his (Cal\'in*8) commentaries on the Bible. 
On Genesis i. 3, his annotation is : *^ This alone is enough to refute the 
bhvphcmy of Servetua That obeceno dog barks that this was llic ori- 
gin of the Word when God commanded there .(^hoold bo liglit** In tho 
Amsterdam edition of Calvin's works (9 vols. foL, l(t71 ) will l»c found 
Uie original Latin, reading thus : '' Latrat hie obecamus canis boo pri- 
fnian Yerbi inltinm, quam Deas moudavit nt lux (^«»«^\..*' ^!ck«i 
(mt the comment on St, John i. 1) contain i^V^ \ATina ^V 


Then Servetus resolved on tlie publication of liis chief and 
most noted work;* one on which he had been laboring for 
years and which cost hiin his life. The idea which had for- 
merly haunted him returned with resistless force. He was a 
soldier of Christ, called upon to take part (as he was wont to 
express it) in the great fight now being waged between Michael 
and the Dragon. Luther himself was not more zealous in his 
faith, nor more bold in expressing it. Servetus' pre&ce ex- 
hibits his profound conviction that God liad called him to bear 
witness before a benighted world. With a touching earnest- 
ness he implores the Son of God that he would reveal ELimself 
to his servant, enlightening him, vouchsafing a holy spirit and 
words of power, and so directing thoughts and pen that the 
glory of His own divinity might be set forth and the very 
truth of Christian faith be illustrated, f Christ was Itfuiished 
from the world (he declares in his book) when the Niceaa 
Council set aside the true doctrine touching Hia person, and 
proclaimed the dogma of a tripai'tite God. J 

opprobrium. (Nee me latet quid oblatret hie canis, eta) It needs a 
reference to such passages as originally written, to convince one that 
men of gravity and world-wide reputation, seeking sacred traths, could 
indulge, toward fellow-laborers, in spirit and langfuage so utterly dis- 

♦ ItcsUtuUo Christtanismi, It was printed, at Servetus' own cost 
(1,000 copies), by Balthazar AmoUet, in Yienne, and published early in 
the year 1553. This is said to be the scarcest work in the republio of 
letters. Catholics, Calvinists, Lutherans concurred in efforts for its 
destruction. It is doubtful whether more than a single printed copy 
rcmams, and that brought, at the Yalleirian sale in 1784, the sum of 
4,120 livres. 

f '^ O Christe Jesu, fili Dei, . . . teipeum aperi servo tuo, ut mani- 
f cstatio tanta vera patciiat. Spiritum tuum bonum et verbum effioax 
petcnti nunc tribue, mentem meam et calamum dirige, ut divinitatis tuaa 
gloriam possim enarrare ac veram di te fidcm exprimere." — Preface to 
the lieatoration of ChrUttianity. 

% ' ' Ab eo tempore est in tres res tripartitus Deus, f ngfatus onmino 
Chrisbaa, pessundata omnino ecdesia." — BatUutio OhrittianUmiy lAh, 
I. p. 394. 


Nor did the enthusiast conceal from himself that life waa 
staked on the issue. In a letter to Abel Pepin, a Genevese 
divine, written some years before the publication of his work on 
the Restoration of Christianity, and used against him on his 
trial, he says : '^ I know of a surety that I shall die for this 
cause ; but not on that account do I lose heart, desii-ing to be- 
oooie « disciple like unto my Master." * 

In another part of this letter to Pepin is a sample of the 
imprudenoe of speech into which Servetus was occasionally be- 
trayed, lie bluntly tells the Genevese preacher, ^^ Your gospel 
it without the one Crod, without the true faith, without good 
woHuL Instead of one God you have a three-headed Cerberus ; 
jnmi^<^A of true faith you have a fatal di*eam ; and good works 
you say are empty shows.'' 

It does not appear, however, that in his works he permitted 
himself any expression so offensive to trinitarians, as the ^' three- 
headed Cerberus/' His strongest printed expressions are a 
** diimera," a ^' mere imagination,'" and the like. 

Scarcely had Servetus' book been issued, when a copy found 
ita way to Geneva, where it produced no little excitement. A 
certain Frenchman, named William Trie, a convert from the 
Church of Rome, who had taken refugu in that city, seems to 
have been es|)ecially irritated thereby. He wrote, in March 
(1553), to a Catholic friend in Lyons, some have said at the 
instigation of Calvin, but of that I find no sufficient proof. 
He taonted his friend with the carelessness of the Church he 
himself had deserted, in tolerating, in Vienne, an arch heretic ; 
and he gave Servetus' name and address, and the title of the 
new work of which he was the author. His friend held it a 
duty to bring the matter to the notice of the Archbishop of 
Vienne. Slowly and reluctantly, as it seemed, Servetus' Cath- 
olic friends in Vienne moved in the matter ; alleging that there 

^ '^ Mihi ob eam rem moriendum esse, ccrto icio ; wd non proi>t<Tca 
defioior, at fiam discipulos similis Preceptoii'* This letter, 
in 1540, is girea by Mosbeim, copied from tiha QSkftalT»c>^Mi 


was not sufficiient proof that the well-known and much «8» 
tccra(;d physician, Michael de Villa Nueva {for under thai 
niime lie was known among them), was Servetus, and had written 
the book in question. Disappointed in his first effort, Trio 
l)rocured from Calvin the private letters on theology which 
Servctus had addressed to him, and sent these, in the month of 
April, to Vienne. Even then the Catholic officials seem to 
have hesitated. Six weeks more elapsed ere Servetus was 
arrested; and this was done in a private way, his feelings 
being resi>ected to the utmost. In prison he was assigned com- 
forta]>le quarters ; his servant was allowed to be with him ; he 
was suffered to retain hLs money and other valuables and even 
permitted the range of the building. On his examination his 
book and his letters to Calvin were used as evidence against 
him, and he frankly confessed himself the author of both. A 
few days later and before sentence, he esca}>ed from prison, 
))robably by the connivance of his Catholic friends, including 
the Archbishop; and, after a fruitless search for him, which 
seems not to have been earnestly pressed, he was condemned 
as a heretic and burnt in e^gy. 

It was in jhe month of Jime that Servetus fled fromYienne, 
resolved to sec;k refuge and a livelihood as physician in Naples. 
Two roads were open to him; that by Piedmont, to which his 
objection probably was that he was then liable to be overtaken 
by a warrant issued for his apprehension by the inquisitoi*s of 
Vieunc ; the other, by Geneva through Switzerland, which he 
selected, doubtless deeming it the safer route. He probably 
miderrated Calvin's power among his fellow-burgesses, not 
knowing how narrow^ly a distinguished meml)er of the City 
Council * had escaped a few ye^rs before. Nor is it likely ho 

* rotor Amcaux. He had spoken somewhat freely of Calvin's doc- 
trines, especially of i)rcdc.stination and election, and his temerity cost 
him <lcar. Deposed from his office and cast into prison, he was fain to 
purchase his release by appearing as a penitent, waxlij^ht in hand, con- 
fessing the sin ho had committed and imploring forgiveness for hit 
heresy.-^ Ge8o/iic/it€ des Mkhad Seneto^ p. 152. 


had ever been informed, that in the previous month of Noven» 
ber a docroe had paMed the Council of Greneva, declaring Cal« 
%-in^8 liuttUtUes to be a book '^ well and holily written, ita 
doctrine to be the holy doctrine of God/' and that '^from this 
lime forth no one shall dare to say aught against the said book 
or the said doctrine; '^ commanding all and several that they 
adhere to this.* 

There was another document, which, had the poor fugitive 
aeen it, would have warned him that of all places Geneva was 
the most dangerous for him to pass through. It was a letter, 
addressed by Calvin seven years before (to wit, in 154G), to his 
friend, William Farell (or Farellus), in which occurs this pas- 
sage : ^' Servetus wrote to me lately, and to his letters added 
a large volume of his ravings, with braggart boastings that I 
should therein find things stupendous and hitherto unheard of. 
If it pleased me, he added, he would come hither ; but I was 

^ I shall have oocanon a few pagos farther on to speak of the book 
here referred to and its doctrmcsi The decree from which I have 
(pioted above is as well worth preserving, in its quaint old dress, as any 
Egyptian mommy in its cerements. Here it is, dated, it will be ob- 
served, Wednesday, NoTember9, 1552: 

*^ Eitans ooys in Conseil, et savans ministrcs de la parollo de Dieu, 
Maistrc Goillaume Farel et Pierre Virct, ct aprcs cux spcctablcs mais- 
ire Johan Calvin et maistrc Johon TroniUet, en leurs dircs ct rcproches 
Boovent dcbattoea do llnstitution Chrestiene du diet monsieur Calvin, 
et le toat bien consider^, le oonseil arrestc et conclu que toutes choscs 
faien eyes et entendu. a prononou et declare lo diet livre de I'lnstitution 
da diet moDsieiir, cstra bien et sainctement faict, sa doctrine estro 
sainctc doctrine de Dieu ; que Ton le ticnt poor bon et woi ininistrc do 
oevte Cite, et que de Tici a ravenir personne ne soit ora [Mirier centre le 
diet livre ou la dicte doctrine. Commandans aux pareillcs et a tons so 
doire tniir a cela. Le Mequrcdi, quo fut neufvieme do Novembrc ; 
Tan mille dncq cons cincquante ct deux.** 

The original, on the n>C4>rds of the Coimcfl, can doubtless still bo seen 
at Ctt-ncva. Castalio, a neif|rhl>or and contemporary of Calvin (if, as is 
usaally bi'lieved, he was the antlior of Contra UbeUuin CiUcuu^ 1554), 
yobKshea it entire in that work. 

62 oalvin's thbeat. 

not willing to engage my word. For if he does come, so far aa 

my authority may prevail, he shall never go hence alive." * 

Unknowing these tilings and hoping for better treatment from 
Protestants than Catholics, the unfortunate S^rvetus, after 

'*' The authenticity of this extract has heen sometiines called in ques- 
tion, probably because it has been confounded with another letter to 
Peter Yirct, a minister of Geneva, which Bolsec (in his De vita et 
moribus Oalviniy Book 3, p. 8) alleges that he saw and in reg^ard to 
which the evidence is insufficient. The letter to Farell in Galvxn*B own, 
well-known hand, was found by the celebrated Grotius, in the year 1031, 
in a four-volume manuscript collection of letters from distinguiahed 
Protestants in Paris. {QeacJiidite des Micliad Sercetus^-p. 180.) The 
Dutch historian Vytenbognert, j^ves the extract in his Kerkdyken 
Iliatork (Book 2, p. 45), as follows: ^' Servetus nuper ad me soripait, 
et litteris adjimxit ma^um volumen suorum deliriorum, cum Thra- 
Bonica jactantia, me stupcnda et hactenus inaudita visumm. 8i mihi 
placeat, hue se venturum recipit : sed nolo fidem meam interponere. 
Nam ei venerit, modo valeat mca aueton'tas, vivum exire fiunquam 
patMr,^^ The italics are my own- Vytenbogaert gives this extract on 
the authority of *^ een seer gelecrt, ende in dese Landen wol bekennt 
Persouagie, anno 1G31," who had inspected the letter in Paria (P. 48.) 
*^ One can hardly doubt" says Mosheim, *^ that Grotiua is here desig- 
nated ; he was an intimate friend of Vytenbogaert, and he lived in 
Paris in 1030 and 1031." {OcschicJite, p. 131.) But, to remove all 
doubt as to the existence of this letter, we have Grotius' own words 
which I have verified. Speaking, in his theological works, of those who 
have written in favor of ptmishing heretics by the sword, he says : 
*' Horum Calvinus autem is est qui antequam Servetus (is autem ipsios 
judicium super scriptis suis expetiverat) veniret Genevam, scripsit 
(exstat ipsius Lutetisd manus) ad Farellum, si quid sua valeret auotoritas, 
effecturum ne vivus abiret." — Grotius : Opera Theclagica^ foL Am- 
sterdam, 1079, vol. iii. (Append, do Antichristo) p. 503. 

It will be observed that Grotius not only states the fact that the letter 
to Farell us, in Calvinus own hand, was extant in Lutetia (Paris) and con- 
tained the threat against Servetus* life, but also alludes to another cir- 
cumstance, to be gathered from the extract as given by Vytenbogaert, 
namely, that Servetus had solicited Calvinus opinion touching his (Serve- 
tus*) writings. 

Other aiitbora testify to the same effect; but the above suffioea. 


■eereting himself for aomeiime in Dauphin^, ran into the lion't 

The precise period of his arrival in Geneva and the term of 
his residence there are uncertain : some alleging that he tarried 
in the city a single day only,* others that he lay hidden there, 
communicating with no one, for three or four weeks. Certain 
it is, that, on the eve of his departure, by vessel, up the lake, 
on his way to Zurich, he was, at the instance of Calvin,f ar- 
rested as a heretic and cast into jirison. The property which 
the inqoiidtorB of Yienne had respected was surrendered to 
the inquisitors of Geneva ; it included a heavy neck-chain of 
gold, soch as was usually worn in those days by men of his 
condition, several gold rings, and ninety-seven gold pieces. 
His place of confinement was a dungeon, assigned only to 
malefactors committed for capital offences, lliere he lay during 
two months and a half. 

Ue was arraigned before the Syndics, judges of the Criminal 
Court. The charge against him was for heresy alone; his 
private character appearing to have been unblemished. In 
Geneva, as in Vienne, he admitted and justified his peculiar 
opinions, demanding permission to engage in public argument 
with Calvin, in open church, or before the larger council of the 

* Principal Tnllocb, who Becrna to have examined the authoritiea 
with eaie, thinks there is condosiTe evidence that Scrvetna arrived at 
Geneva oo a Sonday, wandered ofly after dinner, into the church where 
bis ^reat adversary was preaching, waa there recognized hj some one 
who reported the fact of hia presence to Calvin, and woa arrested the 
same evening. — Leaden of the Reformation^ London, 1859, p. 141. 

f Thia will be admitted aa bejond qacstaon by thoae who have looked 
caxefolly into the hiatory of the case ; seeing that Calvin himself as- 
serts it. In a letter written to hia friend Salcema, dated September 0. 
1«*»53. speaking of Servetos, he says : ** At length, driven hither hy hia 
evil genina, one of the Svndioi, at my instigation, arrested him.** The 
original reada: ** Tandem hnc malia aus|nciis appoLmm, unua ex 
Syndids, me auctore, in carccmm dnci juasit.** — E^istola ad Sulcarum. 
in Epistolis Cdrini, Xo. 150, p. 294. 

Oei is tiis wme mrreeted AaguMt IS, 1553. 


two hundred, on the question whether his doctrine was in ae 
cordance with Scripture. This was denied him ; and as a ver- 
bal discussion before the Court touching the true sense of the 
words 2^^^^^^ i*i^^ hyposta^y and similar theological subtleties, 
hatl led to intemperance of language on the part of both con- 
troversialists, it was ordered that Calvin should set forth liis 
argument in writing, to which Servetus should I'eply in like 

Two weeks had elapsed before Calvin had completed his 
paper. Therein he set himself to prove, and succeeded in prov^ 
ing, that many of Servetus' religious opinions were -heretical; 
that is, were at variance with the teachings of his own Institutes, 
which Institutes, as we have seen^ the Greneva Council had 
decreed to be " the holy doctrine of God." Then Servetus, 
having been furnished with writing materials, and with such 
l)Ooks as he desired from Calvin's library and other sources, 
was called on for a reply. Some of Calvin's accusations he 
denied indignantly ;* but stoutly defended his own actual opin- 
ions. All this caused great delay, during which the prisoner 
complained piteously to his judges of his miserable condition; 
eat«n up by vermin, racked with pains from disease and from 
the cold and damp ; without the means of cleanliness or even a 
change of linen; suffering other miseries, ho adds, "about 
which it shames me to write." \ 

* For example, " that the human soul is mortal " and that ** Jesoa 
Christ derived but a fourth part of his body from the Virgin Mary :" — 
*' things horrible and execrable," Servetus writes (September 22), 
*' which if I had ever said in private or written in public, I should con- 
demn my own self to death." — Moslmm^ p. 419. 

f "Les poulx me mangent tout vif, mea chauses sont de8Cir6es, ct 
nay de quoj changer, ni pourpoint, ni chamise, que une mechante." 
Tliis was September 15. Under date October 10 he writes : ** Quant a 
cc que avics commando, qu'on me fit quelquc chose pour me tenir net, 
non a rien osto faict et suys jUus pietre que jamais. Et davantago le 
froyt me tormantc grandament a cause de ma colique et rompure, la 
Quelle mengeldre daultres paurctes, quo at honte vous escxiie." — Ozig^ 
£aal letters, given in Oesc/uc/Ue des Michad Serveto^ p. 4aV. 


Tlio theological controversy could have but one issue ; 
then the Public Prosecutor took u]) the case, and Servetus 
dciimndcd the aid of an attorney, alleging that he was a for- 
eigner, ignorant of the customs of their city. To this the 
prosecutor replied that the prisoner knew so well how to tell 
lie:4, he needed no counsel : and his demand was rejected ao- 

Aimo Perret, one of the piincipal members of the City 
Council, backed by a few equally tolerant spirits, sought to 
avert Servetus' impending fate ; but the great authority of 
Calvin, who had determined on the heretic's death,f prevailed. 
I^roposala to commute the punishment to banishment, or to per- 
petual imprisonment, were defeated ; and afler some weeks' 
dfflay, to give time for replies from various Swiss Churches 
which had been consulted on the matter, | the weary suspense 
of the )>ri8oncr was at last, on the twenty-sixth of October, 
broken i>y the announcement that ho had just been condemneil 
and would be executed the next day. For five or six weeks 
previously his urgent endeavors to procure a further hearing 
bad been fruitless ; § yet he seemed to have been wholly imprc- 
fmred for the terrible result. Weakened doubtless by his long 

• De la. Rocms: Mmudn of Litfrature, vol. It. p. 188. This 
aathor had access to the original papers in the trial. 

f Under date Aagfost 20 (a week after the arrest of Servetas), Calvin 
wrote to a friend : ** I hope that he will bo scutenoed to death ; but 
the atrocity of his mode of Buffering I desiro to have remitted.^* 
(** Spero capttale saltim fore judicium ; paaias vero atrocitatcm rcmitti 
eapio").— Oi/r. Episf. Xo. 134, p. 290. 

X Namely, the Churches of Zurich, Schaffhausen, Basel, and Berne . 
Though none of these Churches committed themselves on the subject 
of faH>ital punishment for heresy, and though the Bernese expressed 
the hope that their brethren of Geneva, *^ would do nothing unworthy 
of a (liristian magistracy/* the gifit of their replies was to enoourngo 
the prosecution. 

^ •* These three weeks," he wrote, October 10, " have I sought an 
DO— in rain. J implom you, by the love of Jetraa Oin]fX>Tit;^N*V.^ 
me the jnsUce j-ou woald grant to a Turk.''— Mot?ieiia^ ^, ^Stft. 


and painful confinement, ho was utterly overcome, shedding 
tears and uttering cries for mercy. 

His death- sentence, after reciting liis heresies, of which the 
principal seems to have been that, " contrary to the true foun- 
dation of the Christian Religion, and detestably blaspheming 
the Son of God, he said that Jesus Christ was not the Son of 
God from all eternity, but only 8ince his incarnation" — went 
on to decree, in the name of the Trinity, that he should be 
bound and conducted to the spot called Champel, there fastened 
to a stake and burnt alive, along with his manuscripts and 
printed book, till his body was reduced to ashes.* 

When they summoned the condemned, next morning, to 
execution, he begged to be beheaded, instead of undergoing the 
torture of fire ; adding that if he had erred it was from igno- 
rance, and with pure and good motive, and to further the glory 
of God. Farell, Calvin's friend and colleague in the ministry, f 
wlio had been appointed as his escort, told him, for sole answer, 
that his best plan was to recant and so gain pardon. Servetus 
replied, that he had committed no crime, nor ever deserved 
death ; but that he prayed God to forgive his accusers the «in 
tlioy were committing against him. This grievously ofiTended 
the other, who retorted sharply ; and Servetus ceased to beg 
further mercy of man. This submission so far moved Farell 

* " Au nom du Pere, du Fils^ et du aainct Esprit, . . toy, MlCHBL 
Skrvet coiidamuoiis a devoir estre lie et menc au lieu do Chapel et 1^ 
devoir estre a. un pilotis attache et brusle tout vif avec ton livre, tant 
ecrit do ta main qii'impriino, jusqu^a ce quo ton corps soit redoit en 
ccndre." — Moslveim, p. 440. 

f One of the most eloquent and violent among the Protestant divines 
of that day. He was the author of the celebrated PlaoardHy written at 
Geneva, posted in an evil hour (during the night of October 24r-5, 1534), 
on the walls of Paris, oven in the palace of Francis I. , and which, by 
the gross intemperance of their spirit, and the virulent abuse of theiz 
language, arrested for the time the cause of the Reformation in France, 
defeated the efforts of the gentle Margaret, the king^s sister, to procors 
toJeration for the new creed, and brought to torture and to death thoUi* 
Bands of brave and good men. 



AmI 1u> Mnt to llie Cormal praying that Scrvctus' p'lnuhinenl 
ntght be iMiiunutwl to dt-ath by the akj; biit the judges wero 
incaiinUo, and thu prucowion novrd towonl thii smsll mount 
onbade of Uio walU vhen tbo SRntcnoi wu to tw carriod into 
edect. On tlia wajt Mcrwcus oxcUimod aloud, from time to 
tiHw, " O GimI, aavD DiT Kinl t JoaiM, thou Son of tlio ittor- 
Dkl Owt, Iuiv« inprojr upon tne! ^' 

"Mcod ihj'UiC wonla," uud Jiis ghoatly uomfm-tcr: "if tfaun 
vovUat Utv« Uiyacll^ call uu Jcsiu, thu eU.-nMl Bon of God." 
But be coidd not )w muvml lo Uiis. When ho appnuic'licid the 
(mm! apot aiud MW ihe uUtkc, wiUi fu^ls pilud around it, li« foil 
on Ilia l*cr, |ivMTiii)( in uUrtice. 

Then Fiw*ll Itanutguul ihi; rrt)wd : " You iscn lirrr," hn B&id, 

" kuw ui{;bt5 ii lli« |>ow(ir of Snlan. TIiim wrntch, who is 

about lo tuffer dmth, i> a v«ty Lmrned mati ; and |iRrhap«, cvrn, 

Irt amy ibink Uint what lio has dono u right. Bui the devil 

baa ban is bia ootla, baring taken entire pumeisiou. Take hoed 

tbat • aiiitibur mWiuty overlako not youreoltra." 

^^^ Wbsn Scrvrtos aruw from pmj^er, Faivil luoilo n Inst eflbrt 

^^Bb* [menrii from liim ■ oonfeMiou tJiat Chii^t was God's bod 

^^^■MB all titvmitT. But, in reply, ho only cried out: " My Qod, 

^^^b^Gjjdl" "Oau't you ny something bctlter than that?" 

^^^^^^^HL Iba pnawb(-r. " Wkal better," replied tha poor 

^^^^^^^ptban to call on Ood in my utmost need?" Then ha 

^^^^^^^Bh til* byxtamfarn to pray for liim.* 

^H< At tba tvry last, livforo lio was c»iumitt«d to the oxecutioner'a 

bawla, Farell txclaincd : "Tho uterua) Suu of UoU, aay but 

tbatl" Nut a wi>nt from the convict in nply! He waa 

filfniiil Lo tbr staka by a atrang chaio about Ma body and a 

mpa fifd aeveral UniM arouud hta neck, the book wbidi 

a Bsastiialcd bis critun brbg boimil t» bia lointi. 

^^B Wben ht nw tbe Up^U kiiolU'd and fi-lt iba Gnt toucb of 

^^^^ft flane, bfi crioJ out au pitouualy tluil tbii tixiw J aniuud wi-tw 

^^f • OaMa (ArfW. «v»r. »nwM, p, T(U) actqaUy tiriaii itay aaanab. 

•MMiM acabHi kit titUm Omt U aakadlbo ptajwa at UxMi-a^MMKl 


thrilled with horror. The fuel was green oak wood and hit 
torture lasted a full half hour. Some of the spectators, urged 
by iri-esistible compassion, flung burning fagots over his body, 
the sooner to end his agony. His very last words, pronounced 
in a loud voice, were these : " Jesus, thou Son of the eternal 
God, take jnty upon me." * 

Thus perished, martyr to his religious opinions, a Protestant 
whom Mosheim declares to have been "one of the most 
thoughtful and learned men of his day." f Calvin caused his 
death, but is not responsible for his torture.J Nor should we 

* Those and many other details will be found in Mosheun^a Ge9chicfiU 
dfs Michdd Servcto, § xxxi. pp. 225-228. 

f — " cincr dcr ticfsinningsten und gelehrtesten Manner semer Zci- 
tcii." — MosiiEiM : GetfchicJitc des Michad Serveto, p. 230. 

Science, too, owes a debt of gratitude to the Spanish physician. 
The author of the article " Circulation," in Rees' Encyclopedia, says : 
' ' The first ray of Ught was thrown on the circulation of the blood by a 
man (Scrvctus) whose name cannot be mentioned without foelingB of 

The passage to which the above refers will be found quoted, at 
length, in An impftrtuU Uiatory of Michad SertetuSy burnt dUve at 
Uincrafar IIcTC^ie^ London, 1724, p. G7. 

X Wlicn it seemed not unlikely that Perret and the other friends of 
moderation might cany the day and save Servetus' life. Calvin threat- 
ened, in that case, to leave Geneva and take up his abode elsewhere ; 
whereupon his friend Ileinrich Bullinger, hearing of such intention, 
thought it necessary to entreat him (by letter of September 14) not to 
desert a Church where so many good men were to be found ; since 
** though swine and dogs " (the writer's pamphrase for heretics) ** were 
more numerous than could be wished, yet w^e should bear much for the 
elect's sake, seeing that through many tribulations we must enter the 
Kingdom of God." — MosiiEiM, p. 231. Henil Bullinoeb, in Epist. 
Calvini, No. 157, p. 295 . The text is : ' ^ No rccesseris, oro, ab ea ecdesia, 
qucb tot habet vires excellentes. . . . Tamctsi enim sunt pord et ca- 
nes multo i^lures quam velimus, prox)ter electos tamen mnlta sont to* 
Icranda. Per multas tribulatioues oi>ortet nos ingredi in regnnm Dei" 

To console, under anticipated misfortune, a man who feats he shall 
not have the satisfaction of procuring the death of one who holds relig- 
ious opinions «t variance with his own, by reminding him that it it on]j 


fcgard as feigned a zeal that errs only for lack of knowledge. 
We have no right to deny that, like Paul before his conversion, 
the Genovetto Reformer verily believed that in jiersecuting those 
from whom ho dissented he was doing God service. Certain 
it is, he boldly justified the deed.* 

Xor he alone. Lamentable to relate, it was gencmlly com- 
mended by the Protestants of that day as an act })leasing to 
GocL Mosheim, sj)eaking of the state of feeling among the 
ReformerSy when the news of Servetus' death spread among 
them, says that while a few oondcmned the severity of the pun- 
isliment, by far the greater number en(loi*8ed the deed and 
applauded, as worthy of immortal honor, Calviirs zeal for 
rcligicm.f The mild Melancthon, himself, wiiting to Calvin a 
year after the martyrdom of Servetus, scrupled not to say : 
** Tlie Church owes you now, and will owe you in futunj times, 
a debt of gratitude. ... I afBrm that your magistrates acted 
justly inasmuch as, by judicial sentence, they put to death that 
bUsphomous inan.'^ | 

throogh much tribnlation wo can reach Heaven, is a very peculiar and 
ircty oixteenth-eentury idea. 

HowcTrr— to the cre^lit of the Genevoac huTarchy be it said — as sewn 
•• it bf^^tullc known that Servetus was doomrnl to Vm burnt alive, Culviu 
■ml other preachcn went in a body to the Council and sou^^ht to pro- 
con a oommntation of the Bentcnce to a mil.Vr form of death. — Mos- 
REUf, p. 217. 

• •• Am I guilty of crime,*' Calvin ^Totc, ** becaufie onr Senate, at 
mj fautanee (fMo hortntu)^ rcvengetl itself of his (Servetus') execraUlo 
blasphemies?** (exccrabiliii eios blaKfthemios ultus est.) — Calvinvs, 
Btfpoimtme ad conritia Fritne. D>i'flnini, p. 42(). 

f ** Wenn der Haafe dcrer (^z^hlet wird, die den Tod des Servet*s 
to iat er nor klcin in Ansehen dercr die sich tiber den Unt4;r- 
eines so schadUchon Mannes frcncten. nud Koincn Verfoltrer als 
cinaa am die Kirche unstcrblich vcniienten Eiferer lobcten.** — GcitehHiU 
rfn MMad Smfto, p. 2:i7. 

% *^ Tibi quoqne ooclcsla et none et ad posten>s gratitndinem debet 
ct debebiL . . . Affirmo, ctiaro. Tcatros magii^tratos junto fecesM^ 
qjaod hominem bUucphemom, ro onlire judicata, int^rfecemnt. — M^ 
md CiMkimum, OU. U, 1^51. CaU. Lyu, No, 1»7, p ;U1. 


Whether Luther would have coincided in this opinion must 
ever remain matter of conjecture ; he died seven years before 
Servetus suffered. Twenty-five years previous to that eveni 
he had written against capital punishment for opinion; do- 
daring that false teachers ought to be banished only.* 

§ 7. Keligious Toleration three hundred tears ago. 

In truth, as a general rule, the sixteenth-century Keformors 
rojected, in principle and in practice, the idea of religious free- 
dom. Among all the noted theologians of the Keformation, I 
find but two who upheld man's right to liberty of conscience ; 
Sebastian Castalio and IxbUus Socinus; neither to be ranked 
among the influential leaders of the Protestant movement.f 
Castalio, French by birth, and for several years professor of 
classical literature at Geneva (but banished thence in the year 
1544 because of a quarrel with Calvin), was the more out- 
spoken. Socinus, an Italian of noble family, and (as is well- 
known) an auti-triuitarian, timid by nature, spoke less openly. J 

* " l-'.go ad JTidiciiiiu Bangiiinia tardus sum, ctiam ubi meritam 
abnndat. . . Xullo modo possum odmittcrc falsoe doctores occidi : 
Satis est, cos rclcgarl — Lut/ien EpistoUs (Ed. Aorifabri), voL ii. i>. 

f Since writing the above I am glad to find, in a recent work, evi- 
dence going to prove that Zwingli should be added to the list. Lecky 
{Rathnalism in Europe^ vol. i. p. 383, New York Ed.) quotes from 
Bossuet ( Vdrintions ProtcMantr/i, Book 2, Chap. 19) an extract from a 
Confession of Faith, written by the Swiss Reformer, just before his 
death, in which Zwingli describes that '^future assembly of all the 
saintly, the heroic, the faithful and the virtuous,^* when Abel and 
Enoch, Noah and Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, will mingle with the sagee 
and heroes of Greece and Rome, and when every upright and holy man 
who has ever lived will be present with his God. All honor to Ulrich 
Zwingli, gallant torch-bearer in a benighted generation I Bossnet, of 
coarse, adduces the sentiment as the climax of heresy. 

X Beza {Life of QUvin^ Book 8) speaks of these two as the chief soil- 
porters of freedom of opinion at that day. In the preface to i 


In a gcnerml way, religious liberty was unknown throughout 
Europe during the sixteenth century. 

It is important to obtain a distinct idea of the stand taken 
by the Reformers of that day on the subject of mental emanci- 
pation. Luther had divested the Bible of its learned cerements 
and submitted it, in homely tongue, to the unlettered mass of 
his countrymen.* But in giving them the book, he denied to 
them the right of inteq>rcting it.f He and his co-laborers in 
tbo ministry, declarc^d that if any one, reading the translated 
Scriptures, derived therefrom, how sincerely soever, concep- 
tions touching the nature of the Trinity or of tiio Divinity of 
Christ-, or of the doctrines of the atonement, that diiTerecl from 
their own, such a dissenter was a detestable blasphemer, who 
ought to suffer death, or, at the least, banishment. How much 
worHe was tlie decree of a single Pope than the dictation of a 
preiibyt*^? How much l)ett<»r the City Council of Geneva 
than the CEcumenical Council of Ti-ent — both assuming to de- 
cide, tit tho Christian world, what is "the holy doctrine of 

Could buch men conquer in spiritual strife? And because 
tiny did not, arc we justified in concluding, with Macaulay, 
that there is no such thing as religious pn»gres8 ? I tliiuk not. 
Tlie Protestantism of tho sixteenth century failed, indeed, to 
establish itself as the one dominant religion of civilization. 
But, evincing the spirit it evinced, do you think it ought ever 
to have succeeded ? 

That question (you will perhaps remintl me) concerns arti- 
cles of religious faith as well as rights of private judgment. 

of the Qiblo (1573) Csstalio boldly aascrtB the principlo of 
raligiaQS liberty. 

* la ten years (from 1523, when Luthcr*s translation appeared, to 
V*Xl), fiftjf-^ieten editions of tho Xcw Testament were printed, of which 
•evcsteen from the Wittcnbcn;: presses. 

f **WhnAo after my dt'oth shall contemn the authority of this school 
ai Wittenberg, if it remain as it is now. school and Church, is a 
parrerted eroature.**— £a</^T'« TabU TiMik, p. 339. 


Undoubtedly. And though it be asido from my present pur- 
pose to engage in theological controversy — seeing that the 
world does not read folios nowadays, and that I propose to 
write but a single small volume, — yet it is nseful to be reminded 
what the dogmas of that day were. And this the rather, be- 
cause one finds, in the symbolic history of the time, all-suffi- 
cient cause, and a certain apology, for tho denial of mental free- 
dom to humankind. While tho Reformers set up faith in 
doctrine, aside from works, as the one thing needful for the 
sours salvation, they rejected another phase of faith essential 
te human improvement. They had no belief in human virtue ; 
ajid, as a corollary, they considered man unfit to be trusted, 
especially in choice of a religion. 

Sutfor me, then, here briefly te reproduce, from the accred- 
ited text-books of early Protestantism, a few of the more im- 
portant doctrines ; sufficiently well-known, doubtless, to most 
students of your profession ; but less familiar, probably, in 
their original form, to tho majority of secular inquii'ers. 

§ 8. Saliknt Doctrines of the Reformers. 

*' TliG moumfiil record of an earlier age, 
That, pale and half effaced, lies hidden away 
Beneath tho fresher writinjj of to-day."— tLonofellow. 

The sixteenth centmy was eminently the age o^ scholasti- 
cism. The public mind of Europe fed upon dogmas and con- 
fessions of faith, as eagerly as did that of America in Revolu- 
tionary days on i)olitical axioms and State constitutions. Lu- 
theran and Calvinist and Catholic debated, at market and at 
board, in Diet and workshop, tho exciting question of Papal 
infallibility, with the same absorbing zeal as did the Puritan a 
century later the vexed issue touching the right divine of 
kings. The early Protestants discussed free-will, and tlie real 
preseuce, predestination, and justiiicatiou by faith, wiUi a fienr 



MWHUtnuii t]uit Ur outdiii our warmest polilimi Btrifca. 
lava much mnro toloratioo, but iklso mucli more iodifieraiictit 
in ra»U4in of n<ligiMi, thaa th««e sturdy cunt rovcrsia) lata. 

TIm fnndaoMiital wtd ctiiu%cl«-t'iatic (locti-lues of tJi« Bdbe 
nutwiB daln Troin lli« patrwtic period. Thi>y deriva chied] 
Iran ■ nan wiia« opluiona, diiuMiQUiai«(l iu the fifth oeutui 
from (1m KDcivnt ckpiial of tlio Nitmidiaa kiogs, influu 
with ft iwvor wliklt uo otbcr schoolman ever ^xerciaed, ths 
tbMJogy of the world Uirougbout » thousauU years, datiug 
front tit* Ijao Uo OourisbMl. 

Bt, Aogaatiiio saeou to have deserved tlie ctiaract«r b« bcan^ 
M ow of tb« puraat, kindest, and liuliest of tnen ; Hingiilar 
bia hnmUity and w<r«r« in bin st-UWliaoiitUtic." Iliii " Oouf<a» 
aioiu" hmto ajtaken to thouaanda uf jierturbud aud potiito 
boarta, aa tbeyUid, beyond (juuatiou, to LutUur in lita Auf^nti 

cell, and U> (^^in dunnft bb |iroooviuiiH Mtiidic:!*. " I^lluir," 
•ay* PriiMa[ial Tallucbt " n<iitrikhinl liiinm-lf upon Scriptnro ani 
Si. AniputiiM." \ Calvin's " Iiutitutcii" uro Ixuh-J iin Angia 
tjne'it "City of Gott" In tJmt gnint work, tiit- numiiiiinit a 
htjflMat gcniua li'fl to OH from tiu: oui-ii-iil cIiuitIi, and p'iKunlly 

' In K17 >ai1; lila Inl mtrhj by rnoltlgabe 

1. Uicunttnudod 

bf ibc dana %tl ttaitic iNMrtry aitA crtbctm, kfUTwurdu, fnr nliivynuaf 
• MaadolMaa; Ullinacn uf tw«atr-«ln", wmty at plcdaiin- anil pliU- 
i^tfiky, AtgtatiiM went to Home, marie the ar^ituuiilaiiua of Anliroaa, 
SUnp aif ll&Hi, and vaa hf faltn nonnned to Cbrintiuutf. Tba At 
M a miUiy nol^nr ud af an lUnKltunati- •oo. jilTinirliig blin in dea) 
grtaC dfDTD bliB Vi a aonaatlc lifo. Ui* ifam'siixti/ii '•( llilrtT-fl<» 71 
*>^ uae knt lalKir uf boDi*rol«ioo . C«urt«nu in tvaring. ha inrj 
hpoi Ui hi* talilc In a coBtforvniy wttli tbu UniTttMiuta ot 
day. b* w^i> tluU tbtiir *rTnr *boald ba tualniy ilralt with, alaot It 
wfitiaM^ tn a cliaini tu lim U oa M tbo B'sodntwa and mvKy vt God. 
WWa ha onaibinuual aail nnnbatad ibe henwv of Domataa ffonnded on 
dMial id tbn Ciiiinli'a infalliUblarl, ba pcuMatcd (n tba PmoaMo) of 
**^** tiuli If ^nptal BinunhiBam iraa iaflteiad on tba DoaaCitta, ho 
^ri Ua oloryy w-ntlil iHwJealh at Iha bant* of tbwr tniteikat bo*)- 
Wa^ nAo* than 1« iuMnnuntal in briagtnc Uican be4an tba tiflinnak 
|>-^ Jayaibu S,<^iii, Na. Ut. ad Ptucooa Atriu'. 
I A«*r*yUf A;fbrwMaM. UaalMa, tKU, p. 10. 


in the Afiican bLshop's voluminous lucubrations,* we find the 
source, not only of tho Reformers' creed, but also, in later 
years, of the Jausenist heresy. His doctrine is tersely ex- 
pressed in that saying of his : " He that made thee without 
thy aid, will He not save thee without thy aid ? " Pity it is, 
that in reproducing, in exaggerated form, the worthy father's 
peculiar views, the sixteenth-century dialecticians failed to im« 
itato his personal gentleness and charity.f 

Lutlier led the forlorn hoi>e against the old fortress of Papal 
infallibility, and it was the heavy cannon of his rough rhetoric 
that first effected a practicable breach. But, as regards the 
dogmatic histoiy of the early Protestant movement, Calvin is 
the central figure. Tho chief work of his life, his celebrated 
" Institutes," J officially sot up by his fellow-townsmen of 
Gcn(jva as a scheme of doctrine too holy to be questioned, won 
for him, in his own times, from Melancthon and from the Prot- 
estant world generally, the title, by excellence, of " The The- 
ologian ; " and even in our day it is accepted, by popular his- 
torians of the Eeformation, not only as the most complete and 
nicthoiUcal text book of that movement, but as one of the most 
triumphant efforts of human wit. § 

The chief characteristic of this work is its fi'unk directness. 
It is free from all paltering and equivocation. Its author, 

* The titles alone of St. Augustine^s numerous works make a loaog 

f WTiile full justice should be rendered to St. Au^stine's kindly na- 
ture, one ouijht not to forget that the doctrines he taught led logically 
to intolerance and i)crsecution. 

X Institutes of the Chri^ttian Religion ("Institutio Beligionis Ghiis- 
tianae"), by John CAiiViN. The translation which I have followed, 
made from the original Latin and collated with the author's last edition 
in French, is by John Allen, London, 1813. It has the reputation, de- 
served, I think, of being one of the most faithful extant. 

§ Merle D'Aubigno says of this treatise, that it '* is the finest body of 
doctrine ever possessed by the Church of Christ." And ho adds : " This 
work, accomplished by spiritual force, far exceeds, in the importance of 
its conaeqMenoes, all that has ever been done by the pens of the aUflsl 


iMiTing aasumed his premises, hesitates at no conclusions t^ 
which thej logically lead. Even while he confesses predestina- 
tion to be a " horrible decree,^* * he asserts it none the less 
boldlj, as divine doctrine, on that account. Nor does he shrink 
from inculcating " abhorrence of ourselves,*'f nor from such ad- 
mimions as that grace is not offered to all men, that the most 
odious crimes are God's work, and the like. But let this fear- 
less dogmatist speak for himself. 

First, on the doctrine of human depravity : 

^^ Let us hold this as an undoubted truth which no opposi- 
tion can ever shake, that the mind of man is so completely 
alienated from the lighteousness of God, that it conceives, do- 
■irea, and undertakes everything that is impious, perverse, base, 
impure, and flagitious ; that his heart is so tlioroughly infected 
by the poison of sin that it cannot produce anything but what 
ia corrupt ; and that if, at any time, men do anything apparently 
good, yet the mind always remains involved in hyiKxcrisy and 
ikllacious obliquity, and the heart enslave<l by its inward per- 
veraeness. ... In vain do wo look in our nature for any- 
thing that is good.'' | 

He reiterates this sentiment again and again, ap|>arently 
seeking, by sweep of condemnation, to li^avo no looi>hole for 
human self-respect. Witness this : 

** Everything in man, the understanding and the will, the soul 
ami body, is polluted. . . . Man is, of himself, nothing else than 
concupiscence." § 

or the swords of the greatest warrion. ** — Ilvttory of tJiS Refor* 
in ih€ Time ofCalHn (New York Ed., 1805), vol iu. pp. 170, 173. 

Tnllocfa, with whom Calvin is no special favorite, admits him to bo 
^* the greatest Biblical commentator of his age.*^ and charactorizes his 
lasCitates as ** tho charter of the great movement to which he wasdfs- 
Uoed to give theological coDsistcncj and moral triomph.** — Leaders of 
Uu lieffJTmation, pp. 103 and 107. 

* **I>ecretam qnidem horribilo fateor,** are his words.— //wfiYi/ftf, 
Book 3, Chap. 23. 

t /rj(., R 2, C. 1, g 1. t ImL, B. 3, a 3, g 19 and § 2. 

8 /ful, a 2, C. I, % 10. 


Now and then one is tempted to infer that he deemed all 
human effort to reform the race but folly and waste of time. 
He says : 

^^ Man cannot be excited or biassed to anything but what is 
evil. If this be so, there is no impropriety in affirming that he 
is under the necessity of sinning." * 

This looks to the Deity as the author of evil ; and Calvin 
meets the issue squarely. He scouts, as subterfuge which God 
himself rejects, the idea that sin and crime occur " by the per- 
mission and not by the will of God." He says that wicked 
men and the devil himself " can effect nothing but by the secret 
will of God." In illustration he adds : " God intends the de- 
ception of that perfidious king, Ahab ; the devil offers his ser- 
vices for that purpose, and is sent with a positive commission to 
be a lying spirit in the mouth of all the prophets." (1 Kings xxiL 
20-23.) ..." Absalom, defiling his father's bed with incest, 
perpcti-ated a detestable crime ; yet God pronounces that this 
was His work. . . . Whatever cruelties the Chaldeans exer- 
cised in Jiidea, Jeremiah pronounces it to be the work of God." f 

But " while God, by means of the impious, fulfils his secret 
decrees, they are not excusable." J 

Again, in the face of that sentiment, common to every creed, 
which prompts men, in hours of sorrow or peril, to invoke on 
themselves, or on those they love, the blessing of the Almighty, 
Calvin, tme to his belief in human worthlessness, says: **Gk>d 
finds nothing in men which can incite him to bless them." § 

He goes further still. It is a daring thing to speak of inno- 
cence that has never sinned, as steeped in pollution and hateful 
to its Maker; but that is among the corollaries of Calvin's 
favorite doctrine ; and he coui-ageously admits that it is; thus: 

" We derive an innate depravity from our very birth : the 
denial of this is an instance of consummate impudence. • • • 
All children, without a single exception, are polluted, as soon 

♦ InsU, B. 2, C. 3, § 5. t ^ngt., B. 1, 0. 18, % L 

f Iji^., B. 1, C. 18, § 4. § Inst., B. 3, C. U, §5. 


ta 4ay eu». . . . Infants Uicmsclves, as tbejr bring tlici( 1 
aoademttltMi uvto tlio wurl-I witli llirm, are rendered olinox- 
ion* to puutibm^ut by iLcrir own ttin fulness. For though they I 
hum not yet producMi tlw frvuta of thcii' iuiijiiity, yet thi^y I 
)u«« Ui0 Metl of ii ill Uiem : (huir wltolu luturo caunoi but b« J 
odioin and tibomiiiabl« to Qod." * 

But his (locUitio of |trDd4«UDftUoQ carriu him eveu boyood | 
thftt d<f<7trii)o in thus etat^ : 
Qwl elMtwl wbuu he wouhl, sod, before they were bom, J 
is ittMTve lor them tlut grace with which he det«rmttie jf 
'them. . . . Hia fureaight of our future ho1iiit!i>s « 
KOM of kU choice. . , . The (;nioe of God (leiierre«| 
•oil! |irsi»e of our HoctioD, uul(>e3 this eluc 
gmtotlaus: uuw it could not be gratultuua if, in chuoaiug hta I 
pMtple, Qott biniMtIf cooaidei-ed what would be tbo nature of | 
tWr respective vurW t 

Afloonlii^ tu lliis CUltinistic tltoory uvttu fruo will ia diiiind | 
tans; nur isGud'sgraos oiren^exoeirt to a fownf tUu fnv 
■noBg Hia crwUunM. " Man t> nut j»n«ueil of frn; will for ■ 
gaud works unlcai ho bo ankittod hr gnu.'e, und that sjiecial I 
gn^ wtiioh is bestuwcd ud tlui i.-l<Hit nlnni.- in m^-ni'mlion. V 
Pur I stop not tu uutioD thone fimatiot who pretend tliat ^ 
ia odrml ei]Ualljr oud |iroiniicuou!ily to alL" J 

AfW tliU, ifiui can undi-matid on what grounds ho btuue thcj 
l>>ntcmon is vntinity nf UpiI, bocauso « 
m to think." § 
TUtea in oonncctiun with Oulnn's idea of lioll, and of t 
■■■II Btiinbcn of (hii cIm-I, this d<^ma predestines ecnuitluwfl 
■uUiuos uf tJ>o ButMru, without auj rHtirence Ui thKir good orM 
ted (undiut in tbe niture, ur to Ihi-ir rvpenlanoe, tu internal.! 
tuii—ita. Rims this impi/ that the vast iiuijorityuf thehnnuuifl 
noa an halvd bj their Creator? Calvin, inexorable in klftl 
b^C,flmfi!«c« that it iloea. "Jacob and l^u," hn rcniiDdia 

• JIm(.,B.8,C 1. 133, S, 8. 

t AA, IL a, c f . g a. 

t tiut. B. 8. C. 22, eS t, a. i 


US, '^ are brothers begotten of the same parents, still enclosed 
in the same womb, not yet brought forth to light ; there is, in 
all respects, a perfect equality between them ; yet the judgmeni 
of God concerning them is different: for He takes the one and 
leaves the other. . . . The children being not yet bom, neither 
having done good or evil, that the purpose of God according to 
election might stand, not of works but of him that calleth, it 
was said : * Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated.' " * 
When one reads, in connection with this commentary, the 
strange story to which Calvin here refers,f one seems to hear 
the wail, tliroughout the universe, of millions on miUions of 
outcast step-children, crying out, like rejected Esau, in vain : 
" Bless me, even me also, oh my Father ! " 

Referring elsewhere to this narrative and Paul's text, of 
wliicli he makes frequent use, and to the fact that Jacob, ** with- 
out any merit acquired b}' good works, is made an object of 
grace," Calvin does not scruple to add : " If we turn our atten- 
tion to works we insult the apostle." J 

Que may conjecture the source whence came, to the Reform- 
ers, the idea that good works have nothing to do in effecting 
nian\s salvation. In the Augsburg Confession, after a complaint 
tliat " Catholic traditions obscure the commandments of God," 
it is added : " The whole of Christianity was thought to consist 
in the observance of certain holy days, rites, fasts, and vest- 
ments." § The feeling evidently was that this was but a Phar- 

* Imt.^ B. 3, C. 22, g§ 4, 5. The text wherein this doctrine is 
found (Uomans ix. 11, 13) is hero quoted literally; it is supported by 
Malachi i. 2, 3. 

Another might have been at a loss to explain how Jacob, living seven- 
teen hundred years before the time when Christ made atonement for 
the sins of mankind, could have been one of the elect ; but Calvin 
overstrides the difficulty, telling us ; ** It ought not to be donbted that 
Jacob was ingrafted, with angels, into the body of Christ." (Dabitaxc 
mineme debeat Jacob cum angeUs insitum fuesse in Christ! ooipnt.*') 
^Inst, B. 3, C. 22, § 0. 

t Genesis xxvii. 1-40. % Inst., B. 8, 0. 22, § 11. 

§ Angs'mig Confession, Part 2, Article 6. 


inieal making dean the outside of the cup and the platter. 
But if such was the original source, it was soon lost sight of iii 
the mazes of theology. Calvin takes special pains to inform us 
thaty aside from that faith which saves, the most virtuous life 
leads only to helL lie says that though what we call good 
men ^* may bo esteemed worthy of admiration for their reputed 
virtue ; though they are instruments used by God for the pre- 
•enration of human society, by the exercise of justice, contin- 
ence, friendship, temperance, fortitude, and prudence,'' yet if 
they ^' are strangers to tlie religion of the one true God," they 
**^ not only merit no reward, but are rather deserving of punish- 
ment, because they contaminate the pure gifts of God with the 
pollution of their own hearts.* . . . They who .have no inter- 
est in Christ, whatever be their character or their actions or 
their endeavors, are constantly advancing, through the whole 
course of their lives, toward destruction and the sentence of 
eternal death. '^ f 

This is not an isolated expression of sentiment ; the main 
idea breaks forth throughout the entire work. Hero is an ex- 
ample : '' The most splendid works of men not yet truly sancti- 
fied are so iar from righteousness in the divine view that they 
are accounted sins. . . . The works of a man do not conciliate 
God^s favor in his person.'' | 

And here is another, showing that Calvin regarded this as 
the chief point of diiTerence between the Reformers and their 
op]ionents : ** There never was an action {Hii-foimed by a pious 
man which, if examined by the scrutinizing eye of divine 
justice, would not deserve condemnation. ... This is the priu- 
ci|)al hinge on which our controversy with the Papists turns." § 

* So iDQaotions is the wording here, that one might almost suppose 
the author bad conceived the idea that .the best efforts of man to lead a 
porer Ufo — to pnctifle justice, coatineuce, temperance, prudence— were 
deadly tios, inasmuch as tliiji is but a culpable mixing np of Chri»tiaa 
gfaoes with the inevitable corruptions of the human heart. 

t JomL, B. 3, G. 14, gg 3, 4. t Ii^^y B. 3, G. 14, g a 

SXM.aSfG. 14,811. 


Ouc is constantly reminded, in reading these gixteenth-cen* 
tury Reformers, of the incredible lengths to which the nature of 
their doctrines was wont to lead them ; as, for example, to the 
declaration of Calvin that a part of this world only belongs to 
God. He (Calvin) says that the words of Jesus Christ, " I 
pmy not for the woild, but for them which Thou haat given 
mo " * (John xvii. 9), afford proof " that the whole world does 
not belong to its Creator ('^ undo fit ut totus mundus ad suum 
Creatorem non pcrtineat") ; only that grace delivers from the 
cui*se and wrath of God, and from eternal death, a few who 
would otherwise perish, but leaves the world in its destruction 
to which it has been destined, f 

Another dismal corollary is this: Calvin did not believe 
that either love of God, or imitation of Christ, is efficient to 
salvation: wo must soek to appease our Creator's anger^ — ^there 
must be fear, he thought — else all self-sacrifice — every offering 
of tlie heart — is to the Creator but abomination. These are 
his words : *' No man can descend into himself and seriously 
consider his own character without perceiving that God is angry 
witli liim and hostile to him, and consequently he must find 
himself under a necessity of anxiously seeking some way to ap- 
pease Him. . . . The begiiming of the observance of Good's 
law is an unfeigned fear of His name. If that be wanting, all 
tlie oblations made to him arc not merely trifles, but nauseous 

* It is remarkable, in connection with this verse from St. John, that, 
according to another evangelist, Jesus* last prayer on earth was for hia 
murderers. See, as to John xvii., note on succeeding pp. 271,273. 

t //w«. , B. 3, C. 22, § 7. 

And if Calvin's cameBtness is proof against the incredible, so is it 
also ag^ainst the ridiculous. AVho but himself would not have been de- 
terred by inkling of the ludicrous from such comment on a scriptural 
metaphor as this ? After quoting Christ's words, *^ T^e sheep follow 
the shepherd, for they know his voice,'* Calvin's comment is: " Now 
no man makes himself a sheep, but is created such by divine gnoe.** 
"Jfemo, ezurn, se ovem facit, sed formatux codesti tSEatia.'') — InH,^ 
« S, a 22, § 8. 



a&il Abominable pollatiotis. Lot hyixKiitcs go now and, i 
ibH dr^Mraviij in th<ur hoarta, cmdeHTor bj th«ir works to meHI 
Ibe Ikvor of OoJ." * 

Bei« natiiralljr Rtig^t tli«<aiselvoB tJie qu>.>fttiaoB: If not ly 
love it Goii, if not by ImnUng u lifi) of purity and Lcncvolenc 
hcMT, tmder tht« uraUmiii* miui to iip|>cjuie im angry and lioatiU 
? How is Hl- to L-H<»].e ht-ll? Tito K«funn( 
bnliof, not bjr nt.'t'i. TbiMW wlio Imvc on ossnmncc e 
art Uie nlrct: but tlm uloct, and the ulmrt only, 
\j vjoirioui atoiiummt nuuli! by tho Son of (!od. f 

Tlua Manranco that wn am tba &varryl of Clod Is held tji 
Calvin to bn oninipotimt t« mvc unncn orcn though, after oh> 
tMBtBg !t, thty indulge in ^ow an*. Witne-nt thv foUoi 
|ia»wfln, oocnrring in connection with his favorit« iltiHtrntim 
fren BoiBaiH ix, 11, 13: " R«>tN>ccft, having bcwn i 
Bat*4 nftba election of her aon Jacob, procun^s him tho bem 
iHetida by a unfnl artifioo ; alut ditrwives her husbtuid, tlin 
MM* and Hnnislvr of t hi gruci- of Qud ; abo tuuHtruinti hei 
«a otter laUeluMMbi ; i>ba Mirmpl* Ibn truth of God by %ai 
frwidi and impoitunia.'' Tbta, C'nlvin oallii, " tnuufrrmiiinf 
liiuta nf tho won) ; " ni>d ho excuav* bur action : " for," any 
"aa Uio particuUronorof Jamb did not annul tho «ffr<ct oft] 
*o noitliM' did it doatmy tho faith which gcnpral^ 
>B bar mind, and waa tho principlo and cnuM 4 


Every ono kanva that Calvin was one of tho st«rnc«t of ni 
aJuna, and wo cannot ratioiially rapposo that ho r«ally intvndt 
%o pallialc Tioo, or to rxcaao » vicious llfo. Observe, howevor, 1 
ia «bat laanQor, M away bjf loro of a dogma, ho laya h 
op«B, ia tho abor* puBge, ta tba imputation of gloaung o 
dwttba rat c fraud and iupoatons wlwn Midi Bina ttHxiO, with fa 
fitf in th« atonenwat. 

>ia^,IL8,C. ti.|a 
tmidog» rtn a wMbafoiiaJ. fcftwpagaafMrtharcni. fi aph t witt yd 
Mk Ir Iha pvwBifU pen a< LbAw. 


This (loctriuo of justification by faith alone is very concisely 
and lucidly sot forth in the AugslrM-ir Confession : 

" Men cannot be justified before (Jod by their own strength, 
merits, or works; but are justified freely, for Christ's sake, 
through faith, wlien then ^^^^^^ tliat they are received into favor 
and that sins are remitted on account of Christ who, by hia 
death, made satisfiiction for our sins. This faitlh God imputes 
for ri[fhteou^nessy * 

In the above I have italicized the words which prove that 
the faith which, according to this scheme of redemption, ex« 
chisively wins heaven, is a belief of our personal favor 
with the Almighty, resulting in our election and adoption by 

Let us now turn from the Genevese divine to his great Ger- 
man co-laborer. 

We find, as between the two, great difference of chiaracter, 
indeed, but no essential variation in creed. One cannot doubt 
that, in a general way, Luther assented, verbally at least, to 
Calvin's system of divinity, as set out in the " Institutes ; " 
since, while he refused the hand of brotherhood to Zwingli be- 
cause of variance on a single doctrinal point, and even held it 
to be likely that the Swiss Reformer, after dying for the Pro* 
test^xnt cause, would sufier eternal torments f because of disbe- 
lief in the " real presence," — he remained in strict fellowship 
with Calvin throughout his life. Yet he might have said to 
the theologian of Geneva with more truth than he did to TJlrich 
Zwingli : " You have a different spirit from ours." Calvin^s 
religion, like Jove's armed daughter, was the offspring of hia 
brain ; Luther's, of his heart. The two had this in common, 
that they ran the convictions which they had once assumed as 

• Augsburg Confession^ Part 1 , Art. 4. 

t ** I wish from my heart ZwingUus could bo saved, but I fear tiia 
cntEBiy ; for Christ has said that those who deny him shall be danmed." 
iUTHbr: in TMe TaUc^ p. 824. 


to tbcir l^iplituftle coaoliiaioua, iritti luuQmohlngJ 

but Lutbi-ra lioart corrif^d liiu iuto a i-e^aa eouwj 

le, |{«tiud, Bviai jovial ; wUUu Ciilvui'a briuii tarrW in « 

■ry ftAtiiro, toy culd, droury, and, uj 

■I ^lenil (iiM ur buiiuuiity, bofrf^lAiis ood iiuplainiblt!. 

iiitmU) to Ui« cam-uoo of LuUicniiiiBiii, one iniiBt rt^S 
I EnToritfl ConiinentJtry on lUe GmJatiaai,* 

I, iitdcml, tbo mmo nbuiing oapocl nf butnui 
it impaita bo lurid a f;li«m to Calvin's writings ; but 
8 of the m&a and tlie uiicoQToatioiuil §pn^it]iii( 
of tiw Bl'lu lirvak out oier the KaddHiiiui; i>ictiii-fi, Ugbtiitg it np J 
a« tba aurora boraUu illuniiiuiUii tiartliern wasloa. Permit ine>ff 
to tMmll tu your r^culludicn vno or two cf ita luore notablof 
|«ang^ in tlliuitratinn. 

IW iHU! idea (bcld, at oouiw?, in common witb Calvin) that I 
|icmilm Ui« boirlc anil which ounatitulra, lit fiu-'t, the coni»iy 
■toiM iif ' Luttucr'a ontira doctrinal Mystoin,! i>, that iruuikindj 

* Iiothar Uwncht h^a own baat «rnrk» to baTe boon, bU Cimroonbi; 
en DeuiaiiMwuij-. on Ualatiauiii anil ou Uia fuur boukauf SI. Jobu. — 
TUb TUt, p. 81. 

f tt pttradaa bis othpt wrtllnipi aba, nnil it warn want to bmok out bl'l 
*'Wii ham allaiftrtbDr a ouiiroiunloj, ooTTupt, an4l 
B, boUi in boilj and iHial : tbroughout tbe whole of nuutfl 
fa—ttt^thatUgPod."— raito r,M. p. 110. 

So Iha ottM* Baformma, fol oxonipln MdancUiaa; "A 
vttMfna onloU oaivn*, . . . lou luurat, »<« cupiat, nun triU, | 
aUauuBUa.' atiL~£«3(' r<nniniin>v. p, IS |Ed. Au|nuti|. 

{ " Lathvr amwd a( Ibi' ilocUtnn of the aiiuurmciil tbroasli Cbiut 
whoav tadvfnDdaiilty o( worka : tli It affonlnl klm Iba kcj to the Bcrip- 
tmw. aad kM«iaa Uifl nain prop 10 bi* whoI« arMwrn of f ailh.~— Kaskx : 
^Mt. o^lAf ApM, *nL L p 18S. 

balborMmlf (ookUMHmoTtowofUiiatanet Ho wv": "AUtba 
MbarartUiMuf Darhiliian!OoaF*'!b«iikkKluitbatuf iurtilleatioa-, at>d 
It that twmmia khiiuI tban aUtliu nrt am aMuKL"— GuuH^nMry on 
Oabttitw. at> lU. mm lit. And agaia Itaam vrjv| : " Tbl> U 
MM V(tod|«I anicki of all CkiMian iluctriaa, which Itw P<q>iab aduxd- 
_ ■■> ham ahccelfav dukMad." 

fta^ Ib Ui pnCaoa t» lh» OwuDtttanr M th« (Matiaaa, hi* chkf a 


even down to the latest generations, steeped in sin throngh 
Adam's transgression, can be saved from an eternal hell onl^f 
by a transfer of all human sins to Jesus Christ. Do you re- 
member how vividly he sets this out ? 

" God sent his only son into the world and laid upon him all 
the sins of all men, saying : * Bo thou Peter, that denier ; Paul, 
tliat persecutor, blasphemer, and cioiel oppressor ; David, that 
adulterer ; be thou tliat sinner that did eat the apple in Para^ 
disc, that thief which hanged upon the cross ; in brief, be thou 
the person who hatli committed the sins of all men : see, thei'e- 
fore, that thou pay and satisfy them.' Here now cometh the 
law and saith : ^ I find him a siimer and indeed such an one as 
hath taken upon him the sins of all men ; therefore let him die 
upon the cross.' And so he setteth upon him and killeth him. 
By this means the whole world is purged and cleansed from all 
sins. . . . Therefore, where sins are seen and felt, there are 
they indeed no sins ; for, according to Paul's divinity, there is no 
sin, no death, no malediction any more in the world, but •nly 
in Christ. * . . . But some man will say : * It is very ab- 
surd and slanderous to call the Son of God a cursed sinner.' I 
answer : If thou wilt deny him to be a cursed sinner, deny also 
that ho was crucified and died. . . . This is a singular 
consolation for all Christians, so to clothe Christ with our 
sins." f 

It is curious to note how the man's intense perception of a 

plaint against Catholicism is : ^^ the infinite and horrible profanation 
and abomination which always hath raged in the Church of God, and 
even at this day ecaseth not to rag-e, against this only and g^nnded 
rock, which we hold to be the article of our justification." — Prrfacej 


* One might almost suppose, from such passages, that Luther held 
universaliBt doctrines. Very far from it. * ' God, in this worid, has 
scarce the tenth part of the people ; the smallest number only will be 
saved. ... If now thou wilt know why so few are saved and bo 
infinitely many damned, this is the cause : the world will not heac 
Christ."— 2W»Aj Talk, pp. 41, 43. 

t CcmmetUary on GaUUians, at chap. iii. verse 13. 


• fiiToHt* doetritM Hko this Ictl him on, step by sUp, tmti^ 
lik» Atron'a rod Wom I'hnrnoh, it swaHowimI \tp all tbo rMtn 
Spcnking of " iho jihanlMiicul o|iiiiions of tlio Papists 
ing tbo ju«tili(»tiijii of worlu," iio t&y*: "The; da imagine t 
flertaio fiuth formed uid atlorued with charity. By tliis, tlio] 
mf, BUS «ra Ukvu aimy luiil nii-a are juatifiod bvforo Qod. 
Ital what clae i> thia, I (iny you, but to nnwmp Christ and tA 
■trtp kjin quite owl of uur atnai, and to look upon Uuuu, Dot ia 
Cbrat, bal in ininelirnL Ytu, what is this vine but to tak» 
Chridrt daan awaji and to mako Iiiin utterly unprofitable to 

Again, be dochuvd it to be bhusphcniy, impirod Vy the devi^ 
to ay Ibal faiilh without works was drad, or to assert tliak 
bil^, unfmitful of woi^«, waa not omnipotent to (;aiu 
tor Um belMvicr. Quo would rind vritb ttici«duUly in theat 
nodmi daVK, if the im^inul waa nut ntill extant in proof, >u<j| 
s laMMge aa the loilowtD|; : 

** "Dm porvertan of ilia (io«|h.'1 of Ohrut Utacb that nveu IkiiA 

Utb wkifili they call Ikith infuMid (jidft tn/uiHi), nut nweivej 

by b«arui(t nor Kuttvti by any -working, but iirvatvd iu man 

the Hiity (ilioot, may atanil with dntdly ain, and tliat tlw wid^ 

fdaal men taay have tbta fiiitit. Thcrefbru, thoy My, if it bo 

B it is idio and utterly uuprafitabln. Thu* they take froM 

I Ulh bw olB(T> and pv>' it unto rhaiity : no tliat. faith i« noth- 

I in^ ezc*pt diarity, which thi'y call the form and perfeotioD 

I lh<!i«o(^ be jotiM>d withal. This is a devilish and blasphemous 

I kiw) of doctrioc. . . . Fur if durity Ui th« form au4, 

iuD of faith (aa iJioy dream), then am I by and by 

I to say thai charity ia the chinf part of tbo Chriatian 

p I7hriiit, fain binoti and hia benotits ; and 

talteptbcr in a n>und duing otrn oa Iho I'lipe, tha 

f tlw law is a laithful and 

■ 18. 


spiritual doing, wbich he hath not that aeeketh ri^iteoosneflb 
l-y works. Thoreforo rrrry don' of the law and evert/ morat 
trurhr is accurtt*\l ; fur he walketh in the presumption of hid 
own rii^htoouKness ajzaiust God." * 

Til is cloctriiie uppc^ars, without its Lutheran intensitr, yet sub- 
staiitiuUv the Rame, iu the text-book of earlT Protestantism. 
tin* Augsburg Coufo:i.««ioiL. Wc read there; "works cannot 
rti>t)iK-ile u.s to Gtxl, or merit remission of sins, grace and justi 
iiriuiou, but wo obtain this bv faith oulv.^^ It is added : ^' Out 
diviiifH toach that it is necessary to do good works, not that 
we may trust bv them to merit grace, but in obedience to the 
will <»f ( rod/' Aud alluding to the accusations falsely brought 
u gainst them ^^ of prohibiting good works,'^ they dechire that 
they have '^ wholesomely taught all the modes and duties of 
lift', what ways of life, what works in any calling, are pleasing 
tu (rod ; *^ while their adversaries "urged puerile and unneces- 
r^uy works, such as certain holy days, certain fasts, fratemi- 
ti«\s, pllgrinmges, worship of sainU, rosaries, monasticism and 
tho like/' t 

* In the Euf^lish Tcnion which I have followed, the words I have 
italicizc^l arc uot very strictly rendered ; the original being even stronger 
than the trunMlation. thus : '' I dec maledictns est omnis Legis curator, 
( t utoraJis StinrluH : '* literally ** moral Saint." Lather might haTO been 
thinkin}^ of tho inomlity of monkish aastcrity ; at all erentB, his tnma- 
lator Horms to havo been afraid to follow him ; seeing that Saint has 
b<'on oftou rofv^ardod as the equivalent of dtri. 

f All the alH>vc quotatious will l>c foimd in article 20, part 21, of 
tho AugHburg ConfoKftion. I have followed tho translation by tho Rev. 
Ileury Teal, M.A., London, 1842; wlfo appoan to have ezeoated his 
tank with critical core. 

CoiiHidering that the Luthcnin Church of America recently adopted a 
rcBolution that *' this General Synod . . • TWfiint^itpiT the divine ob- 
ligation of tho Christian Sabbath " (Annnal Cyclopedia for 1868, p. 443), 
it iri worthy of notice, in connection with tlio above dictnm touching *' pne« 
rile aud unnecessary works/" that iu tho Augsburg Confession (artids 
7 of part 2) the following plain words oociu: : ** They who judge that, 
by tho authority of the Church, the observing of the Lord's di^, 
instead of the Sabbath day, was ordained as a thing unnn— iTjr, do 



Thaa, tbougli the TiU-formvn taoglit tlmt fiuth rerjnirea nci 
vocfa of !!■,• thpy Bot only inculcati^, in their sermons, Htrir< 
nonlitv. but tLo diiuf ]«HOei«, a^ Luther, Calvin, Mukncthon, 
ZwiiitfU, iUuatnUed, by thoir exemjiW; Itvus, tlie inornlR tki^ 


Bat U bdumru m to brnr in mind that n Dinu'ii upright in- 
tMdion, orhii good lifo, in odo thing, niul tho tenilcneii- of thu 
opjaknu li« Iiold*, or tbe tloctrinmi hu b^aohM, ({utto Another, 

fnailf •o'. Tbn Sadptom which Immaha* that Uw Mobow cominonlM 
item Dm rereUUoa of thn Gin^l nut; h" omitted, hu abrogfttcd tho 
8«bbatlL Ami Jtft, Iwoiiiw H wu nmitlfol ta onlala a cortaln dnj-, 
MM tiM paofila mi^t know when they aii4;Iil to come togntfaer, it up- 
yaaa Uial th* Chnreb Kppoinlcid tho Lord's ita?.— which day ■canw to 
km* pkaMd tha mon for thi* oaiue nlan, that mco mlifht hav* ai 
aB|Aa cfChhatian Ulxirtj aud know thai ntilAfr Ihi ofHtrmttKt iff tht 
Bt MM k, not ifaas i/tlifr iL'g, vu u«eewii>y."^I'acirs TraiuLuioa, pp. 
Tfl. W; 

No biuaan fawtltutton i« dimv nwdr^ or mora va]iiah1(< than tho »l- 
Mbk Mart imn d*? in MnTn u a of reat from wgddl; tutiuaU and 
of iiuli>t fiiT (jintiial t^tmglit. KiiTcrthdea it miut I<d admitted that 
tbo *i*«« of tlie Augnbuiy Vaaf*Mio«ii*LN a* t>i lliifi mbuiouH uhlie«tioQ 
te Ihl* mattot Bieooiil with Um ipint uf ChiuL'i t«acbinga [Ujuk ii. 37, 
Mo.), BMd raoTa (Cull liiw iL 10). Thrf cnnoe phUulofrical acounc^ 
ate, la^aff thai tbon b no Chriialui Atbbalh. Thfl ItalUna prapfgi; ' 
ad Matntdaj', .S<i«fo ; while thnjr t«nii Sunda;, Dimteitka, i 

* " lUlk fotjainttk no worka of na, or tliat wc ahould |rl r* aaflhiog 
«ato 0«d, bat 1^1 wo, balkfTin^ Uw praioiM of God, ahunld rcodva of 
hin.'—Ckn. M OirioMaM. chap. ili. t. IS. 

f mMM MOW ami draw, fmm Zwlof ll'i bctlt-f In pmlwliaaUoiL, tha 
p ca rt iMl laibnMui that Uw ebd ooulil not ha banned, ain aa thajr 
nlflit. Ikn Swiai Befonnu'i reply wna, that ** whoao aignaa tbna fur- 
■^TT pnal tkM ba bunwlf li noc aii»>^[ (ha el*et."--aoo Ua J>( 
/Si^inttfa DiL. Op<n, rol. It. p. 14A 
fttlUa««rkiDpaiBir.p|i.T«, ICO. ItSj. Zwiagll laoakatM thodM- 
ungttOBtlo an ita hifncal oaiuie>in*iai<* : 
aplo, flat llie aln uf Adam «m unifiJuaU; incloJail In 
Mof mboBptkn. nia Utlaltta'a opinion 
•te : bi IMM tba adarfoa of Uw bU of tba flat man fMw U- dlYlu 


Diderot taught atheism and openly avowed enmity to all relig 
ious ideas :* yet the sincerity of his enthusiasm in such teneta 
is beyond question, his works having been condemned to the 
flames, and himself to prison for teaching them. The sceptical 
1)' Alembert, Diderot's co-laborer in the JEmct/dcpcedie, strongly 
expressed, in his corresjwndence with Voltaire, his disbelief in 
Christianity ; yet his benevolence was proverbial and his life 
without a stain, f But because such writers have upright mo- 
tives, or lead virtuous lives, are we thence to conclude that 
the belief in atheism is no injury to mankind, or that the world 
could do quite as well without religion ? 

These remarks have strictest application when, in the works 
of any author how estimable soever, we come upon such a pas- 
sage as the following : " Thus you find how richly gifted is a 
Christian and baptized man, who, even if he wills it, cannot 
forfeit his salvation by how many sins soever, unless he is un- 

* Diderot 6tait on dcs ennemis lea plas acham^ da Christianiinne, 
et mcme de toute id^e religieose ; il professait oavertement le mat&dal- 
isme et rath^'isme, et prechait ces doctrines ddsolantes avec ime sorte 
d^euthnsLosme etde fanatisme. — BouiLLON : Dictiannaire de Biographie 
Uniccrselle, art. " Diderot." 

f ^^D'Alembcrt possodait dcs qnalitds qui Tent fait aimer et es- 
timer de tons ses contemporains ; an plus vif amour pour la sdeoce, il 
joignait la bienfaisance et le dcsintoressement. . . . H entretint 
aveo Voltaire une correspondance suiyie qui a 6t6 public i^ir^ leur 
mort : tous deux y exhalent leur haine centre la religion ohrStieime." — 
Bouillon : Dictionnaire de Diograpfiie UnicerseUe^ art " D^Alembert" 

*''' When D^Alembert's incomo amounted to 8,200 francs, he gave away 
one half. . . . The Bishop of Limoges said of him, daring hia life, 
* His manners are simple and his conduct without a stain.* . . . He 
was the first mathematician of his day, and La Harpe says of him : * I 
know D^Alembert well enough to be able to say that he was scoptical 
in everything except mathematics. . . . Himself toleratingall opin- 
ions, what he censured in the atheists was their intolerant arrogance. 
. . . Had it not been for his correspondenoe with Voltaire, the 
world would not have known except by implicatioa what his opinions 
were. His published writings contain no expression offsnoiTe to 
ion.**_P€iiny CydojXBdia, art " lyAlembert." 


For no siiis bars power to dama liim tatt I 
lin of iticrwiulity,"* 

ily, %hi< evil UhkIodcj' of Hiich opinions is aggravaud, in. I 
b Liititn-'a CMC. Kjr bi* CUuLift Joctriuott, {luabttd ovou to a dia*! 
i tiiMt tlrnukl vf tiian'a ftvu atfcticy. TUiulc of tlio praotiual dTuoi 
— buv tL«i]ciilng bdJ dlscoura^ni; to all virtuoiu eflbrt— -oil 
«icb a |K»Maip «8 Ihia : " 'Lite hiiiuau will in pbuvd U-twuoQ fl 
two, tneu M k beoftC of liurUeu. If God luouitl^ it, it wisl»« I 
and giMs M Oud willn. ... If SatAu moiiuta it, it iriabcsJ 
■ad go>m M 8«t«D wills. Nor is it frao toruu towiml, or iulcct,fl 
Mther ridar : it u tlie ridui-u thotaaolvca who coatvnd wbick sball | 
obUia aul hold [KMsnwiuii." f 

ThoM who Bi« &tniliKr with tho original dooamenta will bnar I 
aw witncMt that iho forvgoiug hriof B]rucii«iaof Protustant opin-l 
. havm in Iha Miteontb coatury, whilo il omita^ fur brevity'ti ulcn, 
f dtfbiiU, mntlior cxii^'rati.-9 nor estvauatvii tliu foamja- 

■ lUi ytrntf Maaf* in tiatbo*! TraaliM ; Ai flbpf/nto/* Ba4^ 

; Iho ociffBal nqiflaf thns: " Ita tIiIim quam ill*** tit hmoo 

I atlaai voloa ii«ti patmat ptaAim mluUaa 

iMi«ii pMNKtia. nU noUt amdcre. Nulla tnlm poocata 

a nlll pjla iBcrodnUtaa." 

■ of ulntUaf intn'O't In l.titlinr*! woib a 

1 letter Ui MotHnctiicni (1521), quobd I 
I h^' AmUaalup ttarB, oocan a wcU'konva Mnt^nica: i 
''SaAstt ^nod aBsoTlmiia jwc diriUa* giatim bvi A|;uui 
IMOOata noDdt ; ab boo nan sti)!!!*! bob ptoataia, «Uauul atilUca, toil- f 
irt oao lUa Idraloaaaar aol uoddamaa." 

Kr an opimiat al hatbet Ui» mod* 
klaj. l»oan*(U7 of ooutw. "otctyda/: ' 
•T«r p*ua laa; !»«■ Iw«i tlio wiJlMl* latraition) li would lia a lade o 
■ ■mini ta daajr that U •xpiilka, iu vtil'iitiiulMl num. plaudbla i 
fv Mordcr smI lavonlinnMK. 

I "fWrtnTwannTf^iiiii^f liitnt<1l<HMT#ta ttiif-i iiimmtiini 8 
MtoDaaa, *nll ot nuUt qpo mil Eknu, ut Paalmaa dicdl: 'Faetaan 
AMJaBMUnnatcvoMnqMrtDoaia.' Si uwnlntit Ball 
4«»««b8ateii. Maoaat la »)iia aifaitrin ad mrnm i f ot 
I, adiiMl aMum ewtaait ob ipnmoUliMi 

D din " luio ittva tiaua- J 

-Lrrsu: £k Serw AMMb^ pv% 1. 1 



tion-^octrines on which rested the theological system put forth 
by the Leadera of the Reformation ; to wit, the atonement, in- 
cluding justification by faith alone; the fall, the utter deprav 
ity of man, and predestination. 

Such a synopsis was indispensable in treating the great his- 
torical problem to which I now revert. 

§ 9. What Lesson does the History of the Kefobmation 


^^ Revealed religion is not in the nature of a progressiyeficionoe. . . . 
We have no security for the future againflt the prevalence of any theo- 
logical error that has ever prevailed m time past among Christian 
men."— IMacaflay. * 

la that the lesson taught? Guardians of the Protestant 
faith, is that the Protestant reply ? 

If not, bestow, I pray you, dispassionate attention on the 
historical and statistical facts; and give your version of the 

Tiireo hundred years, observe ! — from 1570 to 1870 — and 
still, from a Protestant stand-point, retrogression, retrogres- 
sion ! At the beginning of that term, an overwhelming Protes- 
tant majority in Euro]>e; at the end of the three hundred 
years, two Catholics there for every one Protestant. Among 
ourselves, at the present day, Protestants and Roman Catholics 
both increasing, indeed ; but at a ratio of increase so different, 
in each sect respectively, that if it continues for a third of a 

* Already quoted, with context, at page 44. Men, in the orthodox 
tanks, who have probably bestowed more thought on this subject 
than IBiacaulay, have reached conclusions similar to his. 

*^ The same impediment which prevents the formation of Theology 
^denoe, is also manifestly fatal to the theory which assert itspfv* 
9 devdopmmV^—TilLAjRSEi, : Limits ofBdiffUnu Thought^ 4th Ed., 
0, 1859. (Bampton Lectures. ) The italics are in the odginaL 

pocairr cut i 

: TIIK HAME List. 


1 Cktliolica wiJl ontonmber Prutestnnu io 

I eeniary mon!, Rdini 
[ the fnitml Stolrai.* 

Hiiw tnnrli lotignr Ptti wci to wait for tlto tunung of tha 
fc EI|MniiuiI litlq? If wo fight out ihtn fight of Giith on the « 
f line, wlikt muntiablo Lkihi » th«ro iJiat tlio tid« will turn 
\ wo- CiTor «t all ? 

onitioD continued throughout bo lar^ n portion at 
ml hUtury — ^Dft«r so poraintont u trial rosulting iu Buch' 
» failura— ought iro atill to coutiniio the strife, with 
BlroBt Qiiduuigiidi hoping against hopu in tho future? 

— Ilo]>iiig aguuKt hopnl For ffhat a tfrriblo thing would il 
f Im li) ouucluilo that it wits Christ's very tiiiu.hiiigs, spiritual bimI 
eUiical, which bav« htwn on probation for three c«utiiriMi, ia> 
tine aumt auli^tfatruoil {■»nii>iiH of tlie worM, anil tluit liavo lottfc 
ipwuul throughuat all that time, and are losing it sliU, n^iainiifc 
■ Chtudt that procUinu tbn Oltinuio and tho Infolliblo to ba 
ban, and doniM to tbo rvligions elcmont in mun alikv liberty 
md profpon ! 

X^ 0* glanon »t tho mpordi as a c^nnrctrd wbnlc, in a truxt- 

Bful, and caoilid, and calboUc spirit, «r« w« adopt a condosioa 

Itbat Biigfat well caun ihoughtTu) tnun to rognrd tho future of 

r nc« with despair. 

Hm Chriatian rooord conuats of five nsmtivos — four, by 
tt £nngotialS| of tlw daings ami sayings of Christ, on« of 
s of bia diflciplos — aad (aside from tJio Apocolypao) | 
of twentjT'Oue KpbttoS) two-thirds of th{>Be prnnod by i'aul, , 
wbo knvw uot the GicM Tisadier, nor boli«vcd iu his teaching! 1 
till after Ida cnwilbtkni; tho tmt (witli the oxcnplion of two 1 
or Ifan* fMfpa),! wiittea by tb* three obtof among lh« I 

t " Tha BpiiUs of Jod* la loo OBinpottaBt to be a ttx^ry ; bw [Mr- | 
« bg itapoken, dooIiI li*n been mora 
-Dbtiemmr^vftSa mu, art. "Jadu," t<-J>u^ l>7 Wli^ 
[, Ui D.. iuarioan n|«tat, BaMaa, 1»'>-i < 


Twelve* whom their Master, at the commencement of hia pab 
lie labors, selected as special associates and co-workers. 

Of the Evangelists, two certainly (Matthew and John) wer« 
Apostles who had daily opportunities, throughout three years, 
of personal intercourse with Jesus, while it seems likely thai 
the two others also, Mark and Luke, may have known him, 
and heard, from his own lips, many of the discourses they re- 
corded. I 

Now, with these ancient J expositions of Christian histoi^ 
and doctrine all open before them, how did the Leaders of the 
Reformation proceed to construct for the world a system of 
dogmatic theology ? 

Substantially, by selecting portions of two epistles, both 
-svritten by the only one of the New Testament authors as to 
whom wc know that he never was acquainted with Jesus nor 
ever sat under his ministiy ; and by employing these as foun- 
dations and comer-stone of their entire spiritual edifice: the 
foundations being laid in the utter depravity of all human 
beings ; their condemnation by their Maker, as criminals, to 
eternal torments ; the impossibility of deliverance from these 
torments by any virtuous effort, how earnest and persistent 

* ' ' The three, Peter, James, and John, are with their Lord when none 
else are ; in the chamber of death (Mark v. 87), in the gloiy of the 
transfi^ratioii (Matthew xvU. 1), when he forewams them of the de- 
struction of the Holy City (Mark xiii. 3, Andrew, in this instance, with 
them), in the agony of Gcthsemane/' — Dictionary of the Bible^ art. 
'' John," voL i. p. 1105. 

f The ^^ young man" mentioned Mark xiv. 51, is usually supposed to 
be Mark himself. In like manner, Luke is believed by many to have 
been one of the two disciples to whom Christ showed himself after 
death, on the journey to Emmaus ; or, at all events, to have been one 
of the Seventy. See Dictiotiary of the Bible^ vol. ii. p. 151. 

X The narrative of Matthew is admitted to be the oldest of the Qob- 
pels, written, as some will have it, eight or ten years only after Chzist*! 
ieath, but more probably about the year 50 ; Mark and Luke appear to 
iiave written some ten or twelve years later, and John towazdtha qLqm 
of the first centozy , perhaps about the year 00, or 05. 


': uid t^«QOnior>BUi!)e* buin^ tlu!&'!ca|ie toetemkl hiip[ii* 
t tt m/m hiuiilful out of a vast iniiUiluilr, f si^loctcd not 
« the; weiv b'jlU-T tLiui tlu.-ir IbllowH — liid more good, wera 
mtal in llwir ilay niid guciTiilioii — but becsiiiu^ th«jr 1ib4 
d ttmuticUnnf fiulh; th" linil, tliat this ntinuUi fnelioa' 
«tf hmnui khid, ivml Uid^ nlono, pi-n-cU'cted of Uod, an- anvml 
from pEnlition hy mi nctnal trwniirer of tlicir sinn l« ono of llio 
tlin« pcrKfiM of ibc UiHllinoil, mid liy tliti l^itibk ngoiites suf- 
1 h; tlial Ho\j t'onion ; | tb<.i aoomtd (o>iiutUf iin^ioi-tiinl), 
dwt tlM7 tbcmiwlvvR are among tlioM Uod-fkct^ fuw. 

I tltiuk all cftr^ul aiid candid studciitA of tho Chrifttuw Scrip- 
I tnra «lll Mlmit UiKt had th« two EputtlcN, to tlia llumans nnj 
I tw lh« 0«l1*(uuu, ni-vvr hiiun writtoa, or never bivn inclitdnd in 
I tbo cMiou of tho Hvw TiatumiTnt, the nbocti ilogiiui* would 
or h*vv IxcomK Uii: hwda of I'mtostiuituiai. I do not duny 
t if wv wiIiHit Boqw aix or «ifi;bt cha|>U'r« out of tU(>sa twa 
' Ep iw tlM, ■hatung our crjrn to thu rest of tlio CliriKtwD Scrip* 

* IoUmt rrMtnU; NRWd^ oa littio bettor tlun uutoiuta all wha 
^Mtadfrcini tlHtdoctiiiu of irapatin] rig'l'lt^'^st""*. " If UiDoilJd* 

lot JB^iBnuUin Utoooa tuM."ial<l he, "thnn U otl tmc doculuA Iwt; 

f «m] iw uianj u mra In IIm wurtil tliat linlil i>»t Vlii* dcNitrina xn nllbic 
Jr*^ Tuib, P»phl», or Hcn-tiaa." - Ai^nxtil to t'omiitt»t'irf oft 

Aadia(d«fiiwTit*naf Mithorftj'aniatigProtfatAiitBitill takeaainiDu 
«Unr. " Ib aar ikf wa havo loit »l{rh.t of tii>i ixinlltiai ili>ctria« of ]n» 
tUk«Uoal7l*iiJL . . . ThopriiH-iH'oIin'tilinillini I'TOod'alM* 
(taoa, vhirli dalitm^ llic Ctnirali rroin lurli ilrrp ilarJaiisia at th* 
period of tha RrfonootioiL, on nluur rcoeir thU Kvocmtion— iuaword, 
totaf iMDit to Uol tfcn kotI'I lh»l ha» rnntukioi Him."— UkiiLB 
IT ArmwiXK : ffut-^ ef tJir ftffi'i-.i^tiifH, Book 3. 

t CUvtn pat* tt tfm more itroiiglT : be apcaki of [nofonota of nUK- 
bs aa " » p«Kt mnhiinili) in vbieli Uin cbtlilprji of Cod an, alaal Iwl 
k kaadfuJ tt nkmoma Tf90^r\ Ilka a tew gtalna on the thnatiiiv-<tBor 
^Ar • pMt baap of itnir.'* /ni<, B.4,C. I. 

t"V«n^r baa^M what <b«Mlf aland bonriUa BBOttiM ChiM not 
It Uta titbosal of 0«1, 
-t-ut. , 0. 3, C. U, g 13. 


turcs, we may logically deduce from the^e some such sdieme of 
redemption as the Reformers set up. 

Had Luther and Calvin a right to make this exclusive selec- 
tion ? Beyond doubt Luther held to that opinion. With his 
usual feai'lessness, he claimed the privilege to judge the entire 
record, holding fast to what seemed to him from the Lord and 
leaving the rest. Following the spirit of a Pauline text,* he 
says : '^ Doubtlelb the prophets studied IMoses, and the later 
prophets studied the earlier ones, and wrote down in a book 
their good thoughts, inspired by the Holy Ghost. And though 
these good and true teachers and searchers sometimes fell upon 
hay, straw, and wood, and did not build of pure silver, gold, and 
precious stones alone, yet the foundation remains." f 

He makes the distinction between the message and the mes- 
senger, saying elsewhere : " When I hear Moses enjoining good 
-works, I hear him as I do one who executes the order of an 
Emperor or prince. But this is not to hear God himself." J 

Nor must we imagine that Luther i-estricted his liberty of 
choice and rejection to the old Testament. One of the most 
outspoken of mankind, he sometimes lets us into the inner 
workings of hi:i mind — a curious study. He advises those who 
find difiiculty in reconciling other portions of scripture with his 
favorite texts from Galatians, to reply to an adversary after this 
wise : " Thou settest against me the servant, that is to say the 
Scripture, and that not wholly but certain passages toudiing 
the law and works. But I come with the Lord himself who is 
above the Scripture. . . . On Him I hold ; Him I stick 
to and leave works imto thee. . . . Hold iast to this and 
lay it against all the sentences of the law and say : ^ Dost 

* 1 Corinthians iii. 13. 

f The passage occurs in the Ptefaoe to Luther^s Commentaries on the 
favr books of Moses .- (" Annotat. tiber die fttnf BQcher MoeeB.*') 

The reader will find, in Breitechneider's work entitled Luther und 
eeine Zcit (1817), pp. 07-09, the freer opinions of Lnther about inqpii»> 
tion, brought together. 

t Bee Walch*8 collection of Lather's works, vol. vii. p. 9044. 


n 1 

lbs* htkr Lhu, Sntan?' lien Ito must uecda give plae», I 
Ibr ba kiu>w« tlmt Chriitt is hia Lord luul MusLer." * 

Wo find a rvmarkablo oxAiupln n{ tho bold manner Id which j 
Latlwr btUiiJ out thuse Kf^ntinipnts. Jaoius, m we have soeiii 
wu (MKi of tlie itiint prominrtit among Cbnst'B apostlM, To 
hiiD,w(ioath« lud truRtj-d on earth, jRnuanpiMmnKl after bia 
(l«*tli.f Fuil,OQiiiiii:; ht Jnruaalom and finding thn disciple* 
afraid of tun — am not bnlicviiig him to bo a dinciplo — was 
bnMgbl bjr Uanuhui to VbO^t lUfl Juiiiw, nnd by thnm ammd- 
Unl to tbm hntlinax. X Aft4-nrnrd Jniutii rcncliod tho iiigbest 
oOoM of UiMt in thn gifl of th» rar\y (.ihrintitin Church. § 

Bat thia discing inhrd apoHtln, ntithor of tlia rpistle which I 
Imw* bia name, acta forth iu thai c-piAtlc doctrine iliamotrically 
ii|l|iiw<l to Paut'a justification by fiiith without works. 
Umi* IMKihw that failh aloite cannot aavc, Bocing that Uio dovjla i 
kIm fadiere uid tremUe; finally declaring, "As tho bod/ j 
wtibuat the ifiirit i» iluad, so fiuth without workii is dnul | 
aba.*' I 

* Oawa/aMrfM an (A0 Oiftftiam* ; m olup. iii. v 

B 10, Id 

I JUI goBimcDtaton atn afrMl that it la to thia Jnnuw that Um but 
1 QvfaUL ST. 7, apfUlUi. Tlic aiipMitioci aocnui to huro btvn Bat 
^naaOr to hlin ; ahcrwaid lo aU the ^qNMtlaii. 

J AtU ix. 27. Witb tUa t«t cmnfMra (MoUoiu li. \%. 10, wbw* . 
Tmk. afbu ateUcr Uiat be aaw Peter atul abode witli him BXtcMi daj*. 
■lUi : ■' fi«t odier of tke aponllRa saw I noae, lan Jamea, the Lond'i 
bantbct " 

fi A D. 4D, ha WB* rrtaldrat i-f tliv ApnO^io CounnQ. LatT be km 
fntmalljr Biipoiatfit by tin; ApmUoa Buhup of JoroMleoi. Per Ua «x- 
L lilag «pdfbtna* fa« na ■nraajaad '"Hib Jiwt."— Son Slimi'e 
jJU^^wiiryi/rt* AMr, ml I p. DM. 

I yam* U. 96. Hut Uia Apntk'a atatemcnt of thia dootdiui mm 
tjyw^ Ifcal^laJf of Uia ch^ltw. wraw U iu Bfl. AlMaham and 
JUbab era apoLaa of aa hsring bnoi iudtfted bjr woilu : awl Jamae 
mMb : " To mm boa Ibal t>r oodm a man b Jnatiflod, and not bjr faith 

<^^"-*. M. 

I A> Mit ailega that Juna meaat la wkj that a man can Aim jnatiA* 
MltaalvwHcb*; aor4oIlaUava|]uth«h>U(uUMdoiibiaeottwtl>J 



Now hov does Luther deal with such a passage as this> fiom 
no eminent a source ? Curtly enough. More logical or more 
<mndid than some of his conmientators who have sought to 
reconcile the in-econcilable, he i*ejects the authority ; declaring 
that Jameses entire contribution to the New Testament is but 
" an Epistle of straw." * Marvellous example of the effect 
wldch maybe produced in an enthusiastic mind, when it dwells, 
with the partiality of love, on a favorite dogma ! f 

That the bold Eeformer was entitle<i to the privilege here 
assumed, every friend of religious freedom will admit, whatever 
he may think of good Martinis discretion in the mode of exer- 
cising it. Far be it from me to deny to Luther, or to any 
honest, earnest seeker after ti-uth, the right to judge for him- 
self, as regards the Bible, between the gold and silver and the 

fication as a reward of well-doiog, hat only as a consequent of g^ood 

* ^^Epistola etraminea" is Luther^s expression: it occurs in his 
preface to the New Testament. A writer in the Dictionary of the 
Bible (vol. i. p. 92G), says : *^ Lather seems to have Mrithdrawn the 
expression, after it had boon two years before the world." I find no 
proof whatever of this. Garlstadt, a contemporary of Lather and the 
author of a work entitled De Cahonida Scrtpturis, reprehends Lather 
for his opinion about James (Hagenbach^s History of Doctrinen^ vol. 
ii. note to page 241) ; but the great Reformer was not a man to shrink 
from an opinion once published, because an opponent attacked it. 

f The Epistle thus summarily dealt with is filled with the noblest 
pafisages, and holds more strictly to the spirit of Christ's teachings than 
any other embraced in the Canon. Compare James i. 5 ; i. 26 ; ii 8, 
9 ; ii. 13 ; iii. 17 ; v. 1 ; v. 12 ; the last clause of v. 16, and other texts 
from this Epistle, with the words of Jesus. This apostle*s strict ad- 
hcrence to his Master's doctrine may be partly due to the fact that his 
Epistle is the earliest in date ; being written, as is usually calculated, 
about twelve years only after Christ's death. 

James is, more preeminently than any other Apostle, the moral 
teacher of the New Testament. Where have we a more excellent 
definition of religion than he has given us ? *^ Pure religion and nnde- 
filed before €k)d and the Father is this, to visit the f atheden and the 
widows in their afiiiction, and to keep one^s self anq[>otted from the 



^B M 

■ dnu 

wd ainw wluck it may cocUb. Thfn, too, wo must ad. 
lh«groatiiii|>orlAocaof tli^dutinctionwliirh LutliPr sets up 

.««eo the UM-ttage Mul fhe BiHmengei-, We hesr God througli 
fiis work* iir hu inbtrpretera noly ; and that, as Luther re- 
■ind* «•, "b not to lie«r GmI himiwir." 

ThiM only I u«*ert, that it wan not the grand tystfTO of spin- 
tnal mUc* taii^t by JMniii whicJi wa« atTmt«Hi in its progress 
Ssr entUiriiea, wliirli &ilc<l tn mako ticadmiy aitainst linmaa 
diiaMBta of infatlitritity, wbich Inxt mitro than half ttio grouii4 
it h«il fpiiwKl, whirh «aniiot hoM iU own against tho Roinau 
Uoiwcfay toHlny^it wu but lut Augii«tiTiian rommcutary on 
■HUM of tho Bc)ioIa«ticisins of St. Paul. 

I ftnd abundaut proof of this uiaertioii iu tlie gospel record, 
talcm aa a wboK In ita gtmoml angMV^ what do we fiud to be 


10. 8riKJT A>t> TKArnixnc or Ciikibtuxitv loxrAREU witb 
tmfx vr ('alvdhsth' aku Lvtuviah Tir»>i.iioy. 

rvll, after countlcM ages uiorkctl with fitful stnig* 
■ only hnranl iIm light, to ttim over n leaf in the vorld'a 
', anil lie^n to data ita yt^n afmh, from tho tima 
when, at laat, a TiMcher apnkn tci ita heart and Ui tbi: alTL-clioaa 
Utent crrutinl and tu the npirit of (toil then? dormant ; in*l«ail 
f atUrowng iu frar*, ita Bii]>mtitio&«, and iM evil paamowa. 
Igaonttcn or rynicisiii alnnp (l<>nic« or ovorlonLs th» oionU 
i B{iiritnn) {•r^>^ii> <^r mankind. Ihit lo what ia tliat prtig- I 
'i I'-nt tnour racK as ia thuvital prin> I 
d]>W i:i I •w-cluil fofvBt-tn«~a sinnt tliat I 

banily i: : dmiugb tho U>ug, banru vintnr of j 

uiEut t:,<f<ii ii«»,iain«dto raergy in tJua ■pnng-tinHi 
■ IftUrrt ^Oe Jt-fBrmaUMULaadm, IMO), p. B7. 


of civilization, puts forth, of its kind, fresh, green leafage, to 
gladden the world. 

How is this spirit named ? Wlien it stills, in the individual, 
or the nation, the fierce impulses of combativenesB, and bids 
discard brutal force and substitute the mild appliances of reason, 
it is called Peace. When it softens the asperity of human 
codes, and tempers indignation against the wrong-doer, wo name 
it Mehcy. When it seeks, in a neighbor's conduct, the good 
and not the evil ; when it respects, in othei-R, indei>endence of 
thought and speech, and finds in honest difference of opinion 
no cause of offence ; its name is Charity. When it attracts us 
to our fellow-creatures, of every tribe and tongue, impelling us 
to take them by the hand and do them good, we call it Kind- 
ness. By whatever name, under all its phases, a gentle spirit ; 
eminently civilizing, humanizing ; the herald of virtue, the dis« 
pen.scr of happiness. 

As it happens that, while winter still lingeringly maintains 
dominion over earth, there sometimes intervenes a day of bright 
sunshine, harbinger of othei-s, WT.rmeis and brighter yet, to 
come ; so is it also v/ith the changing seasons of the spiritual 
world. There Jiave been gleams of premature brightness shed 
ovoj* an ago still too wintry for their maintenance ; liiere float^s, 
sometimes, the faint fragrance of a summer yet afar off. 

Of this there have been marked examples^ far back in human 

history. In these we dimly recognize the divine efflation. But 

wo recognize it as we do the remote star in the night-heaven. 

Star and sun shine upon us alike with celestial light ; yet there 

is one glory of the sun, enlightener of the earth, and another 

of the pale, twinkling star. And never, in all the history of 

our race, has the gentle spirit of which I have spoken been 

heralded to humankind as it was, more than eighteen centuiies 

since, in one of the Asiatic dependencies of the Roman Empire. 

A voice from Galilee, first heard by fisheimen, its earliest 

cachings caught up by publicans and sinners, has reached, 

Ibeit through the din of controversialism, tho entire ciyilized 



Aside from parasitic subtleties of doctrine which have com- 
monly enkindled zeal in the inverse ratio of their practical im- 
portance, what is the mast«3r-principle, pervading the entire 
code of Christian 8|>iritualisin and Christian morality, — giving 
it life and character, conspicuously distinguishing it from the 
Jewiiih and all other harsh systems of an austere Past ? 

It is, as to God, the regarding Him not as an implacable 
Sovereign, armed with the terrors of the Law, whose wrath is 
a consuming fire ; but as a dear Father — his tender mercies 
over all his other works — who exacts not long prayer nor for- 
mal sacrifice ; accepting, as most fitting service to Himself, the 
aid and comfort we may have given to His sufiering creatures. 
And, as to man, it is the substitution, in all his afiiiirs, whether 
international, legislative, litigant, executive, or social, of the 
law of kindness for the rule of violence. It is the replacement, 
throughout God^s world, of war by jwace, of severity by hu- 
manity: for contention the enthronement of meekness; and fur 
hatred, of love. 

We find, indeed, scintillations from such a spirit dating prior 
to the Christian era : in tlio Grecian schools of philosophy, es- 
|N<ciaUy from the lips of Socrates s|>eukiiig through the tran- 
MTlpts of Plato ; and even coming to us from an earlier school, 
in the moral code promulgated by the great sage of China, the 
contemporary of Pythagoras and of Solon. Confucius, twenty- 
four centuries since, forltade revenge of injuries, commended 
clemency, denounct^l self-righteousness, and declared that the 
rery foundation of all law was this, that we should do as we 
would be done by.* 

But what was subordinate injunction or incidental embellish- 
ment only in older codes is of the Christian system the soul 
and i*s9pnce. Scarce a maxim but it colors ; hardly a precept 

* Tela : Life and MoraU of Confudu$^ reprinted from tho edition 
of 1(391 (Loodoo. 1818) ; pp. 80, 82, 89, 02. But Confacius inculcated 
Latred of bad men, as of the slanderer, tho reviler, the man wise in 
kis own coiioeit, the fool who ocnsuros (p. 91). Com|)arc with thli^ 


to which it does not give tone. It is not one of many minia' 
trant spirits, but the presiding deity. Love is the fulfilling of 
the Law. 

It would be wrong to say that such a system was out of 
j)lace eighteen hundred yeara ago, under a rule of legal ven- 
geance and a code of retaliation. Even in those days, as long 
before, the still small voice in human natui'e, though commonly 
drowned by the clang of arms and the noisy conflict of rude 
passions, doubtless bore witness, when it could be heard above 
the tumult, in favor of the new philosophy ; testifying to its 
justice, sympathizing with its kindly spirit. And to this 
sti^adfast ally within the citadel is to be ascribed its preserva- 
tion amid the hostile elements around. 

Yet one can hardly imagine anything more at variance with 
the temper of Christianity than the everyday thoughts and 
doings of men, not only at the period whence it dates, but long 
thereafter. And it is a thing very remarkable that the name was 
adopted and revered, age aft«r age, while scarcely pretence was 
maintained of obedience to the gentle precepts that character- 
ized it. The warrior-monk of Malta, after he had lost, amid 
luxury and license, eveiy virtue except valor, called himself a 
Christian. The half-million of cinisaders who six centuries 
since assembled at the call of Father Dominic, and marched 
forth, the cross emblazoned on their breasts, to exterminate the 
schismatic Waldenses — laid claim to the title of Christian pil- 
grims. Torquemada — he who during one brief inquisitoriate 
burned five tliousand heretics,* and gave up ten times that num- 
ber to torture or other pimishment — caused the rack to be 
stretched and the martyr-fire to be kindled, by the authority of 
Christianity. Like the disciples demanding fire from heaven to 
consume the inhospitAble Samaritans, these men knew not what 
manner of spirit animated Him, whom they vainly professed to 
follow and to serve. 

* Variously estimated, by different writers, from two to elgbt Ifacm- 
isnd. I have ossamed the mean, which I judge from tho evideiioe to bf 
under ra^er than over the truth. 



Ml etulicat and wont [irofkiiatious of her namo, 
tiitjruKt Icngili onicrgui;;. We Lave probably outliverl 
t religion* perMwution unto death. You can epeak ol 
n OnthoUiasni uki] lof Culviimm, witbout risk that cither 
uf u> ttlioald bo bruu^it to (Im t>ti*ku. 

Cwlor f*vor uf titia frwdom, £ niay auk you ili«passLouate1y 
^^h nUect Imw hr the theology taught by the Leaders of tho 
^HUofuuliuD cunforooa to, or diver^ from, tho religion of 
^fptist. The suhject akould be approttchixl— reverently, prayer 
^^niBy, yM — but fiRU-ltoaly also. The truth makotlt froo. 

I admit, in ndvnniM), ihiit a doctrinal syst«ui which, in various 
pItaKs, lioa pcTvadud Cliiiat^udam for fifteen him<lrod yours, 
may rightfully di-tuttnd to ho rDBpectfidly ilealt with by the his- 
tariaOi tho iiliiUionian, tho |iIuliBtH>pher. W« may lutlonally as- 
•uDH!, Uiu, that iu a cxTtuin Htagu of luvutal devi^lopntent, such 
■ ayucui, like war, mny have liail ibi luiwuon. Yt^l thlfl thtwry 
dues aat \mt the hy|iotbn(ts tliut its daya are numlwiisd, or llwt 
its niaai'in U alrtwly f«dtillod. To everything tlxn-n is asouoD. 
Ltko ibo du)(uiu — as auciciuL na itself, and atiLl nomiiuttly 00- 
cvjrbid by tma huudrvid millions of poo[ilu — that tlii! Holy 
Ubott •vor guides, tixcltwlvoly and witli imturing wisdom, tho 
ooa only true and l^tliulic Church — the doctrine of innate and 
incimblo depravity, nu] 'plenum te<l by vicarious atonement, uiny 
be daaliDcd *|)nodily lo [nub uway. 

If it sImII a{>i<(ar that sut^h a doetriue, though taught liy Taul, 
(indliau with thu aiyiDgs of Jcaua, then wo aliall b« rvlinvml 
iniA Um daqNUrtog oonclusion that Ciirititianity is lonng 
KToand, flODlury by ocatnry- 1^ ''' shall further ap|WMr that 
tiutte bvonlA dognias tend tu retard thd progrcsaof civilisation 
and In lower tlie itaadanl of morality,* thtm we umxI not nc- 

■ In mmm of tha snoosntinc pa|«>, I shsU sfiosk. at lans*. of PiM- 
ai7 lusuliwriwi MosawliQa, if tba doctriiM ut Luthur avfllos not, 
m tte afM of By cIhImI nadsn. ta jnatif r tas In s—i iwhi g U to bd , 
in^Ua tkat « Cnr of 8L FWll's cha|>tan ars bat stnw Inslsad of 
g^4_ laS thsM l« nmindad wbaA mm of tlis BMt lunlnait and anllciiS- 
■Dsd aiwn^ te ili|iillsilei uf Iko fefl'**' Ohoffih has laft oa R 


cept Max$aulay's corollary that there is no progressive element 
in our religion, and no security, in the future, against any the- 
ological fallacy of the past. 

In a brief address like this, it is impracticable to collate the 
wi-i tings of Calvin and Luther with the teachings of Christ. 
Text crowds on text ; one would have to transcribe half the 
biography of the Testament. 

And how unnecessary would be such a collation, if we of 
this generation could but examine that Testament uninfluenced 
by preconceptions ! 

Let us imagine Christendom to have known, until the pres- 
ent day, no Bible save Calvin's Institutes and Luther's Gal^ 
tian Commentary. Let us suppose it to be receiving for the 
first time, now under the lights of the nineteenth century, the 
utterances of him whom it calls " Lord, Lord," — to be reading 
the just-found words of Jesus, as the peasantry of Germany and 
ICnglaud read them fresh from the pens of Luther and of Tyn- 
dalc. Ah! small need would there be then of comment or 
st lulled comparison! The theology that rejoices in its ortho- 
doxy to-day would melt away in a single year before the glow 
of the teachings by the sea and of the Sermon on the Mount. 

Thus emerging to view, what a record would it be to us ! — 
with first impressions undulled by formal iterations ; with con- 
victions still to be formed, not perverted from earliest child- 
hood into antiquated grooves ; its words fresh with their orig- 
inal meaning ; no dogmatic gloss to dim its simple lessons ; no 
obscuring commentary to cloud its priceless truths. Some 
things, no doubt, would startle us ; others might cause us to 

*' I express myself with caution lest I should be mistaken to vilify 

■on ; which is, indeed, the only faculty we have wherewith to judge 

"^QiQoemiiig anything, even revelation itself : or be undeistood to assert 

Huppoeed revelation cannot be proved false from internal ohatao- 

r it may contain clear immoralities or oontradictioiis ; and eitfaex 

would prove it false.**— Bishop Butleb : Analogy ((fJEUUghn^ 

ihap. 8, p. 201. (London Ed., 1809.) 


csH in question the accuracy of the biographer^s recollections. 
A portion of Luther^s '^ hay and stravtr," we sliould detect ; bul 
the pure gold would b3 readily recognized ; the grand founda- 
tion would remain.* 

" Repent, for the kingdom of Heaven is at hand ! " f These 
would bo the firat words of exhortation that mot our eye. 
Next we should learn that the '^ gosi>el of the kingdom'^ was 
preached.* Tlio gospel ! That word would come to us in ita 
etymological purity, § not overlaid by suggestions of catechism 
and faith-confessions. It would inform us that Jesus, the 
AxoiNTED,! came a Messenger of Good Tidings. 

