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■' Occnrroieaa which, KmnUng to re«dv«( opIntaiM, onglit mt to happen, an tb 


G. fF. CarUton &? Co.^ Publishers. 


V,n;.^:b, Google 

Kitsnd Hmrdtng to Act of Oongr^ In tb* 

[o (b* OSoe of tha Ubrwina of Oooeim. >t 





" In Bcrlptsn h ua perpetaaUj ramloded Chat Uw bivii of tbe ^itritniil mrM u* ia 
tbs UgheB HDae Ikwb at Nstaie, when abU)cMiiiii, openllsa, udd affect m ill In tha 
osHtlntiaa and ooona at thlnga."— Aboill. 

Oke of the best known and most brilliant among the trininphs of 
astronomical sdcnce was the prediction, in advance of actual dia- 
corerj, of the existence and, approximatel;, of the place in the 
heavens, of a plajirt belonging to our solar Bjstem and revolnng 
outside of Uranos. 

Certain data hod long been known to astronomers : as that plan- 
ets, if snbject to the sun's attraction only, would revolve in ellipses ; 
but that, being subject also, in a feeble but ^predablc degree, to 
the attniction of each other, this minor influence causes them to 
deviate from their tme elliptic paths ; and tliat these perturbations, 
as thej are called, are calculable, ho that each planet's exact place 
on an; given daj, past or future, can be aecei'tidued. 

Again, though tJranns was discovered an late as 1781, this pluuot 
had been seen, mistaken for a fixed star which afterward disap- 
peared, and ita place registered aa such, as early as 1690 ; and it 
had been so noted, at intervals, by several observers throughout 
the eighteenth century. 

It was also admitted that discrepancies existed between the ob- 
served places thua ascertained to have been occupied by Uranus, and 
the places which, it seemed, that planet ought to hare occupied, all 
known perturlnng inflncncca being calculated ; and when, after ac- 
tual discovery, its tables were acoirately kept for a series of years, 
it was further ascertained that this discrepancy between the tabular 

and the observed positions of the planet gradsall; incrcas'.'d up to 
the year 1S22; then liecame stationaij; then began to docronse, 
Thia indicated the permanent existence of an occult disturbing; 
cansa That cause mi{/hi ba a planet exterior to Uranus. 

With these data and asBnininj certain prohabl? postulates as to 
the orbit and the mean Cutanea from the sun of the supposed per- 
turbing planet— after profound investigations exiiausting the re- 
sources of analog; — a young Pamian observer* wrote to one of the 
principal astronomers of the Bsrlin Obserratory, telling him wbers 
the required planet ought to be, and asking Iiiai to look for it. It 
was found that very night ; and at less than two diameters of the 
moon's disk from the indicated spot. 

If some Lb Vebrier of Spiritual Sdcnce bad taken note, twenty- 
five years ago, of certain perturbing agencies of which the effects 
were visible throughout the religious world, he might have made ■ 
prediction more important tlian that of the French astronomer. 

For even then it could have been discerned — what, however, is 
much more evident to-day — that an old belief was about to disap- 
pear from civUized society ; a change which brings momentous re- 
sults in its train. 

Tliis change is from belief in the exceptional and the miraculoos 
to a settled conviction that it does not enter into Ood's economy, 
as manifested in His works, to operate here cxeept mediately, 
through the instrumentality of natural laws ; or to suspend or 
change these laws on special occasions; or, as men do, to make 
I temporary laws for a certain age of the world and discontinue these 
throughout succeeding generations. In other words, the civilized 

• Lb Tkriuer. Mr. J. 0, iOian, ot the UniTer<Sy at Csmbrligei, wltboot knovliig 
vllkt am otbsr wu ■bout, had mgnged In ■ HJmilar invBtlgUlni tad obtalwd ■ ilinllH 
TcnU, BKxpt tbu the apot IndiciUcJ by blm I'lU nouljr nvs lunar illamelan diUot trcnn 
thetmeanx. Dr. CMe, o( Borlia. u> vhom Le Verrlsr TroCe, nosirad Uu lettv on tb* 
Saa Dt Konnnbor. ISM : ud during Uw nJsht ot th* SSd-Ulh KonmbR, ba, ^cd 19 
Eookd, diAoiToml Kcpcime. ' 



world is gradually settling down to the assnrance that natural law 
b nniversal, invariable, pemiatent. 

The advent of this change conceded, a thoughtful observer, en- 
dowed with proleplic &cnlty, might have foreshadowed some of its 

If oatund law be invariable, then either the wonderful works as- 
cribed by the evangelists to Christ and hie disciples were not per- 
formed, or else they wore not miracles. 

If they were not performed, then Christ, assuming to perform 
them, lent iumaelf, as lUnan and others have alleged, to deception. 
This theory di^iarages his person and diecredita his teachings. 

Bnt if they were performed under natural law, and if natural 
Iawb endure from generation to generation, then, inasmuch as the 
same laws under which these signs and wonders occurred must exist 
still, we may expect somewhat similar phenomena at any time. 

Bat an acute observer, looking over the whole ground, might 
have detected more than this. 

He would have found two antagonistic schools of religions opin- 
ion ; the one basing spiritoal truth on the miraculous and the in- 
fallible, chiefly represKited in a Church of vast power, fifteen hun- 
dred years old, which has held her own against bold and active 
adversaries, uid even increased in the relative as well as the actual 
Dumber of her adherents for the last three hundred years : the 
and fifty years only, afflliatiug 
ige, and so placing herself in tlie 
iponng antecedents, with fewer 
nts weakened in influence by a 
id still more weakened by intcs- 
1 UMmcnt ; even on the religions 
on of uniform rule, or miracle ; 
holding to the opinion that to 
icnlouB is to deny the works of 




. ,'^1^-1- -f- •-''' ' •■■ i' 










G. PT. Carleton fc? Co.y Pubtishm. 


M.DCCC.LXXn. ^-, , 

Section 0. What Lessou doeb tsb Histort of the Befob- 


How loa^ Bbnll wo wait f — Foundation of popular theology. — 
• EVeer (pinions of Luther. 

Section ID. Sfibit and TBAcnmos of Chribtlakitt com- 
pared wrrn tiiosb of Calvinibtic and 

LtmtERAn TnEox/wt 97 

Master-prindple of CiuiBtiamtj. — Prottmntjoni of Christian 
name. — Calvinism and Lutberanism and Christiamt7 com- 
pored. — Who inherit Heaveaf — Fasdiiationot Cnlviu's Theol- 
Sectioh 11. Effect on Morality of certain fatortte 

D0CTRIN£B OF THE Beformees 110 

All bntnui moHooB bear fruit, — Effect inseparable from caaEe. — 
The scape-goat, — Mercy, not sacrifice. — Belief neither criine 
norvirtoe. — Christ before PaoL — We must not preach coward- 
ice. — True lamilitgr. — OTermuch introspection. — Power of 
faith nnd love.— Bell. 

Section 12. Corbosokatidn frou HiaTORV 125 

Iinther's deqxmdency. — Iron role fn Qitnevn.. — Comedy and 

Tragedy. — The Scattiali kirk. — Pnritnns coorageoos and 

cniA— Quakers.— BogerWiUiama. — Iawb to bang ohildien. 

— World's debt to the Befoimecs. 

Section 13. dntiBTiAHiTT, bhorn of Parabttic Creeds, a 

Pboobbssivb Scebhcb 141 

Infimibility arrests progress. — QranunaUdatiy the worst idol- 

atjy. — Safer without doctrine of plenary inspiration. — Mir- 

aolea or law? — Temple and Baden Powell. — Conscicnoe 


Section 14. SPiRrrtiALtBM necersart to confirm the Trtiths, 


ESnan'sleadeiship. — Two variant theories. — The IndiSeienta. — 
Deism nnsatiBfactory. — Did spiritual gifts oeose? — Christ 
never tongbt the miracaloas, nor a finality.. — Ecclesiastioal 
"mirades" discredited. — Inspiration the origin of oil celig 
ions. — Aocoidauce of Spiritualism with CbrlBtitmity. — The 
doctrines of Spiritualism. — It teaches no speculative divin- 
ity. — It denooncea no religion. — Proof of immortality impen- 
tively needed. — Sacred duty of investigatiOQ. 






Sul^ect proposed. — The great problem.— Direct revelation f — 


TheoiT of eviL — The tide RKBinBt Infallibilit;. — Chnrch of 
Home's (rtronghold. — TianalationB and ciuiod of Scriptiue. — 
King Junes' instmctioiu. — Proof of immortality iodiepea- 

Of Ueduts SpmrrCAi. BEVEAitsos 195 

Intollibilily, ScepticiBm, and a third element. — Why came epirit- 
oaliam so late?— Belief in dovil.— Poesesaioii. — Wiuicraft.— 
Christ's tlcatment of these iuflnences. — The Salom tragedy. 
— No infallible teaohinga. — A biabop's blunder,— Demoniac 
theoiy nntenable. — Phases of belief in Christondom — Secoliu- 
ism. — A lost opportunity. ^Movements in Anglicnn Church. — 
Quakerism aud Swedenborgianism : their truthti. errors, and 
feilnre. — Spiritualism : its growth, ancceasea. ood the num- 
ber of its adhereota. — TemporaEj schism.- How Spiritualism 
should be studied. — Hints and warnings. 


Or iNSPIRATIOtl 211 

This subject in bod hands. ^What inspiration is, — The source 
of all religions. ~-Ttro theories : Socrates sets iFodJi one, >wd 
Cicero the other.— Demon of Socrates.— Socrntes before lis 
judges. — A French magnetizer alarmed. — Mental powers 
during aomnambulism. — An illogical Prince.— Homer and 
Shak^ieaJ-c : literary inspiration. — Baphael : ortistio inspira- 
tion. — Beethoven and Uozort : musical inspiration. — The 
Titanic steps of the worid.— Darwin's theory. — Stan's first 
appearance. — Unprecedcntal step in Spiritual progress. — 
Scepticism at fault^The Anointed. — What man may be,— 
Whence Christ's preeminence f — Spiritual communicatioil 
touching His birth. — His powers conditional. — Danger of put- 
ting trust in incidentals. — How interpret "the Son of Qod"? 
— Christ's promise fulfilled. 


Dipncci-TiEB AND Pbejudiceb 277 

Inexperienced pioneers. — Physical and Spiritual science need 
differing modes of treatment. — An infant hypothesis. 



TnKiB CoMrao Dsctw.T unekpectcd 28 

At the Rusaiiui Minister's. — The strange answer : what think- 
ing entity made it f — Changed tenor of author's life. — A 
domestic invnaioa. — Apparition soon after death. — Midnight 
, Colifomia. — Speaking by inllueucs. — Wby a 


Animals ps&CEivaia SrntiTnAL Phekombsa 

What befell b Swiss offioer.^The dog, cat, and oaDaij-bird : 
how affeoted — What preceded a child's death. — The dog in 
the Wolfridg« wc»od ; ite life-long- tenor. 


UmTKEaiLTTT or Spihitoal MANrvEBTATiotia 

la Bpiritualism a sapeistitioiia epidemio ? — Bell-tinging in Eng- 
land: a duster of Danatives.— Satan in the bcIlB. — Captain 
UartTat and the Lady of Bambfun Oreen. — The House of 
H;st«i7. — Endemical disturbances tbmnghont a hundred 
yeaiB. — Knock and it shall be opened. 

SmrruAL Phbhahbna BouBTiKEa result m sEBumo 


The bntJei's ghost : Lord Erakine's tesUnion;. — A fashionable 
lad;'a "dog-ears and fdds." — A more trifle predicted. 

BOOK lil. 



Tub Spdut-baf 

With Leah and Kate Fox.— The spirit-rap terted thronghout a 
house; on water ; in trees ; on a ledge of sea-shoro rook. — 
Seeing the raps. — Touched by the ageucy which Bpirit-rapa. ^ 
A phosphoresoent light raps on a door. —Spirit-hands melt 
awa;. — Poundings by a homicide. — Tremendous knockings : 
house shaken. — Visit to a haunted house. — Overpowering 
clatter. — Effect of sadden light. 



Crncial test : Robert Chambers present. — Table, weighinj; oi 


Direct Spirit WnrriNa 

Baron de Gnldeoitabb^ : his experiences in direct wtildng. - 
Strangely Eoggestive 1 — My own ezpeiienoes. — Seeing ai 
iUtimlaated huid write.— ^pe<dmenB of writing. — Can th« 
•enMB be tenated f— Direct writing by gas-light.— SpedjMn.— 


BxperiencM of Hr. LiTcnnore and of Hn. Jolm DaTiB.-i- 
Wdtiag on hmnaii hand (utd ftrm. — Letters ^)peaT and fade 
under anUior'a ejes. 


Spirit Toqchbs 891 

In Kaple« with Mr. Home. — Prince Loi(fi'a experience. — Scdiit- 
tonchea b; gBB-liglit in New Totk. — The difflonllies of dia- 



Stubboks rACTs coNKBcnsa two WoEi.De 

A Spirit axrtaigea its worldly aSain, — Sistec Elizabeth and tbe 
family register. — Tbe (p^ndmother's pronuse and appalition. 


A Cask or Idrntttt Thebe Hundbeq Tkabb old. 

Hnman lore bridgen tbe gnlf : ao may pbilantbiopy — Garth- 
bioding influencee.— Tbe ipinet— N, Q. Baob'a dream; bla 
hand writes. ^Tbe parchment. — Baltazarim. — Henry III.; 
■ongf oomposed by him. — Uarje de Cldves. — H. Bocb'B oer- 


A BK4UTuruL Spirit hakifestino herself 

An old promise kept. — Proof of identity from GOO miles off. — 
AppBiitJoa of tbe betrothed. — Typical test. — Portrait with 



Thk Great Faith-Aiiticle ot the Fibct Centurt 451 

Early Cbriitian laiLh based on Christ's apparition. — Stadf of 
appariUona important. 


Apparitions BHOwiNa tububelvbb bpodtanbodslt 4Sfi 

False ideas touching gboeto, very injarioos.— Appeaianoe sotai 
after deaUi. 


Hi own Expxbisncb tocchino ApPAsnioNa 459 

^or witfa Leah Fox.— An iqipotition seen, felt and bBard.-<A 




TO A BUBVfVlHO Fhiend 463 

Mr. Livermore's teatimony. — The onicial test. — Figure re- 
flected in mirror. — Eihibition of rare beauty. — Corroboration 
throughout years. — Figure throws shadow oa wall, — Appari- 
tions seea tl^ugh three hundred Hittings, — Spirit flowecB. — 
Additional witnesaea. — lir. Livermore'e letMr to author. 

What APPABiTioNa akb and how porued 603 

The spiritual body.— A temporary induement. — Spiritual sonlp- 
tnie. — An imperfect apparition completed. 






Chriet's miuioii. — Marquis de Gnib«rt'B hospital. — Onre through 
Leah Fox. — The iuBtantaneoaa cure. — Insanity cured bj 
spiritoal inflnence : two examples. 


Othbb Spirituaii Qittb 52S 

Gifts of prophecy, of discerning of spirits, of tongues, of work- 




Roman Catbolio argament.— An alternative. — What should be 
discarded, and what retained. 

What underlies CmtisT's teaciunos, as Poundation- 

When comes the Kingdom of Heaven ? — The hunger and thirst. 
— Chrirt seeks to awaken the slumberiog love of the Right. 
— Hia promise, on conditions. — Questioning the unexplored. 


Acts, homui, alt entail titmr appropriate remits 113, 113 

AdTeotoie, Midnight, in the WolMdge Wood 808-300 

AngKcan Chmch roakes advancea to Greek Choich. 219 

AuhnaJs have spiritmil perceptions S03-309 

Anointed, The ZiMi 

^iqniition immediatelj after death 388, 450 

.^ijiaritjon in nhining Toiment 474 

AppaiitJon, S^bie<Jti^Te^ of the betrothed 440 

A[^»ritionB, Stud; of, importaat 454 

Apparitjons, ISy own eiperienoe tonehing 459-481 

Apparition, an, seen, felt, and beard 403, Alii 

AppAiilioain Boetoo: plan of rooms where seen 473 

Apparitions in New Yoric : seen throoghont five ^ears by Hr. 

LiTermore 483-499 

Apparitions, what the; are, and how formed 503-008 

Appaiition, &t first imperfect, afterward oompleted 608 

Atonement, Vicarions, according to Lnther. 84 

Angnstino, St., his early life and vast inflaenoe. 711 

Bacf], N. O., bia dream, 415; writing l>7 impression 418 

Balbuattini, Henry UI. 's favorite musician 428 

Healings bells 812-314 

Belief neither crime nor virtue 117 

Bell-dngiu^, unexplaiiied. Cluster of narratives regarding. . .. 812-330 

Bdls, ^tan in the, scares a bell-banger 81ti 

Biahop, A CathoUc, his mistake 210 

Bumboiu Green, The Lady of 323 

Bums, Bobert, his compassion (or tbe devil 133 

Botler, Apparition of ^ seen by Lord Erskine 837 

Calvin, his oonsistorial oourt and it« tyranny 138-131 ■ 

Calvin, his sboie in ScrvetOH' death. 61, C2, 08 

Calvinj his doctrines T^^a 

Calvinism and Christianity compared 102.103 

Canon of Scripture IDl, 11(3 

Chambers, Bobert. Test suggested by 303 

Children, laws condemning them to death. 131, 138, lo!) 

, Christ. Ms office, 287 ; his birth, 3<)9 ; bis powers conditional. . . . 271 
Christ seeks to awaken tbe Hlumbering love of tbe Bight. . . . 538, 530 
Christ's teachings : what underlies them, as fonndatiOD- motive. . . 5^ 

ChriBt's promisa touching spiritoo] gifts 197, 540 

Christian morality, Master- principle undedying 98-100 

Christiaoity, profanations of its name 100, 101 

Christianity a progreasive science 141 

Christendoni, Chief phosea of religions belief in 314 

Cicaro, his psychical view of inapinitioii. 249 

Clergy, Poaition of 34 

Compacts with devil : Christ did not believe in tliem. S02, 803 

CouBcienco, tlie supreme interpreter 153, 15J, 183 

Ctoeda of Christendom; table of ohief phases <j belief S14 

Crucial teat toaciiing an apparitioa 4S5 

Curs, instantaneous. S17 

Coies bj spiiitiiaJ agency 910-034 

Cures by magnetisiii in M. de Guibert's hospital 513 

Cures of insanity by qtiiiloal influence 523 

D'Alembert, tuu eceptidam and bis benerolenoe 88 

D:iTwin, his theory di^oKC no link between brute and man. . 203, 2G3 

Davis, Mrs, John, example of spirit-writing. 385 

Decree, a quaint old one, indorsing Calvin's "Ingtitates'' 61 

Deism, Simple, ungeniul and unsatisfactory 150, 160 

Demoniac Uieory unphilosophical and untenable 21S-^14 

Depravity, Original, CtJvin'a ideas on 75-77 

Devil, Effect of belief in 190, 210, 211 

Diderot, his opiQioos ; imprisoned tor teaohii^ them 89 

Disturbances, £ndemica!, throughout one hundred years 82S-333 

Doctrines of the Beformeta , 70-80 

Doctrines to be discarded 534 

Doctrines to be retained. 535 

Dog under the window, »05; in the Woltridge Wood. 800 

DomeEtJciuvasioQiThe 287 

Erskine, Lord, sees apparition of his father's butler 337 

Evil, Gliropeo of a theory of 187 

Evil in man camiot be good in Cod. 110 

Faith, Rational, its power for good 1S4 

Futh-article, Great, of ficGt centui? 451-401 

Fashionable ludy's logic touching appnritjons ii38 

Flowers, Spiritual, appear and disappear 493, 494 

Foster, ChnrleB, powerful teKt-medium 380-880, 443 

Fox, Leah and Kate, 348 ; Leah, An eventful boux with 4U0 

Fox, Kate, sittings with her, 851, 357, 375 ; appaiitiona seen 

tlironrii her medjamship, during fite years 482-400 

Franklin, Benjamin, his eidolon appears. 491-493, 400 

Ghost. A. speaks 468 

Gifts, Spiritual, have not ceased, 161 ; promised by Christ, 163; 

desirable, 164 ; appear in p^rijitic tames. IttO 

Gift of tongues in ISaO I'^S 

Good deeds to the poor and helpless, service to God 107 

Grandmother's promise, 404; fulfilled 4D7 

Greek Church 32 (note), 317-210 

Ouldcnstnbb^, Baion de, examples of Bpiritwritiiig 870-;lT3 

Hell, Theol<«ical idea of 13* 

Henry 111., of Fianoe, last of theVaioiB.. 494 

Home, D. Dnng^ai, SosaionH with 391 

HooBe-haDntin^, Character of erideace in proof of 831-334 

Honse-hftimtmg, EzompIeB of, 820-327, 3S7 

House of Myateiy 835 

Humility, True basis of 183 

Identity of Spirits, Nomeroua proofaof 896-450 

Ideatit; of Spirits. A oase of, three hundred years old 409-433 

Immortality, proof of it the fjreat deeidoratnm. 178, 104, 453 

IndiffereDce an to religion ; Ha great prevnlenoe 1S8 

Infallibility. Dogma of, 43 ; a dangerous popular error S07 

lufaitibilit; utterly untenable, 143-143 ; no danger in diapeu- 

BDg with thia doctrioe 146, 147 

Insplrotiou, what it ia, 343 ; origin of ali religions 169, 243 

Inapiration, of genioa. 255 * poetical, 35S ; musical 358 

Insanity cored by spiritual influence 5S3, 534 

lustitittes, Calyin'a 74 

Intempeiance, Startling statistical item coacerning 110, lit 

Intervention, Diieot, of Qod doee not happen 186 

Eii^; James' instractiona to tmnalatoTs of Bible 193 

Idtbor-power ; its vast increase sinoe 1760 4S 

liady of Butuham Green : midnight adTentore. ................ 333 

Iiaw, oniTeiBal and anchimgeable, reign of 148-151 

Light, suddenly struck, what spiritual phenomena it ^' ' ■ - 
LiTeiiQOie, Mr., hia teatimony as to spirit-writing. . 
Livermoie, Mr. , bis experience aa to apparitions . . . 
Livermore, Mr., additional witnesses confirm 

Livemiore, Mr., his letter to author 

Loyola : his duuncter and influence, 34 

Lnigi, Prince, of Naples, Anecdote of, 338 ; his experience 393 

Lomiuons h^kd, seeing it write 875-377 

Lather, at Worms, 48, 49; at Marbnis, 50; his intolerance 51, 53 

Luther, bis doctrine of vioarious atonement 84-80 

Lnther, his ideas on charity and on works 85, 86 

Luther, his free opinions, 94 -, rejects St. James 06 

Latheranism aod (Aitistianity compared .,.,.....,.,...,. 105 

Macwilay, on religious progress 44, 143 

Hagnetizer, A French, hia alarm 350-331 

Sdud and oook; the aathor's first experience in Spiritoaliem. . . . 383 

Morbm^: meetong there between Luther and Zivingli 50 

Marie de Cldres, ladie-lore of Henry III., of France 437 

Marryat, Florence, her testimony regarding apparitions 821 

Marryat. Captain, hia midniglit adventoie 333, 334 

Materialism found to bo cheellesa on full trial , 100 

Uercy not sacrifice, Christ's doctrine 116 

Midnight visitor, A ,, 206 

Miracles, Opinions on 148 

Hiiaclcs, Christ does not speak cf tiiem 169 

Hinides, BoclesioaUcal, disoreditod by Protestants 166, 167 

Iloralitj, eEfcct of cBrtnin orthodoi doctrinra on 110 

Moiffon, Lodj, her " dtg'Cats-aad'f olds " explanation of the 

cause of nlleged apparitioiui 338 

Motiscoca, expntrialion of 31" 

Moymg ponderable bodies by occult i^ncy 361-867 

llusic, old. found b7 N. Q. Biicb, fac*suiule of 410 

Mjstei7, The house of 333 

Kambeta, comparatiTs, of Proteatonta and Catliolics 31-S3 

Komber of SpirituoliBta 233-235 

Jfninberof QualierB, 333; of Swedenbotgions 328 

Opportunitr, A golden, loet b j Catholia CbaTch 217 

OrUiodox Uieolog; founded on two of Paul's epistlea 9S, 98 

Parables of Christ verBnn doctrinaa of Iteformera 108, 107 

Paroljsis of motor nerve saddenlj onred 013 

P&rchmeDt, Old, autt^n^ph of Hemy IIL ; fac-simile of 430 

Peraeoution of coily Christians ; ita effect 86 

Pope and Aostrian ^veimnent at issue 318 

PoBseHsion, in Jeaus' daj 200 

Predeatiiuition : Calvin s idea of 77 

Problem, The great 184 

Proleptic, or prophetic gift BS8 

ProtestantB applaud Covin's part in Servetua' death 09 

ProteslontiBm : ita succeasea, 27; its reverses 80 

Protestantism, Orand truth in 48 

Pablic opinion opposed t« doctrine of the infallible 180 

Puribana, Calvinism among, 134; their laws 13Q, 13S, 139 

Qoakers, their peiwcation hy Pnritous 135'137 

Qaakeni, their original doctrinea, theiz mistakes, theiz failure 331-234 
Queationing fie unexplored 643 

Itappinga, spiritnal, see Spirit-rap 342-itlO 

Reformera, Doctrines of TO-tiO 

Eoformers, the world's debt to them 140 

B^nan. whither he leads as, 105 ; hia ChriatiaDit; 0:{<l 

Bepentance in the next woild, Example of 290 

Bepcntance, mode of exit for "spirits in prison" 800 

Repentant houBCkeeper, The 207 

Eight, Hangar and thirst after the 537 

Itochester Knockinga, see Spiiit-rap 343 

Boman CathoUo a^nment D31 

Boman Catholicism ; its gidna in England. S3 ; in America 33 

Bomon Catholiciam : ita reformation, 34 ; its doctrines 40-43 

Sabbath and Lord's Day, aooording to Angsburg Confesmon. . . 80, 8T 

Bolcm witchcraft: ita origin and ita frightful effects 20S, 207 

Scape-goat, The Jeniab, involves afalM principle 115 

Scopticiam in eighteenth century 83 

Science and Spiiitnalim need differing modes of treatment . 278, S70 

Bdentiflc researcli reBtricted by Cbnich of Rome 43 

Sdendfic testa of spirilaal phenomena reoenU; obtained in 

London 378, 279 

Scottjah Kirk: its tyranny 132, 133 

SicalariHni gBining ground, 215 ; eapeciaUy in aiglaad 310 

Senses, Homaa, are thej nnfcrustwortby? 3S0 

Servetoe. 53; hia creed, M; trial and death. 64-03 

Sistec Elixabetti : example of ' * discerning of spirits " 401 

Socnitea, his demon, 2^ ; Ms opiniooB on Spiiitnolunn 344-248 

Somnambolic increase of intelligence 253, a*! 

'■ Son of God," True interpretation of 274, 275 

Song, Original, composed by Henry III. of France 422, 42^! 

Sonthey's opinion tonching the use of Bpiritoal phenomena 3 "3 

Spinet, of Battozanni; engraving of 4)3 

Spirit arranging its earthly affairs 807-400 

Spirit-hands meltii* away, note 331 , 332 

Spirit-rap, tie proofs of 342-360 

Spirit-rapa thron^out an entire hense, 344 ; on the w«ter, 345 ; 

in trees, 345 ; on a sea-shore ledge of rock 848, 347 

SFririli-iBpe, seeing them mode by ft luminona hammer 848-351 

Spirit-rapa, in phase of riolent poondings 8^-359 

Spirit-tenches, examples of, SSl-3ti5 ; by gns-light 305 

Spirit-writing, fac-sinulea 6f 372, 373, 878, 383 

Spirit-writing, Direct, various examples 300-368 

Spirit-writing on hnman aim and hand, Examples of 380-3[)0 

Spiritual aid needed 25 

Spiritual body, The 503 

Spiritaai gifta of oor own time 625-528 

Spiritnal phenomena, Sonthey'a opinion as to their nse 333 

Spiritual phenomena sometimes resnlt in trides 330-341 

Spiritual phenomena, their univeraalit; 310-335 

Spiritual Bcolpture. iXl; example of 005 

Spiritualism, Modem, was it a superstitaoua epidemic f 311 

Spiritualism, sommaiy of its doctj^es I71-IT5 

Spiritualism aooords with Christianity 170 

Spiritualism denounces no religion 177 

Spiritualism, why come it so late ? 103 

Spiritualism, dangers of, when unworthily prosecuted 203, 200 

Spiritualism, number of it,i adherents 2:i3-235 

Spiritualism, how it should be studied 237-340 

Spiritualism, an unprecedented step in 204 

Spiritualism, The author's first eii>ericnce in 2)32-284 

Spiritualism regarded as a domestic invasion 287 

Spiritualism, Modem, a necessary aid to Christianity 134-1 TO 

Spiritnalists, Temporary schism amon^ 2'^^ 

State of man here determines his state hereafter IH, 172, 173 

Statement of subject 183 

Stationary policy impracticable 28 

Statistics of Protestantism and Catbollcism 31-ti3 

Bwedenborgionism, its grand truths, 226; its grave errors, and 

consequent fiulnto 228-3;;2 

Swiss oElccr, what beicll him 303 

Sword, Tbe, iosa not csploin Catliolic si 

Tnble, A heavj, Bospended in the air, without oontoot 3S3, 364 

Table, A, is flung into the air and rotates 305-387 

Tenihla power eiMbited in » private parlor, StW 

Teats, topical and liteial 448 

Titanic etepa of the world 380, 261 

ToloratiOD nnknown in eixteentli centniry 1i), 71 

Trauoe-speaking, Involuntory, oiample of 291, 393 

Translations oC Soriptuxe 101 

Trifle, A, predicted 840 

Troth, A grand, In ProteetantiBni 46 

Tiol^anEn^uhlady: episode regarding her, 484-460 ; herpor- 

tcait obtained, 4M ; her a{^>arition 474 

Wealej distatbancoB : alenon thejteacb SIS 

WMti^alian treaties. 80 

What befcU a Swiss offloer 803 

Why a villa was sold at a lose 299 

Witchcraft cansed br belief in deril, 201 : its faoiTOTe, 

202; in Salem 206,907 

Writing, Spirit, dizect,366i on bttman arm and hand 886,390 



OH X scBracn nrmuTBLT cokikbctkd with 




For every m^ii, according bo fab light and convictioa, there 
eiiste a certain duty to society, be it humble or elevated, 
evinced in words or in daily acts. If, after jealons watch set 
on motive and strict diligence in probing the verity and weigh- 
itig Uie worth of what otie may have to say, the convic- 
tion still abides th»b it onght to be said, one may be unfaithful 
in remaining silent. With such care and under such impreu- 
sion 1 tender to you what follows. 

My work has this one claim, at least, on your attention, that 
what is therein set forth, alloyed with misconception and cir- 
cumscribed by short-sight though it be,ha« been written relig- 
iously under the dictate of candor and of conscience, oa if 
every word were to be laid at the foot of the AlmighLy's 

You will admit the grave importance of my subjuct-toattor. 


Buice it refers, firiit to the present Btat« of ttieolt^ and the re- 
ligioua needs of the world ; incidentally to the reality of plen- 
ary inspiration ; again, to the character of what, in the gospels 
and epistles, are termed itometiiues signs and wonders, some- 
times spiiitual gifts ; and, finally and specially, to the question 
whether phenomena analogous to tLese have come to light in 
the present age. 

A just view of these snbjectB, vital beyond meanure as they 
are, is unspeakably essential to the advancement of man's spir- 
itual part. It is to you we may properly turn for this. Your 
office, in itself considered and looking to the eminence of its du- 
ties, is the highest upon earth ; for the spiritual part is the man 
— is and will be in other phase of life than this. You ou^t 
to be the leaders of mankind. But zeal, learning, and the ain- 
cerest piety even, suffice not for the mainteimnce of such a posi- 
tion. As the world grows older, the letter of iho ancient law, 
ecolesiastical or secular, governs less, and the spirit of the s^ 
more. They only can lead the world's advance who act upon 
this truth. 

A layman, inviting your attention as I do, has thiaapology: 
that, within the immunities of your churches, you are not &- 
vorably situated to hear outside truth. I think you hear lees 
of it than any other body of men. It ia a privil^e fiuu^t with 
temptation to speak once a week, year after year, secure against 
challenge or reply : for it tends to mislead speaker and hearen 
alike. Among those who approach you the greater number 
mistake submissive acquiescence for respect: but the beet 
token of respect, in addressing any man, or any class of men, is 
outspoken frankness and plain dealing. 

The common result of your position is to restrict, within sec- 
tarian limits, your habitual periscope. And thus others, trans- 
greasing routine bounds, may have come Hpon 0elds of research 
which you, within the pale, disparaging them as barren, never 
see. If, for example, any among you have given as much time 
and thought as I to the question whether, in our own day as in 
times gone by, denizens of another world occasionally influence) 

epmmTAL aid needed. 25 

tx good or evil, the conoerna of thU, it liaa not been 1117 good 
brtnne to know it. Yet, diitcreetlj pursued, there is no in- 
qiiiiy more legitimate, none reaching farUier in its ethical and 
religious results. Not is it we, puisuing such etudiea, who 
^nld defend our course: it is they that n^ect them who 
maj properly be called upon to show warrant for their neglect. 

It is a belief justified by the history of the world that Ood 
permits man to ac^^uire &esh knowledge in measure oommeu' 
BQrste with his wants, and at the times when he beoomes able 
to bear it.* Every age has its special needs, industrial, politi- 
cal, Boci&l, spiritnaL I think there are strong reasons for the \ 
opinion that, at the present time, we la<:k, to sustain wholesome, I 
reformatory £uths and to correct old errors that have been I 
mixed up with these, direct aid from spiritual sources. If the / 
history written by the Evangelists be a record witli any valid / 
claim to authenticity, it enters into God's economy to grant 1 
unto men, at certain times, such aid. It is a question of fEkct ' 
to be decided by proper evidence, whetlier He is supplying it 
now. Certain it is that the historical records of two thousand 
years ago, standing alone, &il to bring home to the free-inquiring - 
mind of tc-day the same convictions which tliey wrought in our ', 
ancestors-t Modem belief in the Unseen urgently needs fresh- / 
ening and additional support. 

This will appear Uie rather, if we scan dispassionately the 
actual position of the religious world; its attitude* toward 
science and the dilemma in which it finds itself whether it ac- 
cepts or rejects the accredited discoveries of the day. The 
more thoughtful among your number cannot have foiled to 

• John xTl 13. 
f "Doubts to the world's diild-hesrt unknown 
Question ns now bom itar and stone ; 
Too little or too much we know, 
And sight is swift and faith is alow ; 
The power is lost to wlf -deceive 
WiUt ilullaw ftttms of make-believe." 

WnimER: I^JfMAv- 
3_ v.,OOglf 


mark the signa of the times. They must feel that a Btatjonar/ 
policy is no longer practicable. Scepticiain is aileotly, bat 
I surely, undermining once^M^ular doctrines : the old ground is 
giving way under our feet. 

Kot that there is cause for alarm except to those who think 
the world can be saved by dint of drag-chains only. Religion 
is in no more danger of subversion than are the eternal hills of 
ninlring away, for its foundations in tiie soul aie firmer than theirs 
in the solid earth ; but opinions that cannot stand before the 
world's growth must, sooner or later, be subverted, do what yon 
will in their defence. It is in vain that we cling to antiqtiated 
perplexities of doctrine, if it shall prove that these have become 
as much out of place under the lights of thenineteonth century 
as would be the behef of five hundred years ago tbat the pil- 
lars of Hercules marked the western boundary of tiie earth. 

Beyond doubt many of your number are earnest in their 
convictions tiiat what they denn Orthodoxy needs no spiritual 
influx to sustain its pr(^reBs or rectify its errors ; that it has 
no unphiloBophical spirit to be reformed, nor auy pernicious 
fidtaciee to be retracted. But if they are right in this, aomo 
problems connect«d with the history of Prot«stanti8m are of 
veiy difficult solutlott. 

I allude to oertoiu incidents for which we must go back some 
three hundred and fifty yearB, and which connect themselves 
with the rise and progress of tbe great REFORKATioif — with its 
wonderful sucoesses and its remarkable reverses — especially 
during the first century and a quarter of its growth. 

§ 3. Successes and Reverb of early Pbotestamtish. 

It was on the tenth of December, in the year 1620, that 
brave Martin Luther burnt the Papal bull of excommunication 
which Leo X. had reluctantly launched t^ainst him. Less than 
half a century passed— the Oermau miner's son and his Medi- 
oean opponent both having died the while — and the spirit of ; 


the refonned rali^on had spread to tlie most distaat amd oIh 
Bcnre comers of Europe. "What an immenBe empire had 
Protestantism conquered in the space of forty jeais I — aa empire 
reaching from Icelaod to the Pyrenees, from Finland to the 
HTumnit of the Italian Alps." * 

The irliole of that vast empire had not, indeed, gone defini- 
tively over to the new faith. In England, Scotland, Denmark, 
Sweden, Iceland, Livonia, Pivssia, Saxony, Hesse, Wtirtemburg, 
and the Falatdnate ; in the northern NetJierlanda and in several 
cantons of Switzerland ; the Beformation had completely tri- 
nm|Aed : while tfaron^out France, Belginm, Bavaria, Bohemia, 
Westphalia, Austria, Poland, and Hungary, though ■Qte con- 
test remained undecided, the tenets of Lutjier or of Calvin 
had taken strong hold of the' public mind. In France, for ex- 
ample, the refonned doctrines, in their Calvinistic phase, had 
invaded every province of the kingdom ; in Brittany and Nor- 
nandy, in Ciascony uid in Lai^;uedoc, in Poitou, Touraine, 
Provence, and Dauphing, a majority openly professed the 
Protestant faith. "Your Highness," wrote the Venetian am- ' 
hassador at the Court of France, in 1561, to the Doge, " may 
rest assured that, with the exception of the lower classes who 
still zealously frequent the chnrches, all the rest have fiJlen 
away, especially the nobles, and almost without a single excep- 
tion, tJie men under forty." He says further that not only 
priests, monks, and nuns had adopt«d this heresy, but even 
bishops and many of the most considerable prelates ; adding 

'Habkb: Eedmiattkal and PiMkal Hittory (^ Ote Popeii qf Borne in 
On SxtemttA and SeventemUh Genturiea. Trandated b7 Saiah Anatin, 
8 ¥oU. 8to, London, 1840. VoL ii. p. 18. 

Leat too frequent references inteimpt this brief sketch, I omit these, 
tiopiag that the student will refer, for veiifioBtian of mj narratiTe, to 
the work itself, one of the most interesting contribationa to biatoiy that 
baa speared donng Uie present oentnry ; or if be pieCeiB a compen- 
diiun, he niay consult an admirable one in Hacaulay'a well-known to- 
Tiew of Banke'a work, to wbioh, a few pagea further on, I have alladed. 
The latest edjtdon of Banke'a work in Genoan (IH» B6nU»ehtn. POpiUi 
is the fourth, Bedin, 1636. 


that impmonment, stripm, and the stake, havin^only served Ia 
a^^raTate matters, had been ^>andoQ«d, and that the liberated 
prisoners went about congratulating each other that they had 
won tiie battle a^nst adveraariea whom they were learning 
to Salt the Papists.* 

In Prussian Poland, the right of the chief towns to the 
exercise of religion, aocording to the Lutheran forms, was con- 
firmed by express charters in 1557 and 1558; while, in Po- 
land proper, Prot«stants even obtained posseeaion of bishops' 
sees. In Hungary, in the year 1654, a Lutheran was elected 
palatine of the empire. In Bavaria a large majority of the 
nobles had embmced the new doctrines, and the duke himself 
ocoasionalty attended Protestant worship. In Austria, the 
revolution of sentiment was still greater ; the nobles studied at 
Wittenbei^, under professors who had been Luther's disciples ; 
the colleges of Austria proper were filled with Protestants, and 
it was asserted that about a thirtieth | of the inhabitantB only 
remained faithful to the Pope. In the NetherUnds, the dead- 
liest persecutions failed to efiect their object. The ferocity, i 
scarcely human, of Alva, the putting to death, as it was calcu- 
lated, of thirty thousand Protestants in the Low Countries | 
alone, had been unavailing to arrest the progress of the new 
opinions. Spain and Italy — themselves not without taint of I 
heretical doctrine — were the only European countries, of any 

* HiCHELi. These details will be found in his Bdatiana de&e axie dl 
FrannaFanrto 1561. I have held striotl j to hia ezpreMiona : "^ori- 
andosi," he sajs, " ohe aveono ffuadagnabo la lite contra t PapiEtd, cod . 
ohiamavano e chiamano li loro adrersarii." i 

A foreign nunister of the day may be supposed to have informed 
himself carefully on anoh matten, and one rai^esentuig a Cathtdic 
oomitr; was mote likely to nndenate than to orer-eatuaate the progress 
of iite Protestant movement. 

f Maoanlaj has it one VdrteerUh. In the latest edition of Ranke's 
work in the original German (vol. ii. p. 9), I find it Odrtieth, as above r 
" Han woUto Tcchnen dsas veilleicht nnc noch dex dreiBzigste Tbeil der 
Binwobner Eatboliaoh gebtiebeu sei : " doubtfully expressed, it will be 
obeerved, as to the anthorit?. 

IWJ6PECT m 1568. 29 

impoi-tance, th&t could be regarded, after a atruggle of half a 
oentury, as itill loyal to tiie Holy See.* 

Now, if we iiuagme a man of &ir parts and competent fore- 
sight, a spectator throughout the religious etruf^le of the Bix- 
teenth centnrj, and one whose couTictions coincided with those 
of Xititber and his adherents ; if we aappoae this man, when 
tiffo-thitds of the oentuiy had ehipsed, looking narrowly at the 
changes wrought by the Beformation, and reflecting apon the 
probable religious future of Europe ; what must haTB been 
his anticipations? Can we doubt hia reasonable conviction 
tbat three or four decades nu>re would witness the expiring 
throes of that veoerable system of ecclesiastical polity, endowed 
irith more than antediluvian vitality, which, from the Seven 
Hills, had stretohed ita spiritual soeptre over the world 

* Some of the most reliable Catbolto authors of that day ma^ be 
elted in proof tliat Banke has not exaggerated the situation. Paolo 
Tiq>oIo, ipokeu of by his oontempoiaries as a man of good head and 
excellent heart, resided nearly tbree rears as Tenetian amb«Mador at 
the oonrt of Pins T. He was there in 1508, and baa left, written in 
that year, a email work entitled : Sdasione di Rama aX tempo M Pio 
jr.ePioV. -Thence I take the following : 

" Speakinff of these Eoiopean oomttries alone, which were wont not 
mily to yield obedienoe to the Pope, bat also to conform in all their 
rites to tbe anstams of the Boman Chnrch, celebrating tbeli offloes in 
the Latin tongue; it is ascerhuned that England, Sootland, Denmark, 
N<Kway, Bweden — in fine all the northern conntdes — are aUenated 
from him. Oermany is almost entirely lost; Bohemia and Pdond are 
in great part infected; the Low Conntries ot Flanders are so thotonghly 
oorrapted, that even under tbe remediee (I) which the Dnke of ^va feels 
compelled to employ ogsinat them, they will hardly retnm to their 
former healtb. Finally Prance, by reason of these bad bomon 
(qneati mal hnmori) is fnll of confamon. Thns it appears that there 
remains to the Pontificate nothing healthy and eecnre (non pare ohe 
■ia restate altro di sane e sionro al ponteBce) save only Spain and Italy 
and » few islands, blether with certain dJetrIot« in Dalmatia and 

It is evident that in Borne itself, in 1568, Boman CatholieiBm was 
Iteld, by its supporters, to be in inmtinent danger of dying out. 


throughont a longer series of centuries than the soccesson of 
KomuIuB themselvea had ruled from the Eternal City? 

Yet how marvellously wide of the truth were auch expecta- 
tions, then cherished by millions I * Ei^ty years passed ; Hm 
contest had been waged and had subsided; and in 1648 tlie 
rights and the boundaries of the rival Churches were deter- 
mined by treaty. But how determined? Of the European 
countries which, in 1568, mi^t have been regarded as the 
Debatable Laud of theological coDtroversy, every one without 
an exception, — France and Austria and Belgium; Bavaria, 
Bohemia, Poland, and Hungary ; even Westphalia where the 
partitioning treaties were signed f — had fallen back into tlie 
Roman faith. | Not only had Proteetantism lost tliem all, but, 
after the lapse of two hundred years more, she has never re- 
gained one. There is not a single European nation Uiat is 
Protestant tcKlay, except those that had become Protestant 
more than three hundred years ago. 

We, Christians outside of the Roman faith, have much to 
allege in reply.' We claim that the national downfeU of Spain 
&om a proud preeminence was mainly due to the influence of 

* Bj Luther himself, among them. Hesaid: "The Pope is the Uat 
blaze in the tamp, which will go oat, and ere long be eitingaistied, the 
last ingtrameDt of the devil"— Lqthbk's Tatte TaUc, p. 196. And 
■tnjn: "ThePopestandslikea tottetingwallabont tobeoTerthzown." 
— Same work, p, 331. 

t Tet WeetpbttUa, like the rest of Northern Europe, had been OT«r- 
nm, dining the pieoeding century, by Lntheran doctrines. The town- 
ooimcil of Fadetl>om bad been Protestant ; in Uanster most of the 
priests had mairied ; and the ruling Duke, William of Clevea, appar- 
ently enzioiis to conciliate both parties, had received the sacrament in 
his private chapel, sometdmee aooording to the Catholic, sometimeH ao- 
coiding to the Protestant form. 

% I woold avoid the use of tlie tenos Boman Chnrch, Bomaniim, 
Komsn Catholic — grating to the eara of many honeetj believen in Pq>al 
infallibilitj' — it I could do so withont virtually admitting the claim of 
the Chnzch of Borne to ^ the wuveraal Church. Cadiolicil? la a neo- 
eB«M7 element of any Fiutb that is to become the leligion of ctnliia> 


her Cktholic Charoh ;* th&t ciTilization has been retarded in 
Italy and in Ireland by similar agency ; and, in a general iray, 
that the increase of vealtb, enterprise, and intelligence baa been 
greater nortb of tbebovindaryeatabliabed bytiie peace of West- 
phalia than souUi of it : nevertbeleea tbe geographical firontier 
between tbe two religiona, as tben agreed upon, bas scaj'cely 
been changed at all from that day to this. So &r as tbe com- 
pMrative numbera of Protastanta and Homuxbto have varied aince 
that peace waa made, tbe variation baa been in favor of tbe 
Bomaj) Catholic Oburch.f Even in countries tbe most thor- 

* Tbe eatenuiiiatlon of tbe Albigeiwea, even tbe SL Baitholomew 
nnasacxea, dwindle to petty proportion before tbe giant wrong perpe- 
trated, at the instdgaldou of Hie Spaniah Chnroh, in the expatriation of 
the Moriscoea, tbe nnhnppy remnant of the Hooriah nation. "About 
one million of the most indoatrioiia inhabitants of Spain were hunted 
out like wQd beasts, because the sinceritf of their religious opinions 
was donbtfoL"— BUCKI.&, Bit^-rj/ of Ciiiiliiatim (New York Ed. 186S), 
vol. iL p. 49. Countless thousands were bntolierail on the road to 
Africa, and hundreds of thouBands more perished, when cast loose 
on a BKnge coast, bj the swwds of the Bedouins and hj famine in Uie 
desert. The acoioely credible particulais of this wholesale ontroge and 
of the roin to Spaaiih prosperity and power that followed it, will be 
fonnd, with ami^e anthentioation, in tlie chapter from whioh t have 
qooted. Never waa nation so terribly and so speedily pmushed as 
8ptunfor<aieof the greatest orimesHgainst humanity ever perpetrated 
by a people dalming to be dvilized. 

Bee, for a few important words in this oomieotion, Darwin's De- 
temt qfMan, vol. i. pp. 171, 173 : <New Tork Ed.) 

f Aooording to the beet modem statastical authorities there were in 
the year 1868 — out of the total population of tbe wodd, uombering 

Total number of OathoUoa 195,434,000 

Total niunber of Protestanta 100,830,000 

And, in Bterope, tiie totals for the same year were : 

Total nnmberof Catholios 148,117,000 

Total number of Protestants. 68,038,000 

jjbne than Udo CatJuMea, it will be obserred, to tJiery ProtMtanU, in 
Europe to-day. 

And besides' the Catholics proper (who alone are reckoned above), 


oughljr Protestant and in our own times, the inroads of Cattiol- 
icism on the prevtdling &ith hare been such as must arouse, 
in thoughtful minds, grave reflections. In a third of a cen- 
tury, to wit from 1833 to 1867, the number of Catholic churchee 
in Great Britaia had more than doubled, while thb number of 
Catholic Bemtuaries had increased upward of five-fold. Up to the 
year 1833 — the yeer when the great Tractarian movement had 
birth in Oxford — there was not in the British Islea a single con- 
vent or one CatJiolic school : but within thirty-four years there- 
after there were founded in Great Britain uearly three hundred 
of tlie former, and nearly four hundred and fif^ of tJie latter. 
Surely a very noteworthy progress made in the present age and 
in the most Frot«staat country of the world, by the Chuitib of 

But it ifl in our own country, above every other, that the 
recent gains of Bomanism upon Proteatanttsm are the most re- 
markable. At the close of the two centuries and a half that 
elapsed from the first settlement of Virginia to the year 1859, 
the number of Catholics in the United States had run up to two 

there are the members of the Eastern phase of Catholicism, agre^ng 
TitJi the Weatera in a general way, even on tlie aabjeot of the infallible 
authority of the Choroh, except that thaj Teetiict that infallible au- 
thority to the <EciuoeDioat Conuoils. (Hagenbach'a nuiory of Doo- 
triaet, voL ii. p. 334.) In 1668 thej outnnmtiered the Protestants in 
Europe, there being, in that qusitei of the world — 

TotalinolndedinQreekandolherEastemChuiches... 69,783,000. 

At the present time, therefore, le$$ Uiaa ona foarlh of the Chrittian* 
in Earope sie Protestant. 

For these and other details see Sohem'a Ecdeaattictii Almanao for 
16W (notioed in a sabeeqneat note), pp. 61, 82, etc. 

■ In the Report for the year 1867-8 of the SeoUith Reformatha 
Soeiely (founded in SooUand, in 1850, to ''resist the aggresnona of 
Catbolioisni "), tables are giveii, showing the exact nuiabers, which sum 
up sa follows : 

Cboicbn. C™»enU. ^^^^ Bchooli. 
In I B38 there were 497 none. 8 none. 


mOlioiw and a half only : but at the end of the nine yeais that 
micceaded (namely in 1868), that number had doubled. 
Twelve years ago they 'were but a twelfth part of our popula- 
tion ; to-day they constitute, probably, more than a seventh. 

If we suppose the two great diTisiona of the Christian Church, 
reepectirely, to go on increasing amoDg us at the same ratio 
for four terms of nine years each from 1868, the Catholics of 
the United States would, at the end of iJut time, exceed Uie 
Protestants in number by several millions.* 

How wonder^, if one admits that Reason and Scripture 
were on ttie side of the Beformeis, is alt this ! From the usual 
Protestant standpoint, how beset with difficulties in explaoa- 

§ 3. Inabequats Caohks suoobbtino tbehbkltbs. 

Some minor causes beering on this ebb and flow of opinion, 
yet accessory only, one readily perceives. The startling pn^- 
Kas of the Lutheran movement, even during the firat decade 
or two, convinced the astute Court of Home, that thorough 

■ Sohsm's"EooleBiBatIoBlTBU-book"for 1860, and his Eoclesiacitioal 
Almanao for 186B, both published in tbis ooontry by a most pains- 
taking German statistidsn, professor ot Hebrew in Dickinson College, 
have tbe wcU-eamed repntation of being the most tmetworthj doon- 
msnts extant among us on the subject of modem religions statistics. 
In the first of these (at page 14) I flnd 
Nnmber of Prctestante in the United States'in 18S9. . . 21,000 fiM 

Number of Catholiai in the United SUtes in 1669 2,500,000 

And in the second (at page 61) 

Nntnber of Protestants in the United States in 186a . . 27,000,000 

Nomber of CaUidiot in the United States in 186a S,000,000 

ShowingthattheCatholics had increased, in the uineyeaiB from 1859 
to 1868, one hundred per cent, while the Protestuita had increased, in 
tbe ssme time, few than tieenty-nine per oent. 

Those who will veri^ the caloalationaf fntore increase, supposing it 
to oontinue at (^o same relative ratdo for four terms of nine jean each, 
g with the year 1868, will Ond that in 1B04, that is in t/iirti/' 


reformation vithio conld alone enable it to redat the giant 
Information without. Thia conviction ahowed itself in the 
changed charsoter of the Pontiffs chosen. Before tbe atandard 
of hereey vas raised on the banks of tiie Elbe, it had been & 
SixtoB IV., with his inhumanity and his tmblushing uepotiam ^ 
an Alexander VI., with his sensuality, and those children of 
his, the in&mouB Borgias ; at best, the elegant luxury and laiT- 
iah prodigality of a Leo X. But whes Uie storm from Witten- 
berg swept over the land, and the time of need came, then 
there succeeded to these the corrective influence of such men as 
Paul III., earnest,* intelligent, and sagacious, and Paul TV., 
austere, impulsive, inflexible, and ruled by a single devotion, 
that of restoring to ita primitive purity the ancient &ith. And 
more home-reaching than the power of any Pope was the infla- 
ence of a manf as remarkable in bin way as the great Befonner 
himself ; unlike him as one man could well be to another, yet aa 
fiercely in earnest, as indissolubly wedded, body and seal, to 
one idea. As Lutiier was the animating spirit of th« reformat 
tory movement, so was Loyola of the reactionary one. And, 
for a time, the sway exercised over the religious mind of !Eu- 
rope and ita dependencies, by the Spaniard, with his intensity 
and his asceticism, was little leas than that which the stubborn 
and warm-hearted German exerted. 

tAret yea/fi from to-day, tJiere would be eig^hly milliouB of Catholics to 
leu than »etiaaly-ja)e miiUoTui of Protestaiita, m the American nniou. 

It IB verj lai fram being mj belief that aaj Buoh leanlt ia oompatiUe 
with the spirit of God's economy and ttie oeaselen march of human pn^- 
ress. Bat to avert it, some religious influenoea that have been at 
work for three hundred yean must undergo radical change. 

* This FontifE, expresBUig to the Emperor Charles T. , in 1S37, hie de- 
termination to carry out internal reform in tbe Church, writes : " 5az4 
ooneffetto, euon eon parole." Itwas tobe in deeds, not wotda. 

4 Ignatius Loyola's publio career comiaenoed twenty jeaxe later than 
Uortiu Luther's. The bull establishing tlie new Order was granted, at 
Loyola's earnest instance, by Pope Paul UL, in 1540. The Order of 
Jesus was suppressed in 1T73, but restored in 1814 : in each caae bj 
P^Mkl anthoritj. 



These tilings are to be token into acconnt ; but do -we find in 
them a solution of the difficulty ? If tbe vices of tlie Papacy 
were weeded out, its errors of opinion remained. If Popes 
like the third and fourth Paid and Pius Y., and Gregory 
XITL,* sustained the honor and the cause of the Catholic 
Church : if Loyola and his coadjutora gave to it their fortunes 
and their lives,t were there not, opposed to these, Luther and 
Calvin and MeloncthonandZwingli, and a host of other apostles 
of the ItdforEnation, as able and as devot«d workers as any of 
which Catholicism could boast? 

The sword, indeed, was used against the innovators : but per- 
secution, unless its severity tend toward extermination, is in- 

* The last two, however, Plna and Qregoij, wlUi the drawback of 
an Inhnman spirit of peneoution. Pins V. complained that the leader 
of the Frendi CathoUca, Count Saotafloie, failed to obeythe oommand 
be had given him to take no HngnenoC pdwrner, bnt " Instantly to kill 
every heretio that fell into his hands." Bete sie his bicgrapher's own 
words : " Pio ai doki del Conte che n<m avesee il comandamento di Ini 
oeeervato d' ammazzar aubito qnalonqiie heretico gli fosse venuto alle 
mani." — Vita di Pio V., by Catena. 

When tiie news of the maeHacre of St. Bartholomew (1573) resohed 
Oi^oiy Xm. , he celebrated that great event bf a solemn ptocesdon to 
San I.aigL I can find no foundation toi the apologj, aometimea offered 
by Catholics for this ; namely, that Oi^ory was ignorant at the time, 
tJiat it oat a general maseacre. It a incredible that a leligions move- 
ment involving the death, it is said, of Sft; thousand heietics (Bahkb, 
Hittor. Polit. ZeUtchrift, II, iii.), should not have been known in its 
tzne character, and at the earliest day, to so well-served and well-in- 
formed a court as that of Borne ; to say nothing of the fact that the 
Bomiah Chnrch has always held it a Ti{^t and a duty to suppress here^, 
if need be, \is the death-penslty. 

t It is to be borne in mind also, that Uie stem discipline and indsive 
aosteiit? of the order of Jesos fsded, ere long, into s sinrit of oompro- 
mise with the vices and even the crimes ot the age. Bpeaking of the 
Jesuits in the niiddle of the seventeenth century, Banke says: " The 
• spirit which once animated them had falleu before the tenptatione and 
influences of the world, and their sole endeavor now was to make 
themselves necessaiy to mankind, let the means be what they might. 
. . . The secret operations of that awful tribunal wbicb is u 


sufficient, if unaided hy mental and moral agencies, to arrest a 
reformatory movement so powerlol and widespread as was thst 
of Lutheranism in 1670. It proved insufficient in the early 
ages to check a weaker sect, the primitive Chriati&us; althou^, 
nnder Deciue in the middle of the third century, and yet more 
especially fifty years later under Diocleaian and Galenas, it 
showed itself in forms of death and of torture marked by n 
ferocity unparalleled in the history of the world. The martyrs 
in those days, greedy of death as the surest entrance to heaven, 
denounced themselves, by hundreds, to the authorities; * and 
their religious teachers found it neceesary to exert their utmost 
authority in order to check this species of self-immolation. 
The spirit of the new religion passed unquenched throng tJie 
fiery trial. 

The counter-revolution which set in toward the close of ■the 
sixteenth century was evidently a recoil of opinion tax more 
than a repreesiou by force. Outeide of Spain and Italy, no 
authority to the Inquisition was conceded, after the date of the 
Beformation, by temporal sovereigns ; Spain was the chief 
scene of its horrore,f Nor can we ascribe to victories in the 

In the imnost depths of the heart of man were thus chaoged into mere 
ontwatd tda. A alight turn of the t^ongbts was held to ezoneiate 
from aU gnOt,"— ffi»fe»y "/ i^ Popw, III pp. 139, 143. 

* If TertnlUan nia7 be tmsted, the entire popnladou of a small 
town in Asia presented themBelveB before the prooonenl, proclaiming 
their faith in Christianity and entreating him to cairj into effect the 
Imperial decree and put them all to deaOi. When, partially aooeding 
to their supplication, he had executed a few and dismissed the lest, 
these departed bitteriy grieving tliat they had been deemed unworthy 
of the gltotons martyr-crown. 

f The nnintwr of viotjms who suffered under the Spanish InqniM- 
tion wilt never be accurately known, yet it was undoubtedly greater 
than that of all the martyrs under the Pagan persecutions of the first 
three oentories. It is to be conceded that the Protestant failh was ac- 
tually cmshed out of existenoe in Spain, bj the death of obdurate her- 
etics and the extremity of terror in the snrvivora. At one time, about 
l&GB, " there were converts in almost all the towns and in many of the 
villages of the ancient kingdom of Leoo."'-(HcCBiB, B^ormationin 


field the losses, in converta and in terntoiy, of the Baformera. 
WLen the war waged by ihe Smalcalde Le^ne of Proteatants 
a^jainst Charles V. was terminated by Alva's victoTy at Miibl- 
berg,* that seemingly disas&ous defeat scarcely at all arrested 
tlie progress of the new &itii. Even to the terrible night of St. 
Bartiiolontew and the horrora tiiat sacoeeded it, though for the 
time they undoubtedly crushed hope and spirit among the 
Huguenots, we cannot trace the state of feeling which prevailed 
throu^ont France, twenty years after the massacre, when Henry 
IV., Protestant and fearless soldier as he was, finding himself 
About to be deserted even by iJiie most gallant of those Hugue- 
not nobles whose swords had. won for him the battle of Ivry, 
■waa fein to abjure bis religion in order to secure a throne-t 

BTo, Neither fortune of arms nor suffering by persecution ; 
nedtber the serpent-wisdom of an Order of which the members 
^reiQ all things to all men, nor the cleansing of tliose shameless 
f»rm]itionB which had so scandalized the Augnstiniau monk, 
Martin Luther, when in ISlOhe visited d^nerate Borne — not 
any oue of these incidents, nor all of them combined, can be 
accepted as even plausible explanation why Protestantism, 
after virtually conquering throe-fourtl.3 of Europe in one half 
century, lost, in the next eighty years, tiiU one-half of all she 
had gained. 

Lost, and never recoveret^ it ; not aft»r ten generations had 
passed ; not down to the present day. 

l^pain, London, 16M, p. 331.) A Oatliolio historian (Pabaho, SItt. 
Inquimtwiet).. m,jt : " Had not the InqniaiCion taken oaie in tune, the 
Kotestant religion would have ran Uuoagh Spain like wUdSre." But 
tliat wai7 institation took the alarm in 1568 ; tlie fiist oato-da'fi was 
celebrated Hay SI, 1Q39, at Talladolld, in pieeence of Don Carlos and 
the Queen Dowager; and ere five Tears had passed. ProteetMttisui was 
literally eiteiminated, from the Pyrenees to the Atlantic. 

• In 1547. 

f " Even tlie Pcotettant clergy had the wisdom to exhort the king, 
(Henjy TV.) to return into the bosom of the Catholic Church. Calvin- 
ism, by the burdensome austerities of its moral censures, finished by 
losing its attraction for tJio nobles." — QBKTII1 OS : Intatiduetioa to Hia- 
Uirjf qf Nintteenlh CerUvry, pp. 47,48, 


If EitUl there lingers in your minds a doubt whetlier one ia 
jttetified in concluding that tLe reaction&ry moventeiit dating 
from 1570 cannot be explained, as tlie result of incidental and 
extraneous agenciea ; or if you fall back, perliaps, on the posi- 
tion that the B«fonnation was premature in so rude a oeatiuy 
as the sixteenth ; tlien I pray you to interpret another episode 
in the history of Uie Lutheran tnovement, occurring two hun- 
dred years after Lutjier's time. 

An episode connected with the days of the Frenoh encyolo- 
pediata, when Voltaire derided ; when D'Alembert and Did- 
erot wrote ; when Paine discoursed of an age of reason, and 
Volney of the ruin of empires. In those days men wifaoeaaed, 
some with amazement and terror, some with exultation, what 
seemed a concerted attack upon aR that was most ancient in 
opinion, and all that is usually held most sacred in religion. Lrt 
Macaulay, who has graphically described this uprising of acepti- 
ciam, oft^ allied with talent and learning, sometimes with phi- 
lanthropy, briefly sum up to us the result : 

" During the eighteenth century the influence of the Churdi 
of Rome waa constantly on the decline. Unbelief made exten- 
aive conquests in all the Catholic countries of Europe, and m 
some countries obtained a complete ascendency. The Papacy 
waa at length brought so low aa to be an object of derision to 
infidels, and of pity rather than of hatred to Protestanta.* 
During the nineteenth century this fallen Church has been 
gi-adually rising from her depressed state and reconquering her 
old dominion. Ko person who calmly reflects on what, within 
the lost few years,! ^^^ passed in Spain, in Italy, in Soutli 
America, in Ireland, in the Netherlands, in Prussia, and even 
in France, can doubt that her power over the hearts aud minds 
of men is now greater than it was when the ' Encyclopedia ' 

* Banks's histoii7 taHy beaia out Haoanlaj'e view of the dtnation. 
After giving the particulars of the death, in Fiance, of tlie aged and 
depoBedPiaByi.,iaAiigiut,lTe9, headds: "In fact it seemed as if the 
papul power was now forever at an end." — toL lii. p. 296. 

t Ttiia waa written in 1»40. 



and &e ' Philoaophicbl DictLonary' i^peared. It is surely 
rem&rkable tlmt neither the moral revolution of the eighteenth 
centary, nor the moral oonnter-revoliition of the nineteenth, 
ahould, in any perceptible degree, have added to tite domain of 
Proteslantiaiii. During the former period whatever was lost 
to Catholicism was lost also to Christianity ; during the latter, 
vhatever was r^ained by Christianity was regained also by 
CatholiciBm. We should naturally have expected that many 
minds, on the way fi^om superstition to infidelity, or from in- 
fidelity back to superstition, would have stopped at an inter- 
mediate point. . . We think it a most remarkable fact 
that no Christian nation which did not adopt the principles of 
the Reformation before the end of the sixteenth century, should 
ever have adopted them. Catholic communitieB have, since 
that time, become infidel and become Catholic again, but none 
have become Froteetant." * 

Macaulay is right. All this ie most remarkable. He to 
whom it snppUes not theme for earnest meditation must be 
very careless, or very contracted in circle of thou^t. 


All that has been said and believed of human progress — how 
mighty Truth is, how sure to prevail over Error — is it pure 

■HACATiUT'e Sua^t, New Tork Bd. of 1856, vol. iii. pp. 888, 
S40. The esttaot is from hit celebrated leriew of Banks's Mftery of 
the Popet, an admirable enay, ratiiaT, on ths Befonnation and its ebb- 
inga and flowings, axA its results. I am compelled to differ from Ha- 
caalay'a inferenoea, wbila I admire, and In part have followed, his mas* 
ted? axxoj of facta. 

It ought to be borne in mind, in connection with the reaotionaiy 
movement in favor of Catholloina above spoken of as occurring dnring 
tlie eariy portion of the present centoiy, that the tenon of the biqiii- 
aition Iiad nothing to do in bringing it abont 


fable 7 Or ue we to believe that it is not agfunst Error that 
Prot«statitiam is lofiing the battle ? ■ 

We have had recent o£Scial reminders what some of the 
claims of Roman Gatholicdem are. That Christ himself has 
iavested the Pope with full authority to rule and govern the 
Universal Church; that the Pope may properly issue decreoe, 
by hia assured knowledge, by his own impulse and by the ful- 
ness of his t^stolio power ; that such decrees shall remain in 
force in all time to come, and shall never, on any plea, be re- 
voked, or limited, or questioned, even though aa (Ecumenical 
Council, including the college of Cardinals, unanimoualy con- 
sents to their revocation.* 

Other claims, asserted and maintained by the Church of 
Rome, may be culled from equally authentic sources.! The 

* S«e, in oonflimatdon, the " Constitation " isnied bj tba pzeaent 
Pope, under date of Deoember 4, 1869, to provide for the continsenty 
<jt bis death duiing the recent (Eonmemoal Council. It offlnos that 
' ' to tlia Boman Pontic . . . our Loid Jesos Christ ^ve the fall 
power to feed, nde, and gorem tiie Umvetsal Church." The Pope 
then goes on to declare : " Of our certain knowledge, out motion, and 
in the plenitnde of our Apostolio power, we decree and oidain," etc. , 
(eiTing details, exclnding the council from all share in the eleotioii of 
a Pope, and declaring anil and void whatever they may do, nnti] a 
mocessor to thePapol obaii shall besoohoteo). Then he proceeds: 
" This decision mnst not be qneetioDed, attacked, Tefoted, invalidated, 
letracted, legally revoked, or submitted to discussion. . . . We 
declare nnll and void whatever Bhall be done to the contraiy, during the 
vacaJicy of the Apostolic See, bj an; aatbority whatever, whether by 
the authoritif of the Council of the Taticau, or of any otJier <EcamenicaI 
Council; even with the nuanimona oonsent of the Cardinals that now 
are, or at any fntuie time may be." And the document winds up by 
proclaiming that whoever shall " call in question this our declaration, 
decree, and will," or shall " daie to infringe them," or shall " moke 
Buch an attempt," " let him know that he inouts the indignation of 
Almjght; God and of the blessed Apoetlea Pet«r and Paul." — Tranala- 
tjou made for the (Loniton) Vatican,, and officially pnblislied in the 
(New York) CaOuiiic BegvUr of January 22, 1870. 

t Aa from the Canoiu and Decrees of the Council of Trent, which 
oonuoenced its aeeaioiis in December, 1640, twenty-five years after the 


nnTritteii traditions of the " Holy Catholic Church," as having 
beeo handed down to it from Christ, are to be received with 
the same vener&tioa as the Holj Scriptares ; of wbiob last the 
Tnlgate is the only authorised tranBlation.* Tradition in to be 
received because the Holy Ohost dveUe perpetually in the 
Chnrch ; the Vnlgate, because the Church of Borne, which 
adopts it, has been kept free firotn all errors by the special 
grace of God. The seven aacrajnentB f are divinely orduned; 
thfy are referred to Chriat, since the institutes of the Church of 
Christ are communicated to that CRiurcfa not hy Scripture 
alone, but by tradition. Justification is not to be obtained by 
&it]i (done, llie sinner is justified (so the Couooil of Trent 
voted), " through the merit of the most sacred passioa and by 
the power of the Holy Ghost. . . . While man observes 
the oonunanda of God and the Church, by the help of faith and 
Arougk ffood works, he grows in righteooanesB and is justified 
more and more." \ Justification, however, cannot dispense 
with the sacraments, by which it either begins, or when begun 
is continued, or when lost is regained.] All religious instruc- 
tion, all interpretation of Scripture, must be given by ecclesias- 
tacal authority aloiie.^ The vidble Church is also the true 

ontbreak of tiie Befonnatioa. These docomeata {Canonet tt Dtereta 
QmeOU Tridmtifii, Boma, 1664) were poaeed chiefly during Bessioiis 
iv. to vii, liii., xiv., and eo. to XX7. Xhej will be foond in the .ffltto- 
ria dd ConeOio TnOentiiio, bj Sakfi, lOSft. The Profmnio Fidei Trt- 
iaitina, drawn np (A.D. 1664) by order of Pope Pins IT., embodies 
them. It was aubacribed by all candidates, may be r^^arded as tite 
Coufenion of Faith of the Boman Chnich, and as having settled, for 
Bonrnn Catholicism as against the Piotesbuit hereey, all the chief 
points of doctrine. In Saipi's work (at page 241 and eloewbeie) will 
he fonnd diacaeaiona on these matten. 
• Conce. Tridrnt, SeBsio IT. " 

f Namely : 1. Baptism; 3. Confirmation; 8. The Eucharist ; 4. Pen- 
a&oe ; 5, Oideis ; ft. Mairiage ; 7. Extreme Unction. Lather end Melano- 
Ihm were indined to add to the two nsoal Protestant BocrameutB (.to 
wit, Baptasm and the Lord's Sapper) a third, that of Penanee. 
tSAHPI: SeaBioTI.,0. Tn.,§10. jSeaaioVn. fSeBdoIT. 


Church, and no religious existence can be recognised out of hm 

With theee doctrines was included the seclu^on of the 
Bible even in ila Latin version, much more in the vemactilar, 
from perusal by any one not an ecclesiastic.f 

Then, in later documente, we find tiie ideas of the Bonum 
Churdi, touohiiig the relations betweeu science and religion, 
and the definition of the Papal claim to in&llibility in religioas 
teachings. Scientific reeearch must not, on pain of anaUiema, 
be prosecuted in a spirit of freedom, if, in its progress, science 
^ould assert what contravenes the doctrines of the Gfaurdi.I 
And forasmuch as "this See of St. Peter ever ranains free 
from all error," when ito sovereign head, the Pope, speaking 
''in virtue of his supreme apostolic authority," definea any 
" doctrine of faith or morals, to be held by the universal 
Church," he is infallible ; and ttierefore " such definitiona of Uie 

* In additiaa, of oonisa, ate to be noted Ute well-known Tt«nf>ii»i 
dootrinee of the Beal PreMooe, Inteioesdon of Saints, IbeolatiiaL b; 
the Priesthood, and Pntgatoi? induding the effloac^ of ^sf eis for the 

f Anterior to any traiielatJoiiB of the Bible into modem laagnsgea, 
tlte Vnlgate had twen declared, to all pereons not in soared orders, a 
sealed volnme. The CEoumenioal Coundl held at Toulonse, in 1239, 
passed a canon, prohilntiii; the laity from baring the books of the Old 
and New Totament.— CaudL Tolos. Canon 14: Sabbei CaUat., vol. 
sip. 427. 

t " If any one Bhall say that human sciences onght to be pursued in 
such a spirit of freedom that one may be aUowed to boLd as tme theii 
asBerlions, even when opposed to revealed doctrine ; and that such as- 
sertions m^ not be oondemned i>y the Chorch ; let him be onotheDuk" 

" If any one shall say that it nu^i at any tame, oome to pass in the 
piogress of adenoe, that the doctrines set forth by the Choroh must be 
token to. another sense than that in whioh the Church has ever received, 
and yet reoeivea them : let hlni be anathenut.^^ 

The above, translated for the (New Toik| CaUuitic Worid, by some of 
the bishops attendiog tbe Council, are seotioiis % and 3 of Canon IV. 
of the (Ecumenical Connoil of the Yatioan, promulgated April 24, 1870l 
—Bee CaOuiUe Worid for June, 1870. 


Boman Pontiff are irreformable (irrHbrmabileB) of themselves, 
tmct not by force of the consent of the Church thereto." Thia 
dogma, also, not to be contradicted on pain of anathema.* 

The peculiar religious ideas, then, against 'which Protestant^ \ 
ism, during three centuries, has foiled to make head, are 
Babetantially these : A Spiritual Sovereign of Christendom 
(elected, from time to time, by a College of Cardinals), divinely 
ordained, infollible, anthorized by the Deity to dictate, iritliout 
appeal, the religion and the monilH of tiie ivorld. A Univer- 
sal Chnrcli in which the Holy Ghoet perpetually dweUs, keep- 
ing it free from all error, and of which the traditions are of 
equal authority with Scripture ; both being derived tjirough 
plenary inspiration of God. So entraiice into Heaven except 
for those who receive the sacramentK. No eact^ from Hell 
except by obedience to the Universal Church's oommands. Ho 
ejcistence of religion outside of the Universal Church. Denial 

• In Chapter IV. ot the Dogmatie Deeru m lAa ChvnA qf Ohritt, 
paaaed by the (E<nmieiiicBl Coonci], and q>pn>ved b; tJie Pope, July 18, 
18T0, after defining the <diaracter of Apoet«lio t«achh]tr, it ia added : 
" TMb apostolic teacfain^ all the venerable fatlieiB have embniced, and 
tli« holy orthodox doctors have revered and followed, knowing most 
certainly that this See of St. Peter ever remaina free from all error, 
aooordtog to the Divine promiae of oar Lord and Bavioor to the Piinoe 
of the Ap<eUes.'' 

And Bg^n, hi the same chapter, "We teach and define it to be a 
doctrine divinely revealed, that when the Boman PontifC speaks ea 
eaOitdrd, that is, when in Uie exerciBe of bia office of pastor and teacher 
of all Cbristisna, and in virtne of Mb aapretne Apostolic anthority, he 
defines that a doctrine ot faith or morals ia to be held by the Univetsol 
Chntch, he poeseseee, through the Divine aanstance promised to him in 
the bleaaed Peter, that infallibility with which the Divhte Bedeemer 
vriHed hio. Chaicb to bo endowed, in defining a doctrine of faith or 
morals ; and, therefore, that snch deSni^ona of the Roman FontiO are 
irreformahle of themaelvee, and not by force of the consent of tbe 
Church tliereto. 

" And if any one shall pretome, which Qod forbid, to contradict this 
OUT definition ; let him be anatfaema," — OaOuASe WorVl tta September, 
1870, pp. 868-8. 


to the Wman aonl (outeide the CathoUo priesthood) of ihe 
rif^t to interpret Scripture. Subordination of scientifio fitcls 
to the Church's doctiineB. Fin&Ily, a solemn cniae denoiinoed 
a^jainst all who oppose or deny an; canon promulgated by the 

Doea it Beem to jou that Troth ongfat to have been powerless, 
for centuries, against prescripts such as these? — that, in all 
- that time, agaioat a Church styling itself in&llible, she should 
have lost ground instead of making progress? One of the 
most powerful and cultivated intellects of the centuty, not Ro- 
man Catholic, seems to have taken refuge in that conclusion. 
In the essay from which I have quoted Macaulay Bays i 

" We often hear it said that the world is constantly becom- 
ing more and more enlightened, and that this enlightening moat 
he favorable to Protestantism and unfovorable to Catholicism. 
We wish that we could think so. But we see great reason to 
doubt whether this is a well-founded expectation. ... As 
to the great question what becomes of man after death we do 
not see that a highly educated European, left to his unaasisled 
reason, is more likely to be in the right than a Blackfoot In- 
dian. . . . Nor is revealed religion in the nature of a pro- 
gressive science. All divine trutb is, accoixling to the doctrine of 
the Protestant Churches, recorded in certain books. It is plain, 
therefore, that in divinity there cannot be a progress analogous 
to that which is constantly taking place in pharmacy, geology, 
and navigation. A Christian of the fift^ century with a Bible, 
is on a par with a Christian of the nineteenth century with a 
Bible, candor and natural acuteness being, of course, supposed 
equal. ... It seems to us, tiierefore, that we have no se- 
curi^ for the future against the prevalence of any theological 
error that has ever prevuled in time past among Christian 

The gist of this is, that, under a system of revealed teach- 

* Maeavtaj/'i Euays: voL ili. ^ep. 806-807. 


inge, tiiere is no religiona progress, nor tatj reasonable hope 
for the prevalraice of spiritual tmtli. 

AiB you content to rest in a conviction thus hopeless ? Are 
70U content to labor in your vooation nnder such discourage' 
nent as this? 

Hie triumphs, in onr day, of art and science, especially in the 
prodnction of ui»t«risl wealth, have been vast beyond all for- 
mer precedent. In 1760 every species of thread was spun on 
the single vbeel; wat«r and wind were the chief inanimate 
motors ; and Uie horse or tiie dromedary was the fleetest mes- 
aenger, except when the intelligence it bore was occasionally 
anticipated by the beaeon-fire on the hill-top, or by signal from 
the cross-bar and the pivoted arm of that clumsy espedient 
which was dignified, in those days, by the name of telegraph. 
Then came a sadden irruption of industrial inventions, &bu- 
lous in their results. Ibve you looked into that subject ? If 
you consult the best English statisticians you will find that in 
the British isles alone, within little more than a century, the 
increased power obtained through labor-saving machinery 
equals the adult manual labor out of two worlds as populous 
as onr own.* 

Again, aside from industrial enterprise, there are the start- 

* By HngH«ii political economiatB the indnstrul inventioDB amoe 1700 
are varional; set down be famishing a power equivalent to the unaided 
labor of frran five hnndied to seven hnndied minions of adnlts. The ' 
mean of these — eiz hnndted nuUiona — ma; be awnmed as near the 
tnttli. But as the avetsge available manual labor of any given popula- 
tion is nsoallj estimated as eqnal to that which might be peiformed by 
<Bie-fonTai of that population if all were working adults, it follows that 
the labor of six hundred millions of adnlt wodeis is eqnal to the man- 
nal power wliicb residea in a population of two thousand fonr bundled 
mOliona, in other woids, of nearly twice the present population of our 

Our statistics, in the United States, furnish no snfflcisnt data for a 
■imilar calculatiotl. The «mount of mechanical power compared to 
population, though vast and ever inoreasing among as, averages leas, 
doubtless, here tiian in ^n gl«.ni^ 

4o TBiuifms OF eoiKsoe. 

ling discoveries in the mora abstruse depftrtments of soienoe, 
connected with suoh names sa Fsj^aday, Darwin, Tyndal, Hux- 

Is the gieat, etMnal law of progress to operate in eveiy de- 
partment of knowledge save one — tlie moet important of all ? 
Is evetything to move on except religion 7 There has been » 
Galileo to enlighten our ignorance touching the orbit of tbe 
earth and the motion of the bub ; a !Newton to explain to ns 
the career of planets and systems of planets tluou^out the 
heavens ; a Harvey to detect the circulation of the blood; a 
Humboldt to unveil for ns the Cosmos ; a Bacon to organize 
the exploration of all fields of earthly knowledge. In every 
deparbaent of material and intellectual science, the advance 
has been from conqueet to conquest. But in pneumatology is 
tiie eud already nached ? Has an investigator of religion do 
longer a legitimate vocation 7 Shall we say of ite doctrines, as 
a Soottiah philoeoi^ter did of the learned foundations of Europe 
that Uiey are not without their leeaon for the historian of ih» 
human mind : immovably moored to the Game station by tlie 
strength of their cables and the weight of their anchors, t^ey 
serve to mark the velocity with which, as it passes diem, Ute 
rest of the world is borne along. 

I thank God that I do not believe this. If it were true, life 
would be of little worth. How heart-sinking — how utterly 
imworthy — the oonoeptoon that, under the Divine Ekx>Domy, 
that grand privilege of progiees to which man owes all he ever 
was or ever will be is denied to the science of the Soul, while 
inhering in every other I 

It is not of the arcana of Theology that I am speaking ; it ia 
of man's soul, not of God's essence. I do not believe that ws 
of this earth shall ever make progress in tiie liteiature of the 
planet Jupiter, or in the language spoken by the inhabitants of 
Saturn, There is what to man is the unknowable ; and outside 
the Bpliere of the kuowable, human progress cannot be. Ex- 
cept so far as God's works around us adumbrate their Author 
and His attributes, I do not think that by seai-ching we oaa 


maike progress in discovering the Creator's vays, or TTiii 
tlionglitB, or His jadgmenbi ; seeing that these are not m outs, 
but uoaearchiible osd past finding out. When we press on in 
quest of such mjsteriee, the power of tlie hi^eat intellect ex- 
pires before it ftttaiuB au object, as waves on a troubled ocean 
break and lose themselves in tlie vast exptmse. 

Evidence is scattered all over God's vorks of infinite intelli- 
gence, va&Ttsy, love. But ^en we seek to knov irtiat were the 
Deity's specifio intentions in the original creation of man, for 
what purpose He permits evil and misery, hoto He himself 
exists — when we set about analyzing the divine hyposbisis and 
the like — we oome npon mysteries which it is not probable that, 
even in the next world, we shall have vision to penetrate or 
means to solve. 

Macaiilay's ai^nment, tlieu, may be admitted, bo &r aa it a:p- 
plies to &B abstruser portions of ^»eculative Uieology ; but only 
because abstfuae theological doctrines are among the unknowa- 
ble thiitga,* 

But as for Spiritual science, I firmly believe that we have 
the means of studying it, and tlierefore of advancing in its 
various branches. When we declare that Truth is mighty and 
will prevail, we must not except spiritual truth ; for that is the 
lai^tiest of all. Why Calvinism, why Lutheranism, prevailed 
not, as gainst the Roman Church, may be explained without 
tM w u m iiig that Christiaiuty lacks the element of progress. To 
the wholeaome truths which the Reformation put forth, it un- 
doubtedly owed its half-century of progress. The hypothesis 
remains, that while Protestantism may have approached, in 
many respects, neaier to the truth than Roman Catholicism, it 
may, in other matters, have fiiiled to meet the wants of the age, 
and may have made radical mistakes in opinion tiiat have 
proved fatal to its advancement. 

* Said Lnther, preaching oQierwise than he praotiBed: "Let the 
Fathec's good will b« acceptable to thee, O toan, and q>eoulate not with 
Hij devihah qaeiies, thy whys and thy wheieforea, toaoliiiig God's 
wards and wotka."— £utA«r'« Tath Talk, p. 29. 


The grand bnth inherent in Protestantisin, and throng^ 
which, in the siKteentb centur;, chiefly came the wonderful im- 
petosit received, is one that has stirred men's hearts ever educe 
they b^i&n to think and to reason. Luther touched upon it : 
" Argue will I, and write, and exhort," he said, " but compel 
will I no one," * If he is not entitled to be called the ApoKtle 
of freedom in thought and speech, it is because, when men. first 
emerge to tiie light, its effulgence is wont to blind them ; and 
thuB the world advances only step by step. If the Wittenberg 
Doctor had done nothing more than to demand, and to obtain, 
for the people the right to read in the vernacular the saying 
and doings of Christ, instead of taking the Christian system, at 
second hand, &om a privileged Order, l^at one deed would en- 
title him to the eternal gratitude of mankind. Luther was not 
tolerant, he was not consistent ; but how outspoken and fear- 
less was he, even when life was at stake ! We cannot think of 
him without calling to mind the celebrated words : " I will 
go," he said, when on the arrival of the summons to appear 
before the Diet of Worms, faint-hearted friends augured for him 
the fete of HnsB, — " I will go, if there were as many devils 

* " — dooh twintrenwillioh Nienuutd." The expTetaion oconiiinhis 
flnt Bennon on his letam from Wartbnrg. (Luthtr't Wirrki^ vcd. xviii. 
p. 356. ) BimilaT Rentiineiita are found elsewhere Uuonghont his e«diez 

F*^"'*" leminds us that we ehonld be careful, in consideriDgr the 
Beformatioii as part of the histoiy of maDMnd, not to be mialed b; the 
idea that Luther contended for freedom of inqniiy and bonndU«s 
privil^e of indiTidoal judgment. {IMerabttre qf Europe,. Boeboo. Ed. 
1864; ToL i. pp. 806-7.) 

But I think we shonld not deny merit to those who m^ have ad- 
vanced, if it be bnt a few steps, on the road to mental snfraDchisementi, 
becaose, closed by the intolerant and dagroatioal i^t «f their Bg«, 
thej fuled to go farther. 

I Bball have occasion also, t)efore cloehig these remadca, to Aow, 
that Luther held, and boldl; espieased, adfanoed ideas on the aubjeofe 
of liteialism and plenary inipiiatian. 

DMn;.^:b, Google 

then M there are tilea on the roofs of the housea." 
and the world will long remember the isBue.* 

g 5. Thb Sis at MABBusa asd at Geneva. 

De«i> must be the regret felt by every friend of the fearless 
Witteabei^r, in caUing to mind that history vas soon to pre- 
sent the reverse of the medal. Ei^t jeai-s later, Luther was 
Eommoned by Philip, Landgrave of Hesse, to another meeting ; 
this time at Marburg ; f not, as before, to face emperor, and 
nobles, and ecclesiarchs; but, in friendship to confer with a 
man as brave and honest as himself; a fellow-soldier in the 
good fight of faith, stout Ulrich Zwingli ; who brought with 
him other of the Swiss Reformers. They differed on the 
doctrine of the Eucharist,^ and the Landgrave hoped to recon- 

* " Little monk," said the TeteiBnoommanderFrenndaberg.tiqipiiig 
him on the Bboulder as he entered the hall — " UtUe monk, little monk, 
tboa art on a pasaasQ more perilaiis than anf I have ever known on the 
bloodiest battle- fields. But if tiioa art right, fear not 1 Qod will sns' 
tun t,hee." Quaint and nndannted that monk stood before nobles of 
the Empire and dignitanes of the Obnich. When admonished tliat 
acgonient was nnfit, and that the Diet wanted 0UI7 a straightforward 
answez as to whetJier he wonid recant, he sajd tiiey should have on 
uuwcr that " had neither hoins nor teeth " (die weder HoEDer nooh 
Kahaehabentoll"); anditwas that well-known one: "lamoonsdenoe- 
boond in Qod's Word, and cannot and dare not recant; ainoe it la 
ne[ther safe nor advisable to do anything against oousctence. Here I 
stand ; I cannot otherwise ; God help me I Amen 1 " 
t A town of Heese Csswl, on the Lahn. 

} Lather believed in the " real presence " of Catholidsm ; defendiug 
his opinion with bis osoal plamp diiectnees, in bis treatise : Dam die 
Wort« CfirufU, " das ist mein Leib," etc., noehfitt eU!ien ; and in his 
Qrotta SekmntJiut {1638). He says (allnding to the text, Mat- 
thew xxTl. 3ft) ; "We are not such fools as not to understand these 
words. If they are not clear, I don't know how to talk German. *"■ 
I not to compiebend when a man puts a loaf of bread boforo me, and 
■ays : ' Toko, eat, this is a loaf of bread ; ' and sgoin, ' Take, drink, 


cile (bis difference ; but each held to his opinion. At the close 
Zwingli exclainted : " Let us oonfesB our union in all things in 
which we agree, and as for the rest let us remember that we are 
brothers." The Landgrave again eamestly urged concord. 
Zwingli, addressing the Wittenbeig doctors, said: "There ia 
Qo one on earth with whom I more desire to be united than 
with you," Then the noble Swiss Reformer, bursting into 
tears and approaching Luther, extended his hand. I^e obdu- 
rate German rejected it, " You have a diSerent spirit &om 
ours," was all he said,* 

Ah, Martin Luther I Valiant wert thou in defence of the 
modicum of holy truth thou sawest ; and, for that, honored 
forevM* be thy name I But at Marburg, like other disciples 
before thee, thou knewest not what spirit thou wert of. Quic^ 

this is a gloBB of nine ' ? In the same maimer, wlien ChnBt b^b, 
' Take, eat, this is my body,' evsiy ohUd mnst nndorstand that be 
^leaks of that which he gives to bis disdples."— ZiiHtfr"* Works, 
Walch'H Ed. HflUe, 1740-58, vol ix. p. 918. 

And again, in bis Larger CaUehitm, Art. Lor^t Sapper (p. 651), 
he says : " A hundzed thooeand devils, with a paick of visionaiiea to 
boot, may come at me, askinB : ' How can bread and wins be Christ'a 
body and blood ? ' still I know that ail the Spirits, and all the learned 
beads that can be Ininped togethex, haven't as much wisdom as Gk>d'a 
Majesty has in bis least little fin{(er." 

Zwingli, cat the ctmtrary, regarded the words in question simply as a 
trope, iihe the other woids of Christ ; " J am the true vine : . . . ye 
aie the branches" (John xv. 1, G). "The bread," he said,' "le- 
mains the same, bat the dignity of the Lord's Snpper gives it value." — 
KAaBHBACH : nUtory of Doetrinet, vol, iL p. 313 (New York Bi. 

* It was in 1S39. Two years later, Zwingli gave his life, on tho 
battlefteld, for the Profeetant canse. One wonders what Lnthet's een- 
satloQS may have been when the news reached him. 

Sinoe writmg the above, I iind, in a biography of Lutber by taw of 
his wannest admirers, the foUowiag: ■■When Lnthei heaid of the 
death of the brave Swiss, on the Bangaioaiy field of Ciqipel, fighting 
for the libertiea of his conntry, there is. no i^mpathy, but a grating' 
hoishnees in the tone in which ho received the sad news." — TcLLOOa : 
Ltadtnofthelicfarmation,. London, 1859, p. 82. 


to coDdemu what to thy Bhort-aight loomed ap, thoiigli but a 
mote in another's eye, blind to the beam in thine own, when 
thou rejectedat the hand of thy gentle, weeping brother, who 
came to t^ee aning for peace aa becomes a child of God, the 
Omstiaa was dead within tliee : it was that Evil Spirit of self- 
love, which thy fancy had so often personified as Demon, that 
ruled the hour. Heaven help those who, in this, are still fol- 
lowing thy erring lead ! 

This radical error ran through the Oreat Eeformer's life. 
While one cannot read his "Table Talk," * without warming 
under the blunt gc^uality of the man, nor without admiring the 
force of his rough-he wings, yet his unchristian asperity toward 
his opponents — alas ! the spirit of his age among controversial- 
ists — is as directly opposed to the gentle teachings of his 
Master, as if the Wittenberg doctor had never looked into the 
Testament, or read the Sermon on the Mount. 

We might excuse him, perhaps, considering how he was per- 
secuted, for saying : " Seeing tbe Pope is Antichrist, I believe 
him to be a devil incarnate; "f we may find apology even for 
this : " He that says the Gospel requires works for salvation, I 
say, flat and plain, is a liar." ^ But what shall we e&y, of the 
terms he applies to one of the most distinguished scholars of 
ihfl age, the intimate of Sir Thomas More, one who revived tho 

• Dr. Martin Iinther's OeOogvia XerudUa, or hw Bkine BUeoartei 
athU TaUt: gathered, witih the sampaloaa pouctilioaHiieBB of aBoo- 
well, from tfae montii of Luther, by two of his most intunate friends 
and disciples (Laaterbaiilt and Aurifabei), translated by Hazlitt, Lou- 
don, 1848. 

Under an edict isaned by the Emperor findolphll., 80,000 copies of 
tifats work (Uien to be found in almost everj pariah of the empire) ore 
■aid to have been bniut 

f " Table Talk," p. 196. One of Anther's works is entitled : Baa 
PapgUAum m. Bom wm Teufd ffettifUt ; Ujatis : TfieBoman Popoey, 
on Jnttitation of lAe Devil. The expression quoted above is but ons 
of a hundred (some much mole abustre), which he " thundered," as 
his admiiera weire wont to expiets it, against tiie Chorcb of Bome, its 
bead and its cisxgy. The maos of steel was bis weapon. 

t TtMe TdU, p. 187. 


study of the ScriptDree in the origuia] tonguea, publishing, in 
1516, the first edition of the Greek Testament fi-om manuscripts 
— a man irho, like himself, had been condemned as a heretic 
by Roman Catholic authority — vhat shall we say of his abuse 
of such a man, whose worst faults were timidity and conserva- 
tive moderation ? " Erasmus of Rotterdam," naid Lnther, " is 
the vilest miscreant that ever disgraced the earth. 
Whenever I pray, I pray for a curse upon Erasmus." * 

It is to be admitted, however, that Lutlier is not the expo- 
nent of that phase of early Protestantism which led men the far- 
thest astray from the paths of charity and justice. A man, 
second only to himself in prominence as a Reformer, with more 
learning, and, in the sense of the schools, an acuter intellect 
than Luther — one more polished, too, and iar more cold-blooded 
than the bluff and hearty Wittenberger — this man, John Cal- 
vin, sinned far more grievously ibau the other, not against 
light and knowledge — for the stem Genevan is not to be taxed 
'with insincerity — but against the Spirit that can alone reform 
the heart of man — against that holy Spirit, without which the 
most eloquent master of all mysteries and all knowledge is but 
as sounding brass or a tinkling cymbal. 

One of the forty -one heresies charged against Luther in Leo's 
bull of excommunication was that he (Luther) had declared it 
to he " against the will of the Holy Ghost to i>tim heretics.'* 
£ut Calvin was accessory to that very persecution unto death 
for opinion's sake which the other, at the outset of his career 
as a Reformer, had thus emphatically condemned. 

That I may not be held to have made l^ht assertion here 
touching an important episode in history which I had not care- 
fully examined, I pray you to bear with me while I briefly re- 
call the chief incidents connected with the burning as a heretic, 

* Table 7alk, p. 283. The inuaediate cauae of tiiia outburst seems 
to have been Erasmna' etprenion of opinioD tiiat the Epistle to the 
Romiuis, whatever it mig'ht have been ut a f onoer period, was not a^di- 
cable to tiie state of thingrs in tho sixteeath century. (Same page.) 


by the Protestants of Geneva, of u follow Christian, in tl^e year 
i553. The Etory has been told by an eminent Protestant di- 
vine, with careful impartiality ♦ and an exceeding minuteness 
of detail : and there are still eittant numerous ofBcial, or other- 
wise trustworthy authorities by which to test the historian's 

§ 6. The Fobtdnes asd the Fate op Seevetds. 

Michael Serreto (or, as he is ttsnaUy called, Bervetns) was 
bom in the year 1509, in Villa Nueva, a town in the kingdom 
of Atagon which had, thii'ty-five years before, become part of 
the kingdom of Spain. He was of reputable birth ; his parents 
being Catholic and his father an advocate in good standing and 
notary of the town. He was probably educated for the Church, 
in a Spanish Convent ; but he emigrated from his native coun- 
try at the age of nineteen, never to return to it. He was of 
feeble couBtitntion, afSicted with hernia from his birth, and, ac- 

* Uosheim's narrativs bean, throughout, the impreaa of fanitli. 
Deeplj feeling the delioacy of bis task, he si^, at the oirtaet: "It 
ig easier to poBs onluiTt between two fires bnming close to eaoh other 
than to relate, in sach faahitNU tbat no one shall be offended or exasper- 
ated, the btstoi; of a man who had bo many bitter enemies and aXtoag 
friends. The deep emottouB which arise when we look into such 
Bbi>toi7 — emotions of pitj, of love, of anger, of hatred — tend to mis- 
lead eren the man who sets the strictest guard on his otmeoienoe. . . 
I approach this woric with entore calmness and tranqniUil? of heart 
(mit dner T5Iligen Qelasaenheit und Stills dee Henens] and tske with 
me the earnest resolve at once to pat down oil sentiment that might 

distoib that calm I deprecate btit one thing — of all impatatiuns 

the most Bhamefal—that I shall knowingly pervert or suppress the 
troth." — MoenElM: Oetehiehtt da bei'dhmtai Spaaudicn AHites, 
iEeiadi SerBeto ; Helmstaedt, 1748 , pp. 4, 0. 

This history, which I believe bos never been translated, extends, 
with its namerons aooompanyiug documents, to 028 quarto pages, dis- 
playing an elaboiate and exhaostive research rarely to be fonnd outside 
of Qermon litaratare. 


cording to his own declaration, it was on acconnt of his infirm 
health that he never married. He eeems to have been earnest 
and Btadious from his youth up ; and it is not improbable that 
iitcdpient symptoms of heresy may have been the cause why, at 
BO early an age, he left the place of his birth. It is certain 
that three years after his emigration he had already abandoned 
the ilomiah faith, and become imbued with the religious ideas 
thfttwere to rule his life. These three years were *Mefly spent 
in study at the University of Toulouse. 

When but twenty-two years of age, to wit in 1530, he visited, 
at Basel, a noted Swiss Reformer, Johann Housschein, better 
known under the Greek name he assumed, of CE^lampadius ; 
frankly laying before bim his creed. It appears to have been 
^bstontially as follows : 

There is one God almighty, and none otiier beside him, singla 
not complex, who through his Word and through tho Holy Ghost, 
created all things. There is one only Lord, Jesus Christ, the 
Son of God, begotten by the eternal Word of the Father and 
given by God to men as Saviour and Redeemer : He prays to 
the Father for us ; and through bis ptoyers and by the agency 
o£ angels, we receive the Holy Ghost.* 

(Eoolampadius, thechief leader of the new religions movement 
in Basel and a man highly esteemed all over Switzerland, 'was 
by nature of mild and gentle character for tliat age ; yet he 
was sorely tried by the eagerness, and what he must have 

*Uoshbim: OetehiehU de» MieMd Seneto, p. 16. Hottihoeb: 
Behweitxer KirchengeaMdite, voL ii. p. 94. Throaghont Serretns' 
works, when he seeks minutely to de&ne bis idea of the nature and 
divinity of Christ, hia eiprewions are not veiy intelligible : a common 
fault; among the tbeologiana of that age, to say nothing of onr own. 

Here is Calvin's definition of the Trinity : " There is in the Father a 
proper hypostasis, which is conspicnous in the Bon; and Uience, also, 
we may easily infer the hypoEboaiB of the Son which distingnidies him 
from the Father. The same leaaouiiig is applicable to the Holy Spirit. 
But this is not a distiiiciioD of the essenco which it is unlawful to 
represent as any oUiec than simple and undivided,"— /»«(., Book 1, 
Chap. 18, § 2. 


deoued the j»«Biuiiptioii, of a Bcarcely-bectrded yonUi, who 
prassed upon him, a fiither in Isra^, doctrines savoring of 
Ari&Diam, and held argoment with one of more than twioe his 
own age, as man to man, on terms of frank equality. They 
parted, as honest men often do, mntnally incensed ; * the Span- 
iard protesting that he should ever recognize Christ as the Sou 
of Qod ; the Swiss inirinHng that if his opponent intended to be 
a ChristiaD, be must acknowledge Christ to be the vmcreated 
and eternal Sou of Ood,'of identical substance with the Faliher. 
It was the suse dispute, unsettled yet, that bad convulsed the 
Conncil of Nice, twelve hundred years before, between the ad- 
vocates of the or^Lodoz .fibmoouman and those of tJie hetero- 
dox Somoiaianan doctrine. 

A little knowledge of the world would have conviticed 
Servetoa that if his doctrines were thus harshly repulsed by a 
man of (Eoolampadius' easy temper, they would be certain to 
create a storm of indignation among the Beformera generally. 
£iit not perceiving this, or, if he perceived it, undeterred by 
prudence and carried away by the conviction that he had a 
miaaioa from Qod, the young Spaniard printed, in Strasbuig 
in 1531, bis work on the " Elrrors of the Trinity." | 

* When Bervetns, next year, weat to Btnubaig he oomplained to 
Bacer, a noted Befonner residing tberd, of (Eoolampadioa' hanh 
treatment. Buoer probably wrote on the rabject to (Ecolampsdiaa ; at 
bU events there is a letter extant oddrsBaed bj the latter to Bncer in 
which he excnlpates himself in th«se words : " I will be mtld in other 
things, bnt not when I hear Jeena Christ blasphemed." — Buckat : 
Attain de la B^ormatien de SaiMe, voL iJi Book t. 

f De Trirtitatii Snvribut, Lff^ri S^item. Asaepedmenof tbeobsonr- 
t^ of deOoition to which I have lefened, take the following from this 
woik : " Christ was preformed in the Divine mind ; he was a certain 
mode of ezistenoe whioh Qod oonstituted in himself, that he might 
make himself visible to ns ; namely bj desoribing the effigies of Jesns 
Christ in Himself." (Brat Obristnsin mentodivioapneformatos; erat 
qoidem modns se hsbeodi, qnem in se ipso Detis disposeit, at eeipemn 
nobis patefaoerst, sdlicet Jesa Cbristi efflgiem In se disoribendo."} 
Lib, viL p. 110. 

56 eEKVsrca ni pabis 

It had ft lai^ circulation, and an ezfisperatdng effect. CE^co- 
lompadius, writing to Bucer to exonerate his countiymeu from 
all sympathy with such a heresy, adds that " ho knew not how 
that beast had slipped into Switzerland," * And Bucer, usu- 
ally temperate in language for a theolc^ian of the sixteenth 
centuty, preached violently againat Serretua, declaring " that 
the heretic ought to be disembowelled and torn to pieces.'* f 

The Reformers felt the more outraged because the Catholics 
threw it up to them that this new Arianism of Servetua (ns 
they called it) was the legitimate ofiapring of the Reformation. 
It became unsafe for the rash innovator either in Switzerland 
or in Germany. He took refuge in France, at first in Lyons, 
afterwards in Paris, where, for years, he studied the profession 
of medicine, obtaining a degree both in that science and in arts. 
Ho lectured, also, on astronomy and mathematics, and, as it ap- 
peared, not to obscure audiences ; having had distinguished 
^en among his hearers, one of these being the le^imed Peter 
Palmer or Palmerius, afterwards, fortunately for Servetus, a 
dignitary of the Roman Church. Tlien he issued a medical 
work, got into serious trouble with the Paris faculty, end left 
Paris in consequence, in 1540. In lj>13 ho settled at Tienne, 
a town on the Rhone, some twenty-five miles south of Lyons 
his chief inducement being that his former friend and patron, 
Palmier, was then Catholic Archbishop of the place. There, 
also, he found warm well-wishers in the Archbishop's brother, 
the Prior, Jean Palmier, in Rochefort, President of the medical 
foculty, and in a former intimate friend and fellow-student in 
Paris, Jean Pcrellus, the Archbishop's physician. In Vienne, 
he issued two works ; a revised edition, with notes and emenda- 

* Epatela Zreinglii et Orkolamjxidii, vol. Ir. p. 801. 

f Calvin is the anthority for this. After Servetns' death, he wrote 
dofending bis conduct to a friend :" la [be is apeaking: of Servetns] est, 
de quo fidelia Chriati mimater, et saocti; memorial D. Bacems, qnum 
aUoqni manansto easet inganio, pro angffesta prontmciavit : dignum esse, 
qui avtilais visoeribng diBoerperetnr."— Caleiai BpiaU^, CLVL ad Snl- 
oeram, p. 304 (Ed. Amstelod. 1507, page 00). 



tiona, of that great thesaurus of ancient cosmical knowledge, 
by Ptolemy, «hich Hvuuboldt characterizes as a colossal pro- 
duction ; &Dd a new edition of the Vulgate, with a pre&ce and 

Ten years he Bj^ent at Vienne, the most tranquil of his 
stonuy life ; his practice as physician daily increasing through 
tlie &vor of influeutial friends, to whom, as he gracefiilly ex- 
pressed it in the dedication of his l^lemarus, his obligations 
■were as great as were those of the students of geography to 
Ptolemy himself. During this time, he silently conformed to 
the rites of the Catholic Chiirch ; constrained thereto, doubt- 
less, by a sense of the extreme rashneaa of alienating those 
benevolent patrons to whom he owed not his present easy cir- 
cumstances only, but the protection of Ids life. 

Aft pr a time, however, he became restless, accusing himself 
that, by such conformity, he was paltering with his conscience, 
and neglecting the wort which God had laid upon him. He 
sought to renew, with Calvin, a theological correspondence 
which he had begun tea years before. Calvin's biographers 
state that in setting before the Qeueveee Baformer what be 
considered to be hia (Calvin's) departure from true Christian 
doctrine, Servetus admonished him with much asperity ; and 
this is doubtless true; for the Spaniard's zeal, like that of 
almost all the Beformers of that day, was mingled with arro- 
gance. We may suppose it was for this reason that Calvin re- 
plied not a word t» the other's repeated missives.* 

• It ought not, however, in thia conuectioa, to be forgotten that Cal- 
vin, yean before, permitted a spirit o( the coarsest reviUng against his 
opponent to break ont even in hia (Calvin's) commentariee on the Bible. 
Oa Qenesis i. 3, histumotatioo is : " This alone is enough to refute the 
bksplieiny of Servetus. That obaceue barfea that this was the ori- 
gin of the Word when God commanded there should be light." In the 
Amsterdam edition of Calvin's works (9 vols, foi, 1671) will be found 
the original Latin, reading Urns : " Latiat hio obsccenos canis hoc pri- 
miun fuisse Verb! injliuni, qnnm Dens mandavit at lux esaet." Other 
paBsagea (as the comment on St Jobni. 1) contain liniilar terms of 


Then Servetns resolved on^the publication of his cliief and 
nioBt noted 'work ; * one on which he hfbd been laboring for 
years and which coat him his life. The idea iriiich had foE^ 
merly haunted him returned with resistless force. He was a 
soldier of Christ, called upon to take part (as he was wont to 
express it) in the great fight now being waged between Michael 
and the Dragon. Luther himself was not more zealous in bi« 
&ith, nor more bold in expressing it. Servetos' pre&ce ex- 
hibits his profound conviction that God had called him to bear 
witness before a benighted world. With a touching earnest- 
ness he implores the Son of Ood that he would reveal Himself 
to his servant, enlightening him, vouchsafing a holy spirit and 
words of power, and so directing thoughts and pen that tha 
gloiy of His own divinity might be set forth and the very 
truth of Christian faith be illustrated, f Christ was banished 
from the world (he declares in his book) when the Nioeaa 
Council set aside the true doctrine touching His person, and 
proclaimed the dc^;ma of a tripartite God. J 

oppiobrinm. (Neo me latet quid oblatret hie cauis, «to. ) It needs a 
refeienoe to such passagea as originally written, to oonvlnoe one Uiat 
men of gravity and world>wido repatatioii, seeking sacred truths, oould 
indolge, towaid fnUow-Iaboieia, in spirit and Isngnoge bo utterly dis- 

* Re»Ulutid GltriUianimd. It was printed, at Servetos' own cost 
(1,000 oopiea), by Balthazar Amollet, inTlenne, and publiahed eariyin 
the yeailGSS. Tbia is said to be the soaicest work in the lepaUio of 
lettets, Cutholica, CDlvimsts, Lutherans concnned in efforts for ita 
destraction. It is donbtful wbether more than a eingle printed oopy 
remains, and tJiat brought, at the Tolleliian sole in 1784, the eum of 
4,120 livres. 

f " Cbriste Jesu, fiU Dei, . . . teipsom aperi Berro too, nt manie- 
festatio tanta vera patefiat. Spiritam tnnm bonnm et verbum effioax 
petcnti nunc tribue, mentom meam et calamnm dii^, at divinitatda ton 
gloriam poBsim enanaie ao veram di te fldem e^rimere." — Preface to 
the BegtoraUon if ChrigtianUg. 

t " Ab eo tempore eat in tres res tripartituB Dena, fngatus omniua 
ChriBtna, pesaondata omnino eooleBia."— Aei^titti) Ghrittianimti, Lib, 
I. p. 894. 


Nor did the entbufdaat conceal from himself that life was 
itoked oa the iBOue. In a letter to Abel Pepin, a Oenevese 
divine, wriMen some yeare before the publication of his work on 
the Beetoration of Christianity, and used against him on his 
trial, he says: " I know of a surety that I shall dio for this 
cftose ; but not on that account do I lose heart, desiring to be- 
come a disciple like unto my Master." * 

In another part of this letter to Pepin is a sample of the 
impmdenoe of Bpeecb into which Servetua was occasionally be- 
tarayed. He bluntly teUs the QeneTese preacher, " Tonr gospel 
is without the one God, without the true faith, without good 
works. Instead of one God you have a three-headed Cerberus ; 
inabiad of true faith you have a fat^ dream ; and good works 
yon say are empty showB." 

It does not appear, however, that in his works he permitted 
himself any expression so offensive to trinitarians, as the "three- 
headed Cerberus." His strongest printed expressions are a 
" cMmera," a " mere imagination," and the like. 

Scarcely had Servetus' book been issued, when a copy found 
its way to Geneva, where it produced no little excitement. A 
certain Frenchmao, named William Trie, a convert from the 
Church of Rome, who had taken refuge in that city, seems to 
have been especially irritated thereby. He wrote, in March 
(1553), to a Catholic friend in Lyons, some have said at the 
instagation of Calvin, but of that I find no sufficient proof. 
He taunted his friend with the carelessness of the Church he 
himself had deserted, in tolerating, in Vienne, an arch heretic ; 
and he gave Servetus' name and address, and the title of the 
new work of which he was the author. His friend held it a 
duty to bring Uie matter to the notice of the Archbishop of 
Tienne. Slowly and reluctantly, aa it seemed, Servetus' Cath- 
olic friends in Vienne moved in the matter ; alleging that there 

* "Mihi ob earn rem moriendnm esse, certo sdo; sed non propteria 
uumo deHoior, nt Bam discipulDS BinuliH Preceptori." This letter, 
written in 1540, U given by Hoaheim, copied ttota Qie official le^ster 
ot the trioL— CwaAttAfd de* MichaA Serctto, p. 100. 



waa not Bufficient proof that tlie well-known and much es- 
teemed physician, Michael de Villa Nueva (for under that 
nama Uc was known among them), was Servetus, and had written 
the book in question. Disappointed in hia firefc effort, Trie 
procured from Calvin the private letters on theolf^ which 
Servetus had addressed to him, and sent these, in the month of 
April, to Vienne. Even then the Catholic officials seem to 
have hesitated. Six weeks mote elapsed ere Servetus was 
arrested; and this was done in a private way, his feelings 
being respected to the utmost. In prison he was assigned com- 
fortable quarters; his servant was allowed to be with him ; he 
was suffered to retain his money and other valuables and even 
permitted the range of the building. On his examination his 
book and his letters to Calvin were used as evidence against 
him, and he fronklj confessed himself the author of both. A 
few days later and before sentence, he escaped from prison, 
probably by the connivance of his Catholic friends, including 
the Archbishop; and, after a fruitless search for him, which 
seems not to have been earnestly pressed, he was condemned 
as a heretic and burnt in effigy. 

It was in the month of June that Servetus fled from Yienne, 
resolved to seek refuge and a hvelihood as physiciaa in Naples. 
Two roads were open to him; that by Piedmont, to which his 
objection probably was that he was then liable to be overtaken 
by a warrant issued for his apprehension by the inquisitors of 
Vienne; the other, by Geneva through Switzerland, which he 
selected, doubtless deeming it the safer route. He probably 
underrated Calvin's power among his fellow-burgesses, not 
knowing how narrowly a distinguished member of the City 
Council • had escaped a few years before. Nor is it likely he 

* Peter Ameanx. He had spoken somewhat frael; of Calvin's doo- 

trinea, eBpecioll; of predestioation and election, and his temeiit; coet 
him dear. Deposed from his office and cost into prison, he was fain to 
purchaae his leleose by appearing as a penitenti, wailight in baud, oon- 
fesni^ the lan he bad committed and imploring fo^veneae for bis 
heiet^. — 0«iehic/U» da Micftttd Scrreta, p. 152. 


had ever been informed, that in the previous month of Novem- 
ber a decree had passed the Council of Geneva, declaring Cal- 
vin's JntUbUes to be a book " well and holiiy -written, its 
doctrine to be the holj doctrine of God," and that "from this 
time forth no one shall dare to say aught against the said book 
or the said doctrine; " commanding all and several that they 
adhere to this.* 

There was another document, which, had the poor fugitive 
aeea it, would have warned him that of all places Geneva waa 
the most dangerous for him to pass through. It was a letter, 
addressed by Calvin seven years before (to wit, in 154G), to his 
friend, William Farell (or Farelluo), in which occurs this pas- 
sage : " Servetus wrote to me lately, and to his letters added 
a larga volume of his ravings, with braggart boastings that I 
sbotild therein find things stupendous and hitherto unheard of. 
If it pleased me, he added, he would come hither ; hut I was 

* I shall have occB«on a few pages fiirtlter on to speak of the book 
beie referred to and its doctrines. The decree from which I have 
quoted above is as well worth pzeaerving, in ite qnaint old dreea, aa any 
Bgjptian mammj in its Deremente. Here it is, dated, it will be ob- 
SBTved, Wedneeday, November 9, luS2 : 

" 'P»*ft'" ouys in Canaeil, et savans ministies de la parolle de DIeu, 
Maistre Qoilhuuue Farol et Pierro Virat, et aprea euz epectables maia- 
tre Johan Calvin et maistre Johan Trooillet, en lears dires et leprochea 
BOQvent debattaea de riiiatitnta<m Chreaiaene dn diet monaieur Cajrin, 
et te tout bien coosiderf, le consell ajTest:6 et oonclu qae tontea choeea 
bien oyee etentendn, a pn>nono6 et declai6 la diet Uvrede I'lnatitnticm 
dn diet monsieur, estre bien et tamcbemeat faict, sa dootrine eatie 
Huncte doctrine de Dien ; que I'on le tient pour bon et vrai ministre de 
caste Citu, et que de I'iei a raTetur persoune no soit OBe parler centre le 
diet livre on la dicte doctrine. Commandana am pareilles et a tons ae 
doive tenip a oela. Le Meqnradi, que fat nettfvieme de Novembre ; 
I'an mille innoq ocna ciucqannte et denx." 

The oiiginal, cd the records at the Coundl, can donbtiesa still be seen 
at Geneva. Ciuibalio, a nei(;hbor and contemporai; of Calvin (if, as is 
aanally believed, he was the aaOioi of Contra UbeBum Cakini, 1GS4), 
publishes It entire in tiiat work. 


53 ciLms'B aBmvous but. 

Btudj of th« Scriptures in the original tongues, publishing, in 
1516, the first edition of the Greek Testament from manuscripts 
— a man who, like himself, had been condemned as a heretic 
by Roman Catholic authority — what shall we say of his abuse 
of such a man, whose worst &ults were timidity and conserva- 
tive moderation ? " Erasmus of Rotterdam," Haid Luther, " is 
the vilest miscreant that ever disgraced the eaj-th. . . , 
Whenever I pray, I pray for a curse upon Erasmus." * 

It is to be admitted, however, that Luther is not the expo- 
nent of that phase of early Protestantism which led men the far- 
thest astray from the paths of charity and justice. A man, 
second only to himself in prominence as a Bcformer, with more 
learning, and, in the sense of the schools, an acuter intellect 
than Luther — one more polished, too, and far more cold-blooded 
than the bluflf and hearty Witteoberger — this man, John Cal- 
vin, sinned &r more grievously than the other, not against 
light sad knowledge — for the stem Genevan is not to be taxed 
with insincerity — but against the Spirit that con alone reform 
tho heart of man — against that holy Spirit, without which the 
most eloquent master of all mysteries and all knowledge is but 
as souniting brass or a tinkling cymbal. 

