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Full text of "Defensive measures against gas attacks"

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80GI 'IZ NVf -IVd 



[FlDEiVTIAL ^ N° 253 (Revised) 

Not to be taken into Front Line Trenches. 
|}d Down to include all Officers and Organizations 
all Combat Units. 




■./? 



PENSIVE MEASURES 



AtiMNST 



GAS ATTACKS 



►QUARTERS AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 
FRANCE 

Noveinber, 1917 



DEFENSIVE MEASURES 



GAS ATTACKS 



COMDEiVTIAL N^ 253 (Revised) 

Not to be taken into Front Line Trenches. 

Issued Down to include all Officers and Organizations 

all Combat Units. 



DEFENSIVE MEASURES 



AGAINST 



GAS ATTACKS 



HEADQUARTERS AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 
FRANCE 

November, 1Q17 



66 ,. 



HEADQIARTKRS AMERICAN EXPEDITIOIVARY FORCES 



France, November 30, 1917. 



The following rules and regulations governing defensive 
measures to be taken against gas attacks are published for 
the information and guidance of all concerned. 



Hy Command of General Pershing 

James G. IIARBORD, 

Brigadier General, 

Chief of Staff . 

ornciai : 

Benj. ALVORD, 
Adjutant General. 



860655 



DEFENSIVE MEASURES 



GAS ATTACKS, 



INTRODUaHON. 



A. — GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. 

1. The following notes on defensive measures against 
hostile gas attacks have been compiled for the guidance of 
officers in instructing their men and giving orders on the 
subject. 

2. In the absence of suitable protection the gases used in 
war are extremely deadly. Breathing only very small quan- 
tities may cause death or serious injury. Hence, it is 
essential that no time be lost in putting on the respirators or 
masks when a gas alarm is heard. 

It cannot be too strongly impressed on all that the meas- 
ures which have been elaborated to meet hostile gas attacks 
afford perfect protection, and if they are carried out pro- 
perly and promptly no one will suffer from gas poisoning. 

3. The whole basis for protecting troops against gas lies 
a) in keeping the appliances in perfect working order ; b) in 
learning to adjust them rapidly under all conditions; and 
c) in ensuring that every man is given immediate warning. 
These results can only be attained : 

i) By frequent and thorough inspection of all protective 
appliances. The inspections to be daily in the trenches. 

2) By thorough instruction and training in their use. 

3) By every man understanding and complying with all 
Standing Orders on the subject of defense against gas. 

If these are effectively carried out, there is nothing to fear 
from hostile gas attacks. Officers must impress this on 
their men, since an important object of all anti-gas instruc- 
tion should be to inspire complete confidence in the efficacy 
of the methods adopted. 



8 — 



STANDING ORDERS FOR DEFENSE AGAINST GAS. 



I. — Carriage of Respirators. 

a) Within 12 miles of the front line a box respirator or 
mask w^ill always be carried. 

b) Within 5 miles of the front line a box respirator will 
always be carried, and every man will be clean-shaven, 
except that a moustache may be worn. 

c) Within 2 miles of the front line and within areas spec- 
ialhj exposed to gas shelling, the box respirator and mask 
will always be catcif d. The respirator will be carried in 
the ^' Alert" position. It will be worn outside all clothintf, 
9n,xl nothijic; will be sluog across the chest in such away as 
to! iiiterlerc with * he quick adjustment of the respirator. 
The chin strap of the steel helmet will be worn on the point 
of the chin. 

d) Military Police will report all cases of infringement of 
the above orders. 

e) The above-mentioned zones will be conspicuously 
marked by each Corps, in such manner as to attract the 
attention of persons entering them. 

/) When not carried in the ''Alert" position, the box res- 
pirator will be carried over the left hip, the sling passing 
over the right shoulder. Nothing shall be worn so as to 
interfere with the immediate shifting of the respirator to the 
'* Alert " position. If the mask is also carried, it will be 
over the right hip, so as not to interfere with shifting the 
box^respirator to the "Alert'' position, the sling passing 
over the left shoulder but under the sling of the respirator. 



II. — General Precautionary Measures. 

Within the two mile limit the following will be'observcd : 

a) Box respirators will be inspected daily. 

b) Gas N. C. O.'s will inspect daily all gas alarm 
appliances and anti-gas stores. They will see that gas-proof 
dugouts are in good order and the blankets kept moist. 

f) All sentries will act as Gas Sentries and will be pro- 
vided with alarm appliances to give warning in case of gas 
shelling or a gas cloud attack. 

d) Each sentry group will have a definite area to alarm 
in the event of a gas cloud attack or bombardment. 

e) Sentries must be posted to give warning to men in 
dugouts. 

fj All working parties of 10 or more men will have a 
sentry posted to give warning in the event of gas being used 
by the enemy. 

g) Precautions will be taken to protect ammunition from 
the corrosive action of gas. 



— 9 — 

h) Stores of fuel will be kept for clearing dugouts. 

i) Units in the line will make wind observations, and 
sentries will be warned to be on the alert for signs of cloud 
gas whenever the wind is in a dangerous quarter. 

In the area between two and twelve miles from the front 
line the following will^be observed : 

j) Anti-gas appliances will be inspected at least once a 
week and immediately before men proceed to any point 
within the two mile limit. 

k) All sentries, traffic control men, military police, etc., 
when on duty will act as gas sentries and will be provided 
with suitable alarm devices where necessary. 

/) Men may be allowed to take off their respirators when 
sleeping, but must keep them within reach. 

m) Arrangements will be made by Commanders of units 
and Area Commanders to communicate a gas alarm rapidly 
to all ranks. 



III. — Action to be taken in the event of an enemy 
Gas Shell or Trench Mortar Bombardment. 

a) At the first sign o^ gas shell of any kind or on hearing 
the alarm, the breath must be held and the respirator 
adjusted immediately without waiting until the presence of 
gas is recognized. 

/>) The alarm will be spread immediately to all troops in 
the neighborhood : 

i) By gongs, rattles, or klaxons; 

2) By shouting " Gas shells " — after the respirator has 
been adjusted ; 

3) By runners where necessary. 
Strombos Horns will not be used. 

Men in dugouts, observation posts, and mine shafts must 
be warned and sleeping men roused. 

c) Gas-proof dugouts will be closed immediately, and any 
fires burning in such dugouts put out. Care must be taken 
that men do not enter protected dugouts if their clothing 
has been exposed to gas. 

d) Sentries will be posted at suitable points to warn men 
to put on their respirators before entering the shelled area. 
These sentries will not be withdrawn until the area is free 
from gas. 

I\'. — After a Gas Shell or Trench Mortar Bombard- 
ment the folio-wing precautions will be observed. 

a) Respirators will be worn until permission to remove 
them is given by an officer. 

b) Gas may remain in liquid form on the ground for several 
hours after a bombardment. When it is impossible to 
withdraw men from an infected area, respirators will be 



worn until the ground is clear. Gas shell holes will be 
covered with fresh earth when possible, or with chloride of 
lime if available. 

6') Closed spaces such as dugouts and cellars may retain 
gas for many hours and must be cleared by means of fires. 
Men will not enter such places without wearing respirators 
until permission has been given by an officer. 

d) When a man is close to the burst of a gas shell his 
clothes may become contaminated with liquid. When pos- 
sible the clothes will be removed and exposed to the air. 
Care must be taken that men sleeping in closed spaces are 
not gassed by long exposure to small quantities of gas 
brought in on their clothing or equipment. 

e) Men affected by gas will be spared exertion as much 
as possible and casualties will not be allowed to walk to the 
Dressing Station. 

f) Transport will move from the shelled area when pos- 
silDle. Horse respirators will be adjusted on all anifnals 
remaining in the shelled area. 

V. — Action to be taken in the event 
of an enemy Cloud Gas attack. 

The Alarm. 

a) Alarm will at once be given by all means available : 
— by Strombos horns, gongs, rattles, telephone, and, if ne- 
cessary, by orderly. Sentries will warn all ranks in the 
trenches, dugouts, observation posts, or mine shafts. 

b) Sentries on Strombos Horns will sound the horn (i) 
when they detect cloud gas, (2) when they hear other 
Strombos Horns sounding, Strombos Horns will not take 
up the alarm from gongs and rattles. 

c) In order to restrict the spread of false alarms, when 
possible, Strombos Horns in back areas will be placed so 
that they need not be sounded until the alarm is confirmed 
by telephone. 

d) Should the gas cloud be unaccompanied by an infantry 
attack, no S. O. S. signal will be sent, but the letters 
G. A. S. will be telephoned or telegraphed, followed by 
the name of the trench opposite to which the gas is being 
liberated. 

This message will not be sent in case of a gas shell bom- 
bardment only. 

e) Arrangements will be made for an immediate report of 
a hostile gas attack to be sent to all formations within 
4o kilometers (26 miles) giving the map reference of the 
point of attack, as follows : 

Divisions will w^^rn : 
Corps H. Q. ; 

All other Divisions of the same Corps; 
(If a flank Division) Neighboring Divisionof adjoining 
Corps. 



Corps will warn : 
Army H. 0. ; 

All other Corps of same Army ; 

(If a flank Corps) Neighboring Corps of adjoining Army, 

/) Arrangements will be made for the warning to be 

repeated, where necessary, to an officer in each village or 

camp within a radius of 4o kilometers of the point of attack, 

who will be responsible for warning units billeted there. 

g) Corps will arrange to warn civil authorities who are 
responsible for the protection and warning of all civilians 
within the Corps area. 

Action on the alarm being given. 

h) There should be as little movement and talking as 
possible. 

All ranks will at once adjust their small box respirators. 
Men in dugouts will do so before leaving dugouts. 

i) The blanket curtains of protected dugouts and cellars 
will be properly adjusted, and fires in such dugouts put 
out. 

j) Troops in the front lines, and wherever the tactical 
situation demands, will stand to arms. 

k) In rear lines there is no objection to troops remaining 
in dugouts, where the tactical situation permits, with the 
exception of sentries and of officers and N. C. O.'s on duty. 

/) All bodies of troops or transport on the move will halt, 
and working parties will cease work until the gas cloud has 
passed. 

m) If a relief is in progress, units should stand steady as 
far as possible until the gas cloud has passed. 

n) Supports and parties bringing up ammunition and 
grenades will only be moved up if the tactical situation 
demands. 



Action during an Enemy Cloud Gas Attack. 

o) The troops in the front trenches will open a slow rate 
of rifle fire at once against the enemy's trenches, and occa- 
sional short bursts will be fired from machine guns to ensure 
that all weapons are in working order. 

p) Corps will arrange a suitable artillery program to be 
carried out in the event of a cloud gas attack. 



Action after an Enemy Cloud Gas Attack. 

q) Trenches will be cleared of gas with Anti-gas fans and 
sandbags. 

r) Respirators will be worn until permission to remove 
them is given by an officer. 

K) A sharp lookout will be maintained for a repetition 



of the attack as long as the wind continues in a dangerous 
quarter. Men will sleep on the fire-step within reach of a 
sentry. 

t) The instructions given in Section l\ (c) above, with 
regard to entering dugouts, etc., will be observed. 

m) No man suffering from the effects of gas will be allowed 
to walk to the Dressing Station, or exert himself in any other 
manner. 

v) The clearing of trenches and dugouts must not be 
carried out by men who have been affected by the gas. 

w) After a gas attack, troops in the front trenches are to 
be relieved of all fatigue and carrying work for 24 hours, by 
sending up working parties from companies in the rear. 

x) Horses which have been exposed to the gas will not be 
worked for 24 hours if it can be avoided. 

//) Rifles and machine guns must be cleaned after a*gas 
attack. Oil cleaning will prevent corrosion for 12 hours, 
but the first opportunity must be taken to clean all parts in 
boiling water containing a little soda. 

z) Small arms ammunition must be carefully examined. 
All rounds affected by the gas must be replaced by new 
cartridges immediately. The rounds afl'ected will then be 
cleaned. Especial attention must be paid to the brass clips. 

rr) Expended air cylinders of Strombos Horns will be 
replaced by full ones. 



VI. — Anti-Gas Trench Stores. 

a) These comprise : 

Extra supply of respirators and masks (5 0/0 of strength); 

Strombos horns and other alarm devices; 

Wind vanes ; 

(jas-proof coverings for dugouts ; 

Anti-gas fans ; 

Stores of fuel for clearing dugouts; 

Vermorel Sprayers ; 

Gas sampling apparatus. 

b) Commanders of formations or units relieving one another 
are responsible that trench stores are duly turned over and 
receipted for, and that they are in good condition, and 
in proper positions for use or replacement. 

c) The actual taking over should be done by company 
(battery) Gas N. C. O.'s, who will go up with the advance 
party (if possible in daylight) for this purpose. They will 
report any defects to their Company (battery) commander. 

d) As soon after the actual taking over as possible the 
Regimental Gas Officer will make an inspection of all anti- 
gas arrangements and stores. He will call the attention of 
Company Commanders to any defects or deficiencies for cor- 
rection. He should collect all possible blind gas shells to 
be sent to the laboratory for test. 




— i3 — 



GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING IN GAS 
DEFENSIVE AGAINST GAS SHELL BOMBARDMENTS. 

What to expect. — Every man should know what lo 
expect, and should be told to regard as gas shells all those 
which burst with a small detonation, and to remember that 
gas shell is difQcult to detect when fired with high explosive 
shell as it usually is. 

The enemy has recently been firing large caliber shells 
with both gas and a large amount of hiah explosive so that 
it is practically impossible to tell whicn are gas shells and 
which are not. Hence, each man must be prepared lo wear 
his mask during every bombardment. 

Gas alarm. — Every man must be practiced in spreading 
the alarm by shouting '^Gas shell" as soon as he has 
adjusted his respirator. Warning must be conveyed to troops 
to the leeward of the area bombarded. Sentries should be 
posted to warn men to put on their respirators before ent- 
ering afl'ected areas. Arrangements must be made to warn 
men who are asleep, immediately a gas bombardment begins. 

Wearing box respirators. — Box respirators nmst be 
adjusted properly during gas shell bombardments and must 
not be removed after the bombardment is over except on the 
order of an officer. If removing respirators is left to the 
judgment of individual men, casualties are bound to occur. 