Oood tidings ? — to us who had been hearing such as these ? 
" Every tiling in man, the understanding and will, the body and 

* I may here advert to what I have touched ui)on elsewhere in this 
Tolame that, in a general way, I regard the three synoptical gospels — 
the eaxlier written — as much more reliable than the lat^r bio^aphy of 
John ; and I have therefore chiefly, though not entirely, trusted to 
them for Christ's teachings. The nearer (in time) to the Master, the 
more we find of the gold and the hrss of the dro»8. 

It is remarkable that Justin Martyr, who usually refers to his an- 
thorjtics specifically, never quotes either of the Evangelists by name ; 
bat. instead, what he calls : Afrmoirs of the AjWMflrji. The remarka- 
ble coiincidcncos not only in incident, but often almoftt literal, between 
the three ■jnoptical gospels seem to point to some common origin for 
these biographies; and it has been suggested that this common source 
may have been a Memoir or Biography, drawn up from the recoUcc- 
tioQS of Christ's relatives, his Apostles, and other prominent disciples, 
aoon after the crucifixion. This seems to mo a reasonable hypothesis. 

t Slatthew ir. 17 ; Mark i. 15. 

t Matthew It. 23 ; Mark i. U. 

$ It would be superfluous, but that it is so often overlooked, to recall 
to the reader^s memory that the word gf^pH (god-spell) derives from the 
tmo An^o-Saxou words : God, good ; and «/)f ii, history or tidings. 

I The titles *' The Christ '* and '* The Messiah '' hardly recall to us 
BOW the fact, that both mean simply The AnciiUed; the former in 
Qxeek, the latter in Hebrew. 

The disciples, soon after the crucifixion, * * lifting up their voioo to 
God with OD6 accord," designated their Master (Acta iv. 27) as *' Th« 
ho^ child Jesos, whom Thoa hast anointed.** 


soul, Is polluted. * . . . Gud finds notLiug iii 
can incite liim to lileaa them." f 

What good tidings, then ? These— 

" Blessed are the poor in spirit ; for theirs is the kingdom 
of heaven. Blussed ure they that mouru ; for they nhiill he 
comfoi-ted. Blessed are the meek, for they shall iiiherit tht* , 
eartti. Blesaed are ihey wbioh do huiigev nud thii'st i 
righteousness, fur they shall be filled. Blessed are the merQ 
ful; fur they shall obtain tnercy. Blessed are the pure 
heart; fur they shall see God. Blessed are the peaco-makei 
for they ahull be called the childreu of God." J 

So, i^aia, to cars accustomed to doctrine like this: 
children are diipiawed from their very hirth ; . . . 
whole nature miutb be odions and uhominable to Qod " g — boil^ 
would sound the good tidingH brought by another TeachenJ 
guiding us from darknoaa to tlie " light of life " ? || 

" JesiiR took little children in his arms and blessed theiq 
saying: ' Of such is the Kingdom of Heaven:' and to his dis*^ 
ciples he added: ' Except ye receive the Kingdom of God as r 
little child, ye cannot enter therein.' " H 

Yet again : In tho gosjMl fi-om Geneva we had been accus- 
tomed to 1*60(1 : " The whole world does uot belong to its Cra%- 1 
tor : , . . grace delivers from the curse and wrath of Go^H 
a few, , . , but leaves the world to ita destruction. ** . . .4 
I stop not to notice those fojmtics who pretend thtit grace i> 
offered equally to all,"'|'t 

But bow would our hearts wann within us wheu we found, 
BSn the Gospel from Galilee, invitation to all tliose who labor 
lend are heavy -lnd<;n upon earth : "Ask, and it shall be givai 
■ you; sack, and ye shall find ; knock, and it shall be opened 
t asketli receiveth, and he t 

a you ; 

r erwy o 

• See prsofdiug pnge 73. 1 Luke iviiL 15-17. 

t Hoc preceding page 74. ■• Bee the woids ol Calvin at p 

i HnttLe* v. 3-10. cedmg page 73. 

g See preceding jiagcs li, 75. ft ^<^ preceding page 73i> 

I Jolm viu. 13. 

^^V Lmtl^Rl^iaEU AND L-mUETIAXITT. ] 

^^Badi, 6imIkUi ; jiad to liim that knocketli it shall be opened. 

^^H Ify^ Imng eTJI, knov l)i>w to give good giftit unto your chtl- 

^^BdnRi, bow murfa tnoro nhnll your Fathoi* which in in Ht^aveit, 

^^■rgnrv good f^iflfi to them that oak Him ? " * 

^^^F Nor Hhoulii we find the teachings that liud come from Wiv! 

^^Pl«nber{t lo S|Cr(«, any bvitcr tlum Ciijvuiiaiu, with thn tiding! 

I fnini Nu&rnib, Bl l»M laid upuu hi'furc nn ; i»e'w<^ ihut Liithr* 

kwl t«t^^t im in thiswiMi: "To tuy (Iiut failh iauotlung 

■ IflH charily be jointed witlinl, ii n ilcrllijtli ttnd blnB]>huitu>uB 

^^M doetriucf . . . Every doer of tlio law ami tvcry nionl 

^^B worknr ih occuraed." J 

^^V But in the nrw gi>«pf>l wn shnuld find Christ SRying : " When 

^^ Hum aiaknt a fcajit, call tho poor, thn maimed, tlio liunt 

blind ; and ihou shalt bo hlftgecd : ibry ouinut rcnnotponM 
UM), bat thou ihalt be recomjwnncd at t)io rogiir recti on of th« 

mid probably cull U> mind, loo, timt from WitUnw 
I beard : " IIci that wyn the goH[wl nNjuinai works 
, I ««y, flat and plain, in n Urir." || 
a we u[mn tliat go*pr-l itiutlf, bow diflWvnt the read- 
fWhoauevL-r >1iall do oiid li-orl) thu commundmonta, tlM 
n \m eallnd grmt in lln^ Kinjidfim of Heaven." ^ 
As m prooocdod in tlio bcautjfiil go«}>ol4tory, ntrw tar*^ 
fnmn woald moot \i» »t every KU>p. 

Hut liuiar of tbo olden time, was ahc, with her many mim, 
f«i]giTaa bMKUM she Mintd much ? Vr'o should find tba 
noetil to ratd — " becanso sh« tovtd mnch/ 

And tlint otlter sinner, sot in the midst for ronduBnation,. 
via abn htdo to go and boliovo that a Holy Vicar bons hi!r< 
naaf Vuily, uo. We should Icoru th*t rIiib waa l«fL uoroti* 
iemaeA and bade lo " go ami sin no luore." ft 

That itnyer of prayem (it would aeeot lo hb, GeoeTa-Uto^lJf j 
• MatthowTiLII. !& 

i Sm pwiwdiiiy pace M. ■■ Lake rtU. 47. 

I XuktslT. 13, 14. tt John rliL ID. 




ought not to have read : " Forgive us our sins as we forgive 
them that sin against us ; " * but thus : " Reckon it to us for 
righteousness that our sins are transferred to thy Son and that 
we are elected of Thee." 

Then, again, when amid Christ's good tidings we heard of the 
great "joy in Heaven over one sinner that repenteth," the 
question would be sure to arise : " Why, when a sinner re- 
pents, should there be joy at all, if it be election, and not re- 
pentance, that has power to save ? " 

But chiefly would the wondrous narrative-teachings of Jesus 
be likely to arrest our attention ; and what profound subject 
for thought should we find in them ! 

Suppose that, fresh from the Reformer's scheme of atone- 
ment, we came upon that noblest of parables, the story of the 
prodigal son. The father (we should read) bade bring forth 
the best robe and put it on him, and a ring on his hand and 
shoes on his feet. Was this advancement (typical of God's 
good-will to a sinner) due to the son's sudden adoption of a 
dogma, and to his obtain belief that he was favored of his 
father and destined to happiness ? "A thousand times, no I " 
(we should have to reply). It was due to the lost one's hu- 
mility and repentance; to his sorrow for the past, and his 
resolution to lead an amended life of usefulness, even in a 
menial's place. " Father, I have sinned against Heaven and 
before thee, and am no more worthy to be called thy son; 
make mo as one of thy hired servants." 

N«^Kt, perhaps, reaching the parable of the man travelling 
into a far country, we might be reading how he called his 
servants and delivered to them his goods; how one servant 
improved the talents he had received and to him it was said : 
" Enter into the joy of thy Lord : " then how another servant 
left his talent unemployed, and was sent " into outer darkness." 
Straightway it would suggest itself to us that, unless we had 

* There axe two slightly variant vexBioiui : Matthew vL 12, 14; 
aadLukexi, 4. 


101 1 

boen mulcl by blind U-itclicr^, tliu pwnblo oiiglit to hava stalcdl 
Uiftt the ono itt>rv»ul, vha soii^lit jiintificAtion tliruugli 
wdtIu bo liAtl ilunp, wiM toM thnt no utan cnii ho JtiHtiltnil byfl 
works, and m>, diniDigwi-il to " wooping und gmudiiug of U-otli : ' 
while Uw i>tber, wUo Inutnd not to wotkd, idiould Iwte I 
infonncd lluil if hn ooiitidcntlj bolioved that lie bwl 1 
' elected to enter on tlin jav of Lia Lord, it iihould l>o aaU> hintl 
I accimling to liu U:1irf.* 

t U«t, it nw; hv, urgent lo li&ve our double nxolvcd, w«; 
I mi^it tnru over tbe Icu^m, aeukiiig Monte dcftnitn Ktat«iiini(>l 
I todohuig Uto fdto of bumoii beiiigM after dtMith. Muttbuw, isff 
»aty-iiftli cbaptor, would )>ii|f|ily aur nonl. 
F<Nr thcra we uhould fiiid •I-cnus ile|iictui^ b gmpbic r 
[ lyf)iie«I uf the alTtrct wliicb atati'a duiu^ in thut uorUt produo 
I DO lua lUtfi in tfa<; ubxU 

Vihtm tbe King rnvH to tboMi on bis right, "Conie, iuberit 
I tlw KiufdoDi,*' ho lunignK tbo rofwons for his choice. " I wu 
I «n bungRrod ood yc g»To ino mMit ; 1 was tbinitjr and jn g/ita 

a drink ; 1 wns « Htraiigor aud yo took lue in, naked and /• j 
I slotlMMl mo ; aick and iji prison aud yo visitM ukn,'' 
I'vbeo tb^ who w«n> ibiiaaddretcKnl discUiuimi h&vitigr 
n tennat, \h» nidjr U: " Imutoiut-b an y« did 
t fit lli-ii-, ny brclhriii, yu did it unto um." Could i 

uwept to iBiuui tbiit we best Mrrvo (lod wlica w« dflj 
1 lo tbtt luwtKut «f bia crratiirmi ; anil tlutt if wa aprod o 
Mnm bvru in auch good diw^ tlit^ wbnn Dralli ■nroinoiu na M ■ 
irpluueuf Ufa, oar stiiluthrni will bo a happy oni-? Vutfl 

■■ twaagaUiat would ba aai* to BlarUa oax upiNnd □ 
HHn ant wltlraui aiunbar, and will oooni to vtoij oandU^ 
vaf tba MconL Tba raralOa that doan tbo Otnal fiecBoa U/1 
n( Uw Boat itrikaiK- " WImw baaralli Ihaaa Mjiasa of 
mIaa<uwr<b«<AM«,ifaaU balikiHwd toa wi«e manbnildini hi* lunise 
OM a BNdk Bat ovarrona that ba«Mh lay ^rinea •«mI i<>h<A tAaa anr, 
kiaMalooe-hman. ImOdiaBiwUiaMaL' Not tho baarliy, iwt lba_ 
MiMlac Mtda tram wad»— tho Aiimg U Ilia leok-dnadaUdn, ~ 

(blof alaa to a Mraetora oa mad, thax ahall ba t«^ awaf. 


if we still retained our Calvinistio proclivities^ would it not 
seem to us that the words of the King ought to have been : 
" Come, inhei'Tt the Kingdom ; for I have elected you of free 
grac^ to enter it, without reference to your works on earth, 
whether they have been good or whether they have been evil." 
But who, according to Christ, were to go into ** everlasting 
fire," * — whatever the words thus rendered may mean — at all 
events, who were to suffer instead of enjoying? They who, 
wrapt up during their earth-life in selfishness, failed to minis- 
ter to their fellow-creatures. But unless, by this time, we had 
no longer the fear of Calvin before Our eyes, how should we 
receive such a declaration? With incredulity, doubtless, or 
with a feeling that the sentence of the condemned should have 
been couched in same such terms as these : " Depart, ye cursed, 
to dwell for ever with the devil and his angels, for so from the 
foundations of the world was it determined, or ever ye were 
boi-n or had done good or ill. That my purpose according to 
election might stand, not of works but of Him that calleth, I 
select as seemeth good to me : I take one and leave the other. 
These, on my right hand, have I loved; but you have I 
hated." t 

* Christ's more usual and fayorifce paraphrase for the condition of 
evil-doers hereafter is ^^ outer darkness, where shall be weeping and 
gnashing of teeth'' (Matthew yiiL 12; Trii. 18 ; zzIt. 61 ; xxr. 80; 
and Lnkexiii. 29) ; words seeming to typify an utter eclipse of the soul 
and g^evons mental sufferings. In the body of this volume I shall 
give reasons for believing that these words of Jesus aptly describe the 
future state of those whoso lives here have not fitted them for light 
and happiness in a higher phase of being. 

I recommend those who have the habit of dogmatisizig on the sub- 
ject of eternal punishment and assuming that the Hebrew Sheoi and the 
Greek Hades have, in our Authorized Version, been oozreotly translnted, 
to read the article *' HeU " in Dr. Smith's '' Bictionaiy of the Bible.** 
They will find that the writer, after giving the result of muoih oritioal 
lesearch, says : *^ Respecting the condition of the dead, whether before 
or after the xesunection, we know very little indeed. . . . Dogmatisni 
en this topio appears to be peooliarly misplaced.** 

f See, for CUvin*8 words on this subject, preceding page 76L 


Do jan teQ ma tliut Uun is unpiuna ? I agree with you ; 
I is tho verydinwxof im|ii»tv. But Uui John Galviu'H iinpietyJ 

And iL tH aD iinpitty wbioli Huotns aecnttly lo Ii»y< 

I ahockKd tbe imxlarn wurld'ii vauau of right itu<l wruii([: for tl 

Mt Uitr« rmituriiM buvu ^veu tlintr verdif^t itg»iiHt it. 

Yet, witlittl, tlutn? is n-piiwer and n siibtUe iiucuuitiou * 

I tfae OconvoM) tlimloipr, inriiblM as (lUstAve Dor£'s oonoepUancfl 

I at [tantd'a " In&mo." When. I turn from CklviniiMn to Obrifrfl 

, i CmI m oon Kwatcing firom «nino frightful nightuuuv— •! 

hma M-id (liunrt pmjiW with i^uuitom-«bnpcB of ff 

-And coming £mx< to Ctoo with iha calittfl 

^t, goDial spring-moruiDg ; tku eoiig of Uinl* J 

D mj wm, iQhi odor of dew-fcil flowcra HteMling over my w 

li itlbr yon, guidoa bf thn Pruttaitiuit Cliuroh, to wijr wliotlidrj 
Um faOm adilaonl RtiHtain thu pro[k<iiiition which i haro alroadjg 
■rdvuuwd Olid which I bore rcp^ut : It wiuiioC tho gnuid a/Bteiq 
ufothics tHOglit bj Jiwiiit whieli wns arnwled ui it* progc^^M fgfl 

' It b bajnnd doubt tlul, U hxl rtrangQ attnotaon for the Earopcaal 
hIbiI In flu •tal' of Ltsu»llii>n diirliig tlic witneuth cealur?. "Abuull 
Ika year 1S40 n littlu b<>ulc woa tniMUutd, antitled Of 1^* Bm^fiU rfM 
lb AhM i^ (Jkritt, wUdI), h ft dec«es of tlie liii|uuitioil BKlHiiJ 1^ 

'tBiBAvd, bo &a buiznutinf rn^iiTTfTr, of jiitifl<*iiti*m, d#prBoi»l*l w 
nd aMdUriom acta and aacribod all mnil to Hilb aloaa.' It hai 
■■dIU* ■laoDM atid nodmad Uid doatiliM at juUBcatlaa. for a tlmi^.l 
fayulai' tit Italf ; but It waa finally nj ligWT aupproaad bj tha Iniui- 
■Mm Hut out » nj|i; la now ^own toeiiat."— Kahkk: tSttatji of IIm 

rell wortii pondfffing ia manDctiou with Ua 

1, In th w TnAD A»f nt |nibllc wmac aod prJTBta an<nce, 

d nn tti« humaa Tnind, ocDi 

a. SpeaUns <■( jiuUfUiatiaa bv taitli witboot woifca, Iba O 

taaaf ; "TUa aalbc dooCrtan la lo ba rafnnd to Um ■ 

IT wltbtnil Ibat oMiAi 

AdMtarteaatfnr.notrflora. "WhatU Ond, 
vnth aod to maka Ui powvr Isiawn," Ao., ta ISMTa 



centuries ; which failed to make headvay against humau claim- 
ants of in&llibility ; which lost more than half the ground it 
had gained; which cannot holil its own gainst the Boman 
hierarchy to-day : — it was an Angustlniaa commentazy on soma 
of the acholasticisDis of St. Paul. 

You will judge, also, whether I have made good this other 
proposition : It is not a fair inference from the liistory of the 
Reformation and the reverses to Protestantism therein recorded, 
that Christianity is not in the nature of a progressivo science ; 
or that we have no security for the future against the prevalence 
of any theological error that has ever prevailed in time past 
among Christian men. 

§ 11. Effbct ok Morality of ceetaw Favorits Doctbimbs 


But it is not alone the divergence of some early Protestant 
doctrines from Christ's teachings, extreme as it is, that arrests 
one's attention. It is also the effect on civilitation and human 
piv)gres3 of the doctrines themselves. I intreat your attention 
to this branch of the .subject, urgent in its importance. 

— Urgent, for m.any reasons. It is far short of the truth to 
say that the material progress of the world in the last hundred 
years has exceeded that obtained in any ten previous centuries. 
Yet I am sure it must have q,ccnrred to you that ttie advance 
in morality lias not kept pace with that in all physical arts 
and sciences. Especially in this new country of ours, liable as 
it is to the excesses and the shortcomings of youth, inaprove- 
ment in human actions and affections, as compared with im- 
provement in mechanical agencies, lags lamentably behind. 
Intemperance, partially checked &om time to time, is yet a ter- 
rible power in the land.* Tart wealtii and Btantleas luxnry — 

• Siieeial Internal HcTenmi Conunissjoner WoUa, whow lalmra in 
uwith financioi reform hAVe mada his name favarablf known 
T the conntry, Etates, iu hi* Rtipoit ta Congroui for the Teal I8t>7 



k of mia tiwt go befoi* the decline ami (all of nntianB— • 

swiftly and so widely extending llieir btmeful influenen 

0%«r our [icnpio, thht CUriitl'ii warning cumes to us witJi t«i- 

Lliikl /dtms : " How burdty iili»U tUcy wbo hhw richis enter into 

ltli« Kin^om of Henvou 1 " Public morality is at ft low^r ebb 

9 ft (juATter of & wnlury ago: our li-giUativo bodifs 

re, our jiublic Bn-vice Reiienilly moro utaiticd witlt 

N»y, the very Bonrce whonce our yoliticnd Bystnn 

— the ek-ction precinct itself — Ium lM.'Como Bubjuct to in* 

■ uf cnrrupUun tluU lutvo wukm], yetir by ytwr, mure fre> 

qtwnt »ad moro BliaincltTsi. Uut intblio inunvndity reaeU en' 

privaln Bioruln. lliii vicv-dixiuHf» wbiL-)i ortgitDUa in puliticBf 

I if tltry nwnium a mnligntuil typi', ouuiot, by any sinttaiy 

B cotdou, bo eouGncd tu politio ; ttiey mtv Kom to iofi-ct, fint 

A miuij^ then tlw lionie*irelo i(«lf.* Ni!»pr ba* 

llief« bei4) a time whon a girftt rvfoniiatory agoDcy was mon 

^y needed among iin tlM.ii now. 

I do uot say tiiia diacoiira^^iugly ; for I iecl tu> tllaoonnge- 

Ibit, tbuing Uiat 7«ar. Uie lulm of ptnaut rrtailing ■piritnoo* uul nuU 
Bquon mcbed tbe lom of $la3,4Ut,BS3. Thia. livmrLT, inolndcd 
all their Bin wblcb, in Duuiy initVKXH, extended to otboc aiUdes, mcli 
■■ m(Br, A'Hir. u>Ihw:<«. Am tbe tax ww muuh l»it<ic than that im- 
pned on ari'marj ilnalna, it la not Ukety that naj f'^ woold Ktmn 
liliiMilf ■■ a rctAiler of Uqoon nnk^ be (old aolBeieat of the arUcIc to 
w awa nt i«yiD«it ot Out lacr w ud lax. He. W«U* (in nMtor lo dm of 
F*fctVBi7 10. I"! 1 1 m;*: " 1 think ;on wualillio tatt in Mtjio; Uut 
a Uiitd |ian of ih* nla Rtnniod wm lur Uiiuan." 

nil <riHiU gin ajmard of a himdrfd and aufy mlBiaitr ff doBan, 
M tha MM aaaiaally paid by th« paopto vt Uie United Statw ever Iha 
« to nitaaara./>r jAtaan </ lifuor otimt: arcngliv. pnMdy, 
voigbiygliMcaayaar farcretjruon, wnnan,aiid<Uld faiovr 


amount «f fkw and niJBWj which ae 
thni cxpaid«d, ispmaanla !— oa Bul* tfiaMc at ott- 
o< K«»d H mlskt rvpteaant, if lyast for tbo wlm- a lw a 
■f yMtb and the inalfnMiaa of tbe p""|)l*^ 

I iMBtMaaUa nanjik of tUa dnrinra ft*e yaan' Mat 
ir tbe (dd ricfanc, in 


ment. The great stream of human progress flows ever onward, 
even if wo, for the time, are found in one of its side-eddies. 
He, without whom no sparrow falls, if He fosters the less will 
care also for the greater. In His own good time the needs of 
the soul will surely be supplied as bountifully as the wants of 
the body. 

But if we take note of God^s economy, we shall observe that 
he effects these objects in our world, not by miracle or direct 
interposition, but mediately, through meliorating agencies, 
under general law. And, as He usually acts upon us here 
through human agencies, men, though they cannot arrest God's 
law or change its influence, have a certain power to quicken or 
retard its operation. They quicken that influence when they 
call the attention of their fellows to its inevitable action and 
to its power for good. They retard its action when they weaken 
the faith of mankind in its existence, or assert that God arbi- 
trarily suspends it. And this last is what zealous men — ^in a 
matter most gravely affecting morals, — ^have assumed to do for 
centuries, and continue to do at this very day. 

If there be one universal law, patent wherever man is found, 
it is that every act, good or bad, entails its app]K>priate result, 
be it beneficial or injurious to the actor. So far as we know 
anything of God, by observation of His works. He does not 
permit this law, or any other natural law, to change or to be 

Men, conscious of evil-doing, have, in all ages, striven to 
evade the operation of this great law; seeking out many in- 
ventions whereby, in the matter of sin, the consequence might 
be detached fi-om the cause. But this cannot be done, any more 
than the sun can shine and no light follow, or a field be sown 
in tares and wheat spring up as the result. 

A sin can be repented of. A sinful life can be amended. A 
man, son-owing over the evil he has done, may learn to do weU. 

* I shall speak at loige of the muTexsa] reign of law and the mistsket 
men have made when they hnagined 'on, in another part d 

tJiIa book. 

rra api-eopbiatk result. Hal 

A tiuwr may t« crnvd of Bin, an ono who u sick ma; be cured 
ot » diaeoBe. Thtii', ou'l tfana alon^, <»□ the ccnsequeiices of 
U) l« »»8rtod. Wimi ihe i»u»o ceases, then only ci 

An; attonipt to pemiade men titat tb« e0b«t of sin can c«anr| 

I wtiile tlic tin Tcmaltia ia of cx(«ediiigly iuiiiioiiil U-Dtttmcy'- 

' biidinw^ macb mom unmoral llian would ba tbe atrlking, A-oni 

•tMtiito against Dinrdi-r, of Im [x-uul cIuhm. i'ot it would bflfl 

{wvdccnvrd a ninn uuiler ti--ut[itutiuii to kill, by t«lltug bln^l 

r law ngainrt niunler coutauiMl oci f>cnally or Lliat i 

j^eottld bo aiiuuUiil, wtitlu in fnct tla' {x^iiiUty Ui fuivt! wal 

iKiea it mmd ninttcrs tliut wn add: " Wbat, tbenf'l 
ra ountinun tn murder borauae tiivru in uo }K.-iialty ? Oixl'l 
Kirbidl*' Ood Ada fnrbtddeti, and uuder a (icnalty. If yotfl 
■X Bien'a uyra to tlio ]>maltv, Itttlo uvkiIb it that you rrrfiuat:! 
I to tbiuD, ** God forbid ! " 

Ba(i|uly for tlie winld, there are ueu (though Ca]via deniM 

tkfai], in wbom tlio buiij^r aft«r the Right f ix no strong t 

I Omy i>f«d iH> utbi-r iiu>>iitivii tu virtue. ir<!t, in 

1 tlia pfoMUii day, tlK hoi>e or tho fvar uf «iuaei{u«u<.i-H chiefly d 

■ arliiiD. Thna kgialalors do uul coaaidor it aafe (o ti 
I tbe eaotm] of mankind to niorul prmvpta without jiraal law, 

ITpoB llio uunn primripli; the world it npvml that it will not 
I (to to loave out t'.f vii-w a futiim irtAle c-f rvward and imniab- 
■mit. I t^f all dnmoraliiing docu-inra I know i 

coa of tbtt oltUat of I 

t I )i} M ma BM amnt, ttow«T«T. tkat the trai of ndl and tbo faopa 
af HaoRai ana th« (nundaliMi-motins on which Vhtin'* tijntw of Hhin 
Rata, at wluidi U> at tlie bMU of tlw nobltat motBllty. Sna, 
•BbfHt, Ite cnoclDdlnr cli^itEr nt tli<> wurk. It ii Inilwpanulilo 
<laltHa^h l*****!! wbat ina> hr |<ut fuiward aa cliief 
1^ «( tiM Wirid and what maj ba maa'a bairic motlva 
TMead Ma^D «f otiiUaaUoD. Nor vill tlia titna «rat coma when tt 
saMM la ba hnpoctan* Utat wa ^o«l>l olaaij; kaow, md daqa; p-:znW, 
tba MBtanl nmai^iwaMiaa of oat acta. 


thoroughly ricious in tendency than this, that character and 
conduct in this world do not determine our state of being in 
the next. 

Andj^on the other hand, I know of no more powerful incen 
tive to morality, at this stage of human progress, than a pro- 
f<»und conviction that, by an inevitable law, our well-doing in 
tills stage of existence decides our well-being in that which is to 

That sagacious and kindly man. Bishop Butler, following the 
lights of analogy, and from the seen deducing the unseen, has 
some wise words in this connection. While he abstains from 
anything beyond supposition as to how and in what manner, in 
the next world, sin will entail suffering, he suggests '^ that fu- 
ture punishment may follow wickedness in the way of natural 
consequence, or according to some general laws of government 
ah'eady established in the universe." * 

I shall give my reasons, farther on, for believing that Butler 
here touches a great truth ; that God's laws for the soul are not 
restricted to earth-life; and that His creatures, still under 

* Butler : Analogy of BeUgion, -part IL chap. 5, § 2 (p. 232 of 
London Ed. , 1809). A page or two previously occur these sentences : 
^^ The divine moral government which religion teaches ns implies that 
the consequence of vice shall be miseiy, in some future state, by the 
righteous judgment of God. . . * . There is no absurdity in suppos- 
ing future punishments may follow wickedness of course, as we speak ; 
or in the way of natural consequence from God's original constitution 
of the world ; from the nature which He has given us and from the con- 
dition in which He places us ; or in a like manner as a person rashly 
trifling upon a precipice, in the way of natural consequence, falls 
down ; in the way of natural consequence breaks his limbs, suppose ; 
in the way of natural consequence of this, without help, perishes. 
Some good men may perhaps be offended with hearing it spoken of as 
a supposable thing that the future punishments of wickedness may be 
in the way of natural consequence : as if this were taking the execution 
of justice out of the hands of God. But they should remember that 
when things come to pass according to the course of nature, this does 
not hinder them from being His doing, who is the God of nature."— 
pp, 230, 231. 

T!(E SCiPE-OOAT. lljj 

tbn* Uwi afUr Iho lUath-chajige, will find them id the Ore 
Brjond M im tltia little planrt, tmchunged and imrhftugeabU 

Dops not svtcli B concpption (involving no earning of Iim 
no jubitnry coniiignnicnt to hf'll) conuncud itself to oar l> 
ualani ss in nccordsnco with Uic attribntca of " tliv Fathor O 
Itglila, with wboin is no variaUeneu, neither aliadow of tun 


And what httve wo liad iu Hobtwluiu and iii ChriBUindvi 
br lens of oeaturioB to ivplaoe it t 

In Iha childhood of tlie world — at nil eveulM 
lif«« thousuid years younger tlinn it ia to-duy — u Ktruugi.' r 
ru indtUuted, at the ulluged oomnumd of (ind, among 
HebivirB. SiiiB WHw treati-d ii> if thfy were tMipihlo nnd l 

B o1>j(«t« tltat ouuld ba dcHnchcd from thr sinnnr by a I' 

Prieat, mod ivntt Mway, as wom-oiit gamitriits or cumlnwis r 

I lufa talght bA, on « bmwt of bmilorL \ This typioil actio 

|l)t hit<r« be«a well onongh, iv that mg«> of cttrrooomes, if then 

1 \tema mj trwt ]>ritidpl4 ODdc rlying it. But it 
OB an orror of tho gmvMt chAract«r. Wo caaoot •rn^M sina b]r~ 
ft «lu(Uiig of ttuHQ from ouraulvi^a to anotiier living bring, auj 
nor* tluui wo OMI evade tha fever that coDsume« uh, or Lhu 
]>la^a IhAt ibnatMM life, by truufur of either to fneod or 
Km. God's immulaUo law is i^ninst it. Ho has made H in> 
pnaibki to dptach tiBtiet from cause. 

Pud, " an Ilebnow of Um BobmwK and w touditng tho h 
m PluHaue," I coatinued, afUnr lieUxwmuaCliridtinn, tocbnt 
the uwtuot Je^wtah id«« tfant >ia u gottvu rid of hj^ k 

f "Tb> •oajHi-fnat alull b> lunntrd ilirn trnfon Ilia Lord, to 
SB atntiBWt Willi Itbn. . . . Anion nboll la; hi* band* npon Ite 
of Ae B*t coal, and eoBfi^ onr liim oil the liilqnitlB«o( lb* 
of ItBacl. u»l all tbcii iruii|n*>B<aw in all Uirlt tlna. pnttli 
Bpoa Uw baod of Uu> goat, ■ml uliall hid-I Idiu dwbv b; ibe lumil of 
ftl HBR into tiM MJlilMnm : and tho goti iluJl bur upon him all tit 
laiqwMm tnla a land not infaakitad.''— Loviliinu xtt 10, SL 

1 ruuMtaMUta. 


«nd that only thus miui can atone (that is, reconcile himself,*) 
vrith aa otFended Giod. He ecems to have foi^otten, if lie had 
ever read or heard, what Chiiat aaid to the Pharisees: " Go ye 
and learn what that meaneth, ' 1 will have mercy and not sac- 
rifice.'" f 

—Mercy, not aacrifixjo. Mercy for repentance, showing itselt 
in an amended life ; mercy for every human creature who foi- 
Bakes evil courses and learns to do well; rest to the heavy- 
laden; comfort to the moumor, burdened with the memory of 
past misdeeds. Such — bo charitable, hopeful, loving— is tho 
plan of reformation and salvation put forth by the Great Mas- 
ter, gently seeking out those who are soul-sick : such the Gospel, 
coming to us with healing under its wingH, from the shores of 
the Galilean sea. Its tidings are emineutly promotive of mor- 
ality, encouraging, humtuuzing, civilizing : for it presents to 
emng man ihe strongest of all inducenieats to resist tempta- 
tion and to foUow wisdom's ple^ant and peaceful paths. 

How different the influence on the world's morality of the 
scheme of redemption imagined by Paul and intensified by the 
Xica^lers of the Reformation I Calvin and Luther exhortod, 
indeed, to virtuous actions, inculcated the exercise of Christian 
graces ; yet, in the same breath, they took paiua to instil the 
idea that deeds of virtuo, even the highest, and Christian graces 
the most eminent, are no atonement for past sins, cannot ap- 
pease God's wrath or awaken God's mercy; and that such good 
deeds aud graces do not influence, by one hairbreadth, man''3 
chance of happiness or of misery in the world to come. No 
word of pardon or comfort for the penitent mourner ; no hope 
of heaven to be reached through purification of life. They took 
special pains to deny that our well-doing here worked for ua 
well-being hereafter. For well-doing they substituted what 
they thought to be well-believing. They set up faith in a sin- 

* atonement; at-oae-ment; a paoifyinf or appeanng of a peraoa 
offeoded, so a* to make him at out with the offender. — Biihap B<vi^ 
/ XatUmwix. 1& 


gin mvsterions dcgxna as the one shining, redeeming, imnuurulati 
merit of mankind. 

Vet faith in anj tenet is not a merit at all. Love for 
tnith is a merit ; eagerness to learn is a merit : painstaking 
research is a merit; but (these duties being religiously ful- 
filled) the restilt of such research — belief in any dogma, trua 
or fabie — has not, attached to it, one whit more of merit 
or demerit than have far-seeins eves or dull enrs. Belief 
in truth is a blessing, sometimes a prioolesvs blessing ; misbe- 
lief is a misfortune, often of grievous character : for just 
practice in based upon just opinions. But belief in the highest 
tralh is not a virtue ; honest misbelief in the worst error is not 
a crime. • Xor, in admitting thin, have wo re;iche<l the full 
mnasure of the folly which sometimes spring:^ from zeal without 
knowledge. The result of sincere inquiry — boli;.'f in this or 
iu dsKJtrine — is not, in any sense, under human control. 
Man, at the bi'lding of his fellow, can no more add an article 
t> his creed than a cubit to his 8tatui*e. 

Tell me, if you can, how I should set about believing that 
Cr>K who noviT disconnects good and evil actions from thrir 
e>avN|U(Mices in this world, has seen fit to disconnect thrni iu 
Uie next. Ti^ll me, if you can, how I am farther to obtiiiu b<> 
I.ef that G.xl, passing by human deeds which men can control, 
8*Iects tL* worthy of eternal happiness, a certain phase of faith 
in the unseen, which the creature from whom it is exacted can 
no more have, or not have, by any conceivable elfort of his, 
than he can arn*st the rising of the sun, or hasten the coming 
0:1 of night. Explain to me, if joa know how, by what pro- 
cess of volitir>n I am to produce in mjown mind such a belief. 
R'^.isfin and conscience within me mlike reject it. Shall I do 
viol.'iicv* to them ? He is fiilae to Qod who is false to the seuso 

• William of Orang**, writing la 1578 to the Calviiiist authorities of 
MiddiPboiig^ in Uhalf of the AnalMpllrta, struck the true note : *' You 
havo no rigb* 'wimIth with any man^s coiLsoicncr. so long 

M DotJitng ' rifale luurm or poblic scaudaL "- - Uu.v>u r : 


he has received from God, enabling him to distinguish the 
Right from the Wrong. 

I know of nothing you can say in reply, except what was 
said of old : '^ Nay but, O man, who art thou that repliest 
ogciinst God ? " I answer that it is not against God, nor yet 
against Christ, that I am replying. I am replying against Cal- 
vin and Luthcr^s conceptions of God, as I and all men have a 
right to do. I am I'eplying against him whom, as guide in this 
matter, the Reformers preferi-ed to Christ — against Paul : and 
that not wholly, by any means ; but only against him in some of 
his doctrinal moods.* I am not more thoroughly convinced 
that Paul was inspired when he penned that wonderful thir- 
teenth chapter of his first Epistle to the Corinthians, than I am 
that inspiration was supplanted by vain philosophy in other 
portions of his writings. I think he sometimes felt this him- 
self. He seems to have induced, and to have 'shared Lu therms 
opinion about the stubble that is sometimes mixed with the 

It avails nothing to bid me believe unworthily of God, be- 
cause Paul, now and then, sets me the example ; or to arraign 
mo for presumption because, according to best light, | I decide 
for myself what is worthy and what is not. In this twilight 
world of ours where all are fallible, we ought not to place the 

* At other tunes his teaehings on this very subject harmonize with 
those of Christ. *^ God will render to every man accoiding to his 
deeds: to them who by patient continuanoe in well-doing seek for 
glory and honor and immortality, eternal life ; but unto them that are 
contentious and do not obey the truth, . . . tribulation and anguish." 
— Romans it 6-9. 

f *■ ' Other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus 
Christ. Now if any man build upon this foundation gold, silver, pre- 
cious stones, wood, hay, stubble; every man^s work shall be made mani- 
iept: for the day shall declare it.*' — 1 Corinthians iii 11-18. I have 
already alluded to this text, preceding page 94. 

t ^* The spirit of man is the lamp of God, wherewith he searohetb 
the inwardness of all secrets.*' — Proverbs xz. 27. Bat the tnuouBlatioil 
10 Baoon'B : AdvancmMnt of L&aming, I 


candle that gives light to the houso under a bushel, merely be- 
cause its rajs reach not as far as those of the sun. I claim for 
head and heart, such as they are, the right to judge. And, in 
mj own case as to this matter, their judgment accords with the 
tender-and-tme poet of America, when he says : 

** I may not look where chembim 
And serapbB cannot see ; 
But nothing con be good in Him 
Which evil is in lue. 

** The wrong which pains my soul below 
I daro not throne above : 
I know not of His hate — I know 
His goodness and Ilis love/^ ^ 

There is one other doctiine, uuivcrsally accepted by the early 
Protestants, to the effect of which on human progress I invite 
vour attention. 

The ideas of these stem theologians touching the inliom cor- 
ruption of our roc'C wore carried, as we have seen, f to a fetir- 
fiil extent. Th<"y n»g:irtlcd man oh a being so dcR[M?rat4»ly wicked, 
of uiitun* so utterly debased an<l degraded, tliat his Ix^st-sliow- 

• WiirrxiER : The Teat on the Beadi; Boston, 1808, p. 140. 

f Prooeding pages 73 to 75. Other passages might have been added, 
■bowing how deeply rooted this tcnrt was. The third of the celebrated 
ninety-five theses, nailed in 1518 by Lather on the gate of the Witten- 
berg church, reads thus : 3. ^' Works of men, let them be as fair and 
good as they may, are yet evidently nothing but mortal sin.^' Later ha 
wrv»tc : *^ Original sin lives and d'^s all other sins and is the essential 
siii : one which does not only sin an hoar or any given time ; but wher- 
ever and as long as the i)er8ou lives, there, too, is sin.*^ — LUTIIEB: 
IlVrXv, vol. xi. p. 396. 

The warm-hearted Mclancthon, ejen, who used to call bis norseiy 
* ' God's little church ^ (eoclesiola Dei), gave in his adhesion : '' The soul, 
L^-kingc-elcstial light and life, . . . seeks nothing, desires nothing, saw 
carnal things/* — .MKi.ANcrnoN' : Loci Commuius (Ed. Aagust)»p. 18. 

Zwingli, somewhat more lenient, spoke of original sin as a disease. 
** Origioale iieocatum uon est poooattun sod mosbum.** — Zwikolius: 
D0 pteeiUo ori^i^foU^ Opera, toL iii. p. Odd. 


ing actions are bat veiled varieties of original sin, and bis 
noblest tbougbts mere offsboots of innate depravity. Nor did 
tbey restrict tbis anatbema to tbe unbeliever : tbey beld tbat 
all actions wbatever — even those performed by tbe most relig- 
i oi I s — must be included. " Tbere never was an ctction performed 
hy a pious man^^ (Calvin says), wbicb, in tbe eye of God, did 
nf>b "deserve condemnation." * 

Anotber phase of tbe doctrine reaches far in its influence : 
for it teacbes not only tbat all men and women, from earliest 
infaucy up, are, in their whole nature, '^ odious and abominable 
to God," f but that tbey are irreclaimable also. " Man cannot " 
(says tbe Genevan Reformer) ^^be excited or biassed to any- 
thing but what is evil." J 

Calvin might well bave confessed of this tenet, as be did of 
predestination, tbat it was a " horrible decree." For it is a 
virtual announcement tbat tbere is, in bumau nature, no element 
of moral progress. It is tbe drawing of a pall across tbe future 
of our race in tbis lower world. It is a declaration to tbe re- 
former and to tbe pliilantbropist tbat tlieir hopes for buman- 
klud ara baseless, and their best efforts profitless and vain. 

But notbing so takes from man bis manhood as the persua- 
sion that he caniwt do what be ought. It discourages, demor- 
alizes. Even in worldly enterprises of mere material character, 
it works disappointment and defeat. Would young Napoleon^s 
Italian army have effected tbe wonders it did, if be bad preached 

* See preceding page 79. 

t Preceding page 77. 

X Preceding page 76. At first sight this seems irreconcilable with an- 
other sentiment of Calvin {iMt.y b. 1, c 1), reading thus: " There is 
no other faith that justifies save that which is connected with charity ; 
but it is not from charity that it derives its power to jostify.*' The ex- 
planation undoubtedlj is, that (according to Calvin) even the charitable 
deeds of pious men spring from corrupt motive, and therefore deserve 

But Lather (preceding page 83) declares that to say '* faith is notiiing 
except chttrity be joined withal," is a ^* devilish and Uaspbemous kind 
of doctrine. " 




Us aoMiors tlieir towardico and Jinpotonc-, inHf«Acl of m- 

itring thera witb wUolcsomo confidence in l.titiTasolrra ! 

Aiul, in otliiT Ikr nobler fields, cousidor itn ovil sttsv. WhoB 

Otwrlin comnit-ni-wl Lis half-c«utury of humamtarian labor 

battiglitej Alsiu^um vklloir, would lie h&ve had courage to pro* 

«■)], for a day, if liu bad U^«n to ktHdrt Calvin's almsing bs- 

nnnptinn tliat luun Liuuiot be ntoved to an impiibx! tttaL in good ? 

Or idwil we uMwjit lb» doctriD^ Ibat t]i<!ra u nothing good iit 

half IBtBi«lC!riiig]i liki* (liMe ? Hbull we rPiui llic hiatoty of otir 

nes, bMiiog witli na tlio conviction tbnt tint n vti-tiiom aKinn 

llMta n^cordwl ; not » tiiihli! deml of patriotiain, twlf-snciifice, 

tuarcy, gen«roiiity ; no frrv«nt devotion of love; no inibliinvi 

■BBTljrdom for opinion '■ tak<^ ; no cnnsocnttion of life to th«j 

tiBlJFf of safTcriiig buniiinity; not tlia piimtt upirntiou abovvj 

Ik* miaU ftnd tbu mtiibctliirfM of a dim pnwmt, nor thn ino 

MidHKVor to bi'ing about a hrighl and ba]ipy fuim 

k word, tltMt notbiug grund or illuHtrioni whiobi 

>ud»r«nl, atl^mptiNl, cniu.'tMi, hy OikI'd om 

uf Ilia, from Uie »irlii?nt dawu of wKiely down (o 

duy^isiitlier tluui k vile fruit of by|Kii.Tiiiy,*n pbaw 

tiw vary best a walu uhiulow f tluit ia worliilcaa — 

iblol — iuG<Kl'«»igbt? 

of Iiutnan rrrnrs i» to idimlify <iod with itvil— tftj 

B» a S{iirit (if Wronff : the nrxt worst is to identify' 

«Til— bo look u|>oa him a* an ontlaw, post saving. 

God d^livrr n» from tbn wtting up of <lovil to woridiip, o^id of 

hopnlen ckpnrity to brlicvc I 

Ont«p— if (UdviuV Stygian crawl mm truth — to bum at 


tmtm hr tMr wotki, !■ 

nr mat, vefMiaiasimprmrity hi their iMMta, «i- 
nimt Um taTOc of Uod." — QaaUd, wltk sen* 

t Both Xjttba and lUimotbcn oai;«4 tha viitws of th» OantUM 
"m«b ibMlon ~ (TiKnUB omlml, and hdd that Soont*^ Catov U' 
ttitn tran vtrtnoiu «al7 hou aaUtlMk-aMmsACB, AhImv tf 
AaCriMM, voL iL |>. KO. 


onco every record of the detestable Past. To what purpose the 
peinisal of a long series of abominations ? 

One finds, in Calvin's '' Institutes," good cause for belief that 
a main object of this Reformer was to inculcate humility : a 
praiseworthy intention. But humility and self-abasement are 
as wide apart as vain-glory and self-respect. Humility looks up, 
with hope ; self-abasement looks around, with despair. There 
is no nobler lesson than that taught in Christ's parable of the 
Pharisee, supercilious in his self-righteousness, and the Publi- 
can standing afar off and imploring mercy. Paul has set out 
the true basis of humility: '^ What hast thou that thou didst 
not receive? Now, if thou didst receive it, why dost thou 
glory as if thou hadst not received it ? " • All that we have, 
all that we are, is but a gift : if humble we should not despise, 
if precious we should not parade it. But we should recognize 
it ; and we may recognize it with joy and gratitude. What 
justice and Christ's injunction alike forbid is that it should in- 
spire us with that pride which leadeth to destruction. We 
ought to receive it humbly ; we ought to use it unostentatiously : 
but when we have done our very best, we should not, lilft the 
leper of old, go around crying out : " Unclean, unclean ! ^ 

And when one of the elect, self-insialled, thus cries out, the 
heai-t — even if he be unconscious of the truth — is seldom in the 
words he utters. The belief in innate depravity, coupled with 
the belief that one is a favorite of God — selected, with a hand- 
ful more, by Him, out of countless myriads of his creatures, to 
share, by exclusive appointment. His glory forever — such a be- 
lief is practically incompatible with genuine humility. I do 
not doubt Calvin's earnest desire to be humble ; yet his life 
was a life of spiritual pride. With what haughty arrogance 
did he look down on ServetusI He inveighed against the 
overbearing assumption of the Catholic hierarchy : was there 
humility in the Genevan theocrat's own tyrannic rule ? 

It is probable that Calvin took himself seriously to task^ pain* 

It. 7. 



Blllj miriiliifl mil erery sin, dealiug h&nhly with many o 
owu tpiiituiJ 8liortconiLiit[a. Tet eveu this may be carrit>ii to I 
Ra eitnviie liulv couilucivo to ihtit hnmble cliarily wLich seek' f 
ftb not li«r owu anil vntmUitli not Tho ovil effects of a po I 
Butntt biLhit lit ttelf-intixwpectioii luv o^d as great as tlioaa J 
whicb nwull fnim the opposiw extrome of aelf-noglnuL 
tlutjr to can Uiat Uia body he hale anil that tho K|iint he pra* I 
{Mrml for another world; yet mainly to occupy oiio'a tima ami I 
thaaxbts with cvHry p«tty ilftail couneotod with lite conditioa f 
of oon's liotJtlt, phymoul or spiritual, in an unwhnlMnme pnuv 
tier, which uonrisiitw BelflshnoKs and fostvrs a apirit uf pxactioa. 
"We tKi:oine, as it wtire, alt tbo world t<> ouninlvpti, and our 
Ions f>nidua][y I'ontraot, in proportiou. Nolh* 
mnuh f(ood, [ihytiioally and spirituallj — tiodi- 
haugbty, worldly spirit— as, in s 
ta Wl anil tu thittk tor others. 

"nifl iruo lisnon t«nght hy hixtory, as ivgiutis man ami his «U I 
ttilmtBi, a tiki* : Them is junt caiisn Cnr surprise and gratnl»> I 
tin) that, eotiitidcring iho t<n-rihln infiiirniws hroiiglil to betuv I 
hy «-itialing rimimstanw anJ dcmorali;;ing ihictrinrr, 
Mtum of nun, Hi» nature should Mill oxliihit ihn (iniinont. and I 
prognnaivo spirit which, owr and anon hr«aking away froia I 
«vil training ajid ancient pr^jndioe, bids iis rojoito that we b*> I 
long b> a mv— erriiig and frail and sinful, indeed — but la | 
wiuok tber* atil] iolieres, as Obriet has told us, an earnest o 
tlM ** KiagduRi of Oud." 

ducb a rare itnulually dtsoardii its Cuiaticiama. Into ih* I 
ereed of ihu modem world luv «ntAring, onn by nan, such tnnet*fl 
•a ihwn : Fflar, di«tni>it, d'n[iair, an- alijnct induimaRa. Tnrrui^'fl 
ian« dumiwtic, political, or roUgioua, ia of all gnvnmnMmts tbkl 
wwRt: it dwarls and drbaars tho i«on. A liiild habituaUy dls>^ 
tnMtad is espoaod to (ho taost haarftd of all tmaptatioiM, X 
mta wiibont bopa sAd tnut and aatfrw p w * n Aom of hall 

Nor doM tbo OfiBOTcan BttfoniMr seek to dnny tliis. Noth- 

con bn said ot thm 4ialNMt«uii( iaAooaov of his 


124 faith's power fob good. 

is stronger than his own words. Hear his confession : " God 
genemlly manages his disciples, that is to say all the faithful, 
in such a manner that whithersoever they turn their views 
throughout the world, nothing but despair presents itself to 
them on every side." * 

God so manages ? Seek the true solution in the lines : 

*' As one who, tomizig from the light, 
Watches his own gr&j shadow fall ; 
Doabting, upon his path of night. 
If there be day at all." f 

How has Calvin^s gray shadow fallen, for centuries, athwart 
the Christian world ! 

But let us turn from the shadow to the light : nor, because 
the leaders of the Reformation have sectarianized men^s con- 
ceptions of faith, let us forget its value. Christ employed the 
strongest metaphors to express its potency. J And very surely — 
the word being accepted in its comprehensive sense — one can 
hai*dly exaggerate faith^s power for good : it can remove moun- 
tain-difficulties from the path of human progress. Thus, faith 
in noble effort ; faith in our common nature ; in its capabilities : 
in its progress. Faith in the Good and the Beautiful — in the 
good that is felt, not seen ; in the beautiful that must be con- 
ceived before it can be realized. Faith, too, in the economy 
of the world : tranquil assurance that all is well and wisely or- 
dered by a Wisdom that sees deeper than ours. Faith, again, 
reaching farther still : faith that progress in knowledge and 
goodness ends not here, but continues in another phase of be- 
ing where there are many mansions, to be occupied by those 
who shall be fitted to enter therein. 

And if Paul, in his dogmatic vagaries, did mislead the early 
Protestants, nobly has he elsewhere supplemented^ in this very 
connection, some of the highest teachings of Jesus. Far be* 

♦ Institutes, B. iii. 0. 14, § 4. 

f WmrriEB : Among the BUU^ p. 80. 

t Matthew zxL 21 ; Luke xvu. 0. 



a Fiutli mid Ho[ie, dnt aiuoug CUristUn graces, om- 

ia^ in its gi'iierouii twojiu Puucc ftiul Murcy atid Cbarity and 

ruling in Kooveii ub on uurtU, is Love. 

Bat who, In tMmu more glowiDg thun tLe great Apostle ol 

tbe Oeutiies, ban >pok(Mi the pmise of that glorious spirit, tha 

vny wnl uuiBitttng ibo system of momls itnd civiliiutioii Be% 

fbfili by Christ ? Con wn cscr forget the words ? 

Ttioogh I ipoak with the tonguca oT men and of angels; 
tboQ^ I hare the gift of projiliony nnit understand nil mys- 
Uxiist and all Icnowldgn ; thoush [ have ull fnith, ra that I 
could fMDove mountains ; though 1 bc>ntow all my goods to feed 
Uu> [MMr; though I give my body to bo burned ; and hav« not 
r», 1 am nothing. " {»vo sufTereth long and is kinil ; lovs 
kavteth not; love vaniiteth not horsnlf, is not puffed up, doth 
< b«lwvu herself unaeomly, aeeketh not her own, b nut easily 
)k«l, thiub«tli uo bvil ; rcjoirath not in ii)ii|ttiiy but nv 
[tiicetli in thft truth ; broreth all things, believeth nil tliiugi, 
topvtli all Ihin^, (indun^ cdl tilings. . . And now 

It Poith, IIopi-, and !.oVi!, thnu thti-e ; but thl^ gnwteitt of 

In l«odrii<7' and inllucncr how iamewiurably fur from thi 

a cpirit, " gioitle and cwiy to ba inlrcntcd, full nf innr<:y 

I good frutta," wm tbu xpiTctro, myiilL*riuQii and enters, 

Kil«y \n\ aiitivy tlio ehjff among the rrotcatant F*. 

rwt Sonxi nieu niuuot h«ir tho voitii of Ood enwritl in the 

r.f Tliink of t^alvin'MHchrmuof iIk« worldl A nU«r of 

term foDowvd Tjndale. Ihu viftaal patriarch of tmi ontbatiiod 
d( tba ToaUuDiuit, in bi> LnuiBlotioo, Mcording t" il> ociBinal 
MMW, of an linponaut vord (agaptt. A writer In Kinlth'n IJiiUfiy e/ 
Mc BSU4 |niL Ul. p IflTO). oilrnrtiatT to Klof Jamta' lifUra tiulruclloaa 
!■ (h* IUbl« tfaa^dtm. of which ltiMmaCio>Ha tho (Unl wan to tha 
i0Mt ikat " ifaa 1^ aoclcaUctiaal wtxda wcra lu to kept " <>■ Vkurtk 
Im^lmA at CMiffnr''*oat— adds : "To thb nla ia |««bah]y diM 
" OhailV " In t Oonothittiw xiU." I pralw a^ t« lolkxr King JawM 

t " Tidnv mihi am T«rba anl UwitniB aadin "— wm St. Jaoma'a 
wvdii, BfMt Bidttalinc Iba fkoUM! dagwaa of PndoaUntiaK 

126 TiiE theologians' hell. 

tears he deemed it — a vale of tears or of impious license, laga- 
brious and loathsome, thronged with a depraved multitude, myri* 
ads on myriads of whom — all but a chosen few — are to their Crea- 
tor but as disinherijbed children, outcast and forsaken ; suffered 
to wander, for a brief season, shrouded in moral darkness, 
along the broad road that leads to deabruction, and then con- 
signed, by the divine fiat, to the scorching flames of a bottom 
less pit, the smoke of their torment ascending forever and 
ever ! * 

I make no argument against the horrors of such a scheme, im- 
puted to a God of Love. The generation that clings to it must 
die out in its superstitions, and we must look to the next for 
clearer heads and better hearts. 

§ 12. Corroboration from History. 

This must be very briefly dealt with : for I have already 
transgressed the limits which I had originally set for myself in 
addressing you. 

Hallam, Sir William Hamilton, f and others have spoken in 

* Th^ theologians of that age were wont to elaborate the piotoxe : 
" ALhs, misery and pain, they must last forever I O eternity, what art 
thou ? O, end without end ! O death which is above every death ; to 
die every hour and yet not to be able ever to die ! . . . Give us a 
millstone, say the damned, as large as the whole earth, and so wide in 
circumference as to toach the sky all round; and let a little bird come 
once in a hundred thousand years and pick off a small particle of the 
stone not larger than the tenth part of a grain of millet, and after an- 
other hundred thousand years let him come again, so that in ten hun- 
dred thousand years he might pick off as much as a grain of millet; we 
wretched sinners would ask nothing but that when this stone. has an 
end. our pains might also cease : but yet even that cannot be t *' — Snso : 
Biichldn der Weisheit^ chap. xL, '^Yom immerwahxendem Weh dex 

f Hamilton: Diseumons^ p. 499, *^fc Hallam ; LUeraiurt qf 
J^urope, vol L pamm. 


strong terms of tho dissolute manners which followed the 
Reformation in Qormany. ]3ut I think too little weight has 
usually been given to tho fact that a certain license is insepara- 
ble from all great moral rovohitions. Tulloch takes a temper- 
ate view of the matter : ^' Such an awakening as this, in the 
very nature of tho case, soon began to run into many extrava- 
gant issnes. In tho fei^ling of liberty men did not know 
how to use it temperately ; and Anabaptism in Germany, and 
Libertinism in Fraiirc, testified to the moral confusion and 
social license that everywhere sprang up in the wake of tho 
Reformation. We can now but faintly realize how ominous all 
tlds seamed to the prospects of* Protestantism. It appeared to 
many minds as if it^ would terminate in mere anarchy.*^ * 

It is well known how this state of things embittered Luther's 
last days. And we have abundant evidence that, at times, he 
distrusted his own svst^m. '^ As ho and his Catherine were 
walking in the garden one evening, the stars shone with unus- 
ual brightness. 'What a brillLint light!' said IjUther as he 
looked upward ; * but it burns not for us.' * And why are we 
to be shut out from the kini^dom of Heaven ? ' asked Catherine. 
* Perhaps,' s:ud Luther with a sigh, * because we left our con- 
rents.* * Shall we return, then ? ' * No,' he replied, * it is too 
kte for that.' " f 

Six years after Luther^s death happened a noteworthy thing. 

Amsdorf, one of his dearest friends and fellow-laborers in 
Wittenberg, pending a public discussion held in 15.')2 with 
Major, an advocate for the ni*cessity of good works, maintained 
that *' good toorka tr<T«9 an impediment to $aIvationJ" The re- 
sult is very remarkable : Major renounced his doctrine, lest ha 
should be looked on as '^ a disturber of the Church." | 

A distinguished Protestant divine acknowledges that the 
Wittenberg Reformers were so engrossed by polemics that they 

* Principal Tulloch : Leaden of the RfitrmatSon (London, 1859) ; 
p. 173. 
t Quoted hy Tulloch, p. 73. 
I Mosminc: EeeUdastical nutaiy (Loodon, IQOiVt i<A. Vf .i».«k 


Itad to ne^ect " the adTBucement of real piety aad religioa ; " 
anil that none of them attempted to give a regular Byatem of 

This, however, was attended to by Calvin ; not, like Luther, 
too teuder-heyted to frame a moral and ecclesiastical govern- 
ment in accordance with his estimate of human kind. Within 
meagre and barren limits, because of that estimate, were his 
efforts pent : but what he thought he could do, he did. Body 
and soul were corrupt — incurably, beyond earthly agency for 
good : yet external decorum goes for something. The cup and 
the platter must ever remain full of extortion and excees, but 
the outside could be made clean L that was within human power, 
and common decency required that it ahonld be done. Phy- 
lacteries, fair with tlie words of the law, could be deferentially 
worn, their breadth determined by imperative rule. TiUie of 
mint and rue could be paid to pnblic opinion ; tombs could be 
built and sepulchres garnished ; though ireightier matters, 
judgment and mercy and faith in man, were unattainable. To 
the eye things could be made white and beautiful even if dead 
men's bones and all uncleauness must needs abide beneo^. 
Coercion could effect all this ; and the iron will of the rigid 
Genevan determined that it should. 

In 1&3G Calvin and his co-worker, Farell, drew up a confes- 
sion of f^th in twenty-one articles, of which one gave the clergy 
the right of exoommuuioation ; and they procured from the 
Council of Two Hundred a proclamation, in which these were 
declared to be binding on the whole body of the citizens. Five 
years later a Consistorial Court was appointed, of which Calvin 
appears to have assumed the permanent presidency ; f and for 

* " The number of adversaries with whom tha LnUieron doeton 
were obliged to contend gars them perpetual amploTment in the field 
of controversy, and robbed tbem of that preoidas leisare whlidi they 
might hiive conaeoiatcd to the advancement of laal pie^ and viitae. 
.... Ifoueof thefamousLathQiBndoctoraattemptedtoglveaTegnlax 
i^stein of iaoTaUt7."~-MosnEiii : EcdetiatUeal Hilton/, vol- ^v- P- -M. 

f Tulloch; Leaden nf t^ Bfforma^it, ^. H9. Hsrar: £ff* ^ 
CaiBia, po/. i p. 469 (Transhitionb} Stebtttng). 


iU ^roromflnt luid that of tha CoudcU lia drew up & code of 
Itkwm, ccclcaiiutical and moral, wbicli went sworu lu by tlio 
[n.vpl«.* This Court hiul but: one dirf>cC weupju — i-xcuminuiu- 

ioa : like tha SimiusL luqtiisiuon wliiidi furlHiro iiliMliliii 
i Uuod, it turned over tli« culprit, wlieu atiittkeiuii « 

■i«^iuil« (MiMlt;, to tlio civU KuLliority fur ptuiistumatl , l'vcsI 

UDtO <ll9Uh. 

IIiat<M7 rQConla no mora vtrildng eswuplu of tynuutr, vitli 
KBllMcity intimatvty united of Chiirob and BtKte; with «wayj 
MKial oa wotl oa tvligious «nd fMliUml, nuniptiuiry uid doniBaticC 
•• well A* kooud. f Ita r>adi-n.imag point wus, tlmt it put dowi 
OpOD prcitltgacy uul rvfornmi ijiuotula uuinniTB, 

Thi» in wliat u friciull; btngraphiT liu to aay; "A iimtt^ | 
loai nliuigi:, in tliii cuunui of a nhiirt tiinc, woa wroiiglit i 
tlto outwkrd uipwt of UniuvK. A gny uid picwiurP-IoTing J 
pooplo, de?otMl to tnu&io and dancing, the eveuiug wiue-(ifao|lfl 
■ad aud-pUjrinit. found tlienuwlree suddenly ftrreslMl in tbid 
BBoal paatiuKtB. Nut ouly were iLe darker vinen of iUbiiuebt»yiJ 
wluok gTMtly jtraviulud, puutaliod by uevora |H)ualueii, but 1 
ii^ter fjIUe* and wuuBHUK-nUt of aooi^ty wens laid under it 
psrioaa ban, Kit lioliduyi wexa itboUidiod exoept Bnndny ; 
iaaooait gayctimi uf wiHldinga and thn fudiionubln cnpricna o 
inm, ww« inado aiibjof^ta of Ir^lntiim : n hrido « 
■dom iianolf with floatiug imadm, and her wnlcomo homo « 
aot to bo Doiajr wiib fewtisg and rvvolry, Tbe eonvent b 
vbid bad rung thtir awcvt obimos for ftgas kcrou Um bloi 
'Wkton of tfao Rhono, and booMno awoOAted with nuiajr en 
■aMOriei of love and aoDg, had bean preriooaljr destrojvd a 
ttHi Iftto cnnDun.'" t 

Um dotaila, altiotted by offidal reeoida, an altenialely ladi- 
Moaaaad homblc 

* On tbe aotb ot NoTtnbar. lUI. 


At betrothals, marnages, or baptirnns, it wbs illegal to present 
e guests with nosegays fasteueii with wire-ribbon {eanetUlft) 
r gold cord or jewelli-il band. At a marrii^-feiiat or othei 
I friendly entertainment it waa iiolawful to Bet on the table more 
sit^le conrtie of mi;at including fiH]],aQd sucli course was 
[ limitod to five dishes only : while for desaert the law allowed no 
pastry except a single tart for every ten persons,* The char- 
acter of peraoHul omamenta, the mode of cutting hair and the 
length it might be worn, the fushion of drees, were all pre- 
scribed : slashed breeches, for exnmple, being prohibited. | 

There was no uovel-i'eadiug in those days ; but the CiTorite 
substitute for our romances, Amadis de Oaul, was peremp- 
torily interdic-ted ; nay the preachers of Geneva, less tolerant 
tlian the cnrata and barber wiien they mode a bonfire of Don 
1 Quixote's library, f burned every copy of that work on which 
I tWy could lay their bands. 

I Mere childish iudi^Ksretion iacnrred legal penalty : the light- 
P «st jeet was a criminal offence. A young girl in church, aing- 
E ing to a psalm-tuse the woi'ds of a song, was ordered to be 
I irhipped, Thi-ee chiidrea were punished by the authorities be- 
Koanse, insteatl of going to church, they remained outside eating 

V • "— et q'ftu dit dessfrt q'onni patUserie ou pi&CQ do (our, ainon nno 
^Honrt settlement, et ccia en ohacone table de dix peisonnes." Tha 
Hjrord now spelt tourCtia Bometimes used for a fmit or pigeon pie. Un- 
Hter C&lvin's law there whs temptation to make huge pntitieB. 
H Principal Tullocli t«lls us that, while tmrelling in Switxedand, ha 
^Mnted Qeneva and Bought out Citlviu'e grave. A pliun etcme, with the 
^Betteis "L C." on it. waa ahomi to tiim. ua marklug the spot; and tha 
^Dld miui who conducted liim thither seemed (he eajt) to have little 
Idek o( the Great Reformer esoept oe " the man who limited Uie num- 
ber of dishes at dinner." — Lradtrt </f Reformation, pp. 120, 147. 

f "We saw," E.«d Calvin, '' tlmt through the chinkH of those br-ecbei 
' a door would be opened lo all sorts «t proCuHion and luxuiy." — Quoted 

by Tui.LocH, p. lae, 

) " It is the best book of the kind ever composed," cried the twuber, 
" and oof^t to be pardoned as on original and model in its way." 
" Bight," said the cuiate, " aud f or thftt reason lie shall bespitred foa 
I the jvesent." 



ft odcra. A man, bmring mi mm hny, RMd " hc'ii sii ^og a |Mett)r I 
I pMlni ; ** * aoii for tluil oflcncc niw Wniahed fram ibn citjr^a 
I Anfther svor«> " bj tho bodr nnd blr>od of Chrinl ; " niii] ihrr^l 
1 1>jr iueiirrail & Sno oail espotura in the mArke6-|jlaia>, hondii umI'I 
§CH>t in tha at-mka. 

But oU thin in Bs niitjiiD)];. cump^rcd to tbu Int^cediiw thiit| 
[ InterrcBnL Tli« oci-Ink-iLtaLl lo^lulfir who linlirvrd thatf 

a the boar of birtli, cbililren lari pulluUMJ, unJ that (beir tubI 
' tore ever rcnuiuM AdiotM niul ninuiiiuilik! to God, framed 1 
laws BccanliDgly. It wottld tie iiiore<libl«, wnro it not n 
by Calvin's wnrtntat sdmiimt, tliat in IMS n giri — « itwral 
child— (br baving alnidi bor [inrcats,uKM lictina'Urt / And thai 
I a lad of suttfv-ji, ttaly for a litvat to utrikn bis motber, waa 
i U> dcatb. f 
Otodar raigDod in fl^^mva! — at wliat soiirUioo of hmnaa m 

g of huDton bc«rt8 thoy only know who still, 
k from the bright maunions of a l>»tt«r world 
I tbe terrors of their carthty jtrisan-houBe. 

] nijtbt turn from tho Oontiiwnt of Europo to that marvol- 
I'loiu Ultla island whetico we ot North Amorica chiefiy dcriw 
* oar aaoastry, especially to its northTn portion ; there to find 

B MOID tr«« bearing itji apprcipriato fruit. But spaon fiula mo; 

d aooihur luu ainiady oiUuiujted that field. I The Prabyt«- 

t Tlia bborefaotsai^iriTaii liiPanl Ucarj't LAttt JtiAaiat 0^ttM,im 
gnmm B^brvuiloTS ; Hamburir. 1M4 ; truulatad by HibbaA, iaaOaa 
■ail Knr XoA. 1834 : vol. I p. »01, of tranilatiaa. 

hnlMMtilp can hanll] go farthor Uiaailid that uf Htacy; who finds 
ia (hawi lanililtt CTU«ltiM only " Bivat beauty to tha ■aiutatu^ with 
vWch pamtnl authority was •IrfnixlMl. " Trt Uaaty* is fooMally ont- 
^dctnd tha bMt biognqd); of CaJrin valant. 

t Om a( tha bairiist itadnDta of unr agn, Htniy Tbooias BaoUs, fat 
■ba ftafnant bo has left oa of a rtapondao* wotk, has a (dia|itqr. oilli 
tll^Tim lalaraDoas, dxrotod to tba Influeoea of tha pMabytartan ]nhly 
an tba Sootli^ natana in tha MTantoanlh oantniy, So Ear aa iha con- 
d)lla« U a eonntry can ta p iad i ost ad upon Ita thaaiocical VtwaMBia aaft 



rian polity of the Scottish Kirk, within a century tifter OalviaV' 
death, embodied almost all the worst featurea of the Genevan 
tyranny : the eaias despairiiiji; views of life uud dentil ; iho same 
abject fear of olTi^nding tbe Creator by innocent pleasures, and 
incurring helt-iira by wholesome, ligbt-heurted guyety ; the same 
repression of human aJfectionSj the same doiniuilinry inijuisi- 
tions, the same assnmptiun of the I'i^lit to excommunicate, and 
flven to indict, foi- breiLchea of chui'ch discipline, tbe tortnre of 

its Chniah records alone, wo have it thpre before ua, and may read it 
withmnclt utstmction and proSt; itJustiAee all, and more than oil. that 
I hare brieQ; condeiised into the best abOTO. Tot manj of Buckle'* 
Btdcturea on Soottibh character and intelloct, even in the mdo aeTen- 
teenth ceatory, being founded on too lutirow a baeis, nre hiisty and cz. 
a^eroted. CnderneBth the celigiooH profession of this people, how 
«ameiit soever, lay a deep vein (almost left out of view by Buckle) ot 
tLcoug, Bhi'ewd 8ei»e, and often of daring hnmor, whioh protested alika 
tgoinst theological doKmatiBTDii and clerical itAsamption. The indleatiODa 
of thLi temper of mind oomo to the surface occasiouaUy only dating tba 
period covered by Bocfcle'a uathonties ; but the temper existed, never- 
theless ; and, a ccntary later (the eighteenth), it found fearl^as expree- 
siun through a ohild of tbe people, echoing tboii eocisl talk and un- 
recorded protesla, Robert Euma was none the leas the idol of lua 
oountrymen hecauee ot auoh mc? bieresies as atnmp hia addresses 7b 
tAi Uaeo Otiiii and To the DeU. OF this taBt-~a famthor rontouBtraniM 
with PreBhyleriauism'R PriBoe of Darkness — how homely but Bcathing 
the satire ! And how uhiu'iuingly imbued with ohuritty the lebnka 
launched ogaiust the cmel spirit of the Kirk's theology, in its eonclud- 




^^V For thoae to whom the old dialect of Scotland Is more or less of an 
^^Pimknown tongue, I here snbjoin a proBoie— a riiry jirosaio— pantphri 
^^r «f these inimitable linei : 

^B " Pare you well. Old Nick 1 Oh, if you would but Wke thnnght and 
^^h mend your ways! you nught perhnps— who knows? — have a oluuiM 
^^BnllL For your own sake, it is a grief to me, the ttiought of that d«i 
^^■et youis I " 


Ifca Hoai|^ aod of the braadin^i-iron.* lu painpeiuaticin, kl 
tkan wu the mno unfliuoluii^ war waged ngAiust proll^ 
Uid diasolalo conduct. Ouo uurkt^d iliiri?rr>i]cu, kowvvor, 
s notii-e. Whereas the Ofni'van hvwgivor biculuuted a 
I to idugg, how«v»T bud, t tb« BcotUi>b prewikeni w 
mio, bi tlw v<M«e of n>ht?iUtiD : J defi'iidmg Uie peo 
7 duspotum except lUoir own, and cliuning that 
■ of tlie Kirk (ihuir commiaMua derivod directlj" ft 
Ood] batl thu aula right to doxiuuid implicit, unrimiuiiiiag o 
dienWJL Subjuguiun of the oonu'loaci), enmiiies of tolcrsti 
tfaey w(T« Hturdjr Itietuh of politicul frvudom. 

But, resintiiu; lemptntluD to enhu^ on thi* uul ragnsto 
ftmpUa fruin KurupmD hwluc;, l«l ui procucd to inqiiirti whet! 
this plaul uf (.jUviutHiU, wlifa truaiirrrtwl to ftnothnr hca 
phcru, CKWintijilly >arii3d in iln typa or itt iln productiou, 

I^ u» poM from the ujit«outh to thu iwtciitc'enth oonti 
•ad croM thti Atlnntic with the PurilAli*. 

A gnLnd, old rane! — thootiilT tliat ht-Toe* and tmpin' t < 
«n ivra ttaula nf. WliKt lUny thought right tho; 'li 
mUois Mk(.-d wh"lhiT it km plnuuuit to do it. Tti' \ 
Mtiioftbla hill thvf w«iv uut ftiniuhlu. Timy were nu-a i 
wiMBHii to tnast to in tlie hour of trial ; but to ilod with 
dkUjr Ufel Kjbt glad a»y we be that we Aid out live uoi 

■■'On the Saa OrMNrr. 1M9. the Kirk Snnloiior IhufmidiM 
dand that * Mttsin Janet BobmtMn ' dull b« oertft and MDOq 
lhraid(li tb« Mwn on^ mkridt with an hot Icon.' ' 
^Itt^rrmEi^ p. 4XT, qtiotod bj Buckle. 

4 " TIm Word of Qod iwqnira* tM to anhnit to ih« t< 
oelj E>f tbaaa |iriDCM mho iliirfcargc tboir duty to oa willi bcmotlnv 
laRdly aad BdalUf, Init of all wbo pcbcb tlie ■OT awi g wty . enn tfaw 
Iboy parfgnn mtin of th« datlaa of tbolr ilstiaa. . . . thn 
diiiiMW thnacfat nnisl nemr eiit«r iiito our inlaiU that a Uag )■ to 
HMtttlaDDOtdlvtoUamadto."— Oatvtx : InH.. 0. It. C SO. %tSS. 

t See, Cor WDdi; UlutntioM, the cfa^tet of Bndda'a work abn 


them in the days when such as Hester Prynne walked about 
with that scarlet letter on their breasts. * 

In the Colonial character, the theology of the Tnsiitutei 
was a pervading element, for good and for evil. The best 
vii-tues of the New England pioneers were those of stout, self- 
sacrificing seekers after liberty. The hardihood that broke 
away from Papacy in Home, cast loose also from intolerant 
Prelacy in England. Nor did they heed the cost of voluntary 
e^dle. Calvin's dismal view of God's world toughened them as 
settlers. Not expecting ease, comfort, social enjoyment, the 
amenities of life — regarding these, indeed, with suspicion, as 
effeminacies used by the Evil One for baits to ensnare the un- 
wary — hardship and suffering were what they looked for ; and 
when, in their rude frontier life, they encountered these, Hhey 
met them, as God's normal allotments to His Saints, with iron 
fortitude. They were hard on themselves and on others, aa 
befitted believers in \iniversal depravity. 

These acerbities seemed to assort with their condition. But 
the followers of the Pilgrims brought to Plymouth rock a fiital 
element, relic of human barbarism, however cherished by the 
Reformers — a crime against the deathless soul — ^religious per- 
secution. Laws that stain their statute-books, deeds that blot 
their annals, are traceable to the same source as the edicts and 
the inflictions of the Genevese Consistorial Court. 

" I approve," said Calvin, " of civil government which pro- 
vides that the true religion which is contained in the law of 
God be not violated and polluted by public blasphemies." f 

The New England offspring of this sentiment, is a law en- 
acting that whoso affirms works, not faith, to be the mode of 
salvation ; or opposes infant baptism ; or purposely leaves the 
church when infants are about to be baptized ; shall suffer ban* 

'^ ^* A capital A of two inches long, cut out in doth of a oontraxy 
colour to theu: cloaths/* etc—OmercU ix»tM and LiberU^ ofMcMochu- 

t Institutes, B. iv. C. 20, § 8. 


135 I 

it;* and Uiat wUo!hi deniea thn inf>Mi1)iUtj of nn^ por> I 
doa wfifttcTcr of tho Biblo, ahaXl, for tfao firnt oflimoo, " Iw I 
eponljr and scTonsly fvliip[ieil by tljo exycutioiwr," and, for tho I 
aaoond, may Im put to death, f 

^naking of those, who imogiiio to thMuHelrvs Home olhcvj 
motboJ than th« ScriptunU one of approucUing God, OolviEt-l 
had nid : " They uiust ba cuiuuJer«d uot no much mialcd hfM 
error m aetuuted by frfluiy ; " nnd ngain : " Theae pontonii ai« ■ 

goUty of dir(<!«t«hl» ■ai-TUe;je." f 

Strictly in tho ii[>irit of thi^iw ducrtrtam werti fnim<!d tho Purii' I 
(anlamagauuit "a uiim^ iml of hfmticlcs latnly risen np in th* I 
world Tbirk am tmminonly lutlksl Qimlcnn." g Thry provided, f 
la panishuicnt of a Quikknr on tlw Acst ninviction, t«frDt^l 
*tri|m; na thi) Mxrond, thn Intw nf an fw if a maa, 
waoian to bn aovtintly whippod ; on thf Hiii-d. «iW**r mmui or I 
WMMHt, to havo thu tongue bored thron^jh with a T«d-hot tfon; J 
Quakera roturniug to the oolouy HfUr hauiahnent, to auBis* | 

Wb ItAve no nwonl thul thn he.rin([ tif imm'H and * 
tong^ieawith a mlhut iron wim over au-rifnl nut. Dut Itiiiboii 

it at Rat>tbaU uniar tUa Uw ooonrrwl Uiroutltont aa 
faan at tbo Colmual bulorj. 

f Amiiait Imv4 and CSarlertof Miutar-Xunrllt Hii/, palUAtA hf « 

« of thn Quicnl Conn, BoHbm. Ifl14 ; pp IfiO, IS1. 
Ite iwaaahla of thma " ArU ^caioat Utnay," i* a curiooa apaolnMB J 
II Mch«a tbal " alUioogti no huaan ponrar fa* tiunl tmi tlia 

.... Darfat dalj lo tw NatiatiMd," it la miaetti, «ie. 

TW law abara Mai aimkii« It, M the optioo of tba Cmui, a oapital 

Nflhaea le "daB^ hjr word or wijttnr anjr of tha boaka of the Old cv 

ITiiii Tilaiiiwil I I ha Iba wriltea aod tsfalllUairaid of Qod,"«iiuuiat 

alaa Umw booka liy UUe fro«a Oaoaala l« EmalatioM, Isdadlat, «( 


f na wonla of tba pteamUc U 
I Uwadiea pp. 131-190 T 

hUb Baj, might han ImI^H 

afainat Qoakna, ^^^H 

• A.O-VUA-1. ^H 


in his XTew Englcmd Jvdgedy has lefb it on record that three 
Quaker men had each his right ear cut off; * that '' Patience 
Scott, a girl eleven years old, wa>s imprisoned for Quaker prin- 
ciples ; and that, when her mother, Catherine Scott, reproved 
them for a deed of darkness, they whipped her ten stripes, 
though they allowed her to be otherwise of a blameless conver- 
sation and well-bred, being an English clergyman's daughter." f 

Tlie death, by hanging, of three Quaker men and one Quaker 
woman, executed because, afler banishment, they returned to 
the colony, is well known. They died with eminent fortitude, 
willing martyrs to freedom of conscience, on Boston Oonmion.| 

Some of the terms of Puritan indictment, against men thus 
tried for their lives, sound strangely to-day. It was charged 
against William Leddra that he ^' had refused to take off his 
hat in court, and woidd say thee and thou^ " Will you put 
me to death," he asked, ^^ for speaking good English and for 
not putting off my clothes ? " § 

The poor excuse made by their executioners was a dedarar 
tion, spread on the records of the Court, that ^^ they desired 
their lives absent rather than their deaths present." The 
apology usually offered to-day for these legal killings is that 
the Quakers who landed at Boston were disturbers of public 
peace and decency, as well as heretics. But their principles 
were emphatically of peace, simplicity, and non-resistance : nor 
is it true that they made any disturbance whatever until some 
of their property had been destroyed and their personal liberty 

* Their names were Holder, Gopeland, and Rons. 

f Quoted by Hutohinson : History of Jfassaohusetts^ voL L p. 184. 

1 Marmaduke Stephenson, ) ^ ^^rvxi. nm - a.^a 
xwT'^^^ T, I.- f Executed October 27, 1650. 

William Robmson, ) ' 

Mary Dyar, ** Ju^e 1, 166a 

William Leddia, '< March 14, 1661. 

Four only, be it borne in mind ; and we have no list of the five thou* 

sand whom Torqnemada handed over to the flames : bat Tttquemada 

never talked about liberty, oivii or religions. 

§ Chanihjebb : American Orindnal Triaii; latde A Bmwi!, Boston^ 

1841; voLi. p.46. 




Tinliito<l. Tli»* first two Qiiaki'i's who sot foot in the oolmiv 
Miiry FishiT anl Ann Anstin, wen? sf*iz<Ml on shipboartl, thoi 
books hnrnt l»y thi* liuns^nian, thoy thomsolvos closely iinpm 
omnl fur five weeks ami thiMi thniHt out of the colouv. * Dur 
ill'; the Siini«^ vear eiirht othei-s were sent liock to Rn&:lKnil 
Tht'si* (anil far worsvf) infnietions of the frt*iHloni of tii; 

• They arrivnd in July. HJoO. 

f It WAH a criino to ufFord thuin hospitality, or even to direct then 
on their way. In \i>*M), at ou«> court. Hf.'vcn or ei^ht iK*rsonA were fine^ 
an hi(;h an ten |Kiund.H fur ciit^'rtuiiiing- Quakers ; and Edwanl WhartoD 
for piloting th<*in fniTU oii'> pl:icc to another, was whipitf^l twent; 
lit ri pea and Ixjund otit for hiM ^hkI hehavinr. S4m>, for ])urticularM o 
thc>fla and other pci-si.cutiunH of this sect, Hutchiusou'd JIutt</ri/ **/ Mmm 
<ic/iU9fftM, vol, L \»\t. IHI to IM*. 

In thu legal rt'cordH of thesi* days wi: iiml darker ttliadoH. In lOtiS 
three m*oiu"n. Anno Cuhuan, Mary Ti>Miki:i>, ami Aliee AinUroAO (con 
victed under the law af^ahk't •* va<r:dMiii«l yuak»'i"s") w«-ro Fenten<*od t 
Ik* tirti to a <*art'>« tail. Htn]>]N.d from the waist up imd whii>fN'd, witi 
ten iitri|K*s in ea<*h town, thn>u;fh <•'*''•*'/< towns, u* wit. n«»\-i'r, Ilauiptoii 
S.ilLH!mr\'. Newbury, llowli'v. Ipnwieh. Weiihani, Lynn, ItiMton. Uox 
bur^'. and IXillmni ■-*i h'lmin'i iin/l ttu htriin's. in all. *'Ou«> of th 
nipple^ of Antij* Cohuan's hreast w.'lm s])lil )>y the kiiotH of thir whi[ 
raujiinj; fxtreine tt)rtun*.'* < ' V/*«//.'f/ 7W«/'j«. alre:uly i|uotfd, vi 1. i. ji 
54. ► Tlii"* wa-i in th«^ d**ad of a \e\v-rni;land winter, the warrant lN*ai 
in^<Uito Deeenilh-r V.'*3. Hi'iv?. \«» wnnihr that wamuit was eventuall 
exccnii'd in three town.H nnlr ; ihe humanity of ]iul>Iio Kentiment risiu 
in protcKt o^ainst le^al ltrut:dity. 

Ouu madji with inon* K.>rrii\\- t!i:ui sun^ri^w^ si»ine of the extniyafranec 
which followed ^ivm^ iiidivriit enirltie^. In l<iiM I.ydia Wardell. 
ivflrpcctaljlc married woman. ent^Tid Mark nnki-d into the chnn^h i 
Newborr. whcro she formerly worshippo*!. " and wa« highly rxioUod ft. 
her ■tnhml'wion to the xuwaril li^'ht that had ri'vealeil to hor the dut 
of thtia illujttratin^ the koI ritual iiakeilnem of her nei^hlv^n.** In tli 
lanie year, IVliorah Wil.vtn. a y«tuu<? marriid woman of unblcmi.*ihc 
character, marie a similar display in the st:'eet-iof S:dem. f<ir which fh 
WMB ccndemued to be i«tn]ii>ed fmm the waist npwani, tie«l to a cart 
teiL ami whipped. — t'/imitnil TroUa, vol. L pp. o4. .Vi. 

Uow fcrrid. in thoM.' midtaught old tiniei. the zeal among porw 
catoia and persecuted alike ! Now that wo have knowledge to (piid 
It, how has the fervor died out ! 


citLsen, preceded the clamorous testimony borne by Qnaken 
against colonial rule. 

The Calvinism of tbose days forbade even to tolerate tolera- 
tion. The bravdst champion of man's right to worshi]) God aa 
conscience bids — the noblest apostle of soul-freedom among 
them all * — was compelled to flee the colony under cloud oi 
wintry night ; owed hb life to heathen hospitality ; and when 
this future lawgiver of Rhode Island embarked at last to found 
a settlement where God alone should be judge of hiiman relig- 
ions, it was in an Indian canoe, with live followers only. Yet 
the offence for which Roger Williams was banished the juris« 
diction, f was not that his own creed was heretical, but that he 
was guilty of granting to others the same right to choose a creed 
which he claimed for himself. 

Little more than a century after this America had a Consti- 
tution in which all laws respecting an establishment of religion, 
or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, were forbidden. So 
fast, despite dwarfing creeds, grows the spirit of man in a new 
and a free country. 

Other Calvinisms, too, we have outgrown. The counterpart 
of laws under which children were beheaded in Geneva, are 
found on the records of Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay 
Colonies. " If any child or children above sixteen years old, 
and of sufficient understanding, shall curse or smite their natu- 
ral father or mother, he or they shall be put to death :" the 
only exception being unless it shall be proved that the parents 

* I scarcely remember a parallel case, except one — among the Hin- 
doos. A Brahmin once suffered martTrdom under a Mussolman prince, 
for preaching the doctrine of his sect, that ^^ all religions if sincerely 
practised, are acceptable to God." ^* In the whole annals of suffering 
for righteousness^ sake," says the narrator, ^^ I know of no martyrdom 
more glorious than this." — Bbuce : Scenes and Lights in the East 

f A warrant enforcing his banishment to England had issued against 
nim (January, 1G3G) at the time he fled from Salem, and wandered ton 
three winter months, ^* not knowing what bread or bed did mean,^ est 
he reached the friendly cabin of Hassasoit^ chief of Pooaooiktk 



["havn been very ttnobruiti&aljr iipglignut in tho edDentian <rt | 
laaoh duJilivu," or (.'!»• tlmt llii^ chJIiJi-on "li&ro buca fu 
I UMmunbi to [■r«»-rvo tki^iuMlveH from d'^ath ur m&iiii>u$." 

"ma nf«n to both t«xi>§ : the next section (i{»pli«a to bojv fl 
I aolf : " If liny niftn liave u stubborn or rebolliouH son of bu1H< f 
it yiwn of undemt&tidJtig (viis.), sixteen yearn of hi;t, wliiub I 
K^^l nitobi-y tliB voi« of (lis futlior nor tUn vuimof bU motluir, f 
I and that arlieo thiiy luxve i:b&HtiiM-(l blin be would not hcwrken I 
I onto thnm," the pMvubi tibiLll bring liim before the mBjpStmtoa, I 
I Hul teatify thut he in Htubbotn 4uui rebellious, and " such a m 
U be put to dB«tli," • 
A girl of nxtnm, biKauw) slie atniclc her motber — ■ boy ofta 
1^ if den/niDiiad to the nu^tratea by bis porentu oa tl 
KchArg" that Le wua iitutibi>rn and rcbr^Uioait — va« to b 
VI And tht«, in our own country, little mora tl 
il ye&re iigo I 

Thai no executions look place under this law, or under th*'^ 
choM of tbo ollter lav at^oording (o iriiich a denial iJiat Utf^ 
Bible vas iufiUliblo bocamo a ca|)ita1 oITohpo—- is due to Udi, 
ibal tbA PuTibuiB woro men bvfore tbi<y w«re CalvLnista, and 
llMt llior beoifta wore mote merciful than tbeir dootriuei. 

None tliu lues, the iheuoracy of the first two New Ei^(1aiid 
•akwiiw, patlurntnl atler that of Qoncva, was a dasiMjlisat, fiual 

Fatal— ^lecauEtn it wan founded on the anuient, mi»chi()runa 
•nor of ralributivL* Juatici.' : an trrurof which the londency is 
to ralard ihu uiorul udranw of the world. 

lUce any great luoial refurui that now enlitta pkilanthroplc 
■eal, whether of law, or education, or priaon dbcipline — whethiT 
to lunatic aiyluutu or in teinpe-mice laLora, or in th« utruj^^ti! 
^pinat thi- grt-ai atn of gtvat oLttea— take any such enligbtcnpi] 
MOnmoit that is made in onr uiudem day, to civilitu aa 

* t«w« ell«d : pp S9t 00. The dote U a. Dl tlM& The laws a 
Xtv Pljsoatfa hail tbo aamo tvo eoeUeee for the ea|iUa3 pualibcBest d 
«klUiM eosAnc iw steikine paMBt^ and of Olaihedlnt mtm.—L»m <) 
J^mnA CUfwr, p. HS. 


-i— look into" its organization, and ask its conductors wbat is its 
governing principle : you will learn that it is based on the belief 
that man's better nature can be confidently appealed to ; that 
love is stronger than fear, and gentle influences more humaniz- 
ing than penal rigors. This accords with Chidst's religion ; but 
it runs directly counter to the Crenevese theology. When re> 
forms, thus administered, are carried out, it is done despite the 
cliilliug and deadening tendencies of Calvinism. 

The world owes the Reformers a vast debt, but not for their 
theology. It owes it — 

Because they maintained that the succession of ecclesiarchs 
who, for a thousand years, had ruled the Christian world from 
Rome, were not infallible. 

Because they exposed many corruptions which had crept into 
the Church over which these ecclesiarchs presided. 

Because they denied the merit, and the saving power, of 
many empty ceremonials ; of ascetical austerities, of monkish 
seclusions ; of fasts, pilgrimages, celibate vows ; and of par- 
dons said to be of Qod, yet purchajsed with silver and gold. 

And, generally, because they shook, to its foundation, an an* 
cient system of ecclesiastical rule which debarred religious pro- 
gress, which habitually employed religious persecution, and 
which, as a whole, had outlived its utility. 

But we owe them far more than this. The inestimable boon 
which the Reformers bestowed on mankind was the disenthrall- 
ment of the Christian Record, till their day locked up in the 
Latin of the Yulgate ; and, even in that secluded form, pro- 
hibited, as we have seen, by express oanon,toall but the priest- 

Their theology will die out, but the results of that great gift 
will endure forever. The gift will finally prove an antidote to 
the theology.* 

* I would not be undentood as dezxying that tilie fheokgyy thoagh it 
ran much doser to downright Antinomianism than OatiiolioiBii e?ar did, 
iraa jet, in its day, a certain progress. Luther as tiieologte, teeiam* 


Thai aiT thn fiur iDfercnoes. from the Biimmiuj of 1 
lU KQil r^liginuK docLrineg given on the preceding | 
Im rroUvtiuitinni nf the Elefoiinatiou fkilrd to tni 
•fUDst Itic CntholioUm of Itorup — 

1. Bn»use iu foimd&tioD-priaciplM were derived fronr Iwc 
«f tbtt «pt6tlM of St. Paul, not from the teachiuga of Ghrist, 

2. Bccauii« the theolofiy of the Reformers is not (any mor« 
ttMn BomkuiBUi) iii th« nature of a [iro;;remive soieoce. 

3. BcrauK? that tlieology is not a fittiiip; ageut, ak this a^ 
tbc worlil, to rorroct tUo miuiaeni of tlie Oay, or woHc o«l Hi* J 

I cinliaUiun uf lunnkind. 

AdiI, lliia]]y, thu history of tho roverww which ovortook t 
I Refonnm, afl<>r tlitnr first hftlf-cvnlury of HUM-eas, is not to ba I 

oepted ■« {>ro»f that Christ iiuiity, tlioutilt a mveoled rvfiglan, I 
I ii ilnTaiil of liiitt elcmcDt of prognwi which inht^nia ia maUirial | 

This last inferetim b noftative only: bnt I advance anothsr 
I t»*f. I msi' 1 1, that C%riatiamty, wisely studied as a revealad 
I tntigton, u in tho nature of ft pragrtwdvL* acionoii ; and, if jruu 
I vill follow me a fnw jagM farther, I bo|io to show jtM gDoil 
n fiir tho wocrtion. 

E| 13. CitMirriAXiTir, smokx or tarasitic Ctzuu, a PmookM' 


"AChrlsttenaribe fiflli oontmjr, wUb a BlbU, Is m a par with a 
ft af the ntaMitoe&ih ertatary witk a Bible ; <a&dar asd nstmW 
■ boioK, of mNDM, suiipaseil a>|aaI."~H«rArt.4T. 

WhQn I uttrarly dissent from the o|>ininti whicl) Alocaiilay 

|li^ adfaaeod hafoad Trtwl. Hs ncrrr, hulaad. shiMk UlMiU tn» 
fiMH the pvitnil)** idea of liidid|p-n<7«« ; bat ha liaU thai thus wan 
fMSMt hy Odd for tha sslui of Christ** MtVariiigs, ami oooLl Ml ba . 
fmMd bjr printU tar lbs rnk* at tamrj U* apbUaaUMd Iha Uaa} J 
IM ft was a tskd hk« thai ho spUtaallMd. 



here expresses I can readily imagine by what process he reaches 
such a conclusion. 

He means, of course, that his fifth-century Christian should 
have had the privilege of reading the Bible, and of finding it 
vtrritten or printed in a language with which he was familiar : 
conditions which existed not, for the body of the laity, until a 
thousand years after the fifth century. But he means, doubt- 
less, much more than this. He assumes, probably, that his 
nineteenth-century Christian believes in the plenary inspiration 
of the Bible, as sole source of spiritual knowledge, word for 
word as translators have given it ; and, further, in the miracu- 
lous character of the ^^ signs and wonders,'' narrated in the four 

No doubt many Protestant professors of Christianity do still 
hold to such beliefs ; and no doubt such beliefs do, in a measure, 
put the professing Christian of to-day on a par with the Chris- 
tian of centuries long past. 

If I thought that such beliefs were to continue for genera- , 
tions still to come, I should admit that Macaulay had plausible 
ground for his hopelessness in religious progress, and that Bo- 
man Catholicism had as fair a prospect of becoming the religion 
of Christendom as Protestantism has. But I feel assured that 
these old-time doctrines are passing away. Whenever they dis- 
appear, then Christianity will overcome not only the errors 
which preceded the Reformation, but those of the Reformation 
also : and then the Christian — not as Roman Catholic, not as 
Protestant, but as Christian — will have a future before him of 
religious peace and religious development. 

Infallibility, whether of man or book ; disbelief in the uni- 
versal reign of law, and misbelief that the Great Lawgiver ar- 
bitrarily suspends his own laws ; these are the lions in the way 
that arrest the Christian pilgrim's progress. 

— Infallibility, whether of man or book. These last words 
are, in strictness, imnecessary. For God makes no books. Nor 
can any book be said to have been written by Hia dictation. 
However it may have been in £den, God showB Himself no^ia 



woiiil, to ninti. Ho does not walk in lU« garden in Ui« J 
of tito day ; nor ilocra His voice i-oucit liis crcalnnu ben, j 
pxhortatinn or in reproof. 

God himself dow not writo history, nny more 

(lietftlci works on iwifncn or inwiM's on art, nil history, mi- , 

or pro&nc, mnsl come to ns written hy man ; in otlior 

1st como loan tranRrnith-d through n fallible meilinni. 

change thia. and wo ought not to forgpt it. It oo 

ing to thr naturo of ihingn ; or, otfai^rwiw rxprawcd, 

'» ordination. 

Va can, iudcud, inutpuu GutI making a Popo, or an Evangel- 

itUallibhi ; htit, in «dlhnr caa«',. it in a man. Ood haa not 

that Pius IX., from thu ilitlu of his plocliau by a OoUegB 

Ou^diuals, bctattm infallililo ; ntnther liiu he told lu Uial 

.lliew was BO, while Kn^tugiMl in wriUuK ■>' dictnting faia 

And althongh tho \'o\>n ctninM InfallilMltty, ciwthor 

iiw nor (Uiy of hi« co-ovaiige lists wt up any wich claim.* ' 

Mt op, for ihcm and for a few other writem, nmrly (if- i 

knndrMl years ago. Tho fEoumenicHl Cooncil which na> 

led at CBrlluife in th>.> Tuar 397, proclaimed the infalhhility 

t author of eT«iry book which thoy then dtKided to Ineludn 

in of the Bible, and Pope Innocent I. onnfirmM their 

■t daoialon all orthodox ProteatMila a«c^L In Ukn 

(Eouminiical Council wliick nanembleil at Rnmo in 

iWlanxl the Puptr to tic, like all Ids official pra- 

{nfiillibl« : this iWUrfttion all ortliodnx Roman Cath- 

>t Rut nrthridox nrtlhulid nit>l PrDtHtant aliko ae- 

onons of iiifiilliliility frum tiwu, not fnim (1«L 

THn Chnrvh of Rome luin given to I'lntMtanthiin an iinraeuae 

hy tbn arror >Jiit niulo in n^olSmiing the infallibttiiy 

the Pope^ [tut Pro«nitantistti will \imn that advantagv if shn 

lo a rfuinant of C«tliolii^4ni that in i{uit<r >a untonahla : 

* "Pdnamncliu manj'hBtvtakBiiiD banilloict forthbiotdaadao- J 
tKaUan oT tbca* Ikinjpi oluah ua moat tatvlj bclui<«d among oa . 
II iiMii |«od lo mc sko ... to wiiln, uto. ," an Loks^ MOtel ] 
WBldt — CaImL l-a. 

■ flBptU« 

' dinialo 1 



the plenary inspiration of every writer in the Uibk. It ia juM 
as fatal a. mistako to declare oiie tium, or one set of men, infklli* 
ble as another. 

This mistake connects itself with disbelief in the uniform 
prevalence of law. For there ia no kw governing the world 
which is better entitled to bo culled universal, or which in more 
palpable, than timt all men are fallible, and are left by Ood to 
the gtiidanee of that judgment, ever liable to error, which He 
has given thpra. 

It ia the mot's difficult to imagine any Ruapension of this law, 
beoauee the gift of infallibility to one mau would not only ren- 
der Ilia own reason uaelesa, but would give him a despotic right 
over the reason of his fellows : the right which the Pope clatraa J 

In 80 far as men act upon the belief that any author, or any I 
60cleaiai'ch, ia an infallible teacher, just to that ext«nt is frei 
dom of conscience disallowed and trodden under foot. 
freedom of conscience is an indispensable condition of religioal 

I am Bpeakiag here not as doubting that Christ was a 
Bpired Teacher, nor as denying the probability that his biogra>l 
I phers, in recalling and recording the sayings of their MastertrT 
[ may have liad spiritual aid : * I am speaking of the doctriuftfl 
I that every word of every book included in the Scriptnial C 
I of the Latin Clmrch and tranalateJ tinder instruotions from ' 
I KtDg James, is direct si)eech of God, and therefore to be held 
ks literal and iiifiillible truth. 

That docti'iiie should, in my judgment, be rejected, not only 
because it is untenable, f but because of its practical effect. The 
* I admit inspiration, but not plmnrg inspitation ; I admit revela- 
tion, bat not revelatioii free ^m liabilily tn error ; both inspiration 
Mid revelation occurring under law. Of this, in the next eeulion, a few 
jiii|{eB farther on. 

f My limits, of conrse, forbid detaiJed diaoiusion of this Mpect of the 
docCriui?, It takes for granted the infallible iot^j^tf of niuaberloH 
custodituu Uiroiifrli dork hS'^s; uid the iafallible accuracy alike of 
vopyieta and Cj'aii£Jat<)iB~of thoee tj:iuu>ldtA(s of our AuthorUed Vetsioa 


wordiipof wortt*Mmoiw{>»rnicit)n3 than tliewnn^hipof iim^ 
s tho worst species of iilolutry. Wc have 

vbo, ia tba ooitinol prafu^n to ttuit wnik. TimlloAtcd • commoo prao- 
tin ol Ibcin (Daiti'<If , tho InuinltvliDg imo word of tbe ongitul bj 
wiouM Engliili wonlii), jnnij b? tbo uhildub pica that it woolil In nn- 
bir to ckuoau auino wunLi fur tho high honor of \MDg ttia chvintl ot 
0«d'a tnitli, and to pais oner otbm as nnworUij U amiuinca thbt 
iBtBtpaUtioD «u poHlblii: ;ot <iv*ty irrll-mKi lUtinlty Mndmt 
(in KilticL n ulTiKlf Pinnijiln) UmI uiif of tlio mo«t impnrtaat text* In 
Ant Et^Mla ot Jolm |t. 7: "Foe Ul«ru otn tbcce Uut beu wlUicM 
Dcatcii, tbo F&thcc, tbo Woctl, and Lbo Holj Ghmt, aiul Ui(«o Uima 
mm'*}— ij a forgiiry nf tJio AfUi^uth or nijlMmtb o'ntiirj ; bviug 
Waoa in /ni"* 'Uil; ont ut a handrvd unl SHf iiiaQu«.-ri|its of 
epM*. (Siuhli'siTMUnMry^MffJlfUT, I inn ) Anil UUa b bot 
«( maaj dl>|iiitnl iiwuirai; ru tL S3, in tbo kudo HpUllo 

Tlias whal mnttitDiJra of Otittt quertiona mIm I Wai it lhnm(b 
qtsdal iitfpintioii of Oiil thut Paul, in moat of hi« epinUaa, but 
<iallj Lu CotinlJiiiiii* Mul Thnwiklfuiioii*, make* rtijinaU'i] rpfarcncca 
Mmaclf ; to Lis Ulwni. [lemfvutiona, cuiinplii. carv of tlio iliutub 
aeiiii to hi* own hoij uvl tilvniduB ccradact |1 Thnn, iL 10), IiumiUI 
43 Car. lit. 1i, tonlornnwil Thnn. 11.3), oanuunc; (3 Tbca UJ.T-O)! 
wU> PM«i and Junaa and Jolin, Iha elilxf apoatlae of Uliii*t, 

hudona. In ttieir epiatlea, to tluui own mndta or doinica 
llul tbo liutlvldiial iilioijiiciBiijr «f tbo tt»i/<xUra ai 
MOtldqK t» ilw villi UiMf 

Apdn: in readhig Jvliu'ii Goapol. sif w« not to luakn allmrtnoo f( 
the (k* fbwt h iru writton tlditjr or fort? ^ eara later tluui thu oil 
^tmatti man who had lirod to iriti»ai and tMrtldpBto In 
ttmtrtnnj T iU« we to b»liovn tliMOuiliiBqtlmlihatKaAor l«i 
fMtr Uaaa in hU Koajo-l <uiL 3:t • xii. W ; zi. 3, and vd. M), 
hm Utamil ««• thi- disciple wboin Jiwdb loTcd. irbilo Daitbac of 
Mbar tbnn «Tsi4^1iiib< alluilr t<< tlip fiu.-t at all ! 

Thn tbero ao' llic trtvm!)ti«i«. iruil^ natunlSn nkttT to^ tatlimdA 
Mtsd, tat •cTtaiui? nut tilio JiTlnc didsticnL Waa I^ol iiafainl at 
ttoi wtan bn wraui tu Timiitfa; (3 Tim. It. IS. atul I Tim. v. S3) to 
bria( Uk a clonk ha luul Irft at Traoa. and lo take a (laM of wine wnr 
a»A tbaA, bKmniw nf fniiuift Ixialtli V 

Swaljr laa miuit diaerlinuiBt^. Tha ^d asd ailrar no w to Bi fl 
tfca dMfi miDc Am vo to bdlnn that tba baj- and Uw itfnbUa 
|roili*o(<il rnrni llt-< aaiaa iMntuOnd aouran t 

Bat Ukia DuiA lu ulnaiij tov hinir. 




146 DisFENsma with ak infalliblb 

lived at an era in wbich literalism is destroying faith. That 
was foretold long ago. " The letter killeth." 

I shall be told, of coui*se, that it is eminently dangerous to 
dispense with an infallible standard. I know that many of you 
sincerely believe this. But the world is gradually reaching the 
conclusion that the danger is precisely in the opposite direction. 
Science sets up no infallible standard : if she did, there would 
be an end to all scientific progress. But if wo separate theology 
from the rest of human studies, asserting that the rules which 
prevail in other branches of knowledge have no application iu 
this, the tendency is to discredit religion in all philosophic 
minds. The assertion of infallibility was the worst enemy of 
Christianity in the sixteenth century : it is her worst enemy 

Take note of a few of the difficulties thence arising. There 
are numerous discrepancies, alike in narrative and doctrine, to 
be found, as you well know, between the different gospels. 
These do not at all affect the substantial truth of the narrative, 
nor the general scope and spirit of Christ^s teachings : the pure 
gold — all that is truly valuable — remains. And, rationally 
viewed, they afford evidence that there was no collusion be- 
tween the evangelists — no concerted plan of deceit. So far, 
then, they go to prove the authenticity of the record. But if, 
unwisely zealous, you set up the claim of in&llibility, you lose 
all this vantage ground. The slightest variance becomes fatal. 
Such variances can be adduced, and have often been adduced, 
as proof that the entire sui)crstructare is treacheix>us, and 
ccumbles whenever its foundations aro probed. 

Truth is ever strongest without artificial support. We ought 
not to ascribe to ourselves faith — or any grade of belief deserv- 
ing the name of faith — in Christianity, if we do not believe 
that, in. herself, she is mighty and will prevail. That was a 
suggestive vision of Luther^s, in the old fortress of Coburg. 
He wrote thence to Chancellor Bruek : " I was lately looking 
out of a window when I beheld a wonderful sight. I saw the 
fitars and Gcd's fair firmament, but nowhere any pillArs oa 


which the Master-buildor had poised this lofty frame : yet the 
heavens did not fall in, and the firmarncnt stood quite fust 
But there are some who scai'ch for such pillars, and would anx- 
iously grasp and feel them ; and, because they cannot, fear and 
tremble lest the heavens should falL^' ^ 

Fears [merile as these pervadeil men^s minds in what we are 
wont to call the olden time, but what we ought to call the 
world^s youth, f They believed that unless they erected tha 
pillars of the Infallible and the Miraculous, the heaven of Chris- 
tianity would fall in and the world be involved in heathen dark- 
nesa. If Christ were yet on eartli, he would address all such 
proppem-up : *' Oh ye of little faith ! " 

They had this apology, however, that the clement of true 
faith was lacking in their day. As they could not appreciate 
the essential excellence of the system they sought to prop, so 
neither could they discern its iutrinsfc power. It is not for 
OS to deny that the pillars may, in the {tost, have had their 
temporary use. 

For there is a time to every purpose imder the heaven. 
Obedience is 6tting in childhood. We cannot always give a 
young child the reasons for our bidding. lie nmst leum to 
obey, to a certain extent, without reasons. And so it may 
have been in the childhood of the world. The fiction of infal- 
libility, enforcing blind assent, may have been in place one or 
two thousand years ago. It is out of date to-day. When we 
become men, we put away childish things. 

Akin to the dogma of infallibility is the doctrine that God, 
on certain occasions, has worked miracles; in other woi-ds, 

• LimiKB: Brief f^ vol. iv. p. 128. 

t ** And, to speak truly, AntiquiUu itaadi juttntus mundi. Those 
•le the ancient timen, when tbo world is ancient, and not thoee 
wt aoooont ancient ordint rttrrfffrado^ by a computation backwaid 
** — Bacjn . AdcancttfutU of L&Ariun^^ UooV V. 


that he has occasionally suspended, for a time, the laws of the 
universe, in attestation of some divine truth. 

Having treated the subject at large elsewhere, * I shall not 
here reproduce my arguments. This is the less necessary be- 
cause not only is the modem scientific world almost unani- 
mous in asserting the unbroken prevalence of law, but 
Protestant divines are gradually assenting to the view that 
Avhat have been called miracles were but the results of laws not 
known, or imperfectly known, to the witnesses. 