One of the forty-one heresies chained against Luther in Leo's 
bull of excommunication was that he (Luther) had declared it 
to be " against the will of the Holy Ghost to hwa heretica," 
But Calvin was accessory to that very persecution unto deatli 
for opinion's sake which the other, at the outset of his career 
as a Reformer, had thus emphatically condemned. 
' That I may not be held to have made light assertion here 
touching an important episode in hbtory which I bad not care- 
fully examined, I pray you to bear with me while I laiefly re- 
call the chief incidents connected with the burning as a heretic, 

* TabU lalk, p. 363. The immediate caiue of this oatburst seems 
to have been Eraamna' exprGssion of opinion that tlie Epistle to tho 
Bomans. whatever it might have been ut a former period, was not aiqdi- 
eable to Uie state of thio^ in Uie oixtcGnth oentn^. (Same page.) 


by the Frotestaate of Geneva, of a fellow Christian, in tl^e jear 
i553. The story has been told by an emmeut Protestant di- 
vine, with careful impartiality * and an exceeding minuteness 
of detail : and tJiere are still extant numerous official, or other- 
wise trustworthy authorities by which to test the historian's 

§ 6, The Fobtuneb akd the Fate of Sebvetds, 

Michael Serveto (or, as he is usually called, Servetus) was 
born in the year 1609, in Yilla Nueva, a town in the kingdom 
of Aragon which had, thu-ty-five years before, become part of 
the kingdom of Spain. He was of reputable birth ; bis parents 
being Catholic and his father an advocate in good standing and 
notary of the town. He was probably educated for the Church, 
in a Spanish Convent ; but he emigrated from his native coun- 
try at the age of nineteen, never to return to it. He was of 
feeble conatitntion, afflicted with hernia, from his birth, and, ac- 

* Hoehefm'B narrative bears, thronglioiit, Uie impress of tiuth. 
Deeply feeling: the detioacy of his task, he says, at the ooteet: "It 
is eaaiai to pass unhuit between two fires batning dose to each other 
than to relate, in sach faahloa that no one ahall. be oBeoded or exasper- 
ated, the liistory of a man who had so tDany bitter eaemiea and stroag 
friends. The deep emotions which arise when we look into sach 
a history— emotions of pity, of love, of anger, of hatred— tend to mis- 
lead even the man who sets the strictest gaaii onhis coneoieQce. . . 
I ^preach this woi^ with entire calmness and tranquillity of heatt 
(mit einer voDigen Qelassenheit und Stille dee Hanens] and take with 
me the earnest resolve st onoe to put down all sentiment that m^ht 
distnrb that calm. .. . . I deprecate but one thing— of sU imputations 
tlie most shameFul — that I shall kuowingfly pervert or suppress the 
truth." — Mdbiieiu; Qe»eAieAie de» befuhmten Spatuae/ifii Artztes, 
Mi^di Serceto; Helrastaedt, 1748, pp. 4, S. 

This history, which I believe has never been translated, extends, 
with its numenma aocompanying documents, to 1338 quarto pages, dis- 
{daying an elaboiate and exhaustive research rarely to be found outside 
of Qennan literatnre. 

., Google 


cording to lia own declaration, it was on acooant of hia infirm 
health that he never married. He Beeins to have heen earnest 
and studious from his youth up ; and it is not improbable that 
incipient symptoms of heresy may have been the cause why, at 
so early an age, he left the place of hia birth. It is certain 
that three years aft«r his emigration he had already abandoned 
the !Romiah faith, and become imbued with the religious ideas 
that were to rule his life. These three years were chiefly spent 
in study at the University of Toulouse. 

When but twenty-two years of age, to wit in IS30, he visited, 
at Basel, a noted Swiss Reformer, Johann Hausschein, better 
known under the Greek name he assumed, of CEcolampadius ; 
frankly laying before him hia creed. It appears to have been 
qubatantially as follows : 

There is one God almighty, and none other beside him, single 
not complex, who through his Word and throngh tho Holy Ghost, 
created all things. There ia one only Lord, Jesus Christ, ths 
Son q{ God, begotten by the et«mal Word of the Father and 
given by God to men aa Saviour and Bedeemer : He prays to 
the Father for ua ; and through his prayers and by the agency 
of angels, we receive the Holy Ghost.* 

CEcolampadius, the chief leader of t^o new religioua movement 
Ln Basel and a man highly esteemed all over Switzerland, was 
by nature of mild and gentle character for that age ; yet he 
was sorely tried by the eagerness, and what he muat have 

'HosHBiu: OacMehte da Miehad 8ero^, p. 16. Hottikoeb: 
Sehtee^i^ Kirehenge»efiie/ile, vol ii. p. 94. Thtoaghont Servetoa' 
works, when he seeks minntel}' to deOne his idea of the natnre and 
divinity of Christ, hia ezpreBBionn are aat very intell^tble ; a common 
fault amoDgf the theologians of tiiat age, to say nothing- of out own. 

Here ia Calvin's deOnition of the Tiinitr ; " There ia in the Father « 
proper hjpostaaiB, which ia conspicuous in the Son; and thence, also, 
we may easily infer the h}rpostaEds of the Son which diathigniahes him 
from the Father. The aamc reasoning is applicable to the Holy Spirit 
Bnt thia ia not a distinction of the essence which it ia unlawful to 
lepreeent aa ai^ other than simple and undivided." — iTat., Book I, 
Chap. 18, § a. 


deemed the jMesamption, of a Bcarcely-bearded yoatb, who 
pressed upon him, a &ther in Israel, doctrineB savoring of 
^li&msm, and held argument with one of more than twice his 
own age, as man to man, on terms of fnmk equality. They 
parted, aa honest men often do, mutually incensed ; * the Span- 
iard proteating that he should ever recognize Christ as the Son 
of God ; the Swiss insisting that if his opponent intended to be 
» Christian, he must acknowledge Christ to be the v/nertt^Kd 
and eternal Son of God,' of identical substance with the Father. 
It w«a the same dilute, unsettled yet, that had convulsed the 
Conncil of Nice, twelve hundred years before, between the ad- 
vocates of the orthodox Somoomncm and those of die hetero- 
dox SomoUmnan doctrine. 

A little knowledge of the world would have convinced 
Servetos that if his doctrines were thus harshly repulsed by a 
man of (Ecolsmpadius' easy temper, they would be cerUin to 
create a storm of indignation among the Reformers generally. 
But not perceiving this, or, if he perceived it, undeterred by 
prudence and canied away by the conviction that he had a 
nisaion &om Qod, the young Spaniard printed, in Strasbui^ 
in 1531, his work on the "Erroraof the Trinity." | 

* When SeTvatas, next jeax, went to StcBBbnig lie oomplained to 
Bncei, a noted Befonner reeidiiig tiiere, of (EooUmpadins' harsh 
beatment. Bncer probabl^wrote on tha subject to (Ecolampadioa: at 
all entnta there is a letter extant oddiesaod bj the latter to Bncer in 
wMoh he esoalpatea himself in these words: " I will be mQd in other 
things, bat not when I hear Jutu Christ blasphemed." — Ruchat : 
BMeire de la BeformaUon Ae Suitie, yoL m. Book 7. 

f Ik THnitatU SrroTibai, Libri SfpUra. Ae a apecimsn of the obaoni- 
tt7 of definition to whidi I have referred, take the following from t^ 
work : " Christ woe piefonned in the Divine suDd ; he was a certain 
mode of existence which God constituted in hiniBelf , that he mi^ht 
make himadf vimUe to na ; namalj by describing the efflgies of Jesns 
Christ in HimaeU." (Brat Chrietiu in mentedivinapneformatna; erat 
qaidem modos se habendi, qnem in ee ipso Dens disposoit, at seipaam 
nobia patefaoeret, ainlioet Jean Chriati efflgiem In se diacribendo.") 
Lib. viL p. 110. 


It had ft large circulation, and an exasperating effect. CSco- 
lampadius, writing to Bucer to exonerate his countrTmen from 
all sympathy witli such a heresy, adds that " he knew not how 
that beast had slipped into Switzerland." • And Bucer, usu- 
ally temperate in language for a theologian of the sixteenth 
century, preached violently against Servetus, declaring " that 
the heretic ought to be disembowelled and torn to pieces." | 

The Beformcrs felt the more outraged because the Catholics 
threw it up to them that tliia new Arianism of Servetua (ns 
they called it) was the legitimate offspring of the Reformation, ! 
It became unsafe for the rash innovator either in Switzerland | 
or in Germany. He took refuge in France, at first in Lyons, : 
afterwards in Paris, whei-e, for years, he studied the profession 
of medicine, obtaining a degree both in that science and in arta. 
Ro lectured, also, on astronomy and mathematics, and, aa it ap- 
peared, not to obscure audiences ; having had distinguished 
;aen among his hearera, one of these being the learned Peter 
Palmer or Palmerius, afterwards, fortunately for SerTetus, a 
dignitary of the Roman Chinch. Then he issued a medical 
work, got into serious trouble with the Paris faculty, and left 
Paris in consequence, in 1540. In 1542 he settled at Yienne, 
a town on the Rhone, some twenty-five miles south of Lyoi 
his chief inducement being that his former friend and patron, 
Palmier, was then Catholic Archbishop of the place. There, 
also, he found warm well-wishers in the Archbishop's brother, 
the Prior, Jean Palmier, in Rochofort, President of the medical 
faculty, and in a former intimate friend and fellow-student in 
Paris, Jean Perellus, the Archbishop's physician. In Tienne, 
he issued two works ; a revised edition, with notes and emenda- 

■ Epistola ZwingUi et (HolainpadiS, vol. iv. p. 801. 

t Calvin is the authority for this. After Servetns' death, he wrot« 
defending his condact to a friend : "la [be is speaking of Scrvctos] est, 
da qno fldelis Christi minister, ct Banctts memoriaa D. Bucertis, quum 
alioqoi mammeto oasct ing«nio, pro snggesta pTonanciavit : digniuu esse, 
qui avulua vifloeribns disoerperetnr."— Calriai EjiMcht, CLVL ad Snl- 
oenim, p, 294 (Ed. Amstelod. 1007, poge 90). 


tions, of that gi*eat thesaurus of ancieot cosmical knowledge, 
by Ptolemy, which Humboldt cEaracterizes aa a colossal pro- 
duction ; aad a new edition of the Vulgat«, with a pre&ce and 

Ten years he s;^ent at Vienne, the most tranquil of his 
stormy life ; his practice as physician daily incteasing through 
the favor of influential friends, to whom, as he graceftilly ex- 
pressed it in the dedication of his PtoUraaeUfS, his obligations 
'were as great as were those of the students of geography to 
Ftolemy himselE Ihiring this time, be silently conformed to 
the rites of the Catholic Church ; constrained thereto, doubt- 
less, by a sense of the extreme rashness of alienating those 
benevolent patrons to whom he owed not his present easy cir- 
cumstances only, but the protection of his life. 

After a time, however, he became restless, accusing himself 
that, by such conformity, he was paltering with his conscience, 
and neglecting the work which Owi had laid upon him. He 
sought to renew, with Calvin, a theological correspondence 
which he had h^^n ten years before. Calvin's biographers 
state that in setting before the Geneveee Beformer what he 
considered to be his (Calvin's) departure from true Christian 
doctrine, Servetus admonished him with much asperity; and 
this is doubtless true ; for the Spaniard's zeal, like that of 
almost ail the Reformers of that day, was mingled with arro- 
gance. We may suppose it was for this reason that Calvin re- 
plied not a word to the other's repeated missives.* 

* It ought not, however, fa this comiection, to be foigotten that Col- 
Tin, jfaxB before, permitted a spiiit of the ooarseBt TeviUng against his 
opponent to btealc cat even m bis {Calvin's) commentaries on the Bible. 
On Qeneais i. 3, his annotation is : " This alone is enough to lefnte the 
bluphem; of Servetos. That obscene dog barka that this was the ori- 
gin of the Word when Ood conmtanded thera should be tight" lathe 
Amatcrdam edition of Calvin's works (9 vols. foL, lltTl) vriU be found 
the original Latin, reading thns : " Latrat hie obscmnus canis boo pri- 
mnm fuisse Verb! Initiom, qnam Dens mandavit ut lux esset." Other 
passages (as the comment on St John i. 1) contain elmilax tenne of 


thnlled with horror. The fuel was green oak wood and bis 
torture lasted a full half hour. Some of the spectetora, urged 
by irresUtiUe compaasion, flung burning faf^ta over his body, 
the Booner to end his agony. His very last words, prononaoed 
in a loud voice, were these: "Jesus, thou Son of the etemal 
God, take pity upon me." * 

Thus perished, martyr to his rel^ions opiniona, a FroteatAnt 
whom Musheim declares to have been "one of the most 
thoughtftil and learned men of his day." f Ccutvin caused his 
death, but is not responsible far his torture.^ Nor should we 

* These and man? other dahulg will be found In Mosheini'a OetehichU 
dtiilichaASeniHo,% xxzi. pp. 235-228. 

f — " eloer der tietBumingBten and gelehitesteii Mtt-TiTmr seinei Zei- 
ten," — Hobbeim: Oetehklttt de» Michad Bereeto, <p. ^SSi. 

Sdence, bM, owes a debt of (rratitQde to the Spanish pbTsioian. 
The author of the article " Circulation," in Caea' Encyclopedia, sayn : 
"The first ray of light was thrown ou the drenlotion of the blood by a 
man (Servetus) whose name cannot be mentioned without fadisga of 

Tha paau^ to which the above lefeis will be (onnd quoted, at 
length, in An impartial History of MbJiad Servetta, tural aUve at 
Geneva for IleretU, London, 1784, p. 67. 

I When it seemed not luilikely that Peiret and the other friends of 
laoderation ntif^t cany the day and save Serretus' life. Calvin threat- 
ened, in that eaae, to leave Geneva and take -op hia abode elsewhere ; 
whereapoa his friend Heinrich Bnllinger, hearii^ of SDch intention, 
tbonght it necessary to entreat him (by letter of September 14) not to 
desert a Chnrch where ao many good men were to be found ; aince 
" though swine and dogs " (the writer's paiaphraae for heretics) " were 
more nnmerona than could be wished, yet we should bear much for the 
elect's sake, seeing that throngh many tribulations wa must enter tlie 
Kingdom of God."— HOBHKIU, p. 331. HBSB. BtTLLmoBB, in Epist. 
Colvini, No. 157, p. 395. The text is; "Nereoeeseria, oro, abeaecoleaa, 
quEB tot habet viros excellentes. . . . Tametsi enim snnt porct et ca- 
ses mnlto plures quam velimoa, propter electos tamen molta sunt to> 
leranda. Per mnltaa tribniationea oportet noB iugredi in regnnm DeL" 

To console, under anticipated misfortmie, a man who fean he aludl 
not hare the satlsfactiou of proouring the death of one who holds relig- 
ions opinions at variance with his own, by reminding him that it is only 


regard as feigned a zeal that ens only for lack of knowledge. 
We htiTe no right to deny that, like Paul before his conversion, 
the Genevese Beformer verily believed that in persecuting those 
fit>m whom he dissented he was doing Qod service. Certain 
it is, he fioldly justified the deed.* 

Nor he alone. Lamentable to relate, it was generally com- 
mended by the Protestants of that day as an act pleasing to 
God. Mosheim, speaking of the state of feeling among the 
Reformers, whei; the news of Servetus' death spread among 
them, says that while a few condemned the severity of the pun- 
ishment, by &i the greater number endoi-sed the deed and 
applauded, as worthy of immortal honor, Calvin's zeal for 
religion.f The mild Melancthon, himself, wiiting to Calvin a 
year after the imutyrdom of Servetua, scrupled not to say : 
" The Cliurch owes you now, and will owe you in future times, 
A debt of gratitude. ... I affirm that yonr mi^istrates acted 
justly inasmuch as, by judicial sentence, they put to death that 
blasphemous man." J 

tlizoii^ mneh tribnlotion we oan reach Heaven, is a very peoulisr and 
T«ty mzteenUi-ceiitiiij idea. 

However — to the ciedit of the Oenevese hteiarchf be it said — as soon 
as it becuae known that Servetos was doomed to be burnt aJive, Calvin 
and other pieacheis went in a bod; to the Cooucil and Boaght to pro- 
oure a aonunntation of tiie sentence to a milder form of death. — Mos- 
SEHf, p. 317. 

* " Am I gnitt; of crime," Calvin wrote, " becanse out Senate, at 
my instance (meo /wrtatu), revenged itself of his (Serrettts') execrable 
blsaphemies ? " (eiecrabilia sias blasphemios nltns est.) — Calvihus, 
StiipoTMime ad wnvitia Prane. Batduini, p. 439. 

f ' ' Wenn der Hanf □ deier gezahlet wird, die den Tod dea Servet's 
bedanren, so ist er nnr Idein in Ansehen derer die neb ilber den Untor- 
gttTig eines so ecbadUohen Maoues freneten, and aeinen Terfolger als 
ehwn nm die Kirohe unaterblich verdienten Eifeier lobeten." — Oeteltiehte 
Oet MitAad Senefo, p. £37. 

t " Tibi qnoqne ecclesia et none et ad posteros gratJtndinem debet 
«t debebit. . . . Afflrmo, etdam, veetros magistratns jaBt« fecesse, 
qaod hominem bUupheiiinni, re ordine judioata, inteifeoerant, — M»- 
metlton ad f^aMnum, Oct. 14, 1504. Cc^. Epitt. No. 187, p. 841. 


Whether LuUier would have coincided in this opinion most 
ever remain matter of conjecture; he died Beven years befoi« 
ServetuB suffered. Twenty-five years previous to that event 
he bad written against capital punishment for opinion ; de- 
claring that false teachers ought to be banished only.* 


In truth, as a general rule, the sixteenth-century Beformers 
rejected, in principle and in practice, the idea of religious free- 
dom. Among all the noted theologians of the Eefomiation, I 
find but two who upheld man's right to liberty of conscience ; 
Sebastian Castalio and Lcelius Socinus; neither to be ranked 
among the influential leaders of the Prot«stant moTement.f 
Castalio, French by birth, and for several years professor of 
classical literature at Geneva (but banished thence in the year 
1544 becanse of a quarrel with Calvin), was the more out- 
spoken. Socinus, an Italian of noble family, and (as is well- 
known) an anti-trinitarian, timid by nature, spoke less openly. J 

* ' ' Ego ad jndioiom BangainiB tardus sum, etdun abi msritara 
abondat. . . Knllo modo possum admtttcre falsos dootores oocidi : 
SatiB est, eos lel^aiL — Luth^ri BpitCotm (Ed. Antifabri), voL ii. p. 

f Since wiidug the above I am ^ad to find, in a recent wo^ evi- 
dence groing to prove that Zwingll sbonld be added to tbe list. Leokr 
(Ratioru^itm in Europe, vol i. p. S82. New York Ed.) quotes from 
Boesnet ( Variatimi ProUalantei, Book 3, Chap. 10) an extract from a 
Confeasion of Faith, written by the Swiss Tteformer, just before bis 
death, in which Zwin^ describes that "futnie assembly of all the 
sautij, tbe heroic, the faithful and the virinious," when Abel and 
Knooh, Noah and Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, will mingle with the s^ea 
and heroes of Greece and Rome, and when sveij npright and holy man 
who has ever lived nil! be present with his Ood. All honor to XJlrich 
Zwingli, gallant toroh-bearcr in a benighted generation t Bcesuet, of 
course, adduces the sentiment as the climax of heresy. 

i Beza (Life cf Crdtin, Book 8) speaks of these two as the chief sap- 
portets of freedom of opinion at that day. In Ute preface to a Latin 


Is a general w&y, religious liberty -was unknown throughout 
Europe during the sixteenth century. 

It is important to obtain a distiact ide» of Uie stand taken 
bj the Refbrmers of that day on the subject of mental emanci- 
pation. Luther had divested the Bible of its letuned cerements 
and submitted it, in homely tongue, to the unlettered mass of 
his oountrymen.* But in giving them the book, he denied to 
them the right of iiiteq>reting it.f He and his co-laborers in 
the ministry, declared that if auy one, reading the translated 
Scriptures, derived tlierefrom, hon' sincerely soever, concep- 
tions touching the nature of the Trinity or of the Divinity of 
Christ, or of the doctrines of the atonement, that differed from 
their own, such a dissenter was a detectable blasphemer, who 
ou^t to suffer death, or, at the least, banishment. How much 
worse was the decree of a single Pope than the dictation of a 
preebyteiy? How much better the City Council of Geneva 
than iiko CE^cumenical Council of Trent — both assuming to de- 
cide, for the Christian world, what is " the holy doctrine of 

Could such men conquer in spiritual strife ? And because 
they did not, are we justified in concluding, with Macanlay, 
that there is no such thing as religious progress ? I think not^ 
The Protestantisin of the sixteenth century failed, indeed, to 
establish itself as the one dominant religion of civilization. 
But, evincing the spirit it evinced, do you think it ought ever 
to have succeeded ? * 

That question (yon will perhaps remind me) concerns arti- 
cles of religious &lth as well as rights of private judgment. 

buulatioii of the Bible (1573) Castaiio baldly asserts the prinoitde of 
teligiona liberty. 

* la tan jeani (from 1628, when Lnthet'e tr&iialation appeared, to 
1583), fifljf-teeen editiona of the Hew Testament were printed, of whioh 
■eretiteeii £rom tiie Wittenberg presses. 

t "Whoeo after m; death shall contemn the aathoril? of this school 
hen at Wittcubeig, if it remain as it is now, sdiool and Ohoxch, is a 
hetetio aitd perverted oreatnie."— £ulA«^« T<Me Talk, p. 339. 


Undoubtedly. And thou^ it be aside from my proaent pur- 
pose to engage in theological controversy — seeing that tJie 
world does not read folios nowadays, and that I propose to 
Trite but a single small volume, — yet it ia useful to be reminded 
That the dogmas of tiiat day 'were. And this the rather, be- 
cause one finds, in the symbolic history of the time, all-suffi- 
cient cause, and a certain apology, for the denial of mental free- 
dom to humankind. While the Befonners set up faith in 
doctrine, aside from works, as the one thing needful for the 
soul's salvation, they rejected another phase of faith essential 
to tiuman improvement. They had no belief in human virtae ; 
and, as a corollary, they considered man unfit to be trusted, 
especially in choice of a religion. 

Sufier me, then, here, briefly to reproduce, irom the accred- 
ited text-hooks of early Protestantism, a few of the more im- 
portant dootrines ; sufficiently well-known, doubtless, to most 
students of your profession ; but less familiar, probably, in 
their original form, to the majority of secular inquirers. 

§ 8. Salient Doctrines of the Refobmebs. 

" The maamfal record of au earlier age, 
Tbat, pale and half etfaoed, lies hidden away 
Beneatli the besher writing of to-da;." — Longfeltaw. 

The sixteenth century was eminently tJie age of scholasti- 
cism. The public mind of Europe fed upon dogmas and con- 
fessions of faith, OS eagerly as did tbat of America in Bevolu- 
tionary days on political axioms and State constitutions. Lu- 
theran and Calvinist and Catholic debated, at market and at 
hoard, in Diet and workshop, the exciting question of Papal 
infallibility, with the same absorbing zeal as did the Puritan a 
century later the vexed issue touching the right divine of 
kings. The early Protestants discussed free-will, and the real 
presence, predeetinatoon, and juBtificatioB by laitb, with a fiery 


c&mestnees that &r ontdid our wannest political strifes. We 
have much more toleration, but also much more indifference^ 
in matters of religion, thau these eturdy contrOTersialists. 

The fundamental and characteristic doctrines of the Refor- 
matioQ date from the patristic period. They derive chiefly 
from a mau whose opinions, disseminated in the fifth century 
from ^e ancient capital of the Numidian kings, influenced 
with a power which no other schoolman ever exercised, the 
theology of the world Uiroughout a thousand years, dating 
from tiie time he flouriiihed. 

St. Augustine seema to have deserved the character he bears, 
as one of the purest, kindest, and holiest of men; singular in 
his humility and severe in his self-discipline.* TTia " Confes- 
sions" have spoken to thousands of perturbed and penitent 
hearte, as they did, beyond question, to Luther in his Augustin- 
ian cell, and to Calvin during hia precocious studies. " Luther," 
Bays Principal Tulloch, *' nourished himself upon Scripture and 
St. Augustine." | Calvin's " Institutes" are based on Augus- 
tine's " City of Ood." In that great work, the monument of 
highest genius left to us from the ancient church, and generally 

* In very eariy life led away by profligate oompamons, than atbnoted 
by the chaim of claesic poetry md Eeathedcs, afterwude, for nine yean, 
a HsniohKau ; at the age of twen^-nine, weary of pleasure and phil- 
oeophy, Angnstina went to Bome, made the aoqiuuntanoe of Ambioee, 
Kabop of Milan, and was iff him oonverted to ChditiBnity. The death 
of a aaintlj mother and of an ill^timate bod, plmiging him in deepest 
grief, drove him to a m<masUo life. Hia episoopate of tMiy-five yean 
WM one long labor of benevidenoe, ConriieoQa in bearing, he hmted 
Pagans to his table. In a controveny with the UnivennlistB of his 
day, he aaserted that their error should be tenderly dealt with, since it 
origlnatod in a deairo to vindicate the goodneea and mercy of Ood. 
While be oondenmed and combated the heresy of Donatun (fonnded on 
denial of the Church's infallibility), he protested to the Prooonsol of 
Africa that, if o^itol punishment was infiicted on tha Donatiste, he 
toA his oleigy would suffer death at the haada of tbeae torbolent here- 
tics, rather thmi be instruments in bringing them before the tribnuala. 
—S. Auguititii £^rittola, No. 137, ad Frooooa. A&ion. 

t Leader* cf He Btfin-matim, Londtm, 1859, p. 10. 

M OALTDl'fl nrenTCTEB 

ia ibe Airican bialiop's ToluminouB lacubratione,* we find tiia 
Boiirce, not only of the Baformere' creed, but also, in lAter 
yeurs, of tlte Janaenist heresy. His doctrine is tersely ex- 
preseed in that saying of hia : " He that made thee without 
thy aid, will He not save thee without thy aid? " Pity it is, 
that in reproducing, in exaggerated form, the worthy father's 
peculiar views, the sixteenth-century dialecticians failed to im- 
itate his personal gentleness and charity.f 

Luther led iJie forlorn hope against the old fortress of Papal 
in&lUbility, and it was the heavy cannon of his rough rhetoric 
t^t first efiected a practicable breach. But, as regards the 
dogmatic history of the early Protestant movement, Calvin ia 
tlie central figure. The chief work of his life, his' celebrated 
" Institutes," J officially set up by his fellow-townsmen of 
Geneva as a scheme of doctrine too holy to be questioned, won 
for him, in his own times, from Melancthon and from the Prot* 
estant world generally, the title, by excellence, of " Thb Thb- 
OLOQiAK ; " and even in OUT day it is accepted, by popnlar his- 
torians of the Keformation, not only as the most complete and 
methodical text-book of that movement, but as one of tho most 
triumphant efforts of humui wit. § 

The chief characteristic of this work is its frank directness. 
It is free from all palterii^ and equivocation. Its author, 

* The tities alone ot St. Anffostine's nnmennia works make a lony 

f While fall jnstice nhotild be rendered to St. Angostine'B kindly na- 
ture, one ought not to f oiget that the dootrinei he taught led logicaUy 
to intolerance and persecntion. 

i InttUiOa <f the OhrUUan BtUgim ("Institatio Beligionis Chns- 
tiaus"). b; Jobs Calvin. The tranalatioa which I have followed, 
made from the original Latin and collated with the antbor's Isit edilioa 
in French, is bj John Allen, London, 1818. It has the lepatation, de- 
aervod, 1 think, of being' one of the meet faithful extant. 

% Usrle D'Aubign6 gaja of this tcaatiBe, that it " is the flneet body of 
doctrine ever poeseaaed bj the Chuich of Christ." And he adds : " Thia 
work, occompUnhed hj epiritaal force, tax ezoeeda, in the importauoe of 
ItB cooiequenoee, all that has aver been done by the pens of Qu> sUeet 


luTing amimed his j»emiBBB, hentates at no oondnsioiifi to 
which they logiodlly lead. Even while he oonieseee predwtina- 
tion to be a " horrible decree," * he aaserta it none the lefls 
boldly, as divine dootrine, on that account. Nor does he shrink 
&tiia incnlcatiiig " abhorrence of oimelveB,"f nor from such ad- 
missioDs as that grace is not offered to all men, that the most 
odions orimes are God's vork, and the like. But let this fear- 
less dogmatist speak Ear himsel£ 

Piist, on the doctrine of human depravity : 

" Let us hold this as an undoubted trutb which no opposi- 
taoB can ever shake, that the mind of maa is ao completely 
alienated from Ute righteousnesB of Ood, that it coQoeivee, de- 
gjies, and undertakes everjLhii^ that is impious, perverse, base, - 
impure, and flagitious ; that his heart is ao thoroughly infected 
by the poison of sin that it cannot produce anything but wha< 
is corrupt ; and that if, at any tame, men do anything apparently 
good, yet the mind always remains involved in hypocri^ and 
^Uacious obliquity, and the heart enslaved by its inward per- 
verseness. ... In vain do we look in our nature for any- 
thing that is good." I 

He reiterates this sentiment again and again, apparently 
Keking, by sweep of cond^nnation, to leave no loophole for 
human self-respect. Witness this : 

" Everything in man, the understanding and the will, the soul 
and body, is polluted. . . . Mania, of himself, nothing else than 
concupiscence." § 

m or the ewords of the greatest warriora. " — Sttory of the Bifor- 
"Xrtwfi in «« JVnw D/Colwn (New York Ed., 1865), vol ili. pp. 170, 173. 

TnUooh, with whom Calvin is no special favorite, admits Ti™ to be 
"tile gi««t«8t Biblioal oommentotor at his age," and obarocterliee hla 
latlitiitcaaa " the oharter of tiia great movement to which he wasdes- 
^iied to give Uieologioal ooDBiBtenof and moral tiiamph." — Lta/tericf 
tA« Jfc/ormtifini, pp. 103 and 167. 

* "Dearetom qnidem honibile lateor," are his worda. — Imtffutt*, 
Book 3, Chap. 38. 

t Intl., B. 2, C. 1, g 1. t ^n«t.> B. 3, a 8, § 1» and g 2. 

§ /mit,B. 3,C. 1, glO. , 


Xow and then one Ib tempted to infer that he deemed all 
human effort to reform the race but foll^ and waste of time. 
He BB,ja : 

" Man cannot be excited or biassed to anything but what is 
evil. If this be so, there ia no impropriety in inning that be 
is under the necessity of sinning," * 

This looks to the Deity as the author of evil ; and Calvin 
meets the issue squarely. He scouts, as subterfuge which God 
himself rejects, the idea that sin and crime occur " by the per- 
mission and not by the will of Qod." He says that wicked 
men and the devil himself " can effect nothing but by the secret 
will of God." In illustration he adds : " God intends the de- 
ception of that perfidious king, Ahab ; the devil offers his ser- 
vices for that purpose, and is sent with a positive commission to 
be a lying spirit in the mouth of all the prophets." (1 Kings xxii. 
20-23.) ..." Absalom, defiling his &ther's bed with incest, 
perpetrated a detestable crime ; yet God pronounces that this 
was His work. . . . Whatever cruelties the Chaldeans exer- 
cised in Judea, Jeremiah pronounces it to be the work of God.'* f 

But " while God, by means of the impious, fulfils his secret 
decrees, they are not excusable." { 

Again, in the face of that sentiment, common to every creed, 
which prompts men, in hours of sorrow or peril, to invoke on 
themselves, or on those they love, the blessing of the Almighty, 
Calvin, true to his belief in human worthlessuess, says: "God 
finds nothing in men which can incite him to bless them." § 

He goes further still. It is a daring thing to speak of inno- 
cence that has never sinned, as steeped in pollution and hateful 
to its Maker ; but that is amoi^ the corollaries of Calvin's 
favorite doctrine ; and he coui-ageously odmite that it is ; thus: 

" We derive an innate depravity from our very birth : the 
denial of this is an instance of consummate impudence. . . . 
All children, without a single exception, are polluted, as soon 

• /nat, B. 2, 0. 8, § 6. t ■^'wt, B. 1, C. 18, g 4 

t lMt.,B. 1,0. 18, §4. g 7Mt,R8,0. 14,86. 


ta they exisc. . . . Infants themselves, as they bring their 
condemnatioii into the world with them, are rendered obnox- 
ious to pnnishmeDt by their own sinfulness. For though they 
Wvo not yet produced the finiits of their iniquity, yet they 
have the seed of it in them : their whole nature cannot but be 
odious and abominable to God." * 

Bnt his doctrine of predestination carries him even beyond 
this; that doctrine is tiius stated : 

" God elected whom he would, and, before they were bom, 
laid up in reserve for them the grace with which he determined 
to fiiTor ihem. . . . His foresight of our future holiness was 
not the cause of his choice. . . . The grace of God deserves 
not the sole praise of our election, unless this election be 
gratnitous : now it could not be gratuitous if, in choosing his 
people, God himself considered what would be the nature of 
their respective works." f 

According to this Galvinistic theory even fi^ee will is denied 
to TIB ; nor is God's grace offered except to a few of the favored 
among His creatures. " Man is not possessed of free will for 
good works unless he be assisted by grace, and that special 
grace which is bestowed on the elect alone in regeneration. 
For I stop not to notice those fanatics who pretend that grace 
is offered equally and promiscuously to all." J 

After this, ose can understand on what grounds he bases the 
assertion : " Conversion is entirely of God, because we are not 
sufficient even to think." § 

Takeu in connection with Calvin's idea of hell, and of the 
small niunbets of the elect, this dogma predestines countless 
millions of the unborn, without any reference to their good or 
bad conduct in the future, or to their repentance, to eternal 
torments. Does this imply that the vast majority of the human 
race srv hated by their Creator ? Calvin, inexorable in his 
logic, confesses that it does. " Jacob and Esau," he reminds 

• Jntt., B. 2, C. 1, §§ 6, 8, 8. f Imt. B. 8, C. 22, g§ 3, 8. 

t iMt., B. 2, C. a, § 0. § Ifut., B. 2, C. 3, § «. 

78 DOCTRnrB of ELEcnos. 

uf), " are broilers b^^otten of the same parents, still enclosed 
in the same womb, not yet brought forth to light ; there is, in 
all respecte, a perfect ©quality between them ; yet the judgmeot 
of God concerning them is different : for He takes the one and 
leaves the other. . . . The children being not yet bom, neither 
having done good or evil, that the purpose of God according to 
election might stand, not of works but of him that calleth, it 
was said : ' Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I bated.* " * 
When one reads, in connection with this commentary, the 
strange story to which Calvin here refersjf one seems to hear 
the wail, throughout the universe, of millions on miUions of 
outcast step-children, crying out, like rejected Esau, in vain : 
" Bless me, ttven me also, oh my Father 1 " 

Referring elsewhere to this murative and Paul's text, of 
which he makes frequent use, and to the fact ihat Jacob, " with- 
out any merit acquired by good works, is made an object of 
grace," Calvin does not scruple to add : " If we turn our atten- 
tion to works we insult the apostle." J 

One may conjecture the source whence came, to the Reform- 
ers, the idea that good works have nothing to do in effecting 
man's salvation. In the Augsburg Confession, after a complaint 
that " CathoUc traditions obscure the commandments of God," 
it is added : " The whole of Christianity was thonght to consist 
in the observance of certain holy days, rites, fests, and vest- 
ments." § The feeling evidently was that this was but a Fhar- 

* Inst., B. 8, C. 23, g§ 4, 0. The text wtterein this doctrine is 
found (Romaiis ix. 11, 18) is here qaoted litentllj ; it is supported by 
3falaolii i. 3, 8. 

Anotlier might have been at a loss to explain bow Jacob, liTing- Bevan- 
teen tiimdred years before the tune when Christ made atonement for 
the sins of mankind, ooold have been one of the elect ; tmt Calvin 
overatridea the difficulty, telling na : "It on^t not to be donbted that 
Jacob was ingrafted, witli angels, into the body of Christ." (Dubitore 
mineme debeat Jacob com ongells Jnaitum faease in Chriati corpus.") 
—Irut., B. 8, C. 8!. g 0. 

t Oeneata xxriL 1-10. i Iiut., B. 8, C. 8S, § 11. 

% Angabarg Confeamon, Part 2, Aitide S. 



ifluoal Tnalriiig dean iiie ontside of the cup and the platter. 
But if such was the origiiuil source, it was soon loat sif^t of is 
the mases of theology. Calvin takes special pains to inform us 
that, aside from that faith which saTes, the tnoat virtuous life 
leads only to hell. He says that though what we call good 
men " may be esteemed worthy of admiration for their reputed 
virtue ; though they are instruments used by Ood for the pre- 
Berratioii of humui society, by the exercise of justice, contin- 
ence, jrieadship, temperance, fortitude, and prudence," yet if 
they " are strangers to the religion of the one true Ood," they 
" not only toerit no reward, but are rather deserving of punish- 
ment, because they contaminate the pure gifts of God with the 
pollution of their own hearts.* . . . They who have no inter- 
est in Christ, whatever be their character or their actions or 
their endeavors, are constantly advancing, through the whole 
course of their lives, toward destruction and the senteace of 
eternal death." f 

This is not an isolated expression of sentiment ; the main 
idea breaks forth throughout the entire work. Here is an ex- 
ample : " The most splendid works of men not yet truly sancti- 
fied are so (ax from righteousness in the divine view that they 
are accounted sins. . . . The works of a man do not conciliate 
God's &vor in his person." J 

And here la another, showing that Calvin r^arded this aa 
the chief point of difference between the Reformers and their 
opponents : " There never was an action performed by a pious 
man which, if examined by the scrutinizing eye of divine 
justice, would not deserve condemnation. . . , This is the prin- 
cipal hinge on which our controversy with the Papists turns." § 

* So incaatioiis is Uie wording here, that one m^Ilt almoBt Bappose 
the author had conceived the idea that the best effoita otman toleada 
pQKi life — to practise jostice, oontineiioe, temperanoe, prodenoe — were 
deadly fcin^^" inAsmiich as *^i» is bnt a culpable mixiiiK up of Christian 
paces with the inevitable oormptdons of the human heart. 

t iwt, B. 8, C. 14, §§ 8, 4. t Intl., B. 8, 0. 14, § 8. 

g/n«i,B.8, C. 14, §11. 


One is constantly remmded, in reading tbeae sixtoenUi-cei^ 
tniy Reformers, of the incredible lengths to which the nature of 
their doctrines was vont to lead them ; as, for example, to the 
declaration of Calvin that a part of this world only belongs to 
Qod. He (Calvin) says that the words of Jesus Christ, " X 
pray not for the world, but for them wMch Thou hast given 
me " * (John xvii. 9 ), afford proof " that the whole world does 
not belong to Its Creator (" unde fit nt totus mnndns ad suum. 
Creatorem non pertineat") ; only that grace delivero from the 
curse and wrath of God, and from eternal death, a few who 
would otherwise perish, but leaves the world in its destruction 
to which it has been destined, f 

Another dismal corollary is this: Calvin did not believe 
tliat either love of God, or imitation of Christ, is efficient to 
salvation : we must seek to appease our Creator's anger — there * 
must be fear, he thought — else all self-sacrifice — every offering 
of the heart — is to the Creator but abomination. These sire 
his words : " No man can descend into himself and seriously 
consider his own character without perceiving that God is angry 
with him and hostile to him, and consequently he must find. 
himself under a necessity of anxiously seeking some way to ap- 
pease Him. . . . The begioDisg of the observance of God's 
law is an unfeigned fear of His name. If that be wanting, all 
the oblations made to him are not merely trifles, but nauseous 

• It is remorkaWe, in conneotioo with, this verse from St John, Uiat, 
aoootdin^ to aoothei evongellBt, Jeaos' last pi^er on earth was for hia 

t /7wt.,B. 8, C. S3, §7. 

And if Calvin's eamestnesB is proof sgainst the incrediUe,.so la it 
also gainst the ridicolona. Who but himself woold not have been de- 
terred by Inkling of the IndioroiiB from snch comment on a eoiiptnni] 
metaphor as this f After quoting Christ's wotds, " The sheep follow 
the shepherd, for the; know his viuoe," Calvin's oonunent is: " Now 
no man makes himself a sheep, but is created saoh by divine graoe^" 
(" Nemo, enim. so ovem faoit, Bed formatnr ccdeeti giatia.") — Hut., 
B. 8, C. 22, § 8. 

^, Google 


aaul aboroinable poUotiotu. Let hypocrites go now and, retain- 
ing depravity in their hearts, endeavor by their works to merit 
the fiiTor of God." * 

Here naturally suggest themselves the questions : If not by 
love of Ood, if not by leading a life of purity and benevolence, 
hffw, nnder this system, is man to appease an angry and hostile 
Creator? How is he to escape hell? The Reformer's answer 
is : By belief, not by acts. Those who have an aaaiirance of 
election are the elect : but the elect, and the elect only, are 
saved by vicarious atonement made by the Son of Giod. f 

This assurance that we are the fovored of God is held by 
Calvin to be omnipotent to save sinners even though, after ob- 
tiuning it, they indulge in gross sins. Witness the following 
passage, occurring in connection with his favorite illustration 
from Bomana ix. 11, ]3: " Rebecca, having been divinely aa- 
Bured of the election of her son Jacob, procures him the bene- 
diction by a sinful artifice; she deceives her husband, the wit- 
ness and minister of the grace of God ; she coDstrains her sod 
to utter falsehoods ; she corrupts the truth of God by various 
frauds and impostures." This, Calvin calls, " transgressing the 
limits of tiie word ; " and he excuses her action : " for," says he, 
" as the particular error of Jacob did not annul the effect of the 
benediction, so neither did it destroy the faith which generally 
predominated in her mind, and was the principle and cause of 
that action." J 

Every one knows that Calvin was one of the sternest of mor- 
alists, and we cannot rationally suppose that he really intended 
to palliate vice, or to excuse a vicious life. Observe, however, 
in what manner, led away by love of a dogma, he lays himself 
open, in the above passage, to the imputation of glossing over 
deliberate fraud and imposture, when such sins coexist with be- 
lief in the atonement, 

•/net.B. 8, C. U, §8. 

f This doctrine willbefoiind, afEwpagesfarthei on, giapbioally set 
out by <^ powerfnl pen of Luther, 
t 7n«C.,B.8,C. 11, §81. 

82 LUTHEB AND OALTiit's spmrr 

This doctrine of juatificatioD hy faith alone ia very concisely 
and lucidly set fortli in the Augsburg Confession : 

*' Men cannot be justified before God by their own strength, 
merits, or works ; but are justified freely, for Christ's sake, 
through faith, when they beliene that they are reedfied into favor 
and that ains are remitted on eocount of Christ who, by his 
death, made satisfiiction for our sins. This faith God imputes 
for righteovanetg.'''' * 

In the above I have italicized tlie words which prove that 
the faith which, according to this scheme of redemption, ex- 
clusively wins heaven, ia a belief of our personal b.vor 
with the Almighty, reaulting in oar election and adoption by 

Let ua now turn from the Qeneveae divine to his great Qer- 
man co-laborer. 

We find, as between the two, great difference of character, 
indeed, but no essential variation in creed. One cannot doubt 
that, in a general way, Luther assented, verbally at least, to 
Calvin's system of divinity, as set out in the " Institutes ; " 
since, while he refused the hand of brotherhood to Zwingli be- 
cause of varianoe on a single doctrinal point, and even held it 
to be likely that the Swiss Beformer, after dying for the Pro- 
testant cause, would suffer eternal torments f because of disbe- 
lief in the " real presence,"— be remained in strict fellowship 
with Calvin throughout his life. Yet he might have said to 
the theologian of Geneva with more truth than he did to Ulrich 
Zwingli: "Yon have a different spirit fix>m ours." Calvin's 
religion, like Jove'a armed daughter, was the o&priug of his 
brain ; Luther's, of hia heart The two had this in common, 
l^at they ran the convictions which they had once assumed aa 

• Avgabtirg Confmnim^ Part 1, Art 4. 

t " I wish from m7 heart Zwinj^us could be saved, but I fear the 
oontrory; forChristhaaaiud'tbatthOBe whodeiiyhimahBUbedanuwd." 
Lutser: m TiMe Taik, p. 824. 


premises, to l^eir legitimate ooaolnaioiis, mih unflincbing 
temerity ; but Lather's beart carried him into a region com- 
fortable, genial, even jovial ; while Calvin's brain tarried in a 
limbos, Btem in every feature, icy cold, dreary, and, as regards 
the general late of humanity, hopeless and implacable. If one 
wonld penetrate to the eesmce of Lutheranism, one laust read 
IfOther's own favorite Commentary on the Galatiaus.* He 
there summons np, indeed, the same abasing aspect of human 
nature,! ^"'■^ imparts so lurid a ^eam to Calvin's writings ; but 
the heartiness of the man and the unconventional sprightlinees 
of his style break out over the saddening picture, lighting it up 
as the aurora borealis illuminates northern wastes. Permit me 
to recall to your recollection one or two of its more notable 
pasBsges, in illustration. 

The oue idea (held, of course, in common with Calvin) tiiat 
pervades the book and which coustitutes, in &ct, the comer- 
atone of Luther's entire doctrinal system, | is, that mankind, 

* Luther thought hie own best wodcs to have been, his Coaunentsdes 
oa DeutetoDOmj', on GalatiauB, and on the fom books of St. John. — See 
TaHs TnUc, p. 21. 

f It perradea his other wiitJngs also, and it was wont to broak out in 
hia oonvarsatioD. "We have altogether a oonfonnded, ooirupt, and 
poisoned nature, both in bodf and bodI r throngbont the whole of man 
isnotfaingthatisgood."— TVf^TaU;, p. 119. 

So tbe other JtefomierB, for example HelaDcthoa: " Anima, luce 
vitaqns ocelesti oaiens, . . . sua qnauat, nou cnpiat, non Telit, 
nifd oanaUa," etc. — Loei Comntanei, p. 18 (Ed. AngOHti). 

\ " Lntlier anlTad at the dootrine of the atonement throngh Christ 
who% mdependently of works : thie afloided him the key to the Scrip- 
tuFBB, and beoame the main prop to hie whdeeyBtem of faith." — Ranke; 
ffirt. of the P&pa, y(A. l p. 188. 

Lother himself took the same view of this tenet He says: "AH the 
other aitictefl of our faith aire oompreheDded in that of justificatioa ; and 
if that renmin sound then all the test an sound." — Ooaimentary^on 
Qaialian», at chap. iii. veree 13. And again (same verse) : " This is 
the principal article of fH Christian doctrine, whldi the Popish sohool-: 
men have alb^etiiei di^ened. " 

So, in his preface to the Commentary on the Qalatjans, his ofaief oom- 

S4 CLOTHING ciiBier with ocb spiB. 

even down to the latest generations, steeped in sin throngh 
Adam's b-ansgresBioD, can be saved from an eternal hell only 
by a transfer of all human sins to Jesus Christ, Do yon re- 
member how vividly he sets this out ? 

" God sent bis only son into the world and l^d upon him all 
the sins of all men, saying : ' Be thoa Peter, that denier ; Paul , 
that persecutor, blasphemer, and cruel oppressor ; David, that 
adulterer ; be thou that sinner that did eat the apple in Para- 
dise, that thief which hanged upon the cross ; in brief, be thon. 
the peraon who hath committed the sins of all men ; see, thete- 
fore, that thou i>ay and satisfy them.' Here now cometh the 
law and saith : ' I find him a sinner and indeed such an one as 
hath taken upon him the sins of all men ; therefore let him die 
upon the cross.'- And so he setteth upon him and killeth him. 
By this means the whole world is purged and cleansed from all 
sins. . . . Therefore, where sins are seen and felt, there aro 
tbey indeed no sins ; for, according to Paul's divinity, there is no 
sin, no death, no malediction any more in the world, but only 
in Christ. * , , , But some man wilt say : ' It is very ab- 
surd and slanderous to call the Son of Qod a cursed sinner.' Z 
answer : If thou wilt deny him to be a cursed uimer, deny also 
that be -was crucitied and died. . . , This is a singular 
consolation for all Christians, so to clothe Christ with oar 

It is curious to not« how the man's intense perception of a 

pUint agunst Catbolioism la : " the infinite and horrible profanation 
and abominaliLon which always bath lag^ in the Gbumh of Qod, and 
even at this day ceasetb not to rage, against this onl; and gronndetl 
rook, which we hold to be Uie article of our justification." — Pr^ae«f 

* One might almost snppoae, from siicfa paangea, that Lntdier h^d 
univerBBliBt doctrinee. Teiy far from it "Qod, in this world, has 
Bdaroe ttie t«ntii part of the people ; the smallest number <Hil7 will be 
saved. ... If now thou wilt know why so few are saved and so 
inflnitelj many dainned, this is the oanae : the world will not hear 
Ohrist."— 2bAto Taik, pp. 41, 43. 

t Oommentarjf on OaUUiatu, at obap. iii. veraa 18. 



ax)^ &vorite doctrine like this led him on,'step by step, until, 
like Aaron's rod before Fharaoli, it swallowed up all the rest. 
Speaking of " the phantostical opinions of the Papists concern- 
ing the justification of irorks," he says: "They do imagine a 
certain iaith formed and adorned with charity. By this, they 
say, aiiis are taken away and men are justified before God. 
Bnt what else ta this, I pray you, but to unwrap Christ and to 
strip him quite out of our sins, and to look upon tltem, not in 
Christ, but in ourselves. Yea, what is this else but to take 
Christ clean away, and to make him utterly unprofitable to 

Attain, be declared it to be blasphemy, inspired by the devil, 
to say that &ith without works was dead, or to assert that 
faiUi, nnfruitfol of works, was not omnipotent to gain heaven 
for the belierer. One would read with incredulity in these 
modem days, if the original was not still extant in proof, such 
a passage as the following : 

" The pervertere of the Gospel of Christ teach that even that 
&ith which they call faith infused {Jidea infvsa), not received 
by hearing nor gott«n by any working, but created in man by 
the Holy Ghost, may stand with deadly sin, and that the wick- 
edest men may have this &ith. Therefore, they say, if it be 
alone it is idle and utterly unprofitable. Thus they take from 
faith her office and give it unto charity : so that faith is noth- 
ing, except charity, which they call the form and perfection 
thereof, be joined witlial. This is a devilish and blasphemous 
kind of doctrine. . . . For if charity be the form and 
perfection of faith (ss they dream), then am I by and by con- 
strained to say that charity is the chief part of the Christian 
religion, and so I lose Christ, his blood and his benefits ; and 
now I rest altogether in a moral doing even as the Pope, the 
heathen philosopher, and the Turk." | 

Yet again : " The true doing of the law is a faithful and a 

* Commattary on Galatian*, at chap. iii. vene IS. 
t Commentary on OatatiaTtt, at chap. iiL vene 11. 


Bpiritnal doing, vhioli he hatlL not tihat seeketh righteotiHtiieBs 
hy vorka, Therafore every doer of the law and erery moral 
worker is accurtrd ; for he walketh in the prasumptioa of Itijs 
own righteouBness agaioBt Qod." * 

This doctrine appears, without its Lntberan intensity, ^t snb- 
etantially the same, in the text-book of early Protestantism, 
the Angsbui^ ConfesBion. We read there; "works cannot 
reconcile ns to Qod, or merit remisBion of sins, grace and justi- 
fication, bnt we obtain this by faiUi only." It is added : " Our 
divines teach that it is neceasary to do good works, not that 
we may trust by them to merit grace, but in obedience to the 
will of God." And alluding to the accusations falsely brought 
against them " of prohibiting good works," they declare thai 
they have *' wholesomely tau^t &11 the modes and duties of 
life, what ways of life, what works in any calling, are pleamng 
to God ; " while their advetsaries " urged puerile and unneoes- 
sary works, such as certain holy days, certain fkst£, fraterni- 
ties, pilgrimages, worship of saints, rosaries, monasticisin and 
the like." f 

■ In the Engiish version whioli I have followed, the words I have 
italioiied ore not veij striotly rendered ; the origiiial beinf[ even stioi^er 
than the tnmsUtioti, than : ' ' Ideo malediotos est onmis Legis operator, 
et moniJu iSanctiu ;" literally "moral Saint." LaUternug-ht have been 
tliinLHng of the momlity of monkuh ansteiity ; at all events, hia teana- 
lator seems to have been afraid to follow him ; seeing that Saint has 
been often regarded as the equivalent of Ae^. 

\ All the above qnotatlona vrill be fonnd In article 30, part 21, of 
the AopibDrK ConfeBuoo. I have fallowed the tranalation by the Bev. 
Henry Teal, H.A., London, 1842 ; who ^jpears to have ezecnted his 
task with oritJcal oare. 

CoDsideiiiifr that tbe Iiuthaau Ghuioh of Ameiica reoently adopted a 
tesolintion that ' ' this Oeneral Synod . . . maintjJii* the divine ob- 
ligation of the Christaan Sabbath " (Annnal Cyol<:^>edia for 1868, p. 443), 
it is worthy of ootdoe, in oonnectaon with the above diotam tou<diing " pue- 
rile and unneoessaiy works," that in the Angsbnrg Confession (article 
7 of part 2) the following plain words oocnr : " They who judge that, 
by the authority of the Ohuioh, the obaervin^ of the Lord's day, 
loatead of the Sabbath da;, was ordained M a tidng neoessaiy, do 


mitis, tJiongh the Bcformers t&nght that foith reqaires no 
wHra of (18,* they not only tncnlceted, in their sermons, strict 
morality, but the chief lenders, as Luther, Calvin, Melancthon, 
Zwin^, iUoBtrated, by their exemplary lives, the morftla they 

But it behooveB na to bear in miad that a man's upright in- 
tention, or his good life, is one thing, and the tendency of the 
opinions he holds, or the doctrines he teaches, quite another. 

greatlf err. The Scziptme which teaches that the Mosaic ceremonies 
since the revelatioQ of the Qospel may be omitted, has abii^ated the 
Sabbath. And jet, because it was ueedfol to ordain a oeittun day, 
Hist the peo[de might know when they ought to oome togeUier, it ap- 
pean Utat the Church ai^inted the Loid's day. — which d^ aesma to 
have pleased the moe f<v this oanse also, that man mi(^t have an ez- 
ample of Obristian Ubertr and know that neiQuif the obtentmct <(f CAg 
Sabbath, nor <^ any otAer day, wag iiaBaaary." — TeaFi l'ran»tati<m, pp. 
- 78, 79. 

Ho homan institntioti is more needed or more valnable than the set- 
tins apart one day in seven as a time of rest from worldly tnrmoil and 
of qniat for spiiitoaJ tbongbt. NeveitheleM it must be admitted Uiat 
the views of the Angsbnig: Confeasionists ss to the leligious obligation 
in this matt«r aoooid with the spirit of Christ's teachings (Mark il ST, 
etc), and Paol's (ColoaaiBna ii, 16). They evince philologioal aoonntcy 
also, seeing that there is no Christian BaibatA. The Italians propedy 
called Satotday, Sabato; while they term Bonday, Ihintniea, corre- 
sponding to onr " Lord's Day." 

* " Faith requireth no works of na, OT that we shonld give anything 
unto Qod, bat that we, believing the promise of Oed, shonld reoeive of 
him." — Cbm. on. Qalatiana, ohi^). iii. v. 13. 

f When some oa6 drew, from Zwingli's belief in predestination, the 
practical inferenoe that the elect cotdd not be harmed, sin as t^ey 
might, the Swiss Beformer's reply was, that " whoso argnes thus fnr- 
niShes prpof that he him^ glf [g not among the elect." — See hia De 
I^widenUa Dei., Opera, vol. iv. p. 140. 

In ^ds work (Opera iv. pp. 79, 109, 113), Zwingli incnloates the doc- 
trine of Predestination, mnning it ont to all its logioal conaeqnences : 
iWlllilHi, for example, that the sin of Adam was originally inolnded in 
God'splan; asalaotheschemeof redemption. This is Calvin's opinion 
also ; be terms the ezclosion of the fall of the fint man from the dirine 
predeatinalion, afiigidvm eomnientum. — fntt., B, 8, 0.28, § 7. 


Diderot taught atlieiam and openly avowed enmity to all relig- 
ious ideas:* yet the sincerity of hia cnthusiBSm in such tenets 
is beyond question, his works having been condemned to the 
fiames, and himself to prison for teaching them. The sceptical 
D'Alembert, Didei'ot's co-laborer in the £lncyeiop^ie, etroiigly 
expressed, in his correspondence with Voltaire, hia disbelief ia 
Christitmity ; yet his benevolence was proverbi&l and his life 
without a Btain. f But because such writers have upright mo- 
tives, or lead virtuous lives, are we thence to conclude that 
the belief in atheism is no injury to mankind, or that Uie irorlcl 
could do quite as well without religion ? 

These remarks have strictest application when, in the works 
of any author bow estimable soever, we come upon such a pas- 
sage as thd following : " Thus you find how richly gifted is a 
Christian and baptized man, who, even if he wills it, cannot 
forfeit his solvation by how many sins Boever, unless he is un- 

* Dideiot 6tmt nn des ennemia lea plus anhiirnr^ dn Cbristianinna, 
et Illume de toute id£e leligieuse ; il ptof eesait onvertement le mat^tjal- 
isme et I'athSiBiiie, et prfiohait oea doctrines disolantea aveo one aorta 
d'entbnsiasme et de f aaatiBme. — Bocn-bON : JXetionruure de BtograpAia 
l/rUvtrgeUe, art, " Diderot." 

t " D'Alembert pOBsidait dea quality qui I'ont fait aimer et ea- 
timerda tons aeecontempoTams; an ^osvif amour pour la Miieiioe,il 
joigoait la bienfaiaanoo et le d^amt^reasemeutL . . . H entretdnt 
areo Tdtaiie nne correepondaaoe sniTie qni a 6t6 publiee apite lonr 
mort : tooB deoz j eshalent lam haine contra la religion chi^emie. " — 
BOUILLON; DieUennitire da BioffTi^it UniterMUe, axt. "D'Alembert." 

" When D'Alembert's inoome amouiitedU>8,S(H) bancs, he gave awa^ 
one half. . . . The Bishop of Limoges said of him, daring hia life, 
'Hiamannersareaimpleandhiacondaotwithautastain.' ... He 
was the flret matiiamaticiaa of bis daf , and Iia Harpe says of him : ' I 
know D'Alembert well enongh to be able to say that he was soeptkal 
in eTeiTthiugexoeptmathematicB. . . . Himself tolemtmg all opin- 
ions, what hs censored in the atheists was (heir intolerant arrc^aoce. 
. . . Had it not been for hia oorreepondence with Voltaire, the 
w<xld wonld not have known except by implicatitm what his opinion* 
ware. His published writings contain no expression c^fiansiTo to relig- 
ion." — Penny Oi/ciopeedia, art. "D'Alembert." 


viUing to believe. For no sins have power to dAmn him aava 
only the sin of incredulity." * 

Fitmlly, the evil toudencj of such opinions is aggravated, in 
Lntber'a case, by his fiitalist doctrines, pushed even to a dis- 
tioct denial of man's free agency. Think of the practical efiect 
— how deadening and disconraging to all virtuons ^ort— of 
such a passage as this : "lite hunmn will is placed between 
two, even as a boast of burden. If God mounts it, it wishes 
sad goee as Ood wills. ... If Satan mounts it, it wishes 
and goe« as Satan wills. Kor is it free to run toward, or select, 
either rider : it ia the riders themselves who contend which shall 
obtain and hold possession." f 

Those who are fajniliar with the original documents will bear 
me witness that tiie forgoing brief synopsis-of Protestant opin- 
ions in the sixteenth centuiy, while it omits, for brevity's sake, 
many details, neither exa^erates nor extenuates the founda- 

* This passage ocenis in Luther's Tieatiee : De OapUvitaU Bab{/to- 
nJM. 1530; the original cMding thai: " Ita vides quun dives sit homo 
ChrujUanna et boptis&tus, qni etiam volens non potest perdere salatem 
Kotaa qaontaacnnqne pecoatiB, niai nolet credere. Nulla enim pecoota 
^nm poBBout dajDnare nisi aola increduUtas." 

There are otJier pasBBges of dnillttr purport fn Lntbo's works even 
more offensively expressed. In a letter to Helancthou (1031), quoted 
and oxeueed by Arohbiahop Hare, eooura a well-known sentence : 
"Safficit quod agnovirans per divitiaa glorite Dei Agnnm, qui toUit 
peccata mnndi ; sb hoc non avellet nos peocatnm, etdajnsi mfUiee, mil- 
UcB Dno-die fotnicamnr ant ocoidantna." 

By an opponent ot LaUier the woide " uno die " have been tratu- 
lated, inooneotJy of course, ' ' every day ; " but even as it stands (how- 
ever pnio may have been the writer's intention) it would be a lack ot 
candor to deny that it sup^dies, to evil-minded men, pUuaible apology 
tor marder and Incontinence. 

t "Siohumanavolnntasinmediopositaest, cen jumentom. Siinsed- 
"At Bens, Tult et vodit quo volt Dens, nt Psalmns dioit : * Faotae sum 
ooot jamentam etego semper teonm.' Si Insederit Baten, vnlt eb vadit 
qnovnlb Satan. Nee est in ejna arbitrio ad utmm eesBorem onzrere aut 
earn qnEeiere, eed ipei eesBores oertant ob ipsum obtineudom et poarid- 
endom." — Lutdeb : De Servo Arbitrio, part I. sec. 24. 


tion-dootrines on which rested the theological ^stem put forth 
bj the Leaders of the Beformation ; to wit, the atonement, in- 
cludii^ justification bj &ith alone ; the &1], the utter deprav' 
ity of man, and pi-edestination. 

Sach a synopsis was indispeosable in treating tjie great hia- 
torical problem to which I now revert 

§ 9. What Lesson i>oes the History of the Refokhatios 


' ' B«T«aled religim is not in the nature of a progieamTa acdeace. ... 
Ve bare no ieooiily for the fatore sffunEt the preTalenoe of an; tlieo- 
logiool error that has erar prerailed m time past amonf Chtistiaii. 
man." — Macaulat.* 

Ji that the lesson taught? Qnardiana of the Proteetuit 
fidth, is that the Protestant reply? 

If nqt, bestow, I pray you, dispassionate attention on the 
hJBtorical and statistical lacte; and give your version of tha 

Tlkree hundred years, observe! — from 1570 to 1870 — and 
still, from a Protestant stand-point, retrogre«sioa, retrogres- 
sion ! Atthe beginning of that term, an overwhelming Protes- 
tant majority in Europe ; at tlie end of the three hundred 
years, two Catholics there for every one Protestant. Among 
ourselves, at the present day, Protestants and Roman Catholics 
both increasing, indeed ; but at a ratio of increase so different, 
in each sect respectively, that if it continues for a third of a 

* Already quoted, with oonteit, at page 44. Hen, in the orthodox 
nnka, who have probably bestowed ncae thought oo this mbjeot 

" The same impediment which prevcnta the formation of Thaolog; 
•BAsdenoe, is also mamfesUj fatal to the theoij which aaaertitapn*- 
^tMJMdtfsoii'pTruTit."— Mahsbi.; ZiBtit»ofBriiffiinuT/ii>ugAt,4tli'E^, 
Lmdon, 1869. (Bampton Leotnres. ) !Ilie italics aie in the original 


eentary more, Roman Catiiolics trill outanmber Protestoato ia 
the TTnited States.* 

How mach longer are we to wait for the turning of the 
Spiritual tide ? If we fight out thia fight of &ith on the sEuue 
fine, what reasonable hope is there that the tide will turn in 
onr fiivor at all ? 

After a monition continned throughoat bo large a portion of 
dvilized history — after bo persistent a trial resulting in such 
miserable failure — ought we still to continue the strife, with 
front unchanged, hopii^ against hope in the future ? 

— Hoping against hope ! For what a terrible thing would it 
be to conclude that it was Christ's very teacJiings, spiritual and 
ethical, ■^lieh have been on probation for three centuries, in 
the most enlightened portions of the world, and that have lost 
ground throughout all that time, and are losing it still, against 
a Church that proclaims the Ultimate and the Infallible to be 
hers, and denies to the religious element in man alike libertj 
and progreBs I 

Let HB glanoe at the record, as a connected whole, in a trust- 
fiil, and candid, and catholic spirit, ere we adopt a conclusion 
that might well cause thoughtful men to regard the future of 
our race with despair. 

The Christian record consiste of five narratives — four, by 
different Evangelists, of tlie doings and sayings of Christ, one of 
the doings of his disciples — and (aside from the Apocalypse) 
of twenty-one Epistles, two-thirds of these penned by Paul, 
who knew not the Great Teacher, nor believed in his teachings 
till after hia cracifixiou ; the rest (with the exception of two 
or thi-ee pages), f written hy the three chief among the 

* Bee note on pieceding page SI. 

f "The Epistle of Jade la too nnimpoitaiit to be a torgery; few por- 
tiooB of Sdiptnre, nitli rerereace be it ipokan, could have been more 
taKirap»x«i."~-J}ietiB7iaTj/oftAe B(ils,axb. "Jade," (edited by Wil- 
liam Smith, LL.D., AmnicBn reprint, Bcsbm, 1843.) 



TwdTB* -wlioin their Master, at the commencement of his pub- 
lic labors, selected as special associates and co-workera. 

Of the Evangelists, two certainly (Uattliew and John) irere 
Apostles who had daily opportunities, throughout three years, 
of personal intercourse with Jesus, while it seems likely tJi&t 
ihe two others also, Mark and Luke, may have known him, 
and heard, from his own lips, many of the discourses they re- 
corded, f 

Now, with these ancient ^ expositions of Christian history 
and doctrine all open before them, how did the Leaders of the 
Beformation proceed to construct for Ute world a system of 
dogmatic theology ? 

Substantially, by selecting portions of ttro episUes, both 
written by the only one of the New Testament authors as to 
whom we know that he never was acquainted with Jesus nor 
ever sat under his ministry ; and by employing these as foun- 
dations and oomer-etooe of their entire spiritual edifice : the 
foundations being laid in the utter depravity of all human 
beings ; their condemnation by their Maker, as criminals, to 
eternal torments ; the impossibility of deliverance from these 
torments by any virtuous effort, how earnest and persistent 

* " The three, Peter, Jamea, and John, ure with tlieir Lord when none 
else are ; in the chamber of death (Hark v, 87), in the ^017 of the 
tmnsfigimtioii (Mat^ewxrii. 1), when he f orewatOB tJiem of tbe do- 
Mfnction of the Holy City (Hark xiji. 8, Andrew, in this instance, with 
them), in the agony of Gethaemane." — Dietiotiaiy of the Btiie, ait. 
"John," VOL I, p. 1105. 

i The " joongman" mentioned Hade xiv. SI, is nsnally sappoeed to 
be Uaric himself. In like maimer, Luke is believed by many to have 
been one of the two disciples to whom Christ showed himself after 
death, on the jonmey to Emmana ; ot, at all events, to have beaa one 
of the Seventy. Sao JXetion^ry of tite Sibie, voL ii, p. 151. 

} The nairatdve of Matthew is admitted to be the oldest of the Gos- 
pels, written, as some will have it, eight 01 ten years only after Chriat'a 
death, but more probably about the year SO; 3Iark and Luke a{^)eai to 
have written some ten or twelve years later, and John toward the (doaa. 
of the flist oeiitQi7, perhaps about the year 90, ot DS. 


aoever : and die comer-stone * beii^ the eBcape to eternal bappt- 
nesa of a mere handful out of a vast multitude, f selected not 
beoanse the; were better than their fellows — did more good, were 
more useful in their day and generation— but because they had 
adopted two articles of faith; the first, that this minute fraction 
of human kind, and they alone, pre-elected of God, are saved 
from perdition by an actual transfer of their sins to one of the 
three persons of the Qodhead, and by the terrible agonies suf- 
SbkA by that Holy Person ; J the second (equally important), 
that they themselTes are among these God-eleoted few. 

I tliink all careful and candid students of the Christiaji Scrip- 
tures will admit that had the two Epistles, to the RomaoH and 
to the Oalatians, nerer been written, or never been included in 
die canon of the New Testament, the above dogmas would 
never have become the basis of FrotestantiBm. I do not deny 
that if we sele<^ some tax or ei^t chapters out of these two 
Epistles, shutting our eyes te the rest of the Christian Scrip- 

* Lather evidently retarded as littie better than outcasts all who 
duBented from the doctrine of impDted righteousDeBS. " If the article 
ot jiutifioation be once lost," said he, "then is all tme doctrine lost; 
and as many as are in the world that hold not this doctrine are either 
Jews, Turks, Pajnsts, or HereUcs." — Argument to CoTTUTtenlary «t 

And modem writers of autboritf among Protestaota still talie a mmilar 
view. " In oar day ws have lost sight of the cardinal doctrine of jos- 
tifiaatioa hj faith. . . . The prlnciplo of jnstiBcatlon by God's free 
Eraoe, which delivered the Chiuch from Booh deep H«.i-lm««« at the 
period of the Eeformation, oan alone renew this generation — in a word, 
bring back to Ood the worid that bos forsaken Him." — Uerlb 
D'Attbiohb: Bi»loTprtft/i«Rtf(irm^ioii, Books. 

f Calvin pats it even more stoonf^y ; he speaks of professors of lelig- 
Un as " a great moltttade in which the ohildien of Ood are, alaa I but 
a handful of miknown people, like a few grains on tJio threehing- floor 
nnder a great heap of straw." /nit,, B. 4, C. 1. 

t " We may imagine what dreadfnl and horriUe agonies Christ must 
hava wigered while he was consciooa of standing at the tribnnal of God, 
•censed as * crinunal on our account" — /n«t , B. 3, C. 14, § 13. 


tores, WB ma; logically deduce from Uiese Bomo sadi scheme of 
redemption as the Beformera set up. 

Had Luther and Calvin a right to make this ezclosiTe s^eo- 
tiou ? Beyond doubt Luther held to that opinion. WitJi bis 
usual fearleBSueag, he claimed the privilege to judge the entire 
record, holding fast to. what seemed to him from the Lord and 
leaving the rest. Following the spirit of a Pauline toxt,* he 
says : " Doubtless the prophets studied Moses, and the later 
prophets studied the earlier ones, and wrote down in a book 
their good thoughts, inspired by the Holy Ghost. And though 
these good and true teachers and searchers aometimaa fell upon 
hay, straw, and wood, and did not build of pure silver, gold, and 
precious stones alone, yet the foundation remains." f 

He makes the distinction between the message and the mes- 
seuger, saying elsewhere : " When I hear Moses enjoining good 
works, I hear him as I do one who executes the order of an. 
Emperor or prince. But this ia not to hear God himself." | 

Nor must we imagine that Luther I'estricted bis liberty of 
choice and rejection to the old Testament One of the most 
outspoken of mankind, he sometimes lets us into the inner 
workings of hi:i mind — a curious study. He advises those who 
find difficulty in reconciling other portions of scripture with his 
&vorite texte &om Galatians, to reply to an adversary after this 
wise : " Thou settest against me the servant, that is to say the 
Scripture, and that not wholly but certain passages touchiDg 
the law and works. But I come with the Lord himself who is 
above the Scripture. . . , On Him I hold; Him I stick 
to and leave works unto thee. . . . Hold fast to this and 
lay it against all the sentences of the law and say : < Dost 

* 1 CorintliiaiiB iii. 18. 

'f Tbo passage oociire in the Preface to Lather's CommmtMim on tA$ 
fmir'ba^ of Moia : <"Amtotat, tlberdie fUnf BQoher Uoeea") 

The reader will find, in Breltachneidec'R woi^ enlatled LvtAtr wnd 
Mttw ZeU (1817). pp. 97-09, the freer opinions of Luther about inatdia- 
tiOD, brought together, 

% Bae Waloh'B collaction of LutheT*! works, vol. viL p. 9Di4. 


Aon hear this, Satan?' Here ho mnst needs give place, 
for ho knows that Christ is hia Lord a&d Master." * 

We find a reuiarkable example of the bold manner in which 
Lather acted out these sentimenta. Jamts, as we have seen, 
waa one of the most prominent among Clu-ist's apostles. To 
htm, whom he had trusted on earth, Je«uB appeared after bis 
dwth.f Paul, coming to Jerusalem and finding the disciples 
afraid of him — as not believing him to be a disciple — waa 
brought by Barnabas to Peter and James, and by them accred- 
ited to the brethren. J AfWward James reached the highest 
offices of trust in the gift of the early Christian Church. § 

But this distinguished apostle, author of the epistle which 
beara his name, sets forth in that epistle doctrine diametrically 
opposed to Paul's justification by faith without works. He 
there teaches that faith alone cannot save, seeing that the devUs 
also believe and tremble; finally declaring, "As the body 
without the spirit is dead, so &ith without works is dead 
also," I 

* CommeatariM on Oi Oalatiaiu; va cbap. iu. varse 10, lest paia- 

\ All oommentaton aie agreed that it is to thia James that the text 
1 CWi'ntA. XV. 7, apidJes. The apparitiiHi seems to have been first 
q)edaIl/tohim; aftarwaid to all the i^ostles. 

t Aett Ix. 37. With this text ctnapare OidtUiant ii. 18, 19, where 
Pul, after Btatiug that he saw Peter and abode with him fifteen dafs, 
adds : ' ' But other of the apoEtlea Eiaw I none, save James, the Lord'a 

g A.D. 40, he waa President of the Apostolio Conncil. Later he was 
fonoallj appointed by the Apostlea Bishop of Jemaalem. For hia ex- 
oeedhig' npiightnces he waa samamed "The Jnst"— See Surra's 
Dktionarg of Oie BOU, vol i. p. SZi. 

I Jama ii. 28. Bat the Apoetle'a statement of this doctaine nms 
thningti the last half of the ohi^tter, veraea 14 to 2S. Abraham and 
Bahab are qioken of as having; been jualified hy works : and James 
adds : " Ye see how that bj works a man is jnotified, and not by faith 
Duly."— r. 84. 

I do not allege that Jamea meant to say that a man can earn joatifi- 
oationby woAb; nordo 1 believe that he held to tiie doctrine of instl- 


Kow hov^ doea Lather deal wi& such a pflseage as this, from 
so emineDt a source V Curtly enough. More logical or more 
candid than some of his commentators who have sought to 
reconcile the in'econcilable, he rejects the anthoritj ; declaring 
that James's entire contribution to the New Testament is but 
" an Epistle of atra*." • Marvellous example of the effect 
which may be produced in au enthusiastic mind, when it dwells, 
with the partiality of love, on a favorite dogma 1 \ 

That the bold Beformer was entitled to the privilege here 
assumed, every Mend of religious freedom will admit, whatever 
he may think of good Martin's discretion in the mode of exer- 
cising it. Far be it from me to den^Ho Luther, or to any 
honest, earnest seeker after truth, the right to judge for him- 
self, as regards the Bible, between the gold and silver and the 

floation SB a reward of well-doiiig, but only as a consequent of good 

* "Bpistola etraminea" is Lntber'a expretdon: it occnis In hla 
preface to the New Teatamsnt, A writer in the Dklimary of tAa 
Bible (vol. i. p. 936), m^ : " Lather aeenu to hare withdrawn the 
ezpreeaion, after it had boon two Tears before the worid." I find no 
proof whatever of this. Caristadt, a oontemporary of Luther and tiie 
author of a work entitled De Oanonidf SeripturiM, reprehenda Lntber 
for his opinion about Jsmee (HaKenbach's Hutorn of Doetrinet, vtd. 
ij. note to pa^ 241) ; but t&e great Beformer was not a man to ahrinlt 
dom sn opinion onoe pnUiahed, because an opponent attacked it. 

f The Epistle thue snnunarilj dealt with is filled with the notdeet 
paaaogBB, and holds moie strictly to the spirit of Cluist's tesehingB Uian 
any other embiaoed in the Canon. Compare James i. 5 ; i. 2fi ; iL 8, 
9 ; ii. 18 ; iii. 17 ; v. 1 ; v. 13 ; the last clause of v. 16, and other texts 
fiom this Epistle, with the words of Jesus. Thia apostle'a strict ad' 
heienoe to his Uaatei's doctrine may be partly due to the fact that his 
Epiatle is the earliest in date; being- written, as is osaally calculated, 
about twelve yeara only after Chriat'B death. 

James is, more preeminently ttisn any other Apostle, tl>e moral 
teacher of the New Testament. Where have we a more exc^ent 
definition of religion than he has given us f " Pure idigion and nnde- 
filed bef<n« God and the Father is this, to visit the fat^edeas and the 
widows in their afflictian, sad to keep one's self imspotted front tbe 


toy and straw wliicb it may coBbun. Then, too, we must ad- 
mit the gr«»t importance of the distinction which Luther sots up 
between the metisage and the messenger. We hear' God throng 
His woi^s or his interpreters only ; and that, as Luthet re- 
minds as, "is not to hear God himselt" 

This only I assert, that it was not the grand system of spiri- | 
toal ethics taught by Jesus which was arrested in its progress / 
for ceiitaries, which &iled to make headway against human 
Hftimanta of infallibility, which lost more than half the ground 1 
it had gained, which cannot hold its own against the Homan \ 
hierarchy to'^y — it was but an Augustiuian commentary on f^ 
some of the scholastiliBms of St. Paul. ^. 

I find abondant proof of this assertion in the gospel record, / 
taken as a whole. In its general aspect what do we find to be 
its essential features ? 

§ 10. Spirit and Teachings of Christiakity compabed witb 


" Scriptore, as a witness, disappeared behind the AogBbaig Ocmfee- 
sioo, u a etnndard."— Tin-LOCH.* 

Men did well, after countless ages marked with fitful strug- 
gles only toward the light, to turn over a leaf in the world's 
diroQolc^, and begin to date its years afresh, from the time 
when, at last, a Teacher spoke to its heart and to the affections 
there crushed and to the spirit of God there dormant ; instead 
of addressing its iean, its superstitions, and its evil passions. 

Ignorance or cynicism alone denies or overlooks the moral 
uid spiritual progress of mankind. But to what is that prog- 
rose due ? To a spirit inherent in our race as is the vital prin- 
ciple in the bare-limbed, snow-clad forest-tree — a spirit that 
hardly manifested existence through tlie long, barren winter of 
homan barbarism, but now, stirred to energy in this spring-time 
■ Leaden qftha H^fdrmatha (Londra, 1600), p. 87. 


of civiliKatioii, puts forth, of its kind, fresh, greea leafage, to 
gladden th* world. 

Hov is this spirit nfuned ? When it stills, in the individual, 
or the nation, the fierce impalses of GOmbatiTeness, and bids 
discard bnital force and substitute the mild appliances of reason, 
it is called Peace. When it softens the asperity of human 
codes, and tampers indignation against the wrong-doer, we name 
it Mebct. When it seeks, in a neighbor's conduct, the good 
and not the evil ; when it respects, in others, independence of 
thought and speech, and finds in honost diiTei'enoe of opinion 
no cause of offence ; its name is Chabitv. When it attracts us 
to our fellow-creatures, of every tribe and tongue, impelling us 
to take them by the hand and do them good, we call it Kind- 
ness. By whatever name, under all its phases, a gentle spirit ; " 
eminently civilizing, humanizing ; the herald of vii-tue, the dis- 
penser of happiness. 

As it happens that, while winter still lingeringly maintains 
dominion over earth, there Rometimes intArvenes a day of bright 
sunshine, harbinger of others, warmer and brighter jet, to 
come ; so is it also with the changing seasons of the spiritual 
wArld. There have been gleams of premature brightness shed 
over an age still too wintry for their maintenance ; lihere floats, 
sometimes, the faint fragrance of a summer yet afar off. 

Of this there have been marked examples, &r back in human 
history; In these we dimly recognize the divine efflation. But 
we recognize it as we do the remote star in the night-heaven. 
Star and sun shine upon us alike with celestial light ; yet there 
is one glory of the sun, enlightener of tiie eartJi, and another 
of the pale, twinkling star. And never, in all the history of 
our race, has the gentle spirit of which I have spoken been 
heralded to humankind as it was, more than ei^t«en centuries 
since, in one of the Asiatic dependencies of the Boman Empire. 
A voice from Galilee, first heard by fishermen, its earliest 
teachings caught up by publicans and sinners, has reached, 
albeit through the din of oontroversialism, the entire civilized 


Aside fi^m pataaitio subtleties of doctrine which have com-X 
monly enkindled zeal in the inverse ratio of their practical im- \ 
portance, what b the master-principle, pervading the entire i 
code of Christian Bpiritualigra and Chriatian morality, — giving 1 
it life and character, conspicnoosly distinguishing it from the 
Jswish and all other tiarali systems of an austere Fast ? | 

It is, as to Ood, the regarding Him not as an implacable ! 
Sovereign, armed with the terrors of the Idw, whose wrath is 
a consuming Gre ; but as a dear Father — his tender merctes 
over all his other works — who esaeta not long prayer nor for- 
mal sacrifice ; accepting, as most fitting service to Himself, the ' 
aid and comfort we may have given to His suffering creatures. 
And, as to man, it is the substitution, in all hia affairs, whether 
international, l^islative, litigant, ezecntiTC, or social, of the /* 
law of kindness for the rule of violence. It is the replacement, ( 
throughout God's world, of war by peace, of severity by hu- , 
manitj : for contention the enthronement of meekness; and for i 
hatred, of love. 

"We find, indeed, seintillationB from such a Bpirit dating prior 
to the CfaristiBn era : in the Grecian schools of philosophy, es- 
pecially from the lipa of Socrates speaking through the tran- 
scripts of Plato ; and even coming to ns from an earlier school, 
in tbe moral code promulgated by the great sage of China, the 
contemporary of Pjrthagoras and of Solon. Confucius, twenty- 
four centuries since, forbade revenge of injuries, commended 
clemency, denounced self-ri^teousneaa, and declared that the 
veiy foondation of all law was this, that wo shonld do aa we 
would be done by.* 

But what was subordinate injunction or incidental embellish- 
inent only in older codes is of the Christian system the soul 
and essence. Scarce a maxim but it colors ; hardly a precept 

* TsuA ; Life and Jforati of Gonfadut, reprinted from the edition 
ot leai (London, 1818] ; pp. 80, 83, 89, B2. Bat Confncini inonlcBted 
hatred of bad men, •• of t^a alandeier, the teviler, the man wise in 
hit own conoett, tiie fod. who oennma (p. 91). Compaie witli this, 
Matthew V. 48, 44. 


to which ib does not give tone. It is not one of many miniB- 
trant ^irits, but the presiding deity. Lote is the falfiUing of 
the Law. 

It would be wrong to Bay that suoh a syatom was out of 
place eif^teeu hundred years ago, under a rule of legal ven.- 
geance and a code of retaliation. £ven in those days, as loi^ 
before, the still small voice in humsji nature, though commoiily 
drowned by the dang of arnia and the noisy conflict of rod© 
passions, doubtless bore witness, when it could be heard above 
the tumult, in &Tor of the new philoeophy ; testifying to its 
justice, sympathizing with its Idtidly spirit. And to this 
stead&st ally within the citadel is to be ascribed its preserva- 
tion amid the hostile elements around. 

Yet one can hardly imagine anything more at variance with 
the temper of Christiaoity than tlie everyday thoughts and, 
doings of men, not only at the period whence it dates, but long 
thereafter. And it is a thing very remarkable that the name was 
adopted and revered, age after age, while scarcely pretence was 
maintained of obedience to the gentle precepts that character- 
ized it. The warrior-monk of Ualta, after he had lost, amid 
luxury and Ucense, every virtue except ytlor, called himself a 
ChrisUan. The half-million of crusaders who six centuries 
since assembled at the call of Father Dominic, and march«d 
forth, the cross emblazoned on their breasts, to exterminate the 
schismatic Waldenses — laid claim to the title of Christian pil- 
grims. Torquemada — he who during one brief inquisitoriate 
burned five thousand heretics,* and gave np ten times that num- 
ber to torture or other punishment — caused the rack to be 
stretched and the martyr-fire to be kindled, by the anthori^ of 
Christianity. Like the disciples demanding fire from heaven to 
consume the inhospitable Samaritans, these men knew not what 
manner of spirit animated Him, whom they vainly professed to 
follow and to serve, 

* Varionsl; estimated, by differsnt writers, from two to eight llutt- 
saod. IhaveBumnedthemean, wliicli I jodgebmnthaeTideiiae toba 
under rather than over the tmth. 

OF OHEBTlUinT. 101 

Huoii^ theee earlieet and worst profanationa of her name, 
ChriatiAiiity is at length emerging. We hare probabl; outlived 
tbe era of religious persecution unto death. You can Bpeak of 
Boman Catholicism and I of Calvinism, without riatc that either 
of US should be brought to the stake. 

Under favor of this freedom, I ma; ask 70U dispwsionately 
to reSect how &r the theolt^ tai^t by the Leaders of the 
Befbn&Ation conforms to, or diverges from, the religion of 
Ouist. The aul^oct abould be approached — reverently, prayer 
fully, yea — but fearleBslj aleo. The truth maketh free. 

I admit, in advance, that a doctrinal system whioh, in various 
phases, has pervaded Christendom for fifteen hundred years, 
may rightfully demand to be respectfully dealt with by the his- 
torian, tbe statesman, the philosopher. We may rationally as- 
same, too, lliat in a certain stage of mental development, auoh 
a system, like war, may have had its mission. Yet this theory 
doea not bar the hypothesis that its days are numbered, or that 
its miamon is already fulfilled. To everything there is a season. 
Like ^e dogma — as ancient as itself, and still nominally ac- 
cepted by two hundred millions of people — that the Holy 
Ohost ever guides, exclusively and with unerring wisdom, die 
one only true and Catholic Church — the doctrine of innate and 
incurable depravity, supplemented by vicarious atonement, may 
be destined speedily to pass away. 

If it dialt appear that such a doctrine, though taught by Faul, 
ooofiicts wiUi the sayings of Jesns, then we shall be relieved 
from the despairing oonclnsion that GhrlstiaDity is losing 
ground, century by oentury. If it shall further appear that 
these &vorite dogmas tend to retard the progress of civilization 
and to lower the standard of morality,* then we need not ac- 

* In some of the nuxseading pages, I shall q>eak, at lor^, ot Plen- 
ai7 Ins^^iation. Meanwhile, if the doctrine ot Lnther soffloe not, 
in the btss of my oleriool i«aden, to jtuti^ me in agenming it to be 
poanUe tliat a few of St. Ftcal't ohapt«Ta are but straw instead of 
gold, lot tiiem be reminded wbat one of the most eminent and enlight- 
eoad among the dignitaries of the English Chnich has left on reoord ; 


cept Macaulaj's ooroUary that there ia no progreHHiTe elentant 
la our religioD, and no security, in the future, against any the- 
ological fallacy of the pasL 

In a brief addi«BB like this, it is iMpiacticable to collate tha 
writinga of Calvin and Luther vith the teachings of Christ. 
Text crowds on text ; one would have to trtuiBoribo half tbo 
bic^^aphy of the Tesbunent. 

And how unneceaaaty would be such a collation, if we of 
this generation could bat euunine that Teatament uninfluenced 
by preconceptions I 

Let us imagine Christendom to have known, until the pies- 
ent day, no Bible save Calvin's Institutes and Luther's Qala- 
tian CommeDtary. Let ns suppose it to be receiving ft>r tiie 
firat time, now under the lights of the nineteenth centuiy, the 
utterances of him whom it calls " Lord, Lord," — to be reading 
the just-found words of Jesiis as tiie peasantry of Germany and 
Kitgland read tliem, fresh from the pens of Luther and of Tyn- 
dale. Ah! small need would there be then of comment or 
studied comparison t The theolc^ that rejoices in its ortho- 
doxy bMlay would melt away in a single year before the glow 
of the teachings by tbe sea and of the Sermon on the Mount. 

Thus emerging to view, what a record would it be to us! — 
with first impressions unduUed by formal iteratLous ; with con- 
victions still to be formed, not perverted from earliest child- 
hood into antiquated grooves ; its words fresh with their orig- 
inal meaning ; no dogmatic gloss to dim its simple lessons ; no 
obscuring commentary to cloud its priceless truths. Some 
things, no doubt, would startle us ; others might cause us to 

' ' I express niTielf with oaation lest I should be "■<"*»■>"" to vilifj lea- 
aoa ; which is, indeed, the ohlj facul^ we have wherewith to judge 
concenung anything, even iev«tati<ni itself : or be nndeistood to aswit 
that a supposed revelation cannot be proved fslw from internal cbsrao- 
teia. For itaajoontoiucleariinnioralitieeorooDtradiolionB; andeiUiei 
ot these would prove it false." — Bishop B1TTI.EB : Anctogfi 1^ Sdigimt, 
tNuD U. ohap. 3, p. 301. (London Ed, 1809.) 

CALTIHI^I AJ!n) OBBSrlAinTr. 103 

caU in qaeetioa llie accuracy of th« biographer's recollectioiis. 
A portion of Luther's " hay and straw," we should detect ; but 
the pure gold would be readily recognized ; the grand founda- 
tion vould remain.* 

" Bepent, for the kii^^om of Heaven is at hand I " f These 
would be the first words of exhortation that met our eye. 
Next we should learn that the " gospel of the kingdom " waa 
preached.^ The gospel I That word would come to us in its 
etymological purity, § not overlaid by su^eatiooa of catechism 
and &jth-confe3aionB. It would inform ua that Jesus, the 
AiroiKTSD,J came a Messenger of Good TidingB. 

Good tidings? — to ua who had been hearing such as these ? 
'* Every thing in man, the understanding and will, the body and 

* I jDBj haie advert to what I have tooobed upon elsewhere in this 
voltune that, ia a general way, I i^;ard the three spioptical gospels— 
the ealUer written — as much more reliable than the later bio^aph; of 
John ; and I have therefore chiefly, though not entirely, troated to 
them for Christ's teaolunga. The nearer (in lame) to the Master, the 
more we find of the gold and the leas of the droaa. 

It is lemaricable that Jnntin Martfr, who usoally refers to his an- 
thoritiee qpedfioally, never quotes either of the GTaogelista by name ; 
hnt, instead, what he calls: Memoir$ of th« Apo»ties. The remarka- 
ble coincidenoes not only in incident, but often almost htoral, between 
the three ^rnoptJcal grospels seem to point to some oonunon origin for 
these biograi^ea; and it haa been soggeeted tliat this oonunon aonroe 
may have been a Memoir or Blogiaphy, drawn np from the reoolleo- 
tiona of Chiist's relatives, his Apostles, and other prominent disciples, 
soon after the cruoifizion. Tbia seems to me a reaaonabla hypotheda. 
I Matthew if. 17; Harki. 15. 
} Uatthew ir. 23 ; Made i. .14. 

g It wenld be saperfluooB, but that it is so often overlooked, to reoall 
to the reader's memory that the word gotpd (god-spell) derives from the 
two Anglo-Saxon w<Kds: Ood, good ; and speO, history or tidings. 

I The titles "The Christ" and "The Mesaiah " haidly reoall to na 
now the fact, that both mean aimplj TAe Anointed; the former in 
Greek, the latter in Hebrew. 

The disciples, seen after the cmci&iion, "lifting np their voice to 
Ood with one accord," desigiiated their Master (Aotaiv. ST) aa "Th; 
holy child Jeans, whom Than hast anointed." 


BonI, is polluted.* . . . God finds nolliing in men that 
can incite him to blesa them." f 

What good tidings, then ? Theso — 

" Blessed are the poor in spirit ; for theirs is the kingdom 
of heaven. Blessed are they that mourn ; for they shall be 
comforted. Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the 
earth. Blessed are the; which do hunger and thirst aft«r 
righteousnesa, for they shall be filled. Blessed are the merci- 
ful; for they shall obtain mercy. Blessed are the pure in 
heart ; for they shall see God. Blessed are the peaoe-makera, 
(or they shall be called the children of God." { 

So, again, to ears accustomed to doctrine like this: "All 
children are depraved from their vety birth ; . . . their 
whole nature must be odioiie and abominable to God " § — how 
would sound the good tidings brought by another Tea^^r, 
guiding UB from darkness to the " light of life " ? [ 

" Jeans took little children in his arms and blessed them, 
^ylug : ' Of such is the Kingdom of Heaven :' and to his dis- 
ciples he added : ' Except ye receive the Kingdom of Ood aa a 
little child, ye cannot enter therein.' " ^ 

Yet again : In the gospel from Geneva we had been accos- 
tomed to read : " The whole world does not belong to its Crea- 
tor : . . . grace delivers from the curse and wrath of Ood 
a few, . . . but leaves the world to its destruction. ** . . . 
I stop not to aotioe those fanatics wbo pretend that grace is 
offered equally to ftlL" ft 

But how would our hearts warm within us when we found, 
in the Gospel from Galilee, invitation to all those who labor 
and are heavy-laden upon earth : " Ask, and it shall be given 
you ; seek, and ye shall find ; knock, and it shall be opened 
to you : for everi/ one that ssketh receiveth, and he that aeek- 

• See preoediDir page 78. IT Luke zviii. 15-17, 

f See preceding page 74. ** See the woida of Calvin at pre- 

i UatUiew V. S-10. oeding page 78. 

§ See laeoecUug pages 74, 7S. ff ^^ preceding p^« 73. 

I Jolin viii. 12. 


eth, findeth ; and to him that kmocketh it sh&tl be opened. . . 
If je, being evil, know how to give good gifts unto your chil- 
dren, how much more shall your Father which is in Heaven, 
give good gifts to them that ask Hi in ? " * 

Nor should we find the teachings that had come from Wit- 
tenberg to agree, any better than Calvinism, with the tidings 
from Kazareth, at last laid open before us ; seeing that Luther 
h»A taught U8 in *J»'h wise : " To say that &lth is nothing un- 
less charity be joined withal, is a devilish and blasphemous 
doctoine. f . . . Every doer of the law and every moral 
worker is accursed." J 

But in the new gospel we should find Christ Baying : " Wbeu 
thou makest a feast, call the poor, the maimed, the lame, the 
'blind ; and thou abalt be blessed : they cumot recompense 
thee, but thou ahalt be recompensed at the resurrection of the 

We should probably call to mind, too, that &om Witten- 
berg we had heard : " He that says the gospel requires works 
for salvation, I say, flat and plain, ia a liar." | 

But when we open that gospel itoelf, how different the read- 
ingl " Whosoever shall do and teach the oommaDdments, the 
same shall be called great in the Kingdom of Heaven." T 

As we proceeded in the beautiful gospel-stor;, new sur- 
prises would meet us at every step. 

That sinner of Uie oldeB time, was she, with her many siua, 
forgiven because she believed much 7 We should find the 
record to read — " because she loved much." ** 

And that other simier, set in the midst for condemnation, 
was she bade to go and believe that a Holy Vicar bore her 
sins ? Yerily, no. We should learn that she was left uucon- 
demned and bade to " go and sin no more." ff 

That prayer of prayers (it would seem to us, Geneva-taught) 

* Matthew TiL 11. | See preceding page 51. 

t See pieced^ page 88. 1 Matthew v. 19. 

t Sea jneoediDg page 84. ** Xinke viu. 47. 

g Luke xiv. IS, 14. ft ^oi^ '^ ^0- 


ougbt not to have read : " For^ve us oitr aina as we torffva 
them that sin agaiiut ns ; " * but thus : " Beckon if to us for 
right«OHSDeBB that our sins are transferred to thy Son and that 
we are elected of Thee." 

Then, ugain, when amid Christ's good tidings we heard of the 
great "J07 in Heaven over one sinner that repenteth," the 
question would be sure to aiim: "Why, when a sinner re- 
pents, should there be joy at all, if it be election, and not n- 
pentance, that has power to save ? " 

But chiefly would the wondrous narrative-teachings of Jesus 
be likely to arrest our attention ; and what profound Bubjeot 
for thought should we find in them 1 

Suf^KMe that, fresh from the Beforroer's sdieme of atone- 
ment, we came upon that noblest of puables, the story of the 
prodigal son. The father (we should read) bade bring forth 
the beet robe and put it on him, and a rii^ on his hand and 
shoes on his feet. Was this advancement (typical of Ood'a 
good-will to a sinner) dne to the son's sudden adoption of a 
d(^;ma, and to his certain belief that he was favored of his 
fa^Ler and destined to happiness ? "A thousand times, no I " 
(we should have to reply). It was due to the lost one's hu- 
mility and repentance; to his sorrow for the past, and his 
resolution to lead au amended life of usefulness, even in a 
menial's place. " Father, I have sinned against Heaven and 
before thee, and am no more worthy to be called thy son; 
make me as one of thy hired servants." 

Kext, perhaps, reaching the parable of the man travellii^; 
into a far country, we might be reading how he called his 
servants and delivered to them his goods; how one servant 
unproved the talents he had received and to him it was said : 
" Enter into the joy of thy Lord : " then how another servant 
left his talent unemployed, and was sent " into outer darkness." 
Straightway it would suggest itself to us that, unless we had 


been misled by bliod teachers, this parable onght to have stated 
tb«t the one eervaut, who sought jnstiGcation throu^ the 
vorks be had done, was told that no roan con be justified by 
works, and bo, dismiaeed to " weeping and gnashing of teeth : " 
while the other, who trusted not to works, should have been 
informed that if he confidently believed that he had been 
elected to enter on the joy of his Lord, it should be unto him 
according to his belief.* 

At last, it may be, ni^;ent to have our doubts resolved, we 
might turn over the leaves, seeking some definite Btatoment 
touching the fate of human beings after death. Matthew, in 
his twenty-fifth chapter, wouid supply our need. 

For there we should find Jesus depicting a graphic scene, 
typical of the eSbct which man's doings in this world produce 
on his state in tlte next 

When the King eays to those on his right, "Come, inherit 
the Kingdom," he assigns the reasons for his choice. " I was 
an hungered and ye gave me meat ; I was thirsty and ye gave 
me drink ; I was a stranger and ye took me in, naked and ye 
clothed me ; sick and in prison and ye visited me." And 
when they who were thus addressed disclaimed having rendered 
him service, the t^ly is: " Inasmuch as ye did it unto the 
least of these, my brethren, ye did it unto me," Could we 
constme Uiis except to mean that we best serve Ood when we do 
good to the lowliest of his creatures ; and that if we spend our 
lives here in such good deeds, then when Death summons UB to 
another phase of life, our state thei'e will be a happy one ? Yet, 

* The paamges that would be sun to startle onx snppoaod Ctoacvan 
oateclnunen aie niHtoat nomber, and will ocooz to every candid 
aeaicfaer of the zecord. The paiable that doaes the Great Sermon is, 
perliaps, me of the moet strikiiif . " Whoso hearetlk these Myiuga of 
mine and dogth t/iern, shall be likened to a wise man bnildiug his hoosa 
onaTDck. But everyone that heuroHi my Bojinga and doel7i tAsmtuit, 
is like a focdiah man, building on the sand." Not the hearing, not the 
beLeving aside froin works— tlie doing ia the rock-fanndation. Erery- 
n land, that shall be swept awaj. 


if we Btill retained our Calvinistio procliTities, would it not 
seem to ub that the words of the King ought to have been : 
"Come, inherit the Kingdom; for I have elected you of &eo 
grace to enter it, without reference to jour works on earth, 
whether they have been good or whether they have been evil." 
But who, according to Christ, were to go into " everlasting 
fire," ♦ — whatever the words thus rendered may mean — at all 
events who were to sulTer instead of enjoying ? They who, 
wrapt up during their earth-life in selfishness, fiiiled to minis- 
ter to their fellow-creatures. But unless, by this time, we bad 
no longer the fear of Calvin before our eyes, how should we 
receive such a declaration? With incredulity, doubtless, or 
with a feeling that the sentence of the condemned should have 
been couched in some such terms as these : " Depart, ye cursed, 
to dwell for ever with the devil and his angels, for so from the 
foundations of the world was it determined, or ever ye were 
bom or had done good or ill. That my purpose according to 
election mi^t stand, not of works but of Him that calleth, I 
select as seemetb good to me : I take one and leave the other. 
These, on my ri^^ hand, have I loved ; but you have I 
hated." t 

* Christ's more nsoal and favorite pan^ihiaM lor the oondition of 
avil-doera hereafter is "outer daxknaaa, where ihiJl be weeinnc and 
gnsdhing of teeth" (Matthew viiL 13; xzii 13; xxiv. 51; xxv. 30; 
and Lokexiii. 28); words seeming to t^ifj an utter ecUpee of tiie soul 
and gdevODi meutel snfFeriugs. In the body of this volume I shall 
give leaoona for believing that these woids of Jesos sptlj deaciibe the 
future state of those whose lives here have not fitted them foe light 
and hsppineae in a higher phase of being. 

I reooomend those who have the habit of dogmatiring on the sub- 
ject of eternal punishment and Bsanming that the Hebrew i9A«iI and tbe 
Greek Sadeg have, in our AothotiEed Version, been oorceatiy trsnalated, 
to read the article " Hell" in Dr. Smith's " Diotionaiy of the Bible." 
They will Snd that tbe writer, after giving the result of much oritioal 
reseatoh, says : " Bespecting the oondition of the dead, whether before 
01 after Uie lesoireotion, we know vety little indeed. . . 
on this tot^o appears to be peculiarly misplaoed. " 

f See, for Colvin'n words on this sobject, preooding page 78> 



Do you toll me that this is impious? I agree with you ; it 
is the very clinmx of impiety. But it is John Calvin's impiety, 
not mine. And it ia an impiety which seems secretly to have 
shocked tiie modern world's sense of right and wrong : for the 
last three centuriee have given their verdict against it. 

Yet, %ritbal, there is a power and a subtile fascination * about 
the Qcnevese theology, terrible as Gustave Dora's conceptions 
of Daate^s " Inferno." When I tura from Calvinism to Chris- 
tianity, I feel as one awaking from some frightful nightmare — 
some dream of an arid desert peopled with phaatom-abapes of 
demons and monsters — and coming face to face with the calm 
loveliness of a bri^t, genial spring-morning ; the song of birds 
in my ears, the odor ai dew-fed flowers stealing over my senses. 

It is for yon, guides of the Protestant Church, to say whether 
the £scta adduced sustain the proposition which I have already 
advanced and which I here repeat : It was not the grand system 
of ethics taoght by Jesus which was arrested in its pn^ress for 

* It is beyond doubt Qtat it had strange attxactaon tor the Buropeau 
mind in its state of tnnsiUoD during the aixteenth oenturf , " About 
the rear 1540 a little book was published, entitled Qf the SenefiU <^ 
th» Dtath of Ckrmt, which, u a decree of the Inquiutioa expressed it, 
' treated, in an insiDuatang manner, of jnstifioatioD, depreciated works 
■nd meritorious acts and ascritwd all merit to faitb abne.' It had iu- 
cndiUe snooeHs and rendered tlie doctrine of jnsti&iBtion, for a time, 
P<inilar in Italy ; bat it was finally so rigidly suppressed by tbe Inqui- 
sition Uiat not a copy is now Ixiown to exist."— Bahkk : BxKtary nf fAs 
Popet, vol. L 

A signifioant ezpreasioa, well worth pondering in oonnection with the 
bold which, in these rude days of public wrong and private outrage, 
this doctrine obtained on the human mind, oootusin tJieAngsburg Con- 
l«Mion. Speaking of jnstificatloD by faith without works, the Coofes- 
sionista say : " This entdre doctrine is to be lefeired to the oonUiot of 
the terrified oonacieDce ; nor without that couQiot can it be under- 
«ood."— Jrtiefc 30. 

A doctrine of fear, not of leva " What if Glod, wQling te show his 
'wiath and to moke his power known," &o., ia Paul's expression.— 


centuries ; which &iled to make headway against humaa claim- 
aata of iofallibilitj ; which lost more than half the ground It 
had gained; which cannot hold its own against the Itoauui 
hierarchy to-day ; — it was an Auguatini&n coounentaiy on some 
of the scholasticisms of St. Paul. 

You will judge, also, whether I hare made good this otlier 
proposition : It is cot a fair inference from the history of tbe 
Reformation and the reverses to Proteetantiem therein recorded, 
that Christianity is not in the nature of a progressive science ; 
or that we have no security for tiie future against the prevalence 
of aay theological error that has ever prevailed in time post 
among Christian men. 

§ 11. Effect ok Morality of cebtaik Fatooite Doctbineb 
OF THE Reformers. 

Bnt it is not alone the divergence of some early Protestant - 
doctrines from Christ's teachings, extreme as it is, that arrests 
one's attention. It is also the eSect on civilization and human 
pn^ress of the doctrines themselves. I intreat your attention 
to this branch of the subject, ui^at in its importance. 

— Urgent, for many reasons. It ia far short of the truth to 
say that the material progress of the world in the last hundred 
yeara has exceeded that obtained in any ten previous oeDturiss. 
Yet I am sure it must have occurred to you that the advance 
in morality has not kept pace with that in all physical arts 
and sciences. Especially in this new country of ouis, liable as 
it b to the excesses and ttie shortoominp of youth, improve- 
ment in human actions and affections, as compared with im- 
provement in mechanical agencies, lags lamentably behind. 
Intemperance, partially checked from time to time, is yet a ter- 
rible power in the land.' Vast wealth and stintless luxury — 

* Bpeoial Internal Bevenoe Gommissioaei Wells, whose laboia in 
in with fiDAncial rsf orm have made his name favorafaily known 
!T the ooimtiy, state*, in hi* Beport to Congrew for the year 1B87, 


Iienlds of min that go before the decline and &11 of nations — 
are so swiftly and so widely extending their baneful influence 
over our people, that Christ's warning comss to us vith ten- 
fold force : " How hardly shall they who have riches enter into 
the Kingdom of Heaven I " Public morality is at a lower ebb 
than it waa^ quarter of a century ago: our legislative bodies 
are less pure, our public service generally more stained with 
venality. Nay, the veiy source whence our political system 
springs — the election preSinct itself — has become subject to in- 
vasions of comiptioa that have wajced, year by year, more fre- 
quent and more shameless. But public immorality reacts on 
private morals. The vice-diseases which originate in politics, 
if they assume a malignant type, cannot, by any sanitary 
cordon, be confined to politics ; they are sure to infect, first 
oar business marts, then the home^ircle itself.* Never has I 
there been a time when a great reformatory agency was more I 
preesingly needed among us than now. I 

I do not say this discouragingly ; for I feel no discouroge- 

HM, during that year, the sales of persoas retailing qrirituous and molt 
liqnoTB reached the aiini of $463,491,885. This, however, included 
ofl their sales which, in many instances, extended to other articles, aoch 
w sugar, flonr, tobacco. Ab the tax was much loi^r than that Im- 
posed on oidinarr dealers, it is not lilcely tliat any one wonld return 
himaelt as a retailer ol liqnoiB nnlesi he sold snfflcient of the article to 
warrant payment of the increased tax. Mr. Wells (in a letter to me of 
Febnuuy 10, 1871) safs : " I think jou would be safe in aajing that 
a third port of the aales returned was for Uqnors." 

This would give tipwani <f a hundreA and sietj/ mSlioJti of doUan, 
as the BDm annnally paid by the people of the United States over the 
cotinter to retailers, /or glastet of ligvor alane : averaging, probably, 
aeventy or eighty glasMS a year for every man, woman, and child in onr 

Bow past homan oalcnlation the amonnt of vice and misery which eo 
enormooa a sum, thna expended, repreaents t — as little capable of estl- 
nate the omoont of good it migkt represent, if spent tot the education 
of youth and tiie insCniction of the people 

* 1 witoeaaed a memorable example of Uiia during a Ave years' Mil* 
daaoe, ondar tlie old rdgime, in the kingdom of Na^dea. 

112 EVERT ehuam action entails 

ment. The great stream of human progress flows ever onward, 
even if we, for the time, are foond ia one of ite aide-eddies. 
He, without whom no Bporrow {alls, if He fosters the less wiU 
care also for the greater. In His own good time the needs of 
the soul will surely he supplied as bountiiiillj as the wanta of 
the body. ^ 

But if we take note of God's economy, we shall observe that 
he efiects these objects in our world, not by miracle or direct 
interposition, but mediately, throu^ meliorating agencies, 
under general law. And, as He usually acts upon ua here 
throi^h human agencies, men, though they cannot ureet Clod'a 
law or change its influence, have a certain power to quicken or 
retard its operation. They quicken that influence when tbey 
call the attention of their fellows to its inevitable action and 
to its power for good. They retard its action when tUey weaken 
the &ith of mankind in its existence, or assert that God arbi- 
trarily suspends it. And this last is what xealous men — in a 
matter most gravely affecting morals, — have assumed to do for 
centuries, and continue to do at this very day. 

If there be one universal law, patent wherever man is fi>und, 
it is that every act, good or bad, entails its appropriate result, 
be it beneflcial or injurious to the actor. So far as we know 
anything of God, by observation of His works, He does not 
permit this law, or any other natural law, to change or to be 

Men, conscious of evil-doing, have, in all ages, striven to 
evade the operation of this great lawj seeking out many in- 
ventions whereby, in the matter of sin, the consequence might 
be detached from the cause. But this cannot be done, any more 
than the sun can shine and no li^t follow, or a field be sown 
in tares and wheat spring up as the result. 

A sin can be repented of. A sinful life can be amended. A 
man, sorrowing over the evil he has done, may lesm to do well. 

* I shall speak &t laigfe of the univetSB] rdgnof lawaDdthemistakM 
men have made when they imagined its raspeuBion, in anotlier part of> 
this book. 


A siimer may be cured of sin, as one who is sick may be cured 
of a disease. Thus, and thna alone, can the couaeqaences of 
BUI be averted. Whea the cause ceases, then only ceases the 

Any attempt to persuade men that the effect of sia can cease \ 
while the sin remains is of exceedingly immord tendency — of 
tendency much more immoral than would be the striking, from 
a statute against murder, of ite penal clause. For it would be 
■s if we deceived a man under temptation to kill, by telling him 
that the law against murder contained no penalty or that its 
penalty could be annulled, while in ioct the penalty in force was 
death. Does it mend matters that we add : " What, then ? 
Shall we continue to murder because there is no penalty ? God 
forbid 1 " Ood haa forbidden, and under a penalty. If you | 
blind men's eyes to the penalty, little avails it that you repeat 
to them, " God forbid ! " 

Happily for the world, there are men (though Calvin denies 
this), in whom the hunger after the Right f is so strong that 
they need no other incentive to virtue. Yet, in the masses at 
tbe present day, the hope or the fear of consequences chiefly de- 
cides action. Thus legislators do not consider it safe to trust 
tbe control of mankind to moral precepts without penal law. 

Upon the same principle the world is agreed that it will not 
do to leave out of view a future state of reward and punish- 
ment. I Of all demoralizing doctrines T know of none more 

* "CesMDte OBxa& oetsat efiectiu" is one of the oldest ot legal 

t Matthew t. 6. 

t I by no means aneit, however, that the fear ot Hell and tbe hope 
of Heaven aro tlie f onndation-motavea on which Christ's BjHtcrn ot ethics 
restfl, or which Ue at the basis of tbe noblest morality. Bee, as to that 
enbject, the concluding chapter of this book. It is indispensable to 
disUngnith between what taay be pat forward as chief motive at this 
sge of tbe wold and what uiaj be man's iMsic motive in a more ad- 
vanced stage of civilization. Not will the time evei come when it will 
, cease to be important that we ibonld dearly know, and deeply ponder, 
the natnral conseqaencea of oor acts. 


thomugMj 'vicious in tendeiM^ tbaa this, that character and 
conduct in this world do not determine our state of being in 
the next. 
I And, on the other hand, I know of no more poweriul incen- 
I tive to morality, at this stage of human progress, than a pro- 
found conviction that, by an inevitable law, our well-doing in 
this stage of existence decides our well-being in that which is to 

Tliat sagacious and kindly man, Bishop Butler, following tha 
lights of aoalogy, and from the seen deducing the unseen, has 
some wise words in this connection. While he abstains &om 
anything beyond supposition as to how and in what manner, in 
the next world, sin will entail suffering, he suggests " tliat fu- 
ture punishment may follow wickedDesa in the way of natural 
consequence, or according to some general laws of government 
already established in the universe." * 

I shall give my reasons, farther on, for believing tliat Butier 
here touches a great truth ; that God's laws for the soul are not 
restricted to earth-life ; and that His creatures, still under 

* Butleb: Anatagy of BtUgioa, part a. oh^. 6, § 2 (p. 232 of 
LondoQ Ed. , 1609) . A page or two preTionsly oocni these sentences : 
" The divine moral ptvermnent which religion teaches ns implies tlut 
the oonBeqnenoe of viae ehall be miseiy, in some future state, bj the 
righteous jadgment of Qod. . . . Thet« is no abannlity in snt^Me- 
ing fntnre panishmants nuf f<Jlow wiokedneea of ooniBe, as we speak ; 
or in the way of natural ooosequence from Ood's original oonsUtuticHi 
of the world \ from the nature which He has given oh and from the con- 
dition in which He placeB us ; or ia a like manner as a person laahly 
trifling upon a precipice, in the waj- of natural coneeqaeuce, falls 
doivn ; In the wa7 of natural oonsequenoe breaks his limbs, suppoee ; 
in the waj' of natuTal consequence of this, witliout help, peiiihea. 
Some good men ma; perhaps be offended with Iteormf it ipoken of as 
a BUpposable thing Ulat the future puniahments of wickedaeas msj be 
in the way of natural oonsequenoe ; as if this were taking the exeoution 
of justice out of the hands of God. But they should remember that 
when things oome to pass according to the course of nature, this does 

not hinder them from being His doing, who ia the Ood of natme." « 

pp. 330, 231. 

THE fiOApe-OOAT. lis 

theee laws aitier the death-change, will find them in the Great 
Beyond as oa this little planet, unchanged and unchangeable. 

Does not such a conception (involving no earning of heaven, 
no arbitrary consignment to hell) commend itself to our better 
nature as in. accordance with the attributes of "the Father of 
%hta, with whom is no vuiableness, neither shadow of tura- 

And what have we had in Hebradom and in CkriHtendom 
fi)r tens of oentnries to replace it ? 

In the childhood of the world — at all events when it was 
three tboasaad years younger than it is to-day — a strange rite 
was in^tuted, at the alleged command of God, among the 
Hebrews. Sins were treated as if they were tangible and mov- 
i^e objects that could be detached from the sinner by a High 
Priest, and sent away, as worn-out garments or cumbrous rub- 
bifih might be, on a beast of burden, f This typical action 
m^t have been well enough, in that age of ceremonies, if there 
had been any tme principle underlying it. But it was founded 
on an error of the gravest character. We cannot aeape sins by 
a shifting of them from ourselves to another living being, any 
more than we can evade the fever that conaumee ub, or the 
league that threatens life, by transfer of either to friend or 
foe. God's immutable law is against it. He has made it im- 
possible to detach effect from cause. 

Paul, " an Hebrew of the Hebrews and as touching the law 
a Pharisee," ^ continued, after Le became a Christian, to cherish 
the ancient Jewish idea that sin is gotten rid of by sacrifice, 

• James I. 17. 

t " The ioape-goat shall be presented alive before tbe Lord, to mala 
an Rtooement with Him. . . . Aaron ahall la; hia hands upon the head 
of the live goat, and coof eas over him all the Inlquitiea of the children 
of Israel, and all their tiaaagTeemODB in all their sins, putting them 
iipon Uie head of the goat, and ahikll lead hiia away bj the hand of a 
fit man into the wildemeaa : and the goat aball bear upon him all their 
iniqiutieB nnto a land not inhabited. " — Levitioiis xvi. 10, 31, 
' t Philippiana iii 5. 

[■-.; „Googlc 


and that otAj thns man oan atotie (that is, reconcile himself,*) 
with an offended God. He seems to have foi^tten, if he had 
ever raad or heard, what Chriat said to the PhanBeee: " Go je 
and leam what that meaneth, ' I will have mercy and not aac- 

— Mercy, not Bacrifioe. Mercy for repentance, showing Itself 
in an amended life ; mercy for every human creature who for- 
sakes evil courses and learns to do well ; rest to the heavy- 
laden ; comfort to the mourner, burdened with the memoi; of 
past misdeeds. Such — so charitable, hopeful, loving — is the 
plan of reformation and salvation put forth by the Great Mas- 
ter, gently seeking out those who are soul-sick : such the Oospel, 
coming to us with healing under its wings, from the shores of 
the Galilean aes. Its tidings are eminently promotive of mor- 
ality, encouraging, biunanizing, civilizii^ : for it presents to 
erring man the scrongest of all induoemeuta to resist tempta- 
tion and to follow wisdom's pleasant and peaceful paths. 

How different the influence on the world's morality of the 
scheme of redemption imagined by Paul and int«naified by the 
Leaders of the Reformation! Calvin and Luther exhorted, 
indeed, to virtuotis actions, inculcated the exercise of Christian 
graces ; yet, in the same breath, they took pains to instil the 
idea that deeds of virtue, even the highest, and Christian graces 
the most eminent, are no atonement for past Bina, cannot ap- 
pease God's wrath or awaken God's mercy; and that such good 
deeds and graces do not influence, by one hairbreadth, man's 
chance of happiness or of misery in the world to come. No 
' word of pardon or comfort for the penitent mourner ; no hope 
of heaven to be reached through purification of life. They took 
special pains to deny that our well-doing here worked for us 
well-being hereafter. For well-doing they substituted what 
they thought to be well-believing. They set up faith in a siu- 

* Atooemeiit; at-one-ment ; a padding or appeasing- of a person 
oSeuded, ao as to make him at one with the offender. — BUkop BsvSH- 

f HatUiew ix. 18. 



gle mystenoos di^;nia aa the one Bhinisg, redeeming, immaculate 
merit of mankind. 

Yet faith in any tenet is not a merit at all. Love for 
tnith is a merit ; eagerness to leant is a merit ; painstaking 
resefti'ch is a merit ; bat (these duties being religiously fnl- 
filled) tlte re»iiit of such researdt — belief in any dogma, true 
or false — has not, attached to it, one irhit more of merit 
or Bemerit than have &r-Beeing eyes or duU eare. Belief 
in truth is a blessing, sometimes a priceless blesHiiig ; misbe- 
lief iiS a misfortune, often of grievous character : for just 
practice ia based upon just opmions. But belief in the highest 
truth ia not a virtue ; honest misbelief in the worst error is not 
a crime. * Nor, in admitting this, have ve reached the full 
measure of the folly which sometimee springs from zeal without 
knowledge. The result of sincere inquiry — belief in this or 
in that doctrine — is not, in any sense, under human control. 
Man, at the bidding of his fellow, con no more add an article 
to hia creed than a cubit to hia stature. 

