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ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY
U.S. GOVERNMENT DOCUIVENTS
APR 14 2000
FORT WAYME, INDIANA
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ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY
U.S. GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS
APR 14 2000
FORT WAYWE, INDIANA
^Defining the Legacy^
Farmers Home Administration
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/tor: Frank Evans, Dale L
Phil Brown, Charles P. Rainbolt,
Cecil Wildman, and Leonard Down
^Defining the Legacy^
Farmers Home Administration
Charles P. Rainbolt, Frank Evans,
Dale L, Folger, Leonard Downing,
Cecil Wildman, and Phil Brown
Government Printing Office
Oklahoma City, OK
Introduction: Defining the Legacy 1
Clmrlcs P. Rninholt
Chapter 1 : Farmers Home Administration: National Perspective 4
Chapter 2: Farmer Programs in Oklahoma 14
Chapter 3: Community and Business Programs in Oklahoma 23
Leonard Downing. Cecil Wildman. and Phil Brow n
Chapter 4: Rural Housing Programs in Oklahoma 29
Dale L. Folger
Charles P. Rainbolt
Appendix A 42
Oklahoma FmHA Personnel
Appendix B 62
Exceipt: USDA Fami and Home Management Report. 1941
Appendix C 73
Program Dollars Spent in Oklahoma
Defining the Legacy
Charles P. Rainbolt
Oklahoma State Director,
Farmers Home Administration
r\s the last Oklahoma State Director of Farmers Home Administration, it has
become my lot to attempt to define the legacy of a titan — the Oklahoma Farmers
Home Administration. I asked some Program Chiefs of long ago to co-author this
definition and they have responded admirably.
The Farmers Home Administration began in August. 1946 with the passage of
the Farmers Home Administrative Act. But this entity's roots reached back much
earlier — to April of 1935. with the creation of the Resettlement Administration, later
called the Farm Security Administration.
In its day. Farmers Home Administration was the largest lender in Oklahoma,
having a loan portfolio of over $1,200,000,000 consisting of 25,000 loans. Any
operation this huge was bound to have critics, and there were a few. A friend of
mine once called the Farmers Home Administration an "8-foot tall gorilla." Make no
mistake, however. Oklahoma Farmers Home Administration was a tremendous force
for good in rural Oklahoma.
Many Oklahoma farmers and ranchers started their operations with Farmer
Program assistance. Countless rural Oklahomans were able to enjoy the American
dream of home ownership due to Farmers Home Administration rural housing pro-
grams. The community and business programs truly made rural Oklahoma a better
place in which to live. The water and waste disposal program alone has served %
million rural Oklahoma families since the program's inception in the early 1960's.
The Oklahoma Farmers Home Administration was divided into 3 different pro-
gram areas: Community and Business Programs. Farmer Programs, and Rural Hous-
ing. I asked the former Program Chiefs to give highly personalized accounts of their
program areas and recognize those people whom they deemed worthy of recognition.
This they have done, sometimes humorously. I have edited very little of their work.
By the nature of this very human effort, countless deserving men and women
who spent their adult lives toiling for the Oklahoma Farmers Home Administration
will go unrecognized. Personnel records dating back to the early days of the Okla-
homa Farmers Home Administration are sketchy, at best. And, with the passage of
time, the opportunity to accurately define the legacy gradually decreases.
This effort is not an exhaustive historical review, nor does it profess to be. The
co-authors' recollections are limited to the years during which they served. Some of
the biggest contributors to the success of the Oklahoma Farmers Home Administra-
tion were members of the \arious county committees throughout the state. Unfortu-
nately, only records of ser\ ice from 1990-1995 exist for these hard-working men and
For those interested in learning the names of Oklahoma Farmers Home Adminis-
tration employees, we have done the best we could, given the poor records kept in
the early days. Perhaps the publication of this book will inspire the creation of a
more comprehensive list. We have reviewed documents dating back to the early
1940s, which reflect the names of most, but not all, of the employees. We believe we
have a complete list of employees from 1990-1995, including the county committee
members. This list can be found in Appendix A: Personnel.
For the serious student of Oklahoma Farmers Home Administration assistance
dating back to the New Deal, we have assembled a record of program dollars spent
in the state. This record can be found in Appendix C, as such a compilation does not
lend itself to easy reading.
The sun set on the Oklahoma Farmers Home Administration on October 1. 1995.
While the USDA mission areas of Rural Development and Farm Service Agency
offer essentially the same programs, the dynamics will never be the same.
The legacy of the Farmers Home Administration is that of a difference-maker in
Charles P Rainbolt
Oklahoma State Director,
Farmers Home Administration
Chapter 1 :
Farmers Home Administration:
Chief of Farmer Programs, 1 970- 1985
As the United States rapidly expanded, so did the importance of agricuUure.
However, the vital element of home ownership was often passed over or neglected,
and fann tenancy began to increase. It gradually increased until a majority of the
farms in the United States were operated by tenants.
From the middle 1930's and up through the 1990's, the Farmers Home Adminis-
tration addressed this problem in one of the most effective government programs run
during this period. Over time, this agency came up with many effective solutions to
solve the problems of rural America, and programs developed through FmHA con-
tinue to operate as supplements to credit made available by private lenders. Not in
competition with them, but as another helping hand for the capable and industrious
family or community whose progress is roadblocked by lack of credit resources.
Resources brought within reach through FmHA helped to make up for shortfalls
in local and private resources. As it loaned money raised throughout the nation from
investors in government securities, or guaranteed loans made by city banks and other
commercial lenders, FmHA helped channel a flow of outside capital into the rural
United States for farm, home, community, and rural economic development.
FmHA loans classified as 'insured" were made from three loan revolving funds.
Oldest is the Agricultural Credit Insurance Fund (ACIF), established when FmHA
began to make insured loans in the 1940's, and now the fijnd from which all farmer-
program loans are made. The Rural Housing Insurance Fund (RHIF) was established
with the inauguration of insured rural housing loans in 1965. The Rural Development
Insurance Fund (RDIF), established under the Rural Development Act of 1972. took
over water, sewer and other community facilities, business and industrial develop-
ment lending from ACIF.
The revolving funds were nourished by the incoming flow of loan repayments,
plus the sale of FmHA investment securities.
Prior to 1974, investors received actual notes or other security instruments
FmHA had taken from borrowers. The investor supplied to FmHA an amount equal
to the principal owed on the note, and the agency guaranteed repayment of the invest-
ments with interest. As borrowers repaid loans, payments were made to investors
and the value of the investment was reduced. Until 1970, with FmHA program levels
requiring less than $1 billion a year of note marketing, the agency increased sales by
marketing large blocks of notes to security dealers who in turn sold them to trust
funds and other large investors.
In 1 974, FmHA discontinued marketing actual notes and introduced a new in-
vestment security instrument, the Certificate of Beneficial Ownership (CBO). CBOs
were issued against pools of loan notes and signified that investors would share in
interest earnings. In 1975, FmHA was placing CBOs with the Federal Financing
Bank, an institution closely related to the Department of the Treasury. No CBOs
were sold directly to the public.
Services inherent in the "supervised loan" principle adopted by the agency in its
earliest years were still maintained as necessary to help borrowers achieve the pur-
poses of their loans and to pay back what they had borrowed. Loan losses written
off during the first 40 years of the agency amount to less than 2 percent of principal
Historically, the availability of credit through FmHA when none other was to be
found enabled hundreds of thousands of farm families to win their foothold on the
land, rather than abandon farming and fall in with the huge farm-to-city migration of
distressed people that aggravated decline in the countryside and turmoil in the cities.
Over a million ill-housed rural families moved into adequate homes. Thousands
of rural localities and farmland sections solved their water and sanitation problems
through modernized central water and sewer systems. These are benchmarks of rural
progress toward which FmHA programs made significant contributions.
Historical Overview of Direct Government Lending to Farmers
To remain a strong and self-sufficient nation, the United States has always had to
rely upon the productivity and stability of its agricultural producers. And to ensure
that productivity and stability, the government has developed and maintained a strong
economic support system for the farmers and producers.
As far back as 1918, Congress earmarked funds for short-term seed, feed, and
fertilizer loans to farmers in designated areas. Except for four years, these short-term
loans were repeated annually until 1933 under the U.S. Department of Agriculture,
and, in 1932, the program was extended to the entire country. Called Emergency
Crop and Feed Loan, the funding continued from 1937 to October 31, 1946 under the
Farm Credit Administration and then finally became part of the Farmers Home Ad-
ministration direct lending to farmers.
In 1932, the Regional Agricultural Credit Corporation was organized with funds
provided by the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, and it made loans until 1934.
When the Production Credit Associations were organized in 1933. they tooi< oxer the
supervision of the RACC. The RACC continued mailing some special loans the
PCA's could not handle, and was reactivated as a war measure in 1943 until it was
abolished in 1946.
hi 1933. the Rural Rehabilitation Corporations were established under the Emer-
gency Relief Act in about 40 states to make loans enabling farm families in distress
to continue operating and to reduce the number on relief rolls.
Two years later, in 1935. the Resettlement Administration, established by execu-
tive order, took over the lending previously done by Rural Rehabilitation Corpora-
tions. The "supervised credit" idea was expanded to include a more systematic
program and the supervision of both farm and home operations.
Congress passed the
Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act
in 1937. and placed the adminis-
trative responsibility with the
Under this act. county committees
were set up to select borrowers
and approve loans for farm tenants
to purchase farms, helping them
leave tenancy and become farm
and home owners.
Also providing individual and
association loans in 17 western
states, the Water Facilities Act of
1937 was administered jointly by
the Resettlement Administration,
the Soil Conservation Service, and
the Bureau of Agricultural Eco-
Tenant Purchase Farms
in Alfalfa County, 1939.
Map from FSA Report,
Tenant Purchase Division,
Alfalfa County OK.
USDA Oklahoma office
8/39 ^ Kighv.'Hys p
In 1942. the full administration of the program was assigned to the Farm Secu-
rity Administration, and in 1954 the program known as Soil and Water Loans was
extended to the entire United States.
Farm house before receiving an FSA loan
Photograph USDA Oklahoma office
On September 1. 1937.
the Farm Security Administra-
tion was established, succeed-
ing the Resettlement Adminis-
tration in 1938. The Farm
under the U.S. Department of
Agriculture, continued provid-
ing loans for farmers unable to
borrow from usual credit
The service was badly
needed and greatly
welcomed. The two
here, of the same
family's home, clearly
show just what such a
loan could mean to a
farm family. One
report, from an FSA
supervisor in Okla-
homa to the national
office, concluded that
"Farm Security can do
no greater service to the farmers... than to provide them with adequate credit com-
bined with a general program of education"' (FSA Report. Tenant Purchase Division,
Alfalfa County OK, pi 2). The difference such help made was very important to
Farm house after receiving an FSA loan
Photograph USDA Oklahoma office
From 1935. when the Resettlement Administration was first established, to 1947,
when the FSA was reconfigured, the two administrative bodies made over 3 million
loans, for a total exceedinc 1 billion dollars.
In the postwar period, it became clear that FSA needed to be restriictLired. Some
older programs were no longer justified, current programs could be improved, and
new programs were needed. Accordingly, in August 1946, Congress passed the
Farmers Home Administration Act. This act, which took effect in 1947, consolidated
the Farm Security Administration and the Emergency Crop and Feed Loan Division
of the Farm Credit Administration under the new name of Farmers Home Administra-
tion, or, as it is finally known today, FmHA. The act gave FmHA the authority to
insure loans made by banks, other agencies, and private indiv iduals. as well as to
make direct Government loans.
In its first 3 years, FmHA focused its operations on developing the county of-
fices and their supervised farm ownership and farm operating loan programs, and to
water facilities projects in the 17 western States.
In 1949. the Federal Housing Act passed, providing means for better housing
conditions, and the Farmers Home Administration was given authority to administer
its rural housing phase. Also that year, the Disaster Loan Act was passed. This act
made loans available to farmers suffering serious losses through disasters.