This (held in early days, by some of the ancient Fathers, f 
assei*ted in the last century hypothetically by Bishop Butler, J 
and more positively by Archbishop Tillotson § and by Locke [), 
has been brought prominently forward in our own day both by 
lay and ecclesiastical wiibers of reputation and position. 

A volume by the Duke of Argyll, on the changeless rule of 

'*' Footfalls on iho Boundary of Amther Worldy by the author of this 
volnrne: Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia, and Trubner & Ga, London, 
18(50 : Book i. Chap. 3, pp. 70-91 (of Amer Ed.). In proof that the 
subject of ultramundane phenomena attracts public attention, it 
may be stated that this work, in the United States and in England, has 
had a circulation of about twenty thousand copies. 

f St. Au^stinc (himself virtually a Spiritualist, see next section, § 14) 
held that a miracle was a thing- occurring not against nature, but 
against what we know of nature. ^^Portendum exgo fit, non contra 
naturam, scd contra quam est nota natura.*^ — De CwUaU Dei, lib. xxL 
cap. 8. This was written about a.d. 420. 

X BuTiiER: Analogy of Rdigion^ London, 1809, part iL <^p. 2. 
He leaves it in doubt whether we ought '^ to call everything in the dis- 
peiLsations of Providence not discoverable without Bevelation, nor like 
the kQown course of things, ndraculous.^^ — (p. 194.) 

§ TiLU)T80N : Sermon clxxxil He there says : ** It is not the es- 
sence of a miracle (as many have thought) that it be an immediate 
effect of the Divine power. It is sufficient that it exceed any natural 
power that we know of to produce it." 

I Locke : A Discourse on Mirades. His words are : '* A minidle I 
take to be a sensible operation which, being above the comprehenaion 
of the spectator and, in his opinion, contrary to the cstabliahad oonxK 
ol nature, is taken by him to bo Divine." 


law ^ (reaching its fifth edition in fifteen months), is a note* 
worthy example. The ground there taken as to miraculous 
suspension of law, may bo gathered from the following ex- 

'^ The idea of natural law, the universal reign of a fixed 
order of things, has been casting out the supernatural. Thii 
idea is a product of that immense development of physical sci- 
ences which is characteristic of our times. We cannot read a 
periodical or go into a lecture-room without hearing it ex- 
pressed. . . . We can never know what is above nature, 
unless we know all that is within nature. . . . No man 
can have any difficulty in believing that there are natural laws 
of which he is ignorant. . . . There is nothing in religion 
incompatible with the belief that all exorcises of God's power, 
whether ordinary or extraordinary, are effected through the 
instrumentality of natural laws brought out, as it were, for a 
Divine purpose. . . . Cliristianity does not call upon us 
to believe in any exception to the universal prevalence and 
power of law." | 

Another example, as eminent, is to bo found in a sermon 
preached before the University of Oxford, during the annual 
meeting of the British Association for the promotion of science, 
by the present Bishop of Exeter. ^ The Bishop there said : 

" One idea is now emerging into supremacy in science, a 
supremacy which it never possessed before, and for which it 

• Argyll : The RHgn of Late ; Strahan & Co., London, 1806 ; ro- 
print by Roatledge <fe Sons, New York, 18G0. In the preface the anther 
faifonns VLB that he withholda a chapter on Law in ChrUtinn Thmlo^jf^ 
among other reasons, becaiise it is *' inseparably connectod with relig- 
ioaa controvc my *^ It is matter of regret that bo acute a iiiind ** Bhrank 
from entezing** (as the Duke himself expresses it) this imiK>rtant 

t Work dted : pp. 3, 14, 22, 25, 51, 53, of American reprint. 

t OaAofe Sunday, July 1, IStVO. Th'j preacher was then known as 
the Rer. Frederick Temple, D.D., headmaster of Bughy School and 
dmiiHain in Oidinary to the Queen : still better, perhaps, as one of the 
mtlioai of Btaayi and Bttieics, 


still has to fight a battle ; and that is the idea of law. Differ* 
cut ordei-s of natural phenomena have in time past been held to 
be exempt from that idea, either tacitly or avowedly. The 
weather, the thunder and lightning, the crops of the earth, the 
progress of disease, whether over a country or in an individual, 
— these have been considered as regulated by some special in- 
terference. . . . But the steady march of science has now 
reached the point when men are tempted, or rather compelled, 
to jump at once to a universal conclusion : all analogy points 
one way, none another. And the student of science is learning 
to look upon fixed laws as universal. . . . How strikingly 
altered is our view from that of a few centuries ago is shown 
by the fact that the miracles recorded in the Bible, which once 
were looked on as the bulwarks of the faith, are now felt by 
^ cry many to be difficulties in their way ; and' commentators 
endeavor to represent them, not as mere interferences with the 
laws of Nature, but as the natural action of still higher laws 
belonging to a world whose phenomena are only half revealed 
to us." * 

Still another name, no less eminent in physical science than 
in sacred learning, may here be adduced. The late Baden 
Powell, in his contribution to JEaaaya and Mevieway has this 
passage : " The modem turn of reascming adopts the belief that 
a revelation is then most credible, when it appeals least to 
violations of natural causes. Thus, if miracles were, in the 
estimation of a former age, among the chief aupporta of Christi- 
anity, they are at pi-esent among the main difficultiea^ and 
hinderances to its acceptance." f 

* This sermon will be f oimd in on Appendix to the Second Edition of 
the American reprint of ^* Essays and Reviews," which was pablished 
under the title of Recent Inquiries in Theology^ Walker, Wise, & Ckx , Bos- 
ton, 18C1. 

The Westminster Review says of this volume : ** The social and official 

X>osition of the authors, their learning, their abilities, and their sinr 

cority, courage, and earnest, reverential spirit, entitle them to m nn 

prejudiced and considerate hearing." 

f O/i t/ie Stud^ of tJie Etideneea cf ChristianUy^ by Baden Fowslx*, 

^A., F.R,8., etc, Savilian ProfesBOT olOe(nnfttacjm^MftXStlt«iityol 



Wmflr opiniona aliow tlieuiscKes in the Ainei-ican CliurohM, 
uul are oveu Lcurd from llic jiulpit, tliotigh chioHy, it is to b« 
■dmittMl, from the piiljiik uf tliu icioru liBterodox eectii. 
Ber. JuiuiH Fnwio&n Ciui-kt-, » ri>prc«pntativc of tlio UuitAriao 
bull, myv: "It I cutuidured the wouderful works of Jei 
Tiolatiau of taw, 1 iJiuuld aluu nay that ibey wore «»MUtiail]r 
Maadiblr-" * 

In tnttU, ttiougLtful an>i dispuuionaie mioils, on botli . 
of Um Atliuitio, arc rtiBching tlio coaviction that tlin olil di 
L of miracutona nu'^pcnsioQ nf Utw in mpidly iinitomiining modnnb 
D tbn gotipclH. It is creating, in miUions nf souls, doubt 
I or diabelirf that tho sigoa and wimilcrs oooribcd ta Jmim oe- 
|> cuiYml mt alt. Rtnan is ouo of thn oblist exponents of thii 
I UUvr opiniim. I shnll by and by f lay boforn yon my rooaon 
[ for brlicving tliot this opinion of his is false «nd tniacbioTuiu 
i, none the Imx, it is sprcodiug fkr »ud wide. 

t tho dottrinp of the luiraculouH not only t«nda tu subverts' 

ks also a tio» tr^itur. It oamimeti that UiA 

r of spiritnid gif<«, tu olh(.T words thu pt!r«on throng 

r phtuuuumia whiiJi Inuiscirud uur EXpiTienoc, is a 

t Uocher of launls and n-Ugiou. Text this ductrini 

A thi> mund and cpiritual doctriura of tlkv |p>i]Ht|, tnsti!* 

uf Leii^ the relij^un of love and peocn and cliarity tliny arc, t 

bsve been nuide up of tujunutiontt to liatu our cii<uiiic«, to Biak 

I WOT OB oor m-iglibora, nrvor to forgi»i: an oHending brother o 

I tu liari.- muvy un a rcjifntnut siiini-'r; to trust to Tiolenc« for 

ariliuilion of tlii' world, to oilopt [lolygomy, to make 

■ of utl m<-ii whoiHi skin* wsre darker ihaa ours; tc 

il ntvii whosn en-od dilTiTod from our own : should w« still 

[ bvlWTV io its divijKi cbonMitcr, brcauso of ugns and wondMS 

Mmtad? If, m* in St. I'aul's nsso, a Toic« from MoaTCD 

ulliiil to US ; and if this voice, instead uf arroignini; its that 

Dited. 8m lltt»»t Infiria in ThaJi^, p. 148. TIm ItoUa sn ta 

■ Sqv^ZWi/, byJ. V Cl-iRXB. ItuMtMi, imi : (k 128. 

f 1b tirt rffiKhiftiT^ff HTt^^T of this oddiMO. 


we persecuted for opinions' sake, commanded us to do soi| 
would that voice be to us sufficient warrant to i*ecnact the 
UoiTors of the Spanish Inquisition ? 

I know what must be your answer : JVo phenomenon, mun- 
dane or ultramundane, can make wilful murder a virtue, or 
prove that we ought not to do unto others as we would thai 
they should do unto us. We must fell back at last, you see, 
on our inner sense of uprightness and justice. 

The obligation to do good, the obligation to shun evil, cannot 
be changed according to any objective occurrences, seeming 
ever so marvellous, that may be presented to our senses. 
Hight and wrong are eternal, and must be judged by that which 
is eternal as themselves. God has provided for this. His 
kingdom is within us. The nearest approach to the infallible 
upon earth is the still, small voice of the human conscience. 

Do not understand me as denying that the highest character 
of spiritual gifts should attract our attention to the doctrines 
with which they are associated. A believer in the value of 
such gifts, I admit this. Yet, after all, our final judgment on 
any system of spiritual ethics cannot rationally be made up 
witliout reference to its doctrinal character and its consistency ; 
and ought not to be determined by outside phenomena. In- 
ternal evidence of any such system is far superior to external ; 
and nothing can properly be accepted as a rule of action until it 
has been subjected to that light within, which is from God.* 

'*' I have set forth this argciment elsewhere ; and may be paidoiied for 
here reproducing, from a former work, a single paragraph : 

*^Let us suppose that, from some undeniably spizitaal sooree, as 
through speech of an apparition or by a voice sounding from the upper 
air, there should come to us the injunction to adopt the principle of 
polygamy, either as that system is legally recognized in Turkey, or in 
its unavowed form, as it appears in the great cities of the dvilixed 
world. In such a case what is to be done ? The world is God^s work. 
The experience of the world is God's voice. Are we to set aside that 
experience, proclaiming to us, as it does, that under the principle of 
monogamy alone have man^s physical powers and moral attiibates ewet 
maintained their ascendency, while weakness and ^•^i^niai deoadenot 


This inner sense, like every other divine gift, can bo strength- 
ened and developed. The conscience of the world is educated 
from ago to age. It is more trustworthy now than it was thrco 
hundred years ago ; it will doubtless be fur more tiiistwoilhy 
three hundred years honco than it is to-day From generation 
to generation it becomes more capable of appreciating the grand 
truths of Christianity and of discarding the errors and super- 
stitions that have overlaid these, and that have thus, in a meas- 
ui*e, covered up their beauty from our sight. Hence moral and 
religious advancement. 

I trust you will think that I am justified in deducing, from the 
above considerations, this result: Though the Christianity of 
Orthodoxy, loaded down by extrinsic dogmas, has failed by tho 
way, and has seemed, for centuries past, bereft of power to ail- 
▼anco ; yet tho temporary burden is likely soon to be removed. 
And whenever it is, the Christianity of Jesus will bo found to 
oont&in the element of progress, and will gradually become tho 
religion of civilized men. 

Of this we may tho more reasonably entertain a confident 
hope, seeing that while we are discarding old burdens, wo are 
abo obtaining now lights and fresh aids. A few words in ex- 
planation of this last allegation shall conclude these remarks — 
remarks which, for some years past, I havo greatly desired to 
lay before you. 

foDow in the teain of polygamy, whether openly carried out, as in 
Deaeret and Cooatantinople, or seoretly prsctijwd, as in London and 
N«w Yock? Are we to give up the certain for the uncertain ?— tho 
teachinga of God, through Hia works, for the biddings of we know not 
whom? The foUy and danger of so doing are apparent.**— Fa0(/<iflf, 



§ 14. Spiritualism necessary to confirm the Truths, akd 
assure the progress op christianity. 

** The need waa never greater of new revelation than now.** — ^Ehbr- 


And now, Leaders of our Protestant Church, if you have 
given me your attention throughout the foregoing preliminary 
matter, let me ask your dispassionate judgment on a subject 
vital to religious advancement, and which, because I have no- 
wliere found it distinctly stated or fully considered, I have 
made the staple of this volume. It does not embrace discus- 
sion of disputed doctrines — we have had enough of that — but 
relates rather to a study of the great principle upon which doc- 
tiines should be received — to the leges legumy as Bacon might 
have phrased it — to the laws underlying spiritual teachings and 
to the maimer in which spiritual researches should be con- 

The state of religious feeling in the days of the Reformation 
was peculiar. The two great divisions of the Christian Church 
agreed in this, that the Scriptures — more strictly, perhaps, the 
books comprising the New Testament — are the foundations of 
a just faith. The Koman Catholic branch has affirmed, how- 
ever, that within its Church the same inspiration which pro- 
duced the Gospels and Epistles has continued, even to the pres- 
ent day, an infallible guide to religious truth; while the 
orthodox part of the Protestant branch, repudiating this, has 
assumed that all inspiration and all spiritual gifts and revela- 
tions similar to those of Christ's time, have been withheld by 
God from succeeding ages. 

It was natural that the Reformers, protesting against the in- 
fallibility of the Pope, should reject also the claim of the 
Church of Rome to an exclusive, divinely-directiiig influx, 
emanating from the Holy Spirit. But they were not satisfied 
to deny the exclusive character of such ultramundane in* 

WIIITUKK KlbfAS ij:.ids cs. 


: for some reason, oertAinly not derived fi-om tlie Oa 
I itantr nor from patrixtip milliority, they r^orteil it ultogHlli 

I Uibk tbftt, ill thix nutU'r, th« R^nmii Ciitfiolio (ni<ir>!]| 
I (aaiijii from her oxcltixivo prDt^oaions) imii Uih Ancimt Vt 
\ thvn wr luMtivr to Iho truth tliaa oar ProUwUnt Cliurchtai an 
IImi diiof rmson for scojitiiuaiu in tho ti[iiritutil gifU i>f th 
It (Liy in tho idtai that |K>wcni of this ^^huroctor arc bujiiu 
If cotipW with tlio ti{)p1ication to tUl Kuch modoni ph( 
^ of that other idw put forth by fUiuui : " Till we hav 
^t we shall DUtintaiii Ui^ {ti-iuciplo of Uiatoijool criti 
m, that A Bii)N>riiutural relutiun cuiinol bn ncc^ptMl ua such— • 
i it always iui[ilicH cn'dulily ur ini]ioHturc." * 
Let «s hownrol Il^nwrn prr-miHtv at)milt*^, there follow 
kgioally bis cuiiutuHJous, culil nii<l ituhtnrtdniufc lu Uioy ore. 
Hum: Tha sigus atul wcmilem u!l<'gi>d to huve t«cu wrou^^t 
dmia^ Christ are mimculotin, but wu cannot siwvpt tba 
■ninealans: th«i«fofn tbeao signs iui>l womlpni did not 
M bU. Hi« ciplAnatinn is : " JrsiiR wu u thaumatargist 
a^unat his will. . . . Uis rajnitatioD as a miracle- worker wa« 
isOfPtwed opoD him, and h« did not resist it rery much. , . 
Tba mirsRlM of Jeans were n violence done him bjr his ttmi 
■ ODoeeviuB which the necwsity of the hoar wnug (rotn hin 
So Um exorcist aiul tlie mi iitclo- worker lia^o fallen; but tli 
RUniaua n-fomier shall live fot**ir." f 

kTkisaathur ilu-s not Mwut to niiliw the lUtt-el corolUry tcvm 
Ua woHa. What nnnvnce, what rMfwyt <'v<>n, can w« rotai 
far ■ INxcheo' who kuidii hiiiwelf to ini[H>ature ? 
Bnt ata wo rvduo^ lu thta «lti.Tnative ? 
Moh IIm sigua and wonders may ha*o been pbonoiiunM, of . 
* Bnui: tJfi y Jmo* (Wt)b«ar'a Inaatalicml; p. 4.1. Ovraw 
BaHiwallita otmcwb thla riew. "Ve umj Runmarilir reject all aiia- 
dsa, tarnpboeiia. tumtlTos o( ao^rU aod lUnunw, and the Uke, «• Bm- 
||y lapoaalUe and InwoncMilable with th* koowa anil nnlntSBl laws 
tiUak|rmsnUia<oiin««reTaBla."-Sriu(na: Z^« <y CArwl, I 


spiritual character indeed, but occurring under law. There may 
be intermundane as well as mundane laws. 

This explanation would be more generally admitted, (since it 
is evidently the lieight of presumption to assert that we know 
all the laws of the univei*se), but for a difficulty which occurs 
to many. Natural laws are not only invariable biit are also 
continuous. The effects of natural laws do not show themselves 
for fifty or a hundred years and then cease for tens of centu- 
ries. These results may, indeed, manifest themselves more pow- 
erfully or more frequently at one age of the world than another, 
as a particular geological sti*atum may attain in one locality 
vast development, while in another it shrinks into petty pro- 
portions. But the action of law is perpetual from generation 
to generation, suffering no interregnum. 

- Thus, if the extraordinary manifestations of power ascribed 
in the Gospels and in the Acts of the Apostles to Christ and to 
his disciples did occur under certain spiritual laws,'^ the same 

. laws must be in operation still : and powers analogous to those 
which resulted from these laws eighteen hundred years ago 
ought to be traceable in history, and may be confidently looked 
for in our own day. f 

— Analogous powers : not necessarily powers to the same ex- 
tent ; yet powers exhibiting sufficient similarity to mark their 
common origin. Observe, then, I pray you, how the matter 

There are two theories, directly at variance. The first is 
that the spiritual gifts of the Apostolic age were isolated phe- 
nomena, showing themselves during a single century only of the 
world's existence. If so, they did not occur under law, since 

* That is, if they did aubstanUaUy occur. Not believing in human 
infallibility, I admit that tho biographers, even if spiritaally aided in 
their recollections of the past, were liable to errors in detail — to misoon- 
ception and mistake ; as all biographers are. 

f The analogous case, noticed in the Preface to this work, of an 
astronomer predicting the existence of a planet, before that planet had 
been observed, will here, probably, suggest itself to the reidei; 



•U fconuti exjwri«Dc« is opposed to the* idot that Clod mnlcfn 

IftVtf aa mcii inigLc, to liist a huiiilr»i1 years Mid tbrn U> be re> 

pwlod ; tlicrefoio llicjr miisl bo m^rtled as tuinmilmii^ Bui 

b^ if, la Um progrcMt uf mcwatx, tho b«li«f in the tnimculmis is 

I ndting awuy, Uio iiltiinatv rosnil will he diflbolinf ta tho nUogml 

r mintrlM of tiie UoBpols ; and wc iJmJI fall tmck ou iUsui'i 

GoBcliiaioa that Chiiat oount«uaDwd fraud. 

Tlie *eoj}ud throry is Uiat tlioro liave pxi84«d from all timo 
Uwi Rf[uliLtiiig inlcTLVunMi ti«lw;en tliis world and the next — 
ta«ni under wbieli curtmn nu.ii uod wutiKii, more or l«aa £ivonid, 
hara oecasiunailf t^xioviscd upmtual j>i>wi-n aud gifts ; Uut 
Ihen ocmirrtjd aa extmurdiiiury dL'Vclo[jmwit uf 
Uw find century, i>f wlitoh Lbc ofloct vfaa to attract public 
Imtioa ta tiin ti-acliioga of a iiyiitoin, the innaUi bmat; and 
iKonl grapdcur of which wtro inHulEctmt to r«ctiiDiiiFad it 
Um Hnt-bttrlMriiun <rf the da.j ; that tho i'xiat<mco of raefa wp 
itaal giAa ia toacoablu througbout tlia hiatorj of tho laat mvci^ 
Ibsb biuidrBd yvura ; auil} liuallj', that limilar gifts aud [wwen 
ahow (bMnMlvna ainoug U8 at tho prt«ent tini«. 

Tbo tniuuier in wliii-Ji the eridcncn of Christiauitj an 
affected by thnu! two tLeoritw, rmipoetively, ia wortlij jour 
ifwetal ikotice. 

Under tbit Unt wo am driven In nuiutain tiiu Koiuau CalbuU* 
aad ortbodox PnitMitatit belit^f in lliu Exc^ptionid und the Hir- 
acuLiKia. If, (icfi'atnl by »i-t<mt(tio i-rugniiu, wi> fail to miMAin 
Uua drogtna, tlirn tbe wonderful wnrka of t^riat and bU dixci- 
pka laka their pUeo brndn th-o labon of Hercnliw, and otlwr 
talea sf boalhvn niytbola^^y. In that om tito gu^io] bl»gnt]diy 
of Okriat nusl nmdt weaken tho anlbnrity of hia dH^trinoa.* 

Uader tlio aocond ihwry, if history nutaiiu it, and if plus 
ttaoMnw eccorring dailj' undnr onr ryn* ronfinu its truth, tfaii 
reaalt u iw^dtrly tho wvomn. For in that caao wa have thn 

* Tliaatliin of thti minrif uf Chrirt, a Miodan AMnfaaa lUvlna 
«y* : " If Mtch namtlrai ilo not atrengtlien out EaMh in tba nHgiiM, 
IkMorwaakMiiL U aMpcoobof ttetnilb, tbajran bv>iaM«| 
—Ostjnam. 8kidntm<;ft»rM»mag,f. 142. 





evidence of our senses in proof that ther marvelloiis powen 
ascribed to Jesus, and Uie spiritual gifts alleged to have been 
enjoyed by his disciples, were natural and are credible ; that, in 
£ict, we have no more reason for rejecting them than for deny- 
ing the wars of Csesar, or the conquests of Alexander. Thus 
the alleged spiritual manifesta^iana of our dat/y if they prove 
genuine, become the strongest evidences to sustain tlis autJienticitt/ 
of the gospels. 

There is another view to take of this matter. To act upon 
the ignorance of the first century it needed works which that 
ignorance looked upon as miracles. To act upon the apathy t>f 
our day it needs phenomena acknowledged to be natural, yet 
of an intermimdane character. The need is as great now as it 
ever was. When we boast of our civilization as compared with 
the rudeness of the sixteenth century, let us be reminded that 
in those days tens of thousands gave their lives for their relig- 
ious opinions, while in these, men will scarcely give their time 
to think about them. There are not, it is true, many open 
scoffers at religion among us — the age of Voltaire and of Hol- 
bach is past — but there are millions who belong to the vast sect 
of Indifferents. There is but too much truth in what one 
of the acutest minds of our own country declai-ed, when ad- 
dressing the senior class in the Divinity School of Harvard 
College in Cambridge : 

" It is my duty to say to you that the need was never greater 
of new revelation than now. From the views I have already 
expi'essed, you will infer the sad conviction which I have, I 
believe, with numbers, of the universal decay, and now almost 
death, of faith in society. The soul is not preached. The 
Church seems to to tter to its fall, almost all life extinct. . . . 
I think no man can go with his thoughts about him, into one 
of our churches, without feeling that what hold the public wor- 
ship had on men is gone, or going. It has lost its grasp on the 
affection of the good and the fear of the bad.^ 

* Emerson : MiseeOanies^ Boston, 1856. Bishop Butler besn rind- 
lor testimony in his day. In the Advertisement to his Analogif <if JMff- 


Hera it is worthy of romark that the better class of scep- 
tics, in our day, regret their own lack of faith. An English 
author of a careful and critical inquiry into the origin of 
Chruitianity is a type of tliLs cIush. He npeaks of ChriKt and 
the ethical system he taught with reverence ; but reaches the 
conclusion that the historical evidence for miracles and a 
Divine mission is insufficient. One sees that ho deplores the 
conviction to which his reason had brought him ; for in his con- 
cluding reflections ho says : 

'^ It is imf>ossible to disguise the momentous consequences of 
the rejection of the divine origin of Christianity — that a future 
state is thereby rendered a matter of sp(M;ulation instead of 
certainty. If Jesus was not seen after he was risen, wo no 
longer sec immortality brought to light: the veil which Nature 
Las left before this mysterious matter still remains undrawn. 
• . . With respect to one of the subjects most interesting 
to man we return into the position in which the whole race 
stood for four thousand years, and in which a great part has re- 
mained ever Kince.^' 

Again : '^ Whilst it was thought that Jesus had brought the 
gnaranteo of Heaven for man^s immortality , we persuaded our- 

itm (AD. 173G), ho says: *^ It has como, I know not how, to be taken 
for gnmted by mxuiy pcrRons, that Christ ianitv is not ro much as a sub- 
ject of inquiry ; but that it is now at length discovered to bo fictitiooa 
And, aoourdingly, they treat it «i if« in the present age, this were an 
agreed point among all people of disccmmont.*' 

Strong evidence* of the iuiliff crencc evinced at the present day in Eng- 
land to established forms of religion is to be found in the * English 
Ceneos of 1851.* That docmncnt informs as that while at that time 
there were in England and Wales church-buildings capable of seating 
tffi tniUiom (teo hundrc f (houMand persons, it was ascertained by actual 
eaamcration that the attendance (avrmging morning, afternoon, and 
erenittg aerrices) was but Mr*** mnWo/iH tn'x humlrrd and thirty-tu<»thoH' 
mthd ( 3,0^)2,022). In other wonl<, each clorjjyman pn»achcd, on the 
aTciagc. to a congregation which tilled little more than one-third of the 
Mats. And, strange to Kiy I the hiii:iI1 est a wragc attendance was found 
to bo in the churches iu wliieh the scatet wore free. 

Fartlnv details from this c<3n8us will bo fuaud in the body of this wodc 


selves that this was necessary to man^s improvement and happ> 
ness. We were mistaken ; no such guarantee has been given , 
it is wise to acquiesce and to conclude that happiness and im- 
provement are best promoted by our present ignorance. . . . 
The withdrawal into obscure remoteness of the future eternal 
life may leave men more free to appreciate the advantages of 
their present sphere. . . . Yet it must be owned that there 
are states in which all such reasonings are felt to be insipid, 
and in which the human mind feels a deeper want." * 

Finally this author seeks comfort by ** indulging the thought 
that a time is appointed when the cravings of the heart and of 
the intellect will be satisfied, and the enigma of our own and 
the world's existence be solved." f 

These remai'ks undoubtedly present the frame of mind pre- 
vailing among a large proportion of intelligent sceptics ; espe- 
cially among leading scientific men. /Simple tJieismj shut out 
from the cheering warmth of spiritual revealvngs^ is ungenial 
a/nd unsatisfactory. 

All this, I admit, does not make out my case. As men 
knowing the world, you will doubtless concede the danger from 
that easy-going scepticism which '^ hopes it may all come out 
right, and that, in the Unknown Dark, we may find something 
good in store for us." You may further admit the vast impor- 
tance it would be to Christianity if God would give to Hia 

* As witness the tone of deep sadness which, especially in poetio 
temperaments, pervades the thonghtfnl hours of those who find nothing 
fairer to bound this checkered earth-life — ^no more anspioions prospect 
in the Great Future — ^than the dreary vacancy of dreamless sleep. 
'^ The cloud-shadows of midnight possess their own repose, 
For the weary winds are silent and the moon ia in the deep ; 
Some respite to its turbulence unresting Ocean knows ; 

Whatever moves, or toils, or grieves, hath its appointed sleep. 
Thou in the grave shalt rest — " 

Shelley: Stanaas, JprU^ 1814. 
f Heknell : An Inquiry concerning the Origin nf OkritUemitif, 
London, 2d Ed., 1841 : pp. 481, 488, 485, 488. 



8 of to-Jay tlio spedeH of evidi^oo wliidi Ho did not! 

[ nfata lo the [ucrodiilona Tljoituw. Bui you will remind m^ 

I ttuit to mnko out tho iin|iort.aiioo, or the appuvut nMMMty, ofi 

I lluDg U Dot la dntnonstruUt its r^xiiitetim. 

"nM conwrioiHitras of this gave niie to ibo prewut volumtw 

I Tit Ifae bodj uf ihn wurk I n-ftir ;ou for dinvt vvidmco tball 

iity i» bron^t to lif^ht now, among i» — thut ttin apos^ 

[ lolic ififtti am mprodticcil at thiit ilay und aro act tvstrictcd to- 

I! Rumnn fjitbolic Church. Miumwhilo a few words t(>uchtitg 

f ktatoriiid t<?*tiinony in the cmp may Iw of iMTriw. 

« mnat rvtuK to tbt> Old Tirattuncnt cot only all cluim to 

L, ID Ally sonM, but aJho all omdraoo lu nnciflnt bis- 

t w« deny that, from the oarlioiit agra, tho two worlds 

I, frnm time to Udip, in conimunicnriou. Cut fmm its 

t n>)atc« to BucLiuleroommunion; mii tlu*ro would 

f its uarralivo, but a tilelms aud uitiiitulligiblc randao. 

As to the Kt)w TeHtmnniit, we lind wtitlker in guapelH nor 

[ Kpiatlw, a word to iiulicat« tho Maiutitiu, iu Uiu fntura, of 

■ptritual ^fU: an far an tlicrq It cxprissina un Uie Kul^ect, li' 

WMteinii tlin Imlirf in thnir indnAnitv mDtitiuance, 

IWkd a Cuw oxampli^M : 

Oirtct^ when hn apjwu^ nftoT dr»tli to tJio alevon, laidt' 

"TImm digiM shall follow tli«m that bclivTo. In ny naoM 

■liaU tlury cast out devils ; they diall xpoak with now tongnm. 

. lley shall lay hauj!t on the aiL-k and they sliall TVMTn-." * 

>, in the iuuuediiilti jirun^n-cl of duath, Jesus util: "Ua. 

•Uevath un ni«, tJic wurks Uuit I du shall ho du 

r worlcii than th<w idiall ho du." f 

No lunilAlion aa to timn, obtmrrD ; not u 

I liWog^ nor to Utn diacipleii uf that day, are tb«a» 

x*i. IT, 19. Borne eonaMtataton bat« eaat 4oaU> mi tfca 
nf tiio clomeg nam ol Maik** 0<mi«1 {rvL O-ID); Ijat 
«i» qaotDiL, wiUumt «tinallwi, \if trmav* (iii 10, 0). ■ 
I la tiitea out of Tour of tli* uncU) maamctiy^ ant h r a ■ 
a rslalnnl in the Guion. 


stricted : notliing to show that they do not extend to all whi 
shall believe in his teachings, " even to the end of the world,'* 
as in another promise of spiiitual aid ho expressed it. 

Nor were such powers, even at that day, exclusive. Tlie 
seventy enjoyed them.* And when the disciples saw a certain 
man wlio followed them not, casting out devils in Christ's name 
and forbade him, Jesus reproved them, saying : ^' Forbid him 
not : for there is no man that shall do a miracle f in my name 

* Luke X. 17. 

f In prosecuting such on inquiry aa the present, the student is oon- 
Btantly reminded of the urgent necessity for a modem revision, at least 
of the New Testament. The word above translated mirade, is du- 
namin, occasative of dunanUs, which, in the best lexicoDS, we find inter- 
preted : *' potency, power, faculty, efficacy." We do not say **do a 
power," or that would have been the literal traDslation. The true 
meaning is, undoubtedly, ^' exercise a power " or *' gift ;" and withal a 
spiritual gift or power, such as Christ himself i)0sse8sed. King James* 
translators believed spiritual gifts to be miraculous ; and so they here 
make Christ declare them to be miracles, without the slightest authoar- 
ity, in the Greek text, for doing so. 

In the Gospels dunamis is, twice at least, translated tirtiie^ as we 
sometimes use the word in the sense of energy, physical or moral. 
Speaking of Jesus healing the sick, Luke (vi. 19) says: **The whole 
multitude sought to touch him, for there went virtue {dunamis) out of 
him, and healed them all. " Think of saying * ^ there went miracle out of 
him " ! And again (Mark v. 30), when Jesus was touched by the woman 
who was cured of an issue of blood, he felt (so the translation reads) 
*' that virtue {dinamk) had gone out of him." Jesus, it appears, was 
physically conscious of this wonderful power. But when the attribute 
of the miraculous is ascribed, it is by sheer assumption ; prompted, 
probably, by the thira instruction given by King James to his transla- 
tors. (See preceding page 125. ) 

To the spirit of the same instruction it is doubtless due that| in one 
passage at least, the word miracle is arbitrarily supplemented, where 
there is no corresponding word whatever in the Greek text. It will be 
found at Mark vi. 52. ^^For they considered not the mirade of the 
loaves ; for their heart was hardened." The literal translatLon ia ** fox 
they thought not of the loaves :" the words '* the miracle " being poielj 
gratuitous. This and similar errors are corrected in Grieiliioh's texfc. 


that can Ijgbtlj speak evil of mo : ho that is not against us is 
of our part." * 

Moro striking still is this : At the very close of Christ's 
ministry on earth, just before ho crossed the brook Cedron into 
the garden whore ho was betrayed, ho said to his apostles : ^^ I 
havo yet many things to say to you, but ye cannot bear them 
now. Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will 
guide you into all truth ; for he shall not sjH'ak of himself, but 
whatsoever he shall hear, that sliall he siKtak.'^ f 

May not this be diirly construed as a (iromiso of spiritual 
progress ; an assurance of constant advanco by the aid of the 
spirit of truth— medium of jwrcnuial revelation between Heaven 
and eai-th ? Is it not a declaration, too, that Jesus' own teach- 
ings, while. hei*e, wei*e not a finality; neither, indeed, could be: 
seeing that even the Twelve ho had selected and taught through- 
out three years were not ]>re))ared to receive what yet remained 
to be said? The Christian world has strangely overlooked 
this text and the fair corollaries therefi-om.J 

The Acta are filled with passag<*s in proof of the continuance, 
throughout the Aiiostolic age, of spiritual i>ower8 and gifts. 
There came a multitude bringing sick folks to the Apostles,* 
" and they were heided every one." § " By the hands of the 
Ipostles were many signs and wonders wrought among tlio 
people." I " Stepht»n, full of faith and power, did great won- 
ders and miracles (duuaraeos) among the ixjople." % " S|x?cial 
miracles " (dunameis) were wrought through Paul. ** Peter 
raised Dorcas f f and Eulichus H from the dead. A certain 

^ Hark ix. 39, 40. 

f John zvi 12, IH. There are many simOar promlAcn, whero this 
■pirit is called the Comforter ; as John xr. 26 ; xir. 20 ; xri. 7. 

t It ii a mere aswrtion, unwarranted br Scripturo, that thew prom- 
iMS were restricted to the writers of the goHpcls and cpistlcn. ci(?ht 
only in number : or, as othen would hnve it, to the Sorcn Churches and 
dnxing the apoaitolic ago alone. 

I Acts T. 10. I Acts V. 12. ^Actevia 

••Actixix. 11, 12. ttActaix.37,40,41. t AfiUn«^,\^^^a^. 


man (Philip, the evangelist) ^'had four daughtera that did 
prophesy." * And so on. 

To all the disciples, soon afbcr Ohrist^s death, came, on the 
day of Pentecost, the gift of tongaes.f The same gift appeared 
among the C^tiles also.| 

But as to spiritual gifts, various in character, Paul's teeti- 
N'mony is the most distinct and comprehensive. He declares 
that, in the churches, then including nimicrous converts, there 
are diversities of gifts ; besides the words of faith and wisdom, 
he enumerates the gifts of healing, working of mii-acles 
(dunameun), prophecy, discerning of spirits, divers kinds of 
tongues. § He himsetf rejoices in the possession of such gifts, | 
and, in the same text in which he enjoins charity, he bids us 
desire spiritual gifts, especially the gift of prophecy. ^ To deny 
that this last behest is addressed to us is virtually to assert that 
all the precepts contained in Paul's epistles were intended for 
the Seven Churches only, and have no application to the pres- 
ent generation of men. Paul's express words are : ^^ There are 
diversities of gifts, but the same spirit. But the manifestation 
of the spirit is given to every man to profit withal." *♦ 
* Passing on from the first century and coming upon the Eccle- 
siastical, or Patristic ^' miracles," we enter au oft-trodden field, 
familiar to those who have followed an English Doctor of 
Divinity, writing in the middle of the last century, through a 
celebrated ^^ Inquiry " into that subject, f f I think a dispassion- 
ate student rises from the perusal of Middleton's book, and of 
the best modern commentaries thereon, with the conviction 

*Act8xxi. 9. t Acts ii. 1-4. t Acts x. 45, 46. 

g 1 GorinthianB zii 4-11 and 28-30. But read the whole of Ahig^TB 
xii. and xiv., in proof of the great importance which Panl attached 
to that matter. 

1 1 Corinthians xiv. 18. ^ 1 GorinthiaQB xiv. 1, and xiL 81. 

** 1 Corinthians xiL 4, 7. 

f f MiDDLETOK : Free Inquiry into the MiraeUhus iVtMfv toAtcft are 
ntpposed to have euMsted in the Christian Ohurehflvm the JSkrUett 
Ages, Loudon, 1749. 


that the c<mcurrent tostimony of the Fathers for the alleged 
Bpiritoal gifls of the early centuries are inadequate evidence of 
those, (u miracles, but all-sufiicieut proof to establish (in a gen- 
eral way) their occun*ence, if we regard them as natural phe- 
nomena. To that testimony I can but biiefly advert. 

Irenieus (a pupil of Papias and of Polycarp, both of whom 
■at under the teachings of St. John) was Bishop of Lyons A.D. 
177. We have but fragments of his works ; but he is quoted a 
hundred and fifty years later, by Eusebius (writing A.D. 325), 
who says, in his JScclesiastical History , tluit Irenieus ^^ shows 
that even down to his times, instances of divine and miraculous 
power were rcmaining.^^ lie quotes tcxtually from Ireuffius, 
thus: "Some most certainly ami truly cast out devils. . . • 
Others have the knowledge of things to come, as also visions 
and prophetic communications ; others heal the sick by imposi- 
tion of hands, and restore them to health. . . . Even the 
dead have been ndsed and have continued with us many years. 
• • . It is impossible to tell the number of gifts which the 
^u:ch throughout the world has received from God.^^ * 

To the same effect tc^stify Justin Martyr f and Thoophilua, 
Bishop of Antioch, both conU^m|M>rary with Irenaeus ; TertuUian, 
flourishing toward the close (»f the second c(*ntury ; Origi^n and 
Minutius Felix, in the b<'ginning of the third century ; and 
Cyprian, pupil of Tertullian, about the middle of the same. 
Amobius and his disciple Lactantius, writing in the fourth 

century, may be added to the list. | 


^EcsBDius: Ecd^nMieal Ilixtory^ book v., chap. 7. He states 
that the eztnusts are taken from the second book of Irpnoas* RffuUu 
tion and Ocertlirow cf Faise DtctriM. (''Atlvorsus Hnreses*'). 

t ** Justin Martyr, who is supposed to have >rritten his firvt Apology 
wHhm fittf years after the days of the Apostles, says : *' There are pro- 
phetical giftw among us to this day. and both men and women endowed 
wHh extraordinnrv powers by the Spirit of G<k1.** — Quoted by I>r. Mn>- 
DLETON, in hi« Frff Inquiry, p. 10. 

(See Middleton's Inftir;/^ pp. It -11); wb ore arc ^ven cxtractf 
Irmii the wriiiugH of euc*h, willi r«TiTv-Uii:.; t-> tho ori^^inal anihoritiea 


St. Augustine, wliom Calvin and Luther copied so closely^ 
and who was Bishop of Hippo a.d. 395, may be called the 
Spiritualist of his age. In his celebrated CU^ of Qod he has 
a long chapter filled with minute details of numerous miracles 
>vTought in his day. At the outset he says : '^ They ask me, 
* Why do the miracles which, as you say, were performed in 
former times, not occur to-day?'" And lus reply is: "At 
this very day a multitude of miracles do occur ; the same God 
who caused the signs and wonders which we read of, works 
similar prodigies still by such pei*8ons as He sees fit to select." 
He attests, as having happened under his own eye, most of the 
miracles which he relates, and says that, did space permit, he 
could add many more of his own knowledge.* 

Of another St. Augustin, the apostle of the English, who 
landed in Great Britain A.D. 596 — ^who became Archbishop 
of Canterbury and is said to have baptized ten thousand per- 
sons in a single day — we read that he had the reputation of 
miraculous powers in the restoration of -sight and even of life. 

I might go on to speak of the St. Gregory of the third century 
(sumamed TJiaumaturgus from his wonderful powers), of St. 
Martin, and many others deemed equally gifted ; and I might 
add abundant proof tliat the faithful Koman Catholic continues 
to believe in the reality of Ecclesiastical miracles up to the 
present day. But it needs not further particulars. 

Middleton discredits these patristic powers and gifts, con- 
cluding that ^^ they were all contrived, or authorized at least, 
by the leading men of the Church for the sake of governing 
with more ease the unruly spirit of the populace." f For this 
scepticism his chief motive seems to be that " the belief and 
defence of these miracles . . . gives countenance to the 
modem impostures of the Catholic Church." J He takes pains 

Speaking of the (^ of tongues, Middleton says : " If the testimony of 
Irensens can bo credited, many were endowed with it in hia dajys, and 
heard to speak all kinds of longonges in the Gbnich." — Inquiry^ p. 117. 

* City of God (" De Civitate Dei ") book xxii, chapi 8. 

t Inquiry^ p. 109. % Inquirif, p. 176. 


to remind us '^ how naturally the allowance of these powers to 
the earlier ages will- engage us, if we are consistent with our- 
selves, to allow the same also to the later ages : '' * evidently 
looking not so much to the amount of evidence that can bo found 
for the alleged facts, as to the theological results of admitting 
their truth. 

So also Bishop Douglas, who in his Criterion^ assuming to 
show how ^* the true miracles recorded in the New Testaiqent 
am distinguished from the spurious miracles of Pagans and 
Papists,^' f concludes that we are warranted in rejecting the 
latter — that is, the Ecclesiastical miracles — '^ as idle tales that 
never happened, and the inventions of bold and interested 
deceivers." J 

Protestants generally, except those who evince Puseyite pro- 
clivities, § take the same ground. Locke, douhtloss correctly, 
states the chief prompting motive : " I think it is evident that 
he who will build his faith or reasonings upon miracles deliv- 
ered by Church historians, will find cause to go no farther 
than the Ai>osth*s^ time, or else not to stop at Constan tineas." | 

But this Protestant scepticism leads far. The more swet*i»> 
ing among the arguments employed against " Papist miracles ^ 

• Prefaoo to Inquiry^ p. xix. 

t DouoLAS (Bishop of Carlisle) : Criterion by which the true Miradeij 
etc. (as above) 1754. See title-page. This is virtoallj a reply to 
Hame*s cclebrat^Hl argamcnt. 

t Criterion^ p. 26. 

g Ab JonN Hknry Nkwman, in bis EtuKry oti thf Miradrg rffordtH in 
the EcdemtiMtic History of Vie Eariy Agn, Oxford, 1W3. This was 
written while he was still a Protestant. The gist of his argrument is : 
*' If oar Lonl is with his disciples * alway, even unto the end of the 
world;* if he promised his Holy Spirit to be to them what he himself 
was when visibly present, and if miracles were one special token of his 
presence when on earth ; . . . surely we have no cause to bo sur- 
priaed at hearing siii>cmataral events reported in any age.^ — p. 78. 

This may savor of Roman Catholicism ; but it savors equally of lof^ 
ioal inferenoo. 

I LocKK : Third LeUcr on Toleration^ o. x. p. 900. 


bj such writers as Middleton and Douglas will be admitted, 
by dispassionate readers, to be equally valid against the ^^ signs 
and wonders " of the Gospels and the " spiritual gifts" of St. 

I speak hero of wholesale arguments. It is to be admitted, 
of course, that many of the narratives coming to us from pa- 
tristic times are apocryphal, and others obviously obscured 
by superstition. Where there is genuine coin there also will 
coun'icrfeits be found.* To St. Anthony, a stout believer in 
the Iievil, Satan (according to his biographer) appeared, usu- 
ally as " a spirit very tall with a great show," " who vanished at ' 
the S iviour's name ; it burnt him, and he could not bear it ; " 
with other similar tales.f 

It is to be admitted, further, that some of these early eccles- 
iastii al gifts, imlike those of Christ's day, were often com- 
mitttKi, not to the piincipal champions of the Christian cause, but 
*' to boys, to women, and above all to private and obscure lay- 
men not only of an inferior but sometimes also of a bad charac- 
ter." J This only proves, however, that they were in a measure 
depimdent, like magnetic power, on certain physical conditions. 
The modern examples among us confirm this. Nevertheless, 
the highest order of spiritual gifts appear to attach themselves 
only to those who are, in a correspondent d^ree, morally and 
spiritually elevated. Hence, doubtlc&s, the unexampled pre- 
eminence of Christ's powere. 

To arrive at any just conclusion on such a subject we must 
examine and test each narrative on its separate merits. It is 
a question to be determined, as the fall of aerolites has been, 
by facts, not by closet speculations. Even Middleton admits 

* Matthew zxiv. 24; Mark xiil 22 — *^they shall sednoe the rery 

f St. Athanasius: Life of St. Ant/iony ; paiaim, 

X Middleton : Inquiry/, p. 25. Bat as to women, it is certain that 
spiritual gifts attached to both sexes in Christ^s day. See Acts 
9; ii. 17, 18;aiidxvi. 10,17. 


that ** the testimony of facts may properly be called the testi- 
mony of God himself." * 

It was afier a careful examumtion of this testimony, as it is 
found among us, that tlic naiTatives which follow were written. 
There you will find my reasons for the conviction that God has 
not left us without present witness touching the great truths 
of our religion ; that we, like the Apostles when they beheld* ' 
the risen Christ, may see immortality brought to light ; that 
the " Spirit of truth," to-day as of yore, is present " to guide 
us into all truth ; " becoming the medium between spirits in 
the next world and men in this. 

I believe that this spirit (divulging what reason tests and 
accepts but could not have originate<l) has been the oiigin of all 
religions. Tliis was Bishop Butlf r^s opinion, thus expressed : 
** There does not apjiear the least intimation in history or tra- 
dition, that religion was first reasoned out : but the whole of 
history or tradition makes for the other side, that it came into 
the world by n»velation. Ind«*etl the state of n^Hgion in the 
first ages of which we have any account seems to supi>oso and 
imply that this wiis the original of it among mankin<l." f 

Hut if revelation be the origin of all human religions, it can- 
not be a phenomenon restrieUjd to a single tvnturv, or showing 
itiielf up to a ct>rtain {leriotl of man\s hist4)ry, and then disap|>ear- 
ing, to bo seen no more. It must be a guiding influence for 
all time ; a p«M-manent element of civilization and of spiritual 
progress; as ess4>utial to vital i-eligion among us who live now 
as it was to the Jews of eighteen hundred years ago. 

To deny that this revelation comes from God is to deny that 
the Book of Nature has God for its author. But like every- 
thing else in this world, it comes to us nn^intfi*/ not dir^rtit/y 
from Him : and so only must wc recei> e it. ThuH it aids Reason, 
not dethrones it : it appeals to Conscience, not coerces it. If 
everything that claims to be n^velation wen* to bo accepted as 
aoeb, we shouKl have to admit the whole Koran. Because 

♦ Inquiry, p. 10. 

t An*iU*Qy of lifUsion (Ed. of 180i)). 1»p. 105« 196. 


men, by €k>d's universal law, are fidlible, and because the 
holiest truths reach us only through fallible men, Reason and 
Conscience, God-given guides, must sit in judgment on all al« 
leged revelations — humbly, reverently indeed, but fearlessly 
also ; for perfect love casteth out fear. * A captious spirit is 
especially out of place in such connection ; yet it is our right, 
and onr bounden duty, to prove all things, spiritual preten- 
sions included. 

If the general view I have here offered you of this subject 
be correct, then it will not suffer denial that, as clergy^ most 
of you have hitherto too much restricted the circle of your 
duties. Overlooking what Christ said about the Spirit of truth, 
which was to teach men, after his death, what he had left un- 
taught, you have omitted to inquire whether there is a present 
revelation ; and, if so, how far it is trustworthy — what are its 
character and claims. If, as Middleton said of spiritual gifts 
coming to light in earlier ages, these are still sometimes com- 
mitted to children and to persons of indifferent character, this 
makes more imperative the duty to sift and to discriminate. 

Many of your number are, probably, deterred from entering 
on this task by the idea that the (alleged) phase of modem 
revelation is anti-Christian in tendency. If, after a varied ex- 
perience of sixteen yeai's in different countries I am entitled to 
• offer an opinion, it is, that if such spiritual communications 
,' bo sought in an earnest, becoming spirit, the views presented 
will, in the vast majority of cases, be in strict accordance unth 
I the teachings of Christ, such as we may reasonably conceive 
I these to have been from the testimony of his evangelical biog- 
raphers. They touch upon many things, indeed, which he 
left untouched; but the spirit is absolutely identical. They 
breathe the very essence of his divine philosophy. 

I speak here of those ideas as to which, in all trustworthy 

* ** There is no fear in love ; perfect lave casteUi oat fsM."— 1 JdbM 
!▼. 18. 


■pirit-messagesy there can scarcely be said to be variance of 
sentiment. As to side-issues and non-essentials, it would seem 
that the same variety and uncertainty of opinion exist in the 
next world as in our own. 

The following may be taken as the great, leading principles 
on which intelligent Spiritualists unite : 

1. This is a world governed by a God of love and mercy, in - 
which all things work together for good to those who rever- 
ently conform to His eternal laws. 

2. In strictness there is no death. Life continues from the 
life which now is into that which is to come, even as it continues 
from one day to another ; the sleep which goes b\ the name of 
death being but a brief transition -slumber from which, for the 
good, the awakening is immeasurably more glorious than in the 
dawn of earthly morning, the brightest that ever slione. In ail 
cases in which life is well-ftpent, the change which men are 
wont to call Death is God^s last and best gift to his creatures 

3. The earth-]>hase of life is an essential preparation for the 
life which is to come. Its appropriate duties and callings can- 
not be neglected without injury to human welfare and develop- 
ment, both in this world and in the next. Even its eujoy- 
mentu, temperately accopte<l, arc tit preludes to the happiness 
of a higher state. 

4. The phase of life which follows the death-change L<, in 
strictest sense, the supplement of that which precetles it. It 
has the same variety of avocations, duties, enjoyments, corre- 
sponding, in a mciisure, to those of earth, but far more elevated ; 

* Gontnist, with this, the conception cf coriy Protestantism, on tba 
tame sabjeot. Luther regarded death as the cxpresBion of Ood*8 wrath. 
Said he : ** It were a light and ca«y thing for a Christian to suffer and 
overoome death, if ho knew not that it were God*ii wrath. . . . 
An heathen dieth M>currly awav ; he neither ticeth nor feclcth that il 
is Ood*8 wroth, but meancth it in the end of nature."— Tii^^ Tall:. 

Christian's weary bundle that dropped from his shoolders as the pil- 
grim aearad the cross, was as nothing compared to the terrible burden, 
boras 4aij hj day through life, of such a belief as that. 


and its denizens have the same variety of character and of in- 
telligence ; existing, too, as men do here, in a state of pro^ 
ress.* Released from bodily earth-clogj their periscope ia 
wider, their perceptions mora-acute, their spiritual knowledge 
much greater, their judgment clearer, their progress more rapid^ 
than oui-s. Vastly wiser and more dispassionate than we, they 
are still, however, fallible ; and they are governed by the samo 
general laws of being, modified only by corporeal^ digfiycithral- 
ment, to which they were subjected here. 

5. Our state here determines our initial state there. The 
habitual promptings, the pervading impulses, the life -long 
yearnings, in a word the moving spirit, or what Swedenborg 
calls the " ruling loves " of man — these decide his condition on 
entering the next world : not the written articles of his creed, 
nor yet the incidental errors of his life.f 

* This view of onr next state of existence, expressed in general 
terms, occurs in the religious Uteratore of modem times, antedating 
Swedenboig^s writings. To select an eminent example, we find Bishop 
Butler (A.D. 1736) saying: *^ There appears so little connection be- 
tween our bodily powers of sensation and our present powers of reflec- 
tion that tliere is no reason to conclude that death, which destroys the 
former, does so much as suspend the exercise of the latter or interrupt 
our continuing to exist in the like state of reflootlan which we do 
now. . . . Death may not, perhaps, be so much as a discontinu- 
ance of the exercise of these powers, nor of the enjoyments and suffer- 
ings which it implies. So that our posthumous life, whatever there 
may bo in it additional to our present, yet may not be entirely beginning 
anew, but going on. . . . For aught we know of ourselves, of 
our present life and death, death may immediately, in the natural 
course of things, put us into a higher and more enlarged state of life, 
as our birth does ; a state in which our capacities and sphere of percep- 
tion and of action, may be much greater than at present.** — Analogy oj 
ReUgion, Part 1, chap, i pp. 33, 84 (of London Ed. of 1809). 

f ** The sin that practice bums into the blood, 
And not the one dark hour that brings zemorse, 
Will brand us, after, of whose fold we be." 

TENNYeoK: l^fifthA EUig. YivleiL 


6. We do not, either by faith or works, earn Heaven, nor ^ , 
are wo sentenced, on any Day of Wrath, to Hell. In the next • 
world we Himply gravitate to the position for which, by life od 
earth, we have fitted ourselves ; and we occupy that position 
heoauBe we are fitted for it* 

7. There is no instantaneous change of character when we 
pass from the present phase of life. Our virtues, our vices ; our 
intelligence, our ignorance ; our aspirations, our grovellings ; our 
habits, propensities, ])rejudices even — all pass over with us: 
modified, doubtless (but to what extent we know not), when the 
spiritual bodyf emerges, divested of its fleshly incumbrance; / 
jet essentially the same as when the death-slumber came over 

8. The sufferings there, natural sequents of evil-doing and 
evil-fhinking here, are as various in character and in degree as 
the enjoyments ; but they are mental, not bodily. There is no 
escape from them except only, as on earth, by the door of re- 
pentancew There^ here, sorrow for sin committed and desire 

* One finds the g«rm of these ideas in writings of twenty-three hun- 
dred yeasB aga The wisest of Qredan pbiloeophers — reprciMmtatiTO 
of the Spiritualism of his age— propounded it. Socrates (Plato being 
Interpreter) says: ** Since the soul is immortal, it requirea our anxious 
eaie, not only for this interval which we call life, but alwaya** . . . 
The soul ** can have no other refuge nor safety from evil except in re- 
***'""*g as good and wise as possible. For it descends to Orcus with 
nothing else but the results of its mode of discipline and education, 
which are said to be either of the greatest advantage or injury to the 
departed.** . . . Then, as to the soul of the evil-doer, he adds: 
** 1% atiajs about involved in utter perplexity, until a certain period has 
slspaed, on the expiration of which it is of necessity carried into an 
abode suitable to it But the soul that has led a pure and well-regula- 
ted life, having the gods for assacvates and guides, proceeds to inhabit 
a region ad^ited to those hke itself.**— P/Mid0, g 57, Stanford*8 trans- 

Let us translate OreuM, ** intermediate state ;** and, for *' the gods,** 
let us read *^ advanced spirits;** and we have here, substantially, an 
tapnrtMit tenet of modem Spiritualism and of SiiedaiSbfQC^ji&inBOBu 


for an amended life are the indispensable conditions-preoedeni 
of advancement to a better state of being. 

9. In the next world Love ranks higher than what we call 
Wisdom; being itself the highest wisdom. There deeds of 
benevolence far outweigh professions of faith. There simple 
goodness rates above intellectual power. There the humble 
are exalted. There the meek find their heritage. There the 
merciful obtain mercy. The better denizens of that world are 
charitable to frailty and compassionate to sin £at beyond the 
dwellers in this : they forgive the erring brethren they have 
left behind them, even to seventy times seven* There, is no 
respect of pei*sons. There, too, self-righteousness is rebuked 
and pride brought low. 

10. A trustful,* childlike f spirit is the state of mind in 
which men are most receptive of beneficent spiritual iid]pres- 
sions ; and such a spirit is the best preparation for entrance 
into the next world. 

11. There have always existed intermunda^e laws, ^according 
to which men may occasionally obtain, under certain condi- 
tions, revealings from those who have passed to the next world 
before them. A certain proportion of human beings are more 
sensitive to spiritual perceptions and influences than their fel. 
lows ; I and it is usually in the presence, or through the medi- 

• Matthew xiii 58; Mark vi 6, 6. 

f Matthew xviii. 8. 

X Those who, in modem phrase, are termed mediums are probably 
to be incladed in tho class called by Beichenbaoh seruitieea; peesona ca- 
pable of distinguishing odic incandescence in a perfeeUff dazk chamber. 
He thinks that nearly half the human race belong to that daas, though 
the power of many among them is so weak as to be hazdly api»eoiable. 
He f onnd aU natural somnambnlists to be sensitives ; also all who are 
subjects of artificial somnambulism. — Der SensiUce MeMch^ Stuttgart, 
1854; vol. ii. pp. 549, 555, etc. He found that the gift, or attribute, of 
Bcnsitiyeness was usually hereditary ; inherited sometimes from the fa- 
ther, more frequently from the mother, oocasioinaUy from both. — ^pp. 
522-520f where lists are given. Children sometimes posMSi it »c 
atrozigly as to be alarmed by humnouB appeuiaiisM ait vS^.^'^ 18L 




* 'vMt of OHO or omrB of Lhew tliBt ultramiinJapu tntercoune oo- 

13. Whfta tho cooditionc are fiivornlile, twil tlin acnutJvQ 
throogh whom the inanifinttttiuaa conie in highly gifttid, UieM 
Bi^ ■nppljr impoiiBnt inatrrukls for thought oud vnluuble rule* 
of oDodnL-t. But Bpiriluul [>b«uouieiiasomotini(^ii(loinuch mora 
thftatbia. In ibejr hlgbeal pliuaiMt thay furuish proof, Rtrong 
U tiukt wliidi Chrint'sduicipltw uujoyeil^ — proof addmwM-d tutho 
leuoa niul tnngiblo to tlio sc-iiscb— of tbo rcNlitjr of KuutJicr Ulv, 
beUor Mill hKp[>ier thau tbu, nnil of wliioli uur cwthl; ptlgrim- 
l^isbuttho uovitiBtti. TUry Unn^iniRiortalitr to light untlern 
UaoB of cvidmioo wliJcb oubdiinir*, u the biu tlui ■(«», all tr»- 
dtttoKAl or liintorical trstinionici. For •unniM! lliL-y giv» us 
I^Oonvictioo, nnd misuivd knowlodgo for wuTiiriag belief.* 

13i. Tlui cbirf moCivM wbiuli iiiducv spirita to comniunioita 
|Wttl) tDnaap[iodr tobn — a bcacvoliiit ilonro to cotivinoou«,|i«ut 
tdoubt or doiiuil, that thorei if a world to comoj now nod tlun, 
Uhs ftttnctiou of tinpleaaant momorica Buch as iiiunlor or 
dicido; Bouietimes (in the wocUllynUudml) tho cartb>biadtDg 
■ilflinnce of cumber »nd trouble : but, fiir moro fm^ucnlif, tli« 
Edivino im]iuW uf huiauiiUr(M;liou, atwkiu^Lbegooduf t1io1uv«I 
8 iriu8 left I'clund, iLud, Dt liuicH, dntwu dowu, i«rlia|ia, b/ 
Klbvlr jBM-ning cr'wi. f 

It. TTudcr tuifiivorablu or Imjierfi'ct coDditiuns, ■jtiriluul 
feoonimuuicaLiuiui, huw bouiatl]^ n-porl«d wwter, often |i«tiv« 
wd raluflloM ; >ud thia cbiefl* luppntui wbBn eummuni' 

wahM in tUi teld wmr conUnuMl. wilib MtaakUai 
UwDOBh iMi 7«ua, anit trsra, «t an swlj A»j, bifhlf an*"*^! 
Iqr LUbif (Vntmat to SsmOm JCmul, p. xxiii.) and by B 
CMkMtoioU, ie«l, ^ 8t«>. Sm, foe EolclimbKli'a MiUwobMrralfaw,! 

* UtnUuBkot tfa* "4«dcawKiM"UMtinemHiMtlwii» 
dn llrfiMBTB. umI cooililM (mw mutj pwaooa, idoM and rtdotlj ~ 
ammi In fabb, ban Imb otMtekao by Giau D«qMlr and U ii itha 
b* DmWiis C««J«, »v duOl tMt find bnU inth Um adiMlin OWMTJ^ 
a. flMt><>x"Ui«-PV«I37aatoLiitbc^*dmM». 

f *'Sl«aA>tar«C«UaaMftUo.-'— DartE: Jft/iriMi, tjuduaV J 



cations are too assiduously sought or continuously persisted in ; 
brief volunteered messages being the most trustworthy. Im 
prudence, inexperience, supineness, or the idiosyncrasy of th6 
recipient may occasionally result in arbitrary control by spiiits 
of a low order ; as men here sometimes yield to the infatuation 
exerted by evil associates. Or, again, there may be exerted by 
tlio inquirer, especially if dogmatic and self-willed, a dominat- 
ing influence over the medium, so strong as to produce effectF 
that might be readily mistaken for what has been called posses 
sion.* As a general rule, however, any person of common 
intelligence and ordinary will can, in either case, cast oft 
such mischievous control : or, if the weak or incautious give 
way, one who may not improperly be called an exorcist — if pos- 
sessed of strong magnetic will, moved by benevolence, and it 
may be aided by prayer, f can usually rid, or at least assist to 
nd, the sensitive from such abnormal influence. | 


In all this there is no speculative divinity. And I admit 
the probability that if, through spiritual source, you were to 
inquii'c whether the theological guessings, touching the essence 
of the Godhead, of Arius or of Athanasius come the nearer to 
the truth, you might get no reply, or perhaps the answer: " We 
are uninformed as to that matter ; " with the remark added, it 
may be : " We do not entertain such discussions here." 

Ai-e they not, in this, wiser than we ? Up through the 
mists and horrors of the persecution-ridden Past, the common- 
sense convictions are reaching us that we have no C9nceivable 
means of settling any such controversy ; and, again, that, if we 

« * Dr. John F. Gray, whose experience entitles his opixdoa to gxeal 
consideration, and others, believe that what some call demoaiaa^poaBes- 
sian,.may be explained, in very many if not in all instanoes, by pordy 
human agency ; for example, by mesmerism, 
t Mark ix. 29 ; Matthew xvii. 21. 

/ The Ber. James Freeman Clarke has become oonvinoed M to llii 
walitjr of poeaeesion. Steps of Bdi^^ Boston, l^lO^^pc, tftl, 188. 


I, its «ettleini>tit would not utflai 

I, by a liair bread ill, UiS'^ 

Purtlior than thin, f have tieviT, out uf tboustuiila 
muucuLiniu, iv<Htiv<>d onii Ui»t duaooiund any luncere rulLj^ittufl 
4tl>bu(>n, wbothLT OatboHc or ProUratunt, MabonnoLHlan or Uitf f 
itoa. It iei to be cniMwded, inileod, (iiat, in tboae modiirti reveli^ 
tiiMis, rerllun orUutdnx dcHluctions from a jiortioD of tha epW' ■ 
t(M, ratertiuii«d hy Culvin and Lutbcr, KuJ no comiU): 
Btit, in tlio prronling pagoit, I hnre lakim miom paiiu to i 
fertli tfcn grounds for my brlicf, Uiat until Ibrao dmlnetiotu ar» J 
abondDnad, tbcra will bo no religious prognu; and that, ao 
long M they are procIaim«>d from yuur pulpiU, th« Church over 
irtttch yoa pmside will ttaiul atiU or Iobo groimd 

I am Mrry to believe that tlie failure of inoilBm Spirltu^ ^ 
HDt to indoTsa the doctrines of vicariouB atouement * and i 
original depravity, will cause loany of your number, in advaocs | 
«f e<rul(uji.v, 1j> ctmdiuun its itiilui-nou, aud ruji.>cl its clainu U 
U kautL Yi.>t if a Witw Man uf uld )>i>cak truth, ■ ~ 
a matter bufuro bo liearclh it. It ia lolly and ( 
uub) liiia." t 

lout tliw iMnm I bar* takai tba V^»t et Uu aUWMWWrt 
In ita dcctriiuiJ »otud, m thn Katarauam bcU it ; daaadjtf Ihat bo ba tho 
*ay ot I'littlnc 11, Tlinte U a mimb la wtiich aooh a dogma !■ 
ly trae and Important. Chdcl oaiae, aa be hinudf aaid, "a ligbl 
Aawoilil," that nbiwoacFoptod hia leaching* "abanld not aUda 
." iJnhn (ill tA. 47). In IncolealloB of thsM teoefcinr^ 
vHb >iHritual tight, lie rip^p t hi* lif« ; and la aUcatatinu ot then 
ha MoUced it. Tf weartont the apirit ot lii» tfarhangi In daily walk, 
m WBOwdlB oar wva wltli the slcmnl lawa ol oar being, aiwl may ia 
■aU to ba (U «u wlUi Urn Ur«at Antlior ot ihwa Ian. In tfaU ■<!»«> 
■a Bay dadan tJiat Chrl*t died for hnmankiBd, and that ihmuitU bU 
Waipaaad ag unt y — hia nwdiation — oar race b radoemBd tnxn error. 
tmd ttnm Iba nllaiinga oiror antalla ban and havafter. Bat thk i* 
■at what Lothar moant irbon. in hia CkmmatUrfoi OatalMM*, beapGlw 
af onauf Uu raxma of the Godhaad acoanad teoorMkaj aocbU 


Others may be staggered at the outset, by the nature of its 
clouns. The ^^gift of tongues," perhaps, may seem to them an 
incredible absurdity. Yet if it is not incredible nor absurd in 
the second chapter of Acts, or the fourteenth chapter of first 
Corinthians, at what time did it change its character ? 

Baden Powell deemed it an actual phenomenon, occurring 
under law at the present day.* 

So, again, of prophecy. It may seem to us beyond belief that 
what is yet to be should ever be disclosed to fjedlible creatures. 
Yet in all ages, back to the days of Abraham and Melchizedek, 
certain men have been honored and trusted as possessors ot 
prophetic power. Is it incredible that the greatest of all earthly 
Teachers should have been heralded, more or less distinctly, by 
the ancient prophets, as the Anointed of God, who was to call 
mankind from darkness to light ? Bunsen admits this, f 

* The sexmoDB of theBev. Edward Irving, a olezgyman of the Ghnzch 
of Scotland, created, about the year 1825, an unprecedented excite- 
ment m London. In 1830 appeared, in his Ohuroh, the ApostoUo gift 
of unknown tongues. Baden Powell, alludi^sg to this, says : 

^^ At the time the matter was doeely scmtimzed and inquired Into ; 
and many perfectly unprejudiced and even sceptical persons them- 
selves witnessed the effects and were fully convinced — as indeed VTsre 
most candid inquirers at the time — ^that after reasonahle or possible 
allowance for the influence of delusion or imposture, beyond all ques- 
tion certain extraordinary manifestations did occur, . . . Yet no 
sober-minded person did for a moment believe that they were mtraeu^ 
lottSj . . . but that they were in some way to be ascribed to natural 
causes, as yet, perhaps, little understood.'^ — ^Baden Powell : Beoent 
Inquiries in TJieology^ p. 122. The italics are in the odginaL 

f In his Oott in OescMchte. He there says that the power of sight, 
in the old Hebrew prophets, reaching beyond ordinazy prediction, rose 
to the character of a true world-survey (sich zur wahzen Weltanschau- 
ung erhoben hat) ; and he adds : *' They had the power of prophecy 
in common with the Pythoness, . . . and with many cUurvoyants of 
our own century.*^ — ^pp. 149 and 151. 

Bunsen regarded this power as a natural gift, consistent with fallibil- 
ity. Yet his commentator in Essays and Bevi&uts (Dr. WiUiams), seems 
^ j^^gret the admission of prophecy as an actual phenomepon. ^^Qne 
would wiab/' he KLySf "Btusenxni^thikT^laitaiuSMODlyt^ 


Ort)M(](ik<r r^ftrds Badeu Powell and Baron Buiuen u ultra- I 
aoppticnl authorities. Does it iiot occur to yna that moJt^m f 
■piritBai pbenomeDa wlucli lut'n. bo able iuid lu Uttl« dtspoH-il lu I 
■npenlttioa admit as realities, tna; Iw wortli louking in! 

I romind 70a, in conclusion, tlMt, aaiiio from phenomenal I 
•ridBaoe of this character, ;ou havo no certain proof, sw^ u J 
OuBMi bad, of the existeooe of another world. It is not 1 
■espliea alooe who have ailegod thia and bowailed it — lilwl 

IfWtaotcllothmtaloor onapealdag deatb T 
Wb» lUtMb thn veU of wLkI ti Id com* T 
Vlio pslnteth Uie ihiulowa that an) beniolh 

TI10 wUa-winiliDg caTea at tho polled tomb t " 

The Boat emincDt divinos linvo admittml a lack of certats^ 
to • life to oomt^, in the abtienco of tcMimony from Ota 
ExamplM abound, but. I have space bore for two only. 
lUer) in bta Analogy of /Mt^ttm, confeMM : " I do iiol 
to alBnu that there la the aaue ihgrM of cooiiciioa tltat 
our living powvrawill oontiniw aftordeaUias tbatour aubaUo- 
«• will." ■ 

And Ardibiahop Tilh>tM>n, in an argument against tlie rmU 
pnaaitot, laja ; " ItiGAtdxly were liordlj' pomiblii to men, if all 
hmw had tlui muaa eviilcuce for the Chriatian Ilttligion tlMkt they 
liAv* againat tnuuuhstantiatioa ; that is, the claar and imaiaU 



Htmdrads of thoosanda bal unnd to-da^ that tiiiey 
had thu "drw and inwirttblo ovidaMe" for immoirtalit 
L nink of auch n living coavietioB I Coouidm- how it aiands 
I above all that wealtli, &mo, and evcij wrthlj good-forlaoo 

If fhfl ideal in tho adtnal, or of traHng tha INTlaa OovaDUnaDt la 
Ma of RWB."— Anot fnfv^im ut ThtUoff, p. Ti. Vhj 
braglMT 1 think BoMBD'a Vha can«c4 linr. 
* ^NahMr^rJMtr^p-l?. Italia tnoriclaaL 
. ( AraHa«,8tk&LI,«BJ«a,ino, SanBisxxA. 



bostow — the blessing of blessings, which the world can neithei 
give nor take away ! 

I think if we only realized in what deep earnest millions on 
millions have longed, with a longing past expression, for some 
sure token of another life, we should better conceive i^e sacred 
duty of investigation. With transcendant interests at stake, 
can we neglect such a duty without risk that, like the unbe- 
lievers in Gan>^ers day, we may haply be found fighting 
against God ? 

Thus I have sought to show — 

That Protestantism has steadily lost ground for three cen- 
turies past, and is losiog it still. 

That this retrogression seems to be caused by its adherence 
to certain so-called orthodox dogmas which the intelligence of 
the world has outgrown; perceiving them to be contrary to 
God's eternal laws, promotive of intolerance, injurious to mor- 
ality, and arrestive of religious progress. 

That Christianity, divested of alien scholasticisms which its 
Author never taught, is a progressive science, destined to be- 
come the religion of Civilization. 

That if we admit miracles, we must deny the uniform reign 
of law and thus come into direct conflict with modem science : 
but if we recognize the reign of law and admit that the spiritual 
powers and gifts of the first century existed under law, then, 
as law is continuous as well as uniform, spiritual phenomena 
of a similar character ought to be found still occurring. 

That, in point of fact, the teachings of Christ have been sup- 
plemented, as he promised they should be, by revealings bring- 
ing truths and comfort from that higher sphere of being toward 
which we are all fast hasting : and that this happens not mir- 
aculously, but in accordance with intermundane laws which it 
behooves us to study. 

And, finally, that such modem revealings, bringing immor* 
tality to light, are essential to arrest the growing Boeptioiaiii of 
tbepreaent day. 



If what has been said should induce the earnest thinkers of 
your profoiwion to study intcrmundaiio laws, tho foregoing 
pages will not have been written in vain. But as laws dimly 
discerned can only be explored in tho phenomena they govern, 
I have sought, in the chapters whicli follow, to lighten, for you 
and for others, the hibor of such study, by bringing together, in 
narrative form, some of the more salient and suggestive of the 
phenomena in question ; attested, I venture to affirm, by evi- 
dence as strong as that which is daily admitted, in our courts 
of justice, to decide the life or death of men. 


New HABMOirr, Induna, ) 
OttobfT 1, 1871. ) 








** Tbm moctdtoti enemy unto knowledge, and that wbioh hath doaa 
the gxeateat execution upon Tnith, hath been a peremptofy adhedoii 
unto anthoritj."— Sib Tiiomas Browne : Vulffar Enron. 

" Gooadenoe is the aapfeme inteipieter, whom it maj be a daty to 
«nllght«^ bat whom it can nerer be a duty to disobey.**— Temple: 
Bkkepqf Sgeter. 

I PB0P08B to inTestigate a class of phenomena that haTe 
been regarded, .by turns, as miracles, feats of magic, arts of 
necromancy ; signs and wonders, mighty works, spiritual gifts ;. 
occult forces, mysterious agencies, spiritual manifestations. 

Not as a topic of curious research ; not as a theme of S|x^i- 
lative inquiry. I have selected this di^jamged subject because 
it brings one &ce to face with the great questions of the world. 

Of kte years many earnest and thougbtfoL unmiA \a?«% \M»Ok 
fall to imvgnim, in certain strange inddenti ot tikMS i2ttQn% tNaw^ 


when rationally interpreted, beneficent agencies of eminent 
power and vast practical importance : influences urgently needed, 
in this age of the world, to quicken waning fiedth in a life to 
come, and to afford, in support of public and private morals, 
helps more cogent than those which conventional creeds com- 
monly supply. 

But the value of these phenomena, as religious and reforma- 
tory agencies, rests, at the outset, on their claim to be spiritual ; 
and that again intimately connects itself with the solution of a 
problem than which no more important one can engage the at- 
tention of man: J)p the denizens of the next world* ever in- 
tervene in the concerns of this ? Have they the power, and 
do they occasionally exert it, to affect, for good or evil, the 
lives and the fortunes of human kind ? In fine, has God vouch- 
safed, or denied, to us here upon earth, intercourse on certain 
conditions with the spiritual world ? 

An overwhelming majority among all sects of CbristianB 
holds that spiritual intervention has been; while the most 
numerous of these sects teaches that it still is, albeit restricted 
within the limits of a single church. A small minority, but 
one that is rapidly increasing, believes that intermundane laws 
have always existed, and now exist, under which occasional in- 
tercourse between the two worlds is possible; and that, in point 
of fact, such intercourse occurs at this day, unrestricted to fa- 
vored church or sect, in various phases throughout the world. 

Let us consider how this last belief adapts itself to the wants 
of the age, what relation it bears to the intellectual and religi- 
ous tendencies of the times, and what position it is entitled to 
hold among the creeds of Christendom. 

Wherever religion has existed, the human mind has been wont 

* I here refrain from touching on the analogical evidences for a fators 

state, haying diacoflsed that matter elsewhere; {Foa^atttcntheBntnd- 

ary of Another Worlds Book lY. Chaig. L, pp. 476-^08.) TIm aob- 

jecb has been ably treated by Isaac Taylor, in Mi Phifdoal TImrf ^ 

Another lAfe: LoadoB^ 1899; pp. 64-00. 


U> oocnpj itaolf viUi the iiiquiry how ikr, and in wliat uade^ I 
God has impartc^l spiritual koowW^ to men : a Hoeptical por> I 
tiou of soL-ioly (spocjally iiolive dl over Kiirupo iu tlxo vig 
UwDth opulury) doubtuigorileDfiug that Ho has ever iiuiMvted I 


I The currvut opinion of Uie pant luta becu tlmt Ho has itn 
fiartcd it dinwtly ; and if direetly, tbiin iu&dlibly , areing thn* 1 
we cMunot nitiuuallT ImputH error to rjoiL Tlimi nil Mpiritual 
Rommuuicatiua or iuJiueiiae htm betin, aIniuHl by Lho commoa 
canaenl of ChriAt«iidoiu, iutorpn?U>«l im actiukt •jiwwb of Um 
Dnitj, or Diviue uitromiiiaiaii imiunduktely unuiiitttuig Irom onv'l 

[ of the Frraoua of the tinlheod. llonoe knowlnjgn »pirttii>ll/'| 
baa bent r«gitrdi^il am theR(|uitaIcntof kuowWga 
rrnir. Hrace, also, dn-ivits tbo rtoim i 
it rdigiuiuL, Hindoo, Mnhotnntjin, Itoman (^ibulic, r*n 

tw lliB orpuu of infiUlihlo tnilh Rnd the dopoM 

tonw of ■piritaal anthority, by right diviue; authority which 
K ia impioDB to <]ueMioD aud iueurriiif: ttti'mal [luuiidimLiit Iu 
tKmAoj.' Kveu iodtviduala bcU«*iug thtttnai'lvM »pirituDlly 
Ctvorvd haT« given in to thia ulm. ■' U camo to mo from tbo 
Lotd," waa « oonuaon mpfwrinn of Swedenbori;. 

Bat th* lendenoj of tlia cariUnM) mind in wmpfaitalcably oi>- 
poaad to the idea of dinol diritic inleqiaBition. Wo witacoa » 
HkwimI benofieent agenctm arotmd iu; and, uciloaa w« mra 
nlheiila, wo aacribe tlia« to Ood. Tet w« una ibat otvry ana 
of tlwm ia mcdiatv. Tbcra bw b)«n no direct f^tL To ua of j 
nMkderu timou th«n> hii«u Ijccu gc«nt«l, undef tho diviita «oona 
umy, bcilitim fur ooriuiring and pcipetualiug kno'arlodjie a 
aguwd bj our rcmoto aiwoitora. But tiod did n^t invent ft 
oa ttio tttloMOpo to detect gdabota and anna which thtm 
ton bad naver M«n, nor tbo nucroacopo to penatnte tbo mia- \ 
itta aystmica of an itvriaibla worid. Ha did not rercal fa 

*Bnw|iliiai« am lulm Ecnoid Unnaglnafc 
IMlJt««*. ■nw*««ulaaD(IUaakll>(kibdiB«ad 


J86 coNDmosB or qod's help. 

■onsible signs to reprp,sont Iiunieui thougtitA, the pen to perpoU 
uat« these thouglitB from generation to generation, the printing 
press to enlighten the intellectual world. He is the aathor of 
all these blessings, but indirectly only; they come to us from 
Him, but they come to na through our fellow-creatures. 

All analogy, then, forti£es tho idea not only that God's 

agency in nuiu's lavor ia ever mediate, but also that Hiw aid ia 

given on certain conditions. And these conditions involve, on 

our part, thought, research, reflection, industry, enterprise. 

There is a great truth in a homely proverb : " Gad helps those 

who help themselves." We can perceive His design that we 

should search out what is to Itenefit us ; that we should earn 

what we receive. Among God's eternal laws one of the chief 

is the law of progress ; but throiigliout the entire physical 

I i world we see that it is by man's head and hatids this progress 

s worked out, not by miraculous intervention. 

Some of the soundest intellects of former centuries, from the 

L seen inferring the unseen, have reached, or approached, tke 

Lconclusion that evety esercise of God's power, alike in the 

Rphysicai and in the spiritual realm, is efiectod through the in- 

BWrumentulity of means : in other words, mediately under law.* 

BAnd surely there suggest themselves, in connection with man's 

nature and with his position in, a world where evil existn, and 

with his career in that world, the strongest roaaona in favor of 

I intermediate action. Tltough we can but dimly discern 

e thingH which go to make ua tho beings we are, yet we 

* Boctm, whose mind ranged over all snhjectB, nitiliuiU7 and apiiit- 
1, takes this groniid : " God worketh nothing in natiuB but by seo- 
a oaoies; and if thej would have it otherwise believed, it is mere 
Empoetme." — Adcaiuxmeat of Ltamiit^, 

And we find a distinguiahe«l divine of the last ceotuij asseitjng the 
aredihilitT of sach a view. " The visible tcovommeiiC which Ood eiw 
dsea over the world is b; the iustrLuneQt^ty and mediation ot otlien. 
And how far His invimble govermneiit be or bo not bo. it is uuposaible 
to detecmiae at oil by laasui. The suppoaition that port of it is so, 
^^ appeoTB. to aqy the Leagt, M cmlible as the oontnuy." — Bim2B~; ^J 
^K'^»*^>'<-/.£^iJ7M>/i. Portn. Chap. V. ^H 




IxmirQ thmt man takes delight La progress, and that hb n 
ukI intellectual wacte find full satiafaotioa only in 
ire rtale. Wo perceive, also, that if there is to be pro 
(here must be tLe worse and the better — thu woree in the p 
the better in the future ; in other words there must, ■» d 
general rule, be comparative eril behind ni, and eoin)>anit)re 
good to come. Thus only da we obtain a glimpse toward » 
Tstional theory of evil, and of the reasons which may nnderlio 
its ]ii)rmission. For, though we may desire unmixed good in 
worldly aSairs and nnmixed trut4i in spiritnal ravealings, both 
Are onrsMonablo wishes. Witness our consdouaness that our 
beat lia)ipioe<B consists in sumtMDcd efforts, trom darkneaa to 
■ppnMcb the light ; from evil grailually tc attain unto good ; 
and from error to ctimb the pleasant paths of trutJi, aa Uieae 
opeo to more and mem exoellent knowledge. Finality is ala^ 
nation ; a paradise for the sluf^rd only. 

We pereetTP, furllier, lliat all human powera dwindle if they 
■re Dot fitly us<n1, and that judgment itself, if not holnlnally 
oalted into exercise, is Uablo tu dL'leriunition and duoty.* 

Bnl lo beit^ tlins cunstituted and existing in snoh a world. 
Ml farihHtble t«v«Ution, direct from its Crmlor, would lie a 
ifiA utterly Biiauited to thor nature, at variance with every- 
tUng we aeo around ns, and involving a oonDOption that is 
6ur an the nnaom can bo diirprovnl, by all tba 
of analogy. It would be a finality where all else it 

■* A woriil In wliloh men dumld b« axasksratad bom Uie ilnly, t 
B the rii^t, to brinr ths JodcBanl late play— M rift, bf II 
rtdot dictetes of oonsaiBiOB. coed from evil, the rlfta (ma Iks « 
wonU be a w«ald dlsgraoed sad depadsd. 
flillr ewfSad oat, U wodU atlasttMeame a wedd lasUn* not oalyU 
SOtaniSB of naaoa. bol t^na thsclf. Vm. lo an nttmt wUeh U i 
dUbalt to detonnine, la iimiiiHiI b> oonticBsd eaistSDss, Aat wUakI 
TTini lo fulSl it* pnipcaa Onally eeasca to be. n* syas id t^m ^ 
IkoMd br in Uhi interior of UM Manunoth On* of I 
tuBmt front tba ligfit of day, i 


profluent; therefore, an anotoaly in a progressive world: 
avowedly so, indeed, since its friends admit, as to their relig- 
ion, that as there has been no scientific formation, so there can 
be no progressive development.'*' It wonld be an element 
alien and discordant in a world to the inhabitants of which 
God has given reason to prove all things, and conscience to 
hold fast that which is good.. It would tend to narrow, in a 
lamentable manner, the field of action in which man's intel- 
lectual faculties and moral sentiments can have play. As 
regards the highest of avocations — ^the study of spiritual scienoe 
— its inexorable efiect would be to deaden Reason and to si- 
lence Conscience. 

Beyond all this, there is a cogent influence which goes to 
determine the tide of public opinion that is setting in against 
the old doctrine of infiedllibility. The line of human progress is 
from the less to the more of liberty. Despotisms give way to 
limited monarchies ; limited monarchies tend to republicanism. 
And more especially is the sentiment of the present day ad- 
verse to mental absolutism and spiiitual coercion. But infiEdli- 
bility entails and justifies tyranny, alike of mind and body. 

It justifies it logically, even mercifully. If a man be the 
possessor of infallible religious truth, to miss which is to sink 
into Hell, and to accept which is to attain Heaven, such a man 
ought to be — he is, by right divine — a despot. If he loves his 
kind and can control them, it will appear to him an imperative 
duty, by argument if he can, by force even to death if he must, 
to put down all opposing doctrines. When, in Italy, during 
the fifteenth century, the plague thrice decimated the popular 
tion, it was a popular belief that this frightful pestilence was 
caused by wholesale poisoners (aweUencUori) whose diabolical 
arts caused the death of hundred-thousands. If this idle sus- 
picion had been just, who would have raised his voice against 
the punishment of such criminals ? Would not Italy and the 

* See Prefatozy Addreas to the Ftotestant Cleqsy, Motto to 
P, and foot-note to motto. 

worid luirft bem gninrre bjr tlieir dentha ? But wttal wu 
oSeoca ocnntuittcd aguost tho [verisluiig l>od/, oompnrcd to 
who jMiisatw tho dotklcM soul 'f 

If ft Church conscientiously believes thai abe holds 
tmdxn the one tnfalliblo roUgiou, must she not, as Ui all h 
lies, iieceas&rily take tliis view ? In the eyes of devout Boo 
ista, were ui't the AlbigeiuMs and the Vandois just such 
Mooers? When the manaaoreii whii^ followed liio night of 
Sartholoniow had dune thtir work, wcru Uiero not tons of U 
■uidsofa)nrilual|>uiiioucrH less tube fuund tbruuglioul Fna 

The herrura uf tlic Imiuitutiun are diarxettLle, not to 
lDi|tiIiiilor8 (oxcqit such 08 were hy|iocritc(i), but to tho i 
trine luidi-Tlying their cre«xl, which vUidiiMt«i( and sanotiilMi 
nu-ittiU dviputiiiui they havti oxervitied. 

Bui a world that i» waxing, itffs by age, uiure libcrtyJai 
and mure huuuute — a world tlial la iL-aming ubcditinee 
Oliri^t's tujuiiirlion that we jiulf[e not leat v-o in turn 
Judged — a world tlmt, with all tla laulta, ia gradually iMOOfi 
nuirn itcntUt and cliaritiiJilu and kindly — in otbrr ward«tB 
(.linitian— *uL-fa a world iriatinrtivply tvjrcta n doctriiw 1 
lugically le»da to wlioleaale uiurdwrn for huufbl u]iiuioiiSBi 
It is ru|>idly n-ai'liiu)^ the oouduaiua tlLot a (lod of OocaL 
and Uerey uevur haa |;nuitMl, and uuvi-r will gnuit la 
Man, or to any Churth, a gift uf iurallibiltly whiek A 
siiiiJa ita |Hu«naaur to |mntah and Hxlenuiuste other Bd| 
oUior rhundbo, bMBUae Uiey did what eunncieDce MJS 
and hrlieved wlutt their maon taught them. 

Bat the apii'it .if the agr, we ahall bn told, rtloctii.i 
tarta u* fn>in Biich outragra ou rrli^inUB fm-dom. N" 
The eiviliard world of to-dajr will not aui&Tr tLo buiwj.u 
iofallilulity to bo oansiaUut in carrying out their doett 
Wbat theu ? In proof that the arorUl haa outgrown thai i 
irioe wo &nd the strotiffcat of all uvidi!iicie, Damcly thli: t 
boeaaao of thn pn^rcaa of lianano iiloaa, il 

In vinr of MMuidL<nt;uua i 

•xA Ml 



mi^t be led to expect the immediate down£ftli of a doctrine 
fraught with barbarity. Its ultimate downfall is certain; yet 
its hold is still strong on the human mind, and there are grave 
difficulties in.the way of its abolition. Men are wisely loath to 
pull down an old house, how dilapidated soever, imtil they see 
their way to some better shelter wherewith to replace it. 

During the latter portion of the last century, millions, deaert- 
ing the venerable mansion of Catholic in£illibility, tried the 
shelter of Materialism. It proved blank and cheerless, and, 
after a brief sojourn, a large portion of these millions, as we 
have seen,'" returned to the ancient stronghold they had left. 
They preferred to be submissive Catholics, and believers in a 
life to come, rather than to enjoy religious liberty shrouded 
with doubts of a future existence. And they had found, out- 
side of their Church's teachings, no certainties touching the 
realities of another world — ^neither in Rationalism nor in Pro« 

Not in Rationalism ; for Rationalise not only rejected all 
revelation of a spiritual character coming to us directly from 
God, but denied also, or had never seriously considered, spirit- 
ual revealings of a mediate character, coming to us from those 
whom we shall recognize as our fellow- creatures by and by, 
when death shall have ushered us among them. 

And not in Protestantism; because, in Catholic eyes, her 
chain of evidence touching the infiillible appears manifestly 
composed in part of fisdlible links. Its first links, indeed, she 
borrowed from Romanism, agreeing with her in this, that the 
New Testament in the original tongues contained in&Uible 
narratives and teachings, in£Edlibly recorded. But by her own 
showing, this infallible revelation, long existing in detached 
portions, was committed, for unenlightened centuries, to the 
custody of fjEdlible men ; was translated by fjEdlible men, at first 
into Latin, after a thousand years more, into modem tongues ; 
was gradually separated by fallible men from apocryphal mat* 
ter; was finally adopted, more than three hundred and fifigf 

^ Bee FreMoiy Aadim, •MAkRi%. 

TEAHBI^'nOXft < 

i:H . 

■ after the crucifixioii, hy u CJatbolu! d'^ummical CimD 
B Oitliotio piipo,* whn oiuiitiinciHl the books that Nbonlil l>s ■ 
he cimcin; BUtlieotieniing the whnlo u the Word | 
of God ;f and, fiuully, biui U^cn mteq>rcta<l, and is inUirprated 

* t.ecky. * witor who— w>B»tch«<i tmiohing thi» imiiUii wmi tob*ra 
b«B IfaoMO^ aftaijag of " tha Fathcn of Iba tonrtb ovAwy," 
nfs: "ItkqttlMoecUtui Uul tbo^' wen nM, in 
IIm word, PioUwtenta. It i* iraita certain that 

Ibon pnotiota. (arm* uf dovutiuo., ami ductniul kndendea, whicli 

J WMj not bBTB bom ■ataaU]' Bovan Cotbalio, but irklch at looat huf 

kvpen tiM •stmne voik* of CalhoHdiun, atiil inai4t«liljr iprsritaled to 

' m in KurvjM, vol. L , p. 189. 

( A lew mo i H o ra a d * moj'' bore ba aoooptaUa to the i««dar. 

la to Ibt tnwlatloao of SotiptiirB. To Uia aaal and loamtin cli 

m (HietooTBiiM), the boel acAolftr not onlj of hi* «(•• bat of BMVJ 

Ksf the Kuw IWoaient. 

D icfUMulotiu) aDouidinK to faia own 
node atthe itutancnof PopeDaiDAMa, fiotD A.D. 389toS8S. Upto 
that Ubo Umra had bo«i loonmnrahle tnoabtlona, (Mne |aillil. MHM 
■OMmlMf to booonjitnln — "alinoal m maojr BDnDBof text • 
JawwhinwaJf mji:— ('' tot wul Fsemplank iioot oadla>«,"—/Va^, J 
Al At. ) Jotwnc'a nnion, tboo^ numj oxdalmod ^Minil it aa « I 
1 profane InnoTUlim, gniliially muno Into favev ; 
r, tvt a liioimnil jeon, the fiible In o 
cbnd by the Council nf front (1510) to bethe 
]ii-j-.-i. .. J--I — ■ ... ^ij^ jp^vaSuaetTnlfBCaodllla. . .pcew 

llni hiliwTiii ,") mil li il 1 1 ■mill iif ilUlii iiiiieiiiilei r iiiriiiMiif I 

VeMera Bnrcpc. ivjioeiall; the BiwUah, WjdiSe'e tnuwiatioa beb^ aa 
■ImuM liUunl mndctin^nf It. It gwidad Um Oonnao edttton t^f Lntkor, 
tnd from hliu tlio Innuonoe at tlia L^tls peMad to onr Anlhoibod V**- 


tlM l|nDd7 end ef th« wodd, had eotdcMlr no Idw that Ihelr wrtHKp 
w^MkUonrbooolloeted taa vdoiML Anoithodoi PtoiMtapliwthodiy 
nji : " The writine* uf the New TortaMont ti t e wl f— ooatahi tttli 
warn Ihak faint, |iariupa nneooaelowa intimattona of Om ptalltott wUdi 
oeapjr." ..." TIm «aw« pew tOmilf KBto 
■ hrwari iwliiwt. nlher tbaBhythn ImraAv 
■al oMhodv •Smk*-* AW. V A«a, MkU " Omw^ «f t 


to-day, by fallible churclies who differ grievously in their sev* 
eral constructions of its meanings. Nor have Protestant 

urey Books, which finally came to be deemed apociyphal or spmiooa, 
held doubtful places for a tune. The epistles of Barnabas and Clem- 
ent, the Shepherd of Hermas, the Apocalypse of Peter, are aU more or 
less quoted or referred to by the Fathers. The epistle to the Laodiceaiifl 
was frequently interpolated in Jerome^s Vulgate. Some books that axe 
now lost had currency in early apostolic days, as the Qospel according 
to the Hebrews, that according to the Egyptians, and (in the Mardon 
Canon) the ^^ Gospel of Christ.** Some now found in our own canon, 
as the Apocalypse, the second and third epistles of John, the epistles of 
James and Jude, but especially the second epistle of Peter, were more 
or less questioned, and were omitted by various councils. Gradually 
the canon approached its present form. The Council of Hippo (A.D. 
893) accepted nearly all ; and, twelve years after Jerome*s Latin ver- 
sion had appeared, the Council of Carthage (A.D. 897) admitting He- 
brews, completed the Testament as we now have it. A decree of Pope 
Innocent I., confirming their selection, finally decided the canon of the 
Latin Church. 

In all this there seems to have been very good judgment exercised. 
Jerome was probably the most trustworthy translator of the Patristio 
age. And as to the canon, the gold appears to have been substantially 
separated from the alloy. One finds nothing of value in the eztraote 
remaining of the lost books ; and one cannot read the other rejected 
Scriptures without a conviction that they were utterly unworthy of 
admission. The noble purity of the Parthenon is not more impressivo 
when compared with some whimsical abortion of the Cinque-cento, than 
are the grand simplicity and intrinsic power that speak from the e^ynop- 
tical gospels, when set side by side with the childish cruditieB that dis- 
figure, for example, the Arabic story icalled ^^ The Infancy,*' or the 
bungling narrative enriched with a familiar talk between Satan and 
Hades, that has been saddled on poor Nicodemus. It is ^[yparent that 
internal evidence chiefly governed. Thus we may ascribe to the Coun- 
cil of Carthage sound discretion in her selection. 

But judgment in translating, discretion in selection, is one thing, and 
infallibility altogether another. The Romish Church affirms that the 
translator was selected, and the final canon determined, each by the ac- 
tion of an infallible Pope ; one can understand that : but how orthodos 
ProteatantiBm can seriously assert that her chain of infaUible testimony 
Umebing' our present Bible as the unalloyed Yfotd of Qod, is uabrokOB 


diiiiches retained the promised Bpiritual gifts — the minumlotifl 
■temp of the Infallible. 

This being the Catholic view, can we wonder that wanderers 
firom the Roman fold, when they found nothing but dim uncer- 
tainty in a heretic world, returned repentant to St. Peter^s 

This will occur again and again ; a numerous class will go 
on believing in the Infallible ; the Catholic Church, surviving 
reverse after reverse, may continue to grow and prosper 
for generations still, as during this very century she has 
grown and pro.s|)ered, her professors outnumbering more than 
three to one the members of all other Christian sect^i,^ unless 

fkom Chrut*B day untQ oars, must remain a mysteiy to all who are 
guided by soond principlea of evidimce. 

To us, readers of the Authorized Version, there are saperadded dif- 
ficulties that complicate the sitiiation. King James, as director of that 
tnanslotiou, and whom the tramdatoni addresM as *' that august person, 
enriched with Fingular and extraordinary graces/* that had appeared 
'* like the Bun in bis strength/' Rent to each translator fifteen instroc- 
tioua, including a command that '* the old ecclcsiaittjcal words should 
be kept." Was the po()ant-king infallible? Tet his instnictions un- 
doubtedly determined the translation of many all-important words, 
Madet and dnnanm included. Whenever a modem revision is con- 
sciaitioasly executed, the first of these words will not be rendered heU^ 
nor the second nu'racie, 

* The suooesses and reverses of Protestantism as against Catholicism, 
and the ascendancy still maintained by the latter, have been set forth 
at length in the Prefatory Address prefixed to this volume, section 3, 
and to which, if he has not read it, I beg to refer the reader. 

And see note, there given, in proof thai, in Europe, the CathoUo 
Church (including the Greek and Eastern) numbers nearly tito hun» 
dred and ttrtlte inUUon votaries (211,800,500); while the Protestants 
amount to but a trifle over sixty -eight millions (G8,02d,000) : in other 
words, that leu Utan one-fourth of ViC ChristinnM in Europe are ProUe' 
tanU; also that the Catholic Church sgrees, in essential doctrine, with 
the Greek and other Eastern Churches, except on one point: the latter 
attnbnting to (£i*iimcnical Councils the infallibility which by the for* 
mer is ascribed t4i the Pope — both believing, tbexefore, in the cxistenoe^ 
at Che pneenl day, of homan infallihilily. 

194 FArm in immobtalitt nmisPSNauBLB. 

there be found outside of infallibility oonclusive evidence 
toucliing a world to come. Men can cheerfully dispense with 
the dogmatic mysteries which have formed part of all infal- 
lible creeds; they can be thoroughly happy and contented, 
though the inscrutable enigma of the Divine Hypostasis remain 
forever unsolved ; but they cannot be happy, they cannot bo 
contented, in ignorance of the Great Future ; they cannot dis- 
pense with faith in immortality. 

So universal, so deep-rooted in man's heart is this sentiment, 
that, if the sole alternative be between Koman Catholicism and 
Materialism, Catholicism will be the popular choice. In other 
words, the masses will resist the tendency of the age to discard 
the doctrine of a direct revelation from God, unless it can be 
shown that spiritual knowledge, including proof of immortaUiy, 
can come to man, like physical knowledge, mediately, in virtue 
of natural law. 

I think the reader who may have followed me to this point 
will begin to perceive why I attach so much importance to the 
phenomena of modem Spiritualism. If these prove genuine, 
then wo can obtain, outside of Infellibility, ponclusive evidence 
of another world. If these are realities, then we have found 
proof that spiritual knowledge may be received, like earthly 
knowledge, intermediately ; namely, through beings who were 
once like ourselves. 

And thus the harmony of the Divine Government will be 
illustrated in one of its most important relations to man. 
For it will appear that, without violation or suspension of the 
great law of mediate agency, God brings immortality to light ; 
affording man perennial aid in educing conceptions of the next 
world, as He has guided him, from discovery to discovery, in 
the arts and sciences of this. 




'* ReligiooB dogmatism in losing all hold of the moRt li\'ing and < 
crt intclligcnco everywhere. ... A Rocond Calvin in theologj is in 
■ible. Men thirst not lefts for spiritual truth, but tlioy no longci 
licve in the caiiacity of syHtem to embraeo and contAin that tnith, 
a reservoir, for sacoessivo generations. They must seek for it tl 
•elves afresh in the pagrn of Kcriptaro and the ever-dawning lig\ 
•piritnal life, or they will simply neglect and put it post as an 
■tory. "'—TvLUicn, • 

*' It needs no dinner to tell us that this centozy will not pam wit 
a great breaking up of the d<»gmatic stnictures that have held 
since the Reformation or the succeeding ago/' — Sii.viKr. f 

** Wo are arrived visibly at one of those recurring times when th 
ooonta are called in for audit ; when the title-deeds are to be lo 
through, and established opinions again t4^(4>d. It in a procem w 
baa been rrpcatod more than on<% in the world*H hihtor}' ; the last < 
■ion and greatest l»cing the Kefonuatinn of the sixteenth centi 
and the experience of that matt^T might have satisti'il the mf>Ht t 
that tmth has nothing to fear, and that n'ligion emertir«'s out of i 
trials stronger and brighter than before.'* — Fri>i*i>k : Criticknn am 
OcfpH Jlintmy. 

** Daughter of Faith, awake, arise ! illume 
The dread Unknown, the chaos of the tomb ! "^CAMrnEi 

If tho views set forth in thi* pieo'diii^ chaptt^r >»e just, 
j)r«»sent as|)eot of religion throuyhtmt Chri-NiriMh-m iimy be t 

Infallibility is still the ruling olemeut, counting its nom 
votaries bj hundreds of millions. 

* Ltadiftofthe Btfjrmtitum^ London. 1860. p. 169. 

f Culture and lUUffion, by J. C. Siiairp, Princii^ of the Ux 
College of St Andrews (reprinted from the Edinburgh Edition, \ 
York, 1671) ; p. 134. A noio worthy bouk. 


There is a manifest tendency, however, in the present agej 
to discredit the supernatural,^ including, under that term, not 
only miracles and infallible revelation, but all ultramundane 
agencies of a spiritual character : and this sceptical element has 
rudely shaken both the plenary infallibility of Catholicism and 
the limited infallibility of Protestantism. 

But the inroads of this rationalistic tendency are constantly 
repelled by a popular conviction, that to abandon infallibility 
is to surrender also all assurance of another and a better world. 
Thus, one of the most powerful of human instincts attracts and 
attaches millions to the infallible school. 

So long as these were the only two elements engaged, there 
was, substantially, but a single alternative offered to the seeker 
after religious truth — the choice between infallibility (in one or 
other of its phases), on the one hand, and some one among the 
various shades of Unbelief, on the other. 

But within the last quarter of a century there has emerged 
to public view in distinct form, from that phenomenal field 
'- where Science has won all her victories, a third element; 
namely the belief in the epiphanies f of Spiritualism ; in other 
words, in intermcdiato spiritual revealings, with no claim to in- 
fallibility save this, that they supply positive proof of a life to 

It is evident that if there be such proof to be found, outside 
of direct infallible revelation, and if that proof is derived from 
actual phenomena, then the belief in such phenomena, as it 
gradually spreads, will take a prominent place among religious 

* This tendency ia folly and ably Ulnstiated in two modem woiks by 
Leckt : RationaUsm in Europe (New York Ed. 1866) ; and European 
Morals (New York Ed. 1870). 

f This is one of those eccleBiastical terms which, through restricted 
usage, come to lose, for the careless reader, their original aignifioation. 
Usually employed to designate the Church festival oommemoratiiig 
fche Magian journey to Bethlehem, one almoat forgets that the word, 
derived from epiphan-eia^ means simply an appearance or phenomenon, 
And is stricUjr appropriate in designating apiritaal maaifeatations. 


ereeda. To deny that this belief is entitled to such a place ii 
virtuaUy to assert that it matters little whether man obtains 
positive assurance of a life beyond the grave or not. 

Such a belief has the elements of a universal creed ; or rather 
it is fitted to inspire into all creeds an active principle — a 
living spirit ; while, at the same time, it effectually defeats the 
claim which any one Church may set up to sole religious au- 
thority in virtue of her i>ossession of spiritual powers and gifts 
which, she asserts, are to be found nowhere save within her 
divinely-favored precincts. 

JnfiEdlibility cannot object to such a belief that it neglects the 
one thing needful, or fails to bring immortality to light ; for 
no religion professed by man can supply, as spiritual researches 
do, proofs patent to the senses, and potent to convert mere 
hope of another world into certainty of its existence. 

Rationalism cannot object to it that it contravenes the doc- 
trine of law ; for its phenomena occur strictly under law : nor 
yet that it assumes the existence, in spiritual matters, of that 
direct agency of God which the naturalist finds nowhere in 
physical affairs ; for its revealings come to man mediately only : ' • 
nor yet that it is dogmatic, or exclusive, or intolerant, as In- ' 
£Eillibility is ; for its adherents adduce experimental evidencoi 
open to all men and gleaned after the inductive method, for the 
faith that is in them : nor, in fine, that it ignores progress, as 
Infallibility does ; seeing that it is over freshly vivified and 
cheered by the ceaseless illumings of spiritual life. 

Still less can the Bible student object that he finds no Scrip- 
tural warrant for such a belief. If there bo one distinct prom- 
ise made by Jesus to his followers, it is, that spiritual signs 
should follow those who believed in his words ; ^ that they 
should do the works that he did, and greater works also ; f that 
his apostles could not boar the whole truth, so that he had to 
leave many things unsaid ; and that, aAer his death, that spirit 
which pervaded his life — the spirit of truth — should still bri^g 

• XadEZTL 17, 18; aad otUbr tflxta. \ )<te.^^AV 


comfort, communicating with them, even to the end of the 
world ; ^ mediately teaching them what he had left un- 
taught, f So also Paul. Can injunction be more positive 
than his to seek after spiritual gifts ? { 

These are strong claims. Against them will, of course, be 
set up the popular objection to all things novel. Why now, at 
this age of the world ? Why not sooner, long ago, centuries 
since ? In reply one might suggest that the Atlantic has al- 
ways been there, though thousands of years elapsed ere a 
Columbus adventured its passage. One might ask when the 
diurnal motion of the earth, when the circulation of the blood, 
when the fall of aerolites, was first accepted as truth by sci- 
ence. But I rest not the case in generalities like these. I 
believe that Spiritualism, in its present phase, could not have 
been the growth of an age much earlier than our own. 

— In its present phase. In distorted form it has appeared, 
from time to time in past ages, to the terror and the unutter- 
able suffering of the world. The holiest things are the most 
deadly when they are profaned. 

"Ye cannot bear them now." In these words we may 
find the clue to the late appearance of modem Spiritualism. 
Certain debasing superstitions had to disappear before the 
world was worthy of it. The letter, which killethj had itself 
to die, and the spirit which giveth life had to replace it, before 
the wiser and the better portion of those who have gone before 
us could find such sympathy as would attract them to earth, 
and meet such reception here as would justify their efforts to 
enlighten us. 

Take a notable example of the letter which killeth : the old 
belief in the personal existence of a Great Spirit of Evil, 

* Matthew xxvilL 20. 

f John xtL 12, 13. If any one objects to the words used above— 
iddiatdi/ teaching them ** — ^let him refer to the text, 'where he will 
the remarkable expression : "he shall not speak of himself, bol 
iBoever he shall hear, that shall he speak."— v. 13. 
'OadaibhmaxiL 81, and Ji7.1,% % 


roaming the world in search of whom he might devour ; the 
earliest and crudest of the various human fjaiitaaios that have 
been suggested by the perception of evil in the world, coupled ^ 
with a dcHirc to explain the cause of its existence. In the ex- 
ordium to that subliiuest among ancient Oriental fragments of 
philosophy, the Book of Job, occurs a biief narrative which 
modem critics begin to treat as mere all^^ry. Not so the 
theological mind of jmst times. To our ancestors, if they ac- 
cepted the Bible at all, it was literal trutli. They believed > 
that ^tan, just returned from going to and fro on the earth, 
presented himself one day, among the Sons of God, to the 
Lord ; and that, being allowed after some conversation with 
the Almighty, to afflict Job, he destroyed tliat good man^s sub- 
stance and slew his children. They believed that, on another 
day, the Devil, again by God^s permission, '< smote Job with 
Bore boils '' from head to foot. 

So, in the New Testament also. The belief of the orthodox, 
even to-day, is that the Devil, taking Jesus up, set him, first on 
a pinnacle of the temple, then on an exceeding high moun- 
tain whence all the kingdoms of the earth may bo seen ; there 
seeking worship from liim : while less literal Christians regard 
this as a parable only, informing us that Christ was tempted 
as Wf are, yet without sin. 

Now, so long as a belief in a personal devil pervaded Chris- 
tendom, spiritual agency assumed forms that were hideous in 
pro|K>rtion to the hideousness of the belief that engendered 
them. Faith which, in its purity, has power to remove moun- 
tains, can also, in its perversion, pile them up, Pelion upon 
Ossa. In spiritual matters, to a certain extent^ we recti ve what 
we exi>ect: sympathy being a ruling element. Whether wa 
fearfully deprecate, or recklessly invoke, a Spirit of Evil, spirits 
of truth will not answer to our call. Tlioy have still enough 
of human nature about them to decline communication with 
thuse who take them for devils. 

