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Full text of "Defining the legacy : Oklahoma Farmers Home Administration"

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ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 
U.S. GOVERNMENT DOCUIVENTS 

APR 14 2000 

FORT WAYME, INDIANA 



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ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 
U.S. GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS 

APR 14 2000 

FORT WAYWE, INDIANA 



^Defining the Legacy^ 

Oklahoma 

Farmers Home Administration 





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^Defining the Legacy^ 

Oklahoma 

Farmers Home Administration 



By: 

Charles P. Rainbolt, Frank Evans, 
Dale L, Folger, Leonard Downing, 
Cecil Wildman, and Phil Brown 



Government Printing Office 
Oklahoma City, OK 



Contents 



Introduction: Defining the Legacy 1 

Clmrlcs P. Rninholt 

Chapter 1 : Farmers Home Administration: National Perspective 4 

Frank Evnns 

Chapter 2: Farmer Programs in Oklahoma 14 

Frank Evans 

Chapter 3: Community and Business Programs in Oklahoma 23 

Leonard Downing. Cecil Wildman. and Phil Brow n 

Chapter 4: Rural Housing Programs in Oklahoma 29 

Dale L. Folger 

Conclusion 40 

Charles P. Rainbolt 



Appendix A 42 

Oklahoma FmHA Personnel 
Appendix B 62 

Exceipt: USDA Fami and Home Management Report. 1941 
Appendix C 73 

Program Dollars Spent in Oklahoma 



Introduction 

Defining the Legacy 



Charles P. Rainbolt 

Oklahoma State Director, 
Farmers Home Administration 
1993-1995 



r\s the last Oklahoma State Director of Farmers Home Administration, it has 
become my lot to attempt to define the legacy of a titan — the Oklahoma Farmers 
Home Administration. I asked some Program Chiefs of long ago to co-author this 
definition and they have responded admirably. 

The Farmers Home Administration began in August. 1946 with the passage of 
the Farmers Home Administrative Act. But this entity's roots reached back much 
earlier — to April of 1935. with the creation of the Resettlement Administration, later 
called the Farm Security Administration. 

In its day. Farmers Home Administration was the largest lender in Oklahoma, 
having a loan portfolio of over $1,200,000,000 consisting of 25,000 loans. Any 
operation this huge was bound to have critics, and there were a few. A friend of 
mine once called the Farmers Home Administration an "8-foot tall gorilla." Make no 
mistake, however. Oklahoma Farmers Home Administration was a tremendous force 
for good in rural Oklahoma. 

Many Oklahoma farmers and ranchers started their operations with Farmer 
Program assistance. Countless rural Oklahomans were able to enjoy the American 
dream of home ownership due to Farmers Home Administration rural housing pro- 
grams. The community and business programs truly made rural Oklahoma a better 
place in which to live. The water and waste disposal program alone has served % 
million rural Oklahoma families since the program's inception in the early 1960's. 

The Oklahoma Farmers Home Administration was divided into 3 different pro- 
gram areas: Community and Business Programs. Farmer Programs, and Rural Hous- 
ing. I asked the former Program Chiefs to give highly personalized accounts of their 
program areas and recognize those people whom they deemed worthy of recognition. 
This they have done, sometimes humorously. I have edited very little of their work. 

By the nature of this very human effort, countless deserving men and women 
who spent their adult lives toiling for the Oklahoma Farmers Home Administration 
will go unrecognized. Personnel records dating back to the early days of the Okla- 
homa Farmers Home Administration are sketchy, at best. And, with the passage of 
time, the opportunity to accurately define the legacy gradually decreases. 

This effort is not an exhaustive historical review, nor does it profess to be. The 
co-authors' recollections are limited to the years during which they served. Some of 
the biggest contributors to the success of the Oklahoma Farmers Home Administra- 



tion were members of the \arious county committees throughout the state. Unfortu- 
nately, only records of ser\ ice from 1990-1995 exist for these hard-working men and 
women. 

For those interested in learning the names of Oklahoma Farmers Home Adminis- 
tration employees, we have done the best we could, given the poor records kept in 
the early days. Perhaps the publication of this book will inspire the creation of a 
more comprehensive list. We have reviewed documents dating back to the early 
1940s, which reflect the names of most, but not all, of the employees. We believe we 
have a complete list of employees from 1990-1995, including the county committee 
members. This list can be found in Appendix A: Personnel. 

For the serious student of Oklahoma Farmers Home Administration assistance 
dating back to the New Deal, we have assembled a record of program dollars spent 
in the state. This record can be found in Appendix C, as such a compilation does not 
lend itself to easy reading. 

The sun set on the Oklahoma Farmers Home Administration on October 1. 1995. 
While the USDA mission areas of Rural Development and Farm Service Agency 
offer essentially the same programs, the dynamics will never be the same. 

The legacy of the Farmers Home Administration is that of a difference-maker in 
rural Oklahoma. 



Charles P Rainbolt 
Oklahoma State Director, 
Farmers Home Administration 
1993-1995 



Chapter 1 : 

Farmers Home Administration: 
National Perspective 



Frank Evans 

Chief of Farmer Programs, 1 970- 1985 



As the United States rapidly expanded, so did the importance of agricuUure. 
However, the vital element of home ownership was often passed over or neglected, 
and fann tenancy began to increase. It gradually increased until a majority of the 
farms in the United States were operated by tenants. 

From the middle 1930's and up through the 1990's, the Farmers Home Adminis- 
tration addressed this problem in one of the most effective government programs run 
during this period. Over time, this agency came up with many effective solutions to 
solve the problems of rural America, and programs developed through FmHA con- 
tinue to operate as supplements to credit made available by private lenders. Not in 
competition with them, but as another helping hand for the capable and industrious 
family or community whose progress is roadblocked by lack of credit resources. 

Resources brought within reach through FmHA helped to make up for shortfalls 
in local and private resources. As it loaned money raised throughout the nation from 
investors in government securities, or guaranteed loans made by city banks and other 
commercial lenders, FmHA helped channel a flow of outside capital into the rural 
United States for farm, home, community, and rural economic development. 

FmHA loans classified as 'insured" were made from three loan revolving funds. 
Oldest is the Agricultural Credit Insurance Fund (ACIF), established when FmHA 
began to make insured loans in the 1940's, and now the fijnd from which all farmer- 
program loans are made. The Rural Housing Insurance Fund (RHIF) was established 
with the inauguration of insured rural housing loans in 1965. The Rural Development 
Insurance Fund (RDIF), established under the Rural Development Act of 1972. took 
over water, sewer and other community facilities, business and industrial develop- 
ment lending from ACIF. 

The revolving funds were nourished by the incoming flow of loan repayments, 
plus the sale of FmHA investment securities. 

Prior to 1974, investors received actual notes or other security instruments 
FmHA had taken from borrowers. The investor supplied to FmHA an amount equal 
to the principal owed on the note, and the agency guaranteed repayment of the invest- 
ments with interest. As borrowers repaid loans, payments were made to investors 
and the value of the investment was reduced. Until 1970, with FmHA program levels 
requiring less than $1 billion a year of note marketing, the agency increased sales by 
marketing large blocks of notes to security dealers who in turn sold them to trust 
funds and other large investors. 



In 1 974, FmHA discontinued marketing actual notes and introduced a new in- 
vestment security instrument, the Certificate of Beneficial Ownership (CBO). CBOs 
were issued against pools of loan notes and signified that investors would share in 
interest earnings. In 1975, FmHA was placing CBOs with the Federal Financing 
Bank, an institution closely related to the Department of the Treasury. No CBOs 
were sold directly to the public. 

Services inherent in the "supervised loan" principle adopted by the agency in its 
earliest years were still maintained as necessary to help borrowers achieve the pur- 
poses of their loans and to pay back what they had borrowed. Loan losses written 
off during the first 40 years of the agency amount to less than 2 percent of principal 
advanced. 

Historically, the availability of credit through FmHA when none other was to be 
found enabled hundreds of thousands of farm families to win their foothold on the 
land, rather than abandon farming and fall in with the huge farm-to-city migration of 
distressed people that aggravated decline in the countryside and turmoil in the cities. 

Over a million ill-housed rural families moved into adequate homes. Thousands 
of rural localities and farmland sections solved their water and sanitation problems 
through modernized central water and sewer systems. These are benchmarks of rural 
progress toward which FmHA programs made significant contributions. 



Historical Overview of Direct Government Lending to Farmers 

To remain a strong and self-sufficient nation, the United States has always had to 
rely upon the productivity and stability of its agricultural producers. And to ensure 
that productivity and stability, the government has developed and maintained a strong 
economic support system for the farmers and producers. 

As far back as 1918, Congress earmarked funds for short-term seed, feed, and 
fertilizer loans to farmers in designated areas. Except for four years, these short-term 
loans were repeated annually until 1933 under the U.S. Department of Agriculture, 
and, in 1932, the program was extended to the entire country. Called Emergency 
Crop and Feed Loan, the funding continued from 1937 to October 31, 1946 under the 
Farm Credit Administration and then finally became part of the Farmers Home Ad- 
ministration direct lending to farmers. 

In 1932, the Regional Agricultural Credit Corporation was organized with funds 
provided by the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, and it made loans until 1934. 



When the Production Credit Associations were organized in 1933. they tooi< oxer the 
supervision of the RACC. The RACC continued mailing some special loans the 
PCA's could not handle, and was reactivated as a war measure in 1943 until it was 
abolished in 1946. 

hi 1933. the Rural Rehabilitation Corporations were established under the Emer- 
gency Relief Act in about 40 states to make loans enabling farm families in distress 
to continue operating and to reduce the number on relief rolls. 

Two years later, in 1935. the Resettlement Administration, established by execu- 
tive order, took over the lending previously done by Rural Rehabilitation Corpora- 
tions. The "supervised credit" idea was expanded to include a more systematic 
program and the supervision of both farm and home operations. 



Congress passed the 
Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act 
in 1937. and placed the adminis- 
trative responsibility with the 
Resettlement Administration. 
Under this act. county committees 
were set up to select borrowers 
and approve loans for farm tenants 
to purchase farms, helping them 
leave tenancy and become farm 
and home owners. 

Also providing individual and 
association loans in 17 western 
states, the Water Facilities Act of 
1937 was administered jointly by 
the Resettlement Administration, 
the Soil Conservation Service, and 
the Bureau of Agricultural Eco- 
nomics. 



Tenant Purchase Farms 
in Alfalfa County, 1939. 
Map from FSA Report, 
Tenant Purchase Division, 
Alfalfa County OK. 
USDA Oklahoma office 




ALfAIfA COUjNTY 

8/39 ^ Kighv.'Hys p 



In 1942. the full administration of the program was assigned to the Farm Secu- 
rity Administration, and in 1954 the program known as Soil and Water Loans was 
extended to the entire United States. 



fc.*. 




Farm house before receiving an FSA loan 

Photograph USDA Oklahoma office 



On September 1. 1937. 
the Farm Security Administra- 
tion was established, succeed- 
ing the Resettlement Adminis- 
tration in 1938. The Farm 
Security Administration, 
under the U.S. Department of 
Agriculture, continued provid- 
ing loans for farmers unable to 
borrow from usual credit 
sources. 

The service was badly 



^Jkas^f'T" " 




ws ^ 



needed and greatly 
welcomed. The two 
photographs included 
here, of the same 
family's home, clearly 
show just what such a 
loan could mean to a 
farm family. One 
report, from an FSA 
supervisor in Okla- 
homa to the national 
office, concluded that 
"Farm Security can do 

no greater service to the farmers... than to provide them with adequate credit com- 
bined with a general program of education"' (FSA Report. Tenant Purchase Division, 
Alfalfa County OK, pi 2). The difference such help made was very important to 
many families. 



^^- 



Farm house after receiving an FSA loan 

Photograph USDA Oklahoma office 



From 1935. when the Resettlement Administration was first established, to 1947, 
when the FSA was reconfigured, the two administrative bodies made over 3 million 
loans, for a total exceedinc 1 billion dollars. 



In the postwar period, it became clear that FSA needed to be restriictLired. Some 
older programs were no longer justified, current programs could be improved, and 
new programs were needed. Accordingly, in August 1946, Congress passed the 
Farmers Home Administration Act. This act, which took effect in 1947, consolidated 
the Farm Security Administration and the Emergency Crop and Feed Loan Division 
of the Farm Credit Administration under the new name of Farmers Home Administra- 
tion, or, as it is finally known today, FmHA. The act gave FmHA the authority to 
insure loans made by banks, other agencies, and private indiv iduals. as well as to 
make direct Government loans. 

In its first 3 years, FmHA focused its operations on developing the county of- 
fices and their supervised farm ownership and farm operating loan programs, and to 
water facilities projects in the 17 western States. 

In 1949. the Federal Housing Act passed, providing means for better housing 
conditions, and the Farmers Home Administration was given authority to administer 
its rural housing phase. Also that year, the Disaster Loan Act was passed. This act 
made loans available to farmers suffering serious losses through disasters. 

By 1954. the Water Facilities Act was amended to extend loan provisions to the 
entire country and also to authorize increased loans of up to $250,000 to incorpo- 
rated community groups and small municipalities for water supply and flood protec- 
tion. 

FmHA operations grew in 1955 to include participation in and coordination with 
other Federal Departments and Agencies in a Rural Development Program. Regula- 
tions were broadened to provide supervised credit to small, under-developed, and 
otherwise ineligible low-income farms in selected pilot counties such as those in 
Oklahoma. 

In 1959, President Eisenhower's Executive Order established a committee of 
Government Department under-Secretaries to implement the Rural Development 
program on a larger basis. 

The Agricultural Act of 1961 expanded and improved the supervised credit 
services of FmHA. It raised the limit on operating loans from $20,000 to $35,000. 
the total real estate indebtedness limit on family farms to $60,000, and the limits on 
Soil and Water Association Loans to $500,000 when made from appropriated funds, 



10 



and to $1,000,000 when made from insured funds. It allowed loans to farmers with 
off-farm income to buy and enlarge farms. 

The Act also gave the Farmers Home Administration permanent authority to 
make real estate loans solely for refinancing and to provide small loans for real 
estate improvements without taking a mortgage on the farms. In addition, farmers no 
longer needed to be the main users of water supply systems in their rural communi- 
ties to be eligible for emergency loans, so. as rural areas became more developed, 
farmers could still receive emergency loans when necessary. 

That same year, 1961, the Federal Housing Act was amended to provide housing 
loans to all eligible real estate owners in towns of up to 2.500. and the program name 
was changed administratively from Farm Housing to Rural Housing. 

At that time. FmHA was still concerned almost entirely with its original mission 
as a supervised credit agency for low-income farmers. Expanding old programs and 
implementing new ones during the early 1960"s raised FmHA's total loan and grant 
volume from the $300 million level of fiscal year 1960 to $750 million in fiscal year 
1965. But the large-scale rural housing and rural development programs of the 
upcoming years changed the FmHA into a multi-billion dollar agency. 




Richard Maxey, left, USDA Director in Oklahoma and Floyd 
Higbee, acting national administrator, agree that so long as 
funds hold out, no eligible Oklahoma family farmer will be forced 
out of business because of lack of operating credit. 

USDA photo 



Rather than set 
up new agencies to 
administer new 
services. Congress 
and the Administra- 
tion continued to 
specify that 
FmHA's existing 
system of county 
offices, long experi- 
enced in serving 
rural communities, 
would be used as 
the delivery vehicle 
for the new and 
larger rural pro- 
grams. 



Rural housing changed from a program of direct loans to one primarily of in- 
sured loans, and the population limit on towns served through FmHA was raised from 
2,500 to 5,500 in the 1960s, to 10,000 in the 70s and continued to rise throughout the 
1990s. The water facilities loan program expanded also, being transformed into a 
loan-and-grant program for both water and waste disposal systems. 

Accelerating these changes, an important expansion of FmHA services came 
about under the Rural Development Act of 1972 (PL 92-419). This act gave the 
USDA primary responsibility for Federal activities in support of rural development. 
It also established an Assistant Secretary for Rural Development to oversee the work 
of three USDA agencies: the Farmers Home Administration, the Rural Electrification 
Administration, and the Rural Development Services. 

Principal provisions of the act affecting the FmHA included authorizing the 
FmHA to guarantee loans made by commercial lenders for farming, housing, rural 
business, and industry in cities of up to 50,000 population, as well as authorizing 
FmHA loans for community facilities such as fire departments, community halls, 
hospitals, nursing homes, public recreation facilities, and FmHA grants to improve 
rural industrial sites. 



The FmHA became further involved in community development by authorizing 
youth loans to rural young people under age 21 for farm and nonfarm income-produc- 
ing enterprises carried out under programs organized and supervised through schools 
or organizations, such as the 4-H Club and 
Future Farmers of America programs. 



From the earliest days of the USDA, the 
most important Farm Programs sponsored by the 
FmHA were the lending programs. Many types 
of loans were covered through FmHA, such as 
loans for purchasing farms, loans for improving 
the land, homes, or other buildings on the prop- 
erty, and loans for purchasing or improving 
machinery and livestock. These diverse loan 
and credit programs have made farming a viable 
way of life for many rural Americans, and much 
of the programs" success is credited to the hard 
work and careful attention each 
loan merited from the FmHA 
office. 






Illustration from a 

Farm and Home Plan Book, 1941 

USDA, Oklahoma office 




12 



Credit Counseling 

This careful attention began with credit counseling. When an applicant first 
came to FmHA to ask for a loan, credit counseling started. The county supervisor, 
head of the county operations, would counsel the applicant or boirower on several 
issues, including when to apply for credit, what credit resources are available in the 
area, and how to best present a request to a lender. 

Applicants were encouraged to get all of the credit available from other sources 
when the cost was not excessive and the borrower could reasonably repay the credit 
when it fell due. FmHA policy was to encourage boiTowers to graduate to other 
sources of credit when they were able to do so. 

For real estate loans, it was necessary to determine if other lenders would assist 
the applicants with their needs. If an applicant's request appeared to be sound and 
essential for success, and other creditors were able to assist the applicant, then an 
individual real estate loan would be processed. 

For operation loans, also known as production and subsistence loans, a credit 
analysis was run to see if the applicant could obtain all or partial credit from sources 
outside the FmHA. If credit could not be received from other sources, FmHA would 
provide all of the credit needed. 

The county supervisor also assisted eligible applicants and borrowers in plan- 
ning the most profitable use of the credit. Counseling and planning with individual 
families gave the county supervisor a solid opportunity to analyze a family's re- 
sources and extend effective supervision. And it helped the individual families 
determine how to best use available resources like land, buildings, equipment, and 
labor. 

Each county developed a planning guide of key practices that successful farmers 
used. The annual plan was called the Farm and Home Plan, and the plan that cov- 
ered several years was called the Long-Term Fami and Home Plan. The goals of 
both the FmHA Farm and Home plan and the Long Term Farm and Home plan were 
to pay essential family living and farm operating expenses, to schedule payments on 
both existing and planned chattel and real estate debts, to pay any delinquent, se- 
cured, or unsecured debts, and then plan how to use any remaining income. Appen- 
dix B. "Exceipts from A Farm and Home Management Report, 1941," shows the 
kinds of suggestions and analyses that made up the USDAs painstaking efforts to 
teach farmers the sound management skills to help them succeed. 

A complete analysis of the family's land resources, buildings, fences, and live- 



stock was made at the farm. It was also necessary to analyze the family's capabili- 
ties such as their farm background, training, experience, and management ability. 
This analysis provided a basis for determining probable income, expenses and net 
return from the operation, enabling a family to develop long-term goals. Ihe family's 
immediate needs were considered in the annual farm and home plan, and their later 
needs and goals were laid out in the long term farm and home plan. 

The FmHA also recognized that farmers and ranchers might have a source of 
income from nonagricultural enterprises. For example, if a borrower had skills such 
as welding, horse-shoeing, or others, the FmHA could help him with financing for 
buildings and materials to get such an enterprise started. This was a very helpful 
service that saved many families during the hard times. 

The County Committee 

An important part of the FmHA program was the County Committee, which was 
established when Farm Security Administration was established. Neither the FSA 
program or the FmHA program would have been successful without the County 
Committee. Made up of three members, two of whom had to be farmers, the County 
Committee was required to certify each loan applicant as eligible before a loan could 
be made. Since the County Supervisor was a college graduate, usually in farm 
management, and the Committee had local experience in farming, they were a great 
combination. 

Potential committee members were recommended by the Supervisor and others 
at a local level, and were appointed by the State Director. Committee members were 
people committed to their community, since the work was voluntary. They some- 
times served in other ways as well, such as helping to collect delinquent loans, usu- 
ally by going to the borrowers' farms and discussing the situation. They received no 
compensation except mileage and a per diem. 

Supervisory Visits 

Once a loan was made, a schedule of visits to the farm was set up with the 
purpose and dates recorded. These visits were quite important because they showed 
a lot about the operation and gave FmHA an opportunity to observe the livestock and 
machinery and see that they conformed with what FmHA showed on their records. 
They also gave FmHA an opportunity to show the family how interested FmHA was 
in their welfare and their success. A close relationship usually developed between 
the supervisor and the family, which was helpful to FmHA. 