By 1954. the Water Facilities Act was amended to extend loan provisions to the
entire country and also to authorize increased loans of up to $250,000 to incorpo-
rated community groups and small municipalities for water supply and flood protec-
FmHA operations grew in 1955 to include participation in and coordination with
other Federal Departments and Agencies in a Rural Development Program. Regula-
tions were broadened to provide supervised credit to small, under-developed, and
otherwise ineligible low-income farms in selected pilot counties such as those in
In 1959, President Eisenhower's Executive Order established a committee of
Government Department under-Secretaries to implement the Rural Development
program on a larger basis.
The Agricultural Act of 1961 expanded and improved the supervised credit
services of FmHA. It raised the limit on operating loans from $20,000 to $35,000.
the total real estate indebtedness limit on family farms to $60,000, and the limits on
Soil and Water Association Loans to $500,000 when made from appropriated funds,
and to $1,000,000 when made from insured funds. It allowed loans to farmers with
off-farm income to buy and enlarge farms.
The Act also gave the Farmers Home Administration permanent authority to
make real estate loans solely for refinancing and to provide small loans for real
estate improvements without taking a mortgage on the farms. In addition, farmers no
longer needed to be the main users of water supply systems in their rural communi-
ties to be eligible for emergency loans, so. as rural areas became more developed,
farmers could still receive emergency loans when necessary.
That same year, 1961, the Federal Housing Act was amended to provide housing
loans to all eligible real estate owners in towns of up to 2.500. and the program name
was changed administratively from Farm Housing to Rural Housing.
At that time. FmHA was still concerned almost entirely with its original mission
as a supervised credit agency for low-income farmers. Expanding old programs and
implementing new ones during the early 1960"s raised FmHA's total loan and grant
volume from the $300 million level of fiscal year 1960 to $750 million in fiscal year
1965. But the large-scale rural housing and rural development programs of the
upcoming years changed the FmHA into a multi-billion dollar agency.
Richard Maxey, left, USDA Director in Oklahoma and Floyd
Higbee, acting national administrator, agree that so long as
funds hold out, no eligible Oklahoma family farmer will be forced
out of business because of lack of operating credit.
Rather than set
up new agencies to
and the Administra-
tion continued to
system of county
offices, long experi-
enced in serving
would be used as
the delivery vehicle
for the new and
larger rural pro-
Rural housing changed from a program of direct loans to one primarily of in-
sured loans, and the population limit on towns served through FmHA was raised from
2,500 to 5,500 in the 1960s, to 10,000 in the 70s and continued to rise throughout the
1990s. The water facilities loan program expanded also, being transformed into a
loan-and-grant program for both water and waste disposal systems.
Accelerating these changes, an important expansion of FmHA services came
about under the Rural Development Act of 1972 (PL 92-419). This act gave the
USDA primary responsibility for Federal activities in support of rural development.
It also established an Assistant Secretary for Rural Development to oversee the work
of three USDA agencies: the Farmers Home Administration, the Rural Electrification
Administration, and the Rural Development Services.
Principal provisions of the act affecting the FmHA included authorizing the
FmHA to guarantee loans made by commercial lenders for farming, housing, rural
business, and industry in cities of up to 50,000 population, as well as authorizing
FmHA loans for community facilities such as fire departments, community halls,
hospitals, nursing homes, public recreation facilities, and FmHA grants to improve
rural industrial sites.
The FmHA became further involved in community development by authorizing
youth loans to rural young people under age 21 for farm and nonfarm income-produc-
ing enterprises carried out under programs organized and supervised through schools
or organizations, such as the 4-H Club and
Future Farmers of America programs.
From the earliest days of the USDA, the
most important Farm Programs sponsored by the
FmHA were the lending programs. Many types
of loans were covered through FmHA, such as
loans for purchasing farms, loans for improving
the land, homes, or other buildings on the prop-
erty, and loans for purchasing or improving
machinery and livestock. These diverse loan
and credit programs have made farming a viable
way of life for many rural Americans, and much
of the programs" success is credited to the hard
work and careful attention each
loan merited from the FmHA
Illustration from a
Farm and Home Plan Book, 1941
USDA, Oklahoma office
This careful attention began with credit counseling. When an applicant first
came to FmHA to ask for a loan, credit counseling started. The county supervisor,
head of the county operations, would counsel the applicant or boirower on several
issues, including when to apply for credit, what credit resources are available in the
area, and how to best present a request to a lender.
Applicants were encouraged to get all of the credit available from other sources
when the cost was not excessive and the borrower could reasonably repay the credit
when it fell due. FmHA policy was to encourage boiTowers to graduate to other
sources of credit when they were able to do so.
For real estate loans, it was necessary to determine if other lenders would assist
the applicants with their needs. If an applicant's request appeared to be sound and
essential for success, and other creditors were able to assist the applicant, then an
individual real estate loan would be processed.
For operation loans, also known as production and subsistence loans, a credit
analysis was run to see if the applicant could obtain all or partial credit from sources
outside the FmHA. If credit could not be received from other sources, FmHA would
provide all of the credit needed.
The county supervisor also assisted eligible applicants and borrowers in plan-
ning the most profitable use of the credit. Counseling and planning with individual
families gave the county supervisor a solid opportunity to analyze a family's re-
sources and extend effective supervision. And it helped the individual families
determine how to best use available resources like land, buildings, equipment, and
Each county developed a planning guide of key practices that successful farmers
used. The annual plan was called the Farm and Home Plan, and the plan that cov-
ered several years was called the Long-Term Fami and Home Plan. The goals of
both the FmHA Farm and Home plan and the Long Term Farm and Home plan were
to pay essential family living and farm operating expenses, to schedule payments on
both existing and planned chattel and real estate debts, to pay any delinquent, se-
cured, or unsecured debts, and then plan how to use any remaining income. Appen-
dix B. "Exceipts from A Farm and Home Management Report, 1941," shows the
kinds of suggestions and analyses that made up the USDAs painstaking efforts to
teach farmers the sound management skills to help them succeed.
A complete analysis of the family's land resources, buildings, fences, and live-
stock was made at the farm. It was also necessary to analyze the family's capabili-
ties such as their farm background, training, experience, and management ability.
This analysis provided a basis for determining probable income, expenses and net
return from the operation, enabling a family to develop long-term goals. Ihe family's
immediate needs were considered in the annual farm and home plan, and their later
needs and goals were laid out in the long term farm and home plan.
The FmHA also recognized that farmers and ranchers might have a source of
income from nonagricultural enterprises. For example, if a borrower had skills such
as welding, horse-shoeing, or others, the FmHA could help him with financing for
buildings and materials to get such an enterprise started. This was a very helpful
service that saved many families during the hard times.
The County Committee
An important part of the FmHA program was the County Committee, which was
established when Farm Security Administration was established. Neither the FSA
program or the FmHA program would have been successful without the County
Committee. Made up of three members, two of whom had to be farmers, the County
Committee was required to certify each loan applicant as eligible before a loan could
be made. Since the County Supervisor was a college graduate, usually in farm
management, and the Committee had local experience in farming, they were a great
Potential committee members were recommended by the Supervisor and others
at a local level, and were appointed by the State Director. Committee members were
people committed to their community, since the work was voluntary. They some-
times served in other ways as well, such as helping to collect delinquent loans, usu-
ally by going to the borrowers' farms and discussing the situation. They received no
compensation except mileage and a per diem.
Once a loan was made, a schedule of visits to the farm was set up with the
purpose and dates recorded. These visits were quite important because they showed
a lot about the operation and gave FmHA an opportunity to observe the livestock and
machinery and see that they conformed with what FmHA showed on their records.
They also gave FmHA an opportunity to show the family how interested FmHA was
in their welfare and their success. A close relationship usually developed between
the supervisor and the family, which was helpful to FmHA.
A family new to the program might receive two or three visits a year the first
few years, and then only one per year thereafter. The visits did not neglect the wife
and home, either. At one time, the FmHA had home management speciahsts to work
with the wife. Occasionally, after a family had been on the plan for several years, a
scheduling conflict might arise when the family could not be at the farm, home, or
ranch when the supervisor was scheduled to be there. The supervisor would receive
a notice that they could not be there on the date scheduled, but that he should still
come to look the farm and livestock over and they would leave a horse saddled up
for him. A smart supervisor always wondered if the horse might be one with a repu-
tation for tossing; riders.
The analysis was an
important tool was used in
farm planning. It provided
a follow-up to the work of
making and supervising the
loan. It showed whether the
loan had been properly
planned and granted, and it
also helped determine what,
if any. problems had devel-
oped and what should be
done about them. The
family was asked to keep a
record book and, after
completing one full year on
the program, they were asked to bring the records in and do an analysis.
Illustration from Farm and Home Plan Book, 1941
USDA, Oklahoma office
During the analysis, the actual production from crops and livestock was deter-
mined and compared to what had been projected. The family's actual living and
operating expenses were compared to the budget that had been planned. The expen-
ditures for capital goods were looked at and then the most important step was
taken — the family made all payments that were due.
If production had been at its planned level and expenditures kept to their ex-
pected levels, the FmHA could see that the family had made their payments and had
done a good job. And if any problems showed up during the analysis, proper steps
would be taken to coiTect them. The plan for the next year would be developed to
compensate for any problems there may have been, and to add any items set up on
the long-term plan, such as adding cattle as pasture acreage grew.
Farmers and ranchers took the planning and the analysis seriously. It was com-
mon for farmers and ranchers to bring their plans to the office and show that they and
FmHA had 25 or 50 head of cattle planned and that pasture had been developed for
that number of cattle to be added to the herd.
The analysis has been given a lot of credit for the great success FmHA has had
over the years. And there is no doubt that the success of Fanners Home Administra-
tion was due to the careful attention and supervision paid to each client and each
1995 marked the 60th year of service for the Farmers Home Administration. The
agency wore the third name it had been given in its history, and served an enormously
broader purpose than when it was formed to make loans to depression-stricken farm
families. Its programs were conducted through the nationwide system of about 1,750
county offices, where services were easily accessible to people living on farms and
in rural communities.
FmHA grew as a source of credit for building stronger family farms, yet farm
credit accounted for only about one-fourth of all resources administered through
FmHA. Acts of Congress added large-scale programs that benefitted families and
communities throughout the rural population, helping to provide more up-to-date
housing, water and sewer systems, and other essential community facilities, and the
buildup of business and industry in rural areas.
Loans and grants made through FmHA supplemented the amount of credit and
capital directly available from commercial lenders in rural areas. In most programs,
the agency made loans to qualified applicants who found no other sources of financ-
ing available on terms or conditions they could meet.
More than 90 percent of the money loaned through FmHA was raised from
private investors through sales of Government securities, or supplied to borrowers
directly by commercial lenders under FmHA guarantees that minimized their risk.
Grant programs administered through FmHA — for rural water and waste disposal
systems, industrial site development, farm labor housing, and "self-help" home-
building by low-income families — supplemented the agency's rural development
Billions of dollars a year continue to flow through channels which FmHA created
into rural America, serving a wide variety of needs fundamental to a better life in the
Farmer Programs in Oklahoma
Chief of Farmer Programs, 1 970- 1 985
Oklahoma's Farm Family of 1 978. the Gene Allen family of Jay, Oklahoma, accepts a certificate from the
Distnct Director of the area, Ralph Childers (far left). Van Owens (far right) prepared the application.
Field offices of the Farmer Program Section recommended qualified borrowers from their areas, a
committee met and selected the family for the year from the nominations. At a banquet held in the family's
county awards and certificates would be presented to them.
Photo USDA. Oklahoma State office collection
e Ten State Directors
E. Lee O/birn
James G. Powers
Richard P. Maxey
Ludwig (Bud) Johnson
Larry E. Stephenson
Charles P Rainbolt
The first State Director was E. Lee Ozbim. Homer Bums directed the Real
Estate program, Everett Veech directed the Production and Subsistence program, and
Vernon Burnett was the General Program Director. Later, when James Powers be-
came State Director. Homer Burns retired, and Vernon Burnett moved across to head
up the Real Estate program. James Powers was followed by Richard Maxey, who
was State Director for a short time, and was replaced by Clark McWhorter. E\erett
Veech retired and Allen Williams stepped in to head the Production and Subsistence
program, which later became the Operating Loan Program.