In ages of the world when the popular mind was imbued 
with the notion that there exists sro>md >aA % \^x%x^U) ^ 


malign intelligences, headed by the Prince of the Air, whose 
agency, tolerated by God, is unceasingly exercised to instigate 
man to evil, and that these are the only disembodied beings 
_ with whom man is permitted to commune, the portals of the 
\ Spiritual seldom opened except to give exit to frightful errors 
( and delusions. In those days that subtle power {dunamis was 
the Evangelists^ term for such), corresponding doubtless, in a 
measure, to B<)ichenbach's sensitivity * and now spoken of among 
us as mediiMnship, rarely gave birth save to monstrosities, such 
as are usually known under the names of Sorcery and Witch* 
craft : superstitions only the more dangerous and horrible be- 
cause there was a small amount of reality underlying the terri- 
* ble phantom-shapes they assumed. 

There was, in Jesus' day and long before, as there, s^t-iai^ 
a certain spiritual condition which may be termed^posses^ion* 
It was a disease usually induced, in some sensitive organiza- 
tions, by deluding opinions or impotence of will ; its slender 
basis of reality being a mental influence usurped by departed 
spirits of a degi-aded order, while its vast mediseval super- 
structure was reared by imagination running wild under the 
terrors of a pernicious faith. This disease was aggravated by 
harshness, diffused by pei-secution, intensifled by torturings. 
It could bo cured, like other phases of lutoacy, only by charita- 
ble judgment, and gentle fimmess ; but believers in remedies 

* For a new occasion I originate a new word. By sensiUmSjf 1 des- 
ignate that gift or faculty posseesed by Reiohenbach^s Setasitiyes, and 
, to which, elsewhere in this volame, I have alluded. A careful perusal 
' of the German naturalist's works on this subject, namely Untersucfiung' 
en uber die Dynamide^ Brunswick, 1850, and Der Sensitive Mensch^ 
Stuttgart and Tiibingen, 1854, has convinced me that he has fully 
made out both the existence of a new power or faculty possessed by a 
certain portion of mankind, and the importance of studying it. The 
former of these works has been translated into English by Dr. Ash- 
bumcr (London, 1850). Keichenbach^s works, though they created, 
at the time they appeared, oonsidexaUe excitement throughout Ger- 
many, and some stir among us, have never attracted the attentaoq 
wbiob tiiey deserve, and which, some day, they wiU obtain. 


■o raMonable as these are, with one illustrious exception, but 
of modem times. The unutterable woes and atrocities* wliich 
followed directly or indirectly, partly from the belief in a 
dovil^ iiartly from the abnormal influence referred to, exemplify 
the great truth that from the same source may proceed healing 
or pestilence, happiness or misery, just as its waters are kept 
pure by enlightened care, or adulterated by the frenzy of igno- 

The eminent exception above referred to seems to have been 
little noted or understood by those who are wont to seek mys- 
teries and miracles, rather than law-governed spiritual phe- 
nomena, in the Gospels. 

Among the thousand illustrations of the notorioiw iwrsistenco 
with which men and nations professung Christianity have 
directly contravened the spirit of its Founder, is the popular 
belief in witchcraft, cropping out, more or less frequently, 

* In an interentizig chapter on Borcery and Witchcraft, Leckt says : 
'* Tens of thousands of victims perished by tho most agonizing and i»o- 
tnusted torments, without exciting tho faintest oomposaion. (?)... 
In almost every piorince of Germany, but especially where ecclesiasti- 
cal influence predominated, the persecution raged with a fearful inten- 
sity : seven thousand victims are said to have been burnt at Treves. . . • 
In France decrees were pasRcd on the subject by tho Parliaments of 
Paris, Toulouse, Bordeaox, Rheims, Rouen, Dijon, and Rennes, and they 
were all followed by a harvest of blood. The executions which took 
place in Paris were, in the emphatic words of an old writer, * almost 
infinite.* ... In Italy a thousand persons were executed in a sin- 
gle year in the province of Como ; and in other parts of tho country tho 
severity of the inquisitors at last created an abaolnte rebellion : eto.** — 
Rtt9bmaUtm in Europe, vol L pp. 28-31. 

This persecution was by no means exclusively Catholia In Luther*8 
TabU TrtU\ under date August 25, 1538, we find this : '' The talk faU- 
ing on witches who spoil eggs, etc., Luther said : ^ I should have no 
compoMiion on these witches; I would bum all of theuL*** — p. 251. 
And Calvin, in remodelling the laws of Geneva, left those which oon- 
demncd witches to the stake unaltered. 

In aocordance with such opinions we find that, in En^and and Soot 
land after they became Protestant, witches were pursued at times, m 
pcoiaUy during the seveoticnth Qenfeory) wiikk sodl i^i&md^VDSitti^lMq 


throughout fifteen Christian centuries, * the popular abhorrenoa 
of supposed witches, and the incredible cruelty with which these 
poor wretches have been treated.f We have every reason to 
Conclude that Christ himself did not believe in a personal devil. 
When he used the word devil or Satan he commonly employed 
it X to designate either error or wickedness in man, or else a 

* There were belieyeis in witchcraft, among Christians at well aa 
Pagans, at least as early as the middle of the third century (Middle- 
ton, pp. 85-87) ; and there are instances of witch-burning less than 
a hundred years old : the two latest examples being, probably, one in 
Seville, Spain, in 1781, and (strange to say!) one in Claris, Switzer- 
land, in 1783 — ^jost eighty-eight years ago. Men still alive might have 
witnessed these. 

t Headers who have the heart to go through the sickening details will 
find such, in authentic tqrm, scattered over Pitcaim's Criminal Trialt 
of Scotland. It seems scarcely credible now that, in that country of 
strong hearts and strong prejudices, less than a single century ago (in 
1773) the Divines of the Associated Presbytery passed a resolution de- 
claring their faith in witchcraft and deploring the growing scepticism 
on that subject.— Macaulat : Mstory of England^ vol. iii p. 706. 

i The rare examples in which any of the Evangelists ascribe to Christ 
expressions which might bear a different interpretation may, in virtue 
of his uniform silence touching all diaboUcal compacts or seductions, 
properly be interpreted metaphorically (as '^ I beheld Satan, as light- 
ning, fall from Heaven," — Luke x. 18) ; or as simply meaning physical 
or moral evil ; thus, of the woman *^ who had a spirit of infirmity and 
was bowed together," he says : ^^ Ought not this woman, . . . whom 
Satan hath bound, lo, these eighteen years, be loosed from this bond on 
the Sabbath day ? " — Luke xiii. IG. It vdll surely not be held, that 
Christ thought, or that we ought to think, that whenever we have rheu- 
matism, or similar infirmity, it is the devil^s doing. m 

But, beyond this, the hypothesis remains that the biographerB of 
Jesus, how upright soever yet misled by the spirit of their age, may ocoa- 
sioilally have mistaken the import of their Master^s words ; as, at other 
times (for example, Luke ix. 54), some of the Apostles grievously mis- 
conceived the spirit of his teachings. If we would form a candid and 
enlightened judgment of these marvellous teachings, we must take them 
as a grand, connected whole, not stumble over incidental ezpressionB at 
variance with their general tenor, and very liable to have been misinter* 


debated condition in spirits. Thus, to Peter : '^ Get thee be- 
hind, moy Satan ; *' * and, of Judas Iscariot : ** One of you ia a 
deviL'^ f Thus, again, in iho case of the man '^ possessed with 
the devil/' his words are : ^^ Come out of the man, thou unclean 
spirit ! '' I Not a word of reproach to tlie afflicted ; not a hint 
of suspicion that the maniac liad made a compact with any 
Prince of Darkness : he a&sumes, simply, that a spirit or spirits 
of a degraded order had obtained control, or possession, of the 
unhappy creature ; and, by virtue of the power with which he 
himself was gifted, he compelled them to go out of him.§ Yet 
again, when he warned his disciples against snares and evils to 
come, the warning was not touching a devil who should tempt 
them to sell their souls to him for worldly wealth or diabolical 
powers to injure, but touching false prophets who should show 
signs and wonders, thereby seducing even the wisest. | It was 
a warning against wicked men, not against fallen angels — a 
warning inculcating the much>nceded lesson that signs and 
wonders themselves are not infallible tests of moral truth. 

Thus, eighteen hundred years ago, Christ saw, and habitually 
acted on, all that there is of truth underlying witchcraft, sor* 

* Mark viiL 33. fJobnvi. 70. t^aricv. 8. 

§ It is qaito eridont that if we reject, as ddasioii, modem examplea 
of poncnion and exorcism — in other words, if we deny that inferior 
spirits from the next world maj sometimes, through the weakness or 
credulity of man, obtain a certain ooutrol over the human will and the 
human thoughts ; and if we dcnj, further, that, in such case, a strong, 
magnetic volition may free the snfFerer from such control— then we 
most accept one or other of thcM* altomatiTos : 

Either the numerous minutely-detailed rolatioos scattered over the 
gospels, touching the ** casting out of devils" by Christ and his dis- 
ciples, are all pure fables, throwing suspicioQ upoo the entire narrative : 

Or else they refer to miracles, oocurring in the first centoiy bj sus- 
pension of law, and never to occur again ; a condosion which asoden 
civiliiation, enlightened bj science, rejects. 

That is to suy : the enlightened portion of society must either dis- 
credit the gospel biographies, or aocept the fact that poassssinn maj 
oooar, and may be cured, in cor dtj. 

I Maik xiiL 28. 


cerjy magic, the black art, or by whatever name imaginaiT 
compacts with Satan may have been called. He knew that 
spirits of low character, occasionally obtaining control ovei 
men and women, do cause what we may call spiritual disease ; 
and he instructed his Apostles and the Seventy how to cure it ; 
though their power to exorcise was inferior to his.* When he 
found others, not of his disciples, following the same practice, 
he appiDved their doings.f 

What thousands of lives might have been saved, | what 
countless torturings of soul and body averted, had the Christian 
world, in this, caught the spirit, and followed the example, ot 

But it is only in modem times that eclectic searchers after 
truth, through the study of vital magnetism and spiritual man- 
ifestations, have come practically to believe, on this subject, 
what the Gospels have been teaching, unheeded, or misinter- 
preted, to fifty generations of men. 

Somnambulism, as I shall have occasion to show by and by, 
is allied to medimnship and is governed, in a measure, by the 
same laws. Among these laws we find, by experience, the rule 
that a dogmatic frame of mind imbued with fidse doctrine, 
whether orthodox or sceptical, tends to produce abnormality in 
the ideas received or communications obtained. Here is an 
example which I translate from an accredited work on Animal 
Magnetism, by M. Lamy-S4nart, a pupil of the Marquis de 
Puyslgur, the first observer of Somnambulism. 

^^ A patient who had become under my care a lucid somnam- 
bule was, with my permission, magnetized by another person, 
who readily cast her into a magnetic sleep. But this magneti- 
zer believed in the Devil and his influence ; and he could not 
help thinking of this every time he magnetized. The first day 
the patient was restless in her sleep ; the second she saw a black 

« Matthew xrii. 19, 20. f Hade ix. 88, 89. 

X Ayeraging the statisticB given in varioos hiBtories of witohciaft, it 
woold seem that the number of those who have Buffered death for thii 
ima^naiy crime exceeds thirty thousand. 


; the third two presented thomselveSy with homa; the 
fourth they used threatening cxprcRsions to her. On the fifth 
day it was still worde ; they scorned to sit beside her. She rose, 
terrified and screaming, thinking they had assaulted her ; rushed 
out of the room and into the court-yard, followed by her mag* 
netizer, who succeeded at last in awaking her. She Buffered 
cruelly, complained of a great weight on her breast, her respi- 
ration was difficult, and she passed a frightful night." ^ 

This narrative is very suggestive. Though we cannot doubt 
that imposturefspurred on by hate or malice, was an occasional 
element in witch-trials ; f and though we know that many a con- 
fession, wrung. forth by torture, was recanted before the sufferer 
was led to the stake ; yet the general rule is to be found outside 
of these incidents. 

A condition analogous to somnambulism — trance in some of 
its phases — not infrequently supervenes, without magnetization, 
in persons of sensitive temperament or secluded habits, espe^ 
cially when inordinately excited. Taking this and the phenom- 
enon of obsession or possession into account, and reflecting on 
the probable power of sudi influences in a rude age when the 
conception of the Devil and his agency was far more vivid and 
influential, — more constantly present to the mind of the masses 
— than the conception of Ood and his providence, can wo won- 
der that accusers and accused should frequently have been 
moved, by honest illusion — the former to aocusationa that they 
were diabolically tormented, the latter to confessions that they 
had visited the witches* Sabbath and witnessed its abominations ? 

* Bibtiff^h^qus dii Magnitiame Animal, Oahier iv. p. 6. See, for a 
beatific vuion, simiUzly snggwted, Fifo(ftUk <m the Boun^hrf iof An* 
ether World, p. 143; note. 

{ It is a mistake to sappoae that impoatoie soppUea the chief ezpla- 
nation of the witch-mania. Home, writing of witohoraft in ScotlandU 
remaps : ** Among the many trials for witchcraft which fill the record 
I have not obeenrod that there is even one which proceeds apoQ the no- 
tion of a vain or cheating art, falsely need hj an impostor to deoeive the 
weak and oredaloDa.**—CUiMinitarifli oa tk$ Ekiaqf ^tioaiUamdy vol U. 


Without some such clue as the above, how shall we explain 
the fact that judges so dear-sifted as Sir Edward Coke and 
Sir Matthew Hale recognized the reality of this allied crime 
against man's allegiance to God?— that a jurist so eminent as 
Blackstone declared it to be a ^' truth to which every nation in 
the world hath,inits turn, borne testimony? " * — ^that Sir Thomas 
Browne, physician, philosopher, and scholar, testified in court 
to the same effect ; that among divines Baxter, Wesley, and a 
host of other worthies set forth elaborate evidences of its exist- 
ence, and arguments for its condign punishment ; and that^ in 
our own country, less than a hundred and eighty years ago, 
thirteen women and six men were hanged and one octogenarian 
died under horrible torture, all for the alleged crime of witch- 
craft ? f — these executions taking place among a people earnest, 

* FootfaUs on the Boundary of Another World, p. 30 ; note. 

f A terrible Biunmer for Salem village and its Yicinity was that of 
1692 ! — a year of worse than pestilence or famine. Bridget Bishop was 
hanged in June ; Sarah Good, Sarah Wildes, Elizabeth How, Susanna 
Martin, and Bebeoca Nurse in Joly ; G|orge Burroughs, John Procter, 
George Jacobs, John Willard, and Martha Carrier in August ; Martha 
Corey, Mary Easty, Alice Parker, Ann Pudeator, Margaret Scott, Wil- 
mot Reed, Samuel Wardwell, and Mary Baker in September : in which 
last month Giles Corey, eighty-one years of age, was pressed to death 
under a board loaded with heavy stones ; not heavy enough, however, 
to crush out life, until a day or two of lingering torture hod intervened. 
Sarah Good's daughter Dorcas, between three and four years old, or- 
phaned by her mother's execution, was one of a number of children 
who, with several hundred other persons, were imprisoned on suspicion 
of witchcraft : many of these sufferers remaining in a wretched condi- 
tion (often heavily ironed) for months, some upwards of a year ; and 
several dying during the time. A child of seven, Sarah Carrier, was 
called on to testify, as witness against her mother. 

Some of the condemned, especially Bebecca Nurse, Martha Corey, and 
Mary Easty, were aged women who hod led unblemished lives, and were 
conspicuous for their prudence, their charities, and all domestic virtues. 
'^ The question," says a painstaking, modem historian of Salem witch- 
craft, **' arises in every mind, why did not their characters save them 
from conviction, and even from snspioion ? The answer is to be found 
in iJte peculiar views then entertained of ' -^ and agenqy of Sa« 


eooBcientions, practical, and if piety according to the Calvinifl- 
tic acceptation of the term entiUe to election, worthy to be 
called ** the very elect" 

There is aDother i>opiilar error, treated of at lai-ge in the pre- 
ceding pages, of which we must rid ourselves, ere spiritual com* 
munications can be sought or accepted without danger. It i|^ 
the mistake of supfiosing that because a message or a lesson 
comes to us from a denizen of the other world, it must-, on that / 
account, be infallibly true. Death procures for us higher pow* 
era and clearer i)erceptioiis ; it opens to us a wider horizon and 
discloses to us much which we can but dimly surmise hero be- 
low : but it does not confer on us infallibility. There is doubt- 
less, in the next world, a more elevated range of thought and 
of sentiment, but there is the same variety of character as here ; 
there is diversity of opinion, too, though probably not to the 
same extent as among us. All this is proved by comparing, 

tan. • . • Our fothon aocoonted for the extnMrdinaiy desoepi 
and faioanions of the Evil One among them, in 1602, on the sopposition 
that it was a desperate effort to prevent them from hcinging civiliiation 
and ChrintianitT within his favorite retreat, and their sools were fired 
with the giorionR thought that, by carrying on the war with vigor againsi 
him and hiB confederates, the witches, thej would hecome chosen and 
honored instruments in the hand of God for breaking down and abol- 
ishing the but stronghold of the Kingdom of Dorknesa** — Upoam : So- 
Urn WUcheraft, Bonton, 1807 : vol. L pp. 393, S04; and voL ii. p. 878. 

The evils and miseiies growing oat of this mental epidemic are noi 
to be measured by the number of actual sufferers, whether on the soaf- 
fold or in loathsome prison. '' It cost its shadows,** says Upham, 
** over a broad surface, and they darkened the condition of generatioosL 
. . . The fields were neglected; fences, roads, bams, even the 
meeting-honse, went into disrepair. ... A soardty of provi- 
sions, neorly amounting to a famine, continued for some time. Farms 
were brought midcr mortgage or aacrifiocd, and huge numbers of peo- 
ple weru dLsperaed. One locality in Salem village . . . bean to 
this day the murks of the blight. . . . The ruinous results wen 
not confined to the village, but spread, more or lev, over the ooontiy.** 
mtickentft^ voi. ii pp. 880, 881. 


one with the other, various commuxdcations, which we ma^ 
have ascertained) from the attendant circumstances, to be un- 
questionably ultramundane. Many Spiritualists, like their fel- 
low-religionists of other persuasions, who do not accept thai 
phase of belief, have this important truth still to learn, and fot 
lack of having learned it, are often lamentably misled. Belief 
in infallibility is equally mischievous, whether held by Calvinist, 
by Episcopalian, or by Spiritualist. It is almost as unsafe for a 
dogmatic infedliblist, as for a confirmed devil-fearer, to engage 
in spiritual research. It is not desirable that the belief in 
Spiritualism should spread, except in proportion as the belief 
in Infallibility dies away. Here we may discern another rea- 
son why the appearance of spiritual phenomena, in their mod- 
em or normal phase, as a universal religious element, has been 
so long delayed. 

The lesson taught by a thousand warnings from the past is 
unmistakable ; and it is of vital moment that we heed it. It is 
dangerous for men and women who are confirmed in certain old 
superstitions, or who believe in their own possession of infalli- 
ble truth, to put themselves in the way of communings with a 
higher sphere of being : they cannot bear them yet. We seek 
aid or enlightenment from another world in vain, unless we 
enter the spiritual school, not only in a reverent spirit, but in a 
fit frame of mind. We must seek ere we find : and we must 
seek in that catholic temper which is willing to put to the proof 
all things, and to accept truth, wherever found. It is not 
given to dogmatism, shut up in its contracted shell, to distin- 
guish the still, small voice ; it hears but the echo of its own 
delusions. Except we be converted from wisdom in our own 
conceit— except we draw near to the shrine as little children — 
the spiritual voices, in their purity, will not reach our ears. 

It is with the teachings of Spiritualism as with the praying 
of men : they are but mockeries, unless approached in a becom- 
ing spirit.* 

* The effect of levitj in spizitijal reseaK^ei is not so fktol as that 
iff dqgTnatio supeatition : none tibe less its tend' ^HuSaiSL 


But, for the reasons above set forth, even able aearchersi 
earnestly and reverently prosecuting inquiries into the charac* 
tcr of modem Spiritual revealings, if still haunted by the idea - 
of Satanic agency, may be led into a grievous error, the very 
op|K>site of that which sets up all Spiritual messages as Qospel 

A noteworthy example is before me, in a well-known Euro- 
])ean journal* I find therein an editorial, entitled TdUǤ 
Toutfianlcsy in which the writer, after alluding to the fact that 
'^ the marvels of magnetism, or rather of Spiritualism, as the 
Americans call it,^^ seem to be ^^ again coming into fashion,^ 
quotes from one of the most respectable of the Parisian jour- 
nals, as follows : 

** It will be remembered," says the Courrier de Parity " that 
a certain number of French and foreign prelates thought it 
their duty, about a year ago, to intenlict the practice of table- 
moving. Their motive, or alleged motive, was that this prac- 
tice brought men into dangerous communication with tho 
spirits of darkness. Tlio fact is, that most of tho spirits that 
manifested themselves through tho tables or under tho floor, 
when questioned as to their identity, answered, * demon,' * devil,* 
or at lt*ast, * dainntHl.' f 

'^ One of the most eminent and enlightened members of our 

valuable or satiaftictory resalts. If we enter a ohuroh as we would 
crowd into a oomio theatre, or kneel in prayer-mooting as we woold at 
down to a gamo at cards, tho exercises in cither case will probably noi 
tend much to edification. Spiritualism is not intended to make spoft 
for grooelom idlon at on evening party : and if to them it furnish bat 
latitudes, inanities— buffooneries even — what is this bat the natural 
result of misplaced merriment and thooghtless irreverenoe ? 

Yet even at such disadvantage, it has happened, from timj to time, 
that Frivolity was startled out of he^eedle oana ss the poet 4 line being 
realised — 

" And fuolii, wlio came to ncuff. mnaiBcd to pray.** 

• U Sard, pablished at BruMels ; Na IBS, of date July 4, 1837. 
t My ezperionoe in the reverM of this. Throughout the many hua- 
died sittingB at which I hare SMistod, iiotiichT«|^ii«M«nGLtiM^' 


hierarchy, the Lord Bishop of Bennes, had thon^t it his daty, 
for his own personal edification, to institute some experimenti 
with the tables ; but he reached a result which caused him tg 
abandon the practice. It was as follows : 

*^ The Bishop, the Yicars-General, and his Canons having as* 
scmbled at the Episcopal palace, interrogated a table as to the 
fate and the sufferings of a young and generous missionary 
who had recently suffered martyrdom in China. The Bishop 
had with him, as a relic, a fragment of the bloody shirt of this 
devoted and unfortunate soldier of the faith. Was this the 
talisman that opeittted ? We cannot tell. Suffice it that the 
table set about relating, in its language ('^ en sa langue,^' mean- 
ing, probably, by raps), and with a most startling fidelity, the 
whole history of the agonies and tortures of the courageous 
missionary ; all circumstances well-known to most of the assist- 
ants. The Bishop, on his part, was so much struck by it, that, 
interrupting the proceedings, he cried with a loud voice : ' To 
know all that, thou must be the Devil. Well ! if thou art the 
Devil, by the omnipotent God, by Jesus Christ crucified, I ad- 
jure thee, I summon and conmiand thee, to break thyself in 
jnoccs at my feet.* 

" Instantly the table made a great spring ; and, falling back 
obllquoly, broke off two of its legs, dropping at the feet of the 
Lord Bishop of Bennes. 

** It is not our intention," adds the Cowrrier^ " either to 
explain or to call in question the incident we have related. 
Only let our readers be assured that we have invented 
nothing. The fact has been certified to us by witnesses the 
most respectablo and the most trustworthy. And, for the 
i*est, it is well-known that we ai-e not among the number ot 
those who lend themselves to the circulation of fables, or would 
put forth a profane jest at th^expense of the revered name we 
hiivo just cited." 

This anecdote may call forth a smile, but it has its serious 

aspect. The Bishop, convinced from the manifestations that aL 

aocuJd inteUigenioo is communicating, takes it for granted that 


because that intelligence accurately discloses a variety of &ctf 
connected with the martyrdom of a missionary, it must be 
Satan himself:* thereupon he addresses it as such. But they 
who assume, in advance, the question thoy propose to investi<* 
gate, are in no fit frame of mind to enter upon such investiga- 
tion at all. Nor will any intelligent Spiritualist be surprised 
at the issue of the episcopal experiment: the case thus 
prejudged, some such result might have been predicted.f For 
there arc recorded cases of analogous character. There occurred 
a century and a half ago at Epworth parsonage, the paternal 
home of tht celebrated John Wesley, loud knookings and other 
strange disturbances continued for two months, and which Dr. 
Adam Clarke, in his biography of the Wesley £Eunily, regards 

^ This is in aooordanoe with the teste of Demon sgeooy set forth in 
the Bmnan Ritual, and with the practice of the Gatholio Chtixoh. 
Among the signs of poeseanon there designated, ia the ^* disclosing of 
distant and hidden things. *' ** Signa autem obsidentis dsmonis sont : 
IgDOta lingoa loqui plnribns verbis, vel loquontem intelligore : distantift 
et ocotdta patefaccrc/* etc.—RUuale Romanum (Mechlinin, 1850), p. 
614, Cap. ** De Kzorciiandis obAessis a Damonia" 

But erery well-informed student of rital Magnetism knows that dear- 
sight (daireroyanoe) and far-sight (rue 4 distance) are phenomena of 
frequent occurrence daring somnambulism ; to saj nothing of medium- 
ship. To regard these as Satanic powen is no whit more rational than 
to declare, as men did five hundred years ago, that the experiments of 
the bboratoiy arc unlawful In Chauccx'B tale of the Chanon Ycman, 
chemistry is spoken of aa an elfish art, conducted by aid of qiints : a 
superstition of Arabixm origin, Wartoo says. — WarUnCM Ilittarff of Eng- 
Uah Foetryy vol. L p. 109. • 

f Those who have assisted frequently and under various drcumstanoes 
at such sittings, know well that the tal^e — meaning, thereby, the invisi- 
ble intelligence which manifests its presence by rappings, tiltings, rais- 
ing of the table and other sounds sr movements— often exhibits, in the 
most unmiHtakable manner, human emotions ; and none moro plain^ 
toan indignation (as by violent jerkings or stampings)/ when the phe- 
nomena are treated with ridicule, or ascribed to Satanic agency. That 
this frequently occurs under drcumstanoes which prcdudo all possibil* 
ity of trickery, any careful and perMvering observer may 
tsin for himself . IhsTeagrself witDMnd^CNQL^nanoQa 


as Spiritual manifestations connected with the death of Mra 
Samuel Wesley's brother in India. * Emily Wesley writing 
the details to her brother John, aftqr declaring that a month's 
experience had thoroughly convinced her that trickery was im- 
possible, adds : ^' As for my mother, she (at first), firmly be- 
lieved it to be rats, and sent for a horn to blow them away. 
I laughed to think how wisely they were employed who were 
striving half a day to fright away Jeffrey (for that name I gave 
it) with a horn. But whatever it was, I perceived it could be 
made angry; for from that time it was so outrageous, there was 
no quiet for lis after ten o'clock at night. ... It was 
more loud and fierce, if any one said it was rats or anything 
natural." f 

It " could be made angry," Emily Wesley said. So, probably, 
could the spirit addressed by the French Bishop, when mistaken 
by him for Ij^e devil. Or that spirit might have departed and 
another suddenly taken its place. Abundant &cts indicate 
(though, in advance of experience, one might reject such an 
idea) the frequent agency of a somewhat singular class of 
spirits; as imps, we might say, of frolic and misrule; not 
wicked, it would seem, or, if wicked, restrained from inflicting 
serious injury, but, as it were, tricksy elves, sprites full of 
pranks and levities — a sort of JPuekSy — " esprits espteglesy^ as 
the French phrase it ; or as the Germans, framing an epithet 
expressly for this supposed class of spirits, have expressed it, 
^^ poltergeiater.'*'* J 

Whether the Rev. Chai*les Beecher, a Congregational clergy- 
man of our own country, has had any experience similar to that 

* Memairs of the- Wedey Family^ by Adam Glabkb, LL.D., F.A.S. ; 
London, 1843 ; vol. L pp. 288, 289. That, also, was Mrs. Wesley's 
final opinioa All tho details will be found in these Memoirs, pp. 245- 

t Memoirs of the Wesley Family, voL i. pp. 271, 273. 

i FootfaUs an the Boundary of Another WMd, p. 212. For ex- 
amples of the agency of such spirits see Book ill. chap. 2 of thai 


of the Lord Bishop of Hennes, I know not. Certain it is, he 
reaches the conclusion that all modem spiritual revealiugs come 
through the Powers of Darkness, amd that ^^ we are entering on 
the first steps of a career of demoniac manifestations^ the issues 
whereof man cannot conjecture/^ * A similar mistake was 
mode in Jerusalem eighteen hundred ycai-s ago. When the 
people witnessed the '* sigus and wonders ^' wrought by Jesus, 
they ^' were amazed and said, ' Is not this the son of David ? * 
But when the Pharisees heard it, they said, ^ This fellow doth 
not cast out devils but by Beelzebub, the Prince of the 
devils.' " f 

It does not seem to have suggested itself to the Pharisees, 
nor to Mr. Beecher, that all analogy is opposed to such an ex* 
planation of spiritual phenomena. In this world God does not, 
indeed, shut his creatures away from earthly influences tending 
to deception and to error. But the good is the rule ; the evil 
(often good in disguise) is but the exception. If it enter into 
God's economy to permit evidences and influences to come over 
to us from a higher phase of being, are we to believe that lie 
excludes from these all that is true and gCHnl^ and suflfers only 
deceptions and false teachings, emanating from the devil and 
his angels, to reach us ? Is this the doing of a Father, whose 
** tender mercies are over all his other works '' ? If, in very 
deed, such were the Divine plan, then — adopting the lines of a 
modem poet — 

*' Then God would not bo what this bright 
And gloriouB onivcxBO of His — 
^his world of wudom, goodness, h'ght 
And endless lore prodsims — Heis^** 

If we listen to sober reason, she teaches us that, as from this 
world, S3 from the other, there are richly furnished to ns the 
elements of truth and the means of happiness. If we fail to 

^ Rtrmo of Spiritual MatUfutaUon»^ read before the Congxefitiooal 
AMOoiatioa of New York and Brooklyn, cha|i. rii. (p. 63 of London Ed. 

\ XaUiMW xiL da, U. 


interpret the revealings from Heaven or to avail ourselves of 
the teachings from earth, it is not by the Divine fiat except so 
far as this, that God has made wisdom and peace obtainable 
only through virtuous exertion, and that He has interposed no 
segis to protect man from the natural resists of his inexperienoe 
and of his misconceptions. 

The following stable may be useful in exhibiting, in a general 
way, the main varieties of religious opinion throughout the 
Christian world ; and the position which, according to the pre- 
ceding views, modem Spiritualism occupies among them : 


I. School of Secularismy namely : 

a. Radical : Materialists * denying a Hereafter. 

b. Conservatiye : Sceptics, doubting a Hereafter. 

II. School of TnfaUibilitt/y namely : 

a. Pore : Catholics, including Qreek and Eastern Ghuxchee. 

b. Mixed : Main body of Protestants. 

III. School of Spiritibalismy namely : 

a. EzclasiYe : Orthodox Quakers and Swedenboigians, retaining 
clement of infallibility. 

d. Universal : Modem Epiphanists, f rejecting element of infal- 

In elucidation of the above table I offer a few remarks. 

* I here employ the term materiaUst in its popular sense, to mean a 
person who believes the soul to be merely a quality appertaining to our 
vital existence here, which can have no existence separate from the 
body, and which ceases to be as soon as earthly life is extinct. 

Whether, in scientific strictness, materialism must be taken to mean 
a doctrine which is inconsistent with the immortality of the sonl, I need 
not here stop to inquire. 

f For a new occasion I may be allowed to coin an appropriate wozd. 
Spiritual Epiphanui aoonrately designates a believer in spiritaal wppna^^ 
aaoea or mAnifMMiooA 


(I.) I employ the term Seeularimnj rather than that of 
Jtatumalism, as more correctly designating the creed of those 
who believe it to be the part of wisdom that we restrict our 
attention to secular affairs and physical studies, and that we 
refndn from the investigation of religion, seeing that man can 
find no solid ground for any spiritual belief. Rationalism is 
not so much a creed as a cast of thought.* 

The age of radical Scoirtarism is passing away : it has, at the 
present day, no distinguished leader; and probably never wOl 
have again. If a second Calvin is imix>ssible, so also is a sec- 
ond Voltaire. 

On the other hand, conservative Secularism, seeking religious 
rest but finding none, is steadily increasing. It includes within 
its ranks some of Uie most eminent scientific men of our day, 
large numbers from the medical and legal professions and 
among politicians ; together with some worthy and respected 
divines, f £Ispecially among English artisans and working 

* J^eekj defines it to bo ** a bias of reasoning which has dnring the 
last three oentories gained a marked awendcncj in Europe. . . . 
It leads men on all occasions to subordinate dogmatic theology to the 
dictatss of reamm and of oonsdouce, and, as a nectissaiy oonseqaonoe, 
greatly to roiitrict its iDfluence upon life. It predisposes men, in hia- 
toTj, to attribute) all kinds of phenomena to natural rather than minc- 
nlous cauBOS ; in theology, to esteem succeeding Bystamm the ezprcssioofl 
of the wants and aspirations of that religious sentiment which is plsnt^ 
in all men; and, in ethics, to regird as duties only those which oon- 
scieTice rereals to bo such.** — Ilulorjf of Baticnuiium im Ewropey Tot. L 
n>. 10, 17 (of New York Ed.). 

f A few y eoxB since I had a long, quiet oonrorsntion with a Bishop, who 
is held in deserredly high estimation by the oithodox body of Christians 
to which ho belongs. He introdnred the subject of modem Spiritual- 
ism, and I asked him in what light he ngaided its phenomena. He 
answered frankly and satisfsotorily. Eridenoes of infidelity, be sidd, 
were multiplying among us : ho had lately heard a professor of Har- 
raid Ck>Ucgo express tbo opinion that throe-fourths of the sdontiflo 
men of our day are nnbelieveis, and that scepHetsm is beginning to in- 
trade among the deigy. He told me that be himself, a few weeks be- 
tes, had visiiad the death-bed of an aged bcettMiK \n \)ms lUBMisnN ^ 


classes generally, this passive phase of irreligioii has, of lata 
years, made rapid strides.* 

XDAH who had devoted a long lifo, with rare f aithfalness, to the duties 
of bis profession. As they spoke of the evidences of Christianity a 
shade of sadness passed over the dying man^s face : *' Ah I Bishop,*' he 
Boid, *' the proof, the proof ! If we only had ifc ! *' 

These and similar exx)eriences had led t|^ Bishop to believe that the 
evidences of a fatore life which satisfied oar anoestora are insufiSdent 
to convince some of the meet honest and able of their descendants. 
Looking oroand for the remedy, he hod asked himself if it would not, 
in God's good time, be vouchsafed. ** I look anxiously,** he added, ** to 
SpirituaUsm and its phenomena for the answer.** 

* The British government, alive to a sense of the important aid which 
civilization may derive from accurate statistics, employed, in making 
out the Cenftus of 1851, a staff of forty thousand persons, and obtained, 
incidentally much valuable information on religious matters. The 
results are condeni>od in an ofQcial Report on ReUgious Warship made, 
in 1853, to the Registrar-General. The Reporter states (p. 58) that 
while among the upper classes in England and Wales " a regular church- 
attendance is now ranked among the recognized proprieties of Ufo,** it 
is the great body of the i)eoplo who chiefly absent themselves from 
public worship. He goes on to say, as to artisans and other workmen : 
** From whatever cause, — in them or in the manner of their treatment 
by religious bodies — it is sadly certain that this vast, intelligent, and 
growingly important section of our countrymen is thoroughly estranged 
from our religious institutions in their present aspect. . . . Proba- 
bly the prevalence of infiddity has been exaggerated, if the word be 
taken in its popular meaning, as implying some degree of intellectual 
effort and decision ; but, no doubt, a great extent of negative, inert in- 
difference prevails, the practical effects of which are much the same. 
There is a sect, originated recently, adherents to a system called 
'* Secularism ;** the principle tenet being that, as the fact of a future 
life is (in their view) at all events susceptible of some d^^ree of doubt, 
while the fact and the necessities of a present life are matters of direct 
sensation, it is therefore prudent to attend exclusively to the concerns 
of that existence which is certain and immediate — not wasting energies 
required for present duties by a preparation for remote, and merely 
possible, contingencies. This is the creed which probably with moat 
exactness indicates the faith which, virtually though not professedly, it 
eatertained by the masses of our working populatiooL** — Btpart on 


(XL) Except in restricting the attribute of infallibDity to the 
Church speaking through CEcuraenical Councils, and in steadily 
rejecting the Hupremacy of the Roman Pontiff,* the variations 
in doctrine between the Greek and Latin branches of the Cath- 
olic Church are non-essential ; consisting chiefly in this, that, 
while admitting church traditions, the seven sacraments, a mild 
phase of origiiuU sin, and an intermediate state, the Oriental 
Churches scruple about a Purgatory with flames and the efficacy 
of private masses for the dead, f and (dropping the Jilioqtie of 
the Council of Constantinople) hold that the Holy Ghost pro- 
coeds from the Father only. 

With variances in doctrine so inconsiderable, the Greek and 
Roman Churches, after their eight centurioe of separation, 
might, in a tolerant age like this, have united their two hun- 
dred and eighty millions of believers in one vast, harmonious 
body, had the present Po[>e but pursued a conciliatory line of 
policy. A few timely cona'ssions to tlie spirit of the age 
would, at this juncture, have incalculably strengthened the 
Pa^Hil influeuct^ But this was nut to \h\ In DectMiibor, 1807, 
the Austrian Government ]»usHed u law declaring freedom of re- 
ligious opinion, witli liberty of the press ; and granting to all 

BtiigioHM WonJa'p made by HoR.\CK Mann, barrister of Lincoln*s Inn, 
to the Rcgutrar-Gcncral, under date December 8, 1853. 

For a statement, from the same Gensos, of the average attendance 
at church or chapel, as ascertained on a particular Sunday aU over 
England and Wales, showing how small that attendance is, etpeciatt^ in 
ftee-9eaUd churchm^ see note on preceding page 150. 

* As to the tenets of the Greek Church. Moshcim sajs : ^* The Holy 
Scriptares and tlie decrees of the first seven CEcumenical Cooncils are 
acknowledged by the Greeks as the rule of their faith. It is received, 
however, as a maxim e8ta>)liKhed by long custom, that no private per* 
too has a right to explain, for hunself or others, cither the decloxatioDS 
of Scripture, or the decisions of these Councils ; and that the Patriarch, 
with his brctluren, are alone authoriied to consult these oracles and do- 
dare their meaning/*— Mosiii^im : EccL Hist iii. 483, 4ai. 

f Thus incurring the anathema of Rome : ** Si quia dixerit 
aacrifidam . . . non prodefunctis offerri debere : *"**i***"*^ 
CondL Trident : cap. ix. can. 8. 


sects tbe right of establishing schools and colleges and of teach- 
ing their own tenets there. ThLs was followed, in May, 1868, 
by another statute, legalizing civil marriage, and transferring 
from the ecclesiastical to the civil authorities the general 
supervision of public instruction. This enlightened policy 
proved deadly offence at Homo. The Pope delivered an Allo- 
cution (June 2, 1868), in which ho took occasion to "reprove 
and coudemn those abominable laws,'' as in flagrant contradic- 
tion to the Catholic religion, the power of the Ajwstolic See 
and "natural right itself;" and went on to declare the said 
laws null and void. Austria replied that the Holy See was 
extending its strictures to objects not within its jurisdiction; 
and added : " We shall none the less persevere in the way we 
have begun." A powerful empire virtually lost by this I 

Then followed the Council of the Vatican. To this the Patri- 
archs and Bishops of the Greek Church were, indeed, invited ; 
but the invitation was coupled with the odious reminder that 
their Church, in seceding from that of Rome, had been se- 
duced " by the infernal arts and machinations of him who 
plotted in Heaven the fii*st schism ; " in plain terms, that they 
— the said Patriarchs and Bishops — were, so long as they re- 
mained insubordinate to Papal authority, the spiritual agents 
of the Devil. 

Protestants, too, were exhorted to return to the ancient fold ; 
but what availed exhortation or invitation to them from an 
Ecclesiastical Sovereign who, as we have seen,* set out by an- 
nouncing that he himself was infallible and that all the dogmas 
he might dictate were ** irreformable ; " following this up by a 
curse denounced against all w)io should prosecute scientific re- 
searches beyond the limits of Roman Catholic permission. 

But for these capital errors, the " Holy Catholic Church ^ 
might not only have reclaimed the Eastern branch, but possi- 
bly have added twenty millions more to her adherents ; thus 
maasing three hundred million souls under her ecclesiastioi] 

^ See pzooeddng pa^ 4A. 


■taodftrd: for one of the Protestant sects has recently made 
certain advances (which have been favorably met) to the Ori- 
ental branch of Catholicism. 

In the year 1867, the Pan- Anglican Synod caused to be 
tnmsmitted, through the Archbishop of Canterbury, to the 
Patriarchs and Bishops of the Greek Church, a Pastoral Let- 
ter, setting forth the faith of the Anglican Church and express- 
ingy in general terms, a wish to harmonize and a hope ^' that 
thero may bo ^ one flock and one shephoixL' '' This being re- 
ceived favorably and with profound respect, by tlie Prelates of 
the Greek Church, * was followed u[), in the Convocation of 
Canterbury, assembled July 4, 1868, by a Report declaring the 
object to bo, not a submissiou of either Church to the otiier, 
nor a modification of their respective services so as to conform, 
but '^ simply the mutual ackuowlodgtnent that all Churches which 
are one in the |>os8e8.sion of a true £piKco|>uto, one in sacraments 
and one in their creed, an;, by their union in their common 
Ix>r<l, bound to receive one another in full communion in 
prayers and sacraments as members of the same household of 
faith.^^ The Convocation, accepting this Report, instructed 
its President to opeu negotiations with the Eastern Patriarchs 
and MetrojiolitaiiK, with a view to the establishment of such 

A movement among ourselves in sympathy with this and re- 
sembling the Tractarian agitation which originated at Oxford in 
1833, f has already produced considerable excitement. Its 

^ The Bev. Mr. Williams, an English clergyman, stated, at a meettng 
of the ** Eastern Choroh Company " held in lHtt7, that he had conversed 
with the Patriarchs of Coostantinople, Antiooh, and Jerusalem, who had 
ezpreased their entire approbation of the unioo ; that the Patriarch of 
Antioch proposed to establish a school with a Professor of English, as 
preparation for it, and that the Metropolitan of Sdo had declared to 
him his conviction that the time for such a union had arrived. — See 
Sehsm'9 EtHetittstidU Atm^uyte, 1860, pp. SI, 24. 

t Lecky says of the Enghsh Trsctarian movement: '' It prodno^ 
a daCeotion which was quite unparaltotodin mnp>\\wniVff> MOt ^Jaa^b'^ 


character may be gleaned from a pamphlet- volume of sermom 
delivered three years since by Dr. Ewer, Rector of Christ 
Church, New York ; in which the ground taken is that the 
Episcopal Church always has been a branch of the one Holy 
Catholic Church,* infallible f and blessed with Apostolic succes- 
sion : denying, however, the supremacy of the Boman Pontiff^ 
holding each branch of the Catholic Church, Latin, Greek, or 
Anglican, to be independent; and admitting that extrinsic 
abuses had ovei*taken the Church of Rome. The title of Dr. 
Ewer's second sermon, The Anglican Church not Protestant^ 
sufficiently marks the position which its author assumes. 

The later developments from Rome evidently destroy all 
hope of Catholic union except between the Greek and Anglican 
Churches; and thus, by lack of temper and judgment on the 
part of her most powerful branch, the School of Infallibility 
has lost the golden opportunity of a gigantic union. Is there 
not a great truth underlying the text tliat God maketh the 
wrath of man to praise Ilim ? 

I have already J noticed an enlightened movement in the 
Anglican Chui'ch ; a movement opposed to Literalism : opposed 
to the doctrine of the Miraculous ; opposed, in a general way, 
to the dicta of the Infallible School. It is steadily gaining 
ground and has evidently the virtual support of the British 
Government. Its headers have all maintained tlieir official 

had taken place under the Stnarts ; and which, imlike the former move- 
ment, was altogether uninfluenced by BOidid considerations.** — Rathfi- 
alism in Europe^ vol. i. p. 174. 

* Dr. Ewer appeals to the Apostles* Creed, forming part of the Even- 
ing Service of the Ei)iscopal Church, wherein wo read : ** I believe in 
the Holy Ghost, the Holy Catholic Church, the Communion of Saints, 
etc.*' In that which is occasionally substituted for it the words are : 
*^ I believe in One Catholic and Apostolic Church.** 

f '* The very infaUlbility of the Bible demands the infallibOitj of 
the Church ; the two stand or fall together."— iSsrm^ww on Ute FaUun 
of Protestantism and on CatlioUcity, by the Bev. Fexdmand 0. Ewer, 
8.T.D., Bector of Christ Church, New York : Bermon IL p. 34. 
/ See preceding page 150. 

Barclay's apology. 221 

tftnnding and one of its ablest exponents has become Bishop of 

The six or seven million Jews scattered over the world must 
bo included in the School of Infallibility. 

Of the more liberal class of Protestants many, retaining 
their denominational position, but rejecting infallibity, have bo- 
come Spiritualists. So also have not a few Catholics. But tho 
largest accession to tho ranks of the Spiritualists has been from 
the School of Secularism. 

(III). Two hundred years ago there sprang up a remarkable 
sect. The people called Quakers were the Spiritualists of tho 
seventeenth century. Their Luther was George Fox, and their 
Calvin was Robert Barclay, a man of some distinction, who 
was ap{K>inted Oovei-nor of New Jersey.* Barclay's " Apology '* 
was as much the acknowledged text-book for the Quakerism ot 
bis day, as was Calvin^s ^' Institutes'' the code of sixteenth- 
ceutury Protestantism. 

The fundamental doctrine of this people was that an inward, 
saving light, or spirit of truth, promised by Christ, and emanat- 
ing iiumediauOy from God, is the supremo rule of faith : this ^ 
light, or spirit, coming to all men who resist it not, and mo\'ing 
them to virtue and good works.f To the Heathen and tho Geu- 

^ In lOdS; bat he served by deputy only. 

f The Apologsf (a.d. 1075), comprehending fifteen Propodtions 
(Tbeses Tbeologicse), and copions commentariefl thereon, was originaUy 
written in Latin, bat afterwaxxl tranfUated by its aathor into English, 
and by others into French, German. Spanish, and Dutch. I quote from 
an American reprint of Barclay *8 English Tcndon, Philadelphia, 1H05 : 

'* The testimony of the Spirit ia that alone by which tho true knowl- 
fdge of God has been, is, and can be onlj revealed. ... By tho 
revelation of the same Spirit He hath manifested Himself all along unto 
the sons of men, both patriarchs, prophets, and apostles ; which rercla- 
tions of God, by the Spirit^ whether by outward voices and appeanmoea, 
dreama, or inward objective manifettationa in the heart, were of old the 
formal object of their faith, and remain yet ao to be.'*— Avpotfltf 
p. 17. 


tiles of old, as to ns of to-day, this personal reyelation has beei 
given ; and all who have acted up to the light within, even 
though they had never heard of Christ, are thereby justified and 

Barclay alleges that this inward light never contradicts 
either natural reason or Scripture ; the teachings of Christ and 
his apostles being a declaration by the Spirit, and to be rever- 
enced accordingly. Nevertheless, the light within is, to each 
man, the primary law, while the Scriptures are to be esteemed 
a secondary rule only.f 

A singular element pervaded this faith. It ignored the 
lively, the humorous, the esthetic ; it forbade, not plays and 
dancing alone, but music, whether vocal or instrumental. It 
interdicted all games, sports, pastimes ; even laughter and jest ; 
holding the fear of God to be the proper recreation of man ; 
and restricting " lawful divertisements " to visiting, reading 
history, speaking soberly of past or present events, gardening, 
geometrical and mathematical studies, and the like. Adopting 
Calvin's sumptuary principles, it enjoined grave simplicity and 
strict economy in dress, and declared that for Christian women 
to plait their hair or wear ornaments was unlawful. J 

* ^^Both Jew and Gentile, Scythian or Barbarian, of whatever 
country or kindred, . . . may come to walk in this light and be 
saved."— pp. 209, 210. ** The outward knowledge of Christ^s death 
and sufferings ... we willingly confess to be very profitable and 
comfortable, but not absolntely needful unto such from whom Gk>d 
himself hath withheld it."— Prop, vi, p. 123. 

f *^ The Scriptures of tmth . . . are only a declaration of the 
fountain, and not the fountain itself, therefore they are not to be es- 
teemed the principal g^und of all truth and knowledge, nor yet the 
adequate primary mle of faith and manners: nevertheless, as that 
which giveth a true and faithful testimony of the first foundation, they 
are and may be esteemed a secondary rule." — Prop, iii., p. 81. 

X *^ Games and sports, plays, dancing, . . . consist not with the 

'gravitj and godly fear which the Gospel calls for." — ^pp. 550, 556. 

'* As to their artificial music, either by organs or other insfcmmeniB or 

vnfoe, we have neither example nor precept for it in the New Testa- 

meat "—p. 42B. ''Laughing, sportong, ^oiAaiig, %t\A.^^ Tiot GhtUtiav 


The first outbreak of Quakerism was powerful : despite bitter 
persecution, it spread rapidly and to remote regions. But, for 
many years, it has been stationary or declining; the total numbei 
of Quakers throughout the world not exceeding a hundred and 
twenty-five thousand : of whom four-fifths inhabit the United 

This phase of Spiritualism has its strong points and its weak 
ones: in virtue of the Grst it made way and prospered; by 
reason of the last it sufiered arrest and decay. 

It asserted, in unqualified terms, liberty of conscience for all 
men ; f it declared that the Sciiptures are not a finality ; it sub- 
ordinated the old-written Word to the Spiritual revealing! 
daily vouchsafed to mankind: daring opinions these; a noble 
stand for the day in which they were announced. But it 
fell, in a measure, into the old error of the infallible ; for it 
held that the light within, guided by which the Evangelists 

liberty nor harmless mirth.'*— p. 539. *' The fear of God is the best 
recreation.*" — p. 531 ^^ Lawful divertiMments " are ''for friends to 
visit oae another; to hear or read history; to speak soberly of the 
preeent or pai«t transactioDs ; to follow after gardening; to use geomet- 
rical and mathcm.itical experiments, and such other things.** — pp. 554, 
555. ^* Christian women ought not to use the plaiting of hair or orna- 
ments, etc. ; for the Apostle (1 Peter iiL 3, 4) condemns the use of 
them aaonlawfol.** — p. 540. 

* In an elaborate paper <pabli<ihed 1869) in the Watminsto' Setiew, 
entitled '* The Quakers/* and evidently written by one friendly to the 
sect, the writer says : ** At the present time there are not more than 
14,000 Qnakers in Great Britain, and 3,000 in Ireland; and they have 
at no time exceeded G0,000. There arc scarcely any to bo found on the 
Continent of Europe. 

Adopting their own estimate, as given in Schemes EceUmastieal Tear 
Book (for 1800, page 82), there are 100,000 Quakers in the United 
States ; chiefly in Pennsylvania (33,000), Indiana (20,000), Ohio ( 14,000), 
and New York (10,000). 

The total throughout the worid seems to fall short of 125,000. 

t '* The forcing of men*s consciences is contrary to sound reason and 
the reiy law of nature. . . . The oonsdence of man is the ssal 
and throne of God, of which God is the alone proper and Inlsl] 
iJidgtr^ApOagy, pp. 503, 511. 


and Apostles wrote, and which comes to-day to every man who 
will seek and receive, is a direct revelation from God ; therefore, 
in all its teachings, unendingly true. Hence great confusion of 
ideas. For truth must always be consistent with itself: but if, 
at any time, the light within assent not to every word of Scrip 
ture, then one or other must be at fault ; and this discordance, 
in point of fact, does happen. 

Thus the alternative presented itself, to Quaker teachers, eithez 
to admit that the Scriptures are not infallible, or else to assume 
as to eveiy man who dissented from any portion whatever of 
the written Word, that he had not received the true light. But 
this last, making man the arbiter of his neighbor's conscience, 
is a direct denial of religious liberty — in other words, it sub- 
verts the very foundation of the original Quaker faith. 

The practical result has been that the orthodox portion of tHb 
Society of Friends, clinging to the literal infallibility of the 
Biblical Record and diiectly violating not only the great tenet 
of their founders, but the express words of Jesus, ** Judge 
not, that ye be not judged" — now disown all those who " deny 
the divinity of Christ or the authenticity of the Scriptures." 
They require their membei-s to believe that Jesus Christ was 
miraculously conceived ; that we have remission of sins through 
his blood, that he was a sacrifice for the sins of the world and 
now sits, as Mediator between God and Man, at God's right 

But, of course, a Spiritual kingdom thus di^ded against 
itself cannot stand. And its decay has been hastened by the 
undue importance it attached to trifles, and its narrow-minded 
condemnation of innocent gayety and wholesome amusements. 
Many of the liberal or Hicksite branch of the Society have 
become Spiritualists. 

In the eighteenth century, Spiritualism appeared under the 

^ Article Quakers, American Cyclopedia, voL ziiL This artkle 
tanaahed to the Cyclopedia as on authorized expositkni of ortiiodoac 
ifa^Uter doctrine at the present day. 


form of Swederihorffianism. From Quakerism to Swedcnl>org-^, 
ianiflm was a great advance. 

Fox and Barclay did not recognize communion with the 
spirits of the departed, rigidly adhering to the doctrine of aginey 
direct from God: th<>y still held to the old Miltonian idea of 
angribi creat4Hl such and of a personal Devil ; })elievef1 in a day 
of judgment on which, by tlio fiat of their Creator, one portion 
of mankind was consignetl to happiness, another to misery ; re- 
garded the next phase of existence as a life without variety of 
duties or of enjoyments, and without progi-ess — a life with bat 
one avocation for each of its denizens — the constant exercise of 
worship for the good, the perpetual endurance of torment for 
the wicked. 

But Emanuel Swedenborg taught that men, in this w^orld, 
can have communion with spirits in the next, which commun- 
ion is reliable and valuable or mischievous and misleading, ac- 
cording as men ait* sensual and worldly-minded or the reverse ; 
like attracting its like froip the world of spirits : * tliat there 
arc no angels, created such, whether good or bad, and of course 
no fallen angels, nor any Satan, Prince of Hell ; self-love being 
the only Di'vil : f that men carry with them to the next world 

* To tho Bey. Anrid Fereliiu Swedenborg said, '^ that erexy maa 
might have the same spiritual pririlci^ as himself, but tho true hin- 
dranoe i*, tho ecnsuml stato into which mankind has fallen.** To his 
friend Robwihm. *'A maa lays himnelf op<>n to grievons crroni who 
tries, by barely natural powers, to explore Rpiritaal thingi«.** Wilkin- 
son, one of hin best bio^^phera. sums np his \'iew8 on thin mthjcct thus: 
** The reason of the danger of man. as at present oomUtoted, npeaking 
with spiritH, is, that we are all in association with our Ukes, and being 
fall of evil, thcMe ftimilar spirits, could we face them, woal<l but con- 
firm OS in our own Htite and views.** — WiLKfXso?( : EtnanuH Sieeikn' 
hor*j^ a IHnffrapfijf, London, 1840 : pp. 150, 225. 

f *' There doeH not exint, in the univcnnl heaven, a single angel who 
wan created Much from tho first, nor any devil in Hell who was created 
an angel of li^ht and afterward** cast down thither : but all the inhahi- 
tants, both of Heaven and Hell, arc derived from tho human race. 
. . . The falsity of evil and Satan an ooa.**-— Swkdexboso* 
aiMi ^<a, London Ed. of 1851, pp. 186, 0. '«TW»V 


tbe leading characteristics which distinguished them here;* 
that Heaven is reached, not by faith nor by baptism, but by a 
pure love of truth and goodness ; f that love toward God and 
the neighbor comprises all Divine truth ; | that there exists an 
intermediate state, which men enter very soon after death, 
where they have free liberty of choice either to walk in the 
^' paths which lead thence to Heaven, or to follow those which 
conduct to Hell : § that God rewards no one with Heaven, nor 
consigns any one to Hell ; each spirit being attracted to one re- 
gion or to the other, according to its ruling loves, just as men 
and women in this world are drawn by their dominant desires, 
some to virtuous associates, others to the companionship of the 
wicked : || that all sufferings in the next world are self-inflicted ; 
self-love and worldly-mindedness ruling there and constituting 
Hell and its flames : ^ and, finaUy, that the duties and occupa- 

ticolar Devil that is Lord in Hell'; but self-love is so called.'* — Swe- 
DENBORG : DiviM Providence, London Ed. of 1857, p. 302. 

* ^' The ruling afiFection or love of every man remaiQB with him after 
death, and is not extirpated to eternity.*' — Heaven and HeQy p. 167. 

f ^^ Heaven is not imparted to any one by baptism, nor yet by faith. 
. . . All reach Heaven who have loved truth and good for their own 
sake." — Heaven and HeU, pp. 147, 157. 

t ^^ Love to the Lord and love toward the neighbor comprehend in 
themselves aU divine truths.** — Heaven and HeU, p. 10. 

§ ^^ The world of spirits is stationed in the midst between Heaven 
and HeU. ... All are left to their liberty snch as they enjoyed 
while in the world. . . . Spirits that are good walk in the ways 
which tend toward Heaven; while spirits that are evil walk in the 
ways that tend toward KeHy— -Heaven and HeU, p. 812. 

I Swedenborg expressed himself on this subject to Bobsahm thus: 
** When men first come into the spiritual world, no one thinks of any- 
thing but the happiness of Heaven, or the misery of Hell. Soon thd 
good spirits come to him and instruct him where he is ; and he is then 
left to follow his own inclinations, which lead him to the plaoe where 
\e remains forever.** — Emanuel Swedenborg, a Biography, p. 102. 

T '^Not any, the smallest portion, of the punishments which tpiziti 
BEgo comes from the Lord ; but all of it from evil itself. . . . 
tl^fv aodftfidiavv of the woxid . . . zeign in the hdb and ate 

A iiinn>iu:r> it-abs old. 


tiooi of Iloavi-n arc not rcntricMiI to a single riW, hut ftren 
iii>1il tad Ykrious, il Ix'iDg a irorld of activity, of progi<eu, a 
if a*e« ; * and tlmt bumim Rjfi^tioun, alike to God &n<l to hia 
cnaUuriiH, ore traiisforroJ tliitlior, graciously tu bloatium auil e. 
paiul Into mora than eitrthly t«auty and jiurity, ami to u 
tfaa IiappiaeM of that gnoial paiadiae^ for evertuoii-'.t 

Gmid oonceptioiui thew! wonilerTuI concuptiunii, ta ] 
cotnii Ut ua from tliii frigid North, lUrougti a ((ovommi-nl /. 
tor of Miiiea, I luora diuii a nsutuiy Hjfo. <]ulij(>n conl;l^]>tion* 
wliich, had they bivu bud iK-foru Uio wuild unmixed with dm 
and in a lucid, ooucum', praaticnl niaiuurr, wight aJroady haV| 
worked no tunuU ravulutiou ui Chmlutn ui-wdji. But 
heea their &ta ? 

llMntgh Swinlenborg wua iruin of diatinrtion, highly ct 
la (avor with hta guvernin«ut,- inritul to the royal tablo and a 
gardml with rv(i{N.>ct, In hia awn eountry, both by cccloaiai 
ttoUea, and uiun of scicncti, g yet, at Uio outae t, Quakvriam {tm 

Inf BTual fiffif or Uie ^m of HoU, fi tlM Id 
of nif and of tba worU."— iToitun and ITM. pp. 383. 3^ am. 

* **Tha oncnpatlm* tbalexlat in thn Haavona . 
■aaUe and raiT-, alau, awurding U> the oIBom of tba t 
. . . Bni7 (mo, tbon.'. [lertamu ■omo ua* ; tot Ilia Lotd*! kl 
la a kingdom of nMa/'-^gniwa .laJ tf«a, p. ISl. 

t " All dollitliU flow from Iwe. , . , Tha <1-Jiichu of tha mkA 
fir «f tlM aiatlt all Dow troin lora to the Lord uid towwd tb« neigbbor. 
. . . In pTopoitioo M Uwao two loTD* an racatvnl . . . lba«oal 
b tannl an-^r ttoai Ui4 wmU toaatd il«a*«i." — Umt*» aa4 HM, 

] Bwodonborif, amtaMrat tm a naa «t seiaMc, diKdiafiad dtitlnc thlr> 
tf-ona jnan, Ui« offloe at kMtmtto t ot tka BoanI ot HUmb, wadw Um 
t Inl7i7, Klri^rUnailtap laqiMnialMadiaa, 
ki i^ined tka omoei tat Kii* rr«4«tkk, iamuMentkn at kto mtt- 
<1 tlm foa aalafjr dBrb« kte lUb 

I SwaAanboif waa a mq of tba tUabofi of WottngatUa, and vm 
brotbw-la-law of lb« AxAUakiip <4 Cptal aad uf Lata BoaMlatiatna, 
Omnwiat a rnninm. Hu waaanu»UodbjQiMa«U)naaBlaMMtabk 
ITlijMdwaa amrubarof tka Asadanka of BoiMWtaat StoddMlH 
and flt pgMntnni. In a lattar wrtttan turn Uiatoa,tak Vnfe,^ 


228 swedenbobg'b failubb. 

stricted as was its sphere of influence) was a brilliant succesi 
compared to Swedenborgianism. During Swedenborg's life he 
does not seem to have made even a single hundred prosel3rtes ; * 
and his voluminous folios obtain but a passing notice, here and 
there, in symbolic history, f Even now, when three or four 
generations have passed, the adherents of the Swedish seer, 
avowed and unavowed, do not equal in number those of George 
Fox : J a mere handful, one may say. During a century of ex- 
istence the Church of the New Jerusalem hardly exerted a per- 
ceptible influence on the religious opinions of the four himdred 
millions inhabiting Christendom. * It is chiefly during the last 
twenty years — and in great part through modem Spiritualism 
— that the fundamental truths taught by Swedenborg have been 
gradually coming to win the ear and the respect of the civilized 

friend who had asked particulars touching himself and his family con- 
nections, he says : '* I am in friendship with all the bishops of my oonn- 
trj) who are ten in number, and also with the sixteen Senators and the 
rest of the Peers. . . . The King and Queen themselves, and also 
the three Princes, their sons, show me all kind countenance ; and I was 
once invited to dine with the King and Queen at their table." — -tietter 
in London Ed. of 1851 of Heaven and Hell^ pp. 51, 52. 

* And, in Swedenborg^s own opinion, his system seems to have been 
as unpopular in the next world as in thi& When General Tmxen asked 
him how many persons he thought there were in the world who favored 
his doctrine, he replied " that there might perhaps be fifty ^ and in pro- 
portion the same number in the world of spirits.** — Swedenborgy a Bi' 
ography^ by Wilkinson, p. 236. 

t Hagenbach : History of Doctrines^ vol. ii. pp. 391, 393, and a few 

X Through the kindness of the Secretary of the late General Confer- 
ence of American Swedenborgians, I have (under date January 1, 1871) 
the following : ''The number of professed Swedenborgians — that is, 
persons who openly and publicly proclaim themselves believers in the 
doctrines taught by Swedenborg — ^in this country is not, so far as I «m* 
^eam, more than 5,000. In Great Britain there are about 5,000 more, 
nd in other parts of the worid about 1 ,000. It is our conviction, how- 
wvt, that ten times this number accept Swedenboig^a fundamental 
wtiiaea, bat, for rarioiu reaaons, a&y lit^'b ot ndthin^ about it.^ 


Tha dron wu the relardinf; olt^meiit. Swoilrnborg foil d 
into tho (ltd, old «rror- tbe wiinrt of i]n»Mi>8— -the tiine-honor«d | 
dfihuioo nf llunma IiifaJUbilUy. IIu H'<^r(lt<d hinwclf &•• • J 
SjMrititnl Anibnnudor fruni Oud U> iiuut; tUa Onu aiMouUly 9 
w>lev(«d from thu hiinuin rtux* Ui IbuL holy olSct?, by I 
Almi^ty; Lbr firet anil wiln iuU-rpreU-r of tlii> Wurd of Qmj 
wbom Ibi? nngc-lH tluinwlviM darad uol tiuitni«t in Liblica 
knowlnd^, wining that bu wtm Luught aud illumliiAted directi/'" 
by Uw Dftity btnwclf.* 

Hie Bibli)— m- thn Word, na his antuUly oalU<d ilf—he t^ 
H ft )i|>nci(n (if flptritiinl pHUinjiHetit, tba origituU n 
I up friRQ tlio a[ipiTbL>i)ium i>f luiuUimd, liid i 
gtii<l »ii^-U, PUid tha vunUe tuxt which ovnrlieii it, « mtIm 
•(t«l AlyxtoriiHi, nut iit »11 to bo iaU-rpreled ati it ruula ia 
'' Scriptum; t and to wliivh, utxw. tliKwunU vvn &nt imdbmI, 

*B0inot« (IIOO)luDr. Uutlnr: "I Iut* liran ooUiid laabolyoao* 
ptiord hiinadl, wlu) uuat yiaciouiily loonUoMml hiniKlt In petau 
~ !■ wtmuit, In 11^" Us adiU Uut " God aIh apmiud hbi ri^t 
ttw of Um apirlUial worlil uul ijnuitol bim tlu pnnlrg* of mo- 
■ *llh ■piritii Mvl uig«b." — KiiuMvil Sttrdtaborg {Uj WiUuDa), 
ffk 74,73. Einwbocc, ipB^ciiiK of hu mm ooauntwion with Ood taiA 
wMh iba >plrita>l wortd, ha ■■/• : " Thia ba« not bacn pwtl«d to Hqr 
to* ^SM tha dtualioD of Ibn wrorU m it baa boas to oa."— Woric 
tpwtod. p. SIM. 

A(nfai, ha lujw : " I bam dl*oaiu«ad wtUi wpbiim and a^^ now f«c 
••tanl faan ; nor duni auy aiiirtt. naltbor wonld aaj aocal, my anf- 
\himg to DM, mnoh Ira* inaUuet ma. abool anything in tha Void; bat 
Iba Itai alone, wbo wu raniBlad ta toe, and aftarward enntlana^ir 
did Bind jloea appear \mSon my eyes m Uw> Son in wht^ U« ia, ana •■ 
1I« vpfn^n U' iha nntfrilit, taught m* and iUmninatad ma." — D i ttif 
{"nwiilmef (p<ihU«^ ITUl. p. IW. 

f "llat8>wiAl«nba(gn4«(i6cd,anQntdimetlyi«naledb7Q«d,MrtaiB 
potMeWMif the Old Tintaawnt; a&d,otllia KcwTotfainait,baaMep(al 
iha (oar Ooqwla and tha AponlyiiH snlf, aa fmntngapaftianaf Ih* 
' pcwBrt Wnd. ' -— Awi»*irf fl^nlwJafy. a Dl^nphy, i>p 1 W, 141 . 

t Om «aHMt luek Into mm td !i«adMh«(-ii wotfc^ iiiprtJIy U 
Ai^okt OJ^Ma, wtlhoBt aMaaaiitaiil at Iha ohatwlar of (ha S 

■ Ikat r«N thraoih tbam ; and MM h (woad te tha « 


no living creature ever hold the secret key, till it was entrusted 
by the Creator of the Universe to a Swedish philosopher.* No 
candid student of Swedenborg doubts his sincerity. Beyond 
question, ho believed his "Arcana Coelestia" to be written 
under the unerring dictation of God. 

This capital error — greatest among all religious fallacies of 
the past — here produced, as so radical an error always pro- 
duces, its legitimate results. Not — strange to say ! in the char- 
acter of the man ; it bred in him no arrogance ; he retained his 
I modest simplicity to the last : the fatal influence was on his sys- 
tem; sapping its cogency, neutralizing the virtue of its fine gold. 

From another superstition, also, Swedenborg failed to shake 
himself free : he believed, if less rigidly than Calvin, in the 
original depravity of mankind. f Hence his doubts whether 
any of his fellow-ereatures were worthy to enjoy the spiritual 
intercourse which he felt to have been granted, throughout a 
quarter of a century, to himself. Hence, too, his belief that 
the wickedness of hell was incurable and its punishments with- 
out end. 

Again, some of the dogmas which he imagined to have re- 
borrowed from one of the old Grecian schools — ^becoase "the Master 
said it." Take three or four examples, selected at hap-hazard oat of 
tens of thousands. Coics signify "good natural affections" {Divine 
Providence^ No. 326). A horse means ^' the understanding of the Word 
of God " ( Trm Christian BeUgion, Nos. 1 13, 277, etc. ). Ishmad to beget 
twdve princes denotes "the primary precepts which are of charity" 
{Arcana CadesUa, No. 2089). Joseph sold to Potiphar is to be interpreted 
to mean " the alienation of Divine truths by soientilioB ** {Arc CodeaL^ 
No. 4790). And so on. 

* Speaking of his mission as interpreter of theJTord, Swedeabozg 
thus expresses himself : " The laws of Divine Providence, hitherto hid 
In ¥risdom among the angels, are now revealed." — AngeUo Wisdom eon- 
eeming tJie Divine Providence^ London £d., 1857, p. 70. 

f " Every man has hereditary evil, and therefore he is in the con- 
cupiscence of many evils. ... A man, from himself, cannot do 
good. . . . Thence it is that in man there is no health, or nothing' 
•oond, but Inat he is one entire mass of evil." — Dmne J^ratidmiOi^ 


oeiTed from God, wore of a character to retard the acceptance 
of the truths he taught. While he rejected the idea of the 
Trinity,* or of a Son of Qody f he held that Jehovah himself 
desccudcd and assumed humanity on our earth, for the purpose 
of rctlectnin;^ mankind, of reducing hell to Bubjcction, and of 
re-organizing Heaven : seeing that He could not save His crea- 
tures from damnation in any other way. | Orthodoxy and 
Kationalism, of course, alike repudiate this heretical and illogi- 
cal conception. 

But the worst results from Swedenborg^s master-error were 
connected with that lack of charity wliich ever follows the in- 
sidious illusion of infallibility. Despite his equable and gentle 
charaSter, despite his own tenet that men are not saved by 
faith, he was occasionally betrayed into the harshest intoler- 
ance. Speaking of those " who are called in the world Socin- 
lana and some of them Aiians,^' he says : ** The lot of both ia 
. . . that they are let down into hell among those who deny 
Qod. These are meant by those who blaspheme the Holy 
Ghost, who will not be forgiven either in this world or in thai 
which is to come.^ § 

^ '* Soaroelj any remains of the Lord^s Church are left This has 
oome to pass in oonAcquoBco of separating the Divine Trinity into three 
persons, each of which is declared to be God and Lord. Hence a sort 
of frenzj has infected the whole Bjstem of theology.** — Swedescboro : 
lYue (Thrutian Rfitgion, London, 1858, p. 4. 

t ** The idea of a Son bom from eternity, descending and assaming 
the homanitj, must be foond to be altogether erroneous. . . . The 
production of a God from a Qod is a thing impracticable. It is the 
same thing whether we use the terms begotten by God or proceeding 
from mm."— rni^ Chrvtian Rdighn, p. 83. 

X 8wedenborg*8 doctrine as to the incarnation is this : '* Jehorah 
himself descended and assamed the humanity.** This he did, '' that he 
might aooomplish the work of redemption, wh:ch consisted in reducing 
the hells to subjection and in bringing the heavenK into a now, orderly 
arrangements . . . God could not redeem mankind, that is dclivez 
them trom damnation and hell, by an j other process than that of aanm* 
inf the hiuaMlty.*'--7Vi<# Chrittian Rdij^n, pp. 81, 84. 

§ Anffilk TWMiiii eoneeming Diviru ProndcaM^ v« liKV. 


Even worse than this is the cruel spirit, aggravated hj the 
assumption of false premises, in which he speaks of those whom 
he ought to have commended and hailed as spiritual brethren. 
We have it under his own hand, as divinely revealed to him, 
that the Quaker worship is so execrable and abominable that if 
Christians but knew its true character, "they would expel 
Quakers from society and permit them to live only among 
beasts."* And this — think of it! — from one who deemed 
himself the penman of God I — the recipient and inditcr of truth 
unmixed with error ! 

* In Swedenboig's diary, under date October 20, 1748, he says : '* The 
secret worship of the Quakers, sedoloasly concealed from the world, 
was made manifest. It is a worship so wicked, execrable, and abomin- 
able, that, were it known to Christians, they would expel Quakers firom 
society, and permit them to live only among beasts. They have a vile 
communion of wives, etc." Again, October 28, 1748 : *'They are in- 
domitably obstinate in their aversion to having their thoughts and do- 
ings made public. They strove with me and the spirits who desired 
(but in vain) to know their secrets." — See Emanud Swedenborg, his Life 
and Wrilifif/n, by William White, London, 1867, vol 1 p. 886, 387. 

The poison of intolerance, in its most malignant type, still works 
among a bigoted portion of Swedenboig's followers. The (London) 
Intellectual lUpaaitory is the accredited organ of ort/iodox Swedenbor- 
gianism. Its editor (sixteen years since, however,) after stating his 
opinion that ^* spirits, even the highest angels, have nothing to tell us 
in relation to doctrine and life but what ia revealed in the Word,^^ goes 
on to say : *''• We therefore conclude that it is not only dangerous, but 
impious, to seek to have communion with spirits, especially in regard to 
anything of doctrine and life." But he does not stop here. He tella 
us that there is good reason for the command ^^so often repeated to 
the Children of Israel, to put Hum to deaUi who had familiar spirits 
and who were necromancers, or as in the Hebrew text, ' asked inquiries 
of the dead.'"— //i^'tteci?^^ Repository, vol for 1856, pp. 460, 461. 
Anything worse than this we may search the records of modem theology 
in vain to find. 

Such is one phase of this religious movement. There is a second, 
directly opposed to the first Thousands will unite with me in the ac« 
Icnowledgrment that some of our best and most enlightened friends are 
if9^rai SwedenhorgiBum, 

GROWTH OF BPmrnjALisic. 233 

One reads such passages as these with deep regret that a man 
8o eminently wise in many things should have strayed, in 
others^ so far from cliarity and common sense. Yet perhaps it 
was best. The state of society in the middle of the last cen- 
tur}' may have been such tliat men could not then safely be 
trusted to s^Hsk, through cooununion with the spirit-world, 
proofs of its existence and information touching its character 
and pursuits. 

May we, living in the eighth decade of the nineteenth century, 
be trusted in this matter? Can we bear the many things, 
promised to us from the spiritual sphere, which Christ's ap06« 
ties were not yet able to bear, and which our ancestors, of one 
or tvo centuries since, evidently were unfitted to receive ? 
If it apf>ear that normal spiritual communion, like adult sof* 
fruge, is upon us, the fact of its advent will, to a certain ex* 
tent, be evid-uce that the world Ls not wholly unprepared for 
its reception. 

The character of that reception, too, adds vastly to the evi* 
denoe for its timeliness. One would think the world must 
have been an hungered for the proofs of immortality which 
Spiritualism has brought to light The new faith has overran, 
not our countiy alone, but every |)ortion of the civilized 
world.* At this day, less than a quarter of a century from 

* Judge J. W. Edmonds, formerly of the Supreme Bench of New 
Tork, has had more exp(>ricnoo among Spiritoalistii, and a wider cor- 
respondence on Spiritualism all over the world, than any one else with 
whom I am acquainted. Writing to mo in Fcbroary last, he says : " I 
have received letters on the subject, daring the last twenty years, from 
all parte of the United States, from England, Ireland, Scotland, 
FiBDoe, Germany, Ruwia, Spain, Italy, Greece, the East Indies, Cuba, 
Jamaica, Brazil, Guatemala, Australia, New Zealand, the Sandwidi 
Islarols, the Ionian Islands, Malta, Algiers, and other places that I cannot 
now recall^ And he mentions having received a letter and book 
(pnUiihad In London, 18d5) from an English lady who had tpeot ten 
or twelve ytars travelling aU over Europe, and in Asia and Afi&aa. 
Ttom her book he extrmdM the foUowing ; 


what may be regarded as its inception^* its believers, private 
and avowed, probably outnumber, one hundredfold, the 
aggregate to which either of its spiritual predecessors — Quak- 
ei*s or Swedenborgians — ever attained. The number of those 
who accept, more or less unreservedly, its phenomena, may be 
tofely assumed to exceed, in the United States, seven millions 
and a lialf,f and in the rest of Christendom at least as many 

One might have to double this last amount, reaching thirty 
millions, to include all in the Christian world whose scepti- 
cism in what is called the Supernatural — but what is the law 
governed Spiritual — ^has been, chiefly by this movement, more 
or less shaken or removed. 

The constant increase in the number of Spiritualists is by 
no means confined to this country. In London, ten years ago, 

^^ There is scarcely a city or a considerable town in Continentel 
Europe, at the present moment, where Spiritaatiste are not reckoned 
by hundreds if not by thousands ; where regularly-established commu- 
nities do not habitually meet for spiritual purposes : and they reckon 
among them individuals of every daas and avocation, and intellects of 
the highest order." — ScepUd^m and Spiritualum, or the Experience of a 
Sceptic; by the authoress of Aurelia, 

* March 31, 1848. See Footfalis, p. 288. 

f Judge Edmonds, iu a letter to the ^^ Spiritual Magazine " of Lon- 
don, dated May 4, 1867, estimated the number of Spiritualists in the 
United States, five years ago, at ten milUons. In a recent letter to 
myself he has reiterated the conviction that he had good authority for 
such a calculation : adding that he feels assured it is under, rather than 
over, the truth. With less extended opportunities of judging than he, 
and to avoid chance of exaggeration, I put the number at three-fourths 
of that amount only : my own opinion being, however, that this is an 

Those who the most deprecate the influence of modem SpiritoaliBm 
are the most ready to confess how far that influence has spread. ^' The 
oonntless hosts of modem necromancers " is the expression empl(^ed 
by a religious Quarterly of the day (in a review of Dr. BusHNSIiL*! 
Ifature and the Supernatural) to designate the SpiritaalistB of th« 
TTnitod BtateB.-^Theologieai ajul Literary Journal for April, 1859, p^ 


there wis but a single spiritoal paper ; to-day there are five,* 
adyocatingy for the present, different phases of spiritual belief. 
There cannot, of course, be sceptics in immortality, or secular- 
ists, among those who admit the phenomena of Spiritualism. 
But, for the time, there are those who are termed Christian 
Spiritualists, and others, calling themselves Radicals, who look 
upon Christ but as one of the ancient philosophers, with no 
claim to distinction as a teacher beyond Socrates, Seneca, and a 
host of others. 

I am convinced that this schism is tcmporaiy only. Spirit- 
\uilism is the complement of Christianity. Spiritual phenomena 
are the witnesses of Cliristianity. All thoughtful believers in 
the epiphanies of Spiritualism will bo Christians as soon as they 
learn to distinguish between the sim]>le grandeur of Chnst^s 
teachings, as embodied in the synoptical Grospels, and the 
Aagustinian version of St. Paul's theology, as adopted in one 
form by the Church of Rome, and iu another indorsed by Cal- 
vin and Luther : a system associated with infallibility and 
known, among Protestants and Romanists alike, as Orthodoxy. 

Spiritual Epiphanism is spreading as fiist, probably, as the 
world can bear it — as fast as its wisest friends desire ; and it 
is spreading, as they think, in manner the most desirable : not 
as a sect — nor ever, I trust, to become such — ^not as a separate 
Church, with its prescribed creed and its ordained ministers 
and its for.nial professors. It spreads silently through the 
agency of daily intercourse, in the privacy of the domestic 
circle. It fiervades, in one or other of its phases, the best lit- 
erature of the day. f It invades the Churches already estab- 

* Namely, the Spiritual MagaziM, the SpirUuaUU^ the thr%$Uan 
BgdrUuaiut^ Human Nature^ and the Medium and Daybreak: the 
lint three repretcnting Christian Spiritualism; the two latter advooa- 
ting Spiritualism in connection with what arc usoallj termed radical 

t Writhig this in Janoarf, 1871, 1 oaU to mind that, within the last 
I6ar or live weeks, six itorias of apparitions, all aerioosly and eamasttf 
Buated, have appealed in one or other of Hax^cfxa* ytctfaflkii^x i 

236 HOW SFmrnjALiBM spbeads. 

lished, not as an opponent but as an ally. Its tendency is 14 
modify the creed and soften the asperities, of Protestant and 
Romanist, of Presbyterian and Episcopalian, of Baptist and 
Methodist, of Unitarian and Universalist. Its tendency is to 
leaven, with invigorating and spiritualizing effect, the religions 
8(jntiment of the age, increasing its vitality, enlivening its con- 

I would not be understood, however, as expecting that 
Spiiitualism will effect all this except in measure as its rich 
mines ai*e wisely worked ; nor as asserting, in a general way, 
that we of the present age are worthy recipients of its reveal- 
ings. There are millions of men and women among us who 
lack the judgment needed to prosecute spiritual research, just 
as there are millions more who have not the culture necessary 
to exercise judiciously the right to vote. In either case there 
is but one remedy : the millions must be educated up to the 

Spiritual manifestations are more inevitable than universal 
suffrage ; for a majority, if it see fit, can limit the elective 
franchise : but no majority, be it ever so large, can summon, 
or can exclude, the most important among the epiphanies of 
Spiiitualism. If dreams do, sometimes, supply warning or 
prophecy ; if material objects are, occasionally, moved before 
our eyes by powers not of this world ; if houses really are 
what is termed haunted, without human agency ; if the spirits 
of those whom we call dead do, at times, reveal themselves by 
influence, or by intelligent sounds, or by actual apparition as 
did Chiist to assure his disciples of immortality — what power 

leading to the detection of a murder ; three others (supplement to 
Barpefs Weekly of December 24, 1870, p. 846) from the pen of Plor- 
enoe Marryat, daughter of the celebrated novelist : one of these last 
having been witnessed by Captain Marryat himself, and all, the writer 
says, being ^^ strictly true and well authenticated.^' But no periodicals 
of our country are conducted with better judgment, nor with wtarlfflter 
Ttgtadi to the demands of public sentiment, than those ianied \ff tttt 



imn wa weak tcortob, who must sit atill and mm winds k 
wnrM foUU their nuwdou, to couLrul tliQ ngoiic; of diaonibodia^ 
■pinUi? ahaU wa Mt nbout conaidorinf; whether we i 
arcofit tl)(i (tpiphnny of tbo rainI>ow or the apparitiou t>f tl 
Atuon Borr^ia ? 

If ttin baliof in tlte phaaamcnft nU«d Spiritual be a delunia 
of tho Kn3w«, it will comn to naught ; if it be of God « 
DM urmt itn advent. Wo n»y nmire it unwiaely, uit«rtirol' 
it iguorantly, trcut it with dtitruKt or with luvity ; or we luay 
exnmina tta phniu>meiut in a patient and cntboltc xgiirit of in- 
>|uinr, in tnAnuer suited to its tiacred claims : that a 
it is in''xpr(;»ibl]f inifiurtjint that it find iw with oar ligliU 
burainit. If wn teA. it, ilurkliuf;; if wu lUi^ut it, iunuDUbl« U 
its high diuwit4ir ; it way prove a bauo iusl«ad of a blua 

That tfa« t!piritualiHt>i of our day uottd wise advice and pra 
(ioDt mutious ; that some of them run into extmvsjpuictf m 
nutxytwinvn ulilct) tlio objircta of bpiritiuU reHNtrth and t 
fitting niDilo uf oomluoting it ; that tiieif rauks huve 
iwM by thouMuidii uf waifK and Btraya, {kwikmhsI by 
•ad laotJMrtii; opinitinB— i> but what bap[MUu iti all gmot n 
hitiiinti of opinion, t-"l>tical ormbginna; is but liiat whldi 
boM tho Cirnuui Itofonwn of the aixtoratth n^Dtury aiul (Jia 
Fnmek KeTolutionista of tba oigklMDth. Tho wild waves cf 
fraedoB, as Bom« ono has mg^nud, occamnally cut tJMtr 
blinding spray b<7ond Ugjtinwto bonnd. But time brinp 

Nor ia it reoaonabl* to »xpMt that Spiiitoslism's beat fhii(| 
■hoold be obtaiopd in tlinr maturity, at this narly atage < 
tlM-ir cvltum ; mudi Ii9bb do I saminie hm to prodncv ifaiMa 
U, etniD, by len^illi of tupanenm and profundity of t 
I bad hname fully MNBjietent to set fiwtJi all the eonditioi 
neoeasary to obtain tbe »iir«>t and mnxt lunful i««idtH Itobi ti 
BiaDifestaciool of Spiritiialiinn, it would m]uiro a volnno I 
MOtain a di-tsilod Htsteianut of Ibi^w* randitiiiDx, prnparly « 
dnni-ed and tlluatisl«]. ItuI, though I havo (aitlkfolly < 
ijAudRd tbn L^i*um whicb Gfiveo y«4n q( acUNvWInVidkv 


this study, I am far indeed from being thus competent : not 
do I believe that any man living yet is. Such knowledge must 
come, like all important knowledge, through the labors of many 
and the gradual unfoldings of time. 

Such hints and warnings as seemed to me the most impor- 
tant I have already given ; as that the Spiritualist must be- 
ware of the temptation to imagine that he is obtaining reveal- 
ings direct from God, or from any person of the Godhead, or 
from any other infallible source. Let him rest satisfied if he 
obtain sure proof of immortality : that is the pearl of great 
price, to become the possessor of which no efforts are too ardu- 
ous, no pains too great. For the rest he must trust to general 
. precepts and advices, tested and approved by reason and conr 
science. Every profound student of Nature becomes convinced 
tliat infallible teachings touching the details of human con- 
rluct and earthly affairs do not enter into the economy of the 

Especially should the Spiritualist be on his guard against 
seeking worldly wealth and profit through spiritual revealings. 
The very attempt tends to attract spirits of a low order. The 
medium who submits to it incurs grave dangers; while the 
votary puts himself in the sure road to delusion and disap- 
pointment. * A medium who is true to his high trust will re- 
fuse to enter a path thus perilous and misleading, f If, some- 

* Bat that space fails me I oonld adduce nmnerooa examples in proof 
of this. 

f An anecdote, in this comiectioii, may be worth relating. In the 
spring of 1858, we had several sittings in my apartments in the Palazzo 
Valli, Naples, with the celebrated medium, Mr. Home ; at which sit- 
tings the Count d^Aquila (or, as we usually called him, Prince Loigi, 
third brother of the then reigning King of Kaples), at his own soggea- 
tion, assisted ; no one else except my family being present. It was 
thought by some that, in case of a revolution, the Princess chance to 
anccced his brother on the throne was good ; and he asked Mr. Home to 
obtain for him an answer to a question which, though cautiously worded, 
evidently looked to the succession. '* I know»" said Mr. Home, in le- 
iHy, ** that j^oar BoysX Highnewt will patdon me for saying that Miidi «a 


times wlion all human effort has fkilod, spiritiial aid or advice 
in such matters is volunteered, it should, even then, be re- 
ceived with great caution. Money-changers are out of place 
in the spiritual tcm])le. Man^s destiny is to earn his bread by 
industry, not by divination. 

Still another warning is greatly needed. The most experi- 
enced Spiritualists bclicvo that no one, though actuated by the 
purest motives, can abandon himself to influences from the 
next world, exclusively and throughout a long term of years 
(for instance as Swcdt^uborg did), without risk of serious injury 
and without imminent danger of being, more or less frequently, 
misled. Secularism is lamentably in error when she teaches 
that it is the part of wisdom to live here without taking 
thought, or seeking to fit ourselves, for a hereafter : but, on 
the other hand, it t> true that earth-life and its duties are an 
indispensable preparation for our next phase of Iwing. Each 
world, like each agt^ of man, has its own sphere with appropii- 
ato duties, to Im; fuUilled with i-efen*nce the one to the other, 
hut not to l»o int^i*cliaiig«Ml. If, in infiincy, dreaming constantly 
of manhood and its privilfges, wo neglect the culture and pur- 
suits which p(*rtain to childhood, wo shall suffer for it in our 
adult years ; and it is doubtful whether any development in 
the next world can fully coni|)enRate for neglected op{)ort unities 
of improvement and of usefulness in this. If, while here, wo 
do not habitually avail ourselves of such opportunities, it may 
bo assumed as certain that wo shall die at last, like hermits 
ailer a barren life in the desert, utterly unfitted for our future 

Again : Exclusive devotion to meditations, or to spirit- 

inqoiiy oogiit not to be made of the spirits. It is their office to supp^ 
ns with i^nritoal knowledge, not to satisfy cariosity about worldly ooo- 

** Ton are quite ri^bt, Mr. Homc,*^ replied Prince Loigi, ** and I 
thank you for i^xtaking so plainly." 

A leproof and a reply which, coosidcring tho ciTonmitanoss, wws 
•iiaalty hooocablo to the mwlinm and to Una M&fi%. 

240 spmrruAL and theolooioal utebatueb. 

influences, connected with the next world, gives birth, in 
Spiritualism as in Theology, to a vague and heavy literaturei 
in which common sense has small part. Nevertheless slurs 
against the current effusions of Spiritualism come with a bad 
grace from those, standing afar off, who have never lifted a 
finger to sifb profitable from worthless, or done aught, in any 
way, to purify or improve what they condemn* 

The space I allotted to this branch of the subject is exhausted ; 
and perhaps I have said enough toward marking the import- 
ance of this phenomenal movement, and assigning to Spiritual- 
ism itself definite character and fitting place among the religious 
beliefs of the day. Though not a sect, it is doubtful whether 
any sect, exerting peaceful influence only, ever spread with the 
same rapidity, or made its mark during so brief an existence, 
on the hearts of so considerable a fraction of mankind. Al- 
ready it begins to assert its position. Though its truths are 
disputed still, yet, except by the ignorant or the hopelessly 
bigoted, they are not despised. The idea is daily gaining 
ground that its occult agencies may richly repay earnest re- 
search. The essential is that the entire subject should be 
studied in its broad phase, as one of the vital elements of 
enlightened Christian faith. 



** That perfect silence where the lips and heart 
Axe still, and we no longer entertain 
Oar own imperfect thooghts and vain opinions, 
Bat God alone speaks in us.*'— Longfellow. 

"There does not appear the least intimation in hintory or tradiUox 
that religion was first reasoned oat : bat the whole of hlKtory and tra> 
ditioQ makes for the other side, that it came into the world by rcrela- 
Uon. Indeed the state of religion in the first ages of which we haTO 
any aocoant, seems to sapiKiee and intimate that this was the original 
of it among mankind." — Butler.* 

TiiE subject of IiiKpiration, like that of thn Higns ami wonden 
of tlie (.iO8|)0ls and of the spirit uul giAs «*oninieii«lod hy Paul, 
has tisually fuUen into very injudicious hands. Its would-be 
friends have dono it far moro hami than its op|K>ncnt8. The 
rationalistic spirit of the age is disposed to reject it ; and the 
chief reason for this is the oxtmvagance, ami the exclusive 
character, of the claims put forward in itM licliulf hy theolo- 

Protestant Orthodoxy claims that it is an exceptional and 
miraculous gift of God, granted to man during one centur}' only 
of the Ust eighteen ; and then granted only to the Author of 

* Andhg^f of Rtii(fion^ part iL chap. 2 ; pp. 105-6 (of London Ed. cf 
180O). See, in corroboration, pp. Ifl9, 140. See also, on the sane 
mhjeoi, i«eoeding page of this volume, lOd. 


oiir religion and to eight others ; namely, to the four Evangel 
ists and to St. Paul, St. James, St. Peter, and St. Jude.* 

Koman Catholic Orthodoxy claims that this miraculous gift 
of God has been granted throughout the whole of the last eigh- 
teen centuries; but, duiing the last seventeen of these, only to 
one ecclesiastical jurisdiction ; namely, to the Holy Catholic 

Both Orthodoxies, though differing on so many other points, 
agree in claiming for Inspiration that it is a direct gift of God 
and the source of unmixed, imerring truth. 

Loaded down by claims so unphilosophical as these, we need 
not wonder that Inspiration is rejected os a fallacy by many of 
the most earnest and thoughtful minds of the day. When Sci- 
ence fully awakes to the fact that there may, as part of the 
cosmical plan, be intermundaue as well as mundane phenomena, 
much of this growing scepticism will be dissijmted. Before 
this can happen, however, we must discard the orthodox defini- 
tion of Inspiration, and adopt one more in accordance with the 
enlightened spirit of the age ; somewhat, perhaps, in this 

It is a mental or psychical phenomenon, strictly law-gov- 
erned ; occasional, but not exceptional or exclusive ; ' some- 
times of a spiritual and ultramundane character, indeed, but 
never miraculous; often imparting invaluable knowledge to 
man, but never infallible teachings ; one of the most precious 
of all God^s gifts to His creatures, but, in no case, involving a 
direct message from Him — a message to be accepted, unques- 
tioned by reason or conscience, as Divine truth unmixed with 
human error. 

To this it may be added, in accordance with Bishop Butler's 

* It Tnay, however, properly be added that Protestantism daims that 
> majority of a certain CEoamenical Conncil was inspired by God in 
' qfits acts ; namely, the Coonoil of Carthage when, at the dose of 
fdorth oentoxy, it estabUshed the Canon of Scriptoze. For, unless 
I be admitted, there is no sore proof that the Bible, as noiw oaiuaL- 
/"Ofxirtniotod, is a minwalonaly InaB&nd <v6hmM. 


that Inspiration is the Rource not of one religion alone, 
bat, in phase more or less pure, of all religions, ancient or 
modem, that have held persistent sway over any considerable 
portion of mankind. And just in proportion to the rela- 
tive purity of this source, welling up in each system of &ith 
respectively, is the larger or smaller admixture of the Good 
and the True which — modem candor is learning to admit — iM 
to be found, in certain measure, even in the rudest creed ; aa 
Lowell has it : 

** Each form of worship that hath swayed 
The life of man, and given it to gnsp 
The master-key of knowledge, reyerence, 
Enfolds some germs of goodness and of right.** ^ 

Among *those who adopt this broad view of Inspiration as a 
nniversal agency, there are two difff^rent opinions touching its 
origin : one class of rcasonors (including many students of vital 
magnetism) tracing it to a |>cculiar condition of the mind, while 
others seek its source in some occult int^'lligence outside of the 
individiml, and ()|»erating u{X)n him. My own conviction is, 
that there is truth in l)oth theories. In.spii*ation is a phenom- 
enon sometimes purely psycliical, cori'elative with clearsight 
(clain'oyance), and appertaining to the department of Mental 
Science;! sometimes produced by influences from the next 
world, and to be referred to Spiritualism. 

* It is a cheering sign of the times when a dergyman of one per- 
soaaian i«aes a series of sermoos, in whioh he reoogniiefl and acts forth 
the exoellenoe of Churches other than his own, prefaced with tho re- 
mark that ** a good man^s home is the more deligfatfol as he calls to 
mind that the world is fall of good homes ; and that miUicms are as 
hai^y as he.** Tho Rev. TnostAS K. BBKcnsB (of Elmira, New York), 
has done this, in a small volume entitled Our Sec€n Ch^rehft (New 
Toric, 1870> : indoding. among tho seven, the Chorch of Borne. 

f Andrew Jaokson IHvis, the well-known author of Naturf's Ditin$ 
RmdatSim^ is often qnoied aa baring written that work under diotatioD 
ofapinta But he himadf dedaws oonedOy, nft dwa^fc Wii^b^-^ 


Among the ancient philosophers there were these who, mora 
or less distinctly, detected its existence ; some in one of iti 
forms, some in the other. I have space but for a single speci- 
men of each. 

The most illustrious example comes to us from One who has 
not inaptly been called the Father of Moral Philosophy, and 
who was the Spiritualist of the age in which he lived. In re- 
gard to Inspiration, Socrates, unless Plato has belied him, 
adopted the spiritual theory. 

Among the celebrated Dialogues of Plato is one in which the 
interlocutors are Socrates and Ion, an Athenian declaimer or 
rhapsodist who had been in the habit, in his public harangues, 
of introducing copious and beautiful illustrations of Homer. 
Alluding to the great success these had obtained, and to the 
fact tliat, when ho attempted to ilhistrate other po^ts, all his 
efforts failed, Ion asks of Socrates an explanation of this dis- 
tinction. Socrates replies : 

" I will tell you, O Ion, what appears to me to be the cause 
of this inequality of power. It is that you ai*e not master of 
any art for the illustration of Homer ; but it is a Divine influ- 
ence wliich moves you, like that which resides in tlie stone 
called magnet by Euripides." * 

Socrates, then, in further explanation, adds : *' The authors 
of these great poems which we admire do not attain to excel- 
lence through the rules of art, but they utter their beautiful 
melodies of verse in a state of inspiration and, as it were, pos- 
sessed by a Spirit not their own." 

Then he inquires of Ion : ^* Tell me, and do not conceal 

written in a state of clairvoyance, or as he phrases it, in ^^ the saperior 
condition.^' The distinction between olearsight and medinmship is im- 

* It is noteworthy that, twenty-two centoriea since, a phUoaophei 
detected the connection between magnetism (though only in its terres- 
trial phase) and that state of mind which frequently gives birth to in- 
spiration. How mnch Beicihenbaoh*s experiments woold have inter- 
0gted Bocrateat 


what I ask. Wbon you declaim well and strike jour audience 
with admiration; whether you sing of Ulysses rushing upon 
the threshold of his palace, discovering himself to the suitors 
and pouring his shafts out at his feet; or of Achilles assailing 
Hector ; or those aifecting passages- concerning Andromache, or 
Hecuba, or Priam — are you then self-possessed? or, rather, 
are you not rapt and filled with such enthusiasm by the deeds 
jou recite, that you fancy yourself in Ithaca or Troy, or where- 
over else the poem transports you ? '' 

Ion. *^ You speak most truly, Socrates." 

The sage then gives his explanation. *' You, O Ion, are in- 
fluenced by Homer. If you recite the works of any other poet, 
JOU get drowsy and are at a loss what to say ; but when you 
hear any of the compositions of that ]x>et, your thoughts are 
excited and you grow eloquent. . . . This explains the 
question you asked wherefore Homer and no other poet inspires 
you with eloquence : it is that you are thus excellent not by 
science but through Divine inspiration.'^ * 

The expression (ascribed, as above, by Plato to Socrates), 
**you are influenced by Homer," is very remarkable: it em- 
bodies the cardinal doctrine of Spiritualism. 

The philosopher had the best of all reasons for adopting this 
Tiew of the case ; namely, his own personal experience. This 
ieads me to speak of 

* '^Ji^a,** or of Inffp^'ration. I have here followed ^e translatioD 
adopted by O. II Lewis in his *' History of Philosophy/* series i. The 
above extnete and many others in corroboration, may there be found. 
The aathenticity of this dialogue, as written by Plato, is admittod on 
all handk It contains, of course, only a narration of Socrates* opinions, 
not aa indoxsament of them by the narrator. Tet they seem to have 
been substantially shared by Socrates* illustrious pupil An enlight- 
ened church historian sajs: *'Plat(/a speculations rested on a basis 
altogether hiatocioal. Ho oonneoted himaelf with the actual phenomena 
of religious life and with the traditions lying before him. ... It 
slQl osatinued to be the aim of original Platonism to trace throughout 
bisloiy the Tsstiges of a connection between the visible and invisihle 
worida**— Nkaxdeb : Ckurek Biitary ^Bohn's lA.^^^^ \. ^.Id^ 


The Genius, or Demon, op Socrates.* 

For particulars touching the noted Guardian Spirit or Demon 
{Daimonion) of Socrates, we are indebted to the same eminent 
authority through which most of the opinions spoken but not 
set down by the martyr-philosopher himself, have reached us. 

Though alluded to elsewhere in Plato's writings,! the most 
direct and reliable account of this spirit-voice and its warnings 
is to be foimd in the " Apology," written immediately after the 
death of Socrates. In this paper, the only strictly authentic 
record we possess of that philosopher's defence before his judges, 
Plato, who was present at his trial, may surely be trusted as 
having reproduced, with fidelity, the statements made, and the 
arguments employed, on that memorable occasion, by the mas- 
ter ho loved. 

Among the charges preferred against Socrates had been set 
out his pretence of communicating with a familiar spirit. In 
connection with this, and alluding to the &ct that he had 
taught in private, not delivered orations in popular assemblies, 
Socrates said to his judges : 

'^The cause of this is what you have often and in many 
places heard me mention : because I am moved by a certain 
divine and spiritual influence, which also Melitus, through 
mockery, has set out in the indictment. This began with me 
from childhood : being a kind of voice which, when present, is 
wont to divei*t me from what I am about to do, but which 

* It need hardly be stated that Demon is here employed, as usual hi 
Ozeoian mythology, in the sense of a divinity below the gxeat godi. 
Thus in Ck>oke'8 Hesiod : 

** Holy demoDB, by great Jove designed 
To be on earth the guardians of mankind." 

t As in the Fint AMdades, % 1. Also, at length, in the TkMffei^ 
0, 11. 

To the same subject Xenophon alludes in his Memoirs qf SoatoUi^ 
Book I, § 1 : where he says that those who neglected the wiznings oi 
Bootutes' OeniuB '' hod no small cause tot i«<9eii\MD&A.'* 


Di&rer urges me on. This it was which opposed my meddling 
in public politics," ♦ 

Another allusion to tho same subject, more solemn, pro- 
nounced in the immediate prospect of death after a majority 
of his judges had passed sentence upon him, is as follows : 

*^ To mo, O my judges, a strange thing has happened. For 
the wonted prophetic voice of ihy guardian deity, on every 
former occasion even in the most triOing afiuirs, opposed me if 
I was about to do anything wrong. But now, when that has 
befallen me which ye yourselves behold — a thing which is sup- 
posed to be tlie extremity of evil — neither did the warning of 
the Qod oppose me when I departed from home this morning, 
nor yet while I addressed you, though it has often restrained 
mo in the midst of speaking. What do I suppose to be the 
cause of this? . . . That which has befallen mo is not 
the effect of chance: but this is clear to me tliat now to 
die and bo freed from mv cares is bettor for me. On this ao 
count the warning in no way turned me asidc.^' f 

The sincerity of tho philosopher when he said this cannot 
rationally be doubted, lie must bo a stubborn or a thoughtless 
sceptic who assumes the ground that a man like Socrates, about 
to die because he would not purcliase life by desisting from 
teaching what he felt to bo good and just, would, at such a 
moment, swerve a hairbreadth from the strict truth. | 

According to wluit rational canon of evidence can we reject 
such testimony as this ? The most candid among modem his- 

• Apotoff^, S 19. 

t Apology, %% 31, 83. See also, as to that matter, PLUTABcn, De 
Oenio SocraUi^ c. 20 ; and Apcleius, D^ Deo Socratii. 

X Seldom in any ago, bj sago or martjr, has nobler sontiment been 
uttsrod than by Soorstes on his trial, in replj to the chaz]^ o/ impiotj : 
^^If it is joor wish to aaiuit mo on condition that I Lenoufortb be 
nlent. I replj that I lovo and honor you, bat that I ought rather to 
obcj the ^odM thaa yuu. Neither in the presence of judges nor uf tho 
eikmiy is it iMrmlttcd me, or any other man, to oso cveiy sort of moaot 
to esoRpo death. It is not death bat cdoM that it behooves us to avoii 
mores IMsr than dsslh.** 


torians of philosophy admit that the proof is conclusive.* 
Lewis, who will certainly not be accused of superstition or 
credulity, alluding, in his History of Philosophy, to Socrates' 
belief that he was warned, from time to time, by a Divine 
7oice, says: "This is his own explicit statement; and sui-ely, in 
a Christian country, abounding in examples of persons believing 
in direct intimations from abbve, there can be little difficulty in 
crediting such a statement." f 

To what extent Socrates owed his views ou immortality and 
a future life to his Guardian Spirit we can never know ; nor is 
it likely that he himself could have determined. He seems to 
have regarded that influence as one sent to warn rather than to 
teach. Yet it would be strange if, twenty-three centuries ago, 
he had groped his way, unaided, to truths which we scarcely 
recognize to-day. Take, in addition to the foregoing, the fol- 
lowing example : 

" When does the soul attain to the truth ? For when it at- 
tempts to investigate anything along with the body, it is plain 
that it is then led astray by it. . . . The soul reasons most 
effectually when none of the corporeal senses harass it; neither 
hearing, sight, pain or pleasure of any kind ; but it retires as 
much as possible within itself, and aims at the knowledge of 
what is real, taking leave of the body and, as far as it can, ab- 
staining from any union or participation with it." ^ 

* As Stanley, in his History of PkUoaopIty, London, 18j:»6. He there 
■ays : '^ We have the testimony of Plato and Xenophon, contemponixy 
with him, confirmed by Plutarch, Cicero, and other reliable anthorities, 
to say nothing of Tertullian, Origen, and others of the Ancient Fathers, 
tliat Socrates had an attendant Spirit, which warned him of danger and 
misfoitone.*' — Chap. vL p. 19. 

f G. H. Lewis : BiograpidGoA SSstory of PhUo&ophy^ London 2d Ed., 
1857, p. 141. 

X Phado^ § 10. I have followed Stanford's translation. 

It is worth noting, however, that Socrates (if he be corxecUj reported), 

fdllowing oat thia idea, strayed, as many noble sools have strayed, into 

ihe haaen, x^ons of asceticism and abstraction; forbidding use, lest 

mbaae should /oilow. He sooght wiadom thxwi^ delivexanoe " froni 


Here ^e have the germ of the apncumatic or psychical view 
of Inspiration. Cicero, in a later age, enlarged on this. The 
following remarkable passage, literally translated, is fi-om his 
^Tusculan Questions.'' 

** What else do we do, when from pleasure, that is from the 
body, when from common affairs which minister to the body, 
when from public duties, when from all business whatever, wo 
call off the soul — what, I say, is it that we then do, other than 
to recall the soul to itself and to self-communion, and to lead 
it in a great degree away from the body ? But to segregate the 
soul from the body, can it bo anything else than a learning how 
to die? (nee quidquam aliud est quam emori discere ?) Where- 
fore, believe me, we should lay this to heart, and disjoin our- 
selves from our bodies ; that is, wo should accustom ourselves 
to die (disjungamusque nos a cor|>oribus ; id est, cousucscamus 
mori). And thus, while we remain on earth, it will be as if 
wo approached celestial life ; and when at last wo are reU^ased 
from earthly bonds, tlie exit of the soul will thereby be less re- 
tarded." ♦ 

The " acciuitoming ourselves to die '' is somewhat fanciful ; 
yet the expression is, in a measure, borne out by some of the 
phenomena of Vital Magnetism. When artificial somnambu- 
lism deepens into wliat French magnetizers call fxtate — tliat is, 
profound trance — the bands which connect soul and body seem 
to be greatly loosened ; a strong desire sometimes shows its«-lf 
in the subject to escape from earth to a brighUT world ; and if, 
through inex|ierience or inadvertence of the ojwrator, tliih deep 

the Irratioiudity of the body;*' thoogfat we shoold '* study to lire as 
thougli on the rcxy confines of death ; " and adyiacs *^ to use rcflootion 
alone and nnailoTGd, ondeaToring to investigate trvrj reality liy itaclf 
and unmixed, aAttainin(/ as much as possible frwn the use of the ejffs^ 
and in a word of every part of the body, as confounding the soul and, 
when united with It, pfeventing its attaiiunont to wisdom and truth.** — 
Fhada, i% 10, 11, 13. 