A family new to the program might receive two or three visits a year the first 
few years, and then only one per year thereafter. The visits did not neglect the wife 



14 



and home, either. At one time, the FmHA had home management speciahsts to work 
with the wife. Occasionally, after a family had been on the plan for several years, a 
scheduling conflict might arise when the family could not be at the farm, home, or 
ranch when the supervisor was scheduled to be there. The supervisor would receive 
a notice that they could not be there on the date scheduled, but that he should still 
come to look the farm and livestock over and they would leave a horse saddled up 
for him. A smart supervisor always wondered if the horse might be one with a repu- 
tation for tossing; riders. 




Analysis 

The analysis was an 
important tool was used in 
farm planning. It provided 
a follow-up to the work of 
making and supervising the 
loan. It showed whether the 
loan had been properly 
planned and granted, and it 
also helped determine what, 
if any. problems had devel- 
oped and what should be 
done about them. The 
family was asked to keep a 

record book and, after 

completing one full year on 

the program, they were asked to bring the records in and do an analysis. 



:tcAJ^^^^ 




Illustration from Farm and Home Plan Book, 1941 

USDA, Oklahoma office 



During the analysis, the actual production from crops and livestock was deter- 
mined and compared to what had been projected. The family's actual living and 
operating expenses were compared to the budget that had been planned. The expen- 
ditures for capital goods were looked at and then the most important step was 
taken — the family made all payments that were due. 

If production had been at its planned level and expenditures kept to their ex- 
pected levels, the FmHA could see that the family had made their payments and had 
done a good job. And if any problems showed up during the analysis, proper steps 
would be taken to coiTect them. The plan for the next year would be developed to 
compensate for any problems there may have been, and to add any items set up on 
the long-term plan, such as adding cattle as pasture acreage grew. 



Farmers and ranchers took the planning and the analysis seriously. It was com- 



mon for farmers and ranchers to bring their plans to the office and show that they and 
FmHA had 25 or 50 head of cattle planned and that pasture had been developed for 
that number of cattle to be added to the herd. 

The analysis has been given a lot of credit for the great success FmHA has had 
over the years. And there is no doubt that the success of Fanners Home Administra- 
tion was due to the careful attention and supervision paid to each client and each 
loan made. 

1995 marked the 60th year of service for the Farmers Home Administration. The 
agency wore the third name it had been given in its history, and served an enormously 
broader purpose than when it was formed to make loans to depression-stricken farm 
families. Its programs were conducted through the nationwide system of about 1,750 
county offices, where services were easily accessible to people living on farms and 
in rural communities. 

FmHA grew as a source of credit for building stronger family farms, yet farm 
credit accounted for only about one-fourth of all resources administered through 
FmHA. Acts of Congress added large-scale programs that benefitted families and 
communities throughout the rural population, helping to provide more up-to-date 
housing, water and sewer systems, and other essential community facilities, and the 
buildup of business and industry in rural areas. 

Loans and grants made through FmHA supplemented the amount of credit and 
capital directly available from commercial lenders in rural areas. In most programs, 
the agency made loans to qualified applicants who found no other sources of financ- 
ing available on terms or conditions they could meet. 

More than 90 percent of the money loaned through FmHA was raised from 
private investors through sales of Government securities, or supplied to borrowers 
directly by commercial lenders under FmHA guarantees that minimized their risk. 

Grant programs administered through FmHA — for rural water and waste disposal 
systems, industrial site development, farm labor housing, and "self-help" home- 
building by low-income families — supplemented the agency's rural development 
loans. 

Billions of dollars a year continue to flow through channels which FmHA created 
into rural America, serving a wide variety of needs fundamental to a better life in the 
rural environment. 



16 



Chapter 2: 



Farmer Programs in Oklahoma 



Frank Evans 



Chief of Farmer Programs, 1 970- 1 985 




Oklahoma's Farm Family of 1 978. the Gene Allen family of Jay, Oklahoma, accepts a certificate from the 
Distnct Director of the area, Ralph Childers (far left). Van Owens (far right) prepared the application. 
Field offices of the Farmer Program Section recommended qualified borrowers from their areas, a 
committee met and selected the family for the year from the nominations. At a banquet held in the family's 
county awards and certificates would be presented to them. 

Photo USDA. Oklahoma State office collection 



Th 



e Ten State Directors 



E. Lee O/birn 
James G. Powers 
Richard P. Maxey 

Clark McWhorter 
Spudds Widener 



Ludwig (Bud) Johnson 
Gene Earnest 
Larry E. Stephenson 
Ernest Hellwege 
Charles P Rainbolt 



The first State Director was E. Lee Ozbim. Homer Bums directed the Real 
Estate program, Everett Veech directed the Production and Subsistence program, and 
Vernon Burnett was the General Program Director. Later, when James Powers be- 
came State Director. Homer Burns retired, and Vernon Burnett moved across to head 
up the Real Estate program. James Powers was followed by Richard Maxey, who 
was State Director for a short time, and was replaced by Clark McWhorter. E\erett 
Veech retired and Allen Williams stepped in to head the Production and Subsistence 
program, which later became the Operating Loan Program. 



Allen Williams was an actixe chief and. during his time in the office, the state 
had a large operating program. He retired in the early 1970"s and Frank Evans took 
his place. The Farm Programs were consolidated at that time, so all Farm Loan 
Programs were called Farmer Programs. Frank Evans was given the title of Chief 
and kept the title for 15 years, until he retired. Program Chiefs after Frank E\ans 
included Russell Beckham. Wayne Moore, and Ralph Childers. 



Spudds Widener became 
State Director following Mr. 
McWhorter and Oklahoma had 
a very active program. A lot 
of good changes in the pro- 
gram took place then because 
the National Administrator. 
James Smith, was also from 
Oklahoma. Since Spudds had 
been a County Supervisor and 
a District Director, he was 
able to point out problems in 
the field that should be cor- 
rected and the National Ad- 
ministrator listened to him. 




Spudds Widener, Mrs. Widener. and Dale L. Folger at Widener's 
retirement dinner in Stillwater. 1 972. 200 guests, including FmHA 
employees past and present, from all over the state attended. 

Ptioto private collection 



18 



The Farm Security Administration program was mostly a farmer loan program 
when FmHA took it over. It had three main divisions at that time: a Production and 
Subsistence Loan program, a Farm Ownership Loan program, and a Water Loan 
program. The Water Loan programs were only available in 14 western states, of 
which Oklahoma was one. 

Oklahoma has had some outstanding loan programs, and very seldom did any 
Oklahoma Farm Program rank below the top 5 programs in the United States. Okla- 
homa was also a trial area for many programs. When livestock producers got into 
financial trouble in the 1970's, Washington developed an Emergency Livestock Loan 
Program and asked Oklahoma to take the lead. The main thrust of this program was 
that if the banks and other lenders would assist livestock operations with essential 
financing, FmHA would guarantee the loan. There are many different opinions about 
this program, but it is generally believed that it was very successfiil. Oklahoma's 
Emergency Livestock Loan Obligations in some years reached 24% of the total 
national obligations. 




Seated around the table at a dinner in 1992, clockwise 
from the left back, are: State Director Ernest Hellwege, 
Patsy Graumann, Paige Graumann, Harvey Smith, 
Beverly Smith, and Flo Hellwege. Photo private collection 



County Supervisors 

Many modem conveniences we take for granted now can be traced to the hard 
work of FmHA Supervisors and their skill at using the resources the FmHA pro- 
vided. Before (and during) the 1950's, for example, very few homes had running 
water and very few had sanitary wells. A Supervisor by the name of Clyde Wren in 
Hughes County decided he would do something about this. He used the Water Facil- 
ity Loan to drill wells and get an adequate supply of sanitary water to a good many 
homes in Oklahoma and was nationally recognized in this program. 



19 



Another very active and dedicated supervisor was 
Buster Smith of Idabel. He had the largest F-armer Program 
in the state when cotton farming was important in the Red 
River Valley and the FmHA was the cotton farmers" princi- 
pal financier. Bankers helped with the bigger loans, but the 
subsistence farmer had to depend on FmHA. Buster started 
with the program in the early 1950's. A veteran of World 
War 11 and the Korean War, and later the General of the 
Oklahoma National Guard, Buster was the Supervisor at 
Coalgate for a short time and then was transferred to 
McCurtain County. He had the industry and the ability to 
supervise these farmers so they could be successful. 




Buster Smith 

Photo, private collection 



McCurtain County FmHA made a loan with a pickup 
truck as part of the security. The borrower disappeared with the pickup. Buster 
found out that the pickup and the borrower were out in Colorado. Buster went to 
Colorado and found the borrower in a bar and obtained possession of the pickup. 
Buster said the borrower was surprised to see him enter the bar. 

Counties like McCurtain, Choctaw, Bryan, and others were low-income counties 
and farmers could only run small to moderate operations. They depended on FmHA 
for their financing and, with the supervised credit, FmHA was able to assist them. 

Keeping loans secure was always a big task for the County Supervisor. Borrow- 
ers sometimes abandoned all of their property and left to avoid repaying the loans. 
Fred Stobaugh, FmFlA Supervisor at McAlester, had a case where the security was 
abandoned. He gathered all but a tractor and for a while he could not locate this. He 
finally located it at a neighbor's farm and called the state office to ask if he could 
pick it up and sell it. The General Counsel's office told him he could, if he could do 
it peacefully and could take proper care of the tractor until it was sold. He obtained 
the tractor peacefully and decided to drive it into town to have it cared for and sold 
by a dealer. He got the tractor from the neighbor's farm and started down the road. 
However, a bird had built a nest in the engine and, when the engine got hot. the tractor 
caught on fire. Fred got the tractor fire out, but it was a close shave and Fred was 
plenty worried before he got it under control. 



FmFLA tried to assist anyone who could qualify for one of its programs, like the 
Specialized Loan Program. If a farm family could add a specialized program and it 
was determined to be sound, FmHA would finance it. In Caddo County, for instance, 
peanuts were a potentially profitable crop, but irrigating the land was the only way to 
improve a farm's yield. The State FmHA appraisers, Felix Roy and Clarence En- 



20 



gland, determined that irrigation would increase a farm's value, and thus support the 
loan to pay for the irrigation. Also instrumental in setting up this loan program was 
Supervisor William Hamilton. The loans were actually paid off ahead of schedule, 
and the record shows no loss at all from the venture. 

Mollis Steams was the first African-American who worked in the state office and 
was probably the first in the state FmHA program. Raised in Oklahoma, on a very 
poor farm several miles southeast of Boley, he was from a large family, and life was 
not easy growing up. He tells how his family used fish to fertilize com as they had 
no money for other fertilizer. Hollis had a degree from Langston and was employed 
by FmHA as a County Supervisor at large, allowing him to work in all counties, 
which was not always easy as some areas of the state would not let a minority spend 
the night in town or eat in restaurants. 

He was a very likable person and got along well with everyone. He had several 
goals as an FmHA employee. One was to assist more minorities in obtaining FmHA 
employment, and another was to increase loans to minorities. After several years as 
County Supervisor at large he was given a position as County Supervisor and as- 
signed to Okmulgee County. He had a very active program there for several years 
until his death. FmHA personnel have warm feelings for Hollis, and most believe 
that Hollis made them better persons. 

Farmer Programs Personnel 

The Farmer Programs Section carried a heavy work-load and always needed 
more staff. However, the program had capable and devoted personnel who somehow 
managed to handle the work, regardless of volume. 

Dorothy Lowery was the section clerk for many years and can be credited with a 
lot of the success of the section. She knew all phases of the program and kept the 
work on schedule. She saw to it that anything leaving the section was in good order. 
The field knew that when they needed help, they could call Dorothy and get assis- 
tance. There was a lot of kidding that when she retired, the Farmer Program Section 
would fold. 

The Farmer Programs Section also had very good field personnel who always 
helped the State Office mn excellent programs with very few problems. They in- 
cluded, among others: 

Wilma Jean Adams, Pawnee Velma Hood, Guthrie 

Gloria Allen, Stillwater Blanche Jones, Pryor 

Doris Ash, Frederick Myrtle Jones, Atoka 

Margaret Barr, Anadarko Marie Klink, Okmulgee 



Lorene Bartlett, Hollis Anna Jane Lee, Miami 

Mabel Beal, Calere Viola Marvin, Alva 

Maxine Beisley, Vinita Ina L. Moffett, Edmond 

Nadyne Bonds, Altus Margaret Myers, Jackson 

Carol Clark, Wiliburton Dean Nolan, Holdenville 

Clara Coal, Okemah Melba Petty, Ardmore 

Gloria Coplin, El Reno Bonnie Rich, Hugo 

Dixie Farris, Woodward Edna Robinson, Tishomingo 

Kay Goodin, Poteau Phyllis Rosson, Stillwater 

Erma Harless, Hugo Diana Stein, Alva 

Wayne Moore later became the Farmer Program Chief and was an important loan 
otTicer for a good many years. He came to the State OtTice from Harmon County. 
Other Farmer Program chiefs were Russell Beckham and Ralph Childers. Sim Drain 
was a long-time loan officer and a self-taught legal assistant who took care of legal 
business that did not have to go to an attorney. Herman Bartell was a veteran em- 
ployee of the Farmers Home Program and a loan officer who serviced loans and kept 
delinquencies down to a minimum. 

Among the many clerks employed by the Farmer Programs Section was Mickey 
Evans. She came to Oklahoma from Washington D.C., thinking that she was moving 
to the unsettled frontier. Pleased by the advanced state of civilization she found 
here, she later held several positions in the state, district and county offices. 

Clerks in county offices often had to step up and keep programs running. Viola 
Marvin at Alva is a good example. Supervisors left Alva pretty regularly, but the 
office was never in any trouble as Viola kept things running very successftilly. 
FmHA has also had an outstanding cartoonist as an employee, Ricky Clark of 
Madill. 

District Directors are an important part of FmHA. John V. Rich was an out- 
standing district director who loved the southeast. He was determined that everv' 
county in his district would have a very sound, active program. He enjoyed getting 
his supervisors together each year for a float trip down the Mountain Fork River in 
McCurtain County, giving them an experience none of them would ever forget. 

Probably the most experienced District Director in the number of positions and 
areas supervised was Everett Lovell. Everett started out as a county supervisor and 
worked mostly in the north and west part of the state. There was a Congressional 
Delegation reviewing programs in Oklahoma. Congressman Camp was one of them. 
The State Director asked Everett Lovell and Frank Evans to accompany the delega- 



22 



tion on their trip around the state. It turned out that they intended to fly from town to 
town. Everett and Frank were supposed to follow in a car and be at every stop. It 
turned out that there were two levels of flight but both parties stayed on schedule. 

Sid Williams was Head of Office of General Counsel for many years. He was 
always ready to help with any legal question, which was a great asset. The 
attorney's office was moved out of Oklahoma after Sid retired. Later Pat Garrett 
transferred from Kansas City and was head of the General CounsePs Office. Pat was 
a capable attorney who cleared up a lot of legal cases. 

Douglas Bly worked as a construction engineer, mostly on housing. He was the 
first one to hold this position and was very helpful in this field. 

Some of our employees are the children of borrowers. Jimmy L. Farris is one 
such second-generation type. His family has an outstanding farm ownership farm in 
the Canadian bottoms of Okemah and some veterans remember Jimmy Jr. and his 
twin brothers growing up on that farm. 

Most counties still had general stores scattered throughout the counties and 
lunch for field people often meant buying a couple of slices of bread, a slice of lunch 
meat, a slice of cheese, and a drink. It was always a question as to whether FmHA 
employees should eat with borrowers when they visited farms. Some borrowers' 
wives would cook a noonday meal and invite FmHA people to eat. This was gener- 
ally a home-cooked meal maybe cooked on a wood burning cook stove. Do you 
think FmHA personnel would turn this down? 

Benny McDonald was supervisor at Durant for a period and one person tells a 
story about visiting Benny's county. They decided to make some field visits and 
Benny said he knew a good place to eat lunch down on the Red River. They went to 
the restaurant and lunch was served. One of the party ate to where they could see 
the bottom of their plate and noticed a label there. After removing more food, a large 
label was discovered loose at the bottom of the plate. This broke up the lunch. 

At one time. Supervisors were authorized to appraise farms, except in their own 
county. The District Director usually paired up counties and the supervisors would 
trade appraising. Austen Cox, supervisor in Haskell County, was paired with Lloyd 
Daniel at Atoka County. This partnership did not last very long because, being horse 
owners, they often traded horses with one another. One of them got the best of the 
other in a horse trade and they fell out. They both announced to the District Director 
that they didn't intend to do any more appraising for each other, and didn't. Lloyd 
has provided FmHA with a fine employee, his son Joe who is, at present, a Rural 
Development manager in Atoka. 



23 



More Memories of Co-workers 

We don't know how many airplane pilots there were in FmHA, but we know of 
two in Oklahoma. Buster Smith and Bill Jackson at Idabel decided they wanted to 
get around faster and so took flying lessons and purchased an airplane. Buster flew a 
while and then sold out to Bill who did a lot of flying for a good many years. 

Frank Roberts and John Anderson were the joke players in the State Office. The 
State Director's otTice was up front in the State Ofllce space and the program sec- 
tions were in back. One day, Frank and John walked past the State Director's otTice 
back to where Mr. Felix Roy sat, studying a book. They told him the State Director 
wanted to see him right away. Mr. Roy, taking his responsibilities very seriously, 
went directly up there. The State Director had not asked to see Mr. Roy. but when 
he came back he wasn't going to let them know that the Director hadn't wanted to see 
him. So he picked up his book and continued to read, but, while he was gone, Frank 
and John had turned his book over. So there he sat, reading an upside-down book. 

Another joke player was Bob Holley, who flashed a nice pocket knife in front of 
Barry L. Dodson one day. Barry admired the knife and said he wished he had one. 
Bob told him to requisition one from the state office. Bob later called Frank Evans 
and advised him as to what he told Barry (because, of course, the State Office did 
not fiimish knives). Barry's request duly came in, and we got Mr. Earnest, the State 
Director, to send him a knife and also tell him that he had decided not to send out any 
more knives after this. Barry eventually found out that he had been set up and all 
concerned got a good laugh out of it. 

Ralph Childers was handicapped for a period and only able to use one arm. 
During this time, Mr. Stephenson accompanied him on a tour of northeast Oklahoma 
where the roads were quite curvy and winding. Their schedule, however, required 
them to move along pretty rapidly. Where most drivers would have needed both 
hands on the wheel to negotiate some of the curves, Ralph drove those roads with one 
arm. Mr. Stephenson offered, frequently, to take over driving, but Ralph wouldn't 
hear of it. 

Through the years we had many office management assistants, assigned to vari- 
ous areas to assist clerical and other workers. They have been invaluable, and they 
all deserve medals. 

Glendola Crane probably served the longest. She reported what she saw — and 
could hold her own with anyone. 

Peggy Harbeston was the most helpful person you could find. There was no 
problem she couldn't help you solve. Everyone loved Peggy. 

Vivian Farr Nicholas was a very capable person who knew farming and ranching 



24 



from actual experience. 

Wanda Clark was a very knowledgeable person about the FmHA, who devoted 
lot of her time to the program. 

Doris Smalley was too capable and worked too hard. We lost her when the 
national office decided they needed her instead. 

Sue Beets worked up from county office and was very capable employee who 
handled a lot of different jobs. 

Annette Horn and Ruby Mowrey were efficient, steady workers in our office, 
always ready to help with a suggestion or a smile. 




Richard P. Maxey, State Director, presents Glendola Crane with award for her 
suggestion for improving office efficiency, June, 1962. 

l-r: Doug BIy, Herman Bartell, Vernon Burnet, Betty White, Richard Maxey Hazel Allen, John Anderson, 
Peggy Harbeston, Spudds Widener, Glendola Crane, Frank Roberts, and Virgil Holderby 

Photo USDA, Oklahoma 



Memorable Applications 

One of the most unusual applications our FmHA ever received was from some- 
one who wanted to establish a lizard ranch. Fifty-two pages of detailed material 
accompanied the application for a $250,000 loan to finance the ranch and a park. 
The supporting material included details like names for the lizards — the ranch fore- 
man, for example, was going to be a lizard by the name of "Okie Pete." 



Charles M. ('Monte') Debord, now a Chandler banker, was an FmHA employee 
at the time and recalls that he and the other employees assumed that the application 
was a joke, and so were in no hurry to process it. The applicant, however, soon 
complained that his application was not being processed. The county and district 
determined that this was not a sound project and would not be financed. The appli- 
cant appealed the decision and took it through several hearings before accepting the 
FmHA's decision. 



Wiley Harrison of Hugo had a problem getting information from an applicant 
who wanted a loan. He had Delores Jackson and Bonnie Rich work with the appli- 
cant to obtain the necessary information to make the loan, but they were never sure if 
the information was adequate. The payments on the loan were made regularly for 
several years and then they suddenly stopped. In the subsequent investigation, it was 
discovered out that this applicant's income came from making whiskey and he had 
been caught. 