Allen Williams was an actixe chief and. during his time in the office, the state
had a large operating program. He retired in the early 1970"s and Frank Evans took
his place. The Farm Programs were consolidated at that time, so all Farm Loan
Programs were called Farmer Programs. Frank Evans was given the title of Chief
and kept the title for 15 years, until he retired. Program Chiefs after Frank E\ans
included Russell Beckham. Wayne Moore, and Ralph Childers.
Spudds Widener became
State Director following Mr.
McWhorter and Oklahoma had
a very active program. A lot
of good changes in the pro-
gram took place then because
the National Administrator.
James Smith, was also from
Oklahoma. Since Spudds had
been a County Supervisor and
a District Director, he was
able to point out problems in
the field that should be cor-
rected and the National Ad-
ministrator listened to him.
Spudds Widener, Mrs. Widener. and Dale L. Folger at Widener's
retirement dinner in Stillwater. 1 972. 200 guests, including FmHA
employees past and present, from all over the state attended.
Ptioto private collection
The Farm Security Administration program was mostly a farmer loan program
when FmHA took it over. It had three main divisions at that time: a Production and
Subsistence Loan program, a Farm Ownership Loan program, and a Water Loan
program. The Water Loan programs were only available in 14 western states, of
which Oklahoma was one.
Oklahoma has had some outstanding loan programs, and very seldom did any
Oklahoma Farm Program rank below the top 5 programs in the United States. Okla-
homa was also a trial area for many programs. When livestock producers got into
financial trouble in the 1970's, Washington developed an Emergency Livestock Loan
Program and asked Oklahoma to take the lead. The main thrust of this program was
that if the banks and other lenders would assist livestock operations with essential
financing, FmHA would guarantee the loan. There are many different opinions about
this program, but it is generally believed that it was very successfiil. Oklahoma's
Emergency Livestock Loan Obligations in some years reached 24% of the total
Seated around the table at a dinner in 1992, clockwise
from the left back, are: State Director Ernest Hellwege,
Patsy Graumann, Paige Graumann, Harvey Smith,
Beverly Smith, and Flo Hellwege. Photo private collection
Many modem conveniences we take for granted now can be traced to the hard
work of FmHA Supervisors and their skill at using the resources the FmHA pro-
vided. Before (and during) the 1950's, for example, very few homes had running
water and very few had sanitary wells. A Supervisor by the name of Clyde Wren in
Hughes County decided he would do something about this. He used the Water Facil-
ity Loan to drill wells and get an adequate supply of sanitary water to a good many
homes in Oklahoma and was nationally recognized in this program.
Another very active and dedicated supervisor was
Buster Smith of Idabel. He had the largest F-armer Program
in the state when cotton farming was important in the Red
River Valley and the FmHA was the cotton farmers" princi-
pal financier. Bankers helped with the bigger loans, but the
subsistence farmer had to depend on FmHA. Buster started
with the program in the early 1950's. A veteran of World
War 11 and the Korean War, and later the General of the
Oklahoma National Guard, Buster was the Supervisor at
Coalgate for a short time and then was transferred to
McCurtain County. He had the industry and the ability to
supervise these farmers so they could be successful.
Photo, private collection
McCurtain County FmHA made a loan with a pickup
truck as part of the security. The borrower disappeared with the pickup. Buster
found out that the pickup and the borrower were out in Colorado. Buster went to
Colorado and found the borrower in a bar and obtained possession of the pickup.
Buster said the borrower was surprised to see him enter the bar.
Counties like McCurtain, Choctaw, Bryan, and others were low-income counties
and farmers could only run small to moderate operations. They depended on FmHA
for their financing and, with the supervised credit, FmHA was able to assist them.
Keeping loans secure was always a big task for the County Supervisor. Borrow-
ers sometimes abandoned all of their property and left to avoid repaying the loans.
Fred Stobaugh, FmFlA Supervisor at McAlester, had a case where the security was
abandoned. He gathered all but a tractor and for a while he could not locate this. He
finally located it at a neighbor's farm and called the state office to ask if he could
pick it up and sell it. The General Counsel's office told him he could, if he could do
it peacefully and could take proper care of the tractor until it was sold. He obtained
the tractor peacefully and decided to drive it into town to have it cared for and sold
by a dealer. He got the tractor from the neighbor's farm and started down the road.
However, a bird had built a nest in the engine and, when the engine got hot. the tractor
caught on fire. Fred got the tractor fire out, but it was a close shave and Fred was
plenty worried before he got it under control.
FmFLA tried to assist anyone who could qualify for one of its programs, like the
Specialized Loan Program. If a farm family could add a specialized program and it
was determined to be sound, FmHA would finance it. In Caddo County, for instance,
peanuts were a potentially profitable crop, but irrigating the land was the only way to
improve a farm's yield. The State FmHA appraisers, Felix Roy and Clarence En-
gland, determined that irrigation would increase a farm's value, and thus support the
loan to pay for the irrigation. Also instrumental in setting up this loan program was
Supervisor William Hamilton. The loans were actually paid off ahead of schedule,
and the record shows no loss at all from the venture.
Mollis Steams was the first African-American who worked in the state office and
was probably the first in the state FmHA program. Raised in Oklahoma, on a very
poor farm several miles southeast of Boley, he was from a large family, and life was
not easy growing up. He tells how his family used fish to fertilize com as they had
no money for other fertilizer. Hollis had a degree from Langston and was employed
by FmHA as a County Supervisor at large, allowing him to work in all counties,
which was not always easy as some areas of the state would not let a minority spend
the night in town or eat in restaurants.
He was a very likable person and got along well with everyone. He had several
goals as an FmHA employee. One was to assist more minorities in obtaining FmHA
employment, and another was to increase loans to minorities. After several years as
County Supervisor at large he was given a position as County Supervisor and as-
signed to Okmulgee County. He had a very active program there for several years
until his death. FmHA personnel have warm feelings for Hollis, and most believe
that Hollis made them better persons.
Farmer Programs Personnel
The Farmer Programs Section carried a heavy work-load and always needed
more staff. However, the program had capable and devoted personnel who somehow
managed to handle the work, regardless of volume.
Dorothy Lowery was the section clerk for many years and can be credited with a
lot of the success of the section. She knew all phases of the program and kept the
work on schedule. She saw to it that anything leaving the section was in good order.
The field knew that when they needed help, they could call Dorothy and get assis-
tance. There was a lot of kidding that when she retired, the Farmer Program Section
The Farmer Programs Section also had very good field personnel who always
helped the State Office mn excellent programs with very few problems. They in-
cluded, among others:
Wilma Jean Adams, Pawnee Velma Hood, Guthrie
Gloria Allen, Stillwater Blanche Jones, Pryor
Doris Ash, Frederick Myrtle Jones, Atoka
Margaret Barr, Anadarko Marie Klink, Okmulgee
Lorene Bartlett, Hollis Anna Jane Lee, Miami
Mabel Beal, Calere Viola Marvin, Alva
Maxine Beisley, Vinita Ina L. Moffett, Edmond
Nadyne Bonds, Altus Margaret Myers, Jackson
Carol Clark, Wiliburton Dean Nolan, Holdenville
Clara Coal, Okemah Melba Petty, Ardmore
Gloria Coplin, El Reno Bonnie Rich, Hugo
Dixie Farris, Woodward Edna Robinson, Tishomingo
Kay Goodin, Poteau Phyllis Rosson, Stillwater
Erma Harless, Hugo Diana Stein, Alva
Wayne Moore later became the Farmer Program Chief and was an important loan
otTicer for a good many years. He came to the State OtTice from Harmon County.
Other Farmer Program chiefs were Russell Beckham and Ralph Childers. Sim Drain
was a long-time loan officer and a self-taught legal assistant who took care of legal
business that did not have to go to an attorney. Herman Bartell was a veteran em-
ployee of the Farmers Home Program and a loan officer who serviced loans and kept
delinquencies down to a minimum.
Among the many clerks employed by the Farmer Programs Section was Mickey
Evans. She came to Oklahoma from Washington D.C., thinking that she was moving
to the unsettled frontier. Pleased by the advanced state of civilization she found
here, she later held several positions in the state, district and county offices.
Clerks in county offices often had to step up and keep programs running. Viola
Marvin at Alva is a good example. Supervisors left Alva pretty regularly, but the
office was never in any trouble as Viola kept things running very successftilly.
FmHA has also had an outstanding cartoonist as an employee, Ricky Clark of
District Directors are an important part of FmHA. John V. Rich was an out-
standing district director who loved the southeast. He was determined that everv'
county in his district would have a very sound, active program. He enjoyed getting
his supervisors together each year for a float trip down the Mountain Fork River in
McCurtain County, giving them an experience none of them would ever forget.
Probably the most experienced District Director in the number of positions and
areas supervised was Everett Lovell. Everett started out as a county supervisor and
worked mostly in the north and west part of the state. There was a Congressional
Delegation reviewing programs in Oklahoma. Congressman Camp was one of them.
The State Director asked Everett Lovell and Frank Evans to accompany the delega-
tion on their trip around the state. It turned out that they intended to fly from town to
town. Everett and Frank were supposed to follow in a car and be at every stop. It
turned out that there were two levels of flight but both parties stayed on schedule.
Sid Williams was Head of Office of General Counsel for many years. He was
always ready to help with any legal question, which was a great asset. The
attorney's office was moved out of Oklahoma after Sid retired. Later Pat Garrett
transferred from Kansas City and was head of the General CounsePs Office. Pat was
a capable attorney who cleared up a lot of legal cases.
Douglas Bly worked as a construction engineer, mostly on housing. He was the
first one to hold this position and was very helpful in this field.
Some of our employees are the children of borrowers. Jimmy L. Farris is one
such second-generation type. His family has an outstanding farm ownership farm in
the Canadian bottoms of Okemah and some veterans remember Jimmy Jr. and his
twin brothers growing up on that farm.
Most counties still had general stores scattered throughout the counties and
lunch for field people often meant buying a couple of slices of bread, a slice of lunch
meat, a slice of cheese, and a drink. It was always a question as to whether FmHA
employees should eat with borrowers when they visited farms. Some borrowers'
wives would cook a noonday meal and invite FmHA people to eat. This was gener-
ally a home-cooked meal maybe cooked on a wood burning cook stove. Do you
think FmHA personnel would turn this down?
Benny McDonald was supervisor at Durant for a period and one person tells a
story about visiting Benny's county. They decided to make some field visits and
Benny said he knew a good place to eat lunch down on the Red River. They went to
the restaurant and lunch was served. One of the party ate to where they could see
the bottom of their plate and noticed a label there. After removing more food, a large
label was discovered loose at the bottom of the plate. This broke up the lunch.
At one time. Supervisors were authorized to appraise farms, except in their own
county. The District Director usually paired up counties and the supervisors would
trade appraising. Austen Cox, supervisor in Haskell County, was paired with Lloyd
Daniel at Atoka County. This partnership did not last very long because, being horse
owners, they often traded horses with one another. One of them got the best of the
other in a horse trade and they fell out. They both announced to the District Director
that they didn't intend to do any more appraising for each other, and didn't. Lloyd
has provided FmHA with a fine employee, his son Joe who is, at present, a Rural
Development manager in Atoka.
More Memories of Co-workers
We don't know how many airplane pilots there were in FmHA, but we know of
two in Oklahoma. Buster Smith and Bill Jackson at Idabel decided they wanted to
get around faster and so took flying lessons and purchased an airplane. Buster flew a
while and then sold out to Bill who did a lot of flying for a good many years.