Tell me, if you can, how I should set about believing that 
God, who never disconnects good and evil actions from their 
eonseqiiences in this world, has seen fit to disconnect them in 
the noKt. Tell me, if you can, how I am farther to obtain be- 
lief that Ood, passing by human deeds which men ean coiitrol, 
selects as worthy of eternal happiness, a certain phase of faith 
in the unseen, which the creature ^m whom it is exActed can 
no more have, or not hare, by any conceivable effort of his, 
than he can arrest the rising of the sun, or hasten ^e coming 
on of night. Explain to me, if you know how, by what pro- 
cess of volition I am to produce in ray own mind such a belief. 
Beason and conscience within me alike niject it. Shall I do 
violence to them ? He is false to Ood who is Mae to the sense 

' Williaio of Orange, writing in 1578 to tie Oalvinist anthoritiea ot 

Middlebaig in behalf of tiie Anabaptists, struok the tma note ; " Ton 
lure, no right to tnmble yourselves with any man's consdenoe, so long 
*a Qcthing is done to oaose private barm or public scandal." — Brandt : 
S^orie d«r B^amation, vol L pp. 600, 610. 


he has received from God, enabling him to distinguish thff 
Bight from the Wrong. 

I know of nothing you can Bay in reply, exoept -what ms 
said of old : " Nay but, O man, who art thou that repliest 
against God ? " I answer that it is not against Qod, nor yst 
against Christ, that I am replying. I am repl3dng against Cal' 
vin and Luther's conceptions of God, as I and all men have a 
right to do. I am replying against him whom, as guide in this 
matter, the Reformers preferred to Christ — against Paul : and 
that not wholly, by any means ; but only against him in some of 
his doctrinal mooda. * I am not more thoroughly convinced 
that Paul was inspired when he penned that wonderful thir- - 
teenth chapter of his first Epistle to the Corinthians, than I am 
that inspiration was supplanted by vain philosophy in other 
portions of his writings. I think he sometimes felt this him- 
self. He seems to hare induced, and to have shared Luther's 
opinion about the stubble that is sometimes mixed with the 

It avails nothing to hid roe believe unworthily of God, be- 
cause Paul, now and then, seta me the example ; or to arraign 
me for preaumptiou because, accordii^ to best light, J I decide 
for myself what is worthy uid what is not. In this twili^t 
world of onrs where all are fallible, we ought not to place the 

* At other times his teachings on this very sabjeot bannoniie widi 
those of Christ. " Qod wiU render to ereiy man according to hia 
deeds : to them who by patient contanoaoce hi well-doing seek for 
gloTj and honor and immortalitf , eternal life ; but unto them that are 
contentaoos and do not obey the truth, . . . tribulation and u^ruish." 
— Romans iL 6-9. 

f " OthacfODndationcannoman l^tlian that is laid, which is Jeena 
Christ. Now if any man build upon tiiis foundation gold, sUver, pre- 
oions Ktoaea, wood, hay, stnbble ; everj man^s work, shall be made mani- 
fei4: for the d^abaU deolareit."— I Corinthiaau ilL 11-ia I han 
already allnded to this text, preceding page 94 

t " The spirit of man is the lamp of Qod, wherewmi he SMRlietlt 
the inwanLaeas of all Beorets," — Proverbs xx. 37. But the tnndation 
Is Baooo's : AdoimemuiU of Leamiag, Book L 


OMidle that gives light to the house under a bnshel, merely be- 
cause its raya reach not aa far as those of the suil I claim for 
head and heart, such as they are, the right to judge. And, in 
B^ ovn case as to this matter, their judgment accords with the 
t»ider«iid-tme poet of America, Then he says ; 

" I may not look where chembim 
And serBpha cannot see ; 
But nothing can be good in Km 
Which evil is in me. 

" The wrcng which pains m; sool below 
I date not tlurone above : 
I know not of His hate — I know 
His goodnesa and His love." * 

There is one other doctrine, uniTersally accepted by the early 
Protestants, to the effect of which on human, progress I invite 
your attention. 

Hie ideas of these stem theologians touching the inborn cor- 
raption of our race were carried, as we have seen, | to a fear- 
ful extent. They regarded manas a beingso desperately wicked, 
of nature so utterly debased and degraded, that his best-show- 

* WoiTTiBB : The Tent on 1A« Beaeh; Bfiatoa, 1866, p. 140. 

t Preoeding pages 78 to 73. Otlier passages might have been added, 
■howit^ liow deeply rooted this tenet was. The third of Uie oelebiated 
ninetr-QTe theses, nailed in 1518 by Lather on the gate of the Witten- 
berg church, reads thns : 8. " Worlcs of men, let them be bb tail and 
goodas the; mar, ate yet evidently nothing bnt mortal sia" Later ha 
mote ; " Original sin lives and does all other sins and is the essential 
sin : one whicb does not only sin an hour or any given time ; but wher- 
BTSi and as long as ths person lives, there, too, is sin."— Littdbb: 
Wtrke, VOL li. p. 396. 

The wsrm-hearted Helancthon, ejon, who used to csll Ms nniseiy 
"Qod'BUttiecharcl)"(eocle«iolaI>ei), gaveinhisadliesion: "Theaool, 
^""Hnjf eelwtial light "-"^ life, . . . seeks nothing, desires nothing, save 
carnal things." — Mblakctrok : Loci Ootamunea (Ed. Angnst ), p. 18. 

Zwiog^ somewhat more lenient, spoke of original sin as a disease. 
"Orijin.ui pnnnatain. n-n est peoostom Bed moifanm." — ZwraaLiUB: 
Otftuaio originate, Opera, na iii. p. 638. 


ing ootionB are but veiled varietieB of original sin, and his 
Qoblest thoughta mere offahoota of innate depravity. Nor did 
they restrict this anAthema to the unbeliever: they held that 
all actions whatever — even those performed by the most relig- 
ioua — must be included, "Then never was an action perfomuxi 
by apioue man " (Calvin Bays), which, in the eye of Ood, did 
not " deserve condemnation." • 

Another phase of the doctrine reaches fer in it« influence : 
for it teaches not only that all men a^ women, from earliest 
infancy up, are, in their whole nature, " odious and abominable 
to God," I but that they are irreclaimable also. " Man cannot ** 
(says the Qeneran Reformer) "be excited or biassed to any- 
thing but what is evil," J 

Calvin might well have confessed of this tenet, as he did of 
predestination, that it was a " horrible decree," For it ia a 
virtual announcement that there is, in human nature, no element 
of moral progress. It is the drawing of a pail a«roes tlie future 
of our race in this lower world. It is a declaration to the re- 
former and to the pliilanthropist that their hopee for human- 
kind are baseless, and their best efforts profitless and vain. 

But nothing so takes from man his manhood as the pemiuu 

siou that he cannot do what he ought. It discourages, demor- 

I alizes. Even in worldly euterprises of mere material character, 

' it works disappointment and defeat. Would young Napoleon's 

Italian army have effected the wonders it did, if he had preached 

* See pnooiSag page 73. 

t Pceoedin; page 75. 

t Pieoedmg page 74. At flrst eight this seems IneoonaaablewlUi an- 
other santiment of Calvin (/rwt, b. 1, o- 1), reading thus; "There ia 
no other faith that jostifiea save that which ia ooimooted with charity ; 
but it ia not from charity that it derivM its powerto justify.'' The ex- 
planation ondonbtedly ia, that (aoooidiiig to Calvin) even the charitable 
deeds of pious men spiin; from wnmpt motive, and theiefon deeerre 

But Lather (preoedin^: page83)deolai:«etiiat to say "faith is nothing 
except ohority be jodned withal," is a " devilish and b 
of doctrine." 


to his Boldiera their cowardice and impotence, instead of in- 
gpiring them with wholeeome confidence in themaelreB f 

And, in other far nobler fields, considerite evil bwuj. When 
Oberlin oommenced his half-oentur; of humanitarian labor in a 
ben^ted Akaciim valley, wonld he have had cotin^ to pro- 
ceed, for a day, if he had taken to heart Calvin's Abafflng as- 
Biunptioa that man cannot be moved to an impulse that ia good ? 

Or shall we accept the doctrine that there m nothing good in 
holy ministerings like these ? Shall we read the history of our 
race, bearing with us the conviction that not a vii-tuous action 
there recorded ; ^ot a noble deed of patriotism, self-sacrifice, 
mercy, generosity ; no fervent devotion of love ; no sublime 
mar^rdom for opinion's sake ; no consecration of life to the 
relief of suffering humanity; not the purest aspiration above 
the mists4bid the misbeliefs of a dim present, nor the most ex- 
alted endeavor to bring about a bright and happy future for 
humankind — in a word, that nothing grand or illnatrioaa which 
has been endured, attempted, enacted, by God's creatures in 
this world of HI9, from the earliest dawn of society down to 
the present day — is otier than a vile fruit of hypocrisy,* a phase 
of pollution^ at the very best a vain shadow f that is worthless — 
ay, damnable ! — in Ood's sight ? 

The worst of human errors is to identify God with evil — to 
r^iarct Him as a Spirit of Wrong : the next worst, is to identify 
man with evil — to look upon him as an outlaw, past saving. 
God deliver ns from the setting up of devil to worship, and of 
hopeless depravity to believe I 

Better — if Calvin's Stygian creed were truth — to bom at 

* " LethTpociitesgo now and, retaining depraritrin their hearts, en- 
deavoi Itj their woAs, tonertt thebvorof Qod." — Quoted, with con- 
text, on preceding pags 79. 

f Both Lnthra and Uelanctfaan called the virtnea of tbe Gentiles 
"mere shadows "(Tirtntnmmnbne), and held that SooratAs, Cato, and 
otiien were virtnoas calf bom iht«*^™i — HaaBxBAOB, Ektorj/ tf 
IkWinM, Tcd. ii p. 366. 



once every record of the detestable Put. To what purpose the 
perusal of a long aeries of abominations f 

One finds, in Calvin's '' Institutes," good cause for belief that 
a main object of this Reformer was to inoulcate humility : a 
praiseworthy inteutioQ. But humility and self-abasement are 
as wide apart as vain-glory and self-respect. Humility looks up, 
witli hope ; self-abasement looks around, with despair. There 
is no nobler lesson than that taught in Christ's parable of the 
Pharisee, supercilious in hia self-righteousness, and the Publi- 
can standing afar off and imploring mercy, Paul has set out 
the true basis of humility: " What hast thon that thou didst 
not receive? Now, if thou didst receive it, why dost thou 
glory as if t^ou hadst not received it ?" * All that we have, 
all tiiat we ore, is but a gift : if humble we should not despise, 
if precious we should not parade it. But we should recognize 
it ; and we may recognize it with joy and gratitude. What 
Juetice and Christ's injunction alike forbid is that it should in- 
spire us with that pride which leadeUi to destruction. We 
ought to receive it humbly ; we ought to use it unostentatiously : 
but when we have done our very best, we should not, like the 
leper of old, go around crying out : " Unclean, unclean I " 

And when one of the elect, self-inslalled, thus cries out, the 
heart — even if he be imconscioua of the truth — is seldom in the 
words ha utters. The belief in innate depravity, couple<l wit^ 
the belief that one is a favorite of Qod — selected, with a band' 
ful more, by Him, out of countless myriads of his oreatures, to 
share, by exclusive appointment, His glory forever — such a be- 
lief is practically incompatible with genuine humility. I do 
not doubt Calvin's earnest desire to be humble ; yet his life 
was a life of spiritual pride. With what haughty arrogance 
did he look down on Servetus ! He inveighed against the 
overbearing assumption of the Catholic hierarchy: was there 
humility in the Genevan theocrat's own tyrannic rule? 

It is probable that Cahdn took himself seriously to task, paiu> 

' 1 CorintliianB ir. 7. 

DMn;.^:b, Google 


folly searohing out every too, dealing barehly with Duny of hia 
own ^iritual shorteomings. Yet even Ibis may be canieS to 
an extreme little ooiulacive to that bumble charity which seek- 
etb not ber own and vauntetii not. The «vil effects of a per- 
Bistent babit of self-iatrospection are often as great as those 
which result from the opposite extreme of self-oef^ect. It in a 
duty to care that the body be hale and that the spiiit be pre- 
pared for another world ; yet mainly to occupy one's time and 
dioaghts with every petty detail conaected with the condition 
of one*s health, physical or spiritual, ia an uowholesome prac- 
tice, irhich nourishes selfishness and foetera a spirit of exaction. 
We beocune, as it were, all the world to ourselves, and our 
thot^^hts and emotions gradually contract, in proportion. Noth- 
ing does a man so much good, physically and spiritually — noth- 
ing BO chastens a haughty, worldly q>irit — as, in a. measure, to 
forget one's self.— to feel and to think for others. 

The true lesson taught by history, as regards man and his at- 
tributes, is this : There is just cause for surprise and gratula- 
tion that, oonsidering the terrible influences brought to bear, 
by vitiatuig circumstance and demoralizing doctrine, on the 
nature of man, hia nature should still exhibit the eminent and 
progreesdve spirit which, ever and anon breaking away from 
evil training and ancient prejudice, bids us rejoice that we be- 
long to a race — erring and frail and sinful, indeed — but in 
which there still inheres, as Christ has told us, an earnest of 
Ihe " Kingdom of God." 

Such a race graduallj discards its fanatidsms. Into the 
creed of the modem world are entering, one by one, such tenets 
as these : Fear, distrust, despair, are abject influences. Terror- 
ism, domestic, political, or rehgioua, is of all governments the 
worst : it dwar& and debases the race. A child habitually dis- 
trusted is exposed to the moat baneful of all temptations. A 
man without hope and trust and self-respect is shorn of half 
his strength. 

Nor does the Oeneveae Reformer seek to deny this. Noth- 
ing that con be said of the diaheartening influence o£ his creed 

124 paith'b powsb fob good. 

ia stronger than his own words. Hear his oOD&eaaa : " Qod 
genemllj maiuiges hia disciplee, that ia to say all the faithfbl, 
ia such a maimer that whithersoever they turn their view* 
throu^iout the world, nothiag but despair presents itaelf to 
them on every side." * 

God bo manages P Seek the true solution in the lines : 

" As one who, tuniiiig from the light, 
Watches his own gny abadow fall ; 
Donbdng, upon his path of night, 
If there be dar at all."! 

How has Calvin's gray shadow fallen, for centuries, athwart 
the Christian world I 

But let us turn from the shadow to the light : nor, because 
the leaders of the Reformation have sectariaaized men's con- 
ceptions of faith, let us forget its value. Christ employed the 
strongest metaphors to exprees its potency. J And very surely — 
the word being accepted in its comprehensive sense — one can 
hardly exaggerate faith's power for good : it can remove moun- 
tain-difficulties from the patlt of bunian progress. Thus, faiUi 
in noble e£Fort ; faith in our common nature ; in its debilities : 
in its prepress. Faith in the Good and the Beautiful — in the. 
good that is felt, not seen; in the beautiful that must be con- 
ceived before it can be realized. Faith, too, in the economy 
of the world : tranquil assurance that all ia well and wisely or- 
dered by a Wisdom that sees deeper than ours. Faith, again, 
reaching farther still : faith that progress in knowledge and 
gbodness ends not here, but continues in another phase of be- 
ing where Uiere are many manBiona, to be occupied by thoee 
who shall be fitted to enter therein. 

And if Paul, in his dogmatic vagaries, did mislead the early 
Protestants, nobly has he elsewhere supplemented, in this vety 
connection, some of the highest teachings of Jesus. Far be- 

• Iiutitata, B. iii. 0. 14, § 4. 

t WnrrriKB : Annmg the Sia$, p. 81X 

" " " wutLSl; LtdcoxvU. «. 


PSCL ai FRUBK or lote.' 126 

jo&d even Faith ' and H(^, fint amcaq; Oiriatiim graces, em- 
Iwacmg in ita geuerouB scope Peace and Mercy and Charity and 
Friendship, mling in Heaven ae on earth, is Love. 

But who, in tenna ntore glowing than the great Apostte of 
the Qentilea, has spoken t^ pniao of that gktrioas spirit, the 
verj soul anicnatipg the system of morals aod civilization set 
forth by Christ ? Can we ever forget the words f 

Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels ; 
though I have the gift of prophecy and understand all mys- 
teries and am knowledge ; though I have all &ith, so that I 
could remoro mountains ; though I bestow alt my goods to feed 
the poor ; tliough I give my body to be bnmed ; and have not 
love, I am nothing. "Love suffereUi long and is kind; love 
envieth not ; love vaunteth not herself, is not puffed up, doth 
not behave herself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily 
provoked, thinketh no evil ; rejoiceth not in iniquity but re- 
joiceth in the truth ; beareth all things, believeth all things, 
bopetfa all things, endureth all things. . . . And now 
abideth Faith, Hope, and Love, these three ; but tlte greatest of 
. these is Love." * 

In tendency and influence how immeasurably far from this 
gracious spirit, " gentle and easy to be iutreated, full of mercy 
and good fruits," was the spectre, mysterious and austere, 
whose outcry led astray the chief among the Protestant Fa- 
thers! Some men cannot hear the voijie of God except in the 
thunder, f Think of Calvin's scheme of the world 1 A vale of 

* I have f<dlowad Tyndale, the vlttosl patriaioh of our anUiariied 

veiaiou of the TeeCament, in hia translation, aoooi^iDg to ita original 
■esse, of aa important word {agape}. A writer in Smitti'a Mitvry of 
the Bibia (toL iii. p 16TS}, adverting to King James' fiftem ins t r u c t ions 
to the Bible tmnelatora, of which instouctions the third was to the 
effect that " the old eooleaiastdoal words weie to be kept " (as VhuTch 
instead of Congrtgation) — adds: "To this mie is probably due 
"Cliaritj" in 1 Corinthians ziii." I prefer not to follow King Jamea 
in this matter. 

\ " Videor mihi aoa verba sed tonittua andlre " — were St. Jerome's 
words, after meditating the Pauline dogmas of Predestination and 

126 TEB I 

tears be deemed it — & vate of tears or of impiotu lioenee, Ingn- 
brious and loatbeome, iliroiiged with a depraved multitade, myri- 
adaon myriads of whom — allbatachoBenfew — are to their Crea- 
tor but as diainherited children, outcast and forsaken ; suffered 
to wander, for a brief season, shrouded in moral darkness, 
along the broad road that leads to destruction, and then con- 
signed, by the divine fiat, to the scorching flames of a bottom- 
less pit, the smoke of their torment aacondiug forever and 
ever! * 

I make no ailment against the horrors of such a scheme, im- 
puted to a Gk>d of Love. The generation that clings to it mnst 
die oat in its superstitions, and we must look to tiie next for 
dearer heads and better hearts. 


This must be very briefly dealt with : for I have already 
transgressed the limits vbicb I had originally set for myself in 
addressing you. 

Halittm, Sir 'William Hamilton, f and others have spoken, in 

" The theologisns of that age wers wont to elaborate the plotnre : 
" Aba, misery "^ P^m, they must last forever I O eternity, what ait 
thtm r O, end withoct end I O death which is above eveiy death ; to 
die every hoar and yet not to be able over to die I . . . Give us a 
millBtoae, say the damned, oa la^e as tlie whole earth, and bo wide in 
oircnniferenoe aa to touch the sky all roond ; and let a liMe bird ooma 
ouoe in a hundred Uionsand. years and pick off a small parade of tb« 
stone not larger Uian the tenlJi part of a grain of millet, imd after an- 
other hvndrod thousand years let bim oome again, so that in ten bnn- 
dced thoDsand yeare he might pick off as muoh as a grain of millet ; ws 
wretched aionani would ask nothing bat that when thjs stone has an 
end, our piuns might also oeaae: batyeteven that cannot be !" — Buso: 
BilelMn der WekJieit, obt^. li., "Tom immerwiihrendsm Weh der 

t HiHILTON : DdatuMJinw, p. 4U9, ate. Hall&H: IAt«ralur« ef 
Barope, voL i. ftamim. 


strong terms of the dissolate manners which foUoired the 
Reformation in Germany. But I think too little weight has 
usually been given to the fact that a certain license ia iosepara* 
Ue from all great moral revolutions. TuUoch takes a temper- 
ate view of the matter : " Such an awakening as this, in tfao 
▼ery nature of the caae, soon h&gxa to run into many extrava- 
gant issues. In the first feeling of liberty men did not know 
how to use it temperatdy ; and Anabaptism in Giermany, and 
Libertinism in France, testified to the moral ooufusion and 
social license that everywhere sprang up in the wake of the 
Reformation. We can now but .&intly realize how ominous all 
this seemed to the prospects of Protestantism. It appeared to 
many minds aa if it would terminato in mere anarchy," • 

It is well known how this state of things embittered Luther'a 
last days. And we have abundant evidence that, at times, he 
distrusted his own system. " Aa he and his Catherine were 
walking in tlie garden one evening, the stars shone with unus- 
ual brightness. ' What a brilliant light 1 ' said Luther as he 
looked upward ; ' but it bums not for ue.' ' And why are we 
to be shut out from the kingdom of Heaven ? ' asked Catherine. 
* Perhaps,' said Luther with a sigh, ' because we left our con- 
vents.' ' Shall we return, then ? ' ' No,' he replied, ' it Js too 
late fbr that.'" t 

Six years after Luther's death happened a noteworthy thing. 

Amsdorf, one of his dearest friends and fellow-laborers in 
Wittenberg, pending a public discussion held in 1552 with 
Major, an advocate for the necesuty of good works, maintained 
that " ffood toorki ware an in^i}edimait to taloation." The re- 
salt is very remarkable : Major renounced his doctrine, lest he 
should be looked on as " a disturber of the Church." J 

A distinguished Protestant divine acknowledges that the 
Wittenberg Befonners were so engrossed by polemics that they 

* Fiindpal Tolloch : Leaden cf tie RtformatAm (London, 1859) ; 
p. 178. 
f Quoted by TaUoch, p. 7S. 
t HOSOSIU: EoderiattieiA SttUtry (iHmdan, 1804); T(d.,t,y.,n|^ 


had to n^^ect " tiie advanoement of real piety and religion ; ''. 
ftnd that none of them attempted to give a regular system of 
morals. * 

This, however, was attended to by Gatvin ; not, like Lather, . 
too tender-hearted to frame a moral and eccleslaBtical goverU' 
ment in accordance with his estinmto of human kind. WitJiin 
meagre and barren limits, because of that estimate, were hia 
efforts prait : but what he thought he could do, he did. Body 
and Boul were corrupt — incurably, beyond earthly agency for 
good : yet external decorum goes for sometJiing. The cup and 
the platter must ever remain full of extortion and exoees, but 
the outside could be made clean : that was within human power, 
and common decency required that it should be done. Phy- 
lacteries, fair with the words of the law, could be deferentially 
worn, their breadth determined by imperative rule. Tithe of 
mint and rue could be paid to public opinion ; tombs could be 
built and sepulchres garnished ; though weighl^r matteis, 
judgment and mercy and faith in man, were unattainable. To 
tiie eye things could be made white and beautiful even if dead 
men's bones and all undeanness must needs abide beneath. 
Coercion could effect all this ; and the iron will of the rigid 
Genevan determined that it should. 

In 1536 Calvin and his co-worker, Farell, drew up a ooufea- 
sion of faith in twenty-one articles, of which one gave the clergy 
the right of excommunication ; and they procured from the 
Couucil of Two Hundred a proclamation, in which these were 
declared to be binding on the whole body of the citizens. Five 
years later a Consistorial Court was appointed, of which Calvin 
appears to have assumed the permanent presidency ; f and for 

* " The number of adversaries with whom ths Lutheran dooton 
were obliged te contend gave them perpetoBl emplofmeot in tbo field 
of oontrovGiBf, and lObbed them of that precious leisure which thej 
might have oooseonited to the adnncement of real pietT- and viitoe. 
.... None of the famous Lutheran doctois attempted to give a n^ular 
qrrtem of iDOtalil;." — MosoEDi: Ecdexiattieal HUtory, vol. iv. p. 24. 

t Toi.LOCB : Leaden of Oe Reformatiim. p. 1 Ifl, Hbnbt : i^ft nf 
CtiMa, vol. i p. 469 (Tranalction by Stebbing). 


its goTamment and that of the Conacil he drew up a code of 
laWB, ecclesiastical and moral, which were Bwoni to by the 
people.* This Court had but one direct weapon — excommiini- 
cation : like the Spanish Inquisition which forbore Bhedding 
blood, it turned over the colprit, when anathema was deemed 
ioadeqnate penalty, to the civil authority foe punishment, even 
unto death. 

Histoiy records no more striking example of tyranny, with 
authority intimately united of Church and Stat« ; with sway, 
social as well as religions and political, sumptnary and domeatio 
aa well as social, f Its redeeming point was, that it put down 
open profligacy and reformed dissolute manners. 

This is what a friendly biographer has to say : " A marvel- 
Ions (diange, in the course of a short time, was wrought upon 
the outward aspect of Oeneva. A gay and pleasure-loving 
people, devoted to music and dancing, the evening wine-shop 
and card-playing, found themselves suddenly arrested in their 
usual pastimes. Not only were the darker vices of debauchery, 
which greatly previuled, punished by severe penalties, but Uie 
lighter follies and amusements of society were laid under im- 
perious ban, all holiday were abolished except Sunday ; the 
innocent gayeties of weddings and the fashionable caprices of 
dress, were made subjeots of legislation : a bride was not to- 
adorn hersdf with floating tresses, and her welcome home was 
not to be noisy with feasting and revelry. The convent bells 
which had rung their sweet chimes for ages across the blue 
waters of the Rhone, and become associated with many evening 
memories of love and song, had been previously destroyed and 
cast into cannon." J 

The details, attested by official records, are alternately ludi- 
crous and horrible. 

* On the 30th of November, 1541. 

t " From his dBdle to his giave the Qensvesa dtiien was pnisned 
b; iU inqoMtMial aye." — CftUrin in Qen«va; WertminBter Bevtow for 

% Itadtrtoff.TStformcaion, pp. 107, 108. 


At betro4itala, marriages, or bftptiams, it, was illegal to present 
the gaesM wi^ nos^ajs foateued wi^i irire-ribbon (canetSlet) 
or gold cord or jeweUed band. At a marriage-feast or other 
frieodlj enlertainment it Was unlawiul to set on the table more 
than a single coarse of meat including fish, and snoh course was 
limited to five dishes only : irhile for dessert the law allowed no 
paotry except a single tart for every ten persons,* The char- 
acter of personal omwnents, the mode of cutting hair and tlie 
length it mi^t be worn, the fastuoa of dress, were all pre- 
scribed : slashed breeches, for example, being prohibited. | 

There was no novel-reading in those days ; but the &vorite 
substitute for our romances, Amadis de Gaul, was peremp- 
torily interdicted ; nay the preachers of Geneva, lees tolerant 
than the curate and barber when they made a bonfire of Don 
Quixote's library, f burned every copy of that woi^ on which 
they oould lay their h&ads. 

Mere childish indiscretion incurred legal penalty : the li^t- 
eet Jest was a criminal ofience. A young girl in church, sing- 
ing to a psalm-tune the words of a song, was ordered to be 
whipped. Three children were punished by the authorities be- 
cause, instead of going to church, they remained outside eating 

■ >' — et q'au dit dcesert q'onai patisseiie on piioe de four, mnon nne 
tonrt senlement, et oels en ciuunuie table de dix peiBcames." Tbe 
word now spelt (ourt« is aometlinas used for a fruit or pigeon pie. Un- 
der CslTin's law there was temptation to make huge pasties. 

PTincipal Tnlloch tella as Uiat. while travelling in Switcedaad, he 
visited Geaeva and sought out Calvin's grave. A plain atone, with tlie 
letters "L C."on it. was shown tofaim asnuuking the spot; and the 
old man who oondaoted him thither seemed (he says) to have litUe 
idea of the Great Beformer ezoept as " the man who limited the num- 
ber of dishes at dinner." — Leaderg qf Stformaliim, pp. 190, 147. 

t " We saw," said Calvin, " that throngh the chinks of those br-eohes 
a door would be opened to all sorts of profusion and luxury." — Quoted 
by Tdlloch, p. 136. 

t " It is the beet book of the kind ever composed," cried the barber, 
" Bud ought to be paidoned as an original and model in Us way." 

" Biglit," said the onrate, " and for that reason he shall be tparad foe 
ths pieaent." 



cakes. A man, hearing an ass bray, said " he's amgiiig a prattj- 
paalm ; " * and for that offence was bazdsfaed &om the city. 
Another swore " by the body and blood of Christ ; " and there- 
by incurred a fine and exposure in the market-place, hands and 
feet iit the stocks. 

Bat all this is as uothiog, compared to the tragedies that 
intervened. The eccleeiastioal legislator who believed that, 
from the hour of birth, ohildren are polluted, and that their na- 
ture ever remains odious and abominable to God, framed his 
laws accordingly. It would be incredible, were it not recorded 
by Calvin's warmest admirers, that in 1568 a girl — a mere 
child — for having stmckher parents, i^tis beheaded/ And that 
a lad of sixteen, only for a threat to strike his mother, was con- 
demned to death, f 

Order reigned in Geneva I — at what sacrifice of human suf- 
fering and crushing of human hearts they only know who still, 
perhaps, look back frem the brigbt mnnaions of a better world 
on the gloom and the terrors of their earthly prison-house. 

I might turn from the Oontinent of Europe to that marvel- 
lous little island whence we of North America chiefly derive 
our ancestry, espeoially to its northern portion ; there to find 
the same tree bearing its appropriate fr^it. But space &1Ib me ; 
and another has already exhausted that field. J The Fresbytc- 

f The above facts are ^ven la Paul Benrf's Leben Jt^umn Catnina, da 
grotten B^/rmatart; Hamburg', 1S44 ; translated 1)7 Hibbett, Loudon 
and New Tozk, 1354 ; vol. i. p. 361, at traoBlation. 

PaituanBhipoanbardlr^farther than did tiiat of Henry; who finds 
in tliese terrible cineltJas only "great beanty in the eamdstuesa with 
iriiich parental aathod^ wsa defended. " Tet Hemys is generallr oon- 
ndered the best biognf^ of CalTin extant. 

% One of the hardest iitudeuts of onr age, Henry Tbomos Buckle, in 
the frapnent he has left ds of a itupendons work, has a chapter, with 
elaborate refereucea, devoted to the infiaeace of the Presbyterian polity ' 
on the Scottish nation in the seventeenth ceatoiy. So far oa the cun- 
dition of a conntiy can be predicated npon its theological literatnxe and 


rUa poUt; of the Scottish Kirk, within a oenturj Bftec Calvin'b 
death, embodied almost ail the worst features of the Qenevgn 
tyiaimy : the same deepoirisg Tiewa of life ftnd death ; the same 
abject fear of offeoding the Creator hy inaocent pleasures, aad 
incnning hell-fire by wholesome, light-hearted gayety ; the samo 
repression of human afieotioDS, the same domiciliary inquiai- 
tiona, the same assumptiun of the I'ight to excommunicate, and 
even to inflict, for breaches of churttb discipline, the torture of 

Its Ohnnih reooids alone, we have it there before us, and may read ib 
with moohinetrootioa and pioSt: it jostifiee all, and more than all, tAafe 
I hare briefly ctsidenoed into the text above. Tet manj of Backle'a 
strlotaiea on Soottish ohurocter and intellect, even in the mde seven- 
teentli century, being founded on too narrow a basis, are haBtiy and ex- 
aggerated. TTndemeath the leligious profession of this people, hovr 
eameat soever, lay a deep vein (almost left out of view by Bookie) of 
Btiong, duewd sense, and often of daring bnmor, wbioh protested alike 
against theological dogmsttamn and olerioal aasninption. 'Hie indioaticMiB 
of this temper of mindooow to tiie snrfaoe ocoasionally otolj dnrii^ the 
period covered by Buckle's autbontdes; bat the temper existed, never- 
theless; and, a century later (the eighteenth), it found fesdess expiee- 
sion through a child of the people, echoing their social talk and un- 
recorded protests. Robert Burns was none the less the idol of his 
ODuntiymen because of snob racy hetecdes as stamp his addr c — os Ta 
Qi« Vneo Ovid and To the DtU. Of this laat"a famiHrtr ramotutraoae 
with Preabyteriauiam's Prinoe of Dsrknesa — how homely bnt •oathing 
the satire I And how charmingly imbued with ohan^ the rebuke 
lannohad against the cruel spirit of the Kirk's theology, in its oonolnd- 
iug sterna: 

Pm vnc to UiinlL npo^ joa den, 
E'SD for yonc nka." 

For those to whom the old dialect of Scotland is mora or less of an 
unknown tongue, I here subji^ a prosaic — a wry pxissio — pai^ihiaas 
of Haieaa inimitable lines : 

" Fare you well. Old Nick I Oh, if you would bat take thon^t and 
mend yourw^sl you might perhape— who knoirsf — have a ehanoa 
•tilL For your own sake, it is a grief to me, the thongfat ol thatdaa 
of yonial " 

THX eoomsa ee^. 133 

the BOonrge aod of tha branding-^ron,* In compensabion,' aJscs 
there was the same nnflmching war waged sgaiuat profligacy 
and dissolute coodnot. One marked differeoce, however, dn- 
aerves notice. Wbereas the OeoeTan lawgiver inculcated sub- 
miasion to kingB, however bad, f the Scottish preachers were 
democratic, to the verge of rebellioD : % defending the people 
i^ainst every despotism except their own, and claiming that the 
BUmstere of the Kick (their commission derived directly from 
Qod) hod the sole right to demand implicit, unreasoning obe- 
dienoe. Subju^tors of the conscience, enemies of toleration, 
they were sturdy friends of political freedom. 

But, resisting temptation to enlarge on this and cognate ex- 
amples from European history, let us proceed to inquire whether 
this plant of Calvinism, when transferred to another hemis- 
I^ere, essentially varied in its type or in its productions. 

IJet ufl pass from the sizte^inth to the seventeenth oentury 
and cross the Atlantis with the Puritans. 

A grand, old raoel — the stuff that heroes and empire-found- 
ers are made of. What they thought right they did, and 
■eldom asked whether it was pleasant to do it. They were 
eatamable but they were not amiable. They were men and 
women te trust to in the hour of trial ; but to deal with in 
daily life ! Bight glad may we be that we did not live among 

• " On the 22d October, 1648, the Kiit Sesnon of Dunfemiline or- 
dered that B certain Janet Boberbum ' shall be oaittt and aooa^ed 
Hmmgh the town and markit with an hot iron.' "— OoAUfSBS : Sutor]/ 
<^ DunfermUne, p. 437, quoted by Buckle 

f " The Word of Qod requires us to submit to the Kovemment, not 
onl; of those ptinces who discharge their duty bo na with becoming in- 
tegrity and fidelity, but of all who poeeest the sovereignty, even thongrh 
tlie; perform none of the duties of their Ht>a(i<m, . . . The se- 
ditious thought must nsver enter into our minds that a king is to be 
ta«ated aoooiding to hia merits."— CAI.VIN: Jn«t.,B.iv. C.20, g§23,27. 

I See, for sandiy iUnstrationa, the chapter of Buokle'e wwk aXmady 

b, Google 


tiiem in &e days when sacb aa Hester Fryime walked about 
with tliat scarlet letter on their breasta. * 

In the Colonial character, the theology of tiie Xn»lilute» 
was a pervading elranent, for good and fbr evil. The beat 
virtues of the New England pioneers were those of stout, self- 
sacrificing seekers after liberty, Ths hardihood that broke 
away from Papacy in Borne, cast looee also from intolerant 
Prelacy in England. Kor did they heed the cost of voluntary 
exile. Calvin's dismal view of Qod'a world toughened them as 
settlers. Not expecting ease, comfort, social enjoyment, Hie 
amenities of lifs'— regarding these, indeed, with suspicion, as 
effeminacies used by the Evil One for baits to ensnare the un- 
wary — hardship and suffering were what they looked for; and 
when, in their rude frontier life, they encoTuit«red these, they 
met them, as Clod's normal allotments to His Saints, with iron 
fortitude. Tbey were hard on themselves and on others, aa 
befitted believern in universal depravity. 

These acerbities seemed to aaaort with their condition. But 
the followers of the PilgrimB brought to Plymouth rock a frtoi 
element, relic of human barburism, however cherished by the 
Be&rmers — a crime t^ainst the deathless soul — religious per- 
secution. Laws that stain their statutobooks, deeds that blot 
their annals, are traceable to the same source as the edicts and 
the inflictions of the Genevese Consistorial Court. 

" I approve," said Calvin, " of civil government which pro- 
vides that the true religion which is contained in the law of 
God be not violated and polluted by public blaaphemies." f 

The New England offspriog of this sentiment, is a law en- 
acting that wboso nfflnna works, not iaitb, to be the mode of 
salvation ; or opposes infimt baptism ; or purposely leaves the 
church when infants are about to be baptized ; shall suffer baa- 

* " A capital A of two incliea iang, ont out in cloth of a o 
oolour to theii doothii," at«. — General Loot and liberties of Mataeliiu^ 
tettt, ohap. xxrlli, § 1. 

t IntUtuttt, B. iv. C. 20, g 8. 


isfameat : * and that whoso denies the mfaDibility of my por- 
tion whatever of the Bible, ahsll, for the first^ offence, "ha 
openly and severely whipped by the executioner," and, for the 
second, may be pnt to death, f 

Speaking of Uiooe, who imagine to tbemselves some other 
method than the Scriptand one of ^iproaching Ood, Calvin 
had eaid : " l^tey must be considered not bo much mialed by 
error as actuated by frenzy; " and ^ain : "These persons are 
guilty of detestable sacrilege." J 

Strictly in the spirit of these doctrines were framed the Puri- 
tan lawa against " a cnreed set of heretioks lately risen up in the 
world which are commonly called Quakers." § They provided, 
as punishmrait of a Qnaker on ^e first conviction, twenty 
stripes ; on the second, the loss of an ear if a man, if a 
woman to be severely 'Shipped ; on the third, whether man or 
woman, to have the tongue bored through with a red-hot iron; 
Quakers returning to the colony after banishinent, to suffer 
death. | 

We have no record that the boring of men's and women's 
tongues with a red-hot iron was ever carried out. But Bishop, 

* Banishment of Baptists nnder this law oconrred throaghoat seventl 
yeaiB of the Colonial history. 

f Ancient Laws and OharUn of MauacAiuetU Bay, pabUshed by 
order of the GeneiBl Oonrt, Boston, 1814 ; pp. 130, 121. 

The |»eamUe of thsee " Acts i^ainst Heie^," is a carloiu Bpooimrai 
of logio. It lecitm that " although no hiunan power be Loid over the 
tsith ond conscienoeB of men, jet because such as bring in damnable 
heieaioa .... ought duly to be restrained," it is enacted, etc. 

Tlie law above dted making it, at the option of the Coart, a capital 
offence to ' ' deny by word or writing any of the books of the Old or 
ITew Testament to be tiie written and infallible Woid of Ood," ennmet- 
ates these books by title from Oenesis to Bevdations, including, of 
oooise, that epistle of James which LnUier rejected. The Wittenberg 
doctor, had he been a cfdonist of HassMhusetts Bay, might have lost 
his life for his apini<niB. 

% IiutUulM, B. L 0. 9, gl. 

% The words of the preamble to the lawa against Quakers 

1 Lawsoited' pp. 121-136. Theirdateis a.». 1606-7. 


in his N^ev) Eaglatul Judged, has lefl; it on reoord that tliree 
Qaaker men had each hia right ear out off; * that " Patience 
Scott, a girl eleven years old, was imprisoned for Quaker prin- 
ciploa ; and that, vhen her mother, Catherine Soott, reproved 
them for a deed of darkuesa, they whipped her tea stripes, 
though they allowed her to be otherwise of a blameless conver- 
satioa aad well-bred, being an English cleigyman'e daughter." f 

The death, by hanging, of three Quaker men and one Quaker 
woman, executed because, after banishment, they retiuned to 
the colony, la well known. They died with eminent fortitude, 
willing martyrs to freedom of conscience, on Boston Common.^ 

Some of the terms of Puritan iodiotment, against men thus 
tried for their lives, sound strangely to^tay. It was chained 
^lainst William Leddra that he " had refused to take off his 
hat ia court, and would say lAee and ihmt." " Will you put 
me to death," he asked, " for speaking good English and for 
not putting off my otothes ? " g 

Hie poor excuse made by their executioners was a declarar* 
tion, spread on the records of the Court, tbat " they desired 
their lives absent i-ather than tiieir deaths present." The 
apology usually offered to-day for these legal killings is that 
the Quakers who landed at Boston were disturbers of public 
peai% aud decency, as well as heretics. But their principles 
were emphatically of peace, simplicity, and non-reBistance : nor 
is it true that they made any disturbance whatever until some 
of their property had been destroyed and their personal liberty 

* Their namea were Hxdder, Oopeland, and Boob. 

f Quoted by Hatohiusoa : Sittorg of JfoMachaseUi, vol. L Pl 1B^, 

'Sr^'S"^"''''™"'! E«™irfOcl«b«,27,l«. ■ 
Wuliam Bobmson, } 

Hary Dyar, " June 1, 1660. ' 

WUllun Leddn, " Uarch 14, 1661. 

Four only, be it bome in mind ; and we have no list of the fire thou- 
sand whom Tciqaemada hand«d over to the flames : but Torqnemada 
never talked about liberty, civil or t^igioos. 

% Goamdleb: Amti-ioan Onmiaai TriaUj Little A Brown, Boston, 
1841 ; ToL i. p. 46. 


violated. The first two Quakers who set foot ia the colony, 
Mary Fisker and Aim Austin, were seized on shipboard, their 
books burnt by the hangman, they themselves closely impris- 
oned for five weeks tmd then thrust out of the colony. * Dur- 
ing the same year ei^t others were stmt back to England. 
These (and &r worse f) infractions of the freedom of ttie 

■ They amTod in July, 16U. 

f It was a dime to a&ord them boqntility, or eren to diieot them 
on their wsy. In 1600, at one oonit. Beren or eight pencoswere fined 
■a hijfh as ten ponnds for anteTtaining Quakers; and Edward Wharton, 
for pfloting them from one place to another, was whipped twenty 
sbripea and bound over for his good behavior. See, for particulars of 
tiumo andother peisecatioDB of this sect, HntidiiiiaiNi's HMory ofMam- 
adnuet^, voL 1 pp. 160 to 189. 

In the legal rncords of these d^s we find darker shadea. In 1663, 
three women, Anne Colmaa, Haiy Tomkioe, and Alice Ambrose {oon- 
Tioted nnder the law againet " vagabond Quakers ") were eeuCenced to 
be tied to a cart's tail, stcipped from the waist up and whipped, mth 
ten ettipes in eooh town, through eleven towns, to wit, Dover, Hampton, 
Snliabury, Newbury, Bowley, Ipswich, Wenham, Iiynn, Bcetou, Bos- 
bury, and Dedham — (I hundred and ten atzipes, in all. " One of the 
nipples of Anne Colman'a breast was split by the knots of the whip, 
oansing extreme torture." [Criminai TWob, already quoted, voL i. p. 
Hi.) This was in the dead of a Nsw-Esij^and winter, the warrant bear' 
ing date December 22, 1663. No wonder that warrant was eventually 
exetaited in three towns only ; the humanity of pabUc sentiment rising 
in protest against legal brutaUly. 

One reads with more sorrow than snrpriae some of the extravagances 
which followed these indecent omellies. In 1665 Ljdia Wardell, a 
respectable married woman, entered stark naked into the church in 
Newbury, where she formedy worshipped, " and was highly extolled for 
her Bubmiaaion to the inward light that bad revealed to her the duty 
of thus illastrating the spiritual nakedness of her uelgfabors." In the 
same year, Deborah 'Wilson, a young married woman of unblemished 
character, made a nim jiar display In the streets of Salem, for which she 
was coDiiemned to be stripped from the waist upward, tied to a cart's 
toil, and whipped. — CHninal Trial*, vcA. i. pp. 54, 5.1. 

How fervid, in those mistanght old times, ths neal among perse- 
cutors and peiSBCuted alike ! Now that we have knowledge to guide 
It, how has the fervor died out 1 


citizen, preoeded the damorona testimony boroe by Qutalran 
against colonial rule. 

The Calvinism of those days forbade even to tolerate tolera- 
tioD. The bravest champion of man's right to vorship Qod as 
conscience bids — the noblest apoatle of soul-freedom among 
them all * — was compelled to flee the colony under oloud of 
irintry night ; owed his life to heathen hospitality ; and 'wbeu 
this future lawgiver of Bhode Island embarked at last to found 
a settlement where Qod alone should be judge of human relig- 
ions, it was in an Indian canoe, with five followers only. Yet 
the ofienCB for which Roger Williams was banished the juris- 
diction, f was not that his own creed was heretical, but that he 
was guilty of granting to others the same right to choose a creed 
which he claimed for himself. 

Little more than a centliry after this America had a Conatd- 
tution in whluh all laws respecting an establishment of religion, 
or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, were forbidden. So 
fast, despite dwarfing creeds, grows the spirit of man in a new 
and a free country. 

Other Calvinisms, too, we have outgrown. The counterpart 
of laws imder which children were beheaded in Geneva, are 
found on tiie records of Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay 
Colonies. " If any child or children above sixteen years old, 
and of sufficient understanding, shall curse or sioite their natu- 
ral father or mother, he or they shall be put to death :" the 
only exception being unless it shall be proved that the parents 

* I scarcely lemember a parallel case, except one — amoi^ the Wn- 
does. A Brahmin once snffsred maitfidom Twder a Mnssnlnuui prince, 
tot preaohing tiie doctrioe of his sect, that " all religions if ainoerelj 
piaotiBed, are acceptable to Ood." " In the whole annals o( suffering 
for rightaoosaeaa' sake," aays the niuiator, " I know of no martyrdom 
more gloiioiu than this." — Britce : Scenst and LighU in tAe Eatt. 

f A warrant enforcing bis baaishmant to England had issued against 
him (Janoaiy, 10^) at the time lie fied from Salem, and wandered foe 
tiwee winter months, " not knowing what bread or bed did mean," era 
he reached the friendlj cabin of MaBsasolt, chief of Pooanoket. 


"tutve been veiy. tmohriatiauly n^ligent ia the eduoation of 
md) children," or else that the children " h&ve been forced 
thereunto to preserve themBelvea from de>th or maiming." 

This refers to both seses : the next section applies to boys 
only: " It aoy man bave a stubborn or rebellious sou of au£S- 
cient years of undCTatanduig (viz.), sixteen years of age, which 
vill Q^tobey tlLe voice of his &tber nor the voice of his moUier, 
■ad that when they have chastised him be would not hearken 
unto them," the parents shall bring Mm before the mt^trates, 
and testify that he is stubborn and rebellious, and " such a son 
shall be put to death." * 

A girl of sixteen, because she struck her mother — a boy of 
Ibat age, if denounced to the magistrates by his parents on the 
general charge that he was stubborn and rebellious — was to be 
iumged I And this, in our own cotintry, little more than two 
hundred years ago ! 

That no executions took place under this law, or under the 
clause of the other law according to which a denial that the 
Bible was infollible became a capital offence — is due to this, 
that the Filgrims were men before they were Calvinista, and 
that their hearts were more merciful than their doctrines. 

None the less, the theocracy of tbe first two New England 
colonies, patterned after l^t of G«neva, was a despotism, fatal 
to progress. 

Fatal — because it was founded on the ancient, mischievous 
error of retributive j uatioe : an error of which the tendency is 
to retard the moral advance of the world. 

Take any great social reform that now enlists philanthropic | 
zeal, whetiier of law, or education, or prison discipline — whether 
in lunatic aaylotos or in temperanoe labors, or in the struggle 
gainst the great sin of great citiee — take any such enlightened 
movement that is made in our modem day, to civilize mankind / 

* Laws <ated ; pp. 59, 60. The date is a.d. 1040. The laws of 
New PljmoaUi had tlie same two seotLons for the capital punjahioeiit of 
children omring or rtrikiae paranta, and of disobedient sona. — i/nei ef 
P^prtmitA Ckiontf, p. 2W. 


140 TBi: wobld's dest to thk kefobuebs. 

— look into its orgauuatioii, and aak iia condnctoiv what is its 
goveming principle : you will leam that it is based on ^e belief 
that man's better nature can be confidently appealed to ; that 
love is stranger than fear, and gentle influences more hiiroania- 
ing than penal rigoiB. This accords with Christ's religion ; bat 
it runs directly counter to the Q«neTese theology. When re- 
forms, thus administ«red, are carried out, it is done despite tiie 
chilling and deademng tendencies of Calvinism. 

The world owes the Reformers a vast debt, but not for their 
theology. It owes it — 

Because they maintained that the succession of eccleaiarchs 
who, for a tliousand years, had ruled the Christian world from 
Some, were not infidlible. 

Because they exposed many corruptions which had crept into 
the Church over which these eccleaiarchs presided. 

Because they denied the merit, and the saving power, of 
many empty ceremonials ; of aacetical austerities, of monkiah 
seclusions ; of &sts, pilgrimages, celibate vows ; and of par- 
dons said to be of Ood, yet purcliased with sQver and gold. 

And, generally, because they shook, to its foundation, an an- 
cient system of ecclesiastical rale which debarred religious pro- 
gress, which habitually employed religious persecution, and 
which, as a whole, had outlived its utility. 

But we owe them far mor« than tbie. The inestimable boon 
which the Reformers beetowed on mankind was the disenthrall- 
ment of the Christian Record, till their day locked up in the 
Latin of th» Vulgate ; and, even in that secluded form, pro- 
hibited, as we have seen, by espresa canon, to all but the priest- J 
hood. J 

Their theology will die out, but ^le results of that great gift . 
will endure forever. The gift will finally prove an antidote to ' 
the theology.* I 

* I would not be nndaistaod •■ daayiag tlkst Uie tlieology, thougb Ik J 
rail moahcltwqi; to downri^tAntinomiaiilBiii than Oatholioism ever did, 
was jet, initBdaf, a oeitoin proginai. Lather — amnlngUn, fm- an^n^- 


Wli&t are the &ir inferencee from the sommAiy of historical 
eveuts and religious doctrines given on the preceding pages ? 

The Protestantasm of the Reformatio J failed to make head 
agftinst ihe Catholiciam of Rome — 

1. Because ita fonndation-principlea were derived from two 
of the epiatlea of St. Paul, not from the teachinga of Christ. 
, -"Z^Because 'flieTheology of the Eeformers is not (any more "~ 
than Bom a nJMn) in ^g_ n ature g£. a- pi u Ki CBB i ^ o B c i e n cft _ 

^^■^- Because that Geology is not a fitting agent, at this age of 
ibe irorld, to correct the mannerB of the day, or work out the 
^▼ilization of mankind. 

---^KlSS, finely, the history of the reverses which overtook the 
BeformeiB, after their first balf-centnry of Buccesg, is not to be 
accepted as proof that Chnstiauity, though a revealed religion, 
is devoid of that element of progress which inheres in material 

' This last inference is negative only : but I advatice anotber . 
step. I assert that Christianity, wisely studied as a revealed 
religion, ts in the nature of a progressive science ; and, if you 
win follow me a few pages fer^ter, 1 hope to show you good 
cause for the assertion. 

§ 13. Chbistiakitt, bhobh of PABAsmo Creeds, a Pboores- 
BITE Science. 

" A CluistUn of the flfOi centmy, with a Kble, !■ on a par with a 
CSmslian of tbe nineteenth oe u t ui / wtth a Bible ; oandor and natunl 
aoatflneoB being, of oonme, supposed equal." — Haoaulat. 

While I utterly dissent from the opinion wMob Macaulay 

tde, advanoed hejODd TeteeL He never, indeed, ihook >»tiiii—lf frea 
from ttie prtmitiTe idea o< indulffeuoes ; bat he held that then were 
granted by God for the sake at Chiist'e enOecings, and conld not be 
granted \ij priasta for tbe aalu of money. He quiitaaliied the idea; 
bat ft was a false idea that he spiritnnUaed. 


faere exptetaea I can readily imaginA hy whaE process he reacliM 
Buoh a coQcliisioo. 

He means, of courte, that hia fiflh-oentuiy Christiaa ahonld 
have had the privilege of reading the Bible, and of finding it 
written or printed in a language with which he was &nutiar: 
conditions which existed not, for the body of the laity, until a 
tltousand years after the fifth century. Sut he means, donbt- 
less, much more than this. He asBumes, probably, that his 
nineteenth-oentury Christian believes in the plenary inspiratioB 
of the Bible, as sole source of spiritual knowledge, word for 
word as translators have given it ; and, further, in the miracu- 
lous character of the " signs and wonders," narrated in the four 

No doubt many Protestant professors of Christianity do still 
hold to such beliefs ; and no doubt such beliefe do, in a meaaure, 
iput the professing Christian of to-day on a par with the ChriB- 
dan of centuries long past. 

If I thought that Bitch beliefs were to continue for ganera- 
tions still to come, I should admit that Macaulay had plausible 
ground for bis hopeleasneas in religious progress, and that Ro- 
man Catholicism had as fair a prospect of beooming iho religion 
of Christendom as Protestantism has. But I feel assured that 
these old-time doctrines are pasnng away. Whenever they dis- 
appear, then Christianity will overcome not only the errors 
which preceded the Reformation, but those of the Beformation 
' also : and then the Christian — not as Boman Catholic, not as 
Protestant, butas Chribtiak — will have a future before him of 
religious peace "-nd religitfU" davwlnjinftnt. __^__^ 

fiifdlibility, whether of man or hook ; disbelief in the uui- 1 
versal reign- of law, and misbelief that the Qreat Lawgiver ar- 1 
bitrarily suspends his own laws ; these are the lions in the wayi 
that arrest ^e Christian pi^im's progress. ^^^y 

— Infallibility, whether of man or book. These last words 
are, inBtrictness,Tmneces8»ry. For God makes no books. Nor 
can any book be said to have been written by His dictation. 
However it may have been in Eden, Ood shows Himself not, in 


tttis woiid, to man. He does not walk in the garden m the 
cool of the day ; nor does His voice reach His creatures here, 
ia exhortation or in reprool 

Tben, as God himself does not write history, any more than 
He dictates works on science or treatises on art, all history, sa- 
cred or pro&ne, must come to us written by man ; in other 
words, it must come to us transmitted throi^h a fallible medium. 
We oannot change tiiia, and we ought not to forget it. It oo- 
oatB according to the nature of things ; or, otherwise expreesed, 
by Ood'e ordination. 

We can, indeed, imagine Ood making a Pope, or an Evangel- 
ist, iniaUible; but, in either case^it is a man. God has not 
told us Hiat Pius IX., from the date of his election by a College 
of Cardinals, became infiiUible; neither has he told us that 
Uatthew was so, while engaged in writing or dictating his 
gospel. And although the Pope claims infallibility, neither 
Matthew nor any of his co-«vangelista set up any such claim.* 
It was set up, for them tind for a few other writers, nearly fif- 
teen hundred years ago. The (Ecumenical Council which as- 
sembled at Carthage in the year 397, proclaimed the in&llibility 
of the author of every book which they then decided to include 
in the canon of the Bible, and Pope Innocent I. confirmed their 
decision ; this decision all orthodox Protestants accept. In like 
manner the (Ecumenical Council which assembled at Rome in 
the year 1870 declared the Pope to be, like all his official pre- 
decessors, iniUlible : this declaration all orthodox Koman Cath- 
olics accept. But orthodox (Catholic and Protestant alike ac- 
cept these canons of infallibility from men, not from God. 

Hie C!hurch of Borne has given to Protestantism an immense 
advantage by the error she made in reaffirming the infallibility 
of the Pope. But Protestantism will lose that advantage if she 
dings to a remnant of Catholicism that is quite as untenable : 

* " FoTBsmiioh as many have taken in band to set forth in order a doo- 
larationof thoea things which are most saiel; believed among US . . . 
it leeiaed gooA to me abo ... to write, eto.," are Luke's modest 
words. — Luke i. 1-8. 



lie plenary inspiration of OTery writer in th« Bible. It isjoat- 
as fatal a mistake to declare one man, or one set of men, tn&Ui- 
ble aa another. 

This mistake connects itself with disbelief in tlie uni^rm 
prevalence of law. For there is no law governing the world 
which is better entitled to be called universal, or which is more 
palpable, than that all men are fallible, and are left hj Qod to 
tlie guidance of that judgment, ever liable to error, which fie 
has given them. 

It is the more difiGcult to intagine any suspension of this law, 
because the giit of infallibility to one man would not only ren- 
der his own reason useless, but would give him a despotic ri^t 
over the reason of his fellows : the ri^t which the Pope claims 

In BO &T as men act upon the belief that any anthor, or any 
ecclesiarcE, is an infallible teacher, just to that extent is free- 
dom of conscience disallowed and trodden under foot. But 
freedom of conscience is an indispensable condition of religious 

I am speaking here not as doubting that Christ was an In- 
spired Teacher, nor aa denying the probability that his biogra- 
phers, in recalling and recording the sayings of their Master, 
may have had spiritual aid : * I am speaking of the doctrine 
that eveiyword of every book included in the Scriptaral Canon 
of the I^tin Church and translated under instructions &om 
King James, is direct speech of Ood, and therefore to be fasld 
aa literal and infallible truth. 

That doctrine should, in my judgment, be rejected, not only 
because it is untenable, f but becanae of its practical effect. Tho 

* I admit impiiation, but not pt«n<iry inopiiation ; I admit rsvel*- 
tion, bat not revelation free from lUbOity to eiror ; botb Insptiation 
and ravelationoooiiiTuig under law. Of this, in tiie next Beciia&, &few 
pages fHitber on. 

f llj limite, of ooniae, forbid detailed discussion of this aspeot of tli« 
doctrina. It takes for granted the infallible integrity of nnmberless 
custodians throogli dark agea; aod the infallible aoonraoy tiS^a ot 
OopTists and translators — of those translators of our Anthorised Vexgiaa 


worship of words is more pemiciouE than the worship of images- 
Gruamatolatry is the worst species of idolatry. We have ar- 

who, in the original prefaoe to that work, vindicated a common prso- 
tice of theirs (namel;, the translating one word of the original bj 
Tarions English words), partly bj the ohDdish plea that it would be on- 
fair to choose some words for the h^h honor of being the ohannel of 
Ood'e truth, and 1« pass over oUiers ae nuworthr. It aBsnmea that no 
interpolation waa possible: jet every well-read divinity stadent knows 
(to select a nngie example) that one of the most important texts in the 
Jlrst Epistle of John (v. 7: " For there are three that bear witneea in 
Heaven, the Father, the Word, and the HolyOhnet, and these tiiree ua 
one ")~is a forgery of the fifteenth or sixteenth century ; being oon- 
tained in f»ur only ont of a hnndred and fifty mannsoripte of that 
epiatle. (Smith's Dietionar]/ of the Bible, i. IIIS.) And this is but one 
of many disputed passages; as ii. 23, in the same epistle. 

Then what mnltltndea of olJier qnestionB arise I Was it through the 
special inspiration of G-od that Panl, in most of his epistles, bat espe- 
cially in Corinthians and Tbessalinuans, makes repeated referenoee to 
himself; to his labors, persecntione, example, care of the Choich; and 
again to his own holy and blameless condnct ( 1 Theas. it 10), huDUlitf 
(2Cor. iii 1), tendemeasd Theas. ij.3), consjetenciy (3 Theas. iiL 7-8): 
while Peter and Jamee and John, the chief apostles of Christ, make no 
peraaoal allasioaB, in their episUes, to their own merits or doings or 
rofferinga ? Had the individual idioeynorasy of the respective anthora 
nothing to do with this J 

Again: in reading John's Gospel, are we not to make aUowanoe for 
tbe fact that It waa written thirty cv forty yean later than the others, 
hj an aged man who had lived to wibieas and partioipate in soholastio 
otmttDvenQr F Are we to believe tJiatOod inspired that antfaor to repeat 
fonr times m his gospel (xiiL 23 ; xix. 39 ; xx. 2, and xxi. 30), that 
he biiDself was tiie disciple whom Jesus loved, while seitlier of the 
other three evangelists allade to the fact at all t 

Then there are the trivialitieB, quite natural In a letter to an intimate 
friend, bnt certainly not like divine diotatiaa. Was Panl inspired of 
God when he vrrote to Timothy (3 Tim. iv. lU, and 1 Tiio. v. 33} to 
bring him a cloak he had left at Troas, and to take a glass of wine now 
and then, beoanse of failing health F 

Sorely we most diacriminate. The gold and silver oome to us from 
the deep mine. Are we to believe that the h^ sad tbo sbibble are 
prodnoed from the same profound ponroe T 

Bnt thia note is already too hmg. 

7 DMn;.:„GOOglC 


rived at an er» in irliich litflr&lism ia destroying faith. That 
WBB foretold long ago. " The letter killeth." 

I shall be tolil, of courBe, that it ia eminentlj dangerous to 
dispense with an infallible Btaadard. I know tliat many of you 
sincerely believe this. But the world is gradually reaching the 
conclusion that the danger is precisely in the opposite direction- 
Science seta up no infallible standard : if s he did, the re would 
be an end to all scientific progress, '^Eutif we separateSeology 
froDutli»-rest~af'1iumaii stiidie^ asserting that the rules whtdi > 
'prevail ia other branches of knowledge have no application in ' 
this, the tendency ia to discredit religion in all philosophic ', 
minds. The assertion of infallibility was the worst enemy of j 
Christianity in the sixteenth century : it ia her worst enemy 

Take note of a few of the difficulties thence arising. There 
are numerous discrepancies, alike in narrative and doctrine, to 
be found, as you well know, between the different gospels. 
These do not at all affect the substantial truth of the narr&tiye, 
nor the general Bcope and spirit of Christ's teachings : the pure 
gold — all that is truly valuable — remains. And, rationally 
viewed, they afford evidence that there was no collusion be- 
tween the evangelists — no concerted plan of deceit. So 6ir, 
then, they go to prove the authenticity of the record. But if, 
unwisely zealous, you set up the claim of iu&llibility, you lose 
all this vantage ground. The slightest variance becomes fatal. 
Such variances can be adduced, and have often been adduced, 
as proof that the entire superstructure is treacheroua, and 
crumbles whenever its foundations axe probed. 

Truth is ever strongest without artificial support. We ou^t 
not to ascribe to ourselves faith^-or any grade of belief deserv- 
ing the name of faith — in Christianity, if we do not believe 
that, in herself, she is mi^ty and will prevail. That was a 
suggestive vision of Luther's, in the old fortress of Coburg. 
He wrote thence to Chancellor Bruek : " I was lately looking 
out of a window when I beheld a wonderful sight. I saw the 
stars and God'p iair firmament, but nowhere any pillars on 


-winch tlie SCaster-builder had poised this lofty ft«me : jet tbe 
heavens did not fall in, and the finnameat stood qnita fast. 
But tihere are some vlio eearcli for Buch pillars, and would anx- 
ionaly grasp and feel them } and, because they cannot, fear and 
tremble lest the heaTena should fail." • 

Feora puerile as these pervaded men's minds in vhat we are 
wont to call the olden time, but what we ought to call the 
woWd's yonth. f They believed that unlesa they erected the 
pillars of the Infidlible and the Miraculous, the heaven of Chris- 
tianity would fall in and tlie world be involved iu heathen dark- 
nesa. If Christ were yet on earth, be would address all such 
proppers-op : " Oh ye of little faith ! " 

They had this apology, however, that the element of true 
faith was lacking in their day. As they could not appreciate 
the essential exceUence of the system they sought to prop, so 
neitber could they discern its intrinsic power. It is not for 
ns to deny that the pillars may, in the past, have had their 

For there is a time to every purpose under the heaven. 
Obedience is fitting in childhood. We cannot always give a 
young child tbe reasons for our bidding. He must learn to 
obey, to a certain extent, without reasons. And so it may 
have been in tke obildbood of the world. The fiction of infal* 
libility, enforcing blind assent, may have been in place one or 
two thousand years ago. It is out of date to-day. When we 
become men, we put away childish things. 

Akin to the dogma of in&llibility is the doctrine that Ood, I 
on cerWn occadous, has worked miracles ; in other words, - 

• Lttheb: Briefe, vol. iv. p. 188. 

t " And, to spesk traij, Attiiguitat tCKuU fvventiu mundi. TluM 
titnea ore the andent times, when the world is sndent, and not thoM 
which we acooont ancient ordina TebrograAt, by a computation baokwud 
txoia oiiiBeWB& "— BACcnr ; Adwmcement of Letmmkig, Book I. 

148 OPINIOHS ON Mmjtfii.ifn 

that he has occasiooally euepended, for n time, the laws of Iha 
uiU¥etBfi» in. attestation of Bome divin e truth.^ ,^ — — ~-^ 

Having treated the'aubjwt aCIarge elsewhere,* I shall not ' 
here reproduce my argiunents. This is the less necessaiy be- 
cause not only Is the modern scientific world almost unani- 
mous in asserting the unbroken prevalence of law, but 
Frotestaat dinnes are gradually assenting to the view that 
what have been called miracles were but the results of laws not 
kupwDj nr imptrrfriftly lfnntnT]-tfrnin"Vitnpnim "^ ' — '~ 

This (held in early days, by some of tho ancient Fathers, f 
asserted in the last century hypothetically by Bishop Butler, { 
and more positively by Archbishop Tillijtaon § and by Locke |), 
has been brought prominently forward in our own day boih by 
lay and ecclesiastical writers of reputation and position. 

A volume by the Duke of Argyll, on the changeless rule of 

■ Fi»0illt on tA« Bttitndaty of AnoAer Witrtd, by the tmtbor of this 
Tcdurae: Lipjnncott&Co., Philadelphia, and TrObnerd: Ca, London, 
leeo ; Book 1 Cbap. 3, pp. 70-91 (of .Amer Ed.). In proof that the 
sabject of nltramundane phenomena attracts public attention, it 

ly be stated that this work, in the United States and in En^and, bu 
had a drenlation of about tvenl^ thousand oopiea. 

f St. AngDstine (himself virtaall? a Spiritualist, see next section, §14) 
held that a mirade was a thing oocmring not againgt nature, bat 
•gainst what we know ot aMaie. "Portendnm ergo fit, non contra 
uatoiam, sed contea qoam est nota natnia." — Ih CivitaU Dei, lib. zxi. 
(np. a Thia was written about A.D. 430. 

i BOTLBB: Analogy tff Bdigion, London, 1809, part U. ohap. 3. 
He leaves it in doubt whether we ought " to call eveiything in the dia- 
penaatltma of Providence not discoverable without ReTelatioii, nor like 
the known course of things, nuraonlous." — (p.- 104.) 

g TiLLOTBON : Sermon ni-rrtii He there sqrs : " It is not the.ea- 
■enoe of a miiade (aa many have thought) that it be an immediate 
effect of the Divine power. It is snfBoient that it ezoeed any natmal 
power that we know of to prodnoe iL" 

I Locke : A Ouamrte on Mirades, His words are ; "A miracle I 
take to be a aenmble operation which, being- abovo the compiehenaiOT 
of the spectator atuji, in his opinion, oontraiy to the 'wtfSMifhAd conni^ 
of uatoie, is taken bf bim to be Divine." 



Ain> ox BEIOK 07 LAW. 149 

law * (readiing its fifth edition in fifteen months), is a note- 
worthy example. The ground there taken as to miracniona 
saspenaion of hiw, may be gathered &om the following ex- 

" The idea of natural law, the univeraal reign of a fixed 
order of things, has been casting out the supernatural. This 
idea is a product of that immense development of physical sci- 
ences which is characteristio of our times. We cannot read a 
periodical or go into a lecture-room without hearing it ex- 
pressed. . . . We can never know what is above nature, 
onlees we know all that is within nature. . . . No man 
oon have any difficulty in believing that there are natural laws 
of which he is ignorant . . . There is nothing in religion 
incompatible with the belief that all exercises of God's power, 
whether ordinary or extraordinary, are efiectad throagh the 
instrumentality of natural laws brouf^t out, as it were, for a 
Divine purpose. . , , Christianity does not call upon us 
to believe in any exception to the universal prevalence and 
power of law," I 

Another example, as eminent, is to be found in a sermon 
preached before the TJnivenity of Oxford, during the annual 
meeting of the British Assodation for the promotion of science, 
I^ the present Bishop of Kxeter. X ^^ Bishop there said : 

" One idea is now emerging into supremacy in science, a 
supremacy which it never possessed before, and for which it 

* Abstli.: T/m Jteiffnof Laio; Btrahanifc Oa, London, 186S; le- 
pnntbjOontledge&Soiis, NewTodc, 1B69. In the preface the anthoi 
informs tu that he withholds a chapter on Laie in Ohrittiaa TTieologg, 
among other naaotia, beoauae it ia " insepaiabl;' otomeoted with relig- 
ious oontrovemr." It Li matter of regret that BO acute a mind " shrank 
from entering" (as the Duke bimaelf expresaes it) this impoitant 

t Wodc cited : pp. 3, 14, 22, 25, Gl, 53, of Amerioan Tepnnt. 

% OnAct Sooday, Jaly I, 1860. The preaober waa then known as 
the Bev. Frederick Temple, D,D., head-master of Kngb7 School and 
Chaplain in Oidinar^ to the Qaeen : still better, perhaps, as one of the 
leading antbora of Eisayi and Bmieie*. 


still has to figbt a battle ; and that la the idea of law. Differ- 
ent orders of natural pheDOineii& have in time pa^ been held to 
be exempt from that idea, either tacitly or avowedly. The 
weather, the thunder and lightning, tlie cropa of the eaiiih, the 
progress of disease, whether over a conntrj or in an individual, 
— those have been considered as regulated by some special iu- 
tei-ference. . . . But the steady march of science has Dow^ 
reached the point when men are icimpted, or rather compelled, 
to jump at once to a universal conclusion : all analogy points 
one way, none another. And the student of science is learning 
to look upon fixed laws as universal. . . . How atrikinglj 
altered is our view from that of a few centuries ago is ahown 
by the fact that the miracles recorded in the Bible, whidi once 
were looked on as the bulwarks of the faith, are now Mt by 
very many to be difficulties in their way ; and commentators 
endeavor to represent them, not as mere interferences with the 
laws of Nature, but as the natural action of still higher laws 
belonging to a world whose phenomena are only half revealed 
to us." • 

Still another name, no less eminent in physical science than 
ia sacred learning, may here be adduced. The late Baden 
Powell, in his contribution to Assays and Sevieujt, has this 
passage : " The modem turn of reasoning adopts tbe belief that 
a revelation is then most credible, when it appeals least to 
violations of natural causes. Thus, if miracles were, in tbe 
estimation of a former age, among tbe chief mpporti of Christi- 
anity, they are at present among the main dtfficuUiea, and 
hinderances to its acceptance." \ 

* This sennon will be found fn on Appeodiz to the SeoDod Edition ol 
the American reprint of " EasafB and BaviewB," which was pablished 
under the title of Beemt Inqairiet in Theolegy, Walker, Wise, & Co. , Bos- 
ton, leoi. 

The Watminsler lietiietB says of this volume : ' ' The social and ofBdal 
pomtioD of the authors, theh: learning', their abilities, and their sin- 
cerit]', courage, and eameot, reverential spirit, entitle them to an nn- 
prcjudiced and conmderate Iiearinft." 

f On the Stttdi/ of the Eiideneei of Chriiliani^, by Baden Powbu,, 
H.A., F.B.B., etc., SavUian Professor of Oeometi; in the TJnlvenity of 


Similar opiniona abo'n' titemselves in the American Churches, 
and are even beartl from the pulpit, though chiefly, it is to be 
admitted, from the pulpit of the more heterodox secta. The 
Rev. James Freeman Clarke, a representative of the Unitarian 
iaith, says: " If I considered the wpnderful worlcs of Jesus as 
violations of law, I should also say that they were essentially 

incredible."* ^^^^-;:::^1 - - - -._ 

^^lE^^ulEpannigEtral and dispassionate minds, on both ^3eB 
/of the Atlantic, are reaching the conviction that the old dogma 
of miraculous suspension of law is r^idly undermining modern 
laitb in the gospels. It is creating, in millions of souls, donbt 
^■. jl£_^jsbelief -tbatjhe signs and wonders ascribed to Jeaus oc- 
curred at all. K£nan ts one of 'Mte- (driest exponents of tliis 
latter opinion. I shall by and by f lay before you my reasons 
for believing that this opinion of his is false and miaohievoua ; 
yet, none the less, it is spreading far and wide. 

But the doctrine of the miraculous not only tends to subvert 
foith ; il contains also a 'non aequitwr. , It assumes that the 
possessor of spiritual gifta, in other words the penon through 
whom occur phenomena which transcend our experience, is an 
infallible teacher of morals and religion. Test this doctrine. 
Suppose the moral and spiritual doctrinesof the gospel, instead 
of being the religion of love and peace aud charity they are, to 
have been made tip of >i\junotions to hate ouY enemies, to make 
war on our neighbors, never to forgive an offending brother or 
to have mercy on a repentant sinner; to trust to violence for 
the civilization of the world, to adopt polygamy, to make 
slaves of all -men whose skins were darker than ours; to mur- 
der all men whose creed differed from our own ; should we still 
believe in ita divine character, because of signs and wonders 
narrated f If, aa in St. Paul's case, a voice from Heaven 
called to' us ; and if this voice, instead of arraigning us that 
Oxford. See Beeent Iftqidrtt* in Th^iogy, p. 1G8. The italics are in 
th« original. 
* SCepf <^ Beli^, bj J. F. Clabkr, Borton, 1870 : p. 138. 
f In the conolndiDg MctiaD of this addiesa. 


153 ' ooiraonmoB, whks "bduoated, the 

w0 peneouted for opinions* eo&e, commamded as to do bo, 
would that voice be to na sufficient Tarrant to reenact tbs 
horrors of the Spanish Inquisition ? 

I know what must be your answer : Jfo phenomenon, mnii- 
dane or uttramundBiie, can make wilful murder a Tirtne, ae 
prove that we ought not to do unto others an we would that 
they should do unto na. We must fall back at last, you see, 
on our inner sense of uprightness and justico. 

The obUgation to do good, the obligation to shun evil, canno>t 
be changed according to any objective ocourrenoea, seeming 
ever so marvellous, that may be presented to our senses. 
Right and wrong are eternal, and must be judged by that which 
is eternal as themselves. God has provided for this. His 
kingdom is within us. The nearest approach to the infitlliblo 
upon earth is the still, small voice of the human conscience. 

Do not understand me as denying that the highest character 
of spiritual gifts should attract our attention to the doctrines 
with which they are associated. A believer in the value of 
such gifts, I admit this. Yet, after all, our final judgment on 
any system of spiritual ethics cannot rationally be made up 
without reference to its doctrinal character and its consistency ; 
and ought not to be determined by outside phenomena. In- 
ternal evidence of any such system is far superior to external ; 
and nothing can properly be accepted as a rule of action until it 
has been subjected to that light within, which is from Qod.* 

* I have set forth this armament elsewbeie; andmay bepaidonedfor 
heie leprodudng, from a former wsric, a siu^ paia^raph : 

"Let us suppose t^t, from tome ondeniably spiritual tonice, as 
throng speech of an apparitiaD or bj a voice sonnding from the upper 
oil, there should oome to us the injunction to adopt the principle of 
polygamy, either as that ajstem is IceaUy recognized in Turkey, or in 
its onavowed form, as it appears in the great cities of the civilized 
wodd. In such a case what is to be done T The wodd is God's work- 
Tbe experience of the world is Ood'a voice. Are we to set asido that 
experieuoe, proolaimiDg to us, as it doaa, that onder the principle of 
monogamy altme liave man's physioBl powers and moral attributes ever 
maintained their aaoenden<7, while waaknesa and national deoadenoa 


'iluB inner sense, like every other divine gift, am be strength- 
ened and developed. The cooacience of tlie world is educated 
from i^ to age. It ia more trustworthy now than it was three 
hnndred years age ; it will doubtless be far more trustworthy 
tiiree hundred years hence tlian it is to-day From generation 
to guneration it becomes more capable of appreciatiiig the grand 
trnths of Christiaiiity and of discarding the errors aad super- 
stations that have overlaid these, and that have thus, in a meaa- 
nre, covered up their beauty from onr sight. Hence moral and 
religions advancement. 

I tmat yon will ttiink that I am justified in deducing, from the 
above oonaiderationa, this result: Though the Christiamty of 
Orthodoxy, loaded down by extrinsic dogmas, has &iled by the 
way, and has seemed, for centuries past, bereft of power to ad- 
vance ; yet the temporary burden is likely soon to be removed. 
And whenever it is, the Christianity of Jesus will be found to 
contain the element of progress, and will gradually become the 
religion of civilized men. 

Of this we may, the more reasonably entertain a confident 
hope, seeing that while we are discarding old burdens, we are 
also obtaining new lights and fresh aids. A few words in ex- 
phuiation of this last allegation shall conclude these remarks — < 
remarks which, for some years past, I have greatly desired to 
liy before you. 

follow In the teun of pDlygamj, wheQier openlj oanied out, m ia 
Deseret and Consbtntinopte, <a Moretly {naotised, as in tiondoa and 
New Torkf Are wo to give up the certain for the nnoertain ?— the 
teachings of God, throngii His wo^a, for the biddings of we know not 
whom ? The loOj and danger (rf so doing are uppKCtaA " — Foo^foBi, 
p. 43. 




" The need «m nerer greater of new rarelatioii than now." — Bkeb- 

And now. Leaders of our ProteaUat Church, if you iam 
given me yovx attention throughout the foraging prelinunary 
matter, let me ask your dispassionate judgment on a Bubjeet 
vital to religious advancement, and which, because I have no- 
where found it distinctly stated or fully considered, I have 
made the staple of this volume. It does not embrace discos- 
sioD of disputed doctrines — we have had enough of that — bat 
relates rather to a study of the great principle upon which doc- 
trines should be received — to the leffet lefftim, as Bacon mi^tt 
have phrased it — to the laws underlying spiritual teaching and 
to the maimer in which spiritual researches should be con- 

The atAte of religioua feeling in the days of the Raformatioii 
was peculiar. The two great divisions of the Christian Churdi 
agreed in this, tliat the Scriptures — more strictly, perhaps, tha 
books comprising the New Testament — an the foundations of 
a just faitli. The Roman Catholic branch has affirmed, how- 
ever, that within its Church the same inspiration which pro- 
duced the Qospels and Epistles has continued, even to the prea- 
ent day, an in&Uible guide to religious truth; while the 
orthodox part of the Protestant branch, repudiatdng this, has 
assumed that all inspiration and all spiritual gifts and revela- 
tions similar to those of Christ's time, have been withheld by 
Ood from succeeding ages. 

It was natural that the Beformers, protesting agajsst the in- 
fallibility of the Pope, should reject also the claim of the 
Church of Borne to an exclusive, divinely-directing influx, 
emanating from the Holy Spirit. But they were not satuGfid 
to deny the axcluiive character of suoh ultrfunui 


flnence : for some reaaoa, certaiolj not derived from the Qospel 
itoelf nor from patriatic authority, tbej rojectod it altogether. 

I think that, in this matter, the Roman Catholic Church 
(aside from her ezcluaiva pretensions) and the Ancient Fa- 
thers are nearer to the truth than our Protestant Churches are. 

The chief reason for scepticism in the spiritual giftfi of the 
present day is the idea that powers of this character are saper- 
natural, coupled with the application to ail such modem phe- 
nomena, of that other idea put forth by mnan : " Till we have 
new light we shall maintain the principle of historical criti- 
ciam, that a supernatural relation cannot be accepted as such — 
diat it always implies credulity or imposture." * 

Let us beware I Kenan's premises admitted, there follow 
logically his conclusions, cold and disheartening as they are. 
Thus : The signs and wonders alleged to have been wrought 
through Christ are miraculous, but wo cannot accept the 
miittculous: therefore these signs and wonders did not occur 
ftt all. Hifl explanation is : " Jesus was a thaumaturgist 
against his will. . . . His reputation as a miracle- worker was 
imposed upon him, and he did not resist it very much. . , . 
The miracles of Jesus were a violence done him by his time, 
a conceesion which the necessity of the hour wrung from faim. 
So the ezordst and the miracle-worker have fallen; but tbe 
religious reformer shall live forever." | 

This author does not seem to realize the direct corollary from 
his words. What reverence, what respect even, can we retain 
for a Teacher who lends himself to imposture ? 

But are we reduced to this alternative ? 

No. ^e aigna and wonders may have been phenomena, of a 

* Sekab: Lift of Jt»at (ITUboar'B tntulation); p. 4fi. Qermaa 
BatdonaliHtfi aoncnr in this view, " We may Bumniaril; reject all miia- 
cies, prophedeB, murativea of anjela and demons, and the like, na mm- 
plj impoaaible And irreconoiliible with t^e known and univeTsal laws 
wMoh ip>Tem the oonzse of eventa." — Stbaijss : Life of Ohriil, Introd, 

f LiftqfJmuM; pp. 236, 236, 236. 


qtiritual chamctor indeed^at occnrrii^ ander law. Titers may 
bM&termundane au'well as mundane lava. ^.^----^ 

^1— This explanationTfeold bemore generaTly admitted (since it 
is evidently the height of presumption to assert that we know 
all the laws of the universe), but for a difficulty which occurs 
to many. Natural luws are not only invariable bnt are also 
continuoua. The effects of natural laws do not show themselves 
far fifty or a hundred years and then cease for tens of centu- 
ries. These results may, indeed, manifest themselves more pow- 
erfully or more frequently at one t^^ of tbe world than another, 
as a particular geological stratum may attain in one locality 
vast development, while in another it shrinks into petty pro- 
portions. But the action of law ia perpetual from generation 
to generation, suffering no interregnum. 
/ Thus, if the extraordinary manifestations of power ascribed 
in the Gospels and in the Acteof the Ap^tjes^ Christ and to 
\ his disciple did occur under certain spiritual lawBj*^e same 
\ laws must be in operation still : and powers anaJo^us to those 
\ which resulted from these laws eighteen hundred years ago 
j ought to be traceable in history, and may be confidently looked 
(for in our own day.f 

y — Analt^us powers : not necessarily powers to the same ex- 
,' tent ; yet powers exhibiting sufficient similarity to mark tlieir 
' common origin. Observe, then, I pray yon, how the matter 
\ stands. 

There are two theories, directly at variauce. The first ia 
that the spiritual gifts of the Apostolic age were isolated phe- 
nomena, showing themselves during' a single century only of the 
worid's existence. If so, they did not occur under law, since 

■ That is, if tbej did tuMaitiiaUt/ oooni. Not believing in hunuui- 
hifalUbilit^, I admit that Hie biogiapheiB, even if splritoally aided in 
their leooUections of tbe past, were liable to errors in detail — to miaoon- 
oeption and mistake ; as all biographera ata. 

f The analogoDB osse, notloed in tlie Preface t« this wotIc, of an 
Bstnmomei predicting the existence of a planet, before tliat planet had 
bMo obaerved, will here, piobablj, tiiggegt Itself to the reader. 


all haman experience is opposed to the idea that God makes 
lawB, as men might, to last a bimdred jean and then to be re- 
pealed : therefore they must be regarded as miraoulons. But 
if, in the pn^jreoa of science, the belief in the miracnloua is 
melting away, the ultimate result will be disbelief in the alleged 
miracles of the Gospels ; and we shall fall back on B^nan's 
conclusion that Christ counteuanced ii'aud. 

The second theoiy is that there have existed from all time 
IftWB Isolating intercourse between tbis world and tbe next — 
laws under whit^ certun men and women, more or leas &vored, 
li»ve oocaeionally exercised spiritual powers and gifts ; that 
t^ere ©centred an ettraordinary development of such powers in 
the first century, of which the effect was to attract public at- 
tention to the teachings of a system, the innate beauty and 
moral grandeur of which were insufficient to recommend it to 
ibe semi-barbarism of the day ; that the existence of such spir- 
itual gifts is traceable tbroughout the history of the last seven- 
teen hundred yean ; and, finally, that similar gifts and powers 
show themselves among us at the present time. 

The manner in which the evidences of Christianity are 
affected by these two theories, respectively, is worthy your 
^»ecial notice. 

Under the first we are driven to mftintftjn the Roman Catholic 
and orthodox Protestant belief in the Exceptional and the Mir- 
aculous. If, defeated by scientific progress, we fail to sustain 
tills dogma, then the wonderful works of Christ and his disci- 
ples take their place beside the labors of Hercules, and other 
tales of heathen mytholi^. Id that case tbe gospel biography 
of Christ must needs weaken the authority of his doctrines.* 

Under the second theory, if history sustains it, and if phe- 
nomena occurring doily under our eyes confirm its truth, the 
result is precisely the reverse. For in that case we have the 

* Bpealdng of the miraclea of Christ, a modem Amariram divisa 
says : " If mch noitatiTes do not stceugthen otu faith in the religion, 
they weaken it If not proofc of its truth, they are bnidens upon it," 
_Bui.rnKna : Bndtnea <if UhritUixnits, p. 1^. 


evidence of oar aeoaes in proof thkt the marvelloas powers 
t ascribed to Jesna, and the qniitnal gifla allied to h^ve been 
enjo7«d bj hia diadplea, were natoral and are credible ; Hutit, in 
fitct, we have no mare reaaon for rgecting thaa dun for d^j^^ 
ing the wan of CKsar, or the conqueots of Alezand^^^^^^lltus 
ihf-tiSetfed ipiritwd ma^ftMlttimirofoiir day. If they prove 
genuine, become the ttnnffett emdenw* lotutlain lA^autherttiaUy 

~~TEei«ia another view to take of this matter. To act up<»k 
iJie ignorance of Uie first centuiy it needed works which that 
ignorance looked upon as miracles. To act upon the apathf of 
our day it needs phenomena acknowledged to be natural, jet 
of an intermundane character. The need is as great now as it 
ever was. When we boast of our civilization as compared with 
die rudeness of the sixteenth centniy, let us be reminded diat 
in those days tens of thousands gave their lives for their relig- 
ions opinions, while in these, men will scarcely give their tame 
to think about tbem. There are not, it is true, many open 
scoffers at religion among ua — the age of Toltaire and of Hol- 
bach is past — but there are millions who belong to the vast sect 
of Ikdiffbbrntb. There is but too much truth in what one 
of die acutest minds of our own. country declared, whea ad- 
dressing the senior class in the Divinity School of Harvard 
College in Cambridge : 

" It b my duty to say to you that tlie need was never greater 
of new revelation than now. Front the views I have already 
expressed, you will infer die sad conviction which I have, I 
believe, with numbers, of the universal decay, and now almost 
death, of faith in sodety. The sont is not preached. The 
Church seems to to tter to its fall, almost all life extinct. , . . 
I think no man can go with bis thoughts about him, into one 
of our churches, without feeling that what hold the public wor- 
ship had on men is gone, or going. It has lost its gi'asp on the 
affection of die good and the fear of the bad.* 

* EusHBON ; MiKtOania, Boaton, 180G. Blthop Bntlar besis linii- 
Ui tertimonj in hi* daj. lixOi* AdyextMemBOt to hit Analogj/ a/ Btlig- 


Hare it k worthy of remark that the better olaaa of scep- 
tics, in our day, regret their own lack of &ith. An English 
author of a careful and critical inquiry into the origin of 
Christianity is a type of this class. He Bpeaksof Christ and 
the ethical system he tenght with reverenoe ; but reaches the 
ecHidusion that the Mstorioal evidence for miraolea and a 
Divine mission is insufficient. One sees that he deplores the 
conviction to which his reason had brought him ; for in his con- 
cluding reflections hs says : 

" It is impoasible to di^iise the momentous consequences of 
the rejection of the divine origin of Christianity — that a future 
state is thereby rendered a matter of speculation instead of 
certainty. If Jesus was not seen after he was risen, we no 
longer see inmiortality brought to light : the veil which Nature 
has left before thia mysterious matter still remains undrawn. 
. . . With respect to one of the subjects most interesting 
to man we return into the poeitiou in which the whole race 
stood for four thoummd years, and in which a great part has re- 
mained ever since." 

Again : " Whilst it was thou^t that Jesus had brought the 
guarant«e of Heaven for man's immortality, we persuaded our- 

ion {A.]). 1786), he says: "It has oome, I know not how, to be taken 
for gtuited by many perBons, that Ohristiaiiity is uot so mneh aa a mb- 
jeotof inqviiy; but that it is now at length diaoovovd to be AotitioiiB. 
And, Bcoardingl;, they treat it as if , in the present age, this were an 
agreed point among all people of discenimeiit." 

Strong evidenoe of the indifferenoe evmced at the present day in Eng- 
land to eatabliahed forms of religion is to be tomid in the 'English 
CensDB of 18S1,' That document informs na that while at that time 
there were in England and Wales ohoich-bnildinge capable of seating' 
Un mUUont Ueo hundred thauaand peracms, it was asoertained by actual 
enametation that the attendaaoe (avec^ing morning, afternoon, and 
evening serrioeel was bat Oi^ee mSiioia ax hundred and tMrtg-two t/imi- 
uaid (8,633,023). In other words, eaoh clergyman preached, on the 
average, to a congregation which filled little more than one'third of tho 
■eate. And, strange to aay I the sntalleflt average attendance waa f onnd 
to be in the cbarches in which the seats wero free. 

Pnitber details from Una asnsoa will be fonud in the body of this work. 


mlvea that this was neceBaarj to man's Improvement and happi- 
ness. We were mistaken ; no suck guarantee has been given ; 
it La wise to acquiesce and to conclude tliat happiness and im- 
provement are beat promoted by our present ignorance. . . . 
The withdrawal into obscure remoteness of the future eternal 
life may leave men more free to appreciate the advantagee of 
their present sphere. . . . Yet it must be owned that there 
are states in which all such reasonings are felt to he insipid, 
and in which the liumau mind feels a deeper want." * 

Finally this author seeks comfort by " indulging the thought 
that a time is appointed when the cravings of the heart and of 
the intellect will be satisfied, and the enigma of our own and 
the world's existence be solved." f 

These remarks undoubtedly present the frame of mind pre- 
vailing among a large proportion of intelligent sceptics; espo- 
cially among leading scientific men. Simple theitm, thiU out 
from the cheering wamUh of tpiriiual revecdinfft, it vngenial 
and vmatisfaetortf. 

All this, I admit, does not make out my aaae. As mea 
knowing the world, you will doubtless concede the danger from 
that easy-going scepticism which " hopes it may all come out 
right, and that, in the Unknown Dark, we may find something 
good in store for ua." You may further admit the vast impor- 
tance it would be to Christianity if Ood would give to His 

* Ab witoeas the tone of deep Badnaaa nhicli, espeoiaUr in poetio 
temperaments, perradea the thooghtful hoars of tbose who flndnothing 
faitei to bound this oheokered earth-life — no mora anapioioiu prospeot 
in the Qreat Fntoie — than the drearj vaoauo; of dieamlees deep. 
" The olond-ahadowB of midnight poaseM tiieir own repose, 
For the weai7 winds are silent and the moon is in the deep ; 
Some respite to its tnrbalenoe nniesting Ocean knows ; 
Whatever moves, or toils, or grieves, haUi its appointed deep. 
Thoa in the grave efaalt roat — " 

SoBLLET ; Stansat, April, 1814 
t Henkell : An Inqtiirs ecneeming the Origia of CiaittianUfi ; Lon- 
don, 3d Bd., 1841 : pp. 481, 488, 4S5, 489. 


creatures of to-day the ipecieB of evidence which He did Qot 
refnee to the incredulons Thomas. But you will remind me 
that to make ottt th« importtuice, or the apparent Decessity, of 
a ^ing is not to demonstrate its existence. 

The consciousneBS of this gave rise to the present volume. 
To the body of the work I refer you for direct evidence that 
immortality w brou^^t to light now, among us — that the ^»os- 
tolic gifts are reproduced at this day and are not restricted to 
the Boman Catholic Church. Meanwhile a few words touching 
the historical testimony in the case may be of service. 

We must refuse to tho Old Testament not only all claim to 
in^iration, in any sense, but also all credence as ancient his- 
tory, if we deny that, from the earliest ages, the two worlds 
have been, from time to time, in communication. Cut irom its 
pages all that relates to such intercommunion ; and there would 
remain, of its narrative, but a lifeless and unintelligible residua 

As to the New Teetament, we find neither in gospels nor 
epistles, a word to indicate the cessation, in the future, of 
spiritual gifts : so far as there is expression on the subject, it 
sustains the belief in their indefinite continuance. 

Take a few examples : 

Christ, when he appeared after death to the eleven, said : 
"These signs shall follow them that believe. In my name 
shall tiiey cast out devils ; they shall spe^ with new tongues. 
. . . They shall lay hands on the sick and they diall reoovei." * 
Again, in the immediate prospect of death, Jesus said : " He 
that believBth on me, the works that I do shall he do also ; and 
greater works than these shall he do." f 

Ko limitation as to time, observe ; not to the apostles then 
living, nor to the disciples of that day, are these promisoB re- 

* Marie xvl. IT, 18. Some oommentators have cast doubts on the 
snthei>ticit7 of the dosiiig veises of Mark's Qoepel (ivi (^19); but 
tbeie verses am quoted, without qaestjon, by Itbiubds (iiL 10, 6), are 
found in tliree out of four of the uncial mamuacripts and have nni- 
f ormly been retained in the Oanon. 
t JohnxiT. 13. 

DMn;.^:b, Google 

16a OESsafr dosb not speak of iubaolbb. 

stricted ; uothing to show th&t they do not est«nd to all \rho 
shall believe ia his teachinga, " even to the end of the world,'* 
as in another promise of spiritual aid he expressed it. 

Nor were such powers, even at that day, exclusive. The 
seventy enjoyed them.* And when the discij>les saw s certain 
man who followed thetn not, casting out devils in Christ's name 
and forbade him, Jesus reproved them, saying : " Forbid him 
not : for there is qo man that shall do a miracle f in my nante 

■ Lake z. 17. 

I In proaaoatuig bqoIi an inqniiy aa the present, the atndent is om- 
atantly reminded of the u^eut neoeesily for a modem revision, at least 
of the New Testament. The word ^tove translated fairacie, ia du- 
namin, accoaatiTe of dunami», which, in the best lexicons, we find inter- 
preted ; "potent^, power, facnlt;, efficacy." We do not say " do a 
power," or that would have been the litem] tnmelatloa The true 
meaninff ia, nndonbtedl/, " exercise a power " or " f^ ;" and withal a 
apiritnal gift or power, each as Christ himself possessed. King: Jamea' 
translators believed spiritnal gifts to be mizacoloos ; and so they heie 
make Christ declare them to be miirades, without the slightest author- 
ity, in the Greek text, for doing so. 

In the Ooepds dunamii Is, twice at least, translated virtue, aa we 
sometimes ose the word in the sense of energy, physical or moraL 
Speaking of Jeans healing the mck, Lnke (vi. 19) says: " The whole 
mnltitnde Booght to tonch him, for there went virtue (dunonui) oat of 
him, and healed them all" Think of saying "there went miracle out of 
him " I And again (Moik v. 30), when Jesos was tonohed by the woman 
who was onred of an issne of blood, ho felt (so the translation reads] 
" that virtne (dunamii) had gone ont of him," Jeans, it appears, woa 
physically conacions of this wonderful power. But when the at&ributo 
of tJie miiacnlona is ascribed, it is by sheer assnmptJon; prompted, 
probably, by the thiid instniotion given by King James to his transla- 
tors. (See preceding page 135.) 

To the spirit of the same instruction it is doubUesa due that, in one 
passage at least, the word miracle is arbitrarily supplemented, where 
there is no corresponding word whatever in the Greek text It will be 
found at Uork vi, G2. " For they considered not tAe miraeU of the 
loaves ; for their heart was hardened." The literal translation ia " for 
they thoQghtnot of tie loaves:" the words "the miracle" beingpnrely 
giatuitous. This and similar errors are corrected in Giissbach's text. 


tii&t can lightly apeak evil «f me : he th&t is not itgainst us is 
of our part." * 

More striking stdll is this : At the very close of Christ's 
ministrj on earth, just before he crossed the brook Cedron into 
the garden whore he was betrayed, he said to his apostles : " I 
lutve yet many things to say to you, but ye cannot bear them 
now. Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will 
guide you into all truth ; for he shall not speak of himself, but 
whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak." f 

May not this be &irly conatrued as a promise of spiiitual 
progress ; an assurance of constant advance by the aid of tbe 
spirit of truth — medium of perennial revelation between Heaven 
and eai-th ? Is it not a declaration, too, that Jesus' own teach- 
ings, while here, were not a finality ; neither, indeed, could be : 
seeing that even the Twelve he had selected and taught through- 
out three years were not prepared to receive what yet remained 
to be said? The Christian world has strangely overlooked 
this text and the £iir corollaries therefrom.^ 

The Acts are filled with passages in proof of the continuance, 
throughout the Apostolic age, of spiritual powers and gifts. 
There came a multitude bringing sick folks to the Apostles, 
*' and they were healed every one." § " By the hands of the 
Apostles were many signs and wonders wrought among the 
people." I " Stepjien, fiill of faith and power, did great won- 
ders and miracles (duoameos) among the people." ^ " Special 
miracles " (dunameis) were wrought through Paul. ** Peter 
raised Dorcas f f and Eutichus |{ &om the dead. A certain 

■ ISaA ix. 89, 40. 

f John xvl. 13, 13. There aie mtaj oimilBr promises, where this 
Bpitit is called the Comfoiter; as John zv, 26; ziv. 36 ; xrri. 7. 

t It is a mere assertion, unwairanted by Scripture, that these prom- 
ises were reetdoted to the writers of the ((□q>els and epistles, eight 
only in number ; or, as others would have it, to the Seven Ghtuchee and 
during the apustolio age alone. 

g Arte v. 10. JActav. 12. ^ Acts via 

"Actaxlx, 11, 13. It Acts ii. 87, 40, 41. t-Aotsxx. », 10, 18. 

194 epiBTTUAL aim dsbibable. 

man (Philip, the erangeliat) " hnd four daughters th&t did 
prophesy." * And ao on. 

To all the disc^leB, soon after Christ's death, came, on the 
day of Pentecost, the gift of tongues.f The same gift speared 
among the Gentiles mIbo.^ 

But OS to spirituftl gifla, various in character, Paul's teeti- 
mony is the most distinct and comprehenBive. He declares 
that, in tlie churches, then inoluding numerous converte, there 
are diversities of gifts ; besides the words of faith and wisdom, 
he enumerates the gifts of healing, working of miracles 
(duuameCn), pn^hecy, discerning of spirits, divers kinds of 
tonguea.g He himself rejoices in the possession of such gifts, | 
and, in the same text in which he enjoins cluuity, tie bids us 
desire spiritual gifts, eapocially the gift of prophecy. ^ To deny 
that this last behest ia addressed to us is virtually to assert that 
all ttte precepts contained in Paul's epistles were intended for 
the Seven Churches only, and have no application to the pres- 
ent generation of men. Paul's express words are : " There are 
diversities of gifts, but the same spirit. But the manifestation 
of the spirit is given to every man to profit withal." ** 

Passing on fi-om the first oentuiy and coming upon the Eccle- 
siastical, or Patristic " miracles," we enter an oft-trodden field, 
familiar to those who have followed an English Doctor of 
Divinity, writing in the middle of the last century, through & 
.celebrated " Inquiry " into that subject, ft I think a dispassion- 
ate student rises &oni the perusal of Middletoa's book, and of 
the best modem commentaries thereon, with the conviction 

•ActBixi.9. + Acta ii. 1-4. { Acts i. 45, 46. 

§ 1 Carinthlans ziL 4-11 and 28-80. But read the whole of oh^tters 
zil. and kIv., in proof of the great importanoe which Paul attached 
to that matter. 

1 1 Corinthians xiv. 18. ^ 1 CorinUiiatu ziv. 1, and xU. 81. 

" 1 Coriuthiaiui xil. 4, 7. 

If UiDDLETOit : Frft Ingviry into Vie Miraeiihui Powen uhicA art 
tuppottd to Tiaze mhntted in the O&riHian ChureA from the JSariieat 
Age*. ItoodoQ, 174S. 


that the concurrent teBtimony of the fathers for the allied 
Bpiritoal gifte of the early centuries are inadequate evidence of 
these, at miradeg, but all-sufficient proof to estabhah (in a gen- 
eral way) their occurrence, if we regard them as natural ph^- 
nomena. To that testimony I can but briefly advert, 

Irennus (a pupil of Papias and of Polycarp, both of whom 
sat under the teachings of St. John) was Bishop of Lyoits jl.d. 
177. We have but fragments of his works ; but he is quoted a 
handred and fifty years later, by Eusebius (writing a.d. 325), 
who says, in bis ScdeneuHcal Sietory, that Irennus " shows 
that even down to bis times, instances of divine and miraculous 
power were remaioing." He quotes teztually from Irennus, 
thus: "Some most certainly and truly cast out devils. . . . 
Others have the knowledge of tilings to come, as also visions 
and prophetic communications ; others heal the dck by imposi- 
tion of hands, and restore them to health. . . . Even the 
dead have been mised and have continued with us many years. 
, . . It is impossible to tell the number of gifts whidi the 
chui'ch thronghout the world has received from Ood." * 

To the same effect testify Justin Martyr f and Theophilus, 
Bishop of Antioch, both contemporary with Ireneeus ; Tertullian, 
flourishing toward the close of the second century ; Origen and 
Minutius Felix, in the beginning of the third century ; and 
C^rian, pupil of Tertullian, about the middle of the same. 
AmobiuB and his disciple I^^tantius, writing in the fourtii 
century, may be added to the list. X 

■Busbbitjb; EedairuUeal Butory, book v., obap. T. He states 
that the exbaota ore taken from the second book of Irenteiu' SefiUa- 
Hon and OoertArtmi <^PtA»a Doetrine ["AdTenos Hnresee"). 

f " Jnsfiin HortTi, who is supposed to have written his fiist Apology 
withhi fifty years after the days of the Apostles, Bays : " There ste pro- 
phetical gifts amcogns to this d^, and botii ra««i and woman endowed 
with extraordinai? powera by the Spirit of God." — Quoted by Dr. Hll>- 
DLBTOir, in his Frte Ingviiy, p. 10. 

(See HiddlatoB's laqjiirg, pp. 11-19; where are ^ven extiacts 
trooi the wzitiiigB of each, wiUi fefesonces to t^ ^leinal authoritdea 


St. Augustine, whom Calvin and Luther cxipled so oloaely, 
and who was Bishop of Hippo a.d. 395, may be called tks 
Spiritualist of his age. In his celebrated Citi/ of God he has 
a long chapter filled with minute details of uumeroua miracles 
wrought in his day. At the outset he sajs : " They ask me, 
' Why do the miraclea which, as you say, were performed in 
fonner times, not occur to-day?'" And hia reply is: "At 
this very day a multitude of miracles do occur ; the same Ood 
who caused the signs and wonders which ve read of, works 
similar prodigies still by such pei'sons as He sees fit to select." 
He attests, as having happened under his own eye, most of the 
miracles which he relates, and says that, did space permit, he 
could add many more of his own knowledge.* 

Of another St. Augustin, the apostle of the English, who 
landed in Great Britain a.o. 696 — who became Archbishop 
of Canterbury tmd ia said to have baptized ten thousand per- 
sons in a single day — we read that he had the reputation of 
miraculous powers ia the restoration of sight and even of life. 

I might go on to speak of the St. Gregoiy of the third century 
(sumamed Thauimaturgua from his wonderful powers), of St. 
Martin, and many others deemed equally gifted ; and I might 
add abundant proof that the iaithful Koman Catholic continues 
to believe in the reality of EkKjlesiastical miracles up to the 
present day. But it needs not further particulars. 

Middleton discredits these patristic powers and gifts, con- 
cluding that " they were all contrived, or authorised at least, 
by the leading men of the Church for the sake of governing 
with more ease the unruly spirit of the populace." f For this 
soeptioiam his chief motive seems to be that " the belief and 
defence of these miracles . gives countenance to the 

modem impostures of the Catholic Church." J He takes pains 

Speaking of the gift of tongues, Uiddleton says : " If the teetimcH)/ of 
IrenBiis can be credited, many weie eodowed with ft in Ms da^ and 
heatd to speak all kinds of Ungaages in the Chntch." — /ajuJiy, p. 117. 

* CUyo/Ooif ("DeOivitoteDei") book xxii., ohap. 8. 

f laguiiy, p. 100. | InquiTy, p. 17S. 



to remiad us " how nittaralty Uie allowance of tbeae powers to 
the earlier ages will engage us, if we are conaiatent with ow- 
selvea, to allow the same also to the later ages : " * ovideotly 
looking not so much to the amount of evidence that can be found 
for the allt^ed facta, as to the theological results of admitting 
their truth. 

So filso Bishop Douglas, who in his Oritm-ion, assuming to 
show how " the true miracles recorded in the Neir Testament 
are distingoished &om the spurious miracles of Pagans and 
Fapista," f concludes that we are warranted in rejecting the 
latter — that ia, the Ecclesiastical miracles — "as idle tales that 
never happened, and the inventions of bold and interested 
deceivera," J 

Protestants generally, except those who evince Puseyito pro- 
clivities, § take the same ground. Locke, doubtless correctly, 
states the chief prompting motive ; " I think it is evident that 
he who will build his &itli or reasonings upon miracles deliv- 
ered by Church historians, will find cause to go no farther 
than the Apostles' time, or else not to stop at Constan tine's." H 

But this Protestant scepticism leads &r. The more sweep- 
ing among the orgumente employed against " Papist miracles " 

• PteTaoo to Inquiry, p. xii. 

f Douglas (Bishop of Oarlisle) : OhUrion bg leMeh tht trut Jflroete, 
etc, (SB above) 1754. Bee title-psge. This is virtnaUy a reply to 
Hnme's oelebiated aignment. 

t Crtitrion, p. 96. 

g As John Henbt Nbwkar, in liia Bttoff on thtMirada retar^tdia 
the Ecde»atiie Htitm-y qf the Early Aga, Oiford, 1643. This was 
mitten while he was still a Protestant. The gist of his argument is : 
" If onr Lord is with his disciples ' alway. even unto tha and of the 
woildi' If he pTomised his Holy Spirit to be to tltem what be himself 
wsa when vicdbly present, and If miracles ware one special token of his 
presenoe when <m eartli ; . . . soielj we have no oaose to be aor- 
priied at beaxinf supematuTal events reported in any age." — p. TS. 

This TOKj tarrat of Boman CatboUciBm ; bnt it savors eqnally of log- 
ical iofereDoe. 

I Locks: TMrd Letter <m Tckratimi^ o. t. ^. 2fl9. 



hj Buoh vritera as Middleton tmd Douglas vill be admitted, 
by dispassionate readers, to be equally valid against tiia " eigna 
and wonders " of the Oospels and the " spiritual gifta " of St 

I speak here of wholesale arguments. It is to be admitted, 
of course, that many of the naiTatives coming to us &om pa- 
tristic times are apocryphal, and others obnously obscared 
by superstition. Wher« there is genuine coin there also wiU 
counterfeits be found.* To St. Anthony, a stout believer in 
the Devil, Satan (according to his biographer) appeared, usu- 
ally as " a spirit very tall with a great ahow," " who vanished at 
the Saviour's name ; it burnt him, and he could not bear it ; " 
with other Bimilar taleB.f 

It is to be admitted, further, that some of these early eccles- 
iastical gifts, unlike those of Christ's day, were often com- 
mitted, nottotbe principal champions of the Christian cause, but 
" to boys, to women, and above all to private and obscure lay- 
men not only of an inferior but sometimes also of a bad charac- 
ter." J This only proves, however, that they were in a measure 
dependent, like magnetic power, on certain physical conditions. 
The modem examples among us confirm this. Kevertheless, 
the highest order of spiritual gifts appear to attach themselves 
only to those who are, in a correspondent degree, morally and 
spiritually elevated. Henoe, doubtless, the unexampled pre- 
eminence of Christ's powers. 

To arrive at any just conclusion on such a subject we most 
examine and test each narrative on ite separate merits. It is 
a question to be determined, as the fall of aerolites has been, 
by &ctB, not by closet speculations. Even Middleton admits 

* Matthew zziv. 24; Marie xiiL S3— "thsj shall aednoe the vei7 

f St. Athahabiiis : ZifiofSt. AntAot^ ; patsim. 

I Htddlbton : Inquiry, p. £5. But as to women, it U oartain Hut 
spiritual gifts nttaohed to botb asses in Ohiist'a ia^. See Acts t*' 
0; a. 17, 18; and zvi. IS, 17. 


that "the testdinoD; of &ct« ma; properly be called the teBti> 
mony of (Jod himself" • 

It was afi«r & care&l ezaminatioii of this testimoiiy, bb it is 
found amoDg us, that the narratives which follow were written. 
There you will find my i-easons for tho conviction that Qod has 
not left lis irithout present witness tonching the great truths 
of our rcligioa ; that we, like the Apostles when they beheld 
the risen Christ, may see immortality brought to light; that 
the " Spirit of truth," to-daj as of yore, is present " to guide 
us into all tmtb ; " becoming the medium between spirits in 
the nest world and men in this. ^ 

I believe that this spirit (divulging what reason tests and 
accepts but uould not have originated) has been the otigin of all I 
religions. This was Bishop Butler's opinion, thus expressed : | 
" There does not appear the least intimation in history or tra- 
dition, that religion was first reasoned out : but the whole of 
history or tradition makes for the other side, that it came into 
the world by revelation. Indeed the state of religion io the 
first ages of which we have any account seems to suppose and 
imply that this was the original of it among mankind." f 

But if revelation be the origin of all human religions, it can- 
not be a phenomenon restricted to a single century, or showing 
itself up to a certain period of man's history, and then disappear- 
ing, to be seen no more. It must be a guiding influence &r 
all time ; a permanent element of civilization and of spiritual 
progress ; as essential to vital religion amoi^ ua who live now 

as it was to the Jews of eighteen hundred years ago. . _^ 

. To deny that this rf'THatifn^immM friim Oi"< 1H t-f A^ny thwt ' ^ 
the Book of Nature has God for its author. But like every- < ' 
thing else in ihia world, it comes to us mediatdy not di/rectly, '• j 

I from Him: and so only must we receive it. Thus it aids Reason, / 
not dethrones it: it appeals to Conscience, not coerces it. If / 
everything that claims to be revelation were to be accepted as 

V MMb, we should have to admit the whole Koran. Becanse/ 

■ T/isui^ip. 10. 

t AMhm of BtUgion (Bi. otim)),fp. l«i, IW. . , 

8 ^ .OOglf 


men, by Qod'B uoiversul law, are &llible, and because the 
holiest truths reach us only through &llible meu, Reason sod 
Conscience, God'given guides, inust sit in judgment on all aJ- 
1^^ revelations— humbly, reverently indeed, but fearlessly 
also ; for perfect love casteth out fear. * A captious spirit is 
eq^ecially out of place in such connection ; yet it is our ri^t, 
and our bounden duty, to prove all thin^ spiritual preteo- 
mons included. 

If the general view I have here offered you of this subject 
be correct, then it will aot suffer denial that, as clei^, most 
of you have hitherto too much restricted the circle of your 
duties. Overlooking what Christ said about the Spirit of truth, 
which was to teach men, after his death, what he had left un- 
taught, you have omitted to iuquii-e whether there is a present 
revelation ; and, if so, how &r it is trustworthy — what are ila 
character and claims. If, as Middleton said of spiritual gifts 
coming to light in earlier ages, these are still souietimes com- 
mitted to children uid to persona of indifferent chaTactfr, this 
makes more imperative the duty to sift and to disciiminate. 

Many of your number are, probably, deterred Irom entering 
on thu task by the idea that the (allied) phase of modern 
revelation is anti-Christian in tendency. If, after a varied ex- 
perience of aixteen years in different countries I am entitled to 
offer sn opinion, it is, that if such spiritual communications 
be Bou^t in an earnest, becoming spirit, the views presented 
will, in the vast majority of casea, be in atiriet aeeordanee with 
the teadtings of Chriat, su(^h as we may reasonably conceive 
l^ese to have been &om the testimony of his evangelical biog- 
raphers. They touch upon many things, indeed, which he 
left untouched; but the spirit ia absolutely identical. They 
breathe the veiy essence of his divine philosophy. 

I speak here of tiiose ideas as to which, in all trustworthy 



spirit-nUeBages, there can S(»rcelf ba Bald to be v&riance of 
sentunent. As to side-issuea.and non-essentuils, it would seem 
that the same variety and uncertainty of opinion exist in the 
next world as in our own. 

Xbe loUoWinf may be taken aa the great, leading principles 
on which intelligent Spiritualists unite : 

1. This is a world governed by & God of love and mercy, in 
wLich all things work together for good to those who rever- 
ently conform to K'" eternal laws. 

3. In strictnesB there is no death. Life continues from the 
life irhich now is into that which is to come, even as it continues 
from one day to another ; the sleep which goes hy the name of 
death being but a brief transition-slumber from which, for the 
good, the awakening ia immeaaurably more glorious than in the 
dawn of earthly morning, the brightest that over shone. In all 
cases in which life is well-spent, the change which men are 
wont to call Death is Ood's last and beet gift to his creatures 

3. The earth'phase of life is on essential preparation for the 
life which is to come. Its appropriate duties and callings can- 
not be neglected without injury to human welfare and develop- 
ment, both in this world and in the nest. Even its enjoy- 
ments, temperately accepted, are fit preludes to the happiness 
of a higher state. 

4. The phase of life which follows the death-change is, in 
strictest senxe, the supplement of that which precedes it. It 
has the same variety of avocations, duties, enjoyments, corre- 
sponding, in a measure, to those of earth, but far more elevated ; 

* CtBitrMt, with this, the conception of early ProteatantiBTn, on ilia 
Huoe Bnbject. LnOieE regarded death as the etpretsioii of Qod's wrath. 
Said he ; " It were a light and eaqr thing for a Ghristiaa to saSer uid 
oreioame death, if he knew not that it were Qod'e wrath. . . . 
An heotheo dieth secnreij anay ; ho neither seeth nor f eeleth that it 
ia (rod's wrath, bnb meoncth it is the end of nature."— Todle Tatk. 

Chiistian'B wear? bundle that dropped from hia ahouldors as the pjl- 
fcnm neared tJie cioes, was as nothing compared to the tsniUe tninW, 
bome dv ^ day tiuon^ life, of soch a belief as ttiat. 


and its denizens have the same Turiety of charaoter and of in- 
telli^nce ; existing, too, as men do here, in a state of prog- 
ress.* Keleased from bodily earth-clog, their periscope is 
wider, their perceptions more acute, their spiritual knowledge 
much greater, their judgment clearer, their progress mora rapid, 
than oura. Vastly wiser and more dispassionate than we, they 
are still, however, fallible ; and they are governed by the same 
general laws of being, modified only by corporeal disenthral- 
ment^ to which they were subjected hero. 

5. Our state here determines our initial state there. The 
habitual promptings, the pervading impulses, the life - long 
yearnings, in a word the moving spirit, or what Swedenborg 
calls the " ruling lovea " of man — these decide his condition on 
entering the next world : not the written articles of hia creed, 
nor yet the incidental errors of his life.f 

* Tbia view of our next state of exiatenoe, expieaaed In general 
terms, oocnrs in the religions literature of modem times, antedatiiig' 
Swedenbotg's writiDgs . To select an eminent example, we find Bisbop 
Batlet (&.D. 178S) s^ing: "There appears bo little connection be- 
tween onr bodily powers of seosation and our preaent powecs of i^ec- 
titxi that there is no reason to conclude that death, which destroys the 
former, does so macb as sospead the exeraiae of the latter or interrupt 
oni dmHnving to exist in the like state of reflecticsi which we do 
now. • . . Death may not, perhaps, be so mnah aa a disoontinn- 
snoe of the exeroise of these powers, nor of the enjoTments and soCer- 
inga wlu9h it impliee. So that our poatbiunona life, whatever there 
maybe initHdditionaltaonrpresent,7etni^ not be entirely beginning' 
anew, but going on. . . . For anght we know of ooiselves, of 
onr present life and death, death may immediately, in the natnial 
course of things, put ua into a higher sad more enlarged state of life, 
aa onr birth does ; a state in which onr oapooities and qihere of peroep- 
tiaa and of action, may be mnoh greater than at present." — Aiuiiogjf of 
Religion, Part 1, ohap, i, pp. 33, 34 (of London Ed. of 1809). 

\ " The sin that practice bums into the blood, 

And not the one dark hour brings remorsa, 
Will brand us, after, of whose fold we be." 

Tekmtsok: Jd^tiitftlu Sing. ^vlen. 

OF BPramrALiBM. 178 

6. Wfl do not, either by fftidi or works, eaim Heaven, nor 
are 'we sentenced, m^ay Day of Wtath, to Hell. In the next 
xrorld we aimplj^eravitue to the poaition for which, by life on 
earth, we have fi£ted-'<mTsel7eB ; and we occupy that position 
hecazue we are fitted for it,* 

7. There is no instantaneous change of character when we 
' posa from the present phase of life. Oar virtnea, our vices ; our 

iutelUgenoe, our ignorance ; our aspirations, our grovellings ; our 
hftbits, propensities, prejudices even — all pass over with us : 
modified, doubtless (but to what extent we know not), when the 
spiritual body f emerges, divested of its fleshly incumbruice ; 
yet essentially the same as when the death-slumber came over 

8. The sufferings there, natural sequents of evil-doing and 
evil-thinking here, are as various in character and in d^ree as 
tite enjoyments; but they are mental, not bodily. There is no 
esc^te from them except only, as on earth, by the door of re- 
pentancev There as here, sorrow for sin committed and desire 

* One flnds the germ of theee ideas in wrilaage of twenty-three hnn- 
dred yeaiB ago. The wisest of Greoiaii {Afloeophers — representetive 
of the Spiritnaliam of Ma age— proponnded it Socratee (PUto being 
Interpreter) seya ; " Since the aool is inunoital. it leqaires our aoziouB 
care, not only for this interval which we call life, but always." . . . 
The Bonl " can have no other lefuge nor safety from evil except in re- 
maining as good and wise as possible. For it descends to Orcoa with 
nothing dae .bat the reaolta of ite mode of disci)dii>e and ednoation, 
which Etre said to be either of tlie greatest advantage or injniy to the 
depaned." . . . Then, as to the soul of ttie evil-door, he adds; 
' ' It Btia;B abont involved in utter perplezil^, nntil a certain period has 
elapeed, on the expiration of which It is of necestdty carried into an 
abode aoitable Bnt the sool that has led a pure and well-regnla- 
ted life, having the gods for associates and guides, proceeds to inhaUt 
a region adapte<l to those like itaelf,"-~P/(<vd9, g 57, Statifo^d^s trans- 

Iiet ns tnnalate Orvuj, " intennediate atate ;" and, for "the gods," 
let ns tead "advanced apirits;" and we have here, snbstsiitiBllj, an 
Important tenet of modem Spiritoalism and of BwedtmboiglaniBm, 

t 1 Corinthians xv. 44. 