Respirator Drill. — It is important that men should 
be practiced in adjusting the small box respirator while 
wearing steel helmets by going through the necessary 
motions even when not wearmgthe steel helmet. Practice 
in prolonged wearing is necessary, as many instances have 
occurred of men having to wear the small box respirator for 
five to eicjht hours. This condition will get worse as the 
war continues. Men must also be practiced in moving in 
the dark, and in speaking while wearing the respirator. 

Realistic training. — It is important that the actual 
training should be made realistic, and combined with ordi- 
nary work ; e. g., a party engaged on night operations 
might suddenly be given the alarm *' Gas shell ", whereupon 
the correct action should be taken, and respirators worn for 
an hour without interrupting the operations. 

Night practices are essential, because gas shelling nearly 
always occurs at night. Specialists and men of all arms 
must be able to perform their duties in the dark while 
wearing their respirators. 

Gas-proof Dugouts. — All ranks must be acquainted with 
the proper method of adjusting the blankets at the entrances 



- i4 - 

to gas-proof dugouts. The adjustment of the blankets 
should be practiced in the dark when wearing box respirators. 

The value of gas-proof dugouts and cellars has been 
clearly demonstrated. This should be borne in mind in view 
of the inflammation of the skin produced by mustard gas. 
Billets and dugouts into which gas has entered must not be 
occupied until they have been completely cleared of gas by 
fires or fans. 

Fans must be used only when fire is impossible, as they 
are far less efficient than a brisk fire for a few moments. 
I lb. of dry wood for each lOO cu. ft. of space in the dugout 
burned briskly for lo to i5 minutes will clear it of all gas. 

Hovr to detect gas and vtrhat to do 
w^hen it is detected. 

1. With the present wide use of gas in artillery shells, 
trench mortars, bombs, cloud gas waves, and even hand 
grenades, it is a very difficult matter to be sure there is no 
gas around. 

2. Everywhere within the reach of artillery : front line, 
communication trenches, batteries, billets, or, in fact, 
wherever a body of men are likely to be found, gas shell 
bombardment is to be expected and guarded against. Salvos 
of gas shells are sent over in the hope of catching bodies of 
men unprepared or unwarned. Sucn a bombardment is apt 
lo be heavy, especially at first, in order to develop a strong 
concentration of gas. Not only will gas shells be sent, but 
also frequently a large proportion of high explosive shells in 
an attempt to conceal the former or to detractattention. 
Also, gas shells are sometimes now made with such a large 
amount of high explosive that their burst cannot be told 
from ordinary high explosive shell. 

a) Gas shells usually make a peculiar ''wobbling" noise 
when they come through the air, due to their being filled 
with liquid instead of a solid. 

6) Generally in the case of both gas artillery shells and 
gas trench mortar bombs, the sound of the burst is very 
small and they are therefore sometimes considered as 
"duds'* (high explosive shells that fail to burst). 

c) When a gas shell explodes most of the liquid gasturns 
into vapor, sometimes in the form of a white cloud. However, 
this is not true of all kinds of gas. 

d) If a gas shell bursts 20 yards or less to windward of 
a body of men they have no time to wait for any alarm, and 
unless each acts for himself he will be killed. Each must 
hold his breath and get his respirator or mask on as 
quickly as possible. In doing so, follow the methods des- 
cribed in Drill "B" or Drill "C". Whenever putting on 
a mask, do so according to the methods given in the Drills, 
because these have been worked out with great pains to save 
loss of time. 



— i5 — 

Mustard Gas (Dichlorethylsulphide). — The slight smell of 
mustard gas and the absence of any immediate elTect on the 
eyes and lungs make it necessary that precaution against 
gas shell should be taken when any shells are falling nearby, 
even if no gas be smelled or recognized. 

3. Cloud gas is usually, if not invariably, phosgene or 
phosgene mixed with chlorine. Both have a very distinct 
irritating odor like that given by chloride of lime, v/ell known 
as a disinfectant. Both are irritating to the throat and cause 
coughing. There is no difficulty in recognizing them, but one 
full breath of a phosgene cloud will kill a man, therefore, 
hold your breath while putting on your respirator or mask. 
The responsibility for recognizing cloud gas rests with the 
sentries in the front line trenches. The actual gas cloud is 
frequently preceded a few seconds by a hissing sound like 
the escape of steam; this noise, however, can not always be 
heard on account of artillery or machine gun fire. In the day 
time these gas clouds are visible at quite a distance and read- 
ily recognized, but as they are now used only at night or 
when there is a fog, it is seldom that they can be seen more 
than five seconds away. 

Summary, 

There are three things to do : 
First : Hold your breath. 

Second : Keep on holding your breath until your respi^ 
rator or mask is fully and accurately on . 

Third : Give the alarm for all your comrades. 






B. — NATURE OF GAS ATTACKS. 
I. — Gas clouds. 



4. This method of making a gas attack is entirely depen- 
dent on the direction of the wind. The gas is carried up to 
the trenches as a liquid in steel cylinders. These are dug or 
set in the trench and connected with pipes leading out over 
the parapet. When the valves of the cylinders are opened, 
the gas escapes, usually with a hissing sound, which, on a 
still night, can frequently be heard at a considerable dis- 
tance. It mixes with the air and is carried by th^ wind to- 
wards the opposing trenches, spreading out as it goes for- 
ward. A continuous wave of gas and air is thus formed, 
the color of which may vary : 

a) Because of the weather conditions. In very dry air it 
may be almost transparent and slightly greenish in color, 
while in damp weather it forms a white cloud. 

b) Because it may be mixed with smoke of any color. 

5. A cloud attack can only take place when there is a 
\y but not too strong wind blowing from the enemy's 



||ad^ 



— lO — 

lines towards our own. A wind between 4 "T^d 8 juiles an 
hour is the most likely condition. An 8-mile wind will 
carry the gas cloud twice as quickly as a man walks rapidly. 
Gas attacks may occur at any time of the day, but are 
most likely to be made during the night or in the early morn- 

^^^' ... 

Rain is without appreciable effect on a gas attack. Fogs 

have hardly any effect, and may, in fact, be taken advantage 

of to make an attack unexpectedly. Watercourses and ponds 

are no obstruction to a gas cloud. 

6. The gas used by the enemy is generally a mixture of 
chlorine and phosgene, or pure phosgene, both of which are 
strongly asphyxiating. The gases are heavier than air, and 
therefore tend to flow along the ground and into trenches, 
shelters, craters, and hollows. The gas cloud may flow 
around slight rises in the ground, thus leaving patches of 
country which remain free from gas. 

7. Even when very dilute, chlorine can be recognized by 
its peculiar smell, which is like chloride of lime, but stronger 
ger and more irritating. 

Both chlorine and phosgene also exert a strongly corrosive 
action on metals, so that the metal parts of arms must be 
carefully protected by oiling them. 

8. The speed with which the gas cloud approaches depends 
entirely on the wind velocity. Gas attacks have been made 
with wind velocities varying from 3 to 20 miles per hour, 
i. e., from i 1/2 to 10 yards per second. In a 9-mile wind, 
the gas would reach trenches 100 yards distant in 20 seconds. 

Gas attacks have been made on fronts varying from i to 
5 miles. Their effects at points up to 12 miles behind the 
front trenches have been sufQciently severe to make it neces- 
sary to wear masks. 



II. — Gas projectiles. 

9. The use of these depends very little on the direction of 
the wind. In gas projectiles such as shells, hand grenades, 
and trench mortar bombs, a part or whole of the explosive 
charge is replaced by a liquid which is converted into gas 
by the explosion. The explosive force and noise of detona- 
tion of these projectiles is generally less than that of the 
ordinary kind, and a large number of them are usually dis- 
charged into a comparatively small space. After the explo- 
sion, the liquid gas forms a small cloud, though some of it 
may sink into the ground and remain active for a consider- 
able time. Mustard gas may so remain for 12 to 48 hours 
or even longer in cool weather. 

For gas shells, the best condition is calm, or with a wind 
of low velocity. 

Gas projectiles can be used in all types of country. 



— 17 — 

Woods, tall grass, bushes, cornfields, and clumps of buildings 
may hold the gas active for a considerable time. 
Several kinds of. shell gas are used by the enemy : 

Poisonous Shells : Immediate death. — The gases in some 
shells may cause instant death if a single breath is taken. 
These usually contain Hydrocyanic Acid (Prussic Acid) or 
an allied substance which causes death ny action on the 
nervous system, paralyzing the respiration and resulting in 
convulsions, coma, and death. These are little used nov^. 

Delayed death and delayed blindness. — Phosgene, chloro- 
picrin, and mustard gas by destroying the lungs cause death 
from a few^ hours up to several days, especially if there has 
been any exertion after breathing the gas. 

The new **Mustard Gas"(Di-chlor-elhyl-sulphide), after se- 
veral hours, causes the eyelids to swell up so that sight is 
lost for one to four weeks with intense pain in the eyes; the 
skin is also burnt by it, though death is only caused by its 
action on the lungs. 

Its danger lies in its insidious nature, because no appre- 
ciable irritation is caused at the time. It has a slight odor 
like mustard or garlic though even this smell may be dis- 
guised. The respirator and mask afford perfect protection 
against it. 

Lachrymators. — These shells contain various substances 
of a nature irritating to the eyes, which makes them water 
and which causes immediate pain. While their immediate 
action is strongly irritant to the eyes, they may also cause a 
delayed general poisoning resultmg in death. Respirators 
or masks must always be put on whenever an area is shelled 
by these missiles. Gas shells are occasionally sent alternately 
with High Explosive, the latter masking the presence of the 
former. 

III. — Smoke. 

11. The enemy may make use of smoke, either in the 
form of a cloud or emitted from shells and bombs. Smoke 
may be used with gas or between gas clouds ; it may also 
be used alone to distract attention from a real discharge of 
gas, to cover the advance of infantry, or merely as a false 
gas attack. 

IV, — Mine and explosion gases. 

.2. The poisonous gases which occur in mines, and 
which are formed in large quantities when high explosive 
goes off in an enclosed space (e. g., from a direct hit in a 
dugout, or from the explosion of a charge in a mine) are not 
protected against by the ordinary anti-gas appliances. The 
chief of these gases is carbon monoxide. Protection against 
such gases will not be considered in these notes. 

DEFENSIVE MEASURES 2 



II. - ORGANIZATION OF GAS DEFENSE 

13. Commanding Officers are held responsible that all the 
anti-gas appliances for protecting their men are maintained 
in perfect condition, and that all ranks under their command 
are thoroughly trained in the use of these appliances and in 
all other measures which may afl'ect their safety against gas. 

Summary of protective measures. 

14. a) Respirators and masks for each man. 

b) Inspection, of respirators and masks and training in 
their use and instruction in all other measures of gas defense. 

c) Protected and gas-proof shelters. 

d) Weather observations to determine periods when the 
conditions are most favorable to a hostile gas attack. 

e) Arrangement of signals and messages for immediate 
warning of a gas attack. 

J) Appliances for clearing gas from trenches and shelters. 

A. — ORGANIZATION OF ANTI-GAS DUTIES. 

15. All ranks must be fully conversant with the measures 
to be adopted for defense against gas attacks as laid down 
in the Orders of their formation or unit (*). 

A Chief Gas Officer is appointed in each Division, so that 
technical advice is readily available on all matters connected 
with gas defense. Apart from this, the following scheme of 
anti-gas duties should be adopted within units. 

B. — ANTI-GAS DUTIES WITHIN 
AN INFANTRY REGIMENT. 

(To be modified for other units to suit their organization 
and duties.) 

16. The Commanding Officer will be directly responsible 
for all measures against gas attacks, and Company Com- 
manders will be responsible to the C. 0. for all anti-gas 
measures within their companies. 

Regimental Gas Officer. — To aid the Regimental Com- 
mander in seeing that all anti-gas measures are efficiently 
carried out. Regimental Gas Officers are appointed on the 
Regimental commander's staff. 

The special duties of the Regimental Gas Officer will be 
fully laid down in special instructions that will be issued 
from time to time by the Chief of the Gas Service. 

In each Company one N.C. 0., who has been trained at 
an Anti-Gas Scnool, and who should be recommended by the 
Division Gas Officer as suitable for duty as " Company 

(*) For typical Divisional Standing Orders, see Appendix IV 



— 19 — 

Gas N.G.O.", will be specially detailed to assist the 
Company Commander in anti-gas measures. At least one 
other similarly trained and recommended N.C.O. will be 
immediately available to take the place of the Gas N.C.O. 
in case of need. 

A similarly trained Gas N.C.O. will be detailed to Bat- 
talion H. 0. for duty with H.Q. details. 

17. The special duties of Gas N. C. O.'s will be definitely 
laid down in Regiments (*). Other duties may, however, be 
performed, provided that these do not interfere with the gas 
duties laid down. 

18. In order to secure the necessary training in all mat- 
ters pertaining to defense against gas attacks, the following 
officers and N.C.O.'s should attend a course at a Corps or 
other Anti-Gas School. 

a) Officers. 

i) The Commanding Officer or Second in Command, and 
the Medical Officer. 

2) All Company Commanders. 

3) Other Officers where possible. 

b) N.C.O :s. 

i) Two per Company and 2 per Battalion H.Q. 

2) Supplementary N.C.O.'s, to be trained whenever pos- 
sible, so as to have a reserve from which to df^w to replace 
Gas N.C.O.'s, in case of need. 

The selected N. CO. 's, who attend the Anti-Gas Schools 
will be reported on by the Officer in Charge as follows : At 
the end of the course the Director of the (jas School will, ii 
the N.C.O, is, in his opinion, suitable for duty as "Com- 
pany Gas N.C.O.", notify the CO. concerned to this 
effect. The latter will then cause the words " passed Anti- 
Gas School " to be entered on his service record. Only N. C 
O.'s, who have been thus reported on favorably should be 
detailed for duty as Company Gas N.C.O.'s. 

19. CO.'s will facilitate in every way the duties of the 
various officers of the Gas Service in visiting their lines and 
inspecting anti-gas arrangements, testing Strombos horn 
cylmders, etc. They should take every opportunity of 
consulting with officers of the Gas Service on all technical 
questions relating to anti-gas measures within their lines. 

C. — PERSONAL ANTI-GAS EQUIPMENT. 

I. — Equipment carried. 

20. Each man is provided with a small box respirator and 
a mask. He must be made to realize that these appliances 
are personal equipment, that they are of importance second 

(*) For typicar Standing Orders for Company Gas N.C.O.'s, see 
Appendix V. 