Some applicants don't give up. They think that because it is government money, 
they are entitled to it regardless of the requirements. Gale Andrew, who had been the 
Supervisor in Logan and Grady Counties, in addition to a long tour in the State Of- 
fice, tells of one such applicant who made himself quite a reputation as a trouble- 
maker. This person tried to attend and interrupt every government farm meeting he 
could, even going so far as to make regular trips to Washington, D.C. On one such 
trip, he took a pair of worn-out shoes with him and told the Washington office he had 
worn them out trying to get a loan. He left the shoes behind, and then wanted them 
sent back to him. The D.C. office told him he would get the shoes back when he 
paid his loans off. 



CHAPTERS: 



Community and Business Programs 



Leonard Downing 

Chief 1963 to 1975 

Cecil Wildman 

Engineer 1964 to 1984 

Phil Brown 

Engineer 1971 to 1984, Chief 1984 to 1995 



WESTERN UNION 



TELEGRAM. 

_f wp-...— ... -. 

KB020 RAi38 ViF065 I 
072 GOVT PD>=NF WASH 
HOBART ROBERTSON JR VICE PRESIDENT ASSOCIATION^ 

215 EAST DEWEY SAPULPA OKLAJ 
■FIRST RURAL WATER SYSTEM LOAN IN OKLAHOMA APPROVED 
TODAY FOR $360,000 TO SAPULPA RURAL WATER SUPPLY 
CORPORATI.ON TO SUPPLY 350 RURAL FAMILIES AND SIX I 
COMMERCIAL INSTALLATIONS IN VICINITY OF SAPULPA. ' 
FLOYD HIGBEE, ACTING ADMINISTRATOR OF FARMERS HOME, 
ADMINISTRATION, NOTIFIED US TODAY. THE LOAN IS FOR 
40 YEARS AT 4-1/2 PERCENT INTEREST. OFFICERS OF 
THE NON-PROFIT ASSOCIATION, O.T. HEWITT PRESIDENT, ' 
HOBART ROBERTSON JR, VICE PRESIDENT.: ■ 

MIKE MOHRONEY USS J HOWARD EDMONDSON USS TOM STE 



1 he passage of the Consolidated Farmers Home Administration Act of I ^^6 1 
changed the mission of Farmers Home Administration from assisting individual 
family farmers to assisting all of rural America. The Act first opened up the water 
system programs to the general rural population, including incorporated towns up to 
2.500 population with loan limits of up to Sl.OOO.OOO for an insured loan. 

In 1962. Congress authorized Farmers Home Administration to make loans for 
Watershed and Resource Conservation and Development projects administered by 
the Soil Conservation Service (SCS). Early Watershed Loans were made to local 
Conservation Districts such as Black Bear Creek in Garfield. Noble and Pawnee 
Counties and the Fouche Maline Conservation District in Latimer County. The loans 
were to assist with obtaining easements for the Soil Conservation Ser\ice (SCS) 
flood control structures. Administratixe and legal expenses were also included in the 
loans. 

Watershed Loans were also made to conservation districts and towns to add 
municipal water storage to the SCS flood control structures. Some of these early 
loans with interest rates as low as 3.0 percent were made to the towns of Meeker. 
Sallisaw, Stilwell. Stroud, Okemah and Langston. 

In 1965. further authority was added to the water loan program to allow for loans 
to construct sewer systems, and grants were made available for the first time. Recre- 
ational loans were also approved at about this same time, allowing loans for swim- 
ming pools and golf courses in many small rural communities that did not have these 
recreational opportunities previously. 

In 1972. Congress passed the Rural De\elopment Act of 1972 which ga\e Farm- 
ers Home Administration jurisdiction over many additional programs, including the 
existing Water and Sewer Loan and Grant Program, the Community Facilities Loan 
Program, and the Business and Industries Loan Program, which was a guaranteed loan 
program. Population limits were raised to 10.000 for the Water and Waste Program, 
to 20.000 for the Community Facilities program, and to 50.000 for the Business and 
Industry loan program. 

In 1981, Congress changed the interest rate for a long set \alue of 5.0 % to a 
variable rate that would change on a quarterly basis. Since inflation was rapidly 
changing in those days, the interest rate suddenly rose to 12.5 9c for some loans 
while those li\ ing in low-income areas could still qualify for a 5.0 9c loan. 



New Technologies 

The loan programs helped bring water and sewer systems to rural Oklahoma 
communities in different ways. Most obviously, government funding paid for the 
necessary labor to build the systems. In addition, however, engineers developed 
materials such as Polyvinyl Chloride pipe, or designed standpipes to replace el- 
evated water towers. These innovations had much to do with the development of 
water systems to serve more rural families with potable water and allowed small 
rural towns to construct sewer systems that would not have been available under 
existing construction standards. 

PVC Pipe 

One innovation FmHA practice perpetuated was a change in the type of piping 
used in water lines. FmHA Engineers were primarily responsible for developing and 
using Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) pipe for water pipelines in rural areas. Prior to 
1964, standard engineering practice was to use PVC pipe only in the 1- to 3- inch 
size water lines, and to use Asbestos Cement and Cast Iron pipe for all water lines 4 
inches and larger. The problem with this system was that Asbestos Cement pipe had 
no flexibility. In 1966, FmHA Engineers began requiring 4-inch PVC in lieu of 4-inch 
Asbestos Cement main lines. Soon thereafter, 6-inch PVC water mains were tried on 
a trial basis in Ottawa County. 

Around 1970, in conjunction with the FmHA National office, 8-inch PVC was 
first approved on an FmHA-financed project in Muskogee County. In 1972, the first 
10-inch PVC water line was installed in a rural water district in Payne County. Later 
in the 1980"s, FmHA Engineers approved 8-inch and 6-inch PVC sewer lines to be 
installed in Grady County, 

In each of the steps above, numerous meetings were held with the Oklahoma 
State Department of Health, contractor organizations, pipeline manufacturers and 
others. In all cases, all entities involved agreed with the new proposals. 

Standpipes 

Elevated water towers were the norm in Oklahoma prior to 1964 when water 
standpipes were developed for use by the rural water districts. Less expensive than 
elevated water towers, these standpipes were located on hills in rural areas to pro- 
vide sufficient storage and pressure for the users. Standpipes are now the norm for 
towns as well as water districts. 



29 



The People Behind the Agency 

Leonard Downing first came to the State Office of Farmers Home Administration 
in 1962 and started working on Water Loans as a loan olTicer. When the position of 
Chief of the Water Loan program was created in 1963. Leonard was selected. In 
1964, Cecil Wildman was hired as Engineer of the Farmers Home Administration 
and, with the help of Mr. Downing and Mr. Wildman, the Water Loan Program began 
to take shape. 

There were many night meetings in old, cold or hot schoolhouses to explain what 
the loan and grant programs could do for the rural residents. From these meetings, 
water systems began to take shape. Many systems that started with 1 50 to 200 
customers now serve 1,500 to 2,000 customers and beyond. 

The first loan to be funded for a rural water system was a loan to the Sapulpa 
Rural Water Corporation in August of 1963. The first water system actually con- 
structed and serving water was in Nowata County. 




FHA and Sapulpa Rural Water Company review plans for installing new water line. 
Seated, left to right: Vernon Burnet, FHA program chief; Richard Maxey, FHA State Director; 

Howard Bertsch, national administrator; and Herman Bartel, FHA area supervisor. 
Standing, left to right; George Gould, wrater company; Frank Burzio, water company director; 

Hobart Rob)ertson, water company supervisor; and C. R. Wood, Creek county FHA supervisor. 

Photo private collection 



Herman Bartel joined the agency as a loan ofilcer and, soon after. Max Nicholas 
was also hired as a loan officer. In 1970, Gene Womack was hired as an Engineer 
and Engineer Phil Brown signed on in 1971 . 



Leonard Downing retired in 1975. Royce Jones became the Chief in 1976. He 
retired in 1984, and Phil Brown became Chief until his retirement in 1994. Harvey 



30 



Smith then served as Chief until October 1 of the following year, when the Farmers 
Home Administration ceased to exist and the Agency became what is known today as 
Rural Development. 



Oklahoma's Community and Business Programs 

Because of the tireless work of these and other individuals, Oklahoma has 
always ranked in the top three states in the nation in Community and Business Pro- 
grams. On any given day from the late 1960's to the late 1980's, approximately 100 
FmHA-fmanced water and sewer projects were under construction in Oklahoma at 
any one time. Each year new projects were fiinded and old loans and grants closed. 

FmHA Engineers approved and 
inspected each project, and loan 
officers worked with each entity to 
assure that the operation opened on a 
sound financial basis. 



Today, loans for water and sewer 
systems serve nearly one-third of the 
population of rural Oklahoma and the 
majority of rural Oklahoma has a 
water system nearby that can provide 
the essential service of potable water 
and a safe sanitary waste disposal. 




Gene Whatley, Executive Director of 
Oklahoma Rural Water Association, a strong 
partner with USDA. Photo private collection 



Other programs, like recreation 
loans, let rural residents enjoy swim- 
ming pools, golf courses, and rodeo arenas that would not be available if not for 
these programs. In addition, the Co-op Loan program financed successfiil operations 
such as peanut drying facilities that assisted numerous rural farmers. 



The Rural Development Act of 1 972 opened up many more endeavors for rural 
Oklahoma. Hospitals, City Halls, and Fire Stations were built, and new streets were 
constructed for small towns that could not otherwise afford these improvements. 
Businesses were financed in rural areas where venture capital could not otherwise be 
found. In the following years, programs such as Enterprise Grants were funded, 
enabling many small communities to construct industrial parks to attract small busi- 
nesses. 



Through all of these endeavors, the Farmers Home Administration was known as 
the lender and governmental agency that could turn funds into projects faster than any 
other agency. 



31 



In the mid 1970's the Indian Health Service made grant lUnding available to 
assist Native American families by providing health and sanitary water and sewer 
facilities. Through the cooperation of two Federal agencies, many rural Oklahoma 
families received safe, potable water. A leader in this area was Wayne Craney. 

During the mid I980's, Congress began to reduce funding, and, as a result, the 
State Legislature created its own loan program which is administered by the Okla- 
homa Water Resources Board (OWRB). This program was developed with the assis- 
tance of Farmers Home Administration personnel because they saw the need for 
additional funding in the State and as always were there to promote the good of the 
program overall. The OWRB loan and grant program has always been an ally of 
Farmers Home Administration and many jointly ftinded projects have been completed 
as the result of these agencies working together. 




Water and Sewer system transfer from Midwestern Oklahoma 
Development Authority to town of Bums Flat, Feb. 14, 1992. 

Seated l-r; Jack Bonny, Bums Flat Mayor, Frank Kliewer, Chainnan of MODA. 

Standing, l-r; Ctiarles Rainbolt, attorney; Don Greteman, MODA secretary: Kattiy 
Carlisle, MODA Exec. Dir; Cynttiia Sctilegel, FmHA, Woodward office, Pfiil Brown, 
FmHA Ctiief of Commerce and Business Program. Ptioto USDA, Oklahoma 



Chapter 4: 



Rural Housing Programs in Oklahoma 



Dale L. Folger 

Chief of Rural Housing Programs, 1976-1994 




Typical dwelling financed with Single Family Section 502 Funding 
Photo USDA, Oklahoma State office collection 



33 



1 he Rural Housing Program helped thousands of rural Oklahomans improve 
their housing by fmancing single family residences and managing modem apartment 
facilities, literally changing the face of rural Oklahoma. The program helped lower- 
income rural residents enjoy good quality housing, and has had a tremendous, posi- 
tive impact on the economy, social life and standard of living in rural Oklahoma. 

Designed to assist farmers with low and moderate incomes improve the housing 
on their farms when other credit was not available, the Rural Housing Program was 
authorized by the Rural Housing Act of 1949. The first loans were made through the 
Section 502 Single Family Housing Authority through the Real Estate Loan Division 
of the Farmers Home Administration State Office by County Supervisors under 
District Supervisors. Many homes built through this program were constructed by 
the farmers themselves, who used the loans to purchase material and to hire addi- 
tional labor. A large percentage of the loans were for repairing and remodeling 
existing farmhouses, which were generally modest and inexpensive homes. A new 
house in the 1950s and 1960s cost anywhere from $6,500 for a small frame house to 
$15,500 for a 3-bedroom, brick veneer house with attached garage. 

In the early 1960's, the FmHA was given added responsibilities for rural devel- 
opment. This can be seen by tracing the development of programs in the Oklahoma 
office. Clark McWhorter succeeded Richard Maxey as State Director in 1962. Mr. 
McWhorter, from Altus, was a former official with the Rural Electric Co-Ops and a 
capable and enthusiastic advocate of rural development. The Rural Water Loan 
Program was added, and, about the same time, FmHA was given authority to provide 
housing loans to non-farmers and rural residents in towns of up to 500 population. 
FmHa also received authority to make Multi-Family Rental Housing loans through 
the Section 515 Multi-Family Housing Authority. Interest in the housing programs 
increased substantially with the availability of these loan programs. 

With the increased interest in the housing programs, the State Office reorganized 
to make Rural Housing Programs into a separate Division. The Real Estate Loan 
Division and the Operating Loan Division were combined into the Farmer Loan 
Division. The Water and Waste Loan Division was created at the same time. To 
speed loan processing and handle the increased volume. County Supervisors were 
authorized and trained to do appraisals in their own and neighboring counties. Previ- 
ously, only District Supervisors and State Office Loan Officers had been authorized 
to appraise real estate property. 

Vernon Burnet became the first Chief of the Rural Housing Division and served 
in that position until his retirement in 1976. Other staff members were Frank Roberts 



34 



and John Maxey, loan officers, and Hazel Allen, clerk. Lyndon Mercer also served 
for a short time as a loan officer on the first State Office Rural Housing Staff. Dale 
Folger joined the Rural Housing Staff in 1965 as a loan officer, coming from 
Shawnee where he had been a County Supervisor. John Maxey had primary respon- 
sibility for appraisal training and the 515 Rental Housing loan program. 

The number of housing loans increased significantly during the 1960s in Okla- 
homa. The 502 Single Family Housing Loans remained the predominant assistance 
with 515 Rental Housing slower to gain in popularity. The Single Family Home 
Ownership loans were made with minimum national regulations or guidance. The 
houses were located on vacant lots in small towns, along county roads with new rural 
water lines, and in small subdivisions being formed throughout the countryside. 

Caddo County in 1966 was an especially busy district. Bill Hamilton, the 
County Supervisor, took his annual 2-week vacation late in the summer and an enthu- 
siastic, active District Supervisor, Fred Belile, had himself appointed acting County 
Supervisor. He brought in other County Supervisors and one State Office Housing 
Loan Officer to work on housing applications. At the end of this two week period, 
Acting County Supervisor Fred Belile approved over 50 housing loans in one day, 
following an early morning County Committee meeting. 

The reason for this spurt of housing activity in Caddo County was pent-up 
demand and a large new carpet mill opening up in Anadarko. Margaret Barr and 
Laveda Moffett were the County Office clerks at Anadarko at that time and can 
attest to the hectic activity during those two weeks. A few months later, Mr. Belile 
died of a heart attack and Dale Folger was made the District Supervisor. 




The 515 Rental Housing 
program was slower to start in 
Oklahoma for various reasons, 
partly because of national 
regulations, limited funding, 
and restrictive local policies. 
There appeared to be a bias in 
some rural towns toward home " "* 

ownership and against apart- Rental Housing Duplexes; Bilker, Oklahoma 
ments. The national regula- Photo USDA Oklahoma office 

tions effectively limited the 

ownership of FmHA-financed rental housing to non-profit associations formed by 
broadly based representatives of community leadership. State Office policy limited 
rental houses to single family houses costing no more than $8,000 to $ 10,000 each. 



with a limit of no more than 8 to 12 units in one project. The feeling was that houses 
would be more suitable for rentals in rural communities than apartments, and that, if 
the rental project failed, single detached houses could probably be sold more easily 
than apartment buildings. 

Several of these non-protlt-association-owned rental projects were developed in 
Deer Creek and Braman in northern Oklahoma, Vici in western Oklahoma, and a 
large number in southwestern Oklahoma including Bingcr, Canute, Cheyenne, Custer 
City, Duke, Eldorado, Hinton, Hollis, Sayre and Duke. 

One of the most unique of these non-profit association rental housing loans was 
to the Midwest Oklahoma Development Authority, or MODA, in about 1 977, for the 
purchase of over 300 single family houses and duplexes at the former Clinton- 
Sherman Air Force Strategic Air Command (SAC) base located near Bums Flat. 
These houses had been the base housing for SAC crews and support personnel. This 
loan was for over a million dollars and was by far the largest 515 Rental Housing 
project at that time in the nation in terms of size of loan and number of living units. 
This loan was facilitated by the National FmHA Administrator, a retired Air Force 
General who had visited Clinton-Sherman a number of times while he was a SAC 
Commander. During the oil & gas boom of the early 80s, this facility was nearly 
fiilly occupied by people working in the oil field, and the loan to FmHA was paid in 
full. 

Throughout the 1960s, the Rural Housing program continued to change in order 
to increase its effectiveness for rural development and for the benefit of rural resi- 
dents. The tenn "Rural Development" became regularly used. The size of the towns 
where Rural Housing loans could be made gradually increased to 10,000 population. 

One of the most significant changes came in the 515 Rental Housing program 
whereby ownership could be vested in limited partnerships. This change permitted 
the primary applicant/owner to be compensated by limited partners for the large 
amount of work and cost in developing and managing a rental housing complex where 
FmHA controlled the rental rates and restricted profits. The limited partners ben- 
efited by the tax shelter for helping to finance housing for low income families and 
stood to gain if the project appreciated in value. This change opened up opportuni- 
ties for developing rental housing on a much larger scale. 

Another significant change in the Single Family 502 program occurred about the 
same time. This was the authorization for interest credit or interest subsidy to help 
low-income rural families more easily afford decent, safe, and sanitary housing. 
Similar procedures for rent subsidy to provide for affordable rents were included in 



36 



the 515 Rental Housing program. A popular and much needed phase of the 515 
Rental Housing program was the provision for rental housing for the elderly. This 
program stipulated that rental projects designed for elderly rural residents would be 
limited to residents age 62 or older. The law was later changed to also make handi- 
capped persons of any age eligible to occupy this rental housing. 




Rental Housing for Elderly; Hinton, OK 



Photo USDA Oklahoma office 



James Smith, former U.S. Congressman from Tuttle in Grady County, was the 
National Administrator of FmHA from 1968 to 1972 and he wanted Oklahoma to be 
a model for the rest of the nation in Rural Housing assistance. He made sure that 
Oklahoma received anything within regulation that was needed to make the program 
effective. In 1970, he created a special position in Oklahoma called a Rural Housing 
Specialist with grade equal to the Rural Housing Chief, who reported directly to the 
State Director. The position title was later changed to Assistant to the State Direc- 
tor. The Assistant to the State Director was charged with promoting the Rural Hous- 
ing program throughout the State and ensuring that the program was used to its maxi- 
mum for the benefit of rural Oklahoma. 

Dale Folger was reassigned from the position of District Supervisor at El Reno 
and promoted into this position. For the next few years he worked on radio and 
television promotions, newspaper and magazine promotions and traveled extensively 
throughout the State, meeting with and working with organizations and groups inter- 
ested in improving rural housing. Meetings were held in every county of the state 
and were well attended by builders, real estate agents and lumbermen. 



One of the concepts that came from these meetings was to let builders and real 
estate agents assist applicants in packaging Single Family loans. This concept was 
initiated by a Rural Development Specialist from the National Rural Electric Coop 
staff in Washington D.C. He and Dale Folger revised and reworked the plan, putting 
it into writing one night after one of the meetings. This REA Rural Development 



37 



Specialist took the plan back to Washington with him and presented it to the FmHA 
National Office, where the plan was approved. The Single Family Housing packag- 
ing plan provided for builders, realtors or other interested parties to work with the 
applicant family and to present an applicant package to the County Supervisor com- 
plete with application, credit report, dwelling plans, and specification or purchase 
contract, site plan, etc. When the package was properly prepared, the County Super- 
visor had only to review the package, make an appraisal and approve the loan. 

The packaging concept was initially controversial in that some County Supervi- 
sors felt this infringed on their authority and responsibility. However, packaging the 
applications saved County Office staffs a considerable amount of time in processing 
large volumes of housing loans and it was generally successful. The biggest prob- 
lems were occasional incomplete applications and ineligible applicants being pack- 
aged by aggressive real estate agents. In addition to the packaging concept, using 
commercial credit reports to provide information on applicants' credit history be- 
came the standard practice, rather than the County Supervisors having to make per- 
sonal inquiries on each applicant. 

