Decisive Dates /" Illinois History A Story of the Statue Told in a Record of Events which have Determined the History of Illinois and of the Nation With Thirty Illustrations By Lottie E. Jones Author of Library Method Applied to State History 1909 LLINOIS PRINTING COMPANY DANVILLE, ILLINOIS [COPYRIGHT, 1904, BY LOTTIE E. JONES] IN LOVING MEMORY OF MOTHER MRS. CHARLOTTE JONES WHOSE PATRIOTISM AND LOYALTY TO OUR COUNTRY \Q HAS BEEN THE INSPIRATION TO ALL MY HISTORICAL RESEARCH DECISIVE DATES IN ILLINOIS HISTORY AN ACKNOWLEDGMENT. In making this compilation of events and influences which have determined the history of Illinois, I have freely taken from many sources and am indebted to many authorities. I have endeavored to give due credit for all material used and have added a brief bibliography that probably covers any further authority which has even indirectly influenced statements made. I desire to more fully acknowledge specific aid which I have derived from the Publications of the Illinois State Historical Society, particularly from the con- tributions of Clarence Walworth Alvord, of Dr. Snyder, of H. W. Beckwith, of Stuart Brown, of Daniel Berry M. D. and of J. O. Cunningham. I am also indebted to Olde Ulster, Vols. I. No. 1, II. No. 4, and IV. No. 1, for matter concerning the Silver Covenant Chain. At this same time, I would mention the work of John Moses, Illinois Histori- cal and Statistical, in two volumes, which I have frequently quoted. I desire also to acknowledge here my obligations to the Illinois State Historical Society for use of many valuable cuts; to Judge Walter B. Douglas, President of the Missouri State Historical Society, for the same favor, and to the Chicago Historical Society, to A . C. McClurg and to Harper and Bros. for permission to reproduce and use pictures belonging to them. For all this aid I am, gratefully, THE AUTHOR. CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION Prehistoric Illinois 7 DATE I. 1673 Discovery '. . . . 17 Interim 1673-1759 39 LaSalle Expedition 41 Forts Creve Coeur and St. Louis 42 Colonial Days 45 DATE II. 1759 The Silver Covenant Chain 51 Interim 1759-1778 83 The Story of Pontiac 85 End of the Period of Romance 87 British Domination 88 DATE III. 1778 The Conquest of the Northwest. . 94 Interim 1778-1818 105 Illinois a County of Virginia 107 The Indiana Territory Ill The Territory of Illinois 113 The Fort Dearborn Massacre 115 DATE IV. 1818 Extension of Northern Boundary. 119 Interim 1818-1824 125 Pioneer Life 127 DATE V. 1824 Defeat of Convention to Amend Constitution 135 Interim 1824-1858 145 The Black-Hawk War : . . 147 Anti-Slavery Influences in Illinois 149 DATE VI. 1858 The Lincoln-Douglas Debates 151 CONCLUSION THE COMMERCIAL ERA 167 ADDENDA THE GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS. . . 171 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Page THE PIERRE MENARD HOUSE Frontispiece THE MONK'S MOUND 11 Louis JOLIET 21 FATHER JACQUES MARQUETTE 23 LASALLE'S MONUMENT 39 STARVED ROCK (SITE OF FORT ST. Louis) 43 PIASA BIRD <. 65 TABLET TO PONTIAC 83 INDIAN TRAIL 87 FATHER PIERRE GIBAULT 101 ARTHUR ST. CLAIR Ill KASKASKIA 127 OLD COURT HOUSE AT KASKASKIA 127 TAVERN AT KASKASKIA 129 FORT DEARBORN MASSACRE (TABLET) 113 KlNZIE HOUSE AND FoRT DEARBORN 115 FORT DEARBORN MASSACRE (MONUMENT) 117 MAP SHOWING EXTENSION OF NORTHERN BOUNDARY 119 NATHANIEL POPE 123 EDWARD COLES 137 MORRIS BIRKBECK 143 THE HARGRAVE HOUSE 141 BLACK-HAWK ROCK 145 MONUMENT AT STILLMAN VALLEY 149 SHABBONA 147 ABRAHAM LINCOLN 155 GEN. JOHN M. PALMER 157 GOVERNOR WM. BISSELL 159 STEPHEN A. DOUGLAS 161 THE WIGWAM . .163 PREFACE. ILLINOIS, now truly the "heart of the nation," has a proud present dayfa promis- ing future and an interesting past. Its past, reaching back nearly as far as does that of the states on the Atlantic coast, has its period of romance, its period of telling events, and its period of commercial achievement, all of which are fraught with interest. There are five events in the history of Illinois, which have proven strong factors in determin- ing the history of the nation. So important are these events, that the years in which they occur, may be called Decis- ive Dates. These years are 1759, 1778, 1818, 1824 and 1858. They lie within the hundred years between about the middle of the eight- eenth and the nineteenth centuries. In 1759, the Indians from the Illinois Country agreed to the compact already existing between the Iroquois and the English this compact hav- ing come to the English as an inheritance from the Dutch. This agreement withdrew their support from the French at the time when it was needed to sustain New France in America. 2 PREFACE The direct result of this " being bound by the Silver Covenant Chain," as the Indians called the agreement, was the supremacy of the Anglo-Saxon over the Gaul in the New World. In 1778, George Rogers Clark made his con- quest of the Northwest by capturing Kaskaskia and St. Vincent in the Illinois Country, thereby restricting Great Britain's domain to the terri- tory north of the Great Lakes rather than the Ohio River. This restriction made it possible for the states to preserve their dearly-bought independence. In 1818, Nathaniel Pope had the northern boundary of Illinois extended and secured a coast line on Lake Michigan, also Chicago in Illi- nois, and fifty miles of territory out of which fourteen counties were created which domin- ated state politics and decided national affairs in 1860. In 1824, the question of Illinois being made a slave state was settled for all time by the defeat of the convention to amend the state constitution. Illinois as a slave state would have materially changed the history of the United States. In 1858, the Lincoln-Douglas debates marked an era in the history of the union. We do well in this compilation to preface PREFACE 3 these dates with the one of 1673, because that year marks the beginning of authentic history of Illinois it is the date of its birth. Although it matters little to the world and has had insignificant effect upon subsequent history of the state or nation, that the French discovered the Illinois country in the seven- teenth century, yet this date is not without significance. There is little reason to think that the Missis- sippi valley would have attracted colonization from any other European power for a century after the time of the discoveries by the French. England had enough space along the Atlantic coast for the time being to colonize; Holland was comfortably settled on the Hudson river and had no desire to push into the wilderness of the west; while Spain, in seeking wealth through the finding of precious metals, was led to the mountains rather than to the fertile plains, and went further and yet further west. So it was that France, and France alone, must colonize the Illinois country if it was to be done for a hundred years to come. Yet the fact remains that the discovery and subsequent hundred years of occupancy by France was without particular influence upon the history of Illinois. 4 PREFACE The strongest searchlight thrown upon that period, fails to reveal any event of special im- portance. It was the period of romance. There have been many important events in Illinois history since 1858. In the better per- spective of coming years there may be, here or there, one which will prove of more than local interest, and perhaps even of national import- ance and merit the record as a decisive date, but in the light of today none such can be dis- cerned. In the following pages a story of the State has been attempted to be told by a record of these years connected with each other by brief state- ments of less important incidents. This plan has been followed for two reasons, first: to give due importance to these events, and second, to present them in such a way as to make a connected story which interests the reader. As far as possible, the matter has been given at first hand, and Marquette, Sir William Johnson, Clark and others have told their stories in their own words, credit being given them. So condensed a history must needs omit many details, but it is hoped Decisive Dates will arouse so deep an interest in the history of UK- 'PREFACE 5 nois as that the reader may make continued research for himself. To aid in this research, a short bibliography is given. INTRODUCTION PREHISTORIC ILLINOIS INTRODUCTION PREHISTORIC ILLINOIS. ALTHOUGH authentic history of Illinois does not begin until the day in June, 1673, when Joliet and Marquette as- cended the Illinois River yet there are such indisputable evidences of life within the area now known as the state before this event that the time previous to the Seventeenth Century is fraught with interest. For a record of conditions and events before the coming of the white man, we must look to the legends of the Indian, to the relics of a long gone and vanished race, or read it from the great book opened only to scientific re- search. Geologists are able to turn the "leaves of sandstone and limestone" and show us wonder- ful pictures. The first picture of Illinois is a vast sea of salt water with tiny forms of animal life, these followed by the shell fish, all working to form the foundation of physical Illinois. Another is the sea flowing away and the plant life appearing, to afterward be again covered by the returning sea. These pictures are repeated again and again, while layer after INTRODUCTION 9 layer was formed, until a great plain of solid rock was made. The next picture in this wonder book is the vast glacier coming down from the North with its load of ground-up rock substance de- positing it as clay. We call this the picture of the Ice age, and in it we first see human life in this section of country. These Ice people are supposed to have been very like the Eskimo as they are now known. They may have been the ancestors of the Mound Builders. No one can know anything definite about them, for neither the wisdom of the Geologist, nor traditions, can give us any authentic information on the subject. Here and there a stone implement is dug up out of the soil and it brings a tale of a human hand which used it thousands of years ago. There are other interesting pictures for the Geologist to show. The change in the contour of the land after the melting ice has formed the channels of waterways and their correspond- ing elevations the slowly drained country the final surface of the land as prairie, marsh and upland covered with green grasses, shrubs and trees, all these come to view as the ages roll by. 10 INTRODUCTION The Indians who were found by the white man had many legends, but none which told of people living here before their own race. They had nothing to account for the strange mounds which were found along the banks of the Mississippi, Ohio, Illinois and rivers of less importance. But these mounds have been excavated by the white man and from their contents the theory has been established that the time between the supposed possession of the land by the Ice Folk and the coming of the red- man was not devoid of human life in the Mis- sissippi valley, but that a race of people of perhaps higher civilization than the American Indian lived in this region before his coming. These people have been given the name of Mound Builders. From the pottery, metal plates, and implements of labor found in these mounds, the people were no doubt skilled in the arts of peace, rather than being a war-like race, such as the American Indian. Large fragments of pottery have been found in the Illinois Salines which tend to prove the people who once lived there to have distinctly differed from the American Indian, both in skill and appearance. This fact is suggested by the decoration on the pottery found. INTRODUCTION 11 A curious mound was found where the city of Rockford now stands called the Turtle Mound. It has never yielded anything of particular value and is supposed to mark the southern limit of some race or family. The most interesting of Illinois mounds is located in St. Clair County about three miles north of East St. Louis. It is one of the well known Cahokia mounds. This is known as the Monks Mound because of the fact that at one time there was a monastery of Trappist monks located upon its summit. It is the largest of all known mounds. Numer- ous smaller mounds are located near to it. The Monks Mound is oblong in shape. It is 1080 feet long, 710 feet wide and occupies sixteen acres. This mound has for some time been owned by a family who guards the secret it may hold most jealously. It is not tilled as is the land adjoining it, nor is any one permitted to make excavations to learn what may be found under the soil. Excavations were begun here at one time and human bones of unusual size together with pottery were found. These bones crumbled upon being exposed to the air. Whether more light could be thrown upon the life and habits of these little known mound 12 INTRODUCTION builders by excavating the Monks Mound and those near by, remains to be seen. Who these mound builders were, whence they came and whither they went is a problem which never has been and may never be solved. Nothing definite is even known concerning the time they lived here. The American Indian, whom the first white explorer found, knew nothing of them. No Indian legend accounted for the mounds. Whether the Mound Builders were identical with the semi-civilization of South America, of the Aztecs of Mexico, or whether they 'were a different race yet than they, can not now be de- termined. There is much evidence in southern Illinois of the abode, at one time, of the so-called Stonegrave People. There is no reason how- ever to think they were the same as the Mound Builders. These people buried their dead in graves lined and covered with thin flagstones. This custom gave them the name by which they were known. Their old graves are to be found in Georgia and thence in a north west direction through southern Illinois and across the great river into what is now the state of Missouri. Hammered copper plates have been found in these graves which are quite nearly like the art INTRODUCTION 13 of Central America and suggests there may be some close relationship between the people. Many hold to the belief that the Mound Builders were, after all, the same race as the American Indians. But all that can be known has had to have been literally dug out of the ground, and at best, must ever remain a matter of conjecture. The descendants, if any, of the Mound Builders, unless they really are the American Indians, are not known. Whether they were or were not the same race as the American Indians, all trace of their identity has entirely disappeared. The origin of the American Indian has never been satisfactorily determined. No more is known of him before the fifteenth century than is of the "Ice Folk," the "Stonegrave People," and the "Mound Builders." The records of the sixteenth century show little knowledge of the natives of the Mississippi valley, nor, until three quarters of the seven- teenth century was passed, can there be found anything upon which to base theories of whence they came. The seventeenth century deter- mined the Colonization of America. The location of a country, its natural re- sources, its means of access and its climate, are all factors in determining its colonization. 14 INTRODUCTION The eastern coast of the New World was naturally the first attraction to settlers from the Old World. Those from France settled along the St. Lawrence River, and followed the course of the rivers toward the west. It was late in the seventeenth century that the country of the Illini, the territory now the common- wealth of Illinois, was discovered, explored, and to a limited extent colonized by France. This was the first knowledge the civilized world had of the Mississippi valley. The com- ing of the two Frenchmen, Marquette and Joliet, down the Mississippi River and into the Illini Country in 1673, was the discovery to the world of the great water-way and fertile valley of the new continent, through resources of which the promise of the New World was to be made good. Two strong motives led the French into the wilderness. One was the fur trade and the other was the love of their church, which sent them as missionaries among the American Indians. Wherever a trading-post was located, a mission was established. The priest with his altar on his back went side by side with the explorer and the trader. This was the case from the time of the building of Quebec, the INTRODUCTION 15 first permanent settlement in New France, by Samuel Champlain in 1608. When, a half century later, knowledge of the great water-way through the center of the con- tinent came, it was the explorer, the priest and the trader who went into the new country of the Illini. America is the only country conquered by the cross rather than the sword. Freedom to wor- ship God according to the dictates of his own conscience, brought the Puritan to the eastern coast. A desire to save the souls of the red men, led the Jesuit priests into the wilderness of the Mississippi valley. Jacques Carter, a Frenchman, discovered the St. Lawrence River in 1535. This gave France a claim to the region drained by this river to which the name of New France was given. Settlements were made at Nova Scotio (or Acadia as it was then called) but they proved weak and until in 1806, when Samuel Champlain founded Quebec, New France was not very promising. The wisdom of selecting the site of Quebec for a colony was proven by its ad- vantage in the fur trade. Montreal, although located by Champlain, was not built for a quarter of a century after Quebec was settled. These colonies carried on so profitable a trade 16 INTRODUCTION in furs, that they grew rapidly and from them explorers, traders and missionaries pushed north and north-west with such energy that within another quarter of a century, trading posts and missions were established as far west as Sault Ste. Marie and Michilimakanac. Other than these missions and trading posts, there were no white men west of the Allegheny Mountains up to the discovery of the Mississippi River in 1673. DATE I. 1673 DISCOVERY DATE I. 1673 EIGHT years previous to this date, Father Claude Allouez was sent to the region of Lake Superior to restore the mission which had been established years before at the cost of Father's Menard's life. Father Allouez went beyond the site of the old mission, how- ever and built his chapel of bark at Chequa- megon Bay calling it La Pointe du Esprit or Mission of the Holy Ghost. A trading post was soon established here which was sustained by the Indians from the south and west who came from long distances. Among them were Pottawattomies, Sacs and Foxes, Miamis and the Illini whose hunting grounds lay on both sides the Mississippi river which, as yet, was an undiscovered country to the whiteman. These Indians doubtless brought tales of the great river but it was left for the successor of Father Allouez to call the attention of the civilized world to the possibili- ties of this great water way and the Illini country.* Three years later Father Allouez was re- moved from this mission to be located elsewhere, 19 20 DECISIVE DATES and Father James Marquette was sent to La Pointe du Saint Esprit. It is from a letter written by Father Mar- quette, while at this mission, to his Reverend Father Superior, preserved in the Relations for 1669 and 1670, that first mention is made of any knowledge of the Mississippi River. In this letter Marquette says: "When the Illini come to the Point, they pass a great river which is almost a league in width. It flows from north to south and is so great a distance that the Illini, who know nothing of the use of the canoe, have never as yet heard tell of its mouth. They dwell to the east-south-east of this river. They gather corn twice each year. A nation they call Chaouanon* (Shawnees) came to visit them the past summer. The young man who has been given to me to teach me the language, has seen them. They had to journey across the land for thirty days before arriving at the Illini country. It is hardly probable that this great river t discharges itself in Virginia. We are more inclined to believe that it has its mouth in California." J The probable value of this great water-way, as yet unknown to the white man, made the exploration of the river imperative. The re- ports of the length of this river and the fertile Courtesy of Chicago Historical Society LOUIS JOLIET DISCOVERY 21 land through which it flowed, reached the ears of those in authority at Quebec and Paris, at- tracted their interest and they deemed it ex- pedient to explore it to its mouth and to learn more of the country of the Illini. To this end Sieur Louis Joliet was commissioned to go upon such an expedition, and Father Dablon ap pointed Father Marquette to accompany him. Sieur Joliet was "a man of great experience in these sorts of discoveries and had already been almost to that great river, the mouth of which he promises to see," writes Count Fronte- nac, the Governor of Quebec, to M. Colbert, Minister of the Navy at Paris.* Joliet had discovered Lake Erie. He was a man of learning, having been educated for a priest, but his love of adventure had proven stronger than his love of study, and his interest in Indian affairs deeper than either, so that life in the wilderness had lured the man from the cloister. His temperament and natural tastes contrasted, yet harmonized with those of Father Marquette, and made them staunch friends, and well adapted to together undertake this ex- pedition. Jacques James Marquette was a devout and zealous Jesuit priest who makes record that he "was enraptured at the good news of 22 DECISIVE DATES seeing my designs on the point of being ac- complished, and myself in the happy necessity of exposing my life for the salvation of all these nations, and particularly for the Illini, who had very earnestly entreated me to carry the word of God to their country, "t Taking three Indians, two to act as oarsmen, and one as guide, these two men embarked in two canoes to make a most perilous journey. They left the Mission of St. Ignatius at Mich- ilimakanac, on the 17th day of May, 1673. Marquette himself, had two years previous to this time, established this mission, when he left the mission at La Pointe du Saint Esprit. It was the year following the time he wrote the letter telling of reports concerning the Mississippi River, that he established the Mission of St. Ignatius. This Mission of St. Ignatius was not on the island of Mackinaw, but on the point of land to the west of the island, extending from the north shore into the strait. The place is now called Point St. Ignace. This exploring party crossed Lake Michigan to the mouth of the Fox River. They ascended the stream as far as it was navigable, thence carried their canoes across to the Wisconsin River. This portage, or carrying-place, is now Courtesy Historical Society FATHER JACQUES MARQUETTE DISCOVERY 23 marked by Portage City in Wisconsin. Rowing with the current, down the Wisconsin River, they, in due time, found themselves entering the Mississippi River with, to use the words of Marquette himself in his Journal, "a joy that I cannot express."* They descended as far as forty-one degrees, twenty-eight minutes north latitude. This journey had taken them eight days. Here they, to quote further from the Journal of Marquette, t" perceived footprints of men by the water-side, and a beaten path entering a beautiful prairie. Concluding that it was a path leading to some Indian village, we resolved to go and reconnoitre; we accordingly left our two canoes in charge of our people, cautioning them to beware of a surprise; then M. Jolly et and I undertook this rather hazardous discovery for two single men, who thus put themselves at the mercy of an unknown and barbarous peo- ple. We followed the little path in silence, and having advanced about two leagues, we dis- covered a village on the banks of the river, and two others on a hill half a league from the former. "Then, indeed, we recommended ourselves to God with all our hearts, and having implored his help we passed on undiscovered, and came 24 DECISIVE DATES so near that we even heard the Indians talking. We then deemed it time to announce ourselves, as we did, by a cry which we raised with all our strength, and then halted, without advancing any farther. At this cry the Indians rushed out of their cabins, and having no reason to distrust us, seeing we were but two and had made known our coming, they deputed four old men to come and speak to us. "Two carried tobacco pipes well-adorned and trimmed with many kinds of feathers. They marched slowly, lifting their pipes toward the sun as if offering them to it to smoke, but with- out yet uttering a single word. They were a long time coming the little way from the village to us. Having reached us at last, they stopped to consider us attentively. " I now took courage, seeing these ceremonies, which are used by them only with friends, and still more on seeing them covered with stuffs which made me judge they were allies. I, therefore, spoke to them first, and asked them who they were. They answered that they were the Illini (Illinois), and in token of peace they presented their pipes to smoke. "They then invited us to the village, where all the tribe awaited us with impatience. These pipes for smoking are all called, in this DISCOVERY 25 country, calumets, a word that is so much in use, that I shall be obliged to employ it in order to be understood, as I shall have to speak of it frequently. "At the door of the cabin in which we were to be received, was an old man awaiting us in a very remarkable posture, which is their usual ceremony in receiving strangers. He was standing with his hands stretched out and raised toward the sun, as if he wished to screen himself from its rays, which, nevertheless, passed through his fingers to his face. "When we came near him, he paid us this compliment: 'How beautiful is the sun, O Frenchman, when thou comest to visit us! All our town awaits thee, and thou shalt enter our cabins in peace!' He then took us into his cabin where there was a crowd of people, who devoured us with their eyes, but kept a profound silence. We heard, however, these words occasionally addressed to us, 'Well done, brothers, to visit us!' As soon as we had taken our places they showed us the usual civility, which is to present the calumet. You must not refuse it unless you would pass for an enemy, or at best for being very impolite. It is, however, enough to pretend to smoke. While all the old men smoked after us to honor us, some came to 26 DECISIVE DATES invite us, on behalf of the great sachem of all the Illini, to proceed to his town, where he wished to hold counsel with us. We went with a good retinue, for all the people who had never seen a Frenchman among them, could not tire looking at us; and they threw themselves on the grass by the wayside, they ran ahead, then turned and walked back to see us again. All this was done without noise, and with marks of a great respect entertained for us. " Having arrived at the great sachem's town, we espied him at his cabin door between two old men ; all three standing with their calumets turned to the sun. He harangued us in a few words, to congratulate us on our arrival, and then presented us his calumet and made us smoke; at the same time we entered his cabin where we received all their usual greetings. " Seeing all assembled and in silence, I spoke to them by four presents which I made. By the first, I said that we marched in peace to visit the nations on the river to the sea ; by the second, I declared to them that God, their creator, had pity on them, since, after they had been so long ignorant of him, he wished to be- become known to all nations; that I was sent on his behalf with this design; that it was for DISCOVERY 27 them to acknowledge and obey him; by the third, that the great chief of the French in- formed them that he spread peace everywhere, and had overcome the Iroquois; lastly, by the fourth, we begged them to give us all the in- formation they had of the sea, and of nations through which we should have to pass to reach it. " When I had finished my speech, the sachem rose, and laying his hand on the head of a little slave whom he was about to give us, spoke thus : 'I thank thee, Black-gown and thee, French- man,' addressing M. Jollyet, 'for taking so much pains to come to visit us. Never has the earth been so beautiful nor the sun so bright, as to-day, never has our river been so calm, nor so free from rocks, which your canoes have removed as they passed, never has our tobacco had so fine a flavor, nor our corn appeared so beautiful as we behold it to-day. Here is my son that I give thee that thou mayest know my heart. I pray thee take pity on me and all of my nation. Thou knowest the Great Spirit who has made us all ; thou speakest to Him and hearest His word ; ask Him to give me life and health, and come and dwell with us that we may know Him.' Saying this, be placed the little slave near us 28 DECISIVE DATES and made us a second present, an all-mysterious calumet, which they value more than a slave. By this present he showed us his esteem for our Governor, after the account we had given of him. By the third he begged us, on behalf of his whole nation, not to proceed farther on account of the great dangers to which we ex- posed ourselves. " I replied that I did not fear death, and that I esteemed no happiness greater than that of losing my life for the glory of Him who made us all. But this, these poor people could not understand. "The council was followed by a great feast which consisted of four courses, which we had to take with all their ways. The first course was a great wooden dish of sagamity that is to say, Indian meal boiled in water and seasoned with grease. "The master of ceremonies with a spoonful of sagamity, presented it three or four times to my mouth, as we would do with a little child; he did the same to M. Jollyet. For the second course, he brought in a second dish containing three fishes ; he took some pains to remove the bones, and having blown upon it to cool it, put it in my mouth as we would give food to a bird. For the third course they produced a DISCOVERY 29 large dog which they had just killed, but, learning we did not eat it, withdrew it. Final- ly, the fourth course was a piece of wild ox, the fattest of the portions of which were put in to our mouths."* After a stay of a few days Joliet and Mar- quette took their leave of the Illini and con- tinued their way. Meeting several adventurers where the calumet, given them by their Illini friends saved their lives, they journeyed on down the river seeking its mouth. The civilized world at that time was divided in theories regarding the extent and direction of this great river. Some held it emptied into the Atlantic Ocean, flowing through Virginia, others that it flowed into the South Sea (as the Pacific Ocean was called) with its course through Cali- fornia, and yet others that its course was, as it is, southerly and its mouth at the Gulf of Mexico. The principal object of the expedition under- taken by Joliet and Marquette was to settle this dispute. About half a league from the Akansea (Arkansas) river, they met natives who told them that the mouth of the Mississippi River was but a ten days journey distant. They also learned of the dangers ahead, not alone from the natives but from the Spaniards, who at best would likely take them 30 DECISIVE DATES prisoners. So it was Joliet and Marquette to run no further risks of losing to the world the knowledge of the country they had already gained, and figuring that they were within two degrees of the Gulf of Mexico, began retrac- ing their way. When they had come as far north as the mouth of the Illinois River, Marquette was found too ill to proceed. Here they learned from the natives of a shorter route than the one they had taken in coming from Lake Michigan, and they ascended the Illinois River. The day in the latter part of July this year of 1673, in which they began their ascent of the Illinois river, marks the begin- ning of authentic history of Illinois. A de- scription of the land they found, with its wealth of plant and animal life as seen by these men reads like a fairy tale. The long stretch of prairie over which the eye roamed to the sky-line, with its waving grass, presented a picture as beautiful and as awe- inspiring as must have been the outlook to the Pilgrims in mid-ocean, or the first sight of the Great Lakes to the white man. The soft sun- shine, the gentle breeze burdened with the fragrance of innumerable flowers, the gay DISCOVERY 31 winged insects, the water-fowl, the singing birds, all lent charm to the scene. The buffalo and deer, not yet having been taught to fear the white man, came to the river's brink to satisfy their thirst. Indeed it was a goodly land to look upon. Marquette says, "We had seen nothing like this river for the fertility of its land, its prairies, wood, wild cattle, stag, deer, wild cats, swan, ducks, parrots, and even beaver; its many lakes and rivers. That on which we sailed (the lake of the Illinois) is broad, deep and gentle, for sixty-five leagues."* Here where the river widened into the lake they found a village of Kaskaskia Indians. This town Marquette records as composed of seventy-five cabins. This was the first, the original Kaskaskia. The village was on the wide bottom directly south of what is now Utica, in LaSalle County. This is on the north side of the Illinois River. The Indians took kindly to Father Mar- quette 's teachings, and exacted a promise from him to return. This he did the next year and established there the Mission of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary. This mission was sustained, although Marquette died upon his second return journey, and to-day, after 32 DECISIVE DATES even the second Kaskaskia has been destroyed and the third been built a little further down the island in the Mississippi River, this mission still exists, the sole tie binding the present to the far-away past. Father Claude Allouez came to Kaskaskia the year following the death of Marquette, and reports three hundred fifty-one cabins. This was perhaps the largest Indian village in the country.