20 — 



ENTRANCE TO 
GAS-PROOF DUGOUT 



BLANKET roNed up .'— c 



^^^^^^^^ 



'%l-^r 






, 2*J - — . 



■~\ -JT^PiecB oFcorrugatec/ 
tiy I iron foprotecfroJI 
J-— frdm rain 






B/an kef Frame of /'"C", 
frame fo be made a/r 
J. ^ /*/>/>/ against wa/ls 



Nof9: Door fe Aospifaf 

7 f«ef */- sfrtf^er 



FfiONT ELEVAT/ON 
OF E:NrRANCE 






Oufer BLANf<Er ro/led up 
Con f/af ro/ler /'x3"piank) 
and he/d by s^r/ngs fi'ed 
I'n a bow 




SECTION THROUGH 
ENTRANCE 



Fig. 1 and 2. 



21 

only to his weapons, and that his life may depend on looking 
after them and keeping them in good order. 

21. The small box respirator is the most important pro- 
tective apparatus. It is always to be used first in case of a 
gas attack, unless special orders are issued to the contrary. 
It will protect against all poisonous gases with the exception 
of mine and explosion gases, and will not become exhausted 
for hours, even in concentrations of gas generally unobtainable 
in the field. 

22. The mask is an emergency or reserve defense. It is 
only to be used if the owner should not have a box respi- 
rator or if the latter should be found, for any reason, to be 
defective. 

II. — When and where carried. 

23. a) Both respirator and mask should be carried within 
5 miles of the front line. 

b) When the wind is safe, working parties during work 
and at the discretion of the officer in command, may lake off 
their box respirators between 2 and 5 miles from the front 
line, provided ihey are placed conveniently at hand for use 
in case of a sudden gas shell attack or change of wind. The 
mask will always be carried. 

c) At distances greater than 5 miles the mask only need 
be carried, the box respirator being kept with the equipment 
under arrangements by the G. 0. of the Unit. 

D. — PROTECTION OF SHELTERS. 

I. — Methods of protection. 

24. The fundamental principle to remember is that gas 
will follow the smallest current of air and make the dugout 
dangerous. 

25. Cojaversely, if the entrances to the dugout are so 
arranged as to prevent air currents, the dugout remains 
safe for many hours even when there is a strong concentra- 
tion of gas outside. 

26. For these reasons, where tactically practicable, it is 
desirable to have only one entrance with double doors to 
each dugout, and no chimney. 

27. If a chimney is necessary it must be so arranged t^at 
the stove pipe can be readily removed and the chimney 
opening quickly closed airtight. Great care should be 
taken in fitting this opening so that it will be air-tight, as 
otherwise well coiistructed dugouts are rendered unsafe. 
All entrances must be protected by double doors with an air 
space between. The best way of arranging such an en- 
trance is shown in the diagram page 20. 

a) The frames A and B made of 6" X i" planks, are fitted 



22 

to the entrance to the dugout at such a slope that the bottom 
of the frame is out about i foot for a height of 5 feet. Care 
must be taken in fitting in these frames to leave no cracks 
between the frame and the earth or the sandbags forming 
the sides or roof of the entrance. 

b) Blanket cloth cut to the proper size is nailed to the top 
of the frame with a lath to prevent tearing. The blanket 
cloth must overlap the face of the frame by at least 3, and 
better still 6 inches. 

c) A Jlat roller, made of i inch board about 3 inches wide 
is nailed to the bottom of the blanket on the outside so that 
when the blanket is unrolled it lies tight against the outside 
bottom part of the frame, but not touching the ground. 

d) The frames of the inner and outer doors snould not be 
less than 3 feet apart in order to allow a man to enter the 
air space and adjust the first blanket before passing through 
the second. For medical dugouts the air space should be 
8 feet long and 3 feet wide to allow a stretcher to pass through. 

e) It has been found useful to sew small metal weiqnls 
along the sides of the curtain, which fall over strips nailed 
on tne face of door-frame sides, top, and bottom. This 
causes the curtain to close more tightly. 

Curtain 
/ Weight 



Wood strip, covered with blanket cloth 

Fig. 3. 



Another method for closing'those dugouts that are not used 
during attack is to nail two strips along the face of the door 
and another to fit in the space between the two. 



Strip to clamp curtain 

CURTAIN^^-^ 




aa 



Door Face 

Strips naubd 
on and covered 

W/TH BLANKET CLOTH 
Fig. 4. 



— 23 — 

/) When not in use the blankets are to be kept rolled up 
arid so held that they can be instantly released. For the outer 
door a piece of galvanized iron or other sheet metal is placed 
across the top of the doorway to protect the blanket from 
rain when it is rolled up. 

g) To render blankets completely air tight they must be 
kept wet; therefore a Vermorel sprayer or a simple can of 
water should be kept in a special niche in the air space for 
moistening the blankets. Chemicals for neutralizing the 
gases are not necessary, but some substance like glycerine is 
good, as that tends to hold water and to absorb it from the air. 
Material wet with a solution of water and glycerine does 
not dry readily. 

h) Men must pass tlirough each doorway quickly, and 
immediately readjust the curtain before touching the second 
curtain. 

/) On gas alarm being given, all fires in dugouts must be 
put out, the chimney opening closed tight, and the entrance 
curtains let down and sprayed. All persons in the dugout 
must be awakened and all must put on their masks, as some 
gas may leak in through faulty construction of the dugout, or 
by some one coming in with gas on his clothes. 



H. — Shelters or dugouts ^which should be protected. 

28. The following should always be protected with gas- 
proof entrances : 

Medical aid-posts and advanced dressing stations. Com- 
pany, Battalion, Regimental, and Brigade Headquarters, 
Signal Shelters, and any other place where work has to be 
carried out during a gas attack. 

29. In addition to the above, it is desirable to protect all 
dugouts, cellars, and buildings within shell fire area, parti- 
cularly those of artillery personnel. It should be noted, 
however, that the protection of dugouts for troops in the 
front line of trenches is usually inadvisable on account of 
the delay involved in getting men out in time of attack. It 
is desirable to protect stretcher bearers' dugouts with a view 
to putting casualties in them. 



E. — PROTECTION OF WEAPONS 
AND EQUIPMENT. 

30. Arms and ammunition and the metal parts of special 
equipment (e. g., telephone instruments) must be carefully 
protected against gas iDy oiling them or keeping them coni- 
pletely covered. Otherwise, particularly in damp weather, 
they may rust or corrode so badly as to refuse to act. A 
mineral oil must be used for this purpose. The following, 
in particular, should be protected : 



24 - 



I. — Small arms and small arms ammunition. 

31. Machine guns and rifles must be kept carefully clean- 
ed and well oiled. The effects of corrosion of ammunition 
are of even more importance than the direct effects of gas 
upon machine guns and rifles themselves. 

Ammunition boxes must be kept closed. Vickers belts 
should be kept in their boxes until actually required for use. 
The wooden belt boxes are fairly gas-tight, but metal belt 
boxes should be made gas-tight by inserting strips of flamielette 
in the joint between the lid and the box. 

Lewis magazines should be kept in some form of box, the 
joints of which are made as gas-tight as possible with flan- 
nelette. 

A recess should be made, high up in the parapet if pos- 
sible, for storing ammunition and guns. A blanket curtain, 
moistened with water or Vermorel sprayer solution, will 
greatly assist in keeping the gas out. 

II. — Hand and rifle grenades. 

32. Unboxed grenades should be kept covered as far as 
possible. All safety pins and working parts, especially 
those made of brass, should be kept oiled to prevent their 
setting from corrosion by the gas. 

III. — Light trench mortars and their ammunition. 

33. As far as the supply of oil permits, the bore and all 
bright parts of light trench mortars and their spare parts 
should be kept permanently oiled. When not in use, mor- 
tars should be covered with sacking or similar material. 

Unboxed ammunition should be kept covered as far as 
possible, and the bright parts oiled immediately after arri- 
val. Ammunition which has been in store for some time 
should be used up first. 



IV. — Guns, medium and heavy trench mortars, 
and their ammunition. 

34. The protection of artillery and artillery ammunition 
is dealt witn in par. 109. 



V. — Signal equipment. 

35. The protection of signal equipment is dealt with in 
par. 116. 



lb — 



F. — WIND OBSERVATION. 

36. The Meteorological Service reports to Headquarters 
of Corps and Divisions whenever the wind passes into a dan- 
gerous quarter, showing the direction and strength of the 
wind. As a result of these reports, "Gas Alert" is ordered 
by Corps or Division H. Q, These general reports, however, 
refer to large tracts of country, and it is possible that on isol- 
ated lengths of front, conditions of terrain or the alignment 
of the trenches may permit of local air currents which are 
favorable to the enemy. It is essential, therefore, that the 
troops themselves should be on the look-out for the possibility 
of a gas attack. 

The wind frequently changes its direction at night, thus 
creating conditions different from those existing in the day 
time. 

The cooling of the air from midnight till dawn produces 
downward currents, and hence so far as air currents are 
concerned makes the period j^st before dawn the best for 
gas attacks. 

A wind blowing down a steep slope into a valley tends to 
follow the direction of the valley and may thus be changed 
as much as 90 degrees in direction. 

To make necessary wind observations, there should be a 
good wind station every i/4 mile within 100 yards of the 
front line. Each should be so situated as to give conditions 
outside of trenches rather than inside but should not be 
close enough to headquarters to subject it to shell fire in case 
it is sighted by the enemy. 

Observations have shown the wind to be mostly in our 
favor during the summer and fall and mostly in the enemy's 
favor during spring. 

Company Commanders are responsible that wind obser- 
vations are made on their Company front every three hours, 
or oftener if the wind is in, or appproaching, a dangerous 
quarter, and the reports forwarded through the usual 
channels to Brigade H.Q. For the method of making 
these observations and preparing the reports, see Ap- 
pendix V. 



I 



G. — THE GAS ALERT PERIOD. 
I. — Order for gas alert. i 



37. Gas alert will be ordered when the wind is in the 
dangerous quarter, no matter what the strength of the 
wind. 

The order "Gas Alert" will be sent out to all units by 
Corps H.Q. (or, if authority has been so delegated, by 
Division H. Q.), but Brigade or Regimental H. Q., or 
Battalion Commanders are empowered to order a " Gas 



— 26 — 

Alert *' as a result of wind observations forwarded by Com- 
pany Commanders. Such action will be reported immedi- 
ately to the next higher formation. 

Gas Alert notices should be posted at the entrance to 
each main communication trench and at other suitable 
points within Divisional Areas. 



II. — Precautions during gas alert. 

a) Inspection. 

38. All box respirators and masks should be carefully 
inspected, and the inspection should be repeated daily. 
Steps must be taken to ascertain if al gas alarm appliances 
are in their positions and in good ord 

b) Alert position of respirators ani masks. 

39. All ranks within two miles of the front line must 
carry their box respirators (or their masks, should they have 
no box respirators) in the alert position. The press buttons 
of the flap of the box respirator satchel must be unfastened. 

During gas alert the chin strap of the steel helmet must 
be worn on the point and not under the chin, as it will 
impede the rapid adjustment of the respirator or mask. 

c) Sentries, etc. 

40. A sentry should be posted at each Strombos horn or 
other alarm device and instructed in its use, and all working 
parties should have a sentry posted to give instant warning 
of a gas attack. 

A sentry should also be posted at every large shelter or 
roup of small shelters and at each Headquarters, Signal 

ffice, and independent body of men. 

Arrangements must be made by the officer in charge of 
the trench for warning the Artillery Observation Post if 
there is one in the trench. 

Commanders of units in billets within 8 miles of the front 
line trenches must organize a system of giving the alarm 
and rousing all men in cellars or houses. 

At night sentries should have at least two men within 
reach of them, so that the alarm can be spread rapidly. 

d) Sleeping. 

41. When a gas attack is probable, men in front line 
trenches should sleep on the jBre.step instead of in dugouts. 
Men sleeping in rearward lines, or in works where they are 
allowed to take off their equipment, must sleep with their 
box respirators on the person. 

e) Company Gas N. C. O.'s. 

42. Company Gas N. C. O.'s will report to Company 



t 



— 27 — 

H. (2- in readiness to assist the Company Commander should 
a gas attack occur. 

f) Officers and N. C. O.'s. 

43. Officers and N. C. 0/s in command of any unit or 
party must see that the above orders are strictly carried out, 
both for troops in front line trenches and for detached 
bodies of troops (working and carrying parties, etc.). 

III. — Removal of gas alert. 

44. (ias alert will not be taken off without the authority 
of the Corps Commander or the Division Commander to 
whom authority has been delegated. 

On the receipt of orders for the removal of ^as alert, the 
notices on the subject will be amended accordingly. 



H. — CLOUD GAS ALARM. 
I. — Method of giving the alarm. 

45. For the purpose of giving the alarm the Strombos 
horn, which is audible for very long distances, is the most 
important appliance. Its main use is for conveying the 
alarm to troops in support and reserve lines. In addition, 
some local appliance, such as a gong or suspended rail, 
must be fastened up at every sentry's post for the purpose of 
rousing the men in the immediate vicinity and for conveying 
the alarm to the sentries in charge of the strombos horns. 

Strombos horns should be in the front line, at intervals 
ordinarily not greater than 4oo yards, and at such other 
points behind the front as required to ensure transmission of 
warning. As much use as possible should be made of the 
telephone for transmitting the gas alarm, though it can not 
be relied upon owing to the possibility of its breaking 
down. 

No reliance can be placed on methods of giving the alarm 
involving the use of the lungs; e. g., bugles or whistles. 

46. Sentries must be prepared to give the alarm on the 
first appearance of gas, as a few seconds delay may involve 
very serious consequences. Signals must be passed along by 
all sentries as soon as heard. 

The earliest warning of a gas cloud attack is generally 

given : 

a) By the noise of the gas escaping from the cylinders 
6) By the appearance of a cloud of any color over the 

enemy's trenches. If the attack takes place at night, the 

cloud will not be visible from a distance. 

KBy the smell of the gas in listening posts. 



— 28 — 

11. — Action to be taken in the trenches 
on gas alarm. 

47. a) Respirators to be put on immediately by all ranks 
(mask, if no box respirator is available). 

b) Rouse all men in trenches, dugouts and mine shafts, 
warn officers and artillery observation posts and all working 
men. 

c) Artillery support to be called for by Company Com- 
manders, by means of prearranged signals. 

d) Warn Battalion H. Q. and troops in rear. 

e) All ranks stand to arms in the front trenches and 
elsewhere where the tactical situation demands. 

f) Blanket curtains at entrances to protected shelters to 
be let down, carefully fixed, and wet with water or chemical 
solutions. 

g) Movement to cease except where necessary. 

