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Full text of "Decimi Junii Juvenalis et Auli Persii Flacci Satirae expurgatæ"

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DECIMI JUNII JUVENALiS 



AULI PERSII FLACCI 



SATIRA, EXPURGAT^, 



KOTIS ILLUSTRATA 



CURATIT 



. F. P. LEVERETT. 




BOSTONIiE : 

HILLIARD, GRAY, LITTLE ET WILKIIfS. 

1832. 



^^$u.jL.^T \ 03<i ' 5"\ tr, V3 






HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 
THE BEQUEST OF ^ 
THEODORE lEWEH EASTMAN 
1931 



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Entered, aceording to Act of CongreM, in thè jear 1831, hj 

HiLLiARo, Grat & Co. 
In the Clerk'fl Office of the Distrìct Court of Massaehiuetti. 



D. JlJNIl JtrVENALIS 



\ 



AQUINATIS 



SATIRARUTH 



LIBER PRIMUS. 



SATIRA I. 

Semper ego auditor tantum ? nunquamne reponain, 
Vexatus toties rauci Theseìde Codri ì 
Impune ergo mihi recìtaverìt ìHe togatas, 
Hìc elegos ? impune diem consumpserit ingens 
Telephus ? aut summi piena jam margine libri ( 

Striptus et in tergo, nec dum fìnitus, Orestes? 

Nota magìe nulli domus est sua, quàm mihi lucus 
Martis, et JSoliìs vicinum rupibus antrum 
Vulcani, duid agant venti, quas torqueat iimbras 
^acus, unde alius furtivss devehat aurum 10 

PelliculsB, quantas jaculetur Monychus ornos, 
Frontonis platani, convulsaque marmora clamant 
Semper, et assiduo ruptae lectore columns. 
Exspectes eadem a summo minimoque poeta 

Et nos ergo manum fèrulse subduximus, et nos 15 

Consilium dedimus SuIIae, privatus ut altum 
Dormiret. Stnlta est clementia, quum tot ubique 
Vatibus occurras, periturae parcere chartsB. 

Cur tamen hoc potiàs libeat decurrere campo, 
Per quem magnns equos Auruncae dexit alumnus, 20 

Bi vacat, et placidi rationem admittitis, edam. 
Quum tener uxorem ducat spado, Maevia Tuscum 
Figat aprum, et nuda teneat venabula mammà ; 
Patricios omnes opibus quum provocet unus, 

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D. JUNII JUVENALIS 

Nunqaid nos agiraus ci^usaeR? civilia jur» 

Novimus ? aut ullo sUepku fora vestra movemnf f 35 

Luctantur pa«G« ; com^dunt colìphia pauc». 

Yò8 lanam trahitì»» calathiaqua peracta refeitis 

Veliera : vos tenui pisegnantein stamine fusumr 

Penelope meliùs, leviùs tovf^Metia Arachne, 

Horrìda quale facit residens in codice pellex. 40 

Notum est, cur solo tabulas impleverit Hister 
Liberto ; dederit vìtus cur multa puellee. 
Dives erit, magno quae dormit lerlia lecto. 
Tu nube, atque tace : donant arcana cylindros. 
De nobis post bsec tristis sonteAtia fertur : 45 

Dat veniam corvis, vexat censura col^nnbafk 

Fugerunt trepidi v^a ac manifesta canentem 
Stoi'cidae. Quid enim iàlsi Liauronia ? Sed quid 
Non facient alii, quum tu multicia sumas^ 
Cretice, et hanc vestem populo mirante perores 50 

In Proculas, et Pollitas 1 Est mtecha LkbuUa : 
Damnetur, si vis, etiaqi^ Carfinia : talem 
Non sumet damnata togam. $ed Julius arde!» 
^fistuo. Nudus agas ! Minùs est insania turpìs. 
£n habitum, quo te l^ges «.e jura ferentem 65 

Vulnerìbus crudis pc^Milus modo victor» et illud 
Montanum positis audiret vulgus aratris. 
Quid non proclamea^ in corpore judicis ista 
9i videas ? Quaero, an d^ceant multicia tee^em t 
Acer, et indomitus, libertatisque magister, 69 

Cretice, perluces. Dedit hanc contagio labeod;, 
Et dabit in plures ; sicut grex totus in agris 
Unius scabie cadlt et porrigihe porci, 
Vvaque conspectà Uvorem ducit ab uva. 

Foedius hoc aliquid quandoque audebis amictu. Q5 

Nemo repente fuit t;u£pi..8imus. Accipient te 
Paulatim, qui longa domi redimicula sumunt 
Frontibus, et toto posuére monilia c<^lo, 
Atque Bonam tenerse placant abdomine porcffi,, 
Et magno cratere, Deam. Sed more siuistro 70 

Exagitata procul non intrat fòemina limen. 
Solis ara Dese maribus patet. Ite profai^ae ! 
Claraatur : nullo, gemit hìc tibicina cornu. 
Talia secreta colufirqut Orgiai t(edà 

Cecropiam soliti BaptsB lassare Cotytto. 75 

Ille supercilium ma^idii fuligine tactum 
Obliqua producit acu, pingitque trementes 



SATIRA II. f 

Attoliens oculos : vitreo bibìt iile Prtapo, 

Reticulumque conois i^uratum ing^itibuB implet, 

Csrulea indutus scutulata, aut galbana rasa, 80 

£t per Junonem domini jurante miaistro. 

Ille tenet speculum» pathici gesU^aen Othoniff, 

Actoris Aurunci spolium, quo se ille4iridebat 

Armatum, quum jam toUi vexilla juberet. 

Res memoranda novis annalibus, atque recenti 8S 

Historià, speculum civilis sarcina belli. 

Nimìrum summi ducis est occidere Galbami 

Et curare cutem; summi constantia cìris 

Bebriaci campo spolium affectare Palati, 

Et pressum in facìem digitis estendere panera : 90 

Quod nec in Assyrio pharetrata Semiramis orbe, 

Mcesta nec Actiacà fecit Cleopatra carina. 

Hic nuUus verbis pudor, aut rcverentia mense. 

Hic turpìs Cybeles et fractà voce loquendi 

LibertaSy et crine senex fanaticus albo 96 

Sacrorum antistes, rarum ac memorabile magni 

Gutturis exemplum, conducendusque magister. 

Quid taraen exspectant, Phrygio quos tempus erat jam ' 

More supervacuam cultris abrumpere carnem ì 

Quadringenta dedit Gracchus sestertia, dotem iOO 

Conyicini ; sive hic recto cantaverat ere. 
SìgnatsB tabule : dictum Felìciter ) ingens 
Goena sedet : gremio jacuit nova nupta mariti. 
O proceres, censore opus est an haruspice nobis t 
Scilicet horreres, majoraque monstra putares, 105 

Si mulier vitulum vel si bos ederet agnum ? 
Segmenta, et longos habitus, et flammea sumit, 
Arcano qui sacra ferens nutantia loro 
Sudavit clypeis ancilihus. O pater Urbis, 
Unde nefas tantum Latiis pastoribus ? unde 110 

Hec tetigit, Gradivo, tuos urtica nepotes ì 
Traditur ecce viro clarus genere atque opibus vir : 
Nec galeam quassas, nec terram cuspide pulsas, 
Nec quereris patri T Vade ergo, et cede severi 
JugeriSus campi, quem negligis ! Officium cras 115 

Primo sole mihi peragendum in valle Quirini. 
due causa officìi ? Quid queris ? Nubit amicus, 
Nec multos adhibet. Lìceat modo vivere ; fìent, 
Fient ista palàm, cupient et in acta referri. 
Interea tormentum ingens nubentibus heret, 120 

Quòd nequeunt parere, et partu retinere maritos. 



g D. JUNII JUVENALIS. 

Sed meliufl, quòd nìl aniniis in corpora jaris 

Natura indulget. Steriles moriuntar, et ilHs 

Turgida non prodest condita pyxide Lyde^ 

Nec prodest agili pai mas prsbere Luperco. 125 

Vicit et hoc monstrum tunicati fuscina Gracchi, 
Lustravitque fuga mediala gladiator arenam, 
Et Capitolinis generosior, et Marcellis, 
Et Catuiis, Paulique minoribus, et Fabiis, et 
Omnibus ad podium spectantibus. His licet ipsum 130 

Admoveas, cujus tunc munere retia misit 

Esse aliquid Manes, et subterranea regna, 
Et contum, et Stygio ranas in gurgite nigras, 
Atque una transire vadum tot millia cymbà, 
Nec pueri credunt, nisi qui nondum aere lavantur. 195 

Sed tu vera puta. Curius quid sentit, et ambo 
ScipiadaB ? quid Fabricius, manesque CamilH ? 
Quid Cremerae legio, et Cannis consumpta Juventus, 
Tot bellorum animae, quoties hinc talis ad illos 
Umbra venit? Cuperent luslrari, si qua darentur 140 

Sulfura cum tasdis, et si foret humìda laurus. 
Uluc, heu I miseri traducimur. Arma quidem ultra 
Littora Juvernae promovimus, et modo captas 
Orcadas, ac minima contentos^ nocte Britannos : 
Sed quae nunc populi fiunt victoris in urbe, 145 

Non faciunt illi, quos vicimus. — 



SATIRA III. 



CIua:^:tts digressu veteris confusus amici, 
Laudo tamen, vacuis quòd sedem fìgere Cumis 
Destinet, atque unum civem donare Sibyllae. 
Janua Baiarum^ est, et gratum littus amoeni 
Secessùs. Ego vel Prochytam praepono Suburse* 6 

Nam quid tam miserum, tam solum vidimus, ut non 
Deterius credas horrere incendia, lapsus 
Tectorum assiduos, ac mille perìcula saevae 
Urbis, et Augusto recitantes mense poètas ? 
Sed dum tota domus rhedà componitur una, 10 

Substitit ad veteres arcus madidamque Capenam. 
Hlc, ubi nocturnse Numa constituebat amicae, 
Nunc sacri fontis nemus et delubra locantur 
Judseis, quorum cophinus fcenumque supellex. 



SATIRA III. g 

(Omnis enim populo mercedem pendere jiusa eoi 15 

ATbor, et ejectis mendicat silva CamoBuis) 
In vallem Ègeriffi descendimus, et speluncM 
Dissimiles vefis. Quanto prsstantius esset 
Numen aqus, viridi ai margine clauderet undas 
Herba, nec ingénuum violarent marmora tophum ? - 90 

Hic tunc Umbricius, Quando artibus, inquit, honestis 
Nullus in Urbe looos, nulla emolumenta Jaborum, 
Res hodie minor est, herè quàm fiiit, atque eadem crai 
Deteret exiguis aliquid : proponimus illuc 
Ire, fatigatas ubi Daedalus exuit alas^ 25 

Dum nova canitìes, dum prima et recta senectus, 
Dum superest Lachesì, quod torqueat, et pedibus me 
Porto meis, nullo dextram subeunte bacilla 
Cedamus patria : vivant Artorius istic 

Et Catulus : maneant, qui nigrum in candida vertunt, 90 
Quìs facile est «dem oonducere, flumina, portns, 
Sicc^dam eli)viem, portandum ad busta cadaver, 
Et prsebere caput domina venale sub basta. 
Quondam hi cornicinea, et municipalis arena» 
Perpetui ooistites, notaeque per oppida buccae, 36 

Munera nunc édunt, et verso pollice vulgi' 
Qaem libet occidunt populariter : inde reversi 
Conduòunt fbricas ; et cur non omnia ? quum aint, 
Quales ex humìli magna ad fastigia'rerum 
Extollit, quoties voluit Fortuna jocari. 40 

Quid Romae faciam ? mentiri nescio : librum. 
Si malus est, nequeo laudare et poscere : motus 
Astrorum ignoro : funus promittere patris 
Nec volo, nec possum : ranarum viscera nunquam 
Inspexi. Forre ad nupiàm'^ qiìés mittit adulter, 45 

Quae mandat, norùnt alii : me nemo ministro 
Fui" érit, atque ideò nulli comes exeo, tanquam 
Mancus, et exstincte corpus non utile dextre. 
Q(|is nunc diligitur, nisi conscius, et cui fervens 
iEStùat'occùliis animus, semperque tacendis? 50 

Nil tibi se debere putat, nil conferei unquam, 
Participem qui te secreti fecit honesti. ,. 
Carus erit Verri, qui Verrem tempore, quo vult,- 
Accusare potest Taìiti tibi non sit opaci 
Omnis arena Tagi, quodque in mare volvitur aurum» 55 

Ut somno careas, ponendaque proemia sumaa ' 

Tristis, et a m(|gno semper timearìs amico. 
Qus nunc divitibus gens acceptissima nostris. 



10 D. JUNII JUVENALIS 

Et quos prsecipuè fugiam, properabo fàterì, 

Nec pudor obstabit Non possum Terre, QuiriteSy 60 

Grecam tirbem : quaniTÌs quota portio fiecis Achm t 

Jam pridem Syrus in Tiberini defluxit Orontes, 

Et linguam, et mores, et cum tibicine chordas 

Obliquas, nec non gentilia tympana secum 

Vexit, et ad Oircum jussas prostare puellas. 65 

Ite, quibus grata est pietà lupa barbara mitrÀ* 

Rusticus ille tuus sumit trechedipna, Cluirine, 

Et ceromatico fert niceteria collo. 

Hic alta Sicyone, ast hic Amydonè relictà, 

Hic Andro,' ille Samo, hic Trallibus, aut Alabandu, 70 

Esquilias dictunique petunt a vimine collera, 

Viscera magnarum domuum dominique futuri. 

Ingenium velox, audacia perdita, sermo 

Promptus et Isaeo torrentior. £de, quid illum 

Esse putes ? querovis hominem secum attulit ad nos : 75 

Orammaticus, rfaetor, geometres, pictor, aliptes, 

Augur, schcenobates, medicus, magus : omnia novit 

Grseculus esuriens in ccDlum, jusseris, ibit. 

Ad sumroam, non Maurus erat, neque Sarmata, nec Thrax^ 

Qui sumpsit pennas^ mediis sed natus Athenis. 80 

Horum ego non fugiam conchylia? me prior ille 

Signabit ? fultusque toro meliore recumbet 

Advectus Romam, quo pruna et cottana vento? 

Usque adeò nihii est, quod nostra infantia ccelum 

Hausit Aventinum bacca nutrita Sabina ? 65 

Quid, quòd adulandi gens prudentissima laudat 

Sermonem indocti, &ciem deformis amici, 

Et longum invalidi collum cervicibus squat 

Herculis, Antaeum procul a teliure'tenentis? — 

Haec eadem licet et nobis laudare : sed illis 90 

Creditur. 

Nec tamen Antiochus, nec erit mirabilis illic 
Aut Stratocles, aut cum molli Demetrius Hcemo. 
Natio comceda est. Rides ? meliore cachinno 
Concutitur : flet, si lacrymas conspexit amici, 95 

Nec dolet : igniculum brums si tempore poscas, 
Accipit endromiden : si dixeris, sstuo, sudat. 
Non sumus ergo pares : melior, qui semper et omni 
Nocte dieque pòtest alienum sumere vulture, 
A facie jactare manus, laudare paratus. — 100 

Scire voìunt secreta domùs atque inde timeri.<.<. 
Et quoniam coepit Grscorum mentio, transi 



SATIRA III. 11 

Gymnaaiay atque aadi fiicinas majoris aboUe* 

Stoifcus occidìt Baream, delator amicum, 

Discìpulumque seuex, ripa nutritus in illà, 105 

Ad quam Gorgonei delapsa est pinna caballi. 

Non est Romano cuiquam locus hic, ubi regnai 

Protogenes aliquis, veì Diphilus, aut Erimarchus, 

Qui gentis vitio nunquam partitur amicum. 

Solus habet. Nam quum facilem stillavit in aurem 110 

Exiguum de natur® patriaeque veneno. 

Limine submoveor: perierunt tempcM'a longi 

Servitii. Nusquam minor est jactura di^ntis. 

Quod porrò officium, ne nobis blandiar, aut quod 

Pauperis hic meritum, si curet nocte togatus 115 

Currere, quum praetor lictorem impellat, et ire 

Praecipitem jubeat dudum Wgilantibus orbis. 

Ne prior Albinam et Modiam collega salutet ? — 

Da testem Romae tam sanctum, quàm fìiit hospes 

Numinis Idasi: procedat ve! Numa, vel qui 120 

Bervavit trepidam flagranti ex sede Minervam : 

Protenas ad censura, de moribus ultima fiet 
Qusestio. duot pascit servos ? quot possidet agri 

Jugera 1 quàm multa magnàque paropside coenat ì 

Quantum quisque sua nummorum servat'in arca, 125 

Tantum habet et fìdei. Jures licet et Samothracum 

Et nostrorum aras ; contemnere fulmina pauper 

Creditur atque deos, dìs ignoscentibus ipsis. 

Quid, quòd materiam praebet causasque jocorum 

Omnibus hic idem, si fisda et scissa lacerna, 130 

Si toga sordidula est, et ruptà calceus alter 

Pelle patet ; vel si consuto vulnere crassum 

Atque recens linum ostendit non una cicatrix ì 

Nil habet infelix paupertas durius in se, 

Quàm quòd ridiculos homines facit. Exeat, inquit, 135 

Si pudor est, et de pulvìno surgat equestri, 

Cujus res le^i non sufficit, et sedeant hip 

Lenonura pueri quocunque in fornice nati. 

Hic plaudat nitidi praeconis filius inter 

Pinnirapi cultos juvenes, juvenesque lanists. 140 

Sic libitum vano, qui nos distinxit, Othoni. 

Quis gener hic placuit censu minor, atque puells 

Sarcinulis impar ì quis pauper scribitur haeres ? 

Quando in Consilio est sedilibus? Agmine facto 

Debuerant olim tenues migrasse Quirites. 145 

jland facile emergunt, quorum virtutibus obstat 



12 D. JUNII roV£NALIS 

Reis angusta domi ; fted R<Mne durkir illk 

ConatuB : magno ho^ititttn miseralnk, magno 

Servorum Yentres, et fingi ooBnula magno. 

Fictilibus cosnare pudet, quod turpe negavit 1(S0 

Translatus subito ad Marsos menaamque Sabèllani ; 

CSontentusque illic veneto duroque culullo. 

Pars magna Italie est, si Tefum admittimus^ in qilà 
Nemo togam snmit, nisi mortaus. Ipsa dierum 
Festorum herboso colitur si quando theatro 156 

Majestas, tandemque redit ad pulpìta notum 
Exodium, quura persone pallentis hiatum 
In gremio matris ibrmidat rusticus infans ; 
iEquales habitus illic, similesqtie videlMS 
Orchestram et populum : clari velamen honoris^ Wù 

Sufficiunt tunice summis aedilibus albs. 
Hic ultra vires habitus nitor : hic aliquid plus, 
Quàm satìs est, interdum aliena sumitur arca. 
Commune id vitium est. Hic vivimus ambitiosà 
Paupertate omnes. Quid te moror ? Omnia Rome 16S 

Cum pretio. Quid das, ut Cossum aliquando salutes t 
Ut te respiciat clauso Veiento labello ? 
Ille metit barbam, crinem hic deponit amati. 
Plen|^,dj(^mu9libis venalibus. Accipe, et istud 
* Fèrmenfiim tibì habe : prestare tributa dientes IW 

Cogimur, et cmtis augere peciilia servis. 

Quis timet, aut timuit gelida Preneste ruinam, 
Aut positis nemorosa inter juga Volsiniis, aut 
/ Simplicibus Gabiis, aut proni Tiburis arce ì 

Nos urbem colimus tenui tibicine fultam "''^ ^ ,. ov . < c( |,j{g 

Magna parte sui. Nam sic labentibus obstat 

Villicus, et veteris rime quum texit hiatum, 

Securos pendente jubet dormire ruinà. 

Vivendum est illic, ubi nulla incendia, nulli 

Nocte metus. Jam poscit aquam, jam frivola transfert IdO 

Ucalegon ; tabulata tibi jam tertia fumai^t : . ._ ^ ., , 

Tu nescis. Nam si gradibus trepìàatóf aTb imis, 

Ultimus ardebit, quem tegula sola tuetur 

A pluvia, molles ubi reddunt ova columbe. 

Lectus erat Codro Proculà minor, urceoli sex, 185 

Ornamentum abaci, nec non et parvulus infra 

Cantharus, et recubans sub eodem marmore Chiron ; 

Jamque vetus Grecos servabat cista libellos, 

Et divina òpicf ròdébant carmina mures. 

Nil habuit Codrus : quis enim negat ? et tamen illud 190 



SATIRA III. 13 

Pè^didìt ìnfelix totum nihii : oltimus autem 
' '"" "MrnmnBd cumuius, quòd nudum, et frusta rogantem 
Nemo cibo, nemo ho^itio, teotoque juvabìt. 
Si magna Asturii cecidit domus : horrida maler« 
Pullati proceres, differt vadimonia prctor. 196 

Tunc gemimus casus Urbis, tunc cidimus ignem. 
Ardet adhuc, et jam accurrit, qui marmora donct, 
Conferat impensas. Hic nuda et candida aigna, 
Hic aliquid prasclarum Euphranoris et Polycleti, 
Hsec Asianorum voterit ornamenta deorum, 900 

^^^c libros dabit, et fcnttfósfinediamque Minenram^ 
Hic modium argenti. Meliora ac plura reponit 
Persicus orborum lautissimus et meritò jam 
Suspectus, tanquam ipse suas incenderit edes. 
Si potes avelli Oircensibus, optima Sor», 206 

Aut Fabraterìe domus, aut Frusinone paratur, 
Quanti nunc tenebras unum conducis in annum. 
Hortulus hic, puteusque brevis, nec reste mòvendus. 
In tenues plantas facili diffunditur haustu. 
Vive bidentis amans, et culti vilUcus horti ; 210 

Uhde epulum possis centum dare Pythagoreis. 
Est aliquid, quocunque loco, quocunque reeessu, 
Unius sese dominum fecisse lacertae. 

Plurimus hic eger moritury^landgr : sed illum 
Languorem peperit cibus imp&Wnis, et herens 215 

Ardenti stomacho. Nam qus meritoria somnum 
Admittunt ? Magnis opibus dormitur in Urbe : 
Inde caput morbi. Rhedaróm ftransitua arcto > 
Vicorum m nexu, et stantis conviciQ> raanmw ' 
Eripient somnum Druso, vitulisque marinis. 220 

Si vocat officium, turba cedente vehetur 
Dives, et ingenti curret super ora Liburno, 
Atque obiter leget, aut scribet, vel dormiet intos ; 
Namque facit somnum clausà lectica fenestrà 
Ante tamen veniet : nobis properantibus obstat j V. . 226 
Unda prior : mwio popu|[||i8|p|[en|it agmine lumbos. 
Qui sequi^ur. Ferit, hic cubito, Terit asseré duro ' . v 

Alter ; at hic ({||iUià capiti incutit, ille metretam. 
Pinguia crura luto, pianta mox undique magna 
Calcor, et in digito clavus mihi militis heret. 290 

.Nonne vides, quanto celebretur sportula fumo f 
Centum convivae : sequitur sua quemque culina. 
G>rbulo vix ferret tot rasa ingentia, tot res 
Impositas capiti, quas recto vertice portat 

2 



14 D. JUNII JUVENALIS 

Servahis infelix, et eurau ventilat igoem. 235 

Scindontur tunic» sarts : modo longa coru8c«t 

Sarraco veniente abies, atqtie altera pinum 

Plaustra Tehmit, natant alte popaloque minantur. 

Nam si procubuit, qui saaa Ligustica portat, 

Axis, et everaum Ibdit super agmina montem, 240 

Quid Buperest de corporibus ? quis «lerabra, quis oflsa 

InTenit 7 obtrituin vulgi perit omne cadaver 

More animae». Domus interea secura paleUas 

Jatn lavat, et buccà focoluin excìtat, et sonat unctia 

Striglibus, et pieno compooit lintea gutto. 24r 

Hec inter puevos rariè properantur : at ille 

Jam sedet in ripa, tetrumque novicius borret 

Porthmea, nec c^rat cosnosi gurgitis alniun 

Infelix, nec habet, quem porrigat, ciré tnentem. 

Respice nunc alia ac diversa pericola nootis : 250 

Quod spatium tectis sublimibus, unde cerebnm 
Testa ferit, quoties rimosa et curta fenestris 
Vasa cadant ; quanto percussun^ pondero sigoent 
Et ledant silicem. Possis ignavus haberi 
Et subiti casus improvidus, ad coenam si 255 

Intestatus eas. Adeò tot fìita, qaot illà 
Nocte patent vigiles, te praetereunte, fenestne : 
Ergo Gptes, vòtumque ièraa miserabÓe tecuna,^ 
Ut sint contentfB patulas defundere pelves. 

Ebrius ac pétulans, qui nuUum forte cecidit, 200 

Dat poenas, noctem patitur lugentis amicum 
PelidsB, cubat in faciem, mox deinde supinus. 
Ergo non aliter poterit dormire? Quìbusdam 
Sòmnum rixa facit : sed, quamvis improbus annis, 
Atque mero fervens, cavet hunc, quem coccina lena 265 
Vitari jubet, et comitum longissiraias ordo, 
Multum prsterea flammarum, et aénea lampas. 
Me, quem luna solet deducere vel breve lumen 
Candele, cujus dispenso et tempero, filoin^ ^ 
Contemnit. Misere cognosce ^rtxiSS^ hxe, 270 

Si rixa est, ubi tu pulsas, ego vapulo tantum. 
Stat contrà, starique jabet ; parere necesse est 
Nam quid agas, quum te furiosus cogat, et idem 
'Fòrtior? Undevenis? exclamat: cujiis aceto, 
Cujus co^phe tumes? quis tecum sectlle porrum ' 275 

Sutor, et éfixi verveets kbra comedit? 
Nil mihì respondes ? aut die, aut accipe calcem» 
Ede, ubi consistas : in qua te quero proseudiA? 



SATtRA lY. 15 

Dìcere si tentes aliquid, tacitmve reoedas^L aJ^t 

Tantundem est; feriunt pariter : vadimonia ^roinde 5S8D 

Irati faciunt Libertas pauperis hsBC est : 

Pulsatus rogat, et pugnis concìsas ador^t, 

Ut liceat paucis cum dentibus inde reverti. 

Nec tamen haec tantum metuas : nam, qui spoliet te, 
Non deerit, clausis domibos, postquam omnis ubiqué 285 
Fixa catenatae siluit compago tabemse. 
Interdum et ferro subitus grassator agit rem, 
Armato quoties tutee custode tenentur 
Et Pomtina palus et Gallinaria pinus. 

Sic ànde huc omnes, tanquam ad vivaria, cumini. 290 

Qua fornace graves, qua non incude cateme? 
Maximus in vinclls ferri modus, ut timeas, ne 
Vomer deficiat, ne marrg et sarcula desint. );!«^ 'V. .. (<, >, - v ^ 
Felices proavorum atavos, felicia dicas 

Sscula, qus quondam sub regibus atque tribunis 295' 

Viderunt uno contentam carcere Romam. 

His alias poteram et plures subnectere causas : 
Sed jumenta vocant, et sol inclinat : eundum est ; 
Nam mihi commotà jamdudum mìilio virgà 
Annuit. Ergo vale nostri memor, et, quoties te 900 

Roma tuo refici properantem reddet Aquino, 
Me quoque ad Helvinam Cererem vestramque Dianam 
Convelle a Cumis. Satirarum ego, ni pudet ilias, 
Adjutor gelidos veniam caligatus in agros. 



SATIRA IV. 



Ecce iterum Crispìnus ! et est mihi saepè vocandos 
Ad partes, monstrum nulla virtute redemptum 
A vitiis, aeger, solàque libidine fortis. — 
Quid refert igitur, quantis jumenta (atiget 
Porticibus ? quanta nemorum vectetur in umbra ? 5 

Jugera quot vicina foro, quas emerit dsòes ? 
Nemo malus felix ; minime corruptor, et idem 
Incestus, cum quo nuper vìttata jacebat, 
Sanguine adhuc vivo terram subitura^ sacerdos. 
Sed nunc de 4actis levioribus : et tamen alter 10 

Si fecisset idem, caderet sub judice morum. 
Nam quod turpe bonis, Titio Seioque, decebat 
Crispinum. Quid agas, quum dira et foedior omni 
Crimine persona est ! Mullum sex millibus emit, 



16 D. JUNII JUVENAUS 

iGquantem sane paribus sestertia lìbrìs, 16 

Ut perhibent, qui de magnis majora loquuntar. 

Consilium laudo artifici», si munere tanto 

PrsBcipuam in tabulis ceram seni» abstulit orbi. 

Est ratio ulterior, magpree si misit amie®, 

Clus vehitur clauso latls specularibus ^ntro^^'cy'' ^ ^ ^ M 

{^il tale exspectes : etnit sibi. Multa videmus. 

Ciuffi miser et frugi non fecit Apicius. Hoc tu 

Succinctus patria quondam, Crispine, papyro t 

Hoc pretio squaniae 7 potuit fortasse minori» 

Piscator, qnàm pbcis, emL Provincia tanti/ % 

Vendit agros ; sed majores AppuUa vendit. 

Quales tunc epulas ipsum glutisse putemus 

Endoperatorem, quum tot sestertia, partem 

Exiguam, et modicae sumptam de margine ccDme^ 

Purpureus magni ructàrit scurra Palati, 90 

Jaro princeps equitum, magna qui voce solebai 

t^eiìdere municipes frictà de merce siliuos l 

Incipe, Calliope, licet et considere : non est 

Cantandum, res vera agitur. Narrate, puell» 

Pierides . pròsit mihi vos dixisse puellas ! 35 

Quum jam semianimum laceraret Flavius orbem 
Ultimus, et calvo serviret Roma Nereo i ; 
Incidit Adriaci spatium admirabile rhombi 
Ante domum Veneris, quam Dorica sustinet Ancon,. 
Implevitque sinus : neque enim minor hsEìserat illis» 40 

Quos operit glacies Maeotìca, ruptaque tandem 
Solibus efiundit torpenùs ad ostia Ponti 
Desidia tardos, et longo frigore pingues. 
Destìnat hoc monstrum cymbe finique magister 
Pontifici summo. Quis enim proponere talem 45 

Aut emefè auderet, quum piena et littora multa 
Delatore forent T Dispersi protenus algaì^ 
Inquisitores agerent cum rcmige nudo, 
Non dubitaturi fiigitivum dicere piscem, 
Depastumque diù vivarìa Cssaris, inde 50 

Elapsum veterem ad dominum debere reverti. 
Si quid Palfìirio, si credimus Armillato, 
Q,uidquid conspicuum, pulchrumque est sequore toto, 
Res fìsci est, ubicunque natat Donabitur ergo, 
Ne pereat. Jam letifero cedente pruinis 55 

Autumno, jam quartanam sperantibus ffigrìs, 
Stridebat deformìs hiems, pra^damque recentem 
Servabat : tàmen hic properat, velut urgueat Auster* 



SATIRA IV. 17 

Utque lacus suberant,' ubi, qaanquam diruta» serrai 
Ignem Trojanum et Vestam colit Alba minorem, ^ 

Obstitit intranti miratrix turba parumper. 
Ut cessit, facili patuerunt cardine valvsB. 
Exclusi spectant admissa opsonia Patres. 

Itur ad Atridem. Tum Picena, AccJMjdintJ '^'/> ' 1- - {irti 
Privatis majora focis : l^nialis agatilf » '*'*^ . <?- - y- /--^ j 

Iste dies, propéra stomachum laxare saginis,^*"^*^^^^ 
Et tua servatum consume in sflecuJa rhombum. 
Ipse capi voluit : quid apertius ? «t tamen ilK 
Surgebant cristte. Nihil est, quod credere de se 
Non possit, quura landatur dia «qua potestas. 70 

Sed déerat pisci patinae mensura. Yocantur 
Ergo in consilium proceres, quos oderai lite ; 
In quorum fìicie miserie magnieque sedebat 
' Pallor amicitis. Primus, clamante Liburno, , 

Currite! jam sedit! raptÀ properabat alM>]là t!^*^^*^ 75 
Pggasus, attonitee positus modo villìcus Urbi. 
^ ""^^^iiiiie aliud tunc praeiècti ? quorum optimus atque 
Interpres legum sanctissimus, omnia quanquam 
Temporibus diris tractanda putabat inermi '-*^-^^ c».^:'-* -^ 
Justitià. Venit et Crìspi jucjunda senectus, ^ 

j. . CHJu^^j^rant mores, qualis f^rctfnJélia, mite 

*^ngenium : maria ac terras popuiosque recenti 
Quis Comes utilior, si clade et peste sub ilTà 
Ssevitiam damnare et honestum afferre liceret 
Consilium 1 Sed quid violentius aure tyranni, S5 

Gum quo de pluvìis, aut sstibus, aut nimboso 
Vere locuturi fatum pendebat amici ? / 

Ille igitur nunquam direxit bracfiia contra 
Torrentem, nec civis erat, qui libera ^sset 
Verba animi proferre, et vitam im^iìoére vero. 90 

Sic multas hiemes atque octogesima vidit 
X^^-^ ^^-t^^olstitia, bis armis illà quoque tutus in aula. 
Proximus ejusdem properabat Acilius sevi 
Cum juvene, indigno, quem mors tam sseva maneret. 
Et Doraiili gladiis tam festinata ; sed olim 95 

Prodigio par est cum nobilitate senectus ; 
Unde iìt, ut malim fraterculus esse gigantis. 
Profuit ergo nihil misero, quòd cominus ursos 
Figebat Numidas, Albana nudus arena 
Venator. Quis enim jam non intelligat artes 100 

Patricias? quis priscum illud miretur acumen, ' -^ 

Brute, tuum ? Facile est barbato imponere regi, 

2* 



18 D. JUNII JUVENALIS 

Nec melìorvultu, quamviB ignobilis, ibat 

RubriuSy oÀfeasiB veterìs reus atque tacend», 

Et tamen improbior satiram scribente cinedo. 105 

Montani quoque venter adest abdoraine tardus^ , r' 

Et matutino sudans Cmpinus amomo, "^ • " 

Quantum vix r^dolent duo flinera ; saevior ilio 

Pompeius tenui jugulos aperire susurro ; 

Et, qui vulturibus servabat viscera Dacis, 110 

Fuscus, marmorea meditatus proelia villa, 

Et cum mortifero prudens Veiento Catullo, 

Qui nunquam viste flagrabat amore puellsB, 

Orande et conspicunm nostro quoque tempore monstrom ! 

Caecus adulator, dirusque a ponte satelles, 115 

Dignus Aricinos qui mendicaret ad axes, 

Blandaque devex» jactaret basia rhedae. n ^^ 

Nemo magìs rhombum stupuit : nam plurima dixit 

In laevam conversus ; at illi dextra jacebat 

Bell uà : sic pugnas Cilicis laudabat, et ictus, 190 

Et pegma, et pueros inde ad velaria raptos. n 

Non cedit Veiento : sed, ut ianaticus, cestro jp-'^^^-^ 

Percussus, Bellona, tuo divinat, et, Ingens 

Omen habes, inquit, magni clarìqu^||rm^jn[Q}^ 

Regem aliquem capies, aut de temone Britanno Vlo^ 

Excidet Arviragus : peregrina est bellua : cernia 

Erectas in terga sudes ? Hoc defuit unum 

Fabricio, patriam ut rhombi memoraret, et annos. 

Quidnam ìgitur censes ? conciditur ? Absit ab ilio 

Dedecus hoc, Montan^s ait : testa alta paretur, 130 

Quee tenui muro spatiosum colligat orbem. ''* »- - * - ^ ^ * ' ^ ^' * 

Debetur magnus patina? subitusque Prometheus. 

Argillam atque rotam citiùs properate ; sed ex hoc 

Tempore jam, Csesar, fìguli tua castra sequantur. 

Vicit digna viro sententia. Noverat ille 135 

Luxuriam imperii veterem, noctesque Neronis 

Jam medias, aliamque famem, quum pulmo Falerno 

Arderet. Nulli major fuit usus edendi 

Tempestate meà. Circeis nata forent, an 

Lucrinum ad saxum, Rutupinove edita fundo 140 

Ostrea, callebat primo depréndere morsu ; 

Et semel adspecti littus dicebat echini. 

Surgitur, et misso proceres exirè jubentur 

Consilio, quos Albanam dux magnus in arcem 

Traxerat attonitos, et festinare coactos, 145 

Tanquam de Cattis aliquid torvisque Sygambris 



SATIRA T. 

Dìcturus, tanquam et direniìs partibus 

Anxia precipiti venisset episloia pinna. 

; 'Atque utinam his potiùs nugis tota iUe dedìsMt 

Tempora ssviti», claras quìbiis abstulit Urbi, IfiD 

LIustresque animas impune, et vindice nullo ! 

Sed periit, postquam cerdonibua esse timendus 

CcBperat : hoc nocuit Lamiarum c»de madentL 



SATIRA V. 



. 'Si te propositi nondum pudet, atque eadem est meoi^ 
Ut bona summa putes,^ aliena Tiverè quadra ; 
Si potes illa pati, quae nee Sarmentus iniqua» 
CsBsaris ad mensas, nec vilis Galba tulisaet : 
Quamris jurato metuam tibi credere testi. 
Ventre nihil novi frugalius. Hoc tamen ipsum 
Defecisse puta, quod inani sufficit alvo : 
Nulla crepido vacati nusquam pons, et tegeti8|Mr» 
Dimidià brevior ? Tantino injuria cosne ì 
Tarn jejuna f^mes, quum poi sit bonestius illic l# 

Et;tremere, et sordes farris mordere canini ? 

Primo fige loco^ quòd tu discumbere jussus 
Mercedem solidanx veterum capis offioiorum. 
Fructus amicitise magne cibus : imputat hunc rex. 
Et, quamvis rarum, tamen imputat. Ergo duos post^ IS 

Silibuit menses neglectum adbibere clientem, 
Tertìa ne vacuo cessaret culcita lecto ; 
Una simus, ait. Votorum summa ! duid ultra 
Quaeris ? >I{abet Trebius, propter quod run^re somnudi 
Debeat, et ligulas dimittere, sollicitus, ne 
Tota salutatrix jam turba peregerìt orbem 
Sideribus dubiis, aut ilio tempore, quo se 
Frigida circumagunt pigri sarraca Boot». 
Qualis coena tamen ? Vinum, quod succida nolit 
Lana pati : de conviva Corybanta videbis. S6 

Jurgia proludunt ; sed mox et pocula torques 
Saucius, et rubra deterges vulnera mappa, 
Inter vos quoties libertorumque cohortem 
Pugna Saguntinà lervet commissa lagena. 
Ipse capili ato diffusum consule potat, 
Gaicatamque tenet bellis socialibus uvam, . 
Cardiaco nunquam cyathum missurus amico. 



D. JUNII JUTENAUS 

Cras bibet Albania aliquid de montibna, aat de 

Setinis, cujus patrìam titaittmqae seaeclua 

Delevit multa veteris fuiigine teste ; 95 

Onde coronati Thrasea Helridiueque bibebaat 

Brutorum et Cassi natalibus. Ipse caf>aee8 

Heliadum crustas, et ioflequales berjrllo 

Virro tenet phialas : tibi non corainittitar attmni ; 

Yel, si quando datur, custos affixus ibidem, 40 

Qui numeret gemmas, unguesque observet acutos. 

Da veniam : preclara illic laudatur iaspis. 

Nam Virro, ut multi, gemmas ad pocula transfert 

A digitis, quas in vagine fronte solebat 

Ponere zeloiypo jurenis prelatus larb». 45 

Tu Beneventani sutoris nomen habentera 

Siccabìs calicem nascMrum quatuor, ao jam 

Quassatum, et rupto poscentem sulfura vitro. 

Si stomachus domini fervet vinoque ciboque ; 

Frigidior Geticis petitur decocta pruinis. 50 

Non eadem vobis poni modo vina querebar : 
Vos aliam potatis aquam. Tibi pocula cursor 
Getulus dabit aut nigri manus ossea Mauri, 
Et cui per mediam nolis occurrere noctem, 
CI ì vose veheris dum per monumenta Liatine. 55 

Flos Asie ante ipsum, pretio majore paratus, 
Quàm fuit et Tulli census pugnacis, et Anci, 
Et, ne te teneam, Romanorum omnia regum 
Frìvola. Quod quum ita sit, tu Getulum Ganymedem 
Respice, quum sities. Nescit tot millibus e»ptus 60 

Pauperibus miscere puer : sed forma, sed etaa 
Digna supercilio. Quando ad te pervenit ille?. 
Quando vocatus adest calide gelidaBque minister ? 
Quippe indignatur veteri parere clienti, 
Quòdque àliquid poscas, et quòd se stante recumbas. 05 

Maxima queque domus servìs est piena superbis» 

Ecce alius quanto porrexit murmurc panem 
Vix fractum, solide jam mucida frusta farine, 
Que genuinum agitent, non admittentia morsum I 
Sed tener, et niveus, mollique siligine factus 70 

Servatur domino : dextram oobibere memento. 
Salva sit artocopi reverentia. Finge tamen te . 
Improbulum ; superest illic, qui ponere cogat. 
Vis tu consuetis audax conviva canistrìs 
Impleri, panisque tui novisse colorem ? 76 

SeUicet hoc fuerat, propter ^od, sepè relictà 



^^^Mi"iBi^B*MHHHBHHHHVMMlBHaB«HH 



«ATIRA V. 91* 

Gonjagfe, per montasi adveralim, geUdaeque cacnm 

Esquiiias, fremeret saevà qaum grandine vernu» 

Jupiter, et multo stillaret pienula nimbo ! 

Adspiee, quàm longo distendat pectore lancem, 69 

QniB fertur domino, squilla, et quibus undique sqpte 

Asparagis, qua despiciat convivia caudà, 

Quum Tenit excelsi manibus sublata ministri. 

Sed libi dimidìo constrictus caounarus oiro 

Ponitur, exiguà feralis ccsna patella. 81» 

Ipsè Venafrano piscem perfìindit : at hic, qui 

Pallidus alTertur misero tibi caulis, olebit 

Laternam. lUud enim vestris datur alveolis» quod 

Canna Micipsarura prora subvexit acuta ; 

Propter quod Rom® eum fiocchare nemo lavatur, M 

Quód tutiws etiam facit a serpentibus Afros. 

Mullus erit domino^ quem«misit Corsica, vel qaem 

Tauromenitanae rupes, quando- omne peractunkesi 

Et jam defecit nostrum mare^ dum gula saevit, 

Retibus assiduis penitus scrutante macello tt» 

Proxima, nec patimur Tyrrhenum crescere piscem. 

Instruit ergo focum provincia : sumitur il line 

Quod captator emat Lenas, Aurelia vendat. 

Virroni muraena datur, qus maxima venit 

Gurgite de Siculo : nam, dum se continet Auster. IM 

Dùin sedet et siccat madidas in carcere penna»,, 

Pontemnunt mediam temeraria lina Cbarybdim.. 

Vos anguilla manet longs cognata colubra», 

Aut glacie adspersus maculis Tiberinus^ et ips» 

y emula rìparum pinguis torrente cloacÀ^ lOS 

Et ^litus medisB cryptam penetrare Subura». 

Ipsi panca velim, facilem si praebeat aurem. 
Nemo petit, modicis qua» mittebantur amicis 
A Seneca, quae Piso bonus, quae Cotta solebat 
Largiri-; namque et titulis et fascibus olim IIC^ 

Major habebatur donandi gloria : solum 
Poscimus, ut coenes civiliter. Hoc &ce, et esto^ 
Esto, ut nunc m(Mti, dives tibi, pauper amicis. 

Xnseris ante ipsum magni jecur,. anseribus par 
Altilis, et flavi dignus fèrro Meleàgri 11& 

Fumat aper : post hunc tradentur tuberà, si ver 
Tunc erit, et facient optata tonitrua conas 
Majores. Tibi habe frumentum, Alledius inquit« 
O Libye ; disjunge boves, dum tuberà mittas ! 

Structorem interea, ne qua indignatio desiti^ IM 



ss D- JUNII JUTENALI8 

Saltantem opeetes, et chironomoDta ventili 

Cultello, donec peragat dìetata magistri 

Omnia : nec minimo sane discrìmine reSért, 

Quo gestu lepores, et quo gallina deeetur. 

Duceris planlft, velut ictod ab Heroule CaoiiSy 12S 

Et ponére forìs, si qaid tentayeris onqoam 

Hiscere, tanquam habeas tfia nomina. Quanda pffopmat 

Virro tibi, sumitque tuis coolaeta labellis 

Focula ? quia vestrihn temerarìiis asque adeò, qui» 

Perditus, ut dicst regi, Bibe ? Plurima swit, qu» 130 

Non audent homines pertosÀ dieere lena. 

Quadringenta tibi si quis deus, aut simiti» dia, 
Et melior fatis donaret ; bomnncio, q«antus 
Ex nihilo fieres, quantus Virronis amicus ! 
Da Trebio : pone ad Trebtum ! Vis, frater, ab ipM 135 
liibus? O nummi, yobis bunc prestai bonorem, 
Vos estis iratres. Domkiiis tamen et domini rei: 
Si vis tu fieri, nnllns tibi panrulus aula 
Lnserit ifineas, nec fiiia dtilcior ilio» 

Jucundum et carum steriJis facit Qxor amicttm. 145 

Sed tua nunc Mycale pariat licet, et pueros tre» 
In gremium patris fundat simul : ipse loquaci 
Gaudebit nido; viride thoraca iubebit 
Afferri, minimasqve nuceg; assemqiie rogatum. 
Ad mensam queties pavasitus ?enerit infana 14S 

Vilibus ancipites fbngi poneptur amicis, 
Boletns domino; sed qualem Qaudius edit 
Ante illum uxoris, post quera nil ampliàs edit. 

Virro sibì et reliquia Virronibus illa jubebit 
Poma dari, quorum solo pascaris odore ; 150 

dnalia perpetuus Ph»acum autumnus habebat, 
Credere quse possis subrepta sororibus Afi'is. 
Tu scabie frueris mali, quod in aggere rodit, 
dui tegitur par ma et galea, metuensque flagelli 
Discit ab hirsuta jaculum torquere capelli. 155 

Forsitan impensae Virronem parcere credas. ' 
Hoc agit, ut doleas : nam qus comcedia, mithis 
Quis melior plorante gulà ? Ergo omnia fiunt, 
Si nescis, ut per lacrymas effundere bilem 
Cogaris, pressoque diù stridere molari. 160 

Tu tibi liber homo et regis convìva videris : 
Captum te nidore su» putat ille culinae : 
Nec male conjectat. Quis enim tam nudus, ut illum 
Bis feraty Etruscum puero si contigit aurum 



SATIRA V. 2S 

Vel nodiis tantàm, et signum de paupere loro ? 165 

Spes bene coenandì vo6 decipit. Ecce dabit jam 

Semesum leporem, atque alìquid de clunibiis i4>rì. 

Ad DOS jam venìet minor altiUs. Inde pamto, 

Intactoque omnes, et strìcto pane tacetis. 

lUe sapit, qui te sic utitur. Omnia ferre 170 

Si potes, et debes. Pulsandum vertice raso 

Praebebis quandoque caput, nec dura timebis 

Flagra pati, bis epulis et tali dignus amico. 



D. JUNII JUVENALIS 



AQinNAllS 



SATIRARUM 



LIBER SECUNDU8. 



SATIRA VI. 

ChiEDO pQdicitìam Saturno rege moratam 
Io terris, visamque dìù, quum frigida panras 
Preberet spelunca domos, ignemque, laremque, 
Et peciis, et dominos communi clauderet umbrà^; 
ISilvestrem montana torum quum sterneret uxor 6 

Frondibus et culmo, vicinarumque ferarum 
Pellibus ; haud similis tibi, Cynthia, nec tibi, cujos 
Turbavit nitidos exstinctus passer ocellos ; 
Sed potanda ferens in&ntibus ubera magnis, 
Et sspè horridior glandem ructante marito. 10 

Quippe aliter tunc orbe novo ccBloque recenti 
Vivebant homines, qui rupto robore nati, 
Compositive luto, nullos habuére parentes. 
Multa pudicitiae veteris vestigia forsan, 
Aut aliqua exstiterint, et sub Jove ; sed Jove nondum 15 

Barbato, nondum Graecis jurare paratis 
Per caput alterius, quum fiirem nemo timeret 
Caulibus, aut pomis, et aperto viveret horto. 
Paulatim deinde ad superos Astrsa recessit 
Hàc comite, atque dus pariter fugére sorores. 20 

Antiquum et vetus est, aìienum, Postume, lectum 
Concutere, atque sacri genium contemnere fulcri. 
Omne aliud crimen mox ferrea protulit aetas : 
Viderunt primos argentea secula moechos. 



SATIRA VI. 26 

Conveiitum taroen, et pactum, et sponsalìa, nostra 25 

Tempestate paras, jamque a tonsore magistro 
Pecteris, et digito pignus fortasse dedisti. 
Certe sanus eras ! Uxorem, Postume, ducis f 
Die, qua Tisiphone, quibus exagitàre colubrist 
Fcrre potes dominam salWs tot restibus ullam, 30 

duum pateant altse caligantesque fenestrae, • 
Quum tibi TÌcinum se praebeat iEmilius pons f — 
Sed placet Ursidio lex Julia : tollere dulcem 
Cogitat haeredem cariturus turture magno, 
Mullonimque jubis, et captatore macello. 36 

Quid fieri non posse putes, si jungitur uUa 
Ursidio 1 si mcechorum notissimus olim 
Stulta maritali jam pòrrigit ora capistro, 
Quem toties texit perituri cista Latini ? 
Quid ? quòd et antiquis uxor de moribus illì 40 

Quaeritur. O medici, mediam pertundite venam ! 
JDelicias hominis ! Tarpeium limen adora 
Pronus, et auratam Junoni caede juvencam. 
Si tibi contigerit capitis matrona pudici. 
Paucae adeò Cereris vittas contingere dignae, 4S 

Quarum non timeat pater oscula. Necte coronam 
Postibus, et densos per limina tende corymbos. 
Unus Iberinse vir sufficit ? Ociùs illud 
Extorquebis, ut hsBC oculo contenta sit uno. 

Magna tamen fama est cujusdam rure paterno 50 

Viventis. Vivat Gabiis, ut vixit in agro ; 
Vivat Fidenis ! Et agello cedo paterno : 
Quis tamen affirmat, nil actum in montibus, aut in 
Speluncis ? Adeò senuerunt Jupiter et Mars ? 

Porticibusne tibi monstratur fòemina voto 55 

Digna tuo ? Cuneis an habent spectacula totis, 
Quod securus ames, quodque inde excerpere possia ?— 
Accipis uxorem, de qua citharoedus Echion 
Aut Glaphyrus fiat pater, Ambrosiusque choraules. 
Longa per angustos fìgamus pulpita vicos : ' 00 

Ornentur postes, et grandi janua lauro. 
Ut testudineo tibi, Lentule, conopeo 
Nobilis Euryalum mirmillonem exprimat infans, 

Nupta senatori comitata est Hippia ludium 
Ad Pharon, et Nilum, famosaque moenia Lagi, 05 

Prodigia et mores Urbis damnante Canopo. 
Immemor illa domùs, et conjugis, atque sororìs, 
Nil patriae indulsit ; plorantesque improba natos, 

3 



26 D- JUNII JUVENALIS 

Utque magìs stupeas, ludos Paridemque relìquit. 

Sed quanquam in magnis opibus, plumàque paterna, 70 

Et segmentatìs dormisset parvula cunis, 

Contempsit pelagus : famam contempserat ohm, 

Cujus apud molles minima est jactura cathedras. 

Tyrrhenos igitur fluctus latèque sonantem 

Pertulit lonium constanti pectore, quamvis 75 

Mutandura toties esset mare. Justa perieli 

Si ratio est et honesta ; timent, pavidoque gelantur 

Pectore, nec tremulis possunt insistere plantis : 

Fortém animum prsestant rebus, quas turpiter audent. 

Si jubeat conjux, durum est conscendere navim ; 80 

Tunc sentina gravis, tunc summus vertitur aèr. 

Quae mcechum sequitur, stomacho valet. Illa mantum 

Convomit : hsBC inter nautas et prandet, et errat 

Per puppem, et duros gaudet tractare rudentes. 

Qua tamen exarsit forma, qua capta juventà est 85 

Hippia ? quid vidit, propter quod India dici 

Sustinuit ? nam Sergiolus jam radere guttur 

Cojperat, et secto requiem sperare lacerto. 

Praeterea multa in facie defi>rmia ; sicut 

Attritus galea, mediisque in naribus ingens 90 

Gibbus, et acre malum semper stillantis ocelli. 

Sed gladiator erat : facit hoc illos Hyacinthos ; 

Hoc pueris, patriaeque, hoc prsetulit illa sorori 

Atque viro. Ferrum est, quod amant. Hic Sergius idem 

Acceptà rude coepisset Veiento videri. — 95 

Hippomanes carmenque loquar, coctumque venenum 

Privignoque datum ? Faciunt graviora coact» 

Imperio sexùs, minimùmque libidine peccant. 
Optima sed quare Cesennia, teste marito ? 

Bis quingenta dedit ; tanti vocat ille pudicam, 100 

Nec Veneris pharetris macer est, aut lampade fervet : 

Inde faces ardent ; veniunt a dote sagittaB. 

Libertas emitur : coràm licet innuat atque 

Rescribai, vidua est, locuples quse nupsit avaro. 

Cur desiderio Bibulae Sertorius ardet ? 105 

tSì verum excutias, facies, non uxor amatur. 

Tres rugse subeant, et se cutis arida laxet, 

Fiant ob^curi dentes, ocnlique minores ; 

Gollige sarci nulas, dicet libertus, et exi : 

Jam gravis es nobis, et sspè emungeris, exi HO 

Ociùs, et propera : sicoo venit altera naso. 

Interea calet, et regnat, poscitque maritum 



SATIRA VX. 27 

Pastores, et ovem Canusinam, ulmosque Falernas. 

QrUantulum in hoc ? pueros omnes» ergastula tota, 

Quodque domi non est, et habet vicinus, ematur. 115 

Mense quidem brumae, quo jam mercator lason 

Clausus, et armatis obstat casa candida nautis, 

Grandia tolluntur crystallina, maxima rursus 

Murrhina, deinde adamas notissimus, et Beronices 

In digito factus pretiosior : hunc dedit olim IM 

Barbarus incests, dedit hunc Agrippa sorori, 

Observant ubi festa mero pede sabbata reges, 

Et vetus induiget senibus clementia porcis. 

Nullane de tantis gregibus tibi digna videtur t 
Sit formosa, decens, dives, fcecunda, vetustos 125 

Porticibus disponat avos, ìntactior omni 
Crinibus effusis bellum dirimente Sabina : 
(Rara a vis in terris nigroque similhma cycno) 
Quis feret uxorem, cui Constant pmnia ? Malo, 
Malo Venusinam, quàm te, Cornelia, mater 130 

Gracchorum, si cum magnis virtutibus affers 
Grande supercilium, et numeras in dote triumphos. 
ToUe tuum, precor, Hannibalem, victumque Syphacam 
Iji castris, et cum tota Carthagine migra. 

Paree, precor, Paean, et tu, Dea, pone sagìttas ; 135 

Nil pueri faciunt, ipsam configite matrem 1 
Amphion clamat : sed PsDan contrahit arcuuL 
Extulit ergò'greges natorum, ipsumque parentem, 
Dum sibi nobilio:' Latonae gente videtur, 
Atque eadem scrofii Niobe fcDcundior alba. 14D 

Quae tanti gravitas, quae forma, ut se tibi semper 
Imputet ? Hujus enim rari summique voluptas 
Nulla boni, quoties animo corrupta superbo 
Plus aloés, quàm mellis, habet. Quis deditus autem 
Usque adeò est, ut non illam, quam laudibus effert, 145 

Horrcat, inque die septenis oderit horis ? 

Quidam parva quidem, sed non toleranda mariti». 
Nam quid rancidius, quàm quòd se non putat uUa 
Formosam, nisi quae de Tuscà Graecula facta est? 
De Sulmonensi mera Cecropis ? Omnia Grasce, 150 

Quum sit turpe magìs nostris nescire Latine. 
Hoc sermone pavent, hoc iram, gaudia, curas. 
Hoc cuncta effundunt animi secreta : quid ultra ? — 

Si tibi legitimis pactaro junctamque tabellis 
Non es amaturus, ducendi nulla videtur 155 

Causa ; nec est, quare ccenam et mustacea perdas. 



28 D* JVmi JUVENALIS 

Labente officio, crudis donanda ; nec illud, 

Quod prima prò oocte datur, quum lance beata 

Dacicus, et scripto radiat Germanicus auro. 

Si tibi simplicitas uxoria, deditus uni 160 

Est animus ; submitte caput cervice parata 

Ferre jugum : nuUam iuvenies, quae parcat amanti. 

Ardeat ipsa licèt, tormentis gaudet amantis 

Et spoliis. igitur longè minùs utilis illi 

Uxor, quisquis erit bonus optandusque maritus. 165 

Nil unquam invita donabis conjuge : vendes 

Hàc obstante nihil : nihil, haec si nolet, emetnr. 

Hsec dabit affectus : ille excludetur amicus 

Jam senior, cujus barbam tua janua vidit. 

Testandi quum sit lenonibus atque lanistis 170 

Libertas, et juris idem contingat arens ; 

Non unus tibi rivalis dictabitur'haeres. 

Pone crucem servo. Meruit quo crimine servus 

Supplicium ? quis testis adest ? quis detulit ? Audi, 

Nulla unquam de morte hominis cunctatio longa est. 175 

O demens, ita servus homo est ? nil fecerit, esto : 

Hoc volo, sic jubeo, sit prò ratione voluntas. 

Imperat ergo viro ; sed mox haec regna relinquit, 
Permutatque domos, et flammea conterit : inde 
Advolat, et spreti repetit vestigia lecti. 180 

Ornatas paulò ante fores, pendentia linquit 
Vela domùs, et adhuc virides in limine ramos. , 

Sic crescit numerus ; sic fiunt octo mariti *^ 

Quinque per autumnos : titulo res digna sepulcri. 

Desperanda tibi salva concordia socru. 185 

Illa docet spoliis nudi gaudere mariti ; 
Illa docet, missis a corruptore tabellis, 
Nil rude nec eimplex rescribere : decipit illa 
Custodes, aut aere domat : tunc corpore sano 
Advocat Archigenen, onerosaque pallia jactat. 190 

Abditus interea latet et secretus adulter. — 
Scilicet exspectas, ut tradat mater honestos 
Atque alios mores, quàm quos habet ? utile porrò 
Filiolam turpi vetulaj producere turpem. ' 

Nulla fere causa est, in qua non fcemina litem 105 

Moverit. Accusat Manilia, si rea non est. 
Componunt ipssè per se, formantque libellos, 
Principium atque locos Celso dictare parat®. 

Endromidas Tyrias, et fcemineum ceroma 
Quis nescit ì vel quis non vidit vulnera pali ? 200 



SATIRA VI. tO 

Q,uem cavat assiduis sudibus, scutoque lacessìt, 

Atque omnes implet numeros, dignissima prorsua 

Florali matroaa tuba ; nisi si quid in ilio 

Pectore plus agitat, veraeque paratur arenae. 

Quem praestare potest mulier galeata pudorem, 205 

Quse fugit a sexu ? vires amat. Hsc tamen ipsa 

Vir nollet fieri: nam quantula nostra voluptas? 

Quale decus rerum, si conjugis auctio fìat ? 

Balteus, et manicse, et cristae,- crurisque sinistri 

Dimidium tegimen ; vel, si diversa movebit - 210 

Proelia, tu felix, ocreas vendente puellà. 

HsB sunt, quae tenui sudant in cyclade, quarum 

Delicias et panniculus bombycinus urit. 

Adspice, quo fremitu monstratos perferat ictus^ 

Et quanto galeae curvetur pondere, quanta 216 

Popìitibus sedeat, quàm denso fascia libro, 

Et ride, scaphium positis quum sumitur armis. 

Dicite vos, neptes Lepidi, caecive Metelli, 

Gurgitis aut Fabii, quae India sumpserit unquam 

Hos habitus ì quando ad palum gemat uxor Asyli t 220 

Semper habet lites alternaque jurgia lectus. 
In quo nupta jacet : minimum dormitur in ilio. 
Tunc gravis Ola viro, tunc orba tigride pejor. 
Quum simulat gemitus occulti conscia facti, 
Aut odit pueros, aut fictà pellice plorat, 225 

Uberibus semper lacrymis, semperque paratis 
In statione sua, atque exspectantibus illam, 
Quo jubeat manare modo : tu credis amorem. 
Tu tibi tunc curruca places, fletumque labellis 
'Exsorbes, quae scripta et quot lecture tabellas, 230 

Si tibi zelotypae retegantur scrinia mcechae ! 
Sed jacet in servi complexibus, aut equitis. Die, 
Die aliquem, sodes, hìc, Quintiliano, colorem : 
Haeremus : die ipsa. Olim convenerat, inquit. 
Ut faceres tu, quod velles, nec non ego possem 235 

Indulgere mihi : clames licèt, et mare cobIo 
Confundas, homo sum. Nihil est audaci us illis 
Deprénsis : iram atque animos a crimine sumunt. 
Unde haec monstra tamen, vel quo de fonte, requiris Y 
Praestabat castas humilis fortuna Latinas 240 

Quondam, nec vitiis contingi parva sinebant 
Tecta labor, somnique breves, et veliere Tusco 
VexataB duraeque manus^ àc proximus Urbi 
Hannibal, et stantes Collina turre mariti. 

3» 



30 D. JUNII JUVENALIS 

Nunc patimur longae pacis mala. Ssvior armis 245 

Luxuria incubuit, victumque ulciscitur orbem. 

Nullum crimen abest, facinusque libidinis, ex quo 

Paupertas Romana perit. Hinc fluxit ad istos 

Et Sybaris colles, hinc et Rhodos, et Miletos, 

Atque coronatum et petulans madìdumque Tarentum. 250 

Prima peregrinos obscoena Pecunia mores 

Intulit, et turpi fregerunt saecula luxu 

Divitiae molles. Quid enim Venus ebria curat t — 

Ut spectet ludos, conducit Ogulnia vestem, 
Conducit comites, sellam, cervical, amicas, 255 

Nutricem, et flavam, cui det mandata, puellam. 
Hec tamen argenti superest quodcunque paterni 
Levibus athletis, ac vasa novissima donat. 
Multis res angusta domi : sed nulla pudorem 
Paupertatis habet, nec se metitur ad illum, 260 

Quem dedit Hsbc posuitque, modum. Tamen utile quid sit 
Prospiciunt aliquando viri ; frigusque famemque 
Formica tandem quidam expavére magistrà. 
Prodiga non sentit pereuntem fcBmina censum, 
Ac, velut exhaustà recidivus pullulet arca 265 

Nummus et e pieno semper tollatur acervo, 
Non unquam reputai, quanti sibi gaudia constent. — 

Si gaudet cantu ; nullius fìbula durat 
Vocem vendentis praetoribus : organa semper 
In manibus : densi radiant testudine totÀ 270 

Sardonyches : crispo numerantur pectine chordse, 
Cluo tener Hedymeles operas dedit : hunc tenet, hoc se 
Solatur, gratoque indulget basia plectro. 
Quaedam de numero Lamiarum ac nominis alti 
Cum farre et vino Janum Vestamque rogabat, 275 

An Capitolinam deberet Pollio quercum 
Sperare, et fìdibus promittere. Quid faceret plus 
iÉgrotante viro ì medicis quid tristibus erga 
Filiolum ? Stetit ante aram, nec turpe putavit 
Pro citharà velare caput ; dictataque verba 280 

Pertulit, ut mos est, et aperta palluit agnà. 
Die mihi nunc, quseso, die, antiquissime divùm, 
Respondes his, Jane pater ? Magna olia coeli : 
Non est, ut video, non est, quod agatur apud vos. 
Hsbc de comoedis te consulit : illa tragoedum 285 

Commendare volet : varicosus fìet haruspex. 

Sed cantet potiùs, quàm totam pervolet urbem 
Audax, et coetus possit quàm ferre virorum, 



SATIRA VI. 31 

' Camque pdudatis ducìbus, presente marito, 
Ipsa loquì rectà facie strictisque mamillis. 3M 

Hsec eadem novit, quid toto fìat in orbe ; 
Quid Seres, quid Thraces agant : secreta noverce 
Et pueri : quia amet, quis diripiatur adulter. — 
, Instantem regi Armenio Parthoque cometen ' 
Prima videt ; famam rumoresque illa recentes 295 

Excipit ad portas : quosdam facit. Isse Niphatem . 
In populos, magnoque iliìc cuncta arva teneri 
Diluvio, nutare urbes, subsidere terras, 
Quocunque in trivio, cuicunque est obvia, narrat. / 

Nec tamen id vitium magìs intolerabiie, quàm quòd 300 
Vicinos humiles rapere et concidere lorìs 
Exorata solet. Nam si latratibus alti 
Rumpuntur somni ; Fustes huc ociàs, ioquit, 
AfTerte, atque illis dominum jubet ante feriri, 
Deinde canem. Gravis occursu, teterrima vultu, 805 

Balnea nocte subit ; conchas et castra moveri 
Nocte jubet ; magno gaudet sudare tumultu, 
duum lassata gravi cecìderunt brachia mas^. — 
Convivae miseri interea somnoque fameque 
Urguentur. Tandem illa venit rubicundula, totum 310 

CEnophorum sitiens, piena quod tenditur urna 
Admotum pedibus, de quo sextarius alter 
Ducitur ante cibum, rabidam facturus orexim. 
Dum redit et loto terram ferit intestino, 
Marmoribus rivi properant, aut lata Falernum 315 

Pelvis olet : nam sic, tanquam alta in dolia longus 
Deciderit serpens, bibit et vomit. Ergo maritus 
Nauseat, atque oculis bilem substrìngit opertis. 

Illa tamen gravior, quae, quum discumbere ccepit, 
Laudat Virgilium, peritura ignoscit Elissas, 320 

Committit vates et comparai ; inde Maronem, 
Atque alia parte in trutinà suspendit Homerum. 
Cedunt grammatici, vincuntur rhetores, omnis 
Turba tacet ; nec causidicus, nec praeco loquatur. 
Altera nec mulier ; verborum tanta cadit vis, 325 

Tot pariter pelves, tot tintinnabula dicas 
Pulsari. Jam nemo tubas, nemo sra fatiget : 
Una laboranti poterit succurrere lunse. 

Imponit finem sapiens et rebus honestis. 
Nam qusB docta nimis cupit et facunda viderì, 330 

Crure tenus medio tunicas succìngere debet, 
Caedere Silvano porcum, quadrante lavari. 



32 D. JUNII JUVENALIS 

Non habeat matrona, tibi quae juncta recumbit, 

Dicendi genus, aut curtum sermone rotato 

Torqueat enthymema, nec hìstorias sciat omnes ; 335 

Sed qusedam ex lìbris et non intelligat. Odi 

Hanc ego, quae repetit volvitque Palasmonis artem, 

Servata semper lege et ratione loquendi, 

Ignotosque mihi tenet antiquaria versus, 

Nec curanda viris opicae castigat amics 340 

Verba. Soloecìsmum liceat fecisse marito. 

Nil non permittit mulier sibi, turpe putat nil, 
Quum virides gemmas collo circumdedit, et quum 
Auribus extentis magnos commisit elenchos. 
Intolerabilius nihil est, quàm foemina dives. 345 

Interea foeda aspectu ridendaque multò 
Pane tumet facies, aut pinguia Poppseana 
Spirat, et bine miseri viscantur labra mariti* 
Ad moechum veniet Iota cute. Quando videri 
Vult formosa domi ? mcechis foliata parantur. 350 

His emitur, quidquid graciles bue mittitis Indi. 
Tandem aperit vultum, et tectoria prima reponit : 
Incipit agnosci, atque ilio lacte fovetur, 
Propter quod secum comites educit asellas, 
Exsul Hyperboreum si dimittatur ad axem. 355 

Sed qua; mutatis inducitur atque fovetur 
Tot medicaminibus, coctsque silìginis ofias 
Accipit et madidae, facies dicetur, an ulcus? 

Est pretium curas, penitùs cognoscere, toto 
Quid faciant agitentque die. Si nocte maritus 360 

Aversus jacuit ; periit libraria, ponunt 
Cosmetae tunicas, tarde venisse Liburnus 
Dicìtur, et poenas alieni pendere somni 
Cogitur : hic frangit ferulas, rubet ille flagellìs, 
Hic scuticà : sunt, quae tortòribus annua praestent. 365 

Verberat, atque obiter faciem linit ; audit amìcas, 
Aut latum pictse vestis considerat aurum. 
Et csedit ; longi relegit transversa diurni. 
Et caedit, donec lassis caedentibus, EXI 
Intonet horrendum, jam cognitione peracta. 370 

Preefectura domùs Siculi non mitior aula. 
Nam si Gonstituit solitoque decentiùs optat 
Ornari, et properat, jamque exspectatur in hortis, 
Aut apud Isiacae potiùs sacraria len» ; 

Disponit crinem laceratis ipsa capillis 375 

Nuda humero Psecas infelix, nudisque mamillis. 



SATIRA TI. 35 

Altior hic quare cincìnnus ? Taurea punit 

Continuò flexi crimen facinusqoe capiUi. 

Quid Psecas admisit ? quenam est hic culpa puelle^ 

Si tibi displìpuit nasus tuus 1, Aiterà IsTum 380 

Extendit, pectitque comas, et Tolvit in orbem. 

Est in Consilio matrona admotaque lanis 

Emerita qus cessat aou : sententia prima 

Hujus erit ; post hanc astate atque arte minores 

Censebunt, tanquam fam» discrimen agatur 385 

Aut animse : tanta est querendi cura decoris. 

Tot premit ordinibus, tot adhuc compagibus altnm 

iEdificat caput. Andromachen a fronte videbb : 

Post minor est : credas aliam. Cedo, si breve panri 

Sortita est iateris spatium, brevierque videtur 390 

Viirgine Pygmsea, nullis adjuta cothurnis. 

Et Jevis erectà consurgit ad oscula pianta l 

Nulla viri cura interea, nec mentio fiel 
Damnorum : vivit tanquam vicina marito. 
Hoc solo propior, quòd amicos conjugis odit 305 

Et servos, gravis est rationibus. Ecce fìirentis 
Bellons matrisque deum chorus intrat^ et ingens 
Semivir^ — 

— cui rauca cohors^ cui tympana cedunt 
Plebeia, et Phrygià vestitur bucca tiare. 400 

Grande sonat, metuique jubet Septembris et Austri 
Adventum, nisi se centum lustraverit ovis^ 
Et xerampelinas veteres donaverit ipst, 
Ut, quidquìd subiti et magni discriminis instat, 
In tunicas eat, et totum semel expiet annum. 406 

Hibernum fractà glacie descendet in amnem^ 
Ter matutino Tiberi mergetur, et ipsis 
Vorticibus timidum caput abluet : inde Superbi 
Totum regis agrum nuda ac tremebanda cruentia 
Erepet genibus. Si candida jusserit lo^ 410 

Ibit ad iEgypti fìnem, calidàqae petitas 
A Meroe portabit aquas, ut spargat in sedem 
Isidis, antiquo quie proxima surgit ovili. 
Credit enim ipsins dominaa se voce moneri. 
En animam et mentem, cum qua di nocte loquantnr ! 415 
Ergo hic praecipuum summumque meretur honorem, 
Qui grege linigero circumdatus^ et grege calvo 
Plangeutis populi currit derisor Anubis. 
lUe petit veniam, quoties non jibstinet ux<Mr 
Concubitu sacris observandisque diebus ; 4M 



34 D- JUNII JUVENALIS 

Magnaque debetur ▼iolato poena cadurco. 

Et movisse caput visa est argentea serpens : 

Illius lacrymiB meditataque marmura praestant^ 

Ut veniam calp» non almuat, ansere magno ^ ^ 

Scilìcet et tenui popano corruptus, Osiris. 425 

Quum dedit ille locum ; cophino ftenoque relicto^ 
Arcanam Judea tremens mendicat in aurem^ 
Interpres legum Solymarum, et magna sacerdot 
Arboris, ac summi fida internantia cedi. 
Implet et illa manum, sed parciùs : ere minuto 490 

Qualiacunque Toies Judei somnia vendunt. 
Spondet amatorem tenerum, vel divitis orbi 
Testamentam ingens, calids pulmone columbs 
Tractato, Armenius vel Commagcnus haraspex ; 
Pectora pullorum rimatur et exta catelli, 436 

Interdum et pueri : faciet, quod deferat ipse. 

Chaldsis sed major erit fiducia : quid<|uid 
Dixerit Astrologus, credent a fonte relatum 
Hammonis ; quoniam Delphis oracula cessant, 
Et genus humanum damnat caligo fìituri. 440 

Praecipuus tamen est horum, qui saspiùs exsul, 
Cujus amicitià, conducendàque tabella 
Magnus civis obìt, et formidatus Othoni. 
Inde fides arti, sonuit si dextera fèrro 

Lsvaque, si longo castrorum in carcere mansit. 44o 

Nemo matbematicus genium indemnatus habebit : 
Sed qui pene perit, cui vtx in Cjchida mitti 
Contigit, et parvi tandem caruisse Seripbo. 
Gonsulit icterice lento de fiinere matris. 
Ante tamen de te, Tanaquil tua : quando sororem 450 

Efierat, et patruos ; an sit victurus aduiter 
Post ipsam ? quid enim majus dare nuroina possunt t 

Hec tamen ignorat quid sidus triste minetur 
Saturni, quo Iseta Venus se profèrat astro, 
dui mensis damnis, que dentur tempora lucro. 455 

Illius occursus etiam vitare memento, 
In cujus manìbus, ceu pinguia succina, tritas 
Cernis ephemeridas ; que nullum consulit, et jam 
Consulitur : que, castra viro patriamque petente, 
Non ibit pariter, numeris revocata Thrasylli. 460 

Ad primum lapidem vectari quum placet, bora 
Sumitur ex libro : si prurit fìrictus ocelli 
Angulus, inspectà genesi collyria poscit. 
JSgra licèt jaceat, capiendo nulla videtur 



SATIRA VI. 85 

Aptior hora cibo, nisi quai^ dederìt Petosiris. 465 

Si mediocris erit ; spatium lustrfibit utrinque 
Metarum, et sortes ducet, fìrontemque manamqae 
Prasbebit vati crebrum poppysma roganti. 
Divitibus responsa dabunt Phryx augur et Indiui 
Conductus, dabit astrorum mundique perìtus, 470 

Atque aliquis senior, qui publica fulgura condii. 
Plebeium in circo positum est et in aggere fatimi. 
Quae nullis longum ostendit cerncibas aurum, 
Consulit antephalas, delphinorumque columnas, 
An saga vendenti nubat caupone relieto. 475 

Hs tamen et partùs snbeunt discrimen, et omne» 
Nutricis tolerant, fortuna urguente, labores ; 
Sed jacet aurato vix uUa pueìpera lecto. 
Tantum artes hujus, tantum medicamina possunt.-— * 

Transeo suppoeitos, et gaudia, votaque saepè 480 

Ad spurcos decepta lacus, atque inde petitos 
Pontifìces, Salios, Scaurorum nomina falso 
Corpore laturos. Stat Fortuna improba nootu, 
Arridens nudis infantibus. Hos fovet omnes, 
Involvìtque sinu : domibus tunc porrigit altis, 485 

Secretumque sibi mìmum parat. Hos amat, bis se 
Ingerit, utque suos ridens producit alumnos. 

Hic magicos affert cantus, bic Thessala vendit 
Pbiltra^ quibus vaieat mentem vexare mariti. — 
Inde animi caligo, et magna oblivio rerum, 490 

Ctoas modo gessisti. Tamen hoc tolerabile, si non 
I!t furerò incipias, ut avunculus ille Neronis, 
Cui totam tremuli frontem Cssonia pulii 
Infudit. Quae non fkciet, quod Principis uxor f 
Ardebant cuncta, et fractà compage ruebant, 4d5 

Non aliter, quàm si fecisset Juno maritum 
Insanum. Minùs ergo nocenb erit Agrippinae 
Boletus : siquidem unius praecordia pressit 
Ille senis, tremulumque caput descendere jussit 
In coelum, et longam manantia labra salivam. 500 

Haec poscit ferrum atque ignes, baec potio torquet : 
Hsec lacerat mixtos Equitum cum sanguine Patres. 
Tanti partus equse ! quanti una venefica constat ì 

Oderunt natos de pellice ; nemo repugnet, 
Nemo vetet : jam jam privignum occidere fas est. 505 

Yos ego, pupilli, moneo, quibus amplior est res, 
Custodite animas, et nulli credile mensse. 
Livida materno fervent adipata veneno. 



96 D. JUNU JUVENALIS 

Mordeat ante aliquis, qoidquid porrexerìt ìlla, 

due peperit : timidus pregustet pocula pappas. 510 

Fingimus hec, altiim Satira sumente cothumum 

Scilicet, et, finem egressi legemque priorum, 

Grande Sophocleo Carmen bacdiamur hiatu, 

Montibus ignotum Ratulis, cceloque Latino. 

Nos utinam vani 1 sed clamat Pontia, Feci, 615 

Confiteor, puerisque meis aconita paravi, 

Que deprénsa patent : fàcinus tamen ipsa péregi. 

Tune duos^unà, saevissima vipera, coenà ? 

Tune duos ? Septem, si septem forte fuìssent. 

Credamus tragicis, quidquid de Colchide torva 520 

Dicitar et Procne : nil contrà conor, et ille 

Grandia monstra suis aadebant temporibus ; sed 

Non propter nummos. Minor admiratio sammis 

Debetur monstrìs, quoties facit ira nocentem 

Hunc sexum, et rabie jecur incendente feruntur 525 

Precipites ; ut saxa jugis abrupta, quibus mons 

Subtrahitur, cUvoque latus pendente recedit. 

U^am ego non tulerim, quae computat, et scelus ingens 
Sana facit. Spectant subeuntem fata mariti 
Alcestim, et, similis si permutatio detur, 590 

Morte viri cupient animam servare cateU». 
Occurrent multe tibi Belides atque Eriphyls 
Mane : Clytsmnestram nullus non vicus habebit 
Hoc tantum refert, quòd Tyndaris illa bipennem 
Insulsam et fatuam dextrà Isevàque tenebat 535 

At nunc res agitur tenui pulmone rubete ; 
Sed tamen et ferro, si pregustabit Atrides 
Pontica ter vidi cantus medicamina regia. 



D. JUNII JUVEP^ALIS 



AQUINATIS 



SATIRARUM 



LIBER TERTIUS. 



SATIRA VII. 

Et spes, et ratio studiorum in Cesare (kntùiii : 
Solus enim tristes hàc tempestate Canusnas - '; 

Respexit, quum jam celebres, notique poète 
Balneolum Gabiis, Romee conducere fìirnos 
Teutarent ; nec foedum alii, nec turpe putarent ò 

Prscones fìeri, quum, desertis Aganippes 
Vallibus, esuriens migraret in atria Clio. 
Nam, si Pierià quadrans tibi nullus in umbra i 

Ostendatur, ames nomen victumque Machaerae, 
Et vendas potiùs, commissa quod auctio vendit . 10 

Stautibus, osnophorum, tripodas, armaria, cistas, 
Alcyonem Facci, Thebas et Terea Fausti. 
Hoc satius, quàm si dicas sub judice, Vidi, 
QrUod non vidìsti. Faciant equites Asiani 
Quanquam, et Cappadoces faciant, equitesque Bithynì, 1$ 
Altera quos nudo traducit Gallia talo. 
Nemo tamen studiis indignum ferre laborem 
Cogetur postbac, nectit quiconque canoris t 

Eloquium vocale modis, laurumque momordit 
Hoc agite, o juvenes : circumspicit, et stimulat yùb, 90 

Materiamque sibi Ducis indulgentia querit. 
Si qua aliunde putas rerum exspectanda tuarum 
Praesidia, atque ideo croces membrana tabdlae ^ 

Impletur ; lignorum aliquid posce ociùs, et, qu» 

4 



38 D. JUNII JUVENALIS 

Componis, dona Veneris, Thelesine, marito ; 26 

Aut Claude, et positos tineà pertunde libellos. 

Frange miser calamos, vigilataque proelia dele, 

Qui &cis in piirva su'blimia carmina cella, 

Ut dignus venias hederis, et imagine macrà. 

Spcs nulla ulterior : didìcit jam dives avarus 30 

Tantum admirari, tantum laudare disertos, ' 

Ut pueri Junonis avem. Sed defluit aetas 

Et pelagi patiens, et cassidis, atque ligonis. 

Taedìa tu ne subeunt animos, tunc seque suamque 

Terpsichoren odit facunda et nuda senectus. 36 

Accipe nunc artes, ne quid tibi conferat iste, 
QrUem colis, et Musarum et Apollinis aede relictà. 
Tpse facit versus, atque uni cedit Homero 
Propter mille annos ; aut, si dulcedine fams 
Succensus recites, maculosas commodat sdes. 40 

Haec longè ferrata domus servire jubetur, 
In qua sollicitas iraitatur janua portas. 
Scit dare libertos extremà in parte sedentes 
Ordinis, et magnas comitum disponere voces. 
Nemo dabit regum, guanti subsellia constent, 46 

Et quae conducto pendent anabathra tigillo, 
Quaeque reportandis posita est orchestra cathedris. 
Nos tamen hoc agimus, tenuique in pulvere sulcoa 
Ducimus, et littus sterili versamus aratro. 
Nam si discedas, laqueo tenet ambitiosi 60 

Consuetudo mali : tenet insanabile mnltos 
Scribendi cacoèthesj et mgro in corde senescit; 
Sed vatem egregium, cui non sit pubiica vena, 
Qmì nihil exposiuim soleat deducere, nec qui 
Communi feriat Carmen triviale moneta, 66 

Hunc, qualem Qequeo monstrare, et s^itio tantum, 
Anxietate carens animus facit, omnis acerbi 
Impatiens, cupidus silvarum, aptusque bibendis 
ElmtibuS'Aoiiidum. Neque enim cantare sub antro 
Pierio, thyrsumve potest contingere sana 60 

Pauperta3 atque seria inops, quo nocte dieque 
Corpus eget : satur est, quum dicit H<N'atiu8, Euoe ! 
Cluìs locus ingenio, nisi quum se cannine solo 
A^^ant, et dominio Cirrhffi Nysseque fèruntOF- 
Pectora nostra, duas non admitientia curas ì 66 

Magnse mentis opusj nee de Iodico parandà 
Attonitae, cu^us^ et<equo8; iaciesque deorum 
Adspicere, et quélis Rutulum confiiiidat £rinnjf<s. 



SATIRA VII. 39 

Nam si Virgilio puer et tolerabile deesset 

Hospitium, caderent omnes a crìnibus hydri : 70 

Sarda nihil gemerei grave buccina. Poscimus, ut sit 

Non minor antiquo Rubrenus Lappa cothurno, 

Cujus et alveolos et laenam pignerat Atreus. 

Non habet infelix Numitor, quod mittat amico 

Quintillae quod donet, habet ; nec defuit illi, 75 

linde emeret multa pascendum carne leonem 

Jam domitum : constat leviori bellua sumptu 

Nimirum, et capiunt plus intestina poetae. 

Ck)ntentus fama jaceat Lucanus in hortis 

Marmòreis : at Serrano tenuique Salcio 80 

Gloria quantalibet quid erit, si gloria tantum est ? 