^ Google 


for an unaided life an the indispensable conditioui-preeeilcBi 
of advancement to a better state of being. 

9. In the next world Lore ranks higher than what we call 
Wisdom ; being itself the highest wisdom. There deeds «£ 
benevolence for outweigh professions of faith, l^are ""ppti' 
goodnese rates above intellectual power. There the hnmU* 
are exalt«d. There the meek find their heritage. There the 
merciful obtain mercy. The better denizens of that world ace 
charitable to frailty and compassionate to un &x beyond the 
dmllers in this : they forgive the erring brethren they have 
left behind them, even to seventy times seven. There, is no 
respect of persona. There, too, sBlf-rightoousneas is reboked 
and pride brought low. 

10. A trustful,* childlike f spirit is the atAte of mind in 
which men are most receptive of beneficent spiritual impres- 
sions; and such & spirit is the best preparation for ^ktranoe 
into the next 3rodd. =— ;:; 1 

"^ 11. There have always existed int«rmundane laws, according 
to which men may occaraonally obt^n, under ceff^n condi- | 
tions, revealings from those who have passed to the next world 
before them. A certain proportion of human beings are more 
sensitive to spiritual perceptions and influences than their Ui. 
lows ; I and it is usually in the presence, or throu^ the medi- 

■ UaUhewxiiL 58; Hark vL 0,6. 

t Hattluw xriii 8. 

t Those who, in modem phrase, toe teriued nwdmnM are piobablj 
to be indoded in the cUaa called by BeiobenbaohMnntwM,' pe(»oiisaa> 
pable of diatmgniBhiiif; odio inoandeaoeiice in a pa^e^g daik ohainbtt. 
He thinks that nearly half tfae homan race belong to that cIub, IJioa^ 
the power of many among tlieni is bo weak as to be hardly ^jqweciaUa. 
He fonnd aU naturol BomnaiDbaliBta to be sensiliTea ; also all wbo aio 
Bubjecta of artdficiBl BOmnambulism. — Der Seiutlmt Merueft, Stott^art, 
1854; vol. il pp. 049, SnO,etc. He fonnd that the gift, or attxibnte, of 
seositivenen wm usually hereditaiy ; inbeiiled Bometimee from the fa- 
thai, more fieqnantly from the mother, oocaaionally from botb. — pp. 
632-526, where lists are given. Children eometimea poaaees it ao 
Btningly aa to be alarmed bj Inminons appearances at ni^t. — p. IBl. 


ma, of (me or more of these th&t ultruaniulaite intercourse oo- 

12. When t^e conditions are fovorable, and the sensitive 
tfaonyi^ irhom the manifeetationa come is highly gifted, these 
BMty aopplf important materials for thon^t and valuRhle rules 
of auMlnot. Bnt spiritual phenomena sometimes do mnch more 
thnw tluB. In their highest phases they furnish proof, strong 
■a tbat which Christ's disciples enjoyed — proof addressed to the 
gcanon and tangible to the senses — of the reality of another life, 
better and happier than this, and of which our earthly pilgrim- 
»fgB IB but the novitiate. They bring immortality to light under a 
*Ujue of evidence which outshines, as the sun the stars, all tra- 
ditional or historical testimonies. For surmise they give us 
ooQvictioQ, and assared knowledge for wavering belieC* 

13. The chief motives whioli jndnoe spirite to communicate 
-with men appear to be — a benevolent desire to convince us, past 
doubt or denial, that there U a world to come; now and then, 
t^e attraction of unpleasant memories such as murder or 
Buicide ; sometimes (in the worldly-minded) the earth-binding 
itifluence of cumber and trouble : but, far more frequently, the 
divine impulse of bumanaffectioD, seeking the good of the loved 
ones it has left behind, and, at times, drawn down, perlutps, by 
their yearning cries, f 

14. Under un&rorable or imperfect conditions, spiritual 
oommupications, bow honestly reported soever, often prove 
vapid and valueless ; and this chiefly happens when communi- 

BelcbentMMih'i leaearohes in this fleld were oontiimed, with asbHualilng 
indnalaj, thioogh ten yean, and were, at an early d^, higlily appieoi- 
•ted bj Liebig (Pietsce to Seniitke Mtrueh, p. iziii.) and b^ Beizellas 
{Jdhretbarielit, ISM, p. 819). See, for BeicbenbaoVs earlier observatioiis, 
UnUnuekangen iihtr dU Dynamide^ Braassobweig, 18S0. 

* If we tiiink of the " da^ mBsons" that oTerootne the mott ortho- 
dox jsofeason, and conaidei how many petHonB, piotu and ■trictl]' 
nimed in faith, have been overtaken by Qiant Despafr and led oaptlve 
to Doabting CmU«, we shall not Qnd fatdt with the adjective warming, 
as Binplojed above. See preceding page 127 aa to Luther's donUa. 

f " Si forte (a raffettooeogndo."— Dante : /»/#mo, canto 5. 



cations are too awiduouBl? sought or continuonelj' persisted in: 
brief volunteered messt^es being the most trustworthy. . Im- 
prudence, inexperience, Bupineness, or the idiosjneroaj' of the 
recipient may occasionally result in arbitrary cootrol by sprits 
of a low order ; as luen here BOmetimes yield to the infatoation 
exerted by evil associates. Or, again, there may be exerted by 
the ioquirer, tsepecially if dogmatic and self-willed, a domioat- 
ing influeDce over the medium, so strong as to produce ^Bocts 
tliat might be readily mistaken for what has been called posaea- 
eion.*' Ah a general rule, however, any peraoD of oommon 
intelligence and ordinary will can, in either cose, cast off 
such mischievouB oontrol : or, if the weak or inoautiouB give 
way, one who may not iniprQ^rly be called an exorcist — if po»- 
sessed of | strong magnetic wijf, moved by benevolence, and it 
may be aided by prayer, f can usually rid, or at least aatOKb to 
rid, the sensitive from such abnormal influence. X 

Iq all this there is no speculative divinity. And I admit 
the probability that if, through spiritual source, you were to 
inquire whether the theological guessings, touchii^ the essence 
of the Qodhead, of Anus or of Athanasiua come the nearer to 
the truth, you might getno reply, or perhaf» tiie answer: " Wo 
are umnformed as to that matter ; " with the remark added, it 
may be : " We do not entertain such discussions here." 

Are they not, in this, wiser than we ? Up throu^ the 
mists and horrors of the persecution-ridden Past, the common- 
sense convictions are reaching us that we have no conceivable 
means of settling any such controversy ; and, again, t^iat, if we 

* Dr. Jobs F. Gray, wboee experienoe entitles his opinion to great 
(Xmsideiation, and others, believe that what some call demoniac poMea- 
don, may bo exfdained, in very many If not in all instanoaa, by pntely 
human agency ; for example, by meameriBm. 

t Maikix. 30; Matthew xvii. 21. 

t The Bev. James Freeman Clarke has beoome ooavinoed aa to Uib 
lealitjyof poao e amon. —Sttipt of SeUtf, Boston, 1870, pp. 189, 13S. 


had, ita settlemeiit would not influence, by a hairbreadth, the 
morals or the wel&re of man. 

Fnrtiier than this, I have never, out of thousands of oom- 
mTmioationB, received one that denounced any sincere religious 
opinion, whether Catholic or Protestant, Mahommedan or Hin- 
doo. It is to be conceded, indeed, that, in these modern revela- 
tions, certain orthodox deductions from a portion of the epis- 
tles, entertained bj Calvin and Luther, find no ooontenance. 
fiat, in the preceding pages, I have taken some pains to set 
forth the grounds for my belief, that until these deductions are 
abandoned, there will be no religious progress ; and that, so 
lon^ as they are proclaimed from your pulpits, the Church over 
which yon preside will stand still or loae ground. 

I un sorry to believe that the &ilure of modem Spiritual- 
iam to indorse the doctrines of vicarious atonement* and 
original depravity, will cause many of your number, in advance 
of evidence, to condemn its influence, and reject its claims to 
be beanl. Yet if a Wise Man of old speak truth, " He that 
answereth a matter before he heareth it, it is folly and shame 
unto him." f 

■ Thronflioiit this address I have taken the tenet of the atonement 
In its doothoal setMe, as the Befonnen Iield it ; deeming tliat to be the 
honest way of putting it. There it a maae in which enoh a dogma is 
equally tme and important. Christ come, as be himself said, " a light 
into the worid," that whoso accepted his teachings " ahould nob abide 
in daiknev" (John xiii 46, 47). In inonloation of thaae teachings, 
replete with spiritnal U^t, he spent his life ; and in attestation of them 
he eacrifioed it. If we sotont tlie Bpiiit of Mb teachings in daily walk, 
we reconcile onr ways with the eternal lawa of onr being', and maj be 
■aid to be at one with the Qreat Author of these lawg. In this sente 
we maj declare that Chiist died for humankind, and that through his 
interposed agency— hia mediation— onr race is redeemed from error, 
and from the Bofferings error entails here and hereafter. But this is 
not what Lntbei meant when, in his ComBitntary aa OaiaHaTti, he spoke 
of one of the Fenons of the Godhead accuned for onr take ; nor ii it 
what the orUiodoz Protestantism of oui day means, when it preaches 

t Proverbs »vU. 18. 

"' D,g,t,ioflb,GoogIe 


Others may be staggered at the outset, by the niitnre of its 
claimE. The "gift of tongues," perhaps, may seem to them an 
incredible absnrdity. Yet if it is not incredible nor abeurd in 
the second chapter of Acta, or the fourteenth chapter of first 
CorinthianB, at what time did it change its charactei* f 

Baden Powell deemed it an actual phenomenon, occurring 
under law at the present day.* 

So, again, of prophet^. It may seem to ua beyond belief that 
what is yet to be should ever be disclosed to fallible creatures. 
Yet in all ages, back to the days of Abraham and Melchiiedali:, 
certain men have been honored and trusted as poasesBors of 
prophetic power. Is it incredible that the greatest of all oarthly 
Teachers should have been heralded, nwi-e oi less diatioctly, bj 
the ancient prophets, as the Anointed of God, who was to call 
mankind from darkness to light ? Bunaen admits this, f 

■ Xbe sennoiia <d the Bev. Edwaid Irring', a olergTinan of the Ohnnih 
of Scotland, created, abont tbe jeax 18S5, an nnpreoedented ezcitB- 
ment in iModon. In 1 830 ^ipeared, ia his Ohoroh, the Apostolic gift 
of unknown tODgneB. Baden Powell, Hliadi''g to this, sajs : 

" At the time tbe matter was oioeet; Bcmtuiized and utqnired into ; 
and many perfeodj nuprejadiced and even soeptleil penona them- 
seliee witnesaed the effects and wars taHj o(»Tinoed — as indeed were 
moat candid inquiien at the tJme — that after ti-atumaMn or poamble 
allowance foe the iaaoence of delusion or impostm«, befond all qnes- 
tiOQ oerUUn txtraordbiaTy mo/nifeAation* did oeeur. . . . Yet no 
sober-minded peiBon did for a moment believe tliat they were invvett- 
lotu, . . . bat tliat tlwj were in aoms waf to Ira aacribed to natmal 
oanaee, as jet, perhaps, little understood."— Badbh Powkll : Bactat 
Ifujuirit* in Theologg, p. 122. The italice are in the oitginaL 

f In hia Qatt ia Qetehiekta. He there sa^a that the power of Edght, 
In the old Hebrew prophets, reaohin; berond ordinary prediction, rose 
to the charooter of a tme world-rarrej (tioh tnr wahrea Weltanaohau- 
nng eihot)en hat) ; and he adds : " Tbey had the power of prophecy 
in oommon with t^e ^rtbonesB, . . . and with many clairrofanta of 
onz own oentoiy." — pp. 149 and 151. 

Bouseu regarded this power as a natural gift, oonsistetit with fsllibil- 
1^. Yet his ootnnentatot in E»»ay$ aiid Bem«w» (Dr. Williama}, seems 
to regret the admission of prophacj as on aotnal phenomenon'. " One 
would wiah," he aaja, " Bnn»en mi^t bam intended odj the power of 


Orthodozf regudB Baden Powell and Baron Bnnsen as nltia- 
Bcaptic&l anthotitiee. Does it not occur to 7011 that modem 
■pirttaial phenomena which men so able and so little disposed to 
BsparBtitioQ admit as realities, maj be worth looking into ? 

I remind yon, in conclusion, that, aside from phenomenal 
evidence of this character, jou have no oarftnn proof, such as 
TTinmqi had, of the existence of another world. It is not 
sceptics alone who have alleged this and bewailed it — like 

" Who telletha tale of nnspeakm^ death ? 
Who Ufteth the veil ot what ia to oome T 
Who painteth the shadows that are beneath 

The wide-winding oaves of the peopled t<mb T " 

The most eminent divines have admitted a. lack of certainty 
oa to a life to come, in the absence of testimony from Uie 
senses. Examples abound, but I have space here for two only. 
Batler, in his Analogy of Religion, confesses : "I do not 
mean to affirm that there is the same degree of conviction that 
our living powers will continue after death as that our subetan- 
ceawilL" • 

And Archbishop Tillotson, in an argument against the real 
pretence, says : " Infidelity were hardly poBSible to men, if all 
men had the same evidence for the Christian Religion that they 
have against transubstantiation ; that is, the clear and irresist- 
ible evidence of sense." \ — ^ 

Hundreds of thousands feel assured to-day tLat they AoM \ 
had tiis "clear and irreaistible evidence" for immortality, \iy 
Think of such a living oonviction ! Consider how it stands out ^ 
above all that wealth, fame, and every earthly good-fortune can 

seeing tlie ideal in the actaal, or of tracing tha Divine Govaniment in 
the movements of men." — Beoent Inguinet in Thedogy, p. 79. Why 
this reg^Bt? I think Bnneen's the concct view. 

* Anaioffs <if StUgiim, p. 17. Italiosia original 

t SermOTU, Sth Ed. London, 1720, Sermon xxrl. 



bostov — the blessing of bleBsingB, whitJi the vorid oau neitiieT 
^ve nor take away 1 

I think if ^re only realized in %di&t deep earnest miUioDs oa 
millions have longed, -with a longing past expression, for aonte 
Bure token of another life, we should better couoeive the sacred 
duty of investigBtion. With transcendant interests at Bt«ke, 
can we n^ect such a duty without risk that, like the' unbe- 
lievers in Gamaliel's day, we may baply be found fitting 
against God ? 

TbuB I have sought to show — 

That Frotestimtism has BteadUy lost ground for three cen- 
turies past, and is losing it still. 

That this retrogression seems to be caused by it« adherence 
to certain so-called orthodox dt^mas which the intelligence of 
the world has outgrown ; perceiving them to be contrary to 
God's eternal laws, pro motive of intoler ance, injurious to mor- 
ality, and arrestive^^ religious pro^i^as. 

That Christianity7''di Yoot id ef" alien scholasticisms which its 
Author nerer taught, is a progressive saienoerd^Snod to^©^^-\ 
come the.ialigion-of CiTilization.^^^-- 

That if we admit mirages, we must deny the uniform reign 
of law and thus come into dii'ect conflict with modem science : 
but if we recognize the reign of law and admit that the spiritual 
powers and gifts of the first century existed under law, then, 
as law is continuous as well as uniform, spiritual phenomena 
of a aimilai' character ought to^b^Jound-utiUoccurring. _ ^^^ 

Xhftt, in point "of fact, the teachings of GhrisFEave been sup- 
plemented, as he promised they should be, by revealings bring- 
ing truths and comfort from that higjier sphere of being toward 
which wo ai'o all fant hasting: ajid that this happens not mir- 
aculously, but lu accordance with intgrmun dane lawb^which it 
behooves US to study. 

And, finally, that such modem revealings, bringing immor- 
tality to light, are essential to arrest the growing so^tioism of 
the present day. 




If what has been said should indace the earnest thinkeni of ~ 
your profession to study intermundaue laws, the {brewing 
pi^ee will not have been written in vain. But as laws dimly 
discemed con only be explored in the phenomena they go vern ^ 
I have eougStT^ ^^ chspters wfiTcE follow, folighten, for you 
and for others, the labor of such study, by bringing together, in 
narrative form, some of the more salient and suggestive of the 
phenomena in question ; attested, I venture to affirm, by evi- 
dence as strong aa that which is daily admitted, in our courts 
of justice, to decide the life or deaUi of men. 

BoBRBT Dale Owxk. 

Nbw Habmokt, Indiaba, ) 
October 1, ISTL J 







" The miwtaleat anomj tmto knowledge, and tiuit vhioh Hath doae 
the gieoliest exeontion upon Troth, hath been a pereinptaij adhesion 
nnUi'anthority." — Sm Tkokab BBOwmt : Vulgar JShron. 

le snpiome inteipietei, whom it may be a dat^ to 
enKghtan, bnt whom it oan nerra be a duty to diaobey." — Tbxpia : 

I PBOPOBB to iikTeHtig&te a class of phenomena that have 
been r^prded, by turaa, as miraclea, feate of magic, arts of 
necromancy ; ugna and wonders, mighty works, spiritual gifts ; 
occult forces, mjigterioua agencies, spiritual manifestations. 

Not aa a topic of curious research ; not as a theme of apeou* 
lative inquiry. I have selected this disparaged subject becauae 
it brings one face to bee with the great questions of the world. 

Of late years many eameot and thoughtful mlndB hare been 
led to roooguize, in certain itnmge incidents of the Rbove class, 


when rofcioiiklly interpreted, beneficent agenciea of eminent 
power and vast practical importance: influentxs urgentlj needed, 
in thia age of the world, to quicken waning faith in a liie to 
come, and to afford, m support of public and private morals, 
helps more cogent than those which conventtenal creeda cmn- 
monly supply. 

But the value of these phenomena, as religious and refbnna- 
toi-j' agencies, rests, at the outset, on their claim to be spiritual ; 
and that agsiii intimately connects itself with the solution of a 
problem than which no more important one 'can ei^age the at- 
tention of man : Do the denizens of the next world * ever in- 
tervene in the concerns of thisf Have they the power, and 
do they ocossionally exert it, to affect, for good or evil, the 
lives tmd the fortunes of human kind ? In fine, has God vouch- 
safrd, or denied, to ua here upon earth, intercourse on certain 
conditions with the spiritual world ? 

An overwhelming m^oritj among all sects of Ohristijuis 
holds that spiritual intervention has been; while the most 
numerous of these sects teaches that it still is, albeit restricted 
within the limits of a single church. A small minority, but 
one that is rapidly increasing, believes that intermundaae laws 
have always existed, and now exist, under which occasional in- 
tercourse between the two worlds is possible ; and that, in point 
of fact, such intercourse occurs at thia day, nnrestrioted to fa- 
vored church or sect, in various phases tiiroughout the world. 

Let us consider how this last belief ad&ptB itself to the wants 
of the age, what relation it hears to the intellectual and religi- 
ous tendencies of the times, and what position it is entitled to 
hold among the creeds of Christendom. 

Wherever religion hasexisted, the human mind has been wont 

* I tiers refrain from touching on the analogical eridenoei for a futon 
state, having discnssed that matter elsewhere-, (f^xiyaUi on tAe Baund- 
arg of AnotAgr World, Book IT. Chap. L, pp. 476-503.) The nb- 
3ect luu been aUf treated b; Isoao Ta;lor. in his P^iteal T/itorg i^ 
Anothtr Ufe; London, 1839 ; pp. 64-00. 

DMn;.^:b, Google 


to ooonpy itself irith the inqniiy Lot &r, and "m what niode, 
Qod hM imparted spiritual knowledge to men : a sceptical por- 
tion of sociely (specially active all over Europe id the ei^t- 
teenth century) doubting or denying tliat He has ever imparted 

The current opinion of the pest has been that He has im- 
parted it directly ; and if directly, then infallibly, seeing that 
-we mnnot rationally impute error to God. Thus all spiritual 
commanioation or influence has been, almost by the common 
consent of Christendom, interpreted as actual speech of the 
Deity, or Divine intromiaraon immediately emanating from one 
of the Persons of the Godhead. Hence knowledge spiritually 
communicated haabeen r^arded as the equivalentof knowledge 
free from all error. Henoe, also, derives the claim of all 
domiouit religiona, Hindoo, Hahometan, Roman Catholic, even 
Protestant, to be the organs of in&Uib)e truth and the deposi- 
tories of spiritual authority, by r^t divine ; authority which 
it is impious to question and incurrii^ eternal punishment to 
disobey.* Even individuals believing themselves spiritually 
&vored have given in to Hob idea. " It came te me from the 
Xiord," was .• common expresai<m of Swedenboi^. 

But the tendency of the civilized mind is unmistakably op- 
posed to the Idea of direct divine interposition. We witness a 
thousand beneficent agencies around ns; and, unless wB are 
atbraste, we ascribe these to God. Yet we see that every one 
of them is mediat«. There has been no direct gift. To us of 
modem times there have been granted, under the divine econ- 
omy, facilities for acquiring and perpetuating knowledge unim- 
aglned by our remote ancestors. But God did not invent for 
OS the telescope to detect planete and suns which these ances- 
tors had never seen, nor the microscope to penetrate the min- 
ute mysteries of an invisible world. He did not reveal te men 

* BxoeptionB are to be found throo^oat the doctrinal history of the 
Vaxk. Agtsa. The votftriea of Black Hagio believed that spiiitual knowl- 
edge came to tiiem, not from the Lord, but, in ilUdt form, from the 
Devil, or other Mephiatephelian agency'. 

1S6 cxmrnnoKS of god's bklf. 

aMuible ngns to itiproaeat hnmaa tlionghts, tbe pen to perpat- 
lute thsM thoa^ts from geiieration to genmttion, the printiii^ 
press to enlighten the int«IleotnBl %rorld. Se is the author of 
all thtM blMHDgB, hnt indireotlj onlj; they come to us from 
Him, bnt they come to ns tJirongh our feliov-creaturee. 

All analogy, then, fortifies the idea not only that Oo<1*b 
agency in man's &vor is ever mediate, but also Uiat His aid is 
given OIL certain conditions. And Uieae conditions involve, on 
our part, thought, reeear<^ reflection, industry, enterprias. 
There is a great tanith in a homely proverb : " Qod helps Uioae 
■who help themselves." We can perceive EGb design that we 
should search oat what is to benefit ub ; that we should earn 
what we receive. Among Ood's eternal lawB one of the dtie^ 
is the law of ptogress ; but throughout the entire ^ysioal 
world we see that it is by man's head and hands this [vogran 
is worked out, not by minuiuloiu intervention. 

Some of the soundest intellects of former ceoturieB, from the 
seen inferring the unseen, have reached, or t^proached, tlM 
conclusion that every exercise of Qod's power, alike in the 
physical and in the qtiritnal realm, is efiected throng the iii- 
stnunent^ty of means : in other w<mlB, mediately under law.* 
And surely tbere snggeat themselves, in connection with man's 
nature and with his poaition in a world where evil exists, and 
with*his career in that world, the strongest reasons in favor of 
this intermediate action. Though we can bat dimly disown 
those things which go to make us the bein^ we are, yet we 

* Baoon, whose miad ranged over all Babjeota, (nblimai^ and Bpirib- 
nal, tBiet tide groiuid : " Qod worketh nothing tn nature bnt by seo- 
tmd oaiisea ; and H they would have it otherwise bdiered, it is mm 
impoBture." — AiiBanetment cf Learning. 

And we And a distiiigiiiahed divine of Hie last oentiiij BSBertiiig tba 
oredibilitj of suoh a view. " The visible govemment whli^ God exer- 
oisea over the world is 1^ tlie iiwtnimentali^ and medistioii ot otliets. 
And how far His invisible government be or be not so, it is impoasiUa 
to deteimine at sll I^ lesaon. The sappocdtjon that part <d it is so, 
appsBTB, to say the least, as oredible as tlie oootnuy." — Bdtlkb: 
Analogy of BeUgion, Pait II. Chap. 7. 


p wo w Tn that autn takes ddi^t in pn^rese, and that Iiu moca] 
Aud intellectnal irante find fiill BattgCkotion only in a prograsa- 
ive state. We peFceire, also, that if there is to be progreBs, 
there most be iJie worse and the better — tke worse in the past, 
the better in the iiituTe ; in other words Uiere must, as a 
general rule, be oomparative evil behind us, and comparative 
good to oome. Thus only do we obtain a glimpse toward a 
nMioDal theory of evil, and <^ the reasons wljioh may nnderiie 
ite penmssioo. For, though we mi^ defdie unmixed good in 
w<»ldlf afiaira and unmixed truth in q>iritual revealings, both 
are unreasonable wishes. Witueas our consciousness that our 
best happiness consists in sustained efibrte, from darkness to 
approach the li^t ; from evil gradually to attain unto good ; 
and from error to climb the pleasant paths of truth, as thees 
open to more and more excellent knowledge. Finality is stag- 
natioa ; a paradise for the sluggard only. 

We peroeive, Airther, Utat all human powers dwindle if they 
are not fitly used, and that judgment itself, if not habitually 
called into expFcise, is liable to deterioration and decay.* 

But to beings thus constituted and existing in snob a world, 
an in&llible revelation, direct from Its Creator, would be a 
gift utterly unsuited to their nature, at varianoe with every- 
thing we see around us, and involving a oonception that is 
disproved, as far as the unsecm can be disproved, 1^ all the 
leswHtB of analogy. It would be a finality where all else is 

* " Aworid In wMoh men ihould be KKonenited from the doty, or 
foiliiddat the rij^t, to bring the }ndgment hito pUf — to sift, bj the 
strict dioCatw of oanaaleBae, good from evil, the ri^it from the wioDg, 
would be a world AitgimoeA and degraded. If sooh a prindple waia 
talij earned out, it would at last become a world lacking not only the 
exennse of reason, bnt reaaon itself. Use, to an ezteut which it is 
difficult to determine, is esaeiitial to coiitinned existeDce. That which 
oeosea to tolfll its porpose finally oeasM to be. The eyee of fisbea 
f oQikl far in the interior of the Hammoth Gave of Eentnoky, ahnt out 
fwerer from the li^t of da;, are rodimeutal aDlij.''^Fi>oifaB» on At 
Bmaidary cf Aiiothtr Worid, p. 41. 


pvoflueoit; t^ierefbre, an mnomaly in a progresmve worid: 
Mvowedly eo, mdeed, emoe its frienda admit, as to their relig- 
ion, that aa there has been no scientific fonnataon, so there can 
be no prognoaire development.* It would be an elem^rt 
alien and diaoordant in a world to the Inhabitante of which 
God has given reason to prove all things, and oonacieDce to 
hold fast that vhich is good. It would tend to narrow, in a 
lamentable maimer, the field of action in which man*a intel- 
lectual fiumlties and moral sentiments can have play. As 
regards the highest of avocations — the study of spiritual science 
— its inexorable effect would be to deaden Beason and to si- 
lence Conscience. 

Beyond all this, there is a cogent influence which goes to 
determine the tide of public opinion that is settiog in against 
the old doctrine of infallibility. The line of human progress is 
firom the less to the more of liberty. Despotisms give way to 
limited mooarchies ; limited monarchies tend to republicanism. 
And more especially is the sentiment of the present day ad- 
/ verse to mental absolutism itnd spiritual coercion. But infalli- 
bility entails and justifies tyranny, alike of mind and body. 

It justifies it logically, even menufully. If s man be the 
poesesBor of inialhble religious tmth, to miss which is to sink 
into Hell, and to accept which is to attiun Heaven, such a nun 
ought to be— he is, by right divine — a despot. If he loves his 
kind and oan control them, it will appear to bint an imperative 
duty, by argument if he can, by force even to death if he must, 
to put down all opposing doctrines. When, in Italy, during 
the fifteenth century, the plague thrice deoimat«d the popula* 
tion, it was a popular belief that this frightful pestilenoe was 
caused by wholesale poisoners {awMfnatori) whose diabolical 
arts caused the death of hundred-thousands. If this idle sus- 
picion bad been just, who would have rused his voice agunst 
the punishment of such criminals ? Would not Italy and the 

) the Pioteatant Clecs7, Uotto to aeotiaa 


world L&Te l>een gainers hy their deaths ? Bat what was ibi 
offenco committed against the perishing body, compared to his 
who poisons the deathleea soul ? 

If e. Church conscientiously believes that she holds and 
teaches the one io&llible religion, must ahs not, as to all here- 
tics, necessarily take this view ? In the eyes of deTout Boman- 
ists, were not the Albigenses and the Taudots just such poi- 
soners ? When the massacres which followed the night of St. 
Bartholomew had done their work, were there not tens of tbon- 
sanda of spiritual poisoners less to be found throughout France? 

The horrors of tlie Inquisition are (diargeable, not to the 
Inquisitors (except such as were hypocrites), but to the doc- 
trine underlying their creed, which vindicates and sanctifies the 
mental despotism they have exercised. 

But a world that is waxing, age by age, more liberty-loving 
and more humane — a world that is learning obedience to 
Christ's injunction that we judge not lest we in turn be 
judged—a world that, with all its &ults, is gradually becoming 
more gentle and charitable and kindly — in other words, more 
Christian — such a world iostiuctively rejects a doctrine that 
logically leads to wholesale murders for honest opinion's sake. 
It is rapidly reaching the conclusioa that a God of Goodneas 
and Mercy never has granted, and never will grant to any 
man, or to any Church, a gift of infallibility which would 
entitle its possessor to punish and exterminate other meu and 
other Churches, because they did what conscience enjoined, 
and believed what their reason taught them. 

But the spirit of the age, we shall be told, effectually pro- 
tects US from such outrages on religious freedom. No doubt. 
The civilized world of to-day will not suffer Uie believers in 
in&llibility to be consistent in oanying out their doctrine- 
What then ? In proof that the world has outgrown that doc- 
bine we find the strongest of all evidence, namely this : that, 
because of the progress of humane ideas, its appropriate exer- 
cise bos become insufferable. 

In view of considerations so numerons and so coaaat, one 

190 OHUBOH or BOUE'e bosohoikxa. 

mi^t be lad to-expect the immeduto dovn&ll of a doetiia* 
ftsn^t vith barbarity. Its ultunate downfoU is certain ; yet 
ita hold is still strong on the human mind, and there are gtava 
difficnities in the way of ite abolition. Men are wisely loath to 
pull down an old house, how dilapidated soever, until they sea 
their way to some better shelter wherewith to replace IL 

, During the latter portion of the last century, millions, desert- 
ing the venerable mansion of Catholic infallibility, tried the 
shelter of Materialism, It proved blank and cheerless, and, 
after a brief sojonm, a large portion of these millions, as we 
have seen,* returned to the ancient stronghold they had left. 
They preferred to be submissive Catholics, and believers in a 
I to come, ratiier than to enjoy raligions liberty shrouded 
with doubts of a future existence. And they had found, out- 

' side of their Church's teachings, no certsinties touching the 
realities of another world — neither in Rationalism nor in Pro- 

( testontism. 

Kot in Batiooalism ; for Bationalism not only r^eoted all 
rev^ation of a q>in.tual character coming to us directly from 
God, but denied also, or had never seriously considered, spirit- 
ual revealings of a mediate character, coming to us from those 
whom we shall rect^ize as our fellow- creatures by and by, 
when death shall have ushered us among t^m. 

And not in Protestantism; because, in Catholic eyes, her 
chain of evidence touching the inbUible appears maoiftstly 
composed in part of &llible links. Its first links, indeed, she 
borrowed &om Romanism, agreeing with her in this, that the 
Kew Testament in the original tongues contained infallible 
narratives and teachings, infallibly recorded. But by her own 
showing, this infallible revelation, long BTigting in detailed 
portions, was committed, for unenlightened centuries, to the 
custody of fyiible m<>n ; was translated by fallible men, at fint 
into Latin, after a thousand years more, into modem tongues; 
was gradually separated by fallible men from apocryphal mat- 
ter; was finally adopted, more than three hundred and fiflgr 
* Bee Pietateoj AddreM, aeotlon S. 

Tmw8T.ATioHB or BCmUFrOBB. 191 

jMu ftfter tbe inticifixion, b^ a Oatholic CESoom^cal Coonoil, 
md a Catholic pope,* irtio umounoed the books that fihould be 
iudnded in the CEinon; authenticating the vhole as tho Word 
of Qod ;] and, finally, has been interpreted, and is interpreted 

'Iimkr, a wnteiwboaenMmheBtoaohiiig this matter seem to have 
bMK UK^one^ speaking of " Hie Fathem of tlie foaiOi oantiirj," 
■V* '■ " It is quite certain that Hiaj wsie not, in the ordinary sense of 
the word, Protestants. It is quite certain that there existed among 
Hiem praaUoea, forms of devottoii, and docfarinal taxlendM, whicii 
fmj not have been actnaU7 Boman Cstbcdio, bnt which at least hai^ 
upon the exbeme ve^FO of CaUudkaom, ud inevitably gravitated to 
it."~~Itatii>naiitm in Europe, vtd. L, p. 169. 

t A few mentoraoda m^ hen be aoo^table to the reader. 

Ab to the translationB of Scdptore. To Uie seal and '""■"■"c of 
Jerome (Hieronyions), the beat eobolar not only of his age, but of many 
nicceeding cttntnriee, the Cfanetaan wcold owes t^e fiist reliable Vnlgata 
of tike New Teetament. Eis tiaoalaiaon, aa St. Angnstiine called it, ot 
Nviaion (emendatio) aooording to his own more modest expieoaion, was 
made at the instance of Pope Samaaiu, from A.D. 883 toS6S. Up to 
thtX time theie had been innttmeiable tannslatiom, some partial, some 
aBBQoiing' to be complete — ' ' almost aa many forms of text as oopieo)' 
Jerome himself says: — ("tot sunt exemplsna qnot oodiises." — Pra^. 
in Ebv.) Jeiome'a veision, thongh many ezolaimed against It as a 
dangerous and profane innovation, giadnally oame into favor ; was, 
eabstantially, for a thoosand years, ilie Bible in common nse ; was de- 
oUrod 'isj the Oonnoil of Trant (1640) to be the anUientic edition ; — 
("rtatrntetdeclarat nt hceoipMvetDsetvnlgataeditio. . . tnoanthem- 
Uca habeatni ;") and is tiie nal parent of all tbe vemacnla): vemiona of 
Western Enivpe, e^eoiallT the &glish, Wydiffe'a tcanslotton being an 
■Inoit literal rendenngof It. It guided the Qerman edition \r3 Lather, 
■nd frmn him the infinence of the lAtin passed to oar AnthoiiEed Ver- 

As to the Beriptoral canco, the New Testament anthon, believers in 
the speedy end of the world, had evidenUy no idea that Jheir wiitings 
woold ever be colleoted in a vdome. An orthodox Protestant antbotity 
B»rB : " The wntings of the Kew Testament themselves coatain little 
more than faint, perhaps nnoonaciODa intimatiiHis <d the position which 
they were destined to ocoapy." ..." The oanon grow silently under 
the guidanoe of an inwaad TiwHnot, lathei than by tba foice of extei< 
sal aothoi^."— SnOA't iWit. tff BOiU, Aitiole " Omon of Boript- 


to-dttj', hy fUlible ohnrohes wbo differ gri evp m Jy ia their nev' 
end constmctioiu of its meaaingB. Nor iiaTe Protestant 

trn." Books, which fiuall; came to be deemed apooryphal ot epniioai, 
held doubtful [daoea for a time. The episUee of Baniabas and dem- 
ent, the Shepherd of Hermae, tlie ApooalTpse of Peter, bio all moce oi 
lew quoted or lef erred to bj the Fathers. Thee^oetle totheLeodiceani 
ms freqnentl^ inteipolated in Jerome's Vnlgste. Borne books that ue 
now lost liad oaneacj in early apostolio dajs, aa the Geepel aoooiding^ 
to the Hebrews, that aoooiding to Uie Egypti«ne, and (in the Haveua 
Canon) 1iu> " Ooq>el of Christ." Some now found in oar own oanon, 
as the Apoealiypee, the sec<md and third epistles of John, Hio epistlea of 
Jamea and Jnde, but especiallj the seoond epiaUe ot Peter, were mwe 
or less qneetioned, and were omitted by varions conncila. Gradoaltf 
the canon i^proaohed its present form. Hie Council of Hippo (A. D. 
893) Booepted neari? all ; and, twelve years after Jerome'e Latin ver^ 
sion had appeared, the OonnoU of Oartha^ (A.D. 807) admittui^^- 
brewB, completed the Teetament aa we now have it. A decree of Pope 
Innocent I. , oonfiiming their eeleotiou, finally decided the oanon of the 
Latin Church. 

In all this there seems to have been wry good judgment exerdsed. 
Jerome was probaUy the most trustworthy translator of the Potrietio 
tgt. And as to Uke oanoD, the gold (^jpeara to have been subetantially 
separated from the alloy. Ono finds nothing of value in the extracts 
remaining of the lost books ; and one cannot read the other reacted 
Scriptnres without a conviction that they were nttedy unworthy of 
admission. The noble purity of the Parthenon is n<4 more impnedve 
when compared with aome whinudctd abortion of the Cinqoe-oento, than 
an the grand aimplioil^ and intrinsio power that speak from the synop- 
tiool gaq>els, when set eide by aide with the ohililiah oruditiee that dis- 
figure, for example, the Arabic story called " The Infancy," or the 
bungling narrative eoriclied with a familiar talk between Satan and 
Hadea, that has been saddled on poor Moodemna. It is apparent that 
lutemal evidence chiefly governed. Thus we may ascribe to Uie Coun- 
dl of Cartbage sound discretion in her aelectioiL 

But judgment in tianatating, discretion in seleotiori, is one thing, and 
infallibility altogether another. The Bomish Church affirms that the 
translator was eelectod, and the final canon determined, each by the ac- 
tion of on infallible Pope ; one can understand that : but how orthodox 
ProteataiitiBm oan serionaly BSBerttbat hor chain oT infallible testimony 
;RBBent Bible as the onalloyod Word of God, is unbnjken 


ehnrchea retained the promised spiritual giite — the miracnlous 
stamp of the In&Ilible. 

This being the Catholic view, can we wonder thirt wanderen 
tmtn tlie Bonuui folil, when they found nothing but dim uncer- 
tainty in & heretic world, returned repentant to St. Peter's 

This will occur again and again ; a numerous class will go 
on believing in the Infallible ; the Catholic Church, surviving 
Tsvene after reverse, may continue to grow and prosper 
for generations still, as during this very century she has 
grown and prospered, her profeasore outnumbering more than 
three to one the members of all other Christian sects,* unless 

from Christ's day tintQ oom, most Koatia a mytteij to all who are 
guided by aonnd prindplet of evidence. 

To UB, readeiB of the AaUioiized Teision, tiieie are aapeiadded dif- 
ficulties that oooipUcate the dtoatdon. King Jomea, oa director of that 
translation, and whom the tranalatoTa oddresn as ' ' that angnst person, 
enriched with ringular and extxaordinai7 (fiaces," that hod appeared 
" like tlia flim in his steength," sent to eodi trannlator fifteen instruc- 
tions, iDolndmg a oommand that " t&e old eocleBioBUcol words should 
be kept." Was ti>e pedant-king infallible ? Tet his instrnctioDa nn- 
donhtedlf determined the translatioii of many all-iinportant words, 
Sadet and danamit molnded. Whenever a modem revision is oon- 
adentionsly executed, ti>e fint of theea words will not be rendered he&, 
nor the second miracle. 

* The Bacceeaes and reverses of FrotcBtantism as Bgainst Catholicism, 
and the ascendancy «tiU maintained by the latter, have been eet fortli 
at length in the Prefotory Addtees prefixed to this volume, aecticn S, 
and to which, if he has not read it, I b^ to refer the reader. 

And see note, there given, in proof that, in Europe, the Catholic 
Chm^ (indnding the Qreek and Eastern) nnmben nearly tax/ htii^- 
ired and taHee m^ion Tctaiies (211,890.500); while the Protestants 
amonut to but a trifle over sixty-eight millions (08,028,000) : in other 
words, that las tJian one-fowrtJi of the CJaistiant in Europe are ProUt- 
tanU; also that the Catbolio Chnrch agrees, in essential doctrine, with 
tiie Greek and other Eastern Chucchea, except on one point : the latter 
attributing to (Bcnmenical Councils the infallibility wbich by the for- 
mer is aeoribed to Uie Pope — both behoving, therefore, in 
■t the predcnt day, of human infallibilily. 


Hb&ee be fouod outaide of in&llibility oonolnsive eridenoe 
touching a world to coma. Men can cheerfully dispense mth 
tiie dogroatio myaCeriea which hare formed part of all in&l- 
lible creeds ; they can be thoroughly happy ,and contented, 
though the inscrutable enigma of the Divine Hypostaraii remain 
forever unsolved; but they cannot be happy, they cannot be 
contented, in ignorance of the Great Future ; they cannot dis- 
pense with fiuth in immortality. 

So universal, so deep-rooted in man's heart is this sentiment, 
tliat, if the sole alternative he between Boman Catholicism and 
Materialism, Catholicism will be the popular choice. In other 
words, the masses will resist the tendency of the age to discard 
the doctrine of a direct revelation from God, unless it can be 
^own that spiritual knowledge, including proof of immortality, 
can come to man, like physical knowledge, mediately, in virtue 
of natural law. 

I think the reader who may have followed me to this point 
will begin to perceive why I attach so much importance to Uie 
phenomena of modem Spiritualism. If these prove genuine, 
then we can obtain, outside of In&Uibility, conclusive evidence 
of another world. If these are realities, then we have found 
proof that spiritual knowledge may be received, like earthly 
knowledge, intermediately ; namely, through beings who wen 
once like ourselves. 

And thus the harmony of the Divine Government will be 
illustrated in one of its most important relations to man. 
For it will appear that, without violation or suspension of the 
great law of mediate agency, God brings immortiality to Uf^t ; 
affording man perennial aid in educing conoepliotts of the next 
world, as He has guided him, from disoovery to discovery, io 
the arts and sciences of this. 



" BdlgiooB dogDutUm ie loeiag all hold ol the moot living and evn- 
ert intelligence eveiTwheie. . . . A seooDdCalvm In theology is impoe- 
nUe. Uea tiuTit not lees for tpiiitnal truUi, bnt thej no longer b»- 
liere in the oapaatj of intern to embiBoe and contain that tmtb, aa in 
« roaeTToir, for mooeodTe generaticow. They maet seek for it tLem- 
•elvM afreali in the p^oa of Soiiptaie and the evez-dawning lif^t of 
q>iiitiial life, or th«7 wiU aimply nsgdeot and pot it paat m an old 
■toij, "— TolLOCH. • 

"It needs no diviner to tell na Utat thia oentnrj will not paaa without 
a great breaking np of the dogmatia BtmctaxeB that have held ever 
dnce Uie RefoTmation or the snooeeding age." — Shairp. f 

" We are anivedviMblf at one of thoae reonning timea when tJie oo- 
oonntH are called In for audit ; when Uie tiitle^eedi are to be looked 
thnxi^, and eotabUibed opinions again teated. It is a piooeaa which 
haa been repeated nuns llun onoe in the wodd'a histoty ; the laat ooca- 
Eunt and greatest being the B^otmatioD of the mxteenth centni? : 
and the experience of that natter might have satisfied the most timid 
that tmth has notliii^ to fear, and that religion emeigea out of ench 
tdaU atroDger and brighter than before."— Fboddb : Critieitm imd tA« 

" Daughter of Faith, awake, adae I illume 
The dread Unknown, tlie ohaoe of the tomb I " — Camfbbll. 

\r the viewB set forth in the preceding chapter be just, the 
present aspect of religion throughout Christeudom may be thua 

InlaUibilit; is still the ruling element, counting its nominal 
Totuies by hundreds of miUions. 

* Leaden ef Oie Rtformatitm, London, 1869, p. 169. 

t OutttiTt atui Sdigion, bj J. C. Soaibp, Principal of the United 
(Ml^e of St. AndrewB (repiintod from the Edinburgh Edition, New 
ToA, 1871) ; p. 188. A noteworthy book. 

196 A Tffi 

There is a manifeet tendeiuy, however, in the preamt age, 
to diecredit the Bupematural,* includiog, under thnt term, nol 
onlj miracleB and infalliblo reveltition, but all ultnunondAne 
agencies of a spiritual character : ajid this sceptical element has 
rudely shaken both the plenary infallibility of Catholicism and 
tho limited iii&llibility of Protestantism. 

But the inroads of this rationalistic tendency are constantly 

repelled by a popular conviction, that to abandon infallibility 

is to surrender also all assurance of another and a better world. 

\ Thus, one of the most powerful of human instincts attracts and 

I attaches millions to the infallible school. 

\ So long as these were the only two elements engaged, there 

; was, substantially, but a single alternative offered to the seeker 

/ after religious truth — the choice between infallibility (in one or 

j other of its phases), on the one hand, and some one among the 

I various shades of Unbelief, on the other. 

\ But within tho last quarter of a century there has emerged 

^ to public view in distinct form, from that phenomenal fi§ld 

where Science has won all her victories, a third element; 

namely the belief in the epiphanies | of Spiritualism ; in other 

words, in intermediate spiritual revealings, with no claim te in- 

&llibility save this, that they supply positive proof of a life to 

It is evident that if there be such proof to be found, outside 
of direct infelUble revelation, and if that proof is derived from 
actual phenomena, then the belief in such phenomena, as it 
gradually spreads, will take a promineut place among religious 

* This tendency is fully and ably illustrated in two modem wodcB by 
Leckt : RatunuUimt in Europe (New York Ed. 1386) ; and Bumptan 
MoraU (New York Ed, 1870). 

\ This is one of those ecclesiastical terms whioh, throDgh restriated 
usage, come to lose, for the careless reader, their oiiginsl siguificatim. 
Usnall; employed to designato the Cbnrch festival commemorating 
the Magion journey to Bethlehem, one almost forgets that the word, 
derived from ep^ianeia, means simply an appeamnoe or phenomenon, 
and is stricUy appropriate in deslgnatiiiff Bpiritocl monifoatatians. 


creeds. To deny tluit thia belief is entitled to such a place is 
yirtcuJlj tu assert that it matters little whether man obtains 
positive assurance of a life beyond the grave or not. 

Such a belief has the elements of a universal creed ; or rather 
it is fitted to inspire into all creeds an active principle — a 
living spirit ; while, at the same time, it effectually defeats the 
oWm which any one Church may set up to sole religious au- 
Uiority in virtue of her possession of spiritual powers and gifts 
which, ehe asserts, are to be found nowhere save within her 
divinely-favored precincts. 

In&Jlibility cannot object to sudi a belief that it negle4Tts the 
one thing needful, or £uls to bring immortality to light ; for 
no religion professed by man can supply, as spiritual researche« 
do, proofs pittant to the senses, ftnd potent to convert mere 
hope of another world into certainty of its existence. 

Rationalism cannot object to it that it contravenes the doc- 
trine of law ; for its phenomena occur strictly under law : nor 
yet that it assumes the existence, in spiritual matters, of that 
direct agency of God which the naturalist finds nowhere in 
physical affaire; fbrits revealings come to man mediately only : 
nor yet that it is dogmatic, or exclusive, or intolerant, as Jit' 
&llibility is ; for its adherents adduce expeiimental evidence, 
open to ail men and gleuned after the inductive method, for the 
futh that is in them : nor, in fine, that it ignores progress, as 
Infallibility does ; seeing that it is ever freshly vivified and 
cheered by the ceaseless illumings of spiritual life. 

Still less can the Bible student object that he finds no Scrip- 
tural warrant for such a belief. If there be one distinct prom- 
ise made by Jesus to his followers, it is, that spiritual signs 
should follow those who believed in his words ; * that they 
should do the works that be did, and greater works also ; f that 
bis t^stlee could not bear the whole truth, so that he had to 
leave many things unsaid ; and that, aft<:r his deatli, that spirit 
which pervaded his life — the spirit of truth — should still bring 

• Uaik XTi. 17, 18 ; and other texts. f •'^'^ ^''- 1'- 


19S WET OUDG eFIBrn7.AIJHlI 80 lATsf 

comfort, commtmicsHng 'with them, even, to the coid of the 
world I * mediately teaching them vhat he had left un- 
taught, f So also Paul. Can injonctioB be more podtiTe 
than his to seek after spiritual gifts? J 

Ihese are strong claims. Against them will, of course, be 
set up the popular objection to all things noveL Vhy now, at 
this age of the world? Why not sooner, long ago, oentuiiea 
since ? In reply one might suggest that the Atlantic hts al- 
ways been there, though thousands of years elapsed ere k 
Columbus adventured its passage. One might ask whea the 
diurnal motion of tho earth, when the circulation of the blood, 
when the fall of aSrolitea, was first accepted as truth by sci- 
ence. But I rest not the case in generalities like these. I 
believe that Spiritualism, in its present phase, could not have 
been the growth of an age much earlier than our own. 

— In its present phase. In distorted form it has appeared, 
from time to time in past ages, to the t«rror and the unutter- 
able suffering of the world. The holiest things ore the most 
deadly when they are profaned. 

" Te cannot bear them now," In these words we may 
find tho clue to the lato appearance of modem S|iiritualism. 
Certain debasing superstitioos had to disapjietu' before the 
world was worthy of it The letter, which killeth, bad itself 
to die, and the spirit which giveth life had to replace it, before 
the wiser and the better portion of those who have gone before 
us could find such sympathy as would attract them to earth, 
and meet such reception here as would justify their efforts to 
enUghten us. 

Take a notable example of the letter which killeth : the old 
belief in the personal existence of a Great Spirit of Evil, 

■ Matthew xxviii 20. 

f JohaxvL 13, 13. If 1U17 one objects to Qia worcU used above — 
" jntdiatdy teaching them " — let ^''|" refer to the text, where he nil] 
find the remarkable expressioti : " he shall not speak of himself, but 
whatsoever he Bhall bear, that shall he apeak." — v. 13. 

% 1 Corinthians xiL 31, and xlv, 1, 3. 

^ Google 

VFFBffI OF ngT.Tieif m tHB DBVIL, 199 

raajnini; the world in search of whom he might devour ; the 
earliest and crudest of the various human bntaaies that have ' 
been suggested by the perception of evil in the world, coupled 
with a desire to explain the cause of its existence. In the ex- 
ordium to that snblimeet among ancient Oriental fragments of 
philosophy, the Book of Job, occurs a brief narrative which 
modem critics b^pn to treat as mere alle^ry. Not so the 
theological mind of post times. To our ancestors, if tbey ac- 
cepted the Bible at all, it was literal truth. They believed 
that Satan, just returned from going to and fro on the eaiili, 
presented himself one day, among the Sons of God, to the 
Lord ; and that, being allowed after some conversation with 
the Almighty, to afflict Job, he destroyed that good man's sub- 
etaoce and slew his children. They believed that, on another 
day, the Devil, a^in by Ood's permission, " Smote Job with 
sore boils " from head to foot. 

So, in the New Testament also. The belief of the orthodox, 
even to-day, is that the Devil, taking Jesus up, set him, first on 
a pinnacle of the temple, then on an exceeding high moun- 
tain whence all the kingdoms of the earth may be seen ', there 
seeking worship from him : while less literal Christiana regard 
this as a parable only, informing us that Christ was tempted 
as we are, yet without sin. 

Now, so long as a belief in a personal devil pervaded Chris- 
tendom, spiritual agenty assumed forms that were hideous in 
proportion to the hideousness of the belief that engendered 
th^D. Faith which, in its purity, has power to remove moun- 
tains, can also, in its perversion, pile them up, Pelion upon 
Ossa. In spiritual matters, to a certain extent, we receive what 
we expect : ^mpathy being a ruling element. WheUier we 
fearfully deprecate, or recklessly invoke, a Spirit of Evil, spirits 
of truth will not answer to our call. They have still enough 
of human nature about them to decline communication with 
those who take them for devils. 

In ages of the world when the popnlar mind was imbued 
-with the notion that Uiere exists around us a hierarchy of 


malign intelligences, heitded by the Frinoe of the Air, whoM 
. agency, tolerated hy God, is unceasinglj exercised to in^tigabi 
man to evil, and that these are the onlj diBembodied beingi 
%rith whom man ia permitted to commune, the portals of (he 
Spiritual xeldom opened except to give exit to frightful errors 
and deluBiona. In those daya tluit subtle power {dunamu was 
the Evangelists' term for such), corresponding doubtless, in a 
measure, to Reichenbacli's »ej>*itimty * and now spokeD of among 
us as Tnediumehip, rarely gave birth save to monstrositiea, such 
as are iiimally known under the names of Sorcery and Witch- 
craft : superBtitiona only the more dangerous and horrible be- 
cause there was a small amount of reaJity underlying the terri- 
ble phantom-shapes they assumed. 

There was, in Jesus' day and long before, as there still is, 
a certain spiritual condition which may be termed possession. 
It was a disease usually induced, in some sensitive organiza- 
tious, by deluding opinions or impotence of will ; its slender 
basis of reality being a mental influence usurped by departed 
spirits of a degraded order, while its vast mediieval super- 
structure was reared by imagination running wild under the 
teiTors of a pernicious &ith. This disease was aggravated hy 
harshness, diffused by persecution, intensified by torturingi^ 
It could be cured, like other phases of lunacy, only by charita- 
ble judgment, and gentle firmness ; but believers in remedies 

* For a new occasion I originate a new word. Bj aetmtitil^ I des- 
ignate that gift or faculty posaesaed by Beii^enbach's SensitiveB, and 
to which, elsewhere in this volame, I have alluded. A careful pemaal 
of theOerman naturalist'awoika on this subject, namely UntergtidMng- 
m Gier die Dynamide, Brnnawick, 1850, and Der Seiuitine Menteh, 
Stuttgart and Tflbingen, 1654, haa convinced me that he has fully 
made oat both the existence of a new power or fnoulty poeseBsed b^ a 
oeitain portion of mankind, and the importanoe of atudying it. The 
foimer of these works has been tranalated into English b; Dr. Ash- 
bnmer (London, 16D0), Iteichenbach's works, though they created, 
at the time the; appeared, considerable excitement throughout Ger- 
many, and some stir among us, have never attracted the attentioD 
which they deserve, and which, some day, tbej will obtain. 


so reasonablfl as these are, with one illustrious exception, but 
of modem times. The unutterable woes and atrocities * which 
followed directly or indirectly, partly from the belief in a 
devil, partly from the abnormal influence referred to, exemplify 
the great truth that from the same source may proceed healing 
or pestilence, happiness or misery, just as its waters are kept 
pure by enlightened care, or adulterated by the frenzy of igno- 

The eminent exception above referred to seems to have been 
little noted or understood by those who are wont to seek mys- 
teries and miracles, rather than law-governed spiritual phe- 
nomena, in the Gospels. 

Among the thousand illustrations of the notorious persistence 
with which men and nations professing Christianity have 
directly contravened the spirit of its Founder, is the popular 
belief in witchcraft, cropping out, more or less &equontly, 

* In an intereatiii; ohaiiteT on Baioeij and '^itoboratt, Leckt uti : 
" Tens of thousands of victiinaperiBlied by the most agonizii^ and pro- 
tracted torments, without excitiiig the faintest compooalon. (?)... 
In almost everj prorince of Gemuuiy, bat egpecialt7 where eccleaiasd- 
o«d inflaence predoinlnaited, the pemaoation mged with a fearfnl intea- 
ait;: Mren thousand notinu are Mid to have been bnnrt at TtAtsb. . . . 
In Fiauoe decrees were paaned on the snbjact by the Parliaments of 
Paris, Tcoloiwe, Bordeaux, Eheims, Rouen, Dijon, and Bennea, and they 
were all followed by a harvest of blood. The eieontiona which took 
place In Pork wete, in the emphatjo words of an old writer, 'almost 
infinite.' ... In Italy a thonaand persons weie ezeonted in a siu- 
glfl year in tbe province of Como; and in other porta of the conntryttie 
severity of the inqoisilors at last created an abeolnte rebellion : etc." — 
Balioiudi/tm in Europe, vol. i. pp. 28-31. 

This persecution was by no means ezdnrively Catholic. In Lather's 
Tiibk T/iUc, under date Anguat 25, 1538, we find this : " The talk fall- 
ing on witches who spoil eggs, eto., Lntber said : ' I ahould have no 
compoaaioD on these witches; I would bnm all of them.'" — p. S51.' 
And Calvin, in remodelling the laws of Geneva, left thoae which con- 
demned witches to the stake unaltered. 

In accordance with such opinions wff find that, in England and Soot- 
land after they became Protestant, witches were pursued at times, es- 
peidally during t Jo seventeentli oentury, with an almost insane fnry. 


throughout fifteen Chmtian centuriee, * the popular abhorrence 
of supposed witches, and the uicredible cruelty with which these 
poor wretches have been treated.| We have every reason hi 
conclude that Cbriat himself did not believe in a personal deviL 
When he used the word devil or Salun be commonly employed 
it t to designate either en-or or wickedness in man, or else a 

* There were beliererB In witohcT&tt, amon{; ChiisfaianB aa wdl aa 
Pagans, at leasb aa early as the middle of the third oentui? (HiDDiA- 
TOM, pp. 85-87) ; and there are inEtanoes of witoh-bnnuDg leas than 
a handled jeam old ; the two latest examples being, probabljr, one in 
Seville, Spain, in 1781, and (strange to sayl) one in Olaiis, Switiet- 
land, in 1793 — jnst eighl^-eight years ago. Uen still alive might have 
wibiessed these. 

t Headers who have tlie heart to go thnmgh the sickening detaHa will * 
find such, in antiientio fccm, eoattered over Pitoaim's Crimmal Tnalt 
of SeottoTtd. It seems scarcely credible now that, in that oountz; ol 
stiong hearts and strong piejndioes, less than a single oentoty ago (in 
1773) the Divines of the Aieocdated Preebytet; passed a restdntion de- 
iilj.Wng their faith in witchcraft and deploring the growing soepticiain 
on that sebjeot.— Macaula;; Matory of England, vol. iiL p. TOfl. 

X The rare examplee in which any of the Evangelists ascribe to Cfariit 
expresd<mB which might bear a different interpretation may, in viitne 
of his uniform silenoe touching sll diabolical oompaots or seductions, 
property be interpreted metaphorically (aa " I beheld Satan, as light- 
ning, fall from Heaven," — Luke x.- 18) ; or as simply meaning physical 
or moral evil ; thus, of the woman "who had a spirit of infirmity and 
was bowed together," he says :" Ooght not this woman, . . . whom 
Satan hatii bound, lo, tfaaae eighteen years, be loosed from this bond on 
the Sabbath dayT"— Luke ziil IG. It will surely not be held, that 
Chiiat thonght, or that we onght to think, that whenever we have rheu- 
matism, or similar infirmity, it is the devil's doing. 

Bnt, beyond this, the hypothesis remains that the biographers ot 
Jesus, how upright soever jet misled by the apiiit of their age, may occa- 
sionally have mistaken the import of their Master's wotds ; as, at oth« 
times (for example, Lake ix. 54), some of the Apoalles grievonaly mia- 
oonceived the spirit of his teachings. If we would form a candid and 
enlightened judgment of these morvellons teachings, we must take them 
as a grand, connected whole, notTstumlde over incidental expressions at 
vaiiaitoe wiUi tiieir general tenor, and ve^ liable to have been miaintcir- 


1 conditioa in spirits. Thus, to Peter : " Qet thee be- 
hind me, Satan ; " * and, of Judas Iscariot : " One of you is a 
deviL" f Thus, again, in the case of the man " posttessed with 
Uie devil," his words are : " Come out of the man, thou uncleaa 
■pint ! " J Not a word of reproach to the afflicted ; not a hint 
of suspicion that the maniac had made a compact with any 
Prince of Dai^ness : he assumes, simply, that a spirit or spirits 
of a d^raded order had obtained control, or possesdon, of the 
unhi^y creature; and, by virtue of the power with which he 
himself was gifted, he compelled them to go out of him.§ Yet 
again, when he warned his disciples against snares and evils to 
come, the warning was not touching a devil who should tempt 
them to sell their souls to him for worldly wealth or diabolical 
powers to injure, but touching &be prophets who should show 
signs and wonders, thereby seducing even the wisest. \ It was 
a warning against wicked men, not against fallen angels — a 
ivaroing inculcating the much-needed lesson that signs and 
wonders themselves are not infallible tests of moral truth. 

Thus, eighteen hundred years ago, Christ saw, and habitually 
itcted cm, all that there is of truth underlying witchcraft, sor- 

• Mark vilL 33. f ^o^ ". 70. { Mark v. 8. 

§ It is quite evident tlwt if we reject, as delusion, modem examples 
of potBoeaion and ezordsm— in other words, if we deny that inferior 
Spirita from the next world aa^ sometimeE, Uiiongh the weaknees or 
credolil^ of man, obtain a oertaiu control over the hiuoan will and the 
human thoughts ; and if we deny, farther, that, in each case, a strong, 
magnetic volition may free the sufferer from such control — then we 
mast accept one or other of these alternatives : 

Eitiher the muneroas minntely -detailed relations scattered over the 
goepek, tOQobing the "casting oat of devils" by Cbrist and his dis- 
aplea, are all pore fables, throwing gaqiimtm upon the entire narrative : 

Or else they refer to miracles, oocurring in the fiist oentoiy by sus- 
pension of law, and never to occur again ; a oonoliuion which modern 
civiliiatioii, enlightened by science, rejects. 

That is to aay ; the enlightened portion of society most either dis- 
credit the gospel biographies, or aocept the fact that posaeeeion may 
occur, and may be oared, in onr daf . 

I Hade xilL as. 

[■.■_^ ..Coogic 


eery, magio, the black art, or by whatever name iniaguuti7 
compacts with Satan msy have been called. He knew Uiat 
Bpirita of low character, occasionally obtaining control over 
men and women, do cause what we may call spiritnal diBeue ; 
and he in8trud»d lua Apostles and the Seventy how to care it ; 
though their power to exorcise was inferior to hia.* When he 
found othere, not of his disciples, following the same practice, 
ho approved their doings.f 

What thousands of lives mi^t have been saved, X *'hat 
countless torturings of soul and body averted, had tbe ChrijstiaD 
world, in this, caught tbe spirit, and followed the example, of 
Christ 1 

But it is only in modem times that eclectic searchers after 
truth, through tbe study of vital magnetism and spiritual man- 
ifestationa, have come practically to believe, on this sabject, 
wh&t the Gospels have been teaching, unheeded, or misintni^ 
pretod, to fifty generations of men. 
' SonmambulisnL, as I shall have oocasion to show by and by, 
is allied to mediumship and is governed, in a measure, by the 
name laws. Among these laws we find, by experienoe, the rale 
that a di^m»tic frame of mind imbued with &lse doctrine, 
- whether orthodox or sceptical, tends to produce abnormality in 
the ideas reoeived or communications obtained. Here is an 
example which I translate from an accredited work on Animal 
Magnetism, by M. Lamy-S^nart, a pupil of the Marquis de 
Fuys£gar, the first observer of Somnambulism. 

" A patient who had become under my care a ludd somnam- 
bule was, with my permission, magnetized by another person, 
who readily cast her into a magnetic sleep. Bub tliis magneti- 
ser believed in the Devil and hb influenoe ; and he could not 
help thinking of this every time he magnetized. The first day 
the patient was restless in her sleep ; the second she saw a black 

* Hsttbew zvii. 19, SO. f Muk ix. S8, 89. 

- f Averaging tlia statistica given in varioDS hiatorisa of witaheraft, it 
would seem Uiat the number of thoee who have sufleTed death tor this 
IniBglniuy otime ezoeeda thirty thousand. 


nan ; the Hard <wo preeented themselves, witli homa ; the 
fimrth they used threntoniiig expresdons to her. Oa the fifth 
d&7 it ma still wone; they seemed to sit beaide her. She rose, 
terrified and Bcreaming, Uunking they had auaulted hw ; rudied 
ant of the room and into the court-yard, followed by her mag- 
netizer, who racceeded at last in awaking her. She suffered 
emelly, compluned of a great wei^t on her breast, her respi- 
ration vaa difficult, and she passed a frightfiU night." * 

This narrative is very suggestive. Though we cannot doubt 
that imposture, spurred on by hate or malice, was aa occasional 
element in witcb-triala ; f and though we know that many a con- 
fession, wrung forth by torture, was recanted before the sufferer 
was led to tlie stake ; yet the general rule is to be found outside 
of these incidents. 

A condition analogous to somnambulism — trance in some of 
its phases — not infrequently supervenes, without magnetization, 
in persons of sensitive ten^terament or secluded habits, espe- 
dally when inordinately exait«d. Taking this and the phenom- 
enon of obsession or possession into account, snd reflecting on 
the probable power of such infiuenoes in a rude aga when the 
oonceptioD of the Devil and his agency was far more vivid and 
influential, — more constantly present to the mind of the masses 
— than the conception of God and his providence, can wo won- 
der that acouBers and accused -should frequently have been 
moved, by honest illusioQ — the foi-mer to accusations that they 
were diabolically tormented, the latter to confessions that they 
had visited the witches' Sabbath and witneaaed its abondnatious ? 

* BSMathiqM du Magii^^mte Animdi, Cohiei iv. p. 6. See, for a 
beatiflo vishm, almilul; laEseBted, FootfaSt 9» the Baaadarg of ^n- 
aOter Worid, p. lia ; note. 

^ It U a mistake to aoppoae that ImpMtnie anniUaa the (dUef eqila- 
nadon of the witch-numia. Hume, wiitiDg ol witohcroft in Scotland, 
lemoika : " Among the inanj trials for witchcraft which fill the reoord 
I have not obaerved Uiat there is even one wiiich proaeeds upon the no- 
tion c4 a vain oi cheating art, (alaely Dsed b; an impostor to deceive the 
weak and erednlona." — Oomm«nttkrU» on, tlM EMory ef Seotiand, voL iL 
p. 65«. 

900 8ALCM wrrCHCItAPT. 

Withont some such clue as the above, how shall we explun 
the fact that judgee so clear-sighted as Sir Edward Coke and 
Sir Matthew Hale recognized the reality of Qua allied mnx 
against man's allegiance to God? — that a jurist so eminent aa 
Blackstone declared it to be a " truth to vhidi evtxy nation in 
theworldhath,initBtiirn,bometeBlamonf?"* — that Sir Thomas 
Browne, physician, philosopher, and scholar, testified in court 
to tiie same effect ; that among diTines Baxter, Wesley, and a 
host of other worthies set forUi elaborate evidences of its exist- 
ence, and a^umente for its condign pnnishment ; and that^ im 
our own country, lees than a hundred and ei^ty years ago, 
thirteen women and six men were hai^^ and one octogenarian 
died under horrible torture, all for the alleged crime of witch- 
craft ? I — these executiona taking place among a people earnest, 

* Fo</yaili on His Boundary of Another Worfd, p. 80 ; note. 

I A terrible amnnieT for Salem TJll^^ and its vicinity was that of 
1693 I — a year of worse thao peatQence or famine. Bridget Bishop was 
hanged in Jnne; Sarah Good, Sarah Wildes, EllubeUi How, Sosnnna 
Maitln, and Bebeooa Nurse in Jul; ; Gecffge Bonoof^ John Proetat, 
George Jacobs, John Willard, aikd Mnjf.h^ Carrier in Angast ; "Wyrtlm 
Coiey, Hai7 Easty, Alice Parker, Ann Padaatot, Matgaret Scott, WD- 
mot Beed, Sunael Wardwell, and Vairj Baker in September: in which 
laat month Giles Corey, eighty-one yearn of age, was preased to deatli 
nnder a board loaded with heavy stones; not heavy enoagh, howevei, 
to CTash out life, until a day or two of lingering tortDre had intervened. 
Sarah Good's datighter Doroaa, between three and fonz yean old, or- 
phaned by her mother's eiecntion, was one of a number of ohildren 
who, with several handled ot^er pemons, were impriaoned on snspioion 
of witchcraft : many of theee saffereis remaining in a wretched otmdi- 
tLon (often heavily ironed) for months, some opworda of a year ; and 
several dying during the time. A c^dld of seven, Saieli Carrier, was 
called CD to testify, as witnasa against her motlier. 

Some of the oondenmed, eHpedally Bebecoa Nnrse, Martha Corey, and 
Maiy Easty, were aged women who had led nnblemiahed lives, and wen 
ctmspicnona for their prudence, their chaiitieB, and all domestic vittoee. 
" The question," says a psinstaking, modem historian of Salem wit<:h- 
croft, ' ' BiiaeH iu every mind, why did not tbeir chaiaoteis save them 
from ooDviotion, and even from Buspioion ? The answer is to be found 
in the peculiar views than entertained of tlie power and agency of Sa- 


conacieiitioiis, practical, and if piety according to tite OalTinis- 
tic acceptation of the term entitle to election, wortiiy to be 
called "ihe very elect." 

There is another popular error, treated of at largB in the pro- 
ceding pages, of which wo mnst rid ouiselves, ere spiritual com- 
municationB can be sought or accepted without danger. It is 
the mistake of suppoaing tiiat because a message or a lesson 
oomes to us from & denizen of the other world, it must, on that 
account, be infellibly true. Death procures for ns higher pow- 
ers and clearer perceptions ; it opens to ns a wider horizon and 
discloaea to ns much which we can but dimly surmise here be- 
low : but it doee not confer on us in&tlibility. There is doubt- 
lees, in the next world, a more elevated range of thought and 
of sentiment, but there is the same variety of character as here ; 
tiiore is diversity of opinion, too, though probably not to the 
same estent as among us- All this is proved by comparing, 

tttn. . . . Our fattieTa aaMoiited for the extntordinai? doBoe&t 
and iDonndtms of the EtQ Obo amooK them, in 1693, od the mppoaitioii 
thkt it wu a desperate effort to prevent tikem from Tinnying dTilizaticoi 
and CbiistisDity within tua favorits retrsat, and their soiUs were fired 
with the (^orioiiB tiioDKhtthBt, bj oarrying oa the war with vigor againiit 
him and his confederates, the witches, they would become choaen and 
honored inBtnunents in the hand of Qod for breaking down and abol- 
ishing the laat Htmnghold ot the Kingdom of DorkneBa" — Uphau : 8a- 
UmWUeherafl, Booton, 1867 : vol. i ppv Sm, 864; and voL iL p. 878. 

The evils and miaeiies growing out of this mental epidemlo are not 
to be measured bj the namber of aotoal mffereis, whether on the scaf- 
fold or in loaQisome prison. " It cast its ahadows," bats Upham, 
"oTecabroadsiiTfaoe, and tiiey darkened tlie condition of generations. 
. . . The ' fields were n^lected ; f enoes, roads, bams, even the 
meeting-hoose, went into disrepair. ... A Boaioity of piori- 
nous, nearly amoimting to a famlna, oontinoed for some time. Fauna 
were brooght under mortgage or saorifloed, sod lai^ nnmbeis of peo- 
ple were dispersed. One looalitj in Salem village . . . bears to 
this day the marks of the blight. . . . The nuoons lesnlts ware 
not oonflnod to the village, but spread, more or less, over Uie oooutiy." 
—Balm Witchcraft, vol. iL pp. 880, 881. 


oae iritii tJie other, various communications, which we may 
have ascertained, from the attendant circumstances, to be un- 
questionably ultramundane. Many Spiritualists, like their fel- 
low-religionista of other persuasions, who do not accept that 
phase of belief, have this important truth still to leani, and for 
lack of having learned it, are often lamentably misled. Belief 
in infolliltnlitf is equally mischievous, whether held by Oalvinist, 
by Episeopalian, or by Spiritualist. It is almost as unsafe for a 
dc^imatia infalliblist, as for a ccmfirmed devil-fearer, to engage 
in spiritual research. It is not desirable that the belief in 
Spiritualism should spread, except in proportion as the belief 
in Infallibility dies away. Here we may discern another rea- 
son why the appearanoe of spiritual phenomena, iu their mod- 
em or normal phase, as a universal religioos element, has been 
so long delayed. 

The lesson taught by a thousand warnings &om the past ia 
unmistakable ; and it ia of vital moment that we heod it. It is 
dangerous for men and women who are confirmed in certain old 
superstitions, or who believe in their own possession of infalli- 
ble truth, to put themselves in the way of communings with a 
higher sphere of being : they cannot bear them yet. We seek 
aid or enlightenment from another world in vain, nnlees we 
eat«r the spiritual school, not only in a reverent Hpirit, but in a 
fit frame of mind. We must seek ere we find; and we must 
seek in that catholic temper which is willing to put to the proof 
all things, and to aooept trutli, wherever found. It is not 
given to dogmatism, shut up in its contracted shell, to distin- 
guish the still, small voice ; it hears but the echo of its own 
delusions. Except wo be converted from wisdom in our own 
conceit — except we draw near to the shriue as little children — 
the spiritual voices, in their purity, will not reach our ears. 
1 It ia with the t«achingH of Spiritualism as with the praying 
I of men : they are but mockeries, unless approached in a becom- 
ing spirit.* 

■ The eSeot of levit? in Bpiritual researclieB ia not so fatal as that 
of dognnatio »aperAitioii : none the leaa its tendencir ia to piodnde all 

But, Ibr the reasons above set forth, evea able eauteben, 
earnestly and reverently proeecating inquiries into the chuwi- 
ter of modem Spiritual revealings, if still haunted by the idea 
of Satanic agency, may be led into a grievous error, the very 
opposite of that which seta up all Spiritual measages as Gospel 

A noteworUiy example ia before me, ia a well-known Euro- 
pean journal.* I fiad therein an editorial, entitled Tables 
I'otimantet, in which the writer, after alluding to the &at that 
'^ tlie marvels of magnetism, or rather of Spiiitualism, as the 
Americans call it," seem to be " ngalu coming into fashion," 
quotes from one of tile most respectable of the Parisian jour- 
nals, as follows; 

" It will be remembered," says the Cowrrier de Paris, " that 
a certain number of French and foreign prelates thought it 
their duty, about a year ago, to interdict the practice of table- 
movijig. Their motive, or alleged motive, was that this prac- 
tice brought men into dangeroua communication with the 
spirits of dariuieas. The fact is, that moat of the spirits that 
manifested themselves throu^ the taMea or under the floor, 
when questioned as to their identity, answered, ' demon,' ' devil,' 
or at least, ' damned,' f 

" One of the most eminent and enlightened members of our 

valuable or aatiafactory resulta. If we enter a church as we would 
crowd into a comic theatre, or kueel in prsf et-meetinf; bb we would idt 
down to a game at cards, the exeroieea Id either case will piobsbl; not 
tcfid mDoh to ediflcatiou. Spiiitoalism is not Intended to moke sport 
for graoeless idleis at an sTening party : and if to them it fninish but 
platitudes, iiumlties— tnifiooiierieB even— what is this but the natural 
result of misplaced memment and thoughtless ineverence ? 

Yet even at such diBadvantttge, it has happened, from time to time, 
that Frivolity was stsrtJcd out of her heedlessness — the poet's line being 

• is Nord, poblisbed at Brussels ; So. 185, of date July 4, 1667. 
\ Hf experience is the TeverHo of this. Throughout the many hun- 
dred sitlaiigs at which I have assisted, no such replies were ever elioited. 


lueraidly, tlie Lord Bishop of Bennee, had tliought iffhis duly, 
for hia own personal edification, to institute some experiments 
iritb the taUes ; but he reached a result which caused him to 
abandon the practice. It was as follows : 

" The Bishop, ite Tioars-Oeneml, and his Oantms having as- 
sembled at the Epiacopal palace, interro^ted a table as to the 
fate and the sufferings of a young and generous migaioiuiry 
who had recently sufiwed martyrdom in China. The Bishop 
had with him, as a relic, a fragment of the bloody shirt of tlus 
deTot«d and anfortuiiAte soldier of the faith. Was this the 
talisman that operated ? We cannot tell. Suffice it that the 
table Bet about relating, in its language (" en aa langue," mean- 
ing, probably, by raps), and with a most startling fidelity, the 
whole history of the agonies and tortures of the courageous 
missioDary ; all circumstanceB well-known to most of the asslst- 
anta. The Bishop, on his part, was so much struck by it, that, 
interrupting the proceedings, he cried with a loud voice : ' To 
know all that, thou must be iJie Devil. Well! if thou art the 
Devil, by the omnipotent Ood, by Jesua Christ crucified, I ad- 
jure thee, Z aummoQ and command thee, to break thyaelf in 
pieces at my feet.' 

" Instantly the table made a great spring ; and, falling back 
obliquely, broke off two of its le^, dropping at the feet of the 
Liord Bishop of Kennes. 

" It is not our intention," adds the Coitrrier, " either to 
explain or to call in question the incident we have related. 
Only let our readers be assured that we have invented 
nothing. The fact has been certified to us by witnesses Cfae 
most respectable and the most trustworthy. And, for Uie 
rest, it is well-known that we ai-e not among the number of 
those who lead themselves to the circulation of &bles, or would 
put fortli a profane jest at the expense of the revered name we 
have just cited." 

This anecdote may call forth a smile, but it has its serious 
aspeoL The Bishop, convinced from the msjiifestations that an 
occult intelligenoo is communicating, takes it for granted that 


beoaiue that mtelligenoe accurately disolDBea & variety of bets 
ocnuieoted vith the martyrdom of a miarionary, it most be 
Satan himself:* thereupon he addreeaeB it as Buch. But titey 
vho assume, in advance, the question they propose to iuveati- 
gate, are in do fit frame of mind to enter upon such LnveBtiga- 
lion at alL Kor will any intelligent Spiritualist be surprised 
at the issue of the episcopal experiment : the case tbuB 
prejudged, some such result might have been predicted.! ^"^ 
there are recorded cases of analogous character. There occurred 
a century and a half i^ at Epworth parsonage, the paternal 
hcnne of the celebrated John Wesley, loud knockings and other 
strange diaturbanoes continued for two months, and which Dr. 
Adam Clarke, in bis biography of the Wesley family, regards 

* This is in accordance with the tests of Demon agency set fortik in 
Uie Bimum Bituai, and with the praodce of the CaOiollo Chntch. 
Among the Bigne of possession there designated, is the " disoloBing of 
distant and bidden things. " ' ' Signa antem obsidentis dcemotiie soat : 
i^nota lingua loqoi plaiibns Teibis, vel loquentem intelljgere : distaotia 
et occnlta patefiwete," etc. — Jtituale Bomaiuam {MochlinicB, 1806), p, 
S14, Cap. " De ExoRuandis obaessis a Dnmonio." 
* But every weU-inf ormed Htadont of vital Magnetjsm knows that clear- 
aight (oloiievcrrBnce) and far-ri^>t (vne & distance) are phenomena of 
freqnent oocuirence during somnanibaliain ; to say nothing of mediiun- 
ahip. To legard these as Satanic poweTs is no whit more rntioiial than 
to declare, as men did five hundred fean ago, tbat the experiments of 
the labontoiy are anlawfoL In Cbanoer's tale of the Chanon Yeman, 
chemietty ie spoken of as an elfish art, conducted by aid of qarits : a 
sapeistilion of Arabian in:^, Waitoa tKja—Warloa^t Eitlory of En^ 
UA Poetry, vol i p. 16». 

f ThosewhohavaaseiBtedfcequeDtiyandnndervarioiisclrcmQstaiiceB 
at such sittiDgB, know well that the table — meaning, thereby, tiie invisi- 
ble intelligence which manifests its pfesenoe by n]>pingB, tiltings, rais- 
tng of tiie table and other sonnds or movements — often e^ibite, in the 
most nnmiskakaUe manner, hnman emotions ; and none mote plainly 
than indignation (as by violent jerkijigB or stonpiitSB), when the phe- 
nomena aie treated with ridicule, or ascribed to Satanic agency. That 
this frequently ocoora under otrcamstaticeB which prcolnda all poseibil- 
i^of tcjckery, any carefnl and persevering observer m^ readily asoer> 
tain for himself. I have mysdf witnessed it, on vai 


M 8piiito&l nuuu&Btationa oonnected vith the death of Mrs. 
Samuel Wesley's brother in India. * Emily Wesley writing 
&o details to her brother John, after declarii^ that a month's 
experience had thorou^ly couTinced her that trickery was im- 
possible, adds : " As for my mother, she (at firat), firmlj' be- 
lieved it to be rats, and sent for a horn to blow them awsy, 
I laughed to think how wisely they were employed who ^pere 
striving half a day to frigbt away Jeffrey (for that name I gave 
it) with a horn. But whatever it was, I perceived it coold be 
made angry ; for from that time it was so outrageous, there was 
no quiet for ns after ten o'clock at night. ... It 'was 
more loud and fierce, if any one said it was rate or anything 
natural." f 

It " could be made angry," Emily Wesley said. So, probably, 
could the spirit addressed by the French Bishop, when mistaken 
by him for the devil. Or that spirit might have departed and , 
another suddenly taken its place. Abundant lacts indicate 
(though, in advance of experience, one might reject such an 
idea) the frequent agency of a somewhat singular class of 
spirits; aa imps, we might say, of frolic and misrule; not 
wicked, it would seem, or, if wicked, restrained from inflicting 
serious injury, but, as it were, tricksy elvea, sprites full of 
pranks and levities — a sort of Pucka, — "espritg espiigUa," as 
the French phrase it ; or as the Germans, framing an epithet 
expressly for this supposed class of spirits, have expressed it, 
" poUerffeitter." J 

Whether the Rev. Charles Beecber, a Congr^;ational clergy- 
maa of our own country, has had any experience similar to that 

* Mmrunrto/ae Widey Fa7nilt/,bj ADJMCj4AitKX,IJL.J}.,F.k.S. I 
London, 1843 ; vol. L pp. 288, 289. That, also, was Mrs. WealoT'a . 
final ophiion. All the detaik will be totmd hi these Memoirs, pp. 34fi- 

t lfeminr»a/tlie Wedtg FamAg, vol. t. pp. 271, 372. 

% Fa>(falti on tie Boanilarff of Anat/ter Wmid, p. 212. For ex- 
amples t>t the Dgenoy of snch apirits see Book iii. ohap. 3 of that 


of tha Lord Bishop of Bennes, I know not. Certain it is, bo 
reaches the conclasion that all modern spiritual Tevealinga come 
through the Powers of Darkness, and that " we are entering on 
tlie first steps of a coreer of demoniac manifestations, Uie issues 
■whereof man cannot conjecture." * A similar mistake was 
mode in Jerusalem eightecm hundred years ago. When the 
people witnessed the " signs and wonders " wrought by Jesns, 
they " were amazed and said, ' la not this the son of David ? ' 
But when the Pharisees heard it, they said, 'This fellow doth 
not cast out devils but by Beelzebub, the Prince of the 
devils,' " f 

It does not seem to have su^ested itself to the Pharisees, 
nor to Mr. Beecher, that all analogy is opposed to such an ex- 
planation of spiritual phenomena. In this world Qod does not, 
ind^d, shut his creatures away from earthly influences tending 
to deception and to eiror. But the good is the rule ; the evil 
(often good in dlsgmse) is but the exception. If it enter into 
God's economy to permit evidences and influences to come over 
to us from a higher phase of being, are we to believe that He 
excludes from these all that is true and good, and suffers only 
deceptions and false teachings, emanating from the devil and 
his angels, to reach us ? Is this the doing of a Father, whose 
" tender mercies are over all his other works " ? If, in very 
deed, such were the Divine plan, then — adopting the lines of a 
modern poet — 

" Then Qod would not be what this bright 
And glorions muveiBe of His — 
This wodd of wisdom, goodness, light 
And endlen love pioolsima — Hals." 

If we hsten to sober reason, sho teaches us that, as from this 
world, S3 from the other, there are richly furnished to us the 
elements of truth and the meaoB of happiness. If we fail to 

■ BtcUw of Spiritaal ManifattaHan), read before the Congregilional 
Asaodatioii of New York and Brookliyii, chap. vii. (p. 65 of hoadm Ed. 

t Matthew xii 23, 24. , 


interpret the revealinga from Heaven or to avail onraelvai of 
the teachingB tnia earth, it u not by the Diviae fiat except so 
&r as this, that God has made wisdom and peace obtainable 
Qolj throu^ virtuous exertion, and that He has interposed no 
Rgis to protect man from the natural results of his inexperience 
and of his misconceptions. 

The following table may be uaefiil in exhibiting, in a general 
way, the main varieties of religious opinion throughout tbe 
Christian world ; and the positioa which, aoootding to tha pre- 
ceding views, modem Spiritualism occupies among them : 


I. School of Seauiarism, namely : 

a. BadJcal : Haterialiata * denying a Hereafter. 

b. CoDseTTBtdTe : Sceptics, doubting a Hei«after. 
n. School of Infcdlihility, namely : 

a. Pnie : Catiiotics, inelndinf; Greek and Eaotem Churobea 
ft. Uixed : Msin body of Protesbanta. 
III. School of Spiritttediam, namely : 

a. Eiclnmve ; Orthodox Qnakeia and Swedenbtn^ians, n 
element of inf allibili^. 

h. UolTersal : Hodem Epipbanista, t rejeotiiis element of in&l- 

In elucidation of the above table I offer a few remarks. 

* I here employ the term mtMriaUtt in its popular Bense, to mean a 
peison who believea the soul fa> be merely a qnalit? appeitaiuing to onr 
vital existence here, which con have no existence separate from the 
body, aud which ceases to be aa soon as earthly life is extinct. 

Whether, in soientifio BttfctnesB, materialism mnat be taken to mean 
a doctrine which is incoosisteiit with the immortality of the soul, I need 
not here stop to inqniie. 

\ For a new oocasiaD I may be allowed to coin an appTOpriate word. 
^■Ntudl i^jjAanivf aoonrately demgnatee a believca in qpiiitnal i^^eat- 

., Google 


(L) I employ the term 8«ciUari»m, rather than that of 
Jiationalism, as more correctly designatiiig the creed of those 
■who believe it to be the port of wisdom that we restrict our 
Attention to eecnlar affiuis and physical studies, and that we 
refrain from the investigation of religion, seeing that man can 
find no solid ground for any spiritual belief. Bationalism is 
not so much a (u«ed as a cast of thought.* 

The age of radical Secularism is pasdng away : it has, at the 
present day, no distinguished leader ; and probably never will 
h&ve again. If a second Calvin is impossible, so also is a sec- 
ond Toltaiie. 

On the other hand, conservative Secularism; seeking religious 
rest but finding none, is steadily increasing. It iacludes within 
its nuilcB some of tiie most eminent scientific men of our day, 
largo numbers from the medical and legal professiona and 
among politicians ; together with some worthy and respected 
divines, t Especially among En^ish artisans and working 

* Leoky defines it to be "a bias of reasoning wfajoli has during Uie 
laat Uuee iwuUuiea gained a marked aBoendenoy in Borope. . . . 
It leads men on aU oooasiMis to subordinate dogmatjo theology to the 
dictates of reason and of oonadenoB, and, oa a neceasaiy oooseqaenoe, 
greatly to lestriot tie influeooe upon lile. It pcediapases men, in his- 
toT7. to attrlbnte all kinds of phenomena te nataial rather than miroc- 
nlooii cauaes ; in tiieology, to esteem saooeeding BjBtems the expressiona 
of the wants and aspinttionB of that lellgioas eentlmeat which is planted 
in all men; and, in ethics, to r^ard as duties only those which con- 
fpcienoe reveals to be snch." — Sitt^ry of Batiaaaiima in Barope, vol I. 
pp. 10, 17 (of New York Ed ). 

f AfewyeanBinoeIhadalong,qDietoonTeraationwithaBiehop,who 
is held in dcserredly high estimation by the orthodox body of ChrisUaos 
to which he belongs. He introduced the sabject of modem Spiritual- 
ism, and I allied him in what light he i^(aidcd its phenomoua. He 
answered frankly snd satdalaotorily. EvideDcee of infidelity, he said, 
were multiplying among ns : he had lately heard a piofessor of Har- 
vard College ezpreES tbe opinion that thcee-fonitlia ol the scientiflo 
men of our day are nnbelievei^ and tbat sceptloiam is bc^uing to in- 
tmde among the olBt^. He told me that he himself, a few weeks be- 
fore, had visted the death-bed of an aged brother in tbe ministiy; a 


oUusee genenllf, this paauTe phase of irr«Hgioii has, of lato 
ye&ra, made n^id strides.* 

maa who Had devoted a long llfo, with rare fnHJifnlneas, to the dnti«« 
of Mfl profession. As they spoke of the svideaoes of Christianitj * 
diade of sadness ptwsed ovet the dying man's face : "Abl Biahop,"lM 
Buid, " the proof, the proof ! If we only had it 1 " 

Theee snd ainiflar experienoes bad led the Bishop to beliere tJiat Ute 
«Tidenoes of a fntme life which satined oar anoeston axe iDsiifBaa«>t 
to connooe eome of the most hoasst aikd able of their deacmdanla. 
Looking uenad for the remedy, he bad asked himself if it. would not, 
in God's good time, be vooohsafed. "I look imiiously," he added, "to 
Spiritoalism and its phenomena for the answer." 

* The Biitaeh government, alive to a sense of the important aid -wliMi 
civiUsatdon may derive from acoaiate stadstacs, employed, in makiBg 
ont theCenaoBOf 1861, a staff of fortir thousand pereona, and obtained, 
incideiitally, much valuable information on religious mattocs. The 
results are oouden)">d in an offloial Report on Jidigimu Wordiip innde, 
hi 1853, to the Begistrw-Oeneral. The Beporter states (p. 58) that 
while among the opper closseB in Extend and Wales " a regular cbnich- 
attendanoe is now ranked among the recognised proprietjea of life," it 
is the great body of the people who <^efl7 abeenb themsdves from 
publio worship. He goes on to sqr, as to artisane and other workmen : 
" From whatever oauae, — in them or in t^e manner of thoir beatment 
by leligioos bodies — it is sadly certain that this vast, intelligeat, and 
growing important section of oar ooimtiymen is thorongbly eetnnged 
from OUT religions institutione ia tiietr preeent aspect. . . . Proba- 
bly the prevnlenoe of ir^UMitg has been exaggerated, if the word be 
taken in its popular meaning, as implying soma d^iee of intellectaal 
effort and dedslon ; but, no doabt, n great extent of negative, inert In- 
dlfferenoe preniils, the pracUoal effects of which are mnoh the some. 
There is a sect, originated recently, adherents to a system caltod 
"Seonloriem;" the principle tenet being that, as the fact of nfatme j 
life is (in their view) at all events snsoeptdble of »aine degree of donbt, 
while the fact and the neceaeities of a present life are matters of diieot 
■ensoblon, it is therefore pradent to attend exclusively to the ooncenis 
of that ezisbenco which is certain and immediate — not wasting eneigies 
required for present duties by a pceparHtion for remote, end menly 
possible, oontbigenoies. This is the oreod which piobablj with most i 
cocaotneea indicates th« faith which, virtually though not professedJy, i* i 
entertained 1^ the musses of our woikiiig pt^nOatton. "— Aftort m 


(IL) ]EIxc^ in resbrictuig the atfaribate of infallibility to the 
Church speaking throagh (Ecumenical Councils, and in steadily 
rejecting the supremacy of the Boman Pontiff,* the variations 
in doctrine between the Greek and Latin branches of the Cath- 
olic Church are non-essential; consisting chiefly in this, that, 
'while admitting cburch traditions, the seven sacraments, a mild 
phase of ortginal sin, and an intermediate state, the Oriental 
CLuTcbea scruple about a PoFgatoiy with flames and the efficacy 
of priTate masses for the dead, f and (dropping the Jii%oqa» of 
the Council of Constantinople) hold that the Holy Ohost pro- 
ceeds &om the Father only. 

With Tariances in doctrine so inconfdderable, the Greek and 
Roman Churches, after their eight centuries of separation, 
might, in a tolerant age like this, have united &eir two hun- 
dred and ei^ty miUione of believers in one 'rost, harmonious 
body, had the present Pope but punned a conciliatoiy line of 
policy. A few timely concessions to the spirit of the age 
would, at this juncture, have incalculably strengthened the 
Papal influence. But this was not to be. In December, 1867, 
the Austrian Govemiuent passed a law declaring freedom of re- 
ligious opinion, with liberty of the press ; and granting to all 

StIigUnu Wonhip made by HoKACS Marn, barrister of Lincoln's Inn, 
to the Begisfaar-OenetBl, nnder date December 8, 1853. 

Var a ttatement, from the same CensoB, of the average attendaaoa 
at chtiicli or i^iapel, as aaoertauied on a particnlar Sunday all over 
Xbi^aad and Wales, showintc how small that attesduioe Is, apteioBjf in 
!rte-»MUd dui/rtAt*, aaa note (»i pteoeding page 157, note. 

* As to the tenets of tlte Qreek Chnich, Hoeheim says : " The Holy 
Boi^itDies and the deazees of the fliat seven CBonmenioal Cooncils are 
acknowledged by tlie Qieeks at the nde of their faith. It Is leoeived, 
howBvei, as a maiim eslabUBhed by long cnatom, tliBt no piirate per- 
son has a lij^t to sii^ain, for himself or others, either the decUrations 
of Soiqitnre, orthedecisionBof theseCounoils; and that the Patriarcti, 
with his brathien, aje alone onthoriied to oonealt Uiese oradea and de- 
fdaie theii meaiiiiig."— Hobheim : EooL Hist iii. 483, 4S4. 

I Thus incniriug the anathema of Borne : " Si qnis dizedt Missw 
ncriSclDin . . . non pro defonotia oSerri debere : ^m pfimTnft slL" — 
Coodl. Tiideot : cap. Ik. oan. 8. 

10 >„,„ 


sects the rigbt of establishing schoola and colle^^ and of teach- 
ing their own teoete there. This was followed, in May, 1868, 
hy another statute, l^aUzing civil marriage, and transfercing 
irom the eccleuastical t« the civil authorities the genend 
supervision of public instruction. This enlightened policy 
proved deadly offence at Borne. The Pope delivered an Alio- 
cutiou (June 2, 1868), in which he took occasion to "reprove 
and condenm those abominable laws," as in flagrant contradic- 
tion to the Catholic religion, the power of ^e Apostolic Sea 
and "natural right itself;" and went on to declare the said 
laws null and void. Austria replied that the Holy See was 
extending its stricturea to objects not within its jurisdiction; 
and added: " We shall none the leas persevere in the way we 
have begun," A powerful empire virtually lost by this ! 

Then followed the Council of the Yatican. To this the Patri- 
archs and Bishops of the Greek Church were, indeed, invited ; 
but the invitation was coupled with the odious reminder that 
their Church, in seceding from that of Rome, had been se- 
duced " by the infeiiial arts and machinatioQS of him who 
plotted in Heaven the first schism ; " in plain terms, that they 
— the said Patriarchs and Bishops — were, so long as they r«- 
mained insubordinate to Papal authority, the spiritual agents 
of the Devil, 

Protestants, t«o, were exhorted to return to the ancient fold ; 
but what availed exhortation or invitation to them from an 
Ecclesiastical Sovereign who, as we have seen,* set out by an- 
nouncing that he himself was infallible and that all the dc^mas 
he might dictate were " irreformable ; " following this up by a 
curse denouaced against all who should prosecnte scientific re- 
searches beyond the limits of Homan Catholic permission. 

But for these capital errors, tlie " Holy Catholic Church " 
mig^t not only have reclaimed the Eastern branch, but possi- 
bly have added twenty millions more to her adherents ; thna 
massing three hundred million eoula under her ecdeaiastical 

* See preoedinfr psge 43. 



standard: for one of the Protestant seota has reoeiitlj made 
certain advaocea (whi^ have been favorably met) to tiie Ori- 
ental branch of CatlioUciBm. 

In the year 1867, the Fan-Anglican Synod caused to be 
tranEmitted, tlirough the Archbishop of Canterbury, to the 
Patriarchs and Bishops of the Greek Church, a Pastoral Let- 
ter, setting forth the faith of the Anglican Church and exprees- 
ing, ia general terms, a wish to harmonise and a hope " that 
there may be ' one dock and one shepherd.' " This being re- 
ceived favorably and vith profound respect, by the Prelates of 
the Greek Church, * was followed up, in the Convocation of 
(Sinterbury, assembled July 4, 1868, by a Rt^rt declaring the 
object to bo, not a submission of either Church to the other, 
nor a modification of their respective services so as to conform, 
but " simply the mutual acknowledgment that all Churches which 
are one in the possession of a true Episcopate, one in sacramenta 
and one in their ci'eed, are, by their union in their common 
Lord, bound to receive one anotlier in full communion in 
prayers and sacraments as members of the same household of 
&ith." The Convocation, accepting this Report, instructed 
ite President to open negotiations with the Eastern Patriarchs 
and Metropolitans, witit a view to the establishment of sncb 

A movement among ourselves in sympathy with this and re- 
sembting the Tractarian agitation which originated at Oxford in 
1833, t has already produced considerable excitement. Ite 

* The Bev. Hr. WfllUuns, an Siglish clergTmas, stated, at a meeting 
of the "Gaatem Chnioh Company " heldial86T, that haludoonTeiBed 
with the Patnarchsof Constantdnople, Antioch, BDdJerasalem, who had 
expressed Uieii entire spprobatdon of the unioa ; that the Patriaroh of 
Antioch proposed to entablish a school wit^ a Professor of Eagllsli, as 
preptwatian tor it, and Uiat the UeCropolitan of Sdo had declared to 
him his aonviatkm that the time for socb a union had arrived. — Bee 
^dimi» EecletiaJitiMl Aimanae, 1869, pp. 2!i, £4 

t hacks says of the P,T)g)iHh Tiactarlaii movement: ''It prodaoed 
a dafeotion whkdi wM quite miparsUeled ia magnitnde linoa that which 


diameter vaj be gleaned from a pamphlet-Ttriume of aennoaB 
delivered three years fdnce by Dr. Ewer, Rector of Chrut 
Church, New Torkj in which the ground taken ia that ths 
Episcopal Church always has been a branch of the ooe H<dy 
Catholic Church,* inbllible f and blessed with Apostolic succes- 
sion : denying, however, the supremacy of the Soman Pontiff, 
holding each branch of the Catholic Church, I^tin, Oreek, or 
Anglican, to be independent; and admitting that extrinwc 
abuses had overtaken the Church of Kome. The title of Or, 
Ewer's second sermon, 7'A« Anffliean Church not J'rotetltuU, 
mfficieDtly marks tlie position which its author assumes. 

The later developments from Borne evidently destroy aII 
hope of Catholic union except between the Oreek and Anglioau 
Churches; and thus, by lack of temper and judgment on the 
part of her most powerful branch, the School of Infallibility 
has joat the golden opportunity of a gigantic union. Is tliere 
not a great truth nnderiying the text thut God maketli the 
wrath of man to praise Him ? 

I have already^ noticed an enlightened movement in the 
Anglican Church ; a movement opposed to Literalism : opposed 
to the doctrine of the Uiraeuloua ; opposed, in a general way, 
to the dicta of the Infallible SchooL It is steadily gaining 
ground and haA evidently the virtual support of the Britaah 
Government. lis leaders have all maintained their official 

bad taken plaoemidertlieStnarte; and which, nnhke the former ntove- 
ment, waa altogether oninilnenoed by aoidid eonsideiations." — Bati^n- 
idirniin StiTope, vol. i. p. 174. 

* Dr. Ewei appeals to the ApoatJes' Creed, foiminfr part of the B<reai- 

iug Service of the Episcopal Cboroh, wherein we read : " I believe in 

■ Uie Holy OhoBt, the Holy CatlioUo Chnioh, tlie Oommimion nt Saints, 

eto." Id that which is ooooaioaaUy sntwtitDted for it the weeds Bie : 

" I believe In One Catholio and ApoatoUo Chnndi." 

t " The very InfallibfUtj of the Bible demanda the infallilnlitj of 
the Church ; the two atand or fall together."— Sarmon* on the Faiiur* 
of ^■otttlaiUum and on CaHuMeUy, by the Bev. Feidinand 0. Bmr, 
8.T.O., Beotorof Christ Ohumh, New York : aermon IL p. 8L 
X See pieoeding page 150. 


babolat's apoloqt. 221 

Btaoding and one of its Meat exponents has become Bishop of 

The six or seven million Jews scattered over the world must 
be included in the S^ool of In&Uibility. 

Of the more libeml class of Protestants many, retaining 
&tir denominational position, but rejecting iniallibitj, hare be- 
eome Spiiitnalista. So also have not a few Catholics. But the 
barest acoeetdon to the ranks of the SpiritualiatA has been &om 
the 8clu>ol of Beculnriam. 

(III). Two hundred years ago there sprang up a remarkable 
sect The people called Quakert were the Spiritualiata of the 
seventeenth century. Their Lather was George Fox, and their 
Calvin was Robert Barclay, a man of some distinction, who 
was appointed Governor of New Jersey.* Barclay's " Apology " 
was as mui^ the acknowledged text-book for lite Quakerisoi of 
his day, as was Calvin's " Institutes" the code of sixteenth- 
century Protestantism. 

The fundamental doctrine of this people was that an inward, 
•Kving light, or spirit of truth, promised by Christ, and emanat- 
ing imtnedisiely from God, is the supreme rule of faith : this 
light, or spirit, comiug to all men who resist it not, and moving 
ihem to virtue and good works.f To the Heathen and the Geu- 

* In 1683i but be served by deputy only. 

t The Apologg (A.D. 1675), oompreheDdhigr fifteen Piopodljotis 
(Thesea Theologioa), and oopioos oonUDentsriea theietm, was originallj 
written in Latin, bnt aft«TwaTd tranalated byita author intoEngHsb, 
•od l^otbeninto Frenoli, Qerman, Spanish, oodDotoh. I quote from 
an American reprint of Barclay's English veiaion, Philadelphia, 1805 : 

" The testimony of the Spirit is that alone by which the tme knowl- 
edge of God has been, is, and aaa be <»dy revealed. , . . By the 
TeveUtion of the eame Spirit He hath Tnanifested Himeetf all alot^ unto 
tbe sons of nwD, both patriarchs, prophets, and ^Mjatiee ; which revela- 
tions of Qod, by the Spirit, whether by outward Toicea and appeoianoea, 
dreams, or inward ol^eotivemanileetBtious in the heart, were of old the 
fonnal object of tlieir buth, and remain yet so to be." — ProptmUmil., 
p. 17. 


tilefl of old, u to us of to^y, thia peiKuul revelation has b«en 
given ; and all who have acted up to the li^t within, even. 
though they had never hB«rdof Christ, are thereby justified and 

Barclay aUeges that this inward light never controdieta 
either natural reason or Scripture ; the teachings of Christ sax! 
his apostles being a declaration by the Spirit, and to be rever' 
enoed aooordin^y. NeverUieleaB, the li^t within is, to ea«h 
man, the primary law, while lite Scriptnres ore to be estMOMcl 
a Becondfuy rule only.f 

A singular element pervaded this fiti^ It ignored tbe 
lively, the humorous, the esthetic ; it forbade, not plays and 
dancii^ alone, but music, whether vocal or inBtrumentaL It 
interdicted all games, sports, pantimea ; even lan^ter and jest ; 
holding the fear of God to be the proper recreation of man ; 
uid restricting " lawful divertisemente " to visiting, reading 
history, spe^dng soberly of past or present events, gardening 
geometrical and mathematica] studies, and the like. Adoptii^ 
Calvin's sumptuary principles, it enjoined grave simplicity and 
strict economy in drees, and declared that for Christian women 
to plait their hair or wear ornaments was unlawful. { 

* ' ' Botli Jew and Qentile, Scjthiaii or Barbuiaa, of whatev er 
oouDtt7 or kindred, . . . may oome to walk in tjiis light aod be 
saved, "—pp. 309, 210. " The outward knowledge of Chzist'i death 
and mflerings ... we willingly confeM to be veiy profltable and 
oomfortable, but not abaolDtelj' needful nnto such from whom Ood 
himself bath withheld it"— Prop. vL, p. 1S3. 

f " The Scriptnies of tnth ... are only a declsiatioa of tha 
toontain, and not the foontain itself, therefore die; are not to bs ea- 
teemed the principal ground of all tratb aad knowledge, nor y*b Uie 
ndeqoate primsTy rale of hith and manneni; neverUiBlea^ aa that 
which gjvcth a tme and faithfnl testimoajr of the fltst foundaljon, they 
are and may be esteemed a aeoonduy rale." — Prvp, iil , p. 81. 

i ' ' Oane* and eports. pls^. dancing, . . . cansiat not with die 
gravity and groJIy fear which the Gospel calls for." — pp. GOO, S56. 
" Aa to their artificial mooio, either by organs or other instnimenla or 
voice, we have neither example nor precept for it in the New Tiala 
moiit"~.p. 422. "Langhing, sporting, jesting, eto., is not Gfaiistbii 


The first oatbreek of Qnak«ri«n woa powwfiil : de8|nte Utter 
peneotrtion, it spread r^idly and to remote regions. Bat, for 
maaj yeftrs, it has been stationary or declining ; the total number 
of Qnakers Ijiraughout ibe world not exceeding a hundred and 
4ve>i^-five tbonsand : of whom foiir-£fi;bfi inbabit the United 

ThU phase of Spiritualism has its strong points and its weak 
(Hios: in virtue of the first it made way and prospered; by 
wwaon of the last it anfiered arrest and decay. 

It asserted, in unqualified terms, liberty of cooHcience for all 
men ; f it declared that tbe Scriptures ai-e not a finality ; it eub- 
<K4iaated the old-written Word to the Spiritual revealinga 
daily vouohsafed to manltindi daring opinions these ; a noble 
stHud for the day in wliiob they were announced. But it 
fell, in a measure, into tbe old error of tJie infallible ; for it 
held that tbe light within, guided by which the Evangelists 
libert; nor barmleai nurth." — p. B89. " The fear of God is tite best 
leoteatiwi." — p. 664. "Lawful diTBrtasemente " are "for fiiands to 
Tint one another ; to hear at read history ; to speak soberly of the 
present or paettraDsactions; to follow after gardenii^; tonsegeomet- 
Tiaal and mathemolaoal eiperunents, and such other things."— pp. 6M, 
SC5. ' ' Chiistiiui women ought not to use the plaiting of haji or orna- 
ments, etc ; for tlie Apoatla (1 Peter fil. 8, 4) oondemus ttie use ot 
then aenulawfnL"^p. 5M. 

* In on elaborate paper (pnblished 1B69) in tbe Wegtmiruter Seciew, 
entiUed " The Qoakete," aod evidently written by one friendly to the 
SBot, the writer says ; " At tbe present tdmc there are not more than 
14,000 Qnakers in Great Britain, and 3,000 in Ireland ; and Cihey have 
at no time exceeded 00,000. There Die scatcely any to be found on tbe 
OtRiluientof Gnrope, 

Adopting' tbeir own eotlmate, as given in Bcbem's EeeUiiattieid Tear 
Book (for 1860, page 82), there are 100,000 Quakers in the United 
States ; chiefly in Fenn^lvania (33,000), Indiana (30,000), Ohio <14,000j, 
and New Tork (10,000). 

Tbe total tbroughont the world seems tofaU sbort of 135.000. 

f ' ' Tbe forcing of men's oonscienoes is contrary to sound reason aud 
tlu> very law of natnre. , . . Tbe aonsotence of man is the seat 
and throne of God, of which Odd is the alone proper and infoUibla 
jodgo."— ilyofoffy, pp. SOS, 611. 


aad ApoBtlM wrote, and which oomes t(Hilft]r to ereiy nun wlio 
will seek and receive, Ib a direct revelatifm from God ; therefi»e, 
in all its teacliingB, unerrin^y tnie. Hence great confusion of 
ideas. For truth must alwaya be consbtent witii iteelf : but if, 
at any time, the light within assent not to every word of S<np- 
ture, then one or other must be at Cnult ; and this discordaaee, 
in point of fact, does happen. 

Thns the ^temative presented itself, to Quaker teachers, either 
to admit that the Scriptures are not in&llible, or else to BBsome 
as to every man who dissented &om any portion whatev^^ of 
the written Word, that he had not received the true light. But 
this last, making man the arbiter of his neighbor's consciawe, 
is a direct denial of religious liberty — in other words, it gab- 
verta the very foundation of the original Quakw fsitli. 

The practical result has been that the orthodox portion of the 
Bociety of Friends, clinging to the literal in&llibility of the 
Biblical Record and diiectly violating not only the great tenet 
of their founders, but the express words of Scripture, " Judge 
not, that ye be not judged" — now disown a]] those who "deny 
the divinity of Chiist or the auUienticity of the Scriptuna." 
They require thmr members to believe that Jesus Christ was 
miraculously conceived ; that we have remission of sins thiou^ 
his blood, that he was a sacrifice for the sins of ^e world and 
now sits, as Mediator between God and Uan, at God's right 

But, of course, a Spiritual kingdom thus divided against 
iteelf cannot stand. And its decay has been hastened by the 
undue importance it attached to trifles, and its luurow-minded 
condemnation of innocent gayety and wholesome amnswnenta. 
Many of the liberal or Hicksite bi^och of the Society have 
become Spiritualists. 

In the eighteenth century. Spiritualism appeared under the 

* Artide Quaken, Ameiican CTClopedia, vol zjil. This ortiole was 
fnmuhed to tba Cyclopedia as an aatlMHized ezpoutum of ortbodox 
Quaker doctrine at the preseat dsf . 


fonn of Swadanborgiaatiam. From Qoakerum to Swedenhorg- 
iaoism was a gnat advance. 

Fox and Barola; did not recognize conununion with the 
spirits of the departed, rigidly adhering to the doctrine of agency 
direct from Qod: they still hehl to the old Miltonian idea of 
asf^ created auoh and of a peraonol Devil ; believed in a day 
of judgment on which, by the fiat of their Creator, one portion 
of mankind waa oonsigned to happiness, another to misery ; re- 
(pwded the next phase of existence as a life without variety of 
duties oit of enjoyments, and without progress — a life witii but 
ODc avocation for each of its denizena — the constant exerdse of 
wotahip for tike good, the perpetual endurance of torment for 
the wi^ed. 

But Emanuel Swedenboi^ taun^t that men, in this world, 
can have communion with spirits in the next, which commun- 
ion ia reliable and valuable or mischievous and misleadii^, ac- 
co^dit^( as men ai-e sensual and worldly-minded or the reverse ; 
like attracting its like from the world of spirits : * that there, 
are no angels, created such, whether good or bad, and of course 
no fallen angels, nor any Satan, Prince of Hell ; self-love being 
the only Davit : f that men oarry with them to the next world 

* To the B«r. Arvid Ferelins SiredenbcnK raid, "that everj man 
might have the same apiritiul pnvileges as himself, bat the tme lun- 

friand Bobaahra. "A man laja himseK open to grievons errors who' 
tries, b7 barely Datatal powers, to explore qnritnal things." Wilkin- 
son, ooa of his beat biographers, soma up his views on this subject thus : 
" The reason of the daoger of man, aa at present oonstitDted, speaking 
with apirita, is, that we are all in aaaomatlon with onr likes, and being 
foU of evil, UMse similar ^linls, ooold we faoe Uiem, would bat con- 
flrm na in our own state and views. "—Wilkinson : Emanud Bieeden- 
borg, a Biogra^tg, London, 18494 pp. 108, 325. 

f " There does not exist, in tbe nniTersal heaven, a sin^e angel who 
was created aaah from tbe firat, nts anj devil in Hell who waa created 
an anget of light and afterwarda cost down thither : but all Uie inhabi- 
tants, both of Heaven and Hell, are derived from the humaa race, 
. . . The falaitr of evil and Satan are one." — BwEDENBona; 
&aBen and H^, London Ed. of 1851, pp. 186, 38. " There ia no par- 


the leading characteristics vhich distinguished them here ; * 
that Heaven is reached, not by tiuth nor by baptism, hut by a. 
pure love of tmth and goodness ; f that love toward God and 
the neighbor comprises all Divine truth ; J that there exists an 
intermediate state, which men enter very soon after death, 
where they have free liberty of choice either to walk in the 
paths which lead thence to Heaven, or to follow those which 
conduct to Hell : g that Ood rewards no one with Heaven, nor 
consigns any one to Hell ; each spirit being attracted to one re- 
gion or to the other, according to its ruling loves, just as men 
and women in this world are drawn by their dominant desires, 
some to virtuous associates, others to the companionship of the 
wicked : || that all sufferings in the next world are self-inflicted ; 
self-love and worldly-mindedness ruling there and constituting 
Hell and its flames : ^ and, finally, that the duties and occupa- 

Oauiax Devil that tii Lord in Hell ; but self-love is eo oalled." — Swb- 
DEMBona : Divine Providenee, Londcm Ed. of 18S7, p. 802. 

* " The Tilling' aSeotdoii or love of every man tenuuQS with him aft^ 
death, and is not eridrpiitad to eternity." — Heaten and SeS, p. 167. 

f ' ' Heaven is not imparted to anj one hj baptism, nor jet bf faiUi. 
. , . All reach Heaven who have loved truth and good (or their own 
sake." — He/teen and HeS, pp. 147, 157. 

X " Love to the Lord and love toward the neighbor comprehend In 
Uiemselves all divine truths." — Htaven, find Hdt, p. 10. 

g "The world of spirita is stationed in the midst between Heavm 
and Hell. ... All ore left to their liberty auoh as they enjoTed 
while in the worid. . . . Splrita that ai« good walk In the ways 
whiob tend toward Heaveo; while ipirits that are evil walk in the 
ways that t^nd toward HeD."— Heaven arwl Sell, p. .SIS. 

I Swedenboig expressed himself on tJiUsobject to Bobsahm thns: 
" When men first oome into the Bpiritual world, no one thinks of any- 
thing but the happiness of Heaven, or the misery of Hell Soon the 
good spirits oome to him and instruct bbn where hs is ; and he is then 
left to follow his o^u inolinations, whioh lead him to the place where 
ho remains forever." — Eauinnd Sastdenborg, a Bingraphy, p. 103. 

^ ' ' Not any, the xmallest portion, of the pmiishinentH which spirits 
undergo oomes from the Lord ; but all of it from evil itself. . , . 
Self-lova and the love of the woild . . . reign m the balls and also 

A HUSDBKD rOASS Oia>. 237 

tioDs of Heaven are not regtrictod to a ungle rite, bat are man- 
ifold and various, it being a world of activity, of progress, and 
of uses ; * and that human afiectionR, alike to God and to his 
creaturee, are traDsferred thitiier, graoioDsly to blooBora and ex- 
pand into more than earthly beaut; and purity, and to make 
the happineBB of that genial paradise for evermore.f 

Grand oonoeptiODB these I wonderful conoeptionB, to have 
come to us from the frigid North, through a government Asbos- 
BOr of 'M'ipftH, J more ihan a century ago. Golden conceptionB 
which, bad they been laid before the world unmixed with dross 
and in a lucid, concise, practical manner, might already have 
worked no small revolution in Christian creeds. But what has 
been their &te? 

Thongb Swedenborg was a man of distinction, highly connected, 
in &vor with his government, invited to the royal table and re- 
garded with respect, in his own country, both by ecclesiastics, 
uoblee, and men of science, § yet, at the outset, Quakerism (re- 

coiiatitatA Oiem. . . . Infenul fire, or Uie fiie of Hell, is the love 
of self and of the wodd."— ^ffiwen dntf flttf, pp. 3So, 3S0, 298. 

* " The oooapadous titat exist in the Heaveiu . . . are Innn- 
merablo and TB17, alao, aooording to the offices of the vaiioos sooietiee. 
. . . Ever; <nie, there, perfonns some use ; for the Lord's kuiEcdom 
ia t, kingdom of uses." — Beacen and ff^ p. 161. 

t " All deU^tB flow from love. . . . The delights of Qie aanl 
or of the ^rit all fiowfromlove to the Lord and tosrard the n^hbor. 
■ . . In [ffoporbim as t^ww two lares are received . . ■ the soul 
is tomod «wa7 from the world toward Heaven." — Emven and MiB, 
p. 185. 

t Swedenborg', emiaent as a man of sdeaoe, disoharged during thir- 
^■one ;ears, the offioe of AB«e«0T of tiie Board of Mines, under the 
Swedish govemiuent. In 1747, giving himself up to splritoal studies, 
he resigned the offloe ; but King Frederick, inconsideratiim of his serv- 
ices, continued the fnll salarj dnring his life. 

§ Swedenborg was a son of the Bishop of Westn^othia, and was 
brother-in-law of the Archbishop of ITpaal and of lArs Benzelstiema, 
Governor of a- Province. Be was ennobled byQaeealTlnca Eleonora in 
1719 ; and was a member of the Aoademiee of SoLences of Stookholn 
and 3t, Peteisbu^. In a letter written from London, in 1760, to a 


Btrioted as was ita apliere of influenoe) vbs a brilliant snoeen 
oomparad to SwedMiborgianiam. Daring Bveckuborg's life ba 
does not eeem to hare made even a single hundred proeeljtes;* 
and his voluminous folios obtain but a posmng notioe, here and 
there, in symbolic history, f Even now, when three or Snux 
generations have passed, the adherraits of the Swedish aacK^ 
avowed and unavowed, do not equal in number those of G e o rga 
Fox : I a mere handful, one may oay. Daring a century of mt- 
ist«nce the Church of the New Jerusalem hardly exerted a per- 
ceptible inSuenoe on the religions opinions of the four hundred 
millions inhabiting Christendom. It is chiefly during the Imt 
twenty years — anil in great part through modem Spintualian 
— that the fundamental trutbB taught by Swedenborg have bean 
gradually coming to win the ear and the respect of the civilized 

Mend who Iiad aaked partloolan touohiiig hinuclf and hu family ooa- 
nections,he i^nr "I aminfriendshipwiUiall thebiahop«of inyooon' 
tiy, who are tea in numbeT, and bIbo with the sixteen Senator* aod the 
reet of t^e Peen. . . . The King and Qneea themaslveB, and alia 
tlie threeFrinoes, their soma, show me all kind ooiintanaaoe I and I waa 
cmoe invited to dins with Hie King and Qneen at their taUe." — Lett^ 
in Iiondon Bd. of ISSl of 3sa>en and SA, pp. 61, 69. 