HI. — Action to be taken in billets and back areas. 

48. a) All men in cellars or houses to be roused. 

b) The blanket curtains of protected cellars, etc., to be let 
down, fixed in position, and sprinkled. 

c) Box respirators to be put on immediately the gas is 
apparent. 



I. — ACTION DURING A CLOUD GAS ATTACK. 



I. — Protective measures. 

49. There should be as little moving about and talking as 
possible in the trenches. Men must be made to realize that 
with the gas now used by the enemy, observance of this may 
be essential for their safety. 

When an attack is in progress, all bodies of troops or 
transport on the move should halt and all working parties 
cease work until the gas cloud has passed. 

If a relief is going on, units should stand fast as far as 
possible until the gas cloud has passed. 

Supports and parties bringing up bombs should only be 
moved up if the tactical situation demands it. 

50. If troops in support or reserve lines of trenches remain 
in, or go into, dugouts, they must continue to wear their 
anti-gas appliances. 

Officers and N. C. O.'s must on no account remove or 
open up the masks of the box respirators or raise their 
masks to give orders. The breathing tube may be removed 
from the mouth when it is necessary to speak, but it must 
be replaced before drawing breath. 



51. Men must always be on the look-out to help each 
other in case a box respirator or mask is damaged by fire or 
accident. When a man is wounded, he must be watched 
to see that he does not remove his respirator or mask until 
he is safely inside a protected shelter ; if necessary, his hands 
should be tied. 

Men must be warned that if they are slightly gassed 
before adjusting their respirators or masks they must not 
remove them. 



m 



II. — Tactical xneasures. 



52. From the point of view of protection against gas, 
nothing is gained by men remaining in unprotected dugouts 
or by moving to a flank or to the rear. It is, therefore, 
desirable that on tactical and disciplinary grounds all men 
in the front line of trenches should be forbidden to do these 
things. In support or reserve lines, where there are pro- 
tected dugouts, it is advisable for men to stay in them 
unless the tactical situation makes it desirable tor them to 
come out. 

54. Nothing is gained by opening rapid rifle fire unless 
the enemy's infantry attacks. A slow rate of fire from 
rifles and occasional short bursts of fire from machine guns 
will lessen the chance of their jamming from the action of 
the gas and tends to occupy and steady the infantry. 

55. It should be remembered that the enemy's infantry 
cannot attack while the gas discharge is in progress and is 
unlikely to do so for an appreciable time — at least lo minutes 
— after it has ceased. It is, in fact, a common practice for the 
enemy infantry to retire to the second and third line of 
trench whilst gas is being discharged. There is, therefore, 
no object in opening an intense S.O.S. barrage of artillery 
on "jNo man 's land" during the actual gas cloud and it is 
advisable that the warning to the Artillery of a gas attack 
should be a signal differing from the ordinary S. O. S. 
signal, as the latter may have to be sent later if an infantry 
attack develops. 

56. It must be remembered that smoke may be used by 
the enemy at the same time as, or alternately with, the gas 
and that under cover of a smoke cloud he may send out 
assaulting or raiding parties. A careful look-out must, 
therefore, be kept ; hostile patrols or raiders may be 
frustrated by cross-fire of rifles and machine guns and should 
an assault develop the ordinary S.O.S. procedure should 
be carried out. 




3o — 



J. — PRECAUTIONS AGAINST GAS SHELLS. 

57. When gas is smelt men may not realize its possibly 
dangerous character at once and so may delay putting on 
respirators or masks until too late. Men sleeping in dugouts 
may be seriously affected unless they are roused. The fol- 
lowing points should therefore be attended to : 

58. i) All shells which explode with a small detonation 
or appear to be blind should be regarded with particular 
attention, though all shell should be suspected of carrying 
gas; the respirator or mask should be put on at the first 
indication of gas, and blanket protection of shelters adjusted. 

2) Arrangements must be made for giving a local alarm 
with klaxons, etc., in the event of a bombardment with 
poison gas shells, but Strombos horns must on no account 
be used to give warning of a gas shell bombardment. 

3) All shelters in the vicinity of an area bombarded with 
poison gas shells must be visited and any sleeping men 
roused. 

4) Box respirators or masks should continue to be worn 
throughout the area bombarded with poison gas shells until 
the order is given by the local unit Commander for their 
removal. 

59. Lachrymatory or *'tear" shells are frequently used by 
the enemy for the purpose of hindering the movements of 
troops, for preventing the bringing up of supports, or for inter- 
fering with the action of artillery. 

Owing to the deadly nature of poison gas shells, however, 
the precautions given in par. 58 above must be taken for 
all shells, until certain no gas shells are being used. 



K. — PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN WITH REGARD 
TO OUR OWN USE OF GAS IN CYLINDERS, 
BOMBS, ETC. 

60. Protection of troops is necessary during our own gas 
attacks. Adequate protective measures should always be pos- 
sible, as arrangements can be made in advance and the 
element of surprise can be excluded. The following points 
should be noted : 

I. — Handling gas cylinders. 

61. Men engaged in carrying or digglng-in gas cylinders 
should carrv their box respirators in the '^ Alert" position. 



3i 



II. — Action when gas cylinders 
are in position in trenches. 

62. a) Box respirators should be carried in the ** Alert" 
position by troops in front line trenches. 

b) If a cyh'nder is burst by shell-fire, men should retire 
upwind for a short distance, if possible. Dugouts in the 
neighborhood of the burst must be evacuated at once. 

III. — Action during our gas attacks. 

63. a) It is advisable that all troops, except those whose 
presence is considered absolutely necessary, should be with- 
drawn from the front trench before gas is discharged. Any 
officer or man who has special orders to remain must wear 
his box respirator. 

b) All troops in any part of the front line within half a 
mile of the nearest point where gas is being discharged must 
ivear their box respirators. 

c) If troops advance after a cloud gas attack has been 
made, it must be remembered that the gas may hang about 
for a considerable time in long grass, shell holes, and hollows, 
and for several hours in the enemy's dugouts and shelters. 
Raiding or reconnoitering parties after a gas discharge should 
carry their respirators in the Alert position. Dugouts should 
not be occupied until they have been thoroughly ventilated 
and the absence of gas established. This is equally neces- 
sary with regard to shelters which have been penetrated by 
gas from shells or bombs. 



IV. — Gas bombs and grenades. 

64. These may, if necessary, be stored with other ammu- 
nition. In the event of leakage they should be buried in the 
ground 3 1/2 feet d^ep. They should not be thrown into 
water. All rescue work and disposal of leaky shells should 
be carried out by men wearing box respirators and gloves. 



l» 



ACTION AFTER A CLOUD GAS ATTACK. 
I. — General. 



65. The most important measure to be taken after a cloud 
gas attack is to prepare for a further attack. The enemy 
frequently sends several successive waves of gas at intervals 
varying from a few minutes up to several hours, and it is 
therefore necessary to be on the alert to combat this proce- 
dure. The following measures should be adopted as soon as 
»gas cloud has passed : 
i. 



— 32 — 

a) Removal of respirators. — Anti-gas fans should be used 
to assist in clearing the trenches of gas, so as to admit of 
respirators being removed. Box respirators and masks must 
not be removed until permission has been given by the Com- 
pany Commander, who will, when possible, ascertain from 
officers and N. C. 0/s who have been trained at a Gas School 
that it is safe to do so. 

b) Return to the Alert position. — After removal of respira- 
tors in order to' be ready for a subsequent attack, box respi- 
rators and mnsks must be put back in the Alert position. 

A sharp look-out must be kept for a repetition of the gas 
attack, as long as the wind continues in a dangerous quarter. 

II. — Movement. 

66. Owing to the enemy gas sometimes causing bad after- 
effecls, which are intensified by any exertion, the following 
points should be attended to : 

a) No man suffering from the eflects of gas, however slightly, 
should be allowed to walk to the dressing station. 

b) The clearing of the trenches and dugouts should not be 
carried out by men who have been affected by the gas. 

c) After a gas attack, troops in the front trenches should 
be relieved of all fatigue and carrying work for 24 hours by 
sending up working parties from companies in rear. 

' d) Horses which have been exposed to the gas should not 
be worked for 24 hours if it can be avoided. 



III. — Clearing dugouts and other shelters. 

"^ 67. It is essential that no dugout be entered after a gas 
attack, except with box respirators or masks adjusted, until 
it has been ascertained that it is free from gas. The only 
efficient method of clearing dugouts from gas is by thorough 
ventilation. The older method of spraying is not efficient. 
An appreciable quantity of gas may be retained in the 
clothing of men exposed to gas attacks and also in bedding, 
coats, etc., left in shelters. Precautions should, therefore, 
be taken to air all clothing. 

a) Ventilation. 

68. Natural Ventilation. — Unless a shelter has been thor- 
oughly ventilated by artificial means, as described below, it 
must not be slept in, or occupied without wearing respirators, 
until at least 12 hours have elapsed. It must not be entered 
at all without respirators on for at least 3 hours. The above 
refers to cloud gas attacks. In the case of gas shell bom- 
bardments the times cannot be definitely stated, as they de- 
pend on the nature of the gas used and the severity of the 
bombardment. With lachrymatory gases or mustard gas 
the times after which shelters can be used without discom- 
fort may be much longer than those mentioned above. 



— 33 — 

69. Ventilation by Fire. — All kinds of shelters can be 
efficiently and rapidly cleared of gas by the use of fires. 
Shelters with two openings are the easiest to ventilate but 
most difficult to protect. 

In dugouts provided with a single exit at the end of a short 
passage, the best results are obtained if the fire i^ placed in 
the centre of the floor of the dugout and at a height of about 
6 inches. 

In dugouts provided with a single exit at the end of a long 
and nearly 'horizontal passage, the best results are obtained 
if the fire is placed in the dugout about one-third of the dis- 
tance from the inner end of the passage. 

In dugouts provided with two or more exits, the fire 
should be placed at the inner end of one of the exit passages 
away from the direction of the wind in order to give a good 
draft through the dugout. 

70. In general, i lb., of dry wood per lOO cubic feet of 
air space is sufficient for clearance of any gas. The best 
fuel is split wood, but any fuel which does not smoulder or 
give off thick smoke can be used. The materials for the 
fire, e. g., the split wood, newspaper, and a small bottle of 
kerosene for lighting purposes, should be kept in a sandbag 
enclosed in a tin box provided with a lid. An improvised 
stove should be kept ready for use. 

The fire must be kept burning for at least i5 minutes and 
the atmosphere in the shelter should be tested from time to 
time. 

If mustard gas or a similar one with very high boiling point 
should burst so as to scatter liquid gas in the dugout^ venti- 
lation alone is not sufficient. In order to be safe under 2 to 
3 days the liquid would have to be thoroughly treated with 
chloride of lime. 

71. Ventilation by Fanning. — Dugouts can be ventilated 
by producing air currents in them by means of special anti- 
gas fans. A full description of the anti-gas fan and the me- 
thod of using it to clear gas from trenches and shelters is 
given later (see par. 96-100). 

It* no anti-gas fans are available, ventilation can be assisted 
by flapping with improvised fans such as sandbags, blan- 
kets, etc. 

b) Sprayers. 

72. Vermorel sprayers will not clear gas:' rom trenches. 
The solution has very little effect on phosgene, and even 
with the addition of other chemicals it cannot be relied upon 
to remove gas from the air. Vermorel sprayers are only for 
wetting blankets on doors of dugouts. 



It 



DEFKNSIVK MEASURES 



34 



IV. — Gleaning of arms and ammunition. 

73. Rifles and machine guns must be cleaned after a gas 
attack and then re-oiled. Oil cleaning will prevent corro- 
sion for 12 hours or more, but the first available opportunity 
must be taken to dismantle machine guns and clean all parts 
in boiling water containing a little soda. If this is not done, 
corrosion continues slowly even after oil cleaning and may 
ultimately put the gun out of action. 

After a gas attack, small arms ammunition should be care- 
fully exammed. All rounds affected by gas must be replaced 
by new cartridges immediately and the old ones cleaned and 
expended as soon as possible. 

74. All hand and rifle grenades exposed to the gas should 
have their safety-pins and working parts cleaned and re- 
oiled. 

75. All bright parts of light trench mortars, together with 
all accessories and spare parts exposed to the gas, must be 
cleaned and wiped dry as soon as possible after the attack, and 
m any case within 24 hours, after which they should be tho- 
roughly coated afresh with oil. The same applies to ammu- 
nition which may have been exposed to the gas. 

Ammunition which, for any reason, had not been oiled, 
must be cleaned and oiled and linul as soon as ])ossiblc. 

For details regarding the cleaning of guns and artillery 
ammunition and signal equipment, sec par. log and iiG. 



V. — Treatment of shell holes. 

76. In the neighborhood of shelters or battery positions 
where gas from shell holes is causing annoyance, the holes 
and the ground round them should be covered with at least 
a foot of fresh earth or a quarter of an inch of chloride of 
lime. Shell holes covered with earth should not be disturbed, 
as the chemical is not thereby destroyed and only disappears 
slowly. This is particularly true of mustard gas. 



35 



III. — PROTECTIVE APPLIANCES. 



A. — INDIVIDUAL PROTECTIVE APPARATUS. 

I. — Box respirator. 

a) Description. 

11. The box respirator consists of a box packed with chem- 
icals and connected by means of a flexible rubber tube lo 
an impervious face piece or mask. The inspired air enters 
through a valve in the bottom of the box; the expired air 
is expelled through a valve just outside the face-piece. The 
wearer breathes in and out through a mouthpiece inside the 
mask, breathing through the nose being prevented by a nose- 
clip inserted in the face piece. The latter is made of gas- 
proof fabric and is arranged to fit the face closely, being 
held in position by two elastic bands. As it encloses the 
eyes, the mask is fitted with two eyepieces which allow a 
wide field of vision. These should be treated with anti- 
dimmiug composition, but if necessary they can be clean- 
ed without removing the respirator, by means of folds in the 
material. The mouth-piece can be removed from the mouth 
to enable the wearer to speak without disturbing the fit of 
the mask. The complete respirator is carried in a special 
satchel which is divided into two compartments, one of 
which holds the box and the other the mask. The box rests 
on a metal saddle which raises it from the bottom of the sat- 
chel and allows the free access to air. 

b) Personal Fitting. 