* The name for the mission is explained by the fact which is recorded by Marquette, that the day Joliet arrived with orders from the Gover- nor to make their journey, was the one on the Calendar of the Church to be observed as "the day of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin, whom I had always invoked since I had been in this country, to obtain of God the grace to be able to visit the Nations of the River Mississippi. I therefore put our voyage under the protection of the Blessed Virgin Immaculate, promising that if she did us the grace to discover the Great River, I would give it the name of the Conception ; and that I would give that name to the first mission I should establish among these New Nations, "f He made good his promise, both as regarded the river and the mission, but the latter alone DISCOVERY 33 retains the name. The name he gave the river was never recognized. This is but one of the attempts to change the name of the Mississippi River which failed. Nine years after Mar- quette attempted to give it a new name, . La Salle named it the Colbert, and a hundred years later, the King of France named it, in his grant to M. Crozat, as the river St. Louis, but the Indian name remains and shall always remain. The word Mississippi is a combination of two Algonquin words, "Missi," which means great and "sepi" meaning a river. No better name could be chosen. Marquette promised the mission on his first trip to Kaskaskia, and returned the following year to officially establish it. He sojourned but a short time at Kaskaskia because of rapidly failing health. He made an effort to reach the St. Ignatius Mission but had not strength to complete the journey. He died on the banks of a small stream on the eastern side of Lake Michigan a desolate spot in the wilderness. Late in August, 1673, Marquette and Joliet parted company, the one to return to Mich- ilimakinac to await orders to establish his promised mission among the Illini, and the other to return directly to Quebec. (3) 34 DECISIVE DATES When Joliet reached the rapids in sight of Montreal, his boat was capsized, and he but just escaped death. The little Indian slave whom he had fetched from the first village of the Illini where he and Marquette had met such a hearty welcome, was lost, together with the maps and other valuable papers which Joliet had carefully prepared. Joliet never returned to the Illinois Country. That his verbal report of this country was a glowing one, is testified by Count Frontenac, who, writing from Quebec, November 14, 1675, to M. Colbert, Minister of the Marine at Paris, says: " Sieur Joliet has returned. He has discovered some very fine countries, and a navi- gation so easy through beautiful rivers that a person can go from Lake Ontario in a bark to the Gulf of Mexico, there being only one carry- ing-place (around Niagara Falls), where Lake Ontario communicates with Lake Erie." * But the hope that the newly discovered great water-way through North America, should prove to be the short route to Cathay, had to be abandoned. The interest which the report of Joliet aroused crystalized into the ambitions and great plans of La Salle, who with his faithful DISCOVERY 35 Tonti came into the country of the Illinois five years later. Some admirers of La Salle have claimed for him the discovery of the country of the Illini previous to the coming of Joliet and Marquette. They say that by following the course of the Ohio River (which he discovered) to its mouth, he went thence up the Mississippi to the mouth of the Illinois River, ascended this for some distance, and La Salle, not Joliet and Marquette, was the real discoverer of the Illinois Country. But this claim lacks proof, and there is no reasonable doubt that the natal day of Illinois was the July day in 1673, when Joliet and Marquette ascended the Illinois River. NOTES AND EXPLANATIONS Page 19 *The French came into the northern part of America when the St. Lawrence river was dis- covered by Jacques Cartier in 1534 but New France was not established until seventy four years later, when Samuel de Champlain built Quebec. In the demands of the fur trade and in answer to the spirit of adventure which was common, these hardy Frenchmen pushed into the western wilder- ness even as far as the region of the Great Lakes. Their route was necessarily through Canada because of the hostility of the Iroquois to the French. This hostility was an inheritance from Champlain whose hastily given service to the Algonquins made the Iroquois the everlasting enemy of the French people. Wherever the trader and explorer went, he was accompanied by the priest so that, by a little after 36 DECISIVE DATES the middle of the seventeenth century, missions were established even so far as Lake Superior. Jean Nicolet was sent on an embassy to the Winnebagpes, near the head of Green Bay, to secure their fur trade at Quebec, in about 1634. The first missionary penetrating the wilderness thus far was Father Menard who in 1665 lost his life in service for the native redmen. It was in 1671, two years before the expedition of Joliet and Marquette that formal possession of "Sainte Marie du Sault, as also Lakes Huron and Superior, the Manatonlin Island and all the countries, lakes, rivers and streams contiguous or adjacent thereto," was taken in the name of the king of France by the deputy of Sieur de St. Lusson Jean Talon, the intendant of New France. So it is that the existence of the Mississippi river must have been vaguely known to the French missionaries and traders sometime before it was discovered in 1673. Page 20 *This word in the Illinois tongue meant southern, or people to the south ; so termed because they lived to the south of the Illinois Country. tThe Mississippi. JParis Documents, vol. 9, p. 92. Page 21 *Jesuit Relations, 1669-1670. Page 22 fMarquette Journal. Page 23 *Shea's Discovery and Exploration of the Missis- sippi. Quotation from Marquette' s Journal. fFather Marquette's Original Journal. Page 29 *These extracts are from the original Journal of Father Marquette which was prepared for publica- tion by his superior, Father Dablon, and lay in manuscript at Quebec, among the archives of the Jesuits, until Dr. JohnG. Shea translated it and pub- lished it in his Discovery and Explorations of the Mississippi. This account differs, although not essen- tially, from Marquette's narrative sent the French government and printed at Paris by M. Thevenot in 1681 and called Receuil de Voyages. This narrative, copiously quoted and duly credited in Beckwith's Historic Notes of the Northwest. These extracts are introduced here since no better words could be chosen to relate the experiences than those Father Marquette himself used. DISCOVERY 37 Page 31 *Original Journal. Page 32 *"This name, Kaskaskia is an Algonquin word and has had a varied spelling. Marquette spells it Cachecachequia ; Allouez spells it Kachkachkia; Membri spells it Cascaskias; Marest spells it Cas- casquas, and Charlevoix spells it Kaskasquias. Its equivalent in English has, so far as I know, never been determined. Beckwith. fMarquette's Journal. Page 34 * Paris Documents, Vol. 9, p. 21. LASALLE'S MONUMENT INTERIM 1673-1759 LA SALLE'S EXPEDITION FORTS CREVE COEUR AND ST. Louis COLONIAL LIFE INTERIM 1673-1799 LA SALLE came into the country of the Illinois by way of the St. Joseph and Kankakee rivers, (that part of the Illi- nois River above the Des Plaines was called the Kankakee) and Kankakee portage. His ex- ploring party comprised thirty men, includ- ing the faithful Tonti and two priests, Father Membre and Father Hennepin. Reaching the Indian village of Kaskaskia where Marquette had established his mission four years before this time, they found it de- serted. The Indians were away on their annual hunt. Taking of the stores there found, and leaving value in presents, La Salle proceeded a little further down the river where he began the building of what proved to be but a temporary station hardly deserving the name sometimes given it of the first fort in the Illinois Country. To this he gave the name of Creve Coeur. Its site, after much dispute, has been marked as near what is now Wesley City. La Salle then returned to Quebec for help, leaving Tonti in charge of affairs in the country of the Illini. 41 42 DECISIVE DATES While gone, La Salle's men mutinied, destroyed his partially built ship, and abandoned and burned Fort Creve Coeur. La Salle returned to find even Tonti gone. Later he found him at Michilimakinac, and together they descended the Mississippi River to its mouth, where, in the name of his king and for his church, La Salle took possession of the river and its valley. He subsequently fortified the Rock in the Illinois River, just a little above the Indian vil- lage of Kaskaskia, to which he gave the name of Fort St. Louis and which was the first per- manent settlement in the country of the Illini. Some confusion has arisen concerning the loca- tion of Fort St. Louis. This comes about in part because it is known to have been near Kaskaskia, and the first Kaskaskia which was near Fort St. Louis was removed some twenty years later, to near the mouth of the Kaskaskia (Okaw) River, not far from which the Spanish settlement (which grew into the present city) of St. Louis was located. To add to this con- fusion, Fort St. Louis is not now known by that name, but is called Starved Rock. Custom has given this rock in the river a name which perpetuates the passing of the Indian LA SALLE'S EXPEDITION 43 instead of having it known by the name of Fort St. Louis, which would have emphasized the coming of the white man. A seventeenth century French settlement attached itself about the fort on the Illinois River, and had it not been for the untimely death of La Salle, the fate of New France in the Illinois Country, near a hundred years later, would have been different. La Salle left Fort St. Louis in charge of Tonti, and returned to France, thence to bring a colony to near the mouth of the Mississippi River. The ships carrying this colony somehow missed the mouth of the Mississippi, and the unfortu- nate Frenchmen landed on the coast of what now is Texas, where they wandered, enduring inexpressible hardships. Attempting to return to Fort St. Louis and secure aid from Tonti, La Salle was foully murdered by his own men who, because of their hardships, had grown dissatisfied. Describing the tragedy, Father Douay, who was one of the party, closes with an eulogy of La Salle in these words: "Thus died our commander; constant in adversity, intrepid, generous, engaging, dex- terous, skillful, capable of everything. He who for twenty years had softened the fierce temper of countless savage tribes was massacred by the 44 DECISIVE DATES hands of his own domestics whom he had loaded with caresses." With all his aspirations, spite the honors oft- times heaped upon him and the deserved praise he has received, the life of La Salle is a tragedy, a "tale of disappointment, suffering, failure, treachery, and ignoble death." Repeated raids of the Iroquois into the Illini Country greatly reduced their numbers; thriving settlements along the lower Missis- sippi drew interest down the river; the line of travel changed to the Mississippi route, making the early abandonment of Fort St. Louis a natural consequence. These conditions working together induced the removal of the Kaskaskia tribe and others of the Illini to near the mouth of the Kaskas- kia River, and the transfer of the settlement in the Illinois Country from what is now La Salle County to that part of the state on the Missis- sippi River near what was later known as the American Bottoms, and is now known as Ran- dolph and St. Clair counties. There, early in the eighteenth century, Fort Chartres was built and Cahokia, Prairie du Rocher, and other French towns were located. There the new Kaskaskia, the well-known Kas- COLONIAL LIFE 45 kaskia, the town which for a hundred and thirty years reflected the life of the people of Illinois, was built. So interwoven is it into every event of Illinois history to nearly the middle of the nineteenth century, that the story of Kaskas- kia* is the story of Illinois. During the first half of the eighteenth century the colonies in the Illinois Country were the centre of New France in America. These have well been called the "halcyon days for New France in the Illinois Country." With the government at Quebec or at New Orleans, the power of New France in the Illini Country could well afford to ignore the claim of both England and Spain to the same territory. "Nature offered her gifts with bounteous hand." * " The history of a single voyageur and hunter will be enough to make a type of old Kaskaskia. Take Jules for the type. He may have come to Mobile as a soldier under Iberville, and con- cluded to remain after his term of enlistment had expired ; he may have accompanied Phillippe Renault. It is more likely that Jules was a Canadian born in the woods and accustomed to the birch canoe since infancy. The birch canoe was the great carrier of the wilderness, the 46 DECISIVE DATES Frenchman's steamboat. * * * Jules was light-hearted and gay. He was simple and temperate. He was placid as he smoked in his red cap by some cottage door; then he would be excited, raving, weeping, threating in the crowd. The merriest of mortals, he was one of the hardiest and also the handiest. He could swim like an otter, run like a deer, paddle all day without resting; and while he paddled he sang or told stories, and laughter was his dear companion. He could imitate the Indian yell, mimic the hissing rattlesnake, could skin a deer, and scrape a fiddle. Here at Kaskaskia where nature had been bountiful, he could raise corn for sagamiti and hominy. Here the maple yielded him sugar. Here was cotton for garments and wheat for flour. Around him were fertile grassy prairies for cattle to grow fat upon. Wild grapes, plums, persimmons, and cherries in abundance for his use, and pecans, acorns, hickory nuts, hazel and walnuts for his swine. Here were buffalo, elk and deer for hides and food. The rivers were full of fish, while the forest abounded in fur-bearing animals whose skins he might acquire and sell. Jules decided to settle here and marry a French woman, if possible, and if not, an Indian COLONIAL LIFE 47 maid. At Kaskaskia he could find these, with music and dancing and a glass of domestic wine to complete his enjoyment. He could live in elegant ease on what he could farm and shoot. He could cut his own lumber, make his own mortar, get a lot near others of his kind and procure a deed for his cornfield, with a right of common for wood and pasture. Here he had no taxes. Here he had a mild paternal government. He could make one voyage each year, of three or four months dur- ation. Here he was lazy when the mood suited, and happy always; with Priest Father to give him consolation on the doorstep of death and bury him with the rites of the church."* The strenuous life of the twentieth century American citizen was unknown. The freedom of the pioneer was enjoyed with no thought of a citizen's responsibility. The problem of securing food, shelter, and clothing was easily solved, for each man's garden was a part of the common, while his cow was fed without cost to him from the common pasture. All of this was supplemented with the berries, nuts, and other wild fruit which was his for the taking. The houses were easy to construct, and the dress consisted of homespun, or tanned skins, 48 DECISIVE DATES the product of the flax, the cotton plant, the flock, and the chase. No taxes to pay, and the desire and opportunity for unlimited fun what more could one ask? Such was the life of the more lowly Kaskaskian. It must not, however, be assumed that high breeding, fashion and wealth were altogether lacking. The best blood of old France was found in these towns in the Illinois Country. These well-born Kaskaskians surrounded them- selves with what elegancies they could bring from France or Canada. They had good homes and life was made easy for them by their large number of slaves. In taste -and manners so refined were some of them, that a social function at the home of a Bauvais, or a Charleville, or a Viviat, a LaChauces or a Sancier, whether in Kaskaskia or Cahokio, would have done credit to the salons of Paris itself. Such were the conditions of life in the French colonies in the Illinois Country up to the time of the struggle called the Seven Years, or the French and Indian War, which conflict deter- mined the supremacy of the Anglo-Saxon in the New World. INTERIM 49 NOTES AND EXPLANATIONS Page 45 *Kaskaskia remained the capital of the Illinois county of Virginia, until the territory was organized under the government of the United States as the Northwest territory with its capital at Mariette, Ohio. Kaskaskia remained an important town during the years Illinois was a part of the North- west territory, and later as a part of the Indiana territory. When the division was made and the Illinois territory created, Kaskaskia again be- came its capital. The young commonwealth had Kaskaskia as its capital until it was moved up the river to Vandalia. Kaskaskia was built so near the river that in time, it suffered from the fact. But it was not until in the eighties that the Mississippi washing its way into the Kaskaskia channel cut through the town and made it an island in the great river. Those living in Kaskaskia sought safer homes, while the state removed the cemetery to the opposite bluffs at Fort Gage. A noble shaft has been erected to the memory of those buried in the new cemetery which over-looks all that is left of the once proud and important Kaskaskia, the spot so filled with romance that is dear to the hearts of all those who know its story. Page 45 **Alvord in Virginia series Vol. I, Col. 111. Hist. Lib. gives clear idea of life in French towns in 111. during this period. See p. XIV-XXV. Also Stuart in Old Kaskaskia Days and Ways. Pub. No. 10, 111. Hist. Library. Page 47 *Stuart in Old Kaskaskia Days and Ways. Pub. 10, 111. Hist. Library, p. 132. DATE II. 1759 THE SILVER COVENANT CHAIN UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS LIBRARY DATE II. 1759 [To appreciate the significance of this date it is necessary to understand conditions in Europe and this country in the early part of the seventeenth century.] THE four, at that time, great powers of Europe, were colonizing America more than a half century before the Illinois Country was known. New England was getting a foothold on the eastern coast; New France was established in Quebec and Montreal, and other points along the St. Lawrence River, reaching into the wilder- ness of what is now Canada and along the northern shores of the Great Lakes ; New Neth- erlands was planted along the Hudson River ; and New Spain was flourishing in South America, Mexico, New Mexico, and toward the Pacific Coast. From the time of the discovery of America, Spain had been more active in explorations than had any other nation of the Old World. During the sixteenth century she discovered, conquered, and, in a way, colonized a large portion of inland America ; at least, she laid claim to the domain from Colorado to Buenos Ay res, extending from sea to sea. 53 54 DECISIVE DATES Spain made permanent settlements in what is now known as Florida and New Mexico, years before New England, New Netherlands, and New France were established. But Spain's object in exploring America, itself defeated her permanent possession of the land. She came to America for wealth, not to establish homes. In her insatiate search for gold, she pushed to the north and northwest, leaving fer- tile plains for rocky mountains which might hold the coveted treasure. The Spanish domains at the beginning of the seventeenth century comprised not only Spain proper, but a large part of the Netherlands ad- joining Holland and portions of Italy in Europe, together with that part of America claimed by rights of discovery. The West Indies, together with immense provinces in South America, were hers by right of conquest and occupancy, as well as discovery. So too were Florida and Mexico and New Mexico ; Spain was a power to be feared. But her claim to North America as far as forty degrees north latitude was not considered valid by all the European powers. Indeed, Great Britain completely ignored any right of Spain above thirty-four degrees north latitude, and so made her grants of land. THE SILVER COVENANT CHAIN 55 By reason of the discovery, early in the seventeenth century, of the Hudson River by Henry Hudson, while in command of a Dutch vessel seeking the much-desired new quick route to the Orient, the valley drained by this river became the property of Holland. It was speedily occupied by the thrifty people of that country. The influence of the Holland Dutch in the making of American institutions must not be estimated by the limited extent of their posses- sions and duration of time of ownership com- pared with that of England, France, and Spain. Their political authority was quickly absorbed by the power of Great Britain, and New Nether- lands ceased to exist, yet the Dutch from Holland have determined much of American history. The history of Illinois is incomplete without the important part Holland played at one stage of its development. By right of discoveries of Cabot, England held a just claim to North America. Upon the strength of this claim, at the beginning of the seventeenth century Great Britain made grants of land in the New World to two companies. These grants extended from thirty-four degrees to forty-eight degrees north latitude, inclusive. The east and west limits were the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. 56 DECISIVE DATES It will be remembered that Spain claimed all land as far as forty degrees north latitude, be- cause of the discovery of Columbus and the decree of the Pope. So it was the grant made the London Company included six degrees already claimed by the other nation. This claim of Spain may have directed explorers from both England and France to the New World to the north of forty degrees north lati- tude, yet it seems that England forgot it when asserting her claim to the territory. If the claim of Spain directed the French ex- plorers whose efforts resulted in the discovery of the St. Lawrence River to the north of forty degrees north latitude, the valuable fisheries and fur trade held their interest and deter- mined the location of New France in America. Quebec, Montreal, and other smaller colonies on the St. Lawrence made good trading posts from which the earnest and loyal Frenchman pushed his way into the wilderness, carrying the interests of his church and his king. The right of Spain in the New World as far as forty degrees north latitude, was recognized in the grant of land made by the king of France in 1603 to De Chartres and afterwards transferred to De Monts. This grant extended across the continent, including the territory between forty THE SILVER COVENANT CHAIN 57 and forty-six degrees north latitude. The grant of land made the London Company by Great Britain early in the seventeenth century, it is plain, ignored the claim of Spain to the terri- tory included between thirty-four and forty degrees north latitude since its southern limit was thirty-four degrees north latitude. At the same time the grant made the Plymouth Company about the same date, by Great Britain ignored the grant of De Monts, between forty and forty-six degrees north latitude, since forty-eight degrees was the northern limit named in this patent. In this way Great Britian, in the early seven- teenth century, disputed claim to the territory between thirty-four and forty-eight north lati- tude, while the strip down the Hudson belonged to the Dutch, undisputed save by the native savage. Later in the century, La Salle's bold explora- tion of the Mississippi River to its mouth, and formal taking possession of its valley in the name of the king of France, further compli- cated and confused the rights of the European powers. Spain claimed the Mississippi valley because De Soto, a Spaniard had long before this dis- covered the lower Mississippi River. This had 58 DECISIVE DATES less effect than would seem worthy the fact since Spain had failed to further explore and colonize the region. So it was that the middle of the seven- teenth century found the eastern coast of America a New England ; along the St. Lawrence River, the Great Lakes, and the Mississippi River to the Gulf, a New France; the West Indies, South America, Florida, Mexico, New Mexico, and toward the western coast, a New Spain; and along the banks of the Hudson River, a New Netherlands. So much for the white man in America at the middle of the seventeenth century. But the real owners of the soil were the American Indians. What of them? They were the people the white men found, they were the original in- habitants. The transfer of ownership was effected in different ways. The English generally com- pelled the relinquishment of the Indians' claims, by force. The French secured it by sharing their life and agreeing upon equal division. The Dutch gained their end by purchase, giving the equivalent value. The Spanish resorted to force or trade, as their whim directed. There were two great families of the Indian race located east of the Mississippi River, known THE SILVER COVENANT CHAIN 59 as the Algonquins and the Iroquois. The Creeks and Seminoles were further to the South- east, and were not known in the country of the Illinois. The early explorers found the Algonquins the most numerous, but later the Iroquois, domi- nated them. The Iroquois were at home in central New York. They were, however, con- stantly going into the lands of other tribes and making war upon them. The results of these raids were usually the subjugation of the at- tacked tribes, to the end that they paid tribute to the Iroquois. Each year an Iroquois chief would go among the tribes thus subjugated, and collect the tribute. The insolence, upon the part of the collector on such an occasion, beggars description. Champlain found the Algonquins when he first came to the St. Lawrence River. They were friendly to the white man. When they asked Champlain's help in a war which was as usual, going on between them and the Iroquois, Champlain gave them aid. He taught them the use of the white man's weapons, and him- self led the victorious Algonquins in a decisive battle on the lake now bearing his name. The result was the undying hatred of the Iroquois 60 DECISIVE DATES not alone for Champlain but for every French- man as well. This hatred barred the way of the French from going westward across the Iroquois country and by way of the Great Lakes, and at the same time protected the Dutch and English colonies from the French. The same reason that made it impossible for the French on the St. Lawrence to overcome the colonies on the coast, sent them west by way of the Ottawa River and Georgian Bay. On the other hand, because of this impulsive act of Champlain, the French gained the never-ceasing friendship of the Algonquins and made it possible for Joliet and La Salle and other Frenchmen to abide in the country of the Illinois. The Iroquois had not always been the domi- nating tribe among the American Indians. The Adirondacks were the original family from which the various tribes of the Algonquins sprang. The word in the Iroquois tongue for Algonquins is Adirondacks. Long before the arrival of the Europeans in America, the Iro- quois were under subjection to the Adirondacks, so it is said. The principal villages of the Iroquois were on the north shore of Lake Ontario, where they made the planting of corn their business. The THE SILVER COVENANT CHAIN 61 Adirondacks despised them for doing a work fit only for women. At one time, however, game being very scarce, the Adirondacks induced some of the young men of the Iroquois to help them hunt. These young men soon became quite expert in hunting, so much so indeed, that the Adirondacks grew jealous, and one night murdered all the Iroquois young men they had with them. To the surprise of the Adirondacks, the Iro- quois determined upon revenge. They had hitherto looked upon the Iroquois as women. So it was the Adirondacks forced the Iroquois to leave their country and fly to the south shore of the lake. There they made war upon the "Satanas" (Shawnees),* a tribe of the Adiron- dacks. The Iroquois subdued the "Satanas," and drove them from their country, f After this, the Iroquois grew more and more a war- like people. Notwithstanding their war-like impulses, the Iroquois lived more the life of the white man in cultivating the soil and establish- ing permanent homes than did the other indians. The Algonquins, unlike the tribes further to the south, had no special religion. They had a general belief in " good and bad spirits," and the necessity of appeasing the latter by all sorts of 62 DECISIVE DATES gifts and various offerings. Generally speak- ing, they took kindly to the teachings of the French priests and would, in most cases, be guided by them. The Indians found in the Illinois Country by Joliet and Marquette, were all tribes of the Algonquins. The principal confederacy was that of the Illini, which consisted of five tribes : the Peorias, the Kaskaskias, the Cahokias, Tamarois, and the Michiganians. The names of these tribes have been given to towns and rivers in the state, so that their habitat is easily determined, while the name of the confederacy has been impressed upon the principal river and the state itself. The Indians of the confederacy of the Illini, who were the first known occupants of the territory now known as the state of Illinois, were not a war-like people. They were not even a courageous people. They are recorded as being lazy and vicious. They were "mild and docile enough, but they were cowardly, treacherous, fickle, deceitful, thievish, brutal, destitute of faith or honor, addicted to gluttony, and not a whit less haughty or self complacent because of the fact that the Canada tribes despised them on account of their vices." J THE SILVER COVENANT CHAIN 63 "Their villages," says Father Hennepin,* " are open, not enclosed with palisades, because they have no courage to defend them; they would flee as they heard their enemies approach- ing. ' ' Up to the time of the coming of the white man, their weapons were the bow and arrow and the club. Their arrows were pointed with stone, and their tomahawks were made of stag horns cut in the shape of a cutlass and termi- nating in a large ball. In the use of the bow and arrow, all writers agree that the Illini excelled all neighboring tribes. For protection against the missiles of an enemy, they used bucklers composed of buffalo hides stretched over a wooden frame. In form the Illini were tall and lithe. They were swift runners. The women, beside cultivating the soil, did all the household drudgery, carried the game and made the clothes. The garments were made from buffalo-hides and from the soft wool that grew upon these animals. Both the wool and hides were dyed with brilliant colors, black, yellow or vermilion. In this kind of work, the Illini wo- men were greatly in advance of the women of other tribes. Articles of dress were sewed together with thread made from the nerves and tendons of deer, prepared by exposure to the 64 DECISIVE DATES sun twice in every twenty-four hours. After this the nerve and tendons were beaten so that their fibres would separate into a fine white thread. The garment worn by the women was some- thing like a loose wrapper. Beneath the wrap- per were petticoats, for warmth in winter. They wore a head-dress for ornament, rather than use. Their feet were covered with mocca- sins, and leggins decorated with quills of the porcupine stained in colors of brilliant con- trasts. Ornaments fashioned from clam-shells and other hard substances, were worn about their neck, wrists, and ankles. Their food consisted of the scanty products of their fields, and principally of game and fish, of which there was in their country a great abundance. Father Allouez, who followed Father Marquette to the mission at Kaskaskia, stated there were fourteen varieties of herbs, and forty-two varieties of fruits in that locality which they used for food. Their plates and other dishes were made of wood, and their spoons constructed out of buffalo bones. The dishes for boiling food were earthen, sometimes glazed.