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Full text of "The decorative work of George Herzog : 1851-1920"

UNIVERSmy 

PENNSYL\^\NIA. 

UBKAR1E5 




THE DECORATIVE WORK OF GEORGE HERZOG 

1851-1920 



Mark C. Luellen 



A THESIS 



in 



The Graduate Program in Historic Preservation 



Presented to the faculties of the University of Pennsylvania in 
Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of 



MASTER OF SCIENCE 



1992 



Cf Ci-*-^ Ca-^AjutY 



Gail Caskey Winkler, Lecturer, Historic Preservation, Advisor 



Frank ^(Jater4 Professor, Historic Preservation, Reader 




David G. De Long,*PrDfessor of Afchrte<*Kii;e^ 
Graduate Group Chairman 



..KcARTS _.^j^^ 1 fflat j /.^4^ 



UNIVERSITY 

OF 

PENNSYLVANIA 

LIBrtARIES 



Contents 

Acknowledgments iv 

Chapter 1 Introduction 1 

Chapter II Biographical Background 5 

Chapter III The Decorative Art of George Herzog 12 

Reference Materials 13 

Design and Color 15 

Stencil and Materials 1 6 

Design and Placement 18 

Chapter IV The American Decorative Artist 21 

Centennial Exposition 21 

James Windrim and Masonic Temple Philadelphia 23 

The Union League of Philadelphia 33 

Liederkranz Ballroom 35 

Widener, Kemble and Hkins Mansions 37 

Young Maennerchor Hall 46 

Philadelphia City HaU 47 

Associated Art Workers 5 1 

Chapter V Methods of Decorative Finish Conservation 53 

Plaster Repair 53 

Documentation 56 

Qeaning 57 

Consolidation 59 

In-Painting 60 



Chapter VI Conclusion 62 

Bibliography 66 

List of Figures 71 

Figures 73 

Appendices 

I Chronological List of Executed Work & Renderings 103 

II Philadelphia City Directory Listings 109 

III New York City Directory Listings 110 



Acknowledgements 

I have enjoyed the assistance of numerous individuals and institutions who 
generously gave their time and shared their knowledge and expertise of the subjects 
touched on in my thesis. I wish to record my gratitude to the following people: 
Mrs. Anne Herzog LaMotte, John H. Piatt and Milton Kenin of the Grand Lodge, 
Free and Accepted Masons of Pennsylvania, Library and Museum, Roger Moss and 
Bruce Laverty of The Athenaeum of Philadelphia, Buie Harwood, and Bemie 
Gruenke of Conrad Schmitt Studios Inc. It is a pleasure to acknowledge the 
encouragement, assistance and constructive criticism of my advisor Gail Winkler 
and reader Frank Matero. To my friends and family for their continued support and 
belief that this thesis would get finished. 



Chapter I: Introduction 

The decorative painting of George Herzog is impressive in the quality and 
quantity of projects that remain intact Bom and trained in Germany as a canvas 
painter, Herzog worked primarily in Philadelphia. Several remaining structures as 
well as most documents that exemplify his skill are also located in Philadelphia. 
Although many structures have been destroyed or altered, the Herzog interiors that 
do survive contain painted decorations in good condition. These decorative 
finishes, as well as surviving renderings and written descriptions serve as 
documents of Herzog 's talent. Herzog 's projects included public, residential and 
ecclesiastical buildings. This paper will discuss the major Herzog works that are 
documented in known renderings and documents. Appendix I is a chronological 
list of executed works coded to indicate the location of existing renderings. For the 
most part, Herzog 's work is typical of the overall character of painted decoration in 
late nineteenth-century Philadelphia, including the type of decoration used, the 
general style of the decoration and its color statement 

Herzog 's renderings are located in various locations. They include: The 
Athenaeum of Philadelphia; The Grand Lodge, Free and Accepted Masons of 
Pennsylvjmia Library and Museum, Masonic Library, Masonic Temple, 
Philadelphia; and Mrs. Anne Herzog LaMotte (George Herzog 's granddaughter) of 
Rocky River, Ohio. 

The George Herzog Collection at The Athenaeum of Philadelphia contains 
eighty-eight renderings of ceiling, wall and furniture designs as well as 
manuscripts, photographs and certificates.' The manuscript collection consists of a 
number of documents, diplomas, and correspondence between Herzog and 
architects, such as John McArthur,Jr., and clients, such as P.A.B. Widener. The 
renderings were drawn and painted on paper and illustration board and often 
matted. When the design was composed of jjrimarily repeats, the renderings 



' The Athenaeum of Philadelphia's collection was part of a larger collection owned by Mrs. Anne LaMotte 
Herzog. She donated the collection to The Athenaeum m 1989. 

1 



illustrated a small portion of the wall or ceiling ( usually one-quarter). If the design 
was more scenic or narrative, a more expansive rendering of the room was 
completed. The collection is predominately comprised of renderings created for 
residential projects in Philadelphia, (e.g. William Austin and William Kemble) and a 
few for commercial (The Bank of North America, Philadelphia) and public 
buildings ( Philadelphia City Hall and The Union League of Philadelphia).' Some 
of the renderings were signed by Herzog and inscribed with the name of the client, 
the project or simply the area of the building in which the painting was to be 
completed. Also among The Athenaeum's collection is Herzog 's personal 
scrapbook that contains newspaper clippings describing his work. The newspaper 
articles were assembled according to when they were published. Most of the 
articles describe in great detail along with drawings of the newly completed Herzog 
interior. Of the cited articles, most were published in Philadelphia, New York City, 
Masonic newspapers and American paper published in German.^ The Herzog 
scrapbook proved to be a valuable resource, documenting a vast number of 
Herzog 's interiors.'' 

The George Herzog Rendering Collection at the The Masonic Library and 
Museum consist of twenty-three renderings pertaining to Herzog 's decoration of the 
Temple's Halls as well as a few extraneous residential designs.' The renderings of 
the Temple illustrate a more comprehensive design scheme than most of the other 
rendering collections. Herzog 's perspective drawings of the individual Halls clearly 
exhibit the details of the floor, walls and ceiling. The collection also contains a 
source scrapbook which contains photographs of parged plaster ceilings, 18th- 
century French rooms, paintings, furniture and other decorative arts mostly from 



' The only known Herzog work outside of the Philadelphia and New York areas is an rendering for a court room 
ceiling in Memphis, Tennessee. 

' Most of the articles in the Herzog Scrapbook have no identifying date or source of publication on them. 

* The collection also includes refa-ence plates that Herzog may have used as source matoial. There are 105 
plates that were removed from architectural journals. TTiose journals include American Architect and News, 
Architeaure and Building, The American Architect and Inland Architect and News Record These journals dated 
from the early part of the twentieth century. The plates came to light late in the author's research and are believed to 
have little or no bearing on Herzog 's work. 

' As was The Athenaeum's Collection, the Masonic Temple's collection was part of a larger collection owned by 
Mrs. Anne LaMotte Herzog. She donated the collection to the Temple in 1989. 

2 



the 17th and 18th centuries.' 

The remainder of the known Herzog renderings belong to Mrs. Anne 
Herzog LaMotte, granddaughter of George Herzog. Her collection of 
approximately thirty renderings is similar in subject matter to that of The 
Athenaeum. The LaMotte collection contains rendering of Herzog 's grand interiors, 
such as the Widener and Kemble mansions in Philadelphia, as well as historic 
photographs. 

Interior decoration in Philadelphia in the nineteenth and early twentieth 
centuries generally reflected the styles typically used during the Victorian era. Late 
nineteenth -century interior designs consisted of pattern on pattern with color to 
provide mood and character and to embellish surfaces. Most of the decoration was 
located on ceilings and walls. Sometimes the painted decoration was an integral 
part of the original overall design, and sometimes it was applied many years after 
the structure was built. 

Various types of decorative techniques have been identified in Herzog 's 
work; they include stenciling, freehand painting, in-fill painting, graining and 
marbleizing. Of these types, stenciling and free-hand painting are most commonly 
found in Herzog 's work. Stenciling is a technique of decoration that is 
characterized by the use of mechanical pattern repeats, flat colors and minimal 
shading. Free hand painting, in the form of murals, scenics and unique designs, 
have been located on walls and ceiUngs in several of Herzog 's commissions. 
Typical features include the absence of pattern repeats, a noticeable variety in color, 
changes in scale and Herzog 's individualized design statement 

At the height of his career, George Herzog, widely known with offices in 
Philadelphia and New York City, stood at the head of his profession. He was by 
general consent one of the foremost exfKjnents of the decorative arts in the United 
States. Herzog had a national reputation, with some of the most notable buildings 
and finest private residences in Philadelphia and New York City attesting to his 



' The photos are S^xlO" and were loosely inserted a scrapbook. The photographs are stamped: Published by 
Frank Hegger, 927 Broadway, New York. 

3 



skill. Herzog's biographical background as well as training and career are described 
in chapters 2 and 3. 

Whether by conscious design or accident, all interiors are the result of their 
spatial configuration, surface articulation, arrangement and type of objects placed 
within. These aspects of the interior are interrelated and inseparable and were often 
conceived in agreement with one another. Surface finishes, plain or decorative, are 
a significant component of most historical interiors yet their highly ephemeral nature 
makes them difficult to study. Interior surface finishes provide protection, 
decoration and articulation through color and pattern. Their choice and application 
reveal not only visual meaning but can also imply social and cultural ties of the 
designer or occupant.' Chapter 4 examines a few of Herzog's major projects in 
detail. 

Over the past several years there has been an increased awareness and 
interest in decorative painting and its creators, noticeably through efforts to preserve 
or restore historic structures. However, too often the interior of a restored structure 
is "modernized." Consequently, the interior fabric of the space is destroyed with 
little or no evidence remaining that could detail an accurate interp»retation of the 
previous interior design statement. Chapter 5 examines methods of decorative 
finish conservation, documentation, cleaning and consolidation. . 

It was not until recent trends in cultural and architectural history and the 
contributions of historical archaeology that a fuller understanding of historic 
buildings and the lifestyles of those who built, occupied and altered them, has 
occurred. While these approaches have yielded greater information for 
interpretation, less care has gone into how this might translate into better restoration 
practices. Investigation into the work of decorative painters, like George Herzog, 
wUl further the consideration regarding the historical and cultural significance of 
architectural decorative finishes. 



' Frank Matero, "Methodologies of Establishing Appropriate Decorative Finish Treatments," in The Interiors 
Handbook for Historic Buildings, ed. Charles E. Fisher III, Michael and Anne Grimmer. (Washington D. C: Historic 
Preservation Education Foundation, 1988), 45. 

4 



Chapter II: Biographical Background 

George Herzog was bom of German parents on October 19, 1851, in 
Munich Bavaria.' (See Figure 1.) Little else is known of Herzog 's childhood years 
except that he had twin brothers.'* In 1865, Herzog began studying in the studio of 
Joseph Schwarzmann. Two diplomas survive from Die Handwerks Feiertags 
Schule (The Handcrafts Elementary School) for the years 1864-65 and 1866-67. 
In 1867, Herzog was graduated first in his class of 94 students, and was awarded a 
bronze metal. 

While training in Joseph Anton Schwarzmann 's studio, Herzog received 
technical and practical instruction in design and painting. He also received more 
formal training in art history design and decorative painting, by attending lectures 
at the Royal Academy of Arts.'" While still very young Herzog was commissioned 
to prepare designs for proposed decorations of several important buildings in 
Munich and later supervised the execution of the worL" 

While Herzog was at Schwarzmann 's studio, Schwarzmann supervised the 
designs and decorations of the palaces and public edifices of Ludwig I. 
Schwarzmann (1806-1890) who had come to Munich from a Tyrolean Village in 
1820 at the age of fourteen, was the busiest decorative painter in Munich. He had 
learned the art of fresco painting in Munich, Vienna and Italy. The foremost 
architects of the time relied upon Schwarzmann to execute large projects from 
artists' rough sketches. In Munich, he ornamented the St. Ludwig Church, The 
State Library, the Old and New Pinakothek and other public buildings. He also 
worked on the Cathedral of Speyer and on the Royal Palace in Athens, Greece, 



° It is possible that Herzog was named after his uncle Johann George Herzog of Schmolz, Bavaria (1822-1909) 
and later dropped Johann from his name. The name Joh. George Herzog appears on his 1 865/66 diploma from Die 
Haruiwerks Feiertags Schule and simply appears as George Herzog on his 1867/68 diploma from the same school. 
Johann George Herzog was an organ composer, he studied at the seminary in AJtdorf, Bavaria and was professor at 
Erlangen University in Munich. As illustrated in The Etude Historical Musical Portrait Series, The Etude , (June 
1934), 332. 

' Anne Herzog LaMotte, George Herzog, (unpublished biography), 1 . 

'° National Cyclopedia of American Biography, Vol. 8, 496. 

" General Lodge Membership Book #4-1, (Philadelphia), 45. 

5 



where Ludwig's son, Otto, was living. He declined an offer to decorate the Czar's 
Winter Palace in St. Petersburg because he was too busy at home. Schwarzmann 
taught many apprentices and he was credited with reviving the art of decorative 
painting after a period of decline. In 1 868, his son, Hermann J. Schwarzmann, 
emigrated to Philadelphia where, in 1 869 he was appointed assistant engineer of the 
Fairmont Park Commission and later became Architect in Chief of the 1876 
Centennial Exposition.'- In later years, H. J. Schwarzmann and William Kuhles 
designed The Liederkranz Society ( 1 887) a portion of which was decorated by 
Herzog. 

During George Herzog 's formative years in Germany, Bavaria's rulers 
encouraged the arts. Ludwig I (1825-1848), had been an enthusiastic poet and 
collector, as well as a traveler and international philanderer. He is best remembered 
as a great patron who brought architects, sculptors and painters to Munich and gave 

them ample commissions." He began as a liberal sovereign who grew steadily 

more reactionary until even his docile Bavarian subjects rebelled and forced him to 
abdicate. His son, Maximilian II (1848-1864), attracted authors and scholars to 
the Bavarian capital and continued an ambitious building program. Maximilian II's 
son, Ludwig 11 (1864-1886), also extended royal patronage to music and drama, 
and even carried his grandfather's passion for architecture to the extreme of building 
spectacular dream castles for his exclusive use. During these three reigns, Munich, 
the capital of a minor kingdom best known for its excellent beer, was transformed 
into the second city of Germany— the "Florence on the Isar''~a world famous 
cultural center. '" 

The only known work from Herzog 's years in Munich is a design for a 
portion of a church interior. '* (See Figure 2.) It is inscribed both in English and 
German "sketched and painted by George Herzog painter of decorations, Munich, 



'^ John Maass, TJie Glorious Enterprise: The Centennial Exhibition of 1876 and H. J. Schwarzmann, 
Architect in Chief, (New York: American Life Foundation, 1973), 16. 
'^ Maass, 12. 
" Ibid, 12. 
'^ Herzog Collection, The Athenaeum of Philadelphia. 

6 



May 1871." It is possible that this sketch was completed when Herzog was 
working on his own and preparing to emigrate to the United States. The sketch is 
a perspective view of either an apse and nave or simply a chapel within the church. 
The tightly rendered design includes a gold leafed crest motif with a deep blue back 
ground and gold stars to give a heavenly appearance to the dome. Behind the alter is 
a sketchily painted image of Christ with worshipers below. The elaborate plaster 
reliefs of the columns, the pendentives and the arches are richly decorated with a 
scroll and leaf-like design. The predominate color scheme of the pendentives and 
interior panels of the dome is blue, starting with pale blue in the drum, and 
culminating with deep blue at the top of the dome. The columns and other 
structural elements are painted neutral gray and white. 

Herzog also possessed renderings by other decorative artists that he may 
have acquired before emigrating to the United States.'* This collection of 
renderings illustrates classically inspired putti frolicking and playing musical 
instruments among flowers and urns. These sketches, may represent an exchange 
of images among artists as well as the prevalence of classical imagery in decorative 
painting in 19th-century. 

Herzog was among a number of German craftsmen who came to the United 
States in the second half of the 19th century. Approximately 130,000 German 
immigrants arrived annually in the United States between the years 1866 and 1873. 
The possibility of securing economic advantage in an expanding economy most 
likely acted as Herzog 's stimulus to emigrate. The social and economic 
consequences of three wars waged in less than a decade could also have added his 
motivations for leaving the homeland.'^ The majority of German immigrants were 
skilled laborers who had worked in a trade or industry. By the mid- 19th century, 
artisans were under the pressure of both "overcrowding" in their trades and 
competition from factories at home and abroad, fell on increasingly hard times and 



"These rendering can be found in Herzog Collection, The Athenaeum of Philadelphia. 

" Robert Henry Billigmeier, Americans from Germany: A Study in Cultural Diversity, (Belmont: Wadsworth 
Pubhshmg Co. 1974), 91. 

7 



sought their salvation across the Atlantic.'* Apprenticeship training which 
craftsmen endured in order to learn their trade in Germany, still had, even in the 
19th century, the archaic atmosphere and rigor of the medieval guild system. 
Because of their training, German painters along with carpenters, masons, cabinet 
makers, shoemakers and printers enjoyed a reputation in America for the quality of 
their work." Herzog may have profited from the esteem in which German 
craftsmen were held by Americans. Prospective emigrants were often warned that 
if they were not prepared to work hard and well they should stay at home because 
the success of the immigrant community depended upon the individual craftsman. 
When someone did something to impair that reputation, other craftsmen in the 
community were likely to suffer. ^ 

German craftsmen were characteristically perceived as slower but more 
thorough than native Amencan craftsmen. The European-trained artisan's 
insistence on quality work often placed him at a disadvantage in comp>etition with 
American labor when price rather than quality was the consumer's principle 
concern.-' But when high quality decorative work was required for large scale 
residential and public buildings, German-trained craftsmen such as Herzog were in 
demand. 

While some historical sources place Herzog in the United States as early as 
1871, he first appeared in the Philadelphia city directory in 1874, under the 
company listing of K. Kaiser &. Co. at 500 Powell Street.- The Philadelphia city 
directory of 1 874 also listed the individual members of the company as: 



" Walter D. Kamphoefner, Wolfgang Helbich, and Ulrike Sommer, eds.. News from the Land of Freedom, 
(Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991), 289. 

'• Ibid., 97. 

"Ibid. 

'' Billigmeier, 98. 