Frank Roberts and John Anderson were the joke players in the State Office. The
State Director's otTice was up front in the State Ofllce space and the program sec-
tions were in back. One day, Frank and John walked past the State Director's otTice
back to where Mr. Felix Roy sat, studying a book. They told him the State Director
wanted to see him right away. Mr. Roy, taking his responsibilities very seriously,
went directly up there. The State Director had not asked to see Mr. Roy. but when
he came back he wasn't going to let them know that the Director hadn't wanted to see
him. So he picked up his book and continued to read, but, while he was gone, Frank
and John had turned his book over. So there he sat, reading an upside-down book.
Another joke player was Bob Holley, who flashed a nice pocket knife in front of
Barry L. Dodson one day. Barry admired the knife and said he wished he had one.
Bob told him to requisition one from the state office. Bob later called Frank Evans
and advised him as to what he told Barry (because, of course, the State Office did
not fiimish knives). Barry's request duly came in, and we got Mr. Earnest, the State
Director, to send him a knife and also tell him that he had decided not to send out any
more knives after this. Barry eventually found out that he had been set up and all
concerned got a good laugh out of it.
Ralph Childers was handicapped for a period and only able to use one arm.
During this time, Mr. Stephenson accompanied him on a tour of northeast Oklahoma
where the roads were quite curvy and winding. Their schedule, however, required
them to move along pretty rapidly. Where most drivers would have needed both
hands on the wheel to negotiate some of the curves, Ralph drove those roads with one
arm. Mr. Stephenson offered, frequently, to take over driving, but Ralph wouldn't
hear of it.
Through the years we had many office management assistants, assigned to vari-
ous areas to assist clerical and other workers. They have been invaluable, and they
all deserve medals.
Glendola Crane probably served the longest. She reported what she saw — and
could hold her own with anyone.
Peggy Harbeston was the most helpful person you could find. There was no
problem she couldn't help you solve. Everyone loved Peggy.
Vivian Farr Nicholas was a very capable person who knew farming and ranching
from actual experience.
Wanda Clark was a very knowledgeable person about the FmHA, who devoted
lot of her time to the program.
Doris Smalley was too capable and worked too hard. We lost her when the
national office decided they needed her instead.
Sue Beets worked up from county office and was very capable employee who
handled a lot of different jobs.
Annette Horn and Ruby Mowrey were efficient, steady workers in our office,
always ready to help with a suggestion or a smile.
Richard P. Maxey, State Director, presents Glendola Crane with award for her
suggestion for improving office efficiency, June, 1962.
l-r: Doug BIy, Herman Bartell, Vernon Burnet, Betty White, Richard Maxey Hazel Allen, John Anderson,
Peggy Harbeston, Spudds Widener, Glendola Crane, Frank Roberts, and Virgil Holderby
Photo USDA, Oklahoma
One of the most unusual applications our FmHA ever received was from some-
one who wanted to establish a lizard ranch. Fifty-two pages of detailed material
accompanied the application for a $250,000 loan to finance the ranch and a park.
The supporting material included details like names for the lizards — the ranch fore-
man, for example, was going to be a lizard by the name of "Okie Pete."
Charles M. ('Monte') Debord, now a Chandler banker, was an FmHA employee
at the time and recalls that he and the other employees assumed that the application
was a joke, and so were in no hurry to process it. The applicant, however, soon
complained that his application was not being processed. The county and district
determined that this was not a sound project and would not be financed. The appli-
cant appealed the decision and took it through several hearings before accepting the
Wiley Harrison of Hugo had a problem getting information from an applicant
who wanted a loan. He had Delores Jackson and Bonnie Rich work with the appli-
cant to obtain the necessary information to make the loan, but they were never sure if
the information was adequate. The payments on the loan were made regularly for
several years and then they suddenly stopped. In the subsequent investigation, it was
discovered out that this applicant's income came from making whiskey and he had
Some applicants don't give up. They think that because it is government money,
they are entitled to it regardless of the requirements. Gale Andrew, who had been the
Supervisor in Logan and Grady Counties, in addition to a long tour in the State Of-
fice, tells of one such applicant who made himself quite a reputation as a trouble-
maker. This person tried to attend and interrupt every government farm meeting he
could, even going so far as to make regular trips to Washington, D.C. On one such
trip, he took a pair of worn-out shoes with him and told the Washington office he had
worn them out trying to get a loan. He left the shoes behind, and then wanted them
sent back to him. The D.C. office told him he would get the shoes back when he
paid his loans off.
Community and Business Programs
Chief 1963 to 1975
Engineer 1964 to 1984
Engineer 1971 to 1984, Chief 1984 to 1995
_f wp-...— ... -.
KB020 RAi38 ViF065 I
072 GOVT PD>=NF WASH
HOBART ROBERTSON JR VICE PRESIDENT ASSOCIATION^
215 EAST DEWEY SAPULPA OKLAJ
■FIRST RURAL WATER SYSTEM LOAN IN OKLAHOMA APPROVED
TODAY FOR $360,000 TO SAPULPA RURAL WATER SUPPLY
CORPORATI.ON TO SUPPLY 350 RURAL FAMILIES AND SIX I
COMMERCIAL INSTALLATIONS IN VICINITY OF SAPULPA. '
FLOYD HIGBEE, ACTING ADMINISTRATOR OF FARMERS HOME,
ADMINISTRATION, NOTIFIED US TODAY. THE LOAN IS FOR
40 YEARS AT 4-1/2 PERCENT INTEREST. OFFICERS OF
THE NON-PROFIT ASSOCIATION, O.T. HEWITT PRESIDENT, '
HOBART ROBERTSON JR, VICE PRESIDENT.: ■
MIKE MOHRONEY USS J HOWARD EDMONDSON USS TOM STE
1 he passage of the Consolidated Farmers Home Administration Act of I ^^6 1
changed the mission of Farmers Home Administration from assisting individual
family farmers to assisting all of rural America. The Act first opened up the water
system programs to the general rural population, including incorporated towns up to
2.500 population with loan limits of up to Sl.OOO.OOO for an insured loan.
In 1962. Congress authorized Farmers Home Administration to make loans for
Watershed and Resource Conservation and Development projects administered by
the Soil Conservation Service (SCS). Early Watershed Loans were made to local
Conservation Districts such as Black Bear Creek in Garfield. Noble and Pawnee
Counties and the Fouche Maline Conservation District in Latimer County. The loans
were to assist with obtaining easements for the Soil Conservation Ser\ice (SCS)
flood control structures. Administratixe and legal expenses were also included in the
Watershed Loans were also made to conservation districts and towns to add
municipal water storage to the SCS flood control structures. Some of these early
loans with interest rates as low as 3.0 percent were made to the towns of Meeker.
Sallisaw, Stilwell. Stroud, Okemah and Langston.
In 1965. further authority was added to the water loan program to allow for loans
to construct sewer systems, and grants were made available for the first time. Recre-
ational loans were also approved at about this same time, allowing loans for swim-
ming pools and golf courses in many small rural communities that did not have these
recreational opportunities previously.
In 1972. Congress passed the Rural De\elopment Act of 1972 which ga\e Farm-
ers Home Administration jurisdiction over many additional programs, including the
existing Water and Sewer Loan and Grant Program, the Community Facilities Loan
Program, and the Business and Industries Loan Program, which was a guaranteed loan
program. Population limits were raised to 10.000 for the Water and Waste Program,
to 20.000 for the Community Facilities program, and to 50.000 for the Business and
Industry loan program.
In 1981, Congress changed the interest rate for a long set \alue of 5.0 % to a
variable rate that would change on a quarterly basis. Since inflation was rapidly
changing in those days, the interest rate suddenly rose to 12.5 9c for some loans
while those li\ ing in low-income areas could still qualify for a 5.0 9c loan.
The loan programs helped bring water and sewer systems to rural Oklahoma
communities in different ways. Most obviously, government funding paid for the
necessary labor to build the systems. In addition, however, engineers developed
materials such as Polyvinyl Chloride pipe, or designed standpipes to replace el-
evated water towers. These innovations had much to do with the development of
water systems to serve more rural families with potable water and allowed small
rural towns to construct sewer systems that would not have been available under
existing construction standards.
One innovation FmHA practice perpetuated was a change in the type of piping
used in water lines. FmHA Engineers were primarily responsible for developing and
using Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) pipe for water pipelines in rural areas. Prior to
1964, standard engineering practice was to use PVC pipe only in the 1- to 3- inch
size water lines, and to use Asbestos Cement and Cast Iron pipe for all water lines 4
inches and larger. The problem with this system was that Asbestos Cement pipe had
no flexibility. In 1966, FmHA Engineers began requiring 4-inch PVC in lieu of 4-inch
Asbestos Cement main lines. Soon thereafter, 6-inch PVC water mains were tried on
a trial basis in Ottawa County.
Around 1970, in conjunction with the FmHA National office, 8-inch PVC was
first approved on an FmHA-financed project in Muskogee County. In 1972, the first
10-inch PVC water line was installed in a rural water district in Payne County. Later
in the 1980"s, FmHA Engineers approved 8-inch and 6-inch PVC sewer lines to be
installed in Grady County,
In each of the steps above, numerous meetings were held with the Oklahoma
State Department of Health, contractor organizations, pipeline manufacturers and
others. In all cases, all entities involved agreed with the new proposals.
Elevated water towers were the norm in Oklahoma prior to 1964 when water
standpipes were developed for use by the rural water districts. Less expensive than
elevated water towers, these standpipes were located on hills in rural areas to pro-
vide sufficient storage and pressure for the users. Standpipes are now the norm for
towns as well as water districts.
The People Behind the Agency
Leonard Downing first came to the State Office of Farmers Home Administration
in 1962 and started working on Water Loans as a loan olTicer. When the position of
Chief of the Water Loan program was created in 1963. Leonard was selected. In
1964, Cecil Wildman was hired as Engineer of the Farmers Home Administration
and, with the help of Mr. Downing and Mr. Wildman, the Water Loan Program began
to take shape.
There were many night meetings in old, cold or hot schoolhouses to explain what
the loan and grant programs could do for the rural residents. From these meetings,
water systems began to take shape. Many systems that started with 1 50 to 200
customers now serve 1,500 to 2,000 customers and beyond.
The first loan to be funded for a rural water system was a loan to the Sapulpa
Rural Water Corporation in August of 1963. The first water system actually con-
structed and serving water was in Nowata County.
FHA and Sapulpa Rural Water Company review plans for installing new water line.
Seated, left to right: Vernon Burnet, FHA program chief; Richard Maxey, FHA State Director;
Howard Bertsch, national administrator; and Herman Bartel, FHA area supervisor.
Standing, left to right; George Gould, wrater company; Frank Burzio, water company director;
Hobart Rob)ertson, water company supervisor; and C. R. Wood, Creek county FHA supervisor.
Photo private collection
Herman Bartel joined the agency as a loan ofilcer and, soon after. Max Nicholas
was also hired as a loan officer. In 1970, Gene Womack was hired as an Engineer
and Engineer Phil Brown signed on in 1971 .
Leonard Downing retired in 1975. Royce Jones became the Chief in 1976. He
retired in 1984, and Phil Brown became Chief until his retirement in 1994. Harvey
Smith then served as Chief until October 1 of the following year, when the Farmers
Home Administration ceased to exist and the Agency became what is known today as
Oklahoma's Community and Business Programs
Because of the tireless work of these and other individuals, Oklahoma has
always ranked in the top three states in the nation in Community and Business Pro-
grams. On any given day from the late 1960's to the late 1980's, approximately 100
FmHA-fmanced water and sewer projects were under construction in Oklahoma at
any one time. Each year new projects were fiinded and old loans and grants closed.
FmHA Engineers approved and
inspected each project, and loan
officers worked with each entity to
assure that the operation opened on a
sound financial basis.
Today, loans for water and sewer
systems serve nearly one-third of the
population of rural Oklahoma and the
majority of rural Oklahoma has a
water system nearby that can provide
the essential service of potable water
and a safe sanitary waste disposal.