* Spite of all records of limited good qualities on the part of the Illini Indian, it must not be THE SILVER COVENANT CHAIN 65 forgotten that their loyalty to the French was enduring. The friendship between the two races never was lessened, and when in the course of events, the French were no longer in authority, the children of the Illini Indian were taught to love the Gaul. It was not the Illini, but the "tribes as far west as the Illinois River" (the Illini had before this been removed beyond and below this point), that deserted the French in the decisive time of the Seven Years' War, and it was the confidence and love the Illini had for the French represented by Father Gibault, which insured George Rogers Clark's success in his conquest of the Northwest. The Illini became less and less hardy and fewer in numbers owing to their habits of idle- ness and vice and their inherited tendencies to disease as well as the raids made on them by their enemies during the hundred years subse- quent to the coming of the white man to the Illinois Country. When Pontiac met his death at the hands of one of the tribe, the hatred felt toward all of them by other tribes was increased. A strong confederacy of tribes was formed about this time (1760) called the Penotomy. There were several decisive battles fought by the Penotomies and the Illini. It is said one was (5) 66 DECISIVE DATES at Blue Island, another on the Des Plaines near where the city of Joliet now stands, and another on the site of Morris in Grundy County. In all of these, the Illini suffered defeat. Tradition says they were driven ahead of their relentless foes to the Rock in the Illinois River which had eighty years before this been occupied as Fort St. Louis. This refuge proved a trap for the Illini since it shut them in by their enemy, and their fate was absolute starvation. This gave the Rock its present name. A few escaped and made their way to St. Louis on the Mississippi. In 1830, the Illini confederacy had lost its iden- tity being known only as Peoria and Kaskaskia tribes. Twenty years later there were but one hundred sixty-five in it at Quapau, I. T. Du- Cogne, their last chief, boasted that his tribe had never shed the blood of a white man. The constant raids of the Iroquois upon the Indians of the Illinois Country in the seventeenth century, is no doubt explained by M. Du Chesneau, in a memoir on the western Indians, dated at Quebec, September 13, 1681,f in which he says: "Their (the Iroquois) true motive was to gratify the English at Manette (New York) and Orange (Albany), who by means of presents, engaged the Iroquois in these expeditions, the object of which was to THE SILVER COVENANT CHAIN 67 force the Illinois Indians to bring their beaver to them, so that they may go and trade it afterwards to the English; also to intimidate the other Indians and constrain them to do the same thing." That the efforts of the Iroquois to subdue the western Indians were not without the support of the English for their advantage in the ex- tension of the fur trade, note that reply of the Governor of New York to an appeal made from the Senecas, one of the tribes of the Iroquois, for aid some twenty years later, in a war waged by the Miamis against them. " I should think it prudence and good policy in you to try all possible means to fix a trade and correspond- ence with all those nations by which means you would reconcile them to yourselves, and with my assistance, I am in hopes that in a short time they might be united with us in the covenant chain, and then you might without hazard, go into their country, which I understand is much the best for beaver. / should think myself obliged to reward you for such a piece of service, and will always use my best efforts to preserve you from all your enemies." * This communication was made the year preceding that in w r hich the Sachems of the Iroquois conveyed to William III, king of Great 68 DECISIVE DATES Britain, their beaver hunting-grounds north- west and west of Albany, including a broad strip on the south side of Lake Erie, all of the present states of Michigan, Ohio, and Indiana, and Illinois "as far as the Illinois." The country of the Illini at the time of its dis- covery by Marquette and Joliet, extended as far east as the " ridge that divides the waters flowing into the Illinois from the streams that drain into the Wabash above the head-waters of Saline Creek," but the Iroquois had driven them west of the Illinois River, and the year before the date of this cessation, they had moved their principal village to the south and west of the river. The year following this cessation, Fort St. Louis was abandoned, and protection to the Illini tribes east of the Illinois River ceased. This purchase of lands of the Northwest by the English from the Iroquois, was little bene- fit further than to give the "color of title" Great Britain flaunted with so much pride. The strength of the English with the Indians, lay rather in a treaty which came as an inheritance from the Dutch. This treaty was called the Silver Covenant Chain. The Hudson River was discovered in 1609, and immediately colonized. "The Dutch took an THE SILVER COVENANT CHAIN 69 early advantage of the opportunity the river afforded for trading for furs. Traders were at work where Albany now is, as early as 1610. Christiaensen built a rude fort four miles below Albany in 1613, which he named Nassau. Here Jacob Eelkens was in command, and here in 1618 he negotiated a treaty with the Indians which secured their alliance with the Dutch during their whole possession, and to which the English fell heirs. This treaty was still in force when the war of the Revolution began."* In their poetic use of language, the Indians called this treaty the "Silver Covenant Chain," which bound them to the interest of their white brothers. It was never broken. When the Dutch surrendered to the English, the treaty was transferred to them, and always re- mained intact. This treaty was made on the banks of what is now Normans Kill, a small stream which empties into the Hudson River four miles south of Albany. The place is better known through the song of Hiawatha, as "The Vale of Tawasentha, The green and silent valley, By the pleasant water-courses." It was here that the chain was forged which was destined to decide the fate of nations and de- 70 DECISIVE DATES termine the supremacy of the Anglo-Saxon in the New World. The Dutch in America, through this treaty, decided the governing power of the continent. For because of this treaty, as it will later be shown, the British found it possible to destroy the power of the French in America forever. Frequent reference is made to this Silver Covenant Chain in writings prior to the war of the Revolution. The answer to the appeal of the Seneca chief quoted above, for aid, shows the high value put upon this treaty by the British. Every effort was made to extend this compact to the western Indians. Had the French not come into the Illinois Country in the latter part of the seventeenth century, this alliance might have been made. On the other hand, had it not been for the strength of the Silver Covenant Chain whose "links were never permitted to rust," the French priests with their evident personal interest in all the redmen, would sure- ly, spite of Champlain's act, have won even the Iroquois to espouse their cause. The constant effort of the French was to "break the chain," and as constant an effort of the British was to lengthen it until it bound the tribes of the west- ern Indians. THE SILVER COVENANT CHAIN 71 * Sir William Johnson was made Commissioner of Indian Affairs in America by Great Britain about 1750. He had great influence over the Indians and managed them wisely and well. He urged the extension of this treaty to the Indians of the West. In a letter written to the Lords of Trade at London, dated March 6, 1756, he says of the Indians: "It gives me the most solid pleasure that I can, with the greatest truth, assure your Lordships, that the Six United Nations (the Iroquois), give us the strongest intimations of sincerity and fidelity * * * They seem solicitous now to enlarge their confederacy by bringing in the western Indians, which I have been advising them to do these several years." * A meeting of Indian chiefs was called later at Onondago, at which there were some Shawnee and Delaware Indians. Others came, and two days later met with the Shawnees and Dela- wares at Sir William Johnson's house, where they formally joined the alliance and "were bound with the Silver Covenant Chain " in the interests of the English. This council was held but just before the loss of Oswego during the French and Indian war. After this defeat, the future looked gloomy to the English. Sir William Johnson writes that 72 DECISIVE DATES this "unfortunate revolution in our military affairs entirely disconcerted all my measures. Under these circumstances, I judged the most prudent step I could take would be to summon a meeting of some of the chiefs of each nation as soon as possible at my house in order to know their positive determination and what part they proposed to act."* The result of this meeting was the urgent wish expressed to the Lords of Trade for a change in the plans of the campaign. Again Sir William writes: *"If an at- tempt upon Niagara through Lake Ontario should be a part of the plan of operations for this year, and that our preparations for it are projected with judgment and carried on with vigor, I am persuaded I could join His Majesty's troops that way, with the main body of the warriors of the Six Nations together with many others of their Allies and Dependents, and that by taking proper measures, I could prevent many, if not most, of those northern and west- ern Indians who form the Ottawa Confederacy, from joining the French against us." Later it is recorded that at a conference held in the spring of 1759, "a number of (Genesee) Indians were present who brought word that 'as soon as the waters were navigable, the Indians as far west as the Illinois | were com- THE SILVER COVENANT CHAIN 73 ing to meet Sir William Johnson." They ar- rived shortly afterward. At this conference, ten and more nations agreed to bind themselves with the Silver Covenant Chain. It was in the July following, that a siege of three weeks ending in a severe conflict, re- sulted in the loss of Fort Niagara to the French, and complete victory to the English forces. The connecting link of French military posts between Canada and Louisiana was effectually broken forever. It was the promise of the victory on the Plains of Abraham. To understand how influences from the Illinois Country occasioned defeat we must know cause of the war which had been waging for a half-dozen years. It echoed the war in Europe between France and Great Britain, yet came directly because both nations dis- puted rights to the fur trade west of the Allegheny Mountains. It has been seen that the territory between the thirty-ninth and forty-eighth degrees north latitude was claimed by three of the great European powers. As the years passed, the fur trade of this section was desired by both the French and the English. To make their claim stronger, Great Britain purchased the land of this sec- tion from the Iroquois Indians, who held the 74 DECISIVE DATES right to make this sale because of conquest. The purchase was made early in the eighteenth century, but the deed of transfer was ignored by the French who came into the disputed country and built forts. To further possess this country, the Virginia Colony organized the Ohio Company with an idea of colonizing the territory north and west of the Ohio River. The government of France was vainly urged to send colonists to possess the same territory. Colonization did not follow from either source. The French made good their claim by sinking plates at the mouths of rivers. To stop this, the Governor of Virginia sent young George Washington from Williamsburg to carry a message to the French, remon- strating against their actions. He brought back in return a message of refusal to with- draw troops from the disputed country. A regiment of six hundred men was organized and sent to drive the Frenchmen out of the country. Meanwhile the Ohio Company sent thirty men to build a fort at the point of the con- fluence of the Allegheny and Monongehela rivers. They had not progressed far when a party of French and Indians attacked and ex- THE SILVER COVENANT CHAIN 75 pelled them. These completed the fort and called it Fort DuQuesne, in honor of the Governor General of Canada. Not knowing the fort was occupied by French instead of English, the Virginia troops pressed forward toward it. On the way, one company under the command of George Washington, then a young man hardly in his twenties, met and attacked a company of French soldiers under the command of Jumon de Villiers, and killed the commanding officer. His brother, Neyon de Villiers, was of the garrison at Fort Chartres on the Mississippi River, in the Illinois Country. Hearing of his brother's death, Cap- tain de Villiers asked and received permission to take troops to the relief of Fort DuQuesne. With his soldiers from the Illinois Country, de Villiers went to the rescue and compelled the return to Virginia of Washington and his troops, and the agreement of the English colony not to erect any establishment west of the mountains for a year. This is the first record of the bravery of the Illinois soldier, but by no means the last. The soldiers from Illinois carried supplies to Fort DuQuesne, making the trip by way of the Mississippi River to the mouth of the Ohio, thence up that stream. 76 DECISIVE DATES As the war progressed, there was a great demand in the army of the French for increased number of soldiers. The English navy cut off most of the reinforcements from France, while the English, on the contrary, were constantly receiving troops from the mother-country. Every effort was made north of the Ohio River, by the French, to stir up the Indians to help in the preservation of the Northwest for the joint occupancy of the Gallic and native American races. In the spring of 1759, while Sir William Johnson was holding the Council and Conference of Indians at his House in far away New York, which resulted in the transfer of the allegiance of the Indians "as far west as the Illinois," from the French to the English, Mons. de Aubry, Commandant at Fort Chartres in the Illinois Country, was raising troops to take east with him. Four hundred men started with him in bateaux and canoes down the Mississippi to the mouth of the Ohio, which they ascended as far as the mouth of the Wabash. They could go no further up the Ohio River, since the English were in possession of its headwaters. Ascending the Wabash River to the Miami villages near the present site of Fort Wayne, THE SILVER COVENANT CHAIN 77 they made the portage, and passing down the Maumee, they entered Lake Erie. They were constantly reinforced by bands of different tribes of Indians, and by Canadian militia, as they passed the several posts, until there was an army of sixteen hundred men. Of these there were six hundred Frenchmen and one thousand Indians. Before Aubry reached Presque Isle, he was joined by other bodies of Indians and Canadians from the region of the upper lakes. M. de Lignery had assembled the Ohio Indians at Presque Isle, and met him at Fort Machault, at the mouth of French Creek in Pennsylvania. Aubry 's intention was to go down the river and retake Fort DuQuesne, or Fort Pitt, as the English called it. But letters received at Fort Machault changed his plans. The news that the "English had gone against Fort Niagara" determined Aubry to go to the rescue of that fort. His route was up French Creek, thence by portage to Presque Isle, and sailing along the shores of Lake Erie to Niagara. Sir William Johnson being informed of this ad- vance of the French army was prepared to meet them on the road between Niagara Falls and the fort. 78 DECISIVE DATES As the French made their appearance, they were seen to be marching along a path about eight feet wide and were in readiness to fight in close order and without ranks or files. The Indians of the English army advanced to speak to those of the French army. After this conference the Indians of the French army refused to advance under pretext that they were at peace with the Iroquois. Thus were the French abandoned by their chief force ! Utter defeat followed and a massacre ensued in which all the French officers were either killed, wounded, or taken prisoner. McCarty, the commandant at Fort Chartres, sadly said: "Niagara cost us the flower of our soldiers." The treachery of the savage allies of the French carried victory to the British. Sir William Johnson reported it in these words: "To show your Lordships that my Labours have not been in vain, I now send duplicates (of former letter and treaty at Canajohary), it (the treaty) being concluded at a general con- vention of the Six Nations and the Allies (in the spring of 1759), after many Solicitations and interested Arguments Suggested to them by me, to join us against the Enemy which they did, last year to the amount of above a thousand fighting men at Niagara, from whence I sent THE SILVER COVENANT CHAIN 79 them home laden with the spoils of the French ; and tho' the Enemy put me to a deal of trouble, when their army was near upon us, by sending some of the Indians under pretence of Parley with ours, but rather to inveigle and intimidate ours (?) / found means to retain even them who, though come into our camp under French in- fluence, / made them fight against their old friends."* Such was the result of the Indians from "as far as the Illinois" being bound by the Silver Covenant Chain in 1759. Had these western Indians remained as true to the moral obligation they had to the interests of the French as had the eastern Indians to the promise their fathers had made to Jacob Eelkins near a century and a half before this time, "the Chain" would never have drawn them away from their alliance to their friends, the French. If they had turned a deaf ear to the efforts of Sir William Johnson and refused to be bound by the Silver Covenant Chain, the war would probably have had a different ending when end it did. The passing of New France in America would have been at least delayed, if not averted. The history of our State and our Nation would read other than it does now. 80 DECISIVE DATES Victory to the British at Niagara* was quickly followed by victory at other points until upon the Plains of Abraham at Quebec, the "Lilies of France'" were displaced by the Dragon of St. George. The Anglo-Saxon race dominated the New World. NOTES AND EXPLANATIONS Page 61 * Shawnee meant south. t See Beckwith's notes of the Northwest, p. 170. Page 62 j Charlevoiz's History of New France.Vol. 5, p. 130. Page 63 * Hennepin, p. 132 (London Ed.) Page 64 * Beckwith's Historic notes of the Northwest, p. 108. Page 66 -j- Paris Documents, Vol. 9, p. 161. Page 67 * New York Colonial Documents, Vol. 4, p. 729. Page 69 * Qlde Ulster, Vol. 4, p. 3. Page 71 * Letter of Sir William Johnson, dated September 10, 1756, to the Lords of Trade at London, Hist. New York, p. 733. Page 72 * Letter dated May 17, 1 759. t Although the expression "as far west as the Illinois" is usually considered to include the country of the Illinois, there is every reason to consider that here it means the river of that name. Since the tribe of the Illini had been moved beyond and below the river a half century before, an inference may be drawn that this tribe was not among the deserters. Page 79 * A letter written by Sir William Johnson to the Board of Trade at London, dated 5th of June, 1760. Page 80 * Many historians state that the Indians re- mained neutral during the Seven Years' War. Such was the case only during the first years of the war or until the British, at the suggestion of Sir William Johnson, made an attack upon Fort Niagara. Sir William Johnson had already persuaded the western Indians to be bound with the "Silver Covenant Chain." After this the red man was an ally of the British. THE SILVER COVENANT CHAIN 81 Illustra- The first white explorers of the Mississippi River ^ n noted strangely pictured rocks at different places Pia e sa alon g its wa y- Bird The most striking of these was the one on the bluff at the point where afterward the city of Alton was built. This represented the Piasa or Devil bird and might have been seen as late as 1856 when the State Prison was built there and they quarried the rock and destroyed this terror of the native Indians. There is a narrow ravine between the city of Alton and the mouth of the Illinois River through which a small stream runs to empty into the Missis- sippi. This is known as the Piasa. Near the mouth of this stream, bluffs of sandstone rise upon which the representation of the Piasa birds was made. No Indian could ever be induced to look upon these pictured rocks. Indeed they were horrible to see. The legend of the Piasa briefly told is this : " Many thousand moons before the arrival of the paleface' ' a bird of such dimensions that he could easily carry off a buffalo, lived in the locality of these pictured rocks. At one time this bird tasted the flesh of an Indian and ever after, one of the Piasa birds would watch opportunity to dart upon an Indian and bear him off into one of the caves of the bluff to devour him. Hundreds of warriors were de- voured in this way and the bird became a terror to all Indians. At last, a great chief, Onatoga by name separ- ated himself from his tribe and fasted the length of a moon praying the Great Spirit to protect his children from the dread Piasa. On the last night of his fast, the Great Spirit appeared to Onatoga in a dream and told him to take twenty of his war- riors, to arm each with a bow and poisoned arrows and take them to the mouth of this cave. They must be concealed but another warrior must stand exposed to the sight of the Piasa and when the monster sprang at him the men must shoot at the bird. Onatoga chose to, himself, stand in full view as the prey of the Piasa. He so loved his people that he was willing to give up his life for them. When all were ready, Onatoga planted his feet firmly upon the earth and drawing up his manly form, he began chanting the death song of the Indian war- rior. A moment and the Piasa arose in the air and darted down upon the chief. But the monster (6) 82 DECISIVE DATES had no more than reached his victim when twenty arrows from twenty bows pierced its body in as many places and the Piasa expired while Onatoga remained unhurt. The Miamis had a tradition concerning the Piasa bird which accounted for their hatred of the Illini and the ultimate almost complete annihilation of that confederacy. In their tradition the Piasa showed great favor to the Michegannis when they met the Miamis in this Piasa canyon. This ill will caused by their defeat was handed from one generation to another until opportunity came to join their strength to the Penotomy confederacy which worked such disaster to all the tribes of the Illini. .^ * INTERIM 1759-1778 THE STORY OF PONTIAC END OF THE PERIOD OF ROMANCE BRITISH DOMINATION INTERIM 1759-1778 THE French colonies in the Illinois Coun- try, were the last to be transferred to the rule of Great Britain. This delay in which the flag of France defiantly fluttered in the Illinois breeze (the sole spot in the New World where it waved unmolested) was owing to the interference of Pontiac, an Ottawa chief, who three times drove back the British that were coming to take legal possession of Fort Chartres. Major Robert Rogers was sent to tell the western forts of the surrender of Canada and the change in government at the close of the French and Indian War. He met Pontiac, a celebrated Ottawa chief, near what is now Cleve- land, Ohio. Pontiac stopped him, asking the reason of his (Roger's) coming into that country without his (Pontiac's) permission. He was informed of the change from French to English rule, and at last permitted Rogers to proceed. He even graciously accompanied him and averted a massacre of Rogers and his company, at the mouth of the Detroit River. But Pontiac 85 86 DECISIVE DATES was by no means won to the cause Rogers repre- sented. He hated the English. Pontiac comprehended the situation. He was a man of rare intelligence, and he correctly read the signs of the times. He saw the differ- ence between the English and the French ; that the one were settlers, the other but fur-traders, they were not seeking homes. He knew that English settlements in North America meant the destruction of his race. Pontiac made a plan to drive the English away. It was a desperate plan to save the coun- try to the red man, and it involved the effort of all the tribes of the Northwest, under the most absolute secrecy. The plan succeeded in so far as that no white man had the least idea of what was contemplated by the Indians. When the chosen day arrived, every garrison west of Fort Pitt, excepting that of Detroit, by either strategy or force, was captured by the Indians. But Pontiac planned without understanding the strength of the white man. Detroit held out for fifteen months against the Indians. Then the garrison was relieved by General Bradstreet. Pontiac gave up his plan of completely con- quering the white man. He crossed the prairies to Fort Chartres on the Mississippi. This fort THE STORY OF PONTIAC 87 was not surrendered to the English until two years after peace was declared, because of the fear Pontiac aroused. The cessation of hostilities on the part of Pontiac, and the transfer of Fort Chartres to the English, was at last secured through a conference, which George Croghan, Deputy Supt. of Indian Affairs, held with this great chief.* After the English garrison had taken posses- sion of Fort Chartres, the surrounding French towns became almost depopulated. Many fam- ilies moved across the river to the Spanish towns on the west side of the Mississippi. Those who did not move, although at heart remaining loyal subjects to the French Crown and clinging to their old customs, reluctantly took the oath of allegiance to Great Britain. New France in America had ceased to exist. Thus ended the period of Romance in Illinois history. It is the pen of the poet or novelist, or the brush of the artist that should be used to picture this period, the historian is out of place in re- cording cold facts in detail during the hundred years of Illinois under the French. This period has had little influence upon succeeding events; it made slight impress upon after his- tory. Yet it is a time fraught with interest and abounds in attractive events to one who looks 88 DECISIVE DATES into the past for something more than statistical records with which to account for, or prove the value of later history. It is the thread of gold to brighten a dull fabric, or the elusive fragrance which heightens the attraction of the rose. The passing years have obliterated all trace of life during this period. Another people have lived a different life in the land of the Gauls. A search for evidence of life of this hundred years is rewarded by the sight of an island in the river rapidly being washed away, with here and there a handful of old coin or some small piece of silver which has been dug out of the side of the bluff where the great Mississippi has, in its irony, cast it. The British domination of the Illinois Country lasted from 1765 (Pontiac kept the garrison at Fort Chartres from formal surrender for two years) to 1778. It was thirteen years of inac- tivity other than the constant inciting of the Indians to harrass the colonists in Kentucky and elsewhere on the Ohio River. These colonists had gone west in spite of the edict of the king of England made at the close of the Seven Years' War, that the Alleghany Mountains should be the western limit of colonization. The policy of Great Britain was against extended coloniza- tion of the West because of fear that the mother- BRITISH DOMINATION 89 country could not control the colonists, but that they would do as they did very soon do on the eastern coast declare their independence. The French subjects in the Illinois Country were discontented, and petitioned the king to be attached to the Province of Quebec. This was done in June, 1774. The act of British Parlia- ment which enlarged the Province of Quebec so as to include the Illinois Country, further pro- vided for the free exercise of religion in this Province, also that the ancient laws of the French be restored to them, particularly that trial by jury cease. This was the first con- sideration the French had received since the Treaty of Peace at Paris, eleven years before, at the close of the French and Indian War. It was not, however, their first petition. Three years before this time a mass meeting at Kas- kaskia is recorded as protesting against the tyranny of those placed in authority. At this meeting a demand to be granted in- stitutions such as those of the Connecticut colony, with a right to appoint their own gov- ernor and civil magistrates, was made. Since Connecticut was the only one of the English colonies which had preserved its ancient charter, there needs no stronger evidence that the French colonies of the Illinois Country, so lately put 90 DECISIVE DATES under the rule of Great Britain, were imbued with as earnest a desire for independence as were the English colonies along the coast, who were on the threshold of the War of the Revolution. The answer to the demand for institutions modeled upon those of Connecticut, was a decided refusal. Intercourse between these colonies on the Mississippi River and those on the Coast, was limited. The English soldiers at Fort Gage and Vincennes fostered a terror of the Americans in both the Frenchmen and the Indians. The former were discouraged in a knowledge of the methods of their eastern neighbors, and the latter were encouraged in all manner of cruelties perpetrated upon the frontiersman along the Ohio River and in Ken- tucky. NOTES AND EXPLANATIONS Page 87 * Croghan and Pontiac met on the familiar trail which even yet may be discerned in the North Western part of Edgar County and after a confer- ence agreed upon a treaty of Peace when they reached Kaskaskia, whither they journeyed. A few rods south of this trail is situated the old spring which was used by the Indians and the early French Explorers. The old spring is now a well which overflows the year around. Mr. Geo. W. Brown, the Superin- tendent of Edgar County Schools plans marking this historic spot with a tablet to be inscribed : BRITISH DOMINATION 91 " Near here on July 18, A. D. 1765, Colonel George Croghan, Deputy Superintendent of Indian Affairs, for the British Government, held a treaty of Peace with Pontiac, chief of the Ottawa and Leader of the Great Indian Confederacy. By the terms of this agreement, the Allegiance of the Indians was trans- ferred from the French to the English, thus secur- ing the eastern Mississippi valley for Anglo-Saxon civilization." After this treaty, made with Major George Grog- han, Pontiac went to St. Louis to live. One day he went to Cahokia against the advice of St. Ange, his friend. Here he was made drunk, and, at the instigation of an English merchant of St. Louis, was foully murdered by one of the Indians. Whether with good reason or not, the claim that it was an Indian of the Illini Confederacy called out all the enmity of all other tribes against every Illini. St. Ange had Pontiac buried. It is in the rotunda of the hotel which covers the site of his burial place that the D. A. R. of St. Louis has placed the tablet to his memorv. DATE III. 1778 THE CONQUEST OF THE NORTHWEST DATE III. 1778 IN the plans of the War for Independence, fought by the English colonists, the territory along the eastern coast alone seemed consid- ered of importance. The great extent of coun- try, formerly New France, which became British possessions at the close of the Seven Years' War, appears to have been underestimated. Yet what would have been the effect upon this country, or upon the world, if, when the Revolutionary War was over, the Alleghany mountains or even the Ohio River, rather than the Great Lakes, had been the northern and western limits of the United States! The spirit of love of adventure which brought the first settlers to Virginia, gave their children the desire to press on into the wilderness of the West in spite of the edict of the king to the con- trary. Beyond the mountains, they found and settled an Eden, for such the fertile land of Ken- tucky appeared to be. Virginia extended her territory south of the Ohio to the Mississippi River, and the county of Kentucky was a possession only limited in value because of the hostile Indians who lived or came into it. The 95 96 . DECISIVE DATES Indian cruelties were increased through the in- fluence of the British garrison in the Illinois Country. At last the policy of the British soldier's paying for scalps of the settlers on the frontier, made life in Kentucky so uncertain that help was asked from Virginia. But the county of Kentucky was a long way from Williamsburg, the seat of government of Virginia, and the militia, together with all possible volunteer troops, were all needed in the War of the Revolution, then being waged on the eastern coast. The gravity of the situation for the Kentucky pioneer, together with the im- portance of conquering the Northwest for the new nation, were apparent to George Rogers Clark, himself one of the pioneer settlers of Kentucky. Patrick Henry was the governor of Virginia. He was a relative of George Rogers Clark. It was a long, a hard and a hazardous journey from Kentucky to Williamsburg, yet Clark undertook it, and secured permission to raise troops to aid him in his plan of relief to the frontiersman, from not only the Indian enemies, but from those who were urging the Indians against the help- less settlers. After much difficulty, the troops were secured as volunteers. Clark started with them, ostensibly to protect the frontier, but he THE CONQUEST OF THE NORTHWEST 97 carried secret orders from Gov. Henry to cap- ture Kaskaskia. In a history of Indiana prepared by Judge John B. Dillon, in 1843, extracts are taken from the Manuscript Memoirs composed by George Rogers Clark, at the joint request of Presidents Jefferson and Madison. It is from this source that the extracts given here are taken. Through these extracts, we learn in the words of George Rogers Clark himself, how British Illinois be- came part of the new American Nation, and the Cross of St. George gave place to the Stars and Stripes, which have never been lowered. The trip down the Ohio was safely made as far as the island, now Louisville. They reached this place June 24, 1778. Learning that spies were kept below Kaskaskia, Clark decided to land and march overland to Fort Gage. The men who were not able to endure the fatigue of the march were left at the Ohio River. That gave Clark but four companies with which to undertake the capture of Kaskaskia. It was at this time that Clark received a letter from Colonel Campbell, dated at Pittsburg, which informed him of the treaty just made between France and America. This knowledge came at an opportune time, and Clark used it to advantage, not only in securing the good-will of (7) 98 DECISIVE DATES the French, but as well in gaining their influence over the Indians in behalf of the Virginians. Since they were to leave the Ohio at Fort Massac, they landed at an island at the mouth of the Tennessee River. There they captured a party of hunters coming down the river, from whom they received valuable information. These men were formerly from the East, and expressed happiness in the adventure of the Virginians. Since Clark had heard nothing from Kaskaskia for many months, it was well for him to learn that "the militia (at Kaskaskia) was kept in good order and spies on the Mississippi, and that all hunters both Indian and others were ordered to keep a good look-out for the rebels."