Organizations that were vitally interested in the Rural Housing program and who 
worked closely with FmHA to make the program effective were the Oklahoma 
Lumberman's Association, the State Rural Electric Cooperative, the Oklahoma 
Homebuilders Association, Realtor Associations, local Chamber of Commerce 
organizations, and many others. The Oklahoma Lumberman's Association took the 
early lead in arranging meetings throughout the State to acquaint local lumber dealers 
and builders with the Rural Housing program, who it was designed to serve, and how 
it worked. For several months in the early 70s, meetings were scheduled almost 
every night of the week throughout the State. FmHA representatives from the State 
Office, local FmHA District Supervisors, and County Supervisors attended to get 
acquainted with the participants and to explain how the program worked. These 
meetings were very effective. 



Vernon Burnet retired as Chief of the Rural Housing Divi- 
sion in 1976. Other principal staff persons had already retired 
in the previous 2 or 3 years. Dale Folger filled the vacancy of 
Chief of Rural Housing when Mr. Burnet retired and served in 
that position until he retired in 1994. Richard Raupe became 
the Loan Specialist with responsibility for appraisal training 
and the 5 1 5 Rental Housing loan program and served in that 
position until the mid 1980"s when he left FmHA to go into 
private business. Gale Andrew was responsible for Single Richard Raupe 

Family housing programs and later became the Multi-family Private collection 




38 



Housing Coordinator when Richard Raupe left the agency. Leonard McMurtry came 
as a Civil Engineer from the Rural Water and Waste Division and later became the 
Housing Architect. Leonard served as the Housing Architect until his retirement in 
1993. 

Maxine Adkins and Marsha Elder were the early clerks in the Rural Housing 
Division when Dale Folger became Chief of the Division. Marvin Cooks came to 
the Rural Housing staff from the position of Chief of Rural Housing in Ohio in the 
mid 1980's and worked with the Single Family housing program. Others who served 
at various times on this staff were Connie Rosson, Appraisals; Mike Schrammel, 
Guaranteed Loans; Jimmy Stormont, Single Family Housing; Patsy Smith, Technician/ 
Loan Specialist in Multi-Family Housing; Jim Holzler, former Chief of RH from 
Montana; Patsy Graumann, Multi-Family Housing; and Lee Ann Crutchfield, Techni- 
cian. Denise Heid had the longest tenure of anyone on the staff. She came to work 
in 1980 as a stay-in-school employee while a junior in high school and went on to 
earn a BS degree from Oklahoma State University while working in that office. She 
is still working in 1999 as a Loan Technician in the Rural Housing Loan program. 
Patsy Graumann became the Chief of the Housing Division when Dale Folger retired. 

Soon after Mr. Burnet retired. Dale Folger and Leonard McMurtry (Engineer/ 
Architect) made a tour of eastern Oklahoma where problems were beginning to 
surface with rural subdivisions financed by FmlTA. These problems included inad- 
equate septic tanks, dirt roads, inadequate trash disposal, poor drainage, and prob- 
lems with fire and police protection. There were no national FmHA regulations or 
policies for subdivisions at this time. Mr. McMurtry placed a considerable amount 
of thought and work into developing practical subdivision policies which were radi- 
cal for FmHA at that time. These policies applied to any subdivision that included 
five or more houses, and mandated hard surface streets, community water and sew- 
age disposal system, plans developed by a professional Engineer or Architect and 
location of the subdivision in a town or city with the ability to provide essential 
services. 

State Director Spudds Widener approved these subdivision policies reluctantly 
at first, because he feared they would detract from the rural aspect of the housing. 
However, Oklahoma's subdivision policies were later incorporated into National 
Office regulations that were nearly identical to Oklahoma's policies. These subdivi- 
sion policies helped pave the way for the orderly development of the large number of 
rural homes that were to be financed by FMHA in Oklahoma. 

An early problem that gradually developed due to a lack of National FmHA 
Office guidance or regulation and the absence of a professional Architect in the State 



39 



standards. Each County Supervisor had their own set of standards, generally exceed- 
ing the guidehnes of the Federal Housing Administration. 

This problem became acute as the program grew and large-scale de\clopers 
started building in more than one county. They were being forced to change their 
specifications and building standards to meet each County Supervisor's require- 
ments. Along with this was a tendency for FmHA to accept substandard written 
plans for the building sites and dwellings. These problems were eventually resoKed 
by adopting the Federal Housing Administration's extensive handbook of require- 
ments for dwelling plans and specifications and by requiring written site and building 
plans with elevation and drainage designs, all approved by an Engineer or Architect. 

Leonard McMurtry. who became the FmHA State Office Engineer/Architect in 
1976. was responsible for implementing these changes. He conducted extensixe 
educational meetings with County Supervisors and visited e\ery count\ that had a 
very large housing loan program to achieve the desired results. 

With the development of sound policies for housing development, the number of 
single family homes financed by FmHA increased dramatically in the late 1970's. 
This dramatic increase in single-family housing activity can be seen in the amounts 
which FmHA loaned in Oklahoma durins the vears indicated: 



1969 


$12,777,382 


1970 


525,721,102 


1971 


$49,425,343 


1972 


$60,154,740 


1976 


$137,880,210 


1977 


$153,094,850 



Subdivisions with as many as 250 building sites were developed, like the Green 
Acres subdivision in Guthrie. Manufactured housing plants were built, including 
Perdue Homes of Chickasha. featuring pre-cut and assembled housing components, 
and a modular home plant at Hinton. Perdue Homes was a large plant and produced 
a number of houses sold throughout Oklahoma. 

Oklahoma Congressman Wes Watkins was a home builder at that time and used 
the Perdue Homes pre-cut house packages. Bob Haney of McAlester v\as also one 
of the builders who used their packages. A subdivision in Turle\ on the north side of 
Tulsa used pre-cut dwellings from Jim Walters" factories, w hich were also popular at 
that time. Other volume home builders included Ken Smith oi' Kingfisher. Ron Smith 
of Sapulpa. Buddy Coleman of Ft. Smith and others. 



40 



Several FmHA County Supervisors developed 75 to 100 Section 502 loans per 
year during this time. Some of these County Supervisors were Buster Smith at 
Idabel. who later became Southeast Oklahoma District Supervisor and a Brigadier 
General in the OK Army National Guard; Jimmy Stormont at Enid, who later joined 
the State RH staff; Ralph Peck at Poteau; Bob Had at Duncan, who later became 
District Supervisor at Hobart; Glen Fox at Oklahoma City, who later became a Dis- 
trict Supervisor, and several others. 

The 515 Rental Housing program started making significant changes in 1976 
with the new State Office Staff and changes in National regulations. Richard Raupe 
can be credited with implementing many of these changes. It was decided to encour- 

[ age the development of garden style 

apartments rather than single family 
houses and duplexes and to encourage 
that the size of projects be based on 
market need. It was also decided to 
work with private rental housing devel- 
opers and to encourage the use of 
imited partnerships. District Directors 
and their staffs should be given much 
of the credit for the success of the 
enlarged 515 Rental Housing program 
because of their dedicated field man- 
agement of the program, which in- 
cluded preliminary application development and loan servicing. 

Early developers of rental housing included Harland Wells of Perkins. Buddy 
Coleman of Ft. Smith. Arkansas. Ken Smith of Kingfisher. Albert Reynolds of 
Durant. Bob Haney of McAIester. Bob Green of Inola. and many others. About 1977 
the Rural Rental Housing Association of Oklahoma was formed by the developers 
mentioned above with the help of Richard Raupe and the Rural Housing staff. The 
Rural Rental Housing Association has had a very positive effect on the training and 
professionalism of the Rental Housing owners and site managers throughout the 
years. It has continued to be a very active organization and continues to provide 
professionalism and leadership. 




Rental Housing, Tahlequah, OK 

Photo USDA Oklahoma office 



A smaller Rural Housing program, but no less effective, was the section 504 
loan and grant program designed to assist very low income rural residents repair their 
homes to help make them safe and sanitary. The loans and grants were limited to 
$1,000 with an interest rate of one percent, and were typically used to install win- 



dows, doors, insulation, rooting, running water, foundations, etc. 

A unique example of the program's effectiveness was its use to provide running 
water to a neighborhood of low income black residents on the southeast edge of 
Mangum during the early I970's. Much of the credit for this should go to County 
Supervisor Dink Wicker and Cecil Wildman who was an Engineer with the Rural 
Water and Waste Division of the State FmHA Office. A neighborhood of \5 to 20 
homes across the railroad track from the main part of Mangum was not ser\ ed by 
running water. These families had to haul their water in cans, buckets, and whatever. 
Lines from a rural water district were near, but the families could not afford the initial 
fees or the monthly water rates. The City of Mangum eventually agreed to pro\ ide 
water service if the neighborhood would install a main water line from the cit\ and 
water distribution lines and meters at their homes. Cecil Wildman designed the 
system and Dink Wicker held educational meetings with the families involved and 
put the loans together. It was determined that the best solution was to make a 504 
Rural Housing loan to each of these families to pay for their part of the water system. 
For some, the water came up to their front yards and for others, running water came 
into their house. Needless to say, the families were \ery grateful and Dink Wicker 
reported that not one was e\er late in making their monthlv pa\ ments. 



Another Rural Housing pro- 
gram which has made a significant 
impact in Oklahoma has been the 
Self-Help Housing program. Okla- 
homa has been second only to 
California in the number of Self- 
Help houses built. This program 
utilized 502 Single Family Housing 
loans to each family with the help 
of a Self-Help housing grant to a 
non-profit sponsor who organizes 
low income families into groups 
and provides technical assistance for them to construct their homes 




Self-help Built Home, Okmulgee County, 1998 
Photo private collection 



This program results in substantial monetary sa\ ings to the participating families 
and gives them a special pride of ownership because of the sweat, time, and effort 
they put into building their own homes. Participants also benefit by the variety of 
useful skills they develop while building their houses. The Little Dixie Communit\ 
Action Agency of Hugo was the pioneer sponsor of self-help housing in Oklahoma. 
The agency helped build over 300 homes in Choctaw, Pushmataha, and McCurtain 
counties over a 4-or 5- year peiiod. Little Dixie CAA dedicated home number 1 .000 



constructed with FmHA self-help through 1999. Bobby Holley. County Supervisor at 
Hugo and later District Director at Atoka, was the FmHA official responsible for 
much of the early Self-Help housing in southeastern Oklahoma. Other areas of 
substantial Self-Help housing included Clinton. Muskogee. Atoka. Eufaula. 
Tahlequah. Okmulgee, and others. 

The mid to late 1980's saw the demise of the oil & gas boom in Oklahoma, a 
reversal in real estate development, the failure of a large number of banks, a reces- 
sion in farming activities, and a general slow-down of Oklahoma's economy. This 
period brought an end to the large-scale, rural Single-Family Housing construction in 
Oklahoma. The priority for the Rural Housing program then shifted to managing 
delinquent and inventory properties. Throughout this period, however, the 515 Rental 
Housing building program remained healthy and continued to grow, because of the 
need and available funding. 

The rural economy regained its health in the early 1990s and FmHA came 
through the real estate recession in good shape with all of the Rural Housing pro- 
grams intact, including the 502 Single Family housing program which had the most 
potential for severe problems because of the prior large volume of activity and the 
mobility of rural families during the economic downturn of the late 1980s. During 
the 1990s, guaranteed loans have been included in the Rural Housing Program in 
order to involve private lending institutions in the housing loan program and to pro- 
vide more housing finances for rural families with moderate incomes. 

One outstanding feature of the FmHA Rural Housing program has been FmHA's 
ability to target available resources to areas of critical housing needs such as caused 
by the installation of a large carpet plant in Anadarko during the early 1960s or the 
greatly expanded swine industry in the Guymon area during the 1990s. The FmHA 
Rural Housing Program in Oklahoma has provided millions of dollars for construct- 
ing houses and apartments; it has greatly improved the standard of living for thou- 
sands of rural residents; it has provided thousands of construction jobs; it has 
changed the appearance and character of many rural towns; and it has truly been a 
significant Rural Development effort. 



43 



Conclusion 



Charles P. Rainbolt 

Oklahoma State Director, 

Farmers Home Administration, 1993-1995 



44 



On October 1, 1995, pursuant to the October 1994 reorganization of the US 
Department of Agriculture, Farmers Home Administration was no more. The Farmer 
Program portion of FmHA, along with 116 Oklahoma FmHA employees, became a 
part of the newly created Farm Service Agency (formerly ASCS), led by State Ex- 
ecutive Director, Terry Peach. 

The remainder of the Farmers Home Administration programs and Oklahoma 
FmHA employees became a part of the mission area now known as USDA Rural 
Development, led by State Director Charles P. Rainbolt. In addition to the old 
FmHA programs, USDA Rural Development acquired jurisdiction over the old Rural 
Electrification Agency, as well as the old Agricultural Cooperative Service. 

USDA Rural Development actually is comprised of 3 new federal agencies: 1) 
Rural Housing Service; 2) Rural Utilities Service; and 3) Rural Business Service. 

The Rural Housing Service includes, among others, the Community Facilities 
program for essential community services, the 502 Direct (including the Self-Help 
program) and guaranteed Rural Home Ownership Loans, the 504 Home Repair Loan 
and Grant program for individuals, the Housing Preservation Grant program, the 515 
Direct as well as the 538 Guaranteed Multifamily Housing Program, and the Farm 
Labor Housing Program. 

The Rural Utilities Program includes, among others, the Water and Waste Dis- 
posal Programs, Rural Electric and Rural Telephone Loan Programs, and Solid Waste 
Management Grant Program. 

The Rural Business Service includes, among others, the Business and Industry 
Direct and Guaranteed Loan Program, the Rural Business Enterprise Grant Program, 
the Intermediary Relending Program, and the Rural Economic Development Loan and 
Grant Program. 

From an Oklahoma perspective, our state has reaped the benefits of the USDA 
reorganization implemented October 1, 1995. As Appendix C reflects, rural Oklaho- 
mans have far more USDA Rural Development Programs dollars since the reorgani- 
zation was implemented. In addition, the Farmer Programs section of the former 
FmHA continues to serve Oklahoma farmers and ranchers under the Farm Service 
Agency with the same professionalism as always. 



God Bless Rural Oklahoma! 



45 



Appendix A: 

Oklahoma FmHA Personnel 




State Director Charles P. Rainbolt congratulates 
Harry Carter on his distinguished career with 
Oklahoma FmHA. Carter began work in 1 938 
with FmHA predecessor Farm Security 
Administration, and continued with FmHA until 
October 1, 1995. 
Photo private collection 



46 



A tribute has to be paid to all the employees of FmHa. They have racked up a 
record of Public Service unparalleled in the annals of an agency accustomed to 
impressive records. By working long hours, skipping vacations, introducing new 
methods, and eliminating waste, members of the Farmers Home Administration 
provided rural America with twice the services per administrative dollar spent. It is 
not possible to recognize every individual who played an important part in Farmers 
Home Administration, but we would like to list as many as we can. 

The employee who holds the record for most years with FmHA is Han-y Carter, 
a man who worked over 50 years for the Famiers Home Administration. Below, 
Hairy Carter recalls his career: 

It was 1938 when I joined the FHA. A new government agency, 
established during the Depression, the FHA was created to assist 
farmers who had fallen on hard times. Although local banks provided 
loans to those who qualified, few farmers met these qualifications and 
many of those who did. could not meet the conditions of these loans 
which included high interest rates and short term payment plans. Due to 
the hard times brought on by the Depression and the lack of funds 
available, the prosperity of farming communities began to decline 
rapidly. Out of the growing concern for the struggling farmers, the FHA 
was born. Through the FHA, farmers were given an opportunity to 
initiate or maintain farming operations with government funds and 
expertise. 

Growing up on a farm in rural Oklahoma provided me with an 
insight into the personal side of farm life and the hard work and dedica- 
tion necessary to be a successful farmer. With this insight, came also an 
understanding of farmers" needs. Because of this connection, it was 
very satisfying to be a part of a program that was dedicated to the 
success of every farmer as well as the farming industry as a whole. 

As with any new operation, the FHA was closely monitored in the 
beginning to determine whether or not the agency would succeed. The 
FHA did succeed and was very successful in its day. From 1938 to 
1995, I worked one on one with farmers to establish farm plans for 
needed credit and payback programs in line with the plans and needs of 
each farmer. Over the fifty-four years I was with the FHA, I developed 
many close friendships and gained a great deal of satisfaction from 
providing much needed assistance to Oklahoma farmers. 

People like Mr. Carter make Oklahoma's Farmer Home Administration programs 
work because of their commitment and loyalty to their career and their home state 
and fellow Oklahomans. In these pages we list the names of as many such admirable 
employees as the records show. 



47 




Alfalfa County Farm Security Administration, 1940 Annual Meeting 
(Attendees not identified.) Photo. USDA Oklahoma Office 



Aaron. Deanna L. 
Abbott. Carohn Y. 
Able. Dustin L. 
Abies, Melissa L. 
Adams, Calvin C. 
Adams. JeiTv L. 
Adams. Nila Ann 
Adams. Wilma Jean 
Adkins. Maxine 
Akerman. Ada D. 
Akins. Loyd R. 
Albright. William C. 
Alexander. Daimon R. 
Alexander. Jesse Ernest 
Alig. Robert 
Allen. Gloria 
Allen. J. R. 
Allen. M. Hazel 
Allen. Michelle 
Allen. Mildred H. 
Alley. Janet L. 
Allison. Robyn R. 
Almond. Beth A. 
Altman. Cynthia L. 



Alvarez. Tami R. 
Amend. Christopher 
Andersen. Tracy D. 
Anderson. Cathy 
Anderson. Charles W. 
Anderson. James C. 
Anderson. John R 
Anderson. Rhoda B. 
Anderson. Stan M. 
Anderson. Vicky E 
Andrew. Carl S. 
Andrew. Forest G. 
Andrews, Spec 
Andujar. Carlos. A. 
Anson. Cyrus P. 
Armstrong. Alan N. 
Armstrong. Janet K. 
Ash. Doris A. 
Ash. Doris J. 
Atchley. Kath> Jo 
Atkins. Lois M. 
Attocknie. Esa J. 
Austin. Dee 
Axtell. Vesta L. 



Bailey. April C. 
Bain. Shirley E. 
Bain. Trisha L. 
Baker. Deborah D. 
Baker. Judy G. 
Baker. Louis G. 
Ball. Clifford 
Ball. William C. 
Ballard. Andrea L. 
Ballard. Kenneth E.. Jr. 
Ballew. Patsy L. 
Banks. Doyle K. 
Banks. Renee 
Barber. Thomas E. 
Barker. Debbie 
Barnes. Herman W. 
Ban-. Cher\l A. 
Barr. Margaret J. 
Banick. Troy Steward 
BaiTon. Victoria K. 
Bartell. Herman M. 
Barth. Mar\ C. 
Bartlett. Lorene M. 
Barton. Jovce E. 



48 



Bates. Susan R. 
Baughman. Daisy N. 
Bauldrige. Lori J. 
Beal. Mabel B. 
Beall. Clyde. Jr. 
Beard, Ronnie J. 
Beaven. Judy L. 
Beaver. Cindy D. 
Beaver. Judy L. 
Beaver. S. Darlene 
Beavers, Kitty S. 
Beckham. Benjamin R. 
Beddingfield, Julie 
Beebe, Tammy L. 
Beer, Gerald M. 
Beets, Florence Sue 
Behre, Tracy 
Beisley, Maxine E. 
Belcher. Gene L. 
Belford. James M. 
Belisle. Fred 
Bell, Earl R. 
Bell, Loyal J. 
Bennett. Constance Susan 
Bennett. Louis G. 
Benningfield. Julie 
Bentley. Gary W. 
Bereza. Steven J. 
Berga, LaNeta G. 
Bergman, Cindy 
Berry. Junel 
Beiry. Linda 
Berry, Lucindy J. 
Bethell, Mark M. 
Bickford, Ladenna M. 



Biddy, Glen O. 
Bigbee. Naomi 
Biggers, Donna K. 
Biggers, Micah D. 
Black, A. G. 
Black, James C. 
Black, Janell K. 
Blackman, Lyndon L. 
Blakemore, G.C. 
Blecha, Carolyn F. 
Blecha. Mike 
Blua, Margaret L. 
Bluebird. Helen B. 
Bluebird. Mary Ann 
Bluma. Ruth A. 
Bly, Douglass A. 
Boeckman, Bart 
Bogle, Carol A. 
Bohannon, S. Bob 
Bolton. Gene L. 
Bolton, Helen L. 
Bond, Mari K. 
Bonds, Betty L. 
Bonds, Nadyne 
Bonner, Bany L. 
Bonner, Billie J. 
Booher, Imogene E. 
BookoLit, Shelley A. 
Bostic, Maxine L. 
Boston, Jim 
Bounds, Steve 
Bourne, Henry C. 
Boutot, Kristi A. 
Boyd, Ida J. 
Boyd, Lila I. 