* And, in Swedeaboig's own opinion, his E^riteia seema to have been 
M nnpopular in the next worid as in dua. When Oeneral Tnizen asked 
him how many peisons he tUonght there ware in ths worid who favored 
his doobrias, he rejdied " that there might perkapi b» fifty, and In pro- 
portioa the same nomber in the WDdd of npirita." — Sieedenborg, a Bi- 
egraplky, bj WilklnBon, p. 230. 

t HAOBNBAcn r ^ttoryt^ DoeMna, vol. ii. pp. Bdl, 89S, and a few - 

X Through theldndneaa of the Seoretai; of tiie late General Confer- 
eaoe of Amerioan Bwedertborgians, I have (under date Jannatyl, 1871) 
the foUowlng : " The nmnber of ptofeaeed Swedenborgiana— that is, 
persons who openlj and publicly proolaini themselves beUevers in tha 
doctriaes tooght by Bwedenborg — in thin ooantry is not, so far as I can 
learn, more than 5,000. In Oreot Britain there are abont S,000 more, 
and in other ports of the world about 1,000. It is our oonviotion, how- 
ever, that ten timaa this nombec acoept Swedenborg's fundamental 
dootriaea, bat, for varioaa reasons, say litUe or nothing abont it." 


Hie dron iras the retarding elonfint. Biredenborg fell deep 
into tite old, old error— -the worst of drassea — the time-honored 
delosioii of Htmui Iii&Uibilitj. He regarded himself an a. 
Sjaritoal Arabasaador from Qod to man; the One Bpeoially 
selected from the human race to Hiat holy office, b; the 
Almighty ; the first and sole interpreter of the Word of Ood, 
irbom tite angels themselvee dared not instruct in biblical 
knowledge, seeing that be was taught and illuminated direotly 
by the Deity hiiiuel£* 

The Bible — or t3ie Word, as he usually called itf — he re- 
garded as a species of spiritual palimpsest, the original meaning 
covered ap from the apprehension of mankind, hid in wisdom 
•oumg the angels, and the visible text which overlies it, a series 
(tf Celestial MyHteries, not at all to be interpreted as it rends in 
Scripture ; i and to which, since the words were first penned, 

* He wrote ( 1769) to Dr. Hsitlej : " I have been oaUed to a briy ofDce 
1^ the I^oid himself, wlio most giaoiMiatr manifested hinwrif iii penon. 
to me, his Bemnt, in 1743." Ha adds that " Ood also opened hia sif^t 
to the view of the Bpiritnal wcoU and graolied him the priril^e of oon- 
veznng with si^to and utgela," — ErnanuH Suedeniorg (by Wilkmson), 
pp. 74, 79. Elaewhere, apeaking of his own oommnnion with Qod and 
with Mie Bpiritnol wwld, he says : " This has not been gnoted to any 
(me Bnoe the ciestion of the world as it haa been to me." — Wi»k 
quoted, p. SM. 

Agata, beasjs: "I have disoonzaed wlth-sptrita and angela now for 
■cvetal 7aan ; noi dont any ^idt, neither would ai^ angel, say any- 
thing to IDS. maoh leas instniot me, about anything in the Word; bat 
the Laid alone, who waa ravaaled to me, and afteiwaid oontinnally 
did and does appear l>efare my eyes as the Sun in whioh He is, even aa 
He appean to tixe ai^els, taught me and illuminated me." — Divine 
Ptvmdenea (pnUiahed 1764), p.. 13S. 

t " But Swedeoborg rejected, as not dizeody revealed by Qod, certain 
portionsof the Old Testament; and, of the New Testament, he aooepted 
t^M four GoBpels and the Apooalypee only, as focming a porlaon of the 
'present Word.'" — EinanuA Saedenborg^ a Biography, pp. 139, 141. 

X One cannot look into some of Swedenborg'a worhs, eq>eciaUy his 
Areana Caitttia, withont amazement at the obaracter ot the Scriptnrol 
iuteipretoMtms that ran through them ; ood inie is forced -iotheoonalu- 
maa that these most bo oooopted, if aooepted at all, for a Bi.:gle reason, 

no living craatnre ever held the secret key, till it was entrusted 
by the (>eator of the Universe to a Swedish philosopher* No 
candid student of Swedenborg doubts his cdaoerity. Beyond 
question, be believed Us "Arcana Otsleetia" to be writteu 
under the unerring dictation of God. 

This capital error — greatest among all religions feUaciea of 
die past — here produced, as so radical an error always jwo- 
duces, its legitimate results. Not — strange to say I in the dkar- 
actor of the man ; it bred in him no arrogance ; he retained his 
modest simplicity to the last ; the fittal influence was on his sys- 
tem ; sapping its cogency, neutralising the virtne of its fine gold. 

From another snperstition, also, Swedenborg fiuled to shake 
himself free : he believed, if less rigidly than Calvin, in ^ 
original depravity of mankind.f Hence his doubts iriiellKr 
any of his feUow-creatures were worthy to enjoy the epiritual 
intercourse which be felt to have been granted, throughout a 
quarter of a century, to himself. Hence, too, his belief that 
the wickedness of hell was incurable and its punishments with- 
out end. 

Again, some of the dogmas which he imagined to have re- 
borrowed feom one of the old Oreoitui schools — beoMue "tiieHaatBt 
said it" Take three or four examples, selected at hap-hauid oot of 
teas of thousands. Cotet signify "good natural aSeotloiiB" {D£buu 
ProeideTtet, Mo. 826). A Aortt means " the nndentanding' of the W(k4 
of God " {Tfw OMHiatt RtUffim, Nob. 118, ST7, eto. ). Mmad tabegd 
tteel/oe princa denotes "the primaiy preoepti which are of chaiitf " 
{AreaiuiOaU»tia,Ko.iOSa). Joiephaoldto Potiphar latobeintiirprHbed 
to mean " the alienation of Divine truths by soientiflcs " {Are, CMttt., 
No. 4790), And so on. 

* Spet^ctDg of his ntisaion as int«Tpieter of the Woid, Swedcebo*; 
thns ezpzessea himself : " The laws of Divine Piovidenoe, hiUieito hid 
in wisdom among the angels, are now reveiJed," — Angttk TRw^n om- 
otmiHg the Dinina PrmAdtnet. London Ed., 1807, p. 70. 

f " Bvety man has hereditary evil, and tbeiefore he is in the con- 
CDpiacenoe of many evila ... A man, from himself, caonot do 
good , , . . Thenoe it la that in man Vbtao is no healtli, or notiiing 
aoond, but Vaab he is one entire man of evil." — DieiM* Ihvtdenm, 
p. 277. 


ccdved from God, vera of a ohaneter to reUrd tlie acceptance 
of the truths he taught. While he rejected the' idea of the 
Trinity,* or of a Son of Ood, f he held that Jehovah himself 
descended and aesnmed hnmanity on our eorUi, for the puqmse 
of redeemii^ mankind, of reducing hell to fmbjeotion, and of 
re-organizing Heaven : seeii^ that He could not save His crea- 
tures from damnation in any other way. I Orthodoxy and 
Batitsialism, of course, alike repudiate this heretical and illogi' 
cal conception. 

But the worst results from Swedenborg's master«rroF were 
connected with that lack of charity which ever follows the in- 
sidious illusion of in&llibility. Despite his equable and gentle 
character, despite his own tenet that men are not saved by 
futh, he "was occasionally betrayed into the harshest intoler- 
ance. Speaking of those " who are called in the world Socin- 
ians and some of them Aiiana," he says : " The lot of both ia 
• ■ . that they ara let down into hell amoi^( those who deny, 
t^od. These are meant by those who blaspheme tlie Holy 
Ghoet, who will not be forgiven either in this world or ia that 
which ia to come." § 

• " Soamel; any remains of the Lord's Clm:«h ate left. This has 
coitie to pass in conseqnence of separating tha Divina TTmit7 into three 
penoiu, each of which is declared to be God and Lord. Hance a sort 
ol tnatj has infected the whole sTHtem of theology." — Swedbhbobo ; 
Trus ChritUan Beagion, London, 1858, p. 4. 

f " The Idea of a Son bom from etemil^, desoending and aasnuung 
the hunanity, mnst be fonnd to be alto^tber erroneons. . . . The 
prodnetion of a Ood from a Ood la a thing impractJcable. It is the 
SMBB thing whether wo nsa the terms begotten by God or proceeding 
bom Him,"— rran Ohriitian BeUgUm, p. 88, 

t Swedenborg's doctrine as to the incamaticn is this: "Jehovah 
■^■^ descended and nseamed the hnmanil^." This he did, "tliat he 
"'lE'ht oocomplish the woric of redempticn, which oonsiated in redncdng 
the heUs to sabjeetion and in bringing the heavens into a new, orderly 
'rrftngement . . . God could not redeem manlrind, that is deliver 
tbem from danmation and hell, by an; other prooess tHan that of awnm- 
ing the hnmanity ."—IVutf OhritUan Rdigien, pp. 81, 84. 

S Angdie Witdom ecnvrning Dinins ProvidmiCt, p. SSI. 

V. .OOglf 


Eren worao tluii tliu is tlie cruel epirit, aggravated hy die 
usQiaptioD of fJEdse premises, in which he Bpeaka of those whom 
he ou^t to have oommeaded and hailed as Bpiritual brethren. 
We have it under his oim hand, as divinely revealed to Mot, 
that the Quaker worship is bo execrable and abomioaUe thaA if 
Christians but knew its true ehaiacter, " they would expel 
Qnakers from society and permit them to live only among 
beasts."* And tiiis — think of it I — fiom one who deemed 
himself the petunau of Qod I — Uie recipient and ioditer of tmtli 
unmixed with error I 

'InSwedenboiK'adiuy, under date October 39, 1718, he s^Ts: '-The 
Moret wonhip of tlie Quakers, sedolouslj txmoealad from the wodd, 
waa made manifest. It is a wocahip ao wicked, ezeciable, and abomin- 
able, that, were it known to ChristtaiiB, tiiey wonld expel Qnakera ttatn 
sooietj, and permit them to live only among beaatB. They have a rite 
oonumuiion of wives, etc" Again, October 28, 1748 : " They ana in- 
domitablj obatlnate in their aversion to having their thoin^itB and do- 
ings mode public. Tbey strove with me and Uie apirita who desired 
(bnt in Toin) to Imowtlieirieoreta.'' — See Emaniui Smaienborg, hi* Lif» 
and WHlingt, by William WnrTB, London. 18S7, voL t p. »80, SOT. 

The poison of intolerance, in ite moat malignant tspe, atOl woAs 
among a bigoted porti<m of Swedenborg's foUoweiB. The (LondoD) 
InttlUetaiii BepotUorff is the acuredited organ of ortAodot Swedenbor- 
gianiam. Ita editor (luxteen years since, however,) after atatins faia 
opinion that " spirits, even the highest angels, have nothing to tell as 
in relation to doctrine and life but what ia revealed in the Word," goea 
on to soy: "We therefore conclude that it is not only dangerooa, bnt 
iinpioiui, to acek to have oonununiou with spirits, especially in rt^^ard to 
anythiui; of iloutrine and life." But he does not stop here. He tells 
ns that there in good reason for the command " so often repeated to 
the Children of Israel, to jiul t/aue to death who had familiar spidta 
and who tvcre necroiiianoeni, or as in the Hebrew text, ' asked inqoiriea 
of the dead.'"- /«t«tot(MJ Bepo»Uary, vol for ledS, pp. 460, 46t. 
Anything worHe than this we may aaaroh the records of modem theology 
in vain to find. 

Such is ono phase of this religions movement. There is a aecond, 
direotlj opposed to the first. Thoiuonds will uiute with me In the ac- 
knowledgmeut that some of our best and moat enlightened frienda an 
Uberal Swedenboigiana. 

OBOwra OF sfisituaubil 238 

One reads such paaeageB as these with deep regret that a man 
so eminently vise in many things should have strayed, in 
otliers, BO fiu* from charity and common sense. Yet perhaps it 
was best. The state of society in the middle of the ladt cen- 
toiy may have been such that men could not then safely be 
trusted to seek, through oommnnion with the spirit-world, 
proo& of its existence and information tonohing its chantoter 
and pursuits. 

May ws, living in the ei^th decade of the nineteeaUi century, 
be trastod in this matter? Can we bear the many things, 
promised to na from the apiritnal sphere, which Christ's apos- 
tles were not yet able to bear, and which our ancestors, of one 
or two craituries since, evidently were unfitted to receive? 
If it appear that normal S[nntnal oommonion, like adult suf- 
frage, is upon us, the fact of its advent wiU, to a certain ex- 
tent, be evidence that the worid is not irtiolly unprepared for 
its reception. 

The character of that reception, too, adds vastly to tlie evi- 
dence for its timeliness. One would think the world mast 
have been an hungered for the proofs of immortality which 
Spiritualism has brought to light. The new foith has overnm, 
not our country alone, but every portion of the civilized 
world.* At this day, leas than a quarter of a century from 

* Judge J. W. EdmondB, formerty of tlie Sapreme BenA of New 
York, hu bad mora experience among Bpititiuliats, sad a wider oor- 
reepondence on BpiiitnaUBm all over tlie worid, than aaj one else with 
whom 1 am acquainted. Writing to me in Febmaiylasfa, beuTa: "I 
have received letters on the subject, during the last twenty yean, from 
oil parte of the United States, from England, Ireland, Sootiimd, 
France, Gemuuiy, Bnana, Spain, Italy, Oreeoe, the East ladles, Caba, 
Januuca, Bradl, Qnatemala, Anstialia, New Zealand, Uia Sandwich 

T«laTiil»j t.TiflTonlrMiIalniiila^Maltjt, Algiawi, iun^nt:hi»rpl»«wt.littt.t f««nfili 

now leoaU." And be mentions having received a letter and book 
(publiahed in London, 1885) from an English lady who had spent ten 
or twelve jeats bsvelling all over Europe, and in Ama and A£do& 
From her book he extracts the following : 

"984 KmBEB or EnBrroAiiBis. 

vhttt xokj be regard«d u Its iiuMption,* its believera, private 
and avowed, probably^ oataomber, on hundredfou), the 
■ggragftte to which either of its apiritnal predeceeson — Qtiak- 
era or SwedenborgiuiB— ever attaiDed. Ilie number of iJioee 
who Booept, more or less unreserredly, its phenomena, may be 
safely assumed to exoeed, in the United States, seven miUices 
and a half,f and in the rest of Christendom at least as mimj 

One might have to double this last amount, reaching ^axtj 
milUona, to include all in the Christian world whose scepd- 
ciam in what is called the Supernatural — but what m the law- 
governed Spiritual — has been, chiefly by this movement, man 
or less shaken or removed. 

The constant increase in the number of Spiritualists ts by 
no means confined to this country. In London, ten yeara ago, 

" Thete is soaroelf a dtf or a oonBideTable town fn Contineotsl 
Europe, at the present moment, where Spiritoalistfl are not leckoned 
by hnndTBda il not by thonsuids ; where i^olaily-established oommv- 
nitdes do not babitoally meet for qnritnal pnxpOBes : and tiiey reckoa 
among them individaala of every cIbbb and avocation, and intelleots of 
the highest order." — Sceptieiitm and SpiritaaUna, w the Bkperitnee of a 
SeeptU: hj the anthoiesa of AuT^ia. 

■ Harch 81, 1846. See FootfiO*, p. 388. 

f Jndge Edmonds, la a letter to the " Spiritnal Hagasine " of Lon- 
don, dated Hay 4, 1897, estimated tiie number of SpiritoaliBta ia DiB 
United States, five jean ago, at ten miliiont. In a recent letter to 
n^aelf he has reiterated the conviction that be bad good antbority fot 
sacb a oalonlation : adding that he feels assured it is undai, rather than 
over, the truth. With less extended opportunities of judging than he, 
and to avoid ohanoe of exaggeration, I pot the number at three-foniths 
of that amount only : mf own opinion being, however, that this is an 

ThoBO who the most deprecate the influence of modem Spiritnalism 
are the moat ready to oonfeaa bow far that influence has spread. " Tbe 
countless hosts of modRTn neoromanoers " is the exprasdon employed 
by a religions Qnarterly of the day (in a review of Dr. Boshnexj-'s 
Nalurt aiid tha Saperaatural) to designate the Spiritualiata of the 
United atatoa.—Tliteitoffieal'ana LO^rarj/ JourmU tor April, 18S9,p. 


tiieoTe was but a single spiritual paper ; t4>-d«7 there are five,* 
advocating, for the present, different phases of Bpiritoal belief. 
There cannot, of conrse, be sceptics in immortality, or seeular- 
isls, among thoae who admit the phenomena of Spiritvialiam. 
But, for the time, there are thine who are termed Chriiptian 
SpiritualiatA, and others, calling themselveB Radicals, who look 
upon Christ but as one of the ancient philoBophera, with no 
cUim to distinction as a teacher beyond Socrat«s, Seneca, and a 
ho6t of others. 

I am convinced that this schism is teinporaiT' only. Spirit- 
nalistn ia the complement of Christianity. Spiritual phenomena 
are the witDeases of Ghriatianitj. AU thou^tfol believers in 
the epiphanies of Spiritualism will be Christians as soon as they 
Imni to distinguish between the simple grandeur of Christ's 
teuchings, as embodied in the synoptical Gospels, and the 
Augustinian version of St. Fanl'a theology, as adopted in ooe 
form by the Church of Bame, and in another indoi-sed by Cal- 
vin and Luther : a system BBsociated with infallibility and 
known, among Protestants and Romanists alike, as Orthodoxy. 

Spiritual Epiphanism is spreading as &st, probably, as the I 
world can bear it — as fast as its wisest friends desire ; and it 
is spreading, as they think, in manner the most desirable : not 
as a sect — nor ever, I trust, to become such — not as a separate 
Church, with its prescribed creed and its ordained ministers 
and its formal professors. It spreads silently through the 
agency of daily intercourse, in the privacy of the domestic 
circle. It pervades, in one or other of its phases, the best lit- 
erature of tiie day. f It invades the Churches already eatab- 

* Namely, the Spirituat Magatiae, the %)irUualut, the Otrutian 
Bpiriluaiut, Human Nature, and the Medium and Daybreak ; the 
Sist three representiiiK Christian Spiritnalkm ; the two latter advoca- 
ting Spiritualism in coooection with what aie naoally termed radical 

t Writing this in Janoary, 1S71, I call to mind that, within the lost 
fou or five weeks, six stories ol apparitions, all terional; and eunestlj 
aannted, have appeared in one or other of Harpeia' periodicals : one 


luifaed, not u an opponeot but m ut ally. Ita tendency is to 
modify the creed and soften the asperities, of Protestant and 
Romanist, of Presbyterian and Episcopalian, of Baptist and 
Methodist, of Unitarian and Universalist. lU tendency ia to 
leaven, vitih invigorating and spiritualizing effect, the religions 
sentiment of the age, increasing ita vitality, enlivening its oon- 

I would not be understood, however, as expecting that 
Spiritualism will effect all this except in measure as its livfa 
minee are wisely worked ; nor as asserting, in a general way, 
that we of the present age are worthy recipients of its reveal- 
ings. There are millions of men and women among ua who 
lack the judgment needed to prosecute spiritual research, juat 
as lltere are millions more wbo have not the culture neceasaiy 
to exercise judiciously the right to vot«. In eiUier case there 
is but one remedy : iJie millions must be educated up to tl>e 

Spiritual mauifestatiouB are more inevitable than tinivraaal 
BuSrage; for a majority, if it see fit, can limit the elective 
fraochiae : but no majority, be it ever so large, can summon, 
or can exclude, the most important among the epiphoniea of 
Spiritualism. If dreams do, sometimes, supply warning or 
prophecy ; if material objects are, occasionally, moved befoie 
our eyes by powern not of this world ; if houses really, are 
what is termed haunted, withont human agency ; if the Bpiritti 
of those whom we call dead do, at times, reveal tfaemselvea fay 
influence, or by intelligent sounds, or by actual tqiparition aa 
did Christ to assure his disciples of immortality — what power 

leading to tlte detection of a mimleT ; three others (mpplmiCDt to 
Sarper'* WMUg of Deoembet 34, 1870, p. 840) from tlie pen of Floi- 
enoe Hanyat, daughter of the celebrated noveliit: one of these last 
having' been witzieaaed by Captain HatXTat himself, and all, the writer 
says, being " otrictlj true and well anthentjoated." Bat no periodical! 
of OUT ooanti7 are condnoted with better judgment, nor with sfcdoter 
regaid to the demands of pnbllo sentiment, ttiaa tliose Ivaed by tiw 


hA-ve we week mortals, who moBt rit still and see winds and 
wavee fiilfil their missioQ, to control the agency of disembodied 
spirits ? Shall we set about consideiing whether we shall 
acoept ihe epiphany of the rainbow or the apparition of tho 
Aurora Borealis ? 

If tbe belief in the phenomena called Spiritual be a delusion 
of the senses, tt will come to naught ; if it be of Ood we can- 
not arrest its advent. We niay receiTe it unwisely, interpret 
It ignorantly, treat it with distrust or with levity; or we may 
examine its phenomena in a patient and catholic spirit of in- 
quiry, in manner suited to its sacred claims : that is all. And 
it is inexpresmbly important that it find us with our li^ts 
burning. If we se^ it, darkling ; if we meet it, insensible to 
its hi^ character ; it may prove a bane instead of a blesaing. 

That tbe Spiritualists of our day need wise advice and pru- 
dent cautions ; that some of them run into extravi^^oe and 
misconceive alike the objects of spiritual reeeorch and the 
fitting mode of conducting it ; that tlieir ranlcs have been in- 
vaded by thousands of waiis and strays, poastMsed 1^ v^rant 
and fiuttastic opinions — is but what happens in all great revo- 
lutions of opinion, political or religious ; is but that which 
befel the German Beformecs of the sixteenth century and the 
French Revolutionists of the e^hteenth. The wild waves of 
freedom, as some one has suggested, occasionally cast their 
blinding spray beyond Intimate bound. But time brings 

Mot is it reasonaUe to expect that SfHritnalism'a best fruits 
should be obtained in their maturity, at this early stage of 
their culture ; much less do I assume here to produce them. 
If, even, by length of experience and profundity of research, 
I had become fully competent to set forth all the conditions 
necessary to obtidn the surest and most useful results from the 
manifestations of Spiritualism, it would require a volume to 
contain a detailed statement of these conditions, properly evi- 
denced and illustrated. But, thouj^ I have faithfully ex- 
pemded the leisure which fifteen years of active li£a left me, in 


dtis study, I am fikT indeed &om being ihxia competent : 
do I believe that any man living yet is. Such knowledge 
oome, like all important knowledge, through the labors of manf 
and the gradual unfoldinga of time. 

Such hinta and waminga as seemed to me the most import 
taat I have already given ; as that the Spiritualist most be- 
ware of the temptation to imagine that he is obtaining reveal^ 
inga direct from God, or from any person of the Godhead, or' 
from any other iniallible source. Let him rest satisfied if he- 
obtain sure proof of immortulity : that is the pearl of greul 
price, to become the possessor of which no efforts are too ardu- ' 
oua, no pains too great. For the rest he must trust to general 
precepts and advices, tested and approved by reason and con- 
science. Every profound student of Nature becomes convinced 
that iniallible teachings touchii^ the details of human con- 
duct and eai-thly afiairs do not enter into the economy of the 

Especially should the Spiritualist be on his guard against 
seeking worldly wealth and profit through spiritual revealings. 
The very attempt tends to attract spirits of a low order. The 
medium who submits to it incurs grave dangers; while the 
votary puts himself in the sure road to delusioa and disap- 
pointment * A. medium who is true to his high trust will re- 
fuse to enter a path thus perilous and misleading. | If, aome- 

* Bnt that space fails me I oonld addnoe niuneroaa oxamplea in paoof 

f An anecdots, in this oonnectioii, ma; be woiUi relating. In the 
sprinf of 1838, we bad seveial aLttings in 107 ^nrtmenta in the Palano 
Volli, Naplea. with the celebrated medium, Ur. Home ; at whltdi mt- 
tinga the Count d'Aquila (or, as we nsnallj called him, Prince Loigi, 
third brother of the then reigning King of Naples), at his own aoj^ea- 
tion, asaisted ; no one else except my famil; beii^ preeeat. It waa 
thought by Home that, in case of a revolution, the Prince's chance to 
succeed hin brother on the throne woa good ; and he asked Ur. Home to 
obtain foi him an answer to a queatioD which, tiioagh oantiouBlj wonted, 
evidently looked to the seooeBsion. " I know," Mid Kr. Home, in le- 
p^, "tiiatyour Boyal tTiyhinMn will pardon me foisting thaitaaoh an 


times when all human effort has &iled, spiritual aid or adTice 
in. such matters is Tolimteered, it should, even then, be re- 
lived with great caution. Monej-changers are out of place 
in the ^iritua] temple, Man's destiny is to earn his bread by 
industij, oot by divination. 

Still another warning is greatly needed. The most experi- 
enced Spiritualists believe that no one, though actuated by the 
purest motives, caa abandon himself to influences from the 
next world, exclusively and throughout a long term of years 
(for instance as Swedenborgdid), without risk of serious injury 
and without unmineot danger of being, more or less frequently, 
misled. Secularism is lamentably in error when she teaches 
that it is the part of wisdom to live here without taking 
thought, or seeking to fit ourselves, for a hereafter : but, on 
the other hand, it it true that earth-life and its duties are an 
indispensable preparation for onr next phase of being. Eaeh 
world, like each age of man, has ita own sphere with appropn- 
at« duties, to be fulfilled wiUi reference the one to the other, 
but not to be interchanged. If, in infancy, dreaming constantly 
of manhood and its privileges, we n^ect the culture and pur- 
suits which pertain to childhood, we shall suffer for it in our 
adult years ; and it is doubtful whether any development in 
the next world can fully compensate for n^ected opportunities 
of improvement and of usefulness in this. If, while here, we 
do not habitually avail ourselves of such opportunities, it may 
he asaomed as certain that we shall die at lost, like hei-mits 
after a barren life in the desert, utterly unfitted for our future 

Again : Exclusive devotion to meditations, or to spiiit- 

Inqniiy ought not to be made of the Bpirite. It is their oSoe to sapply 
O" with BpiiitQal knowledge, not to satisfy cniiositj about worldly oon- 
"Ton ore qnite right, Hr. Homo," replied Prinoe Lnl^ "and I 

A re[EOof and a reply which, caasieiuig the o 

b, Google 

240 BFmmTAI. asd thbolooical utebatcbk 

inflnenees, connected witb the next world, gives Urth, in 
Spiritualism aa in Hieology, to a Tsgne and heavy litcnttoRv 
in 'which common sense has small part. Nevertheless slurs 
against the current effusions of Spiritualism come with a bad 
grace &om those, Btanding afar off, who have never lifted a 
finger to mft profitable from worthless, or done an|^t, in any 
way, to purify or improve what they condemn. 

The space I allotted to this branch of the subject is ezhanatod; 
and peibi^ Z have said enough toward marking the import- 
ance of this phenomenal movement, and aasiguing to Spiritual- 
ism itself definite character and fitting place among the reli^ous 
beliefs of the day. Though not a sect, it is doubtful whetlwr 
any sect, exerting peaceful inSnence only, ever spread with the 
same rapidity, or mode its mark during so brief an existenoe, 
on the hearts of so considerable a fraction of mankind. Al- 
ready it begins to assert its position. Though its troths are 
disputed still, yet, except by the ignorant or the hopelessly 
bigoted, they are not despised. The idea is daily gaining 
ground that its occult agencies may ridily repay eameet rO' 
search. The essential is that the entire subject should be 
studied in its broad phase, as one of the vital elements (rf an 
enli^tened Gbristdan &ilh. 




'"niat perfeot silence where tholip« and heart 
Aio etiS, and we no longer entertain 
Onr own imporf act thong-hte and vain opinion*, 
Bat Ood alone epeaks in us." — LoNaFBi.i.ow. 

" There does not appear the leaot intdmation in histoi; or tradition 
that feligion was first reasoned out : but the whole of hiatoij and tra- 
dition loakea for the oUier side, tJiat it cama Into the world bj revela- 
tion. Indeed the state of religion in the first ages of which we have 
ftny aooonnt, seems to sappoae and intimate that this was the original 
of it unomf mankind."— 'BuTLKK.* 

Tbe sat^ect of Inspirataon, like that of the Hi^;nB &nd wonden 
of the Gospels and of the Bpiritoal gifts commended by Paul, 
has usually bUea into very injudicious hands. Its would-be 
friends have done it far more harm than its opponents. The 
'atioualistio spirit of the a^ is disposed to reject it ; and the 
chief reason for this is the extravagance, imd the exclusive 
character, of the claims put forward in its behalf by theolo- 

Protestant OrUiodoxy claims that it is an exceptional and 
miraculous gift of Ood, granted to man during one century only 
of the last eighteen; and then granted only to the Author of 

* Anatogg of Bdigim, part ii. c^p. S ; pp. 19S-6 (of London Bd. of 
1800). See, in corroboration, pp. 139, 140. See also, on the same 
rahject, preceding page of tfala volnme, 189. 

M3 what nrePIBATION is. 

our religion and to ei|^t others; namely, to the four Erai^gel 
ista and to St. Paul, St. James, St. Peter, and St. Jude.* 

Roman Catholic Orthodoxy claims that this miraculous gift 
of God has been granted throughout the whole of die last eigfa- 
teen centuries; but, dui-ing the last seventeen of these, only to 
one ecclesiastical jurisdiction ; namely, to the Holy Catfai^ic 

Both Orthodoxies, thou^ differing on so many other points, 
agree in claiming for Inspiration that it is a direct gift of Qod 
and the source of unmixed, unerring tnith. 

Loaded down by claims so unphilosophical as these, we need 
not wonder that Inspii-ation is rejected as a Mlacy by many of 
the most earnest and thoughtful minds of the day. When Sci- 
ence fully awakes to the fact that there may, as part of the 
oosmical plan, be intenuundane as well as mundane phenomena, 
much of this growing scepticism will he dissipated. Before 
this can happen, however, we must discard the orthodox defini- 
tion of Inspiration, and adopt one more in accordance with the 
enlightened spirit of the age; somewhat, perhaps, in this 

It is a mental or psychical phenomenon, strictly law-gov- 
erned ; occasional, but not exceptional or exclusive ; some- 
times of a spiritual and ultramundane character, indeed, but 
never miraculous; often imparting invaluable knowledge to 
man, but never infallible teachings ; one of the most precious 
of all God's gifte to His creatures, but, in no case, mvolving a 
direet message from Him — a message to be accepted, unques- 
tioned by reason or conscience, as Divine truth unmixed with 
human error. 

To this it may be added, in aocordanoe with Bishop Butler's 

* It may, however, picperiy be added fliat Protestanldam claims that 
the majority of aoertalD (EoamenkalCoimoUwaa inapbcd byOod te 
ontofiU act* ; namely, the Oonncil. of Carthage when, at the oIom of 
the fourth century, it establiahed the Canon of SoriptDie. For, unlosi 
tluB be admitted, Uiere ia no aoro proof that the Bible, as now cMuai- 
tcUly aontftrocted, is a minoaJooaly inspltvd votiuiie. 


vieva, dtat Inspimtion is the eoorce not of one rel^ion alooe, 
but, in pliase more or less pure, of all religions, ancient or 
modem, that have held pendatent sway over any considerable 
portion of mankind. And just in proportion to the rela- 
tive purity of this Bovirce, welling up in each system of feith 
reflectively, is the larger or smaller admixture of the Good 
and tlie True which — modem candor ia learning to admit — is 
to be found, in certain measure, even in tbe mdeat creed; as 
Lowell has it : 

"EMh form of worahip that hath swiped 
The life of man, and given it to gaep 
The master-key uf knowledge, teTerenoe, 
Enfolds some genua of goodness and of light." * 

Among those who adopt this broad view of Inspiration as a 
universal agency, there are two different opinions touching ito 
origin : one class of reasoners (including many students of vital 
niagnetism) tracing it to a peculiar condition of the mind, while 
others seek it« source in some occult intelligence outside of the 
individual, and operating upon him. My own conviction is, \ 
that there is truth in both theories. Inspiration is a phenom- ) 
eoon sometimes purely psychical, con'elative with clearsigbt I 
(clairvoyance), and appertaining to the department of Mental 
Science; t sometimes produced by influences from the next / 
world, and to be referred to Spiritualism, 

* It is a cheering sign of Uia times when a oleigyman of one per- 
iuation isaoeB a aerieB of sermons, in whioh lie reoogfniies and aets forth 
ttie excellence of ChunihGe other tiioa bis own. piefooed with there- 
auak that " a good man's home is the more delightful aa he calls to 
toiod that the world is fnll of good bomea ; and that millioua are aa 
hapt^ aa he." The Ber. Tuomab K. Bebcheb (of Elmiro, Sen' Tork), 
has done tiiia, in a amall volume entitled Our Secen Chnrchet (New 
7oik, 1870) : tnclndii^. among the seven, the Chorch of Rome. 

\ Andrew Jookson Davis, the well-known author of Nnt'irifi DuiTit 
Jtaitlttion, is often quoted aa having written that work under dictation 
of BpIritB, But he himaolf doclarta— correctly, no dcntbt— tliat it was 


Among the ftncient phUoBopIiBrs there were those vho, mom 
or leas distiiiotlj, detected its existence ; some in one of its 
forms, some in the other. I have space but for a single ^leci- 
men of each. 

He moat illustrious example comes to us from One irbo has 
not iuaptlf been called the Father of Moral Philosophy, and 
who was the Spiritualist of the age in which he lived. In re- 
gard to Inspiration, Socrates, unless Plato has belied him, 
adopted the spiritual theory. 

Among the celebrated Dialogues of Plato is one in which the 
interlocutors are Socrates and Ion, an Athenian declaimer or 
ibapsodist who had been in the habit, in his public harangues, 
of introducing copious and beautiful illustrations of Homer. 
Alluding to the ^reat success these had obtained, and to the 
&ct that, when lie attempted to illustrate other poets, all his 
efforts failed, Ion asks of Socrates an explanation of this dis- 
tinction. Socrates replies : 

" I will tell yoii, O Ion, what appears to me to be the c»uae 
of this inequality of power. It is that you are not master of j 
any art for the illustration of Homer; bat it is a Divine influ- 
ence which moves you, like that which resides in the stone 
called magnet by Euripides." * 

Socrates, then, in further explanation, adds : " The authors 
of these great poems which we admire do not attain to excel- 
lence through the rules of art, but they utter their beautiful 
melodies of verse in a state of inspiration and, as it were, pos- 
sessed by a Spirit not their own." 

Then he inquires of Ion : " Tell me, and do not conceal 

WTLtten In a state of clairvojance, or as he [duases it, in *' the superio; 
oonditdon." Tha distiuotiDn between oleaiti^t and medinmahip islm- 

■ It ia noteworthy that, tweuty-two CMituries unce, a pbitosopber 
detected tlie connection between ina(^tism (though only in its ten«s- 
tiial phase) and that state of mind which frequently ^vea birth to in- 
Epiration. How mnuh Balohenbaoh'a ezpemnents would bars later- 


whai I ask. When you declaim well and strilce your audience 
with admiration ; whetLer you sing of Ulysses rushing upon 
the threshold of his palace, diacoTering himself to the suitors 
and pouring his shafta out at his feet; or of Achilles assailing 
Hector ; or those afibcting passagOB- oottoeming Andromache, or 
Hecuba, or Priam — are you then self-possessed? or, rather, 
are you not rapt and filled wiUt such ent^tusiasm by the deeds 
you recite, that you {aocy yourself in Ithaca or Troy, en- v^ere- 
ever else the poem transports you ? " 
Ion. " ITou speak moat truly, Socrates." 
The sage then gives his explanation, "You, O Ion, are in- 
fiuenced by Homer. If you recite theirorks of any other poet, 
you get drowsy and are at a loss what to say ; but when you 
hear any of the compositions of that poet, your thoughts are 
excited aod you grow eloquent. . This explains the 

quesUon you asked wherefore Homer and no other poet io^ires 
you with eloquence : it is that you are thus excellest nat by 
Baence but through Divine inspiration." * 

The expression (ascribed, as above, by Plato to Socrates), 
"you are infiaeuced by Homer," is very remarkable: it em- 
bodies the cardinal doctrine of Spiritualism, 

The philosopher had the best of all reasons for adoptii^ this 
view of the case; namely, his own personal experience. This 
leads me to speak of 

* "An," or of lutplratton. I have hen followed the traaBlatiim 
•doptedbyO. H. Lewis in lua "ffistoiy of Philosophy," aoriesi. The 
above eztiactB and many otiieiE in corrobonitioii, may there be foond. 
^e uitheaticit; of this dialogue, as written bj Plato, is admitted on 
all hands. It ooatoins, of course, only a narration of Socrotes' opinions, 
uol^ aa iudoreemeot of them by tlie uanator. Tet they seem to have 
oeen snbetaatially shared by Socrates' illnstriouB pnpiL An enlij^ht- 
^iied chorcb hiatoriam says: "Plato's apeculadonB reated on a basis 
altogether historical. He connected himself with the aotoal phenomena 
of teligions life and with the traditions lying b«fore him. ... It 
wU continued to be the um of original Platonism to trace throaghont 
™«toiy the veatigog of a oonneotion between the visible and invisible 
wodds."— NaANDEE : CAureA Eittory (Bohn's Ed.), vol. t p. 28. 


Tbb Genius, or DEUoif, of Socki.teb.* 

For particulara touching the noted Ouardi&n Spirit or Do^wn 
(.^tmonton) of Socrates, we are indebted to the same eminent 
anthority through which most of the opiniona apoken but not 
set down by the martyr-philosopher himself, have reached oa. 

Though alluded to elsewhere in Plato's writings,! *^ moet 
direct and reliable account of this spirit-voice and its warning 
is to be found in the " Apology," written immediately after the 
death of Socrates. In this paper, the only strictly authentic 
record we possess of that philosopher's defence' before his judges, 
Plato, who was preseDt at his trial, may surely be trusted as 
having reproduced, with fidelity, the statements made, and tbo 
arguments employed, on that memorable occasion, by the mas- 
ter he loved. 

Among the charges preferred against Socrates had been set 
oat his pretence of communicating with a familiar spirit. In 
connection with this, and alluding to the fact that he had 
taught in private, not delivered orations in popular assemblies, 
Socrates said to his judges : 

" The cause of this is what you have often and in many 
places heard me mention: because I am moved by a certain 
divine and spiritual influence, which also Melitus, through 
mockeiy, has set out in the indictment. This began wiUi me 
from childhood : being a kind of voice which, when present, is 
wont to divert me from what I am about to do, but which 

* It need hardly be stated that Demon is hare employed, as usual In 
Grecian injth(dt%7, in the sense of a divinity balow the great goda 
Thus io Cooke's Begiod; 

" Holy demons, by great Jove designed 
To be on earth tiie guardians of mankind." 

t As in the Firtt Aleiiiadet, g 1. Also, at length, in the ThMfft$, gg 
10, 11. 

To the iame subject Xenophon alludes in bis MemoiTt of SocraUt, 
Book L , § 1 : where he soys that those who n^leoted the warnings of 
Socrates' Qenius " had no small cause foi lepentanoe." 


nerer urges me on. This it was which opposed toy meddling 
in public politicB." * 

Another allusion to the same subject, more solenm, pro- 
nounoed in the immediate prospect of death after a majoritj 
of bis judges had passed sentence upon him, is as follows : 

** To me, O my judges, a strange thing has happened. For 
tixe 'WfMited prophetic voice of my guardian deity, on eveiy 
fbrmer occasion even in the most triSing afiairs, opposed me if 
I iras about to do anything wrong. But now, when that has 
beCtUen me which ye yourselves behold — a thing which is sup- 
posed to be the extremity of evil — neither did the warning of 
tbe God oppose me when I departed from home this morning, 
iMir yet it^tile I addressed you, though it has often restrained 
me in the midst of speaking. What do I suppose to be the 
cause of this? . .- . Hiat which has befallen me b not 
ihe effect of chance: but this is clear to me that now to 
die lukd be freed from my cares is better for me. On this ac- 
count the warning in no way turned me aside." f 

The sincerity of the philosopher when he said this cannot 
ratioaaJly be doubted. He must be a stubborn or a thoughtless 
sceptic who refuses to believe that a man like Socrates, about 
to die because he would not purchase life by desisting from 
teaching what he felt to be good and just, would, at such a 
moment, swerve a hairbreadth from the strict truth. J 

According to what rational canon of evidence can we reject 
BDch t«Htimony as this f The moat candid among modem his- 

- Apotogp, % 19. 

t Apalogn, g§ 31, 83. See also, w to that matter, PLOTABcn, De 
Omio Socrates, c. 20 ; and Apui.£[ub, De Deo Soeratii. 

% Seldom in any age, by sage or martji, has uobler senlimeDt been 
uttered than hj Soorales on Mb trial, in reply to the ohai^ of impiety : 
" If it is yonr wish to aoquit me on conditicai that 1 henceforth be 
nlent, I reply that I love and honor yon, but that I onght rather to 
obey the goda than you. Neither la t^ presence of jndgea uor of the 
enemy ia it permitted me, or any othei man, bo nse every sort of means 
to eaoape deatb. It i» not deaUi bnt crime that it behooves na to avoid : 
ctime moves faetei than death." 


torians of philosophy admit that the proof is concinBive.* 
Lewis, who will certainly not be accuBed of BUpeistitzon or 
credulity, alluding, in his History of Philosophy, to Soerfttes' 
belief that he was warned, from time to time, by a Divine 
voice, says: " This is his own explicit statement ; and surely, in 
a Christian country, abounding in examples of persons believiitg 
in direct intimations from above, there can be httle difficiUt^ in 
crediting such a statement." f 

To what extent Socrates owed his views ou immortality and 
a future life to bis Guardian Spirit we can never know ; nor is 
it likely that he himself could have determined. He seoma to 
have regarded that influence ua one sent to warn rather than to 
teach. Yet it would be'strange if, twenty-three ceuturies ago, 
he had groped his way, unaided, to truths which we scarcely 
recognize to-day. Take, in addition to tiie fore^ing, the fol- 
lowing example : 

" When does the soul attain to the truth P For when it at- 
tempts to investigate anything along with the body, it is plain 
that it is then led astray by it. . . . The soul reasons most 
effectually when none of the corporeal senses harass it ; neither 
hearing, sight, pain or pleasure of any kind ; but it retires as 
much as {wssible within itself, and aims at the knowledge of 
what is real, taking leave of the body and, aa &r as it can, ab- 
staining from any union or participation with it." X 

■ays : " We have the testimDi^ of Plato and Xenophon, oontempoiaiy i 
with him, caufiimnd b; Plutarch, Cicero, and other reliable anthodtieB, 
to say nothing; of Tortullian, Orifren, and otheis of the Ancient FaUierB, 
that fiooniteB had an attendant Spirit, which warned him of danger aad 
misfottune." — Chap. vi. p. 19. 

f G. H. Lewis : Biograplaeal mitory of PAOimp/ty, London M Ed., 
1857, p. 141. 

t P/iarlo, % 10. I have followed Stanford's translation. 

It is worth Doting, however, that Sooratesfit ho be oorrectlyrepoted), 
following out this idea, etiaTed, as many noblo souls have sttayad, into 
Uie barren regions of osoetdcimii nnd sbetroctdon; forbiddii^ use, lest 
nbnse should follow. He sought wisdom thzoogh deliveraooe " from 


Sere we have the genu of the apnetuoatio or peychical view 
of XnspiiHtioQ. Cicero, in a later age, enlarged on ihis. llio 
follo'wing remarkable passage, literally translated, is from his 
" Xusculam Questions." 

" "Wltat else do ve do, when &om pleasure, that is from the 
body, iirhen from common affairs which minister to the body, 
when from public duties, when from all buaiaesa whatever, we 
call ofiT the soul — what, I say, is it that we then do, other than 
to recall ^e soul to itself and to self-communion, and to lead 
it in a great d^ree away frnm ths body V But to segregate the 
aoul from the body, can it be anything else than a learning how 
to die? (necquidquamaUudestquamemoridiscere?) Where- 
fore, bflliere me, we should lay this to heart, and disjoin our- 
selves from our bodies ; that is, we should accustom ourselves 
to die (disjungamusque uos a coi|>oribuB ; id est, consuescamus 
mori). And thus, while we remain on earth, it will be as if 
we approached celestial life ; and wh^i at last we are released 
from earlJily bonds, the exit of the soul will tJiereby be lees re- 
tarded." * 

The " accustoming ourselves to die " is somewhat fanciful ; 
yet the expression is, in a measure, borne out by some of the 
phenomena of Vital Mt^etism. When artificial somnambu- 
lism deepens into what French magnetizers call exla»e — that is, 
profouud trance — the bands which connect soul and body seem 
to be greatly loosened ; a strong desire sometimes ^ows itself 
in the subject to escape from earth to a brighter world ; and if, 
through inexperience or inadvertence of the operator, this deep 

tixe inalioDality of the bod;;" Uionght we Bboold " study to live as 
though on t^ very confines tut death ; " and advises ' ' to use reflection 
alone and unalloyed, cndcaTOiing to investigate eveiy reality by itself 
and uuniied, abttatmnff at tnueh as postilile fiwn CJie v*e of Vie ej/es, 
and in a wotd of evet; part of the body, as oontounding the sonl and, 
-when nnitedirith it, preventing its attainment to wisdom and truth." — 
PAmto, g§ 10, 11, 18. 

He did not Tocognize the essential value and uses of earth-Ufe, nor 
the importance of teachings throogh the senses. 

• TuKul. Quint., Kb. L g31. 

11* DMn;.^:b, Google 


trance ia too much prolonged, death may actually ensue. I 
was told, in Paris, that sever^ such cases had occurred; but 
the namea of the parties, as may be supposed, were kept aecrel^ 
An instance in which a somnambole* had & narrow escape is 
related by a French magnetizer, author of a curious woi^ on 
the " Secrets of the Future Life." He had two lucid Bomnun.' 
bules; oae a youth named Bruno, the other, Ad^le, a woman 
in humble circumstances ("simple ouvriire commemoi," he says 
of her), not a professional medium nor ever taking money for tfae 
exercise of her gift, but who had been, from infancy, a natural 

One day he had magnetized both simultaneously, desirinf; to 
compere their impressioDB and to satisfy his doubts whether there 
was danger in carrying the state of extaie too far. He bron^^t 
Bruno into magnetic relatioa with AdSle, telling him to observe 
what became of her. While occupied during some time with Uie 
young man, he (Bruno) suddenly cried out: "I've lost sight of 
her ; awake her ; there's but just time." Alarmed, the msgnet- 
izer turned his attention to Ad^le whom, for a quarter of an 
hour, he bad left to herself. I translate the rest from his own 
words ; " In that short time her body had become almost icy 
cold ; I could detect neither pulse nor respiration ; her fitce was 
of a yellowish green, the lips blue, the heart gave no sign of 
life. A mirror which I approached to her lips I'emained un- 
dimmed. I magnetized her with my utmost force, hoping to 
revive her ; but, during five minutes, without any effect what- 
ever. Bruno and several persons who were assisting at the 
sitting added, by their terror, to my discomfiture ; and, for a 
moment, I thought all was over and that the soul, in very deed, 
liad left its body. I begged all present to pass into the next 
room, so as to recover my energy ; but, tbongh hope still lia- 
gered, I felt powerless. Throwing myself on my knees, 1 im- 

* I aiopt, from the Frenoh, the term mmnan^ith, to designate a 
pBtiect onder the influence of artafidsUj-indDoed «omnambnliam ; re> 

Btriutdng tha meaning ol tho more usnal word Annnnmiujwt to a natnral 


pJored Ood not to snfier that son], a victim of my doubts, to 
pass away. After a brief period of anguish, I heard the low 
'words : " Why did you recall me ? It was all but done, when 
God, touched by your prayer, sent me back," * 

The iMithor adds : " I entreat those who might be tempted to 
risk a similar experiment to desist. A. more terrible spectacle 
cannot be wituessed ; and the issue, in their case, mi^t be less 
fortunate thiui in mine." 

On a. prevtoos occasion, AdMe being in the state of exta»«, 
there had appeared to her, and conversed with her (bm she be- 
lieved), her mother and two deceased brothers. The following 
oonveisation between her and her mognetizer tJien ensued : 

" Ah, how I should like to be with them I Let me go ; I 
shall soon be in Heaven." 

" Very generous of you I And what shall I do witli your 

" Have it buried, or disposed of as you please." 

" And the officers of justice, what am I to say to them F " 

" Tell them, I'm gone." f 

That there is, daring magnetic sleep, a modification of the 
normal relations between soul and body, is further attested by 
the inset^bility to outward sounds and to pain, even the most 
acute, which sometimes supervenes. ^ One cannot read the 

■ Oasuonbt : ArtaiKt dela Vte Future denoffet, Paris, 1848 ; vol. L 
pp. 117,118. This work went to presB in December, 1S4T, some months 
before even the name of ' ' Rochester Knocldnge " had been heard 
among na. Yet Cahagnet registers (all details of commnnicationa made 
to his Bomnambiiles by eighty dilfereat Bpiriti of the departed ; aod the 
identity of sereial among tlieee he conaidaiB positively proved, 

t Work quoted : vol. i. pp. 90, 91. 

t Ai eoily BB tlie ;ear 1&4S, there was performed at Cherbonrg (the 
weU.kuomt French port in the Departmeitt de la Manche), a surgical 
operation of the most painfnl character, aSoiding proof that the phe- 
nomena above nllnded to are real. The official record of this operation, 
signed by fifty-two witnesses present, was poblished in the Journal da 
OHerliattrg, and in the Pliara de la Mandie of September 36, 1846. 
This proeit-fierbal waa drawn np from notes taken on the spot by H. 


beat works on M&gnetasm without eoming upoa atroug r««a^ 
for the belief th&t, in ihe profound magnetic trance, there is a 
certain reoesaion of the soul &am ita earthly minister and an 
approach to that stage of ezisteDoe, soon to oome, irtken 'what 
St. Paul oaUs the " natural body " will be wholly discarded. 

Another phenomenon is now proved beyond reasonable ds- 
nial ; namely, tliat, during this partial segregation of the sonl 
from physical impressions and worldly oonoema, its natiTe 
powers, less subjected, it would seem, to the earth-clog thal^ 
habitually weighs upon them, exhibit clearer perceptions and 
higher knowledge. This occurs when, as Socrates expressed 
it, the soul " retires within itaelf," or, as Cicero phraaee it, 
when we "recall the soul to itself, and to aelfHwnimutuoa;" 
whether this be done artificially (as t>y magnetic posses), or 
whethei- it happen in a more normal condition of the body, by 
natural idiosyncrasy. 

The most modest and cautious of writers on Vital Hagnet- 
ism, I>r. Bertrand,* has well defined this state, when artifi- 
cially superinduced : " The somnambule," he says, " acquires 
neW perceptions furnished by interior organs ; and the succes- 
sion of these perceptions constitutes a new life, differing from 
that which we habitually enjoy : in that new life come to tight 
phases of knowledge differing from those which our ordinary 
sensations convey to us." f 

I myself have, on niany occasions, verified this phenomenon 
of what may be called double-conaciousneas, J attended by exal' 
Shevrel, adrooate and member of the Hnnidpol Council of Cherboiug'; 
and to its sorapiilDua aaaaxtaj the dgnaturea of the wibieaBes testi:^. 

I ahoold bare give this pivci»-Berbai bat for Its length, and for the 
fact that enlightened physunaju no longer deny the reality of this pbe- 

' Member of the Facnl^ of Bfedlcfaie of Paiia, and formeriy a pupil 
of the Polytechnic School. 

\ Bebtramd : " Traitia da Somnambnliame," Paris, 1623 ; jip. 400, 

{ An inteieating ease of natural doDble-ODnauionineaB, contanned 
tbronghoat fifteen yean, ia leluted by the Kev. Dr. Plumer, in Hatpen 
Monthly toi Mi?, 1800, page 807. It Is suggestive. 


tation of intelligence in the abnormal state. Bnt othera can 
Bpenk, MS to this, from s much irider range of e^>erieDce than 
I. A physician with whom I am intimately acquainted — one 
Kmong the beet known and most successful in New York — and 
hia vrife, having, before the advent of Spiritnalism, taken a 
deep interest in m^;netic phenomena, experimented for about 
two years wiUi an American sempstrew, moderately educated, 
with rather more than the average mental capacity of her class. 
He told me that Marian awake and Marian in magaetio sleep 
were two peisons as &r apart by perceptions, intelligence, judg- 
ment, as could well be imagined. One day when we were talk- 
ii^ of magnetism and its effects, he told me that the girl had 
made oommentaries upon medical and philosophical subjects, 
evincing great profundity and acuteness. On many other sub- 
jects she was equally clearsighted.* 

While adverting, in connection with the subject of inspira- 
Uon, to sadi phenomena as the above, occurring under the op- 
eration of a Epocial agency, I bear in mind that the world baa 

* But here is a snpplemetit to snob erpeiisnoe. Dr. Bertnod, ipenk- 
iag of BOmnaiabalBi whoee power of dear-slg-lit n> ddMling^i»eate bad 
been satiafootorUf leiifled, rrJatea the following oonversatim which he 
bad with one of them : 

"Do joaoee 70UI heart and the Uood Sowing fnnn it?" 


" Can yon peioeiTe that it is divided into two caritiGe ? " 

'■ Yes, I see one on the ri(^ and one on tiie left." 

" TboQ tell ni«, is ths blood of the same color on both iddes t" 

" Yea," she answered in a decided tone, " and to prove to yon that it 
is, 7on may bleed me here or here (touching fint her right arm tlien her 
left), and ;oii will Bnd the some blood." 

" lliis leply," saja Beitiand, " plainly showed that this woman im- 
agined there woe two cavities in the heart, bom one of which flowed 
the blood to supply the right side of the bod; and from the other to 
mppljtho isft." — TraUida Somnami/uUame^ p. 78. 

In all socli oases there is the ohanoe of what msguelijseTS call " im- 
perfect Imddity." It will not do, as Socrates leoommendeil, to absteln 
from the use of our eyes. 


recognized them, in this special form, for less tJiau a oestor^.* 
But the anali^y between these and the Tarioua phases of intd- 
lectual and psjchical exaltation, religious ecstasy, inTolimtAiy 
hy)motiam, apontoneoua trance, is so close that one cannot rea- 
Bouably deny the connection of one with the other. Uost of 
the Bpiritual gifts enumerated by Paul come to light, in persons 
of sensitive temperament, during magnetic sleep, and showed 
themselves during such strange, epidemical excitements as 
produced the alleged poasesuon of the TJrsuline Nuns of Iiou- 
dun f (1633 to 1639), and brought otit pseudo-miracles among 

I, In tlie form now known 
serred for the first time, by the Marquis da Fajaigxa, on hit estate ol 
Bozanoy, neax Soinoiu, on the foorUi of Haroh, 1784. 

f Eittoire den DUMa de Lovdun, oude la Poa»«mon dei Biiginum 
UrmtinM, Amsteid&m, 1670. At page 23I> of this work is a cuiioiis 
dooumant ; uamel;, the certificate of Monineur (Gaston, brother of 
Iionis XITL, then irin[r of France), who visited Loudon in May, 1635, to 
inquire into the character of tlie alleged possession. Be certiQes tliat 
he had perfect proof of iu reaUtt/ ; namely, that the possessed oona 
ob^ed Ml mental otdtn ; in other words, read unexpteBsed thooghto. 
He tt^ : " Aysat desir6 d'avoir nn signs paifait de la veritable po sse s 
sion de ces fllles, avons concert^ Bscrettement et il volx basse avec le 
P£re Traiiquille Capucin, de commander au DiSmon Sa/itilon, qui pcasA- 
doit actnellement la Sosnr CUire, qu'il aU&t boiser la main dnste da 
P5re Elizde, son exorcists ; ledit D^mon [meaning, of ooorse, the nmt 
herself} j a ponotuellement ob£i, salon notre deaiz ; oe qui nous a fait 
ctoire certainement que oe que lee religienx trsTaillana aui 
detdites Giles nous ont dit de lent possession est T^iitable." 

But tJus phenomenon of thought-resding is familiar tt 
I myself instituted, in the yeara 1856 and 1857, a series of careful ex- 
perimeuts to verify it, keeping strict minutes. By referenoe to these I 
find that I proponnded 21S qnestiouB and obtained about ninely-thret 
]Kr cent of pertinent answers, through a medium (not professional) sod 
of but moderate powers. Uany of the answers extended to several 
linee ; and, apart from their strict relevam^, were beyond the menial 
ctqNicity of the medium. The following may be taken as an average 
example ; both questions being asked mentally ; 

Q. " Can Ti)u tell me whether spirits have the power of propheqy T " 

A. " To some extent." 

WIDE satav, OF mepiRA.TKm. 85S 

tLe Pn>i^eta (Trombleius) of the Ceveimes* (1686 to 1707). 
The mantic faij of the FytlioneaB -was evidently of m^nefio 
character. Numa, in the Arician grove ; Mahomet, in the cave 
of BCira ; may have been iinconsciouBly under Bpiritual or som- 
nambulic inflaence. Peter's vision, when he saw Heaven opened 
and a oertain vesael descending ; Paul's trance, " whether in 
the body or out of the body " he could not tell ; bear, nnmistak- 
ably, more or less resemblance toroany hundred cases of actate 
that have appeared in Paris, in London, and elsewhere, during 
the present century. All such manifestations belong to one 
great class of phenomena. 

Tiie simplest and most usual form of Inspiration is what is ' 
wnially called the inspiration of genius ; its results aj^iearing / 
io. eminent literary eSbrts, in masterpieces of art, possihly V 
in some of onr most wonderful ^entific discoveries and i 
cbanical inventions, more evidently in the hi^est order of 
musical composition. All this is sometimes ascribed to native i 
organization duly coltivatod. f But aside firom the confessedly 
Q. "Wlkat ate the limits}" 

A. " Peiceiviiig more than men, one element of propheUo power ia 
greater." — Eitoacted from iatXiogot April 11, 18S7. 

A coDciBe and pertjnent iepl7, not bo mnoh to the words, as to Uia 
sense of m; mental qaestjon. But I did not for a moment imagfine, as 
Prince Gaston did, that the Devil had anTthing to do with it. It pur- 
ported to come from a dear, deceased friend 

For foTthei refeienoes on the mbjeot of the TTranUne Nuns of Londnn, 
see note on page 103 of tbotfaBt on the Boundary of Another WaHd. 

" Sometimes called GtKoiaardt or Camimra. Thej were French 
Protestants who took arms to resist peiseciition under the revocation of 
the Edict of Nantes. — See Buloire da Oamitardt, by St de Court de 
O^belin, 1760. Also Glavit JVopfietica, oi a key to the prophecies of 
Hondeor Marion and the other CnmiBars, London, 1707: Nouvemas 
Memoire»pour tenir d VHtsMre da GamuaTt, London, 1708 ; Examin 
d» Theatre 8aeri de* Oenmaiee. For other references see Foolfaff*, 
note on page 103. 

t See, on this snbjsot, Ur. Qolton's inteiesdng work on Heredi- 
tary Oeniat. I do not oBeaib that in thj department of what are called 
the exact scienceg — ss, for example, in the lesearches of Qalileo and in 
QwM, still more' ioestimalile, of Newton — we are jnstifled in unimlng 


powerfnl mfluence of a Urge and well-formed brain — the beet 
of patrimonies — geuiu» ma; owe its triumphs to agencies ihit 
are invifiible, like attncdon, except in their effects. 

Great poets from the earliest times have had a dim feeling 
that they were aided from above, end were wont to invoke ti» 
assistance of unseen Fowem — may we not say (aa Soontes 
said), with reoaon? When a poem by a Oreek acboolmaster, 
dating from the &r past, still invitee translation by our ablest 
scholars, calling forth tJie same admiration to-day with which 
it was greeted almost tliree thousand years ago ; when a few 
dramas by a comparatively illiterate man * are found, after 
three centuries have elapsed, to have furnished, to the Saxon 
tongue, one fouith of its household words ; f does it not soggeat 
the probability of aid from a higher sphere of being ? The 
wondrous character of these results, bewildering the w<N-ld, 
has provoked sceptical speculations touching their authors; aa 
if the effect were out of proportion to its reputed cause. Pro- 
fessor Wolf of Berlin, ^ in a celebrated work, denies to Homer 

that apiritaal aid was granted. ETen it we do not sobMiibe to the 
poet's lines, 

' ' Nature and Natare'a laws lay hid in nigbt, I 

Ood said ' Let Newton be 1 ' and all was light"— 
we cannot bnt admit th»t the sdentlfla dearught of Eni^and's greatest 
physicist was almost beyond panlleL Stitl it waa at —- n^— — *i«l 
choioot^r— Btriotty material, not spicitaal — and may have been bat ' 
hereditary aptitude, appearing in eminent degies. 

* " It is a stronj argument in favor of S^uk^Mare's illiteratore, that j 
it was munbuned by all bis coaliemporariea, many of whom have be- 
stoned every other merit upon bim, and by bis mooeesoie who lived 
nearest to his time; and that it hoa been denied only byOildon, Sew^ 
and otben down to Upton, who ooold have no meaoa of oaoertMniog 
the truth."— Li/e of ISlutiapeaTC prefixed to Cbolmeis' edition of hit | 
Plays, 8 vola, London, 1823, p. 14. 

f In Baetlbtt's Familiar Qriotatitnu (American editioo, 1607), out . 
of its 1 pages of noted passages from Tarioua English authors, M pages 
are devotod to Shofcspeare alone. 

t Frederiok Augustus Wolf, one of the founders, and afterward ow) j 
of the Fiofeesors, of the Cuiversity of Berlin. The work alluded to 


the authorehip of the Iliad and OdjBsef , even casting doubts oa 
Till existence, and takii^ the ground that these iuunortal poems 
■were the joint production of many successive rhymers and rhap 
BOdistB. So, too, in the case of ShudEspeare, a cultivated and 
most industrious writer spent her ]ife, and may be said to have 
lost it, in collecting and giving to the ptiblic what she believed 
to be proof that the pupil of the Stratford free-school was, in 
no sense, entitled to the authorship of the plays that have en- 
chanted the world under his najne. * 

So, again, in regard to the most celebrated among painters : 
his contempomriea regarded him, and hia biographers speak of 
bim, though he died at the early ^e of thirty-seven, with a 
sort of reverence, as of a divinely'-inspired personage. Vasari 
coQunenoes his life thus: "The loi^ and liberal hand with 
vhich Heaven is sometimes pleased to accumulate the infinit« 
riches of its treasures on one sole favorite ... is exem- 
plified in the instance of Kaphael Sanzio." Again he says that 
such as Baphaal " are scarcely to be called simple men ; they 
are rather, if it be permitted so to speak, entitled to the sppel- 
littion of mortal gods." And, further on, he Bpeaks of this 
painter as one of those '* who hy some special gift of nature or 
by the particular fevor accorded to them by the Almighty, are 
perfonning miracles in the art." f 

We have, so'fitf as I know, no reoord of Raphael's domestic 
life, nor any collection of hia familiar letters. These mi(^t 

above, Pn^egoinenn ad Somerura (Halle, 1795), created maoh exeite- 
ment in the literary wodd and called forth man; replies. 

• The PhUoaapiiy of the Piayt ofSliakapaire Unfolded, by Delta Ba- 
cox : Boston, 1857. 

Tha ai-itj of this intalleatuol, uatirin^, and eooentrio writer is one 
of the aaddeali episoles in the bistor]'' of litersj? enterprise. Her pe- 
cutiarides and her fate — insaoitj Bnpsrvening as tJia resolt of utter dis- 
appointtoent — are recorded in HAwrooRsa'a Oar (Kd Borne; obaptei 
sntlUed Beootltetion* of it OifUd Woman. 

\ Vabart: Z«Diwqf(AeiW»t«™(r'ostep'H Translation, Londtai, 1851), 
vol. iiL pp. 1, 3, 38. 


hare disc1<wed Ids own conscioHsness of the Inspirfttioii th«t 
marks &e artiBtio temperameat. 

We haoe direct evidence of this kind, however, in the case of 
two of the world's <DOBt renowned musicians. 

Beethoven, speaking of tLe aonroe iriieaoB oame to him 1^ 
spirit of his wonderful masterpieces, said to " Bettina " : 
" From the focus of iuf^iration I feel compelled to let the omI- 
ody stream forth on all aides. I follow it — passioDately over- 
t^e it again ; I aee it eacape me, vanish amid the crowd of 
varied excitements — soon I seize it up again with i-enewed 
pasuon ; I cannot part from it — with quick rapture I multiplj' 
it in every form of modulation — and at the last moment I 
triumph over the first musical thought — see now I th&t's a 
symphony." • 

Even more striking is the following, from a letter written by 
Mozart to an intimate fiiend : " You say you should like to 
know my way of composiug, and what method 1 follow in wril^ 
ing works of some extent. I can i-eally say no more on this 
Bulgect than the following ; for I myself know no more about 
it and cannot account for it. When I am, as it were, com- 
pletely myself, entirely alone and of good cheer — say travelling 
in a carriage, or walking after a good meal, or during the night 
when I cannot sleep ; it is on such occasions that my ideas 
Qow best and most abundantly. Wfienee and how they come 
I know not ; nor can I force them. Those ideas which please 
me I retain in memory, and am accustomed, as I have been 
told, to hum them to myself. If I continue in this way, it 
soon occurs to me how I may turn thht or that morsel to ac- 
count, so as to make a good dish of it ; that is to sity, ^reeably 
to the rules of counterpoint, to the jteculiarities of the various , 
instruments, and so on. All this fires my soul, and, provided 
I am not disturbed, my sulject enlai^es itself, becora'^ 
methodized and defined ; and the whole, though it be long, ' 
stands almost complete and finished in my mind, so that I can 

■ OoBTOE : Bri^vmitMl tntC rnnom Eindf. 



survey it, }ike a find picture or a beautiful statae, at a glaxtce. 
Nor do I hear, ia imagination, the parts Biicceesively ; but I 
henr them, as it were, all at once (gleich alles zuBammeu). 
What a delight this is I cannot tell ! Air this inventing, this 
producmg, takes place in a pleasing, lively dream. Still the 
actual hearing of the entire vhole is after all the best. What 
has been thus produced I do not easily forget. And thb 
is perhaps the best gift I have my Divine Maker to thaok 

These Lints and su^^jestions are necessarily bald and imper- 
fect : necessarily, because the civilized world has but recently 
begun to study Inspiration, as a luuTersal agency, in its con- 
nection either with the trance-faculty, or with the Spiritual 
hypothesis; and because, on that account, experience along 
either of these lines of research, is only beginning to accumU' 
late. It has not yet become a common belief that one of the 
sources of man's noblest achievements, literary, artistic, spirit- 
ual, is in an ultramundane sphere. We puzzle over the anom- 
alies of human character — its extremes of good and evil — re- 

" How poor, how riob ; how abjeot, how august ; 
How complicate, how wonderful is man I " 

But we do not work out one of the explanations. We have 
not practically realised how much the soul's bondage to the 
body tends to dull Its perceptions and check its best aspirings : 
nor how it aspires more freely and discerns more clearly, when 
the severity of that bondage is relaxed. Nor have we practi- 
cally i-ealized how much man may lesm and may improve in 
wisdom and in goodness, by being occasionally admitted to 
communion with a higher phase of being ; nor how grievous a 
loser he may be, if debarred from such communion. We do 
not practically believe what Christ has told us of a Spirit of 

• Holmes : Lffe of Moeofrt, indvdiag hit Qyrreiptmdenoe ; Irimdon, 
1645 : pp. 817. 818. 


Truth, to come after him, who should "guide ob into all 

Oar researches in this matter have hitherto been prosecuted 
in Ear, misty olouds ; not o& the &ir earth, illuminated jrom 
on high. 

I think one reason for thia is that the marvellous light which 
dawned upon the world eighteen hundred years ago has dazzled 
and blinded, even while it has informed and improved man- 
kind. It was a Bpiritual pheaomenon alike without example 
throughout all history and (to our remote ancestors) without 
apparent solution short of the miraculous : without exaoiple 
not solely, nor perhaps chiefly, on account of the wonderful 
works done by Christ ; for the Jews, in their history, and evea 
the Bomans and Greeks in their mythology, could find more 
or less of precedent for many of these ; hut because the light of 
Christianity, alike in ita moral and spiritual aspect and in ita 
effects, is without parallel in mam's pr«viouB experience. Not 
thus appearing, at first, except to a small band of followers; 
but gradually, as it rose upon the mind and soul of the world, 
has that light shone as might a sun, riung for the first time 
upon an earth of which the inhabitants, till then, had lived and 
labored under starlight. 

Is such a simile to be rejected because it admits what seems 
at variance with all we see of the course of nature ? Let us 
not hastily decide that there U such variance : Nature^s action 
is multiform. 

While God's works around us bear evidence that the princi- 
ple of gradual progression pervades the entire economy of the 
univei-se, and that natural taws are invariable and persistent, 
still, under that economy and governed by these laws, there 
occur, at certain epochs, vast steps in human pit^^ss : even 
as, from time to time, political revolutions supervene which, 
while changing the wonted action of long-standing government, 
sometimes bring about in years an advance which ages bad 
failed to efieot. 

History contains nothing more interesting than the retntd 

OF THB WOBU). 261 

of tLese gigantic steps ; each, apparently, \rithoiit precedent : 
each breakiiig in on the monotonous pace of the world. In 
cosmical hintory what incident stands b^ the side of the single 
discoveiy of Colnmbua, giving to the ancient world another 
half of our globe, about which to speculate, in which to live? 
The annals of literature record no victory to match, in practical 
result, the triumph of Faust, if to the goldemith of Mentz be 
due the art of printing ; that art which enables one man to 
converse with all his race. Even the world of Invention, where 
labor toils, has had ita Titauic epoch, occurring little more tban 
a century since ; that epoch at which steam began to take the 
place of bone and sinew; at which the distaff and spinning- 
wheel, humble aids to human workers throughout three thou- 
sand years, were at last superseded by a Briarean system of 
manufacture that has multiplied five-hundred fold the produc- 
tive labor-power of mankind.* . 

In the individual life of man, strictly progressive though it 
be, we find a still more remarkable phenomenon connected with 
an unprecedented advance. Infant, child, adult, patriai'ch — 
the boundaries which mark each successive state are impercep- 
tible ; but then comes the great epoch : the point of progress 
when our powers, perceptive, intellectual, spiritual, are sud- 
denly increased we know not how much ; when our means of 
communicating with our fellows are freed fi-om bounds alike of 
time and space ; when, like Columbus, we are borne into a new 

So, again, in regard to the succession of animal life on earth, 
reaching back into prebbtoric time. Geology informs us that 
there was a period of untold duration when this world, occu- 
pied by the lower races, was tminhabited by maa. An eminent 
modem naturalist, | exploring that peiiod and investigating 
the principle of vital prepress, has brought prominently for- 

* Sea pieceding page 46. 

t COARLBs DARwra, A.H., F.R.S. On tht Origin of ^eeUt bjf 
Meant t>f2fafurat Sdection; or, Uie Piwervationttf Faeortd BaM» tn. tJis 

BtruggUfor lifr: London, 1859. 

S6S dabwin's theobt. 

vard a great, general law gOTeming gradual improTsment of 
species hj means of natural selection and the preservaticHi of 
the best out of each — both animal and vegetable — in the strug^e 
for existence. But he has adduced no facte attesting change of 
one species to another ; nor disclosed to us an; link connect- 
ing brute and man.* There remains, therefore, intact, the 

* It has been sanoised that interraedlate forms between the liigli«r 
qnadmrnana and the lowest Taiietj of cavo-dweUin^ humnnit^ nuij 
some day be Found ; pertaapa in laiee unexplored portions of interior 
Asia or Africa ; bnt this is meie earmise, nnsnstained, as yet, by dia- 

The adroaates of the DeYBlopment tbeoiy admit the extreme difflcnl- 
taea which stand In tbe waj of aadgning to man piedec««Bon from a 
lower laoe. " Admitting," bbjs one of tbem, " man's stractaral modi- 
ficationsfrom the spedea that stand next under him, then still remuna 
the fact that something new has been snpeiadded— the oiguiizatioa 
fitted for higher fuDotional t«rformance, the intellect capable of im- 
proTement and progress. On no theoiy of mete transmission or 
heredity can these be aoooonted for. The predecessor did not poaeesa 
them and oonld not beqneath them. "— David Paob.LL.D.; F.B.S.B.; 
P.6.3. 1 Man, Where, Whmce, and Whither ; Bdinburgb, 1M7; pp. 
152, 1S3. 

Anotlier writer on this snbjeot — one of the earliest sof^eaters of tlie 
"nstnral selection" tfaeoiy — makes qnite recently the ftrilowiiig ad' 
missions : " The capacity to form ideal conceptions of space snd time, 
of etemil^ and infinity — the oapadtr for intmse artistio feelinge of 
pleasnre, in form, color, and composition — and for UiCBe abstract no- 
tions of form and number which render geometry and arithmetio pos' 
Bible — hqw were all or any of tbeee fsonltiee first developed when they 
ooold have been of no poadble nse to man in bis eariy stages of barbar- 
ism t How could " uatun^ selection," or survival of Uie fittest in the 
sLfuggl e for existence, at all favor the development of mental poweii 
. . . wbiob even now, with our comparatively high eivilixation, are, 
in their farthest developments, in advanoe of the age, and aj^tearto 
have relation rather to the future of the race tiuin to its actoal 
Btatnsr"— W.iLLACE: Contributiom to the Theory <^ Nabiral SdeoliiK, 
London and New York, 1870 ; pp. 301, 3SS. 

It is difficult to conceive a state of tliingB in wliioh there mn^ not, 
in any event, have been sodie year, some month, some day, when tiiera 
eziseed on earth no animal endowed with capaoity for inteUectnal and 

kas'b fibst apfb&bakob. 268 

hypotbeais — Burely not an nnreaBonable one — that there in- 
hered, ia the law wfaioh regulated preadamite life, a condition 
according to which a. creature endowed with rcoBon and gifted 
with faculties and aentiniente that enable him to conceive and 
desire a Hereafter, did, at a oertaia point of advancement, sud- 
denly appear J a creature destined to subjugate earth and attain 
heaven. The vast induction, if one may so expreBS it, failed at 
a certain stage of cosmical development; and, the progressive 
ratio of the past seriea was no longer the progressive ratio of 
the sncceeding. For, in virtue of as tride surpassingly great, 
there assumed place in the world a race — the only one * — which 
could transmit the experience of one generation to another, and 
which, after a time, learned to perpetuate that experience by 
arUficial, enduring signs. Hence, as result of a single, unes- 
ampted step in advance, ethical, intellectual, spiritual prt^- 

And now, reverting ttom this digression to the subject im- 
mediately before ua, we find the same analogy still holding out. 
The history of Ethics and of Religion, like that of Cosmogony 

qnritiiBl improvement from generation to generation ; and Uien again, 
Mine next yeai, or next month, or next day, when aocli an animal — 
that ia to say, when a man — came into existence. The qoeetion ia ot 
eapaaii}/, how nndeveloped soever, however nseleaato palaomic man ; 
^ highest qnadrnauuie haa it not ; and even if in stractural formation 
be approached mnch nearer te man than he does, the poseewion or uoa- 
Poeeeseion of inteUectnal and apiritnal potiihUitieg of denelopmmt stiH 
sfitabhahes a great gulf, which, if not, under God's economy, impaasa- 
ble ia, at least, ao f ar aa human reeeaicb has explored, nnpaaeed. 

Bat even if the DevElopment theorist ahonld anoceed in tracing man 
to lui anthTopoid-ape-ancesb7, or to an Aacidian origin, still a vast step 
ht advance, however effected, is not the leea a reality ; a step which 
seems to have been made at once ; at all events, a step withont prece- 
dent in fact and withont parallel in the immenaity of ita results. 

* Ve have no warrant, ao far as I know, for asaerting that tho beaver 
of to-day exbihitn mo^ iogennitj in constructing bis dam than did the 
btBTer of tliree thooaand yeara ago : uoriaitinevidcnoe thatUiequad- 
nunone of oat own time ia tnore intall^ent than waa ilie same animal 



and Literature, and pTodaotiTe Scieooe, has ite epooh, whence 
dates a ratio of adTancement till then unknown. In tbe 
earthly progresa of Spiritualism, as in the suoceaaion of races 
and in the pilgrimage of human life, we hare to note one emi- 
nent step upward, as from a lower to a higher sphere of be- 

TTnprecedent^d, unlike any other step : the progreaa whitA 
followed it incomparable with the march of any otiter rerolo- 
tion, political or religious. 

The establishing of a kingdom on the world but not of it ; 
called, sometimea the Kingdom of Heaven, yet coming not by 
observation,* — heralded by no earthly pomp, ushered tiirougfa 
no opening in douda of heaven — but founded lowly, peacefully, 
silently, in the heart of man. Christ's kingship is of tbe ha- 
man souL 

If, to the sceptical, these claims seem overstrained, let them 
look, not to the assertions of theolc^ians, nor yeC to the uncer- 
tainties and obscurities of remote history, but to acknowledged 
facts, of grand outline, familiar to every educated mait. 

In what is usually called the civilized world millions will 
Bay, if asked as to their religion, that they are not Catholics, 
millions more that they are not Protestants ; but, excepting 
the five or six million Jews, we shall not find there one man in 
a hundred who, if he has any religion at all, wilt say he is not 
a Christian. 

If the Spiritual Teachings first heard in Galilee, eighteen 
hundred years ago (aside from alien creeds), be not the reli^on 
of Civilization, it has no other. What we may justly call tbe 
most enlightened portion of the world clings to these teachings, 
despite the deadening and retractive influence of alien creeds. 
. Is it strange that Christendom, before it began to recognize 
the universal reign of law, should have sought, in miraculous 
interference, the explanation of such a phenomenon as this ? 
Is it stnuige even, — considering the presumption to which our 

• Lnke zril. 20. 

DMn;.^:b, Google 


short-Bigltted race is prone— that Orthodox;, knowing no natu- 
ral aolntioa of such an enigma, should take refuge in a. concep- 
tion — one scmples about plainly expressing its pretensions ; for 
these not onlj inTolve the direct intervention and suspension 
of His laws by the Almighty Creator and Lawgiver of myriads 
of Bim-systomB and myriads on myriads of worlds ; they virtu- 
ally pre-snppoee, also, His presence, in human form, through- 
out a generation of men, on this small planet of ours — all the 
"World, indeed, to us, but a mere speck in immenaity, to Him. 

Yet if claims so transcendent were consonant with their day 
and generation, none the less they are now fumishii^ abundant 
food and occupation to Scepticism. There is impregnable 
ground ; but Orthodoxy forsakes it, straying forth into the lim- 
itleee r^ions of Dogmatism. It seeks miracles throngh the 
dim perspective of eighteen centuries ; yet the miracle of mira- 
cles — if the marvellous constitute the miraculous — lies patent 
before as; is cognizable by onr very senses. 

Assume Scepticism's theory. Here it is : The son of a Jew- 
ish mechanic, living in an obscure village of Galilee, brought 
up in his father^s house, with the most limited opportunities of 
culture, without access to the literature of Greece or Rome, 
without worldly experience to replace lack of learning, and also 
^thout spiritual aid — becomes, at the age of thirty, a Public 
Teacher ; continues to teach during tbree years — three only ; 
then, because of the latitude of his opinions, suffers death. 
His three-year sayings and doings, which he himself never com- 
mitted to writing, are recorded, within half a century from his 
death by humble and comparatively unlettered followers. Yet, 
after more than fifty generations of men have passed away, there 
is found in that record — and in that record alone — a religion 
that cultivated men can indorse and civilized nations revere. 
Surely, the miracle of all miracles! — nay, as Scepticiflm has 
put it, a moral and intellectual impossibility. 

The impossibility inheres in one of Scepticism's postulates. 
*' Without spiritual aid." If such aid be essential to any high 

and noble acbierement of man, Is it conceivable that it ahould 
be lacking in connection with the highest and noblest of all 7 

But the difficulties attending thie main feature in the scep- 
tic's hypotheaia do not end here. Unless the recording discs- 
pies have utterly belied their Master, it involves a direct charge 
of folsebood against him. Far, though habitnallf calling him- 
self " the Son of Man," * he also suffered hiniself to be called, 
and claimed to be, the Messiah, the Christ, ofttimee spoken of 
b; the prophets of old, and long expected, as Deliverer, by Uie 
Jews. In other words — let those who doubt my rendering con- 
sult the lexicons, Hebrew and Greek— in other ■words, he 
claimed to be the Anointed of his Father f and our Father ; a 
divinely-commissioned Messenger, Prophet^ Spiritual King. 

Shall we accord to him these titles ? There is no sure war- 
rant for so doing to be .di-awn from history. But his creden- 
tials are to be found in the Message itself, in the work that 
message has done, and in the recorded life of the Messenger. 
/ All the great figures of antiquity pale, more or lees, under 
the lij^ta of modem civilization, save only that of Christ. Hie 
thinking world has, in a measure, outlived every phase of re- 
ligious belief except Christianity. That was planted by its Aa- 
f thor so fiu* beyond the point of progress of the age in which its 
'. precepts were first heard, that ^e current of eighteen centuries, 
/ passing by all other systems, has fiuled to approach this. 
i Christ's teachings, proleptic in character, are still in advance 
\ not of the modem world's purest practice only, but almost of 
' its aspirations. Can we deny to their Author his own claim 

* The term "Son of Man," as applied bj Christ to himself, ocooTg 
some eighty times thieughont the fom gospel nainitiTes. 

f Jesoa himself, at the very outset of his ministry, adopts this intei- 
pietaUou. In the synagOEfae at Nazareth, after publicly reading the 
words of Isaialt {Ixi. 1), " The Spirit) of the Lord God is upon me, be- 
caoae the Lord hath anointed me to preach good tidings unto the 
meek," — words nndenrtood by the Jews of the Uessiah — he apidied 
them to himself ; " This d^ is this Soriptoie fulfilled in your ean."— 
Luke iv. 18, SI. 

b, Google 


that on Him, the Chosen Oae, had been poured the ohrism of 

That was the reply of Christ's most trusted Apostle, interro- 
gated by his Master. "'But whom say ye thati am?' Pet«r 
BziBwering said: 'Hie Christ of God.'" * It was the claim put ' 
forth hy the same apostle in the first public address which he 
made to the Jews after the cnicifixion : for in Uiat he desig- 
nated the Great Teacher whose disciple he was, as " Jesus of 
Nazareth, a man approved of God by miracles (dunamesin), 
and wonders and signs : " and, agitin, with slight variation of 
phrase, when discoursing before ComeliuB and his Gentile 
fiiends in Gnsarea : there speaking of hia Alaster as " Jesus of 
Nazareth whom God anointed with ihe Holy Ghost and with 
power, who went abont doing good." 

— Doing good EHs own nature — his character and his do- 
ings, as exhibited in the gospel bit^raphies — are almost as mar- 
vellons as the. system be gave to the vorld. They accord nei- 
ther with his country nor with bis time, nor — except as one 
iUusbioos example disclosing to us what Man may be — with 
that human race with which, on a hundred occasions, he ex- 
piressly identified himself. It were difficult, in this connection, 
to improve on the words of an Anglican clergyman, whose early 
death was a misfortune to the Church he adorned ; " Once in 
tbe roll of ages, out of innumerable ^ilurea, from the stock of 
human nature one bud developed into a faultless flower. One 
perfect specimen of humanity has God exhibited on earth, 
. . . As if the life-blood of every nation were in his veins, 
and that which ia best and truest in every man, and that which 
is tenderest and gentlest and purest in every woman were in 
his character : be is emphatically the Son of Mim." f 

Not less eloquent on this Hubject is the author of a well- 
known modern work : " The story of Christ's life will always 

1 • Lnke ix. SO. 

1 t Bermant Ay tilt Hen. F. W. Robertam, Jncambeat of Tiinil? Cbapel, 
Brighton; aemunixv.; pp. 365, 866 (of Kev Todc Ed, 1870). The 
ffori >' jaaa." is itolkued bj Uie oaUkoc. 


remtkia tLe one record in whioh the moral periectioa of man 
BtMidB revealed in its root and its unity, the hidden ^ring 
nwde manifest by which the whole muhine is moved. . . . 
All leaaer ex&mples and lives will forever hold a eubordinate 
place, and serve chiefly to reflect light en the central and ori^ 
inal £sample. In his wounds all human sorrows will hide 
themselvea, and all human self -denials support themselves against 
his cross." * 

Whence this preeminence ? The germ of the Godlike liea, 
indeed, deep down in our common nature ; but, ere it fructify, 
there must be divine breathings from a region purer than ours. 
Whether, in this supreme instance of Inspiration, these Holy 
Breathings f assumed an unwooted phase— executed an un- 
wonted ofBce — what mortal shall assume to decide ? 

Yet I think I should do wrong here to withhold the fact tliat 
I have received on this subject a communication — one only and 
that unsought for — which I believe to have had a spiritual 
source : it is one of the few such messages that have ever 
reached me, touching on any disputed point of doctrine. The 
reader has it below, J for what he may deem its allegations 

* Sees Bomo! a Survey of Hie Life and Work of Jeans Christ. 
London, 1868 : pp. 168, 189. This woik, pnbliehed anonynKNuly, n 
now blown to have been written 1^ Profenor 8e£Ley, filling Uie chair 
of Uodem History in the Uoivend^ of Cambridge. 

\ One acTuplea to write " Holy Breath," instead of " Holy Ghost " 
(from goMt, Anglo-Saxon for breath or ^lint) ; yet the terms aie sizictdy 
^nouymona Peter, speaking of Jesus as a man " whom God anointed 
with the Hoi; Gbost and with power," certainly empkiyed Uie teim in 
some inoh eeose. Christ himself, when he spoke of the Holy Qhost as 
the " Spirib of Truth," which " flhall not speak of himself, bnt whatso- 
ever beshsU bear tliat shall he speak," as oeriainly did not intend there- 
by to designate one of the Persons of the Godhead. 

% I oopy literally from minutes of a sitting held Janoaiy 26, 1863, 
during which I had bat this sin^e communication : 

" Christ's birth was by inception, not by conoepfion. Hary Inheiitsd 
a pecnliar phyoioal and apiritoal oiganimtion from her anoBstors of 
David's lino. She was placed in a perfect trance, her bodily lifn bus- 

TfiS BIBTa 07 OHBfflT. 269 

•worQi. Theao involve neitiier BOBpensioa nor Tiolation of nat- 
itral law, nor, I Uunk, aoj improbability so violent tbat we 
must needs reject it straightway. The communicatioa alleges 

pendecL The apintiuil troMtjin^ principle wbb received daring tiie 
teiuioe. CImst'a mortal bodf wm the nsnlt of Hu^'b perfect faith, 
nUing the oq;aiiiain — a faith of that tranBoaadeDt kind which is the 
centre and dicninfeiettce of all tiiot ia to be denied. It is a literal 
tonUi, and no fign™, ^ ^7 '*' Biudi faith that it can remove monntaina. 
It besiB the lame relation to the coium<m faiUi of mankind which the 
crystallized diamond does to the diaiooal. 

* ' In Ha>7'8 case, it was the ontgrowth of many oentories. It was a 
Bpedfio faith ; the blossoming of tbat belief, preserved thiongh ages, 
that D virgin should conceive and bear a son. So other possible oon- 
jnnotion oooid have prodttoed a Christ. Tetthere wasnoenspenaionot 
lavr. His l»ith was natoral. The aaniD oonjmtotion of drciunstanc^ 
reourring, if weoonld aappoae snob a ease, a sitnilarMith might happen 

" It was necegsaryloiCIuiBt to stand above the idaneof mankind, ia 
order to draw men np to him. He was devoid of appetite and pnaedon 
to a degree that no man of hnman oosoeption oonld have beea In a 
human and bodllf aense, be me, on that acoonnt, a less complete man. 
Yet bad it not been for the absence of these appetites and passionB, the 
tmth could not have come to ns throngfa him, pure as it did. There 
vroold have been obaaDranoea and hindianoee. Under their inflnence he 
oonld not have preserved his integrity as a Hessengei. He would have 
been drawn aympathefiaaUf into the sphere of his day. 

"Ohrist felt the trials and temptatlonB tbat assail his brethren of 
mankind, even more aoatelj than they did themselves ; but that was 
beoaose of Uie strong rep^lsnt force within him ; not by any attrao- 
tion drawing him. "niese temptations did not attract, they only pained 
him. He had before bim ever the eternal laws ; seeing though the 
Present to the End. " 

The above was c^ed forth byno qnestion of mine, direct or indirect. 
I was not thinking of the subject, and of course expected nothing of 
Uiekind. It wasnotobtaine'lfrom a profesdonal medlnm. Thelady 
throngh whose medianuhip it came — a relative of mine, intellectual 
sod cnltiTBted — is a Unitarian; believing, in her normal state, that 
Jesns was bom as other men. It purported to oome from an Intimate 
and highly-valued, long-deoeased friend (see Book iv., ohapter 8) ; and 
fr<nD the same allied sonioe there have come to me many valuable 
tWKihlnga on etbical and other cognate subjects. 


that Cbrist'B birth oocarred under circumstoDceB bo peonliar 
that lie grew to manhood devoid of appetite aod passicni to » 
degree — neceesary to hia pure integrity as Teacher — 'whi<di. 
no other person has ever shared. At this stage of our kaowl' 
edge, I feci unqualified to avouch such a theory, and iinwiUing 
to gainsay it. TJngifted with spiritual clearsight — seeing here 
but as through a glass, darkly — why should I hasten to decide ? 
I am content to wait — it can be a few years only, now — ^ft>r 
better discemmeat and broader light. 

The able author last quoted just touches on the subject of 
Christ's birth. Speaking of the spiritual enthusiasm which char- 
acterized JesuB, he asks : " How it was kindled in him who 
knows ? " And his reply is : " ' The abysmal depths of peosoa- 
ality' hide -this secret It was the will of Ood to b^t no 
second Son like him." * 

Mr. Gladatone, the British premier, alluding, in a review of 
tie work where they appear, to the above words, says : " They 
seem to deal with things that we know not of, and are ill able 
to touch." f 

I agree with him. 

Strange I — and sad as strange — ^that men in all ages have 
been called upon to touch, to deal with — ay 1 despite sense of 
incapacity, even despite counter convictions, compelled to decide 
— just such questions I 

— Called upon by men like themselves, not by Ood. I am 
not more conscious of my own existence than I am that an all- 
wise and all-good Being will never remember it for judgment 
against me, nor against any of His creatures, that, after best 
diligence, we have been unable, as to many such arcana, to do 
more than confess, that we comprehend them not. 

So far only I see : that Jesus was divinely favored and gifted 
to ui eminent degree — but how and to what degree I have no 
means to determine. That there uwre limits, law-govemed, his 

* Eeet Some, p. 321. 

I Eeee Homo (leviQWed), by the Bight HonoraUa W. B. QbdsUnM ; 
London, 1668 : p. 190. 


Inographers inform as. Id Christ's own ooimtry, where men 
asked one another " Is not this the carpenter, ihe son of Mary ? " 
he " covid do no mighty work, save that he hud his hands upon 
B, few sick and healed them : and he marvelled because of their 
iutbelie£" * Again: all that he would have done for his hard- 
hewrted countrymen he himself tells us, in vords breathing the 
Tery soul of sadness, tliat he could not do : " Oh Jerusalem, 
Jeniaalem, thou that killest the prophets and stonest them 
which axe aent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy 
ohildxen together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under 
her wings, and ye would not! "f 

And again, who shall define the limits of- his knowledge ? 
As one reads, one feels, as the Jewish officers of justice felt : 
"Kever man spake hke this man." Yet, as the record now 
stands, J we find many words and paragraphs wliich, if we are 

I * Mark vi. 3, 5, S. Matthew, in the concordant pasaage, saya that 
"he did not nianf mighty wocke there, becaojte of their lubelief." 

i + Matthew xriv. 87. 

X Take an example. John gives . a prayer, as offered up by Jesoa, 
la presence of his apostles, inunediately before be went forth into the . 
garden wheie he waa betrayed. There is no otiier example, in any of 
tie goepelo, ot a pnblio prayer by Christ. He retired into remote aoli- 
tadea to pray (Mark vL 48 ; Lute vi. 12). " When thon prayest," be 
had said, " enter into thy closet, and when tbou hart ahat thy door, pray 
to thy Father which ia in aecret." The three synoptical erangelists 
agree that, at the moet soleion hour of his life— jnst before hia betrayal— 
Chriat's action corresponded to his preoept, and that he did not pmy in 
their presence. At Qethsemane, says Matthew, he said to his disdplea : 

' " ' Sit ye here, while I go and pray yonder : ' and he went a little far- 
ther and fell on his face and prayed, saying : ' Oh my Father, if it be 
posBible let thia cnp paas from me ; nevertJieleBa not na I will but as 
Thon wilt.' " 

Hark's relation is, almort word for word, the same aa that of Mat- 
thew. Lnke aaya be withdrew himaelf from them about a stone's cart 
and kneeled down and pr^ed : ' Father, if thou be willing, remove 
this cup from ma ; nevertheless not my will bnt tbine be done.' " 

I believe, witb Matthew and Mark and Lake, Utat the commnninga 
of Jeans witb bia Falber, ere be went to death, were in secret, unheard 


to aco^t them, clearly sliow that Christ, like all otiier umd, 
■was liable to rtror. Examples will suggest themselves to tite 
dispatisioiiate student of the gospels. 

Let timid souls who think all is imperilled if a single imper- 
fection of doctrine, or inaccuracy of record,* be sii^ested, here 
be reminded that the spiritual system of Christ, witii its world- 
wide influence on man, depends not at all on non-esaentnd 
incideubt like these. Its spirit and substance and efiScacy re- 
xaaia intact. It profita, none the less, as rule for human con- 
duct in the world whioh now is, and as guide, much needed, 
preparing us for that which is to come. 

la this matter it is dangerous to repose confidence in inci- 
deotals, or in any warrant saye the intrinsic excellence and 
inherent power of the Great Teachings themselves. Not on 
ancient fortresses of stone, how seemingly impregnable soever, 
may a nation, in her hour of peril, rely for defence: she moat 
look to bithfiilness and valor and affection, animating the 
hearts of her defenders. And so Christianity, when assailed 
by the l^ona of Doubt uid of Materialism, must not put her 
truBt in the old evidences of tradition or of remote history, 
' ^ough built up by learning imd entrenched by the polemical 
labors of ages : if she is to become the Religion of Civilization, 

hj mortal eai ; nor do I doubt fhat the brief wrads emidoyed by the 
synoptical evangeliste — «ad, ferraat, Tesigned — embody the spirit of 
Christ's secret piiqrer. 

Bnt OS to John's narrative the internal evidence signally ttHa, 
Christ's love was of that eminent chnraoter which cacriee oat of self, 
t.hinVing not of glohflcation ; and, above all, which embraaea all hn- 
majikind, unalloyed by &ace of the exclnaive. I believe that the 
prayer which the agod apostle, after half a oentmr had intervened, 
spread over hie Beventeentli chapter waa bnt what he tiimiiif eiringty 
oonoeivad to have been his Mastier'B feelinga eie be encountered his ene- 
miee ; a document not more reliable than the long speeahes which 
other <dd historians have imagined tor their heroes on tbe eve of a 
battle. I am unable to accept it sa Christ's, eitherin the^^tor Intbe 

* Did Christ ever declare that he would be infallibly rapoitedf 

■ OOglc 

oosrmasoB ra dioidbntalb. ^73 

lier bdngdom must be protected by the loyal convicttontf and 
the bold candor and the enlijjhtened love of free human Botds. 

Here let me be permitted to say a word with mere personal 
reference to myself I could not more religioasly venerate than 
I now venente Cbrist^a teachings and his person ; I could not 
more deeply feel than I no^r feel the bounden duty to heed hie 
sayings and to do what in me lies toward following his example 
— if theologians had succeeded in beating into my brain all the 
perplexities they have crowded into the Athanasian creed. If 
others find, through such subtiltiea, comfort in affliction, 
warmth for irinViiig faith, motive to stir flag^g zeal, incentive 
to religious duty, it is well : let them profit by what they are 
able to accept. The Alexandrian Patriarch does not speak 
either to my heart or to my understanding. They who can re- 
ceive hia doctrine, let them receive it. 

I^ beyond a claim to be the promised Messiah — the Anointed 
Prophet of God, commissioned by Him to redeem the world 
from ^iritual darkness — there be any reasonable groimd for 
belief that Christ declared himself^ or regarded hiroBelf, to be 
one of the Persons of the Godhead, I confees my inability to 
find it. * Tery rarely, scarcely half a dozen tim^ throughout 

* There are Huiidzj puangea in John's Gospel which mnst be taken 
OS awertl&K this dogTna ; bnt John wrote tbir^ or forty yeais Iat«r 
tban the oUier evangelists, in his old age and at a, period when specula- 
tive docttine was alieody beginning to obscnze the noble oaaclor of 
Christ's worda. How lavcaaiAj does the stmplloity of Lnke'a opening 
venee, inspinng oonfidence bj their modesty, contrast with the mys- 
tical elaborateneas of John's I Then we come upon snch texts as vitt. 
as ; X. 8 ; xviL S (osed by Calvin) ; xviL S ; viii. S8 ; vl 61, 64, eta. 
When one reads : " Ye ais beneath, I am from above ; all that ever 
came before me are thieves and robbers; before Abraham was, I am ; 
^orify me, Fathei, with the gloty which I had with tbee before the 
world was ; I pi^ not for the worid, bnt for them that then haat g^ven 
me," with othor sayinge o( eiwilar spirit — the internal evidence fails ; 
we no longer leoognlae the Christ of the earlier goepels. 
-Tet, witha], thoi^h John is almost as oneqnol as Patd, we ooold as 
ill spare many portioua of his Ooepel as we oonld certain parts of Panl's 


thethree'ByDopttcal gospels, doee Jesua Epeak of himself as tbe 
" Son of God : " * not nearly bo often as he speaks of bis 

epiaties. Iiike Paul, John ia the Apoatle of Lote, ia its puieat and 
widast Booeptation ; and none of the goapela contain a narratiTe more 
eminentl7 characteriBtio of the gantlenass and meroj ot Christ than 
John's atoij of the Fallen One, who waa liid to go and ain no nuwa. 
Ita leaaoa is onlj begiiuung to make ita way, now after neulj two 
tbonaand years, to the hearts of mm. 

* This expression, as applied by Ohrist to himself, acaroely oooors 
either in Matthew or Hark or Luke, except that, when interrogated before 
the High Priests and scribes sa to whether he wsa t^e Son of Ond, he 
repUed : " Ye aay tJiat I am ; " to be interpreted as aasent ; bat eren 
daring that very interrogatory, he stiU desigmites himself by his tsTor- 
ite expression, " The Bon of Man." Aooording to Ji^m, be q>eaks of 
himself several tames as the Son of God (v. 2S ; ix. S5, 36 ; xi 4 ; and 
on one or two other oocasions more or less directly) ; besides assenting 
(xi. ST) to be BO called by Martha. But, dngolorly enough, in tbe sanke 
gospel, X. 36) is given a remarkable oonversatioD, whicli I can inter- 
pret but in one senae : 

Christ aaks the Jews : " For which of my good works do ye stone 
me?" They answer: "For a good work we stone thee not, bnt for 
blasphemy ; and beoanae that thon, being a man, makest thyself Qod." 

Here, sorely — in the sequel to the colloquy — if anywhere, we may 
seek tbe olne to Christ's exact meaning, when be calls hinnaai/ God's 
Son. But what happens? Does he admit the truth of the Jews' wo- 
cnsotion 1 On the contrary Jesos qnotea to his aconsers a text in wbioh 
the anthor of one of t^e Psalms, speaking of men, called them goda ; 
and his comment on that text is : " If be oalled them gods to whom 
the word of God came, and the Scriptore cannot be broken, aay ye of 
him whom the Father hath SMictified and sent into the wodd ' Tboa 
blasphemeet,' beoanse I said, I am the Son of God ? " 

l>id Christ here evade the qnesUon, seeking to deoeive the Jews ? We 
cannot for a moment entertain a tiiongbt so derogatory to his oharao- 
ter ? He claimed, indeed, to have been sanctified hj the " Fotliar -, *> 
he olaimedtohave been sent by God, as Peter and the test of hiadisd- 
Iples afterward claimed for him : bnt he dudaimed any pretension to 
'godship ; exidaining to them, by a referenoe to their own Scripture, 
the sense in whioh he applied to himself the title of the Son of G)od. 
Had they Urt«isd to another disooome of his addressed to tlie Saddn* 
ceta, and had they pioSted by It, they would not have needed this wam- 
iof agtinst tlu "letter which UUstk ; " for tn that dlaooorse (Lnka 


tnrerthrea of humankind as God's sons and daughters; bidding 
na in the only prayer he has left us, to address the Deity as 
" Oim Father." Then, too, as God's messenger, how pi'eiimi- 
nent his clfums to the title he now and then assumes \ If, as 
lie himself teaches, the peacemakers are to be called the Chil- 
dren of God, is not he, the Prince of Peace — the Bearer of the 
Gofipel which brings "peace on earth, good-will to men" — 
above all others most righteously to be spoken of as God's be- 
loved Son, in whom He was well pleased ? 

Christ is the crowning exemplar of the Inspired : for he, 
while abiding among us, lived, more nearly than any other of 
QckI'b creatures here, within sight and hearing of his future 
borne. Therefore it is that bis teachings are the noblest fruita 
of Inspiration. v 

In the highest phenomena of Spiritualism — in other words, \ 
in the best examples of the modem phase of powers and gifts 
connected with Inspiration — may be seen the fulfilling of 
Christ's promise to Christians, of works emulatii^ his.* In 
the purest revealings of Spiritualism may be found the fulfil- 
ment of that other promise touching the imparting of truth 
and comfort through holy breathings from abore. 

Primitive Christianity, the greatest of all reformatory agen- 
oies, is best evidenced through modem Spiritualism ; for the i 
germ of modem Spiritualism is in primitive Chriatianity. In 
proportion as the epiphanies of Spiritualism are studied in a 
Christian spirit, will the attention of the world be withdrawn 
XX. 36), qieakiiig of those who bis worthy to enter Heaven, he hod laid 
of them : " The; are equal onto the an^fela and aie the ohildran of | 

Whither does Uteialiam lead? To repeat, after Lnthei : "When 
Ohtlit rnajH ' Take, eat, this is m; body,' ereiy child must understand 
that he speaks of that which he gives to his disci[des " (see preceding 
pogeSO) ; and HO, to believe In Uie" real preseoce;" and again, interpret- 
ing aocoiding to the letter Matthew zvi. 18, 19, to aooept, as Bcriptaial 
doctrine, the inlaUibility of the Pope. 

• John ilv. IB. 


from iciIigiouB di^fnuitism and ooiujentrad in Christ's teacliingB, 
in their primitive form. 

Can more poweriiil motive be adduced, to make proof of 
these signs and wondere ?— rejecting whatever ia alien and 
faithless, but holding fast to all that is loyal and good ? 


cha:pter rv. 


" A aali}«at «f Btndf on^ht not to be abondiHied beoanse it Is beset 
tOi ^fflonltUa, oca beoanae, for the time Mug, it mareliott prejiidioa 
r enoomitez ooDten>pt."~-B&BzsuDe : JaArt$l>ericAt, ISM. 

A VKRT few words to the candid reader, ere I oonunenoe my 

I^ not exception be taken to it if it ^pear that each re- 
Mrches liave been chiefly prosecated, at ihe outset, is a some- 
'oat inunertliodical or nunbling tuaaner, and under the leading 
' volunteers untiUed by learned societiee. This may be for 
be best, even if, in one point of view, it is to be regretted. 
t may be for the best, even thongh It must be admitted that, 
inong the namee of note in the regolar ranks of Bcience, tliere 
^TB men who, of all others, are, in aome respects, best fitted 
L^re to head the advance, and to obtain for us, if they would, 
^liable reBulta. 

— In some respecta. For in alleging the peculiar fitness of 
iirtJngaiahed ocietitific men to investigate a subject like that 
Mider considemtion, the opinion ia to be received with consid- 
erable allowance. Physical Science and Vital Science each 
disclose a great class of phenomena ; the one distinct, even wide 
*P<ut, from the other. Both, indeed, are subject to fixed and 
loiversal laws : the reality of both must be judged according 
^ the same acknowledged canons of evidence. Bnt the laws 
of physical science apply to obdurate matter, that has no ner- 
vous system to be soothed or excited; no conscionsnees to 
Warm under kindness, or suffer from rude ofienoe ; no sense of 
^roug, to bo outraged by unjust suspicion. The laws of vital 


science, on the contrv]r, govern aaimftte i^Bnciea of delimi 
and eensitire and changeful organ izstion. The materials fir 
experiment are of two entirely different classes, and muat \» 
treiried accordii^ly. Faraday at electrician, Hecschel o 
tronomei^ Liebig ai chemist, have been stadjing laws andfl 
which the results to ensue or to be produced, at any givea ma- 
ment, on tm; given substance, ctui be rigidly oontiolled or jk- 
dieted ; laws which are the fit objects of mathematdcal cslcob- 
tion. The habits of rigorous investigatioo acquiz«d by tuA 
men are invaluable ; but yet, if they fail to bear in miitd what 
an element of diversity and variableness vitality invoWes; nA 
if they carry with them into investigations undertaken in tb 
province of organic life the same purely materialistic and 
conditional standard which they have been accustomed to b(^ 
within the domain of physios, they are liahle to go &r astnf 
and to miss satisfactory results. E!nlight«iied membera of tbt 
medical faculty, taught by experience, know this well.* 

Then, again, whatever the qualifications of the ablest lead«n 
in science, they do not usually esteem it their vocation to M 
the vanguard oa an occasion like this. They abandon, to nn- 
trained experimentalists, an unpopular field. Or, if thtj 
speak, it is to give us prejudices only.f For if prejudice, as 

* Dr. Holland {OhapUn on Mental P^molof^, p. 2) has jnatlT 
madced ; " Neither those aooustomad to legal evideiuM onlj, nor s 
as have pursaed tdence in its more simple forms, can rightly estiouM 
tbe vast diflereuoe made bj the introduotion at the principle of life, oi 
yet more at ibe states and condition of mind, in oonnaction with bodil.' 

Bicbat (SeehereJut »w la VU et Ut Mart, Art. 7, % 1) has same «xo 
lent remarks on the same subject. He leminda ns, that while phjaii 
ohemistry, and the like are soieaoes that appiosuh each oUiei, " ml 
inuneose interral sepaiates them bom the science of organiiad bodies; 
and for that reason the latter should be treated in an entirely diffeieaC 

f An exoeptioD is here to ba admitted. An Engliili periodical of le- ' 
pnta, the Popular Bdajiet B»vimt, edited by Mr. Ctookea, an ■wnfauni i 
ohemlst and FeDow ot the Boysl Sodel?, baa, In It* number tat lM( ' 


molo^cal attictnees it must, be constmed to meaa a judg- 
at formed before examination, iiien most we regard aa pre- 
licee his opmionB, hoireTer true, who has neglected to weigh 
Tin gainst their opposites, however fidse. 
?rora etndents who devote themselves exclusively to physical 
earch ve must, as a general rule, expect this. They regard 

nltramundane £eld as outside of their jurisdiction. The 
«ry of intervention from ajiother sphere of being — tbe idea 
spiritual phenomena — is alien to their pursuite, and cannot I 
1 the scientific ear at once. The growth of any new-born hy- 
Jieais, BO startling in character, resembles thatof ahumanbe- 
;. X>iiringit8iufancyitssuggestionscarry small weight. It is \ 
^ned to with a light smile and set aside with little ceremony. \ 
roiighoat ite years of non^e it may be said to have no rights , 

property, no privilege of appropriation. Proofs in its &vor 
ty present themselves &om time to time, but they are not 
eme<I entitled to a judgment by Uie rules of evidence : they 
i listened to as fresh and amusing ; but they have no legal 
tae ; they obtain no official i-ecord ; they are not placed to 

y, all aztiole by ibi editor, giving a, detailed aooomit of experiments 
de oa tbe (alleged) phj^cnl powers aa a medium of Hr. Home, by 
ofielf (He. Crookea), Mr. Serjeant Cox, and Dr. Huggina, distjn- 
isfaed as astronomer and prominent member of tbe EotoI Society. 
'. Cox and Mr. Crookea aoknowledge that these experiments seem to 
ive the existence ot a new force which the; coll " psychic" : while 
. Hoggins, more non-oonimittal, admits that they " ahow the impoT' 
ice of farther investigation." The Loodoa Spectator, commenting 
this, admite that there is primd-fade evidence of tbe phenomena ; 
i »ddB,asto theall«$:ed "new fcvce," that " it is most demrable that 
> scientific world should confirm, or explode, the hypothoaiB of its 
iBtence."— .i^MBiator of Jnlj 8, 1871, p. 828. 

The expetimente included the ploying on an ocoordion plaoed inside 
xpper-wire cage (purpoBely prepared by Hr. Croolces); tbe occor- 
)ii tloaUng without apparent snpport, and not played on by any vis- 
,e agency. A oomparatiTely unimportant phenomenon, but an ex- 
Uent beginning', nevertheleu — a beginning that may lead — one can- 
it tall how fiir. ^^ pOOqIc 


tho crodit of the minor. An adolescent hypothesis ig beU <» 
be OQtside the limits of human justice. 

We ought not very strongly to complain of tJuB. Whik 
may ooademn the manner in which the magnates of scienM i 
wout to treat spiritual reaearchea, vre may excuse it alao. Q 
best of HB shrink before the irorid's laugh. Fnmklin, engtga 
in one of Qie most sublime experiment! ever undertaken ^ 
man, sought, it is said, to escape the chance of riiticnle 
veiling his purpose. He took with him, as companion, a hid 
boy ; that the kite, destined to draw lightning front the thra 
der-ctoud, might, in case of failure, pass as the playthii^ of 

But is nothing, therefore, to be done ? Because men, vid 
a hard-won scientific reputation at stake, will not peril iti 
such an inquiry, aio others, more hardy if lees well-trained fb 
the task, to hold back ? 

I have put that question to myself and liave ansirered hi 
the negative. 

I proceed, then, to adduce, in support of various positiii 
assumed in the preceding chapters, a few— my space admits b) 
a few— of the many Spiritual phenomena, spontaneous U 
evoked, that have oocorred under my observation, or come 
me in aathentio form, during the last fifteen yeata. 


book: II. 


" Fwte like thwe, with whioh tbe world ia ftll«d, embuzaoB abtmtg 
mind* moce tbau they an wiOiiig to aaknowlodge." — Batlb. 


" Onx eyes are holden thai wtt oaimot see things that stare na in the 
boe, nntO Use time airiTCs ttbea the nuod is ripened : then wa behold 
them, and the time when we nw them not is like a dream." — Embbsoh. 

WacN I recall wh&t happened to me in March, 1856, 1 am | 
reminded of Emeraon's snggeetive words. V ,- 

TTp to that time I liad been living, as so many millions live, v 
in vague unbelief that there are. Id this world, any spiritual 
agencies cognizable by the senses. I had barely heard of the 
" Bochester Knockings," and had wondered what supreme ab- 
surdity would follow next. 

I was then in Naples where, for two and a half preceding 
years, I had held the post of American Minister. The mem- 
bera of OUT diplomatic corps, living on pleasant and intimate 
terms, were in the habit of dropping informally into each other's 
apartments, for an hour or two in the evening. To this habit I 
ant indebted for a strange experience which I shall entitle 

283 AT TEtB BtmeiAS UnnBTEB'B. 

The Maid and Cook. 

On the tweoty-fifUi of March I passed the evening vitb tla 

BuBsiao MiniBter, Monaieur K . Besides bis &inily Ihot 

were present the Chev&lier de F , Tuscan Minister, uidb 

lady ; together with sereral viaitors from differeot parts of thi 
world. During m«st of the evening we spoke TJI |>gliati, tk 
Tuscan Minister's wife being from Enghind and anotlxr Ud; 
present from America. 

Madame K , a Parisian bj birth and a lady of wwi 

information, asked me, in the course of conversation, if I bad 
ever heard of automatic writing. I confessed that I had not 
Then she expressed her belief that some persons bad the pom 
of replying, in that way, to questions, the true answeis w 
which were unknown to them. 

" Pardon me," said Madame de F ; " I am very sure yw 

would not say so unless you were quite convinced diat yon b«i 
proof sufficient : but I could not believe anything so wondeiM 
unless I witnessed it myself." 

" Let us try, then," said Madame K ; and the propool 

was eagerly assented to ; each person sitting down, putting pen- 
cil to paper and awaitijig the result. We were all unaoquainMd 
with Spiritualism aod unbelievers in it. 

Nothing, for some time: then one hand, that of a Hn 

is. , began to move, making irregular figures but ao wordi i 

or letters. 

Then, at my suggestion that we should teat the matter, | 

Madame de F asked a question : " Who gave me these 

pins? " — pointing to three large gold-headed pins that baiwei | 

her dress, and adding: " If Mrs. M can answer that, I sluB ', 

believe." ■ i 

For several minutes that lady's pencil remained motionlesi; ! 
then, very slowly, it executed a few flourishes, finishing bj 
writing out, in a cramped and not very l^ble hand, sev^ 
words, (/k last tu>o written, backward,* 

• Let anj one tij to nrlte evcm two mch words backward, and h) 


Madame de F begged to look at tbe paper and gazed at 

1 for Bome time, turning very pale. 

" Wbat is it ? " some one asked eagerly. 

" Magic, if there be such a thing," ehe replied. '' It reads : 
The one that gives you. a maid and cook.' " 

" How ridiculous 1 " exclaimed Mademoiselle K : " it is 

.0 answer whatever to your question." 

" You think not, Mademoiselle ? " rejoined Madame de 

' ; " let me tell you the facta. These pins were given to 

00 by my cousin Elizabeth, who lives in Florence. At ray re- 
[uest she sent me, from that city, a lady's maid, who came into 
ay service ten days since, and a cook who arrived day before 

The paper was passed from hand to hand, calling forth re- 
peated expressions of astonishment, which were increased when 
lorae one suggested that the concluding portion of the flourishes 
ffhich preceded the writing closely resembled a capital E ; the 
-nitial letter of the donor's name.* 

In myedf this incident, trifling if it seem, excited £ir more 
than astonishment. During several hours of wlent reflection, 
that evening at home, there came over me the indescribable 
emotion that is felt when one first awakes to ihe possibility 
that there may be experimental proof of another life. Ere I 
slept I had registered in my heart a vow — since kept — not to 
rest till I had proved this possibility to be a probabili^ or a 
certainty — or a delusion. 

Accordingly next day I called on Madame de F , who had 

earned ofi* the sheet of paper containing a reply which had at 
&^t seemed so enigmatical, but which proved to be bo singu- 
larly appropriate ; and, on stating to her that I desired to pre- 

nill discover the ((reat difBcnIty of doing so. It should be added that 

Hn. H was not only without eipeiimice In ^Irttntllsm, but pre}- 

Qdic«d urainst it. 




■erve it for reooH, she kindly ceded it to me.* In reply to ■ 
inqiiiiy on my part, she atated, in emphatic terms, her eoBTic' 
tlon that the circumabmcca alluded ta m 
the mysterious writing wwe not — indeed, 
conld not be — known exo^ to her on 
fiunily. It was but a few weeks, she 
minded me, tdnce she henelf aniTed is 
Naples, Her cousin was unknown hei^ 
even by name; she herself had Be>a 
mentioned her to any one in the a^'. 
much less alluded to the &ct that the 
gold piss were her gift. But, in ad£- 
tion, Bhe had never spoken to any aae 
S outside her family circle, about tiie 
■§ vanta who had recently arrived ; or 
a whence they came, or who sent tfaeoL 
And finally she stated that she had but 
just made the acquaintance of Ma. 

M , having only exchanged cardi 

with her. 

Intimately acquainted as I am vitk 
die circumstances of this case, to ssj 
nothing of the character and standing of 
the parties concerned, I am justified in 
asserting unqualifiedly that, whatevet 
else the solution, collusion and decep- 
tion are out of the question. 