Gene Whatley, Executive Director of
Oklahoma Rural Water Association, a strong
partner with USDA. Photo private collection
Other programs, like recreation
loans, let rural residents enjoy swim-
ming pools, golf courses, and rodeo arenas that would not be available if not for
these programs. In addition, the Co-op Loan program financed successfiil operations
such as peanut drying facilities that assisted numerous rural farmers.
The Rural Development Act of 1 972 opened up many more endeavors for rural
Oklahoma. Hospitals, City Halls, and Fire Stations were built, and new streets were
constructed for small towns that could not otherwise afford these improvements.
Businesses were financed in rural areas where venture capital could not otherwise be
found. In the following years, programs such as Enterprise Grants were funded,
enabling many small communities to construct industrial parks to attract small busi-
Through all of these endeavors, the Farmers Home Administration was known as
the lender and governmental agency that could turn funds into projects faster than any
In the mid 1970's the Indian Health Service made grant lUnding available to
assist Native American families by providing health and sanitary water and sewer
facilities. Through the cooperation of two Federal agencies, many rural Oklahoma
families received safe, potable water. A leader in this area was Wayne Craney.
During the mid I980's, Congress began to reduce funding, and, as a result, the
State Legislature created its own loan program which is administered by the Okla-
homa Water Resources Board (OWRB). This program was developed with the assis-
tance of Farmers Home Administration personnel because they saw the need for
additional funding in the State and as always were there to promote the good of the
program overall. The OWRB loan and grant program has always been an ally of
Farmers Home Administration and many jointly ftinded projects have been completed
as the result of these agencies working together.
Water and Sewer system transfer from Midwestern Oklahoma
Development Authority to town of Bums Flat, Feb. 14, 1992.
Seated l-r; Jack Bonny, Bums Flat Mayor, Frank Kliewer, Chainnan of MODA.
Standing, l-r; Ctiarles Rainbolt, attorney; Don Greteman, MODA secretary: Kattiy
Carlisle, MODA Exec. Dir; Cynttiia Sctilegel, FmHA, Woodward office, Pfiil Brown,
FmHA Ctiief of Commerce and Business Program. Ptioto USDA, Oklahoma
Rural Housing Programs in Oklahoma
Dale L. Folger
Chief of Rural Housing Programs, 1976-1994
Typical dwelling financed with Single Family Section 502 Funding
Photo USDA, Oklahoma State office collection
1 he Rural Housing Program helped thousands of rural Oklahomans improve
their housing by fmancing single family residences and managing modem apartment
facilities, literally changing the face of rural Oklahoma. The program helped lower-
income rural residents enjoy good quality housing, and has had a tremendous, posi-
tive impact on the economy, social life and standard of living in rural Oklahoma.
Designed to assist farmers with low and moderate incomes improve the housing
on their farms when other credit was not available, the Rural Housing Program was
authorized by the Rural Housing Act of 1949. The first loans were made through the
Section 502 Single Family Housing Authority through the Real Estate Loan Division
of the Farmers Home Administration State Office by County Supervisors under
District Supervisors. Many homes built through this program were constructed by
the farmers themselves, who used the loans to purchase material and to hire addi-
tional labor. A large percentage of the loans were for repairing and remodeling
existing farmhouses, which were generally modest and inexpensive homes. A new
house in the 1950s and 1960s cost anywhere from $6,500 for a small frame house to
$15,500 for a 3-bedroom, brick veneer house with attached garage.
In the early 1960's, the FmHA was given added responsibilities for rural devel-
opment. This can be seen by tracing the development of programs in the Oklahoma
office. Clark McWhorter succeeded Richard Maxey as State Director in 1962. Mr.
McWhorter, from Altus, was a former official with the Rural Electric Co-Ops and a
capable and enthusiastic advocate of rural development. The Rural Water Loan
Program was added, and, about the same time, FmHA was given authority to provide
housing loans to non-farmers and rural residents in towns of up to 500 population.
FmHa also received authority to make Multi-Family Rental Housing loans through
the Section 515 Multi-Family Housing Authority. Interest in the housing programs
increased substantially with the availability of these loan programs.
With the increased interest in the housing programs, the State Office reorganized
to make Rural Housing Programs into a separate Division. The Real Estate Loan
Division and the Operating Loan Division were combined into the Farmer Loan
Division. The Water and Waste Loan Division was created at the same time. To
speed loan processing and handle the increased volume. County Supervisors were
authorized and trained to do appraisals in their own and neighboring counties. Previ-
ously, only District Supervisors and State Office Loan Officers had been authorized
to appraise real estate property.
Vernon Burnet became the first Chief of the Rural Housing Division and served
in that position until his retirement in 1976. Other staff members were Frank Roberts
and John Maxey, loan officers, and Hazel Allen, clerk. Lyndon Mercer also served
for a short time as a loan officer on the first State Office Rural Housing Staff. Dale
Folger joined the Rural Housing Staff in 1965 as a loan officer, coming from
Shawnee where he had been a County Supervisor. John Maxey had primary respon-
sibility for appraisal training and the 515 Rental Housing loan program.
The number of housing loans increased significantly during the 1960s in Okla-
homa. The 502 Single Family Housing Loans remained the predominant assistance
with 515 Rental Housing slower to gain in popularity. The Single Family Home
Ownership loans were made with minimum national regulations or guidance. The
houses were located on vacant lots in small towns, along county roads with new rural
water lines, and in small subdivisions being formed throughout the countryside.
Caddo County in 1966 was an especially busy district. Bill Hamilton, the
County Supervisor, took his annual 2-week vacation late in the summer and an enthu-
siastic, active District Supervisor, Fred Belile, had himself appointed acting County
Supervisor. He brought in other County Supervisors and one State Office Housing
Loan Officer to work on housing applications. At the end of this two week period,
Acting County Supervisor Fred Belile approved over 50 housing loans in one day,
following an early morning County Committee meeting.
The reason for this spurt of housing activity in Caddo County was pent-up
demand and a large new carpet mill opening up in Anadarko. Margaret Barr and
Laveda Moffett were the County Office clerks at Anadarko at that time and can
attest to the hectic activity during those two weeks. A few months later, Mr. Belile
died of a heart attack and Dale Folger was made the District Supervisor.
The 515 Rental Housing
program was slower to start in
Oklahoma for various reasons,
partly because of national
regulations, limited funding,
and restrictive local policies.
There appeared to be a bias in
some rural towns toward home " "*
ownership and against apart- Rental Housing Duplexes; Bilker, Oklahoma
ments. The national regula- Photo USDA Oklahoma office
tions effectively limited the
ownership of FmHA-financed rental housing to non-profit associations formed by
broadly based representatives of community leadership. State Office policy limited
rental houses to single family houses costing no more than $8,000 to $ 10,000 each.
with a limit of no more than 8 to 12 units in one project. The feeling was that houses
would be more suitable for rentals in rural communities than apartments, and that, if
the rental project failed, single detached houses could probably be sold more easily
than apartment buildings.
Several of these non-protlt-association-owned rental projects were developed in
Deer Creek and Braman in northern Oklahoma, Vici in western Oklahoma, and a
large number in southwestern Oklahoma including Bingcr, Canute, Cheyenne, Custer
City, Duke, Eldorado, Hinton, Hollis, Sayre and Duke.
One of the most unique of these non-profit association rental housing loans was
to the Midwest Oklahoma Development Authority, or MODA, in about 1 977, for the
purchase of over 300 single family houses and duplexes at the former Clinton-
Sherman Air Force Strategic Air Command (SAC) base located near Bums Flat.
These houses had been the base housing for SAC crews and support personnel. This
loan was for over a million dollars and was by far the largest 515 Rental Housing
project at that time in the nation in terms of size of loan and number of living units.
This loan was facilitated by the National FmHA Administrator, a retired Air Force
General who had visited Clinton-Sherman a number of times while he was a SAC
Commander. During the oil & gas boom of the early 80s, this facility was nearly
fiilly occupied by people working in the oil field, and the loan to FmHA was paid in
Throughout the 1960s, the Rural Housing program continued to change in order
to increase its effectiveness for rural development and for the benefit of rural resi-
dents. The tenn "Rural Development" became regularly used. The size of the towns
where Rural Housing loans could be made gradually increased to 10,000 population.
One of the most significant changes came in the 515 Rental Housing program
whereby ownership could be vested in limited partnerships. This change permitted
the primary applicant/owner to be compensated by limited partners for the large
amount of work and cost in developing and managing a rental housing complex where
FmHA controlled the rental rates and restricted profits. The limited partners ben-
efited by the tax shelter for helping to finance housing for low income families and
stood to gain if the project appreciated in value. This change opened up opportuni-
ties for developing rental housing on a much larger scale.
Another significant change in the Single Family 502 program occurred about the
same time. This was the authorization for interest credit or interest subsidy to help
low-income rural families more easily afford decent, safe, and sanitary housing.
Similar procedures for rent subsidy to provide for affordable rents were included in
the 515 Rental Housing program. A popular and much needed phase of the 515
Rental Housing program was the provision for rental housing for the elderly. This
program stipulated that rental projects designed for elderly rural residents would be
limited to residents age 62 or older. The law was later changed to also make handi-
capped persons of any age eligible to occupy this rental housing.
Rental Housing for Elderly; Hinton, OK
Photo USDA Oklahoma office
James Smith, former U.S. Congressman from Tuttle in Grady County, was the
National Administrator of FmHA from 1968 to 1972 and he wanted Oklahoma to be
a model for the rest of the nation in Rural Housing assistance. He made sure that
Oklahoma received anything within regulation that was needed to make the program
effective. In 1970, he created a special position in Oklahoma called a Rural Housing
Specialist with grade equal to the Rural Housing Chief, who reported directly to the
State Director. The position title was later changed to Assistant to the State Direc-
tor. The Assistant to the State Director was charged with promoting the Rural Hous-
ing program throughout the State and ensuring that the program was used to its maxi-
mum for the benefit of rural Oklahoma.
Dale Folger was reassigned from the position of District Supervisor at El Reno
and promoted into this position. For the next few years he worked on radio and
television promotions, newspaper and magazine promotions and traveled extensively
throughout the State, meeting with and working with organizations and groups inter-
ested in improving rural housing. Meetings were held in every county of the state
and were well attended by builders, real estate agents and lumbermen.
One of the concepts that came from these meetings was to let builders and real
estate agents assist applicants in packaging Single Family loans. This concept was
initiated by a Rural Development Specialist from the National Rural Electric Coop
staff in Washington D.C. He and Dale Folger revised and reworked the plan, putting
it into writing one night after one of the meetings. This REA Rural Development
Specialist took the plan back to Washington with him and presented it to the FmHA
National Office, where the plan was approved. The Single Family Housing packag-
ing plan provided for builders, realtors or other interested parties to work with the
applicant family and to present an applicant package to the County Supervisor com-
plete with application, credit report, dwelling plans, and specification or purchase
contract, site plan, etc. When the package was properly prepared, the County Super-
visor had only to review the package, make an appraisal and approve the loan.
The packaging concept was initially controversial in that some County Supervi-
sors felt this infringed on their authority and responsibility. However, packaging the
applications saved County Office staffs a considerable amount of time in processing
large volumes of housing loans and it was generally successful. The biggest prob-
lems were occasional incomplete applications and ineligible applicants being pack-
aged by aggressive real estate agents. In addition to the packaging concept, using
commercial credit reports to provide information on applicants' credit history be-
came the standard practice, rather than the County Supervisors having to make per-
sonal inquiries on each applicant.
Organizations that were vitally interested in the Rural Housing program and who
worked closely with FmHA to make the program effective were the Oklahoma
Lumberman's Association, the State Rural Electric Cooperative, the Oklahoma
Homebuilders Association, Realtor Associations, local Chamber of Commerce
organizations, and many others. The Oklahoma Lumberman's Association took the
early lead in arranging meetings throughout the State to acquaint local lumber dealers
and builders with the Rural Housing program, who it was designed to serve, and how
it worked. For several months in the early 70s, meetings were scheduled almost
every night of the week throughout the State. FmHA representatives from the State
Office, local FmHA District Supervisors, and County Supervisors attended to get
acquainted with the participants and to explain how the program worked. These
meetings were very effective.