Boyd. Lisa D. 
Boydstun, Denise J. 
Bradbury. Judy 
Bradford, Alice F. 
Bradt, Ruth C. 
Brainard, Jeanette F. 
Brake, Roy 
Brannon, James L. 
Brannon, Luther H. 
Branson. Debra 
Brawley. Dorothy A. 
Bray. Doyle 
Breeden. Leanna J. 
Brewer. William L. 
Brewster. Sheiry 
Brickman, Connie S. 
Bridges, Crystal F. 
Bridges, Lairy W. 
Briggs, Joyce M. 
Briggs, Juanita L. 
Briggs, Nina E. 
Brigham. Neva J. 
Brisco, George A. 
Britton, Kimberly J. 
Brooks, Erin C. 
Brooks, Tina D. 
Brown. Cynthia J. 
Brown. Jackie 
Brown. Lance H. 
Brown. Lillie 
Brown. Michael Eugene 
Brown. Nita N. 
Brown. Pixie G. 
Brown. Richard R 
Brown, Russell A. 



49 



Brown. Terri 


Byerly, Ginger 


Cassell, John S. 


Browning, Jerry L. 


Bynum, Austin 


Cassidy, John E. 


Brownlee, Betty M. 


Cagle, Jewell A. 


Gates, Cynthia 


Bruce, Cherie E. 


Calcote, Helen J. 


Catlett, Terry 


Bruner, George W. 


Caldwell, Erma 


Caudle, Karen J. 


Bruns, Clifford M. 


Caldwell, Kay L. 


Cauthen, Ethel, O. 


Bryan, James E. Jr. 


Caldwell, Leon 


Cavanaugh, Gordon 


Bryan, Nancy E. 


Calkins, Marlis Heather 


Cearley, Evylean 


Bryce, R. L. 


Callahan, Nancy M. 


Chain, Alfred W. 


Buffo, Angela M. 


Calvert, S. 


Champ, Marcella 


Bufford, Jason D. 


Cameron, Jennifer C. 


Chapin, Boyd L. 


Bumgamer, Sherry 


Campbell. Arthur 


Chapman. Delores J. 


Bunch, Donald K. 


Campbell. James E. 


Chapman. Levica A. 


Bunch, Myrtle 


Campbell. Kenneth D.. Jr. 


Chapman. Lisa 


Bunch, Walter C. 


Campbell, Lenna Marie 


Charmasson. Chad K. 


Burdg, Kandi D. 


Campbell. Sheila D. 


Chatham, Ray Jr. 


Burdine. Jon L. 


Carlile. Jack L. 


Cheatwood. Sharon E 


Burgell, Sherry L. 


Carlson, Denis L. 


Childers. Ralph Ed 


Burke, Debra L. 


Carpenter, Decca 


Choate, D. Norman 


Burks, Charles, Jr. 


Carpenter, Nicole N. 


Christensen. Carey L. 


Burleson, Linda A. 


Carroll, Cheryl J. 


Christian, Christy L. 


Burnet, Vernon E. 


Carson, Lisa 


Christian, Jane 


Bums, Homer L. 


Carter, Edith G. 


Chupp. Loretta A. 


Bums, Linda 


Carter, Everett N. 


Clark. Etta Rae 


Burris, Phillip R. 


Carter, Felicia C. 


Clark, George R. 
Clark, James A. 


fx i:x.t:cie:.-i' ^ceetapy's 


D:ac: A ws^sas:--j:t with cpa'^rs. -<^.*5« ._ 


Clark, LaVema Carol 






Clark. Rickey D. 
Clark. Wanda L. 






Clements. Dan A. 


Burt, Nina G. 


Carter, Harry L. 


Coale, Clara B. 


Bush. R E. 


Carter, Mendy K. 


Cobb, Donna R. 


Butler. Robert E. 


Case, Betty A. 


Coblentz, Lloyd 


Buzbee, John R, Jr. 


Case, Mildred V. 


Codopony. Carol A. 


Bybee, Joe M. 


Cash, Irita 


Colbert, Elvira E. 



50 



Colburn. Loftin G. 
Cole. Geny L. 
Coleman, Han-y L. 
Coleman, Loretta F. 
Collings, Art 
Collings. Carolyn A. 
Collins. Clay 
Collins. Cocieta J. 
Collins, David C. 
Collins, Dorothy 
Collins, Jana M. 
Combes, Clay P. 
Conklin, Thomas H. 
Conn, Paul R. 
Constien, Margie M. 
Cook, Crystal L. 
Cook, Patty J. 
Cook, Rebecca M. 
Cooks, Carrie M. 
Cooks, Marvin. Sr. 
Cooks. Maurice 
Cookson. Antoinette D. 
Cooper. Debra E. 
Cooper. Gary D. 
Copelin. Gloria R. 
Corbin. Wanelda I. 
Coriey. Koye L. 
Corn forth. Lawrence A. 
Cosgrove. Henry T. 
Cothran. Anita B. 
Couch. Fred J. 
Coulston. Angela L. 
Courtney. Teiry 
Cowan, Barbara R. 
Cowan, Linda Sue 



Cowell. Kenneth R. 
Cowen, Linda S. 
Cox, Austin H. 
Cox, Carolyn Ann 
Cox, Danny 
Cox, Patricia A. 
Cox. Sam Allison 
Crabb. John M. 
Crabtree. Francis L. 
Craig. Helen 
Craighead, Leah K. 
Craighead, Melanie M. 
Cramton, Carl L. 
Crane, Glendola 
Cranor, Frank W. 
Cranton, Nita Beth 
Crawford, Betty 
Crawford, Ginger 
Crawley, Gary 
Creager, James F. 
Crenshaw, Tessie C. 
Crider, Judy A. 
Crissman, Dianna L. 
Crutchfield. J. Le Ann 
Crutchfield. Kristen D. 
Culbreath. A. D. 
Cullen. Betty L. 
Gulp. Leonard Dale 
Cummings. Cynthia L. 
Cunningham. Virgil 
Cun'in. Frances M. 
Cun-y. Buddy B. 
Curtis. Clay M. 
Cyphers. Leeroy D. 
Dailey. Dewey 



Daily, Lesli A. 
Dale, Mary E. 
Damron, Claudette S. 
Daniel, Audrey F. 
Daniel, Gary J. 
Daniel, Larry K. 
Darden, Julius J. 
Davenport, Alene P. 
Davidson, Marzella N. 
Davis, Cindi J. 
Davis, Dana K. 
Davis, Donald L. 
Davis, Rock W. 
Dawson, Deborah K. 
Dawson, Elizabeth J. 
Dawson, Mary 
Deason, Tina Mae 
Deaver, Linda 
DeBord. Chades Monte 
Defoor. Barbara J. 
Delano. Dorothy M. 
(Peggy) 

DeLapp. Clarence E. 
DeLay. Mae F 
Delgado. Edgardo Luis 
Dennis. Brenda K. 
Denny. Chuck 
Dent, Kimberly J. 
Deupree, Clyde 
Dewbre, Marie 
Dewitt, John R. 
DeWolf. Anita 
Dick. Duane 
Dickey. Doyal P 
Dickson. Duane W. 



Dickson, Levi 
Dickson, Maxwell M. 
Dillahunty, Shelly R. 
Ditmore, Willa M. 
Dixon, Raniona J. 
Dodd, Margaret E. 
Dodd. Tammy L. 
Dodson, Barry L. 
Dollins, Jolene 
Donaldson, Alycia N. 
Dotter, Chester J. 
Douglas, Carol 
Douglas, Kimberly D. 
Douglas, Oscar 
Douglass, Marzee 



a treaduiU-:, cc. wear v.. t^ e 'r ■•'■ 
and you STITi_dcn't get £,n:A.her.3.' '' 




Gene Earnest, 
former State Director 
Photo private collection 



Dow, Doyle D. 
Dowdle. J. M. 
Downing. Leonard L. 
Dozier, Lisa D. 
Drain, Sim, Jr. 
Dudek. Sue E. 
Dudley, Billy M. 
Duffy, Helen 
Duke, Rona N. 



Dumas, Troy 
Duncan. O.D. 
Dunn. Marshall E. 
Dupre Horgen. Amy E. 
Dupy, Wilson 
Durkee, Wentworth X. 
Dustman, Floyd 
Dyck. Shelley A. 
Dyer, Betty L. 
Dyer. Mary 
Dyer. Walter R. 
Eagan. Rex Harold 
Earls. Tommy K. 
Earnest, Gene F. 
Easley, Charles H. 
Eason. Paula G. 
East. Julie A. 
Eddlemon, Jimmy D. 
Edwards, Guadalupe 
Edwards, Melissa Jo 
Edwards, Vickie R. 
Efurd, Jen-y W. 
Egner, Susan K. 
Eifert, Beverly G. 
Elam, Rose L. 
Elder, Marsha L. 
Elliott. Anna M. 
Ellis, Marthaann 
Ellis, Nancy Sue 



Elmenhorst. James L. 
Elrod. Paula 
Emanuel. Ollen D. 
England. James C. 
English. LulaF. 
Enlow, Clyde E. Jr. 
Erikson. Donna L. 
Ernce, Janell A. 
Eskew, Richard D. 
Estes, F Phillip 
Estes. Susan L. 
E\ans, Dawn M. 
E\ans. Deelyn M. 
E\ ans. Frank E. 
Evans, Lucille 
Evans, Rena 
Everett. Teiry D. 
Faddis. Carlene 
Farmer. Do\ P. 
FaiT. Saranell M. 
FaiT. Vivian M. 
Fan-ell. W. F 
Farris. Dixie A. 
Funis. Jimni) L. 
Farris. Johnny R. 
Fanis. Willa F. 
Featherston. Effie D. 
Fechette. Beverly L. 
Fennell. Raymon L. 



Fenton, Chris D. 
Fenton. Freddie G. 
Ferris, Archie S. 
Fiskin. Zolene K. 
Flanagan, G. L. 
Fletcher. Angela D. 
Florence, Cheryl A. 
Flowers. Billye Sue 
Flowers, Joe W. 
Floyd, Nancy L. 
Floyd. Tonya L. 
Flynn. Irene 
Fogelstrom, Dora 
Folger. Dale L. 
Foord, Kathy 
Ford, Don R. 
Ford, Lisa A. 
Foris, George L. 
Foster, Harry Jr. 
Fox, Dennis R. 
Fox, Glen W. 
Francis, Sandra 
Franklin, Marilyn 
Franks, Dana K. 
Frazier, Kenneth K. 
Frazier, Mack L. 
Frazier. Peggy 
Freburger. Joseph F 
Fredericks, Walter Y. 
Freeman, Clara M. 
Frey, Ruby L. 
Friesen. Frances L. 
Frisbie, Florene R. 
Fryar, Shirley L. 
Fuesting. Judy A. 



Fuller. Ethel M. 
Fuller. Victoria V. 
Gamble. J. M. 
Gamble. Marshall E. 
Gammon. William 
Gan-et. Agnes R. 
Gaston, Billy D. 
Gay, Teresa M. 
Geiger, Albert J. 
Geisler, Lome A. 
Gelnar, Joe W. 
George. Amanda L. 
George. Arthur D. Jr. 
Germaine. Gary 
Gibbs. Effie F 
Gibbs, Karen R. 
Gibson, Alta M. 
Gibson, Cindy 
Gilbert, Deanna S. 
Gilley. Frankie B. 
Glass, Linda 
Glazebrook, Geraldine 
Gleckler, Betty L. 
Glover. Kristal R. 
Glynn. Catherine S. 
Goad. FoiTcst Eugene 
Goeringer. Leo Keith 
Gonshor, Mary R. 
Gonzales. Denise 
Gooden. Mildred I. 
Goodin. Carmen K. 
Goodwin, Ottie A. 
Goodwin, Randall D. 
Gore, Phyllis J. 
Gorman. Shelly 



Gosnell, Apryl B. 
Grabeal, Larry G. 
Grace, Melissa L. 
Graham. Darlene M. 
Graham. Tressie C. 
Graumann. Patsy A. 
Graves, Bud Jr. 
Graves, Everett E. 
Graves, Ivan S. 
Graves, Mary Ann 
Greatorex, Albert T. 
Green, Nancy I. 
Green. Thomas L. 
Greer, Gloria D. 
Greer, M. L. 
Greer, Pixie G. 
Greer, Ralph Earl Jr. 
Gregg, Sandra K. 
Gregory, Betty L. 
Gregory. Burl E. 
Gregory. Hazel 
Gregory. Judy L. 
Gregory. L. Laverne 
Gregory, Stephen D. 
Greiner, Verlin P. 
Grieser, Judy G. 
Griffith, Charles A. 
Grimes Mary 
Grindstaff, Diana L. 
Gripe, Ginger L. 
Grissom, Kristie M. 
Grussing, Lesa C. 
Guerra, Cathy A. 
GuUey, Melody E. 
Gunter, Michael L. 



Guy. Jon 
Gwinn. Teena S. 
Habben. Nettie Jean 
Hada, Donna 
Hadden, Jimmy B. 
Haddon. Karen D. 
Hafner. Am\ L. 
Haggerty. Charles S. 
Haines, Tammy D. 
Hainell. Irene 
Haken. Max H. 
Hale. Carlene K. 
Hale. M. D. 
Hall. Cheryl L. 
Hall. Gladys A. 
Hall, Joseph Z. 
Hall. Melvin R. 
Ham. Mesa K. 
Ham. Neil 
Hamill. Anita 
Hamilton. Blanche 



Hamilton. William J. 
Hamm. Linda K. 
Hammond. Amanda A. 
Hancock. Paula S. 
Hansen. Kermit H. 
Han\e\. Tisa M. 
Harheston. Peggy E. 
Harden. James O. 
Hardiman. Glenn W. 
Hardison. Billie L. 
Hardy, hal C. 
Hargroxe. Jennifer L. 
Harkey. George R. 
Harl, Robert H. 
Harless. Erma L. 
Harman. Arthur C. Jr. 
Harmon. Tonda L. 
Harmon. Vickie L. 
Harper. Christy J. 
Haiper. Melody 
Harris. Be\erl\ G. 



Harris. Carl 
Harris. Daria K. 
Harris. Gilbert (). 
Harris. Lcland W. 
Harris. Lois B. 
Harris. Morgan L. 
Harris. TitTan\ N. 
Harris. Vernon 
Hanis. Wesley J. 
Harris, Wesley, L. 
Harrison. Jeffre\ B. 
Harrison. Marsha 
Harrison. Shauna 
Harrison. Wile\ C. 
Harrod. James D. 
Harrow. Kathr> n E. 
Hart. Janet L. 
Hartman. Rita 
Haskell. Clinton E. 
Hatfield. Brad G. 
Hav\kins. Louis E. 




Farmers Home Administration personnel on March 16, 1981 
Back row, l-r: Sim Drain, Jim Hubbard. Wayne Moore, Susan Nobbe. Frank Evans. 

Suzanne Howard, Dale Foiger, Jackie Brown, Gale Andrew, Gene Earnest, Leonard 

McMurtry, Royce Jones, Dwight Whorton, Cecil Wildman, Earl Rooks, Leo Hogan. Phil 

Brown, Gene Womack, Ed Van Zandt, Carlos Andujar. 
Front row, l-r; Gloria Allen, Janet White, Bette Hodson, Kathy Vanchien, Vickie Barron. Pat 

Tiger, Dorothy Lowery, Betty Peachee, Connie Stephenson, Cindy Bergman, Cheryl 

Carroll, Linda Glass. 



54 




Carl Harris, Clark McWhorter, Leonard Downing, 
and Leonard Wiley review plans for proposed 
water system. Photo USDA Oklahoma office 



Haxton, Milan G. 
Hay, Sharon Kay 
Hayes. Paul L. 
Hayes. Tamika D. 
Haygood. Carol J. 
Headings. Robert D. 
Headley. Marian 
Heckman, Melody S. 
Hedrick. Beulah S. 
Heft. Susan M. 
Hegdale. Pamela D. 
Heid, Denise C. 
Heilman. Linda S. 
Heilman. Maria E. 
Hellwege. Ernest A. 
Helm, Mike R. 
Henderson. Debra S. 
Henderson. Gene C. 
Henderson. Steve 
Henderson. Timothy E. 
Hendricks. Jennifer D. 
Henley. Mollye 
Henneman. Carlene 



Henry. Jessie L. 
Hensley. Douglas D. 
Henson. William J. 
Hepner. Harold D. 
HeiTon. Victor R. 
Hester. Helen R. 
Hickman. Kelli L. 
Hicks. Billy W. 
Higginbotham. Lorie A. 
Higgins. Jack L. 
Hight. Eugene 
Hightower. Robert F. 
Hill. Han-y W. 
Hill. Terri A. 
Himbury. Richard R. 
Hinkel. Shannon Lacy 
Hinnergardt, Marth M. 
Hinton. Carolyn A. 
Hobbs, Clifford E. 
Hobbs. Mary E. 
Hobson. Katherine G. 
Hodge, Christy J. 
Hodges, Norma L 



Hodson, Bette B. 
Hodson, Christy J. 
Hofen. Josephine 
Hogan. LeoB. 
Hogg. Timothy E. 
Holderby. Virgil 
Holding, Bill Olin 
HoUey, Bobby W. 
Hollingsworth, Jackson L. 
Holloway, Robin L. 
Holm. Paul L. 
Hoisted. Gary A. 
Hoh. Linda K. 
Holt. Summer D. 
Holzler. James W. 
Hood. Ilia Mae 
Hood. Velma L. 
Horn, Annette L. 
Horschler. Tom 
House. Stefanie L. 
Howard. Dennis V. 
Howard. Suzanne 
Howell. Ackman A. 
Howell. Colin R. 
Hubanks. Elizabeth Ann 
Hubbard, James N. 
Hudlow, Carolyn L. 
Hufnagel, Robert F. 
Huggins, Billy J. 
Huggins, Jack 
Hughes. Jere 
Hulin. Patricia 
Hull. Jennifer A. 
Hulsey. Walter 
Hunnicutt. Silvia D. 



55 



Hunter. James F. Ill 
Huntington. Mark L. 
Hurst, Tammy L. 
Hutchens, Helen 
Hutchens. Joyce 
Hutton. Eugene M. 
Hutton. Karl a D. 
lacampo. Celeste 
Ingram. Mandy K. 
Isenberg. La Verne A. 
Jackson, Betty M. 
Jackson. Bill 
Jackson, Delores W. 
Jackson, William N 
Jacoby, Fred 
James, Demetria R. 
James, Kathleen M. 
Jarrell, Andrea D. 
Jay, Pamela K. 
Jeffcoat. Nancy J. 
Jeffrey. Marion A. 
Jenkins. Aubrey 
Jennings, Tammy L. 
Jenson. Paula Renee 
Jirtle. Virginia C. 
Johns. Shelly K. 
Johnson. Debbie 
Johnson. Ed 
Johnson. Harvel J. 
Johnson. Iris N. 
Johnson. Jennifer R. 
Johnson. John H. 
Johnson. L.W. Bud 
Johnson. Lotha Jane 
Johnston, Karen A. 



Johnston. Nina D. 
Johnston. Sammy C. 
Jones. Blanche B. 
Jones, Darlene J. 
Jones, Donna K. 
Jones. Dorothy I. 
Jones. Elmo S. 
Jones. Erin E. 
Jones. Jakie H.. Jr. 
Jones. Jesse A. 
Jones. Joyce L. 
Jones. Myrtle A. 
Jones. Ronnie L. 
Jones, Royce W. 
Jones, Tracy L. 
Jordan, Diane 
Jordan, M. Diane 
Jordan, Marilyn D. 
Jordan, Susan G. 
Josefy, Paul 
Jung, Carol A. 
Justice, Jack L. 
Justice. Melissa E. 
Kauk. Jessie L. 
Kays. William H. 
Keahey, Charles 
Kelly. Kevin L. 
Kennedy. Ohma 
Kennell. Darlene 
Kenney. Jack H. 
Kent. Helen B. 
Keranen. Jennifer L. 
Kerns. Margaret V. 
KeiT. Albert L. 
Kerr. Betty J. 



Ketch, John G. 
Ketch. Vicki L. 
Kettles. Sarah 
Kincschi. Kenneth D. 
King, Clifford M. 
King. Gwenette A. 
Kinnaird. Delores 
Kinnard. Richmond 
Kinslow. Ruelle D. 
Kinyon. Anita S. 
Klein. Kaci N. 
Klink. Marie R. 
Koerner. Marvin M. 
Koesler, Mat 
Kolar. Stanley Lee 
Kraft, Robert L. 
Krause. Eldon W. 
Kreidler. Skip 
Kreienkamp. Ronald A. 
Kretchmar. Joanie Y. 
Kretz. Roy Roland 
Kruska. Paul Dwain 
LaCamp. Ira Rex 
Ladson. Barbara E. 
Lafferty. Robert C. 
Lamons. Bill D. 
Landers. William H. Jr. 
Landgraf. Bill B. 
Laney. Carolyn A. 
Lankford. Cherina L. 
Larkins. Jamel D. 
Larsen. Samantha 
Lathum. W. Jean 
Latta. Rachel A. 
Laubhan. Ernie A 



56 



Law. Susan P. 
Lawless, Tammy G. 
Lawson. Ladoris Eileen 
Layson, Robin D. 
Leatherwood. Patricia A. 
Ledford, Larry D. 
Ledford, Laurie J. 
Ledford, Leonard 
Ledford, O. O. 
Lee. Anna Jane 
Lee. Frances G. 
Lee, James E. 
Lee. Darlene E. 
Leewright. Tonya D. 
LeGrand. Kevin R. 
Lemonds. Ella 
Leonard. Archie 
Leonard. Gregory M. 
Leonard. Ralph W. 
Lewis, Barbara J. 
Lewis, Bessie F. 
Lewis, Lacquita J. 
Lewis. Tanya C. 
Lieb. Lori E. 
Lieb. William K. 
Lindley. Paige L. 
Linnet. Shirley R. 
Linsley. Joseph H. 
Linville. Judy L. 
Littlefield, Sheila A. 
Livesay. David W. 
Lobaugh. Regina L. 
Loewen, John 
Loney, Bythel 
Long, Harold E. 