* These hunters further told Clark "that if they (the British) received timely notice, they could collect all forces and give a warm reception, and that the people were taught to harbor a most horrid idea of the rebels, especially the Virginians."* Clark and his men concealed their boats in a little gulley a small distance from Massac and set out on their march. They "set out a northwest course. The weather was favorable. In some parts water was scarce, as well as game. Of course they suffered drought and hunger, but not to excess."! THE CONQUEST OF THE NORTHWEST 99 On the third day the guide became confused and aroused Clark's suspicions. But he fortu- nately regained the trail with little delay. After many days' weary march "on the fourth of July," continues Clark in his Memoirs, "in the evening, we got within a few miles of the town (Kaskaskia), where we lay until near dark, keeping spies ahead, after which we com- menced our march, and took possession of a house wherein a large family lived, on the bank of the Kaskaskia River, about three- quarters of a mile above the town. Here we were informed that the people, a few days before, were under arms, but had concluded that the cause of the alarm was without foun- dation, and that at that time there were a great number of men in town, but that the Indians had generally left it, and at the present all was quiet. We soon procured a sufficiency of vessels, the more in ease to convey us across the river. "With one of the divisions, I marched to the fort, and ordered the other two into different quarters of the town. If I met with no resist- ance, at a certain signal a general shout was to be given and certain parts were to be immediate- ly possessed, and men of each detachment, who could speak the French language, were to 100 DECISIVE DATES run through every street and proclaim what had happened, and inform the inhabitants that every person that appeared in the street would be shot down. This disposition had its desired effect. In a very little time we had complete possession, and every avenue was guarded to prevent any escape to give the alarm to the other villages in case of opposition. Various orders had been issued, not worth mentioning. "I don't suppose greater silence ever reigned among the inhabitants of a place than did at this : not a person to be seen, not a word to be heard by them, for some time, but, designedly, the greatest noise kept up by our troops through every quarter of the town, and patrols con- tinued the whole night around it, as inter- cepting any information was a capital object, and in about two hours, the whole of the in- habitants were disarmed, and informed that if anyone was taken attempting to make his escape, he should be immediately put to death."* Thus it was that without a shot nor the shed- ding of a drop of blood, Kaskaskiaf on the Mississippi River was surrendered to the Ameri- cans and the vast territory hitherto claimed by Spain, settled by France, and possessed by Great Britain, became the property of Virginia, Courtesy of the Illinois State Historical Society. FATHER PIERRE GIBAULT. THE CONQUEST OF THE NORTHWEST 101 and shortly afterward was ceded to the United State. George Rogers Clark, who through tact and aid from Father Gibault, the priest of the Roman Catholic church, whose parish included all the French towns from Cahokia on the west to Post Vincent on the east, soon had the oath of allegiance from every citizen, and completed his conquest. His afterward brave capture of Fort Sack- ville (Post Vincennes) was but the necessary act in holding the territory. Father Gibault went to Vincennes and secured the allegiance of the people. General Hamilton was in com- mand of Fort Sackville, but was at that time absent in Detroit. Clark seeing the necessity of an American officer at Post Vincennes, sent Captain Helm to command at that post and also appointed him agent for Indian affairs in the Department of the Wabash. Captain Helm took command of the fort about the middle of August. Unfortunately Clark was given neither the men nor the authority to march against Detroit, and by the capture of its garrison to complete the conquest of the Northwest. It was in October of that year (1778) that the Assembly of Virginia passed an Act making the territory 102 DECISIVE DATES west of the Ohio River into a county of Virginia. But before this law could avail anything, General Hamilton collected an army of about thirty British soldiers, fifty volunteers, and four hundred Indians, and on the 15th of December passed down the Wabash River and took pos- session of Post Vincennes for Great Britain. Clark knew Hamilton would undertake to capture his forces, so he resolved to save them by himself capturing Hamilton. He sent some of his men whom he had re-enlisted, by boat down the Mississippi and up the Ohio and Wabash rivers, with instructions to their com- mander, Captain Rogers, to secrete himself a few miles below Vincennes, and prohibit any person from passing either up or down. With another part of his men he undertook the march across the country to Vincennes. Words are inadequate to express the hardships of that march. Across prairies, through swamps and marshes, which were flooded by continual February rains, with water waist-high or higher, the brave men followed their leader. Never was a commander taxed heavier to keep up the spirits of his men! Never was there a display of greater courage or more praise-worthy hero- ism. Because of his secrecy and rapid THE CONQUEST OF THE NORTHWEST 103 movements, Hamilton had no idea he had left Kaskaskia, when Clark surprised him at Vin- cennes. The town was only too glad to sur- render and the people assisted at the siege of the Fort. The result of this siege was that Hamilton and all his force were made prisoners of war. George Rogers Clark held military possession of the Northwest until the close of the war of the Revolution. The correspondence relative to the treaty of peace, held at Paris at the close of the war, shows the importance of Clark's conquest. The British insisted that the Ohio River should be the Northern boundary of the United States and the "American Commission- ers relied to sustain their claim that the lakes should be the boundary, upon the fact that General Clark had conquered the country, and was in the undisputed military possession of it at the time of the negotiation. This fact was affirmed and admitted, and was the chief ground on which British Commissioners reluc- tantly abandoned their claim."* Had the Ohio River been the boundary, with the British in possession of the territory now covered by the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, the struggling new nation would have been handicapped, and the 104 DECISIVE DATES United States have met a different fate. Such would have been the case had it not been for the effort of George Rogers Clark, who captured Fort Gage at Kaskaskia, July 4, 1778. NOTES AND EXPLANATIONS Page 98 * Clark's Memoirs. f Clark's Memoirs. Page 100 * Clark's Memoirs. f It is now generally understood that the ' ' Fort Gage" where Clark "captured the Governor Mr. Rocheblave" was not the so-called Fort Gage which stood "on the summit of a high rock opposite the village (Kaskaskia)" whose earth works are yet to be seen. This Fort Gage burned in 1766 and there is no record that it was ever re-built. The "Fort Gage" Clark did capture was the "stone house of the Jesuits" in Kaskaskia called Fort Gage in honor of General Thomas Gage. See Appendix Illinois Hist. Collections, Vol. I. Page 103 * Burnett's Notes on the Northwest Territory, p. 77. INTERIM 1778-1818 ILLINOIS A COUNTY OF VIRGINIA THE INDIANA TERRITORY THE TERRITORY OF ILLINOIS THE FORT DEARBORN MASSACRE INTERIM 1778-1818. AFTER Clark's conquest of the Illinois Country, its future government became a matter of anxiety to him. In his mem- oirs he says: "I inquired particularly into the manner the people had been governed formerly, and much to my satisfaction, I found that it had been generally as severe as under the Militia law. I was determined to make an advantage of it, and took every step in my power to cause the people to feel the blessings enjoyed by an American citizen."* To this end, he caused a " court of civil juris- diction to be established at Cahokia, elected by the people." f The date of the earliest paper which has been preserved issuing from the court at Cahokia, is October 29, 1778. The last direct petition to Clark that exists is dated August 27, 1778. Therefore, it must be con- cluded that the courts were established, between the last of August and the last of October, 1778, and the first election in Illinois was held sometime during the Fall of 1778. Clark soon discovered this plan enabled him to support, from their own choice, almost a 107 108 DECISIVE DATES supreme authority over the people. In proof that this government was a good one, he further records the fact that "there was an appeal to myself in certain cases, and I believe that no people ever had their business done more to their satisfaction than they had through the means of these regulations."* Before the beginning of the new year, the legislature of Virginia had passed a bill provid- ing for the government of this new country which was claimed as the Illinois County of Vir- ginia, naming the county lieutenant as chief executive officer. Governor Patrick Henry commissioned John Todd to this office. Todd reached the Illinois County in May 1779. He found many difficult problems to solve. There were the two distinct races meeting at these towns, which by reason of inherited ideas of religion, government and social life largely differing, were far from easy to merge into the one people with the same ideals and desires. The French were Roman Catholics ; the Ameri- can frontiersman was, or his fathers had been, Protestants, and the Calvinistic and English- Catholic blood in their veins flowed hot and aggressive. The French was friendly to the Indian; these new people hated the Indians under all conditions. The French depended ILLINOIS A COUNTY OF VIRGINIA 109 upon the law and respected it; the Americans were a law unto themselves. The government of Virginia had neither the interest in the new territory nor was there money to spare to sup- port the soldiers in the County of Illinois. The soldiers lacked the true idea of the rights of property and imposed upon the Frenchmen.* Again, the land was fertile and there was a threatened rush of settlers to pre-empt it, endangering to the Illinois county the fate of Kentucky with land speculation, law-suits, and anarchy. Another source of anxiety was the worthlessness of the paper money in circulation. All these combined to place the man who was at the head of the civil government in a position to be unconditionally blamed. Matters grew constantly worse, and Todd begged to be per- mitted to resign as early as the middle of August, but little more than five months after he came as county lieutenant to the Illinois County. He did not receive the desired permission at that time, but did leave the Illinois County in No- vember. How long after that he remained in the official position of county lietuenant, is not definitely known. He left Richard Winston, his deputy, during his ablence. One of the last official acts of Todd was to turn the government over to the military, with 110 DECISIVE DATES the result of suffering on the part of the inhabi- tants that drove many families to emigrate to the other side of the Mississippi River. Spite of all adverse conditions, the Virginians held the territory northwest of the Ohio for almost four years. This Northwest Territory comprised what now are the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin. Then came the readjustment at the end of the Revolutionary War. Massachusetts and Connecticut claimed the northern part of the Northwest Territory, upon the chartered state rights. New York claimed the territory because of the cession made by the Iroquois Indians, while Virginia claimed it be- cause of Clark's conquest. These conflicting claims caused much dispute upon the part of the states. Maryland, in particular, refused to agree to the Articles of Confederation until these states abandoned all claims to special owner- ship to the Northwest Territory, and it was made a part of the general government. The plea was that all had fought, first France, then England, and that all should have that terri- tory. This resulted in all the states relinquish- ing their rights. After all due cessions were made, Congress passed the ordinance of 1787, providing for the government of this territory. Courtesy of the Illinois State Historical Society. GEN. ARTHUR ST. CLA1R. THE INDIANA TERRITORY 111 The seat of government was at Marietta, Ohio. Arthur St. Clair was the governor of the territory. In 1801, the Ohio territory was formed, and two years later admitted as a state. The re- maining territory was known as Indiana terri- tory, and for nine years the name of Illinois was lost, Gen. Harrison was governor of Indiana territory, and Vincennes was its capital. In 1809, a further division was made, forming the Illinois territory. Its seat of government was at Kaskaskia, and Ninian Edwards was ap- pointed the first governor of Illinois territory. Illinois territory was made a state in 1818. At the close of the Seven Years War, the king of France surrendered all land in the Mississippi valley east of the river to Great Britian, and west of the river he ceded to Spain. This terri- tory west of the river belonging to Spain, had St. Louis as its capital. It was from this point that an invasion of Illinois was made by Spanish soldiers in 1781. The company con- sisted of thirty Spaniards, thirty-five French- men and sixty Indians. Their objective point was the nearest fort which yet floated the flag of England. This was old fort St. Joseph in southern Michigan. The only possible motive for this expedition seems to have been the hatred of the Spanish for the English. This was 112 DECISIVE DATES the echo of the trouble in the old world between these two, at that time, great European powers, who were then at war with each other. The march was started in mid-winter. The men dared not cross the great prairies at that time because of the extreme cold weather, so their line of travel was along the streams as much as possible. It is believed they left the state where Danville now is located, going thence in a northerly direction to South Bend, Indiana. Don Eu- genio Pourre was in command of this strange army. They surprised the fort and captured it without trouble, hauled down the flag of England and hoisted the flag of Spain, after which they triumphantly returned to St. Louis to report their act to Spain. It took a year to get the report to Spain and no action was ever taken. If Spain had a plan of increasing possessions in the New World and Illinois was at that time in danger of becoming a part of their new possessions, it is nowhere recorded. The early years of the nineteenth century were marked by increased trouble with the Indians in the border settlements of Illinois. Beside their growing discontent because of the fact which every year became more and more apparent that the white man was taking pos- !S BU'ICINC OCCUPIES THE SI^E OF Q n^r" J EXTEND!: IGRDSS : T.87I. THE SUGGESTION OF THE CH C,:C H:STD SOCIETY THiS TABLET WAS ERtCTZC BY ov.isio. W.M.H:Y Courtesy of Chicago Historical Society FORT DEARBORN MASSACRE (TABLET) THE TERRITORY OF ILLINOIS 113 session of their hunting grounds and driving them ever further and further away, there was the ever present influence of the English, who remained in the country, and by every means, kept the flame of hatred of the Americans burn- ing in the Indians' hearts. The settlements of white men, it must be remembered were along the Mississippi River, below what is now Alton and along the Ohio River. Northern Illinois, including Chicago, was yet a wilderness, the hunting grounds of the Pottawatomie with the Sacs and Foxes and Winnebagoes in the northwest. Mention has been made of Father Allouez having come into the Illinois Country landing at the mouth of the Chicago River at a date even previous to the coming of Marquette and Joliet, but that is only a tradition. A French trading post mission and fort is supposed to have been located there be- fore 1700. This trading post at the mouth of the Chicago River was a favorite one of the Indians, and, in the first years of the nineteenth century, the United States built a fort on the south side of the Chicago River near its mouth which they called Fort Dearborn.* In July, 1812, the garrison of this fort was composed of seventy-four men commanded by (8) 114 DECISIVE DATES Captain Nathan Heald. During the spring the Indians had shown such great hostilities that, fearing it would be impossible to hold the fort in case of an attack, Gen. William Hull, who was in command at Detroit, gave orders for it to be evacuated and the property to be distributed among the Indians as a peace offering. The order was brought to Fort Dearborn 'by a friendly Pottawatomie chief who knew of the hostile plan of the Indians, and strongly urged that the order be disregarded; or that, if the fort be evacuated, it be done at once before the Indians had any knowledge of its being con- templated. But Capt. Heald, against the judgment, of all the other officers, announced to the neighboring tribes his intention of abandoning the fort and dividing the goods among the Indians. To this end he invited a council which assembled on August 14. The day before the council met, an uncle of Mrs. Heald arrived from Fort Wayne with thirty friendly Miami Indians to escort the garrison at Fort Dearborn to this fort in Indiana. On the day of the council, the supplies of broadcloth, calico and paints, with some other less valuable materials, were dis- tributed among the Indians. FORT DEARBORN MASSACRE 115 But the muskets, which the savages coveted, were destroyed and the casks of liquor which they desired even more, had been rolled to the bank of the river and the contents poured into the stream. The Indians found this evidence of what they considered bad faith on the part of the white men, their passion was aroused and when the next day Captain Heald and his gar- rison marched out, they walked into the jaws of death. Five hundred Indians offered to be their escort, and when the garrison marched out, these five hundred Indians brought up the rear. They had proceeded but little more than a mile along the beach with the lake on their left, and a high sand bank on their right, when it was discovered that the Indians were prepared to attack them from behind the bank. Marching up to the top of the bank with his company, Capt. Heald had one round fired and charged upon the Indians who gave way in front and joined those in the rear, where they took possession of all the horses, baggage and provisions. The white men were then with- drawn to a slight elevation in the prairie out of shot of the bank or other cover. Here they 116 DECISIVE DATES paused, and when the Indians made signs, Capt. Heald advanced alone. After a few moments conversation with one of the Pottawatomie chiefs, Capt. Heald con- cluded the most prudent thing would be to surrender, trusting to the promise of the Indians to spare the lives of all the prisoners. These promises proved of little worth, for in the massacre that followed the entire garrison, men, women and children were all either killed or taken into a captivity which was worse than death. This massacre at Fort Dearborn occurred less than two months after the war of 1812 had been declared. The news of the massacre determined Gov. Edwards to take out a company of men from Camp Russell, which had been hastily organized by him near Edwards ville, with the avowed purpose of dispersing the Indians and destroy- ing their villages on the Wabash and Illinois rivers. The manner of executing this plan was little more to be commended than that of the Pottawatomies at Fort Dearborn, for, in too many cases, the peaceable, friendly Indians were killed and their homes destroyed without other reason than that of anger at the race. MONUMENT TO COMMEMORATE THE FORT DEARBORN MASSACRE FORT DEARBORN MASSACRE 117 The. trading post at LaPe was one instance. It was a French village, upon the site of which the present city of Peoria is built. Its people were in noway hostile. Yet the traders, voyageurs, Indi- ans and even the agent who was a loyal and confidential officer of the government, were all compelled to watch their village as it was burn- ing, and then to march many miles from their homes, and were there left to wander back to what might remain of their town, as best they could. The two years following were not satisfactory or favorable to the efforts of the Illinois soldiers to subdue the Indians. At the close of this period the Indians were in complete and defiant possession of the upper Illinois Country. And although the treaty of peace with Great Britain was signed December 24, 1814, no formal treaty with the Indians was made until a year from the following July. This was two years after the massacre of Fort Dearborn. NOTES AND EXPLANATIONS The matter for this portion of Illinois history should be credited to C. W. Alvord in his contri- butions to the Illinois State Hist. Library. Page 107 *Clarks Memoirs in Conquest of the Northwest. ^Collections of Illinois Historical Library, Vol. I , Cahokia Records, p. xivii. Page 113 *See Moses Historical and Statistical. x^ I -v -.-i ^. . i i Kt~o.ii MAP SHOWING EXTENSION OF NORTHERN BOUNDARY OF ILLINOIS DATE IV. 1818 EXTENSION OF NORTHERN BOUNDARY. DATE IV. 1818. THE ordinance of 1787 provided for the government of the territory lying north and west of the Ohio River, and also for its future division into states. It distinctly stated that this territory should be divided into not less than three nor more than five states. Furthermore, that the southern bound- ary of the two possible northern states should be "an east and west line drawn through the southern bend or extreme of Lake Michigan." Both Ohio and Indiana were admitted into the Union with the prescribed forty degrees and thirty-nine minutes north latitude for northern boundary. The Illinois territory was thus bounded on the north. But when the time came to admit the state into the Union, Nathaniel Pope, who was the delegate for the Illinois Territory, asked to amend the bill so that the northern boundary of the new state should be 42 30'. The amendment was adopted and the state admitted with the northern boundary 42 30', thus making the year 1818 a Decisive Date, not because of the birth of the commonwealth, but 121 122 DECISIVE DATES t because of the value to the state and the nation of this extension of northern boundary. A "line drawn east and west from the southern bend or extreme of Lake Michigan" as the northern boundary, would have deprived Illi- nois of the lake coast line, which has proved of such great value to the state and to the nation. At the time of making the ordinance, and indeed at the date of the admission of the state into the Union, the need of this coast-line was not as apparent as it later became. At that time, Illinois north of the lower third of the state, was a wilderness, The early settlers all came to the southern part of the state. The towns on the Ohio River and in the American Bottoms had no use for any means of transit other than the rivers. But had the commerce of the state in after years been altogether drawn down the Mis- sissippi River, the resources of Illinois would have been limited and the nation been the poorer. Without this coast-line there would not have been the means of intercourse with the East, which modified the sentiments of the state, otherwise under the strong influence of interest allied to the southern states. Without this extension of territory, the fifty-mile strip from which fourteen counties were formed, would Courtesy of the Missouri State Historical Society. NATHANIEL POPE. EXTENSION OF NORTHERN BOUNDARY 123 have been lost to the state. These, in the middle of the nineteenth century, by their votes saved Illinois to the Union and made it possible for Abraham Lincoln to be made president. The East and West were, through this fore- sight of Judge Pope, bound together by every interest of moral standards and commercial gain, because of which the Union could not be dissolved. Without this extension of territory, Chicago would have been lost to Illinois; and it is reasonable to declare as well, that Chicago would have been lost to the world, because with- out the facilities of growth given by the Illinois and Michigan canal, and the Illinois Central railroad, Chicago would never have become the great center of commercial enterprise it has been and now is. There were attempts made by the governor of Wisconsin territory to restore the northern boundary of Illinois to the one fixed by the Ordinance of 1787. James D. Doty, in 1842, urged the inhabitants of that northern strip which is above the original 42 39', to assert their independence in government, and those living in the western and central part of this section were very much in favor of being set aside into the territory of Wisconsin. Chicago, however, and surrounding country, absolutely 124 DECISIVE DATES refused to agree to the plan, even in spite of the promise of having a United States senator selected from the then growing city. Later in the same year there was a bill before the Legislative Council of Wisconsin Territory, to refer the question of making Wisconsin a state, to the popular vote of the people at the next election, and to invite the people of the disputed strip of land to hold an election at the same time, but the bill did not pass. Soon after this, Governor Doty officially notified Governor Carlin (of Illinois) that the fourteen northern counties of the state of Illi- nois were not within the constitutional bound- aries of that state. Gov. Carlin made no answer whatever. Gov. Doty issued proclamations on his own responsibility, on two occasions afterward, for all the people "within the ancient limits of Wisconsin" to vote on the subject of state government. Little attention was given this proclamation. The Wisconsin (territory) legislature of 1843-4 sent a communication to Congress on the subject, and it met the same fate, no attention being accorded it. Five years later, Wisconsin was made a state, with southern boundary fixed at 42 31', which ended the matter. INTERIM. 1818-1824. PIONEER LIFE INTERIM 1818-1824. THE earlier settlers of Illinois were mostly from Virginia and Kentucky, coming in flat boats down the Ohio River to the Mississippi, thence up stream to their destina- tion. A few came over land ; in which case they followed Indian trails or crossed the unbroken prairie in covered wagons generally drawn by oxen. They left luxuries and even comforts behind them. Indeed, a fire built along the route where they camped at night was often denied for fear it would attract the hostilities of the possibly skulking Indian. Generally it was the fertile land of the Ameri- can bottoms which attracted the eager settlers into the new country. Most settlements were made in this locality extending into what is now Madison, Pope, Alexander and Gallatin counties. The Illinois Salines attracted settle- ments. The changing of the capital from Kaskaskia to Vandalia was the reason for a limited settlement being made in another direction. Yet the central part of the state was settled but slowly while northern Illinois was not opened to settlement for ten years after it had become a state. 127 128 DECISIVE DATES In a survey of the Northwest made by Maj. Stephen H. Long, United States topographical engineer, in 1817, Fort Clark at Peoria was found to have been but just occupied by United States troops, while Fort Dearborn had been rebuilt but the year previous, it having been unoccupied since its destruction and the massacre in 1812. About the year 1816 the American Fur Company established posts for trading with the Indians ; one at the mouth of Bureau Creek on the south side of the river; one three miles below Peoria, on the west side, and six to ten in the interior between the Illinois and Wabash ; and three or four on Rock River. Save the agents at these posts there were no white people between the Illinois and the Wabash rivers until in the early thirties. These posts remained in the heart of the Indian country quite unprotect- ed, yet with perfect safety. An account given by one explorer of central Illinois the year following its admittance into the Union gives a good idea of conditions at that time.* Entering Illinois where Danville now is, he found a small settlement near by at the salt works. He made a short stay here with some friends and thence in a northwest course, he started to strike the Illinois River. His map and compass were his only guide. PIONEER LIFE 129 Wherever night found him, he stopped, struck a fire with his flint, steel and punk, ate the jerked venison he carried with him, and wrap- ping his blanket around him, he took the earth for his bed and slept soundly. Before many days' travel across the boundless prairie, his horse became very cowardly; he would scarcely crop the grass, would keep close to his master, sleeping by his side at night, never leaving him. Sometimes he struck an Indian trail, but his journey generally led him through high grass and bushes, or along the timber belts. Occasionally he met a party of Indians with whom he could converse only in signs. It is not surprising that both horse and rider should grow lonely, suspicious and fearful. He did not see a white man from the time he left the salt works near Danville until he reached Dillon's Grove in Tazewell County. Under such conditions he was in no mood to realize the true value of a prairie farm. Added to the apparent lack of fuel because of the de- ficiency of timber, (the coal fields were unsus- pected, although coal was discovered as early as by LaSalle in his first coming) , there was an idea that the prairie was uninhabitable in the winter, it being so cold and bleak. The deer, the wolf, and the Indian held a divided empire. (9) 130 DECISIVE DATES All local histories tell the same story of pioneer life. The first settlements were made along the edge of the best timber. The wagon in which the journey into the interior was made was used for shelter, even after the settler's claim was located, until logs could be cut to build the cabin. These cabins had no glass in the win- dows, no iron hinges nor locks on the doors and no nails used in building them ; the frames were put together with pegs made of hardwood. The floors were made of split logs hewn on the split side and spotted onto the sleepers on the round side. These floors were called puncheons. The chimney was built on the outside at the end of the cabin. The habits and manners of these early settlers were plain, simple and unostentatious. They raised their corn, which they broke in a mortar and ground in a hand mill. The bread made from this corn meal was baked on a smooth board two feet long and eight inches wide. It was baked by putting the board in front of the fire until one side was brown when the cake was turned to bake on the other side. This board was always carried as they traveled from place to place, to use on the way and so was called the "journey board" which name became cor- PIONEER LIFE 131 rupted into "Johnny board" and the corn cake thus baked became "Johnny cake." They kept a never-failing supply of bacon, and bear and deer meat, both fresh and dried, with turkey and other wild game in season. Vegetables grew luxuriantly and wild fruit was generally to be had for the taking. They used pewter dishes and iron knives. Each woman took particular pride in the art of cooking and no greater praise was desired or could be given than to be known as the best cook in the neighborhood. They raised flax and their sheep furnished them with wool. The women spun the flax on the "little wheel" and the wool on the "big wheel;" colored the thread with the bark of trees or other primitive dye stuff, and wove it into cloth on the family loom. This homespun cloth was fashioned into garments sewed by hand, while the spun wool was twisted into yarn and knit into stockings or mittens. The outside garments were made of the dressed skins of the deer or fox, while those of the buf- falo and elk gave material for head covering. Their amusements were "shucking bees," horse races and the social gatherings often oc- casioned by "changing work" in house or barn raising. 132 DECISIVE DATES The prairie sod had but to be turned and the crop put in. This turning of the virgin sod was done by an ox team of six to ten yoke with a plow of rude construction. The first crop was mostly corn. This was planted by cutting a gash in the inverted sod with an axe, dropping the corn and covering it by another blow* along- side the first. After the first crop, the kind soil produced any crop suitable to the climate. Life was no idle dream. The market and mill were at long distances, the new-comer required help in raising his cabin, the prairie- fires called for fighting each year, and this to- gether with the planting and harvesting which must too often be done while the pioneer, to- gether with his entire family, was suffering the pest of a new country the fever and ague, and other malarial diseases. The yearly burning of the heavy grass of the prairie was a source of great annoyance and oftentimes of heavy loss. From the time of the first frost until after the surrounding prairie was all burned over, if not all burnt, or until the green grass in the spring had grown high enough to prevent the rapid spread of the fire, a continual watch must be kept. Imagine the settler with his comfortable house, his corn, wheat, oats and fodder stored PIONEER LIFE 133 for stock, surrounded by a sea of standing grass, dry as tinder stretching away for miles in every direction over which the wild prairie wind howls constantly, in terror lest a spark from somewhere will send a sea of fire all about him ! In character, these pioneers were hardy backwoodsmen, brave, hospitable, generous, and courageous, whose indomitable will was equaled only by their rugged integrity, which regarded dishonesty and cowardice equally contemptible offences. NOTES AND EXPLANATIONS Page 128 * See Hist. LaSalle County. DATE 5. 