78. It is necessary that each man should have a box res- 
pirator, the mask of which properly fits his face. For this 
reason the face pieces are made in six sizes, four of which 
are regular issues and the other two are obtained on special 
requisition. The various sizes will be needed probably in 
the following proportions : 

No. o. Extra small o.i o/o (Special requisition) 

No. I. Very small o.3 o/o 

No. 2. Small 3.o o/o' 

No. 3. Medium 75.0 % 

No. 4* Large i5.o 0/0 

No. 5. Extra large 2.0 0/0 

The fit of each man's mask must be inspected and then 
tested in a gas chamber. Almost any room which can be 
closed up tightly may be used for this purpose, but the most 
suitable arrangement is to have a double door or a door and 



— 36 -- 

a curtain, similar to the protected dugouts, so that as little 
of the gas as possible escapes into the outer air. A still 
better arrangement is to use two adjoining rooms, the inner 
of which is the actual gas chamber. A small quantity of 
lachrymatory liquid is sprayed into the room, and the man 
enters, wearing his box respirator. He must remain in the 
room five minutes and move about and talk. If the mask 
does not fit. lachrymation (juickly ensues and the man retires. 
He should then be examined to see whether the lack of fit is 
due to bad adjustment or to his having a wrong size of mask. 
In the latter case, a different size must be issued and the 
test repeated. 

The fitting and adjusting of masks cannot be too thoroughly 
carried out. Special attention must be paid to the fitting of 
the mask and nose-clip with men who wear spectacles. 

c) Method of Use. 

79. The satchel containing the box respirator is carried 
outside all other equipment. When away from the trenches, 
it may be worn slung over the right shoulder, but men in 
the trenches or proceeding thither must carry it slung on 
the chest in the *' Alert'" position. The flap of the satchel 
with the press buttons must always be towards the body, but 
the press buttons must be kept fastened, except during the 
actual '*^Gas alert". The method of wearing the box res- 
pirator and of putting it on from the '* Alert" position are 
fully described in Appendix I. It is important that the methods 
therein described should be practised by all who are equipped 
with the box respirator, to ensure rapidity in adjustment 
and proper care in its use. 

80. Men with perforated ear drums may be affected by 
the gas penetrating through the ear passages to the respi- 
ratory organs and causing irritation there. In these cases it 
is useful to plug the ears with wadding. C. O.'s should 
ascertain from the Medical Officers in charge of their units 
the names of those suffering from this disability in order that 
the above precaution may be taken. 

81. It must be remembered that the box respirator can be 
worn in gas for many hours without losing its efficiency 
or causing any distress. It may be breathed through in drills 
for a period of an hour per week for l\o weeks when it should 
be turned in. This permits a drill period of at least an 
hour per week. 

d) Replacement. Record of Use. 

82. The correct keeping of records as to hours of use of 
the box respirator, by entries in the small book forming part 
of the repair outfit, is a matter of the greatest importance, 
as these records form the only guide as to whether the 
boxes should or should not be replaced. Decision as to replace 



- 37 - 

merit should be made on the advice of the Chief Gas Officer 
of the Division. The approximate time of actually breathing 
through the box should be noted. These entries must 
always be made after drills and gas attacks, great care being 
taken that they are correct. 

e) Inspection. . 

83. Box respirators must be normally inspected once a 
week and daily during ^'Gas Alert". 

It is of the utmost importance that the inspection should 
be carried out regularly and with the greatest care. Any 
neglect in doing this may lead to loss of life. 

The points to be attended to will be found in Appendix II. 

f) Anli-Dimming Composition. 

84. At the weekly inspection and after every time the 
respirator is worn, the composition provided for the purpose 
will be put on the eyepieces in the manner described in 
Appendix II. 

g) Local Repairs. 

85. A small repair outfit, consisting of pieces of adhesive 
plaster is included, with a record card, in each satchel. 

Small perforations in the face-pieces can be made good by 
applying pieces of the adhesive plaster to the perforation, 
both inside and outside the mask. They should be large 
enough to overlap the hole all round. Box respirators so 
repaired should be exchanged as soon as possible. The 
repair is only intended to make them safe until a new respi- 
rator can be obtained. 

No other local repairs are permitted and all defective 
respirators must be handed in and new ones obtained. 

Box respirators which have fallen into water must be 
exchanged as soon as possible. 



II. — The mask. 

a) General. 

86. The mask is the reserve defence against a gas attack 
and great care must be taken by officers to insure that it 
is in good order and that men have been trained in its use. 

b) Sizes and proportion of each. 

The mask is made in 3 sizes and the proportion of each 
size which will be needed for issue to a command is approx- 
imately as follows. 

Small 3 o/o. 

Medium 87 o/q. 

Large 10 0/0. 

The main point to be impressed on the men is that the 



L 



— 38 — 

chemically treated material of the mask acts as a filter and 
that all air breathed into the lungs must pass through the 
gauze. 

The mask is therefore useless unless properly adjusted so 
that no air may pass in around the edges. During its passage 
through the material of the mask all poisonous gas is 
absorbed by the chemicals. 

The mask must be preserved from wet and should be 
removed from its container only for inspection and drill. 

Every man should shave at least once a day, as a heavy 
growth of beard may permit the entrance of sufficient gas 
to injure a man seriously. For the same reason the hair 
should be kept short enough to nowhere catch under the 
edges of the mask. 

c) Manner of Carry incf. 

The mask should be worn over the left shoulder and 
should hang on the right side. It should be hung in position 
before the Box Respirator is hung on in order that the strap 
of the mask may not interfere with the ready adjustment of 
the respirator in the alert position. 

d) 'Drill. 

Mask drill should be carried out frequently by all ranks. It 
should aim at teaching the quick adjustment of masks under 
all conditions, accustoming the men to wear them for a 
long time and to exercise in them. Drill must be carried 
out both with and without overcoats and equipment, and by 
night as well as by day. 

For details of drill, see Appendix I. 

e) Inspection of Masks. 

87. Masks should be inspected once a week and daily 
during "Gas Alert". It is of the utmost importance that 
this inspection should be carried out regularly and with the 
greatest care. Any neglect in doing this may lead to loss of 
life. 

The points to be attended to will be found in Appendix II. 

f) Replacement. 

88. Masks will be withdrawn as follows : 

i) After any gas cloud attack in which the mask was 
worn ; 

2) After a total of 6 hours use for any purpose. 

III. — Horse respirators. 

89. A full description of the British type Horse Respirator 
and the method of using it is given in Appendix III. 




I 



- 39 - 

r^ ANTI-GAS APPLIANCES FOR GENERAL USE, 
I. — Strombos horns. 



a) General. - 

90. The experience gained in recent gas attacks has 
shown that Strombos Horns are the most effective form of 
gas alarm appliance and are audible for very long distances. 

])) Description. 

91. Each horn is issued in a box containing one horn, 
Iwo compressed-air cylinders, one length of rubber tubing 
with screw connections, one screwdriver, one gimlet and 
one adjustable spanner. One spare cylinder is issued with 
the horn, to be kept at the Division or Brigade H. Q. to 
replace used cylinders without delay. A reserve of charged 
cylinders is also kept at the Corps workshop. 

c) Method of Use. 

92. The horn should be mounted in a horizontal position 
by screwing to the outside of the case or to some other 
suitable support and must be protected as much as possible 
from rain or shell splinters. Should it be necessary to 
change its position, the horn should be fixed in the box 
by means of the butterfly nuts provided. Strombos horns 
must always be ready for use, the horn being connected to 
one of the compressed-air cylinders by the rubber tube. 
The union joints at both ends of the tube must be tight. 
The horn should be pointed toward the rear. 

93. To sound the horn, unscrew the screwcap on the air 
cylinder two complete turns. The horn will sound for 
about one minute. 

Immediately after use, couple up the horn to the second 
air cylinder and leave it ready for use in case of a second 
gas cloud. The used cylinder should be clearly marked 
Empty and replaced as soon as possible from the reserve. 

d) Replacement and Repair. 

94. The pressure of the cylinders will be tested under 
arrangements made by the Chief Gas Officer of the Division 
once every week, and defective ones returned for re-charging. 

On no account is any adjustment of the horn to be 
attempted except by the Chief Gas Officer of the Division or 
trained N.C.O. 's. A horn will be thrown completely out 
of action by movement of any of its parts. 

Damaged horns must be sent to the workshop for repairs. 




- 40 - 



II. — Other gas alarm devices. 

95. No definite pattern has been adopted for secondary 
alarm devices suitable lor installing at every sentry post. 
Bells, goings (shell cases), suspended rails, and other 
appliances are all in use, but single bells and gongs are 
generally too weak, and all of these arrangements suffer 
from requiring the use of a man's hands. 

A very suitable arrangement as an alarm is a triangle of 
light steel rail, mounted in such a way that it can be beaten 
by working a treadle. It can thus be sounded by a sentry 
while he is putting on his respirator or mask. Similar 
devices not requiring the use of the hands should be devised 
and installed where possible. 



III. — Anti-gas fans. 

96. The Anti-gas Fan consists of a sheet of canvas sup- 
ported by braces of cane and reinforced in the middle. It 
IS made with two transverse hinges and is fitted with a 
hickory handle. The flapping portion is roughly i5 inches 
square and the handle is 2 feet long. 



Method of Use. 
a) Clearing Trenches. 

' 97. The fan blade is placed on the ground with the brace 
side downwards, the man using it being in a slightly 
crouching position with the left foot advanced, the right 
hand grasping the handle at the neck and the left hand near 
the butt end. The fan is brought up quickly over the right 
shoulder and then smartly flicked to the ground with a quick 
slapping stroke. This drives a current of air along the 
earth and, on the top strokes, throws the gas out of the 
trench as it were by a shovel. 

It is essential that the part of the fan blade nearest the 
handle should touch the ground first, and this can be accom- 
plished in all cases by ending the stroke with the whole 
length of the handle as close to the ground as possible. 

98. In working round a traverse, etc., the fan should be 
flapped round the corner with the hinge on the corner and 
the lower edge of the fan as near the bottom of the trench 
as can be managed. The brace side of the fan is to be 
outwards and at the end of the stroke the whole length of 
the, handle should be close up to the side of the trench. 

If several fans are available, men should work in single 
file and with "out-of-step" strokes, i. e., one fan should 
be up while the next is down. 



- 4i - 

b) Clearing Shelters. 

99. In the case of a dugout with a single eptrance not 
exceeding 12 feet in length, the gas is first cleared from the 
neighborhood of the shelter as in 97, and then the corners 

^worked round as in 98. The worker now advances to the 
inner end of the entrance, beating rather slowly on the ground 
to allow the gas time to get out of the tunnel and bringing 
the fan as near the roof as possible on the return stroke. 
This makes an overhead current outward with a floor cur- 
rent inward. 

It may be desirable to have a second fan working just 
outside the dugout to throw the gas out of the trench as it 
comes out. 

In the case of dugouts with two entrances or with one 
entrance and another opening, such as a chimney, it is only 
necessary to use the fan round the corner of one entrance in 
the manner described in 98. When the entrance is cleared, 
it is advisable to enter the shelter with a respirator on in 
order to beat up the gas from the floor boards, etc. This 
greatly facilitates the removal of the last traces of gas. 

Special methods to be used after shelling -with 
"Mustard gas" (Dichlorethylsulphide). 

100. a) Mustard gas is very persistent and will render 
an area shelled with it dangerous for as long as two days. 

h) Therefore, dugouts and shelters into which gas has 
penetrated or has been carried by clothing after a severe 
shelling with mustard gas should, if practicable, be temporarily 
evacuated, as it is very hard to clear the gas from dugouts. 
Those that remain in the shelled areas or dugouts must 
wear their respirators continuously. 

c) Occupants of entire dugouts have been gassed from 
two or three men, who, having been exposed to the gas, 
had entered the dugouts. 

d) Doctors have been gassed while attending gassed cases. 
F6r these reasons, it is imperative to remove entirely the 
clothing of gassed cases. The patient must, however, be 
at once reclothed with warm clothing or covered well with 
unaffected blankets, as chilling of the patient must be 
avoided by all means. Clothing must be washed in pure 
water for at least an hour then dried in the open. Tempe- 
rature of the water should not exceed 80° G. 

e) Chloride of lime freely spread on the ground destroys 
the gas. If not enough is used, the gas near the surface is 
destroyed but that which soaked in is not. hence ground so 
treated should not be again dug up. Men have been gassed 
from digging around '* mustard" areas without wearing 
masks. Mustard gas shells should only be handled by men 
wearing masks and gloves. 

f) Fresh earth may be used to cover up shell holes and 
areas afiected by liquid mustard gas, but the respirator 
must be worn by the workmen while doing so. 



- 42 - 



IV. — Vermorel Sprayers. 

101. Vermorel sprayers are withdrawn from general use 
for clearing out gas after an attack, but a certain number 
are retained for moistening the blankets of protected shelters 
and for use in medical dugouts. They should be kept for 
this purpose only, and on no account relied on for clearing 
trenches or shelters of gas. 

102. Company Vermorel Sprayers, — Sprayers on the 
basis of two per Company are retained for moistening 
blankets in the blanket protected dugouts. They should be 
kept by Company Gas N. C.O.'s with other anti-gas 
trench stores, and should be kept one-third full of water. 
The solution must be kept in corked jars or other closed 
receptacles close to each sprayer. The liquid should not 
be kept in the sprayers owing to its corrosive nature. It is 
made up as follows : 

Water, 3 gallons (one large bucket). 
Sodium Thiosulphate (hypo.), i 1/2 lbs. 
Sodium Carbonate (washing soda), 3 lbs. 
The necessity for keeping corked the receptacles holding 
the solution must be impressed on the personnel responsible 
for it. 

VV^hen no solution is obtainable, water may be used for 
spraying the blankets. 



V. — Gas sampling apparatus. 

103. It is desirable that samples be obtained of the enemy 
gas used in attacks, especially cloud gas attacks. For this 
purpose two kinds of appliances are kept in the trenches, 
viz.. Vacuum Bulbs and Gas-Testing Tubes. These should 
be looked after by the Company Gas N. C.O.'s whose duty 
it is to take the samples, but officers should take all possible 
steps to ensure that samples of the gas are actually taken, 
as the information obtained may be of the greatest impor- 
tance. 