Lookabaugh, Roy C. 
Losson, Ann S. 
Lott, Sheila L. 
Love, Traci M. 
Lovell. Brenda L. 
Lovell, Everett W. Jr. 
Lowery, Dorothy 



Mantooth. Vada E. 
Marcum. Nita G. 
Mardis. Loretta A. 
Marker. James P. 
Marlow. Julia Z. 
Martens. Michael Booth 
Martens, Nadine C. 



i 



j^ 



Mrs. Dorothy Lowery, a Farmer Programs Loan 

Technician for 35 years, talks with Gene Earnest and 

Frank Evans at a retirement party In her honor. 



Lowery. Tina 
Lowry. Teena S. 
Loyall, WilHs L. 
Luber, John 
Lucas. Raye L. 
Lucas, Royden J. 
Luekenga, Ronald Gene 
MacDonald. Yoonie 
Mace, Zella E. 
Maddux, Geneva A. 
Maehs, Joyce M. 
Maher, Kathleen 
Mall. Cheryl Ann 
Mamone. Dana D. 
Mann. Cheryl L. 
Mann, Debra R. 
Manous, John L. 



Martin, Betty J. 
Martin, Gus D. 
Martin. Melinda D. 
Martm. W. P 
Marvin. George S. W. 
Marvin. Viola I. 
Mason, Sandi 
Matheson, Monica L. 
Mathis, Gregory K. 
Matlock, Alvin Leon 
Matlock. Cecil L. 
Matlock. Dana 
Matlock. Karen J. 
Maxey. John C. 
Maxey. Richard P 
May, Earl C. 
May, Paula A. 



57 



Mayhall. Mary Sue 
Mazurier. Lorrine F. 
McArthur. Henrietta D. 
McCampbell. Thomas E. 
McCarty. Vera Mae 
McCay. Kevin L. 
McClellan. Sarah E. 
McCoUum. Bonnie 
McCollum, Naomi R. 
McCoy, Jennifer 
McCray. Bobby Alan 
McCuiston. Joe R. 
McCuUough. Charles E. 
McCullough. Kelly 
McCurdy. Ellis L. 
McCurley. Alvin D. 
McDaniel. James L.. Jr. 
McDaniel, Joyce K. 
McDaniel. LaNelda J. 
McDonald. Benny K. 
McDonald. Hazel M. 
McDonald. Monte 
McFalls, Custer R. 
McGarry. Jean F. 
McGrit. Josephine 
McGuire. Ke\ in D. 
McHenry. Lora B. 
McKeaigg. George L. 
McKeever. Carol J. 
McKinley. Cheryl 
McKinney, Raymond W. 
McLemore. Gloria D. 
McManaman. Deborah 
McMillan. Sam L. 
McMullen. Jodi 



McMurtry, Leonard C. 
McNair. Carol A. 
McNeal. Helen M. 
McNeil, Olivia M. 
McPherson. Antoni A. 
McWhorter. Clark 
Meacham. Colleen 
Meadows. Ralph E. 
Meeks. Marquita 
Meikle. John W. 
Meinke. Danielle D. 
Melton. Dalton M. 
Mendenhall. Ray 
Mendoza. Vincent L. 




Thelma and Mac McCurdy 
at an evening meeting 

Photo private collection 

Meng. John H. 
Mercer. Doris E. 
Mercer. Jana R. 
Mercer. Lyndon W. 
Merchant. Linda M. 
Merklin. H. Eldon 
Merrihew, Julie A. 



Merrill. Eileen B. 
Messenger. Marcy A. 
Meyer. Mildred M. 
Miller. Betty J. 
Miller. BlutordW.. Ill 
Miller. Howard W. 
Miller. Leona M. 
Miller. Marylyn 
Miller. Matthew L. 
Miller. Nancy L. 
Miller, R. Colleen 
Miller. Stacy M. 
Miller. Tammi S. 
Mills. Vicki 
Milner. Staci A. 
Mmn. HarryJ. 
Mirtz. John L. 
Mitchell. Kevin L. 
Moffatt. Ina L. 
Mogg. Inabell G. 
Moon. JoAnna H. 
Moore. Brenda J. 
Moore. Carol J. 
Moore. David M. 
Moore. James W.. Jr. 
Moore. Kristina D. 
Moore. Wayne H. 
Morales. Sonia G. 
Moreland. Barr> K. 
Morgan. Be\erl\ S. 
Morgan. Doris A. 
Morgan. Joanna 
Morgan. Richard E. 
Morgan. Robert D. 
Morlev. Leah K. 



58 



Morris. Dorothy Mae 
Morrison, Johna Lee 
Morrison, Kenneth H. 
Morrow, Charles L. 
Morse, Donna J. 
Mosburg, Bobbie L. 
Mowre, Ruby 
Mroczka. Elda 
Mullendore, Karen K. 
Munson, Stanley E. 
MuiTay, Andrew B. 
Muiray, Billy D. 
MuiTay, Raymond B. 
Murrin, Kathy S. 
Musick. Christon R. 
Myers, Carl D. 
Myers, Margaret J. 
Myers, Ralph W. 
Myers, Terra M. 
Nahrgang, Jennifer D. 
Nahrgang, Julie A. 
Nahrgang, Sheiry L. 
Nation. E. D. 
Neese, L. J. 
Nelson, Billy L. 
Nelson, Debi 
Nestle, Mark H. 
Newsom, Pamela R. 
Nicholas. Helen I. 
Nicholas. Max 
Nicholas. Vivian 
Nichols. Wendy K. 
Nickels, Angela R. 
Nickelson, Mark A. 
Nixon, James A. 



Nixon, Mark A. 
Nixon. Vicki 
Nobbe. Susan 
Nobles. O. C. 
Noel. HaiTison S. 
Nolan. Carol 
Nolen. Dean R 
Noll. W. R. 
Norman. Jack B. 
Nowlin. Alicia D. 
Nunley, Elzia H. 
Nunn. Linda K. 
Nutt. Brenda K. 
Oakman. David 
O'Brien. Catherine Sue 
O'Brien, Janell 
O'Mara, Joseph A 
O'Neal, B. Severn 
O'Neill, Helen G. 
O'Riley, Sallie 
Ogden, Joyce 
Ogden, Karen Joyce 
Oler, Donna K. 
Osborn. Lula F. 
Osborne, JoAnne 
O'Steen, Harold C. 
Otto, J. Neal 
Overstreet. Maria E. 
Overton, Max W. 
Owen, Stacey L. 
Owens, Carl L., Jr. 
Owens, Cheryl H. 
Owens, Judy 
Owens, Van W. 
Ownbey. Dana N. 



Ozbim. E. Lee 
Pace. Buster G. 
Page. Cledon J. 
Palecek. Hairy 
Palmer. Colleen W. 
Palmer. Monica D. 
Parish. F. Ronald 
Parish. Helen E. 
Parker. Felicia N. 
Parker. Leah H. 
Parker. Michelle 
Parkey. Harold E. 
Parks, James E. 
Parsons, B. H. Jr. 
Parsons, Lester O. 
Parsons, Sterling 
Patterson. Roxanne L. 
Patton. Kathy 
Paul. Machelle M. 
Payne. David C. 
Payne. L. Jan 
Payne. Phyllis C. 
Peachee. Betty J. 
Peak, Judith I. 
Pebeahsy, Nina K. 
Peck, Ralph S. 
Peircey, Jimmy F. 
Pendergraft, Valda L. 
Pendergraft. Velda 
Pennington, Murrel W. 
Perkins, L. N. (Cy) 
Perry, John M. 
Peters, Avis June 
Petersen, Antoinette 
Petties, Erma E. 



59 



Petty. Melba E. 
Pharaoh. Cris E. 
PhilHps. Barbara L. 
Phillips. Buddy L. 
Phillips. Debora J. 
Pickett. Joann 
Pierce. Charla Jean 
Pierce. Susan C. 
Piper, Geraldine 
Pittman, Arthur Ray 
Pittman. Donnie R. 
Pittman. Jaqueline J. 
Pittman. Richard S. 
Plaster. Dena A. 
Pledger. Marolyn J. 
Plummer. Harold 
Poindexter. Delina C. 
Poore. Vickey 
Porter. Earlene 
Powell. Arline 
Powell. Carol D. 
Powell. Robert G. 
Powell. Talitha V. 
Powelson. J. D. 
Powers. James G. 
Prater. William E. 
Prather. Blake 
Pratt. Clarence W. 
Prentice. Hershel M. 
Prentice. Louis R. 
Pribble. Stanley 
Prior. Helen J. 
Pritchett. Dolores A. 
Prophet. D. R 
Provost, Rose S. 



Pruitt. J. C. 
Pruitt. Mechalle T. 
Pryor. Doyle E. 
Puckett. Robert E. 
Purnell. McLean E. 
Quick. Nancy J. 
Quick. Teresa N. 
Quigley. Kenneth W. 
Quimby. Jimmy W. 
Quisenbeiry. Raylene B. 
Raab. George J. 
Raab. Laura B. 
Rabon. Heather Lynd 
Radebaugh Debbie 
Rainbolt. Charles P 
Rainey. Linda E. 
Rakestraw. Tracy A. 
Raley. Joy G. 
Ramos, Mercedes 
Ramsey, Judy C. 
Randall, Inga M. 
Randall. Walter M. 
Randolph. J. Leroy 




Raney. Debra D. 
Rankin. Roy D. 
Rati iff. Adrian A. 
RatlitY. Juanita B. 
Raupe. Richard L. 
Ray. Andrea D. 
Ray. C. Arthur 
Ray. Florene O. 
Ray. Janice M. 
Reagan. Gary H. 
Redman. Deanna K. 
Redman. John L. 
Redman. Terry 
Reed. Brenda 
Reed, Pearl J. 
Reed. R. M. 
Reese. Theresa C. 
Reimers. Phillip F. 
Reitz. Ivan A. 
Rempe. Elizabeth L. 
Rem\. Terr\ L. 
Renew. Patricia K. 
Renfrow, Ernest M. 
Rich. Bonnie R. 
Rich. John V. 
Richards. Dalton M. 
Richardson. George 
Richardson. Jennifer L. 
Richardson. Ronald W. 
Richardson. Tommieline 



Bonnie Rich (I) 

and 

Diana Stein (r) 

survey the scene 

at an FmHA meeting 

Photo private collection 



60 



Ricks, Donus W. 
Ricks, Josephine E. 
Rierson. N. Eric 
Rigdon, Alan R. 
Riley, Gaylene D. 
Riner. Margie A. 
Ringwald, John 
Riser, Diana K. 
Ritchey, Karen L. 
Robbins, Darlene K. 
Roberts, Donald D. 
Roberts, Frank M. 
Roberts, Judith 
Roberts, Richard Eber 
Roberts, Steven M. 
Roberts, Tom E. 
Robertson. Edna M. 
Robertson, John D. 
Robertson, Milford M. 
Robinson, Jerry L. 
Robinson, Ora Mae. 
Robison, Reid 
Rodriguez, Araceli 
Rooks, Earl 
Rosalez, Denise M. 
Ross, Phil S. 
Rosson, Connie S. 
Rosson, Phylliss R. 
Rote. Angle M. 
Rounsaville, Delbert A. 
Roy, Felix 
Roy, Helen K. 
Runyan. A. Louise 
Russell. Joyce M. 
Rutland. N. H. 



Ryel. L. M. 
Salmon. Rowena 
Salter. Betty J. 
Sanders, Billie K. 
Sanders, E. J. 
Sanders, Evelin T. 
Sanders, Jack 
Sanders, Karen M. 
Sanders, Ki-istie M. 
Sanders. Susan E. 
Sandmann. Louis B. 
Saunders. Opal 
Saunders. Sibble O. 
Scammahorn. Gary L. 
Scammahorn. Michael L. 
Schanbacher. Lyle G. 
Schaufele. Beverly A. 
Scheffler. A. J.. Jr. 
Schladt. George J. 
Schlegel. Cynthia J. 
Schlegel. Norbert R. 
Schnidt, h'vin 
Schrammel, Michael W. 
Schuler, Kharla Y. 
Schultz, Charlie 
Schultz, Kristi L. 
Schwab, N. Jean 
Schwabe, Robert V. 
Schwartz. Merle G. 
Scott. Frances G. 
Scott, Sonja J. 
Scott, Tamara L. 
Sebranek, Frankie J. 
Seddon, Evelyn G. 
Sellers, G. Duane 



Sellers, Susan D. 
Sewell. Billye S. 
Sexton, TeiTi D. 
Shadoan, Mary Ann 
Shafer. Orvis R. 
Shaip. Leslie W. 
Shaunty, Elizabeth A. 
Shearhart, Amy D. 
Sheffield. Richard Paul 
Shenold, William L. 
Sheppard, Kermet E. 
Shimanek, Phyllis M. 
Shiplett, Sid A. 
Shipman, Linda J. 
Shirey, Kaylee M. 
Short, James H. 
Shriner, Ray D. 
Shumaker, Byrl B. 
Sibley, Roy 
Sien-a, Mary J. 
Simmons. Carol 
Simmons. Carole 
Simmons. Jerry L. 
Simms. Brenda J. 
Simms. Grant W. 
Simon, Lawrence F. 
Simpkins, Johnny D. 
Sims, Edward H. 
Sims, Marsha K. 
Sipe. Karen J. 
Sisson. Ariand D. 
Sitterly. Linda 
Skidgel, Kelley A. 
Skidgel, Marthaann 
Skimbo, Johnny L. 



Skoch, Shelley 
Slatten, Jack A. 
Slatten, James H. 
Sloan. Be\eriy J. 
Sloan. Eva S. 
Smalley. Keith L. 
Sniargissi, Pat 
Smith. Billy M. 
Smith. Buster E. 
Smith. Charles Ray 
Smith. Clyde J. 
Smith. Evelyn R. 
Smith. George W. 
Smith. Gipson 
Smith. Haney D. 
Smith, James V. 
Smith. Jimmie C. 
Smith. John D. 
Smith. Joy 
Smith. Kevin L. 
Smith. Lana J. 
Smith. Lorita D. 
Smith. Melanie J. 
Smith. Patsy R. 
Smith. Ray L. 
Smith. Vicki 
Smith. Viola 
Smith. W. Dabney 
Snavely. Linda M. 
Snider, Wanda J. 
Snow, Judith. I. 
Soderstrom. Dawn M. 
Sonells. Wilma J. 
South. Wanda C. 
Southard, James 



Sparks, Judy L. 
Sparks, Patricia 
Spears. Belinda L. 
Speer. Zella B. 
Spixey. Grace L. 
Spleth. Stephen W. 
Spraggins. Nadyne G. 
Spray. Jean M. 
Spung. O. N. 
Spurlin. James B. 
Stalford. Malea B. 
Staiger, Donald G. 
Stearns. Hollis D. 
Steed. Jim M. 
Stein. Diana S. 
Stelting. Gala S. 
Stephens. Dallas L. 
Stephens. Randal! D. 
Stephenson. Connie 
Stephenson. Larry E. 



Stewart. James T. 
Stipe. Carolyn A. 
Stohaugh. Fred 
Stokes. Mark A. L. 
Stoll. Opal E. 
Stormont. Jimmie D. 
Stout. Charles E. 
Stratton. Jess 
Stricklan. Shirley 
Stricklin. Catherine J. 
Strom. John L. 
Stuhhs. Willis L. 
Stucki. Tammy L. 
Summars. Valjean C. 
Sutherland. Jimmie Jean 
Sutton. Delton S. 
Swan, Frank R. 
Swift. Lara L. 
Swinnea. John A. 
Tadlock. Rena 




Ruby Moore. Virginia Stephenson, Wayne IVIoore 
(standing). Larry Stephenson. Jewell and Frank Evans 
admire Frank's dessert. Photo private collection 



Stevens. Desiree T. 
Stevenson. Leonard 
Stewart, Elaina 



Talle\. Kenneth R. 
Tar\er. Trac\ L. 
Tasso. Vanessa V. 



62 



Taylor, Cecilia L. 
Taylor. Cherriwatha C. 
Taylor, Dorothy Lea 
Taylor. Jack Jr. 
Taylor. Lisa R. 
Taylor. Rubye A. 
Teague. Ursula 
Teague, Vada U. 
Teehee, Wanda L. 
Terbush, Victor L. 
Terrell, William G. 
Thionnet, Mildred A. 
Thomas, Barbara J. 
Thomas, Ben F. 
Thomas, Carolyn Y. 
Thomas, Elizabeth 
Thomas, James C. 
Thomas, Kathleen 
Thomas, Sue 
Thompson, Betty J. 
Thompson, Carolyn 
Thompson, Faye 
Thompson, Lavona J. 
Thompson, R Renee 
Thompson, Robert A. 
Thomsen, Kay Lynn 
Thomson, Houston L. 
Thornton, James E. 
Throne, Melissa L. 
Thurston, Phillip R 
Tibbetts, C. A. 
Tiger, Pat 

Tillman, Agnes Mae 
Tims, Linda L. 
Tinder, Linda K. 



Tippins, William A. 
Tipton. George W. 
Tipton, Gerald V. 
Todd, Bettie J. 
Tollett, Janice 
Tootle, Kenny A. 
Tow, Betty S. 
Tracy, Vickie L. 
Trammel, Lany J. 
Trammel, Paula 
Travis, Michael Jay 
Trice. Edward M. 
Triplett. Wanda L. 



Urban. Ritson L. 
Vache. Betty L. 
Van Hauen, Judy 
Van Zandt. Edgar L. 
VanBuskirk. Glenna E. 
Vanchieri. Kathy 
Vanderpol. Gerald, Jr. 
VanMeter. John E 
Vann. C. Neale 
Varner. Kelly 
Vamer, Patton A. 
Vassar, S. Carolyn 
Vau2han. Cecil L. 




(I to r) Chester J. Dotter, Agnes Mae Tillman, 
Viola Smith, and Murrel Pennington 

Photo, USDA Oklahoma office collection 



Trost, John P. 
Trotter. Doris A. 
Tubby, Linda F. 
Tucker, Gary L. 
Turn. Linda S. 
Turner, Jack D. 
Turner, Lloyd G. 
Turner, Teirence 
Uhles, Karla 
Ulrey, Valera K. 



Vaughn. Brenda S. 
Vaughn. Malea 
Veech. Everett R. 
Vernnon. Lucinda K. 
Venill, Evelyn V. 
Vick, Sandra 
Viers, Marvin M. 
Vilhauer. Joyce L. 
Villines. Sandra C. 
Vinson, Sharon K. 



63 



Vogt, Henry W. 
Von Tungeln, Bruce 
Voss. Walt. Jr. 
Wadley. Joseph L. 
Walker. Betty S. 
Walker, Emmett 
Walker, Janet G. 
Walker, Marlene C. 
Walker, Oklahoma 
Wall, Gary W. 
Walters, Christi L. 
Walters. Gladys A. 
Walton. Rena I. 
Walzer. Ronda J. 
Ward, Donna J. 
Ward, James E. 
Ward, Linda K. 
Ward, Ricky E. 
Ward, Wilton 
Warde, Velma K. 
Ware, Ralph R. 
Warner, Gail E. 
Washington, Gerald A. 
Washington, Veronica G. 
Washmon, Anita M. 
Waters. Rex R 
Watson, Melanie L. 
Watt, James M. 
Watt, Linda S. 
Watts, Opal L. 
Wearmouth, John Clyde 
Weaver, Weldon W. 
Webb. Cathy L. 
Wedel, Carolyn Sue 
Wells, Dale A. 