Vernon Burnet retired as Chief of the Rural Housing Divi-
sion in 1976. Other principal staff persons had already retired
in the previous 2 or 3 years. Dale Folger filled the vacancy of
Chief of Rural Housing when Mr. Burnet retired and served in
that position until he retired in 1994. Richard Raupe became
the Loan Specialist with responsibility for appraisal training
and the 5 1 5 Rental Housing loan program and served in that
position until the mid 1980"s when he left FmHA to go into
private business. Gale Andrew was responsible for Single Richard Raupe
Family housing programs and later became the Multi-family Private collection
Housing Coordinator when Richard Raupe left the agency. Leonard McMurtry came
as a Civil Engineer from the Rural Water and Waste Division and later became the
Housing Architect. Leonard served as the Housing Architect until his retirement in
Maxine Adkins and Marsha Elder were the early clerks in the Rural Housing
Division when Dale Folger became Chief of the Division. Marvin Cooks came to
the Rural Housing staff from the position of Chief of Rural Housing in Ohio in the
mid 1980's and worked with the Single Family housing program. Others who served
at various times on this staff were Connie Rosson, Appraisals; Mike Schrammel,
Guaranteed Loans; Jimmy Stormont, Single Family Housing; Patsy Smith, Technician/
Loan Specialist in Multi-Family Housing; Jim Holzler, former Chief of RH from
Montana; Patsy Graumann, Multi-Family Housing; and Lee Ann Crutchfield, Techni-
cian. Denise Heid had the longest tenure of anyone on the staff. She came to work
in 1980 as a stay-in-school employee while a junior in high school and went on to
earn a BS degree from Oklahoma State University while working in that office. She
is still working in 1999 as a Loan Technician in the Rural Housing Loan program.
Patsy Graumann became the Chief of the Housing Division when Dale Folger retired.
Soon after Mr. Burnet retired. Dale Folger and Leonard McMurtry (Engineer/
Architect) made a tour of eastern Oklahoma where problems were beginning to
surface with rural subdivisions financed by FmlTA. These problems included inad-
equate septic tanks, dirt roads, inadequate trash disposal, poor drainage, and prob-
lems with fire and police protection. There were no national FmHA regulations or
policies for subdivisions at this time. Mr. McMurtry placed a considerable amount
of thought and work into developing practical subdivision policies which were radi-
cal for FmHA at that time. These policies applied to any subdivision that included
five or more houses, and mandated hard surface streets, community water and sew-
age disposal system, plans developed by a professional Engineer or Architect and
location of the subdivision in a town or city with the ability to provide essential
State Director Spudds Widener approved these subdivision policies reluctantly
at first, because he feared they would detract from the rural aspect of the housing.
However, Oklahoma's subdivision policies were later incorporated into National
Office regulations that were nearly identical to Oklahoma's policies. These subdivi-
sion policies helped pave the way for the orderly development of the large number of
rural homes that were to be financed by FMHA in Oklahoma.
An early problem that gradually developed due to a lack of National FmHA
Office guidance or regulation and the absence of a professional Architect in the State
standards. Each County Supervisor had their own set of standards, generally exceed-
ing the guidehnes of the Federal Housing Administration.
This problem became acute as the program grew and large-scale de\clopers
started building in more than one county. They were being forced to change their
specifications and building standards to meet each County Supervisor's require-
ments. Along with this was a tendency for FmHA to accept substandard written
plans for the building sites and dwellings. These problems were eventually resoKed
by adopting the Federal Housing Administration's extensive handbook of require-
ments for dwelling plans and specifications and by requiring written site and building
plans with elevation and drainage designs, all approved by an Engineer or Architect.
Leonard McMurtry. who became the FmHA State Office Engineer/Architect in
1976. was responsible for implementing these changes. He conducted extensixe
educational meetings with County Supervisors and visited e\ery count\ that had a
very large housing loan program to achieve the desired results.
With the development of sound policies for housing development, the number of
single family homes financed by FmHA increased dramatically in the late 1970's.
This dramatic increase in single-family housing activity can be seen in the amounts
which FmHA loaned in Oklahoma durins the vears indicated:
Subdivisions with as many as 250 building sites were developed, like the Green
Acres subdivision in Guthrie. Manufactured housing plants were built, including
Perdue Homes of Chickasha. featuring pre-cut and assembled housing components,
and a modular home plant at Hinton. Perdue Homes was a large plant and produced
a number of houses sold throughout Oklahoma.
Oklahoma Congressman Wes Watkins was a home builder at that time and used
the Perdue Homes pre-cut house packages. Bob Haney of McAlester v\as also one
of the builders who used their packages. A subdivision in Turle\ on the north side of
Tulsa used pre-cut dwellings from Jim Walters" factories, w hich were also popular at
that time. Other volume home builders included Ken Smith oi' Kingfisher. Ron Smith
of Sapulpa. Buddy Coleman of Ft. Smith and others.
Several FmHA County Supervisors developed 75 to 100 Section 502 loans per
year during this time. Some of these County Supervisors were Buster Smith at
Idabel. who later became Southeast Oklahoma District Supervisor and a Brigadier
General in the OK Army National Guard; Jimmy Stormont at Enid, who later joined
the State RH staff; Ralph Peck at Poteau; Bob Had at Duncan, who later became
District Supervisor at Hobart; Glen Fox at Oklahoma City, who later became a Dis-
trict Supervisor, and several others.
The 515 Rental Housing program started making significant changes in 1976
with the new State Office Staff and changes in National regulations. Richard Raupe
can be credited with implementing many of these changes. It was decided to encour-
[ age the development of garden style
apartments rather than single family
houses and duplexes and to encourage
that the size of projects be based on
market need. It was also decided to
work with private rental housing devel-
opers and to encourage the use of
imited partnerships. District Directors
and their staffs should be given much
of the credit for the success of the
enlarged 515 Rental Housing program
because of their dedicated field man-
agement of the program, which in-
cluded preliminary application development and loan servicing.
Early developers of rental housing included Harland Wells of Perkins. Buddy
Coleman of Ft. Smith. Arkansas. Ken Smith of Kingfisher. Albert Reynolds of
Durant. Bob Haney of McAIester. Bob Green of Inola. and many others. About 1977
the Rural Rental Housing Association of Oklahoma was formed by the developers
mentioned above with the help of Richard Raupe and the Rural Housing staff. The
Rural Rental Housing Association has had a very positive effect on the training and
professionalism of the Rental Housing owners and site managers throughout the
years. It has continued to be a very active organization and continues to provide
professionalism and leadership.
Rental Housing, Tahlequah, OK
Photo USDA Oklahoma office
A smaller Rural Housing program, but no less effective, was the section 504
loan and grant program designed to assist very low income rural residents repair their
homes to help make them safe and sanitary. The loans and grants were limited to
$1,000 with an interest rate of one percent, and were typically used to install win-
dows, doors, insulation, rooting, running water, foundations, etc.
A unique example of the program's effectiveness was its use to provide running
water to a neighborhood of low income black residents on the southeast edge of
Mangum during the early I970's. Much of the credit for this should go to County
Supervisor Dink Wicker and Cecil Wildman who was an Engineer with the Rural
Water and Waste Division of the State FmHA Office. A neighborhood of \5 to 20
homes across the railroad track from the main part of Mangum was not ser\ ed by
running water. These families had to haul their water in cans, buckets, and whatever.
Lines from a rural water district were near, but the families could not afford the initial
fees or the monthly water rates. The City of Mangum eventually agreed to pro\ ide
water service if the neighborhood would install a main water line from the cit\ and
water distribution lines and meters at their homes. Cecil Wildman designed the
system and Dink Wicker held educational meetings with the families involved and
put the loans together. It was determined that the best solution was to make a 504
Rural Housing loan to each of these families to pay for their part of the water system.
For some, the water came up to their front yards and for others, running water came
into their house. Needless to say, the families were \ery grateful and Dink Wicker
reported that not one was e\er late in making their monthlv pa\ ments.
Another Rural Housing pro-
gram which has made a significant
impact in Oklahoma has been the
Self-Help Housing program. Okla-
homa has been second only to
California in the number of Self-
Help houses built. This program
utilized 502 Single Family Housing
loans to each family with the help
of a Self-Help housing grant to a
non-profit sponsor who organizes
low income families into groups
and provides technical assistance for them to construct their homes
Self-help Built Home, Okmulgee County, 1998
Photo private collection
This program results in substantial monetary sa\ ings to the participating families
and gives them a special pride of ownership because of the sweat, time, and effort
they put into building their own homes. Participants also benefit by the variety of
useful skills they develop while building their houses. The Little Dixie Communit\
Action Agency of Hugo was the pioneer sponsor of self-help housing in Oklahoma.
The agency helped build over 300 homes in Choctaw, Pushmataha, and McCurtain
counties over a 4-or 5- year peiiod. Little Dixie CAA dedicated home number 1 .000
constructed with FmHA self-help through 1999. Bobby Holley. County Supervisor at
Hugo and later District Director at Atoka, was the FmHA official responsible for
much of the early Self-Help housing in southeastern Oklahoma. Other areas of
substantial Self-Help housing included Clinton. Muskogee. Atoka. Eufaula.
Tahlequah. Okmulgee, and others.
The mid to late 1980's saw the demise of the oil & gas boom in Oklahoma, a
reversal in real estate development, the failure of a large number of banks, a reces-
sion in farming activities, and a general slow-down of Oklahoma's economy. This
period brought an end to the large-scale, rural Single-Family Housing construction in
Oklahoma. The priority for the Rural Housing program then shifted to managing
delinquent and inventory properties. Throughout this period, however, the 515 Rental
Housing building program remained healthy and continued to grow, because of the
need and available funding.
The rural economy regained its health in the early 1990s and FmHA came
through the real estate recession in good shape with all of the Rural Housing pro-
grams intact, including the 502 Single Family housing program which had the most
potential for severe problems because of the prior large volume of activity and the
mobility of rural families during the economic downturn of the late 1980s. During
the 1990s, guaranteed loans have been included in the Rural Housing Program in
order to involve private lending institutions in the housing loan program and to pro-
vide more housing finances for rural families with moderate incomes.
One outstanding feature of the FmHA Rural Housing program has been FmHA's
ability to target available resources to areas of critical housing needs such as caused
by the installation of a large carpet plant in Anadarko during the early 1960s or the
greatly expanded swine industry in the Guymon area during the 1990s. The FmHA
Rural Housing Program in Oklahoma has provided millions of dollars for construct-
ing houses and apartments; it has greatly improved the standard of living for thou-
sands of rural residents; it has provided thousands of construction jobs; it has
changed the appearance and character of many rural towns; and it has truly been a
significant Rural Development effort.
Charles P. Rainbolt
Oklahoma State Director,
Farmers Home Administration, 1993-1995
On October 1, 1995, pursuant to the October 1994 reorganization of the US
Department of Agriculture, Farmers Home Administration was no more. The Farmer
Program portion of FmHA, along with 116 Oklahoma FmHA employees, became a
part of the newly created Farm Service Agency (formerly ASCS), led by State Ex-
ecutive Director, Terry Peach.
The remainder of the Farmers Home Administration programs and Oklahoma
FmHA employees became a part of the mission area now known as USDA Rural
Development, led by State Director Charles P. Rainbolt. In addition to the old
FmHA programs, USDA Rural Development acquired jurisdiction over the old Rural
Electrification Agency, as well as the old Agricultural Cooperative Service.
USDA Rural Development actually is comprised of 3 new federal agencies: 1)
Rural Housing Service; 2) Rural Utilities Service; and 3) Rural Business Service.