Curritur ad vocem jucundam, et Carmen amiche 

Thebaidos, Istam fecìt quum Statius urbem, 

Promisitque diem : tanta dulcedine captos 

Afficit ille animos, tantaque libidine vulgi 85 

Auditur ; sed, quum fregit subsellia versu, 

Esurit, intactam Paridi nisi vendat Agaven. 

Ille et militis multis largitur honorem, 

Semestri vatum digitos circumligat auro. 

Quod non dant proceres, dabit histrio. Tu Camerinos, 90 

Et Bareas, tu nobilium magna atria curas ? 

Praefectos Pelopea facit, Pbilomela tribunos. 

Haud tamen invideas vati, quem pulpita pascunt. 

Qùis tibi Maecenas ? quis nunc erit aut Proculeius, 

Aut Fabius ? quis Cotta iterum ? quis Lentulus alter ? 95 

Tunc par ìngenio pretium : tunc utile multis 

Pali ere, et vinum toto nescire Decembri. 

Vester porrò labor fcBCundior, hìstoriarum 
Scrìptores : petit hic plus temporis, atque olei plus ; 
Namque oblita modi millesima pagina surgit 100 

Omnibus, et multa crescit damnosa papyro. 
Sic ingens rerum numerus jubet, atque operum lex. 
Quse tamen inde seges ? terrae quis fructus apertSB ? 
Cluis dabit historìco, quantum daret acta legenti ? 
Sed genus ignavum, quod lecto gaudet et umbra. 105 

Die igitur, quid causidicis civilià praestent 
Officia, et magno comites in fasce libelli ? 
Ipsi magna sonant, sed tunc, quum creditor audit, 
PraBcipuè, vel si tetigit latus acrior ilio. 
Qui venit ad dubium grandi cum codice nomen. 110 

Tunc immensa cavi spirant mendacia folles, 
Conspuiturque sinus. Yeràm depréndere messem 



40 !>• JUNII JUVENALIS 

Si libet ; bine centura patrimonia causìdicoroni. 

Parte alia solum russati pone Lacerne. 

Consedére duces : surgis tu pallidus Ajax 115 

Dicturus dubià prò libertate, bubulco 

Judice. Rumpe miser tensum jecur, ut tibi lasso 

Figantur virides, scalarum gloria, palmse. 

Quod vocis pretium ? siccus petasunculus, et vas 

Pelamydum ; aut veteres, Afrorum epimenia, bulbi ; 120 

Aut vinum Tiberi devectum, quinque lagenae. 

Si qaater egisti, si contigit aureus unus. 
Inde cadunt partes ex foedere pragmaticorum. 
iEmilio dabitur, quantum licet, et meliùs nos 
Egimus : hujus enim stat currus aèneus, alti 125 

Quadrijuges in vestibulis, atque ipse feroci 
Bellatore sedens curvatum bastile minatur 
Eminus, et statua meditatur prcelia luscà. 
' Sic Pedo conturbata Matho deficit : exitus bic est 

Tongilli, magno cum rbinocerote lavari 130 

Qui solet, et vexat lutulenta balnea turba^ 

Perque forum juvenes longo premit assere, Medos 

Empturus pueros, argentum, murrhina, villas. 

Spondet enim Tyrio stlataria purpura filo. 

Et tamen est illis hoc utile : purpura vendi^ 135 

Causidicum, venduut amethystina : convenit illis 

Et strepitu, et facie majoris vivere censùs. 

Sed finem impenss non servai prodiga Roma. 

Fidimus eloquio ? Ciceroni nemo ducentos 

Nunc dederit nummos, nisi fiilserit annulus ingens. 140 

Respicit haec primùm, qui litigat, an tibi servi 

Octo, decem comites, an post te sella, togati 

Ante pedes. Ideo conductà Paulus agebat 

Sardonyche, atque ideo pluris, quàm Cossus agebat, 

duàm Basii US. Rara in tenui facundia panno. 145 

Quando licet Basilo flentem producere matrem ? 

Quis bene dicentem Basii um ferat ì Accipiat te 

Gallia, vel potiùs nutricula causidicorum 

Afi-ica, si placuit raercedem ponere lìngus. 

Declamare doces ? O ferrea pectora Vecti, 150 

Quum perimit ssevos classis numerosa tyrannos. 
Nam qusecunque sedens modo legerat, haec eadem stans 
Proferet, atque eadem cantabit versibus ìsdem. 
Occidit miseros c|;ambe repetita magistros. 
Quis color, et quod sit causse genus, atque ubi summa 155 
Quaestio, quse veniant diversa^ forte sagitts, 



SATIRA VII. 41 

* Nósse velint omnes, mercedem solvere nemo. 
Mercedcm appellas? quid enim scio? Culpa docentis 
Scilicet arguitur, quòd Isevà in parte mamilliB 
Ni] salit Arcadico juveni, cujus mihi sextà 160 

Quàque die miserum dirus caput Hannibal implet ; 
Quidquid id est, de quo deliberat, an petat Urbem 
A Cannis, an post nimbos et fulmina cautus 
Cicumagat madidas a tempestate cohortes. 
Quantum vis stipulare, et protenus accipe, quod do, 165 

Ut toties illum pater audiat. Hsec alii sex 
Vel plures uno conclamant ore sophistsB, 
Et veras agitant lìtes, raptore relìcto ; 
Fusa yenena silent, malus ingratusque maritus, 
Et qu» jam veteres sanant mortaria caecos. 170 

Ergo sibi dabit ipse rudem, si nostra movebunt 
Consilia, et vits diversum iter ingredietur, 
Ad pugnam qui rhetoricà descendit ab umbra, 
Summula ne pereat, qua vilis tessera venit 
Frumenti : quippe hsec merces lautissìma. Tenta, 175 

Chrysogonus quanti doceat, vel Pollio quanti 
Lautorum pueros, artem scindens Theodori. 
Balnea sexcentis, et pluris porticus, in qua 
Gestetur dominus, quoties pluit. Anne serenum 
Exspectet, spargatque luto jumenta recenti ? 180 

Hic potiùs : namque bic mundsB nitet ungula mule 
Parte alia longis Numidarum fulta columnis 
Surgat, et algentem rapiat coenatio solem. 
Quanticunque domus, veniet, qui fercula doctè 
Componat ; veniet, qui pulmentaria condat. 185 

Hos inter sumptus sestertia Quintiliano, 
Ut multum, duo sufficient. Res nulla minoris 
Constabit patri, quàm fìlius. Unde igitur tot 
Quintilianus habet saltus ? Exempla novorum 
Fatorum transi : felix, et pulcher, et acer ; 190 

Felix, et sapiens, et nobilis, et generosus 
Appositam nigrs lunam subtexit alutse : 
Felix, orator quoque maximus et jaculator ; 
Et, si perfrixit, cantat bene. Distat enim, qua» 
Sidera te excìpiant modo primos incipientem 195 

Edere vagitus, et adhuc a matre rubentem. 
Si Fortuna volet, fies de rhetore consul : 
Si volet hsc eadem, fìes de consule rhetor. 
Ventidius quid enim ? quid Tullius ? anne aliud, quàm 

Sidus, et occulti miranda potentia fati ? 200 

4# 



4St I>- JUNII JUVENALIS 

Servìs regna dabunt, captivis Fata triumpbo». 

Felix ille tamen corvo quoque rarior albo. 

Poenìtuit multos vanse sterilisque cathedra, 

Sìcut Thrasymachi probat exitus, atque Seciindi 

Carrìnatis : et hunc inopem vidistìs, Athene, 205 

Nil prster gelìdas auss conferre cicutas. 

Di, majorum umbris tenuem et sine pondero terram, 

Spirantesque crocos» et in urna perpetuum ver. 

Qui praeceptorem sancti voluére parentis 

Esse loco. Metuens virge jam grandis Achilles 210 

Cantabat patriis in montibus : et cui non tunc 

Elliceret risum citharoedi cauda magistri 1 

Sed Rufum atque alios ciedit sua quseque Juventus : 

Rufum, qui toties Ciceronem Allobroga dixit 

Quis gremio Enceladi doctique Palsemonis affert 215 

Cluantùm grammaticus meruit labor ? et tamen ex hoc, 
Quodcunque est, (minus est autem, quàm rhetoris lera) 
Discipuli custos prsemordet Accenonoétus, 
Et, qui dispensat, franget sibi. Cede, PalaBmon, 
Et patere inde aliquid decrescere, non ali ter ^ quàm 220 

Institor hibernae tegetis niveique cadurci, 
Dummodo non pereat, medise quòd noctis ab bora 
Sedisti, qua nemo faber, qua nemo sederet, 
Qui docet obliquo lanam deducere ferro ; 
Dummodo non pereat totidem olfecisse lucernas» 226 

Quot stabant pueri, quum totus decolor esset 
Flaccus, et haereret nigro fuligo Maroni. 
Rara tamen merces, qus cognitìone tribuni 
Non egeat. Sed vos ssBvas imponile leges, 
Ut praeceptori verborum regula constet, 230 

Ut legat historias, auctores noverit omnes, 
Tanquam ungues digitosque suos ; ut forte rogatus, 
Dum petit aut thermas aut Phcebi balnea, dicat 
Nutricem Anchisae, nomen patriamque noverca^ 
Anchemoli ; dicat, quot Acestes vixerit annos, 235 

Quot Siculus Phrygibus vini donaverit urnas. 
Exigite, ut mores teneros ceu pollice ducat, 
Ut si quis cera vultum facit : exigite, ut sit 
Et pater ipsius ccetùs, ne turpia ludant. — 
Haec, inquit, cures ; et, quum se verterit annus, 240 

Accipe, victori populus quod postulat, aurum. 



ShTlRA Vili. 48 



SATIRA Vili. 

Stemmata quid faciuot, quid prodest, Pontice, longo 
Sanguine censeri, pictosque ostendere vultus 
Majorum, et stantes in curribus iEmiiianos, 
Et Curios jam dimidios/ humerosque minorem ^^ 

Corvinum, et Galbam auriculis nasoque carentem ? v 

Quis fructus generis tabula jactare capaci 
Corvinum, posthac multa contingere virgà 
Fumosos equitum cum dictatore magistros, 
Si coram Lepidis male vivitur ì Effigies quo 
Tot bellatorum, si luditur alea pernox 10 

Ante Numantinos ? si dormire incipis ortu 
Luciferi, quo signa duces et castra movebant ? 
Cur Allobrogicis et magna gaudeat ara 
Natus in Herculeo Fabius lare, si cupidus, si 
Vanus, et Euganeà quantumvis moUior agni ; 15 

Si tenerum attritus Catinensi pumice lumbum 
Squalentes traducit avos, emptorque veneni 
Frangendà miseram funestat imagine gentem ? 
Tota licèt vetercs exornent undique cerae 
Atria, nobilitas sola est atque unica virtus. 20 

Paulus, vel Cossus, vei Drusus, moribus esto : 
Hos ante efBgies majorum pone tuorum : 
PrsBcedant ipsas illi, te Consule, virgas. 
Prima mihi debes animi bona. Sanctus haberi, 
Justitiaeque tenax factis dictisque mereris ? 25 

Agnosco procerem. Salve, Gaetulice, seu tu 
Silanus, quocunque alio de sanguine ! rarus 
Ci vis et egregius patris contingis ovanti. 
Esclamare libet, populus quod clamat, Osiri 
Invento. Cluis enim generosum dixerit hunc, qui 90 

Indignus genere, et praeclaro nomine tantum 
Insignis? Nanum cujusdam Atlanta vocamus ; ^^^ ' < 
^thiqpem cycnum ; pravam extortamque puellam 
Europen : canibus pigris, scabieque vetustà 
Levibus, et siccse lambentibus ora lucernse, 35 

Nomen erit pardus, tigris, leo, si quid adhuc est, 
duod fremat in terris violentiùs. Ergo cavebis, 
Et metues, ne tu sis Creticus aut Camerinus. 

His ego quem monui ? tecum est mihi sermo, Rubelli 
Blande. Tumes alto Drusorum stemmate, tanquam 40 

Feceris ipse aliqiiid, propter quod nobilis esses, 



44 !>• JUNII JUVENALIS 

Ut te conciperet, quae sanguine fulget luli ; 

Non qu» ventoso conducta sub aggere texìt. 

Yos humiles, ìnquis, vulgi pars ultima nostri, 

Quorum nemo queat patriam monstrare parentis ; 45 

Ast ego Cecropides. Vivas, et originis hujus 

Gaudia longa feras ; tamen ima plebe Quiritem 

Facundum invenies : solet hic defendere causas 

Nobilis indocti. Veni^t de plebe togata, 

Qui juris nodos et legum a&nigmata solvat. 60 

Hic petit Euphraten juvenis, domitique Batavi 

Custodes aquilas, armis industrius ; at tu 

Nil, nisi Cecropides, truncoque simillimus Hermse. 

Nullo quippe alio vincis discrimine, quàm quòd 

Illi marmoreum caput est, tua vivit imago. 55 

Die mihi, Teucrorum proles, animalia muta 

Quis generosa putet, nisi fortia ? nempe volucrem 

Sic laudamus equum, facili cui plurimli palma 

Fervet, et exsultat rauco Victoria Circo. 

Nobilis hic, quocunque venit de gramine, cujus 60 

Clara fuga ante alios, et primus in SBquore pulvis : 

Sed venale pecus Corythse, posteritas et 

Hirpini, si rara jugo Victoria sedit. 

Nil ibi majorum respectus, gratia nulla 

Umbrarum : dominos pretiis mutare jubentur 65 

Exiguis, tritoque trahunt epiredia collo 

Segnipedes, dignique molam versare Nepotis. 

Ergo, ut miremur te, non tua, primùm aliquid da, 

Quod possim titulis incidere praster bonores, 

Quos illis damus et dedimus, quibus omnia debes. ^ 70 

IIsBc satìs ad juvenem, quem nobis fama superbum 
Tradit, rt inflatum, plenumque Nerone propinquo. 
Rarus enim ferme sensus communis in illà 
Fortuna. Sed te censeri laude tuorum, 
Pontice, noluerim, sic ut nihil ipse futurse 75 

Laudis agas. Miserum est aliorum incumbere famsB, 
Ne collapsa ruant subductìs tecta columnis. 
Stratus humi palmes viduas desiderai ulmos. 
Esto bonus miles, tutor bonus, arbiter idem 
Integer. Ambiguee si quando citabere testìs 80 

Incertsque rei ; Phalaris licèt imperet, ut sis 
Falsus, et admoto dictet perjuria tauro, 
Summam crede nefas animam praeferre pudori. 
Et propter vitam vivendi perdere causas. 
Dignus morte perit^ cceàet licèt ostrea centum 85 



SATIRA Vili. 45 

Gaurana, et Cosmi toto mergatur acna. 

Exspectata diù tandem provincia quum te 

Rectorem accipiet, pone irae frena modumque. 

Pone et avaritis ; misererò inopum sociorum. 

Ossa vides regum vacuis exsucta medulHs. 90 

Respice, quid moneant l^es, quid curia mandet, 

Prsmìa quanta bonos maneant^ quàm fulmine justo 

Et Capito et Numitor rubini, damnante senato, 

Pirat» Cilicum. Sed quid damnatio confort, 

Quum Pausa eripiat, quidquid tibi Natta reliquit ? 95 

Praeconem, Chaerippe^ tuis circumspice pannis, 

Jamque tace. Furor est post omnia perdere naulum. 

Non idem gemitus olim, neque vulnus erat par 

Damnorum, sociìs florentibus et modo victis. 

Piena domus tunc omnis, et ingens stabat acenrns lOO 

Nummorum, Spartana chlamys, conchylia Coa, 

Et cum Parrhasii tabulis signisque Myronis 

Phidiacum vivebat ebur, nec non Polycleti 

Multus ubique labor : rarae sine Mentore mena». 

Inde Dolabella .est atque bine Antonius, inde 105 

Sacrilegus Verres : referebant navibus altis 

Occulta, spolia, et plures de pace triumphos. 

Nunc sociìs juga panca boum, grex parvus eqoaniai. 

Et pater armenti capto eripiatur anello ; 

Ipsi deinde Lares, si quod spectabile signnm, 110 

Si quis in aediculà deus unicus. Haec etenim sunt 

Pro summis : nam sunt haac maxima. Despicias tu 

Forsitan imbelles Rhodios, unctamque Corinthon : 

Despicias meritò, duid resinata Juventus, 

Cruraque totins facient tibi levia gentis ì 115 

Horrida vitanda est Hispania, Gallicus axis, 

Illyricumque latus : parco et messoribus illis, 

dui saturant urbem, Circo scenaeque vacantem. 

Quanta autem inde feres tam dirae praemia culpSD, 

Quum tenues nuper Marius dìscinxerit Afros ? 120 

Curandum in primis, ne magna injuria fiat 

Fortibus et miseris. Tollas licèt omne, quod usquam est» 

Auri atque argenti ; scutum gladiumque relinques> 

Et jacula et galeam : spoliatis arma supersunt. 

Quod modo proposui, non est sententia : verùm ^ 12& 

Credito, me vobis folium recitare SibyllaB. 

Si tibi sancta cobors comitum, si uemo tribunal 

Vendit Acersecomes, si nullum in conjuge crimenj^ 

Nec per conventus et cuncta per oppida curvis 



46 D. JUNII JUVENALIS 

Unguibus ire parat nummos raptura Cdeno : 190 

Tunc ]icet a Pico numeres genus ; altaque si te 

Nomina delectant, omnem Titanida pugnam 

Inter majores ipsumque Promethea pou9s : 

De quocunque voles proaFum tibi su mito libro. 

Quòd 8Ì priBeipitem rapit ambitio atque libido, 135 

Si frangia virgas soeiorum in sanguine, si te 

Delectant hebetes lasso lictore secures ; 

Incipit ipsorum contra te stare parentnm 

Nobilitas, claramque facem praiferre pudeMys. 

Omne animi vitium tanto conspectias in se 140 

Crimen habet, qaanto major, qui peccat, babetur. 

Quo mi hi te solitum iklsas signare tabellas 

In templis, qus fecit avus, statuamque parentis 

Ante triump^iaiem ? quo, si nocturnus aduJter 

Tempora Santonico velas adoperta cuculio ? 145 

Prster majorum cineres atque ossa volucrì 

Carpento rapitur pinguis Damasippus, et ipse, 

Ipse rotam adstringit multo sufflamine Consul : 

Nocte quidem ; eed luna videt, sed sidera testes 

Intendunt oculos. Finitum (empus honoris 150 

Quum fuerit, darà Damasippus luce flagellum 

Sumet^ et occursum niinquaììi trepidabit amici 

Jam senis, ac virgà prior annnet, atque maniplos 

Solvet, et infundèt jumentis hordea lassis. 

Interea, dum lanatas torvumque juvencum 165 

More Numse ^^aedit Jovis ante altaria, jurat 

Solam Eponam et facies olida ad presepia pietas. 

Sed quum pervigiles placet instaurare popinas ; 

Obvius assiduo Syrophcenix udus amomo 

Currit, IdumsBs Syrophcenix incola portee, 160 

Hospitìs affectu dominum regemque salutat, 

Et %um venali Cyane succincta lagena. 

Defensor culpie dicet mihi, Fecimns et nos 
HiBC juvenes, Esto. Desisti nempe, nec ultra 
Fovisti errorem. Breve sit, quod turpiter audes. 165 

Quedam cum prima resecentur crimina barba. 
Indulge veniam pueris. Damasippus ad illos 
Therraarum calices inscriptaque lintea vadit, 
Maturus bello, Atmenìds SjriaBque tuendis 
Amnibus, et Rheno atque Istro. Prestare Neronem 170 
Securum valet heec eetas. Mitte Ostia, Csesar, 
Mitte ; sed in magna legatum que&re popinà. 
Invenies aliquo cum percussore jacentem, 



SATIRA Vili. 47 

Perinixtum nautis, et fiiribas, ac fbgittvis, 

Inter carnifices, et fabros sandapilarum, 175 

Et resapìnati cessantia tympana Galli. 

iEqua ibi iibertas, comnrania pocula, lectus^ 

Non alius cuiquam, nec mensa remotior nllt. 

Quid facias talei» sortitus, Pointioe, servim f 

Nempe in Lncanos, aut Tasca ergastuia mitla». 180 

At vos, Trojugenae, vd^is igoeeoiti», el, qpm- 

Turpia cerdoni, Volesos Brutumque deoeboBt* 

Quid, si nunquam adeò ioedis adeèque pndeudis 

Utiniur exemplis, ut non pejora superaint? 

Consumptis opibus vooem, Damasippe, locteti 16B 

Sipario, clamosum ageres ut Phasoia Catulli* 

Laureolum velox etiam bene Léntulus egit, 

Judice me, digiras^ vera cruce. Nec tamen- ipfk 

Ignoscas populo ; popoli fhms durior hujus^ 

Qui sedet, et spectat trìtscurria patriciorurt)*, 190 

ESkaipedes audit Fabios, ridere potest qui 

Mamercorum alapas. Quanti sua funera vendane, 

Quid refert 1 vendunt nullo cogente Nerone^ 

Nec dubitant celsi pnetoris vendere ludis. 

Finge tamen gladio» inde, atque bino palpita pone : 10S 

<Sciid satius ? Mortem sic quisquam exhorrnit, ut sk 

Zelotypus Thymeles, stupidi collega Copìnthì ?' 

Res haud mira tamen, oitharoedo Prìncipe, mimus 

Nobilis. Haec ultra, quid erit nisi ludus ?' Et illud' 

Dedecus Urbis habes : nec mirmillonis in armis, 200 

Nèo clypeo Graccbum pugnantem, aut* fòloe supina ; 

(Damnat enim tales habitus ; sed damnati et odit) 

Nec galea frontem abscondit : movet ecce tndentem, 

Postquam librata pendentia retia dextrà 

Nequidquam effudit, nudum ad spectacula vultum 205 

Brigit, et totÀ fugit agnoscendus arena-. 

Credamus tuniòse ^ de faucibus aurea quum se 

Porrigat, et longo jactetur spira galero. 

Ergo ignominiam graviorem pertulit omni- 

Vulnere, cum Graccho jussus pugnare secutor. -V 210 

Libera si dentur populò suffi-agia-, quis tam 
Perditus, ut dubitet Sénecam pi'ffiferre Nèroni-; 
Cujus supplicio non debuit= una parari- 
Simia, nec serpen» unus, nec cnlèus unus"?! 
Par Agamemnonidaa crimen ; sed' causa fìicit rem 215 

Dlèeiinilem. Quippe ille, deisauctoribus, ultòr 
Patris erat essi media inter pocula ; sed nec 



48 ^' JUNII JUVENALIS 

Electre jugulo se polluit, aut Spartani 

Sanguine conjugii, nullis aconita propinquis 

Miscuit, in scena nunquam cantavit Orestes. 220 

Troica non scripsit. Quid enim Verginius armis 

Debuit ulcisci n^agìs, aut cum Vìndice Galbaì 

Quid Nero tam seva crudàque tyrannide fecit ? 

Hec opera, atque hs sunt generosi Principia artes, 

Gaudentis foedo peregrina ad pulpita sai tu 225 

Prostituì, Graisque apium meruisse corone. 

Majorum efiìgies habeant insignia vocis : 

Ante pedes Domiti longum tu pone Thyeste 

Syrma vel Antigone, seu personam Menalippes, 

Et de marmoreo citharam suspende colosso. 230 

Quid, Catilina, tuis natalibus, atque Cethegi, 

Inveniet quisquam sublimius ? Arma tamen vos 

Nocturna et flammas domibus templisque paràstis, 

Ut Bracatorum pueri, Senonumque minores. 

Ausi, quod liceat tunica punire molesta. 235 

Sed vigilat Ck>nsul, Texillaque vestra coercet 

Hic novus Arpinas, ignobilis, et modo Rome 

Municipalis Eques, galeatum ponit ubique 

Prssidium attonitis, et in omni gente laborat. 

Tantum igitur muros intra toga contulit illi 240 

Nominis et tituli, quantum non Leucade, quantum 

ThessalisB campis Octavius abstulit udo 

Caedibus assiduis gladio. Sed Roma parentem^ 

Roma patreni patri» Ciceronem libera dixit. 

Arpinas alius Yolscorum in monte solebat 245 

Poscere mercedes alieno lassus aratro, 

Nodosam post hsc frangebat vertice vitem, 

Si lentus pigra muniret castra dolabra. 

Hic tamen et Cimbros et summa pericula rerum 

Excipit, et solus trepidantem protegit Urbem. 250 

Atque ideo, postquam ad Cimbros stragemque volabant, 

Qui nunquam attigerant majora cadaverà, corvi, 

Nobilis ornatur lauro collega secundà. 

Plebei» Deciorum anime, plebeia fuerunt 

Nomina : prò totis legionibus hi tamen, et prò 255 

Omnibus auxiliis, atque omni pube Latina, 

Sufficiunt dis infernis Terraeque parenti : 

Pluris enim Decii, quàm que servantur ab illis. 

Ancillà natus trabeam, et diadema Quirini, 

Et fasces meruit regum ultimus ille bonorum. 960 

Prodita laxabant portarum claustra tyrannis 



SATIRA IX. 49 

Exsulibus juvenes ipsius Consulis, et quos 

Magnum alìquid dubià prò liberiate deceret, 

Q,uod rairaretar cum Coclite Muciiis, et qua 

Imperli fìnes Tiberìnum virgo natavit. 265 

Occulta ad patres produxit crimina servus 

Matronis lugendus : at illos verbera jostis 

Afficiunt poenis, et legum prima securis. 

Malo pater tibi sit Thersites, dummodo ttt su 
iEacidae similis, Vulcaniaque arma capessas, 270 

duàm te Thersitffi similem producat Achillea. 
Et tamen, ut longè repetas, longèque revolvas 
Nomen, ab infami gentem deducis asylo. 
Majorum primua quisquis fuit ille tuorum, 
Aut pastor fuit, aut illud, quod dicere nolo. 275 



SATIRA IX. 



^ciRE velim, qnare toties mihi, Nsvole, tristis 
Occurras fìx)nte obductà, ceu Marsya rictus. — 
Non erat hàc facie miserabiiior Crepereius 
Pollio, qui triplicem usuram prasstare paratus 
<^ircuit et &tuos non invenit. Unde repente 5 

Tot rugsB ? certe modico contentus agebas 
Vernam &^uitem, conviva joco mordente facetus, 
Et salibus vehemens intra pomoeria natis. 
Omnia nunc centra : vultus gravisi horrida sicca 
Silva coir.ae, nuUus tota nitor in cute, qualem 10 

Bnittia praestabat calidi tibi fascia visci : 
SeJ fruticante pilo neglecta et squalìda crura. 
Quid macies sgri veteris, quem tempore longo l f 

Torret quarta dies, olimque domestica febris ? 
Depréndas animi tormenta latentis in aegro / 15 

Corpore, depréndas et gaudia : sumit utrumque 
Inde habitum facies. Igitur flexisse videris 
Propositum, et vitae contrarius ire priori. ^ 

Nuper enim, ut repeto, fanum Jsidis, et Ganymeden, 
Pacis, et advectsB secreta palatia Matris, 20 

Et Cererem (nam quo non prostat icemina tempio?) 
Notior Aufklio mcechus celebrare solebas. — 
Utile et hoc multis viìle genus : at mihi nullum 
Inde operae pretium. Pingues aliquando lacernasi 
Munimenta togse, duri crassique coloris, 

5 • - 



1 



50 !>• JUNII JUVENALIS 

Et male percussas textorìs pectine Galli 

Accipimus, teuue argentum vensque secunds. — 

Quod tamen ulterius monstruro, quàm mollia avanis? 

Hec tri bui, deinde illa dedi, mox plura tuiisti. 

Compiitat ac cevet. Ponaiur calcutus, adsint 90 

Cum tabula pueri : numera sestertia quinque 

Omnibus in rebus : numerentur deinde labores. — 

Vos humili assecuiiB, vos indulgebitis unquam 

Cuhori, jam nec morbo donare parati 1->- 

Die, passer, cui to4 montes, tot prsdia servas S5 

Appula, tot milvos intra tua pascua lassos ? 

Te Trifolinus ager foecundis vitibus implet, 

Suspectumque jugum Curais, et Gaurus inanis. 

riam quis piura linit victuro doiia musto t 

Quantum erat exhausti lumbos donare clientis 40 

Jugeribus paucis? meliusne hic rusticus inians, 

Cum matre, et casulis, et collusore catello, 

Cymbala pulsantis legatum fìet amici ? 

Improbus es, quum poscis, ais : sed pensio clamat, 

Posce ; sed appellai puer unicus,^ ut Polyph^al 45 

Lata acies, per quam soUers evasit Ulixes. 

Alter emendus erit : namque hic non sufficit : ambo 

Pascendi. Quid agam bruma ? spirante quid, oro, 

Quid dicam scapulis puerorum Aquilone Decembri 

Et pedibus? durate atque exspectate cicadas t 60 

Verùm, ut dissimules, ut mittas estera, quanto 

Metiris pretio, quòd, ni tibi deditus essem 

Devotusque diens, uxor tua virgo maneret ? — 

(«stabile, ac dirimi cceptum, et jam paenè solutum 

Conjugium in multis domibus servavitadulter ! 55 

Quo te circumagas ? qusB prima aut ultima ponas ì 

Nuin ergo merilum est, ingrate ac perfide, nuUum^ 

Quòd tibi filiolus, quod filia nascitur ex me ? 

Tbliis enim, et libris actorum spargere gaudes 

Argumenta viri. Foribus suspende coronas, 60 

Jam pater es : dedimus, quod famse opponere poasis ; 

Jura parentis habes, propter we scriberis hieres, 

Legatum ^omne c^pis, nec non et dulce caducum. 

Qommoda prseterea jungentur mulla caducis, 

Si numerum, ai tres implevero. Justa doloris, 65 

NsBvole, causa tui. Contrà tamen ille quid afiert ? 

Negligit, atque alium bÀped^oi sibi qusem aselkuoa. 

Hsc soli ocmiiaisBa tibi celare memento, 
Bi tacitus nostcas intra te fìge querelas. 



SATIRA IX. 51 

Nam rea mortifera est inimicus pùmice levis. 70 

Qui modo secretum commiserat, ardet, et odit, 

Tanquam prodiderim, quidqaìd scio. Sumere ferrnm, 

Fuste aperire caput, candelam apponere vai vis, 

Non dubitat. Nec contemnas aut despicias, quòd 

His opibus nuDquam cara est annona veneni. 75 

Ergo occulta teges, ut curia Martis Athenis. 

O Corydon, Corydon, secretum divitis ullum 

Esse putas ? Servì ut taceant ; jumenta loquuntur, 

Et canis, et postes, et marmora. Claude fenestras, 

Vela tegant rimas, junge ostia, toliito lumen SO 

E medio ; clamant omnes. Propè nemo recumbat r 

Ciuod tamen ad cantum galli facit ille secundi, 

Proximus ante diem caupo sciet ; audiet et, que 

Finxerunt pariter librarius, archimagiri, 

Carptores. Quod enim dubitant componere crimen 86 

In domjDos, quoties rumoribus ulciscuntur 

Baltea ? Nec deerìt, qui te per compita quaerat 

Nolentem, et miseram vinosus inebriet aurem. 

Ulos ergo roges, quidquid paulò ante petebas 

A nobis. Taceant illi : sed prodere malunt 00 

Arcanum, quàm subrepti potare Falerni, 

Pro populo faciens quantum Laufella bibebat. 

Vivendum rectè est, cùm propter plurima, tum his 

Precipue causis, ut linguas mancipiorum 

Contemnas : nam lingua mali pars pessima servi. 95 

Deterior tamen hic, qui liber non erit iilis, 

duorum animas et far re suo custodit et sere. 

Idcirco ut possim linguam contemnere servi, 
Utile consilium modo, sed commune, dedisti : 
Nunc mihi quid suades post damnum temporis, et spes 100 
Deceptas ? Festinat enim decurrere velox 
Flosculus, anguste miseraeque brevissima vitae 
Portio : dum bibimus, dum serta, unguenta, puellas 
Poscimus, obrepit non intellecta senectus. 
Ne trepida : nunquam pathicus tibi deerit amicus, lOS 

Stantibus et salvis his collibus ; undique ad illos 
Convenient, et carpentis et navibus, omnes, ^ * 
Qui digito scalpunt uno caput. Altera major 
Spes superest : tu tantum crucis imprime dentem. 
Hsc exempla para felicibus : at mea Clotho 110 

Et Lachesis gaudent, si pascìtur inguine venter. 
O parvi, nostrique Lares, quos thure minuto, 
Aut farre, et tenui solco exorare corona, 



J 



59 t>. JUNIIJUVEf^AUS 

Quando ego fìgam aliqiiid, quo sit mihi tuta senectus 

A tegete et bacalo 1 viginti mìllia foenus 1 15 

Pignoribus positis, argenti vascula puri, 

Sed quee Fabricius censor notet, et duo fortes 

De grege McBsorum, qui me cervice locata 

Securum jubeant clamoso insistere Circo. 

Sit mihi prseterea curvus cselator, et alter, 1^ 

Qui multas facies fingat citò. Sufficiunt hsc, 

Quando ego pauper ero. Votum miserabile, nec spes 

His saltèm : nam, quum prò me Fortuna rogatur, 

Affigit ceras illà de nave petitas, 

Quffi Siculos cantus effugit remige surdo. 125 



D. JUNII JUVENALIS 



AQUINATIS 



SATIRARUM 



UBER QUARTUS. 



SATIRA X. 

Omnibus in terris, quse sunt a Gadibus usqae ^ 

Auroram et Gangen, pauci dignoscere possunt 
Vera bona atque^ illis multò m diversa, remota 
Erroris nebulà. Quid enim ratione timemus, 
A ut cupimus ? quid tam dextro pede concipis, ut te 5 

Conatùs non pceniteat, votique peracti ì 
Evertere domos totas, optantibus ipsis, 
Dì faciles. Nocitura toga, nocitura petuntur 
Militià. Torrens dicendi copia raultis, 
Et sua mortifera est facundia. Viribus ille 10 

Confìsus periit admirandisque lacertis. 
Sed plures nimià congesta pecunia cura 
Strangulat, et cuncta exsuperans patrimonia census, 
Cluanto delphinis baleena Britannica major. 
Temporibus diris igitur, jussuque Neronis, 15 

Longinum et magnos Senecae prsdivitis hortos 
Clausit, et egregias Lateranorum obsidet sdes 
Tota cohors : rarus venit in ccenacula'miles. 
Pauca licèt portes argenti vascula puri, 
Nocte iter ingressus gladium contumque timebis, 2Q 

Et motae ad lunam trepidabis arundinis umbram : 
Cantabit vacuus coram latrone viator. 
Prima fere vota et cunctis notissima templis 
Divitiae ; crescant ut opes, ut maxima toto 
Nostra sit arca foro. Sed nulla aconìta bibuntur 85 

4» 



M D. JUNII JUVENALIS 

FictìlibuB. TuDc illa lime, quum pocula sumes 

Gemmata, et lato Setinum ardebit in auro. 

Jamne igìtur laudas, quod de sapientibus alter 

Ridebat, quoties de limine moverai unum 

Protuleratque pedem ; flebat contrarius auctor f 

Sed facilis cuivis rigidi censura cachinni : 

Mirandum est, unde ille oculis suf!ecerit humor. 

Perpetuo risu pulmonem agitare solebat 

Democritus, quanquam non essent urbibus illis 

Praetexta, et trabeae, fasce», lectica, tribunal. 

Quid, si vidisset Praetorem curribus altis 

Exstantem, et medio sublimem in pulvere Circi 

In tunica Jovis, et pictse Sarrana terentem 

Ex humeris aulsea togse, magnseque coronse 

Tantum orbem, quanto cervixnon sufficit ulla? ' 40- 

Quippe tenet sudans hanc publicus, et, sibi Consul 

Ne placeat, curru servus portatur eodem. 

Da nunc et volucrem, sceptro quce surgit ebumo, 

Illinc cornicines, hinc praeccdentìa longi 

Agminis officia, et niveos ad frsna Quirites, 45 

Defossa in loculis quos sportula fecit amicos. 

Tunc quoque materiam risùs inrenit ad omnes 

Occursus hominum, cujus prudentia monstrat, 

Summos posse viros, et magna exempla daturos, - 

Vervecum in patria erassoque sub aere nasci. 50 

Ridebat curas, nec non et gaudia vulgi, 

Interdum et lacrymas, quum Fortuna; ipse minaci 

Mandaret laqueum mediumquc ostenderet unguem. 

Ergo supervacua, aut perniciosa petuntur, 

Propter quae fks est genua incerare deorum. 55 

Quosdam prsecipitat subjecta potentia magne 
Invidise ; mergit longa atque insignis honorum 
Pagina; descendunt statuae, resteraque sequuntur» 
Ipsas deinde rotas bigarum impacta securis 
Caedit, et immeritis frauguntur crura caballis. 60 

Jam stridunt ignes, jam follibus atque caminis 
Ardet adoratum ix)pulo caput, et crepat ingens 
Sejanus : deinde ex facie loto orbe secundà 
Fiunt urceoli, pelves, sartago, patelise. 

Pone domi lauros, due in Capitolia magnum , 65 

Cretatumque bovem : Sejanus ducitur unco 
Spectandus: gaudent omnes. Quae labra? quis illi 
Yultus erat? nunquam, si quid mihi crcdis, amavi 
Hunc hominem, Sed quo cecidit sub crimine t quisnam 



SATIRA X* U 

Delator? quibus indiciis ? quo teste probavit ? 70 

Nil horum : verbosa et grandis epistola venit 

A Capreis. Bene habet ; nil plus interrogo. Sed quid 

Turba Remi ? Sequitur Fortunam, ut semper, et odit 

Damnatos. Idem populus, si Nursia Tusco 

Favissety si oppressa foret secura senectus 75 

Principis, hàc ipsa Sejanum diceret bora /> 

Augustum. Ja(n_pridem, ex quo suffir&gia nulli <^' ^'^-^ ; < ■■ 

Vendimus, effudit curas. Nam qui dabat olim 

Imperium, fasces, legione», omnia, nunc se 

Coutinet, atque duas tantum res anxius optai, 80 

Panem et Circenses. Perituros audio multos. 

Nil dubium ; magna est fornacula : pallidulus mi 

Brutidius meus ad Martis fuit obvius aram. ^ / 

duàm timeo, victiis ne pcenas e^at Ajax, (Ì.-yUif >- 

Ut male defensus ! Curramus prfficipites, et, • — , 85 

Dum jacet in ripa, calcemus Caesaris hostem. L } u<t- , ' - 

Sed videant servi, ne quis neget, et pavidum in joa ' 

Cervice obstrictà dominum trahat Hi sermone» 

Tunc de Sej^no, secreta hsc murmura vulgi. 

Visne salutari, sicut Sejanus ì habere 90 

Tantundem, atque illi summas donare curulesi 

lUum exercitibus praeponere ? tutor babep 

Principis angusta Caprearum in rupe sedenti» 

Cum grege Chaldso ? Vis certe pila, cohortes, 

Egregios equites, et castra domestica ì Quidni 96» 

Haec cupias ? et, qui nolunt occidere quenquam. 

Posse ^volunt. Sed quas preclara et prospera tanti. 

Ut rebus Isetis par sit mensura maiorum ì 

Hujus, qui trabitur, praetextam sumere mavis, 

An Fidenarum Gabiorumque esse potestas, 100 

Et de mensura jus dicere, vasa minora 

Frangere pannosus vacuis iEdilis Ulubris ì 

Ergo quid optandum foret, ignorasse fateris 

Sejanum : nam qui nimios optabat honores. 

Et nimias poscebat opes, numerosa parabat lOS 

Excelsae turris tabulata, unde altior esset 

Casus, et impulse prseceps immane ruinas. 

Quid CrassQS, quid Pompeios evertit ì et illum, ^ 

Ad sua qui domitos deduxit flagra Quirites ì 

Summus nempe locus nulla non arte petitus, tlO 

Magnaque numinibus vota exaudita malignis. 

Ad generum Cereris sine cede et vulnero pauci 

Descendunt reges, et siccà morte tyranni. 



66 I>* JUNII JUVENALIS 

Eloquium ac famam Demosthenis aut Ciceronis 
Incipit optare, et totis Quinquatribus optat, 115 

Quisquia adhoc uno partam colit asse Minervam, 
QueiB seqnicar cusios angustae Ternula capsae. 
Eloquio sed uterque perìt orator : utrumque 
Largus et exundans leto dedit ingeniì fons. 
Ingenio manus est et ceryix cassa ; nec unquam 120 

Sanguine causidici maduerunt rostra pusilli. 
O fortunatam natam me consule Romam 
Antoni gladios potuit contemnere, si sic 
Omnia dixisset. Ridenda poémata malo, 
Quàm te co.pspìcu», divina Philippica, famse, 125 

Volveris a prima quae proxìma. Ssvus et illum 
Exitus eripuit, quem mirabantur Athenae 
Torrentem, et pieni moderantem fraena theatri. 
IKs ille adversis genitus, fatoque sinistro, 
Quem pater ardentis massse fuHgine lippus 130 

A carbone, et forcipibus, gladiosque parante 
Incude, et luteo Vulcano ad rhetora misit. 

Bellorum exuvisB, truncis affixa tropaeis 
Lorica, et Traete de càssÌ<Ìe bucculà pendens. 
Et curtum temane jugum, victaeque triremis 135 

Aplustre, et summo toìstis capti vus in arcu, 
Humanis majora bonis creduntur : ad haec se 
Romanus, Graiusque, ac barbarus endoperator 
E?exit ; causas discriminis atque laboris 
Inde habuit. Tanto major fkmae sitis est, quàm 140 

Virtutis. Quis enim virtutem amplectitur ipsam, 
Prsemia si tollas ? Patrìam tamen obruit olim 
Gloria paucorum, et laudis titulique cupido 
HaBsuri saxis cinerum custodibus; 'ad quae 
Discutienda valent sterilis mala robora ficus : 145 

QuandoqùT&m data sunt ipsis quoque iata sepulcris. 
Expende Hannibalem : quot libras in duce summo 
Invenics ? hic est, quem non capit Africa Mauro 
Pefcussa Oceano, Niloque admota tepenti, 
Rursus ad iEthiopum populos, altosque elepbantos. 150 

Additur imperiis Hispania : Pyrenaeum 
Ti^anssilit. Opposuit natura Alpemque nivemque : 
Diducit scopulos, et montem rumpit aceto. 
Jam tenet Italiam : tamen ultra pergere tendit. 
Actum, inquit, nibi) est, nisi Pcbuo milite portas 155 

Frangimus, et medìÀ vexillum pono Suburà. 
O qualis facies, et quali digna tabella, 



1 t 

I 



SATIRA X, S7 

QrUum Gsetula ducem portaret bellua lascmn t 
{Sxitus ergo quis est ? O gk>ria ! vinckur idem 
Nempe, et in exsiliutn prsceps fugit, atque ibi raagnus 160 
Mirandusque cliens sedet ad pretoria regis^ 
Doaec Bithyno li beat vigilare tyranna. 
Finem animae, quae res hamanas miseait olim. 
Non gladii, non saxa dabunt, nec tela ; sed ilìe 
Cannarum vindex, ac tanti sanguinis ultor, 165 

Annulus. I, demens, et saevas curre per Àlpes, 
Ut pueris placeas, et declamatio fìas l 
Unus Pellaeo jiiveni non sufficit orbis : ■ 
iEstuat infelìx angusto limite mundi, 

Ut Gyars clausus scopulis, parvàque Séripfaa 170 

diium tamen a fìguHs munitam intraverit urbem, 
Sarcophago contentus erit. M ors sola fittetur, 
Quantula sint hominum oorpuscula. Creditur olim 
Velifìcatus Athos, et quidquid Grascia mendax 
Audet in historià : constratum.classibus ìsdem, 175 

l^uppositumquc rotig sol^dum mare : credimus altos 
Defecisse amnes, epotaque flumina Medo 
ìc.N. . Prandente, et madidis cantat quae Sostratus alis« 
Ille tamen qualis rediit Salamìne relictà, 
In Co?um atque Ei/iìim solitus saevire flagellis 180 

Barbar uSy JEoììù nunquam hoc in carcere passos» 
Ipsum compedibus qui vinxerat Ennosigsum ? 
Miti US id sane, quòd non et stigmate dignum 
Credìdit. Huic quisquam vellet servire deorum t 
Sed qualis rediit ? nempe una nave, cruentis 185 

Fluctibus, ac tarda per densa cadavera prora. 
Has toties optata exegit gloria poenas. 

Da spatium vitse, muJtos da, Jupiter, annos ì 
Hoc recto vultu soìum, hoc et palìidus optas. 
Sed quàm continuis et quantis longa senectus 190 

Piena malis ? Deformem et tetrum ante omnia vultum, 
Dissimilemque sui, dieformem prò cute pellem, 
Pendentesque gerìas/ et tales adspice rugas, 
Quales, umbrijeros^ ubi pandit Tabraca sattus. 
In vetùlà scalpit jam mater simia buccà. 195 

Plurima suntjuvenum discrimina : pulchrior ille 
Hoc, atque ille alio ; multùm hic robustior ilio. 
Una senum facies, cum voce trementia membra 
Et jam leve caput, madidìque infantia nasi. 
Frangendus misero gingivà panis inermi : < 200 

Usque adeò gravis uxoria natisque, sibique, 



6S !)• «'UNII JUVENALIS 

/• 

'.' ' ' ' ^ 

Ut captatori moreat fastidia Cosso. 

Non eadem vini atque cibi, torpente palato, 
Qaudia.^— 

nam (|U3& cantante voluptas, 2M 

Sìt licèt exiraius citharaBdus^ sitve Seleucus, 
Et quibus aurata rnos est fulgere lacerna 7 
Quid refert, magni sedeat qua parte theatrl, 
Qui vix cornicines exaudiat atque tubarum 
Concentus ? clamore opus est, ut sentiat auris, dlO 

Quem dicat venisse puer, quot nuntiet horas. 
Praeterea minimus gelido jam corpore sanguìs 
Febre calet sola ; ctrcumsilit agmine facto 
Morborum omne genus : quorum si nomina querts, 
Promptiùs expediam, quot amaverit Hippia mcBchos 215 

Quot Themìson egros autumno occiderit uno, 
Quot BasiluB W^jo»^ 9i^^ circumscripserit Hirrus 

Pupillos ; 

citiùs, quot villas pòssideat nunc, 
Quo tendente gravis juveni mi hi barba sonabat. 930 

Ille humero, hic lumbis, bis coxft debilis, ambos 
Perdidit ille ocuios, et luscis invidet : hujus ^- • " ' 
Pallida labra cibum accipiunt digìtis alienis» 
Ipse ad conspectum cosnsB diducere rictum • < 
l^etus, hiat tantum, ceu pulJus hirundinls, ad quem 235 

Ore volat pieno mater jejuna. Sed omni 
Membrorum damno major dementia, qu» nec 
Nomina servorum, nec vultum agnoscit amici, 
Cum quo praeterità ecBnavit nocte ; nec illos, 
Quos genijit, quos eduxit. Nam codice seevo 9S0 

Hsredes vetat esse suos ; bona tota feruntur 
Ad Phialen : tantum artificis valet halitos oris, 
Quod steterat multis in carcere fornicis annis. 
Ut vigeant sensus animi, docenda tamen sunt 
Funera natorum, rogus adspioiendus amatcB \. l / ; 235 

Conjugis et fratria, pleììseque sororibus urn». 
H»c data poena diù viventibus, ut, renovatà 
Semper clade dgmos, multis in Inctibns, inque 
Perpetuo moerore, et nrigrà veste senescant. 
flex Pylius, magno si quidquam credis Homero, 240 

Exemplum vitaa foit a cornice secundft. 
Felix nimirum, qui tot per ssscula mortem 
Distulit, atque suos jam dextrà computat annos, 
Quique novum toties mustum bibit. Oro, parumper 
Attendas, quantum de legibns ipse queratur 24d 



/. 



fX. t 



SATIRA X. 50 

Fatorum, et nimio de stamine, quuin videi aciis 
Antilochi barbam ardentem, quum qusiit ab omci, 
Quisquis adest sootus, cur haec io tempora duret, 
duod facinus dignum tana iongo admiserit mwol 
Haec eadem Peleus, raptum quum luget Achillem, 250 

Atque alias, cui fas Itfa«oum lugere natantem. 
Incolumi Trqjà Priamus venisset ad umbraa 
Assaraci magnis solennibus, Hectore funus 
Portante, ac reliquia fratrum cervici bus, inter 
Iliadum lacryraas, ut primos edere planctu» 256 

Cassandra inoiperet, scissàque Polyxena palla. 
Si foret exstkictus diverso tempore, quo non 
CcBperat audàces Paris sdifìcare carinas. 
Longa éàes igitur quid contulit ? omnia vidit e ^. \ r . 
Eversa, et flammis A^iam ferroque cadentem. 260 

Tane miles tremula» posità tuiit arma tiara, 
Et ruit ante aram summi Jovis, ut vetulus bos. 
Qui domini cuJcris tenue et miserabile oollum 
Prsbet, ab ingrato jam fastidia us aratro. 

^xitus ille utcunque hominis': sed torva canino 265 

latravit rictu, qim post hunc vixerat, uxqr. 
Festino ad nostros, et regem transeo Ponti, 
Et Croesum, quem vox justi facunda Solonia 
Respicere ad longs jussit apatia ultima vit^. 
Exsilium, et career, Minturnarumque paludes, 270 

Et mendicatus vieta Carthagìne panis, 
Hinc causas habuére. Quid ilio cive tulisset \ 
Natura in terris, quid Roma beatius unquam. 
Si circumducto captivorum agmine, et omni 
Bellorum pompa, auìmam exhalàsset opimam, 2T5 

Cbxum de Teutonico vellet descendere curru ? 
Provida Poaipeio dederat Campania febres 
Optandas : sed nmlte urbes et piiblica vota 
Vicerunt. Igitur Fortuna ipaìus et Urbis 
Servatum vieto caput abstulit. Hoc crueiatu 280 

lientulus, hàc poenà caruit ceciditque Cethegu» 
Integer, et jacttit Catilina cadavere toto, 

Formam optat mcKlico pueris, majore pueilis 
Murmurc, quum Veneris fìinum videt anxia mater, 
Usque ad delicias votorum. Cur tamen, inquìt, , 285 

Gorripias ? Piìlchrà gaudet Latona Diaiià. 
Sed vetat optari faciem Lucretia, qualem 
Ipsa habuit : cuperet Rutike Virginia gibbum 
Accipere, atque snom Rutils dare. Filius aulem 



^ D. JUNII JUYENALIS 

Corporis egregi! misetos trepidosque parentes 290 

8emper habet Rara est adeò concordia forms ^ 

Atque pudicitie» Sanctos licèt horrida mores 

Tradiderit domus, ac veteres imitata Sabinos, 

Prcterea castum ingenium vultumque modesto 

Sanguine ferventem tribuat natura benigna 295 

Larga manu ; (quid enim puero conferre potest plas 

Custode et cura natura potentior omni ?) 

Non licet esse viris : nam prodiga corruptoris 

^mprobitas ipsos audet tentare parentes. — 

Sed casto quid forma nocet ? quid profuit immo 300 

Hippolyto grave propositum ? quid BeJlerophonti? 

Erubuit nempe h»c, ceu fastidita^ repulsa. 

Nec SthenelxBa minùs, quàm Cressa, excanduit, et se 

Concussére ambs. Mulier soevissima tunc est, 

Qruum stimulos odio pudor admovet. Elige quidnam 306 

Suadendum esse putes, cui nubere Cesaris uxor 

Destinat ? Optimus hic et formosissimus idem 

Gentis patriciaB rapitur miser exstinguendus 

^essalinae ocuiis : dudum sedet ilJa parato 

Flammeolo, Tyriusque palàm geniaJis in hortis 310 

Sternitur, et ritu decies centena dabuntur 

Antiquo ; veniet cum signatoribus auspex. 

Haec tu secreta et paucis commissa putabas ? 

Non, nisi legìtimè, vult nubere. Quid placeat, die : 

Ni parere velis, pereundum erit ante lucernas : 815 

Si sceius admittas, dabitur mora parvuia, dum res 

Nota Urbi et populo contingat Principis aures. 

Dedecus ille domùs sciet ultimus: intereatu 

Obsequere imperio, sìt tanti vita dierum 

Paucorum. Cluidquid melius leviusque putàris, 320 

Prebenda est gladio pulchra hsc et candida cervix. 

Nil ergo optabunt homines ? Si consilium vis, 
Permittes ipsis expendere numinibus, quid 
Conveniat nobis, rebusque sit utile nostris. 
Nam prò jucundis aptissima quaeque dabunt di 325 

Carior est illis homo, quàm sibi. Nos animorum 
Impulsu, et caecà magnàque cupidine ducti 
Conjugium petimus, partumque uxoris : at illis 
Notum, qui pueri, qualisque futura sit uxor. 
Ut tamen et poscas aliquid, voveasque sacellis 330 

Exta, et candiduli divina tomacula porci ; 
Orandum est, ut sit mens sana in corpore sano. 
Fortem posce animum, mortis terrore carentem, 



SATIRA XI. 61 

Qtii spatìam vitse ^xtremum inter munera ponat 

Naturas, qui ferre queat quoscunque labores, 335 

Nésciat irasci, cujMat nihil, et potiores 

Hercalis senimnas credat saevosque labores 

Et Venere, et coenis, et piuma Sardanapalì. 

Monstro, quod ìpse tibì possis dare : semita certe 

Tranquilla per vìrtatem patet unica vite. 340 

Nullum numen habes, si sit prudentia : nos te, 

Nos facimus, Fortuna, Deam, coeloque locamus. 



SATIRA XI. 



Atticus eximiè si coemat, lautus habetur ; 
Si Rutilus, demens. Quid enim majore cachinno 
Excipitur vulgi, quàm pauper.Apicius? Omnis 
Convictus, thermse, stationes, omne tfaeatrum 
De Rutilo. Nam dum valida ac juvenilia membra 5 

Sufiiciunt galess, dumqiìe ardent sanguine, fertur. 
Non cogente quidem, sed nec prohibente tribuno, 
Scrìpturus leges, et regia verba lanists. 
Multos porrò vides, quos saepè elqsus ad ipsum 
Oreditor introitum solet exspectare macelli, 10 

Et quibus in solo vivendi causa palato est. 
Egregiùs coenat, meliàsque miserrimus horum, 
Et citò casurus jàm perlucente ruinà. 
Interea gustus elementa per omnia quaerunt, 
Nanquam animo pretiis obstantibus. Interiùs sì 15 

Attehdas, magìs illa juvant, quae pluris emuntur. 
Brgò haud difficile est, perituram arcessere summam 
Lancibus oppositis, vel matris imagìne fractà, 
Et quadringentis nummis condire gulosum 
Fictile : sic vetiunt ad miscellanea ludi. 5MI 

Refert ergo, quis hsc eadem paret : in Rutilo nam 
Luxuria est ; in Ventidio laudabile nomen 
Sumit, et a censu famam trahit. Illum ego jure 
Despiciam, qui scit, quanto sublimior Atlas 
Omnibus in Libyà sit montibus ; hic tamen idem S5 

Ignoret, quantum ferrata distet al> arca 
Sacculus. E eoelo descendit Fvgj^i tfsavrw, . 
Figendum et memori tractandum pectore, sive 
Oonjugium quaeras, vel sacri in parte senatùs 

6 



É 



I> j^rSll /VTENAJLIS 




r»-s:iiui: • •r»niiniii« mjc <t 




290 



L4rr& wtmmL . 3ki« c&«b pano con fa le poteat plus 
K isA'tot «s Rir& Kttvm poÉLtiT oami t) 
NuL ^^R «"«K v.r«». msum pnMÌtgm OQcnipÉQffii 

Sr£. ska: oLJt wnmA Buoet ! qud proéuit ìmmo 
KizcKi «*» ^v^ imwfxu wi !■ ! qwd BeUerophonti f 
i>Lii»uc nenoir Bsc. oca ik^oèxa^ vepolsa. 
Nr? ^citfdffft^am ■Aji*at»w OaiUB Cressa, excaB^iiìt, et ae 

\^i.in& jCIIIJUln^ ciO*» p«*».Y »àiBo«^ec. fUige qaidnam 906 
Siauieairns. «s» iifnBr~. cai Babere O 



\^ixis:- imcrKsm T«j^cr«7 ^Ltscr exstu 

F.«^iine.M.\. Tt— .;:!<yaf pi^v ^Mualis io hortÌB 310 

> r«ti^fr*f «t.^^ ••fTìM^fij» cdK ante iocaiias : 815 

> >0'*:i2s a^imcift»^ Àb^LTa^ Bon paurmla, dam les 

• •■ *■" i^ -i«f Ananas- jCdft «^z 

* "^^v^oii^ry jric«fr-if«. ^«e skbxj nta dietiiiD 
'■^ 'M ìw-iim «^Jio^&ic iKaMs ierìusqne pméiìs, 380 

•^-oiiu. f« r^xt^LJC^ .wcìsn kac ec candida oerfix. 
> 1 f^i?* jc ci^ffig koMBes ! Sì ooosflìam vis. 



^."-n.nsf^ niT'n-ifMÉii winìnilwi ^ipiìd 
^^•AKW'fauK awOvs. iirhMjiiiL sàt mue aostiìs. 
NiiB sm fiicicaRÀts .^KissiaBa ^pneiqpe dabant dì 9^' 

V .:j^*r «se iui<^ ^-«BiX ^KÌUB abft. Xos animonim 
I niTui^u^ «t caca MauruMiaK capìdìne dacd 
ir,ii;.iupiiiit ^«taBttiv panaiBfae turorìs : ai ìDr 
<ti^ 3«ttfflv spttlfesiMK team sit uxor. 




V «nm «^ 7«.^««cas uiHFai, fweasqoe saoeUF 

r 




*«.2^««r N>\f ««i??"'"»^ 



li^.» 






0^ D. JUNII JUVENALIS 

Esse velis : nec enim lericam pomt AcfaiUi^ 99 

ThersiteSy in qua se transducebai Ulix6s. 

Ancipitem ^u tu magno disGiimine causam 

Protegcre afTectas ; te consule, die tibi, qui sis, 

Orator vehemens, an Curtius et Maiho .bucce. 

Noscenda est menswra sui, spoctandaque rebus 35 

in «ummìs minimisque ; etiam quum piscis eineUir, 

Ne mullum cupias, quuai sit tibi gobio tantum 

In loculis. duis eniin te, deficiente eru^iena, 

Et crescente gulà, manet exitus ; aere paterno 

A e rebus mersis in ventrem, fcenoris atque 40 

Argenti gravis, et pecorum, agrorumque capacem? 

Tali bus a dominis post cuncta novissimus exit 

Annulus, et digito mendicat Ppllio nudo. 

Non praematuri cinerea, nec funus acerbum 

Luxurise ; sed morte magìs metuenda seneotus. 45 

Hi plerùmque ^radus : conducta pecunia Eomie 

Et coram dominis consumitur : inde ubi paulum^ 

Nescio quid, superest, et pallet foenoris auctor, 

Aui vertere solum, Baias et ad ostiea cjmnrunt. - 

Cedere namque. foro jam non est deterius, quàm 50 

Esquii ias a ferventi migrare Suburà. 

lile dolor solus patriam fugientibus, illa. 

McBstitia est, caruisse anno Circensibus uno.. 

f^nguinis in facie non h^ret gutta: mocantur 

Pauci ridiculum effugientem ex Urbe pi^cirem. . 55 

Experiére hodie, nunquid pulcherrima dictu, 
Persice, non prasstem vita vel moribus et. re ; 
Sed laudem siliquas occultus ganeo ; pultes 
XJoram alìis dictem puero, sed in aure pJacenl^ 
^aro, quum sis conviva mihi promissus, iiabebis 60 

Evandrum, venies Tirynthius, aut minor ilio 
Hospes, et ipse tamen contingens sanguine co&lum ^ 
Alter aquis, alter flammis ad sidera missus. 
lEercula nunc audi nullis ornata macellis. 
De Tiburtino veniet pinguissimus agro 65 

Haedulus, et toto grege mollior, inscius herbpBy 
Necdum ausus virgas humilis mordere salicti. 
Qui plus lactis habet, quàm sanguinis ; et montani 
sparagi, posito quos legit villica fuso. 
Grandia prsBterea tortoque caientia fo&no 70 

Ova adsunt ipsis cum matribus, et servatie 
Parte anni, qua|es fuerant in vitibus, uvffi : 
Signinum Syriumque pyrum, ^ corbibus ìsdem 



SATIRA XI. aa 

iEmula Picenis et odoiis mala reoentis, 

Nec metuenda libi, siccstum ingote pestqttam 75 

AUtumnum et crudi posaére pericula succi. 

Haoc olim nostri jam luacioriosa senatùs 

Ccena fuit. Curius, parvo qus legerat horto, 

Ipse focis brevibusponebat otuseola, quue nunc 

Squalidus in magna iàatidit oompede foesor, 80 

Qiii meminit, calides sapiat^qnid vulva popiae. 

Sicci terga suis, rara pendeatia orate, 

Moris erat quoiidaiii festis servare diebvs, 

Et natalitium cogoatis ponere lardam. 

Accedente novà^ si qnara dabat hostìa, carne. 85 

Cognatorum aliqois, tituèo> ter consulis, «itque 

Castrorum imperiis et dktatoris honore 

Functus, ad has epulas soJito matariùs ibat, 

Erectum domito referena a monte Hgonem. 

Quum tremerent antem Fabios, durumque Oatonenrr, 90 

Et Scauros, et Fabricios, postremo severos 

Censoris mores etiam collega timeret ; 

IN^emo inter ouraa et seria daxit habeodnra 

Qualis in oceani fluctu testodo nataret, 

Clarum Trojugenis factura ac nobile fùtcrum : 95 

Sed nudo latere et parvis frons erea lectis 

Vile coronati caput oatendebat aseJli, 

Ad quod lascivi indebant raris alomni. 

Tales ergo cibi, qualis domus atque supellex* 

Tunc rudis et Crraias mkari nescius artes, 100 

Urbfbus eversis, prsedarnm in parte repertà 

Magnorum artificum frangebat pocula miles, 

Ut phaleris gauderet equus, cslataque cassis 

Ilomulese simulacra. Terse mansuescere-juss» 

Imperii fato, geminos sub rupe Quirinos, 105 

Ac nudam effigiem clypeo venientis et hastà 

Pendentisque dei, perituro ostenderet hosti. 

Argenti quod erat, solis fulgebat in armi». 

Ponebant igitur Tusco farrata catino. 

Omnia tunc, quibus in videa», si lividulus sis. 110 

Templorum quoque majestas praesentior, et vox 

Nocte fere media, mediamque audita per Urbem, 

Littore ab Oceani Gallis venientibus, et dis 

Officiam vatis peragentibas, bis monuit nos. 

Hanc rebus Latiis cnram prsstar^ solebat 115 

FìctHis et nullo violatus Jupiter auro. 

Illa domi natas nostràqne ex arbore mensafi 



64 D. JUNII JUVENALIS 

Tempora viderunt ; hos ligoura stabat in lunu, 

Annosam si forte nuceiB (fejecerat Eanis. 

At nunc divitibus ccenandi nulla voluptas, 139 

Nil rhombus, nil dama sapit : potere videntur 

Unguenta atque roae» laUw nisi sustinet orbes 

Grande ebur, et magno aublimis pardua hiatu, 

Dentibus ex illis, quo» nàttit |x>rta Syenes, 

Et Maurf celeres, et Mauro obscnrior Indus, 125 

Et quos deposuit Nabatseo bellua saJtu, 

Jam nimios, capitique graves. Hinc surgit orexis, 

Hinc stomacho bilis : nam pes argenteus illis, 

Annnlus in digito lyaod ferreus. Ergo soperbtim 

Convivam caveo, qui me sibi comparat,. et rea 139 

Despicit exiguas. Adeò nuUa-unok nobis 

Est eboris, nec tessellffi, nec calculus ex hàc 

Materia : quin ipsa manubria cultellornm 

Ossea. Non tam^i bis ulla unquam opsonta fìunt 

Rancidula, aut ideo pejor gallina secatnr. 135 

Sed nep structor erit, cui cedere debeat (Mnnis 

Pergula, discipulus Trypheri doctoris, apud quem 

Sumine cum magno lepus, atque aper, et pygargus. 

Et Scythics volucres, et phoenicopìerus ingens, 

Et GsBtuIus oryx, hebeti lautissima ferrp 140. 

Caeditur, et tota sonat ulmea coena SubiMà* 

Nec frustum capre® subduo^e, nec iatus A&m . ■ « 

Novit avis noster>tiruncuIuSy4ic rudisomni. 

Tempore, et exigus furti» imbutus ofelks. 

Plebeios calices, et paucis assibus en^itoa 145 

Posriget incultus puer, atque a frigore tutus': 

Non Phryx, aut Lycius, non. a mangone petitue» 

Quisquam erit, et magno. Cluum pesoes, .posce Latine* 

Idem habitus cimctis, tonsi, rectique eapilU, 

Atque hodie tantum propter coavivia pesi* • 150 

Pastoris duri ine est£lius, ille bubulci. 

Suspirat longo non visam tempore matrem. 

Et casulam et notos tristis deeiderat hedos, 

Ingenui vuUùs puer,.ingenuique pudoris, 

duales esse decet, quos ardens purpura vestit.— - 155 

Hic tibi vina dabit, difiasa in montibos illis, 

A quibus ipse venit, quorum sub vertice luait : 

Namque una atque eadem est vini patria atque ministri. — 

Non- capit haa nugas humilis domus. Audiat ille 

Testarum crepitus cum ver bis, jiudum olido-stans 160 

Fornice mancipium quibus abstinet ; ille fruatur 



SATIRA XII. eS 

Vocibas obscoeaÌB, omaique libidinis arte» 

Qui LacedaBinoDium pytismate lubricat orbem : 

Namque ibi Fortuas veniam damùs. Alea turpis, 

Turpe et adulterium mediocribus. Hec eadem illi 165 

Omnia quum faciant, hilares nitidique Tocantar. 

Nostra dabunt alios-hodie convivia ludos : 

Conditor Iliados cantabitur, atque Maronis 

Altisoni dubiam facientta carmina palmam» 

Quid refert, taJes versus quà^ voce legantur ? ITO 

Sed nunc dilatis averte negotia curis, 
£t;gratam requiem doiuL tibi» quando licebit 
Per totam cessare diem : non fisnoris ulta 
Mentio, nec, prima si luce egressa, reverti 
Nocte solet, tacito bilem tibi contrahat uxor. — ITfir 

Protenus ante meum, quidquid dolete esae iimen : 
Pone domum et servos, et quidquid fì-angitur iilis, 
Aut perit : ingratos ante omaia pone sodales. 

Interea Megalesiacs spectacula mappe 
Id»um solenne colunt, similisque triumpho 180 

Praeda caballorum Praetor sedet ; ae, mihi pace 
Imanensse nimiaeque.licet si dicere plebis, 
Totam hodie Romam circus capit, et fragor aarém 
Percutit, eventum virìdis quo colligo panni. 
Nam, si deficeret,-' moBstam attofiitamque videres 165 

Hanc urbem, veluti Cannarum in pulvere victis 
Consulibus. Spectent juvenes, quos clamor et audax 
Sponsio, quos cult» deoet assedisse puellae ; 
Spectent hoc nuptae, juxtà recubante marito, 
Qttod pudeat narrasse aliquem prassentibus ipms. 190 

Nostra bibat vemum contracta cuticula solem, 
EQfiiigiatque togam.> Jam nunc in baJnea, salva 
Fronte, licet vadas^quanquain solida bora supersit 
Ad sextam. Facere hoc non possis quinque diebus 
Continuis, quia sunt .talis quoque tsBdia vitaB 195 

Magna. Voluptates commendat rarior usus. 



SATIRA XII. 



Natali, Corrine, die mihi dulcior hsc lux^ 
Qua féstus promissa deis animalia cespes 
£xspectat. Niveàm Reginae ducimus agnam : 
Par veli US dabitur pugnanti Gorgone Maura. 

6* 



i 



66 



D. JUNH JCVENALIS 



Sed procul extensum petukns quatit hostia funem» 
Tarpeio servata Jovi, frontemque coruscat : 
Quippe ferox TÌtulus, templis matunis et arse, 
Spargendusque mero, quem jam pudet ubera matris 
Ducere, qui vexat nascenti robora comu. 
Si res ampia domi, similisque afièctilras esset, 
Pìnguior HispuUà traheretur taurus, et ipsà 
Mole piger, nec finitima nutritus io herbft, 
Leta sed ostendens Clitumn! pascua sanguis 
Iret, et a grandi cervix ferienda ministro, 
Oh reditufl» trepidantis adhuc-, horcendaque passi 
Nuper, et incolumem sèse mirantis amici. 
Nam prsDter pelagi casus, et fulgurìs ictum 
Evasi, densse coekim -abscondére tenebr» 
iNube una, subiiusque antennas impulit ignis 
Cltium 86 quisque ilio percussum crederet, et mox 
-AttoQitiis nulltim conferri posse putaret 
^aufragium velis ardentibus; Omnia Hunt 
Tidia, tam graviter, si quando poetica surgit 
Tempestas. Genus ecce alind discriminis : audi 
Et miserere iterum, quanquam sint estera sortis 
Ejusdem : pars dira quidem, sed cognita multis, 
Et quam votiva testantur fana tabeHà 
Pludfiia. Pictores quis nescit ab Iside pasci ? 
-i^cidit et nostro similis fortuna Oatiillo. 
•^ìuumpleE lus fluctu medius foret alveus, et jam, 
-«^Gi^Quxi ] )uppÌ9 latus evertentibus undis 
Arboris in e «rt8B, nullam prudentia cani 
Ji/tss!ibnti e e «ferret opem ; decidere jactu 
CoE^Atcfflini ventis; — 

l^'ondite, qi lae mea sunt, drcebat, cuncta, Oatullus, 
Pr5BCÌjàtar« volens etiam ptAcherrima, vestem 
purpuieani, teneris quoque Msecenatibus aptam, 
Atene "alisLS, quarum generosi graminis ipsum 
Infecit natu ra pecus, «ed et egregius fons 
Yiribus occl iltis, et Bseticus adjuvat aèr. 
Ille nec arg entum dubitabat mittere, lances 
Parthenio ftictas, urn» cratera capacem, 
Et dignum shiente Pholo, Vel cdnjuge Fusci. 
Adde et bascaudas, et mille escaria, multum 
Caelati, biberat quo callidus emptor Olynthi. 
Sed quis nunc aJius, qua mundi parte, quis a^det 
Argento prseferre caput, rebusque salutem'? 
Non propter vitam f(ii^nt patrimouìa quidam, 



10 



15 



rv. 






^ 



^ 



f?i- 



"Kì. 



30 



f ,-•■ 



ic 



'«' r 



35 



40 



45 



i»?TÌ 



^:^ 



t.. 



SATIRA xiL er 

Sed vitio C9ci propter patrimonia vimnt 

Jactatur rerum utUium pars maxima : sed nec 50^ 

Danna ievant Tunc, adversis urgentibus, illùc 

Recìdit, ut malum ferro submitteret, ac se 

Explicat angustum. Dischmiais ultima quando 

Presidia afferimus, navem factura minorem. 

I nuncy et ventis animam committe, dolalo S6^ 

Gonfisus ligno, digitis a morte remotus 

QpUatuór, aut septem, si sit latissiiha teda ! 

Mox cum reticulisy et pane, et ventre lagene, 

Adspice sumendas in tempestata securesk 

Sed postquam jacuit planum mare, tempora postquam 00 

Prospera vectoris, fatumque valentius Euro 

Et pelago, postquam Pare® meliora benigna 

Pensa manu ducunt hilares, et staminis albi 

Lanifice, modica nec multùm fortior aura 

Yentus adest : im^i miserabilis arte cucurrit 65 

Vest^bus extentis, et, quod superaverat unum, 

Velo prora suo. Jam deficientibus Austris, 

Spes vitse cum sole redit : tum gratus lulo, 

Atque novercali sedes prelata JLavìuo, 

Conspicitur sublimis apex, cui candida nomen 70 

Scrofe dedit, letis Phrygibus mirabile sumen. 

Et nunquam visis triginta clara mamillis. 

Tandem intrat positas inclusa per equora moles, 

Tyrrhenamque Pharon, porrectaque brachia rursum, 

due pelago occurrunt medio, longèque relinquunt 75 

It^liam. Non sic igitur mirabere portus, 

duos natura dedit. Sed truncà puppe magister 

Interiora petit Baiane pervia cymbe 

Tuti stagna sinùs. Gaudent ibi vertice raso 

Garrula securi narrare periciila naute. 80 

Ite igitur, pueri, iinguis animisque faventes, 

Sertaque delubris et farra imponite cultris, 

Ac molles ornate focos glebamque virentem : 

Jam sequar, et saero, quod prestat, ritè peracto. 

Inde domum repetam, gracOes ubi parva cpronas 85 

Accipiunt fragili simulacra nitentia cera. 

Hic nostrum placabo Jovem, taribusque patemis 

Thura dabo, atque omnes viole jactabo colores. . 

Cuncta nitent : longos erexit janua ramos^ 

Et matutinis operatur festa lucynis. 

.Nec suspecta tibi sint hec. Corvine. Catullus, 
Pro cujus reditu tot pono aitar ia, parvos 



6B> D. JUNII JUVENAUS 

Tres habet hsredes. Libet exspeotare^ quia egranr 

Bt-claudenteiD ooulos gallinam impendat amico 

Tarn sterilì. Veruni hiBO nimia est impensa: cohirnix- W' 

Nulla unquam prò patre eadet. Sentire caldrem - 

Si ccepit locuples Qallita^ et Paooius, orbi, 

Legitimè fìxis vestitar tota tabellis 

Pòrticus : exsistunt, qai promittant hecatomben, 

Quatenus hic non sunt nee venalés elephanti, IW 

Nec Latio, aut usquam nostro sub sidere talis 

Bellua concipitur; sed fiirTà> gente petita 

Arboribus Rutulis et Turni paseitur agro, . 

CiBsaris a rmcat tim, nfilN servire paratam 

Privato : siqùidem Tyrio- parere solebant 165 

Hannibali, et nostri» dacibus, regique Molosso, 

Horum majores, ac dorso ferre cohortes, 

Partem aliquam belli, et euntem in prcelìa turrim. 

NuHa igitur mora per Nevium, mora nulla per Histrmn 

Pacuvium, quin ilhid-ebur ducatur ad aras, 110/ 

Et cadat ante lares G^Uit®-, victùna sola 

Tantis digna deis, et ^aptatoribus horum. 

Alter enim, si concedas mactare, vovebit 

De grege servorum magna aut puleherrima queque 

Corpora ; Tel pueris et fronti bus ancillarum ìl&l 

Iroponet vittas : et, si qua est nubilis illi 

Iphigenia domi^ dabit hanc altaribus ; ets^ 

Non sperat tragicce furtiva piacula cerve.- ^ 

Laudo meum civem, nec compara testamento 

Mille rates : nam, si Lilntinam evaserit seger, 19D' 

Delebit tabulas, indusus carcere nassee. 

Post meritum sane mirandum, atque omnia soU 

Forsan Pacuvio breviter dabit. Ille snperbus 

Iiieedet victis rivalibus. Ergo vides, quàm 

Grande opers pretium fftciat jugulata Mjc^nia. 125 

Vivat Pacuvius, qu^aeso, vel Nestora totum s 
Possideat, quantum rapuit Nero : montibus aunnn 
Exaequet ; nec amet qnenquam, nec ametur ab uHò 1 



D. JUNII JUVENALIS 



AQUINATI» 



SATIRARUM 



LIBER QUINTUS. 



SATIRA xirr. ^^ 

ExsBiPLo q^odòHnqae malo commhiitur, ipsi 
Displicet auctocù Primia est hee iihio, qiiòd se 
Jiidice Demo noeeiw aèsoh^itiir, . inipiobar quainvis^ ^ 

Gratia fallaci Praetoris vieeiit untàt 

duid sentire fmtas omnes^ Calvine, recentf S 

De scelere, et fidei vidaUBicrinniie % Sed- oecr 
Tarn tenuis censos tibi ccouigii» ut medloeris* 
lacture» te mergat onus ; neo sa» videmus, 
QrUae pateris, Casus multis IsM-oDgiiitus^ ac jasr 
Tritus, et, e medio Eortuns» duclus acerT4>s. 10^ 

F&i»amud niniios gemitus : fiagiraiUior aeqjuo^ 
Non debet dolor esse viri, nee vukiere majpr^ 
Tu quamvis leviuni minimam exiguam^oe maloranr . 
Particulam yìx feiire potes, spumuitibus.'vden» 
Visoeribus, jsacrum tibi quòd non veddal araku» tS* 

Depositum. Stupet hasc, qui jam post teiga.iìeliq|ttt 
Sexaginta annos, Foi^teio Consule notus-t- 
An nihii in melius tot rerum proficis us»:?! 
Magna quidem, sacris qu» dat praecepla- tibelHs^ 
Victrix Fortun» Si^ieotia, Ducimus aulem^. 9(9 

Ho* quoque felices, qui fenre iocommoda wtie,, 
Nec jactare jugum, vita didicére magistrà. . «. 

Qmxb tam festa dies, ut eesset predare furem] o 

Per&diam, fraudes, atque omni ex crimine kxcnunt 



70 I>. JUNII JUVENALIS 

dussìtum, etpartos gladio vel pyxide nummosY fÌ5 

Rari quippe boni : nuinerus vix est totidem, quot 
Thebarum portse, vel divitis ostia Nili. 
Nona stas' agitur,,pejlDilitiafe steeula» f^rtf; \ 

Temporibus, quorum sceleri non invenit ipsa 
Nomen et a nullo posuit natura metallo. 80 

Nos hominum divùmque fìdem olajoore ciemus, 
Quapto Faesidium laudat vocalis agentem 
Sportula. Die, senior, bulla dignissiroe, nescis, 
Quas habeat Venere«raiiemi pecHinai? aeseis, 
Quem tua simplicitas risum vulgo moveat, quum 35 

Exigis a quoquam, ne pejeret, et putet ullis 
Esse aliquod numen templis^.ars^ue rubanti? 
Quondam hoc indigen» vivebant more, priòs qvèm 
Sumeret agrestem posito diademate falcem 
Saturnus fugiens ; tunc, quum virguacula- Jubo, 40 

Et privatus adhuc Idaeis Jupiter antrìs. 
Nulla super nubes convìvia coelicolarum, 
Nec puer Iliacus, formosa nec H^rdulid^uxor 
\d cyathos, et jam siccato nectare tergens 
Srachia Vulcanuft:Li|^reràiù|^a(taJb«riiat. 45 

Vandebat sibi quisqjube deu», neo tufbasdeorumi 
Talis, ut est hodie, ooAtentaqiie sider.a> pBiieift 
Numinibus miserum urguebaAl. Atlanta «iWROiii 
Kondere. Nondum aJkmis sortitua» triste pro^n^i- 
Imperium, aut Sic^iàLtpcvuQ^QUJi&'COQiwf^iPtii^ -Qt^ 

Nec rota, nec Furile^ nfVG,sax»ia. àuìvukil'Hi «atri -^ 
Pcena ; séd infèrhis Kìlar^e sifie rdgibua umbf li^ - 
Improbit?^ inOfaitadinirabilis sto. 
Credebaot hoc grande iiefts, et mort^ptandunfr; 
Si juvenis vetulo non adéurrexerat et si '66 

Barbato cuicunque pM«r, iicèt ipse videret 
Plura domi fraga, et nraiopes glàndis acerros. 
Tarn venerabile erat prsecedere qnatuor anni)», 
Primaque par adeèisacree lanugo senect» !'' 
Nunc, si depositnnì non infitieliir ainicus^ 60 '- 

Si reddat veterem cuiii tota sBrugùie-foliem^ 
Prodigiosa fìdeà, et Tunets drgna jibeUi», 
Quaeque coronate iMtrarì del^t agné;. 
Bgregium sanctuniqae virem» si cerne, bimenab^ - 
Hoc monstrum puero, atit mtranti sub aratro' 65 

Piscìbus inventis, et (mìm compato mul% 
Sollicitus, tanquam lapidee effuderh iraber/ f 

Examenve a|»ain 4òngÀ> eoDffederit wà ^' ^ > ^ ^' -' 



*r .( 



' SATIRA XIII. 71 

Culmine delubri, Unquam in mare fla?cerit atnnte 

Gurgitibofi miris, et lactis yortrce torrens. 70 

^Intercepta deoem quereris «edtertia fraude 
{Sacrilega ? Cluid sì bis eentum perdidìt dlter 
Hoc arcana modo? major^m tertius illà 
Summara, t]uam -patul» vix eeperat angalos tircae t 
Tam facile et pronum est «uperos caiìtemnere testes, 75 

.13i mortalis idem nemo sciat 1 ' Adspice, quanta 
Voce neget 1 .quce sk fitìti leonstantia vuJtus ? 

Et Martis frf ifleam, et 'Girrhflei «ipicuta vatis, 
Per caiamos venatricis pharetramqae PueUae, 80 

'l^«rque tuum, pater ^geei Neptune, tridentem f 
Addit et Herculeos arcus, hastamque MinerviB, 
duidquid habent teiomm armamentaria cc^Ii. ]£^^i -. ^ . ' 
Si vero et pater est : «Comedam, inqait, flebile nati . 
Sinciput eti», ^harioque madentis aceto. '85 

fiunt, in Fortuns qui oa^bus omnia poitant. 
Et nullo cfedasit mundum rectore moreri, 
Natura solvente vices «t lucis^et anni ; 
Atque ideo intrepidi 'qusBCimque alturia tangunt. 
Est alius, metnens ne^men^ipc^im seqctatur: 90 

Wtìc putat esse deos/ e/4>*^jem, atque ita secum : 
Decernat, quodcunque^vdet, de carpare no^o 
Isis, et irato feriat mea lumina sistro, 
Dummodo vel cSBeus iteneaft, quos aibnego, nummo^*. 
Et phthisis, et voiriÌGaB'putres, et dimtdìum crus ^^ 95 - 
flÉnt tanti? Pauper locupletem optare podagram 
Ne dubitet Ladas, si non eget Airticyrà, nec - ^' 

Archigene. Quid enim velocis gloria p^ntae ' '' ' ' ' 
Praestat, et eanneas Pisieae ramus olivce ? 
Ut sit magna, tamen certe lenta ira deorum èst. 100 

8i curant igìtur cunotos punire nocerrtes, 
Quando ad me vemient ? sed et esorabile tiumen 
Portasse experiar : isoiet bis ignoscere. Multi 
Committunt eadem diverso ori mina faito : 
lUe crucem sceleris pretictm tulit, bic diadema. 105 

Sic animum dine trq)idum formidine ettips 
Confìf mant. Tanò- te sacra ad deliba vqcantem 
Praecedit, trahere immo ultro ac velare "paratus. 
Nam, quum magna «make supere^t audacia causa?., 
Creditur a multis fidneia.'^ MÉnum agH ille, 110 

QdMini qualem fugitivos scdf ra CatùlH : 
Tu miser exclamas, ut Stentora TÌncere possis. 



72 D. JUNII JUVENALI8 



X 



Vel potiàs, quantum Gradivus Homerìcus : Audis, 
Jupiter, haeCy nec labra moves, quum mittere vocem 
Deboeras, vel mannoreus, vel aèneus? autcur 115 

In carbone tuo chartÀ pia thura soluta 
Ponimus, et sectum vituli jecur, albaque porci 
Omenta? Ut video, nuUum discrimen habendum est 
Effigies inter vestras, statuamque Vagelli. 