Wells, Earl D. 
Welpton, Gladys O. 
West. Billie Kay 
West. Cynthia M. 
West. Linda L. 
Weston, Kristie L. 
Wheeler, Clyde A. 
Wheeler, Vermeil 
White. Betty J. 
White. Don L. 
White, Janet 
White. Melody D. 
Whitesell. Ann A. 
Whitlock, Angela L. 
Whitney, Vernon D. 
Whitworth, O. Dwight 
Whorton, Dwight E. 
Wicker, Dennis W. 
Wicker, Joy G. 
Wickersham. M. Renee 
Wickham. Juanita 
Wickware. Vicky L. 
Widener. Spudds 
Wilcots. Gwendolyne 
Wilcox, Leonard R. 
Wilcoxson. Jennifer J. 
Wildman, Cecil 
Wiley. Leonard C. 
Wilham. Oliver S. 
Wilkins, Mary E. 
Wilkinson, Teresa 
Williams, Allen 
Williams. Arnetta 
Williams. Cara D. 
Williams, Clifford 



Williams. Dorothy M. 
Williams. Ferna Sue 
Williams. Harold H. 
Williams. Kymherly P. 
Williams. Loretha 
Williams. Lovella (Peggy) 
Williams. Mary E. 
Williams. Mary P. 
Williams. Phyllis Kay 
Williams. Robert A. 
Williams, Roy Dale 
Williams, Sue 
Williams. Thomas D. 
Williams. Tracey W. 
Williams, Zack, Jr. 
Willis, Gilbert C. 
Willis. Herbert L. 
Willis. Kayla D. 
Willis. Kenny 
Willoughby. Tonya M. 
Willson. Earl L. 
Willyerd. Jane M. 
Wilson. Connie L. 
Wilson, Dee Dee K. 
Wilson. Rebeccca K. 
Wilson. Sandra J. 
Wingfield. Connie 
Wingo. Linda J. 
Winkle. Robin Lynn 
Winslett. V E. 
Winteiringer. Joan K. 
Winters. Thomas J. 
Wion. Monte L. 
Wolf. Robert L. 
Wolff. Dale E. 



64 



Wolff. Zita L. 
Womack. Gene 
Wood. C. R. 
Wood. Janice 
Wood. Jimmy D. 
Wood. Mildred 
Wood, Millie 
Woodard. Jennie G. 
Woods. Holly A. 
Woodson. Ashley L. 
Woodson, Shana L. 
Woodson. Tamara 
Woodward. Raymond T. 
Wright. Afia N. 
Wright, Aldon H. 
Wright. Audie Ruth 
Wright. Kimberly D. 
Wyatt. Chelsa M. 
Wyatt, Howard H. 
Wyatt, L. J. 
Wyatt, Melissa 
Yager. Sara J. 
Yates. Dicky O. 
Yates. R. M. 
York. Edith 
Yost, Cheryl E. 
Yott, Lou 
Yott, Nioma S. 
Young, Sally J. 
Young, Trelenza J. 
Zachary. Howard E. 
Zimmemian, James 



Appendix B 

Excerpts from 

USDA Farm and Home Management Report 
FOR Alfalfa County, 1 94 1 



66 





CABLE 7. TASM PHODUCTS ACTUALLY USED BY FAMILY ON 30 P.S.A, FAiiMS 








IN ALPyJJA COUNTY, OKLAHOM* IN I9H0 








ITEM 


youp 


AVERAGE ATEPAGE 10 

30 ".-J^u.;? men F.\PMs 


AVEPAGE Ko 
LOW FAPMS 






^vai^i^ .y 


Tal'ir 


Qiiantiiy 


,' .".ue ; Ji.antl^.y 


Value 


Q)iant, 


Val. 




Wirle Milk (Gals.) 
b -10 Mado Cheese (Lbs.) 
H:r:.e Mado Butter '^Lbs) 






,-2t3 


UL2 [ C.38 


$95. 


305 


$126. 








18 


5. 1 13 


I^, 


11 


" 1+. 








gs 


29, 1 - 09, 


55, 


101 


50. 




:roHn (Gals.) 






36 


29. j 2^ 


19. 


5b 


^5. 












\5' 
73 












lerd.Fat , Bacon, Etc, (Lbs. ) 






98 


122 
269 


18. 


82 

■263 ■ 


12. 

79. 




-.;L.n Pork (Lbs.) 






ZkW 




-:-: & Veal (Lbs.) 






73 




lU, 


72 


i^. 




ii.itt:)n ti. Lamb (Lbs.) 






7 






10 


2. 




>■^ sh & Game (Lbs, ) 






5 


I 


'4 


1. 


1 






i-.v-lcry (Lbs.) 






173 


3^;-. 


1d8 


3^. 


161 


32.. 
























E,<^gs (Doz.) 






136 


27. 


ll+S 


30. 


137 


27. 




rr:ed Beans & Nuts (Lb) 






5 




1 




3 




Iciratocs & Citrus (Lbs,) 
Leaf/ Gr.&Ycllow V. » 






2U3 


7^ 

8, 


^ 


10. 

9. 


131 
386 


8. 


O-chor Vegetables (Lbs.) 






5U9 


11. 


535 


11. 


510 


10. 


Canned Food (qts.) 






253 


bj. 


215 


51+. 


206 


52. 


Fruit Used Fresh (Lbs.) 






13 


1. 












White Pptatoes (Bu,) 






11 


11+. 


11 


14, 


11 


li+. 




Sweet Potatoes (Bu.) 
?.'.thxr (Lbs,) 


- 




1 
263 , 


1. 

8. 


1 


1. 


1 




208 


b. 


394 


12. 


Cereal (Lbs.) 






16 


1. 


8 




23 


1. 


Com Meal (Lbs.) 






ih 




5 


























TOTAL FOOD 








$U56. 




$43U. 




$472. 


FUEL (Cords) 






k 


20. 


2 


10. 


5 


26. 


SOAP (Lbs.) 






k 








10 


1. 


TOTAL FABM PBDDUCTSt 








$1176. 




$1M. 




$l+99i 













TABLE g. TABM FAMILY LIVIIIG COSTS ON 30 F. S. A, FAEMS IN 




ALFALFA COUNTY, OKLAHOMA, IN I9U0. 














Average 


AVERAGE 






ITEM 


YOUR 


AVERAGE 


10 HIGH 


10 LOW 








FARl^ 


30 FARMS 


FARMS 


FARI-IS 




CASH LIVING EXPENSE: 


'Ian 


[Actual 


Plan 


Actual 


Plan 


Actual 


Plan 


Actual 
























Food Bought 






$128. 


$165. 


$139. 


$186. 


$125. 


$163. 






Clothing 






S3. 


81. 


126. 


119. 


61+ . 


61, 






Personal 






20. 


25. 


2U. 


33. 


18. 


21. 






Medical 






5^. 


58. 


Uh. 


5U. 


9U. 


98. 






Household Operation 






7b. 


65. 


107. 


85. 


5U. 


58. 






Minor Housing 






5. 


5. 


1. 


10. 


3. 


u. 






Furn. & Equipment 






12. 


lU. 


18. 


25. 


9. 


12. 






Other Expense 






ko. 


52. 


72. 


lOU. 


22. 


2U. 






Transportation 






5. 




3. 




11. 






Life Ins. Savings 




3?. 


36. 


49 


63. 


27. 


30. 




CASH FAMILY OPEHATING EXPENSE 




$1+50. 


$506. 


$580. 


$682. 


$Ul6. 


$US2. 




FARM PRODUCTS ACTUALLY USED 


' 




$501+. 


$476. 


$1*77. 


$W+, 


$51*6. 


$U9g. 




TOTAL LITIN& COST FOR YEAS 






$95^+. 


$982. 


1057. 


1126. 


$962. 


$980. 




HOME CAPITAL GOODS PUECHASEI 






$ 38. 


$ 37. 


$ i+U. 


$ 60. 


$ 27. 


$ 6. 




TOTAL CASH FAMILY EXPENSES 






$992. 


1019. 


1101. 


1186. 


$989. 


$986. 




Number in Family 






U.2 


U.2 


3.8 


3.8 


U.5 


^.5 






Food From Farm 






$306. 


$268. 


$27U. 


$265. 


$315. 


$287. 






Total Food Cost 






$U3U. 


$1+33. 


$Ul3. 


$1+51. 


$Ul+0. 


$1+50. 






Food Cost Per Person 






$103. 


$103. 


$109. 


$119. 


98. 


100. 






Cash Food Expense Per Persoi 






^°: 


53^ 


^^', 


^5t 


28. 


3b. 






Percent of Food Fron Farm 






70.5^ 


^udi 


bb.3^ 


58.8^ 


71.b^ 


63.85^ 






Percent of Living From Farm 






52,8^ 


^8.55^ 


^5.1^ 


39.1+5J 


5fe.75t 


50.8^ 






•Does not include house rent and home produced soap anc 


L family use of 


auto. 





68 



If retail prices for farm products had teen used instead of farm prices, 
the percent of the food furnished by the farm would have been nearer 
75 percent. A good record 1^ being made in the production of food but 
there is still lauch room for laqarovement* Many families are finding out 
how to produce more food at home aaff also have a better variety. 



HOMEGROWN roO09 

protect ihe/ 
family purs*' 




Frame Gardens, tub gardens, spring gardens, fall gardens and big gardens 
are all proving helpful. How many kinds do you have? Did you grow any 
Porter tomatoes last year? If not, why not try them in I9U1. Did you 
have as many as 25 different varieties of garden products last year? It 
is a possibility being realized by many farm families. 



mXS YEAR 

We hope to have a bigger and better report for 19'+1, 
Whether we do or not depends upon the records you folk 
keep in your I9U1 book. We all are hoping for the 
most successful year of years. Let's keep a good re- 
cord of it. The r.S.A. orgamzation will do it's very 
best to help you. Don't wait too long to see them. 





To BcTTEfL FA^t^^HOr- 



IT PAYS TO ASg C^UESTIOITSi 



Whether you have been in the hi^ 
group or the low group or just about 
average, IT PAYS TO ASK QUESTIONS. 
Of course, it is desirable to ask 
other people about how they do 
things, but the questions vhich pay 
the really big dividends when ans- 
wered properly are the questions 
which each farmer asks himself. 
It's plowseat thinking, not dream- 
ing, that gets results. We hope 
you will find it interesting when 
you get time off to yourself to go 
through the questions which follow 
and check them off to see how many 
you can answer "yes" to, how many 
are "no", and whether they apply to your farm, 
farming practices. 



Check up 




Grade yourself on your 



Volume of Business; 

1. Is your farm the proper size to give you and your family something 
profitable to do each day in the year? 

2. Do you have enough acres of pasture for your stock? 

3. Is it possible to produce more per acre and increase your volume of 
business? 

U. Is the soil adapted to the crops you produce? 

CAN YIELDS BE INCEEASED? 

5. Is your farm terraced and contour farmed? 

6. Do you practice strip cropping? 

7. Is your farm diversified so that labor and power cos£ is better dis- 
tributed, insects and weeds controlled, and soils improved with 
organic matter? Pasture improvement results in higher yields per 
acre. Is it receiving your best attention? 

SECUBE OUTSIDE ASSISTAIJCE. 

8. Are you personally acquainted with your County Agent? 

9. Are you making use of the Soil Conservation Service? 

10. Are you getting your share of the AAA payments? 

11. Do you need a new pond or well? Could you get a water facilities loan. 

TAKE CABE OP THE SOIL. AND IT WILL TAKE GABE OF YOU, 



12, Do you plow early in the fall, and deep enough to conserve moisture? 

13, Do you plant winter cover crops of wheat, oats, barley, rye, etc.? 
lU, Do you feed your feed to livestock and return the fertility to the 

soil? The profits are in the manure pile. 



70 



3S. 



39. 



1+1, 



1+2. 

1+3. 

1+1+. 
1+5. 



When you feed milk, do you use utmost care in keeping containers 

clean and free from flies? Do you scald containers onfle a da^<- 

IT WILL PAY YOU WELL. 

Do you keep mash before the layers at all times? 

Do you refer often to your iDulletins on "Feeding Chickens" and your 

circular on "Chick Management"? 

Do you have the breed of poultry you like? Are you proud of your hens? 

Do you do everything possible to see that they are comfortable and 

well cared for? 

Are your hens laying good by the first of October? Eggs are usually 

worth about twice as much a dozen at that time. 

Do you hatch your chicks off at the proper time so that pullets will 

come into full production when eggs are worth the most? 

Do you buy from reliable hatcheries and get good blood-tested chicks? 

Can you keep your hens laying at 50 percent all the time? 



1+6. Do you have a light, well drained soil for your garden? Have you 
tried planting garden rows on contours. If it works for cotton, 
why won't it work in the garden? 

1+7. Is your garden the proper size according to your garden plan? 

1+2. Does your garden get first consideration at cultivating time? 

1+9. Do you manure your garden in the fall, broadcast, then disk and plow? 

50. Do you plow at least eight or ton inches deep and leave the ground 
rough so that cold weather will destroy insects, especially cut worms? 

51. Do you cultivate your garden after each rain, and keep it free of 
weeds at all times? 

52. Do you plow sandy soils in the fall? Many of our &lk say it is poor 
policy, 

53 » Have you tried planting cane around the ends and sides and also across 
the center to break hot winds. Some of our folk say it is almost as 
good as a frame garden, 

5I+. Do you follow your garden plan carefully? 

55. Do you save your own good seed, and when you have to buy do you buy 
high quality seed in bulk? 

56. Is your garden plan arranged according to the table in the bulletin 
"Home Vegetable Garden" or "Grow a Garden"? 

57. Is your frame garden located near water? Of course you DO have a 
frame garden ! 

580 Is there a possibility of a small irrigated garden just below the 

dam on your farm? 
59» Do you use arsenic poisons for biting insects like potato b\igs, 

cabbage and tomato worms, cut worms and grasshoppers? 
60» Do you use Black Leaf 1+0 on the sucking insects? 

61, Do you remember the formula for Bordeairic mixture? 1 lb, bluestone, 
1 IK lime, and 12| gallons of water. It kills a lot of pests. 

62. Do you refer often to your "Vegetable Spray Calendar"? 

HOIffi IMPROVHffiNT 



63. Do you have a cool, dry cellar for food, plenty of closet space for 

clothing and boxes or shelves for bedding! 
61+, Does your cellar have plenty of shelves? And is the bottom shelf 

built so it can be used for storing potatoes? 



FEED GOOD LI7SST0CK. 

15» Do you have high bred, carefully selected livestock? They don't 

have to be purebred, but that helps. Purebred Jerseys and Guernseys 
are popular in this county, 

16. Do you keep plenty of water available at all times? 

17. Are you selling dairy products to meet current expenses, and are 
these sales made at a profit? 

18. Da you market your livestock at the proper tiii.e so as to get the 
highest returns from your feed? 

19. Do you have a bunch of sheep to mow the pasture? And do you know 
how to take care of them? 

20. Do you use Western ewes? Or do you like to raise native stock? 
Can you afford to eat a lamb once in a while? It is considered a 
rare delicacy in the city. 

21. Do you raise year own meat supply? 

22. Are your hogs purebred and well adapted to both home and market 
use? 

I^CHIIIERY AlID II^ROVK LENTS. 

23. Do you keep your machinery in good repair and well oiled? 
2^-. Do you make repairs in the winter when other work is slow? 

25, Do you keep the doors on their hinges and the gates properly hung? 
Landlords notice things like that ! 

26, Are the fences in good repair? Have you tried out one of the new 
electric fences? 

27, And most important of all , DO YOU HAVE A TSETCH SILO? One cow or a 
dozen, you can't afford to be without a silo. 

IN GSUESAL. 

28» Do you attend group meetings for technical assistance in making 

plans and securing other information? 
29. Have you made arrangements with your landlord for a' long term 

lease? He maybe as anxious to have one as you are. 



30. Do you clean your poultry house at least once a week, and the 
brooder house each day? Have you heard about dropping pits? Some 
of the leading poultrymen in Alfalfa County are using them, 

31. Is your poultry free from lice, mites, blue bugs and fleas? (See 
your bulletin on "Diseases and Parasites of Poultry.") 

32. Do you have at least 2^ square feet of space for Legharns or 3 
square feet of space for larger hens in your poultry house? 

33' I^ your poultry house warm in winter and cool in summer? 

3'+. Do you use feeders which save feed and prevent diseases? (See 

demonstrations in FSA office.) 
35* Do you keep plenty of fresh, clean water before your chickens at al 

times? 
36. And do you use split tires for water containers? (We hope not 11 

White crocks are so much better.) 
37» Do you try to keep some green feed and shade plants near the 

poultry house? 



65, 

67. 
68. 



69. 



70. 



Are your sere s in good repair so the flies t y out in the barn? 

Have you painted the floors lately or refinished them with sandpaper 

and a good filler or stain? 

Have you planted any new flowers or shrubs lately! 

Do you have the following items for each bedt 

1, A comfortable mattress V 

2. k sheets for each bed H 
3» ^ pillow slips for each bed Y 
k^ U quilts for each bed N 
5» A spread for each bed 

T ? 7 7 
Do you have some method for keeping food cool? Some of our folks 
have well coolers, window coolers, or shelves in a water pan surround- 
ed by moist cloth. Your Raral Supervisor can tell you how to build 
one of these. 

Have you tried making an inexpensive dressing table with a board and 
a couple of orange boxes and a little bright colored material? 



HOffl SECURITY AND COMMOTITY COOPERATIOH, 

71, Is your record book up to date? 

72. Are all children of school age kept in school? 

73« Do you encourage your children to belong to a Uh or FFA and FHO 

Club? 
7^, Do you subscribe to some good farm and home papers? 
75« Do you hold family councils? 
76> Do you attend all meetings of an educational and inspirational nature, 

whether called by the Farm Security Administration or someone else? 
77* Do you attend Church and Sunday School as much as possible? 
78» Do you protect your health and cooperate with the county health nurse 

and doctor by attending all clinics and folbwing the advise given? 

HOME SANITATION^ 

79» Do you have a lot of fly traps so flies are kept at a minimom? 

80. Do you have a sanitary pit toilet? 

81« Do you keep your cistern or well clean at all times? 

FOOD. 



82« Are you doing your best to provide your family with plenty of good 

healthful well-balanced food? 

83« Do you make your own cereal from home-grown grains? 

8U, Do you have about 15 chickens per person to eat each year? 

85«. Do you have all the eggs you should have? 

86« Will you have plenty of beef, pork and lard? 

87» Are you planning to can at least 100 quarts of food per person? 

88, Do you make your surplus milk into a cream cheese? 

AND HEBE ABE A COUPLE OF QUESTIONS THAT IT WILL PAY YOU TO CONSIDER 
THOUGHTFULLY I 

89, ARE THERE ANY OF THESE QUESTIONS WHICH YOU WISH YOU COULD HAVE 
ANSTOHED DIFFERENTLY??? 

90, DO YOU thine: it WOULD BE PROFITABLE AND WOULD PAY YOU TO DO SOME- 
THING ABOUT IT??? 