But, the fitcts accepted, how strange 
were the deductions 1 Restricting my- 
self to commonly-received data, I found 
nothing that approached a satisfocbny 

It was thus I reasoned the matter 
with mysell Had the reply to Madame 
de F 's question been mwely (be 


lame of her coaBi% tiie donor of the pina (Elizabeth), it would 
lavo be«i eqnally reloTant but much leas anrprising. We should 

Drobably h&ve ascribed it to chance. Or, ae Madame de F 

ras doubtless, at tliat time, thinking of her cousin's name, we 
ni^t have regarded it only aa an example of a word tiiought 
>f hy one person, and nncoosoioiislj reflected (if thnt be the 
sroper expression) &om the mind of another ; a phenomenon 
nith Trbich all vital magnetizei's are &miliar (even if they can- 
not explain it), and one of iha reality of which Cuvier himself 
indioatee the possibility.* 

Sat the results I had obtained went much farmer tiian this 
and irere of a far more complicated charaeter, 

I inquired of Madame de F whether, at the time ahe put 

her question and was expecting a reply, she was thinking of 
the £act that her coasin had seat her two servants. She replied, 
that, very certainly, such a thon^t had not crossed her mind. 
Of course, if she hod been asked who sent her the servants in 
question, she would readily have replied that her cousin had 
done BO. But, in that case, the question would have called up 
the idea. As it was, the fact, though toitfUn her ktwwtedffe, was 
Qotpretent to her mind. If she herself had been required to 
answer her own question, ahe would doubtless have replied to it 
in a straightforward, simple manner, as : " My cousin Eliza- 
beth ; " or using some similar expression. We cannot imagine, 
that she would have gone out of her way to teU us that " it 
was the same penon who had sent her a maid and a cook." 
Then what thinking entity was it, which thus called up, out of 

the latent stores of Madame de F 's memory, this dormant 

idea ? What oocult intelligence went out of ite way to answer 
her qnestioQ after this roundabout fashion ? Who selected the 
unexpected form of reply ? 

' AnatomU Gomp(aree. tome ii p. 117. His admiamoa U that, when 
two living beioffs are brought, under certain oonditlona, near eooh other, 
tbere exists semetimea "one commnnioatiou qaeloonque qui s'dtablit 
entce tenrs gyat i in eB oervenx." 


At Grat I Bcrnpled aboat aasuioiag that there was any ex- 
ternal personalitj' coQcemect. Bat a little refleotion convinced 
me that if I dismiaaed that idea, I was Bhiftiag, not Bolviiig, the 
difficulty. For the question then i-ecurred in another sht^: 
What agency determined the special character of an answer thus 
indirect and iar-fetched, yet strictly relevant and accurate ? 

And then (I went on to reflect) without assuming a personal 
entity, how are we to explain reenlte that are never presented 
to UH except as the mental operations of a sentient being ; such 
AS selection of appropriate iticts from among many stored awe^ 
in the memory, perception of the connection of these beta 
with a question which did not apparently refer to them, perti- 
nent application of the selected &cts to frame a truthful reply ; 
nay, even an apparent intention, by giving to that reply an 
outrof-the-way and unlooked-for turn, to prove to us the pres- 
ence of a reasoning and intelligent agent ? 

I was unable to answer these quesUons then ; and, except on 
the spiritual hypothesis, I am nnable, after fifteen years' experi- 
ence, to offer any rational explanation to-day. ' 

Probably most of those who assisted at the experiment I ' 
have recorded went away moved to simple wonder only; per- 
plexed for the time, but ere a month had passed, foi^etting, ' 
in the passing excitem^it of some fresh novelty, both wonder ' 
and perplexity ; or at moat, perhaps, relating now and then, to 
incredulous listeners of a vdntor evening, that very odd coinci- 
dence about three gold pins and a maid and a cook. ' 

To me its lessons are still as fresh as on the day I received ' 
them. They preceded, and induced, a course of study that 
eventually changed the whole feelings and tonor of my lif^ ' 

Within Hie last twenty-five years inuldtudes, in Utia and in 
all other civilized countries, have been overtaken, as unexpect- 
edly aa I was, with evidence of the reality of spiritual phenom- i 
ena. And, to hundreds of thousands among theqe, convictiou i 
has come in the quiet of the domestic oirde j l)u not baen ' 


owed to the world, omd lias not disturbed their relations with 
e chiu^ches thej had been wont to frequent. 
In illustration I here supply, oat of many examples that 
ve come to my knowledge, one which is the more noteworthy 
(SQse it exhibits various phases of spiritual intervention. I 
tide it 

A i>oifxsTic Ihtabion. 

[n the year 1853 there lived, in the town of B , lUaBsachn- 

ta, a £imily of the utmost respectability and in eaay circum- 
noes, whoee name, Uiough known to me, I am not at liberty 

e to give. Let us call them Mr. and Mrs. L . 

Ure. L appears to have been one of a class of which I 

'e already spoken as resembling Relchenbach's " sensitives," 
lot identical with them ; a class which has furnished what 
called " mediums," and what might appropriately be called 
nritoal sensitives." She shared many of the peculiarities 
that class ; peculiarities which, in her case as in many 
its, seem to have been hereditary.* 

ler grandmother, one momiiig, preparing to go out walking 
tumiug round to leave her bed-chamber, suddenly per- 
-ed, standing before her, the exact counterpart of herself. 
firat iihe imagined it to be an impression from some mirror ; 
having ascertained tJiat it was not so and seeing the appeor- 
I gradually vanish, she became very much alarmed ; the 
liar idea occurring to her that to see one's dovMe, or wrailA 
' te Scotch term it, portended death. She inuuediatety sent 
' "&e preacher whose church she frequented, the Bev. Mr. 
m, and consulted him on the subject. He inquired whe- 

i.Oat at 161 sensitives whose names are regierteied bj BeichBnbach, 
^ jnodghia odio enbjecte, 143 aie fiom families ma^ed bj a siinilar 
^Jlaiitj. Of theee he (onad tJiefacal^tobavebeeninliented, in 38 
I from the fether, in GO from tLe mother, in 11 from both parents : 
KnMoCheicaaeait wasrdmradl^attrotlier or lister. — Der StndtiM 
W'v^y'Si.tL §9668 tog 3660 (StoUewt, 1854). 

1 ^.ooglc 


thor it TTM before or after imil-d»y that she Itad wen tlie appni- 
tdon ; and, learning that it was early in the forenoon, he usond 
her (whether from sinoere oonvietiou or merely to allay the ex- 
treme excitement in which he found her) that the augury vu 
of long life, not of approaching diaBolutioo. Ab it chauoed, An 
lived after that to a good, old age. I 

Mrs. L 'b mother, Mrs. F , was accompanied br | 

knockings and other sounds in a house in Pearl street, Boston, at 
interrals as long as she resided tiiere ; namely, through a pencil i 
of twelve years. Sometimes these sounds were audible to hcr-l 
self only; sometimes also to the other inmates of the hoDX., 
Finally, they annoyed her husband so much, that he chaDgedl 
their lesidenoe. ' 

Mrs. L herself when about ten years of age (in die year 

1830), had been witness to one of those phenomena tJiat an 
never forgotten and produce a great influence on the opiaionsi 
and feelings of a lifetime. 

There was, at that time, residing in her mother's honae, in 
the last stage of hopeless decline, a lady, named Mrs. Maisball, 

to whom Mrs. F , from benevolent motives, had offered 

temporary home. 

CeoiUa — that is Mrs. L 's name — hod been aitting up oH 

evening a little later than usual, and, childlike, had lain dowij 
on the parlor sofa and dropped to sleep. 

Awaking, after a time, she supposed it must be late; &■ 
the fire had burned low and the room was vacant. As sU 
attempted to rise, she suddenly became aware that the fignn 
of Mrs. Marshall, robed in white, was bending over hn 
" Oh, Mrs. Marshall," she exclaimed, " why did yon coai 
down for me ? You will be sure to take cold." The figuii 
smiled, made no reply, but, moving toward the door, signed ^ 
Cecilia to follow. She did so in considerable trepidatlcS 
which was increased when she perceived what she still belieW 
to be the lady beraelf pass up the stairs backward, with i 
slow, gliding motion, to the door of her bedittom. The ohik 
followed ; and, as she reached the Unding of the stain, A 


■aw Uie figure, without tnnung Hhe lock or opening the door, 
pass, as it were, throu^ the material subBtanoe iuto the room 
and &UB disappear from her sight. 

Her screams brought her mother who, comii^ out of Mrs. 
Marshall's room, asked her what was the matter. " Oh, mam- 
ma, mamma," eisclaimed the terrified child, " was that a 
ghost ? " 

The mother chid her at first, for nursing sillj ianciea; hut 
-when Cecilia related to her circumstantially what she had wit- 
nessed, Mrs. F shuddered. Well she might ! Not half an 

hour befi)re she had assisted at the death-bed of Mrs. Mar- 
shall t 

It was remembered, too, that a few minutes before she ex- 
pired, that lady, with whom Cecilia was a great favorite, had 
spoken in affectionate terms of the child and had espreased an 

earnest desire to see her. But Mrs. F , fearing the effect 

of such a scene on one so young, h'ad refrained &om calling her 

Did the earnest longing mature into action when the earth- 
clog was cast off? Was the dying wish gratified, notwithsbutd- 
ing the mother's precautions ? 

Z4iter in her youth Cecilia, to her mother's great alarm, had 
from time to time walked in her sleep. This somnambulism 
-was strictly spontaneous, no mesmeric experiments of any kind 
having ever been allowed in the &mily. It did not result in 
any accident ; but, on several occasions, while unconscious and 
'with her eyes closed, she hod aided her mother, as expertly as 
if awake, in the household duties. 

She had another peculiarity. In the early part of the night 
her sleep was usually profound ; but oocaeionaUy, toward morn- 
ing, in a state between sleeping and waking, she had visions of 
the night which, though they were undoubtedly but a phase 
of dreaming, she discovered, by repeated experience, to be often 
of a clairvoyant or prophetic character ; sometimes informing 
lier of death or iUneoB. These intimations of the distant or the 
future BO frequently corresponded to the truth that, when they 


progBootioated misfortone, Mis. L hemtated, on awakiB^ 

to conunimicata them. 

Such a dream, or visiou, she had one night in the early part 
of the month of November, 1853. A dster, Estiher, reoen^j 
married, had gone out, with her husband, to California, bchdo 
weeks before ; and they had been expecting, ere Itmg, news of 
her arrival. This sister seemed to approach the bedside, and 
Bud to her: "Cecilia, come with me to California." Mrs. 

L , in her dream, objected that she could not Jeave her 

husband and children, to undertake a journey so long and 

" We shall soon be then," said Esther, " and you idiaU r^ 
turn before morning." 

In her dream the proposed excursion did not seem to her an 
impOBubility : so she rose from bed, and, gi'ring her hand 
to her iister, she thouf^t tbey ascended togeUier and floatod 
over a y^at space ; then descended near a dwelling of humble 
and rude appearance, very different from any which she could 
have imagined her aistor to occupy in the new counby to 
which, in search of fortune, she and her httshand had emigrated. 
The sisters entered, and Cecilia recognized her brother-in-law, 
sad and in mourning garb." Esther then led her into a room 
in the centre of which stood an open coffin, and pointed to the 
body it contained. It was Esther's own body, pale with the 

hue of death. Mrs. L gazed in mute astonishment, &:8t 

at the oorpse before her, then at the form, apparently Inight 
with life and intelligence, which had conducted her thither. 
To her look of inquiry and wonder the living appearance re- 
plied, " Yes, sister, that body was mine ; but disease assailed 
it. I was taken with cholera and I have passed to anotliiBr 
world. I desired to show you this, that you mi^t be prepared 
for the news that will soon reach you." 

After a time Mrs. L — :— seemed to herself to rise again 
into the air, agtiin to traverse a great space, wid finally to re- 
enter her bed-chamber. By and by she awoke, with this dream 

19E TBAITOK. 201. 

M) Tividlf atunped on her mind, that it required aome time to 
gataatj her tltat ahe h&d not made an actual journey. 

" I hare had «u«& a dream I " she ezolaimed to her husband. 
Bat his discouraging " What, Cecilia, at your fooUah dreams 
again? " closed her lips, and she passed the matter off without 
fortiier explanation, either to him or to any other member of 
the &miiy. 

It so happened that, the evening of the same day, Mrs. L 

sat down to » quiet faoiily game of whist. Her hosband and a 
yovngOT sister, Anne, were of the party. In the course of the 

game Mrs. L handed the cards to hw sister, whose turn It 

was to deal. Suddenly she saw Anfl^^m assume a rapid ro- 
tary motion, and the cards fiew in all directions. Turning to 
chide her for what ahe thou^t a foolish jest, she observed a 
peculiar expresuon spread over her face : the took was grave, 
earnest, thoughtful ; and the eyes were fixed, as with affection- 
ate anxiety, on Cecilia's face. 

Very much alarmed, the latter cried out, " Ob, Anne, what 
it the matter J why do yoa look so ? " 

" Call me not Anne," was the reply ; " I am Esther." 

** I tell you it is Esther who speaks to you, not Anne." 

Mrs. L , excessively terrified, turned to her husband, cry- 
ing oat, " Her mind is gone 1 she is mad ! Oh that such a 
misfortune should ever have fidlen on our family I " 

" Tour dream, Cecilia I Your dream of last uight I • Have 
yon forgotten whither I took you and what yon saw ? " said 
Anne, solemnly. 

The shock was too much for Mrs. L . She fainted. 

When, by the nee of the usual restoratives, she had recovered, 
she foomd her sister still in the same trance-like stat«, and still 
impersonatiDg Esther. This continued for nearly four hours 
At Uie end of that time Anne suddenly rubbed her eyes, 
stretched her limbs, as if awaking, and asked in her natural 
voice, " Have I been a^eep ? What is the matter? What has 

293 X ijldt bpeakinq tthdeb the 

SomQ four weeki afterward the Oalifamu mail broi^it a 
letter from Esther's husband, informing the family of his wife*B 
andden death, hy cholera, on tlie very day precedii^ &e night 
of Mrs. L 'b dream. 

When, about six months later, the brother-in-law, having re- 
turned to Massachusetts, heard from Mrs. L the descrip- 
tion of the rude dwelling to which, iu her dream, ahe had 
seemed to be conveyed, he adoMtted that it comeponded, accu- 
rately and minutely, to that of the house ia which hia wife ae- 
tnally died. 

The above incidea^l^tf related t^ne by Mrs. L her- 
self,* with permistdon to publish liteia, suppressing mly the 

Hist lady also stated to me thU, at the time referred to, the 
modem spiritual maaiCsstations were unknown in the town of 

R , except by some vague rumors of knockdngs said to have 

been heard in Rochester, and which Mrs. L 'a &mily bad 

always treated as a matter too absurd to be aerionsly noticed. 
It need hardly be added that they had nevw sought or wit- 
nessed tapping or table-moving or traace-speoking or automatic 
writing, or any similar phenomena, now so common in dkia and 
other oountriee. 

It was, therefore, with mingled feelings of grief and aston* 
ishment that they observed, in Anne, a repetition on aevMvl 
subsequent occasions of the same manifeetatioii which had 
startled them during the rubber at whist. 

• At the Fifth Avsuae Hotel, Ne* Toik, on October 15, 1880. Tbe 

nanative, written ont, was Eabmitted bj me to Mis. L on the ITth 

of October ; imd she aaaented to its accuracy. 

Bad I not been the author of a ■work which had Btiraoted the atten- 

tiaa, and awakened tiie Hympathies, of Urg. L , I should never have 

learned these paitloalan; for, during three jtaxa pieoeding ISDO, tliat 
lady and her family had oeosed to speak, outsdeof tbe domeatio citole, 
on the sabjeot of tiielr quiitiul viiitatiotw. Tbe feeling whidi 
prompted Uiis reliorooe enffloieiitly explains why the family name is 

IH7LUEK0E 07 A. D] 

He next time that her Bister's fixed gaze and changed man- 
ner indicated the recurrence of this abnonnal condition, Mt^ 
Xi asked, " Is this £sther again ? " 

*' Not so, my daughter," was the reply. " It is not your sis- 
ter but another friend who desires to address you." 

" What friend ? " 

"John Murray." 

This was the name of an aged preacher under whom Mrs, 

L 'e mother hod sat in the early part of her life, and who had 

died many years before, faever personally known to Mrs. L . 

Afler this, the impersonation,' by Anne, of the Bev, Mr. 
Murray was of frequent occurrence. On such occasions she 
usually addressed tlioae present in the gi&ve and measured tonea 
that are wont to characterize a pnlfut discourse, ^e subjects 
were always religious, and the spirit in which they were treated 
-was elevated and often eloquent &r beyond the natural powers 
of the speakw. 

TSoT was Uiis aU. Mrs. L herself, at first very much to 

her dissadsfection, became influenced to write by impressional 
dictation. Long she resisted, additionally urged to opposition 
by the great repugnance of her husband and of her friends, who 
regarded, almost with horror, this sudden invasion of the 
household circle. " It must be some of these terrible spiritual 
extravagances that are going about," they iised to say, in a 
tone very similar to that in which nervous people deplore the 
approach of a deadly epidemic. 

After a time, however, when it was observed that these com- 
munications were pure and reverent in character, inculcating 
the highest principles of religion and morality, and Uwt no 

further abnormalities succeeded, Mr. L and many of their 

friends became reconciled to the intrusion ; and finally listened, 
with intmnt and pleasure, to the lessons, oral and written, 
which were thus mysteriously conveyed to them. 

In the above remarkable narrative I invite attention to the 
evidence, therein incidentally presenting itself, of identily. 

291 ntoor or TDmnrrr. 

We m»j believe confidently in the spiritual ori^n of ft mes- 
Bage or of a lesson, and yet may be justified — we ors eometiiiMa 
fully jtiBtified — in doubting the identity of the spirit purporting 
to communicate.* 

But what are we to make of Anne's exclamatdon : " Your 
dream, Cecilial Your dream of last night ! Have you fot:;got- 
ten whitlier I took you and what you saw ? " 

Not a single particular of that dream had been related t^ 

Mrs. L to Anne or to any one else. No wonder she &inted ! 

No wonder she felt certain — aa she (old me shedid— t^at it 'was 
Esther herself, and Qootber, -who inspired the words. Tow-hat 
other credible source can we refer them? The hypothesis of 
chaoce coincidence is utterly untenable. As little can we mp- 
pose reflection by thought-reading: to say nothing of the in- 
credibiUty of a simulated four-hour trance. 

Of apparitions to relatives and dear friends at or near tiw 
time of death I have elsewhere f furnished authentic e:uunples. 
This is more common than any other class of apparition. Nu- 
merous examples occur in Qerman works, and the Germans 
have a special term (anzeigen) to designate such an appear 
auoe. J 

But besides being commonly unexpected and often unwel- 
come, these phenomena have sometimes resulted in annoyance 
and loss to tlie parties who witnessed them; tiiough usually 

, * Eapeoiall; where celebrated names are given ; and thia may happvi 
wftboQt iuteatioii to deceive. The name of Sooratee or AHatotla at 
Confncins might be assumed b7 some spirit ftivoring the sobool at 
philosopbj of the aage whose name he gives. 

For myself, I have never received a commanioation purportfog bo 
come from anj celebrity whom, in life, I had not known: andbutisnly 
from any one except tbose with whom I had been connected by ties of 
consanguinity, or of aSection. 

t In Fooif/dU on the Boundaty of AjKAAer ffOT*f, at pp. 871-874, 
and throtighoiit chapter 3, Book il. 

I " IHr hat sicb angesoigt " is tbe phiaae nsoally employed. 

A last's lbttbe. 295 

^thont (^parent intention to injure, on tbe part of the unseen 
agents. « 

An example is given in a London periodical,* attested hy 
date, place, and name. It comes through an English clergy- 
man. The Bev. S. £. Benbongh, of Hadleigh, Kochford, Essex, 
writing in June, 1860, incloses a letter from a lady vith whom 
he says he is " well acquainted and cannot doubt for a moment 
her trustworthiness." He goes on to say : ** All well-authen- 
laoated facts connected, or apparently conaected, with the 
supernatural are valuable as materials bom which, in course 
of time, general laws may bo deduced ; " and adds an expres- 
mon of regret that so many persons, in narrating such facts, 
withhold the guarantee of genuineneaa contained in a signature. 
The letter, which he incloses and which I have slightly abridged, 
tells the story. Let us call it 

Why a Villa was sold at a Loss. 

" Deab StE : A few evenings since you expressed a wish to 
obtain, in writing, tbe circumstances which caused mc to leave 
my foimei' abode. Here are the facts. 

" In January, 1860, 1 pnrchased a semi-detached villa, near 
Chiswick. The previous occupant was a lady who, sixteen 
years before, had built that and the adjoining villa. The lat- 
ter hud been sold to an elderly gentleman and bis wife, who 
proved most respectable and quiet neighbors. My own fam- 
ily, as you know, consists of myself, my dauf^ter, and a female 

" The front bedroom, eighteen feet by twenty-five, 1 selected 
for my own use. The very first night of my occupancy — there 
being a bright fire and a night-light burning — I beard a singu- 
lar noise, commencing before midnight and oontinuing for 
some time ; but I paid little attention to it. Tbe same sound 
continaed, with few interruptions, for many weeks, and grew 

■ BpMtuai ifagatiae of Jnlf, 1860. 


to R seriooB distuibance ; reguliu-lf waktug me frmn m; flnt 
Bleep at from half-past eleven to twelve o'clocl^ or occasioDallj 
at about twenty minutes past eleven. The sounds seined to 
proceed from naked or thinly-sUppered feet, walking to and 
tro, the length of the room, with heavy tread : so heavy Uiat 
it caused a vibration of the crockery on tlie marble washBtand, 
and of light articles on the toilet^lass. 

" My first impression was that my nex't^loor neighbors had 
restleoa nights ; but, on m'^'"g their acquaintance, I found 
tftat this was not the case. Next I sought to account for tiw 
strange sound in connection with a timepiece in my bed-cham- 
ber ; and this I had moved from place to place, but unavail- 
ingly. The souad continued, and the ticking of the timepiece 
could be heoi'd quite distinct from it. 

"Another experiment was equally without result. I fre- 
quently placed myself so, as it were, that I might arrest the 
footeteps, but this caused no ceeaatiou or alteration of the 

" Sometimes I used to opon the window and sit by it in the 
spring mornings. This made no difference : the sounds wmt 
on, all the same, until four or five o'clock. 

" I discovered that to others the sounds conveyed the saaie 
impression as to myself. Three or four times I awoke my 
daughter ; and to her aa to me, they seemed to proceed from • 
heavy footfall. Again, on one occasion when a friend, who was 
visiting me, had been put in the room which my servant usu- 
ally occupied, the girl slept on a sofa in my bedroom. Up to 
Hiat time I hod not mentioned it to her. Twice, when awoke 
in the night, she cried out, terrified: *0h. Ma'am, what is 
it ? what is it ? ' and hid her bead under the bed-clothes, 

" At last this disturbance became not only annoying but so 
terrible to me that I resolved to leave the house. At a great 
loss I obtained a purchaser. 

" When this was settled I heard, for the first time, from an 
old nurae who came to inquiro ofler the former inhabitants 
of the house, that the lady who built it and who had died there, 

and from whose brother I bought ib, suffered from painful and 
incnmble disease, and that it was her sad &te, after a short 
sleep, to walk the room till four or five in the morning; then 
to sink on her bed, exhausted. 

*' On inquiry, an opposite neighbor confirmed this statement. 
Th«f had often seen the old lady walking to and fro, when 
sickness in their family caused them to be about in the early 

" This may be no solution of the singular affair. But I re- 
late it in connection with the other events. 

" I am, dear sir, yours respectfully, 

"Maby Fbopebt. 
« TaAe .Rw. 3. S. BmAough." 

This will be reoc^ized as one of a class of phenomena, often 
discredited, known as '* house-hauntings." , Hie remarkable 
point in the case is its business aspect. The lady from whom 
the story comes, and who seems to have been a dispassionate 
observer, found the disturbance so seriously real and so persis- 
tent that, at a great loss, she sold her house to escape it. I 
think it possible she might ha\-e been saved from this loss had 
she been willing — but no doubt the proposal would have 
shocked her — to enter into communication with her nootumnl 
visitant. In support of this opinion I here adduce an anec- 
dote of 


There is a young lady, Miss V , well xdA favorably known 

to me, frank and cultivated, a member of one of the old Kew 
York families, A few years sinoe she was spending a week or 
two with her aunt, mistress of a spscious, handsome, and hos- 
pitable old mansion on the Hudson Biver. This mansion, like 
some of the ancient chateaux of Europe, has long had its 
haunted chamber. Little was said about this, but the room 
was not used except on pressing occasions. During Uiss 

V *8 residence there, visitoTS accumulated to overflowing ; 



and the aunt, with an apology to her nieoe, asked her if obe 
minded giving up her room for a day or two to the new-comers 

and rnnning the risk of a visit from a ghost. Miss V 

replied that ahe waa not afraid of visitors from another worid : 
BO the arrangement was made. 

The young lady went to sleep quietly and without fe«r. 
Awaking about midnight, she saw, moving about her room, an 
elderly woman in neat, somewhat old-fashioned dress, appar- 
ently an upper-servant: but the iaoe was unknown to her. At 
firet she was not afraid, supposing it to be some one employed 
in the house who had come on some errand or other : but a mo- 
ment's thought reminded her that she bad locked the door be- 
fore retiring. This startled her, and her atwm increased whoi 
the figure approached the bed, bent toward her and seemed to 
make an eameet but imavailing effort to speak. Qreatly fright- 
ened she drew the bed-clothea over her face ; and when, after a 
little, she looked up again, the figure had vanished. She sprang 
to the door of her room and found it still locked on the inside, 
" Can there be such things as ghosts? " she thought, as she re- 
turned to bed ; " that loaa a reality, if sight oould be trusted." 
In that conviction, after a restless hour or two, she fell asleep ; 
but next morning in the bright light of day, it did not seem to 
her quite so certain ; and after a few months it faded — as witb 
young people such things will — to a dim belief. 

Then, however, a circumstance occurred which renewed a 
faith, not again to be shaken, in the reality of her midnight vis- 
itor. Accepting the invitation of an intimate and highly val- 
ued friend to spend some days with her, she found that her 
hostess, in a quiet way, had been making experiments in Spiri- 
tualism and had obtained sundry commuuications. Miss V , 

curious on a subject of which she had heard much and seMi very 
little, joined her friend during several sittings. 

On one of these occasions an (allt^^) spirit announced itself 
as Sarah Clarke," a name unknown to both ladies. The oom- 

* This ia not the real name. I obtained this narratiTe from Mi— 
V^— hereolf, in the winter o( IB60-70; at first with permission to ^va 
namea and exact Autet. BnC nfterwntd, on confemng with bet aunt, 


monication was to the effect that ehe had been, m&ny years be- 
fore, houBekeepcr in the fiimily of MisB V 'a aunt ; that 

she had endeavored, unsuccesafulty, to communicate directly 

with UisB Y wheu that yoong lady last viaitcd the old 

manaion ; that her object vas to cosfess a, criminal act of which 
she had been guilty and to ask her old mistress's pardon for it. 
A restless desire to do bo (she added) had caused her to haunt 
the room she occupied when on earth. She then proceeded to 
say that she had been tempted to steal and hide away several 
small pieces of family plate, including a silver sugar-bowl and a 
few other articles which she enumerated ; and that she would 

be very thankful if Miss V would tell her aunt this and 

axpieas her (Sarah's) great sorrow for what she had done, and 
her hope for pardon. 

The next time Miss Y visited her aunt, she asked her if 

she had ever tnown a person named Sarah Clarke. 

" Certainly," she replied, " she was housekeeper in onr Um- 
ilj some thirty or forty years since." 

" What sort of person was she? " 

" A good, careful, tidy woman." 

" Did you lose any silver articles while she was with you, 

The lady reflected. " Yes, I believe we did ; a sugar basin 
and a few other things dis^peared in a mysterious way. 
Why do you ask ? " 

" Did you ever suspect Siu^ of taking them ? " 

" So : of course she had access to them ; but we considered 
her ^r too trustworthy to be guilty of theft," 

Then Misa Y related the message she and her friend had 

received; and, on comparing notes, it was found that the list 
of articles, as given by Sarah to the two ladies, corresponded 
with the thin^ actually lost, so far as the aunt could recol- 

ehe foQiid the old lady TUvrtUios to incur the notoriety owiseqnent on 

doing; bo: ond thus Miss V bod to withdraw the* pemuRsion tonoe 

ai^ names in oonnootion with her stoiy. 


loot. Whftt that lad7 thonght of her oieoe's stor; I know not : 
all she BBid was that, if Sarah had taken the thli^s, she most 
freely forgave it. 

The remarkable point in Ihis story reinains to be told. From 
that time forth, ttte haunted diomber u>a» frte from ail cUatwrh- 
aiice. Sarah Clarke never again appeared to anj of its oocu- 

Knowing the standing of the parties I am able to vouch for 
the truth of this story. Let iia consider what it disclosea as to 
the next world. 
/ There is repentance there as here, lliere is restless regret 
and Borrow for grave sin committed while here, lliere is anx- 
ious desire for pardon from those whom the spirit wronged 
during earth-life. In otherworda the natur&l effects of evil do- 
ing follow ua to cor nest phase of life ; aod, in that phase of 
life as in tlie present, we amend, and attoin to better things, by 
virtue of repentance. 

In thb the mode of moral progreaston after death k similar 

\ to that which alone avails on earth. " Repent I " was Christ's 
) first public exhortation. To the " spirits in prison Von the 

/ other side — spirits not yet released from earthly bondage and 

/ earthly ramorBe — the same exliortation, it would seem, is a{i- 

\ propriate still. 

\ Such iodicationa as these indudb Spiritualists to believe that 
the next world is more nearly like this tlian Orthodoxy ima- 
gines it to be. 

Another corollary is, that when such spiritual pheoomena 
present themselves, an endeavor to establish communication 
with the manifesting spirit may i-esult in benefit alike to a den- 
izen of the oUier world and to a disturbed inhabitant of this. 
In this way Mrs. Propert, getting rid of the midnight footfidls, 
might have been in quiet possession of her villa at this day. 

I invite attention, also, to the stroug proof of identity fur- 
nished by Miss V 's story. The name of tlie housekeeper 

was unknown to botJi ladies when her (alleged) spirit gftve tike 

FOB " Bpmrra in pbison." 301 

Them was aothing to su^^est suoh a same, or auch 
a confessioa aa was made. Yet, on inquiry, both name and 
confession were found to oorreapond with facte that had taken 
place thirty or forly years before : to say nothing of a new fact, 
tallying with all the rest : the cessation of the spiritual viaita, 
as soon as the visitor bad no longer any motive to show her- 

I pass now to another class of manifestations, in which, it 
will be remarked, the game element of unexpectedness ia found. 




US uw the aagel of the LcRd standing in tile wft^." — Nukbkba 

Tho8K irho deem incredible certaiit detuls of the interruption 
"which befell BalMun during his unwilling journey to meet tho 
King of Moah, may find, in modem incidents, cause for belief 
that there might have been an important truth nDderljing the 

I think it the more important to adduce some of these inci- 
dents because, if sufficiently authenticated, they set at rest the 
vague theories touching " expectant attention " and " dominaiit 
ideas," that have been propoiuided to explain away, as figments 
of the brain, all perceptions of spiritual sppeanmoeB. Pint let 
ua examine one which occurred in Holland. 

What befell a Swisb Offices. 

I take the following from a well-known English woi^ on 
Sleep, by Dr. Binus. The author gives it on the authority of 
Lord Stanhope, who had it directly from the gentleman to 
whom the incident occurred, Mr. C. de Steiguer, a nephew of 
the celebrated Avoyer de St«iguer, of Benie. That gentle- 
man, in relating it to Lord Stanhope, said : " I do not believe 
in apparitions, but there in something very extraordinary in 
the subject ; and I would not relate what I am about to moi- 
tion if many persons, some of whom are now alive, could not 
bear witness to ita tnith." 

Jjord Stanhope then proceeds to give " aa nearly as possibls 


an exact tetnulfttion of the expreiisioiiB which he (Monsieur de 
Steigner) used." Here it is : 

" I was early in life in the Dutch service, and had occupied 
mj lodgings, for some weeks, without hearing anything remark- 
able. My bedroom had, on one side of it, my sitting room ; 
on the other, a room in which my servant slept ; and it com- 
mtmicated witti each of them by a door. 

" One night, being in bed but not asleep, I heard a noise as 
if some person was walking, in slippers, up and down the room. 
The noise continued for some time. 

** Kext morning I asked my servant if he had heard any- 
thing. ' Nothing,' he replied, ' except that you walked up 
and down ^e room last night, when it was late.' I assured 
him that I had not done so ; and, as he appeared incredulous, 
I told him that, if I should again hear the sounds I would let 
him know. 

" On the following night I called him, desiring him to bring 
a candle and to take notice if be saw anything. He informed 
me that he did not ; but that he heard a noise as if some per- 
son were approaching him, and then movii^ off in a contrary 

" I had three animals in my room ; a dog, a cat, and a can- 
ary-bird ; each of which was affected in a peculiar manner, 
whenever the noise was heard. The dog immediately jumped 
into my bed and lay close to me, tr^nbling as if from fear. 
The cat followed the noise with her eyes, as if she saw, or at- 
tempted to see, what caused it. The canary bird, which was 
sleeping on its perch, instantly awoke, and fluttered about tlie 
cage, in great perturbation. 

"OccaaionsJly a noise was heard as if the keys of the piano 
in my sitting room were slightly touched, and as if the key of 
m; desk was turned and the desk opened ; but nothing moved. 
I meiitioned these things to the offioers of my regiment, all of 
iritom slept by turns on the soia in my sitting room, and beard 
the same sounds." 



M. de Steigner had ■tite fioor and BkiTtiiig-board token up^ 
but could find ixot even a trace of rats or mice. 

After & time he became unwell ; and, his illneas increasing, 
he sent for a physician who urgently adriaed him to change his 
lodgings, though he would give no reason for tiiia advice. Fi- 
nally M. de Steiguer had himBSlf removed. 

He stated further to Lord Stanhope that when be became 
convalescent and insisted ou Icnowing why the doctor had so 
strongly urged bim to leave his rooms, the latt«r informed 
him " that tbey bad a bad reputation ; that one num liad hoag 
himself in them, and that it was supposed another had bean 
murdered." * 

This narrative bears the stamp of autlienticity. We cannot 
believe that Lord Stanhope would have allowed Dr. Binus to 
use his name and that of hia Swiss fHend, in attestation of sach 
a story, without a deep conviction of its trut^ 

The witness appears to have been a cool-headed and dispas- 
sionate observer ; but let us suppose him nervous and Imagin- 
ative. Did his servant share his temperament? Were the 
senses of all the officers whom he called in, as additional wit- 
nesses, misled by the excitement of expecta^a f Let us con- 
cede these e:>treme improbahilitiea. Another difficulty re- 
mains. Was the dog, was the cat, was the canary-bird, ner- 
vously expectant? Were t^eir senses deceived by "dominant 

As regards the most sagacioua of domestic animals, what has 
been usually called papular superstition has assigned to it an 
occaBional power beyond mere spiritual perceptions — a species 
of presentiment in certun oases of approaching death. I do 
not venture to affirm that dogs ever have such a power ; yet 
I know of one strongly-attested case which goes to prove thai 
sometimes they have an instinct which greatly resembles it. 

f Sleep ; (eoond. •dition, Ixm- 


What PBBCBitBD a Child's unexpected Death. 

For thirty yeara past I have been veil acquainted with Mrs. 
D , daughter of the late .Rev. Mr. R , long and favor- 
ably known in Indiana. Her grandparente, named Haan, 
were living in Woodstock, Virginia, when har mother, tiSbor- 

ward Mrs. B , was twenty years old and still unmarried. 

Miss Haas had a brother, two years old, and the child had a 
favorite dog, who was his constant companion and seemed to 
take special care of him. The circumstancea connected with 

this child's sudden death, Mrs. L had often heard repeated 

l^ her mother. 

It was about mid-day that tJiis boy, running over the parlor 
floor, tripped his foot in the carpet and fell. His sister picked 
him up and soon sncceeded in soothing him. At dinner, how- 
ever, it was observed that he gave his left hand, not being able 
to stoetch ont his right. They rubbed the right arm with cam- 
phor and the child made no complaint. 

While tiarf were at dinner, the dog approached && child's 
chair and b^aa wbiaing in the most piteous way. They put 
liiTn out, then he howled. They drove him off, but he returned 
and took his post under the window of the room in which the 
child was, continuing to howl from time to time ; and there 
he remained during the night, in spite of all attempts to dis- 
lodge him. In the evening the child was taken seriously ill, 
and died about one o'clock in the momii^. So long as it 
lived the dog's dismal lament was heard, at brief intervals ; 
but OS soon as the child died, ihe howling ceased, and was not 
renewed either then or afterward. 

I have entire confidence in Mrs. D 's truthfulness, and 

it was by her tliat the above stery was related to me.* 

Tfiis, however, is the only example of the kind that has 
come to me directly authenticated ; and I refrain from build- 

* On June 27, 18S9. I took notes of it at the tinie. 


tog OD a single example. Animals ma^ not have the gift of 
presentiment ; but I think there is sufficient proof that \hej 
have spiritual perceptions. In a former work * I have, inci- 
dentally, brought up some evidence of this ; and I esteem my- 
self fortunate in being able here Ja present, from an accredited 
medical source, one of the beBt>-att«sted and most cironmstAu- 
tially related incidents in proof, that I ever remember to have 
seen. It is the more valuable because medical writers aa a 
class— like other scientific men — are ever reluctant to admit 
anything that savors of the supemstural. 

The story appeared, three years before the advent of 3pirit- 
nalism in America, in one of the beat-known Medical Joamala 
of Scotland. It occurs in a review of a work on Sleep, then 
just pablished. The reviewer toucbee on the subject of appari- 
tions and, after noticii^ seveml cases which he thinks of eaaj 
solution, thus proceeds : 

" The following case, however, is one of those veiy rare ones, 
whose explanation baffles the philosophic inqniier. It is, in- 
deed, almost the only authentic one to which we could refer; 
and, as it occurred to a particular friend and every drcum- 
Btance was minutdy inquired into at the time, the narrative is 
as authentic as such things can be. It may add to the interest 
of this case to state that it was communicated several ysars 
ago to I£r. Hibbert, alter the publication of his work on appari- 
tions, when he confessed that he could not explain it in the same 
philosophic way in which he had been able to account for all 
others, and that it appeared to him more nearly to approach the 

The story, thus strongly vouched for, is then given by the 
reviewer, as follows, the title only added by me : 

The Doo in thb WotFUDox Wood. 

" F. M, S was passing through the Wolfridge wood at 

Alventon, one night at twelve o'clock. He was accompanied 
■ Fco^all,, pp. 817, fl31, 808, 4«, 448. 

[BNAL. 307 

by his dog, of a breed between the Kewfonndland and mastiff; 
a powerful animal, who feared oeither mac nor beast. He 
had a fowling-piece and a pair of pistob loaded, besides his 
sword ; for he belonged to the Military School there and had 
been out for a day's shooting, 

" The road ran centrally through the wood ; and very nearly 
in the centre of the wood, at a part somewhat more open than 
the rest, there was a cross erected to point out the spot where 
a gamekeeper had been murdered. The place had the reputa- 
tion of being haunted, and the ghost, it was said, had been re- 
peatedly seen. 8 had frequently before passed this cross 

in the wood without seeing anything, and treated the story of 
the ghost so lightly that he had, on more occasions than one, 
for a bet, gone there at midnight and returned without meet- 
ing anything except aa occasional gamekeeper or poacher. 

"This night, when he approached tbeopeo space in the wood, 
be thought he perceived, at the other end of that spSce, the 
Sxna of a man, more indistinct, however, than usual. He 
called his dog to his side (for [u^viously it had been ranging 
about, barking fnrioiisly and giving chase to the game it started) , 
patted it on the head to make it keep a sharp look-out, and 

cocked his gun. The dog, on this, vaa all impatience. S 

challenged the figure, but no answer was returned. Suspect- 
ing it was a poacher and prepared for an encounter, he directed 
the d<^'s attention to the appearance, and the animal answered 
bygtowUng. He then kept his eyes steadily fixed on the figure ; 
when, instantaneously it glided within arm^s length of him. 
Still he looked steadily in ite face while it kept its eyes on his. 
It had appraatdied him without uoise or rustling. The face 
was ill-defined, but distinctly visible. He could not turn his 
eyes from those of t^is apparition ; they fascinated him, as it 
were, to the spot ; he had no power in his frame. He felt no 
fear of bodily injury, only a certain indescribable sense of awe. 
So fascinated were his eyes by those of the figure, that he did 
not observe its dress, nor even its form. It looked calmly and 
with a mild aspect, for a space of time which he does not 


Haxik exoeeded hitlf » minato ; then eaddemly became iuvin- 
ble. Tha fona had flitted before bim about fire nunut«e alto- 

'* Tba dog wbich before this was furious and growliug now 
stood crouched at his feet as if in a trance — bia jav &Uen, his 
limba quivering, and bis wbole frame agitated and covered 

with a cold sweat After the form disappeared, S toudted 

the animal, then spoke to it without its seeming to recognize 
him ; and it Tvas some time before it appeared to recover ita 
senses. The ^bole way home, it never moved &om his aide 
but kept close to bis feet ; nor, on their way home, did it nm 
after game, or take uotloe if game started near it. 

" It waa a fortnight before it recovered from the fri|^t ; and 
it was never afterward the same lively animal. No ooosider- 
ation could ever again induce that dog to enter the wood after 
night&ll, nor would it allow any of the &mily to enter it. 
When it waa forced to pass by the open apot in daylight, it 
would only do so with ita master, and it always exhibited signs 
of fear, trembling all the tame and walking silently by bis aide. 

" a has frequently einoe passed this spot in the wood at 

the midnight hour, but has never again aeen the figure. Be- 
fore tbia oocurrenoe he had always treated with ridicule any 
stories about ghosts or spirits; now, he firmly believea in 

The reviewer does not hesitate to express the opinion Uiat 
the appearance witnessed by his friend waa the result of super- 
natural agency,* 

* EHiiburgh Medieai and Sargieal Jbumol for 1845 ; vol Ixlv. pp. 

The reriewei'fl Tsma^i are aa loUows : 

" This is olmoct the <xalj recorded case known to us whcse tlie en- 
deuce la so ttKiag, m to leave no other iinpreasi<m on the mind but that 
it waa the ^ipeaniooe of some sapenkatnial agency, and, attar tiaring 
in vain endeavored to explain it on any other suppoattian, we fonnd 
ODiselveB tocoed to oonalude, with HainlBt, that ' there are mom thin^ 
in hesven and earth tiian are dreamed of in our phlloe(^>hj'.' " 

This, publuhed in a Medical Journal of old stasding and 
establisbed repatation, three jeara before the term Spiritualism 
in its modem acceptation had been heard of — is certainly a 
■very remarkable admission. 

The incident here related caused a complete revolution of 
opinion in the vitneaa. Fram being an entire sceptic in appari- 
tiona and in spirits, he became, throu^ the evidence of his 
aeuses, a believer in both. But to have faith in spirits and 
thedr appearance is to have faith in the realit/ of another 

CoaM he, rationally, withhold belief? Is not one sooh in- 
cident, unmistakably evidenced, as complete proof of a future 
phase of eiciiitenoe as a htmdred f And even if S-^ — had 
been willing, as some men have been, to give the lie to his 
own senses, rather than believe that the denizens of the next 
world sometimes retnra to this, was Hitm not a dumb witoeos 
remaining to bear testimony, by his changed character and un- 
conquerable terrors, against such stiff-necked and illogical no* 



idea oeaw when m«m oeasa to believa uid to expect them." — 

Tbib is whAt ifl usually called a rationalistic, but it is not a 
national, view of mintcles. 

A portion of the Alleged events which go currently under ih» 
name of miracleA undoubtedly do not happen. But » larg^ 
portion do. Unfounded belief mAy cause us to imagiiie tite 
£>nner. The lAtter are not dependent upon our thon^t of 
them — be it credulous or incredulous f — for their Appeonuice 
or non-appearance. 

What the world has been wont to term miracles, cease to be 
rc^^arded as such when they are critically examined : that is true. 

Bnt it is not true that phenomena aimilAr to what theolo- 
^Aus usnally call the miracles of the New Testament oease, 
when we no longer have faith in them, or when we oease to 
look for their ooming. It ia not true, as to oertun manifeetA- 
tions occurring through spiritual agency, and governed l^ in- 
tennundane laws, that these are the shadowy ofi'apring of cre- 
dulity, And that they disappear, like mist of the morning, when 
the Sun of Season shines out 

• European Mcraii, vol. i. p. 373 : (Amer. Ed.) 

f Hard-set unbelief m^, now and then, bj some law of mental ed- 
enoe as yet imperfectly understood, arrest a certain claie of ipintnal 
phenomena, and so deprive a dogmado soeptio of a ohanos to witnera 
tliem : jutt as the oontempt of Jasos' own ooontrymen dlmhiiahed his 
spiritual power while among them (Hark tL 5). Bat this ia the 
ezceptioii oolr; as man; of the narrativea in this volume eaMdmOy 

A SDPBBennous bfideiuo 1 811 

Tbe great lesson taught in the few narratives I have already 
giTen, in many of those which follow and in a hundred others 
attested beyond reasonable denial,* is that genuine spiritual 
appearances show themselves in spite of distrust, unbelief, re- 
pugnance even — show themselves, when the sight of an angel 
from Heaven was as little expected as they — and, so far as the 
evidence goes, have always done so, though dotibtlees more fre- 
quently in some ages of the world than in others. -^ 

It is a popular notion that, about twenty-five years sinCQ, a 
auperstitiauB epidemic, originating in Western New York, over- 
took millions of weak men and women, first in these United 
States, then in Europe and other parts of the world ; creating, 
in them a most unphilosophical belief: namely, that there had 
appeu«d among us a modem dispensation, under which there 
were occurring marvellous events without eicaniple in the past, 
and specially vouchsafed by Qod to this, his favored generation. 
The nasnmed theory is that this new faith was the mania pre- 
vailing for the time; soon to pass away, like a hundred oUier 
ephemeral deludous. 

These short-cuts toward a solution of momentous difficulties 
are very convenient and very illogicaL They save men trouble 
in investigating; but they cannot save them &om errors of the 
gravest character. 

Nothing more ea^ than to all^e that if we go back even a 
few years before the time when the report of tiie " Bochester 
Enof^ings " di^usted the Church and scandalized the world 
of Science, we come upon ao age barren of all miraculous ink- 
lings, save only within the suspicious precincts where Bomish 
ecclesiaaticism reigns. 

— Easy to say, but at variance with notorions facta. The ear- 
liest date of the Rochester disturbances is March, 1848. Will 
it do to assert that, say ten or fifteen yeani before that time, 
one cannot find, in any sober, civilized nation, where scienco 
holds &ee and respected sway, trustworthy evidence that oc- 

* Bee FffoffaO*, Books iil., Iv., v. 

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cnmnoea u Btrtmge and as little cspable of apneamBtic expla- 
nation — epiritnal m&nifestatioua in &ct — were habitually show- 
ing themselves F 

Let UB see. Our own country ia s)>oken of as young, impul- 
sive, credulous, not given to thorough study. Let us, in this 
instance, pass her by, for another, lie English are staid, prac- 
tical, thoughtful ; not easily moved from their equanimity ; not 
specially tolerant of atartling novelties; sufficiently sensitive to 
the sting of ridicule ; sufficiently inclined to follow Ute old ruts 
of habit and custom, l^ally, materially, spiritually. In no 
country is Science more free ; in none are scientific men harder 
students, mora sceptical, or more active-minded. 

The mora valuable, because of these national traits, is the fol- 
lowing narrative, or cluster of narratives, to which, throng 
the kindness of a Scottish friend whom the world, alas I has re- 
cently lost,* my attention happened to be directed. He pnt 
into my hands a ramaikable book, little known, written, thirty 
years since, by a gentleman of standing ; an English officer and 
a Fellow of the Boyal Society, f 

The author of this work testifies to a disturbance of a very 
singular character which occurrad at his country seat, near 
Woodbridge, Suffolk. It continued throughout nearly two 
months. The details are minutely given. 


This disturbance commenced ou the second of Fehniaiy, 1634, 
at the house of Great Bealings, inhabitod by Major Edward 
Moor, On the afternoon of that day, being Sunday, during the 
absence of Major Moor at diurch and while only one man- 
servant and one maid-servtmt wera at home, the dining-room 

■ Bobert Chamben. 

f BeaUngt Btiiii. An Aooonnt of the HTsteilinis Bingiiis ot-jBeUa, 
at Oieat Beolinga, SnSolk, in 1834, and in otherpatta of Eoglaud : with 
BelaUoDB of other uoaccountable OccurreDoea in varioos plaon. By 
Major EnwABD Moob, F.E.a ; Woodbridg«, 1841 : pp. Iffl. 


bell WHS mi^, without visible cauaa, three times. The weather 
was calm; the barometer at 29"^ ; the thermometer within its 
usual range. There were no remarkable atmospheric phenom- 

Next day the same bell sounded several times, equally with- 
out apparent cause. On the third day five out of the nine bells 
Buapeuded in a row in the basement of the house, gave forth 
several loud peals, while nobody could detect any one meddling 
either with the pulls or tbe wires. 

After this all the bella in the house, twelve in number, were 
(except one, the front-door bell) repeatedly rung in the same 
manner : five bells usually ringing at a time. The wires of 
these five petUera were visible in their whole course, from the 
pulls to the bells tbemaelvea, except where they passed through 
floors or walls by small openings. 

This continued day after day throughout February and March. 
The bells usually rang after a clattering fashion, quite different 
from the usual ringing. " With no vigor of pull," says Major 
Moor, "could the violent ringing be effected." Pulling the 
horizontal wires with a hook, downward, produced only a gen- 
tle, tinkling sound. The Major further says: " The motion of 
the bells, and that of their spiral flexible support, when rung 
by hand, was comparatively slow and perceptible : not so, at 
the peals ; it was then too rapid to be seen distinctly." * 

Major Moor was naturally much surprised by these appa- 
rent prodigies ; and he, bis servants, and friends made many 
efforts to find some natural explanation, but wholly without 
success. Then he inserted a minute statement of particulars in 
the Xpgundi Jonmal, f describing the situations of the bells 
and the arrangement of their wires, in hopes that some one 
would be able to suggest an explanation ; but no explanation 
beyond surmises of trickery ever renched him : in reply to oer- 

■ BeaUngi Sdlt, p. 6. 

I Ot March 1, 1834. Ha states that dniin; the very tdme ho was 
writiuf hie communication to this newi^per, the beili were repeatedly 


tun mqitir«r8 who probably ihouglit they wero auggesting ad' 
equate cause, he replied that his house was not iiifeet«d wiUi 
rats, and that he kept no monkey. 

The last ringing was on March 27, 1834. It is abnndantly 
evident, from Major Moor's book, that ho spared no pnins, 
throughout the seven and a half weeks during which the etrange 
annoyance lasted, to detect fraudulent artifice, had artifice, under 
Buch circumstances, been possible. He avers : " The bells rang 
scoresof times when no one was in the passage or back-building 
or house or grounds, unseen : I have waited in the kitchen for 
a repetition of the ringings, with all the servants present — when 
no one could be in concealment. But what matters ? Neither 
I, nor the servants, nor any one, could, or can, work the won- 
derment that Z and store than half a score of others saw." 
Finally, the Major declares : " I am thoroughly convinced that 
the ringing is by no human agency.* 

Now, on the supposition that what have been balled spiri- 
tual manifestations — doings which we can trace to no human 
agency — are the modem offspring of an epidemic oommeucing 
in 1648, what should we suppose might be the probable result 
of a newspaper article narrating the above occurrence, and 
published in an English paper in 1634 f Binply that the fool- 
hardy narrator would incur ridicule as a dupe, or enoount«r 
reproach as an impostor. 

But what actually happens ? I 

Dibclohubes throcoh Bsalings Bells. 

From Major Moor's book we learn that his communication to 
the Jpsunch J'owmal brought him letters containing faurtMn 
differont examples of mysterious bell-ringing, every one of 
them unexplained ; all occurring in England, namely, in the 
Counties of Norfolk, SuSblk, Kent, Derby, Middlesex, and in 
or near the towns of Chelmsford, Cheltenham, Chestvrfield, 
' BeaUngi B^, p. S. 

AppBABnro Tssousacfm ssaiiiSD. 315 

C«mbridge, BriBtol, Greenwich, Windsor, and Loitdcm ; all of 
oomparatively recent date, and most of them attested by the 
signatures of those who witnessed them, with penuissioQ to 
give their names to the pnblio. He received also three other 
communications disclosing further myst«riea, to which I shall 
refer by and by. 

The fourteen examples, be it remarked, are all of one partic- 
ular phase of manifestation ; a rare phase, bo for as my obser- 
Tution goes : I have notes of but one gncb in the United States, 
namely, in a house in Pine street, Philadelphia; lasting during 
five days of the week between Christmas and New Year's Day, 

But even of this rare phase of manifestation, we cannot im- 
agine that in the fourteen examples presented in Sealingg 
SM», we have more than a very small instalment of similar 
cases whidi might be found in England. The chances are that 
nine men or women of the world, out of every ten, would 
shrink from the notoriety, or shirk the tronble, attendant on the 
presentation of mdi narratives for publication. 

Even in this small bo<^ then, what a lifting of the veil on 
the thousand marvels that may have ooourred in all ages, unre- 
corded or unexplained 1 

t7nable for lack of space to notice Major Moor's fourteen 
relations, I hare briefly condense the evidences in three of 


In a house near Chesterfield, belonging to Mr. James Ash- 
well, "long and repeated bell-ringings," commencing in 1830 
and continuing throughout eighteen months, occurred. 

* In tiiis case, there beins a siak lady in the house, the attendlnir 
name Mid thedictnrbaaoeiiKMttM stopped, and she herself muffled the 
ImUs, wi^^ing the clai^en with doth and tlten tTing them with twine. 
Three houn later they rang themselves loose of eveiything, pealing 
moie violent^ than boFore. Finally they rang tbemBelves loose from 
file wall itaelf, drawing ont the staples, five inohea long— tA«» Oi« btUi 


The details u« given, portly hj Mr. Asbvell himself partly 
hy Mr. W. Felkin, of Kottinghom, a friend of his. 

Acoording to Mr. Felkin's statement, " all the bells in the 
houBO t&ng at one time or other ; bnt never before five in the 
morning nor after eleven at night. The oscillation was like 
that of A pendulum, not a decreasing one. A bell was put np 
one Saturday evening, unattached to any wire, and r&ng in half 
an hour.* Another bell which had been taken down and laid 
on a closet shelf, lay there quiescent for some weeks ; but being 
then fixed by means of the flexible bent iron to which it was 
attached between a wooden hat-p^ batten and the wall against 
which the batten was nailed, it rang immediately, f 

These bells were wont to ring continuously, witlt violent 
clatter and for a considerable time. Sometimes, during their 
greatest vibration, Mr. Ashwell would seizeone of them between 
his bands, and compel cessation : but, as soon as he released it, 
it would resume its oscillation and ringing. 

All the bells were hang out of reach. Bell-hangers, of 
course, were called to lend their aid ; but nothing was found to 
indicate that bell or bell-wire had been tampered witli. On a 
particular occauon, while a bell-hanger was engaged in re-attadi- 
ing the wires, after a long silence, one of the bells began to 
ring before his face. Down dropped the man from the taddw ; 
and, without waiting to gather up his toots, off he raa as fast 
as his l^s could carry him, crying out that Satan was in the 
bells, and that he would have noUjing more to do with theoL 

The house where all this happened was so substantial, its 
walls BO thick, and its foundations so large that the highest 
winds were unfelt within it. " Every part of this extensive man- 
sion," says Mr. Felkin, "was examined by mewiUi the strictest 
care, and I could not divine the motive natural power adequate 
to the eflect." 

rang on tfi« fioor. Ths inmate* ot the boasa were not SpintoalistB, 
nor in any sense f avoren of spiritual belief. 

* BeaUng* SOa, p. 4S. 

t PageSS. 

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Mr. Felkin says of his friend, Mr. Ashwell, that " he is the 
i of superstitious ; well-educated, philosophical, and in- 
II research." .Mr. Ashwell " tried various experi- 
ments with tiloctrom8t«rs and other tests," and spoke on the 
Bubjeot with many men of science ; but all without result. Mr. 
Felkin never heard Mr. Ashwell " hazard a guess as to the 

Again and again, indeed, attempts were made, as well by the 
&mily as by numerous visitor, to discover the occult agency, 
" both when the bells were connected with lines and when the 
wires had been out for months : a circumstance which made no 
iqiparent difference in their sounding disposition." But " these 
events quite ba£9ed the acutest inquirer." 

Ringings so peratstent caused great excitement, not only in 
the house, but, being noiaed abroad, in the neighborhood. The 
servante were greatly alarmed, and some left their places. The 
children, too, wei'o frightened, hut were pacified by being told 
that "the bells were ill." 

A public footpath passed near Mr. Ashwell's front door ; and - 
" many passengers made a circuit rather than pass close to 

Another observation is mentioned in connection with this 
case which is intelligible enough to us, but was, no doubt, a 
puzzle to Major Moor, writing at a time when " aensitives" 
and " mediums " bad not yet been heard of. It was this : The 
gossips of Uie vicinity remarked, as to a young lady who resided 
in Mr. Ashwell's family, that the occurrences were nearly coin- 
cident witlt her stay in the house, and ceased about the time she 
left it. But (it ia added) it does not appear tiiat the slightest 
voluntary agency on her part was suspected by tlie family, who 
had the best means of detecting it.* 

The next narrative oomes from a Londoner 

* nda naaattn eztenda from page 46 to paga S6 of BecUng* 



A Lask'b Accoont of Bell BnraiiioB. 

Among the Qumsrous letters reoeived by M»jor Moor waa 
one from a Mrs. Milnea, dated 24*0. 19 St Foul's Terrace, Is- 
lington, May 17, 1834. 

The writer says: " In the early part of Felmiary, 1825, re- 
turning home from a walk (to our thea residence. No. 9 Eail 
street, WeBtminster), about half-past four la the afi«niocm, I 
was astonished to find the fomilymuch disturbed at the ringing 
of bells ia the house, without visible cause. The first bell 
rung was in the nutsety, the pull of which was at the bottom 
of the house, quite uucounected with any others. This bell 
rang several times before the rest b^jan; then that of the 
dining-room ; next that of the drawing-room, and so on, through 
the house : sometimes altogether, as if they wero trying to 
entice each other in uproar ; at others one at a time, but always 

" By this time I was much alarmed and sent for Mr. Milnes 
who, thiukiog to fiud out what ailed them, had the cases taken 
down that concealed the wires. Finding this of no use, he 
next placed a person with a light in each room, while bo hitu- 
self held a candle under the row of bells below ; but we could 
not then ascertain the slightest reason for this strange ringing, 
which lasted two hours and a half: nor have we ever since 
been able to discover more of it than we did then." 

Here again, as in the preceding example, we have an incident 
probably intimating through whose unconscious mediumship 
these phenomena occurred. Mr. Milnes adds: "It had a sur- 
prising effect upon one of oor servant girls, a mulatto. She, 
from the first, had been more t«rrified than any one else in tho 
house ; and, at the last peal, fell into strong convulsions ; so 
strong as to rnquiro several men to hold her down. These con- 
vulsions coatinued sixteen hours and were succeeded by insen- 
sibility, and a 'stupor that lasted nearly a week : every means 
being used to restore her, but without e£Feot. It ia singular 


that the moment aho wna seized wit^ these fits the bells oeased 
to ring."* 

Bells ik Greenwich Hospitai. 

The detaila in this case come, as in the preceding examples, 
from a witness present, namely, from Lieutenant Kiveni, R. N., 
a comrade of Nelson, who had lost a leg in the service. They 
are given in a letter from that officer to Major Moor, d&t«d 
AprU 26, 1811. 

The bells began to ring September 30, 1834, in Lieutenant 
Rivers* apartments situated in the hospital ; and they oontin- 
Ued four days. 

The ringing vas at intervab of five to ten minutes; four 
bells sometimes sounding at once. " In the eveoing," says tha 
liieuteoant, " about eight o'clock, I tied up the clappers : while 
so doing the bells were much agitated and shook violently. In 
the morning when I loosed them, they began to ring." 

" The clerk of the works, his assiBtMnt and Mr. Thame, the 
bell-hanger, came and had another examination, without dis- 
covery of the cause, Thoy' requested that the fiunily and 
servants would leave the apartments to them. We did so, 
dining at a neighbor's opposite ; and while at dinner we heard 
the bells ring a peal. Mr. Thame and the assistant remained 
till eleven o'clock ; the one watching the cranks, the other the 
bells below, in perfect astonishment." 

He adds; "Several scientific men tried to discover the 
cause. The front-door bell, detached fi-ooi the others, did not 
ring. I secured the door-pull to prevent its being used, leav- 
ing the boll to have full play. About three o'clock in the 
aitemoon I went home and found many persons satisfying their 
curiosity. When explaining to them that I thought it extra- 
ordinaiy that tlie front-door did not join in the performance. 

■ BtaUngiBilU, pp. 60-63. 

DMn;.^:b, Google 


it immediately Bet up a good ring. * The canae of all this re- 
mains still mysterious." 

Another observation made in this case is worth noting. 
" What appeared most extraordinary was the movement of the 
cranks vliich, the bell-hanger said, could not cause the bells to 
ring without being pulled downward : and this they did of 
themselves, in every room; working like pump-handlee." 

Lieutenant Rivera adds that ■imiln.r phenomena occurred in 
another oflicer^s apartmenta in the hospital, continuing for a 
week, t 

To multiply examples from Major Moor's book would but 
involve tedious repetition ; seeing that the narratives all resem- 
ble each other: the same violent ringings or pealings, some- 
times fur a few hours only, sometimes for months ; the same 
care to detect trickery : the same anxiety to discover the cause ; 
and, in every case, the same result: inability to trace the phe- 
nomena to any human agency. 

There is another phase of manifestations, analogous to the 
above; sometimes, like them, of a mere material chiu^acter, 
sometimes indicating intelligence ; and which, because it hss 
been popularly ascribed to restless spirits, revisiting their 
former homes, is commonly termed haunting. J 

Of this, again, there are two varieties; one characterized by 
knockings and other unexplained noises; the other, often at- 
taching itself to andent family residences in England and other 
countries, marked by the phenomenon of apparition. A lai^ 
proportion of the old, well-known English names of rank have 
their family legend, referring to peculiar diaturbances or ap- 
pearances, usually persistent through generations, and geneiully 
confined to some ancestral mansion. 

Especially when the haunting assumes the form of a " family 

* Tet, OS tliiB bell ^vos so situated tliat the wire oould readilj ba 
naohed bj the hand, the incident, token bj itadf, is not oonclnmve. 
f Bealiag* BM». pp. 81-83. 
t Foi Domerotu examples, see Foo^UU, Book iU. chap. S. 



g^bosfia the atoiy, outside of the family itself, vont to be 
pooh-poohed as a nnraery tale. No doubt such narratives often 
involve exaggeration, mystification, illusion. As little doubt, 
however — if we but sift the genuine from the spurions — that 
many of them have foundation in truth. We have testimony 
in proof from eye-witnesaes of mich standing that we have not 
the right to impugn their intelligence or their veracity. 

Take an example, from a recent publication. Florence Mar- 
Tjat, daughter of the celebrated novelist, gave, less than a year 
ago, in an American ]>eriodical,* three stories of apparitions, 
'which she attests as "strictly true and well autheticated." Of 
these the last was witnessed by her father, Captain Marryat, 
and is related as she beard it from his own lips, I oondense por- 
tions of it, giving the main facts in the author's own language. 

In one of the northern counties of England stands a coun- 
try house, Bumham Oreen, inherited by the present occupants, 
Sir Harry and Lady Bell, f Their house had its ghost; but, 
"like most sensible people, they laughed at the report : " sur- 
rounding themselves with every luxury and not heeding the 

Their numerons friends, cordially invited, flocked to Bum- 
ham Oreen, thought the place and its host and hoBt«ss charm- 
ing; yet, after a while, made paltry excuses to curtail their 
visits and were shy of being lured there again. It came out 
that they had heard of the ghost, some declared they had seen 
it, and the rest could not be persuaded to remain under a 
haunted roof. 

" Sir Harry and Lady Bell were thoroughly vexed and did all 
they could to dissipate the superslitioa. They disinterred the 

* Sarp^i'* Wteldy, issue of Decembei 24, 1870 ; pages RU and 847. 

f These are not the real names. The write:; t&ja : " While I pre- 
serve all details of theee stories, I osrefoUy hide the naou of peisons 
and places, lest I7 ne^igance in this respect I should wound the teel- 
inga of ■nrrivora." She e^fu also that the stories which she has related 
an selected from a number of eitoilar anecdotes which rise in her 


history of the ghost who went by the niune of ' The Lad; of 
Bumham Qreen,' and found that it was supposed to he the 
spirit of one of their ancestresses who had lived in the time of 
Elizabeth, and had been suspected of poisoning her hoaband. 
Her picture hung in one of the unused bedrooms." 

Ladj Bell caused this bedroom to be renovated and cheei^ 
fidly fitted up ; and she had the picture of the lady cleaned 
and new-framed. In vain I " No one could be found to sleep 
in that room. The servants gave warning, if it was simply 
proposed to them, and visitors invariably requested to have 
their room changed after the second or third ni^t. Guest 
after guest took flight, to return no more." 

In this dilemma Sir Harry applied to Captain Marryat, an 
old friend of hia, for advice. The Captain, utterly disbelieving 
^e story, ofiered to occupy the haunted chamber : an offer 
which was eagerly accepted. 

With a brace of loaded pistols under his pillow, he was no- 
disturbed for several nights, and was beginning to think of re- 
turning home : but he was not to escape so easily. 

After a week had passed, one evening when Captain Mar- 
ryat was about to retire for the night, Mr. Lascelles, one of the 
guests, tapped at his door and asked him to cross to hia room 
and inspect a newly-invented fowling-piece, the merits of which 
they bad just before been discussing in the smoking room. 
The Captain, who had already divested himself of coat and 
waistcoat, picked up a pistol — " in case we meet the {^ost " he 
said jestingly — passed along the corridor to Mr. Lascelles' room, 
and, after chatting for a few minutes, over the virtues of the 
new gun, turned to go. Mr. LascelJes returned with him 
<' just to protect you from the ghost," he said laughingly, in 
imitation of the former allusion. The corridor was long and 
dark, the lights having been extinguished at midnight; but as 
they entered it they saw a dim light advancing from the farther 
end — a light held by a female figure. The children of several 
'of the families were lodged on the floor above, and LasceUea 
suggested that this was probably some lady going to viait ths 


nurseries. The Captam, remembering that he was in shirt 
tuid trousers and unwilling to face a lady in that guise, drew 
his companion aside. The conclusion shall be told in the nar- 
rator's own words. 

The Lady of Bdrmham Green. 

" The rooms in the corridor were placed opposite each other, 
and were approached by double doors, the first of which, on 
being opened, disclosed a small entry and the second door, 
-which led to the bedchamber itself. Many persons, on enter- 
ing their rooms, ouly closed this second door, leaving the other 
standing open ; and thus, when Mr. Loacelles and my &tber 
stepped into one of these recesses, they were enabled to shelter 
themselves behind the half-closed portal. 

" There, in the gloom, they crouched together, veey much 
inclined to laugh, I have no doubt, at the situation in which 
they found themselves, but terribly afraid lest by a betrayal 
of their illegal presence they should alarm the occupant of the 
bedroom before which they stood, or the lady who was advanu- 
ing to the place of their concealment. 

" Very slowly she advanced, or so it seemed to them; but 
they could watch the gUmmer of her lamp through the ccsdE 
of the door; and presently my father, who had pertinaciously 
kept his eye there, gave the half-smothered exclamation, ' Las- 
celles ! By Jove ! — the Ziody ! ' 

" He had studied the picture of the supposed appaiition care- 
fully, was intimate with every detail of her dress and appear^ 
ance, and felt that he could not be mistaken in the red satin 
sacque, white stomacher and petticoat, high-standing fnll, and 
cushioned hair of the figure now advancing toward them. 

'"A splendid "make-up,"' he said, beneath his breath; 
' but whoever has done it shall find I know a trick worth two 
of his.* 

" But Mr. Lascelles said nothing. Imposition or not, he 
did not like the looks of the Lady of Bumham Qreen. 


" On she came, quiet and dignified, lootcing neither to Qie 
rigbt nor to tbe left, while toy father cocked his pistol, and 
stood ready for her. He expected she would pass their place 
of hiding, and intended to pnrsue and make her speak to him ; 
but instead of that, the dim light gained the door, and then 
stood Btill. 

" Lascelles shuddered. He was a brave man, but nensitive. 
Even my father's u'on nerves prompted him to be quiescent. 

" In another moment the lamp moved on again, come closer, 
closer ; and round the haIf.cloBed door, gazing inquisitivelj at 
them, as though really curious to see who was there, peei'ed 
the pale face and cruel ejes of the Lady of Bumham Green. 

" Simultaneously my father pushed open the door and con- 
fronted her. She stood before him in the corridor just as she 
stood in the picture in his bedroom, but with a smile of mali- 
cious triumph on her fcce ; and goaded on by her expression, 
hardly knowing what he did, he raised his pistol and fired full 
at her. The ball penetrated tlie door of the room opposite Co 
where they stood ; and, with the same smile upon her &ce, she 
passed through the panels and disappesred." 

Of course there was no explanation except what the appear- 
ance and disappearance of the apparition afforded. If spirit 
cannot appear, what was it that these two gentleman saw and 
one of them fired at? 

No narrative resembling the above was communicated to 
Major Moor; but he had sent to him, aod has recorded in bis 
book, three oases of hauntings. 

They have this in common that the witnesses all testify to 
violent knockings, sometimes accompanied by other Btntn|e, 
disturbing noises; but they differ in this respect: one cue 
seems to have been of a jiersonal character, that is, dependent 
on the presence of aomo individual — tenattive or Tnedium, M 
the modem phrase is ; the two others, it would appear, were 
independent of personal attributes — were local and permanent. 


continuing through several generations : or, as we might expreaa 
it, 'were endemical. 

Such is the following contained in a letter written by an Eng- 
lish clergymaa in reply to an inquiry which had been made by 
Major Moor, 

The House of Mybtehy. 

IfarfM:, Mag U, 1841. J 

SiK : Tou have, indeed, sent your letter, received yesterday, 
to the House of Mystery. In the broad lands of England you 
cannot, perhaps, find such another. But I regret to add that 
I can afford you no aBsistance in the " Bell " line. 

" Our noises, in this parsonage, are of a graver character ; 
smart successions of tappings, groanings, cryings, sobbings, 
disgusting scratchings, heavy trampii^ and thundering knocks, 
in all the rooms and passages, liave distressed us here for a 
period of nearly nine years, during my occupiuicy of this 
Cure. They still continue, to the annoyance of my family, the 
alarm of my servante, and the occasional flight of some of 

" I am enabled clearly to trace their existence in this par- 

Bon^e lo a period of tixty yeara pant ; and I have little doubt 

- that, were not all the residents anterior to that time now 

passed away, I could be able to carry my successful scrutiny 

"In 1833 and 1834 we kept almost open house to enable 
re^»ectable people who were personally known, or had been 
introduced to ns, to satisfy their curiosity. But our kindness 
was abused, onr motives misinterpreted, and even Ow charao- 
tert maligned. Therefore we closed our doors. 

"In 1834 I had prepared my diary for publication. My 
work was to be published by Mr. Rodd, the eminent book- 
seller of Newport street, London ; but as the end had not or- 

826 Aococnr or dibturbanoeb 

rived I postponed my intention from day to day and year to 
year, in hope of such consununation." • . . . 

" (Signed) JoHs Stewabt. 

" To Major Edward Moor." 

Here we have an example how the knowledge and the mem- 
ory of such occurrences slip away. I cannot learn that dw 
Bev. Mr. Stewart's diary has ever appeared. The dislike of 
notoriety as a visionary, or worse, has caused the suppression 
of a hundred Bimiljir expositions. 

The next esse, one of knockings and other tmexplained 
noises, apparently caused by the presence of a medium, I pass 
by; having, in a previous work, adduced many similar ex- 

The last example I shall adduce from Major Moor*s book is 
evidently one of 

Kndehical Distdrbances. 

They occurred, says Major Moor, "in a respectable dd 

manor-house, in the north-eastern part of shire, which 

was, in very early times, the seat of a family of distinction in 
the county." 

For eighteen years past this house had been occupied by a 
clergyman, known to Major Moor, who vouches for him as " a . 
gentleman of moat unimpeachable veracity and of deservedly 
high estimation." The account is sent to the Major by this 
clergyman himself, under date June 28, 1841. 

It is also confirmed, from personal observation, by a nephew 
of Major Moor, Captain Frazer, of the Boyal Artillery, in a 
letter dated July 19, 1841. 

About the year 1680 the chief part of the ancient mansion 
was pulled dovn nnd the present house erected on the spot. 
The remaining portion of the old house was allowed to eland, 

* OiTenonpa«aa03to&Bof£Nitev« Bta$. 


and, separated only hy a party-wEtU, it became thenceforth a 
&rin-houBe, occupied by the tenant of the adjoining lands. 

The estate came into the posaetssion of the preaent owner's 
&tber in 1618 ; and, at that time the house had ^e reputation 
of being haunted ; many tAles of atrai^ sights and sounds cir- 
culating through the neighborhood. The popular belief ascril>ed 
these to the unblest spirit of a former owner, dead more than a 
hundred years ago. 

In 1823 the clergyman who is the narrator came to reside 
there. Noises were oft«n heard, but the &mily referred them, 
at first, to the occupants of the back portion of the mansion, 
the farm-house. 

In 1826, however, t^is old part of the building was pulled 
down, and still the sounds continued, the same which the &m- 
ily had heard for years, and which have been heard, aUnoat 
niffhtly, ever since. 

These disturbances are thus described in the clergyman's let- 
ter : " In the dead of night, usually between the hours of twelve 
and two, when every member of the family is in bed and there 
is no imaginable cause to be assigned, a succession of heavy and 
distinct blows are heard, as of some weighty instrument tipon a 
hollow wall or floor. They are sometimes so loud aa to awaken 
one from sleep, sometimes scarcely audible." 

On one occasion they burst forth with such violence that the 
clergyman, accustomed as he was to hear and disregard them, 
sprang out of bed and rushed to the head of the stairs under a 
conviction that the outer door of the house had been violently 
burst in. Another night, when going to bed, the thumpings, 
as violent, were continued so long that he had time to go to the 
back-door of the house and sally forth, in quest. 

On yet another occasion, the sounds having long continued 
as if coming from the brew-house or the cellar, which adjoined 
each other, the clergyman and two of his brothers sat up and 
went to watch, two in the brew-house and one in the cellar. 
Then it ceased there, but was heard, by those in the brew-house, 
M if soundiog troxa underneath th« lawn, fifty yards distant. 


Great puns were taken, the cleigymitn says, to diacover some 
cause for thew notsen, but qQit« unavaillnglj'. A. l&rge tUd 
drain running underneath the house might, it was thought, be 
connected with the sonnda. It was thorongfalj examined, a 
man being sent through it, from one end to the other; but the 
Doise proceeded as before. 

" After above tflrenty yoars," says the reverend writer, " we 
are entirely in the dark as ever. The length of time it hM 
been heard; the foct of every domestic in the house having 
been often changed during that time ; and the pains that have 
been taken to investigate the matter, while every member of 
the house except the watcher was in bed — havepwj tAejn>*»i- 
bUity of any trick out of the quettion ; and have convinced aH 
the inmates that it camiot be accounted for on any of tiie osoal 
suppositions of " horses in the stable kicking," or " d<^ rap- 
ping with their tails," or " rata jumping in the tanks or drains." 
Horses stamp and dogs rap and rats gallop; but they do not 
make such sounds as that one startling and peoulUt- noise witJi 
which our ears are so familiar." * 

Another phase of the phenomenon, mentioned bolJi \sy the 
clet^man and by Gaptun Frazer, was of a singular character. 
Wlien the former was a young man, returning home for the 
holidays, he was awoke, one ni^t, by a lond noise, as if a cart, 
heavily laden with iron bars, was passing slowly along the path, 
under bis windows. He threw open the abutters and window ; 
it was bright moonlight, but be could see nothing, thou{^ the 
noise continued for some time. When he mentioned this the 
next morning, he was laughed at, for his pains. This incident 
had ^most laded from his memory when, eleven years after- 
ward, it was very strangely recalled. An uncle of his, viaiting 
the &mi]y, was put to sleep in the same room. The next 
morning, at break&st, this gentleman related that he had been 
awakened in the night by the clatter of a cart, as if laden with 
iron, drawn over the gravel walk beneath the windows of hit 

* BmSb^gt Btfit, p. 110. 


room. He, too, h&viog risen, opened the window to investi* 
gate, but nothing could he see. He retired to bed, thinking it 
mij^t possibly have been a dresm and lay awake for half an 
boor. At tike end of that time he heard, a second time, with 
unmistakable diBtinotnees, the same sounds of a loaded cart, 
again as if passing before the house. 

" Now," thought he, " I'll make sure of it." And, certain 
that he could discover the cause, he instantly sprang to the win- 
dow and opened it — again to be thoroughly mystified and dis- 
appointed. Nothing whatever to be seen! 

This incident is certified to by the gentleman in question in 
a separate certificate.* Therein he states that it occurred dur- 
ing the month of September, 1840, about three o'clock in the 

Three young ladies, residents of the honse, certify to the real- 
ity of the sounds, f 

Captain Frazer, having sat op one night witJi his boat, to 
^tness these nightly visitations, thus describes the noises he 

" It was as if some one was striking the walls with a hammer 
or mallet, muffled in flannel. It began at first slowly, with a 

* Work quoted, p. 133. This muj' appear too whimaioal for ore- 
denco. It would probabl; bo seem to me had I not sufflcient proof o( 
nnalogoaa oocuirentles. A yoon^ lady, inteUijfsnt and trutiifat, mem- 
ber of one of the beBt-known (unilies in New York (but I am not au- 
thorized to give tiie name), told mo recently that while on a visit of a 
few weeks to ber omit's connti7 honse, on old mansion aitoated in the 
eastern portJon of that State, she had, more than once, while sitting in 
tbe diawiDg-room in broad daylight, heard the sound of a carriage and 
horses on the gravel-drive, as if approaching the main entrance. On 
going to the frout ivindow, with one or other of her conons and seeing 
nothing there, they wuuld say: " Oh, it's only the ghost-cairiage :" and 
GO, retuiit quietly to their seats. It was, they told her, a common soond. 
A similar phenomenon will be found related as ooconiog m on English 
pork ; the fact oertifled as well by the lady of the honse aa by her lady's 
moid and by her butler, in Sficbr'S Fact* and FantatUt, Lcaidon, 
1833 : p. 00 ; and again pp. Q3, 94, 05. 

t BeaUngt BeOi, pp. 123-129. 

DMn;.^:b, Google 


distmct intei'val betireen eaeh blow; then became more nfud; 
ofierwurd followed no rule, but was alow or rapid as if oapric* 
dictated. The noiae did not appear alwajs to oume from tbe 
same part of the house. Sometimes it was heard fiiintlj, as at 
a distance ; then atartlingly near. It was much louder titan I 
expected : I think if I had been outside of the house I ^onU 
have heard it. 

" I spent throe days at House; and heard the same 

noise two nighta out of tlie three. ... It seemed as if 
moving about the house, aud coming, sometimeB, bo near Uiat I 
expected to see the door open and some one come in. . . . 
The naise geneisllj continued, at intervale, for about two honn. 
J think there was a sli^t interval between every five blows. 
But there was not any regularity in the striHug of iheae five 
blows, and it was only at first that there was any regularify in 
tho interval between them. . . . This noise usually seemed 
to me to become loud or &int, not so much from any inteusitj 
of the blows, as from a change of distance or position. And 
the opinion of the other witnesses bears me out in this remark. 
. . . I tried, in vain, to form even a probable conjecture as 
to the cause." * 

The reverend gentleman who occupied the house (designated 

by Captain Frazer as L ) related to him the result of 

inquiries made by the family in r^ard to the antecedents of 
the house, as follows : 

" It appeared from some of the oldest inhabitants of the 

parish, that House had foiinerly been occupied by an 

eccentric and dubious diameter, Squire . This gentleman 

had, in liis younger days, travelled much on the Contiaeat, 
had visited Italy and brought home an Italian valet — alao a 
character. The two lived in seclusion ; and after a time maay 
reports and suspicions got abroad respecting them and the 
doings at the Hall ; though nothing definite was brought 
against Uie squire except that he was a great miser. At last 

■ Beaiinga Btlit, p. 139. 

^ Google 


le died or disappeared (I forget 'which L. said), and shortly 
Lftemurd noises began to be heard in the house. The com- 
uon legend was that he had been bricked vp bj his Italian sei> 
/ant, between the wulls in some room or vault, and so left to 

This disturbance was known fanuliaFly in the fiunily as " the 
;host." The inconvenience of its reputation, the clergyman 
uid to Captain Frazer, had been great ; at times they had dif- 
iculty in getting servants to stay in the house. All allusion 
x> the subject in general oonversation was dropped by common 

Here let me beg, of any earnest reader of mine, a brief hear- 
ing. I ask him : 

Upon what rational plea can you set aside such evidence as 
this of ultramundane agency? I say nothing of the legend, 
(D(I aver nothing as to 'Uie identity of any restless spirit caus- 
ag distarbance. But the simple /acfo/ under what tenable 
Jieory can you explain them away ? 

The clei^man did not give his name : are you surprised at 
:bat ? Are you aura you would have given it yourself, under 
limilar circumstances, thirty years ago ? Another clergyman, J 
ffho gave his name, opened, about that time, the " House of 
Itfyatery," in which he lived, to respectable investigators. His 
reward was to find his motives misint«rpreted and his character 
maligned: that was not encouraging. 

Major Moor vouches for the unnamed clergyman as a gentle- 
Duui highly and deservedly esteemed and of unimpeacliable 
veracity ; mid the Major's nephew, Captain Frazer, during a 
visit of three days to the haunted mansion, finds all the state- 
ments made to be fiilly borne out by what he witnessed. 

If yon reject as monstrous — and I think you will — Uie sup- 
position that these three gentlemen, all of professional standing 

• Work cited, p. 18B. 

t The 8toi7 is given in det^ in BecOingt BtUa, pp. 113-188. 

% The Bev. John Stewart. See pieoeding page 825. 

^ Google 


and one of tliem Fellow of an emmeat Society, should ban 
oombined to palm on the public, without conceivable motiie, i 
tiasue of lies, then what theory of mundane agency, as caot^ 
have you left ? ' 

That it was a trick ? — that they were impoaed upon ? ThM 
is the eiplaoation usually set up to explain sach pfaenomeoi: 
and, on the material hypothesis, there seema to be no other. | 

— A. trick ? You will find, if you look closely at the aatia.i 
that this Buppositioii is more monstrous than the firat. "ii\ 
most nightly," were the clei^cyman'a words, and for tvennl 
years. " Two nights out of three " Captain Frazer witnessM 
them ; and their duration was about two hours at a time. T*? 
ni^ta out of three for twenty years is nearly five thousaai 
nights. So some one, prompted by mischief — or by malignitj 
if you will — is to prowl about the house, hours at a time, tf 
the puqiose of disturbing the family, four or five days a vwl 
throughout half a life time. And so ponderous are the blon 
he strikes that they may be heard outside the house ! And ht 
is to move about the housa, thus pounding, without being dis- 
covered for twenty years bother. A. serraut to do Has J 
No, they had all been often changed during the tiooe. A mem- 
ber of the family f What I annoy themaelves and fri^tcn 
away their domestics, and raise every kind of unpleasant nnwVj 
throughout the neighboriioed I An outsider P Bat why mnl- 
tipty absurdities ? 

Yet here is but one instalment of the difficulties. Twenty 
years is the clergyman's time of reaidence only. Oo tventr 
yean iarther back ; and, according to the united teetimcmy of 
aged residents, the same disturbances st^U ! And the dwelleKi 
of that day had it from their ancestors that the haunting b^u| 
a hundred years ago. Are there centenarious nightly-distatbot 
of the peace of private families ? 

I pt&y you, earnest reader, to raflect on these things, and to, 
ask yourself whether the theory of intermundane agency is « 
incredible that one ought to resort to uuheard-of va^tnM > 
order to escape it. | 


At this Btago of our book-voyage together, Bomo reader may 
ti iT^lr that an observation should be taken, BO as to determiiie 
rliat progress, up to this point, we hfive made. He may grant, 
^rh&pe, that we have sufficient proof of the occasional occnr- 
Bnce, through the medium of bella iiad otherwise, of noises 
rhich we cannot i&tionally ascribe except to an extramundane 
■V spiritual cause; and yet he may ask what is gained by such 
■roof * He may suggest further that evidence of a Hereafter — 
piritual revealings — should be intrinsically solemn and rever- 
int ; not, like tinklings of hells and rappinga on walls, of tri- 
ling or whimsical character. 

I mi^t reply, in a general way, that nothing in all the works 
>f Nature around us, hov litUe soever appreciated by man, is 
arifling in the sight of Him who 

" Seea, wiOi equal eye, as God of all, 
A hero periah or a sparrow fall : 
jLtoms, or sTstema, into min buried, 
And now a bubble banl^ and now a w<MJd." 

Sut, aside from this great truth, is there anything very 
tolemn or reverent, to the comnum mind, in the fall, from ita 
parent tree, of an apple ? An infant sees it and claps ita liny 
hands ; an uncultured peasant notes it as evidence that bin 
orchard-crop is ripening; but to a Newton it suggests the law 
which holds planets to their course and governs half the natu- 
ral phenomena that occur throughout the world. 

Aa to what may be gained by proving such incidents as 
this chapter records, Southey, speaking, in his Ziife of Weriey, 
of analc^us disturbances in Sam&el Wesley's parsonage,* and 
of the good end such things may be supposed to answer, wisely 
ei^^estfl that it would be end sufficient if sometimes one of 
those unhappy sceptics who see nothing beyond the narrow 
sphere of mortal existence should, "from the well-established 
truth of one such stoiy , trifling and objectless as it might otlier- 
wise appear," be led to believe in immortality. 
• Foo^aOt, pp. Sa4r-38S. 

DMn;.^:b, Google 


Let ntf go a step larther. There ia not habitual 1 
between the world which now is and that which i 
is only now and then that the denizens of the one penen 
those of the other. We seem, probably, something like vpf^ 
tions to the inunortals, as they, when they revisit Garth, to u 
But no one who ever truly loved and who believes in anot^ 
life, can doubt that, for a time, the better class of tboae ▼!>> 
have left friends and kindred here still cling to aad ^rmpstha 
with them. We Have abundant evideiwe, even in tJieee p^aJ 
that they often eameBtly desire to convince us, past pessi^ 
denial, of their continued existence, of their well-being, and 4 
their undying love. That evidence goes to show tliat tht; 
often diligently seek conununion, sometimes from a^ctio^ 
sometimes from other motives, and that they have difficoltia 
in reaching us : difficnltiea wiaely interposed, no doubt; tat i 
spiritual intercourse were as common as worldly commamoK 
who would be willing to labor and to wait in tiiia dim sH 
checkered world of ours ? 

They seek, from time to time, to visit ua. But, coming 6thi 
their world of spirits, invisible to ordinary sight, inaudible br 
ordinary speech, how are they to make their presence known? 
How are they to attract our attention? 

In what manner does a traveller, arriving under dond of 
night, before a &at-closed mansion, seek to read) the indwdlen 
— seek to ansounoe hi* presence? Ib it not by EjrocKnra OK 
BiNaiNQ ? 

Are we sure that Scripture texts are not read in the next | 
world, and do not find their application there ? Are we min 
that, to the earth-longings of love immortal, the words of Jena 
never suggest themselves : " Seek, and ye shall find ; knock, aixl 
it shall he o[>ened unto you." 

The inhabitants of a mansion at which admission is songtit, 
aeeing no one in the darkntas, may at first not heed tbe knock 
or the ring; and the pilgrim, for the time, may tarn unj, 
disappointed. So it has been, probably, in thousands of cue*, 
before any one ventured to interrogate the sounds. Uco 


eitiimr doubted vhotlier these came trom a living inteUigence ; 
or thej feared to question that iDt«Uigence ; or they despaired 
of any answer, having been taught that though there had been 
spirit-communion in ages past, it was impossible, or forbidden, 

So it may have been in the cases related in this chapter. In 
mitny, possibly in all the cases cited, some spirit may have de- 
sired to Gommnnicate with earth, as did that of the " Bepent- 
»nt Housekeeper," whose story I have told ou a preceding 
ptLge.* But if so, they were doomed to digappoiDtmeiit. In 
early days the witnesses of spiritual appeals were as that multi- 
tude on the Galilean shore to whom Jesus spoke, from the ship, 
in paroles ; and of whom he said, " Hearing they bear not, 
neither do tbey understand." The field was not yet white to 
h.furvest. The time had not come. 

I have a few mors words to say, in the next chapter, touch- 
ing the apparent triviality of some spiritual muufestatdona. 



" Heo daoa iutenjt, nisi dignna rindioe uodns 
InddccH." HoiuCB. 

HoEACB, in his advice to writers of pl&ya, assames that it is 
not fitting ft god should intervene, unleea the caae is worthy of di- 
Tine interference. If God ever did directly intervene — in other 
vords, if there were miracles — the poet would be in the righL 
But what have been interpreted as miracles do frequently mmn- 
ifest thenmelves, as therunbow does, with little or noappair^it 
use or benefit, except it be, like the bow in the clouds, to in- 
Bpire hope into the heart of man : a sufficient proof that thej 
u« not, any more tli^n the rainbow, interferences of God. 

This is true even of the highest chtss of spiritual phenom- 
ena; for example, of apparitions. Witness the story of 

The EAitLOF Bdcham's Butleb. 

Thomas, Lord Erskine, though he entered the l^al profe»- 
rion comparatively late in life, was, at the commencement of 
the present century, one of ita brightest ornaments. Elevated 
to the peerage for his abilities, and Lord Chancellor under the 
Orenville adminiBtration, his character, both as regards up- 
rightness and sagacity, has every element of trustworthinesa. 
He died in 1823. 

In the year 1811 and on the Saturday firet succeeding the 
appoiotment of the Prince of Wales (afterward Qeoige IT.) 
as Regent, Lord Erskine and the Duchess of Gordon o^led on 
Lady Morgan, the well-known litei&ry celebrity. 

" The DuohesB," aayg Lady Morgan, " related a vMy curious 

TDB butlbe's ghost. 337 

and romantic tale of second-sight in her own family, which 
arnuBed, if it did not convert me ; while tihe affecting manner 
in irhicli it was told left no donbt of the sincerity of the narra- 
tor." Iiady Morgan then cODtinues thus : 

" I also," said Lord Erekine, " believe in secoud-eigbt, be- 
cause 1 h»ve been its subject. When I was a very young man 
X had been, for some time, absent from Scotland. On the 
morning of my arrival in Edinbutgfa, as I was descending the 
steps of a close on coming out from a bookseller's shop, I met 
our old &mily butler. He looked greatly changed, pale, wan, 
and shadowy as a gliont. ' Eh 1 old boy,' said I, ' what brings 
■you here ? ' He replied : ' To meet your honor, and solicit your 
interference with my Lord,* to recover a sum due to me, which 
the steward, at the last settlement, did not pay.' 

" Struck by his looks and maimer, I bade him follow me to 
the bookseller's, into whose shop I stepped back ; but when I 
turned round to speak to him, be had vanished. 

" I remembered that his wife carried on some little trade in 
the Old Town- I remembered even tlie house and flat she oc- 
cupied, which I had often visited in my boyhood. Having 
made it out, I fottnd the old woman in widow's mourning. 
Her husband had been dead for some months, and had told 
her, on his death-bed, that my father's steward had wronged 
bim of some money, and tliat when ]fast«r Tom returned, 
he would see her rigbt«d. 

"This I promised to do, and shortly after I fulfilled my 
promise. The impression was indelible ; and I am extremely 
cautious how I deny the possibility of such supernatural visit- 
ings as your Grace has j ust instuiced in your own family." f 

The manner in which the talented lady who relates to us this 
stoiy sees fit to receive and to interpret it, should be, to candid 
Inqnirers, a wamii^ lesson. 

I^dy Morgan, following the dictates of that persistent soep- 

* Lord Erakine was a joangez son of Uie tenth Eail of Buohan. 
\ Tlis Book of the Boudoir, by Lady Uobo&K, London, 1829 : vol L 
pp. 133-12S. 


ticism which men utd women haTing a reputation in aodetj 
are wont to adopt, or to aasume ; and having settled it, proba- 
bly, in her own mind, that it behooves all who would ba deemed 
enlight«ued to think, or at least to apeak, of a belief in appwi- 
tions 08 a superstition — ia content to set down Lord Erakine's 
narrative as due — these ore the exact words she usee — m due 
only to the " dog-esrs and folds of early iniprcssioa, whioh the 
strongest minds retain." To the oaiTotor, however, she ascribes 
sincerity. She says, " Either Loi'd Erskine did, or did not, 
believe this strange story : if he did, what a strange aberration 
of inteUect I — if he did not, what a stranger aberratioii from 
truth I My opinion is that he did beUeve it." 

What sort of mode to deal with allied facts ia this f A. 
gentleman distinguished in a profession of which the eminent 
members are the best judges of evidence in the world — a gen- 
tleman whom the hearer believes to be truthful — relates wlMt, 
on a certain 'day, and in a certain place, both specified, he saw 
and heard. What he saw was the appearance of one, in life 
well-known to him, who had been some months dead. What 
he beard from the same source was a statement in regard to 
matters of which previously he had known nothing whatever, 
which statement, on after inquiry, he leams to be strictly true ; 
a stetement, too, which had occupied and interested tae mind 
of the deceased just before his decease. The natural inference 
from these facts, if they are admitted, is that, under certain 
circumstances which as yet we may be unable to define, those 
over whom the death-change has passed, still interested in the 
concerns of earth, may, for a time at least, retain the power of 
occasional interference in these concerns; for example in an 
etfort to li^t an injustice done. 

But rather than adroit such an inference — rather than accept 
disinterested evidence coming from a witness acknowledged to 
be sincere, and known to the world as eminently capable — a 
lady of the world assumes to explain it away by summarily 
referring the whole to the " dog-eai« and folds of oorly impres- 

tn!n.B8B LOBD BBSEniB LIEDw 839 

aion"! 'Wlut hnman teatimon; cumot be set aside on the 
same yague and idle assomption ? 

It is time we ehonld leant that the hypotheaia of spiritoal 
iutM^ention is entitled to a &ir trial ; and that, in conducting 
tbat trial, we have no right to disr^ard the ordinal; nilea of 

Esther Lord Erekine, one morning in Edinbor^, iasning 
from a bookseller'a shop, met what wore the appeaj«iice of an 
old family aervant who had been some months dead — or else 
Lord Erskine lied. Either Lord Eiskiue heard words spoken 
as if tJiat appearance had spoken them, which words contained 
a certain allegation touching business which that servant, dying, 
had left unsettled— or else Lord Erskine lied. Either Lord 
Erskine ascertained, by immediate peraonol int«rT(^ation of the 
widow, that her husband, on his death-bed, had made the self 
■ame allegation to her which the apparition made to I^rd Er- 
skine-^r else Lord Erskine lied. FinaUj either, as the result 
of this appearance and itfl speech, a debt found due to the 
persoa whose counterpart it was, was actually paid to his widow 
— or else Lord Erskine lied. 

Bat Lady Morgan expresses her conviction that Lord Erskine 
did not lie. 

In itself that was a trifle, Thonauids on thousands of snch 
cases of petty injustice occur and pass away unnoticed and nn- 
redressed. To the widow it was, nndoubtedly, of serious mo- 
ment ; but I think no aeosiblo man will imagine it a matter to 
justijfy the direct interference of God. If so, and if Ixird 
Erskine spoke tmth, an apparition is a natural phenomenon. 

There are cases, however, where the triviality of result from 
phenomena that are dearly of a spiritual character is even more 
apparrait than in the preceding example. Here is one : 


Ib the spring of the year 1853, a young gentleman, well- 
known tome, whom I shall designate as Mr.X , who is not 

310 A SALE or DBAP d'eTB 

a Spuitnalist, and has never given any attention to i^iiitual 
phenomena, had a remarkable dream. He waa tben engaged in 
a retail store in Second slrcet, Philadelphia; and hia dream 
was to the effect that, the next day at twelve o'clock, he woald 
Bell a hundred and fifty dollars' worth of a particular kind of 
goods, namely, drap d'£t£ (aummer cloth), to a customer ; the 
particular person, however, not being designated. 

Going down to the store next morning, he related his dream, 
between eight and nine o'clock, to a young clerk employed in 
the establishment. *' Nonsense 1 " was the reply ; " the thing 
is impossible. You know very well tiiat we don't sell so lar^ 
a lot of drap d'6t€ to one customer in ten years." 

Mr. X assented to the truth of this ; and, in addition, he 

called to mind that, according to his dream, it was he himself 
who was to sell it. But it so happened that it was not he who 
attended at the countor where the article was sold, but another : 
in whose absence, however, should he be accidentally called off, 
Mr. X was wont to take that place. 

So deep was the impression produced by the dream that, as 

the time approached, Mr. X became very nervous ; and his 

agitation increased when, some little time before mid-day, the 
saleunan referred to was called off, and M!r. X had to sup- 
ply his place. 

Almost exactly at twelve a customer entered, approached 

the counter and asked for drap d'6t4 Mr. X felt himself 

turn pale, and had hardly preseuoe of mind enough left to 
reach down the package. It turned out that the article was 
required for clothing in a public institution ; and the amount 
purchased amounted either toa hundred and fort^-e^ht dollara 

or a hundred and fifty-two dollars ; Mr. X does not now 

recollect which. 

The above was related to me • by Mr. X , now in bnsineea 

for himself in Philadelphia ; and I know sufficient of that gen- 
tleman's character to warrant me in saying that the patticulara 

• In PhUadelphia, Jnlr IS, 18S9. 


liere giren maj be confidently relied on ; and that Mr. X 's 

word may be anhesitatiiigty taken vhen he assnred me, as he 
did after completing the atory, that there had occurred no an- 
tecedent circiunBtADce whatever which could give him the 
Blightest reason to imagine that any one would apply for dr&p 
d'£t^ ; or that there was the moat remote chanoe of his effecting 
■QiB sale in question. 

In this case the nmiute partiouIarB of time, place, and attend- 
ant drcumstauces — the unforeseen absence of the usual sales- 
man, the spe<iiic article demanded, the unusual quantity so 
closely approaching the amount actually sold — are such that 
we are compelled to reject the idea of chance coincidence. 

In the Erskine case one can comprehend Hie motive that re- 
called the departed spirit ; the same which operates in the 
majority of such cases — attraction through the affections : here 
displayed in humble fashion, indeed — in anxiety that tile 
** auld gude-wife," as a Scotch domestic of those days would 
be likely to fAirase it, should, in her poverty and widowhood, 
have her own — yet none the less a phase of the longii^ of true 

But in the Philadelphia case one can imagine no attracting 
motive whatever : seeing that Uie predicted sale, to a particu- 
lar amount and at a particular hour and day, was of no conse- 
quence to any human being, except only as proof that, when 
Faul enimierated among the gifts common in the early Chris- ' 
tiaa Church, the gift of prophecy, be was speaking of a phe- 
nomenon which actually exists and wMoh ia not miraculous. 




It is Dot ft difScult thing, if one haa time and patience and 
an honest love of truth, to satisfy one's self, past all possible pep- 
adventure, that -what is called the spirit-rap is, like tbe electric 
spark, a genuine phenomenon, with momentous sequences. 
And these strange echoes may be as surely referred to ageocdes 
from another sphere as the spark from the Leyden jar may be 
identified with the lightniiig from the thunder-cloud. They 
occur, like that mysterious spark, under certain conditjons ; 
but they cannot, as it can, be cidled forth with certainty at any 
moment ; for, being spiritual in their origin, Uiey are oot at 
the beck and call of man. 

The conditions under which Uiey present themselves are 
sometimes of a personal, sometimes of an endemical character. 
They occur more frequently and more persistently in certain lo- 
calities than in others, and they are heard much more frequently 
in the presence of some persona, called mediums or sensitives, 
than of others. They are usually most loud and powerful 
where the two conditions, personal and local, are found com- 

I have heard them as delicate, tiny tickings, and as tlmn- 
dering poundings, I have heard them not only throughout 


our own land, but in foreign countries ; as in England, France, 
Italy. I have heard them in broad daylight and in darkened 
rooms ; usually most violent in the latter. I have heard them 
in my own bouse and in a hundred others ; out of doors ; at 
sea and ou land ; in steamer and in sail-boat; in the forest and 
on the rocks of the sea-shore. 

But in no circumsttuices have I witnessed ibis wonderful 
phenomenon under such varied conditions, and with such aatia- 
£actory results, as in the presence of two members of that fam- 
ily, in whose dwelling in Weatem New Toii, it origiually 
showed itself — namely, the eldest and the youngest daughters 
of Mrs. Fox.* The faculty of mediumship, or sa it might 
otherwise be ezpreased, the gift of spiritual senaitivenesa, was 
heiuditary in the fomily. f In Leah Fox (Mi's. Underhill) 
and in Kate Fox I have found the manifestations of this power, 
or gift, in connection with the spirit-rap, more marked and 
more readily to be obtained, than in any other persons with 
whom I am acquainted, either here or in Europe. 

And it is due to these ladles and to Mr. TJnderhill to say 
that they have kindly afforded me at all times every &cility I 
could desire to test these and other spiritual phenomena under 
the strictest precautions against deception : well knowing that 
I took these for the sake of others rather than to remove doubts 
of my own. Nor, in all my intercourse with them, have I 
ever seen the slightest cause for believing that they were ac- 
tuat«d by other motive than a &ank wish that the truth should 
be osoertained.and acknowledged. 

In the autumn of the same year in which I published" Foot- 
falls," I accepted from Mr. Underhill| an invitation to spend 
a week or two at his house : thus obtaining ample opportunity 
to investigate this and ct^nate manifestations. 

• Pot psrticolftCB of the disturbanoea in the Fox family, especially 
on IS&ich 81, 1848, and aaooeedin^ days, see FooifitOf, pp. 287-S9a 

f Footfim, pp. 284, 28S. 

t Daniel Underbill, Piesidant of an <M-estobliataed Insmanoe Com- 
pany in Wall stceet, Kew Tork. 


One of my first esperimenta waa to pray Mrs. UDderhill to 
accompany me over the house, in quest of rappings. B^;in- 
ning in the lower parlors, I asked if ve could have rapa on 
the ^oor, then from the walla, then from the ceiling, then on 
various articles of furniture. In eai:h case the response was 
prompt, and the raps loud enough to be heard in the next 
room. Then I asked for them on the steel grate and on the 
marble mantle-piece. Thence they sounded quite distinctly, 
but less sharply — with a duller sound — than before. Xben, 
setting open one of the doors into the passage, placing myself so 
that I could see both sides of it and putting my hand on one 
of its panels, I be^ed Mrs. Underhill to stand a few feet &om 
it and, reaching out one of her arms, to touch it with tbe tips 
of her fingers. Within two or three seconds after she had 
done BO, there were mps on the door as loud as if some one had 
knocked on it shaq>ly with his knuckles ; and the wood vi- 
hrated quite sensibly under my touch, as if struck by & pretty 
strong blow.* 

When we passed out into the corridor and up the stairway, 
it was no longer necessary to request rappings. They sounded 
under our feet as we went ; on tbe steps and then from the 
hand-rail, as we ascraided ; irom various parts of a sitting-room 
and of other apartmeats on the second floor : then, again, on 
the stairs leading to the third story and in every chamber there. 
It was evident that, in Mrs. Underhill's presence, diey could 
be had from any spot in the house. I found, too, tiat if I re- 
quest^ to have any particular number of raps, Uiey weregivea 
with un&iling precision. 

The sounds were peculiar. I could not imitate them with 
the hammer, nor with the knuckle on wood, nor in any other 
way. They aeemed more or leas muffled. 

I have repeated similar experiments several times with Mrs, 

* Some tune af berward I repeated Qie same experiment at tiie house 

of Mrs. , Bister of one of the best known among the Now York 

editon, where I (utddentnll; met Mi. and Mis. UnderhiU, and trhere 
Oonvenation happened to turn on the rapa. 


Underbill and with her sister Kate, ia varioas places, and al- 
ways with the eame result. With other mediums t^e responses 
were more or less prompt ; and sometimes they were confined 
to tlie table at which we were sitting. 

Passing by, for the moment, the hundreds of proofs which 
teacb tbat an occult intelligence governs the epirit-rap and 
speaks tbrough it, I keep to the physical aspect of the phe- 

Oir THE Wateb add in th» Litimo Wood. 

On the tenth of July, 1861, I joined a few friends in an ex- 
cursion from the city of New York, by steamboat, to the BUgh* 
lands of Neversink ; Mr. and Mrs. Underhill being of the 

It occurred to me, while sitting on deck by Mrs. Underhill, 
to ask if we could have the raps there. Instantly tltey were 
distinctly heard first, from the deck ; then I heard them, and 
quit« plainly fdt tJiem, on the wooden stool on which I sat. 

•In the afternoon our party went out in a sailing-boat, fifteen 
or twenty feet long. There, again at my suggestion, we had 
them, sounding from under the floor of the boat. It had a 
centre-board, or sliding keel, and we bad raps from within the 
long, narrow box tbat inclosed it. At any part of this box 
where we called for the r^»B, we obtained them. 

In tiie evening we ascended a hill, back of the hotel, to the 
lightkhonse. In returning and passing through a wood on the 
hill-side, I proposed to try if we could have raps from the 
ground : and immediately I plainly heard them from beneath 
, the ground on which we trod : it was a dull sound, as of blows 
struck on the earth. Then I asked Mrs. Underhill to touch 
one of the trees with tlie tips of her fingers, and, applying my 
ear to the tree, I heard tbe raps from beneath the bark. Other 
persons of our party verified this, as I had done. 

In returning, next-morning, on another steamer, we had raps 
on the hand-rtul of the upper promenade deck, and also 


from wiUiin a small metal boat that was tnmed upside dovn, 
on the deck below. * 

The next experiment was one which I imagine that no on« 
but myself ever thou^t of trying. 

MoTiNG A L&DQE or Bock on the Sea-shoke. 

On the twenty-fourth of August, 1861, I accepted an invita- 

tionfrom Mr. S~— TJ , of New Rochelle, a sea-side village 

on the western shore of Loi^ Island Sound, to spend the next 
day with him, in company with Mr. and Mrs. Underbill, 

On the afternoon of August 25, Mr. U drove us out in 

his carriage, through the picturesque country adjoining the 

village ; the party consisting of Mr. 17 and his wife, Mr. 

Uuderhill, and myself. 

In the course of the drive, coming near the shore of the 
Sound, at a point where there were long ledges of rock slanling 
down into the wat«r, it suddenly su^ested itself to me that 
here was an excellent opportunity for a crucial test. I inquii<ed 
of Mrs. Underhill if she had ever tried to obtain raps on the 
sea-shore. No, she said ; she never had, 

" Do you think we can get them here ? " I asked. 

" I have never found any place where they could not ho 
had," she replied ; " bo I dare say we can." 

Thereupon there were three raps — the conventional sign of 
assent — from the bottom of the carriage. 

So we drove down to the beach, and got oat to test the mat- 

The portion of rock whither we repaired was not an isolated 
jblock, detached from the rest, but part of a large, flat mass of 
rock, covering at least half an acre and running back into a 
bluff bank that rose beyond it : there were also several under- 

■ Notes of these expedmenta wsie taken, Immedl«t«l7 on mf ntom 
to New Toik. 


ON THB 8EA-BH0EB, 847 

lying ledges. We were about thirty feet from the Bea and, aa 
there was a moderate breeze, the surf broke on the rocks below 

Sut yet, standing on t)ie ledge beside Mrs. Uuderhill, and 
n Hiring for the raps, I heard them quite distinctly above the 
noise produced by the surf. This was several times repeated, 
'with the same result. 

Then Mrs, Underhill and Mrs. 8 TJ sat down, and I, 

stepping oa a lower ledge, laid my ear on the ledge on which 
the ladies were sitting and repeated my request. In a few 
seconds the rapa were heard by me from within the substanoe 
of the rock and immediately beneath my ear. 

I then sought to verify the matter by the sense of touch. 
Placing my hand on the same ledge, a few feet from Mrs. TTn- 
derhill, and asking for the raps, when these came audibly, I 
felt, simultaneously with each rap, a slight but unmiatakalitf 
distinct vibration or eoncut»ion of the rock. It was sufficiently 
marked to indicate to me a rap, once or twice, when a louder 
roll of the surge fur a moment drowned the sound. 

Without mnlcitig any remark as to what I had felt, I asked 
Mr. IT to put his hand on the ledge. " Why ! " he sud- 
denly exclaimed, " the whole rock vibrates ! " 

During all this time Mrs. Uuderhill sat, as far as I could 
judge, in complete repose. 

It will be observed that it was at my suggestion this experi* 
ment on a plateau of rock was tried. From that day forth I 
did not consider it necessary further to test the spirit-rap.* 

It ia true, however, that there were, to dispel my scepticism, 
other proo& (one obtained more than a year before this), and 
to which I have not yet alluded. In the above there was ap- 
peal to two senses — of hearing and of touch. The previous 
proofs to which I allude were evidenced by a third sense, 
usually considered the most trustworthy of all, 

* Written out from notes taken tlie Mine i»f. 



SsBino THK Kaps. 

It was during an evening seaaion at Mr. truderhill's, Feb- 
ruary 22, 1860. B«stdea Mr. and Mrs. Underhill, Kate 
Fox, and myself there were present Mr. TJnderliill*a aged 
father and moUker ; venerable examples of the plain, primitiTe 
Quaker, both of whom took the deepest interest in the proceed- 

By request, throng the raps, the gas was extinguished and 
we joined hands. 

Tory soon lights were seen, floating abont the room, appar- 
ently phosphorescent. At first they were small, just visible; 
but gradually they became larger, attaining the size and general 
outline of hands: but I could not distinguisb any fingers. 
lliesQ lights. usually showed themselves first behind and be- 
tween Leah and Eate, near the floor. Then they rose ; some- 
timea remaining near Leah's head, sometimes uear her siater^s. 
One of them was nearly as large as a humaa bead. None of 
these touched me, though one approached within a few inches. 
Another made circles in the air, just above our heads. Afi«r 
floating about for a brief space, they usually seemed to return 
either to Leah or to Kate. 

While the hands of the circle remained joined, I looked 
under the table and saw lights, as many as ten or twelve times, 
on or near the floor, and moving abont. Onoe while I was 
looking intently at such a light, about as large as a small fist, it 
rose and fell, as a hammer would, with which one was striking 
against the floor. At each stroke a loud rap was heard, in 
connection. It was exactly as if an invisible hand held an it- 
tu/minated hammvr antd pounded with it. 

Then, desiring conscious proof that what I saw was not by 
human agency, I asked mmUaUy : * " Will the spirit strike 

* I hsvQ tonnil it neoesBBiy, in maltin g a mental request, or uUiif; a 
mental question, to concentrate mj thoughts, h; an effort, on what I 
wish to obtain or to inqoire. 


AHOniEB TEST. 349 

Triih that light three times ? " vhich was done fbrth'witli : and 
then, after an interv&I, repeated. 

When, a eect^nd time, the light was seen and I wa« noticing 
the corresponding sounds, some one said : " Can you nuike it 
softer?" Almost instantly I saw the light diminish and strike 
the ground, at intervals, with a soft and muffled sound, just 

On another occasion, during ^e summer of the next year, I 
obtained stiM more remarkable manifestations. 


On the evening of the twelfth of June, 1861, having two 
days before arrived in Kew York as Commissioner to purchase 
arms for the State of Indiana, I called, unexpectedly to the 
family, on Mr. Underbill and proposed that we should have a 
spiritual sasraon. Mr. and Mrs. Underbill, who knew that I 
Iiad already begun to collect materials for this volume, readily 
assented, f 

For greater quiet we ascended to a parlor on the second 
fioor ; tbe party consisting of Mr. and Mrs. Underbill, Mr. 
Gilbert, an aged gentleman and old iriend of the family who 
happened to call in the course of the evening, and mysel£ 

Soon after we sat down there was spelled out, by raps on the 
floor : " Go in back room." This back room was Mr. and Mrs. 
Underbill's bed-chamber. Adjourning to it we sat down to a 
small rectangular table (one of a 7ie»l of tables), Mr. and Mrs. 
Underbill on my left and Mr. Qilbert on my right. The small 
sise of the table brought ua close together. 

* From not«s taken next morning, Febmaiy 23. 

f To thoM wbo know Hr. Underhill'B family, I need hardly say tliat 
tiiej never aooept anj romimeratlon, direotly oi indireotly, on BOob oc- 
carEdonB. Nor has Kate Fox, knowing the work I was engaged in, ever 
boon willing to take payment from ma for any iitting with her. " You 
have a better ohuioe to get the highest mamfestBtioDS ' without money 
and withont price,' " she said bo me one d^. 

850 A FLOATnra phospuoresoent uaar 

To this bedroom there vera three doors ; one opening into a 
bath-room, a second on the second-floor (Mrridor, and & thiid 
on a paaeage leading into the parlor, which we Lad first Belectod 
to sit in. In this passage were several closets and presses. 

At Mr. Underhill's suggestion, before sitting down I thor- 
oughly eicamined these closets and preeseA, as well as the bed- 
room itself and the parlor to which the passage led. I also 
lj>cked the outer door of that parlor and the doors of the bed- 
room leadmg into the bath-room and the corridor. ITie door 
between the parlor and bedroom did not look ; but by the pre- 
ceding precautions no one from without, even if providod with 
a key, could enter either of the rooms. 

Soon after we sat down there was spelled out, " Daiten." 
We estinguUhed the gas. Then was spelled, " Sing." Whil« 
Mrs. UndeibiU sang, the raps, from different parts of the floor, 
kept time, Ail«r a brief interval they shifted from the fiooir 
to a lower bar of the chui- on which I sat, still keeping time 
to the measure. The ohair was sensibly jarred — a vibration to 
each rap. 

After sitting about six or seven minutes, there appeared, 
floating aboye our heads, a light which seemed phosphorescent. 
It was rectangular in shape, and about three or four tuches 
long. After a time it rose to the ceiling, floating backward 
and forward from one part of the room to another. At times 
it descended till only a foot or two above our heads ; moviiig 
slowly fi-om side to side, over our circle. 

As I was looking intently at it, there was spelled out, by 
delicate raps on the floor : " I was near you in early lift, dear 
Robert, and am still nearer to you now." 

JIfrg. Vnderhiil. "Is it Mr, Owen's mother?" 

Aru«>er (by the raps), " No." 

Hfysdf. " Does the first name begin with C ? " 

Answer. " Yes." 

Mr*. UnderhiU. " How many letters in the name f " 

An»u)er. " Seven." 

Mr*. Tlndtrhiil. " Ckroline, is it ? " 

DMn;.^:b, Google 


^fyatilf. " Caroline has eight letters. Is it auother name, 
inder which I have had many communications ? " 
Sy the raps. " Tea, yes." 

Then the light floated toward me and temaioed stationary, 
>ack of my left shoulder. I turned and looked fixedly at it. 
^t appeared to be about the size of a small human hand, and as 
f covered with a Hbining veil, I could not, however, distin- 
rniah a defined outline. 

Freseutly it approached my left shoulder, tlien receded from 
t, five or six times. Each time I felt a light touch, as of fia- 
i^ra on my shoulder ; each touch exactly contemporaneous 
with the motion of the light. 

Then it floated away, rising just above the table at which we 
trere sitting, nearly to the ceiling. I asked that it would pass 
to the door leading into the corridor und rap there, if it could. 
Therenpon we saw it pass to the upper part of the door in 
(Question, and perceived its motion, and heard the correspond- 
ing rap, as it struck it, eight or tea times in succession. It 
was evident, too, that it was not we alone who heard the 
Hounds ; for a lap-dog, outside in the corridor, barked, as if 
alai-iDiKl. Again, as on the former occasion, the idea that sug- 
gested it^lf to me was that of a luminous hammer. 

Then the light floated down to Mr. Underhill, increasing in 
brightness, and seeming to touch him. He said it did touch 
him, as if with some fine, soft, woven stuff. 

I asked that it would touch my hand. It moved slowly 
across the table, rested for a brief space above my hand, then 
dropped and touched my wrist. The feeling was like that from 
the gentle touch of a finger. 

Mr. Gilbert (to me). Are you not tempted to grasp it, so 
aa to feel what it is like f - 

Mytdf. I have reason to believe that one is not justified 
in doing so ; and for that reason I refrain. 

JBy the rapa. Thank^ou.* 

* Two tdfflilj-mtellieent foends of mine, now deceased. Dr. A. D. 
^TOson and PiofeMOt Jsmea Unpes, both fonnerlj of Xaw York, eaob 


Then th« U^t pMwd to Mrs. UndeiiiiU, tonchii^ mm da 
Btatoc), her bead Mid neck. 

I Baked that it would tonch mj head also. It floated fim 
her to me, paasing behind me ; and I felt aa if a soft oad fiu 
piece of gttuze, gathered up loosely in the hand, ttoto preeeed 
gently against the back of my head and neck. Also, oov audi 
then, it seemed as if some more solid sabetance — part of t 
hand holding the gauze, was the impreesion I got — touched ntf 
lighUy. The action Ta» as if by a person standing diiecdj 
behind me ; yet, had I not seen it, a few minntoa before, cctm 
the table and touch my wrist before my very eyes ? BeaidM, 
as the touchinge on my head and neck continued for some timf, 
I several times spoke of them during their continuance and si 
present joined in the conversation. Thus I am certain tiM\ 
they were still seated at their places. 

Then the light rose again into the air. Looking closely at ii, 
as it floated near the ceiling, I observed that there moved acrea 
the luminous body, back and forth, dark lines, or rods, as thick 
as a finger. I could not, however, make out the form d 
fingers. Mr. TToderhill stud he saw fingen distinctly. 

While the light was Seating above us there proceeded frna 
it occasionally a slight crepitation. 