He did nd icoogmsa the esasntiil value and usaa of earth-life, noi 
the JaipoitMioe of laanhfagi throagh the 

• fkmtd. OiMMt,Ubi L 881. 


trance is too much prolonged, death may actually ensue. I 
was toldy in Paris, that several such cases had occurred ; but 
the names of the parties, as may be supposed, were kept secret. 
An instance in which a somnambule * had & narrow escape is 
related by a French magnetizer, author of a curious work on 
the " Secrets of the Future Life." He had two lucid somnam- 
bules; one a youth named Bruno, the other, Ad^le, a woman 
in humble circumstances ('^ simple ouvridre comme moi," he says 
of her), not a professional medium nor ever taking money for tho 
exercise of her gift, but who had been, from infancy, a natural 

One day he had magnetized both simultaneously, desiring to 
compare their impressions and to satisfy his doubts whether there 
was danger in carrying the state of extase too far. He brought 
Bruno into magnetic relation with Ad^le, telling him to observe 
what became of her. While occupied during some time with the 
young man, he (Bruno) suddenly cried out: "I've lost sight of 
her ; awake her ; there's but just time." Alarmed, the magnet- 
izer turned his attention to Addle whom, for a quarter of an 
hour, he had left to herself. I translate the rest from his own 
words : " In that short time her body had become almost icy 
cold ; I could detect neither pulse nor respiration ; her face was 
of a yellowish green, the lips blue, the heart gave no sign of 
life. A mirror which I approached to her lips remained un- 
dimmcd. I magnetized her with my utmost force, hoping to 
revive her ; but, during five minutes, without any effect what- 
ever. Bruno and several persons who were assisting at the 
sitting added, by their terror, to my discomfitui*e ; and, for a 
moment, I thoiight all was over and that the soul, in very deed, 
bad left its body. I begged all present to pass into the next 
room, so as to recover my energy ; but, though hope still lin- 
gered, I felt powerless. Throwing myself on my knees, I im- 

* I adopt, from the French, the term wmnarnbvUe^ to dorignate a 
patient under the inflaence of artifidally-indaced somnambaliam ; re- 
abddang the meaning of the more usoal word ATiT^nam&tiM to a natani 


plorad Qod not to suffer that soul, a victim of my doubts, tc 
paM away. After a brief period of anguish, I heard the low 
words : " Why did you recall mo ? It was all but done, when 
God, touched by your prayer, sent me back." * 

The author adds : ^' I entreat those who might be tempted to 
risk a similar experiment to desist. A more terrible spectacle 
cannot be witnessed ; and the issue, in their case, might be less 
fortunate than in mine." 

On a previous occasion, Adele being in the state of evtoM, 
there had appeared to her, and conversed with her (as she be- 
lieved), her mother and two deceased brothers. The following 
conversation between her and her magnetizer then ensued : 

** Ah, how I should like to be with them ! Let me go ; I 
■hall soon be in Heaven." 

*^ Very generous of you ! And what shall I do with your 

** Have it buried, or disposed of as you please." 

** And the officers of justice, what am I to say to them ? " 

« Tell them, I'm gone." \ 

That there is, during magnetic sleep, a modification of the 
normal relations between soul and body, is further atUisted by 
the insensibility to outward sounds and to pain, even the most 
acute, which sometimes su|>orveucs. ^ One caunot read the 

* CAnAGSTBT : Areane» dela VU Future (UtoQes^ Paris, 1848 ; vol. i. 
pp. 117, 1 18. This work went to press in December, 1847, some months 
before even the name of ''Rochester Knockings** had been heard 
among us. Yet Oahacrnet registera fall details of commnnicatians made 
to his aomuunbales by eighty different spirits of the departed ; and the 
identity of serexal among these he considerB positiyclj prored. 

f Work qaoted : toI. I pp. 90, 91. 

X As eailj as the year 1846, there was performed at Cherboozg (the 
weU-known French port in the I>epartment de la Blanche), a sorgioai 
operation of the most painful character, affording proof that the phe- 
nomena abore olladcd to arc reaL The official record of this operation, 
a%ned by fifty -two witnesses present, was pablishod in the Jourtkol iU 
Cherbourg^ and in the Phart di la MaticJu of September 85, 1846. 
Tkk p/vob-Mrbal was drawn np fkom notes takm on the «QC* ^ *' 


best works on Magnetism without coming upon strtmg 
for the belief that, in the profound magnetic trance, there is a 
certain recession of tlie soul from its earthly minister and an 
approach to that stage of existence, soon to come, when what 
St. Paul calls the " natural body " will be wholly discarded. 

Another phenomenon is now proved beyond reasonable de- 
nial ; namely, that, during this partial segregation of the soul 
from physical impressions and worldly concerns, its hatiye 
powers, less subjected, it would seem, to the earth-clog that 
habitually weighs upon them, exhibit clearer peroeptions and 
higher knowledge. This occurs when, as Socrates expressed 
it, the soul ^^ retires within itself," or, as Cicero phrases it^ 
when we ^^ recall the soul to itself, and to self-communion ; " 
whether this be done artificially (as by magnetic passes), or 
whether it happen in a more normal condition of the body, by 
natural idiosyncrasy. 

The most modest and cautious of writers on Vital Magnet- 
ism, Dr. Bertrand,'*' has well defined this state, when artifi" 
cially superinduced : " The sonmambule," he says, " acquires 
new perceptions furnished by interior organs ; and the succes- 
sion of these perceptions constitutes a new life, differing from 
that which we habitually enjoy : in that new life come to light 
phases of knowledge differing from those which our ordinary 
sensations convey to us." f 

I myself have, on many occasions, verified this phenomenon 
of what may bo called double-consciousness, J attended by exal- 

Shevrel, advocate and member of the Municipal Council of Oherbonig ; 
and to ita scrupulouB oocuraoy the signatures of the witnesses testify. 

I should here give this proo^-verbai but for its length, and for the 
fact that enlightened physicians no longer deny the reality of this phe- 

* Member of the Faculty of Medicine of Paris, and formerly a pupil 
of the Polytechnic School. 

f BEBTHAin) : '' Trait6 du Somnambulisme," Paris, 1823 ; pp. 469, 

X An interesting case of natttral double-consdousneas, continaed 
throaghout fifteen years, is related by the Bev. Dr. Plnmer, in Haxpeni 
MmtbJj fot May, 1860, page 807. It is logs^i^^. 


l»tk>ii of intelligenoe in the abnormal state. But others can 
■peak, as to this, from a much wider range of experience than 
{^ A physician with whom I am intimately acquainted— one 
among the best known and most successful in New York — and 
his wife, having, before the advent of Spiritualism, taken a 
deep interest in magnetic phenomena, experimented for about 
two years with an American sempstress, moderately educated, 
with rather more than the average mental capacity of her class. 
He told me that Marian awake and Marian in magnetic sleep 
were two persons as far apart by perceptions, intelligenoe, juc^ 
ment, as could well be imagined. One day when we were talk- 
ing of magnetism and its effects, he told me that the girl had 
made commentaries upon medical and philosophical subjects, 
evincing great profundity and acuteness. On many other sub- 
jects she was equally clearsighted.'*' 

Wliile adverting, in connection with the subject of inspira- 
tion, to such phenomena as the above, occurring under the op- 
eration of a special agency, I bear in mind that the world has 

* Bat here is a sapplcment to such experience. Pr. Bertimnd, speak- 
ing of ■omnamboles whose power of dear-sight in detecting daeau had 
been latlAfactorily verified, relates the following oonvemtion which ha 
had with one of them : 

** Do you see your heart and the blood flowing from itf '* 

** Can you pexoeive that it is divided into two cavities f ** 

** Tes, I see one on the right and one on the left.*' 

** Then tell me, is the blood of the tame color on both sides ?** 

*' Tes,** she answered in a decided tone, ^* and to prove to you that it 

is, yon may bleed mo hero or here (tonching first her right arm then her 

left), and yon will find the same blood." 

** This reply/* says Bertrand, ** plainly showed that this womsa im- 

Sffined there were two cavities in the heart, from one of which flowed 

the blood to supply the right side of the body and from the other to 

supply the left**— Traits du SomnamMi$mf^ p. 78. 
In all snch cases there is the chance of whal magnetisers call ** ha- 

perfeet hiddity.** It win not do, as Soemtes rsoommended, to alataln 

from Ifaa use of our eyes. 


recognized them, in this special form, for less than a oentor^.^ 
But the analogy between these and the various phases of intel- 
lectual and psychical exaltation, religious ecstasy, involuntai^r 
hypnotism, spontaneous trauge, is so close that one cannot rea- 
sonably deny the connection of one with the other. Most oi 
the spiritual gifts enumerated by Paul come to light, in persons 
of sensitive temperament, during magnetic sleep, and showed 
themselves during such strange, epidemical excitements as 
produced the alleged possession of the XJrsuline Nuns of Lou- 
dun f (1632 to 1639), and brought out pseudo-miracles among 

* SomnambnliBin, in the form now known to magnetizen, was ob- 
served for the first time, by the Marquis de Paysdgor, on his estate of 
Bozancy, near Soissons, on the fourth of Maroh, 1784. 

f Hutaire des Diables de Laudun^ ou de la Possession des BeUgieuses 
UrsuUneSy Amsterdam, 1670. At page 235 of this work is a corioxis 
document ; namely, the certificate of Monsieur (Gaston, brother of 
Louis Xin. , then King of France), who visited Loudon in May, 1635, to 
inquire into the character of the aUeged possession. He certifies that 
he had perfect proof of its reality ; namely, that the possessed nxms 
obeyed his mental orders ; in other words, read unexpressed thoughts. 
He says : ^^ Ayont desir6 d*avoir un signe parfait de hi veritable posses- 
sion de ces lilies, avons concerts secrettement et h, voix basse aveo le 
Pore Traiiquille Capucin, de commander au Demon SabuUniy qui poss^- 
doit actuellemcnt la Sceur Claire, qu'il allat baiser la main droite du 
P5re Elizce, son exorciste ; ledit Demon [meaning, of course, the nun 
herself J y a i)onctucllement ob6i, selon notre desir ; ce qui nous a fait 
croire ccrtainement que ce que les religieux travaillans aux ezorcismes 
de8dit<i8 filles nous ont dit de leur possession est v6ritable.** 

But this phenomenon of thought-reading is familiar to magnetizerB. 
I myself instituted, in the years 1856 and 1857, a series of oarefol ex- 
periments to verify it, keeping strict minutes. By reference to these I 
find that I propounded 216 questions and obtained about mnety-three 
per cent of pertinent answers, through a medium (not professional) and 
of but moderate powers. Many of the answers extended to several 
lines ; and, apart from their strict relevancy, were beyond the mental 
capacity of the medium. The following may be taken as an average 
example ; both questions being asked mentally : 

Q. ^^ Can you tell me whether spirits have the power of prcphacgr f ** 
A. '' To some extent." 


&» Ptopliets (Trembleurs) of the Oevennes* (1686 to 1707). 
The mantic fury of the Pythoness was evidently of magnetic 
character. Numa, in the Arician grove ; Mahomet, in the cave 
of Hira ; may have boon unoonsvciously under spiritual or som- 
nambulic influence. Peter's vision, when he saw Heaven opened 
and a certain vessel descending; PauFs trance, ** whether in 
the body or out of the body ^^ he could not tell ; bear, unmistak- 
ably, more or less resemblance to many hundred cases of extoM 
that have appeared in Paris, in London, and elsewhere, during 
the present century. All such manifestations belong to one 
great class of phenomena. 

The simplest and most usual form of Inspiration is what is 
usually called the inspiration of genius ; its results appearing 
in eminent literary efforts, in masterpieces of art, possibly 
in some of our most wonderful scientific discoveries and me- 
chanical inventions, more evidently in the highest order of 
musical composition. All this is sometimes ascribed to native 
oiganixation duly cultivated, f But aside from the' confessedly 

g. "Wbatawthelimitfl?'' 

A. ** PerceivLDgf more than men, one element of prophcUo power is 
greater.**— Extracted from sitting of April 11, 1857. 

A conciiM) and |>crtincnt reply, not so much to the words, as to the 
sense of my mental qiiciition. But I did not for a moment imagine, as 
Prince Gaston did, that the Devil had anything to do with it. It par- 
ported to come from a dear, deceased friend. 

For farther references on the subject of the Unnlino Xans of Londan, 
•ce note on page 103 of FootfalU on the Boundary of Another WoHd. 

* Sometimes called Camimrd$ or Cafnimn. They were French 
Protestants who took amui to resist pcrMcation under the revocation of 
the Edict of Nantes. —See IlUtoire des Camimrdt^ by VL de Court de 
O^bcUn, 1760. AUo Clnru Prophetiea^ or a key to the prophecies of 
Honsiear Marion and the other Camisars, London, 1707: Koisreaitx 
Mrmoires pour tertir d VUiitoire da Camuar$^ London, 1706 ; Emmin 
du Thititre Saeri des Cetennet, For other references see Footfa^9^ 
note on page 103. 

f See, on this subject, Mr. Galton's interesting woric on Ueredi- 
iturp Oenius. I do not assert that in th j department of what aro called 
Iha azaot sdenoes — as, fdr example, In the researehes of Galileo and iv 
llMn, stiU more inestimable, of Ntwton— w% m\QridAK^\Bk 


powerful influenoo of a large and well-formed brain — the beat 
of patrimonies — genius may owe its triumphs to agencies that 
are invisible, like attraction, except in their effects. 

Great poets from the earliest times have had a dim feeling 
that they were aided from above, and were wont to invoke the 
assistance of unseen Powers — may we not say (as Socrates 
said), with reason? When a poem by a Greek schoolmaster, 
dating from the far past, still invites translation by our ablest 
scholars, calling forth the same admiration to-day with which 
it was greeted almost three thousand years ago ; when a few 
dramas by a comparatively illiterate man* are found, afi»r 
three centuries have elapsed, to have furnished, to the Saxon 
tongue, one fourth of its household words ; f does it not suggest 
the probability of aid from a higher sphere of being? The 
wondrous character of these results, bewildering the world, 
has provoked sceptical speculations touching their authors ; as 
if the effect were out of proportion to its reputed cause. Pro- 
fessor Wolf of Berlin, J in a celebrated work, denies to Homer 

that spiritoal aid was graated. Even if we do not sabaoribe to the 
poet^s lines, 

** Nature and Natore^s laws lay hid in night, 
€k)d said * Let Newton be I ' and all was light'* — 

we cannot bat admit that the scientific clearsight of England's greatest 
physicist was almost beyond parallel Still it was of mathematical 
character — strictly material, not spiritaal — and may have been bat 
hereditary aptitude, appearing in eminent degree. 

* ^* It is a strong argument in favor of Shakspeare*s iUiteratore, that 
it was maintained by all his contemporaries, many of whom have be- 
stowed every other merit upon him, and by his suocessoze who lived 
nearest to his time : and that it has been denied only by Gildon, Sewell, 
and others down to Upton, who could have no means of asoertaining 
the truth." — Life of Sfuikapeare prefixed to Chalmers' edition of his 
Plays, 8 vols., London, 1823, p. 14. 

f In Barti.btt'8 Familiar Quotations (American edition, 1887), oat 
of 301 pages of noted passages from various English aathon, 94 pag«« 
are devoted to Shakspeare alone. 

% Frederick Augustas Wolf, one of the f oondezs, and afterwaid one 
ai the AtxfeasoxB, of the Univexsity of BerlizL The work aUiiided to 


the authorship of the Iliad and Odyssey, even castixig donbts on 
his existence, and taking the ground that these immortal poema 
were tlic joint production of many successive rhymers and rhap- 
lodists. So, too, in the case of Shokspeare, a cultivated and 
most industrious writer spent her life, and may be said to have 
lout it, in collecting and giving to the public what she believed 
to bo proof that the pupil of the Stratford free-school was, in 
no sense, entitled to the authorship of the plays that have en- 
dianted the world under his name. '*' 

So, again, in regard to the most celebrated among painters : 
his contemporaries regarded him, and his biographers speak of 
him, though he died at the early age of thirty-seven, with a 
sort of reverence, as of a divinely-iuApired personage. Vasari 
commences his life thus : ^< The largo and liberal hand with 
which Heaven is sometimes pleased to accumulate the infinite 
ridies of iU treasures on one solo favorite ... is exem- 
plified in the iuHtance of Raphael Sanzio.^' Again he says that 
such as Raphael *^ are scarcely to be called simple men ; they 
are rather, if it be permitted so to 8]ieak, entitled to the appel- 
lation of mortal gcxls.'^ And, further on, ho speaks of this 
painter as one of those '^ who by some special gift of nature or 
by the particular favor accorded to them by tlio Almighty, are 
pei-forming miracles in the art.^^ f 

We have, so far as I know, no record of RaphaePs domestic 
life, nor any collection of his familiar letters. Those might 

ab<y?«. Prolegomena ad Homemm (HaUc, 17d5), created mnoh exdte- 
ment in the litentfy woild and caUcd forth many replies. 

• 7%4 PhOo^ph^ of the Pia^ ofSMoipMre UnfMed, by Dblia Ba- 
00?i : Boston. 1857. 

Th3 tt)ry of this iatellestual, untiring, and eooentric writer is one 
of the Middest episodes in the history of literary enterprise. Her pe- 
cnliarities and her fate — insanity supervening as the result of ntter dis- 
appointment—are reconled in Hawtiior!YK*s Our OUi Home; chapter 
sntttled RKoUtctionM of a Gifted Wo'/^m. 

t Vasabi : Lk€$of the Pdinten (Foster*s Translation, Landon, 1851)| 
^. til. pp. 1, 3, W. 


have disclosed Ids own consciousness of the Inspiration that 
marks the artistic temperament. 

We Jmvc dii-ect evidence of this kind, however, in the case* of 
two of the world's most renowned musicians. 

Beethoven, speaking of the source whence came to him the 
spirit of his wonderful masterpieces, said to " Bettina " : 
" From the focus of inspiration I feel compelled to let the mel- 
ody stream forth on all sides. I follow it — passionately over- 
take it again ; I see it escape me, vanish amid the crowd of 
varied excitements — soon I seize it up again with renewed 
passion ; I cannot part from it — with quick rapture I multiply 
it in every form of modulation — and at the last moment I 
triumph over the first musical thought — see now! that^s a 
symphony." * 

Even more striking is the following, from a letter written by 
Mozart to an intimate friend : '^ You say you should like to 
know my way of composing, and what method I follow in writ- 
ing works of some extent. I can really say no more on this 
subject than the following ; for I myself know no more about 
it and cannot account for it. When I am, as it were, com- 
pletely myself, entirely alone and of good cheer — say travelling 
in a carriage, or walking after a good meal, or during the night 
when I cannot sleep ; it is on such occasions that my ideas 
flow best and most abundantly. Whence and how they come 
I know not ; nor can I force them. Those ideas which please 
me I retain in memory, and am accustomed, as I have been 
told, to hum them to myself. If I continue in this way, it 
Boon occurs to me how I may turn this or that morsel to ac- 
count, so as to make a good dish of it ; that is to say, agreeably 
to the rules of counterpoint, to the peculiarities of the various 
Instruments, and so on. All this fires my soul, and, provided 
T am not disturbed, my subject enlarges itself, becomes 
*Hiized and defined ; and the whole, though it be long, 
almost complete and finished in my mind, so that I con 

^ 0O2&TIIE : BriefiMchsd mit einem SMe. 


waxvtj it, like a fine picture or a beautiftil statue, at a glance 
Nor do I hear, in imagination, tho parts sncccssivelj ; bat 1 
hear them, as it were, all at once (gleicb alles zusammen). 
What a delight this is I cannot tell ! All this inventing, this 
producing, takes place in a pleasing, lively dream. Still the 
actual hearing of the entire whole is after all the best. What 
has been thus produced I do not easily forget. And this 
18 perhaps the best gift I have my Divine Maker to thank 

These hints and suggestions are necessarily bald and imper^ 
feet : necessarily, because the civilized world has but recently 
begun to study Inspiration, as a universal agency, in its con- 
nection either with tho trance-faculty, or with the Spiritual 
hypothesis; and because, on that account, experience along 
either of these lines of research, is only beginning to accumu- 
late. It has not yet become a common belief that one of the 
sources of man^s noblest achievements, literary, artistic, spirit- 
ual, is in an ultramundane sphere. We puzzle over tho anom- 
alies of human character — its extremes of good and evil — ^re- 

** How poor, how rich ; how abjeotf how august ; 
How complicate, how woDderful is man I ** 

But we do not work out one of the explanations. We have 
not practically realized how much tho souFs bondage to the 
body tends to dull its perceptions and check its best aspirings : 
nor how it aspires more freely and discerns more clearly, when 
the severity of that bondage is relaxed. Nor have we practi- 
cally realized how much man may learn and may improve in 
wisdom and in goodness, by being occasionally admitted to 
communion with a higher phase of being ; nor how grievous a 
loser he may be, if debarred from such communion. We do 
not practically believe what Clirist has told us of a Spirit of 

* Holmes: Life of MmolH^ wdudimg ki§ Camtpanienfi$ ; LondoiK 
1815 : pp. 817, 8ia 


Truth, to come after him, who should ^^ guide tus into all 

Our researches in this matter have hitherto heen prosecuted 
in far, misty clouds ; not on the fiedr earth, illuminated from 
on high. 

I think one reason for this is that the marvellous light whioh 
dawned upon the world eighteen hundred years ago has dazzled 
and blinded, even while it has informed and improved man- 
kind. It was a spiritual phenomenon alike without example 
throughout all histoiy and (to our remote ancestors) without 
apparent solution short of the miraculous: without example 
not solely, nor perhaps chiefly, on account of the wonderful 
works doue by Christ ; for the Jews, in their history, and even 
the Romans and Greeks in their mythology, could find more 
or less of precedent for many of these ; but because the light of 
Christianity, alike in its moral and spiritual aspect and in its 
effects, is without parallel in man's previous experience. Not 
thus appearing, at first, except to a small band of followers ; 
but gradually, as it rose upon the mind and soul of the world, 
has that light shone as might a sun, rising for the first time 
upon an earth of wliich the inhabitants, till then, had lived and 
labored under starlight. 

Is such a simile to be rejected because it admits what seems 
at variance with all we see of the course of nature ? Let us 
not hastily decide that there is such variance : Nature's action 
is multiform. 

While God's works around us bear evidence that the princi- 
ple of gradual progression pervades the entire economy of the 
universe, and that natural laws are invariable and persiBtent, 
still, under that economy and governed by these laws, there 
occur, at certain epochs, vast steps in human progress : even 
as, from time to time, political revolutions supervene which, 
while changing the wonted action of long-standing government, 
lometimes bring about in years an advance which ages had 
kiled to effect. 

JSisiorjr containa nothing more iatecoBdn^than theraootd 


of these gigantic stops; each, apparently, withont precedent* 
each brooking in on the monotonous ])aco of the world. In 
oosnucal history what incident stands by the side of the single 
discorery of Columbus, giving to the ancient world another 
half of our globe, about which to sfMrulate, in which to live ? 
The annals of literature record no victory to match, in practicel 
result, the triumph of Faust, if to tlio goldsmith of Mentz be 
due the art of printing ; that art which enables one man to 
converse with all his race. Even the world of Invention, where 
labor toils, has had its Titanic opooh, oocumng little more than 
a century since ; that o]>och at which steam began to take the 
place of bone and sinew; at which the distafl* and spinning- 
wheel, humble aids to human workers throughout thi'ee thou- 
sand years, were at last superseded by a Briarean system of 
manufacture that has nniltiplied five-hundred fold the produc- 
tive labor*power of mankind.* 

In the individual life of man, strictly progreraive though it 
be, we find a still more remarkable phenomenon connected with 
an unpreoodonted advance. Infant, child, adult, patriarch — 
the boundaries which mark each succt^Hsive stato are impercc^[>* 
tible; but then eomcs the groat e|KK*h : the |K>int of pi'ogri*sa 
when our ]M>werK, |H.TiM>ptivc, intellectual, spiritual, are sud- 
denly increased we know not how much ; when our means of 
communicating with our fellows are freed fit>m bounds alike of 
time and space ; when, like Columbus, we are borne into a new 

Soy again, in regard to the succession of animal life on earth, 
reaching back into prehistoric time. Geology informs us that 
there was a period of untold duration when this world, ocon- 
pied by the lower races, was nninhabited by man. An eminent 
modem naturalist, f exploring that period and investigating 
the principle of vital progress, has brought prominently for- 

* See preceding page 45. 

t COARLEs Darwin, A.M., F.R.S. On tAe Origin cf Spedm hg 

OnrigieforlAff: Loodoo, ld59. 

262 dabwin's tiieokt. 

ward K great, general law goveming gradual improTement of 
species by means of natural selection and the preservation of 
the best out of each — both animal and vegetable — ^in the struggle 
for existence. But he has adduced no facts attesting change of 
one species to another ; nor disclosed to us any link connect- 
ing brute and man.'*' There remains, therefore, intact, the 

* It has boon sarmisod that intermediate forms between the higher 
qaadramona and the lowest variety of cave-dwelling humanity may 
some day bo found ; perhaps in lai^ nnoxplored portions of interior 
Asia or Africa ; but this is mere surmise, unsontained, as yet, by dis- 

The advocates of the Development theory admit the extreme difficnl- 
ties which stand in the way of assigning to man predecossoia from a 
lower race. *^ Admitting/^ says one of them, ^^ man^s structozal modi- 
fications from the species that stand next under him, there still remains 
the fact that something new has been superadded — the organization 
fitted for higher functional performance, the intellect capable of im- 
provement and progress. On no theory of mere transmission or 
heredity con these be accounted for. The predecessor did not possess 
them and could not bequeath them." — David Page, LL.D. ; F.E.S.E,; 
F.G.S. : Ma7i, W/ierCy Wfienc-e^ and WJiithcr ; Edinburgh, 18«7; pp. 
152, 153. 

Another writer on this subject — one of the earliest suggesters of the 
*^ natural selection*' theory — ^makcs qirfte recently the following ad- 
missions : '' The capacity to form ideal conceptions of space and time, 
of eternity and infinity — the capacity for intense artistio feelings of 
pleasure, in form, color, and composition — and for those abstract no- 
tions of form and number which render geometry and arithmetic pos- 
sible — how were all or any of these faculties first developed when they 
could have been of no possible use to man in his early stages of barbar- 
ism? How could ^^ natural selection,** or survival of the fittest in the 
■fcmggle for existence, at all favor the development of mental x^owers 
. . . which even now, with our comparatively high civilization, are, 
in their farthest developments, in advance of the age, and appear to 
have relation rather to the future of the race than to its actual 
status ? ''—Wallace : Contributioru to Vie Theory of NatunA SdecUorty 
London and New York, 1870 ; pp. 851, 352. 

It is difficult to conceive a state of things in which there moat noi, 
I any event, have been aome year, some month, some day, when thera 
□b^Mf oa emrtb no animal endowed with osipafiity for inteUeolnal 


hypothesu — sorely not an unreasonable one — ^that there in* 
hered, in the law which regulated preadamite life, a condition 
aooording to which a creature endowed with reason and gifted 
with faculties and sentimonts that enable him to conceive and 
desire a Hereafter, did, at a certain point of advancement, sud- 
donl J appear; a creature destined to subjugate earth and attain 
heaven* The vast inductif>n, if one may so express it, failed at 
a certain stage of cosmical d?v(rlopmeut ; and the progressive 
ratio of the |>a8t series was no Irmgor the progressive ratio of 
the succeeding. For, in virtue of a stride suqmssingly groat, 
there assumed place in tlie world a race — the only one* — which 
could transmit the experience of one generation to another, and 
which, after a time, learne<l to perpetuate that experience by 
artificial, enduring signs. Hence, as result of a single, unex- 
ampled step in advance, ethiad, iutelK^ctual, spiritual prog- 

And now, reverting from this digression to tlie subject im- 
mediately before us, we find the same analogy still holding out. 
Tlie historv of Ethics and of Reli'jioii, like that of <'ov!noj»ouv 

Spiritual improvement from gonoration to (irencratioQ ; wad then again, 
•ome next 7<^ar, or next month, or next day, wlicn such an animal — 
that is to say, when a man — came into existence. The qnestion is of 
cttpaeity, how miderelopod soever, however useless to palasosoio man : 
the highest qnadmmane has it not ; and even if in stmctoral formatioa 
he approached mach nearer to man than he does, the posnessioD or non- 
possession of intellectnal and spiritual potm'hiiHifM of detdnjmtent still 
establishes a great gulf, which, if not, nndrr (lOcPs economy, impassa- 
ble is, at least, so far as hnman research has explored, unpassed. 

But even if the Devc lopment theorist should succeed in tracing man 
to an anthropoid ape-ancestry, or to an Ascidian origin, still a vast step 
in advance, however effected, is not the less a reality ; a step which 
seems to have been made at onoe ; at all events, a step without prece- 
dent in faot and without parallel in the immensity of its results. 

* We have no warrant, so fbr as I know, for asserting that the beaver 
of to-<lay exhibits more ingenuity in constructing his dam than did the 
beaver of three thousand years sgo : nor is it in evidenoe that the quad- 
remaiMof our own time is more ialelUgeot than was the aaoM aaanMif 


and Literature, and productive Science, has its epoch, when«» 
dates a ratio of advancement till then unknown. In the 
earthly progress of Spiritualism, as in the succession of races 
and in the pilgrimage of human life, we have to note one emi- 
nent step upward, as from a lower to a higher sphere of b^ 


Unprecedented, unlike any other step : the progress which 
followed it incomparable with the march of any other revolu- 
tion, political or religious. 

The establishing of a kingdom on the world but not of it ; 
called, sometimes the Kingdom of Heaven, yet coming not by 
observation,* — heralded by no earthly pomp, ushered through 
no opening in clouds of heaven — but founded lowly, peacefully, 
silently, in the heart of man. Christ^s kingship is of the hu- 
man souL 

If, to the sceptical, these claims seem overstrained, let them 
look, not to the assertions of theologians, nor ye^ to the uncer- 
tainties and obscurities of remote history, but to acknowledged 
facts, of gi*and outline, familiar to every educated man. 

In what is usually called the civilized world millions will 
say, if asked as to their religion, that they are not Catholics, 
millions more that they are not Protestants; but, excepting 
the five or six million Jews, we shall not find there one man in 
a hundred who, if he has any religion at all, will say he is not 
a Christian. 

If the Spiritual Teachings first heard in Galilee, eighteen 
hundred years ago (aside from alien creeds), be not the religion 
of Civilization, it has no other. What we may justly call the 
most enlightened portion of the world clings to these teachings, 
despite the deadening and retractive influence of alien creeds. 

Is it strange that Christendom, before it began to recognize 
the universal reign of law, should have sought, in miraculotis 
interference, the explanation of such a phenomenon as this ? 
Li it strange even, — considering the presumption to whioih our 

• Luke xvU. «>. 

scefticibm's thbobt. 


liiort-«ight«d race in prone — Umt OrtJiodoxyi kcowiDi; do natu- 
nl solution of eucb &a enigma, Hhould take rafiigo in a ct-ncop- 
liou — OBo acni|ile« aliout [lUiuIy expressing iU protonsiooR ; for 
thAaf not only involvi^ tliii Uirecl iutcrvenlion and suspt-nnon 
of Hia UwB hy the Aluiigbty Crentur and Lawgiver of myriftds 
at •un^yetonw Kad luyriadH un myriads of worlds ; they virtu- 
ally |)r«-«uppOM, «Uo, UtM pretence, in buni&n form, tbrouglj- 
|_«at « geuention of men, on thia amuU planet of oun— all tlis 
«1df indeed, to us, but a mure H|)eck in itumoosity, to Hini. 
y«l if daiina m tnuucHndeul wuro i-ouauiuuil witli tUeir day 
d geuonitiuu, tioiie tlie Inw tlii*y lire now fiimialiiu^ ubundaat i 
food and oocufiutiou to Hwptioiiuii. Tlivre i* inipregnabte | 
j^rtKUMl ; but C'rtLodoxy funudtes it, Htniyiug fortlt into tlio Uni* 
«a_i«^uii of Doguiatiiuu. !)t actika niiraclus tbrough tlio 
n pfrrajwwtive of ei};liUMm ct-nturJwi ; yet llie miracle of raira' 
—if tbe niarvelluuH cuuHlitute (lie miracntous— lies jial^Dl 
Doguijuble by our very s«us«s. 
d baeptieimn'n titi-ory. Here it in: The aou of a Jew- 
ill, living in an olncuro villogo of Galilee, brought 
n Ikia bllutf'it Iiouik, witli tL« tuoat limited upportuiiitic* of J 
nltnic, without sf^om* to tlio literatura uf tiroxie or ilu<w, 
ihoot worldly ttxpericooo lit rr[>lacu lack of learuiug, aad mho 
pwilhont apiritual aid— booomca, at the agu of tliirty, a INiblio 
IVacfaor; cnntinum to Imch duruig thmn yuars— thne only ; 
thno, liManiia of thr latituiln nf his opininnji, milTtTB death. 
His thre^ynar myingx and doing*, which hn hiinMtlf iK>v«r rocn- 
nitted lo writing, arr rocoTdtxl, wUhin half a ccntnry fro«a hia 
death hy bamblr and Mimpamtivrly iinlRttnrd fnllowxra. V«t, 
afler motti than fifty grauTBtiona of nv-o have iiaMod away, then j 
I ia found in that noord — and ta that rrcord alone — a religion I 
L unltivnted men can indorae and civiiiiad notions 
kiraly, ihu miracle of all miracle* I — nay, on SaefiticiBin haa I 
nit it, a moral and intellnrtual impocsibility. 

The Lm|3«MBib>ility inheres in ontt of Scepticism'* pootuloteB. j 

f WitUrat iiiiritual awL" If mch aid bo wenlial 1 1 any U^ j 



and noblo achievement of man, is it conoeivablo that it should 
bo lacking in connection with the highest and noblest of all ? 

But the difficulties attending this main feature in the scep- 
tic's Jiypothesis do not end here. Unless the recording disci* 
pies have utterly belied their Master, it involves a direct charge 
of falsehood against him. For, though habitually calling him- 
self " the Son of Man," * he also suffered himself to be called, 
and claimed to be, the Messiah, the Chbist, ofttimes spoken of 
by the prophets of old, and long expected, as Deliverer, by the 
Jews In other words — let those who doubt my rendering con- 
sult tlie lexicons, Hebrew and Greek — in other words, he 
claimed to be the Anointed of his Father f and our Father ; a 
divinely-commissioned Messenger, Prophet, Spiritual King. 

Shall we accord to him these titles ? There is no sure war- 
rant for so doing to" be drawn from history. But his creden- 
tials are to be found in the Message itself, in the work that 
message has done, and in the recorded life of the Messenger. 

All the great figures of antiquity pale, more or less, under 
the lights of modern civilization, save only that of Christ. Tlie 
thinking world has, in a measure, outlived every phase of re- 
ligious belief except Christianity. That was planted by its Au- 
tli(^r so far beyond the point of progress of the age in w^hich its 
p receipts were first heard, that the current of eighteen centui'ies, 
j)assing by all other systems, has failed to approach this. 
Christ's teachings, proleptic in character, are still in advance 
not of the modern world's i>urest practice only, but almost of 
its aspirations. Can we deny to their Author his own claim 

* The term '* Son of Man," as applied by Christ to himself, occmrs 
Bome eighty times throughout the four gospel narratiYes. 

f Jesus himself, at the very outset of his ministiy, adopts this inter- 
pretation. In the synagogue at Nazareth, after publicly reading the 
words of Isaiah (Ixi. 1), *' The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me, be- 
cause the Lord hath anointed mo to preach good tidings unto the 
meek," — words understood by the Jews of the Messiah — he applied 
thAm to himself : ^^ This day is this Scripture fulfilled in your ears.'* — 
Lukeiv. 18,21, 


lluit on Him, the Chosen One, had been poured the chrism of 

That was the reply of Christ^s most trusted Apostle, interro* 
gated by his blaster. '* * But whom say ye that I am? * Peter 
an swering said : ' The Christ of God.^ ^ * It was the claim put 
forth by the same apostle in the iirst public address which he 
made to tlie Jews after the cmcifixion r for in that he desig* 
noted the Great Teacher whoso disciple ho was, as ** Jesus ot 
Nazareth, a man approved of God by miracles (dunamesin), 
and wonders and signs : " and, again, with slight variation oi 
phrase, when discoursing before Cornelius and his Gentile 
friends in Ca'sarca : there K{)eaking of his Master as '^ Jesus of 
Nazareth whom God anointed with the Holy Ghost and with 
|K)wer, who went about doing good.^^ 

— Doing good His own nature — his cliaracter and his do- 
ings, as exhibited in the gospel biographies — arc almost as mar- 
vellous as the system he gave to the world. They accord nei- 
ther with his i-ountry nor with his time, nor — except as one 
illustrious cxuinplc disclosing to us what Man may be — with 
that human rai*e with which, on a hundred occaiKions, he ex- 
pressly identitiinl hims«>If. It wei-e difHcult, in this wmmnrtion, 
to impn^ve on the words of an Anglican elerg\'iuan, whose (*arly 
death was a misfortune to the Chuivh he adorned: '^Onco in 
the roll of agf*8, out of innumerable failures, from the stoi*k ot 
human natun) one bud dev«*lo|HMl into a faultless flower. One 
perfect 8]>ecimen of humanity has God exhibited on earth. 
. . . As if the life-blood of every nation were in his veins, 
and that which is best and truest in every man, and that which 
is tenderest and gentlest and purest in every woman were in 
his character : he is emphatically the Hon of ^fanJ*^ f 

Not less e]o<|ucnt on this subject is tho author of a well- 
known modern work : *' Tlie story of Christ^s life will always 

• Luke ix. 20. 

t Strm^nu bjf Vte Utr. F. W. Rahfrium^ iDoombnit of Trinity Chapel, 
Brighton; Mmnon xv. ; pp. 365, 806 (of New York Ed., 1870). Tbe 
woid *' man ** is italioiied bj the anthoc. 


remain ihe one record in which the moral perfection of man 
stands revealed in its root and its unity, the hidden spring 
made manifest hy which the whole machine is moved. . • . 
All lesser examples and lives will forever hold a subordinaio 
place, and serve chiefly to reflect light en the central and orig- 
inal Example. In his wounds all human sorrows will hide 
themselves, and aU human self-denials support themselves agaiurt 
his cross." ♦ 

Whence this preeminence ? The germ of the Godlike lies, 
indeed, deep down in our common nature ; hut, ere it fructify, 
there must be divine breathings from a region purer than ours. 
Whether, in this supreme instance of Inspiration, these Holy 
Breathings f assumed an unwonted phase — executed an un- 
wonted office — what mortal shall assume to decide ? 

Yet I think I should do wrong here to withhold the fact that 
I have received on this subject a communication — one only and 
that unsought for — which I believe to have had a spiritual 
source : it is one of the few such messages that have over 
reached me, touching on any disputed point of doctrine. The 
reader has it below, J for what he may deem its allegations 

* Ecce Homo : a Sarvey of tho Life and Work of Jesus Ghrist. 
London, 1860 : pp. 188, 189. This work, published anonymouiily, in 
now known to havo been written by Professor Seblet, filling the chair 
of Modem History in tho University of Cambridge. 

t One scruples to write ** Holy Breath," instead of " Holy Ghost** 
(from gofft^ Anglo-Saxon for breath or spirit) ; yet the terms are strictly 
synonymous. Peter, speaking of Jesus as a man ^' whom Grod anointed 
with tho Holy Ghost and with power," certainly employed the term in 
some such sense. Christ himself, when he spoke of the Holy Ghost as 
the *' Spirit of Truth," which '^ shall not speak of himself, butwhatso- 
erer he shall hear that shall he speak," as certainly did not intend there- 
by to designate one of the Persons of the Godhead. 

X I copy literally from minutes of a sitting held January S6, 180^ 
during which I had bnt this single communication : 

** Chriflt*s birth was by inception, not by conception. Maiy inherited 
pocoliar pibyslool and spiritual oiganization from her auoeston ol 
srMTjr Ime. She was placed in aperieci ttsguo^^luBtVkodii^r Ula warn 


worth. TheM involve neither suspension nor violation of nat- 
nnd law, nor, I think, any improbability so violent that we 
must needs nject it sti-aightwuy. The communication alleges 

pended. The spiritual fructifying principle was reoeived during the 
trance. Christ^s modal body was the result of Mary^s perfect faith, 
ruling the organism — a faith of that transcendent kind which is the 
centre and circumference of all that is to be desired. It is a Utexnl 
truth, and no figure, to say of such faith that it can remove mountains. 
It bears the same relation to the common faith of mankind which the 
crystallized diamond does to the charcoal. 

*' In Mary*8 case, it was the outgrowth of many centuries. It was a 
specific faith ; the blosnoming of that belief, preserved through ogee, 
that a virgin should conceive and bear a son. No other possible oon- 
jnnction could have produced a Christ. Yet there was do snspensioii of 
law. His birth was natural. The same conjunction of circumstances 
recurring, if we could lupiHMe such a esse, a similar birth might happen 

**It was necewary for Christ to stand above the plane of mankind, in 
order to draw men up to him. He was devoid of appetite and passion 
to a degree that no man of human conception could have been. In a 
human and bodily sense, ho was, on that account, a less complete man. 
Tet had it not been for the absence of these appetites and passions, the 
truth could not havo come to uh through him, pure as it did. There 
would havo been obitcurances ond hindrances. Under their inflnence he 
oonld not have preserved his integrity as a Mcssengt^r. He would have 
been drawn sympathetically into the sphere of his day. 

^* Christ felt the trials and temptations that assail his brethren of 
mankind, even more acutnly than they did themselves ; but that was 
because of the strong repeUent force within him ; not by any attrao- 
tion drawing him. These temptations did not attract, they only pained 
him. He had before him ever the eternal laws ; seeing through the 
Present to the End.** 

The above was called forth by no question of mine, direct or indirect. 
I was not thinking of the subject, and of course expected nothing of 
the kind. It was notobtaincl from a professional medium. The lody 
through whose mediumship it came— a relative of mine, intellectual 
and cultivated— is a Uuitarian ; believing, in her normal state, that 
Jesus was bom iis other men. It purix>rt<Ml to come from an iuiimute 
and highly -valued, loug^dcoi'as**! (ricud (seo Book iv., chapter 3) ; and 
fnmi the same allugcd source them have oome to ma masLi x^^s!^;^!^ 
on etiuca2 and other cognate wo^^\f/t^^L. 


that Christ^s birth occurred under circumstances so peculiar 
that he grew to manhood devoid of appetite and passion to a 
degree — necessary to his pure integrity as Teacher — ^which 
no other person has ever shared. At this stage of our knowl- 
edge, I feel unqualified to avouch such a theory, and unwilling 
to gainsay it. Ungifted with spiritual clearsight — seeing here 
but as through a glass, darkly — why should I hasten to decide ? 
I am content to wait — it can be a few years only, now — ^for 
better discernment and broader light. 

The able author last quoted just touches on the subject of 
Christ's birth. Speaking of the spiritual enthusiasm which char- 
acterized Jesus, he asks : '^ How it was kindled in him who 
knows ? " And his reply is : '^ ' The abysmal depths of person- 
ality' hide this secret. It was the will of God to beget no 
second Son like him." ♦ 

Mr. Gladstone, the British premier, alluding, in a review of 
the work whei*e they appear, to the above words, says : " They 
seem to deal with things that we know not of, and are ill able 
to touch." f 

I agree with him. 

Stiunge ! — and sad as strange — ^that men in all ages have 
been called upon to touch, to deal with — ay I despite sense ol 
incapacity, even despite counter convictions, compelled to decide 
— just such questions I 

— Called upon by men like themselves, not by Grod. I am 
not more conscious of my own existence than I am that an all- 
wise and all-good Being will never remember it for judgment 
against me, nor against any of His creatures, that, after best 
diligence, we have been unable, as to many such arcana, to do 
more than confess, that we comprehend them not. 

So far only I see : that Jesus was divinely favored and gifted 
to an eminent degree — but how and to what degree I have no 
means to determine. That there were limits, law-governed, hia 

« Ecce Homo^ p. 821. 

f Ecce Homo (reviewed), by the Eight Honorable W. E. Gladatoiio; 
London, 1868: p. 190. 


Inograpbeni inform ub. In Chrint's own oonntry, where men 
asked one another *' Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary ? ^* 
he " cotiid do no mighty work, save tliat he hud his hands upon 
^ few sick and healed them : and he marvelled because of theiv* 
anbelief." * Again : all that he would have done for his hard 
iiearted countrymen ho himself tells us, in words breathing the 
very soul of sadness, that he could not do : *^ Oh Jerusalem, 
Jenisulem, thou that killest the prophets and stouest them 
which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy 
children togetlier, even as a hen gathercth her chickens undei 
her wings, and ye would not ! " f 

And again, who sliall define the limits of his knowledge? 
As one reads, one feels, as the Jewish officers of justice felt : 
''Never man spake Uke this man.'' Tet, ai the record now 
^tiinds, I we find many words and pamgraphs which, if we are 

^ Mark vi. 3, 5, 0. Matthew, in the concordant poMOgo, says thai 
*^ he did not many mighty works there, bccanae of their nnbelief.*^ 

t Matthew zmir. 87. 

t Take an example. John gives a prayer, as offered up by Jesus, 
in presence of his apustlcs, imiuediately Ix^foro ho went forth into the 
garden where ho was betrayed. There is no other example, in any of 
the goftpeh, of a pablic pruyer l>y Chriftt He retired into remote soli- 
tudes to pray (Mark vi 4(5 ; Luke \i. 12). ** ^Tien thou prayt-wt,*' he 
hofl said, ** enter into thy closet, and when thou hast shot thy door, pray 
to thy Father which is in secret.** The three synoptical evangeliM^ 
agree that, at the munt aolitinu hour of his life — just before hia betrayal — 
Christ^s action corresponded to his precept, and that ho did /W pray in 
their presence. At Uethsomane, says Matthew, he said to his di!<i*iples : 
** " Sit ye here, while I go and pray yomlor : * and he went a little far> 
ther and fell on his face and prayed, saying : * Oh my Father, if it be 
possible let this cap pass from me ; nererthdess not as I will but as 
Thoa wilt.' " 

Mark's relation is, almost word for word, the same as that of Mat- 
thew. Luke says ho withdrew himiiclf from them about a stone's cast 
and kneeled duwn and prayed : * Father, if thou bo willini;, remove 
this cap from me ; nevertheless not my will bat thine be done.* *' 

I believe, with Matthew and Mark and Loke^ that the comnranniQ^ 
of Jesos with his Father, ere he went to deaUt| wtm m i«QEi^^Tafi»aarf 

272 rr is dangerous to refobe 

to accept them, clearly show that Christ, like all other men, 
was liable to error. Examples will suggest thomselyes to the 
dispassionate student of the gospels. 

Let timid souls who think all is imperilled if a single impen 
fection of doctrine, or inaccuracy of record,* be suggested, her« 
be reminded that the spiritual system of Christ, with its world- 
wide influence on man, depends not at all on non-essential 
incidents like these. Its spirit and substance and efficacy re 
main intact. It profits, none the less, as rule for human con* 
duct in the world which now is, and as guide, much needed| 
preparing us for that which is to come. 

In this matter it is dangerous to repose confidence in inci- 
dentals, or in any warrant save the intrinsic excellence and 
inherent power of the Great Teachings themselves. Not on 
ancient fortresses of stone, how seemingly impregnable soever, 
may a nation, in her hour of peril, rely for defence: she must 
look to faithfulness and valor and affection, animating the 
hearts of her defenders. And so Christianity, when assailed 
by the legions of Doubt and of Materialism, must not put her 
trust in the old evidences of tradition or of remote history, 
though built np by learning imd entrenched by the polemical 
labors of ages : if she is to become the Religion of Civilization, 

by mortal ear ; nor do I doubt that the brief words employed by the 
S3aioptical evangelists — Bad, fervent, resigned^mbody the spirit of 
Christ's secret prayer. 

But as to John^s narrative the internal evidence signally faOs. 
Christ^s love was of that eminent character which carries oat of self, 
thinking not of glorification ; and, above all, which embraces all ha« 
mankind, unalloyed by trace of the exdosive. I beUere that the 
prayer which the aged apoetle, after half a century had intervened, 
spread over his seventeenth chapter was but what he himself erringly 
oonoeived to have been his Master^s feelings ere he encountered his ene- 
mies; a document not more reliable than the long speeches which 
other old historians have imagined for their heroes on the eve of a 
battle. I am imable to accept it as Chri8t*B, either in the spirit or in th« 
letter. See farther, as to this^ foot-note pn next page. 

* Did ChdBt ever declare that he wo\i\d\>Q\xibU3&jl:9 To^^ciit^ 


her kingdom must ha proioctod hy tlio Utytii convictioari tuul 
thfi bull! cuidor aud Lhe euli^btoniul luvo of frm hunuui souU. 

Hero let mo bu pi'miitU-'d Ui eajr u word wiLlk laoi'e [mraoi 
reforoacu ttj mj*«-lf. I r:jnl.i hqI more religiously veuoratu tl 
I aov vuncmU' Ulimt':! tuiicUingK nad bin pvrftiD ; I could not 
mora dmjilir Iti:) Liuui I H»w f«vl tho boumJou duly to hoed Lui 
Mf ings iind to do whnt In mo lies towurd foUowiug hta exAtnpla 
— if thcologinnH hiid succoedorl in beuUoK Itiln my bmis oil 
pcrplcxilius tlicy havo crowd&il iiito tho AtUiutajiiaii creod. 
Dthcn find, through sucb siibliltiea, comfuri in aflliatic 
warmth for ninking faith, Diodve to stir fia^giug zeal, inoaotit 
to religiouti duty, it in woll : 1«t th«<m profit by wliat thqr 
abls to BCi^vpt. I'hc Alexandrian Patriarch doo not 
dtluir to my hmrt or to my undcratanding. Th^y who tan 
Oliivn his dootrim-, lut thnn rrcoiv« it. 

If, bvyood a claim to bo iho jtromisi'd Messiah — tlio Anoinl 
Prophet of GikI, commitoioni'^ by Ilim to redwui the worl 
from spirituai darkuoM — ttions bo any ruaaoualilo ground fg 
bsltef that Cbriat doularod biinaelf, or regnrdMl himaelf, to 
ouB of th« PnnoBH of the fltidhead, I oouIikii my itMbiUtj 
find il. * Teiy candy, acannly half a diucn timo* thraughooll 

* nitf* MI* auiulij yMi|tt« In John's Oo*pel whioh mart be 
M >— rtlin thia dogma ; bot Jaha wnitB thirty or fot^ ywan 
IhMi the otkor avaa^alfata, hi Ua old ags anil at a pariod wbaa 
th« Aomzia* <na alraady bcffiaaloK to «ljK«n tba nobla a 
Ckrirt"! wotda Sow faTMablj does tba umpUoUr of Liik«'« 
t in — t isifriiuic njoAdanoc by (Imii moda«^, ocvtnwt irith Ilia mj»' 
HimI »l>bwalaiuM of John'* I Tbcn wo oooui npoa ■noli (axla a* ftU. 
» ; s. 8 ; STii. S inatd by Calxin) ; irU. a ; nii. 08 ; tI 51, 34, ato. 
Wbm OB wit; "T« am bwxaUi, I am fran abova; all that avaf 
oaaia kafontna aiatUiTM aad nthboa; bdon Abiahaia «••, I«b; 
^aatj ma, O Fathar, wUb th« 2I017 wUeh I had with Ihaa batata Um 
wodd wai i 1 pts7 nut toe Ilia wodd. but toe UMa Uwt thiM haat giw 
ma," wUb oilm njioca of aiaUlaa ipidt — tka iataiBml wrtjj^xm 
m BO toafiir r«eog ii ti a tbo Cluiat ot tho mcUw tOi|i*l*. 
Ttt, withal, dioo^ John la alnaort a* nMiaal wFHl,««oaHU 
, in«u«mnrpatUiiaaa(hlaO<MiMlHw«<Ni«iIdaaMM&fi«»<&' 





the three synoptical gospels, does Jenus speak of himself as th« 
" Son of God : " ♦ not nearly so cfben as he speaks of his 

epistles. Like Paul, John is the Apostle of Love, in ita purest and 
widest acceptation ; and none of the gospels contain a namtiye mora 
eminently oharacteristio of the gentleness and meroy of Ohxist than 
John's story of the Fallen One, who was bid to go and sin no more. 
Its lesson is only beginning to make its way, now after neaiiy two 
thousand years, to the hearts of men. 

* This expression, as applied by Christ to himself, scarcely occurs 
either in Matthew or Mark or Luke, except that, when interrogated before 
the High Priests and scribes as to whether he was the Son of God, he 
replied : '^ Yo say that I am ; '' to be interpreted as assent ; but even 
during that very inteirogatory, he still desig^nates himself by his fitvor- 
ite expression, ^^ The Son of Man." According to John, he speaks of 
himself several times as the Son of God (y. 25 ; ix. 35, 36 ; xi. 4 ; and 
on one or two other occasions more or less directly) ; besides assenting 
(xi. 27) to bo so called by Martha. But, singularly enough, in the same 
gospel, X. 9^ is given a remarkable conversation, which I can inter- 
pret but in one sense : 

Christ asks the Jews : ^^ For which of my good works do ye stone 
me?" They answer: **For a good work we stone thee not, but for 
blasphemy ; and because that thou, being a man, makest thyself God.*' 

Here, surely — in the sequel to the colloquy — ^if anywhere, we may 
seek the clue to Christ^s exact meaning, when he calls himself God's 
Son. But what happens ? Does he admit the truth of the Jews' ac- 
cusation ? On the contrary Jesus quotes to his accusers a text in which 
the author of one of the Psalms, speaking of men, called them gods ; 
and his comment on that text is : ^^ If he called them g^ods to whom 
the word of God came, and the Scripture cannot be broken, say ye of 
him whom the Father hath sanctified and sent into the world * Then 
blasphemest,' because I said, I am the Son of God ? '* 

Did Christ here evade the question, seeking to deceive the Jews ? We 
cannot for a moment entertain a thought so derogatory to his charao- 
ter? He claimed, indeed, to have been sanctified by the ''Father;** 
he daimed to have been sent by God, as Peter and the rest of his disol- 
ides afterward claimed for him : but he ditdaimed any pretension to 
godahlp ; explaining to them, by a reference to their own Scriptoze, 
the sense in which he applied to himself the title of the Son of God. 
Had they listened to another discourse of his addressed to the Saddn« 
cees, and had they profited by it, they would not have needed this wain* 
ing agasbmt tfee. '^letter which lDlleUi\" toe in that diaoouzse (Lnka 


breihi«ii of humankind as God^s sons and daughters; bidding 
us in the only prayer he has left us, to address the Deity as 
•* Our Father." Tliou, too, as God's messenger, how preemi- 
nent his claims to the title he now and then assumes ! If, as 
ho himself teaches, the peacemakers are to be called the Chil« 
dren of God, is not he, the Prince of Peace — the Bcivror of the 
Gos(>el which brings "|)eace on earth, good-will to men"— 
above all others most righteously to be spoken of as God's be- 
loved Son, in whom He was well pleased ? 

Christ is the crowning exemplar of the Inspired : for he, 
while abiding among us, lived, more nearly than any other of 
God's creatures here, within sight and hearing of his future 
home. Therefore it is that his teachings are the noblest fruits 
of Inspiration. 

In the highest phenomena of Spiritualism — in other words, 
in the best examples of the modem phase of powers and gifts 
connected with Inspiration — may bo seen the fulfilling of 
Christ's promise to Christians, of works emulating his.* In 
the purest revealings of Siuritualism may be found the fulfil- 
ment of that other promise touching the imparting of truth 
and comfort through holy breathings from above. 

Primitive Christianity, the greatest of all reformatory agen- 
cies, is best evidenced through modem Spiritualism ; for the 
germ of modem Spiritualism is in primitive Cliristianity. In 
proportion as the epiplianies of Spiritualism are studied in a 
Christian spirit, will the attention of the world be withdrawn 

zx. 36), speaking of those who are worthy to enter Heaven, he had said 
of them : ** They are equal unto the angels and are the children of 

Whither does literalism lead ? To repeat, after Lnther : ** When 
Chrint says * Take, eat, this in my body,' every child most undcntaad 
that be speaks of that which he gives to his disciples " (Me prccfding 
page 50) ; and m>, to believe in the ^' real presence : ** and again, interpret- 
ing according to the letter Xokhew zvi. 18, 10, to accept, as Scriptural 
doctrine, the infaUibOitj of the Pope. 

• John siv. 18. 



from religioiis dogmatism and concentred in Cknst's teadiixigB, 
in their primitive form. 

Can more powerful motive be adduced, to make proof ot 
these signs and wonders? — rejecting whatever is alien and 
faithless, but holding fast to all that is loyal and good ? 



** A fabject of rtndj ought not to be abftndoned beoMun it ia b«wt 
with difficulUM, nor becaoa e , for the time being, it majelioftt pfejndiet 
or encounter oontempt.**— Bebzbuub : Jahrmb^rieht^ 1846. 

A VERT few words to the candid reader, ere I oommenoe mj 

Let not exception be taken to it if it appear that such re* 
searches have been chiefly prosecuted, at the outset, in a some- 
what immethodical or rambling manner, and under the leading 
of volunteers untitled by learned societies. This may be for 
the best, even if, in one point of view, it is to bo regretted. 
It may be for the best, even though it must be admitted that, 
among the names of note in the regular ranks of science, there 
are men who, of all others, are, in some rcsjiects, best fitted 
hero to head the advance, and to obtain for us, if they would, 
reliable results. 

— In some res|>ects. For in alleging the peculiar fitness of 
distinguished scientific men to investigate a subject like that 
under consideration, the opinion is to bo received with consid- 
erable allowance. Physical Science and Vital Science each 
disclose a gpreat class of phenomena; the one distinct, even wido 
apart, from the other. Both, indeed, are subject to l^xcd and 
universal laws: the reality of both must be judged according 
to the same acknowledged canons of evidence. But the laws 
of physical science apply to obdurate matter, that has no ner- 
vous system to bo soothed or excited; no consciousness to 
warm under kindness, or suffer from rude offence ; no sense of 
WTOBg, to ba oatnged by uiyoat suspdoou ThA lk«%^ 


science, on the contrary, govern animate agencies of delicate 
and sensitive and changeful organization. The materials for 
experiment are of two entirely different classes, and must be 
treated accordingly. Faraday as electrician, Herschel cu as- 
tronomer, Liebig as chemist, have been studying laws under 
which the results to ensue or to be produced, at any given mo- 
ment, on any given substance, can be rigidly controlled or pre- 
dicted ; laws which are the fit objects of mathematical calcular 
tion. The habits of rigorous investigation acquired by such 
men are invaluable ; but yet, if they fail to bear in mind what 
an element of diversity and variableness vitality involves ; and 
if they carry with them into investigations undertaken in the 
province of organic life the same purely materialistic and un- 
conditional standard which they have been accustomed to apply 
within the domain of physics, they ai*e liable to go far astray 
and to miss satisfactory results. Enlightened members of the 
medical faculty, taught by experience, know this well.* 

Then, again, whatever the qualifications of the ablest leaders 
in science, they do not usually esteem it their vocation to lead 
the vanguard on an occasion like this. They abandon, to un- 
trained experimentalists, an unpopular field. Or, if they 
speak, it is to give us prejudices only.f For if prejudioe, as in 

* Dr. Holland ( Chapt^s on Mental PhyskHagy^ p. 2) has justly 
marked : '^ Neither those accastoined to legal evidence only, nor such 
as have pursued science in its more simple forms, can lightly estimate 
the vast difference mode by the introduction of the principle of life, or 
yet more of the states and condition of mind, in connection with bodily 

Biohat {BechenHies 9ur la Vie et la Morty Art. 7, § 1) has some excel- 
lent remarks on the same subject. He reminds us, that while physics, 
ohemistry, and the like are sciences that approach each other, '* aa 
immense interval separates them from the science of organized bodies ; 
and for that reason the latter should be treated in an entirely diflterent 

f An exception is here to be admitted. An English periodical of re- 
pute, the Popular Science Beview, edited by Mr. Grodkes, aa eminent 
cbemht and Fellow of the Royal Bodety, hAE, in its munber for lait 




atjrtnologicftl utnL-titemi it must, lie cuimtniMl to mean • jui 
mant formiHl befon> ciiami nation, then must we rt^nl u pT^~ 
juditxa Uh opiniuuK, liowcver truo, wbo liui iiei;lect«<J tu «r«i^li 
thum o^giuiust tkiiir u[i[HUuu-it, Lowcvi-r CUae. 

FromBtudettta vrttoiluvutt* tlieuiHelveit eKdunivdy to phyaied i 
raMorch wti luuiit, tu n gcuenl rule, tixjievt tLi*. "Vhrj tr-giJjB 
hd ultramutidunu lit^iil as untsidu uf Llicur jiirisdicUoti. "fo^l 
tliMii^ of intvrveutioii tmm imotlii-r iqitinro of 1>oing — llio idw 
nf i^nritual |il>eDamuui— in aiicu to tlicir ]<ursiul«, Mid caiiLOl 
win thti Mcatl&c car nl nnco. 'I'hn grawtJi of Mijr noT-bom )iy- 
potlusu, «o Mtortling in obmnclcr, rowanblM that of a humui h 
ing. During itHtnfADcy itaitaggutiotuciuT7(>iuall woig 
liitrDctl to with a light unilo and sot asidB with little o 
Throughout ita y«ara of nona^ it majr be aaid to li&ve no ri 
of propartffDo privilege of appropriatioiL. Proob in ita h.ti 
nay pnaent tbemwives fruna time to time, hut the; are a 
deoaiMl eutitled to a judgmeiit hy tlie niliM of ovidcnoe: 
an liBtvned to a> fimU and amimiug ; hut thi^ have no fa 
virtoe ; thi<7 obtain no olficuJ tvctml ; thoy are nut fiiaoed i 

Jtilj, tt aitldo hf Ita RilJInr. irlvjnff a deWlod m 
Siad« OS IbA Itlkicmll |>by*ii»t jHiwna a* a iDwIiom of Ur, Iloma,! 
hlmaeir (Hr. Onralua). Hi. Sarjeaat Cox, and Dr. Hncgina, d 
(lualied a* aaUownmif and ptaniaoat nMmbcr ot Iha Eojial fliiiilaty 
Mr. Oas and Mr. Cnmka aokiu>«b«l|r« tbat UiMn atpetlnMnla Man to 
pron Um aautentsa o( a imw fonw whklt thcj call " pajrchia" : whOa 
1)t. Hnoina, wora noa-OMtUDlUjal, adaitta that tbajr " ahow the in^tv 
taAM of fnrtlwr tnvaatifatlciiL * Tlia Lfltalmi A«t<aM% covuiMSitiitf 
OB Ihla, aJuuli Qua then bi prImdfmiJf rMmt* of the (dKnooMiia ; 
and adJ^ a* b> tb« aa<«Ml " now fonN," tiiat ■' it ia moal dairtnUa that 
itaa aadaniiflu mrid akuold vonllm. at toplode, Uw hjjMthaia of 11a 
wi«t»woe. "—f^takt of Jalj 8. |lii71.|>. cOt. 

TIm aaf l M tn ta iB rt nda d th* pUfinir «s an ncoocdfaM plaMd iMida 
auipper-wiM oifv ivmifomOj pnpand I7 Hi. CroolcM); tiia 
dwu lloatinf wlthoat ■iifnnul aBiipaft, aut iwf plajid on bf aaj 



the crodit of the minor. An adolescent hypotheoB is held to 
be outside the limits of human justice. 

We ought not very strongly to complain of this. While wia 
may condemn the manner in which the magnates of sdenoe are 
wont to treat spiritual researches, we may excuse it also. The 
best of us shrink before the world's laugh. Franklin, engaged 
in one of the most sublime experiments ever undertaken by 
man, sought, it is said, to escape the chance of ridicule by 
veiling his purpose. He took with him, as companion^ a little 
boy ; that the kite, destined to draw lightning from the thnn- 
der-cloud, might, in case of failure, pass as the plaything of a 

But is nothing, therefore, to be done ? Because men, with 
a hard-won scientific reputation at stake, will not peril it in 
such an inquiry, are others, more hardy if less well-trained for 
the task, to hold back ? 

I have put that question to myself and have answered it in 
the negative. * 

I proceed, then, to adduce, in support of various positions 
assumed in the preceding chapters, a few — my space admits but 
a few— of the many Spiritual phenomena, spontaneous and 
evoked, that have occurred under my observation, or come to 
me in authentic form, during the last fifteen years. 



**FteliUk« theM, with which the world ia fillad, embwxsM stnioi 
fldndi mom than th^ are willing to acknowledge.** — Batlb. 



** Oar eyea are holden that w« cannot aee thinga that atare na in the 
laoa, until the time arrivea when the mind ia ripened : then we behold 
tiiem, and the time when we aaw them not ia like a dream.**— Ememox. 

Whex I rucall what hapfioncd to mo in March, 1856, I am 
reminded of Emeraou^a auggcmtivc words. 

Up to that time I had beon living, aa so many mi 11 ions live, 
in vague unbelief that there arc, in this world, any spiritual 
mgencies cognizable by the senses. I had barely heard of the 
** Rochester Knockings,^^ and had wondered wliat supreme ab- 
surdity would follow next. 

I was then in Naples whore, for two and a half preceding 
years, I had held the post of American Minister. Tlu* mem- 
bers of our diplomatic corps, living on pleasant and iiitiniato 
termsy were in the habit of dropping infuriually into imicIi itthcr 4 
mpartments, for an hour or two in the evening. To this habit 1 
am indebted for a itnnge experience nVadk \ i^^ ^^u^^ 


The Maid and Cook. 


On the twenty-fifth of March I passed the evening with the 

Kussian Minister, Monsieur K . Besides his family there 

were present the Chevalier de F , Tuscan Minister, and hiai 

lady ; together with several visitors from different parts of the 
world. During most of the evening we spoke English, the 
luscan Minister's wife being from England and another lady 
present from America. 

Madame K , a Parisian by birth and a lady of varied 

information, asked me, in the course of conversation, if I had 
ever heard of automatic writing. I confessed that I had not; 
Then she expressed her belief that some persons had the power 
of replying, in that way, to questions, the true answers to 
which were unknown to them. 

" Pardon me," said Madame de F ; " I am very sure yon 

would not say so unless you were quite convinced that you had 
proof sufficient : but I could not believe anything so wonderful| 
unless I witnessed it myself." 

" Lot us try, then," said Madame K ; and the proposal 

was eagerly assented to : each person sitting down, putting pen- 
cil to paper and awaiting the result. We were all unacquainted 
with Spiritualism and unbelievers in it. 

Nothing, for some time: then one hand, that of a Mrs. 

M , began to move, making irregular figures but no words 

or letters. 

Then, at my suggestion that we should test the matter, 

Madame de F asked a question : " Who gave me these 

pins ? " — pointing to three large gold-headed pins that fiutened 

her dress, and adding: ^^ If Mrs. M can answer that, I shall 


Fjr several minutes that lady's pencil remained motionless; 
then, very slowly, it executed a few flourishes, finiabing by 
writing out, in a cramped and not very legible hand, several 
words, the last two wriUen backward.* 

^ Let anyone tij to write even two m&idiwQix^\]MSk:fres^wA\* 


Madame de F begged to look at the paper and gazed at 

it for 8omo time, turning very jmiIo. 

** What is it ? " some one asked eagerly. 

** Bfagic, if there be such a thing," she replied. '' It reads : 
* Tli€ one Uiat gives you a tnaul and cook,^ *' 

" How ridiculous ! " exclaimed Mademoiselle K : ** it ia 

no answer whatever to your question." 

** You think not, Mademoiselle ? " rt^joined IVIadame de 

F ; " let me tell you the fiicts. These pins were given to 

me by my cousin Elizabeth, who lives in Florence. At my re- 
quest she sent me, from that city, a lady's maid, who came into 
my service ten days since, and a cook who arrived day before 

Tlie paper was passed from hand to hand, calling forth re- 
peated expressions of astonishment, which were increased when 
some one sug)*eHted tliat the concluding portion of the flourishes 
which preceded the writing closely resembled a ca[>ital £ ; the 
initial letter of the donor^s name.* 

In myself this incident, trifling; if it seem, excited &r more 
than astonishment. During several hours of silent reflection, 
that evening at home, them came over me the indescribable 
emotion that is felt when one first awakes to the possibility 
that there may be experimental proof of another life. Ere I 
slfpt I had registered in my heart a vow — since kept — not to 
rest till I had provinl this possibility to bo a probability or a 
eertatntv — or a delusion. 

Acconlinf;1y next day I called on Madame de F , who had 

carried off the shcH't of {wiier containing a reply wliioh had at 
first seemed so enigmatical, but which [)ix>ved to bo so singu- 
larly appro[>riate ; and, on stating to her that I desired to pre- 

wfll diMover the great diflleiiHy of doing so. It shoold be added thai 

Mm M was not only without azpenoiM in ^ndtealism, but p04* 

«dioed againiit it. 
* Bee next piffe. 



lerve it for record, she kindly ceded it to me.* In replj to aa 
inquiry on my part, she stated, in emphatic terms, her eonTio* 

tion that the circumstances alluded to in 
the mysterious writing were not— -indeed, 
could not be — known except to her own 
fiunily. It was but a few weeks, she re- 
minded me, since she herself arriTed in 
Naples. Her cousin was unknown here, 
even by name; she herself had never 
mentioned her to any one in the ; 
much less alluded to the fitct that the 
gold pins were her gift. But, in addi- 
tion, she had never spoken to any one 
outside her family circle, about the aer* 
vants who had recently arrived; oi 
whence they came, or who sent theoL 
And finally she stated that she had but 
just made the acquaintance of Mrs. 

M , having only exchanged cards 

with her. 

Intimately acquainted as I am with 
the circumstances of this case, to say 
nothing of the character and standing of 
the parties concerned, I am justified in 
asserting unqualifiedly that, whatever 
else the solution, collusion and decep- 
'Vt' J\ tion are out of the question. 

But, the facts accepted, how strange 
were the deductions! Restricting my- 
self to commonly-received data, I found 
nothing that approached a satis&ctory 

It was thus I reasoned the matter 
with mysell Had the reply to Madame 
da F ^'s question been merely tba 

^ See iSM)*afanIliL 


name of her cousm, the donor of the pins (EUizabeth), it would 
hATO been equally relevant but much less surprising. We should 
probobly have ascribed it to chance. Or, as Madame de F 

doubtless, at that time, thinking of her cousin's name^ we 
mig^t have regarded it only as an example of a word thought 
of by one person, and unconsciously reflected (if that be the 
proper expression) from the mind of another ; a phenomenon 
wiUi which all vital magnetizei*s are familiar (even if they can- 
not explain it), and one of the reality of which Cuvier himself 
indicates the possibility.* 

But the results I had obtained went much farther than this 
and were of a far more complicated character. 

I inquired of Madame de F whether, at the time she put 

her question and was expecting a reply, she was thinking of 
the fact that her couHin had sent her two servants. She replied, 
that, very certainly, such a thought had not crossed her mind. 
Of course, if she had been aHked who sent her the servants in 
question, she would readily have replied that her cousin had 
done so. Hut, in that case, the question would have called up 
the idea. As it whs, the fact, though within her knowMfi^y was 
not present to l^er minuL If slie herself had been required to 
answer her own question, slie would doubtless have replied to it 
in a straight fon^'iinl, simple manner, as : '' My cousin Eliza- 
beth ; ^' or using some similar expression. We cannot imagine, 
that she would have gone o;it of her way to tell us that ** it 
was the same {lerson who had sent her a maid and a cook.*^ 

Then what thinking entity was it, which thus called up, out of 

the latent stores of Madame de F ^s memory, this dormant 

idea ? What occult intelligence went out of its way to answer 
her question after this roundabout fashion ? Wlio selected the 
unexpected form of reply ? 

« Aikatamie ComparU, tome iL p. 117. His admiMion is that, when 
two living beinffB are lircNifht, under certain ooDdiUona, near each other, 
than exiMa sometimes ** wie eeromnninatinn quekonqne qui s*telil** 


leorsijafetees narfenx." 


At first I scrupled about assuming that there was any ex- 
ternal personality concerned. But a little reflection ccnvinced 
me that if I dismissed tliat idea, I was shifting, not solving, the 
difficulty. For the question then i*ecurred in another shape : 
What agency determined the special character of an answer thm 
indirect and far-fetched, yet strictly relevant and accurate ? 

And then (I went on to reflect) without assuming a personal 
entity, how are we to explain results that are never presented 
to us except as the mental operations of a sentient being ; such 
as selection of appropriate facts from among many stored away 
in the memory, perception of the connection of these &ct8 
with a question which did not apparently refer to them, perti- 
nent application of the selected facts to frame a truthful reply ; 
nay, even an apparent intention, by giving to that reply an 
out-of-the-way and unlooked-for turn, to prove to us the pres- 
ence of a reasoning and intelligent agent ? 

I was unable to answer these questions then ; and, except on 
the spiritual hypothesis, I am unable, after fifteen years' experi- 
ence, to ofler any rational explanation to-day. 

Probably most of those who assisted at the experiment I 
have rccordcd went away moved to simple wonder only ; per- 
plexed for the time, but ere a month luid i>assed, forgetting, 
iu the passing excitement of some fresh novelty, both wonder 
and perplexity ; or at most, perhaps, relating now and then, to 
inci^dulous listeners of a winter evening, that very odd coinci- 
dence about three gold ])ins and a maid and a cook. 

To me its lessons are still as fresh as on the day I received 
them. They preceded, and induced, a course of study that 
eventually changed the whole feelings and tenor of my life. 

Within the last Vvventy-five years multitudes, in this and in 
all other civilized countries, have been overtaken, as unexpect- 
edly as I was, with evidence of the reality of spiritual phenom- 
ena. And, to hundreds of thousands among these, conviction 
has come in tho quiet of the domestic cirble; has not been 

spuoTUAL BENsmym. 287 

avowed to tho world, and has not disturbed their relations with 
the churches they had been wont to frequent. 

In illustration I here supply, out of many examples that 
have come to my knowledge, one which is the more noteworthy 
because it exhibits various phases of spiritual intervention. 1 
An title it 


In the year 1853 there lived, in the town of R , Massachn- 

setts, a family of the utmost respectability and in easy circom* 
stances, whose name, though known to me, I am not at liberty 
Here to give. Let us call them Mr. and Mrs. L » 

Mrs. L appears to have been one of a class of which I 

have already spoken as rcseuibling Kcichcnljach^s *' sensitives,** 
if not identical with them : a class which has furnished what 
are calU*d *' uiediums,'' and what might appropriately be called 
'^ spiritual sensitives.** She shared nuiny of tlie iieculiaritiea 
of that class; peculiarities which, in her case as in many 
i»th«.*rH, seem to have been hereditary.* 

lier grandmother, one iiiomiug, preparing to go out walking 
and turning round to knive her bod-ohamber, suddenly per- 
ceived, standing before her, the exact ouunU*rpart of herself. 
At first she imagined it to be an impression from some mirror ; 
but, having ascertained that it was not so and seeing the appear^ 
auce gradually vanish, she became very much alarmed ; the 
popular idea occurring to her that to see one's c/ou6/«, or wraith 
as the Scotch term it, portended diath. She immediately sent 
for the preacher whose church she frequented^ the Rev. Mr. 
Eaton, and connulted him on the subjix't. He inquired whe- 

* Oat of 101 sensitives whose names arc regitttcred hy Retchenbach, 
as ainunghis odio subjects, 14.3 arc from families marked by a similar 
peculiarity. Of these he found the faculty to have been inherited, in 98 
cases from the father, in 50 from the mother, in 11 from both pareati : 
and in M other oases it wm shared br a brother or sister.—/^ flwriNsf 
k, val.ti. 8Mtf2tQgMMv^Ul^sax^\>a;;A^. 

288 Air 000nRBENC3B TO BE 

ther it was before or after mid-dav that she had seen the appazi* 
tion^ and, learning that it was early in the forenoon, he assured 
her (whether from sincere conviction or merely to allay the ex 
trcme excitement in which he found her) that the augury was 
of long life, not of approaching dissolution. As it chanced, she 
lived after that to a good, old age. 

Mrs. L 's mother, Mrs. F , was accompanied by 

knockings and other sounds in a house in Pearl street, Boston, at 
intervals as long as she resided there ; namely, through a period 
of twelve years. Sometimes these sounds were audible to her- 
self only ; sometimes also to the other inmates of the house. 
Finally, they annoyed her husband so much, that he changed 
their residence. 

Mrs. L herself, when about ten years of age (in the year 

1830), had been witness to one of those phenomeiia that are 
never forgotten and produce a great influence on the opinions 
and feelings of a lifetime. 

There was, at that time, residing in her mother's house, in 
the last stage of hopeless decline, a lady, named Mrs. Marshal], 

to whom Mrs. F , from benevolent motives, had offered a 

temporary home. 

Cecilia — that is Mrs. L 's name — had been sitting up one 

evening a little later than usual, and, childlike, had lain down 
on the parlor sofa and dropped to sleep. 

Awaking, after a time, she supposed it must be late; for 
the fire had burned low and the room was vacant. As she 
attempted to rise, she suddenly became aware that the figure 
of Mrs. Marshall, robed in white, was bending over her. 
'*0h, Mrs. Marshall,^' she exclaimed, '^why did you come 
down for me ? You will be sure to take cold." The figure 
smiled, made no reply, but, moving toward the door, signed to 
Cecilia to follow. She did so in considerable trepidation, 
which was increased when she perceived what she still believed 
to be the lady herself pass up the stairs backward, with a 
ilow, gliding motion, to the door of her bedroom. Hie child 
aiowed; god, am ahe reached ibe laxkdin^ oC the atainii Am 


■aw the figure, without turning the lock or opening the door, 
pass, OS it were, through the material substance into the room 
and thuB disappear from her idght. 

Her screams brought her mother who, coming out of Mrs. 
Uarshall^s room, asked her what was the matter. " Oh, mam- 
ma, mamma,'' exclaimed the ten-ified child, '' was that a 

The mother chid her at first, for nursing silly fimcies ; but 
when Cecilia related to her circumstantially what she had wit- 
nessed, Mrs. F shuddered. Well she might ! Not half an 

hour before she had assisted at the death-bed of Mrs. Mar- 
shall ! 

It was remembered, too, that a few minutes before she ex- 
pired, that lady, with whom Cecilia was a great favorite, had 
spoken in afiectionate terms of the child and had expressed an 

earnest desire to see her. But Mrs. F , fearing the efiect 

of such a scene on one so young, had refrained from calling her 

Did the earnest longing mature into action when the earth* 
clog was cast off? Was the dying wish gratified, notwithstand- 
tng the mother's precautions ? 

Later in her youth Cecilia, to her mother's great alarm, had 
from time to time walked in her sleep. Thia aomnambolism 
was strictly spontaneous, no mesmeric experiments of any kind 
having ever been allowed in the family. It did not result in 
any accident ; but, on several occasions, while unconscious and 
with her eyes closed, she had aided her mother, as expertly aa 
if awake, in the household duties. 

She had another peculiarity. In the early part of the night 
her sleep was usually profound ; but occasionally, toward morn- 
ing, in a state between sleeping and waking, she had vibions of 
the night which, though they were undoubtedly but a phase 
of dreaming, she discovered, by repeated experience, to be often 
of a clairvoyant or prophetic character ; sometimes informing 
her of death or illness. These intimations of the distant or thie 
future so frequently oorreiponded to the tmlVk ^.^^^'vVn^^ 


prognosticated misfortune^ Mrs. L hesitated, on awakinf^ 

to communicate them. 

Such a dream, or visiou, she had one night in the early part 
of the month of November, 1853. A sister, Esther, recently 
married, had gone out, with her husband, to California, some 
weeks before ; and they had been expecting, ere long, news of 
her arrival. This sister seemed to approach the bedside, and 
said to her : '^ Cecilia, come with me to California.'^ Mrs. 

L , in her dream, objected that she could not leave her 

husband and children, to undertake a journey so long and 

" "We shall soon be there," said Esther, " and you shall re- 
turn before morning." 

In her dream the proposed excursion did not seem to her an 
impossibility : so she rose from bed, and, giving her hand 
to her sister, she thought they ascended together and floated 
over a vast space ; then descended near a dwelling of humble 
and rude appearance, very different from any which she could 
have imagined her sister to occupy in the new country to 
which, in search of fortune, she and her husband had emigrated. 
The sisters entered, and Cecilia recognized her brother-in-law, 
sad and in mourning garb. Esther then led her into a room 
in the centre of which stood an open coffin, and pointed to the 
body it contained. It was Esther^s own body, pale with the 

hue of death. Mrs. L gazed in mute astonishment, first 

at the corpse before her, then at the form, apparently bright 
with life and intelligence, which had conducted her thither. 
To her look of inquiry and wonder the living appearance re- 
plied, ^^ Yes, sister, that body was mine ; but disease assailed 
it. I was taken with cholera and I have passed to another 
world. I desired to show you this, that you might be prepared 
for the news that will soon reach you." 

After a time Mrs. L seemed to herself to rise again 

into the air, again to traverse a great space, and finally to re- 
enter her bed-chamber. By and by she aw oke, with this dream 


fo vividly stamped on her mind, that it required some time t« 
satisfy Lit that »ho had not made an actual journey. 

*' I have liad 8Uf*h a dream ! " i^hc exclaimed to her husband. 
But his discouraging " What, Cecilia, at your foolish dreiuns 
again?'' closed her lips, and she passed the matter ofT without 
further explanation, either to him or to any other member oi 
the family. 

It 80 iiappened that, the evening of the same day, Mrs. L 

sat down to a quiet family game of whist. Ilcr husband and 8 
younger sister, Anne, were of the j>arty. In the course of the 

game Mrs. L hand(>d the cards to her sister, whose turn it 

was to dr*al. Sndd«'nly vA\q saw Ann(»*3 arhi assume a nipid ro- 
tary motion, and the cards flow in all dii-ections. Turning to 
chide her f »r wliat sho thought a fi)olish ji^st, she observed a 
peculiar expression spread ovi*r her face : tlie look was grave, 
earnest, thoughtful ; and the eyos were fixed, as with affection- 
ate anxiiity, on Cecilia's far»^. 

Very much alarmed, tlie hitter cned out, " Oh, Anne, what 
if the matter? whv do vou look so ? " 

" Call me not Anne," was the reply ; " I am Esther." 


*' I tell you it is Esther who speaks to. you, not Anne." 

Mrs. L , exces.sivc*ly ti'rriiied, turned to her husband, cry- 

ing out, '^ Iler mind is gone ! she is mad ! Oh that such a 
misfortuno sliould ever have fallen on our family ! " 

" Your dream, Cecilia I Your drt'am of last night! Ilavo 
you forgotten whither I took you and what you saw?" said 
Anno, solemnlv. 

Tlie shock was too much for Mrs. L . Slie fainted. 

When, by the use of the usual restoi-atives, she had recovered, 
she found her sister still in the same trance like state, and still 
iroi)ersonating Ilsthcr. Tliis eontinut'd for nearly four hours 
At the end of that timo Anno stiddetdv nibbt^d her eves, 
stretched her limbs, as if awaking, and asked in Iht uatunil 
▼oicey " Have I been asleep ? What is the matter? W*hat has 
happoned ? " 


Some four weeks afterward the Ciilifomia mail broTi|^t a 
letter from Esther's husband, informing the family of his wife'i 
sudden death, by cholera, on the very day preceding ihe ni^^l 
of Mrs. L 's dream. 

When, about six months later, the brother-in-law, having re- 
turned to Massachusetts, heard from Mrs. L the descrip- 
tion of the rude dwelling to which, in her dream, she had 
seemed to be conveyed, he admitted that it corresponded, accu- 
rately and minutely, to that of the house in which his wife ac- 
tually died. 

The above incidents were related to me by Mrs. L her- 
self,* with permission to publish them, suppressing only the 
family name. 

That lady also stated to me that, at the time referred to, the 
modem spiritual manifestations were imknown in the town of 

R , except by some vague rumors of knockings said to have 

been heard in Rochester, and which Mrs. L ^s family had 

always treated as a matter too absurd to be seriously noticed* 
It need hardly be added that they had never sought or wit- 
nessed rapping or table-moving or trance-speaking or antomatio 
writing, or any similar phenomena, now so common in this and 
other countries. 

It was, therefore, with mingled feelings of grief and aston- 
ishment that they observed, in Anne, a repetition on several 
subsequent occasions of the same manifestation which had 
startled them during the rubber at whist. 

* At the Fifth Avenue Hotel, New York, on October 15, 1860. The 

narrative, written out, was fiubmitted by mo to Mrs. L on the t7th 

of October ; and Bho assented to its accuracy. 

Had I not been the author of a work which had attracted the atten- 
tion, and awakened the sympathies, of Mrs. L , I should never have 


learned these particulars ; for, during three years preceding 1860, that 
lady and her family had ceased to speak, outside of the domestio dxole, 
on the subject of their spiritual visitations. The feeling whioh 
prompted this reticence sofBciently explains why the familj DauM It 


The next Ume that her sister^s fixed gaze and changed man* 
ner indicated the recurrence of this abnormal condition, Mr& 
L asked, '' Is this Esther again ? '* 

'' Not BO, my daughter," was the reply. '' It is not your 8i» 
ter but another friend who desires to address you." 

" What friend ? " 

''John Murray." 

This was the name of an aged preacher under whom Mrs. 

L ^8 mother had sat in the early part of her life, and who had 

died many years before, never personally known to Mrs. L , 

After this, the impersonation, by Anne, of the Rev. Mr. 
Murray was of frequent occurrence. On such occasions she 
usually addressed those present in Uie grave and measured toneii 
that are wont to characterize a pulpit discourse. The subjecta 
were always religious, and the 8]>irit in which they were treated 
was ele\'atcd and often eloquent far beyond the natural powen 
of the f pcaker. 

Nor was thb all. Mrs. L herself, at first very much to 

her dissatisfaction, became influenced to write by impressional 
dictation. Long she resisted, additionally urged to opposition 
by the great repugnance of her husband and of her friends, who 
regarded, almost with horror, this sudden invasion of the 
household circle. " It must bo some of these tenrible spiritual 
extravagances that are going about," they used to say, in a 
tone very similar to that in which nervous people deplore the 
approach of a deadly epidemic. 

After a time, however, when it was observed that these com* 
munications were pure and reverent in character, inculcating 
the liighest principles of religion and morality, and that no 

further abnormalities succeeded, Mr. L and many of their 

friends became reconciled to the intrusion ; and finally Ustened, 
with interest and pleasure, to the lessons, oral and written, 
which were thus mysteriously conveyed to them. 

In the above remarkable nairativo I invite attention to ihm 
•ridenoe, therein incidentally pT«swn\iQ% iSumM^ ^ >AmiIsMi 


We may belie \re confidently in the spiritual origin of a 
sage or of a lesson, and yet may be justified — we are sometimes 
fully justified — in doubting the identity of the spirit purporting 
to communicate.* 

But what are we to make of Anne's exclamation : '^ Tour 
dream, Cecilia! Your dream of last night ! Ilave you forgot- 
ten whither I took you and what you saw ? " 

Not a single particular of that dream had been related by 

Mrs. L to Anne or to any one else. No wonder she fainted I 

No wonder she felt certain — as she told me she did — that it was 
Esther herself, and no other, who inspired the words. To what 
other credible source can we refer them ? The hypothesis of 
chance coincidence is utterly untenable. As little can we sup- 
pose reflection by thought-reading : to say nothing of the in- 
credibility of a simulated four-hour trance. 

Of appaiitions to relatives and dear friends at or near the 
time of death I have elsewhere f furnished authentic examples. 
This is more common than any other class of appaiition. Nu- 
merous examples occiir in German works, and the Germans 
have a special term (anzeigen) to designate such an appear 
ance. J 

But besides being commonly unexpected and often unwel- 
come, these phenomena have sometimes resulted in annoyance 
and loss to the 2)artie3 who mtnessed them; though usually 

• Especially where celebrated names arc given ; and this may happen 
without intention to deceive. The name of Socrates or Aristotle or 
Gonfncias might be assumed by some spirit favoring the school of 
philosophy of tho sage whose name he gives. 

For myself, I have never received a communication porporting to 
come from any celebrity whom, in life, I had not known : and bat rarely 
from any one except those with whom I had been connected by ties of 
consanguinity, or of affection. 

t In Footfalls on Vie Bmmliiry of Anot/ier Wbrld, at pp. 871-^6, 
throughout chapter 3, Book IL 
'*JEr2iAt sich aogezeigt ** is the phxaae UBoally employed. 

A lady's lettbb. S95 

without apparent intention to injure, on the part of the unseen 

An example is given in a London periodical,* attested bj 
date, place, and name. It comes through an "Rnglial^ clergy* 
man. The Rev. S. £. Bcnbough, of Uadleigh, Rochford, Essex, 
writing in June, 18G0, incloses a letter from a lady with whom 
he says he is '^ well acquainted and cannot doubt for a moment 
her trustworthiness.^' He goes on to say: **All wcll-authen* 
ticated facts connected, or apparently connected, with the 
supernatural are valuable as materials from which, in courw 
of time, general laws may bo deduced ; " and adds an expret' 
sion of regret that so many |)crsons, in narrating such faote, 
withhold the guarantee of gcnuiuencBs contained in a signature. 
The letter, which he incloses and which I have slightly abridged^ 
tells the story. Let us call it 

Why a Villa was sold at a Loss. 

^ Dear Sib : A few evenings since you expressed a wish to 
obtain, in writing, the circumstances which caused me to leave 
my former abo<lc. Hero are the iacts. 

" In January, 1860, I purchased a semi-detached villa, near 
Chiswick. The previous occupant was a lady who, aixtecn 
years before, had built that and the adjoining villa. The lat- 
ter had been sold to an elderly gentleman and his wife, who 
proved most respectable and quiet neighbors. My own fiun* 
ily, as you know, consists of myself, my daughter, and a female 

*' The front bedroom, eighteen feet by twenty-five, I selected 
for my own use. The very first night of my occupaucy — there 
being a bright fire and a night-light burning — I heard a singu- 
lar noise, commencing before midnight and continuing for 
some time ; but I paid little attention to it. The same sound 
continued, with few interruptions, for many weeks, and grew 


to a serious disturbance ; regularly waking me £rom my fiM 
sleep at from half-past eleven to twelve o'clock, or occasionally 
at about twenty minutes past eleven. The sounds seemed to 
proceed from naked or thinly-slippered feet, walking to and 
fro, the length of the room, with heavy tread : so heavy that 
it caused a vibration of the crockery on the marble washstand, 
and of light articles on the toilct-glcuss. 

*' My first impression was that my next-door neighbors had 
restless nights; but, on making their acquaintance, I found 
that this was not the case. Next I sought to account for tiie 
strange sound in connection with a timepiece in my bed-cham- 
ber ; and this I had moved from place to place, but imavail- 
ingly. The sound continued, and the ticking of the timepiece 
could be heard quite distinct from it. 

" Another experiment was equally without result. I fre- 
quently placed myself so, as it were, that I might arrest the 
footsteps, but this caused no cessation or alteration of the 

'^ Sometimes I used to open the window and sit by it in the 
spring mornings. This made no difference : the sounds went 
on, all the same, imtil four or five o'clock. 

" I discovered that to others the sounds conveyed the same 
impression as to myself. Three or four times I awoke my 
daughter ; and to her as to me, they seemed to proceed from a 
heavy footfall. Again, on one occasion when a friend, who was 
visiting me, had been put in the room which my servant usu** 
ally occupied, the girl slept on a sofa in my bedroom. Up to 
that time I had not mentioned it to her. Twice, when awoke 
in the night, she cried out, terrified : * Oh, Ma'am, what is what is it ? ' and hid her head under the bed-clothes. 
• *' At last this disturbance became not only annoying but so 
terrible to me that I resolved to leave the house. At a great 
loss I obtained a purchaser. 

" When this was settled I heard, for the first time, from aa 
old nurse who came to inquire after the former inhahitaabi 
oftlie house, that the lady whp built it aaid who had died tiierei 

HOUSE HAUsrmro. 20i 

and from whose brother I bought it, suffered from painful and 
incurable disease, and that it was her sad fate, after a short 
sleep, to walk the room till four or five in the morning ; then 
to sink on her bed, exhausted. 

'' On inquiry, an opposite neighbor confirmed this statement 
Thej had often seen the old lady walking to and fro, whea 
sickness in their family caused them to be about in the early 

*' This may be no solution of the singular affair. But I re- 
late it in connection with the other events. 

** I am, dear sir, yours respectfully, 

** Mart PnoptBT. / 
<< To ths Itev. & E. Benbaugh:' 

This will be recognized as one of a class of phenomena, often 
discredited, known as '' house-hauntings.^' The remarkable 
point in the case is its business aspect. The lady from whom 
the story comes, and who seems to have been a dispassionate 
observer, found the disturbance so seriously real and so persis* 
tent that, at a great loss, she sold her house to escape it. 1 
think it possible she might have been saved from this loss had 
she been willing— but no doubt the proposal would hare 
shocked her — to enter into communication with her noelama] 
▼isitant. In support of this opinion I here adduce an ane» 
dote of 


There is a young lady. Miss V , well and favorably known 

to me, frank and cultivated, a member of one of the old New 
York families. A few years since she was spending a week or 
two with her aunt, mistress of a spacious, handsome, and hos- 
pitable old mansion on the Hudson River. This mansion, like 
some of the ancient chateaux of Europe, has long had its 
haunted chamber. Little was said about this, but the room 
was not used except on pressing occasions. During Miss 
y^-^-*s rssidence therei viatera «eeunra\atedL \o Q^^nAA^>aDdL\ 


and the aunt, witJi an apology to her niece, asked her if she 

. ' minded giving up hor room for a day or two to the new-comers 

I and running the risk of a visit from a ghost. Miss V— • 

■ replied that she was not afraid of visitors from another world : 

so the arrangement was made. 

The young lady went to sleep quietly and without fear. 
Awaking about midnight, she saw, moving about her room, an 
elderly v/oman in neat, somewhat old-fashioned dress, appar- 
ently an upper-servant : but the face was unknown to her. At 
first she was not afraid, supposing it to be some one employed 
in the house who had come on some errand or other : but a mo- 
ment's thouglit reminded her that she had locked the door be- 
fore retiring. This startled her, and her alarm increased when 
the figure approached the bed, bent toward her and seemed to 
make an earnest but imavailing efibrt to speak. Greatly fright- 
ened she drew the bed-clothes over her face ; and when, after a 
little, she looked up again, the figure had vanished. She sprang 
to the door of her room and found it still locked on the inside. 
" Can there bo such things as ghosts ? " she thought, as slio re- 
turned to bed ; " that was a reality, if sight could be trusted." 
In thai conviction, after a restless hour or two, she fell asleep ; 
but next morniug in the bright light of day, it did not seem to 
her quite so certain ; and after a few months it faded — ^as with 
young people such things will — to a dim belief. 

Then, however, a circumstance occurred which renewed a 
faith, not again to bo shaken, in the reality of her midnight vis- 
itor. Accepting the invitation of an intimate and highly val- 
ued frioud to spend some days with her, she found that her 
hostess, in a quiet way, had been making experiments in Spiri- 
tualism and had obtained sundry communications. Miss Y , 

curious on a subject of which sho had heard much and seen very 
little, joined her friend during several sittings. 

On one of these occasions an (alleged) spirit announced itself 
as Sarali Clarke,"^ a name unknown to both ladies. The com- 

* This is not the real name. I obtained this narratlTa fram Ifln 

V henelt, in the winter of 180^10; adt tafcmtix^BttcmiMioa toglvs 

tuuncs and exact dates. But afierwaxd, on ocml«cdD^'«V^'^«L wosifi^ 


muoication was to the effect that she had been, many years be- 

forcy houflckeepcr in the family of Miss Y 's aunt ; that 

ahe hod endeavored, unsuccessfully, to communicate directly 

with Miss V when that young lady last visited the old 

mansion ; that her object was to confess a criminal act of which 
she had been guilty and to ask her old mistress's pardon for it. 
A restless desire to do so (she added) had caused her to haunt 
the room she occupied when on earth. She then proceeded to 
say that slio hud been tempted to steal and hide away several 
small pieces of family plate, including a silver sugar-bowl and a 
few other articles which she enumerated ; and that she would 

be very thankful if Miss V would tell her aunt this and 

express lier (SarahV) great sorrow for what she had done, and 
her hope for pardon. 

The next time Miss V visited her aunt, she asked her if 

she had ever known a person named Sarah Clarke. 

" Certainly," she replit^l, ** she was housekeeper in our fam- 
ily some thirty or forty years since.*' 

" What sort of person was she? " 

'' A good, careful, tidy woman." 

" Did you lose any silver articles while she was with you, 
aunt ? " 

The lady reflected. " Yes, I believe wo did ; a sugar baoin 
and a few other things disappeared in a mysterious way. 
^V^Iy do you ask ? " 

" Did you ever suspect Sarah of taking them ? " 

'* No : of courso she had access to them ; but we considered 
her fiu* too trustworthy to be guilty of theft." 

Then Miss Y related the message she and her friend had 

received ; and, on comparing notes, it was found that the list 
of articles, as given by Sarah to the two ladies, corresponded 
with the things actually lost, so far as the aunt could reool* 

she ftmnd the old lady unwiDlBg to inenr the notoriety eonseqiMnl en 
dfliaf as: sad thus Miss Y^— bad to withdzaw tlis permiMion to va 
a«j aoMs in cgimsctioii with bee stay. 


lect. What that lady thought of her niece's storj I know not ; 
all she said was that, if Sarah had taken the things, she most 
freely forgave it. 

The remarkable point in this story remains to be told. From 
that time forth, tJie haunted chamber vxu free from aU diaturb 
ance, Sarah Clarke never again appeared to any of its oeea- 

Knowing the standing of the parties I am able to vouch for 
the truth of this story. Let us consider what it disposes aa to 
the next world. 

There is repentance there as here. There is restless regret 
and sorrow for grave sin committed while here. There is anx- 
ious desire for pardon from those whom the spirit wronged 
during earth-life. In other words the natural effects of evil do- 
ing follow us to our next phase of life ; and, in that phase oi 
life as in the present, we amend, and attain to better things, by 
virtue of repentance. 

In this the mode of moral progression after death is similar 
to that which alone avails on earth. '' Bepent ! " was Christ's 
first public exhortation. To the '^ spirits in prison " on the 
other side — spirits not yet released from earthly bondage and 
earthly remorse — ^the same exhortation, it would seem, is ap- 
propriate still. 

Such indications as these induce Spiritualists to believe that 
the next world is more nearly like this than Orthodoxy ima- 
gines it to be. 

Another corollary is, that when such spiritual phenomena ^ 
present themselves, an endeavor to establish communication 
with the manifesting spirit may result in benefit alike to a den- 
izen of the other world and to a disturbed inhabitant of this. 
In this way Mrs. Propert, getting rid of the midnight footfitJls, 
might have been in quiet possession of her villa at thia day. 

I invite attention, also, to the strong proof of identity far- 

niahed hy Mies Y ^'s story. The name of the hooaekeeper 

wna unknown to both ladies wheaYk^T i^ti\\«^5tt3L^ v^ytlVi ^gm^thft 




iiiruMfln There was nothing to suggest such a name, or soch 
a oonfession as was made. Yet, on inquiry, both name and 
confession were found to correspond with facts that had taken 
pUoe thirty or forty years before : to say nothing of a new fact, 
tallying with all the rest : the cessation of the spiritual TisitSi 
as soon as the visitor had no longer any motive to show her- 

I pass now to another class of manifestations, in which, it 
will be remarked, the same element of unexpectedness is found* 



'* The ass saw tho angel of the Lord standing in the waj. ** — ^NuKBKBf 

Those who deem incredible certain details of the interruption 
which befell Balaam during his unwilling journey to meet the 
King of Moab, may find, in modem incidents, cause for belief 
that there might have been an important truth underlying the 

I think it the more important to adduce some of these inci- 
dents because, if sufficiently authenticated, they set at rest the 
vague theories touching " expectant attention " and " dominant 
ideas,'' that have been propounded to explain away, as figments 
of the brain, all perceptions of spiritual appearances. First let 
us examine one which occurred in Holland. 

What befell a Swiss Officer. 

I take the following from a well-known English work on 
Sleep, by Dr. Binns. The author gives it on the authority of 
Lord Stanhope, who had it directly from the gentleman to 
whom the incident occurred, Mr. C. de Steigucr, a nephew of 
the celebrated Avoyer de Steiguer, of Berne. That gentle- 
man, in relating it to Lord Stanhope, said : '^ I do not believe 
in apparitions, but there is something very extraordinary in 
the subject ; and I would not relate what I am about to men- 
tion if many persons, some of whom are now alive, could not 
boar witness to its truth." 

Lord Stanhope then prooeeds to giv^ ^^ %& t^mxIy «a ^^oraiUe 


an exact translation of the expressions which he (Monsieur da 
Steiguor) used." Hero it is : 

<< I was early in life in the Dutch service, and had occupied 
my lodgings, for some weeks, without hearing anything remark* 
able. My bedroom had, on one side of it, my sitting room ; 
on the other, a room in which my servant slept ; and it com- 
municated with each of them bv a door. 

" One night, being in bed but not asleep, I heard a noiso as 
if some ]H»rson was walking, in slip|ier8, up and down the room« 
The noiso contiuueil fur some time. 

*' Next morning I asked my servant if ho had heard any* 
tiling. 'Nothing,' ho replied, < except that you walked up 
and down the room lost night, when it was late.' I assured 
him that I hod not done so ; and, as ho appeared incredulous, 
I told him that, if I should again hear the sounds I would lot 
him know. 

^' On the f(»llowing night I called him, desiiing him to bring 
a candle and to take notice if he saw anything, lie informed 
me that he did not ; but that ho heard u uoLso as if some per* 
son were approaching him, and then moving olf in a contrary 

*" I had three animals in my room ; a dog, a cat, and a can- 
ary -binl ; each of which was afftH^ted in a peculiar manner, 
whenever the noiso was heard. Tlie dog immediately julnpcd 
intd my bed and lay close to mo, trembling a^ if from fear. 
The cat followed the with her eyes, as if she saw, or at- 
tempted to see, what caused it. The canary bird, which was 
Bleeping on its i>orch, instantly awoke, and fluttered aK»ut the 
cage, in great (perturbation. 

** Occasionally a noiso was heard as if the keys of the pLvno 
in my sitting room were slij^htly touched, and as if the key of 
my desk was turned and the desk opened ; but nothing moved. 
I mentioned these things to tho officers of my regiment, all of 
whom slept by turns on tho sofa in my sitting room, and hoard 


M. de Steiguer had the floor and skirting-board taken npj 
but could find not even a trace of rats or mice. 

After a time he became unwell ; and, his iUness increasing, 
he sent for a physician who urgently advised him to change his 
lodgings, though he would give no reason for this advice. Fi- 
nally M. de Steiguer had himself removed. 

He stated further to Lord Stanhope that when he became 
convalescent and insisted on knowing why the doctor had so 
strongly urged him to leave his rooms, the latter informed 
him *^ that they had a bad reputation ; that one man had hung 
himself in them, and that it was supposed another had been 
murdered." * 

This narrative bears the stamp of authenticity. We cannot 
believe that Lord Stanhope would have allowed Dr. Binns to 
use his name OJid that of his Swiss friend, in attestation of such 
a story, without a deep conviction of its truth. 

The witness appears to have been a cool-headed and dispas- 
sionate observer ; but let us suppose him nervous and imagin- 
ative. Did his servant share his temperament? Were the 
senses of all the officers whom he called in, as additional wit- 
nesses, misled by the excitement of expectation ? Let' us con- 
cede these extreme 'improbabilities. Another difficulty re- 
mains. Was the dog, was the cat, was the canary-bird, ner- 
vously expectant? Were their senses deceived by '^ dominant 
ideas " ? 

As regards the most sagacious of domestic animals, what has 
been usually called popular superstition has assigned to it an 
occasional power beyond mere spiritual perceptions — a species 
of presentiment in certain cases of approaching death. I do 
not venture to affirm that dogs ever have such a power; yet 
I know of one strongly-attested case which goes to prove that 
sometimes they have an instinct which greatly resembles it. 

* Edwabd Biims, H.D., Analomp of 8teq>; seoond editUm, Lou* 
doaa, 1845; pp, 479, 480. 




For Uiirt/ ycsrn [nut I have b«cn well acqualntod with Mr& 

D , iliuiglitcr (if tlio Uto Rov. Mr. ti , long and &vor> 

•blj known in ludinna. Urr grsndparenU, named IIiiu, 
wero living in Woodstock, Virginia, when her mother, bft«r> 

word Mm. R , wb» twetily yoon old and •till unmiuried. 

&liM ITau had k brother, two yron old, and the child hid » 
favorite dog, who wiu his constant companion and ■oemi>d to 
toko Rpectal eara of htm. Tlio cir«uinst*a<«s conncctod with 

this child'* sudden douth, Mfa. L had often heard repealMl 

by h«r mother. 

It WM about mid-day that t-his boy, running over the pailor 
floor, trippod hii foot in (ho carpet and felL Uia aiater picked 
him up and aoou mooeodcd in aoothini^ liim. At tUnncr, bov- 
•rer, it vaa obflerred that he gsivo hta loft liand, not being bUa 
to >tnlob out hia right. They ruhbinl tJte right amwithoam* 
pbor and the child made no complaint. 

While they wer« at dinner, lh« dog approached th« child'4 
chair and began whining in tltn moat pitiMus way. They pi 
him ont, then he howlMl. Thoydrore him olT, but ha retonu 
and took hia post under thn window of the room m which 
child was, continiiing to howl from tiua to lime ; and 
he ramaioed during the night, in iiiito of all attrmpta to 
lodge him. In the evening tbe child was taken aenooaly ilV, 
awl dioil about onn o'clock in the morning. Ro long aa it 
liT*d tfaa dog'i dimnal lamrat wna lirard, at brirf into-rala ; 
but aa aoon aa tho child -died, the hoitling cnutd, and 
irnmnM] either then ur nn«rw«rd. 

I have rntire conBdcnce in Mra. D 'a truthfuli 

it was by hor that the above Rtory waa related to me.* 

nUa, however, la the only example of- the kind that 
eomo to ma directly anthoiticatod ; and I rafnun from 

- OaJnaST, ISSO. I (oekMtaaqttlMkllMtteua, 

a, ui^^l 



ing on a single example. Animals may not Iiave the gift of 
presentiment ; but I think there is sufficient proof that they 
have sj)iritual perceptions. In a former work * I have, inci 
dentally, brought up some evidence of this ; and I esteem my 
self fortunate in being able here to present, from an accredited 
medical source, one of the best-attested and most circumstan- 
tially related incidents in proof, that I ever remember to have 
seen. It is the more valuable because medical writers as a 
class — like other scientific men — are ever reluctant to admit 
anything that savors of the supernatural. 

The story appeared, three years before the advent of Spirit- 
ualism in America, in one of the best-known Medical Journals 
of Scotland. It occurs in a review of a work on Sleep, then 
just published. The reviewer touches on the subject of appari- 
tions and, after noticing several cases which he thinks of easy 
solution, thus proceeds : 

" The following case, however, is one of those very rare ones, 
whoso explanation baffles the philosophic inquirer. It is, in- 
deed, almost the only authentic one to which we could refer ; 
and, as it occurred to a particular friend and every circum- 
stance was minutely inquired into at the time, the narrative ia 
as authentic as such things can be. It may add to the interest 
of this case to state that it was commimicated several years 
ago to Mr. Ilibbert, after the publication of his work on appari- 
tlons, wlien he confessed that he could not explain it in the same 
philosophic way in which he had been able to account for all 
others, and that it appeared to him more nearly to approach* the 

The story, thus strongly vouched for, is then given by the 
reviewer, as follows, the title only added by me : 

The Dog in the Wolfridge Wood. 

" F. M. S was passing through the Wolfridge "^ood at 

Alverston, one night at twelve o'clock. He was accompanied 

♦ FootfaU$, pp. 217, 2SV, ^%^, \AA, «&, 


by his dog, of a breed between the Newfoundland and mastifT; 
a powerful animal, who feared neither man nor beast. He 
had a fowling-piece and a pair of pistols loaded, besides his 
sword ; for ho belonged to the Military School there and had 
been out for a day^s shooting. 

** The road ran centrally tlirough tho wood ; and very nearly 
in tlie centre of tbo wood, at a part somewhat more open than 
the rest, there was a cross erected to point out the spot where 
a gamekeeper had been murdered. Tho place had the reputa- 
tion of being haunted, and the ghost, it was said, had been re- 
peatedly seen. S liad frequently before passed this cross 

in the wood without seeing anything, and treated the story of 
the ghost so lightly that ho had, on more occasions than one, 
for a bet, gone there at midnight and returned without meet* 
ing anjrthing except an occasional gamekeeper or poacher. 

*^ This night, when ho approached tho o[)cn space in the wood, 
he tliought he perceived, at the other end of that s|)ace, the 
form of a man, more indistinct, however, than usual. He 
called Ids dog to his side (for previously it had been ranging 
about, barking furiously and giving chase to the game it started), 
patted it on tho head to make it keep a shaq) look-out, and 
cocked his gim. The dog, on this, was all impatience. 8 
challenged the figure, but no answer was returned. Suspect- 
ing it was a poacher and prepared for an encounter, ho directed 
the dog^s attention to the ap|>earance, and tho animal answered 
by growling. Ho then kept his eyes steadily fixed on the figure ; 
when, instantaneously it glided within arnfs length of him. 
Still he looked steadily in its face wliilc it kept its eyes on his. 
It had approached him without noise or rustling. The (ace 
was ill-defined, but distinctly visible. Ho could not turn hia 
eyes from those of this apparition ; they fascinated him, as it 
were, to tho spot ; he had no power in his frame. He felt no 
fear of bodily injury, only a certain indescribable sense of awe. 
So fascinated were his eyes by those of the figure, that ho did 
not observe its dress, nor even its form. It looked calmly ai 
with a mild aipecty for a spaoe of tima wbkk Va ^CMk i 


think exceeded lialf a minute ; then suddenly became inviai 
bio. The form had flitted before him about flve minutea alto- 

'^ The dog which before this was furious and growling, now 
stood crouched at his feet as if in a trance — his jaw falleUi his 
limbs quivering, and his whole frame agitated and covered 
with a cold sweat. After the form disappeared, S touched 
the animaly then spoke to it without its seeming to recognize 
him ; and it was some time before it appeared to recover its 
senses. The whole way home, it never moved from his side 
but kept close to his feet ; nor, on their way home, did it run 
after game, or take notice if game started near it. 