The Rural Housing Service includes, among others, the Community Facilities
program for essential community services, the 502 Direct (including the Self-Help
program) and guaranteed Rural Home Ownership Loans, the 504 Home Repair Loan
and Grant program for individuals, the Housing Preservation Grant program, the 515
Direct as well as the 538 Guaranteed Multifamily Housing Program, and the Farm
Labor Housing Program.
The Rural Utilities Program includes, among others, the Water and Waste Dis-
posal Programs, Rural Electric and Rural Telephone Loan Programs, and Solid Waste
Management Grant Program.
The Rural Business Service includes, among others, the Business and Industry
Direct and Guaranteed Loan Program, the Rural Business Enterprise Grant Program,
the Intermediary Relending Program, and the Rural Economic Development Loan and
From an Oklahoma perspective, our state has reaped the benefits of the USDA
reorganization implemented October 1, 1995. As Appendix C reflects, rural Oklaho-
mans have far more USDA Rural Development Programs dollars since the reorgani-
zation was implemented. In addition, the Farmer Programs section of the former
FmHA continues to serve Oklahoma farmers and ranchers under the Farm Service
Agency with the same professionalism as always.
God Bless Rural Oklahoma!
Oklahoma FmHA Personnel
State Director Charles P. Rainbolt congratulates
Harry Carter on his distinguished career with
Oklahoma FmHA. Carter began work in 1 938
with FmHA predecessor Farm Security
Administration, and continued with FmHA until
October 1, 1995.
Photo private collection
A tribute has to be paid to all the employees of FmHa. They have racked up a
record of Public Service unparalleled in the annals of an agency accustomed to
impressive records. By working long hours, skipping vacations, introducing new
methods, and eliminating waste, members of the Farmers Home Administration
provided rural America with twice the services per administrative dollar spent. It is
not possible to recognize every individual who played an important part in Farmers
Home Administration, but we would like to list as many as we can.
The employee who holds the record for most years with FmHA is Han-y Carter,
a man who worked over 50 years for the Famiers Home Administration. Below,
Hairy Carter recalls his career:
It was 1938 when I joined the FHA. A new government agency,
established during the Depression, the FHA was created to assist
farmers who had fallen on hard times. Although local banks provided
loans to those who qualified, few farmers met these qualifications and
many of those who did. could not meet the conditions of these loans
which included high interest rates and short term payment plans. Due to
the hard times brought on by the Depression and the lack of funds
available, the prosperity of farming communities began to decline
rapidly. Out of the growing concern for the struggling farmers, the FHA
was born. Through the FHA, farmers were given an opportunity to
initiate or maintain farming operations with government funds and
Growing up on a farm in rural Oklahoma provided me with an
insight into the personal side of farm life and the hard work and dedica-
tion necessary to be a successful farmer. With this insight, came also an
understanding of farmers" needs. Because of this connection, it was
very satisfying to be a part of a program that was dedicated to the
success of every farmer as well as the farming industry as a whole.
As with any new operation, the FHA was closely monitored in the
beginning to determine whether or not the agency would succeed. The
FHA did succeed and was very successful in its day. From 1938 to
1995, I worked one on one with farmers to establish farm plans for
needed credit and payback programs in line with the plans and needs of
each farmer. Over the fifty-four years I was with the FHA, I developed
many close friendships and gained a great deal of satisfaction from
providing much needed assistance to Oklahoma farmers.
People like Mr. Carter make Oklahoma's Farmer Home Administration programs
work because of their commitment and loyalty to their career and their home state
and fellow Oklahomans. In these pages we list the names of as many such admirable
employees as the records show.
Alfalfa County Farm Security Administration, 1940 Annual Meeting
(Attendees not identified.) Photo. USDA Oklahoma Office
Aaron. Deanna L.
Abbott. Carohn Y.
Able. Dustin L.
Abies, Melissa L.
Adams, Calvin C.
Adams. JeiTv L.
Adams. Nila Ann
Adams. Wilma Jean
Akerman. Ada D.
Akins. Loyd R.
Albright. William C.
Alexander. Daimon R.
Alexander. Jesse Ernest
Allen. J. R.
Allen. M. Hazel
Allen. Mildred H.
Alley. Janet L.
Allison. Robyn R.
Almond. Beth A.
Altman. Cynthia L.
Alvarez. Tami R.
Andersen. Tracy D.
Anderson. Charles W.
Anderson. James C.
Anderson. John R
Anderson. Rhoda B.
Anderson. Stan M.
Anderson. Vicky E
Andrew. Carl S.
Andrew. Forest G.
Andujar. Carlos. A.
Anson. Cyrus P.
Armstrong. Alan N.
Armstrong. Janet K.
Ash. Doris A.
Ash. Doris J.
Atchley. Kath> Jo
Atkins. Lois M.
Attocknie. Esa J.
Axtell. Vesta L.
Bailey. April C.
Bain. Shirley E.
Bain. Trisha L.
Baker. Deborah D.
Baker. Judy G.
Baker. Louis G.
Ball. William C.
Ballard. Andrea L.
Ballard. Kenneth E.. Jr.
Ballew. Patsy L.
Banks. Doyle K.
Barber. Thomas E.
Barnes. Herman W.
Ban-. Cher\l A.
Barr. Margaret J.
Banick. Troy Steward
BaiTon. Victoria K.
Bartell. Herman M.
Barth. Mar\ C.
Bartlett. Lorene M.
Barton. Jovce E.
Bates. Susan R.
Baughman. Daisy N.
Bauldrige. Lori J.
Beal. Mabel B.
Beall. Clyde. Jr.
Beard, Ronnie J.
Beaven. Judy L.
Beaver. Cindy D.
Beaver. Judy L.
Beaver. S. Darlene
Beavers, Kitty S.
Beckham. Benjamin R.
Beebe, Tammy L.
Beer, Gerald M.
Beets, Florence Sue
Beisley, Maxine E.
Belcher. Gene L.
Belford. James M.
Bell, Earl R.
Bell, Loyal J.
Bennett. Constance Susan
Bennett. Louis G.
Bentley. Gary W.
Bereza. Steven J.
Berga, LaNeta G.
Berry, Lucindy J.
Bethell, Mark M.
Bickford, Ladenna M.
Biddy, Glen O.
Biggers, Donna K.
Biggers, Micah D.
Black, A. G.
Black, James C.
Black, Janell K.
Blackman, Lyndon L.
Blecha, Carolyn F.
Blua, Margaret L.
Bluebird. Helen B.
Bluebird. Mary Ann
Bluma. Ruth A.
Bly, Douglass A.
Bogle, Carol A.
Bohannon, S. Bob
Bolton. Gene L.
Bolton, Helen L.
Bond, Mari K.
Bonds, Betty L.
Bonner, Bany L.
Bonner, Billie J.
Booher, Imogene E.
BookoLit, Shelley A.
Bostic, Maxine L.
Bourne, Henry C.
Boutot, Kristi A.
Boyd, Ida J.
Boyd, Lila I.
Boyd. Lisa D.
Boydstun, Denise J.
Bradford, Alice F.
Bradt, Ruth C.
Brainard, Jeanette F.
Brannon, James L.
Brannon, Luther H.
Brawley. Dorothy A.
Breeden. Leanna J.
Brewer. William L.
Brickman, Connie S.
Bridges, Crystal F.
Bridges, Lairy W.
Briggs, Joyce M.
Briggs, Juanita L.
Briggs, Nina E.
Brigham. Neva J.
Brisco, George A.
Britton, Kimberly J.
Brooks, Erin C.
Brooks, Tina D.
Brown. Cynthia J.
Brown. Lance H.
Brown. Michael Eugene
Brown. Nita N.
Brown. Pixie G.
Brown. Richard R
Brown, Russell A.
Cassell, John S.
Browning, Jerry L.
Cassidy, John E.
Brownlee, Betty M.
Cagle, Jewell A.
Bruce, Cherie E.
Calcote, Helen J.
Bruner, George W.
Caudle, Karen J.
Bruns, Clifford M.
Caldwell, Kay L.
Cauthen, Ethel, O.
Bryan, James E. Jr.
Bryan, Nancy E.
Calkins, Marlis Heather
Bryce, R. L.
Callahan, Nancy M.
Chain, Alfred W.
Buffo, Angela M.
Bufford, Jason D.
Cameron, Jennifer C.
Chapin, Boyd L.
Chapman. Delores J.
Bunch, Donald K.
Campbell. James E.
Chapman. Levica A.
Campbell. Kenneth D.. Jr.
Bunch, Walter C.
Campbell, Lenna Marie
Charmasson. Chad K.
Burdg, Kandi D.
Campbell. Sheila D.
Chatham, Ray Jr.
Burdine. Jon L.
Carlile. Jack L.
Cheatwood. Sharon E
Burgell, Sherry L.
Carlson, Denis L.
Childers. Ralph Ed
Burke, Debra L.
Choate, D. Norman
Burks, Charles, Jr.
Carpenter, Nicole N.
Christensen. Carey L.
Burleson, Linda A.
Carroll, Cheryl J.
Christian, Christy L.
Burnet, Vernon E.
Bums, Homer L.
Carter, Edith G.
Chupp. Loretta A.
Carter, Everett N.
Clark. Etta Rae
Burris, Phillip R.
Carter, Felicia C.
Clark, George R.
Clark, James A.
fx i:x.t:cie:.-i' ^ceetapy's
D:ac: A ws^sas:--j:t with cpa'^rs. -<^.*5« ._
Clark, LaVema Carol
Clark. Rickey D.
Clark. Wanda L.
Clements. Dan A.
Burt, Nina G.
Carter, Harry L.
Coale, Clara B.
Bush. R E.
Carter, Mendy K.
Cobb, Donna R.
Butler. Robert E.
Case, Betty A.
Buzbee, John R, Jr.
Case, Mildred V.
Codopony. Carol A.
Bybee, Joe M.
Colbert, Elvira E.
Colburn. Loftin G.
Cole. Geny L.
Coleman, Han-y L.
Coleman, Loretta F.
Collings. Carolyn A.
Collins. Cocieta J.
Collins, David C.
Collins, Jana M.
Combes, Clay P.
Conklin, Thomas H.
Conn, Paul R.
Constien, Margie M.
Cook, Crystal L.
Cook, Patty J.
Cook, Rebecca M.
Cooks, Carrie M.
Cooks, Marvin. Sr.
Cookson. Antoinette D.
Cooper. Debra E.
Cooper. Gary D.
Copelin. Gloria R.
Corbin. Wanelda I.
Coriey. Koye L.
Corn forth. Lawrence A.
Cosgrove. Henry T.
Cothran. Anita B.
Couch. Fred J.
Coulston. Angela L.
Cowan, Barbara R.
Cowan, Linda Sue
Cowell. Kenneth R.
Cowen, Linda S.
Cox, Austin H.
Cox, Carolyn Ann
Cox, Patricia A.
Cox. Sam Allison
Crabb. John M.
Crabtree. Francis L.
Craighead, Leah K.
Craighead, Melanie M.
Cramton, Carl L.
Cranor, Frank W.
Cranton, Nita Beth
Creager, James F.
Crenshaw, Tessie C.
Crider, Judy A.
Crissman, Dianna L.
Crutchfield. J. Le Ann
Crutchfield. Kristen D.
Culbreath. A. D.
Cullen. Betty L.
Gulp. Leonard Dale
Cummings. Cynthia L.
Cun'in. Frances M.
Cun-y. Buddy B.
Curtis. Clay M.
Cyphers. Leeroy D.
Daily, Lesli A.
Dale, Mary E.
Damron, Claudette S.
Daniel, Audrey F.
Daniel, Gary J.
Daniel, Larry K.
Darden, Julius J.
Davenport, Alene P.
Davidson, Marzella N.
Davis, Cindi J.
Davis, Dana K.
Davis, Donald L.
Davis, Rock W.
Dawson, Deborah K.
Dawson, Elizabeth J.
Deason, Tina Mae
DeBord. Chades Monte
Defoor. Barbara J.
Delano. Dorothy M.
DeLapp. Clarence E.