" An outline of Herzog 's professional bfe was provided by two sources: Philadelphia and Popular 
Philadelphians, (Philadelphia: North America, 1 89 1 ), 228., and Illustrated Philadelphia: Its Wealth and 
/n</jM;nev,(Philadelphia: Righter & Gibson.l 889), 1 19. These entries established Herzog after the death of his 
partner Konstantine Kaiser, in the popular mind as a one of America's foremost decorative painters of his time. 
With a national reputation, many notable buildings and fine private residences throughout the country attested to his 
skill. Refer to Appendix I. 

8 



"Konstantine & Otto Kaiser & G. Herzog."^' Presumably, Herzog came from 
Germany directly to Philadelphia. According to immigration records, George 
Herzog renounced his German citizenship on December 27, 1875, in Philadelphia 
and became a United States citizen on November 14, 1882.=' Soon after his arrival 
in Philadelphia he formed a partnership with the prominent Philadelphia decorator 
Konstantine Kaiser. Very little is known of Kaiser's work prior to Herzog 's arrival 
in the Unites States.^ Kaiser, like Herzog, most likely emigrated to the United 
States from Germany and over approximately 25 years had established a 
prosperous decorative painting business. Kaiser first appeared in the city directory 
in 1853,when he was listed as a painter at 897 N. 8th Street. Not long after the 
formation of the partnership, Kaiser died in 1 879, leaving Herzog at age 28 to carry 
on the business. The business, operated by Herzog and Konstantine's brother 
Otto, was moved to 1334 Chestnut Street in 1880. The years following the 
Centennial Exposition of 1876, where Herzog had received prizes and critical praise 
for his art, were a period of rapid expansion. His fame for both his technique and 
his taste in decoration soon led to commissions for public and private buildings in 
Philadelphia and elsewhere.^ 

In the years following Kaiser's death in 1880, George Herzog 's name 
appeared in the Philadelphia city directories individually with various names for his 
profession, including: decorative painter; fresco painter, artist; and artists & 
decorator. From the years 1880-1893 his studio was at 1334 Chestnut Street, with 
various addresses in Philadelphia until 1897. Herzog 's name also appears 
concurrently in the New York City directory under various titles: painter, 
decorator, artist. He occupied an office at various addresses on Fifth Ave. for the 



" Otto Kaiser was Konstantine's brother, he first appeared in the city directory in 1872 under Konstantine & 
Co.; and later under Kaiser & Herzog in 1875-1877 and individually in 1879. For the years 1880 to 1884, Otto 
appears with Herzog 's. 

" Collection of Mrs. Anne Herzog LaMotte. 

" Kaiser is credited by J. Thomas Scharf and Thomas Westcott, History of Philadelphia, 1609-1884. Volume 2, 
(Philadelphia: 1 884), 1086., with the design and fresco work on the ceiling of Philadelphia's Academy of Music. It 
is not certain whether the ceiling was completed prior to Herzog 's arrival to the United States or after Kaiser's death 
while Herzog continued the business under the name Kaiser & Herzog. 

'° Philadelphia and Popular Philadelphians , (Philadelphia: North Amenca, 1 891 ), 228. 

9 



following years: 1887-94, 1896-1900, 1910-1918." During the years from 1910 
to 1914, Herzog maintained a residence in New York City.^' 

In 1887, Herzog 's occupied "commodious quarters" at 1334 Chestnut 
Street in Philadelphia, with a "finely appointed suite of offices ." Herzog's studio 
consisted of three rooms on the third floor. The studio had an "efficient stafP of 
twenty-five painters, all of them skilled workmen, and most of them Americans. 
His clients were described as being of "highly flattering character" and by 1 887, at 
age 36, Herzog had an ever increasing cUent base with commissions aU over the 
county.-' Many of his clients were prominent Philadelphia industriaUsts who held 
memberships with the same associations as Herzog.* With an outstanding 
business reputation, Herzog was described as willing to undertake any job 
regardless of the scale or of the technique required. His work was described as 
fresco, ceiling and wall decorations, as well as high-class interior decorative 
painting of every description." He gained his reputation based on large scale 
projects such as churches, public buildings, theaters and fine dwellings. According 
to a contemporary source, Herzog "guarantees satisfaction over all work 
executed."" 

George Herzog married Harriet R. Herzog (date and place of wedding as 
well as Harriet's maiden name are unknown) and divorced her in Philadelphia on 
June 6, 1 892." It is believed that they had one child. '^ At age 45, he married 



^' Refer to appendix II. 

'' Refer to appaidix IE. 

" Illustrated Philadelplua, Its Wealth aiul Industries, (Philadelphia: Righter & Gibson, 1 889), 1 19. Secondary 
sources commonly state that Herzog received conmussions from all over the country, but existing renderings and 
letters allude to work primarily in the Philadelphia and New York City environs. The most remote location known 
is Memphis Tennessee, based on a rendermg of a courtroom. Herzog Collection, The Athenaeum of Philadelphia. 

^° Herzog was a Freemason, member of the German Society, Union League, Art Club of Philadelphia, Fairmont 
Park Association. National Cyclopedia of American Biography, Vol. 8, p. 496. 

'' The term fresco was used to describe the technique of decorative painting on a dry plaster surface. This technic 
is has traditionally been called fresco secco and should not be confused with true fresco, the technique of painting on 
moist plaster with pigments ground in water so that the paint is absorbed by the plaster and becomes a part of the 
wall itself. 

" Illustrated Philadelphia, Its Wealth and Industries, (Philadelphia: Righter & Gibson, 1 889), 1 19. 

'^ Original Divorce Certificate, Collection of Mrs. Anne Herzog LaMotte. 

" Anne Herzog LaMotte, George Herzog, (unpublished biography), 1. 

10 



twenty year old Dorette M. Schmidt (1871-1946) on January 22, 1896, at St. 
Paul's Independent Lutheran Church in Philadelphia'' Dorette was the daughter of 
Henry Schmidt (Joachim Henry Diedrich Schmidt), who was a successful woolen 
importer in Philadelphia.'" This marriage produced five children; Alma Marie, aka 
Mimi, (1896 - 1984)" , Henry George (N. D.^ , George (Carl) Richard (1900 - 
1977)'' , Herbert H.(N. D.)* , and Anne Dorothy (N. D.).^' According to his 
obituary, he died September 16, 1920, at his New York City residence, 45 
Westview Ave., after a lengthy illness. The funeral services were conducted the 
following day at the Oliver H. Blair Chapel at 1 8th and Chestnut Streets in 
Philadelphia"' He is buried with his wife, Dorette, in the Schmidt family plot in 
West Laurel Hill Cemetery in Philadelphia. 



'' Original Marriage License issued in Philadelphia, Collection of Mrs. Anne Herzog LaMotte. 

'* Anne Herzog LaMotte, George Herzog, (unpublished biography), 1. 

^^ Alma Marie married J. Chandl^ Barnard, (date unknown). 

'° George possessed the drawing skills of his father. His illustrations appear in two yearbooks, 77ie Dutchman, 
1913 of the Collegiate School in New York City and The Caerulean, 1915 of Chestnut Hill Academy in 
Philadelphia from which that year he graduated. It is believed that he died in his twenties. 

'° George Richard Herzog married Imo Oakes Herzog, they had one child; Anne Herzog LaMotte.George drew 
illustrations for The Clivden pubhcation of Germantown High School between 1916 and 1918. George graduated 
from the University of Pennsylvania in 1922 and later became a trustee of the University. He pursued a career as a 
banker and financial consultant in Cleveland, Ohio, where he later died. 

*° Herbert married Ruth (last name unknown) and had three children, George, Barbara, Herbert He was a banker 
in Philadelphia. 

" Full name at death: Anne Dorothy Herzog Hope DeBaldo. 

" George Herzog Obihiary, The Public Ledger, 17 September 1920. 

11 



Chapter III: The Decorative Art of George Herzog 

The decorative painting of George Herzog is elaborate, colorful, intricate 
and personalized. In all structures that retain his work, at least half the surface area 
is covered with decoration, generally applied on a flat plaster surface. It is usually 
located on ceiUngs and walls. The form of decoration is usually an organization of 
geometric patterns in combination with floral and Classically-inspired scenes. 
Central medallions, borders and repetitive motifs are typical. Personalized designs 
incorporating free-hand painting technique and varying in size and character are 
fairly evident in almost every space that has a decorative treatment 

In historical buildings it is often difficult to determine who decorated the 
interiors. The possibilities include decorators, furniture makers, furniture sellers, 
antique importers, architects, or artisan studios and workshops. Since furniture 
makers and decorators were required to file for any professional licenses or 
permits, there are few records of accurate dates for work, and itemized costs of 
craftsmen's labor, materials and colors. 

It is known that George Herzog did the decorative painting himself, as well 
as employing a staff of painters.** The work was most likely paformed from a 
scaffold for long periods of time. It is possible that he mixed his own paints, but 
these items were available to him based on the presence of advertisements for a 
variety of paints and painting materials. Most of Herzog 's decorative painting has 
retained its color brilliance despite the natural aging of the paints. In most surviving 
Herzog works there is not an extensive amount of "crakeling" usually caused 
through the depolymerization of oil, evident on the existing surfaces."" 



" Illustrated Philadelphia, Its Wealth and Industries, (Philadelphia: Righter & Gibson, 1 889), 1 19. 
" F. B. Gardiner, How to Paint Your Mctorian House. (New YorkiSamuel R. Wells, 1872) reprinted by the 
American Life Foundation, 1978. 

12 



Reference Materials 

A number of publications were available to decorative painters during the 
late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Typically the books took the form and 
title of instructional guides treatises and practical manuals with information 
describing design colors and technical processes. For the most part, illustrative 
material in the form of drawings, photographs, and/or colored plates accompanied 
the written text. The books ranged in price from $2.00 to around $5.00 each." 
Most likely the best references for Herzog were tiiose that concentrated on colored 
plates and provided individual sheets with patterns that could be copied or used for 
design inspiration. These publications included large format plates approximately 
11" by 14", containing high quality, printed images with rich colors in a myriad of 
tones and patterns. Resources of note that may have been available to Herzog 
include the following: Owen Jones, Grammar of Omament , New York (1851); 
Christopher Dresser, Principles of Decorative Design, London (1876 ); Charles L 
Condit, Painting and Palmer's Materials; London (1883); George A. Audsley, 
The Practical Decorator and Omamemalist, Glasgow, ( 1 892); Fred Miller, 
Interior Decoration: A Practical Treatise on Surface Decoration With Notes on 
Colour, Stenciling and Paneling, London, ( 1 885). This impressive number and 
quality of reference material was supplemented with trade journals, periodicals, 
technical brochures and trade catalogues. The journals, and other periodicals were 
usually published monthly. Just like the books available at the time, subjects and 
articles in these publications focused on artistic concerns, but provided more current 
information. 

Herzog was probably most familiar with The Deutsches Maler Journal 
(German Painter's Journal) published in Germany from the 1850s to 1890s. The 
publication provided a large selection of full scale geometric and naturalistic 
designs printed in black ink on thin sheets of manilla paper that were approximately 



** Buie Harwood, "Stenciling: Interior Architectural Ornamentation A Look at 1 870-1930 with examples from 
Texas", Journal of Interior Design Education and Research (Spring 1986): 32. 

13 



24" by 22" in size. Most of the sheets contained three patterns per page, with 
individual code numbers for identification.^ Also contained within the journal 
were richly printed color plates of ceiling designs with elaborate classical borders. 
Subscription to the journal over a period of a few years would have easily equipped 
Herzog with an abundant supply of materials from which to extrapolate ideas. The 
content of this journal was typical of decorative pattern material available at the 
time." 

A substantial number of trade magazines were also published in the United 
States beginning in the 1870's, adding to the previous mentioned items. These 
resources included: The Painter's Magazine (and Coach Painter), (New York, 1886- 
1905), The Western Painter (Chicago, IS92), Painting and Decorating 
(Philadelphia, \SS1-\S94) Decorator and Furnisher (New York, 1882-98), House 
Decorator (London, 1880), and House Painting and Decorating (Philadelphia, 
1 885- 1 890) . ■* These pubUcations contained articles on some aspect of design and 
painting, advertisements for books and paint materials, news notes and selected 
witticisms and cartoons. Most of them were published on the East coast (many in 
Philadelphia) or in the Midwest, but they were circulated all over the country. 
Technical leaflets and brochures were advertised through the magazines at an 
average cost of about fifty cents each. Usually the focus of the flyer was limited to 
one technical topic explained in three or four pages.** 

Trade catalogues were another valuable resource during this time of great 
interest in stenciling. The catalogues typically varied in size and cost, but covered 
areas of importance to the decorative painter, such as paint, paint materials, paint 
techniques and application, and stenciling. Stencils were in vast supply and could 
be obtained from catalogues such as Stencil Treasury (1895) and Suggestions in 



*' I examined editions of Deittsches Maler Journal contained in the collection of the decorative paintCTs L. W. & 
William Beck at The Athenaeum of Philadelphia. A grid had been drawn over the pattern sheets and pin holes were 
punched into the design. This suggested that these patterns had been placed on the wall and the design duplicated 
with a pKjunce. 

" Harwood, 32. 

"John Volz " Paint Bibliography." Association for Preservation Technology, Newsletter Supplement, Vol. IV 
(1985): 39. 

" Harwood, 34. 

14 



Decorative Design ( 1 894).* Paint companies also provided information to the 
consumer. Selected pages of information in catalogue form could also be obtained 
ftxjm paint companies such as Sherwin Williams Ojmjjany of Qeveland, The 
Alabastine Company in Grand Rapids and Sears, Roebuck and Company in 
Chicago.*' 

Design and Color 

Herzog probably used many resources in developing his designs. As 
exhibited in his scale renderings, the typical organization of a ceiling design 
included a repetitive border motif (usually a geometric pattern) and a central 
medallion formed through the interlocking arrangement of squares and circles. This 
revival of Roman design organization had been used in the 18th century by the 
English decorative painter Robert Adam. During the last half of the 19th century, it 
became the convention to think of walls as being made up of three basic elements: 
floor to dado or chair rail level; dado to picture rail or architrave level; and architrave 
to ceiling level including the cornice. Wall designs varied a little, and this 
characteristic organization of space was composed in tripartite color schemes. 
Motifs also varied, but typically the overall design was changed through scale, the 
combination of some basic motifs and the variety in color selection. Because of 
these several features, Herzog 's work can easily be identified without written 
signature. In the examples of his work that remain, common motifs aside from the 
obvious German Renaissance themes, are styUzed anthemion, vines, fans, fruit, 
flowers, garlands, classically-inspired scenes of mother and chUd, cherubs and 
animals including birds and swans. 

Written descriptions and surviving renderings suggest that Herzog 
provided an individualized color palette for each room in a house by using a few 
colors that were prominentiy accented, giving an overall color statement to the 



" Ibid, 34. 
'' Ibid. 

15 



space. All values of a color were apparent, with strong contrast appearing in 
striped bands and gradations of color featured near the striped area. Some colored 
areas were represented in a flat, abstract design, usually visible when a stencil 
pattern was incorporated in the design, and others were characterized by a more 
three dimensional, realistic and contoured portrayal of the subject matter. Herzog 
preferred tints and shades to pure chroma. His range of colors was expansive with 
a concentration on the following hues that were typical of the period: salmon/pink, 
rustA)urgundy, beige/creme, blue, forest green, gray, brown, yellow and gold. 

Stenciling and Materials 

Most of Herzog's designs relied heavily on st«iciling. This mechanical, 
decorative process allowed Herzog and his employees to execute a ceiling or wall 
decoration quickly. Stenciling is characterized by repetitive patterns conveyed in a 
flat, unshaded manner, with each pattern being a different cut and color. The block 
or solid stencil and the outline stencil (also known as infill painting or pounce) were 
the two types of stenciling that were commonly used to define pattern during the 
1870's. 

Stencils were made of leather (utilized most frequently before the mid- 19th 
century) or oil cloth, heavy oiled manilla paper (made durable by numerous 
applications of shellac) and metals including brass, zinc or lead. Paper stencils, 
were the most common and easiest to use. The stencil plates were usually 
rectangular in shape. The size of the stencU was dictated by its use; the stencil was 
held against the surface either by hand or with push pins, the former method was 
quicker. 

Herzog may have created his own stencils or ordered pre-designed ones that 
were available from numerous trade catalogues and he probably utilized a 
combination of purchased stencil patterns and original designs. By the time Herzog 
had a sizable studio, he hired people to cut his stencil designs which required 
considerable skill and practice. The necessary cutting tool was a sharp knife known 

16 



as a "clickers knife," similar to that used by shoemakers. Most cutting was 
performed on the top of a sheet of glass, which allowed for a cleaner cut along the 
pattern edge*^ 

Brushes used in the painting process varied in size, use, material and price. 
The brushes with a rounded body, called "fitches" were used; these 1/4" wide 
brushes made lines or stripes and others up to approximately 3" in diameter, were 
used for covering large open stencil patterns. The recommended size for most 
stenciling brushes was about 1 1/2" in diameter, with short bristles in a tapered or 
flat end. It was essential to have a wide variety in size, and an appropriate quantity 
of the most frequently used brushes, including one brush for each particular stencil 
pattern or color required on a given job. Brush prices ranged from about 50 cents 
each to around $1.50 each, the expense varying with size and quality." 

During Herzog's painting career, most stenciling was performed in one of 
two media: a water based paint, known as distemper, or an oil based medium. It 
was standard practice to use only one kind of paint on a job because the prof>erties 
of the two did not react well when used together. An improper combination of 
paints would create an "alligator effect," where the top layer of paint contracted and 
appeared to separate from the bottom layer, causing distinct ridges in the paint and 
an uneven surface*^ . The consistency of the paint was critical to the success of the 
stenciled product The paint was placed in a shallow vessel so that the brush was 
not dipped too deeply and only lifted a small quantity of the medium. If the paint 
was too thin, it would run under the stencil plate, thus creating a blurry design. 
Sharp, clean edges and even spread of color were necessary to the appearance of 
the artistic creation. 



" Harwood, 36. 
"Ibid,36. 

" Information provided via telephone conversation with decorative painter Bonie Gnienke of Conrad Schmitt 
Studios Inc. New Berlin, Wisconsin. December 1991. 

17 



Design Placement 

The overall composition was directly affected by the choice of paint and the 
surface to be decorated, be it wood, plaster, canvas or paper. " Ultimately, the 
success of any stencil project depended on the planning of the composition and the 
selection of the designs made by the artist Several design rules were common 
during Herzog's time. For example borders should correspond in size to the 
proportion of the room. A pattern should conform to the character of the room and 
contribute to the simple or elaborate quahty of the room. Patterns should be used 
only when there are large expanses of surface to be decorated, free from window 
and door interruptions. The stronger colors are best used for smaller borders, and 
colors which harmonize with the wall area are better for large borders. The balance 
of the entire composition is important to a good layout. The straight lines should be 
accurately positioned and measured.** 

The majority of Herzog's stencil decoration was applied to the walls and 
ceilings, with friezes and ceiling borders frequently the most ornamented areas. 
Specific suggestions were made in various pubUcations concerning the placement of 
stencils in there areas; for example, "a stencil on the top of a lofty room must be 
kept much more open, and the several parts of the design must be bolder than if it 
were to be used in a dado."" "In the decoration of large halls, churches and 
theaters, it is important to keep the pattern bold and simple in construction."* 

Decorated ceilings had been used with growing popularity in American 
houses since the 1 840's. By the last quarter of the 19th century, taste makers 
decreed that even the simplest rooms should have some form of decoration, if only 
a crown molded cornice. Some critics advocated colored or patterned ceilings. The 
post-Civil War period brought rich arrays of painted ceiling decorations, ranging 



"Ibid 

"Harwood.38. 

" Fred Miller, Interior Decorcaion: A Practical Treatise On Surface Decoration Wth Notes on Colour, 
Stenciling, and Panel Painting. (London: 1885), 42. 
" Ibid. 

18 



from cloud-borne cherubs to elaborate, interlocking geometric patterns and 
naturalistic borders. The stencil decoration apphed to the wall coordinated with that 
used on the ceiling. The placement of patterns on the wall frequently included a 
frieze, a chair rail, and a dado. Small patterns were used on the lower wall and 
larger patterns on the upper wall. The dado was frequently divided into painted 
panels, framed with stencils along the perimeter, encompassing a plain field. The 
upper wall area would have a matching design, with detached stencils used at panel 
comers, along the perimeter panel edge, in the background and a band and divider 
stencils used in the panel field, or the entire upper wall area could be painted in an 
all-over stencil pattern to imitate wallpaper. The last decade of the century favored 
plainer wall areas with decorative fiieze borders. 

Herzog's placement of patterns on the ceiling area usually related to the 
concepts of style prescribed for wall decoration. A flat ceiling typically had a 
perimeter border with or without a center medallion, frequentiy organized around a 
geometric layout of motifs. Another variation Herzog used was an overall stencil 
pattern framed by an ornamental border. A beamed ceiling could have decoration 
between the beams or on the beams, depending on what was appropriate to the 
design statement. The main emphasis for the placement of motifs on the ceiling and 
the wall surfaces was dictated by what was accepted, what was appropriate, and 
what was good design. One of the most important aspects of the stencil design was 
the positioning of the "ties" that were used to hold the pattern together. It was 
essential that the tie "should form an intrinsic part of the pattern" and be unobtrusive 
and disguised, as this delineated the mark of a skilled designer.'' The ties varied in 
width from about 1/8" to 1/4", but the space could be larger if the pattern were 
larger. Usually this area was blank and not filled in with extra paint, hence a 
noticeable separation of space between motifs. Intersecting lines were frequently 
incorporated into the pattern and used to position the ties, with the ties formed 
naturally by the point of intersection. 



" A. S. Jennings, 77i^ Modem Painter and Decorator, A Practical Work on House Painting and Decorating, vol 
II. (London: The Caxton Publishing Co., Ltd. n.d.), 107. 

19 



Herzog's designs for stencils were largely dictated by convention based on 
established rules. A few late 19th-century and early 20th-century publications 
suggested some of the appropriate choices available to the artist at the time. 
Patterns of roses and flowers were considered suitable for bedrooms and sun 
parlors. Leaf and flower designs were pleasing for dining rooms. Gothic motifs 
were the favorite for church decoration; Moorish patterns were suitable for dens 
and smoking rooms; and Classic designs with formal character were appropriate for 
living rooms, reception rooms, and public buildings.*" Frequently the size of the 
space and the constraints of the architecture would dictate the character of the motifs 
Herzog employed. 

Use of various stencil plates on any one job allowed for great flexibility in 
compositional arrangement. It was appropriate to either mix different plates or to 
use any one type individually on a job, depending on the space and area to be 
decorated. Also several plates could be used to form one design, requiring the artist 
to register each plate perfectly to insure a perfect joining of the colors. Usually 
stencil plates were used more than once, an acceptable practice as long as the end 
product was recognizably distinct in appearance. Pattern effects could be altered 
simply by changing placement, arrangement, color, and applied hand work Two 
useful variations of this hand work include the blending of colors by gradation, and 
the highlighting of colors by the application of subtle white marks.*' 



'" Harwood, 39. 
•' Harwood, 40. 

20 



Chapter IV: The American Decorative Artist 

Centennial Exposition 

In 1876, the United States International Exposition was held in 
Philadelphia. The exposition displayed the achievements of the industrial era at a 
time when Philadelphia was the country's leading industrial city. It was the biggest 
exposition that had ever been held anywhere in the world, more costiy that the 
Crystal Palace in London in 185 1, bigger than the Paris Exposition of 1867 and 
Vienna Exhibition of 1 874. It was a tribute, according to those who planned it, to 
"the unparalleled advancement in science and art, and all the various appliances of 
human ingenuity for the refinement and comfort of man" in the century since the 
United States were bom." On 236 acres of landscaped grounds, seven enormous 
buildings, together with many smaller annexes and exhibition halls erected by the 
States of the Union and by foreign governments, looked down on the Schuylkill 
River." The repercussions of the Centennial on American taste were tremendous. 

When the original building designs proved too costly, Hermann J. 
Schwarzmann (the son of Joseph Anton Schwarzmann), an engineer with 
Fairmont Park who had never designed a building, was sent to Viama to study the 
1873 Exhibition. On his return, he designed five of the exposition's buildings.*^ 
Americans were greatly influenced by what was exhibited and the effects lasted for 
at least a quarter of a century. " 

The result was a wave of tastefulness. There never was a time," wrote 
Clarence Cook in The House Beautiful , published in 1876, "when so many books 
written for the purpose of bringing the subject of architecture— its history, its 
theory, its practice, down to the level of popular understanding, were produced as 



" John Maass, The Glorious Enterprise: The Centennial Exposition oflH76 and H. J. Schwarzmann, 
Architect in Chief, (New York: American Life Foundation, 1973), 13 

" Maass, 16. 

" Ibid, 16. 

'^ Russell Lynes, The Tastemakers, The Shaping of American Popular Taste, (New York: Dover Publications, 
1949), 112. 

21 



in this time of ours. And from the house itself, we are now set to thinking and 
theorizing about dress and decoration of our rooms: how best to make them 
comfortable and handsome; and books are written, magazine and newspaper 
articles, to the end that a matter which concerns everybody, everybody may know 
what is the latest."" 

The Centennial Exposition provided George Herzog with a great deal of 
public exposure. He won two medals, one from the category of furniture, 
upholstery, wooden-weave baskets and one from the category of plastic and graphic 
arts. These metals brought Herzog a fair amount of fame and critical acclaim. All 
that is known of Herzog 's entries are the brief descriptions in the judges' reports: 

Awards: 

Group 7, Furniture, upholstery, wooden- weave baskets 
Kaiser & Herzog, parlor da:oration, 
Judges comments: 

Commended for original design, perfection in style and correction of 
execution and detail.'^ 

Group 27, Plastic and graphic art 

Kaiser & Herzog, decoration by fresco 

Judges report: commended for judicious assemblage of colors, delicacy of 

design, excellent taste in execution. Completed works, as well as designs 

are submitted.** 

One judge's comments on the decorative artists' work in group 27 went as follows: 
"I note also a medal to Messrs. Kaiser & Herzog of Philadelphia, for their happy 
exhibit of actual wall decoration and designs for the same."*' 



"l^es, 116. 

"' Francis A. Walker, Ed., United States International Exhibition 1876, Vol FV, Reports & Ayvards, Groups 3 
to 7. (Washington D. C: Government Printing Office, 1880), 38. 

°° Francis A. Walker, Ed., United States International Exhibition 1876, Vol. VII, Reports & Awards, Groups 
21 to 27. (Washington D. C: Government Pnntmg Office, 1880), 58. 

" Ibid, 58. 

22 



James Windrim and the Masonic Temple. Philadelphia 

George Herzog's first major commission in Philadelphia was the Masonic 
Temple designed by James Windrim (1840-1919) in 1868. It was the beginning of 
a collaboration between one of Philadelphia's most successful architects and its 
finest decorator. James Windrim was a Philadelphia native who had been a member 
of the first graduating class of Girard College in 1856. He then worked with the 
Scottish-bom architect, John Notman. In 1867 he opened an architectural office at 
129 South 7th Street, entered and won the Masonic Temple competition, so that at 
age 27 his prosperous career had begun. In 1871 he was appointed by the Board of 
City Trusts to be architect for the Girard Estate. Following the appointment, he 
designed a number of buildings for Girard College as well as various office 
buildings in Philadelphia. He was a membCT of the Masonic Temple as well as the 
Art Association when Herzog began receiving commissions to decorate the interior. 
In 1889 Windrim was made Supervising Architect of the U.S. Treasury, a position 
he held until 1 891 , when he returned to Philadelphia as Director of Public Works 
for the City. He remained in that position until 1 895, he resumed private practice."" 

Surviving correspondence proved that Herzog's relationship with James 
Windrim served him well in getting other work. Over the years, Windrim 
continued to correspond with Herzog, alerting him to commission opportunities as 
well as advising him on securing work. For example, in a letter from Washington 
D. C. dated October 29, 1890, James Windrim strongly urged Herzog to quickly 
complete quickly the designs for the Gothic Hall in the Masonic Temples."' 
Windrim 's letter stressed that the pressure from other decorators was great and they 
know that the Temple's Art Committee had not approved a design for the Gothic 
HaU. This letter was written soon after Herzog's design for the Norman Hall had 
been approved by the Board of Directors. 

Freemasonry had prospered in Philadelphia fi-om colonial times, despite the 

'» Sandra L. Tatman and Roger W. Moss, Biographical Dictionary of Philadelphia Architeas, 1 700-1930. 
(Boston: G. K. Hall & Co., 1985), 871. 

" Collection of Mrs. Anne Herzog LaMotte. 

23 



rise of anti-masonic attitudes during the early 19th century. Philadelphia's "Free 
and Accepted Masons" had become so successful by the nineteenth century that 
their Temples, designed by some of Philadelphia's most prominent architects, were 
considered the city's major landmarks. By 1867 the second Chestnut Street Temple 
designed by Samuel Sloan and John Stewart and constructed between the years 
1853 and 1855 to replace the Strickland designed Temple on the same site, was no 
longer large enough to house the many lodges that met there.^ A decision was 
made to build another Temple, culminating in Windrim's design at One Broad 
Street, one of the world's greatest Masonic Temples. 

The Masons held a competition in 1 867 and selected Brother James 
Windrim, a 27 year old Freemason, as the winner. James Windrim's design was 
modeled on a medieval style known as Norman. This is reflected in the massive 
carved doorway that projects from the wall, the ashlar stone work, the fortress-like 
towers and the corbel tables and the round-arch decorated cornice under the 
roofline. It was the intention of the Masons to have the most substantial and 
complete Masonic Temple in the world and over time the large building proved to 
be the quite accommodating for the Masons' growing membership." 

Early in 1868, Windrim and the Masons signed a contract for the design 
and construction of the Temple.^'' The cornerstone was laid on June 24, 1868, and 
the dedication ceremonies were held in September, 1873. The cost of the building 
was over one million dollars. The decoration and finishing of the interior began 
fourteen years later and continued well into the 1890's. Windrim, as Chairman of 
the Art Association, continued to exert control over the complete design of the 
structure. The decorations were done under the auspices of the Art Association of 
the Masonic Temple. Pursuing the plans of the architect to their realization, it was 



"John PoppelJer. "The 1867 Philadelphia Masoiuc Temple Competition'", Journal of The Society of 
Architectural Historians, (December 1967): 279. 

" Uncited newspaper article in Scrapbook, page 19, George Herzog Collection, The Athenaeum of Philadelphia. 
The scrapbook was compiled by Herzog himself (date unknown, most likely over many years) and contains a 
collection of newspaper clipping pertaining to Herzog 's interiors. For the most part they are arranged in the order of 
publication, some articles contain citations most do not. The newspaper articles are from a various Philadelphia and 
New York City papers as well American papers published in German. 

" Poppelier, 284. 

24 



the Association's desire to illustrate in a most elaborate manner the various orders 
of architecture in the different halls. The Masons considered the Philadelphia 
Temple to be unique and a brilliant record of Philadelphia as the "seat of Masonic 
Light" out shining all the Masonic Temple's of Europe." 

Herzog, like Windrim, was a Freemason.'^ This fact along with Herzog's 
demonstrated skills were strong factors in his securing work at the Temple. 
However the exact details of how Herzog obtained the work are unknown, because 
no Masonic records concerned with particulars on how Herzog was commissioned 
to decorate the Temple rooms have come to light. 

By 1 899 Freemason Herzog had completed the decorations of Egyptian 
Hall, Ionic Hall, Corinthian Hall, Norman Hall, the Library and various hallways. 
In addition, he decorated the vestibules to the major halls without payment as his 
contribution to the work of the Art Association and the Temple.^ The elaborate and 
comprehensive scheme for the interior decoration was originally arranged by the Art 
Association of the Temple, which was organized on October 22, 1887, " with the 
object of decorating and embellishing the various halls of the Temple, of giving 

them artistic, historic and Masonic beauty. " 

The first room to be decorated was Egyptian Hall. (See figure 3.) 
Completed in 1888, the decorations for Egyptian Hall had been designed and 
executed under the auspices of the Art Association by Brother George Herzog. The 
room was a gift of Brother William J. Kelly and dedicated to Brother Thomas R. 
Patton, Grand Treasurer. It was written of Herzog's work in the Egyptian Hall 
"few have the faintest idea of the time and labor bestowed by him in producing the 
Historical Art displayed in Egyptian Hall. So long as the Masonic Temple shall 
stand at the comer of Broad and Filbert Streets, Philadelphia, so long will the 
Historic Art developed in Egyptian Hall remain as a monument to the skill and 



'' Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook,page 19. 

" Herzog was initiated into Freemasonry in Lodge No. 51 in Riiladelphia, August 23, 1888. as stated in: 
Memoirs of Lodge No. 51. Free and Accepted Masons of Philadelphia, 1941. 

" The Keystone, 7 November 1891. Masonic Editorial Notes. Herzog Scrapbook, page 24. 

25 



ability of Brother, George Herzog and the liberality of Brother William J. Kelly."™ 

Egyptian Hall was the first evidence of the elaborate and beautiful work of 
the interior decoration of the Temple. (See figure 4.) It was considered a mastaful 
reproduction of the art of the Nile. The Masons believed that Egyptian Hall 
reprresented a period in history in which their predecessors were supposed to be 
learned. The Hall was considered at the time to be the finest specimen of Egyptian 
architecture extant with twelve huge columns around the perimeter of the room, 
topped with capitals copied from Luxor, Kamak, Philae and other ancient Egyptian 
temples.^ 

The free standing columns are divided into sections containing ornaments 
that imitate tiiose found in Egyptian Temples. The decorations include borders of 
reeds and rushes, a fluted frieze, the disc of Ra and other symbolic figures. Lotus 
flowers wrap around the bases of the columns, reed decorations app)ear on the 
cornices, and pyramidal designs complete the panels. Uraei, or sacred asps, with 
extended heads, stare at the viewer from all sides of the hall. 

Herzog attempted archaeological accuracy in the decorations of Egyptian 
Hall. The scenes of domestic life, depicted on the walls were are taken from the 
temples of the Old Empire and later sepulchers. HCTzog's color scheme included 
muted red, green and blues applied over the predominate oUve background. The 
blue ceiling was adopted as suggestive of the heavens and was a in contrast to the 
rather complicated composition. The solar disk, the symbol of the Aten, the god of 
Akhen-Aten, complete with its life-giving rays was placed at the east end of the 
room.*" 

Ionic Hall was the next room to be decorated. (See figure 5.) The funds for 
the project were generated through the Art Association as well as members. The job 
took six months to complete. *' This room is 75 feet long, 40 feet wide and 23 feet 
high and derived its name from the Ionic order used throughout by James 



' "Egyptian Hall," The Keystone, 12 January 1888. Herzog Scrapbook, page 2. 
' John C Yorston. "The Masonic Ten^)le of Philadelphia," The Keystone, 16 September 1905,3. 
' Yorston, 3. 
Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, page 13. 

26 



Windrim. Herzog decorated the hall simply with no intrusions upon the classical 
outlines of the architecture. The desired effect was achieved by the use of subtle 
tones that permitted the architectural elements to remain in view. Ancient examples 
exhibited the use of primary and secondary colors to emphasis reliefs and to 
provide strong contrasts The Ionic Hall's subtle color scheme was a departure from 
the understood methods employed by the ancient Greeks. Ionic Hall was not an 
attempt at archeological correctness, unUke the Egyptian Hall where the color and 
form of the architectural and decorative elements were of primary impwrtance to the 
symbolism employed.*^ 

No renderings survive of Herzog 's original design for Ionic Hall. The only 
known descriptions of the Hall were published in newspaper articles written at the 
time of completion. 

The room consisted of a cohesive blend of color and materials. The color 
scheme of the Hall appeared to have been composed around the carpet. The carpet 
pattern of a light yellow ground sprinkled with designs in light blues and yellow 
with a border of deeper blue and old gold enriched with palmetto ornaments and 
"walls of Troy" formed an important part of the Hall's color scheme. The platform 
was carpeted in a deep olive and the furniture was upholstered in blue and gold 
silk. The bases and volutes of the capitals of the ivory columns are in gold, the 
honey suckle ornaments and other relief were painted also in gold to accentuate the 
forms. The walls were light blue over which there was a silver stencil design 
covering half the height of the wall. The niches between the columns were painted 
a Pompeiian red. Eventually these niches were filled with the portraits of 
distinguished members of the Masonic fraternity. Three were in place at the time 
the Hall was completed.^ Running around the entire room and forming the 
crowning feature of the order was the entablature painted in ivory, white, and 
delicate neutral tones with egg moldings and palmette ornaments in contrasting 
colors of gold. Instead of common chandelier, the lighting was composed of 



' Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, page 13. 
' Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, page 14. 

27 



groups of gas and electric burners arranged around the columns on gold plated 
metal bands 10 inches wide. These bands were placed on the columns in line with 
the top of the silver wall diapering. 

The ceiling presented the only symbolism attempted in the room. It was 
divided by beams into panels,with one large panel in the center and others of 
varying size surrounding it. The ceiling was marked where it joined the wall with 
four foot, white and yellow panels. The interior of the panels were light blue with 
classic ornaments in gold and blue. The middle compartment was various yellows 
with the center element being the sun and surrounding it a circle. Separated from it 
by narrow bands with delicate running ornament were Zodiac signs. These 
symbols were separated from the end panels by broad bands of classic ornament, 
which together with the spandrels formed at the angles were richly decorated in 
gold. At the end of the oblong were five panels containing the seal of Solomon and 
symbols of the planets." 

The Wilton carpets were made by McCallum & Sloan (location unknown) 
from designs by Herzog. The Horn, Brannan, Forsythe Manufacturing Company 
furnished the gas and electric burners, and John Wanamaker did the upholstering. 
The entire decoration and refitting cost an estimated $6000. " 

At the time of its opening Ionic Hall was considered by one writer to be one 
of Herzog 's finest works to date. Ionic Hall was compared to Egyptian Hall and 
the contrast was said to represent the difference between the "brute force of the 
ancient regime and the fine precision and refined elegance of the more philosophical 
era." ^ 

In addition to decorating the various Halls of the Temple, Herzog was 
commissioned to paint portraits of Grand Masters. These were painted on canvas 
and placed in the large stair hall. Edgar A. Tennis, was painted in 1902-1903, 
Samuel C. Perkins, 1905, Matthias Henderson, 1909, and William J. Kelly, 1909. 
(See figure 6.) Most were painted in evening dress standing in the ceremonial 



" Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, page 13. 
'* Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, page 13. 
" Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, page 14. 

28 



location within the Grand Lodge room beside the pedestal and wearing the gold 
jewel of office. *' 

At the time Norman Hall was decorated, the Art Association was chaired 
by James Windrim. An estimated $4000 was needed for Herzog to complete the 
decoration of Norman Hall. The funds were to be raised by the Lodges that used 
the Hall. In addition to painting the Hall, Herzog agreed to paint at his own 
expense the small hallway leading to Norman, Egyptian and Ionic Halls. By this 
time, Herzog 's lavishly decorated rooms served as a drawing card to increase 
membership, which has grown by five thousand in a single year. Herzog 's talents 
contributed largely to the Mason's desire for the Temple to become a perfect school 
of the principle architectural, artistic and magnificent embellishments of the 
different nations and ages.** 

The single surviving rendering of Norman Hall depicts the northern 
elevation (floor, wall, ceiUng and junior warden's throne). The design presented 
in the rendering represents what Herzog actually executed." (See figure 7.) 

Norman Hall , one of the smallest of the lodge rooms, measures 41 feet by 
74 feet. (See figure 8.) Herzog created the feeling of a temple within a temple. The 
east and west walls were divided into three bays by broad piers with heavy arching 
and the north and south walls were similarly treated. The center bays of the east, 
south and west walls, have pedimented niches carried on short columns with 
foliated caps and supported on heavy corbels, thus forming a kind of throne, with 
appropriate symbols over the places of the master and wardens. 

Norman Hall is divided on all four sides into five spaces, the piers between 
supporting broad arches and corbels, from which rise curved braces supporting 
heavy timber beams of the ceiling, crossing each other at right angles and dividing 
it into twenty-five panels. These panels were painted a deep blue and were traced 
in colors and with a gold outline on an intertwining ornament of the type associated 
with Celtic designs. The center spaces on the east, north and south walls, as the 



°' Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, page 15 

" The Keystone, 25 October 1890. Masonic Editorial Notes. Herzog Scrapbook, page 18. 

°° The George Herzog Collection, The Athenaeum of Philadelphia. 

29 



stations of the master and his assistants, are emphasized by a raised dais, and 
symbols appropriate to their offices. The room contains a hard wood wainscot, 
about three feet in height, which serves to offset the painted walls and the richly 
carpeted floor. The piers not occupied by windows are painted dark olive and 
richly decorated with interlace work inspired by Celtic missals.* The pattern is the 
same as that contained in the ceiling panels. Six panels larger that life contain 
figures. Each figure is executed in a conventional manner and dressed in costumes 
of medieval Western Europe. The figures have draperies outlined and shaded with 
gold and each figure holds the working tools of \he Freemason: the compass, the 
square, the rule, the level (or trowel), the plumb and the setting maul. Painted on 
a gold mosaic background, the figures are framed by a raised border containing 
chevron and dogtooth, richly colored and gilded, forming the outside border of the 
picture. 

The ceiling panels are made by what appears to be timbers supporting the 
wooden arches but are really grained plaster elements. The entire ceiling design is 
constructed in plaster which is intended to give the illusion of a heavy timbers and 
supporting braces. Herzog's illusion of load bearing sdiictural elements is 
articulated especiaUy in the decorated spandrel panels, billet molding and nail head 
ornaments that appropriately mark the junction of walls and ceiling. The panels of 
the medieval-style ceiling are painted deep blue with those portions outside of the 
ornament painted chocolate brown. The decoration consists of alternating patterns 
of ornament usually found in ancient Celtic manuscripts. These ceiling decorations 
are rendered in various shades of primary colors and highlighted in parts with silver 
and gold." Lighting was provided by sixteen brackets of antique brass, one 
located in alignment with the center of each pier. 

The floor was carpeted with a heavy pile rug surrounded by a border in 
deep red, the design being patterned after the tile work of the period represented. 
The carpet has a background of deep greenish-blue with figures in gold shades with 



Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 22. 
Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 20. 

30 



red and black. The furniture consists of massive chairs and benches that 
incorporate the medieval-style Hall's predominate architectural element: the arch. 
The wardens' thrones imitate the arched and pedimented architectural elements of 
the room and were upholstered in dark brown leather. 

After the completion of Norman Hall, the Art Association president, 
Clifford P. MacCalla noted Norman Hall more than any other Hall, a unique and 
individual expression that was "distinctly Masonic."'^ 

In addition to decorating Lodge Halls, Herzog was commissioned to 
decorate less significant and accessible areas of the Temple. In August, 1 895, a 
separate contract agreement was made between Herzog and the Masonic Temple to 
complete decorations on the first floor. This arrangement included the main hall, 
corridors, and stairways. (See figure 9.) At the same time, he was contracted to 
decorate the Crrand Master's rooms, the Grand Treasurer's and Grand Secretary's 
offices and the Grand High Priest's room, all were to be completed by September, 
1895. The decorations were simple stencil designs composed of yellow, blue, terra 
cotta, aluminum and gold." 

The Art Association chose Herzog 's design for the Temple's Library Hall 
after many designs were submitted.** (See figure 10.) Herzog's scheme was the 
most expensive as well as the most artistic and symbolic of Masonry. The funds 
were raised by former Grand Master William Kelly, who some years previously 
had covered the expense for the Egyptian Hall.** 

The Library Hall in the southeast pxjrtion of the ground floor of the temple 
is approximately 60 feet long by 40 feet wide. The surface of the wall is divided 
equal parts and marked off by high, round arched doors and windows. A heavy 
beam, supported by two pairs of columns divides the ceiling, and each half was 
further subdivided by lighter beams into sixty-six coffers. A paneled frieze is 
supported on a series of small arches and extends around the hall, while double 



^ Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 25. 

'The Keystone, August 3, 1895, Herzog Scrapbook, 38. 

* The name of the other competitors for the Masonic Temple Library commission is not known. 

^ Uncited new^aper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 38. 

31 



pilasters marked the divisions on the wall. The beams, the column pedestals, the 
wainscoting, and the entire woodwork in the hall is walnuL The design of the 
room lent itself to extensive decoration with a multitude of flat surfaces. 

Herzog chose to decorate the library in the Byzantine style. Twenty 
allegorical figures flanked each of the ten arches around the room The virtues of 
education were illustrated on the north wall; the sources of natural happiness on the 
south wall; depict types of ancient cities of learning and culture were depicted on 
the east and west walls. The figures were painted on a combination of gold and 
silver shading into a dull gray and green tone. This treatment serves to set off 
dramatically the figures. 

Corinthian Hall was last room in the Masonic Temple that Herzog 
decorated There are more known rendering for Corinthian Hall than for any other 
Herzog work. Four rendering exist, as well as preparatory sketches for the Hall." 
These rendering illustrate portions of the Hall's four elevations as well as the ceiling 
design. (See figure 11.) The thumbnail sketches were done in ink and resemble the 
finished rendering. (See figure 12.) Completed in 1903, it was the hall where the 
Grand Lodge met. The room is 105 feet long, 51 feet wide and 50 feet high. (See 
figure 13.) The Hall was considered to be the "fmest lodge room in the world."'' 
Herzog strictly conformed to the Greek Corinthian order. The fluted columns and 
c^itals were based on those at Lysicrates in Athens.* The caryatides which 
support the paneled ceiling in the apse at the east end of the room were based the 
Portico of the Caryatides on the Erechtheum in Athens. The seats on the circular 
platform are in accordance with those found in the ancient Theater of Dionysus, 
also in Athens. The various figures in the bas relief medalbons over the entrance 
and on pilasters were taken from antique Greek coins and medalUons." The sixteen 
mural paintings in the panel of the large frieze which encompasses the room are 
copies of fragments from antique Greek temple ruins. 



George Herzog Collection, Masonic Library and Museum of Pennsylvania. 

Yorston, 4. 

Ibid,4. 

Ibid. 

32 



The Masonic Temple was the first large "public" building on Center Square; 
construction did not start on the Square's most prominent building, Philadelphia 
City Hall, until 1872 and that structure designed by John MacArthur, Jr., was not 
substantially complete until the 1890's. Philadelphia's Masonic Temple exhibited 
the talent of twenty-seven year old James H. Windrim and thirty-six year old 
George Herzog. The collaborative effort that resulted in the design and decoration 
of Philadelphia's Masonic Temple came at the beginning of two careers that 
continued to grow into large, important and successful practices. 

The Union League of Philadelphia 

The Union League was founded in 1862 as a semipolitical organization of 
business men and civil leaders who pledged "unqualified loyalty to the government 
of the United States and unwavering supports of it measures for the suppression of 
the Rebellion.""" In this effort they raised a half million dollars and 10,000 
volunteers for the Civil War's battlefields. By 1865 , The League had a 
membership of several thousand. The club house of The Union League was one of 
the few buildings erected in Riiladelphia during the Civil War. "" 

The Union League was designed by John Fraser in 1864-65. Fraser, 
(1825-1906), practiced architecture successfully individually and in partnerships. 
In 1867, he helped form the influential firm of Fraser, Fumess and Hewitt. Four 
years later he served as Acting Support Architect of the U.S. Treasury in 
Washington D.C. While in Washington Fraser designed several residences. By 
1889 he returned to Philadelphia, where he remained the rest of his life."" 

Located on the southwest comer of Broad and Sansom streets, the brick 
building with brownstone trim is notable and early Philadelphia example of the 
Second Empire. The structure is two and one-half stories on a raised basement. 



'°° Richard Webster, Philadelphia Preserved, Catalog of the Historic American Building Survey (Philadelphia: 
Temple University Press, 1976) 113. 
'°' Ibid, 113. 
'°^ Tatman and Moss,281. 

33 



with mansard roof, central Corinthian porch with curved double entry stairway, a 
square tower, and central hall plan. 

In 1 866 the interior of The Union League burned and was remodeled by 
architects James Windrim, Theophilus Parsons Chandler, Jr., and Charles M. 
Bums until 1889. Herzog is credited as the decorator. '"^ Herzog , a member of the 
Union League, painted without charge t-he panels on the frieze of the Flemish 
Renaissance Room."" 

A design of the Library ceiling, the Banquet Room ceiling and the 
Restaurant are the three known renderings for the interiors at The Union League. 
The Library ceiling, 1881-1882, was a geometric design, composed of many 
Egyptian revival style motifs.(See figure 14.) The rendering illustrates one-quarter 
of the square ceiUng with the central sectioned-octagon outlined entirely.(See figure 
15.) The design was composed of muted brown, olive, yellow and blue. The 
geometric composition is decorated with scrolls and leaves. In a triangle at the 
comer of the design is a profile of an Egyptian Pharaoh. This is similar to the idea 
behind the Egyptian Hall in the Masonic Temple to be discussed earlier in this 
chapter. The design of the Banquet Hall is a complicated geometric design 
composed of varied colors and patterns. (See figure 16.) This exquisitely rendered 
design illustrates the strength of Herzog 's technical abiUty and his ease with using 
many patterns. The rectangular ceiling design is composed of both geometric and 
free form organic shapes. (See figure 17.) Around a central Moorish style 
medallion are smaller, more geometric, star-like medallions. They are tied together 
by ribbon-like borders. Within these borders are an assortment of patterns, ranging 
ft"om blossoming branches to small shaded squares. The color scheme varied from 



'~Ibid, 147. 

'" Uncited article in Herzog Scrapbook, 25. The article's main story is the re-election of former Philadelphia 
Mayor Edwin Fitler as the Union League President. Fitler served as President in 1891 and 1892. While Fitler was 
mayor he communicated through James Windrim his interest in having Herzog decorate his office in the new City 
Hall. This account is described later in the Philadelphia City Hall section. Herzog also completed a design for 
Fitler's residence as S.W. 16thAValnut Street. The rendering of the hall decoration is at The Athenaeum of 
Philadelphia. It is composed of wall and ceiling design that was compose of an exotic assortment of palm fronds 
and blossoming trees, all placed out doors against the outline of an crenelated castle. The predominate colors were 
green and blue. 

34 



deep red and orange outlined in gold to light yellow and blue. The Restaurant 
ceiling was a Japanesque design composed of a center medallion encircled with 
flying storks. Within smaller bordered medallions were depictions of other wild 
animals: a duck, fish and bird. The ceiling was bordered with an "oriental" 
geometric design that was entwined with cheery blossoms. Also prominent in the 
design were exotic flowers and fans made of feathers. 

The Liederkranz 

Throughout his career, Herzog's connection with his German background 
never ceased He continued to paint the classical style he was taught and received 
many commissions from German organizations and individuals of German decent. 

The German singing societies were imp)ortant components in larger 
German- American communities. The societies had begun to develop in New York 
and other American cities in the late 1 840's, they flourished particularly in the 
1870's and '80s and their popularity continued until the First World War. They 
gave public concerts at which familiar German songs were performed. During this 
period interest in German music, drama and literature among German-American 
communities was strong."** 

The Liederkranz (Wreath of Songs), founded in 1847, became New York's 
foremost German singing society. In 1881, the society selected a design submitted 
by Hermann J. Schwarzmann and William Kuhles for a new clubhouse on East 
58th Street. The plot measured 125 feet on 58th street and about 100 feet deep. 
The building was in the German Renaissance style and was three stories high with a 
generous ground floor. The street facade was divided into a slightiy projecting 
central mass containing the main entrances with superimposed, iron balustrade 
balcony and two symmetrical sideways. The primary building materials were 
brownstone and brick with terra cotta other elements including iron ornamentation. 



' Billigmeier, 123. 

35 



a heavy metal entablature and a metal cornice. '"* It featured a grand ballroom, a 
monumental double staircase, an old German wine saloon and other club rooms. 
The second floor was the centerpiece of the building: the concert hall or grand 
ballroom decorated by Herzog. The room measured 100 feet long, 65 feet wide and 
sat 1,200. It was used for the Society's concerts as well as dancing. The room was 
decorated with murals, large mirrors and crystal chandeliers. The various figures 
and groups of symbolic characters which ornamented the walls were highly 
effective in design and execution, some of them suggested musical subjects and 
others recalled the personages associated with musical Uterature. According to an 
eye-witness, when the hall was electrically lit the effects were "remarkably brilliant 
and beautiful" "" These decorations were completed in 1 886 and cost $15, 000. 
The Uederkranz moved to smaller quarters in 1950 and, after serving as a television 
studio , their original building was razed in 1964. 

Only one rendering of a wall panel survives from Herzog 's design of the 
ballroom."* (See figure 18.) More complete views survive in photographs of the 
room."^ (See figure 19.) The grand space was decorated throughout. Herzog's 
designs followed the architectural details of the room. The room consisted of an 
arch with a pedimented panel above and this pattern was repeated around the room. 
Where the arch did not serve as a doorway, it was surrounded by molding and its 
interior space was decorated with an ornate arabesque grill design. Surrounding the 
arch were molded plaster crests and allegorical figures playing musical instruments. 
Painted within the pediment was a man armed with a sword seated at a table while 
being offered refreshment by a fair maiden. Both figures are costumed in 
Renaissance period clothing. The symbolism of this scene is lost. Perhaps the man 
has just returned from battle. The plaster work and the painted decoration were 



'°° History of the Uederkranz of the City ofNev\' York: 1847 to 1947 and of the Arion, NeM' York (New York 
The Drechsel Printing Co., 1948), 15. 

'" The Mail and Express, New York , 25 July 1 887, as found in Herzog Scrapbook, 45. 

'°° The Herzog Collection, The Athenaeum of Philadelphia. 

'" History of the Uederkranz of the C/ry ofNen' York: 1847 to 1947 and of the Arion, New York. (New York : 
The Drechsel Printing Co., 1948). 



36 



superimposed to give a the illusion of complete relief decoration. Herzog utilized a 
multi-colored palette. The patterns of the lower portion of the design were rendered 
in flat colors of green and blue outlined in black. Toward the ceiUng the design 
became lighter, the painted architectural features were decorated with blooming 
plants and jewels. At the top of the design the background fade to light blue that 
gave the impression of the open sky. The realistic aspects of the decoration, the 
painted decoration resembUng architectural decoration, and the design culminating 
with the sky, all served to bring the feeling of the outdoors into a large interior 
space. 

The Residences of P. A. B. Widener ( 1 887). William Hkins (1890) and WiUiam 
Kemblea890) 

By the late 19th century George Herzog's work was firmly associated with 
upper class taste. His commissions for the most prosperous members of 
Philadelphia society suggest his work greatly appealed to the nouveau riche. One 
could almost say that this was the peak of his visibility as a decorator. 

Peter A. B. Widener, William L. Elkins and William H. Kemble formed a 
powerful triumvirate, that dominated Philadelphia's political, banking, and street 
railway worid during the late 19th century. Their careers read like Horatio Alger 
stories because they rose from modest beginnings until they were ranked with the 
millionaires of the day and their generation. Within a few years of one another, 
these three notable men, who were the guiding forces of the local transportation, 
system constructed three brownstone buildings in different parts of Philadelphia. 
Herzog was commissioned to decorate the entire interiors of each house. 

Widener was a developer of the street railway syndicates in Philadelphia 
and Chicago and a philanthropist He was one of the great patt-ons of the arts in 
America, ranking in a class along such men as J. Pierpoint Morgan, WilUam 
Randolph Hearst, and Andrew MeUon. Wideno- erected an eclectic styled house 
designed by Willis Hale at the northwest comer of Broad Stt-eet and Girard Avenue. 

37 



Kemble built a home designed by James Windrim on Green Street not far from 
Fairmount Park, at a time when that street was considered one of Philadelphia's 
finest residential neighboiiioods. Elkins constructed his palatial home on Broad 
Street just above Girard Avenue. He was unable to obtain the properties at the 
comer of the avenue, this forced him to build on a triangular lot and extend his 
house north to Stiles Street. 

The Widener Mansion 

The Widener mansion was considered to be one of the grand mansions built 
in the North Broad Street enclave of the Nouveau Riche. It was the most expensive 
and lavish of its era in Philadelphia, representing the values of a generation that 
conspicuously consumed to impress commercial prowess. "It was the crowning 
jewel in the diadem that was North Broad Street., and a worthy monument to the 
value system that created the gilded residential suburb.""" 

The mansion was designed by Philadelphia architect Willis Hale (1848- 
1907). Hale had worked in the office of Samuel Sloan and John MacArthur before 
starting his own practice in 1 876. Hale worked in private practice the rest of his 
life, designing a many of Philadelphia's major office buildings and banks. In 
addition, Hale designed a number of residential buildings for speculators such as 
William Weightman as well as individual homes, such as the Widener Mansion.'" 

The Widener Mansion, constructed in 1887, was 53 feet wide by 144 feet 
long in dimensions and was four and a half stories high on a raised basement. 
There was a hipped roof with four Flemish cross-gables, ogee conical roofs on 
comer bays, curvilinear walls, and a curved double entry stairway. The central-hall 
plan house also had a massive msticated and all four facades contained carved stone 
decoration. The arched entrance on Broad Street was very large and imposing, 
with the bay windows, extending from the first to the fourth stories on each side of 



""In less than a decade, the house and its location were sufficiently old-fashioned. The Wideners moved to an 
equally palatial mansion in the suburbs. The Broad street house was given to the city to serve as a library in 1 899. 
Philadelphia Bulletin. April 21, 1937. 

' ' ' Sandra L. Tatman and Roger W. Moss, Biographical Dictionary of Philadelphia Architects, 1 700-1 930 
(Boston: G.K. Hall & Co., 1985), 325. 

38 



the house. An article written at the time of the mansion's completion, stated that 
"The result is an interior that is artistic in an eminent degree, and a house that is 
harmonious and symmetrical throughout in which the carpets do not swear at the 
ceiling nor the walls clash in color or design with the furniture or draperies." "' 

Herzog, was responsible for the decoration of the entire interior, most likely 
without budgetary restraints. A substantial portion of the interior decoration 
included furniture built into the house, brownstone walls laid in opulently carved 
masses and spectacular murals. The carved and inlaid entrance opened onto a rich 
stair hall whose walls were embellished with alabaster and bronze. Herzog 's 
scheme of decoration gave each room a distinct charactCT. Herzog infused 
"sentiment, if not poetry, as well as art feeling, into wood and stone and glass and 
fabrics and color, " and created a scene that was "instantly to the eye and mind the 
suggestion of and association of a grand house." According to one critic the house 
conveyed, " stateliness and sociability in its hall, cheerfulness and sociabihty in its 
reception room, elegance in the parlor; tranquiUty in the library; domesticity in the 
family sitting room; hospitableness in dining hall and repose in the sleeping 
chambers." Reportedly, Herzog was given free rein and Widener demanded no 
changes. Thus Herzog's design was accomplished according to his wishes and the 
end result was "a household interior that is a series of pictures as artistic as anything 
on canvas."'" 

After the Widener Residence was completed, Herzog and Mr. Widener 
remained friendly. This friendship is best illustrated in one of two known letters in 
which Widener wrote of his respect and admiration for Herzog's talent. In a letter 
dated November 1, 1894, Mr. Widener wrote to his friend John D. Crimmin on the 
behalf of George Herzog. Widener referred to Herzog "as one of the ablest men in 
his line of business." The recommendation added that Herzog was "a man of strict 
integrity" and "would not only fulfill his contract to the letter but would go beyond 
it in order to improve the final product.""* 



"^ Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 5. 

"^ Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 5. All quotes used in this paragraph are from this article. 

'" Letter in Herzog Collection at The Athenaeum of Philadelphia. 

39 



The only rendering yet found that can be attributed to the Widener 
Residence is of the banquet room or dining room. (See figure 20.) It was the 
centerpiece of the residence, both from an architectural and decorative point of 
view. It was created at a time when entertaining at home had grown in popularity 
and had become a "symbol of the elegance and richness of modem life." It was this 
interest in hospitality and convenience that made the dining room one of the most 
important considerations in a house. '" 

The grand, immense dining room,was thirty-two feet square and twenty- 
two feet high with pocket doors that gave a clear view of the room's spacious 
proportions. (See Figure 21.) The design was German Renaissance. The room 
appeared to be centuries old and exuded "medieval dignity and calm elegance."'" 
The design scheme focused on an elaboration of detail and variety of finishes. The 
wood work consisted of paneled wainscoting seven feet high and divided into bays 
by p>edestals that supported carved pilasters which carried a continuous cornice 
around the room. From the cornice stretched ribs bending around the cove and 
connected with a system of coffered panels in the ceiling. The murals gave one the 
feeling of looking out onto a 17th-century German landscape. It was as if Widener 
wished to escape his own time, to the quietness of a less predatory age. Beyond 
the dining room was the gallery which housed the family's art collection."^ 

The room was illuminated by electricity from eight oxidized silver fixtures 
that were mounted at the wainscot's cap. According the newspaper article, "when 
all these are hghted the banquet hall is flooded with a briUiancy that brings out every 
line of its splendid carvings and every part of the exquisite wall paintings in tapestry 
effect.""* 

A prominent architectural feature in the room was the carved marble 
fireplace with upholstered leather seats on each side. Above the mantel was a thin 
slab of Mexican onyx which filtered light, softly showing the brilliant veins. 



'^ Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 8. 

" Ibid, 8. 

" Wideoer'sart collection now forms the cornerstone of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D. C. 

" Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 8. 

40 



Immediately over this was a painted glass panel executed in the Royal Art School of 
Munich, Bavaria, representing "a family group." Herzog's utilization of the 
German window illustrates that in 1 887 his ties with Germany and his native 
artisans remained unbroken. He may have traveled to Germany to commission this 
work. 

The most obvious and prominent element of the banquet hall was the 
minstrel's gallery which hung over the entrance from the hall. The elaborately 
carved element as seen in the old world, enhanced the picturesque quality of the 
room as well as formed a vantage point from which to view the conservatory. 

Opposite the fireplace was a built-in sideboard, containing a silver vault. 
The sideboard was combined with the widow above it by the richly carved pilasters 
and other decorative elements that were in keeping with the large room. The 
sideboard was covered with silver , and cut glass and rich china filled the crevices 
and shelves of the spaces between the pilasters above. 

There were ornamental cabinets built into each of the four comers of the 
room, containing examples of cut glass, along with decorated china that produced 
brilliant effects seem through the beveled glass panels of the doors. The walls 
above the wainscoting were painted with scenes typical of the seasons and were 
painted by Mr. Herzog himself. According to the written description some of the 
figures were portraits of members of Mr. Widener's family. '" The effect was 
described as "tapestry," most likely alluding to the tightly rendered figures and 
Herzog's rich palette. The ceiling cove was treated in such a manner to produce the 
effect of stamped leather, while the center of the boss was painted in imitation 
mosaic on a gold background. The floor was laid in wood mosaic and covered 
with a very large rug; the center was blue-gray and the border was composed of 
Flemish designs that compUmented the furniture coverings. 



Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 8. 

41 



The Kemble Mansion 

The Italianate style favored by wealthy industrialists of the late 19th-century 
was chosen by William Kemble as an demonstration of his financial and social 
position. Kemble was the Secretary of the Treasury for the State of Pennsylvania 
and in charge of all transportation for southeastern Pennsylvania.'^ This house was 
constructed in 1890 and is the only surviving mansion of the three magnates. It is 
three stories, is four bays across, and the facade is cut brownstone. The main 
entrance, high above the street grade is the building's focal point, flanked with by a 
pair of fluted Corinthian columns topped by a balcony. The building is dramatically 
placed on a comer lot and dominates the space around it. 

The architect responsible for the design of the mansion is unknown but 
records indicate that James Windrim designed a portion of the decoration.'-' It is 
known that Windrim completed plans for the decoration and wood work of the 
parlor and sitting rooms, all done in rosewood paneling work relieved in gold 
ornamentation. The estimated cost of Windrim 's decorative work was $20,000. 
Although little documentation exists to illuminate Herzog's involvement in the 
decoration of the mansion, he was responsible for the a portion of the interior 
decoration. It is known that Herzog was decorating the Masonic Temple's Norman 
Hall at the same time he was working on the Kemble Mansion.'^ It is possible that 
James Windrim and George Herzxjg collaborated on the decoration of an interior. 
Two of Herzog's surviving renderings can be attributed as the Kemble mansion.'^ 

Herzog's design of the ceiling of the rear hall exhibited the same feeUngs of 
old world 17th-century Germany as the paintings of the Widener mansion. (See 



'^° Kemble only lived in his house at 2200 Green Street for one year. After his death the house was sold to the 
Bergdolls. Currently the house is owned by Ms. Zukarian. The author has not been able to gain entrance to the 
house but according to paintings conservator Steven Erisoty, whom has treated some of the house's interior finishes, 
much of the original decoration survives despite neglect and fire damage. 

'^' The Philadelphia Real Estate Record and BuiUer's Guide, Philadelphia Vol. V, no. 32. August 13, 1890. 

''^t was also published that Herzog found Mr. Kemble not to be the "ogre" , the newspapers made him out to 
be.Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 14. 

'"The notated rendering for the Kemble Mansion library is part of the Herzog Collection at The Athenaeum of 
Philadelphia. The rendering of the ceiling of the rear hall is part of The Mrs. Anne Herzog LaMotte Collection.The 
author has not seen the actual interior, thus these renderings were attributed to the Kemble Mansion based on interior 
photographs of the Mansion on file at the Philadelphia Historical Commission. 

42 



figure 22.) The multi-paneled ceiling was divided into irregularly shaped areas with 
complex stenciled patterns. (See Figure 23.) Among the panels was a large roundel 
painted in a Raphaelite style, showing a mother seated on a bench with her children 
around her. The group symbolized domesticity, the nurturing home, and family. 
The painting is rendered is such a way that it might contain portraits of the Kemble 
family. The panels are sky blue which recede behind the applied brown and gold 
stencil work. This technique gave the ceiling the appearance of an intricate lattice 
beneath an open sky. The library decoration is of Moorish origin. (See figure 26.) 
The ceiling design was composed of a central geometric medallion and perimeter 
borders. These designs consisted of a lacework of arabesque decoration, carried 
out in delicate colors, with symmetry and rhythmic order. The walls were painted 
to give the illusion of an arcade with slender, delicately ornamented columns that 
supported decorated arches. Below the arcade at the wainscoting level was a solid 
band of color indicating a low wall. By combining the rendered architectural 
elements with the predominately blue and silver color scheme, Herzog created the 
illusion of an courtyard or outdoor space within four walls. The overall 
composition is reminiscent of The Alhambra Palace (1354-91) in Granada.'^ 

The Hkins Residence 

Elkins, the street railway magnate built a magnificent brownstone residence 
at 1218 N. Broad Street, the southeast comer of Broad and Stiles Streets in 
Philadelphia. The completion of the Elkin's house was an addition to Philadelphia's 
list of handsome and costly residences. The mansion was considered to be the 
most exp)ensive residence built in Riiladelphia, costing an estimated one million 



"* HMTOg's involvement in the creation of other interior furnishing of the Kemble Mansion is unknown. 
Written descriptions state that the house contained elaborately carved woodwork and furniture created exclusively for 
it. The woodwork as well as the furniture was carved with Germanic and Italian motifs. A theme with cherubs was 
used in the master bedroom, with the motif used on the ceiling, mantelpiece carvings and furniture. The house was 
lit by gas sconces and chandeliers. Sculptures of the Beaux Arts style were on view among the rooms, was well as 
a collection of classic books bound in leather. It is unknown if Herzog had a hand in the design of the stained glass 
windows on the side bays. They were created in a style reminiscent of the work done by the Tiffany Studio. Uncited 
newspaper article in Herzog Scrapbook, 16. 

43 



dollars. It was the last of the houses to be completed designed for the three wealthy 
men, all associated in the management of street car railways in Philadelphia and 
other cities. 

The Elkins mansion was designed by Philadelphia architect William Powell 
(1854-1910). Powell worked with the Pennsylvania Raikoad in the Office of 
Engineering of Buildings and Bridges. Powell was most noted for his work while 
serving as second assistant to John McArthur, Jr. on the construction and design of 
Philadelphia City Hall. In 1881, returned he returned to the Pennsylvania Railroad. 
He was elected Architect for the Philadelphia Building Commission and remained 
the City architect until retirement in 1909. While working for the city, he 
supervised the completion of City Hall and designed a number of small structures, 
such as firehouses.'" 

The Renaissance style mansion was constructed in 1 890 of brownstone, 
and stood on an granite terrace elevated eight feet above Broad Street On a 
triangular shaped lot the house ran 210 feet along Broad Street and was 160 feet 
deep; at the narrow end it was 65 feet along Ontario Street with a width of 15 feet. 
The house contained approximately 36 rooms and was four-stories high. The main 
entrance portico was recessed between two wings of the front elevation.'^ 

The interior was elaborately decorated. Each of the main rooms was in a 
different style. Herzog, was responsible for the decoration of the entire interior, 
most likely with an unlimited budget. It appears that Herzog was given complete 
control over the interior decoration. A substantial portion of the interior decoration 
used opulent materials and contained spectacular murals. Many of the wall were 
carved and inlaid and embellished with alabaster and bronze. As he did in the 
Widener Mansion, Herzog 's decorative scheme gave each room a distinct character. 
Out of wood and stone and glass and fabrics and color, Herzog created a setting 
that suggested a palace. 

The elaborately furnished main hall was considered to be the grandest 



'^^ Tatman and Moss, 621. 

'^° Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 26. 

44 



portion of the house. Here the great wealth of the owner was most evident with the 
display of his vast European painting collection. The German Renaissance style 
cortUe was 47 feet 6 inches in length and 32 feet in width and a height of 41 feet 6 
inches. The grand space contained a carved wooden gallery at the second floor 
level, 7 feet 6 inches wide that extended around the hall and served as a corridor the 
north part of the mansion.'-^ In the cove above that gallery Herzog painted a scene 
of men and women seated upon a balcony dressed in silk and velvet period 
costumes. The figures painted against a deep blue sky, were "carrying on 
ceremonious flirtations to the music of guitars and mandolins."'^ 

The dining room was Romanesque in design with heavy oak wainscotting 
and large beams supporting the paneled ceiling. The color scheme of the room was 
black and silver. Around the ceiling of the dining room set into the wainscotting 
and forming a frieze were painted scenes of an old English stag and wild boar 
scene. This dynamic composition captured the moment when the animal is about to 
be slain by the hunter. Surrounding the action were other hunters and their horses, 
all reacting to the event taking place. (See figure 25.) Other scenes painted around 
the room included a monastery courtyard and night scenes painted in somber 
colors.'^' 

The Corinthian style parlor contained classical Siena marble columns. The 
color scheme of the room was gold, white and blue. Herzog 's ceiling design was 
composed of a geometric design in gold on a ivory background. 

The portion of the house which Mr. Elkins considered his den was the 
smoking room. This comfortable room was decorated in the Moorish style. Over 
the mantel and fire place was a mural that depicted the rooftops of an Eastern town 
with its graceful minarets and domes. The tower of the mosque in the distance 
was, outlined against a deep blue sky. In the foreground were a number of doves 
fluttering around a vase of blooming rose. The ceiling of the smoking room was 
decorated with a design in silver and gold arabesques upon a light bluish-green 



'" Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook,26. 
'^° Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 30. 
'"Ibid. 

45 



ground.'* 

Young Maennerchor Hall 

Having a firmly established business among his fellow countrymen, 
Herzog accepted a commission by The Young Maennerchor Society to decorate the 
auditorium of the building, located at Sixth and Vine Streets in Philadelphia. Work 
began in the summer of 1889. The building, designed by Paul Banner. The Society 
felt that the hall needed to be painted because it was not it keeping with the 
decorations throughout the building.'" The Young Maennerchor Society paid 
$5000 for the decoration of the upper floor and $2000 for the first floor. The walls 
were painted in a soft red, with "lofty pilaster ornamentations and on other surfaces 
arabesques executed in a lighter shade to give a rich damask effect."'" 

Similar to the decoration at the Liederkranz Society in New York City, the 
decoration of the new hall was described as German Renaissance. The design 
contained panels with portraits of famous Germans in the arts. The ceiUng was 
filled with scrolls and patterns. Though no known drawings exist from this 
commission, the written description of this work serves as as a reminder of 
Herzog 's German sensibilities. 

Described as "low key and delightful" the Hall's general color scheme was 
"quiet" pink and buffs. The ceiling was filled with a scroll pattern, with the 
Acanthus leaf as a motif . According to written descriptions the ceiling design fully 
exhibited Herzog's individual style. "...The artist has thrown off the decorator's 
palette and made himself known." The ceiling composition consisted of a fluffy 
clouds of warm gray, and groupings of nymphs, gods and goddesses. There were 
four panels on each waU containing "chaste and refmed" figures: that depicted 
various disciplines. "Music" was repjresented by a scene which contained portraits 
of Beethoven and Mozart, "Arts" with a portrait of Albrecht Durer and "Dramatic 



''° Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 31. 
"" Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 16. 
"^ All quotes from Uncited newspaper article, HCTZog Scrapbook, 15. 

46 



Literature" with bust of Schiller and Goethe. The small panels were painted in soft 
colors against a background of gold leaf. "Time," "Ecclesiastical Music," "Love" 
and "Merriment" were also illustrated on panels.'" 

Philadelphia City Hall 

Phialdelphia's City Hall was constructed 1871-1901 with John Mac Arthur 
as the chief architect and Thomas U. Walter as the consulting architect. John 
MacArthur (1823-1890) had immigrated from Scotland and studied architecture in 
Philadelphia with Thomas U. Walter. At the age of twenty-five MacArthur won his 
first competition and from that point he secured a steady stream of commissions. 
He designed hotels as well as churches, private residences and commercial 
structures. McArthur designed several structures notable for their mansard roofs if 
not their Second Empire. After securing the Philadelphia City Hall commission 
MacArthur devoted the rest of his life to the Riiladelphia City Hall and died a full 
decade before his monument was completed. 

Thomas Ustick Walter ( 1 804-1887) is considered the most important 
architect between Benjamin Henry Latrobe and Henry Hobson Richardson.'" 
Walter trained in the office of William Strickland and schooled by John Haviland 
and landscape artist WilUam Mason. He first gained national attention for the 
design of Girard College of Orphans ( 1 833-35). Hundreds of commissions 
followed in the 1 830 's and 1 840's. It was in 1 850 when Walter won first place in 
the competition for the extension of the United States capital. In 1865 he resigned 
as architect of the Capitol and returned to Philadelphia. When fiiend and younger 
colleague McArthur won the Philadelphia City Hall competition for the third and 
final time, Walter was appointed his second in command. Walter held this post for 
over a decade, until his death in 1 887. 

The building was occupied in stages after 1877. Philadelphia City Hall is 



Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 16. 
Tatman and Moss,821. 

47 



the largest municipal building in the county and a fine example of the Second 
Empire style. It contains fourteen and one-half acres of floor space, occupied by 
city and county offices, courtrooms and several ornately detailed public spaces.'" 

The building is organized around a central public courtyard, which is 
reached through monumental arched portals on all four sides. Second Empire 
motifs are combined with an abundance of sculpture to give the exterior a rich yet 
not over powering scale. Among the most prominent features are the projecting 
comer pavilions, the tower pavilions over the entrance portals, the mansard roof 
with dormers, and the large-scale paired columns, which help to make the 
building's nine stories look like three. Solid granite, twenty-two feet thick in some 
portions, forms the first floor and supports a brick structure faced with white 
marble. The 548-foot tower is the world's largest masonry structure without a steel 
frame. '^ 

Historical accounts state that Herzog decorated the Supreme Court Rooms, 
Judges' Consultation Room and Mayor's Offices.'" Although only two known 
rendering exist from these rooms, based on known written descriptions, they are 
difficult to identify to specific rooms."* (See figure 26 and 27.) In a letter dated 
1888, Edwin Fitler, then Mayor of Philadelphia, communicated through James 
Windrim that he wanted to hire him to decorate his offices in City Hall. The rooms 
were occupied in December, 1889. There were three rooms; The Mayor's Office 
and two adjoining rooms that would serve as part of the Chief Magistrate's 
quarters.'^' At this time the Mayor's Office was temporarily used as "the reception 
of the model of the Centennial Exposition of 1876."'* The model was placed "a 
substantial enclosure of quartered oak and plate glass" that was designed by 



'""Webster, 140. 

'" Ibid. 

'"' This information was compiled from two sources: Philadelphia Preserved and Philadelphia and Popular 
Philadelphians. 

"° Scheme for Court Rooms A and B, 3rd Floor and For Ceiling and Wall for Law Library are part of The 
Athenaeum of Phialdelphia collection. 

''"This room is now known as the Mayor's Reception Room. Commissioners for the Ereaion of the Public 
Buildings , Reports of Committee on Fitting up and furnishing Rooms , May 15, 1891, p. 1. 

"° Ibid, 17 

48 



MacArthur. After the room was decorated and the model case built, the room was 
opened to the public.'" The Mayor's Office now known as the Mayor's Reception 
Room was decorated with blue and gold stencil pattern on the ceiling, elaborately 
carved woodwork and red Egyptian columns. Historic photos indicate a stenciled 
pattern was placed just above the wood panel dado. (See figure 28.) 

The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania chambers were finished and opened 
with ceremonies on January 5, 1891. (See figure 29.) Located in the south side of 
the fourth floor, the Chambers, including its adjoining conversation room and 
offices, numbered ten apartments in all. The court room is ST'B" wide by 5 1 ' long 
and 28' 8" high. Its wainscot of Tennessee marble and encompassed the room. 
The piers between the windows and doors were topped with Corinthian pilaster 
which carried an architrave, deep frieze and modillion cornice. The Court's bench 
was an elaborate construction of bronze and onyx.'"* It was not until the room was 
near completion that the Committee on Fitting up and Furnishing Rooms decided to 
"fresco" the walls.''" Herzog painted the walls and ceiling in oU colors of dull red 
on the walls and subdued gray-green on the ceiUngs, with gold accents.'" An 
historic photo indicates a stenciled decoration on the wall and frieze as well as an 
elaborately patterned design on the ceiUng panels.''" 

Herzog is also credited with the design of the Consultation Room or Room 
No. 450."" There exists one rendering that may have been used in the design.'"^ It 
adjoined the Supreme Court and was the private consultation room or library for the 
Judges. (See Figure 30.) The room measured 42'5'' wide , 46 feet, 3 inches long 
and had a 30 feet 4 inches height ceiling. The ceiling had a circular panel center 



'" Ibid. 

"^ Commissioners for the Erection of the Public Buildings , Reports of Committee on Fitting up and 
furnishing Rooms , May 15, 1891, p.ll. 

'" Ibid, 13. 

'" Fred Turner, Jr., Turners Guide to and Description of Philadelphia 's new City Hall or Public Buildings, 
(Philadelphia, 1892), 32. 

'" Frederick Faust, The City Hall Philadelphia, Its Architeaure, Sculpture and History (Philadelphia: Frederick 
Faust Publisher, 1897). 

'"Webster, 140. 

'" A rendering labeled "For Ceihng and Walls of Law Library, Herzog Co." may refer to the Consultation 
Room, it is difficult to determine because no documents tell of the room's color scheme. 

49 



with a square of 22', bordered by rectangular panels 4' deep."^ The walls and 
ceiling "were elaborately painted in oil colors of quiet but rich tones with which has 
been used considerable gold to give effect to the many molded and enriched 
ornaments.""" Above the impost molding and below the cornice of the ceiling, an 8 
feet high frieze contained a series of "cartoons" depicting scenes of classical art and 
history. The decorations were considered strikingly rich and dignified.'* 

In May, 1896, Herzog submitted drawings for a competition to secure a 
mural design for the Common Council Chamber or Room No. 400 in City Hall. 
The entries were publicly displayed in the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. 
The first place prize was three thousand dollars.'^' Works by thirty-two artists were 
submitted, among them was Edwin A. Abbey, a native Philadelphian, best known 
for his murals in the Boston Public Library.'" Herzog 's designs were considered 
the "best professional and conventional in the collection."'" But wo-e considered to 
be "the allegorical figures of a hundred ceilings and walls," and presented a 
derivative composition.'" The designs were considered to lack originality but were 
decorative and would be the least offensive to the average councilman '" Herzog 
was not awarded the commission; first place went to Joseph De Camp. After the 
jury had made its selection, the Public Building Commission lead by former 
Philadelphia mayor Stokely objected to the designs chosen.'^ After much debate 
the artists were paid but it is not known whether the juried designs wCTe ever used 
for the Common Council chambers. 



" Turner, 33. 
"Ibid, 35. 

'° Turner, 35. A detailed description of the wall can be found in Turner. 36. 
^^ Evening Telegram, May 7, 1896. Herzog Scrapbook, 40. 
" Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 41. 
"Evening Telegram, May 7, 1896. Herzog Scrapbook, 40. 
" Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 40. 
^^ Evening Telegram, May 7, 1896. Herzog Scrapbook, 40. 
^^ Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 42. 

50 



The Associated Art Workers 

On March 28, 1 893, The Associated Art Workers opened a fully furnished 
house at 1518 Chestnut Street in Philadelphia.'" The company was composed of 
George Herzog, Charles F. VoUmer, Alfred Goodwin, J.E. McClees and Sharpless 
& Watts '^* The association was consisted of decorators that had established 
businesses in "remodeUng, finishing and furnishing" of residences in Philadelphia 
and elsewhere.'^' The organization acquired the "forlorn and dismantled" 1518 
Chestnut St and completely remodeled and decorated the interior with in a year. '* 
Every room was decorated in latest styles of the period. The Associated Art 
Workers produced the showcase house to demonstrate to the pubUc that an "artistic 
interior" was possible at a modest cost and to illustrate what could be accomphshed 
with a typical Philadelphia rowhouse.'" The house served as a showroom of 
examples of the Association's skills and the diverse types and scale of services 
available. 

Each room in 1513 Chestnut Street was decorated with the finest of taste. 
The rugs, carpets, wood carvings, paintings, prints, furniture, gas fixtures, wall 
and ceiling decorations were all assembled to display the finest artistic decoration in 
Philadelphia. The house was divided into several rooms decorated in different 
styles but not to the extreme of that style. The house contained a parlor, drawing 
room, conservatory, library, dining room, bed room and bathroom. Though each 
room was distinctly different ft"om the other, there was a smooth transition from 
one room to the next.'" 



'*' The building still stands, the first and second levels have been greatly altered to accommodate a clothing 
store. 

'^^ Philadelphia Record, March 29, 1893, Herzog Scrapbook, 35. According to the city directory of 1892 and 
1893, VoUmer was an upholster at G. Vollmer & Son, 150 N. 16th Street, Philadelphia; no mention of Goodwin; 
McClees' business was "pictures" at McClees Co. LTD at 1417 Walnut Street Philadelphia; Sharpless & Watts was 
a tile business comprised of William C. Sharpless and David H. Watts at 1522 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. 

'" TTie Evening Call, March 29, 1893, Herzog Scrapbook, 35. 

'°° The North American, March 29, 1893, Herzog Scrapbook, 35. 

'" Philadelphia Record, March 29, 1893, Herzog Scrapbook, 35. 

'°' Philadelphia Public Ledger, March 29, 1893. Herzog Scrapbook, 34. 

51 



The first floor was divided into many rooms. The vestibule was decorated 
in mosaic tiles, stained glass and carved wood. There was a salon decorated in 
Empire style with gold silk on the walls and the woodwork painted in ivory and 
gold. The first floor also contained a Lx)uis XV apartment.'" On the entresol, 
between the first and second floor was a small tile covered bathroom. The back 
part of the second floor contained Louis XV style bed chamber, in a rose color 
scheme with papered wall and painted ceiUng. The library was in the front part of 
the second floor, finished in richly carved black walnut and the walls were covered 
with burlap and painted. The third floor front contained a Medieval style dining hall 
with a nook in one comer and paneled ceiUng and walls. 

The Associated Art Workers building only appeared in the 1894 city 
directory. Herzog's individual contribution to the overall design of the Associated 
Art Worker's house was not to be found in the known documents nor are there any 
known renderings. It can only be assumed that he played a major role in the 
decoration of the walls and ceilings. 



^Ibid, 34. 

52 



Chapter V: Methods of Decorative Finish Conservation 

Some of Herzog's work has been damaged or destroyed, but a substantial 
amount still survives, sometimes visible, sometimes hidden by subsequent layers 
of paint. Conservation is not an approach that is frequently appUed to architectural 
decorative finishes. Finishes are considered to have a hmited life span and to be 
relatively easily and cheaply reproduced and replaced. Easily obliterated by 
continual changes in taste and altered by environmental agents causing fading, 
darkening and loss, architectural surface finishes remain among the most 
misunderstood and misinterpreted aspects of the historical interior ' Few historic 
buildings retain their original finishes unobscured. Architectural decorative finishes 
are rarely considered valuable enough in themselves to justify a costly recovery or 
conservation treatment In the restoration of historic interiors, the original 
appearance is recreated more often than the original material is preserved. 

The appropriate treatment of decorative finishes should follow those 
conservation principles already described in various charters and standards for 
artistic and historic resources. These include accurate and objective documentation, 
retention of original fabric and evidences of change over time, respect for age value 
(patina) and interventions that are reversible or at least available for retreatment at a 
later date.- 

Plaster Repair 

If the plaster is damaged in any way, there are special methods used to 
repair it without ruining the paintings. If there is significant plaster damage, the 
structure should be inspected by an architect or engineer. Plaster repairs must be 
completed before any conservation treatment is begun. 

The keys often break, especially on ceilings where the original plaster 



Matero, 45. 
■Ibid. 

53 



work was poorly done. If the wood lath strips were placed too close together, or 
the lath was nailed directly over planks, the keys do not form properly, and the 
plaster may eventually sag away from the lath. When broken keys cause plaster to 
come loose from the lath, the typical solution is to tear down the loose plaster, and 
patch the resulting hole. This simple technique has major disadvantages when there 
is an irreplaceable finish on the plaster. If the wall is covered with decorative 
painting, the removal of original fabric is out of the question. 

Loose or bowed plaster that has lost its hold with the lath but is still in place 
can be re-attached, making the plaster sound again. Injection grouting is a method 
of plaster consolidation used to re-attach loose plaster.' ICCROM researchers 
reported on consolidation as the process of reattachment of the plaster layers to each 
other or the primary support to the masonry wall or to the lath." Detachment is 
detected by a hollow sound detected by tapping the plaster. The aim of 
consolidation is to re-adhere the layers with a material that is an effective adhesive, 
that is retrievable and compatible with the original material in chemical, physical and 
mechanical properties. Such consolidation is generally carried out by injection. The 
injection procedure requires identification of the detached area, access to the cavity, 
either from the front where a hole must be made, or from the reverse. Dirt and other 
interfering matter must be removed from the point of entry. The area must then be 
pre-wet to encourage movement of the adhesive and to discourage absorption of the 
adhesive by the surrounding material. Finally the adhesive is injected. Pressure 
exerted from the front and damming of cracks and other leakage points are 
sometimes required.' 

The neestablishment of cohesive bonds between the particles of a plaster 
layer is considered microstructural consolidation. While the consolidation of 
separated plaster layers is referred to as macrostructural consolidation, particle 
consolidation maybe seen as microstructural. When the cohesive strength of a 



' Morgan W. Phillips, "Adhesives for the Reattachment of Loose Plaster," Association for Preservation 
Technology Bulletin. Vol. XXH, no. 2, (1980): 41. 

' D. M. Ferragni et al., "Injection Grouting of Mural Paintings and Mosaics," Adhesives and Consolidants, UC, 
Ports, (1984): 110. 

' Ferragni, 1 12. 

54 



plaster is lost, the adhesion ijetween the particles are to some degrees lost, a result 
of the natural or inflicted deterioration of the plaster binding component. In wall 
and ceiling painting plasters, it is the adhesive ability of the lime (calcium carbonate 
of gypsum) that is in jeopardy. Generally this can be detected by powdering, 
crumbling plaster. Conservation treatment requires the reestablishment of the 
cohesion between the grains while respecting the chemical character and retaining, 
as much as possible, the physical and mechanical properties of the original material. 
The consolidant must also be retrievable, as little toxic as possible, have the ability 
to penetrate as deeply as necessary and be stable (non-yellowing, non-darkening) in 
as much as it is necessary from an aesthetic and practical perspective. 

When executed properly, these methods allow a continuous bond between 
lath or masonry and plaster. Such a bond limits the stress on any given area of the 
plaster, and is stronger than the bond with the original mechanical keys or masonry. 
The injection method is especially valuable with heavy ceiling plaster. Because the 
stress is spread over the maximum surface area, the relative flexibiUty of the 
adhesives is not a problem; furthermore it may be an advantage because is allows 
for the differential expansion and contraction of the substrate, plaster and adhesive. 

Injection grouting is an alternative to removing detached wall paintings. 
This method, if considered as a one step in a process which includes protection and 
maintenance, has become the basis of less disfiguring and less costly conservation 
practices for wall painting.' 

Once the necessary plaster repairs are completed the conservation of the 
painted surface may be commenced There are several approaches which include 
documentation, cleaning, consolidation, and in-painting 

If restoration is not feasible or desired, there are several ways to protect and 
conceal paintings with drywall or panels. If the paintings are in good condition, 
they can be sealed with removable varnish and wallpaper. A drop ceiling could also 
be installed.^ 



'Ferragni, 116. 

' Julia Lichtblau and Darla M. Olson, "Uncovering Decorative Painting," The Old House Journal, vol. XIV, 
no. 4, (May 1986): 180. 

55 



Documentation 

Prior to any conservation treatments, historical research should be done. If 
the decorative painting is overpainted, historical documents can prove their existence 
and help locate them. If the paintings are exposed, research can determine when the 
paintings were done, by whom and whether or not they are original. Documents 
describing local history and the history of the building may contain valuable 
information. Additional information is contained within artists' or craftsmen's 
bills, letters, photographs, diaries, and newspaper articles in municipal or historical 
society archives or in family records. As George Herzog did, other decorative 
artists completed a number of works in a given locale, it is possible to identify a 
decorative painter by comparing the style with others nearby. Localized economic 
booms encouraged such clusters of decorative painters, in the mid to late 19th 
century. The newly wealthy often commissioned houses decorated in the height of 
fashion.* 

After researching documentary evidence, an examination of the building 
itself may yield many clues. If the written and photographic documentation does 
not reveal the locations of the paintings, physical examination of the areas where 
decoration was usually applied may provide information. These areas include above 
the wainscotting, along the cornice lines, in the comers and centers of the ceiling. It 
is possible to slide a sharp blade underneath blistering paint and peel away small 
areas to reveal earlier finishes. An examination under non-historic features, such as 
drop ceilings and light fixtures may reveal paintings. 

Often overpainted images leave visible clues. Temperature differences in the 
paint layers can cause dirt to cling to the surface along the underlying pattern, 
creating a dark " ghost image" of the paintings, which usually can be seen under 
normal light. The extra paint thickness where a pattern has been applied over a field 
color can create a tiny ridge beneath the overpainting. This can be seen under 



'Ibid, 118. 

56 



"raking light" This can be achieved by shining a reflector-type light with a 300- 
watt bulb two or three feet from the surface at an angle. The variations in the 
thickness will show up as shadows that trace the overpainted patterns.' 

Overpainted images can seldom be resurrected intact, especially if the paint 
layers are firmly bonded together. As each layer is removed, the patterns must be 
documented and paint samples taken for eventual reproduction. This is one of the 
most difficult processes of painting conservation. A paste-type paint remover is 
usually required to remove overpainting, but mechanical methods can be used if the 
paint is chipping, extremely thick or flaking off. This usually occurs where layers 
are incompatible, such as oil paint over glaze. In this case it may be possible to 
remove it by the use of a sharp blade under the cracks at a shallow angle. This 
method is performed with extreme care as to not scratch the substrate.'" Once an 
area is uncovered, it may be left out for view beneath a shield of glass or plexiglass. 

Qeaning 

Msible paintings may require cleaning, filling of cracked plaster, and in- 
painting of damaged areas of the design. Paintings can be soiled from graffiti, 
repeated touching, old varnish, household dust, coal dust and air pollution. Paint 
types and finishes determine which procedures and materials to use. Within one 
building, there is no stock procedure for a given surface because of differences in 
the type of soil, paint chemistry, temperature, and humidity. The substrates may be 
different but the principles are the same. Ideally, in cleaning finishes, one removes 
unwanted material in a controlled way. Qeaning can actually contribute to 
stabilizing a structure in addition to improving the appearance of the surface. Dirt 
can be a source of deterioration when it attracts moisture to a surface or when it is 



' Information on painting discovery techniques was provided via telephone conversation with decorative painter 
Bemie Gnienke of Conrad Schmitt Studios Inc. New Berlin, Wisconsin. December 1991. 
'"Ibid. 

57 



abrasive." Before any cleaning is commenced, it is important to assess the 
condition of the structure and ask why cleaning should be done. Is the finish dirty 
or stained or faded? Is the dirt damaging the finish? Can the finish be safely 
cleaned? What effect will the cleaning have on the appearance of the surface? Will 
the finish need to be cleaned soon again? Is the proposed treatment safe for the 
conservator and the finish? How far should the cleaning go?'- 

The genCTal practice of cleaning decorative paintings is to start with the most 
innocuous method and work up to stronger ones. After removing dust from the 
painting, the first approach to cleaning should always be by chemical means as 
opposed to mechanical methods. Often plain water or water with detergent added 
can resolve a major part of a cleaning problem. Greasy soot, old fixatives and 
incrustations normally require the use of chemical agents or solvents. Preliminary 
test must be preformed to establish the type of cleaning material and appUcation 
method. Since damage caused by cleaning is irreversible, this point is very 
important. Most mechanical methods (especially abrasive) cause microscopic 
surface damage and should be avoided or, if used at all, restricted to limited area for 
refinishing." 

Distemper paintings cannot be cleaned with liquid, nor do they withstand 
abrasion well. Following the principle of most innocuous first, the first step is 
usually begun by brushing the surface very lightly with a soft bristle brush.'* Tests 
should be preformed to determined how embedded the soil is by gently rubbing the 
paintings with a soft pencil eraser or the dry-cleaning pads that architects use to 
clean drawings. As the work is performed, it is essaitial that the painting is 
checked for signs of abrasions. As the cleaning is done, previous attempts to 
restore the painting may become visible. If overpainting was badly done or used 



" Joyce Zucker and Deborah Gordon, "Decorative Finishes: Aspects of Conservation and Cleaning," in The 
Interiors Handbook for Historic Buildings, ed. Charles E. Fisher m, Michael and Anne Grimmer. (Washington D. C: 
Historic Preservation Education Foundation, 1988), 23. 

'^ The Conservation Unit, Science for Conservators, Book 2, Cleaning, (London, 1987), 13. 

" Information provided during Penn-ICCROM European Conservation Course on Architectural Surfaces, 
Summer 1990. 

" Informaticm provided via telefAone conversation with decorative painter Bonie Gruenke of Coniad Schmitt 
Studios Inc. New Berlin, Wisconsin. December 1991. 

58 



incompatible paint, these sections should be removed and inpainted with distemper 
paint. 

Matte-oil finishes are also difficult to clean because they are porous and 
absorb dirt easily. However, they can be cleaned with liquids and are more resistant 
to abrasion than distemper. The cleaning process in the same as with distemper, 
starting with a soft brush, followed by a dry-cleaning pads and erasers. Areas with 
complicated glazes, delicate brush work, and metalUc leafing are easUy abraded and 
so require a light touch. The dry method should be used as much as possible. If 
the dry method does not work a series of liquid cleansers could be used after 
testing." 

Altered organic consohdants or protective coatings such as siccative oil 
and/or animal glues can be removed normally by a low alkali ammonium salt 
jxjultices. The removal and p)artial extraction of soluble salts is carried out with 
distilled water poultices, the poultices must be left to dry so that the dissolved salts 
migrate and recrystallize into the poultice." 

Consolidation 

If the original finish has been lost or damaged through flaking and 
detachment between the finish coat of plaster and the paint film, consolidation is 
possible. It may be feasible as well as desirable to consolidate and re-attach flaking 
paint and in-paint those areas of loss. If the original decorative work has littie 
artistic and historic merit, a less conservative, more economical approach might be 
adopted. 

Depending on the significance of the finish, it may be necessary that the 
paint be scraped off in the flaking areas, that the still secure areas be saved and that a 
largCT degree of in-painting occur. Various grades of polyvinyl acetate resins as well 
as Acryloid B-67 and Acryloid B-72 should be tested for viscosity, adhesive 



" Zucker and Gordon, 27. 

" Infonnation provided during Penn-ICCROM European Conservation Course on Architectural Surfaces, 
Summer 1990. 

59 



strength elasticity and cosmetic impact on the painted surface." These resins which 
are widely used in the conservation field both as adhesives, consolidants and as 
protective coatings. 

In some cases, a solution of Acryloid B-72 in xylene with several drops of 
cellosolve acetate added to aid in the softening of brittle paint It has proven to be an 
effective material in consolidating stenciled paint films without altering the 
appearance of the surface. The Acryloid B-72 is applied with a brush and allowed 
to flow into cracked, flaking areas. This is followed by the application of the 
straight solvent xylene to improve penetration. When the area is saturated, the resin 
is allowed to dry. Excess resin, which will give the surface an unwanted sheen , is 
picked up by rolling a swab dipped in xylene over the surface. This is followed by 
the use of a warm tacking iron to relax and set the re-attached paint The iron 
should be used over a silicone mylar release sheet to prevent sticking.'* 

In-Painting 

Acrylics are preferable to oils for in-painting oil painting because the colors 
are stable. Once the paintings are cleaned, the colors can be matched. Colors are 
matched under natural light or 34(X)-K photographic floodlights. A swatch of 
varnished acrylic emulsion is matched to an area of the dry varnished acrylic 
original. Determining the original colors of oil paint is often difficult because they 
darken considerably when covered for long periods of time." 

Distemper colors that have been overpainted are difficult to restore 
accurately due to the fact that they have been distorted by the overlying paint's 
moisture and usually will have also absorbed some of its color. It is possible to find 



" Robert L. Feller, On Picture Varnishes and Their Solvents, (Cleveland: The Press of Case Western Reserve 
University, 1971), 109. Acryloid B-72 is an ethyl methacrylate copolymer. Acryloid B-67 is an isobutyl 
methacrylate cojx)lymer. Tliere is an extensive bibliography and information on the resin and its uses in the Material 
Section of the Getty Conservation Information Network Database. 

'^ Zucker and Gordon, 27. 

" Information provided via telephone conversation with decorative painter Benue Gruenke of Conrad Schmitt 
Studios Inc., New Berlin, Wisconsin. December 1991. 

60 



little fxxkets of fresh color which were locked into porous areas of the plaster. 
Once examined under a microscope, the paint can be matched. If the distemper was 
not overpainted, a patch can be scraped away from the surface to reveal a fresher 
color. ^ 

Samples of fresh color should be preserved as a p>ermanent record of the 
original condition of the paintings, matched with Munsell System colors and coded 
accordingly. The Munsell Color System is a universal system for documenting 
color, it is used by artists, architects, conservators, printers and others who need a 
fixed, non-subjective color reference system. Getting an exact match may be 
difficult, but a close Munsell match is considered the best reference for recording 
purposes. 

Color is difficult to determine because the nature of paint materials is to 
constantly change. Usually the best attempt is a close interpretation of the color. 
Paint analysts do not rely exclusively on microscopic or chemical analysis to 
determine the original color scheme. An understanding of the artist's color concept 
to replicate the color is required. For example, it is possible that the artist used a 
cheaper color to cover a large area, saving the expensive color for the final coat. Or 
perhaps the undercoat was painted with one color to give a certain character to the 
overpainting. It takes a combination of microanalysis, paint removal and an artist's 
intuition to make an accurate determination of the original color. ^' 

After determining the color scheme, the base of the field coat is applied. 
The pattern is registered and transferred to the plaster; the missing sections of the 
design are in-painted. 



Chapter VI: Conclusion 



"Lichtblau, 185. 

^' Information provided via telephone conversation with decorative painter Bonie Gnienke of Conrad Schmitt 
Studios Inc., New Berlin, Wisconsin. December 1991. 

61 



In the 30 to 40 years that George Herzog worked in Philadelphia and New 
York, his name became associated with late 19th-century upper class taste. An 
examination of George Herzog 's decorative work sheds new light on Philadelphia's 
culture and history. As evidenced in his wall and ceiling decorations, Herzog 
desired to design the entire interior. His prolific output contributed greatly to the 
history of Philadelphia's architecture and design, more influential perhaps in some 
ways than most other decorators. George Herzog 's designs were for the most part 
not just simply wall and ceiling decorations, they formed the basis of the interior's 
overall design scheme. Herzog 's wall and ceiling designs, as side firom the 
architecture itself were the most prominent component of the interior. 

Culturally and historically, the significance and scope of Herzog 's work is 
important to the City of Philadelphia and to a lesser degree in New York City. By 
1879, most of the decorative painters working Philadelphia were German or of 
German descent." German trained craftsmen in Philadelphia were prevalent and 
Herzog would have most likely remained in contact with people with similar 
backgrounds. Like many other decorative painters, Herzog exhibited the 
characteristics of the skills he acquired because of his German training. He 
responded to a color palette typical of the time and area as well as produced designs 
that paralleled Victorian taste. Herzog 's designs were fundamentally conservative. 
His work did not so much break new ground as reinvent the past, turning it into 
something fresh and free of flaws. Herzog 's German Renaissance designs were his 
most unique. In these designs, he combined his skills with traditional images and 
designs from his homeland. Herzog was able to integrate these German inspired 
designs into to his work for various German-American organizations like The 
Liederkianz Society in New York City and Young Maennerchor Hall in 
Philadelphia. His renderings suggest he scoured the world for images, which he 
edited and recast in his own refined versions. His images were composed from the 
styles of the Renaissance to Baroque, and Japanesque to Classical Greek, but most 
of all, they fit into a vision of upper-class American taste. These styles were all 



Listing of "Painters, Fresco" found in Gopsill 's Business Directory. 1 879. 

62 



popular in England, the Continent and America during the last quarter of the 19th 
century. In these cases, at least, Herzog was part of the general trend at the time. 

Herzog created a world of elegance and comfortable rooms, presented with 
great confidence and self-assurance. Herzog 's pleasant "Old World" interiors were 
removed from politics, strife and the hard edges of life. One would have to had a 
heart of stone not to respond to Herzog 's rooms. They were sensual, so utterly 
comfortable, they were a fantasy of escape into a past, rendered more perfect than 
the real past was. They epitomized a past that Americans knew through European 
tours. Herzog was able to correct the mistakes and paradoxically provide a better 
sense of what the experience of being in a lavish Hemish palace or Classically- 
inspired room ought to have been. 

Artifice has always been an essential part of art, a discipline that has long 
indulged in the fantasy that it was being more original that it really was. The 
Romans copied from the Greeks; the Renaissance copied from both; the 18th and 
19th centuries copied from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. During that last 
quarter of the 19th-century and the first quarter of the 20th-century those designers, 
like Herzog, that were not involved with the developing modernism were outdoing 
each other with the artifice of their stage sets. 

The rooms that Herzog decorated were often in buildings that possessed a 
powerful presence, buildings that did not so much deny artifice as elevate it into 
something that, at its best, seemed noble. The decorative art of George Herzog was 
never vulgar, he was too preoccupied with taste to allow himself to let go, even at 
the risk of vulgarity. Herzog 's designs were not at the cutting edge, yet they were 
not boring, because they were continually energized by a remarkable tension 
between sublimeness and accessibility. Herzog 's designs were at the same time 
elitist and popular, positioned carefully between the mass market and something 
more exclusive. Especially in his residential designs, Herzog succeeded in selling 
artifice to the nouveau riche. Produced at a time when Amraican design was 
growing up leaving an adolescent stage and able to compete with the artists of the 
old nations of Europe. These interiors were created for the newly rich. The 

63 



Philadelphia mansions that were too restrained by restrictive lots to convey 
adequately the enormous wealth they contained, represented a patronage that 
mimicked the support that art once received ftom fifteenth-century Italian princes. 

It is rare to find such an extensive amount of work and documentation by 
one decorative artist remaining after such long a period of time. Architectural 
decorative finishes and renderings in good condition are normally scarce. Herzog's 
surviving renderings illustrate that the traditionally trained artist possessed the skill 
to illustrate his ideas rapidly and to elaborate them with carefully executed facsimiles 
of the proposed worL These renderings often rival in delicacy the work of 
miniature painting. His renderings and completed work prove that Herzog carried 
out his work with care and articulated every detail of the ideas depicted. The 
surviving renderings are detailed illustrations of accepted and purposed designs 
which articulated the more difficult and important details, such as flowers and 
figures. In some cases, the completed work deviated slightly from the proposed 
design. These changes occurred in the composition of a wall or ceiling panel 
details, leaving the overall color and design scheme intact. 

The opportunity to document the work of George Herzog is valuable and 
greatly enhances the understanding of the ties between the decorative painter and the 
era in which he worked." Unlike the architectural heritage of Philadelphia and New 
York, little has been done to document and research existing decorative finishes. To 
often interior decorations are usually destroyed with little or no evidence remaining 
that could detail an accurate interpretation of the previous design statement. An 
examination of the historic literature indicates that wall and ceilings were 
increasingly decorated by the 1880's and the practice remained fashionable for 
decades. Decorative finishes were affordable only by the wealthy, middle-class 
households used wall papers and fabric. By the 1880's, white ceilings were 
fashionable only if the rest of the room was also white.^ Only with efforts to 
locate, identify, record and document decorative painting in the Riiladelphia and 



" For a conq)lete list of Herzog's works and renderings refer to Appendix I. 

" Gail Caskey Winkler and Roger W, Moss, Mctorian Interior Decoration, American Interior 1830-1900 (New 
York: Henry Holt and Co.. Inc.. 1986). 123. 

64 



New York City region, can an accurate understanding of the prevalence of 
decorative painting in late 19th-century Philadelphia be reached. 



65 



Bibliography 



Audsley George A. The Practical Decorator and Omwnentalist, Glasgow: 
Blackie & Sons, Ltd., 1892. 

Billigmeier, Robert Henry. Americans from Germany: A Study in Cultural Diversity. 
Belmont, N.Y.: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1974. 

Bishop, A., and C. Lord. The Art of Decorative Stenciling. New York: Viking Press, 
1976. 

Boyce, A.P. Modem Orruvnemation and Interior Decoration. Boston: A. Williams & Co., 
1874. 

Building Files, Philadelphia Historical Commission. 

Conmiissioners for the Erection of the Public Buildings. Reports of Committee on 
Fitting up and furnishing Rooms . Philadelphia, May 15, 1891. 

Condit, Charles L. Painting and Painter's Materials. New York: The Railroad Gazette, 
1883. 

Dresser, Christopher. Principles of Decorative Design. London: Cassell, Petter and 
Galpin, 1876. 

Falk, Peter Hastings, ed. Who Was Who in American Art. Madison, Conn.: Sound View Press. 
1985. 

Faust, Frederick. The City Hall, Philadelphia: Its Architecture, Sculpture and 
History. Philadelphia: Frederick Faust, 1897. 

Feller, Robert L. On Piaure Varnishes and Their Solvents. Cleveland: The Press of Case Western 
Reserve University, 1971. 

Ferragni, D.M. et al. "Injection Grouting of Mural Paintings and Mosaics," Adhesives and 
Consolidants, IIC, Paris, (1984). 

Foster, William. "The Liederkranz of New York." American German Review, 10 (1944): 
10-13. 

Gardiner, F. B. How to Paim Your Victorian House. 1872. Reprint. New York: Samuel 
R. Wells,1978. 

General Lodge Membership Book, #4- 1 (The Grand Lodge Free and Accepted Masons of 
Pennsylvania: Philadelphia), 45. 

George Herzog Collection, The Athenaeum of Philadelphia. 

Glaser, Mosette Broderick. "Nineteenth Century Decorating Studios in New York City." 
Oculus,45 (February, 1984): 4-5, 12-13. 

66 



Gruenke, Bemie. Telephone conversation with author. December 1991. 

Harwood, Buie. "Charles Martin Meister: Decorative Painter In Texas." Journal of 

Interior Design Education and Research, vol. 7, no. 2 (Summer 1981): 38-46. 

Harwood, Buie and Betty McKee. "Reproduction of Historic Decorative Ceiling and 

Wall Friezes in Texas." Journal of Interior Design Education and Research, vol.4, 
no, 1 (Spring 1978): 43-51. 

Harwood, Buie. "Stenciling: Interior Architectural Ornamentation, A Look at 187-1930 
with examples fix)m Texas." Journal of Interior Design Education and Research, 
vol. 12, no. 1, (Spring 1986): 31-40. 

Historical, Genealogical and Biographical Sketch of the Herzog Family (Washington 
D.C.: National Research Society. 

Huss, Wayne A. The Master Builders: A History of the Grand Lodge of Free and 
Accepted Masons of Pennsylvania. Vol. 3 Grand Master Biographies. 
Philadelphia: Grand Lodge F. & A.M. of Philadelphia, 1990. 

H.D. and J. Mueller Collection, The Athenaeum of Philadelphia. 

Illustrated Philadelphia: Its Wealth and Industries. Philadelphia: Righter & Gibson, 
1889. 

Jennings, A. S. The Modem Painter and Decorator, A Practical Work On House 
Painting and Decorating, vol.1. London: The Caxton Publishing Co.,n.d. 

Jones, Owen. Grammar of Ornament. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 
1851. 

Joseph, Byron. New York Interiors at the Turn of the Century. New York: Museum of the 
City of New York, 1976. 

Kamphoefner, Walter D., Wolfgang Helbich, and Ulrike Sommer, eds. News from the 
Land of Freedom. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991. 

King, Moses. Philadelphia and Notable Philadelphians . 1902. 

King, Pauline. American Mural Paintings. Boston: Noyes, Piatt and Co., 1902. 

LaMotte, Anne Herzog, Letter to author, March 13, 1992. 

LaMotte, Anne Herzog, George Herzog Collection, Rocky River, Ohio. 

Leuchs, Fritz. The Early German Theater in New York. New York: American Press, 
1928. 

Lewis, Arnold, James Turner and Stevai McQuilUn. The Opulent Interiors of the 
Gilded Age. New York: Dover Publications, 1986. 

Library Company of Philadelphia, Photo Collection 

67 



Lichtblau, Julia, and Daria M. Olson. "Uncovering Decorative Painting," The Old House Journal, 
vol. XIV, no 4, (May 1986). 

Lynes, Russell. The Tastemakers, The Shaping of American Popular Taste. New York; Dover 
Publications, 1949. 

McCabe, James D. Illustrated History of the Centennial Exhibition. New York: National 
Publishing Co., 1975. 

Maass, John. The Glorious Enterprise: The Centennial Exhibition of 1876 and H. J. 

Schwarzmann, Architea in Chief. New York: American Life Foundation, 1973. 

Matero, Frank. "Methodologies of Establishing Appropriate Decorative Finish Treatments," The 
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Memoir of Lodge No. 51. Philadelphia: Free and Accepted Masons of Philadelphia, 1941. 

Miller, Fred Interior Decoration: A Practical Treatise on Surface Decoration With 
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Miller, Randall M., ed. Germans in America, Retrospea and Prospea. Philadelphia: 
The German Society of Pennsylvania, 1984. 

National Cyclopedia of American Biography, Vol 8, 496. 

New York Historical Society Library, New York City. 

Painting and Decorating, (Selected Volumes, 1887-1894). Philadelphia: The House 
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Philadelphia and Popular Philadelphians. Philadelphia: North America, 1891. 

Philadelphia City Archives, Philadelphia. 

Phillips, Morgan W. " Adhesives for tiie Reattachment of Loose Plaster," Association for 
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Science for Conservators, Book 2, Cleaning. London: The Conservation Unit, 1987. 

Scharf, Thomas J. and Thomas Westcott. History of Philadelphia, 1609-1884. 3 vols. 
PhUadelphia, 1884. 

Stencil Treasury. New York: A. Wiggers, (1895). 

68 



Tatman, Sandra L. and Roger W. Moss. Biographical Dictionary of Philadelphia 
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The Deutsches Maler Journal. (1850s- 1890s). Published in Germany; selected copies 
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7?!^ £^Mt/^, (June 1934): 332. 

The liederkranz Society. History of the Liederkranz of the City of New York: 1847 to 

1947 and of the Arion, New York. New York: The Drechsel Printing Co., 1948. The 
Painter (Journal). vol.IV (Jan-Dec. 1885). Cleveland: The Painting Company. 

The Painter's Magazine ( and Coach Painter); or (And Wallpaper Trade Journal, 
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The Philadelphia Real Estate Record and Builder's Guide, Philadelphia Vol. V, no. 32. 
August 13, 1890. 

The Urban Archives, Temple University, Philadelphia. Newspaper Clipping and Photo 
Colleaions. 

Turner, Fred Jr., Turners Guide to and Description of Philadelphia 's new City Hall or 
Public Buildings, 1892. 

Tolzmann, Don Heinrich, comp. Genrum Americana: A Bibliography. Metuchen, New 
Jersey: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1975. 

\folz, John. "Paint Bibliography." Association for Preservation Technology, Newsletter 
Supplement, vol. IV(1985): 39. 

Walker, Francis A. ed. United States International Exhibition 1876, Vol. TV, Reports & 
Awards, Groups 3 to 7. Washington D. C: Government Printing Office, 1880. 

Walker, Francis A. ed. United States Intematiorml Exhibition 1876, Vol. VII, Reports & 
Awards, Groups 3 to 7. Washington D. C: Government Printing Office, 1880. 

Weber, Richard. Philadelphia Preserved, Catalog of the Historic American Building Survey. 
RiUadelphia: Temple University Press, 1976. 

Whiteman, Maxwell. Gentlemen in Crisis, the First Century of the Union League of 
Philadelphia, 1862-1962. Philadelphia: Union League, 1963. 

Who's Who in Pennsylvania. 1904. 

Winkler, Gail Caskey and Roger Moss. Viaorian Interior Decoration. New York: Henry 
Holt and Co., 1986. 

William Beck Collection, The Athenaeum of Philadelphia. 

Yorston, John C. "The Masonic Temple of Philadelphia ... " 77ie Keystone, no 1988, vol. 
XXXIX (September 16, 1905): 2-5. 

69 



Zucker, Joyce and Deborah Gordon. "Decorative Finishes: Aspects of Conservation and 

Cleaning." The Interiors Handbook/or Historic Buildings, edited by Charles Fisher 
m, Michael and Anne Grimmer.. Washington D. C. : Historic Preservation Education 
Foundation, 1988. 



70 



List of George Herzog Collections 

AOP The Athenaeum of Philadelphia 

AHL Mrs. Anne LaMotte Herzog, Rocky River, Ohio. 

COA Collection of the author. 

FAM The Grand Lodge, Free and Accepted Masons of Pennsylvania Library and Museum, 
Masonic Temple, Philadelphia. 

List of Figures 

1. George Herzog, no date, photograph used in Moses King's Philadelphia and Notable 

Philadelphians, 1902, FAM 

2. Chaf)el rendering, "sketched and painted by George Herzog painter of decorations, 

Munich, May 1871," AOR 

3. Masonic Temple of Philadelphia, Egyptian Hall, photograph, FAM. 

4. Masonic Temple of Philadelphia, Egyptian Hall, signed rendering, FAM. 

5. Masonic Temple of Philadelphia, Ionic Hall, photograph, FAM. 

6. Masonic Temple of Philadelphia, Kelly Portrait, painting on canvas, FAM. 

7. Masonic Temple of Philadelphia, Norman Hall, rendering, FAM. 

8. Masonic Temple of Philadelphia, Norman Hall, photo, FAM. 

9. Masonic Temple of Philadelphia, Stair Hall, rendering, FAM. 

1 0. Masonic Temple of Philadelphia, Library Hall, photo, FAM. 

1 1 . Masonic Temple of Philadelphia, "For East Wall, Corinthian Hall," signed rendering, 

FAM. 

12. Masonic Temple of Philadelphia, Corinthian Hall, sketch, FAM. 

13. Masonic Temple of Philadelphia, Corinthian Hall photograph, FAM. 

14. Union League, library, signed rendering, AOP. 

15. Union League, library, photograph from Union League Club, Illustrated by Gilbert and 

Bacon, Philadelphia: 1887. 

16. Union League, "For Ceiling of Banquet Room," signed rendering, COA. 

71 



17. Union League of Philadelphia, banquet hall,photo finom Union League Club, Dlustrated 

by Gilbert and Bacon, Philadelphia: 1887. 

1 8. The Liederkranz, ballroom, rendering, AHL. 

19. The Liederkranz, ballroom, photograph from History of the Liederkranz of the City of 

New York: 1847 to 1947 and of the Arion, New York. 

20. Widener Mansion, banquet room, rendering, AHL 

2 1 . Widener Mansion, banquet hall, photograph by George Thomas, published in Divided 

Metropolis . 

22. Kemble Mansion, "For Ceiling of Rear Hall," signed rendering, AOP. 

23. Kemble Mansion, rear hall, photograph from the building files of the Philadelphia 

Historical Commission. 

24. Kemble Mansion, "For library," signed rendering, AOP. 

25. Elkins Mansion, dining room, rendering, AOP. 

26. Philadelphia City Hall, "Scheme for Court Rooms A and B, 3rd Floor," signed rendering, 

AOR 

27. Philadelphia City Hall, "For Ceiling and Wall for Law Library," signed rendering, AOP. 

28. Philadelphia City Hall, Mayor's Office, photograph from Frederick Faust, The Gty Hall 

Philadelphia, Its Architecture, Sculpture and History . 

29. Philadelphia City Hall, Supreme Court, photograph from Frederick Faust, The City Hall 

Philadelphia, Its Architecture, Sculpture and History . 

30. Philadelphia City Hall, Consultation Room,photograph from Frederick Faust, The City 
Hall Philadelphia, Its Architecture, Sculpture and History . 



72 




Figure 1. 



73 




Figure 2. 



74 




Figure 3. 



75 




Figure 4. 



76 




Figure 5. 



77 




I ^mm^k^^kjmmmHi^a- 



Figure 6. 



78 




Figure 7. 



79 




Figure 8. 



80 




Figure 9. 



81 




Figure 10. 



82 




».- \\'A-_i- . l-o 



.--Ma— .^.' 



Figure 1 1 . 



83 




Figure 12. 



84 




Figure 13. 



85 




Figure 14. 



86 




Figure 15. 



87 






1*1 i 









Figure 16. 



88 




Figure 17. 



89 




Figure 18. 



90 



i 




Figure 19. 



91 




Figure 20. 



92 




Figure 21. 



93 




Figure 22. 



94 




Figure 23. 



95 




Figure 24. 



96 




mm^^s^^m(^^(mm^ 











Figure 25. 



97 




^CHCMB rMi' Covicr R*o«'va A*uB. Bt ri.i'ciK 



Figure 26. 



98 




□on 



Tor Cxiunq m>»V^aui^ or'LAvrLiaitAiiy 



Figure 27. 



99 




Figure 28. 



100 




Figure 29. 



101 




CjU^jVLI'VIi-" Pcow 



Figure 30. 



102 



Appendix I: Chronological List of Executed Work 
and Renderings 



Centennial Exposition 1 876 
Philadelphia 



Hamilton Disston, c. 1880 (Attributed) 
1530 N. 16th Street 
John MacArthur 



Union League of Philadelphia, 1864-1864 
140 South Broad Street 
John Eraser, architect 

Restaurant, 1881-1882, AOP 

Banquet Room, 1881-1882, COA 

Ubrary. AOP 

McMicheal Room 

Stair Halls 

Parlor 

Flemish Renaissance Room, 1892 



The Liederkranz Society, 1887 

1 15 East 58th Street, between Lexington and Park Ave. 

H.J. Schwarzmann and William Kuhles 

Demolished 

Ballroom, n.d., AHL 



Masonic Temple, Philadelphia, 1868-1873 

1 Broad Street 

James Windrim, architect 

Egyptian Hall, 1888, FAM 
Ionic Hall, 1890, FAM 
Norman Hall, 1890, FAM 
Stairways and Halls 1895, FAM 
Corinthian Hall, 1903, FAM 
Ubrary, 1899, FAM 



St. James Roman Catholic Church, 1881-87 
3728 Chestnut Street at S. E. Comer 38 th Street 
Edwin F. Durang, architect. 



103 



p. A.B. Widener Residence, 1887 

1200 N. Broad Street, N. W. comer of Girard Street. 

WiUis G. Hale, architect 

Demolished 

Banquet Room, AHL 



Young Maennerchor Hall, 1 889 
6th and Vine Streets, Philadelphia 
Paul Banner, Architect 
Demolished 



Kemble House, 1890 

2201-5 Green Street, Philadelphia 

James Windrim, architect 



Rear Hall ceiling, AHL 
Library ceiling, AOP 



William L. ekins, 1890 
1218 N. Broad, Philadelphia 
William B. Powell, architect 
Demolished 

Dining Room, n.d., AOP 



Philadelphia City Hall, 1 87 1 - 1 90 1 

Center Square, Philadelphia 

John Mc Arthur Jr., Thomas U. Walter, architects 

Mayor's Offices, 1889 

Supreme Court Rooms, 1891 

Judges' Consultation Room 

Ceiling and Walls of Law Library, AOP 

Scheme for Court Room A & B, 3rd Floor, AOP 



Associate Art Workers, 1893 
1518 Chestnut St., Philadelphia 
architect unknown 



104 



Bank of North America, 1893-95 
305-07 Chestnut St., Philadelphia 
James H. and John T. Windrim, architects 
demolished 

Wall design, AOP 

Ceiling for Directors Room, AOP 



John H. Converse House, 1 895 
between Bryn Mawr and Rosemont 

Ceiling and Wall of Library, AHL 



Land Title and Trust Building 1 897-98 
100-1 18 S. Broad St., Philadelphia 
D. H, Bumham & Co. 

Color Scheme for Main Office, AOP 

Harmony Club, 1906 

4 East 60th Street between Fifth and Madison, New York City 

McKim, Mead & White, architects 

Balb-oom, AOP 



Undated Projects 

Academy of Music 
Philadelphia 



William L. Austin, Esq. 
Bryn Mawr 

Ceiling for Room B, AOP 
Music Room, AOP 
Dining Room, AOP 
Ceiling design, AHL 



Charles W. Bergner 
1516 N. 16th Street 



105 



Mr. C. L. Bemheimer 
Location unknown 

Pier mirror design, AOP 



L.W. Drexel 
Location unknown 

Ceiling of Dining Room, AHL. 

Thomas H. Dolan 

1809 Walnut Street, Philadelphia 

Third floor ceiling, back building, first room, AOP 
J. Elver son 
Location unknown 



J. Elverson, Esq. 
Location unknown 

Ceiling of Library, AHL 



Edwin H. Pi tier 

1600 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 

Hall Decoration, AOP 



Girard College 
Philadelphia 



Charles J. Harrah 
858 N. Broad Street 

J. G. Harris, Esq. 
Location unknown 

Wall and Ceiling Design, AHL 



C.J. Milne 
Location unknown 

Side Wall of Parlor, AHL 



Miss Anable's School 

Broad and Pine Streets, Philadelphia 

106 



Philadelphia Inquirer 
Market Street, Philadelphia 

First Floor Counting Room 



Chas. Pratt Residence 
Brooklyn 

St Johns Industrial School 
Eddington, PA 

Wall and Ceiling for the R. C. Chapel. 



St. Lukes P.E. Church 
Bryn Mawr 

Wall design, AOP 



St. Mary's Church 
Philadelphia 

Annunciation Painting 



Jacob H. Shiff House 
New York City 
unknown architect 

Side walls of entrance hall, AOP 



U. S. C. N. & P. O. 
Memphis, Tenn. 

Ceiling for Courtroom 



Walnut Street Presbyterian Church 
Walnut Street, West of 39th, Philadelphia 



William Gray Warden 
Location unknown 



Mrs. M. E. Whitaker 
Location unknown 

Reception Room, AOP 

107 



Edward H, Williams 101 N. 33rd Street 

1872-73 

demolished 1912 

Wall and Ceiling Design for Japanese Library, ( attributed), AOP 



A. Wood, Esq. 
Philadelphia 

Side Walls for Library 



108 



Appendix II: Philadelphia City Directory Listings 



Kaiser & Co. 

1874 K. Kaiser & Co. h. Powell 

Konstantine & Otto Kaiser & G, Herzog h. 500 Powell 

1 875 Kaiser & Herzog, h. 500 Powell 
Otto Kaiser, h. 500 Powell 

1877 Kaiser & Herzog, h. 1005 Walnut 

Otto Kaiser, h. 500 Powell 
1879 "Painters Fresco," Otto Kaiser Jr., 1005 Walnut 



George Herzog 




1880 Decorative Painter 


1334 Chestnut h. 1706 Race 


1 88 1 Decorative Painter 


1334 Chestnut h. 1706 Race 


1882 Decorative Painter 


1334 Chestnut h. 640 Lydia 


1 883 Fresco Painter 


1334 Chestnut h. 3304 Walnut 


1 884 Fresco Painter 


1334 Chestnut h. 3304 Walnut 


1886 Artist 


1334 Chestnut h. 209 N. 19th Street 


1887 Artist 


1334 Chestnut 


1889 Artist 


1334 Chestnut 


1890 Artist 


1334 Chestnut 


1892 Artist 


1334 Chestnut 


1893 Artist 


1334 Chestnut 


1894 Artist 


1 1 12 Walnut 


1896 Artist 


1518 Chestnut 


1897 Artist & Decorator 


1430 Chestnut h. 3303 Arch 


advertisement at bottom of page: "George Herzog: Ceiling and Wall Decorations' 


1900 No listing 




1901 No listing 




1902 No listing 




1903 No listing 




1904 h. 3303 Arch 





Listings found in McEkoy and Gopsills Philadelphia City Directories 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



109 



Appendix HI: New York City Directory Listings 



George Herzog 




1887-88 


Painter, 


5 East 17th 


1888-89 


Decorator 


431 Fifth Av, h. Pa. 


1889-90 


Painter 


501 Fifth Av 


1890-91 


Painter 


501 Fifth Av 


1891-92 


Art 


95 Fifth Av, h. Pa. 


1892-93 


Art 


95 Fifth Av, h. Pa. 


1893-94 


Decorator 


95 Fifth Av, h. Pa. 


1894-95 


No listing 




1895-96 


No listing 




1896-97 


Painter 


156 5th Av. 


1897-98 


Painter 


156 5th Av. 


1899-00 


Painter 


156 5th Av. 


1901-02 


No listing 




1902-03 


No listing 




1903-04 


No listing 




1904-05 


No listing 




1905-06 


No listing 




1906-07 


No listing 




1907-08 


No listing 




1908-09 


No listing 




1910-11 


Artist 


h. 463 W. End Av. 


1911-12 


Decorator 


h. 96 Riverside Dr. 


1912-13 


Decorator 4 


77 5th Av h. 96 Riverside Drive 


1913-14 


Artist 


665 5th Av R807, h. 319 W. 98th 


1915-16 


Artist 


665 5th Av R807, h. Germantown, Pa. 


1916-17 


Artist 


30 E. 57th RIO, h. Phila. Pa. 


1917-18 


Artist 


SOW. 40thR35, h. do. 



Listings found in Trow's New York City Directory 
New York Historical Society, Library 



110 




FISHER 
FINF APTS LIBRARY 



JUN 17 1993 

UNIV. OF PENNA. 



3 1198 04977 2986 




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