There was not, throu^out this sitting, the slightest indi<a- 
tion, by footfall, rustle of drew, or otherwise, of any one ris- 
ing or moving about the room. When the luminous body 1 
have been describing came near eiiher of the assistants I could 

on one occasion, Bimly giagpei what seemed a Inminons hand, aippax- 
iag as above. Ja both oaaw the lesolt was the same. Vbat was bid 
hold of melted enUiely away — so ouch told me — in his grasp. I hate 
bad oonunnnications to the eSeot that the spirit ttias manifesting in 
preaenoe saSen wlien this is done, and that a spirit would have great 
lehiotaiice in appearing, in bodily form, to say one whom it ooold luit 
trust to lefrain from interference with the phen<M]iena, except t^it* 
ezpTOBs peimisaion. In my experiments I have always govenwd xnj- 
•elf oooordin^y ; and J ascribe my suooesa in part to this ooutinenoa 


dimly peiroeiTe, by its light, tito outline of the pereon it ap- 
proached. • 

Sometimes when apirits that have exhibited, while on earth, 
a violent character, seek to communicate, the raps are of cor- 
reeponding violence. 

Heavt Pocndikos by a Hohicide. 

At an eveiung session, August 17, 1861, at Mr. tJnderhill's f 
(by blight gas-light), we heard, after a time, not the usual mod- 
entte raps, but instead loud thumpinga or poundings, such as 
might be produced by blows dealt on the lloor by a ten-pannd 
mallet. By these we had spelling, on calling the alphsibet. 
Inquiring the pounder's name, ^ere was spelled out, " Jack- 

I inquired if the spirit had formerly lived in Indiana, where 
I bad known a man of that name. Answer, by a single thump, 

Then we asked if it was a person known to any of us. 
swer ; " The man you do not admire." 

Thereupon it occurred to roe that it might possibly be Jack- 
son, the imikeeper of Alexandria, at whose hands, some two 
months before, Colonel fnisworth, having taken down the Con- 
federate flag from the roof of Jackson's inn, had met his death. 
As soon as I suggested this, there was an affirmative reply, by 
three sonorous poundings. 

We spoke of Ellsworth and, by the poundings, was spelled 
out : " Hia manner tantalized me." 

Mrs. Underhill said : " I pitied that man ; no doubt he did 
what be thought right." Reply, by the poundings : " I de- 
fended the flag." 

* I took notes of tke pbeDomens aa they pieeented themselTei ; wdt- 
big with pencil in the dark. 

f Hr. and Hn. Underbill and mTseU were the txHj itttezs; and I 
look notes of this mttiiiK at the time. 


He then said, fiirtliei', that he had once visited ods of Mis. 
Underhilt's circles; and that there were in the Southern State* 
many believera in apiritaal phenomena. 

I found, by experiment, that when these poundings occurred 
OQ the second floor, I could hear them, as distinctly as if s 
mechanic were at work, both on the first floor, below, and on 
the third floor, above. They caused the floor to vibrate ; mnd 
it was scarcely possible to resist the conviction that tboro actu- 
ally waa a ponderous mallet at work under tie table ; yet, 
though I looked several times to satisfy myself, there was 
nothing there. . 

Occasionally, it would seem, the charttcter of the n^ may 
depend, in a measure, on the medium ; yet, of this I have not 
sufficient evidence to speak with certainty. 

Blows of stastlino Violkkce. 

During an evening utting, on October 25, 1860, in tlie 
front parlor of Mrs. Fox's residence, in the city of New York, 
there were present Eate Fox, her sister Margaret,* and my- 

From this parlor were two doors, one opening on the pas- 
sage, the other on a back parlor. Both were locked before we 
sat down. 

Raps spelled out, " Darken." We did so ; then, after the 
appearance of a few luminous phenomena, there came suddenly 
a tremendous blow on the centre of the table ; a. blow so violent 
that we all instinctively started back. By the sound it was 
such a stroke, apparently dealt by a strong man with a heavy 
bludgeon, as would have killed any one, and such a blow as 
would have broken in pieces a table, if not very stout, and 
fvould have left severe marks upon any table, no matter kow 

* Tbe oaif time, I t>eUeve, at which she joined ont diola. Hwring 
become a Catliolio, she tutd aonipleB about Bitting. 


u-d tli« wood. The same blow, apparently witb the same 
>Tce, 'was repeated five or six times. It was impossible to 
itness such violeDt demoniitratioiis without a certain feeling 
[ alarm ; for it was evident that there was power sufficient to 
rodnce fatal results ; yet I myself felt no serious apprehea- 
Lons of injury, knowing of no case on record in which any one 
ad thiiB beea eeriously hurt. 

'When, after a time, we relit the gas, the most careful exam- 
natiou of the table, above and below, convinced me that there 
ras not a scratch, nor the slightest indentation, either on the 
■olisbed top or on the under surface. 

I consider it a pkyaieal impouibHity that, by any human 
igency, blows indicating Buch formidable power should have 
leeu dealt without leaving severe macks on the table which te- 
%ived them. 

Mrs. TTnderhill afterward iufonued me that she had several 
times, in presence of her sister Margaret, been greatly alarmed 
by blowa aa tremendously violent as those I have described. I 
lever heard any so apt to terrify weak nerves, either before or 

'nee. But, several years ufterward, I witnessed a demonstra- 
iion of occult power, more quiet indeed — not calculated to 
alarm — but, to judge by the sound, of nearly equal force. 

Kkockuqb that shook the Hodbe. 

On this occasion, March 10, 1864, Mr. and Mrs. TJnderhiU 
and myself only were present, in the second-story front parlor 
of their hotise ; and the session was in the evening, by bright 

In a few minutes after we sat down there came sounds of a 
very peculiar character. Each stroke — if that term be applica- 
ble — Bounded exactly Uke the dropping on the floor, from tLe 
height perhaps of two feet, of a medium-sized cannon ball. At 
each sound tlie entire floor of the room shook quite distinctly. 
^e felt the concussion beneath our feet ; and it was communi- 
cated through the shaken table to our hands. . - ^ i 


Occaaionftll; it Bounded exactly u if tlie caonon ImJI 
bounded, dropping a second time with diminished force. 

B; tiiese cannon-baU-droppings there was a call for the alpht 
bet (five strokes), and sentences were spelled out to ibe efi<« 
that the operating spirit was no stranger to me ; that die boci 
for which I was then collecting materials would be aoceptmUq 
as supplying a great public need ; and that I should *' witneM 
some startling things from time to time." llien was added : 

" I «u little changed. My knowledge of the spirit-world ii 
not BO great as you would suppose. I am sure of the things I 
once hoped for. I have found my beloved friends in Heaven, 
and I know I live in immortality. A, D. WiuoK." 

Kot much, if one will ; not much, as a superficial mind ma« 
leceive it : only a brief, homely message. Yet, if it be tnie, 
how immeasurable its importance I How infinitely consolii^ 
the simple truths it unveils ! 

Dr. Wilson, well-known to me and an intimate friend of tfa< 
Underhitls, was an earnest spiritualist and an excellent man. 
He was a New York physician of lai^ practice and had died 
less than a year before. 

The sounds by which the sentence (coming, aa alleged, ^m 
this deceased fiiend) had been spelled out, letter by letter, 
seemed to be so unmistakably those of a ponderous metallic 
globe dropped on the floor, that Mrs. Underbill sud : " I can 
scarcely persuade myself that there is not a heavy ball thera" 
Upon which there was spelled out by these same mysterioiu 
poundings : 

"Well, then, look 1" 

We removed the table and carefully examined the floor. 
Nothing whatever to be seen. 

As on a previous occasion, I went downstairs ; and, on the 
floor below, I beard the poundings just as distinctly as when 
in the upper room. It was the same when I ascended to the 
floor above. Mrs. TTnderhill expressed a fear that the soundl 


oold distnrb the neighbors in the adjoining houses; and I 
link, tbey must have heard them. 

Witli a single additional example I close this branch of the 

Lffbcts whbk Local and Perboitai. isFLUsscxa combine. 

A Haunted Hoube. 

On. the twenty-second of October, 1860, I paid a viait, along 
rith M r. fmd iin. ITnderhitl, Kate Fox, imd another lady and 
^utlemai), to Quaker friends of theirs, Mr. and Mrs. Archer, 
ihen living within fiTe-minutes drive of Dobba' Feny on the 
Badson, in a iBrge, old house, surrounded with m^nifi(»nt 
trees, and in which, at one time, Washington had hia head- 

This house has been, for a long term of years, reputed haunted. 
The person still supposed to haunt it ia a former owner, Peter 
Livingston, who, on account of lameness, was wont to use a 
small, invalid's carriage ; and the report was that, at the dead 
of night, the sound of that carriage was heard in tiie corridors 
and especially in one of the rooms of the house. 

We eat, late in tiie evening, first in this room ; a lower bed' 
chamber, having two doors of exit. Both were locked before 
the session began, the keys being left in the doors. Besides our 
own party, there were present only Mr, and Mra, Ardier. By 
direction of the raps we extinguished the lights and joined 

Within a sin^ minute afterward, Buch a clatter be^pui, i^- 
parently within three or four feet of where I sat that (as we 
afl«rwud learned) it was heard and commented on, by some 
'viaitors in a room separated from that in which we sat by two 
doors and a long pass^e. It seemed as if heavy substances 
of iron, such as ponderous dumb-bells or weights, were rolled 
over the floor. Then there were poundings, as if with some 
heavy mallet ; then sharp, loud knockingB, as if with ihe end of 


a thick staff. Then iraa heard a sound precisely resemU 
the rollii^ of a small carriage on a plank floor, 
this sound Beemed close to us, then it gradually lea 
as if the carriaj^ were wheeled to a great distance, until it fe 
came, at last, inaudihle. Then we asked to have it again, ■ 
if coining near; and forthwith it commenced with tiie &intes 
Bound, approaching by degrees till the carrii^ might be Bnp- 
posed almost to touch the backs of our chairs. Occasionallr 
there was a pounding on the floor, so heavy as to cause a bcc- 
flible vibration. 

When we relit the lamp and searched the room, the doon 
were found HtUl locked, with tbe keys in them ; and there wai 
not an article to be found with which such noises oonld, by kv- 
man agency, have been made. 

Then, at my su^ieation, we transferred the experiment to a 
lai^ parlor opposite, that had been used, I believe, by Living- 
stone as a dining-room. Again we locked the doors, and, obey 
ing a communication from the rape, put out the lighte and 
joined hands. And again, in less than two minutes, the 
distorbance began as before. At times the iKcket was so over- 
powering that we could scarcely heeu' one another speak. Th« 
sound, as of heavy metallic bodies rolled over the floor was 
very distinct. Also some weighty substance seemed to be 
draj^ed, as by a rope, backward and forward, as much as 
fifteen or twenty feet each way. 

All this lime we kept a candle on the table, with a box of 
matches beside it ; and, several times, when the clatter was at its 
height, we struck a light, to see what the effect would bo. In 
every instance tbe sounds almost immediately died away, and tho 
search we made in the room for some explanation of the strange 
disturbance was quite unavailing. The sudden transition, 
without apparent cause, from such a babel of noises to a dead 
silence, was an experience such as few have had, iu this worid. 
Till the experiment was repeated, again and again, ^wa;^ 
with the same result, there was temptatioi 
senses had been playing us &lBe. 


The impression on myself and tlie other assistants with Trhom 
I conversed was such, as to produce a feeUng that it was a 
physicaJ. impossibililj such sounds could be pityduced, except 
by employing ponderous bodies.* 

After a time the centre-table at which we sat was pounded 
on the top, and then Scorn beneath, as with the end of a heavy 
bludgeon ; and that (to judge by the sound) with such violence 
that we felt serious apprehensions that it would be broken to 

When the noises ceased and we relit the lamps, I and others 
examined the table minutely ; but no indentations or other 
marks of injury were to be found ; nor was there an article to 
be seen in the room with which any one could have dealt such 
blows ; nor anything Uiere except the usual furniture of a par- 

Both these rooms were in a portion of the house known to 
have been built and occupied by Peter Livingstone. 

I feel confident that the sounds could have been heard a 
hundred yards off. | 

It is seldom that any one, going in search of phenomena of 
this class, comes upon anything so remarkable as the for^;oing. 
The conditions are rare : a locality where, for several genera- 
tions, ultramundane interventions have spontaneously ap. 
peared ; and the presence, in that locality, of two among iJie 
most powerful mediums for physical manifestations to be found 
in this, or it may be in any other country. 

I caimot reasonably donbt that, before the present decade 
closes, the intelligent portion of society will be as thoroughly 
convinced of the reahty of the spirit-rap as enlightened in- 
quires already are that the size and form of the bmin have 

* See, for ehnilar phenomena, FootfaBi, p. 231. 
t See Foo^atU, pp. 317, 253, 2TG, for aunilar noiaea. I wrote out tlds 
aooount on the mining after the InoidentB oconned. We sat tQl 



Munething to do vith intolleot, and that nugnetio inflnQiue* 
may prtxluoe hypnotic effects. 

When ve have admitted the mtormaudane character oi 
these wonderful echoes, the first short step in experimental 
Spiritualiani is taken: but only the fint. The rap may be 
ultramundane ; and jet that sii^te &ct is insufficient to [»x)Te 
that deceased friends can oommuuicate with as. W« moat 
seek, in the r^>-spelled commnnicatdons themselTes, for oondn- 
sive evidence that intercourse from beyond the boume ia nut 
forbidden to man. 

If I have devoted more space Htuji seems needed to tlie 
proof, in a physical sense, of so simple a phenomenon, I beg to 
remind the reader of the persistent nonsense that has been 
spoken and written about spirit-raping, and of the prejudices 
that have grown up under the ridicule which has tluu attac^ked 
itself to theteno. 




" Whaa Qi^ «ame to JoidAO, tiiey oat down wood. Bnt u one was 
fellinff ft bewn, the axebead fell into the wkto: : and be oned, and B^d 
[to HiBha], 'Alaa, master I' for it was borcowed. And the man of Ood 
aaid, * Wbere tell it t ' And he ahewed him Uie place. And he oat 
down a atick, and «aet it fai thithei ; and the iron did swim." — 2 Kilias 
Ti 4-6. 

The raJEUig from the ground of weighty Bubetances, or the 
moTii^ of these from place to place, is one of the most common, 
ftnd most easily verified, of physical manifestations. I have 
elsewhere given many examples of it.* Here I sliall add but 
two or three out of the numerous cases tbat have come under 
my eye during spiritual sessions. 

A most satis&ctory test of the power, by occult i^ncy, to 
raise ponderable substances was suggested to me by that practi- 
c&l thinker, the late Robert Chambers, the welt-known author 
and publisher, during hia visit to the United States, in the 
autumn of 1860; and we carried it out on the thirteenth of 
October of that year. 

On the evening of that day we had a sitting in Mr. Under- 
bill's dining-room ; there being present Mr. and Mrs. Uudur- 
bill, Kate Fox, Mr. Chambers, and myself. In this room, we 
found an extension dinner-table of solid mahogany, capable of 
seating fourteen pei-sons. This we contracted to the form of a 
centre-table, and, having procured a laige steelyard, we found 
that it weighed, in that form, a hundred and twenty-one pounds. 
We suspended this table by the steelyard, in exact eqtupoise 

■ F^^aOi, pp. 110, lis, 113 (note), 253, 350, 27a, 379 to 9S3, and 
niH)7 others. I 

16 ^.oOglC 


ftod about eight inches from the floor. Then we sat down hy it; 
and while our experiment proceeded, Mrs. TTnderhiU sat irith 
the points of both feet touching one of mine ; and Kate in tho 
same relation to Mr. Chambers. This vas done, at their aug- 
gestion, so as to afford us proof that they had no physical 
agency in the matter. Their hands vere over the table, neu 
t^e top, but not touching it. There was bright gas-light. Thus 
we were enabled to obtain 

A Cbcuul Test, 

The table remaining suspended, with the constant wei^^t at 
the figure 131, we asked tUat it might be made lighter. In a 
fow seconds the long arm ascended. We moved the weij^t to 
the &guro 100 : it still ascended ; then to 80 ; then to 60. 
Even at this last figure the smaller arm of the steelyard was 
somewhat depressed, showii^ tliat the table, for the moment, 
weighed less than sixty pounds. It had lost more tAan halfiU 
weight, namely, upward of uxty-one pounds : in other words, 
there was a power equal to sixty-one pounds sustaining it. 
Then we asked that it might be made heavier ; and it was so : 
first as the figures indicated, to 130, and finally to a hundred 
and forty-four pounds. 

The change of weif^t continued, in each instance, from three 
to eight seconds, as we ascertained by our watches : and during 
the whole time the ladies maintained the same position of feet 
and hands; Mr. Underbill not approaching the table. 

We had giv^i Mr. Underbill no notice of onr intention to 
ask for this experiment. The steelyard was borrowed for the 
occasion from a wholesale grocer, living in the neighborhood. 

How much a Jewish azefaead commonly weighed, in ttie days 
of Elisha, I know not ; it could be but a few pounds. Our 
miracle ((^noniM) exceeded that of the prophet, as far aa 
regards the weight of the body that was made light«r : but 
the Hebrew seer was at a greater distance fromtheobjectr^Bed 
than were our mediums. 


On th« evening just preoeating that on which we tried the 
above experiment I hod & sitting at Mr. Underbill's, with veiy 
ftatUfoctoty reealt. 

A HEAVY Dinner-table suspendsd im the Aib, witeoot 

Our aeseioo waa on the evening of October 13, 1860, lasting 
from half-past nine till eleven." It wan held in the Bome room 
and at the same table mentioned above, uid by gas-light. Pres- 
ent Mr. and Mrs. TJuderhill, Kate Fox, Mr. Harrison Qmy 
Dyar, of New York, and mjself. 

We had very loud mppings, &om various parts of the room 
and on the chairs. 

Then, while our bands were on the table, it b^^ to move, 
sometimes with a rotary motion, sometimes rising up on one 
side, until finally it rose from tlie ground all but one leg. 

Then we sought to induce it to rise entirely from the floor. 
After (what seemed) strenous eSbrts, almost suocess^, to rise, 
we aided it by each putting a single finger under it ; and, with 
this slight assistance. It rose into the air and remained sus- 
pended during six or seven seconds. 

After a time we asked whether, if we removed our fingers 
from the table-top, wHle it was in tlie air, it oonld still remain 
suspended ; and the reply (by rappii^) being in the affirmative, 
after aiding it to rise as before, we withdrew onr fingers entirely, 
raising them above it. The table then remained, nearly levd, 
suspended without any human support whatever, during the 
space of five or six seconds ; and then gradually settled down, 
without jar or sudden dropping, to the floor. 

Then, anxious toadvance a step farther, we asked if the table 
oould not be raised from the floor without any aid or contAct 
whatever. The reply being in the affirmative, we stood up and 
placed all our hands over it, at the distance of three or four inches 

* Wsfound, by repeated trials, thatonrexperimentsBaooeadod batter 
wbcD we sat at a late hour, after the serrants had gaae to bed, when 


from the table-top : when it rose of itself, following our haoda 
OS we gradually raised them, till it hung ia tho air about (he 
same distance from the gronnd as before. There it remaiited 
six or seven seconds, preserving its horizontal, aud almost u 
steady as when it rested on the ground : then it slowly descended, 
still preserving the horizontal, until the feet reached the caipet 
As before, there was no jar or Buddea dropping.* 

The same experiment was repeated, next evening in tiie pres- 
ence of Robert Chambers, afW we had completed our tests 
with the steelyard; and with exactly the same results. At 
first, as before, we raised it on our fingers ; then, withdrawing 
them, it remained in the air six or seven seconds. On the sec- 
ond trial it rose entirely without contact, remaining suspended 
toT about the same space. 

It should here be remarked tiiat we were in thq habit, during 
these experimente, of moving the table to different parte of the 
room, and of looking under it from time to time. 

Upon the whole I consider this moving of physical objects ' 
— fc» apports, as the French spiritnalists term it — to be as con- 
clusively established, in its ultramundane aspect, as the spirit- 
rap. A hundred-and-twenty-pound dinner-table is no trifle to 
lift. The conditions exclude the possibility of concealed 
machinery. And by what conceivable bodily effort, undeteota- 
ble by watchful bystanders, can two or three assistants heave 
from the ground, maintain in the air, and thrai drop slowly to 
the floor, so ponderous a weight, with their hands, the while, 
in full view, under broad gas-ti^t ? No one, in his senses and 
believing in his senses, can witness what I have witnessed, and 
yet remain a sceptic in this matter. 

It makes not, under the circumstances, at all against it, that 
Mrs. Underbill and her sister were, at one period of their lives, 

* The aooonnta of this and of the sittdng of October 13, wen botti 
written ont the next moniiiig'. To prevent repetition I here lemsrii 
that notes of all the sittinga recorded in this volume were taken eithtf 
at the time, or nprt day or (in a few coses) a day or two later. 

on STATES ieoAhd. S65 

In tHe habit of aittiag as professioiial mediuma. But evea if it 
did, still, in the seclusion of a private family and in the ab- 
sence of every one who had ever, till a few moaths before, been 
sospected of possesBing spiritual powers — I have witnessed oc- 
carrencea even more marvellous than those above related. 
Thus it hf^pened ; 

A Table, tlvso into thb Aib, botateb. 

In the spring of 1870 I was visiting a friend of mine, Mr, 

S , whose charming residence oa Staten Island commands 

a magnificent view over the Bay of New York, with the dis- 
tant city on one hand and the Narrows, opening into the ocean, 
on the other. 

The family hnd no knowledge of Spiritualism and scant fkith 
in any of its phenomena, until a month or two before my visit, 
whet) one of the sons, a young man whom I shall call Charlea, 
suddenly found himself, as much to his surprise as to that of 
his relatives, gifted with rare spiritual powers- 
Passing by, for the present, the most remarkable of these, I 
here reproduce, from minutes taken next day and submitted for 
correction to the assistants, part of a record of what I witnessed 
at two sessions, both held on the second of April, 1870. 

The first was in the afternoon. We had been sitting pre- 
viously in a back parlor; but, on my proposal, we adjourned to 
the drawing-room, on the front of the houBe, where, until then, 
we had not sat. There were present, besides Charles and my- 
self, two other relatives of the family, Mr. N and Mr, 

L . The room was darkened with heavy curtains which 

we drew close ; but sufficient light came through to enable us 
to Bee the outlines of objects. 

We sat at a heavy deal-table, made, expressly for the pur- 
pose, very thick and strong ; the legs more than two inches 
sqnare ; size two feet seven inches by one foot eight inches, and 
weighing twenty -five pounds. 
At first there was a trembling motion, then a tilting from 


side to side, gradually becoming more powerfiil, and at Imt ao 
violent that it vas snatched from our hands. Then, at oar >«- 
quest, the table was made so heavy that I found it Bcaroaly pda- 
sible, with all my strength, to move it even half an inch fira^ 
the floor ; the apparent weight some two hundred pomids. 
Then, again at oxa request, it was made so tight that Tre oonld 
lift one end of it with a single finger ; its weight seeming teak 
or twelve pounds only. Then it was laid down on its aide ; 
and, no one touching it, I was unable to raise it. Thai it -waa 
tilted on two legs and all my strength was insufScient to press 
it down. 

Finally, after being jei^ed wiUi such sudden violence that v« 
all drew back, fearing injury, and merely reached our fingeis 
on the edge of its top, it was proj ect«d into the air so high diat 
when we rose from our chairs we could barely place our fingers 
on it; and there it swung about, during six or seven seconds. 
Besides touching it, we could see its motion by the dim li^t. 

We Bat again in the evening at ten o'clock, in the same room, 
darkened : only three at the table, N , Charles, and myself. 

Then — probably intensified by the darkness — commenced a 
demonstration exhibiting more physical force than I had ever 
before witnessed. I do not believe that the strongest man liv- 
ing could, without a handle fixed to pull by, have jerked tin 
table with anything like the violence with v/hich it was now, 
as it seemed, driven from side to side. We all felt it to be a 
power, a single stroke from which would have killed any one 
of us on the spot. Then the table was, as it were, flung up- 
ward into the air, again so high that, when we stood up, we 
could just touch it, and shaken backward and forward for some 
time ere it was set down. Again it was raised, even more vio- 
lently than before and swung backward and forward, as &r aa 
by the touch we could judge, in an arc of seven or eight feet, 
some five or six times. A third time it was hurled into the 
air, Kometiraes out of our reach, but we felt it turn otwr and 
over, like a rev<ilving whed, eight or ten time*. As nearly as we 
could judge without reference to our watches, it was some 

BUT NO HASH doho. 867 

ttoettfe or yowCeen seconds ia the air, before it descended, Som»- 
"times we were able to touch it, sometimeB not. 

Xlien I asked whether, some time hereafter, we might not be 
&ble to obtain objective apparitions. The answer was given by 
raising the table three times from the floor, each time glap>'T'ir(g 
it down with such force that the noise was distinctly heard in 
tlie story above ; and, when a candle was lighted, we found the 
top (of inch board), split entirely across and wrenched from the 
l^a ; the long nails with which it bad been secured to prevent 
Buoh accident being drawn out. 

While these manifestatious were in progress, it occurred to 
me, as very strong evidence of Hie humane care of the operating 
spiritB, that when such tremendous power was exerted close to 
us, no serious accident happened ; antl that I had nerer heard 

of any such, on airoilar occasioa. Once N 's wriat was 

sprained, and twice his knees and also Charles' were struck ; 
but though this pained tliem a good deal at the moment, tiie 
pain ceased in a few minut«s — through spiritual infiuence, as 
they supposed. I certainly would not trust myself within reach 
of any similar demonstrations, if produced by human hands. 

I expressed my thankfulness and gratification at having been 
allowed to witness such manifestations. The answer, by im- 
pression through Charles' hand, was: "Don't you know that 
we are as much gratified to give them as you to receive 
them ? " 

Then they informed us that " their powers were a little shat- 
tered for to-night ;" and, at midnight, we adjourned. 

I beg that my readers will here note Iho attendant circum- 
stanoes. The locality, selected by myself, the drawing-room in 
a gentleman's house ; no professional medium present; the a»- 
sistants, the son of the gentleman in whose house we were sit- 
ting and two other gentlemen, hia near relations ; the motion 
out of our reach, so that it was a sheer impossibility tbat l^ose 
present could have produced it. The shattered table i^nained, 
a tangible proof of the strong force employed. 


How thoroughly out of place here the Buspicion of deception 
or imposture I How utterly untenable the hypothesis of ilia- 
aion or hallucinatioa ! Thomas, touching, would have be- 
lieved. It would need & disciple of Berkeley to witness these 
phenomena, and still remain a sceptic in the reality of sncli 




" In the aune hour oame tozOx fingeis of a man's hand, and wrote 
orer against the oandleotiok upoa the plaster of the wall of the 
king'B palaoe : and the Ung n.w the part of the hand Uiat wrote."— 
Damibl t. 6. \ \ :^ 

A. TBATXLLKR, bound on Bome misaion of paasisg import&nce, 
may now and UieD, amid the prosaic detaila lie encoonters from 
Btage to st^e in his journey, lose sight of the great object to 
which it leads : yet, in proportion as he nears the goal, his 
thoughts concentre, more and more, on the ultimate issue. 
60, in the journey through these pages, may it happen to the 
reader. He is travelling in search of proofs, cognizable by 
human senses, of another life. As he proceeds, the phenomena, 
homely at first, gain in living interest ; for they go to estab- 
lish, ever more and more conclusively, the existence of an 
agency not occult, not ultramundane only, but intelligent, but 
spiritual : the agency of beings like ourselves, though they be 
no longer denizens of earth. 

There was published, in Paris in the year 1857, by a young 
Russian nobleman, a book * which did not attract tliu atten- 
tion it deserved. Its author, whose acquaintance I bad the 
pleasure of making in Paris, a year after bis book appean^, . 
hod devoted his life, almost exclusively, to the study of what 
he deemed the Supernatural and of the relations between tbe 

* La BiaUU dt» Bnpnte tt le Plientrmitie merviitkun d« leur EetiU^rt 
directs demontri^, par le Baion de OoLOKSsriiBBi, Paria, 1867. 

For particolars r^aiding the Qoldeustabbj fiunily and their resi- 
dence, aae Foo(falli, pp. SOS and 360 (note). 


■ Tiaible world and that which we have yet to see ; the object 
of his studies being to obUia positive demonBtretion of the 
soul's immortal existenoe. His work is that of a ^-Ifmrnml ' 
scholar, and coattuns curions and iotereectii^ lesearches tend- 
ing the SpiritualiBm of antiquity. It exhibits much sa^&eity, 
with the drawback that the Baron believes not only in indu-' 
ences from the next world but (dso in direct, miraculous inter- 
Tention of Qod ; as the arreeting, by Him, of the earUi and the 
moon in their orbite for the space of a day.* The book is 
chiefly occupied, as its title implies, with proofs of direct 
writing by spirito. 

In the ten months firom August, 1856, when ii. do Qnlden- 
Etubb£ first observed thia phenomenon, to June, 1S57, he ob- 
tained more than five h/undred specimens ; out of which be 
gives US lithographs of sisty-aevea. These experiences wera 
witnessed by more than fifty persons ; of whom he names thir- 
teen.f These witnesses furnished the paper that was used in 
the experiments. 

These experiments were chiefly made, and were most sucoess- 
ful, in old caUiedrats or in other ancient places of worship, or 
in historic residences. But before I reached Paris, in the ao- 
tumn of 1858, there bad been an order issued, either by the 
government or the clergy, prohibiting such experiments in 
churches and other public buildings. It was vigorously cot- 
forced, as we found when Baron de Quldenstubb^, his sister 
and myself visited the Abbey of St. Denis, on the twenty-ninth 
of September, and placed a paper in one of the side chapels. 
I had determined, however, to persevere in my endeavor to 

■ Work died, p. 4*. Joahna t 12-lt 

t Namely : Prinoe Uonide Qalitdo, of Mohdow ; Pnno* 8. Ibi- 
sohersky ; Qeneral the Banin de Briwem ; Baron de Voigts-Bheta ; 
Baron Borys dIJexkull ; Count de Ssapary ; Comit d'Oozohes ; Col- 
onel Tontcbeff ; Coloael de KoUmann; Dootoi Qeoi^, now of Loa- 
don ; Dootor Bowron, of Puis ; U. EiorboS, a distiiiffiiuhed aitiat, and 
M. Bavenfi, proprietor of a gallery of pointiiigs at Berlin. — InirodW' 


-verify this important phenomenon then and there ; bat was 
prevented from doii^ ao bj a telegram from England, inform- 
ing me of the dangerous iUneas of my father, Bobert Owen, 
-with whom I remained till his death, eix weeks afterward.* 

Swron de Guldeosbibb^ impressed me very favorably as a 
man of great eamestnees and perfect good faith ; one who pur- 
sued his researches in a most reverent spirit. Enthusiastic he 
certainly was ; and, for that reason, a lees dispassionate ob- 
server ; yet the mtiltitude of Ma experiences, obtained under 
every variety of clrciunstanoe, and the number of respectable 
'witnesses who permit their names to appear in attestation of 
the results, leave little room to doubt their genuine charac- 

I reproduce three out of the many specimens this author has 

The first, in French, was obtained August 16, 1S5S, in the 
presence of Count d'Ourchee, under tiiese circumstances : The 
Count, a believer in spiritual phenomena but leaning a little 
toward demonology, prepared two papers ; the one was blank, 
on the other he had written the well-known text, " Hereby \ 
know ye the spirit of God : Every spirit that oonfesseth that \ 
Jesus Christ is come in the fleah is of GSod." f These he placed \ 
side by side, on a table, within view. After ten minutes he 
found written on the blank leaf: "I confes» Jews in the 
fleah" — A. V. 6. The aigoature was known to the Baron as 
the initials of a deceased fnend. % Here is a fiu>«imile of the 

* 1 find the following entry In my journal, written just after his 
deatli: " Dazing the last seTCn or eigbt years of my father's life he 
was an miwaTenng believer in Spiritaalism ; thongh I doubt whether 
the tanas amount of evidenoe which convinced him woold have satiiifisd 
me. To the lost he Bpoke of a fatnie life nith tlie same nndonbtiiig 
certainty as of any earthly event, which he expected soon t-o oooni. His 
death was the most peaoefnl I ever wibieased. 

f J John iv. S. -' 

\ SiaUti da £ipriU, p. 6S. 



The Beoood, in Et^^iBh, iros written, also in the praoeooe of 
the Count d'Ourches, September 9, 1856, near the cohimn of 
Fmncis II. Under two crosses, as the &o-Binule here giveat 
shows, is written : " J" am ^2t/0/" and the initials, in mono- 
gram, are those of the nnfortunate Mary Queen of Soota * 


"^^y- itU ^'^f- 

A reminder may here be acceptable to the reader : " In the 
north tranaept of the church of St. Denis, on one side of tlie 
door, is a compodto column of white maible, erected by Mary 
Stuart to the memory of her husband, Francis II., who died in 
1661." t 

* Count d'Onrohei personoltj confirmed to me tbe anUieiitici^ of 
tlieee two exBrnplea of Bpiiit-writing, when J called on him October 1, 
18S8. See FixKfaBi, p. 113 (note). 

t Farit and it* Bnoinmt, London, 1859 ; p. 828. 

BPmrr-wEmNG. 373 

The last of tlie examples selected, is also of historic imterest. 
It is the conventual signature of the frail and repentant Du- 
cheeae de la Vallifere {Somt Jjouxm de la MUericorde), obtained 
by M. de GuldenBtubb^ Deoember 29, 1856, in the church of 
Tal-de^rfice : Colonel de Kollmann being the witness pt«seat. 
Here it is : 



If the reader ask why especially in the chapel of Yal-de- 
Or&oe, and why not the lanuly name, the following may be 
worth recalling : 

" A small confessional, with a strong iron ruling, opens into 
the church of Yal-de Grace, from one of the passages behind. 
This was the confessional used by Mademoiselle de la Valli^re, 
previous to her taking the vows; and from the windows of 
the above-named passage is seen the building she occupied at 
that period," • 

" The Carmelite convent in which the celebrated Mademoi- 

• Pari* andiU Snvironi, p. 174. 


Belle de la Yalliire took the veil in 167S, as ' Sceur Lonise do 
la Mis^ricorde,' is in the Rue d'Enfer, behind St. Jacques dn 
Haut Pb8." • 

How Htrangely suggeativQ all this 1 We search pynunid and 
cathedral aad vaolted catacomb in quest of hieroglyphics and 
sepulchral sculpture and lapidai; epitaphs : little thitilHTtg 
what relics of the departed, far more precious than all inani- 
mate memorialB, might there be obtained, attesting the con- 
tinued exi«t«uoe and memory of those, more alive ttiaa we, 
-whom we are wont to think of only u dead celebnties of Ota 

Though I was prevented, by business, firom revisiting Paria 
after my &ther's death and there verifying M. de Guldoi- 
Btuhb^'s observations, I have since been fortunate enough to 
procure, in the United States, peraoDsJ evidence, in corrobora- 
tion. And, in some caaea, this evidence was obtained undw 
cooditions so strict that I think any candid and intelligent 
person, witnessing what I have witnessed, must cease to doubt 
that which millions will deem incredible ; namely, that, here 
upon earth, we may receive communications dictated by oUier 
intelligence, written by other hand, than the hand and the 
intelligence of any among earth's inhabitants. It avails noth* 
ing to allege that this is impossible, if it shall ^pear that it is 

I obtained examples of spuit-writing, during a sitting with 
Kate Pox, as early as February 27, 1860, and on one or two 
subsequent occasions. But it was during sittings in darkened 
rooms ; and, on carefully looking over the minutes of these ex- 
periments, I perceive that, until the autumn of the next year, 
I had not taken all the precautions which might, in the dariE, 
be taken ; nor ever seen any hand while it was writing. 
Theieibre, and because space is precious, I paw over tluM 

* Same work, p. 191. 

DMn;.^:b, Google 


earlier examples and ahall bere record the results of two mttings 
oaiy, both of remarkable character. One carefully authenti- 
cated caae ia better than twenty, loosely attested. 

I>uring the first of these sittingB, held August 6, 1861, in 
Mrs. Eoz'a house, in West Forty-sixth street, New York, I had 
atx experience, such, prabably,'es few persons have ever en- 

Seeiro a Ldhinods Hans wsitk. 

I sought iut evening session with Kate Fox, hoping to ob- 
tain an apparition, which had been promised me by rappings — 
but without setting the time — a few evenings before. Kate 
proposed that we should Bit in the lower parlor ; but, as I knew 
there wag a front parlor on the Beoond floor and wished to 
a.vmd interruption, I proposed that we should hold our sitting 
there, to which she readily assented. 

It was a small room, very simply famished with sofa, chairs, 
and a table, about two and a half feet by three. There were no 
closets nor presses in this room, and but two doors ; one on the 
upper passage, the other communicating with an adjoining 
apartment. The table stood in the comer ; we moved tt to the 
centre of the room. 

I locked both die doors, and took the additional precau- 
tion of settling them. This I did with short strips of paper 
connecting the door with the door-sill, attaching the upper part 
of each strip with wax to the door, and the lower part to the 
sill ; and impressing both seals witJt my engraved signet-ring. 
I told Kate (and I know she believed me) that I did bo for the 
sake of those who might hereafter read the record of this sit- 
ting, not to quiet any suspicions of my own. 

As we were sitting down, she said laughingly : " You ought 
to look under the sofa, Mr. Owen." I thanked her for the re- 
minder, rolled the sofa out from the wall, turned it over and 
examined it thorou^ly, before replacing it. Then I minutely 
inspected every part of the room. 

On the table was an ink-stand and a steel-pea with wooden 


holder ; nothing elae. In caaa of a dark sitting, I had brought 
with me a small pock^s consisting of eight or ten Blips of 
Triting paper, cut from foolscap sheets and about four incbe* 
in depth : to be used, sucoeasively, in case I took notes in the 
dark. They were bUnk, except that I had put, on one oonter 
of each, a private mark. 

This package, with a pencil, I laid on the table on my 1^ 
hand, within reach ; Kate sitting beside me, on my right : and 
then we awaited instructions. 

These soon cMoe, by raps ; spelling out " Darken." We 
effectually excluded light through two front windows on the 
street by outside shntters and window-blinds : after which we 
extinguished the gas and resumed our seats. 

Then came the additional instructions. " Best your hands 
on the table. Join hands." I caused Kate to rest her hands 
on the table, clasped ; and I placed my right hand on both h^x, 
reserving my left band free. 

Then was spelled : " Put your hand tmder table." I pUoed 
my left hand under the table, oa my knee. 

Then, by the raps : " Cover left hand and hold writing-paper 
and pencil in it." I had to remove my right hand &om Kate's 
for a few moments, bo as to cover my left hand with a handker- 
chief and place the package of paper-slips and the pencil in iU 
But I had hardly done this, when it spelled : "Join hands." 
J replaced my right hand on both of Kate's. 

Then I felt the paper drawn from my hand, but the pencil 
was left. About a minute afterward tlie pencil was taken and 
my hand was tapped with it, quite distinctly, three times ; after 
which it was carried off. There was no sound of it« falling, 
but, after an intorval, there was a distinct rustling of paper on 
the floor. This alternated with the sound of a pen scratching 
on paper ; and continued, at intervals, for a considerable space, 
during all which I kept my hand on both of Kate's. 

After a time, attracted by a rustling on her right, Kate 
looked on the floor and, with an expression of surprise, called 
my attention to what she saw. Rising and leaning over Uie 

ENOAOBD ra wEirmo. 377 

t^ble, but without releasing Kate's hands, I could distinotlj 
perceive, on the carpet close by £ate od the right, a. luminous 
appearance, of rectangular form, very clearly defined, and, as 
nearly as I could judge, the size and shape of one of the slips 
of Triting-paper tliat had been taken from my hand. 

Then> by t^e raps : " Do not look at present." Whereupon 
I reseated myself. 

Kate then asked : " Cannot the spirit raise that illuminated 
paper and put it on the table before us ? " 

Bepiy, by the raps : " First let me show you the pencil." 
After B. little, Eat« informed me that she again saw the lii- 
miuoua appearance, even more brightly thui at first. Then, 
leaning over as before and watching it for some time, I dis- 
-tinctly saw, above what seemed to be the illuminated slip of 
paper, the outline, in shadow, of a small hand holding a pencil 
and moving slowing over the paper. I could not, however, 
distinguish the writing. 

Eaie exclaimed, in tones of delight : " Do you see the hand ? 
" — and the pencil, too ? — do you see it write ? " So that she 
evidently saw it, just as I did. 

All this time both Kate's hands were on the toble ; for I 
bethought me of this, even at that moment. 

Then was spelled : " Don't look ! " and I withdrew a second 

Shortly after, by the raps: "Put hand under table." I 
placed my left, hand on my knee. Thereupon a slip of paper 
was gently placed in my hand, uid the tips of my fingers were 
distinctly touched, as by human fingers. I brought up the paper, 
laid it on the table before me, and replaced my hand. Very 
soon something was put into it, which, by the touch, I knew 
to be a wooden pen-holder ; and that also I laid on the table. 
Some time after this, us we could distinguish nothing but 
the rustling of paper, Kate again asked if an illuminated sheet 
could not be laid on the teble. In a short time what seemed 
such was raised a little above the height of the table ; then it 
gradually sank down again, out of sight. 

S78 spucniENB OF aiiRiT-'nBtTmo. I 

After A considerable interval my left hand vaa a^inin tonnhe] 
hy a piece of paper ; but it dropped before I coiild lay hold of a. 

Another interval, and we had, bj the raps : " Ldf^t tin 
gas." Only then I released Kate's hands. We lit the gu, 
and I immediately examined the doors of the room. The setlt 
'were intact and tlie strips, connecting them with the door-nills, 
unbroken. I looked round. Everything remained just u 
when we sat down, except that several slips of paper laj scat- 
tered on the floor, with my pencil among them ; while, on the 
table, there Uy the single slip and the pen-holder wbich had 
been handed to me. 

My first thought was that I was now qualified to swear in a 
court of justice, had that been necessary, that, during this sit- 
ting, Kate and I had been the sole occupants of the room. 

Then I essimined the papers. One, that on the table, was 
written in ink ; three others, on the floor, in peooil ; two or 
three short lines on each. The first had these words: 

" The night is not fiivonkble for appearing. I will soon ovei^ 
oome difficulties, Tou shtfll see me, believe m&*' 

This, though lefpble, was evidently writ^ten by a very bad pen, 
which «puUsrai, as we sometimes say. Witness these two words: 

Here is a &c-simile of the writing on one of the other slips ; 
originally in pencil, but the pencilling carefully inked over by 
me, to preserve it : 


On one of the other slipa an allusion was TQade to the state 
of the atmosphere, as being unfavorable to as appearance ia 
IjodUy form. It was, in effect, a murty evening, with drizzling 
rain. Such weather, as I had repeatedly verified, is unfavora^ 
ble for spiritual experiments. 

On a fourth slip there waa expreraed, in strong terms, the 
earnest anxiety of the writer to gratify my desire for an ag- 
pearance, so that ! could recognize her features. * 

My feelings, when I had careiiilly examiaeci these results, are 
Buch as seldom fitll to the lot of a human being. 

I took up the slip that was written in ink. Some one — an 
intelligent agent, a denizen of this world or of another — had 
taken up the pen-holder that lay on the table before me, had 
dipped the pen in ink, and had written these lines. The same 
pen-holder had been handed to me under the table by some in- 
visible agency. And all this had happened daring the time when 
the only two hands in the room except my own were under my 
grasp. Then, too, I had heivrd the writing. 

I took up the steel-pen and tried to write out a few notes of 
our session. It was neariy worn out. It sputtered in my 
hands, as it had done in those of the mysterious writer. After 
' managing to write a few lines, I relinquished the wretched pen, 
as ahe had done, for my pencil. 

It was a gold one. I remarked to Kate what a heavy 
pencil and what a miserable pen they had been obliged to em- 
ploy : thus writing under great disadvantage. 

Were these spiritual autographs ? What else? Had I not seen 
one of them written ? Had I not seen one of these slips, illu- 
minated, rise higher than the table and then sink back again ? 
Had I not felt Kate's two hands under mine at the very time 
when that band wrote and that paper rose and fell ? Did Kate 

* Of QiB writer whose name was appended to ea^ of tbeee conmia- 
nkattons I shall speak at large, in the chaptar entitled ; A beautffut 
^irit mtm^titiag herte^f; Book iv., chap. 8. 



Trite eight or ten lines with both Ler hands clasped ? Did I 
write them with mj left hand, without knowing it? Or bad 
Kate brought the slips, readj written ? I picked them up aztd 
examined them critically, one by one. My private taaxk, on 
one comer of each — namely, letters of the Qermaii alphabet, 
written in Oerman character — still there I 

What way out? 

Are the sensee of seeing and hearing and touch, ia Bane, 
healthy persons, unworthy to be trusted ? Then of what value 
tJte evidence taken in a criminal court, or the experimentB 
made in a chemiHt's laboratory ? 

For me, common sense bars that way out, I believe in a 
phase of life, succeeding the death change. I see nothing un- 
likely — not to say incredible — in the tlieory that God may 
vouchsafe to man sensible proof of his immortality. And ihas 
I accept the evidence of my aensea when they inform me that 
human beings who have passed to another phase of existence, 
are sometimes permitted to communicato, from beyond tiie 
earthly bourn, with those they have left behind. 

For others, to whom spiritual intercourse seems an absurdity 
— for those, more especially, to whom the hypothesis of another 
life wears the aspect of a baseless dream — let them select thetr 
own j)ath out of the difficulty. I think that, on any path th^ 
may take, they will have to aooept theories infinitely leas tena- 
ble than those they decide to reject. 

I remark, in regard to the foregoing experiment, that the 
room in which it was made hod been selectod by me, after an- 
otlier had been proposed ; also that I expected one sort of 
manifestation and obtained Bomethiug quite different. The 
cldat objection, by sceptics, will be that the phenomena oo- 
curred in a darkened room. But, in a preceding example,* it 
has been shown that when a light was sprung upon spiritual 
phenomena of the most startling character, the only effect wu 

* See dbaptet 1 of Book UL, pieoediiv Vgo. 



■bo (orest them, 'without disclosing etaj earthly cause for their 

Yet I need not rest the case here. It ia but nirely, and 
-under veiy favorable circumstanoes, that direot writing can be 
load in the light. Yet it can sometimes be obtained. Witness 
■the f ollomng : 

DiBEcT Spibit-wkitdjo by Oab-ugbt. 

At Mr. UnderhiU's on the evening of September 3, 1861, 
in the baok room, second stoiy. Present, Dr. A. D. Wilson,* 
iSr. and Mrs. Underbill and mysel£ Precautions in regard to 
locking doors and the like, as usual. The room was brightly 
lighted during the entire sitting. We sat at a rectangular table, 
thirty-three inches by fifty-three, which had no drawers, and 
from which we had removed the table-cover. The gas lit the 
apace under the table, so that we could inspect it at any time. 
I sat on one side of this table, Mrs. tJnderbill oppoeit« ; Mr. 
Underhill at one end, on my ri^t, and Dr. Wilson at the 
other, on ray left. 

A few minutes after sitting down we heard, very distinctly, 
tlie jingling of an iron chain ; then a sudden stroke, as if by '^e 
point of a blunt da^er, against the under side of the table- 
top, so strongly dealt as to shake the whole lable; then a 
metallic sound, as if two steel rods clashed against each other; 
then a jingling, as of steel rings. 

l>uring all this time, as I particularly remarked, the hands 
of all the assistants were on the table ; and below the table 
tiiere was nothing to be seen, for I looked more than once. 

Then, after witnessing several other phenomena, we asked 
if we could have direct writing in the light ; to which the reply, 
by raps, was in the adSrmative. Then came a call for paper 

* He then lived in East ELeventh street, near Bioadwoj. 

He was one of tha most careful and dispassionato olieerveTS I have 
met with, and he expiesaed, in the strongeEt telms, hia ooDfiotion of 
ti>e conolnsive character of this experiment. 

and pencil. I myself selected a sheet from the middle of il 
quire of foolscap and eicamined it carefully under the p»1 
burner : it vaa entirely blank. I held it and X pencil on mt 
knee, looking under the table as I did so. Scaj:^^y had I 
looked up again, to be assured that all the hands of the assd- 
ants still remained on the table, when pa^^er and pencil ven 
taken from me, a finger distinctly touching mine, as they were 
taken. Then, for six or eifflu seconds we heard a sound resem- 
bling that of a pencil writing rapidly on paper ; and instant!/, 
before I had time to look again, the raps spelled : " Take it 
up." I did so, and found written uiK)n it in pencil, in a bold, 
rude, jlnaliing hand, the words : " 27t« North vnU oon^fuerJ" * 

The t in the word " North " is crossed with a sweeping dasb. 
" Conquer " is written conq, then the m is written partly over 
the q, and the final e and r run into one another ; bat tbe wn^ 
is still legible enough. \ 

I do not think that more than twenty, or at most twentf- 
five, seconds elapsed from the moment I put the p^>er under 
tbe table till I took it up, written as above. 

Tbe foregoing may suffice as &r as r^jards my own experi- 
ence in this matter. I add here, in corroboration, the results 
obtained by two friends of mine, both of whom have been, in 
some respects, even more Ui^ly favored than myself, in tbe 
ciuu-acter of evidence establishing the reality of spirit-writing. 

The first, obtained by artificial light, is an experience of Ur. 
Livermore, of New York, X during an evening session with 
Kate Fox, on the eighteenth of August, 1861. No one present 
but the medium and himself. The doors locked and bolted ; 

* The reader need haidly be reminded that this was but six weeks 
after the disaster at Boll Bnn ; at one of the darkest epooba of the 
Ctreat Contest, when the hopes of the South were triumphant, and tb* 
Korth was just b^^huung to take heart, aftei so Bevere a oheok. 

f See fac-iumlle on plate L 

t or this gentleman and of the wonderful ezperiencea he has had, 
tonaUng the phenomenon of objective ifipaiitionB, I have spokni it 
length, in Book v. , chap. 4 ; wbloh sea. 

or apiBiT-watnKO. 



the windows secured, and the room tiioroughlj 
Then the lights extinguished. Soon an oblong li^t, abont Ite 
size anJ shape of a melon, rested on the table, remaining thai 
a considerable time without moving. Mr. Livennore askfd 
if it could rise; whereupon it rose into the air, flashing oo 
occaaionallj, and floating about the room. Fiually it retimed 
to the table, shining with increased brilliancy. 

Mr. Livermore bad brought with him two very large, blank 
cards, each with a private mark, hoping to obtain direct writ- 
ing. These he now deposited, together with a small silver 
pencil, on tbe table, near tlie light ; at the same time securing 
both bauds of the medium. They were .soon taken from tfafr 
table and carried near to tbe floor, remaining apparently bib- 
pended, however, some three or four inches above it ; and iise 
light was BO moved that its rays fell directly upon tbe cards. 
What Mr. Livermore then saw I give in his own words, copied 
from the record he himself made at the time : " The cards be- 
cai)ie the oeatre of a circle of light a foot in diameter. Care- 
fully watching this phenomenon, I saw aband holdizigmy pencil 
over one of the cards. This hand moved qvuetly across boDi 
left to right, and when one line was finished, moved back 
to commence another. At first it was a perfoctly-shsped hand, 
afterward it became a dark substance, smaller than the human 
hand, but still apparently holding the pencil, the writing going 
on at intervals, and the whole remaining vUiUefor nearly at 
htntr. I can conceive of no better evidence for the reality of 
spirit-writing. Every possible precaution against deceptdon 
bad been taken. I held both hands of the meilium throu^ont 
the whole time. I have the cards still, minutely written on 
both sides ; the sentiments there expressed being of the most 
elevated character, pure and spirittud." 

The italics are from the original record. Nearly an hour, it 
will be observed, the phenomeuon continued to present iOelf, 
and under a bright light, even if one not kindled by hnnan 

But tbe next example occurred in broad daylij^t. It vu 


oommumcated to nje 1^ one of the witnesses present, at first 
■verbally, afterward by letter, in which the wiiter kindly per- 
mits me to use her name ; a name which cannot fail to secure, 
for the narration, reajiect and congidei-ation. The lady is the 
aister of Bancroft, the historian, anil the widow of John Davis, 
formerly governor of MaasachuBetts, and best remembered in 
Ne-vt England under the honorable cognomen of " honest John 

The circumstance occurred in Mrs. Davis's dining-room, in 
"Worcester, Massachn setts, the medium present being Mr. 
'Willis, formerly a student of Harvard University, and who 
had some difficulty there, because of an honest avowal of his 
belief in the epiphanies of Spiritualism. "The room," says 
Mra. Davis in her note to me, " had four windows facing east, 
BOuth, and west ; the hour between eleven and twelve, a.m. ; 
' BO that we had the full light of a summer sun, shut off only by 
green blinds. We were at a table on wliich I had put paper 
and pencil ; but we had no intention of forming what is called 
a circle : we merely sat chatting of some wonderful manifesta- 
tions we had witnessed the evening before." 

While they were so engaged, the pencil rose from the table, 
stood at the usual angle, as if guided by a human hand, though 
no hand was to be seen, and began to write. The amazement of 
Mrs. Davis may be imagined. The motion of the pencil was 
regular, and a slight scratching sound was heard as it moved. 
Both Mrs. Davis and Mr. Willis saw and heard this alike. It 
wrote a brief message of affection from a dear friend of Mrs. 
Davis, deceased some years before : then dropped on the paper. 
The evidence in this case, it will be observed, is more direct 
dian in any of the Baron de Guldenstubbe's experiments, for 
he did not see the writing done ; and it has a certain advan- 
tage also over Mr, Livermore's experience and mine ; seeing 
tiiat, in both our oases, the Ught was artificial and might by 
BOine be thought leas trustworUiy than that of day. 

What element of authenticity is lacking here ? The writing 
was done in the seeing and hearing of both, and in broad day- 


light. For BDTthing which we hav« not witnessed oaiMeliM.1 
how seldom ia more oonclusiTe testimonj to be had ! 

Commending theae variouB ex-perimeuts to the critical 
sideration of the caadid reader, I proceed to give a few 
amples of another species of writing, often discredited, y&t of 
which I have had proofs which I find it impossible to aet 


Mr. Robert Chambers and myself were well acquainted with 

tt gentleman whom t shall call Ur. M , not being at libertr 

to give the real name. He is one among the most succesafbl 
and best-known business men of our country ; rwt a resident of 
New York. 

At the time I am speaking of, however, he was on a visit to 
that city ; and Mr. Cbfimbers and I induced him to call, witli 
us, on Mr. Charles 'Foster, one of ibe very best test-mediums I 

have ever known. Mr. M was an unbeliever in spiritiud 

phenomena, unacquainted with Mr. Foster, and agreed to visit 
him merely to gratify Mr. Chambers' wish and mine. We 
had given Mr. Foster no notice of our visit, and we did not 

make Mr. M 's name known to him. We sat down to an 

ordinary-sized cenlre-table. 

After several remarkable phenomena which I omit, Mr. 
M expressed a wish for a test of the reality of spirit-inter- 
course. Thereupon Mr. Foster requested him to think of a 
deceased friend. Thea he bade him write, on one slip of pa- 
per, a number otfirtt names, among them the first name of his 
friend ; and on another slip a number of JamUy names, among 
them the family name of his friend, keeping the writing con- 

oealed. Mr. M wrote out both lists accordingly; the total 

number of names being twenty-three. At Mr, Foster's request 
he then tore the names asunder, made up each separatdy 
in a pellet, and held these pellets under the tublc, in his kaiid, 
the palm open. Then Mr. Foster, who was sitting opposite to 


ISIt-. M , taking np ray bat, held it by one hand under Uie 

table ajid said : " Spirit, will yon please select the two pellets 
tKat have your name and surname, from that gentleman'ii hand, 
and put them in Mr. Owen's hat ? " In somewhat less 
-than, a minute raps came, Mr. Foster brought up the hat, end 
banded two pellets which it contained, unopened, to Mr. 

IM. . The latter undid them, without showing them to any 

of ufi, and merely said: "Theaeorv the two pellets with the name 
and {amily name of my friead." Then Mr. Foster, snddenly 
exclaiming " Here is his first name on my arm," bared his arm 
and we saw, written on it, in lai^ pink letters, the word Seth. 
After a minute or two, as we were looking at the writing, it 
fiwied oat and Mr. Foster asked : " Will the spirit write the first 
letter of his family name on the back of my hand ? " holding it 
out. We watehed it closely : there was not the least mark on 
it. But, after the lapse of a short time, pink marks began to 
appear, gradually growing more plai4, until we all saw, and 
read, very diatinotly written near the centre of the back of Mr. 
Foster's hand, the oapibU letter C. Then, for the first time, 

Mr. M showed us the two pellets. The name wfu Seth 


Ur. Foster tbes inquired of Mr. M if the spirit was a 

relative of his ; and when the other replied that it ^iras, Mr. Fos- 
ter sat, na if musing, for a minute or two ; Uien turned to Mr. 

M , saying: "Ah I it comes tome: it Is your &ther-in- 


Mr. C. . . . vxu Mr. M 's iather-in-Iaw, as that gentle- 
man then informed us ; but until that moment the fact was not 
known either to Mr. Chambers or to myself.* 

Several times during this session, Mr. M became ex- 
tremely pale, and more than once, exclaimed in surprise. I 
did not qhare his astoniBhment, because, the day before (Sep- 

* A record of this dttiit^ was made the aame ds7 and sabmitted by 
ma, foi nvinon, to Mr. Chambers. That gentleman w«e then on a 
Tint to this oounti?. He took the deepest interest in such ezperi- 


t«mber 28), I had had & private sitting with Foster irhera lob- 
teined a test, perhaps even more sotis&ctory than the ahon, 
seeuig that it came at my own request. I b^ged Foster to 
bare his arm and I said : " Can I have the firat letter of tht 
family name of a deceased f riesd of whom I am t hinHn g writ- 
ten there ?" I kept my eyes steadily fixed o& the arm, a£ter ft 
time the letter W gradually appeared, then, as gradually, £ftde)i 
out again. That vxu the first letter of the name I had thought of. 

Two marvels here : an answer to a mental question, awl 
writing upon a human arm before my eyes and in reply to an 
unexpected request. 

More than a year after this I had, also through Mr. Foster, 
a similar test ; and as my notes, taken on that occasion, describe 
the appearance minutely, I add the record here, at the risk of 
being tedious. 

The Letter F. 

A circle of eight persons had assembled, on the evening of 
November 15, 1861, to meet Mr. Foster. It was ^t a well- 
known house in East Twentieth Street, New York ; the dwell- 
ing of two ladies, both earnest spiritualists, and of whom ovr 
countiy has recently had to mourn the loss, Alice and Phtsbe 

We had all been invited, early in the evening, to write one 
or more names, of deceased friends, each on a small bit of pa- 
per ; and to fold these up tightly and mix them in the centre of 
the table. There were some twenty or thirty of these in ^1, 
thus promiscuously placed together. 

From time to time Mr. Foster addressed some message to 
one or other of our party, and, at the close of each message, bs 
selected one of the bits of paper and handed it unopened, to the 
party addressed. Inevery ca«e, the message was appropriate and 
the name was given to the right person. In six diiferent cases the 
name of the deceased friend was written in full, on Mr. Foster's 
arm ; but the arm was not bared beforehand, the writing to- 
peared when he drew up his sleeve. 


"When some eight or ten bits of paper only remained, I said 
to Air. Foster: "lliere is a name written by me among those 
you bav« not yet distributed. Do you think you conld get the 
first letter of it on your arm ? " I was going to add " and I 
Bhonld like you to bare your ami before it is written;" but I 
refnuned, lest Mr. Foster should think that I entertained a 
suspicion which I did not feel, 

Mr. Foster sat silent for a minute or two, both hia hands 

icwLing passiTely on the table the while ; then he said to me : 

*' 'Yon are to look at my wrist:" at die same time extending 

toward me the left arm with the liand downward and the fist 

clenched, and drawing back liis sleeve so aa to expose three or 

four inches of the wrist I observed that it was free from all 

mark whatever, and it remained so for about one minute. Then 

a fiiint pink stroke appeared across it which, in about half a 

uinute more, having gradually increased in distinctness, became 

a capital F. It extended almost across the wrist, near to 

where it joins the hand ; and the top of the F, being the last 

part of the letter which appeared, crossed into the back of the 

hand. The letter was formed by pink lines, about as thick as 

the down-strokes in ordinary text-hand. It was the written, 

not the printed character; and though it appeared aa if written 

hastily or carelessly, it was unmistakably distinct and legible ; 

BO that each member of the circle, when it was shown to them, 

recognized it at once. It remained visible for as much aa two 

or three minutes; and then faded away, while we were lookuig 

at it, as gradually as it had appeared. 

Then Mr. Foster picked up the folded bits of paper, one after 
another, until, as he touched one, there were three raps. That 
one he handed to me. It was the one on wliich I had written 
" Florence," the name of a daughter of mine whom I hail lost 
in infitucy twenty years before. Neither Mr. Foster, nor any 
member of the circle, knew that I had lost a daughter, nor had 
tiie Dsme ever before come up, at any of our sittings. 

Wai the particular character of this test — stricter than that 
of any other obtained during the evening — determined by my 


unexpressed wiBh to see the ■writing while in progreGs of fiw 
mation? The important thing ia correctly to state the drcnm- 
st&nces: let the reader make his own deductions. 

The feeling, as the letter grew under my gaze, Aas Bomewhat 
like that I remember to have had when, for the first time, un- 
der the microscope, I witnessed the sudden coming into exist- 
ence of crystals. 

Space fails me to say more touching spirit-writing. In lite 
way of recital can stronger proof be given f Let those who 
still doubt teat the mattor for themselves. 



Bpibit Touches. 

Ih the spring of the year 186S, then living ftt Naples, I had 
fotu" sitttnga with a medium of world-wide repntfttion, D. Dou- 
glas Home ; snd, in his preBence, I witneseed & phenomenon 
-which no OBj^eat thinker canwitneea, believing it to be genuine, 
\nthout a strange feeling that he is brought near to the next 

The seaaionswere held in ^e parlor of my apartments on the 
Chiaja : present, besides mj family and the medium, the Count 
d'Aquila; or, as we usually called him. Prince Luigi, third 
brother of the Eii^ of Naples. They were evening sessions, 
the room brightly lighted. We sat at a centre-table, three feet 
nine inches in diameter, and weighing, with the lamp on it, 
ninety pounds. 

During ibe second session we were all touched in succession ; 
and this was preceded by a singular manifestation. At various 
points all round the table, the table-cover was pushed outwai'd, 
and occasionally upward at the edge of the table-top, as by a 
hand underneath. Mrs. Owen touched it and felt, through the 
cover, what seemed a small human hand, doubled up. By the 
raps it, was alleged that it was our eldest daughter, Florence, 
whom we had lost when an infant. 

Then Mrs. Owen's dress was pulled, on the (side farthest from 
Mr. Home, as often as eight or ten times, and so strongly that 
Mrs. Owen says had she been asleep it would certainly have 
awoke her : and, as it was, it instantly arrested her attention. 
She taito her dress move each time it was pulled. 

Then she asked that it might touch me three times, which it 
did instantly and quite distinctly. Then I put on my knee my 
hand covered with a handkerchief; and, at my request, it im- 

meili&tely touched m; htuid through the liaiiilkercbie£ "Ha 
Mrs, Owen invited it to touch her hand which she pl&ce<l, md- 
covered, under the table : upon ■which it went under one of die 
flounces of her dress imd touched her hand through the silt; 
but did not touch the bare hand. 

When tiudei' the table-cover, on the opposite aide from Mr. 
Home, it tapped three times on Mrs. Owen's hand, «rheii sbe 
put it against the cover. 

All thit time Mr. Ilome'a lianda were retting on the table., and 
immediately afterward the table rose entirely off the floor some 
four or five inches, and was carried about twelve inches toward 
where Mrs. Owen sat, and there set down again, Mrs. Ow«i 
rising : then raised a second time and carried about six inclKi 
fiirther in tlie same direction. Tliis time the foot of the table 
rested on Mrs. Oweu's dress; and had to be removed to extri- 

Then a large arm-chair, weighing forty-eight pounds,* and 
standing empty behind Mr. Home aud about four feet and a 
half from the arm-chair in which he isat, moved suddenly and 
veiy swiftly close up to the table between Mr. Home aud Mis. 
Owen. Sitting opposite to them, I happened to be looking in 
tl)at direction at the moment, and saw it start. It moved so 
suddenly and rapidly, that I expected it to strike with force 
against the table; but it stopped, as suddenly, within sti indi 
or two of it, and without touching. It is proper to add that it 
moved on castors. Mr. Home was, at that moment, sitting 
close to tLe table, with both hands lightly resting on it, and 
without the slightest appearance of any muscular effort. 

During the next session, Apnl G, the tAuchings were re- 
peated ; f and still more distinctly, during the foui-th sitting un 

* I had cbidr, table, and lamp carefnUf weighed, and iecx>ided Uh 
weiglit at the time. 

I A phenomenon which ooourred dimnfr this Eittiag- is well wortli 
reooldiDK- -AH oar chaire were shaken, as diatinctl; as duiinff on earth- 
quake (wo had a vioteut one, while I was \a Na.plca.-eotliat I speak hen 
bj the book) \ ;et the table, the while, remained motioaleai. Iben Um 

HB. HOUK. S&3 

April 12 ; on which occasion the ha&d toached w&a uncovered. 
Here is the record : " Mrs. Owen's hand, placed on her knee 
imder the cloth, was touched with what exactly resembled to 
the touch a hunum hand, boH, moderately warm, and a little 
moist. The touch waa on Mrs. Owen's bare hand, and was so 
distinct that there was no possibility of mistaking it. Mrs. 
Owen, having on two previous evenings, witnessed the same 
phenomenon, was quite self-possessod, and she stated to me that 
she Iblt not the least nervousuess or alarm. 

" Prince Luigi was touched repeatedly, as we were ; and he 
a^rward expressed to me, in unqualified terms, his oouviction 
that the phenomena we had witnessed were genuine. He had 
had previous experience of his own." * 

Soon after my return to this country, I bad evidence confirm- 
atory of tliia pher 

cliaiiBoeBsed their motioa, and the table was Eimilailj B(ptated. Than, 
at request, the table ceased its motioii, and that of the ch^is recom- 
menced : and so od, seversl timea ; the change from one motion to the 
other being instantaneous. I know o( no human foroe that oonld imi- 
tate this. Machinery there waanonB, for it waa in my own parlor. It 
was evidently not the floor Hiat was shaken, or that oonminmoated 
motion either to the table or to tbe chairs. 

* Here is an item from his experience. Be told me that he had 
sometimes (aa on after reflection he oonclnded} pressed with nnwar- 
rantable ei^^mess (or answers; and, for a time, oonld obtain nothing 
more. On one oceaaion, when he hod done so, there waa spelled out : 
"Tu es un viai dialde." 
T/iePi-ince.—" Be qui f*Aebaf" 
Aruimtr. — "De toi, Ijouis de Bourbon." 

French and Rn gliaTi magnetizers agree in stating that sonmamboles 
are wont to use the familiar tu and <At to petaons whom in their waking 
state theyalwaysaddresaed either by their titles, oreUe nsing the formal 
wux and Bie. See, for an example : Hiftoire de la Ouiiixm d!'ane}eana 
fcrtoruie par U MagnilMme Ammal, prodait par la Nature eUe-mSme; 
by the Boron F. C. De Stcombeck : Paris, 1814, p. 38. " Jamais elle 
ne m'aToit tutoyfi." 
In tbe spiritual realm, it would seem, there is no respect of persons. 
V -Ada X. 34. ' 



Spirit Touches by brioht Gab-liqht. 

Seaaion of October 23, 1860, held in Mr. Underbill's dining- 
room in the evening. Present Mr. and Mra. Underbill, Mr. 
TUndethiU'B father (Seth Underbill), Mra. Price, of Westchester, 
and myself. The usual precautions taken as to locking dooim, ete. 

Spelled out by raps : " Look under the table," I did so very 
carefully. There 'was nothing there. 

After a time it spelled, " Put handkerchief over hand." I 
asked: " la that addressed to me ? " Answer: "Yes," I pat 
my right hand, covered, under tlie table, 

ITien it spelled: "Lower." I reached down as &r as I 

At this moment all the assistants had their hands on the 
table, in sight. Mrs. Underhill su^ested that we join hands. 
We did so : but as my right hand was xindemeatb the table, 
Mrs. Price, who sat next to me, put her hand on my shoulder, 
to complet« the circle. 

In about two minutes after this circle was thus formed, toy 
hand was laid hold of and pressed by the fingera of a baud, as 
I felt mtb unmistakable certainty. Then I asked to have the 
hand touch me once more. It did so ; and, this time, it was 
the points of the fingers that were pressed against my^ hand : 
I felt the sharp impression of the nails. 

During the whole of this time the gas was burning brightly, 
and the circle of joined hands was maintained. During the 
whole time the hands of all the assistants were in sight, and I 
kept my eye on them. 

But for the reminder, by the raps, to look under the table 
before the experiment began, I might have omitted to take that 

A year later I had a similar experience, also in the li|^t. 

It was during the session, already noticed, of September 3, 
1861, when we obtained direct writing by gas-light :* Dr. Wil- 

* See preoeding page. 


son and Mr. and Mrs. tTndcrhiU present, The table thirty- 
-three incbes by fifty-three; without drawers and without 

It spelled : " Put down hand." I put my left hand under 
'fche table. My foot was touched and pressed and my leg was 
seized, as by the firm grasp of a strong hand ; but my band was 
not touched. 

Then it spelled : " Handkerchie£" As soon as I covered 
my hand it was touched, through the handkerchief, as by a 
large finger. Then my fingers were grasped firmly, as by two 
fijagers and a thumb. Then, a third time, my fingers were 
H^rasped and tightly pressed as by three fingers and a thumb of 
a large, strong hand. 

After a time, fingers apparently of a small hand were laid 
lightly on mine : and, by delicate raps, it was spelled : " Violet 
touched you last." 

This experiment was made in a room brightly Ughted, with- 
out any cloth on the table, and with the hands of every assiat- 
aut full in sight. 

Some readers, theorizing only, may persuade themselves that 
a single sense, especially that of touch, ia insuificient evidence 
in cases like the foregoing. Let them try the experiment. I/et 
them try, when they find themselves laid hold of by a hand, 
vigorous and real, as firmly as by the grasp of a cordial friend, 
to set it down as pure imagination and to rest in the convic- 
tion that they have not been touched at all. Short of Pyrrhon- 
ism, they will not succeed. When through the avenues of 
actual sensation the testimony comes, they will find out, like 
Thomas, what are the difficulties of disbelief. 

I here close my record of manifestatiDns such as are usually 
called physical ; and proceed to consider a problem of more 
intricate character : that which relates to Uie identity of spirits. 






There ia, among spiritu&l phenomena, a claaa, rare of occur- 
rence, but wonderfully convincing when we happen to meet 
with tiiem. They teach us much more than the reality of the 
next world, invaluable as that truth ia. They give ua glimpses 
into that world, di^ipating many preconceptions touching its 
character and its inhabitants. We learn fi'oin tliera that our 
friends there may still have earthly thoughts and human sypi' 
pathiee ; may still I'ecognize ub ; may still, for a time, interrat 
themselves even in petty matters that are going on in the world 
they have left. They do not, by any means, prove to us that 
every ultramundane communication is truly frOm the spirit who 
professes to communicate ; but they do prove to us that this is 
sometimes the case. In doing so, they establish, in certain 
cases, the identity of spirits. Tliey give us satisfiictory assur- 
ance that we shall recognize our friends in the next world, ami 
that wo shall find them there much less changed than theologi- 
cal fancy has [>ainted them. 

Such proofe are the moro valuable when they come tmsought, 
tinexpected, at first unwelcome even, in the privacy of home: 
where we cannot imagine motive for deception, nor uhauce of 
juggler's trick. 

I am fortunate in being able to supply such an example, 


fumiBhed to me by friends in whose good faith and sagacity 
1 have entire confidence. « I know the namea of all the parties 
'crhose initials are given in the followiiig narrative ; and if I 
am not permitted to publish them, in attestation, the ivorld 
has itself to blame. When society, learning to treat upright- 
nesB with respect, ceases to denounce or to ridicule ench testi- 
mony as this, it will be time enough for it to condemn the 
reticence of those who meanwhile seek refuge from such Injua- 
tioe under an anonymous veil. 

A Spirit abbanoiko its Wobldly Affairb, 

Mrs. G , wife of a captain in the regular army of the 

XTnited States, was residing, in 1861, with her husband, in 
CincinnatL Before that time she had, of course, often heard 
of spiritual experiences ; but she had avoided all opportunities 
to examine the reality of these, regarding the seeking of cmn- 
municatioDs from another world as a sin. She had never seen 
what is called a professional medium. 

It so happened that, in the above year, a lady of her ac- 
quaintance, Mrs. C , found that she (Mrs, C ) had the 

power to obtain messages through raps ; and she occasionally 
sat, for that purpose, with some of ber intimate friends ; among 

the rest with Mrs. G . These sessions, continued through* 

out the years 1861 and 1862, in a measui-e overcame Mrs. 

G 's aversion to the subject ; avokening her curiosity but 

fMliog to bring full conviction. 

In December, 1863, her husband's brother Jack (as he was 
fomiliai-ly called) died suddenly. 

In March, 1864, Mrs. Q , then in the quiet of a country 

residence near Cincinnati, received a visit from a friend, Miss 

L B . This lady having power as a medium, Mrs. 

O and she had a session one day. After a time the young 

Iftdy rose and Mrs. G — remained alone. Thereupon, with 

her hands only lightly touching the table, it moved across the 
room in which tbey had been sitting, and, through an open 

door, into & room adjoining. Later it moved, in Mrs. G '> 

presence, without being touched. Thus, for the first time, she 
discovered her own powers. 

Sitting down again with Miss B , the niune of " Jack" 

was unexpectedly epelled o<tt. 

Mrs. G asked : " Is there anything you wish done, 

brother ? " The I'eply was : " Give Anna that ring," 

Kow Anna M was the name of a young lady to wliom, 

at the time of his death, the brother was betrothed. Mrs. 
G did not know what ring was meant ; but she remem- 
bered that when Jack died, a phiin gold ring — the only one he 
wore — had been presented by her husband to a friend of liis 

brother, a Mr. G . She asked if that was the ring, and the 

reply was in the affirmative. 

Some days after this Jack's mother paid them a visit. 
Nothing was said to her of the above conunumcatioo. In the 

course of conversation she totd tbem that Misa Anna M 

had called upon her ; had stated that she had given to Jack, at 
the time of their betrotiial, a plain gold ring and that she 

wished to have it again. Mrs. G and her buaband were 

both ignorant that the ring in question had been Miss B 's ; 

Jack never having said an3rtbing to them on the subject. 
Measures were taken to have the ring returned. 

Some time after Jack's death three persons, G , C , 

and S , came, severally, to Captain G and told bim 

tliat his brother had died indebted to them. He requested 
them to send in their bills in writing. 

Meanwhile, not knowing anything of debta due by his 

bi-other to these individuals. Captain G asked Mrs. G 

to have a session, hoping to obtain some information oa the 
subject. The following was the result. 

Jack announced himself and his brother asked: 

" Did you owe G at the time of your death ? " 

" Yea." 

" How much ? " 

" Thirty.five dollars." 



** 'Wore you indebted to C ? " 

" Yes." 

** How much ? " 

" Fifty doUars." 

" And how much to S ? " 

** Nothiug," 

** But S sayB he has a bill against you ? " 

" It is not just. I did borrow of him forty dollars, but I 
gave him fifty dollars. He repaid me seven only, aad still 
owes me three." 

G 'b bill, when afterward presented, uxw for thirty-five 

dollars, and C 's for fifty. S handed in a bill for forty 

dolhtrs. When Captain G said, on its presentatioD, that 

Jack had repaid him fifty, 8 became confused and said be 

" thought that was intended for a gift to his (S 'b) sister." 

Captain G afterward asked, tbrough the table: 

" Jack, do you owe any one else ? " 

" Yea; John Or , for a pair of boots, ten dollars." 

[Neither Captain nor Mrs. G knew anyHiing of this 


"Does any one owe you? " 

" Yes ; C G owes me fifty dollars." 

Captain G applied to C G , asking him whether 

he bad been indebted to his brother Jack. 

" Yea," he replied j " fifteen dollars." 

" But be lent you fifty dollars." 

" That is true ; but I repaid him aO but fifteen dollars." 

" You have receipts, I suppose f " 

C G promised to look for them; but afterward 

came and paid the fifty dollars. 

Finally Captain G caUed on Mr, Gr , the ahoe- 

maker, who had sent in no bill. Wishing to make the test aa 
complete as possible, he said : 

" Do I owe you a bill, Mr. Gr ? " 

" No, air. You have paid for all you bad of me." 



Captain G tamed, as if to go ; whereupon the sho»- 

maker added : 

" But your brother, Mr. Jack, who died, left a Bmall account 
unpfeid." , 

"What was it for?" 

" A pair of boots." 

" And your charge for them ? " 

" Ten dollars." 

" Mr. Gr , there is your money." 

The above was related to me by Captain and Mrs. G 

during a visit I made to them at their country reeidenoe.* 

If^ by way of explainiug the above, we imagine deliberate, 
circumstantial, motiveless falsehood in persons of the utmost 
respectability, of earnest character and of unblemished repa- 
tation, we violate all received rules of evidence. But if wo 
admit the facts, what theory which does not admit the reality 
of spirit-communication will suffice to account for the above? 
How explain away these stubborn links, actual, tangible, thus 
unmistakably connecting the spiritual with the material — the 
world yet concealed from our view with that other world, not 
more real, which lies around us, palpable to the senses ? 

Ajid what stronger proof could well be given of the identity 
of a communicating spirit than these simple, homely details 
supply ? 

If it seem to us inconsistent with the dignity of our spirit- 
ual abode that its denizens should still be able to recall trifling 
details of their earthly life, let us bear in mind that, without 
such memory of past incidents, the natural consequences of 
well-doing aud evil-doing would not follow us to the next 
world. We cannot repent of sin if we cannot call to mind its 
oommlssion: and even Heaven would be a ciirse if there wb 

* April 9, 1965. I took notes, the seae da?, from which I wrote out 

the above uairstive. I atterward submitted it to Captain , fat 

correction and approvaL He had kept a cecord ot these vaiious com' 
municatioDs and of the attendant circoniEtanceB, at the time ; and ao 
was able to ijive me every particular with ezaotitade. 

A DOCroa IN CHURCH. 401 

remembered oar evil deeds onlj. On the other haad we may 
reason&bly conclude that, as children when they advance in 
years put away childish things, so will it be with spirits, as 
^cy go up higher. Petty interests rill fade from our thoughts, 
to be replaced by the momentous concerns of a. better life. 
And this will doubtless happen at an earlier or at a lat«r pe- 
riod, in proportion as the actor in these new scenes had been 
spirituaUy-minded, or the reverse, during his soj oum upon earth. 

I add here another incident which has ita peculiar iutwest 
anda from the proof of identity which it supplies. It fur- 
aisbes aa example of the gift called by St. Paul the "discern- 
isg of spirits ;" or of what, in modem parlance, is caLled a 
subjective (^parition, visible to the Beer but invisible to other 
spectators : tt^ther with evidence that such appearances are 
not, because of such subjective character, to be classed among 

Sister Elizabeth. 

One Sunday evening, during the summer of 1855, a New 

York physieian. Dr. H , attended momiag service in the 

Kev. Dr. Bellows' church. 

During the sermon and while his attention was engrossed by 
the ai-gument of the preacher, it was suddenly diverted, in a 
most unexpected manner; namely, by the apparition of three 
female figures. They first became visible on the left of the 
church and they glided slowly acress the vacant space inlront 

of the pulpit. As they passed, Dr. H recognized two of 

them, both deceased relatives ; one his wife, the odier bis 
modier. The third figure, appearing between the other two 
and witb an arm round the mother, was that of a beautiful 
young gii'l. The attitude and gesture su^ested the relation- 
ship of daughter ; but the features were unknown to Dr. 

H ; not at all resembling (he thought) those of the only 

sister he had lost by death : Anne, who had died, in childhood, 
thirty-nine years before. 

403 THE ENxrroR'a mistake 

Tliis group of figures paused asthny reaclind the extreme right 
of thechiirch; twoof them, the^ife and the young girl,grada- 
ally fading away. The mother, remaimngstill, turned toward her 
Bon and gazed at him, with a look of affection, for several min- 
utes ; then vanished like the others. Dr. H had full time 

to note every well-remembered item of dresa : the pliua Quaker 
cap, the snow-white muslin kerchief pinned across the breast, 
the gray silk gown : all just as the good old lady, a strict mem- 
ber of the Society of Friends, had worn them up to the day 
of her death. 

It wa8 the first time in his life that Dr. H bad seen an 

apparition. Nor, up to that time, had anything seemed to in- 
dicate that he had any spiritual powers, except that, on one oo- 
casion, a table from which he had just taken a book had moved, 
without apparent cause, a few inches toward him. The effect 
produced on him by a phenomenon so new and unlooked-for as 
the appearance of these figures was proportionately great. 

Deeply jKindering the matter and inclining to believe that 
the third figure must have been his deceased sister Anne, he 
called, on the evening of the ne.vt day, on a medium (one of 
the Fox sistera), hoping to have his doubts resolved. 

At her suggestion he wrote out a number of female names, 
in secret ; and as he pointed to these iu succession, the name 
Anne was passed by, and the raps indicated J^lizabeth. Dr. 

H taxed his memory in vain in search of any relative of 

that name whom he had lost by death. But when, cm another 
sheet, be had written out as many various relationships as he 
could think of, all were passed by till he came to the word 
Sister, at which the raps came vei-y distinctly. 

" That's a mistake," said I>r. H . " I never had a sister 

called Elizabeth. I did lose a sister by death, but her name 
was Anne." Then, as appealing to the occult intelligence ; he 
asked : " J)o you mean to say that the figure I saw with its 
arm round my mother was niy sister? " 

Anewer by nips. — " Yes." 

" And that her name was Elizabetii ? " 



By londer raps. — " Yea." 

" 'Well, it isn't so : that's all I can say." 

Three still louder raps reaffirmed the assertion. 

Very muck mystified, and somewhat staggered by this per< 

aistence, it occurred to Dr. H that the fikmily Bible ^111011 

he had not inspected since he was a child, wee in the possessioa 
of his step-mother, living seventy miles off, in the country. 
Happening sometime afterward to be in the neighborhood, he 
paid her a visit and had an opportunity of examining the fam- 
ily record of births and deatLs. There, to his amazement, he 
found r^fistered, in the year 1826, the birth of a daughter, 
Slizabeth, together with the record of her death a few weeks 

This event occurred during a five-years absence from hia 
fiither's house : and though letters were interchanged far more 

rarely in those days than now. Dr. H thinks it likely that 

the circiuustance may have been incidentally mentioned in one 
of bis fiither's infrequent bulletins from home. He has not 
the slightest recollection, however, that he ever received any 
such intelligence, or that he ever heard tie birth or death of 
this in&nt alluded to in the family. A life so very brief usu- 
ally passes away without leaving a trace, except in the secret 
depths of a mother's memory. 

Dr. H has been well known to me for years, as an intel- 
ligent man and a dispassionate observer. I confide in hia 
trutli and accuracy. I had the narration from himself, wrote 
it out next morning, submitt«d the manuscript the same day* 
to the narrator who, after making a single correctioa, assented 
to its accuracy, 

la this case, it will be observed, the fact indicated by the ap- 
parition and confirmed by the medium was not only not known to 
the observer but was contrary to his convictions ; and he remained 
incredulous until enlightened by incontrovertible evidence. 

With a single additional narrative connecting, like the fi>re- 

• January 2, 1870. 


going, a spiritual appeaiancfl with the realities of earthly lift, 
I close this chapter, 

Tbe Gbahdvothbb's Pbokise. 

In the month of March and in the year 1846, three ladies, 
a mother and two daughters, were sitting in the dining-roora 
of a dwelling in C street, West Philadelphia. It was be- 
tween one and two o'clock in the day. The house was a douhla 
one, with a central entrance-hall : a parlor on the left as one 
entered, and the dining-room on the right ; the windows of 
both rooms looking on the street. . 

The mother, Mrs. R , wife of Dr. R , was sitting ; 

close to a front window and to tbe wall dividing the room froni ' 
the entrance- hall. Between her and the door opening into 
the hall was a sofii, set against tbe dividing wall ; and thereon 
sat her eldest daughter, then unmarried and about nineteen 
years of age", now the wife of the Eev, Mr. T , an Episco- 
pal clergyman. Both these ladies were sitting with their &oes 
turned from the window, so that tliey could see the door enter- 
ing from the hall, and could observe what happened in the 
room. Facing the mother and seated on a low stool between 

her and the elder dau^ter, was a younger daughter, A , 

then aged seventeen. All three ladies were eng^ed in needle- 
work and wei-e quietly oonvereing on ordinary topics. 

The door leading into the entrance-hall was ten or twelve 
faet from the front walL At the time I am speaking of it hap- 
pened to be ajar, open some three or four inches only. 

Of a sudden, and at the same moment, the mother and eld- . 
est daughter perceived, advancing silently from this door, a j 
female figure. It appeared in a black Turk-satin dress and 
over it a white book-musUn handkerchief crossed on tbe breast ; 
and it wore a white bonnet. In its hand the ladiea distan- 
guished a white silk bag, such as is often carried by Quaker 
ladiea, the string of the bag wrapped several times round tbe 
wrist, and the bag gathered up in the hand. The yftnry 


sister, observing after a time iho looks of the other two I&dies, 
tamed rotind and saw the appearance abo ; but not as long nor 
&s distinctly as they did. 

The figure advanced slowly into the room, till it came vith- 
in two or three feet of the front wall. There it stopped oppo- 
site a portrait of Dr. R , whicli hung between the two front 

-windows, and gazed at it, for Uie apace perhaps of half a min- 
ute ; then it turned and moved slowly to the door where 
it had first been seen. The door did not open; but the figure, 
coming close up to it, there suddenly disappeared. The ladies 
-were looking at it, at the moment of its disappearance. In 
moving through the parlor and returning, it passed so close to 
the elder daught«r that its dress seemed almost to touch her's. 
Yet there was no echo of a footstep, nor the least rustle of the 
dress, nor any other sound whatever, while the figure moved. 
Hus circumstance and the disappearance of the ^parition 
without opening of the door to permit natural exit, alone 
canset) the qipearance to seem other than an ordinary and ma- 
terial one. To the ugfat it was as distinct and palpable as any 
human visitor; and thou^ the ladies afterward reixiUected 
that its motion seemed more like gliding than walking, yet 
this was an after thought only. Not a word was spoken, dur- 
ing the scene here described. 

" Who was it? " was Mra. R 's exclamation, addressed 

to the elder dau^ter, as soon as their first mute astonishment 
had a little subsided. 

" It was grandmamma I " she replied. 

Thereupon the mother, without another word, left the room. 
The house was searched, from garret to cellar, but not a trace 
■ma found of any one except its usual inmates. 

In addition to this negative evidence there was the positive 
proof furnished by a slight, recent fall of snow. The path to 
the door-steps (the house standing back from the street line), 
and the steps themselves, showed no trace of human foot. 
Add to this that two children who were playing, at the iime, 
on the &-ont veranda, saw no one enter or depart. 


On subaequentl; oomparing notes, the ladies ascertained tfc« 
the impreesiona left on each of them by this extraordinary gp- 
pearance were tlie self-same. I had the parti<nilara, first from 

the elder daughter, Mrs. Y , and aft-erward confirmed b* 

the mother. To both the figure seemed a real person. Both 
- recollected the precise dress, and their recolleotions exactly air- 
reaponded. To the eyes of both the figure had crossed tie 
room, approached the front wall, lingered there to look at tlie 
portrait, recrossed to the door and there TaniBfaed. Neither 
heard any sound. It should be added that they had not bem 
talking or ^linking of the lady whose image thus suddenly ap- 
peared before them. 

Mm, R , as well as her daughter, had iustantlj rw>^ 

nized the figure as that of Mrs. R 's mother, who had died 

about ten years before. Not only the face and form, but evMj 
minute particular of the dress, as above described, were the 
counterpart of that lady and of her usual walking attire, wha 
in life. Originally she had belonged to the Society of Friends, 
and she had, in a measure, retuned the style and peculiaritiei 
of their apparel. 

The ladies related this incident, on the evening of the mum 

da^, to the Ber. Mr. Y , from whom I first obtained it; 

bis recollection of what they told him, only a few hours afta 
the event, tallying exactly with their account to me of whit 
Uiey had seen. He informed me that he had never seen old 

Mrs. R ; hut, the next morning, meeting three elderiT 

ladies, sisters, who had been intimately acquainted with her, 
he asked them (without mentioning what had been related to 
himself) to give Urn a description of her personal appearaix* 
and ordinary walking-dress. It agreed, point for point, wift 
that of the apparition, as it had been described to him. 

Sofaie other particulars which add greatly to the value of 
this narrative remain to be stated. Shortly before her dalh 

Dr. R 's mother had strongly advised her son to hajt 

house in the neighborhood in which he ultimately purduai^ 
She had also, about the same time, stated to a friotd d 


hers, Mrs. C , that if her sou (he was an only sod) did 

well, she would, if permitted, return from the other world, to 
witeess his prosperity. This was afterward mentioned by 

Mrs. C to the Kev. Mr. Y , and by that gentlemaa 


But it BO happened that, on the very day, and as nearly as 
oould be ascertained at the very hour, when his wife and 
daughters witnessed the apparition of his mother, the deeds by 

which Dr. B became the legal proprietor of the bouse in 

which she appeared were delivered to him by its former pos- 
sessor. Though he had spoken to his wife and family of his in- 
tention to purchase, they had no reason to suppose that the 
bargain would be closed on that day. When, on his return in 
the evening, he direw the deeds on the table, it was an unex- 
pected surprise. Is it to be wondered at that, after the first 
feeling of gratification, the next thought, both of mother and 
daughter, should be of her who had so earnestly wished for this 
acquisition, and who had appeared to them, in her son's house, 
at or near the very time at which that house passed, by legal 

conveyance, into his hands ? Is it surprising that Mrs. C 

should call to mind her old friend's promise, thus, to all out- 
ward seeming, strangely and punctually fulfilled ? 

It may, perhaps, occur to the reader as singular that the 
spirit of the mother should not, at the time of the purchase, 
have appeared to her son, rather than to her daughtei^in-law. 
But it is not certain that this was possible. It would seem 
Uiat, as a general rule, apparitions, like other spiritual phe- 
nomena, can.present themselves only under favorable circiun- 
stancea, and that these circumstances are often connected with 
the personal attributes, or peculiarities of organization, of the 
spectators, or some one of them. 

But Mrs. R , the daughter-in-law, evidently possessed 

some such peculiarities. For, at various periods of her life, 
she had had dreams of a prophetic character. To these I shall 
advert whm I come to speak of the gift of prophecy. 



In oonneotioii with the ftbove mcident it behooves as to beu 
in mind: 

That it occnrred two yean before modem Spiritualism hid 
made its appearance iu the United States, when the suggestion 
of " epidemic excitement," even if that plea be ever good, wm 
out of the question. 

That the apparition, as &r as one can judge, was objectiTe; 
seen b; tbi'oe persons at once, who coincide in their report of 
it ; in broad daylight and at a moment when the thoughts d 
the witnesses were occupied by every-day matters. 

That these witnesses were disinterested and their social po- 
sition such as to forbid the suppositioii of wilful deoeption. 

That the coincidence between the conditional promise and iti 
fulfilment at the moment the condition was accompUsbed, is 
too striking to be rationally referred to chance. 

Whethei-, under these circumstances, the identity of tb« 
grandmother is made out with reasonable oertunty, it is for tha 
reader to determine. 




That branch of Pneumatology which relates to intermnadane 
plieDomen& has come into notice bo recently, and has been, till 
now, the enbject of bo little careful study, that one ought to 
speak very cautiously of its laws, especially those which govern 
the conditions under which spirits may, or may Dot, conunnni' 
cate with earth. It is hazardous to generalize in view of a 
comparatiTely small array of &ot8. 

N'eTerthelesa I Uiink we may assume it to be probable that a 
very large proportion of all the spirits who manifest themselves 
bore, do so for a limited time only after they reach their new 
homes. Their destiny Is upward and onward; and we may 
suppose the better class among them to be more occupied by 
the scenes of beauty and excellence that are opening before 
them, than by any recallings of the dim and checkered sojourn 
tliey have left. 

WiQi one drawback, however : drawn down sometimes to 
that lower sphere by a power that is greater in Heaven than on 
earth — by an attraction that rules most surely in natures that 
are noblest and best. 

The most powerful of all the heart's agencies — human love 
which so often briilges over a thousand difficulties here— that 
same emotion it is, triumphing over the death-change, which 
would seem the most commonly to overcome the gulf fixed be- 
tween earthly life and spiritual existence. And thus, some- 
times, for a few years — ten, thirty, fifty, perhaps — so long 
as the loved ones still linger behind — that deathless emotion 
spears to rule a divided heart, 

— Divided between Heaven and earth ; unable, yet, while its 
mourners are on the other side, faHj to realize that peace 


which passeth r11 underataDdiiig ; un&ble cordudly to r^oiw 
with them who do rejoi<», till these moumera — now remoTvd. 
as if they were the dead — become alive again, at its ade ; 
enger, meaawhile, to make known it« uadying affection, to 
evince its constant core ; anxious to aid, to comfort, to en- 

Bnt these earth-bound labors of love are trauaiant only in 
that higher sphere. Death is an Angel of Mercy there. He 
is Heaven's Hwald of joy, for whose messagee yearning booIs 
wait. Through him, the Comforter, comes re-union in the many 
mansions that had been lonely, even amid celestial sarrooDd- 
inga, till be brought the earthly wanderers home. Then satis- 
fied hearts stray no longer from heavenly abodes. 

It b true that what on earth we call philanthropy, and what 
in the next world seems chiefly to take the form of eamert 
desire to bring immortality to light in this darklii^ world, may ! 
cause benevolent spirits to seek us here even when Uieir own i 
circle of love is complete. And this doubtless happens: Frank- 
lin (Book v., chap. 4) seems an example. Yet I diink it is (be 
exception rather than the nilo. In a general way it would eeem 
that it is not the higher class of spirite which continue, genera- 
tion after generation, more especially century after century, to 
revisit earth : not such men as Confucius or Socrates or Satan; 
nor yet such aa Milton or Shai^peare or Kewton. 

Yet I give this as my individual opinion only. I have 
found no proof of identity in the case of any spirit, once cele- 
brated either for goodness or talent, returning, after centuries, 
to Bnlight«n or reform mankind. My idea is that, they have 
completed their earthly task, and that their duties, now, are of 
another sphere. I think that we are left to work out, in the 
main, our worldly progress. The help we receive &om above 
is not to supersede our exertions here below. Only bo &r we 
are to be directly helped — to an ardent, living conviction, in- 
stead of a cold, barren belief, of that truth of trutits — immor- 
t^ty. That once secured to our race, we are to trasl, it 
seems, to our own industry and conrago for the restj will 

BBTUBir <w anmrs 10 kabth. 411 

Hob oonsoling refleotion, Iiowever, th&t though qtirite, long 
siiiofl departed, descend not to do our work, jet other aj>irit- 
friends — thou^ it be nnconsciouslj to us — often secretly aid 
the foithful worker to do his own. 

But other motives than our benefit appear sometimes to urge 
mundane return. Ouilty spirits seem the most frequetitly to 
be earth-bound, aa in the case of the lady of Bumham Green,* 
and hundreds of other house-haunters. But a purely worldly 
spirit, unstained by crime, yet to whom triSea were woct to take 
the place of momentous things — who never, while here, bestowed 
a thought on regions beyond — may, long afW it passes away, 
be recalled hitlker by the levities tiiat made up its empty earth- 
life, f Of titis I have succeeded in findit^g a noteworthy ex- 

How A Fbshcb Kino's fatobite Mubiciak ma»is'betu> 

In those days, not long past, when Paris still thought herself 
the centre of civilization, and while she had many claims to be 
called tiie gayest and the most brilliant among the capitals of 
the world — in the year 1S65 — there lived in that city a worthy 
old gentleman, inheriting, from musical ancestors, the family 
^ft. I believe he is still alive. 

Monsieur N. Q. Bach, then sixty-seven years of ^e, was the - 
great-grandson of the celebrated Sebastian Bach, J who flour- 
ished during the first half of the eighteenth centuty. Though 
in somewhat delicate health, this gentleman was, at the time, 
in faH enjoyment of his mental &culties, a busy compoaeir, and 

* See pieoediug page 833. 

t See Fot^aUs, p. 427. 

i Idba SebastUn Bach, one of the most eminent of Gemun oom- 
posers, was bom at THai»na/-li in 108S, and died at Leipdc in 17S4. He 
beld BBveial high mitsical offloes, was au Loiinitable performer on tile 
otg^itL, and left many oompomtigBS of great merit. The familj is wid 
to liare produced, In the spaoe of two hnndred years, ftftiy oalebiated 
— Boun>i>BT : DieftM^taire de Biographtt. 

412 THE BPHTBT that WA3 

highly esteemed by his brother artistn, alike becaose of his pro- 
feaBioDaJ talents and ae a thoroughly upri^t and amishle 

On the fourth of May,.1865, M. Each'a son, L6on Bat*, a 
gentleman of antiquarian tastea, found, among the coxiositifs 
of a brio-a-brac shop in PftriB, a spinet, evidently very old, but 
of remarkable be&uty and finish, and unusually well-preserved. 
It was of oak, ornamented •wiih delicate carving in tasteful 
gilded Arabesque, encniated with tutquoiaes and intermingled 
with gilt fleur-de-lis. It had evidently belonged to some per- 
son of wealth or distinction ; but all the dealer knew about it 
was that it had quite recently been brought from Italy by the 
person from whom he bought it. 

ThinHng that it would pleaso his father, the yoang man 
purchased it. Nor was he disappointed. M. Bach, who ahatei 
his son's taste for stray waiis of the past, was delighted with 
his new acquisition, and spent most of the day in admiring it, 
in trying its tones and inspecting its mechanism. It was about 
five feet long by two wide ; it hud no legs ; but was packed 
away, like a violin, in a wooden case for protection. Whm 
about to be used, it was set on & table or stand. Though richly 
decorated, it was but a small, weak beginning of what has 
culminated in the elaborate Steinwilys and Chickerings of our 
day, with their wonderful power and superb tones. In genenl 
arrangement, however, as may be seen &oni the plate ben 
given,t it resembles them ; it« small keys being arrangedin the 
same order : but these keys, when touched, move a set of 

* The Paiii " Grand Jonznal " (No. 63) apeaks of him aa "&in ds 
Zimmsimui, premier prix de Piano da Conservatoirs an oano on r ds 
ISIO, un de noa profeaBenrs do piano les pins eatim^a et lea ftoM 

TttePariscorrespODdenlof theNewTork "Nation" (Jnna 13, 196(1) 
Bpeuks in the highest terms of his oc^nowlodgcd repntation for up- 
rfghtneaa and honestj. 

t See Plate IL H. Bnch kindlj entruBted the spinet to a PuUhi 
friend of mine, who had it photographed for me. 



414 M. HAOH's DBEAIC. 

vooden sticks as thick as a lady's fingjor, each famisbed wiHi 
a point which strikes the corresponding wire. The quality of 
the tone may be readil/ imagined. 

Before the day closed, however, M. Bach had made a dia- 
oovery which atoaed for all imperfedaoos. On a narrow bar of 
wood which supported the aoanding-board he thought he could 
distinguish writing. Fitted in aboTe this l>ar were two small 
blocks, interposed between it and tha sounding-board, ^ey 
entirely concealed part <rf the writing ; but by turning up the 
instmment and letting in a powerM li^it, he could read the 
rest of it. Of this he has sent me a copy. It contains the 
words, " In Roina AnUmima NMtit / ** then a blank caused 
by the intervention of one of the blocks ; then the words 
" Srena Medidcmi Pairim / " then, after Mwtber blank simi- 
larly caused, the date " IHe my ApriUit lSfl4." * Of course 
these words were written before the instrument was framed. 

Thus M. Bach learned that his spinet was more than three 
hundred years old ; having been made in Bome, in the year 
1564, by a certain Antonius Kobilis, apparently irom tiie 
neighborhood of Milan ; uid probably finished on the fourteenth 
of April of that year. KL Bach's specimen was located and 
labelled. And, as in all cases in the eyes of the paleontologiBt, 
BO in this case in Uiose of the antiqoariaii, this greatly added 
to the value of a curious relic of the past. 

Much pleased, tlie old gentlemtui retired to rest ; and iiatur- 
ally enough, he dreamed of his son's gift His dream, how- 
ever, was peculiar. There appeared to him a handsome yoimg 
stranger, wearing a carefully-trimmed beard, and elegantJy 
dressed in the ancient costume of the French court — rich 
doublet with ample lace collar and close-fitting sleeves that 
were slashed in the upper part ; large, slashed trunk-hose, long 
stockings and low shoes with rosettes. Doffing a high-pointed, 
broad-brimmed, and white-plumed hat, this young man >d- 

* There aie also several Imperfeot worda out oS bf Uke blanks ; sa 
O ; the letteis aani and A per, and, after tbe last blank, the wnd 


Tanoed, bowing and smiling, toward M. BacVa bed, and Ham 
addressed tlie wondering sleeper : 

" The spinet you have belonged to me. I often played on it 
to amuse my master. King Henry. In his youth he composed 
an air with words which he was fond of singing while I accom- 
pomed him. Both words and air were written in memory of a 
lady whom he greatly loved. He was separated from her, 
'which caused him much grieC She died, and in his sad mo- 
ments he used to hum this air," 

After a time this strange visitor added : " I will play it to 
you, and I shall take means to recall it to your recollection, for 
I know you have a poor memory." Thereupon he sat down to 
the spinet, accompanying himself as he sang the words. The 
old man awoke in tears, touched by the pathos of the song. 

Lighting a taper he found it was two o'clock. So, afler 
musing on his dream, and with the plaintive melody he had heard 
still Bounding in his eai-s, he speedily composed himself to sleep. 

Nothing remarkable in all this. 

If anything happened to M. Bach before he awoke next morn- 
ing, it was while be remained in a. completely-unconscious state. 
He bad not the ^ntest remembrance of anything until, as he 
opened his eyes in broad dayli^t, be saw, to his unbounded 
amazement, a sheet of paper lying on hia bed and beaded, in 
these formal old oharacterB ; 

)^l-r tAf liaTftel ^u. ^(}y i)enry 


H'lt astonishment increased when he examined the sheet 
more closely. It was a rare archaological specimen : * iJie 
notes minute ; the clefs those used in former times ; the writ- 
ing careful and old-feahioned, with here and there tie Gothic 
tails to be found attached to certain letters in tbe muiuscripbs 
of the sixteentli and seventeenth centuries ; the ortht^rapby, 
too, that of two or three hundred years ^o. 

* See Plate ni. for too-idnule of the flnt two lines of tlie song, le- 
prodnoed from the originaL 



b, Google 


His eye glanced over the first Dotea. "Wis it the Bong of hia 
dream P And the words — yea, he remembered thom I He 
hastened to his piano, and soon convinced himself, beyond pos- 
sible doubt, that here were, in truth, reproduced the very air, 
and the very versee, which his dream-brought visitor had suDg 
and played ! 

The first feeling was one of perplexity and trouble — even 
alarm. What could it all mean 7 To the dream itself, though 
very vivid and remarkable, he had, when he awoke in the 
night, attached no importance. But what was this ? Absently 
turning over the mysterious missive, he observed that it was a 
four-page sheet of music-paper, two pages of which contained a 
compositiou of his own which he Itad sketched the day before, 
leaving the sheet in his escritoire. It must have been taken 
thence during the night. Who had taken it, and filled the two 
blank pages with this mjrsterious mumc from a bygone age ? 
Somebody must have been there I 

Ur had it been himself? But he was no somnambulifit — 
had never, that he knew, walked or written in his sleep. Nor 
had he any knowledge or faith in modem Spiritualism : so 
that the possibUity of an actual spirit-message did not suggest 
itself He was mystified, bewildered : the more so, when he 
remarked the coincidence of nsmes and dates. Tlie man of the 
vision had spoken of " hia master, King Henry ; " the song it- 
self purported to have been written by Henry III, : but the 
spinet was made in 1564, when Henry (then Duke d'Anjou) 
was fourteen years old. What more likely than that so hand* 
some an instrument should have found its way, after a few 
years, from Rome to the court of France, and been bought 
there by a young prince, himself (as history tells us) a musical 
composer of some little merit f 

M. Bach spoke of these marvels to his Mends, who repeated 
the story to others; and soon a host of the curious — literary 
men, artists, antiquarians and others — throqged the apartments 
of the well-known musician, to hear, from his own lips, the 
strange narrative, and to see, with their own, eyes, the wonder- 


ful epinet. Among these Tisiton came some eameai Bpiritnal- 
iste ; and then, for the first time, M.. Bach he&rd of wTitiii| 
mediums, and liBteoed to the suggestion that his hand mij^ 
have been guided to write while he slept. 

All this, though too new uid Btrange to enlist his belief, aet 
him to thinking ; and, one day, three or four weeks after hii 
dream, feeling a headache and nervous trembling of the arm, 
the idea struck him that perimpa some spirit wished to write 
through him and tbna to Aimish an explanatioa of the mysteir 
he had been unable to penetrate. No sooner bad he put pencil 
to paper than he lost oonsciousDeas, and, while in that states 
his hand wrote — in French, of course — " EUng Henry, m; mas- 
ter, who gave me the spinet you now poBsoss, had writtm a 
four-line stanza on a piece of parchment, which he caused to 
be nailed on the case (4tui), when, one morning, he sest 
me the instrument. Borne years afterward, having to traret 
and take the spinet witli me, fearing that the parchment mi^t | 
be torn off and lost, I took it off, and for safe-keeping pat it 
in a small niche, on the left of the key-board, where it still 

This oommunication was signed Baldazzarini, and then tfA- 
lowed the stanza alluded to above, which, litemlly translated, 
is as follows : 

"The Kii^ HemygivM thia lai;^ spinet 
To Baldazzarini, an excellent mnsioian; 
If it is not good, or not B^lish enooKli, 
At least, for m7 sake, let him pieeerre it ooiefuJlj.'* * I 

Here, at last, was a chance to obtain tangible evidence tn , 
connection with these mysteries. Here was a test furaisbed, | 
whereby to determine whether this Baldaziarini, as he called 

' Here ia the oiiflinal, aa written by IL Baoh^a hand ; 

" La loy Heory dotue cecto gruida e«p1i»Ct* 
A BoMiuarioi, Irtebua anulden. 


himBelf, waa t, mjth or a real peraon, capable of disclosing un- 

^EIOWli mcts. 

To gratify public curiosify the spinet had been deposited, for 
& few days, in the BetroBpective Museum of the Palace of In- 
dustry ; and it was still there when the above communicstton 
-vras written. Of course it was sent for, at once. 

One can imagine with what nervous eagerness &ther and 
son awaited its arrival, and then set themselves to ascertain 
'whether this stoiy about a parchment, said U> contain a stanza 
-wrritten by the hand of a French king, and still to be found 
-within the spinet, was pure romance or sober fact. 

During an hour or two, M. Ba<^ says, they explored every 
nook and comer of the old instrument — in vain I At last, 
-when hope hod almost deserted them, L£on Bach, looking over 
-what his facer's hand had written, proposed to take the in- 
sbrument to pieces, so far as they could do so without injuring 
it. When they had raised the key-board and removed some 
of the hammers, they detected, underneath, on the left, a nar- 
row slit in the wood containing what proved to be a bit of 
p«krchment eleven and a half inches long and two and three- 
quarter inches wide, on which was written, in a bold, dashing 
hand, four lines, similar to those which M. Bach's hand had 
traced. And there was a signature — yes, Henry's sign manual t 
They cleansed it as well as they could, and here is what they 
read : 

" H07 10 Boy Henxy trois octroys o«tta espinette 
A Baltasaiini mon gaj moEunea 
TStiB nil dit inal Bofie, on blen [ma] moult sJnqilattQ 
Loch potuc m«i BonTsnir dans rertnj guide bien. 

HXNBI." • 

The stanza, literally translated, reads as follows : 
" I, Uie Sing Heory m., prenent this spinet 
To Baltaaarlni, taj gaj mmdoian ; 
But if he finds it poor-toned, or else vei7 simpla, 
Still, for my sake, in ita oue let him pieeerve it." 

* See, an next page, foc-edroile taken from a phott^raph of the oiIk- 
i p;Ll poTohment, whiolt I otrtained through the kindness of U. Bach. 


It is difficult, in this proa&ic world, to realize the feelings d 

ihese excited eearchers wlien at last, from its secret Jiiding- 

place, they drew forth— stained bj 

time and covered with the diut 

and cobwebs of centuries — tliii 

mute witness — of what? Th* 

father, as be looked at it, was con- 

Bcious . that the announcement 

_ which led to this discovery wu 

g written by no agency of his, un- 

g less a pen is to be called an agent 

g When he awolcH from the trance 

g duringwhichhiahandhadwritten, 

p he had read the lines as he would 

* have read anything else penned 

g by a stranger and then firet ptv- 

Ba seated to him for perusal. And 

B yet it was substantially tme ; and 

" here, under his eyes, lay evidence, 

5 not to be gainsayed, of its tniti. 

6 ^Substantially, not literally 
g true. " Tlte King Henry" in Hie 
g announcement, " I, ihe £mg 
•^ Henry III." in the original ; the 
B word large, applied to tJie spinet, 
^ omitted in the original ; a vari^ 
g" tion in the speliiug of the redp- | 
9 ient^s name, and " excdlent " writ- 

g ten " ffai/ " * in the original ; also 
5 "not good" replaced by "poor- 
toned," and " not »tyli»h eiumgk'" 
by "very simple" finally, in tha 
last lino, the original refers to the 

* See, as to this word gatf aod u to 
tlia BpelUng of the muEidui'ii name. * 
remark made a few pages foither oa 


case {pettiiy, aa VHui was then writtea), while in tlie stanza, 
aa announced, there is no such reference. 

AmaKed they must have been 1 Yet I doubt vhetiier it oc- 
curred either to &ther or son, aa it occurs to me, that the evi- 
dence thus brought to light is vaatlj stronger on account of its 
peculiar character — is much more convincing because, white ab- 
solutely substantial in its coincidence with the promiaed atanza, 
it bears no stamp of literalism. 

The interpolated ma in the discovered stanza greatly puzzled 
them at first, but was subsequently explained. When eichibit- 
ing the original parchment to the friend through whom I ob- 
tained this naiTative, M. Bach said : " No one could imagine 
the meaning of the word ma, surrounded by lines, ea you see. 
But one day my hand was again moved involuntarily, and 
there was written : ' Amioo mio : the King joked about my 
Italian accent in the verse he sent with the aplnet. I always 
said ma instead of mai».' " 

Ma, Italian for hut, correaponds to the French maia ; and I 
have ol^ervcd that Italians, in speaking French, frequently 
mahe this mistake. Thus " ma moult simplette," in Baltazari- 
ni'a patoia, would mean " but very simple." 

The original parchment (blackened by age, aa the plate 
shows) waa taken by M. Bach to the " Bibliothique Imp&i- 
ale " (if that be still the title of France's great national libra- 
ry) and there compared with original manuscripta. In these 
last Hem-y's hand was found to vary, aa in that age hand-writ- 
ings often did : but with some of the acknowledged originals 
the writing on M. Bach's parchment — verse aa well as signa- 
ture—was found most strictly to correspond. " L'identit^ 
4tait abaolue," M. Bach said. It was also aubmitted, for veri- 
fication, to experienced antiquarians, and by them, after criti- 
cal comparison, pronounced to beagenuine autograph of Henry, 
whencenoever obtained. 

The minute holes visible along the upper edge of the parch- 
ment (see fkc-simile), indicating that it had originally been 
tacked to some wooden surface, sustain the allegation that 
Henry had caused it "to be nailed to the case." On the lowar 


edge it seems to have beea cut off inside of the nail-holes ; but 
the marks of four larger holes, one at each oomer of the parch- 
ment, are distinctly visible. The rougK cross above the qua- 
ttaiu is an additional voucher of authenticit; ; for a similar 
token of easy piety beads almost every specimen of Henry the 
Third's writing that has oome down to us. 

These marvellous incidents, more or less correctly related, 
could not &il to find their way into the newspapers. Hiey 
appeared in several Parisian journals, and were thence copied 
&r and wide. For a week or two U. Bach's spinet, with its 
eupemataral aocessories, was '^e great sensation of the novelty- 
seeking French metropolis. The whole, was usually set down 
as incomprehensible ; they stated the facts, with some such com- 
ment as — " Mystire que nous n'osons pas approfondir :" and 
thou^ diere were general su^estions that some natural expla- 
nation must exist, yet — so firmly established was M. Badt's 
reputation for integrity — these never took ibe sh^ie of doubts 
that be had acted inentire good faith. After a time, of course, 
the excitement was replaced by that of some other engrossing 
rumor, but without leading to any solution or explanation 

The song was published. As no treble accompaniment, but 
only the air witii bass, was given in the original (see &c-eimile 
of music on preceding page), M. Bach had to supply the ac- 
companiment for the right band, which he did with taste and 
judgment. The words are pretty and suit well with tiie senti- 
ment of the romance,* They contain two qtecial allusions; 
one to tbe royal author having met the object of his passion at 
a distant hunt (" chasse lointaine ") ; and the other to the lady 
having sadly psased her last days in a cloister. (" Triste et 
cloistr^e," now written doitrie — are the words). 

* Here they are, with the original oithogra^iy : 



It need hardly be Bald that the publication of the incidents 
above related and of die mysterioua aoog caused various re- 
aearches into the annals of the sixteenth century, to determine 
how &r the historical record of the times bore out M. Bach's 
story. It was soon discovered that, according to the best 
biographies, the " grande passion " of Henry's life was for the 
Piincess Slarie de CUvea ; and that, according to a diary kept 
of those times, that pnoceas appears to have died in an abbey. 

Also a passage was brought to light, occurring in one of the 
-works of that laborious chronicler, the Abb6 Lenglet-Dofiresnoy, 
and reading thus : " In 1579, BalthazEarini, a oelebrat«d Italian 
musician, came into France, to the court of Henry HI." * 

IHMe et clcKatrte, oh I ma tmam l»11« 

Bile De Bena plu n ftiae orusUa, 
Id baa, b^lu I , , f D AmiEre toajmie t . . . ah t . , . 

In mngiiig, the r^ain is repeated atter each verse. 

The woid h', In the eeotnid line of the refrain, seema at flist to be 
written «y,' and it was so printed in the sonif: whereupon a critic wrote 
toH. Bach, oaUing: his attention to tbe fact that ths French hare n«B«r 
written the word >i with ay. On examining the supposed ji, however, 
with a magniSer, H. Bach and his friends came to the opinion that it 
was bnt the long Italian i, often used when i was a final letter, in those 
days. It is svidentiy unlike any other fin the original, «s may be seen 
by exunlning the two lines in fac-simile (page 416). 

■ TailetteB Ohronoiogi^iM* lie PHuMrt UiUteneOt, voL ii p. 704. 
{Ed. of 177a) 


But I deternuDed to obtain, if po6sible, further teatimonj, 
and have succeeded in procuriiig some other important partico- 

ItENBY, THE Last of the Yaloib. 

This favorite son of Catherine de MSdicia ia best known hj 
the one great crime of his life ; his assent to that maasaore of 
St. Bartholomew, which took place, at the iastigation of his 
mother and bj the authority of his elder brother, Charles IX., 
in August, 1572. 

But Heni7 was not without redeeming qualities. When 
but nineteen years old, he won, for his brother, the battles of 
Jamac and Montcontour ; thus achieving a military reputation 
which, three years later, procured his election as King of 

One among the moat discriminating of modem historians 
says of him: " Henry wished to lead a palace life, divided be- 
tween pious exercises, the pleasures of the city, retirement aod 
the reverence due to the sovereign magistrate. He was Uttla 
inclined to cultivate the society of old generals, poUticiana, and 
men of learning, who might have infonned and inatruoted him; 
preferring young and gay people of handsome ex.terior, who 
emulated him in the bultlessness of their costumes and the 
brilliancy of their ornaments." * 

But thia was one side only of his character. " His nature," 
says Banke, " was like that of Sardanapalus which, in aeasona 
of prosperity, abandoned itself to enervating tniury, but in 
adversity became courageous and maoful. . . . His failings 
were obviotis te every one. His deficient morality, his eager^ 
ness for enjoyment, and his dependence upon a few favorites 
gave general and well-founded offence. Occasionally, however, 
he rose to the full height of his vocation ; showing an iutel- 
. lectual capacity corresponding with his exalted position, and, 



tbongh subject to many Tacillations, great auaceptibility of 
uiiiid and goodness of disposition." * 

Bnch was the monarch who, according to the all^^tion made is. 
M. Bach's dream, composed the elegiac song. The name of the 
lady whom it mourns was not mentioned ; but — the genuineness 
of the song being conceded — there cannot be a doubt as to the 
person intended. The name of Beatrice is not more insepara- 
bly connected with the memory of Dante, nor Laura with Pe- 
trarch, than is the name of Marie de Clivea with that of 
Henry III. Kot a detailed history of the time, not a biogra- 
phy of Heniy, but alludes to it. 