_ 0-0- 0-0- 0-0- 



73 



Appendix C: 

Program Dollars Spent in the State 



Total Assistance to Oklahoma from 
FmHA/RECD/Rural Development 



RURAL HOUSING BUSINESS/UTILITIES 




TOTAL 1 WATER/ 


TOTAL 
B&l '" RUS/B&l 


FARMER 
PROGRAMS 


TOTAL 
ASSISTANCE 


MFH SFH 


RH WASTE 




1998 $17,695,159 $55,021,330 


$72,716,489 $28,283,568 $26,226,249 $54,509,817 




5127.226.306 


1997 $14,455,674 $40,441,940 


'' $54,897,614 $28,777,240 $26,909,927 $55,687,167 




5110.584,781 


1996 $15,326,712 $37,885,100 


$53,211,812 $24,718,933 $12,467,300 $37,186,233 




590.398,045 


1995 $10,797,510 $29,763,280 


$40,560,790 $26,296,050 $15,464,442 $41,760,492 


$99,928,720 


5182.250.002 


1994 $12,270,810 $24,461,500 


$36,732,310 $26,647,490 $12,268,269 $38,915,759 


$89,205,170 


5164.853.239 


1993 $9,827,235 $24,204,900 


$34,032,135 $26,582,630 $4,206,200 S30. 788.830 


$93,464,650 


5158,285,615 


1992 $10,474,022 $15,719,170 


$26,193,192 $14,946,700 $266,800 $15,213,500 


579,886,620 


S121.293.312 


1991 $8,484,592 $12,762,330 


$21,246,922 $16,590,920 $3,666,200 $20,257,120 


$62,001,190 


$103,505,232 


1990 $8,244,864 $16,036,270 


$24,281,134 $11,907,800 $2,700,500 $14,608,300 


$97,049,210 


5135,938.644 


1989 $9,314,926 $16,336,280 


$25,651,206 $7,466,500 $1,866,500 $9,333,000 


$92,406,080 


5127,390,286 


1988 $10,206,944 $15,975,810 


$26,182,754 $10,883,970 $5,775,000 $16,658,970 


S106.815.830 


5149.657,554 


1987 $8,545,403 $15,543,960 
1986 $8,821,144 $17,958,510 


$24,089,363 $20,838,800 $5,214,800 $26,053,600 


$151,457,580 


5201,600.543 


$26,779,654 $9,284,800 $1,475,000 $10,759,800 


$147,044,420 


5184.583,874 


1985 : $22,880,818 $26,680,760 


$49,561,578 $8,976,500 $2,246,000 $11,222,500 


$193,897,600 


5254,681,678 


1984 $19,423,358 $38,176,642 


$57,600,000 $8,600,000 $600,000 S9.200.000 


5150.300,000 


5217.100.000 


1983 $19,040,700 $53,059,300 


$72,100,000 $38,000,000 $1,600,000 S39.600.000 


5121,400,000 


5233.100,000 


1982 $24,814,436 $59,563,690 


$84,378,126 $17,449,600 $2,360,000 $19,809,600 


$124,066,470 


5228,254,196 


1981 


$16,882,313 


$16,882,313 1' 1 ; 1 ;: 


1980 


$10,017,270 




$10,017,270 111 1 || 


I-; \ 




1979 


$12,830,090 




$12,830,090; ' 






1978 $9,555,617 


$9,555,617 






1977 $2,530,440 $153,272,360 


$155,802,800 $39,963,500 $9,458,000 ' $49.421 ,500 


$83,441,620 


5288,665,920 


1976 $3,806,170 $137,910,930 


$141,717,100 $19,408,400 $30,144,800 $49,553,200 


SI 39.620.351 


$330,890,651 


1975, $1,552,770 $69,605,370 


$71,158,140 $11,538,400 $10,048,500 $21,586,900 


$107,816,222 


$200,561,262 


1974 $856,500 $52,415,282 


$53,271,782 $13,030,800 $7,741,400 $20,772,200 


$41,258,501 


$115,302,483 


1973 $1,788,080 $48,528,750 


$50,316,830 $11,511,100 $11,511,100 


$77,113,047 


$138,940,977 


1972 $1,427,580 $60,056,442 


$61,484,022 $10,430,800 $10,430,800 


$39,661,935 


$111,576,757 


1971 $457,500 $49,483,113 


$49,940,613 $14,940,200 i $14,940,200 


$32,084,994 


$96,965,807 


1970 $529,350 $25,729,832 


$26,259,182 $11,823,000 $11,823,000 


$20,240,278 


$58,322,460 


1969 $479,400 $12,702,872 


$13,182,272 S12. 110.860 ' $12,110,860 


$17,425,684 


$42,718,816 


1968 $48,340 $10,694,180 


$10,742,520 $13,380,840 ' $13,380,840 


$15,486,458 


$39,609,818 


1967 $36,500 $11,303,301 


$11,339,801 $10,406,965 $10,406,965 


$11,816,918 


533,563,684 


1966 $11,900 ,■ $8,432,995 


$8,444,895 : $6,650,570 ■ $6,650,570 


$15,284,796 


$30,380,261 


1965 1 $4,309,896 


$4,309,896 $4,847,570 i , $4,847,570 


SI 3.923.533 


$23,080,999 

$20,193,681 

$25.038716 

$19,675,432 

$13,354,328 

$10,177,647 

$11,877,717 

S10.825.980 

SI 2.480.060 

$11,388,466 

$11,143,394 

$13,036,766 

$10,178,244 

$9,114,901 

$7,759,267 

$7,520,076 

$4,924,244 

$4,279,491 

$2,550,959 

$66,252 

S53.069 

$41,673 

$34,658 

$47,575 

$55,875 

$42,736 

$3,960 


1964 , $3,842,635 


$3,842,635 $968,560 ' $968,560 


$15,382,486 


1963 ! $5,394,700 


$5,394,700 


' 


$19,644,016 
$16,518,815 


1962 1 $3,156,617 


$3,156,617 \t 






1961 


$2,763,657 


$2,763,657 l|i 






$10,590,671 
' $8.301 .464 " 
' $9,744,244 ' 
$9,895,213 ' 
$11,945,236' 
$11,283,816 h| 
$11,143,394 [ 
$12,464,806 
i $9,400,558 ' 
jl $8,020,777 
J $6,394,887 
\ $6,333,658 ' 
$4,924,244 f' 
1 $4,279,491 IP 
1 $2,550,959 '" 
$66,252 ' 
$53,069 
$41,673' 
$34,658 
$47,575 
$55,875 
$42,736 
$3,960 ■ 


1960 


$1,876,183 


$1,876,183 I; 






1959 


$2,133,473 


$2,133,473 !'i 






1958, 


$930,767 


$930,767 '' 






1957'! 


$534,824 


$534,824 i 






1956 


$104,650 


$104,650 






1955 


$0 


SO 







1954 


$571,960 


$571,960 ,, 




1953 


$777,686 


$777,686 I:' 






1952 


$1,094,124 


SI. 094.124 f. 






1951 




$1,364,380 


$1 .364.380 








1950 




$1,186,418 


$1,186,418 






zz: 7 


1949 












1948 












1947 












1946 












1945 












1944 












1943 












1942' 












1941 












1940 












1939, 













76 



Multi-Family Housing 





MULTI- 


RENTAL 


GUARANTEED 


HOUSING 


LABOR TOTAL 




FAMILY 


ASSISTANCE 


MULTI- 


PRESERVATION 


HOUSING : MULTI- 




HOUSING 




FAMILY 


GRANTS 


FAMILY 


1998 


$3,336,203 


$11,497,476 


$2,630,000 


$231,480 


$0 $17,695,159 


1997 


$5,000,924 


$9,342,640 


$0 


$112,110 


$0 1: $14,455,674 


1996 


$5,485,651 


$9,577,71 1 


$0 


$263,350 


$0 1 $15,326,712 


1995 


$5,086,150 


$5,331,360 


$0 


$380,000 


$0 


1 $10,797,510 


1994 


$6,594,862 


$5,225,948 


$0 


$450,000 


$0 


i $12,270,810 


1993 


$9,437,235 




$0 


$390,000 


$0 ! $9,827,235 | 


1992 


$9,884,022 




$0 


$590,000 


$0 


i $10,474,022 


1991 


$7,894,592 




$0 


$590,000 


$0 


$8,484,592 


1990 


$8,654,864 




$0 


$590,000 


$0 


! $9,244,864 


1989 


$8,807,356 




$0 


$507,570 


$0 


$9,314,926 


1988 


$9,726,944 




$0 


$480,000 


$0 [1 $10,206,944 


1987 


$4,067,013 


$4,078,390 


$0 


$400,000 


$0 '; $8,545,403 


1986 


$6,753,047 


$1,668,097 


$0 


$400,000 


$0 il $8,821,144 


1985 


$22,880,818 




$0 


$0 


$0 ! $22,880,81 8 


1984 


$19,423,358 




$0 


$0 


$0 


$19,423,358 


1983 


$19,040,700 




$0 


$0 


$0 


$19,040,700 


1982 


$24,724,436 




$0 


$0 


$90,000 


$24,814,436 


1981 


$16,882,313 




$0 


$0 


$0 


$16,882,313 


1980 


$10,017,270 




$0 


$0 


$0 [; $10,017,270 


1979 


$12,830,090 




$0 


$0 


$0 [1 $12,830,090 


1978 


$9,555,617 




$0 


$0 


$0 1: $9,555,617 


1977 


$2,530,440 




$0 


$0 


$0 j $2,530,440 


1976 


$3,806,170 




$0 


$0 


$0 ' $3,806,170 


1975 


$1,552,770 




$0 


$0 


$0 : $1,552,770 


1974 


$856,500 




$0 


$0 


$0 t! $856,500 


1973 


$1,788,080 




$0 


$0 


$0 


$1 ,788,080 


1972 


$1,427,580 




$0 


$0 


$0 


$1,427,580 


1971 


$457,500 




$0 


$0 


$0 


$457,500 


1970^ 


$529,350 




$0 


$0 


$0 


$529,350 


1969 


$479,400 




$0 


$0 


$0 


$479,400 
$48,340 
$36,500 


1968 


$48,340 




$0 


$0 


$0 
$2,500 


1967 


$34,000 




$0 


$0 


1966 


$11,900 




$0 


$0 


$0 


$11,900 

















Program Dollars: Single Family Housing 









SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING 






1 


'I 


INSURED 


GUARANTEED 


503 


SELF- SITE REPAIR 


REPAIR *" TOTAL ] 




SINGLE 


SINGLE ^ 




HELP 


DVLMT 


LOANS 


GRANTS 


SINGLE 




FAMILY 


FAMILY 




FAMILY 


1998 


$17,532,930 


$35,663,550 


$0 


$1,061,100 


$0 


$372,850 


$390,900 


$55,021,330 


1997 


$11,271,770 


$27,870,830 


$0 


$785,750 


$0 


$267,640 


$245,950 


$40,441,940 


1996 


$15,204,290 


$21,234,550 


$0 


$450,000 


$0 


$579,510 


$416,750 


$37,885,100 


1995 


$17,203,520 


$10,803,430 


$0 


$716,550 


$0 


$595,920 


$443,860 


$29,763,280 


1994 


$19,092,940 


$3,328,850 


$0 


$798,780 


$0 


$793,030 


$447,900 


$24,461,500 


1993 


$20,999,440 


$2,114,340 


$0 


$811,79CP 


$0 


$71,010 


$208,320 


$24,204,900 


1992 


$14,448,520 


$776,300 


$0 


$175,750 1 


$0 


$99,570 


$219,030 


$15,719,170 


1991 


$11,518,870 


$0 


$0 


$952,680 


$0 


$62,800 


$227,980 


$12,762,330 


1990 


$15,541,410 


$0 


$0 


$164,000 


$0 


$83,660 


$247,200 


$16,036,270 


1989 


$15,165,610 


$0 


$0 


$832,940 


$0 


$80,300 


$257,430 


$16,336,280 


1988 


$15,491,610 


$0 


$0 


$158,000 


$0 


$54,620 


$271,580 


$15,975,810 


1987 


$14,903,150 


$0 


$0 


$305,870 


$0 


$42,540 


$292,400 


$15,543,960 


1986 


$17,290,920 


$0 


$0 


$339,500 


$0 


$43,340 


$284,750 


$17,958,510 


1985 


$26,047,420 


$0 


$0 


$317,720 


$0 


$64,600 


$201,020 


$26,630,760 


1984 
















$38,176,642 
^ $53,059,300 


1983^ 
1982^ 
















$58,754,600 


$0 


$0 


$260,660 


$0 


$171,810 


$376,620 


$59,563,690 


1981 
















1980 
















1979 
















1978 
















1977 


$151,644,630 


$0 


$0 


$1,340,740 


$0 


$118,150 


$168,840 


$153,272,360 


1976 


$136,824,270 


$0 


$0 


$977,180 


$0 


$109,480 


$0 


$137,910,930 


1975 


$68,596,430 


$0 


$0 


$930,180 


$13,000 


$65,760 


$0 


$69,605,370 


1974 


$51,649,990 


$0 


$0 


$693,590 


$0 


$71,702 


$0 


$52,415,282 


1973 


$48,084,330 


$0 


$0 


$253,780 


$136,840 


$53,800 


$0 


$48,528,750 


1972 


$59,691,470 


$0 


$0 


$302,910 


SO 


$62,062 


$0 


$60,056,442 


1971 


$49,153,793 


$0 


$0 


$168,960 


$90,000 


$70,360 


$0 


$49,483,113 


1970 


$25,497,472 


$0 


$0 


$129,770 


$0 


$102,590 


$0 


$25,729,832 


1969 


$12,584,272 


$0 


$0 


$24,740 


$0 


$93,860 


$0 


$12,702,872 


1968 


$10,462,920 


$0 


$0 


$62,890 


$0 


$168,370 


$0 


$10,694,180 


1967 


$11,123,821 


$0 


$0 


$73,230 


$0 


$106,250 


$0 


$11,303,301 


1966 


$8,375,355 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$57,640 


$0 


$8,432,995 


1965 


$4,254,996 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$12,610 


$42,290 


$4,309,896 


1964 


$3,745,235 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$2,300 


$95,100 


$3,842,635 


1963 


$5,380,185 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$800 


$13,715 


$5,394,700 


1962 
196r 


$3,154,627 
$2,763,657 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$1,990 


$3,156,617 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$2,763,657 


1960 


$1,876,183 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$1,876,183 


1959 


$2,133,473 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$2,133,473 


1^58 


$930,767 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$930,767 


1957 


$534,824 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$534,824 


1956 
1955 
1954^ 
1953 


$104,650 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$104,650 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$571,960 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$571,960 


$777,686 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$777,686 


1952 


$1,077,479 


$0 


$14,865 


$0 


$0 


$1,780 


$0 


$1,094,124 


1951 


$1,348,946 


$0 


$15,434 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$1,364,380 


1950 


$1,171,228 


$0 


' $11,255 


$0 


$0 


$1,675 


$2,260 


$1,186,418 



78 



\i 


DC 
5 


s 


< 


ID CM C35 

2 t" ^' 

iS'i 

i 1 


p.i 


III 

1 


8 

i 


o 


i 
1 

o 


8 

00 

s 
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8 

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ii 

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$11,538,400 

$13,030,800 

""$11,511,100 

$10,430,800 

$14,940,200 

" $11,823,000 

$12,110,860 

$13,380,840 

$10,406,965 

$6,650,570 

$4,847,570 

$968,560 


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79 



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TOTA 
USINE 
AND 
DUSl 

26,226 
26,909 
12,467 
15,464 
12,268 
$4,206 

$266 
$3,666 
$2,700 
$1,866 
$5,775 
$5,214 
$1,475 
$2,246 

$600 
$1,600 
$2,360 

$9,458 
30.144 
10.048 
$7,741 




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80 



Farmer Programs 



FARMER PROGRAMS | 




OPERATING 


FARM OWNERSHIP 


EMERGENCY 


Grazing 




Guaranteed 


Insured 


Guaranteed 




Emergency 


Livestock 


Drought 




1998 


















1997 


















1996 


















1995 


















1994 $33,437,730 


$22,622,620 


$24,707,730 


$7,778,980 


$466,450 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1993 


$42,517,930 


$18,995,040 


$26,345,780 


$3,642,270 


$1,708,070 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1992 


$36,175,720 


$20,427,590 


$18,243,590 


$3,505,890 


$1,248,710 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1991 


$27,909,500 


$18,454,550 


$11,146,150 


$2,110,320 


$2,116,800 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1990 


$42,788,860 


$36,577,670 


$12,096,790 


$2,597,500 


$2,668,950 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1989 


$30,268,910 


$42,988,010 


$11,598,850 


$2,957,970 


$4,370,690 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1988 


$43,044,430 


$37,921,460 


$19,934,130 


$4,953,440 


$681,530 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1987 


$73,405,140 


$59,227,740 


$13,482,620 


$2,274,580 


$2,992,400 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1986 


$67,077,810 


$58,908,940 


$8,767,600 


$10,769,580 


$1,372,750 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1985 


$41,059,570 


$118,150,310 


$3,673,650 


$20,529,390 


$10,116,830 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1984 


















1983 


















1982 


$297,000 


$37,222,380 


$0 


$24,717,010 


$60,905,510 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1981 


















1980 


















1979 


















1978 


















1977 


$0 


$17,759,300 


$0 


$19,444,210 


$9,059,400 


$32,040,080 


$3,496,790 


$0 


1976 


$0 


$32,918,010 


$0 


$23,619,790 


$713,990 


$79,222,201 


$0 


$1,012,000 


1975 


$0 


$22,501,151 


$0 


$15,371,721 


$1,961,550 


$67,659,030 


$0 


$0 


1974 


$0 


$23,327,993 


$0 


$16,055,690 


$1,425,958 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1973 


$0 


$16,517,170 


$0 


$22,937,840 


$36,954,527 


$0 


$0 


$364,000 


1972 


$0 


$14,085,592 


$0 


$15,438,873 


$9,225,840 


$0 


$0 


$318,000 


1971 


$0 


$7,677,235 


$0 


$19,280,696 


$4,287,810 


$0 


$0 


$200,000 


1970 


$0 


$8,072,878 


$0 


$10,670,320 


$1,142,450 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1969 


$0 


$7,423,225 


$0 


$7,470,334 


$2,157,140 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1968 


$0 


$7,127,780 


$0 


$5,340,518 


$2,404,010 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1967 


$0 


$2,912,410 


$0 


$6,722,355 


$1,500,520 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1966 


$0 


$7,406,141 


$0 


$6,125,615 


$1,075,490 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1965 


$0 


$7,756,567 


$0 


$4,377,991 


$1,487,611 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1964 


$0 


$8,107,721 


$0 


$5,749,855 


$1,277,000 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1963 


$0 


$11,075,437 


$0 


$7,421,309 


$941,980 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1962 


$0 


$10,421,695 


$0 


$5,480,740 


$424,140 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1961 


$0 


$8,318,257 


$0 


$1,830,729 


$404,355 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1960 


$0 


$6,497,471 


$0 


$1,267,724 


$499,861 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1959 


$0 


$6,968,488 


$0 


$1,604,456 


$1,131,138 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1958 


$0 


$6,674,644 


$0 


$1,352,366 


$1,774,996 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1957 


$0 


$6,644,791 


$0 


$2,674,287 


$2,377,061 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1956 


$0 


$5,451,828 


$0 


$1,664,586 


$3,863,117 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1955 


$0 


$5,291,873 


$0 


$1,116,859 


$3,232,067 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1954 


$0 


$6,875,832 


$0 


$696,358 


$4,234,746 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1953 


$0 


$5,452,186 


$0 


$758,146 


$2,630,312 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1952 


$0 


$5,350,062 


$0 


$921,182 


$838,820 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1951 


$0 


$3,949,912 


$0 


$1,870,491 


$375,770 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1950 


$0 


$4,399,055 


$0 


$1,403,015 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1949 


$0 


$3,956,611 


$0 


$865,452 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1948 


$0 


$3,360,253 


$0 


$861,349 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1947 


$0 


$2,483,991 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1946 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1945 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1944 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1943 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1942 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1941 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1940 


so 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1939 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 



Farmer Programs 













FARMER PROGRAMS 


Soils 


Mediation 


Water 


Economic 


Recreation 


stale Corp 


Indian Tribe 




TOTAL 


Water 


Grants 


Facilities 


Opportunity 




Operating^ 


Acquisition 




FP 
















1998 


















1997 


















1996 


















1995 


$99,928,720 


$10,000 


$181,660 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1994 


$89,205,170 


$9,750 


$153,810 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$92,000 


1993 


$93,464,650 


$115,120 


$170,000 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1992 


$79,886,620 


$48,000 


$215,870 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1991 


$62,001,190 


$56,680 


$262,760 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1990 


$97,049,210 


$221,650 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1989 


$92,406,080 


$280,840 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1988 


$106,815,830 


$75,100 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1987 


$151,457,580 


$147,740 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1986 


$147,044,420 


$367,850 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1985 


$193,897,600 
















1984 


$150,300,000 
















1983 


$121,400,000 


$924,570 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1982 


$124,066,470 
















1981 


















1980 


















1979 


















1978 




$1,506,840 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$80,000 


$0 


$55,000 


1977 


$83,441,620 


$1,947,610 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$101,750 


$0 


$85,000 


1976 


$139,620,351 


$322,770 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1975 


$107,816,222 


$412,860 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$36,000 


$0 


$0 


1974 


$41,258,501 


$334,1 1'fl 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$5,400 


$0 


$0 


1973 


$77,113,047 


$593,630 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1972 


$39,661,935 


$612,550 


$0 


$0 


$26,703 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1971 


$32,084,994 


$264,500 


$0 


$0 


$90,130 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1970 


$20,240,278 


$153,870 


$0 


$0 


$221,115 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1969 


$17,425,684 


$300,160 


$0 


$0 


$313,990 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1968 


$15,486,458 


$236,270 


$0 


$0 


$445,363 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1967 


$11,816,918 


$193,370 


$0 


$0 


$484,180 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1966 


$15,284,796 


$143,364 


$0 


$0 


$158,000 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1965 


$13,923,533 


$247,910 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1964 


$15,382,486 


$205,290 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1963 


$19,644,016 


$192,240 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1962 


$16,518,815 


$37,330 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1961 


$10,590,671 


$36,408 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1960 


$8,301,464 


$40,162 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1959 


$9,744,244 


$93,207 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1958 


$9,895,213 


$197,907 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$51,190 


$0 


1957 


$11,945,236 


$234,788 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$69,497 


$0 


1956 


$11,283,816 


$1,431,010 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$71,585 


$0 


1955 


$11,143,394 


$0 


$0 


$608,100 


$0 


$0 


$49,770 


$0 


1954 


$12,464,806 


$0 


$0 


$504,894 


$0 


$0 


$55,020 


$0 


1953 


$9,400,558 


$0 


$0 


$306,803 


$0 


$0 


$603,910 


$0 


1952 


$8,020,777 


$0 


$0 


$198,714 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1951 


$6,394,887 


$0 


$0 


$151,978 


$0 


$0 


$379,610 


$0 


1950 


$6,333,658 


$0 


$0 


$102,181 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1949 


$4,924,244 


$0 


$0 


$57,889 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1948 


$4,279,491 


$0 


$0 


$66,968 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1947 


$2,550,959 


$0 


$0 


$66,252 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1946 


$66,252 


$0 


$0 


$53,069 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1945 


$53,069 


$0 


$0 


$41,673 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1944 


$41,673 


$0 


$0 


$34,658 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1943 


$34,658 


$0 


$0 


$47,575 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1942 


$47,575 


$0 


$0 


$55,875 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1941 


S55.875 


$0 


$0 


$42,736 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1940 


$42,736 


$0 


$0 


$3,960 


$0 


$0 


$0 


$0 


1939 


S3.960 



-U.S. GOVERNMEMT PRimTNG OFFICE: