THE DECORATIVE WORK OF GEORGE HERZOG
Mark C. Luellen
The Graduate Program in Historic Preservation
Presented to the faculties of the University of Pennsylvania in
Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of
MASTER OF SCIENCE
Cf Ci-*-^ Ca-^AjutY
Gail Caskey Winkler, Lecturer, Historic Preservation, Advisor
Frank ^(Jater4 Professor, Historic Preservation, Reader
David G. De Long,*PrDfessor of Afchrte<*Kii;e^
Graduate Group Chairman
..KcARTS _.^j^^ 1 fflat j /.^4^
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Chapter II Biographical Background 5
Chapter III The Decorative Art of George Herzog 12
Reference Materials 13
Design and Color 15
Stencil and Materials 1 6
Design and Placement 18
Chapter IV The American Decorative Artist 21
Centennial Exposition 21
James Windrim and Masonic Temple Philadelphia 23
The Union League of Philadelphia 33
Liederkranz Ballroom 35
Widener, Kemble and Hkins Mansions 37
Young Maennerchor Hall 46
Philadelphia City HaU 47
Associated Art Workers 5 1
Chapter V Methods of Decorative Finish Conservation 53
Plaster Repair 53
Chapter VI Conclusion 62
List of Figures 71
I Chronological List of Executed Work & Renderings 103
II Philadelphia City Directory Listings 109
III New York City Directory Listings 110
I have enjoyed the assistance of numerous individuals and institutions who
generously gave their time and shared their knowledge and expertise of the subjects
touched on in my thesis. I wish to record my gratitude to the following people:
Mrs. Anne Herzog LaMotte, John H. Piatt and Milton Kenin of the Grand Lodge,
Free and Accepted Masons of Pennsylvania, Library and Museum, Roger Moss and
Bruce Laverty of The Athenaeum of Philadelphia, Buie Harwood, and Bemie
Gruenke of Conrad Schmitt Studios Inc. It is a pleasure to acknowledge the
encouragement, assistance and constructive criticism of my advisor Gail Winkler
and reader Frank Matero. To my friends and family for their continued support and
belief that this thesis would get finished.
Chapter I: Introduction
The decorative painting of George Herzog is impressive in the quality and
quantity of projects that remain intact Bom and trained in Germany as a canvas
painter, Herzog worked primarily in Philadelphia. Several remaining structures as
well as most documents that exemplify his skill are also located in Philadelphia.
Although many structures have been destroyed or altered, the Herzog interiors that
do survive contain painted decorations in good condition. These decorative
finishes, as well as surviving renderings and written descriptions serve as
documents of Herzog 's talent. Herzog 's projects included public, residential and
ecclesiastical buildings. This paper will discuss the major Herzog works that are
documented in known renderings and documents. Appendix I is a chronological
list of executed works coded to indicate the location of existing renderings. For the
most part, Herzog 's work is typical of the overall character of painted decoration in
late nineteenth-century Philadelphia, including the type of decoration used, the
general style of the decoration and its color statement
Herzog 's renderings are located in various locations. They include: The
Athenaeum of Philadelphia; The Grand Lodge, Free and Accepted Masons of
Pennsylvjmia Library and Museum, Masonic Library, Masonic Temple,
Philadelphia; and Mrs. Anne Herzog LaMotte (George Herzog 's granddaughter) of
Rocky River, Ohio.
The George Herzog Collection at The Athenaeum of Philadelphia contains
eighty-eight renderings of ceiling, wall and furniture designs as well as
manuscripts, photographs and certificates.' The manuscript collection consists of a
number of documents, diplomas, and correspondence between Herzog and
architects, such as John McArthur,Jr., and clients, such as P.A.B. Widener. The
renderings were drawn and painted on paper and illustration board and often
matted. When the design was composed of jjrimarily repeats, the renderings
' The Athenaeum of Philadelphia's collection was part of a larger collection owned by Mrs. Anne LaMotte
Herzog. She donated the collection to The Athenaeum m 1989.
illustrated a small portion of the wall or ceiling ( usually one-quarter). If the design
was more scenic or narrative, a more expansive rendering of the room was
completed. The collection is predominately comprised of renderings created for
residential projects in Philadelphia, (e.g. William Austin and William Kemble) and a
few for commercial (The Bank of North America, Philadelphia) and public
buildings ( Philadelphia City Hall and The Union League of Philadelphia).' Some
of the renderings were signed by Herzog and inscribed with the name of the client,
the project or simply the area of the building in which the painting was to be
completed. Also among The Athenaeum's collection is Herzog 's personal
scrapbook that contains newspaper clippings describing his work. The newspaper
articles were assembled according to when they were published. Most of the
articles describe in great detail along with drawings of the newly completed Herzog
interior. Of the cited articles, most were published in Philadelphia, New York City,
Masonic newspapers and American paper published in German.^ The Herzog
scrapbook proved to be a valuable resource, documenting a vast number of
Herzog 's interiors.''
The George Herzog Rendering Collection at the The Masonic Library and
Museum consist of twenty-three renderings pertaining to Herzog 's decoration of the
Temple's Halls as well as a few extraneous residential designs.' The renderings of
the Temple illustrate a more comprehensive design scheme than most of the other
rendering collections. Herzog 's perspective drawings of the individual Halls clearly
exhibit the details of the floor, walls and ceiling. The collection also contains a
source scrapbook which contains photographs of parged plaster ceilings, 18th-
century French rooms, paintings, furniture and other decorative arts mostly from
' The only known Herzog work outside of the Philadelphia and New York areas is an rendering for a court room
ceiling in Memphis, Tennessee.
' Most of the articles in the Herzog Scrapbook have no identifying date or source of publication on them.
* The collection also includes refa-ence plates that Herzog may have used as source matoial. There are 105
plates that were removed from architectural journals. TTiose journals include American Architect and News,
Architeaure and Building, The American Architect and Inland Architect and News Record These journals dated
from the early part of the twentieth century. The plates came to light late in the author's research and are believed to
have little or no bearing on Herzog 's work.
' As was The Athenaeum's Collection, the Masonic Temple's collection was part of a larger collection owned by
Mrs. Anne LaMotte Herzog. She donated the collection to the Temple in 1989.
the 17th and 18th centuries.'
The remainder of the known Herzog renderings belong to Mrs. Anne
Herzog LaMotte, granddaughter of George Herzog. Her collection of
approximately thirty renderings is similar in subject matter to that of The
Athenaeum. The LaMotte collection contains rendering of Herzog 's grand interiors,
such as the Widener and Kemble mansions in Philadelphia, as well as historic
Interior decoration in Philadelphia in the nineteenth and early twentieth
centuries generally reflected the styles typically used during the Victorian era. Late
nineteenth -century interior designs consisted of pattern on pattern with color to
provide mood and character and to embellish surfaces. Most of the decoration was
located on ceilings and walls. Sometimes the painted decoration was an integral
part of the original overall design, and sometimes it was applied many years after
the structure was built.
Various types of decorative techniques have been identified in Herzog 's
work; they include stenciling, freehand painting, in-fill painting, graining and
marbleizing. Of these types, stenciling and free-hand painting are most commonly
found in Herzog 's work. Stenciling is a technique of decoration that is
characterized by the use of mechanical pattern repeats, flat colors and minimal
shading. Free hand painting, in the form of murals, scenics and unique designs,
have been located on walls and ceiUngs in several of Herzog 's commissions.
Typical features include the absence of pattern repeats, a noticeable variety in color,
changes in scale and Herzog 's individualized design statement
At the height of his career, George Herzog, widely known with offices in
Philadelphia and New York City, stood at the head of his profession. He was by
general consent one of the foremost exfKjnents of the decorative arts in the United
States. Herzog had a national reputation, with some of the most notable buildings
and finest private residences in Philadelphia and New York City attesting to his
' The photos are S^xlO" and were loosely inserted a scrapbook. The photographs are stamped: Published by
Frank Hegger, 927 Broadway, New York.
skill. Herzog's biographical background as well as training and career are described
in chapters 2 and 3.
Whether by conscious design or accident, all interiors are the result of their
spatial configuration, surface articulation, arrangement and type of objects placed
within. These aspects of the interior are interrelated and inseparable and were often
conceived in agreement with one another. Surface finishes, plain or decorative, are
a significant component of most historical interiors yet their highly ephemeral nature
makes them difficult to study. Interior surface finishes provide protection,
decoration and articulation through color and pattern. Their choice and application
reveal not only visual meaning but can also imply social and cultural ties of the
designer or occupant.' Chapter 4 examines a few of Herzog's major projects in
Over the past several years there has been an increased awareness and
interest in decorative painting and its creators, noticeably through efforts to preserve
or restore historic structures. However, too often the interior of a restored structure
is "modernized." Consequently, the interior fabric of the space is destroyed with
little or no evidence remaining that could detail an accurate interp»retation of the
previous interior design statement. Chapter 5 examines methods of decorative
finish conservation, documentation, cleaning and consolidation. .
It was not until recent trends in cultural and architectural history and the
contributions of historical archaeology that a fuller understanding of historic
buildings and the lifestyles of those who built, occupied and altered them, has
occurred. While these approaches have yielded greater information for
interpretation, less care has gone into how this might translate into better restoration
practices. Investigation into the work of decorative painters, like George Herzog,
wUl further the consideration regarding the historical and cultural significance of
architectural decorative finishes.
' Frank Matero, "Methodologies of Establishing Appropriate Decorative Finish Treatments," in The Interiors
Handbook for Historic Buildings, ed. Charles E. Fisher III, Michael and Anne Grimmer. (Washington D. C: Historic
Preservation Education Foundation, 1988), 45.
Chapter II: Biographical Background
George Herzog was bom of German parents on October 19, 1851, in
Munich Bavaria.' (See Figure 1.) Little else is known of Herzog 's childhood years
except that he had twin brothers.'* In 1865, Herzog began studying in the studio of
Joseph Schwarzmann. Two diplomas survive from Die Handwerks Feiertags
Schule (The Handcrafts Elementary School) for the years 1864-65 and 1866-67.
In 1867, Herzog was graduated first in his class of 94 students, and was awarded a
While training in Joseph Anton Schwarzmann 's studio, Herzog received
technical and practical instruction in design and painting. He also received more
formal training in art history design and decorative painting, by attending lectures
at the Royal Academy of Arts.'" While still very young Herzog was commissioned
to prepare designs for proposed decorations of several important buildings in
Munich and later supervised the execution of the worL"
While Herzog was at Schwarzmann 's studio, Schwarzmann supervised the
designs and decorations of the palaces and public edifices of Ludwig I.
Schwarzmann (1806-1890) who had come to Munich from a Tyrolean Village in
1820 at the age of fourteen, was the busiest decorative painter in Munich. He had
learned the art of fresco painting in Munich, Vienna and Italy. The foremost
architects of the time relied upon Schwarzmann to execute large projects from
artists' rough sketches. In Munich, he ornamented the St. Ludwig Church, The
State Library, the Old and New Pinakothek and other public buildings. He also
worked on the Cathedral of Speyer and on the Royal Palace in Athens, Greece,
° It is possible that Herzog was named after his uncle Johann George Herzog of Schmolz, Bavaria (1822-1909)
and later dropped Johann from his name. The name Joh. George Herzog appears on his 1 865/66 diploma from Die
Haruiwerks Feiertags Schule and simply appears as George Herzog on his 1867/68 diploma from the same school.
Johann George Herzog was an organ composer, he studied at the seminary in AJtdorf, Bavaria and was professor at
Erlangen University in Munich. As illustrated in The Etude Historical Musical Portrait Series, The Etude , (June
' Anne Herzog LaMotte, George Herzog, (unpublished biography), 1 .
'° National Cyclopedia of American Biography, Vol. 8, 496.
" General Lodge Membership Book #4-1, (Philadelphia), 45.
where Ludwig's son, Otto, was living. He declined an offer to decorate the Czar's
Winter Palace in St. Petersburg because he was too busy at home. Schwarzmann
taught many apprentices and he was credited with reviving the art of decorative
painting after a period of decline. In 1 868, his son, Hermann J. Schwarzmann,
emigrated to Philadelphia where, in 1 869 he was appointed assistant engineer of the
Fairmont Park Commission and later became Architect in Chief of the 1876
Centennial Exposition.'- In later years, H. J. Schwarzmann and William Kuhles
designed The Liederkranz Society ( 1 887) a portion of which was decorated by
During George Herzog 's formative years in Germany, Bavaria's rulers
encouraged the arts. Ludwig I (1825-1848), had been an enthusiastic poet and
collector, as well as a traveler and international philanderer. He is best remembered
as a great patron who brought architects, sculptors and painters to Munich and gave
them ample commissions." He began as a liberal sovereign who grew steadily
more reactionary until even his docile Bavarian subjects rebelled and forced him to
abdicate. His son, Maximilian II (1848-1864), attracted authors and scholars to
the Bavarian capital and continued an ambitious building program. Maximilian II's
son, Ludwig 11 (1864-1886), also extended royal patronage to music and drama,
and even carried his grandfather's passion for architecture to the extreme of building
spectacular dream castles for his exclusive use. During these three reigns, Munich,
the capital of a minor kingdom best known for its excellent beer, was transformed
into the second city of Germany— the "Florence on the Isar''~a world famous
cultural center. '"
The only known work from Herzog 's years in Munich is a design for a
portion of a church interior. '* (See Figure 2.) It is inscribed both in English and
German "sketched and painted by George Herzog painter of decorations, Munich,
'^ John Maass, TJie Glorious Enterprise: The Centennial Exhibition of 1876 and H. J. Schwarzmann,
Architect in Chief, (New York: American Life Foundation, 1973), 16.
'^ Maass, 12.
" Ibid, 12.
'^ Herzog Collection, The Athenaeum of Philadelphia.
May 1871." It is possible that this sketch was completed when Herzog was
working on his own and preparing to emigrate to the United States. The sketch is
a perspective view of either an apse and nave or simply a chapel within the church.
The tightly rendered design includes a gold leafed crest motif with a deep blue back
ground and gold stars to give a heavenly appearance to the dome. Behind the alter is
a sketchily painted image of Christ with worshipers below. The elaborate plaster
reliefs of the columns, the pendentives and the arches are richly decorated with a
scroll and leaf-like design. The predominate color scheme of the pendentives and
interior panels of the dome is blue, starting with pale blue in the drum, and
culminating with deep blue at the top of the dome. The columns and other
structural elements are painted neutral gray and white.
Herzog also possessed renderings by other decorative artists that he may
have acquired before emigrating to the United States.'* This collection of
renderings illustrates classically inspired putti frolicking and playing musical
instruments among flowers and urns. These sketches, may represent an exchange
of images among artists as well as the prevalence of classical imagery in decorative
painting in 19th-century.
Herzog was among a number of German craftsmen who came to the United
States in the second half of the 19th century. Approximately 130,000 German
immigrants arrived annually in the United States between the years 1866 and 1873.
The possibility of securing economic advantage in an expanding economy most
likely acted as Herzog 's stimulus to emigrate. The social and economic
consequences of three wars waged in less than a decade could also have added his
motivations for leaving the homeland.'^ The majority of German immigrants were
skilled laborers who had worked in a trade or industry. By the mid- 19th century,
artisans were under the pressure of both "overcrowding" in their trades and
competition from factories at home and abroad, fell on increasingly hard times and
"These rendering can be found in Herzog Collection, The Athenaeum of Philadelphia.
" Robert Henry Billigmeier, Americans from Germany: A Study in Cultural Diversity, (Belmont: Wadsworth
Pubhshmg Co. 1974), 91.
sought their salvation across the Atlantic.'* Apprenticeship training which
craftsmen endured in order to learn their trade in Germany, still had, even in the
19th century, the archaic atmosphere and rigor of the medieval guild system.
Because of their training, German painters along with carpenters, masons, cabinet
makers, shoemakers and printers enjoyed a reputation in America for the quality of
their work." Herzog may have profited from the esteem in which German
craftsmen were held by Americans. Prospective emigrants were often warned that
if they were not prepared to work hard and well they should stay at home because
the success of the immigrant community depended upon the individual craftsman.
When someone did something to impair that reputation, other craftsmen in the
community were likely to suffer. ^
German craftsmen were characteristically perceived as slower but more
thorough than native Amencan craftsmen. The European-trained artisan's
insistence on quality work often placed him at a disadvantage in comp>etition with
American labor when price rather than quality was the consumer's principle
concern.-' But when high quality decorative work was required for large scale
residential and public buildings, German-trained craftsmen such as Herzog were in
While some historical sources place Herzog in the United States as early as
1871, he first appeared in the Philadelphia city directory in 1874, under the
company listing of K. Kaiser &. Co. at 500 Powell Street.- The Philadelphia city
directory of 1 874 also listed the individual members of the company as:
" Walter D. Kamphoefner, Wolfgang Helbich, and Ulrike Sommer, eds.. News from the Land of Freedom,
(Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991), 289.
'• Ibid., 97.
'' Billigmeier, 98.
" An outline of Herzog 's professional bfe was provided by two sources: Philadelphia and Popular
Philadelphians, (Philadelphia: North America, 1 89 1 ), 228., and Illustrated Philadelphia: Its Wealth and
/n</jM;nev,(Philadelphia: Righter & Gibson.l 889), 1 19. These entries established Herzog after the death of his
partner Konstantine Kaiser, in the popular mind as a one of America's foremost decorative painters of his time.
With a national reputation, many notable buildings and fine private residences throughout the country attested to his
skill. Refer to Appendix I.
"Konstantine & Otto Kaiser & G. Herzog."^' Presumably, Herzog came from
Germany directly to Philadelphia. According to immigration records, George
Herzog renounced his German citizenship on December 27, 1875, in Philadelphia
and became a United States citizen on November 14, 1882.=' Soon after his arrival
in Philadelphia he formed a partnership with the prominent Philadelphia decorator
Konstantine Kaiser. Very little is known of Kaiser's work prior to Herzog 's arrival
in the Unites States.^ Kaiser, like Herzog, most likely emigrated to the United
States from Germany and over approximately 25 years had established a
prosperous decorative painting business. Kaiser first appeared in the city directory
in 1853,when he was listed as a painter at 897 N. 8th Street. Not long after the
formation of the partnership, Kaiser died in 1 879, leaving Herzog at age 28 to carry
on the business. The business, operated by Herzog and Konstantine's brother
Otto, was moved to 1334 Chestnut Street in 1880. The years following the
Centennial Exposition of 1876, where Herzog had received prizes and critical praise
for his art, were a period of rapid expansion. His fame for both his technique and
his taste in decoration soon led to commissions for public and private buildings in
Philadelphia and elsewhere.^
In the years following Kaiser's death in 1880, George Herzog 's name
appeared in the Philadelphia city directories individually with various names for his
profession, including: decorative painter; fresco painter, artist; and artists &
decorator. From the years 1880-1893 his studio was at 1334 Chestnut Street, with
various addresses in Philadelphia until 1897. Herzog 's name also appears
concurrently in the New York City directory under various titles: painter,
decorator, artist. He occupied an office at various addresses on Fifth Ave. for the
" Otto Kaiser was Konstantine's brother, he first appeared in the city directory in 1872 under Konstantine &
Co.; and later under Kaiser & Herzog in 1875-1877 and individually in 1879. For the years 1880 to 1884, Otto
appears with Herzog 's.
" Collection of Mrs. Anne Herzog LaMotte.
" Kaiser is credited by J. Thomas Scharf and Thomas Westcott, History of Philadelphia, 1609-1884. Volume 2,
(Philadelphia: 1 884), 1086., with the design and fresco work on the ceiling of Philadelphia's Academy of Music. It
is not certain whether the ceiling was completed prior to Herzog 's arrival to the United States or after Kaiser's death
while Herzog continued the business under the name Kaiser & Herzog.
'° Philadelphia and Popular Philadelphians , (Philadelphia: North Amenca, 1 891 ), 228.
following years: 1887-94, 1896-1900, 1910-1918." During the years from 1910
to 1914, Herzog maintained a residence in New York City.^'
In 1887, Herzog 's occupied "commodious quarters" at 1334 Chestnut
Street in Philadelphia, with a "finely appointed suite of offices ." Herzog's studio
consisted of three rooms on the third floor. The studio had an "efficient stafP of
twenty-five painters, all of them skilled workmen, and most of them Americans.
His clients were described as being of "highly flattering character" and by 1 887, at
age 36, Herzog had an ever increasing cUent base with commissions aU over the
county.-' Many of his clients were prominent Philadelphia industriaUsts who held
memberships with the same associations as Herzog.* With an outstanding
business reputation, Herzog was described as willing to undertake any job
regardless of the scale or of the technique required. His work was described as
fresco, ceiling and wall decorations, as well as high-class interior decorative
painting of every description." He gained his reputation based on large scale
projects such as churches, public buildings, theaters and fine dwellings. According
to a contemporary source, Herzog "guarantees satisfaction over all work
George Herzog married Harriet R. Herzog (date and place of wedding as
well as Harriet's maiden name are unknown) and divorced her in Philadelphia on
June 6, 1 892." It is believed that they had one child. '^ At age 45, he married
^' Refer to appendix II.
'' Refer to appaidix IE.
" Illustrated Philadelplua, Its Wealth aiul Industries, (Philadelphia: Righter & Gibson, 1 889), 1 19. Secondary
sources commonly state that Herzog received conmussions from all over the country, but existing renderings and
letters allude to work primarily in the Philadelphia and New York City environs. The most remote location known
is Memphis Tennessee, based on a rendermg of a courtroom. Herzog Collection, The Athenaeum of Philadelphia.
^° Herzog was a Freemason, member of the German Society, Union League, Art Club of Philadelphia, Fairmont
Park Association. National Cyclopedia of American Biography, Vol. 8, p. 496.
'' The term fresco was used to describe the technique of decorative painting on a dry plaster surface. This technic
is has traditionally been called fresco secco and should not be confused with true fresco, the technique of painting on
moist plaster with pigments ground in water so that the paint is absorbed by the plaster and becomes a part of the
" Illustrated Philadelphia, Its Wealth and Industries, (Philadelphia: Righter & Gibson, 1 889), 1 19.
'^ Original Divorce Certificate, Collection of Mrs. Anne Herzog LaMotte.
" Anne Herzog LaMotte, George Herzog, (unpublished biography), 1.
twenty year old Dorette M. Schmidt (1871-1946) on January 22, 1896, at St.
Paul's Independent Lutheran Church in Philadelphia'' Dorette was the daughter of
Henry Schmidt (Joachim Henry Diedrich Schmidt), who was a successful woolen
importer in Philadelphia.'" This marriage produced five children; Alma Marie, aka
Mimi, (1896 - 1984)" , Henry George (N. D.^ , George (Carl) Richard (1900 -
1977)'' , Herbert H.(N. D.)* , and Anne Dorothy (N. D.).^' According to his
obituary, he died September 16, 1920, at his New York City residence, 45
Westview Ave., after a lengthy illness. The funeral services were conducted the
following day at the Oliver H. Blair Chapel at 1 8th and Chestnut Streets in
Philadelphia"' He is buried with his wife, Dorette, in the Schmidt family plot in
West Laurel Hill Cemetery in Philadelphia.
'' Original Marriage License issued in Philadelphia, Collection of Mrs. Anne Herzog LaMotte.
'* Anne Herzog LaMotte, George Herzog, (unpublished biography), 1.
^^ Alma Marie married J. Chandl^ Barnard, (date unknown).
'° George possessed the drawing skills of his father. His illustrations appear in two yearbooks, 77ie Dutchman,
1913 of the Collegiate School in New York City and The Caerulean, 1915 of Chestnut Hill Academy in
Philadelphia from which that year he graduated. It is believed that he died in his twenties.
'° George Richard Herzog married Imo Oakes Herzog, they had one child; Anne Herzog LaMotte.George drew
illustrations for The Clivden pubhcation of Germantown High School between 1916 and 1918. George graduated
from the University of Pennsylvania in 1922 and later became a trustee of the University. He pursued a career as a
banker and financial consultant in Cleveland, Ohio, where he later died.
*° Herbert married Ruth (last name unknown) and had three children, George, Barbara, Herbert He was a banker
" Full name at death: Anne Dorothy Herzog Hope DeBaldo.
" George Herzog Obihiary, The Public Ledger, 17 September 1920.
Chapter III: The Decorative Art of George Herzog
The decorative painting of George Herzog is elaborate, colorful, intricate
and personalized. In all structures that retain his work, at least half the surface area
is covered with decoration, generally applied on a flat plaster surface. It is usually
located on ceiUngs and walls. The form of decoration is usually an organization of
geometric patterns in combination with floral and Classically-inspired scenes.
Central medallions, borders and repetitive motifs are typical. Personalized designs
incorporating free-hand painting technique and varying in size and character are
fairly evident in almost every space that has a decorative treatment
In historical buildings it is often difficult to determine who decorated the
interiors. The possibilities include decorators, furniture makers, furniture sellers,
antique importers, architects, or artisan studios and workshops. Since furniture
makers and decorators were required to file for any professional licenses or
permits, there are few records of accurate dates for work, and itemized costs of
craftsmen's labor, materials and colors.
It is known that George Herzog did the decorative painting himself, as well
as employing a staff of painters.** The work was most likely paformed from a
scaffold for long periods of time. It is possible that he mixed his own paints, but
these items were available to him based on the presence of advertisements for a
variety of paints and painting materials. Most of Herzog 's decorative painting has
retained its color brilliance despite the natural aging of the paints. In most surviving
Herzog works there is not an extensive amount of "crakeling" usually caused
through the depolymerization of oil, evident on the existing surfaces.""
" Illustrated Philadelphia, Its Wealth and Industries, (Philadelphia: Righter & Gibson, 1 889), 1 19.
" F. B. Gardiner, How to Paint Your Mctorian House. (New YorkiSamuel R. Wells, 1872) reprinted by the
American Life Foundation, 1978.
A number of publications were available to decorative painters during the
late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Typically the books took the form and
title of instructional guides treatises and practical manuals with information
describing design colors and technical processes. For the most part, illustrative
material in the form of drawings, photographs, and/or colored plates accompanied
the written text. The books ranged in price from $2.00 to around $5.00 each."
Most likely the best references for Herzog were tiiose that concentrated on colored
plates and provided individual sheets with patterns that could be copied or used for
design inspiration. These publications included large format plates approximately
11" by 14", containing high quality, printed images with rich colors in a myriad of
tones and patterns. Resources of note that may have been available to Herzog
include the following: Owen Jones, Grammar of Omament , New York (1851);
Christopher Dresser, Principles of Decorative Design, London (1876 ); Charles L
Condit, Painting and Palmer's Materials; London (1883); George A. Audsley,
The Practical Decorator and Omamemalist, Glasgow, ( 1 892); Fred Miller,
Interior Decoration: A Practical Treatise on Surface Decoration With Notes on
Colour, Stenciling and Paneling, London, ( 1 885). This impressive number and
quality of reference material was supplemented with trade journals, periodicals,
technical brochures and trade catalogues. The journals, and other periodicals were
usually published monthly. Just like the books available at the time, subjects and
articles in these publications focused on artistic concerns, but provided more current
Herzog was probably most familiar with The Deutsches Maler Journal
(German Painter's Journal) published in Germany from the 1850s to 1890s. The
publication provided a large selection of full scale geometric and naturalistic
designs printed in black ink on thin sheets of manilla paper that were approximately
** Buie Harwood, "Stenciling: Interior Architectural Ornamentation A Look at 1 870-1930 with examples from
Texas", Journal of Interior Design Education and Research (Spring 1986): 32.
24" by 22" in size. Most of the sheets contained three patterns per page, with
individual code numbers for identification.^ Also contained within the journal
were richly printed color plates of ceiling designs with elaborate classical borders.
Subscription to the journal over a period of a few years would have easily equipped
Herzog with an abundant supply of materials from which to extrapolate ideas. The
content of this journal was typical of decorative pattern material available at the
A substantial number of trade magazines were also published in the United
States beginning in the 1870's, adding to the previous mentioned items. These
resources included: The Painter's Magazine (and Coach Painter), (New York, 1886-
1905), The Western Painter (Chicago, IS92), Painting and Decorating
(Philadelphia, \SS1-\S94) Decorator and Furnisher (New York, 1882-98), House
Decorator (London, 1880), and House Painting and Decorating (Philadelphia,
1 885- 1 890) . ■* These pubUcations contained articles on some aspect of design and
painting, advertisements for books and paint materials, news notes and selected
witticisms and cartoons. Most of them were published on the East coast (many in
Philadelphia) or in the Midwest, but they were circulated all over the country.
Technical leaflets and brochures were advertised through the magazines at an
average cost of about fifty cents each. Usually the focus of the flyer was limited to
one technical topic explained in three or four pages.**
Trade catalogues were another valuable resource during this time of great
interest in stenciling. The catalogues typically varied in size and cost, but covered
areas of importance to the decorative painter, such as paint, paint materials, paint
techniques and application, and stenciling. Stencils were in vast supply and could
be obtained from catalogues such as Stencil Treasury (1895) and Suggestions in
*' I examined editions of Deittsches Maler Journal contained in the collection of the decorative paintCTs L. W. &
William Beck at The Athenaeum of Philadelphia. A grid had been drawn over the pattern sheets and pin holes were
punched into the design. This suggested that these patterns had been placed on the wall and the design duplicated
with a pKjunce.
" Harwood, 32.
"John Volz " Paint Bibliography." Association for Preservation Technology, Newsletter Supplement, Vol. IV
" Harwood, 34.
Decorative Design ( 1 894).* Paint companies also provided information to the
consumer. Selected pages of information in catalogue form could also be obtained
ftxjm paint companies such as Sherwin Williams Ojmjjany of Qeveland, The
Alabastine Company in Grand Rapids and Sears, Roebuck and Company in
Design and Color
Herzog probably used many resources in developing his designs. As
exhibited in his scale renderings, the typical organization of a ceiling design
included a repetitive border motif (usually a geometric pattern) and a central
medallion formed through the interlocking arrangement of squares and circles. This
revival of Roman design organization had been used in the 18th century by the
English decorative painter Robert Adam. During the last half of the 19th century, it
became the convention to think of walls as being made up of three basic elements:
floor to dado or chair rail level; dado to picture rail or architrave level; and architrave
to ceiling level including the cornice. Wall designs varied a little, and this
characteristic organization of space was composed in tripartite color schemes.
Motifs also varied, but typically the overall design was changed through scale, the
combination of some basic motifs and the variety in color selection. Because of
these several features, Herzog 's work can easily be identified without written
signature. In the examples of his work that remain, common motifs aside from the
obvious German Renaissance themes, are styUzed anthemion, vines, fans, fruit,
flowers, garlands, classically-inspired scenes of mother and chUd, cherubs and
animals including birds and swans.
Written descriptions and surviving renderings suggest that Herzog
provided an individualized color palette for each room in a house by using a few
colors that were prominentiy accented, giving an overall color statement to the
" Ibid, 34.
space. All values of a color were apparent, with strong contrast appearing in
striped bands and gradations of color featured near the striped area. Some colored
areas were represented in a flat, abstract design, usually visible when a stencil
pattern was incorporated in the design, and others were characterized by a more
three dimensional, realistic and contoured portrayal of the subject matter. Herzog
preferred tints and shades to pure chroma. His range of colors was expansive with
a concentration on the following hues that were typical of the period: salmon/pink,
rustA)urgundy, beige/creme, blue, forest green, gray, brown, yellow and gold.
Stenciling and Materials
Most of Herzog's designs relied heavily on st«iciling. This mechanical,
decorative process allowed Herzog and his employees to execute a ceiling or wall
decoration quickly. Stenciling is characterized by repetitive patterns conveyed in a
flat, unshaded manner, with each pattern being a different cut and color. The block
or solid stencil and the outline stencil (also known as infill painting or pounce) were
the two types of stenciling that were commonly used to define pattern during the
Stencils were made of leather (utilized most frequently before the mid- 19th
century) or oil cloth, heavy oiled manilla paper (made durable by numerous
applications of shellac) and metals including brass, zinc or lead. Paper stencils,
were the most common and easiest to use. The stencil plates were usually
rectangular in shape. The size of the stencU was dictated by its use; the stencil was
held against the surface either by hand or with push pins, the former method was
Herzog may have created his own stencils or ordered pre-designed ones that
were available from numerous trade catalogues and he probably utilized a
combination of purchased stencil patterns and original designs. By the time Herzog
had a sizable studio, he hired people to cut his stencil designs which required
considerable skill and practice. The necessary cutting tool was a sharp knife known
as a "clickers knife," similar to that used by shoemakers. Most cutting was
performed on the top of a sheet of glass, which allowed for a cleaner cut along the
Brushes used in the painting process varied in size, use, material and price.
The brushes with a rounded body, called "fitches" were used; these 1/4" wide
brushes made lines or stripes and others up to approximately 3" in diameter, were
used for covering large open stencil patterns. The recommended size for most
stenciling brushes was about 1 1/2" in diameter, with short bristles in a tapered or
flat end. It was essential to have a wide variety in size, and an appropriate quantity
of the most frequently used brushes, including one brush for each particular stencil
pattern or color required on a given job. Brush prices ranged from about 50 cents
each to around $1.50 each, the expense varying with size and quality."
During Herzog's painting career, most stenciling was performed in one of
two media: a water based paint, known as distemper, or an oil based medium. It
was standard practice to use only one kind of paint on a job because the prof>erties
of the two did not react well when used together. An improper combination of
paints would create an "alligator effect," where the top layer of paint contracted and
appeared to separate from the bottom layer, causing distinct ridges in the paint and
an uneven surface*^ . The consistency of the paint was critical to the success of the
stenciled product The paint was placed in a shallow vessel so that the brush was
not dipped too deeply and only lifted a small quantity of the medium. If the paint
was too thin, it would run under the stencil plate, thus creating a blurry design.
Sharp, clean edges and even spread of color were necessary to the appearance of
the artistic creation.
" Harwood, 36.
" Information provided via telephone conversation with decorative painter Bonie Gnienke of Conrad Schmitt
Studios Inc. New Berlin, Wisconsin. December 1991.
The overall composition was directly affected by the choice of paint and the
surface to be decorated, be it wood, plaster, canvas or paper. " Ultimately, the
success of any stencil project depended on the planning of the composition and the
selection of the designs made by the artist Several design rules were common
during Herzog's time. For example borders should correspond in size to the
proportion of the room. A pattern should conform to the character of the room and
contribute to the simple or elaborate quahty of the room. Patterns should be used
only when there are large expanses of surface to be decorated, free from window
and door interruptions. The stronger colors are best used for smaller borders, and
colors which harmonize with the wall area are better for large borders. The balance
of the entire composition is important to a good layout. The straight lines should be
accurately positioned and measured.**
The majority of Herzog's stencil decoration was applied to the walls and
ceilings, with friezes and ceiling borders frequently the most ornamented areas.
Specific suggestions were made in various pubUcations concerning the placement of
stencils in there areas; for example, "a stencil on the top of a lofty room must be
kept much more open, and the several parts of the design must be bolder than if it
were to be used in a dado."" "In the decoration of large halls, churches and
theaters, it is important to keep the pattern bold and simple in construction."*
Decorated ceilings had been used with growing popularity in American
houses since the 1 840's. By the last quarter of the 19th century, taste makers
decreed that even the simplest rooms should have some form of decoration, if only
a crown molded cornice. Some critics advocated colored or patterned ceilings. The
post-Civil War period brought rich arrays of painted ceiling decorations, ranging
" Fred Miller, Interior Decorcaion: A Practical Treatise On Surface Decoration Wth Notes on Colour,
Stenciling, and Panel Painting. (London: 1885), 42.
from cloud-borne cherubs to elaborate, interlocking geometric patterns and
naturalistic borders. The stencil decoration apphed to the wall coordinated with that
used on the ceiling. The placement of patterns on the wall frequently included a
frieze, a chair rail, and a dado. Small patterns were used on the lower wall and
larger patterns on the upper wall. The dado was frequently divided into painted
panels, framed with stencils along the perimeter, encompassing a plain field. The
upper wall area would have a matching design, with detached stencils used at panel
comers, along the perimeter panel edge, in the background and a band and divider
stencils used in the panel field, or the entire upper wall area could be painted in an
all-over stencil pattern to imitate wallpaper. The last decade of the century favored
plainer wall areas with decorative fiieze borders.
Herzog's placement of patterns on the ceiling area usually related to the
concepts of style prescribed for wall decoration. A flat ceiling typically had a
perimeter border with or without a center medallion, frequentiy organized around a
geometric layout of motifs. Another variation Herzog used was an overall stencil
pattern framed by an ornamental border. A beamed ceiling could have decoration
between the beams or on the beams, depending on what was appropriate to the
design statement. The main emphasis for the placement of motifs on the ceiling and
the wall surfaces was dictated by what was accepted, what was appropriate, and
what was good design. One of the most important aspects of the stencil design was
the positioning of the "ties" that were used to hold the pattern together. It was
essential that the tie "should form an intrinsic part of the pattern" and be unobtrusive
and disguised, as this delineated the mark of a skilled designer.'' The ties varied in
width from about 1/8" to 1/4", but the space could be larger if the pattern were
larger. Usually this area was blank and not filled in with extra paint, hence a
noticeable separation of space between motifs. Intersecting lines were frequently
incorporated into the pattern and used to position the ties, with the ties formed
naturally by the point of intersection.
" A. S. Jennings, 77i^ Modem Painter and Decorator, A Practical Work on House Painting and Decorating, vol
II. (London: The Caxton Publishing Co., Ltd. n.d.), 107.
Herzog's designs for stencils were largely dictated by convention based on
established rules. A few late 19th-century and early 20th-century publications
suggested some of the appropriate choices available to the artist at the time.
Patterns of roses and flowers were considered suitable for bedrooms and sun
parlors. Leaf and flower designs were pleasing for dining rooms. Gothic motifs
were the favorite for church decoration; Moorish patterns were suitable for dens
and smoking rooms; and Classic designs with formal character were appropriate for
living rooms, reception rooms, and public buildings.*" Frequently the size of the
space and the constraints of the architecture would dictate the character of the motifs
Use of various stencil plates on any one job allowed for great flexibility in
compositional arrangement. It was appropriate to either mix different plates or to
use any one type individually on a job, depending on the space and area to be
decorated. Also several plates could be used to form one design, requiring the artist
to register each plate perfectly to insure a perfect joining of the colors. Usually
stencil plates were used more than once, an acceptable practice as long as the end
product was recognizably distinct in appearance. Pattern effects could be altered
simply by changing placement, arrangement, color, and applied hand work Two
useful variations of this hand work include the blending of colors by gradation, and
the highlighting of colors by the application of subtle white marks.*'
'" Harwood, 39.
•' Harwood, 40.
Chapter IV: The American Decorative Artist
In 1876, the United States International Exposition was held in
Philadelphia. The exposition displayed the achievements of the industrial era at a
time when Philadelphia was the country's leading industrial city. It was the biggest
exposition that had ever been held anywhere in the world, more costiy that the
Crystal Palace in London in 185 1, bigger than the Paris Exposition of 1867 and
Vienna Exhibition of 1 874. It was a tribute, according to those who planned it, to
"the unparalleled advancement in science and art, and all the various appliances of
human ingenuity for the refinement and comfort of man" in the century since the
United States were bom." On 236 acres of landscaped grounds, seven enormous
buildings, together with many smaller annexes and exhibition halls erected by the
States of the Union and by foreign governments, looked down on the Schuylkill
River." The repercussions of the Centennial on American taste were tremendous.
When the original building designs proved too costly, Hermann J.
Schwarzmann (the son of Joseph Anton Schwarzmann), an engineer with
Fairmont Park who had never designed a building, was sent to Viama to study the
1873 Exhibition. On his return, he designed five of the exposition's buildings.*^
Americans were greatly influenced by what was exhibited and the effects lasted for
at least a quarter of a century. "
The result was a wave of tastefulness. There never was a time," wrote
Clarence Cook in The House Beautiful , published in 1876, "when so many books
written for the purpose of bringing the subject of architecture— its history, its
theory, its practice, down to the level of popular understanding, were produced as
" John Maass, The Glorious Enterprise: The Centennial Exposition oflH76 and H. J. Schwarzmann,
Architect in Chief, (New York: American Life Foundation, 1973), 13
" Maass, 16.
" Ibid, 16.
'^ Russell Lynes, The Tastemakers, The Shaping of American Popular Taste, (New York: Dover Publications,
in this time of ours. And from the house itself, we are now set to thinking and
theorizing about dress and decoration of our rooms: how best to make them
comfortable and handsome; and books are written, magazine and newspaper
articles, to the end that a matter which concerns everybody, everybody may know
what is the latest.""
The Centennial Exposition provided George Herzog with a great deal of
public exposure. He won two medals, one from the category of furniture,
upholstery, wooden-weave baskets and one from the category of plastic and graphic
arts. These metals brought Herzog a fair amount of fame and critical acclaim. All
that is known of Herzog 's entries are the brief descriptions in the judges' reports:
Group 7, Furniture, upholstery, wooden- weave baskets
Kaiser & Herzog, parlor da:oration,
Commended for original design, perfection in style and correction of
execution and detail.'^
Group 27, Plastic and graphic art
Kaiser & Herzog, decoration by fresco
Judges report: commended for judicious assemblage of colors, delicacy of
design, excellent taste in execution. Completed works, as well as designs
One judge's comments on the decorative artists' work in group 27 went as follows:
"I note also a medal to Messrs. Kaiser & Herzog of Philadelphia, for their happy
exhibit of actual wall decoration and designs for the same."*'
"' Francis A. Walker, Ed., United States International Exhibition 1876, Vol FV, Reports & Ayvards, Groups 3
to 7. (Washington D. C: Government Printing Office, 1880), 38.
°° Francis A. Walker, Ed., United States International Exhibition 1876, Vol. VII, Reports & Awards, Groups
21 to 27. (Washington D. C: Government Pnntmg Office, 1880), 58.
" Ibid, 58.
James Windrim and the Masonic Temple. Philadelphia
George Herzog's first major commission in Philadelphia was the Masonic
Temple designed by James Windrim (1840-1919) in 1868. It was the beginning of
a collaboration between one of Philadelphia's most successful architects and its
finest decorator. James Windrim was a Philadelphia native who had been a member
of the first graduating class of Girard College in 1856. He then worked with the
Scottish-bom architect, John Notman. In 1867 he opened an architectural office at
129 South 7th Street, entered and won the Masonic Temple competition, so that at
age 27 his prosperous career had begun. In 1871 he was appointed by the Board of
City Trusts to be architect for the Girard Estate. Following the appointment, he
designed a number of buildings for Girard College as well as various office
buildings in Philadelphia. He was a membCT of the Masonic Temple as well as the
Art Association when Herzog began receiving commissions to decorate the interior.
In 1889 Windrim was made Supervising Architect of the U.S. Treasury, a position
he held until 1 891 , when he returned to Philadelphia as Director of Public Works
for the City. He remained in that position until 1 895, he resumed private practice.""
Surviving correspondence proved that Herzog's relationship with James
Windrim served him well in getting other work. Over the years, Windrim
continued to correspond with Herzog, alerting him to commission opportunities as
well as advising him on securing work. For example, in a letter from Washington
D. C. dated October 29, 1890, James Windrim strongly urged Herzog to quickly
complete quickly the designs for the Gothic Hall in the Masonic Temples."'
Windrim 's letter stressed that the pressure from other decorators was great and they
know that the Temple's Art Committee had not approved a design for the Gothic
HaU. This letter was written soon after Herzog's design for the Norman Hall had
been approved by the Board of Directors.
Freemasonry had prospered in Philadelphia fi-om colonial times, despite the
'» Sandra L. Tatman and Roger W. Moss, Biographical Dictionary of Philadelphia Architeas, 1 700-1930.
(Boston: G. K. Hall & Co., 1985), 871.
" Collection of Mrs. Anne Herzog LaMotte.
rise of anti-masonic attitudes during the early 19th century. Philadelphia's "Free
and Accepted Masons" had become so successful by the nineteenth century that
their Temples, designed by some of Philadelphia's most prominent architects, were
considered the city's major landmarks. By 1867 the second Chestnut Street Temple
designed by Samuel Sloan and John Stewart and constructed between the years
1853 and 1855 to replace the Strickland designed Temple on the same site, was no
longer large enough to house the many lodges that met there.^ A decision was
made to build another Temple, culminating in Windrim's design at One Broad
Street, one of the world's greatest Masonic Temples.
The Masons held a competition in 1 867 and selected Brother James
Windrim, a 27 year old Freemason, as the winner. James Windrim's design was
modeled on a medieval style known as Norman. This is reflected in the massive
carved doorway that projects from the wall, the ashlar stone work, the fortress-like
towers and the corbel tables and the round-arch decorated cornice under the
roofline. It was the intention of the Masons to have the most substantial and
complete Masonic Temple in the world and over time the large building proved to
be the quite accommodating for the Masons' growing membership."
Early in 1868, Windrim and the Masons signed a contract for the design
and construction of the Temple.^'' The cornerstone was laid on June 24, 1868, and
the dedication ceremonies were held in September, 1873. The cost of the building
was over one million dollars. The decoration and finishing of the interior began
fourteen years later and continued well into the 1890's. Windrim, as Chairman of
the Art Association, continued to exert control over the complete design of the
structure. The decorations were done under the auspices of the Art Association of
the Masonic Temple. Pursuing the plans of the architect to their realization, it was
"John PoppelJer. "The 1867 Philadelphia Masoiuc Temple Competition'", Journal of The Society of
Architectural Historians, (December 1967): 279.
" Uncited newspaper article in Scrapbook, page 19, George Herzog Collection, The Athenaeum of Philadelphia.
The scrapbook was compiled by Herzog himself (date unknown, most likely over many years) and contains a
collection of newspaper clipping pertaining to Herzog 's interiors. For the most part they are arranged in the order of
publication, some articles contain citations most do not. The newspaper articles are from a various Philadelphia and
New York City papers as well American papers published in German.
" Poppelier, 284.
the Association's desire to illustrate in a most elaborate manner the various orders
of architecture in the different halls. The Masons considered the Philadelphia
Temple to be unique and a brilliant record of Philadelphia as the "seat of Masonic
Light" out shining all the Masonic Temple's of Europe."
Herzog, like Windrim, was a Freemason.'^ This fact along with Herzog's
demonstrated skills were strong factors in his securing work at the Temple.
However the exact details of how Herzog obtained the work are unknown, because
no Masonic records concerned with particulars on how Herzog was commissioned
to decorate the Temple rooms have come to light.
By 1 899 Freemason Herzog had completed the decorations of Egyptian
Hall, Ionic Hall, Corinthian Hall, Norman Hall, the Library and various hallways.
In addition, he decorated the vestibules to the major halls without payment as his
contribution to the work of the Art Association and the Temple.^ The elaborate and
comprehensive scheme for the interior decoration was originally arranged by the Art
Association of the Temple, which was organized on October 22, 1887, " with the
object of decorating and embellishing the various halls of the Temple, of giving
them artistic, historic and Masonic beauty. "
The first room to be decorated was Egyptian Hall. (See figure 3.)
Completed in 1888, the decorations for Egyptian Hall had been designed and
executed under the auspices of the Art Association by Brother George Herzog. The
room was a gift of Brother William J. Kelly and dedicated to Brother Thomas R.
Patton, Grand Treasurer. It was written of Herzog's work in the Egyptian Hall
"few have the faintest idea of the time and labor bestowed by him in producing the
Historical Art displayed in Egyptian Hall. So long as the Masonic Temple shall
stand at the comer of Broad and Filbert Streets, Philadelphia, so long will the
Historic Art developed in Egyptian Hall remain as a monument to the skill and
'' Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook,page 19.
" Herzog was initiated into Freemasonry in Lodge No. 51 in Riiladelphia, August 23, 1888. as stated in:
Memoirs of Lodge No. 51. Free and Accepted Masons of Philadelphia, 1941.
" The Keystone, 7 November 1891. Masonic Editorial Notes. Herzog Scrapbook, page 24.
ability of Brother, George Herzog and the liberality of Brother William J. Kelly."™
Egyptian Hall was the first evidence of the elaborate and beautiful work of
the interior decoration of the Temple. (See figure 4.) It was considered a mastaful
reproduction of the art of the Nile. The Masons believed that Egyptian Hall
reprresented a period in history in which their predecessors were supposed to be
learned. The Hall was considered at the time to be the finest specimen of Egyptian
architecture extant with twelve huge columns around the perimeter of the room,
topped with capitals copied from Luxor, Kamak, Philae and other ancient Egyptian
The free standing columns are divided into sections containing ornaments
that imitate tiiose found in Egyptian Temples. The decorations include borders of
reeds and rushes, a fluted frieze, the disc of Ra and other symbolic figures. Lotus
flowers wrap around the bases of the columns, reed decorations app)ear on the
cornices, and pyramidal designs complete the panels. Uraei, or sacred asps, with
extended heads, stare at the viewer from all sides of the hall.
Herzog attempted archaeological accuracy in the decorations of Egyptian
Hall. The scenes of domestic life, depicted on the walls were are taken from the
temples of the Old Empire and later sepulchers. HCTzog's color scheme included
muted red, green and blues applied over the predominate oUve background. The
blue ceiling was adopted as suggestive of the heavens and was a in contrast to the
rather complicated composition. The solar disk, the symbol of the Aten, the god of
Akhen-Aten, complete with its life-giving rays was placed at the east end of the
Ionic Hall was the next room to be decorated. (See figure 5.) The funds for
the project were generated through the Art Association as well as members. The job
took six months to complete. *' This room is 75 feet long, 40 feet wide and 23 feet
high and derived its name from the Ionic order used throughout by James
' "Egyptian Hall," The Keystone, 12 January 1888. Herzog Scrapbook, page 2.
' John C Yorston. "The Masonic Ten^)le of Philadelphia," The Keystone, 16 September 1905,3.
' Yorston, 3.
Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, page 13.
Windrim. Herzog decorated the hall simply with no intrusions upon the classical
outlines of the architecture. The desired effect was achieved by the use of subtle
tones that permitted the architectural elements to remain in view. Ancient examples
exhibited the use of primary and secondary colors to emphasis reliefs and to
provide strong contrasts The Ionic Hall's subtle color scheme was a departure from
the understood methods employed by the ancient Greeks. Ionic Hall was not an
attempt at archeological correctness, unUke the Egyptian Hall where the color and
form of the architectural and decorative elements were of primary impwrtance to the
No renderings survive of Herzog 's original design for Ionic Hall. The only
known descriptions of the Hall were published in newspaper articles written at the
time of completion.
The room consisted of a cohesive blend of color and materials. The color
scheme of the Hall appeared to have been composed around the carpet. The carpet
pattern of a light yellow ground sprinkled with designs in light blues and yellow
with a border of deeper blue and old gold enriched with palmetto ornaments and
"walls of Troy" formed an important part of the Hall's color scheme. The platform
was carpeted in a deep olive and the furniture was upholstered in blue and gold
silk. The bases and volutes of the capitals of the ivory columns are in gold, the
honey suckle ornaments and other relief were painted also in gold to accentuate the
forms. The walls were light blue over which there was a silver stencil design
covering half the height of the wall. The niches between the columns were painted
a Pompeiian red. Eventually these niches were filled with the portraits of
distinguished members of the Masonic fraternity. Three were in place at the time
the Hall was completed.^ Running around the entire room and forming the
crowning feature of the order was the entablature painted in ivory, white, and
delicate neutral tones with egg moldings and palmette ornaments in contrasting
colors of gold. Instead of common chandelier, the lighting was composed of
' Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, page 13.
' Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, page 14.
groups of gas and electric burners arranged around the columns on gold plated
metal bands 10 inches wide. These bands were placed on the columns in line with
the top of the silver wall diapering.
The ceiling presented the only symbolism attempted in the room. It was
divided by beams into panels,with one large panel in the center and others of
varying size surrounding it. The ceiling was marked where it joined the wall with
four foot, white and yellow panels. The interior of the panels were light blue with
classic ornaments in gold and blue. The middle compartment was various yellows
with the center element being the sun and surrounding it a circle. Separated from it
by narrow bands with delicate running ornament were Zodiac signs. These
symbols were separated from the end panels by broad bands of classic ornament,
which together with the spandrels formed at the angles were richly decorated in
gold. At the end of the oblong were five panels containing the seal of Solomon and
symbols of the planets."
The Wilton carpets were made by McCallum & Sloan (location unknown)
from designs by Herzog. The Horn, Brannan, Forsythe Manufacturing Company
furnished the gas and electric burners, and John Wanamaker did the upholstering.
The entire decoration and refitting cost an estimated $6000. "
At the time of its opening Ionic Hall was considered by one writer to be one
of Herzog 's finest works to date. Ionic Hall was compared to Egyptian Hall and
the contrast was said to represent the difference between the "brute force of the
ancient regime and the fine precision and refined elegance of the more philosophical
In addition to decorating the various Halls of the Temple, Herzog was
commissioned to paint portraits of Grand Masters. These were painted on canvas
and placed in the large stair hall. Edgar A. Tennis, was painted in 1902-1903,
Samuel C. Perkins, 1905, Matthias Henderson, 1909, and William J. Kelly, 1909.
(See figure 6.) Most were painted in evening dress standing in the ceremonial
" Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, page 13.
'* Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, page 13.
" Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, page 14.
location within the Grand Lodge room beside the pedestal and wearing the gold
jewel of office. *'
At the time Norman Hall was decorated, the Art Association was chaired
by James Windrim. An estimated $4000 was needed for Herzog to complete the
decoration of Norman Hall. The funds were to be raised by the Lodges that used
the Hall. In addition to painting the Hall, Herzog agreed to paint at his own
expense the small hallway leading to Norman, Egyptian and Ionic Halls. By this
time, Herzog 's lavishly decorated rooms served as a drawing card to increase
membership, which has grown by five thousand in a single year. Herzog 's talents
contributed largely to the Mason's desire for the Temple to become a perfect school
of the principle architectural, artistic and magnificent embellishments of the
different nations and ages.**
The single surviving rendering of Norman Hall depicts the northern
elevation (floor, wall, ceiUng and junior warden's throne). The design presented
in the rendering represents what Herzog actually executed." (See figure 7.)
Norman Hall , one of the smallest of the lodge rooms, measures 41 feet by
74 feet. (See figure 8.) Herzog created the feeling of a temple within a temple. The
east and west walls were divided into three bays by broad piers with heavy arching
and the north and south walls were similarly treated. The center bays of the east,
south and west walls, have pedimented niches carried on short columns with
foliated caps and supported on heavy corbels, thus forming a kind of throne, with
appropriate symbols over the places of the master and wardens.
Norman Hall is divided on all four sides into five spaces, the piers between
supporting broad arches and corbels, from which rise curved braces supporting
heavy timber beams of the ceiling, crossing each other at right angles and dividing
it into twenty-five panels. These panels were painted a deep blue and were traced
in colors and with a gold outline on an intertwining ornament of the type associated
with Celtic designs. The center spaces on the east, north and south walls, as the
°' Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, page 15
" The Keystone, 25 October 1890. Masonic Editorial Notes. Herzog Scrapbook, page 18.
°° The George Herzog Collection, The Athenaeum of Philadelphia.
stations of the master and his assistants, are emphasized by a raised dais, and
symbols appropriate to their offices. The room contains a hard wood wainscot,
about three feet in height, which serves to offset the painted walls and the richly
carpeted floor. The piers not occupied by windows are painted dark olive and
richly decorated with interlace work inspired by Celtic missals.* The pattern is the
same as that contained in the ceiling panels. Six panels larger that life contain
figures. Each figure is executed in a conventional manner and dressed in costumes
of medieval Western Europe. The figures have draperies outlined and shaded with
gold and each figure holds the working tools of \he Freemason: the compass, the
square, the rule, the level (or trowel), the plumb and the setting maul. Painted on
a gold mosaic background, the figures are framed by a raised border containing
chevron and dogtooth, richly colored and gilded, forming the outside border of the
The ceiling panels are made by what appears to be timbers supporting the
wooden arches but are really grained plaster elements. The entire ceiling design is
constructed in plaster which is intended to give the illusion of a heavy timbers and
supporting braces. Herzog's illusion of load bearing sdiictural elements is
articulated especiaUy in the decorated spandrel panels, billet molding and nail head
ornaments that appropriately mark the junction of walls and ceiling. The panels of
the medieval-style ceiling are painted deep blue with those portions outside of the
ornament painted chocolate brown. The decoration consists of alternating patterns
of ornament usually found in ancient Celtic manuscripts. These ceiling decorations
are rendered in various shades of primary colors and highlighted in parts with silver
and gold." Lighting was provided by sixteen brackets of antique brass, one
located in alignment with the center of each pier.
The floor was carpeted with a heavy pile rug surrounded by a border in
deep red, the design being patterned after the tile work of the period represented.
The carpet has a background of deep greenish-blue with figures in gold shades with
Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 22.
Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 20.
red and black. The furniture consists of massive chairs and benches that
incorporate the medieval-style Hall's predominate architectural element: the arch.
The wardens' thrones imitate the arched and pedimented architectural elements of
the room and were upholstered in dark brown leather.
After the completion of Norman Hall, the Art Association president,
Clifford P. MacCalla noted Norman Hall more than any other Hall, a unique and
individual expression that was "distinctly Masonic."'^
In addition to decorating Lodge Halls, Herzog was commissioned to
decorate less significant and accessible areas of the Temple. In August, 1 895, a
separate contract agreement was made between Herzog and the Masonic Temple to
complete decorations on the first floor. This arrangement included the main hall,
corridors, and stairways. (See figure 9.) At the same time, he was contracted to
decorate the Crrand Master's rooms, the Grand Treasurer's and Grand Secretary's
offices and the Grand High Priest's room, all were to be completed by September,
1895. The decorations were simple stencil designs composed of yellow, blue, terra
cotta, aluminum and gold."
The Art Association chose Herzog 's design for the Temple's Library Hall
after many designs were submitted.** (See figure 10.) Herzog's scheme was the
most expensive as well as the most artistic and symbolic of Masonry. The funds
were raised by former Grand Master William Kelly, who some years previously
had covered the expense for the Egyptian Hall.**
The Library Hall in the southeast pxjrtion of the ground floor of the temple
is approximately 60 feet long by 40 feet wide. The surface of the wall is divided
equal parts and marked off by high, round arched doors and windows. A heavy
beam, supported by two pairs of columns divides the ceiling, and each half was
further subdivided by lighter beams into sixty-six coffers. A paneled frieze is
supported on a series of small arches and extends around the hall, while double
^ Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 25.
'The Keystone, August 3, 1895, Herzog Scrapbook, 38.
* The name of the other competitors for the Masonic Temple Library commission is not known.
^ Uncited new^aper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 38.
pilasters marked the divisions on the wall. The beams, the column pedestals, the
wainscoting, and the entire woodwork in the hall is walnuL The design of the
room lent itself to extensive decoration with a multitude of flat surfaces.
Herzog chose to decorate the library in the Byzantine style. Twenty
allegorical figures flanked each of the ten arches around the room The virtues of
education were illustrated on the north wall; the sources of natural happiness on the
south wall; depict types of ancient cities of learning and culture were depicted on
the east and west walls. The figures were painted on a combination of gold and
silver shading into a dull gray and green tone. This treatment serves to set off
dramatically the figures.
Corinthian Hall was last room in the Masonic Temple that Herzog
decorated There are more known rendering for Corinthian Hall than for any other
Herzog work. Four rendering exist, as well as preparatory sketches for the Hall."
These rendering illustrate portions of the Hall's four elevations as well as the ceiling
design. (See figure 11.) The thumbnail sketches were done in ink and resemble the
finished rendering. (See figure 12.) Completed in 1903, it was the hall where the
Grand Lodge met. The room is 105 feet long, 51 feet wide and 50 feet high. (See
figure 13.) The Hall was considered to be the "fmest lodge room in the world."''
Herzog strictly conformed to the Greek Corinthian order. The fluted columns and
c^itals were based on those at Lysicrates in Athens.* The caryatides which
support the paneled ceiling in the apse at the east end of the room were based the
Portico of the Caryatides on the Erechtheum in Athens. The seats on the circular
platform are in accordance with those found in the ancient Theater of Dionysus,
also in Athens. The various figures in the bas relief medalbons over the entrance
and on pilasters were taken from antique Greek coins and medalUons." The sixteen
mural paintings in the panel of the large frieze which encompasses the room are
copies of fragments from antique Greek temple ruins.
George Herzog Collection, Masonic Library and Museum of Pennsylvania.
The Masonic Temple was the first large "public" building on Center Square;
construction did not start on the Square's most prominent building, Philadelphia
City Hall, until 1872 and that structure designed by John MacArthur, Jr., was not
substantially complete until the 1890's. Philadelphia's Masonic Temple exhibited
the talent of twenty-seven year old James H. Windrim and thirty-six year old
George Herzog. The collaborative effort that resulted in the design and decoration
of Philadelphia's Masonic Temple came at the beginning of two careers that
continued to grow into large, important and successful practices.
The Union League of Philadelphia
The Union League was founded in 1862 as a semipolitical organization of
business men and civil leaders who pledged "unqualified loyalty to the government
of the United States and unwavering supports of it measures for the suppression of
the Rebellion.""" In this effort they raised a half million dollars and 10,000
volunteers for the Civil War's battlefields. By 1865 , The League had a
membership of several thousand. The club house of The Union League was one of
the few buildings erected in Riiladelphia during the Civil War. ""
The Union League was designed by John Fraser in 1864-65. Fraser,
(1825-1906), practiced architecture successfully individually and in partnerships.
In 1867, he helped form the influential firm of Fraser, Fumess and Hewitt. Four
years later he served as Acting Support Architect of the U.S. Treasury in
Washington D.C. While in Washington Fraser designed several residences. By
1889 he returned to Philadelphia, where he remained the rest of his life.""
Located on the southwest comer of Broad and Sansom streets, the brick
building with brownstone trim is notable and early Philadelphia example of the
Second Empire. The structure is two and one-half stories on a raised basement.
'°° Richard Webster, Philadelphia Preserved, Catalog of the Historic American Building Survey (Philadelphia:
Temple University Press, 1976) 113.
'°' Ibid, 113.
'°^ Tatman and Moss,281.
with mansard roof, central Corinthian porch with curved double entry stairway, a
square tower, and central hall plan.
In 1 866 the interior of The Union League burned and was remodeled by
architects James Windrim, Theophilus Parsons Chandler, Jr., and Charles M.
Bums until 1889. Herzog is credited as the decorator. '"^ Herzog , a member of the
Union League, painted without charge t-he panels on the frieze of the Flemish
A design of the Library ceiling, the Banquet Room ceiling and the
Restaurant are the three known renderings for the interiors at The Union League.
The Library ceiling, 1881-1882, was a geometric design, composed of many
Egyptian revival style motifs.(See figure 14.) The rendering illustrates one-quarter
of the square ceiUng with the central sectioned-octagon outlined entirely.(See figure
15.) The design was composed of muted brown, olive, yellow and blue. The
geometric composition is decorated with scrolls and leaves. In a triangle at the
comer of the design is a profile of an Egyptian Pharaoh. This is similar to the idea
behind the Egyptian Hall in the Masonic Temple to be discussed earlier in this
chapter. The design of the Banquet Hall is a complicated geometric design
composed of varied colors and patterns. (See figure 16.) This exquisitely rendered
design illustrates the strength of Herzog 's technical abiUty and his ease with using
many patterns. The rectangular ceiling design is composed of both geometric and
free form organic shapes. (See figure 17.) Around a central Moorish style
medallion are smaller, more geometric, star-like medallions. They are tied together
by ribbon-like borders. Within these borders are an assortment of patterns, ranging
ft"om blossoming branches to small shaded squares. The color scheme varied from
'" Uncited article in Herzog Scrapbook, 25. The article's main story is the re-election of former Philadelphia
Mayor Edwin Fitler as the Union League President. Fitler served as President in 1891 and 1892. While Fitler was
mayor he communicated through James Windrim his interest in having Herzog decorate his office in the new City
Hall. This account is described later in the Philadelphia City Hall section. Herzog also completed a design for
Fitler's residence as S.W. 16thAValnut Street. The rendering of the hall decoration is at The Athenaeum of
Philadelphia. It is composed of wall and ceiling design that was compose of an exotic assortment of palm fronds
and blossoming trees, all placed out doors against the outline of an crenelated castle. The predominate colors were
green and blue.
deep red and orange outlined in gold to light yellow and blue. The Restaurant
ceiling was a Japanesque design composed of a center medallion encircled with
flying storks. Within smaller bordered medallions were depictions of other wild
animals: a duck, fish and bird. The ceiling was bordered with an "oriental"
geometric design that was entwined with cheery blossoms. Also prominent in the
design were exotic flowers and fans made of feathers.
Throughout his career, Herzog's connection with his German background
never ceased He continued to paint the classical style he was taught and received
many commissions from German organizations and individuals of German decent.
The German singing societies were imp)ortant components in larger
German- American communities. The societies had begun to develop in New York
and other American cities in the late 1 840's, they flourished particularly in the
1870's and '80s and their popularity continued until the First World War. They
gave public concerts at which familiar German songs were performed. During this
period interest in German music, drama and literature among German-American
communities was strong."**
The Liederkranz (Wreath of Songs), founded in 1847, became New York's
foremost German singing society. In 1881, the society selected a design submitted
by Hermann J. Schwarzmann and William Kuhles for a new clubhouse on East
58th Street. The plot measured 125 feet on 58th street and about 100 feet deep.
The building was in the German Renaissance style and was three stories high with a
generous ground floor. The street facade was divided into a slightiy projecting
central mass containing the main entrances with superimposed, iron balustrade
balcony and two symmetrical sideways. The primary building materials were
brownstone and brick with terra cotta other elements including iron ornamentation.
' Billigmeier, 123.
a heavy metal entablature and a metal cornice. '"* It featured a grand ballroom, a
monumental double staircase, an old German wine saloon and other club rooms.
The second floor was the centerpiece of the building: the concert hall or grand
ballroom decorated by Herzog. The room measured 100 feet long, 65 feet wide and
sat 1,200. It was used for the Society's concerts as well as dancing. The room was
decorated with murals, large mirrors and crystal chandeliers. The various figures
and groups of symbolic characters which ornamented the walls were highly
effective in design and execution, some of them suggested musical subjects and
others recalled the personages associated with musical Uterature. According to an
eye-witness, when the hall was electrically lit the effects were "remarkably brilliant
and beautiful" "" These decorations were completed in 1 886 and cost $15, 000.
The Uederkranz moved to smaller quarters in 1950 and, after serving as a television
studio , their original building was razed in 1964.
Only one rendering of a wall panel survives from Herzog 's design of the
ballroom."* (See figure 18.) More complete views survive in photographs of the
room."^ (See figure 19.) The grand space was decorated throughout. Herzog's
designs followed the architectural details of the room. The room consisted of an
arch with a pedimented panel above and this pattern was repeated around the room.
Where the arch did not serve as a doorway, it was surrounded by molding and its
interior space was decorated with an ornate arabesque grill design. Surrounding the
arch were molded plaster crests and allegorical figures playing musical instruments.
Painted within the pediment was a man armed with a sword seated at a table while
being offered refreshment by a fair maiden. Both figures are costumed in
Renaissance period clothing. The symbolism of this scene is lost. Perhaps the man
has just returned from battle. The plaster work and the painted decoration were
'°° History of the Uederkranz of the City ofNev\' York: 1847 to 1947 and of the Arion, NeM' York (New York
The Drechsel Printing Co., 1948), 15.
'" The Mail and Express, New York , 25 July 1 887, as found in Herzog Scrapbook, 45.
'°° The Herzog Collection, The Athenaeum of Philadelphia.