1824 DEFEAT OF CONVENTION TO AMEND CONSTITUTION Courtesy of the Illinois State Historical Society. GOV. EDWARD COLES. DATE 5. 1824 WHEN the Constitution of the United States was adopted there was a dif- ference of opinion concerning it. Two political parties arose. One party interpreted the Constitution in one way and the other party interpreted it in another way. Such was the case until the fierce struggle of the Civil War decided the controversy. These diverse interpretations involved both the prin- ciple whether each state had sovereign rights to self-government in every particular or whether they should be limited in such rights by the general government, and the practice of the institution of slavery. Whether or not the principle of Sovereign States' Rights is a true one, each man must decide for himself, and each state up to 1860 had to solve the slavery problem for itself. Illinois was no exception. From the time in 1620 when the first shipload of slaves from Africa was brought to Jamestown and was the beginning of slavery in the American colonies, until when, in 1863, by proclamation of Presi- dent Lincoln, and later by the amendment of 137 138 DECISIVE 'DATES the Constitution, slavery ceased to exist, the slavery question was a vital one in America. The answer given the question in Illinois differed from that in other states because of conflicting events in its history. Renault brought African slaves to the French settle- ments of Illinois in 1720 and sold them. But neither these settlements nor many of the de- scendents of these settlers, had a great share in shaping the .policies or determining the institution after the end of the 18th century. Then too, many of the slave owners in the French villages moved across the river or far down the river at the time of the surrender of Fort Chartres to the British, taking their slaves with them. When Virginia ceded all claim to the North- west territory, it was with the proviso that the laws and customs of the French should remain unchanged. If the spirit of religious intoler- ance of the time is remembered, a special light is thrown upon this proviso since it gave the French the needed protection to the adherence to their religion. Too great prominence has always been given to the protection of their institution of slavery through this proviso. The ordinance of 1787 governed the North- west Territory after all claim had been ceded DEFEAT OF CONVENTION 139 by the different states. By this ordinance slavery or involuntary servitude was forever prohibited. Here were two apparently conflicting ideas. Virginia had ceded her claim on condition that the institution of slavery should be recognized, and the Government had announced that slavery should cease and henceforth be for- bidden. The two ideas were at last reconciled by an agreement that those slaves who belonged to the French before the conquest of Clark should remain in bondage, but that their chil- dren from and after this date should be free. This made it but a matter of time and strictly a matter of locality that slavery would be tolerated within the boundaries of the Illinois Country. This agreement made the problem more easy of solution in that portion of the territory afterward admitted as the state of Ohio, than that part remaining as Indiana Ter- ritory, a part of which afterward became Illinois. It was at this time, after the division of the original Northwest Territory that an effort was made to repeal or modify the article in the ordinance which related to slavery, but without success. Four different times memorials were sent to Congress to this effect without any 140 DECISIVE DATES notice being taken of them until the fourth was reported adversely. This ended the effort to legalize slavery in the territory afterward be- coming the state of Illinois. When Illinois became a state in 1818, the Constitution, although it was closely a copy of the constitutions of Virginia and Kentucky, yet provided that "neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall hereafter be introduced into this state." True, there was a clause legalizing indenture laws, and this was abused in many cases but it never meant legal slavery. This struggle for legalized compulsory service was by no means the direct result of the limited slave ownership of the French colony days, nor should it be ascribed to the slave owners in the old French Illinois. It came from a dif- ferent source. Salt-making was a great in- dustry of Illinois. Large salt works were located in southern Illinois. At these salt works near Shawneetown the labor was done largely by negroes. This industry was in a great degree responsible for the agitation on the part of the pro-slavery advocates.* Up to the time that Illinois became a state these salt works were leased by individuals who would bring their slaves from Kentucky and Tennessee to work in them. When the state DEFEAT OF CONVENTION 141 was admitted into the Union the Government turned the salt works over to state authorities. The first Constitution of the state, however faulty, yet is to be commended in that it con- tained this provision in Article 6, section 2 : "No person bound to labor in any other state shall be hired for labor in this state, excepting within the tract reserved for the salt works near Shawneetown, nor even at that place for a longer term than one year at any one time, nor shall it be allowed there after the year 1825. Any violation of this article shall effect the emancipation of such person from his obligation to service." *Major Willis Hargrave was the general in- spector of the salt works. When the lease of the salt works company was about to expire they knew it could not be renewed under the Constitution. The only thing to do was to change the Constitution. Major Hargrave pro- ceeded to work for this. To this end he used his extended influence in the state to elect members to the third general assembly who would favor the amendment to the Consti- tution. The slavery question was the all-absorbing subject of discussion and debate throughout the United States, and as each state sought ad- 142 DECISIVE DATES mittance it was closely watched, lest on the one hand, it be lost by the pro-slavery advocates or on the other that it make possible the exten- sion of the institution so bitterly hated and dreaded by the anti-slavery advocates. By common consent the slave states and anti-slave states alternated in being admitted into the Union. The year following Illinois coming into the Union as a free state, Alabama came as a slave state. Missouri wanted to be admitted, but Congress insisted it could only be upon condition of giving up slavery, which she did not want to do. Thus matters stood when Congress took recess. It was at this time of intense interest that the first election for Congress in Illinois under the Constitution took place. The candidates were two promising young lawyers. One was Daniel Pope Cook (a nephew of Nathaniel Pope) of Kaskaskia, and the other John McLean, of Shawneetown. In personal appearance they differed almost as much as in political ideas. Cook was small of stature with finely cut features. He was very eloquent and made a lasting impression upon any audience before whom he spoke. Since the slavery question was the all-absorb- ing theme at that time, it is not strange that Courtesy of the Illinois State Historical Association. MORRIS BIRKBECK. DEFEAT OF CONVENTION 143 it was made the issue and that each young man thinking his views were right, although holding opposite notions, was anxious to hold joint debates in each county.* The result of this contest was the election of McLean by a majori- ty of fourteen votes. The following campaign the debates were repeated and Cook won by a majority of 633. The third time they made the race, Cook had a majority of 876 votes. This first was the campaign of 1822 when Ed- ward Coles was elected the second governor of Illinois on the anti-slavery ticket. It was at this same election that Maj. Hargrave's efforts to secure a state legislature favoring an amend- ment of the Constitution had succeeded. The session of the legislature following Gov. Coles' inauguration, after much debate, passed a resolution to call a convention to amend the Constitution of Illinois so that slavery could be legalized. The eighteen months following were days marked by intense feeling and strenuous work. The result was the defeat of the convention by an overwhelming vote of the people. Gov. Coles gave his salary for the term, which amounted to $4000.00, in this campaign. 144 DECISIVE DATES Beside this he made untiring effort and visited every county in the state. Thus ended the effort to make Illinois a slave state. The defeat of the convention which would have amended the state Constitution, marked an era in the life of the state and of the nation. NOTES AND EXPLANATIONS Page 140 * See Dr. Berry Pub. No. 9 of the 111. Hist. Library, pp. 259-273. Page 141 * The irony of events is shown in the fact that the house in which Maj. Hargrave lived, near Equality (still standing), was in the next generation known to be one of the stations of the Underground Rail- way, it being occupied by a man who was as much of an Abolitionist as was Hargrave a pro-slavery advocate. Page 143 * These debates were heard by a man who after- ward heard the debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas and made comparison between them which was little to the disadvantage of the Cook-McLean efforts. INTERIM 1824-1858 BLACK HAWK WAR ANTI-SLAVERY INFLUENCES IN ILLINOIS (10) Courtesy of the Illinois Historical Society. CHIEF SHABBONA. INTERIM 1824-1858 EARLY settlements in Illinois were made almost exclusively in the southern part of the state. Up to ten or more years after Illinois had become a state, there were no white settlers north and west of the Illinois River. The Pottawatomies, the Winnebagoes, the Sacs and the Foxes had possession of that territory just as they had had always so far as man knew. The government bought a large tract of this land from the Sacs and Foxes in 1804, and the terms of the treaty made at that time were that the Indians should remove their villages to the west of the Mississippi River ; but there was a clause in the treaty to the effect that the red man might hunt and even live on the east side of the river until such time as the land was claimed as settlements for the white man. The Indians lived up to this clause. This treaty was confirmed by both chiefs Black Hawk and Keokuk at a council held at Fort Armstrong.* When six years later the land was sold to be occupied by white set- tlers, the Indians were notified to leave and go 147 148 DECISIVE DATES across the river, and Keokuk withdrew in peace, but Black Hawk was not so inclined. The white settlers made an arrangement so that he might stay in peace, but it did not last long. They tried it for two years and at last found they could no longer endure the Indians, so Gov. Reynolds was asked for aid. Fifteen hundred men volunteered to fight and Gen. Gaines was given command of this hastily formed army. Black Hawk was sure he could drive out the intruding white man, but he understood neither the strength of the white race nor the loyalty of the Potta- watomies to their pale-face friends. A council was held at the mouth of Sycamore Creek in Ogle County, where Black Hawk found he could not secure their aid because Shabbona, on account of his friendship for the whites, influenced his tribe against Black Hawk's plans. The old chief was discouraged and ready to give up all hostilities. He saw his foe near him, and sent out ten of his men with a flag of truce to sue for peace. But these white men were a part of the un- disciplined scouts, who, although under the command of Maj. Stillman, acted without orders. These soldiers disregarded the flag of truce and tried to kill the Indians who bore Courtesy of the Illinois State Historical Society. STILLMAN VALLEY MONUMENT. BLACK HAWK WAR 149 it,, chasing them back to the place where Black Hawk was waiting. This act turned the old chief's desire for peace, and in true Indian fury he rushed upon the men, killing some and chas- ing the others back to Ogle's Ferry. This ferry was where the city of Dixon now stands. It was on the Kellogg Trail from the mines at Galena to Fort Clark (now Peoria), over which the veteran mail carrier, John Dixon, regularly passed. The brave stand taken at Stillman's Run at the time of this retreat, by Maj. Perkins and Capt. Adams, to stop the Indians in their mad following of these frightened volunteers, showed the true soldier spirit. It was a hand-to-hand con- flict, and in it Capt. Adams sacrificed his life. The volunteer army was now thoroughly aroused and the remainder of this war was a little more than a search for the foe, and repeat- ed attempts at annihilation of the Indians. The last so-called battle of Bad Axe which was intended by the Indians to be a trap for the white man, proved to be a slaughter of the red men, most distressing to read. Its descrip- tion seems more nearly a massacre than a battle. It of necessity ended the war. A brief review of some anti-slavery influence at work in Illinois may well be made at this time. The Jefferson-Lemen compact in which 150 DECISIVE DATES Thos. Jefferson gave of his money and influence to, through his friend, young Lemen, advance the interest of anti-slavery by a residence and work in Illinois, was one great factor. The settlement at New Design, the building churches of the Baptist denomination pledged to work against the institution, was another strong in- fluence for anti-slavery. Morris Birkbeck, the friend of Gov. Coles, at his English Colony in Edwards County, was a power in advancing the cause of anti-slavery. Elijah P. Love joy, the great Abolitionist, met bitter opposition where he might have won a degree of support had his zeal been less. His radical measures doubtless quickened anti- slavery sentiment. The immigration into the northern counties after the Black Hawk War, of people from the New England states brought strong convictions and determined advoctates of anti-slavery into that section of the state. Again, the Yale Band of enthusiastic young men who came into the state to locate schools did much in determining sentiment throughout the state. They were thoroughly imbued with the idea that no man has property rights in his fellow man, and that slavery is fundamentally wrong. DATE 6. 1858. LINCOLN-DOUGLAS DEBATES. DATE 6. 1858 THERE was no further political action, so far as the slavery question was con- cerned, taken in Illinois for thirty years after the defeat of the Convention to so amend the Constitution as to legalize the institution. However, it must not be imagined that the subject of slavery was not discussed by individu- als with the warmth of interest it received in other sections of the country. Indeed, Illi- nois, because of its location and the source of its people, was a place of great difference of opinion on this subject, and became a battle- ground of ideas. There were slave states to the south and west. These, together with the easy communi- cation and consequent commercial ties to the interests of the south, because of the Missis- sippi River being the entire length of the western border of Illinois, made the pro-slavery adherents numerous. On the other hand, un- conditional anti-slave states lay to the east and the west. Again, the southern part of Illinois was set- tled almost exclusively by Virginia, Kentucky, 153 154 DECISIVE DATES Tennessee and the Carolinas. These settlers had brought their prejudices in favor of the institution of slavery, while Northern Illinois had been more recently peopled with New Englanders, who brought their strong conviction concerning the moral wrongs of slavery. These were as two diverse streams and when they met, turbid waters were as a matter of course. Strong anti-slavery sentiments were fostered in certain sections; while pro-slavery doctrine was as vigorously defended in other sections. The speedy settlement of the question by im- mediately abolishing the institution of slavery in every state, found but a limited number of adherents in Illinois. The radical ideas of the Abolitionists were accepted by a comparative few. The Missouri Compromise satisfied the ma- jority of the people of Illinois, in that it re- stricted the extension of slavery into new terri- tory, while it was legal in the already slave states. But the time came when the Missouri Compromise was repealed. And not long after this, the Nebraska bill was enacted. The legis- lation in both cases was through efforts of Illinois men in Congress. Intense feeling was aroused. Up to this time Stephen A. Douglas had been the idol of Courtesy of Chicago Historical Society ABRAHAM LINCOLN From Photograph taken in 1858 LINCOLN-DOUGLAS DEBATES 155 the state. Political honors were heaped upon him. But he returned from the session of Con- gress where he had introduced and championed the Nebraska bill to its passing, to find senti- ment changed toward him. Conditions were rapidly giving way to new ideas. Represent- ing the dominant party, Douglas found many of his supporters wandering away to unite with representatives of the Old Line Whigs in the common interest which had been forced upon them- by the legislation just enacted. The imminent danger of extended slave territory was the openly-expressed fear. At this time, Abraham Lincoln was brought out as a candidate for the office of United States Senator, to be vacated by James Shields. Lincoln's election appeared to be assured. He was a Whig and unequivocally against the idea of the extension of slavery. Unexpected complications arose, and Lyman Trumbull, a life-long Democrat and friend of Douglas, but who opposed the extension of slavery, by the support of Lincoln and his friends, was elected to the office of United States Senator in 1854. This sacrifice of his personal ambition on the part of Lincoln was character- istic of the man. His personal loss was the gain to the interest of the nation. By his withdrawal in 156 DECISIVE DATES favor of Trumbull, a man holding identical views on extension of slavery, was sent to the Senate, since the successful candidate, together with John M. Palmer and many others, had forsaken the party of Douglas, and was hence- forth bitter and vigorous in opposing his policy. Douglas undertook to justify his action through public speeches, but found the people of Illinois were far from friendly toward him. His first speech was made at Chicago where his reception showed the effect of the opposition he had in every newspaper. He was interrupted by fre- quent hissing and cat-calls and adverse remarks. Later, his speeches at Springfield at the State Fair, then in session, and at Peoria, were answered by Lincoln in a way to increase the unpopularity of Douglas * and to strengthen Abraham Lincoln's leadership. The press in many parts of the state, was indignant at the measures of the Nebraska bill. Every paper in Chicago was opposed to the policy of Senator Douglas. The two years following the election of Trumbull, the press of the state worked toward the organiza- tion of a new party from those who opposed the Nebraska bill. This influence kept the opposition alive and crystalized it in Illinois, Courtesy of the Illinois State Historical Society. GEN. JOHN M. PALMER. LINCOLN-DOUGLAS DEBATES 157 into a definite, live, winning party. It was known as the Anti-Nebraska Party. Upon the initiative suggestion of the Journal published at Jacksonville, seconded by twenty- four other newspapers of the state, a meeting of newspaper men having organization in view, was held at Decatur, February 22, 1856.* The result of this meeting was a committee appointed to call a convention and fix a ratio of representation. The convention was called May 29, 1856, at Bloomington. It was called and acted under the name of a "State Con- vention of the Anti-Nebraska Party of Illi- nois." Those who responded were from the old Democratic Party, the Old Line Whigs, and the new so-called Free-soil Party, with even some Radicals, among whom was Owen Love- joy, brother of the martyred Elijah P. Lovejoy. John M. Palmer, a life long political and per- sonal friend of Douglas, was chosen permanent chairman of the convention. His speech proved the wisdom of the choice. Other speeches by conservative Whigs followed his. Then came Lovejoy's eloquence which fired his hearers and lessened the prejudice that many had against his ultra views. Refugees from Kansas told experiences of extreme suffering and outrageous wrongs perpetrated upon the Free- 158 DECISIVE DATES State men. Every man present rose in de- fense of wronged Kansas. The burden of the slave code being forced upon Kansas, whether or not the people were willing, aroused the in- dignant protest of the convention. It was at this juncture that Abraham Lin- coln arose to make a speech which has been called one of his greatest efforts. For some reason the speech was not fully reported at the time and although since it has been claimed to be given in full from memory of someone present, it has always been called the "lost speech." It is well to remember that the only issue pre- sented by this convention, was that of the ex- tension of slavery in the territories. The moral right of slavery as an abstract proposition nor the expediency of abolitionism were mentioned, nor came into discussion during the convention. The direct result of this convention was the election in November, 1856, of the state ticket there nominated, headed by William H. Bissell for governor, as a ticket of the Anti-Nebraska Party. Abraham Lincoln walked out of the Bloom- ington Convention the undisputed leader of the new political party in Illinois. In less than a month he came near being the nominee of this new party for vice-president. Up to this time Courtesy of the Illinois State Historical Society. GOV. WM. H. BISSELL. FIRST REPUBLICAN GOVERNOR OF ILLINOIS. LINCOLN-DOUGLAS DEBATES 159 Lincoln's active work had been done in central Illinois, and other sections of the state hardly knew him. Now his reputation as a political speaker was made in every part of the state. The two years following this convention were busy times for press and people to advance the principles of the Anti-Nebraska doctrine. Then came the close of the term of office as United States Senator, of Judge Douglas. He was a candidate for re-election. Every effort was made by his friends to secure a state legislation which would re-elect Douglas, while his oppo- nents were none the less earnest and busy. In the midst of the campaign, Lincoln, who was also a candidate, challenged Douglas to a series of debates upon the all-absorbing topic of interest the extension of slavery into the territories. The challenge was accepted. Seven times, each time in a different part of the state, these great men met, and before immense audiences presented the question for open dis- cussion. Douglas was well called the "little giant." Small of stature, he had a great head crowned by heavy hair, and a personality which gave him the power to sway his audience from one strong impulse to another as he chose. His manner was that of the well- 160 DECISIVE DATES bred gentleman the state loved to give him honor. Lincoln tall lank, almost ungainly in personal appearance- appeared in strange con- trast. The effect upon the people shows the real worth of the two men. Douglas won admiration wherever he appeared, but Lincoln carried the hearts of the people. The first debate was held at Ottawa, August 20th ; Douglas spoke first for one hour, and Lin- coln followed, talking one hour and a half. Then Douglas used the closing thirty minutes. The next debate was at Freeport. It was here that Lincoln, spite of the efforts of his friends to dissuade him, asked Douglas the fatal question, the answer to which decided the fate of the nation itself. This being the second debate, it was Lincoln's turn to begin, and close the argument. Al- though Freeport was in that part of the state which -held strong anti-slavery sentiments, there were many Douglas Democrats present. The contrast between Douglas and Lincoln in personal appearance was never more strongly marked than upon this platform. But if the first sight of Lincoln was not calculated to attract admiration, it was for but a brief time until his sympathetic nature won favor. The power of his logic, clothed in words so clear Courtesy of Chicago Historical Society STEPHEN A. DOUGLAS From Photograph taken in 1858 LINCOLN-DOUGLAS DEBATES 161 and simple that the dullest could comprehend, together with his magnetic personality claimed all his hearers, and the audience was spellbound. Carefully Lincoln paved the way for the all-im- portant question to be given; clearly he enun- ciated the words: "Can the people of a United States Territory in any lawful way, against the wish of any citizen of the United States exclude slavery from its limits prior to the formation of a State Constitution ? "* Senator Douglas arose to answer this, as well as the other points of Lincoln's speech. A man of the world, self-assured, well-poised, he stood easy and indifferent. He skillfully parried all thrusts made by Lincoln and, at last, carelessly answered the question : "It matters not which way the Supreme Court may hereafter decide as to the abstract question whether slavery may or may not go into a territory under the Con- stitution, the people have the lawful means to introduce or to exclude it as they please, for the reason that slavery cannot exist a day or an hour anywhere unless it is supported by local police regulations." That was enough. By these words Douglas had said that which split the Democratic Party two years hence. The solid south which in- sured the success of the Democratic Party and (ID 162 DECISIVE DATES to which support Douglas had catered in pass- ing the Nebraska bill, listened to these words, called them the "Freeport heresy " and denied their support when the man, two years later, was a candidate for place as President on the Democratic ticket. Thus Douglas met defeat ultimately, although his answer strengthened him with northern Democrats, and he was re-elected U. S. Senator, defeating Lincoln for the time being. The third debate was had at Jonesboro at the other extreme of the state, on September 15th. The fourth debate was at Charleston, Septem- ber 18th; the fifth debate was at Galesburg, October 7th; the sixth debate was at Quincy, the 13th, and the last one was at Alton two days later. When Lincoln determined to draw Douglas out to make the statement he did by asking him the fatal question, his friends and advisers used every argument to keep him from doing so. But nothing could dissuade him. Not even the knowledge that the answer which Douglas would doubtless make, and did make, would in- crease the strength of the Democratic party in Illinois and cost him his own election to the United States Senate, could dissuade him from his purpose. Again he put aside his personal LINCOLN-DOUGLAS DEBATES 163 ambition for the good of his party and the cause he espoused. Not that he lacked in political aspirations, for such was not the case. There is no doubt Lincoln would have been pleased to go to the United States Senate from Illinois. But he knew the "end was not yet." His prophetic vision showed him the work of the "Freeport Heresy," or, as others call it, the " Freeport Doctrine," as an instrument to split the party which stood for opposition to the fight against extension of slave territory. Lincoln's opportunity to lead his beloved country through troubled waters came. He was nominated and elected President of the United States on the ticket of the new (Repub- lican) party in 1860. His nomination was made in the historic Wigwam in Chicago. This building remained in existence until the fire of 1871. With the single purpose of preserving the Union, Lincoln dedicated his efforts to the end "that the nation, under God, have a new birth of Freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."* Echoes of his " lost speech " made at the Bloomington Convention came down the years as a prophecy of his action 164 DECISIVE DATES in the time of decision: "We'll not go out of the Union and you (the South) shan't."* The Union was preserved. Abraham Lincoln, the rail-splitter, the store- keeper, the lawyer, the statesman, the soldier, the political leader, the citizen of Illinois, served his country as President of the United States through the four years of hard work and great anxiety following his inauguration March 4, 1860. The country grew to love him in this service, and eagerly responded to his calls for volunteer soldiers to fight for the maintenance of the Union. He was re-elected to the Presidency, but scarcely was inaugurated the second time before he was assassinated. He was brought back to his beloved state through the sad lines of the grief-stricken nation and was laid to rest in the soil of Illinois the state which had made possible his great service to the world. He had lived to see, in less than a decade, his prophecy come true and to learn the far-reaching results of his famous debates. Instead of the new territories, the entire country had been forever freed from the curse of the Institution of Slavery, and the Union was preserved. LINCOLN-DOUGLAS DEBATES 165 Surely 1858, the year in which the " Freeport Heresy " was voiced, is a decisive date in the history of Illinois and of the nation. NOTES AND EXPLANATIONS. Page 156 *The story of Stephen A. Douglas is not com- plete without a mention of his generous act in the speech he made at Springfield after War was declared. Defeated as he had been by Lincoln, when his country was in dire distress and Presi- dent Lincoln called for volunteer soldiers, Douglas urged his friends to respond to the call. Judge Douglas died suddenly in Chicago a day or two after he made this speech, greatly mourned by the people irrespective of party affiliation. Page 157 *For detailed account of this and following . Bloomington Convention, see J. O. Cunningham in Publication, No. 10, Hist. Library, p. 103. Page 161 *See Illinois Hist. Col., Vol. Ill, p. 152. aSee Illinois Hist. Col., Vol. Ill, p. 161. Page 163 *President Lincoln's address at Gettysburg, Nov. 19, 1864. Page 164 *The " lost speech " of Abraham Lincoln made at Bloomington Convention, May 29th, 1856. CONCLUSION THE COMMERCIAL ERA CONCLUSION THE COMMERCIAL ERA THE record of Illinois during the Civil War is a proud one. The bravery of the soldiers, the wisdom of the officers and the industry of those at home who gave time, care and money to the cause of the war, all make a bright page in the history of Illinois. Illinois proudly claims Ulysses S. Grant as one of her sons, yet has little right to do so since his citizenship of the state was but limited. The great fire which destroyed the small city to make possible the greater Chicago; the industrial difficulties, that resulted in mobs and bloodshed, conspicuous among which was the Haymarket riot; the discoveries of great resources in gas and oil in the south- eastern part of the state; the tragedy of the burning of the Iroquois theatre; the Deep Water Way proposition all these have become parts of the history of Illinois. There have been authors and preachers and teachers who have molded public opinion; statesmen who have done credit to the common- 169 170 DECISIVE DATES wealth; philanthropists who have led the world in their work; merchant princes who have carried great wealth. The healing touch, the skilled labor and the echoing wisdom from the platform are not lacking in the history of Illinois. There is no line of work in which the state has not excelled. The rapid growth of the cities, the increased extent of best facilities for transportation, the ever increasing wealth are all in evidence. This has been the Commercial Age. Like the age of Romance it is sufficient unto itself. It records achievements of brain and brawn of no mean proportions. To this period let all honor be accorded. Yet do not look for any decisive date within its limits. With its host of events of historic interest crowding each other, there is not one to be found which can be distinguished as having as yet decided any thought or action of importance to either the State or the Nation. ADDENDA GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS SHADRACH BOND 1819-1823. SHADRACH BOND, the first governor of Illinois, was born in Frederick County, Md., in 1773. When he had reached man's estate he followed the impulse of the times and went into the western part of the Northwest Territory, locating near Eagle Creek in the "New Design," in what is now Monroe County, Illinois. Here he was a farmer. He was a member of the Assembly of the Indiana Territory for several terms, and was a delegate to the Twelfth and Thirteenth Congresses, from the Illinois Territory, from 1812-1814. When his term as delegate expired, he was appointed receiver of public moneys at Kas- kaskia, then the capital of the Illinois Territory. He, together with seven others, founded the city of Cairo. This city, at the juction of the two great rivers, near the center of the great west, promised to develop into a metropo- lis. A special charter incorporating both the city and bank of Cairo was obtained from the territorial Legislature. 