'* It waa a fortnight before it recovered from the fright ; and 
it was never afterward the same Hvely animal. No consider- 
ation could ever again induce that dog to enter the wood after 
nightfall, nor would it allow any of the family to enter it. 
When it was forced to pass by the open spot in daylight, it 
would only do so with its master, and it always exhibited signs 
of fear, trembling all the time and walking silently by his side. 

'' S has frequently since passed this spot in the wood at 

the midnight hour, but has never again seen the figure. Be- 
fore this occurrence he had always treated with ridicule any 
stories about ghosts or spirits; now, he firmly believes in 

The i;eviewer does not hesitate to express the opinion that 
the appearance witnessed by his friend was the result of super- 
natural agency.* 

* Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal txa 1845 ; voL hdv. pp. 

The reviewex's remarks are as follows : 

** This is almost the only recorded case known to us where ^e evi- 
dence is 80 strong, as to leave no other impression on the mind but that 
it was the appearance of some sapematoral agency, and, after having 
In vain endeavored to explain it on any other snpposition, we found 
OQxselves forced to oondude, with Hamlet, that ^ there axe more 
Gti bemrea and earth than axe dxeanMd ot in oux philooophy.^ " 


This, publiflhed in a Medical Jonmal of old ttanding and 
established reputation, three years before the term Spiritualism 
in its modem acceptation had been heard of — is certainly a 
▼erj remarkable admission. 

The incident hero related caused a complete revolution of 
opinion in the witness. From being an entire sceptic in appari* 
tions and in spirits, he became, through the evidence of his 
senses, a believer in both. But to have faith in spirits and 
their appearance is to have faith in the reality of another 

Could he, rationally, withhold belief? Is not one such in- 
cident, unmistakably evidenced, as complete proof of a future 

phase of existence as a hundred ? And even if S had 

been willing, as some men have been, to give the lie to his 
own senses, rather than believe that the denizens of the next 
world sometimes return to this, was there not a dumb witness 
remaining to bear testimony, by his changed character and un- 
conquerable terrors, against such stiff-necked and illogical mn- 



' Mimcles oease when men cease to bulieye and to expect them.**--* 

This is wliat is usually called a rationalistic, but it is not a 
rational, view of miracles. 

A portion of the alleged events which go currently under the 
name of miracles undoubtedly do not happen* But a larger 
portion do. Unfounded belief may cause us to imagine the 
former. The latter are not dependent upon our thought of 
them — ^be it credulous or incredulous f — for their appearance 
or non-appearance. 

What the world has been wont to term miracles, cease to be 
regarded as such when they are critically examined : that is true. 

But it is not true that phenomena similar to what theolo- 
gians usually call the miracles of the New Testament cease, 
when we no longer have faith in them, or when we cease to 
look for their coming. It is not true, as to certain manifesta- 
tions occurring through spiritual agency, and governed by in- 
termuuilano laws, that these are the shadowy ofispring of cre- 
dulity, and that they disappear, like mist of the morning, when 
the Sun of Roason shines out. , 

♦ European Morals^ vol. i. p. 373 : (Amcr. Ed.) 

f Hard-set unbelief may, now and then, by some law of mental sci- 
ence as yet imperfectly understood, arrest a certain class of spiritua] 
phenomena, and so deprive a dogmatic sceptic of a chance to wlttieni 
them : just as the contempt of Jesas^ own coontrymon diminished Lis 
spiritual power while amon^f them (^lark vl 5). Bat this is the 
exception only ; as many of the narratives in this volume sofficietttly 


Hie great lesson taught in the few narratives I have already 
given, in many of those which follow and in a hundred others 
attested hcyond reasonable denial,^ is that genuine spiritual 
appearances show themselves in spite of distrust, unbelief, re« 
pugnanoe even — show themselves, when the sight of an angel 
from Ileavon was as little expected as thoy — and, so far as the 
evidence goes, have always done so, though doubtless more fre- 
quently in some ages of the world tlian in others. 

It is a popular notion that, about twenty-five years since, a 
superstitious epidemic, originating in Western New York, over- 
took millions of weak men and women, Orst in these United 
States, then in £uro{)e and other |>arts of the world ; creating 
in them a most unphilosophical belief: namely, that there had 
appeared among us a modem dispensation, under which there 
were occurring marvellous events without example in the past, 
and specially vouchsafed by God to this, his favored generation. 
The assumed theory is that this new (kith was the mania pre- 
vailing for the time; soon to pass away, like a hundred other 
ephemeral delusions. 

These short-cuts toward a solution of momentous difficulties 
are very convenient and very illogical. They save men trouble 
in investigating ; but they cannot save them from errors of the 
gravest character. 

Nothing more easy than to allege that if wo go bock even a 
few years lieforo the time when the report of the " Rochester 
Knockings ^ disgusted the Church and scandalized the world 
of Science, wo come upon an age barren of all miraculous ink- 
lings, save only within the suspicious precincts where RomLih 
ecclcsiasticism reigns. 

— Easy to say, but at variance with notorious facts. The ear- 
liest date of the Rochester disturbances is March, 1S48. Will 
it do to assert that, say ten or fifteen years before that time, 
one cannot find, in any sober, civilized nation, where science 
holds free and respected sway, trustworthy evidence that ooi 

* See FpUfhiU^ Books lii., iv.^ v. 


currenoes as strange and as little capable of apneomatio exp]» 
nation — spiritual manifestations in fact — were habitually show- 
ing themselves? 

Let us see. Our own country is spoken of as young, impul- 
sive, credulous, not given to thorough study. Let us, in this 
instance, pass her by, for another. The English are staid, prac- 
tical, thoughtful ; not easily moved from their equanimity ; not 
specially tolerant of startling novelties ; sufficiently sensitive to 
the sting of ridicule ; sufficiently inclined to follow the old ruts 
of habit and custom, legally, materially, spiritually. Li no 
country is Science more free ; in none are scientific men harder 
students, more sceptical, or more active-minded. 

The more valuable, because of these national traits, is the fol- 
lowing narrative, or cluster of narratives, to which, through 
the kindness of a Scottish friend whom the world, alas ! has re- 
cently lost,* my attention happened to be directed. He put 
into my hands a remarkable book, little known, written, thirty 
yeai*s since, by a gentleman of standing ; an English officer and 
a Fellow of the Royal Society, f 

The author of this work testifies to a disturbance of a very 
singular character which occurred at his country seat, near 
Woodbiidge, Suffolk. It continued throughout nearly two 
months. The details are minutely given. 

Fifty-three Days of Bell Rikoiko. 

This disturbance commenced on the second of February, 1834, 
at the house of Great Bealings, inhabited by Major Edward 
Moor. On the afternoon of that day, being Sunday, during the 
absence of Major Moor at church and while only one mau- 
serv'ant and one maid-servant were at homo, the dining-room 

* Robert Chambers. 

f Dealings DdUi. An Aocountof the Mystexioas Ringing of-. Bells, 
at Great Bealings, Suffolk, in 1834, and in other parts of Bngfand : with 
Relations of other unaocoimtable Ooonzzenoes in Tsxions places. 'Bf 
Major Edward Moob, P.R.B. ; Woodhtldge, 1841 : pp. 143. 


bell was rung, without visible cause, three times. The weather 
was calm ; the barometer at 29^ ; the thermometer within its 
usuiil range. Tliere were no i*cmarkable atmospheric phenom- 

Ncxt day the same l)ell sounded sevi^ral times, equally witli- 
ont apparent cause. On the third day five out of the nine bells 
suspended in a row in tlie basement of the house, gave forth 
several loud ]>ealH, while nobody could detect any one meddling 
either with the pulls or the wires. 

Aft<^r tliis all the bells in the house, twelve in number, were 
(except one, the front-door bell) ro}>eat(Hlly rung in the same 
manner : five bells usually ringing at a time. The wires of 
these five jyealcrt wei-e visible in their whole course, from the 
pulls to the IkjUs themselves, except where they {mssod through 
floors or walls by small o}>enings. 

This continued day after day throughout February and March. 
The bells usually rang after a clattering fashion, quite dififerent 
from the usual ringing. " With no vigor of pull," says Major 
Moor, "could the violent ringing be cfTectecL" Pulling the 
horizontal wires with a hook, downward, pi*oduoed only a gen- 
tle, tinkling sound. The Major further says: "The motion of 
the bells, and that of their spiral flexible support, when rung 
by hand, was comparatively slow an<l perceptible : not so, at 
the peals ; it was then too rapid to be seen distinctly." ^ 

Major Moor was naturally much 6ur|>rised by those appa- 
rent prodigies ; and he, his servants, and friends made many 
eflTorts to find some natural exploiuition, but wholly without 
success. Tlien ho inserted a minute statement of particulars iu 
the Ipswich J'lmnialy f describing the situations of the bells 
and the ain-angement of their wires, iu hopes that some one 
would bo able to suggest an ex[»lanatiou ; but no explanation 
beyond surmises of trickery ever reached him : in reply to ccr. 

* Deatinj^ BdU, p. 0. 

t Of ICaich 1, 1834. Ho itates that daring the very time he was 
wxttiiif his oommnnicitkm to this newspaper, the bells weia f«^«iStMttq 



tain inquin^n who probably tbouglit they were suggesting acU 
equate causC; he replied that his house was not infested with 
rats, and thfit he kept no monkey. 

The last ringing was on March 27, 1834. It is abundantly 
evident, from Major Moor's book, that he spared no pains, 
throughout the seven and a half weeks during which the strange 
annoyance lasted, to detect fi-audulent artifice, had artifice, under 
such circumstances, been possible. He avers : ^^ The bells rang 
scores of times when no one was in the passage or back-building 
or house or grounds, unseen : I have waited in the kitchen for 
a repetition of the ringings, with all the servants present— when 
no one could be in concealment. But what matters ? Neither 
I, nor the servants, nor any one, could, or can, work the won- 
derment that I and more than half a score of others saw.'' 
Finally, the Major declares : '^ I am thoroughly convinced that 
the ringing is by no human agencj'.* 

Now, on the supposition that what have been called spiri- 
tual manifestations — doings which we can trace to no human 
agency — are the modem offspring of an epidemic commencing 
in 1848, what should we suppose might be the probable result 
of a newspaper article narrating the above occurrence, and 
published in an English paper in 1834 ? Simply that the fool- 
hardy narrator would incur ridicule as a dupe, or encounter 
reproach as an impostor. 

But what actually happens ? 

Disclosures thbouqh Bealinqs Bells. 

From Major Moor's book we learn that his communication to 
the Ipswich tToti/mcd brought him letters containing fourteen 
different examples of mysterious bell-ringing, every one of 
them unexplained ; all occurring in England, namely, in the 
Counties of Norfolk, Suffolk, Kent, Derby, Middlesex, and in 
or near the towns of Chelmsford, Cheltenham, Chesterfieldi 

• BeaUnffi BOt, p. 6. 


Cambridge, Bristol, Greenwich, Windsor, and London; all of 
comparatively recent date, and most of them attested by the 
Bigiiatuivs of those who witnessed them, with |X)rmission to 
give their names to the public. IIo received also three other 
x>mmunicutiou8 disclosiug further mysteries, to which I shaU 
refer by and by. 

The fourteen examples, be it remarked, are all of one partio 
tilar phase of manifestation ; a rare phase, so far as my obser- 
vation goes : I have notes of but one such in tlie United States, 
namely, in a house in Pine street, Philadelphia; lasting during 
fi%'e days of the week between Christmas and New Year's Day, 

But even of this rare pha^^e of manifestation, wo canaot im- 
agine that in tlie fourteen examples preM*nted in Healing* 
lidUy WO have more than a very small instalment of siaiilar 
cases which might be found in England. The chances are tliat 
nine men or women of tho world, out of every ten, would 
shrink from th j notoriety, or Mhirk tho trouble, attendant on the 
presentation of such narratives for publication. 

Even in this small book, then, what a lifting of tho veil on 
the thousand marvels that may hjive occurred in all ages, unr&> 
corded or unexplained ! 

Unable for lack of spare to notice Major Moor^s fourteen 
relations, I here brielly coudeuho tho evidences in three of 

An Eic.iitekn'-mostiis' Disturbance. 

In a house near Chest eriiL'ld, belonging to ^Ir. James Ash- 
Well, *'^ long and re{)eatcd l>ell-ringiugs,*^ commencing in ISCO 
and continuing throughout eighteen mouths, occuiTcd. 

* In thin cane, there bein^ a sick lady in the houM, tho att"ni]ing 
nurse said the disturbanoo must be Rtopxtod, and she hcrMlf mutllcd tbo 
belU. wrapinn^r the clappers with cloth and then tying them with twine. 
Three hoars later they rang thciusvlvcs looie of cvcirthing. pealiqg 
move violently than before. Finally they rang thomselTca looaa txma 
Hm wall itself, drmwiof oat the ttapilea, flT« \ac^«%\iQn%— Uun \Ka M 


The details are given, partly by Mr. Ashwell himself, partly 
by Mr. W. Felkiii, of Nottingham, a friend of his. 

According to Mr. Felkin's statement, " all the bells in the 
house rang at one time or other ; but never before five in the 
morning nor after eleven at night. The oscillation was like 
that of a pendi.\um, not a deci-easiug one. A bell was put np 
one Saturday evening, unattached to any wire, and rang in half 
an hour.* Another boll which had been taken down and laid 
on a closet shelf, lay there quiescent for some weeks ; but being 
then fixed by means of the flexible bent iron to which it waa 
attached between a wooden hat-peg batten and the wall against 
which the batten was nailed, it rang immediately, f 

These bells were wont to ring continuously, with violeuu 
clatter and for a considerable time. Sometimes, during their 
greatest vibration, Mr. Ashwell would seize one of them between 
his hands, and compel cessation : but, as soon as he released it, 
it would resum3 its oscillation and ringing. 

All the bells were hung out of reach. Bell-hangers, of 
course, were called to lend their aid ; but nothing was found to 
indicate that bell or bell-wire had been tampered with. On a 
pai*ticular occasion, while a bell-hanger was engaged in re attach- 
ing the wires, after a long silence, one of the bells began to 
ring before his face. Down dropped the man from the ladder ; 
and, without waiting to gather up his tools, off ho ran as fast 
as his legs could carry him, crying out that Satan was in the 
bells, and that he would have nothing more to do with them. 

TJio house where all this happened was so substantial, its 
walls so thick, and its foundations so large that the highest 
winds were unfelt within it. " Every part of this extensive man- 
sion," says Mr. Felkin, ** was examined by mo with the strictest 
care, and I could not divine the motive natural power adequate 
to the effect." 

rang on the floor. The inmates of the hoose were not Spiritnalisto 
aor in any senao favorers of spiritoal belief. 
* BeaUngi BeOa^ p. 48. 
/ Page 66. 


Mr. Felkin says of his friend, Mr. Ashwell, that ^' ho is th<> 
reverse of siiporstitious ; well-educated, philosophical, and in- 
doftitig;ible in research." Mr. Ashwell " tried various experi- 
ments with elect i-onieters and other tests," and 8|K)ke on the 
Huhjoct with many men of science ; but all without result. Mr. 
LVlkiu never heard Mr. AshwcU '^ hazard a guess as to the 

Again and again, indeed, attempts were made, as well by the 
iamily as by numerous visitors, to discover the occult agency, 
*' both when the bells were connected with lines and when the 
wii-cfl had been cut for months : a circumstance which made no 
apparent dififercnce in their sounding disposition." But '^ theso 
events quite baffled the acutcst incjuirer." 

Ringings so i>er8istent caused great excitement, not only in 
the house, but, lieing noised abroa<i, in the neighborhood. The 
servants wore greatly alanncd, and some left their places. Tho 
children, too, were frightened, but were pacified by being told 
that « the bells were ill." 

A public footpath passed near I^Ir. Ashweirs front door ; and 
*^ many passengci-s made a circuit rather than pass close to 

Another observation is mentioned in connection with this 
case which is intelligible enough to ns, but was, no doubt, a 
puzzle to Major ^loor, writing at a time when ^^ sensitives" 
and '' mediums " had not yet been heard of. It was this : Tho 
go«Ri|)S of the vicinity remarked, as to a young lady who resided 
in Mr. AshwclPs faniilv, that the occurrences were nearlvcoin- 
cident with her stay in the house, and ceased about the tiniesho 
left it. But (it is added) it does not appear tlmt the slightest 
voluntary agt»ncy on her part was suspected by the family, who 
had tho best means of detecting it.^ 

The next narrative oomos from a Londoner 

• This nanatiTe extends fioia page 45 to ptfs 66 of lkalmg$ 

818 msuA m ufboab. 

A Lady's Account op Bell Binginos. 

Among the numerous letters received hj Major Moor waa 
one from a Mrs. Milnes, dated No. 19 St. Paul's Terrace, Is- 
lington, May 17, 1834. 

The writer says : " In the early part of February, 1825, re- 
turning home from a walk (to our then residence. No. 9 Earl 
street, Westminster), about half-past four in the afternoon, I 
was astonished to find the family much disturbed at the ringing 
of bells in the house, without visible caase. The first boll 
rung was in the nurseiy, the pull of which was at the bottom 
of the house, quite imconnected with any others. This bell 
rang several times before the rest began; then that of the 
dining-room ; next that of the drawing-room, and so on, through 
the house : sometimes altogether, as if they were trying to 
entice each other in uproar; at others one at a time, but always 

'' By this time I was much alarmed and sent for Mr. Milnes 
who, thinking to find out what ailed them, had the cases taken 
down that concealed the wires. Finding this of no use, he 
next placed a person with a light in each room, whUe he him- 
self held a candle under the row of bells below ; but we could 
not then ascerbiin the slightest reason for this strange ringing, 
which lasted two hours and a half: nor have we ever since 
been able to discover more of it than we did then." 

Here again, as in the preceding example, we have an incident 
probably intimating through whose unconscious mediumship 
these phenomena occurred. Mr. Milnes adds : ^^ It had a sur- 
prising effect upon one of our servant girls, a mulatto. She, 
from the first, had been more terrified than any one else in the 
house ; and, at the last peal, fell into strong convulsions ; so 
strong as to rf^quire several men to hold her down. Those con- 
vulsions continued sixteen hours and were succeeded by inaen- 
sibilitjr, and a stupor that lasted nearly a week : etery moftm 
being used to restore lier^WV* m^Lxow.^ ^^Sar^ It is "^gwlw 


that the moment she was seized with these fits the bells ceased 
to ring." • 

Bells in Greenwicu Hospital. 

The details in this case come, as in the preceding ezomples, 
from a witness present, namely, from Lieutenant Rivers, R. N., 
a comrade of Nelson, who liad lost a leg in the service. They 
are given in a letter from tliat officer to Major Moor, dated 
April 26, 1841. 

The bells began to ring September 30, 1834, in Lieutenant 
Rivers* apartments situated in the hospital ; and they contin* 
ued four days. 

The ringing was at intervals of five to ten minutes ; four 
bells sometimes sounding at once. '' In the evening," says the 
Lieutenant, '' about eight o^clock, I tied up the clappers : while 
80 doing the bells wore much agitated and sliook violently. In 
the morning when I loosed them, they began to ring." 

** The clerk of the works, his assistant and Mr. Thame, the 
bell-hanger, came and had another examination, without dis- 
covery of the cause. Tlioy requested that the family and 
servants would leave the apartments to them. Wo did 80| 
dining at a neighbor's opposite ; and while at dinner wo heard 
the bells ring a peal. Mr. Thame and the assistant remained 
till eleven o'clock ; the one watching the cranks, the other the 
bells below, in perfect astonishment." 

Ho adds: "Several scientific men tried to discover the 
cause. The front-door bell, detached from the others, did not 
ring. I secured the door-pull to prevent its being used, leav- 
ing the bell to have full play. About three oVlock in the 
afternoon I went home and found many persons satisfying their 
curiosity. When explaining to them that I thought it extra* 
ordinaiy that the front-door did not join in the perfonnanc6| 

^ BMtfN^ BflBt, ^. QMEI^ 


it immediatolj set up a good ring. * The cause of all this le 
mains still mysterious.^' 

Another observation made in this case is worth noting. 
*^ What appeared most extraordinary was the movement of the 
cranks which, the bell-hanger said, could not cause the bells to 
ring without being pulled downward : and this they did ot 
themselves, in every room ; working like pump-handles." 

Lieutenant Rivers adds that similar phenomena occurred in 
another officer's apartments in the hospital, continuing for a 
week, f 

To multiply examples from Major Moor's book would but 
involve tedious repetition ; seeing that the narratives all resem- 
ble each other: the same violent ringings or pealings, some- 
times for a few hours only, sometimes for months ; the same 
care to detect trickery : the same anxiety to discover the cause ; 
and, in evei*y case, the same result : inability to trace the phe- 
nomena to any human agency. 

Tliere is another phase of manifestations, analogous to the 
above; sometimes, like them, of a mere material characteri 
sometimes indicating intelligence; and which, because it haf 
been popularly ascribed to restless spirits, revisiting theii 
former homes, is commonly termed haunting. J 

Of this, again, there are two varieties ; one characterized by 
knockings and other unexplained noises ; the other, often at- 
taching itself to ancient family i-esidences in England and other 
countries, marked by the phenomenon of apparition. A large 
proportion of the old, well-known English names of rank have 
their family legend, referring to peculiar disturbances or ap- 
pearances, usually persistent through generations, and generally 
confined to some ancestral mansion. 

Especially when the haunting assumes the form of a ^* family 

^ Yet^ 08 this bell was so situated that the wire coald readily bt 
reached by the hand, the incident, taken by itself is not oondoaiTeu 
f Bealinffs BeU», pp. 81-83. 
/ For Dumeroua examples, see Foo^oOs, EQok.iii« ohap. 2. 


ghost '^ is tho storj, outside of tbo ikmily itself, wont to be 
pooh-poohed as a nursery tulc. No doubt such narratives often 
involve exaggeration, mystification, illusion. As little doubt, 
however — if we but sift tho genuine from tho spurious — that 
many of them have foundation in truth. We have testimony 
in proof from eye-witnesses of such standing that we have not 
Iho right to impugn their intelligence or their veracity. 

Take an example, from a recent publication. Florence Mar- 
ryat, daughter of tho celebrated novelist, gave, less than a year 
ago, in an American ]>oriodical,^ three stoiies of apparitions, 
which she attests as "strictlv true and well autheticated." Of 
these the last was witnesst^i by her father. Captain Blarryat, 
and is relatc<1 as she heard it from his own lips. I condense por- 
tions of it, giving the main facts in the author^s own language. 

In one of the northern counties of England stands a coun- 
try house, Bumham Green, inherited by tho present occujNUits, 
Sir Harry and Lady Bell, f Their house had its ghost; but, 
"like most sensil)le people, they laughed at the report : '* sur- 
rounding themselves with every luxury and not beetling tho 

Tlieir numerous friends, cordially invited, flocked to Bum- 
ham Green, thought the place and its host and hostess charm* 
ing ; yet, after a while, made paltry excuses to curtail their 
visits and were shy of lK»ing lured there again. It came out 
that they had heard of the ghost, some declared they had seen 
it, and tho rest could not bo persuaded to remain under a 
haunted roof. 

" Sir Harry and Lady Bell were thoroughly vexed and did all 
they could to dissipate the sui>c*rstition. They disinterred the 

* IIarper'9 WeM*/^ issue of December 24, 1870 ; pages f^6 and 817. 

f These are not the real names. The writer vkj% : ^* While I pco- 
•erre all details of these stories, I carefally hide tho names of persons 
and places, lest by negligence in this respect I should wound the fed- 
ings of sarvivon."* She says also that tho stories which she has xebC 
are selected from a number of similar anecdotes which rise !■ 
oiomory as she writes. 


history of the ghost who went by the name of * The Lody of 
Bumham Grcen,' and found that it was supposed to be the 
spirit of one of their ancestresses who had lived in the time of 
Elizabeth, 'and had been suspected of poisoning her husband. 
Her picture hung in one of the unused bedrooms." 

Lady Bell caused this bedroom to be renovated and cheer* 
fully fitted up ; and she had the picture of the Lady cleaned 
and new-framed. In vain ! " No one co\ild be found to sleep 
in that room. The servants gave warning, if it was simply 
proposed to them, and visitors invariably requested to have 
their room changed after the second or third night. GuesI 
after guest took flight, to return no more." 

Li this dilemma Sir Harry applied to Captain Marryat, an 
old friend of his, for advice. The Captain, utterly disbelieving 
the story, offered to occupy the haunted chamber: an offer 
which was eagerly accepted. 

With a brace of loaded pistols under his pillow, he was un- 
disturbed for several nights, and was beginning to think of re 
turning homo : but he was not to escape so easily. 

After a week had passed, one evening when Captain Mar 
ryat was about to retire for the night, Mr. Lascelles, one of the 
guests, tapped at his door and asked him to cross to his room 
and inspect a newly-invented fowling-piece, the merits of which 
they had just before been discussing in the smoking room. 
The Captain, who had already divested himself of coat and 
waistcoat, picked up a pistol — " in case we meet the ghost " he 
said jestingly — passed along the corridor to Mr. Lascelles' room, 
and, after chatting for a few minutes, over the virtues of the 
new gun, turned to go. Mr. Lascelles returned with him 
** just to protect you from the ghost," he said laughingly, in 
imitation of the former allusion. The corridor was long and 
dark, the lights having been extinguished at midnight ; but as 
they entered it they saw a dim light advancing from the &rther 
end — a light held by a female figure. The children of several 
of the families were lodged on the floor above, and LasceUea 
suggested that this was pro\>&\>\y Bom« Udy gping to visit tlui 


nurseries. The Captain, remembering that he was in shirl 
and tronsers and unwilling to face a lady in that guise, drew 
his companion aside. The conclusion shall be told in the nar* 
rator^s own words. 

The Lady op Burnhah Green. 

** The rooms in the corridor were placed opposite each other, 
and were approached by double doors, the first of which, on 
being opened, disclosed a small entry and the second doori 
which led to the bcdohaml>er itself. Many persons, on enter- 
ing tlieir rooms, ouly closed this second door, leaving the other 
standing open ; and thus, whon Mr. LasccUes and my father 
stepped into one of these recesses, they were enabled to shelter 
themselves behind the lialf-closed portal. 

" There, in the gloom, they crouched together, very much 
inclined to laugh, I have no doubt, at the situation in which 
they foun<l themselves, but terribly afraid lest by a betrayal 
of their illegal presence they should alarm the occupant of the 
bedroom before whi^h thoy stood, or the lady who was advanc- 
ing to the place of their concealment. 

*' Very slowly she advanced, or so it seemed to them ; but 
they could watch the glimmer of her lamp through the crack 
of the door; and presently my father, who had pertinaciously 
kopt his eye there, gave the half-smothered exclamation, * Las- 
oelles ! By Jove ! — M« Xocfy .' ' 

*^ He had studied the picture of tlie supposed apparition care- 
fully, was intimate with every detail of her dress and appear- 
ance, and felt that he could not bo mistaken in the red satin 
aaoqnc, white stomacher and petticoat, high -standing frill, and 
cushioned hair of the figure now advancing toward them. 

*''A splendid *' make-up,*** ha said, beneath his breath; 
' but whoever has done it shall find I know a trids worth two 
of his.' 

'' But Mr. Lascelles laid nothing. Impoaition or noi| 1 
not like the looks of the Lady of BnmhaaL Qtt«^ 


^' Oil fibe came, quiet and dignified^ looking neither to tha 
light nor to the left, while my father cocked his pistol, and 
stood ready for her. He expected she would pass their place 
of hiding, and intended to pursue and make her speak to him ; 
but instead of that, the dim light gained the door, and then 
stood still. 

" Lascelles shuddered. He was a brave man, but sensitive. 
Even my father's iron nerves prompted him to bo quiescent. 

" In another moment the lamp moved on again, came closer, 
closer ; and round the half-closed door, gazing inquisitively at 
them, as though really curious to see who was there, peered 
the pale face and cruel eyes of the Lady of Bumham Green. 

" Simultaneously my father pushed open the door and con- 
fronted her. She stood before him in the corridor just as she 
stood in the picture in his bedroom, but with a smile of mali- 
cious triumph on her face ; and goaded on by her expression, 
hardly knowing what he did, he raised his pistol and fired full 
at her. The ball penetrated the door of the room opposite to 
where they stood ; and, with the same smile upon her &ce, shr 
passed through the panels and disappeared.^ 

Of course there was no explanation except what the appear- 
ance and disappearance of the apparition afforded. If spirits 
cannot appear, what was it that these two gentleman saw and 
one of them fired at ? 

No narrative resembling the above was communicated to 
Major Moor ; but he had sent to him, and has recorded in his 
book, thi'ee cases of hauntings. 

They have this in common that the witnesses all testify to 
violent knockings, sometimes accompanied by other strange, 
disturbing noises; but they difier in this respect: one case 
seems to have been of a personal character, that is, dependent 
on the presence of some individual — sentitive or mediu/m^ as 
■the modem phrase is ; the two others, it would appear, were 
independent of personal a.ttTi\mtQiis--*weTe local and pemumonti 


oontiiimng tbroagh sereral generations : or, as we might express 
it^ were endemicaL 

Such is the following contained in a letter written bj an Eng- 
lish clergyman in replj to an inquiry which had been made by 
Major Moor. 

The House of Mystery. 

SYDKBSTEim Pabsoraoc, near FAXKiraAic, / 

NvrfM, May 11, 1841. ) 

8iB : Yon have, indeed, sent your letter, received yesterday, 
to the House of Mystery. In the broad lands of England you 
cannot, perhaps, find such another. But J regret to add thai 
I can afford you no assistance in the *' Bell '' line. 

^ Our noiies, in this parsonage, are of a graver character ; 
smart successions of tappings, groanings, cryings, sobbings, 
disgusting scratchings, heavy tram pings and thundering knocks, 
in all the rooms and passages, have distressed us here for a 
period of nearly nine years, during my oocupnncy of this 
Cure. They still continue, to the annoyance of my family, the 
alarm of my servants, and the occasional flight of some of 

** I am enabled clearly to trace their existence in this par- 
sonage to a period of sixty years past ; and I have little donbt 
that, were not all the residents anterior to that time now 
passed away, I could be able to carry my successful scrutiny 
on and on. 

*'In 1833 and 1834 we kept almost open house to enable 
req)ectable people who were personally known, or had been 
introduced to us, to satisfy their curiosity. But our kindness 
was abused, our motives misinterpreted, and even our diarao* 
ters maligned. Therefore we closed our doors. 

*' In 1834 I had prepared my diary for publication. My 
woi^ was to be published by Mr. Rodd, tba eminent boo^ 
■sUsr of N«wpoH street, London ; but sa ^ba mi^Mi^wK' 


rived I postponed my intentioii from day to day axid year ts 
year, in hope of such consummation." • . . . 

" (Signed) John Stewabt. 

" To Major Edward Moor!^ 

Here we have an example how the knowledge and the mem- 
ory of such occurrences slip away. I cannot learn that the 
Rev. Mr. Stewart's diary has ever appeared. The dislike oi 
notoriety as a visionary, or worse, has caused the suppressioa 
of a hundred similar expositions. 

Tlie next case, one of knockings and other unexplained 
noises, apparently caused by the presence of a mediiun, I pasp 
by; having, in a previous work, adduced many similar ex 

The last example I shall adduce from Major Moor's book is 
evidently one of 

Endemical Disturbances. 

They occurred, says Major Moor, ^^in a respectable old 

manor-house, in the north-eastern part of shire, which 

was, in very early times, Cho seat of a family of distinction in 
the county." 

For eighteen years past this house had been occupied by a 
clergyman, known to Major Moor, who vouches for him as '^ a 
gentleman of most unimpeachable veracity and of deservedly 
high estimation." The account is sent to the Major by this 
clergyman himself, under date June 28, 1841. 

It is also confirmed, from personal observation, by a nephew 
of Major Moor, Ca])tain Frazer, of the Royal Artillery, in a 
letter dated July 19, 1841. 

About the year 1680 the chief part of the ancient mansion 
was pulled down and the present house erected on the spot. 
The remaining portion of the old house was allowed to 8tand| 

* Given on pages 03 to MoiBeolMimt BA. 


end, fleparaied only by a party-wall, it became thenceforth a 
farm-house, occupied by the tenant of the adjoining lands. 

Tho estate came into the possession of the present owner^s 
father in 1818 ; and, at that time the house had the reputation 
of being haunted ; many tales of strange sights and sounds cir- 
culating through the neighborliood. The popular belief ascribed 
these to the unblost spirit of a former owner, dead more than a 
hundred years ago. 

In 1823 the clergyman who is the narrator came to reside 
there. Noises were often heard, but the family referred them, 
at furst, to the occupants of the back portion of the mansion, 
the fjum-house. 

In 1826, however, this old part of tho building was pulled 
down, and still the sounds continued, the same which the £sun- 
\ly had heard for years, and which have been heard, almoti 
nighUyy ever since. 

These disturlmnces are thus described in the clergyman's let- 
ter : " In tho dead of night, usually Iwtween the hours of twelve 
and two, when every meml)cr of the family is in beil and there 
is po imaginable cause to bo assigned, a su(^c(^ssion of heavy and 
distinct blows are heard, as of some weighty instrument ujion a 
hollow wall or floor. Tliov nr<? s >iin'timos so loud as to awaken 
one from sleep, sometimes saircely audible." 

On one occasion thev burst forth with sucli violence that the 
clci^man, accustomed as he was to hear nnd disreganl them, 
sprang out of bed and rushed to the head of tho stairs under a 
ocmviction that tho outer door of the house had Ikm^ violently 
burst in. Another night, when going to l)c<l, the thunipings, 
as violent, were continued so long that he had time to go to the 
back-door of tho house and sally forth, in quest. 

On yet another occasion, the sounds having long continued 
as if coming from tho brew-house or the cellar, which adjoined 
each other, tho clergyman and two of his brothers sat up and 
went to watch, two in the brew-liouse and one in the cellar. 
Then it ceaaod there, but was heard, by those in the brcw-booa 
aa if mandiiig from underneath the lawn, fifty yaxd& 4>atasA^ 


Great pains were taken, the clergyman says, to discover some 
cause for these noises, but quite unavailingly. A. large old 
drain running underneath the house might, it was thought, be 
connected with the sounds. It was thoroughly examined, a 
man being sent through it, from one end to the other ; but the 
noise proceeded as before. 

" After above twenty years," says tlie reverend writer, " we 
are entirely in the dark as ever. The length of time it has 
been heard ; the &ct of every domestic in the house having 
been often changed during that time ; and the pains that have 
been taken to investigate the matter, while every member of 
the house except the watcher was in bed — have put the possi- 
hUUy of any trick out of ttie question / and have convinced all 
the inmates that it cannot be accounted for on any of the usual 
suppositions of " horses in the stable kicking," or " dogs rap- 
ping with their tails," or " rats jumping in the tanks or drains." 
Horses stamp and dogs rap and rats gallop ; but they do not 
make such sounds as that one startling and peculiar noise with 
which our ears are so familiar." * 

Another phase of the phenomenon, mentioned both by the 
clergyman and by Captain Frazer, was of a singular character. 
When the former was a young man, returning home for the 
holidays, he was awoke, one night, by a loud noise, as if a cart, 
heavily laden with iron bars, was passing slowly along the path, 
under his windows. He threw open the shutters and window ; 
it was bright moonlight, but he could see nothing, though the 
noise continued for some time. When he mentioned this the 
next morning, he was laughed at, for his pains. This incident 
had almost ^ed from his memory when, eleven years after- 
ward, it was very strangely recalled. An uncle of his, visiting 
the family, was put to sleep in the same room. The next 
morning, at breakfast, this gentleman related that he had been 
awakened in the night by the clatter of a cart, as if laden with 
ironi drawn over the gravel walk beneath the windows of bis 


room. He, too, haviug riaen, opened the window to investi 
gate, but nothing could he sec. lie retired to bed, thinking it 
might possibly Imve been a dream and lay awake for half an 
hour. At the end of that time he hoard, a second time, with 
unmitttakablo distinctness, the same sounds of a loaded cart| 
ajain as if passing b^*foro the house. 

'' Now/' thought he, '' I'll moke sure of it.'' And, certain 
that he could discover the cause, he instantly sprang to the win- 
dow and opened it — again to be thoroughly mystified and dia* 
appointed. Nothing whatever to be seen I 

This incident is certified to by the gentleman in question in 
a separate certificate.* Therein he states that it occurred dur- 
ing the month of September, 1840, about three o'clock in tho 

Three young ladies, residents of the house, certify to the real- 
ity of the sounds, f 

Captain Frazer, having sat up one ni^^t with his host^ to 
witness these nightly visitations, thus describes the noises ho 

*^ It was as if some one was striking the walls with a hammer 
or mallet, muffled in flannel. It bc^an at first slowly, with a 

* Work qaoted, p. 123. This may appear too whimsical for ere* 
denco. It would ivrobably bo seem to mo hod I not sofflcient proof i4 
analogous ooc une ncca. A young lady, intelligent and tmthfnl, mam 
bcr of one of the best-known families in New York (Imt I am not aa* 
thorized to giro tho name), told me reoently that while on a visit of a 
few weeks to her aunt's country bouse, an old mansion situated in the 
eastern iwrtion of that State, she hod, more than once, while sitting in 
t!ie drawing-room in broad daylight, heard the sound of a carriage and 
hones on the gravel -drive, as if approaching tho main entrance. On 
going to the front window, with one or other of her cousins and seeing 
nothing there, they would nj : '* Oh, it*s only the gfaost-carTisge :*' and 
HO, KUim quietly to their seats. It wis, they told her, a oommon sound. 
A similar phenomenon will be found related as occulting in an English 
I«irk ; the fact certified as well by the lady of the bouse as by bcr ls4j*s 
maid and by her butler, in 8piceb*s J^acU and Faniastm^ Londia, 
1853: p.00;andagainpp.93, M, 05. 

t BuiiMgi BtUt, pp. 123-139. 


distinct interval between each blow; then became more rapid; 
afterward followed no rule, but was slow or rapid as if caprice 
dictated. The noise did not appear always to come from the 
same part of the hoiise. Sometimes it was heard fiiintly, as at 
a distance ; then startlingly near. It was much louder than 1 
expected : I think if I had been outside of the house I should 
have heard it. 

^< I spent three days at House ; and heard the same 

noise two nights out of the three. ... It seemed as if 
moving about ihe house, and coming, sometimes, so near that I 
expected to see the door open and some one come in. . . • 
The uoiso generally continued, at intervals, for about two hours. 
I think there was a slight interval between every five blows. 
But there was not any regularity in the striking of these five 
blows, and it was only at first that there was any regularity in 
the interval between them. . . . This noise usually seemed 
to me to become loud or ^nt, not so much from any intensity 
of the blows, as from a change of distance or position. And 
the opinion of the other witnesses bears me out in this remark. 
. . . I tried, in vain, to form even a probable conjecture as 
to the cause." * 

The reverend gentleman who occupied the house (designated 

by Captain Frazer as L ) related to him the result of 

inquiries made by the family in regard to the antecedents of 
the house, as follows : 

^^ It appeared from some of the oldest inhabitants of the 

parish, that House had formerly been occupied by an 

eccentric and dubious character. Squire . This gentleman 

had, in his younger days, travelled much on the Continent, 
had visited Italy and brought home an Italian valet — also a 
character. The two lived in seclusion ; and after a time many 
reports and suspicions got abroad respecting them and the 
doings at the Hall ; though nothing definite was brought 
against the squire except that he was a great miser. At last 

* BMriitvcr* BeOs^ v. 128. 


he died or disappeared (I forget which L. said), and shortly 
afterward noises began to be lieard in the house. The com 
moil legend was that he had been bricked up by his Italian ser 
vant, between the walls in some room or vault, and so left tc 

This disturbance was known familiarly in the family as '' the 
ghost." Tlic inconvenience of its reputation, the clergyman 
said to Captain Frazer, had been great ; at times they had dif- 
ficulty in getting servants to stay in the house. Ail allusion 
to the subject in general conversation was dropi)ed by common 
consent, f 

Here let me beg, of any earnest reader of mine, a brief hear- 
tng. I ask him : 

Upon what rational plea can yon set aside such evidence aa 
this of ultramundane agoucy? I say nothing of the legend, 
and aver nothing as to the identity of any restless spirit caus- 
ing disturbance. But the simple yocfo/ under what tenable 
theory can you explain them away ? 

The clergyman did not give his name : are you surpruiod at 
that ? Arc you sure you would have given it yourself, under 
similar circumstances, thirty years ago ? Another clergyman,*^ 
who gave his name, opened, about tluit time, the *^ House of 
Mystery," in which he lived, to respectable investigators. His 
reward was to find his motives miHiuterpreted and his character 
maligned : that was not encouraging. 

Major Moor vouches for the unnamed clergyman as a gentle- 
man highly and deservedly esteemed and of unimpeachable 
veracity ; and the Majorca nephew. Captain Frazer, during a 
visit of three davs to the haunted mansion, finds all the state- 
mcnta made to be fully borne out by what ho witnessed. 

If you njcct as monstrous — and I think you will — the sup- 
position that these three gentlemen, all of professional standing 

♦ Work cited, p. 129. 

t The Htoiy is given in detaU in BeaUng^ DeOs, pp. 113-1381 

t The Qev. John Stewart Beeprsosdlngv^'V^^^* 


and one of tliem Fellow of an eminent Society, should have 
combined to palm on the public, without conceivable motive, a 
tissue of lies, then what theory of mundane agency, as causoi 
have you left ? 

That it was a trick ? — that they were imposed upon ? That 
is the explanation usually set up to explain such phenomena ; 
and, on the material hypothesis, there seems to be no other. 

— A trick ? You will find, if you look closely at the matter, 
that this supposition is more monstrous than the first. ^^ Al« 
most nightly," were the clergyman's words, and for twenty 
years. " Two nights out of three " Captain Frazer witnessed 
them ; and their duration was about two hours at a time. Two 
nights out of three for twenty years is nearly five thousand 
nights. So some one, prompted by mischief — or by malignity 
if you will — is to prowl about the house, houra at a time, for 
the purpose of disturbing the family, four or ^ve days a week 
throughout half a life time. And so ponderous are the blows 
he strikes that they may be heard outside the house ! And he 
is to move about the house, thus pounding, without being dis* 
covered for twenty years together. A servant to do this? 
No, they had all been oflen changed during the time. A mem- 
ber of the family ? What ! annoy themselves and frighten 
away their domestics, and raise every kind of unpleasant rumor 
throughout the neighborhood ! An outsider ? But why mul- 
tiply absurdities ? 

Yet hero is but one instalment of the difficulties. Twenty 
years is the clergyman's time of residence only. Oo twenty 
years farther back ; and, according to the united testimony of 
aged residents, the same disturbances still ! And the dwellers 
of that day had it from their ancestors that the haunting b^an 
a h undred years ago. Are there centenarious nightly-disturbers 
of the peace of private families ? 

I pitiy you, earnest reader, to reflect on these things, aiid to 
ask yourself whether the theory of intermundane agency is so 
incredible that one ought to resort to unheard-of vagaries in 
order to esc&pe it. 


At this stage of our book-voyage together, some reader may 
think that an observation should be taken, so as to determine 
what progi-ess, up to this |>oint, we have made. Jle may grant, 
pcrliap, that we have Kuflicient proof of the occasional occur- 
rence, through the medium of bells and otherwise, of noises 
which wo caunot rationally ascribe except to an extramundano 
or spiritual causo ; and yet ho may ask what is gained by such 
proofs He m.iy suggest further that evidence of a Hereafter — 
spiritual revealings — should be intrinsically solemn and rever- 
ent ; not, like tiiiklings of bells and rappings on walls, of tri* 
fling or whimsical character. 

I might reply, in a general way, that nothing in all the works 
of Nature around us, how little soever appreciated by man, is 
trifling in the sight of Him who 

** Sees, with equal eye, as God of all, 
A hero perish or a sparrow fall : 
Atoms, or systoxns, into ruin burled. 
And now a buhhlc burst, and now a world.** 

But, aside from this great truth, is there anything very 
solemn or reverout, to the common mind, in the full, from its 
parent tree, of an apple ? An infant sees it and claps its tiny 
bauds; an uncultui*ed peasant notes it as evidence that his 
orclmrd-crop is rij)ening ; but to a Nt^wton it suggests the law 
which holds planets to their course and governs half the natu- 
ral phenomena that occur throughout the world. 

As to what may be gained by proving such incidents as 
this cliapter records, Southey, speaking, in his Life of irrWrt/, 
of analogous disturbances in Samuel Wesley *s {tarsonage,* an«l 
of the good end such things may be supposotl to answer, wisely 
suggests that it would be end suflicient if sometimes one of 
those unhappy sceptics who see nothing beyond the narrow 
sphere of mortal existence should, ** fi-om the well-established 
truth of one such 8tor}% trifling and objectless as it might other 
wise Appear," be led to believe in immortality. 

• Fo<flfM», pp. SS4-939. 


Let US go a step farther. There is not habitual intercourse 
between the world which now is and that which is to come : it 
is only now and then that the denizens of the one perceive 
those of the other. We seem, probably, something like appari- 
tions to the immortals, as they, when they revisit earth, to us. 
But no one who ever truly loved and who believes in another 
life, can doubt that, for a time, the better class of those who 
have left friends and kindred here still cling to and sympathize 
with them. We have abundant evidence, even in these pages, 
that they often earnestly desire to convince us, past possible 
denial, of their continued existence, of their well-being, and of 
their \indying love. That evidence goes to show that they 
often diligently seek communion, sometimes from affection, 
sometimes from other motives, and that they have difficulties 
in reaching us : difficulties wisely interposed, no doubt ; for if 
spiritual intercourse were as common as worldly communion, 
who would be willing to labor and to wait in this dim and 
checkered world of ours ? 

They seek, from time to time, to visit us. But, coming from 
their world of spirits, invisible to ordinary sight, inaudible by 
ordinary speech, how are they to make their presence known? 
How are they to attract our attention ? 

In what manner does a traveller, an*iving under cloud of 
night, before a fast-closed mansion, seek to reach the indwellera 
— seek to announce his presence? Is it not by Knocking ob 
Ringing ? 

Ave wo sure that Scripture texts are not read in the next 
world, and do not find their application there ? Are we sui-e 
that, to the earth-longings of love immortal, the woixls of Jesus 
never suggest themselves : " Seek, and ye shall find ; knock, and 
it shall be opened unto you." 

The inhabitants of a mansion at which admission is sought, 

seeing no one in the darkness, may at first not heed the knock 

or the ring ; and the pilgrim, for the time, may turn away, 

disappointed. So it has been, probably, in thousands of cases, 

before any one ventured to interrogjaite the sounds. Men 


either doubted whether these camo from a liying intelligence ; 
or thej feared to question that intelligence ; or they despaired 
of any answer, having been taught that though there had been 
spirit-communion in ages past, it was impossible, or forbidden, 

So it may have been in the cases related in this chapter. In 
many, possibly in all the cases cited, some spirit may have de- 
sired to commimicate with earth, as did that of the '^ Repent- 
ant Housekeeper,*^ whose story I have told on a preceding 
page.* But if so, they were doomed to disappointment. In 
early days the witnesses of spiritual appeals were as that multi- 
tude on the Galilean shore to whom Jesus spoke, from the ship, 
in parables ; and of whom he said, ** Hearing they hear not, 
neither do they understand.** The field was not yet white to 
harvesL The time had not come. 

I have a few more words to say, in the next chapter, touok 
ing the apparent triviadity of some spiritual manifestations. 

^ See praoeding page S07. 

Spibitual Phenomena sometimes result in sbbmxkg Tbi* 


'* Neo deua intoxsit, nisi dignuB vindioe nodua 
Indderit.^' HoaAOB. 

HoBACE, in his advice to writers of plays, assumes that it is 
not fitting a god should intervene, unless the case is worthy of di- 
vine interference. If God ever did directly intervene — ^in other 
words, if there loere miracles — the poet would be in the right. 
But what have been interpreted as miracles do frequently man- 
ifest themselves, as the rainbow does, with little or no apparent 
use or benefit, except it be, like the bow in the clouds, to in- 
spire hope into the heai*t of man : a sufiicient proof that they 
are not, any more thsui the rainbow, interferences of God. 

This is true even of the highest class of spiritual phenom- 
ena ; for example, of apparitions. Witness the story of 

The Earl of Buchan's Butler. 

Thomas, Lord Erskinc, though he entered the legal profes- 
sion comparatively late in life, was, at the commencement of 
the present century, one of its brightest ornaments. Elevated 
to the peerage for his abilities, and Lord Chancellor under the 
Grenville administration, his character, both as regards up- 
rightness and sagacity, has every element of trustworthiness. 
He died in 1823. 

In the year 1811 and on the Saturday first succeeding the 

appointment of the Prince of Wales (afterward (Jeorge IV.) 

as Regent, Lord Erskine and the Duchess of Gordon called on 

Lady Morgan, the well-known literary celebrity. 

" The Dudiess,'' says Lady M.otg|M[k, ^^ T%\a.^Ad •> very carious 


TOE firrLUU B 01I05T. 


mad i-omoDtio tulu of ftuoond-iiiglit in her owu fiunQj, whick 
unuBod, if it did not convert me; while the nffecltng mumir 
In wbich it witn tuld left uo doubt uf the sinceiit^ of the a»m 
tor." Ijtdj Morgan then ooutiouHstliUK: 

" 1 al«o," Hud l»rd Grakiue, " bt-lit^ve in uwund Kiglit, b« 
DMme 1 bavti been iCa eubjucL Wbuii I was a vorj' joung m*a 
I bnd lioen, for >otuo time, abtieut from SootlMid. On tbo 
normng of my nrrivul in Edinburgh, in 1 wut drsrending t))» 
•tep* of « clo*e on coming out from n b«olcMdlc-r'> Hhop, 1 nirt 
our old funily batlur. H.' lookitd graatlj oluuigod, {uUo, wui, 
utd Bhadowj ua a ghont. 'Ghl old bny,' juid 1, 'what brings 
yottbww?' Ilerqilicd: ' To mcol your honor, and wlicit jfoui- 
iat«rlttrmco with my l<ord,* to rL-oo%-«r » sum duo to mo, wbidi 
tbn Ktffwsrd, At tbo but nc l.tlero^nt, did not pay.' 

"Struck by his looitn and mnnni:r, I bwln him follow me 
tba bookseller's, isb> whose sltop 1 strpprd bock ; hnt when 
tamed round to >po&k to^im, he hsd vuniibod. 

" I i«mefnb«i«d that hie wif« carrinl on soma litde tnulv 
the OM Town. I reineaibvruJ «vmi the bouse utd flst slie 
cupiedt vliicb I lud often visited in my boyhood. Ilsvinfj 
nuule it out, I found thu old womim in widow's 
Her bojiband had been desd fur some moutlis, tutd h*d toll 

diutJi-bed, that mj f«tlier's stoward had wninfgeilt 
lum of iwimD money, aiid that when Master Tom returned, 
be would soo her rioted. 

"naa I |itvniisvd to du, ftud sfaurtly afW I fiitfUled my< 

The unitreniirn was indelible; and I am extmnely, 

how I deny the |HieiiiUility of such aupcruatuial %iut- 

gsss your Grace bos junt instanood in yoar own Esnuly."f 

71m oiannrr in which tlie talented lady who nlatca tons thli 
■tory ares fit to i«oeirc and to tnt«r]m-t it, should be, to autdid 
iMqauvw, a waminn lesson. 

IjMly KluT^n, fullowiitg the dtctatsa of that peraisteBl aceji 

' LHdlUdMwisar«n«er*aa«r tbstMMhbdef finsten. 
t nsAwt«f U(»wM>-,)7l«4r)iowtAJi,LoaAM, \M: <rtk 

I Kk tn-t». 




ticism which men and women having a reputation in society 
are wont to adopt, or to assume ; and having settled it, proba- 
bly, in her own mind, that it behooves all who would be deemed 
enlightened to think, or at least to speak, of a belief in appari- 
tions as a superstition — is content to set down Lord Erskine^s 
narrative as due — these are the exact words she uses — as due 
only to the " dog-ears and folds of early impression, which the 
strongest minds retain.^' To the narrator, however, she ascribes 
sincerity. She says, "Either Lord Erskine did, or did not, 
believe this strange story : if he did, what a strange aberration 
of intellect ! — if he did not, what a stranger aberration from 
truth ! My opinion is that he did believe it." 

What sort of mode to deal with alleged facts is this ? A 
gentleman distinguished in a profession of which the eminent 
members are the best judges of evidence m the world— a gen- 
tleman whom the hearer believes to be truthful — relates what, 
on a certain day, and in a certain pl^pe, both specified, ho saw 
and heard. What ho saw was the appearance of one, in life 
well-known to him, who had been some months dead. What 
ho heard from the same source was a statement in r^[ard to 
mattera of which ])reviously he had known nothing whatever, 
which statement, on after inquiry, he learns to be strictly true ; 
a statement, too, which had occupied and interested the mind 
of the deceased just before his decease. The natural inference 
from these facts, if they arc admitted, is that, under certain 
circumstances which as yet we may be unable to define, those 
over whom the death-change has passed, still interested in the 
concerns of earth, may, for a time at least, retain the power of 
occasional interference in these concerns; for example in an 
effort to light an injustice done. 

But rather than admit such an inference — rather than accept 
disinterested evidence coming from a witness acknowledged to 
be sincere, and known to the world as eminently capable — a 
lady of the world assumes to explain it away by summarily 
teferring the whole to the " dog-ears and folds of early impres> 


doii^I What human testimony cannot be set aside on the 
same vague and idle assumption ? 

It Ls time we should learn that the hypothesis of spiritual 
intervention Ls entitled to a fair trial ; and that, in conducting 
that trial, we have no right to disregard the ordinary rules ci 

Either Lord Erskine, one morning in Edinburgh, issuing 
from a booksellcr^s shop, met what wore the appearance of an 
old family servant who had been some months dead — or else 
Lord Erskine lied. Either Lord Erskine heard words sjiokcn 
OS if that ap[>carance had spoken them, which words contained 
a certain allegation touching business which that servant, dying, 
hod left unsettled — or else Lord Erskine lied. Either Lord 
Ei^wine ascertained, by immediate personal interrogation of tho 
widow, that her husband, on his death-bed, had made the self 
same allegation to her which the ap)>antion made to Lord Er- 
skine — or else Loi*d Ei*skine lied. Finally either, as the i*csult 
of this appearance and its speech, a debt found due to tho 
person whoso counteq)art it was, was actually paid to his widow 
—or else Lord Erskine lied. 

But Lady Morgan expresses her conviction that Lord Erskine 
did not lie. 

In itself that was a trifle. Tliousands on thousands of such 
cases of petty injustice occur and |>ass away unnoticed and un- 
redressed. To the widow it was, undoubtedly, of serious mo- 
ment ; but I think no sensible man will imagine it a matter to 
justify tho direct interference of God. If so, and if Loid 
Erskine Fjioke truth, an apparition is a natural phenomemm. 

There are cases, however, where the triviality of result from 
phenomena tliat are clearly of a spiritual character is even more 
tt|>|>arent than in the preceding example. Hero is one : 


Id tbe spring of the year 1853, a young gentleman, well* 
known tome, ^liom I ihall designate aa '^x^^ ^^^ts^Nsk^w* 


a Spiritaalist, and has never given any attention to spiiitna. 
phenomena, had a remarkable dream. He was then engaged in 
a retail store in Second street, Philadelphia; and his droam 
was to the effect that, the next day at twelve o'clock, he would 
sell a hundred and fifty dollars' worth of a particular kind of 
goods, namely, drap d^et^ (summer cloth), to a customer ; the 
particular person, however,' not being designated. 

Going down to the store next morning, he related his dream, 
between eight and nine o'clock, to a young clerk employed in 
ihe establishment. " Nonsense ! " was the reply ; " the thing 
is impossible. You know very well that we don't sell so large 
a lot of drap d'6te to one customer in ten years." 

Mr. X assented to the truth of this ; and, in addition, be 

called to mind that, according to his dream, it was he himseli 
who was to sell it. But it so happened that it was not he who 
attended at the counter where the article was sold, but anot)^er : 
in whose absence, however, should he be accidentally called off, 
Mr. X was wont to take that place. 

So deep was the impression produced by the dream that, as 

the time approached, Mr. X became very nervous ; and his 

agitation increased when, some little time before mid-day, the 
salesman referred to was called off, and Mr. X had to sup- 
ply his place. 

Almost exactly at twelve a customer entered, approached 

the counter and asked for drap d'6t4. Mr. X felt himself 

turn pale, and liad hardly presence of mind enough left to 
reach down the package. It turned out that the article was 
required for clothing in a public institution ; and the amount 
purchased amounted either to a hundred and forty-eight dollars 

or a hundred and fifty-two dollars ; Mr. X does not now 

recollect which. 

The above was related to me * by Mr. X , now in business 

for himself in Philadelphia ; and I know sufficient of that gen- 
tleman's character to warrant me in saying that the particolan 

* In Fhnadtlphias 3M!i9 \^ A^^- 



kero given may be confidently i*elied on ; and that Mr. X 'a 

word may be unhesitatingly taken when he assured me, as he 
did after completing the story, that there had occurred no an- 
tecedent circumstance whatever which could give him the 
slightest reason to imagine that any one would apply for drap 
d^ct^ ; or that there was the most remote chance of his effecting 
the sale in question. 

In this case the minute particulars of time, place, and attend* 
ant circumstances — the unforeseen absence of the usual sales- 
man, the specific article demanded, the unusual quantity so 
closely approaching the amount actually sold — are such that 
we are compelled to reject the idea of chance coincidence. 

In the Erskine case one can comprehend the motive that re- 
called the departed spirit ; the same which operates in the 
majority of such cases — attraction through the affections : here 
displayed in humble fashion, indeed — in anxiety that the 
^* auld gude-wife,'^ as a Scotch domestic of those days would 
be likely to phrase it, should, in her poverty and widowhood, 
have her own — yet none the less a phase of the longings of true 

But in the Philadelphia case one can imagine no attracting 
motive whatever : seeing that the predicted sale, to a particu- 
lar amount and at a particular hour and day, was of no conse* 
quenco to any human being, except only as proof that, when 
Paul enumerated among the gifls common in the early Chris* 
tian Church, the gift of prophecy, he was speaking of a ph» 
nomenon which actually exists and which is not miracolona. 

book: III. 




It is not a difficult thing, if one has time and patience and 
an honest love of truth, to satisfy one^s self, past all possible per- 
adventure, that what is called the spirit-rap is, like the electric 
spark, a genuine phenomenon, with momentous sequences. 
And these strange echoes may be as surely referred to agencies 
from another sphere as the spark from the Ley den jar may be 
identified with the lightning from the thunder-cloud. They 
occur, like ^hat mysterious spark, under certain conditions ; 
but they cannot, as it can, be called forth with certainty at any 
moment ; for, being spiiitual in their origin, they are not at 
the bock and call of man. 

The conditions under which they present themselves are 
sometimes of a j)ersonal, sometimes of an endemical character. 
They occur more frequently and more persistently in certain lo- 
calities than in others, and they are heard much more frequently 
in the presence of some persons, called mediums or sensitives, 
than of others. They are usually most loud and powerful 
where tlie two conditions, personal and local, are found com- 

I have heard them as delicate, tiny tickings, and as tliim- 
dei-iDg poundings I have heard them not only throni^ioiit 


our own land, but in foreign countries ; as in England, FrancO| 
Italy. I Lavo heard them in broad daylight and in darkened 
rooms ; usually most violent in the latter. I have heard them 
in my own house and in a hundred others ; out of doors ; at 
9r^ and ou laud ; in steamer and in sail-boat; in the forest and 
on the rocks of the sea-shore. 

But in no circumstances have I witnessed this wonderful 
phenomenon under such varied conditions, and with such satis- 
factory results, as in the presence of two members of that fam- 
ily, in whose dwelling in Western New York, it originally 
showeil itself — namely, the eldest and the youngest daughters 
of Mrs. Fox.* The faculty of mediumship, or as it might 
otherwise be expressed, the gift of spiiitual sensitiveness, was 
hereditary in the family, f in Lctuh Fox (Mi-s. UndcrhiU) 
and in Kate Fox I have found the manifostations of this power, 
or gift, in connection with the spirit-rap, more marked and 
more readily to bo obtained, than in any other jiersons with 
whom I am acquainted, either hero or in £uro|>e. 

And it is duo to these lauiies and to Mr. Underbill to say 
that they have kindly afforded mo at all times every facility I 
could desire to test these and other spiiitual phenomena under 
the strictest precautions against deception : well knowing that 
I took these for the sake of others rather than to remove doubts 
of my own. Nor, in all my intercourse with them, have I 
ever seen the slightest cause for believing tliat they were ao 
tuated by otlier motive than a fi-ank wish that the truth should 
bo ascertained and acknowledged. 

In the autumn of the same year in which I published ^^ Foot- 
falht,^' I accepted from Mr. Underbill | an invitation to sfiend 
A week or two at his house : thus obtaining ample opi)ortunity 
to investigate this and cognate manifestations. 

* For particulars of the disturbances in the Fox family, especiaUj 
on Karch 81, f848« and snooeediiv days, see FifotfaUt, pp. 287-20a 

t Foo{fiiWi, pp. 2S4, 285. 

X Daniel UnderfaOl, PMident of aa old-established lomaBea Goan 
pany hi Wall street, New York. 


One of ray first experiments was to pray Mrs. Underbill to 
iaccompany me over the house, in quest of rappings. B^in 
ning in the lower parlors, I asked if we could have raps on 
the floor, then from the walls, then from the ceiling, then on 
various articles of furniture. In each case the response was 
prompt, and the raps loud enough to be heard in the next 
room. Then I asked for them on the st€«l grate and on the 
mai*ble mantle-piece. Thence they sounded quite distinctly, 
but less sharply — with a duller sound — than before. Then, 
setting open one of the doors into the passage, placing myself so 
that I could see both sides of it and putting my hand on one 
of its panels, I begged Mrs. Underbill to stand a few feet from 
it and, reaching out one of her arms, to touch it with the tips 
of her fingers. Within two or three seconds afber she had 
done so, there were raps on the door as loud as if some one had 
knocked on it sharply with his knuckles ; and the wood vi- 
brated quite sensibly under my touch, as if struck by a pretty 
strong blow.* 

When we passed out into the corridor and up the stairway, 
it was no longer necessary to request rappings. They soimded 
under our feet as we went ; on the steps and then from the 
hand-rail, as we ascended ; from various parts of a sitting-room 
and of other apartments on the second floor : then, again, on 
the stairs leadiiig to the third story and in every chamber there. 
It was evident that, in Mrs. Underbill's presence, they could 
be had from any spot in the house. I found, too, that if I re- 
quested to have any particular number of raps, they were given 
with unfailing precision. 

The sounds were peculiar. I could not imitate them with 
the hammer, nor with the knuckle on wood, nor in any other 
way. They seemed more or less muffled. 

I have repeated similar experiments several times with Mrs. 

* Some time afterward I repeated the same ezpeximent at tSiehonao 

of Mrs. C , sister of one of the best known among the New Todc 

edUoa, where I aoddentallj met Mr. and Mrs. Underhill, and when 
coayerBaUon happened to tnni eta tibft tec^A. 


ITndcrliill and 'with her sister Kato, in various places, and al- 
ways with the same result. With other mediums the response! 
were more or less prompt ; and sometimes they were confined 
to the table at which we were sitting. 

Passing by, for the moment, the hundreds of proofs which 
t^ach that an occult intelligence governs the spirit-rap and 
spuaks through it, I keep to the physical aspect of the phe- 

Ov THE Water asd ix the Living Wood. 

On the tenth of July, 18G1, I joined a few friends in an ex- 
cursion from the city of New York, by steamboati to the High- 
lands of Neversink ; Mr. and Mrs. XJnderhill being of the 

It occurred to mc, while sitting on deck by Mi-s. Underbill, 
to ask if we could have the raps there. Instantly they wera 
distinctly hoard first, from the deck ; then I heard them, and 
quite plainly fdt themy on the wooden stool on which I sat. 

In the afternoon our party went out in a sailing-boat, fifteen 
or twenty feet long. There, again at my suggestion, we had 
them, sounding from under the floor of the boat. It had a 
centre-board, or sliding keel, and we had raps from within the 
long, narrow box that inclosed it. At any part of this box 
where we called for the n4)s, we obtained them. 

In the evening we ascended a hill, back of the hotel, to the 
light-house. In returning and passing through a wood on the 
hill-side, I proposecl to try if we could have raps from the 
ground : and imuiediatoly I plainly hcanl them from beneath 
the ground on whicli we trod : it was a dull sound, as of blows 
struck on the earth. Then I asked Mrs. Underbill to touch 
one of the trees with the tips of her fingers, and, applying mj 
car to the tree, I heard the raps from beneath the bark. Other 
persons of our party verified this, as I had done. 

In returning, next morning, on another steamer, we had rapt 
on the hand-rail of the upper promenade deck« and % 


from within a small metal boat that was turned updde dowa^ 
on the deck below. * 

The next experiment was one which I imagine that no one 
but myself ever thought of trying. 

Moving a Ledge of Rock on the Sea-shobe. 

On the twenty-fourth of August, 18G1, I accepted an invita- 
tion from Mr. S U , of New Rochelle, a sea-side village 

on the western shore of Long Island Sound, to spend the next 
day with him, in company with Mr. and Mrs. Underbill. 

On the afternoon of August 25, Mr. U drove us out in 

his carriage, through the picturesque country adjoining the 

village ; the party consisting of Mr. U and his wife, Mrs. 

Underbill, and myself. 

lu the course of the drive, coming near the shore of the 
Sound, at a point where there were long ledges of rock slanting 
down into the water, it suddenly suggested itself to me that 
here was on excellent opportunity for a crucial test. I inquired 
of ]\Irs. Underbill if she had ever tried to obtain raps on the 
sea-shore. No, she said ; she never had. 

" Do you think we can get them hero ? " I asked. 

** I have never found any place where they could not be 
had," she replied ; " so I dare say we can." 

Tliereupon there were three raps — the conventional sign of 
assent — from the bottom of the carriage. 

So we drove down to the beach, and got out to test the mat- 

The portion of rock whither we repaired was not an isolated 
block, detached from the rest, but part of a large, flat mass of 
rock, covering at least half an acre and running back into a 
bluff bank tiat rose beyond it : there were also several onder- 

* Notes of these experiments were taken, immediately on my zetam 
to New Fork. 


lying ledges. We were about thirty feet from the sea and^ at 
there wais a moderate breeze, the surf broke on the rocks below 


Rat jet, standing on the ledge beside Mrs. Underhil), and 
asking for the raps, I heard them quite distinctly above thii 
noise prodnoed by the surf. This was several times repeated, 
with the same result. 

Then Mrs. Underbill and Mi-s. S U sat down, and I, 

stepping on a lower ledge, laid my oar on the ledge on which 
the ladies were sitting and repeated my request. In a few 
seconds the raps were heard by me from within the substance 
of the rock and immediately beneath my ear. 

I then sought to verify the matter by the sense of touch. 
Placing my hand on the same ledge, a few feet from Mrs. Un- 
derbill, and ahkiug for the raps, when these came audibly, I 
felt, simultaneously with each rap, a slight but unmistakMi/ 
distinct vibration or concussion of tJis rock. It was sufficiently 
nuirked to indicate to me a rap, once or twice, when a louder 
roll of the surge for a moment drowned the sound. 

Without making any remark as to what I had felt, I asked 
Mr. U to put liis hand on the ledge. " Why 1 " he sud- 
denly exclaimed, '^ the whole rock vibi*atos ! " 

During all this time Mrs. Underbill sat, as far as I could 
judge, in coniplete repose. 

It will be observed that it was at my suggestion this experi- 
mtAt on a pUteau of rock was tried. From that day forth I 
€iid not consider it necessary further to test the spirit-rap.* 

It is true, however, that there were, to dispel my scepticism, 
other proofs (one obtaine<l more than a year before this), and 
to which I have not yet alluded. In the above there was ap> 
peal to two senses — of hearing and of touch. The previous 
proofs to which I allude were evidence<l by a third sense, 
usually considered the most trustworthy of alL 

* Written out from notes taknthsnsMdigr. 


Seeing the Raps. 

It was during an evening session at Mr. Underidli^s, Feb- 
ruary 22, 1860. Besides Mr. and Mrs. Underbill, Kate 
Fox, and myself, there were present Mr. Underhill's aged 
father and mother ; yenerable examples of the plain, primitive 
Quaker, both of whom took the deepest interest in the proceed 

By request, through the raps, the gas was extinguished and 
we joined hands. 

Very soon lights were seen floating about the room, appar 
ently phosphorescent. At first they were small, just visible; 
but gradually they became larger, attaining the size and general 
outline of hands: but I could not distinguish any fingers. 
These lights usually showed themselves first behind and be- 
tween Leah and Elate, near the floor. Then they rose ; some- 
times remaining near Leah^s head, sometimes near her sister^s. 
One of them was nearly as large as a human head. None of 
these touched me, though one approached within a few inches. 
Another made circles in the air, just above our heads. After 
floating about for a brief space, they usually seemed to return 
either to Leah or to Kate. 

Wliilo the hands of the circle remained joined, I looked 
under the table and saw lights, as many as ten or twelve times^ 
on or near the floor, and moving about. Onoe while I was 
looking intently at such a light, about as large as a small fist, it 
rose and fell, as a hammer would, with which one was striking 
iigainst the floor. At each stroke a loud rap was heard, in 
connection. It was exactly as if an invisiMe hand hdd an il- 
luminated hammer and pounded wiHi it. 

Then, desiiing conscious proof that what I saw was not by 
human agency, I asked mentally : * <' Will the spirit strike 

* I have found it neoessaiy, in making a mental reqnest, or tinHny • 
mental questlan, to conoentrate my thonghts, by aa effort, <m wlMit 1 
with to obtain or to inquixe. 


wfab tint light three tiinea ? " i>Iuc)i wu done forthmth : 
then, kIW aji intcrvnl, repevtcit. 

Whm, n wvunil time, tho light wm Mca luid I wu noliotng 
tho oont>[HindiDg iwunilii, Homo oue wid : " Can you make it 
MMfl^r?" Aluflflt iiutaiitljr I nw the light ilimmiafa and k 
tho gronnil, Kt tntprvala, with A aoft and muffled sound, joi 
dtatingnii hkbln, * 

On another ououdon, during the eumiuar of the aaxt year, 1 
obtainnd utiU morn tunutriMbla BuuufestAtiona. 

ToDcaeo dy thb Auksct : 

r CjLCSBa Tin 8riBiT-BAr. 

On the evening of the twiflii uf June, 1861, baTiag t 
dajs before arrived in Now York a» Conuniadonei 
armii for the Siata of Indiana, I called, unoxpectwQ; to tbq 
luBity, on Mr. Undorhill and propoeed tltat we ahould have a 
sphitaal Masion. Ur. and Mrs. Underfaill, who knew tJiat I 
bttd alrattdf begun to collect tnatoritthi fur Uiia volutoo, laadJtj 
aaaentod. f 

Por greaUr quiet we aaottudad to a |»rlor on tho i 
floor ; thd parC<r eonaiating of Hr, and Mra. Undrrlull, 
Gitbi^ an aged ganthtnua Mid old fnend of thn ftxuilj wU 
happened to call in the coiir«» of the evaning, and mytclf. 

Soon afler we nU ilown there waa apollod oal, by n[w on 
floar : " Go in hack rouni." Thin back raotn waa Atr. and >[b 
CndnrhiU's bed-charalinr. Adjuiimiug to it we Mt down to J^ 
asMll reetangnlar table (otvi of a neH of toUaa), Hr. and Mn^ 
Underiull on m; left and Mr. Gilheri on u; light. TheanttU 
aue nf tha tabke farought na cloae h^etkar. 

t Ta Iheaa wko ksOT Me. UntekBTi findlr. I BMd kar4]r av AM 
Umv Mvar aooirl aar nmsBantiaa. diTMrtlj or iadlraeUy, cB MMk «^ 
mMmm. Km haa KaM Fox, knowing tba work I wm eafagad ba, 
it boat mn lor aay itUing witb hai. 
« lo lat Um U(hwa nuBlfaalalioM ' wKhoat 
hM to ma CM 4ar. 



To this bedroom there were three doors; one opening iato a 
bath-room, a second on the second-floor corridor^ and a third 
on a passage leading into the parlor, which we had first selected 
to sit in. In this passage were several closets and presses. 

At Mr. Underbill's suggestion, before sitting down I thor* 
ouglily examined these closets and presses, as well as- the bed- 
room itself and the parlor to which the passage led. I alao 
locked the outer door of that parlor and the doors of the bed- 
room leading into the bath-room and the corridor. The door 
between the parlor and bedroom did not lock ; but by the pre- 
ceding precautions no one from without, even if provided with 
a key, could enter either of the rooms. 

Soon after we sat down there was spelled out, " Darken*'^ 
Wo extinguished the gas. Then was spelled, ** Sing." While 
Mrs. Underbill sang, the raps, from different parts of the floor, 
kept time. After a brief interval they shifted from the floor 
to a lower bar of the chair on which I sat, still keeping time 
to the measure. The chair was sensibly jarred — a vibration to 
each rap. 

After sitting about six or seven minutes, there appeared, 
floating above our heads, a light which seemed phosphorescent. 
It was rectangular in shape, and about three or four inches 
long. After a time it rose to the ceiling, floating backward 
and forward from one part of the room to another. At times 
it descended till only a foot or two above* our heads ; moving 
slowly from side to side, over our circle. 

As I was looking intently at it, there was spelled out, by 
delicato raps on the floor : '^ I was near you in early life, dew 
Robert, and am still nearer to you now." 

Mrs. Underh'dl, "Is it Mr. Owen's mother?" 

Answer (by the raps). " No." 

Myself, " Does the first name begin with C ? " 

Answer, " Yes." 

Mrs, UnderhUl. " How many letters in the name f ** 

Ansioer. " Seven." 

Jfrs, r/nderhiU. « Caroline, is it ? " 


Myself, *^ Caroline liaa oight letters. Is it another namei 
under which I have had many communications ? *' 

JDt/ the raps. " Yes, yes." 

Then the light floated toward me and remained stationaxji 
back of my luft shoulder. I turned and looked fixedly at it. 
It appeared to be about the size of a small human hand, and as 
if covered with a shining veil. I could not, however, distin* 
guish a deiiued outline. 

Pi-esently it approached my left shoulder, then receded from 
it, five or six times. Each time I felt a light touch, as of fin- 
gers on my shoulder; each touch exactly contemporaneous 
with the motion of the light. 

Then it floated away, rising just above the table at which we 
were sittmg, nearly to the ceiling. I asked that it would pass 
to the door leading int.) the corridor and rap thero, if it could. 
Thcrcu|)ou we saw it pass to the up|Xir part of the door in 
question, and i>orccived its motion, and heard the corres[x>nd- 
ing rap, as it slruck it, eight or ten times in succession. It 
was evident , too, that it was not wo alone who heard the 
souuchi ; for a lap-dog, outside in the corridor, barked, as if 
alarmed. Again, as on the former occasion, the idea that sii^ 
gebted itself t j mc was that of a luminous hammer. 

Then tiie light floated down to Mr. Underbill, increasing in 
brightness, and seeming to touch him. He said it did touch 
him, as if with some iiue, soH, woven stulF. 

I asked that it would touch my hand. It moved slowly 
across the table, rested for a brief space above niy hand, then 
drop|XHl and toucheil my wrist The feeling was like that from 
the gentle touch of a linger. 

-Vr. Gilbert (to me). Are you not tempted to grasp it, so 
as to feel what it is like ? 

JIt/seff, I have reason to believe that one is not justified 
in doing so ; and for that reason I refrain. 

Hf/ t/ie rap*. Thank you ♦ 

* Two highly-intelligent frieads of mine, nofw d eeeaisd, Dr. > 
and Professor James Uapes. both formeiij of New Tei^ 


Then tho light passed to Mrs. TJnderhilli touching, as die 
stated, her head and neck. 

I asked that it would touch my head also. It floated from 
her to me, passing behind me ; and I felt as if a soft and fine 
piece of gauze, gathered up loosely in the hand, were pressed 
gently against the bock of my head and neck. Also, now and 
then, it seemed as if some more solid substance — part of a 
hand holding the gauze, was the impression I got — ^touched me 
lightly. The action was as if by a person standing directly 
behind me ; yet, had I not seen it, a few minutes before, cross 
the table and touch my wrist before my very eyes ? Besides, 
as the touohings on my head and neck continued for some time, 
I several times spoke of them during their continuance and all 
present joined in the conversation. Thus I am certain that 
they were still seated at their places. 

Then the light rose again into the air. Looking closely at it, 
as it floated near the ceiling, I observed that there moved across 
the luminous body, back and forth, dark lines, or rods, as thick 
as a finger. I could not, however, make out the form of 
fingers. Mr. Underbill said he saw fingers distinctly. 

While tho light was floating above us there proceeded from 
it occasionally a slight crepitation. 

There was not, throughout this sitting, the sli^test indica- 
tion, by footfall, rustle of dress, or otherwise, of any one ris- 
ing or moving about the room. When the luminous body I 
have been describing came near either of the assistants I could 

on one occasion, firmly grasped what seemed a lommoas hand, appear- 
ing as above. In both cases the result was the some. What was kiid 
hold of melted entirely away — so each told me — ^in his grasp. I have 
had communications to the effect that the spirit thus manifestixig its 
presence suffers when this is done, and that a spirit would have gteal 
reluctance in appearing, in bodily form, to any one whom it could not 
tmst to refrain from interference with the phenomena, except by its 
express permission. In my experiments I have always gorenved nqr* 
aelf Aocordinglj ; and I ascribe my suooess in part to this oontioenoa. 


dimly peroeivo, by its light, the outline of the ponon it ap* 
proachccL ♦ 

Sometimes when spirits that liave cxhibitedi while on earthf 
a violent character, seek to communicate, the raps are of oor- 
i-csponding violence. 

Heavy Pouxdinus by a Homicide* 

At an evening session, August 17, 18G1, at Mr. XJnderfaiUVi f 
(by bright gas-liglit), wo lioanl, after a time, not the nsnal mod- 
erato rai>s, but insteiul loud thumping! or poundings, such as 
miglit be pro<luced by blows dealt on the floor by a ton-poand 
mallet. By those we liad spelling, on calling the alphabet. 
Inquiring the |>ouuder^s name, there was spelled out, ** Jaek- 

I inquired if the spirit had formerly lived in Indiana, where 
I had known a man of that name. Answer, by a single thump, 

Tlien we asked if it was a person known to any of us. An- 
swer : ** The man you do not admire.^ 

Thereupon it occurred to roe that it might possibly be JadL- 
son, the inukeeper of Alexandria, at whose hands, some two 
months before, Colonel Ellsworth, baring taken down the Con- 
federate flag from the roof of Jackson^s inn, had met his death* 
As soon as I suggested this, there was an aflbrmative reply, by 
three sonorous poundings. 

We spoke of Ellsworth and, by the poundings, was spelled 
out : *^ His manner tantalised me." 

Mrs. Underbill said : ^ I pitied that man ; no doubt he did 
what he thought right." ^pljj hy the poundings: '*I de- 
fended the flag." 

* I took notes of the phenomena as they ptesented themiflves ; wril» 
ing with penoQ in the daik. 

t Mr. and Mra TJndeiliin and mysdf wcf i the oo!^ sittans a 
took notes of this rittii« at the tlins. 


He then said, further, that he had once visited one of Mrd. 
Underhill^s circles; and that there were in the Southern States 
many beUevers in spiritual phenomena. 

I found, by experiment, that when these poundings occurred 
on the second floor, I could hear them, as distinctly as if a 
mechanic were at work, both on the first floor, below, and on 
the third floor, above. They caused the floor to vibrate ; and 
it was scarcely possible to resist the conviction that there actu- 
ally was a ponderous mallet at work imder the table; yet, 
though I looked several times to satisfy myself, there waa 
nothing there. 

Occasionally, it would seem, the character of the raps may 
depend, in a measure, on the medium : yet, of this I have not 
sufficient evidence to speak with certainty. 

Blows of startling Violence. 

During an evening sitting, on October 25, 1860, in' the 
front i)arlor of Mrs. Fox's residence, in the city of New York, 
there were present Kate Fox, her sister Margaret,* and my- 

From this parlor were two doors, one opening on the pas- 
sage, the other on a back parlor. Both were locked before wo 
sat down. 

Baps spelled out, " Darken." We did so ; then, after the 
appearance of a few luminous phenomena, there came suddenly 
a tremendous blow on the centre of the table ; a blow so violent 
tha.t wc all instinctively started back. By the sound it was 
such a stroke, apparently dealt by a strong man with a heavy 
bludgeon, as would have killed any one, and such a blow as 
would have broken in pieces a table, if not very stout, and 
would have left severe marks upon any table, no matter how 

* The only tune, I believe, at which she joined cor Gizcl<ft. Haviqg 
become a Catholic, she had Bcmples about sitting. 


hard the wood. Tho same blow, apparently with tho same 
force, was repeated five or six times. It was impossible to 
witness such violent demonstrations without a certain feeling 
of alarm ; for it was evident that there was power sufficient to 
produce fatal results ; yet I myself felt no serious apprehen- 
sions of injury, knowing of no case on record in wliich any ono 
had thus been seriously hart. 

When, after a time, we relit tho gas, tho most careful exam- 
ination of tho table, above and below, convinced me that there 
was not a scratch, nor the slightest indentation, either on the 
polished top or on the under surface. 

I cousider it a phi/siccU impossibUUi/ tliat, by any human 
agency, blows iudicating such formidable |K>wer should have 
been dealt without leaving severe marks on tho table which r^ 
ceived tliem. 

Mrs. Underhill afterward informed me that she luid several 
times, in presence of her sister Margaret, been greatly alarmed 
by blows as trcmeudously violent as those 1 have described. I 
never heard auy tio apt to terrify weak nerves, either before or 
since. But, several years uftorward, I witnessed a demonstra- 
tion of occidt power, more quiet indeed — not calculated to 
alarm — but, to judge by the sound, of nearly equal force. 


On this occasion, March 10, 18G4, Mr. and Mrs. Underhill 
and myself only were present, in the second-story front parlor 
of their house $ and the session was in the evening, by bright 

In a few minutes after we sat down there came sounds of a 
very |>eculiar character. Each stroke — if that term be applica- 
ble — sounded exactly like tho dropping on tho floor, from the 
height jx^rhaiKs of two feet, of a medium-sized cannon ball. At 
cac!i sound the entire floor of the room shook quite distinctly. 
We folt tho concussion beneath our feet ; and it was commDni. 
cated through the shaken table to our hands. 


Occasionally it Bounded exactly as if the cannozi ball r& 
bounded, dtx)pping a second time with diminished force. 

By these cannon-ball-droppings there was a call for the alpha- 
*jet (five strokes), and sentences wore spelled out to the effect 
that the operating spii*it was no stranger to me ; that the book 
for which I was then collecting materials would be acceptable, 
as supplying a great public need ; and that I should ^^ witness 
some startling things from time to time." Then was added : 

^' I am little changed. My knowledge of the spirit-world is 
not so great as you would suppose. I am sure of the things I 
once hoped for. I have found my beloved friends in Heaven, 
and I know I live in immortality. A. D. Wii^on." 

Not much, if one will ; not much, as a superficial mind may 
receive it : only a brief, homely message. Yet, if it be true, 
how immeasurable its importance! How infinitely consoling 
the simple truths it unveils ! 

Dr. Wilson, well-known to me and an intimate friend of the 
Underbills, was an earnest spiritualist and an excellent man. 
He was a New Tork physician of large practice and had died 
less than a year before. 

The sounds by which the sentence (coming, as alleged, from 
this deceased friend) had been spelled out, letter by letter, 
seemed to be so unmistakably those of a ponderous metallio 
globe dropped on the floor, that Mrs. Underbill said : " I can 
scarcely persuade myself that there is not a heavy ball there." 
Upon which there was spelled out by these same mysterious 
poundings : 

'' Well, then, look ! " 

We removed the table and carefully examined the floor. 
Nothing whatever to be seen. 

As on a previous occasion, I went downstairs ; and, on the 
floor below, I heard the poundings just as distinctly as when 
in the upper room. It was the same when I ascended to the 
floor above. Mrs. Underbill expressed a fear that the aoundi 


would disturb tho nei^Lors in the adjoining houses; and I 
think thej must have heard them. 

With a single additional example I close this branch of the 

EmcTs WHEN Local akd Personal Influences combine. 

A Haunted House. 

On the twenty-second of October, 1860, I paid a Tisit, along 
with Mr. and Mrs. Underhill, Elate Fox, and another lady and 
gentleman, to Quaker friendH of theirs, Mr. and Mrs. Archer, 
then living within five-minutes drive of Dobbs* Ferry on the 
Hudson, in a large, old house, surrounded with magnificent 
trees, and in which, at one time, Washington had his head- 

This house has been, for a long terra of years, reputed haunted. 
The person still supposed to haunt it is a former owner, Peter 
Livingston, who, on account of lameness, was wont to use a 
small, invalid^s carriage ; and the report was that, at the dead 
of night, the sound of that carriage was heard in the corridors 
and especially in one of the rooms of the house. 

We sat, late in tlie evening, first in this room ; a lower bed- 
chamber, liaving two doors of exit. Both were locked before 
the session began, the keys being left in the doors. Besides oar 
own party, there were present only Mr. and Mrs. Archer. By 
direction of the raps we extinguished the lights and joined 

Within a single minute afterward, such a clatter began, ap- 
parently within three or four feet of where I sat that (as we 
afterward learned) it was heard and commented on, by some 
visitors in a room separated from that in which we sat by two 
doors and a long passage. It seemed as if heavy substancea 
of iron, such as pondercns dumb-belb or weights, were rolled 
over the floor. Then there were poondings, aa if with soma 
heavy mallet ; then sharp, loud knoddngi^aAiCwvtlbL^hi^ 



a thick staff. Then was heard a sound precisely resemblinn 
the rolling of a small carriage on a plank floor. At first 
this sound seemed close to us, then it gradually lessened, 
as if tho carriage were wheeled to a great distance, until it be^ 
came, at last, inaudible. Then we asked to have it again, as 
if coming near ; and forthwith it commenced with the faintest 
sound, approaching by degrees till the carriage might be sup- 
posed almost to touch the backs of our chairs. Occasionally 
there was a pounding on tho floor, so heavy as to cause a sen- 
sible vibration. 

When we relit the lamp and searched the room, the doors 
were found still locked, with the keys in them ; and there w&a 
not an article to be found with which such noises could, by hu- 
man agency, have been made. 

Then, at my suggestion, we transferred the experiment to a 
large pai-lor opposite, that had been used, I believe, by Living- 
stone as a dining-room. Again we locked the doors, and, obey- 
ing a comraimication from the raps, put out the lights and 
joined hands. And again, in less than two minutes, the 
disturbance becan as bsfore. At times the racket was so over- 
powering that we could scarcely hear one another S];)eak. The 
sound, as of heavy metallic bodies rolled over the floor was 
very distmct. Also some weighty substance seemed to be 
diagged, as by a rope, backward and forward, as much as 
fifteen or twenty feet each way. 

All this time we kept a candle on the table, with a box of 
matches beside it ; and, several times, when the clatter was at its 
height, wo struck a light, to see what the effect would be. In 
eveiy instance the sounds almost immediately died away, and the 
search we made in the room for some explanation of the strange 
disturbance was quite unavailing. The sudden transition, 
without apparent cause, from such a babel of noises to a dead 
silence, was an experience such as few have had, in this world. 
Till the experiment was repeated, again and again, always 

^with the same I'esult, there was temptation to ims^e thatoiur 

^aatoa had been playing us falae. 


The infpression on myself and the other assistants with whom 
I conversed was such, as to produce a feeling that it was a 
physical imi)ossibility such sounds could be [iixKluccil, except 
by employing ponderous bodies.* 

After a time the centre-table at which wo sat was pounded 
on the top, and then from beneath, as with the end of a heavy 
bludgeon ; and that (to judge by the sound) with such violence 
that we felt serious apprehensions that it would be br(di;en to 

^V7len the noises ceased and we relit the lamps, I and otheni 
examined the table minutely; but no indentations or other 
marks of injury were to bo found ; nor was there an aiiide to 
be seen in the room with which any one could have dealt such 
blows ; nor anything there except the usual furniture of a par^ 

Both these i*ooms were in a portion of the house known to 
have been built and occupied by Peter Livingstone. 

I feel confident that the sounds could have been heard a 
hundred yards olF. f 

It is seldom that any one, going in search of phenomena of 
this class, comes u|x>n anything so remarkable as the foregoing. 
The conditions are rare : a locality where, fur several genera- 
tions, ultramundane interventions have spontaneously ap- 
|)eai*cd ; and the presence, in that locality, of two among the 
most powerful mediums for physical manifestations to be found 
in this, or it may be in any other country. 

I cannot i^easonably doubt that, before the present decade 
closes, the intelligent poition of society will be as thoroughly 
convinced of the reality of the spirit-rap as enlightened in- 
ipiirers already are that the size and form of the bmn havo 

* See, for similar phenomena, FootfnfU^ p. 231. 
t Soo FootfattM, pp. 217, 252, 275, ifa simUar noises. I wrote out this 
aoooant oa the aaming after the iaddeats oocuxmL We sat t&l 


lomething to do with intellect, and that mat^netio yifluences 
nay produce hypnotic effects. 

When we have admitted the intermundane character of 
hese wonderful echoes, the first short step in experimental 
^piiitiialism is taken: but only the first. The rap may bo 
iltramundane ; and yet that single fact is insufficient to prove 
hat deceased friends can communicate with us. We must 
leek, in the rap-spelled commimications themselves, for condu- 
ive evidence that intercourse from beyond the bourne is nut 
orbidden to man. 

If I have devoted more space than seems needed to the 
iroof, in a physical sense, of so simple a phenomenon, I beg to 
emind the reader of the persistent nonsense that has been 
poken and written about spirit-rapping, and of the prejudices 
hat have grown up under the ridicule which has thus sttached 
tself to the t^rm. 



" When thej oame to Joxdia, they cut down wcod. But m one wu 
fellixig a beam, the axehe>d fell into the water : and he cried, and Mid 
[to Eliaha], *Alaa, master!* for it waatMirrowed. And the man of God 
aaid, ' Where fell it ? * And he ihewed him the place. And he oot 
down a stick, and cast it in thither ; and the iron did swim.'*— 3 Kixas 

TuE raiAing from the ground of weighty substauces, or the 
moving of these from place to place, is one of the most common, 
and most easily Terified, of physical manifi^tations. I have 
elsewhere given many examples of it.* Hero I shall add but 
two or throe out of the numerous cases that have come uudor 
my eye during spiritual sessions. 

A most satisfiictory test of the |>ower, by occult agency, to 
raise ponderable substances was suggested to lue by that practi- 
cal thinker, the late llobcrt Chainbei-s, the «^ oil-known author 
and publisher, during his visit to the United States, in the 
autumn of 1800 ; and we carried it out on the thirteenth of 
October of that year. 

On the evening of that day we had a sitting in Mr. irniU'r- 
hiirs dining-room ; there being present Mr. and Mrs. Under- 
bill, Kate Fox, Mr. Cliambers, and myself. In this rcioui, we 
found an extension dinner- table of solid mahogany, ca|mble of 
seating fourteen persons. This we contracted to the form of a 
centre- table, and, having procured a large tteelyard, wc found 
that it wei^ied, in that form, a hundred and twenty-one jioundH. 

Wo suspended this table by the steelyard, in exact equi{K>iBe 

* Foo^flOi, pp. 110, 119, 113 (noie), 839, 950, 970, 970 to fi:^^ 
many otiun^ 


and about eight inches from the floor. Then we sat down bj it; 
and while our experiment proceeded, Mrs. Underbill sat with 
the points of both feet touching one of mine ; and Kate in the 
same relation to Mr. Chambers. This was done, at their sug- 
gestion, so as to afford us proof that they had no physical 
agency in the matter. Their hands were over the table, near 
the top, but not touching it. There was bright gas-light. Thus 
we were enabled to obtain 

A Crucial Test. 

The table remaining suspended, with the constant weight at 
the figure 121, we asked that it might be made lighter. In a 
few seconds the long arm ascended. We moved the weight to 
the figure 100 : it still ascended ; then to 80 ; then to 60. 
Even at this last fig\u*e the smaller arm of the steelyard was 
somewhat depressed, showing that the table, for the moment, 
weighed less than sixty pounds. It had lost more than half Us 
weighty namely, upward of sixty-one pounds : in other words, 
there was a power equal to sixty-one pounds sustaining it. 
Then we asked that it might be made heavier ; and it was so : 
first as the figures indicated, to 130, and finally to a hundred 
and forty-four pounds. 

The change of weight continued, in each instance, from three 
to eight seconds, as we ascertained by our watches : and during 
the whole time the ladies maintained the same position of feet 
and hands ; Mr. Underbill not approaching the table. 

We had given Mr. Underbill no notice of our intention to 
ask for this experiment. The steelyard was borrowed for the 
occasion from a wholesale grocer, living in the neighborhood. 

How much a Jewish axehead commonly weighed, in the days 
of EUsha, I know not ; it could be but a few pounds. Our 
miracle {duruimis) exceeded that of the prophet, as £ur aa 
regards the weight of the body that was made lighter : but 
the Hebrew seer was at a greater distance from the.objeot niaod 
than were our mediums. 


On the evening just preceding that on which we tried the 
above experiment I had a sitting at Mr. Underhill'Sy with very 
satisfactory result. 

a heavy dinn'eb-table suspended in tub alb, without 


Our session was on the evening of October 12, 1860, lasting 
from lialf-past nine till eleven.* It was held in the same room 
and at the same table mentioned above, and by gas-light. Pres- 
ent Mr. and Mrs. Underbill, Kate Fox, Mr. Harrison Gray 
Dyar, of New York, and myself. 

We had very loud rappings, from various parts of the room 
and on the chairs. 

Then, while our hands were on the table, it began to move, 
sometimes with a rutary motion, sometimes rising up on one 
sid<s until finiilly it rose from the ground all but one I(*g. 

Then we sought to induce it to rise entirely from the floor. 
After (what seemed) strenous etTorts, almost successful, to rise, 
we aide<l it by each putting a single finger under it; and, with 
this slight a-Hsistanoe, it rose into the air and remained sus- 
pended during six or seven s(H*onda. 

After a time we asked whether, if we removed our fingers 
from th(* table-top, whil<} it was in the air, it could still remain 
sus]>onded ; and the reply (by rapping) bc*ing in the affirmative, 
aft<»r aiding it to rise as In^fore, we withclrewour fingers entirely, 
raising them above it. The table then remained, nearly level, 
EUspendfHl without any human su|*|iort whatever, during the 
S|>nrp of five or six sf*conils ; and then gradually settled do^'n, 
without jar or sud<len dropping, to the floor. 

Then, anxious to ailvanco a step farther, wo asked if the table 
C'luld not bo raisetl from the floor without any aid or contact 
whatever. The reply being in the affinuative, wo stood up and 
placed all our hands over it, at the distance of three or four inches 

* We found, by repeated trialSf that our experiments succeeded bettef 
when we sat at a late hour, after the servants bad fooe to bcd^^te 
the boose and the stiveti were quiet. 


from the table-top : when it rose of itself, following our hands 
as we gradually raised them, till it hung in the air about the 
same distance from the ground as before. There it remained 
six or seven seconds, preserving its horizontal, and almost aa 
steady as when it rested on the ground : then it slowly descended, 
still preserving the horizontal, until the feet reached the carpet. 
As before, there was no jar or sudden dropping.* 

The same experiment was repeated, next evening in the pres- 
ence of Robert Chambers, after we had completed our tests 
with the steelyard; and with exactly the same results. At 
fii^t, as before, we raised it on our fingers ; then, withdrawing 
them, it remained in the air six or seven seconds. On the seC' 
ond trial it rose entirely without contact, remaining suspended 
for about the same space. 

It should here be remarked that we were in the habit, during 
these experiments, of moving the table to different parts of the 
room, and of looking under it from time to time. 

Upon the whole I consider this moving of physical objects 
— les apportSy as the French spiritualists term it — to be as con- 
clusively established, in its ultramundane aspect, as the spirit- 
rap. A hundred-and-twenty-pound dinner-table is no trifle to 
lift. The conditions exclude the possibility of concealed 
macliinery. And by what conceivable bodily effort, undetecta- 
ble by watchful bystanders, can two or three assistants heave 
from the ground, maintain in the air, and then drop slowly to 
the floor, so ponderous a weight, with their hands, the while, 
in full view, under broad gas-light ? No one, in his senses and 
believing in his senses, can witness what I have witnessed, and 
yet remain a sceptic in this matter. 

It makes not, luider the circumstances, at all against it, that 
Mrs. Underbill and her sister were, at one period of their lives, 

* The accomits of this and of the sitting of October 13, were both 
written oat the next momizig. To prevent repetition I here xemazk 
ih»t notea ot all the littinga recorded in this volume were taksn sttbit 
at the time, or next day or (in a tew CMeck^ ts^ ^i w \.'^Q\ites. 


in the habit of sittluq; as professional modiums. But even if it 
di<1, still, in the soclusion of a private family and in the abi 
s<'iic3 of evory ono who had over, till a few months before, been 
RUKpectod of |K>8sessing spiritual powers — I have witnessed oc- 
c:irr:!nces even more marvellous than those above related. 
Thus it happened : 

A Table, flung into the Air, rotates. 

In the spring of 1870 I was visiting a friend of mine, Mr. 

B , whoso charming n^sidcnce on Statcn Island commands 

a magnificent view over the Bay of New York, with the dis- 
tant city on one hand and the Narrows, opening into the ocean, 
on the other. 

The family luid no knowledge of Spiritualism and scant faith 
in any of its plienomena, until a month or two l>cfore my visit, 
when one of the son5«, a young man whom I shall call Charles, 
suddenly found hiiiiKi'lf, as much to his suqirise as to that of 
his relatives, gifted with rare spiritual iwwera. 

Passing by, for the present, the most remarkable of these, I 
here repro<Iuce, from minutes taken next day and submitted for 
correction to the assistants, part of a reconl of what I witnessed 
at two sessions, both held on the second of April, 1870. 

Tlio first was in the afternoon. We had been sitting pre- 
viously in a iKick [mrlor ; but, on my proposal, we adjourned to 
the drai»'ing-room, on the front of the house, where, until then, 
we liad not sat. Tliero wore present, besides Charles and my- 
self, two other relatives of the family, Mr. N and Mr. 

Ij , The room ^-as darkene<l with heavv curtains which 


we drew close : but sufficient light came through to enable us 
to see the outlines of objects. 

We sat at a heavy deal- table, made, expressly for the pur- 
pose, very thick and strong ; the legs more than two inches 
square ; size two feet seven inches by one foot eight inches, and 
weighing twenty-five pounds. 

At first there was a trembling motiooi tli«a % ^aSdiSoD^ 


side to side, gradually becoming more powerful, and at last so 
violent that it was snatched from our hands. Then, at our re- 
quest, the table was made so heavy that I found it scarcely pos- 
sible, with all my strength, to move it even half an inch from^ 
the floor ; the apparent weight some two hundred pounds. 
Then, again at our request, it was made so li^t that we could 
liffc one end of it with a single finger ; its weight seeming ten 
or twelve pounds only. Then it was laid down on its side ; 
and, no one touching it, I was unable to raise it. Then it was 
tilted on two legs and all my strength was insufficient to press 
it down. 

Finally, after being jerked with such sudden violence that we 
all drew back, fearing injury, and merely reached our fingers 
on the edge of its top, it was proj ected into the air so high that 
when we rose from our chairs we could barely place our fingers 
on it ; and there it swung about, during six or seven seconds. 
Besides touching it, we could see its motion by the dim light. 

We sat again in the evening at ten o^clock, in the same room, 
darkened : only three at the table, N , Charles, and myself. 

Tlien — probably intensified by the darkness — commenced a 
demonstration exhibiting more physical force than I had ever 
before witnessed. I do not believe that the strongest man liv- 
ing could, without a handle fixed to pull by, have jerked the 
table with anything like the violence with which it was now, 
as it seemed, driven from side to side. We all felt it to be a 
power, a single stroke from which would have killed any one 
of us on tlie spot. Then the table was, as it were, flung up- 
ward into the air, again so high that, when we stood up, we 
could just touch it, and shaken backward and forward for some 
time ere it was set down. Again it was raised, even more vio- 
lently than before and swimg backward and forward, as hx as 
by the touch we could judge, in an arc of seven or eight feet, 
some five or six times. A third time it was hurled into the 
air, sometimes out of our reach, but we felt it turn over and 
oveTy like a revolving wkeely eiglU or ten times. As nearly as we 
lould judge without reference to our watches, it was aoiiM 


twdve or fourteen weconds in the air, before it descended. Some* 
times we were able to touch it, Bometimes not. 

Then I asked whether, some time hereafter, we might rot be 
able to obtain objective apparitions. The answer was given by 
raising the table three times from the floor, each time nlim«ning 
it down with such force that the noise was distinctly heard in 
the story aJx)vo ; and, when a candle was lighted, we found the 
top (of inch iKMird), split cntinrly across and wrenched from the 
legs ; the long nails with which it had been secured to prevent 
such accident being drawn out. 

Wliilo these nmnift*stations wore in ])rogress, it occurred to 
me, as very strong evidence of the humane care of the operating 
spirits, tliat when such tn*nif»ndous power was exerted close to 
us, no serious accident hap]>enod ; %ud that I had never heard 

of any such, on similar occiision. Once N *b wrist was 

sprained, and twice his kue<^s and also Charles* were struck ; 
but though this pained them a good deal at the moment, the 
pain ceased in a few minutes — through spiiituul influence, as 
they supposed. I certainly would not trust myself within reach 
of any similar demonRtratioUH, if produced by human hands. 

I expressed my thankfulness and gratification at having been 
allowed to witness such manifestations. The answer, by im- 
pression through CharW hand, was: "Don^t you know that 
we are as much gratifioil to give them as you to receive 
them ? " 

Then they informed us that '^ their powers were a little shat- 
tered for to-night ;** and, at midnight, we adjourned. 

I beg that my readers will hero note the attendant circum- 
stances. The locality, selected by myself, the drawing-room in 
a gcntleman^s house ; no professional medium present; the as- 
sistants, the son of the gentleman in whoso house wo were ait- 
ting and two otlier gentlemen, his near relations ; tlie motion 
out of our reach, so that it was a sheer impossibility that thoao 
present could have produced it. The shattered table remaineiL 
a tangible proof of the strong force employed. 


BUBPiaoH OF iMFoerusE OCT or riACx. 

How ihoronghlj oat of place here tlie 8Qi|ncion of daoepdoQ 
or imposture ! How utterly unteneble the hypotheais of illu- 
non or hallaciiiation ! Thomaa^ touddng, would have be- 
lieved. It would need a disciple of Berkeley to witness theae 
phenomenay and still remain a sceptic in tlie reality of socii 


DiBECT Spirit-writing. 

" In the same hour came forth fingexs of a man*t hand, and wroti 
orer against the candlestick upon the plaster of the wall of tha 

f s palace : and the king saw the part of the hand that wrote."— 
Dakikl y. 5. 

A TRAVELLER, bound OD soDio mission of i>assmg iuiportaiice, 
may now and then, amid tho prosaic details he enrounters from 
stage to stage in his journey, lose sight of tlu; (j;ro&t object to 
which it loads : yet, in proportion as he neai-s tliu goal, his 
thoughts concentre, more and more, on tho ultimato issuo. 
So, in tho journey through these pagi^fl, nmy it hnpjK'u to tho 
reader. lie is travelliai^ in search of )in>ofs, cogiii/able by 
human 8<»nso8, of another life. As ho [)roceeds, the phenomena, 
homely at iir^t, gain in living inten^st ; for they go to cHtab- 
lish, ever more and more Ci>ncluhively, tho exist encv'* of an 
agency not occult, not ultramundane only, but intellig^rnt, but 
spiritual : the ngi»ncy of beings like oui-S'Mves, though they be 
no longer denizens of earth. 

There was published, in Paris in the year 18r)7, by a young 
Russian nobleman, a book* which did not attract the atten- 
tion it dcservt'tl. Its autlior, whose ac(puiiutance I h:ul tlio 
pleasure of m:iking in Paris, u yt-ar after his b<>«»k apjHnired, 
liiwl devoted his lifts almost exclusivelv, to tlic ^tudv of wlmt 
he di-emed the Su|)erD3tural and of t!i<» ix'lations l>*tM-ivu tho 

* La RiiiliU <fef B»pntf <;/ le PMnom^nf nitrtcSUu^ di Uur Ecritur§ 
dt'rtct^ drmnntrt<\t, par lo Daron DC GcLDENSTrBiiE, Paris. 1$57. 

For particulars regarding the Qoldenstabbi familj and their p> 
denoe, aeo FfvifnIU, pp. 203 and 330 (noiel . 


visible world and that wliich we have jet to see : the object 
of his studies being to obtain positive demonstration of the 
BouPs immortal existence. His work is that of a classical 
scholar, and contains curious and interesting researches touch- 
ing the Spiritualism of antiquity. It exhibits much sagacity, 
with the drawback that the Baron believes not only in influ- 
ences from the next world but also in direct, miraculous inter- 
vention of God ; as the arresting, by Him, of the earth and the 
moon in their orbits for the space of a day.* The book is 
chiefly occupied, as its title implies, with proofs of direct 
writing by spiiifcs. 

In the ten months from August, 1856, when M. de Gulden- 
stubby first observed this phenomenon, to June, 1857, he ob- 
tained more than five hundred specimens ; out of which He 
gives us lithographs of sixty-seven. These experiences were 
witnessed by more than fifty persons ; of whom he names thir- 
teen, f These witnesses furnished the paper that was used in 
the experiments. 

These experiments were chiefly made, and were most success- 
ful, in old cathedrals or in other ancient places of worship, or 
ill historic residences. But before I reached Paris, in the au- 
tumn of 1858, there had been an order issued, either by the 
government or the clergy, prohibiting such experiments in 
churches and other public buildings. It was vigorously en- 
forced, as wo found when Baron de Guldenstubb^, his sister 
and myself visited the Abbey of St. Denis, on the twenty-ninth 
of September, and placed a paper in one of the side chapels. 
I had determined, however, to persevere in my endeavor to 

♦ Work cited, p. 44. Joshua x. 13-14 

f Namely: Prince L6onide Galitzin, of Moscow; Prince 8^ llet- 
Boheraky ; Oeneral the Baron de Br6wein ; Baron de VoigtB-BhetB ; 
Baron Borys d^Uezkull ; Count de Szapary ; Count d^Ouzohes ; Col- 
onel Toutcheff ; Colonel de Kollmann; Doctor Qeozgii, now of Looa- 
don ; Doctor Bowron, of Paris ; M. Eiorboe, a distingniiihed artut, and 
M. Bavend, proprietor of a gaUeiy of pahitings at Beziin. — inlrwfifo 
Ucfn, p. XV. 