'" History of the Uederkranz of the C/ry ofNen' York: 1847 to 1947 and of the Arion, New York. (New York :
The Drechsel Printing Co., 1948).
superimposed to give a the illusion of complete relief decoration. Herzog utilized a
multi-colored palette. The patterns of the lower portion of the design were rendered
in flat colors of green and blue outlined in black. Toward the ceiUng the design
became lighter, the painted architectural features were decorated with blooming
plants and jewels. At the top of the design the background fade to light blue that
gave the impression of the open sky. The realistic aspects of the decoration, the
painted decoration resembUng architectural decoration, and the design culminating
with the sky, all served to bring the feeling of the outdoors into a large interior
The Residences of P. A. B. Widener ( 1 887). William Hkins (1890) and WiUiam
By the late 19th century George Herzog's work was firmly associated with
upper class taste. His commissions for the most prosperous members of
Philadelphia society suggest his work greatly appealed to the nouveau riche. One
could almost say that this was the peak of his visibility as a decorator.
Peter A. B. Widener, William L. Elkins and William H. Kemble formed a
powerful triumvirate, that dominated Philadelphia's political, banking, and street
railway worid during the late 19th century. Their careers read like Horatio Alger
stories because they rose from modest beginnings until they were ranked with the
millionaires of the day and their generation. Within a few years of one another,
these three notable men, who were the guiding forces of the local transportation,
system constructed three brownstone buildings in different parts of Philadelphia.
Herzog was commissioned to decorate the entire interiors of each house.
Widener was a developer of the street railway syndicates in Philadelphia
and Chicago and a philanthropist He was one of the great patt-ons of the arts in
America, ranking in a class along such men as J. Pierpoint Morgan, WilUam
Randolph Hearst, and Andrew MeUon. Wideno- erected an eclectic styled house
designed by Willis Hale at the northwest comer of Broad Stt-eet and Girard Avenue.
Kemble built a home designed by James Windrim on Green Street not far from
Fairmount Park, at a time when that street was considered one of Philadelphia's
finest residential neighboiiioods. Elkins constructed his palatial home on Broad
Street just above Girard Avenue. He was unable to obtain the properties at the
comer of the avenue, this forced him to build on a triangular lot and extend his
house north to Stiles Street.
The Widener Mansion
The Widener mansion was considered to be one of the grand mansions built
in the North Broad Street enclave of the Nouveau Riche. It was the most expensive
and lavish of its era in Philadelphia, representing the values of a generation that
conspicuously consumed to impress commercial prowess. "It was the crowning
jewel in the diadem that was North Broad Street., and a worthy monument to the
value system that created the gilded residential suburb."""
The mansion was designed by Philadelphia architect Willis Hale (1848-
1907). Hale had worked in the office of Samuel Sloan and John MacArthur before
starting his own practice in 1 876. Hale worked in private practice the rest of his
life, designing a many of Philadelphia's major office buildings and banks. In
addition, Hale designed a number of residential buildings for speculators such as
William Weightman as well as individual homes, such as the Widener Mansion.'"
The Widener Mansion, constructed in 1887, was 53 feet wide by 144 feet
long in dimensions and was four and a half stories high on a raised basement.
There was a hipped roof with four Flemish cross-gables, ogee conical roofs on
comer bays, curvilinear walls, and a curved double entry stairway. The central-hall
plan house also had a massive msticated and all four facades contained carved stone
decoration. The arched entrance on Broad Street was very large and imposing,
with the bay windows, extending from the first to the fourth stories on each side of
""In less than a decade, the house and its location were sufficiently old-fashioned. The Wideners moved to an
equally palatial mansion in the suburbs. The Broad street house was given to the city to serve as a library in 1 899.
Philadelphia Bulletin. April 21, 1937.
' ' ' Sandra L. Tatman and Roger W. Moss, Biographical Dictionary of Philadelphia Architects, 1 700-1 930
(Boston: G.K. Hall & Co., 1985), 325.
the house. An article written at the time of the mansion's completion, stated that
"The result is an interior that is artistic in an eminent degree, and a house that is
harmonious and symmetrical throughout in which the carpets do not swear at the
ceiling nor the walls clash in color or design with the furniture or draperies." "'
Herzog, was responsible for the decoration of the entire interior, most likely
without budgetary restraints. A substantial portion of the interior decoration
included furniture built into the house, brownstone walls laid in opulently carved
masses and spectacular murals. The carved and inlaid entrance opened onto a rich
stair hall whose walls were embellished with alabaster and bronze. Herzog 's
scheme of decoration gave each room a distinct charactCT. Herzog infused
"sentiment, if not poetry, as well as art feeling, into wood and stone and glass and
fabrics and color, " and created a scene that was "instantly to the eye and mind the
suggestion of and association of a grand house." According to one critic the house
conveyed, " stateliness and sociability in its hall, cheerfulness and sociabihty in its
reception room, elegance in the parlor; tranquiUty in the library; domesticity in the
family sitting room; hospitableness in dining hall and repose in the sleeping
chambers." Reportedly, Herzog was given free rein and Widener demanded no
changes. Thus Herzog's design was accomplished according to his wishes and the
end result was "a household interior that is a series of pictures as artistic as anything
After the Widener Residence was completed, Herzog and Mr. Widener
remained friendly. This friendship is best illustrated in one of two known letters in
which Widener wrote of his respect and admiration for Herzog's talent. In a letter
dated November 1, 1894, Mr. Widener wrote to his friend John D. Crimmin on the
behalf of George Herzog. Widener referred to Herzog "as one of the ablest men in
his line of business." The recommendation added that Herzog was "a man of strict
integrity" and "would not only fulfill his contract to the letter but would go beyond
it in order to improve the final product.""*
"^ Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 5.
"^ Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 5. All quotes used in this paragraph are from this article.
'" Letter in Herzog Collection at The Athenaeum of Philadelphia.
The only rendering yet found that can be attributed to the Widener
Residence is of the banquet room or dining room. (See figure 20.) It was the
centerpiece of the residence, both from an architectural and decorative point of
view. It was created at a time when entertaining at home had grown in popularity
and had become a "symbol of the elegance and richness of modem life." It was this
interest in hospitality and convenience that made the dining room one of the most
important considerations in a house. '"
The grand, immense dining room,was thirty-two feet square and twenty-
two feet high with pocket doors that gave a clear view of the room's spacious
proportions. (See Figure 21.) The design was German Renaissance. The room
appeared to be centuries old and exuded "medieval dignity and calm elegance."'"
The design scheme focused on an elaboration of detail and variety of finishes. The
wood work consisted of paneled wainscoting seven feet high and divided into bays
by p>edestals that supported carved pilasters which carried a continuous cornice
around the room. From the cornice stretched ribs bending around the cove and
connected with a system of coffered panels in the ceiling. The murals gave one the
feeling of looking out onto a 17th-century German landscape. It was as if Widener
wished to escape his own time, to the quietness of a less predatory age. Beyond
the dining room was the gallery which housed the family's art collection."^
The room was illuminated by electricity from eight oxidized silver fixtures
that were mounted at the wainscot's cap. According the newspaper article, "when
all these are hghted the banquet hall is flooded with a briUiancy that brings out every
line of its splendid carvings and every part of the exquisite wall paintings in tapestry
A prominent architectural feature in the room was the carved marble
fireplace with upholstered leather seats on each side. Above the mantel was a thin
slab of Mexican onyx which filtered light, softly showing the brilliant veins.
'^ Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 8.
" Ibid, 8.
" Wideoer'sart collection now forms the cornerstone of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D. C.
" Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 8.
Immediately over this was a painted glass panel executed in the Royal Art School of
Munich, Bavaria, representing "a family group." Herzog's utilization of the
German window illustrates that in 1 887 his ties with Germany and his native
artisans remained unbroken. He may have traveled to Germany to commission this
The most obvious and prominent element of the banquet hall was the
minstrel's gallery which hung over the entrance from the hall. The elaborately
carved element as seen in the old world, enhanced the picturesque quality of the
room as well as formed a vantage point from which to view the conservatory.
Opposite the fireplace was a built-in sideboard, containing a silver vault.
The sideboard was combined with the widow above it by the richly carved pilasters
and other decorative elements that were in keeping with the large room. The
sideboard was covered with silver , and cut glass and rich china filled the crevices
and shelves of the spaces between the pilasters above.
There were ornamental cabinets built into each of the four comers of the
room, containing examples of cut glass, along with decorated china that produced
brilliant effects seem through the beveled glass panels of the doors. The walls
above the wainscoting were painted with scenes typical of the seasons and were
painted by Mr. Herzog himself. According to the written description some of the
figures were portraits of members of Mr. Widener's family. '" The effect was
described as "tapestry," most likely alluding to the tightly rendered figures and
Herzog's rich palette. The ceiling cove was treated in such a manner to produce the
effect of stamped leather, while the center of the boss was painted in imitation
mosaic on a gold background. The floor was laid in wood mosaic and covered
with a very large rug; the center was blue-gray and the border was composed of
Flemish designs that compUmented the furniture coverings.
Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 8.
The Kemble Mansion
The Italianate style favored by wealthy industrialists of the late 19th-century
was chosen by William Kemble as an demonstration of his financial and social
position. Kemble was the Secretary of the Treasury for the State of Pennsylvania
and in charge of all transportation for southeastern Pennsylvania.'^ This house was
constructed in 1890 and is the only surviving mansion of the three magnates. It is
three stories, is four bays across, and the facade is cut brownstone. The main
entrance, high above the street grade is the building's focal point, flanked with by a
pair of fluted Corinthian columns topped by a balcony. The building is dramatically
placed on a comer lot and dominates the space around it.
The architect responsible for the design of the mansion is unknown but
records indicate that James Windrim designed a portion of the decoration.'-' It is
known that Windrim completed plans for the decoration and wood work of the
parlor and sitting rooms, all done in rosewood paneling work relieved in gold
ornamentation. The estimated cost of Windrim 's decorative work was $20,000.
Although little documentation exists to illuminate Herzog's involvement in the
decoration of the mansion, he was responsible for the a portion of the interior
decoration. It is known that Herzog was decorating the Masonic Temple's Norman
Hall at the same time he was working on the Kemble Mansion.'^ It is possible that
James Windrim and George Herzxjg collaborated on the decoration of an interior.
Two of Herzog's surviving renderings can be attributed as the Kemble mansion.'^
Herzog's design of the ceiling of the rear hall exhibited the same feeUngs of
old world 17th-century Germany as the paintings of the Widener mansion. (See
'^° Kemble only lived in his house at 2200 Green Street for one year. After his death the house was sold to the
Bergdolls. Currently the house is owned by Ms. Zukarian. The author has not been able to gain entrance to the
house but according to paintings conservator Steven Erisoty, whom has treated some of the house's interior finishes,
much of the original decoration survives despite neglect and fire damage.
'^' The Philadelphia Real Estate Record and BuiUer's Guide, Philadelphia Vol. V, no. 32. August 13, 1890.
''^t was also published that Herzog found Mr. Kemble not to be the "ogre" , the newspapers made him out to
be.Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 14.
'"The notated rendering for the Kemble Mansion library is part of the Herzog Collection at The Athenaeum of
Philadelphia. The rendering of the ceiling of the rear hall is part of The Mrs. Anne Herzog LaMotte Collection.The
author has not seen the actual interior, thus these renderings were attributed to the Kemble Mansion based on interior
photographs of the Mansion on file at the Philadelphia Historical Commission.
figure 22.) The multi-paneled ceiling was divided into irregularly shaped areas with
complex stenciled patterns. (See Figure 23.) Among the panels was a large roundel
painted in a Raphaelite style, showing a mother seated on a bench with her children
around her. The group symbolized domesticity, the nurturing home, and family.
The painting is rendered is such a way that it might contain portraits of the Kemble
family. The panels are sky blue which recede behind the applied brown and gold
stencil work. This technique gave the ceiling the appearance of an intricate lattice
beneath an open sky. The library decoration is of Moorish origin. (See figure 26.)
The ceiling design was composed of a central geometric medallion and perimeter
borders. These designs consisted of a lacework of arabesque decoration, carried
out in delicate colors, with symmetry and rhythmic order. The walls were painted
to give the illusion of an arcade with slender, delicately ornamented columns that
supported decorated arches. Below the arcade at the wainscoting level was a solid
band of color indicating a low wall. By combining the rendered architectural
elements with the predominately blue and silver color scheme, Herzog created the
illusion of an courtyard or outdoor space within four walls. The overall
composition is reminiscent of The Alhambra Palace (1354-91) in Granada.'^
The Hkins Residence
Elkins, the street railway magnate built a magnificent brownstone residence
at 1218 N. Broad Street, the southeast comer of Broad and Stiles Streets in
Philadelphia. The completion of the Elkin's house was an addition to Philadelphia's
list of handsome and costly residences. The mansion was considered to be the
most exp)ensive residence built in Riiladelphia, costing an estimated one million
"* HMTOg's involvement in the creation of other interior furnishing of the Kemble Mansion is unknown.
Written descriptions state that the house contained elaborately carved woodwork and furniture created exclusively for
it. The woodwork as well as the furniture was carved with Germanic and Italian motifs. A theme with cherubs was
used in the master bedroom, with the motif used on the ceiling, mantelpiece carvings and furniture. The house was
lit by gas sconces and chandeliers. Sculptures of the Beaux Arts style were on view among the rooms, was well as
a collection of classic books bound in leather. It is unknown if Herzog had a hand in the design of the stained glass
windows on the side bays. They were created in a style reminiscent of the work done by the Tiffany Studio. Uncited
newspaper article in Herzog Scrapbook, 16.
dollars. It was the last of the houses to be completed designed for the three wealthy
men, all associated in the management of street car railways in Philadelphia and
The Elkins mansion was designed by Philadelphia architect William Powell
(1854-1910). Powell worked with the Pennsylvania Raikoad in the Office of
Engineering of Buildings and Bridges. Powell was most noted for his work while
serving as second assistant to John McArthur, Jr. on the construction and design of
Philadelphia City Hall. In 1881, returned he returned to the Pennsylvania Railroad.
He was elected Architect for the Philadelphia Building Commission and remained
the City architect until retirement in 1909. While working for the city, he
supervised the completion of City Hall and designed a number of small structures,
such as firehouses.'"
The Renaissance style mansion was constructed in 1 890 of brownstone,
and stood on an granite terrace elevated eight feet above Broad Street On a
triangular shaped lot the house ran 210 feet along Broad Street and was 160 feet
deep; at the narrow end it was 65 feet along Ontario Street with a width of 15 feet.
The house contained approximately 36 rooms and was four-stories high. The main
entrance portico was recessed between two wings of the front elevation.'^
The interior was elaborately decorated. Each of the main rooms was in a
different style. Herzog, was responsible for the decoration of the entire interior,
most likely with an unlimited budget. It appears that Herzog was given complete
control over the interior decoration. A substantial portion of the interior decoration
used opulent materials and contained spectacular murals. Many of the wall were
carved and inlaid and embellished with alabaster and bronze. As he did in the
Widener Mansion, Herzog 's decorative scheme gave each room a distinct character.
Out of wood and stone and glass and fabrics and color, Herzog created a setting
that suggested a palace.
The elaborately furnished main hall was considered to be the grandest
'^^ Tatman and Moss, 621.
'^° Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 26.
portion of the house. Here the great wealth of the owner was most evident with the
display of his vast European painting collection. The German Renaissance style
cortUe was 47 feet 6 inches in length and 32 feet in width and a height of 41 feet 6
inches. The grand space contained a carved wooden gallery at the second floor
level, 7 feet 6 inches wide that extended around the hall and served as a corridor the
north part of the mansion.'-^ In the cove above that gallery Herzog painted a scene
of men and women seated upon a balcony dressed in silk and velvet period
costumes. The figures painted against a deep blue sky, were "carrying on
ceremonious flirtations to the music of guitars and mandolins."'^
The dining room was Romanesque in design with heavy oak wainscotting
and large beams supporting the paneled ceiling. The color scheme of the room was
black and silver. Around the ceiling of the dining room set into the wainscotting
and forming a frieze were painted scenes of an old English stag and wild boar
scene. This dynamic composition captured the moment when the animal is about to
be slain by the hunter. Surrounding the action were other hunters and their horses,
all reacting to the event taking place. (See figure 25.) Other scenes painted around
the room included a monastery courtyard and night scenes painted in somber
The Corinthian style parlor contained classical Siena marble columns. The
color scheme of the room was gold, white and blue. Herzog 's ceiling design was
composed of a geometric design in gold on a ivory background.
The portion of the house which Mr. Elkins considered his den was the
smoking room. This comfortable room was decorated in the Moorish style. Over
the mantel and fire place was a mural that depicted the rooftops of an Eastern town
with its graceful minarets and domes. The tower of the mosque in the distance
was, outlined against a deep blue sky. In the foreground were a number of doves
fluttering around a vase of blooming rose. The ceiling of the smoking room was
decorated with a design in silver and gold arabesques upon a light bluish-green
'" Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook,26.
'^° Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 30.