173 174 GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS Mr. Bond was elected the first governor of Illinois in 1818, with Pierre Menard as lieut.- governor. At this time there were but eleven counties in the state. These were Randolph, Madison, Gallatin, Johnson, Pope, Jackson, Crawford, Bond, Union, Washington and Frank- lin. Northern Illinois was included in Madison County. Illinois had not completely solved the slavery problem although it was admitted into the Union as a free state.* This first state ticket was a compromise one. Bond represented the "Convention" or pro- slavery party, supported by Elias Kent Kane, his secretary of state, and John McLean, while Pierre Menard represented the anti-slavery ele- ment led by Nathaniel Pope and John P. Cook. The election, however, was less a test of the strength of party sentiment than of popularity of candidates. Gov. Bond was a popular favorite. The personal favor element entered largely into the appointments during this ad- ministration, the power being taken out of the hands of the chief executive and vested in the Legislature. Two years after his term as governor expired, Bond was defeated for Congress by the invin- cible John P. Cook. Three years later the Legislature appointed ex-Gov. Bond one of SHADRACH BOND 175 three commissioners to locate a site for a peni- tentiary on the Mississippi at or near Alton. Ex-Gov. Bond died April 11, 1830. Gov. Bond was a man of attractive personal appearance. He was erect, standing six feet, and after middle life became quite portly, weighing two hundred pounds. He was strong- ly masculine in features, of dark complexion, jet black hair and hazel eyes. He was of a benevolent and convivial disposition, shrewd of observation and careful in giving gubernatorial patronage, thereby making warm and zealous friends who served him well. During his administration a general law was passed for the incorporations of academies and towns; also one authorizing lotteries. Gov. Bond was also authorized by the session of the legislature of 1822, to appoint commissioners to act with Commissioners of Indiana, to in- vestigate and report on the practicability and expediency of improving the navigation of the Wabash River; also inland navigation generally. Many improvements were recommended. Some of them were feebly attempted. In 1820, Congress authorized the state to open a canal through the public lands. This was attempted, but later abandoned because of lack of state funds until some time afterward, 176 GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS when Congress made the grant of land for the purpose of its construction. It was during Bond's administration that the capital was moved from Kaskaskia to Vandalia. During the territorial period of the existence of Illinois, the following counties were formed: St. Clair, Randolph, Madison, Gallatin, Johnson, Edwards, White, Monroe, Jackson, Pope, Craw- ford, Bond, Franklin, Union and Washington. The second session of the first General Assembly of the State of Illinois created Alexan- der, Clark (from the north part of Crawford), Jefferson (from Edwards and White) and Wayne (from Edwards) counties. Clark county extended on the north to the line of the Wiscon- sin territory. During the rest of Bond's admin- istration there were created Lawrence (from Crawford and Edwards) , Greene (from Madison) , Sangamon (from Madison), Pike (from Madi- son and Pike), Hamilton with present bounda- ries (from western part of White) , giving White its present limits, and Montgomery (from Bond and Madison) counties. NOTES AND EXPLANATIONS Page 174 * See Date V and VI. EDWARD COLES 1823-1827. EDWARD COLES, the second governor of Illinois, was a native of Virginia. It was at Enniscorthy, in Albermarle County, which had been the Coles estate for several generations, that he was born December 15, 1786. He was the son of John Coles who had been a colonel in the Revolutionary War. Ed- ward was among the youngest of ten children. Thomas Jefferson, who was a neighbor and inti- mate friend of the family, was fond of the youth, and showed him many favors, none of greater value than his counsel and the influence of his personality. It was from Jefferson that young Coles imbibed ideas of the wrongs of slavery. These ideas were in conflict with Coles' life, and the views of almost everyone whom he knew. Edward Coles was fitted for college by private tutors, and sent to Hampden Sidney, where he remained until in 1805, when he was sent to William and Mary College. Here his ideas crystalized to the opinion that a man had no property right to his fellow man, and that the principles of slavery were fundamentally wrong, alike injurious to the master and to the slave. (12) 177 178 GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS Pretty Dollie Madison was Edward Coles' cousin. It was perhaps to please her that President Madison appointed him his private secretary. This position he was not loath to accept, particularly since his duties included at times, the escort of the gracious dame. Edward Coles at this time was a handsome young man of twenty-three, tall and graceful, with polished education, good manners and an irreproachable character. He was the proprietor of a fine plantation, and the owner of twenty-five slaves which was his share of his father's property that he had inherited the previous year. He was the kinsman of Patrick Henry, the friend of Monroe and Madison, and the trusted protege of Thomas Jefferson. While yet secretary to President Madison, Coles was sent to Russia on a mission requiring great diplomacy. Upon his homeward journey, spending some time in England, he made the acquaintance in London of Morris Birbeck. This acquaintance ripened into a beautiful friendship through which Illinois was far the richer. After Edward Coles retured to America, he determined to make his home in some non-slave holding part of the United States. He had visited Illinois twice; once in 1815 before it be- EDWARD COLES 179 came a state, and again in 1818, at which time he spent some time in Waterloo. He recalled his impression of the country with so much favor that he decided to make that his home. He sold his land, and taking his slaves with him, in the spring of 1819 set out on his journey. Not that he had any intention of keeping his slaves as slaves, because it was to get away from the institution of slavery that he left Virginia. He did not, however, free his slaves nor give them any idea that he contemplated doing such a thing for he was curious to know how the fact of their freedom would affect the men whom he had been taught to look upon as merely property. To this end, he made the journey down the Ohio, and up the Mississippi River in flat boats. As they were descending the Ohio River one moon-light night, he ordered the boats to be put alongside and calling the slaves together, in a dramatic way, told them they were free, that they might go where they chose. The news was received in breathless silen ce . " Then , ' ' to quote the words of Coles himself, "they stood before me unable to utter a word, but with countenances beaming with expression which no words could convey, and which no language can describe. After a pause of in- 180 GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS tense and unutterable emotion, bathed in tears, and with tremulous voices, they gave vent to their gratitude and implored the blessing of God on me." They offered him a year's service free which he refused.* He continued his journey to near where Edwards ville now is located, where he left his boats and giving the negroes certificates of free- dom, gave each head of a family 160 acres of tillable land and let them begin their new lives, free men, each with a good home. President Monroe had appointed Edward Coles as Registrar of the Land Office, and he began his duties at once, making his home in Edwards ville. Three years later he was elected the second governor of Illinois, after a bitter campaign, the issue of which was the slavery problem, t Like the preceding administration, this one showed the unsettled state of political senti- ments by having a governor and lieutenant- governor holding directly opposite views. Gov. Coles strengthened his party by appointing Morris Birbeck, secretary of state. The inaugural speech of Gov. Coles showed the greatness of the man in that, while making no compromise with evil, he showed a calmness, a deliberation and such appropriate suggestions EDWARD COLES 181 that he won the approval of all judicious poli- ticians. His conduct during his term of office was most praiseworthy. After an extremely strenuous four years * of service to the state, Gov. Coles retired to his home at Edwardsville busying himself with the care of his nearby farm; agricultural pursuits were always attractive to him. He was the founder of the first agricultural society of the state. His ill health sent him frequently to eastern cities, and in 1832, he made Philadelphia his permanent home. He died there July 7, 1868, and is buried in Woodland near that city. His administration is marked by the constant and bitter struggle for and against calling a conven- tion to amend the constitution so as to legalize slavery in Illinois, and by its triumphant de- feat, largely owing to the efforts of Gov. Coles. In 1825 , the first general school law was enacted ; Gen. Lafayette visited Illinois; the Illinois and Michigan Canal Association was incorporated. Four new counties were created in 1823. These were Edgar (from Clark), Marion (from Fayette and Jefferson) with present boundaries, Fulton (from Pike) and Morgan (from Sanga- mon and unorganized territory). A year later Clay (from Fayette, Crawford and Wayne), 182 GOVERNOR OF ILLINOIS Clinton with present boundaries (from Wash- ington, Fayette and Bond) and Wabash with present limits (from Edwards) were created while Edwards, Wayne and Washington were reduced to present limit. Calhoun, Adams, Hancock, Peoria and McDonough with present boundaries, Warren, Mercer, Knox, Schuyler, Putnam, Henry and Vermilion counties all were created during the Coles' administration. Vermilion county was created January 18, 1826, from unorganized territory attached to Edgar. Pike, Fulton, Edgar and St. Clair counties were all reduced to present limits dur- ing this term of office of Gov. Coles. NOTES AND EXPLANATIONS Page 180 * There is a picture representing this scene at the Capitol in Springfield. t See page 143. Page 181 * See page 143. NINIAN EDWARDS 1826-1830. NINIAN EDWARDS, the third governor of Illinois, was the son of Benjamin Ed- wards. He was born in Montgomery County, Md., in March, 1775. His parents were Baptists and very strict in the training of their son. His early education was in company and under the tuition of William Wirt. Here an intimacy was formed which lasted during the life of the two men. His education was further carried on at Dick- inson College. He began the study of law, but left home at the age of nineteen to go to Nelson County, Ky. Here he fell into bad company and squandered much of his father's wealth in buying farms, buildings, tan-yards, etc., all of which were poor investments. Realizing his errors he had strength of will and purpose to call a halt and reform his ways. He devoted himself to the study of law and its practice, and in a few years attained distinction. He repre- sented Nelson County in the legislature of Kentucky before he was twenty-one years old, and was re-elected by almost an unanimous vote. 183 184 NINIAN EDWARDS When he was twenty-four years old he re- moved from Nelson County to Russelville in Logan County, where he entirely gave up his reckless ways and devoted himself to severe and laborious study. He soon became an eminent lawyer. Inside of four years, he filled the offices of presiding judge of the general court, circuit judge, fourth judge of the court of appeals, and chief justice of the state. In 1802, he was commissioned major of a battalion of Kentucky militia, and in 1804 was chosen a presidential elector on the Jefferson and Clinton ticket. In 1806, he was a candidate for Congress, but withdrew on being promoted to the court of appeals. Three years later, when Illinois Territory was organized, President Madison appointed Judge Edwards, then chief justice of the court of appeals in Kentucky, governor of the new territory. At the same time Judge Edwards was appointed superintendent of the United States salines. He continued in this position until the terri- tory was made a state in 1818, having been re- appointed twice. When Governor Bond was inaugurated as first governor of the state, Edwards was sent to the United States Senate, his colleague being Jesse B. Thomas. He was GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS 185 appointed minister to Mexico by President Monroe, but resigned that he might have cer- tain charges made against him fully investi- gated. The result was his complete vindica- tion. He was elected governor of the state in 1826, and served until 1831. His views on the sub- ject of slavery were the same as Gov. Coles', although the so-called "Black Laws" dis- graced the statute of both territory and state during his administrations. When Judge Edwards first came to Illinois Territory, he resided at Kaskaskia, and soon afterward bought a farm near Prairie du Rocher, which he called Elvivade for his wife El viva. This he stocked with horses, cattle and sheep of choice breeding from Kentucky; also with fruit trees, grape vines and shrubbery. He also established grist-mills and saw-mills. He owned no less than eight or ten stores in Illinois and Missouri at the same time, and himself attended to the buying for them all. He was very liberal to the poor, providing homes for several widows and ministers of the gospel. While he never became a regular practioner of medicine, he studied the healing art, and had great skill in prescribing and caring for the sick, making no charge for the same. 186 NINIAN EDWARDS His home was at Elvivada during his term as Governor of Illinois Territory. Then he re- moved to Edwardsville in Monroe County. This town was named for him. He lived there during his term in the United States Senate, after which he moved to Belleville where he lived until his death July 20, 1833. In person, Gov. Edwards was a fine-looking, polished gentleman, aristocratic in his bearing. He was highly intellectual, with a general hospitality and benevolence. It was because of his desires to help his fellows, that he con- tracted the Asiatic cholera, which resulted in his death. He gave a good administration. It closed with every evidence of good-will and satisfaction. The depredations of the Winnebago Indians in the northern part of the state, together with the desire of the white settlers to have un- divided possession of the land, aroused hostilities which resulted in the so-called Winnebago War. The capture and death of Red Bird ended the contest. Gov. Edwards was kept busy in his care of the Illinois frontier, and his interpreting and execution of the treaties. This was par- ticularly difficult since the Indians kept them- selves generally within the jurisdiction of Michigan Territory, and Lewis Cass, the gov- GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS 187 ernor, was so remote that necessary correspon- dence with him was almost impossible. It was during the administration of Gov. Edwards in 1826 that the first steamboat was put on the Illinois River. In 1827, the penitentiary at Alton was built. In 1829, Illinois College was founded. Shelby (from Fayette), Perry with present boundaries (from Randolph and Jackson), Tazewell, JoDaviess (from Mercer, Henry and Putnam), Macoupin with present boundaries (from Madison), Macon, Coles (from Clark), McLean (from Tazewell) , Cook (from Putnam) , LaSalle (from Putnam), Rock Island with its present boundaries (from JoDaviess), Effing- ham with present boundaries (from Fayette and Crawford) and Jasper with present bound- aries (from Crawford and Clay) counties; all were created during the administration of Gov. Edwards. JOHN REYNOLDS 1831-1834. JOHN REYNOLDS was the fourth governor of Illinois. He was born in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, February 26, 1788. His father, Robert Reynolds and his mother, Margaret Moore, were natives of Ireland, coming to America three years previous to his birth. When but a baby, he came with his parents into Tennessee, where they located at the base of the Copper Ridge Mountains, about fourteen miles northeast of where now is Knoxville. Because of the hostilities of the Indians, they later moved into the interior of the state. They were always poor, and in 1800 the family made another move to better their condition. This time they went to Kaskaskia, in the then Indiana Territory. They came overland in two wagons having eight horses. Seven years later the family moved once more. This time they went to the Goshen settlement at the foot of the Mississippi bluffs, in what is now Monroe County. The year afterward, John Reynolds being twenty years old, he resolved to go to college and went to Knoxville, Tennessee, where he had relatives. 188 GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS 189 for the purpose of entering school. He stayed there three years, when ill health sent him back home for a short time, but he returned to Knoxville and continued his studies, taking up the study of law. He won his nickname of "Old Ranger" during his service in the War of 1812. He be- gan the practice of law in Cahokia. In 1818, he was elected an associate justice upon the supreme bench by the General Assembly. In 1826, he was elected a member of the state Legislature. Here he acted independently of all cliques and private interests. He was elected governor in 1830 on the Jack- son ticket. While in that place of authority, he did all that was in his power to advance the cause of education, to advance internal im- provements and to encourage the settling of the country. He called out the militia and was himself, always on the battle-field in the engagements of the Black Hawk War* of 1832. He condemned the South Carolina Nullification, which came up at this time. Just before the close of his term he was elected to Congress to fill out the term of Charles Slade, who had died of Asiatic cholera. This com- pelled him to resign his office a short time before the end of his term. 190 JOHN REYNOLDS During the eight sessions that he was a mem- ber of the House, he was hardly absent from his seat a single day, and he never wavered in a party vote. He built the first railroad in Illi- nois. This was about six miles long and led from his coal mine in the Mississippi bluff, to the bank of the river opposite St. Louis. Not having money enough to buy a locomotive, this railroad was operated by horse power. In 1839, he was appointed one of the canal com- missioners. In 1846, he was elected a member of the Legislature from St. Clair County so that a charter for macadamizing the road from Belleville to St. Louis, a distance of fourteen miles, might be obtained. He was again sent to the Legislature in 1852, when he was made speaker of the house. In 1860, he went to the Charleston, S. C., Con- vention as an anti-Douglas delegate. As such, he received much attention from the southern delegates. He warmly supported Brecken- ridge for the presidency, and when the October elections showed the probability of Lincoln being elected, he urged the Democrats to rally to the support of Douglas, hoping to throw the election into Congress and thereby defeat all but Breckenbridge. GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS 191 He deeply sympathized with the south re- garding secession, and urged upon the Bu- chanan officials that they seize the treasure and arms in the custom house and arsenal at St. Louis. Gov. Reynolds was a man who talked much, and used all the catch words and slang of his time, adding thereto with many cunning and odd words of his own. He was the author of several books, among which is a not very re- liable history entitled "My Own Times." His " The Pioneer History of Illinois," published three years previous, is no less highly colored with personal opinions of men and events. He died at Belleville in May, 1865. Two important events were within his ad- ministration. These were the Black Hawk War, * and the scourge of Asiatic cholera which swept the state. In 1831, Illinois was reapportioned and had three congressmen. In 1833, Chicago was incorporated as a village. Champaign county, with its present bound- aries (from Vermilion and unorganized territory lying west of it), and Iroquois (from unorgan- ized territory north of Vermilion) , were created during the administration of Gov. Reynolds. NOTES AND EXPLANATIONS Page 188 * See page 147. Page 19 * See page 147. WILLIAM LEE D. EWING, NOVEMBER 3, 1834- NOVEMBER 17, 1834. ZODOK CASEY, the Lieutenant-Governor during Reynolds administration, was elected to congress in the latter part of 1832. Gen. Ewing, who had distinguished himself in the Black Hawk War, had been elected to the Senate, and was chosen presiding officer on account of the resignation of the Lieutenant-Governor. Because of this official position, when Gov. Reynolds resigned to go to Congress on account of the death of his pred- ecessor, Chas. Slade, Gen. Ewing became Governor of Illinois until the inauguration of his successor, who was already elected. He assumed the duties of his office November third, and, on the seventeenth, when the Legislature met, he sent in his message giving a statement of the condition of affairs of the state, and urging a continuance of the policy adopted by Gov. Reynolds. On the same day Governor- elect Duncan, was sworn in and Gov. Ewing was relieved of the responsibilities of his office. A year later Gen. Ewing was elected to the United States Senate to fill out the term of 192 GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS 193 Elias Kent Kane who had died. His election was a protracted struggle, it being strongly contested by James Simple and Richard M. Young. In 1842, Gen. Ewing was elected state auditor on the ticket with Gov. Ford. Gen. Ewing was a polished gentleman of culture, with refined tastes and having a thorough edu- cation. He was a lawyer and much in public life. He was above medium height, of heavy build, with auburn hair, blue eyes, large-sized head and short face. He died March 25, 1846. He is buried in Oak Ridge Cemetery, Springfield. (13) JOSEPH DUNCAN, 1834-1839. JOSEPH DUNCAN, the sixth governor of Illinois, was born at Paris, Ky., February 23, 1794. He enlisted in the war of 1812, although but eighteen years old, and as a sol- dier, acquitted himself with credit. He was an ensign under the dauntless Croghan at Lower Sandusky or Fort Stephenson. After moving to Illinois, he attracted attention as Major-General of the Militia. He made his home in Jackson County and from there went to the State Senate. It was at this time that he introduced the first bill providing for a Free-school system. In 1826, he defeated the popular John P. Cook for Congress. He retained his seat in Congress during three terms. Indeed he was absent in Washington attending to these duties during the gubernatorial campaign which result- ed in his election as Governor of Illinois. In his inaugural message he recommended meas- ures so desirable, that the Legislature, although by a large majority of the opposite political party, endorsed him. These measures related mainly to banks and internal improvements. 194 GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS 195 His term expired in 1838. In 1842, he was nominated for governor by the Whig party in opposition to Adam W. Snyder of Cairo, a Democrat. Before the campaign had advanced very far Snyder died, and his party substituted Theo. Ford, who was duly elected. Gov. Duncan was a man of limited education. He possessed natural fine abilities and profited by his experiences. He was a man of clear judgment, was decisive, had confidence in him- self and the courage of his convictions. He had a swarthy skin, high cheek-bones, broad forehead, piercing black eyes and straight black hair. No doubt a strong factor in his life was his connection with the men who, together with himself, belonged to the board of trustees of the Illinois College at Jacksonville. He died January 15, 1844. It was during the administration of Gov. Duncan that the people of Illinois apparently lost their wits; at least, lost all judgment, in the craze over internal improvements. So extensive did these im- provements become that the state was com- pletely overwhelmed. The estimate for the expenses for all these projects was $10, 000, 000, but really it was less than half enough. It was enough to bankrupt the state several times over. 196 JOSEPH DUNCAN During Gov. Duncan's administration Elijah P. Lovejoy was killed at Alton by a mob. In 1833, the Illinois, the Shurtleff, and the McKen- dree colleges were incorporated. The old State House at Vandalia was torn down and a new one built in 1836. This was with the hope that a new State House would hold the capital at Vandalia. This building has since always been the court house of Fayette County. In 1837, a bill was passed the Legislature making Spring- field the future capital of the state. Will county (from Cook and Iroquois), Kane, McHenry, Ogle, Winnebago, Whiteside with present boundaries, Livingston with present boundary (from La Salle, McLean and un- organized territory), Bureau with present bound- aries (from Putnam), Boone with present bound- aries (from Winnebago), De Kalb with pres- ent boundaries (from Kane), Stephenson with present boundaries (from Winnebago and Jo Daviess), and Cass (from Morgan), were all created during the administration of Gov. Duncan. THOMAS CARLIN, 1839-1843. THOMAS CARLIN was the seventh gov- ernor of Illinois. He was born near Frankfort, Ky., July 18, 1789, of Irish parentage. When the lad was fourteen years old, his father moved to Missouri New Spain as it was then. In 1812 Carlin came to Illinois and proved himself a brave soldier. Two years later he married and settled on the bank of the Missis- sippi River opposite the mouth of the Missouri, living the life of a farmer. At the end of this time he moved to Greene County. He located the town site of Carrollton. He was the first sheriff of Greene County and was later twice elected as a Jackson Democrat to the Illinois senate. He served in the Black Hawk War. In 1834 he was appointed by President Jackson to the position of receiver of public moneys, and to better fill that office he moved to Quincy. He was a typical self-made man, having had but a limited education. At the close of his term of office, from 1838 to 1842, Gov. Carlin returned to Carrollton where he remained caring for his farm, until 197 198 THOMAS CARLIN his death Feb. 4, 1852. It was during the term of Gov. Carlin that the noisy national campaign of Tippecanoe and Tyler occurred with its Whig victory. It was during his administration that the capital was moved from Vandalia to Springfield. The internal improvement efforts were of necessity brought to an end during this adminis- tration. Knox College opened in 1841. Brown county (from Schuyler), Du Page (from Cook), Christian (from Shelby, Mont- gomery and Sangamon), together with Mar- shall (from Putnam), Logan (from Sangamon), Menard (from Sangamon) and DeWitt (from McLean), Hardin (from Pope), Scott (from Mor- gan), Carroll (from Jo Daviess), Lee (from Ogle), Jersey (from Greene), Lake (from Mc- Henry), Stark (from Knox and Putnam), Hen- derson (from Warren), Mason (from Tazewell and Menard), Piatt (from DeWitt and Macon), Grundy (from La Salle), Kendall (from La Salle and Kane), Richland (from Clay and Law- rence) and Woodford (from McLean and Taze- well), all with present boundaries were created during the term of office of Gov. Carlin. THOMAS FORD, 1843-1847. THE eighth governor of Illinois, Thomas Ford, was a native of Pennsylvania, being born at Uniontown in 1800. His father died two years later. His mother, left in indigent circumstances with a large family mostly girls, with an idea of bettering her condition, decided to remove to Missouri where it was customary for the Spanish government to give land to anyone who would become an actual settler. But when she reached St. Louis she found the country had been ceded to the United States and the liberal policy toward new settlers completely changed. Thomas was four years old at this time. After sickness, she moved across the river to Illinois, going three miles south of Waterloo, and the following year moved nearer the Mississippi bluffs. Here Thomas started to school, walking three miles to a Mr. Humphrey under whom he studied. He had a good mind with an in- clination for mathematics. He attracted the attention of Hon. Daniel P. Cook* who became his patron and friend. At the suggestion of this friend, young Ford turned his attention to the study of Law. But his older half-brother 199 200 thought his education defective and sent him to Transylvania University for a short time. In 1829 Gov. Edwards appointed him prose- cuting attorney, and in 1831 he was re-appoint- ed by Gov. Reynolds. After that, he was four times elected a judge by the Legislature, without opposition, twice a circuit judge, once a judge of Chicago and an associate judge of the supreme court, when, in 1841, it was re- organized by the addition of five judges. Judge Ford was holding court in Ogle County, having been assigned to the ninth judicial circuit, when he received notice of having been nominated by the Democratic Convention for governor. He resigned his place on the supreme bench at once, and entered into the canvass. Of all the offices ever held by him every one came to him unsolicited. In personal appearance Gov. Ford was short, slender and dark of complexion. He had black hair, deep set eyes, sharp features and a pointed aquiline nose, and a small mouth. He was plain and unostentatious. As a lawyer he was not so great a success in pleading, as many. He was more fitted for a writer upon law than an advocate. As judge his opinions were clear and sound. He wrote a history of Illinois which is both readable and quite GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS 201 authentic. He died at Peoria, 111., Nov. 2, 1850, in indigent circumstances. The most important event of his adminis- tration may well be headed by the wise determi- nation to not permit repudiation of state debt, which was the tendency when Gov. Ford went into office. For his efforts, which resulted in maintaining the public credit, every citizen of today has reason to be grateful. The Mor- mon troubles during his administration, together with the Massac Rebellion, placed Gov. Ford in a position where he received adverse criticism. He was closely connected with the Mormon agita- tion. Their increasing strength, their dangerous doctrine which threatened the government, although it claimed to be but a system of re- ligion, in which the right of interference was questionable, the agitation of the people on their account, the loss of their leader by violence and at last their removal from the state make Gov. Ford's administration conspicuous. Mob law in different parts of the state marks this time. The State was redistricted in 1843, giving seven Congressmen. Joseph Smith was killed by mob while in jail at Carthage, June 27, 1844. Massac county (from Pope and Johnson), Moultrie (from Shelby and Macon) , Cumberland (from Coles) and Pulaski (from Johnson and 202 THOMAS FORD Alexander) counties, were created and given their present boundaries during Gov. Ford's administration. NOTES AND EXPLANATIONS Page 199 *See page 142 AUGUSTUS C. FRENCH, 1847-1853. AUGUSTUS C. FRENCH, the ninth gov- ernor of Illinois, was the first one to fill that office as a native New Englander. He was born in the town of Hill, New Hamp- shire, coming from early New England stock, being a descendant in the fourth generation from Nathaniel French, who emigrated from England and settled in Saybury, Mass., in 1687. He was the oldest of six children and at the age of nineteen, when his mother died and left the younger ones to his care, he discharged his trust faithfully. Besides this common school, he attended Dartmouth College, but because of this care of his brothers and sister, he could not remain long enough to complete the course. He read law and was admitted to the bar, shortly after which time he moved to Albion, Edwards County, Illinois. The following year he moved to Paris, Edgar County, which county he represented in the State Legislature where he was thrown with Stephen A. Douglas, with whom a warm attachment was soon formed. In 1839, Mr. French was appointed receiver of the United 203 204 GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS States land office at Palestine, Crawford County. In 1844, he was a Presidential Elector voting for James H. Polk. He was elected governor of Illinois in 1846. By the new constitution of 1848, a new election of state officers was ordered to be held in November of that year, at which time Gov. French was re-elected for a term of four years, thus making his term of office six consecutive years. Gov. French was a man of medium height, squarely built, with light complexion. His face was ruddy and his countenance pleasing. He was, generally speaking, diffident in manner but he could speak out his convictions when duty demanded. He was an accurate and methodical business man, and made a personal trust of the affairs of the state. He filled the chair in law at McKendree College after his term as governor expired. He died at Lebanon, St. Clair County, in 1865. It was during the administration of Gov. French that the Mexican war closed. His party held the policy committed to that war. During his term of office in 1847, the State Legislature, by permission of Congress, declared that all government lands sold to settlers should be immediately subjected to state AUGUSTUS C. FRENCH 205 taxation and not be, as hitherto, exempt for five years. The settlements of the state were greatly increased by the distribution of govern- ment land warrants among the Mexican soldiers as bounty. The same Legislature authorized the sale of the Northern Cross R. R. The governor also authorized the sale of the salt wells and canal lands in the Saline reserve in Gallatin County, to apply on the state debt. This raised the state revenue to the point of meeting current demands. Two years later the Legislature adopted the township organization law, and when it proved defective amended it the following session so as to be satisfactory. This was a triumph to the sentiment of northern Illinois. In 1850, Congress granted nearly 3,000,000 acres of land in aid to the completion of the Illinois Central R. R. This was a very im- portant event in the history of Illinois. The institution for the blind was chartered during the administration of Gov. French. Saline county, created from Gallatin during Gov. French's term of office, was given its present boundaries and territory was added to Hardin county at same session of the legislature. JOEL A. MATTESON 1853-1856. JOEL A. MATTESON, the tenth Governor of Illinois, was born in Jefferson County, New York, August 8, 1808. He was the first man to fill that office whose home was not in the southern part of Illinois. He had but a common school education, and early left his father's farm making a tour of the south, working on railroads, at the Georgia gold diggings and elsewhere, returning by way of St. Louis through Illinois to his father's home. After his father's small farm came into his possession, he sold it and entered a claim on Government land near the head of Au Sable River, in what is now Kendall County, Illinois. There were not more than three or four houses between him and Chicago. Here he opened a large farm and two years later bought largely at the Government land sales. When the next year the speculative real estate mania broke out in Chicago and spread over the state, he sold all his land at a great profit and moved to Joliet. He w r as a heavy contractor on the Illinois and Michigan Canal from 1838-41, when he bought 206 JOEL A. MATTESON 207 the 700 tons of railroad iron the state offered at a bargain, and selling it, made much money. He then started a woolen mill at Joliet, which, too, proved to be a valuable investment. In 1842 he was elected a state senator, where, because of his being known as a business man of such great discretion, he was made chairman of the committee on finance, which position he held during the two and a half terms of his place in the Legislature. He was elected governor of Illinois on the Democratic ticket in 1852. His candidacy for the United States senatorship in 1854, unexpected as it was, so complicated matters as to defeat Lincoln and elect Lyman Trumbull.* A heavy disgrace has always been attached to his name because of the fact that he was im- plicated in a false re-issue of redeemed canal scrip amounting to $224,182.66. He would never offer an explanation although he volun- tarily turned over his property to, as far as possible, refund the amount. f Ex-Gov. Matteson died in the winter of 1872-73 at Chicago. His administration was marked by success in physical development and advancement of the state in its increase of commercial and business enterprise. The re- peal of the Missouri Compromise and the pass- 208 GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS age of the Nebraska Bill occurred during the time of the administration of Gov. Matteson. The election of Lyman Trumbull,* the organi- zation of the Anti-Nebraska Press and Party t and the Bloomington Convention:}: all were important events of his term of office. The first state fair was held at Springfield in 1853. Ninian Edwards was appointed first state superintendent of Public Instruction in 1854, and the General Education Act, the basis for the present school system was had in 1855. All of these dates come within the administration of Gov. Matteson. Kankakee county, with very nearly present boundaries was created from Iroquois and Will counties in 1856. The act creating Kankakee reduced Iroquois and Will to present limits. NOTES AND EXPLANATIONS Page 207 *See page 155. fBy a suit in the Sangamon circuit court the state recovered the principal and all the interest excepting $27,500. Page 208 * See page 157. t See page 157. JSee page 157. WILLIAM H. BISSELL 1857-1860. WILLIAM H. BISSELL, the eleventh governor of Illinois, was, at the same time, the first man to fill that office elected upon any other than the Democratic ticket. He was born April 25, 1811, near Painted Post, New York. Here he received a limited education and later studied medicine. In his early manhood, he was attracted to the west, and coming to Illinois, located in Monroe County. But he was not an enthusias- tic practitioner, and early neglected his pro- fession that he might exercise the singular power of public speech which he developed. Drifting into politics he was sent to the Legis- lature from Monroe County as a Democrat, in 1840. Returning, he read law and rapidly rose in that profession on account of his power as an advocate. He carried every jury. He had a captivating oratory. His diction was pure, his gestures inimitable and expressive, with all of which he had a clearness of statement and remarkable vein of sly humor. He was chosen prosecuting attorney for the circuit in which he (14) 209 210 GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS lived, and he seldom failed to convict an of- fender. He was colonel of the Second Illinois, in the war with Mexico, acquitting himself with great credit. Upon his return at the close of the war, he was elected to Congress, where he served two terms. He was an ardent politician and vigorously opposed the repeal of the Missouri Compromise and the Kansas-Nebraska Bill. During his first term in Congress, Jefferson Davis challenged him to a duel, which Col. Bissell accepted. This was because Col. Bis- sell was defending the Northern troops when Jefferson Davis was claiming all the credit for success at Buena Vista to be given the Missis- sippi troops. In 1856, when the "Anti-Nebraska" press called the convention at Bloomington to nomi- nate a state ticket,* it was a foregone con- clusion that it must be headed by the name of William H. Bissell. The election of this ticket put the state under control of the new party, thenceforth, to be known as the Republican Party, but as yet in Illinois, called the Anti- Nebraska Party, f Governor Bissell was a man of commanding WILLIAM H. BISSELL 211 presence. He was tall and slender, dark of complexion, with a well-poised head. His straight military bearing made him distin- guished in appearance. He had a pleasing ad- dress and winning manner. His habits were exemplary, and his home life always pleasant, he being a devoted husband and a kind parent. He was twice married. His second wife was a daughter of Elias Kent Kane. He died during his term of office, March 18, 1860. The events of importance during the ad- ministration of Gov. Bissell were : The bringing to light of the notorious canal scrip fraud im- plicating Ex-Gov. Matteson* and the Lincoln- Douglas debates, t There were two attempts at re-apportionment of the state, both of which were lost by the vote of the chief executive. The state penitentiary at Joliet was built. The State Board of Education was created and the State Normal School at Normal was es- tablished, during this administration. Two new counties were created during Gov. Bissell's administration. Douglas county was created from Coles with present boundaries, and Coles was reduced to present limits. Ford county was formed with present boundaries from 212 GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS unorganized territory which had been attached to Vermilion. Ford County was the last county to be formed. NOTES AND EXPLANATIONS Page 2 10 *See page 157. tSeepage 158. Page 211 *See sketch of Gov. Matteson. fSee Sixth Decisive Date. JOHN WOOD 1860-1861. THE death of Gov. Bissell made John Wood the twelfth governor of Illinois. John Wood was a native of New York State, being born at Moravia, Cayuga County, N. Y., December 20, 1798. He was the second child and only son of Dr. Daniel Wood, a learned and skillful physician. John Wood left home when he was twenty years old, going to Cincinnati, where he spent the winter. The following summer he came down the river to Shawneetown, and thence into Calhoun County, where he spent the fall and winter. Thence he went to Pike County and lived on a farm for two years. In 1821, he visited the site of the present city of Quincy, then uninhabited, and after buying a quarter-section of land near by, put up a small cabin 18x20 feet, the first building in Quincy. He was identified with the life of Quincy from its very beginning, He was one of the early town trustees, often a member of the city council, and many times mayor. In 1850, he was elected to the state senate. In 1856, he was a prominent Anti-Nebraska Bill 213 214 GOVERNORS OFTILLINOIS advocate, and as such was chosen lieutenant- governor on the ticket with Wm. Bissell for governor. In 1861, Ex-Gov. Wood was one of the five delegates from Illinois to the Peace Convention at Washington, and in April of the same year at the breaking out of the Rebellion, he was appointed quartermaster-general of the state, which position he held throughout the war. In 1864, he took command as colonel of the 137th 111. Vol. Inf. with whom he served as long as the war lasted. Gov. Wood died June 4, 1880, at his residence in Quincy. Lincoln was nominated at the National Republican Convention held at Chi- cago, May 18, 1860. RICHARD YATES 1861-1865. RICHARD YATES, the thirteenth gov- ernor of Illinois, was a native of Kentucky. He was born on the banks of the Ohio River at Warsaw, Gallatin Co., Ky., January 18, 1818. His father moved to Sangamon County, Illinois, in 1831. Richard Yates at- tended school at Illinois College, Jacksonville, and there imbibed the strong doctrine of in- dividual rights to liberty which was taught by the staunch patriots who formed the faculty. He graduated in 1837, with first honors. He studied law, and, gifted as he was with fluent and ready speech, he soon became a favorite in political meetings. He was an ardent ad- mirer of Henry Clay and as such became a strong advocate of the Whig doctrine. The exciting campaign for Harrison and Tyler received his earnest support. Two years later he was elected to the Legislature from Morgan County, although it was a stronghold of the Democrats. He served his state until, in 1850, his large Congressional district sent him to Congress. He was returned and it was at this second term in Congress that the repeal 215 216 GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS of the Missouri Compromise, which he earnestly opposed, brought him into identification with the rising Republican Party. This lessened his popularity in his district, which was strongly Democratic. The Republican State Convention which met at Decatur, May 9, 1860, nominated Richard Yates for governor, and he was duly elected. The ensuing four years were serious years in every state. The life struggle of the nation turned upon the loyalty of the states. Gov. Yates realized the situation, and was firm in upholding the government, wise in using his popularity to lead the people of the state, and, withal, well deserved the title of the "Soldiers' Friend." Immediately after the battle of Shiloh he, himself, went to the battlefield and cared for the wounded and disabled, arranging comforts for them and bringing them by boat- loads to hastily-established hospitals in the North. His special message in 1863 to the Democratic Legislature, pleading for material aid for the sick and wounded Illinois soldiers, was a masterpiece of noble sentiment ex- pressed in a most tactful way. Gov. Yates was deservedly popular. He was erect and symmetrical in person, always RICHARD YATES 217 winning friends because of his prepossessing appearance and magnetic nature, together with his scholarly and captivating manner of speaking. His hearers could never tell why they were transported, but such was always the case. He was social and convivial. In March, 1873, Gov. Yates was appointed govern- ment director of the Union Pacific Railroad in which office he continued until his death in St. Louis, Mo., the 27th day of the following November. Illinois has the distinction of sending the first volunteer soldier to the Civil War. This was George Wheeler, who enlisted at Elgin. The entire number of soldiers from the state reached about 200,000. The administration of Gov. Yates was marked with few events of local civil character although there were many partisan quarrels of great bitterness. The Knights of the Golden Circle gave much annoyance. Another source of anxiety was the riot in Fulton County. Again there was the attempted suppression of the Chicago Times and the usurping State Con- stitutional Convention. In 1863, Gov. Yates astonished the Demo- crats by proroguing their Legislature. This body after a recess met June 2, and began 218 GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS wasting time upon various partisan resolutions. While the two houses were disagreeing upon the question of adjourning sine die, the governor took advantage of his authority and adjourned them to the "Saturday next preceding the first Monday in January, 1865." The supreme court sustained his action. The death of Stephen A. Douglas, June 3, 1861, in Chicago, conies within this adminis- tration. John A. Logan resigned his seat in Congress in August, 1861, to take a regiment into battle. There was no more brave nor beloved man in the whole army than Gen. Logan. U. S. Grant took command at Cairo, Sept. 4, 1861. During the autumn of 1864, a conspiracy for the liberating of the prisoners of war at Camp Douglas, the burning of the city, and the inauguration of rebellion in the north was discovered and punished. RICHARD J. OGLESBY 1865-1868. RICHARD J. OGLESBY, the fourteenth governor of Illinois, was born in Old- ham County, Ky. He was left an or- phan when but eight years old. His uncle who had the care of him, apprenticed him to be a carpenter and he was working at that trade when but ten and a half years old. When he was twelve years old his uncle moved to De- catur, Illinois, and took Richard with him. In 1844, Richard Oglesby commenced the study of law, he was admitted to the bar the follow- ing year, and began the practice of his profession at Sullivan. Mr. Oglesby volunteered in the war with Mexico in June, 1846, and was elected first lieutenant of Company C, 4th Illinois Regiment, and took part in the battles of Vera Cruz and Cerro Gordo. On his return he began further pursuit of his Law studies by attendance upon a course of lectures at Louisville, Ky., but the "California Gold Fever" broke out, and 1849 saw him crossing the plains to the new Eldorado. In 1852, he returned to Macon County and was put upon the presidential ticket as an 219 220 GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS elector. Four years later he was absent twenty months visiting Europe, Asia and Africa. Upon his return in 1858, he ran for Congress, but was defeated. In 1860 he was elected to the Illinois senate. The following spring, when the war had begun in earnest, he quickly responded to the call for volunteers. The extra session of the Legislature elected him Colonel of the Eighth Illinois Infantry. In April, after having been stationed at Bird's Point, Cairo, he was pro- moted brigadier-general. At Fort Donelson, his brigade was in the van, being stationed to the right of General Grant's army. It was the first brigade to be attacked. He lost 500 men before reinforcements arrived, many of whom were from Macon County. He was carried from the field at the battle of Corinth with a bullet in his body, which he carried to the day of his death. In 1863, he was assigned to the command of the 16th army corps but because of the effect of his wound, he gave up this command. Gen. Grant refused to accept his resignation, however, and the following December Oglesby was de- tailed to court martial and try the surgeon- general of the army, at Washington, where he RICHARD J. OGLESBY 221 remained until May, 1864, when he returned home. He was elected governor of Illinois in the following fall election. He was twice after this elected to the same office. Gov. Oglesby, or "Dick Oglesby" as his loving friends delighted in calling him, was a fine appearing, affable man with regular, well- defined features, and a rotund face. He was a little above medium height, large of frame and inclined to put on flesh. He was outspoken, ardent in feeling, and first, last, and every time a devoted republican. His bluff manner and speech attracted his admirers and his jovial disposition and general liberal attitude saved him from the hatred of those opposing him. He was an effective stump-speaker. He died at Elkhart, 111., April 24, 1899. The events of prominence of the first term of Gov. Oglesby were the election of Ex-Gov. Yates to the United States Senate, and the ratification of the 13th Amendment to the Con- stitution. The Legislature repealed the last of the famous Black Laws which long ago had been but a dead letter on the statutes. Several bills were passed over the governor's veto. Contests over the location of the industrial college, the capitol, the southern penitentiary, 222 GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS as well as the canal enlargement and the Illi- nois River improvements, were bitter and all- absorbing. The asylum for the feebleminded was located at Jacksonville in 1865. The Soldiers' Orphans' home at Normal was estab- lished the same year. Abraham Lincoln was assassinated April 14, 1865. His burial at Springfield occurred May 5, 1865. The state reformatory at Pontiac was established in 1867, also the office of state entomologist. JOHN M. PALMER 1869-1873. JOHN M. PALMER, the fifteenth governor of Illinois, was a native of Kentucky. He was born at Eagle Creek, Scott Co., Ky., September 13, 1817. His father, an ardent Jackson man, held strong anti-slavery senti- ments. These he impressed upon his children. In 1831, he emigrated with his family to Illinois, settling in Madison County, where he lived on a farm for about two years, with his wife and children. At this time the death of the wife and mother broke up the family. It was about this time that Alton College was opened on the "manual labor" system, and young Palmer with his brother Elihu entered. They remained there eighteen months. After this John M. Palmer tried various pur- suits, among them the cooper's trade, peddling, and school-teaching. But he had not yet found his calling. When he had but reached the age of twenty- one, he first met Stephen A. Douglas and came under the spell of his personality. Young, ardent, and in political accord with the "Little Giant," young Palmer found his ambition fired 223 224 GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS and his purpose in life fixed. The winter following this first meeting with Douglas, whose leadership he was to follow for more than thirty-five years, Palmer was teaching school near Canton and began to read law. A little later he made his home with his elder brother at Carlinville, continued his law studies, was admitted to the bar and practiced in the courts there. He became interested in local politics and in 1843 was elected probate judge. Two years later he was chosen a member of the State Con- stitutional Convention where he was active and influential. At the age of thirty-five he served his first term in the state senate. Here he took a firm stand on the slavery question, vigorously opposing the repeal of the Missouri Compromise. The Nebraska question soon became a party issue and this man proved himself true to senti- ments which were his as an inheritance from his father. He refused a renomination to the state senate by the Democratic Party. Regretting this necessary break with his party he yet ac- cepted the nomination for the state senator- ship by the Anti-Nebraska Democrats and was elected. The following winter, Palmer put Lyman Trumbull in nomination for United States Senator to succeed Senator Shields and JOHN M. PALMER 225 he was one of the five men who remained stead- fast, voting for him until the unexpected can- didacy of Gov. Matteson,who was an uncompro- mising pro-slavery man, caused Abraham Lin- coln to turn his support among the Whigs to Trumbull, and he was elected. Trumbull, like Palmer, was a Democrat who had espoused the new Anti-Nebraska Party. Two years later Palmer was conspicuous in the forma- tion of the new party, being chairman of the Anti-Nebraska Convention at Bloomington. A year later he was Republican elector for the state at large. He was one of the five Republi- can delegates representing Illinois at the Peace Congress in Washington. Entering the army when the war broke out, he was made colonel of the 14th Illinois Volun- teer Infantry. He was in a number of im- portant engagements. At Stone River, he stood like a rock and for his gallantry was made major general. He rendered valiant service at Chickamaugua. He took part in the Atlanta campaign under Sherman, and his prudence at Peach Tree Creek has become an historical re- cord as having averted disaster. His service as military governor of Kentucky shows great tact. General Palmer was nominated for governor of Illinois at the Republican State Convention, (15) 226 GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS at Peoria, May 6, 1868, in spite of his persistent declaration that he did not want the office. He gave an administration which was clean and worthy the man. Governor Palmer was a statesman and a patriot. When, because of certain unjust criticism and, perhaps, natural affection for first political affiliation, the Republican Party lost his support, it was indeed a misfortune to it. Governor Palmer was a lawyer with a clear insight and rare appreciation of his profession. This was shown by the vetoes of a number of the bills passed by the Legislature during his administration. Although these became laws over his veto, their weakness have since proved the wisdom of his opposition. The new and improved constitution of 1870 was adopted during the administration of Gov- ernor Palmer. The great Chicago Fire occurred during his term of office and his prompt response to the call for help alleviated much suffering. In personal appearance, Governor Palmer was tall, with robust frame and ruddy complex- ion. He was of sanguine-nervous temperament. He was social in disposition, easy of approach, and democratic in his habits and manners. RICHARD J. OGLESBY* 1872-1874. RICHARD J. OGLESBY,* the fourteenth governor of Illinois, was elected the sixteenth governor in 1872, with John L. Beveridge as lieutenant-governor. This election was to have Oglesby made an avail- able candidate for United States Senator. He was duly elected to the United States Senate as soon as the Legislature met. During his short term the state was reapportioned, giving nineteen Congressmen. NOTES AND EXPLANATIONS *See sketch of 14th Governor. 227 JOHN L. BEVERIDGE 1873-1877. JOHN L. BEVERIDGE, the seventeenth governor of the state, was born in the town of Greenwich, Washington Co., N. Y., June 6, 1824. His parents lived on a farm and could give him but a limited common school education. They came "west" when he was in his eighteenth year to DeKalb County, while that section was sparsely settled. Here he worked on the farm during the summers and taught school in the winter until, in the fall of 1842, he attended a term at the academy at Granville, and completed his aca- demic course at Rock River Seminary at Mount Morris. In the fall of 1845, he went south and taught school in Tennessee, where he read law and was admitted to the bar. In 1849, he failed financially, and returned to DeKalb County where he opened his law office in Sycamore. Five years later he moved to Evanston, and the following year began the practice of law in Chicago. In August, 1861, he raised a company which was attached to the Eighth Cavalry, and he was soon promoted to be major. In October, 228 JOHN L. BEVERIDGE 229 his regiment joined the Army of the Potomac. In November, 1863, he resigned to organize the Seventeenth Cavalry, of which he was made colonel. He participated in some forty battles. He was mustered out February 6, 1866, and was bre vetted a brigadier -general. He resumed his practice of law, was elected sheriff of Cook County in 1866, and in Novem- ber, 1870, state senator. This place he resigned in 1871 to be elected congressman-at-large. In 1872 he was elected lieutenant-governor and when Oglesby was elected to the United States Senate in 1873, he became the seventeenth governor of Illinois. After his term of office expired, he became a member of the firm of Beveridge & Dewey, bankers and dealers in commercial paper at Chicago, with his home in Evanston. The only public office held afterwards was when he served as assistant United States treasurer. The principal events of Gov. Beveridge's administration were: State board of canal commissioners created, new state house oc- cupied, asylum for feebleminded children removed to Lincoln. The laws enacted were: Women allowed to hold offices under the school law, and the passing of a bill preventing discrimination in railroad rates. SHELBY M. CULLOM 1876-1880. SHELBY M. CULLOM, the eighteenth governor of Illinois, was born in Wayne County, Ky., Nov. 22, 1829. When but one year old his father emigrated with his family to Tazewell County, Illinois. When Shelby Cullom was 19 years old he entered the Rock River Seminary at Mount Morris, but the close confinement to indoor life told upon his physical strength and his health failed. Upon recovering his health he began the study of law under Abraham Lincoln, at Springfield. Lincoln being absent from his office so much of the time, young Cullom went into the office of Stuart Edwards. Soon after being admitted to the bar, he was elected city attorney. He was an elector in 1856 on the Fillmore ticket: was a member of the Illinois House in 1856, 1860, 1873 and 1874, and was speaker in 1861 and 1873; was a member of the thirty-ninth, fortieth and forty-first Congresses. He was delegate to the Philadelphia Convention in 1872, and placed Grant in nomination. He was chairman of the Illinois delegation to the Republican National Convention of 1884. 230 SHELBY M. CULLOM 231 He was elected governor in 1876. The events of his administration were: The results of the great depression in financial circles; a spirit of insubordination which began in Pittsburg, Pa., and extended west made a great railroad strike in parts of Illinois strongly affecting all industrial interests; the creation of the State Board of Health, also the Appellate Courts. The constitution was amended so as to give the Legislature power to create drainage districts. The Bureau of Labor Statistics and Board of Fish Commissioners were also created during the administration. SHELBY M. CULLOM 1880-1883. GOV. CULLOM succeeded himself by re-election and became the nineteenth governor of Illinois. (See above sketch.) John M. Hamilton was elected lieutenant- governor on the same ticket. Feb. 6, 1883, Gov. Cullom resigned, having been elected to the United States Senate. In 1889, and again in 1895, and as well in 1901, he has been re- elected to the United States Senate. His home is in Springfield. The events of his second administration began with the announcement, in his inaugural address, that every cent of the state debt had had provision made for it. The Republican National Convention met at Chicago and nominated James A. Garfield. The Green- back National Convention met at the same place and nominated James B. Weaver. January, 1881, the last state bonds were called in. The Board of Dental Examiners and Board of Pharmacy were created. Pure food legis- lation was an event of 1881. By a state and congressional re -apportionment, Illinois ob- tained twenty congressmen. 232 JOHN M. HAMILTON 1883-1885. JOHN MARSHALL HAMILTON became the twentieth governor of Illinois, Feb- ruary 6, 1883, by reason of the resignation of Gov. Cullom. He was born in Union County, Ohio, May 28, 1847, and with his father he came to Illinois in 1854. When he was sixteen years old he enlisted in the army. After the close of the war he took the course at Wesleyan University at Delaware, Ohio, whence he graduated in 1868. He located at Bloomington, Illinois, read law and was ad- mitted to the bar in 1870. He was elected State Senator in 1876, and was elected Presi- dent pro tern of the Senate in the 31st General Assembly. While a member of the Senate he was the author of the bill creating appellate courts. After his term as governor had ex- pired, he moved to Chicago where he has since practiced his profession. The events of his administration are, by legislative acts : The creation of the State Min- ing Board and the office of Inspector of Mines, also the appropriation for the state militia, as well as the adoption of the Harper High- 233 234 GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS License Liquor Law. In June, 1884, the Republican National Convention was held at Chicago. Gov. Hamilton was a delegate-at- large to this convention. The first choice of the state was John A. Logan, of Illinois, the second choice being Chester A. Arthur. James G. Elaine was nominated. In July the Demo- cratic National Convention nominated Grover Cleveland at the same place. RICHARD J. OGLESBY 1885-1889. RICHARD J. OGLESBY was the twenty- first governor of Illinois. (See sketch.) The events of this, his third (though not consecutive) term were: Legislative Acts Establishment of Soldiers' and Sailors' Home at Quincy; making Illinois Industrial University the University of Illinois ; the creation of the offices of State Veterinarian and State Game Wardens, also of Live Stock Commission; and the Industrial Home for the Blind at Chicago; provisions for Arbor Day, also the execution of the Chicago anarchists. Labor troubles during this administration were menacing. In March, 1886, there was a strike at the McCormick Harvester Works; in April, a railroad strike in East St. Louis, and May 4th, the anarchists' riot at Haymarket Square in. Chicago. The trial and conviction of the anarchists followed. The Republican National Convention at Chicago, 1888, nominated Benjamin Harrison for President of the United States. 235 JOSEPH W. FIFER 1888-1892. JOSEPH WILSON FIFER, or better known by his host of loving friends as "Private Joe," was the twenty- second governor of Illinois. He was born in Stanton, Va., Oct. 28, 1842. In his youth he came with his father and the other eight children to McLean County, in Illinois. His education was limited to the district school. When the Civil War broke out he, at the age of twenty, together with his brother George, walked a dozen miles barefooted to enlist in Company C, 33rd Illinois Infantry. The regiment was sent to Missouri, and later went down to Millikin's Bend, and "Private Joe" worked on Grant's famous ditch for some w r eeks. The regiment then joined the forces operating against Port Gibson and Vicksburg. "Private Joe" was on guard duty in the front ditches when the flag of surrender was run up on the fourth of July, and he stuck the bayonet of his gun into the embankment and went into the city with the vanguard of Union soldiers. The day following, the 33d joined the force after Johnson, and in an assault at Jackson, 236 JOSEPH W. FIFER 237 Miss., "Private Joe" fell, terribly wounded, having been shot completely through his body. He was thought to have been mortally wounded. The surgeons gave no hope of his recovery, saying nothing but ice could save his life and there was no ice to get nearer than fifty miles away ! It was through the efforts of his brother George that the ice was procured. After a few months careful nursing "Private Joe" rejoined his regiment, for he was determined to finish the term for which he enlisted. He was mus- tered out in October, 1864. He at once entered the Illinois Wesleyan University at Bloomington, from which school he was graduated in 1868. He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1869, and immedi- ately began practice in Bloomington. He was corporate counsel of Bloomington, state's at- torney two terms, and was elected to the State Senate in 1880. In 1888, he was elected governor on the Republican ticket. After his term as governor, he returned to the prac- tice of his profession in Bloomington. In personal appearance, Mr. Fifer is tall- six feet spare, with swarthy complexion, keen black eyes, and quick motions. He is popular wherever he goes. He is a pleasant speaker and always wins friends. 