Accipe, que contrà valeat solatia fei^s^ ? Ve ^ «^ IW 

Et qui nec Cynìoos nec Stoica dogmatirtégit 
A Cynicis tunica distantia, non Epicurum ; 

Suspicit exigui Istum plantaribus horti. 
Curentur dubii medicis majoribus egri ; * ; 
Tu venam vel discipulo committe Philippi. 135 

Si nullum in terris tam detestabile factum 
Ostendis, taceo ; nec pugnis csdere pectus 
Te veto, nec plani faciem contundere palma, 
Quandoquidem accepto claudenda est janua damno, 
Et majore domùs gemitu, majore tumultu 130 

Planguntur nummi, quàm funera. Nemo dolorem 
Fingit in hoc casu, vestem deducere summam 
Contentus, vexare oculos humore còacto. 
Ploratur lacrymis amissa pecunia veris. 
Sed si cuncta vides simili fora piena quereli, 185 

Si, decìes lectis diversa parte tabellis. 
Vana supervacui dicunt cbirographa ligni, 
Arguit ipsorum quos littera, gemittaque princeps 
Sardonychus, loculìs quae custoditur ebumis : 
Ten', O delicias! extra communia censes 140 

Ponendum ? dui tu nllinse filius albs, 
Nos viles pulii nati infelicibus ovis ? 
Rem pateris modicam, et mediocri bile ferendam, 
Si flectas oculos majora ad crimina. Confer 
Conductum latronem, incendia sulphure cmpta 145 

Atque dolo, primos quum janua cdiligit ignes ; 
Confer et hos, veteris qui toUunt grandia templi 
Pocula adorandaB rubiginis, et populorum 
Dona, vel antiquo positas a rege coronas. 
Haec ibi si non sunt, minor exstat sacrilegus, qui 150 

Radat inaurati femur Herculis, et faciem ipsam 
Neptuni; qui bracteolam de Castore ducat 
An dubitet, solitus totum coniare Tonantem ? 
Confer et artìfìces, mercatoremque veneni. 
Et deducendum corio bovis in mare, com quo 155 

Clauditur adversis innoxia simia fìitìs. 



SATIRA XIII. 73 

Haec quota pars scelennn, que custos Galliciu Urbis 
Usque a luoifero, donec lux occidat, aadit? 
, Humani generis mores tibi nósse volenti 
Sifficit una domus. Paucos consume dies, et 100 

Dicere te miserum, postquam illinc veneris, aude. 
Quis tumidum guttur miratur in AlpibusT aat qais 
In Meroè crasso majorem infante mamillam? 
Csrula quis stupuit Grermani lumina, flavam 
CsBsariem, et madido torqoentera cornna cirro? 165 

Nempe quòd hsc iDis natura est onuibas una. 
Ad subitas Thracum volucres nubemque sonoram 
Pygmaeus parvis currit bellator in armis : 
Mox impar hosti raptusque per aera curris 
Unguibus a ssvà fertur grue. Si videas hoc 170 

Gentibus in nostris, risu quatiare : sed illic, 
Quanquam eadem assidue spectentur proelia, ridet 
Nemo, ubi tota cohors pede non est altior uno. 
Nullane perjuri capitis fraudisque hefSmdss 
Poena erit? Abreptum crede hunc graviore catena 175 

Protenus, et nostro (quid plus velit ira?) necarì 
Arbitrio : manet illa tamen jactura, nec unquam 
DeposiCum tibi sospes erit. Sed corpore trunco 
Invidiosa dabit minimus solatia sanguis : 
Al vindicta bonum vita jucundius ipsà. 180 

Nempe'^hoc indocti, quorum prascordia nullis 
Interdum aut levibus videas flagrantia causis. 
Quantulacunque adeò est occasio, sufficit ir». 
Chrysippus non dicet idem, nec mite Thaletis 
Ingenium, dulcique senex vicinus Hymetto, 185 

Qui partem acceptae ssva inter vincla cicute 
Accusatori noUet dare. Plurima felix 
Paulatim vitia atque errores exuit omnes, 
Prima docet rectum Sapientia : quippe minuti 
Semper et infirmi est animi exiguique voluptas 190 

IHtio. Continuò sic collige, quòd vindicta 
Nemo magìs gaudet, quàm foemina. Cnr tamen hos tu 
Evasisse putes, quos diri conscia facti 
Mens habet attonitos, et surdo verbere csedit, 
Occultum quatiente animo tortore fiagellum ? 1A5 

Pcena autem vehemens ac multo ssvior illis, 
Quas et Csdicius gravis invenit, et Rhadamanthus 
Nocte dieque suum gestare in pectore testem. 
Spartano cuidam respondit Pyàiia vates : 
Haud impunitum quòndam fore, quòd dubitaret 900 

7 



74 D. JtJNII JUVENALIS 

Depositum retinere, et fraudem jure tueri 
Jurando. Quaerebat enim, quse numinis esset 
Mens, et an hoc ìUi facinus suaderet Apollo ? 
Reddìdit ergo metu, non morìbus ; et tamen omnem 
Vocem adyti dignam tempio veramque probavit 20S 

Exstinctus tota pariter cum prole domoque, 
Et, quamvis longà deductis gente, propinquis. 
Has patitur pcenas peccandi sola voluntas. 
Nam scelus intra se tacìtum qui cogitat uUum, 
. Facti crimen habet Cedo, sì conata peregit t 210 

Perpetua anxietas nec mense tempore cessat, 
Faucibus ut morbo siccis, interque molares 
Difficili crescente cibo : sed vina misellus 
Exspuit ; Albani veteris pretiosa senectus 
Displicet. , Ostendas' melius, densissima ruga 215 

Cogitur in frontem, velut acri ducta Falerno. 
Nocte brevém si forte indulsit cura soporem. 
Et toto versata torp jam membra quiescunt ; 
Continuò templum, et violati numinis aras, 
Et, quod praecipuis mentem sudoribus urguet^ ' 220 

Te videt in somnis : tua sacra et major imago 
Humana turbat pavidum, cogitque fateri. 
Hi sunt, qui trepidant, et ad omnia fulgura pallent, 
Quum tonat, exanimes primo quoque murmure coeli ; 
Non quasi fortuitus, nec ventorum rabie, sed 225 

Iratus cadat in terras et judicet ignis. 
Illa nihil nocuit, cura graviore timetur 
Proxima tempestas, velut hoc dilata sereno. 
Prsterea, lateris vigili cum febre dolorem 
Si ccepére pati, missum ad sua corpora morbum 290 

Infesto credunt a numine : saxa deorum 
Haec et tela putant. Pecudem spendere sacel 
Balantem, et Laribus cristam promittere galli 
Non audent : quid enim sperare nocentibus SBgris 
Concessum ? vel qusB non dignior hostia vita ? 235 

Mobilis et varia est ferme natura malorum. 
Qruum scelus admittunt, superest constantia. Quid fìis 
Atque nefas, tandem incipiunt sentire peractis 
Criminibus. Tamen ad mores natura recurrit 
Damnatos, fìxa et mutari nescia. Nam quis 240 

Peccandi fìnem posuit sibi ? quando recepit 
Ejectum semel attrita de fronte ruborem ? 
Q^isnam hominum est, quem tu contentum videris uno 
Flagitìo ? Dabit in laqueum vestigia noster 



SATIRA XIV. 75 

PerfiduSy et nigri patìetur carceris uncum, , 5M5 

Aut maris Mgm rupem, scopulosque frequentes 

Exsulibus magnis. Poenà gaudebis amari 

Nominis invisi, tandemque fatebere laetus, 

Nec surdum nec Tiresiam quenquam esse deorum. 



SATIRA XIV. 



Plurima sant, Fuscine, et fama digna sinistra, 
Et nitidis maculam haesuram figentia rebus, 
QusB monslrant ipsi pùeris traduntque parentes. 
Si damnosa senem juvat alea, ludit et hsres 
Bullatus, parvoque eadem movet armlF fritillo. 5 

Nec melius de se cuiquam sperare propinquo 
Concedet juvenis, qui radere tuberà terrae, 
Boletum conaire, et eodem jure natantes 
Mergere ficedulas didicit, nebulone parente, 
Et canà monstrante gulà. Quum septimus annus 10 

Transierit puero, nondum omni dente renato, 
Barbatos licèt admoveas mille inde magistros, - 
Hinc totidem, cupiet lauto ccenare paratu 
Semper, et a magna non degenerare culinà. 
Mitem animum et mores modicis erroribus aequos 15 

Precipit, atque animas servorum et corpora nostri 
Materia constare putat paribusque elementis ; 
An sevire docet Rutilus, qui gaudet acerbo 
Plagarum strepitu, et nullam Sirena flagellis 
Comparat, Antiphates trepidi laris, ac Polyphemus, ^ 

Tum felix, quoties aliquis tortore vocato 
Uritur ardenti duo propter lintea ferro ? 
duid suadet juveni laetus stridore catenae, 
Quem mire afficiunt inscripta ergastula, career 
Rusticus ? Exspectas, ut non sit adultera Largae 5^ 

FUia, qus nunquam maternos dicere mcBchos 
Tarn citò, nec tanto poterit contexere eursu, 
Ut non ter decies rebpiret t Conscia matri 
Virgo fuit : ceras nunc hàc dictante pusillas 
Implet, et ad moechos dat eisdem ferro cinedis. ^ 30 

Sic natura jubet : velociùs et citiòs nos 
Corrumpunt vitiorum exempla domestica, magnis 
duum subeunt animos auctóribus. Unus et alter 
FoTsitan haec spernant juvenes, quibus arte benigni 



76 D. JUNII JUVENALI8 

• 

Et meliore luto finxit pnecordia Titan : 35 

Sed reliquos fìinenda patrum vestigia ducunt» 

Et monstrata diu veteris trahit orbita culpae. 

Abfitineas igitur damnandÌB : hujus enim vel 

Una potens ratio est, ne crimina nostra sei|iiantur 

Ex nobis geniti ; quoniam dociles imitandis 40 

Turpibus ac pravis omnes sumus ; et Catilinam 

Cluocunque in popolo videas, quocunque sub axe : 

Sed nec Brutus erit, Bruti nec avunculus usquam. 

Nil dictu foedum visuque hsc limina tangat; 

Intra qus puer est. Procul bine, procul inde puelle 45 

Lenonum, et cantus pernoctantis parasiti. 

Maxima debetur puero reverentia. Si quid 

Turpe paras, ne tu puerì contempseris annos : 

Sed peccaturo obstet tiki fìlius in&ns.' 

Nam si quid dignum Censoris fecerit irà 50 

Quandoque, et similem tibi se non corpore tantum 

Nec vultu dederit, morum quoque fìlius, et qui 

Omnia deteriùs tua per vestigia peccet, 

Corripies nimirum et castigabis acerbo 

Clamore, ac post base tabulas mutare parabis. 55 

Unde tibi fì'ontem libertatemque parentis, 

Quum facias pejora senex, vacuumque cerebro 

Jam pridem caput hoc ventosa cucurbita querat ? 

Hospite venturo, cessabit nemo tuorum. 
Verre pavimentum, nitidas ostende columnas^ 00^ 

Arida cum tota descendat aranea tela ; ^ , . 
Hic leve argentum, vasa aspera tergeat alter ; 
Vox domini furit instantis, virgamque tenentis. 
Ergo miser trepidas, ne stercore &eda canino 
Atria dìspliceant oculis venientis amici, 65 

Ne perfusa luto sit porticus ; et tamen uno 
Semodio scobis hsc emendat servulus unus. < 
lUud non agitas, ut, sanctam fìlius omni 
Adspiciat sine labe ^òiìium, vitioque earentem ? 
Gratum est, quòJpatris civem populoque dedisti^ 70 

Si facis, ut patris sit idoneus, utilis agris, ^/ ' 
Utilis et bellorum et pacis rebus agendis. 
Piurimùm enim intererit, quibus artibus, et quibus hunc tu 
Moribus instituas. Serpente ciconia puUos 
Nutrit, et inventa per devia rura lacerti : 75 

Illi eadem sumptis quserunt ammalia |Hnnis. 
Vultur, jumento et canibus crucibusque relictis. 
Ad fcEtus properat, partemque cadaveris afTert. 



SATIRA XIV. 77 

Hic est ergo cibus magni quoque yulturìs, et se 

Pascentis, propria quum jam facit arbore nidos. 80 

Sed leporem aut capream famule Jovis et generose ^ ' - 

In saltu venantur aves : bine prsda cubili i,: , 

Ponitur : inde autem, quum se natura ìevàrit 

Progenies, stimulante fame, festinat ad illam, 

Quam primùm prsdam rupto gustaverat ovo. 85 

JSdificator erat Cetronius, et modo curvo 
Littore Cajet», summà nunc Tiburis.arce, 
Nunc Praenestinis in montibus, alta parabat 
Culmina villarum, Graecis longèque petitis 
Marmoribus, vincens Fortun» atque Herculls edem, 90 

Ut spado vincebat Capitolia nostra Posides. - e . , .. < ^ 
Dum sic ergo habitat Cetronius, imminuit rem, 
Fregit opes ; nec parva tamen mensura relicte -^ • 
Partis erat : totam hanc turbavit filius amens, 
Dum mcliore novas attoUit marmore villas. ^ 

Quidam sortiti metuentem sabbata patrem, 
Nil prseter nubes et cceli numen adorant ; i 
Nec distare putant humanà carne suillam, fi r .'^ 
Qua pater abstinuit; mox et prsputia ponunt : 
Romanas autem soliti contemnere leges 100 

Judaì'cum ediscunt, et servant, ac metuunt jus, 
Tradidit arcano quodcunque volumine Moses. 
Non monstrare vias, eadem nisi sacra colenti ; « 
Quffisitum ad fontem solos deducere verpos. '''*•. 
Sed pater in causa, cui septima quaeque fuit lux 105 

Ignava et partem vitse non attigit uUam. 

Sponte tamen juvenes imitantur estera : solam 
Inviti quoque avaritiam exercere jubentur. 
Fallit enim vitium specie virtutis et umbra, 
Quum sit triste habitu vultuque et veste severum. 110 

Nec dubié, tanquam frugi, laudatur avarus, 
Tanquam parcus homo, et rerum tutela suarum 
Certa magis, quàm si fortunas servet easdem 
Hesp^ridum serpens aut Ponticus. Adde quòd hunc, de 
Quo loquor, egregium populus putat acquirendi 115 

Artifìcem : quippe bis crescunt patrimonia fabris. 
Sed crescunt quocunque modo, majoraque fìunt 
Incude assidua, semperque ardente camino. 
Et pater ergo animi felices credit avaros. 
Qui miratur opes, qui nulla exempla beati 120 

Pauperis esse putat : juvenes hortatur, ut illam 
Ire viam pergant, et eidem incumbere sectse. 

7* 



7B D- JtTNlI JUVENALIS 

Sunt qusBdam viiioram «lementa : his protams illo0 

Imbuit, et cogit mìnimas edisoere serdes. 

Mok acquiwndi «docet insatiabOe rotum. l^ 

Servorum ventres modio castigat iaiquo, /^^ . 

Ipse quoque esuriens : fieqoe enim omnia stt^net unquam 

Mucida csrulei panis eooisttraere frusta, • 

Hesternum solitus medio ■serrare minutai . . 

Septembri : nec non diflferre in tempera ccene 130 

Alterius conchem sstivam cum parte lacerti 

Signatam, vel dimidio potrique siluro, 

Filaque sectivi n^^lerata mclud^e porri. 

Invitatus ad hcBC afliquis de ponte negabit. 

Sed quo divitias hsec per tormenta ooactas, 135 

Cluum furor ha«d dubius, quum sit mani^ta phrenesis, 

Ut locuples moriaris, egentis vivere fato ? 

Interea pieno quam target sacculus ore, 

Orescit amor nummi, quantum ipsa pecunia orevit ; 

Et minòs hanc optat, qui non habet. £rgò paratur 140 

Altera villa tibi, quura tus non sufficit unum, 

Et proferre libet fines ; majorque videtur 

Et melior vicina seges : mercaris et hanc, et 

At4>usta,' et densa mont^n qui •eanet oHvà. 

Quorum si pretio dominus non vincitur -«Ilo, ì^ 

Nocte boves macri, lassc»que faEmetica «olio 

Jumenta ad virides hujus mittentur aristas;cL^c .. 

Nec priùs inde domum, quàm tota noralia sffivos 

In irentres abeant, ut creàas lalcibus actum. 

Dicere vix possis, quàm multi talia plorent, 150 

Et quot venales injuria fecerit agros. 

Sed qui sermones? quàm fosdie buccina fame? 

duid nocet hoc ? inquit. Tunicam mihi malo lupini, 

Qruàm si me 4€)^o iaudet vicinia pago, 

Exigui ruris paucis»ma farra secantem. 155 

Scilicet et morbis et delùlitate carebis, 

Et luctum et curam efiugies, et tempora vìtse 

Longa tibi post htec fato metìore dabuntur, 

Si tantum culti sohis possederis agri, 

Quantum sub Tatiopopulus ilomanus arabat 160 

Mox etiam frae^ letate ac Punica passis 

Proelia, vel Pyrrhum immanem, gfadiosque Mcrfossos, 

Tandem prò multis vix jugera bina dabantur 

¥tilneribus. Merces «a sai^uinis atque laboris 

NuUis visa unqaam meritisi minor, aut ingrate 165 

Curta fides patrise. Saturabat glebula talis 



SATIRA xnr. 7» 

Patrem ipsum, turbamque case, qua fota jaoebtt 

Uxor, et infiintes ladebant quatuor, unos 

Vernula, tres doHiini : sed magma firalriboa lionun, 

A scrobe vel suloo redeuntibus, altera ccemi 170 

^bnplior et graadea fumabant fmltibus die. 

Nunc modus bic agri nostro non sufficit horto. 

Inde fere scelerum cause, nec plura venena 

MisGuit, aut ferro grassatur sepiùs ullum 

Humane mentis vitium, quàm sera cupido 175 

indomiti census : nam dives qui fieri vult. 

Et citò vult fieri. Sed que reverentia legum, 

duis metus aut pudor est unquam properantis avari ? 

Vivite contenti casulis et collibus istis, 

O pueri, Mafsus dicebat et Hemicus olim 180 

VcBtinusque senex ; panem queramus aratro, 

Qui satis est mensis : laudant hoc numina ruris. 

Quorum ope et auxilio, grate post munus ariste, 

Contingunt homini veteris fiustidia quercùs. 

Nil vetitum fecisse ?olet, quem non pudet alto 165 

Per glaciem perone tegi ; qui submovet Euros 

Pellibus inversis. Peregrina ignotaque nobis 

Ad scelus atque nefas, quecunque est, purpura duoit. 

Hec illi veteres precepta minoribus : at nunc 
Post finem autumni media de nocte supinum 190 

Qamosus juvenem pater excitat : Accipe ceras 
Scribe, puer, vigila, cansas age, perlege rubras 
Majorum leges, aut vitem posce libello. 
Sed caput intactum buxo naresque pilosas 
Annotet, et grandes miretur Lelius alas. 105 

Dirue Maurorum attegias, castella Brigantùm, 
Ut locupletem aquilam tibi sexagesimus annus 
Afferat ; aut, longos castrorum ferre labores 
Si piget et trepidum solvunt tibi comua ventrem 
Gum lituis audita, pares, quod vendere possis 200 

Pluris dimidio, nec te fastidia mercis 
Ullius subeant ablegande Tiberim ultra : 
Neu credas ponendum aliquid discriminis inter 
Unguenta, et coriom. Lucri bonus est odor ex re 
Quàiibet. Illa tuo senlentia semper in ore 205 

Versetur, dìs atque ipso Jove digna, poète : 
Unde habeas, querit nemo ; sed oportet habere. 
Hoc.monstvant vetule pueris repentibus asse : 
Hoc diHwnt omnes ante alpha et beta pueile. 
Talibus instantna raonitis quemcunque paientem SIO 



80 D. JVmi JUVENALIS 

Sic possem aflari : I>ic, o Tanissime, quia te 
Festinare jubet ? meliorem presto magistro 
Discipulum. Securus abi : vincérìs, ut Ajax 
Pneteriit Telamonem, ut Pelea yicit Achillea. 
Parcendum teneris : nondum implevére medullas 215 

Mature mala nequitis. Quum pectere barbam 
Ooeperit et longi mucronem admittere cultri, 
^Falsus erit testis, vendei perjuria summà 
Exiguà et Cereris tangens aramque pedemque. 
Elatam jam crede nurum, si limina vestra 9StO 

Mortifera cum dote subìt. Quibus illa premetur 
Per somnum digiUs 1 nam que terràque marique 
Acquirenda putas, brevior via conferet illi. 
Nullus enim magni sceleris iabor. Hsc ego nunquam 
Mandavi, dices ohm, nec talia suasi. 5E25 

Mentis causa male tamen est et origo penes te. 
Nam quisquis magni censùs precepit amorem, 
£t levo monitu pueros producit avaros, 
Et qui per fraudes patrimonia conduplicare 
Dat libertatem, et totas effundit habenas SdO 

Curriculo : quem si revoces, subsistere nescit, 
Et te conteropto rapitur metisque relictis. 
Nemo satìs credit tantum delinquere, quantum 
Permittas : adeò indulgent sibi ìatiùs ipsi. 
Quum dicis juveni, stultum, qui donet amico, 235 

Qui paupertatem levet attollatque propinqui ; 
Et spoliare doces, et circumscribere, et omni 
Crimine divitias acquirere, quarum amor in te, 
Quantus erat patrie Deciorum in pectore, quantum 
Dilexit Thebas, si Grecia vera, Menoeceus : 240 

In quorum sulcis legiones dentibus anguis 
Cum clypeis nascuntur, et horrida bella cape^unt 
Continuò, tanquam et tubicen surrexerit una. 
Ergo ignem, cujus scintillas ipse dedisti, 
Flagrantem late et rapientem cuncta videbis. ' 245 

Nec tibi parcetur misero, trepidumque magistrum 
In cavea magno fremitu lèo toUet alumnus. 

Nota mathematicis genesis tua : sed grave tardas 
Enpectare colus. Morieris stamine nondum 
Abrupto. JaiiTnunc obstas et vota moraris : 250 

Jam torquet juvenem longa et cervina senectus. 
Ociùs Archigenen quere, atque eme, quod Mithridates 
Composuit, si vis aliam decerpere ficum, 
Atque alias tractare rosas. Medicamen habendum est, 



, . SÀTIRA xir. 81 

òuP 

' Sorbere ante cibom quod debeat et pater et rex. 2S6 

Monstro voluptatem egr^iam, cai nulla theatra. 
Nulla sequare queas Pnetork pulpita lauti, - v 

Si spectes, quanto capitis discrimine oonstent < ^ . < ? ; - 
Incrementa domùs, cerata multus in arca 
cct^-) s Fiscus, et ad vigilem ponendi CastcNra nummi, dW 

& quo Mars ultor galeam quoque perdidit, et rea 
Non potuit servare suas. Ergo omnia Fior» 

ì Et Cereris licet et Cybeles aulsa relmquas : ^ ' 

j^'yv- .» ^^^Tjaito majgres humaaa negotia ludi. O ^^'' ' /. ' 

An magìs oblectant animum jactata petavuro o / <<^ 905 
Cbrpora, quique solet rectum descendere funem, 
duàm tu, Corycià s^ai|)er qai puppe raoraris c^ f^,y 
Atque habitas, Coto semper toUendus et Austios^ 
Ferditus ac vilis sacci mercator olentis; 
Qui gaudes pingue antiquae de littore Crete 270 

Fassum et municipes Jovis advexisse lagenas ? 
Hic tamen ancipiti fìgens ve8tigi| franta 
Victum illà mercede parat, brumamque famemcj^e 
Illa reste eavet : tu propter mille talenta 
Et centum villas temerarius. Adspice portus 275 

Bt plenum magnis trabibus mare ; plus hominum est jam 
In pelago : veniet dassis, quòcunque voo&rit 
Spes lucri, nec Gaipathium Oetulaque tantum 
iÉquora transsiliet, sed, longè Calpe relictà, 
Audiet Herculeo stridentem gurgite solem. 
Grande opere pretium est,- ut tenso^foUe reverti r^y^ 6 ; t^ ^t v^ o j 
Inde domum possis, tumidàoue superbus aiuti, j^^^-rM^ ': 

Oceani monstra et juvenes vidisse marinos, ^ 
Non unus mentes agitat furor. Ille sororis 
In manibus vultu Eumenidum tcrretur et igni : 285 

Hic bove percusso mugire Agamemnona credit 
Aut Ithacum. Farcat tunicis licèt atque lacenùs, 
Curatoris eget, qui navem mercibus implet .^ f j 

Ad summum latus, et tabula distinguitur undà; ;,,( ,, . ^, • 
Quum sit causa mali tanti, et disoriminis hujus, / ^ 290 
Concìsum argentum in titulos faciesque minutasi 
Occurrunt nubes et fulgura. Sol vite funem , /t ' / . 
Frumenti dominus clamat piperi^o coempti ; /i^ n /iX-^ ^ 
Nfl color hic cceli, nil fascia nigra minatur ; ^ ^ ^ . 
iEstivum tonat. lafelix hào forsitan ìipsà, 205 

Nocte cadet fractis trabibus, fiuctuque (Mremetur 
Obrutus, et zonam levÀ morsuque tenebit. 
Sed cujus votis io^dò non sufiecerat aurum» 



— / 



D. J0NII JUVENALIS 

Qiiod TagQS, 6t rutila volvit Pactolus areni, 

Frìgida sofficieiit velantes^inguina panni, 300 

Exiguusque cibus, mersà rate nanfì-agus assem 

Dam rogat, et pietà se tempestate tuetur. 

Tantis parta malis cura majore metuqne 

SefFantur. Misera est magni custodia censùs. 

DispoeiUs predives hamis vigilare cohortem 305 

3ervorum noctu Licinus jubet, attonitus prò 
Eiectro, signisque suis, Phryg^&que columni, 
Atque ebore, et lata testudine. D^lia nudi ^-^^' ^^-^ 
Non ardent Cynici : si fregeris, altera fiet 
Cras domus, aut eadem plumbo commissa manebit. 310 

Sensit Alexander, te^ quum vidit in illà ^>V-- 
Magnum habitatorem, quanto felicior hic, qui 
Nil cuperet, quàm qui totum sibi posceret orbem, 
Passurus gestis aequanda pericula rebus. 
Nullum numen habes, «i sit prudentia : nos te, 315 

Nos facimus. Fortuna, Deaiy. Mensura tam9i^.;)us 
Sufficiat censùs, si quis me consulat, edam :^^^^ 
lù quantum sitis atque fiimes et frigora poscunt, * 
Quantum, Epicure, tibi parvis suiTecit in hortis, 
Quantum Socratici ceperunt ante penaies. 390 

Nunquam aliud Natura, aliud Sapientia dicit . 

Acri bus exemplis videor te claudere. Mìsce ^L ^ ' ^ 

Ergo aliquid nostris de moribus : efiìce summam, '^ •*'^^'''^-, , ^ 
Bis septem ordinibus quam lex dignatur Othonis. 
Heec quoque si rugam trahit, extenditque labellum ; 3S^ 

Sume duos Equites, fac tertia quadringenta. 
Si nondum impievi gremium, si panditur ultra : 
Nec CrcBsi fortuna unquam nec Persica regna ' 
Bufficient animo, nec divitis Narcissi, 

Jndulsit Cesar cui Claudius omnia, eujus 330 

Paruit imperàis, uxorem occidere jussus. 



SATIRA XV. 



Quia nescit, V<^usi Bithynice, qualia demens 
.£gyptus portenta eolat ? Crocodilon adorat 
Pars haec : illa pavet saturam serpentibus ibin. 
Effigies sacri nitet aurea cercopitbeci, 
Dimidìo magic» resonant ubi Memnone chord», 
Atque vetus Thebe centum jacet obruta portis. 



8ATIRA XV. 88 

niic CflBruleofi, hic piscem fluiiiinìs,.illic 

Oppida tota canem venerantur, nemo Dianam. 

Pomim et cspe nefas violare, et frangere morsa. 

O sanctas gentes, qaibus haec nascuntur in hortìs 10 

Nomina ! Lanatis animalibus abstinet omnia 

Mensa. Nefìus illic fcBtum jugulare capeUs : 

Carnìbus humanis vesci licet. Attonito quum 

Tale super coenam facinus narraret Ulixes 

Alcinoo, bilem aut risum fortasse quibusdam 16 

Moverat, ut mendax aretalogus. In mare nemo 

Hunc abicit, saevà dignum veràque Charybdi, 

Fingentem inmianes Laestrygonas atque Cyclopas t 

Nam citiùs Scyllam, vel concurrentia saxa 

Cyaneas, plenos et tempestatibus utres 99 

Crediderim, aut tenui percussum verbere Circes, 

Et cum remigibus grunnisse Elpenora porcis. 

Tarn vacui capitis populum Phsaca putavit ? 

Sic aliquis mer^ nondum ebrius, et minimum qui 

De Corcyraeà temetum duxerat urna : 25 

Solus enim hoc Ithacus nullo sub teste canebat. 

Nos miranda quidem, sed nuper Consule Junio 

Gesta super cadidse referemus moenia Copti ; 

Nos vulgi scelus, et cunctis graviora cothurnis. 

Nam scelus a Pyrrhà, quanquam omnia syrmata volvas, 30 

Nullus apud tragicos populus facit. Accipe, nostro 

Dira quod exemplum feritas produxerit svo. 

Inter finitimos vetus atque antiqua simultas, 
Inunortale odium, et nunquam sanabile vulnus 
Ardet adhuc Coptos et Tentyra. Summus utrinque 35 

Inde furor vulgo, quòd numina vicinorum 
Odit uterque locus, quum solos credat habendos 
Esse deos, quos ipse colit. Sed tempore festo 
Alterius populi rapienda occasio cunctis 
Visa inimicorum prìmoribus ac ducibus, ne 40 

Laetum hilaremque diem, ne magns gaudia coBnse 
Sentirent, positis. ad tempia et compita mensis, 
Pervigilique toro, quem nocte ac luce jacentem 
Septimus interdum sol invenit. Horrida sane •' 

iEgyptus : sed luxurià, quantum ipse notavi, 45 

Barbara famoso non cedit turba Canopo. 
Adde, quòd et facilis Victoria de madidis, et 
Blaesìs, atque mero titubantibus. Inde virorum 
Saltatus nigro tibicine, qualiacunque 
Unguenta, et flores, multaeque in fronte coronfe : 50 



84 1>> JUNIL JUTENALIS 



Hinc jejanam odium. Sled yupt pnma mmne 
Incipiunt animù afdeBtibas : hasc tuba vis»; 
Dein clamore pari coBCurrìtar, et viee teli 
8evit nuda BairaB : paucs sine vulnere mal» : 
Viz cuiquam aut nuttì tòto eertamìne naso» K 

Inte|[er. Adspiceres jam cuncta per agmina voltm 
Dimidiofl, alias fiicies, et hiantia mptis 
Ossa genisy plenos ocnloruiii sanguine pognos* 
Ludere se credunt ipsi tamen, et paeriles 
Exercere acies^ qoòd nulla cadavera calcent. 00 

Et sane quo tot rizantis millia turb», 
Si vivunt onuieal Ergo acrior impetus, et jam 
Saxa inclinatis per humum qussita laeertis 
Incipiunt torquere, domestica seditioni 
Tela; nec hunc lapidem, quales et Tumus, et Ajax, 65 

Vel quo Tydides pereussit pondere coxam 
.^«neaB ; sed quem valeant emittere dextrs, 
Ulis dissimiles et nostro tempore nate. 
Nam genus hoc vivo jam decrescebat Homero. 
Terra malos homines nunc educat atque pusillos. 70 

Ergo deus, quieunque adspexit, ridet, et odit 
Adeverticulo repetatur &bula. Postquam 
Subsidiis auctiy pars alta'a promere fèrrum 
Andet» et infestis pognam instaurare sagittis ; 
Terga fuge celeri praestantibus omnibus instante 75 

Qui vicina colunt umbrosae Tentyra palme. 
Labitur hinc quidam, nimia Ibrmidine cursum 
Praecipitans, capiturque : ast iUum in plurima sectom 
Frusta et puticuks, ut multis mortuus unus 
Sufficeret, totum corrosis ossibus edit 80 

Victrix turba : nec ardenti decoxit aéno, 
Aut verubus ; longum usque adeò tardumque pntavit 
Exspectare focos, contenta cadavere crudo. 
Hic, gaudere libet, quòd non violaverit ignem, 
Quem summà ccsli raptum de parte Promethens 85 

Donavit terris. Elemento gratnlor, et te 
Exsult^ reor. Sed qui mordere cadaver 
Sustinuit, nil unquam. hàc carne libentiàs edit. 
Nam scelere in tanto ne qusras, et dubites, an 
Prima voluptatem gula senserit. Ultimus autem, M 

Qui stetit absurapto jam toto corpore, ductis 
Per terram digitis^ aliquid de sanguine gustat 
Vascones, hec fama est, alimentis talibus olim 
Psoduxére animaa : sed res diversa, sed illio 



SATIRA XV. 85 

Fortuns invidia est bellorumqne ultima, casus 95 

Exttemi, iongae dira obsidionis egestas. 
Hujus enim, quod nunc agitur, miserabile debet 
Exemplum esse cibi : sicut modo dieta mihi gens 
Post omnes herbas, post cuncta animalia, quidquid 
Cogebat vacui ventris furor, hostibus ipsis 100 

PaUorem, ac maciem, et tenues miserantibus artus, 
Membra aliena fame lacerabant, esse parati 
Et sua. duisnam hominum veniam dare, quisve deorum 
Viribus abnuerit dira atque immania passis, 
Et quibus illorum poterant ignoscere manes, 105 

duorum corporibus vescebantur ? Meliùs nos 
Zenonis praecepta monent : nec enim omnia, quaedam 
Pro vita facienda putat. Sed Cantaber unde 
Stoi'cus, antiqui praesertim astate Metelli ì 
Nunc totus Graias nostrasque habet or bis AthenaSi 110 

Gailia causidicos docuit facunda Britannos : 
De conducendo loquitur jam rhetore Thule. 
Nobilìs ille tamen populus, quem diximus ; et par 
Yirtute atque fide, sed major clade Sagunlus 
Tale quid excusat. Maeotide sasvior ara 115 

^gyptus. duippe illa nefandi Taurica sacri 
Jnventrix homines (ut jam, quae carmina tradunt, 
Digna fide credas) tantum immoiat, ulterius nil 
Aut gravius cultro timet hostia. Qui modo casus 
Impuiit hos 1 quae tanta fames, infestaquc vallo 120 

Arma coègerunt tam detestabile monstrum 
Audere ? Anne sdiam, terrà Memphitide siccà, 
Invidiàm facerent nolenti surgere Nilo ? 
Qua nec terribiles Cimbri, nec Britoiìes unquam, 
Sauromataeve truces, aut immanes Agathyrsi, 125 

Hàc saevit rabie imbelle et inutile vulgus, 
Parvula fìctilibus solitum dare vela phaselis, 
Et brevi bus pictae remis incumbere testa). 
Nec pGcnam sceleri invenies, nec digna parabis 
Suppiicia bis populis, in quorum mente pares sunt 130 

Et similes ira atque famés. Moltissima corda 
Rumano generi dare se natura fatetur, 
Quae lacrymas dedit : haec nostri pars optima sensùs. 
Plorare ergo jubet casum lugentis amici, 
Squaloremque rei, pupillum ad jura vocantenr 135 

Circumscriptorem, cujus manantia fletu 
Ora puellares faciunt incerta capilli, 
Naturae imperio gemimus, quura funus adultie 

8 



86 I>- JUNII JUVENALIS 

Virginis occurrit, vel terrà claudìtur ilifans, 

Et minor igne rogi. Quis enim bonus et Àce dignus 140 

Arcana, qualem Cereris vuh esse sacerdos, 

(Illa aliena sibi credat mala ? Separat hoc nos 

A grege miitorum, atque ideo venerabile soli 

Sortiti ingenium, divinorumque capaces, 

Atque exercendis capiendisque arti bus apti, 145 

Sensum a ccelesti demissum traximus arce, 

Cujus egent prona et terram spectantia. Mundi 

Principio indulsit communis conditor illis 

Tantum aniroas, nobis animum quoque, mutuus ut nos 

Affectus petere auxilium et praBstare juberet, 160 

Dispersos trahere in populum, migrare vetusto 

De nemore, et proavis habitatas linquere silvas 

iEdificare domos, Laribus conjungere nostris 

Tectum aliud, tutos vicino limine somnos 

Ut collata daret fiducia ; protegere armis 155 

Lapsuni aut ingenti nutantem vulnere cìvem, 

Communi dare signa tuba, defendier isdèm 

Turribus, atque una portarum clave teneri. 

Sed jam serpentum major concordia. Parcit 

Cognatis maculis similis fera. Quando leoni ^ 100 

Fortior eripuit vitam leo ? quo nemore unquam 

Exspiravit aper majoris dentibus apri ? 

Indica tigris agit rabida cura tigride pacem 

Perpetuam : sasvis inter se convenit ursis. 

Ast homini ferrum letale incude nefanda 165 

Produxisse parum est ; quum rastra et sarcula tantum 

Assueti coquere, et marris ac vomere lassi 

Nescierint primi gladios extundere fabri. 

Adspicimus populos, quorum non sufficit irae 

Occidisse aliquem ; sed pectora, brachia, vultum 170 

Crediderint gen\is esse cibi. Quid diceret ergo, 

Vel quo non fugeret, si nunc haec monstra videret 

Pythagoras, cunctis animalibus abstinuit qui 

Tanquam hcnnine, et ventri indulsit non omne legumen ? 



SATIRA XVI. 



Quis numerare queat felicis proemia, Galle, 
Militile ? Nam si subeuntur prospera castra. 
Me pavidum excipiat tironem porta secundo 



SATIRA XVI. 97 

Sidere. Plus etenim fati valet hora benigni, 

Quàin si nos Veneris commendet epistola Marti, 6 

Et Samià genitrìx qusB delectatur arena. 

Commoda tractemus primùm comtnunia, quorum 
Haud minimum illud erit, ne te pulsare togatus 
Àudeat ; immo, etsi pulsetur, dissimnlet, nec 
Audeat excussos Praetori estendere dentes, tO 

Et nigram in facie tumidis livoribus offam, 
Atque oculum medico nil promittente relictum. 
Bardai'cus judex datur hec punire volenti 
Calceus, et grandes magna ad subsellia surae, 
Legibus antiquis castrorum et more Carailii 15 

Servato, miles ne valium litiget extra 
Et procul a signis. Justissima Centurionum 
Cognitio est igitur de milite ; nec mihi deerit 
Ultio, si justse defertur causa querelse. 

Tota cohors tamen est inimica, omnesque manipli 20 

Consensu magno efficiunt, curabilis ut sit 
Yindicta et gravior, quàm injuria. Dignum erit ergo 
Declamatoris mulino corde Vagelli, 
duum duo crura habeas, offendere tot caligas, tot 
Millia clavorum. Quis tam procul absit ab Urbe ? -05 

Prseterea quis tam Pylades, molem aggeris ultra 
Ut Veniat ? lacrjms siccentur protenus, et se 
Excusaturos non sollicitemus amicos. 
Da testem, judex quum dixerit: audeat ille, 
Nescio quis, pugnos qui vidit, dicere, Vidi ? W 

Et credam dignum barba, dignumque capillis 
Majorum. Citius falsum producere testem 
Contra paganum possis, quàm vera loquentem 
Oontra fortunam armati, contraque pudorem. 
Prsemia nunc alia, atque alia emolumenta notemus 35 

Sacramentorum. Convallem ruris aviti 
Improbus, aut campum mihi si vjcinus ademit 
Et sacrum elfodit medio de limite saxum, 
QrUod mea cum vetulo coluit puls annua libo ; 
Debitor aut sumptos pergit non reddere nunmiOB, 40 

Vana supervacui dicens chirographa ligni : 
Exspectandus erit, qui lites inchoet, annus 
Totius populi : sed tunc quoque mille ferenda 
Tedia, mille morse ; toties subsellia tantum 
Sternuntur ; jam fìicundo ponente lacernas 45 

Cedicio, et Fusco jam micturiente, parati 
Digredimur, lentaque fori pugnamus arena. 



88 D. J. JIJV. 8AT. XVI. 

Ast illis, quos arma tegunt, et balteus ambit, 

QrUod placitum est ipsis, prsstatur tempus agendi, 

Nec res atteritur longo sufflamine litis. ^ 50 

Solis prieterea testandi militibus jiis, 
Vivo patre, datur : nani, qu» sunt parta labore 
Milìtìffi, placuit non esse in corpore censùs, 
Omne tenet cujus regìmen pater. Ergo Coranum, 
Signorum comitcm, castrorumque sra merentem, 55 

Quamvis jam tremulus, captat pater. Hunc labor sequus 
Provehit, et pulchro reddit sua dona labcH*!. 
Ipsius certe ducis hoc referre videtur, 
Ut, qui fortis erit^ sit felicissimus idem, 
Ut leti phaleris omnes, et torquibus omnes. 60 



A. PERSII FLACCI 



SATIRA. 



A. PERSII FLACCI 



SATIRA. 



PROLOGUS. 

Nbc fonte labra prolai caballìno, 
Neque in bicipiti somniàsse Parnasso 
'Memini, ut repente sic poèta prodirem. 
Heliconidasque pallidamque Pirenen 

Ulis remitto, quorum imagìnes lambunt 6 

Hederae sequaces : ipse semipaganus 

Ad sacra vatum Carmen afferò nostrum. 

Quis expedivit psittaco suum Xar^s, 

Picasque docuit verba nostra conari ? 

Magister artis ingenìque largitor 10 

Venter, negatas àrtifex sequi voces. 

Quòd si dolosi spes refulserit nummi^ 

Corvos poètas et poetrias picas 

Cantare credas Pegaseì'um nectar. 



SATIRA I. 



' O cuRAS hominum ! O quantum est in rebus inane ! 
Quis leget hsc?' Min' tu istud ais ? ' Nemo hercule.' Nemot 
* Vel duo, yel nemo : turpe et miserabile/ Quare ? 
Ne mihi Pulydamas et Troi'ades Labeonem 
Prsetulerint ? nugae : non, si quid turbida Roma 5 

Ellevet, accedas, exanienve improbum in illà 
Castiges trutinà : nec te quaesiveris extra. 
Nam Romse quis non ? ah, si fas dìcere^^d fas 
Tunc, quum ad canitiem et nostrum isttm vivere triste 
Aspexi, et nucibus facimus quaecunque relictis, W 

duum sapimud patfuos : tunc, tunc, ignoscite. ' Nolo/ 
Quid faciam ? sed sum petulanti splene cachinno. 



03 A. PERSII FLACCI 

Scribimus inclusi, numeros ille, hic pede liber, 
Grande aliquid, quod pulmo animse prselargus anhelet* 
Scilicet hsBC populo, pexusque togàque recenti, 15 

Et natalitià tandem cum atrdoojche, albus 
Sede leges celai, liquido quum plasmate guttur 
Mobile collueris, patranti fractus ocello. 
Hic neque more probo videas neque voce serena 
Ingentes trepidare Titos, quum carmina lumbum 20 

Intrant, et tremulo scalpuntur ubi intima versu. 
Tun', vetule, auriculis alienis colligis escast 
Auriculis, quibus et dicas cute perditus, ohe ? 
' Quo didicisse, nìsi hoc fermentum et qus semel intus 
Innata est, rupto jecore exierit caprificus V 25 

£n pallor seniumque ! O mores ! usque adeòne 
Scire tuum nibil est, nisi te scire hoc sciat alter ì 
* At pulchrum est digito monstrari, et dicier, Hic est I 
Ten' cirratorum centum dictata fuisse 

|*ro nihilo pendas V Ecce inter pocula qusrunt 30 

Romulìdae saturi, quid dia poemata narrent. 
Hic aliquis, cui circum humeros hyacinthina lena est, 
Rancidulum quiddam balba de nare locutus, 
Phyllidas, Hypsipylas, vatum et plorabile si quid, 
Eliquat, et tenero supplantat verba palato. 35 

Assensére viri : nunc non cinis ille poetie 
Felix ? non levior cippus nunc imprimit ossa ? 
Laudant convivae : nunc non e roanibus illis, 
Nunc non e tumulo fortunatàque favilla 
Nascentur viols ? Rides, ait, et nimis uncis 40 

Naribus indulges. An erit, qui velie recuset 
Os'populi meruisse 1 et, cedro digna locutus, 
Liiiquere nec scombros metuentia carmina, nec thus ? 
Quisquis es, O modo quem ex adverso dicere feci. 
Non ego, quum scribo, si forte quid eptius exit, 45 

Quando haec rara avis est, si quid tamen aptius exit. 
Laudari metuam : neque enim mihi ccHrnea fibra est : 
Sed recti finemque extremumque esse recuso 
EuoE tuum et belle : nam belle hoc excute totum : 
Quid non intus habet ? non hic est Ilias Acci 50 

Ebria veratro ? non si qua elegidia crudi 
Dictàrunt proceres ? non quicquìd denique lectis « 

Scribitur in citreis ? Calidum scis ponere sumen : 
Scis comitem horridulum trita donare lacerna : 
Et, Vorum, inquis, amo : verum mihi dicite de me. 55 

Qui potè ? vis dicam ? nugaris, quum tibi, calye^ 



SATIRA I. 08 

Pinguis aqualiculas propenso sesqaipede ezstet 

O Jane, a tergo quem nulla ciconia pinsit, 

Nec manus aurìculas imitata est mobilia aJtas, 

Nec linguae, quantum sitiat canis Appula, tantum ! 60 

Vos, O patriòius sanguis, quos vivere fas est 

Occipiti esco, postics occurrite sanns. 

Quis populi scrmo est ? quis enim ? nisi carmina molli 
Nunc demum numero fluere, ut per leve severos 
Effundat junctura ungues : sctt tendere versum 65 

Non secus, ac si oculo rubricam dirigat una 
Sive opus in mores, in luxum, in prandia regum» 
Dicere, res grandes nostro dat Musa poèts. 

Ecce modo heroas sensus afferre videmua 
Nugari solitos Graecè, nec-ponere lucum 70 

Artifices, nec rus saturum laudare, ubi corbes, 
Et focus, et porci, et fumosa Palilia iceno : 
Unde Remus, sulcoque terens dentalia. Quinti, 
Quum trepida ante boves dictatorem induit uxor. 
Et tua aratra domum lictor tulit : euge poèta ! 75 

Est nunc, Brisei's quem venosus liber Acci, 
Sunt, quos Pacuviusque et verrucosa moretur 
Antiopa, (Brumnis cor luctificahile fuUa. 
Hos pueris monitus patres infundere lippos 
QrUum videas, querisne, unde haec sartago loquendi 80 

Venerit in linguas % unde btud dedecus, ia quo 
Trossulus exsultat tibi per subsellia levis ? 
Nilne pudet, capiti non posse pericula cano 
Pellere, quin tepidum hoc optes audire, decentbr? 

Fur es, ait Pedio. Pedius quid ? crimina rasis 85 

Librat in antithetis : doctas posuisse figuras 
Laudatur: bellum hoc: hoc bellum? an, Romule, ceves t 
Men' moveat ? quippe et, cantet si naufragus, assem 
Protulerim 1 cantas, quum fractà te in ^abe pictum 
Ex humero portes. Verum, nec nocte paratum 00 

Plorabit, qui me volet incurvasse quereli. 

Sed numeris decor est et junctura addita crudis. ^ 
Claudere sic versum didicit, Berecywthius Attin : 
Et, Qui caruleum dirimehat Nerea delphin : 
Sic, (Jostam longo subduxinms Apennino. 05 

Arma virum, nonne hoc spumosum et corticc pingui ? 
Ut ramale vetus prsgfandi subere coctum. 
Quidnam igitur tenerum, et4axà cervice legendum? 
Torva Mimalloneis implérunt comua hombis : 
Et raptum vitulo caput ablatura superbo 100 

Bassaris, et Lyncem McBnasflexura corymbù 



M A. PERSII FLACCl 

Euion ingeminat : reparabiUs *assfmat JEkho, 

Hec fierent, « testieuH vena uUa paterni 

Viveret in nobis ? summà delumbe saliva 

Hoc natat in labris, et in udo est Manas et Attin : 106 

Nec pluteum caedit, nec demorsos sapit ungues. 

' Sed quid opus teneras mordaci radere vero 
Auriculas ? vide sia, ne majbrum tibi Ibrtè 
Limina fìrigescant : sonai hic de nare canina 
Littera.' Per me equidem sint omnia protinus alba/ 110 
Nil moror. Euge I omnes, omnes bene mirae eritis rea. 
Hoc juvat 1 Hic, inquis, veto quisquam faxit oletum. 
Finge duos angues : pueri, sacer. est locus : extra 
Meiite : discedp. Secuit Lucilius Urbem, 
Te, Lupe, te, Muci, et genuinuin fregit in illis. 115 

Omne vafer vitium ridenti Flaccus amico 
Tangit, et admissus circum prscordia Judit, 
Callidus excusso popnlum suspendère naso. 
Men' mutire ne&s, nec clàm, nec cum scrobe? ' Nusquam.' 
Hic tamen infodiam : Vidi, vidi ipse, lìbelle, 120 

Auriculas asini Mida rex habet : hoc ego opertìim, 
Hoc ridere meum, tam nil, nulla tibi vendo 
Iliade. Audaci, quicunque, afflate Gratino, 
Iratum Eupolidem prsegrandi cum sene palles, 
Aspice et hssc, si forte aliquid decoctius audia 135 

Inde vaporata lector mihi ferveat aure : 
Non hic, qui in crepidas Graiorum ludere gestii 
Sordidus, et lusco qui poscit dicere, Losce, . 
Sese aliquem credens, Italo quòd honore supinus 
Fregerit heminas Arett aedilis iniquas : 130 

Nec qui abaco numeros, et secto in pulvere metta, 
Scit rinÌBse vafer, multùm gaudere paratus, 
Si Cynìco barbam petolans nonaria vellat. 
His mane edicinm, post prandia Callirhoèn do. 



SATIRA II. 

AD PLOTIUM MACRINUM 

DB BONI MENTB. 



HuNc, Macrine, diem numera meliore lapillo, 
Qui tibi labentes apponit candidus annos. 
Funde merum Genio : non tu prece poscia emaci^ 



SATIRA II. ^5 

Q,nm nisi seductis nequeoa committere divis. 

Ai bona para procerum tacita libaTÌt acenri. 5 

Haud cuii^is promptum est, murmurqoe humilesque 8ii8iirro9 

ToUere de templs, et aperto vivere voto. 

Mens bona, fama, fìdes, hsc dare, et ut aadiat hospest 

Illa sibì introrsum et sub lingua immurmurat : O si 

Ebuliit patruus, prasclarum fìinus I et, O si .10 

Sub rastro crepet argenti mihi seria, dextro 

Hercule ! pupillumve utinam, quem proximus hsres 

Impello, expungam : namque est scabiosus, et acri 

Bile tumet. Nerio jam tertia ducitur uxor 1 

Haec sanctè ut poscas, Tiberino in gurgite mergis 15 

Mane caput bis terque, et noctem flumine purgas. 

Heus age, responde : (minimum est, quod scire laboro:) 
De Jove quid sentis ? estne ut prsponere cures 
Hunc — ' cuinam V cuinam t vis Staio ? an scìHcet h»res, 
Quis potior judex, puerisve quis aptior orbis ? 20 

Hoc igitur, quo tu Jovis aurem impellere tentas. 
Die agedum Staio : proh Jupiter ! O bone, clamet, 
Jupiter ! at sese non clamet Jupiter ipse ? 
Ignovisse putas, quia, quum tonat, ociùs ilex 
Sulfure discutitor sacro, quàm tuque, domusque? 25 

An quia non fibris ovium Ergennàque jubente 
Triste jaces lucis evitandnmque bidental, 
Idcirco stolidam praebet tibi veliere barbam 
Jupiter ? aut quidnam est, qua tu mercede deorum 
Emeris auriculas ì pulmone et lactibus nnctis t 30 

Ecce avia, aut metuens divùm matertera, cunis 
Exemit puerum, frontemque atque uda labella 
Infami digito et lustralibus ante salivis 
Expiat, urentes oculos inhibere perita. 

Tunc manibus quatit, et spem macram supplice voto 35 

Nunc Licìnì in campos, nunc Crassi mittit in aedes. 
Hunc optent generum rex et regina ! puellaft 
Hunc rapiant ! quìcquid calcaverit hic, rosa fiat ! 
Ast ego nutrici non mando vota : negato, 
Jupiter, haec illì, quamvis te albata rogar it. 40 

Poscis opem nervis corpusque fidele senectae. 
Esto, age : sed grandes patinas tucetaque crassa 
Annuere bis Superos vetuére, Jovemque morantur. 

Rem struere exoptas caeso bove, Mercuriumque 
Arcessis fibra : Da fortunare penates ! 45 

Da pecus, et gregibus fcetum ! quo, pessime, pacto, 
Tòt tibi quiun in flammis junicum omenta liquescant l 
Et tamen hic extis et opimo vincere ferto ^ 



96 A. PERSII FLACCI 

Intendit : jam cresci! ager, jam crescit ovile, 

Jam dabitur, jam jam : donec deceptus et exBpea 60 

Nequidquam fìindo suspirat nummus in imo. 

Si tibi crateras argenti incusaque pingai 
Auro dona feram, sudeà, et pectore Isvo 
Excutìat guttas Istari prsetrepidum cor. 
Hinc illud subiit, auro sacras quod ovato S5 

Perducis facies : nam, fratres in ter aènos, 
Somnia pituita qui purgatissima mittunt, 
PrsBcipui sunto, sitque illis aurea barba. 

Aurum vasa Numae Saturniaque impulit era, 
Vestalesque urnas et Tuscum fictile mutat. 60 

O curve in terras animae, et ccsiestium inanes ! 
Quid juvat hoc, templis nostros immittere mores, 
Et bona dis ex bàc scelerata ducere puJpà ? 
Hffic sibi corrupto casiam dissolvit olivo : 
Et Calabrum coxit vitiato murice vellus. 66 

Hffic baccam conchae rasisse, et stringere venas 
Ferventis mass» crudo de pulvere jussit. 
Peccat et hsc, peccat : vitio tamen utitur : at voa 
Dicìte, pontifices, in sacro quid facit aurum ? 
Nempe hoc quod Veneri donate a virgine pupps. 70 

Cluin damus id Supcris, de magna quod dare lance 
Non possit magni Messale lippa propago, 
Compositum jus fasque animo, sanctosque recessus 
Mentis, et incoctum generoso pectus honesto. 
Hec cedo ut admoveam templis, et (arre litabo. 75 



SATIRA III. 



Nempe hoc assidue ? jam clarum mane fenestras 
Intrat, et angustas extendit lumine rimas. 
Stertimus, indomitum quod despumare Falemum 
Sufficìat, quinta dum linea tangitur umbra. 
En quid agis ? siccas insana Canicula messes 6 

Jam dudum coquit, et patulà pecus omne sub ulmo est: 
Unus ait comitum. * Verumne ? itane ? ociùs adsit 
Huc aliquis ! nemon' V Turgescit vitrea bilis, 
Finditur : Arcadie pecuaria rudere credas. 

Jam liber, et bicoìor positis membrana capillis, 10 

Inque manus charte nodosaque venit arando. 
Tunc queritur, crassus calamo quòd pendeat humor ; 



SATIRA in. €fl 

Nigra quòd infusa vaneséat sepia lympha ; 
Dilutas queritur geminet quòd fistola guttas. 

O miser, ìnque dies ultra miser ! hucciDe rerum 15 

Venimus t at cur non potiòs, teneroque palumbo 
£t similis regum pueris, pappare minutnm 
Poscis, et iratus mammaB lallare recusas ? 

' An tali studeam calamo V Cui verba ? quid istas 
Succinis ambage^? tibi luditur : effluis amens. 20 

Contemnére, sonat vitium percnssa, maligne 
Respondet viridi non cocta iìdelia limo. 
Udum et molle lutum es, nunc nunc properandus, et acri 
Fingendus sine fine rota. Sed rure paterno 
Est tibi &r modicum, purum et sine labe salinum, 35 

(Cluid metuas ?) cultrixque foci secura patella. 
Hoc satìs ? an deceat pujmonem rumpere ventis, 
Stemmate quòd Tnsco ramum millesime ducis, 
Censoremne tuum vel quòd trabeate salutas ? 
Ad populum phaleras : ego te intus et in cute novi. 30 

Non pudet ad morem discincti vivere Nattae ? 
Sed stupet hic vitiò, et fibris increvit opimum 
Pingue : caret culpa : nescit, quid perdat : et, alto 
Demersus, summà non rursus bullit in undà. 

Magne pater divàm, saevos punire tyrannos 35 

Haud alia ratione velts, quum dira libido 
Moverit ingentum, ferventi tincta veneno, 
Virtutem videant, intabescantque relictà. 
Anne magìs Siculi gemuerunt aera juvenci, 
Aut magìs auratis pendens laquearibus ensis 40 

Purpureas subter cervices terruit, tm«5, 
Imus pr€Bcipites, quàm si sibi dicat, et intus 
Palieat infelix, quod proxima nesciat uxor ? 

Saepe oculos, memini, tangebam parvus olivo, 
Grandia si nóUem morituri verba Catonis 45 

Dicere, non sano multùm laudanda magistro, 
dusB pater adductis sndans audiret amicis. ' 
Iure : etenim id summum, quid dexter senio ferret, 
Scire erat in voto : damnosa canicula quantum 
Raderet : angiistae collo non fallier orcaB : 50 

Neu quis callidior buxum torquere flagello. 

Haud tibi inexpertum curvos depréndere mores, 
duaeque docet sapiens braccatis illita Medis 
Porticus, insomnis quibus et detonsa Juventus 
Invigilat, siliquis et grandi pasta polenta. 55 

Et tibi, qus Samios diduxit littera ramos^ 

9 



^ A. P^ll^I FLACCI 

Sorgentem dextro mopstrmt Hmtm eallem. 

Stertis adhuc? lananqu'e «apat coinpage tolutà 

Oscitat heslernimi, dissutis undique malia? 

Èst aliquid quo ^ndis, et in quod dirigis arcam ? OQ 

An passim sequeris corvos te»tàque lutoque, 

Securus quo pes feràt, atque ex tempore vìfìb 7 

HellebQruip fruatrà, quum jam cutis egra (umebit, 
Poscentes videas ; venieuti occurrite morpa 
Et quid opus Cratero magnos promittere montest 65 

Discite io miseri, et causas oogaoscite rerum ! 
Quid aumns, e^ quidnam victuri gigoimur ? ordo i 

Quis datus, aut mete quàm molUÌB flezua, et unde ? 
Quis modus argento ? quid fas optare ì quid a^^r 
Utile nummus habet ? patrie carisque propinquis 70 

Quantum elargiti deceat ? quem te deus esse ^ 
Jussit, et humaaà qua parte locatus es in re? 
Disce : nec invideasi» quòd multa fidelia putet 
I|r locupiete penu, defensis pinguibus Umbria, 
Et piper, et perne, Marsi monumenta clientis, 76 

Menaque quòd prima npndum defecerit orc4. 

IIìc aliquia de geikt/e bircoaa cefi tur ipaum 
Dicat, Quod satìs est, sapio mihi : ncm ego curo 
]E)pse, quod Arcesilaa ^rumnosique Solo^es» 
Obstipo capite, et fìgent^es lumine terram, 80 

Murmura quum secum et r&biosa silentia rodunt^ . 
Atque exporrecto trutinantur. verba labellq, 
iEgroti veteris meditantes somnia, gigni 
fle nihilo nihil, in uihilum nil posse reverti. 
Hoc est, quòd palles ? cur quis non prandeat, hoc est ? 85 
His populus ridet : multi^mque torosa Juventus 
Ingeminat tremulos jaaso crispante cachinnos. 

Inspice : ne^cjp. quid trepidai mihi pectus, et egris 
jPiaucibus exsuperat gravis halitus ; inspice, sodes, 
dui dicit medico^ jussus requiescere, postquam 90 

Tertia compositas vidit nox currere venas. 
De majore domo modicè sitiente lagena, 
Lenia loturo sihi Surrentina rogavit 

8 BUS bone, tu palles. * ISihH est/ Yideas tamei^ istud, 
uicquid id est : surgit tacite tibi lutea pellb. 95 

' At tu deteriÙ4 pallia ; ne sia miÙ tutor : 
Jam pridem hunc s^peU : tu restas.' Porge, tacebo. 
Turgidus hic epulis, a,U||Ue albo ventre, lavatur, 
.Qutture sulfìireas lente ^balante mephites. 
Sed tremor inter vina ^xt^ calidumque trìeintftl 100 



Etcutit e manibttB : deflléd trép^è^e tètèéìk : 

Uncta cadunt laxis tttftc pulfkleiltaria labris. 

Hinc tuba, candele : tatidemque beatulud èJtd 

Còmpositus lectò, orassisque liitattts andoitiis, 

In portam rigidoB caloes extendit : at illuni 105 

Hesterni capite itiduto subtére duirites. 

' Tange miser venàs, et pone in pectore déxtMln : 
Ni! calet hic : summosque pedes attinge nkaikilsqué : 
Non frigeflt.' Yisar est bì forte pecunia, sive 
Caiidida vicini subrisit molle puella, 110 

Cor tibi ritè salit? Positum est algente camino 
Durum olus, et populi cribro decussa farina : 
Tentemus fauces : tenero latét ulcus in ore 
Putre, quod haud deceat plebeià radere beta. 
Alges, quura exeìissit mertibris tremor albus arista» : US 

Nunc &ce suppoiità fervesoìt sanguis, et irà 
Scintillant oculi ; dicisque faóisque, quod ipse, 
Non sani esse hominis, non sanus juret Orested. 



SATIRA IV. 



Rem populi tractas ? (barbatum hec crede magistrum 
Dicere, sorbitìo tollit quarti dira cicuts :) 
Quo fretust die hoc, magni pupille Perieli. 
Scilicet ingenium et tornm prudentia velox 
Ante pilos venit : dicenda tacendaque callés. 5 

Ergo ubi commotà fervet plebecula bile, 
Fert animus calidae fècisse silentia turbs 
Majestate ma&Ùs. Quid deinde loquére ? Quirite^, 
Hoc, puta, non juétum est : illud male : rectius illud. 
Scis etenim justum gemina suspendere lance 10 

Ancipitifl libr» : rectum discernis, ubi inter 
Curva subit, vel quum faliit pede regula varo : 
Et potis es nigrum vitio prftfigere Theta. 
Quin tu igitur, summà nequicquam pelle deoofUB, 
Ante diem blando caudam jaotare popello 15 

Desinis, Anticyras meliot sorbere meracas. 
Qiie tibi Bumma boni est? unctà vixisse patella 
Semper, et assidoo Curata cuticula sole. 
Exspecta: haud aliud respondeat hseó anos: I nuilc; 
Dòumaches ego mM, sufik : sum eandidus : Esto : 20 

Bum ne deteriùs sapial pannucea Bauoia, 



100 A. PERNII FLACCI 

Quum bene discincto cantaverit ocima Teme. 
Ut nemo m sese tentai descender^, nemo ! 
Sed precedenti spectatur mantica tergo. 

Quesieris, Nóstin' Vectidi prsedia ì * cujus V 25 

Dires arat Curibus, quantum ncm milvus oberret. 
' Hunc ais? hunc dis iratis genioque sinistro? 
Qui quandoque jugum pertusa ad compita figit. 
Seriola^ veterem metuens deradere limum, 
Ingemit, Hoc bene sit ! tunicatum cum saie mordena . 3(K 
Ciepe : et farrata pueris plaudentibus olla, 
Pannosam fscem morientis sorbet aceti.' * ♦ • ♦ ♦ 

Cedimus, inq^e vicem praebemus crura sagittis. 
Vivitur hoc pacto : sic noviraus : ilia subter 
Caecum vulnus habes : sed lato balteus auro * 35 

Praetegit : ut mavis, da verba, et decipe nervos. 
Si potes. ' Egregium quum me vicinia. dicat, 
Non credam V Viso, si palles, improbe, nummo ; * * ♦ » 
Sì puteal multa cautus vibice flagellas : 

Neqnicquam populo bibulas donaveris aures. 40 

Respue, quod non es : tollat sua munera cerdo. 
Tecum Jiabita, et noris, quàm sit tibi curta supellex. 



SATIRA V. 

AD MAGISTRUM SUUM 
ANNAUM CORNUTUM. 



Vatibus bic mos est, centum sibi poseere voces, 
Centuìn ora, et linguas optare in carmina centum, 
Tabula seu mcesto ponatur bianda tragaedo, 
Vulnera seu Parthi ducentis ab inguine ferrum. 

Quorsum haec ? aut quatttas robuj^ti carminis offas 5 

Ingeris, ut par sit centeno gutture niti ì 
Grande locuturi nebulas Helicone legunto, 
9i quibus aut Procnes, aut si quibus olla Thyeat» 
Fervebit^ ssepe insulso ccenanda Gìyconi. 
Tu neque anhelanti, coquiturdum massa /Camino, 10 ^ 

Folle premis ventos ; nec ci auso murmure railcus 
Nescio quid tecum grave cornicaris ineptè ; 
Nec stloppo tuinidas intendis rumpere buocas. 
Verba tog» sequeris, jaqcturà callidus acri» 



gATIRA V. tei 

Ore teres modico, pallentes radere knores 16 

Iksctus, et ingenuo oulpam defigere ludo. 
Hinc trahe, quse dicas, menBamque reHnque My^eilifl 
Cum capite et pedibus, plebeiaque prandia nòria. 

Non equidem hoc studeo, bnllatis ut mihi nugis 
Pagina turgescat, dare pondus idonea fumo. 9D 

Secreti ]oquimur. Tibi nunc, hortante Camcenà, 
Excutienda damus praecordia : quantaque nostre 
Pars tua sit, Cornute, anim», tibi, dolcis amice, 
Ostendisse juvat. Pulsa, dignoscere cautus. 
Quid solidum crepet, et pietas tectoria Itnguse. K 

Hts ego centenas ausim deposcere yoces. 
Ut, quantum mihi te sinuoso in pectore fìxi. 
Voce traham pura, totumque hoc verba resjgnent, 
Quod latet arcani non enarrabiie fibra. 

Quum primùm pavido custos milii purpara eeastt, 80 

Bullaque succinctis laribus donata pependit ; 
Quum blandi comites, totÀque impune Suburà 
Permisit sparsisse oculos jàm candidus umbo ; 
Quumque iter arobiguum est, et vìtse nescius error 
Diducit trepidas ramosa in compita mentes : 8S 

Me tibi supposui. Teneros tu suscipis annos 
Socratico, Cornute, sinu. Tunc fallerò solerà 
Apposita intortos ostendit regula mores ; 
Et premitur ratione animus, vincique laborat, 
Artifìcemque tuo dùeit sub pollice rultum. 4Ù 

Tecum etenim longos meminì consumere sole», 
Et tecum primas epulis decerpere noctes. 
Unum opus et requiem pariter disponimus ambo, 
Atque verecundà laxamus seria mensa. "** 

Non equidem hoc dubites, amborum federe cerfo 45 

Consentire dies, et ab uno sidere duci. 
Nostra vel squadi suspendit tempora Libri 
Parca tenax veri, seu nata fìdelibus bora 
Dividit in Geminos concordia fata duorum, 
Saturnumque gravem nostro Jove frangimus tinà« 6tt 

Nescio quod certe est, quod me tibi temperat, astrum. 

Mille hominum species, et rerum dtscolor usns. 
Velie suum cuique est, nec voto vivitur uno 
Mercibus hìc Italis mutat sub sole recenti 
Rugosum piper, et pallentis grana cumini : 1® 

Itìt satur irriguo mavuk turgescere somno : 
Hic Campo indulget : hunc alea decoqutt : ille * 
Jn Venerem est putris : sed qoum lapidosa chefagm 
> 9» 



m A. PJBBSII FLACCI 

Fiegerit articulos, Teteris ramaiia fagi : 

Tunc crassos transisse dies, lucemque palustrem, 60 

Et sibi jam seri vitam ingemuére relictam. 

At te nocturnis juvat impaJlescere diartis. 
Cultor enim juvenum purgatas inseris aures 
Fruge'Cleantheà. Petite hinc, juvenesque senesque, 
Finem animo certum, miserisque viatica canis. 65 

' Cras hoc fiet/ Idem cras fìet. ' duid ? quasi magnum^ 
Nempe diem donas V Sed quum lux altera venit, 
Jam cras hesternum consumpsimus : ecce aliud cras 
Egerit hos annos, et semper paulùm erìt ultra. 
Nam quamvis prope te, quamvis temone sub uno 70 

Vertentem sese, frustra sectabere canthum, 
Qruum rota posterior curras, et in axe secundo. 

Liberiate opus est, non hàc, quam ut quisqué Velina 
Publius emeruit, scabiosum tesserulà far 
Possidet. Heu sterìles veri, quibus una Quiritem 75 

Yertigo facit ! Hic Dama est non tressis agaso, 
Vappa et lippus, et in tenui farragine mendaj^ : 
Yerterit hunc dominus, momento turbinis exit 
Marcus Dama. Papse ! Marco spondento, recusas 
Credere tu nummos? Marco sub judice palles? 80 

Marcus dixit : ita est Assigna, Marce, tabellas. 
Ilaec mera libertas : hoc nobis pilea donant. 
' An quìsquam est alius liber, nisi ducere vitam 
Cui licet, ut voluit ? licet, ut. volo, vivere : non sim 
Liberior Bruto V Mendosè colligis, inquit 85 

Stoìcus hic, aurem mordaci lotus aceto. 
Hoc reliquum accipio : licet illud et ut volo tolle. , 
' Vindictà postquam meus a prstore recessi, • 
Cur mihi non iiceat, jussit quodcunque voluntas^ 
Excepto, si quid Masuri rubrica vetavit?' 90 

Disce 1 sed ira càdat naso rugosaque sauna, 
Dum veteres avias tibi de pulmone revello. j : • 

Non prstoris erat stultis dare tenuia rerum 
Officia, atque usum rapida) permitteré vitae. 
Sambucam citiùs caloni aptaveri^-alto. ^ 95 

Stat contrà ratio, et secretam gannit in aurem, 
Ne liceat fìicere id, quod quis vitiabit agendo. 
Publica lex hominum naturaque continet hoc fas 
Ut teneat vetitos inscitia debi{Ì8 actus. 

Diluis helleborum, certo compescere puncto . 100 

Nescjus examen ? vetat hoc natura medendi. 
Naveqi si pq^cat ^ibi peronatus arator 



SATI8A y. im 



Luciferi rudis, exjDlamet Melicerta penose 

Frontem de rebus. Tibi repto vivere tillo 

Ars dedit ? et veri speciem dignoscere calles, 105 

Ne qua subsrajto.meDdosum tiniìiat auro ì 

Quaeque sequenda forent, et qnie vitanda vicissiiiiy 

Illa priùs creta, mox baso carbone, notasti? 

Es modicus voti ? presso lare ì dulcis amieis 7 

Jam nunc astringas, jam nunc granaria laxes ? 110 

Inque luto fìxum possis transscendere nummum^ 

Nec glutto sorbere salivam Mercuriakm ì 

Haec mea sunt, teneo, qiiuai vere dixeris, esto ^ 
Liberque ac sapiens, pr^storibua ac love dextro. 
Sin tu, quum fueris nostriB paulò ante farinte, 115 

Pelliculam veterem retines, et firoate politus 
Astutam vapido servas sub pectore vnìpem : 
Quse dederam suprà, repeto, funemque rednco. 
Nil tibi concessit ratio : digitum exsere, peccas. 
Et quid tam parvum est? sed nullo thure litabis, ÌM 

Haereat in stultis brevis ut semuncia rectL 
Htisc miscere nefas ; nec, quum sis estera fossor, ' 
Tres tantum ad numeroa satyri moveve BathylH. 
' Liber ego/ Unde datum hoc sumis, tot subdite rebus t 
An dominum ignoras, nisi quem vindicta relaxat 1 125 

' I, puer, et strigiles Crispini ad balnea defer:^ 
Si increpuit, * cessas nugator V servitium acre 
Te nihìl impellii : nec j}uidquam extrinsecus intrat, 
duod n^vos agitet : sed si intus et in jeccNpe legro 
Nascantur domini : qui tu impunitior exis, 19(f 

Atque hic, quem ad strigiles scutica et metus egit herilis? 

Mane piger stertis : Surge, inquit avaritia : eia 
Surge. Negas : instat : Surge, inquit/ ' Non queo.' Surge. 
* Et quid agam V Rogitas ? saperdas advehe Ponto» 
Castoreum, stuppas, ebenum, tbus, lubrica Coa. 135 

Tolle recens primus piper e sitiente camelo. 
Verte aliquid : jura. ' Sed Jupiter audiet.' Eheu l > 
Baro, regustatum digito terebrare salinum 
Contentus perages, si vivere cum Jove tendis. . 
Jam pueris pellem succinctus et (snophorum aptas : 140 

Ociùs ad navem : nihil obstat, quin trabe vasta 
JEgmum rapias, nisi solers luxuria, ante 
Seductum moneat : Quo deinde, insane, ruist quo? 
Quid tibi vis ? calido sub pectore mascula bilis 
Intumuit, quam non exstinxerit urna cicut»? 145 



104 A. PBBSH FLACCI 

Tun' mare transsiliait tabi, torta cuiimbe ftAlo, 

Cosna 8it in transtro T YeieDtaaimitiiie ruMlom ' 

Eiahalet vapidà laesiim pece fianlàs oUmiI 

Quid petis ? ut nummi, qiios ime quinemee m òéeÉU$ 

Nutrieras, pergant avidos sodare dèuncest 190 

Indulge genio, carpamns duieia : nostram eèt, 

Qìiod vivis : cinis et manee et fiibola fies. 

Yt/e meroor leti : fagit bora : hoe, quod loqoor, inde eet. 

£n quid agi» 1 dnpiki in diverium seiiidenri» liamo : 
Hunccine an hunc seqBons ì subeaa altemfts oportet 155 
Ancipiti ohieqiHo dòotiiios ; aitenras dberres. 
Nec tu, quum ofastiteria senid, inatantìque «egàrìs 
PiniBre imperio, Rupi jam TÌnettla, diea».- 
Nam et luctata caais nodiim abripit : attamen illf, 
Quum fugit, a collo trabimr pai» longa catene. lOft 

Dave, citò, hoc eredas jubeo, fìDÌredol^M'eir 
Praeteritos meditar : (cradmn Chtfcrestrattis unguett 
Abaodens ait bac.) an 0icci« dcdeeus oliiteitt 
Cognatis ? an rem patriam ranore EvnfMro 
Limen ad obaconum fivngam, dum Chrysid» tfdaff 166 

Ebrius ante fotea exatincti oum face canto 1 

* £uge, poer, aapias : dia depellentibu» agnam 
Pereute.' Sed ecnsen', plorabit, Dave, relicla ? 

* Nugaris : soleà poer objorgabete ntbrA. 

Ne trepidare velia, alqve arctoe rodere casve». 7^ 

Nunc ferus et viobnur : at, et vocet, haud mora, dicas, . 

Quidnam igitur faeiai»? ne nane, quum accersor, et uhro 

Sgpplicat, accedam ? ai totos et integér ilHne 

Exieraa, se nave/ Hi^^ bic, qttem qtfserirtios, hic est : 

Non in festuca, lictor quam jaeìat ineptus. 175 

Ju» babet ille sui palpo, qoem docit hiantem 

Gretata ambitio f Vigifci, et cicer ingere largè 

Rixanti populo, noetva-nt Floralia poseént 

Aprici meminisse seneet -Quid pulchriaat-^At qumn 

Herodis venere dies, nnctàqoe lastra 180 

I>Ì8po6ÌtaB pinguem ncbulam v^omaére lucernai, 

Pbrtantes violas, roibmiiiqae amplexa catinaai 

Caada natat tilyanó, tamet alba fideffa vino : 

Labra moves tacilaa, recutótaqtte «abbata paHea. 

Tane nigri lemures, ovoqutt^ peri<$a]a ropte : 185 

Hinc grandea Galit^ et cani «gtro lasca «acerdoa, 

Incussere deos iofiMilèa eofpora, 8i no» 

PMdictum ter mai»» «spati gMitMm» i4]l. 



SATIRA TI» 

. Dixerìs imo iater varkoaoe oenturiones : 
Continuò crassum ridet Vulfenius ingens, 190 

Et centum Graecos curto centuase licetur. 



SATIRA VL 
AD G^SItJM BAS6UM. 



Admotit jam bruma foco te, Basse, Salniio t 
Jamne lyra et tetrico vivunt tibi pectine chordae 7 
Mire opifex numeiis veterum primordia rerum, \ 

Atque marem str^itum fìdis intendisse Latine : 
Mox juvenes agitare jocos, et poUice honesto B 

Egregins lusisse senes. Mihi nunc Ligus ora 
Intepet, hybernatque meum mare, qua latus ingens 
Dant scopuli, et multa littus se vaile receptat. 
Luncd partum est operm cognoscere, cives. 
Cor jubet hoc Enni, postquam destertuit esse 10 

Msonides Quintus pavone ex Pythagorea 
Hic ego securus tu%ì» et quid praeparet Auster 
Infelix pecori, securus et, angiulus ille 
Vicini nostro quia pinguior : etsi adeò omnes 
Ditescant orti pejoribus, usque recusem . IS 

Cunrus ob id minui senio, aut coenare sine uncto 
Et signum in vapidà naso tettgisse lagena. 
Discrepet His alius. Geminos, horosoope^ varo 
Producis genio. Solis natalibus est qur 
Tingat olus siccum murià vafer in calice emptà^ 20 

Ipse sacrum irrorans patincB piper : hic bona dento 
Giiandia magnanimus peragit puer. Utar ego, utar ; 
Nec rhombos ideo iibertis ponere lautus, 
Nec tenuem solers turdarum ndsse saHvam. 
Messe tenus prqprià vive, et granaria, fts est, SS 

Emole. Quid metuas ? occa, et seges altera in herbà est. 
Ast vocat officium : trabe ruptà Bruttia saxa 
Prèndit amicus inops, remque omnem surdaque vota 
Condidit Ionio : jacet ipse in. littore, et una 
Ingentes de puppe dei, jamque obvia raergis SO 

Costa ratis lacere. Nunc et de cespite vivo 
Frange aliquid, largire inopi, ne pictus oberret 
Ccsruleà in tabula. ' Sed coenam funeris hsres 
NegUget iratus, quòd rem curtaveris : urne 



A. PERSIirLACOt ÉIATIRA VI. 

• ^ 

Ossa inodora dabit, ftdit ispiMm oitmaina sU^dimk, 35 

Gteti ceraso peccent e«èii)B, nertòìre parattts. 
Tune bona incolumitf ttinuas V Et Bemitis ttrg^ 
Doctores Graios : ' Ita fit, postquam sapere Urbi 
Cum pipere et palmis Tenit vestmin hoc maris expers : 
Foenisecs crasso vitiàrunt unguine pultes.' 40 

Hflec cinere ulterior metiJaS ? et til, liieas haeres 
Quisquis eris, paulùm a turba seductior audi. 
O bone, num ignorai ? itaissa est k QtìBAté laurus 
Insignem ob cladem Germans pubis, et aris 
Frìgidus excutititt ollkis : aé jam poellbM arttiA, 45 

Jam chlamyded l^guto, jam lutea gàtisapa captis, 
Essedaqae, ingentesqué loèsi C^Soiiia Rhetios. 
Dis igitur genioqtié d%te»s i^em^iiti pal'ia, ob r«is 
Sgregiè gestas, indtiéO. Qais Tetat? addé. 
Vie, nisi connives) CXeUna afloòtè^ué ptsipéììó M 

Largior. An prohlbi^ ? die tìktè, Ifòn adeo, inqttis. 
tSxossatus ager jufctà èst. Age, bI ilHihi iiulki 
Jam reliqua ex amitis, patruelis tluUa, pifoà^ptis 
Niiila manet patrtli, SteHIiS tMMì^étk tinit, 
Deque avià nihilum sdpéfèòt ; àoèédO Botilkt», b6 

Clivumque ad Yifbt ! prftMO étt M^i Mtóià6 htdft^i 

* Progenies terre !' Quadre eri me, ^uls inihi quaittt» 

Sìt pater : band proinptè, dì^afil tamètt. Aééè eliafli UftuìO, 

Héuri etiam : terr».est jam filidS : et fltihi ritu 

Manius hic g6»erì« propè tiMJor a^dnculds éjtit 00 

dui prior es, cur me in détnnm lampada pòseis? 

Sum tibi Mercurias : t)dAio deus hne ego, ut ille 

Pingitur. An renuis ? via' tu gaudere reltotis ? 

* D^st aliquid «umm». Minui miha : sed tibi totam est, 
Quicquid id ési* Ubi sit, Ibge f^mmte^ quod mìbi quondam 
Legàrat Tadias : nec dieta repcme patema r 66 
Foeneris accedat merces : hine «stime sufurptas. 

' duid reliquum est V Reliqotim ? lidtie nuno impensiùs unge, 

Unge, puer, caules; Mihi festa luce coquatnr 

Urtioa, et fissa fbmottnn cdaciptit aure? •••<»* 70 

Vende animam Inoro t mercare, atque exenie solers 
Omne latus mondii n^ sic piUMtantior tlter 
Cappadocas rigidi pìngnes platisìsse cutastà. 
MBtn duplica. Fed : jam trìpTéx, jam ittihi qukttò, 
Jam decies redit in rugatila Dèpdnge, obi sistaoi, -75 

Inventus, Chrysi{^, lui INiitor «cervi. 



NOTES 



TO 



THE SATIRES OP JUVKNAL. 



OvcuMus JfnnQS Jutbiial wwm bon» il AtfmmMn, a town of th# 
V<d0ci^ «boat the tbirtj-ei^tk {or, movo pioimbly, the ferty-sec- 
ottd) yeair of the Ghrirata eia. It fa imceitaitt wkether he wat 
the SOR or the ibfteMKMi of a neh fteetean^ who ^«?e him a ttb- 
er«} e4iiieatioiu 

From the thae of hie biith, «ntil he hàè aftCtùneé abeut the nge 
of fertj» Bething more fa knovn- eif hui^thaA thst hfa att^ition was 
dedalee to^tihe stody of eioqneaoey a»d td declaahatiòn, n^ofcf in- 
deed ibr hfa otm amasemeiìt and impvotiraàetit^ than from any m- 
^|i|ÌQlltK> debite hèras^to a imUiolifiik ~ • 

.^hftatthfa'time he apixUed hunself lo ti^ tftaèj ef poetry, and 
Oliitarpilrìl fintiriring die pfedcteinant ^^eee of the day.' 

AjKÌiwtPaRBy a paiitonfaie dancev, ai^ fkvoi4te ef the Empe- 
ror Domitiaii, Juvenal seems to have dfaeoted the fhret shaflbs t>f 
aatJbre n m eenne<|(ieDes of tfafa attaché he was ba&fahed into Egypt, 
haviag h€tt& ordered to re|iair thitfaet, aa oommandei^ of a compa- 
ay of troepii^ whexe, seon after, he died, in about the eigfatìeth 
year ofhfali^e. 

SATIRB I. 

la the begtniimg of thfa Satii«ev the peet giVe« a humorous ac- 
count of the reBsons whioh indueed hkki t> cottimèiice wrhing: — 
that, bis patience having been entirely exhausted by the rehearsals 
ofwrelohed poete,he coold reft«moolonger,but mtended torepay 
them in lÙBd» He afterarardB iofhrMs us why he devotes himself 
U> Satfae ìm pvefevenee to any othe? hind or poetry, to which he 
deckuree h» fa dcivcn 1^ the TÌceaef tìie age, of whtch he gives a 
BfmtmtT ^^ general view. FtnaBys after eg^rOMing his indig- 
nation, uiat the liberty of speech, empìoyed b^ the ancient Sati- 
nati^ wan aa longer enjoyed, he mahea 8<Hiie bitter reHecttons on. 
the danger of satiriziof living rillany, and prefóssee to treat of 



106 . NOTKS. 

the dead, penoutmg, under tlieir luones, eeitain lìving chaxao- 
ters. 

1. Sew^ifer . . . tantum: * shall / be ever a hearer ordy V — tgp 
used emphatically. It waa customary among the ancienta to re- 
cite their Works privately, among their particiSar friends ; or pub- 
licly, either in the tempie of Apollo, or in the spacioaa houses of 
flome rich and great man. — Rtpomam: a metaphor taken firom the 
repayment of money. 

2. Aauc» . . . Cairi: * with the Theséis of hoarse Codrus.' — 
Thutldt : i. e. recUaiione Thes^UUs ; a poem or tragedy which 
described the actions of Theseus, the auttior of which was Codrus, 
a poor and mean poeVwho is bere suppoeedto bave made himself 
hoarse by frequently reading bis poem. 

3. 7\>gatas : ' comedies ;' there were three different kinds of 
comedy, each denominated firom the dress of the persons repre- 
sented : — 

Togata, 80 called irom the toga, a gown wom by the common 
people, which ezhibited the actioas of the lower sort : — Pratetta- 
ta, so called from the praiexta, a wbite robe, ornamented with 
purple, and wom by maràtrates and nobles, which described the 
actions of this class : — PaUiata, from the paUium, an upper gar- 
ment, wom by the Greeks, and in which the actors were habited, 
when the manners and actions of the Greeks were represented. 

4. EU^ioé .* these were short poems on moumfol snbjects gen- 
erally, written in hexptmeter and pentameler verses eltemately. 

5. Tehphìis : sopne tedious play on the snbjeetof TW^j^^tu, son 
of Hercules and Auge, and kulg of Myaia, who was wounded by 
the spear of AchiUes, but afberwards kealed by ita rust-^— «#«1 . . . 
Orestes : ' or shaU tìu tragedia qf Obrestes, dhe margìn of tiie wtete 
hook being already full, and written <« the back too, bttt not yet 
finìshed, noatU iks whole day V 

7. Lucus Martis : ^ the greve of Mars ;' that is, as some under- 
stand it, the history of Remulus and Rerous, whom Rhea Silvia 
bore in a greve sacred to Mars, near Alba: — ^this and the other 
subjects mentioned were so continually dinned into bis ears, that 
the places were as familiar as bis own house. 

8. JEotiis . . . rvpibvLS : to the north of Sicily are seven rocky 
islands, which were called the JBolian or Vulcanian (now the Li- 
pari) Islanda. To Hiera, one of these, (now Vulcano,) Juvenal 
probaUy refers ; «nd by antrwn- Vtdcam et Cyolopum, JEtna is 
meant ^ 

9. QM . • . columruB : the constraction is, Platani IVontonis, 
eonvìdsaqiLe mormora, et columna ruptm assiduo lectore, semper da- 
mani quid venti agant, &,c^r^ Quid . , . venti : this either allndes to 
some tedious poetical treatise on the nature of the wìnds, or to 
some play on the amours of Boi^as and Orithyia, the daughter of 
Erechtheus, king of Athens. 

10. Unde . . . peUvcul^ : L e, Jason, who, by the assistance of 
Medea, stole the golden fleece from Colchisr. 



JUV. SAT. I. 109 

11. Monychua : a general name for the CentaniB, beeause they 
are descrìbed as havins hoofs (òw^) noi cleft (tiùvoq). In the bat- 
tio with the Lapithee, £ey plucked uptrees by the roots, and^uYi^ 
thcm ttke darts at the enemy. Il alludes bere io some poem on 
this fiubiect. 

12. irontonis platani : Pronto, a noble Roman, famoua for Ma 
leaming, who was in the habit of lending his porticoes to the po- 
ets of his timea to recite their verses : these porticoes were shad- 
ed with piane trees, supported by marble pillars, and adomed 
with statues. — Convvlsaque . . . clamami : ' the convulsed marble 
reèchoes :' this relates either to the statues almost shaken from 
their pedestala with the noise ; or to the marble inlaid in the uhìUs ; 
or to the pavement^ which seemed likely to bé tom asunder by the 
continuai bawling. 

13. Assiduo . . . column<B : * the pillars split by the incessant 
recitations of the poets.' 

14. Exspectes . . .poStà : se. ut connina et scribotnt et recitenL 

15. J5t . . . svhduximus : the meaning is ; and I, for this reason 
(ergo, L e,ut eadeni a me exspectes, ut carmina aliquando scribert 
possem dque recitare ; et guia insanabile scribendi cacoHhes carmi- 
na nunc tenet tot htymines), bave frequented the schools of gram- 
mariana and rhetortcians. — Manum ferula subduximus : the fol- 
lowing is the beat interpretation*of this clause ; et nos in disci' 
pHnd ludvmagistri fmmus, et, manum ferul<B prabere coatti, illam 
metuentes smfe subduximus» Id facete dictum prò: scholas fre- 
quentavi. — là . . . dormirei : in the schools, discussions and dec- 
lamations on varioas subjects were introduced ; one of these dis- 
cussions, while Juvenal was at school, was ^ whether Syllashoald 
take the dictatorship, or live in ease and quiet as a private man ?** 
He had maintained the latter proposition. , 

18. Peritura . . . charUz: *paper that will be wasted ' by oth- 
ers, ìf I do not use it 

19. €Sir . . . edam : the construction is, tam^en, si vacat, et placidi 
admittitis rationem, edam cur liJbeat decorrere hoc campo pottàs, per 
quem magnus, &c. — Deeurrere : a metaphor, taken jfrom chariot 
racing, and applied bere to the writing of Satire. - 

20. Aurunc<z : Aurunca, an ancient city of Latium, in Italy, 
was the bìrthplace of the great Roman saiir st, Lucilius. 

21. MmittUis: admitto literally signifies to 'admit,' but it is 
BometimeS used with auribus understood, and then it signifies * to 
hearken, to attend.' 

23. Quum tener . « . SaOra/m noìv scribere : the construction is, 
difficile est non scribere Saivram, quum tener spada, &c. — Macia . . . 
aprum : Mavia iput bere for any immodest woman ; in the time of 
Domìtian, some women had the impudence to appear in the am- 
phitheatre, and there perform the part of gladiators. — Tuscan 
boars were considered the fiercest 

25. Quo . . . sonabat : Uie person alluded to is supposed to haye 
10 



fio NOTES. 

been either CKnnamu8j or Lictmtu, the fireedman aad barber of 

Augustus. — Grama . . . miki: * troublesome to me, a youth.' 

26. QìAum . . . Crispinva : * when Crispinus, one of the lowest 
of the £gy ptians, once a Canopian slave.' — Canopi : a city of 
Ef^ypt, addicted to ali manner of debaiichcry. 

27. Crispinus : frora a slave, he hàd been made master of the 
borse to Nero. — Tyrias . . . lacernaa : tlie Romans used to fasten 
tlieir cloaks (lacerna) round the neck with a loop* Crispinus wore 
bis so loosc, that he is bere described sls raising it up with bis 
shoulders. — l)frias : * dyed with Tyrian purple ;' which was very 
expensive. 

28. FentUet . . . aurUm : the Romans arrived at such a height 
of hixury, that they wore largo and heavy rings in winter, but 
lighter ones in summer. The effeminate Egyptìan is bere repre- 
sente d as * waving to and fro ' (ventilo) his band in the air, to cool 
bis fin^ers (or, more probably, to display his ring), on one of which 
he wore a summer ring. 

29. Majoris . . . getnnuB : ' of a. larger size,' that is, ' a winter 
ring.' 

31. Tamferreua: ^so insensible ;' so much of the nature of 
iron. 

32. Luetica : this was a sort of *• sedan,' with a couch in it, in 
which tìie great men were carried by their servants. — Mathonis : 
Matho had been a lawyer, but turned informer to Domitian, and 
thcrcby had amassed a great fortune. 

33. Piena ipso : tbis alludes either to his corpulency, or to the 
haughty manner, which he assumed while in the sedan. — Delaior : 
critica are divided about the man, who followed Matho. The old 
Scholiast says it was Hdiodorus, the Stoic, wbo informed against 
L. Junius Silanus, Massa, and Carus ; others, that it was Ègna- 
tius CcZe?*, a Stoic philoàopher, who, by false, testimony, ruined bis 
friend and pupil, Bareas Soranus : but more probably it was M. 
ReguluSy mentioned by Pliny, who carried on the trade of inform- 
er under Nero and Domitian. • Or, perhaps, the poet did not al- 
lude to one informer, but to several. — Magni amici: this means 
either that the informer was in the employ of some diaiinguished 
friend, for instance the Eniperor ; or that he had laid information 
against some illustrious friend of himself, or of the Emperor. 

34. Comesà : robbed and destroyed by secret accusations, or 
pillaged by informers for hush-money. 

35. Massa : Massa Bebius, an infamous informer. 

36. Carus : Meiius CaruSj another informer, who bribed Regu- 
liLS to avoid some secret accusation. — Thymele . . . Latino : 
Thyjnele was the wife of Latinus^ a famous mimic ; she was * sent 
privately ' by her husband and prostituted to lUgulus, to avòid 
some information which Latinùs dreaded. 

38. Quum . . . prostantis : he now satirizes such guardians as 
enrich themselves by the spoils of the young men intrusted to 



JUV. SAT. I. Ili 

their care ; the ward was afterwards reduced by their viUaliy to 
such poverty , as to be obliged to prostitute hìmself for bis support 
— Some texta bave pupilUB. — Populum . . . premii : * presses on, 
and incommodes the passengers with bis train of attendants.' 

39. Et hic . . . hibii : the construction is, et hic Marius exsvl 
damncUus inani judicio (enim quid, fyc.) hiint ah octavà. — Inani : 
'vainj' becaiise, though inflicteifon Marius, the injured province 
received no recompense. 

41. .^6 octavà : the eighth bour of the naturai day, or two 
o'clock, P. M., which may be considered as an instance of great 
luxury, the Romans not being in the habit of sittinff down to their 
meals sooner than the ninth bour. — Marius : Marwfs Priscus was 
pro-consul of Africa, and being prosecuted by the province for 
cruelty and extortion, was con viete d, fìned, and banished from 
Italy. Yet retaining the greater part of bis former spoils, he 
lived in a wanton exile ; while the Africans returned home with 
the wretched consolationof having defrayed their owii expenses, 
and seen the money, levied on their oppressor, carried to the Ro- 
man treasury. — FrwUwr . . . iratis : i. e. gaudet irà deorum, i. e.' 
damnaiione ; though Marius had by his crimes incurred the anger 
of the gods, and suffered condemnation in a court of justice, stili 
he received no injury, but lived in the highest luxury. 

42. Victrix : victrix was a law terra, applied to those who 
gained a suìt. 

43. fenusinà . . . lucerna : * the Venusinian lamp,' \hat is, 'the 
pen of Horace himself,' who was born at Venusium, a city of 
Apulia. 

44. Agìtem : a metaphor from hunting wild beasts. — Sed . . . 
Heracleas : fabula^ understood ; * but why should I ratber write 
poetic fables on the labors of Hercules.' 

45. Diomedeas: fabulas understood; 'the exploits of Di- 
omede.' See Class. Dict — Mugitum Lahyrinthi : i. e. the Mino- 
taur ; see Class. Dict 

46. Et . . . puero : i. e. the story of Icarus. See Class. Dict. — 
Fabrumque volantem, i. e. the story of Dsedalus. See Class. Dict. 

47. Leno . . . bona : ' the husband, who turns pander, receives 
the goods of the adulterer,' as tlie price of his wife's prostitution. — 
1$ . . . uxori : Domitian made a law which prohibited the use of 
litters and the right of inheritance to adulterous wives. This was 
evaded by making tiieir husbands panders to their lewdness, and 
thus causing the legacics to be given to them. 

48. Spectare lacunar: as inobservant of his wife's infamy. 

49. Doctìis . . . naso : a cup was also set before the husband 
(another de vice), which he pretended to bave drunk, and then 
nodded and snored as if in a drunken sleep. — Vigilanti : the poet 
uses the epithet vigilanti, bere, very hunjorously, to denote that 
though the man seemed to be fast asleep by his snoring, yet his 
no3e seemed to be awake by the noise it made. 

50. Quum . . . amiccR : another cause of indignation. It is un- 



113 NOTES. 

certain to wfaat penon he bere alludes ; some uodentand Cùmer 
lius fSucus^ who was charioteer to Nero, as Automedan was to 

51. Bona . • • prttaepibus : ^has squ&ndered^.his property in 
keeping and breedìiìg norses.' 

52. Majorum censu : ' bis family estate.^ 

54. Jpse . . . auum sejactaret : * when he was insinuating him- 
self into the nivor.' — Jpse : Nero. — Lacematet . . . amica : we 
ore by this to understand Sporus (Sueton. cap. 28), wbom Ju- 
venal bumoroualy mentions in the ^minine gender. The La- 
cerna was wom only by men. 

55. JVbnnc . . . qiuubivio : might not one amuse bimself in 
iilling a largo hook with the objects of satire, which present 
themselves in the very streets. — Ceras . . . capaces : * largo wax- 
en tablets ;' these were thin pieces of wood, covered over with 
wax, on which the ancients wrote with the point of a sharp in- 
Btrument, palled siylus : it bad a blunt end to rub out with. 

56. Quum . . . udà : the construction is, quumjum signatot qui 
Jeceral se lautìtmfalso lì. e. crimine falsi)] et heatum exiguis taùvr- 
Hs, d gemma udd, feratur sextà cervice, patens hinc, fyc.--Sextà 
cervice : in a litter carried on the shoulders of six slaves. 

57. Hinc . . . patens : 'exposed on every side' to the view of 
the passengers, . and not ashamed of the means} which he bad 
t«ken to enrich bimself. — ^udà^ 'ùnveiled ;' or it may he rea- 
dèred almost * empty,' as fiUiifg the sedan bimself. . 

58. MuUwnì . . . supino : ' much resembling the supine and 
effeminate Mecenas.' Sat. XII. 37. 

59. Falso : L e. crimine falsi, whiCh, in the Roman law, signi- 
fied the forging of wills, counterfeiting public money, &c. Some 
texts htfve signator falso : it would then signify * i^ signor to a 
false will ;' — * a forger of wìIIb.*— Some suppose that the poet re- 
fera particùlarly to TigeUinus, a favorite of Nero, who poisoned 
three uncles, and, by forging their wills, made bimself heir to 
their estates. 

60. Exiguis tabidis : * short testaments,' which in a few words 
bequeathed thcentire property to one person alone. — Gemina . . . 
udà : a seal, cut from some precious stono or gem, wom in a ring 
on the finger, and occasionally used to seal deeds, &c. This they 
used to wet to prevent the wax stic^ing to it 

61. Occurrit . . . nutriios : another subject for satire presenta 
itself : women' who poison their busbands, and that with impu- 
nity. — Matrona potens : on account of the epithet potens, some 
thmk jSgrippina is meant, who poisoned ber buabana Claudius. — 
Calentim : . vinum understood ; Cales or Calenum waS a town of 
Campania, in Italy, famous for excellent wine. 

62. Viro . . .Miente : this may either be the ablativo absolute, 
or sitiente is th§ ancient form of the dative Tot sitienti, — Rubeiam,: 
a toad, that is, poison extracted from a toad. 

63. Radcs : before *• unskilled ' in the art of poisoning. — Metior 



JUV. SAT. L 113 

locusta: 'a better Locusta,' a greater profìcient in the art of 
poisoning, than Locusta herself. This woman assisted ^ero in 
poisoning BritanniciiSy and ,A^fippina in poisoning Claudius, 

64. Perfamam et popiilum : i. e. not secretIy,T)ut openly, the 
report of what had been done being generally circulated. — 
Through a crowd of people, who are talking freely of the murder, 
which had been committed. — Nigros : putrid and black with the 
effects of the poison. 

65., Gyaris : Gyaros^ or Gyari, or Gyara, was a small and bar- 
ren island in the ^^gean sea, to which criminals were banished 
by the Romans. 

67. Hortos : beautiful retreats, where they had gardéns of 
great taste and expense. — Prmtoria : this word denotes the coun- 
try-3eat3 of noblemen, as well as the palaces of great men in the 
city.' — Mensas : tables made of ivory, marble, and other expensive 
materials. 

68. Argenlum vetas : * ancient piate,' valuable on account of 
the workmanship. — Cap'hum : the goat, being sacred to Bocchua, 
was frequently represented in basa relief on drinking vessels, as 
standing and browsing on the vine. 

69. Qìiem : poètam understood ; where is the poet, that could 
sleep and not write satires ? — Corruptor : the father-in-law who 
takes adyantage of the covetousness of his daughter-in-law, to 
debauch ber. 

70. Pratextaiìis : the prcetexta was a white silk gown, trimmed 
with purple, worn by the sons of the nobility, till they .were sev- 
enteen years of age. 

72. Cluvienus : some wretched poet 

73. Ex quo . . . libelli : i. e. ali the vices, that bave existed, 
and bave been increasing ever sincé the deluge, shall be the 
subject of my satire. — Deucalion: See Class. Dict. and Òvid's 
Metamorph., Book I, 244-415. 

75. Molila : * becoming soft,' as they gradually warmed with 
life.' 

77. Timor : * fear of future evil.' 

78. Discursus : the * inconstancy' of the human mind ; or the 
désires and labors of men in acquiring wealth or power. — Far- 
rogo : ' the composition ;' this word signifies ' a medley, — a mix- 
ture,' particularly, of many sortJ of corn to feed cattle. 

79. Quando . . . sinus : a metaphorical allusion to the sail of a 
ship when expanded to the wind, the centro of which is called 
sinus, * the bosom.' ' When did àvarice spread itself so extan- 
sively ?' 

80. Alea : ' the die,' a chief instrument of gaming ; put bere, 
by mdonymy, for * gaming ' itself. Ali games of hazard were 
called alea, and were forbidden by the Roman laws. 

81. Hos animos : quando alea (se. cepit or occupavit) lios (i. e. tot) 
animos ; ^ when did gaming occupy so many minds ?' — or habuU 
Understood ; animus would then signify * spirit ;' ' wheii was gam- 

10» 



114 NOTES. 

blin^f carried on with sucfa spirit?' — ^equc . . . arca: gamingìB 
camed to such an extent that tìiey are not content io play for 
what can be carried in their porses, but they stake whole chests 
of money ai a time. 

83. Elie : * there, among the gamesters.' — Disptnsaiore . . . 
armigero l the armigeri were servants, who followed their mas- 
ters, hearing their arma when they went to hattle. ' The stew- 
ard being armor-bearer,' that is, carrying for their masters money 
and every thing necessary for gambling. 

84. Simptexnejiiror : * is it not more than madness P — Sester- 
tiaccntitm: 'ahundred thousand sestertii:' about $3570. See 
Adam's Lat. Gram., p. 289. 

85. Horrenti : ' shivering with cold.' — Reddere : for the sìmple 
dare, — He bere censores those gamblers who had rather lose an 
immense sum than supply their families with the necessarìes of 
life. 

86. QuÌ9 totidem : se. avus. — ^uis . . . avus: * which of our 
ancestors ever supped in private on sevQp dishes.' The ancient 
Roman nobles, to display their munificence, were in the habit of 
giving costly entertaìnments to their friends and dependants : 
but the rich men of latter times exc]uded tliem, and sat down to 
sumptuous entertainra*.*Dts, provided for themselves alone. 

87. Sportula: this was 'a little basket ' or pannier, made of a 
kind of broom, called sportwiu . According to Suetonius, Nero 
forbade clients to be introducéd to the entertainments of the rich, 
as had been the custom among the ancients, but ordered, that a 
dole of victuals or money might be distrìbuted to them, in little 
basketsj at the outer gate. " 

88. Parva : as containing only a trifle of one hundrcd far- 
things, or as implying, that the dole was every day diminished in 
value. — 7*urha . . • iogatoi : the common people were called turba 
togata, from the gowns (toga) they wore. — In the times of tlTe Ce- 
sare, the toga was not in general use, and it was scarcely ever wom 
then, except by the pporest and lowest of the Roman people. 

89. lUe : Ruperti understands this as applying to the sordid 
neh man himseif, and not, as most suppose, to the steward of the 
man who distrìbuted the dole. — Et trepidai : lest the dole should 
be given to an impostor. 

91. ^gnitus : * recognised as one of bis clients.' 

92. Ipsos Trcjugena^ : * tlie very descendants of -^néas.' The 
poet now inveighs against msmy of the Roman nobility, who 
were so mean as to scramble among the poor for these donations. 
The word ipsos makes the sarcasm the stronger. 

93. Da . . . tribuno : these words we may suppose spoken by 
the neh man to bis steward ; or we may understand them as 
spoken by these officers themselves — *' Give to me the pretor, 
&.C.'* — PrtBtori : ttieprtstor was the chief magistrate of the city, 
and had the power or judging matters of law between the citi- 
sens. — TVibimo : the tribunes^ at their first institutiòn, were two. 



JUV. 8AT. 1. tu 

afterwards ten, and were defenders of the liberties of the people 
agrainst the encroachments of the nohles. 

94. Sed , . .tsit spoken by the steward to bis master, or io the 
Pretor and Tribune. — lÀhtaUnus : 'an enfranchised slave.' — 
Adsum : * I carne.' 

96. JVàtus . . .Euphratem: the EuphraieSyanverofMeaopoìA" 
mia, running through Babylon. From this part of the world manr 
slaves were carried to Rome ; the/reed-^man, therefore, adcnowl- 
edges himself of a servile condition. — MoUes . . .fenestrtB : slaves 
from the eastern countries, had their ears bored as a mark of 
servitude, and hung with ear-rings : the epithetmoUe* may imply, 
that this custom was considered at Rome a mark of effeminacy ; 
or moUes in aure fenestriB may, by the figure hypaUage^ he put 
for molli in aure fenestra. 

97. Sed . .'. paravi : ' but my five warehouses bring me in 400 
sestertia,' — this was equa! to a knight's estate. 

98. Purpura . . . major ; ' the office of consul.' 

99. Laurenti . . . Corvinus : one of the noble family of the 
Corvini, but so reduced, that he was obliged to keep sheep, as a 
hired shepherd (or, more properly,^ on a hired farm), at Lauren- 
tum, a town of ancient Latium, in which were extensive pastures. 

101. Pollante: Pallas was a freed-man of Claudius. — lAcinis: 
the name of- severa] neh men, particularly of a freed-man of 
Augustus, and of Licinius Crassus, sumamcd JHves. — Exspec- 
temi . . . trUmm : the words of the poet,indignaiitat the arrogance 
of these upstarts. 

102. Sacro . . . honori : * the sacred office of tribune :' if any 
one injured a tribune, his life was devoted to Jupiter, and bis fam- 
ily were sold at the tempie of Cerea. 

103. Pediìma . . . albis : the naked feet of foreign slaves, of* 
fcred for sale, were whitened with chalk. 

105. Funesta : * destructive,' as being the source of unnum- 
bered evils. 

108. Salviaio . . . nido : * and Uve tempie o/'Concord, which chat- 
ters, the starks* nest being visited.' The tempie of Concord was 
erected by Tiberius, at l£e request of his mother Livia. About 
this tempie, storks and other birds were in the habit of building 
their nests. What the poet says, alludes to the chattering noise 
made by. these birds, when the old ones revisited their nests, after 
having been out in quest of food for their young. Commentators 
remark that Concord was worshipped unuer the form of a stork, 
bein^ very easily tamed, and that the flight of these birds was 
considered a peaceful omen. Some understand the bastie of the 
senate hurrying into this tempie, where they held their nu^etings. 
Others think, the poet satirically intimates, that this building was 
already in ruins, and inhabited only by bil*ds. 

109. Summushonor: 'the highest hohor,' that is, * people of 
the highest rank.' 

110. Rationihus: 'to their yearly income.' 



ne NOTES. 

111. Comites: 'thecHents.' — Hinc: <fromhence,'thatÌ8,&om 
the dole they receive. 

J 12. Famuaque domi : ' the smoke of the house ;' satìrically for 
the * green wood,' which the poor were compelled to buy, as being 
the chcapest, and which filled their houses witb an abundance of 
smoke. — Densissima . , . lectica : * a very thìck crowd of litters.' 

113. QuadrarUes : the quadrans was the fourth part of an aSy 
worth about one third of a cent; a Imndred of these were put 
into the sporttila or dole-baaket — Sequitur . . . uxor : the hus- 
band carries about bis sick wife to claim ber share. 

115. Hic . . . sellam: another brings an empty litter. 

117. Galla . . . est: addressed by the husband to the dole dis- 
tributor. 

118. Profer . . . caput : * put your head out of the litter,' that I 
may see if you are there ; says the dispenser of the dole. — JSToli 
. . . quiescU : the answer of the husband. 

119. Ipse dies : the poet, having satirized the avarice of the 
higher sort, now ridicules the idle manner in which they spent 
their time. 

, 120. Sportala : se. petitwr, — Forum : the place where courts 
ofjustice were held: the * third forum' is meant, which was built 
by Augustns, and adorned with an ivory statue of Apollo,, called 
bere juris peritas, from the Constant pleadings of the lawyers. 

121. Triumphalts : the statues of eminent perions, who had 
triumphed over the enemies of the state ; these were placed in 
the forum of Augustus, and in other public parts of the city. 

122. Araharckes : * Arabian prefect ;' Pompey is thus called by 
Cicero; but some infamous person is here alluded to, who had 
been prefect over Arabia, and had by extortion retumed to 
Rome with preat riches, and in consequence of bis wealth a 
statue was erected to him, as to the Egyptian mentioned in this 
verse, who is supposed by some to bave been in a similar situa- 
tion in Egypt. 

127. Rex korum : * the patron of these clienta ;' rex not only sig- 
niaes a king, but any great or rich man. — Vacnis . . .jacebii: the 
Roman men, at their meals, lay on couches, the women sat on 
chairs ; several of these couches are here supposed to he placed 
round the table formerly occupied by the friends and clients of 
the rich man, but they are now vacant ; the selfish glutton alone 
partakes of the splendid entertainment. 

328. Orbibus : some understand this to mean * circular dishes ;' 
otliers ' tables,' which were at first made square, but aflerwards 
of a round fonn. 

129. Una mensa : * at a single meal ;' or, pcrhaps, more proper- 
ly, * at a single course.' Servius, on Virg. ^En. I. 740, remarks, 
that the tables were brought in with the dishes upon them, and 
not the dishes brought in to he placed upon the table. The first 
table (prima mensa) was covered with meats, &c. ; the second 
(secunda mensa) with fruit 



JUV. BAT. I. 117 

130. Parasiiiu: fiora rapa, near, and «iray, food : paramteswere 
a kind of jesters and flatterers, who were often invited to the en- 
tertainmenta of the neh. The neh men had now beeome so 
mean aod avarìcious, that they did not invite even a parasite to 
flatter and divert them. — Sed quia : ' but who, even a parasite ?* 

131. Totos . . . apros : ' whole boars at a time f the wild bear, 
particularly the Tuscan, was considered a very great luzury : 
the poetspeaks as if boars were made and produeed for no other 
purpose than convivial entertainments. 

134. Crudumpcnxmem: * an undigested peacock.' — Balma: it 
was customary to batbe before meals ; the contraiy was thought 
unwholesome. 

135. Hinc: from gluttony^dLc. — stomachs overloaded with un- 
digested food. — Intestata senectus : i. e. old gluttona so suddenlj^ 
taken off, that they had not time to make their wills.. 

137. Ducìtur: se. ad bustum; ia canried forth to boriai. — 
Lratis : because you died without a will, and consequentJy lefl 
them nothing. 

139. Minores: ' descendants.* 

140. Omne . . . steHt : * every kind of villany has long since ar- 
rìved at ita highest pitch.' — InvntdpìH: a metaphor taken fron» 
a high mountain or tow.er. — Utert . . . tinua : a metaphor taken 
from sailoM ; * then, Satire, hoist thy sails, spread ali thy canvasff.' 

141. Dieaa :. . arena: here.the poet imagines himaelf Inter- 
rupted by some friend, dissuading him firom writing satire. 

142. Priarum : se. jpoètarum : alluding to Lucilius, Horace, 
Varrò, and other satinsts of fbrmer times, who were permitted 
openly to satirize the prevailinff viees of their day. — ^Materia i 
the <e in this word is preserved nrom elision. 

143. Flagrante : * inflamed with satiricrage^' 

144. Simplicìtas: the open and unmaskedmannerof writing.— ^ 
Cujua . . . notnen : it is hardly safe to mention now ^ liberty of 
the old writers. 

145. Mucius : TSius Mucius AOnMiu was openly and severely 
satirìzed by LmcUìus ; but in those days of liberty, no ili conse-« 
quences were apprehended. 

146. Pone TÌgeUinum: * mention Tigellinus in y«)ur satires,^* 
and your destruction will be certain, Tigellinus waa an infa- 
mous favorite of Nero and Galba. — TiBdà . . . tllà: *you will 
blaze in that torch ;' you will be wrapped round with pitch and 
tow, and set on fire like a torch. Nero, liler havin^ set fire 
to the city, laid the Marne on the Christians, and in this manner 
bumed many of them, 

147. Qua : i. e. in the amphitheatre. — Stantes : * in an erect 
posture,' oeing fastened to a Btake.-<*^i\xo : the point of a sword 
or other sharp instrument was placed against the neck of the 
criminal, to oblige him to keep bis head in an erect posture. 

148. Latum . . . arena : ' you draw a wide furrow in the midst 
of the sand,' You plough the barre» sand, which yieids nothing | 



llg NOTES. 

L 6. you expoee your lifb in attacking Tigellinas or any other in- 
ftmous character, but you do no ^ood ; your labor is ali in vain. 
This is the explanatìon of the Une accordine to the reading 
adopted in the text (diducis :) but diducit or dutucet are found in 
mo8t editions : commentators endeavor to explain these readìngs 
in various ways, but none of them are satisfactory. — Ruperti, in 
his first edition, ìas diducit, but, in bis improved edition of 1818, 
has diducis, 

149. Qui . . . nos : this is the indignant answer of the poet to 
his friend, who advises him not to write satire. — Qui patruis : 
Tigellinus is probably bere meant, who poisoned three uncles, 
that he might obtain their property. — Aconita : the extract of 
the poisonous herb ^ùo^p9'■}^ane^ used also, as bere, for any poison 
whatever. 

150. Pensilibus plumia : it was a great luxury to bave a mat- 
trass and pillow stufTed with feathers, on which the great man 
reclined in his sedan : hence the temi pensilibusj *hanging in the 
air,' is applied to plumis, as beìng in the sedan, which hung in 
the air, as it was carried along by the bearers. 

151. Quum . . . paniUt : the poet's friend now continues his 
advice. 

153. Accusator . . . est: there will be an accuser of him, who 
fihail only say, * That is the man.' 

154. Committas : *■ you may match in battie.' — ^vlli . . . AchU- 
Its : * the history of Achilles slain by Paris will offend no one.' 

155- QtMsitus Hylas: by Hercules, who had Icst him. — tir- 
fuunque secutus : having faJlen into the fountain after his pitcher. 
See Class. Dict 

156. Ardtns : * buming with satiric rage.' 

157. Infremuit : a metaphor from the roaring of a lion. — Rur 
bei : reddens with anger and shume.^Frìgida . . . cnminibtu : 
* chilled with horror at his guilt' 

159. Inde : i. e. from the reprehension of their guilt — Ira et 
l(Ecrym(B : anger at the satirist ; tears at the exposure of their 
crimes. — 'Tecum , . . tuhaa: *weigh well, therefore, in your 
mind,' says the adviser and friend, * these admonltions, before 
you sound fhe trumpet,' and make the charge upon the guilty. 

160. Duelli : for prtBlii ; dudlum is properly a tight between 
ttoo. 

161. Experiar . . . Latina: well, says JuvenaJ, since satirizing 
the living is attended with so much danger, I will try how far I 
may be Slowed to satirize the dead. He therefore lashes the 
vicious of his own day under the names of persons long before 
dead. 

168, Tegitur cinis : it was cnstomary, at this time, at Rome, 
tobum the bodiescf the dead, and to place the ashes in fuhereal 
ums.' — Flaminia , . . Latina : the Plaminian and Latin ways were 
remarkable for having on them the urns and monuments of many 
Doble Romans. Hence originated the use of siste viator on mon- 



JUV. SAT. II. 119 

uments and tomba.' The Flamiman todk ita name from C. Fla- 
mÌQÌU8, who paved it ;. the other waa called tlie LtiHn, becauae it 
commenced at thè Latin gate, and led to Sinueaaa, the most re- 
mote of the towns of Latium. It waa ordered by the law of the 
twelve tables, that no person should be buiied withìn the walls 
of the city ; hence the urna of the great were bnried, and tfaeir 
monumenta erected on theae celebrated roada or waya 



SATIRE IL 



Thia Satire contalna an animated and aevere attack upon the 
hypocriay of philosophera and priesta, and the efieminacy of mil- 
itaiy officerà and ma^istratea ; it expoaea their ignorance, profli- 
gacy, and impiety, with just severity. 

1. Sauromata : *■ the SauromaitBy or * Sarmatiana/ were a bar- 
barous people, residing in the nortiiern parta of Europe and Asia. 
— GIcKidlem oceanum : the northern ocean, which waa alwaya 
fì-ozen. — The poet intimates, that he wiahea to leave Rome, and 
retire ^en to the moet inhospitabie ragiona, when he hears hypo- 
crites talking in prsiise of morality. 

2. Auderd : se. dispviare or prtBcipere. 

3. Curioa : The Curian family waa honored at Rome, on ac- 
count of M. Curina Dentatus, who waa thrice consul, and re- 
markable for hia courage, honesty, and frugality. — Simulant : ac. 
se esse, — Bacchanalia vivunt : *live like the votaries of Bac- 
cfayaa.' Bacchanalia^ a Griecism for Bacchanaliter. 

4. Indotti: their pretensione to learning are aa vain, aa to 
virtue and morality. — Piena . . . ^pso : 'every corner fiUed with 
busta.' Gypsum signifìes any kmd of plaster, of which imagea 
and busta were made. 

5. Chrysippi : Chrysippus waa a Stoic philoaopher, a disciple 
of Zeno, and a celebrateci logician. 

6. Si quis : for qui, — Aristotdem simUem vd Pittacon : * an 
image resembling Aristotle or Pittacus,' 

7. Archetypas . . . Cleanthas : ' originai imagea of Cleanthes.' 
Those, which were done from the life, were called archdypi^ from 
uo/j;, beginning, and rvnóg, form. 

8. Fronti: *the outward appearance.' 

9. Tristibus obscanis : i. e. hypocritea, grave aa to their out- 
ward appearance, but within full of the most horrid obsceuities, 
which they practise in secret. — CasUfi^as turpia: *dost tftou cen- 
sure these crimes in others,' when thou art tliyself as vile as they ? 

10. Loìipedem . . . albua : these proverbiai expressions show 
Uie irnpudence and folly of those persona who cenaure othera for 
the vices which they practise themselvea. 

11. Gracchos : two brothera, Gaiua and Tiberina, tribunes of 
the people, who cauaed great disturbances on their introducing 
the Agrarian lawa. See Claas, Dict.' 



I<a0 NOTES. 

13b Vèrri : Verret wu a pnetor in Sicily, and was condemned 
and banished for plundcrìng that provincew^-JMtfom : Milo slew 
ClodiuB, and was unsuocesafallv defended by Cicaro» The t of 
Verri in tbii line is presenred nrom eitnon. 

15. T\ihuUtm SuIUb : Sulla or SyHa waa a noble Roman of the 
family of the Scipios. He was very cniel, and first set op tabies 
of pragcripHont by which many Romana were put to death. — 
DiscinuU trt9 : the triumvirs, Augustus, Antony, and Lepidua, 
who foUowed the ezample of Sulla, and are therefore called bis 
ditcipUs in cruelty and murder. 

16. Tragico . . . coneubiiu : ' tragical intrigue.* — ^dvUer : Do- 
mitian. 

17. Rtoocabat : ' was reviving.' — At the very time when Do- 
mitian was carrying on an intrigue with bis niece Julia, he waa 
revìving the severe laws of Julius Cesar against adultery. — Om- 
nibus : se. advUeri$, 

19. vaia uUùna : for vUioai ìtUùm ; the abstract for the con- 
crete. 

21. ExUKs: ac. simulatoribns, 

2éL Lex^ Julia: against adultery and lewdness. 

25. Tertius • . . Vaio : there were iu>o eminent persona of thii 
name. Caio Censorinus, remarkable for bis gravity and strict 
discipline, while he was censor ; and Caio UticennSj a rigid mor- 
alìst, who slew himself at Utica, after Cesar had conquered 
Pompey : to these, says Lauronia, continuing ber irony, heayen 
has added a ihird CaiOf by sending us so severe a moralist as 
thou art 

26. OpobàUama : this was some kind of perfumery, used by 
the effeminate among the Romans. 

27. Taberrut : L e. where you purchased your perfumery. 

28. Vexanlur: *are to he revived.' — Ltgts a/cjura: 'statntes 
and laws.' 

29. Scaiinia : aclet; this was a law against unnatural lusL 

30. Faciunt hi plura : they far outdo uie other sex in things 
worthy of reprehension. 

31. JuncUt . . .pìudanges: a metaphor taken from the Roman, 
manner of engaging'. Aphalanx properly signifies a disposition 
to attack the enemy by the ìnfantiy, with every man's shield so 
dose to another's, as to unite, and make a sort of impenetrable 
walL This is said to bave been first invcnted by the Macedo- 
nians : phalanx is therefore to he consideìred as a Macedonian 
word. 

34. Mmqìdd . . . causa»: 'do we plead causes?* — do we 
women usurp the {nrovince of the men ? 

36. Coliphia: 'wrestlers' diet' The coliphium was a kind 
of diy diet, which wrestlers used to make themselves strong and 
firm-fleshed. 

37. Vo9 • . • veUera : you bave become so effeminate as to for^ 
aake manly ezercises, and addict yourselves to employmènts fit 
only for women. — Lanam trahiUs ; ' you card wooV-^Calatìiii : 



JUV. SAT. II. 121 

tho calafhi were little osier or wicker baskets, in which the 
women used to conry to their employers the work they had fin- 
ished. 

39. Penelope : the wifc of Ulysses. Se^ Class. Dict. — Arach- 
ne : Arachne was a Lydian damsel, very skilful in spinning and 
wcaving:. She is fabled to have contended with Minerva ; but 
liaving been oonquered, she hanged herself, and was, by that 
goddess, changed into a spider. 

40. Horrida . . . pellex : * a dirty harlot.' — Cadice ; * on a log 
of wood.' Mistresses of families, says the old scholiaBt, if they 
became jealous of their female slaves, used, by way of punish- 
ment, to fasten them to a large log of wood be&re Uie door, and 
keep them at ineessant labor. 

41. CSir . . '. Uberto : * why Hister made his fìreed-man bis sole 
heir.' 

4^. PuelltB : * to bis yoang wife.' 

44. TV . . . cyiindros : ibis apostrophe may he supposed to be 
addressed to some unmarried woman, who is standing by. It 
may be para^^rased thus : *^ you bear what you are to expect : I 
advise such of ycni, as wish to be rich, to marry, and keep your 
husbands' secrets." — Cylindros : these were precious stones of 
an oblong and round form, which the ladies wore, suspended 
from their- ears. Here the word seems to signify ali kinds of 
gems. 

45. De nohis : * «pon ns, poor women,' if we have committed 
or have been suspected of committing any fault. — Post ìubc : se. 
Jlagitia vestra ; i. e. when you, on the contrary, commit the great- 
cst crimes with ìmpunity. 

40. Dot . . . columhas : men, who, like ravens and other birds 
of prey, are ftiU of mischief and vice, are yet excused : but 
women, comparatively harmless as dovesy when they chance to 
cnr, bear of nothing but pnnishment. 

47. Caiientem : * proclaiming aloud.' 

48. Stóicida: *Stoicides.' Tbis word seems to have been 
framcd for the occasion, with a feminine ending, the better to 
suit the characters and to intimate the cffeminacy of these pre- 
tended Stoica. — havroma : se. dixerat, 

50. Orefice : Creticus was descended from the family of that 
Metollus, who was called Creticus, from tlie conquest ot Crete, 

51. Procidas et Pollitas: the names of particular women, who 
were condemned, under the Julian law, for incontinence, but 
were so well known, as to stand here for lewd women in general. 
The magistrate Creticus could condemn such women as these, 
when brought to trial before him, while he, by his immodeet 
dress, showed himself worse than they. 

51. LabuUa . . . Ccafinia: notorious adulteresses. 

52. Talem . . . togam : these women, bad as they are, would 
not appear in such a dress as their judge now wears : or this may 
more probably allude to the custom of obliging women, convictea 

11 



122 NOTES. 

of adiiltery, to pulì off the iMa or woiiiaii*8 ffarmeiit, and put on 
the toga or man's gannent, wbich stigmatizcd them as infaaioua ; 
but even this was not so infamous as the transparent dress of 
the judge. — Sed . . . ««tuo : the worda of the judge, to ezcuae 
hÌ8 appeanuice in such a dress. 

54. AWti« . . . turpis : the answer of the poet — Mtdua : Le, 
s<d(ì vestitua tufiicà; like yiyoòg in Greek.-A^dw: ^administer 
justice.' 

55. En . . . aratris : the answer of Cretieus, ridiculìpg the oh- 
jections made to hÌ8 own appearance. — ^The dress you would have 
me assume is so ridìculous, that if, dressed in a tunic alone, you 
should present yonrself in the jadgroent-seat, the people, recent- 
ly victorious, wliose wounds are scarcely healed) and the rough 
mountaineers, leaving their rustie labors^ would floòk around yoi| 
thrqiigh desire of hearing and seeing you. — ^This is the explana^- 
tion given by Ruperti. — Most interpreters understand the pas- 
sago as expressive of the indignation of the poet at having so 
effeminate a judge in office. 

58. %ixd . . . tesUm : the answer .of^ the poet; — ^you say whai 
is right, Creticus, but how much more would one be astonjshed at 
seeing a judge dressed as you are ; youir dress would disgrace 
a witness, much more a judge. 

61. Dtdit . . . lahem : i. e« you owe ali thìs effeminacy to the 
company you have kept ; by this you have been infected. 

64. Ui^a . . • a& vvd : a proverbiai expression from the ripen- 
ing of the black grape, which-has a blue or livid color : the grapes 
do net assume this hu^ ali at once, but one afler the other ; which 
the vulgar suppose was owing to the grapes looking upon each 
oUier, and thus contracting the same color* 

A proverbiai expression of a similar kind is fonnd in many lan- 
guages. ^ One pUim geta color by looking at another,'* is said to 
be a common phrase in Persia, to signify the propagation of an 
opinion, custom, ^^c. 

66. Aceipierd te : the poet now exposes a set of unnatural 
wretohesi who, in imitation of women, celebrated the mysterìes 
of the Band Dea or Gwtd Chddeasj who was a Roman lady, the 
wife of one Faunus,'and famons for her chastity ; after ber death 
she was consecratcd. Sacnfices were perfonned to htr only by 
night and secretly ; to her was sacrificed a sow pig. At these 
rites none but women were admitted. 

At the new institutìon, of which the poet is now speaking, no 
females were-admitted. 

68k Monilia : ' necklaces ;* these were peculiar to females ; 
but the wretches, spoken of bere, assumed not only the dresses 
and omamcnts of females, but idso, that they might resemble 
women as.much as possible, went through the same rites and 
cefremonies. 

70. Magno cratere : * a large goblet,' out of which tìiey poored 
libations^^-^More ÉÌmttro : ' by a perverted custom,' they esclude 



Jliy. fb%T. IL 123 

stt voroen frointhese cer«mome9, as menwere ezcluded fromthe 
rìtes and mysterìea of the ' Good Goddesa.' So that the proceed- 
ii]g9 of these men were an utter perveraion of the female rites. 

73. ^uUo . . . comu: at the sacrifices of the Bona DtOj it was 
usuai for some of the women to make a lamentable noise (gemU) 
with a horn. The male worshippers had no women among them 
for this purpose. — ^itUo tìbicina conta is put, by the figure hy- 
paUage, for nuUa tibicina comu, ^ 

74. Secretò . . . tadà : *' by private torchlight' 

75. Cecropiam .. . . CotjfUo : Cotìftto was a courtesan, worship- 
ped by night at Athena, a city of Greéce, whose first king and 
founder was Cecrops, as the Bona Dea was at Rome. The Bap- 
tie were her pjriests, and so called from fiùnrtir, to wash, because 
the priests baihed themselves in the m'ost effeminate manner. — 
Lassare : the priests are said to weary and disgust eyen the god- 
dess herself, on account of the iength of their iafamous rìtes, and 
tlie multiplicity of their numerous acts of impurìty. 

76. Rie . . . actt : it was cnstomaiy at Rome for the ladies to 
paint both their eyebrows and eyes : the first was done with a 
black ^omposition made ofsòot mtdwaier ; a needU or bodkin was 
wet with this composition, and drawn obliquely over or along 
the eyehrows ; in this way tbey lengtìiencd the eyebrow, which 
was esteenied a jp^at beauty. This was imitated by the wretches, 
whomthe poet mentions, thattheymight appear more like women. 

77. Pingit . • . oculos: this w^s another practice of the women, 
to paint their eyes. » 

78. Vitreo . . . Priapo : * cut of a glass Priapus.* 

79. RtlicvUim : ' a net or caul,' used by females for enclosing 
the hair behind. 

80. SevinUda: garments of silk, whercin are wrought round 
figures like cobwebs, worn by women.-!- Ga2òan(e ra^d: 'smooth 
grass colored vests ;* or, according to Ainsworth, GaìJbana mean» 
tohiie* — Rasa: ^shorn of the pile,'i e. ^smooth.' 

81. Ptr Junoném: i. e. as if they were women; for women 
flwore by Juno ; men by Jupiter, Hercules, &c. The manners of 
the masters were copied by the servants. 

8^. lite . . . Othonis : the poet, in this passage, with great humor, 
parodies, in derision of the effeminate Otho and others 6f a similar 
character, some passages of Virgil : first, where the word gestamen 
Ì8 used, as descriptive of the shield of Abas. ^neid III, 268. 
^re cavo clyptum., magni gestamen Maiilis, 
Postibus aàversisjigo^ ^c. 
And again in ^n. VII, 246, Virgil, speaking of the ornamenta 
which Priam wore, when he sat in pubi»: among bis subjects, as 
their prince and lawgivcr, says : — 

Hoc Priami gestamen erat, &c. 
In imitation of these passages Juvenal calls Otho'a mirror, 
patitici gestamen Otiumis^ *the shield of pathic Otho.' 

83. Actoris • M . spolium : alluding to Virgil, Ma. XII, 93, 94, 



124 NOTES. 

where Turni» arms himself wlth a spear, which he had taken 
fram Actor^ one of the Aurtmeian chiefs. — lUe : Otho. 

JuvenaJ seems to insinuate that this wretch rejoiced as mudi ' 
in the possession of Otho's mirror, as Turnns did in having the 
spear of the brave Actor. 

84. JhUt vextlla : this w^as the signal for an engagement. 

85. Res . . . belli : a subject worthy of being recorded, that 
among the wc^ike baggage of a commander in chie( in" a civil 
war, was found a mirror! This civil war was between Otho and 
Vitellius, the latter of which persons was set up by the German 
Koldiers for eraperor, and at last succeeded. 

87. Ducis : i. e. Otho, who slew Galba. 

89. Bebrad in campo : Otho was routed in the plains of Be- 
briacum by the soldiers of Vitellius. Bebrvicum or Btdriacum 
was a town between Cremona and Verona. — Spolium . . . Palait : 
'the sceptre of the world,' i. e. the peaceable and sole possession 
of tlie emperor's palace. 

90. JE^ . . . paTiem : the Roman ladies used a sort of bread or 
paste, wet in ass's milk,'which they pressed, and spread with their 
iìngers on the face to cover it from the air, and thus preserve the 
complexion ; this was practised by the emperor Otho. See Sue- 
ionius, Oth. e. Ifè, 

93. HU nuUvs : Juvenal, having censured the effeminacy of 
their actions and dress, now attacbs their manner of conversation 
at their sacrificial feastsi — Mens<B : the table where they féasted 
on their sacrifìces, which, every where else, was considered 
sacred. 

94. BPkc . . . libertas : i. e. they indulge themselves in ali kinds 
of fìlthy conversation, like the priests of Cybele, who display ed ali 
manner of obscenity, both in word and deed, before the image of 
their goddess. — Tharpis is generally joined to Cì/beles: Ruperti 
tliinks it should be joined to libertas. 

96. Magni guUuns : * of uncommon gluttony.' 

97. Condttcendusque magister: i. e. if any one is desirous of 
being taught tlie science of gluttony and beastiy sensuality, let 
him 'hire such a fellow as this to he bis instructer. 

98. Phrygio . . . more : * after the Phrygian feshion ;' i. e. after 
the manner of the (kUli or priests or Cybele. : 

99. Supervacuam . . . camem : * their superfluous flesh.' 

100. Quadringenta . . . sesiertia : 400 sestertia, or 400,000 scs- 
tertiij about $14^80. — Gracchus: it is probable that no particular 
person is bere intended. 

101. Comicini . . . are : the Roraans used only wind instru- 
ments of music in the army : the two principal ones were comu, 
the horn, bcnt almost round ; and tuba, the trumpet, straighr, 
recto (Ere, 

102. Signaice tabtdiB: 'the marriage contract is signed.' — JFV- 
liciter : a form of congratulation, particularly used on nuptial 
occasions. — Ingens aena : i. e. ingens convivctrum mvitHudo. 



JUV. 8AT. II. 135 

103. Mnmnupta : as J^rt£# was given in marnale to JVWio, so 
CracchMS io tbis trumpeter: Gracchua is humorouslj called tiova 
nuptOf in the feminine gender. — Mariti: of the trampeter, wlio 
had now become the husband of Gracchus. 

104. Cen»ore . . . nobis : *■ do vre need a censor (to correct], or 
an aruspex ' (to espiate these crimes) ? 

107. Segmenta : Segmenium was a female ornament, worn only 
by matrons, which some suppose to bave been a kind of ' neck- 
lace ;' but others, more properly, * an embroidered riband ;* or * a 
purple fringe,' sewed to the clothes. — Longoa haìntus : the stola 
or ' matron's gown,' whicb extended to the feet — Flammea : these 
were * red or flame-colored veils,' which were thrown over the face 
of the bride. 

108. ^cana . . . ancUibìu : this alludes to the sacred shields 
and images of Mars (of whom Gracchus was formerly a priestj, 
which were carried in solemn procession through the city: a 
thong or leather strap was so contrìved,. that, by pulling it, the 
image nodded its head to the great amazement and joy of the 
people. • 

1C9. Pater Urbis: Mara, the suppoeed father of Romulus, the 
founder of Rome. • 

110. Latìis pastoribus: the Romana, whose ancestors were 
flhepherds, ignorant of ali luxurious indulgences. 

111. Urtica: literally *a nettle,' but by metonymy it signifies 
' lewdness.' 

1 12. IVaditur : * ìs given in marrìage. 

114. Patri: Jupiter. — Vade . . . negHgis: if you are uncon- 
cemed at these atrocious crimes, and show no displeasure, you 
may as well quit us at once. — Cede : for discede, — Severi . . . 
campi : the Campus Martitis, called severi in allusion to the se- 
vere conlSìcts and exercises therè exhibited, put bere for the 
whole city and empire. 

115. Officium . . . adkibet: to satirize the more severely these 
male-marriages, a conversation between two persons on this sub- 
ject Ì3 introduced. 

117. Officii: 'of your attendance.' 

118. lAcèat modo vivere : these seem to be the words of Juvenal. 

119. In acta referri: * to be reported in the public registers.* 
131. ^artu . . .. maritos : barrenness was a fìrequent cause of 

divorce. 

124. Turgida . . . Lyde : Lyde is probably the naroe of some 
dealer in perfumes, &rC., who sold medicines to remove barren- 
ness. 

125. Luperco: the Luperci'were priests of Pan, who, at the 
festival of the Lupercalia^ celebrated in the month of February, 
ran about the streets, lashmg with a leather thong ali they met: 
tlie wonien, so far from avoiding these blows, held out the pahns 
of their hands to receive them, supposing that they would there- 
by be rendered prolific. 

Il • 



126 ' NOTES. 

126. Vicit et hoc : i. e. yet these monstrous acts can bear no 
comparìson with the meanness and absurdity of Gracchus, a Ro- 
lùan noblemi^ì, exhìbiting himself as a gladiiator. 

One class of gladiators was called reUarii : the reHarius was 
dressed in a short tunic (tunicati)^ but wore nothing on his head ; 
in his lefl band he bore a three pointed lance (Juscina or tridena)^ 
and in bis rìght band a net (rete), with which he attempted to en- 
tangle his adversary by casting it over liis head, and suddenly 
drawing it together, and then with his lance he usaally slew him. 
If he missed bis aim, by either throwing the net too short or too 
far, he instantly fled, and endeavored to prepare his net for a 
second throw, while bis antagonist ewifUy pursued, to prevent his 
design, by slaying him. 

The gladiator, opposed to the retiaritUj was called ^irmillo, 
from ftoiifii-Qo^ a fìsh, or «e^uutor, because he pursned the retiarius, 
if the latter xnissQd his aim. The mirmillo had the imago of a 
fisli upon his helmet, and was armed, like a Gaul, with a buckler 
and a hooked sword or cutlass. 

127. Lmsirawtqut fuga : this intimates tbe flight of Gracchus, 
the re^rtW, from the mirmUle. — Medium . . . arenam : * the mid- 
dle of the amphitheatre,' which was strewed with sand. 

130. Podium: from yzuùf, afoot, that part of the tbeatre next 
the cwena, where tbe nobles sat ; it projected in form something 
like the sbape of a foot 

132. Esse aliquid: most interpreters understand by this p^- 
sage, that the poet proceeds to trace ali the forementioned crimes 
to their true source, the conterapt of religion and disbelief in a 
future state of rewards and punisbments. — ^Ruperti understands 
it differently, as ridiculing the ancient system of mythology. 

133. Contum : contus is a long pole or staff, shod. with iron at 
Uie bottom, to push ou small vessels in the water. Juvenal bere 
alludes to Charon. 

135. Qut . . . lavcmtur': the qucutranSy which wasmade of bniss, 
oqual in value to about one third^of a cent, was paid, by the com« 
mon people, to the keeper of the bath. Cliildren, under four 
years of age, were either not carrìed to tbe baths or nothing was 
paid for the privilege of bathing, ~ 

136. Tu : L e. Gracche; et vos, turpes moUesque homines, accord- 
ing to Ruperti. — As otbers understand it,'"you, who live virtu- 
ously." — Óuriìis : Curius Dentaius, thrice consul, and remarkablc 
for his courage, honesty, and fragality. — ^mho ScipiadtB : Scipio 
*-yricanus Major, who conquered Hannibal ; and Scipio •^fricaniut 
Minor, who conquered Numantia and Carthage. 

137. Fabricius : the one that conquered Pyrrhus. 

138. Cremerce Ugio : *the legion of Cremerà,' i. e, 'the three 
hundred Fabii,' who were, with the exception of one, ali slain by 
the Vejentes, near the river Cremerà. — Canni»: Cann€e was an 
ob^ure village in Apulia, rendere d famous by a signal defeat of 
the Romans by Hannibal. 



JUV. SAT. III. I5Jr 

139. 7\d bdhrum anima ; < so many wazlike soak.' — (f^oHes 
hine : i. e. when the spirìt of such a wretcli, as has been descrìb^ 
ed, leaves the world and arrìves among these^venerable shades, 
they would consider themselves contammated. 

141. Sidfuracumtadia: sulphurand torches,made of thewood 
of the unctuous pine tree, were used in purìfications. — Humida 
laurus : the Romans also used a laurel-bianch, dipped in water, 
vrì\h whìch they sprinkled the persona or things to be purified. 

142. lUuc : i. e. eò turpUìidinis JUigUiorumqtu. 

143. JuvérìKB: 'Ireland.' 

144. Orcadas: 'the Orcades,' now 'Orkney islands,' to the 
north of Scotland, were added to the Roman empire by the em- 
peror Claudius. — Mimma . . . Britannas : in Brìtain, at the sum-* 
mer solstice, the nights are very short ; scarce any in the most 
northem parts. 

145. Sed qu<B . . . vieimiLs : the abominations, which are eom- 
mìtted at Rome, are not to be found amongst the people whom 
we bave conquered. 



SATIRE III. 



Umbrìcius, an Aruspex, and a friend of Juvenal, disgnsted at 
the prevalence of vice, and total disregard of unaasuming virtue, 
is introduced on the point of quitting Rcxne for Cum». The poet 
accompanies him some little way from the city, when the honest 
exile, no longer able to sappress bis indignation, acqoaints him 
with the causes of bis retirement 

What he says may be arranged under the following heads, — 
that Flattery and Vice are the only thriving arts at Rome ; that 
in these, particularly the first, foreigners bave a manifest superi- 
ority overlhe natives, and consequent}y engross ali favcv; that 
the poor are universally exposed to scom and insult; that the 
general habits of extravagance render it difficult for them to sub- 
sist ; and that a crowded capital subjects them to numberless in- 
conveniences unknown in the country : he then again adverts to 
the peculiar sufferings of the poorer citizens from the want of a 
well regulated police ; these he illustrates by a varìety of exam- 
ples, and concludes in a strain of pathos and beauty, which winds 
up the whole with singuJar effect 

Tliis Satire is imitated by SmoUet in his description of London 
and Bath, &c. 

1. Digressu veleria . • . amid: 'at the departure of an old 
friend ;' i. e. Umbricius. 

2. Vacuis . . . Cumis : CutmBj a marìtime city of Campania, not 
far from Puteoli, and famous for the cave and shrine of the Cu- 
nuEan Sibyl. The poet calls it empty (vacuis) in comparìson with 
the populousness of Rome. 



198 KOTES. 

3. CTfHi» Sih/Bm: Umbriciu? ww ncyw about hntautwg hioi- 
«elf as a etCczen to Ciìhmb, in taking up his residence there. 

4. Janma BaiarwA: paMengers from Rome to Baie (a de- 
lightful city of Campania, celobrated for its wann springs, and 
frequented by the nobili^ of Rome, many of whom had viUas 
tbeie &>r their aummer residence) were obliged to pass through 
Cume : they went in on one side and carne out on the other, as 
througfa a .gate. — Gratum . . . secessua : the skore from Oume to 
Baile was exccedingly pUa^ant and calcoiated for the most agru- 
able reiiretnent. Baiie forms part of the bay of Najdes. 

5. ProehyUtm : a small nigged island in the Tyrrhenian sea, 
nearthe Cape of MiaeDam,ru^ged and desert — Subura : ' Rome ;' 
Sahara was one of the prtncifml streets of Rome, but frequented 
by the vulgar. 

6é JVam quid . . . poèias : L e. what place in the world is there 
so wreUhtd and duirt, that it would not be better to live there 
than at Rome ? 

7. Lajpsus ieclorum : ^ falling of houses,' owing to the little care 
taken of old and ruinous buildings. 

10. Tota domus : Lje. his family and furniture. Juvenal in- 
sinuates tlie poverty and frugaJity of his friend Umbricius, 
whose entire household furniture was packed up in a single 
wagon. 

11. Sì^sUtit: we must imagine that Umbrìcius, attended by 
Juvenal, walked out before the wagon, and having gone to a cer- 
tain distance, atood atUl to wait the arrivai of the vefaicle. Here 
he telis the poet bis varìous reasons for'leaving Rome, which are 
so many strokes of the keenest satire upon the vices and ToUies 
of its inhabitants. — Veteres arct»: the ancient triumphal arches 
of Romùlus; or those'erected to the memory of the Horatii ; or 
more probably the old arches of the aqueduct might here be 
meant, and bence the epithet madidam, — MaMIamqiie Capenam : 
Capena porta was one of the gates of the city that led to C'apua : 
it wrc5 p.ÌF.o called Fgmtinaiis from the aqueduct near it. 

12. Hic : in a grove near the gate Capena, — JSTuma : Pompili' 
1M, the Buccessor of Romulus. — jSToctunuB . . . amica : Numà, the 
more strongly to recotìimend his laws and insti! into the Romans 
a reverence for religion, persuaded them that he roade nightly 
appointments with Sie goddess Egeria (whom Juvenal humor- 
oosly calla his noctumal mistres3, as if describing an intrigue), and 
that from ber mouth he -received his whole form of government. 
In the grove where they met viras a tempie sacred to the Moses 
and to wis goddess, whose fountain watered the grove ; for it is. 
ftbled tiiatsbe wept herself into a fountain from grief atthe death 
of Numa. 

The fountain, grove, and tempie were let out at a yearly rent 
to the JeiM, who together with the Clnristians were bamshed from 
the city by DcMuitian. 

13. DeltAra : the diference between tempium and ddvhrum is. 



JUV. SAT. III. 

that the fòrmer is sacred to ane god only ; the latter includes un- 
der one roof shrìnes and altare to numy divìnities. 

14. Cophinua . . . supeUex : the Jews were so poor at this time, 
that their oiAy funniture was a hctskei and hay. In these baskets, 
formed of osiers, they camed theh- provisions, and made use of 
wisps of hay, to stow them the better, and prevent the contents 
from falling through tiie ìnterstices: or ftÉnum may mean the 
* hay' with which the Jews fed their cattle ; or it may jnean, and 
this is most probably the right meaning, the ìunf and strato of 
which their beds were made, and upon which they rested in the 
wood. . In Sat VI. 426, the Jews are saìd (copiano fénoque re- 
lieto), leaving their baskets and their straw-beds behind^ to resort 
to Rome to beg, and teli fortunes. 

15. Omnis . . . arbor : the gròve being let ont to the Jewg, ev- 
ery tree may be said to bring in a reni to tiie avaricious people. — 
Mendicai stiva : * the wood bega f i. e. * the Jews, the inliabitants 
of the wood.' 

17. Vallem Egeria : ' the vale of Egeria,' the Aricinian greve, 
where the groddess was worshipped. 

18. Disstmites veris : * unlike naturai caveft,' as being now prò- 
faned with artificial ornamenta and robbed of their naturai sim- 
plicity. 

19. JV\(?i»en aqtuB : L e. fons saeer ; eveiy fountain was sup- 
posed to bave a partleular divinity, who presided over its waters. — 
Viridi . . . tophum : if, in place of having the water enclosed with 
tnarble and other omaments, it were adomed with its naturai (inn 
genuum) border of never-Sfing grass, and rude sand stsne (to^ 
pkum). 

21. Hie T bere, where they stopped^ Umbricius addresses our 
poet. 

22. JS/vUa . . . lahorwn: 'no profit nor encouragement for in- 
dustry.' 

23. Res . , . est: * my property is less to-day than it was yes- 
terday.' — Eadem . . . deteret , . . aliquid : this same poor pittance 
will decrease to-morrow, — will be toearing away something from 
the little that is left to-day. — Deteret : i. e. mxnuei, — ^Proprie res^ 
famUiaris deterituTy non deterit. — A metaphor taken from the* 
action of the file. 

24: lUuc . . . alas : i. e. to CSmuB, where Dttdalus àlighted after 
bis flight from Crete. 

26. Prima et recta : * fresh and nprìght ;' while old age appears 
in its first stage ; the ancients supposed that old age commenced 
about the forty-sixth year. 

27. J)um . . . torqueat : * while Lachesis has remaining some 
portion of my vital thread to spin.' — ^The Parca or Dastìnies were 
three, Clotho^ Lachesis, and JÈropos ; the first held the distali^ the 
second drew out and spun the thread, which the last cut oflf when 
finished. 

29. Artorius , , \et CcUultis : these were two infórmeis, wha^ 



NPTBS. 

iow tife, bad raised themse^viss to affli^ot circuro- 

y ali landa of nie^ne99 93ià yiììjmy, 

jiÌAi , , . fadU e»t : either on «account of their acquired 

, or their cunxùn^i or their mean ^atteri^s, We lù*^ tp 

^^tand publicoDs and fannerp pf th^ revenue; oien who 

4d mulertake any thing for gìdii.-^JSPdem> : templea, tbeatres, 

&c. the building or repairinjf of which they contracted for. — Flu- 

tnina : this may meon/jAene», by bkìfig vhkh th^y monopolized 

theni, so às to distress others, and enrich themselvès ; or the car- 

riage of goods upon the rivers, for which a toll was paid ; or the 

cUaning of the b^ds of riversj for which they contracted. — Pifr- 

lu8 : ìùurbon lo he repaiied ; or port duUe», which were furmed to 

them to the great public prejudice ; or the ^orfo themselvès, which 

brought them i» «aucb gain, for the st^on of ^ps. 

32. Siccandam ^luviem : ' pommoQ sew.ers to be cleaned and 
emptìed*-^Busta: th^ plac^s where dead bodies wcr^s burued. 

33. Et , . , hxutà: these fellows sometimes were aellers of 
«laves, which they pnrchased, «nd thenisold at anction.-^Do«n7id 
hastà : a sptar was the ensign of i^Wiei^ and sig9ii£ed that an 
auction was held by legfd autbority» when «et up in th^ forum : 
the poet calls it dondnàf as presidin^f ovèr^ sfble;, nuling the dis- 
posai of the persons or thin^ sold. 

34. IM corniqakts: Arianna and i^vhis^ mxt long bifore, were 
hom Uow^r^ to «ome strolling company pf gladiators, sts^e-play- 
crs^ co* the ]i]sfi^-^MìmwpMÌ$ are»,^: fSLu:i^ii:ipwm was a town 
corporale, A^bich .had laws of ita own, 4^ yH enjoyed ithe privi- 
leges ^uid freedora of JElojne.— ^Tbese {lersons ari0 jcall&d the 
Constant attendante on a municipal theatre, by way of .con- 
tempi;» beca^iitse n^ne but fics^ rate p^formers appeared at 
Rome. 

35. JVota . . . hme<B : blow-en on the bora or trumpet werQ 
sometimes called buccinatoree, from the great distension of the 
^heeks in nthe action of blow^ng. This bv Constant use left a 
0woUen appearan^e on thè cheeks, for wb^h these ibJlows wese 
nrell known in the countjy townsu 

36. Muiwrgt, ntmc tdwfd : ^ new exhibàt {Miblie shaws of gladia* 
tors.'- — Verso . , .polìict : this alludes to a usage at the fights of 
the gìadiators : ir the people supposed, that a gladiator was con- 
ijuered eith€r tìurough cowardice or waiit of skill, they tumed 
tiieir thumhs up (verso), a sign that he should be put to death : if 
they wished him to be spared, ihey tumed ^e\r ikumbs down 
(premere). 

37. Popvlariter: at the wish of the people, and to obtain their 
«pplause,^*^/?;»^ I <|beuce,' i. e, ftom th? pkys and shows of the 
gìadiators. 

38. Quum . . .Jocmi: the poet<}onsiders the advancement of 
such men ns s, freak of Fortune, exercised througb mere caprìce 
iuid wantonness, without any regard to desert or worth. 

42, Foseert f *mk ft>r » 1©»», or |^ft ©f a copy,*-^Mfh»9 oifro- 



JUV. 8AT. III. 131 



fUMi igtwfo: *I koow notààng of astralògx or 
whieh are io high reputa. 

43. Funua . . . paasum : filluding to the want of natonl aflbe- 
tion io certaìa profligate yoong men, who were in the habit of 
Consulting astrologen abont Ui^ time^ whea the detCh of a rieh 
fiither might be expected. 

44. Rimantm . . . ùurpeart : though a ooothsayer (aruMpest), * I 
have never inspected the eùtrails of ftogs' or toads, in qoest of 
poison.' — Rana is a general word for ali kinde of froge or toadt, 

47. IiUo: ^forthese reaaos^ I depart from Rome^accompanied 
by no one i for I lùiow none to whom I can attaoh oiyself a» a 
eompam9ny so universally comipt bave ali men beeome.-— 7Vm- 
ipMun • . • dtdrcb ; ' as ir niaiined of a Umb, and as the useless 
body of a withered right-hand.' — Otfaere anderataad it by hy« 
pallage, ' A withered right-hand, useless to the body/ 

49. DUigitur i * esteemed ' at Roine.H--Cbffi#cfic« : se* stdcnun 
oeCìdtonmu-^Cwi: this word in tfais line may be considered as a 
dÌÈ^yUaiUem 

51. MI . . . ftofies^ : the num who imparts to yen the seciet of 
an honest transaction, never thinks himself indebted to you fbr 
oonoealiiig it ; but the v^bùn, who makes you prìvy to bis crìmes, 
will ever bribe and fawn od yon^ that yen may noi diruige them. 

54. Ojpact . • ,7\igi : T^agta^ is a rìvev of Spatn, which dis- 
charges itself into the ocean near Lisbon, in rottugal. It was 
ancienthr said tx> bave golden àands. it ia Colled optici^ dark or 
shady^ from the thick shade of the trees on its banks: or it may 
depote a ckisfy hwbid appeanmee in the walef^ 

56» Pimenda : fbr depfmenda; ^ which ougfat to be rejected.' 

57. TVislis : ' full of anadety.' — Et . • . amico : while the pow- 
erfttl friend, who bribes you, dreads lest you should divulgo h>3 
seoretsi it is but naturai, that you should be in continuai fear, lest 
he take your life to rìd himself of danger. 

58. dens : i. e. Groom. 

60. <iuintea: this was a name of'th« Sabines, from the city 
CureSy or from quiris, a spear used by them. It was afterwards a 
general nexne Sor the Romana; The name Qiuirinus was first 
giyen to Romiilus. 

61. Gracam urbem : i. e. the city bf Ibome, now almost over- 
run with vagabond Greek8.r>^Quoto • • * Achmi: 'what portion of 
the dregs are the Acheans ?* L e. what are the Greeks to the 
number of other foreigners ì 

62. StfruB . . . Oro^tes: L e. Rome has long since been inun- 
dated with Syrians. OronUs was the largest river of Syria. 

63. lAnguam: ' the Syrian language.' — Ch&tdasMiqtuu : i.e. 
sackbuts, harps and other inst^ments of |!astern origin, in which 
the girings were plaoed eUifuefy. 

64. OentUia tympcma : * national tind>rels^* or * tamborines.' 
65b Cùrcum: the Cireua maximus^ which iS pMbably meant 

heie^ was an immense boildiiig, built by Tarqtùftius Friscos, but 



12Q NOTES. 

a;donied a&d^elilar^ed by socceeding kinf a to BUch an extent as to 
be able to contain in the seats two hunored and sixty thousand 
spectaton. 

66. lAipa barbara : ' a Syrìan strùmpet.' — Mitra : a sort of 
turban worn by the Syrìan women as a part of their head-dress, 
ornamented with painted linen. / 

67. RugHcus . . . eolio : the poet intimates, in this apostrophe > 
to Romulus, tfaat while the Greeks, &c. were vorming themselves 

into ali places of power and profit, the Romana, once so renown* 
ed for their jnanly virtues, were wholly taken up with the idle 
amusements of the circus. Of this perversion of the LaHan 
ghepherdj he mafks bis contempt by crowding his descrìption with 
words of Gretk derìvadon. — Treckedipna: from rqix<», to nin^ 
and itìnvov, a supper ; these were garments, in which tbey ran 
to other people's suppers ; probably, * the succinct vest,' wMch the 
Romana adopted from the Greek wrestlers. — Ceromatico : the 
eeromoj from x^^ò;, wax, waa a mixture of oil, day, and wax, with 
which wrestlers anointed themaelvea. — JViceteria : from vtxrj, vie- 
tory ; these were rewards for victorìes, such as rings, collars of 
gold, &c. 

69. Hie . . . Mabandis : the poet now refers to the Grecians 
who thronged from varìous cities to Rome. 

70. Samn : in scannine this line, the o in Samo is preserved 
from elision : it is divided thus, 

Hic àn- 1 drlllé Sa- | mò hic | Trallibùs | aut àia- | bàndis. 

71. EsquUiaa: the mona Es^fuUimis^ one of the seven hills on 
which Rome was situated. — Dtctvm ... a vimint coUem : the eol^ 
li8 ViminaliSf another of the seven hills, so called from the osièrs 
which grew there. — ^These two hills are put for the whoU city. 

72. Viacera . . . dornuum : by insìnuating themselves into the 
ìntimacy of great and noble frimilìes, they become as it were 
their very vitals. 

73. Ingenium vdox : ' a ready invention.' 

74. - b<Bo : hau» was a great Athenian orator, aùd the precep- 
tor of Demosthenes. 

75. Q^iemvis » . , ad noe .* * in his own person he has brought 
every character you can imagine :' for he is completely a jspk of 
ali trades ; as is said of the Jesuits, Jesuitus est omnia homo. 

76. Geomeirea : the first two syllables of this word are con- 
tracted by the figure syneresis : the line is thus divided, 

Grommati- | cùs rhé- | tór g'ó- | métrès | pictor &- | liptès. 

78. GrrceeuZii^ . . . Unt : the diminutive is used sarcastically : 
let my litUe Gredan he pinched with hunger, and he will under- 
take any thing, however improbable, — like another Dtedakia, he 
will.attempt to fly into tlie air. 

79. Ad aummam : \in short,' Dedalus himself was a Greek. 
82. FuUìia . . . recumbet : the Komans lay on couches at their 

convivial entertainments ; these couches were more or lesa orna- 
mented, and wer^occupied according to the quality of the gnests. 



JUV. SAT. III. 133 

The middle couch was esteemed the most honorable pluce, and 
SQ in order from thence. 

84. Calum . . . Avcntinuìn : * imbibed the air ot mount Aven- 
tine/ one of the seven hills of Rome. 

85. Bacca . . . Sabina : * Sabine berries,' i. e. the olive, which 
bere, by Synecdocìie, bignii^es the various fruits of Italy, in con- 
tradistinction to pruna et cottane, which were Syrian fruits. 

68. Longum . . . collum : ^ a lo'ng neck' was considered a sign 
of imbecility. — Cervicibiis: 'tothe brawny neck.' 

90. Illts treditur: theat Grceksy however gross their flattery, 
art bdieved ; toc néver should he. 

92t Antiockus . , . est : although we. at Roiiie greatly admire 
the Grecian actors, Antiochtis, &c., yet in their own country (iUic) 
they are but little admired ; for in reality Greece is a nation of 
nrìmics. 

96. Nee dolet : * but he grieves not ;' for his tears are feigned. 

97. Acdpit ; * the parasite put^ on.' — Endromiden : a thick, 
shaggy coat, worn by gymnics after exercising, to prevent their 
taking cold. 

100. A /ade jadare manus : this was the kissing of hands to 
his patron, or some action of complimentary address^made use of 
by flatterers. — Lavdare paratus : * ready to praise every action.' 

101. Inde timeri : lest they should reveal the secrets of which 
they had become possessed. 

103. AhoUiB: the a&oUa was a kind of cloak, woru by soldiers, 
also by philosophers. The aholla of the soldiers was smaller 
than the other, and called minor : that of the philosophers, being 
larger, was called major.-— Here by Metonymy it denotes the 
pfvUosopher himself. * 

104. Stoìcus . . . Baream . . . senex : P. Egnatius CeUr, says 
Tacitus, circumvented by false testimony his fìiend and discipfe, 
Bareas Soranus. 

105. Ripa . . . cabaUi : by this periphrasis we are to under- 
stand, that this Stoic was bred at Tarsus, in Cilicia : this city 
was built by Perseas, on the banks of the river Cydnus, on the 
spot where his borse Pegasus dropped a feather out of his 
wing. 

106. Gorgonei . . . cctbaUi: i. e. Pegasus. See Class. Dict. 
108. Protogenes . . . Diphilus . . . Erimarchus : these are the 

names of Greek parasites, commonly suppose d fictitious. Pro^ 
togenes, however, was a cruel persecutor under Caligula ; and 
Diphilus a fìlthy favorite and minion of Domitian. 

112. Perierunt . . . servitii : * my long and faithful services are 
forgotten.' 

113." Nìisquam, . . . clientis: *in no other part of the world ìs 
Uie loss ofdJì old follo wer Buà friend thought less of.' 

114. Quod offidum: i. e. how troublesome it is to attend upon 
a rich friend. 

115. Meritum: i. e. pr<Bmium, — Togaius: *a client;' the at- 

12 



134 NOTES. 

tendants of petX men in Rome were called anUambuhmSf and 
clienles togati, from the togOy wom by the common people. 

110. Currere : this implies the haste which they made to get 
first, and consequently to appear the most ifespectfuL — Pràor 
Ixctorem impetlat : ìheprator waa the chief magistrate of the city ; 
he was preceded by omcers, called lictors, twelve in nomber, who 
carried the insiffnia of the pnetor's office. The pretor, that he 
niay not bc toolate, is bere represented as hunyin^ on hia Uc- 
tors, who, on other occasions, marched slowly and sdemnly. 

117. Orbia : ' childless widows ;' orbua signifies a chUd that has 
tosi hts parenta, or a pcarent that has lost kis ehUdren. 

118. AUnnam et Modimn : two rich and childless old widowflt 
to whom these prodigate fellows paid their courL 

119. Datestetri: Umbricius also complains, that the times were 
so corrupt, as not to admit a poor, though good, and virtuoua citi^ 
zen as a wìtness ; and that the rich alone were consìdered wor- 
thy of credit' — Hospu numinis Idcn : P, Corneiws Scipio JVatica^ 
a(Ì]udged by the senato to he one of the best of men, and pro- 
nounced by them worthy to receive into his house and to keep 
the imago of Cybde, brouf^ht from Jda in Phrygia, until a tempie 
should be erected to receive it. 

120. Qui.*. Minervam: i, e. Jj> CttcUiua MekUu», S^9 
Class. Dict 

121. 7\-epidam : * trembling for ber safety.' 

122. Protentts . . . qìf^Mtio: se» devenitur; fthe first inquiry 
regards his incorno, the last quostion unii beconceminghis moral 
character.' 

120. Samothracum . . . araa: Sainothrace was an island near 
Lemnos, not far from Thrace^very famous for religious rites : 
from Iicnce Dardanus brought into Pbrygia the worship of the 
Dii Majores (Jupiter, Minerva, &c*). JProm Phiygia, Miìqbjb 
brought them mto Italy. ^ostrorum : i. e. Mars andltomulusy-^ 
Saììioikra4ìum et nostropMn orafi : i. e. deo9 eiperfgrinos tt JRomafiM. 

128. JHs igfU)€cent%bu9 : the goda not punishing his peijury} 
biU excusing him on account of the temptations he is unoer from 
poverty and want. 

130. Hicidem: Bcpauper; * this same poor fellow.' 

130. JSordidìda: dim. oi sordidus, -a, -um, *somewhat dirty.' 

131. Patet: 'gapes,' the upper leather being tom from the 
sole, — Vel . , , cicatrix; the language is bere metaphorical ; tnii- 
nere, tho wound, roean^ the rupture of the shoe ; cicatrix, which 
literally signifies ascar or seam in the flesh, means the awlrward 
seam on the patch of the cobbled shoe, which exhibited to view 
the coarse thread in the new made stitches. 

135. JExetU f . • Othom : the poet goes on to say, that men, i^ 
duced to poverty, are subjected to public derision and contempt. 
-—Inquit : se. designator tacorum, the person who, in the thea- 
tres, saw that the spectators took the places which properly be- 
lon^edtotbw. 



JUV. SAT. III. 135 

196. Pìdvino . . . st^eU : h, Róscius Otko^ a tribune of the 
people, institated a law, that there sbotild be in the theatres four- 
teen rows of seats, covered witìi cushions, for the accommodation 
of the knights ; and that no poor person, nor any other having 
less than 400 sestertia (about $14,280), should sit there. 

142. Quìé gener : Ilmbrìcìus conlinues to show the miseries 
of being poor, and instances the disadvantages, which men of 
email fortanes lie under with rcspect to marriage. — Censu mirwr : 
* inferior in property' to the lady, to whom he would propose him- 
aelf in marriage, or, as some interpret it, ' less than the censùs^ 
i. e. one whose income is too small to be registered and assessed. 

145. Tenuts . . . ^irUes : ' the plebeians of Rome.' 

146. Emergunt: out of obscurity, poverty, and contempt, to 
wealth and honors. 

147. Durior : *more difficult,' than it is in any other place. — 
lUis : to the poor. 

150. Quod . • . SàbéUam : i. e. they certainly think it no (ni^ 
gàvity i. e. fugare soletj disgrsce, who go on a sudden to live 
among the Marsians, or who are acquainted with the poor fare of 
the Sabellans. — Others think that the poet bere alludes to Curius 
Dentatus^ who conquered the Samnites and Morsi, and reduced 
the Sahdlans into obedience to the Romans. When elected 
consul, he woa immediately ordered to march against the Sam- 
nites. 

152. Veneto dvroaue culttUo : accordìng to Rupertì, ^ luteo et 
JkHli pocìdo ansato, Others haTe cuculio ; it would then sig- 
nify * with a coarse blue hood.' — The cucuUus was a short cloak 
of rough coarse cloth, with a cowl to pulì over the head occa- 
sionafly ; it was usually dyed with hlut, which color seems to 
bave been first used by Venetian fisherìnen. 

154. JVetno . . . mortuìis: it wascustomary among the Romans 
to put a gown on a corpse, when it was carried forth to burial. 
In many parts of Italy, where they lived in rustie simplicity, the 
people dressed in the tunica or Racket, never wearing the toga. — 
The meaning is that one might live in other places besides Rome, 
at a much less ezpense; — Dierum . . ,festorum : the dies festi 
werc festìvals observed on some joyfol occasion: the people 
then went, dressed in their best apparel, to the plays and shows. 

155. Herboso . . . theairo : at Rome, the theatres were built of 
marble and other splendid materials : bere they were not at the 
expense of costly edifices, but green sòds alone were used. 

156. JVotum exodium : ' some well known farce.' 

157. Persona . . . hiatum : the persona or larva was a mask, 
entirely covering the head, having a large eaping mouthy that the 
actor might speak through it the more easuy. 

159. Ulte: i. e. in many townsof Italy. 

160. Orchestram : among the Greeks this was in the middle 
of the theatre, where the Ckorus danced : but, among the Ro- 
mans, tt was the space between the stage and tiie common seats^ 



136 NOTES. 

where the nohle9 and senatort sat — Clari . . . Mit: the (BdUei, 
who presided at tbese celebrations, did not, as at Rome, dreae 
themselves in fine robes décked with purpLe, but were content 
to appear in plain white iunics. 
' 162. Htc : i. e. at Rome. 

164. AmMtiosà paupertaie : though poor, we are ali ambitious 
to appear rich and great. 

165. Omnia . . . pretto : * eveiy thing is extravagantly dear at 
Rome.' 

167. Veiento : Fabricius Veierdo was a proud nobleman, a fa- 
vorite of Nero and Domitian : he is bere represente d as being so 
haughty, that he wculd not deign to say a word to the suitors, 
who were achnitted to him ; yet even amnission to bis presence 
was attained with great difficulty, and not untìl they had paid 
high brìbes to the servants. 

168. llle . . . amati: it was the customof the RomanSyto dedi- 
cate the first shavings of the beard and cuttings of the hair, after 
they had arrìved at a state of manhood, to some deity ; when 
these were dedicated by the great a festival was observcd and 
presents were expected from ali their dependants. It was also 
customary with the wealthy to cut oS the hair of their minions, 
just arrìved at puberty, and to consecrate it, on which occasiona 
also presents were expected. 

itò. lAJbis venalibus : these were cakes made of honey, meal, 
and oil, and sent as presents from the poor to the neh, on festa! 
occasions. The slave, to whom they were presented, often sojd 
them to advantage, hence the epithet, venal{bu8,-~n^ccipe . . . 
ìiahe : *hear too this cause of indi^nation, and let it work within 
your mind.* — Fermenluìn : a meta^or from the working of bread ; 
for anger raises the mind ìnto a state of fermentation, 

170. Cidtis . . . servis : * augment the vails (or perquisites) of 
spruce slaVes.' 

171. Gdidà Prttneste : Premeste was a city of Latium, well 
watered, and situated amiJst romantic mountains ; -heuce it is 
called by the poets colà. — As it is always found in the neuter gen- 
der^ conimentators supply the word urbe. — Ruinam : * the falling 
of houses.' 

173. f^olsiniis : VoUinium or VoUinii (now Bolsena) was a 
ple&santly situated town iu Etrurìa. 

174. Simplicibtis Gabiia : Gahii was a town of the Volscians, 
taken by the cunm'ng* of Sextus Tarc[uin: hence it is called sim- 
pie. — Proni . . . arce : Tibur (now Tivoli) was a pleasant city of 
Itaiy, about sixteen miles from Rome, on the river Anio : it stood 
upon a precipice, and had the appearance of han^ng over it. 

175. J^os . . . sui: Rome was in many parts rumous, and many 
of the houses were aupporUd by very sli^ props. 

177. ViUicus : the city officer, whose duty it was to attend, to 
the repairs of the city : or more properly the steward of the land- 
lord of these houses. — AchainJtre thinks vilhcuj» means <a country 



JUV. SAT. in. 137 

mason.' — Rimet • . . hiatum: mstead of repairìng the holes in the 
Wall, he merel^ stops them up with mortar or something elae. 

179. Mie : 1. e. in those amali and retired towna. 

180. Frìvola : his moveables of little vaine. 

181. Uccdegan: see VirgilV iEn., hook % 310— 312.--7VW ; 
' to your destvuction.' 

182. Si . . . ardebit : < if the occupante of the ground floor are 
in confusion (in consequence of the fire) the garret will bum.' 

185< Ledìis . . . minar : ' Codrus had a couch shorter than his 
wife Procula.' 

186. Ir^rà : * beneath' the cupboard. 

187. Cantharus: a drinking vessel with a handle to it — Sui 
. . . Chiron : * a figure of Chiron (the centauri under the same 

marble ;' i. e. under the marble slab, of which tne cupboard was 
formed, perhaps by way of support to it — Some suppose that this 
was a mean figure of Chiron, made of the same materials with 
the canthartUj viz. of day, which he ironically expresses by mctr- 
more, for of this ìmages were usually made. 

189. Opici : 'barbarous ;* opicus is a word taken fronv the 
Opici, an ancient, rude, and barbairous people of Italy. 

191. Uttimus . . . €BrumruB cumvltu: 'the height of his accu- 
midated misery.' 

192. ATudum : as havin^ lost his few clothes by the fire. 

193. Hoèpitìo: < entertamment.' 

194. AstUrii : the name of some rich and noble man. — Horrìda 
mater: Hhe Roman matrons are in mourning;' or mater tnay 
mean ' Rome itself.' 

197. Ardet adhue: while the house is stili on fire. 

199. EupkranùrisetPolycleH: these were two eminent Grecian 
statuaries. 

200. H(Bc : « this lady.» 

201. Mtàiamque Minervam: 'and a bust of Minerva.^ Gran 
g<BU8 observes, that the ancients had their ^imagities aut integra, 
avi dimidiata ;" of which latter sort was the image of Minerva, — 
Brttanniciu expounds mediam J^^nervam, *^ a statue of Minèrva 
to he placed in the middle, by way of omamenting his library." 

202. Modium: modius means nere an indefinite quontity: so 
we say " a bushel of money." 

203. Peraicus: Astwriua was either aPermn or was so called 
from his immense riches. 

205. AotUi Cirsen8Ìbu8 : the Circensian games were so called, 
because they were exhibited in the circus. ^ee Kennett's Rom. 
Antiq. These shows were favorite amusements, and therefore 
the Romana could with difficulty he prevailed upon to abscnt 
themselves from them ; hence the sarcastic a»eUi, to he forcibly 
dragged away. — Sorai . . . Fabraterùz . . . JFVtwìnone ; these were 
pleasant towns in Campania. — Paraim' : ' is purchased.' 

207. Teneòroj .-'darkness;' but bere, figuratively, some mis- 
erable * dark hole.' 

12 * 



138 NOTES. 

206. HU : i. e, in any of these towDB.— Reste movendus: L e. 
not 80 deep as to want a rope and bucket 

210. Bidentts : a fork with two prongs, used in husbandry : 
bere, by Metontfìmfj ' husbandry ' itself. 

211. PyOìogoms : Pythagoras and bis followers lived on yege- 
tables, particularly pulse. 

2J3* Lactrta: the green liLord is found in varìous parta of 
Italy, as in ali warm cTimates, and is very fond of living in gar- 
dens. — ^The poet means, that wherever a man may be placed, it 
is no smalì privilcge to be able to cali one's self master of a little 
spot of ground, though it were no larger than to contain one poor 
lizard. 

214. Hit : bere in Rome. — Vigilando : by being deprive d of 
sleep and rest, from the continuai noise in the streets. 

215. Imper/edus: * indigested.' 

216. ardenti: feverish and bumiug. He seems to allude to 
what we cali a ìieart bum. 

218. Inde : i. e. from want of sleep. — Rhecfiarutn : rheda means 
any vehicle, drawn by horses, mules, &c.--^rc/o • . . mandra: 
the streets of Rome were ancicntly very narrow and crooked ; 
the consequehce was, that carriages were obliged frequently to 
-stop : hcnce the scolding and abusive languagt heaped by the 
drivers on each other for stopping the way. 

219. Mandr<B : mandra signifies a hovel for cattle, a pig-s^e ; 
also by Metonymy, a team of horses or of any beasts of burden. 
Some think it put for the driver. 

220. Druso : THb. Claud. Drus. Cosar was, according to Sue- 
tonius, exceedingly drowsy. See Suetonius, Claud. e. 5 and 8. 

222. Laburno : se. servo ; carried in a sedan on the shoulders 
of tali Libumian slaves, àbovt tìie keads (super ora) of every foot- 
passenger. 

225. m^niè . . . veniet : though he reads, writes, or sleeps, on 
the way, he will arrive at bis journey's end before uó, poor 
wretches. 

227. essere : asser signifies a pole, a piece of wood, * the joist 
of a house ;' the last may be meont bere : or it may mean * the 
pole of some litter,' — ' a chair-pole.', 

229. Pianta . . . hard : ì. e. I can hardly turn myself, but some 
heavy, splay-footed fellow tramples upon my fcet, and at last 
some soldier's hob-nail runs into my toe. — Soldiers wore a kind 
of harness, called caliga, on their feet and legs, which was stuck 
full of nails. 

231. Sportula : this word does not mean tiie hundred quadran- 
USy but the supper which was given to the poor clients. — Puma : 
Bome understand fumo figuratively, * witli how much. bustle :' 
others fhink jt alludes to the smokt of the chafing dishes, which 
were used to keep the food warm, as it was carried through the 
streets. 

232. Conviv(t , . . cidina : i. e. those who bave received their 



JUV. SAT. ni. ^ 139 

BÌaxe of the sportida or supper, and are on their retam home, 
each foUowed by a slave, who ìs cairying a poriahle kUch^ri or 
cha^ig'dish, 

233. CorhtUo : a yery strong and valiant man in the lime of 
Nero. 

237. Sarraco : sarracum is a strong wagon io carry timber and 
stone. 

239. Saxa lAgusiica: vast masses of stone, cut out of the 
mountains of Liguria, between Etruria and Gaul. 

242. Perit : ' is reduced to nothing ;' or at leastgrounc/so small 
as to be imperceptible. 

243. More aninuB : L e. the particles, which composed the 
body, could no more be found, than the soul, which is immaterial. 
— Secava : 'unconcemed' as knowing nothing of the aceidenL 

244. Unctis strigl'Ums : for strigUibus, for the sake of the me- 
tro ; ttrigU was an instrument for scraping the body after bath- 
ing : it had some cU put on it, to make it slide with less friction 
over the skin. These instruments were made of gold, silver, 
iron, or the like, which, when gathered up or thrown together, 
make a clattering sound (sonatj. 

245. IdrUea : < napkins,' to wipe the body after, bathii:^. — 
ChUto : guUus was a vessel, firom which oil was poured drop bv 
drop upon the body after bathing, and then it was rubbéd ali 
over it. 

246. Eie : the slave, bringing home the sporiuloy who had been 
kiUed by the fall of a block of stone. 

247. Rij)à : se. Styffià; where the unburied and the poor, who 
could not pay the faruiing (trUntem) to Charon, were obliged to 
remain, till tue expiration of a hundred yeais. 

249. Oretrievdem: the triens was a very small piece of money, 
(equa! to about one half of a cent,) the third part of the cu. It 
was customary among the Greeks to put a piece of money into 
the mouth of the dead, which was supposed to be given to Charon 
as the fare for passin^ in his boat over the rivei Styx. 

Juvenal seems to ridicule the Romans for adopting this foolish 
-superstìtion. 

250. Reapice : Umbricius, as an additional reason for his leav- 
ing Rome, now shows, with great humor, the dangers and disad- 
vantages, to which the inhabitants, especiaUy the poorer sort, are 
exposed in walking the streets by night 

There is every reason, from the testimony of contemporary 
writers, to belio ve that the picture is as faithful as it is animated ; 
it is nearly that, in short, of every overgrown and vicious capital, 
which is not protected hj a vigilant police. 

251. Quod . . . sublifnibtis : i. e quod spatium sit a tectis svhli- 
tnibìts ad terram. 

252. Testa : a fragment of any broken vessel ; ^ a potsherd/ 
254. Posàis . . . h3>eri: you may justly be considered negli- 

gent of your afikirs. 



t40 NOTES. 

396, IMMa . . . feneHrtB : u e. ta many cfaances of having 
your head broken, as there are open Windows, and people yet 
awake to throw down their broken ware on you. 

259. Pahdai dtfundert pehts : *to poar down the contenta of 
broad basin:: ' and not throw the basins themselves. 

960. Nn%UM . . . aupmus : i. e. the drunken, saucy rake, if, on bis 
way home from a tavern, he has had no opportunity of ìmockmg 
down or abusing any person, (doApana») 'is tortnred^ whhinhim^ 
self, and is as sieepless as AcfaiUes, lamentìng the death of bis 
fiiend Patroclus. 

Suetonius and Tacitus infonn us, that Nero and Otiio were ac- 
castomed to go about in thismanner and beat every one they met. 

263. I^rgo . . . dormvn : commentators consider these as the 
words of JuTcnal, interropting Umbricins, who answeis, QuibuS' 
dam, ifc. 

264. hnproìnu annu : * presumptuoas in consequence of bis 
yonth.' 

265. Coccina lana : the l<Bna was a short heavy cloak, usually 
wom by soldìers ; bnt only the rich and noble could aiford to wear 
those, which were dyed in scarUt (coccina). 

267. MuUum . . . Jlammarum: the rich were usually attended 
tbrough the streets at night by servants carrying Jlawhtaua. — 
Aènca Umtpas : * a lamp of Oorinthian brass,^ veiy costly and 
usually carried before tribunes and opulent persons. — This line 
18 thus seannedt — 

Multùm I pnetèrè | à fiàm | màrùm | età | énè& | làmpàs; 
ìXìJUimmarumy the last syllable is preserved from elision. 

268. JLuna: *the Hght of the moon/ — Deducere: se. domum, 

269. FUum : * the wick,' which was usually covered with wax. 

270. Cordemnit: this wanton fellow holds me in the utmost 
contempi, as being a poor man and wealier than himself ; but he 
is very cautious how he attacks the rich and powerfuL — Cognoace 
prùwmia : * bear then the prelude.' 

274. Fortiori *stronger.* — Ctijus aceto: *whose.sòur winc 
bave you been drinking ?' — ^Others understand vinegar poured on 
the beans instead of oil. 

275. Conche iumes : conchiÈ was a bean in the shell, and thus 
boìled ; a common food among the lower sort of people, and 
very fiUing, which is.implied by tumes, 

276. Vervecis lalra : the lips of a wether, but bere, by Synec- 
docke, the entire * sheep's head.' 

278. Cmmstas : consisto signifies to abide, to keep in one 
(dace ; bere it seems to allude to taking a Constant stand, as beg- 
gars do, in order to beg : * where do you take your stand as a 
beggar ?* This idea seems countenanced by the rest of the line. 
— Proscìichà : this word properly signifies prayers ; it means also 
a place of prayer, in the porch of which beggars used to stand 
and ask aìms; and hence it signifies any place where a pai:y>er 
begged. 



JUV. SAX. III. 141 

280. Vaid&mùMa . . ,faeiunt : then enra^ed, as if yoahad given 
the first bìow, they compel yoa to give bai! fot youir appearance 
at trial ; — they bind you over for an assault. 

281. JSTeetamen: Umhrìcias bow gives other reasons forliis 
quitting Rome. 

286. jCatenatiE . . . tabertuB : the old acholiast Baya, that they 
used to fasten up thelr shops against robbers, by introducing a 
largè chaìn through every plank. — Other persona also, for the ^er 
of misehi^f and to insult the tenants» went through the city by 
night» breaking iato honses which .were not secured. Suetonius» 
Ner. 26, and TacituSyAnii. XIII, 25. — ^The word siluit bere ehowa 
that the building ìa put for the inhabitants within, by Metowumy^ 

268. ArvMào . . . /miu« ; i. e. when the Pomtioian manìh m 
Campania, and the Gallinarian pine- wood near the bay of Cunu&, 
(both of them noted places for thieves and robhers^ are protected 
by strong guarda, the thieves and highwayme& flock into the city. 

290. Vvowria, : vivariet are plaoes where vild creatnrea liv&y 
are fed, and protected, aa deer in a park, fic^ in a pond,. &c.. 

291. CoteiuB ; se eenfidun ur^ 

294. ProcBoarum atavo» : 'our ancestprs of old time :' proam» 
ÌB a great-grandfather: aiamis a greal-grandiather's grand- 
father. 

296. Uno . . • caretre : in the timo of Ancus Martius, robber» 
were so rare, that the prìaon, which he built in the forum at Rome, 
was sufiicient to contain ali convicts. Servius TuUius built an 
addition to it, called the TuUianumi which SaUust descrihea 9» ^ 
dungeon. 

297. Causas : L e. for ny leasing Rome. 

298. Vocant: ^sunmion me away.'-«j|hcj[tn<tf; firoin the merìd^ 
ian towards its setting. ' 

^00. Vale nostri memor : an usuai hind of valedictton among 
the Romans.'->£< . . . Aquino : the construction is, tt quotie» Ro^ 
ma rtddet U properantem refici ffuo Aquino, 

301. Tuo . . . Aquino ... Cer^r^mi Juvenal was bom at Aqui- 
Mttift, a tow^n of the Volsci, on the Latin way : in tlùs place was a 
tempie, saored to Cèrea, named Helmna^ and one alao of Diana^ 
the vestiges of which are said to he stili remaining» . 

303. m pudet iUaa : so. mei auxUii ; or rather, ni pudet teip-^ 
sum mei auiUii, 

304.. Cal^atus : < armed at ali points.* The ealiga waa a sort 
of hamesB ror the leg, wom by soldiers, who were henoe called 
calùcatL 

&me think that a sort of shoe ìa meant, wom by ruM^Sy and 
which Umbrìcius then intended to wear, as bccomìng an inhabit 
ant of the country, and intendiiig never more to wear town ohoeé, 
in other words never to see Rome again. ^ 

BoHeaUy in bis first and sixth Satìres, and SmoUet, m bis ^ Ex-* 
pedition of Humphrey Clinker," have imiuitod this Satire^ 

. rt 

i 

\ 



<^ 



143 NOTES. 



SATIRE IV. 

JoveiMl, ÌB thk Satire, indulges his bonett indigiiatioin agtòist 
Crìspinus and bis employer Domitian. 

After deseribinflf tome of the enormoi» erimes of Crìctpinis^, the 
poet makea a sodden traiisitio& io ina extravagniiee and ghittony, 
and thereby lakea occasion to decchbe a ridiciiloni cofisttltatioa, 
held by Donòtìan wer a turbot, whicb waa toc larghe to he con- 
taned yn any dkh, that conld be fimnd. After a long* delibera^ 
tion «mong tbe Moatom, it waa proposed, that the fivb sbonld be 
t^at in piecet and tbu8 eooked ; bttt at lati the opinion of the sen- 
ator Montani» premled, that it sbould be éressed whole, and that 
a diah, large enougb to eontain it, ahonld be made exfftemAy fot 
tbe piifpoee of leeetvÌDff it 

The eonneil ia then &nna0ed, and tbe Satire eonclndes with a 
moat «evere censare on the emperor'fl croeHy and Injustice to- 
wardB some of the beat and most warthf of the Romana* 

1. Merum Crispiwus : Crìspinua haa been Eàentiened before in 

Sat I, »7. 

^ M pttrtai a meti^^ior, tahen ^m the plafe»^ irho, whefi 
they had finished the «cene they were to act, retired, but were 
ttìleè again to resumé their parta, nntil tbe pieee waa finis^ied. 

d» JEger : *enert«ted f isflrm both iit mine aiid body. 

4« ^id refett : L e. what ngnifies how neh he is, flince no bad 
iB«i ean be happy 9'--JwnentafaHget : in riding Ih^ugh hb mag- 
xiificent porticoes. It was a part of the Roman luxuiy to bnud 
vast porticoes in their garden», under wUc-h they rode in wet or 
hùX weatber. 

5. ^uanJtà . . , wmbrà : the rich and Huxiinoiis Romana were 
alao carried in sedans throagh abady grove% in siiltry weather. 

6^ ihìgeru » * . óidkB : houses and kmd near the ancìèfit ferum^ 
irhich was near tlie centra of the city, were tbe most valoable. 

7. Corrupior: *a eomipter of female-virtne.' . 

8. Ineegtvs: * profane,*— ^«ftofi» . . . taeerdeai Vestal virgins 
bad iUlets bonnd romid their beads, made of ribands or the fike. 
The Vestal virgins made a vow of perpetuai chaatity ; if any broke 
ibis vow, by a biw ùf Numa Pom^ius, their ibunder, they were 
buried alive. 

]0. ^Uer : any other thatt Crispintts would haf e been punìshed 
by Domitian, whom the poet iromcaUy caUs jndex morum. 

12lr TUio 8eio : these were fictitious personages, whose names 
were inserted in idi law-processea. 

13. Quici agcu : tiùs saems to depend npon the lOth vene : 
we are now speaking of bis smaUer erimes, yet what can you do 
or say, &c. ? what he w is so mach worse than what he (2oea, that 
one is at a loss how to treat bim. 

14. MuUum ; probably the fish called jed maUet or baibeL*- 
/Sesp mUlibuii se» nummorwn ; 6000 9esterHi (about $314). 



JUV. SAX. IV. 143 

15. MqudinUm * . u Ubria : i. e. weigbiag nz ponnds^-^t cost 
hìm a s^ÀerUutOy a poond, 

Three pounds ww «boat the iwoal weight of this iish, and it 
waa rarely found larger. * 

16. Ut perhdbent : 99 Uie flatterere of Criflpiniis givo ouC ; tfaey 
probably represented tbe fiah to be twice as large aa it really wor, 
a^ some excuae for hia eztravagaoce. 

18. Pr4Bcipuam • . . cenami . . . cibshdit : ^ he had become thè 
principal heir.' — ^It was customary for wills to conaist of two parta: 
the first named the primi luertdes, chief heini, and wea therefore 
called cera jpr<ect|ma, because^ the tableta, on whieh they wrote» 
beìng of wood, were covered with wax : the second named the 
secundi hteredes, lesser heirs, and waa called cera «ecuiuia.^-Oth- 
ers think that cera means the scaL 

19. RctHo ti/tenor; ^further reason^'to excuse hia extravsr 
gance. 

20. LoHa spectdaribua : < with large windowi.' — The tpeeukaig 
lapis waa a stone, clear like i^aas, cat into email thin panes, and 
in old times used for glasa. The largest panea were of course 
the most costly. — *Mro : ^ litter--H>r aedan.' 

22. Jfyicvus : a noted glutton in the time of Nero. Even Api- 
cius, the poet intimatea, waa a frugai man in compariaon with 
this gormandizer.— ^Hec tu : ac. fiéiatL — Hoc . . ,papyro : i. e. 
you who were focmerly hrought firom Egypt to Rome, a vile riave, 
and then clad in jpapyrua ; thia waa a kind of flag, growing on 
Ihe banksof the nver Nile,of which ropea, mata, and mean cloth- 
ing were made.--Or more probably hia clothea were tied on him 
with corda made of thia weed. SÌL 1, 26, 27. 

24. SquamiB : thia means the scaUs of fish, but put bere by 
Synecdoche for the fiah itaelf. 

< 25. Provincia . . . vendU : i. e. the price of thia fiah would pur- 
chaae an eatate in some of the provincea ; but in Apulia quite an 
extenaive one* 

26. Appxdia ; Ruperti thinka thia word should be wrìtten thus, 
as the fìrat syllable of^^pvtlia ia short in Hor., Od. ITI, 24, 4, and 
in other paaaages, Most of the texta; however, bave Aputid^ 
coosidering the firat ayllable eommon, 

28. JE^ndoperaJtorem : for imptraJtarcm ; if Criapinua, a court- 
buffoon, paid ao much for what formed but a smdM part ùfs. pri- 
vate roeal for himself^ what must the emperor^aexpenae be to aat- 
is/y bis gluttony ?-~<*Qt«i^t}i . • • siiìJiròà : quum Cnspìnuapurpureus 
scurra magni palati, jam princepf eqtdtvm (i.' e. non magister 
equitum, sed inter eqwUes illustre» relatua), qui solehat, ^c, ructàrii 
tot sestertia, ext^uant partem et sumptam de margine modic(B 

CCPfKSt 

32. Mumcipes . . . sUvross sUuri were fiah of amali value of 
the same country with Crisptnua, i. e. fìom Egypt— JHcfd : 
* fried — dried — or cured.' 

The foUpwiiìg Ì3 the note of Ruperti upon JHctà de m,eree: 



144 NOTES. 

*^fndà et mtrct edidì ex emeiid. d. Maìuk», ouius nota est t * Pucet 
jrieiif Apicius inquit 1, 11, ut diti durtntj eoaem momento, qwfri- 
gumtur ei laxmhiry aedo caKdo perfundunttar, et Listérus afl h. L 
^ Pisele, Bcrìbit, ex frìctione multò citiùs et firmiùs densantitr 
quàm earnea, ob suinmaiii illorum sanguinis teneritudinem. Si 
ìtaque huic eorum coitioni naturali accedat etiam ac^ti calidi su- 

S)ifu8Ì via, ex duplici constrìctione diatius conservari possint 
ec autem piscium frictorum condictura etiam apud nos in usu 
eat et ad mmiUmum modum (Italia marinare^ unde Genn. mari- 
nirte ^eke) appellatur.' Intelliguntur itaque nostro yersu omnia 
^neria piaces, quos mercatorea, njodo ab Apicio commemorato, 
lA ipaà iCgypto condiendos et inter Nilotica illa salsamenta, 
qoe IHodorus 1, 36, Lucianua T. Ili, p. 4^9, ed. Reitzii, aliique 
laudant, Romam navìbus transvehendoe curarent Quorum in 
numero tUuroa ìàc pie onmibua dictos videmus. Fuère enim 
siluri non aolùm frequentisaimi in Nilo aed etìam pretti tam 
vìlia, ut non niai ab^inopibua, qualem Criapinum servum e v. 24, 
scimua, et venderentur et emerentur." 

In the ed. Lemaire, Parìa, 1823, is the foUowing note : " Si cui 
non placeat lectio illa, quam a ci. Ruperti recepimua, per nulla 
erit mora quin veterem achol. aeqnator et malit Jraeià de merce ; 
et aie erit aensus — ^vendebat ailuroa, mercem fiactam, id est, in 
partea diviaam (Gallicé en deiaU) ; per vìaa et compita ibat cìa- 
mana, velut apud nos mulierea iat» (marckandes de marèe), que 
marinaa mercea caniatria vimineia et conia obductia circumferunt." 
Accordine to this reading, /^octd de merce, which aeema the best, 
''by retail^*by breaking the box or cash which contained them.' 
The other readinga are pactd—:farià-~farià — Pharià de merce^ 
wadpaM mercede, 

33. CaìUope : the mother of Orpheus, and chief of the nine 
muséa, said to he the inventresaof heroic verse. 

To heighten the ridicule, Juyenal prefaces bis narrative with a 
burlesque invocation of Calliope, and then of the rest of the muses. 

36. Quumjam : thia line may be thus scanned : 

Quùm jàm | Bém*àt^ | mflm l&cè- | ràrét | FlàvYOs | órbém. 
•Sbnitammuifiy contncted oy syneresis into sem^animum, — fìavius 
tdtimtis : the first emperor or the Flavian fiunily- was Vespasian, 
the kui Domitian, 

37. Calvo . . . JVeroni : * bald Nero,' i. e. Domitian ; this em- 
peror waa bald, at which he waa ao diapleaaed, that he would not 
suffer baldneaa to be mentionéd in hìs presénce : he was called 
JVero^ as ali the bad emperors were, firom hia cruelty. 

38. Inddìt : fic, reU : * waa enxL^V— adriaci . . . Aneon : the 
turbotwaatakeninthe Adriatic gulf, nearthe city of Ancon (now 
Ancona) which waa built b'y the Syracuaans, whowere originally 
Greciana, (hence the city is called Dorica, i. e. Gr4tea) ; at this 
place waa a tempie aacred to Venua. 

40. lUis: Bcpitcibus. 
, 41. OUtcies MeBoUca: MetoHs was a large lake, which waa 



JUV. SAT. IV. 145 

frozen in winter, bat dischar^d itself in siimmer into the Euxine 
seà (Ponti) by the Chnmerìan Bosphonis. 

The fish, which lay bere m a torpid state under the ice, grew 
extremely fat and bijdky. 

45. Pontifici summo : Domitian, whose title, as emporox^ was 
Pontifex summùs or maximus, 'chief pontiff.' Some think the 
poet alludes to the gluttony of pontii^ in general, which was so 
great as to be proverbiai. — Proponere : < to ofier for sale.* 

47. Mgft inquigUores : * searchers of sea-weed ;' implying 
thereby, tiiat their accusatìons were founded upon the most trìvial 
causes. 

50. C<BsarÌ9: *of the emperor.' 

SSL Paifurio . . . ArmUUÀo : both of these were men of con- 
sular digttity; lawyers, spies, informerà, and also &voritea of 
Domitian. 

64. Re» fisci est: * i« the property of the emperor.' 

55. Ae pereat : lest it should be taken from him by informerà ; 
or * lest he perish,' as having kept the emperor's property. 

56L l^^tranUbus : this is generally rendered * fearing' — * dread- 
ìng.' — ^But it more properly should be rendered * hopmg for,' as 
the quarian never proves fatai, and the sick consequently hope 
that the fever, under which they are suffenng, may tiim into the 
quartan. The Italians hftve a proverb to this effect, ''We ring 
the bella when the quartan comes." 

57. Pradam . • . sermi&of ; ' and kept the turbot fresh.'. 

58. JSic : the fisherman. 

59. Uique. lacits tuberant: utque Albani laeits suberanif i. e. 
prope erant. — Alba, fifteen miles from Rome, was built by Asca- 
nius, between the Alhani lacus and the coUes AlhanL It was 
kveàed with the ground by Tùllus Hostilius, for a breach of 
promise. The temples alone were spared. 

60. Ignem . . . Trojanum : the vestal fire, brought by iEIneas 
from 7roy into Italy. — VeHam . . . minorem: the tempie of Ves- 
ta, at Alba, was small, in comparison with the one built at Rome 
by Kuma. At Alba, Domitian instituted a college of priests, of 
whom he was PwHfex summu»* 

62. Ctstìt : BC,tirha ; * when the crowd made wày for him.' 

64. Picena : ' the Picenian fisher.' 

68. Ipse capi voluit: L e. the very fish itself was ambitious to 
be canght for the entertainment of your Maiesty. — Quid aperHua : 
' what flattery more palpable than this ?* if we understand these 
words to be spoken by the poet — 'Nothing is plainer:' if we 
consider them as spoken by the fisherman. — Et . .*. crist^^ : ^ and 
yet bis pride was gratified ;' (a metaphor from cocks, who #ef up 
their conAt^ when pleased,) if we understand these words to be 
spoken l^ the poet — ^If by the fisherman ; And yet it is surprìs- 
ing that the thoms (criataa, i. e. pinmu) upon bis back stand 
ercct, as if it were unwiUing to be caught 

71. Sed . . . ffieiwiira : the poet now pursues bis narrative \ — 

13 



146 N4^ES, 

thìs tyrbot wa» so laxge, tìiat a, ^àk coul4 noi he foond to c<fli- 

tain ìt 

73. QjtMM; . . . amicUÙB : we bave bere a stiikiag represeota- 
tion of a tyrant, who, conscious of being bajijed by aU^ hatea them ; 
and they, knowiner bis caprìcious cruelty, never approacb bim, 
without horror and dread, leat they should say or do sometfaing, 
however unde^ignedly, wbich may coat them theìr Uvea. 

74. Libumo : * a Libumian slave,' wbo. discl^ged tbe office 
of a crier. 

7^. Raptà.. . Urbi: aboUa bere signifiea either a pbiloao- 
phcr's robe, as Pegasus was a stoic ; or the robe of office, wbich 
he wore ad prtBfeciis urbis. 

76. Pegasus : an eminent la.wyer who bad been. appoinled pre- 
fèct of the city of Rome : he is bere called viUicuSj haUiffoiih» 
city, signifyìng that the chief magistrate of Rome, in consequeoce 
of the tyranny of Domitìan, bad now no more power or dignity, 
tban the paltry officer of a country villag^e. . 

77. Optimus . . .justilià: i* e. Pegasus, was a very excellent 
magistrate, yet sucn was the arbitrary power of Domitian, that 
he dared. not act according to the dictates of bis heart 

79. Inermi justìiid : justice is said to be unamedj when judged 
and high officers act cpntrary to conscìence. 

80. J^enit . . . senectìis : ' the old facetious Crispaa Comes too.' 
86. Cum quo . . . amici : it was not safe for Domitian'a friends 

to converse with him, even on the most trìvial subjects, such as 
the state *of the weather, &c., if they did not agree in sentiment 
with him. 

92« I& . . . festinata : many texts bave a perìod after aulà^ hià^ 
^c. applying to Crispus : Ruperti has a perìod after solstiUa, un.- 
derstanding his, &c. to apply to AcUius* — ^The construction is, 
AciliuSy qui his quoque armis erat tutus in iUà avià (i. e; of Do- 
mitian), et qui erat ^usdem atatis (i. e. as Crispus) properabai 
proxÌTTìfUs cum juvene (i. e. bis son Domitius, as tfais is .generally 
understood ; see line v3, (note) indigno, &c, 

93. Aplius . . . cum juvene : Acilius Glabrio^ a senator of sin- 
gular prudence and fìdelity ; bis son DomUiuf carne with him £o 
Siis council ; bqt both of them were shortly after cbarged with 
designs against the emperor, and were condemned to death. 
The father's sentence was changed to banishment, that be might 
be the more tortured by the remembrance of bis son's deiUii. 
The son,to save bis life, affected madness and fought naked with 
lions in the Alban theatre: the.tyrant was not to be deceived, 
but put him to death. 

97, Jifalim . . . gigantis : i. e. since noble birth is dangerous, I 
had ratlier, claim no bigber kindred than my parent earth, and. 
thqugh uvt in size, yet, a^ to origin, be a brother of the eartJi- 
bpzn .gia,nts, than be descended from a noble race. 

lOl. Òiiis . . . tuum: there are none, in these days^ who would 
be sÌD9]gjb^ enpugh to admire the device of Brutus (he pretended 



JUV. 'éX«t. IV. i'47 

ìdàoey to saim lÉili^, during the nsi^ of Tarquin the Proad), fcir 
it v^ould not succeed with Domìtian. 

IOSL Barbido : allading' to the simpHcity of aneieht times, when 
Rome t^as govemed by kings, who, ad well as their people, wore 
their beards ; for shavìilg and cutting the beard were net in fash- 
ion tiU later timés. 

105. StUiram scribenU cùuBdù : the paikic Nero, who wtote à 
«atire agaihst Quinctianus, in which he censures him sevérely foir 
the very abominations, of which he himself was guilty. 

107. MaiuUno: which he ueed early ili the morUing, — or, as 
others interpret it, eatiem, 

108. RedeUnt . . ./uhera^ the castom of anointing dead bodics 
with aromatic ointments was derived by the Romans from the 
East 

^ 109. Pompeiuè : a vile iiifbnner, noted for ìàa clandedtine ac- 
GUdations. 

110. Ei . , , Fuèens : Comdius Fuscus was sent by Domitiàn 
as generai agàinst the Daclans, by whom he and bis army were 
destroyed. 

111. Marmùteà . . . ffUlà: in irOny, allading to bis bein^ sent 
to take the comiaand, without havingany òtheridèas of war, than 
he had acquired amid the sloth and luxury of bis sumptuoùs villa. 

112. Mortifero . . . CtxhMo : OatvUus Messtdinus was raised to 
the highèst rank, frotn being a beggar, at the foot of the Arìcine 
bill, on the Appian way. He is cified dtaély, afi cauding the deatU 
of. numbers, by secret accusations. — Veientó : A. Fàìnicms Fét- 
€nto was a senator and informer under Domitiàn. 

' 113. J^rùnquaiii visdB : according to Pliny, Catullus wad blind. 

115. ìA ponte : from the bridge oh the Appian T^ay, wherè men- 
dieants stood. 

116. Aricinos . . . àxtst i. e. the carriages^ which passed from 
or to Arieia^ a toWi;i on the Appian way, aboùt ten miles from 
Rome: this toav was much frequented by carriages, and was 
therefore a good stand fbr beggars. 

117. DevexiB . . . r^ieda : Ancia was built on a bill, from which 
cairiages deécended on their way to Rome. 

118. JVemo . . . heUua: none were louder in their praisesof the 
prodigious turbot, than Catullus ; thoùgh he could not see it, but 
tumed the wrong way from it 

1210. Sic : i. e. sic alia laudami, qu(R non vidit, — CUicis : some 
famous gladiator from Oilicia, a favorite of Domitiàn. 

121. Pegma: ttom 7r>/yri;^(t, to fasten; a wooden machine, so 
constructed, as to raise itself, in scenìcal representations, to a 
great height ; boys were placed upon it, and on a sudden carrìed 
up to the top of the theatre.-^FcZana: sail cloths, extended 
over the tops of theatres as a defence against the weàtlier. 

122. OSstro : astms literally signifies a gad-fly, but bere, by 
Metonymy, * divine fury.' 

126. ^^brviragus: a king of Britain, and an inveterate enemy to 



1^ NOTES. 

the Romana, in the time of D<Hnitian. — Per^pima eai : ' fbreign,' 
thereby denoting some foreigrn conquest. 

127. Sudes : the sbarp fiiw, like spearet, like eritUt, in line €9. 

129. Quidnam . . . cen$e9 : these are the words ,of Domitian, 
asking the senators' opinion. — ConciéUur : 'must itbe cut?' 

131. QucB . . . àrbem : ' largo enough to encloee the huge cir- 
cumference of the fish within its thin rìm»' which he humorously 
caìls a toaìl. — ^The thinner earthen-ware was turned, the mòre 
valuable it was. 

132. Debtiur . . . Promdhtus : some potter, a f iK^^uJ and ready 
workman, like Prometheus, should he employed, See Class. Dict. 

133. Éatam : Hhe potter's wheeV — Sed • . . stquaniur: asharp 
Bttcasm against the tyrant, and at the same time rendering the 
speaker equallv rìdicuLous. 

136. Laixunam . . . veUrem : * the luxury of foxmer emperors.^ — 
^odes . . . medias : Suetonius says, that Nero was accustomed to 
prolong his banquets from mid-day to midnight. 

137. Mamque ftanem : ' another appetite/ excited by certain 
provocations, after a drunken debauch. 

138. MdU : L e. quàm Montano,^— Ums : * experienee.' 

139. CSrceù : Circei was a town in Campania^ at the foot of 
mount Circelloy on the sea coast 

140. Lucrinum ad utxum : the Lucrine rocl(s were in the bay 
of Lucrinum, in Campania. — RvJtuvino . . .Jundo : * produced in 
the Rut)ipian bottom,' i.e. dredgeafor in the sea atRutupie (now 
Richborough in Kent). 

144. Dttx magni» :• Domitìan. 

146. Ccfttìs . . « Sy^dkihris : the Catti w«ré a people of 6er- 
many ; tlic i^gaffi«rt,..inhabitants of Guelderland : both these 
people were mrmid(Bible enemies of the Romans. 

148. Pr<Bcij^ pffimà : simply for celerifer, * in nreat haste' — 
'on rapid pinions r'- this is the explcnation givi^n by Kuperti; oth- 
ers explaìn it differently. — Some think the poet refers to' doves or 
swallows, which carried Ictters tied to their feet. — Others think 
that the allusion i^ to the feathers or *)nnn<e, Wom by couriers, as 
a sìgn of baste and speed, upon their heads. Messengers, hear- 
ing good news, worè white. feathers; bad news, black. 

iSs. <:!erd<mibu8 : cerdonta means ali kinds of low mechanics,— 
the plebeians : it is opposed to Lamiarum in the last line. 

Domitian was safe, till he cdmmenced his cruelties against the 
plebeians ; then a conspiracy was fd^rmed against him by several 
persons of mcan birth, who put himto déath in the forty-fifth year 
of his age. 

153. Ijamiarum : by this word we .are to understand nohUs in 
general.-r-The Lamian family was one of the raost noble in Rome. 

From the conclusion of tìus Satire, it is evident, that it was 
wfltten after the death of Domitian. 



JUV. SAT. V. 14d 



SATIRE V. 

Under the pretence of cUssuading the parasite Trebius iìrom 
freqaentìng the tables of the great, J uvenal gives a spirìted and 
minute accoant of the mortifications to which the poor were sub- 
jected by the rich, at those entertainments, to which it was thought 
necessary sometimes to invite them. 

2. MUnà . . . quadra: *at another's expense.' — Quadra lite- 
rally signifies a squcart trencher, 

i Sarmtnius . . . Gcdba : Sarmentus was a Roman knight, 
who, by bis flattery and buffbonery, insinuated himself into the 
favor of Augustus Ctesar, and often carne to bis table, where he 
bore ali manner of insults. — Gaiha was a person of similar char- 
acter in the time of Tiberius. 

5. Quamvis . . . testi : i e. if you can submit to such indigni- 
ties, merely from your love of eating and dnnking, I shall con- 
dder you so destitute of ali principle, tiiat I would not believe 
you though on oath. 

6. Verire . . .frugalius: i. e. the demarids of nature are easily 
supplied. — Metuam : pres. subj. « 

8. Chrepido : a high place on the bank of a river or in the inner 
part of a harbor, or by the road side, where beggars were accus- 
toiped to stand. — Tegetis : teges was a coarse rug, wom by beg- 
gars. 

9. Tardine : se. sit tibi ; * do you esteem so highly.' — Injuria 
otttuB, i. e. caria injuriosd, an entertainment at which you must 
enduro so many sco& and insults. 

10. mie : at a stand for beggars. 

12. Primo . . . oMdorum : be assured, that ah invitation to sup- 
per is considered by the rich as a full recompense for aU your- 
past services. 

17. Tertia . . . ledo : i. e. to fili up a place at the table, which 
would otherwise be vacant 

In the Roman dining room, was a table in the shape of a half 
moon, against the round part whereof three couches were placed, 
every one containing three persons, each of whom had a pillow 
(culcita) to lean upon. 

18. UHh svmus: the wocds of the rich man, giving the invita- 
tion in a fàmiliar way. 

19. Trehiu9 : the name of the parasite, with whom Juvenal is 
conversing. 

22. Sié^rUms dubiis : so early, that it is uncertain whether the 
lìght is from the stars or from the first breaking of the mom. — Se 
. . . circumagurU : * roll slowly round.' ' 

24. Vinum . . . pati : ^ne, which is so poor, that it is not fit to 
soak wool, in order to prepare it for receivmg the dye ; or not 
good enough to scour the grease out of new shom wool. — Suc- 
cida lana : ' new shom wool, with its naturai moisture, — ^greasy.' 

13 • 



150 NOTES. 

35. Cordialità: the Corvbante» were priests of Oybele, who 
danced about in a wUd and frantic manner. 

The wine was so bad and had such an effect upon the gueats, 
who drank it, aa to make them frantic, and turn them luto prieats 
of Cybele, whose gestures they imitated. 

36. Jurgia pndudunt : ' quarrels or reproaches serve as a pre- 
lude.' 

27. Rubra : * red,' stained with the blood of the combatants. 

39. SagunHnà : Saguntum was a city of Spain, fìunous for ita 
earthen toart. 

30. Ipu : your host, the patron bimself. — Diffusum : the wine 
that was poured c«r filled out from the win^ vat into the cask. — 
CajnUato . . . consuU : in ancient times, when consuis wore long 
hair. • 

33. ,^Sbanis . . . numtifnu : the Mtan hUU bore a very pleasant 
grape. The vino ^hino from thoi same place is stili in great 
repute. 

34. Cìi^ua . . . iestìB : the casks had been kept in the cellars 
such a length of time, that they had contracted a movldintsB^ 
which so overspread the outside, as tè conceal every mark and 
character, which had becn impressed upon them. 

36. ThroBta Helvidiua: Thraata Pìbìu3 and his son-in-law, 
Helvidius I^hscus, were both of them patriots and opposers of Nero. 

38. Htliadum crustaa : drinking cupe, made of largo pieces of 
omber. The Hdiades, sisters of Phafithon, bewailing deeply his 
dea^ were changed into poplar or alder trees, from whose bark, 
instead of tears, dropped amber : hence Hdiadum lachryvMB means 
amber; Ovid, Met X,'^^* — ItuEqtuxUs . . .pkialcts: the beryl, a 
precious stono, was inlnid in drinking cups, bere called iruequaleSf 
from the inequality or roaghness of die outward surface, owing to 
the protuberance of the pieces of beryl, with which it was inlaid. 

39. yirro : the name of the master of the feast. 

41. Unguts . . . acutos : *your sharp nails/ lést you should 
makc use of them to pick out the precious stones. 

43. JSTam Virro ... a digilis : the poet now censures the van- 
ity and folly of the nobles, who took the gems out of their rings, 
to omament their drinking cups. 

44; VcLgina fronte : 'hilt of the sword.' 

45. Jnvema prtekUus larba : JQneas, whom Dido preferred as 
a suitor to larbas, king of Getulia. Virg. iEn. IV, 36, and 196 
—218. 

46. 3\i . . . tfuatuor: the cobbler of Benevenhmif by name Va- 
tinius, was remarkable for having a largo nose, as well as for being 
a .drunkard. Hence those glass cups, which had four kantUes or 
spouts, which resemble so many noses, were called calxcts Vati' 
niani. 

48. Quassatum : so cracked as to he hardly fit for use — Rupto 
. . « vitro : it was the custom at Rome to chance away broken 
glass for brimstone matches. 



JUV. SAT. V. 151 

I 

50. DtcoeUL: 'boiled water;' it ma aa inventàoii of Nero to 
have water boUed, and then set in a glaas vessel to cod in heaps 
of snov andice,which hadbeen kepi for use in summer in pkces 
similar to our ice-houses. 

51. Vóbia : L e. clitniQnu vd parasiiia. 

5SL Mam . . . aqaam : while the master of tlie house is drink- 
ing iced water, you are obliged to put up wìth common water. 

53. GiBtìdua : Getulia was a country of Africa, where the in- 
habitants w^re blacks. 

55. Monumenta LaUmt : see Sat 1, 162. 

56. Flos Anà : an Asiatic boy, beautìful, and blooming as a 
Jlower,who had been purchased ai an enormous prìce, waits upon 
the master of the feast 

59. Gatìdum Cronymedem: the poet alludes to the beautiful- 
cup-bearer of Jupiter, and gives bis name to the Gietulian ne|^ 
footboy. 

61. Ptier.-.L e. the Asiatic boy. 

63. Calidai . . . ihinister: *to serre youwith hotoreold water;' 
both these the Romans^ especially in winter time, had at their 
feasts, that the guests might be served with that which they might 
prefer. 

68. Vix fractvm: *broken into pieces with the utmost d^- 
culty.' — Solida . . .farìwB : L e. grown into hard, solid lumps, by- 
being so old and stale, and now ^come mouldy. 

69. QiMB . . . agitent : * which may loosen a jaw-tooCh.' 

71. Dextram conibere : from the fine and nice bread, prepared 
for the patron himself. 

72. Artocopit the slave who cut up the bread, from o^ro^ and 

xó^rroi. 

73. Ponere : for d^onere ; * to lay it down.' 

74. Vis . . . colorem: the words of the bùtler. 

76. Scilicd . . . nimbo : the supposed words of Trebius, vezed 
at finding himself so ili repaid for bis services and attentions. 

77. Montem advtrtum : the Esquiline bill had a very steep as- 
cent It must be supposed to have lain in the par^site's way to 
bis patron's house, and by its steepness to have been a hindrance 
to his speed. — Gtlidas . . . EaqmUaa : its height made it very 
cold and bleak at the top, especially in bad weather. r 

82. Jìspmragis : this word in the plural may bere denote the 
young shoots of varìous herbs with which perhaps it was usuai to 
gamish the dishes. — Qud . . . minisiri: i. e. what a noble tail he 
displays ; with what contempt does he seem to look down upon 
the rest of the banquet, when lifted on high by a tali slave, to be 
placed on the table. 

84. Constrictus: ^shrunk.' — ^Many render it in the senso of 
paratusy coduSf or the like, * dressed^ — seasoned,' (dìmidio wo) 
' with half an egg.' — Ruperti understands it, circumdatum in pa- 
tina oris seciisj ' surrounded in a dish by eggs cut up.' 

85. Exigtià . . . paUUà : the Romans used to place on the 



« 

MpokH&féd of thè dead, to appeitse the 0hfide<i, a smdl disfa, dòn- 
ìàitàBg milk, honey, water, wine, flo^er», a veiy little of each r 
the noiallnestf ef the «fish and of the qnantity seems to be the 
reason of the allusion. ' 

86. h>»e : the master of the hóvtÈe.-^Venafrano : se. eleo ; the 
oil made at Fenqfhm, a city of Campania, wasr the best itì Italy. 

87. Pattidu»: Siekly l^kìi!!g, as if it was hai/ ioUhered. 

89. Mieipéarum : JmcipatR Sa a general name gìven to aH the 
JVumidtafw, from Micipsa^ one of Uieir kingi^. . 'thej were a bar- 
barous people, on the shoife of AfHca, near Algiers, fì'om whence 
the oil cane, which the Romana nsed in their lomps. 

90. BocehtBTt : Bocchar is the name of ose of the IVIaurìtanian 
kings ; used here, probably, for any one of that nation. 

The meaitmg is tìris, — ^tìie Nùmidiana aiid Moors, by anointing 
the]nBeli?<e8 i^tii this oil, became so dìsguadìiti^, that no Roman 
would £o to the same bath with them. 

93. TauromenitaruB rupes : oA the sea-coast, hear Tauromeni- 
um, in Italy. 

95. Mmdh-: * the" market petJplé,^ wftodeal in fish. 

96i ProatiìML-: * the ùeighboring seas.' — ^èc . . . piscem : the 
Roman nobles were so greedy after delicate fish, and such num- 
bere were eaught, that they were nOt snflfered to grow to their 
proper sisie. 

97. lUinc: i. e. from the coasts of a foreign province. 

98. LemoB : some famou» legaCy hunter, who, like the rest of 
liis tribe, was iìi- the* habit of puirchadng wtìatever was rare and 
curious, to present it to soqie rich and childless person, whose heir 
he wa9 desinniB^ ef becoming^-^^ur^lttf : probably this is the name 
of some rich and childless widow, who perhaps, being very ava- 
ricious, was in the habit of sélting the fine fish, which was pre- 
sented to ber. 

101. Cartere : se. JEoHo. 

ÌGSl, Lina : litterally, nets ; but here, by Metonymy, * fishermen.' 

J04- THbermus : ac/pisciè ; * a pike ;' some common and coarde 
fi jii, out of the river Tiber, is here meant, which in the winter 
time, when the Tiber was frozen, contracted spots, perhaps from 
some disorder, to which it might be liaUe. 

105. JTemula riparum : i. e. accustomed to remaìn near the 
bairkR. 

10& Sol&UB . . . Subyr^B : the fish is snpposed to enter the 
mouth of the dtain,that it might meetthe filth in its wayand feed 
upon it. 

107. Ipsi pàuea Ddim : * I would say a few words to the master 
of the feast himself.' 

109. Smeca: L. Anmftus Seneca, the tutor of Nero, was very 
rich and munificent towards bis poor clients. — Piso : L,Càlpumius 
Pia» was fkinoos ftr Ms liberalityi — Cotta : Aìrrelius Cotta was 
distinguishedfor Ms raunificence. 

Ili» Sohtm po^etrtntS'i 'ali we'ask.^ 



JUV. SAT. V. 158 

113» Dwt8 . . . mmei» : L e. when vou «ap alone, fare as ex- 
pensivelyand as Bumptuoosly.as you please (dioea Ubi) ; botidien 
you invite your fhenda and dependants, fare as they do ; if you 
treat them as poor and mean, thus treat yoiuself (pauperamieis), 

114» Jhistris . . .jeeur : tlus was lookedupon as a great dainty 
by the ancient epicurea ; and they, therefore, took eztraordinary 
paìns to increase its size, by subjecting the aniinal to a particular 
kind of regimen. 

115. MUia: from alo; ' fiitted,— ^rammed ;* probably ^aca- 
pon' is here meant 

116. Postkune: the nextdish after die bear. — TkAera: *murii- 
rooms.' 

118. Mc^ares: byaplentìfìiladditionof mushrooms. — JSUdiut: 
some famous epicure. 

119. 'Defunge hove$ : * unyoke your oxen ;' L e. friougfa and 
sow no more, uiat there may be more laad for the production of 
moshrooms or truffles. Afincs was one of the principal granarìea 
of Rome. 

120. I^ructorem: 'canrer,' who is supposed to be peifonmng 
his daties, wìth aome aatic gestures. 

122. MagiHri : i. e. the one who taught him the art of carving.. 
See Sat XI, 196—141. 

123. Nèc . . . refirt : ' nor is reckoned a matter of small concerò.' 

126. .Qicùi . . . hUeere: 'to mutter,' — ^to make the least com- 
plaint' 

127. Tanquam . . . nomina : L e. as if you were a man of 
quality. 

The great men at Rome were distinguished by the pranomeHy 
fioitien, and cofpMmen. 

1^. Qwtdnhgerda: se. auUrUaj; equivalent to a knight's 
estate. 

133. Mdwrfaiii : better and kìnder th|m the fates have been, 
in making you so poor. — Homuncio (in the voe» cau) : this means 
* a poor soriy fellow ;' such was Trebibs in his present conditìon* 

136. jRi&iM : ' daioties ;' Uia literally signifies entrails or bow- 
els, of which some very choice and dainty dishes were prepared. 

He would, in tiie kindest manner, if ^ou should by any gc>od 
luck decerne rich, cali you &rotfter, and mvite you to taste of ali 
the delicacies on the table. 

137. Domùtu» . . . Ulo: L e. if you are desirous of dcnsùneerìng 
not only over dependants, but even their masters, you must be 
childless, without son or daughier to iuherìt your estate. See 
Ma. IV, 328, 329. 

141. ^^ne : L e. after you bave become rich. — Jl^cole ; tìie 
mistress of Trebius. 

142. Ipse : Virro hìmself. 

^ 144. Minimai nuees : u e. Aodkmas (filberts), vel potiùs, rea 
ifùmmi pretiiy quales sunt nueeg, 
Ì46, AncipiU$ . • . fungi : there are several speoies of the 



IM MOTIQS. 

niiahrooBi kM^ftome of whieh we poisonòws *^ iìt 'm «òmèl&iDes 
«Uifficult to diiiling«ÌBh them ; the eater) tlteréfore, caimot be cer- 
lain tiwt he is safe. 

Tiie poet> after bis diffreesion, on the mean veMdHjr of soeh 
«len as VÌJTo, (who ìwoida fmy the utaiost attentioB to thosé {tàen, 
whom tfaej noir treat wkh the greateet eoatempt, if by any ^cet- 
^en^ thc^ fihonid becouie neh,) ilow retàn» to his main cntl^ect, 
the ili treatment, which the poor receive at the taWea of the 
neh. 

147. BoUtus : a mushroom of the wholeBome asd beat sort 

146. .^nte iU^im wseris :* Aginppixì^y the mother óf Neró^ Imd 
aister to Calìgula, the wife of Claudius, destroyed her htisbaBcl, 
by mùàiig poiaoii ia a firaahroom, which ahe gave him to eat 

149. yirrotvUms : i. e. rich men like hims^ . 

151. Pk/ttacìun : the PhtuKimu irete a pròple tX the island 
Corfo, or Corcyira^ in the loBian sea, irfaere tìiete was feigneé to 
he WLmpetutd entiumn, aboimding with the choiceiBtyriiày. 

15^. Sororibua A/ria : i. e. the Hesptrides, See Class. Diét. 

153. Th . . . capdiài Tvrìous interpretatiòns bave b^n gfiven 
x)f this passale, but none are eotireiy satisfectory. One leadin^ 
of tòe 155Ch lise ia, Dnek nò kirméa jwcìàum fof ^ w i t CàtpéUdy 
according to which we are to understand CitpeUa \Jo bé the kiamè 
of a «cnfortotii 

By Vfgg^art the Prtttorìan ùunp, neur the waìls of Rome, ès in- 
tended. — By qui t^itur, &c. (se. aimiusy as antecedent to fm^ 
the sporta of the aoidlers of the Prstonan camp are aOaded to ; 
one of which was (according to Leo Afncanus) to dress an ape 
l^<^ a soldier and %emh him to huii a jain^n from the back òf a 
goat, as a soldier hurls his from that of a hc^se, 

156. AtmIoa .... doieas e i e* you may perha^ ^ink that 
Virro treats you in this poor manner, to save expense ; but you 
are mistaken, h^ does it to yes yòu^ and then to langh at yóia. 

157. ^ùm * • » iftetort i i e. there caiì be no tmnetfy more pleas* 
Ing, no btffh&n mote laug^ble, than li ^appointed gluttony be- 
fnoa»mg hiniself with teaM of anger and resentment at such 
«retched farei, and gnastaùtg and grating his teeth together, bar- 
tng nothhig to put between tììetlì,4o keep them asnnder. 

158. Ergo i this Une is thus divided t 

Quis mèK- I ór piò- I ràntè. gù- | l'erga | òtnnlà | f iQnt 
The o in ergo is preser^ed fh>m elision. 

164. EtrvscuM , , . aurum : the ^ld«n boM or huUa was adopt- 
ed by the Romane from the EtruHans» and at first was wom only 
by the children of the nobility ; afterwards, by ali free-bohi : it 
was in the shape óf a heart, and worn befofe the breast, to pfompt 
them to the study of wisdom. 

165. Vd nodua . . . loro i a huUa or hósa of leather, a sigfh or 
note of fVeemen, wom by the poorer sort of ehildren, ancTsus- 
pended at the breast by a leathern thong» 

The meamnfr i^ that fio ooe tronld beiu: such insulting treat- 



JUV. «AT. VI. jU(5 

mmU one would thinki a secpnd tkae, ^lihfttever U» Htaatkm in 
tifò imgbt be, whether of a noble or of a freedhUMUi^ ftunfly. 

166. I^es . . . decipit: i. e. yourglutton^gatslàe batter ofyour 
reflectipQ, aad deceives you iotp n notìon, that yovL wiU Ve better 
treated apother. tune.— ^JBcce . . . MUù-:^ tliis is the-sopposed re»- 
(soning of Trebius on the ^uiyecU 

171. Pulsandum . . . amcQ: ié e., you wOIsood beaiare abject 
stili ;. liJcc sl&v:eB whose heads 9m sbaaran, inrtokea' of their semle 
condition, you will submit to a^bradceniliflad.; yoawìil not^mind a 
sound flogging ; and you wiU prove youniel£ wortl^ of tìie poor 
fare, with whicb, yqu bave been inaulted^ and deaerving' no better 
friend, than VirrQ who hae dexided yau« 



SATIRE VE 



This is not only the longe^ biut the. mo8£^ complete- af- our aU' 
thor's Works. With respect to bis other S«ilix»£i| 9omSi.ci thèm 
are distinguished by one excellence„and sppie. b^aDOther ; bui 
in this he has combined them ali*. Forcihle inaJTgHBiaiit) flowing 
in diction, bold, impassioned, and subUme.; it>sfienMa0.if thepoet 
had rìsen with bis theme, and, con3CJQiif^ of its extaDt,.taKed.all 
hÌ9 powers.to do it justice. 

The whole of this Satire i^^abitterinvcictive a^ioat:the female 
sex, and the poet endpavors to dissuada bis fiiend. Uiaidius Pos- 
tumua fìrom marnale, at the exp^nse of the whole seXit 

It would seem, n-om internai evideoce^- that tbù^ Satine. wa9 
written under Domitian. It hasr few politioal ailusions ; and 
might not, from its subject, perhaps, bave been displeaaing to that 
ferocious hypocrite, who affected,. at vaàoua- tioiea, a wonderful 
anxiety to restrain the licentiousness of.the.age.. 

1. Saturno : tlie son of CcUum and Terrea;, underihia reiga in> 
Italy the poets place the golden age. 

3. harem: ttar signiAes a god, who^ imag^iwaa keptwithin 
the house aiid set in the chimney or on the hearth,.aj|d was sup* 
posed to preside over and protect the house- and ,land< 

5. Mòrdarut . . . uxfir:. ^ the . mountain wile.;' i*.e<.li9ing in dena 
and caves of the mountains. 

7. Cynthia: mistress to the poet Prppertius^ ber. tme name 
was Hostia. — JVec tibi . . . oceUfis : alluding to JteMckf mistresa of > 
Catullus, whose true nanne was Claudia ^ she bewailed moch the 
deaih of a sparrow ; on this subject Catullua wrote^ an elegy. 
Catull. Ili, 18. 

9. Potanda,. . . ma^Ì9<: according to Heaiod,. in. the golden 
age, men mre accounted. infanta^ and uxid^r: the caxeof their 
moUier, till near a hundred years old. Potanda well soits this 
idea, for men mlght.rajMier.be said.to dHiu(;,tli«n to auck 



156 NOTEd. 

10. OUmdÈmrweianie : tiie filat race of men wète stipposed to 
have fed on acoms. 

IL CWo.- «Cheùr.' , , 

13. Qift . . . nati : in aacient time« meìi were sopposed to be 
boni of treea. The notion carne irom their ìnhabiting the tfunks 
of lar^ trees. Virg. ^n. Vili, 315. 

la Ctn^poiìiwe Udo : by Prometheos. See Class.. Die t 

15. Sub Jwe : when Jupiter had drìven bis father Satam ìnto 
banishment, the Silver age commenced. 

16. Oracia . . . àUeriua : L e. in those days of innocence, men 
had Dot the trick, afterward so common, of binding themselves 
by the most solemn aaseverations to an untruth. 

li is weli known, that the Greeks were as mach talked of for 
their bad faith, as the Carthaffinians, and that they were in the 
habit of sweanng not only by Jupiter, but by the other gods, and 
by men, by themselves, their own heads, &c. , 

18. Éi vwtnt : • and every one lived.* 

19. Jbtraa: the goddess of Justice. 

20. Hàe : Chastìty .—Du<e . . . smrores : Justice and Chastity. 
82. Concuiere: *lo vietate.' 

25w Convenium : Juvenal begins bere to expostulate with bis 
friend Ursidios, on bis intention to marry. 

27. Pignus : i. e. the ^^dding rin^. 

28. Sanu» enu : *■ you were once m vour senses,^ before the 
intention ofmarrying entered^our head. 

90. Dominam : a wiiè to mannize over you. 

32. JErnùiuspons: *the iÉmilian bridge,' built ov^r the Tiber 
by .^milìus Scaurus, about a mile irom Rome. 

The poet intimates, that death in any shape is preferable to a 
tyrannicai wife. 

33. Lej Mia : against adultery. 

34. Cariturus . . . magno : persons, that were rich, without 
children, were oourted with vidnable presents by fawnìng syco- 
phant3, in hopes of becoming their heirs. 

39. Quem . . . Latini : the comedian Liotinus played upon the 
stage the gallant to an adulteress, who, upon the unexpected 
return of ber husband, locked him up in a chttt; a part, it 
scems, that had often been realized by Ursidius in bis younger 
days. 

4W). quid: *what shail we say more ?'-^Qtc^ . . . giutritur: 
i. e. that he is mad enough to expect a chaste wife ? 

41. Mediam • . . venam : it was usuai to bleed mad people in 
the middle vein of the arm. 

. 42. Tarpeium Umen : the Capitoline bill, where there was a 
tempie of Jupiter, was also called the Tarpeian bill, op account 
of Tarpeia, a vestal virgin, who was there killed and%uried by 
the Sabines. 

43. Auratam . . . Juwmi . . . juvencam : Juno was esteemed the 



JUV. ^AT. VI. 157 

p&tronMa òf mania^ uid the ^renger of adultery. To ber was 
saerìficod a lìeifòr with gilded homs. 

45w Ceferia . . . digrus : the priestesses of Cerea were to be 
ehaste matress alone ; theìr heads were bound with fillets^ and 
noflc but chaste women were to assist at her feasts. 

4(1. Quorum . . . os<^a : i. e. the Roman wojnen were so lewd 
«nd debauched, that it was faardly safe for their own fathers to 
kisfl them. — JWcte . . . corywbos : upon wedding days, the common 
|»eopie crowned their doors and door-posts with ivy boughs ; but 
persona of fortune made use of latarel, and built scaffolds in the 
streets for people to see the nuptial ceremony. 

4@. iberinfB : the lady to whom Ursidius was about to be married. 

51. Oabiis : Gàbii was a town of the Volsci, about ten miles 
fh>m Rome. 

52. Fidenia : Fiden^R was a city of ItaJy. — ugello cedo paterno : 
i. e. ti» ageUo quidem paterno ^am caste vixisse cech (concedo] ; 
* I yield the father's country seat :' — I grant what you say about 
her vìrtue, while at her ftither's house, in the country. 

54. Adeò senuerunt : ' grown so old.' 

55. PorHeibua : 'in the porticoes ;' these Were a sort of piazza, 
covered over to defend people from the weather, in some of which 
the Roman ladies used to meet for walking. 

56. SpecUusula : the theatres and other public places for shows 
and games. 

60. Longa . . . lauro : see note to line 46, JVecte, 
63. JVstucKneo . . . conopeo : * in a sumptuous bed.' — Lentule : 
in the name which Juvenal bere gives bis friend Postumus^ he 
faad in view a curious anecdote which is handed down to us by 
Valerius Maximus. LcTitìdus and Metellus, the consuls, were 
observed, by ali the spectators at a play, to be extremely like a 
second and third rate actor, then on the stage. 

63. Exprimat: 'resemble.' 

64. Ludiwn : this line is thus divided : 

NQptà sé- I nàto- | ri còmi- [ tàt'èst | Hippià | ludiùm. 
Lzi^um contracted by synsresis into ludyum, — Hippia : she 
wa3 the wife of Fahrtdxis VeicntOf a man of scnatorial dignity, in 
the tìme of Domitian. 

65. Famosa : infamous for ali manner of luxury and dcbauch- 
ery. — Mania Lagi : Alexandria, where Ptolemy, son of Lagus^ 
the first of Grecian kings, reigned, after the death of Alexander 
tòe Great. 

66. Prodigia . . . Canopo : L e. even Canopus, a town of Egypt^ 
noted for the dissoluteness of manners, condemned, and was dis- 
gusted with tìie profligacy of the Roman ladies. 

69. Paridem : Paris was a handsome young actor, the favorite 
of Domitian. 

70. Pluìnà : piuma signifies a small or sofl feather, — ^ down.* 
llie poet is bere describing the tender, as well as costly, manner, 
in which Hippia had been brought up from a child ; and, among 

14 



158 NOTES. 

other paxticulars, he alludes to the soft and downy bed, on which 
she ased to He at ber father's house. Notwithstanding which, 
when the gfratification of her lust was in question, shè not only 
could forget ali tbis, bui bid defiance to the boisteroua sea, and 
contemn ali its dangers and inconveniences. 

73. Mollea . . . caihtdras : literally soft or easy cliairSi in which 
ladies were carried, — a sort of covered sedan : or» by caihtdra»f 
may be meant the strattB cathedra, aofi chairs or couchts, on which 
the ladies reposed themselvca. But bere, by Metonymy, it is put 
for ' the ladies' themselves. 

7G, Mutandum . . . mare : so many different seas were to be 
passed over, in going from Rome to Egypt, — Justa , . . audent : 
the poet represe nts women as bold and daring in the pursuit of 
their vices, timorous and fearful of every thing, where duty calle 
them. 

81. Stniina : the bold or part of the ship, where the pomp is 
fixed and the bilge-water collects and putrìiìes. — Summus . . . 
tUr : ' the sky over her head tums round,' and makes her giddy. 

85. Forma et juventà : for formoso homine etfuvene, 

86. Ludia : a ' stage-player's wife,' which Hippia, by going off 
with Sergius, the gladiator, might properly be called. 

87. Serffiolus : the dimin. of Sergius, used bere in derision, a^ 
satirizing her fondness for such a fellow. — Radere guttvr : young 
men began to shave at the age of twent^-one : he had already 
begun to shave is to be understood ironically, intimating that 
Sergius had done this for many years, and was now an old 
fellow. 

88. Sech , . . lacerto : in fighting as a gladiator, he had proba- 
bly been wounded in one of his anns, which could not add much 
to the beauty of his figure. — Requiem : i. e. mdssionem» 

90. Attritus galea : the helmet, by rubbing the skin off bis 
forehead, had leil a scarred and disagreeable appearance. 

91. Gibbus : * wen.' — Acre tnalum : * a sbarp rheum.' 

95. Rude : the rudis was a rod, given to gladiators, in token of 
their release or discharge from the duties of a sword-player. 

If Sergius had rcceived his discharge and should cease to be a 
gladiator, he would be as indifferent to her and as little regarded 
OS her liusband Veiento. 

96. Hippomanes: * love-potions.' 

97. Privìgno : to put him out of the way, in order to make 
room for a son of their own. — Fc^iunt . . . petcant : i. e. what 
tbey do from lust is less mischie vous, than what they do from 
anger, hatjred, malice, and other evil principles, which govem 
their actions and may be said to rule the sex in general. 

99. Optima . . . rnarilo : the poet now sbows the power, which 
women get over their husbands, by bnnging them large for- 
tunes. 

100. Bis . . . dedU : * she brought him a fortune of one thousand 
Sestertia' (about $35,700). 



JUV. SAT. VI. 159 

101. ^ec . . . macer est : * he nevet pined for love.' — Lampade : 
the torch of Cupid or Hymen. 

102. lìidè : from her large fortune. 

He glows with no other flame, than what is kindled by the love 
of money. 

103. lÀberlas : the privilege of doing as she pleases. — hmiiai : 
make signs to Jier lover. 

104. Vidua : L e. she is responsìble for her conduct to nobody 
l)ut herself. 

105. Cur : the poet continues to satirize the female sex. Hav- 
ing shown, that some women are married only for their fortunes, 
he now says, that others receive attentìons in consequence of 
their extemaJ beauty ; while this lasted, they were admired and 
indulged in a kind of sovereignty over their husband ; but when 
their beauty decayed, they were repudiated, turned out of doors, 
und others taken in their stead. 

112. IrUerea : in th« days of her youth and beauty. — Calet : 
she glows with the rage of dominion over her husband. 

113. Canusinam : Canusium was a town of Apulia, on the 
tlver Aufidius ; it afibrded the best sheep and the finest wool in Ita- 
ly, which nature had tinged with a cast of red. — Ulmos . . . Fa- 
lemoè : vines were made to • grow round elms ; therefore eltns 
bere denoto the vinety and so the m'm. itself, by Metonymy. Fa- 
hmian toine was esteemed the best. 

114. Pueros omnes et ergastvla tota: 6C. poscit, — Ergastvla: 
these were places where slaves were set to work : here the word 
secms to denote the slaves themselves, numbers of whom (whole 
workhouses full) must be purchased, to gratile the lady. 

116. Mercator . . . lason : the merchant, who encounters the 
dangers of the seas in ali climates, for the sake of gain ; alludìng 
to Jason^s dangerous enterprise after the golden fleece. 

117. AriìuiHs : *prepared for sea.' — Casa candida: i. e. the 
houses white with frost and snow. 

118. ToUurdur: 'are taken up on the credit of her husband.' 
— Crystdllina : * crystal vases.* 

119. Murrhina : ho^rìa made of myrrh, which was supposcd 
to giva a fine flavor to the wine. Beronices : Beronice or Beren- 
ice, was the daughter of Agrippa, king of Judiea, whose young- 
est son, Agrippa, was suspected of an incestuous commerce with 
her. 

121. Barhams : the Romans, as well as the Greeks, called ali 
people, but themselves, harharians, 

122. Ubi : in Judsea. — Mero : nudò. 

124. JSTuUa . . . videtur : the words of Postumus, to which the 
poet replies in the next verse. — Gregihìis : numbers of ladies. 
• 126. Porticibtts . . . disponat : distinguished families were in 
the custom of placing the images of their ancestors in porticoes 
or galleries, about tl^ir houses : the poet, therefore, means, let 
her be of high rank, as well as beautiful, &c. 



160 NOTE& 



126. inloofìor : ' more chaste.' — Omm . • . Sabina : tJhiémgto 
tlie war between the Romana and Sabìnes, wbkh wts end«d bf 
the mediation of the Sabine females. 

128. RaLra . . • cycno : a proverbiai expresaion, refeixing to the 
phcenix. 

130. Fenusinam : * a country girl ùom Yenusium.' 

135. Pcurce . . . aìhà : the poet proceeds to say, that fruitfulitess 
là oflen a cause of arrogance in a woman, and illustrate! it by 
referencc to Niobe. — Ptian : * Apollo :' either from w«»w, to «trikc 
because he struck and slew the serpent Python with hi» arrows ; 
or from ntu&v, a physician : Apollo waa the fabled god of physic. 
— Dea : ' Diana^ who slew àie seven daughters of Kiobe, as 
Apollo slew the sons. 

137. Amphion : the husband of Niobe. 8ee Class. Dict. 

In this aUusion to the story of Niobe and ber children, the 
poet shows, that the pride of women is sucb, as not only to harass 
mankind, but even to be levelled at and provoke the goda them- 
selves, so as to bring down min on whole families. 

138. fysumque paartnUm : ' and Amphion himself.* 

140. Scrofa . . . alba : * than the white sow,' found by Maess^ 
near Lavimum, which brought thirty pigs at a litter, and whieh 
directed him where to build the city or Alba, 

141. Ut se , • . impuUi : L e. iJtaJt she ahould always be reckot^ 
ing up ber good qutuities to you. 

142. Hvjua rari summiqiu Òom ; i e. gravitatis et forma. 
144. Quù . . . horis : though he may praise ber highly in some 

respects, yet ber ili temper and pride must excite disgust and 
detestation for many Lours of the day. 

149. JJe Tuacà Grmcvla: the custom of speaking the Ghreek 
language v/as very common at Rome^ especially among the 
higher ranks ; and the ladies, however ignorant of their own 
language, were very fond of mixing Grcek phrases in their con- 
versation. 

150. De Sulmonensi . . . Cecropia: the inhabitaanU of Suhnoy 
a town of Peliprnum, spoke a barbarous Latin dialect; while the 
Cecropicm8j or people of Atbens, made use of the purest and most 
elegant Greek. 

153. Quid ultra : se, JacicufU* 

154. Si tibi , . . volv/tdas : the poet places thia dilemma before 
PosUimus : you are about to love your wife, or you are not ; ì£ 
you are not, why do you marry and inour «seless expenses } if 
you are about to love ber, you will be wretched and wiU be treat- 
ed as a slave. — Legitimis . . . taheUis : ' by such contracts as are 
required by law.' 

156L Canam : i. e. nupiialem ctemmu — Mustocea : \hese were 
cakes, made of meal, aiuse-seed, cununin, and other ingredients, 
moistened with mustum^ new wine, (whence, probably thename); 
they were of a carminative kind anii wcre used at weddiags.^-— 
P^das : * throw away the expense.' - 



JUV. SAT. VI. 161 

157. Labente qficto : this means the latter end of the feast, 
when the company was about retìring, their dtUy being almost 
ended; (or as we should sajj the company havìng paid their re^ 
spects ;) at thìs perìod, the bride-cakes were distributed among 
the guests. — Crudis : * to guests having weak stomachs/ 

159. Dacicus : a gold coin, having the image of Domitian on it, 
so called from his pretended conquest of the Ihcians. — Ger- 
manicua: this was also a gold coin, hearing the image of Do- 
mitian. 

A considerable sum of both these kinds of eoin was placed 
in a hroad disk, and presented by the husband to the bride on the 
wedding night. — Scripto . . . auro : i. e. having the name, image, 
and title of the emperor inscribed upon them. 

162. Porcai amanti : ' would spare a lover ;' i. e. will not take 
advantage of a man's affection to use him ili. 

163. Jtrdeai . . . spoliis : i. e. though she love to distraction, 
she delights in plaguing and plundering the man who loves her. 
' 164. Igitvar . . . maritua : the better husband a man is, the more 

she will tyrannize over him ; an honest ìnan, therefore, who 
would make a good husband, will find, that of ali men he has 
the least reason to marry, and that a wife will he of less use to 
him than to a man of a different character. 

167. Hàc : this wife of yours. 

168. H<Bc . . . affectus : * she will direct your affection ;' — dic- 
tate to you in what manner you are to treat your friends ; whom 
you are to like, whom to dislike. 

170. Ttstandi . . . ìuEres: ali the Ronians, even the most infa- 
mous, had the power of making their wills. 

Panders, prize-fighters, and gladiators, bave the liberty of mak- 
ing their wills, but your wife will dictate yours, and name many 
of her pàramours, your rivals, as heirs to your estate. 

171. Jhenft: by Metonymy, * gladiators.' 

173. Pone . . . servo : an order given ,by the wife to her hus- 
band ; — ^masters had the power of crucifying slaves, which was 
the usuai way of putting them to death. — Meruit . . . longa est : 
the Words of the husband remonstrating against this barbarity. 

174. Alidi : i. e. bear the charge which may he brought against 
him, and his defence. 

176b O demens . . . voluriias : the words of the wife, who insists 
that her unU is a^ufficient reason, 

178. Regna : i. e. her husband's realms, over which she had 
ruled, to make new conquests of other men. 

170. Flammea : * brìdsd veils ;' they were of yellow or flame 
color, and were thrown over the face of the bride during the 
mi^rrìage ceremony. 

180. Spreti . . . lecH : she leaves her pararaours, and comes 
back agam to the man whom she first left. 

183. Odo mariti : eight divorces were allowed by the Roman 
law,ì>eyond that was reckoned adultery. 
14* 



Hft NOT£S. 

183. Ihtpenmdm: the proAig«cy of tbe femaie MX tf aow 
exhibited m another view ;-*« vother-in-law, diaturbing liie 
peace <^ a ftinily, and proiDoting the ki&dLeJiiy of a daugfater to 
her husbaad. 

186. J^udi : ^ deprìved of ali he haa.' 

187. TaUlUsi Utteria amaiariU* 

189. Corpare . . . •^cJngenem : the old lady preteads skimes», 
an^ sends fi>r a phyaiciui, {ArMgene^y tlie naoie of some phy^ 
aician), whom her daughter's gallant is to personate. 

190. Onerosa . . .jactai : as if in a high fòver, * she tàrows off 
the heavy bed clothes.' 

191. Ahdiiìi» . . • adidter : an opportuiùty is thus preseolied of 
secreting, in her apaftment, the gallafi^ till the daisghter cornea 
under the pretence of visiting her aick mother. 

193. Uide . . . iurpem : since by aeeisting in the proatitution 
of her daughteìr, ahe becoroea rich from ike presenta she re- 
ceives. 

195. MuUa . . . paraia : the poet now attacks the litigiousness 
of femoles. 

197. Per se : i. e. rum adjunxniejma p^riU. 

198. Celso : the name of an eminent fawyer. 

199. Endromidins . . . neseU : women had the boldneas to pritc- 
lise fencing, to anoiut themselves with wrtsUsr's oil (eeronna), 
and to put on rugs (endromiidtt), aller tbeir exercìse, to prevent 
taking cold ; but these rvgSy to shew tbeir pride, were efycd 
with Tyrian pvrple. 

200. PaU : the Palus was a stake fixed in the ground, about 
six feet high, at which they Went tiirough ali the exercises of ,a 
fencer, by way of preparatios» for a real ligb^ 

201. Quam camt : hollow plaees w^re formed in the stake by 
continuai thrusts of weapons at it. Swor ds, naade of wood, were 
the instruments made use of» in practàsing the art of fencing* — 
Scìdoque lacessit : i. e. presenting their shlelds to the post as to a 
real cnemy, as if provoking and gaarding agaÌAst «A attack. 

202. Omnes . . . numeros: 'goes through ali the exeirctae.' 

203. FloraU . . . itdM : the Scorai gamea» celebf ated ist honor 
of tlie goddess Flora, wef e celebrated ^vith vile indecency by 
])arlots, who assembled at the sound of a intanptL — JSRsi . . • 
arena : unless slie c^tually means to appear upon the stagoaa a 
gladiator ; otherwise, one vvould-thùik, she was prepazing for t^ 
Fiorai games. 

206. Vires : * feats of strength.' 

209. Baltetis : ' a sw<M'd-belt,' wom by soldiers and |»Ì2e-fìght- 
ers. — MantcfB : armed gloves to defend the band. — Cri^m : creste^ 
of tufls of horse-hùr, or of plumes of feathers, worn on heknets. 
— Cruris . . . tegimen : the ìower pait of Ùte left leg, as being 
most exposed to blows, from the position taken by pnze-fighters, 
was coverod with a atout buskia ; the upper part was defended 
by the shield. 



JUV, SAX. VI. 1(8 



«21Q. Dwers» . • .preflia : sueh as tìioee of tlie JSeKam or Jltr- 
miZIone^, who wore & sort of boots on their lega, 

211. Pudld : i. e. ^our young wife. 

212. Quartttn ddicicu : ^ whose delicate bodies.' 

214. Monstratos . . . tcfu« : the thrusts or hitSf pointed out to 
hor by her"fencuig master. — Per/erat: per/ero si^nifies *to 
carry or convey to a designed perscm or place ;' perferre iett» 
may therefore be a technical expression for a fencer making 
his thrust, by which he conva/s Ùie hit or stroke to bis adver- 
sary. 

215. Qutmta : ^ how firmly,' — * with what an air.' 

216. Quam denso . . . libro : ' with how thick a foldJ^Faaeia : 
this was a band or roller, wound by prize-fighters round their 
thighs and le^. 

218. Lepidi : Mmiliua Lepidus. 

219* GurgiHs aut Fàbii: 'or of Fabius Gurges.' See Class. 
Dict 

220. Asyli : Asylus was a famous gladiator. 

When did an actress e ver dr@ss IDse these matrona ? or when 
did the wijfe of a gladiator ever behave as these ladies, fencing 
at a post, dressed as men, and pushing at the mark with the same 
noise, that man make ? 

223» Tunc : i. e. quum in lectoj<icet, 
• 227. ^[^d : this line may be thus divided; 

in stati- I ònè su- | d àt- | qu' éxspèc- | tàntibùs | dlàm. 

The a in sua preserved from elision. 

230. Qua . . . vMRcJuB : what a discovery of love-letters would 
be made, if the cabinet of the adulteress was ope&ed, who ali 
this whìle is ende*avoring to persuade you, that she is jealous of 
you, and that she grieves, as an innocent and injured woman. 

233. Miqvem . . . colorem : * some color of an excuse' for «uch 
behavior. 

234. Hf^remìis . . . ipsa : ^ we (Quintilian, the orator, and I, the 
pòet,) are at a loss,^ — we can render no excuse — therefore, 
* speak thou,' (addressed to the wife). — Inquit : * says the wife.' 

237. Homo sum : ' I am a human Deing ;' homo is a name com- 
mou to US both, and so are the frailties of human nature ; and 
since we mutually agreed to do as we liked, you bave no just 
cause of complaint. 

238. Iram: anger, to resent reproofs.— .^mmoa : courage, to 
defend what they bave done. 

239. linde . . . reqairis : the poet is now about to trace the 
prc^igacy of the Roman women to the true sources* — ^to the 
banisbment of poverty, labor, and industry, and to the mtroduc- 
tion of rlches, idleness, and luxury. 

242. Veliere Tosco : the Tuscan wool was mamifactured at 
Rome by women. 

243. ProximMS . • . Hannibal : Hannibal, after hanng de£e«beé 
the Romans at Canne, marched towards Rome and encanped 



164 NOTES. 

V 

within three miles of the city ; this obliged the Romana to keep 
Constant guard. 

244. CoUinà : turre : one of the gates of Rome was on a hill 
and called Porta CoUina : on this there was probably some tower, 
garrisoned by the people. 

248. Atos . . . colle» : the seven hills, òn which Rome was 
built ; bere used for the city or the tnhabùants of the city. 

349. Syharis . . . Rhodos . . . MUetos . . . Tartntum : cities, in- 
famous for tbeir effeminacy, lewdness, and debauchery. 

250. Coronatuniy petulans, madidum : the allusion by corona- 
tum is to banquets, at which the guests were crowned with gar- 
lands : — ^by pdulansj to the jests or saucy speeches of revellers : 
— ^by madidum, to general habits of drunkenness. 

253. Venus . . . ebria : i. e. a woman adding drunkenness to 
lewdness. 

254. Ut speetet , . . cantXtxd : another fault in women is no- 
ticedy — ^their extravagance and desire of appearing neh and 
noble. 

255. Sdlam : this may mean a stai at the theatre, as well as a 
chair to he carried thither. — Cerviccd : a cushìon or pillow to lean 
on. — Amicas : female friends, who may appear as her clients and 
dependants. 

256. Flavam . . ^pudlam: shining yellow hair was reckoned 
a great beauty, insomuch that ^ava pudlà was equivalem to pul- 
ehra putUa, 

258. Levihus athletis : ' to smooth-faced wrestlers.' 

265. Exhaustà . . . Tmmmtis : alluding to a notion very gene- 
rally received among the ancients, that mines, after being ex- 
hausted, sometimes reproduced their ores. Or it is a metaphor, 
taken from the faUing of seeds (a cadendo — reddivus), which, 
though they may be thrown into the earth, and seem to have per- 
ìshed, yet spring up and produce fruit. 

268. MdUtu . . . pratoribìis : * no public performer can keep 
himseìf safe.' 

2i3i), Organa : organum is a general name fbr ali musical in- 
strumenta. 

If the lady be a musician herself, she observes no moderatien ; 
she does nothing else, but play from morning to night. 

270. Dtìisi . . . sardonyches : * sardonyxes,' (used bere for 
ali kinds of precious stones) ' thick set, sparkle over the whole 
Iute.' 

' 271, Crispo . . . pectine : * with the quivering quill.' — ^They 
struck the stringa sometimes with their fingers, sometimes with 
a piece of icory (pecten) made in the form of a quiU, 

272. Hedymeles : some fashionable musician. — Opera» dedit i 
' performed ;' — ^ made use of in playing.' 

273. Plectro : pléctrurUf from nXt'^aaoì, to strìke, as well as 
peden, was the quiU or instrument with which the strings were 
struck. 



JUV. SAT. VI. t45 

274. Lam un r w n : th» wm a noUe fàmily-y desc^aded ftxNa Ita- 
«MM^ tbe kiag and foonder of tke city Fonaite, in Campwiift. 

275. Janum Vtstamqwt : Jatws and Vesta were the most aa- 
cient and the fini deities of the Roouuw. 

276. CcmitoUnam . . • ^nierciim •* Domitian inftituted sport» in 
hcmot of Jupiter CapMiuMUy which were c^brated evenr fifUi 
year ; the Victor waa rewarded with an oaktn croum, — PM» : 
the name of some 6voriie rausician. 

277. IKdUnu zjidts signifies any stringed instrument ; faence 
the English word fiddU, 

278. TriaUbus: giving over their patient 

280. CUharà: by Metonymy, 'a hupw.' — Diclata . . . veréa : 
* the prescribed fonn of prayer.' 

. 261. Aperta . . . o^wSl : fìrom the appearu^ce aod «tate of the 
entraik of the victims, the aoothsayeni foretold future events. 

283. lEs : such votarìes as these. — Magna . . . apud vom ; L e. 
the goda must bave an idle time of it, if they can attend to such 
fmyeTS and to such sabjects as fiddlers and actora. 

Javenal, in thia and some other passagea, rìdicules the Roomb 
mythok^. 

286. Paricosug . . . htanuptx : the ééatìuayer^ who m obliged 
^ stand 80 long and listea to such ptayers, will bave swdkn 

l«g». 

289. Paludatis : dressed in the paktdoumenhtmf which was a 
general's white or purple robe, in which he marched ojatof Eome 
on an ezpedition. 

290. Rectàfaeie: ^with an unembanrassed looà^' — SbrieHaquA 
mamiUis : ' and with her bosom bare,' 

2^1. H<Be : the poet aow «asails the sex as being gossips and 
tale-bearers. 

292. Secreta . . . pueri : some scanéalous story of «n intrigue 
between a step-mother and her son-^n-law, 

296. Q^uotdamfacit : < some she invents ' oui of her cwn inutgi^ 
aation. — Isse . . • populos : that the J^Piphatesy a river of Armenia^ 
had overflowed the country and drowned the inhabitaiits. 

2^. JVìitare . . . subMert : in consequence of earthquakes. 

304. Ikiminum : ' the owner' of the dog. 

306. Conehas : this word may signiiy l^xes, or shtHs foj oint- 
ments, to he used at the baths. — Castra : ^ baggage f things of 
varìotts sorts, used at the baths, which the poet humorooely calls» 
fìrom their variety and number, castra^-^^Moveri i * to be woughl 
after ber.* 

308. Gravi . . . massa : to promote perspùratìon, before they 
went into the baths, they were in the habit of swinging twQ 
heavy masses of lead. 
- 309. hderta: while the mistress of the house ìs at the bath. 

aia RMcundula : ' fiushed in the £ice>* 

311. GSnophorum: from olvog, wine, and ^i^w, to canry ; avessi 
sei, probably of a lacge aize, €m conveying wiiie« 



lee NOTES. 

B13. SexlarìuB alter : * a second sextarìus ;^ implying, that sfate 
bad dnmk one before. The sexlarius held nearly a pìnt' and a 
lialf. 

313. Rabidam . . . orexim : * a ravenous appetite.* 

314. Redù : Ma brought up again ;' — ^is Vomited iip. 

315. Mamwribtis . . . óUt : i. e. the wiae, brought up from ber 
stomach, guBhes on the marble pavement like a riveKy or she 
vomita into a hatùn, which smella of the wine, thrown ap from 
her atomach. 

318. Mmseat : * aickena at the sight' ^ 

320. ^noscit Elissa : * finda ezcuaea for Dido.* 

323. Cedurd . . . pidsurì : oratore and grammarians are repre- 

sented by the poet as unable to contend i^th thia leamed lady : 

«he vociferatea so londly, that neither a public crier^ nor a bab- 

bling lawyer, nor any or the company present, can edge in a sin- 

327. Jam nemo . . . lufUB : an ancient superatition prevailed, 
that eclipsea of the moon were oCcaaioned by charme and incan- 
tationa, againat which nothing could prevali, «xcept the beating 
of brasa, aounding of trumpets^ and noises of a aimilar kìnd. 

^3^ impowk . . . himuHB : i. e. ahe draws the line, as it were, 
ìiiceiy distin^iahÌDg) after the manner of philoaophérs, on the 
aubject of etoica. defining tliQ hontstum^ the utile, thepulchrvm^ 
mi where each begina and enda. 

331. Cmrt , . . porcum : the dreaa of philoaophera waa a coat, 
that canie no lower than the iraà \eg, They used to offer a hog 
io St^vanus, the god of the wooda ; at which sacrifice no woman 
was permitted to he preaent 

The poet tella theae philosophical ladies, that, as they ranked 
funong philosophera, they ought to dreaa in the same manner, and 
offer aacrificea to the aame god. 

332. Quadrante lavori : Uie usuai amali fee paid by poor phi- 
loaophérs for bathing. 

334. Dicendi genue : i. e. the art of logie. — Curtum . . . enthu- 
mema : ^ the ahort enthymeme ;' a ahort syllogism, consisting only 
of two proposiUoaa, the third being retained in the mind, h ^^{òì, 
whence the name. — Botato : ^ artnilly tumed.' 

336. QtuBdam . . . inteUigat : i. e. allow ber to bave aome taate 
for booka, but not enter too deeply into them. 

337. Pal<emonis : Pattemon was a conceited g^rammarian, who 
said, tl^at leaming would live and die with him. 

340. '^ec . . . verha : the leamed lady is represented as being 
so precise, as to find fkult with ber neighbors, if they did not use 
the most elegant expressions. 

341. Solacismum : so called from the Soli, a people of Attica, 
who, being transplanted to Cilicia, lost the purity of their ancient 
tongue and became ridiculous to the Athenians for their impro* 
pieties^pf apeech. 

343p Ptri^^emma^; <aQ emeraldnecklace,' 



JUV. 8AT. VI. 107 

^ 344. ExUfdU : ' eztended downwards' with the weight. 

346. MuUo . . .facies : i. e. her face appears unusually large, 
by a quantity of paste stuck upon it, to preserve or improve the 
complexlon. See note to Sat. II, 90. 

347. PappiBana: Poppaa^ the wife of Nero» invented a sort 
of pomatum to preserve her beauty. 

351. Chracilea : * slender ;' thin and lean from the continuai 
waste of their bodies by the beat of the climate. 

352. Tectoria prima : i. e. ificrustationèm pania (verse 347^ — 
The aecond covering for the face is the mUkj Ùie rich oint- 
ments, &c. 

353. »^gno8ci : this line is thus scanned : 

incipit I àgnós- | ci àt- i qu' ilio J làcté fò- \ vétOr/ 
The i in agnosci is preserved from elision. 

354. Propter , . . axem : alluding to Poppiea, who, being' ban- 
ished from Home, had fifly she asses with ber, for their imlk, to 
wash in and to mix up her paste with. 

356. Mutatia . . ,tot medicamintbua : * with so many cosmetics^ 
that are continually chan^ing.' 

361. Periit libraria: ' me house-koeper is tumed out of doors/ 
— ^*is undone.' — Ldbraria: from /ibro, a balance ; a weigher of 
wool or fla^, who weighed outanddeliveredtothe other servanti 
the tasks of wool for spinning. 

361. PonwU tunicata : * are ordered to strip themselves for 
punishment.' 

362. CoametcB : from xacfiio), to adom ; persons who helped 
dress their mistresses, and had the care of their clothes, omtt- 
ments, &c. 

364. £Kc franffUfendaa : * this one has bunches of rods, broken 
over bis hfLckJ—-Ruhet . . .Jlagellia : * is whipped tiU , bis back is 
covered with blood.' 

365. Scuticà : an instrument of punishment, made of leather 
thongs. 

366. Verberat : he, one of ttie (tortoribua) tormentors or execu- 
tioners, lashes. 

371. Siculà . . . aula : in Sicily some very cruel tyrants had 
reigned : such as Phalaria^ Dùmyaiua, ifc. 

372. Conatituit : i. e. ataiuU omarL — Some understand it, ^ has 
made an assignation.' 

373. Exaptctatur : se. a machia. — In, HarHa : ' in the gardens of 
LucuUus,' noted for their pleasant walks. 

374. laiactR . . . acKraria lena : the tempie of Isis was the 
scene of ali manner of lewdness, and visited by the most inde- 
cent people. 

376. Paecaa : Juvenal gives to the waiting-maid the name of 
one of Diana's nymphs. 

382. Eat . . . acu : she then calls a council upon the subject 
of her dress, — first, an old woman, who has been aet to amn (ad- 
mota lama), being too old to dress. her lady's hair ; tnen the 



lOB NOTES. 

yoanm BMÌdi, •co<)rdiii|p to their a^ «aé experìenee« — ^JE^iier- 
Um k Aere metaphotical, it is the term osed for soldiers, who 
bove been discliarged fìom servke ; these were called mliies 
emerùiL 

387. C&n^fag%bu$: 'stories of curls.* 

388. JhuÉwnachen : the wife of Hector ; tradition repreaents 
her u being very tali. 

389. Cf(h . . . pianta : i. e. bow rauch greater reason is there 
for believhig it U a different peraon, if she happens to be a little 
«omaii, ihort^waìsted, and vhen she has not high shoes on, (co- 
ihumu8^ which was a sort of buskin, wom by actors in tragedies, 
with a hì^h heel to it,) seeming, in point of stature, shorter than 
a pigmy, inaomuch that she is forced to spring up on tip-toe for 
a kiaB. — CtÓÀi : dicj qmd creias f 

397. BeUQHtìRj B«Kona was the sisterof Mais: ber prìeats were 
called Béllonarii ; they ran up and down, lancing their anns with 
sharp knives, upon ber festival, which was kept on the twenty- 
third CI twen^-fourth of March, which, in allusion to these horrid 
rites, was sometimes called 'the dayof blood.' — Matrisqat (^eibti: 
Cybele. 

399. Rauca cohers : i. e. a troop of the prìests of Cybele, 
who had bawted themselves hoarse, — T^mpana . . . pleheia : the 
taibours or drutns, which were beatby the interior plebeian prìests, 
— bere hj JCetonymy the prìests, who played on them : ali these 
bow to him, and submit to bis authorìty (cedurU). 

400. Pkrygià . . . Hard : thls was part of the high-prìest's 
dress, and culed Phrygian, beoause first brou^ht from Phrygìa ; 
it covered the head and was tied under the ehm. 

406. HibermÉm . . . abluei : at the command of the prìest, these 
women wiU plunge into the rìver Tiber, even in the most dan- 
gerouB parts in the very depth* of winter, when the ice must be 
broken for them, to wash away their sins. 

408. Superiti . . . regia agrum : i. e. the Campus Martiufj which 
once belonged to Tarqum the ProuéL 

410. Io : an Egyptian goddess, the same with Uis^ who also 
had a tempie at Kome. 

411. Ccdidà . . . Meroi: the Nile flows round many large 
ralands, the iargest of which was called Meroè^ and has the epi- 
thet warm, fìrom its being the nearest the torrìd zone. 

413. Proxima . . . ovUt : the tem]^e of Isìs was near that part 
of the Campus Martius, where the Tarquins in their days nad 
numbers of sheep, which, from this circumstance, was called the 
aheepfold, 

414. fysius donwruB : < of the goddess herself.' 

415. Én . . . lomumkar : this apostrophe carrìes a strong ironi- 
cal reflection on these cunning and imposing prìests. 

416. Ergo : becaose these delnded women are convinced that 
these prìests hàve real intercourse with heaven, and ali that ìb 
enjoined comes directly from above. 



JUV. SAT. VI. 169 

4 17. Grege linigero : ' with a tr un of priests in linen robes.' — 
Crtege ealvo : they shaved their licads and went bowling up and 
down the streets, in imitatìon of the Egyptians, who did the same, 
at eertain perioda, in search of Osiris. 

418. Deriaw Anuhis : at these- ridiculous rìtes the high priest 
carried the image of Anvhis, the son of Osiris, whom they wor- 
shipped under ^e form of a dog ; thQ prìest ali the while laugh- 
ing at such a deity, and jeerìng at the foUy of the people that at- 
tended him. 

423. Movisse . . . serpens : there was, in the tempie of Isis and 
Osiris, an image with tnree heads, the middle one, that of a lion, 
the rìght, of a dog, the lefl, of a wolf ; about these a serpente 
madc of sUver, seemed to twine itself, bringing its head under 
the right band of the god. The nodding of the serpent, whìch 
was probably caused by some spring, denoted that the request 
of the priest was gran te d. 

434. Ansert : this bird was usually sacrìficed to Isis, and in 
Egypt constituted the chief food of the priests. 

426. Dedit Uh locum : ' he has given place ;' i. e. ^ when the 
priest has withdrawn.' 

428. Sacerdo8 ctrboris : this is spoken in contempt of the Jews, 
who lived in woods, and therefore the poet probably hints at the 
priestesses of the tempie in the wood of Dodona, who pretend- 
ed to ask and receive answers from oak-trees. 

432. Spondei . . . ptieri : Armenia and Syria, of which Com^ 
magena is a part, were famous for soothsayers : they pretended 
to acqnire a knowledge of future events, by inspecting the in- 
sides of Uìimals, which they handled and examined for this pur- 
pose. 

436. Fabiet . . . ipse : he will commit a deed (the murder of a 
child), agaìnst which he will be the first to inform, accusing the 
superstitions woman of the crime. 

437. Ckald(BÌ8 : the Chaldeans, living about Babylon, were the 
great masters in the knowledge o/the stara, or judidcU astfology^ as 
it is called : some of these, like other impostors, travelled about 
and carne to Rome, where they gained great credit with silly 
women. 

439. Ddphis . . . eessant : when this satire was written, and in- 
deed long before, oracles were rapidly falling into contempt. 
The oracle of Delphos, it is said, ceased at the birth of Christ. 

441. Qut . . . Othoni : Seleucus is bere meant, a famous astrolo- 
ger, who had been oflen banished from Rome, by whose instiga- 
tion and prediction, Otho, (with whom he was intimate,) failing to' 
be adopted by GoUmi, caused Galba to be put to death. 

442. Ckmducendà . . . taheUà : the astrologers wrote on parch- 
ment or on tabhts the answers, which, they pretended, carne 
from the stara ; to obtain a sight of these, people gavo them 
money. 

444. SonuU . . . l€tva ; i. e if be has been hand-cuflTed, 

15 



170 NOTES. 

145. Longo . . . carcere : those predìctors, who foretold things 
\n lime of war, were carried as piìsoners with the anny and con- 
jSnedin the camp, in expectation of the event; in which con- 
dition, they had a Roldier to guard them, and, for greater securìty, 
wcre tied togethcr with a chiin of some Unitk (this may perhaps 
bc intixnated by lovgo carcere)^ one end of Which, for conveniency, 
was fastened to the soldier's lefl ann, the otfaer to the pnsoner's 
right, 

450. Tanaqml tua : i. e. your wife. See Class. Bict. 

453. Hac . . . ignorai : she is so desirous of knowing the fate 
of others, that she is content to be ignorant of her own. — Sidus 
• . . Saturni : Saivm was considerod an unlucky platkU. 

454. Vcnua : Vtnux vas considered ^ foftunat^ pianet, if she 
rose in coi^unction with certain others. 

458. Ephemeridas : this word bere sigi^ifies a sort of t^lvMmaCj 
in which were noted the daily rising and seUing pf the vaiious 
constellations ; by consulting* which, these women preteQded to 
teli their own fortunes, and those of their acquaintances. 

460. ThrasyUi : Tkrasyllus was a Platonist aad a great math- 
ematìcian, once in high favor with Tiberius CsBsar» but after- 
wards, by bis command, thrown into the sea at Rhodes. 

461. Pnmuni lapidem : i. e. the first mile sUme from Rome. 

465. Petosiris : a famous Egyptian astrologer. 

466. Si mediocrù . . . metarum : L e. if the womaa is in low 
drcumstancesy she runs to the circus, till she finds aa MF^roioger, 
who suits her purpose. 

471. ^ui . . . condii : wheneyer a place wm 9truck with lightf 
nin^, ^ priest was called in to expiate it : this ws^ dono by col- 
lecting every thing that had been scorched and ìmrying it on tho 
spot with due solemnity. A two-year old sheep was then siu^ri- 
ficed> and the ground slightly railed in : after which, ali was sup- 
posed to be well. 

These lightnings were reckoned puMic or privait as they hap- 
pened to «trike cither public or private edifices. 

Private lightnings were supposed to forebqde ^ngs to come 
fys ten years ojnly ; pvhlic lightnings for thirty years. 

472. Circo . . . aggere : Tarquin^s mound was cast up on the 
eastern side of Rome, as a defence to the city : this, as well as 
the circu9, was a place of resort to these low cheata. 

474. Phalas : moaden towers in the form of ao egg, built by 
Agrippa, for the judges of the Circensì^n games. — DeLMuorum- 
que colun^na9 : in the circus were lofty pOiarM^ o» T$rhich were 
placed the statues of dolphin9f erected fcs orname&ts. 

478. Sed^acet . . . posiwnj^ : i^ e. yoiu will scarcely ever bear of 
& lyivg ivt woìna/n amon^g the la4ie& of quality ; such is the power 
of art|, s^c^ the force of medicines, prepared by thoae, who n^e 
it their bu^ii^ess to cause burrenness. and produce aboiìftiona 

481. Spurcos . . . lacua : where children were exposed. , 

486. J^i^ ^ w^erii : * y^ì^ tjbj^ ctffe of thesi^slie ch||-^^ ^eiaelf.' 



JUt. SAt. VI. 171 

490. htdè : L e. from these philtres. 

492. Ammculus . . . saIxDà : C^uàr CaHetUa, whom bis wife 
C<Moma drenched wìth -a love potion, made of the hippomanes, 
(a little skin or piece of flesh, takén fVom the forehead of a colt 
newly foaled,) which drove him into raving madness. 

This potion of Cesonia was infìnitely worse than ,^gripp{na^s 
mushroom, for that only destroyed a drìvelling old emperor ; but 
Caligulàf after bis draUgbt, hetame a merciless and bloody tyrant 

4^. Setiiè : the emperor Claudius, who was poisoned by Agrip- 
pina, bis wife, in the sixty-foarth year of bis age. 

503. Partus equa: i. e. the colt, from which the bippomanes 
was taken. 

504. PtUice : pdkx properly denotes the kept mistress of a 
married man. 

511. Fingimus . . . hiatu : i. e. what I bave been saying must 
appear so monstrous, as to be regarded by some as a fiction : and 
instead of keeping witbin tfac bound and laws of satire, I bave 
taken a flight into the fabulous rant of tragedy, like Sophocles 
and otber tragic writers. 

515. Ponila : there were two women of this name ; one was 
the wife of Vectius Bolonus, a man of high rank and estimation, 
who poisoned ber two cbildren (they were twins) in the time of 
Nero : the other, to whom the poet particularly alludes, was the 
wife of Drymio, whose family took care to perpetuate ber «rimcf 
(as Grangseus says) by the fc^owing inscription on ber tomb : 
Poniio, ÌKH PonthJUia^ Me sita sum, guft^ duohtis noHs a me ve- 
neno eonswnptié ataritÙB opus, misere mUii mortem canscivi. Tu, 
quisquis eSy qui kàc iransiSf si pius es, qwBso a m« ocidos averte, 

529. Sana : * in ber sound mind ;' — * in cold blood.' 

534. Hoc . . . refert : this is the only difference between Cly- 
ttemnestra and the Roman ladies; she, in a rude and simple 
manner, with an axe, raised in both ber hands, slew ber busband : 
these, with greater sbrewdness and cunning, by administering 
secret doses of poison, effect the same object. — T^ndaris illa : 
* that daughter of Tyndarus,' — Clytemnestra. 

Juvenal, by the manner of expression, Ula TSfndaris, insinuates, 
that this name belonged to others, viz. to many of the Roman 
ladies of bis time. 

537. Atrides : Agamemnon, the son of Atretis, ànd busband of 
ClytsBmnestra. Juvenal uses this name as descriptive of the 
sitùation of the busband, whom the modem Clyta3mnestra is de- 
termined to murder, for the sake of a gallant. 

53B. Pontica . . . regis : MUhridateSj a king of Pontus, inventa 
ed a medicine, called Mithridate, an antidote against poison. 



172 NOTES. 



SATIRE VII. 

Tbìs Satire is addreseed to Telesinus, a poet, and contains an 
animated account of the general discouragement, under which 
literature labored at Rome. 

Beginning with Poetry, it proceeds with great regularity 
through the various departments of History, Law, Oratory, Rhet* 
oric, and Grammar ; having many curious aaecdotes interspersed, 
and each different head enUvened with such satirica!, humoroua, 
and sentìmental remarks, as naturally flow from the subject. 

1. Spes: the hope of reward for the labor of the leamed.^- 
Ratio : the reason why men apply themselves. — Cosare : it is 
probable, that either the emperor Hadrian, or Trajan, is meant.-'^ 
Many think it is Domitian. 

2. TrisUs: *neglected.' 

3. Respexit : * has looked with eyes of favor.' 

4. Conducere : to hire, in order to make a livelihood thereby ; 
or it may signify (as we find it used in Cicero, II. de DivinJ) to 
undertake the work or management of. 

6. Aganippes : a fountain in a solitary part of BcBotia conse* 
crated to the Muses. 

9. Machctra : MojchtBra was probably the name of some noted 
crier. 

10. Commissa . . . audio : an auciion is said to be commissa^ 
when entruatcd to the honesty and activity of the auctioneer. — 
Some tliink it alluded to the commissùm of the raagistrates, who 
sanctioned the sale. And others, that it is nsed figuratively for 
the strife of the purcbasers, who may be said, like gladiators, 
iìder se cx^mmittL — A sale of thìs kind is called audio (from au- 
geo, to increate], because the bidders raise the price against each 
other. 

11. Stantibus : Ho the bidders standing round.' — Pacd . . . 
Fausti: Paccius and Fausius seem to be tlie names of two 
wretched tragic writers. 

14. Equites Asiani: the poet satirizes those noblemen, who 
cnrich their Asiatic slaves, and had them enroUed among the 
knights. These Asiatics were notorious perjurers. 

15. Cappadoces : the Cappadocians were, like the Cretans, 
liars and dishonest to a proverb ; yet many of them found favor, 
and obtained wealth at Rome, 

16. Altera . . . Gallia : GaUo- Grcida or Galaiia. — J^udo . , . 
talo : * with naked feet,' like poor persons or slaves exposed for 
sale. 

18. ^edit . . . modis : the perfection of heroic poetry, which 
seems bere to be intended, is the uniting grand and lojty ex- 
pression, doqiiium vocale, with tuneftd measures, modis canoris. 

19. haurumque momordit : the eating of the laurei was sup- 
posed to inspìre young poets with noble ideas. 



JtV. &AT. VII. 17à 

3ì. Duei^: *of theemperor.' 

23. Crocea ìnembrana iahell^ : the parchment or veZ/um, whielk 
the ancients used, was whUe on the inside where they wrote, and 
dyed of a saffron eolor on the oQtside with the oil of cedar, to 
preserve it from decay : hence it is called ìncolor by Persius, 
III, 10. 

25. D&na Veneris . . . marito : ' commit to the flames.' 

26. AiU . . . UbeUoa : i. e. lay by your books, and let the moths 
eat them. 

27. Vigilata : which bave cost you many a sleepless night. 
29. Ut . . . macrà : that, after ali your pains, you may bave 

your half-starved image, i. e. a representation of your lean and 
starved person, crowned with ivy, and set up in Uie tempie of 
Apollo. 

32. Ut . . . emem : as children admire the beauty of the pea- 
cock, sacred to Juno, without doing the bird any service, so the 
rich of these days will give you nothin'g, though they may admire 
and praise your works. 

34. Thtne : when you bave grown old. — Seque . . . senectus : 
your old age, however eloquent, when clothed in rags, detesta 
itaelf and l£e Muses, that bave lefl it in such a deplorable situa- 
tion. 

37. Musarum . . « relictà : there was a tempie of the Muses at 
Rome, built by Martiua PkUippuSi where poets used to recite 
their Works. AugvLstua built a library and tempie to Apollo, on 
Mo>nnt Palatine, where poets also recited their verses, and where 
they deposited them. 

Some join et Musarum . .■-. relictà to the following line, inter- 
preting it, — ^he makes verses himself (invita Minerva) in defiance 
of the censure of the leamed. 

38. Uni . . . anno9 : not that he thinka Homer a better poet, 
*but because he was ancient 

46. Anabathra: 'stairs,— ^r a step-ladder,' to ascend to the 
rostrum, which was a kind of scafl^lding erected with iimher^ 
hdred for the purpose. 

47. QtUBqìie . . . cathedris : the poet is supposed to bave fitted 
up the orchestra with hired chairs for the accommodation of bis 
hearers. — Reportandis : * to he retumed to the owners.' 

48. 7%nui . . . ducimus : see Sat I, note to line 146. 
53. JVon ptMica vena : * no common talents.' 

55. Moneta : moneta is the stamp on money, hence, figuratively, 
* a style in writing.' 

57. Omnia . . . impaiiena : * free from every bitter of life.' 

60. Sana paupertas : paupertas is put bere for pauper poèta, 
By 9ana^ quiie iurorem poeticum non concipit, nec conciperO' 
potest 

62. Saiw . . . JStioe : i. e. when Horace wrote bis divinest 
verses, he was sated with good cheer, and prospered under the 
patronage of Augustus and Mscenas» 



174 NOTfSS. 

64. Domini» . . ./eruniw : < are inspired hy the lorda of Cirriia 
and Nysa:' i. e. Apollo and Bacchus ; the former was a town of 
Phocia, near Delphos, where Apollo had an oracle ; the. latter a 
cave iu Arabia, where Bacchua was educated. 

G5. Duas . . •,curas : i. e. poetry and domestic troubles. 

GS. Adspictre : * to conceive in his mind.' 

69. Deesset : ihìa word is bere by synieresis contracted into 
two syllables ; the line is thus divided : 

Nàm si I Virgili- | ó pùèr | et tolè- | ràbilè | d'éssét 

70. CcuIererU . . . hydri : for ctcidiaaent ; ' ali the snakes would 
have fallen from the hair of Mecto ;' — ^he neve'r would bave bcen 
able to describe, as he has done, tlie snaky tresses of Alecto. 
See iEn. VII, 450. . 

71. Surda . . . buccina : * the silent trumpet ;' surdus not only 
signifies one that does not hear, but also that whlch gives no 
sound. 

Juvenal alludes to i£n. VII, 519. 

72. Rubrenus Lappa : an ingenious, but poor and miserable 
tragic poet, who Uvea in Juven^'s time. — Cothumo : by Metony- 
my, * tragic writera.' 

73. Cujus . . . Mreu» : whose tragedy of Atreus, wbich he was 
writing, caused him to pawn his platters and cloak, to buy food, 
&c. , Some think pignero means io take a pledge^ and suppose 
Mreus- to be the name of the broker to whom Rvihrenu» had 
pawned his goods. 

74. Infdix JVumitor : *■ unfoitunate, poor Numitor ;' ironlcaUy, 
for he is put bere for any ridi man. 

75. Quintill<B : the name of his mistress. 

79. Lucanus : Lucan, a poet of Corduba in Spain, who, on 
comìng to Rome, was made a knight. He lefl his Pharsalia, a 
heroic poem, describing the civil wars between Cessar and Pom- 
pey, unfìnished, having been put to death by Nero, 

80. Serrano . . . Saleio : two poor poets in Juvenal's time. 

82. JimioE : * grate fuP to the hearors. 

83. Ththaido3 . . . Statius : Thehais was a poem, descriptive 
of the Theban war, written by Statius, a Neapolitan poet. 

84. Promisit . . . dievi : * appointed a day' for the recital of his 
poem. 

87. Intadam . . . Agaven : ' his tragedy of Agave, never before 
perfonned or read.' — Paridi : Paris was an actor in high favor 
with Domitian. 

W^hat the poet says in this and the three following lines, in a 
seemingly complimentary way, was a sneer upon Paris, and 
through him upon the emperor ; Domitian so understood it and 
turned our author's jest into his punishment ; for in his old age, he 
flent him into Egypt, by way of an honorary service, with a mili- 
tary command. 

89. Semestri . . . auro : i. e. makes them military tribuncs, 
whose office lasted for. six months : these, as well as knights, 



JUV. SAT. VII. 175 

wore gold tìnga, — Some understand summer and winter lìngs. — 
As stmestris idso means halfa manth {or moorij) some render se- 
mestri auroj circular gold (or rings) lìke the moon, wben she is 
full or fifteen days old. 

90. Camerinos . . . Bartots : rich nobles, whose levees the poor 
poets might attend in vain. 

92. Pdopea . . . PhUomela : the names of two tragedies, whìch, 
perbaps being dedicated to Paris, secured his favor and conse- 
quenUy the good will of Domitian. 

93. Pidpita : * the stage ;' some understand ' poetical recita^ 
tions.' 

97. PaUere : * to grow pale' with study. — Vinum . . , Decembri : 
m the month of Decomber, the feast of the Satumalia was ob- 
served with great festivity. 

98. Facundior : ^ more beneficiai to you' than poetry is to its 
writexs ; ironically. 

Having exhibited the wretchednessr of the poets of his day, he 
begins to show that historians were equally neglected. 

101. Damnosa : ruinous to you, having been at the expense 
of so much paper, for which you wiU receive no recompense. 

103. Lex operum :■ which requires that every traosactìon re- 
corded should he minntely described. 

103. Seges : ^ reward of your labor.' So mef^em in the llSth 
verse.— ^3«rr<» . . . aperttB : a metaphor, taken from agricul- 
ture. 

104. Ada legenti : the acta were journals, registers, acts of the 
senate, or records of a similar kind ; the derk^ who wrote or col- 
leded them, was called cLduarius. 

105. Sed . . . umbra : spoken with indignation by the poet, as 
if this was the excuse or pretence with some rich men for not 
assistìng learned men. 

106. Quù£ . . . officia : what profìt arises to lawyers from their 
pleadìngs in civil actions ? 

107. Magno . . . libelli : their bundles of brlofs, which they 
carry with them into court. 

108. Ipsi : the lawyers. — Magna : for magnoptrt. 

109. Tdiffit . . . iUo : i. e. if some client, more earnest than 
the other, who thinks he is not doing justice to the cause, should 
touch him with his elbow. 

110. M duìnum . . . nomen : *■ to prove a doubtful debt, with 
his large account-book.' So notnen is used by Cicero, Ttomtna 
faeere^ to run into debt. 

111. Cam . . .folles : i. e. his lungs. 

112. ConspttUur : * is slavered wià fbam,' from vehemence in 
pleading. . 

113. Hinc : in one scale. 

114. Solum russati . . . LacermB : *■ that alone of a red-coated 
coachman,' and you will find them equaL — Some think Lacerna a 



176 irOTES. 

icIitioiiB naaie h& a soldiery whoae dvessF wàaa wm rtd) accordine 
t^BiiUDimiew» 

115. Duees : * the jadges ;' tlie^ poet in tfais passage homoTOtis- 
ìy alludes to Ovid's descrìption of the contest betweeit Ajax and 
Ulysacn for the anuB of Achillea* Met. XI ET, 1. 

116. Dubià prò libertate : * for one whoae liberty is qaoBtioned ;* 
-— orona wh» was claimed; by some person as a slave. 

117. 2V6f • . . painuB : it was castofmary ibr clients, if they 
gained their cause, to set up a gvrland of green palm at the doors 
of thtir advocates» 

119. Voci» : • of your vociferous pleading.' 

ISiO. Wettres • . . vhJM : perhi^ owUna are bere xneant, which 
Bdffhi be amoiig the amali presents, sent mtndhhf from Africa 
to Home. 

131. Finum.». devtiàki'mt: ^wine brought down the Tiber' 
from Veiento, or some other place, famous for ii^rior wine. 

123.. Jbireìàs : the uureus was equal in Talue to about $3,59 of 
our money. 

129. Jndè . . • pragmaèU9rum : i. e. of that gold piece, you 
must gi<?e a dìvioeiid te- the pettyfoggers, according to their con- 
tract with yonc-^The pragmatiei irete prompters, who sat behmd 
the lawyers and prompted them witlb wovds, as well as- with the 
forms and mcaning^ of ike law. 

134. JEmiH» : .Alnnliaft was probably a neh lawyer, but of in- 
ferior abilities. — Q;aantum licei : ' as much as the law pemùts :' 
by a Icw of Reme^ no adrecote waa permitted to receive for 
IMeadkig a cauae more than 10,000 sesterces (dma sutetHa) : by 
quantum licet, consequently this sum is meant. 

138. Statua . . . bMcà ; i. e. he seems to meditate a stroke, with 
GB* eye shnt, in order to take better aim w^h the other; or, per* 
haps, because he was blind of an eye. 

Thi|B, -on account of afò tfais pompv ^milius had great practice, 
and was well paid. 

129. Siez *by such attempts at display.' — Conhtrbai: Truins 
himself.' 

131. Bhinocenfte : the peor and middling class of citizens used 
to go to the baths, with their oil in a vessel, made of a buU's 
hom ; the richer sort, of the hom of a rhinoceros^ which was 
vc^ expensive. 

133. Ptr . . . OMsere ; i. e. he rides throngh the fbmm in a lit- 
ter, sèi upen poles, whàch rested on the shoulden» of the bearers. 
— Medos pueros : the Romans were furnished with slaves from 
Media and Persia. 

134. Sponda : ^ffains him credit' — Sliatarim»: from^ «tifato, 
a ship or boat ; ' loreign,' as imported by sea from a foreign 
country. 

135. VendStt ' rccomiiM&ds.' 

141. Sèrvi ottù : t» eany jour litter. 



JUV. SAT. VII. 177 

146. Quando . . . mutrem : i. e. when will BasUua or any man 
with a mean appearance be employed in a cause of great conse- 
quence, as Cicero for Fonteius, where a mother was Dronghi into 
court, weeping and suppUcating for the life of her son. 

150. Dtdainare doce» : the poet now shqws, thàt teachers of 
rhetoric, who opened schools for instructing youth in the 
knowledge and art of declamation, fared, if possible, worse than 
lawyers. 

151. PerinUt . . . iyranno» : the theme, given by VectiuSt who 
is bere put for any teacher of rhetoric, to bis deus of pupils, i» 
supposed to be on the suppression of tjrrants. 

153. Proferet: i. e. declamabU. — Cantabit : Le. rtciiahit» — Ver- 
stbus : i. e. periodis vel membris orationis. — CantabU also refer» 
to a faulty mode of declaiming, what we sbould cali a sing-sonf^ 
style. 

154. Crambe repetiia: in allusìon to the old Greek proverbi 
Jlg MQfxnp^ ^uwarog, ^< Cabbage heated severa! times is death." 

155. Color : color was thot part of the declamation, introduced 
by way of reason for the thin^ supposed to be done, and by way 
of plea or excuse for the action. — Causoe , . . genu» ; whether it 
be demonstrative, deliberative, or judicial ;— or, whether defensi- 
ble or not — Summa qtuBstio: that, on which the whole cause 
must tum. 

156. Q}tae . . . 8agiU<E : what arguments the adversaaries raay 
bring^forward. 

158. Mercedem . . . scio : the words of the dull and inattentive 
scholar to the master, demanding payment for bis labors. 

159. Litvà . . . mamiUcR : the heart, according to Pliny, XI, 37» 
is seated inside the leil breast with mui, and was supposed to be 
the seat of understanding and wisdom. 

160. Arcadica juveni : Arcadia was famous fbr its breed of 
asses, — ^The Arcadians were proverbially stupid, — Cujua . . . tm-v 
jlet : no theme was more common in the Roman schools, than the 
adventures of Hannibal. Every week, says the master, doea 
the story of Hannibal torment my poor head on a declaiming 
day. 

163. An post . » . cohortest : in the fiflh year after ^e battle of 
Canne, when Hannibal encamped within three miles of Rome, 
he was twioe assailed by a most violent storm, at a time„ when 
both armies were prepared for battle. This the Carthaginiai^ 
considered as an unfavorable omen» and, a,iter some deliberation^ 
departed from Rome. 

164. Circumc^at : * lead back' frouì Rome to Apulia. 

165. ^uatUùm . . . audiat : * ask me to give you what you wil)^ 
and I wiJoi give it, if this blockhead's father will bear him as often 
as I do.' — Ile that asks a certain sum is said &Hpukiri : he thati 
promises it is said spondere. 

167. Sopkiata : put bere for rhUoreSk 

168, Et veras , . , rdido : and having lefl off teaching, tum tQ 



178 JP^OTB». 

tlM bar and p^mà feal eaoées.— 12ttj7(df é tdido : ìenvìng fictitioiis 
8iib||6Cttf, mich «8 the nM<^Hekiiif &c. — Théf6 tire some dé<^^ 
mationi^ in Qnhìtllmii, De ft^Hore» 

169. Futa . . . sileni : tbey eay ho mof e of Modea's pouring 
ont and mùtin^ wAsoU fot Cre&Ku-'-Jlfalii^ . . . markuè : Jàgofiy 
wbo forsK>ok Medea ; MiieaSf who aìiandoned Dido ; ot TTttsetiSf 
who left Ariadne. 

170. QtMB . . . c€£C08 : i. e. what medicines restored youth and 
atght lo iÌQsonb — MorkariA : morturs, but bere figuratively, itìedi- 

^cinea brayed in a mortar. 

17L Ergo . . . frttmenli : this séemi^ to be tbe setlse ùf the 
paasa^ ; as the profesaion of téaehinff scbool ìa ao nàserable 
and withHmt proAl, I trocdd tberefore advise those, who bave left 
tfae ahadowy deelamstie;! of the aàhool fer the real cotttentioxi 
of the bar, to foUow a new course of life. — Dabit . . . rudem : 
* he irill ^BChATge himaelf from Ireeping schoot f the fwRs was a 
rod gitetÈ to gladiatoria, when Asebarged from theiir oecapa- 
fica ; àHit4 ruéém, to give a diéeharge ; é&nùiii ntdr, to be ms- 
cbarged. 

173L Mpngntm, ; ^ to the contentìon of the bar.' — RhOoricà 
, . ,ak nmirà : from the fietitious deelamatioiur of the school, 
whìeh were but àhadùmt te the- real one». 

174. Tessera . . .frumenti: in any dolo, made by the empetot 
409 any city-^raagistrate for dietributhiff corn, tìie poor eitkens had. 
each a taUy or ticket given them, wnich they first dhowed and 
2«i&i> fOtevreà their proportion^ aeeordfiig èo> the mo&sy they 
brought t» boy wheaf ftony the pubfie magazinea, at a lower thas 
the marfiÀ»t pricfe^ — ^Thi» ticket waa called lessero, it being^^iur 
squetfe, and was mode of fwed or lead.— f>nlt; from vento; •» 
6old* to the poor. 

175; Latitissima: i. e. amplissima.^'ATi they can expect is 
money whepewitb to purchaae bread. 

174 Ckiysegom» . . . PbiUe : two muaie-masters ; othere con- 
aider them rhetorìchuM. 

177. ,^rtem . . . Tkeedori: *■ d»carding the art of Theodorus,' a 
very famous rhetorician. — Scindens : if we consider Chrysogonus 
and PoUio as teaehers of ihetoric, seindens must be rendered 
^ exj^aaniìiff.* 

178. Bmttea sexeenfis : < baths are built by them at the expense 
of 600,00C^ aestercea,' abont $fèì ,4^. 

The neh Romana Bpate no expenae when luxury is in ques- 
tion, but pay as little as they can for the honest education of 
their children. 

179. Jhme . . . pottia : ironieally ; should nobility, li&e these, 
wait at home fyr fine weather, &e. ? certainly not, they must 
bave porticx)ea, &c. 

182, jyhimidartim . . . columnis : Narai^an marble was very 
élegant and expensive, and waa first brought toRome by M. 
Lfepi^0k 



JUV. BAT. VII. 179 

183. JUgtnU» . • f s^kmf if^ winimm weta m canbived 
as to take ùi th^ sim m vinter-tisie t ù e* ihej fiused the loath- 
west 

186. QyirMiqno: the oelebrftt«4 Ybetoriciaii, irko ediioctes 
the children, 

188. FUius : i. Qf the educfttioa of a, chiH 

189. Exempla . . . transi : the poet answers, Felicity, so strmage 
and sinpilar as this is, laust oey^r he naationed as an example 
fpr othera ; for Q^uiiitUUll is the only pérson, who ever grew neh 
in this way. 

The Romans «alled aa nnusimlly good Ibrtttiie nona^^ite. 

190. Felix etpulcher : * the fortunate ia bo^ brave.' 

)93. Lmiem . . , a&4#<B : the tenslors and patrisianfl wore a 
ihòe (cfk^<E) qf tM hest aad aoitest leather, vith a hiiekle or ekuq» 
of ivory or sìlver, in the shape of a half-moon. This omament 
waji derìved fnns Mercury, who, after snaAdiing ^neaa from the 
fury of the Gfeel^s, pla^ed a moon oa hia fixrt. 

More prohahly it denoted by ita shape, € (eenhint,) the originai 
number of senators. 

By this line, the poet meana ^lat the fortanale may even be- 
come senators and nobles. 

193. JcKtiZatof ; ^dù^^tanC 

194. QwflM : i« e. dedwBMJt tsd ttciM, 

199. VeniidivLS : P, VoMìm» Bosfiia, aon of a hond-womaii, 
at ^caloi, waa at first a carman, then a muleteer ; afterwajrds, 
in one year, he was made pnetor and consoL^^IZViatiu : Servms 
JSiUiust the sjj^tb iiing of Rmne, bom of a captile. 

203. Cathedr^e : teaching rhetoric, vhieh they did, sitting in a 
chairy 4&sk, or pulpit, 

^KH« Tbtasì^nacki : Thrammaehus waa a Carthaginian rheto- 
l^icifup, who taught for aeveraf y^ears, at Athens ; he hanged him* 
self through poverty. — Secundi CarrìnaUs : Secundus Carrinas 
carne firom Athe^ to Rome, and, declaiming against tyrants, was 
banished by C^igola- 

205. Et hunc . . . cieutas : many thiak that Socrmtes is intend- 
ed, wha also tanght rhetono at Athena, and was put to deatii by 
the i^theniana ; mi Seefmdus Carrmoé is ceitainly the one to 
whom the poet refers : having been banished. from Rome, he re- 
turned to Athei^, but bis CQuatrymen were a£n|id to render him 
any relief, leat they should incur the dÌB|deasure of Cssar. He, 
at len^th, poi^oned himaelf. 

$^7> Hi •* se. deiiU oor deggi. — TenuÉOt . . . terram : it was usoal 
with the Romans to express their good wishes for the dead in the 
manner \iexe «lentiiOQ^d» that the <M«th might he bght apoA them : 
for they supposed the maaea dwelt BOBauatìmea ia the aepuMre 
together with the ashes. 

206. SpircmtesqiLe crocos : it was customary with the ancients 
to strew ^owers and shed perfnmes on the grave of a dcceased 
friend. 



180 NOTES. 

210. Mébum . . . éudt : i. e. fonnerly preceptors were reve- 
renced, bui now they are held in the ntmost contempt This is 
proved by the ezamples of JìcInUes and Rufus ; the formar of 
wbom looked with awe and reverence upon hi9 tutor, Chiron ; the 
latter is derlded and even beaten by his scholars. — Mttuens mrga, : 
reverencing and beholding with awe his tutor, Chiron, the cen- 
taur. « 

211. Caiitabat: practised lessons in vocai and instrumentai 
mosic under bis tutor. — Paini» in moniibus : the mountains of 
Thessaly, from whence came Peleus, the father of Achilles. 

212. bauda magistri: the upper part of Ohiron was like a 
fiupt, the lower, like a horse. 

213. JSWtim . . . dixit : Burfiu or Ruffiu was a teacher, who 
cbare«d Cicero with writing barbarous Latin, like an JOlo- 
hnu^unn» 

215. QuÌ8 : the poet now shows that the situation of a gram- 
marian is stili more deplorable. — Eneeladi . . . Palamonia : En- 
cdadu» and PcdtBmon were two very famous grammarians. 

218. Pramordet : ' takes the first bite.' 

219. ^n diBpeMot : i. e. dispentaiar : * the housekeeper, — or 
steward.' 

220. ^on aliier ^^uàm institor : like the huckster, who sells his 
goods at a lower pnce than he first charged, that he may be en&- 
Ued to suit his customers, and sell somethins. 

^£24. OUiquo . . , ferro : * with the crooked teeth of the card,' 
such as is used at tne present time. 

226. Quoi atabant pueri : 'as there were boys standing round 
you to recite their lessons.' 

2SS8. Bara . . . egeat : i. e. though the pay, which the gramma- 
rian receives, is so small ; even that he seldom gets without 
going to law for it — THbum bere means the judge, who tried 
civil causes. 

229. Sed vos : a sarcastic apostrophe to parents. 

233. Phabi : the name of the keeper of the bath. 

236. Sicvhia : i. e. Acesies. 

240. QutttA se verUrit annua : at the closé of the year — when 
March returns, for in this month teacbers received their pay for 
instniction. 

241. Vidori popvlus quod postulai : thesewords are satirically 
added by the poet, and aeem to be included in a parentliesis. — 
Victori : 'a victorìous gladiator* in the amphitheatre ; or *a vie- 
torious charioteer in the circus ; or * a successful actor* in the 
theatre. 

They, therefore, for one hour's employment, receive as much 
as the teacher does for the labor of a whole year. 



juy. SAX. vili. 181 



SATIRE Vili. 

The great object of Ibis Satire is to demonstrate, that distinc- 
tion is nierely personal ; although we may derive raak and titlea 
from our ancesiors, if we degenerate from the virtues, by which 
they obtained them, we cannot be considered as tnily noble. 

1. Pordice : some noble person, perhaps a descendant of the 
author of the Thehaìs. — Longo satinine : by a descent through 
a long train of ancestors of noble Dlood. 

2. Pictos vàltus : i. e. imagines vel tabuUu. 

3. /n currtbus: 'in trìumphal cors/ as expressed in triumphal 
«tatues. 

4. Dimidios : * half demolished,' by length of time.^— Hume- 
ros , . . Corvinum : ' a statue of Corvinus wiSi a broken shoulder.' 

6. Generis tabtdd . . . capaci : * in a long genealogica! table.' 

7. MuUà . . . magistros : L e. to claim relationshlp with magia- 
trates of the highest rank. 

8. Famosos : * now blaék with smoke.' 

9. Si , . , vivUur : if you live infamously before the images of 
these great men. — Quo: se. spectant; * what avail ?* 

12. Ducts : i. 6; JVumantim and Lepidi. 

13. Cut . . . lare: i. e. why should Fabiusboastof bis descent 
from Q. Fabius Maximus JÈmilianus, (called ,SUohrogicus from 
his victory over the AUobroges,) and in bis descent from Hercu- 
les, iic-^rà : the aitar of Hercules, of which the Fabian family 
were the hereditary guardians. 

They were said to be sprung {Hereuleo Uire) from HereuUs. 

15. Eìi^aneà . . . agnà : the sheep, bred on the Eugantan 
downs, had the finest and sofrest fleeces in ali Italy. 

16. CaHnenai pumice: Catina (now Catania) was a city near 
Mount ^tna ; the finest pumice was coUected from the vicinity 
of Mount JStna ; with these stones the effeminate Italiana used 
to smooth their skins. 

17. Emptor . . . gentem: those, condemned of poisoning or any 
other capital crime, were not only put to death, but had their 
names erased from the public records and their images hroken or 
otherwise destroyed. 

22. Hos ... tuorum: prefer the virtues of these excellent men 
to the images of your ancestors. 

' 23. PrtBcedant . . . virgas : ' if you should be consul» esteem 
ihem before ali the eiisigns of your office.' 

24. Prima . . . &07ia : the virtues of the mind are what I first 
insist upon, if you desire to be called noble. 

29. Ostri invento : Osiris was the chief deity of the Egyp- 
tìans, worshipped under the forra of a bull or ox. They sup- 
pòsed that Osiris was the ìnventor of husbandry, and that bis 
soul transmigrated into an ox. When this ox, called also »Api8f 
arrived at a certain ago, the priests drowned him and ran àbout 

16 • 



182 NOTES. 

bowling in qnest of another, of the seme form and marki as the 
former; wMch when they had found, they shouted with Joy 
Er{»,',xaft9it ! we havo found him : Svyx<*'1ì^*^ ! let us rejoice to- 
gether ! 

34. Scahte . . . Uvibua : having ali their hair eaten off with the 
mange. 

38. Ae . . . Camerinus: <lest you in mockerv he called Greti- 
ciis or Camerinus :' — ór rather lest you be noble in name alone. 
— Creticus : Q. Cecilius Metellus. — Camerinus : a sumame of 
the Sidpician family. 

43. JIggert: the aggtr vr9S a mound, raised by Tarquin, for 
the defence of the city, and much frequented by low company. 

44. Vos huvMlts . . . Ctcrofvd/ta : these are the words of Ru- 
bcllius. 

49. Plebe togata : ^ the meanest plebeians.' 

50. Nòdos: *the difficulties.' — JEnigmata: 'the myBtic intri- 
cacics.' 

51. Batam: the Baiavi or Hollanders were conquered by Do- 
mitian, when a youth. 

53. •rlquUas : i. e. legiones. — Jtt tu . . , Herm<B : i. e. you are 
nothing but a mere name, and resemble a shapelesa stone. 

The poet alludes te the Herm^R or heads of Mercury, set on 
posts at the doors of the great men in Athens. 

58. FacHi . . .fervei : *for whom, swift in the course, many a 
band glows with applauding.' 

02. Con/tìuB : the name of a fanious mare from Corytkua or 
Corìtus, a town of Etruria. 

63. Hirpini : a famous borse, so called from the place where 
he was bred, a bill in the country of the Sabines. 

64. i5t : * in these horses.' 

67. Ncpotis : the name, perhaps, of some covetous miller, 
who wearied bis horses by employing them in gxinding night 
and day. 

70. 111x3 : i. e. to your ancestors. 

71. HcBc . . . Juvenem: so much for the youth, Eubellius 
Blandus. 

81. Phalaris . . . tauro : Phalaris wasone of the mostcruel of 
the Sicilian tyrants : he had a brazen huU, in which he enclosed 
people and bumt tliem alive. See Class. Dict. 

85, Oatrea . . . Gaurana : Gaurus is a mountain of Campania, 
fièar the Lucrine lake, where the best oysters were found. 

86. Cosmi . . . aèno : the unguentum Cosmianum was a per- 
fumed ointment, so called from one Cosmusy a perfumer, who, by 

~boiling various aromatics together, produced bis famous ointment. 
The poet bere means, that if Uie person spoken of did not 
anoint himself, as others, but could anord to purchase and dip 
hìmself in a tohole keUte full at once of this rare perfume, yet bis 
name would perìsh with bis body. It is not living sump^nously, 
but well, that gives reputation after death. 



JUV. «fÀT. Vili. 183 

90. Oasa . . . wiedìdlis : i. e. you see the kixigs we bave con- 
qaered, robbed and oppressed, and the very marrow, as it were, 
sucked out of their bones^ — Vacuia exsucta mtdvUx»^ by hypallage, 
for vacwi exsuctia medtdlis. 

93. Capito : Cossulianus Capito^ the son-in-law of Ti^ellìnus, 
was prefect of Cilicia; he was condemned for extortion and 
plupdering the people of that province. — Mimitor: it is not 
known who JSTumitor was. v 

94. Pirat<B CUicum : i. e. spoliatores CUicum ; the Cilicians 
were notorious pirates. — ^This then is spoken sarcastically, |»- 
rates ofpirates. 

95. Pausa . . . ^aJtta : who PanaOj or bis predecessor, Natta, 
was, is unknown. They are probably fictitious names. — ^The 
senso is, When to a bad prefect, a worse succeeds. — Some, from 
the similarìty between this and Sat I, 39, 42, think Pausa de- 
notes the Senattf and JS/atta^ Marius, 

96. ChtBrippc : he introduces Charippus, a subject of the plun- 
dered province, whom he advises to sell the few trifles he has 
lefl, before a new govemor comes to devour what the former 
had spared ; supposing that, if he did turn bis small goods into 
money, he might perhaps the better conceal it. 

97. Furor . . . naulurit': i. e. when you have nearly lost ali, it 
would be the height of foUy to lese what you should pay fbryour 
passage to Kome, in order to accuse your oppressor. 

Some interpret it, lest you should not be able, when you die, 
to pay the ferry money to Charon. 

òr it is merely a proverbiai expression, aqd means^ " save what 
thou canst in the wreck of thy fortunes." 

98. Vfdnnu: 'gneV 

104. MeviJtore mensa: Mentor was a distinguished artìat in 
chasing and embossing silver. ' 

He means, that there were few eiUertaiwmentSj where, in the 
courses of the tables, th^re were dot some cups, ^shes, &c. of 
Mentor*s workmanship. 

107. Plures . . . triumphos : i, e. they acquired more richos in 
stripping peaceable people, than their conquerors over took from 
them in time of war. — OccuUa : the last syllable of occvUa is 
made long, in consequence of sp in the commencement of the 
following word. See Carcy's Lat Pros. 

116. GaUicus axis : ' the Gauls,' who used to fight from chariots. 

117. Mtssmiìyas: the people of Africa, who supplied Rome 
with com. 

118. Circo . . . vacanUm : ' minding nothing but the diversione 
of the circus and the theatres.' 

127. TVibunai: your decisions, as a judge. 

128. Acersecomes : * favorite boy.' 

129. Convenuta .'^^districts*' x 

130. edam: *like the harpy CeUmo,'' The govemors' wives 



184 NOTES. 

nsed to receive money from the suitors, to lnf|ueiice their huB- 
banda in their favor. 

131. Pico : Pieus, the first kinff of die Ahorigines or first in- 
habitants of Italy, was said to he me son of Satum, 

132. Omnem . . . pugnam : ali the THtanSf who were arrayed 
in battle a^nst Jupiter. 

136. Site . , . seciires : i. e. if yon delight inputting the poor 
people to death, till the very azes are blunted by frequent use, 
and the executioner himself is tired oat with the number of exe- 
cutions. 

142. Quo: ac. j<ictct3 ; ' wherefore do you boast of your high 
birth ?' 

145. Santonico . . . cucvìlo : the ScmUmts were a people of 
Aquitania, in Gaul, from whbm the Romans derìved the use of 
hooda or covóU^ which covered the head and face. 

146. PrcBter . . . carptìito: on the Appian, Flaminian, and 
Latin ways. See Sat. I, 162, note. 

Juvenal inveighs against the great men, who, in imitation of 
Nero, were passionately fond of becoming charioteers. 

148. Adstrìr^t . . . stffiamine : the sitfflamen or dmg-chavn waa 
put on the carriage wheei by the slave, (but Daìnasippua, though 
consul, performs the office) to prevent its running too fast down 
bill, or sliding back, when going up bill. — Multo implies bis doing 
it oflen. 

150. Tempus koiwris : i. e. the consulship. 

153. Virgà . . . annuet : salute him with a dexterous crack of 
bis whip. — MmnploB : ^ trusses of hay.* — Mamplos . . . lassis : i. e. 
he will perform ali the lowest duties of a groom. 

155. JhUerea . . . altaria : i. e. at bis ab£cation, when, accord- 
ìng to the custom, instituted by Numa, he offers sacrìfice at the 
aitar of Jupiter. 

156. Jurat . . . Ejponam : se. per ; Epona or lEppona was a 
goddess, who presided over horses and mules. Her statues were 
placed in horses' stables. 

159. Syrophama: : * a Syroph/tnician perfumer.' 

The best and most skilful perfumers carne fìrom Syrìa and 
PhoRnicia. 

IGO. Idum(B<B . . . porta : the ìdumaan gale was jbo called, be- 
cause Titus and Vespasian entered it in triumpfa, having con- 
quered the Jews. 

162. Oyane svjcdnda : * active Cyane ;' the woman who kept 
the tavem. 

168. Thermarum calices : the IhemnB or hot^haths, at Rome, 
were places, where some, after bathing, drank very hard. They 
also drank hot wine, while bathing, to promote perspiration. — 
Inscriptaque lintea : over the doors of brothels, signs made of 
painted linen were spread. 

169, Armemce . . . Istro : tlie Tigris and Euphrates were the 



JUV. 8AT. Vili. 185 

boundarìes of the Roman empire in the East, as the Rhine and 
Danube in the West 

170. Pr<Bf lare . . . cUas : i. e. persona of Damasìppus's a^ are 
c^Mible of scTvìng ih the arm^ for the pròtection of boui the 
tnweror (Mèronem) and the empire. 

171. MiUe : se. exercitum. — Ostia : for the purpose of embarìc* 
ing. 

175. SomdapUarum : sandapUa was a sort of bier or coffin for' 
the poorer sort, especially for those wJio had been executed. 

176. GaUi : * of a priest of Cybele.' 

183. Volesos Bndumque : ' the nobles of Rome.' 

186. Phasma CatuUi : Catullus wrote a play called Phasma or 
Vision, 

187. Laureolum : the name of a tra^edy, in which the hero 
Laureolus, for sòme horrid crime, is cruetfied, — Lentnlus : another 
of these profligate noblemen. 

191. Planij^des : they, who acted the parts of servante, were 
called jdawiptdeSj as being hare-footed. 

192. Quanti . . . referi : i. e. exposé their persona to be put to 
death : no matter for what price, these nohUs run the hazard of 
their lives ; they do it voluntarily, nobody, therefore, will pi^ 
them. 

He now satirizes those noblemen, who acted the parts ofgh^ 
diators, 

193. NuUo , . . Mrone : in allusion to the cruelty of «Vero, 
who commanded 400 aenators and 600 knights to fight in the 
amphitheatre. 

197. Thfmdes: see Sat 1, 36, note. — Cmìnthi: the name of 
a low mimic and buffoon. 

300. MirmiUonis: foran account of the gladiators, called witr- 
tmllones and retiarii, see Note to ld6th line, Sat. II. 

207. Aurea . . . spòra : * a golden wreath.' The spira was a 
band, fastened to the hat and tied under the chin ; theband being 
of gold showed that he was no common gladiator. 

209. fgnomimam : in fighting with the nobleman, who was so 
cowardly and inexperienced. 

212. Senecam : L. AmuKus Seneecu See Class. Dict 

213. Cì/^tu : i. e. JVero'f. — IhbuU . . . vnus : according to the 
laws of the twelve tables, a parricide was sewn up in a sa(^ with 
an apty a serpent, a cock and a dog, and thrown into the sea. 

The poet means, than Nero's many parrìcides deserved more 
than one death. 

215. Agamemnonida: Oreste, the son of Agamemnon and 
Clytemncstra, who slew bis mother. A*ero slew bis mother 
Agrippina. 

217. JVtfi . . . mdhdt: i. e. Orestes did not kill bis sister Mec- 
fra, as JVVro did bis brother Britanmcus, 

218. partami . . . comugH : L e. OresUs did not slay hi0 wilé 
Hemiofie, aa JWro did his wives, ChUma, Anhwa and Papp^uu 

16 • 



186 NOTES. 

319. Aconiia . . . mtscuii : Mro poisoncd his brothcr Britan- 
nicus and his aunt Domitia, 

220. Cantava : Aero not only sung apon the stage, hut jour- 
neyed to Greece to try his skill among the most famous artists. 

221. Troica . . . acripsit : N'ero wrote a poem on the destruc- 
tion of Troy ; and it is reported, that he set Rome on fire to bet- 
ter realize the scene. — Verginius . . , Vindice Galba : Vergimus 
RufvLs, leader of the ^rmy of Germanicus, Julius Vindex, pro- 
pnetor in Gaul, and Sariguis Sidmtius Galba^ prefect of Spain, 
revolted from ^ero, See Class. Dict. 

223. Cruda: f or crudeli. 

225. Scdtu : se. hUtriùnali, 

226. Jìpium . . . corontB : a garland of parsley was the reward 
of the best musician at the Neratean games. 

227. Majorum . . . colosso : the poet here addi^sses Nero. 

228. Domiti : the father and grawlfaiher of Nero were named 
Domitius» — ThyesttB . . . Antigones : i. e. the dress wliich you 
wore, when you played in the tragedies called Thyesies and An- 
tigone. — Syrma : a long garment which tragic players used. 

229. PersonamMenalippes : i. e. the mask you wore, when yon 
acted the partpf ^feTuz/t/^. 

230. Marmoreo . . . colosso : JVero erected a colossal siaiuc to 
Augustus and suspended from it tiie harp^ which was adjudged 
him in the contest with the Grecian musicians. The statue, aU 
luded to here, was, however, of hrass^ not of marhle. 

231. ^md . . . sMimius : i. e. who can deny, that CatUine and 
Ccthegus were of noble birth ? 

235. Tanica . . . molesta : a coat, made of linen, pitch, hemp, 
and other combustibles, and put on crìminals, who were chained 
to a stoke and thus burned alive. 

236. Co7isul : M. TuUins Cicero. 

241. Leìicade : ' from Lieucas,' t promontory of Epirus, near 
which Augustus defeated Antony and Cleopatra. 

245. Arpinas alius : C. Marius^ born at Arpinum, worked at 
the plouffh for hire, in his own country. 

247. Nodosam . . . mìem : the Roman centurions carried a piece 
of tvugh mnt^anch in their hands, with which they corrected the 
soldiers, when they did amiss. Marina had been a private soldier 
and had endured the chastisement of his officer. 

250. Solus*. . . urbetn ." it wiis not alone, that Marius conquered 
the Cimbri, but with the assistance of Q. huiatius CatuUìis, yet 
the glory of the war deVolved on him, as being the commander 
in chief. 

252. Majoracadavera: the Cimbri were men of very large 
stature. 

255. Pro totis . . . parenti : the Romans had a superstition, that 
if their generals wouid consent to he devoted to death or sacrì- 
ficed to Jupiter, Mars, the Earth, and tlie Infemal Gods, ali the 
misfortanes of thehr party would be transferred to their enemies. 



JUV. SAT. IX. 197 

Tuo of the fiunily of the Deeii^ father and son, had devoted 
themselves to death for the good of their country. 

S59. AncÙlà . . . banorum : Servius TuUiua, though born of 
the slave Qricutana, arrived at the honor of being the sixth long 
of Rome. 

262. Juvenes ipsius eonaulis : the sons of the first consul, L, 
Junius Brutus, who conspired to reinstate the 7\xrquin$. 

264. CoelUe: Horatiw CocUs. See Class. Dict^-Jlftieui#.- 
Muciua Scavoia, See Class. Dict 

265. Virgo: CUdia. 

266. OccuUa . . . servus : Vindieiìia, a slave, who waited at 
table, overhearìng part of the discourse, among the con8pirators> 
about the restoration of the Tarquins, informed the consuk. 

268. htgum prima securis : so called, as some explain it, be- 
cause pumshment was then for the first time inflicteo, aceording 
to laWf in a free republic, when before that time it was at the 
willt>f theking. 

269. ThersUe» : the basest of the Greeks, deformed both in 
mind ahd body. See Homer's Iliad, II, 212. 

273. Infami . . . asylo : Romulus, to promote the peopling of 
the city, in its first inftncy, establìshed an as^um or sanctuary, 
where criminals of ali kinds, who could escape thither, were aure 
to be safe. " 



SATIRE IX. 



This Salire consista of a dialogue between Juvenal and Nte* 
volus, an enfranchised slave ; a poor wretch, who, irom a kind of 
jester or dabbler in small wit for a meal, had become wbat is 
called a man of pleasure ; and thence, by a regular gradation, a 
dependant of some wealthy debauchee (bere named Virro), who 
maide him subservicnt to bis unnatural passions : and, in return, 
starved, insulted, hated, despised, and discarded him. ThÌ9 
miserable object the poet rallies witb infinite spirit, on bis dis- 
consolate appearance ; and, by an affected ignorance of the cause, 
engages him to enter into a detailed account of bis infamons life. 

3. Creperdus PoUio : the name of some noted spendthrift. 

6. Jlgthaa : ^ you sustained the part of.' 
' 7. Ferfutm eqmtem : slaves, who appeared in a stylo and man- 
ner above their condition, were called verruB eqìdtes, genUemen- 
slaoes. 

8. Saiibus . . . intra pomaria : * jests of a polished kind,' in 
contradistinction to the provincial low-bom jests of the coinmon 
slaves. — PofMBrium (quasi post murwn) was a space about the 
walls of a town, within and without, where it was not lawfìil to 
plough or build for fear of hindering the defence of the city : 
hence, by Metonymy, a limit or bound, the limUs ofa city. 



18B NOTES. 

ft. Siu^ : iu e. not moUiened with perfumed «ùntmente. 

11. Bruttia faida vi$ei: by hyp«llag« for fageia BruttU 
pisci 

14. i^uarta . . . febris : a quavtan agoe and fever, which has 
lasted so long, that it has, as it were, become domesticated. 

19. UirqHio: «e. tnemcrià; <aa I remember.' — Gamfmeden: 
the statue of (ktnymedef in tbe tempie of Jupiter, was, as Well 
a« the other places enumerated, a place of rendezyous for ali 
manner of lewd persons. 

20. Poeta: acfanum ; 'the tempie of Peaee,' buiU by Vespa- 
aian, and adorned with numerous stataes^r— -Most interpreterà join 
Pad» with Gani/sMcien, * the statue of Ganymede in the tempie 
of Pesce.' — MatrU : Cyhde. 

23. UtUe to implevero in verse 65 are generali^ thought to be 
the words of JWevo/tcfi but some of them may with greater pio* 
piiety be assigned to Juvenal. 

24. Pingues . . . lacerruu : ' coarse great coats,— -or clodcs.' 

25. Mwnimenta taf(B : L e. to protect my toga from the rain, &c. 

26. Textùrìs Galli : in Gftul, gannente of t£e coarsest kind were 
usuaUy made. 

27. Tenue argentum: light money, not of due and legai 
weigbt 

30. Computai ac cevet : he reckons up what he has given tne, 
yet continues to gratify bis unnatural lusts. 

33. Vo» humUt . . .parati : i. e. if you are so sparing of yoar 
liberality towards those, who minister to your pleasures, aìuJi aa 
you will hardly be generous to those who want your charity, 
your attendants and poor clients. 

34. Morbo : morbus, in a mental sense, denotes any odd hii- 
mor, unreasonable passion, or vice, 

35. Paaser : it is said, that aparrowa are the most salaòioos of 
ali birds : hence he gives this title to Virro» 

36. Jlppida : see Sat IV, 26. — MUvoa . . . laaaoa : he repre- 
Bcnts Virro's estate to be so larga, as to tire the kites ^ in flying 
o'vcr it. 

38. Suapcdum . . . Cumis : Mount Misenus hangs, as it were, 
over tbe city Cuma, 

This and Mount Gavrus were famous for their vines. 

43. Cymbala pulaantia : i. e. one of tbe GaUi, priests of Cy- 
belc. 

50. Exapedate dcadaa : L e. wait for the sprìng. 
^ 59. TolUa : ' you bring them up.' — lÀbria . . . viri : Servios 
TuUius, to fix the number of births and burìals, ordered, that 
when a chiid was bom, the kinàredsbauLd bring a piece of money 
into the tararium of Juno Lucina ; and Lato the exchequer of 
Venus LÀbitina, when any died. The father was obliged to give 
notice of the birth of a child, and the cbild reeeived ita name 
within thirtj days afterwards. ^ 

60. Forilus . *.es: it was usuala on ali festal occasìoQS, and 



JUV. SAT. IX. tS^ 

particularly on the birth of childr^n, to bang garlands and wreathff 
at the doors. 

€3. Proptér . . . capis : if a legacy^was lefl to a single man, it 
was void, by the Papian law ; if to a married man, liavìng no 
children, he could take but a (Murt of it, the rest went to the pub- 
lic treasury. 

63. Cadtteum : this was a legacy, left a person upon certain 
conditions, such as those of being married, havìng cluldren, &c. ; 
in defaolt of which, the whole went to some other persons. 

64. Commoda . . . implevero : the jtu trium liberorum entitled 
a man to various privìleger and imraunities ; of which the prìn- 
cipal were, an exemption from the trouble of wardship, a prìority 
in hearing offices, and a treble proportion of grain on the custom- 
ary distributions. 

This was the case, if the parents lived in Rome ; if they lived 
elsewhere in Ital^, they were to bave ^ve^ children ; if in any of 
the Roman provmces, seven were necessary to enable them to 
claim the advantage of the jtu trium liberorum. 

65. Juata • . . c^ert : the words of the poet, pretending com- 
miseration. 

67. ATegligU . . . Athems : the reply of Nsvolas. 

68. HfBc : i. e. the things which I bave told you respecting the 
baseness and avance of Virro. 

73. Canddam apponere V€dvi8 : * to set fire to my house.' 

74. «ATec . . . vtneni : i. e. beware how you express your con- 
temptof amanof this character, since one, as rieh as he is, could 
with bis money purchase poison, wherewith to take you off and 
none he the wiser. 

76. Curia Maartia Athtnia : the judges of the court of «^eo- 
pagu8 gave their sufirages by night, and in silence, by charac- 
ters and alphabetical lettera ; and it was a capital crime to di- 
vulgo the votes, by which any sentence was passed. 

77. O Cwydon . . • art : the words of Juvenal. — Oarwhn : Ju- 
venal humorously styles MevoluSy this paramour of old virro. Co* 
rydoriy in allusion to Virg. Ecl. II, 56 and 69, i. e. ^ O fool.' 

87. BaUea ; straps made of leather, with which the masters 
corrected their slaves ; in revenge for which, there was nothing 
which the slaves would not invent against their masters. 

89. Quidquid : i. e. tcuniumitatem. 

92. iiiciens : ' sacrìficing.' — Laufeìla: a priestess of Vesta^ 
who, in celebrating the rites of the Bona l>e«, together with the 
women worshippers, drank herself into drunken fhry. 

96. Deterior . . , quorum : the construction ìs, tamen kic (domi* 
nus) qui liber non erit a cupiditatibus et vitiis est deterior iUia 
quorum^ &c., i. e. servis. 

98, Idcirco . • , aeneciua : the reply of Nievolus. 

105. JVe trepida . . . dentem : the poet's answer to Nievolus.-* 
Dttrxty in verse 105, is oontracted by synsresis into iioo sylla* 
bles. 



4 • • . ««imi s by tUs penpbra«iB iv94Qaenhe4 tbone u»- 
/retches, who dressed their heads, like women : who, if 
ioted to «eratch tbom, ffently intioduce^ oi^e fìnger oaly, 
4r of dùcompowin^ th^ir £atr. 
^Q. fftBc , . . mordo : tbo worà» of Nevolqa.- 

117. f^oftrictW : when C FoMcius was cenaor, he adjadged 
Com. Aij^iM, a senator vho had twice been consul, unwoithy 
of the senatorìal dignìty, because he had in hi» house silver vea- 
aels of ten pouDda weight, eateeming it as a notorioua eicample 
of luxuiy. 

118. Mmsorum: the Mommn^ were remarkably robust» and 
therefore in gieat demand a| Rome, a9 chairmen or caniem of 
«edans. 

120. Cunms: 'skilful.' 

193, JSÌam . . • mw-d^: i, e. fortuna ia deaf to ali petitioM on 
my behalf. 

This ia ezpressed by an allnaion to the story of Uhf^seSf who^ 
sailing by Sicily and being forewmKned pf the danger of liatening 
to the Sirens on the coast, atopped bis manners' ears with vaz, 
and so sailed by them securely. 



ff tt^^-^r^^^y^ 



satira: x: 

The subject of this Satire ts.the ÌTanity o^ iluman Wishei. 
The poet takes bis stand on the great theatre of the worid and 
sununons before him the illostrìous characters of ali a^es. As 
they appear in succession, he shows, from the principu events 
of their li¥es, how little happinesa |s promoted, by the attainment 
of what our indistinct and bounded TÌews represent, as the most 
perfect of earthly blessings. Of these he instances wealth, 
poi$rer| eloquence, military glory, and personal aeeomplishments ; 
fili which bave, as he obsenres, provep dangerous or destructive 
to their respective posaessors, From hence, he argues the wis> 
Àom of acquieaeing in the dispensations of Heayen ; and con- 
cludes with a form of prayer, in which he poìnts out, with great 
force and beauty, the objects for which a rational being may pre- 
stune to approach the Almighty» 

JuTenal seems, in the composition of this Satire, to bave had 
in bis thonghts Plato's second dialogne of AUibiadea and Per* 
sius's second Satire ; he has, however, taken nothing from them, 
but the general idea ; the fiììing up is entirelv his own. 

1. GcuKbus : Gadeè, now Cadiz, is an island beyond the straita 
of Gibraltar, to the south of Spain. The ancients eupposed it to ' 
be the extremity of ih» west whence the inscription, Nb PiìUS 
Ultra, on the piUars of Hercules. 

% Qangen : the greatest rìver In the eastf dividing India into 
iwo parta, 



JVt. SAT. X. 191 

6. Ihgà • . . nmUUà: the «s^ Bàyti €teMo,is ^(b badge óf 

peaee, 

in tia|d of peace, sitaatidiis in the admii^itnitiMi of <Avìì nUkiii» 
tre BOaght fot ; in time of var, posta of conutaand in the srmy ; 
jeaoh of which are often attended with d&inage to those wfao Inid 
eageriy sought them. 

10. Mort§ira . . . facunditt : Demofitàeneis and Cicero both 
oame to violent deaths.— FSri&tt» . . . coHfEfttf t JHifo, the Croto- 
nian wrestler* See Class. Dict. 

11. PeriU : this line is thab scanned : 

Confi- I sùs péri- I it ad- | miràn- | disquè Ì&- | cèrtis. 

The it in periii ia mane long oy the ciesurai pause. 

13. Cvmcia . . . censita : i. e. àn income beyond the rate of a 
common fortune. 

16. Temporibus . . . eohors : the confirtniction is, Jljgiiur tata co- 
hors, illis airis temporibus, jussu ^eronis, dausU Longinum et 
ma^nos hoviùs prmlivUis iSbtee«e, &c. 

16. Lon^num : ^ero ordered Cctssius Longinus to be pnt to 
deatli) because he had in bis possession a statue of Casshis, one 
of the murderers of Julius desar ; but the real cause was, that 
he tras rich^ — SeneeiiB : tutx>r to Nero, supposed to be engaged in 
Piso^s conspiracy ; but put to death in consequence of his great 
wealùh, See Class. Dict. 

17. Lat^unofUM éedes i PlanUifus Làtteranus heA a sumptuous 
palace, in which he was beset by order of J'V'ero, and killed so 
suddenly, that he had not a moment's time to take leave of his 
childron and family. He had been dedignated conmil. 

The pope's palace, called the Lateran, is built on the site of 
tìàfi edifice. 

18. CkBnacìda : liUerally, p^es to sup in ; as the ancients ùsed 
to sup in the highest part of the house, it is put bere for agorref, 
where paupers iodged. 

20. Contum : a poUf armed at one eìhd, such as hìghwaymen 
used to carry. A ooatman's pòle is also called eontus. 

fH^ Thto . . .firo : the senators and other rich Romans had 
dusts of brass, m the ybrum of Mars, to boH and preserve their 
money : but these, havin? once been rt>bbed, they removed to 
the tempie of Castor. These chtsts Were also kept in the forum 
of Trajan. 

Some think the poet alludes to usurtrs, who transacted their 
business in the ybr«^. 

28. JaHme . . . auctor r i. «e. do you now think much about 
wealth or ostentatìon, {quod) which caused one philosopher to 
laugh, imother to "freepf-Sapientibtts <dter : Democritusy a phi- 
losopher of Abdera, who always derided the ranity of man. 

90w Ckmtrwrius auttor : HeretdUus, a philosopher of Ephesus, 
who acted eontrary to Demoerìtus, and wept for the foìly of man. 

35. TreAett: robes, wom by kings, consuls, and augurs. — 
IVftttUMi/ ; -a 89at in tìie fwum, in die ibrm of a4ialf-moon, &om 



192 NOTES. 

which the judgea passed sentence. Ai the upp^r part was jdaced 
the èdia cuniKf, on which the prtctùr sat 

36. i^jM : the poet now derìdes the figure, which the pratof 
made, when presidine at the Circensian games» — Cvarribua : tri- 
umphal cais^ which were drawn hy foor white h9r0e8. 

98. Tunica Jovis : those who triumphed wore a tunic or gar- 
meat, which, at other times, was kept in the tempie of Jupiter. — 
Sarrana: SÓrra was the ancient name of T\fref famous for ita 
purpU dye. 

41. Publicus : se. servia ; the Romana had public as weU ad 

Srìvate servants, who attendcd them on such occasiona as these. 
*hÌ8 servant assisted in holding up the heavy crown of the sf ce- 
tor,^^C<m9vl . . . toàtoi : the ancienta had an institution, tbat a 
àUwe should ride in the same chariot with a cotuut, when he 
triumphed, and should admonish him io recoUect that he was a 
man, 

As the pnBtor is here represented as triumphing, the word 
eon$ìd is used. 

43. Volwertm . . . ébumo : the eagle with expanded wings, 
which the triumphant pnetor held, on the top of his ivory sceptre. 

44. Pntcedenka . . . qfida : for longum agmen oj^kU causa : 
these were the great man's dependants, who, on this occasion, 
marched in solenm procession before the chariot. 

45. Ji/weas . . . Quirites : in triumphal processions, citizens, 
clad in wkUe^ waUced by the side of the chariot. 

46. Drfossa • . . amicos : * whom the sportula, buried in his 
coffers, (and not sincere attachment,) has made his friends.' 

47« Tunc : Democritus in his timo. 

50. Vervecum . . . nasci : the Baottans^ Thractans^ and jyur- 
ticularly the people of Mderoj a city of Thrace, were notea for 
stupidity. 

52. ForiuME . . . laqueum : mandare laqueum alicui, is a phrase 
somewhat like, go hang yoursey, 

53. Medium . . . unguem : to hold out the middle finger, the 
rest being contracted, was aignificant of the utmost contempt. 

54. Ergo : i. e. since few can distinguish between what are 
real blessings, and the reverse. — Superv<u:ua : the final a of this 
word is here preserved from elision. 

55. Propter . . . deorum : it was customary with the ancients 
to write their vows on paper or waxen tablets, and, sealing them 
up, to affix them to the knees of the gods with wax : they used 
also to spread wax on the knees of tjie image, and thereon write 
their wishes. The knees were considered the seat of mercy. 

The gods permit us to ask, but the consequences of having our 
petitions answered are oilen fatai* 

56. ^ ^^osdam : the poet now passes to htmors, and, by exam- 
ples, shows that, like riches, they prove the destruction of many^ 

58. Pagina : pagina, in ita proper and literal sense, signifies 
a page or a booK, out here, a piate of brass, fixed before the 



I 



JUV. 8AT. X. 193 

statues of eminent persons, conUiiiiiiig ali their titles and honors. 
— Restemque sequimhar : things dragged hy ropes, are said siqvi 
restem. 

The populace pulled down ali the statuea of St^anus, to pleaae 
the emperor, with whom this prime minister was in diagrace, and 
drag^d them about the streets of Rome. 

59. Tpsas . . . Sejanus : some of the statues of S^anus were on 
horseback ; others in a trìumphal car, drawn by two horses ; ali 
which were broken to pieces, the very charìots and horses de- 
molished, and, if made of brasa, carried to the fire and melted. 

63. Facie . . . secundà : i. e. ex statua hominis tato eròe seeundi ; 
Stjanus waa so fkvored by TSterius, that he raised him to the 
hìghest dignity, next himself. 

65. Pone . . . trahat : the words of the populace, triumphing 
over S^antut and flattering Tiberius, — Lavros : it was usuai to 
adom their houses with garlands of laurei on any public occaaion 
of Joy. 

G6. Cretatum : beasts, sacrìficed to the oélestial gods, were 
tokUe ; those to the infornai deities, were ìdack, — DvcUur . * . 
Bpectandus : crirainals were dr^eed by a ìuìok to the Scal<B Gè- 
monÙB and thrown into the ^ber. The body of S^anus was 
exposed three days at the Scalea GemanÙR, before it was cast 
into the river. 

The SealiB Gemonùe was « place appointed either for torturing 
criminals or for exposing their bodies after execution. It was on 
Mount Aventine, andthere were several stepswìàch led upto it. 

71. Verbosa . . . capreis : TKberìus, while at Caprea, an island 
on the coast of Naples, was informed, that Sgcmua had a design 
upon the empire : on which he wrote a long and pompous episSe , 
to the sonate, who had S^emu» seized and punished. 

73. Turba Remi : * the commons.' 

74« Mirgia TSuco : Spanus was a TSiscaii, bom at Volsini- 
um, where the goddess Jfurtia (the same as Fortune) ww wor- 
shipped. 

77. Avgustum : ' emperor.' — Ex quo . . . vendimus : the poorer 
flort of plebeians used to seU their votes to the candidates for 
public offiees, before Julius Cassar took from the people the right 
of electing their magistrates, 

78. EffudU : se. jaomdus ; bave dismissed ali care and concerà 
about the state, ano tlie election of officers. 

80. Conltind : < withhold itself from ali concems of state,' 

82. Mi ohviua : i. e. as he waa dragged to execution. 

83. BruHdius : BruHdius Niger, the*edile and rhetorician, a 
great friend to Si^anus, who was ordered to he executed with 
him. 

84. VictuB . . . ^ax : alluding to the story of Ajax (to whom 
the emperor is compared), who, being overcome in bis dispute 
with Ulysses conceming the armor of Achillea, ran mad with 
grief, and vented bis anger upon the cattle of the field. 

17 



194 . NOTES. 

85. MàU dtfensua : 'l>adly supported by the senato.' 

88. Ctrvice obstrictà : tbose, wfao were dragged to punishmeiity 

had a chain or halter fastened about the neck. 
91. Curuk$: the ivory chaira of state, in which PrtelorSj 

JEdtUs^ and other high magietrates were carried, put bere forthe 

offices themselves. 