Young Maennerchor Hall
Having a firmly established business among his fellow countrymen,
Herzog accepted a commission by The Young Maennerchor Society to decorate the
auditorium of the building, located at Sixth and Vine Streets in Philadelphia. Work
began in the summer of 1889. The building, designed by Paul Banner. The Society
felt that the hall needed to be painted because it was not it keeping with the
decorations throughout the building.'" The Young Maennerchor Society paid
$5000 for the decoration of the upper floor and $2000 for the first floor. The walls
were painted in a soft red, with "lofty pilaster ornamentations and on other surfaces
arabesques executed in a lighter shade to give a rich damask effect."'"
Similar to the decoration at the Liederkranz Society in New York City, the
decoration of the new hall was described as German Renaissance. The design
contained panels with portraits of famous Germans in the arts. The ceiUng was
filled with scrolls and patterns. Though no known drawings exist from this
commission, the written description of this work serves as as a reminder of
Herzog 's German sensibilities.
Described as "low key and delightful" the Hall's general color scheme was
"quiet" pink and buffs. The ceiling was filled with a scroll pattern, with the
Acanthus leaf as a motif . According to written descriptions the ceiling design fully
exhibited Herzog's individual style. "...The artist has thrown off the decorator's
palette and made himself known." The ceiling composition consisted of a fluffy
clouds of warm gray, and groupings of nymphs, gods and goddesses. There were
four panels on each waU containing "chaste and refmed" figures: that depicted
various disciplines. "Music" was repjresented by a scene which contained portraits
of Beethoven and Mozart, "Arts" with a portrait of Albrecht Durer and "Dramatic
''° Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 31.
"" Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 16.
"^ All quotes from Uncited newspaper article, HCTZog Scrapbook, 15.
Literature" with bust of Schiller and Goethe. The small panels were painted in soft
colors against a background of gold leaf. "Time," "Ecclesiastical Music," "Love"
and "Merriment" were also illustrated on panels.'"
Philadelphia City Hall
Phialdelphia's City Hall was constructed 1871-1901 with John Mac Arthur
as the chief architect and Thomas U. Walter as the consulting architect. John
MacArthur (1823-1890) had immigrated from Scotland and studied architecture in
Philadelphia with Thomas U. Walter. At the age of twenty-five MacArthur won his
first competition and from that point he secured a steady stream of commissions.
He designed hotels as well as churches, private residences and commercial
structures. McArthur designed several structures notable for their mansard roofs if
not their Second Empire. After securing the Philadelphia City Hall commission
MacArthur devoted the rest of his life to the Riiladelphia City Hall and died a full
decade before his monument was completed.
Thomas Ustick Walter ( 1 804-1887) is considered the most important
architect between Benjamin Henry Latrobe and Henry Hobson Richardson.'"
Walter trained in the office of William Strickland and schooled by John Haviland
and landscape artist WilUam Mason. He first gained national attention for the
design of Girard College of Orphans ( 1 833-35). Hundreds of commissions
followed in the 1 830 's and 1 840's. It was in 1 850 when Walter won first place in
the competition for the extension of the United States capital. In 1865 he resigned
as architect of the Capitol and returned to Philadelphia. When fiiend and younger
colleague McArthur won the Philadelphia City Hall competition for the third and
final time, Walter was appointed his second in command. Walter held this post for
over a decade, until his death in 1 887.
The building was occupied in stages after 1877. Philadelphia City Hall is
Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 16.
Tatman and Moss,821.
the largest municipal building in the county and a fine example of the Second
Empire style. It contains fourteen and one-half acres of floor space, occupied by
city and county offices, courtrooms and several ornately detailed public spaces.'"
The building is organized around a central public courtyard, which is
reached through monumental arched portals on all four sides. Second Empire
motifs are combined with an abundance of sculpture to give the exterior a rich yet
not over powering scale. Among the most prominent features are the projecting
comer pavilions, the tower pavilions over the entrance portals, the mansard roof
with dormers, and the large-scale paired columns, which help to make the
building's nine stories look like three. Solid granite, twenty-two feet thick in some
portions, forms the first floor and supports a brick structure faced with white
marble. The 548-foot tower is the world's largest masonry structure without a steel
Historical accounts state that Herzog decorated the Supreme Court Rooms,
Judges' Consultation Room and Mayor's Offices.'" Although only two known
rendering exist from these rooms, based on known written descriptions, they are
difficult to identify to specific rooms."* (See figure 26 and 27.) In a letter dated
1888, Edwin Fitler, then Mayor of Philadelphia, communicated through James
Windrim that he wanted to hire him to decorate his offices in City Hall. The rooms
were occupied in December, 1889. There were three rooms; The Mayor's Office
and two adjoining rooms that would serve as part of the Chief Magistrate's
quarters.'^' At this time the Mayor's Office was temporarily used as "the reception
of the model of the Centennial Exposition of 1876."'* The model was placed "a
substantial enclosure of quartered oak and plate glass" that was designed by
'"' This information was compiled from two sources: Philadelphia Preserved and Philadelphia and Popular
"° Scheme for Court Rooms A and B, 3rd Floor and For Ceiling and Wall for Law Library are part of The
Athenaeum of Phialdelphia collection.
''"This room is now known as the Mayor's Reception Room. Commissioners for the Ereaion of the Public
Buildings , Reports of Committee on Fitting up and furnishing Rooms , May 15, 1891, p. 1.
"° Ibid, 17
MacArthur. After the room was decorated and the model case built, the room was
opened to the public.'" The Mayor's Office now known as the Mayor's Reception
Room was decorated with blue and gold stencil pattern on the ceiling, elaborately
carved woodwork and red Egyptian columns. Historic photos indicate a stenciled
pattern was placed just above the wood panel dado. (See figure 28.)
The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania chambers were finished and opened
with ceremonies on January 5, 1891. (See figure 29.) Located in the south side of
the fourth floor, the Chambers, including its adjoining conversation room and
offices, numbered ten apartments in all. The court room is ST'B" wide by 5 1 ' long
and 28' 8" high. Its wainscot of Tennessee marble and encompassed the room.
The piers between the windows and doors were topped with Corinthian pilaster
which carried an architrave, deep frieze and modillion cornice. The Court's bench
was an elaborate construction of bronze and onyx.'"* It was not until the room was
near completion that the Committee on Fitting up and Furnishing Rooms decided to
"fresco" the walls.''" Herzog painted the walls and ceiling in oU colors of dull red
on the walls and subdued gray-green on the ceiUngs, with gold accents.'" An
historic photo indicates a stenciled decoration on the wall and frieze as well as an
elaborately patterned design on the ceiUng panels.''"
Herzog is also credited with the design of the Consultation Room or Room
No. 450."" There exists one rendering that may have been used in the design.'"^ It
adjoined the Supreme Court and was the private consultation room or library for the
Judges. (See Figure 30.) The room measured 42'5'' wide , 46 feet, 3 inches long
and had a 30 feet 4 inches height ceiling. The ceiling had a circular panel center
"^ Commissioners for the Erection of the Public Buildings , Reports of Committee on Fitting up and
furnishing Rooms , May 15, 1891, p.ll.
'" Ibid, 13.
'" Fred Turner, Jr., Turners Guide to and Description of Philadelphia 's new City Hall or Public Buildings,
(Philadelphia, 1892), 32.
'" Frederick Faust, The City Hall Philadelphia, Its Architeaure, Sculpture and History (Philadelphia: Frederick
Faust Publisher, 1897).
'" A rendering labeled "For Ceihng and Walls of Law Library, Herzog Co." may refer to the Consultation
Room, it is difficult to determine because no documents tell of the room's color scheme.
with a square of 22', bordered by rectangular panels 4' deep."^ The walls and
ceiling "were elaborately painted in oil colors of quiet but rich tones with which has
been used considerable gold to give effect to the many molded and enriched
ornaments.""" Above the impost molding and below the cornice of the ceiling, an 8
feet high frieze contained a series of "cartoons" depicting scenes of classical art and
history. The decorations were considered strikingly rich and dignified.'*
In May, 1896, Herzog submitted drawings for a competition to secure a
mural design for the Common Council Chamber or Room No. 400 in City Hall.
The entries were publicly displayed in the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts.
The first place prize was three thousand dollars.'^' Works by thirty-two artists were
submitted, among them was Edwin A. Abbey, a native Philadelphian, best known
for his murals in the Boston Public Library.'" Herzog 's designs were considered
the "best professional and conventional in the collection."'" But wo-e considered to
be "the allegorical figures of a hundred ceilings and walls," and presented a
derivative composition.'" The designs were considered to lack originality but were
decorative and would be the least offensive to the average councilman '" Herzog
was not awarded the commission; first place went to Joseph De Camp. After the
jury had made its selection, the Public Building Commission lead by former
Philadelphia mayor Stokely objected to the designs chosen.'^ After much debate
the artists were paid but it is not known whether the juried designs wCTe ever used
for the Common Council chambers.
" Turner, 33.
'° Turner, 35. A detailed description of the wall can be found in Turner. 36.
^^ Evening Telegram, May 7, 1896. Herzog Scrapbook, 40.
" Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 41.
"Evening Telegram, May 7, 1896. Herzog Scrapbook, 40.
" Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 40.
^^ Evening Telegram, May 7, 1896. Herzog Scrapbook, 40.
^^ Uncited newspaper article, Herzog Scrapbook, 42.
The Associated Art Workers
On March 28, 1 893, The Associated Art Workers opened a fully furnished
house at 1518 Chestnut Street in Philadelphia.'" The company was composed of
George Herzog, Charles F. VoUmer, Alfred Goodwin, J.E. McClees and Sharpless
& Watts '^* The association was consisted of decorators that had established
businesses in "remodeUng, finishing and furnishing" of residences in Philadelphia
and elsewhere.'^' The organization acquired the "forlorn and dismantled" 1518
Chestnut St and completely remodeled and decorated the interior with in a year. '*
Every room was decorated in latest styles of the period. The Associated Art
Workers produced the showcase house to demonstrate to the pubUc that an "artistic
interior" was possible at a modest cost and to illustrate what could be accomphshed
with a typical Philadelphia rowhouse.'" The house served as a showroom of
examples of the Association's skills and the diverse types and scale of services
Each room in 1513 Chestnut Street was decorated with the finest of taste.
The rugs, carpets, wood carvings, paintings, prints, furniture, gas fixtures, wall
and ceiling decorations were all assembled to display the finest artistic decoration in
Philadelphia. The house was divided into several rooms decorated in different
styles but not to the extreme of that style. The house contained a parlor, drawing
room, conservatory, library, dining room, bed room and bathroom. Though each
room was distinctly different ft"om the other, there was a smooth transition from
one room to the next.'"
'*' The building still stands, the first and second levels have been greatly altered to accommodate a clothing
'^^ Philadelphia Record, March 29, 1893, Herzog Scrapbook, 35. According to the city directory of 1892 and
1893, VoUmer was an upholster at G. Vollmer & Son, 150 N. 16th Street, Philadelphia; no mention of Goodwin;
McClees' business was "pictures" at McClees Co. LTD at 1417 Walnut Street Philadelphia; Sharpless & Watts was
a tile business comprised of William C. Sharpless and David H. Watts at 1522 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia.
'" TTie Evening Call, March 29, 1893, Herzog Scrapbook, 35.
'°° The North American, March 29, 1893, Herzog Scrapbook, 35.
'" Philadelphia Record, March 29, 1893, Herzog Scrapbook, 35.
'°' Philadelphia Public Ledger, March 29, 1893. Herzog Scrapbook, 34.
The first floor was divided into many rooms. The vestibule was decorated
in mosaic tiles, stained glass and carved wood. There was a salon decorated in
Empire style with gold silk on the walls and the woodwork painted in ivory and
gold. The first floor also contained a Lx)uis XV apartment.'" On the entresol,
between the first and second floor was a small tile covered bathroom. The back
part of the second floor contained Louis XV style bed chamber, in a rose color
scheme with papered wall and painted ceiUng. The library was in the front part of
the second floor, finished in richly carved black walnut and the walls were covered
with burlap and painted. The third floor front contained a Medieval style dining hall
with a nook in one comer and paneled ceiUng and walls.
The Associated Art Workers building only appeared in the 1894 city
directory. Herzog's individual contribution to the overall design of the Associated
Art Worker's house was not to be found in the known documents nor are there any
known renderings. It can only be assumed that he played a major role in the
decoration of the walls and ceilings.
Chapter V: Methods of Decorative Finish Conservation
Some of Herzog's work has been damaged or destroyed, but a substantial
amount still survives, sometimes visible, sometimes hidden by subsequent layers
of paint. Conservation is not an approach that is frequently appUed to architectural
decorative finishes. Finishes are considered to have a hmited life span and to be
relatively easily and cheaply reproduced and replaced. Easily obliterated by
continual changes in taste and altered by environmental agents causing fading,
darkening and loss, architectural surface finishes remain among the most
misunderstood and misinterpreted aspects of the historical interior ' Few historic
buildings retain their original finishes unobscured. Architectural decorative finishes
are rarely considered valuable enough in themselves to justify a costly recovery or
conservation treatment In the restoration of historic interiors, the original
appearance is recreated more often than the original material is preserved.
The appropriate treatment of decorative finishes should follow those
conservation principles already described in various charters and standards for
artistic and historic resources. These include accurate and objective documentation,
retention of original fabric and evidences of change over time, respect for age value
(patina) and interventions that are reversible or at least available for retreatment at a
If the plaster is damaged in any way, there are special methods used to
repair it without ruining the paintings. If there is significant plaster damage, the
structure should be inspected by an architect or engineer. Plaster repairs must be
completed before any conservation treatment is begun.
The keys often break, especially on ceilings where the original plaster
work was poorly done. If the wood lath strips were placed too close together, or
the lath was nailed directly over planks, the keys do not form properly, and the
plaster may eventually sag away from the lath. When broken keys cause plaster to
come loose from the lath, the typical solution is to tear down the loose plaster, and
patch the resulting hole. This simple technique has major disadvantages when there
is an irreplaceable finish on the plaster. If the wall is covered with decorative
painting, the removal of original fabric is out of the question.
Loose or bowed plaster that has lost its hold with the lath but is still in place
can be re-attached, making the plaster sound again. Injection grouting is a method
of plaster consolidation used to re-attach loose plaster.' ICCROM researchers
reported on consolidation as the process of reattachment of the plaster layers to each
other or the primary support to the masonry wall or to the lath." Detachment is
detected by a hollow sound detected by tapping the plaster. The aim of
consolidation is to re-adhere the layers with a material that is an effective adhesive,
that is retrievable and compatible with the original material in chemical, physical and
mechanical properties. Such consolidation is generally carried out by injection. The
injection procedure requires identification of the detached area, access to the cavity,
either from the front where a hole must be made, or from the reverse. Dirt and other
interfering matter must be removed from the point of entry. The area must then be
pre-wet to encourage movement of the adhesive and to discourage absorption of the
adhesive by the surrounding material. Finally the adhesive is injected. Pressure
exerted from the front and damming of cracks and other leakage points are
The neestablishment of cohesive bonds between the particles of a plaster
layer is considered microstructural consolidation. While the consolidation of
separated plaster layers is referred to as macrostructural consolidation, particle
consolidation maybe seen as microstructural. When the cohesive strength of a
' Morgan W. Phillips, "Adhesives for the Reattachment of Loose Plaster," Association for Preservation
Technology Bulletin. Vol. XXH, no. 2, (1980): 41.
' D. M. Ferragni et al., "Injection Grouting of Mural Paintings and Mosaics," Adhesives and Consolidants, UC,
Ports, (1984): 110.
' Ferragni, 1 12.
plaster is lost, the adhesion ijetween the particles are to some degrees lost, a result
of the natural or inflicted deterioration of the plaster binding component. In wall
and ceiling painting plasters, it is the adhesive ability of the lime (calcium carbonate
of gypsum) that is in jeopardy. Generally this can be detected by powdering,
crumbling plaster. Conservation treatment requires the reestablishment of the
cohesion between the grains while respecting the chemical character and retaining,
as much as possible, the physical and mechanical properties of the original material.
The consolidant must also be retrievable, as little toxic as possible, have the ability
to penetrate as deeply as necessary and be stable (non-yellowing, non-darkening) in
as much as it is necessary from an aesthetic and practical perspective.
When executed properly, these methods allow a continuous bond between
lath or masonry and plaster. Such a bond limits the stress on any given area of the
plaster, and is stronger than the bond with the original mechanical keys or masonry.
The injection method is especially valuable with heavy ceiling plaster. Because the
stress is spread over the maximum surface area, the relative flexibiUty of the
adhesives is not a problem; furthermore it may be an advantage because is allows
for the differential expansion and contraction of the substrate, plaster and adhesive.
Injection grouting is an alternative to removing detached wall paintings.
This method, if considered as a one step in a process which includes protection and
maintenance, has become the basis of less disfiguring and less costly conservation
practices for wall painting.'
Once the necessary plaster repairs are completed the conservation of the
painted surface may be commenced There are several approaches which include
documentation, cleaning, consolidation, and in-painting
If restoration is not feasible or desired, there are several ways to protect and
conceal paintings with drywall or panels. If the paintings are in good condition,
they can be sealed with removable varnish and wallpaper. A drop ceiling could also
' Julia Lichtblau and Darla M. Olson, "Uncovering Decorative Painting," The Old House Journal, vol. XIV,
no. 4, (May 1986): 180.