▼erify this importaat phenomenon then and there ; but wa« 
prevented from doing so by a telegram from England, inform- 
ing me of tlio dangerous illness of my father, Kobert Owen, 
with whom I remained till his death, six weeks afterward.* 

Baron de Gulden8tubb6 impressed me very favorably as a 
man of great earnestness and perfect gooil faith ; one who pur- 
sued his researches in a most reverent spirit. Enthusiastic he 
certainly was ; aud, for tliat reason, a less dispassionate ob- 
server ; yet the multitude of his ex|)criences, obtained under 
every variety of circumstance, and the number of respectable 
witnesses who permit their names to appear in attestation of 
the results, leave little room to doubt their genuine charac- 

I reproiluce three out of the many specimens this author has 

The first, in French, was obtained August 16, 1856, in the 
presence of Count d*Ourches, under these circumstances : The 
Count, a Ixtliever in spiritual phenomena but leaning a little 
toward demonology, pre{Nirod two pai>crs ; the one was blank, 
on the other ho had written the well-known text, ** Uereby 
know yc the 8|arit of Crod : P!Ivery spirit that confesneth that 
Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is of God." f These he placed 
t^ide by side, on a table, within view. After ten minutes he 
found written on the blank leaf: *^ I confess Jesus in the 
fissh,^'* — A, V. G, The signature was known to the Baron as 
the initials of a deceased friend. | Here is a fac^simile of the 

* 1 find the following entry in my journal, written just after 
death : ** Daring the last seven or eight years of my father's life be 
was an onwaveriog believer in SptritnaKsm ; though I doubt whether 
fhe same amount of evidence whksh convinced him would have mtisfled 
me. To the last he spoke of a future life with the same undoubtiBC 
•ertainty as of any earthly event, which he expected soon to oooor. Ilia 
death was the moat peaceful I ever witnessed. 

t 1 John iv. 3. 

t lUaUU dss EtprUs, p. 09. 



The second, in English, was written, also in the presence of 
the Count d^Ourches, September 9, 1856, near the column of 
Francis II. Under two crosses, as the fac-simile here given 
shows, is written : ^^ lam the life ; " and the initials, in mono- 
gram, are those of the unfortunate Mary Queen of Scots. * 

A reminder may here be acceptable to the reader : ** In the 
north transept of the church of St. Denis, on one side of the 
door, is a composite column of white marble, erected by Maiy 
Stuart to the memory of her husband, Francis XL, who died in 
1661." t 

* Count d^Ourches pezsonally confirmed to me the aai2ie&tldl(y el 
these two examples of spiiit-writmg, when I called on him OotolMr 1, 
1858. See Fo<ifaJk, p. 112 (note). 

/ Jhris and iU EntirtTM^ l/mdofn^ \QSA \ 1^. 883. 



The last of tbo examples selected, is also of historic interest 
It is the oonventual signature of the frail and repentant Du* 
chcsse do la Vallidro {Sanir Louise de la Misericarde), obtained 
by M. do Guldenstabb69 December 29, 1856, in the church of 
Val-de-Graoe : Colonel do KoUmann being the witne« present. 
Here it is : 






If the reader ask why espeeiallj in the chapel of Yal-de- 
Qr&ce, and why not the family name, the following may be 
worth recalling : 

'^ A small confessional, with a strong iron ndling, opens into 
the church of Val-de Grace, from one of the passages behind. 
This was the confessional used by Mademoiselle de la Valliteei 
previous to her taking the vows; and from the windows of 
the above-named passage is seen the building she occupied ai 
that period** * 

^ Tlie Carmelite convent in which the celebrated llademoi 

* Aril oatf tfCf Aftfrvnt, p. 174. 


selle de la Yalli^re took the reil in 1675, as ' Soeur Lomae de 
la Mis^ricordoy' is in the Bue d'Enfer, behind St. Jaoqtiea dn 
Haut Pas." ♦ 

How strangely suggestive all this I We search pyramid and 
cathedral and vaulted catacomb in quest of hieroglyphics and 
sepulchral sculpture and lapidary epitaphs: little thinking 
what relics of ^he departed, far more precious than all inani- 
mate memorials, might there be obtained, attesting the con- 
tinued existence and memory of those, more alive than we, 
whom we are wont to think of only as dead celebrities of the 

Though 1 was prevented, by business, from revisiting Paris 
after my father^s death and there verifying M. de Gulden- 
stubby's observations, I have since been fortunate enough to 
procure, in the United States, personal evidence, in corrobora- 
tion. And, in some cases, this evidence was obtained under 
conditions so strict that I think any candid and intelligent 
person, witnessing what I have witnessed, must cease to doubt 
that which millions will deem incredible ; namely, that, here 
upon earth, we may receive coomiunications dictated by other 
intelligence, written by other hand, than the hand and the 
intelligence of any among earth's inhabitants. It avails noth- 
ing to allege that this is impossible, if it shall appear that it is 

I obtained examples of spirit- writing, during a sitting with 
Kate Fox, as early as February 27, 1860, and on one or two 
subsequent occasions. But it was during sittings in darkened 
rooms ; and, on carefully looking over the minutes of these ex- 
periments, I perceive that, imtil the autumn of ihB next year, 
I had not taken all the precautions which might, in the dark, 
be taken; nor ever seen any hand while it was writiiig. 
'riierefore, and because space is precious, I pass over theea 

* fiame wocki p. 191. 


earlier examples and shall here record the iresidis of two sittings 
only, both of remarkable character. One carefully authenti- 
cated case is better tlian twenty, loosely attested. 

During the first of Uicho sittingH, held August 8, 1861, in 
Mrs. Fox^H house, in West Forty-sixtli street, New York, I had 
an experioncey such, probably, as few persons have ever en- 

Seeing a Luminous nA!n> write. 

I sought an evening session with Kate Fox, hoping to ob- 
tain .in apparition, which had been pronused mo by rappings — 
but without setting the time — a few evenings befora. Kate 
proposed that we should sit in the lower pai'lor ; but, as I knew 
there was a front parlor on the second floor and wished to 
avoid interruption, I pro))osed that we should hold our sittii^ 
there, to which she readily assented. 

It was a small room, very simply funiialied with sofa, chairs, 
and a table, about two and a half feet by three. There were no 
cloNcts nor presses in this room, and but two doors ; one on the 
iil>per {lassage, the other communicating with an adjoining 
apartment. The table stood in the comer ; we moved it to the 
centre of the room. 

I locked both the doors, and took the additional precau- 
tion of tiealing them. Tliis I did with short strips of paftor 
counectiug the door with the door-eill, attaching the up|)er part 
of each strip with wax to the door, and the lower ]^rt to the 
sill ; and impi-cssing Iwth seals with ray engraved signet-ring. 
I told Kate (and I know she believed me) that I did so for tlie 
sake of those who mi^t hereafter read the rcconl of this sit- 
ting, not to quiet any suspicions of my own. 

As wo were sitting down, she said laughingly : '' You ought 
to look under the sofa, Mr. Owen.'^ I thanked her for the re- 
minder, rolled the sofa out from the wall, turned it over and 
examined it thoroughly, before replacing it. Then I minutely 
inspected every {tart of the room. 

On the table waa an ink-etand and a steel-pen with f 


holder ; nothing else. In case of a dark sitting, I had bron^t 
with me a small package consisting of eight or ten slips oJ 
writing paper, cut from foolscap sheets and about four inches 
in depth : to be used, successively, in case I took notes in the 
dark. They were blank, except that I had put, on one comei 
of each, a private mark. 

This package, with a pencil, I laid on the table on my left 
hand, within reach ; Kate sitting beside me, on my right : and 
then we awaited instructions. 

These soon came, by i-aps ; spelling out " Darken." We 
effectually excluded light through two front windows on the 
street by outside shutters and window-blinds : after which we 
extinguished the gas and resumed our seats. 

Then came the additional instructions. ^^ Best your hands 
on the table. Join hands." I caused Kate to rest her hands 
on the table, clasped ; and I placed my nght hand on both hers, 
reserving my left hand free. 

Then was spelled : " Put your hand \mder table." I placed 
my left hand under the table, on my knee. 

Then, by the raps : " Cover left hand and hold writing-paper 
and pencil in it." I had to remove my right hand from Elate^a 
for a few moments, so as to cover my left hand with a handker- 
chief and place the package of paper-slips and the pencil in it. 
But I had hardly done this, when it spelled : ^' Join hands." 
I replaced my right hand on both of Kate^s. 

Then I felt the paper drawn from my hand, but the pencil 
was left. About a minute afterward the pencil was taken and 
my hand was tapped with it, quite distinctly, three times ; after 
which it was carried off. There was no sound of its falling, 
but, after an interval, there was a distinct rustling of paper on 
the floor. Tliis alternated with the sound of a pen scratching 
on paper ; and continued, at intervals, for a considerable sp«tce, 
during all which I kept my hand on both of Kate's. 

After a time, attracted by a rustling on her light, Kate 
looked on the floor and, with an expression of surpriae, called 
my attention to what she saw. Rising and leaning OTar thi9 


table, but without releasing Kate^s liancls, I could distinctly 
perceive, on the carpet close by Kate on the right, a luminoue 
appearance, of rectangular form, very clearly defined, and, a« 
nearly ah I could judge, the size and shape of one of the slips 
of writing-[Miper tliat had been taken from my hand. 

Then, by the miw : " Do not look at present." Whereupon 
I reseatetl myself. 

Kiite then a.sked : *' Caiuiot the spirit raise that illuminated 
|>a])cr and ]>ut it on the table before us ? " 

Reply, by the raps : " First let me show you the pencil." 

After a little, Kate infoimod me that she again saw the lu« 
minous appearance, even more brightly than at first. Then, 
leaning over as before and watching it for some time, I dis- 
tinctly saw, above what seemed to be the illuminated slip of 
paper, the outline, in shadow, of a small hand holding a pencil 
and moving slowing over the paper. I could not, however, 
distinguish the writing. 

Kate exclaimed, in tones of delight : ** Do you see the hand? 
— and the jiencil, too? — do you see it write?" So that she 
evidently saw it, just as I did. 

All this time both Kate^s hands were on the table ; for I 
bethought me of this, even at that moment. 

Then was spelled : ^^ Don't look ! '^ and I withdraw a second 

Shortly aHor, by the ra{ie: '^Put hand under table." I 
placed my left hand on my knee. Thereupon a slip of paper 
was gently placed in my hand, and the tips of my fingers were 
(listinctly touched, as by human fingers. I brought up the paper, 
laid it on the table before me, and replaced my hand. Very 
soon something was put into it, which, by the touch, I knew 
to be a wooden |)en-holder ; and that also I laid on the table. 

Some time after this, as we could distinguish nothing but 
tbe rustling of paper, Kate again asked if an illuminated sheet 
could not be laid on the table. In a ahort time what seemed 
such was raised a little abore the height of the table ; then it 
gradually Mnk down again, out of n^t. 


After a considefrable interval my left hand was again toaished 
by a piece of paper ; but it dropped before I coiild lay hold of it. 

Another interval, and we had, by the raps: ^' light the 
gas." Only then I released Kate^s hands. We lit the gas, 
and I immediately examined the doors of the room. The seals 
were Intact and the strips, connecting them with the door-sills, 
unbroken. I looked round. Everything remained just as 
when we sat down, except that several slips of pap^: lay scat- 
tered on the floor, with my pencil among them ; while, on the 
table, there lay the single slip and the pen-holder which had 
been handed to me. 

My first thought was that I was now qualified to swear in a 
court of justice, had that been necessary, that, during this sit- 
ting, Kate and I had been the sole occupants of the room. 

Then I examined the papers. One, that on ihe table, was 
wribteu in ink ; three others, on the floor, in pencil ; two or 
three short lines on each. The first had these words : 

^^ The night is not favorable for appearing. I will soon over- 
come difficulties. You shall see me, believe me." 

This, though legible, was evidently written by a very bad pen, 
which sputtered, as we sometimes say. Witness these two words : 

Here is a fac-simile of the writing on one of the other slips ; 
originally in pencil, but the pencilling carefully inked over bj 
me, to preserve it : 

'^'^ -^^jj^ 




On one of tho other slips an allusion was made to the state 
of the atmosphere, as being unfavorable to an appearance in 
bodily form. It was, in effect, a murky evening, with drizzling 
rain. Such weather, as I hod repeatedly verified^ is imfavoiu- 
ble for spiritual experiments. 

On a fourth slip there was expressed, in strong terms, the 
earnest anxiety of the writer to gratify my desire for an ap- 
pearance, so tliat I could recognize her features. * 

My feelings, when I had carefully examined these results, are 
such as seldom full to the lot of a human being. 

I trx)k up tho slip that was written in ink. Some one— aa 
intelligent agent, a denizen of this world or of another — ^had 
taken up the penholder that lay on the table before me, had 
dipped the pen in ink, and had written those lines. The same 
pen-holder had been handed to me under the table by some in* 
visible agency. And all this had happened during tho time when 
the only two hands in the room except my own were under my 
gra^p. Tlicn, too, I had heard the writing. 

I took up the steel-pen and tried to write out a few notes of 
our session. It was nearly worn out. It sputtered in my 
hands, as it had done in thoee of the mysterious writer. After 
managing to write a few lines, I relinquished the wretched pen, 
as she had done, for my pencil. 

It was a gold one. I remarked to Kate what a heavy 
pencil and what a miserable pen they had been obliged to em- 
ploy : thus writing under great disadvantage. 

Were tliese spiritual autographs ? What else ? Had I not je^n 
one of them written ? Had I not seen one of these slips, illu- 
minated, rise higher than the table and then sink back again? 
Had I not felt Kate^s two hands under mine at the very time 
when that hand wrote and that paper rooe and fell ? Did Kate 

* Of the writer whose name was appended to each of these comma- 
nieaUoDS I sbaU qieak at large, in the diapter entitled : A temff/U 
^Mt manifmUng h^n^; Book iv., ohap. 8. 


write eiglit or ten liues with both her hands clasped ? Did 1 
write them with my left hand, without knowing it ? Or had 
Elate brought the slips, ready written ? I picked them up and 
examined them critically, one by one. My private mark, on 
one corner of each — namely, letters of the German alphabet, 
written in German character — still there ! 

What way out ? 

Are the senses of seeing and hearing and touch, in sane, 
healthy persons, unworthy to be trusted ? Then of what value 
the evidence taken in a criminal court, or the experiments 
made in a chemist^s laboratory ? 

For me, common sense bars that way out. I believe in a 
phase of life, succeeding the death change. I see nothing un- 
likely — not to say incredible — in the theory that God may 
vouchsafe to man sensible proof of his immortality. And thus 
I accept the evidence of my senses when they inform me that 
human beings who have passed to another phase of existence, 
are sometimes permitted to communicate, from beyond the 
earthly bourn, with those they have left behind. 

For others, to whom spiritual intercourse seems an absurdity 
— for those, more especially, to whom the hypothesis of another 
life wears the aspect of a baseless dream — let them select their 
own path out of the difficulty. I think that, on any path they 
may take, they will have to accept theories infinitely less tena- 
ble than those they decide to reject. 

I remark, in regard to the foregoing experiment, that the 
room in which it was made had been selected by me, after an- 
other had been proposed ; also that I expected one sort of 
manifestation and obtained something quite different. The 
chief objection, by sceptics, will be that the phenomena oc- 
curred in a darkened room. But, in a preceding example,* it 
has been shown that when a light was sprung upon spiritual 
phenomena of the most startling character, the only effect waa 

* See chapter 1 of Book iil.^ yreoedhig page. 


to arrest them^ without disclosing any earthly cause for iheii 

Yet I need not rest the case hero. It is but rarely, and 
under very favorable circumstances, that direct writing can be 
bad in the light. Yet it can sometimes be obtained. Witnest 
the following : 

DiBEcT Spirit-writixq by Gas-light. 

At Mr. Undcrhiirs on the evening of September 3, 18G1, 
in the back room, second story. Present, Dr. A. D. Wilson,* 
Mr. and Mrs. Und3rhill and myself. Precautions in regard to 
looking doors and the like, as usual. Tho room was brightly 
lighted during the entire sitting. We sat at a rectangular table, 
thirty-three inchoa by fifty-throe, which had no drawers, and 
from wliicli wo had removed the table-cover. The gas lit the 
space under tlie table, so that we could inspect it at any time. 
I s:it on one side of this table, Mrs. Underbill opposite ; Mr. 
Undorhill at one end, on my right, and Dr. Wilson at the 
othrr, on my left. 

A few minutes allcr sitting down m*o heard, very distinctly, 
tho jingling of an iron chain ; then a sudden stroke, as if by the 
point of a blunt dagger, against tho under side of the table- 
top, so strongly dealt as to shako tho whole table; then a 
metallic Konnd, as if two steel rods clashed against each other; 
(hen a jingling, as of stei^l rings. 

During all this time, as I particularly remarked, tho hands 
of all tho assistants were on the table; and below the table 
there was nothing to bo seen, for I looked more than once. 

Then, after witnessing several other phenomena, we aiikcd 
if we could have direct writing in the light; to which the reply, 
by raps, was in the aflirmalsve. Then came a call for {Nsper 

* Ho then liTed in East CeTcath street, near Brosdwaj. 

lie was one of the mo«t oarefnl and dispatsioaste obeenrfrs I have 
met with, and he expra»ed, in the strongest tenas, his oonviotioi 
the condasire charscter of this experimeiit. 


and pencil. I myself selected a sheet from the middle of a 
quire of foolscap and examined it carefullj under the gas 
burner: it was entirely blank. I held it and a pencil on m} 
knee, looking under the table as I did so. Scarcely had I 
looked up again, to be assured that all the hands of the assist- 
ants still remained on the table, when paper and pencil were 
taken from n.e, a finger distinctly touching mine, as they were 
taken. Then, for six or eight tecondM we heard a sound resem- 
bling that of a |>encil A^-ritiug rapidly on pa))er; and instantly, 
before I had time to look again, the raps spelled : *' Take it 
up.'' I did so, and found written u|ion it in i)encil, in a bold, 
rude, dasliing hand, the words : " The North will conquer^'* * 

The t in the word ^^ North '' is crossed with a sweeping dash. 
" Conquer" is written conq^ then the u is written partly over 
the 7, and the final e and r run into one another ; but the word 
is still legible enough, f 

I do not think that more than twenty, or at most twenty- 
five, seconds elapsed from the moment I put the paper under 
the table till I took it up, written as above. 

The foregoing may suffice as far as regards my own exi)eri- 
ence in this matter. I add here, in corroboration, the results 
obtained by two friends of mine, both of whom have been, in 
some i-espects, even more highly favored than myself, in the 
character of evidence establishing the reality of spirit-writing. 

Tlie first, obtained by artificial light, is an experience of Mr. 
Livermoi*e, of New York, J during an evening session with 
Kate Fox, on the eighteenth of August, 18GI. No one present 
but the medium and himself. The doors locked and bolted ; 

* The reader need hardly be reminded that this was but six weeks 
after the disaster at Ball Ron; at one of the darkest cpochs of the 
Great Ck)ntest, when the hopes of the South were triomphant, and the 
North was just beginning to take heart, after so severe a check. 

f See fac-simile on plate L 

\ Of this gentleman and of the wonderfal experiences he has had^ 
toaohing the phenomenon of objective apparitions, I have spoken at 
lovib, la Book v., ehiqp. 4; whieh 


SS4 Mn. livekbiose's expkbiemcb. 

the windows secured, and the room thoroughly examined. 
Then the lights extinguished. Soon an oblong light, about the 
size and shape of a melon, rested on the table, remaining there 
a considei-able time without moving. Mr. Livermoro asked 
if it could rise ; whereupon it rose into the air, flashing out 
occasionally, and floating about the room. Finally it returned 
to the table, shining with increased brilliancy. 

Mr. Livermore had brought with him two very large, blank 
cards, each with a private mark, hoping to obtain direct writ- 
ing. These he now deposited, together with a small silver 
pencil, on the table, near the light ; at the same time securing 
both hands of the medium. They were soon taken from the 
table and carried near to the floor, remaining apparently sus- 
pended, however, some three or four inches above it ; and the 
light was so moved that its rays fell directly upon the cards. 
What Mr. Livermore then saw I give in his own words, copied 
from the record ho himself made at the time : " The cards be- 
came the centre of a circle of light a foot in diameter. Care- 
fully watching this phenomenon, I saw a hand holding my pencil 
over one of the cards. This hand moved quietly across from 
left to right, and when one line was finished, moved back 
to commence another. At first it was a i)ei'fcctly-shaped hand, 
aftei-ward it became a dark substance, smaller than the human 
hand, but still a^jparently holding the pencil, the writing going 
on at intervals, and the whole remaining visible /or nearly an 
hotcr. 1 can conceive of no better evidence for the reality of 
Bj)irit- writing. Every possible i)recaution against deception 
had been taken. I held both hands of the medium throughout 
the whole time. I have the cards still, minutely written on 
both sides ; the sentiments there expressed being of the most 
elevated character, pui-e and spiritual." 

The italics are from the original record. Nearly an hour, it 
will ba observed, the phenomenon continued to present itself, 
and under a bright light, even if one not kindled by human 
But the next example 0GCviti«^ m XaqmI daylight It 

MBS. DA vis's ezperiexce. 385 

commnnicated to me by ono of tho witnesses present, at first 
verbaUjy afterward by letter, in which the writer kindly per- 
mits mo to use her name ; a name which cannot fail to secure, 
for the narration, re8]K)ct and consideration. Tlie lady is the 
■ister of Bancroft, the histoiian, and the widow of John Davis, 
formerly governor of I^Iassachusetts, and best remembered in 
New £ngLind under tho honorable cognomen of " honest John 

The ciroumstanc'j occurred in ^Ivx Davis's dining-room, in 
Worcester, Massachusetts, the medium present being Mr. 
Willis, formerly a student of Ilai'vard Univeraity, au<l who 
had some difficulty there, because of an honest* avowid of his 
belief in the epiphanies of Spiritualism. ^^The room," says 
Mrs. Davis in her note to me, '^ had four windows facing cast, 
south, and west ; the hour betwe<*n eleven and twelve, A.M. ; 
so that wo had the full light of a summer sun, shut off only by 
green blinds. We were at a table on which I had put paper 
and pencil ; but wo had no intention of forming what is called 
a circle : we merely sat chatting of s«>me wonderful inanifi^ita- 
tions we liad witoessed the evening NToi-e." 

While they wen) so engaged, the jH-ncil rose from the table, 
stood at the usual angle, as if guided by a human hand, thougli 
no hand was to be seen, and began to write. The amazem<*nt of 
Mrs. Davis may be imagined. The motion of the pencil was 
regular, and a slight scratching sound was heard as it moved. 
Both Mrs. Davis and Mr. Willis saw and heard this alike. It 
wrote a brief message of aSTection from a dear friend of Mnt. 
Davis, deceased some years before : then dro|>ped on the paper. 

The evidence in this case, it will be observed, is more direct 
than in any of the Baron de Gulden&tubbe*s experiments, for 
he did not see the writing done ; and it has a certain advan- 
tage also over Mr. Ldvermore^s experience and mine ; seeing 
that, in both our cases, the light was artificial and might by 
some bo thought leas trustworthy than that of day. 

What element of aathenticitj is lacking here ? The writing 
was done in the seeing and htwiring of both, and ia bc<M«L4ae^* 

886 wRrnNQ on thb nuMAN 

light. For anything which we have not witnessed otmel'VM^ 
how seldom is more conclusive testimony to be had ! 

Commending these various experiments to the critical con- 
sideration of the candid reader, I proceed to give a few ex- 
amples of another species of writing, often discredited, yet of 
which I have had proofs which I find it impossible to set 

Writing on the human Hand and Arm. 

Mr. Robert Chambers and myself were well acquainted with 

a gentleman whom I shall call Mr. M , not being at liberty 

to give the real name. He is one among the most successful 
and best-known business men of our country ; not a resident of 
New York. 

At the time I am speaking of, however, he was on a visit to 
that city ; and Mr. Chambers and I induced him to call, with 
us, on Mr. Charles Foster, one of the very best test-mediums I 

have ever known. Mr. M was an unbeliever in spiritual 

phenomena, unacquainted with Mr. Foster, and agreed to visit 
him merely to gratify Mr. Chambers' wish and mine. "We 
had given Mr. Foster no notice of our visit, and we did not 

make Mr. M 's name known to him. We sat down to an 

ordinary-sized centre-table. 

After several remarkable phenomena which I omit, Mr. 
M expressed a wish for a test of the reality of spirit-inter- 
course. Thereupon Mr. Foster requested him to think of a 
deceased friend. Xhen he bade him write, on one slip of pa- 
per, a number o^ first names, among them the first name of bis 
friend ; and on another slip a number oi family names, among 
them the family name of his friend, keeping the writing con- 
cealed. Mr. M wrote out both lists accordingly ; the total 

number of names being twenty-three. At Mr. Foster's request 
he then tore the names asunder, made up each separately 
in a pellet, and held these pellets under the table, in his hand, 
the palm open. Then Mr. Foster, who ^aa sitting opposite to 


Mr. M , taking up my hat, held it by one hand under the 

tabic and said : " Spirit, will you phrase Kolcct the two i>ellets 
that have your name and suriuuue, from that gent leman^h hand| 
and put them in ]^Ir. Owen^s liat?" In somewhat less 
than a minute raps came, Mr. Foster brought up the bat, and 
handed two |)ellets which it contained, unopened, to Mr. 

M . The latter undid them, without fthowing them to any 

of U8, and meit»ly said : " These are the two pellets with the name 
and family iwme of my friend.^' Tlien Mr. Foster, suddenly 
exclaiming '' Here is his first name on my arm,^^ bared his arm 
and we saw, written on it, in large ]>ink letters, the word Seth. 
After a minute or two, us we wei-e looking at the writing, it 
faded out and Mr. Foster asked : " Will the spirit write the first 
letter of his family name on the back of my hand ? " holding it 
out. We watched it cloM'ly : there was not the least mark on 
it. But, aAer the lapse of a short time, pink marks began to 
appear, gradually growing more plain, until we all saw, and 
road, verv distinctly written near the centime of the l»ack of Mr. 
Fostcr^a luuid, the capital letter C. Then, for the first time, 

Mr. M showed us the two |>ellf'ts. The name wan S<»th 


>>r . ... 

Mr. Foster then inquired of Mr. M if the spirit was a 

relative of hi<i ; and when the other n^plied that it was, Mr. Fos- 
ter sat, A if musing, for a minute or two ; then turned to Mr. 

M , 8avin<; : " Ah I it conies to me : it is vour father-in- 


Mr. C. . . . icm Mr. yi \ father-in-law, as that gentle- 
man tht*n infomie<l us ; but until that moment the fact was not 
known eith*'r to Mr. Chambers or to invs«'lf.* 

Several times during this session, Mr. M became ex- 
tremely i^le, and more than once, exclaimed in surprise. I 
did not share his astonishment, because, the day before (Sop- 

* A rcGonl of this sittiii^ was made the tamo day and submitted by 
mCf for reviaon, to Mr. Chambers. That gcntlomaa was then on a 
visit to this coontry. !!• took the deepest iutenst in tnch azpcri* 


timber 28), I had had a private sitting with Foster where I ob- 
tained a test, perhaps even more satisfactory than the above, 
seeing that it came at my own request, I begged Foster tc 
bare his arm and I said : ** Can I have the first letter of the 
family name of a deceased friend of whom I am thinking writ- 
ten there ? " I kept my eyes steadily fixed on the arm, after a 
time the letter "W gradually appeared, then, as gradually, faded 
out again. That was the first letter of the name I had thought of. 

Two marvels here : an answer to a mental question, and 
writing upon a human arm before my eyes and in reply to an 
imexpected request. 

More than a year after this I had, also through Mr. Foster, 
a similar test ; and as my notes, taken on that occasion, describe 
the appearance minutely,! add the record here, at the risk of 
being tedious. 

The Letter F. 

A circle of eight persons had assembled, on the evening of 
November 15, 1861, to meet Mr. Foster. It was at a well- 
known house in East Twentieth Street, New York ; the dwell- 
ing of two ladies, both earnest spiritualists, and of whom our 
country has recently had to mourn the loss, Alice and Phoebe 

AVe had all been invited, early in the evening, to write one 
or more names, of deceased friends, each on a small bit of pa- 
per ; and to fold these up tightly and mix them in the centre of 
the table. There were some twenty or thirty of these in all, 
thus promiscuously placed together. 

From time to time Mr. Foster addressed some message to 
one or other of our party, and, at the close of each message, ho 
selected one of the bits of paper and handed it unopened, to the 
party addressed. In every case, the message was appropriate and 
the name was given to the right person. In six diiferent cases the 
name of the deceased friend was written in full, on Mr. Foster's 
axTU ; but the arm was not bared beforehand, the writiiig ap- 
peared when he drew up \ua do^^^* 


When fiomo eight or ten bits of pa[K;r only remained, I RaiJ 
to Mr. Fo.stcT: "There is a name "^Titten by nie among those 
you have not yet distributed. Do you think you couhl get the 
first h'tter of it on your arm ? " I was going to add " and I 
shouKl like you to bare your arm before it is ^Tittcn ;" but I 
rcfiained, lest ^Ir. Foster should think that I entertained a 
suspicion which I did not feci. 

BIr. Foster sat silent for a minute or two, botli his hands 
resting passively on the table the while ; then ho said to me : 
" You are to look at my wrist :" at the same time extending 
towanl me the h>ft arm with the hand downward and the fist 
clenched, and drawing back his sleeve so as to expose three or 
four inches of the wrist. I observed that it was free from all 
mark whatever, and it remained so for about one minute. Tlien 
a faint pink stroke appeared across it which, in about half a 
Liinute more, having gradually increaseil in distinctness, becamo 
a capital F. It extended almost across the wrist, near to 
where it joins the hand ; and the top of the F, being the last 
part of the letter which appeared, crossed into the back of the 
hand. The letter was formed by pink lines, about as thick aa 
the down-strokes in oi*dinary text-hand. It was the writteOi 
not the printed character; and though it ap|>eared as if written 
hastily or can*lessly, it was unmistakably distinct and legible; 
80 that each member of the cii*cle, when it was shown to them, 
recognized it at once. It remained visible for as much as two 
or three minutes ; and then f;uled away, while we were looking 
at it, as gradually as it had appeared. 

Tlien Mr. Foster picked up the foldeil bits of p:il>er, one after 
another, until, as he touched one, there were thivc raps. Tiiat 
one he liand«*d to me. It was the one on which I had written 
" Florence," the name of a daughter of mine whom f had lost 
in infancy twenty years befurc. Neither Mr. Foster, nor any 
member of the circle, knew that I had lost a dauglit(*r, nor had 
the name ever before come up, at any of our sittings. 

Was the |iartictilar character of this test — stricter than il 
of any other obtained during th6 eveiaaj^ — ^fs^xp^fiosA^Vi^ 



unexpressed wish to see the writing while in progress of for* 
mat ion? The important tiling is correctly to state the circum' 
stances : let the reader make his own deductions. 

The feeling, as the letter grew under my gaze, was somewhat 
like that I remember to have had when, for the first time, un- 
der the microscope, I witnessed the sudden coming into exist- 
ence of crystals. 

Space fails me to say more touching spirit-writing. In the 
way of recital can stronger proof be given ? Let those who 
still doubt test the matter for themselves. 


Spibit ToDcms. 

In the spring of tho year 1858| then living at Naples, I had 
fonr sittings ^dth a medium of world-wide reputation, D. Dun- 
glas Ilome ; and, in his presence, I witnessed a phenomenon 
which no earnest thinker can witness, believing it to be genuine, 
without a strange feeling that he is brought near to tho next 

Tlio sessions were held in tlie {)arl(>r of my ujiartnients on the 
Cliiaja : present, besides my family uud tho medium, the Count 
d^Aquila; or, as wo usually colled him, Prince Luigi, third 
brother of tho King of Naples. They were evening sessions, 
the room brightly lighted. We sat at a centre-table, three feet 
nino inches in diameter, and weighing, with tho lamp on it, 
ninety |X)unds. 

During the second session we were all touched in succession ; 
and this was preceded by a singular manifestation. At variooa 
points all round tho table, the table-cover was pushed outward, 
and occAKionully upward at the edge of tlie tabh'-top, as by a 
hand underneath. Mrs. Owen touelieil it and felt, through the 
cover, what seemed a small human hand, doubKnl u|». By the 
raps it was allegeil that it was our eldest daughter, Florence, 
m'hom we hud lost when an infant. 

Tlien Mrs. Owen^s dresit was pulled, on the Mde farthcbt fi-um 
Mr. Home, as often as eight or ten times, and so strongly that 
^Irs. Owen says had she been asleep it would certainly have 
awoke her : and, as it was, it instantly arrested her attention. 
She Mw her dress move each time it was pulled. 

I'lien she asked that it might touch mo three times, which i* 
did instantly and quite distinctly. Then I put on my knM 
hand coverod with a handkerchict^ md^ ml xoct T«ff!^Mi^^ 

392 BpmiT-TouciiEs obtained 

mediately touched my hand through the handkerchief. Then 
Mrs. Owen invited it to toucli her hand which she placed, un- 
covered, under the table : upon which it went under one of the 
flounces of her dress and touched her hand through the silk ; 
but did not touch the bare hand. 

When under the table-cover, on the opposite side from Mr. 
Home, it tapped three times on Mrs. Owen's hand, when she 
put it against the cover. 

All iliia time Mr, Hom^a hands were resting an the tahUy and 
immediately afterward the table rose entirely off the floor some 
four or Ave inches, and was carried about twelve inches toward 
where Mrs. Owen sat, and there set down again, Mrs. Owen 
rising : then raised a second time and carried about six inches 
farther in the same direction. This time the foot of the table 
rested on Mrs. Owen's dress ; and had to be removed to extri- 
cate it. 

Then a large arm-chair, weighing forty -eight poimds,* and 
standing empty behind Mr. Home and about four feet and a 
half from the arm-chair in which he sat, moved suddenly and 
very swiftly close up to the table between Mr. Home and Mrs. 
Owen. Sitting opposite to them, I happened to be looking in 
that direction at the moment, and saw it start. It moved ao 
suddenly and mpidly, that I expected it to strike with foroo 
against the table ; but it stopped, as suddenly, within an inch 
or two of it, and ^vithout touching. It is proper to add that it 
moved on castors. Mr. Home was, at that moment, sitting 
close to the table, with both hands lightly vesting on it, and 
without the slightest appearance of any muscular cfibrt. 

During the next session, April 6, the touchings were re- 
peated ; f and still more distinctly, during the foiirth sitting on 

* I had chair, table, and lamp carefully weighed, and recorded the 
weight at the time. 

f A phenomenon which oocorred dazing this sitting is well worth 

recording. All our chairB were shaken, as distinctly as daring an earHi* 

gnake (we had a violent one, while I was in Naples, bo that I q^eaklian 

bjr the book)] yet the table, the w\ni«^T«majai«ATCiQ»^^^ Theathtt 

TziBoron MIL noMK. 393 

April 1 2 ; uu which occasion the hand tonched was uncovered. 
Hero is the record : " Mrs. Owen's liand, placed on her knee 
undtT tlio cloth, was touched with what exactly redembletl to 
thu touch a human hand, soft, moderately warm, and a little 
moist. The touch was on Mrs. Owen's bare hand, and was so 
distinct that thoro wns no possibility of mistaking it. Mrs. 
Owen, having on two prr*vious evenings, witnessed the samo 
plicnoiutnon, was quite self-i>osses8cd, and she stated to mo that 
slie folt nut t]io least nor^'oubuess or alarm. 

*^ Prince Luigl was touched repeatedly, as we were ; and ha 
aftcrwai-d cxpn'ssed to me, in unqualified terms, his conviction 
that tlio phenomena wo had witnessed wero genuine. Ho had 
liad previous experience of his own.** * 

Soon after niv return to this country, I had evidence confirm- 
atory of this phenomenon. 

chain cciscd their motion, and tho table was Bimilarly agitated. Then, 
at rcqucrttf the tabic ceased its motion, and that of the choirs rccom- 
mcr.ced : and so on, nevcral times; the change from one motion to the 
other being instantaneoiui. I know of no human forcn that conld imi* 
tatc this. Machinery there was none, for it was in my own parlor. II 
was cvidrittly m»t ihc flour that was shaken, or that communicated 
motion cilhor to tho table or to the choirs. 

* Here is on item from his experience. Ho told mo that ho had 
■omcUmofl (n.s on after reflection he oondnded) pressed with nnwar* 
rantable ca;;emcss for answers; and, for a time, could obtain nothing 
mora. On one occasion, when he had done so, then was spelled out : 

*' Til cs un vrai diable." 

T/i^ Piiucf.—** De qui parle tu?" 

An-^trrr. — " I)o toi. Louis dc Boarbon.** 

Fri'uch and r:igli^h mag'nctizeis agree in stating that somnambolet 
are wont to use the familiar tn and du to persons whom in their waking 
frtotc the J always addremed either by their titles, or else using the formal 
ro'ti and .S>. Sec, for an example : ISttmre tU. la Gutrison d'unejeutu 
pfrMimu^ jy-irls Maffti^tifine AniiiMl^ produU par la Natun dU-mime; 
by the Boron F. C. De Strombeck : Ftois, 1814, p. 3& *' Jamais ell« 
no m'avoit tnt<>ju.'* 

In tho spiritual realm. It would seeoi. tbnv Is do respect of 
-Actox. &4. 

894 GFmrr-TOuoHES obtained 

Spirit Touches by beight Gas-light. 

Session of October 23, 1860, held in Mr. Underbill's dining- 
room in the evening. Present Mr. and Mrs. Underbill, Mr. 
Underbill's fatber (Levi Underbill), Mrs. Price, of Westcbester, 
and myself. Tbe usual precautions taken as to locking doors, etc. 

Spelled out by raps : " Look under tbe table." I did so very 
carefully. Tbero was notbing tbere. 

After a time it spelled, '^ Put bandkercbief over band.'' I 
asked : '* Is tbat addressed to me ? " Answer : ** Yes." I put 
my rigbt band, covered, under tbe table. 

Tben it spelled : " Lower." I reacbed down as &r as I 

At tbis moment all tbe assistants bad tbeir Minds on tbo 
table, in sigbt. Mrs. Underbill suggested tbat we join bands. 
We did so : but as my rigbt band was undemeatb tbe table, 
Mrs. Price, wbo sat next to me, put ber band on my sboulder, 
to complete tbe circle. 

In about two minutes after tbis circle was tbus formed, my 
band was laid bold of and pressed by tbe fingers of a band, as 
I felt witb unmistakable certainty. Tben I asked to bave tbo 
band toucb me once more. It did so ; and, tbis time, it was 
tbe points of tbe fingers tbat were pressed against my band : 
I felt tbe sbarp impression of tbe nails. 

During tbe wbolc of tbis time tbe gas was burning brigbtly, 
and tbe circle of joined bands was maintained. During tbe 
wbole time tbe bands of all tbe assistants were in sigbt, and I 
kept my eye on tbem. 

But for tbe reminder, by tbe raps, to look under tbe table 
before tbe experiment began, I migbt bave omitted to take tbat 

A year later I bad a similar experience, also in tbe ligbt. 

It was during tbe session, abeady noticed, of September 3, 
1801, wben we obtained direct writing by gas-ligbt :♦ Dr. WiU 


8on and Mr. and Mrs. Underliill present. The table thirfy- 
thrcc inches bj fifby-thrce; without drawers and without 

It spelled : ^' Put down haniL^ I put my left hand under 
the table. My foot was touched and pressed and my leg 
seized, as by the firm grasp of a strong hand ; but my hand 
not touched. 

Then it spelled : ** Handkerchief." As soon as I covered 
my hand it was touchod, through the handkerchief, as by a 
large finger. Then my fingers were grasped firmly, as by two 
fiugoni and a thumb. Then, a third time, my fingers were 
gni.H()od and tightly preiwod as by Uiree fingers and a thumb of 
a large, strong hand. 

AfUT a tinio, fingers apparently of a small hand were laid 
lightly on mine : and, by delicate raps, it was spelled : " Violet 
1 1 inched you last.^* x 

ThiH cxfteriment was made in a room brightly lighted, with- 
out any cloth on the table, and with the hands of every assisi- 
AUt full in Hight. 

Some readers, theorizing only, may pemuade themselves that 
a single sense, e8i>ecial]y that of touch, is insn£Scient evidence 
in cuM*H like the foregoing. Let them try the experiment. Let 
them try, when they find themselves laid hold of by a hand, 
\igoi-ous nnd real, as firmly as by the grasp of a cordial friend^ 
to 8(*t it down as pure imagination and to rest in the convic- 
tion that they have not been touchetl at all. Short of Pyrrhon* 
ism, thoy will not succeed. When through the avenues of 
actual s<'nsation the testimony comes, they will find out, like 
TliomaM, what are the difficulties of disbelief. 

I horo close my record of manilMtotioiia such as are usually 
called physical ; and proceed to consider a problem of more 
intricate character : that which rektea to the » 





There is, among spiritual phenomena, a class, rare of ocetiiN 
rence, huir wonderfully convincing when we happen to meet 
with them. They teach us much more than the ideality of the 
next world, invaluable as that truth is. They give U3 glimpses 
into that world, dissipating many preconceptions touching its 
character and its inhabitants. We learn from them that our 
friends there may still have earthly thoughts and human sym- 
pathies ; may still recognize us ; may still, for a time, interest 
themselves even in petty matters that ai*e going on in the world 
they have left. They do not, by any means, prove to us that 
every ultramundane commimication is truly from the spirit who 
professes to communicate ; but they do prove to us that this ia 
sometimes the case. In doing so, they establish, in oertaiu 
cases, the identity of spirits. They give wa satisfactory assur- 
ance that we shall recognize our fnends in the next world, and 
that we shall find them there miich less changed than theologi- 
cal fancy has painted them. 

Such proofs are the more valuable when they come unsought, 
unexpected, at first unwelcome even, in the privacy of home: 
where we cannot imagine motive for deception, nor chance of 
juggler's trick. 

/ Am fortunate in being abl^ to «u\k\^lv such an example, 

OErmSO OVER A PItaiCDICE. .t9fl 

fnniishod to me hf trimda in whose Kood taith niiii ta^teiij 
I hav« ontim nonfidi^iii.'o. I koon th« nwncs of all the partis 
0M initial* nru givi'n in ibe folluwirg uturativf ; nnil if l^J 
pKtt permitted to iiubliiJi tli«ni, in nttottjitiuii, the w«ri4^H 
Bbirif to blouiH. Wlieu ■ocit'ty, Itwmiiig to titnt apright^^l 
■ with rnxpoct, craum ta dunouncu or to ridiculo >acU tcsliK^H 
iQonjr u thia, it will bo time pnou^ for it to condemn tb* 
nticcnoo of thoao who mcunwhilo M»k refugo from aocb iiyu*- 
tic« Bud«r Ml Mionymoiw 4-«iL ^1 

I A Spikit akiukoiso its Woslolt ArvAtaa. ^H 

yiim. Q , wife of » — p'"*" ld tho roguW amy of th|^^| 
Unilod State*, waa residing, in IStil, with lior Ituahattd, I^^| 
CinciuiutL n«ifur« that timo aho hod, of oounn', ofLeik hmi^^H 
of Kpiritiml osiwritunsi; but aha hod avoidml aU opportunilMi H 

of Kpiritiml osjHiritunsi; but aha hod avoidml aU oppoTtunilMi 
to BXkmioH tho nsUitj of tiiosu, nr^^iiTiliii^ tLu arelcing of eon- 
nunicat.iont from another world n* n siu. Shu had not-or Man 
whftt ia cftlled ii proffwoonal tm.'diutii. 

It so happmrd that, in thn abova ymtr, a ladjr of her ae- 

(|Uaittt*&oD, Hn. , taaad that nbu (Mro. C ) ImuI tlu 

pmrar to obtain tuentge* Ibraogh npa ; aad abe oocaiioullj 
aat, for tliot puqwao, witb aotoA of bar iatinwto frinida ; asMOg 

Iba real with Mn. . Tbeao ■raaima, eootiuad thron^k- 

out Um 7«an ISAl and 1S43, in a ncaann o r o f wm a Mn. 

O 's anniioiL to the vubjMt ; awakwung bar oaiioiity but 

fttiling to bring fall ooDriMian. 

In Daeanbor, 18«3, btnr bmbamTa bratbar Jadt (aa ba waa 
fiuaOki'l/ oaUed) <li«d waHtiaij. 

In Uamb, 18(14, M?s. (• , tboa in tba quiat of a aovatry 

randenoa near (^cintuUi, Tvemvod a riait from » friand, UiH 

L D k Tbia ladjr h*riiif power a* a madium, Jin. 

aad tba had a a — i on out da/. Afl«r a tin« 

bdj roat and Mta. O raaiaiiood alooa. Tbereupoo, wil 

her haoJa oolir Uffatlj toodting Iba table, it moved aeraa 
RMaa In wUeli tboT had W^t aiding, and, tbrott^ «Bh. 


898 now A SFiBrr AIDED 

door, into a room adjoining. Later it moved, in Mrs. G ^m 

presence, without being touched. Thus, for the first time, she 
discovered her own powers. 

Sitting down again with Miss B , the name of " Jack '' 

was unexpectedly spelled out. 

Mrs. G asked: "Is there an3rthing you wish done, 

brother ? " The i-eply was : " Give Anna that ring." 

- Now Anna M was the name of a young lady to wliom, 

at the time of his death, the brother was be/trothed. Mrs. 
G did not know what ling was meant ; but she remem- 
bered that when Jack died, a plain gold ring — the only one he 
wore — had been presented by her husband to a friend of his 

brother, a Mr. G . She asked if that was the ring, and the 

reply was in the affirmative. 

Some days after this Jack's mother paid them a visit. 
Nothing was said to her of the above communication. In the 

course of conversation she told them that Miss Anna M 

had called upon her ; had stated that she had given to Jack, at 
the time of their betrothal, a plain gold ring and that she 

wished to have it again. Mrs. G and her husband were 

both ignorant that the ring in question had been Miss B ^*s ; 

Jack never having said anything to them on the subject. 
Measures were taken to have the ring returned. 

Some time after Jack's death three persons, G , C y 

and S , came, severally, to Captain G and told him 

that his brother had died indebted to them. He requested 
them to send in their bills in writing. 

Meanwhile, not knowing anything of debts due by his 

brother to these individuals, Captain G asked Mrs. G 

to have a session, hoping to obtain some information on tha 
subject. The following was the result. 

Jack announced himself and his brother asked: 

" Did you owe G at the time of your death ? ** 

" Yes." 

« How much ? " 

''Thirty-five dollars,'' 


" Were you indebted to C 7^ 

« Yen." 

«* How much ? ** 


" Antl how much to S ? " 

« Nothing." 

*' But S says he has a bill against you ? ^ 

** It is not just. I did borrow of him forty dollarsy but I 
gave liim fifty dollars. He repaid me seven only, and stiU 
owes me throe." 

O 's Ijill, when afterward presented, uhu for thirty-fiv6 

dollars, an<l C ^s for fifty. S banded in a bill for fortT 

dollars. When Captiin O said, on its presentation, that 

Jack had repaid him fifty, S became confused and said he 

'* thoHffht (hat was intended for a gift to his (S ^^s) sister." 

Captain C! aflerward asked, through the table: 

" Jai'k, do you owe any one else? " 

** Yes ; John Gr , for a |>air of boots, ten dollars." 

[Neither Captain nor Mrs. G knew anything of thii 


" Does any one owe vou? " 

*' Yes ; C G owes me fifty dollars." 

Captain G applied to C G , asking him whether 

ho hnd Ikhmi indebted to his brother Jack. 

" Yes," he i-eplicd ; " fifteen dollars." 

** But he hMit vou fifty dollars." 

*' That is true ; but I repaid him all but fifteen dollars." 

" You have n*ceipt«, I suppose ? " 

C G pn>mist*d to look for them; but afterward 

canio nnil paid the fifty dollars. 

Filially Captain G called on Mr. Gr , the aho^ 

nmkiT, who had sent in no bill. Wishing to make the test aa 
couiph*tc as possible, ho said : 

" Do I owe you a bill, Mr. Gr ? " 

'* No, sir. You have paid for all you bad of me." 


Captain G fcumed, as if to go ; whereupon the sho^ 

maker added : 

'' But your brother, Mr. Jack, who died, left a small accouni 

"What was it for?" 

" A pair of boots." 

** And your charge for them ? " 

" Ten dollars." 

** Mr. Or , there is your money." 

The above was related to me by Captain and Mrs. G • 

during a visit I made to them at their country residence.* 

If, by way of explaining the above, we imagine deliberate, 
circumstantial, motiveless falsehood in persons of the utmost 
respectability, of earnest character and of unblemished repu- 
tation, we violate all received rules of evidence. But if we 
admit the facts, what theoiy which does not admit the reality 
of spirit-communication will suffice to account for the above ? 
How explain away these stubborn links, actual, tangible, thus 
unmistakably connecting the spiritual with the material — the 
world yet concealed from our view with that other world, not 
more real, which lies around us, palpable to the senses? 

And what stronger proof could well be given of the identity 
of a communicating spirit than these simple, homely details 
supply ? 

If it seem to us inconsistent with the dignity of our spirit- 
ual abode that its denizens should stiU be able to recall trifling 
details of their earthly life, let us bear in mind that, without 
Buch memory of past incidents, the natural consequences of 
well-doing and evil-doing would not follow us to the next 
world. We cannot repent of sin if we cannot call to mind its 
commission : and even Heaven would be a curse if there we 

* April 0, 1865. I took notes, the same day, from which I wrote out 

the above narrative. I afterward submitted it to Captain G , fox 

correction and approval He had kept a record of these Tarioos com- 
munications and of the attendant droomstanoes, at the time ; and ae 
Tos able to give me eveiy partioular with ezaotitade. 

A DOCTOH IS CiiniBCfl. 401 

rnniembcrod onr evil dcedn ouly. On tho other band we maj 
reasonably conclude that, cut children when they advance in 
yearn put a\vay childish things, ro will it bo witli spirits, as 
tlicy go up higher. Petty inti'resta will fade from our thoughts, 
tL> l>c n*])hiced by tho momentous coucenis of a betttT life. 
And this will doubtless hapiien at an earlier or at a later pe- 
liixl, in proi>ortion as the actor in those new scenes had been 
spirituully-miuded, or the ravcrse, during his sojourn upon earth. 

I add here another incident which has its peculiar interest 
aside from tho proof of identity which it supplies. It fur- 
nishes an example of tho gift called by St Paul tho '^discern- 
ing of spirits ;^ or of what, in modem iMurlance, is called a 
subjective apparition, visible to the seer but invisible to other 
spectators : together with evidence that such appearances are 
not, becaiuie of such subjective character, to bo classed among 

Sister Euzabetu. 

One Sunday evening, during the summer of 1855, a New 

Tork physician, Dr. II , attended morning aerviod in tha 

Rev. Dr. Bellows* church. 

During the sermon and while his attention was engrossed by 
the arguni«*nt of the pn*ach«*r, it was suddenly diverted, in a 
most unox[K*ct(Ki manner ; numoly, by the apparition of three 
female fij^in'S. Tliev firxt Ix-caino visible on the left of the 
church luifl tlioy glidinl nlowly across the vacant space in front 

of the pulpit. Ah th«*y {lafised, Dr. II recognized two of 

thi>n), Utth diH^'HMHl rolAtivi*s; one his wife, the other his 
mother. The third Hgure, appearing between tho other two 
und with an arm round the mother, was that of a beautiful 
young girl. The attitude and gesture suggested tho relation- 
bhip of daughter; but the features were unknown to Dr« 

II ; not at all resembling (he thought) thoae of the only 

sister he had lost by death : Anne, who had died, in childhood^ 
thirty -nine years before. 

402 THE doctor's mistaeb 

This group of figures paused as tbey reached the extreme rigbl 
of the church ; two of them, the wife and the young girl, gradu 
ally fading away. The mother, remaining still, turned toward het 
son and gazed at him, with a look of affection, for several min- 
utes ; then vanished like the others. Dr. H had full time 

to note every well-remombered item of dress : the plain Quaker 
cap, the snow-white muslin kerchief pinned across the breast, 
the gray silk gown : all just as the good old lady, a strict mem- 
ber of the Society of Friends, had worn them up to the day 
of her death. 

It was the first time in his life that Dr. H had seen an 

apparition. Nor, up to that time, had anything seemed to in- 
dicate that he had any spiritual powers, except that, on one oc- 
casion, a table from which he had just taken a book had moved, 
without apparent cause, a few inches toward him. The effect 
produced on him by a phenomenon so new and unlooked-for as 
the appearance of these figures was proportionately great. 

Deeply pondering the matter and inclining to believe that 
the third figure must have been his deceased sister Anne, be 
called, on the evening of the next day, on a medium (one of 
the Fox sistera), hoping to have his doubts resolved. 

At her suggestion he wrote out a number of female names, 
in secret ; and as he pointed to these in succession, the name 
Anne was passed by, and the raps indicated Elizabeth. Dr. 

H taxed his memory in vain in search of any relative of 

that name whom ho had lost by death. But when, on another 
sheet, he had written out as many various relationships as be 
could think of, all were passed by till he came to the word 
Sister, at which the raps came very distinctly. 

** That's a mistake," said Dr. H . " I never had a sister 

called Elizabeth. I did lose a sister by death, but her name 
was Anne." Then, as appealing to the occult intelligence ; be 
asked : '^ Do you mean to say that the figure I saw with its 
arm round my mother was my sister? " 

Answer by raps. — " Yes." 

^'And that her name was Ei^iu^th.? " 


By loniler raps. — " Yes.'* 

" Well, it isn't so : that's all I can say." 

Thitw still louder raps reaffirmed the assertion. 

Very laucb mystified^ and somewhat staggered by this per* 

sistenco, it occurred to Dr. H that the family Bible which 

he had not ins(>ected since ho was a child, was in the possession 
of his stop-mother, living seventy miles olT, in the country. 
tlapj>cning souiotinic afterward to be in the neighborhood, he 
paid her a visit and hml an opportunity of examining the fam* 
ily recoixl of births and deaths. There, to his amazement, he 
found i-egistered, in tho year 1820, the birth of a daughteTi 
Elizabeth, together with the record of her death a few weeks 

This event occurred during a five-years absence from his 
father^s house : and though letters were interchanged far more 

rarely in those days than now, Dr. II thinks it likely that 

the circumstance may have been incidentally mentioned in one 
of his fiither*8 infrequent bulletins from home. Ho has not 
the sliglitOHt recollection, however, that he ever received any 
such intelligence, or that ho ever heard the birth or death of 
this infant alluded to in tho family. A life so very brief usu- 
ally passes away without leaving a trace, exce|»t in the secret 
depths of a mother's memory. 

Dr. II has been wt^ll known to me for years, as an intel- 
ligent man and a dispassionate obnervcr. I confide in his 
truth and accuracy. I had the narration from himself, wrote 
it out next morning, submitted the manuscript the same day* 
to the narrator who, after making a single correction, assented 
to its* accurarv. 

In this case, it will be observed, tho fact indicated by the ap- 
parition and confirmed by the mediom was not only not known to 
the ol wcrver but was contrary to his convictions; and he remained 
incredulous uutil enlightened by incontrovertible evidence. 

With a single additional narrative coDnecting, like the fbr^ 

* Jamniy S« \9t^ 


going, a spiritual appearance with the realities of earthlj life^ 
I close this chapter. 

Tub Grandmotheb^s Promise. 

In tho month of March and in the year 1846, three ladies, 
a mother and two daughters, were sitting in the dining-room 
of a dwelling in C street, West Philadelphia. It was be- 
tween one and two o'clock in the day. The liouse was a double 
one, with a central entrance hall : a parlor on the left as one 
entered, and the dining-room on the right ; the windows of 
both rooms looking on the street. 

The mother, Mrs. It , wife of Dr. R , was sitting 

close to a front window and to the wall dividing the room from 
the entrance-hall. Between her and the door opening into 
the hall was a sofa, set against the dividing wall ; and thereon 
sat her eldest daughter, then unmarried and about nineteen 
years of age, now the wife of the Rev. Mr. T , an Episco- 
pal clergyman. Both these ladies were sitting with their teuoes 
turned from the window, so that they could see the door enter- 
ing from the hall, and could observe what happened in the 
room. Facing the mother and seated on a low stool between 

her and tho elder daughter, was a yoimger daughter, A , 

then aged seventeen. All three ladies were engaged in needlc- 
woik and were quietly conversing on ordinary topics. 

Ilie door leading into the entrance-hall was ten or twelve 
feet from the front wall. At the time I am speaking of it hap- 
pened to be ajar, open some three or four inches only. 

Of a sudden, and at the same moment, the mother and eld- 
est daughter perceived, advancing silently from this door, a 
female figure. It appeared in a black Turk-satin dress and 
over it a white book-muslin handkerchief crossed on the breast ; 
and it wore a white bonnet. In its hand the ladies distin- 
guished a white silk bag, such as is often carried by Quaker 
ladies^ the string of the bag wrapped several iime^ round the 
wristj and the bag gathered tip in the hand. The yoozigev 


Biflter, observing after a tiiae the looks of the other two ladies, 
turned round aud Haw the appearance also; but not as long noi 
as distinctly as thoy did. 

Thu figure aJvancod slowly into the room, till it came with- 
in tw(} or thi*cu feet of the front wall. Tliere it stopped oppo- 

site a portrait of Dr. R , which hung between the two front 

windows, and gazed at it, for the s(>ace perhaps of half a min- 
ute; then it turned and moved slowly to the door whore 
it had first l>ei?n seen. The door did not open; but the figure, 
coming close up to it, there suddenly disappeared. The ladiea 
wure looking at it, at the moment of its disappearance. In 
moving through the ]>arlor and returning, it passed so close to 
the elder dauglitcr that its dress seemed almost to touch hcrV 
Yet tliei-tt was ivy echo of a footstep, nor the least rustle of the 
diTss, nor any other sound whatever, while the figure moved. 
This circumstance and the duiap[iearanco of the apparition 
without o]>euiug of the door to i)ermit natural exit, alono 
caused the uppearance to scorn other than an ordinary and ma- 
terial one. To the sight it was as distinct and palfHiblo as any 
huiuan visitor; and though the ladies afterward recollected 
that its motion 8i*emed more like gliding than walking, yet 
this was an tx(U.*r thouglit only. Not a word was spoken, dur- 
ing the Si'one liei-e «lescribed. 

*' Wlio was it? ^^ was Mrs. U ^s exclamation, addressed 

to the oldor daughter, as soon as their first mute astonisliment 
had a litth* sulmidod. 

''It was grandmamma ! '* slie replied. 

ThenMipon tht* mother, without another word, left the room. 
The house was stMrcheil, from garret to cellar, but not a traco 
was found of any one except its usual inmates. 

In addition to this negative evidence there was the positive 
proof furnished by a slight, recent fall of snow. The path to 
the door-steps (the house standing back from the street line), 
and the steps themselves, showed no trace of human foot. 
Add to thi# that two chrdren who were playing, at the time^ 
on the fitmt vermnda, m^ no one enter or dngixi. 


On subsequently comparing notes, the ladies ascertained thai 
tbo impressions left on each of them by this extraordinary ap- 
pearance were the self-same. I had the particulars, first from 

the elder daughter, Mi-s. Y , and afterward confirmed by 

the mother. To both the figure seemed a real person. Both 
recollected the precise dress, and their recollections exactly cor- 
responded. To the eyes of both the figure had crossed the 
room, approached the front wall, lingered there to look at the 
portrait, recrossed to the door and there vanished. Neither 
heard any sound. It should be added that they had not been 
talking or thinking of the lady whose image thus suddenly ap- 
peared before them. 

Mrs. R , as well as her daughter, had instantly recog- 
nized the figure as that of Mrs. R 's mother, who had died 

about ten yeai'S before. Not only the face and form, but every 
minuto particular of the di^ss, as above described, were the 
counterpart of that lady and of her usual walking attire, when 
in life. Originally she had belonged to the Society of Friends, 
and she had, in a measure, retained the style and peculiarities 
of their apparel. 

The ladies related this incident, on the evening of the same 

day, to the Rev. 'Mr. Y , from whom I first obtained it : 

his recollection of what they told him, only a few hours after 
the event, tallying exactly with their account to me of what 
they had seen. He informed me that he had never seen old 

Mrs. R ; but, the next morning, meeting three elderly 

ladies, sisters, who had been intimately acquainted with her, 
he asked them (without mentioning what had been related to 
himself) to give him a description of her personal appearance 
and ordinary walking-dress. It agreed, point for point, with 
that of the apparition, as it had been described to him. 

Some other particulars which add greatly to the value of 
this narrative remain to be stated. Shortly before her death 

Dr. R 's mother had strongly advised her son to buy a 

house in the neighborhood in which he ultimately purchased. 
She had &ho, about the same time, stated to a friend of 


hen, Mrs. C , that if her son (he was an only son) did 

well, she would, if permitted, return from the other world, to 
witness his profifierity. lliis was afterwaixl mentioned bj 

Mrs. C to the Eev. Mr. Y , and by that gentleman 

to me. 

But it so happened that, on the very day, and as nearly as 
Could be ascertained at the very hour, when his wife and 
daughters witnessed the ajiimrition of his mother, tlie deeds by 

which Dr. R became the legal proprietor of tho house in 

which she ap|>eared were delivered to him by its former pos- 
seusor. Though he had 8|>oken to his wife and family of his in« 
tent ion to purchase, they had no reason to suppose tliat the 
bargain would be closed on that day. When, on his return in 
the evening, he threw the deeds on the table, it was an unex- 
pected surprise. Is it to be wondered at that, after the iirst 
feeling of gratification, the next thought, both of mother and 
daughter, should be of her who had so earnestly wished for thia 
ac<]uisition, and who had appeared to them, in her son^s housSi 
at or near the very time at which that house passed, by legal 
conv(>y«ince, into his liandH ? Is it surprising that Birs. C 
should call to mind her old friend's promise, thus, to all out* 
ward sei'ming, strangely and punctually fulfilled ? 

It may, perhaps, occur to tho reader as singular that the 
spirit of the mother should not, at tho time of the purchase, 
have api>earcd to her son, rather than to her duughter^in-law. 
But it is not certain that this was possible. It would seem 
that, as a general rule, apparitions, like other spiritual phe- 
nomena, can pr(*s«*nt thenutelves only under favorable circum- 
stanc(*:<, and that these circumstances are often connected with 
the personal attribute^ or (leculiarities of organization, of the 
B|»ert;it<>r«, or some one of them. 

But Mrs. R , 'the daughter-in-hiw, evidently )>ossessed 

some such ]»eouiiarities. For, at various periods of her life, 
she hail had dreams of a prophetic character. To those I shall 
advert when I como to ipoak of tho gift of prophecy. 


In connectioD with the above incident it behooves us to bear 
in mind : 

That it occurred two years before modem Spiritualism had 
made its appearance in the United States, when the suggestion 
of " epidemic excitement," even if that plea be ever good, was 
out of the question. 

That the apparition, as far as one can judge, was objective ; 
seen by thi-ee persons at once, who coincide in their report of 
it ; in broad daylight and at a moment when the thoughts of 
the witnesses were occupied by every-day matters. 

That these witnesses were disinterested and their social po- 
sition such as to forbid the supposition of wilful deception. 

That the coincidence between the conditional promise and its 
fulfilment at the moment the condition was accomplished, is 
too striking to be rationally referred to chance. 

Whether, under these circumstances, the identity of the 
grandmother is made out with reasonable certainty, it is for the 
Header to determine. 



That branch of Pneumaiology which relates to intermundano 
phenomena haa come into notice so recently, and has been, till 
now, the subject of so little careful study, that one ought to 
speak very cautiously of its laws, especially those which govci-u 
the conditions under wliich spirits may, or may not, communi- 
cate with earth. It is hazardous to generalize in view of a 
comparatively small array of facts. 

Nevertheless I think we may assume it to be probable tliat a 
very large proportion of all the spirita who manifest themMelvea 
here, do so for a limited time only after they roach their new 
homes. Their destiny is upward and onward; and wo may 
suppose the better class among them to bo mora occupied by 
the scenes of beauty and excellence that are o|ieuing before 
them, than by any recall ings of the dim and checkerctl sojourn 
they have left. 

With one di*a whack, however : drawn down sometimes to 
that lower spht^ro by a ]K>wer that is great^T in Heaven than on 
earth — by an u 'traction that rules most surely in natures that 
are noblest and Ix'st. 

The most powerful of all tlie hearths agencies — human lt»\e 
iv^hich so uftou britlgcs over a thousand difficulties here — tluit 
same emotion it im, triumphing over the di*ath-change, whieli 
would seem the most commonly to overcome the gulf fixed Uv 
tween eailhly life and spiritual existence. And thus, some- 
times, for u few yeani — ten, thirty, fifty, |ierhaps — so lonrj 
us the IovinI oue.H still linger behind — tliat deathless emotion 
a(i(»e:irH to nde a divided heart. 

— Divided lietweeu Heaven and earth ; unable, yet, while vtn 
moumeris are on the other iide« tuWy \A t^via >^i»x ^wu&oi 


which passeth all understanding; unable cordially to rejoice 
with them who do rejoice, till these mourners — now removed, 
as if they were the dead — ^become alive again, at its side ; 
eager, meanwhile, to make known its undying affection, to 
evince its constant care ; anxious to aid, to comfort, to en- 

But these earth-bound labors of love are transient only in 
that higher sphere. Death is an Angel of Mercy there. He 
is Heaven^s Herald of joy, for whose messages yearning souls 
wait. Through him, the Comforter, comes re-union in the many 
mansions that had been lonely, even amid celestial sunx>und- 
ings, till he brought the earthly wanderers home. Then satis- 
fied hearts stray no longer from heavenly abodes. 

It is true that what on earth we call philanthropy, and what 
in the next world seems chiefly to take the form of earnest 
desire to bring immortality to light in this darkling world, may 
cause benevolent spirits to seek us here even when their own 
circle of love is complete. And this doubtless happens : Frank- 
lin (Book v., chap. 4) seems an example. Yet I think it is tho 
exception rather than the rule. In a general way it would seem 
that it is not the higher class of spirits which continue, genera- 
tion after generation, more especially century after century, to 
revisit earth : not such men as Confucius or Socrates or Solon ; 
nor yet such as Milton or Shakspeare or Newton. 

Yet I give this as my individual opinion only. I have 
found no proof of identity in the case of any spirit, once cele- 
brated either for goodness or talent, returning, after centuries, 
to enlighten or reform mankind. My idea is that they have 
completed their earthly task, and that their duties, now, are of 
another sphere. I think that we are left to work out, in the 
main, our worldly progress. The help we receive fi*om above 
is not to supersede our exertions here below. Only so fitr we 
are to be directly helped — to an ardent, living conviction, in- 
stead of a cold, barren belief, of that truth of truths — immor- 
tality. That once secured to our race, we ore to trust, it 
seems, to our own industry and coxvwi^ for the rest; with 


this consoling reflection, however, that though spirits, long 
since dopartcfl, descend not to do our work, yet other spirit- 
friendH — though it be unconsciously to us— often secretly aid 
the faithful worker to do his own. 

But otlier motives than our benefit appear sometimes to urge 
mua^Iauo return. Guilty spirits seem the most frequently to 
be earth-bound, as in the case of the lady of Bumham Green,* 
and hundre<ls of other house-haunters. But a purely worldly 
spirit, unstained by crime, yet to whom trifles wore wont to take 
thi* place of momentous things — who never, while here, bestowed 
a thought on rogions beyond — may, long after it i^asscs awayi 
bo recalled hither by the levities that made up its empty earth- 
life, f Of this I have succeeded in finding a noteworthy ex- 

How A Fken'cu Kinoes favorite Musician manifested 


In those days, not long past, when Paris still thought herself 
the centre of ciWlization, and while she had many claims to be 
calkni the gayest and tht^ most brilliant among the capitals of 
the world — in the year l*<Or> — ^thore livc<l in that city a worthy 
old geuth*iu;in, inherit inir, from musical ancestors, the family 
gift. I ln»lii»vi' ho is still alivo. 

^Ionsi«*ur N. (}. B:ic!i, tti«'n sixty-seven years of age, was the 
gnvit-pran.lsou of tho o»-lobr.itc«l SoUustian Bach, J who flour- 
ishcil durins; the tii-sl kilf of the eightO(.'nth century. Though 
in Sf>mi'wli;it th'lioato h**alth, this gentleman was, at the time, 
i:i full onjoyint^nt of his mental fli?ultit>s, a busy composer, and 

• &»«» preceding pogo 32*3. 

\ See Fo9rfnlLf, p. 127. 

I .T.iliii Sebastian Bach, on« of the most eminent of Qennan oom- 
iKXors, was Irjrn at Eutenacb in 1685, and died at Lcipaia in 1754. Ho 
hold Sin-oral hi:;h masieal ofBcesi, was an inimitable performer on the 
on^n, and l(*ft many compositions of great merit The family is said 
to have produocMl, in the •vpfa:*^ of two hunlrcd yean, fifty oftlctaiftiA. 
Duticiana.— Borii.LFrr: />titj0n na« re df BSograpliM. 


highly esteemed by his brother artists, alike because of his pro- 
fessional talents and as a thoroughly upright and amiable 

On the fourth of May, 1865, M. Bach's son, L^on Bach, a 
gentleman of antiquarian tastes, found, among the curiositiea 
of a bric-a-brac shop in Paris, a spinety evidently very old, but 
of remarkable beauty and finish, and unusually well-preserved. 
It was of oak, ornamented with delicate cai'ving in tasteful 
gilded Arabesque, encrusted with turquoises and intermingled 
with gilt fleur-de-lis. It had evidently belonged to some per- 
son of wealth or distinction ; but all the dealer knew about it 
was that it had quite recently been brought from Italy by the 
person from whom he bought it. 

Thinking that it would please his father, the young man 
purchased it. Kor was he disappointed. M. Bach, who shares 
his son's taste for stray waifs of the past, was delighted with 
his new acquisition, and spent most of the day in admiring it, 
in trying its tones and inspecting its mechanism. It was about 
five feofc long by two wide ; it had no legs ; but was packed 
away, like a violin, in a wooden case for protection. When 
about to be used, it was set on a table or stand. Though richly 
decorated, it was but a small, weak beginning of what has 
culminated in the elaborate Stein ways and Chickerings of our 
day, with their wonderful power and superb tones. In general 
arrangement, however, as may be seen from the plate here 
given,t it i*esembles them ; its small keys being arranged in the 
same order : but these keys, when touched, move a set of 

* Tho Paris " Grand Journal " (No. 62) speaks of bim as " a^ve do 
Zimmerman, premier prix de Piano du Conservatoire au concoor de 
1810, iin de nos professeurs de piano les pins estim^s et les plus 

The Paris corrcispondent of tho Now York " Nation" (June 12, 1866) 
speaks in the highest terms of his acknowledged reputation for up- 
rightness and honesty. 

/ See Plate II. M. Bach kindly entrusted the spinet to a Parisian 
friend of mine, who had it phoV>s^'^>x«4lOT m^. 

414: M. bach's DBBAIL 

wooden sticks as thick as a lady's finger, each fomiflhed wiih 
a point which strikes the corresponding wire. The quality of 
the tone may be readily imagined. 

Before the day closed, however, M. Bach had made a dis- 
covery which atoned for all imperfections. On a narrow bar of 
wood which supported the soanding-board he thought he could 
distinguish writing. Fitted in above this bar were two small 
blocks, interposed between it and the sounding-board. They 
entirely concealed part of the writing : but by turning up the 
instrument and letting in a powerful light, he could read the 
rest of it. Of this he has sent me a copy. It contains the 
words, '' In Homa AnUmiua Nobilis / " then a blank caused 
by the intervention of one of the blocks; then the words 
'^ Srena Medialani JPcUrias / ^^ then, after another blank simi- 
larly caused, the date " J}ie xiy Aprilli^ 1564." ♦ Of course 
these words were written before the instrument was framed. 

Thus M. Bach learned that his spinet was more than three 
hundred years old ; having been made in Rome, in the year 
1564, by a certain Antonius NobiHs, apparently from the 
neighborhood of Milan ; and probably finished on the fourteenth 
of April of that year. M. Bach's specimen was located and 
labelled. And, as in all cases in the eyes of the paleontologist, 
so in this case in those of the antiquarian, this greatly added 
to the value of a curious relic of the past. 

Much pleased, the old gentleman retired to rest ; and natur- 
ally enough, ho dreamed of his son's gift. His dream, how- 
over, was peculiar. There a])peared to him a handsome young 
stranger, wearing a carefully-trimmed beard, and elegantly 
dressed in the ancient costume of the French court — rich 
doublet with ample lace collar and close-fitting sleeves that 
were slashed in the upper part ; large, slashed trunk-hose, long 
stockings and low shoes with rosettes. Doffing a high-pointed, 
broad-brimmed, and white-plumed hat, this young man ad- 

* There are also several imperfect words cat off by the blanks ; tax 
O ; the letters sani and A per^ and, after the last blank, the word 


va:icoil, bowing and smiling, toward M. Baches bed, und thuf 
addressed tho wondering sloeper : 

*' The Hpinet you Lave belonged to mo. I often played on it 
to amuse my master, King Henry. In his youth he composed 
un air witli words which he was fond of singing while I accom- 
panied him. Both words and air were written in memory of a 
lady whom he greatly loved. lie was separated from her, 
which cautwHl liim much grief. She died, and in his sad mo« 
mcuts ho used to hum this air.*' 

After a time this strange visitor added : ^' I will play it to 
you, and I shall take means to nn^l it to your recollection, for 
I know you have a i)oor memory .'' Therou|Kiu he sat down to 
the spinet, accompanying himself as he sang the words. The 
old man awoke in ti^ars, touched by the pathos of the song. 

Lighting a taper ho found it was two oVlock. So, after 
musing on hiti dn^am, and with the (>laintive melody he liad heard 
still sounding in his ears, he speedily composed himself to sleep. 

Nothing remarkable in all this. 

If anything happened to M. Bach before ho awoke next morn- 
ing, it was while ho remained in a completely-unconscious state, 
lie had not tho fiiintest remembrance of anything until, as he 
opened his eyes in broad daylight, he saw, to his unbounded 
amazement, a sheet of paper lying on his bed and beaded, in 
these formal old characters : 

yilr' iJy jxar^Us W^cy lj£nry /// 

His astonishment increased when he examined the sheel 
more closely. It was a rare archaological specimen:* the 
notes minute ; the clefs those used in former times ; the writ- 
ing c:ireful and old-fashioned, with hero and there the Gothic 
tails to Ite found attached to certain letters in the manuscripts 
of the sixteentli and seventeenth centuries ; tho orthography, 
too, that of two or three hundred years ago. 

• SCO Plate UI. for fuMdinfle of tho flat two lines of the 
pnxlnoed fRm the orifinaL 












f 1 



« IS 







His cyo glanocMl over the lin»t notes. Wob it tho song of bin 
dn^am? And tho wonis — yes, ho rcmcmbored them! He 
Iiiistencd to his piano, and soon convinced himself, beyond pos- 
Hibli^ doubt, that bore were, in vrutb, reproduced tho very air, 
111 id the voiy versos, which his di*euni -brought visitor had sung 
und playfHl ! 

Tlio first fixdin^ wus one of {>erplexity and trouble — even 
alarm. What could it all moan ? To tho dream itself, though 
very vivid and rcruarkubh', ho biul, when he awoke in tho 
night, attached no importance. I>ut what was thia ? Absently 
turning ov(*r tho mysterious missive, ho observed that it was a 
four-]Kigo sheet of music- ]>aiK^r, two |iuges of which contained a 
conii>osition of his own whi(*li he liiid sketched the day before^ 
leaving the sheet in his escritoire. It must havo been titken 
tlieucc during the niglit. Who had taken it, and filled the two 
blank ]Higes with tliis mYs(4*rir)us miwic from a bygono age? 
SoniflMxiy must have Inm'u th«Te ! 

Or hud it bi*en himself? Hut he wiia no somnambulibt — 
had nt.'ver, tliat he kiii*w. walked or written in hw sleep. Nor 
had ho any knowlcil^'i* c^r f lith in modern Spiritualism : so 
that the ]M»ssibility ot* an actual spirit-nieiisago did not suggest 
its<*lf. lie wiiH mvsiitiod, iM^wildennl : tho moro so, when ho 
n*marked thei*(»iii'*iilruee of names ami dates. Tlio man of the 
vision had s]M)kt'ii ot' ** Ids uKtster, King Henry ; '* the fumg it- 
self pur|>orted to have Ihm-u written by Henry HI.: but tho 
spinet was made in 1'mVI, Mlieu Henr\' (then Duke d*Anjou) 
was fourt<NMi ye-.ii-s old. Wliat mora likt*Iy than that so haml- 
somt* an iiistnnneiit should have found its way, after a few 
years, from Rom*' t » the rruirt of Fnmce, and been lH>ught 
there by a young prlno*, himsi'lf (as history tells us) a musical 
o.imjM)siT of some little merit? 

^I. l/«ich s|>nke of tin si* marvels to bis friends, who rc|)eated 
the story to others; and R'>on a host of the curious — literaiy 
ni<-n, arti.sts, nntiipiarians and others — thronged the Ajtartmcnta 
uf the Well-known nmsioijin, to hear, from his own li|>s, tho 
Ktnuigi* narrative, and to see, with their own eyes, the wondas- 


ful spinot. Among these visitors came some eamest spiritnal- 
Lits ; and then, for the first time, M. Bach heard of writing 
mediums, and listened to the suggestion that his hand might 
have been guided to write while he slept. 

All this, though too new and istrange to enlist his belief, set 
him to thinking ; and, one day, three or four weeks after his 
dream, feeling a headache and nervous trembling of the arm, 
the idea struck him that perhaps some spirit wished to write 
through him and thus to furnish an explanation of the mystery 
he had been unable to penetrate. No sooner had he put pencil 
to paper than he lost consciousness, and, while in that state, 
his hand wrote — in French, of course — " King Henry, my mas- 
ter, who gave me the spinet you now possess, had written a 
four-line stanza on a piece of parchment, which he caused to 
be nailed on the case (^tui), when, one morning, he sent 
me the instrument. Some yeai-s afterward, having to travel 
and take the spinet with me^ fearing that the parchment might 
be torn off and lost, I took it off, and for safe-keeping put it 
in a small niche, on the left of the key-board, where it still 

This communication was signed £aldazzarini, and then fol* 
lowed the stanza alluded to above, which, literally translated, 
is as follows : 

^^ The King Heniy gives this large spinet 
To Baldazzarini, an excellent musioian ; 
If it is not good, or not stylish enough, 
At least, for my sake, let him preserve it carefully." ♦ 

Here, at last, was a chance to obtain tangible evidence in 
connection with these mysteries. Here was a test furnished^ 
whereby to determine whether this Baldazzarini, as he called 

* Here is the original, as written by M. Baches hand : 

*' Le toy Henry donne oette grand e espinette 
A BaldAZzwrinl, trd»-boo madcien. 

Bi eUe n^est bonne on pM aoees ooqnette, 
Four ■mitenir, da moina, qa^ la ooosorre bion.* 


hiniAelf, was a myth or a nml person, capable of disclosing un 
known facts. 

To gratify public curiobity the spinet had been deposited, foz 
a ft'W days, in the Retros[>ective Museum of the Palace of In- 
dustry ; and it was still there when the above communication 
was written. Of coui*so it was sent for, at once. 

One can iiunginr* with M'iiat nervous eagerness lather and 
sf>n awidted its arrival, and then sot tliemselves to ascertain 
whether this sU>ry about a |»archniont, said to contain a stanxa 
written by tlte hiuid of a French king, and still to be found 
within tlie spinet, was pure romance or sober fiEtct. 

During an hour or two, M. Bach says, they explored every 
nook luid comer of the old instrument — in vain! At last, 
when ho|>c had almost dfserted thnm, L6on Bach, looking over 
what liis fa thorns hand had written, proposed to take the in- 
hlrunu-nt to pieces, so far as thoy could do so without injuring 
it. W'luMi th(*y had niisi^d the key -board and removed some 
of the hammers, they detectetl, underneath, on the left, a nar- 
niw hlit in the wood contaiining wluit proved to be a bit of 
purchinent eleven and a half inches long and two and three- 
ipiurter iuchcs wide, on which was written, in a bold, dashing 
harnl, four Un<»s, similar to those which M. Baches band had 
traced. A ud tliere was a signature - -yes, Henry^s sign manual ! 

They cleanRe<l it as well iis they i*(>uld, and here is what they 

retuJ : 

** Moy lo Roy Uenrj trotii ortroyn octtc eiqvhietto 
A Baltasarini mon gmy musicien 
Mais s* il dit mal sofle, ou bien [ma] moult sfanpletta 
Lois poor mon souvenir dans Testay garde bien. 

n • 

Tlie BtAnza, litoi-ully ti-au^lated, reads as follows: 

** I, the King Heniy III., prenent tbis spinel 
To Baltaimrini. my gi^j moaioian : 
But if he finds it poor*tQ06d, or else wy simple, 
Ktill. fur my sake, in ita case let bim pii s uu e It** 

* Bee, on nest |iage, fao-simfle taken from a pbolosravh of tbA«S^ 
inol parchment, which I obtained tJbxoQ^ 






It 18 diSiult, m t-liiB prosou, world, to realize the feelings of ^H 


eu excited searclicrs when at last, fittu ite secret hiding- ^^ 


^^^^^^^^^^^^ plftis.,tliey drew forth — stained by 



time and covered witli tLe dust 


ULd cobwebs of centuries — tbia 

mute witness— of what? The 

fiiUiei , us he looked at it, was con- 

whiJi led to tbia discovety waa 

p wiitteo by no ageucy of hia, un- 

™bsj»s ". w ''5 

Z leas a pen is to bo called on agenL ^J 

gB^Kv ^ ^ Nf->*f j~ s 

g Wlion ho nwoko from tlie tranca ^H 
a duruigwhiehhiahaodhadwrittent ^H 



o he had read the lineB as he would ^^ 

" ha\L reud anytliiiig else penned 

B by a stranger and then fii-st pre- 

" stntod to him for peniaaL And ^J 

? yet it was sii baton tially tme; and 

1ml ^^' ^ 

3 hpi 1 , under his cyea, lay evidetMjo, 

- iiul to be gaiewiyeil, of its truUi. 

^^ > ^ 

S —Substantially, not literuUy 

|^%,< ^ '^ 

5 ti-ui " 3ra« A'irt'/ J7«iry" in the 

^ ' "^^ 

g announcement, " I, the Kin^ 
- Ilmnj Ilir in the original ; the 

1^^^ V" -s 

S «oid large, applied to the Spinet, 


? ciimtted in the original ; a vwia> 

"^^^^t "^ V^ r 

5 tion m the spelling of the tecjp- 

g lent snaiiie.Mid "««!rfterrf"writ- 
C t4 11 jay " • in the original ; &Im 

£ ^^ not ijood" replnced hy^'jxtor- 


toned, ' and " not tiylith tnough'" 


by "twy nmpU" finally, in the 

Uet hue, the original refers to Um 

• See, aa to tliia word gny uoA Mlo 

the BpcUiug of the musi»wi'9 name, n ^J 


' ' "-"" """"J 


case {Teatuy^ as VHui was then written), wbilo in the stauzai 
as announcctl, there is no snch reference. 

AmaJtcJ thov must have been ! Yet I doubt whether it oc- 
ciirrcd either to fither or son, as it occiirs to uud^ that the evi- 
dr^ncc thus brought to light is \';ist]y stronger on account of itii 
IK'cuIiur cliaracter — is much more convincing becausOy while ab- 
K >Iut(.*ly substantial in its coincidence with the promised stania, 
it bt^ai's no stamp of litei-alism. 

'Hie iuteri)oIated n\a in the discovered stanza greatly pnztled 
tliem at lintt, but was Hul)He(|uently explained. When exhibit- 
ing the original parchment to the friend through whom I ob- 
tained tliis narrative, M. Bach said : '* No one could im^ginft 
the meaning of the word nuiy surrounded by lines, as you see. 
But one diiy my hand was again moved involuntarily, and 
them was written: ^ Amico mio : the King joked about my 
Italian accent in the verse he bent with the spinet. I always 
said i/Mi iiiHt<'afl of ma in J* ^^ 

Jftiy It4ilian for 6M^ ooiTeHi>ouds to the French maid / and I 
have o))WTvod that Italians, in s|>eaking French, frequently 
make tliis mistulco. llius'* ma moult simplette,^ in Baltazari 
ni\ {latiiis, Wt»iild mean " but very simple." 

Thi> original ]>mvhnieut (blackencnl by age, as tho plato 
shows) was taken by M. Biich to the '' Biblioth^ue Imp6ri- 
alc '* (if thiit 1)0 still the title of Francois great national libra- 
ry) au'l there comjiared witli oniprnd manuscripts. In thetKi 
hist Honry^s liand wiis found to vary, as in that age hand- writ 
iii;^ oAtMi did: but with Minio of the acknowledged originals 
the writing on M. IWIfs pairhmont — %-er8o as well as sigua- 
tun* — fotind most strii-tly to correspond. ''L^idcntit6 
i'tait aksoluo/* M. Ilaeh sai'l. It was also submitted, for vori- 
tication, to oxp:*ri<*nc(><l aiitii)uarians, and by them, after criti- 
cal ci)iu|i:irLson, pnniounced t9 bn a genuine autograph of Ilenryt 
wln'iirt'socver obtained. 

TliL* nlillu^^ In ties visible along tho upper edge of the {laTch- 
lai'iit (.^*o fic-simile), indicating that it had originally been 
tacked to some wjj<l.*n surfacv, suitain the allegatioa thai 
Ilonrv had caused it ** to bo n^\eJl to lYua tSMP 0\^ ^da^Naw^ 


edge it seems to have been cut off inside of the nail-holes ; but 
the marks of four htrger holes, one at each comer of the parch 
ment, are distinctly visible. The rough cross above the qua- 
train is an additional voucher of authenticitj ; for a similai 
token of easy piety heads almost every specimen of Henry the 
Third^s writing that has come down to us. 

These marvellous incidents, more or less correctly related, 
could not fail to find their way into the newspapers. They 
appeared in several Parisian journals, and were thence copied 
far and wide. For a week or two M. BacVs spinet, with its 
supernatural accessories, was the great sensation of the novelty- 
seeking French metropolis. The whole was usually set down 
as incomprehensible ; they stated the facts, with some such com- 
ment as — " Myst^re que nous n'osons pas approfondir :" and 
though there were general suggestions that some natural expla- 
nation must exist, yet — so firmly established was M. Baches 
reputation for integrity — these never took the shape of doubts 
that he had acted in entire good faith. After a time, of course, 
the excitement was replaced by that of some other engrossing 
rumor, but without leading to any solution or explanation 

The song was published. As no treble accompaniment, but 
only the air with bass, was given in the original (see fac-simile 
of music on preceding page), M. Bach had to supply the ac- 
companiment for the right hand, which he did with taste and 
judgment. The words are pretty and suit well with the senti- 
ment of the romance.* They contain two special allusions; 
one to the royal author having met the object of his passion at 
a distant hunt (^^ chasse lointaine ") ; and the other to the lady 
having sadly passed her last days in a cloister. (^^ Triste ei 
cioistrfee," now written doUree — are the words). 

^ Here they are, with the original orthography : 


J^ay perda odle poor <iii7 f aTols taot d*iiBoor. 
Elle, al bdle, avolt poor moy, ohaqns joar, 
FftTeor naoTeUfi eb ooaveMi dMr : 

WORDS OF THE 5050. 423 

It need liardly be said that the publication of the incidents 
above related and of the mystoriouH song caused various re- 
searches into the annals of the sixteenth century, to determinf 
how {at the historical record of the times bore out M. Baches 
story. It was soon discovered tluit, according to the best 
biographies, the " grande jtassion " of Henry's life was for the 
Princess Marie do Cleves ; and that, according to a diary kept 
of those times, that princess appears to have died in an abbey. 

Also a passage was brought to light, occuning in one of the 
works of that laborious chronicler, the Abb6 Lenglet-Dufitssnoy, 
and reading thus : '^ In 1579, Balthazzarini, a celebrated Italian 
musician, came into Francp, to the court of Heuiy III.'' * 

Ud jour, pentlmnt une chMM MnUiae, 

Je raper^uM poor U prrmiAre foin ; 
J« crojral* rolr van anire dant la plaino, 

Lora, je derUu k plan hvuraux iUm Boji t . . . ■»!■ I 

t«t- vi:iw. 

Je doonerols orrtMi tout m-m rayautne 

Poor la TOToir encor un mtu\ Uwtaat, 
pTtfte il'eUe aflwii ilotHuoi un humbte chaam^, 

I^aclr wntir moo ocmr bairre vn I'adiniraat . . . mmiM I 

3a«'. VKRS. 

TTi<e rt cloii<r^. uh : ma |«tta« U-ll« 
Fat loin do ami pralant vh ilernler* jmirA. • 

EUr ne ams pla4 m pnno i.Tik*lh% 
Ici ha^ h«kvt ! . . )c MKiffrv umi joor« ! . . . ah ! . . . 

In siog^inf^. the refrain is repeated after each verM. 

The word «i\ in thn M>cx>nd line of the refrain, teema at first to be 
written 9}/ ; and it was m> printed in the son^-: whereapon a critic wrota 
to M. Bach, calling his attentiuu to the fact that the French hare netfr 
written the woni •/ with a .y. On examining the suppoeed jr, however, 
with A mapiiftrr. 31. Bach and his friends came to the opinion that it 
was but the lon^ Italian i\ often uned when i was a final letter, in those 
days. It is cridcntlv unlike any other jr in the original, as maj be seen 
by examining the two Unes in fac-similo (page 416). 

• l\iHttteA 0kr9nchgi^^ dt XUidmrt UmeeritSe, voL iL p. 70t 
(Ed. of 1778.) 


But I determined to obtain, if possible, further testimonjf 
and have succeeded in procuring some other important partica* 

Henry, the. Last of the Valois. 

This favorite son of Catherine do M^dicis is best known by 
the one great crime of his life ; his assent to that massacre of 
St. Bartholomew, which took place, at the instigation of bis 
mother and by the authority of his elder brother, Charles IX., 
in August, 1672. 

But Henry was not without redeeming qualities. When 
but nineteen years old, he won, for his brother, the battles of 
Jamac and Montcontour ; thus achieving a military reputation 
whicl%three years later, procured his election as King of 

One among the most discriminating of modem historians 
says of him : " Heniy wished to lead a palace life, divided be- 
tween pious exercises, the pleasures of the city, retirement and 
the reverence due xo the sovereign magistrate. He was little 
inclined to cultivate the society of old generals, politicians, and 
men of learning, who might have informed and instructed him : 
preferring young and gay people of handsome exterior, who 
emulated him in the faultlessness of their costumes and the 
brilliancy of their ornaments." * 

But this was one side only of his character. " His nature," 
says Kanke, ^^ was like that of Sardanapalus which, in seasons 
of prosperity, abandoned itself to enervating luxury, but in 
Adversity became courageous and manful. . . . His failings 
were obvious to every one. His deficient morality, his eager- 
ness for enjoyment, and his dependence upon a few favorites 
gave general and well-founded offence. Occasionally, however, 
he rose to the full height of his vocation; showing an intel- 
lectual capacity corresponding with his exalted position, and, 

* Banke: Civil Wart cmd Monarchy in France; p. 807. (New 
rork Ed. 1854.) 


though sabject to many vacillations, groat susceptibility of 
mind and goodness of disposition/^ * 

Sucli was the monarch who, aivording to the allogation made in 
M. BacirH dream, c<>m{)Osi.'d tho ek'giac song. The name of the 
];idy w lioiii it mounLS wa.s Yiot mentioned ; but — the gcnuinenesa 
of the Huir^ being conceded — thei-e cannot be a doubt as to tho 
]K.*nion inti'uded. The name of Beatrice is not more insepara- 
bly connecti>d with the memory of Danto, nor Laura with Pe- 
trarch, than is the name of Marie do C16ves with that of 
Henry III. Not a detailed history of the time, not a biogr^ 
phy of Henry, but alludes to it. 

He met her, while still Duke d*Anjou, and sought her in 
marriage ; but she was a Protestant and he a Catholic of Medi« 
ceaii blood. The ditTerence of i-eligion, iusui>erablo of course 
in the eyt^s of the Queen ^lother, 8c*i*mH to liavo been the sole 
cause that prevented their marriage, f She was maiTiedy iu 
July, 1572, to the iViuce of Condc, one of the chief Protestant 
leaders; and, tho next year, 1573, Henry left Franco to assume 
the throne of Poland,'carryiug with him, aecording to Chateau- 
briand, remorse for tho mas?«cres of St. Bartholomew, but — in 
still stronger meahure — regret for his disapiK>intiDent in love. 
** He wrote with his blooil,*^ says that historian^ ^^ to Marie da 
Cleves, first wife of Henry, IVince of Conde." J 

• Ran-kb : work dted, pp. UU, 304. 

f '' La difference de religion, suivant qaelque« nuSmoires, fat la teole 
cansc qui reiupccha do lV|K>ufler." — Biitgniiihie OiMraUy tome z. p. 
H54. The same assertion is made, in more ixMittTe terms, in the Biog- 
rffjihir r/ii'irmri/^, vol. ix. p. 05. 

( ** IjC Duo d*Anjou (dcpois Henry IIL) alia prendre la oooroone do 
Pologno, ct raconter, dans los forOts dc la Ltthuanie, & ton medecin 
Mi.'un. Ics mvurties dcmt la pensce rcmpuchait de dormir : * Jo tous ai 
fait vonir ici, pour tous faire part do mes uMioictudes ct agitations de 
cctto iiiiict. qui oot troubliS mon repcvi, en ropcDsant a rexccntion de 
la Saint -Rarthelemy.* En quittant la France. le due d*Anjoa avait ct6 
moius pounmiTi do sooTcnir de ses crime! que de ctlm dc sea amoois ; 
11 6crirait aroo aon mng & Marie de Clares, premiure femme de Henri, 
Priaoe de Conde.**— ^/Mi(yM roinnate de VHiUoirt dt rr«aca.,'«iK.^Ai» 


Charles IX. died in 1574, and Heniy speedily returned from 
Poland to Paris, as heir to the throne of France. A month 
after his return Marie died : and so deeply, according to his 
biographers, did Henry take her death to heart, that he re- 
mained several days shut up without food, in an apartment 
hung with black ; and when he reappeared in public, it was in 
garments of deep mourning, with dcaths^-hcads worked all over 
them. * 

The po^ts of that day allude to Henry's bitter grief. In the 
works of Pasquier, a contemporary of Henry, is to be found a 

TE/iUBiiiAKD, Paris, 1853, p. 315. I think Heniy^s remorse for the St. 
Bartholomew massacres may have been more sincere than Chateau- 
briand reg^ds it. There is a curious incident, related by Baoke, in 
this connection : 

^'Charles IX., about eight days after the massacre, caused his 
brother-in-law, Henry, to be summoned to him in the night. He found 
him as ho had sprang from his bed, filled with dread at a wild tumult 
of confused voices, which prevented him from sleeping. Henzy him- 
self imagined he heard these sounds; they appeared like distinct 
shrieks and howUngs, mingled with the indistinguishable raging of a 
furious multitude, and with groans and curses as on the day of the 
massacre. Messengers were sent into the city to ascertain whether any 
new tumult had broken out. but the answer returned was that all was 
quiet in the city, and that the conunotion was in the air. Henry ooold 
never recall this incident without a horror that made his hair stand on 
end."— Eanke, work cited, p. 278. 

Henry III. probably witnessed this startling phenomenon; at all 
events, he must assuredly have known of it, at the time : and it was 
an occunenco likely to leave a life-long impression on a mind like his. 

A historian, to avoid the charge of superstition, has to say, as Banke 
does, that Henry imagined he heard the same sounds. But how about 
the messengers who brought answer back that ^^ tfts commotion uas in 
the air'' f 

* Marie mourut en couches en 1574. Henri III. qui venalt de smo- 
o6der h, Charles IX , et ^toit depuis un mois de retour de Pologne, en 
fut saisi d'une si vive douleur, qu'il resta enfcrmS plusleuZB joors sanf 
manger, et ne repanit ensuite en public que convert de vdtementB de 
denil, parsem^i de tdtes de mort.*' — Biographie OeninUe, tome x. ppu 


monody on the death of Mario de Cl^veSy which the poet puti 
in the mouth of the king.* 

With all this tallies closely what history tells us regarding 
the lady herself. 

MAb de Cl^es. 

This princess seems to have been almost as noted for grace 
and beauty as her more celebrated namesake, Mary of Scot- 

She had been the admiration of the court of Charles IX., by 
her loveliness and her virtucs.f The poets of that day cele- 
brate her as the '' Beautiful Mary ; " I and so great was the fas- 
cination her charms exerted over Ilenry that the credulity of 
the times was £iin to ascribe it to the influence of sorcery. § 

Wo have additional testimony both as to the character of 
this lady, and as to the profound sorrow felt by ilenry for her 
loss, in the following extract from a manuscript Diary kept, 
throughout the reigns of Henry III. and Ilenry IV., by Pierre 
de TEstoile, Sieur do Gland, a gentleman of an honorable and 
well-known family, occupying important posts in the magistracy 
and Parliament uf Paris : ] 

* * On tioave dans lea CEaTiea de PiMqaier one complainte snr la 
mort de MaHc do Clares, oo le po^ fait psrier la rd kd-mdixML** — 
BiograpkU UniccndU^ tome ix, p. 06. 

f ** Ott€ princofflc. qui arait fait radminition do la coar do Charioa 
IX., par Ml beaat6 ct oca rertu^ moomt on coodiea, etc.** — BiographU 
UnirfrulU (Paris, 1813). tome ix. p. 96. 

X '* Los povtos da tempo la celebrent boos lo Dom do la BdUMenii.'** — 
Btoffnift/ii^ UineraU^ tome x. p. 854. 

§ '* Scion I'luo^ de cc« temps do cr6diilift6, oo cmt que la prlnnoMO 
avait employ6 quclqoo charmo poor enflammor Henri.** — BiograpkU 
I Unirend'f^ tomo ix. p. 96. 

I Pit^rro do TEotoile. ooziMiller da Boi, ot gxaDdaodiencier en la chan- 
edlcrio dc Franco, ^toit ism d*aiio famillo paztementaiie. 8a positioo 
•ociolo iui permottait de bien ooonaitre loohommes eilooohoooo do ooa 
tempo, n poiait qa^il oo donna, poor prineipaki occopalioo de oa via, 

428 FROM d'etoile's diaby. 

" On Saturday, October 30, 1574, died at Paris, in the flower 
of her age, leaving a daughter as heir. Dame Marie de Cloves, 
Marchioness d'Isle, wife of Messire Hemy de Bourbon, Princa 
of Cond6. She was endowed with singular goodness and beauty, 
by reason of which the King lov|d her devotedly (6perdu- 
ment) ; so dearly, indeed, that the Cai-dinal do Bourbon, her 
uncle,* when about to entei-tain the King, caused her to be re- 
moved from his Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Pres : declaring to 
His Majesty that he (the King) could not enter so long as the 
body of the piincess remained there. She said, on her death- 
bed, that she had wedded the most generous, but also the most 
jealous, prince in Franco ; to whom, however, she felt conscious 
that she had never given the slightest cause for jealousy." f 

I have found no positive evidence that Marie passed her last 
days in the Abbey in which she was buried ; but it is, in the 
highest degree, probable. We know that she died in Paris, and 
that her husband, the Prince of Conde, fearing that the Queen 

oa dee tablettes, lea dv^neinents marquants qui bo passait autotir de 
lui" — Notice of the Life and Manttscripts of Pierre de rEstaUe, prefixed 
to the Paris reprint of his " Memoires," Didier, 1854. 

Speaking^ of D^Estoile^s diaiy, Botdllon says, in his Dictionnaire di 
Biographie UniverseUe : 

^^ This collection comprised in five foUo volnmee, and which was 
never intended for publication, is a most valuable source of information 
as to events occurring in the reigns of Hemy IIL and Henry rV.** — Art. 
*' Etoile." 

* He was her unde by marriage only. 

t Pierre de i/Estoile : Meinoirespour aervird VHistaire de France^ 
Edition by Didier, 1854. 

The wording, in the original, is somewhat obscure : *' le roy Faimoit 
si fort qu^il falust que le Cardinal de Bourbon, son oncle, pour festoler 
le R07, la fist oster de son Abbaye de Saint-Germain-des-Prds : disant 
Sa Majest<S qu'il n'estoit possible qn'elle y entrast tant que eon corps y 
seroit.'* But the meaning evidently is that the Cardinal, knowing the 
violence of the King's grief, thinking that he might insist on seeing the 
body of the princefls, and fearing the effect on his mind, took the xne* 
csaution to have the corpee removed from the Abbey, previons to tlia 
King's visit. 

"sad and en'cloistered." 429 

Mother (IcsiigDcd Lis death, had, some months befoi'o, taken 
n;fiign in Ot*rni.any, whore he i*emained till late in the year 
1 T)?.') ; * that is, until a yoiir after Marie^s death. Marions father 
liiul died several years Ixrfore. f The prince, in leaving his wife 
biihind, duuhtloHs cnt rusted )ier to the caro of his uncle, the 
Canlinal de 13ourl>on. But the cardinal eWdently resided in 
his Ablx^y, Kince it was there, according to Ktoile, that he pr«»- 
|Mis«'(l to <'ntertain the King. Under these circumstances, wo 
can hcarcely doubt that the fursak<m and fatherless niece lived 
with h(T undo in his A!)bey. Sad must her life there have 
bf'fMi. univrtain ns she was of her husband^s fate ! All this 
strikingly coincidos with the ^^triste ctcloistr6e^ of the song. 

I pass on to say a few words of the mufliciaii, to whom, as 
allogcKl, the H]iin«*tbelonge<l. 


His name* does not occur either in the Slographie Generally 
or the I>in<jniph\e Unit^rfeUe ; and, after long search, I had 
Im'^iii to (U'siKiir of finding any biographical notice of such a 
porsiiUH^*, wh<*n 1 was fortunate enou>;li to discover in the Ath- 
eiiicinit Library of Boston, a French Dictionary of Musicians, 
in some eijrht or nine volumes. There Henry's favorite has 
a place. 

*' ]>altazak:m : an Italian musician, known in Fiance under 
i\\v. name of DnniJot/e^iXf was the Orst viulinist of his day. Tlio 
Marcrhal di* BrLssac bmught him from Piedmont , iu ir»77, to 
the court of QuifU Catherine do Mitlicis, who appointed him 
her l>inrtor of ]^Iusic, and first ra^H de cliombr^* Ilenr}' 
] I r. eat rust od to him th(« managi^mcnt of the court futcs ; and 

* Uanke : '* CWd Wan and Mooazchics in Fnuic*,'' p. 202. 

f Marii.* was the daughter i»f Francia L, Dnko of Nercia. I do not 
know tht: oiEact year in wliich ho died, bat it was before 1503 : foi 
Louis do Gonzoquv, having in that year married the heira« of Ftan- 
cia, thon succroilcd to the Dukedom of Neven.— BociLLOSl : XMeCim* 
hiuW iff' tH/iifrafhie I'MirmtOe, ait. ** N«T«im.* 


he long discharged the duties of that post with credit. It \rai 
he who first conceived the idea of a dramatic spectacle^ ooni 
bined with music and dancing." * 

Baltazarini was, then, at Henry's coui-t, sumamed JSeaujoy* 
cfix — " the handsome and the joyous." Compare, with this, the 
second line of the stanza, as it appears on the discovered parch- 
ment : 

'* A Baltazarini, mon ga^ musiden ^' — 

gai being the synonyme of joyeux. 

But in the stanza, as M. Bach's hand predicted it would be 
found, the same line reads : 

** A Baldazzarini, ires hon mosloien." 

A trifling coincidence, this ; yet a most significant one, be- 
cause inconsistent with any arranged scheme of deception. 
There can be no stronger proof of authenticity, than just such 
incidental trifles as these. 

What shall we say of M. Bach's story? The documents 
from which I have compiled it were procured for me by an 
English friend in Paris, to whom I cannot sufficiently express 
my obligations for disinterested and untiring kindness, and 
whom I wish that I were at liberty here to thank by name. 
That friend, having made M. Bach's acquaintance, obtained per- 
sonally from him all the particulars, with corrections of the 
newspaper statements and answers to various queries of mine, 
suggested by the documents as I first obtained them: also, 
tlirough M. Bach's courtesy, the various photographs I possess, 
together with the following certificate, in M. Bach's hand« 

* Diograpliie UniverseUe dea Musidens^ vol i. p. 232. 

From the last sentence in the above it would appear that to Baltaia- 
rini — or Baltfuiezariniy as Lenglct-Dufresnoy spelled it, or Baldaaarini^ 
as it was written by M. Bach's hand — the modem world owes its fa- 
vorite amusement, the opera. 

The uncertainty, in these old times, as to the spelling of proper 
names, especially in the case ol '^x^ta ol\i\^i^ft Ti^\j^^Ss^T!kSs>Vffl<iTi8, 


writing, appended to that fac-similo of the original music, of 
which I have given two lines on page 410 : 

*' This in a correct fac-simile from the sheet of music papci 
which I found on my bed, the morning of the fifth of Maj, 
1 8(>r). Tlie air and the words are truly those which I heard in 
my dntum. 

" N. G. Bach." 

In addition, M. Bach (in reply to a suggestion of mine 
which some men would liavo deemed im[>ortunatc) did me tlie 
favor to send mo a lot tor, dat^ed March 23, 18G7, in which ho 
says : *' I attest the oxistcnoe of the parchment, still in my 
possession, containing the vci-ses comi>08ed by the king and ad- 
dressed to the ci'!(*bratod musician, Baldazaiini ; aud that it 
was found in a Si'cret compartment of the spinet which the 
king had given him ; and that the conuiiunication announc- 
ing the existence of the parchment, and stating that it had 
been placed thert*, is, in every |>oint, the exact truth. I add 
that tho photographs of the spinet and of the (mrchmcut, and 
the reproduction of the autograph of tho music and words, are 
well exe<*uted and jH^rfoctly exact." 

Such is th<> cixao in all important details. . It is for tho reader 
to decide whether, under the circumstances, the supposition of 
impost un» lh tenable. 

What motive? Nothing whatever to gain, in a worldly sense. 
Much to risk and something to lose. To risk misconception, 
suspicion, perhaps the iou of monomania; |)erliaps tho 
c]iar;jpo of conspiracy to palm otT on the world a series of de- 
lilM»rat(», elalxtrate forgi-rios; forgeri'*s involving a sacrilegious 
deivptioii, setting that there i.^ tpiostiou of sacred things oon- 
ii«*rti> I not with this world onlv, but with tluit which is to 
coiui*. Thus, to risk the los.) of a cluiructer earned by tho con- 
sistent integrity of a Ion*:; nnd hononnl life. More certainly 
still, to attract importun:itc visitors, iterhafis import iuent que^ 
tiouor-i, and thus to brjak up that domestic quiet ao dear to a 
cultivated and studious sAxagonarian* 


But if character and all imaginable motiye did not give the 
lie to any such suspicion, the circumstances are such that the 
theory of fraud is beset with extreme difficulties. The friend to 
whom I owe my documents showed tho original of the song to 

Monsieur D , one of the greatest harmonists of the day 

and quite a thesaurus of musical lore. This gentleman exam- 
ined it critically, and declared to my friend that it was so 
exactly in the style of the epoch that it would require hot only 
a great musical genius, but the special studies of a lifetime, to 

produce such an imitation. Monsieur D , lacking fidth in 

spirit intercourse, did not pretend to explain the mystery, but 
simply said that, though M. Bach was a meritoiious musician, 
he regarded it as ahsclutdy impossible that he should have com- 
posed the song. 

Again, if composed by him, it must have been suddenly, in 
a single night, without chance of reference to old authorities. 
Whence, tlien, the coincidences between the words of the song * 
and the incidents in the life of Henry III. and of Marie de 
C16ves ? 

Every allusion has been verified, except that to the distant 
hunt (cbasse lointaine) : and — let Sadducism smile at my easy 
faith in the unseen — I confess my belief that if I had opportu- 
nity to consult the library of the British Museum, or, better 
yet, the JBibllotheque Tmperiale, I could veiify that also. 

Add to all this the minor peculiarities to which I have 
already adverted. Would any one, concerting a plan of forgery 
and similated prediction, bo likely to contrive the variations 
between the predicted stanza and the original ? or the inclosed 
[ma], with its explanation ? or tho si, apparently a blunder, 
yet proving correct ? or even the variations in spelling the mu- 
sician's name ? — most natural, if we consider the uncertain 
orthography of that day, but how unlikely to be planned? 
Again, it is only by inference and after long search that I con- 

* My Paris informant telU me that M. Baoh never wrote a veae cC 
poetry in his life. 

nrvoLVEs violent niPROBABiLrnBS. 483 

elude the words ** triste et cloistr^s ^ to be in exact acoordanco 
with the facts : how remote the chance, then, that M. Bach, 
during that mysterious night, should have acted upon a similar 
conclusion ? 

Yet again : if the communication indicating the hiding-plaoe 
of the parchment be a forgery, then M. Bach must have found 
the parchment, without any directions as to its whereabouts, 
before the spinet was sent to the Retrospective Museum. Is 
it within the bounds of probability that the surprising discov- 
ery of such an interesting document should have been studioudy 
kept concealed from every one, the spinet sent off under fidse 
pretences to the Museum, and then the communication coo* 
oocted as an excuse to send for the instrument again and insti- 
tuto a pretended search ? 