He met her, while still Duke d'Anjon, and sought her in 
niarriage ; but she was a Protestant and he a Catholic of Medi- 
cean blood. The difference of religion, insuperable of course 
in the eyes of the Queen Mother, seems to have been the sole 
cause that prevented their marriage, f She was married, in 
July, 1572, to the Prince of Cond6, one of the chief Protestant 
leaders ; and, ^e nest year, 1673, Henry left France to assume 
the throne of Poland, carrying with Iiim, according to Chateau- 
briand, remorse for the massacres of St. Bartholomew, but — in 
still stronger measure — regret for his disappointment in love. 
" He wrote with his blood," says that historian, " to Marie de 
CUves, first wife of Henry, Frinoo of Cond6." J 

* Rahkb : work dted, pp. 814, 804. 

f "Ladiflerenoederaligion, Bulvont qnelqiieBm&uoireSifnt la seole 
cBiua qui I'eaipecba de Kponser." — BioffrapAia OeiiiraU, tame x p. 
854. The same asseitioa is made, in mote positiTe terms, in the Btog- 
rrvphie Vriivintdle, toI. iz. p. B5. 

t " Le Duo d'Anjon (depnis Henry m.) nUa prendre la conrotme de 
Foiogne, et raconter, dans lea foi£te de la LlthuaDie, & Boa medecin 
Hiron, les menrttes dont la pens^ I'empdchait de dormii : ' Je toub ai 
fait venii id, poor toub faire port de mes inquietudes et a^tationa de 
oette onlct, qui out tronl>I6 moo repos, en repensant a TezecatlOD de 
la Saint- Barthelemy.' £n qnittant la Fiance, le duo d'Anjon avait &t& 
moinB poorsoiTi dn wravemr de ses crimes que de oelni de aes amours ; 
U 6cTiTait aveo son mng i Marie de Clares, premiere femme de Henii, 
Fduoe de OondiS." — Aiudyac TaUBnnae de VHittoire d» France, par Cha.- 


Charles IX. died in 1574, and Henry speedilj retnmed from 
Poland to Paris, aa heir to the throne of France. A month 
after his return Marie died : and so deeply, according to his 
biographera, did Henry take her deatli to heart, that he re- 
mained several days shut up vithout food, in an ^>artiiieBt 
hung with black ; and vhen he reappe««d in public, it was in 
garments of deep mourning, with deaths'-heads worked all orer 

The poets of that day allude to Henry's bitt«r griel In the 
woi^ of Pasquier, a contemporary of Henry, is to be found a 

TEAOBRUSD, Parte, 1853, p. 816. I think Heme's lemome f<« the 8L 
Baithcdomew maaucna may have . been more Blnoeie than Chatean- 
Maud ragarda it. There is a eoiioua iuoideiit, related by Ranke, in 

"Chailes IX., about eiglit days after the massaeie, oansed hii 
brotliet-in-1aw. Hem?, to be sumxaoned to hint in the night. He found 
him as he had apraug from bis bed, filled with dread at a wild bunDU 
of otHifused voices, which prerented him from sleeping. Heniy bin- 
aelf imagined he heard these sonnds; they appeared like distinct 
ahrieks and howlings, mingled with Uie indistingaishaUe TEv;iuK of • 
furious multitude, and with gioans and (nuses as on the day of the 
massacre. Hessengen were sentinto the<dtytoa«oeitainwhetliGr any 
new tumult had broken ont, but the answer returned waa that all wai 
qniet in the oi^, and tliat the oommotdon was iu the air. Heniy could 
never recall this inddent without a horror that made his hair stand on 
end."— Rauke, work oit«d, p. 278. 

Hem7 IU. probacy witneaeed this startling pheaomenon; at all 
events, he must assnredly have known of it, at the time : and it ns 
an oooarrenoe likely to leave a life-long impreesioa on a mind like his. 

A historian, to avoid the chaise of enperstition, has to s^, as Banks 
does, that Henry imagined he heard the same aonnda. Bnt how abaal 
the measengars who brought answer back tJiat " the oommetion mu i» 

* Marie monrot en ooaohee en 1S74. Henri III. qui venait da soch 
o^er (k Cbades IX., et 4toit depnis nn mois de letonz de Pologne, en 
fat saiai A' one si vive donleur, qu'il reeta enf ermS plnsieurs joora wu 
manger, et ne lepamt ensnite en pnUic que oouvert de retemenla d* 
denii, poraemSs de t^tes de mart." — Btographie Qmindt, tome z. ^ 
654, 8U. 


mtmodjT on tlie death of M^e de CIAtss, whicti the poet puts 
in the mouth of the king.* 

With all this tallies cloeely wh&t history tells ub regarding 
the lady herself. 

Mabix Dt Glktes. 

This princess seems to have been ftlmost as noted for grace 
and beauty ns her more oetebnted namesake, Mary of Scot- 

She had been Uie admiration of the court of Charles IX., by 
hw loveliness and her virtnes.f He poets of that day cele- 
brata her as the " Beautiful Mary ; " | and so great was the fas- 
cination her charms exerted over Henry that the oreduli^ of 
the times vas &ui to ascribe it to the influence of sorcery. § 

We have additional testimony both as to the character of 
this lady, and as to the profound sorrow felt by Henry for her 
loss, in the following extract from a manuscript Diary kept, 
throughout the reigns of Henry III. and Heniy IV., by Pierre 
de I'Eatoile, Siuur de Gland, a gentleman of an honorable and 
w«ll-known fenuly, occupying important posts in the magistracy 
and Parliament of Paris : | 

* " On tronve dans laa CBuTrea de Pasqaier una oomplsiDte but la 
mort de Uarie de Cldres, on le po^ fait parler le Toi Ini-tnfime. " — 
BiograpMe Unieent&t, tome is. p. 96. 

t " Cette prinoesse, qui svait fait radmiradim de la conr ds Chades 
K., parsa beani^ et sea Tertas, monrat en ooQohea, etc" — Jhogra/phie 
UnkentOe (Paris, 1813), tome ix. p. 96. 

% "Lea poetesdntempBlaoeldbientsons1enomdelaBgfi«Jfan;«." — 
BiograiphU Ginirale, tome x. p. 854. 

§ " Selon I'cm^ de cea temps de ciMiiUt^, on cmt qne la {Vinoeaae 
ftvait empto;€ qoelqne charme pour enBammer Henri." — Biograplae 
SnieenieUe, tome ix. p. 96. 

I Pieire de rEstoQe, oonseiller du Boi, «t grand andiencier on la chaii- 
eellerie de Fiance, £toit Isaa d'mie famille pariementaire. Sa poaildon 
Bociale Inl permettalt de bien oomiaitre lesbommeaetleechoBefldeeon 
temps, n porait qn'Q ae donna, poor piincipale ooeapstioti de sk vie, 
leacdnde lecniller trie attentiTement,etde consigner dan« dea reglshzes 

438 raoH d'etoile*s diaxy. 

" Od Saturday, October 30, 1571, died at Paris, in the flower 
of her age, leaving a daughter aa heir, Dame Marie de Cl^vo, 
MarcliioaeaB d'late, wife of Mesaire Henry de Bourbon, Prince 
of Cond& She was endowed with singular goodoeea and bean^, 
by reason of which the King loved her devotedly (eperdo- 
ment) ; ao dearly, indeed, that Uie Cardinal de Bourbon, her 
uncle,* when about to entertain the King, caused her to be re- 
moved &oin his Abbey of Saint-Oermain-deB-Fr^ : declaring to 
His M^esty that he (the King) could not enter so long as the 
body of the princesa remained there. She said, on lier death- 
bed, that she had wedded the nLost generous, but also the moat 
jealous, prince in France ; to whom, however, she felt conscioa 
that she bad never given the slightest cause for jealousy," f 

I have found no positive evidence that Marie passed her last 
days in the Abbey in which she was buried ; but it is, in the 
highest degree, probable. We know that she died in Paris, and 
that her husband, the Prince of CondS, fearing that the Queen ' 

loi."— Ifotiet of the la/e and Manttteriptt of Pierre Og F EttaiU, ■preOud 
to the Paris reprint of bia " HemoireB," Didiet, 1854. 

SpealdQg of D'Eetoile's diaiy, Bouillon saja, in bis DteUoaaairt i$ 
BiegrapMe UmmrteUe: 

" This oolleclian oomprised ia five folio volumes, and which nt 
never intended for pnblioatlon, is a meet valnable scarce of iof ormaticn 
as to events oconrring in the reigUB of HenijIILand HemylT."— Jrt. 
" Etoile." 

• He was her nnde bymarriage only. 

t Yixi)X.&v^VimouxiM«moiT«ipom$erviTAPHittoiredeFTanet. 
Edition by Didier, 18S4. 

The wording, in the oiigiuol, is oomewhat obeome : " le roy VainxA 
si fort qn'il folnat qne le Cardinal de Bonrbon, aon onole, poor festtaec 
le Boy. la flat oater de aon Abbaje de StUDt-Qemuiin-dea-Pite ; diaud 
Sa MaJBsW qn'il n'estoit poasible qn'elle y entraat tant que son ooipe j 
aeroit." Bnt the meaning evidently Is that the Cardinal, knowing- tb* 
violenoe of the Eing'a grief, t.binlrmg that he Inight ioaist on seeing^ the 
body of the prlnccea, and fearing the effect on his mind, took tha in- 
oantlon to have tlie oorpse removed from the Abbey, pnvioos to Qm 
King's Tiait 

"bad and ENCL0I8TBEED." 429 

MotLer designed his deatli, had, some months before, taken 
refiige in Oennauj, where he remained till late in the year 
1576 ;* that is, until a year after Marie's death. Marie's father 
had died several years before, f The prince, in leaving his wife 
behind, doubtless entrusted her to the care of his uncle, the 
Cardinal de Bourbon. But the cardinal evidently redded in 
his Abbey, since it was there, according to Etoile, that he pro- 
posed to entertain the £ing. Under these circuinstAnces, we 
can scarcely doubt that the forsaken and fotherlcss oiece lived 
'with her uncle in his Abbey. Sad must her life there have 
been, uncertain as she was of her husband's &te I All this 
strikingly coincides with l^e " triste et cloistrte " of the song. 

I pHss on to say a few words of the musioian, to whom, as 
alleged, the spirit belonged. 


Hia name does not occur either in the Biographie GitteraU, 
or the jBioffrapkie UhiiXTtdle ; and, after long search, I had 
begun to despair of fimling any biographical notice of such a 
peffionage, when I was fortunate enough to discover in the Ath- 
euteum Library of Boston, a French Dictionary of MtiaicianB, 
in some eight or nine volumes. There Heury'a favorite has 
a place. 

" BALTAZABim : an Italian mnedcian, known in Fiance under 
the name of Seaujoyeuic, was the first violmist of hia day. The 
Mar^chal de Briseac brought him from Piedmont, in 1577, to 
the court of Queen Catherine de Medicis, who appointed him 
her Director of Music, and first valtt de chambre. Henry 
III. entrusted to him the management of the court fStoa ; and 

* Bah KB : " Civil Wars and Hcataictues in France," p. 363. 

t Marie was the daughter ot Praocis 1, Duke of Nevera. I do not 
know the exact jeax in wbich he died, but it was before 1665 : for 
'Louis de Qcniaque, having in that yaai mairied the heiieas of Fian- 
ds, then Buooeedcd to the Dokedom of Neveis. — BotnLLOR : JKstAm- 
naiiv de BfograjAi^ Urtiver*^, art. " Nevers." 


hd \im^ discharged the dntiee of th&t post with credit. It «m 
he who first conceived the Idea of a dramatic apectaole, cos- 
bmed with muaio and dancing." * 

Baltasarini was, thea, at Hemy's court, sumamed Semujoy 
eua> — '* the handsome and the joyous." Compare, witii this, tb 
second line of the stanza) as it appears on the disoovered parct 

" A Baltaarini, men gt^i mosleien "— 

gai bt&ag the sjnonyme of joytnas. 

But in the staoia, as M. Bach's hand predicted it would be 
found, the same line reads : 

" A Baldauaiinl, tret bon mjmaUaL" 

A trifling coiucldeaoe, this ; yet a most significant one, lie- 
cause inconsistent vith any arranged scheme of deceptioL 
There can be no stronger proof of authenticity, thaa just socli 
incidental trifles aa these. 

What shall we say of M. Bach's story? The docnmenb 
from which X have compiled it were procured for me by an 
English friend in Paris, to whom I camtot sufficiently exprea 
my obligations for disinterested and untiring fc'in<<neBB, sad 
whom I wish that I were at liberty here to thank by name. 
That friend, having made M. Bach's acquaintance, obtained po^ 
sonally from him all the particulars, with correcticms of tba 
newspaper statements and answers to vuious queries of mine, 
suggested by the documents as I first obtained them; abi>, 
through M. Bach's courtesy, the various photographs I possess, 
together with the following certificate, in M. Bach's hand- 

* Biogra^Tue Unir:en^ da MuocUm, voL i. p. 233. 

From the last sentance in the above it woold sfipear that to BtUaa- 
rini — or BaUhaaarini, as Len^et-Dnfresnoy speUed it, or StJdaaafiiii, 
as it was written by M. Bodi's bond, the modern wodd owe« iti faTodta 
amnaement, tho opera. 

The tucertainty, in these old tunes, m to the qielling of pn^nr 
names, eepedaJlj' in the caae of pereous of little note, ia notoiioBa. 


iTTitijig, appended to tliat &c-Bimi}e of tbe original mnaio, of 
vMch I have given two lines on page 416 i 

" This is a correct fac-simile from the sheet of mn^ paper 
which I found on my bed, the momiiig of the fifth of May, 
1865. The air and the words are truly those which I heard in 
my dream. 

" N. G. Bach." 

In addition, M. Bach (in reply to a suggestion of mine 
-which some men would have deemed importunate) did me tbe 
&Tor to send me a letter, dated March 23, 18S7, in which he 
says: "I attest the existence of the parchment, still in my 
possession, containing the verses composed by tiie king and ad- 
dressed to the celebrated muBiciao, Bsldazarini ; and that it 
was found in a secret compartment of tbe spinet which the 
king had given him ; and also that the communication announc- 
ing the existence of the parchment, and stating that it had 
been placed there, is, iib every point, the exact truth. I add 
that the photographs of the spinet and of the parchment, and 
the reproduction of tbe autograph of tiie musio and words, are 
well executed and perfectly exact." 

Such is the case in all important details. It is for £he reader 
to decide whether, under the circumstances, the Buppoeition of 
imposture is tenable. 

What motive ? Nothing whatever to gain, in a worldly sense. 
Much to risk and something to lose. To risk misoonception, 
su^»cion, perhaps the all^atioa of monomama ; perhape the 
charge of conspiracy to palm off on the world a series of de- 
liberate, elaborate forgeries ; forgeries involving a sacrilegious 
deception, seeing that there is question of sacred things con- 
nected not with this world only, but with that winch is to 
come. Thus, to risk the loss of a obaraoter earned by the con- 
sistent int^rity of a long and honored life. Mor« certainly 
still, to attract importunate visitors, perhaps impertinent ques- 
tioners, and thus to break up that domeatio quiei so dear to a 
cultivated and studious sexagenariut. 


But if chaTBCter and all inmgmable motiTe did not give tbe 
lie to aoy sach suBpicion, the drcuiDBtances are such that the 
theory of fraud ia beaet with extreaie difficultieo. The friend to 
whom I owe my documeitts showed tbe original of the song to 

Monsieur D , one of the greatest harmonists of the day 

and quite a thesaurus of musical lore. This gentlenmn exam- 
ined it critically, and declared to my friend that it was so 
exactly in the style of the epoch that it would require not only 
a great musical genius, but the special studies of a lifetime, to 

produce such an imitation. Monsieur D , lacking fiuth in 

spirit intercourse, did not pretcmd to explain the mystery, bnt 
simply said that, though M. Bach was a meritorious muauaan, 
he regarded it as aibiolvidy impoemble that he should hare orat- 
posed the song. 

Again, if composed by him, it must have been suddenly, in 
a ungle night, without chance of reference to old authoritUB. 
Whence, iJten, the coincidences between the words of the song * 
and the incidents in the life of Henry IH. and of Marie de 

Every allusion has been verified, except that to tlie distsnt 
hunt (chasse lointoine) : and — let Sadducism smile at my essy 
faith in the unseen — I confess my belief that if I bad oppwto- 
nity to consult the library of the British Museum, or, better 
yet, the SiMioUiiqiie ImpcrieUe, I could verify that also. 

Add to all thb the minor peculiarities to which I have 
already adverted. Would any one, concerting a plan of forgeiy 
and simil&ted prediction, be liltely to contrive the variations 
between the predicted stanza and the original ? or the inclosed 
[ma], with its explanation ? or the n, apparently a blunder, 
yet proving correct ? or even the variations in spelling the mu- 
sician's name ? — most natural, if we consider the uncertain 
orthography of that day, but haw unlikely to be planned? 
Again, it is only by inference and after long search that I con^ 

* Hy Paris infonuaat tells me that K. Bach never wtote a teae oC 
poeti7 in lus life. 


dude the trorda " triste et cloiatr^ " to be in esact accordance 
-vrith the facte : bow remote the cbanoe, then, that M. Bacb, 
during that mTsterioua night, should have acted upon a aimilar 
oonclusion ? 

^et again : if the conununication indico^g the hiding-place 
of the parchment be a forgery, then M. Bach must have found 
the parchment, without any directions as to its whereabouts, 
before the spinet was sent to the Betrospective Museum. Is 
it 'within the bounds of probability that tbe surprising discov- 
ery of such an interesting document should have been studiously 
kept cooceated from every one, the spinet sent off under &lse 
pretences to the Museum, and then the communicBtion con- 
cocted as an excuse to send for the inBtrumeat again and insti- 
tute a pretended search? 

I do not think that dispassionate readers will accept such 
violent improbabilities. But if not, what interesting sugges- 
tions touching spirit-intercourse and spirit^ldentity connect 
themaelvefl with this simple narrative of M. Baob'e spinet I 




Mors than forty years ago there died a young Knglish lady, 
'wbom I knew intimately. She had enjoyed all the advantages | 
of the moat finished education that her country affords ; Bpok» 
French and Italian fluently, had travelled over Europe, then 
meeting many distinguished persons of the day. And she h»d i 
heen favored by nature aa much as by fortune. She was as 
amiable as accomplished, gifted with strong affectious, great | 
simplicity, and a temperament eminently spiritual and refined, 
j; shftU call her Violet" ' 

When, twenty-five years after her death, I first instituted 
researches in Spiritualism, the thought crossed my mind that 
if those who once took an interest in us during earth-life, were | 
permitted still to commune with ub when they had passed to 
another phase of being, Violet's spirit, of all others, might an- 
nounce itself to me. But I have never, on any occasion, 
evoked spirits; deeming it wisest and best to awtut their good 
pleasure. And when month after month passed away and no 
sign came, I had quite ceased to expect it, or to dvell upon 
such a possibility. 

I can scarcely express to the reader my surprise and enkotion 
when, during a sitting held October ]3, 1856, at N^les (Mrs. 
Owen and one other lady, not a professional medium, beii^ 
present), the following incidents occurred. 

The Prouisb kept. 

The name of Violet was suddenly spelled out. After my 

■ Her true baptiamBl name (a oomewbat uncommon uie), whidi I do 
not feel justifled in Kiving, is, like that with trtiiali I have r^plaoed it, 
Epical of a fuTorite flower. 


astonish meat had aotnewhat subsided, I asked mentally, with 
what intent a name so well-remembered had been fumouikced. 

Answer. — " Gave pro — " 

There the spelling stopped. Repeated invitations to proceed 
■were unavuling : not aaother letter oould we obtain. At last 
it occurred to me to ask : " Are the letteixp, r, o, corroctf " 

Anneer, — " No." 

Questiwi. — " Is the word * gave ' correct ? " 

Anawer. — " Yee." 

Then I said : " Please begin the word after ' gave * over 
again: " whereupon it spelled out^ now and then correcting a 
letter, the sentence : 

" Gave a written promise to remember you, even after 

I think that no human beiI^; except such as have been unex- 
pectedly brought, as I was then, almost within speech of the 
next world and its denizens, can realize the feeling which csme 
over me, as these words slowly connected themselves. If there 
iras one recollection of my youth that stood out, beyond all 
others, it was the reception, from Violet, of a letter written in 
prospect of deatb and containing, to the very words, the prom- 
ise which now, after half a lifetime, came back to me from be- 
yond the boom. Such evidence as it was to me it can be to 
no one else. I have the tetter still ; but its existence was un- 
known except to me : it has never been seen by any one. How 
little conid I foresee, when I first read it, that, after a quarter 
of a century, in a far, foreign land, the writer would be enabled 
to tell me that she had kept her word ! 

A few days afterward, namely during a session held on 
October 18, the same spirit having announced herself, I ob- 
tained, to various mental questions, replies characterized by 
the same pertinency and exactitude as are above evinced ; the 
subjects of my questions being of a private character and the true 
replies being known to me alone. There was not a single fail- 
ure ; and, in the coarse of these replies, allusions were made to 


<nrc)iin9tanoe8 with which, bo far aa I knov or believe, no (oe 
living in this world is acquainted except myself. 

It is within mj knowledge that many resulbi aimilar to the 
above have been obtained hy others. Yet very few of thtm 
reach the public at all ; and when they do, thny are uaoa% 
oouched in the most general and unsatiafactoiy term^ It 
needs, in such cases, as prompting motive to overcome a natural 
reluctance, the eai'nest wish, by such disclosure, to serve truth, 
and supply important testimony on a subject of vital impwt- 
ance to humankind. Let us examine that which ia here tof- 

The results obtained were not due, in any sense, to what haa 
sometimes been assumed as a cause of aim i lap phenomena, 
under the name of *' expectant attention." We wer«, at the 
time, ia search of various physical tests which we bad beard 
that others alleged they had witnessed; as motion without con- 
tact, writing by occult means, the exhibition of hands and the 
like. What came was utterly unforeseen, by me thu person 
chiefly concerned as certainly as by the other assisbuits. When 
long-slumbering associations were called up by the sudden ap- 
pearance of a name, it was assuredly in response to no thought 
or will or hope of mine, if consciousness be a guide to the ex- 
istence of thought or feeling. And if not traceable to me, &r 
less can it be imagined to have originated in either of the other 
Bsustants. They knew nothing of the letter, not even that it 
existed. They knew nothing of my question, for it had been 
mentally propounded. This nairows down the question of 
mundane influence to myself alone. 

But there is additional proof that my expectations had no 
agency in this case. When, at the first attempt to reply to my 
question, the unlooked-for Bent«noe had been partly spelled 
out — " Gave pro " — it did occur to me that the unfinished 
word might be " promise : " and it did suggest itaelf that the 
reference might be to the solemn pledge made to me, so many 
years before, by Violet. But what happened f The lettan 

OP spiBiT mENTnr. 487 

P, r, o, were declared to be incorrect ; and I still remember my 
Burprise and disappointment, as I erased tiiem. But how 
much was that surprise increased when I found that the cor- 
rection had been insisted on, only to make room for a fuller 
and more definite wording 1 — so definite, indeed, that if the 
document in question had been set forth in full, it could not 
have been more certainly designated. Under ibe circum- 
stances, it is not even conceivable that ■nu/ mind, or any intent 
of mine, had anything whatever to do in working out reenltB. 
If a spirit-hand had visibly appeared, had erased the three let- 
ters, had inserted the omitted word " written " and then fin- 
ished the sentence, it would have been more wonderful, 
certainly ; but would the evidence have been more perfect that 
aome occult will — some intention other than mine— was at 
work to biing about all Uiis ? And if to no earthly origin, to 
what other source than to the world of spirits ran this occult 
agency rationally be traced ? 

Yet this was but the commencement of the numerous prooia, 
recurring throughout many years, that have assured me of the 
continued existence, and the identity, of a dear spirit-friend. 
These came to me chiefly after my return in 1859, from Naples 
to the United States. 

FROor FROH A Strakoer, Five Humdreb Miles distakt. 

Five or six weeks after the publication of a work ^ready 
referred t«,* in February, I860, my publisher introduced to 
me a gentleman who had just returned from Ohio, and who in- 
formed me that my book bad attracted much attention in that 
State ; adding that I mi^^t add to its circulation by sending a 

copy to Mrs. 6 , then residing in Cleveland, proprietor of 

a book-store and one of the editors of a paper there. " She 
takes a deep interest in such subjects," be said, " and is, I be- 
lieve, herself a medium." 

• Foo^dUi Oft tie Btnttidary of Another Worid; pnblisbed Jaanai? 1, 

438 PB007 oourao to ke fbou 

I had never heard, of tha lady before, but I Bent a copy of 
the book, with a brief note asking her acceptance of it, and 
soon had a i^ply, dated February 14. 

In this letter, after some buBineea details, the writer ex- 
pressed to me the great satis&ction with which she had read 
the chiq>ter in " Footfclla " entitled " The Chunge at Death," 
and added: " I am what ia called a 'seeing medium.' While 
reading that chapter a female spirit that I had never aeen be- 
fore stood by me, as if listening, and Raid: 'I guided him in 
writing that ; I helped to convince him of an immortal life.* ** 
Then she subjoined a personal description of the appearance — 
including color of hair and eyes, complexion, etc — which ex- 
actly corresponded to that of Violet. She added that a Cleve- 
land merchant, who came in at the time and who is on impres- 
sional medium (though not known, nor desiring to be knowo, 
as such), Boid : "You have a new spirit to visit you to-day — a 

lady. She sayB she knew a Mrs. D , naming an F.ti gli* >h 

lady not then living ; known to Mrs. B {not to the mer- 
chant), by literwy reputation, but never having been known to 
either of them personally. 

Now Mrs. D was Violet's sister. But in my reply, 

which was paj1,ly on business, I neither alluded to the personal 
description that had been sent to me, nor to what had been 

said of Mrs. D . In order to make the test as complete aa 

possible I refrained from any espressioo which might lead Mrs. 

B to suppose that I recognized the person who had ap- 

]>eared to her. I merely added, to the busii^ess part of my 
letter, a few words to the effect that if she could obtain the 
spirit's name, or any further particnlan tending to identify 
her, she would confer an obligation on me by informing me 
of it. 

In reply I received two letters; one dated February 27, 
the other April 5. In these were stated : first, the baptisiDal 

name ; second, that the spirit said that Mrs. D was her 

sister; third, one or two further particulars aa to Violet: all 
this, accurately according to the &cts. Mis. B went onto 


BSj tliat some other detaila were added ; but these Beemed to 
refer to m&tters of bo privtite and coafidential a character that 
she thou^t it mi^t be best to state them perBonaily if, in re- 
ttimiog to the West, I could pass through Cleveland. Being, 
however, obliged to start for Europe oa busineBS m two weeks, 
1 asked, in reply, that she would put these on paper, which 
she did in » fourth letter, dfrted April 20. The particulars 
which she gave me had been obtained partly by herself, partly 
through the mediumship of the merchant to whom I have above 

When I said that the evidence in this case oonld never be 
. to others what it was to me, I but faintly shadowed forth the 
truth. A portion of the wonders that opened upon me the 
reader can, indeed, appreciate. I had written a brief and 
purely huaineBa letter to a complete stranger, five hundred 
miles away, in a town which Violet had never seen, where I 
myself (so &r as I can remember) had never been. Anything 
like suggestion or thou^t-reading or m^netic rapport was, 
under the circumstances, out of the question. Equally so was 
any knowledge, by a Cleveland editor or a Cleveland mer- 
chant, of a lady unknown to fame, who had died thousands of 
miles away, in another hemisphere. Tet from these distant 
etrangera comes to me, unasked and aa unexpected as a visit 
from Heaven, first a personal description agreeing with that 
of Violet and the mention of a name which strongly indicated 
that she was the person who had been communicating with 
them ; then her own name ; then her relationship with Mrs. 

D : all, without the slightest clue afforded by myself. 

These things my readers may appreciate, and they supply 

wonderful proofs of identity ; but when, as in Mrs. B 's 

last letter, varions minute particulars counected with Violet's 
early life and mine — particulars unknown to any living crea- 
ture on this side the Great Boimdary — particulars indicated 
only, BO that the writer herself could but very partially undei^ 
Btand their import — particulars buried aw«,y not in the past alone 
bat in hearts of which thoj were the most sacred remembran- 


oea — Then these things came forth to light under tlw tjtt cf 
the survivor, they were, to him, intonool evidence of the oontiD- 
ued exifitence, beyond the death-change, of hnmoa inemc»i«^ 
thoughts, affections — evidence such as cannot be tnuksferred to 
any second person : such evidence as, from its very natnte, caa 
be received directly alone. 

Here it may occur to the reader tluit, as all things, spiritual 
B8 veil as material, are subject to lav, there must have bMn 

tome attraction or caoae of election, determining Mrs. B 

as the medium, or Cleveland as the place, whence such a cob- 
munication should come to me. 

No doubt. And one can see how this may have been. Hn. * 

B has the olden gift,* by St. Faul called the " Hinfn»rning 

of spirits ; " and, at the time the spirit appeared, she was read- 
ing — with approval, it seems — a chapter on the " Change at 
Death," into which I had Uirown some of the strongest and 
deepest of my religious convictions, f This seems to have 
been the attraotioa ; for it waa during tiie perusal of Uiat por- 
tion of my book that Violet, for the first time, showed henelf 
to Mrs. B . 

Is this explanation far-fetched F Is it irrational to aacribe, 
to BO slight a cause, the spirit's unexpected visit f Yet there 
had come to my knowledge a year before, a similar case, pai^ 
feotly authenticated. 

Tbk Apfabitioh of the Betrothed. 

In October of the year 1854, my &ther called od Miss 
A , a youQg lady of his acquaintance, residing near Lon- 
don. Her powei^ as a medium, though known only to a pri- 
vate circle of friends, are of the highest order. She has habit- 
ually discerned spirits from her earliest age, years before the 
modem phase of Spiritualism had come up. Various otlier 

* 1 Corinthiana vL 10. 

t Footf/^ oa Uui Boundary of Anotkar Wofid, Book vL di^. 1 1 
pp. 4T6-S03. 


toanifestationB, also, of ft BtrUdug kind, occur in her pres- 

M7 £a,tiiee found her somevhat indisposed, reclining on a 
sofa, engaged in reading. She Uid aside her book, as he en- 
tei-ed, and waa about to rise ; hut he be^ed her to remain, 
adding Uiat, as he had come hoping for opportunity of examin- 
ing spiritual phenomena, he would sit down alone at a table 
not far from the sola, to ascertain if he could obtain rappings. 
Se did so; and afler a time raps were beard, though Miss 
A did not touch the table. 

" Can you perceive," my father asked, " the presence of any 
- spirftaf" 

" Yea," she replied ; " I see one, that of a young lady." 

" Can you tell her name ? " 

" No ; she has nerer given it to me, though I have several 
times seen her, as I sat reading this book " — aad she pointed 
to the volume beeide her—" but perhaps we can get the name 
by rapping." 

And, in effect, there was immediately spelled out, " Graoe 

" What! " said my father; " my old friend, Grace Fletch- 

" Who is Grace Fletcher ? " the young lady asked : " I never 
heard the name before." 

" You could not have known her, for she died tiiiity or 
fbrt; years ago. I knew her intimately ; and a more beautiful 
character, moral and intellectual, I never met." 

'* It is singular," said the young lady, " that I almost always 
see her spirit when I sit down to study this hook ; and only 

" Pray what work is it you have been studying ? " my 
father asked. 

" Dr. Thomas Brown's Mental Philosophy ; " and she handed 
my father the volume. 

He took it, exclaiming : " How strange 1 What a wonderful 
coincidence I " 


" What ia ther« wonderfn] in it? " 

My father then explained that, as he had elw&ya nnderBtood, 
Dr. BroWD aod Miss Fletcher were deeply attached to ead 
oUier, and that their intimacy was expected to ripen into aiai- 
riage. " But she died at ninetoea," he added, " and I do not 
think poor Brown ever got over it ; for ho survived her thne 
or four years only." 

Grace Fletcher who, &ori all I have heard of her, well de- 
served my fother'a encomium, was the daughter of a talented 
mother, long noted in the literary circles of Edinburgh and 
who died some thirteen or fourt«en years since, at a veiy ad- 
vanced age. I have aacertuned through a lady who was w«ll 
acquainted with the family that between Dr. Brown and ISSm 
Fletcher there was well known to exist, probably not a posi- 
tive engagement, but certainly so strong a mutual attachment, 
that their friends felt con6dent it would be a match. She die] 
about the year 1816; and he, in 1820.* 

I had the above from the young lady herself; f and I kno« 
that its accuracy may be strictly depended on. One of the re- 
collections of my childhood is my father's sorrow when the 
unexpected news of Grace Fletcher's death reached him. 

The point in this case which gives it value is, that the young 
seeress hod never heard Miss Fletcher's name, nor had she the 
least idea, till my father informed her, of the connection theie 
had existed in life between the lady whose spirit the rape an- 
nounced, and the author of the book during the perusal of 
which that spirit was wont to appear. As a chance ooioci- 

* In the prime of life, ae«d f or^-two. He was Professor of Hotal 
Philosophy in the Universi^ of Edinburgh. His well-known Leetirm 
on the P/iHotoplig of the Saman Mind, above refeiied to, reached the 
eighth edition in 1H34. 

f In 1850, 1 met her in London at Lady B 'b, where slie was ahnji 

a welcome gnest All her friends epeak of her in the highest tenu, 
and 1117 own ocqaaintanoe with her, through several nKBiths, —"fl— — * 
my opinion of her intelligence and integrily. 


deuce we cannot reaaon&bly regard it. Staading alone it is 
iuemfficient foiindation for a theory. But the appeoraace of 

Yiolet to Mn B , an utter stranger alike to her and to 

mfl, during the perusal of a book of mine, is an incident of the 
same daaa; and if such should be found to acoumulate, they 
will famish proof that a spirit may occasionally — though It be 
rarely — look back from its next phase of life to this, drawn 
down by the desire to note the effect which efforte, mode on 
earth, by a dear friend, to euUghten mankind, may, from time 
to time, be producing. It is a reasonable belief that benevolent 
spirits, in their world, oontinue to take interest in the im- 
provement of ours. 

I know not that, in this case, I can adduce stronger proof of 
identity than the above, bat I have had additional tests, some 
of which may tend to fortify the fiiith of my readers, 

Tytical akd Literal Tests. 

Some two weeks after the receipt of Mrs. B 's second 

letter, namely, on the thirteenth of March, 1860, in the fore- 
noon, I called on Mr. Ghtu'Ies Foster, to whose mediumship I 
have already referred. A lady well and fovorably known to 
the literary world, and whom I shall call Miss P , accom- 
panied me. The visit was at her request, as she had never 
witnessed any spiritual phenomena whatever; but had heard 
much about them, and desired to judge for herself. She had 
never B(!en Mr. Foster. 

I mentioned to Mr. Foster, in a general way, that I had 
recently received, from a stranger at a distance, an alleged 
conunimication from a spirit, which had passed away many 
years before ; but I studiously withheld the uam^ and all clue 
to personal identity, adding, however, that I should be glad if, 
through him, any ftirther test could be given. 

During the first part of the session Mr. Foster addressed 

himself entirely to Miss P . The inoveduloua look with 

which that lady sat down soon changed to one of seriousness, 

441 A TTPICAL T£6T. 

tiien of deepest feeling. Tba test she received th&t day led to 
researches vhich made her a spiritualist for life.* 

Then he turned suddenly to me : " Mr. Owen, I see m apiiit 
— a lady — standing beside you , perhaps the same of whom yoa 
spoke to me. She holils in her lumds a basket of fiowei& 
Ah I that is peculiar ; they are all violets." 

X. — " Does she communicate her name ? " 

Mr. Foster paused. After a time, " No," he said, " but she 
has taken one of the flowors — a single violet — and laid it be- 
fore you. Has all this any meaning for you? " 


" But we ought to get the name. I usually do." ' 

And, at his request, I wrote down seven female baptismal 
names, including that of Violet, taking care not to pause axon 
at one than at the other. 

Mr. Foster took the paper, and, with a single glance at it, 
tore off each name separately ; rolled them up into small pellets 
and threv these down on a pile of peUets (some twelve or four- 
teen) which he had previously made, some of tLem being blank. 
There were thus about twenty pellets in all. He bade me take 
them up and hold them, in my open hand, under tho table. I 

* I am at liberty to give on oatline onlj of the test here referred tii, 
and have substitnted another name (Med way) for the tme one. 

Mi. Foster said he saw the appearance ol a y onng man utanding 

iMoide MiaaP ; and he deBcribed his appearance. "Above hit 

head." he went on, "I see the words: 'Fidelity even beyond Uw 

grave I ' " Miss P '■ laoe betrayed mncb emotion, mingled, however, 

I {dunly saw, with doubt. Then Foster suddenly added : "Ah! here 
Is a name — Hedway." Cpon which the l^idy sank her tsoe on the 
table, without a word. Nor, throug^iont the rest of the sesstou, did 
she allude to what had passed. 

I afterward mentioned the name to a sister of Hiss P , sakiug if 

he bad ever been among their acquaintances. 

" How did yon hear of him ? " she asked ma, astonished. 

1 bold her. 

"It is all trae," she said in reply. "Many years ago we were fntj- 
mately acquainted with him. My sister was engaged to him ; but hs 
died a short time before the day appointed for their n: 

A T.mrmi. TEST. 445 

did SO. After a time he said to me: "The apirita deaire to 
have yow hat tmdrar the table." Accordingly he put it there, 
but immediately replaced both his hands on the table, saying : 
" Spirit, when you have selected the pellet, will you let us 
know by ntpping F " About a minute passed when the raps 

Mr. Foster.—" Shall I take up the hat J " 

Anmoer. — " No." 

i:— "ShaUI?" 

Annoer. — " No." 

JfiM P.—'* ShaU I ? " 

A luwer. — " Tea." 

TherenpoQ the table, with a sadden and eomewhat violent 

movement, tUted up on Mias P 'a side, ao that, without 

moving from her seat, she could reach the hat from the floor. 
Therein, lying between two gloves, was the pellet. She Lauded 
it to me and I was about to open it, when Mr. Foster said : 

" Please do not open it yet. Let me try if I can get the 
same name written under the table." 

He tore off a small piece of thin paper, took that and a pen- 
cit in one hand, and held both for twelve or fifteen seconds 
beneath the table. Then, withdrawing his hand, after a glance 
At the paper and the remark, " I believe there is a name on 
it," he handed it to me. The name was la pencil, but I could 
not make out a aingle letter. At Mr. .Foster's suggestion I 
held the paper, reversed, against the window-pane. Then I 
read diatinctly through the paper from the unwritten side, in 
minute characters, the name Violet. 

Then only I first opened the pellet. The same name there.* 

I did not suffer Mr. Foster to see either. After a few 
seconds his arm seemed slightly convulsed, as by a feeble elec- 
tric shock ; and he said : " The name is on my arm ; " where- 

* I have pieaerved the bit of thin paper, and also the pellet. I need 
•oaioGly here remind the reader, that, aa already atAted, Tiolet ia an 
aaaamed name. Of oonrBs it waa Hie true name, and the flower lir^eal 
of that name, wlijoh were actnall? given. 


upon he bared his left arm to the elbow, and I read thenoa 
distinctly the name Violet. I did not, however, pnmoBiwt 
it, but left him to apell it out, letter by letter. The lettoi 
looked aa if tbey had been traced by a painter's brush, witk 
pink color. Iliey were about an inch and a qmurter in height; 
printed characters, as if somewhat carelessly done, but perfecU; 
legible ; the strokes being about «a eighth of an iach in tJiick- 
ness. The first letter was near the elbow joint, and the rest 
were traced along the inside of the arm; the last letter beutg 
on part of the palm next to the wrist, just below tiie root 

of the thumb. Miss P read the name, deciphering it widt- 

out any difficulty. 

During all the time of theoe experiments except at tlie mo- 
ment when he placed my hat on the ground, and daring Uw 
few seconds when he put the pauper under the table to have the 
name written on it, Mr. Foster sat quietly vriih both hand* ok 

The room was well lifted by two windows. 

Miss P had nevra; heard Violet's name ; nor, as I hare 

already stated, had Mr. Foster. 

Here were four tests : not presenting tJiemselves spontane- 
ously, indeed, as did those which came to me through Mrs. B -; 

oa the contrary obtained by aid of a professional medium whom 
I had visited, hoping for something of Uie kind : but yet to be 
judged fairly, by their internal evidence, notwithstanding. 

I. The appearance to Mr. Foster of the basket of flowers, 
and Uie single flower laid down before me, when I asked for 
Violet's name. 

3. The pellet, selected out of twenty, taken from my hand 
and placed in my hat, 

3. The writing, under the table, of the name so that it read 
on the reverse side. 

And 4. The name written on the arm. 

The peculiarity of the basket containing a single species only 
of flower, and the name of that species corresponding to the 
name of the alleged spirit, together with the selection of a sin- 


gle flower when I asked for the napie, cannot rationallj be 
ascribed to chftoce. 

Aa to the peHet, since Mr. Foster had faia hands on the 
table, fall in view, it was a physical impossibility that he 
should have taken it, even if he had known which, out of the 
twenty, to select. 

As to the writii^ under the table, though it may be allied 
tiiat practice might enable a person to write so that it should 
read on the reverse side, and that this might have been done 
with one hand on the knee, yet the writing itself (now before 
me) seems to refute this. I have just carefully ex&mined it. 
The paper is nearly as thin as tracing paper ; die name is writ- 
ten in a current lady's hand, as if the pencil'point had just 
lightly touched the snrface, the pencil not having sank at all into 
the paper ; and there is no indication of the writing on the re- 
verse, I do not think it possible for any one, holding a pencil 
and paper, in one hand, for fifteen seconds, under a table, to 
have produced a word thus written. But, in addition to tids, 
Foster had no clue whatever to the name. 

The same is true of the name on the arm, with this added 
difficulty : the arm having been covered, up to the moment 
when the medium bared it and showed the name, and bis hands 
up to that time, having been seen by us resting quietly on the 
table, by what possible expedient could he have produced the 
pink lettering ? 

During the decade from 1660 to 1670 I bave bad, through 
various mediums, numerous communications from Violet : 
none, however, of any length ; the longest being that relative 
to the birth of Christ. * They were usually only brief, cordial 
messages of aSection, or short suggestions on ethical, philo- 
Bopbical, or spiritual subjects. On two occasions, at intervals 
of years, instead of the name, there was only allusion made to 
the flower. One of these camo through a Boston medium, the 

* See Bo<A 1. ohi^ter 3, where it is given in full. 

^ .oogic 


other throu^ a lady (not a professioiiBl medium) in Vaahing- 
toQ city : boUi being strangers to eacli other and to Yiol«t'i 
name or history. 

Finally I obtained, by accident as we usually say, a remark- 
able test, difiering in character &om any of the ahove. 

The Pobteait with Emblem. 

In the spring of 1867, being then in New York, I made Oto 
acquaintance of a Mr. Anderson, who, without previous in- 
struction and by apirit influence, as he alleged, had produced 
likenesses of deceased persons, many of which were recognized 
by their fnends. He staled to me that a cleigyman of his ac- 
quaintance denired to meet me ; and I met him, by appointnient, 
at Mr. Anderson's rooms, on the afternoon of the twenty-first 
of March. 

While '<ve were conversing, Mr. Anderson brou^t me a laige 
sheet of drawing-paper, requesting me to observe that it was 
blank on both sides, and asking me to tear a ranall piece from 
one comer of the sheet, so as to be able to identify it.' I tore 
irregular pieces from tajo comers. He then requested me (o 
note the hour, and retired to an inner room. 

I supposed that I should have a portrsit; and, as my &tlier 
was a well-known man, of whom many engraved likenesses 
exist, I thought it would probably be one of him, and felt that, 
under the circumatanceB, even if it resembled, it would be an 
insufficient test. 

But in exactly twenty-eight minutes, Mr. Andereon, return- 
ing, pinned against the wall a portrait, in pencil, not of my 
father, but a female head and bust, life-size, which, from its 
general outline and expression, I recognized at once as Violet'a 
On looking again, however, the features seemed to me mM« 
regular than her's and the whole face idealized. Thepoae wu 
graceful : my eye ran over the lines, but was suddenly arrested 
— could it be ? Hardly trusting my senses, I went closer to 
examine. It was unmistakable. There — as ornament at the 


lover point of the opening of the dress in front — wab the typi- 
ctd, fiawerl 
* I need not ssy that I had never made the least allusion to 
Violet in Mr. Anderson's presence ; and that I am convinced 
he spoke truth when he declared to me that he had never heard 

I carefully adjusted the torn fragments of paper to the cor- 
ners whence I had taken them, and found the proof thus 
afforded that it was the same sheet I had marked twenty-eight 
minutes before it reappeared, absolutely perfect. 

I showed the porti-ait, some days afterward, to my friend 
Hit. Carpenter, the arttBt,| without telling him how I obtained it. 

He examined it carefully. " A little out of drawing," he 
said, " but clever and graceful : peculiar, too. A young artist ? " 

" One without much experience, I believe. Howloi^ would 
a good artist take to make such a portrait ? " 

" That depends upon whether he bit off the likeness at once. 
If he did and worked hard, he might finish it in a day. But, 
in a general way, it would take two days, perhaps more." 

" How if the artist had begun and finished it within half an 

" There is no man living who oould do so." 

l^at was my opinion also, supposing the artist left to his own 
resources : but I was glad to have it confirmed by so compe- 
tent a judge. J 

Upon me these cumulative proofs of identity have produced 

* Hr. AnderMm appealed to me a quiet, hank, simple man : ipeak- 
log modeotif of what he deemed a Bpiritnal gift, and blaming himself 
for bis own waveriufT faith in its oontinnanoe. He wonldaooept of no 
lemaneration from me : it haTing been, aa he reminded me, a vdun- 
teered effort. 

f Best known aa Uie aatlior of that moat tmtbfol and valoable hia- 
toricsl paiuttng : 7'/i« Emana^Uoa Proolamatien before Ot» CabinsU 

% I shall be glad to show to amy artist or other Binoere inqoiier, the 
origiDal portrait, with the atteetinK fngments, exacUy as I obtained it, 
at the end of the twenty-eight minntee. 


a profonnd oonviction that Tiolet has muiifestod henelf ; keep- 
ing a Bocred promise aSlor long years, and aeoding to me, &oin 
another sphere, missives of friendship and words of instructioit. • 
I cannot j udge what degree of belief Uiis recital of these proo& 
ma; create in others. 




" And when they heard of tiie' leenrreotdoa of the dead, m) 
mocked: andoUkera said, 'We will hear thaeagsinof this mattet." 
AcTBxrii. 83. 



"If the dead lisetiot, then la not Ohxiat raioed : ftodif Obriat benot 
nuaed, jooi faith is Tain."— 1 Cobistsiasb zv. 16, 17. 

AccoBDnro to the best authorities, the Book of Acts tab 
mitten about thirty years after the crucifixion. It is one of 
tlie most interesting and instructive of historical episodes, if we 
read it, as but few of us ,do, unblinded by the glamour of stere- 
otyped preconceptions. 

There was, of course, no New Testament in those days. 
During the first half of these thirty years there was not even a 
biograipby of Christ ; and but one, that of Matthew, until near 
the close of that period : nor have we any proof that even 
Matthew's narrative was then known, or read, iu the Christian 
congregations. All the apostolic letters of Paul, with the single 
exception of ThessaloniaoB,* were written but a few jeafs be- 
fore the Acts were penned. The same is true of the other 
epistlee ; with the exception of that of James, wbich last was 
written about the middle of these thirty years. 

Thus the faith of the disciples during this period was based 

* Wntten about Um year 63, ot twenty yeaiB after Cbiist'adeatlt. 


only on personal recollections, and on ond traditionB of noat 

date. It waa much strengthened, no doubt, bj the appemasn 

among them of those spiritual gifts * whii^ Christ prcHnised to 

such as trusted in him. f But it was founded chiefly on oh 

great phenomenon : the appearance of Christ, aiter death, to* 

number of witnesses, of whom many yet survived. To thi^ 

on every great occasion, the i^Mstles were wont to appeaL J It 

was, indeed, the rock-foundatioa of their creed, &iliiig whick 

they admitted that the entire auperatructiire must &1L " If the 

dead rise not, t^en is not Christ raised ; and if Christ be not 

raised, your faith is vain." 

/ The triumph of their faith, then, was, that immortality had 

I been brought to light : not set forth aa a probability by aaalog- 

\ ical ailment, not recommended to belief by glosses and qniil- 

. dities cf the schools; but brought into the light of day, wboe 

J the aensea can perceive it, where the highest of all human en- 

\ deooes can assure its reality. And the test-proof of immortal- 

/ ity among these early disciples of Christ was Aat the dead contid 

I return ; g it was that they themselves, to use the modem term, 

\ had seen the apparition of their Slaster. 

Sceptics deny that they saw him. Strauss, assuming t^ 
an apparition would be a miracle, and holding miracles to 
he impossible, discredits the narrative. Tet he candidly states 
his conviction that the disciples, self-deceived throu^ the ex- 
cited state of their minds, firmly believed tliat Christ had ap- 
peared to them. He says : 

* 1 Corinthians zii. 8-11. 

t John xiv. 13. 

X Acts it 33 ; iii. IG ; iv. 83 ; X. 40, 41 ; xiil. 30, 31 ; and othen. 

g It was not Christ alone whom (as we are told) thej had seen : if 
we may trust the record " the graves were opened ; and many bodies of 
the aaixAe which slept arose, and oame oat of the gmves after his ie» 
turection, and appeared onto many." — Uatthew xzrii 63, S8. 

The decayed body does not oome oat ot the grave ; that Is not tba 
modo in which an apparition is formed ; bat that was the popolar cos- 
ceptioQ of iha phenomonon in A(atthew*B day. How often on KsoniDS 
phsDomona inootreoUy explained t 


" From the epistles of Paul and the Acts, it is certaia that 
the apostles themselves had the persuasioa that they had seen 
the Arisen. . . . For the rest, the pass^;e from the first 
Epistle to tlie Corinthiana u not hereby weakened which, un- 
doubtedly genuine, was written about the year 59 after Christ, 
thei^fore not thirty years after his resurrection. TTpon this in- 
formation we muBt admit that many members of the first cam- 
mumty, still living ab the composition of tliat epistle, particu- 
larly the apostles, were persuaded that they had witnessed the 
appearance of the risen Christ." * 

The text to which Strauss here refers is St. Paul's assertion 
diat he has taught what he himself had received, namely, that, 
afber Christ was risen "he was seen of Cephas [that is, Peter], 
then of the twelve; after that, he was seen of above five hundred 
brethren at once ; of whom the greater part remain until this 
present, but some are fallen asleep. After that, he was seen of 
James; then of all the apostles." f 

— Seen, not by Peter and James alone, not by the apostles 
alone, but by _five hundred brethren at once. And the belief 
of these men in the reality of what they saw was such that they 
endured bonds and seourgings and persecutions even imto death, 
under that sustaining faith. The record of all this, too, was 
made within thiily years of the time it happened ; and is ad- 
mitted, by a critic so learned and critical as Strauss, to be " un- 
doubtedly genuine." 

For any natural event such testimony woidd be overwhelm- 
ing. Strauss, having made up his mind that an apparition is an 
impossibility, disbelieves the story. I, having, like the disci- 
ples, witnessed an apparition, J know, as they did, that it is not 
impossible ; and believe as they did, that Christ showed him- 
self to them. I can thoroughly understand, though I might 
not have imitated, that constancy of faith which braved suf- 
ferings and death. 

* Lebtn Jetu, pp. 639, 653. 
t 1 (hrinUiiam rr. 0, G, 7. 
X See Book v. ohiqiter 3. 

DMn;.^:b, Google 

454 ffrcDT or appakitions qipobtaiit. 

If th« religioOB world is ever to attBiu the vautsge ground 
that was occupied by the Christians of the apostolic age, it 
must convince itself that aa apparition is a nataral phenoma- 
non, of occasional occurrenoe. 1^ then, a large fraction of 
the intelligent portion of society — its scientific leaden ttpc- 
cially — will coutinne to deny, like Strauss — will stand out, like 
Thomas, saying : " I must see before I believe." 

Therefore the question " Is it important to study tlie subject 
of ^paritions ? " reAolves itself into anoUier : " Is it important 
to have assured proof of immortal life ? " 

I make, to the reader, no apology for the space I occupy in 
illuatiuting this and cognate phenomena. The world owes to 
itself an apology for its apathy on the sutject. 




" To a mind not; isfloenoed b; popnlar prqudiae, it will be scarcely 
poamble to believe that a^ipaiitioiiB would have been vouched for in all 
ooimtiies, had thej never been Been In any." — BBT, QEOROB Stbahajt, 
D.D.* ' 

OiTE of the most remarkable phaaes of scepticism is tliat which 
denies, what all ages hare admitted, the occaeional reappear- 
ance of what we call the dead. The fantastic accessories of 
current ghost stories — hideous spectreB, naked skeletons clank- 
ing chains, odors of brirastone, lights burning blue — have main- 
ly contributed to this modem Saddudsm. False ideas and 
morbid feelings touching death have unsettled our judgment, 
ev&a our perceptions. Those whom we loyed in this world we 
have learned to fear, as soon as they passed to another. We 
titink, with terror, of their reappearance ; we faint, perhaps, if 
they suddenly present themselves : for terror blinds ; it is the 
parent of superstition. 

In the nursery, or by the home fireside, our children hear 
horrible ghost-stories, shuddering as they listen. This is spir- 
itual poison, fatal alike to equanimity and to simple religious 
truth. If we speak to childrou of ghosts at all, we ought to 
tell them, just as we relate any natural event, that we shall all 
be ghosts by and by ; that only part of our life ia spent here ; 
the rest of it iu another world which we cannot see, but which 
is better and more beautiful than this. We ought to add that 
perhaps we shall be able to come back from tiiat world aud 
show ourselves to some of our old friends ; and that, may be. 


they themBelreB vill be bo fortunate, before they go, as to see 
some persoa who has gone before — or what people call a ghoaL * 
Possibly their nerves might be somewhat tried, in case this 
should happen ; just as a person, hearing thunder for the fint 
time, often trembles at the sound. But, if well-trained, they 
would soon witness, without undue excitement, either phemwn- 
enon. Whenerer men, in the mass, attain to this frame of 
mind, apparitions will probably become more common. Spirits, 
reading our thoughts, doubtless often refrain from showing 
themselves when tiiey perceive that they will only be objects of 

Short of space aud having already treated the subject of 
spontaneous apparitions at considerable length, f I here confine 
myself to a single example ; a narrative which I am able to for- 
tify with name, place, and date. It is one of a numerous clam, 
an appearance of a dear friend soon after death. J 

A Father, dyino in Europe, appears to his Son in Akxbici. 

In the year 1862, Mr. Bradhurst Sohieffelin, of the well- 
known firm of Schieffelin &, Co., New York, kindly furnished 
me with this narrative, sent with the following note : 

" New Yobk, JtHi* 11, 1663. 
" Dear Sir : Herewith inclosed I have the pleasure to hand 

* I taught 1117 children after Uiat fashion. The result, even hi eadf 
ohMbood, was some Buoh espresdon as this :"lda wish I could bm • 
ghost : oould not yon show us one, Papa f " 

t In Fao^alit on the Boundary ofAnotAtr Wbrid, Book iv. chapter 8, 
pp. 338-430. 

I One of the membeis of a society fcomed in 1S31 hj distingnubed 
gfiadiurtei in the Engliah Uiiivettitf of Ounbiidge, for the pnrpote of 
investigating spiritual phenomena, told me that their reteanhes had 
resulted in a oonviotian, shared, he believed, bj all the members, Ihtt 
tliere u aofflcient testdmonj for tlie appearance, about the time of dMtl>, 
or after it, of deoeased peisoos. — See FM^iM*, note, pp. S3, S4 ; and, 
tor the printed dronlar of the sodety, see Appendix to tdiat wo^ 

ONS. 457 

yon ft letter from the Bev. Frederick SteinB, relatiiig the appari- 
tion of hia father. Mr. SteioB, a German gentleman of the 
utmost respectability, is paetor of the Modieoa Street Freshyte- 
rian Church in this city, having a large German congregra- 

" This letter, which yon may preserve aa evidence, I have 
obtained for publication, and I ehall be glad if it prove of ser- 
vice to you, 

" Tours truly, 

« Sbadhdbst Schieffeliit. 

" To the Honorable 

KoBEKT Dale Owen." 

The inclosure is as follows : 

" New Tokk, Jvnt 10, 18®. 

" la compliance with the request in your note, I here give 
the special facts connected with the apparition of my father. 

" It was on the thirteenth of December, 1847, as I was - 
walking, with my two eldest sons, in Grand street, Kew York. 
It was in the forenoon, before twelve o'clock, and the side- 
walk was fidl of people. There tho whole figure of my father 
suddenly appeared to rae. He was in hia usual dress, hia well- 
remembered cap on his head, his pipe in his hand, and he 
gazed on me wit^ an earnest look; then, as suddenly, disap- 

** I was very much terrified, and immediately wrot« home, re- 
lating what had h^pened. Some time afterward I received 
ft letter from one of my brothers, written from Neukirchen, 
Hheniah Prussia, the family residence, informing me that on 
iba morning of the thirteenth of December, our father had died 
there. At breakfast on that day he was inhis usual health, and 
had been speaking of me with great anxiety. After breakfast 
he passed out into the yard ; and, in returning, he dropped 
dead, overtaken by a Budden fit of apoplexy. 

" I learned afterward tiiat, at tlie moment of death, he woro 


the very dress in vluclii I bad seen him ; the suae op on iat 
head ; his pipe, as usual, in hia hand. 
*' Yours, 

"Fb. Smiis. 
"To Bradhdest Schieffelih, Eat." 

The anxious interest which lite iather expressed in his ab- 
sent son, inuuediatelf before death, is a noteworthy incident 
in this case.* 

Narratives of cases similar to the above could be maltii^ied 
indefinitely. A very remarkable one — a family reminiscence — 
furnished to me by my friend, William Howitt, will be found 
in the work to which I have referred.f 

* Comptuw wiUi this a Hunilai ezpieaaion of aSeotiaii by Ulb djiag 
Mrs. Mf^hi^" toward the child Oedlia i to whom, immediately after 
death, she appeared. &ee precading Book ii ch^itei 1. 

f JW/bOi, p. 371. 




" Segnins imtant auimoa denuBsa per aniem, 
Quun qnn Hunt oooUs snbjecta Melibos." 

Horace— A. P. 

I HAVE no medinmlBtic powers — none of the spiritual gifts 
eutimerated bj Paul and considered by him as desirable. I 
can. see nothing, bear nothing, except what others, with quick 
eyes and ears, can Bee and hear. As to the reality of subjec- 
tive apparitions I have to trust to the testimony of the seer or 
seeress ; fortified, sometimee, by information touching worldly 
affairs that has been furnished by tbeee invisible forms, and ^ 
afterward ascertained to be true.* Perhaps, at this stage of 
spiritual progress, I am, because myself an outsider, more 
likely to gain the ear, and the confidence, of the outside world. 

If, some day, there should ^pear a man, endowed alike | 
with the highest spiritual gifts and with tlie most eminent 
moral and intellectual powers, his infiuence on civilized society . 
might be immense. Meanwhile a mere spectator may obtain a ; 
d^pee of credit for dispassionate judgment which would be re- 
fused to. an actor. 

I r^tet, however, that it has never been my good fortune 
to witness an objective apparition, spontaneously presenting 
itoelf. I had to seek before I found. But if my readei-s will 
follow me in the relation of what I did find, I think they will 
admit that I have taken what reasonable precautions I could, 
alike against self-delusion and imposture. That I was in 
search of what I found is, in itself, no proper hax to my testi- 

* A remarkable example will be fonud in footfOBi, Book ir. chapter 
8 ; Btory of the OW Smt Manor Onue, pp. 414-427, 


mony. If I were about to make a study of earthqaakes and 
volcanic phenomena, I should be likely to visit the western 
coast of South America, the cioatheru portion of the Italian 
peninsula; perhaps the islands of Sumatra, Java, Iceland. It 
ia no disparagement to results that they have been obtained 
by expressly placing one's self in the way of obtaining them. 
My experience in this field, though not so varied as that of 
Bome others, has been a remarkable one. If my life were ex- 
tended to the term ascribed to the antediluvian patriarchs, I 
should remember, to my dying day, l^e first time I was visited 
by an appearance which all the attendant circumstances con- 
curred in proving to have been a visitor from another phase of 
beii^. It occurred, eleven years ago, at the house of Mr. Sam- 
uel UnderhiU, in New Yo^k. , 

An EVENTruL Hour with Lxah Fox. 

It was on the evening of Sunday, the twenty -first of October, 
1860. The sitting was held in Wr. Underbill's dining-room, 
lasting from ten till eleven o'clock P.u. 

The room was lighted by gas. There were two windowa 
fronting the street; three doors; one opening on a corridor 
whence a staircase ascended to the next floor ; another opening 
on a short passage leading to the kitchen; the third, the door 
of a pantry in which were crockery and various other articles, 
including a barrel of loaf-sugar in one comer. 

Before we had any demonstrations the raps requested us to 

fait until the domestics had retired. There were two servant 

'■-Is in the kitchen, whom Mrs. Underbill sent upstairs to 

' verything was profoundly stilt on that floor of the 

fastened the inside blinds of both windows, 

""ht from the street. 

He session, at Mr. Underhill's request, 

ee doors above referred to, leaving the 

no one, even if furnished with keys, 

out. I satisfied myself, by careful 


personal inspection of the furniture, and otherwise, that there 
was no one in the pantry, nor any one in the dining-room except 
the three persons who, along with myself, assisted at the sitting. 

These persons were Mr. Daniel Underhil), Mrs. Underhill 
(Leah Fox), and her nephew, Charles, twelve years old. We 
sat down to a centre-table, three feet eleven inches in diameter, 
of black walnut, and without table-cover. (I had previously 
looked under it ; nothing to be seen there.) The gas-burner 
v-as immediately over it. I sat on the east side of the table, 
Mr. Underhill opposite to me, Mrs. Underbill on my left hand, 
and Charles on the right. There was no fire in the room. 

The rappings commenced, gradually increasii:^ in numbw 
and force. After a short interval they spelled : " Put out the 
gas." It was accordingly extinguished and the room remained 
in total darkness. Then, " Join hands." Shortly after doing 
so I felt, several times, a cool breeze blowing on my cheek. * 
Then was a[ielled : " Do not break the circle." We obeyed ; and, 
except for a second or two at a time, it remained, on my part, 
■unbroken tlironghout the rest of the sitting. 

After a few minutes I perceived a light, (^parently of a 
phosphorescent character, on my left, near the floor. It was, 
at first, of a rectangular form, with the edges rounded. I 
judged it to be about four inches long and two and a half 
incites wide. It seemed like an open palm illuminated ; but 
thou^ the light which emanated from it showed quite dis- 
tinctly its entire sur&oe, I could distinguish no fingers. For 
a time it moved about, near the floor ; then it rose into the air 
and floated about the room, sometimes over our heads. 

*8«eaiiaTtiokeittitMT^OMd'«Bmie*Fmcndj "FootfaIla,"Book 
iv. chapter 3. It relates to the Seeieaa ol PreTorst. After statmg' 
tliat her mother and nsMr dM not see an apparition which showed 
Itself to her, it is added : " Bat both, at the times when the spirit ap- 
peared to the seeieBS, freqaeutlr felt the senutioa as of a breeie blow- 
ing npOQ them ; " p. 31K). 

Sach a aeusation, as I know from pcison:i] ezperienoe, fieqoently 
pieoedes, or acoompanies, apizitoal phenomena. 


After a time it changed its ^peanLnce uid inctenaed in 
bngfatneas. It then resembled an opaque ovul subetanw, abont 
the size of a child's head, muffled up in the folds of some very 
white and shining material, tike fiae linen, only brighter. As 
it moved about, I began to hear, at first imperfectly, afterward 
somewhat more distinctly, the rustling as of a silk dress, or of 
other lif^t article of female apparel; giving the impr«9Bi<»i 
ihaX ooe or more persons were moving silently about the room. 
Then the light passed behind Mrs. TJndeibill ; then I savr it 
close to Mr. Underbill and just opposite to me. Mr. Under- 
hill said: "Can you not go to Mr. Owen; do try." lliere- 
upon it moved slowly around to my left side. This time tiie 
folds appeared to have dropped ; and what seemed a &ce (still 
covered, however, with a luminous veil,) came bending down 
witbin five or six inches of my own fiice, as I turned toward it. 
As it approached, I plainly distinguished the semi-luminoua 
outline of an entire figure of the usual female stature. I saw, 
very distinctly, the arms moving. At the lower extremity of 
its right arm, as if on the palm of the hand, the fignre bore 
what seemed a rectaDgutar snbetaace, about four inches by two, 
as nearly as I could estimate. This substance was more 
brightly illnminated than the rest of the figure. It may have 
been only the illuminated palm, but I do not think it was; it 
seemed more like a transparent box with jdiosphorescent light 
within it. Whatever it was, the figure raised it above ite 
head and then passed it slowly down close to what aeemed the 
fece and then over the upper part of the body, as one might 
pass a lantern over any object, with intent to make it visible. 
This action it repeated several times. By aid of the illumina- 
tion thus afforded I saw, more distinctly than before, tbe gen- 
eral form of the face and figure ; but both appeared covered 
with a half-transparent veil, and I could distinguish no fea- 
tures: nor were the outlines of Qie body, nor of the limbs, 
sharply defined. The motion of the right arm, witb the li^t, 
was the most marked and frequent 

Wbile this was taking place I held Mrs. Underhill's band 


and Cbaries's. Ab the vuions phases of Uie phenomena sno- 
ceeded each other, I remarked oq what I saw ; and Mr. TJnder- 
hill, from the opposite side of the table, responded to my 
remarks ; so that I am quite certain he was seated there. 

I expressed a vish that the figure would touch me : and Mr. 
TTnderhill said, from his plaoe : " We are very aoxiouB that the 
spirit should touch Mr. Owen, if it can." 

Thereupon I felt what seemed a human baud laid on my 
bead. And, as I looked steadily at the figure, whicli stood on 
my left side, I saw its head bend toward my left shoulder. A 
moment afterward I fdt, and sunultaaeously heard, just be- 
hiod the point of that shoulder, a kiss imprinted. 

I oould not, for any physical fact, obtain the evidence of 
three senses — sight, touch, and bearing — more distinctly than 
in this case I did. 

Immediately afterward, I saw this luminous body pass be- 
hiild me ; what seemed, by the touch, to be hands gently laid 
hold of both my aboulders and turned me round to the right. 
I looked oa that side and tiie figure now stood by my right 

Afl«r pausing there for a few seconds, it moved toward the 
-window &rtbest from me, and we beard the sounds as if some 
one were attempting to open the window blind. Mr. Under- 
bill, &om his place, remarked that it would probably be able to 
effect t^is ; for it bad done so on a previous occadou. The 
blind was in four compartments, each of which oould be 
opened or closed by raising or lowering a wire attached to 
movable slats. The figure opened the upper, left-hand quarter 
of the blind, so that a fiunt light shone in from the street 
lamps. I was looking at the window when this occurred. 

Up to this time the appearance, gradually becoming more 
luminous, had been in sight, moving about the room, fully five 
minutes. There was not the slightest footfall when it moved. 
My bearing is yeiy acute; I listened for every sound ; and as, 
in the intervals of conversation, the silence was unbroken, I 
oould have detected the iall of the lightoat footstep. 


From this time the light which iUtuniiiated the fignre gnda- 
ally foded ; and soon I oould do longer distinguish uiy form. 
The sli^t, rustling sound, unaooompanied bj footsteps, still, 
hovever, continued. 

Suddenly we heard a noiM as of the door opposite to tne 
being unlocked ; then of its being hastily opened and shut ; 
then the rustling sound approached me on the left, and a ke; 
was laid on my left hand. Then a second door was heard to 
be unlocked in the same way, uid I heard another key laid on 
die bible just before me. Tbea a third door (that of the cap- 
board, by the sound,) was heard to be unlocked and opened, 
and a key, as if pitched over our heads, was heard to drop, with 
a clatter, on tJie table. 

While this was going on, I commented, &om time to time, 
on each occurrence, and received aoswers from Mr. Underfaill, 
from his place at the table opposite to me. . 

While we were conversing, there was a rattling of the crock- 
ery in the cupboard. Mrs. XJnderhill expressed her appieben- 
bIoiib as to some &vorite ohina, but Mr. Underbill replied : *' I 
will trust the spirits ; " and then added ; " Cannot the spirit 
bring something to Mr. Owen ? " Almost immediately there 
was set down on the table, close to my left hand, some object 
iriiich I touched, and it proved to be a cnt^glass goUet In 
Batting it down, what seemed a human hand touched mine, aod 
immediately afterward was laid, several times, on my shoulder. 
I expressed a desire that it would distinctly grasp my hand, to 
which Mr. Underbill responded. Instantly a small hand, or 
what in touch perfectly resembled one, took hold of my hand 
and grasped it. Then it clasped my bara wrist, gently but with 
a firm grasp ; then my lower arm, then my upper arm ; each 
time with a distinct gra^. I could not have distinguished 
the touch from that of a human hand. It was a little cooler 
than mine, but not disagreeably so. There was notbiug chilly 
or clammy or otherwise unpleasant about it. There was, after 
this, thi'ougbout the sitting, no sound whatever of opening or 
closing doors. 


Wtiile it was toucbing me thus, Mr. Underbill said : " Can 
you fill the goblet you brought to Mr. Owen with water?" 
There was a roBtling but no footstep ; a slight noise in the 
pantiy, and then the sound of something dropped into the gob- 
let ; but, putting vay hand in, I felt no water. In so doing I 
broke the circle only for a moment. 

Then, just behind me, I heard a sound as if the glass of the 
clock on the mantle-piece were touched and shaken- 
All this time there was no word spoken except by those at 
the table ; but, once or twice, there was a whistling sound in 
the air. 

"When, soon after, we were bidden, by the raps, to relight the 
gas, I found three door-keys on the table, the goblet also and, 
'witbin it, a lump of loaf-sugar. Both the room-doors were 
closed, but, on trying tbem, I found that neither was locked. 
Two of the keys on the table fitted them. The door of the 
pantry, which the third key fitted, stood open, and the cover of 
the barrel of sugar was pushed partly off. The left-band upper 
portion of the blind at which we had seen and beard tJie figure, 
was open. 

These are facta, all briefly noted down the same eveniag on 
which they happened, and written out in fuU the next morn- 

The auctions, by the raps, were that the spirit present was 
that of a daughter of Mrs. Fox who had died young, and that 
other spirits were present (among them an Indian spirit), aid- 
ing her to show herself to our circle. Emily — that was the 
girl's name — had been Mrs. TTDderbill'n favorite sister, long 
mourned over, and had lain, during the last hour of her life 
and at the moment of death, in Mrs, Underhiirs arms. Mr. 
TJnderiuU stated to me that he had seen the same spirit, as 
distinctly, several times before ; and that he bad been able to 
distinguish the features. He appeared, also, on this occasion, 
to have perceived the whole figure, and especially the features, 
more distinotly than I did, though my natural ught baa always 
been keen, and, except within ordinary reading distance, ia still 

469 EauBBB OS -what I 

nearly as stroi^ as it was tMrty yeare ago. With these ox- 
oeptiona, all praseat, so fiu' as I could judge by compari^ notes 
with them during and after the sittiog, s^esiqd to bare aeoi 
and heard the sucoession of phemxaena here described j ust as I 
myself had done. 

Tip to this time, never having wibiessad any such phe- 
nomena aa these, I had often doubted within myself bow I 
shouid be affected by witae^|ing an apparition, or what I bad 
reaaou to consider such. It seemed to me tltat I should exp»- 
rience no aJarm ; but of this, In advance of actual esperieuca, 
I could not be assured. Now I know juat how far I can trust 
my self-possession. Awe I undoubtedly felt — awe and inteiua 
interest ; but, in looking back on my feeling; .throughout tiiat 
wonder-bringiag hour, I feel certain tiiat a physician mi^tt 
have placed his dnger on my wrist, even at the moment when 
that dimly-illuminated Pieseoioe first bent over me, with 
scarcely six inches intervening between its veiled fooe and 
mine — its bands placed on my head, its lips tout^ung my 
shoulder — and not have found the beatings of my pulse unduly 
accelerated : or if he had detected acceleration, it could not, 
I am very sure, have been justly ascribed to any tremor or 
fear, but solely to the natural effect of solemn and riveted ex- 
pectation. If a man, under such circumstances, may tnut to 
his own recollections not twenty-four hours old, I can aver, on 
my honor, that I was not, at any time wbile these events wme 
in pn^frees, under other excitement (though it may be, greater 
in degree) than a chenist might be BM^^ed to esrperience 
while watching the issue of a long-projeoflyibd deoiaive exper- 
iment, or an astronomer when the culminating point of some 
important observation is about to be reached. 

I beg it may not be supposed that I mention this as boasting 
of courage. There was, in truth, nothing of whioh to boast 
The preceding and attendant circumstances were such as to pre- 
clude alarm. I was not alone, nor taken by surprise. I was 
^pecting some phenomena and hoping that they would be of a 


phospborfescent nature. And though I had not any expecta- 
tion of seeing an actual fonn, yet, as the allegation vaa that a 
deceaaed sister,, beloved by one of tlie asaiBtantB, ^a present, 
and as all the demonstrations were gentle and see'mingly ar- 
ranged, by friendly f^encies, to satisfy my deaire for the 
strongest evidence in proof of spiritual appearance, I was 
under very different cironmstanMs to those which have often 
shaken the nerves even of the boldest, while encountering, for 
the first time, what is usually caU%il a ghost 

I state the fact of my equanimity, then, merely as one of the 
attendant circumstancee which may by fairly taken into account 
in judging the testimony here suppli^ in proof of the appear- 
auoe, in visible and tangible form, of an allied spirit of a de- 
ceased person. It is often assumed that a man who believes 
he ee^ an apparition is (to use a common phrase) frightened 
out of his senses ; and so, is not entitled to credit as witness. 

If it be objected that, before the sitting closed, the doors 
-were unlocked, I reply first that all the most remarkable and 
interesting portion of the phenomena occurred be/ore thin ha^ 
pened; and, secondly, that, as the keys of the locked doors 
were left in them, they could only be opened from the inside. 
If, in reply to this last, it be still ui^ed that Mr. Underbill, 
deserting his post for a few seconds, might have opened one of 
the doors, I reply that I happened to be conversing with him 
at the moment we first heard the key turned. I add that dur- 
ing the nez.t sitting, when still more wonderful phenomena do> 
curred, I took a ^caution (as will be seen), which made it 
impossible that either Mr. Underbill or any of the assistants 
should leave their seats, even for a moment, without my knowl- 

Five days after this I bad the session here referred to, in the 
same room, with the same assistants; during which similar 
phenomena were repeated, but with one hi^y noteworthy ad' 



A Ohobt Speaeb. 

The dat« was the twentj-aizth of October, 1660 ; and it was 
an evening BesBion ; &oin half-past tea till midni^t. The 
same precautions which I had taken, before the commencement 
of the former sittii^ as to locking all the doors, looking under 
the table, examiniI^; the room and furniture, etc., I carefallj 
adopted on this occasion also. Ab before, we waited until the 
servants had retired and all was still. 

After a time there was spelled "Daricen;" then "Join 
hands." We obeyed ; button this occasion I took an additional 
precaution. Grasping Mrs. UndeFhill's right hand and Cbariee' 
left, I brought mj own hands to the oentre of the t^>le ; and 
Mr. Underbill, across the table, laid his hands on min^ This 
we continued throughout the entire sitting. I am able, there- 
fore, to assert that, from the beginning of this sitting till the 
end, the circle remained unbroken. 

After a few minutes, there appeared a luminous body of an 
irr^nlarly circular form, about four inohes in diameter, float- 
ing between us and the door which was back of Hra, Underhill. 
It was somewhat brighter than when it first a|>peared on the 
previous occasion ; that is, on the twenty-first of October. 

Then, after an interval, the light, rustling sound seemed to 
indicate the approach of some one. The figure was not so dis- 
tinot as on the previous occasion, the lower portion losing itself 
in agrayish cloud. The highest light seemed to be on the spot 
corresponding to the forehead. But I saw no features ; nor did 
I see the arms moving. Very soon I was gently touched on 
the head, then on the shoulders, then laid hold of, as with both 
bands of some one standing behind me. 

Then the figure seemed, by the sound, to move away, toward 
Mr. Underbill. He stated that the figure was approadung 
him. He asked it if, as a test, it could take something out of 
bia pocket ; but there was no reply, by raps or otherwise. Im- 
mediately I beard a sound as if some one were moving the key 
about in the door opposite to me. 


Soon after Mr. Uoderhill siud the figare had agun ^proached 
him. I saw the illumiiiated circular aubstanoe close to his 
head, but could not distrnguiah any figure. Mr. Underbill 
said that he oonld dimly diacem the figure. 

After a time it moved rauod to the lad Charles, who exhib- 
ited much alarm ; crying out " Ob, go away I Pray don't 1 " 
when it approached, as I saw it do, close to his head, which he 
had bent down on the table. It was now very bright, so that, 
by the light, I could see the outline of the boy's head. Charles 
afterward stated that he saw it distinctly, and that a band 
touched h im repeatedly. While it was close to Charles, it ap- 
peared to me as if a white handkerchiof or some article of the 
like texture were thrown over a hand or some similar support, 
I saw no figure. When it rose behind Charles, as if to leave 
him when be cried out, I could perceive what resembled a hand 
grasping some illuminated substance, Uie outline of the hand 
appearing as a shadow across the illuminated ground. 

Then it moved, as I could see, to Mr. TJDderhill, and after a 
time crossed over to me, and touched me gently on the shoul- 
der. Of a sudden it occurred to me that one other evidence 
was lacking, I expressed a desire that, if it could, it would 
speak. It seemed to make several efforts to do so, as indicated 
by a slight, guttural sound ; then I heard a sound resembling 
the syllable w, tvice repeated. 

Then, by the raps was spelled out ; " Sing." Mrs. Under- 
bill complied. The figure which had seemed to move away and 
return, again touched me fi-om behind, drawing me slightly 
toward it. Then, in a brief interval of the singing, I heard, 
in a low voice, just behind me, the words: "Cod bless you." 
As additional assurance that it was no momeutary illusion, I 
asked that it would speak again ; and again, in an interval of 
the music, I heard, in distinct tones, the same words, " God 
bless you." They seemed to be pronounced close to my ear. 
The voice was low~-«pparently a woman's voioe — just louder 
than a whisper, and the words seemed to be pronounced with 
an effort; in subdued tones, as a person faint from sickness 


miglit apeak. I puticularly noticed, also, that each vord vn 
pronounced separfttely, with a perceptible interval between; 
and there was not the usual accent on Ums, followed by ii» 
Bhortened you / but each word was equally accented. In o&a 
respects the sonuda resembled the human voice, when low and 

Mro. TJnderhill afterward stated to me that she distinguished 
the word t/ou, but not the othen. Ur. TJnderhill said he had 
heard articulate sounds, but could not make out any of the 
words: he only knew that something bad been said to me. 

After a time I saw the figure pass behind Mra. Und^hill 
and remain, for a few minutes, near her husband; then it re- 
turned to me, appearing on my left side. I saw the outJine of 
a head and face, but still, as before, covered with a veil which 
concealed the features. I perceived, however, what I bad not 
observed before, what seemed tresses of dark hair dropping 
over the face ; and the dim outline of an arm raised one of 
these tresses, and then dropped it agun, several times, as if to 
attract miy attention. Briiind was the vague outline of a fig- 
ure, but less distinct than during the previous sitting. 

Then the figure passed behind me. I was leaning over the 
table, so that Mr. TJnderhill might not have so &r to stretch, 
in order to reach my hands. I felt a kiss on my shoulder, 
then there was the feeling of two hands laid each on one 
shoulder and I was drawn very gently back till my shoulders, 
above the chair back, were pressed ogidnBt what seemed a ma- 
terial form. Almost at the same moment my hand was kissed. 

Mr, TJnderhill cried out, " Ah, you were drawn back ;" and 
Mrs. TJnderhill said, a little impatiently: "Every one ia 
touched but me. Can't you come to me ? " 

The words were hardly pronounced when she screamed out, 
as in alarm : she had been suddenly and onerpectedly kissed 
on tlie forehead. 

From that very moment the manifestations entirely ceased. 
No luminous object to be seen, not another touch, not a rustle, 
not a sound of any kind, in the room. I listened attaattToly, 


and am certain that so door opsned or sliut. And scarcely a 
jniante or two elapsed ere it was spelled out : " Light the gas." 

When we had done so we found evetything as before, with 
a eingle exception. I ascertained hy looking under the table 
ajid in the panti; that there waa no one in the room but our- 
selves : I found all the three doors locked ; but the key be- 
longing to the door opposite to me was missing. We asked 
where it was; the raps replied: "Look." We could not see 
it anywhere. Then we esamined our pockets ; and, from one 
of his coat-pockets, Mr. TTnderhill produced a key, wliioh was 
found to fit the door. 

Mrs. UnderhUi a^ed if her alarmed exclamation had injured 
the spirit ? 

Ajmoer, by the raps — " Not much." 

3ffS. XT. — " I'm so muoA afraid I hart her I " 

Aiiewer. — " It frightened her." 

Qut^ioii. (by me).— "Did Mrs. Underbill's cry of alarm 
cause the maaifestetioos to cease? " 

A7i»ioer. — " Yes." 

As to the door-key, I remark — 

That Mr. Underbill asked, as a test, to have something take^ 
from his pocket ; but it was a better test, since he could not 
move from bis place, to take the key from the door and depos- 
ite it in bis pockeL Who but a spirit could take it, our circle 
remaining unbroken ? Is the taking by spirit agency incredi- 
ble? But the hands that pressed my shoulders, that grasped 
my hand, that clasped my wrist, were surety material enough 
to extract a key from a door-lock and drop it in a coat-pocket. 

Then all the doors, this time, were left locked ; so that no 
one could enter from without : to say nothing of the absurd 
suppoaitioa that a spirit should open a door in order to admit 
human assistants. 

Though I had every reason to be satisfied with my suooess I 
resolved to prosecute these researches, hoping for an apparition 
by gas-light or daylight. But I was unable at that time to do 


■o. M;r duties as military agent of the 5tat« of Indiana nUed 
me from New York ; and, in the rush of events during Uteae 
stirring times, my time and thoughts wereotherwise engrosaed. 
In the spring of 1863 Judge Holt and myself were appointed 
a GoTomment Commission on Ordnance and Ordnance stores,* 
requiring a residence in Wadiington; and a year later I be- 
came chalraum of another Government Coaunission, chained 
with the duty of reporting on the condition of the recently 
emancipated freedmen of the United States. Thns it was not 
till the close of the war that I could sufficiently withdraw my 
attention from public duties to follow out, in any regular or 
oonseoutive manner, spiritual studies. Peilups this >ning ling 
of mundane work and ultramundane contemplations is of 
wholesome character; tending to infuse broader views and a 
more practical tone into speculative reeearches. 

My experience of 1860 led me to the opinion that an ol^eo- 
tive ' apparition most be the workmanship of spirits, possible 
under rare circumHtances. Sometimes these appear to be 
wholly independent of human agency or intention ; sometimea 
we can, in a measure, promote them, and even anticipate, wilJi 
more or less uncertainty, however, the result. In this latter 
case, we seem to obtain somethii^ corresponding, in a meaanre, 
to a production of human art ; and, specifically, of the art of 
sculpture; but of scutptnre in spiritual phase; evanescent^ 
only parti&Ily material, and liable, at any moment, to dissolve 
or disappear. 

What I particularly desired was to have an opportunity, in 
the light, of witnessing the formation of such an apparition ; 

* Judge Holt was a mamber of Preeident Baofaon&n'B CabiDet and 
aftenrard Judge Advocate QeneraL We reported od acooontB amonnt- 
iag to more than fortj-nine millions of doUaia, rodacmg the liabilities 
of the Qeneral Qovenmont, b; our deoisioiiB, nearly Mrenteen mil- 
liODB : and our report was Bostained. 

Some men imagine that piofoond conviotiona touching Bpintnalism 
and Spiritual phenomena inoapacitate for baainen dntleB ; but that is 


,nt Bosnm. 473 

jEts aotiom, its moTementa from place to place, and its diBap- 
pearanoe. Bat it was not until the year 1867 that I obtained 
any further satisfaction. During the spring of that year I 

heard of Miw B , of Boston, an elderly lady long known 

aod esteemed in that city as a successful teacher of music and 
dancing. It was said that she, iuM private circle, had obtained 
numerous objective apparitions, in a partially lighted room. 
This was afterward confirmed to me by a most estimable lady, 
-who had herself been present at many of these sittings ; Mrs. 
John Davis, widow of the well-known ex-Oovemor of Mas3a< 
chusetts, and of whom I have already spoken. * 

Mrs. Davis expressed to me her conviction that Miss B ■ 

was entirety sincere and disinterested ; and that the phenomena 
"which she (Mrs. Davis,) had witnessed in Miss B ^b apart- 
ments were genuine. 

Miss fi , it seems, had several friends, married ladies in 

the middle rank of life, who had more or less power as me- 
diums, especially In connection with spiritual appearances of 
an objective character. On several occasions, sometimes in one 

of their houses, sometimes in another, Miss B had herself 

Been an apparition. 

None of these ladies were professional mediums ; but it oc- 
curred to them that, if they met occasionally, they might, by 

their united powers, obtain very interesting results. Miss B 

offered the use of her S[uunouB apartments; and during a 
series of experiments which were conducted there, phenomena 
of a marvelloaB character were observed : a great variety of 
spirits a]^>earmg, chiefly strangers to any of the assistaute, in 

Tlds was noised abroad, and brought requests, from the curi- 
ous, for admission to witness such wonders. These were usually 
granted, but uniformly as a favor and without charge. Opin- 
ions were varions : some visitors were convinced ; others went 
away in doubt whether it was not an exhibition got up to mys- 
lifjr the credulous, or gratify a longing for notoriety. 

* See Book iii. eba^. 8. , 

^ .oogic 

474 A WOHDBBFDI. KgPiptnnHOB j 

lliu, of ooarae, wm very impleasaut to the Ikdies M>ncmfied*, 

and when I oalled on Hiss B , in Mky, 1867, I found that, 

for Boveral montha, they had almost ceased to meet When, 

however, I oxpresaed to Miss B my e&mest da&ire to 

investigate the matter, intending, some day, to pabliah the i«- 
Bults, she acceded to my wis^ps with the utmost alacrity. " I 
am so glad," she said, " to have some one, who will be liBteoed 
to, test these phenomeiia. When one has m> other interest oi 
desire than to get at important truth, it aeems hard to be sub- 
jected to groundless suspicion." 

At the first two or three sittings a portion only of the ladiea 
could attend ; and UisB B was of opinion that the discon- 
tinuance of their regular sittings had, for the time, weakened 
their power. We had only rapping and phoephoreeoent 
phenomena, but of a remarkable character. Bright atan 
appeared on the person of one medium, a line of li^it along 
the forehead of another, the word " Hope," on tlie back of the 
hand of a third. These appearances were brilliant and could 
be seen, twenty leet off, aoroas a dimly-light«d room. At other 
times the raps were so violent as to shake the sob on which we 

But until the seaaion, of June 4, there was no a^^iaiition. 
On that occasion we had one under very satis&ctory circum- 
stanoes ; but I did not consider the test complete ; for I did 
not witness either the formation of the figure or its diaappe«i^ 

It was not until the twenty-fifth of June that we were able 
to bring together all the ladies who had oompoeed the original 
circle. I consider that day, like the twenty-first of Octobra, 
1860, an era in my spiritual experience. 

An Apparition in Shihiho Kaihent. 

Miss B 's rooms, which ocoapied the entire third floor of 

a corner house in Waahii^ton street, Boston, oon3iBl«d of a 
large apartment, thirty feet &ont by thirty-five feet deep ; (own- 
ing, by folding doors, into a parlor back of it, which was 


ncxby-&vo feet l^ twenty. From each room there was c 
Mt of exit only, on » passage or Btair-landing, thtu : 





The front room was lighted by eight windows, four on WiA- 
ingtan street, and four on & gas-lit court-yard. As there *ae 
no curi&inB drawn nor ehutterg closed during the sitting, ■w\uA 
was. held after lamp-Ugbting, this room waa bo far lit from wii 
out that, by any one seated in the back parlor, a few feet &« 
the folding-doors, the dress and general appearance of powH 
in the front room couid be readily observed and every motioB 
they made distinctly seen. I took notice, however, ^at Utere 
was not light enough to recognize features, except dose at 
hand. In this room, employed for dancing lessons, the Boor 
was uncarpeted and waxed. All footsteps of persons wslkinj 
across it could be very distinotJy heard. 

Except myself there was but one visitor present, Mrs. Jolm 
Davis. The amateur mediums who assisted at the sitting were 

sis in number : Mrs. S. J. D , Mrs. George N. B , 

Mrs. Sarah A. K , Mrs. Fanny C. P , Mrs. Wiiliam E 

O , and Mrs. Maty Anne' C — — : all ladies, apparaotl;, 

from thirty to forty yeai-B of age. I 

Before the sitting b^^, Mrs. Davis and myself pused 
around the room and examined carefully every part of it. TIm 
furniture consisted of a sofa, a piano, and numerous chairs M 
against the walla. There was no pantry, or press, or rocew of 
any kind. We locked the sole door of exit, and Mrs. Davii 
kept the key in her pocket during the sittiog. Then we lockal I 
the door of the back parlor, retaining the key. 

We sat down in that parlor directly before the folding-doon. ; 
The sofa (marked s. on ground-plan), on which Mrs. I>avi&, 

Miss B and myself were seated, was about four or five feM 

within the parlor. I sat at the lefV-hand comer of this gofa: I 
the entrance through the folding-doors was draped by cnrtaioi. 
which were looped back ; so that, from where I sot, I could M 
three of the four front windows looking out oa Washingtoa 
street and the corner of the room to the right of them. The 
six mediums sat three on each aide of us. i 

All was quiet during the early part of tito sUting, whick 


commeDced a little after eight p.h. Scarcely any rapping. A 
few phos^oresceut lights. 

^bout a quart«r past nine, all the mediuDus being seated by 
■US, I saw dimly, near the right-hand corner of the front line of 
the large room (at 2), at first a grayish, Blightly-tuminons 
"vapor ; after a time, a figure draped in white. At first it waa 
stationary ; then it moved very slowly past the two right-hand 
■windows (a and b) to the centre of the front line of the room 
(at c), between two windows. There it remained one or two 
minutes, still but indistinctly visible. Then, very alowly and 
-withoat sound of footstep, it advanced down the room, coming 
directly toward the centre of the folding doors. It stopped (at 
d) about twelve or fourteen feet from where I was sitting; 
Thereupon, of a sudden, a brilliant light, coming from the right, 
striking directly on the figure and only on it — not directly 
ilhiminating the rest of the room^ — enabled me to see the ap- 
pearance as perfectly as if the entire room had been lit with 

It was a female 6gare, of medium height, veiled and draped, 
from head to foot, in white. The drapery did not resemble, in 
material, anything I have ever seen worn. It gave me, as on a 
previous occasion,* the exact feeling of the Scriptural expres- 
sion, " shining raiment." Its brilliancy was a good deal like 
that of new-fallen snow, in the sunshine ; recalling the text 
which declares the garments of Christ, during his transfigura- 
tion, to have been "exceeding white as snow;" or, again, it 
was not unlike the finest and freshest Parian marble with a 
bright light on it, only more brilliant. It had not at all the 
glitter of spangles or any shining ornament; the tone being as 
uniform as that of a newly-sculptured statue. It stood upright, 
in a graceful attitude, motionless. Had I suddenly seen it else- 
where, and without having witnessed its previous movements, I 
might have imagined it a beautiful piece of sculpture, of sin- 
gularly-pure material, and marvellously lighted up. The dra- 
pery fell around the figure closely, as usual in a statue ; not 
* June 4 ; alieady allnded to. , 

^ .oog Ic 


ftt all according to the modem foabioii of ampUtnde. I tbbi 
it was Bhown to us, under the bright light, as long as fifteen m 
twenty seconds. 

Htb. K stepped out to meet it, going close up to it, ni 

then returning to ub. The figure followed her ; and, as Mb. 

£ , when she passed the folding-doors, had stepped aside 

to the right, the apparition advtmoed, with a gliding motaon, 
into the parlor, till, as nearly as I could judge, it was within 
two or three feet of me. There it stopped (at e). 

As it remained immovable I raised my left arm, hoping tfaat 
I shoidd be touched. As I stretched it out, the figare extHMM 
its right arm, covered witJt drapery, toward me ; and drt^tped 
into my hand what proved to ' be a white rose ; but its lusd 
did not touch mine. 

Thereupon the appearance, still keeping its &oe to us, slevtr 
retired with the same silent, gliding motion whidi had maiM 
its advance ; not the sli^test sound of footstep, on tlta waxed 
floor, being audible. 

A second time it stopped, again about twelve or fifteen feet 
fi'om me ; and, a second time, an instantaneous light, coming 
&om the right and falling upon it, gave it to be seen wiUi Ae 
utmost distinctness. I was enabled to veriiy my former obeer- 
vations in regard to its appearance, and the unique, rid), le- 
splendent character nf the drapery. 

Then it slowly receded, still feeing us, to the centre of t)i» 
opposite wall (at c), gradually dimini^iing in brightness ; and 
finally it vanished before my eyes. 

Mrs. E had followed it and remained, a few sectmds, 

near the spot where it Tanished. Dten I saw her cross the 
window to the right on her return to na. She was dressed in 

I aax quit« eerlain that one figure only — that of Mn. K 

as she returned to us — Idt the spot. From the time the figure 
in white reached that spot, I kept my eyes intently fixed tfaeie, 
without taking them oj' for a single moment; and the liglit 
from the street was such that it was in^msaible for any object, 


Uaok' or white, to pass one of the 'windows without mj see- 
ing it. 

When a minute or two had elapsed after the diBappea»noe 
of the figure, and while my eyes were stUl fixed on the spot, 
the thought rushed vividly upoa me : " Is it possible that there 
can be nothing there?" This thought, to v>Ki«h J did not give 
tttteretnce, h&d hardly crossed my mind when, as if in reply to 
it, the same sort of mysterious light which had previously 
illnminated the figure suddenly Sashed over the space of wall 
lietweea the two windows where the figure had dis^peared, 
completely l^iting it up, toAtJe the vnndowa cmd vxdl on either 
side toere not illvtninaled. The l^t remained long enough to 
show me that there was nothing whatever there, except two 
chairs set against the wall, as I had seen them before the sitting 

Then, with my eyes still fixed on the plaoe of disappearance, 
I rose and passed entirely around the room : nor did I, for a 
moment, tolce my eyes off the spot that had been illuminated 
till I reached it. Sverything in the room mue exactly as it 
bad been before the altting, bo far as I could recollect. The 
outer door was still locked. 

It is proper to add that two of the mediums, Mrs. K 

and Mrs. D , informed me, after the sitting was over, that 

they did not remember seeing anything of the figure; both 
having awo&e, as &om a trance, at the close of the sitting. 
Hiis, Miss B infonoed me, was usual with them. 

I do not think that any of the assiBtanta perceived the forniar 
tion of the apparition as soon as I did ; but while the figure 
was advandng and retreating, the whispered remarks of the 
ladies near me — "There it isl" — "Now it stops I " — "Did 
you see that light?" etc, — made me awaie that they saw it 
just as I did. This was confirmed to me, on after inquiry, by 

all the ladies except Mrs. K and Mrs. D . All the 

others observed the sudden illumination of the spot where the 
figure disappeared. 

As on a former oocasion, it is proper I should state here that, 


ttroughout the sitting, tliough tiie impression prodoced »«• 
profound, Bolemn beyond expression, never to be forgotten, jtt 
it did not partake at all of the emotion of fear. The predoca- 
nant feeling waa a deep anxiety that there might be no into- 
niption, and that the sitting might not termin&te until I had 
obtained incontrovertible evidence of the feet tiiat the apftxf 
ance was of a spiritual character, yet as real as any eutiJy 

The allegation, by raps, at Qte close of the sitting, 'was thit 
the apparition ■was that of Violet. Seven years before, dnring 
a sitting nith Kate Fox, I had had a promise, purportiiig to 
come from her, that, some day when the conditions were favor- 
able, she would appear to me. He veil quite concealed tho 
features ; but the height, the form and carriage of the figure, so 
strictly corresponded to hcra that, when it approached me, I 
ceased to douht that she had kept her promise. 

My faith in the reality of this appearance is not at all shaken 
by reflecting that a Signor Blitz, or a Bobert-Hondin, having 
a theatre at cominand, arranged with ready entrances and exits, 
with practical trap-doors, with dark laatems in the wings, with 
the means of producing dissolving views—could probably re- 
produce all I witnessed. 

But here were a few ladies, in private life and in moderate 
circumstances, quietly meeting in two apartments which were 
daily used as school-rooms by one of their number; on the 
third story of a private house,* containing not even a rec«s 
where a chair could bo hidden away. They meet to satisfy ■ 
laudable cariosity; admitting visitors, now and then, by cour- 
tesy only. Ko remuneration is demanded; nor, very snrelyi 
would any have been accepted. They meet, on this occasiw, 
at my request, aiter having discontinued their researches for 
months, vexed with unjust suspicions. They allow us to 1o^ 
«very exit, after a close examination of the rooms. Here it 

• The floor below was daily used (or mBToaQtOe puipoaN. 


T motiTe, nor opportanity — -to say nothing of qualification 
— for deception. The coin of the realm may be counterfeited, 
but the coinera must have profosmoiiBl ekill, an appropriate 
location, and expensive machinery. Nor do counterfeiters ply 
their unholy calling except with the prospect of Urge gains. 

Certain it is, that I beheld the gradual formation of the 
figure ; that I witnessed its movements ; that I received from 
its hand an actual flower ; * that I saw the Jigure disappear. 
Add to this that the place of its disappeainace was illuminated 
by invisible agency, in answer to ou unexpressed thought of 
mine. If Robert-Houdin can read thoughts, ho baa a spiritual 

If the reader still withholds belief, dooming two or three 
examples insufficient to prove so strange a phenomenon as the 
formation, by spiritual agency, and the subsequent dieRppear- 
ance, of a form sufficiently material to grasp a substantial ob- 
ject and hand it to a human being ^lot him rend the next 

* I asked Hist B if there had been aay wbite loee in the room. 

She replied that there weie aeveial noseg^s Uiete that had been pie- 
eented to her bj her papOs, and, veij probablj, there might have been 
■noh a roM among' them. The flower which was given to me Is BtdU 
In my poeaemion. 




A JDDIOIOOB m&n of Bcienoe, experimenting in his labontoij, 
seeks, before giving to die vorld tke result of an importsJit ex- 
periment, to repeat tliat experiment more than once. Inaa- 
much as the governing hiw endures, any result obtained under 
that lav must be capable of being reproduced : and its reprodnc- 
tion, time ailer time, will usually be deemed necessary to give 
assurance of its genuine character ; seeing that a &llible 
observer may readily mistake or misinterpret, when his obeer- 
vation is limited to a single eicample. 

Some physical phenomena, however, are spontaneous aad 
cannot be produced at will. We cannot evoke an aurora bore- 
^is, or call down aerolites from the sky. Apparitions have 
usually been thought to be of that character, if believed in at 
all : and, to a certain extent, they are. Among the anpersti- 
tious a belief has sometimes prevailed that the dead may be re- 
called by mystic and uitlawfut rites, as Saul by the so-called 
" Witch " of En-dor. But such a superstition finds few 
believers in modem times. All that there is of truth underly- 
ing it consists in this, that, under favorable conditions, of rsie 
and difficult combination, we may occasionally obtain appan- 
tiooa ; and may even be favored so as to witness these again 
and again : not during weeks or months only, but througfaoot 

I am fortunate enough to be able to lay before the reader 
one of the most remarkable^-perhaps the most remarkable- 
example of this that baa ever occurred ; or, at least, that is to 
be found on record : with permission, fiwm the witness, to gite 


Jus name in attestation. It is a name 'vttU known in the com- 
mercial and social circles of New York, — Mr. Livermoro, 

This gentleman, eleven years ago, lost a near and dear rela- 
tive : lot ua call her Kstelle. On her death-bed, perceiving the 
poignant grief that overwhelmed her relative at the pros- 
pect of his approaohitig loss, she earnestly expressed the desire 
that it might be possible for her, after death, still to assure 
him of her continued existence. 

He attached little importance to this except as evidence of her 
aflection; having himself, up to that time, found no proof sat- 
isfactory to his reason touching a Hereafter. Neither he nor 
Estelle had any faith whatever in spiritual phenomena ; and 
both had been wont to r^ard the whole subject with repug- 

When Mr. Livermore found himself alone, his extreme grief 
was terribly embittered by the thought that it was a separation 
forever. Expressing this iu strong terms to his friend, Dr. 
John F. Gray, who had been Estelle's ph^cian from child- 
hood, that gentleman (one of the earliest believers in inter- 
mundane plienomBoa) suggested that there ukm a remedy capa- 
ble of alleviating his grief, if he (Mr. L.) saw fit to resort to 
it. The reply was a contemptuous fiing at Spiritualism and its 
delusions : and the sufferer went his way, hopeless and des- 

After a time, however, came the sober second-thought that 
there might be something in a doctrine which so earnest and 
thoughtful a man as Dr. Qray implicitly accepted. Accord- 
ingly, at his friend's suggestion, he resolved to seek sittings 
with Miss Kate Fox. 

The sittings were held sometimes in Mrs. Fox's parlor, some- 
times in Mr. Livermore's. * In all cases the necessary precau- 
tions were taken to give assurance that no one entered the 
room, or left it, during the sitting : the room itself being thor- 

* Both Mis. Fox and tb. Livermore oluuiged residenoea daring the 
time UieBs sittiii^ were held ; ta that tha phenooieiia weie obtained 
in fonf diSeieat dwellings. 


ougUy esamiued, and doors and windows effectaallj second. 
At several of the first sittings three or four vidtors were id' 
mitted as additional witnesses. But it soon became mppannt 
that the best results could be obtained with a single Attet 
only : and aooordingly, aa a general rule, Mr. Livennoie only 
was present. 

During the fint sitting, which was held Janoary 23, 1861, 
he, Mr. L., for tihe first time, heard the myateriouB edio«« 
— the " raps," as they are usually c&lled. Then, thron^ont 
the first ten or twelve sittings, followed the usual phenomen»; 
spirit-touches, spirit-communications, moving of ponderable 
bodies, etc. : finally spirit-writing. During the twelfth sittiiig 
came a message, purporting to be &om Bstelle, to the effect 
that if her friend persevered, her spirit could be made visiUa 
to him. Then, throughout a dozen sessions more, came fbot- 
phorescent lights, disappearing and reappearing at intervals; at 
last, on the twenty-fourth sitting (March 14th), the dim out- 
line of a figure, moving about. Three days afterward there 
came this message : " I know tiiat I can make myself visible 
to you. Meet to-morrow night. Secure the doors and win- 
dows, for I wish the t^t to be beyond all donbt, for your good 
and the good of others." 

The next evening tlie session was at Mrs. Fox's reeidense, 
but the fmnity were absent, so that the medium and the sitter 
alone occupied the house. Mr. L. sealed the windows, sealed 
and locked the doors, and placed heavy furniture against them ; 
then searched the room thoroughly and extinguished the gu. 
Soon come the words : "I am here in form." Then a globular 
light appeared, with crackling sounds. Aflier a time it became 
a head, veiled ; then, but for a single instant only, Mr. L. rect^ 
nLied the features of £stelle. Then a figure was seen ; all thii 
being visible by phosphorescent or electrical lights ia various 
parts of the room. During all this time Mr. L. held both of 
the medium's hands. Then the mode of producing raps wss 
shown : an orange-shaped luminous ball, with blont point at- 
tached, bounding up and down on the table, and the Bound of 


eacli rap comciding with the approach of the ball to the table- 

It was Bomewhat lat«r, however, that 

The Cbucial Test 

■was first obtajsed. I copy from Mr. L-'b record : 

" No. i3. AprU 18, 1861. Wind aoutb-west. Weather Hiir. 
Having absolutely secured doora and windows, we sat in per- 
fect quiet for half an hour, my faith becoming weak. Then 
■we wei'e atarned by a tremendous rap on the heavy mahogany 
centre-table which, at the same time, rose and fell. The door 
was violent'y shaken, the windows opened and shut : in &ct, 
everything movable in the room seemed in motion. Questions 
were answered by loud knocks on the doors, on the glass of the 
windowB, OQ the ceiling — everywhere. 

" Then an illuminated aubetance like gauze rose from the floor 
behind us, moved about the room and finally came in front of 
us. Vigorous electrical BOUndB were heard. The gauze-like 
substance assumed the form of a human head covered, the cov- 
ering drawn close around the neok. It touched me ; then 
receded and again approached. 1 recognized an oblong sub- 
stance, concave on the side that was presented to us, and in 
this cavity the light was brilliant. Into this I looked intently 
for a face, but none appeared. Again it receded and again ^ 
proached: this time I perceived an eye. A third time it 
moved backward, accompanied by electrical sounds, and when, 
a third time, it t:ame close to me the light had brightened, the 
gauze had changed in form ; a female hand grasped it, conceal- 
ing the lower part of a face ; but the upper part was revealed : 
it was that of Estelle — eyes, forehead, and expression in per- 
fection. The moment the emotion of recognition passed into 
my mind, it was acknowledged by a succession of ^uick rape 
from all parts of the room, as though an unseen audience 
expressed ita applause. 

" The figure reappeai-ed several times, the recognitios becoio* 


ing each time more nearly perfect. Afterwud her head wu 
laid upou mine, the hair ialliag over mj face. 

" Miss Fox (whose hands I had secnred during all this time) 
and I sat about ten feet from thit wall of the room irtiich fiwed 
us. The light moved to a point about midway between ob and 
the wall ; the electrical cracklings increased ; the wall was illu- 
minated and brought out an entire female figure facing that 
side of the room, the light apparently in one of her hands. 
The form remained in si^t/uily half an hour and each move- 
ment was distinctly visible. Then came the message : 

" ' Now see me rise : ' 

" And immediately, in full brightness, the figure rose to the 
ceiling, remained there a few momenta suspended ; then gently 
descending, disappeared. 

" Afterward she showed herself between us and a mirror. Tit 
reJUcUon of fhe^^are in the gla»s vxu dUtinctly vistAle, the light 
being so bright aa to show the veins in a marble slab beneath. 

" Here a heavy shower of rain fell, and there was spelled 
out: ' The atmosphere has changed. I cannot remain in form:' 
whereupon both light and figure finally disappeared." 

At a Bitting held two days later, the following communica- 
tion was received : • 

* I here remark that aQ oommnnioations obtained thiougli Eate Fox 

Spelled oat, letter after letter, by the raps : 

Or else written, sometiinea by Kate's Tijfht hand. sometimBa bytbe 
left ; but the writing alwayg txecixtei iwiendy ; bo that it oould only 
be read by holding it against a mirror. 

Occasionally sha writes two oommiudoatioos at onoe ; both huidi 
moving at the same time, eacb. on a separate sheet. And I have mj- 
Bslf witnessed the following ; While hsT band was writing, there tbi, 
by raps, a call for the alphabet ; whsreupon Kate called over the let- 
ters and took down the message, letter by letter, wiitlunitfor a momtiit 
iStcmitvauing her icriting. Mr. L. has often witnessed all the bIiotb 
phases of commanication. 

In addition to this, the internal evidence of many of the messa^Ei 
is, espeoially to those who know Miss Foi well, conclnaive evidooos 
that those originate entirely ontside of her will and of her intelligmue. 


" My heart is full of joy. We caimot be grateful enoogli to 
the Givei- of this great boon. I have seen your heart — the 
^hadon^ that rested upon it, the li^ts that now glorify it Be 
happy and four not. Peace be with you alway. 


So &r, the upper part of the face only had been seen ; but 
on the evening afl«r the above message was niceived (namely, 
April 21), the complete test was obtained. After giving the 
flotjula of various manifestationa apparently of a phosphores- 
cent character, Mr. Livermore says i " At last a luminous globe 
which had renuuned stationary some six feet to my left floated 
in front, and came within two feet of me. It was violently 
agitated, crackling sounds wera heard, and a figure became vis- 
ible by its light. Then there was revealed the full head and 
face of Estelle, every feature and lineament in perfection, spir- 
itualized in shadowy beauty, such as no imi^pnation can con- 
ceive ot pen describe. In her hair, above the left temple, was 
a single white rose ; the hair being apparently arranged with 
great care. The entire bead and face faded and then became 
visible again, at least twenty times ; the perfection of recogni- 
tion, in each case, being in proportion to the brilliancy of the 

But, at this session, he, Mr. L., obtuned other proof ^au 
that of sight to confirm the reality of the appearance. The 
head of the appearing figure rested for a time upon his, the 
luxuriant hair dropping over his face and into his hand. He 
says : " I laid hold of the hair, which seemed, to the touch, at 
first identical with human hair ; but, after a brief space, it 
Tnelted aioay, leaving notlting in m>/ graepV 

I select, at hap-hazord from numerous subsequent descrip- 
tions, the following : 

" JVo, 66. JuTie2, 1861: 8,30 p.m. There came a reminder, 
by raps : ' Examine the room and take the keys of the doors ; ' 
which I did. 

" We had scarcely seated ourselveo when there were violent 

488 BTHmiTrnw OF BSA.DTT 

movements, moceeded at first by n^ from varitnis pute ct 
the room, then hy terrific, crBsbiug r^wrts oa the taUe-top, 
like Duaiatiue thunderbolts, or laud discharges of electrioitr. 

"A rustling suooeeded; and a form stood beside me; its 
sphere permeating every fibre of my organiaation. Then there 
was rapping on the back of my chair, afterward on my shoal- 
ders ; and the figure, bending forward, placed a hand on my 
head, A bright light sprang up behind ub ; it rose, attended 
by electrical sounds. Then I was kissed on the head and a 
li^t but distinctly-felt substance passed over me. Therenpcm 
I r^sed my eyes and beheld the taoe of Estelle, plainly visible 
in front of the light, which now vibrated rapidly, ^trowing its 
fitfiil gleams upon such beauty as, in beings of this world, it is 
not given us to witness. She looked at me with aa expresskni 
radiant with blessedness. 

" At this point Miss Fox became so excited that her iite- 
pressible exclamations of wonder and delist seemed montenta- 
rily to disturb the ^pearanoe ; for it receded, not appearing 
again until she became calm ; and this oocurred several times. 
Simultaneously lights appeared, floating about in different 
parts of the room. 

" A card with which I had provided myself was then taken 
from my huid and, after a time, visibly returned to m«. On it 
I found a commnnicatioD beautifully written in pure, idioraatie 
French ; not a word of which was understood by Miss Fox : 
she has no knowledge whatever of the language." 

Passing over several iot«rveniiig appeamnoes on separate 
evenings, I find this, under date Juue 4 : 

"Wo, 81. Weather cool and pleasant Wind north-wieat" 
After detailing sundry less important phenomena, Sir. L. pro- 

" There were very distinct rustlings, and there rose, several 
feet above the table, a light so vivid as to illuminate all sur- 
rounding objects. As it approached me, a dark substance was 
suddenly interposed. This descended from the li^t and re- 
mained stationiuj about two feet from my eyes. QnduoUy it 


opened, discloaing a glimpse of Heaven and of an angel as 
bright a> imagination can picture. Tlie figure of Estello stood 
tLere, the same pare, white rose in her tresses: features and 
expression absolutely perfect under a full hlaze of light. ' 

" Six or seven times in succession, this form instinct with 
life and beauty vanished and then reappeared, before my eyes. 
When perhaps a quarter of ao hour had elapsed, figure and 
li^t both disappeared ; but in a nhorx time the light again 
showed itself; this time in a coroer of the apartment, where it 
shone out so brightly that every article of furniture in that 
part of the room was distinctly visible. And there, just aa 
plainly Tiaible, stood a feoude figure, in full proportions, the 
back toward us, and a veil, apparently of shining gauze, cover- 
ing the head, and dropping, in front, to fbe kneee. 

" I asked if she would raise her arm. She did so — ^the at- 
titude inexpressibly graceful. Xo t>en can describe the exquisite, 
transoendant beauty of what was this night revealed." 

I do not see how we can reject, or explain away, such evi- 
dence as the above, even if the record were arrested here. 
But what will the reader say when he is informed that more 
than THBEE HumiBED additional sittings were still to be held; 
ail confirmatory of the above experiences. 

It is impossible, within the limits of this volume, to follow 
Mr. Livermore throughout his voluminous record. I can but 
pick ont, here and there, a few of the more salient and irrefat- 
able results. 


Here is an item touching on the resemblanoes between this 
world and the next : 

"^o. 93. Jidi/ 17, 1861. Each saoceediug appearance 
seema more nearly perfect. This evening the figure of Estelle 
was BUTTOUDded by floating drapery of shining, white gauze. 
In her hand, held under ber chin, was a bunch of flowers ; and 
nedc and bosom were completely covered with roses and violets. 


" I Bsked : ' Where do ]raa obtain these fiow^a ? ' "Dta 
answer was : ' This world is a counterpart of yours. We hiTe 
all that you have — gardens and spiritual flowers in abund- 
ance,' " 

Next mouth came this, among many others : 

" ^o. 1 16. August 29. The figure of Estelle appeared soon 
after we entered the room. She stood quietly while a li^t 
floated close to face, head, and neck : as if to show each part 
more distinctly. While we were looking on, her hair fell otct 
her face, and she put it back several times with her hand. Her 
hair was dressed with roses and violets, beautifully arranged. 
This was the most perfect of her efibrts : she appeared almost 
as distinctly as in life. 

" By her side stood a form, dressed, as we clearly saw, in 
ooat of what seemed dark cloth. Miss Fox became greatly 
alarmed and very nervous. Because of this, or for some other 
reason, the &oe of this second form was not visible and it soon 
disappeared." [More of this figure hereafter.] The form of 
Bstelle, however, remaine«l. 

Hien we have an incident goii^ to prove that an fqiparition 
may handle earthly objects. The weather being warm, Mr. 
Livermore had brought with him, and laid on the table before 
him, a fan. This was taken and held by her, in various pod- 
tioos, sometimes concealing a portion of her face. He (Hr. L.) 

" The figure mast have been visible to us, during this stttiii^ 
J'or an hov/r and a half." 

It appears that the robes with which it was invested, thoo^ 
they dissolved in the hand, had a certain materiality. 

" No. 137. October 4. The figure of Estelle came in great 
Tividnese andwith extraordinary power. A light floated about 
the room and she followed it, gliding through the air ; at out 
time her loi^, white robea sweeping over the table, and brvA- 
ing from itpenait, paptr, and other tight o^ectt, which fell to 
the floor." 




By tixo raipa it wtts announced that the dark-robed figure 
■which had once or twice appeared was that of Dr. Franklin ; 
lilt no further proof of hia identity waa obtained until the sit- 
ting No. 162, of N'ovemhvr 11. Then his face was first Been, 
by a light wliich seemed .to be held by another figure. " If 
Any judgment can be formed from original portraits of the 
man," Mr. L. says, " there woidd seem to be no mistake about 
his identity. He was dressed in brown coat of the olden style, 
'with white cravat : hia head very lai^, with whitish or gray 
hair behind the ears ; the whole face radiant with intelligeace, 
benevolence, and spirituality." 

The next evening he came again. Here ia the record : 
" The raps requested that a chair be placed for Dr. Franklin 
on the side of the table opposite to where we sat. But the 
idea of such a vis-^via made Miss Fox bo nervous that I did 
not insist. After & time she became quiet, and we heard the. 
chair moved to the desired spot. 

" At this time the lights were dim ; but I perceived a. dark 
figure standing near me. Very soon it moved round the table, 
a rustling was heitrd, the lights brightened, and we saw what 
aeemed the old philosopher himself seated in the choir ; his 
entire form and dress in perfection. So vivid was the light, 
and so palpable (as it would seem) the form before us, that 
its ahadoio %oas thrown vpon tiie wall, precisely as if it bad 
been a mortal seated there. The position waa easy and digni- 
fiefl, one arm and hand on the table. Onoe he bent forward, 
as if bowing to us, and I observed that his gray locks swayed 
with the movement. He sat opposite to ua wiore tluzn an how. 
Finally I asked him if he would draw nearer : whereupon figure 
and chair moved toward us, and our silent neighbor was in 
close proximity. Before bediaappeared h^ rose from his chair ; 
both faco and form distinctly visible." 

I^iis wa« at Mi-s. Fox's; but the sitting of November 30th 


ns faeld in Mr. Zivermore's own bouse. He tells as wh»t ha 
then and there saw : 

" Ifo. 176. • Doors locked and sealed. Hea^y concQ»doni 
and electrical sounds; a chair opposite moved into position; 
tlieD & request for matches. These were taken from my h&nd, 
as I held them at armVlength. 

*' After a time, the sound of friction, as in drawing a match, 
was heard ; and, after several apparent efforts, a match ignited. 
By its light we saw that it was held by the figure, supposed 
that of Franklin, which appeared in perfection, dressed as be- 
fore, only that the color of his coat showed more perfectly. 
But as soon as the match went out the figure disappeared. 

" Afterward be reappeared (by match-light) t«n or twelve 
times. The third time my liat was on his head, worn as by 
a living person ; and then it was removed from his head to 
mine. The last time he appeared, the figure of Estelle showed 
itself, leaning on bis shoulder : but Miss Fox became nervous, 
and her exclamations (apparently) caused the final disappe*r- 
ance of both %ures. Then thei« came the following : 

" 'This is what we have long labored to accomplish. You 
can now say that you have seen me by the li^t of earth. I 
will come again, in farther proof 

" ' B. F.' " 

This promise was kept on December