Prior to any conservation treatments, historical research should be done. If
the decorative painting is overpainted, historical documents can prove their existence
and help locate them. If the paintings are exposed, research can determine when the
paintings were done, by whom and whether or not they are original. Documents
describing local history and the history of the building may contain valuable
information. Additional information is contained within artists' or craftsmen's
bills, letters, photographs, diaries, and newspaper articles in municipal or historical
society archives or in family records. As George Herzog did, other decorative
artists completed a number of works in a given locale, it is possible to identify a
decorative painter by comparing the style with others nearby. Localized economic
booms encouraged such clusters of decorative painters, in the mid to late 19th
century. The newly wealthy often commissioned houses decorated in the height of
After researching documentary evidence, an examination of the building
itself may yield many clues. If the written and photographic documentation does
not reveal the locations of the paintings, physical examination of the areas where
decoration was usually applied may provide information. These areas include above
the wainscotting, along the cornice lines, in the comers and centers of the ceiling. It
is possible to slide a sharp blade underneath blistering paint and peel away small
areas to reveal earlier finishes. An examination under non-historic features, such as
drop ceilings and light fixtures may reveal paintings.
Often overpainted images leave visible clues. Temperature differences in the
paint layers can cause dirt to cling to the surface along the underlying pattern,
creating a dark " ghost image" of the paintings, which usually can be seen under
normal light. The extra paint thickness where a pattern has been applied over a field
color can create a tiny ridge beneath the overpainting. This can be seen under
"raking light" This can be achieved by shining a reflector-type light with a 300-
watt bulb two or three feet from the surface at an angle. The variations in the
thickness will show up as shadows that trace the overpainted patterns.'
Overpainted images can seldom be resurrected intact, especially if the paint
layers are firmly bonded together. As each layer is removed, the patterns must be
documented and paint samples taken for eventual reproduction. This is one of the
most difficult processes of painting conservation. A paste-type paint remover is
usually required to remove overpainting, but mechanical methods can be used if the
paint is chipping, extremely thick or flaking off. This usually occurs where layers
are incompatible, such as oil paint over glaze. In this case it may be possible to
remove it by the use of a sharp blade under the cracks at a shallow angle. This
method is performed with extreme care as to not scratch the substrate.'" Once an
area is uncovered, it may be left out for view beneath a shield of glass or plexiglass.
Msible paintings may require cleaning, filling of cracked plaster, and in-
painting of damaged areas of the design. Paintings can be soiled from graffiti,
repeated touching, old varnish, household dust, coal dust and air pollution. Paint
types and finishes determine which procedures and materials to use. Within one
building, there is no stock procedure for a given surface because of differences in
the type of soil, paint chemistry, temperature, and humidity. The substrates may be
different but the principles are the same. Ideally, in cleaning finishes, one removes
unwanted material in a controlled way. Qeaning can actually contribute to
stabilizing a structure in addition to improving the appearance of the surface. Dirt
can be a source of deterioration when it attracts moisture to a surface or when it is
' Information on painting discovery techniques was provided via telephone conversation with decorative painter
Bemie Gnienke of Conrad Schmitt Studios Inc. New Berlin, Wisconsin. December 1991.
abrasive." Before any cleaning is commenced, it is important to assess the
condition of the structure and ask why cleaning should be done. Is the finish dirty
or stained or faded? Is the dirt damaging the finish? Can the finish be safely
cleaned? What effect will the cleaning have on the appearance of the surface? Will
the finish need to be cleaned soon again? Is the proposed treatment safe for the
conservator and the finish? How far should the cleaning go?'-
The genCTal practice of cleaning decorative paintings is to start with the most
innocuous method and work up to stronger ones. After removing dust from the
painting, the first approach to cleaning should always be by chemical means as
opposed to mechanical methods. Often plain water or water with detergent added
can resolve a major part of a cleaning problem. Greasy soot, old fixatives and
incrustations normally require the use of chemical agents or solvents. Preliminary
test must be preformed to establish the type of cleaning material and appUcation
method. Since damage caused by cleaning is irreversible, this point is very
important. Most mechanical methods (especially abrasive) cause microscopic
surface damage and should be avoided or, if used at all, restricted to limited area for
Distemper paintings cannot be cleaned with liquid, nor do they withstand
abrasion well. Following the principle of most innocuous first, the first step is
usually begun by brushing the surface very lightly with a soft bristle brush.'* Tests
should be preformed to determined how embedded the soil is by gently rubbing the
paintings with a soft pencil eraser or the dry-cleaning pads that architects use to
clean drawings. As the work is performed, it is essaitial that the painting is
checked for signs of abrasions. As the cleaning is done, previous attempts to
restore the painting may become visible. If overpainting was badly done or used
" Joyce Zucker and Deborah Gordon, "Decorative Finishes: Aspects of Conservation and Cleaning," in The
Interiors Handbook for Historic Buildings, ed. Charles E. Fisher m, Michael and Anne Grimmer. (Washington D. C:
Historic Preservation Education Foundation, 1988), 23.
'^ The Conservation Unit, Science for Conservators, Book 2, Cleaning, (London, 1987), 13.
" Information provided during Penn-ICCROM European Conservation Course on Architectural Surfaces,
" Informaticm provided via telefAone conversation with decorative painter Bonie Gruenke of Coniad Schmitt
Studios Inc. New Berlin, Wisconsin. December 1991.
incompatible paint, these sections should be removed and inpainted with distemper
Matte-oil finishes are also difficult to clean because they are porous and
absorb dirt easily. However, they can be cleaned with liquids and are more resistant
to abrasion than distemper. The cleaning process in the same as with distemper,
starting with a soft brush, followed by a dry-cleaning pads and erasers. Areas with
complicated glazes, delicate brush work, and metalUc leafing are easUy abraded and
so require a light touch. The dry method should be used as much as possible. If
the dry method does not work a series of liquid cleansers could be used after
Altered organic consohdants or protective coatings such as siccative oil
and/or animal glues can be removed normally by a low alkali ammonium salt
jxjultices. The removal and p)artial extraction of soluble salts is carried out with
distilled water poultices, the poultices must be left to dry so that the dissolved salts
migrate and recrystallize into the poultice."
If the original finish has been lost or damaged through flaking and
detachment between the finish coat of plaster and the paint film, consolidation is
possible. It may be feasible as well as desirable to consolidate and re-attach flaking
paint and in-paint those areas of loss. If the original decorative work has littie
artistic and historic merit, a less conservative, more economical approach might be
Depending on the significance of the finish, it may be necessary that the
paint be scraped off in the flaking areas, that the still secure areas be saved and that a
largCT degree of in-painting occur. Various grades of polyvinyl acetate resins as well
as Acryloid B-67 and Acryloid B-72 should be tested for viscosity, adhesive
" Zucker and Gordon, 27.
" Infonnation provided during Penn-ICCROM European Conservation Course on Architectural Surfaces,
strength elasticity and cosmetic impact on the painted surface." These resins which
are widely used in the conservation field both as adhesives, consolidants and as
In some cases, a solution of Acryloid B-72 in xylene with several drops of
cellosolve acetate added to aid in the softening of brittle paint It has proven to be an
effective material in consolidating stenciled paint films without altering the
appearance of the surface. The Acryloid B-72 is applied with a brush and allowed
to flow into cracked, flaking areas. This is followed by the application of the
straight solvent xylene to improve penetration. When the area is saturated, the resin
is allowed to dry. Excess resin, which will give the surface an unwanted sheen , is
picked up by rolling a swab dipped in xylene over the surface. This is followed by
the use of a warm tacking iron to relax and set the re-attached paint The iron
should be used over a silicone mylar release sheet to prevent sticking.'*
Acrylics are preferable to oils for in-painting oil painting because the colors
are stable. Once the paintings are cleaned, the colors can be matched. Colors are
matched under natural light or 34(X)-K photographic floodlights. A swatch of
varnished acrylic emulsion is matched to an area of the dry varnished acrylic
original. Determining the original colors of oil paint is often difficult because they
darken considerably when covered for long periods of time."
Distemper colors that have been overpainted are difficult to restore
accurately due to the fact that they have been distorted by the overlying paint's
moisture and usually will have also absorbed some of its color. It is possible to find
" Robert L. Feller, On Picture Varnishes and Their Solvents, (Cleveland: The Press of Case Western Reserve
University, 1971), 109. Acryloid B-72 is an ethyl methacrylate copolymer. Acryloid B-67 is an isobutyl
methacrylate cojx)lymer. Tliere is an extensive bibliography and information on the resin and its uses in the Material
Section of the Getty Conservation Information Network Database.
'^ Zucker and Gordon, 27.
" Information provided via telephone conversation with decorative painter Benue Gruenke of Conrad Schmitt
Studios Inc., New Berlin, Wisconsin. December 1991.
little fxxkets of fresh color which were locked into porous areas of the plaster.
Once examined under a microscope, the paint can be matched. If the distemper was
not overpainted, a patch can be scraped away from the surface to reveal a fresher
Samples of fresh color should be preserved as a p>ermanent record of the
original condition of the paintings, matched with Munsell System colors and coded
accordingly. The Munsell Color System is a universal system for documenting
color, it is used by artists, architects, conservators, printers and others who need a
fixed, non-subjective color reference system. Getting an exact match may be
difficult, but a close Munsell match is considered the best reference for recording
Color is difficult to determine because the nature of paint materials is to
constantly change. Usually the best attempt is a close interpretation of the color.
Paint analysts do not rely exclusively on microscopic or chemical analysis to
determine the original color scheme. An understanding of the artist's color concept
to replicate the color is required. For example, it is possible that the artist used a
cheaper color to cover a large area, saving the expensive color for the final coat. Or
perhaps the undercoat was painted with one color to give a certain character to the
overpainting. It takes a combination of microanalysis, paint removal and an artist's
intuition to make an accurate determination of the original color. ^'
After determining the color scheme, the base of the field coat is applied.
The pattern is registered and transferred to the plaster; the missing sections of the
design are in-painted.
Chapter VI: Conclusion
^' Information provided via telephone conversation with decorative painter Bonie Gnienke of Conrad Schmitt
Studios Inc., New Berlin, Wisconsin. December 1991.
In the 30 to 40 years that George Herzog worked in Philadelphia and New
York, his name became associated with late 19th-century upper class taste. An
examination of George Herzog 's decorative work sheds new light on Philadelphia's
culture and history. As evidenced in his wall and ceiling decorations, Herzog
desired to design the entire interior. His prolific output contributed greatly to the
history of Philadelphia's architecture and design, more influential perhaps in some
ways than most other decorators. George Herzog 's designs were for the most part
not just simply wall and ceiling decorations, they formed the basis of the interior's
overall design scheme. Herzog 's wall and ceiling designs, as side firom the
architecture itself were the most prominent component of the interior.
Culturally and historically, the significance and scope of Herzog 's work is
important to the City of Philadelphia and to a lesser degree in New York City. By
1879, most of the decorative painters working Philadelphia were German or of
German descent." German trained craftsmen in Philadelphia were prevalent and
Herzog would have most likely remained in contact with people with similar
backgrounds. Like many other decorative painters, Herzog exhibited the
characteristics of the skills he acquired because of his German training. He
responded to a color palette typical of the time and area as well as produced designs
that paralleled Victorian taste. Herzog 's designs were fundamentally conservative.
His work did not so much break new ground as reinvent the past, turning it into
something fresh and free of flaws. Herzog 's German Renaissance designs were his
most unique. In these designs, he combined his skills with traditional images and
designs from his homeland. Herzog was able to integrate these German inspired
designs into to his work for various German-American organizations like The
Liederkianz Society in New York City and Young Maennerchor Hall in
Philadelphia. His renderings suggest he scoured the world for images, which he
edited and recast in his own refined versions. His images were composed from the
styles of the Renaissance to Baroque, and Japanesque to Classical Greek, but most
of all, they fit into a vision of upper-class American taste. These styles were all
Listing of "Painters, Fresco" found in Gopsill 's Business Directory. 1 879.
popular in England, the Continent and America during the last quarter of the 19th
century. In these cases, at least, Herzog was part of the general trend at the time.
Herzog created a world of elegance and comfortable rooms, presented with
great confidence and self-assurance. Herzog 's pleasant "Old World" interiors were
removed from politics, strife and the hard edges of life. One would have to had a
heart of stone not to respond to Herzog 's rooms. They were sensual, so utterly
comfortable, they were a fantasy of escape into a past, rendered more perfect than
the real past was. They epitomized a past that Americans knew through European
tours. Herzog was able to correct the mistakes and paradoxically provide a better
sense of what the experience of being in a lavish Hemish palace or Classically-
inspired room ought to have been.
Artifice has always been an essential part of art, a discipline that has long
indulged in the fantasy that it was being more original that it really was. The
Romans copied from the Greeks; the Renaissance copied from both; the 18th and
19th centuries copied from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. During that last
quarter of the 19th-century and the first quarter of the 20th-century those designers,
like Herzog, that were not involved with the developing modernism were outdoing
each other with the artifice of their stage sets.
The rooms that Herzog decorated were often in buildings that possessed a
powerful presence, buildings that did not so much deny artifice as elevate it into
something that, at its best, seemed noble. The decorative art of George Herzog was
never vulgar, he was too preoccupied with taste to allow himself to let go, even at
the risk of vulgarity. Herzog 's designs were not at the cutting edge, yet they were
not boring, because they were continually energized by a remarkable tension
between sublimeness and accessibility. Herzog 's designs were at the same time
elitist and popular, positioned carefully between the mass market and something
more exclusive. Especially in his residential designs, Herzog succeeded in selling
artifice to the nouveau riche. Produced at a time when Amraican design was
growing up leaving an adolescent stage and able to compete with the artists of the
old nations of Europe. These interiors were created for the newly rich. The
Philadelphia mansions that were too restrained by restrictive lots to convey
adequately the enormous wealth they contained, represented a patronage that
mimicked the support that art once received ftom fifteenth-century Italian princes.
It is rare to find such an extensive amount of work and documentation by
one decorative artist remaining after such long a period of time. Architectural
decorative finishes and renderings in good condition are normally scarce. Herzog's
surviving renderings illustrate that the traditionally trained artist possessed the skill
to illustrate his ideas rapidly and to elaborate them with carefully executed facsimiles
of the proposed worL These renderings often rival in delicacy the work of
miniature painting. His renderings and completed work prove that Herzog carried
out his work with care and articulated every detail of the ideas depicted. The
surviving renderings are detailed illustrations of accepted and purposed designs
which articulated the more difficult and important details, such as flowers and
figures. In some cases, the completed work deviated slightly from the proposed
design. These changes occurred in the composition of a wall or ceiling panel
details, leaving the overall color and design scheme intact.
The opportunity to document the work of George Herzog is valuable and
greatly enhances the understanding of the ties between the decorative painter and the
era in which he worked." Unlike the architectural heritage of Philadelphia and New
York, little has been done to document and research existing decorative finishes. To
often interior decorations are usually destroyed with little or no evidence remaining
that could detail an accurate interpretation of the previous design statement. An
examination of the historic literature indicates that wall and ceilings were
increasingly decorated by the 1880's and the practice remained fashionable for
decades. Decorative finishes were affordable only by the wealthy, middle-class
households used wall papers and fabric. By the 1880's, white ceilings were
fashionable only if the rest of the room was also white.^ Only with efforts to
locate, identify, record and document decorative painting in the Riiladelphia and
" For a conq)lete list of Herzog's works and renderings refer to Appendix I.
" Gail Caskey Winkler and Roger W, Moss, Mctorian Interior Decoration, American Interior 1830-1900 (New
York: Henry Holt and Co.. Inc.. 1986). 123.
New York City region, can an accurate understanding of the prevalence of
decorative painting in late 19th-century Philadelphia be reached.
Audsley George A. The Practical Decorator and Omwnentalist, Glasgow:
Blackie & Sons, Ltd., 1892.
Billigmeier, Robert Henry. Americans from Germany: A Study in Cultural Diversity.
Belmont, N.Y.: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1974.
Bishop, A., and C. Lord. The Art of Decorative Stenciling. New York: Viking Press,
Boyce, A.P. Modem Orruvnemation and Interior Decoration. Boston: A. Williams & Co.,
Building Files, Philadelphia Historical Commission.
Conmiissioners for the Erection of the Public Buildings. Reports of Committee on
Fitting up and furnishing Rooms . Philadelphia, May 15, 1891.
Condit, Charles L. Painting and Painter's Materials. New York: The Railroad Gazette,
Dresser, Christopher. Principles of Decorative Design. London: Cassell, Petter and
Falk, Peter Hastings, ed. Who Was Who in American Art. Madison, Conn.: Sound View Press.
Faust, Frederick. The City Hall, Philadelphia: Its Architecture, Sculpture and
History. Philadelphia: Frederick Faust, 1897.
Feller, Robert L. On Piaure Varnishes and Their Solvents. Cleveland: The Press of Case Western
Reserve University, 1971.