Full details of the methods of taking samples are laid 
down in "Instructions for taking (ias Samples, etc.'' 
(Appendix VI). 



- /,3 — 

IV. — CONSIDERATIONS AFFECTING 
SPECIAL ARMS. 

104. The foregoing notes apply to all arms and are com- 
plete as regards considerations of gas defense affecting 
troops in trenches generally. Additional information for the 
guidance of other arms on anti-gas measures which affect 
them specially is given helow. 

A. — CAVALRY. 

105. It is unlikely that Cavalry, when mounted, will en- 
counter high concentrations of gas from a gas cloud, or even 
from gas shells. It will probably be found, therefore, that, 
when acting as mounted troops, the mask will be adequate 
protection, besides being less cumbersome than the respi- 
rator. 

106. On the other hand. Cavalry used to supplement 
Infantry in the line, or employed as working parlies in or 
near the trenches, must be equipped for gas defense in the 
same way as the infantry. 

B. — ARTILLERY. 

I. — General. 

107. Artillery are as liable if not more so than anyone 
else to bombardment with gas shells, both poisonous and 
lachrymatory. Owing to the suddenness of shell attacks and 
the long period that the neighborhood of a battery may be 
affected by lachrymators or mustard gas, it is essential that 
the following points be noted : 

a) Where, owing to circumstances, box respirators are 
not actually worn on the men, they must be hung separately 
and within easy reach of the owners. If this course has to 
be adopted, the respirators should be ready prepared with 
the haversack ^sling shortened by means of the lab and stud 
and the slack of the sling tucked under the mask as in the 
"Alert'* position. The satchel flap should be unbuttoned, 
but kept in position. (Respirators should not, if possible, 
be hung in the actual gun emplacements, owing to the con- 
cussion beina liable to displace the chemicals in the box.) 

Men must be thoroughly practiced in getting their respi- 
rators on in the shortest possible time when they are stored 
in this manner. 

The mask will, in any case, always be carried on the man 
use in case of emergency. 



I 



- 44 - 

b) Men must be well practiced in wearing their box respi- 
rators for long periods and in serving their guns while 
wearing respirators or masks. 

/ II. — For-ward observing parties. 

108. Forward observing parties must take all the precau- 
tions previously laid down for Infantry. 

III. — Preservation of guns and ammunition. 

109. The following precautions apply to medium and 
heavy trench mortars as well as to guns and howitzers : 

a) Protection. 

Batteries which are in constant danger of gas attacks, 
whether from gas clouds or gas shells, should keep all 
bright parts of their guns or mortars, carriages, mountings, 
and accessories well coated with oil. 

Sights and all instruments should also be smeared with 
oil and protected with covers when not in actual use, care 
being taken that the oil does not come in contact with any 
glass or find its way into the interior of the instrument. 

Cartridge cases of ammunition stored with the Battery 
and all uncapped fuses, or fuses which have been removed 
from their cylmders, should be wiped over with oil as soon 
as possible and protected with a cover. 

b) Cleaning. 

All bright parts of guns and trench mortars, together with all 
accessories and spare parts exposed to the gas, must be 
cleaned and wiped dry as soon as possible after the attack, 
and in any case within 24 hours, after which they should be 
thoroughly coated afresh with oil. 

The same applies to the whole of the ammunition still in 
the Battery position. Ammunition which, for any reason, 
had not been oiled, must be cleaned and oiled. It is desir- 
able to expend it as soon as possible. 

IV. — Aiming points and aiming posts. 

110. Aiming points and aiming p^osts are liable to be 
obscured by the gas cloud and arrangements should, there- 
fore, be made in every Battery to meet this eventuality by 
providing gun-pits with means to check the line of fire ifi 
necessary, without depending on the use of aiming posts. 



V. — Tactical measures during a gas attack. 
Ill, Enemy gas attacks may be executed for purposes' 



- 45 - 

other than the preparation of a subsequent infantry attack. 
During the gas discharge a heavy artillery fire on the actual 
trenches whence the gas is issuing is the best way of dealing 
with the situation. Also it is essential that the gas dis- 
charge should be interfered with as early as possible, as the 
opening periods of the discharge are the most effective. 

112. To ensure an effective and immediate artillery fire 
the following points require attention : 

a) Certain howitzer Batteries should be detailed to open a 
rapid fire for a short time as an anti-gas measure. 

b) Only certain portions of the enemy's front trenches can 
be used for gas discharge in any given wind and these can 
easily be indicated on any accurate trench map. Each Bat- 
tery charged with the task of hampering an enemy gas 
attack should be provided with a map and a table, showing 
from what portions of the enemy's hues (within the Batte- 
ry's zone of action) gas can be discharged in any given 
wind. 

113. Nothing in the foregoing paragraphs in any way 
affects the responsibility of artillery for dealing with any infan- 
try attack, or for the execution of counter-battery work. 



t. 



C. — TUNNELLING COMPANIES. 



114. I) Tunnelling companies are again reminded that 
neither the box respirator nor the mask affords protection 
against mine or explosion gases. Oxygen breatning sets 
have been used with good results. 

II) Owing to the difficulty in clearing gas, especially 
lachrymatory gas, from mine-shafts and galleries, the 
entrances to mine-shafts should be protected from gas by 
blanket curtains in the manner already described for dug- 
outs. 

III) The enemy has occasionally attempted to render 
galleries untenable by the use of gas bombs in conjunction 
with the explosion of a charge. If this is done, the box 
respirator must be worn if work has to be continued. 



D. — SIGNAL SERVICE AND 
TELEPHONE OPERATORS. 




I. — General. 



115. It is essential that telephone and other signal op- 
erators should be able to work as much as possible during a 
qas attack without wearing respirators or masks. Signal 
dugouts must, therefore, be particularly well protected 
against gas, so as to allow this to be done. 



agair 

I 



- 46 — 

II) Telephone and other signal operators must be spec- 
ially trained in using their instruments when wearing box 
respirators, masks, or such other gas masks as may be 
furnished them. It may be necessary to rely on the fuller- 
phone or buzzer when gas equipment is being worn on 
account of the difficulty of speaking with the mask on. 

.Special telephone transmitters are being designed, which 
will overcome this difficulty. i 

III) Linemen and signal men in general must receive 
plenty of practice in carrying on their work, both by day and 
by night, while wearing respirators and masks. 



II. — Preservation of signal equipment. 

a) Protection of Instruments and Apparatus. 

116. The only effective method of preventing corrosion 
of electrical and other apparatus during a gas attack is to 
prevent the (jas reaching it, and the best way of doing this 
IS to have Signal Shelters and Offices thoroughly protected 
against gas. As the corrosive effect is very much greater 
on instruments if they are damp, the shelters should be 
kept as dry as possible. Instruments and apparatus which 
have to be used in the open will be less affected if kept 
perfectly dry. 

The cases and covers of all instruments and apparatus 
must be made as nearly gastight as possible. The varnish 
and paint protection applied to the metal parts and coils 
must be carefully preserved. All apparatus, such as tele- 
phones, test boards, connecting frames, spare instruments, 
etc., which it is not essenlial to have uncovered should be 
well covered up with cloths, blankets, or spare clothing. A 
heavy mineral oil such as Cosmic may be used on metal 
parts and, in fact, on all articles which will not be injured 
by the oil, though great care must be taken to keep it off 
electrical contacts. Unless actually required for use, signal 
lamps must be closed and preferably packed, with acces- 
sories, in the carrying cases. Fireworks are, in general, 
little affected by gas if the moistureproof varnish has not 
been cracked or broken. 

. b) Cleaning Instruments after a Gas Attack. 

117. After a gas attack, electrical apparatus that has 
been exposed to gas should be treated as follows : 

The ends of all leading in wires should be removed from 
terminals and cleaned by being scraped with a knife, 
wiped with a damp cloth, and then carefully dried. Ter- 
minals, exchange plugs and all exposed metal work, espec- 
ially the grounds and connecting wires of the Earth Tele- 
graph sets and Radio sets should be cleaned first with a 
damp and then with a dry cloth. This process should be 



- 47 - 

repeated after 12 hours have elapsed. In general, the pro- 
cesses prescribed for cleaning arms and ammunition (pars. 
3o to 34, incl.) may be followed for the cases and non- 
electrical parts and for nonelectrical apparatus. 

The internal portions of the instruments should not be 
interfered with. If an instrument has been kept closed or 
covered up, it is very unlikely that internal portions will 
have suffered; but if these portions show signs of corrosion, 
the instruments should be sent back to Division or Corps 
Headquarters to be dealt with by an Instrument Repairer. 



» 



III. — Protection of carrier pigeons. 



118. When the gas alarm is sounded, all baskets contain- 
ing pigeons should be placed in the special Anti-Gas Bags 
provided for this purpose, or placed m gas-proof shelters. 
If for any reason the birds cannot be protected from the gas, 
they should be liberated at once. Anti-gas bags should 
always be kept near baskets containing birds, and should 
be regularly inspected. 

Pigeons can be utilized during a gas attack. Experience 
has proved that they will fly through any gas cloud, but it 
is imperative that the bird should be exposed to the gas 
for as short a time as possible. The message and carrier 
should, therefore, be prepared and if possible, fastened to 
the pigeon's leg, before the bird is exposed to the gas. 
Twenty seconds should suffice to fix a carrier and liberate 
a bird. 





LIST OF APPENDICES. 



I. — Drills with box respirators and masks. 

II. — Inspection of personal anti-gas equipment. 

III. — Instructions for the use of horse respirators. 

IV. — Typical standing orders for Company Gas N. C. O.'s. 

V. — Instructions for making wind observations and fur- 
nishing reports. 

VI. — Instructions for taking gas samples and for reporting 
on hostile gas attacks. 



I 



DEFENSIVE MEASURES 



APPENDIX I. 



RESPIRATOR AND MASK DRILLS. 

The following drills are designed to teach officers and 
men to adjust quickly their respirators and masks. The 
drills must be so thoroughly mastered that one will protect 
himself instantly upon hearing the gas alarm. 

The breath must be held from the instant of alarm until 
the rcbpiralor or mask is completely adjusted. 

Drills with box respirators. 

Drills in defensive measures against gas will be conducted 
in each division in accordance with the programs of training 
furnished from these headquarters. After the training period 
and while not in the trenches, drills '*A'', ''B", and '*C" 
will be practiced twice weekly. While in the trenches or 
stationed within five miles of the front line, drill "B" will 
be practiced daily; the actual time during which the box is 
breathed through being as short as possible. 

Drills '*D", "G", and "H" will be practiced as fre- 
quently as possible, having regard to the amount of time 
during which the box may be breathed through, the respi- 
rator being good for l[0 hours breathing. 

In the initial training, drills must be so arranged that 
every man wears the respirator for one full period of an hour 
without removing the mask or nose clip. 

Drill "A". 

To bring the Box Respirator to the *'AIert" position. 

At the command ''Gas Alert", hang the box respirator 
round the neck with the flap next the body. With the right 
hand seize the satchel by the leather tab, with the left hand 
seize the sling by the brass button and clip this into the 
leather tab. Then unfasten the press buttons which close the 
flap. 

The heavy string attached to the top of the satchel will 
then be withdrawn from the right-hand compartment, passed 
through the ring on the lower ri^ht side of the satchel and 
carried around the waist to the ring on the left, where it is 
fastened. The press buttons closing the flap will be left 
unfastened, but the flap will be pushed into position to keep 
the respirator from getting wet. 



— 52 — 

Drill "B". 

Drill ''by numbers" to obtain complete and accurate adjust- 
ment of the box respirator from the "Alert'' position. 

This drill will be alternated with one without the numbers 
to insure as quick an adjustment as possible. The drill 
must be practiced until complete adjustment is obtained by 
all ranks in six seconds. 

Before starting the drill the respirator should be in the 
'* Alert" position with flap down but not buttoned. 

i) At the command "one", hold the breath, press down 
both thumbs between the satchel and the body and open the 
satchel. Immediately seize the face-piece with the right 
hand so that the metal elbow tube just outside the face- 
piece will be in the palm of the hand. At the same time 
knock off the steel helmet from behind with the left hand. 

2) At the command "two", bring the face-piece quickly 
out of the satchel and hold it in both hands with all the 
fingers outside along the binding and the two thumbs inside, 
pointing inwards and upwards under the elastic. At the 
same time throw the chin well forward ready to enter the 
face-piece opposite the nose clip. 

3) At the command "three", bring the face-piece forward, 
digging the chin into it and with the same motion bringing 
the elastic bands back over the crown of the head to the full 
extent of the retaining tape, using the thumbs. 

4) At the command "four", seize the metal elbow tube 
outside the face-piece, thumb up on the right, fingers on the 
left — all pointing towards the face. Push the rubber mouth- 
piece well into the mouth and pull it forward until the rim 
of the mouth-piece lies between the teeth and the lips and 
the two rubber grips are held by the teeth. 

5) At the command "five", adjust the nose clip to the 
nose, using the thumb and first three fingers of the right 
hand. Run the fingers round the face-piece on either side 
of the face to make sure that the edges are not folded over. 
Correct any faults in adjustment. Come quickly to attention. 

Drill "C". 

To adjust Box respirators when carried over the shoulder 
but not in the "Alert position". 

Pull the satchel around until it hangs in front of the body. 
Unfasten the flap and adjust the face-piece as in practice 
" B ", allowing the satchel to hang by the rubber tube. 

After the nose clip is put on, at once proceed to adjust 
the satchel in the Alert position, as in practice "A". 

Drill "D". 

Drill to teach cleaning of eyepieces. 

At the command "Clean eyepieces" the right eyepiece 
will be gripped between the thumb and first finger of the 
left hand. The first finger of the right hand will then be 



— 53 — 

pushed gently into the fold of the face-piece behind the right 
eyepiece which will be cleaned with a gentle circular motion. 
The left eyepiece will be cleaned in a similar way. 

Drill "E". 

Drill to teach melhod of giving orders. 

The squad is first cautioned that the nose clip must not be 
removed to talk and that before each sentence is spoken a 
long breath must be taken and the mouthpiece removed 
sideways from the mouth by turning the metal tube outside 
the face-piece on one side. After speaking and before draw- 
ing a breath, the mouthpiece is replaced. 

The squad should then call off, intervals extended to four 
paces, and orders passed down the line. 

Officers and N. C. O.'s should receive special practice in 
Drill ^'E". 