238 GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS The chief events of the Fifer administration may be briefly summed up as follows: Legis- lative Acts Establishing Asylum for Insane Criminals at Chester; also State Horticultural Society and Chicago Sanitary district ; a general school law with compulsory clauses; Anti- trust law, legal rate of interest reduced to five percent: Child Labor Law, and the Australian Ballot System adopted. The World Columbian Exposition was decided upon, Chicago selected as the site and special session of the Legis- lature made provision for it. October 1, 1891, Chicago University opened. October 21, dedi- cation of World's Fair Buildings ; on November 25, 1889, the Illinois State Historical Society was organized. JOHN P. ALTGELD 1893-1897. JOHN P. ALTGELD, the twenty- third governor of Illinois, was the first man other than a Republican who had been elected to this office in forty years. Altgeld was a native of Prussia, having been born there in 1848. His father emigrated to America when he was a lad, and settled on a farm near Mansfield, Ohio. At the age of sixteen young Altgeld enlisted in the 163d Ohio Infantry. After the war he taught school and studied law. He entered a law office at Savannah, Mo. In 1874, he was elected prosecuting attorney of Andrew County. Two years later he resigned, and moved to Chicago. He took little interest in politics for several years, but in 1884 he accepted the nomination for congress on the Democratic ticket, and greatly reduced the overwhelming Republican majority. In 1886, he was elected superior court judge of Cook County; he resigned in 1891. In 1892, he was elected Governor, defeating Joseph W. Fifer (Rep.) in spite of the fact of Fifer's acceptable adminis- tration. In 1896, he was renominated for 239 240 GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS Governor but was defeated by John R. Tanner (Rep.). Ex-Gov. Altgeld died in Chicago, March 12, 1902. The events of his administration were: Legislative Acts Reapportionment of State, giving Illinois twenty-two congressmen ; modifi- cation of Edwards law; creation of the State Insurance Department ; State Board of Factory Inspectors; and State Home for Juvenile Female Offenders; establishing of Eastern Normal School at Charleston, Northern Normal School at DeKalb, Asylum for Incurable Insane at Bartonville, and Farmer's Institutes; also, State Board of Arbitration, Prison parole sys- tem adopted, Municipal Civil Service law. June 26, 1892, Gov. Altgeld pardoned the anarchists, Neebe, Fielden, and Schwab. World's Columbian Exposition opened May 1st, closed October 30th. During Altgeld 's administration there oc- curred serious labor troubles. At the Pullman and American Railway Union strikes the State and Federal troops were called out. Gov. Altgeld protested against the use of Federal troops in Chicago. JOHN R. TANNER 1897-1901. JOHN R. TANNER, the twenty-fourth governor, was elected in 1900. He was born on a farm in Warwick County, Indiana, April 4, 1844. The great grand- father of John R. Tanner died in service in the War of the Revolution, the grandfather while in the War of 1812, and his father while in service in the War of the Rebellion. Each bore the name of John R. Tanner. John R. Tanner, of the fourth generation, enlisted in the Civil War at the age of nineteen in the 98th Illinois Infantry and was transferred to the 61st and served to the end of the war. After the war, John R. Tanner took up the life of a farmer in Clay County. He went into politics, being elected sheriff in 1870, and in 1874, circuit clerk of Clay County. In 1880 he was elected state senator, and in 1886, state treasurer. He was, for a time, United States marshal for the southern district of Illinois; railroad and warehouse commissioner under Gov. Fifer, and assistant treasurer at the United States Sub-treasury, Chicago. (16) 241 242 GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS In 1896, he was elected Governor, defeating John P. Altgeld (Dem.)- The December fol- lowing, he married Miss Cora Edith English of Springfield. His term of office expired in January, 1901, and he died at Springfield the following May. The principal events of this administration are as follows: Legislative Acts Establish- ment of State Board of Pardons, State Board of Examiners of Architects, State Board of Examiners of Horseshoers, Offices of State Food Commissioners, and State Commissioners of Game, also the Juvenile Court act, and the creation of Western Normal School at Macomb. Senatorial and Congressional reapportionment was made, Illinois securing twenty-five con- gressmen thereby. Chicago Drainage Canal in operation. Water turned in January 2, 1900. During his administration, a company, of which Governor Tanner was one, purchased the estate of Pierre Menard, at Fort Gage. This later passed into the hands of Mr. Charles Lynn, who restored the house and improved the farm. This house, built by the first Lieu- tenant-Governor of the state, now stands in appearance exactly as it did in the early years of the nineteenth century. It has been occupied by Mr. Lynn for several years and is, perhaps, JOHN R. TANNER 243 the only house in the state which represents the varied life of Illinois from the French colo- nial days, through the early years of the young commonwealth up to the present time. As such it has been chosen as the frontispiece of this volume. RICHARD YATES 1901-1905. RICHARD YATES, son of the thirteenth governor of Illinois, was elected the twenty-fifth governor in November, 1900. The campaign was begun before his nomi- nation, and continued until his election in a spectacular manner. His candidacy was urged as an inheritance from his father, he receiving support because of the remembrance of the wise administration of Yates, the War Governor. Richard Yates was the first governor of the state born in Illinois. He was born in Jackson- ville, 111., December 12th, 1860, was educated as a lawyer, attending the Law School of the Michigan University, afterward having a law office in Jacksonville. Since his term, he has resided in Jacksonville, with his address at Springfield. During the administration of Governor Yates, the "little ballot law" and a new primary election law were given the state. The Illinois war claim of $1,005,129.29 was paid by the United States. The site of Fort Massac was purchased by the state. The laws relating to 244 RICHARD YATES 245 child labor, employment offices and agencies, and mechanics' liens were revised. A board of prison industries and a good roads commis- sion were created. The speed of automobiles was regulated by state law. The constitution was amended relating to charter of the City of Chicago. Floods in Madison and St. Clair counties and the Iroquois theatre fire were great disasters during the third year of his adminis- tration. The Republican national convention was held at Chicago, June 21-23, 1904, and the Populist national convention was held at Springfield, July 4. CHAS. S. DENEEN 1905. CHAS. S. DENEEN was elected the twenty- sixth governor of Illinois. He was born May 4, 1863, at Edwardsville, Illinois. He was educated in the public schools of Lebanon and at McKendree College, completing his course at the Union College of Law (now Northwestern Law School). He moved to Chicago where he practiced his profession. In the fall of 1892, he was elected a member of the Illinois Legislature; in 1895, Attorney for Sanitary Board; in 1896, states attorney for Cook County and re-elected in 1900. He was a delegate to the National Republican convention in 1900. Was elected chief execu- tive in 1904, and re-elected in 1908 as the twen- ty-seventh governor of the state. A bill passed the Legislature during the first winter of Governor Deneen's second term, mak- ing native oak the state tree and the wood violet the state flower. This was done on the result of a vote cast by the school children of the state. Other legislative acts during his adminis- trations have been as follows : 246 CHAS. S. DENEEN 247 Civil service in state charitable institutions; general primary law; Saturday half -holiday in Chicago; revising marriage and divorce laws; municipal court law; sale of gas and electricity in Chicago; state geological survey; revision of laws relating to food, factory inspection, care of insane, county detention houses, interest on state money, motor vehicles and primary election. The local option law was passed and a test case resulted in it being declared consti- tutional. The constitution was amended relat- ing to deep waterways. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY Abbott, A. The Life of Abraham Lincoln. Published New York, J. R. Dowley, 1864. Alvord, C. W. Illinois in the Eighteenth Century. Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Society. Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. II., Virginia Series, Vol. I. Kaskaskia Records : An Address. Chicago His- torical Society. Armstrong, Perry A. The Piasa or the Devil among the Indians. Morris, 111., 1887. Atwater, Caleb. Description of the Antiquities Discovered in Ohio and other Western States. Circleville, Ohio, 1820 (out of print.) Arnold, I. N. The Life of Abraham Lincoln. Chicago, 1891, A. C. McClurg & Co. Bateman and Selby. Historical Enclyclopedia of Illinois. Beckwith, Hiram W. The Illinois and Indiana Indians. Fergus His- torical Series No. 27; Chicago, 1887. Notes of the Northwest. 251 252 DECISIVE DATES Illinois Historical Collection, Vol. 1., Illinois State Historical Society, 1903. Berry, Daniel, M. D. Morris Birkbeck and his Friend's Publication No. 9 of the Historical Library, p. 259. Blanchard, Rufus. Discovery and Conquest of the Northwest. Wheaton, Illinois, 1879. Boyd, C. E. The County of Illinois. Am. Hist. Review, Vol. 4, No. 4, 1899. Breese, Sydney. The Early History of Illinois. Chicago, 1884. Brooks, Noah. Abraham Lincoln and the Downfall of Slavery. New York, G. P. Putnam Sons, 1894. Brown, H. History of Illinois. New York, 1884. Brown, Stuart. Old Kaskaskia Days and Ways. Publication No. 10 of the Illinois Historical Library, p. 128. Carr, Clark E. The Illini. Chicago, A. C. McClurg, 1904. Carr, Lucien. The Mounds of the Mississippi Valley. Ken. Gov't Survey. BIBLIOGRAPHY 253 Catherwood, Mary Hartwell. Heroes of the Middle West: The French. 1898. Story of Tonty. Chicago, 1892. Lady of Fort St. John. Boston, 1892. Life of Renault. 1897. Spanish Peggy. Chicago, 1899. Chittenden, H. M. American Fur Trade of the Far West. 3 Vols. New York, 1902. Clark, George Rogers. Sketch of His Campaigns in the Illinois. Ohio Valley Hist. Series, No. 3, 1869. Coffin, Chas. Carleton. Abraham Lincoln. New York, Harper Bros., 1893. Conant, A. J. Footprints of Vanished Races in the Mississippi Valley. St. Louis, 1879. Documentary History of New York. Douglas, W. B. Gabriel Cerre, a Sketch. Trans, of the 111. State Hist. Soc., 1903. Drake, Benjamin. Life and Adventures of Black Hawk. Dunn, J. P. Father Gibault. Trans, of the 111. State Hist. Soc., 1905. 254 DECISIVE DATES Edwards, Ninian Win. History of Illinois, 1778-1833. Springfield, 1870. English, W. H. Conquest of the Country Northwest of the River Ohio and Life of George Rogers Clark. 2 Vols. Indianapolis, 1896. Fergus Hist. Series, Nos. 4, 12, 31, 32, 34. Fiske. New France and New England. Boston and New 1| York, 1902. Flower, George. History of English Settlements in Edwards County, Illinois. Chicago Hist. Society Col- lections, Vol. 1, 1883. Greegg, Thomas. The Prophet of Palmyra. New York, 1890. Green, E. B. The Government of Illinois. New York, 1904. Herndon, Wm. Henry and Weik, Jesse Wm. Abraham Lincoln : The true story of a great life. New York, 1892. Hosmer, A Short History of the Mississippi Valley. Boston and New York, 1901. Howells, W. D. Stories of Ohio. Chicago, 1897. Howells, W. D. and Hayes, J. G. Lives and Speeches of Abraham Lincoln and Hannibal Hamlin, Columbus, O., 1860. BIBLIOGRAPHY 255 Linn, Wrfi. Alexander. The Story of the Mormons. New York, 1902. Mason, E. G. Chapters from Illinois History. Chicago, 1901. Nos. 12 and 34 of Fergus Historical Series. Matson, N. Pioneers of Illinois. Chicago, 1882. Memories of Shaubena. Chicago, 1878. Moses, John. Illinois Historical and Statistical. 2 Vols. Chi- cago, 1895. Nicolay, John G. A Short Life of Lincoln. New York, 1902. Nicolay, John G. and Hay. Abraham Lincoln: Complete Works. New York, 1894. Osmon. Starved Rock. An Historical Sketch. Olde Ulster, Vol. I., No. 6; Vol. II., No. 4, and Vol. IV., No. 1. Parkman. The Discovery of the Great West. Boston, 1869. The Conspiracy of Pontiac. Boston, 1883. The Old Regime in Canada, 2 Vols. Boston, 1905. Pioneers of France in the New World. Boston, 1907. Jesuits in North America. Boston, 1907. Frontenac and New France under Louis XIV. Boston, 1907. 256 DECISIVE DATES Parrish, Randall. Historical Illinois. Chicago, 1906. When Wilderness was King. Chicago. The Sword of the Old Frontier. Chicago. Publications of Illinois, State Historical Society. Shea. Discovery and Explorations of the Mississippi Valley. New York, 1888. Snyder, J. F. A Group of Illinois Mounds. Captain Jean Baptiste Sancier. Peoria, 1901. Forgotten Statesmen of Illinois. Jesse B. Thomas, Pub. 111. State Hist. Society, No. 9. The Army led by Col. George Rogers Clark in his Conquest of the Illinois, 1778-1779. Pub. No. 8, pp. 166-178, 111. State Hist Soc. Sparks, Edwin Erie. Collections of the Illinois State Library, Vol. II. Lincoln Series, Vol. I. 1908. Stevens, Frank. The Black Hawk War. Chicago, 1903. Illinois in the War of 1812. Pub. No. 9, 111. State Hist. Lib., 1904. Tarbell, Ida M. The Life of Abraham Lincoln. New York, Lin- coln Hist. Society, 1902. Thwaites, Reuben Gold. Early Lead Mining in Illinois and Wisconsin. American Hist. Assn., 1893. BIBLIOGRAPHY 257 Early Western Travels. Cleveland, 1903. How George Rogers Clark won the Northwest. Chicago, 1903. Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents. Vols. 59-60. Cleveland, O., 1896-1901. Thompson, Maurice. Stories of Indiana. Chicago, 1898. Alice of Old Vincennes. Chicago. Wallace, Joseph. Illinois and Louisiana under French Rule. Cm., 1893. Fort de Chartres. Pub. No. 8, Illi. State Hist. Lib., 1904. Winsor, Justin. Narrative and Critical History of America. Bos- ton, 1886. The Mississippi Basin, 1697-1763. Boston, 1895. The Western Movement. Boston and New York, 1897. W or then, A. H. Geological Survey of Illinois. 8 Vols. INDEX INDEX A. Abolitionist, mentioned, ISO; comparatively few, 154. Adams, Captain, mentioned, 149. Adirondacks, original source of Algonquins, 60. Agricultural Society, first one wars founded by Gov. Coles, 181. Albany, N. Y., 69. Algonquin, word Missi, 33; great family of Indians east of Mississippi River, 59; original source of the Adirondacks, 60. Alliances, Dutch with Iroquois, 69. Allonez, Father Claude, sent to Lake Superior region, 19; sent to mission at Kaskaskia, 12; reports numbers of native herbs and fruits, 64. Altgeld, Hon. John P., twenty-third governor, 239. Alton, Lincoln-Douglas debate held at, 162. American Bottoms mentioned, 44. American Indian, origin of, 13. Anarchists, execution of, 23 5; pardoned by Gov. Altgeld, 240. Anti-Nebraska Bill mentioned, 206. Anti-Nebraska Party, mentioned, 157. Anti-Slavery, influences cited, 149; sentiment of, in differ- ent States, 154. Anti-Trust Law, established, 238. Appellate Court established, 231. Arbor Day, provision made for, 235. Arkansas River nearly reached, 29. Armstrong Fort, see fort. Asylum for the Feeble Minded located, 222;removed to Lincoln, 229. Asylum for Insane Criminals, established, 238. Asylum for Incurable Insane established, 240. Aubrey, Mons. de, commandant at Fort Chartres, 76; went to rescue of Fort Niagara, 77. 261 262 DECISIVE DATES Australian Ballot System adopted, 238. Automobiles, speed of, regulated, 243. B. Bad Axe, mention of, battle, 149. Beveridge, Hon. John L., Seventeenth Governor, 228. Birkbeck, Morris, mentioned, 150. Bissell, Hon. Wm. H., candidate for governor, 158; eleventh governor, 207. Black Gown, name given Father Marquette by Illini, 27. Black Hawk, mentioned, 147 ; war, 150. Black Laws, reference to, 271. Bloomington Convention ,157. Board of Dental Examiners, created 232; mentioned, 163. Board of Pharmacy, created, 232; mentioned, 206. Board of Prison Industries, 243. Bond, Hon. Shadrack, first governor, 173. Bond County, 176. Bucklers of buffalo hides, 63. Bureau, of Fish Commissioners, created, 231. Bureau of Labor Statistisc, created, 231. Buffalo, in country of the Illini, 31. British domination, mentioned, 88. c. Cahokia, a tribe of the Illini, 62; court established at, 107; town built in 18th century, 44. Cahokia Mounds in St. Clair County, 11. Cairo, founded, 173. California, mouth of Mississippi River supposed to be located in, 20, 29. Calumet, peace pipe, 25. Canal, see Illinois and Michigan Canal, also Chicago Drainage Canal. Carolinas, settled Southern Illinois, 154. Carlin, Hon. Thos., seventh governor of Illinois, 196. Cartier, Jacques, discovered St. Lawrence River, 15. Champlain, Samuel, founded Quebec, 15; gave aid to Algonquins, 59. Charleston, Lincoln-Douglas fourth debate, 162. INDEX 263 Chartres Fort, built in early 18th century, 44; English garrison took possession, 87; refuge of Pontiac, 86. Chequamegon Bay, location of, Allonez Mission, 19. Chicago, drainage canal in operation, 242; sanitary dis- trict, 238; saved to Illinois, 123; University opened, 238. Chicago Fire, mentioned, 226. Child labor law, 245. Cholera, Asiatic, caused death of Gov. Edwards, 185. Christiensen, built Fort Massac, 69. Civil Service, in State charitable institutions, 243. Civil War, mentioned, 137. Clark, Fort (see fort). Clark, George Rogers, established government in Illinois territory, 107; march to Kaskaskia, 99; related to Pat- rick Henry, 96; secured oath of Allegiance from French, 101 ; success result of love of Illini for French, 65. Colbert, M . , minister of navy at Paris, 2 1 . Coles, Hon. Edward, defeated convention to amend con- stitution, 143; mention of, 150; second governor, 177; set slaves free, 179. Columbian Exposition, decided upon, 238; opened, 240. Constitution, amended, 231 ; first of Illinois, 141 ; legislation favoring amendment, 143; of 1870, adopted, 226; amended, 243-244; of the United States, mentioned, 137. Compact (see alliance, see Jefferson -Lemen compact.) Conquest of Northwest (see Clark). Cook, Hon. John B., candidate for congress, 142. Convention, Bloomington, 157; Democratic National, 234; Greenback National, 232; Populist National at Springfield, 243; Republican National, of 1884, 232; of 1888, 235; of 1904, 243. Council, with Illini, 28. Crawford County (see County), 174. Creve Coeur Fort (see Fort). Crogham, George conference with Pontiac, 87; also foot- note page 90. Crozat M., grant of land given, 33. County, organized, Adams, 182; Alexander, 176; Boone, 196; Bond, 196; Bureau, 196; Calhoun, 182; Cass, 196; Champaign, 191; Clay, 181; Clark, 176; Clinton, 182; Coles, 187; Cook, 187; Crawford, 174; Dekalb, 196; 264 DECISIVE DATES Douglas, 211; Edgar, 181; Edwards, 182; Effingham, 187; Ford, 211; Franklin, 174; Fulton, 181; Gallatin, 174; Greene, 176; Hancock, 176; Henry, 182; Iroquois, 191; Jackson, 174; Jasper, 187; Jefferson, 171; Jo Daviess, 187; Kane, 196; Knox, 182; La Salle, 187; Lawrence, 176; Livingston, 196; Madison, 174; Macon, 187; Macoupin, 187; Marion, 181; Mercer, 182; Montgomery, 176; Morgan, 181; Monroe, 176; Mc- Donough, 182; McHenry, 196; McLean, 187; Ogle, 196; Peoria, 182; Perry, 187; Pope, 174; Pike, 176; Putnam, 182; Randolph, 176; Rock Island, 187; Schuyler, 182; Shelby, 187; Stephenson, 196; St. Clair, 176; Tazewell, 187; Union, 174; Vermilion, 182; Wabash, 182; Wash- ington, 174-182; Warren, 182; Wayne, 182; White, 176; Whiteside, 196; Will, 196; Winnebago, 196. Cullom, Hon. Shelby M., the eighteenth governor, 230; succeeded himself, 232. D. Dablon, Rev. Father, appoints Marquette to accompany Joliet, 21. Danville, exploration of central Illinois, started from, 128; salt works, near to, 129; Spanish troops passed through, 112. Dearborn, Fort, Massacre at, 113; rebuilt, 128. Delawares, bound by Silver Covenant Chain, 71. Democratic National Convent-ion, of 1884 (see convention), 234. De Sola, mention of, discovery of lower Mississippi River, 57. Deneen, Hon. Chas. S., the twenty-sixth and twenty- seventh governor, 244. Detroit, mention of Fort, 86. Des Plaines River, La Salle's route into Illini country via, 41 ; battle on, 66. de Villiars, Jumon, killed by troops under George. Washington, 75. de Villiars, Neyon, defeated George Washington, 75. Dillon, Judge John B., history of Indiana, mentioned, 97. Dillons Grave, in Tazewell county, 129. Dixon, John, veteran mail carrier, 149. Doty, James D., governor of Wisconsin, 123. Donay, Rev. Father, eulogised La Salle, 43. INDEX 265 Douglas, Hon. Stephen A., change in sentiment, regarding, 155 ; lifelong friend of John M. Palmer, 157 ; called Little Giant," 159; contrasted with Lincoln, 160; answered question at Freeport, 161; active when war was de- clared (foot note), 165; death, 218. Douglas-Democrats, mentioned, 160. Duncan, Hon. Joseph, sixth governor, 192. Du Cogne, last chief of the Illini, 66. Dutch, strength of English with the Indians an inherit- ance for the Dutch, 68. Du Quesne, Fort, French Fort, 75. E. East St. Louis, three miles south of Monks' Mounds, 1 1. Education Act, passed in 1855, 206. Edwards, Ninian, first governor of Illinois Territory, 111; took out State militia at news of Fort Dearborn mas- sacre, 116; third governor of State, 182. Edwards, Law, modified, 240. Edwardsville , mentioned, 116; home of Governor Coles, 181. Elk-ins, Jacob, made treaty with Iroquois, 69. English Colony, in Edwards county, mentioned, 150. Edwards County (see county). Erie, Lake, discovered by Joliet, 21; strip ceded to Great Britian, 68; route taken by Aubry, 77. Eskimo, Ice folk very much like, 9. Ewing, William, Lee D., Governor from November 3 to November 17, 1834, 191. F. Farmers' Institutes established, 240. Fifer, Hon. Joseph W., the twenty-second governor, 236. Ford, Hon. Thos. eighth governor, 198. Fort, Armstrong, on Rock Island, 147; Chartres (see Chartres Fort); Clark, now Peoria, mentioned, 149; Creve Coeur, first fort, 41 ; burned, 42 ; Dearborn, estab- lished, 113; Massacre, 116; rebuilt, 128; Du Quesne, built by French, 75; Machault, mentioned, 77; Massac, Clark's troops to begin march from, 98, 243; Niagara, loss of, 73; Pitt, mentioned, 77; Sackville (Post Vin- cennes), 101; St. Louis, rock in Illinois River, 42; 266 DECISIVE DATES Indians driven to, 66; abandoned, 68; Wayne, help to. Fort Dearborn, 114. Fox River, route of Joliet and Marquette, 22. Franklin County (see county). French, influence on Illinois country, 70. French, Hon. Agustus C., ninth governor, 201. French, colonial life, 45. French Creek, route of, aubry, 77. Freeport, Lincoln-Douglas Debate, 160. G. Galesburg, mention of, 162. Gallat-in County (see county). Gauls, mentioned, 88. Gibault, Rev. Father, mentioned, 65 ; Good Roads Commissioners, created, 243. Government, of county of Virginia, 108. Grant, U.S., mentioned, 218. Great Britian, Sir. Wm. Johnson made commissioner of Indian affairs by, 71 ; last colonies transferred to, 85. Gulf of Mexico, mouth of Mississippi river, 29. H. Hamilton, Gen., at Post Vincennes, 102. Hamilton, Hon. John Marshall, twentieth governor, 233. Harrison, Gen., governor of Indiana territory, 111. Heald, Captain Nathan, commander at Fort Dearborn, 1 14; surrendered Garrison, 116. Helm, Captain, sent to command at Post Vincennes, 101. Henry, Patrick, relative of George Rogers Clark, 96. Hiawatha, mentioned, 69. High License Liquor Law, adopted, 233. Holland Dutch, influence on American institutions of, 55. Hudson, Henry, discovery of river, 55. Hudson River, treaty made on banks. 69. Ice Age, mentioned, 9. Ice People, mentioned, 9. INDEX 267 Ice Folk, mentioned, 13. Illini, hunting grounds of, 19; mentioned in letter from Marquette, 20; mission among, promised, 33; La Salle said to have discovered, 35 ; tribes of, 62 ; excelled in use of bow and arrow, 63; became less and less hardy, 65. country of, extent, 68; raids of Iroquois into, 44; first permanent settlement in, 42; confederacy lost identity, 66. Illinois, heart of nation, 1 ; authentic history of, begins, 8; people of, 154; leader of new political party in, 158. Illinois-Northern, hunting grounds, 113. Illinois country, coming of white man to, 65; had French not come to, 70; province of Quebec, include, 89. Illinois River, Joliet and Marquette ascended, 8, 30, 35 ; vil- lage of Kaskaskia on north side of, 31; "tribes as far west as," 65 ; Iroquois had driven them west of, 68. Illinois soldiers, bravery of, 75. Illinois Territory, formed in 1809, 111; boundary of, 121. Illinois Central Railroad, mention of, 123; completion of, 203. Illinois and Michigan Canal Association, incorporated, 181. Illinois College, founded, 186. Immaculate Conception, Mission of, 31. Indians, supposed origin, 13; western, 70. Indian Affairs, commissioner of, 71. Indiana, mentioned, 68; territory bounded, 111. Industrial Home for the Blind, at Chicago, 235. International Improvements, craze over, 194; came to an end, 197. Iroquois, dominated the Algonquins, 59; origin of, 60; frew warlike, 61; English gave Iroquois support, 67; roquois drive Illini west of Illinois River, 68; Silver Covenant Chain held allegiance of, 70. ' Inspector of Mines, created, 233. Institution for the Blind, chartered, 203. Iroquois Theatre, horror, 243. J. Jackson County (see county). Jefferson, Thos., efforts in behalf of anti-slavery, 150. Jefferson-Lemen Compact, mentioned, 149. 268 DECISIVE DATES Jesuit, led into wilderness, 15; Marquette, a devout, zeal- ous, 21. Johnny-Cake, origin of name, 130. Johnson, Sir. Wm., commissoner of Indian affairs, 71;. in- formed of advance of Aubry, 77 ; reports of treachery of savages to French, 78; result had western Indians refused to listen to, suggested attack on Fort Niagara (footnote), 79, 80. Johnson County (see county). Joliet, mentioned, 8; mentioned, 14; commissioned to go upon expedition, 21. Joliet, city of, mentioned, 66. Jonesboro, third Lincoln-Douglas debate, 162. Journey-board, how used, 130. Jumon de Villiars, killed by George Washington's troops. 75. Juvenile Court Act, passed, 242. K. Kane, Elias Kent, secretary of State during Bond's admin- istration, 174. Kane County (see county). Kankakee River, mentioned, 41. Kansas, refugees from, 157. Kaskaskia, Indian village, 31; Marquette's mission prom- ised, 33; La Salle found deserted, 41; near Fort St. Louis, 42 ; type of, 45 ; report of Father Allonez, 64. Kaskaskia River, on the banks of , 99. Kaskaskia Indians, village of , 3 1 ; tribe, 66 ; confederacy, 62 Kentucky, fertile land of, 95 ; life in, uncertain, 96. Keokuk, Indian chief, 148. Knights of Golden Circle, depredations by, 217. Knox College, opened, 197. Knox County, (see county). L. Labor Troubles, menacing, 235 ; serious, 240. LaFayette, visit of, 181. Lake, Michigan, boundary of State, 122; Ontario, 34; Superior, region of, 19. INDEX 269 La Salle, claims discovery, 35; discovered coal, 129; life a tradedy, 44; untimely death influenced fate of New France, 43. La Salle Coimty (see county). La Pointe du Esprit, Allonez's mission, 19. Law, first school mentioned, 216; with compulsory clauses, 238; child labor, 243; general primary, 244; little ballot, 243; local option, 244; primary election, 243. Lincoln, Abraham, brought home, 164; candidate for United States senator, 155; contrasted with Douglas, 160; Douglas debate, 162; lost speech, 158; nominated for president, 163; question asked Douglas, 161. Live Stock Commission, created, 235. Local Option Law, 244. Logan, John A., brave soldier, 218; choice for president, 234. London Company, claims shared with other nations, 56. Lords of Trade, letter written to, 71. Lovejoy, Elijah P., the abolitionist, 150; killed at Alton, 195. Lovejoy, Owen, at Bloomington convention, 157. M. Madison County (see county). Mariette, Ohio, seat of government of northwest territory, 111. Marquette, Rev. James Father, ascended Illinois River, 8 letter to his Rev. Father Superior, 20; appointed by Father Dablon to accompany Joliet, 21; established mission, 41; Indians found, by 62; followed to mission by Father Allonez, 64; boundary of country as found by, 68. Massac Fort, starting point for Clark's march, 98. Mas sac Rebellion, mentioned, 200. Massacre, Fort Dearborn, (see Dearborn and Fort), Fort Niagara, mentioned, 78. Matte son, Joel A., tenth governor, 204; unexpected condi- dacy for U. S. senator, 225. Maumee River, mentioned, 77. McCarty, commandant at Fort Chartres, 78. McLean, John, candidate for cpngress, 142; of the pro- slavery party, 174, 270 DECISIVE DATES McLean County (see county). McKendree College, incorporated, 195. Menard, Rev. Father, established mission on Lake Superior, 19. Menard, Pierre, first Lieutenant-Governor, 174; residence, frontispiece, 242. Miami Indians, foot note, 81; at Fort Wayne, 114. Miamies, went to trading post at La Pointe du Esprit, 19. Michigan, mentioned, 68. Michiganians, mentioned, 62. Michilimacana, mentioned, 16; Joliet and Marquette left mission, 22; Marquette to return to, 33. Mission, Immaculate Conception of Virgin Mary, 31; La Pointe du esprit or the Holy Ghost, St. Ignatius, 22. Mississippi River, mentioned, 14; first mention of, 20; mouth but ten days distant, 29; name never changed, 33; La Salle's colony missed mouth, 43; Indians escaped to, 66. Missouri Compromise, repealed, 154. Mob Law, mentioned, 200. Mobile, mentioned, 45. Montreal, when built, 1 5 ; Joliet's boat capsized in sight of, 34; good trading post, 56. Morris, battle at, 66. Mound, Cahokia, 1 1 ; Monks, 1 1 ; Turtle, 1 1 . Mormons, mentioned, 200. Mounds, origin unknown, 11. Mound Builders, origin entire conjecture, 16. Municipal Civil Service Law, adopted, 240. N. Nassau, N. Y., mentioned, 69. Nebraska Bill, mentioned, 154; Douglas supported, 162. New Design, mentioned, 150. New England, mentioned, 53; anti-slavery views from, 150. New France, mentioned, 15; could afford to ignore other claims, 45; mentioned, 53; became British possessions, 95. New Netherlands, mentioned, 53. New Orleans, seat of government of New France, 45. New Spain, mentioned, 53; boundaries of, 58. INDEX 271 Niagara, attacked, 72. Niagara Falls, Aubry met troops at, 77. Normans Kill, mentioned, 69. Normal School (see State Normal School), Eastern, 240; Northern, 240; Western, 242. Northern Illinois, a wilderness, 113. Northwest, purchased from Iroquois, 68. Northwest Territory, bounded, 110; Virginia ceded claim to, 138; division of, 139. 0. Ohio, mentioned, 68. Ohio Company, mentioned, 74. Ohio River, mentioned, 35; northern boundary of United States, 95-103; George Rogers Clark, trip down, 97. Ohio Indians, joined Aubry, 77. Ogle County, (see county). Oglesby, Hon. Richard J., fourteenth governor, 219; six- teenth governor, 227; twenty-first governor, 235. Okaw River, mentioned, 42. Onondaga, conference of Indians, at, 71. Orange, Albany, N. Y., 66. Ottawa, first Lincoln-Douglas debate held at, 160. Ottawa Confederacy, Indians forming, 72. Ottawa Chief, Pontiac, 85. P. Pacific Ocean, South sea, 29. Palmer, Hon. John M ., fifteenth governor, 223. Paris, mentioned, 21. Peace Convention, reference to, 214. Peace Congress, mentioned, 225. Peoria, tribe of Illini, 62; mentioned, 66. Penitentiary, at Alton, 186; at Joliet, 209. Pennsylvania, French Creek ii>, 77. Penotomy, confederacy of Indians, 65. Penotomies, Indians of the Penotomy confederacy, 65. Piasa Bird, note, 81. Point St. Ignace, mission on Island of Mackinaw, 22. Pontiac, mentioned, 65; an Ottawa chief, 85. 272 DECISIVE DATES Pontiac's Conspiracy, to save America to redman, 86; treaty with Croghan, note, 90; death, note, 91, Pope, Nathaniel, delegate to congress for the Illinois territory, 121; bound the east and west, 123; led anti- slavery sentiment, 174. Pope County (see county). Portage, carrying place, 22; Aubry's route, 77. Portage City, Wisconsin, 23. Pottery, found in mounds, 10. Pottawatomies, mentioned, 19; at Fort Dearborn, 116. Prairie du Rocher, mentioned, 44. Presque Isle, route of Aubry, 77. Pure Food, legislation, 232. Prison Parole System, adopted, 240. Primary Election Law, 243-244. Q. Quebec, founded by Champlain, 15 ; Frontenac, governor of, 21; Joliet returned to, 33; Frontenac, writing from, 34; La Salle, returned to, 41 ; made a good trading post, 56; province of, 89. Quincy, sixth Lincoln-Douglas debate had at, 162; John Wood put up first cabin, 213; soldiers' and sailors' home located, 235. R. Railroad Strikes, in parts of Illinois, 231. Randolph County (see county). Renault, Phillippi, mentioned, 45; brought African slaves to French settlements, 138. Republican National Convention, in 1884; in 1888 (see convention). Revolution, War of, mentioned, 69. Reynolds, Hon. John, mentioned, 148; fourth governor 187. Rock in Illinois River, 42; mentioned, 66. Rockford, mound found at site of, 11. Rogers, Major Robert, sent to tell of surrender of Canada 85. Romance, period of, 87. Russel Camp, organized at Edwardsville, 116. INDEX 273 5. Sachem, of the Illini, 26. Sackville, Fort, (see Fort). Sacs, mentioned, 19. Sagamity, presented to Marquette, 28; corn raised for, 46. Saline, pottery found in, 10; sale of land in saline reserve, 203. Salt Works, near Danville, 128; near Shawneetown, 140; Hargrave, general inspector of, 141. Sault Ste. Marie, as far west' as, 16. School Law, women allowed to hold office under, 229; anti-trust, 238. Senecas, appeal from, 67. Seneca Chief, answer to appeal, 70. Seventeenth Century, French settlement, 43. Seven Years' War (see War). Shawnees, came to visit Illini, 20; Iroquois made war upon, 61; at Onondago, 71. Shawneetown, salt works near, 141; John McLean of, 142. Shields, Hon. James, mentioned, 155. Shurtleff College, incorporated, 195. Silver Covenant Chain, Indians' name for treaty, 69; strength of 70; nations bound with, 73; Sir. Wm. Johnson's use of (foot note), 80. Six United Nations, (see Iroquois), faithful to British, 71; troops of British joined to, 72; convention of, 78. Slaves, African, brought by Renault, 138. Slavery, African, extension of, 154. Slavery Question, all absorbing topic, 141. Slave States, to west and south, 153. Soldiers' and Sailors' Home, State, located at Quincy, 235. South Bend, direction of Spanish troops, 112. Smith, Joseph, killed by mob, 200. Soldiers' Orphans' Home, located, 222. Spain, permanent settlements made by, 54. Spanish Settlement, of St. Louis, 42. Spanish Domains, comprised, 54. Spanish Invasion, of state, 111. Springfield, the capital of state, 195. Starved Rock, in IlHni River, 42. State Board of Arbitration, established, 240. (18) ^>tumr. m - - . IE TFrmrig -rm^rfnr ~ mil ~T~ i~i T ~ . - 7 - 276 DECISIVE DATES Wigwam, Lincoln nominated in, 163. Williamsburg, George Washington sent from, 74; County of Kentucky a long way from, 96. Winnebago Indians, war with, 185. Winnebago County, (see County^. Wisconsin, making a state, 124 Wisconsin River, Joliet and Maiquette followed, 22. Wisconsin Territory, Governor of, efforts to restore boun- dary, 123. Wood, Hon. John, twelfth Goveinor, 213. World's Columbian Exposition, (see Columbian Exposition) Y Yates, Hon. Richard, thirteenth Governor, 215. Yates, Hon. Richard, twenty-fifth Governor, 242.