94. Grege Chald^o : Tiberiug, al Capree, was surronnded by 
a band of Chald(Ban. astrolo^ers, and was flruid^d by them in ali 
bis aifairs of state. — Pila : javdina, with which the Roman foot 
soldiers were anned ; as if Uxe poet had said^ — *^ Do you wish to 
be an officer, to bave soldiers under your command ?" — Cohcrtes : 
a cokoii was. the tenih part of a legion. The dìgnity of a Tri- 
bune of the soldiers is intended. 

95. Castra dùmtstica : the samo as castra Prtetoria, 

100. Potestà» : ^ the magistrate.* 

101. Be mensvrd . . . eMis : an adUe was an inferior officer, 
who had jurisdiction over weights and measures ; and was au- 
thorized to break them, if they were not Just. 

Thero were tufo kinds of 4BdUes, (strictly speaking, indeed» 
there were threef) the CuruU and the Plebeian : the first were 
officerà of considerable power; it is of the second kind that 
Juvenal bere spcaks. 

103. Eygo . . . ruinfB : bere the poet draws a conclusion, from 
what has been said of StjanuSy that few aie.wise enough to dis- 
tinguish true good from eyil. 

105. Et nimias . . . rutn«B : the note of Ruperti is as follows : 
** Sejanus ad altissimos adscendebat honoris gradua et ita gravi- 
orem sibi casum ruinamque parabat, similis ei, qui, modicis aedi- 
bus npn contentus, turrim multorum tabulatorum exstruit, unde 
aUior est casus et immane pr<tcepsj prsecipitium, ruirut (daL) ad 
casum et violentar impulsa, h. e. unde superiores turris partes 
magni cum vi rucre vel decidere possint" 

108. Ulum : C. Julius Cosar. 

109. Flagra : whìle Rome enjoyed ber freedom, slaves only, 
not Roman dtizens^ were permitted to be beaten with scourges» 

110. MJlà non arte: i. e. omni arte oc modoi—per fa» et 
ntfas. 

112. Generum Cereris : PlìUoj who took away ìind marrìed 
Proserpine, the daughter of Ceres, 

114. Eioquium : the poet now shows, by the ezamples 
of JJemosihenes and Cicero^ that eloquence is equally pemi- 
cious. 

115. Quinquatribus : the Quinqwxtria were festivals in honor 
of Minerva^ the goddess of arts and sciences : they iasted /w 
daysy durìn^ which time the school-boys had holydays. 

116^ Q^tsquis . . . Minervam : i. e, one who .has only com- 
menced bis first elements. The youngest tyro, who has, as yet, 
only poid one single cw to the master. — Minervam : by Metonymy 
for «cience itself. 



JITV. 8At. X. 195 

190. /nfcmo : L e. of Cicero, that man of distingaished tal- 
enta. 

122. O fwiuwAam . . . lEtMnam: a verse of Cicero, notorious 
for ita vanity and ìll-soonding numbcrs. 

Dryden, in bis translation, has made it exceedìngly ridica-* 
lous, — 

** Fortune foretunod the óyax notes of Rome, 
'mi 1, ihy c<»i8ul Role, conwM^ tlij doom/' 

123. PotuU: Tot pohnsset, 

125. PhiUppiea . . . proxima : Cicero wrote fourteen orations 
agaìnst Antony, (callèd PhUippics, as imitating Demosthenes in 
freedom of language,) of these the aecond is the mòst elaborate 

* and abounds in the severest invectives. 

126. Volveris : the books of the ancients were rolled up in 
volumes of paper or parchment; this faraona PkUtppic stood 
second in the volume. — lUum : Demosthenes, who poiaoned him- 
self to avoid falling into the banda of Antifoter. 

130. Pater : the father of Demoathenea la said to bave been a 
cuUer at Athens. 

132. lìuUo : dirty with aoot and amoke. — Others explain it by 
flavo, aa denoting tìie color of the fire ; hot lutetis, in thia aense, 
haa the firat ayllable long, and lùteo muat then be conaidered as 
contracted by ayn^reaia into two ayllablea. 

133. Exìwia • . . trQp(EÌs : ali spoUs, taken from a conquered 
enemy, were calJed exuvia. The trophy was a monument erected 
in memory of victory : the cjstom carne from the Greeka, who, 
when they had routed an enemy, auspcnded the spoila of armor 
and other enaigns of victory from the trunk of a tree, called iro- 
p<Bum, {from rqinta, to tum,) a monument of their having twmtd 
the enemy to flight 

136. Captivus . . . arcu : oh the top of the triumphal arch, 
which was built upon theae occasiona, they made acme wretched 
captive place himaelf, bemoaning hi£r wretched fate, while the 
conquerors were exulting in their victory. 

145. SUrilis . . .flcùs : the wild fig-tree, apringing up aponta- 
neously near walla and monumenta, and ahooting ita roota and 
branchea between the joininga of the atonea, totaJly overtuma 
them in course of time. 

147. Expende Hannibalem : put Hannibal in the acalea, weigh 
hia aahea and aee how light they are : i. e. place him in the acalea 
of human greatneaa. 

149. J^Uo . . . tepenti : bordering on the Nilo, which ia called 
tepid, aa being near the torrid zone. 

150. Rursus . . . popvlos : then extending to the country of the 
iEthiopians. 

152. Alfem : poetic aing. for plural Alpes, 

153. Diductt . . . iiceto : around auch rocka, aa obatructed bis 
pasaage, he piled largo trees, and, aetting them on fire, poured 



196 NOTES. 

vtfugar on the rocks, m ther became red; and thiu the rocks 
were split and calcined; and he was enabled to remove or cut a 
passage throu|4i them. 

Pliny says, that the hardeat rocks majE be split with fire and 
vinwu:. This story, however, is rejected as fabulous. 

1^ Suburd : one of the prìncipal streets of Rome, put bere 
for the city itself. 

157. Quait digna tabtUd; ' what a ridiculous picture he would 
bave made ;' — ^ how worthy of beingr caricatured.' 

158. Gatula . . . luscum : wbon'he was enterìng Tuscany, the 
Jìnio was overflown with inceesant rains, and the country was so 
flooded, that he was three days and nights marching through the 
wet, in which situation he lost many of bis army, and ali bis ele- 
phants but one : bere, by damp and fatigue, he lost the use of 
one of bis eye«. 

161. Cliens . . . tyranno : a dependant on ^Prusitu, king of 
Bithfnia ; be visited bim every moming to salute bim as bis 
patron, and was obliged to sit and wait at the door of bis palace, 
tili the king saw fit to admit bim. ' 

165. Vxndtx . . . armoLuB : at Caniue, he is said to bave takcn 
above three bushels of rings from the dead bodies of the Romàns. 
One ring containing poison, he always cajrried with bim, and by 
means of which he finally perisbed. 

168. PeUaojuvtni : Alexander the Great was bom at Pelto, a 
city of Macedon, and died of a fever at Babylon^ occasioned by 
excessive drinking. 

170. Gyara . . . Saripho : two of the CydadtSy islands in the 
iEgean sea, to which criminals were banisned. 

171. Figulis . . . urbem : BaJbylon was sorrounded by a wall 
of hrickf of an immense height and tbickness. 

174. Velificatus Athos : JShos is a mountain in Macedon, run- 
ning like a peninsula into the ^gean sea. Xetxea is said to bave 
digged through a part of it to msJse a passale for bis fleet. 

175» Constratum . . . mare : Xerxes is saio to bave had 12,000 
ships with hiin in his expedition, and with them to bave formed 
a bridge from Sestos to Abydos^ over which the army, chariots, 
horses, &c. passed, os if the sea had been solid under Uiem. 

177. Defecisse . . . prandente : it is said, that the army of Xerxes 
was 80 numerous, as to drink up a rivor at once, wherever it 
stopped. — Medo : tlie army of Xerxes consisted of Medes and 
Persians. 

178. Madidis . . . Sosiratus : the fancy of a poet is compared 
to wings, with which he soars into the region of invention. The 
fancy of Sostraius (a poet, who described the Peraian expedition), 
to produce such improbabilities, is supposed tobe moistened with 
wine. 

179. lUe , . . relidà : ^verxcs, after the defeat of bis naval 
forces, near Salamis^ by Themistocles, immediately fled in a poor 
fishing-boat 



JUV. SAT. X. 197 

180. Conufi . . • Ennoaigóittm : when Xerxes found bis bridge 
of boats shattered hj a tempest, he ordered the Hellespont to be 
•courged witb three hundred lashes, and fettera to be cast into 
the sea. Herodotus also relates the story, but sajs nothìng of 
the urinds being scourged. — Ennosig^Rum : 'the earth-shakiiig 
Neptune.' 

183. StìgnuUe: sHgnui sìgnifies a brand or mark impressed 
upon the foreheads of fu^itivc slaves. 

184. Hwic : such a mad and cruel master. 

185. Cruentig : by the slaughter of such vast numbers of the 
Persians by the Athenian commander. 

188. Da spaUum : the poet now satirizes the folly of wishing 
for long life. 

189. Recto vìUtu d paUidua : with a joyful countenance and 
wjith a sad one — or in health and in sickness. 

192. Deformem prò cviepeUem: * instead of a smooth skin, an 
unsightly hide.' 

1^. Quales . . . Tabraca . . . buccà : Tabraca, now TuniSf a 
city in the maritime part of Lybia, near wMcfa was a thick wood, 
abounding in apes. 

aOO. Inermi: 'toothless.' 

205. CStharadus : this word denotes that species of musician, 
who sang and played the harp at the same timé. — Sdeucus . . , Ui- 
cemà : Sdeucus was a noted musician, who, like ali bis profession, 
wore a rich embroidered garment, when he exhibited on the stage. 

215. ISppia : a woman noted for ber debaucheries. 

216. Themiaon: the name of some physician. 

217. BasUtu : some pretor, probably, who shamefully pian- 
dered («octo») the people of bis province. — lErrus: the name of 
some fraudulent guardian. 

13191 PosMeat . . . sonabat: CHnnamuaj the freed-man and 
barber of Au^ustus: 

230. Eduxìi : i. e. educami, 

233. Carcere famicis : * the prison of a brothel,' — *• in the con- 
fined celle of a orothel.' 

240. Rex Pylius : Nestor, kìng of Pylos. 

241. Vita . . . aecundfR : Uie crow is fabled to live nine times 
the age of à man. Nestor, says the poet, stands second to thii 
long-lived bird. 

$M3. Dextrd compuiat : the ancients counted by their fingerà ; 
the numbers under a hundred on the fingers of the left band ; 
ftom one io two hundred^ on those of .the right ; and so on, alter- 
nately. ' 

244. Quirite . . . bibii : i. e. who has lived so many autumnsi 
and tasted the produce of so many vìntages. 

246. Mmio de stamine : L e. the thread of life was spun out to 
too great a length. 

247. Ardentem : upon the fnneral pile. 

-251. Mius : LaerteSf king ofBhaca^ the father of Ulysses. 

17 • 



199 NOTES. 

S52. Ad umbhu Anarad : < to the sepulchre of his ancestors/ 
See ABsancus, Class. Dici. 

255. Edare planetiu : it was customary to hire women to moum 
at funerals, who went before the corpse, to lament the dead. 

256. Scissa . . . paUà : rending the garments, in token of grief, 
was very ancient. 

257. Diverso . . . carìnas : i. e. before Paris had made prepara- 
tions for sailing to Greece. 

260. Asiam : Asia Minar, subject to the empire of Priam. 

261. JVemulus : Priam, now trembling and almost wom out 
with old age. 

^ 262. Ruit . • . Jovis : see Virg. Mn» II, 509. 

265. Torva . . . uxor : Hecuba, the wifo of Priam, is said to 
bave been changed into a bitch. 

267. Ad nostros :,U> examples among our own peòple. — Regem 
. . . Ponti : Mithridates. 

268. CnMum . . . vit{B : Cmsus was the last king of Lydia and 
proverbially rich. He asked Solon, the Athenian lawgiyer, who 
was the happiest man ? The philosopher told him, ^ no man could 
he called happy before death." This afterwards Croesus found 
to be true ; for being taken by Cyrus and ordered to he bumed, 
he cried out, *^ Solon ! Solon ! Solon !" Cyrus asked the reason 
of this and was told what Solon had remarked : whereupon, con- 
sidering, it might be bis own case, he spaied bis life and treated 
him with much respect. 

270. IjXsUivm . . . habuére : tlie long life of C. Marius was 
attended with innnmerable miseries. Being conquered by Sylla, 
he iled to the marshes o/MintunuB, a town of old Latium, where 
he was taken and thrown into prison : but, escaping thence into 
Africa, he was obliged to beg bis bread tiirough &e streets bf 
Carthage. He aHerwards returned to Rome, on the departare 
of Sylla to the Mithridatic war, and becoming consul, tiien for 
the seventh time, died in a few months, having^amply rerenged 
himself upon bis enemies. 

274. Si . . , curru : i. e. if Marius had died immediately after 
bis triumph over the Teuiones and Cimbri. 

275. Pompa : the. a in pompa, in this line, is preserved from 
, elision. * 

277. Provida . . . Campanig, : before the civil war between 
Pompey and Cesar, the tormer làbored under two violent fevers, 
one at Naples and the otber at Campania. Campania is there- 
fore called provida, bccause, if the fever had killed Pompey, it 
would bave provided against ali bis after misfortunes, and the dire 
' consequences of a civu war. 

283. Formam optai : the poet now satitizes the folly of parents, 
who wish so anxiously for beauty in their cbildren. 

288. RutiltJR : Ruma was an ugly hump-backed old woman, in 
Jfivenal's days, upwardu of seventy^seven years of age, as Pliny 
uayg. • 



JUV. SAf. X, 199 

5289. Suam: ac/aeUm, 

292. Sandas . . . SMnoa : i. e. thoogh a fiimily, simple and 
honest, may have furnìshed him with the purest morals, such a» 
tbose, finr which the ancient Sabines were distìngoished. 

296. ^on . . . viria : i. e. it is imposedble fbr them txt be meUf 
if they are handsome, since those endowed with beaaty aere g^en- 
erally ^enUnaU. 

30^. H<Ec : PhadrOj the step-motìier of Hippolytus, was the . 
daughter of Misoa, king of CMe. 

303. Sthenebaa : in Greek s&9vipota. 8ee Bellerophon and 
Sthenoboea, Class. Dict. 

306. Cui . . . destinai : Messalina, the wife of the empeiVr 
Claudius, so doated upon SUitu, a noble Roman, that she obliged 
him to put away bis wife, Julia Syllana, and resolved to be mar- 
ned to him herself, in the absence of the emperor, who had gone 
no farther than to Ostici, a city near the mouth of the T^ber. 

311. Riiu . . . antiquo : at marriages, a portion was given by 
the wife to the husbuid, in eonsideration of the burden of matri- 
mony. 

312. Signatortbus auspex : on ali such occasions, a soolhsayer 
used to attend, and nothing of importance, either pubUc or private, 
was anciently undertaken, without bis advice. — ^The signatores 
were a kind of public noiaries, who drew up» signed, seued, and 
attested wills, deeds, marriage setUements, and the Uke. 

316. Scdus . . . admittas : of marrying another man's wife. 

317. Prindpis : the- emperor Claudius. 

333. Divina : ali thinefs, belonging to the gods or appertalning 
to sacrifices, were called divine, 

334. SpaHum . . . extremum : spatium uttimum or extremum, in 
chariot and borse racing, signines the space between the last 
bound and the goal, where the race ended. Hence, metaphori- 
cally, it denotes the latter part of life. 

338. Piuma Sardanapalt : * the downy bed,— or eflTeminacy of 
Sardanapalus ;* he was the last king of Assyria, whose life was 
such a scene of luxury 'and efieminacy, that bis subjects held him 
in the utmost contempi, and at last revolted : having been over- 
come, he erected a pile, and burned himself together with ali bis 
valuable effects. 

342. Fortuna Dtam : the Greeks had many temples erected to 
Fortune. Ancus Martius and Servius Tullius were the first 
among the Romans, who built temples to this goddess. 

This Satire has been imitated by Dr. Johi^n, in bis poem, 
entitled, « The Vanity of Human Wishes." 



aOO NOTES. 



SATIRE XI. 

ThÌ8 Satire consists principally of an invitatìòn to PersicuB, the 
poet'a friend, io spend the day with him ; in the course òf which, 
he takes occasion to espose and reprehend in the severest tenns 
ali manner of intemperance and debauchery ; but, more particu- 
larly, the luxuryy used by the Romans, at their feasts. 

1. Atticus : the name is bere used for any person of greal 
wealth. 

2. RxdUus : used bere for any person, who, ]oy extravagant 
gbittony, has been reduced to poverty. 

3. AmduB : used bere for any ffluttonous man. — Apicws was 
a notea epicare in the time of Nero : * after having spent near 
£800,000 in luxurious living, he poisoned himeelf, whÙe he had 
£80,000 left, for fear of wanting a meal. 

4. SkUiones : statio means bere any place of public resort in 
the city, where people wait for the sake of conversation, amuse*- 
ment, or the like. 

8. Scrìptvrus . • . lanxtia : i. e. to copy oat the lawa, rules, 
words of command (rtgia verhia)^ and othér matters of knowledge, 
nccessary to make him a fencer, that be may he thoroughly quaiU 
ified for the art 

14. IrUerea : i. e. before they are quite reduced to min and 
beggary. — Gtutua : ' dainties to please their taste.' 

18. tancibus oppositis : * family piate being pawned.* — MaJtrìs 
. . ,fracià : a family bust or statue, braken to {Àeces, that it may 
not be known, and pawned for the value of the g<^d or Silver only. 

19. ^ùdringentis nummU : 400 sestertvL 

2Ò. MUceUanea ludi : ^ the diet of a prize-fighter :' L e. they 
become gìadiators. 

22. Ventidio : used here for any noble and hospitable Roman. 

23. lUum . . . saccvlus : the poet means, if a man has senso 
enounrh to distinguish the size of Atlas from that of inferior moun- 
taiiis, but, at the same time, cannot distinguish between liis own 
narrow circumstances and the fortones of the rich, so as to regu" 
late bis living accordingly, he is deserving of the utmost con- 
tempt 

3 J. Se trangducebat : * exposed himself to ridicule.' 

34. Curtiu8 : Curtiiu Montanus^ a man of very moderate abili- 
Ijes. — Matho : a person of very inferior abilities, who, not sue- 
ceeding at the bar, tumed spy and informér. — Bìacc<b : ' or a Cur- 
tius and Matho, mere sound.' 

37. Gobio : i. e. pretium eohionis, 

40. FarutrÌB . . . grama : by argenti gravis ( jòined with /anom,^ 
which signifies interest upon money lent) the principm money 
itself may be understood. Or the epithet gravù may here signiiy 
the beH Silver money, in contradistinction to the tenue argenlumy 



JUV. SAT. XI. 201 

vena «ecttiuiee, &c. Many interpret orgenH gravis, sihrer in the 
rude heavy mass. ^ 

43. Annìdtu: anti^wajBaina]&of honoranddistinctioivwoni 
by the Roman knightB. 

45. JjuxvrÙB: i. e. luxuriosis hùmmaibuf; to gLattons and 
spendthrifts. 

48» Fotrwr%8 audw : ^the money lender/ 

49. Vertere soLvm : vertere solum signifies ' to ron one's counr 
try.' 

50. Ceden » . . Suburà : i. e. to rustaway fi-om Rome for debt ì» 
so common, that there i» no more diecredit in it, than changing 
the het Street of the SukurOy fbr the cool air of the Eaqmlian hilL 

56.. Exppiére : the poet now addresses his friend^ PeraicuSy 
whom he nad invited to sup with him. 

61. Ev€mdrum : Evander, a kinff of Arcadia, whoyhavìng acci- 
dentally sLain his father, possessed himaelf of the place» where 
Rome was afterwaxds built He entertained Hercules and hos*' 
pitably receìved wSnecw, wben he landed in Italy.r— T^ryntibm ^ 
Alcmena, the mother ef Hercuks, was b<»n at SVyiw, a city of 
Peloponnesus.: he waa thereforé called TirynUwiu^—HMpes^ 
L e. Mneas^ 

63ik j^Ber aquis r Mnetis was drewned in l^e AtWmtbi», a river 
of Italy .r^^^fer ftcummis ; Ekrcìde» bumed himself to death od 
Moont osta.. 

74. Odofiè .. ^^rtcentia : i. e. smelling as fresh as if they wer^ 
just gathered. 

76. ^tUìtmman r se. aiuicum ; ^ the autumnal juice ' of the ap- 
piè, which is cruda and apt to offend the^stomaclu > 

78é Omiua i Curiu» Dentatus« 

80. Compedefossor: slaves, whohadcommlttedeertalacrÈDies^ 
were put in irons, and made to dig ìjql minea^ w in the fields>. or 
in stone-quandes. 

81. Vt^DampvMi : the paps of a sow with yoong, together 
with a part of toe belly, cut off from the animai, and dressed with 
proper seasonings, was a favorite dish among the Romans^ An^ 
other favorite d£h was the womb of a sow with young« 

82. Sicci terga suis : ' a flitch of bacon.' 

85. Si qu€an . . . hoHia : if any of the flesh of the victim, ofl^re<^ 
in sacrifico, remained, it was prìzed, as an accidental raxity. 

86. Consìdis . • .functus : alluding probably to Curvus Den-». 
tatus. 

88. Solito maiuriiia : i. e. before the ninth hour, or 3 o'clock» 
P. M. See Sat. I, 41. 

89. Erectum : * thrown over his shoulder.' 

95. Thìjugenis : ' the Roman nobles,' many of whom hoasted 
of their being descended from the ancient Trqjans, Sat. I, 93t 

96. JSTudo ledere : their couches had plain and t>rdinaiy sidcs^ 
or sides which had no backs, rising from them, to lean upoa foc^ 
their ease. 



fM NOTSS. 

97. Ftk . . • ontfi ; the head of tn as8^ crowned with clusteiB 
of grapes, was cast in brasa, and fixed upon the front of their 
conchea, aa a proToeatÌTe to hOarity and good fellowshipw 

103. Ctdaia . . . hosti: i. e. the soldier, having found some 
large pieces of piate, with the designs of the wolf, which suckled 
Romuliis and Remus, of Romulos and Rerous, and of Ma», 
WTought upon them, broke out the figures and fkstened them to 
his helmet, that he might eadiihit them to the eyes of a vanquished 
enemy. 

107. Pendifdis: the ibìlowing is the interpretation of Brìtan- 
lùcus, tu Éumrnà eas9Ìde expressi: nam que alta Buntf^pendere 
dicunt poetn. — Othen render it, * hoyering over.' — Dei : Mars. 

109. "TWce . . . catino : i. e. earthen ware, which was made at 
Aretum, a city of Tuscanv. 

111. Vox . . . nos : alhidìng to the hìstory ef M. Cedicins, a 
plebeian, who acqaatnted the tribanes, thi^ oa he was passing 
the tempie of Vesta, at midnight, he hcard a voice, louder than 
human, sayìng, ** The Gauls are coming," which also commanded 
Imn to teli the magislrates of this, that they might he wamed of 
the impendin^ daneer. Livy, V, 33 and 50. 

114. ^s: 1. e. m>m the temples, or by the gods, who acted 
prophettcallr towards the Romans. 

116. FidiUs . . . Jupèer : <the imapre of Jupiter,niade of day.' 

122. Lato» . . . eìmr : * unless their round tables are set on 
huge pedestalt of iworf.^ 

124. Porta Syeneà : i^ene was the metropolls of an island of 
tiie same name 4 and this island was called hutda Elephanima^ 
from the number of its eiephanta. Porta is here put, as denoting 
JSyene to be the <2oor, through which, iìrom the island, the passile 
lay into Egypt, and tfaence to Rome. 

125. Mauri : many elephants carne from Mauritania, — Indua : 
the largest elephants came from India, 

Ì3Ù, Deposuk , . . bdlua : elephants shed their teeth. 

132. Tuadia : probably, < the squares of a chess board.' — Cai' 
fiuius: ^chess-men.' 

137. Trypheri t Trypherva was eminent for his skill in carvinor, 
57hich he taught in a public school. 

141,. Ulmta cana : Trypberus had ali kinds of provisions for a 
feast, made ef wood, as the best material for teaching his scholars. 

142. Lotus Afrit . . . om : < the wing of a turkey ;' this bird 
came from Numidia, a country of Afirictu 

147. PkryxautJ^us: handsome Phrygian and Lycìan slayes 
were in great demand amongthe Roman nobìlity. 

148. Latine : as my boy understands no otibier language. 

149. TVfiM reetique cajnUi : and not long and curled, like the 
fashionab^e waiters, 

155. Pvrpura : L e. toga ptaiexta, 

160. Tutarvm erepìtus : tbese were, prohably, shells, jingled 
to^ether, as they danced. — Cum verlns ; * with obscene songs.' 



ju V. SAT. xn. 20S 

163. ^ÌN» . . . orhtm : iìà/i piange ìb «zplained ìb fleyeral 
different ways ; one is, * Who rinses his roouth with wint^ and 
spits it upon the s^endid paiFement' — Lacedamomum . . . miem : 
the Romans were very fond of fine pavements or floors, made of 
marble and ialaid with varioua kinds of it ; among the test, some 
kinds of marble were broa^t from Sparta, in amali round fonnSy 
which were inaerted in their proper places by way of omament. 

179. Inierea : L e. while We are feastingl — MegaUnacte . . . 
mc^ìt : at the Circenaian and MtgaUnan games, they hung out 
a toiody to show that the sporta were about to begin. Nero in- 
troduced this custom ; for^ hearing os he sat at dinner, how im- 
padently the people expected his cominff, he threw out at the 
window the towel with which he wiped ma hands, to give the 
people notice that he had dined, and would soon be at the circus. 
From that time, the beginning of the gaines was announced by 
hanging out a towel. The Megalesian games were in honor of 
Ctf&te^ who was called Idttaai, nom Ida^ a mountain of Phrygia, 
where she was worshipped : hence her festival was cidled IdtBìtm 
BoUnne, 

184. Vòridxs • . • pemni : the four parties^ which ran charìot- 
races in the circus, were dressed in different liveries, viz. green* 
rusaet, blue, and white. One of these parties was always fiivored 
by the court» and, at this ttme, moat probably, the green. 

192. Tosam : i. e. the low Romans, crowding to the games. 
9ee SaJU I, 88. — Balnea . . . sexiam : the Romans attended to 
their usuai business, till nooo, that is, the sixth hour, and tlien, ta 
the ninth hour, or three o'clock in the aftemoen, they exercised 
and bathed themsclves, and then went to their meala. 

To do these sooner than the appointed hours was allowed 
only on festival days, or to persons aged and infirm. To be seen 
going to the batlis before the appointed hour, was reckoned 
effeminate. 

194. Facere hoc : i. e. frequent feasts and indtdge in idleness. 

195. Talia : i. e. voluptuous and idle. 

196. VoluptaUs . . . unts : thus PBn. XII, 17. To yi^ ^iv, ihcp 
noX^, ùìi Tt Y* iiòv. 



SATIRE XII. 



The poet, having invited Corvinus to assist at a sacrifice, which 
he intended to oner up by way of tfaankagiving for the safety 
of his friend CatuUus from the dangers of the seas, professes 
his disinterestedness on the occasion, and from thence takes an 
opportunity to satirize the Hiéridepete, or legacy-hunters, who 
flattered and paid their court to rich men, in hopes of becoming 
their heirs. 



L Corvme ; a friend of J«v«iial» to wkon Uiìb Mlìre k ad*» 
^TOBaed. 

^ AfMiwi in^iMMi.- Me Sàt X, O^-'^RcgtfMi : to JonO) quéen 
of the godo. 

4. PugnanU Gcrgom Maura ì h e» Minerva, who ìs fabled to 
bear in her aliield the head of Mtdustu See Class. Dict 

6w Ikrpino . » % Jovi ; on the Mons Ctuntolinus, otherwise called 
the Ttarpeian hiUy was a tempie, sacrea to Jupiter. 

7, TtnMa tnaiunu : beasts were reckoned of a proper a^e 
and size fot saciifice, when the tail reached the joint in «the 
hinder leg. 

8. S^iK^gtndu$qu€ mero : at the sacrìfices, wine was poured on 
the heads of the victìnis, between the homs. 

11. Hùputtd : a very corpulent lady, noted for ber lewdness. 
— Tauru» : a wbite bull was usually sacrificed to Jupiter. 

19. Oitumm: a river dividine Tuscany and Umbria. 

19. Una : L e. coverìnff the whole heaven. — Suìntus . . . ignis : 
the note of Ruperti is, nSUus antennas tm/niZìC, subito in eas inci- 
dit, illas percussit, ignU^ non fìil^uris, (nam Catullusyii^giim ictum 
evorà etprcBter fblmen aubitus ìgnU, adeòque ab eo diversus, on- 
tetmas w^ndii) sed Helene, {HeUnenfeuerf le jfèu Sainl-Élmt) 
electrìca materia vel i^eus ardensque vapor, qui, precipue post 
tempestatemi in mari cuxumvolat et malo navis adhieret ; de quo 
V. Plin. ir, 37. 

Moving lights, which are sometimes seen on the masts and 
yards of vessels, are called St Elme's Lights (Feu St, Eime). 
The same phenomenon was called by the ancients Caetor and 
PoUtue. When only one light appears, it is considered an iU 
omen, and is called Helen. When two appear, the sailors ex- 
press their Joy by whistling, dLc. 

22. Omnia • . . poètica . . . tempeetae : L e. even the fàncy of a 
poet could not picture anv thing more horrible. 

24. Crenus . . . aliud ducrimtnie : i. e. the vessel's being (1. 30.) 
half filli of water. 

527. Votiva . . . tabella : persons, who had escaped shipwreck, 
had a paintìng made of the scene of distress, through which they 
had pasfted, and this being consecrated to Neptune, was hung up 
in some tempie, near the sea-coast This paintìng was culed 
votiva tabdku' 

28. Pictores . . . Iride : so many tabUte were hung . up in the 
temples of bis by merchants and seamen, that many painters 
obtained a living by being employed on this branch or the art 
aIone« 

33. Decidere . . . ventis : < by throwing bis goods overboard, he 
{CatuUus) beffan to compound «rith the winds ;' — to bargain, as it 
were, for bis ufe, at the expense of bis goods. 

37. Macenatibus: Macenas, the favorite of Augustus, was 
a very delicate and effeminate, person, from whom people of a 
similar description were called M<Bcenates. Sat I, 58. 



JUV. SAT. XII. 205 

39. E^gius . . . ti&r : Martial frequently speaks of this sin- 
gular property of the air and water of Bcstica (Andalusia), in 
staining the fleeces of the sheep kept there with a bright yellow 
or golden hue. 

42. Parthenio : Parthenius was an ingenious artist. 

43. Phalo : Pholus was a drunken centaur, who, when he en- 
tertained ^eicules, brought out for this purpose a tun of wine 
tit once. 

45. Emptor (HyniM : PhUip of Macedon ; Lasthenes, govemor 
of Olynlhus^ having been brìbed by Philip, betrayed the city into 
hi!3 hands. 

50. Jactaiur . . . maxima : i. e. not only articles of superfluity, 
but even useful necessaries, are thrown overboard in the storm. 
-^Sed . . . levant : the construction is, sed- nec damna (i. e. jadu- 
ra honorum) levant (L e. Uvwnt navvm et pericvlum), 

51. Mversis : se. Jhtis. 

52. ReddU : the &st syllable in this word is made long by the 
ligure di€ul(de. 

53. Discriminis . . . minorem : this passage is explained differ- 
ently. It isiJius explained by some : * it is asign of the utmoet 
distress, when we are obliged to use helps to make the ship 
lìghter;' as by cutting away the masts, which is supposed to he 
the meanìng of minorem in this place. — Roperti thus explains it : 
quando (i. e. qimndoquidem) vUwia discriminis pr<Bsidia afférimus 
(i. e. extrtm^ pericoli remeaia adhibemtuf), navem factura minorem 
(L e. leviorem). 

63. Staminis albi lani/ic<e : it was the opinion of the ancients, 
that when the degUmes intended long life to a person, they spun 
whi^e thread ; when death, hUtck thread. 

67, Velo prora siw : prora (by Synecdoche) may mean the 
vessel itselr; but it literally signifies the forepart, foredeck, or 
forecastle of a vessel ; and so it is pfobably to he understood in 
this place, as velo suo implies the sali, proper to this part of the 
ship ; the fore-sprit sail. ' 

ÙS. Graius . • . mamiUis : Alba Longa was built by fulns As- 
canius, who, having befere dwelt at Lamnium (built by JEneas, 
and so called fròin bis second wife Lavinia), left that place to 
hÌ3 step-mother. ' The Trojans were told by the oracle, that 
where they found a white sow with thirty pigs sucking', there 
they should build a city, which they did, and called it, nota the 
color of the sow, Alba, 

73. Tandem . . . Rpdiam : these lines contain a description of 
the mole and port of OsHoy at the mouth of the Tiber. — Incltua 
per (Bqwyra : through the waters included between and within 
the moles. 

74. 7\rrhenamque Pharon : in the haven of Ostia, Claudius 
^uilt a Pharos or ligMhtmse, in inutation of that at Alexandria. — 
Porrcela . . . Raliam : L e. we reach the two sides of the piers, 

18 



206 NOTES. 

like anns, which extend so iàr into the Tyrrhene sea^ tbat tbey 
secmed to enclose it as far as tfae middle way, and, as it were, to 
lèave the ooast of Italy behind. — Rursum : * back ;' i. e. beyond 
the Pharos, to the entrance of the harbor. 

79. Vertice ras» : when in distreas at sea, the sailors uflatally 
in?okcd Uio assistaace of some goà, with a solemn vow of cut- 
ting off their hair, and offenng it, as an àeknowledgement for 
thcir preservation. 

B^!^. Sertiique ddubria : on solemn occasiona, ali the temples of 
the goós were adorned with garlands. — Farra . . . Cì/Urig : they 
made cokcs of meal and salt, with which they sprìnkled the sac- 
rifìcing knife, the head of the victìm, and the fire. 
feó. Omnes vioUb . . . coìùres ; ' violets of every color.' 
90. Matutùns . . . lucemis : it was cuatomary, on any joyful 
occasion, either of a public or private natnre, to adom the gates 
of their houscs witli branches of laurei, and with lamps, even 
in the day-time. — OperaJtur: *celebrates the festival;' tìie. verb 
operar, when it stands without any addition, signifies, to éocrifieey 
— tojom in a aacr^e. 
03. lAhet exspeciare : < 1 should be glad to see.' 
95. Tarn sterUi : so unlikely to leave you anything. — Cotuntùtr 
. . . cadci : i, e. net even one of the least of birds would be offer- 
ed in sacrifice for a man, who ia a father, and, like Catallus, haa 
heira to hia estate. 
9G. iSenKre calarem : ' to be attacked with a fever.' 
98. Fixis . . . taheUis : it was customaiy, in cases of siekness, 
for the friends to suapead, in the temples of the goda, votive 
t^bleta, h^ving inscribed upon them the wishes and prayers of 
those, who hung them up. If the party, for whose sake they 
were made, recovered, the offerers of the tablets thought them- 
selves bound to perform their vows. 

102. Furvà gente : the Moora, or Ethiopìans. 

103. Arbori^us . . . agro : i. e. in the fbrest, near Laviniam, 
where Turnus, the king of the Rutulians, reigned ; the country 
was ealled Etruria. 

104. Ctìtsari» armentum : Bomitian, as a matter of state and 
curiosity, transported intò Italy numbers of elephants ; and in ^ 
the forest of Lavinium, a herd of them might be seen together. 

106. Megique Molosso : Pyrrhus. 

107. Hopummajores : L e. the elephants of fbrmer times. 

108. Turrim : towers made of wood and filled with armed 
men were put on the backs of the elephants, and thus canied 
into battle. — Belli : the t in heUi, in tfais line, ia preserved from 
eliaioB. 

109. J^ovium . . . Histrum Pacuvium : the names of two lega- 
cy-himters. 

' llQs. Ebwf : ivory, but.here, by Metonymy, elepkanU, 
^ 113. Mer : Pacuviue^ as appears firom 1. 1S8. 



JUV. SAT. Xlll. 207 

117. Ipk^enia: thia alludes to the. story of A^amemnon sacri- 
ficin^ his daughter J^higema. See Class. Dict. 

118. Tragic€t . . . cerva: alluding to Diana's stealingf away ' 
Iphigenia and substitatin^ the kìnd in her place. 

iS). lÀbiiinam evcuerU: 'should recover.^ Libttina was a 
name given to Proaerpinef as presiding over fìinerals. 

. 123. BrevUer : L e. in a few woros ; like exiguia tabulis in 
Sat I, 60, which see. 

125. Jugìdata Mìfctnia : * Iphigenia sacrificed at Mycenie.' — 
If Agamemnon had not offered to sacrifice his daugfater, Pacu- 
vius would never have thought of doing the same with his, for 
the recovery of the rich man, who, in consequence, has made 
him heir to his whole estate. 

126. Vd JVéttora totum : ^ even to Nestor's age.' 

127. Quantum . . . ^ero : the rapacity of Nero was proverbiai. 
The sums he extorted from the provinces under various pretences 
exceed ali belief. 

He eave no office, says Saetonius, withoiit the addition of this 
special charge : ^ Seis quid mUU opus sU ; et hoc agamus, ne quia 
quidquam habeaU* You know what I want; let us manage'in 
sach a manner, that nobody else may have any thing. 



SATIRE Xm. 



Caìvinas had ìeh a som of money in the hands of a confiden- 
lial person ; when the restoration of this was demanded, the man, 
to whom it had been entrusted, foreswore the deposit 

The indignation^expressed by Calvinus at this breach of trust, 
seems to have reached the ears of his friend Juvenal, who en- 
deavors to soothe and comfort him under his loss : in doing this, 
the poet spcaks of the villany of the times, shows that nothing 
can happen, but by the will of Providence, and that wicked mcii 
carry with them their own punishment. 

4. Graiia . . . urna : in criminal cascs, the Prsetor Urbanus, 
who sat as chief judge, put into an urn the names of his as- 
sessors (a kind or jury-=men, who, to the amount of some hun- 
dreds, were annually chosen for this purpose), from which he 
drew out the number prescribed by law, usually about ù^y^ who 
sat by him at the trial. When the pleadings were over, they re- 
tired and deliberated on what had passed. On their return, they 
had each three waxen tablets put into their hands, one of which 
was marked with the lettor C, for condemno, guilty ; another, 
with the lettor A, for abaolvo, not guilty ; and a third, with the 
letters N L, non Hquet, I am doubtful. One of these tablets, 
each person dropped privately into an um, which the pnetor took 
out, and pronounced sentence, according to the decision of the 
majority. 



206 NOTE8. 

It was in the pnetor^s power, however, to manale the husiness 
in such a maaner, that the defendant, however in the wrong, 
niiffht appear to have the vm in his favor. 

8. A*ec . . . paieris : u e. such frauda, as you complain of, are 
net very rare in Rome. 

10. X? medio • . . acervo : i. e. taken^ as it were, frosa the tesser 
and eveiy day miserìes of life. 

13. Tu . . . depositum : the construction is, tu arde-As visceri- 
hu8 spumantibus (i. e. astuantiòus itó)^ quòd amieus non reddcd, 
éLQ.,vìx potè» f erre particuiam malorumy quamvis minimain levi- 
um exiguamque. 

22. JS/ec jactare jugum : ' and not to shake ofT the yokef that 
ìs, not impatiently to struggle with adversity* 

A metaphor, from unruly oxen, that tosa Uieir necks, and stri ve 
in vain to gel rid of the yoke. 

25. Pyjnde : literally a litUe hox ; hot here, by Metonymy, 
* poìsoii. 

27. Thebaruni porta : Thebes a àty in Bceotia, huilt by Cad- 
mus, the son of Àgenor, called Hq^eqtyloa, having seven gates*. 
There was another Thebes, in Egypt^ whieh was said to have had 
a hundred gates. — ^he first is meant bere. — Ostia MU: the 
mouths of the Ai/cVere seven in numbcr. * 

28. JVona cRfas : as (Bios and MBcvZvm mean a perìod of 100 
years, it is most probable that the ninth age of the city is intend- 
ed, which corresppnds very well with the time in which the poet 
wrote, viz. in the seventy-second year of the ninth age. — •^gitttr : 
*is going on.* — Ferri temporibus : the la«t of the four ages, into 
which the worid was suppoaed to he divided, and which waa 
worse than the three preceding it^ was the iron age« 8ee Qvid'a 
Met 1, 127. ., 

32. Fasidium : the name of some vain and igncnrant pleader, 
who courted the applause of the people, by treating them with 
bis spoì'tula. 

33. Sportuki: used figuratively ibr tlie cHents and others, 
bribed by presenta to applaud. — J3id1d digìiissiiM : i. e. worthy, 
old as you are, to be ranked witii.Ciiildión, on account of your 
simplicity. 

The bulla was a gold ornament, in the shape of a heart, wliich 

was suspended from tlie iieck of free-bom children, till they 

'\/eì:e seventeen years old, at which time they loft off wearing it 

and consecrated it to the Lares. The children of tlie poor hadit 

madc of leather. Sat. V, 1G4, 165. 

37. Ruhenti : red witli the blood of animals éacrificed, or witli 
the fire upon it. 

39. Falcem : it is said that Satum, after he was compelled to 
fly from hcaven, settled in Italy, and taught the native» the art 
of agriculture. 

41. Idceis . . . antris : ' in the caves of Mount Ida,' where Ju^ 
piter, immediately after his birth, was carried and concealed» 



JUV. SAT. XIII. 909 

43. JVec futr , . . tabemà : the note of Ruperti is, " Aec puer 
Eiacua ad eyaJthùs (erot, vel quum nec — esset), nec Hereidis taor et 
Vtdcanus, pocillator deornm, ex officina Lijmraà arcessitus, fumo 
niger et hinc ìnwihia e fornace et camino nigra tergens, sibi de- 
tergens, quum in eo esset, ut porrigeret diis pocula, nectare, vino 
deorum, more olim solito, jam aiccato, exhausto, ex craterìbus, 
majoribus vosis in abaco positis, et in cvathos, minora pocula, in- 
fisso." — ^The allttsion is to Hora. II. I, 597. — ^The note of Achain- 
tre is, et quum nondum Vulcanus, tcrgena braehia nigra fuligine 
tabems, et jam siccato nectare, exhausto prìùs poculo nectarìs 
pieno, ad <yaÌho9 adhuc esset — Iliacus puer : Ganymede, the son 
of Tros, kmg of Troy. See Class. Dict — Herctdis tixor ; Hehe, 
See Class. Dict. — Lipari . . . tabemà : near Sicily, there 
were several islands, called lApari ; in one of these, Vvlcania, 
Vulcan's forge was said to he. 

46. SUti : * by himself, — alone.' 

48. Atlanta : AUaa was a king of Mauritania, feigned by the 
poets to bave been transformed into a mountain, and to bave sup- 
ported the heavens on bis sboulders» 

49. Sortitus . . . imperium : Jupiter, Neptune, and Fiuto, the 
three sons of Satum, cast lots for the dominion of the universe ; 
Neptune obtained that of tlie aea, — SUulà . . . conjuge : Pros* 
erpine. 

50. Pluton : the Greek nom. ; HXmjTw. 

51. Rota : alluding to the story of Ltion. — Puri<B : Alecto, 
Meffara, Tisiphone. — Saxum : alluding to Sisifphus, the son of 
^oTus. — VuUuris . . . p€Bna : ììì allusion to the story of Prome- 
tkeus, 

57. Plura . . » fraga . . . aeervoa : the iruits of the earth wore 
the riches of the gdden age. 

61. ^rugine : i. e. the coin, which had been laid up so long, 
as to have contracted rust, 

62. TSiacis . . . libeUia : the art of soothsaying is said to have 
first come from the TStacans, which consisted m rorctelling future 
events from prodigies ; these were recorded in books and were 
consulted occasionally, to determine the meaning of any thing 
of a marvellous nature. 

63. QwBque . . . agnà : when any prodigy faappened, the cus- 
tom was to expiate by sacrifico, to avert the consequences of ili 
omens, which were gathered from prodigies. A she lamb was 
the offering on such occasions ; its head was croumed with a gar- 
land of flowers or with ribands. 

65. Puero : the o in puero is preserved from elision. 

66. Fatte . . . mut^B : mules are not known to have ever brought 
forth young; though Appian says, such a thing happened in 
Rome, before the coming of Sulla. 

68. Examen . . . ddtibri : 'it was considered a very great pro- 
digy, if a swarm of bees settled on the top of a tempie, tree, or 
mSitary standard. 

18» 



\* 



310 NOTES. 

73. Arcana: for sestertia arcano deposita; conunitted to tiie 
care of an acquaintance privately and without witnesses. 

78. PersolU radios: this was an usuai oath. — Tarpeiaque fid- 
nUna : ì. e. by the thunder of Jupiter Capitolinus, who had a 
tempie, built on the Tarpeian rock. 

79. Cirrìuti . . . vaii» : Apollo, who had - an oracle at Delphi, 
near CirrhcLy a city of Phocis, where he was worshlpped. 

80. Vaiairicis . . . PìmU<b : Diana, the groddess of hunting. 

81. PaJUrMgiti: Neptune is said to have had his principal 
habitation in the ifigean sea. By paier^ bere, we are not to un- 
derstand a,/atker^ ^s some have interpreted it, by saying, that he 
jrvLsfaiher of JEgetu^ the father of Theseus. It is a tiUe of rcv- 
erence, honor, and power, given to the goda; and aometimes 
even to demigods and heroes. ' Here it may be taken in the 
sense of potens. 

82. Hercìdeos arcua : the frotr, put for tlie arrotosy which Her- 
cules used in killing the Hydra, and which he gave to his com- 
panion Philoctetes. 

84. Comedam . . . jtnctput : alluding to the story of Thyestes^ 
the brother of Atreus, who, having ccmmitted adiiltery with the 
wife of Atreus, was obliged to eat the child, which his brother 
killed in revenge and served up to him at his own table. 

85. Pharìo . . . aceto : Pharos wa3 an island of Egypt, firom 
whcnce camo the best viìì/egar, 

89. Miaria tanguni : those, who prayed or swore, usually laid 
their honds upon the aitar. 

91. Ita secum : * thus reasons with himself.^ 

93. Isis : an Egyptian goddess, adopted among the deities of 
the Romans, was supposed to be much concemed in inflicting 
maladies and diseasos on the peijured. — Sistro : the aistrum waa 
a sort of timbrel, used by the pnests of Isis, with loqpe rings on 
the edge, which, when shaken, yielded a shrill sound : at the 
top, it had the figure of a cat, with a human face, and below, that 
of Isis. 

97. Ladaa : the name of a famous runner. — Anticyrd : an 
island in the Archipelago, put for heUehore (its principal produce), 
which wos considered good to purgo the heaid, in cases of madness. 

98. Archigene : a physician, famous, probably, for curing mad- 
ness. 

99. Pis(e(B . . . olivtìi : the prize, at the Olympic games, was 
an olive crown, which is called Pistean from Pùce, a city of £lis, 
where these games were celebrated every fifth year. 

110. Mimwn . . . Catulli : alluding to a play of CatuUuSj called 
the Phasma, in which there was a character of a hvffoon^ who 
rzin away from liis master, after having cheated him, and then 
vexed and even provoked him, that he might be brought to swear 
liimsclf off, cheerfully proposing thus to be perjured. 

112. Sterdora : Stentor was a Grecian mentìoned by Homer to 
have had a Voice as loud as the voices of fifly persons. 



JUV. 8AT. XIII. 211 

113. Gradiìma Homericm : when Mars was wounded by Dio- 
mede, he is said by Homer to bave roued as loud as 10,000 mem 
in the field of battìo^ 

116. Carbone tuo : the coaLs bumÌDg on your aitar. — Chartà 
. . . solviA.: the paper, in which the frankincenBe was brought, 
having been broken open, that it might be poiued opon the 
coajs. 

Some think the sealed paper is meant, on which the vowswerd 
specified in wrìting. 

121. Et qui . . . distantia : the difference between the Stoica 
and Cynics was in their dress : the Stoics alone wearing a hmic 
under their cloak. 

122. Epicurum : Epicurus was a temperate and sober philoso-* 
pher of Athens, who lived chiefly on bread, water, and herbe, 
and placed the aummum bonum in tranquillity of mind. His fbl- 
lowers perverted his doctrine, and placed the chief good in the 
pleasures of the body. 

129. Claudenda . . , janua: it was customary to shut doors 
and Windows in time or mouming, especially for the death of a 
relative. 

132. Vestem deducere summam : ' to tear off the upper part of 
the gaxment,' i. e. ' to strip the shoulders and breast.' If we read 
diducere, it means, * to tear the border of his garment,' which was 
a sign of great grief. 

136. Si decies • . . ebumis : the construction is, SttabeUis lec- 
tis decies a creditore diversa in parte, {i. e. variis locis,) (or di- 
versa parte, by the opposite party,) debitores dicurd chirographa 
supervoAmi tigni vana, quos ipsorum ìdttera (^ their own hand-writ- 
mg^),princepsque gemma Sardonychum, qutB custoditur ebumis lo- 
cutis, arguii, 

13/. Vana supervacua chirographa tigni : chir. tig. i. e. tdbtdas 
ligneas, cera Ulìicu, wooden tablets covered with wax. — Vana : 
counterfeit, and of course usdess. 

138. Qui . . . ovis : i. e. how happens it that you alone are 
so favored by fortune, while we, the rest of mankind, are subject 
to its vicissitudes. — Gemma . . . Sardonychum : the seid of Sar- 
donyx, which the poet calls princeps, because this gem was prin- 
cipally used in seals. 

141. GaUin4BjUius alh<B : this expression appears to bave been 
proverbiai in Juvenal's time : white was deemed a lucky color. 

145. Sulfure: by Synecdoche, fbr any combustible matter, 
witli which houses are set on tire. 

146. Janua . . . ignis : and thus prevents the inmates from es- 
caping. 

148. Adorand/B rvbiginis : ^ of venerable rust ;' L e. * vene- 
rable for their antiquity.' 

150. H(BC . . . non sunt : i. e. if there are no such valuable 
relics in the temples. 

152. JVeptuni : of a statue of Neptune, whose beard was gold. 



213 NOms. 

153. !I>)l«m fsttnjUMtt Twyoaéem : i. e, when he has stolen and 
■irtted down an eatire statue f>f Jupiter. 

154. Mercatar : this word signifies one #ho bays, aa well an 
oiM who aells ; in this place, the former. 

155. DeducMdum: se. pamcùiam ; see Sat Vili, 218, 314. 
157. GaiUcut: Rutilina GaUicui was appointed, under Do- 

mitian, prefect of the city, which officer had cognizance of capi- 
tal offences, and sat eyery day on criminal casca. 

160. Paucos . . . dies : se. in iste domo. — Una dotntù : L e. 
the house of Gallicus. 

Ì&L Qiitf . . . wl^n&tw : the inhabìtants about the Alpa bave 
generaliy great awellings around their throa^, occasioned, ta 
some suppose, by drinkin^ snow-water. 

163. Merot : aa EgypUan islaad in the Nile. 

164. emenda . . . Germani lumÌTìa : the Germana are described 
hy TacituB, as haring piercing ÌUue eyes, and red hair. Tacit. 
Germ. e. 4. 

165. Mkdido . . . cirro : the Germans were accustomed to anoint 
and cud their hair, so as to make it look Uke horns. 

166. Aetn/?e : surely no one wpuld wonder. 

167. M: fbr adversàs, — Sidntaa Thraeum vohtcreè : a ffight 
of cremo, coming unexpectedly from Strymon, a river of TYkroee. 

173. Cohor9 : se. PygnuBorum, 

174. JSTuUa . . . trit : an objectìon started by Calvìnus. 

175. JSìT^tum . . . trit : the answer of the poet. 
' 178. Sed . . . ipsà : the words of Calvinus. 

160. At: atÌ8 freqfuentiy synonjonous witli certe or scdtetn. 
181. ^anpe : the answer of the poet ^ 

184. Chrag^ppu^: Ckrysippus was a Stoic philosopher. — Tha- 
letis : Thalcs was one oi the seven wise men of Greece. 

185. Senex . . . HymeUo: Socratta lived at Atliens, in the 
neighborhood of which was Mount HymcUua, famous for its ex- 
cellent honey. 

Ir^j. Qui. . . dare: Socrates was occused of contemning the 
gods of Athens, and for this was condemned to die, by drinldng 
the juice of hendock, 

An old Bcholiast has observed on this passage, as indeed some 
other:! bave done, that one of his accusers, MeUtua, was cast 
into prison with him, to whom, altfaough at bis eamest reqnest, 
Socrates refused to -give a portion of the poison. 

191. Continuò : i. e. aine uUà dubiUUione ; without.any doubt — 
witlìout further reasoning. 

194. Swrdù : smrditò not only signifies one wko does not hear^ 
but ihai cdso, lohich gives no sound. — Verbere surdo : the lash, the 
sound of which. no onehears, but the mind and conscience féels. 
Ho occuUum^ageUum in the next verse. 

197. C(Mciu8 ; a very cruel judge in the days of Vitellius ; òr, 
according to some, in 'the days of Nero. — RkadamaiUkus : one of 
the judgesof h^. 



JUV, SAT.. XIV. 21« 

198. Tesiem : the testìmonj of an evil conscience. 

199. Spartano . . . prapinqtda : the poet alludes to a story re^ 
lated by Herodotus. A Milesian had entrusted a avaa of money 
to one Glaucus, a Spartan. After a time, the sona of the Mile- 
sian carne to re-demand it Glaucus affirmed, that he had no 
recollection of the cìrcumstance and sent them away. As soon 
as they were gone, he hastened to Delphi, to inquire if he should 
persist in denying it : he was answered that, if he foreswore the 
money, he might escape for a time, but, for his wicked dengn, he 
and ali his faimly should be utterly destroyed. Upon this, GlaUr 
cus sent for the Milesians and paid them the whole sum : but 
what the oracle foretold carne to pass, for he and ali his kindred 
were afterwards extirpated. Herod. VI, 86. 

214. Alham : Alban wine was very much esteemed. 
216. Acri : commentators render this acetoso, * sour.' 
229. Laieris . . , fibre dolorem : meaning probably a pUurUic 
fiver. 

232. Peaidem . . . hahmtem r it was usuai for persons in danger 
or in sickness to engagé by vow some offering to the gods, on 
their deliverance or recovery. 

233. haribua . . . audenJti the Z<irer were- the private gods of 
indivìduals. A coc/b was-sacrificed to iBsculapiu» after reeovery^ 

Madan thus understands the sentence : ^ So far from prominng^ 
a cock to ^sculapius, they have not the courage to vow even a 
cock's comb," &c. 

245. Uncum : a chain^ the links of which were called unci or 
hamL 

Some understand a hook \o the waU, ip whicb the malefaotor 
waa chaiiied^ 

Unciuf, mentioned in Sat. X, 66, is different from that «ped 
bere, inasmucb as carcere is in this place joined with it. 

246. JEgdBi rupem : see Sat I, 65. 
248. ^/ominia : bere used for haminU* 

249» JSTec surdum nec Tireaiam: ^neither deaf u^x blind.'— «^ 
JHresiaa was a Wnd soothsajer of Thebes^ 



SATIRE XIV. 



The whole of this Satire is directed to the one great end of 
self-improvement. B^ showing the facility with wMch children 
copy the vices of their parents, he points out the necessity, as 
well as the sacred duty, of giving Ùxern examples of domestic. 
purity and virtue. ^ 

After briefly enumerating the severa! vices, gluttony, cruelty^ 
debauchery, &.c, which youth -imperceptibly imbibe ftom their 
seniors ; he enters more fully upon that of avarice» of which h^ 
shows the fatai and inevitable consequences^ 



214 NOTES. 

Havinff plac«d the abflurdity, u well «9 tke perplexiQr and 
daager or immodente demreu in everj posaible point of view, the 
piece coocludee witJi a eolenn admonition to be ■atisfied w^ 
thoee comforts and conveniences, which nature and wisdom re- 
qnire, and which a decent cempetenee is eaeily ealenlated to 
eupplj. 

1. Fitmitu : t\uemu8 was a fnend of Javenal, to whoni this 
Satire is addreeeed. 

3. Monatront : i. e. motèitrani txempliSé — Traéttmi : i. e. tra- 
dunl pr^buptie» 

4. Si... JrHaU : Ùam Dryden, 

If gamìng does «n aged sire entice, 

Then my younf master swiflly leams Uie vice, 

And thucet in «logfing sleeves the little box and £ce. 

6. JBuliahn : )• e. one who has net yet kdd aaide the huUa and 
pratexta ; not yet seventeen years of age. See Sat XIII, 33, 
and V, 154, ldL^-^JIrm»j «initrumente of gaming;' hence, per- 
hape, nrmigtfy 1, 64. 

6. Mditu de se : i. e. quàm de partfide $uò. 

7. Rodare tvhera : * to peei truffies.' 

8. Éodem jure . . .fieedtia» : JUeduUB were hecctrnnog or fig- 
ptekersj birds much afflnired by ghittona of afitiquity. 

It was reckoned a -great Ituttuy to have theae b^de dresséd and 
eeired np in the some sauce or picMe with fungnsoe of various 
kindfl. ' 

10. Canà . . . gulà : * the hoary glutton,' bis father. 

13. Bmhatos . . . magitiros : phìlosophers and leamed teacherd 
were Qa)led harbatiy firom wearin^ long heardsy to make them look 
graye. 

14. Amagfiàpp>e\àifi^: * from the profuse luirmy of hlsfather's 
lample kitchen.* 

15. MUem animum . , . PoNphenwuf : the eonstruetion is, An 
^utUttey alter JMiphaJtes treptm laris, oc Polyphtmuay qui gandet 
ficerbo airqntu plagarum, et comparai nuUnrfi Sirena flageUis, pra- 
àpit mitene anxmum et nunres (tquos modicis erronbus^ alque pvJtat 
animaa et cwrpora servorum ex nostra materia parUmsque eUmen^ 
tis : anno potiùs docei s^evire ? 

18, RutUua : the name of 9ome cruel master. 

19. Et . . , comparai : i. e. who thinks the song of the sirena 
not so pleasant as the sound of a lash. 

90. AnHj^udes : Antiphitt^ was kin|f of the Lffistrygones, sav- 
ages near FormisB in Italy, who lived on human flesh. — Pofy^ 
phemus : one of tìie Cyclops was aJso a cannìbt^. 

23. Lcdus : se. pater. 

^. hmcripta ergastula : * branded slayes,* 

29. Ceras : * waxen tablcts.' 

30. €Sn^is; pimps. 

33, Unus et aUer ; joined tojwenes* 



JUV. SAT. XIV. 215 

35* TlUm : Promdhmsy wbo fonned men of day, and animateci 
them wUh fire» stdkn fhnn heaven. 
^. Quooiin^iiie «u& «re : * in evety cliaie.^ 
43. Brutus : M. BrvJtus, — Bruti . . . camnculus : Caio of litica. 

49. PecetUuro : tbe o ia tfaid word is pieserreà {h>m dision. 

50. Cetisoris , . .irà: the censor or judex morvm was a Roman 
officer, wko puniahed offimden agalnst tfte peace or good man- 
nera. — Fecerk: acJUvus. 

55. TabaUu mviare : ' tò alter yonr will, — ^to disinherit him.' 

56. Unde Uhi : se. ittinéa. 

57. Vacuum . . . cerehro : * void of common aense.'' 

,58. Ventosa cneurbita : cucurbita probably means here a cup- 
j^wg ifiaUument, The epithet ventosa allodes to the nature of the 
operatk>n, which is performed, by rarifying the air, within the 
Ì2i8trument,by the application of nre, ùq which the blood is forced 
from the scanfied skm into the cupping intftmment by the pres- 
sure of the outward air. 

The operation of cupping on the head, in cases of madnesSj is 
very aneieM. 

^. Leve argentum : * the unwrought piate,' which of coarse is 
amootìL'-^spera : ^ emboesed,' of eourse rùu^ 

76. Itti : * the younff storks.' 

77. Oueibiwqfne rejfdw .' i. e. féeds or the remains of the 
bodìea of male^tora, that were left exposed on eroéses. 

79. Marni : i. e. when ^own upw 

80. J>Mo& : it f s aa nnusnal thing fbr vulìthires' to bnild their 
nests in tvees f they nsirally hvààà them on high rocfes. 

81. Jovia . . . aves : eagles. 

86. CWv» . . . Vegetai : the shòre of Cc^eta or Caieta, a sea- 
port in Campania, was remarkabìy sinnous and crooked. 

91. Spada . . . Posides : a freed-man of Claudiu^ Cassar, who 
was possessed of immense riche»; he built on the shore at Baise 
some very magnificent hfdha.-^Capiéolia nostra : the Capitol at 
Rome. 

95. Meliore . . . marmore : * morecostly marble,'than bis father 
used. 

96. PcArem : who is a Jew. 

97. NiAes . . . adenrai^ : as the Jews often prayed in the open 
air and lo<Àed up to the heavens, the Romstìas thought, that the 
sh/ itself was adored by them. — Cedi numen : i. e. codwn tanqvuim 
rrnmeiu 

99. Mox d prtBputia pommé : *soon they are circumcrsedt' 
102» ^cano . . . vohnmne : the Pentatéuch (or flve books of 

Moses), which is called secrd, not because it was kept (arca) in a 

chest in the synagogne, but becanse the Jews would not rcveal 

it-to the Gentiles. 

105w In causa: *in faidt' — Cui . . . uUam: * with whom the 

«eventh day was a day of idleness, and did not belong to any part 

of tìfe.' 



216 NOTEa 

114. Huperidvm 9tT9m» : the éragon^ that gttardedthe fruii 
in the garden of the Hupertdesy and was said never to sleep*-— ^ 
Ponticua : the dragan, that guarded the golden fleece, at Colchis, 
in Pontus. 

128. Cttrvki : so muflty and mouldy, that they have become 
perfectly blue. 

129. Medio . . « Septembri : when the beat of the sun was se- 
verest at Rome. 

132. Signaiam : aealed up in some veasel or cup-board, so that 
the poor hdf-starved slave could not touch them ; or shut up, as 
ineludere in the nezt line. 

133. FHa . . . porri : ' and the counted fibres of a sective leek ;' 
of the leek, there were two kinds ; one, that grew to a head, 
called capUaiwn ; the other, that consisted of fibres, called sec^ 
tivum, sectUe, or aedum, which was considered inferìor. — ^The 
fibres were counted, that none of them might be taken. 

134. Ponte : see Sat IV, 115, 116, note. 

135. Divitias : se. possides, 

144. Canet oliva : the flower of the olive is white or rather of 
a light grey» 

151. ^uot . . . agros : i. e. injuries of thi& kind have frequently 
made people part with their lands. 

156. S^icet . . . amabat: these words are addressed by the 
poet to the avarìcious man, expressing bis contempi of his avarice. 

158. Sed . . .fama : an objection made by the poet, to which 
ihe avarìcious man makes ans)ver in ihe three lines which follow. 

162. Molossos : the Molossians, a people of Epirus, foughi 
against the Romaiis in ihe army of Pyrrhus. 

163. Jugerabùia : twojugeraoi acres were the complimeni of 
conquered land given by the Romans io their soldiers. 

173. Inde : i. e. from avarice. 

180. Marsus . . . Hemicus . . . Vestinus : the poet introduces 
three old villasers of the Morsi, Hermci, and VesUni,' giving ad- 
vice to their children. These three people were famous for be- 
ing warUke, laborious, and frugai. 

184. Veteris quercus : see Sai. VI, 10. 

186. Perone : a kind of shoe or booi, made of raw leather, with 
the hairy side in {peUibus inversis), and wom by rustics in winter ; 
ii is called alto, high, because ii carne up io the calf of the 
leg. 

192. Rubras . . . leges,: ihe iitles and iniiial letiers of each act 
or chapier were written in red characiers, as are seen in mesi 
of the ancieni manuscripts. . Hcnce the written law was called 
Rubrica. 

193. Fitem : < the office of centurion.' See Sat Vili, 247. 

194. Biuco : the Romans made comhs of box-wood, 

195. Lcdius : used bere for any generoL — ^las : * arms ,' or 
arm-pits. 

197. Locupktem aquUam : in the Roman army, the senior cap- 



JUV. SAT. XIV. 217 

tain had the care of the golden eagle or Btandajnd.-^Here the 
standard is put for the pQstf which was a lucrative one. 

2D2. AhUgaadit . . . vìira : it was a law in Rome j that ali filthy 
trades should be carried on, and noisome wares exposed for sale, 
<m the other side of the Tiber. 

204. Unguenta et eorium : i. e. between the business of a per- 
famer and that of a tanner. 

206. Poet(B : EnniuSf who translated the 207th verse from the 
Bellerophon of Euripides, where it was used in irony. 

208. VetuUE . . . oastB : ' aged nurses.' 

212. Meliorem . . . diacipulum : i. e. I will warrant, that the 
scholar will be a greater proficient in this and other vices, than 
you, who are bis instructer. 

217. Lungi mucronem . . . cuUri : ' the edge of a long knife f 
a periphrasis^ for ' a razor.' 

219. Cereris . . . aram : the aitar of Ceres was considered the 
most sacred, because, in the celebration of ber worshìp, nothing 
was to be admitted, that was not sacred and pure. — ^But Ceres is 
bere put for any goddess. 

220. JElatam . . . svbit : for ber husband will certainly murder 
lier to obtain sole possession of ber property. 

221. Quibus : i. e. quam scelestia ; unless we place a note of 
interrogation after dtgUisyihaX the sense may be, quibusnam aliiSf 
quàm mariti sui^ ^ui tutu eatJUius ? 

228. Lesivo : ' dishonest ;' some render it, foolish ; otbers, un- 

229. Fraudis : Achaintre understands by this word bere not 
perjuries and other great crìmes, as it is usually tboughtto mean, 
but lesser offences, such aa are enumerated in line 126. 

231. Quem: a Graecism for quod se. curricvlumj though the 
sense requires quem^ as the reference is made to equuniy i. e.JUium, 
237. Circuinscribere : * to cheat' 

240. DUerit . . . Menaceus : MeruBceuSy the son of Creon, king 
of Thebes, that he might preserve bis country, when Thebes was 
besieged by the Argives, devoted himself to death ; the oracle 
having declared that Thebes would be safe, if the last of the race 
of Cadmus would willingly suffer death. — Si Grttcia vera : i. e. if 
the Grecian accounts be true. See Sat. X, 174, 175. 

241. Quorum : a Gnecism for quarumj the antecedent being 
2%iba3. 

244. fpìum : the fire of avance. 

246. Trepidum . . . alumnus : alluding to the story of a tame lion, 
whicb, in the time of Domitian, destroyed ita keeper and instructer. 

248. JVbto . . . colu8 : i. e. your son, who is ìmpatient to enjoy 
your property, will consUlt the astrologers, who know well what 
length or life bas been allotted to you, for your horoscope ; but 
then it is a great hardship for bim to wait till yo;ar thread of Ufe 
is ali wound up. See Sat III, 43. 

249. Stamine . . . abrupto : L e. by a premature death. 

19 



218 NOTES. 

2S9l ArtMgenen: the name of some famous jhymewiL'^t^uàd 
MUkridaUs eomposuù : see Sat VI, last line, note. 

253. Mam . . ,Jlcum : i. e. to see another autamn. — Mai « « 4 
rosaa : L e. to see another sprìng. 

255. Et pater et rex: such an antidote as a father shoald 
swallow, to sectire him against the wickedness of a son ; or a 
kinffagainst the attempt» of his subjects.> 

S»7. Pretoria . . . lauti: see Sat X, 96. 

261. Mars . . . $ua8 : the tempie of Mare, the avenger, in the 
forum of Augustus, waa the place where treasures were at first 
deposited ; but this, having been robbed of ali its weal^, (even 
the helmet from the head of the image of Mars was taken,) the 
iemple of Castor waa appointed for that purpose» where a secare 
guard was constantly kept ; whence the epithet vùtlem. 

262. Ergo . . . IvJi : L e. although you abstain from ali pablic 
sports, you will not be deprived of much pleasure, provided you 
ODserve the wretchedness which the avaricious man sufiere, that 
he may increase his wealth : the observation of his miseries is 
more pleasant than any ezhibition. — Ftora . . . Cereria . . . Cy- 
hdesendiEa: the sports and plays exhibited atthe festivals of 
Flora, Cerea, and Cybele. 

265. Petauro : petaumm, niravQor, is properly a pole, attached 
to a Wall, as a roost for fowls ; h^nce it si^fies a machine, sus- 
pended on high, upon which the oetourufa (0? nghc H^a vel 
nQÒg ttVQag nirorrai)^ like fowls, to ali appearance flying, vaulted. 
— -Others say, that it was a wooden circle or hoop^ throusrh 
which thetfeiauristet threw themselves, so as to lignt upon the 
ground, ^e the nezt note. 

266. Bedum descendere funem : * to slide down the straight 
rope f — or rectum funem may signify a tight rape, and petaurumt 
the ^le with wMch rope dancera usually oalance themselves. 

267. Corycià: trading to Corycium^ a promontory of Crete^ 
where Jupiter was bom. — Some think Coryctom, a mountain of 
CHiciOf ìa intended. 

268. ToUendus : for the voc. toUende. 

271. Municipea Jw}8 : ^ofthe same coontry with Jupiter;'—- 
Cretan. 

272. Hic : the rope-dancer. 

274. Temerariìia : rashly expose yourself to dan^r. 
276. Plua . . . pdof^o : se. qubm in terrà ; such is the avarìcd 
of men and their desire of obtaining gain. 

278. Carpatìdìim : se. esquor ; < the Carpathian sea,' between 
Rhodes and Crete, was considered very dangerous. — Gaiula 
aquora : what are now called the strùts of Gibraltar. 

279. Colpe : a high rock on the Spanish coast, now Gibraltar: 
this with Ahvloj now Ceuta, a rock on the African coast, were 
called the pillars of Hercules ; and were considered tbe western 
boundary of the wojrld,-^Ca/pe seems tobe used hexe in the third 
dedension. 



JTJT. SAT. XIV. 219 

280. Hereuleo • . . gurgUe : the Atlantic ocean was called the 
HereuUan gtifff where it joins Gibraltar. — Slridentem: alluding 
to the notion of the sun's setting in the western ocean. 

283. Jìtvenes . . • marinos : i. e. TVitoru and Nereids. 

284. Sarorii . • . Ihanenidum : alluding to the story of OresUs 
f^]|, who, alter he had slidn his mother, was tormented hy the 
JPuries : his sister EUetra took care of him in his madness, and 
embracing him, endeavored to comfort him, but he said to her, 
'* Let me alone, thou art one of the fiiries ; you only embrace me, 
that you may cast me into Tartarus.'' See Euripides, Orest. 
260, seqq. 

286. ÉRe . . . Bhacum : ^ea (hic\ running mad, becaose the 
arma of Achilles were adjudged to Ulysses, the Itìuican, vented 
his rage on the beasts of the field. He slew two oxen, taJdng 
pne for ^tmemTumf the other for UlysMtt^ See Sophoc. Ajax 
Mastig. 

288. Curatoris : * a guardian.' So in Horace, Epist. I, 102, 
CuratorU e^et a Prcdort dati 

289. Taòìdà : ' by a single plank»' 

291. Concisum . . . minvlM : a periphrasis for money. — ^The 
Silver, of which it was made, was first cut into pieces, then stamp- 
ed with the name and tUles of the reigning priQce, and also, with 
^ likeness of his face, 

294. Fascia mgra: 'the black clonds.' 

295. JEHivum tonai: *itis summer thunder;' — ^^it is a mere 
thunder shower*' 

297. Zonam : some think the ancients carried their money, tied 
to their girdles. — Others, that they carried it in their girdleSf 
which were made hollow for this purpose. — Morsu : L e. dentibus. 

299. Tagìis : a river in Portugal, famous for its golden sonda. 
Pactolìis ; a river in Lydia, famous also for its golden sands. 

302. Pietà . . . tempestate : persons, who had lost their prop- 
erty by shipwreck, used to have their misfortunes painted on a 
tablet. Some made use of this tablet to move the compassion of 
tiiose, whom they met, as they travelled through the country, 
imploring alms, and, for this purpose, they suspended the tablets 
about their necks, and kept singing verses, expressing the man- 
ner of their misfortunes. 

Others hung their tablets in the tempie of that particular deity, 
whose aid they had invoked in their disiress : a tablet, thus dedi- 
cated, was called tabella votiva. 

305. Hamds; hama signifiès a toater-bucket, made of leather. 

307. Electro : cupa made of elecirum, a mixed metal, contain- 
ing fbur parta of gold, and one of silver.r-Some think amber is 
intended. 

308. Ehore : the fumiture made of tvory, or inlaid with it — 
Testudine : couchcs and other furniture, inlaid with tortoise^heU. 

309. Cynici : Diogenes, whose tub was not made of wood, but 
of hahed day, and consequently in no danger of fire. 



S30 NOTES. 

315. AViffum . . .Deam: Sat X, 339, 340. 
320. Ante : before the time of EpicuruB.— Socrates died 400 
yeaxs before Christ ; Epicunis, 371. 

324. Bù sepUm ordinihus : fourteen rows of seats in tbe the- 
atre trere adsigned to the equestrian ordtr, Sat. I» 97 ; II, 100 ; 
111,140; V,132. 

325. H(BC . . . labeUum: *if this sum toc make jroa bend the 
brow and bang the lip :* i. e, if this sum seems insufficient 

326. Sume duos tquùes : ' take the estote of two knights.' — 
T^riia quadrifigenta : < three times four hundred sesteitia ;' triple 
a knight's estate. 

327. Implevi . . . vltrà : a metaphor ftom the garments of the 
ancients, which, being locee, they held open to receive whatcvcr 
was given them. 

328. Persica regna : the kingdom of Persia was considered the 

richest in the wond. • ^ - x 

329. Mtrcis9i: JVìareissus was a freed^tóftfi Mid favorite of 
Claudius Cesar, who had such an ascendancy over the cmperor, 
as to prevali on him to put Messalina, his wife, to death, after ber 
paramour Silius, 



SATIKE XV. 



The poet, in this Satire, which he is supposed to bave wrìtten, 
«rhile banished into Egypt, relates the mortai and irreconcilable 
hatred, which sprang from a religious quarrel between the Om- 
bites and Tentyrites, inhabitants of two neifi^hboring cities of 
Egypt, and describes, in very lively colors, a bloody fray, which 
happened between them. The conclusion of the Satire is a just 
and beautiful description of the origin of civil society. 

5. Dimidio . . . Memnone : at Thebes, in Egypt, a city hav- 
ing a hundrcd j?ates, there was, in the tempie of Serapis, a co- 
losso] stotue of Memnorij king of ^thiopia, who was slain by 
Achilles, at the siege of Troy : ibis statue was made.of marble, 
and with such art, that a Iute, which was in its band, would of 
itself give a musical sound, when the beams of the sun shone 
upon it 

Cambyses, king of Persia, ruined the city and caused the stotue 
to he broken abou^ the middUy ùnagining, that the sound came 
from some contrìvance within, but nothiog was found. From 
this time, the music was thought to he magical, — Magiche chordUe : 
i. e. the statue, which by nu^ie was believed to emit sounds, 
like those made by ^e gtrings of a harp, 

13. Monito . . . Alcinoo : Ulysaea, • having arnved at the 
island Corcyra, was entertained by ^cinous^ the king, to whom 
he related bis travels. 

10, /n mare , . . putavU : supposed to he spoken by one of the 



JUV. BAT. XV. . 281 

cofìi)>any, who iras present, when Ulysses gave an account of 
his adventures. 

17. iSVevd . . . Charyhdt : i. e. he has told snch a romance abont 
a feigned whìrlpool, which he calls Otarybdu, in the straits of 
SÌCÌI7, that he certainly deserves a real one for his pains. 

18. L€Bstryg(mas : the Lteairygones were a rude and savafo 
people near FonmiB, in Italy ^ they were like giants, and 03- 
voured men, 

19. ScyUam: Scyìlti, the daughter of Phorcys, said to have 
been changed into a dangerous rock, between Italy and Sicily. — 
Concurrentia . . . Cyaneas^ the QfonMB, otherwise SympUgadeSy 
were two rocks at a short distance irom the Thracian Bosphoras, 
80 dose to one anolher, that they seemed at a distance to be one 
and the same : and, as one passed by, they appeared to dash 
against eacb other» . 

20l Plenos . . . vireM i. when Ulysse» anìved at the island of 
JSeiluB, that ìàae of the winds encloscd the adverse winds in 
leaiker hags and hun? them up in the shìp of Ulysse», leaviuj^ at 
liberty the west wind, wfadcfa was favorable. But the companions 
of Ulysses, wishìng to know what these bags contained, unioosed 
t^em^ immediately a tempe^ arose and drovc them^back to the 
island of v£olus. Aflerwards they sailed to the lioestrygoneB, 
where elevea ships were losi ; with only one remaining they 
were driven to the island of Circe, a sorceress, who tumed many 
of the marìners, by a touch of her wan into swine. 

22. Elpenorai one of the companiojìs of Ulysses. 

23. Vacui capiHs: 'stupid.' 

26. Cantbtxt : poets, whose compoeitions are chiefly fabtdousj 
are properly said conere : hence the word is used bere rery hu- 
morously and expressively, 

37. Jimio: Junio is contracted into Jumo; the line is thus 
divided: 

Nòs nu- I rànd& iful^ ) dém sèd | nùpér | cònsùlé | Jùnyó. 

28. Copti : a metropolitan city of Egypt, near the Nilo, over 
which the sun, at neon, is vertical, 

29. Vvlgi^ not of one man, but of a tokole peopiU.-^Cundis 
, . . cotìiiamis : * any tragedy.* 

30. Syrnuda : syrmata were long ^arments^ wom by actors in 
tragedy : bere, like cothumi» in the line befbre, it is put, by Me- 
tonymy, for tragedy itaelf. 

34. Vutnua : se. animi. 

35. (hnbos : a town situated cm the eastem bank of the Nile. — 
Tentyra : a town of Thebais, on the western bank of theNile. 

40. Inimicorum : * of the hostile Thfityrite»* 

43i Queifi . . . iw^enit : i. e. the festival sometimes oontinued 
seven days. — ^This number the Egjrptians held sacred. 

46. Barbara turba : i. e. the iiSiabitants of Ombos. — Canopo : 
dee note to Sat I, 26. 

48. inde : on tho part of the Ombite»» 



I 



3» . NOTES. 

49. OuaKatmimie ungutnia : «omtments such aatheywere.* 

51. Mine : on the pari of the Tenhfrìtet, — Jurgia • . < incipiufU : 
L e. the Tentyntes begin the firay with bitter reproaches aad abase. 

57. AUa» : L e. disfigured by blows. 

71. Bidet d odit: laughs ut men for their .weakness, despises 
them for their badness. 

73. ^ucti : 8C. OmbUité — Pan altera : the Tentvrìtes. 

77. Hine quidam : ' at this juncture one of the Ómbites.' 

86. Te : se. O VolusL 

93. Vagcanet : the Fa$con$ were a people in the north-eastem 
part of Spain. They were besieged by Metellus and Pompey 
and reduced to such necessity, that the living were forced to eat 
the dtadj but they were at last relieved by Sertoriys, a general 
of Marius's party. 

107. Zenama : Zeno was the founder of the Stoics, and tau|;hty 
that, though some things wìghi be done to preserve Itfe (prò mia), 
yet not every thing ; nor in&ed any thing, that was unbecoming 
or dishonest. 

106. Cantaber : the Vaseona were a people of the CantaìnianB» 
— ^Whence could the Vascons leam the precepts of the Stoics ? 

110. Attfi« . . . Miienas : ^ now the whole world has the bene- 
fit of Grecian and Roman literatm^.' — Jitìienas : i. e. litteras. 

114. SagwUus : SagurUum or Sagurdua was a city of Spain 
beyond the river Ebro, a most faithlìu ally to the Romans. When 
the inhabitants had held out against Hannibal and were almost 
famished rather than submit, they chose to bum themselves, their 
wives, and children ; this was the cause of the sccond Punic war. 

115. MéBotide . . . ara : near lake M{Mti8j there was an aUor, 
sacred to Diana, upon which strangers were sacrificed. 

116. Tauricas Diana Tauricaj so called firom her being wor- 
shipped by the people of Taurica, where the aitar was. — Or 
Taurica may mean the country itself, which is called invewtrix^ 
because Hioaa^ long of Chersonesua Taurica^ was the inventor 
of this horrid barbarity. 

120. Impultt : ' impelled theae Tentyrites.' 

12^ Anne . . . Atilo : commentators explain this passage in 
various ways. Some thus explain it : These Egyptians, the Ten- 
tyrites, had, witbout any necessity compelling them to it, without 
any excuse to extenuate their crime, been ffuilty of so monstrous a 
wìckedness, that they could not bave found any other way so like- 
ly to provoke the Nile to withhold its waters in a timo of drought, 
and to bring a famine upon the country, as by thus increasing 
the Nile's unwillingness to help them. — ^This translation is given 
by another, *' What worse impiety could they commit to provoke 
the Nile to stay within her banks, when the country of Égypt is 
chapt with drought ?" - . 

The interpretation of Rupertì is as foUows, Anne alio graviore 
acelere ita offendere possent Nilum, ut iratus aurgere, intumes- 
cere et aiccam terram MempkUidem, h. e. .£gyptiam, inondatione 



JUV. SAT. XV. JIK23 

4Baà fecundare nollet et ita in invidiam odiumque veniret eorum, 
qui nullo suo merito hanc calamitatem paterentur ? Ita conseq. 
positum prò anteceda invidia prò irà et calamitate illà. Irwidiam 
enim IHisJacere dicuntur, qui vel ipsi gravìssimaB calamitates im- 
merìti patiuntur, vel sceleribus sms efficiunt, ut a Diis iratis ills 
immittantur multis, etiam immerìtis, qui sinistras inde de Diis 
opiniones concipiant eosque invìdia prosequantur, quia illas im- 
miserint sibi vel contingere passi sint Nilus autem ab ^gyptiis 
inter principes colebatur Deos, et quidquid fere mali hominibus 
contingit, ex communi antiquitatis opinione ab irà Deorum repe- 
tendum est. ^ 

The note of Achaintre is thìs : Quivis Deus populo iratus pes- 
tes, fàmem aliave mala in eum immittebat ; tunc populus omnis 
ad eum placandum maxima sacrificia atque etiam humana para- 
bat ; et, quo major hostia erat, eo acriùs, respectu tanti munerìs, 
inmdioj eemulatio, Deo crescere putabatur : nam beneficia non 
sine invidia quàdam accipiuntur : inde ad se beneficio liberan- 
dum, cmulatio, invidie fiiia, oritur in animo recipientis, cui nihil 
satis est, donec tale munus munere majore rependerìt Sic invidi- 
am Jacere JVtZo in sensu quidem abstrusiore idem ac cogere eum 
maximis hostiìs et muneribus ut cet, vel excitare ejus segnitiem, 
ut fere parìter Ovid. A. A, I, 647 seq. — ^Itaque sententia h. 1. est: 
Si Nilus iratus ^gyptiis nollet «urgere h. e. iEgyptum inundatione 
fecundare ; numquid ad eum placandum possent aliquid crudelius 
facere, quàm hominem, immolare et ejus membris vesci. 

127. IKctUibus . . . phtudis : boats, made of day, hardened in 
the fire, and varnished, so as to be water-tight, which floated 
very well down the tranquil current of the Nile. 