Drill "F". 

Drill to teach method of clearing- face-piece from gas 
which may have leaked in. 

Press the face-piece close to the face, forcing out foul air 
around the sides, then fill with air from the lungs by blowing 
out round the mouthpiece, and end by pressing the face-piece 
close to the face. Repeat at about lo minute intervals as 
long as the face-piece is worn. 

Drill "G". 

Drill to teach method of testing whether trench or dug- 
out is free from gas. 

With the right hand pull the face-piece slightly away 
from the right cheek, loosen the nose clip on the nose and 
sniff gently (do not take a breath). If gas is smelled, the 
nose clip and face-piece are readjusted. Then clear face- 
piece of gas as in " F ". 

Drill " H ". 

Ordinary infantry drill will be carried out while wearing 
the mask. This will include-double time for at least 200 yards 
at one time. This drill will be in heavy marching order. 
Musketry and bombing instructions and the training of 
specialists (including artillery, machine gunners, Medical 
Corps, signallers) will also be carried out while wearing the 
respirator. 

Drill "I". 

Drill to teach changing from the box respirator to the 
mask. 

At the command "Change" hold the breath, get out the 
mask, and grip in the left hand. Knock off the steel helmet 
with the right hand. Take off respirator as in Note b) fol- 
lowing. Put on the mask according to the method described 



- 54 - 

under "Mask Drill'*. Protection must be obtained in ten 
seconds or less. 

Note. — a) If after being worn for a long time, the pres- 
sure of the nose clip becomes unbearable, it may be relieved 
for a few moments by easing up the pressure, being careful 
not to remove the clip from the nose. 

6) Removing respirators. — Care must be taken to remove 
the respirator without stretching the face-piece or elastic. 
At the command " Take off respirators'" release nose clip, 
insert the fingers of the right hand under the face-piece of 
the chin, bend the head forward and open the mouth, at the 
same time removing the face-piece with an upward motion 
of the right hand. 

c) Folding face-pieces. — The face-piece should be folded 
flat (no part tucked inward) and the elastic bands should be 
folded against the outside of the face-piece on one side. 

d) After all drills the respirator must be wiped dry, folded 
correcily, and put away in such a way that the rubber valve 
is not bent. 



Freezing or sticking of valve. 

In cold weather the saliva on the expiratory rubber valve 
will freeze. This can be prevented by two drops of glycerine 
or heavy thick oil. However, as both tend to injure the 
rubber they should be used only in very cold weather. 

The expiratory valve frequently sticks from the saliva 
drying on it. To prevent this, as well as freezing, always 
put the respirator away dry. If the respirator is put on and 
difficulty is experienced in respiration, take the expiratory 
valve between the thumb and fingers and rub it briskly with 
a rolling motion; do not remove respirator while doing this, 
but breathe out through the mouth around mouth piece. 



Mask drill. 

1. To obtain correct and quick adjustment of the mask the 
following drill will be carried out "by numbers". As soon 
as the movements are perfectly understood the number drill 
will be carried out alternately with "judging the time" 
drill. That is, as quickly as possible. The breath must be 
held while adjusting the mask because one breath of the 
poisonous gases now used may cause death or serious injury. 

Remove the mask from the cloth satchel and hang it on 
the chest by the long tape, with the oiled canvas facing out. 
This is the "Alert position". 

i) At the command "one", grasp the elastic with both 
hands in the following manner : the 3d, 4lh and 5th fingers 
between the front elastic and the mask ; the index fingers 



— 55 — 

between the two elastics, and the thumbs behind both 
elastics. 

2) At the command "two", pull the hands apart so that 
the elastics are completely stretched. 

3) At the command "three", push the chin well forward, 
at the same time carrying the hands upward so that the 
lower edqe of the mask catches well under the chin. ^■ 

4) At the command "four", carry the hands with a cir- 
cular motion backwards and then downwards, letting go off 
the first elastic when the tape fastening the elastics together 
becomes tight and then carrying the posterior elastic as far 
down the back of the neck as it will go. 

5) At the command "five", adjust the edges of the mask 
with both hands, being particularly careful to see that no 
hair lies under the edge of the mask and that there are no 
wrinkles. 

6) At the command "six", pass the right hand back of the 
neck and grasp the elastic hanging down on the left side 
and carry it back of the neck and lasten it into the hook on 
the right-hand lower corner of the mask; the forefinger of 
the left hand will help guide the eye over the hook. Come 
to attention. 

The mask is taken off by unhooking the elastic around the 
neck and then grasping the bottom of the mask with the 
right hand ; pull down and outward until the mask is free of 
the chin, then with an upward and backward swing remove 
the mask from the head. 

Note. — The elastk that goes behind the neck must be 
adjusted to the individual when the mask is issued so that 
it will fit his neck snugly. At the same time the median tape 
should be shortened by means of the safety pin supplied with 
it so that it will be taut when the mask is properly applied. 

Care should be taken of the eyepieces as they are very 
fragile. They should never be wiped when moist as it 
spoils them. Extra eyepieces are provided to replace those 
in the mask when they become cracked or broken. To 
remove old ones, bend outward the little metal fasteners of 
the protecting rim on the front of the mask when the eyepiece 
frame slips out of the rubber socket. The new eyepiece is 
put in place from the inside of the mask by introducing one 
edge of the rim into the rubber groove and stretching the re- 
mainder of the rubber groove over the eyepiece. Care should 
be taken not to press on the transparent part of the eyepiece. 
Replace the metal rim and press the fasteners back into place. 

Men must use their own masks for drill purposes. 

Men must be warned that during a gas attack the smell 
of the chemical on the mask becomes stronaer and may cause 
very slight irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. This will 
disappear in a few minutes, and does not indicate that gas 
is coming through the mask. 

Masks will be worn in the ''Alert position" only when 
men are not provided with the Box Respirator. 



56 — 



General points on training -with anti-gas appliances. 

When training men in the use of anti-gas appliances the 
following points are of importance. They apply equally to 
box respirators and masks. 

a) Practice with simple movements with box respirators 
or masks. Ordinary infantry drill should be combined with 
physical drill, including arm and leg exercises, leap-frog, 
and double time. The time of practice should not exceed 
1 5 minutes at first in the case of the mask, but should be 
gradually extended. 

6) Practice in bombing, rapid loading and aiming, judging 
distance and rifle firing, should be carried out while men are 
wearing box respirators or masks. 

c) Men must swallow their saliva and not allow it to drain 
out over the lips or through the valve. 

d) Officers and N. C. O.'s will receive the same training 
as the men, and, in addition, w^ill be practiced in giving 
orders w^hile w^earing their respirators or masks. 

Practice and drill in the use of anti-gas appliances should 
be carried out continuously. This applies especially to 
troops which return to trench warfare after having been in 
districts where more open fighting may have led (a) to a 
temporary lapse in this training, (6) to the subsequent in- 
corporation of drafts only partially trained in anti-gas 
measures. 



APPENDIX II. 



INSPECTION OF PERSONAL 
ANTI-GAS EQUIPMENT. 

A. — Box respirators. 

Box respirators must normally be inspected once a week 
and daily during **Gas Alert." Attention will be paid to the 
following points : 

a) Boxes, facepiece, mouthpiece, noseclip, eyepieces, and 
elastic must be in good order. If the box is rusted through, 
the respirator must be condemned. 

b) Facepiece must be firmly attached to the mouthpiece 
and to the elbow tube. 

c) The metal tube inside the mouthpiece must be about 
I /8th in. back from the opening of the latter. 



- 57 - 

d) The rubber tube must be intact and firmly attached to 
the box and elbow tube. 

e) The expiratory valve should be tested by removing the 
box from the satchel and either closing the cap at the bot- 
tom with the hand, or pinching the rubber tube so as to 
prevent inlet of air at the same time attempting to draw in 
air through the mouthpiece. It should not be possible to 
draw in any air. This also proves the absence of leaks in 
the tube or box. It must be possible to breathe out easily 
through the valve. If the latter has stuck because of saliva 
drying in it, this must be remedied by rubbing the valve 
between the fingers. 

/) See that the inlet valve is opening properly and that 
nir can be drawn freely through the box. 

g) See that the cord for tying around the' body is present 
and not knotted. 

h) Any small perforations in the facepiece should be tem- 
porarily repaired by applying pieces of adhesive plaster 
from the repair outfit to the perforation, both inside and 
outside the mask. The adhesive plaster should be large 
enough to overlap the hole all round. 

Respirators so repaired must be exchanged as soon as 
possible. 

i) Replace the box in the satchel so that the facepiece 
comes to the face without twist on the tube. Fold facepiece 
carefully and replace in the satchel so that the expiratory 
valve is not likely to crumple. 



B. — Masks. 

Masks must be inspected once a week, or daily during the 
''Gas Alert". Attention must be paid to the following 
points : 

a) See that the carrying case is in good condition. 

h) See that the eyepieces are not cracked or loose. 

c) See that there is no evidence that the mask has been 
wet (mould) ; any mask which has been wet should be con- 
demned. 

d) See that elastics and tapes are in good condition. 




58 



APPENDIX III. 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE USE 
OF BRITISH ANTI-GAS HORSE RESPIRATOR. 

I. — Description. 

The respirator consists of a flannelette bag with a canvas 
mouthpiece which goes into the horse's mouth and saves the 
flannelette from being bitten through. The bag is provided 
with an elastic band which passes round the opening so as 
to draw the respirator close to the face when in use. The 
upper side of the mouth of the flannelette bag is furnished 
with a small unbleached calico patch by which the respi- 
rator is attached to the nose-band of the head collar when 
in the "Alert position"', and while in use. Inside the bag 
and attached to the canvas mouthpiece there is a canvas 
frame which is stitched on to the bag in such a way as to 
prevent the material drawing into the nostrils when the res- 
pirator is in use. The whole is folded and carried in a canvas 
case provided with a flap, secured by three press buttons, and 
having two straps at the back by means of which the case is 
attached to the head collar. 

II. — Method ^of use. 

Horses can stand a higher concentration of gas than human 
beings without material damage, and it is not therefore 
necessary to protect them against cloud gas attacks when 
they are a considerable distance back from the trenches. 
Nor is it necessary to protect their eyes. The respirator is 
primarily intended for use on transport animals w^hen .they 
are sent to the vicinity of the trenches with supplies and 
ammunition. In the case of gas shell attacks, horses should 
be protected wherever the shelling is heavy. 

i) Carrying when not immediately required. 

When not required for immediate use the respirator can 
be conveniently carried on the supporting strap of the breast 
harness as shown in Fig. 5, or if a zinc wither pad is worn, 
still more conveniently inside this pad. If a collar is used 
in place of the breast-strap, it can, be carried in the chan- 
nel of the collar where drivers often carry a sponge 
However carried, the case is steadied by being strapped 
on either side to the metal ring on the supporting strap, and 
its flap should be passed under this strap, between it and 



- 59 - 

the nunnah wither pad, and buttoned as in the ''Alert po- 
sition". * 

2) Alert Position. 

When horses are being sent up to the trenches, the trans- 
port or other officer responsible should have the respirators 
adjusted in the "Alert position" before moving off, as fol- 
lows : 

a) The flap of the respirator case is unbuttoned and slipped 
under the nose-band of the head collar from below upwards. 

b) The two straps at the back are also passed under the 
nose-band and secured to the cheek pieces of the head collar, 
above the metal D on each side. 

c) The small unbleached calico patch on the upper side of 
the mouth of the respirator is buttoned on to the nose-band 
of the head collar so that the respirator is ready to be 
slipped on immediately in the event of a gas attack. 

d) The cover of the case is then closed over the nose- 
band, and the respirator is thus protected from rain, and 

.held in position on the nose-band. Fig. 6 shows a respi- 
rator in its case carried in the '* Alert position". 

3) Wearing in Gas. " 
The respirator being carried in the "Alert position" is 

adjusted for use as follows : 

a) The flap of the case is unbuttoned and the respirator 
removed, leaving the case attached to the cheek pieces of 
the head collar and lying flat on the face. 

6) The mouth of the bag is drawn down over the upper 
lip and upper teeth with one hand on each side of the 
mouthpiece, slipped into the mouth, and drawn well up to 
the angle of the lips. 

c) The elastic band is seized on either side close to the 
mouthpiece, and pulled outwards so as to draw the mouth 
of the bag tight around the upper jaw, above the nostrils, 
and is then slipped over the poll. 

The respirator is then in position and the animal may be 
worked in it without difficulty or undue distress. The bit 
and reins are not interfered with in any way. This is 
shown in Fig. 7. 

4) Replacement in Case. 

In folding the respirator and replacing it in the case ready 
for use the following points should be observed : 

a) The canvas mouthpiece should be wiped as clean as 
possible. 

b) The flannelette bag should be held with the canvas 
mouthpiece underneath and the elastic band placed over the 
top of the bag in such a way that when the canvas patch 
is buttoned on to the nose band the elastic band has simply 
to be passed straight up over the face and over the poll. 
The bottom end of the respirator should then be tucked in 
and rolled up over the elastic band to make a neat roll for 
insertion in the canvas case. 




Fig. 5. 




Fig. 6. 




Fig. 7. 



— 6i 



APPENDIX IV. 



TYPICAL STANDING ORDERS 
FOR COMPANY GAS N. C. O.'s. 

i) They will assist officers at the inspection of box respi- 
rators and masks, and in making such local repairs as are 
possible. They will assist in training men in the use of 
anti-gas appliances. 

2) Under the Company Commander they will have charge 
of all anti-gas trench stores as follows : 

a) Strombos Horns and Other Gas Alarm Devices. — 
Inspect daily and see that sentries posted at them know 
how they should be used. 

b) Gas-proof Shelters. — See that the blanket doorways 
fit and are kept in good order. 

c) Anti-gas Fans. — See that they are in their proper 
position and in serviceable condition. 

d) Stores of fuel for clearing shelters. — Insure sufficient 
supply for clearing all dug-outs, to be maintained under 
company arrangements. 

e) Vermorel Sprayers. — Maintain in working order and 
see that supply of solution is available. 

f) Gas Sampling Apparatus. — Have charge of the va- 
cuum bulbs and gas-testing tubes. Keep a stock of corked 
bottles and small tins with well-fitting lids for collecting 
samples of earth and water after a gas shell attack. 

3) On relief they will assist the Company Commander in 
taking over all anti-gas trench stores. The Company Gas 
N.C.O.'s should accompany the advance party and take 
over anti-gas trench stores (by daylight if possible). 