I do not think that dispassionate readers will accept such 
violent improbabilities. But if not, what interesting sugges- 
tions touching spirit-intercourse and spirit-identity oonneol 
themselves with this 8iiiq>le narrative of M. Badi*8 qpinet I 




MoBE than forty yeai-s ago thei*e died a young EngliBh lady, 
whom I knew intimately. She had enjoyed all the advantages 
of the most finished education that her country affords ; spoke 
French and Italian fluently, had travelled over Europe, there 
meeting many distinguished persons of the day. And she had 
been favored by nature as much as by fortune. She was as 
amiable as accomplished, gifted with strong affections, great 
fdmplicity, and a temperament eminently spiritual and refined. 
E shall call her Violet.* 

When, twenty-five years after her death, I first instituted 
researches in Spiritualism, the thought crossed my mind that 
if those who once took an interest in us during earth-life, were 
permitted still to commune with us when they had passed to 
another phase of being, Violet's spirit, of all others, might an- 
nounce itself to me. But I have never, on any occasion, 
evoked spirits ; deeming it wisest and best to await their good 
pleasure. And when month after month passed away and no 
sign came, I had quite ceased to expect it, or to dwell upon 
such a possibility. 

I can scarcely express to the reader my surprise and emotion 
when, during a sitting held October 13, 1856, at Naples (Mrs. 
Owen and one other lady, not a professional medium, being 
present), the following incidents occurred. 

The Promise kept. 
Thd name of Violet was suddenly spelled out. Aftef my 

* Her true baptismal name (a somewhat uncommon one), which I do 
not feel justified in giving, is, like that with which I have replaced it, 
^ical of a favoiite ^owei. 


astonishment had somewhat subsided, I asked mentally^ with 
wluit iiiti>nt a name so well-remembered had been announced. 

Answer, — " Gav« pro—"" 

Thoro the Hi)elling 8t<)|»i)ed. Iic|>eatcHl invitations to proceed 
wore unavailing : not another letter could we obtain. At last 
it (K.*curred to me to ask : " Are the letters p, r, o, correct? ** 

Answ^ir. — " No." 

QtwM'wn. — " Is the word * gave ' coiTect ? " 

Answer , — ** Vcri." 

Then I said : *' Please begin the word after * gave ' over 
again: " whorou|>on it sjKilled out, now and then oorrocting a 
letter, the sentence : 

"Gave a written promise to remember you, even oiler 

I think that no human being except such as have been unex- 
)>ecteilly brought, an I was then, almost within speech of the 
next world and its denizens, can n^allze the feeling which came 
over mo, lus these woi-ds slowly connecto<l themselves. If there 
was one recollection of my youth that stood out, beyond all 
otherSj it was the n»oeption, from Violet, of a letter written in 
pros{)Oot of death and containing, to the very words, the prom- 
ise which now, afu^r half a lifetime, came back to mo firom be- 
yond the bourn. Such evidence as it was to me it can be to 
no one else. I have the letter still ; but its existence was un- 
known except to me : it has never been w*en by any one. How 
little could I foreMv, when I first read it, that, after a quarter 
of u c<Mitury, in a far. foreign laud, the writer would be enabled 
to ti'll lao that hIk* had kept h(*r word! 

A few days aftcrwurtl, namely during a session held on 
Octol>er 1.^, the Kune spirit having announced herself, I ob- 
tain in 1, to various mental questions, replies characterised by 
the same (lertiiiency and exactitude as arc above evincc<l; the 
suhjo(-t8 of my questions lieing of a private character and the true 
replies being known to me alone. There was not a single fail- 
ure ; and, in the coarse of these replies^ allusions were msde to 



circumstances with which, so far as I know or beUeTe^ no one 
living in this world is acquainted except myself. 

It is within my knowledge that many results aimilar to the 
above have been obtained by others. Yet veiy few of these 
reach the public at all ; and when they do, they are usually 
couched in the most general and unsatisfactory terms. It 
needs, in such cases, as prompting motive to overcome a natural 
reluctance, the earnest wish, by such disclosure, to serve truth, 
and supply important testimony on a subj(ect of vital import- 
ance to humankind. Let us examine that which ia here sup- 

The results obtained were not due, in any sense, to what has 
sometimes been assumed as a cause of similar phenomeiQay 
under the name of '^ expectant attention.'' We were, at the 
time, in search of various physical tests which we had heard 
that others alleged they had witnessed ; as motion without con- 
tact, writing by occult means, the exhibition of hands and the 
like. What came was utterly unforeseen, by me the person 
chiefly concerned as certainly as by the other assistants. When 
long-slumbering associations were called up by the sudden ap- 
pearance of a name, it was assuredly in response to no thou^t 
or will or hope of mine, if consciousness be a guide to the ex- 
istence of thought or feeling. And if not traceable to me, &r 
less can it bo imagined to have originated in either of the other 
assistants. They knew nothing of the letter, not even that it 
existed. They knew nothing of my question, for it had been 
mentally propounded. This narrows down the question of 
mundane influence to myself alone. 

But there is additional proof that my expectations had no 
agency in this case. When, at the first attempt to reply to my 
question, the unlooked-for sentence had been partly spelled 
out — " Gave pro " — ^it did occur to me that the unfinished 
word might be '' promise : " and it did suggest itself that the 
reference might be to the solemn pledge made to me, so many 
years before, by YioV^t, "ftviV. ^Vka.^ V^M^^ned ? Tli6 letteni 


/>, Tj Of were declared to be incorrect ; and I still remember m j 
Burprise and disappointment , as I erased them. But how 
much was that stiqiriso increased when I found that the cor- 
rection had been insisted on, only to make room for a fuller 
and more definite wording ! — so definite, indeed, that if the 
document in question had been set fi>rth in full, it could not 
have been more certainly designated. Under the dream- 
stances, it is not even conceivable that my mind, or any intent 
of mine, had anything wliatever to do in working out results. 
If a spirit-hand had visibly appeared, had erased the three let- 
ters, had inserted the omitted word '* written " and then fin- 
ished the sentence, it would have been more wonderful, 
certainly ; but would the evidence have been more perfect that 
some occult will — some intention other than mine — was at 
work to bring about all this ? And if to no earthly origin, to 
what other source than to the world of spirits can this occult 
agency rationally bo truceil ? 

Yet this was but the commencement of the numerous proofs, 
recurring throughout many years, that have assured me of the 
continued existence, and the identity, of a dear spirit-friend. 
These came to me chiefly after my return in 1859, from Naples 
to the United States. 

Proof from a Straxged, Five Hl^dred Miles distant. 

Five or six weeks after the publication of a work already 
referred to, * in February, 18G0, my publisher introduced to 
me a gt^ntlrmnn who had just rctunicil from Ohio, and who in- 
finniHl mo that uiv book had attracted much attention in that 
S*.at«' ; adding that I might add to its circidation by sending a 

i«>)*y to iMrs. l» , then residing in Cleveland, proprietor of 

u l»:iok-storo and one of the editors of a piqter there. '*Sho 
takt s u deep intcirst in such subjects,^ he said, ''and is, I bo- 
lirvoy lienielf a medium.^' 



I had never heard of the lady before, but I sent a copy of 
the book, with a brief note asking her acceptance of it, and 
soon had a reply, dated February 14. 

In this letter, after some business details, the writer ex- 
pressed to me the great satisfaction with which she had read 
the chapter in " Footfalls " entitled " The Change at Death," 
and added : " I am what is called a ' seeing medium.' While 
reading that chapter a female spirit that I had never seen be- 
fore stood by me, as if listening, and said : * I guided him in 
writing that ; I helped to convince him of an immortal life.* '* 
Then she subjoined a personal description of the appearance- 
including color of hair and eyes, complexion, etc. — which ex- 
actly corresponded to that of Violet. She added that a Cleve- 
land merchant, who came in at the time and who is an impres- 
sional medium (though not known, nor desiring to be known, 
as such), said : "You have a new spii-it to visit you to-day — a 

lady. She says she knew a Mrs. D , naming an English 

lady not then living ; known to Mrs. B {not to the mer- 
chant), by literary reputation, but never having been known to 
either of them personally. 

Now Mi-s. D was Violet's sister. But in my I'eply, 

which was partly on business, I neither alhided to the personal 
description that had been sent to me, nor to what had been 

said of Mrs. D . In order to make the test as complete as 

possible I refrained from any expression which might lead Mrs. 
B to suppose that I recognized the person who had ap- 
peared to her. I merely added, to the business part of my 
letter, a few words to the effect that if she could obtain the 
spirit's name, or any further particulars tending to identify 
her, she would confer an obligation on me by informing ine 
of it. 

In reply I received two letters; one dated February 27, 
the other April 5. In these were stated : first, the baptismal 

name ; second, that the spirit said that Mrs. D was her 

sister; third, ouo or two i\3LT\»\i«t "^abttlculars as to Violet: all 
tbia, accurately according to \\ie i«^\». '^x^.'^ ^^wso^ ^s^\i^ 


My Ui»t teauB oUior daUiU wcro nddod ; bnt tbcM M«m«d to 
r to tnktten ot h priv^tn kuii rodiiilfrntUl a elnmctar tlutt 
B^iT tliongtit it might bn timt to KtnU< thnii pnnKiDiill,* if^ in n- 
Vhiming to tlio W™t, I (Njulil |Nua thmagh (Iliivotniul. Being, 
pv<^r, oLiligirtl to Btut for Kui'o|ia on buKitiuw in two wni'lu, 
■1 lukod, in rctilj, that nhn woulil [mt thv^e on p"I'*'''t "hich 
Kdlo (lid in a foartli luttcr, (latod A)iril SO. llt'^ particulars 
I which Rho gnve nui fanil btnm ohtninnl {wrtljr hy hnrmtf, p>rilj> 
Ptlirottglitliii Qu^unuhip of Uio inorchnut to wh«m I hnvBaliuM: 

Wbun I taid UiBt tlio uviilenon in this olm could nover l« 
■ to otheni whet it wm to mo, I bot faintlf sliMJownd fort*) tlio 
rath. A |iortioa of tiM woiidcni tlwt o[Mm«tl upon tun ilw 
Bnwier au, indwd, a[)prc«iAte. I liaH wi-ituia » Ijritrf anl 
Tpuroly liQsincaa lftLt«r tii & complolo titnuipjr, fivo boudnnJ 
• miles «w»y, in a town which ViclnL IumI nertw Men, wlwra 1 
mytiulf (to &r ■■ I osn ivmeml>er) bud n«vi<r bci-ji. Anything 
, like sufQpuiLion or tliotight-r(Mulio{[ or iniigDMic rmfport wim, 
undur tho circunutMioea, out of the ({tiHitioa. Bi|u>]Iy H) vh 
. any know'lnlgo, liy > (Tlrvrlund rditor or » Clovitiaiid (UCr- 
ehont, ut A Ibdj nnknowu to tanio, who l>«d dird U 
mitoa awMTt in onotlu-r Ikomi^phciv. Yet from Ihime d 
KtnagPT* onnui* to mo, unaaked uid m tinnxpKl«d u i 
from llcavt^, tint a prrnonal docoriptioo •greeiiig with tlut 4 
of Violpi and tJio mentioa of » name wbtcb ■troogly indicated ■ 
l^at bIm wm tho ponon «^ bad boon ■""'— *■"— ^■"ig wtth I 
tlwm ; than h«r own namo ; then her nlatiooalup witli Htm, I 

U : all, witliont tho slightfivt duo aOordrd bjr mjwtC 

TbMo thinga lajr mulon may g^ptvciato, and tliej mpiily I 

wondcirful proofii of idoatitjr ; but whoa, na in Hn. I 

hat latter, vmriouN minato particnlara oauDtotcd with TlolK'a I 

oarl/ lib and mine — pnrtinilars imkaown to any living croa- f 

tow on ihta udo tho Uriat BooBdaty— particuUn indioatodl 

1 ouly, ao that tbo wnt^r horwlf «oald but my pailialljr uiidBr> ' 

■'■taDtl their inporfr— particuhui buiiad away not ii 

fctut in hoarta of whirh thoj wars tVi xaoA. mi\>K t 


CM— when these things came forth to light under ilia ejei & 
the survivor, they were, to him, internal evidence of the ocmtin 
ued existence, beyond the death-change, of human memories, 
thoughts, affections — evidence such as cannot be tranafemd to 
any second {lerson : such evidence as, from its very nAtore, cao 
be received directly alone. 

Here it may occur to the reader that, as all things, spiritual 
as well as material, are subject to law^ there must have been 

tome attraction or cause of election, determining Mrs. B 

tf the medium, or Cleveland as the place, whence such a com- 
munication should come to me. 

No doubt. And one can see how this may have been. Mrs. 

B has the olden gift,* by St. Paul called the '' dLsccming 

of spirits ;'' and, at the time the spirit appeared, she was read- 
ing — with approval, it seems — a chapter on the " Change at 
Death," into which I had thrown some of the strongest and 
deepest of my religious convictions, f This seems to have 
been the attraction ; for it was during the perusal of that por- 
tion of my book that Violet, for the first time, showed herself 
to Mrs. B . 

Is this explanation far-fetched ? Is it irrational to ascribe, 
to so slight a cause, the spirit^s unexpected visit ? Yet there 
had come to my knowledge, a year before, a similar caae, per- 
fectly authenticated. 

The Apparition of the Betrothed. 

In October of the year 1854, my father called on Julias 
A , a young lady of hia acquaintance, residing near Lon- 
don. Her powers as a medium, though known only to a pri- 
vate circle of friends, are of the highest order. She has habit- 
ually discerned spirits from her earliest age, years before the 
modem phase of Spiritualism had come up. Various other 

« 1 Gorinthiaas xii. 10. 

t FkfO^ftUit on tAs Boundarf of Another Worid^ Book vi ohap. 1 g 


mtnifiwUdoBi, alao, of r itrildng kind, oocnr in Iw 

My UAtr fbnntl ber ttMnewh»t indinpoMxl, racUiung 
M&, engRged in FMiUng. Bh« Uid Mi<lo bar book, u I 
tarad, uid mta ftbout to rise ; but Im b<-ggeil her (a r« 
nilding that, ah Ixe hod cnniL- hoping fur opportunity of «x«niin' 
ing ■piritiml jibcnomenA, ho would sit dovn alonn »t • 
not hr from the lufa, to UHvrtwn if bn ooutd obtain rappingi. 
lie did w>; mmI Mfter n ttma nip* wan hoard, tbongh 
A — — did not touch tba Inbtn. 

" Can 70a perocivr," mjr jktbvr ndcad, " th« pratMUM of 

" Vw," idir replied ; " I w« nnc, that of a young lady," 

" Oan you t<ill b«^ name ? " 

" Ko ; iihi! luu nnvor gtvm it to rhk, thongh I hav« aevml 
tiinea B*«n Iwr, aa I i«t reading this book " — and ahe painted 
to iho vuliimi? bmde bar — " but [lerhapa wp can get the 
by rajiping." 

And, in cfToct, ihmv wm inmivdiatflly speUed oat, " 

"Whatfaaid my fkther; ''my old flioad, Onm 


" tlie yonog lady aakfld : 

■irtyor 1 

" Who is Onoo FWkber r " 
board Ibe nnma befoni." 

" You «>u]d not h»ve knoim her, for abs died tbirty a 

forty ynoTH ago. I knew lutr tntimntdy ; and a mora bannttinl 

mora] and intelledoal, [ neier meL" 

is aingular,*' aaid tbti Tonng lady, " tbsl I nlmfltl alwayi 

apirit when 1 ait down to atudy tbia hook ; and only 

ty what work ia it yon bars beaa atndying T* tay 

" Dr. Tbumaa Brown'a Mental Philoaopby ;" and aba hAadMl 
nj blb«r the vnlumo. 

Ho took it, exdaimiM : ■* How atnaga 1 Wbnt a m 



" What is there wonderful in it? " 

My father then explained that, as he had always understood, 
Dr. Brown and Miss Fletcher were deeply attached to each 
other, and that their intimacy was expected to ripen into mar- 
ri^e. ^^ But she died at nineteen,^' he added, '^ and I do not 
think poor Brown ever got over it ; for he survived her three 
or four years only." 

Grace Fletcher who, from all I have heard of her, well de- 
served my father^s encomium, was the daughter of a talented 
mother, long noted in the literary circles of Edinburgh and 
who died some thirteen or fourteen years since, at a very ad- 
vanced age. I have ascertained through a lady who was well 
acquainted with the family that between Dr. Brown and Miss 
Fletcher there was well known to exist, probably not a posi- 
tive engagement, but certainly so strong a mutual attachment, 
that their friends felt confident it would be a match. She died 
about the year 1816 ; and he, in 1820.* 

I had the above from tlie young lady herself; f and I kfiow 
that its accui-acy may be stiictly depended on. One of the re- 
collections of my childhood is my father's sorrow when the 
uuoxpccted news of Gi*ace Fletcher's death reached him. 

The point in this case which gives it value is, that the young 
seeress had never heard Miss Fletcher's name, nor had she the 
least idea, till my father informed her, of the connection there 
had exislcMl in life between the lady whose spirit the raps an- 
nounced, and the author of the book during the perusal of 
which that spirit was wont to appear. As a chance coinci- 

* Id the prime of life, aged forty-two. He was Professor of Moxal 
Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh. His well-known Leotwrm 
Oil Vie Pfnloisojyhy of the Human Mind, above referred to, reached the 
eighth edition in 18^34. 

f In 1859, 1 met her in London at Lady B 's, where she was always 

a weJcome guest. All her fiienda w^«2t ol \i^x Vs^. XJoaXjCk^gaweS^ ^mvoa^ 
and my own acquaintance m^llet,\3Mo\^gti w^«c^mwx^^^««^^ 

Oij opinion of her intelligence onA m\ft^^' 

denoo wo miBol reuotubly regtrd it. SUixling alone U 
insuffleieat foandatioD for a theory. But tht nppMnwM 

Viol«t to Mrt. B , an nlUtr atnager alike to li«r and 

rae, diiriii" tb« pcnm] of k book of niiuc!, tu mi indiUmt of |Imi| 
mmoclnn; and if tiucli k1ii>u1<1 bo foiiDd to KcumiilBto, Umf 
irtll fumi»li {iroof Uiut n sjiiril may ocnujooally — tbongfa it ba 
rarelj^look bock from iU i»'x^ ]iIulmi of lifn to tlux, dntmi 
in hy the dtwdre (o nudi tho elfiKrt wbicH a-trortu, uiulo od 
mrtb, by n dcttr fncnd, to enlighten mankiod, may, from tiina 
o time, bo prodnnn^ It i» a rnuonnbln butipT tlut braandeat 
Kpirits, in thirir woHd, cautinuo to tmkf inlonwt tn tlw iu- 
pntvf^^ot of onriw 

1 know uot that. In thi> oue, I can adducv lOnngw ftoot 
iduntily (luui tlio aliove, but I hant bail additional i 
of which mny tend to fortify thir fiuth of my ntathir^ 

TrricAi. ASii LiTERAt. Tests. 

kmw two TMka after tlio r«o«pt of Um. B — ^ ammd 

letter, namely, on tlw Ihirleeath of Mardi, IBUt tn tb» fo<»- 

noon,-! eallRl on Mr. CIuHm Foatcr, bi wkoM nMUnnakip t 

hava already ndJRmd. A huly wnll and fitvoraUy known (o 

tbo litenuy worlil, and whom I «haU call Him P- — ■, nccom- 

, |«nu>d on. Tbo visit waa at hrr raqnnt, aa she had nwvmr 

r irit nwtJ any tplriUial pbnBOCMrnn wli«t«vRr; but had 

I mtidi sbont theia, and <lont«(l to judga for liorMlf. Bba 

nomr mon Mr. Foster. 

I DMutiODMl to Mr. F<mtmr, in a gooorai way, tJial I 
racmitly randv«d. from a Ktransnr ni a diatonn^ an alb 
mmmunicntiiXD fmtu a apirit, wbieh bad paved away tauij 
y<Mr« bofijre; hut 1 ■lodiniuly withheld tbe uuoo and all eli 
to {iwwmmI identity, adding, bnwevrr, Ibat I ■honld bo glnd 
thrangh hltiii any fnrthn' trst rouhl ha pveu. 

During tbo f nt port of tlie aeaioa Ut. Votf-vf 
iiwolf «iO>ly lo Uiai V . tVus SaiowAj^ww* V>^ 



then of deepest feeling. The test she received that day led'ttf 
researches which raadc her a spiritualist for life.^ 

Then ho turned suddenly to me : '^ Mr. Owen, I see a spirii 
— ^a lady — standing beside you, perhaps the same of whom ydu 
spoke to me. She holds in her hands a basket of flowers. 
Ah ! that is peculiar ; they are all violets." 

I, — " Does she communicate her name ? " 

Mr. Foster paused. After a time, " No," he said, ** but she 
has taken one of the flowers — a single violet — and laid it be- 
fore you. Has all this any meaning for you? " 

" Yes." 

" But we ought to get the name. I usually do." 

And, at his request, I wrote down seven female baptismal 
names, including that of Violet, taking care not to pause more 
at one than at the other. 

Mr. Foster took the paper, and, with a single glance at it, 
tore ofl* each name separately ; rolled them up into small pellets 
and threw these down on a pile of pellets (some twelve or four- 
teen) which he had previously made, some of them being blank. 
There were thus about twenty j)ellets in all. He bade me take 
them up and hold them, in my open hand, under the table. I 

* I am at liberty to give on outline only of the test here referred to, 
and have aubstituted another name (Medway) for the trao one. 

Mr. Foster said he saw the appearance of a young man standing 

beside Miss P ; and he described his appearance. "Above his 

head," he went on, **I see the words: 'Fidelity even beyond the 

grave ! * " Miss P 's face betrayed much emotion, mingled, however, 

I plainly saw, with doubt. Then Foster suddenly added : " Ah! here 
is a name — Medway." Upon which the lady sank her face on the 
table, without a word. Nor, throughout the rest of the session, did 
(she allude to what had passed. 

I afterward mentioned the name to a sister of Miss P , addng if 

he had ever been among their acquaintances. 

" How did you hear of him ? " she asked me, astonished. 

I told her. 

*^It 13 all true," she said In Teplj. ^^"^Sjmii 1«m» tjj^o we were inti« 
mateiy acquainted with bini. Illy ®iA»T^wt» cft^^S£^^ft\sasw\\i^ 
died A abort time before the day «OT^fta\ftft.loT ^<\t Ts>Kroa^^ 


did 110. After a timo he said to me : ^^ The spirits desire to 
have your hat under the table.'* Accordingly he put it therOi 
but immediately replaced both hiB hands on the table, saying : 
*' Spirit, when you have selected the pellet, will you let us 
know by rapping?'' About a minute passed when the raps 

3fr. FosUr.^'' Shall I take up the hat ? " 

J/wi£«fr.— "No." 

/.-"Shall I?" 

Answer, — " No." 

Xis» /> — « Shall I ? " 

A futwfr. — " Yes." 

Thereupon the table, with a sudden and somewhat violent 

movement, tilted up on Miss P 's side, so that, without 

moving from her seat, she could reach the hat from the floor. 
Therein, lying between two glovcH, was the i)ellet. She handed 
it to mo and I was about to open it, when Mr. Foster said: 

*' Please do not o]»cn it yet. Let me try if I can get the 
same name written under the table.'* 

Ho tore off a small piece of thin |Hipi*r, took that and a pen- 
cil in one hand, and held both for twelve or fifteen seconds 
b(*neath the table. Then, withdrawing his hand, after a glance 
at the |)aper and the n*mark, " I liclievc there is a name on 
it,*' ho handed it to me. The name was in pencil, but I could 
not make out a single letter. At Mr. Postern's suggestion I 
held the |>a|H^r, reversed, against the window-pane. Then I 
rend diHtinctly through the paper from the unwritten side, in 
minute cliaracters, the name Violet. 

Tlien only I first openfMl the j^llet. The same name thcro.* 

I dill not sufTer Mr. Foster to sec either. After a few 
M-conds his arm seemed slightly convulsed, as by a feeble elec* 
trie Kho'^k ; and he said : " The name is on my arm ; '^ where- 

* I have preserved the bit of thin paper, sad also the pellet I need 
scarcely here remind the reader, that, as already statod^VUbc^^^iu 
amumed nano. Cf oouao U wis UiA troft iiaiBft^«BJi^(^ib^Mmt>ef^^0^ 
of thnt naae, which were aotQaUy |||b 


Upon he bared his left arm to the elbow, and I read thereon 
distinctly the name Violet. I did not, however, pronounof 
it, but lefb him to spell it out, letter by letter. The letters 
looked as if they had been traced by a painter's brush, with 
pink color. They were about an inch and a quarter in height ; 
printed characters, as if somewhat carelessly done, but perfectly 
legible ; the strokes being about an eighth of an inch in thick- 
ness. The first letter was near the elbow joint, and the rest 
were traced along the inside of the arm ; the last letter being 
on part of the palm next to the wrist, just below the root 
of the thumb. Miss P read the name, deciphering it with- 
out any difficulty. 

During all the time of these experiments except at the mo- 
ment when he placed my hat on the ground, and during the 
few seconds when he put the paper imder the table to have the 
name written on it, Mr. Foster sat quietly with both haruU on 
the table. 

The room was well lighted by two windows. 

Miss P had never heard Violet's name ; nor, as I have 

already stated, had Mr. Foster. 

Here were four tests : not presenting themselves spontane- 
ously, indeed, as did those which came to me through Mrs. B ; 

on the contrary obtained by aid of a professional medium whom 
I had visited, hoping for something of the kind : but yet to be 
judged fairly, by their internal evidence, notwithstanding. 

1. The appearance to Mr. Foster of the basket of flowers, 
aud the single flower laid down before me, when I asked for 
Violet's name. 

2. The pellet, selected out of twenty, taken from my hand 
and placed in ray hat. 

3. The writing, imder the table, of the name so that it read 
on the reverse side. * 

And 4. The name written on the arm. 

The peculiarity of the basket containing a siagle species only 
of flower, and the name of that species corresponding to l^e 
JULme of the alleged spirit^ toother with the selection of a idn- 

WltmSG rNRKU TlIK 1 


gift Bowar wbon I Mkod for tlia naino, oumot nUennllr bo 
saeribed to duuco. 

An to tha pellvt, ainco Mr. FiMlur luul hu handa on Um 
t ibli), AiU in <rl«w, it wan b physical imptMiBibUitf Uwt h» 
Wioxild have l«k«n it, ovoa if lia tuul ka<nvn wlncb, oat of tlia 
twtitity, to M>li!>ot. 

o the writing unilor thi; table, lUaagL it nujr lie ullegnl 

t [irurtico might enubli! » pcnuia i*> wriln tw iUaI it aliould 

I on Um revefwt sidn, anil tbnt tUui might likvu buon dono 

1 and hand o» thu kniw, jmt the writing itaclf (now beJora 

hi) sMinu to rofiite this. I bavo just narufuUf rxiuuinod il. 

e papur ia newly u thin a» tnunng jMpor ; iho tuunn ia writ- 

1 a current laily'a hand, aa if tlio |M>ai:il-[Mnnt had jnat 

rhtly touched the aurCace, the pencil not hating aanlc ut all into 

n papni* ; and thont U no indication of tho wriung iin tlw ro- 

vone. I do not tiiiuk it (naaible far any ono, holding a pnncil 

and pi^mr, in nnn hand, for filto»n aMondit, under it tab)*, to 

have produoed a word thus writlnn. Bat, in addition to tlua, 

Hter had no cine whataver to tliM name. 

no ia tnio nf tho nanui uo tWe arn, wilh lUa addad 
Btmlty : tlio ana having htm cavvnd, up to Ukv moiMtit 
len the milium band it and allowed tho ii>BW,aiid )da haada 
a to that time, having baoa aem bjr na reatiag qniatljr on Uie 
le, by what ponibla «K( )« it « M t eooM be ba«9 pndnaad Uic 
bk UttortDg? 

During the dooada (ran I860 to 1870 I ha*« had, thnqgh 
vanona iwdinini, nunienHia oonUBranicatioBa fran Viobt: 
nona, howarvr, of any Wngtli ; Iha loufsat (Ming tluU rdativa 
In Uio birth of Christ. * IVy w«ra moally only brief; amdial 
iiiiMia)[iii of aSectiom or dion mggMttoos en atiiif I, |ihilo> 
■ofibieal, or spiritual snhjratJi. On two «»wasfe)iia, at intsrvala 
of yean, insload of the dmm, tli«ra «m only al h wj n n mada lo 
Oaa of ihaM oaun tfaroogfa a Be* 

• Book i. ckB|«ar t, «bm It b itTan te t>a. 


other through a lady (not a professional medium) in Washing* 
ton city : both being strangers to each other and to Violet^i 
name or history. 

Finally I obtained, by accident as we usually say, a remark 
able test, differing in character from any of the above. * 

The PoKiRAiT WITH Emblem. 

In the spring of 1867, being then in New Tork, I made the 
acquaintance of a Mr. Anderson, who, without previous in- 
struction and by spirit influence, as he all^^, bad produced 
likenesses of deceased persons, many of which were reoogmsed 
by their friends. He stated to me that a dorgyman of his ao- 
quaint4mce desired to meet me ; and I met him, by i^pointmoit, 
at Mr. Anderson's rooms, on the afternoon of the twenty-first 
of March. 

While ^e were conversing, Mr. Anderson brought me a laige 
sheet of drawing-paper, requesting me to observe that it was 
blank on both sides, and asking me to tear a small piece from 
one comer of the sheet, so as to bo able to identify it. I tore 
irrcgul&r pieces from two comers. He then requested me to 
note the hour, and retired to an inner room. 

I supposed that I should have a portrait ; and, as my fiither 
was a well-known man, of whom many engraved likenesns 
exist, I thought it would probably be one of him, and felt that, 
under the circumstances, even if it resembled, it would be an 
insufficient test. 

But in exactly twenty-eight minutes, Mr. Anderson, return- 
ing, pinned against the wall a portrait, in pencil, not of my 
father, but a female head and bust, life-size, which, from its 
general outline and expression, I recognized at once as Violet^s. 
On looking again, however, the features seemed to me more 
i-egular than her's and the whole face idealized. ThejpoM was 
graceful : my eye ran over the lines, but was suddenly arrested 
— could it be ? Hardly trusting my senses, I went doser to 
examine. It was unmistakable. There — as ornament at the 



low«r pout of lh« opMung of tlio dmn in front — wia tlw tt 

I need uot uy thai I Iiiul novor miuJo tbo Iirost allusion tl 
Violet in Air. Vndi^rson'R prmcace ; nud that I am c 
ho s{>oko tnith wlieo bo declared to mn Ihut lio hod iic 
of Lor .• 

I ciirufuUy a4i'**l^ ^^ *^'^ fragnututs of paper to tlio c 
tiDn wlionco I liftd taken timni, aud found the proof liiua 
aiTotdeti t^nt it was the aanin tiwct I bud inariciH] twcutf-ei^it _ 
rainutn* baftira it rn>p]«urHl, nbtmlulnly perfect. 

I ahowtid the jwriiait, tamn dnyn aft«rwnrd, to mj frion 
Mr. Carpenlnr, theartuit,f wiihout telling liim how robtAined il 

Hn exuniuod it carefully. " A littlo out of drawing," 
■uJ, " biit eltsiT and gracofnl : peculiar, too. A young ai 

** Ono wilhont much cx]>cri«nc«, I bolioTo. Ifow long wouU 
ft good ortiit take to niolci? iiucli a purtnut ? " 

"That dqwDi]* upon whi'tlirr bo Ult oSS tho Uk«aeM at onov. 
If he did and wurknt hard, ha might ltni«h It in a day. Bat, 
in a gcnftral way, it would take two dayii, periiaps mom." 

" Ilow if tba artiat had begun and linuibod It within half ■ 

" Them is do man living who oould <to m 

That waa my ojiinioo also, supposing tho artiat Itft to his a 
reaouroea : bnt I whs glad to han it ooafirmtid hy so compi 
tent a Jttdgo. J 

[rpoD rao then cumoUtlve ptnofi of iiknlity have prodiu 

' Kr, Andeaoo ^peand to ma a %«M, tRBik, staqde n 
laf HiodEBllj of wlnt Iw dMnxd « ipffitiMl cift, and lilaailiiK li 
for bi* own vanriny taiU> En its contiaaaaoa. He uroqld aoorpt ol a 
WBniu en H oa ffom mt: Ct harins ben, aa Ita renlaLlad na, a 
taend effort. 

t Dart known a* the aatlMreft&aaMsttnilkMHMlnlaablo Ua- 
lorlMltalattaf: 3TU ElMmtJpatimt l*nieltmMim i^pr* tfa OiUmL 

1 I abaU b* (jlad Iv (bow to anj aitot or Vt 
ocJciBsI portrait, with the a K e rttim fnfnMata, cswUy aa 1 ol 
jl :(b ad «r Ibt t««atr-«ickt ntenMt. 

a taqalMr.lta ^ 



a profound conviction that Yiolet Has manifested herself; keep- 
ing a sacred promise after long years, and sending to me, from 
another sphere, missives of friendship and words of instruction. 
I cannot judge what degree of belief this recital of theae proofs 
may create in others. 

BOOK v. 


"And when thej heard of the resorrection of the dead, aooM 
mocked : and othen nid, ' We will hear thee again of thia matter.' **— 
AcTSxrii. 82. 



**If the dead rise not, then U not Chriiit raised : and if Chriit benot 
raised, jour faith is Tain."—! OoRumuAXS zv. 10, 17. 

Accord I NO to tho best authorities, the Dook of Acts was 
written about thirty years ullcr the cnicifixion. It is one of 
tho most interest in<;( and instructive of historii'al c|iiMO(les, if we 
read it, as but fow of us do, unblin']';! by the glamour of stere- 
otyj>ed preconceptions. 

There was, of course, no New Testament in t!iose iluys. 
During the first half of thes** (liirty y»»an4 th«»n» was not even a 
biography of Christ ; and but one, tlmt of Matthew, until near 
tho close of that ]>erio<l : nor haw w^) any pro'.if that evni 
Mutthew\H narrativo was then known, <»r n^sid, i:i the (Viristian 
congregatitins. AH tho a]>OHtolio lott*.*rsof Paul, with x]i** hinglo 
exception of ThessalonianH,* were written but a few y^'aiM bg- 
foro the Acts were |)enne«L The same is tnie c»f tlie other 
epistles; with the exception of that of Jiuuen, which last u-aa 
written almut the midillo of these thirty vears. 

Thus the faith of the disciples during this |MM-ioil was Inumh] 

* Written aboat the year 53, or twenty 7<:ax% attivt OseaK^^m^^u 


only on personal recollections, and on oral traditions of reoen* 
date. It was much strengthened, no doubt, bj iihe appearance 
among them of those spiritual gifls * which Christ promised to 
such as trusted in him. f But it was founded chiefly on one 
great phenomenon : the appearance of Christ, after death, to a 
number of witnesses, of whom many yet survived. To this, 
on every great occasion, the apostles were wont to appeaL J It 
was, indeed, the rock-foundation of their creed, failing which 
they admitted that the entire superstructure must &11. *' If the 
dead rise not, then is not Christ raised ; and if Christ be not 
raised, your faith is vain." 

The triumph of their faith, then, was, that immortality had 
been brought to light : not set forth as a probability by analog- 
ical argument, not recommended to belief by glosses and quid- 
dities of the schools ; but brought into the light of day, where 
the senses can perceive it, where the highest of all human evi- 
dences can assure its reality. And the test-proof of immortal- 
ity among these early disciples of Chiist was Hiat Hhe dead covZd 
return ; § it was that they themselves, to use the modem term, 
had seen the apparition of their Master. 

Sceptics deny that they saw him. Strauss, assuming that 
an apparition would be a miracle, and holding miracles to 
be impossible, discredits the narrative. Yet he candidly states 
his conviction that the disciples, self-deceived through the ex- 
cited state of their minds, firmly believed that Christ had ap- 
peared to them. Ho says ; 

* 1 Corinthians xii 8-11. 

t John xiv. 12. 

t Acts ii 32 ; iii 15 ; iv. 33 ; X. 40, 41 ; xiii. 30, 31 ; and others. 

§ It was not Christ alone whom (as we are told) they had seen : if 
w^ may trust the record *' the graves were opened ; and many bodies of 
tho saints which slept arose, and came out of the graves after his res- 
urrection, and appeared unto many." — Matthew xxvil 52, 53. 

The decayed body does not come out of the grave ; that is not the 
node in which an apparition is formed : but that was the popular con* 
option of the phenomenon in Matthew's day. How often are genuine 
heziomena inoorreotly explaasAdV 

rotfSDKD on obbistV ArrAsmofr. 453 

" From tlw eputlct of Paul and the Acta, it la ccrtoiu that 
tiie Kpoktlcs thcnudvc!* bail tlio [<«n(UiuuoR ihitt tliPj had aoen 
like Arueo. , . , For tita rest, thu ]uung« fi-om Uio firat 
Eputlu to tlia CorintliMiia is not liotvb; wuakpiiod ffhich^ uii' 
■doubtodl; gvnuino, wu writUm nboul tbo jn»r !iO after t^rist, 
thtErforu iiot thirty jroan aflor bin rc«nn%ctian. Upon tliu ld- 
fcmiiitioa wn must Miinit tluit uuuiy laombnrn of tlin (Iriit com- 
■kunity, KtiU living at tbo cainpantion of that ojiiatli?, pnrticu- 
larly ttio npcistlcK, were penuuJed thnt they hiut witncaseid tlie 
« of Uie riwu Christ" • 

The text to which Straiua hero rufera ia St, I'aura aasertioa 
Ibat he baa twight whiU be biiosolf kiu) reoeivetl, luuuely, that, 
MtUsr Oiriat woa riaen " ho woa soon of Cuiiliax [thu ia, Pat«r], 
Iheuof tiie twelve: aAor th&t, ha waa aeca of above five liundred 
trvthreu at oatut ; of urbom tbe jpuottir part rcnuiin until thU 
■cMnt, but aoiDD are bllcti ulee[>. Aft«r that, he waa aeea of 
Famiia; tbeo of oil the apostles." f 
, — -Seeu, not by Polcr and •Jomai olunu, not by the ^xMtla* 

■tit by Jiv« huniimi bretbtva at ouoa. And tha belief 
pen in tbe rality of what Iboy aaw waa aiich thai Utej 
llpOBds and aooutgiitga and paraeoutioaa c* do uata dealb, 
ini aaatalning Cuth. Tbe noord of oil tbta, too, wu 
|Uti lltirtjr ]r«MS of tbe time tt b&iiiKiacd ; and is ird- 
||f R isitifi m bHiticd and cntii-ol oa Stiuutt, to be " tua- 
For any natural ereot ancfa tartUftony would bo orvrvbobft- 
ing. Btnuiaa, having made np hia tniiMl tbtt aa ^iparitioa i> ui 
impaaailiility, diahoUevea tbe atory. 1, having Ufco the lUad- 
I, wjtn aw ad on apparition, J kaow, u tboy did, that it ia not 
lie ; and believo aa thry did, that diHat ahowed bim- 
tbem, I caa thoroa^j amleraiaad, ibuugb I ui^ 
a itutoted, tlittl eonaUiMy of fiutb wbicb bcand mf 

I 1 CbriatUMi xr. S, «, 7. 
t 8aa Boa 



If tlie religions world is ever to attain the vantage ground 
that was occupied by the Christians of the apostolic age, it 
must convince itself that an apparition is a natural phenome- 
non, of occasional occurrence. Till then, a large fraction of 
the intelligent portion of society — its scientific leaders espe 
cially — will continue to deny, like Strauss — will stand out, like 
Thomas, saying : " I must see before I believe." 

Therefore the question ^' Is it important to study the subject 
of apparitions ? " resolves itself into another : " Is it important 
to have assured proof of immortal life ? " 

I make, to the reader, no apology for the space I occupy in 
illustrating this and cognate phenomena. The world owes to 
itself an apology for its apathy on the subject. 


APPAniTioNa sBoyma iSEasEi.vsa BFONTAJtEODSLr. 

" To • tntnd not Infioenoed 'by poptilor prejndioe, U will be eoaxotiy ^ 
possible to belieTB that appaiittona would hare been Toncbed for in nl] 
oottntnee, bad they never been seen In any."— Buy. Obooob Stbahak, 

Onb of the most remarkaible phases of scepticism i» that wliicEi 
denies, what all ages have admitted, the occasional reappear- 
ance of what we call the dead. The Cmtastic accessoriea of 
current ghost stories — hideous sjwctres, naked akeletona clank- 
ing chains, odors of brirastoau, Uglitfi burning bluo — have maia- 
\j contributed to this modom Sadduciam, False ideas and 
morbid feelings touching death have unsettled o\ir judgmeutj 
even our perceptiona. Those whom we loved in thia world we 
have leanied to fear, as soon as they passed to another. 
think, with terror, of their reappearance ; wo faint, perhaps, if 
they suddenly present themselves: for terror blinds; it 
pai'ent of superstition. 

In the nursery, or by the homo fireside, our children hear 
horrible gliost-stories, shuddering as they lixteu. This is eplr* 
itual [loison, fatal alike to e^^uaninuty und to simple religious-, 
truth. If we speak to children of ghosts at all, wo ought tO' 
t«!l them, just as we relate any natural evont, tliat wo sliall nil', 
be ghosts by and by ; that only part of our life is si^nt here ; 
the rest of it in another world which we t^atinot sec, but wliiclti 
ia better and more beautiful than this. Wc ought to add thati 
perhaps wa shall be able to come back from that world auJj 
show ourselves to some of our old fricndsi und that, may b«, 


456 AFPABrnoK seek by the 

they themselves will be so fortunate, before they go^ aa to 
some person who has gone before — or what people call a ghost. * 

Possibly their nerves might be somewhat tried, in case this 
should happen ; just as a person, hearing thunder for the first 
time, often trembles at the sound. But, if well-trained, they 
would soon witness, without undue excitement, either phenom- 
enon. Whenever men, in the mass, attain to this frame of 
mind, apparitions will probably become more common. Spirits, 
reading our thoughts, doubtless often refrain from showing 
themselves when they perceive that they will only be objects of 

Short of space and having already treated the subject of 
spontaneous apparitions at considerable length, f I here confine 
myself to a single example ; a narrative which I am able to for- 
tify with name, place, and date. It is one of a numerous class, 
an appearance of a dear friend soon after death. | 

A Father, dying in Europe, appears to his Son in America. 

In the year 1862, Mr. Bradhurst Schiefifelin, of the well- 
known firm of Schiefifelin & Co., New York, kindly fiimiahed 
me with this narrative, sent with the following note : 

'' New York, June 11, 1868. 
'' Dear Sir : Herewith inclosed I have the pleasure to hand 

* I taught my children after that fashion. The result, even hi eazlj 
childhood) was some such expression as this : ^^1 do wish I could see a 
ghost : could not you show nJs one, Papa ? " 

f In Footfalls on the Boundary of Another Worid^ Book iv. chapter 8, 
pp. 358-430. 

X One of the members of a society formed in 1851 by distingiiiflhed 
graduates in the English University of Cambridge, for the poipose of 
'nvestigating spiritual phenomena, told me that their leaeaawtoa had 
."esnlted in a conviction, shared, he believed, by all the membeza, thai 
share i$ sofficient testimony for the appearance, about the tune oldeath, 
or after it, of deceased persons.— See FootfaUa, note, pp. 88, 84 ; and, 
tar the printed cizcnlar of the society, see Appendix to ihab woik| 
rofteA.,p. 513. 

uEv. rxxDKmcK wms*. 


letter Crom Uic B«v, Frederick 8t«ia«, rdating tbo appMi- 
jt hifl father. Mr. Ktijiim, a Ocrmiui goatlotnaa of tiie 
t rcopocUliility, i* putor of thti Madiaou Stnot PmibfiK- 
riiui Obureh in this ci^, having a Urga G«nnui wagngn- 

" Thia letter, which you may pi-oaorvo aa «ni)ra<», I bsrt 
obtaiood &>r publication, aiul f Btiall bo glad if it prov« of wr 
rioo to you. 

" Yours truly, 


" To th« ncmorBblu 


The inelnnm !■ aa foUnwa : 

" rtuw ToBK, Jmh* 10. I9IB. 
" In cmnpUanee «rith tli« rv>ju<mt iu yuur uoto, I li«n> glvo 
■ ipticlal CusU ooan«ot«d with the a|ip*ritiou of my father. 

t on Uti thtrl«vnth of DMomber, 1847, aa I vaa 
ralktng, with roy twu elilnot houu, iu Gnuut Btre«t, Kow Totk. 
t thi.' funiuuoii, ticfuru Iwclvt) o'clock, and Ike dJe- 
a fall of [>M)pl<!. Tixero Uio wliol*! Cgaiv of my blbar 
jr^ipaamd to taf. llu imn in lib utoal dnm, Ua woQ- 
I ou hilt heoil. Ilia pipe In Ua haaJ, and ha 
Ui aa cnnwat took ; ibun, aa auildcnly, diaap- 

la very much tcrrifivil, and ii 

iMliatnly wrob) bufun, n 

I what had lia[i|HinmL BtMoo timit ajlnrwanl I ivcMnnl 
a tetter ttum unu ur my hnribi^n, written fmm Nimkirdunt, 
Rbaiish Prnada, the fiuuUy naddemv, iufurraing iqo that on 
tha muming of (ho tUrtwnth of Ileonnlm-, oar fiuh^r had di*d j 
iha*. At Imak&at va thai day be »iui in hk aiual boahh, and | 
lud bnen ijiaakiiif of ma with gnat anxwty. AfWr li 

^^_Jm9 paaaed out into the yard ; anit, in niturning, ha drofifwd ' 

^Bj|fad,ov«rtak«a by a Baddnn fit of apuptny. 

^^B^" I I'Mmed aiWwaid Ibat, at tlio nwueut «A &tM&^\«t -« 


the very dress in which I had seen him ; the same cap on his 
head ; his pipe, as usual, in his hand. 

« Yours, 

"Fb. Steinb. 

<'To Bbadhubst Schieffelin, Esq.'' 

The anxious interest which the father expressed in his ab 
sent son, immediately before death, is a noteworthy incident 
in this case.* 

Narratives of cases similar to the above could be multiplied 
indefinitely. A very remarkable one — a family reminiscence — 
furnished to me by my friend, William Howitt, will be found 
in the work to which I have referred.f 

* Compaie with this a siinilar expression of affection by the dying 
Mrs. Marshall toward the child Cecilia ; to whom, immediately aftet 
death, she appeared. See precediog Book it chapter 1. 

t Fco^fitUB, p. 871. 



" Segnina Irritant aniinoa domliai per virem, 
Qnun qiim nmt oonlU Kibjeota fidcliboi." 

HoOACK— A. P. 

I IIAVB DO mwliamislic powcni — noue of tlio apirituKl gifli 
anumcrated by Patil udJ cooBidcruJ by lam as cliMiublo. I 
can wo nothiug, lioar notbing, except wbnt othcn, witb tjuick 
ey«a and (fira, can aeo ami bear. As ti> tUo rralily of aulijuc- 
tivo fti>[«ritionH I havu to truHt to the t™timouy of the fieer or 
BoereMs; forlitictl, soiui'timca, liv infomiiitioii toucbing worldly 
nlTtuni that baa been fiiraiHbetl by tlicsi! inviMil>lu fonnx, and 
afterward aMcertaiueil to bii tnic* l'frba[i», ut tbia 8l:i^> of 
spiritual progrewi, I am, U-caiHu my*-lf iin outsider, mora 
likely to gain the ear, and tbi- e<>iilid<'U(-e, of tbe outaidc world. 

If, Homn day, tlirru hUouM njijHiir u man, endowed alike 
with tbo bigbfHt a|>irttuul gitta and witb the moHt eniiuent 
moral and intelleetiiitl jmwerH, bis inlliieti-v <iu civilized Hocietr 
miglit be iinmeiuu!. Meanwhile a iD'-re hiH-cLitor may obtain a 
di'gree i)f credit for difipiLs^ionale juiliniieiit wbicli wotdd be re- 
fiisi'd to an netor. 

I regret, however, that it Imn ut;v.T V-en my Rooil fortiini) 
t<t witnoM an objective apparition, )i[Hint;tiii>r>usly pn>?i<'ntin;; 
it*-lf. I Wl to aeek before I found. Ittit if my readei-s wiil 
f.ilttiw ine in tho relation uf what I did lind, 1 think tb>-y will 
iiiimit that 1 have taken what n-n!>onal>I<' ]>n-e»uli<>iiH 1 could, 
alike «^in<<t Kelfdeliisiim and i:np»stiiii-. Hiat I wim in 
f"urcb of what I found is, in itself, no [>ni[HT bar to my testi- 

8; atoiyof 

trkablo esanpla will be foniul in Fa-ffitlU. Book It. cLafAta 
the Oil! Ktnt Xmor Iloatt, yi>. «VV-Vn. 


Qiotiy. If I were about to make a stuflv of cai-thquakes and 
volcanic phi*nonioiia, I slioiiM 1».j likely to visit the western 
coibSt of South America, tho southern ]>ortIon of the TtAliac 
peuinsula; perhaps the Lshuids of Sumatra, Java, Iceland. I', 
is no tlisparagement to r^'sults tliat they have been obtjiiii'?! 
by expn^ssly placing om-'s g**lf in the way of obt^iiiiing thc-Li. 
My expi'rieuci? in this fiehl, thouijjh not so varied as tliat of 
Bonie othtTs, h-.ts b vn a rtMn:irkablc one. If my life were ex- 
teniltMl to the term nseriU'tl to tho antediluvian (KitriarciLs I 
Hhould n»iiieml>er, to niv dviui; dav, the first time I was vi.sited 
by an apjiear.ince which all the attendant circumstances con- 
curred in proving to have been a visitor from another phase oi 
being. It occin*rt»'l, trleven years ago, at the house of Mr. D-jlu- 
iel Underbill, in New York. 

An eventful Hour with Leau Fox. 

It was on the evening of Sunday, the twenty-fii-st of October, 
ISGO. The sitting was hehl in Mr. Underhill's dining-room, 
lasting from t-'U till eleven oVloek r.M. 

Tht^ n>om was lighted by gjis. TIiei*o wi?re two windows 
fronting tho stnK't; three doors; one o[>cuing on a coiridni 
wlu'uai a stairciise ascended to the next lloor ; another oi»exiinfi 
on a short passage leading to the kitchen ; the third, the i.h'H}! 
of a j>antiy in which were crockery and various other articles, 
including a barrel of loaf-sugar in one comer. 

Before we had any demonstrations the ra[>s rciiuested us to 
wait until th<: d«»m^»stics had retireil. Thei*o were two servant 
gills in the kitchen, whom Mi-s. Umlerhill sent upst^iirs to 
IumI, so that everything w«us profoundly still on that fl(X>r of the 
house. Then we fastene<l the insiile blinds of both windows, 
so as to exclude all light from the street. 

Before commencing the s*'ssion, at Mr. UnderhiU's request, 
I shut and lockt»d the thriMJ doors above njfurred to, leaving the 
keys in the doors ; so that no one, even if furnished with keys, 
conld o]X)u them fvoia wvl\iowt. I satlsd'^d myself, by earefu] 

l>nof^i'(!OKEBa3JT PlIEXOMESOS. 

[iNmnftl iiLfpsotioa of the fumitura, ttsd oUierwiio, tliat tiii^T^ 
wiM tf} one ID tb^paiitry, uoruiy nnn in Urn dtuiu;;-ruotu exfvpt 
tile tlirao ji.traoUH who, alung witii myof^ir, aniiiU'O at tlio iiitliQ^ 

Tlutte perBooa woru Mr. D«nlHl U»(lvrhiII, Mrs. Tifiukrliiit 
(Lub Fox), anil Iicr lu'-phnw. Churl™, twolvo y«i.n oUL W» 
■31 down tt> A RAutro-Ublr, ihrco fe«l clovftn inchtM in dUuoto', 
of tilactc vraluut, luiil wiUioul table-ciivnr. (I liad [iiTTiouiiy 
l(ioki-il uudirr it; nothing to h« m«u tliera.) TIio ([uit-buraM 
WM imiuotlisWtjr ovi>r it. I Mt on llio tuiat iti<lo of the Ul 
Mr. Undorkill oppoiiSta Ui ma, Mm. UntWhill on taj Infl hoi 
•uj CJlurI« on thu rigliL Thero wuh nn liro in the mora. 

Tbct rappings commenotNl, gnulunlly iiicrtwdng ia nnml 
and furre. After n abort iutirrvnl thtry •pcJlcd : " Put oat 
gsn." It wa« acconlinglf oxtinguishnd and tlie room rctnaiiMi 
in total darkncM, ITipd, " Join handA." Shortly after Ada 
an I fnlt, wroml time*, a oool breeeo blowing ou my chork.' 
Thc^ WBKS[x>llnl: " Do not brtMdc tbc circle," Woolwyod; aud, 
nxccpt for a •rconil or two at a time, it ramainrd, on toy par^ 
nnbrokim throughout tlie rest of tlio sitting. 

AAora few minntes 1 pcrcsivod a light, apparttntljr of I 
phocpfaofmcpnt rharactor, on my loft, near tbo floor. It ww^ 
at Anit, of a roctangutar form, witli the «dgps roundnL I 
Judgrd it to bo nlx)iit four iDcIm long and two and a luUI 
tnrJiofl wida. It swtuod like aa opon palm illnmisAtod ; txil 
thou^ tlie light whidt eioaaateil from It fltowed quit* f~ 
tiuctly its entire Huriaoc, I eooUl difltinguisb no tagta, I 
a time it moved abuut, n«ar the floor ; tlien it ruae Into tlM 
and floated about the room, KiaMrtiiDM over our hsMk. 

* 8aaaii«ilUaBnlitMlVCUr*/lNtannnul; ' 

462 AH AFPAxmcnr 

After a time it chAnged its appewanoe and innriaiiil in 
brightness. It then resembled sn opaqne otaI substenoe, about 
the size of a child's head, muffled up in the folds of aome Teij 
white and shining material, like fine linen, onlj bri^ter. As 
it moved about, I began to hear, at first imperfeetlj, afterward 
somewhat more distinctly, the rustling as of a silk dress, or d 
other light article of female apparel; giving tlie i]I^x«s■ifm 
that one or more persons were moving silently about the room. 
Then the light passed behind Mrs. Undeihill; then I aawit 
close td Mr. Underbill and just opposite to me. Mr. XJnder- 
hill said : '^ Can you not go to Mr. Owen ; do try." . Thoe- 
upon it moved slowly around to my left side. This time the 
folds appeared to have dropjied ; and what seemed a &oq (still 
covered, however, with a luminous veil,) came bending down 
within five or six inches of my own face, ss I turned towaxd it. 
As it approached, I plainly distinguished the semi-luminous 
outline of an entire flgme of the usual female stature. I saw, 
very distinctly, the arms moving. At the lower extremity of 
its right arm, as if on the palm of the hsnd, the figure bore 
what seemed a rectangular substance, about four inches by two, 
as nearly as I could estimate. This substance was more 
brightly illuminated than the rest of the figure. It may have 
been only the illuminated palm, but I do not think it was ; it 
seemed more like a transparent box with phosphoreaoent light 
within it. Whatever it was, tlie figure raised it above its 
head and then passed it slowly down close to what seemed the 
&ce aud then over the upper part of the body, as one might 
pass a lantern over any object, with intent to make it visible. 
This action it rei>eated several times. By aid of the illumina- 
tion thus afforded I saw, more distinctly than before, the gen- 
eral form of the face and figure ; but both appeared covered 
with a half-transparent veil, and I could distinguish no fea- 
tures: nor were the outlines of the body, nor of the limbs, 
sharply defined. The motion of the right arm, with the light, 
was the most marked and frequent. 

While this was taking place I held Mrs. Underhill^a hand 


•aii ChftrWa. Jk» tiui \»noua pliuea of the pbenoraao* woe 
ooodcd auih olluir, I nnowrked on wluit I iftw ; ftnd Mr. UiuW- 
bill, from Uiv opptwiii; nilu of lliu t«bli!i, napunded to my 
runittrku ; w) tliat I luu iiiiiU) ci^rUiiu be wm WAted Uien. 

1 tixpnsHed * <nali that tbo Signtv would hiuok me i uul Hr. 
Uudorhill Hud, from bw plo^ : " Wu ore very tt 
apirit ahuuld tuui^ Ur. Owuu, if it vui." 

ThomnpoB i fult wbat weiued a hiimiui baud laid on taf I 
bMul. And, aa 1 looked steadily at tbe Sgura, whiob stood on I 
my left Hide, I (aw ita bead bead toward my left shoulder, 
nomiiut aiWwBfd I /e/t, ami aimullaaeiiusly h«ard, juat b«- I 
kiod ibo \Kiial of that sbouldor, a kiss tutiriuied. 

I rauld not, fur atiy physioal bet, obtain the evidsnoB of 1 
thrm wniMta — sii^t, touob, and be«rin|{— mure dhrtlnotly tbaa | 
in this caan I diil. 

Inimodintcly aft4Twa4x], I aaw this lumlnotu Uidy |iaM h»- 1 
what Mxnned, hy the tuadi, to he bondi gnotly laid 
llold uf botli my ahnnldi-m and tuniod me ruand to the right. 1 
I looked on ibat aidu and the fignru now stow) by uiy right j 

After pausing there for a firw aeoonda, tt moved toward ika J 
farthmt from mo, an<l wn beard the aoiuida as if sonM I 
attempting to open tiio vindovr blind. Mr. UndMr-l 
his pUoo, rctnarlcod that it would probably bo able lo I 
I ; for it had done ao on a prarioos oocajdoo. Ttm ' 
Uind was in foar eom{wrtmicnta, raeh of wlunb oould I 
Qpttiad or closed by rabdng or luwvriag a wirv attachad to 
RWVaUa tlala. Tbn 6gara opBood th« upper, kift-baiul i| 
of tho hitod, so that a faiut light shooo tn tron 1 
lampa. 1 was looking at the window when this o 

Up to this tiuM the appaanm ca , giwlnally h 
ItuntnooB, had buHD la aight, noring aUiui the room, AiDy Avs 
miuuUa, Thnm wan not th«i slightHrt (botJall when tt inovvd. 
Uf hinriwg is Tory aeuta; I listaned for <nery sotiudt and m, 
ia thn Itilnrrals of eooTeraadoik, the almon «u anlmkm, 1 J 
flMikl hara dslMlBd tke fitU of tiw U^ianl fbotrin^ 


Trom this time tlio light which illumiiuited the figure gnd 
ull y fadoil ; aiid hoou I could no longer distinguish anv fon 
Till' slight, rustling SDund, unaccomixmied by footsteps, sti] 
however, continued. 

tSuddenly wm heard a n.^ uf the d(.ior op]K>site to n 
being unluckcd; iliru of its Ix'ing hastily opened and sliut 
th<'n the niNtling sound approacheil mo on the left, and a ke 
wa:i Liid on my left hand. Then a second door 'was heard t 
bo unlocked in tlie sanie wav, and I heard another kev laid o 
tho table just before mo. Then a third door (that of the cuj 
boai-d, V>y tho sound,) was heard to bo unlocked and opene< 
and a key, as if piteheil over our heads, was heard to drop, wit 
a clatter, on the table. 

While this was going on, T cummtrnted, from time to tiiiH 
on «ich <x"currenoe, ojid ivceivcd answers from Mr. Underhil 
from his plueo at the tabic op]>0}>itc to me. 

Wliili; w'i'. were convei-sing, there was a rattling of the erocl 
cry in the ciiplKxinl. Mi-s. Underbill expn*ssed her apprehei 
sions as to M.»nie fav«irilo china, but Mr. Underbill implied : ** 
will tiub! tho spirits ;'* and thon added: '^ Cannot the spu-i 
brin;? sjmelhing to Mr. OwenV" Almost immediately ther 
was H!-t down on tijo table, close to my left hand, some objec 
whicii I tnuj'htMl, an«l it ]»voved to be a cut-glass goblet. I 
B'.?tting it down, what seemed a human hand touched mine, an 
immediately afterward was laid, several times, on mv shouldei 
I exprcshod a desire that it would distinctly grasp my hand, t 
which Mr. Underbill responded. Instantly a small hand« o 
wliat in toudi i»erfectly resembled one, to<.>k hold of my h&m 
and pi'^ed it. Then it cla^jKni my bare wrist, gently but wiiJ 
a firm grasp ; then my lower arm, then my upj»er ann ; eacl 
time with a distinct grasp. I could not have ilistinguishe< 
the touch fn>m tlmt of a human hand. It was a little coole] 
than mine, but not disagreeably so. There was nothing eiiill^ 
or clammy or otherwise uni)leasant about it. There was, aftei 
this, thi*ouglx)ut the sitting, no sound whatever of opening a 
dosing doors. 


While it WM Umcking ma thn*, Mr. Uailm^iill Mid: "Cui \ 
F^n fill llus (joblot y.JO btvuglit Ui Mr. Owpn iritli w»terP' 

I wiu K nwlltng but mi fooUtop ; n iilighl nuUe in ths , 
■ jiantr,v, tuiil tlien iLa aciund of iujuii thing dropped into tbo g 

It, patting my lund in, I full nn nrntw. In M> doing t 
I bn^ko the cirde onlj fur a mamcnt. 

1'ben, Just Ix-bind m<i, I h(.iiril « wiuud mn if thn g\mm tit tbo 

^ un Uto nuntJ»pioctt wnrn toncliod and >li>kon. 
All ihia tiniii tha-nt waa no word ifraknn nxrcpt hy thorn at 
th« tabla; bv'-, oncu i>r twioe, tluTtu wbh ■ wfatatling wnuid in 

WL«n, Kion ofW, wa w«r« Uttden, b^ tba fmp>, to tvU|^t tbo ^ 
pw, I fuand thn-n dixir-ki-yn »n Uio taklv, tiio gotilnt aim Mid, 
l-iriiliin it, a lamp of lD»f-t»tgKr. Btrtli th" roonnlijont wd«* ] 
BfHiHLil, btit, on trying them, [ found tlutt ncitlitr «u lockod. 
I iif tl)« ki'ys on tho tAbI« liltwl thnm. Ttm iloor of tbo I 
■•ntry, which thti thinl key tittof), itnod open, luiit t]ir iiovit ol | 
A<! banvl of sngar waa puahed putly ofT. Tfao loft-luntl uii(wr 
n-tion of tUa blind nt which w« had wMi Mid hmrd th« fignra, 

Hmw ara GM-ta, nil liriafij uotod ilown thn nmo vminf «■ 
Miicb tiwy happnund, and writUn iint in full tiia oKct mocn- 

Ifais. I 

. Tltn aiii-ffUions, by ih« taps, wvra that ih» ^Nrit pnwaot waa ' 
if a daitghtMT iif Mra. Fos who liad di«d jonng, and that 
Bptrila wi.<ru preat-nt (araimj; thrjin an Iwlian Kpirit), nid- 
icr U> alMW br.TwOf to oor eirdp. Emily— that was tbo 
niunn-bad bora tin. Qndnrfatll'a b<ronta aiaUir, kxif 
', and bad lain, dniiDg tbn last bnur of bar IHb I 
and at the mooimil of ilaalh. In Mra. Uwkihili'a anm. Mr. 
, Undtwhill BtalMl to ms thai b« ImuI am tlw Runa apiri 

tmvnal timra bufrnv; and thai Iw liad laiim abl* to \ 
lintinsuiab tbn fimlnn^ Jin ajipMnvi, alio, on thia ooonaiuat 
apatmivni thn whole Agtnra, anti eapcciaQy tha fintiinn, I 
imeily thiut 1 did, though my uatural ngbt baa aiwnyt j 
I, and, eioept within onhiury rvadti^ dialnDOTi is still 

4tif> BFMARgB 09 WHAT I 

ncmrly as stn>nj< its it was thirty yean ago. With theae 
iToptionH, all |>rc*HL>iit, so far iis I could judge by oomparing zu 
witli th<*ni (luriiijic ami after tho sittiug, seemed to have a 
an<l ht*anl the 8ucc«'ssLon of pliouomena here described just i 
itiVMi-lf had doiit'. 

Up t:> tliis tiiuo, ivv.rr Laving ^-ituoased any 8u?h p 
noiut'ua it-i thofto I had of ton doubted within mvaelf hoi 
hhoiil<l \w alicvtod by wituessing an apiurition, or what I i 
reawm to roiisidor such. It seeine-i to mc thiit I should ea 
rionco no aUirm ; but of this*, iu advance of actual experiej 
I could not Ih; aMsui*od. Now 1 know just how far I can ti 
niy ueif-{>OHS4.'Kaion. Awo I undoubtedly felt — awe and inte 
intei-est ; but, in looking Inick on my feelings throughout t 
wonder-bringing hour, 1 feel certain that a physician mi 
have plao^l his tinger on luy wrist, even at the moment wl 
that d I mlv -illuminated Presence first bent over me, v 
Ki'Hrcfly six inches interveuuig between its veiled face i 
niino — it.s h.iU(N ]>laiNHi on my head, its lips touching 
bhotilder >-an«l not have found the I Heatings of my pulse und 
uctM^ifM-ated : or if he had tlotected acoelcfation, it could u 
I urn very sun>, have been justly ascnbod to any tremor 
ft'ar, but solely to tho natural effect of solemn and riveted 
|M:ctation. If a man, under such circumstances, inay trust 
his own i-ecol lections not twenty-four hours old, I can aver, 
mv honor, that I wxs not, at anv time while these events w 
iu progivsH, uiuKt otlicM* excitement (though it may be, grt^ 
iu degreo) than a chemist might be supposed to experiei 
wli Lie watching the issue of a long-project^ and decisive exp 
imeut, or an astronomer when tho culminating |x>iut of so: 
im)Hjrtaut ob-jervatiou is about to bo i*eacheii. 

I bog it may not bo supposed that I mention this as boast: 
of courage. There >»'as, in truth, nothing of which to boa 
Tho prccetling and attendant circumstances were such as to p 
dude alarm. I was not alone, nor taken by surprise. I yi 
ex|xH;tiug some phenomena and hoping that they would be oi 

ftAW, rSLT, AKD Dsuca 

I iduMphorasooDt oatare. And thongji I had not aaj fixp«ebi- 

ri of w«iiig an adnal fonn, yvt, aa the allcigation was Ihal a 

1 aiabir, b^ved Ity on* of Uia aanatanu, waa proHiit, 

litt tha dMDOBStartioaa <rare genUe and Mnmingl^ ar- 

1^ 'iff Mendlj ageiMaM, U> aatisfy my daaira for tiie 

: ftvjdence in proof of apiritiial appeanace, I was 

f difliirtmt oircuBiBtaikCQa to Utoao which bavs oftco , 

liikm th« tiervoa eviMi of the boldeat, vhile oaeouaUntith tor 

I tbL- fint (imc, whnt in luuully called a ^<M. 

1 nute tlio fuct of my Miunniinity, than, meraly aa one of tha | 

F«U4>n(Unt circumsUnoMi wliich maj bo &irlj taken inlo m 

■fo jndging Urn t«aliti)ony bore auppUetl in proof of the appear- J 

n vudblo and tangible form, of an alleged afHrii of « 

iM-d periMiQ. It i« often awanied Hud a nan who faelierM I 

a|^iarition i» <lo aac a ooinoMa pbraae) ftin^leBOdl 

oat of kia aensM ; and ao, u not ontitlMl to credit ai 

If it he oljooteit ttmt, bcfort^ th« alttii« dated, tbs d 
mm naloduid, I rv^ly Gmt that all tho miMt r 
intrctatiiig pnrlian of tha phmunu'iia oee u rrt U b^an 
pelted; and, HOHidly, tlint, aa tlio key* of tho lodwd doon^ 
wrra Inft in ihm, tbtry wulil only bn opmicil from tha laaid*. 
If, ID rvply to this lairt, it liir atill argM) that Mr. Utukriull, 
tlMsrting hia poat Cor a fmr MNXFoda, m^t h»n npanad am vt 
the dooni, 1 n!|ily that I iMppeonI to bo oooTmaiiig with hni 
■t tho nKMDeat «h firat iManl thn koy tnniML i mM th 
ii^ the next MUinK, when atill mom Moudorful phanoin 
ennvd, 1 took a pracautioB (aa wil] ha Bean), which t 
tan|MaMb1« that Mlhor Ur. UndoriuD or aa/ of the u 
•hmiM lea*o tliotr aiMts,aT«nfcranM>BMnt,witho>at mj kao^ I 
•dga. I 

Vm days afW this I hid lh« iwwnii hnv rafefiod to, in tha I 
lODcn, with th* mom aviatanta; dnriiig whidi riailkr | 
I npMlad, b«t with oaa hi^Uy no ta wort ^ a^ [ 



A Ghost Speajcs. 

The dato was tho twonty-sixth of October, 1860 ; »^ it m 
an evening Ressiou ; from lialf-past tPn till midni^t. Tl 
samo iinH^HUtioQii which I had taken before tlie oommencemec 
of the former Hitting as to locking all the doors, looking umi 
the tabli', examining the room and furniture, etc., I c^relul] 
adopt eii on this ooraKion also. As before, \re waited until tli 
bervantH had n'tiriHl and all was stilL 

After a time there was spelled " Darken ; " then *' Joi 
hands/* We obeyed; but on this occasion I took an additiooi 
precaution. Grasping Mrs. Underhiirs right hand and Charia 
left, I brought my own hands to the centre of the table ; an 
Mr. Underbill, across the table, laid his hands on mine. Thi 
wo continued throughout the entire sitting. I am able, thei^ 
fore, to assert tluit, fmm the beginning of this sitting till tb 
end, the circle remained unbroken. 

After a few minutes, tliore appLnired a luminous body of a 
irregularly circular form, about four inches in diameter, floa 
ing between us and the door which was back of Mrs. Undorhil 
It was somewhat brighter than when it first ap|M?ared on tfa 
previous occasion ; tliat is, on tlie twenty- first of October. 

Hien, after an interval, the light, rustling sound seemed t 
indicate tho approach of some one. The figure ivas not so di 
tinct a.sun the ] previous occasion, the lower i)ortion losing itse 
in a gniyish cloud. The highest light seemed to be on the sik 
corr('.siK)nding to the fon»head. But I saw no features; nor di 
1 »eo tlie arnjs moving. Very soon I was gently touclied o: 
the head, Uien on the KhoulderH, then laid hold o£^ as with boti 
handH of some one standing behind me. 

Then the figurt* seemed, by the sound, to move away, to^'ari 
Mr. Underbill. He stated that the figure was approachinj 
him. He asked it if, as a test, it could take something out ol 
liis ]H>cket ; but there ^-as no reply, by n^ or otherwioe. Im 
mediately I hoard a sound as if some one were moving the ke^ 
about in the door opposite to me. 


fiooB ftfW Mr. Unilerliill aaitl the &gan had a^ain ftpprOHched 

htrn. I Mw the illuiniiiateil cirLiilitr snbetanMt cIobc lo lui 

, bat coold not distiiu^tiuh *ny fignn. Mr. Unilnfaill 

■id ih&t he ooulil diiolT iliMwrn tiif> figum. 

Aftvr ft timo it niovwl rouiul to tbo \aA Charles, who oslitb- 

luuuli iil*na ; cryiug out " Oh, go ftwaj I I'raj don't 1 '* 

I it upproftched, na I saw it do, close to his head, which ha 

d hi-ai down on tbo table. It wu now very bi^t, au tluOf 

fh; tbo ilghl. I ooutd Boe tho outline of the bo^'a beaiL ClutfhM 

I Bfu^rwunl Mtutvd that he wtw it lUiitiuctly, aai lb«t » buul 

I tcDcbnl him nr|K>fttHlly. WliDe il wu duae to Cbarbiii, it ap- 

I pMuvd tji ino M if ft wbite baudk«rdiiof ur Homo article of tha 

ikfi ti-xturv wrr« thruwii over » Kniid or vantu ■imiltu' support. 

ri figure. Wbun it roM liebind Cbark-a, n* if tc> luani 

■ Itini wbon lio criiil i>iit, I could |i»rc«ivu what muubbHi n hood 

[Ml illnmiiiatwl milmtjuioi!, tbu outiinu of tbo h*Bd 

Ifkpiiarin^ tu a nbAdow acromi tbu iilutiiin&t«d gronnd. 

Thill it mnvnd, m I muld m<i\ tu Mr. tJiulorbill, ntid after « 

I uTirr to mo, and touchod me gnttly aa tha aluM]- 

1- rier. ( >f a saddMi it oceannd to mu that ocm oiImtt pvitloMM 

I Inrkiiig. I oxi>ranod a ilmini Uwt, if it aiold, t< wniiM 

L iftRak. It ■eeiural tn rmIco Mrvrral i4brta to do M, aa indicalod 

I Jby a alight, (>uttural aouod ; tb<^>a I bi>ard a aoanil naaaliitBg 

I nylbiblH m, twice rcpc«l«>d. 

Tlicn, by tiio n|M wiia aiwUod out : " Hlii(." Mrx. UimIbc^ 

mpliM. The fit^rv which had M«nied to laevaftwi^ and 

Mum, aftain touched lan fhiiii iMhiod, dnwidy hmi aCfktljr 

ViDward it. Then, in a brief intnr^al of tlie nnpof, 1 boardt 

■Ib a low vuico, jiut belitud mo, the wonla: "Ood bloa jon^ 

f Aa aiiditioaal aMurann; iImI it w«a m Buawnlarf jUiiaiaii, 1 

■ked that tt winikl a|Ha»k »^m ; and agaiit, in kb interval of 

I muHici I hwanl, in distinA toaea, tbo aama wocdc, " God 

I yoD." Tbny mfbitcI tii ba proaoaoonl doM to tuj aar, 

I voioa waa low— appanvtly a woman'a roiae—joat loader 

B a wlui|«r, and the wwda aMMOMl to be prooouneed witli 

odbrt ; in •ubdiwd Iobbb, •■ 

470 TBB MASnrE8TA-n05t ABK 

mi^ht speak. I particularly noticed, also, thAt each word < 
pronounced separately, with a perceptible interval batww 
and there wan not the iisiial accent on blew* followed br 
shortcnod i/on ; but each word was equally accented. In otl 
roi?[>Mcts thj sounds resembled the human voice, when low i 

Mrs. Underbill afterward stated to me that she HigtiTig iiMl 
the word yon^ but not the others. Mr. TJnderhill said he I 
heard articulate sounds, but could not make out any of 1 
words : )if« only knew that something had been said to hm. 

After a time I Siiw the figure {ni&s behind Mrs. XJnderi 
and remain, for a few minutes, near her husband ; then it 
tumcfl to mo, appearing on my left side. I saw the outline 
a liead and face, but still, as before, covered with a veil whj 
conceaknl the features. I perceived, however, what I had i 
olwerved before, what seemed tresses of dark hair droppi 
over tiie face ; and the dim outline of an arm raised one 
thesii tresniM, aud tlk'n drop[x>d it again, several times, as if 
attnu't my attention. Behin<l was the vague outline of a 1 
ure, but less distinct than during the previous sitting. 

Tlien the figun; | Missed IxOiind me. I was leaning over t 
taltle, so that Mr. Uudorhill might not have so far to streti 
in order to reach my hands. I felt a kiss on my should 
tlion then^ was the feeling of two hands laid each on o 
shoulder and I was drawn very gently back till my shonlde 
above the chair back, were pressed against what seemed a n 
terial form. Almost at the Siime moment my hand was kis» 

Mr. Underbill cried out, "Ah, you were drawn back ;" a 
]SIrM. Un<lerhill said, a little impatiently : " Every one 
touched hut me. Can't you come to me ? " 

The words werc hardly pronounced when she screamed oi 
OS in alarm : she liad been suddenly and unexpectedly 
on the forehead. 

From that very moment the manifestations entirely 
No luminous object to be seen, not another touch, not a mat] 
not a sound of any kind, in the room. I listened attentLvel 


ftu I un oBTtMn tliBt ao door opntml or ibut. AjuI ncaroclj ■ 

minuta or t<vo ekpMed vn it mm rimIUkI not : " IJght Utu gk^" 

Wliua wo lutil donft no «« found otrcrything m iKfi}^, with 

k kitigle RxwiAioo. I MMwrloiiutd by looking unilor tlio tablo 

n Ihu [HuiU-y tli»t tboru waa nu one ia thii room but oar- 

I : I fouuil nil Uie thrtm liucirs locknd ; but the key b«- I 

iging tu tUo iluur 0|i{K>aiU< lu ue Wiu mivdiig. Wo aakccl 

iphore it tnta ; tlio nt[iM rt-pUiKl : " Look." Wn ooiilil not mtn 

inywltero. Tliu;i «o examtued our pucketa ; nod, fnitu o 

Mat bi« ciMt-|)uokaU, Mr. UuderkiU prodtuMd a kny, which « 

ninii to lit tli« door. 

UiH. UaderbiU uked if Iter Klarmod axolMutian luul iqjnrod 

AmMtrr, faj thit rkji* — " Nut tuacU." 
Jfrt. IT. — " riB to mwmA nfrud I hart Iwr I " 
Jhwuft. — " It rrighu<ncd Wr," 

QtttalioH (by lux).— " Did Un, UodflrUU'i cty of mlun | 
oMUM tlia muiifwUktioiM to e tm ao ? " 
4nnMr. — " Yo«." 

Ab Ui Um door-key, I rawu'k — 

Tbkt !kEr. Uiulddtin aakad, u« tatfi, to Ittva ■DawtUqglalHftl 

'mm UU pocket ; but it wm k ImUbt laM^ iIbm fa* oooM 

■OTH (rom faiti plaoa, to Utot Um kny ftan Uw door and di| 

• it ut his podwL WkohtUm apMi eould toko It, onr dido ^ 

fining luibfokMi ? I> the takiiig by Rpirit agnoiBy uicivdl- 

But Um boads th*! preMod my nhoMldon, tlut fi^nd 

f kuult tlut daapod my wrM, wnm Mudy nwlerMl aanngh , 

to extiAot « key ftom » diiur-lock nn>l dnifi it in a Bo«l-]it>ek0t i 

llMa >U thn doon, tliia linw, won l«fl locknl ; ao that uo I 

uw ooold oauv frpoi vitJimit : U> oay nathib); of tbn obMrd J 

suppoaitiaa tluU o sfiirit ahould opea • ikmr in oHer to Mboll i 

bfllBMD MwiWlMlbl. I 

Tbougb I Wl cTwy hmmod Io I« MtiafiMl willi toy maaam I I 
rMolvMd tu pnMMCQto tboaa nMaMvkai, bMpia]{ far «a apparitiao I 
by gaa lijfht or dayligliL But 1 na noabta oi tbat tuoa to (to I 

472 BFEBrrUAL soulftube. 

80. My duties as military agent of the State of Indiana called 
me from New York ; and, in the rush of events dnring these 
stirring times, my time and thoughts were otherwise engrossed. 
In the spring of 1862 Judge Holt and myself were appointed 
a Government Commission on Ordnance and Ordnance stores,* 
i*oquiring a residence in Washington ; and a year later I be- 
came chairman of another Government Commission, charged 
with the duty of reporting on the condition of the recently 
emancipated freodmen of the United States. Thus it was not 
till the close of the war that I could sufficiently withdraw my 
attention from public duties to follow out, in any r^pilar or 
consecutive manner, spiritual studies. Periiaps this mingling 
of mundane work and ultramundane contemplations is ol 
wholesome character; tending to infuse broader views and a 
more practical tone into speculative researches. 

My experienco of 1860 led me to the opinion that an objec- 
tive apparition must bo the workmanship of spirits, possible 
under rare circumstances. Sometimes these appear to be 
wholly independent of human agency or intention ; sometimes 
we can, in a measure, promote them, and even anticipate, with 
more or less uncertainty, however, the result. In this latter 
case, we seem to obtain something corresponding, in a measure, 
to a production of human art ; and, six>ciiically, of the art of 
sculpture ; but of sculpture in spiritual pliase ; evanescent, 
only partially material, and liable, at any moment, to dissolve 
or disappear. 

What I particularly desired was to have an opportunity, in 
the light, of witnessing the formation of such an apparition ; 

* Judge Holt was a member of President Baohanan^s Cabinet and 
afterward Judge Advocate QeneraL We reported on acoounts amount- 
ing to more than forty-nine millions of dollarB, roduoing the ItabHitiefl 
of the (General Government, by our dedsions, nearly seventeen mil- 
lions : and oar report was sastained. 

Some men Imagine that profound convictions touching SpiritUAlism 
mod Spintual phenomena incapacitate for business duties ; but that ii 
a mistake. 

t, tU tuav«ineuU fram fiUm to place, niul xtm Hm 

But it wnui ant until Uiu y<Mr 1K67 that I obt^ud 

«r aalirfartinn. During Ilia "pring of that 7«>r I 

Mril of Mini B — , of Boston, «n ddnrly ludy Inng known 

1 rMtaemml In thnt oily »s a (iicdauiful tnochnr of niuNic and 

koclng. ft wiM aitid that »he, in * privain circlo, bad obtAin«d 

u> (ibjretivu apparitiniM, in ■ purtialljr light<Hl Toom. 

ji Bilnmril coD9nni<d to hm by a tnntt fvtimoble lady, 

n hod hrrwJf bmn prraimt at mnnj of tJimo eitlings ; M». 

1 Duviii, widow of th" wnll'Icoown ox-OoTOmor of MkWf 

M-ttn, and of whom 1 hnvo almady qwiknn. * 

I. Dam rxprvMncd to mn htrr MiD*i<:4ion that Miaa B 

M raittmly Rinwre ami dirint»ttKti<d ; and that lh« phonomena 
!i thn (Mix I>a«i)i,) bad witncmcd in Mias B -*» apart- 
mix wijro gimuinv. 

f Sliss U , it BMnu, hoi) auvi^ml frittndn, married Ia(£m in 

» middle rank of Uft>, wbo hod more or IcM power oa mo- 

bm«, e^McioUy in eonnectlon with fpiHtual nppennuicHi of 

<ibjc«tiv» chanKter. On *a*vnU oMwuona, •omatimea in oM 

t iboir hotuna, Kiroetinm in oaotbi^, Mita B had hentlf 

I) on apparition. 

of tbi'^o lodiea wntt pnfraaional nMifiitiiia; but it or 
I to ihinn lliat, if tiMiy mat ooaaaionally, tbuy aught, hf 

d{iuwvra, obtain my intMWtJagtTmilta. MuiB 

1 tho vat at hirr cpocioaB oportaieata; and during » 
■rrim of rxponmsBti which wnra oocdiwtod th«ra, phRUomanft 
of a Duu-mUoni ohoraotor want ohmrTM] : a gnat voriaty of 
•piriu opiiNanay, diiedj •tnuqgnn la any of tho awiatantis in 

Tliia was notaad ahraod, and tanMgh* n^oMli, fraa tlw rati' 
DBa,lora«lwiMio« to wiHtMinHih woodnra, llwat mn naaaQy 
Hnntrd, bat tmiTinnly aa a Gt\-or and wiihont ckor^. Of^- 
^Kaa w< Tarifm; Homo riston wvra ronvinnd ; othiin wsU 
^^■ny in doubt whether it wu nnt as uxliibitinn got np tn ar 
^Hb Om ondnlofu, or gtmiiiy % Umpag for DOtorinty. 
^^ • Bat BMk iL dnf. S. 


This, of course, was very unpleasant to the ladies conoemedi 

and when I called on Miss B , in May, 1867, 1 found that, 

for several months, they had almost ceased to meet. When, 

however, I expressed to Miss B my earnest desire to 

investigate the matter, intending, some day, to publish the re- 
sults, she acceded to my wishes with the utmost alacrity. <^ I 
am so glad,'' she said, ^^ to have some one, who will be listened 
to, test these phenomena. When one has no other interest or 
desire than to get at important truth, it seems hard to be sub- 
jected to groundless suspicion.'' 

At the first two or three sittings a portion only of the ladiei 
could attend ; and Miss B was of opinion that the discon- 
tinuance of their regular sittings had, for the time, weakened 
their power. We had only rapping and phosphorescent 
phenomena, but of a remarkable character. Bright stars 
appeared on the person of one medium, a line of light along 
the forehead of another, the word '^ Hope," on the back of the 
hand of a third. These appearances were brilliant and could 
be seen, twenty feet off, across a dimly-lighted roonL At other 
times the raps were so violent as to shake the sofa on which we 

But until the session of June 4, there was no apparition. 
On that occasion we had one under very satisfactory circimi- 
stances ; but I did not consider the test complete ; for I did 
not witness either the formation of the figure or its disappear- 

It was not until the twenty-fifth of June that we were able 
to bring together all the ladies who had composed the original 
circle. I consider that day, like the twenty-first of October, 
' 1860, an era in my spiritual experience. 

An Apparition in Shining Raiment. 

Miss B 's rooms, which occupied the entire third floor of 

a comer house in Washington street, Boston, consisted of a 
large apartment, thirty feet front by thirty-fire feet deep ; opea- 
hig, by folding doorft, roto Ob \axW VsAisk of it« 


twouty-fivo feet hy iweatj. From Mch room (hsra iru ooa 
door of oxil oaij, on » puaaga or ■bur-Utuling, tlma : 


476 TDE MEDirais. 

The front room was lighted br eight windows, four on Tl 
ington Ktn^ot, nnil four on a g:\s-lit court-yard. As there ' 
no curtains drawn nor Rbutters closed during the sitting, w 
was hold af^cr hini]>-lighting, this room wus so fkr lit from ^ 
out tli::t, by imy nni; s>euti*d in the buck |>arlor, a few feet i 
tiir fijdinix-dooi-s, the divss iukI general up|>eanuice of per 
in t!u' front rnoni could be readily observed and evenr znc 
th»n' nmdr di^tinetlv hcen. I took notice, liowever, that t 
was not liirlit enough to recognize features, except clofi 
hand. In tliiH room, employed for dancing lessons, the i 
was uncurpeted and waxed. All footsteps of persons wall 
al*r«»^:s it could Ix* vei-y difttinctly heard. 

Kxcept myself there was but one visitor present, Mrs. J 
I>Hvis. The amateur mediums who assisted at the sitting ^ 

Kix in nundxT : Mrs. S. J. D , Mrs. George N. B- 

Mrs. Sarah A. K , Mrs. Fanny C. P , Mrs. Willian 

O , and Mrs. Marj' Aimo C : all ladies, ap}iarex 

fn)ni thirty to forty yeai-s of age. 

I^'fore the sitting began, Mrs. Davis and mjself pa 
around the room and examined carefully every part of it, 
furniture consisted of a sofa, a piano, and numerous chairs 
against the walls. There was no pantry, or press, or recesi 
any kind. We locked the sole door of exit, and Mrs. D; 
kept the key in her pocket during the sitting. Then we lo( 
the door of the back parlor, retaining the key. 

Wo wit down in that parlor directly before the folding-dc 
The sofa (marked s. on ground-plan), on which Mrs. Da 

Miss 1} and myself were seated, was about four or five 

within the parlor. I sat at the left-hand comer of this s* 
llie futi-anco through the folding-doors was drajxKl by curta 
which wore looi>ed back ; so that, from where I sat, I eould 
tliix-'o of the four front windows looking out on Washing 
KtrtHjt and the corner of the room to the right of theui. 
six mediums sat three on each side of ns. 

All was quiet during the early part of the sitting wl 


comincDCcd a little after eight p.m. Scarcely any tapping. A 
few pliosphorescent lights. 

xVlx^ut a quarter jiost nine, all the mediums being seated by 
us, I saw dimly, near the right-hand comer of the front line ot 
the large room (at x), at first a grayish, slightly-lumiuoua 
v:i{>or ; after a time, a figure draped in white. At first it was 
stationary ; then it moved very slowly {Mist the two right-hand 
windows (a and n) to the centre of the front line of the room 
(at <), U'twron two windows. There it remained one or two 
ininnN'M, H«ill but indistinctly visible. Then, very slowly and 
withf)ut sound of footstep, it advanced down the room, coming 
directly toward the centre of the folding doors. It stopped (at 
d) about twelve or fourteen feet from where I was sitting. 
Thenni])on, of a sudden, a brilliant light, coming from the right, 
striking directly on the figure and only on it — not directly 
illuminating the rest of the room — enabled me to see the ap- 
pearance as ]M*rf(*ctly as if the entire room had been lit with 

It was a female figim>, of medium height, veiled and draped, 
from lirud to foot, in white. The drapery did not resemble, in 
niatiTial, anything I have ever seen worn. It gave me, as on a 
previ(tus (UHiiHion,* the exact feeling of tlie Scriptural expres- 
sion, ** shining niinu*nt.^ Its brilliancy was a good deal like 
that of new-fallen snow, in the sunshine; recalling the text 
whleh iKv-lun^s tho garmenta of Christ, during his transfigura- 
tion, to liiivo been *' exceeding white aa snow ; ^' or, again, it 
WHS not unlike the finest and freshest Parian marble with a 
bright li-^lit on it, only more brilliant. It had not at all tho 
glitt4>r of spangles or any shining ornament; the tone being aa 
unifonn as that of a newly-sculptured statue. It stood upright, 
in a gnio*'ful attitude, motionless. Had I suddenly seen it else- 
wlion*, and without having witnestMxl its previous movements, I 
might have ima^^inod it^ beautiful piece of sculpture, of sin- 
gularly-pure material, and marvellously lighted up. Tho dra- 
]K*ry ftdl around the figure cloaely, as usual in a statue ; doI 

* Jono 4 ; alrosdy alluded to. 


at all according to tlie modem fiuhion of amplitade. 1 1 

it was hliowu to us, under the bright light, as long as fifia 
twenty seconds. 


Mrs. K stepped out to meet it, going close up to it 

then returning to ua. The llgiire followed her ; muH^ u 

K , when she passed the folding-doors, had stepped i 

to the right, the apparition advanced, with a gliding mo 
into the imrlor, till, as nearly us I could judge, it was v 
two or thi'cc feet of mo. There it stopped (at e). 

As it reniidncd immovablo I raised mj left arm, hoping 
I sliould be touched. As I stretched it outi, the figure exte 
its right arm, covered with drapeiy, toward me; and dra 
into mv hand what proved to bo a white rose ; but its 
<lid not touch mine. 

Thi*nni{Kin the ap|x>arance, still keeping its face to us, al 
rt'tinrd with the same silent, gliding motion ^vrhich had ma 
its udvunoo ; nut tho slightest sound of footstep, on the w 
lloor, Ix'ing audible. 

A soL'Miid time it stopped, again about twelve or fifteen 
from mo ; and, a socond time, an instantaneous light, ooi 
from tho right and falling upon it, gave it to be seen witi 
utmost distinctness. I was enabled to verify my former 6\ 
vat ions in regard to its appearance, and the unique, rich 
splendent character of the drai)ery. 

Then it slowly i-eceded, still facing us, to the centre of 
opposite wall (at c), gradually diminishing in brightness ; 
finally it vaniBhed before mv eves. 

MrH. K had followed it and remained, a few seco 

near tho Bj)ot wliorc it vanished. Then I saw her cross 
window to the right on her return to us. She was dresses 

I am quite certain that one figure only — that of Mrs. K- 
as she returned to us — left the spot. From tho time the fij 
in white i*eached that 8}x>t, I kept my eyes intently fixed th 
w'uliout taking them off fiyr a single moment; and the li 
from tho street was such that it was impossible for any obj 


black or white, to pass one of the windows without my see- 
ing it. 

When a minute or two had elapsed after the disappearance 
of the figure, and while my eyes were still fixed on the spot, 
the thought rushed vividly upon me : ^' Is it possible that there 
can be nothing there ? ^ This thought, to iohich I did not giv6 
tUterancty had hardly crossed my mind when, as if in reply to 
it, the same sort of mysterious light which had previously 
illuminated the figure suddenly flashed over the space of wall 
Ijetween the two windows where the figure had disappeared, 
completely lifting it up, ¥^dle the windoum and wall on either 
fuftf were not illuminated. The light remained long enough to 
show me that there was nothing whatever there, except two 
chairs set against the wall, as I had seen them before the sitting 

Then, with my eyes still fixed on the place of disappearance, 
I rose and {Missed entirely around the room : nor did I, for a 
moment, tiiko my eyes off the spot that had been illuminated 
till I reached it. Everything in the it)om was exactly as it 
liad been before the sitting, so far as I could recollect. The 
outer door was still locked. 

It is proi>er to add that two of tho mediums, Mrs. K 

and Mrs. D , informed me, after the sitting was over, that 

they did not remember seeing anything of tho figure; both 
ha\ing awoke, as from a trance, at tho close of the sitting. 
This, Miss B informed me, was usual with them. 

I do not think that any of the assistants perceived the forma- 
tion of the apparition as soon as I did ; but while the figure 
was advancing and retreating, the whispered remarks of the 
ladies near me—** There it is ! ''— " Now it sto|w ! "— « Did 
you Ki*e that light ?^ etc — made me awaie tliat they saw it 
just as I did. This was oonfirmed to mo, on after inquiry, by 

all the ladies except Mrs. K and Mrs. D . All the 

others observed tho sudden illumination of the sjwt where tho 
figuiv disap|ieared. 

As on a former oocaaiaii, it is proper I should state Iwre HaX^ 


throughout tho hittin;^, though the impression produced 
pruffMiiid, S'tlruiu Ik'voikI rxpn'ssion, never to be forgottei 
it did not |Kirtiiki! :it ull of the (.'motion of fear. The pz«i 
nant fi-ilin^ w;ls ii divp anxiety that there might be no i 
rnption, aii'I that the sitting might not tenninate until ] 
obtaini'd incontrovertible evidence of the fact that the ap 
aiu'o was of a spiritual character, yet as real as any ea 

Tht^ allrgiition, by raps, at the close of the sitting, was 
the ap])antion was that of Violet. Seven years before, di 
u sitting with Kate Fox, I had Iiad a promise, purportir 
come fi-om hn-, tliat, some day when the conditions \*"ere fi 
able, she would apjK'ar to me. The veil quite concealed 
features; but the height, the form and carriage of the fi«mi 
Btrictly corix'sponded to hers that, when it a]»proached s 
ceased to doubt that she had kept her promise. 

!^Iy faith in th*^ ivality of this appearance is not at all shi 
by rrlb-cting tliat a Signor Blitz, or a Kobert-Houdin, ha 
a thcatru at command, arranged with ready entrances and e: 
with practical trap-doors, with dark lanterns in the wings, ^ 
till! means of producing dissolving views — could i>rol»:ibb 
produce all I witnessed. 

But here wrrc a few ladies, in private life and in xno<lo 
circumstances, quivitly me'.?ting in two apartments whieli \ 
dailv used as school-rooms by one of their number: on 
thinl story of a private hoiLSO,* containing not even a n^ 
wli(*re a chair could b.> hidden away. They meet to siitis 
laudable curiosity; admitting visitoi-s, now and then, bv a 
tesy only. No nniuneration is demanded; nor, very siir 
would any have l>eon accepted. They meet, on this ocoas 
at my roquest, afti*r having discontinued their researclies 
months, vexed with unjust suspicions. They allow us to I 
every exit, after a close examination of the rooms. Hen 

* Tho floor below was daily used for mercantile purposes. 


neither motive, nor opportimity — to say nothing of qualificatioa 
— for deception. The coin of tlio realm may be coimterfeitod, 
but the coiners must have professional skill, an appropriate 
location, and expensive machinery. Nor do counterfeiters ply 
their unholy calling except with the pros{)ect of large gains. 

Certain it is, that I beheld the gradual formation of th< 
figure ; that I witnessed its movemenUi ; that I received froco 
its hand an actual flower;* that I saw the figure disappear. 
Add to this that the place of its disappearrncc was illuminated 
by invisible agency, in answer to an. :;nexpreflBed thought ol 
luiuo. If Robert-IIoudin can it^ thoughts, ho hag a spiritual 

If the reader still withholds belief, ducmtng two or three 
oxauip!es insufiicient to prove so strange a phenomenon as the 
formation, by spiritual agency, and the subsequent diffip|)ear- 
aiico, of a form sufficiently material to grasp a substantial ob- 
joct and hand it to a human being —let him rend the next 

* I asked Hiss B if there had been axij white rote in the room. 

Sho replied that there were several noseg a ys there that had been pre- 
Mauled to her by her papQs, and, veiy probably, these mi^t have been 
such a rofie among them. The flower which was given to me Is stUI 
in my 




A JUDICIOUS nukn of science, experimenting in Lis labont 
seeks, before giving to the world the result of an important 
periment, to repeat that experiment more than once. I 
much as the governing law endures, any result obtained xa 
that law muBt be cajMiUe of being n^produced : au<l its repn^N 
tion, time after time, will usually be deemiHl nocossar\' to • 
assurance of its gouuiuo cliaructer ; Bci.'ing that a full 
observer m»y readily mistiiko or miaiuteq>ret, when his oli 
vat ion is limited to u single example. 

Some physical phenomena, however, arc spontaneous ; 
cannot bo produced at will. We cannot evoke an aurora \m 
alis, or call down aerolites fi-oni the sky. Apjmritions h 
usually been thought to be of that chai'-acter, if Ix^liev^nl iu 
all : and, to a certain extent, they are. Among the su|)i'i 
tious a belief has sometimes prevailed tliat the dead uiav be 
called by mystic and unlawful ntes, as Siiul by the scHcal 
"Witch'' of En-dor. But such a siipoi.siLtion liiuis 
believers iu modem tlim^s. All that theiv is of ti"\ith uud*?] 
ing it consists iu this, that, under favorable conditions, of r 
and difficult combination, we muy occasionally obtain univ 
tions ; and muy even be favored so us to witness tliese p^ 
and again : not during wei'ks or months only, but throachi 

I am fortunate enough to be able to lay before the reu< 
one of the most I'cnuirkable — perlia])s the most reniarkabU 
example of this that has ever occurred ; or, ut least, that i^t 
Oe found on record: m\ilii'^tva\as^<c3r(i^iT^\^ witness, to k 


his iiame in alte-station. It is a namo well known in tho com- 
mercial anil Kocial circles of New York, — Mr. Livermore. 

This gentleman, eleven jt.'ars ago, lost a near and dear rela- 
tiv«* : let us call her Esti^llo. On ]u>r deuth-bed, {>crceiving the 
p'li^^tiant grii*f that uverwholmed her relative at tho proa- 
|i H»t of his ajiprouchiii-^ 1.>;h, she earnestly expressed tho desire 
that it might be [N>ssihlo fur her, after deatli, still to assure 
him nf h(*r eoiitinurd existence. 

I !•' attiiohed little iin|M>rtance to this except as evidence of hei 
airc'ctiou; having himself, up to that time, found no proof sat- 
isfactory to his n^asou touching a llereafcer. Neither he nor 
Kst<*ll<* luid any faith what4*ver in npiritual phenomena; and 
both had Ix^i'U wont to n^gard tlio whole subject with repug- 

When Mr. Livermore found himself alone, his extreme grief 
w:is terribly cinbitteix'd by the thought tliat it was a s(?|)aration 
foivvfr. Expressing this in strong tonus to his friend, Dr. 
•Itiliu F. <2niy, who hud licou Kstellu^s physician from child- 
hooil, that gi^ntU'innn (<»ne of tho earliest believers in inter- 
niuiidane ph(*uomena) }»ug^est«*d that there was a remedy capa- 
ble (if ulh' via ting his gii'-'f, if he (Mr. L.) saw fit to resort to 
it. Tliii rt'ply was a contemptuous fling at Spiritimlism and its 
delusions : and the sufferer went hU way, ho|»elcss and des- 

After a tinu«, however, caui'* the sober seix>nd- thought that 
then.' miff hi bo something in a doctrine which so earnest and 
thoughtful a man as Dr. Oniy implicitly accepted. Accord- 
in :;ly, at hi.H frit'nd*s Kug-^*?tti(in, he resolved to seek sittings 
y\\\\i Miss Kuto Fox. 

Till* hiuiugs were h«ld sonietimos in Mrs. Fox*8 jtarlor, somo- 
tiisif:. in Mr. Liv.-nnoreV ♦ In all cases the necessary prccau- 
ti>>ns wen* takiMi to give assurance tlmt no one entered the 
ro<Ma, or h'ft it, during the sitting: the room itself being thor- 

* Doth 3tni. Fox and Mr. Lirermore changed residenoea daring the 
time these sittings were held ; ^o that the phMiooiaia wore oUainid 
in /bi/f diffoR*nt dwellings. 


oiighly examinee], anil doors and windows efFt.'Ctuallv eecni 
At sovenil of the first sittings throo or four visitors were 
mi tied as additional witnesses. But it soon became appar 
that the best results could be obtained with a single sit 
only : and acconlingly, as a general rule, Mr. Livermore o: 
was present. 

During the fii-st sitting, which was held Januarv 23 IS 
hf\ >Ir. L., fi»r tlie first time, heard the luysterious cch< 
— the *• raps," :is they are usually called. Tlion, throufrh'. 
the first t;^n or tMvlw sittings, followt?«l the usual ph«*noraei 
spirit t.)Ui:h)s, spirit-oiimmuuication^, m >viui;: of pondora 
bii<H«»*«, etc. : fhi.illy spirit- writing. During tht* twt-lftL sicd 
came a messagi^, purporting to Ix? fmm EstelU*, to the ofli 
that if her friend ijorsovered, her spirit could be made visil 
to him. Then, throughout a dozen sessions more, came pb< 
phf»rescont lights, disiipj>earing and reappearing at intervals: 
last, on th«> twfuty-fuurth sitting (March 14th), tho dim o; 
lin* of a li^'iin', moving about. Tbn^e days afterward the 
came this m*.»ssiig«.' : " I know that I can make mvself visil 
to you. ]M»*et tomorrow night. Secure the doors and wx 
dows, fi»r I wish tln^ test to bo boyon«l all doubt, for rour goi 
and tin* go<>«l r»f others." 

The n«\\t evening the session was at Mi-s. Fox's residenc 
but the family were absent, so that the motlium and the sitt< 
alone oecupied tho hous<». Mr. L. sealed the windows, seah 
and locked tln» (lo(»rs, an«l i»laced heavy furniture against then 
tlicn searched the room tlioroughly and extinguished the ga 
Soon came tlie wni-ds ; *• I »m here in form.'' Then a globul: 
light appean-d, with cmekliug soinnls. After a time it Ixvaii 
a head, voiled : tln-n, but f«)r a singh* instant only, ^Ir. L, n'^eoj 
nizr'd the f^atun^s of Kstflln. Then a figure was seen : all th 
being visible by phosphoi-escent or elect riral lights in varioi 
parts of the room. During all this time Mr. L. held both < 
the mt'dium's hands. Then the mode of pixnlucing raps wa 
shown : an orange-shaped luminous ball, with blunt point at 
tachod, bounding wy tvwd dovtv oti the table, and the soimd c 

niK aixxiosmo!t. 4» 

Ik^ np OQiitddiog with Um ^pnuch of tbo ball ta tlio Ubl« 

It was somewhat Uter, bi>w«v«r, tb»t 

TuE OsuumjU. TicaT 

M finit obtainod. I cpy from Mr. !•'> reooni : 
"AV43. J;>ri/ Id, I8Gt. Wind w>utli-we«t. Wfktluir £ur. 
»*4tig ■buoliiUil}' iw!cuivil doors luid wiudowii, wo aot in jter- 
■t quiot for half nn hour, tay fuilli Ix^'xiiiujig weak. Thrji 
I wora stATtlrd itj a Irrmcndonii mji on ihu hvnyj iDftbogaiijr 
jCra-t«blo wliicJi, nt tlio iwnie timii, row and fell. Thii door 
s violciit'jr nbAknn, tbo wiwIavB opunod and thut : iii brt, 
urytiung movahln Ju thfi room wt'ine'l iu uotiati, Quiatjaiui 
ire uuwered h]r luud knocks «» the di>oni,ou Ihti gisn oFiIm 
ndnwii, on tlia ceUing — cvcrj'wbvn-. 

"Thmnn illumiuBlHl mtbatiuiDeliko^uteroiiu fram tho floor 

liind IU, movod uhout tbn motu and fitudljr omc Ui front of 

Vtgoroo* oloctricnl aoand* wore board. The pitue-Uko 

batMiw OMumnd tho fom of n buuun Ueaii oovurvd, tbo cov- 

dnwn oloao nround tltn ni^ck. It touched mo; Ibeit 

nooilod Uid agsin oppmorhAd. I nMogtuxtid aa oblong sab- 

ooncavo on the kuIo thai ww prcvalod to vu, and in 

^ cavitjr tbo light wm brilliant. Into this 1 looked tntonUjr 

br a fan-, bat dodo appwrod. Afiia it rooodod and again ap- 

pnacbed: this tino I porMivttd aa c^a. A third timo it 

DovmI hackwanl, accomimaied bjr deetrioal Bound*, and whsn, 

k third ilin(>, it caiuci doM bo mc tbo U^l bad bri^bmod, tba 

fuijw liod cbaa|{c<d in tmm i a fbtnale hiwd gnapod it, oonca«l- 

iag the lower part of a taoe ; bat tbo npper part was nvaalod : 

It was that of EalwUe — vfta, roreboail, «ad oxpraoiaa in par- 

bciian. Tbo inomeut tbo onotiun oC noD)piitloa [mnwl ialft 

ny mind, it «w adtaowlodgBtl bj- a ancoeadon of qoide ttft 

Itwn all parts of tbo nom, aa tboit{;b aa nnaemi audience 

ilA npplaiUB. 

Dm figiuv nappoamd mvond tinw^ tba noofpitiott, < 


ing each time more nearly perfect. Afterward her head was 
laid upon mine, the hair falling over my face. 

^^ Miss Fox (whoso hands I had secured during all this time) 
and I sat about ten feet from the wall of the room which faced 
us. The light moved to a point about midway between us and 
the wall ; the electrical cracklings increased ; the wall was illu- 
minated and brought out an entire female figure facing that 
side of the room, the liglit apparently in one of her hands. 
The form remained in sight JiUlj/ IicUfan Jumr and each move- 
ment was distinctly visible. Then came the message : 

" * Now see me rise : ' 

'^ And immediately, in full brightness, the figure rose to the 
ceiling, remained there a few moments suspended ; then gently 
descending, disappeared. 

" Afterward she showed herself between us and a mirror- Tlie 
reflection of the figure in the glass was distinctly visible, the light 
being so bright as to show the veins in a marble slab beneath. 

" Here a heavy shower of rain fell, and there was spelled 
out : * The atmosphere has changed. I cannot remain in form : * 
whereupon both light and figure finally disappeared.'^ 

At a sitting held two days later, the following communica- 
tion was received : * 

* I here remark that all commnnicationa obtained through Kate Fox 
were either — 

Spelled out, letter after letter, by the raps : 

Or else written, sometimes by Kate^s right hand, sometinies by the 
left ; but the writing always executed inversely ; so that it could only 
be read by holding it against a mirror. 

Occasionally she writes two communications at onoe ; both hands 
moving at the same time, each on a separate sheet. And I have my- 
self witnessed the following : While her hand was writing, there was, 
by raps, a call for the alphabet ; whereupon Kate called over the let- 
ters and took down the message, letter by letter, toit/ioutfor a moment 
discontinuing her venting, Mr. L. has often witnessed all the above 
phases of communication. 

In addition to this, the internal evidence of many of the 
is, especially to those who know W^aa Fox well, condusiTe 
fJmf; these originaite entoxel^ cfv)teid!& ot her will and of her 


" My heart is full of joy. Wo cannot bo grateful enough to 
tbo Giver of this groat boon. I have seen your heart — the 
shadows that rested upon it, the lights that now glorify it. Be 
happy and fear not. Peace be with you alway. 

. " ESTELLE.^ 

So fiir, the up|)er part of the face only had been seen ; but 
on the evening after the above message was received (namely, 
April 21), the complete test was obtained. After giving tho 
details of various manifestations apparently of a phosphorea- 
cfMit cliaracter, Mr. Livcrmore says : " At lost a luminous globe 
which had remained stationnry some six feet to my left floated 
in front, and came within two f4»et of me. It waa violently 
agitated, crackling sounds wera hoard, and a figure became vis- 
ible by its light. Then there was rovealoil the full 'head and 
face of Estclle, every feature and lineament in jierfection, spir- 
itualized in sliadowy beauty, such ss no imagination can con* 
coive or pen describe. In her hair, above the led temple, was 
a single white rose ; tho hair being apparently arranged with 
great care. The entire head and face faded and then became 
visible again, at least twenty times ; the perfection of reoogni* 
tion, in each case, being in proportion to the brilliancy of the 

But, at this session, he, Mr. L., obtained other |»roof than 
thut of sight to confirm tho reality of the appearance. Tlie 
head of the appearing figure rested for a time upon hia,