137. Incerta : doubtful of which sex the sufferer is. 

139. Terrà . . . rogt : the law of the ancient Romans required, 
that the bodies of infants, who died before they had lived fi>rty 
days, (or, according to some, before they had teeth, that is, about 
seven months old,) should not be ìnamtj but buried, 

140. Face . . . sacerdos : the sacred rites of Ceres were cele- 
brated by night ; the worshippers carried li^hted torches in their 
hands, in memory of Ceres, who, by torch-li^t, had sought ber 
daughter Proserpine, when carried away by Fiuto. * 

None were aihnitted to these feasts, but those, who were prò- 
nounced chaste and good and free from any notorious crime. 

142. mia • . . mahx : i. e. can think himself unconcemed in 
the misfortunes of others. Thus Terence, Homo aum, humam 
nihil a me alienum pitto. 

169. Popvloa : i. e. TerUyrUas. 

172. HcRc monatra : such monstrous crimes as the Tentyrites 
had committed. 

173. Pythagoras : Pvthagoras forbade the eating of anìmals, 
on account orhis belief in the transmigration of souls ; he would 
not allow himself to eat ali Idnds ofvegetabUa, but abstained 
firom beans, the cause of which is not known. 



OSI NOTES. 



SATIRE XVI. 

Th» Satire ìs supposed to bave been wrìtten by Jiivenaly wbfle 
he commaiided in Ègypt : he seta forth, iromcàily, tìie advan- 
tages and prìvileges of the soldiery, and how happy they are be- 
yond others, whom he mentions, wlule, in reality, he is satirizin;^ 
their extreme licentiousness and insolence. 

Many bave thonght that this Satire was not written by Ju- 
venal. 

6. Samià geniinz . . . arena : Juno was worshipped at Samotf 
a «ofM^islana in the Icarian sea. 

10. Jhraiori : the pr<etor mUitcaia was commander in chief. 

12. JUque . . . rduium : i. e. one eye put out ; the other indeed 
lefìf but in such a condition, that the surgeon cannot promise the 
restoration of sight. 

13. Bardàieua sura : i. e. if a citizen wishes punishment to 
be inflicted on the soldier, who has injured him, he must apply 
not to the city judge or pnetor, but to a military judge or centu- 
rion, who, from bis dréas and great stature, is humòl'ously describ- 
ed and called BardaScus calcetts et grandes 8vr<B ; tfaìat is, one 
iirhose sreat legs are covered with military boots is appointed 
judge, &c, — Cmceua probably means bere the caliga, which was 
a sort of hamoss for the foot and leg. 

The compkdnant is referred to a military judge, who takes bis 
seat on the bench in a military dress. 

17. JtuHanma . . . quereltt : these words may be supposed to 
be spoken by Juvenal to himself ; or to be spoken by Gallus to 
bis friend the poet, and mean ; The centurions (these were usually 
the judges of the soldiers on occasions of small importancé), be- 
fore whom the charme is laid, will undoubtedly decide with as 
much justice as a civil judge. 

20. Tota . . . pudorem : the answer of the poet 

21. Vìsit . . . injuria : i. e. that vengeance, even greater than 
the injury complained of, be inflicteà upon the plaintiff. 

24. Caligas . . . clavorum : the caliga of the soldiers were 
stuck fidi of nails. 

26. Pylades : the friend of Orestes. See Class. Dict. — Molem 
aggeria : the Romans used to surround th^ir encampments with 
vast heaps or banks of earth thrown up by way of rampart The 
mass of earth wl4ch formed them was called moles aggeris, 

31. Dìgnum . . . mc^orum : L e. a man of primitive simplicity, 
fidelity, and courage ; such as lived in the days of our ancestors. 

33. Paganum : the same as togatus, in opposition to miles or 
armatus, 

36. Sacramentorum : when soldiers were enlisted, they took 
an ùath of allegiance and fidelity to the emperor, to their country, 
and to their general : the word is used bere for soldiers tìjem- 
selves. 



JUV, SAT. XVI. 225 

88. Saerum . . . Ubo : the stoues, whìch were set up for boun- 
darìes, wère held sacred ; it was customary to adom them with 
chaplets, and every year to offer, on the top of the boundanr 
stones, to the god Terminus, sacrifices of honey, meal, and oìl, 
made into cakes ; this composition W49 called pvla. 

41. Teme . . . digni : see notes to Sat XIII, 136, 137. 

42. Exsptdandua . . . annus : every tribe in Rome had three 
judges, who were appointed to bear and adjustcivilcauses among 
the people. 

By the word annus we are to understand a certain time of the 
year, when the jud^en «at to try oausesi 

43. ToiitLS popuU: i. e. when the courts were open to the 
people at large. 

51. Ttstandi . . .jvs : by the l&ws of Rome, a son, during the 
life of bis father, could not disposo of bis property by wilL But 
the soldier, by his military oath, became firee, and had the rì^ht 
of fl^ying, as he pleased, whatever he had acqoired in the semce 
•f bis couAtry. 



NOTES 



TO 



THE SATIRES OF PERSIU& 



Aiairs Pxmsiui Flaccits iras bom ni Volatene, a town of 
fitnirìa, A. D. 94. Hb f^her waa of Equestrian rank, and died 
when hÌ8 son waa about six yeara of affé. Persiua studied at 
Volaternc, until he had attained hìa twdfth year : after tfaat he 
waa removed lo Rome, andplaced under the care of Palemon, a 
pammanaBy lad Verràiua Flaccua, a rhetorician. At the age of 
2xkeen, he waa placed iindéf thè tuitlott Of Anteus Comutas, a 
Stoic fàiiloaopher, to whom the fifth Satire ìs addreaaed, and in 
whose praiae it ia wrìtten. Durìng the reign of Nero, Persiua 
dietinguiahdd himaelf for hia aatirìc compositions, in which he did 
not even apare the emperor himaelf. He died at hia estate, near 
Rome, in tue twen^-eifhth year of his age, in the consulahip of 
Rubrìua Marioa and Aainioa Gallua. 



The argumenta or designa of the six satires are contained in 
thia Terae : 

Of poeta, wisbes^ idleness and bealth. 

The statetman, n«edom, avance aocl wealth. 



PROLOGUE. 



Persiua, after the manner of dramatic writers, prefàces his 
Satires with a prologue in lambic verse. This land of lambic 
verse is called scazon, and requires an iambus in the fifth and a 
apondee in the sizth place : an iambus, spondeo, dactyle, tri- 
brac, and anapest are admissible in the first four places : tiius, 

Nèc fón- I te là- I br& prò- | lui | càbéd- | lino. 

Hèdér» I sèquà- | cès ip- | sé sé- | mipà- | gànOs. 

Còrvòs I pdé- | tàs et | pdé- | triàs | picàs. 

Canta- I ré ere- | dàs Pé- | g&sé- | lOm | néctàr. 



PROLOOUE. 227 

1. Voìdt cabaUino : i. e. Hippacréne, which fountain Pegtuutf 
the winged horse of Bellerophon, ÌB siiid to have opened by a blow 
of his hoof. — ^Aec labra proltU : *■ I have not even moistened my 
lips.*->^The poeta feigned, that drinking of this fountain inspired 
poetic fanc^. 

2. Bicipiti Pamasso : PamassuB, a mountain of Phocis, in 
Acnaia, sacred to Apollo and the Muses, had two 9umniit8j Ch" 
rha and Nisa ; others cali them Helicon and Citheron ; Herodotus 
calls them Tithorea and Hyampeus. — ^It was imagined, that if 
any person ascended the mountain and remained there for any 
time, he became a poet 

3. Repente : i* e. temporis momento ; by immediate inspiration« 

4. Hàiconidas : the Muses, so oalled from the mountain HeU- 
con, — PaUidam Pirenen: Pirenei the daughter of Acheloiis or 
(Ebalus, shedding many tears for her son, slain by Diana, is said 
to have been changed into a fountain. — ^The epithet pallida is 
figuratively used because people become pale by continued 
study. 

5. Ima^nes . . . hedera : «ee Juv. Sat. VII, 29. 

6. Semtpaganu8 : i. e. one, who has no right to be consìdered 
a poet, not having been initiated by drinking of the fountain 
Hippocrene or by dreaminff on mount Parnaasus — ^ a half-rustic' 
— ' an ilUterate poet.' — Semtpaganua ìa used in oppositìon to vatum, 
and Carmen to sacrxu 

7. Sacra vatum: i. e. carmina iUis (vatibus) ab folline et 
Musis dictata. — Others understand sacra^ se. tempia^ the tempie 
of Apollo and the Muses. Juv. Sat I, 1. 

8. Quis expedivU . . . nectar : Persius now gives the reason, 
why he, acknowledging himself to be without poetica! abilities, 
yet daxes attempt poetical composition. There are other thinffs, 
says he, besides those enumerated, which can inspire men with 
genius, which can effect things the most difficult to be accom-* ' 
pUshed, — ^hungcr and the desire of gain. 

8. Expedivìi : ì, e. docuit. — Xaì^t^ a salutation used at meeting 
and partmg. 

9. Verha nostra ; i. e. voces humancts. 

11. JStcgataa : se. a natvrà. — Artifex sequi : a Greek construc- 
tion for artifex in condocefaciendo, ut sequantur (i. e. cusequantur 
or exprimanty 

12. Dolosi: 'seductive.' 

13. Corvos poHas et po€trias picas : we may understand this 
line literally, ' raven poets and magpie poetesses :' i. e. if gain be 
in view, men will attempt impossibilities. — Or by corvos poitas 
^9 may understand wretehed poets ; by poHrias picas, hoastitig 
rhymers» 

14. Pegastnum nectar : sublime and poetic strains.— ^ector * 
L e. Carmen. Pindar. Olymp. VII, 12 seqq> 



988 NOT£S. 



SATIRE I. 

1. O cura» • • . ìegel hoc : the jx>et supposes that, while he is 
employed in composition, he is interrupted by some person, who 
tAareaaeB him with these words. 

2. Min^ . . . M : the aiuiwer of the poet 

9. Vd duo^ vel netno : i. e. paueissinU. — ^uare : the poet asks, 
whv it is a shameful and lamentable thin? ? 

4. JVe . . ,pr€Btukrini: L e. are you afraid that I should feel 
nneasy, because the works of worthless poets are preferred to 
mine ? — ^By Pvlydamas^ Nero is generally thought to he meant 
— Troiadts is in the feminine gender to denote the effeminacy 
of the Romans, who prìded themsèlves in being calléd TVcfUfferuB. 
— Acciaa Labeo : a favorite of Nero, who wrote a miserable 
translation of the Iliad and Odyssey. 

5. Mtg€t : i. e. I care nothing for the judgment of such men. 
— Si . . . deoet : * if the people of Rome, not clear in their judg- 
ment, (muddy,) should think lightly of any work.' 

6. Èxamenve . . • trutìnà : i. e. do not attempt to correct the 
false judgment of these men, who bave not the means of judgìng 
coirectly. — Examen : this means the tongue or needles of the 
acale, which alwavs inclines to the side where the weight ^pre- 
dominates. — TVuhnà : this means the part in which the needle 
moves, and is put fbr the whole scales. 

7. JVVe • • . txtra^ Dryden thus translates it : 

The conscience is the test of every mind ; 
Seek not thyself, withoat thyself, to find. 

8. ifui» non : se. perverse jwHcat, — Ah, si/aa éicere : * oh ! if I 
only had the power of speaking my opinion freely.' — The poet 
says these words, as if he was as yet undecidcd what he should 
do ; immediately, as if he had dccidcd upon the question, he says 
sedjas^ &c. 

9. Nostrum : the first person is used, including himself, as he 
would thereby give less offence. — Vivere: a Gnecìsm, for the 
substantive. — Triste * u e. morose, — ^inclined to find fault with 
others. 

10. Aspexi : by enaUage for the present tense. — Mictbus re* 
licHs : * our toys being lefl' — * when we cesse to he children.' 

11. Sapimus pabntos : undes were the usuai guardians of chil- 
dren, who had iost their parents, and were strict to a proverb. — 
When we take on ourselves the severity of uncles in censuring 
the faults of others. — Tunc, tunc : scfas est — JgnoscUe : < pardon 
my writing.' ^ 

12. Sed sum cachinno : * but I must write, for . I am a great 
laugher.' 

13. Indusi: «shut up in our studies.' — Mtmerosi 'verse.'— « 
Pede Kber : * unshackled by poetic feet' 



PER. SAT. I. S29 

14. Grande : * bombàstic' — Pulmo anxnuR pràlargus : i. e.pvl- 
mones cajsacissimi. 

15. SciHcety &c. : i. e. you, no doubt, dressed with the greatest 
éìegànce and in ali your finery, adapting your looks tx) the lascivi- 
ousness of your versee, will read your compositions to an audience, . 
who will exhibit every mark of indecency and wantonness. 

16. JVof^tttòtd sàrdonycke : a ring set with a sardonyx, a birth- 
diay present. 

17. Sede celsà : L e. ca: cathedra, — Plasmate : * a gargle.' 

18. MòMU : ffexible in pronouncing. — Pairanti fractxts ocello : 
effeminate with lascivions eyes. 

19. ffic : in the place where you recite your versea. 

20. TXtós : many Romans had the name of Titus, from Titus 
Tatius. — Trepidare : i. e. beat the ground and clap their hands 
in applause. 

22. Aùricvlis . . . oTie : i. e. do you write such lascivious verses 
to please thè eai's of others, who flatter you so immoderately, 
that even you are filied with dis^st and are forced to e^claim^ 
enovgh {ohe), — Et cxde perditus : i. e. etiamsi natura aliqìio vitio 
crubèscere rwnpossis : or it may be understood of a person suffér- 
òìg with the éropsy : — ^puffed up with their praises, like one in a 
dropsy. 

24. Qiio . . . caprtficus : i. e. what then, say s a third person, is the 
advantàge of ali your study and labor, unless it is to make others 
act^lVainted" with your labors, that you may receive from them 
praise and glory — unless your knowledge, swelling like leaven in 
dough, arid shooting out like the wild fig-tree, burst forth, &-c. 
Jùv. Sàt. X, 145. — Qteo ; L e. citi hono quein injinenu 

27. Scire tuum : for scientia tua. 

2Ì9. Ttvi? . . . fuisse : L e. that your compositions are read in 
the schools, and are committed to memory by noble boys. — Cir- 
ratorum : nohle hoys usually had their hair curled. — Nero ordered 
lìis poèrtis tò bc nsed as excrcises-nX the schools. Persius prob- 
abiy alludes to hitn. 

30^. Ecce inicr . , . nascentur mol<B : the ironica! answer of the 
poet. 

32. Hic : i. e. intcr pocvda^ 

33. Rancidulum : * disgusting.' — Baìhà de tiare : i. e. per narts 
voccm bdth'am emitìens ; stammering and snulHing. 

34. PhjlliddSy Hypsipylas : Phyllis, daughter of Lycurgus, 
wàs deserted by Demophoon. — Hypsipyle, daughter of Thoas, 
king of Lemnos, was deserted by Jason. — PlorabUe si quid: 
* some inournful lové-ditty.' 

35. Eliquat : a metaphor, from melting and soflening metals 
and hard substaùces ; — * speaks in a soft and effeminate voice.'— 
Supptaniat : * minces bis words.' 

86. CHnis iUe po^(t ; by hypallage for dnis tUvas poHtB. 
37. Lettor . . . ossa : this alludes to the usuai superstitìoud 
Wish, exprèssed by the Romans, sii tibi terra Icms. Juv. yil, 207. 

20 



230 NOTES. 

38. Manibus : put here for the septdchre^ where the numea were 
supposed to dwell. 

40. mdeSjoU: ^you are jesting, says the adversary.' — Vncis 
. . . naribus : scorn and dtnsion are expressed by wrinkliììg and 
turning up the nose. 

42. Os populi : L e. laudem et famam ; * the applause of the 
peoplc' — Ceoro e{^g7ia:~* deserving immortality.' — The ancients 
rubbed their books with an oil, extracted from the cedar, to pre- 
serve t}icm from worms, moths, 6lc, 

43. JVec scomòros . . . tkus : i. e. in no danger of being used as 
wrapping-paper by fishmongers or perfumers. 

44. ^isquisy &c. : Peraius, having severely satirized a desire of 
falae praise, now allows that praise, properly bestowed,' is noi to 
b3 (lospiscd. 

4^. Rara apia : in allusion to the phoenìx. 

47. I\bra cornea : i. e. sensus obttutus ; insensible like hom. 

49. Uiig'e — Belle : acclamations of applause. — Belle .. . . totum : 
' examine well the force and nature of this.mark of applause.* 

50. Q^uid . . . habei : i. e. are not these marks of applause ap- 
plied to ali sorts of writings ? are they not applied to the most 
insipid and foolish things ? in short, what is not contained within 
it ? — Hic ; i. e. ìUa belle. — Do not men use this same mark of ap- 
plause when the Uiad of Accius is recite d ? See verse 4. 

51. Ehrìa veratro : *inebriated with hellebore.' — Accius, Per- 
sius says, as some understand it, derive d bis poetica! imagination, 
not from drinking of the fountain Hippocrene on mount Helicon, 
which fountain he never reached ; but from stupifying his senses 
with hellebore, wliich grew luxuriantly upon the same mountain. 
— Elegidia : with contempi (a dimin. from elegia) songs of a wan- 
ton or trifling character are thus denominated. — Crudi : ' fìUed 
with undigested food' — ' gluttonous.' — Or, *not well digesting 
and understanding the subject.' 

53. Citreis : the citron wood was very valuable : the rich had 
beds and couches made of it. — Calidum . . . lacerna : i. e. you 
hire persons to applaud your writings by inviting them to suppers, 
and by making them prcsents. 

55. De vie : ì. e. of the poem which has just been recited. 

56. Qui potè : how is it possible, that such men will speak the 
truth, when they are afraid of offending you, if they did ? — Vis 
dicam : se. veruni Ubi. — JVuffaris . . . exstet : i. e. you are an old 
fool to writG verses, when, from the size of your paunch, it is 
evident that you bave thought more of indulging your appetite, 
than of cultivating your mind. — ^The note of Koenig is, Atig-om, 
non serio loqueris quum tibij &c. i. e. quum corporis tui habitus 
jam indicet, aures ad laudem captandam arrectas esse. 

58. Jane : Janus was represented with two faces, one before 
and one behind, as regarding the time past and future. — A tergo 
. . .tantum : there were three ways of expressing derision with the 
ancients ; — one was, holding out the finger and crooking it a little 



\ 



PER. SAT. I. S31 

to imitate the bill of a stork, pointing to the object of ridicule, 
and moving it backward and forward : another was, putting the 
thumbs up to the temples, holding the other fingerà erect, and 
moving them, so as to imitate assos' ears : the third, to run out 
the tongue like a thirsting dog. 

60. «Yec . . . tantum : £e construction is, nec tantum lingwB 
exseritur, quantum Appvda canis exserit, quum gitiat» 

61. O . . . caco : * O nobles, who, by nature, bave no eyes in 
the backs of your heads.' 

6!S. PosticKB . . . sann<B : take care, that you are not ridiculed 
behind your backs ; i. e. cease from writing silly verses. 

63. Qut9 . . .est : se. de cannine recitato. — Carmina . . . ungues : 
a metaphor taken from statuaries, who criticaJly cxamined their 
work by passing their nails over the surface of the marble, to 
ascertain if it was perfectly smooth and if the joinin^s were ex- 
act — Leve : se. marmor. — Severos : * critically examining.' — Ef- 
Jundat : i. e. ire sinai— or noìi remoretur. 

65. Scit . . . UTio : a metaphor taken from carpenters, who 
examine their work by rute, and who, when they would draw a 
straight line, dose one eye, the better to confine the visual rays 
to a single point 

69. Ecce . . . poèta : Persius now proceeds to satirize the poets 
of bis day, who attempt things far above their abilities : — ^from 
76th V. to 85th, he satirizes those, who, in their works, foolishly 
hunted up antiquated words : — from 85th to 92d, he censures the 
use of figures of speech and affected phrases : — ^from 92d to 
107th, he ridicules the effeminacy of their verses. 

69. Hcroas sensìia : i. e. heroicos senaus ; ' heroic thoughts — 
ideas' — Afferre : i. e. scribere, 

71. Corbes . . . /ano : i. e. instead of describing the great and 
leading features of a fine and beautiful country, they dwell upon 
the most trivial circumstances. 

72. Fumosa Palilia : this was a festival in honor of Pales, which 
was celebrated on the 21st of Aprii. On this day the husbandmen 
lighted fires of bay and Straw, &c., over which they leaped to 
purify themselves ; hence the epithet /umo^a. 

73. Remus : se. oriundus est — Frequent mention is made of 
Remus by the poets. — Svlco terens dentalia : a periphrasis for 
ploughing. — Quinti : L. Quintius dncinnatus, who was called 
from the plough to be made dictator at Rome. 

76. Est nunc . . . Antiopa : i. e. you will find many, who now 
spend their time in studying and reading the works of Accius 
(not Accius Labeo) and Pacuvius, antiqiiated authors. — BrisfAs : 
the name of a tragedy, written by Accius. — Venosus : * ruggcd.' 

77. Pacuvius et verrucosa Antiopa : for verrucosa Antiopa Po- 
cumL — Moretur : L e. remoretur or deledet. 

78. JErumnis . . . JuUa : either a qUotation firom the tragedy 
of Antiopa, or an imitation of its style : it is thus translated by 
Brewster : 



232 NOTES. 



Wboie Ma, like pillan, prpppingr «▼^ 
BottreMed her sinking, ddlonnc beart. 



P^# 



79. Hm numiius: namely, that they should study tb)^ oli 
and barbarou0 Latin pocts. 

80. H4te Boriago: 'tiùs motley mixture;' the word Utera}ly 
ai£7iiiies tijrying pan, 

81. Dedeciu : as sartago in the line above, corruptifm qf. 
»pttch. 

82. TVoMu/uv ; thìa waa at first an appellation of booor, giveo 
to Roman knigbts, from Trossulus, a city of Tuscany, which 
they took without the assistance of any infantry ; afVerwards.^^ 
and coxcomhs were called by thÌ9 name. 

83. NUnt . . . dfctnUr : bexe Persius satùrizes.adyocates, whose 
desire it was not to firee the person, whoste <;aa9e they may Ìiq 
defénding, from «uapicion of guilt, but merety to obtain ^he ap- 
plauso of the judges and Bpectators» and bear such hijuwarm 
yttpidum^ expresnons of approbation as he spe^aks dectnUy. 

85. Jht : * says (he accuftr^ — Pedio : the name of some peraony 
accused of robbery. — Qr Pedius ma^ he the name of the advp^ 
cate. — Ptdius q^atd : se. conirà dietim — Crimtna . . . aniWieHs : 
i. e.' he puts, as it were, bis accusation in one scale and his $gur^ 
of speech and affected jierio^ in. the othQr^ and t^us weig^ oi&e 
agamst the other. — Ra9Ì8 : i. e. e:^p<diUs* 

87. BeBum hoc: the words of bis admìrpg heareirs.— J9bc h^* 
lum: the indignant reply of Persius. — ^n J^niule ceoes: i. e* 
are you, O Romana, who boast of yonr high deacent firom Romii- 
lus, so degenerate as to fawn like a dog? 

88. Jtfen' maveat (se. naìifingìiB) ^ , , querdà : the sense is ; 
rea! and not fictitious sorrow moves me. Real sorrow nejects ali; 
ornamenta of speech, ali show of words ; that defence, which is 
upheld not b^ nrm arguments, but by mere rhetoncal flourì^es, 
excìtes no pity, but disgust : the shipwrecked mariner, who in. 
a jovial and laughing manner, goes about singing an account of 
his sufferings, would as soQn excite my compassion and induce 
me to bestow upon him aims. — i^utppe et: *and forsooth.' 

89. Carda» . . . porta : i. e. you mistake, my friend, I aihall 
give you notliing ; your singing so merrily is a proof that your 
shìpwreck is a sham. — Pictuin is emphatical, ondy painted, never 
having suffered the shipwreck you are so merry about. Juvenal, 
XII, 27. 

90. Verum : se. ploratwn. — Mete paratum : * atudied oxer 
night ;' — invented beforehand. 

93. Std . . . crudis : Persius now supposes this to he the rep]y 
of the adversary, defénding the poets of their times. — ^The con^ 
struction is, sedjunctura addita est decfjr el crv/fìi iwmmf* 

93. Didicit: se. noster peseta ; a poet, who is nQW àdìnired.-^ 
Berecyr^hiiu ... «^berimTio ; the w;9|rds in Italico in thesì^ thz^ 
linea, are quQted from the wrìtings of some poe.t, supp(|s^ l^ 
most to he Nero.— »4*t»n . , , ddpkm: tiie anectation of r^ij^.^ 



PER. SAT. I. 233 

here reprehended. — ^Éttin : (the name is variously written) a 
Phrygian shepherd, beloved by Cjrbele. — Berecyìàhio : * from 
Berecynthus,' a mountain of Pnrygia. — N'erta ; ror mart. — DtU 
phin : most think» the allusion is to the story of Arìon, who, 
naving been thrown overboard, was cairìed safe to land on the 
back of a dolphin, 

^ 95. Sic : se. didicU claudere vergum. — CoHam : this line ia 
rìdiculous on account of the attempt at rhyme in longo and ^en- 
mnoj the spondaic conclusion, and the strange expression of 
Hannibal's removing a rìb from the Apennines, instead of opening 
a passage for bis army wìth fire and vinegar. Juv. X, ld2. — U, 
is thus translated by Drummond : 

Where from the broad-backed mouniain's monstrous chine. 
The hero can'^es a rìb of Apennine. 

96. Arma . . . codtim : commentators explain this passage dif- 
ferently: — ^the adversary, with whom Persius supposes he Is 
conversing, compares the poets of bis time with Virgil, and 
quoting part of the first line of the ^neid, asks, if that is not 
written in an inflated and ru^fired manner. Persius, in bis an- 
swer, ironically chimes in with the adversary. — The cork-tree 
has two barks — ^the outer, which is much thicker than the inner 
one, should be removed at certain seasons of the year. If this 
is not done, the outer bark burstfi and makes the surface of the 
tree very rough : Persius therefore says, Virgil is like an old 
branch of a largo cork-tree, the outer bark of which has not been 
removed at the proper season, bnt has become withered up witb 
age and dried up by the beat of the sun, which is the meaning of 
coctum. — Another way in which it is understood is this ; — Per- 
sius, in the 96th verse, asks if the verses beibre quoted do not flow 
smoothly and lightly like foam and bark upon the surface of 
water ; to render this more rìdiculous, he swears by the ^neid 
of Virgjl (arma virum). In the next line, he answers bis own 
nquestion and says, lU ramale^ &c. 

98. Quidnam . . . le^endum : some understaiid this question to 
be |)roposed by Persms, to which the adversary replies by & 
quotàtion from the poema of (as most crìtica think) Nero. — ^Others 
imderstand the question to be propoaed by the adversary, to 
which Persius, derìding* the querìst, replies by a quotàtion, &c. — 
Laxà cervice: 'with an inclined head — in a languishing and 
tender manner.' 

99. MimaUoneis : the Mimallones were prìestesses of Bacchus, 
so called from Mimas, a mountain of Ionia, sacred to Bacchus. 

100. VUìdo superbo : by these words, Pentheus is thought to 
be meant 

101. Baasaris: Agaie, the mother of Pentbens, a prìestess 
of Bacchus, thus cdled from Bassareus, a name of Bacchus. 
— Lyncem : the car of Bacchus was fabled to be drawn by 

20 • 



334 NOTES. 

• ìynxeB.^-iM(Biuu : the priestossc^s of Bttcchus wiexe ako call^.4 
Mftnades. 

103. HiBc . . , ungucf : the indig[nai]t words of Persios, — flfepc 
JUrcni : i. e. hujusmodi versus scrtberentur7---T£stictUi pjatem%: 
i. e. sanguinis patemù 

107. 5e(f . . . luterà : the words of the adversary, endeavorìiìg 
' to deter Persius from writing satires. — Jtadert : i. e, offendere. 

109. Sonai . . . lUtera : the sense is this ; at the doors .of nobler 
nx^vCa hou9e9 (He) you will find sniarliixg dogs to dny.e you away, 
as often as you, the ha,ted author of satires, shall preaiejit your- 
self. — Òthers understand'it; here, in these s^tirespf yoiirs, there 
is a disagreeable sound, like the snarling of a ^og, very ui^efs- 
ant to the ears of such ^o^e. — Canina litterà: the Iettar R — 
(qìiam litteram canis himeiì^ exprimU.) 

110. Per me . , , alba: the poet pretenda that th^ admonitions 
of the adversary have deterred him from continuing his satires: 
— ^I will henceforward {protinus) admit ali their actions to be f^r- 
fectly right — ffkite was the symbol of what was good, hlflck iof 
what was had. 

111. JS/il moror: se. ea omnia esse alba; *1 make n9 oppisi- 
tion.' — Bene mira.: ironically. 

119. Hoc juvcù: 'does this please ypu?* — ^*are you satisfied 
noTv?' — Hic . . . oletum: i. e. here, you say, I forbid any one's 
offering ainv disrespect — ^you must hold the verses of the emperor 
and the nobles sacred. — Oletum : locus ubi alvus e^cgneratuy» 

113. Finge duos aangu.es : to show tlie place was sacred and 
must not be profaned. 

114. Discedo: *I depart' — ^I leave the sacred anjd forhiddeii 
ground — -my satires shall npt be directed there. — Secuii . . . Ulis : 
Fersius had just said discedo^ but» seeming to recali his thoughts, 
he continues, — 'Why should 1 depart— Lucilius couldlash ali 
sòrts of people, why should not I ?' 

115. LupCf Muc% : infamous nobles, whom Lucilius satirìzed. — 
Genidnum . . . iUis : i. e. used the utmost severity towards them. 

116. Ridenti: for risu; a participle used as a substantive: — 
ridenti amico, L e. risu venusto OTJucundo. 

117. Admissus : i. e. lectus; ^be^ng read.*^— Circuì» prmcordia 
ludii : i. e. risum movet, quo diaphragma prcedpuè concwtUur, jù- 
cupido carminum genere, 

118. Excusso naso: 'with unwrinkled uose,' — as if he were 
merely in good humor. 

1 19. Cum scrobe . . . infodiam : in allusion to the story of Midas. 
Ovid. Met. XI, 90 seqq. 

121. Hoc opertum:^ììùs secret joke ofmine' — ^i. e. the hook 
in which I.have described these things. 

122. Ridere meum : a GnBcisnì, for risum meum^-^Tullà • • • 
Iliade : L e. I thiuk my composìtions, which you regard as trifling, 
infinitely more valuaSle thmi the Èiad ^f Accisa or any other 
f9oli^ poi^t, how^V|er highly they may be esteemedjby the peo|de. 



PER, SAT. II. 2^ 

123. •/ÌMdflci . . ,do: the poet now descrìbes the kindof reader 
he wouid prefer, and the kind he would reject — CroHno : a comic 
poet of Athens. 

124. Eupolidtm: "Eupdììs wna also a comic poet of Athens, 
who severely satirì^ed the vices of his countrymen. — Fragranti 
cum sene : Aristophanes. — Pàtles : i. e. stvdiosè legis. 

125. H^Rc: *these my writings.' — DecocHus: *more refined' 
than jGtìi ordinarily meet with. 

126. Inde . . . aure : i. e. may he be a Constant reader of me, 
whose mind ìs excited (inde) by these ancient comic poeta an^ 
by their zeal in censurìng vice. 

127. Crepidas Graiorwn : i. e. the Grecian philosophers. 

128. I/U8C0 . . . lusce : i. e. who takes pleasure in derìding tbe 
naturai or unavoidable infirmities of others. — Posctt : in the sen^^ 
ofgesHt' — ^Many editions bave jpo«rà. 

130. JEdttts : Juv. Sat. X, 99. ' 

131. Abaco numeros : put for ArUhmeHc,—SecÌo injnUvere me" 
tas : put for Geometry.r— These two branches of learmng pie bere 
put for ali the sciences. 

133 bonaria : ' a courtezan,' so called firom hora nona (3 o'clock 
in the idlemoon), fuà patebat aditus ad lupanana. 

134. Edidum : i. e, Jori negotta. — CaUirhoen, the name of some 
courtezan. 

Or by edietum we may understand edictum ludorum, a kind of 
play-bill, which was written b^ the magistrate, who presided at 
the public shows ; and by Càllirhoe, a wretched play, written by 
mxùe onè of the poets, against whom this satire is levelled. 



SATIRE II. 



1. Macrvnt : flotius Macrinus, a leamed man and friend to 
Persius. — Diem . . .kmiUo : the custom of casting every day into 
an um stones of different colors, as the person, performing this 
ceremony, was fortunate or unfortunate, was derived from the 
Thracians : when the day was lucky and fortune was propitious, 
the stone was wkUe. — Jndiore : i. e. alho. 

2. Qui ; diem the antecedent — Candidus : * propitious.' 

3. Oemo : the Polytheist ranked among the number of his 
gods the Gemiti, who was supposed to bave presided at his na- 
tìvity. 

5. Bona : i. e. magna. — Tacita libavU {useà aoristicaUy) acerrd :' 
i. e. often from the vessel, which contained their incense, take 
incense and bum it secretly — often offer secret prayers. 

8. Hospes : it means bere a person, who, by chance, is neaf 
the one who is sacrìficins; and prayinj?. 

10. EbuUU : èbuUim ute old form K>r eòii0tertni| and ébuOit fqr 
a) se. omintiiii or ipirihan. 



396 NOTES. 

Id. Heftuìe : Hercules was said to preside over hidden treasuros* 

13. Impello : i. e. sequor, 

14. ^erio . . . ttxor : this avaricious man praya fot the deatfa 
of hÌ8 wife, that he may become lieir to her wealth, and obtaìn 
another fortune bv marrying again. He tbinka it hard, that when 
A*miM has buried two wives, he cannot get rid of one. 

15. Tiberino • . .putgoà : the ancient^ in the moming, sacri- 
ficed to the heavenly deities ; they then plunged themselves into 
the Btream and put their heads under water* In the evenii^, 
they sacnficed to the infemal deities, at which time they only 
spnnkled themselves with water. — JVWem : L e. ali those things, 
which b^ night were thought to befall men and poUute them. 
The ancicnts thought themselves poUuted by night itself, as well 
aB by bad dreams in the night. 

17. Htu» agt : an apostrophe to the avarìcioua man, of whom 
the poet had been speaking. 

19. Hunc : i. e. Jovem, — Cuinam : se. praponam Jovemy saya 
the avaricious man. 

20. Qu%8 : i. e. Jupiter or the infamoua Staius. 

22. Ùamd: se. ^aius. 

23. «^ . . . ipse : would not Jupiter then, with the highest jus- 
tice, as well as indignation, cali upon himself to take vengeance 
on you? 

24. Ociits : for priiut of sdbpitLS, 

25. Suyure t i. Q.^ìdminc. 

^G. An quia . . . hidental : the construction is, cm quia nanjace^ 
in luci» triste et evitanduni indentai f3>ris omum Erfennàque ju^ 
bente. — BiderUal : when a place had been struck with lizhtning, 
it -ras encloaed under the direction of a priest and punfied by 
s loiificing some sheep (bidente^) : the word bidental is appHed 
indifierently to the sacrifìce, to the place, or, as bere, to the 
person struck by lightnin^. 

"}S. Idcirco . . . Jupiter : i. e. because youhave hitherto esci^ied, 

) you imagine that you are at full liberty to insult Jupiter as 

,»u please ? 

29. Jtut . . . auricìdas : i. e. wkat present have you made — 
what bribe have you offcred to tlie gods, that you are in such 
high favor ? 

30. Pulmone et lactibu» undis : prò sacrificiis quibuscunque» 

31. Metv^ns divùtn : * superstitious.' 

33. Infami digito : ^ the middle fìnger,' because it was made 
use of to point in scom at h^amous persona. — Lusiralibui salivia : 
tpiUle was thought by the superstitious to contain great virtue 
against fascination oran evil eye. — Anik: beforc she offe» her 
prayer for the infont 

2!S. Manibus quatit : lifls him np> and dan^es liim in her am» 
as if presentine him to the god8,^--l^9€mmacram : the infant, of 
wlwm, as yet, uere were but little mpes^ on account of bis ten- 
der age. 



d 

y 



PER. SAT. IL . jjftf? 

96. lAcini : lÀdmus, the freed-man of AngìiìUxiB.^'nMiUii : L «. 
prays, that he may l^ereafter poesess. 

40» Maia: ' diesaed ia i^hite' — < strictly observingf the forma 
of religione — ìfkite gannents, embleiM of purity aad innoceBce^ 
were «used^ when saorìficefl were ofiered to the gods. 

42. Grandes . . . crassa : i* e. your gluttony. 

43. fiìtf.: Mc. voHs ims» — Jùvemque moratdur.: and hinder Ju- 
piter firom granting your request, though he hinuielf might be 
willing. 

44. Cimo ^e, Bjaà fibra in the next line, put fot aacrificea in 
general. 

45^ IMunare penaies : ' that my domestic affiora mnf prove 
fi)rtuiiate'->*<'that.my property mmy increase.' 

47. Tot . . . liquescant: i. e. when you are every day pfevent* 
ing yonr.wish nom heing accompushed, by sacrificing your 
heifers to the firods. 

46. Hiet ' thÌ0 foolish fellow.' — Vitturt : i* e. perficsf€ id^ quod 
optai, — Ferto: this waa a kind of cake, wlàch waa freqtteiitly 
ased in sacrìficea. 

50. Dabtiur: every thing which I prayed for will be graated. 

$1. Suspjrai nummus : a bold metaphor, sayv LobinDa, aa if 
the last soLitary sestertius sighed, in the bottom vf hàa pnnei for 
the Iosa of hia companiona. 

53. Pectore . . . cor : Uie conatruction ia et cor fprairepiium 
Uetari (i. e. properans l^Uari or in latUiam pronum) in pectore 
lavo (aee Juv. vii, 159,) excuHat guUas^ < woold ahed teara of 
Joy* — ^teara of joy would guah from your very heart. 

$5. .fl&ic .* becauae you love ^d ao mu^ youraelf ; you judge 
them by youraelf. — Sa4!ras focus : the imagea of tìie goda. — 
Ovaio : * taken from the enemy.* 

56. Fraires aSnos : brazen atatuea of the fiity aone of ^gyptus 
rtfcood in the portico of Jupiter Palatinua ; opposte them, the fifty 
daughtera of Danaua. — ^They were believed to bave the power of 
giving anawera by dreams relative to the cure of diaordera. 

57^ Pduità purgaiissima : i, e. vera, — *^rea barba : alluding 
to the golden beard of ^sculapius, who waa auppoaed to reveal 
by dreams remedies for diseaaes. 

59. Vasa MinuB: the plain vesaela, uaed in the timea of 
Numa. — Saturnia €era : the veaaels of braaa, uaed when Satum 
reigned in Ital^. — hnpulit : i. e. templis removìL — ^The words 
AÌiinue and Saturnia afe uaed as ezpreaaive of great antiquity, 

60. Vestales umas : * the urna used by the Veatal virgina in 
drawing water for the lites of Vesta.' 

61. CmlesHum (rerum) ignartB : ' ignorant of the nature of the 
goda.' 

63. Ex hàe scfìeratà nvipà : < frpm thia wicl^ed fleah of oura f — 
6rom onr cocrupted fina depraved minda. 

6i.,Hae: acpyfya: ^luxuripua man»' — Sibi easùm dissfdvU 
olivo : i» e« coqmtsioifucum aeu unguentwn ex cwià^—Corrvpto : 



238 NOTES. 

thÌB word was lued by the Romana to ez^Heas any tfaing, that 
waa mized, qtùa omnù mutwra dtiiia earmmpihar. 

65. Caìabrum vtUtu : the wool of Tareatuin, which was Idg^y 
valued.-* VUiato : in the aame aenae as corrupto. 

06. Htte: ac. pulpa; the aame corrapt prìnciple. — Baeeam 
eondut : L e. tmùmem t conML 

68. VUio tamen utUur: * yet it makea aome uae of vice ;' — yet 
men derive aome advantage from it 

70. Hoc quod : * the same good aa.' — PuppiE : ' dolls,' which 

Siria, when marriageable, dedicated to Venoa, aa boya dedicated 
le frutta to tibie houaehold goda. 

71. (Jiitn damui • . . propago : L e. let uà gìve what the diaao- 
lute rich, however larg9 tfaeir cenaeia may he, — however great 
their wealthy dErC. 

72. MesBaU^ propago : Cotto, the diaaolute aon of If. Valeriua 
Corvinus Meaaala. 

73. Componlum • . . ammo : L e. ammum ted legts dwùuu 
hMmamuque €oimp99Uunu 

74. hicoctum gentroto hanegio : ' well aeaaoned with genuine 
yirtue.' 

75. Farrt Utabo : L e. I will offer the meaneat aacrifice and it 
will prove aeceptable. 



SATIRE m. 



1. AVaipe hoc oiMuè : the poet here introducea a philosopher 
chiding ma pupila for their aloth, and endeavoring to louae them 
to atudy. 

d. SterUmu» : the firat peraon instead of the aecond. — hndomù 
ium . . . sì^fficiai : we (L e. yon) sleep, which is certainly long 
enoogh to dissipate the fumea of the atrongest Falemian wine, 
unti], &c. 

4. Qutntd . . . umbra : hy hypallage for dum qìdrUa linea tanr 
gihnr unibrà (gnomonis) ; eleven o'clock in the forenoon. 

5. Eìi quid agis : addresaed to one of liis anoring pupils. 

6. pattUà . , . est: denoting it to be mid-day. 

7. Verumne . • . nernon^ : the words of the scholar awaked from 
hia aleep. 

8. TurgescU vitrea hUis : the words of the poet ; ^ he ia in a fu- 
rìous pasaion.' — ^Horace (SoL II, 3. 141) uses splendida^ in the 
aame sanse as vitrea^ applied to httis ; this is applicable to the 
irritaklt^ and black bile to the melancholy. 

9. JlrcadMt pectioria : for asirwrum greges, Juv. Sat VII, 
160. . 

10. Bicolor membrana : the inside of the parchmeni^ on wnich 
th ì ancients wrote, waa white ; the outside, irom which the wool 
or hair had been scraped, was of a yellowish hue. 



PER. 6AT. JII. 239 

11. Nodosa arando: pena were sometìmes made of reedgy 
Which grew with knòts at intervals. 

13. Sepia: * ink/ whlch wa^ prepared from a juice, obtained 
fh)m the sepia or cuttle-fish. 

14. Fistula: *pen.' 

15. O miser , . . recusas : the words of the philosopher, chiding 
his pupil. 

16. Tenero jpaiumbo : the pigeon is very delicate when young ; 
the old ones feed their young with the hsìlf digested food of their 
own stomachs. 

17. Pappare : this properly signifies io caU for ortoeat food^ 
hut herefood chewed hy nurses to he givento infante. 

18. Lattare recuaas : i. e. you refuse to listen to the song of 
the nurse, who is endeavouring to lull you to sleep. 

19. An . . . calamo : the words of the scholar. — l^udeam : i. e. 
scribam, — Verba : bc, d€ts, 

do. Effluia : for moUiUe et luxurià comiptus es. 

21. CorUemnére . . . limo : the sense is, you will be des|Hscd 
by ali ; you never by dissembling and deceiving will prevent the 
world from knowing how worthless and ignorant you are : yonr 
manners will betray you, as a vessel, made of ill-tempered day 
{viridi limo) and not properly baked, betrays its defects, when 
sounded by the fìnger. — Perctissa : se. Jiddia, 

24. Sed, &c. : but perhaps you will say, &c. 

25. Far modicum : i. e. wealth not to be despised — a sufficient 
competency. 

27. Pidmonem rumpere veniis : * to be excessively proud.' 

28. StemmxUe . . . ducis : the meaning is, because you are the 
thousandth from the founder of your race : — ^because you are de- 
scended from the anclent Tuscans. — MUlessime : voc. for nom. 
by antiptosis, for miUesaimuSj and in the next verse trabeate for 
trabeatus, 

29. Censorem . . . salutas : alluding to a custom of the Roman 
knights, who, with tbe badges of their order, the ring, traSea, 
&.C. appcared bcfore the censor and saluted him as they 
passed. 

30. Ad popidum phaleras : se. refer ; these are for the igno- 
rant to admire ; exhibit them to the mob. 

31. Natt<B : probably the name of some man of the dregs of 
the people, notorìous on account of his worthless character. 

32. IShris . . . pingue : these words are to be taken in h moral 
sense. — By Jìhris we are to understand the mind ; by o^nmum 
piììgue, callousness of feeling, — dulness. 

33. JVesctt quidperdat : i. e. he does not understand his miser- 
able condition. — Alto : * the depths of vice.' 

38. Videant : quàm ut videant, — Relictà : se. virtute. 

39. Anne . . . uxor : the construction is, anne <era Siculi juvenci 
gemuerunt magis, et ensis pendens laquearibus auraiis terruit ma- 
gìa purpvreas cervicea avòtèr, quhm ai ^ut^yConscientie stimulia 



MO KfotES. 



, dièat, «At ipsi imuSy imtts pft^^cip^, et infdix palUast 
ifdu» ob id qùùd proxìma laor neédat, — Sicidi ara juvenci ; Ùie 
inceli bull tVf P&alaris. — By Metónymy for tbe men encìosed in 
the bull by way of punishment 

40. Etrna: the s word of the tyrant Dionysius. 

41. PurpuMÉs subtèr cumfSóeè : i. e. 9upra DanwcìiÉf purpùrà 
regia induHj cervicem. — Imue . . . dicat: the meaning is, that 
wKen he aees himsélf overwhelmed with gwl% deeperate with 
nee, he ^vea tip ali for lost 

42. IvSua paUeat : * ia filled with internai dread i* — *■ is stung 
by conscience.' 

43. Quod : havin? for its antecedent id anderistood ; or, without 
sappljriiig thi8 word, it may he Uken m the sense ofqaamvis, 

44. Octdos tdffìgi^tm divo : i. e. that tày eyes mi^ht seem 
weak, that I mig^t be kept by my parents from my studies. 

46. JVbn sano : * not in his senses,' when he praised sùch 
puerile themes. 

47. Sudane : ' anzious' about my success. 

48. Dexfer senio ferrei : * the lucky dice (the hi'ghest number on 
the die) woùld add to my winnin^s.' 

50. Angusta . . . orctB : the play of pitching nnts into a jar 
with a nam>w neck': those which they pitched in were their 
owDf and those which missed the mouth of the jar they lost 

51. Buxum : ' a top,' wMch was made of the buxìis, or box- 

52. Haud . . . mores : i. e. when I did these thingé I was a 
mere child, but you, who are older, aind know by experience the 
diftéretfce between right aiid wrong, ou^t not to invent excuses 
to avoid your studies. — Curàos: ì. e.pravos, 

53. ^iueque . . . polenta : i. e. the doctrines of the Stole philoso- 
phers. — ^The Stoics were called froni groU, a portico in Athens, 
on the walls of which were painted (ittita) the battles of the 
Medes and Persians with the Athenians ; here they used to 
meet and dispute. — Braccatis : the bracca were a kind of loose 
trowsers wom by the Medes. — Sapiens porticus: put by Me- 
tónymy for the phìlosophers who met in the portico. 

54. Insoìimts . . . invigHat: the youn^ men, wbo^foUow the 
strict discipline of the Stoics, and allow themselvcs but little 
slbep, watching over their studies night and day. 

55. fSUiquis : used here for any kind óf pidse^ or for the sim- 
phstfare. — Polenta : a puddihg, made of basley-meal and water, 
used for the simptest food. 

56. lAUera : the letter Y ; the two branches of which were 
uséd by Pythagoras of Samos (hence Samios ramos) to show the 
two dinerent paths of virtue and vice. The right hand path is 
narrow and difficult, leading to virtue ; the lef^ broad and easy 
of ascent, leading to vice. 

58. Lcutum : the muscles, which support the beati, are rétaxtd 
in sleep. 



PER. SAT. III. 241 

59. OscUat hestemum : * yawn forth yeeterday's debauciL* — 
Dissutis . . . malis : ì. e. aperto rictu. 

61. Àn passim . . . hdofpi/t: L e. or have yoa no fixed puipose 
in yieyf? 

&L Stcurua^ 'careless.' 

63. HeUeborum : heUebore was adminìstered in dropsical cases. 
— li Ì8 bere used for any ainUdùU^ and the dropsy for any danger- 
ous disease. 

65. Cratero : the physician of Augustus, used here for any 
8kilful physician. 

67. Q^idnam victuri gigmmur: \bÌB can be taken in two 
senses ; — ^how short a time we shall live ; — or, to what end we 
èie bom. — Ordo quìa daius: L e. in what rank of life we iure 
placed. 

68. Mela . . . ftexus : a metaphor appUed to the end of life^ 
which the poct calla meUt^ taken from chariot racing, in which 
ìt was ìmportant to know how to turn round the ^ooÌ^ so as to 
avoid touching it too nearly. Merely to touch it with die inward 
wheel of the car, was the mark of a skilful driver*— Jlfe(<s moUia 

JUxus : i. e. mors lenta. — Unde : se moUiaJkxtis sU* 

69. Qttt9 . . . arge$iio : L e. what limit we should fìx to the 
acquisition of wealth. — Asper nummus : coin firesh firom the mint, 
wiUi the figures standing out 

72. Uvmanà in re: * in human life.' 

73. JVec inoideas . . . penu : the sense is, envy not the rich 
lawyer, who receives from bis client so many jars of provìsions, 
that they become stale before he can use them. 

74. hi locupkte pena : *in the store-house of a neh lawyer.' — 
PingwSma : h, e. mvitìbìu. 

" 75. Monumenla : ì. e. dona prò defenaione, 

79. ArceaUaa : an .£olian philosopher, who carne to Athens. 
— SoUmes : philosojìhers, like Solon, the lawgiver of Athens. 

80. Figenka luminet^am: by hypallage for JigtnUa lumina in 
ierram. 

85. Hoc ealy quod {acpropter) pc^ea : spoken in derìsion by the 
centurion. ' 

86. HRa : se. in philoaophoa didia^ — Populua : the people, who 
are supposed to be present, hearing the sneers of the centurion. 
— Ridet : for arridet ; by laughing, express their approbation« — 
MuUian : qualifies ingemmai. 

-87. C^riapante: L e. in rugaa trado; — in laughter the nose sìa 
drawn up in wrinklea. 

88. Inapice . . . Q^intea : the philosopher, in answer to the 
ridicule of the centurion, relates a story of a sick man, who, re- 
fusing to obey the commands of bis physician, perished. 

89. Chrwria: «foBtid.' 

90. Qui: se. agrolua. — Poal^uam ... rogami: i. e. finding 
the symptoma gone, after observing for three days the directions 

21 



242 NOTES. 

of hi8 physicìan, he forgeto bis danger and takes io his fonner 
habita. 

92. Dt memore . . . rogami : the constraction is, ropnwf ÉtbiUh- 
turo lenta SurreiUina lagena modicè sUienU de madore domo. — 
Loturo : bathing, after much eatìng and drinking, waa considered 
unhealthy. 

94. Heu8 . . . paUea : the words of a friend, wanùng the siek 
man to beware, and not of the physicìan (as most understand it), 
aa appears by the answer. 

95. SurgU . . . peUis : * a pale bue is gradaally spreading over 
you.' 

96. Mtu , . , rutoB : the angry reply of the sick man. - 

Od. JUòo : whén the lìver or spleen is distempered, nas in the 
dropsy, the body assumes a white or pallid appearance. 

100. Calidum tritntal : *• a cup of warm wine.' 

101. Dctites , . . reteeti: i. e. bis lipa are drawn asimder and 
dÌBclose his teeth, which gnash, as is the case in convulsion fits. 

103. Hinc : * then.' — Tuba^ candel(B : the funerals of the rich 
were attendèd with trumpets and lights ; the poor had onl^ 
tì6t«e, small pipes, which were play ed upon, on this occasion. 

104. Crasna . . . amomia : dead bodies were anoìnted with 
rich perfumed ointments, of which the cmiofinim, an aromatic 
shrub of Armenia, fumisbed the principal ingredient 

106. Hesterrii ^ìdrites : ' Romana of yesterday ;' who had re- 
cently received freedom from slavery. — Capite indato: slaves, 
who received their freedom, had their heads shaved and assumed 
the pileuSf which waa the mark of their fì^edom. 

107. Tange . . .Jrtgent : the reply of the centurion. 

109. Visa . . . Bolit : i. e. you are sound in body, aaya the phi<* 
losopher, but are you equally so in mìnd ? 

110. J^foUe : for moUàer. 

111. Pontum . . .farina : i. e. what would you think of a diah 
of hard, half-boiled càbbage, and coarse bread, such as is used by 
the common people ? — Populi . . . /orina : meal (by Metonymy 
bread) shaken through the sieve of the people, i. e. of the poorer 
sort, who used coarse sieves to let more of the bran through. 

113. Tentemus fauces : to see if they can chew 9uch nùserable 
food. 

114. Beta : some coarae herb, used bere for any mean food. 

115. Alffcs: in this and the next line reference is made to 
▼erses 106, 109. — Excussit: for erexit, — Ariaias : a metaphor 
from bearded com, to express the hair erect through horror. 

116. Face supposità: i. e. datò àliquà oeeatione, ^imb tram 
accendere possit» 



PER, ^9AT. IV. 243 



SATIRE ly. 

1. Rem . . . trcutas : i. e. do vou take u^n jourself the man- 
a^eznent of state affairs ? — Barbatum , . . cncvta : i. e. Socrates. 
3. Olio frdus : orco TriimvW of Plato. — Paridi : contracted 

§eii. 01 Pericleus, et,— I ; the father of Alcihiades left him under 
le care and guardianship of Pericles* 

5. Aììtè ptlos : ante harham. _ 

6. BUe : * anger.' 

7. Feri animus : * you desire*' — CalidfB : * excited.' 

B. Mc^eatate mawds: *by waying your hand.' — ^^tites hoc 
mUà . . . iUud : the supposed words of Alcibiades, i. e. young 
r^ero, addressing the people. 

13. Tkela : an old commentator upon Persius says, The judges 
were accustomed to put this letter & before the names or those 
whom they condemned to death, &avaTog. 

14. Sumnìà . . . decorus : ì* e. qui neqmcquam extemà specie de- 
cora es — or ììequicquam Jumestatem simvlas, 

15. Ante diem : similar to ante pHos in verse 5. 

16. AnJticyras meracas : i. e. hdleborum merum ; Anticyra (the 
ZZ^'^ of the place where it grew) is often used for ìveUebore, 
which was^osuàlly ffiven in cases of madness* — Mdior sorhere : 
l e, digniùT,^ *^rbeaM, 

17. QiMB . , .est: ^ what do you consdder the sumfmnn bor.um^ 
the cMef good ?' — Undà pateUà: i. e. cibis ddicatissimis, — Et 
. . . sole : &is aUudes to the custom of anointin^ their bodies 
with oli and exposing theroseli^s to the sub, to imbibe the oil, 
that their bodies migfi appeajr smooth and delicate. 

19s Exspecta ... anus : i. e. ask that old woman what she es- 
teems the summum fronum,— her answer would not be unlike 
voiu» : you therefore differ io: no respect firom her, miserable and 
low as she is. — Inunc . . . sum.: *go now and boast, &rC.' — Di- 
nomaches : Binomache was the moQier of Alcihiades. — Si^fia : se. 
huccus ; i. e. say in a boasting manner.. 

22. Quum bene .*. . verna : this line is explained in several 
ways : one is, since ragged Baucis is as wise as you respecting 
the chief good, when she has well cried herbs to a slovenly slave — 
pcima being put for aU sorls of herbst which were cried and sold 
by old women about the streets of Rome. 

Kcenìg says it cannot be known for a certainty what herb 
ocimiun means, much less what the signification of ocima cantare 
is. He, however, as Pliny had said respecting the herb octmlim, 
** Venerem stimvlat^ &c. Uiinks odma cantare may be put for sa 
cantare^ qu<B venerem seu libidinem stimulatnt, or more simply for 
Ubidinem excitare. He would then consider the senso of the 
whole passage to be, Dvm ne deteriùs, i. e. dummodo iBquè bene 
sapiai pannucea Baucis, quando verna dissoluto j ubi ^us Ubidinem 



fui NOTES. 



exeUàritf hiandHur^ oc <u, qiumdo popdlo in adìMionem j/rwiù ei 
pvkhrUìuHne hd ecrpcriw nutio oraiwnU hnocinio ffdifieans. 

23b In Mete deseendere : * lo inqaire into his own chancter,'*- 
* to examìne himself.' 

24. Sed . . . tergo : alladìng' to the well known fable of Phae- 
drus, IV, 9,'^Pr4tcedenH : fot préBcedentis. 

25. QiMenem .* i. e. si qwerat forte tdiqwis. — Cu^us : ' whose,' 
do 70U Bay, as if he did net know who was meant. 

SiS. Divts arai ; as if it was d&oHiB iBittf, qui arat.'^Cunbua : 
i. e. in atpv Curenti 9eu Sabino» 

27. I&ne . . . sinUtrù : se. natutn. 

28. <2tt« . . .J^ : alludio^ to the CompetaUa, feasta institated 
in honor of the Lares, ai wfaich the rustica hung up the yokes of 
oxen in little open temples, erected for the purpose at the cross- 
ways. 

33. Pannosam fiBeem : ' the mothery dregs.'— ^oriettlù : i. e. 
9cmidL 

33. Inque . . . sagitiit: *and in tum expose ourselves to the 
attacks of others ;' a metaphor from soldiers, whose bodies oxe 
protected by sMelds firom attack, while their lega are left unpro- 
tected. ' • _ 

34. Sic novimiu: * tfaus we have leamed to live.* 

35. Citcum : i e. vhichyour ^dversary does not perceive. A 
metaphor t&Ken ftom thte custom òf ^nmscors, who, that the 
courage of their adversaries miffht not be increased^ encteavored 
to conceal the woonds, which they miffht have received, hy cov- 
ejnng them with the broad belts which they wore. 

36. Dedpe nervo» : i. e. pretend you are without wounds. 

37. Egi^tgium • . . eredam : the words of Alcibiades (Nero). 

39. iSi . . . JlagtUas : many interpretations have been given of 
this passage : one is that it alludes to the nifhtly Irolics of Nero, 
who in disgiiise was accustomed to go abont the city, knocking 
down and abusing ali he met. — ^When lightning fell in any place, 
the Romans covered the place over like a pubBc weU, and sneh 
a place was called pnteal : there was one near the /brumj which 
was probably the scene of many of NeroV firolic8.-^The word 
eautuB is used, as Nero always had soldiers at band to assist him, 
if any resistance were offered. 

40. BUnda» : L e. taudis cupida», 

41. Respue quod non e» : i. e. lay aside the fbigned chanbcter, 
which does not belong to yon : — lay no olaim to praises, which are 
not your due. — DMat »ua muiura : i. e. aheai rum aui» IcnuUbw, 

42. Tecum habita: retire into thyself— «xamine your trae 
character.— £t . . . »tipétlex : i. e. and you will discover how little 
ihere is in you, which really deserves praiae. 



PSR. SAT. V. 345 



SATIRE V. 



3. Ponatur : i. e. scribatur, — Sbanda : ' to be pronounoed with 
great emphasis.' 

4. Fidnera . . . ferrwm : i. e. if an epic poem is to be wrìtten 
on the wars of the Romans with the Parthians, in whìch the Par- 
thians vere conquered. 

5. Quorsum . . . n&ris f the poet supposes himself interrupted 
by Gomutus, to whom thÌB satire ìb adoressed. — Quantas . . . in- 
gerìs : a metaphoT irom a dish of meat, which any one places 
befbre him. — Offas : sìgnifies a lump of tneatj but bere a pari of 
a poem. — RohutU : i. e. longè deduàù 

8. Si quibìu fervebit : i. e. a quibus shflo iractabttur. 

9. Iruadso , . . Crhpcom : Glycmi was amÌ8€VlB,ble tragedian, who 
acted the parta of Teréus atfd Thyestes, and accordmgly repre- 
sented them as eating their own children. 

10. Tu . . . buccas : i. e. you, contìnuea Coniutus, are not like 
these silly bombastic poeta. — Tu neque . . . ventos : a metaphor 
taken firom the melting of metals in fumaces, to do which, the 
fire is kept up to a great beat by blowing with the hdhtcs, — Tu 
neque anhdanU /oUe jrtmi» ventos : L e, h« non anhdas^ nùn as- 
tuanti te siinUem faci». — CoquUur . . • cannilo : i. e. dwn argu- 
menti tracUàione occupcstus es, 

11. A*ee doMso . . • muftè : a second mark of bad poeta. — ^The 
meaning is, you do not, noarseìy murmnrìng like a raven, repeat 
to youTself somethine which yon think nob&, revolving it over in 
your mind in a éboILw manner. 

13. A*ee . . . bucèas : a third mark of bad poets ; the repetìtion 
of their verses with a bombastic utterance and puffing out of the 
cheeks. — Stloppo: etìoppus is a word made to represeat the 
■oiuid of the air, suddenly forced out of inflated cheeks, by «trik- 
ing them with the .hands. 

14. Ferba iog4B : i. e. wovds that are in common use. — Jane- 
tura . . . eteri : *' ingeniously composing your verses.' — ^A meta- 
phor from those who join marble so exacfly that the joints cannot 

• be peroeived. Sat. 1, 64. 

15. Ore tere» modico : L e. ore modieè tereH : i. e. a style of 
writing, which neither rises above nor sinks below the ^subject,. 
nor flies out into eztravagance of ezpression^— Pidlen^ : the 
effect for the cause. ' 

16. Ingenuo ludo : * with well-bred raillery.' 

17. Hine : from the vices of mankind.-— JftfeYwem : i. e. < the 
tragical banquet of Thyestes.'-*-JÌfy<;enÌ9 . . . pedibui : Mreus 

mled at MyeentB ; he reserved the heads, ibet and hands of the 
children^ which, afler sopper, he shewed bis brother Thyestes, 
that he might know upon whose flesh he had been feasting. 
16i -Pfe&eiaiiranu&i: Le. afUn of commonlife. 
31*- 



346 NOTES* 

19. ASni . . .fhrà : Pefsius replies, that il ìb noi ìaa object io 
wrìte vain poema, bai to expreaa hv aenae of CornutuaVi worth. 

21. JSecnH : * by ourseWes alone.' 

35. Solidìtmcr^: Sat 111,21.— -Tedoria: the ploater of a 
Wall, which coverà and conceals it ; hence ìt si^nifies iliMtMtfto- 
lion, which conceala the real sentimenti of the neart. 

27. Sinuato : ' haTÌng many recesaea.' 

30. Purpura : the ioga pritexta, — Cestii : ac. togit viriiL 

32. BUmdi comiUt : ac. permioeruni mOd ; ' when flatterìng' 
aaaociatea pennitted me to bare my own way.' — StUburà : a Street 
in RcMne, inhabited by low people and courtoEoiw. 

33. Ciutdidu» umbo : the ioga viriUt was ali laMifo, the centro 
folds of which were so coUected as to imitate a MekL 

37. Socratico sinu : i. e. in the aame mannèr as he received 
the scholars, who %>ere placed under bis case.* — Tunc • . . moi^es .* 
the construction is, tunc rofiiia toOers fiUere (to binile me, — to 
lead me imperceptibly, without exercìsing severity, mm the enror 
of my ways) cmotita moribns meis oHeruUt meo$ i$ttorio8 mon». 

40. Tuo 9w poUice: a metapbor firom the forming^ figures 
with the finora out of wax or clay. 

42. Pruno» • . . nodtt : L e. instead of snpping at an early hoor 
and remaining lonff at table, ire spent the first part of oor evea- 
ing in philoeophicu conversation with you. 

43. Unum oput : our common studiea. 

44. Vcrccundà menta : * by a frugai suppeK' Laxamut teria: 
relax oyr minds firom study. 

46. Ah uno tidare : the aacienta thongbt, that the minds of men 
were greatly influenced by the planet, which preaided at their 
birth ; and that those, who were bom under the same consteUa- 
tion, had the same inclinations and dispontions. 

47. JSTottra . • . duontm : the construction is, Vd Parca ienax 
veri (unerring fate) tutpendit nottra iempera tBjuaU Idkrày teu 
hora natajiddibut (i. e. the time when faithful ihends are bom) 
dimdit concordia fata duorum in Geminot. — ^Those bom under the 
Gonstellation of Gemim were supposed by astrolog^rs to agree 
very exactiy in their afièctions and pursuits. 

50. Satumum gravem : ' the noxious power of Satum ;' thia 
planet was thought by astrologers to bave a malign aspect, while 
that of Jupiter waa thought to bave a fkvorable one. — Éhtngi" 
mut : i. e. vincimut. 

51. JVescto . . . atirum : the construction is, eeriè ett attrum 
nudo quody quod ienyferai me tibù 

52. MilU . . . ^PfCìct : L e. there is a great diversi^ in the 
forma of men. — Ditcolor : * many-colored' — ^i. e. * varìous.' 

54. Sub toie recenti : ' in the cast, where the aun fost appean :* 
— ^peihaps Alexandria is meant, which was a great mart for the 
productions of the East-Indies. 

56. ^T^giio • • . sMmo : a metaf^or firom waterìng plants, by 



PER. SAT. V. 5M7 

which tltey increaBe : so ileep ia to those, who eat miich and 
sleep much, it makes them increase in bulk. 

57. Campo : the sporta and exercises of ^the Campus MarHuu, 
— DtcoquU ': i. e. paupcrem reddU. 

58. iétqpidosa cheragra: so called from the chalkjr Honeif 
which form io the joints. 

59. Frteerìi : has weakened and distorted— or has destroyed 
the use ol 

60. Crasaoi : i. e. aa if in the thick darknesa of ignorance* 

61. «SSert ; for serò. — Vitam rdidam : ' that only a short spaee 
oflifeisleft' 

63. Puntata» inseris : a metaphor from the cultivation of a 
field, whicn is first to he deared of ali injurious and oseless weeds, 
before it is pkmUd, 

64. Frugt CUaniheà: with the precepts of the Stoica.^ — CSeon- 
ihu was the disciple and successor of Zeno and instmcter of 
Chrysippus. 

66. Cras hoc . . . sed quum: Persius introduces some person, 
fond of procnstinAion, who says Cras hocAd^ se. ìd phUasophùi 
operam dem ; to which Pensius replies idem eros fià : i. e. the 
same thing, which is done to day, will he done to-morrow ; — ^you 
will say ag«in ^ To-morrow." To this the ignorant procrastinator, 
as if astonished at the words of Persius, says Quid quasi mag' 
numf what, do you hesitate, as if the concedin|^ a single day 
was a matter of great hnportance? JVempe dtem donas, yoii 
allow a sinjgrle day as reluctantly as if forsooth you were conced- 
ing some important thing. To this, Persius replies, Sed quum^ 
&c. L e. the concession of a single day is, as you say, no great 
matter, * but when, dLc' 

69. Eferìt : ^m cgero. — UUra : se. iUvd eros» 

70. ^/am . . . om^ttin .* the construction is, JSTamJrusirà sectch 
hert eanihumf quamwis vertenUm sese prope fe, quamois 9uh uno 
tenume, 

72. In axe seeundo : ' on the second (hinder) azle.' 

73. Quam . . . emeruU : for qua ut quisque (e) VeUnà (tribù) 
eìntruit eam. — Quù^ue Publius .'Le. any one med or made a 
Roman citizen. 

74. Ttssendà: <by means of bis ticket' Juv. VII, 174. 

75. Htu . . .faeit : i. e. al&s, how barren of truth and real wis- 
dom are thosè, who bave no other liberty to boast of, than that 
they bave been emancipated from bodily slaverv. 

76. Vertigé : one of the ceremonies in maKin^r a slave frec, 
was to carry him before the pretor, and lum kim round upon 
bis heel, saying hunc hominem liberum esse vo2o. 

77. hi tenu* farragine mendax : L e. finudulent in the moet 
trifling matterà utrusted to his care. 

79. Marcus Dama : L e. a free Roman citizen. 

83. J3oc . . . pUea : i* e. it is auch liberty aa the ^eat slave 



«48 NOTES. 

wkj «kiu»» — ^Wlien A Blav« waa set at liberty, his hair was cut, 
and a cap, the mark of liberty, was pat «pon h^ head. 

96. Awn^ • • • «Melo : this is properly aaid of bim who hean 
yery quickly, but in this place ìtapplies to shrtwémtzM injttdging. 
Cebiis VI, 7, says that vinegtar is often used to cnre diu^ntss. 

87. ìffoc . . . ioUt : i. e. your definition of liberty, in your first 
^iDpesilioB, is tme : I grant that ali who may live as they please 
are free ; but I deny your second proposition^ that you live as 
you pi aa o e ; tlierefore, your conelusion, that you are free, is also 
"wrtn^. — ^Take away your second propositìon and I admit what 
remains, — ali that is contained in your first propositìon. 

88. Findieià : a part «f the eeremony, in making a slave free, 
was for ^h»- pféblor to-lay a toand {vtjviieta) on the head of the 
slave. — Meu8 : * my own master' — * a free^man.* 

90. MnswH : Ifasurius was an erainent lawyer in the reign of 
Tiberìtts ; he left three^books on the civil law.— ^omri rif&ica ; 
i. e. *' the civil law.' — ^The titles of the Roman laws wece written 
in i>sdl)ellefs. 

91. Bisce . » . Mercuriakm : the repiy, containing an explana- 
tion of what true liberty is. 

9^ Pvìm^ne: i,e*ptet&re, 

93. Stilili» : i. e. siaves who bave been fiberated, but who are 
ignorant-^SVfiKta rerum diffida : ibr officia tenuiun^ rtrum, 

94. Uàum p9nnièkre wt<B : i. e. to permit you to live as you 
may please. 

95. Mù i ' overgrown' — ignotant and stupid. 
99. CònUnet hocfas : • gives this precept.' 

1^. htmfiri rì»dÌ9 : < unacquainted wìth the stars.*— Jlfelteer* 
ta : a sea-god, the son of Athamas. 

104. Frontem : the fbrehead, the seat of shame ormodesty, 
for whioh it is beve put. — Recto talo : for rtdis ^edtbus ; ' upright- 
\y\ — ^ honestiy.' 

105. Ars : i. e. • philosophy.' 

106. ATe qua . . . auro : i. e. that no false appearance may de- 
clive. — Ae qiia : se. species veri. — Mendosum : for mtndosè. — 
Substrato auro : gold covered over with brass. 

107. QwBque. . . notàsii: a whi^e mark was used by the an- 
cients to denote any thing prosperous : a Uack mark, to denote 
any thing bad and unlucky. 

112. Mercurialem: Mcrcury was the eod of gain ; nnà^ereu- 
rialem salivam signiiy an eager desire a^r gain. 

114. Prétto^tlma oc Jove dextro : i. e. npt only as respects 
Mberfey of body, wbieh yoa received jfrom the prtetor, bqt liberty 
of mind, for whieh you are indebted io Jupiter, the grrftr of true 
wisdom. 

115. Farirut : a metaphor firom loaves of hr^ad, whi<;h, being 
made of the sane ^eur, are 4n ali re^peet» the. same. 

113. BélMUm ìutertm : a metapW firom «nakes,- wlìièh eveiy 



PER. SAT. V. 249 

year cast off tkeir M «Hn. — Frwdt polìta$ : i. e. in outward ap- 
pearance open and honest 

119. Dtgitum exsere : ' put fbitfa ^rour fin^r ;' L e. do the most 
trìvial thing. 

122. Hae : wisdoin and folly. — Fossor : i. e. ignorant and 
stupid. » 

123. BathyUi : Bathdlua was a celebraied dancer, callèd, oh 
account of his agility, the Satyr. 

124. Tot 9ul3ÌUe rebus : ' subjected to so many things f i. e* 
to so much error and folly. 

190. hnpunUior: less subject to punishment— 4e88 a slave. 

135. lAsbrica: i. e. soft and of a laxative quality. — Coa: se. 
Wna. 

136. Tófle . . . eamdo : pepper and spìces were carrìed to Alex- 
andria on the backs of camels, which are a))le to endure ikùrst 
for many days, firom thence they were conveyed in ships to Rome. 

137. Verte aliquid : i. e. sell your merchandìze^ — Jura : * per- 
jure yoorself.' 

138. Digito . . . saUnum : i. e. to scrape off a little salt from 
the bottom of your saltcellar, with such ezertions and so often, 
that you seèm to bore it through with your finger. 

1^. Vvoere cum Jave : L e. to liye in such a manner^ that Jv- 
piter may be fìivorable and propitious. 

140. PeUem : the wallet, madé of skins, in which clothes and 
other necesmiles fòr a Joumey or Tóyage were carried. 

141. Oeiùs ad nacem : se. tetu/if.^-Or it may be und^^tood aa 
the direction of the master to bis slaves. 

144. Mascìda: Le. qu^ te firtem redàU ad abeimda quean» 
pericìda, — Calido : inflamed with a desire of gain. 

145. Cicut4B : a sort of KeUebore^ wMch was administered in 
cases ofmadness. 

146. Torta . . ,JuUo : Pitting upon a coiled cable.' 

147. Fetentonttm . . • ohÌM$ ; the construction is, obha JissUis 
Ci. e. rimosa : most editions bave scssUis) exkàUi FeUntamum ru* 
héUum litsum vapidà pice, 

149. Htc : * bere,' at Rome. — Qutnctcnce modesto : * by five per 
cenLy legai and moderate interest? 

150. JVuirienu : for auxeras. — Pergant sudare : may produce 
with hard labor. 

153 Inde est : with thia closes the dialogue between Luzuiy 
and ber slave. 

155. Huncdne ati hunc : i. e. avance or luxury* — jlìtemus : *by 
tums.'^. 

160.*Calefue ; ì. e. with which he is retaken and dra^ged back.' 

161. Dove . . . ineptus : the poet now showa, that love, ifi as 
tvrannical as the vices before mentioned. A scene is introduced 
from^ the £unuch of Menander, where the lover Cherestratua 
communicates to bis slave Davus bis determination to forsake bla 
imtress Chrysis, 



850 NOTE0. 

163. ChK^m: 'to the quick.' 

163. SiccU: *Bober.' 

1^ Exttìneià/'au: alliidiiig to .theciui^ooQ, which eereiidders 
observed, of putting out their torches, that they might noi he 
)sf)0wxì wì\efi they arrìved hefore the a«ooml^ house. 

167. Éure . . . perente : the words of D^vus. — Dls . . . jierquie : 
4hijfie w^o ha^ ei^capf^^ my gre9t ci4aaui^ u^uaPy 9acrj/Ued a 
ìanih to the goda. 

>69. J>(/;%^gtif!;Ì9 .> . nenu»c : tbe.worfU.Af Ds^vop, — Olpurgaibifire : 
*you will he beateo.' 

174. JfSc . . . Ajc4^ : ttÀB Ì0 the .very loan, .says Permus, for 
^om }. had hoen se^lùiig ; one tculy free, ithe juan who can re- 
•Ì8t his passiona. 

176. Ju$ ... gfUi: 4be poet A^F /shoKis that an^tion and 
.ffW^m^UÌQU.axe ù^CQuai^tept :with true fireedom. 

JL77. fifCfMn: .albidingto the .costom, coiomon to quididates 
fqr office, .of wQwiog .wjb»te farmeots, wJùch w.ere made .atill 
whiter, by rubbing chatìc over uìem. 

178. lì^K^Ha^ the f^lpiraUa.w.ere feaiifca in honor of Flora, cele- 
<h«jted.idth thejneMkteSftlasctKbuai)^ "^ 

180. Herodi9dk0: the^kinff'sfbirthHday was agceat &8tiv»l.at 
Hezo4?a /couct, «od VM.also^cSbsemzed by the Jewa «t Rome. 

184. RecuUta . • . paUes-: .1. .e*(wilih^upexstitÌQa8 zevQisiìce.^a 
cegard the aailiihAlhaiaAdf^aativalB.ohaected^by ilhe leva. 

186. QéBi: prieata of€y4>ete. 

187. Awutaére ^feo«<: 'L e. «neuaaére m«lttm rfeorum. — h^hades 
ewrpwra : ì. e. inflicting tìie 4>ody witfi vdeera, tmnors, &c. 

40Q. €f fm nm fÌM: for traete ridete ^break8'fbrthintO'aft>ol- 
iah laugh,' Ingem v* i. e. thoaffh grtfd in «ize of body^ smaU in 

19L Gr€KQ$: te» phUoacphos, 



SATIRE VI. 



1. BcLsse : Coìiìu BfU9u$^ ti Ipic poet, to -whom Qutotdian 
aaaigna a rank nezt to Horace, hved m the times of Nero and 
Yespasian. 

2. hyra el ékordm : for chorda lyr^ — Twunt : i. e. tonos 
emithint 

3» Mire . . . LatvMt: the poet merely expreaaea, that Baasus 
18 a lyric poet of the highest character and conceptiaBi. — Mrt 
ùpifex: for mirus or .admirabUis qrt^fex, — ^fìmerù (dat. case) in- 
Ìendiis8e : for numeris c<mdere.-—Mérem Mtrepihtm fiata ifUendisat 
LaHruB : i. e. intendùse fidàn Latìnam ad marem afr^pthim (se. 
ed^ndnm^ i. e. «/ marem (xnascuium) sbrepHvm oderei). 

6. lAgus ora : for lAgusHca orcu 

7, Qtm . . . recqiiat : a description of the harbor Lunlu The 



PER., SAT. VI. 251 

rocks, roiiimi{f oQt into thie sea, present an extensìve side to the 
irater, by wbich the waves are stopped and a great bay formed, 
called from ita àhwae Jjuna. 

9. Lumai . . . ewes : a verse quoted ftòiti Cùnitis, to prove the 
estimation in wMch this plaee had been held'. 

10. Cor: « the wi«dom.' — Poiéiquani . . . PvÙidg(rtéff : i. e: after 
he dtscovered he wad not, &c. — éSter ht» nad retnrhéd' to bis 
senses. — Ennius is said to bave dreani^d, that the shade òf* 
Homer appèaréd before him and said thdt bis' sótil had passed 
into the body of é pèacock, and from thetì<:;é iiito th)itof £nnius. — 
Persius means to satirize thè Pythagòrittn notioh óf tlié transmi- 
gration of sotds'.^-^Quinfu^' : the ptàiKrtiiéh òf Ciiniite. 

17. Si^fìiaiiii in rapida lagena : the deal ón' a bótde of fiat wine. 
Mao ietìgia$t : i. e. tò òfoisely eriramine. 

IB. DlS&'epet . . . aliids : i. e. others ittay differ fìrohi me ÌA my 
làóàe oftivhi^. 

90. Siceum : i. ef. lìon ùnctùm, 

21 j^wc ; *h€L hitaself,' noi béing ^Wlling tó* tfust it' to ai slave. 
— Sbmim: i. e. as if it were a sàcred thing. 

di. Hic: tèe óthtàt one of the twins. 

2SL Uki^: ac. JhcvltaHbuè meié;ì WìH use niy Weiùtìiy sayd 
Persius, but not abuse it. 

94. Séditani : < the taàté.' 

25v MeàUè . . . vhré-: i. è.* let font éxpéitòes equé!I yéSìr incoine'. 

27. «4^ votat, . . mirmaé : the pòet not^ coihes to the reàsons 
which induce men to bfe mifeérly aùtf avtóòfóùis.-^l! éàrinot fóllo# 
your advice, says one, òf spénding ali my incòme, foi' duty obliges 
Boe to act othiBrwiiJè : a firiend hàs ^Iféréd shipWréck,* &c. 

30. IngentéB de pùppé dèi : images of th^ g'òd^ i^ére place d upon 
the stems of ships, under whose protection the sailors believed 
the vesse! to he. — ^Thìése are bere supposed to bave been tpes- 
ed upon the shòre, Whithér thè man also is suppòsed to liàve 
8wum.' 

31. Avne el . . . àliqind: well, says the poet in alisWer, sell a 
portion of your land and give it to your friend. 

3SL Pidus... tabula : SbX.I,S9. 

35. Inodòftd : i. e. sine odótQnu. — Sù^diim : for surdè, 

37. Tune . . . mintuu : the woi'ds of thè anffry helr. — IncO' 
hmis : i. e. impune, — Ef BesHus . . . Ch^aiòs : and the heir, like a 
second BèSfìus (a niggai'dly ànd miserly man), rails at the Gre- 
cian philoibyhertf. 

38. Sapere vestrum : i. e. vesira adpiaféidi — Mari» expers : 
< destitute of ali manliness.' 

41. H<tc . . . metu4ju : Persius's reply to the covetous man. — 
Cinere uUerior : after death. 

47. CtBsonia : the wife of the emperor Caligula. 

48. Paria: ac. gladiatorum, 

51. Abn adeo : se. ìutredikdem tuam, 

52. Exossahts: a UqndSms purgahu. —Juxth: near the city. 



c^ NOTES 

55. BmnUoB : a town on the Appian way^ about eleven mUee 
firom Rome. 

56. CUvum ViM : thia bill waa about four miles from the city, 
and waa much frequented by beggars. — MBonua : probably the 
name of some beggar. 

57. Progenk» terra: the answer of the legitìmate heir. Yen 
wìll find one no doubt : but who is he ? a low bom fellow. — 
Quartus pater : L e. abanms. 

S9. Ei mUd . . . txU : L e. as my great-ffrandfather'a mat- 
grandfàthér and Manìus were both sona of the earth, Maniua 
must certaìnly be a relation of mine. 

61. QiM prior es : you, who are my legitìmate heir, and to be 
preferred to Manina. — Cur . . . poaeis : why should you demand 
my wealth, while I am stili living ? — ^The ulusion is to a festival 
at Athena, al which a race wtus run by young men with ligfated 
torchea in their banda ; they strove, who shoiud first arrivo at the 
end of the conrse, wiUiout extinguishing bis torch. If the fbre-" 
moat in the race became tired, as he was running, he gave up 
the race and delivered bis torch to the second : the second, if he 
became too tired to continue the race, delivered bis to the thìrd, 
and so on till the race was over. He who carrìed bis torch light- 
ed to the end of the course was victor. 

68. Mercurius : this ^od was regarded as the author of unlook- 
ed for gain ; he was painted with a bag of money in bis hand. 

66. Dieta patema : L e. the instructions of parsimonious fathera 
to their chilaren : put out your money, &c. 

68. Quui reUquum ut : the inquiry of the heir. 

73. Cappadoeas . . . catasta: slaves were brought firom Cap- 
padocia, and ezposed for sale, in the Roman manet, in toooden 
cages, 

74. Rem duplica: i. e. if you wish to satisfy the avaricious de- 
sìres ofyour heir, increaae your property to twice ita originai vaine. 

75. Éedit in rugam : * it is multiplied.' A metaphor firom gar- 
ments, which make more folds, the larger they are. 

76. Chrysippe : a Stoic philosopher, the inventor of a mode of 
reasoning called sorilts (firom the Greek aoi^ò;, Latin aMTVus\ 
which consisted of a number of propositions heaped one upon the 
oUier, sothat there was hardly any end to be fouud^ — hiveniuB 
. . . acervi : (jam factum e^, quod fieri omnino nequit:) — ^i. e. you 
wiU no more be able to fix a limit, where I may stop in the acqui- 
aition of wealth, than you will to the interminable argiunents and 
reasonings of Cbiyaippus. 






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