4) They will make wind observations every three hours 
or more frequently if the wind is in or nearing a dangerous 
quarter, and will report any change of wind to the Company 
Commander. 

5) During a gas cloud attack they will take gas samples 
by means of the vacuum bulbs and gas-testing tubes. 

6) During or after the attack the N.C. 0. must note down 
in writing as much information regarding the attack as 
possible. (See Appendix VI.) 

7) As soon as possible after the conclusion of a gas shell 
bombardment, the Gas N. CO. must fill his bottles and 
tins (2, f) and take samples of water, mud, or earth from 
those parts of the line which are smelling most strongly of 
shell gases. He should note the position of any blind shells. 
(See Appendix VI.) ^ 

8) As soon as possible after a gas attack, all samples and 
notes will be handed in to the Company Commander for 
transmission to the Division Gas Officer. 



ib 



— 62 — 

APPENDIX V. 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR MAKING WIND 
OBSERVATIONS AND FURNISHING REPORTS. 

Wind reports are to be made and handed to the Company 
Commander every three hours, or oftener if the wind is in 
or approaching a dangerous quarter. In order to make 
these reports the following points must be attended to : 



I. 



Wind vane. 



A simple wind vane must be set up. The vane must have 
as little friction as possible, so that a wind under 2 miles 
per hour will turn it. A little post at the top of the vane 
should carry a strip of linen 5 in. by 3/4 in., by the move- 
ments of which the strength of I he wind can be judged. 

The vane must be set up sufficiently high to get a true 
observation (e. g., 18 in. above the top of the dugout, etc.). 
Correct orientation should be obtained by getting N by the N 
star and S by the sun at midday (Greenwich time). 



WEST 




t.SE. 



II. 



63 



Direction of Tvind. 



Before reading the direction of the wind from the vane the 
observer should gauge the approximate direction by noting 
the course taken by smoke, etc. Direction of wind must bu 
stated in points of the compass. ^. 

The points of the compass to be used are shown in Fig. 8. 

III. — Strenght of -wind. 
This may be judged from Beaufort's scale. 







OBSERVATIONS 

of 
Natural objects. 


BEHAVIOUR 

of 

flag at top 

of Vane. 





1 
2 
3 
4 
5 

6 




2 

5 

10 

15 

20 

30 


Smoke straight up. 
Smoke slants. 
Felt on face. 
Paper, etc., moved. 
Bushes sway. 
Tree tops sway. 
Wavelets on water. 
Trees sway and whistle. 


No movement. 

No movement. 

Slight. 

3/4 up. 

Up and falling often. 

Up. Falling less ollen. 

Up and flapping. 





IV. 



Type of report. 



The points North, South, East and West must be written 
in full. Other points are denoted by the usual letters. 

The following example shows the type of report which 
should be made : '• 



Wind report. 



Trench No. i3r. 




Date w. i6. i6. 


TIME. 


DIRECTION. 


SPEED. 


6pm 


N. N. W 


12 m. p. h. 






The following simf 
of seconds which it v 
the enemy's lines to c 

Double trench dist£ 


Warning availabl 

)le calculation deterr 
vill take for a gas cl 
ur own : 
mce (in yards) and d 


e. 

nines the number 
3ud to move from 

ivide by speed of 



wind (in m. p. h.). Example = = 20 seconds* 



h 



10 



- 64 - 

APPENDIX VI. 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR TAKING GAS SAMPLES 
AND FOR REPORTING ON HOSTILE GAS ATTACKS. 

I. — Taking gas samples during a cloud 
gas attack. 

A) Vacuum Bulbs. 

a) Open the hinged lid at the end of the box containing 
the bulb. 

b) Remove the file from the plasticine stopper and with it 
make a scratch on the glass tube at the narrowest point. 

e) Hold the tube with finger and thumb of each hand and 
snap it where it is scratched ; air will immediately rush in 
and fill the bulb. 

d) Samples should be taken, 18 inches, and 4 feet above 
the bottom of the trench. 

e) Press home the cap containing plasticine over the 
broken end of the tube so as to seal up the contents of the 
bulb. 

Samples of gas should be taken both in the fire and 
support trenches. The first sample should be taken about 
two minutes after the commencement of the attack, and 
other samples at intervals during the attack. 

The exact time and place should be noted on the form on 
the back of the box immediately after the sample is taken. 

After the gas waves have passed, samples of air in 
unprotected dugouts should be taken before the latter are 
cleared. 

Immediately after vacuum bulbs have been used they 
should be taken under shelter. 

B) C as-Testing Tubes. 

In the mtervals of taking gas samples with vacuum bulbs, 
a Gas-Testing Tube should be used. Open the box by 
stripping off the adhesive plaster and pulling off the lid ; pull 
out the small glass stopper and pump air through the appa- 
ratus by squeezing the rubber ball in the hand for 10 min- 
utes, if the number of times the ball is squeezed is counted 
and recorded, useful information may be obtained. After 
the sample has been taken, replace the small glass stopper, 
and at once replace the lid of the box, taking care to avoid 
compressing the rubber ball. Note on the label the time 
and place at which the sample was taken. 



— 65 — 

II. — Collection of specimens after a gas 
shell bombardment. 

As soon as possible after the conclusion of a qas shell 
bombardment, the Gas N. C. O. must take samples of water 
or earth from those parts of the line which are smellina 
most strongly of shell gases. He should note the spots at 
wliich the samples were taken. 

During and after a gas attack the Gas N. C. O. should 
note down m writmg as much information as possible on 
tne loUowmg pomts : 

condi?^^"^^^ and direction ot wind and general weather 

b) Times at which the gas wave or gas shell bombardment 
started and finished. 

c) Exact position and nature of place affected by qas or 
gas shells. "^ ^ 

d) Color and color changes of the gas cloud. 

e) Sound of escaping gas. 

f) Smell of gas and gas shells. 

g) Effect of gas and gas shells on men. 

A) To what extent telephone dugouts, covered qun and 
Ttiachine gun emplacements, etc., were affected. 

The approximate number of gas shells used and their 
oaliDre. 

j) The position of blind shells and fragments of shells, etc. 

1 11^— Forwarding of samples, 
specimens, and reports. 

After an attack, cloud gas samples, gas testing tubes, qas 

shell bases and fragments, shell gas samples, and notes on 

ttie attack will be handed to the Company Commander as 

SDon as possible for transmission to the Chief Gas Officer of 

le Division. 



DEFENSIVE MEASURES 



CONTENTS, 



r. — INTRODUCTION. 

A. — GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. ^''Se. 

B. — NATURE OF GAS ATTACKS ,5 

1. Gas Clouds. ... p. 

2. Gas Projectiles * ' ^ 

3. Smoke. . ..'.;; '^ 

4. Mine and Explosion Gases ' .['' ' JZ 

n. - ORGANIZATION OF GAS DEFENSE. 

A. — ORGANIZATION OF ANTI-GAS DUTIES .g 

^' ~ "^Te Nt' .°™^' '^'™'' ^^ INFANTRY REGI- 

«) Officers ^^ 

6) N. c. 0/s'. ; '.;;;; '^ 

:.- PERSONAL ANTI-GAS equipment . ... ]^ 

1. Equipment carried ^^ 

2. When and where carried '. '^ 

i). - PROTECTION OF SHELTERS. 

I. Methods of protection 

^' ^tefted' ""' '*"'^''''*' ^^'""^ should"be prol ^' 

|j^ PROTECTION OF WEAPONS AND EQUIPMENT !'-{ 
H I. Small arms and S. A. \ 

H ^- H^nd and riOe grenades ^7 

H ^. Light trench mortars and ammunition * " o/t 

I «- 4. Guns medmm and heavy trench mortkrs ^ 
and ammunition ..... """«^s 

. — WIND ORSERVATION 

i. — THE GAS ALERT PERIOD . 

1 . Order for gas alert . ^^ 

2. Precautions during gas alert .' ^^ 

a) Inspection , . 

b) Alert position " of respirators' and ^^ 
masks, 

c) Sentries, etc ^? 

20 



— 68 — 

Page, 

rf) Sleeping. 2(3 

e) Company Gas N. G. 0/s 26 

f) Officers and N. G. 0/s 27 

3. Removal of gas alert 27 

H. — CLOUD GAS ALARM 27 

1 . Method of giving the alarm 27 

2. Action to be taken in trenches 28 

3. Action to be taken in billets and back 

areas 28 

I. — ACTION DURING A CLOUD GAS ATTACK. .... 28 

1. Protective measures 28 

2. Tactical measures. 29 

J. — PRECAUTIONS AGAINST GAS SHELLS. 3o 

K. — PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN AGAINST OUR OWN 

USE OF GAS IN CYLINDERS, BOMBS, etc 3o 

1. Handling gas cylinders 3o 

2. Action when gas cylinders are in position 

in trenches 3i 

3. ActioA during our gas attacks 3i 

4* Gas bombs and grenades 3i 

L. — ACTION AFTER A CLOUD GAS ATTACK 3i 

1. General 3i 

a) Removal of respirators 32 

6) Return to the alert position .... 32 

2. Movement 32 

3. Glearing dugouts 32 

a) Ventilation. 32 

6) Sprayers 33 

4. Gleaning of arms and ammunition. ... 34 

5. Treatment of shell holes 34 



III. — PROTECTIVE APPLIANCES. 

A. — INDIVIDUAL PROTECTIVE APPARATUS 35 

1. Box respirator 35 

a) Description 35 

6) Personal fitting 35, 

c) Method of use 36 

d) Replacement 361 

e) Inspection 37J 

2. The mask 37 

a) General 37J 

b) Sizes and proportion of each .... 3] 

c) Manner of carrying 3« 

d) Drill 3f 

e) Inspection . . . . ' 38 

/) Replacement 38 

3 Horse respirators 38 



- 69 - 

Page, 

B. — ANTI-GAS APPLIANCES FOR GENERAL USE. 3g 

1. Strombos horns Sg 

a) General Bg 

b) Description 89 

c) Method of use Sg 

d) Replacement and repair Sg 

2. Other gas alarm devices 4o 

3. Anti-gas fans. Method of use 4o 

a) Clearing trenches -40 

b) Clearing shelters 4i 

4. Vermorel sprayers 4^ 

5. Gas sampling apparatus 4^ 



IV. — CONSIDERATIONS AFFECTING 
SPECIAL ARMS. 

A. — CAVALRY 43 

B. — ARTILLERY '. . 43 

1. General 43 

2. Forward observing parties 44 

3. Preservation of guns and ammunition . . 44 

a) Protection 44 

b) Gleaning. 44 

4. Aiming points and aiming posts .... 44 

5. Tactical measures in a gas attack. ... 44 

C. — TUNNELLING COMPANIES 45 

D. — SIGNAL SERVICE AND TELEPHONE OPERATORS. 45 

1. General. 4^ 

2. Preservation of signal equipment .... 46 

a) Protection of instruments and appa- 
ratus. 46 

b) Cleaning instruments after a gas at- 
tack 46 

3. Protection of carrier pigeons ...... 47 



LIST OF APPENDICES. 



Page. 

I. — Drills with Box Respirators and Masks .... 5i 

II. — Inspection of Personal Anti-gas Equipment. . . 56 

III. — Instructions for the Use of Horse Respirators. . 58 

IV. — Typical Standing Orders for Company Gas 

N. C. O.'s »»i 

V. — Instructions for making Wind Observations and 

Furnishing Reports G2 

VI. — Instructions for taking Gas Samples and for 

Reporting on Hostile Gas Attacks 64 



- 73 - 

INDEX. 



Page. 

AQti-dimming composition 37 

Arms and ammunition, cleaning of 34 

Battalion, gas duties in 18 

Beaufort scale. 63 

Box Respirator 35 

Box Respirators, inspection of 56 

Bulbs, vacuum 64 

Cavalry, use of mask by 43 

Carrier pigeons, protection of. . . 4? 

Clothing, mustard gas carried by 4i 

Cloud Gas Attack, measures to be taken after .... 3i 

Drill, with box respirator 5i 

Drill, w^ith mask 54 

Dugouts, clearing of gas ,/ 32 

Dugouts, ventilation of 32 

Equipment carried 19 

Equipment, when and where carried ........ 21 

Fans, anti-gas. 4o 

Gas Alarm, action to be taken on, in trenches .... 28 

Gas, alarm devices Sg 

Gas alarm, method of giving 27 

Gas alert 25 

Gas alert, removal of • • • ^7 

Gas attack, protective measures during ....'... 28 

Gas clouds i5 

Gas projectiles 16 

Gas, sampling apparatus l\2. 

Gas shells, protection against 3o 

Gas testing tubes . . . 64 

Gas, use of in cylinders, bombs, etc. 3o 

General considerations as to gas 7 

Guns, protection of from gas 44 

Horns, Strombos 39 

Horse respirators ' 38 

Horse respirator, directions for use of 58 

Masks, inspection ot 56 

Mask, drill 5i 

Mask, sizes of 87 

Meteorologic report, type of 63 

Mine Gas. 17 

Mustard Gas, carried in clothes 4* 

Orders, standing, for company N. C. 0/s 61 

Protection of weapons and equipment 23 



- 74 - 

Page. 

Report, Meteorologic, type of. '. , 63 

Respirator, box 35 

Samples and specimens, forwarding of 65 

Scale, Beaufort 63 

Shells^ Lachrymatory 17 

Shells, Mustard Gas 17 

Shells, poisonous 17 

Shelters, protection of 23 

Signal Service, protection of apparatus 16 

Smoke ' 17 

Specimens, collection of 65 

Sprayers, use of. 33 

Standing orders for Company Gas N. C. O.'s 61 

Strombos Horns Sg 

Tubes, gas testing 64 

Vacuum bulbs . 64 

Vane, wind 62 

Vermorel sprayers 4^ 

Wind, direction of 63 

Wind, observation of 25 

Wind, strength of 63 

Wind vane 62 



PRINTED BY BERGER-LEVRAULT, NANCY (m.-ET-M.) 



14 DAY USE i 

RETURN TO DESK FROM WHICH BORROWED 

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This book is due on the last date stamped below, or j 
on the date to which renewed. 
Renewed books are subject to immediate recall. 


r^Ma/6206 




1.. -CD LD 




JAN 2 fi 1963 




ULU 16 1987 




•"li; DEC 11 1987 


































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