Ferragni, D.M. et al. "Injection Grouting of Mural Paintings and Mosaics," Adhesives and
Consolidants, IIC, Paris, (1984).
Foster, William. "The Liederkranz of New York." American German Review, 10 (1944):
Gardiner, F. B. How to Paim Your Victorian House. 1872. Reprint. New York: Samuel
General Lodge Membership Book, #4- 1 (The Grand Lodge Free and Accepted Masons of
Pennsylvania: Philadelphia), 45.
George Herzog Collection, The Athenaeum of Philadelphia.
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Gruenke, Bemie. Telephone conversation with author. December 1991.
Harwood, Buie. "Charles Martin Meister: Decorative Painter In Texas." Journal of
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Harwood, Buie and Betty McKee. "Reproduction of Historic Decorative Ceiling and
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no, 1 (Spring 1978): 43-51.
Harwood, Buie. "Stenciling: Interior Architectural Ornamentation, A Look at 187-1930
with examples fix)m Texas." Journal of Interior Design Education and Research,
vol. 12, no. 1, (Spring 1986): 31-40.
Historical, Genealogical and Biographical Sketch of the Herzog Family (Washington
D.C.: National Research Society.
Huss, Wayne A. The Master Builders: A History of the Grand Lodge of Free and
Accepted Masons of Pennsylvania. Vol. 3 Grand Master Biographies.
Philadelphia: Grand Lodge F. & A.M. of Philadelphia, 1990.
H.D. and J. Mueller Collection, The Athenaeum of Philadelphia.
Illustrated Philadelphia: Its Wealth and Industries. Philadelphia: Righter & Gibson,
Jennings, A. S. The Modem Painter and Decorator, A Practical Work On House
Painting and Decorating, vol.1. London: The Caxton Publishing Co.,n.d.
Jones, Owen. Grammar of Ornament. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company,
Joseph, Byron. New York Interiors at the Turn of the Century. New York: Museum of the
City of New York, 1976.
Kamphoefner, Walter D., Wolfgang Helbich, and Ulrike Sommer, eds. News from the
Land of Freedom. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991.
King, Moses. Philadelphia and Notable Philadelphians . 1902.
King, Pauline. American Mural Paintings. Boston: Noyes, Piatt and Co., 1902.
LaMotte, Anne Herzog, Letter to author, March 13, 1992.
LaMotte, Anne Herzog, George Herzog Collection, Rocky River, Ohio.
Leuchs, Fritz. The Early German Theater in New York. New York: American Press,
Lewis, Arnold, James Turner and Stevai McQuilUn. The Opulent Interiors of the
Gilded Age. New York: Dover Publications, 1986.
Library Company of Philadelphia, Photo Collection
Lichtblau, Julia, and Daria M. Olson. "Uncovering Decorative Painting," The Old House Journal,
vol. XIV, no 4, (May 1986).
Lynes, Russell. The Tastemakers, The Shaping of American Popular Taste. New York; Dover
McCabe, James D. Illustrated History of the Centennial Exhibition. New York: National
Publishing Co., 1975.
Maass, John. The Glorious Enterprise: The Centennial Exhibition of 1876 and H. J.
Schwarzmann, Architea in Chief. New York: American Life Foundation, 1973.
Matero, Frank. "Methodologies of Establishing Appropriate Decorative Finish Treatments," The
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Grimmer.. Washington D. C. : Historic Preservation Education Foundation, 1988.
Memoir of Lodge No. 51. Philadelphia: Free and Accepted Masons of Philadelphia, 1941.
Miller, Fred Interior Decoration: A Practical Treatise on Surface Decoration With
Notes On Colour, Stenciling and Paneling. London: E. Memken, 1885.
Miller, Randall M., ed. Germans in America, Retrospea and Prospea. Philadelphia:
The German Society of Pennsylvania, 1984.
National Cyclopedia of American Biography, Vol 8, 496.
New York Historical Society Library, New York City.
Painting and Decorating, (Selected Volumes, 1887-1894). Philadelphia: The House
Painting and Decorating Comjjany.
Philadelphia and Popular Philadelphians. Philadelphia: North America, 1891.
Philadelphia City Archives, Philadelphia.
Phillips, Morgan W. " Adhesives for tiie Reattachment of Loose Plaster," Association for
Preservation Technology Bulletin, vol XXII, no. 2, (1980).
Poppelier, John. "The 1867 Philadelphia Masonic Temple Competition." Journal of
the Society of Architectural Historians, vol 26, no. 4, (Dec. 1967): 278-284.
Robson, Charles. The Manufactories and Manufaaurers of Pennsylvania of the
Nineteenth Century. Philadelphia: Galaxy Publishing Co., 1875.
Science for Conservators, Book 2, Cleaning. London: The Conservation Unit, 1987.
Scharf, Thomas J. and Thomas Westcott. History of Philadelphia, 1609-1884. 3 vols.
Stencil Treasury. New York: A. Wiggers, (1895).
Tatman, Sandra L. and Roger W. Moss. Biographical Dictionary of Philadelphia
Architects, J 700-1 930. Boston: G.K. Hall & Co., 1985.
The Deutsches Maler Journal. (1850s- 1890s). Published in Germany; selected copies
are in the Beck Collection at the The Athenaeum of Philadelphia.
7?!^ £^Mt/^, (June 1934): 332.
The liederkranz Society. History of the Liederkranz of the City of New York: 1847 to
1947 and of the Arion, New York. New York: The Drechsel Printing Co., 1948. The
Painter (Journal). vol.IV (Jan-Dec. 1885). Cleveland: The Painting Company.
The Painter's Magazine ( and Coach Painter); or (And Wallpaper Trade Journal,
1889). Selected volumes Oct. 1886-June 1905. New York.
The Philadelphia Real Estate Record and Builder's Guide, Philadelphia Vol. V, no. 32.
August 13, 1890.
The Urban Archives, Temple University, Philadelphia. Newspaper Clipping and Photo
Turner, Fred Jr., Turners Guide to and Description of Philadelphia 's new City Hall or
Public Buildings, 1892.
Tolzmann, Don Heinrich, comp. Genrum Americana: A Bibliography. Metuchen, New
Jersey: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1975.
\folz, John. "Paint Bibliography." Association for Preservation Technology, Newsletter
Supplement, vol. IV(1985): 39.
Walker, Francis A. ed. United States International Exhibition 1876, Vol. TV, Reports &
Awards, Groups 3 to 7. Washington D. C: Government Printing Office, 1880.
Walker, Francis A. ed. United States Intematiorml Exhibition 1876, Vol. VII, Reports &
Awards, Groups 3 to 7. Washington D. C: Government Printing Office, 1880.
Weber, Richard. Philadelphia Preserved, Catalog of the Historic American Building Survey.
RiUadelphia: Temple University Press, 1976.
Whiteman, Maxwell. Gentlemen in Crisis, the First Century of the Union League of
Philadelphia, 1862-1962. Philadelphia: Union League, 1963.
Who's Who in Pennsylvania. 1904.
Winkler, Gail Caskey and Roger Moss. Viaorian Interior Decoration. New York: Henry
Holt and Co., 1986.
William Beck Collection, The Athenaeum of Philadelphia.
Yorston, John C. "The Masonic Temple of Philadelphia ... " 77ie Keystone, no 1988, vol.
XXXIX (September 16, 1905): 2-5.
Zucker, Joyce and Deborah Gordon. "Decorative Finishes: Aspects of Conservation and
Cleaning." The Interiors Handbook/or Historic Buildings, edited by Charles Fisher
m, Michael and Anne Grimmer.. Washington D. C. : Historic Preservation Education
List of George Herzog Collections
AOP The Athenaeum of Philadelphia
AHL Mrs. Anne LaMotte Herzog, Rocky River, Ohio.
COA Collection of the author.
FAM The Grand Lodge, Free and Accepted Masons of Pennsylvania Library and Museum,
Masonic Temple, Philadelphia.
List of Figures
1. George Herzog, no date, photograph used in Moses King's Philadelphia and Notable
Philadelphians, 1902, FAM
2. Chaf)el rendering, "sketched and painted by George Herzog painter of decorations,
Munich, May 1871," AOR
3. Masonic Temple of Philadelphia, Egyptian Hall, photograph, FAM.
4. Masonic Temple of Philadelphia, Egyptian Hall, signed rendering, FAM.
5. Masonic Temple of Philadelphia, Ionic Hall, photograph, FAM.
6. Masonic Temple of Philadelphia, Kelly Portrait, painting on canvas, FAM.
7. Masonic Temple of Philadelphia, Norman Hall, rendering, FAM.
8. Masonic Temple of Philadelphia, Norman Hall, photo, FAM.
9. Masonic Temple of Philadelphia, Stair Hall, rendering, FAM.
1 0. Masonic Temple of Philadelphia, Library Hall, photo, FAM.
1 1 . Masonic Temple of Philadelphia, "For East Wall, Corinthian Hall," signed rendering,
12. Masonic Temple of Philadelphia, Corinthian Hall, sketch, FAM.
13. Masonic Temple of Philadelphia, Corinthian Hall photograph, FAM.
14. Union League, library, signed rendering, AOP.
15. Union League, library, photograph from Union League Club, Illustrated by Gilbert and
Bacon, Philadelphia: 1887.
16. Union League, "For Ceiling of Banquet Room," signed rendering, COA.
17. Union League of Philadelphia, banquet hall,photo finom Union League Club, Dlustrated
by Gilbert and Bacon, Philadelphia: 1887.
1 8. The Liederkranz, ballroom, rendering, AHL.
19. The Liederkranz, ballroom, photograph from History of the Liederkranz of the City of
New York: 1847 to 1947 and of the Arion, New York.
20. Widener Mansion, banquet room, rendering, AHL
2 1 . Widener Mansion, banquet hall, photograph by George Thomas, published in Divided
22. Kemble Mansion, "For Ceiling of Rear Hall," signed rendering, AOP.
23. Kemble Mansion, rear hall, photograph from the building files of the Philadelphia
24. Kemble Mansion, "For library," signed rendering, AOP.
25. Elkins Mansion, dining room, rendering, AOP.
26. Philadelphia City Hall, "Scheme for Court Rooms A and B, 3rd Floor," signed rendering,
27. Philadelphia City Hall, "For Ceiling and Wall for Law Library," signed rendering, AOP.
28. Philadelphia City Hall, Mayor's Office, photograph from Frederick Faust, The Gty Hall
Philadelphia, Its Architecture, Sculpture and History .
29. Philadelphia City Hall, Supreme Court, photograph from Frederick Faust, The City Hall
Philadelphia, Its Architecture, Sculpture and History .
30. Philadelphia City Hall, Consultation Room,photograph from Frederick Faust, The City
Hall Philadelphia, Its Architecture, Sculpture and History .
».- \\'A-_i- . l-o
Figure 1 1 .
^CHCMB rMi' Covicr R*o«'va A*uB. Bt ri.i'ciK
Tor Cxiunq m>»V^aui^ or'LAvrLiaitAiiy
Appendix I: Chronological List of Executed Work
Centennial Exposition 1 876
Hamilton Disston, c. 1880 (Attributed)
1530 N. 16th Street
Union League of Philadelphia, 1864-1864
140 South Broad Street
John Eraser, architect
Restaurant, 1881-1882, AOP
Banquet Room, 1881-1882, COA
Flemish Renaissance Room, 1892
The Liederkranz Society, 1887
1 15 East 58th Street, between Lexington and Park Ave.
H.J. Schwarzmann and William Kuhles
Ballroom, n.d., AHL
Masonic Temple, Philadelphia, 1868-1873
1 Broad Street
James Windrim, architect
Egyptian Hall, 1888, FAM
Ionic Hall, 1890, FAM
Norman Hall, 1890, FAM
Stairways and Halls 1895, FAM
Corinthian Hall, 1903, FAM
Ubrary, 1899, FAM
St. James Roman Catholic Church, 1881-87
3728 Chestnut Street at S. E. Comer 38 th Street
Edwin F. Durang, architect.
p. A.B. Widener Residence, 1887
1200 N. Broad Street, N. W. comer of Girard Street.
WiUis G. Hale, architect
Banquet Room, AHL
Young Maennerchor Hall, 1 889
6th and Vine Streets, Philadelphia
Paul Banner, Architect
Kemble House, 1890
2201-5 Green Street, Philadelphia
James Windrim, architect
Rear Hall ceiling, AHL
Library ceiling, AOP
William L. ekins, 1890
1218 N. Broad, Philadelphia
William B. Powell, architect
Dining Room, n.d., AOP
Philadelphia City Hall, 1 87 1 - 1 90 1
Center Square, Philadelphia
John Mc Arthur Jr., Thomas U. Walter, architects
Mayor's Offices, 1889
Supreme Court Rooms, 1891
Judges' Consultation Room
Ceiling and Walls of Law Library, AOP
Scheme for Court Room A & B, 3rd Floor, AOP
Associate Art Workers, 1893
1518 Chestnut St., Philadelphia
Bank of North America, 1893-95
305-07 Chestnut St., Philadelphia
James H. and John T. Windrim, architects
Wall design, AOP
Ceiling for Directors Room, AOP
John H. Converse House, 1 895
between Bryn Mawr and Rosemont
Ceiling and Wall of Library, AHL
Land Title and Trust Building 1 897-98
100-1 18 S. Broad St., Philadelphia
D. H, Bumham & Co.
Color Scheme for Main Office, AOP
Harmony Club, 1906
4 East 60th Street between Fifth and Madison, New York City
McKim, Mead & White, architects
Academy of Music
William L. Austin, Esq.
Ceiling for Room B, AOP
Music Room, AOP
Dining Room, AOP
Ceiling design, AHL
Charles W. Bergner
1516 N. 16th Street
Mr. C. L. Bemheimer
Pier mirror design, AOP
Ceiling of Dining Room, AHL.
Thomas H. Dolan
1809 Walnut Street, Philadelphia
Third floor ceiling, back building, first room, AOP
J. Elver son
J. Elverson, Esq.
Ceiling of Library, AHL
Edwin H. Pi tier
1600 Walnut Street, Philadelphia.
Hall Decoration, AOP
Charles J. Harrah
858 N. Broad Street
J. G. Harris, Esq.
Wall and Ceiling Design, AHL
Side Wall of Parlor, AHL
Miss Anable's School
Broad and Pine Streets, Philadelphia
Market Street, Philadelphia
First Floor Counting Room
Chas. Pratt Residence
St Johns Industrial School
Wall and Ceiling for the R. C. Chapel.
St. Lukes P.E. Church
Wall design, AOP
St. Mary's Church
Jacob H. Shiff House
New York City
Side walls of entrance hall, AOP
U. S. C. N. & P. O.
Ceiling for Courtroom
Walnut Street Presbyterian Church
Walnut Street, West of 39th, Philadelphia
William Gray Warden
Mrs. M. E. Whitaker
Reception Room, AOP
Edward H, Williams 101 N. 33rd Street
Wall and Ceiling Design for Japanese Library, ( attributed), AOP
A. Wood, Esq.
Side Walls for Library
Appendix II: Philadelphia City Directory Listings
Kaiser & Co.
1874 K. Kaiser & Co. h. Powell
Konstantine & Otto Kaiser & G, Herzog h. 500 Powell
1 875 Kaiser & Herzog, h. 500 Powell
Otto Kaiser, h. 500 Powell
1877 Kaiser & Herzog, h. 1005 Walnut
Otto Kaiser, h. 500 Powell
1879 "Painters Fresco," Otto Kaiser Jr., 1005 Walnut
1880 Decorative Painter
1334 Chestnut h. 1706 Race
1 88 1 Decorative Painter
1334 Chestnut h. 1706 Race
1882 Decorative Painter
1334 Chestnut h. 640 Lydia
1 883 Fresco Painter
1334 Chestnut h. 3304 Walnut
1 884 Fresco Painter
1334 Chestnut h. 3304 Walnut
1334 Chestnut h. 209 N. 19th Street
1 1 12 Walnut
1897 Artist & Decorator
1430 Chestnut h. 3303 Arch
advertisement at bottom of page: "George Herzog: Ceiling and Wall Decorations'
1900 No listing
1901 No listing
1902 No listing
1903 No listing
1904 h. 3303 Arch
Listings found in McEkoy and Gopsills Philadelphia City Directories
Historical Society of Pennsylvania
Appendix HI: New York City Directory Listings
5 East 17th
431 Fifth Av, h. Pa.
501 Fifth Av
501 Fifth Av
95 Fifth Av, h. Pa.
95 Fifth Av, h. Pa.
95 Fifth Av, h. Pa.
156 5th Av.
156 5th Av.
156 5th Av.
h. 463 W. End Av.
h. 96 Riverside Dr.
77 5th Av h. 96 Riverside Drive
665 5th Av R807, h. 319 W. 98th
665 5th Av R807, h. Germantown, Pa.
30 E. 57th RIO, h. Phila. Pa.
SOW. 40thR35, h. do.
Listings found in Trow's New York City Directory
New York Historical Society, Library
FINF APTS LIBRARY
JUN 17 1993
UNIV. OF PENNA.
3 1198 04977 2986
3 1198 04977 2986