DeLay. Mae F
Delgado. Edgardo Luis
Dennis. Brenda K.
Dent, Kimberly J.
Dewitt, John R.
Dickey. Doyal P
Dickson. Duane W.
Dickson, Maxwell M.
Dillahunty, Shelly R.
Ditmore, Willa M.
Dixon, Raniona J.
Dodd, Margaret E.
Dodd. Tammy L.
Dodson, Barry L.
Donaldson, Alycia N.
Dotter, Chester J.
Douglas, Kimberly D.
a treaduiU-:, cc. wear v.. t^ e 'r ■•'■
and you STITi_dcn't get £,n:A.her.3.' ''
former State Director
Photo private collection
Dow, Doyle D.
Dowdle. J. M.
Downing. Leonard L.
Dozier, Lisa D.
Drain, Sim, Jr.
Dudek. Sue E.
Dudley, Billy M.
Duke, Rona N.
Dunn. Marshall E.
Dupre Horgen. Amy E.
Durkee, Wentworth X.
Dyck. Shelley A.
Dyer, Betty L.
Dyer. Walter R.
Eagan. Rex Harold
Earls. Tommy K.
Earnest, Gene F.
Easley, Charles H.
Eason. Paula G.
East. Julie A.
Eddlemon, Jimmy D.
Edwards, Melissa Jo
Edwards, Vickie R.
Efurd, Jen-y W.
Egner, Susan K.
Eifert, Beverly G.
Elam, Rose L.
Elder, Marsha L.
Elliott. Anna M.
Ellis, Nancy Sue
Elmenhorst. James L.
Emanuel. Ollen D.
England. James C.
Enlow, Clyde E. Jr.
Erikson. Donna L.
Ernce, Janell A.
Eskew, Richard D.
Estes, F Phillip
Estes. Susan L.
E\ans, Dawn M.
E\ans. Deelyn M.
E\ ans. Frank E.
Everett. Teiry D.
Farmer. Do\ P.
FaiT. Saranell M.
FaiT. Vivian M.
Fan-ell. W. F
Farris. Dixie A.
Funis. Jimni) L.
Farris. Johnny R.
Fanis. Willa F.
Featherston. Effie D.
Fechette. Beverly L.
Fennell. Raymon L.
Fenton, Chris D.
Fenton. Freddie G.
Ferris, Archie S.
Fiskin. Zolene K.
Flanagan, G. L.
Fletcher. Angela D.
Florence, Cheryl A.
Flowers. Billye Sue
Flowers, Joe W.
Floyd, Nancy L.
Floyd. Tonya L.
Folger. Dale L.
Ford, Don R.
Ford, Lisa A.
Foris, George L.
Foster, Harry Jr.
Fox, Dennis R.
Fox, Glen W.
Franks, Dana K.
Frazier, Kenneth K.
Frazier, Mack L.
Freburger. Joseph F
Fredericks, Walter Y.
Freeman, Clara M.
Frey, Ruby L.
Friesen. Frances L.
Frisbie, Florene R.
Fryar, Shirley L.
Fuesting. Judy A.
Fuller. Ethel M.
Fuller. Victoria V.
Gamble. J. M.
Gamble. Marshall E.
Gan-et. Agnes R.
Gaston, Billy D.
Gay, Teresa M.
Geiger, Albert J.
Geisler, Lome A.
Gelnar, Joe W.
George. Amanda L.
George. Arthur D. Jr.
Gibbs. Effie F
Gibbs, Karen R.
Gibson, Alta M.
Gilbert, Deanna S.
Gilley. Frankie B.
Gleckler, Betty L.
Glover. Kristal R.
Glynn. Catherine S.
Goad. FoiTcst Eugene
Goeringer. Leo Keith
Gonshor, Mary R.
Gooden. Mildred I.
Goodin. Carmen K.
Goodwin, Ottie A.
Goodwin, Randall D.
Gore, Phyllis J.
Gosnell, Apryl B.
Grabeal, Larry G.
Grace, Melissa L.
Graham. Darlene M.
Graham. Tressie C.
Graumann. Patsy A.
Graves, Bud Jr.
Graves, Everett E.
Graves, Ivan S.
Graves, Mary Ann
Greatorex, Albert T.
Green, Nancy I.
Green. Thomas L.
Greer, Gloria D.
Greer, M. L.
Greer, Pixie G.
Greer, Ralph Earl Jr.
Gregg, Sandra K.
Gregory, Betty L.
Gregory. Burl E.
Gregory. Judy L.
Gregory. L. Laverne
Gregory, Stephen D.
Greiner, Verlin P.
Grieser, Judy G.
Griffith, Charles A.
Grindstaff, Diana L.
Gripe, Ginger L.
Grissom, Kristie M.
Grussing, Lesa C.
Guerra, Cathy A.
GuUey, Melody E.
Gunter, Michael L.
Gwinn. Teena S.
Habben. Nettie Jean
Hadden, Jimmy B.
Haddon. Karen D.
Hafner. Am\ L.
Haggerty. Charles S.
Haines, Tammy D.
Haken. Max H.
Hale. Carlene K.
Hale. M. D.
Hall. Cheryl L.
Hall. Gladys A.
Hall, Joseph Z.
Hall. Melvin R.
Ham. Mesa K.
Hamilton. William J.
Hamm. Linda K.
Hammond. Amanda A.
Hancock. Paula S.
Hansen. Kermit H.
Han\e\. Tisa M.
Harheston. Peggy E.
Harden. James O.
Hardiman. Glenn W.
Hardison. Billie L.
Hardy, hal C.
Hargroxe. Jennifer L.
Harkey. George R.
Harl, Robert H.
Harless. Erma L.
Harman. Arthur C. Jr.
Harmon. Tonda L.
Harmon. Vickie L.
Harper. Christy J.
Harris. Be\erl\ G.
Harris. Daria K.
Harris. Gilbert ().
Harris. Lcland W.
Harris. Lois B.
Harris. Morgan L.
Harris. TitTan\ N.
Hanis. Wesley J.
Harris, Wesley, L.
Harrison. Jeffre\ B.
Harrison. Wile\ C.
Harrod. James D.
Harrow. Kathr> n E.
Hart. Janet L.
Haskell. Clinton E.
Hatfield. Brad G.
Hav\kins. Louis E.
Farmers Home Administration personnel on March 16, 1981
Back row, l-r: Sim Drain, Jim Hubbard. Wayne Moore, Susan Nobbe. Frank Evans.
Suzanne Howard, Dale Foiger, Jackie Brown, Gale Andrew, Gene Earnest, Leonard
McMurtry, Royce Jones, Dwight Whorton, Cecil Wildman, Earl Rooks, Leo Hogan. Phil
Brown, Gene Womack, Ed Van Zandt, Carlos Andujar.
Front row, l-r; Gloria Allen, Janet White, Bette Hodson, Kathy Vanchien, Vickie Barron. Pat
Tiger, Dorothy Lowery, Betty Peachee, Connie Stephenson, Cindy Bergman, Cheryl
Carroll, Linda Glass.
Carl Harris, Clark McWhorter, Leonard Downing,
and Leonard Wiley review plans for proposed
water system. Photo USDA Oklahoma office
Haxton, Milan G.
Hay, Sharon Kay
Hayes. Paul L.
Hayes. Tamika D.
Haygood. Carol J.
Headings. Robert D.
Heckman, Melody S.
Hedrick. Beulah S.
Heft. Susan M.
Hegdale. Pamela D.
Heid, Denise C.
Heilman. Linda S.
Heilman. Maria E.
Hellwege. Ernest A.
Helm, Mike R.
Henderson. Debra S.
Henderson. Gene C.
Henderson. Timothy E.
Hendricks. Jennifer D.
Henry. Jessie L.
Hensley. Douglas D.
Henson. William J.
Hepner. Harold D.
HeiTon. Victor R.
Hester. Helen R.
Hickman. Kelli L.
Hicks. Billy W.
Higginbotham. Lorie A.
Higgins. Jack L.
Hightower. Robert F.
Hill. Han-y W.
Hill. Terri A.
Himbury. Richard R.
Hinkel. Shannon Lacy
Hinnergardt, Marth M.
Hinton. Carolyn A.
Hobbs, Clifford E.
Hobbs. Mary E.
Hobson. Katherine G.
Hodge, Christy J.
Hodges, Norma L
Hodson, Bette B.
Hodson, Christy J.
Hogg. Timothy E.
Holding, Bill Olin
HoUey, Bobby W.
Hollingsworth, Jackson L.
Holloway, Robin L.
Holm. Paul L.
Hoisted. Gary A.
Hoh. Linda K.
Holt. Summer D.
Holzler. James W.
Hood. Ilia Mae
Hood. Velma L.
Horn, Annette L.
House. Stefanie L.
Howard. Dennis V.
Howell. Ackman A.
Howell. Colin R.
Hubanks. Elizabeth Ann
Hubbard, James N.
Hudlow, Carolyn L.
Hufnagel, Robert F.
Huggins, Billy J.
Hull. Jennifer A.
Hunnicutt. Silvia D.
Hunter. James F. Ill
Huntington. Mark L.
Hurst, Tammy L.
Hutton. Eugene M.
Hutton. Karl a D.
Ingram. Mandy K.
Isenberg. La Verne A.
Jackson, Betty M.
Jackson, Delores W.
Jackson, William N
James, Demetria R.
James, Kathleen M.
Jarrell, Andrea D.
Jay, Pamela K.
Jeffcoat. Nancy J.
Jeffrey. Marion A.
Jennings, Tammy L.
Jenson. Paula Renee
Jirtle. Virginia C.
Johns. Shelly K.
Johnson. Harvel J.
Johnson. Iris N.
Johnson. Jennifer R.
Johnson. John H.
Johnson. L.W. Bud
Johnson. Lotha Jane
Johnston, Karen A.
Johnston. Nina D.
Johnston. Sammy C.
Jones. Blanche B.
Jones, Darlene J.
Jones, Donna K.
Jones. Dorothy I.
Jones. Elmo S.
Jones. Erin E.
Jones. Jakie H.. Jr.
Jones. Jesse A.
Jones. Joyce L.
Jones. Myrtle A.
Jones. Ronnie L.
Jones, Royce W.
Jones, Tracy L.
Jordan, M. Diane
Jordan, Marilyn D.
Jordan, Susan G.
Jung, Carol A.
Justice, Jack L.
Justice. Melissa E.
Kauk. Jessie L.
Kays. William H.
Kelly. Kevin L.
Kenney. Jack H.
Kent. Helen B.
Keranen. Jennifer L.
Kerns. Margaret V.
KeiT. Albert L.
Kerr. Betty J.
Ketch, John G.
Ketch. Vicki L.
Kincschi. Kenneth D.
King, Clifford M.
King. Gwenette A.
Kinslow. Ruelle D.
Kinyon. Anita S.
Klein. Kaci N.
Klink. Marie R.
Koerner. Marvin M.
Kolar. Stanley Lee
Kraft, Robert L.
Krause. Eldon W.
Kreienkamp. Ronald A.
Kretchmar. Joanie Y.
Kretz. Roy Roland
Kruska. Paul Dwain
LaCamp. Ira Rex
Ladson. Barbara E.
Lafferty. Robert C.
Lamons. Bill D.
Landers. William H. Jr.
Landgraf. Bill B.
Laney. Carolyn A.
Lankford. Cherina L.
Larkins. Jamel D.
Lathum. W. Jean
Latta. Rachel A.
Laubhan. Ernie A
Law. Susan P.
Lawless, Tammy G.
Lawson. Ladoris Eileen
Layson, Robin D.
Leatherwood. Patricia A.
Ledford, Larry D.
Ledford, Laurie J.
Ledford, O. O.
Lee. Anna Jane
Lee. Frances G.
Lee, James E.
Lee. Darlene E.
Leewright. Tonya D.
LeGrand. Kevin R.
Leonard. Gregory M.
Leonard. Ralph W.
Lewis, Barbara J.
Lewis, Bessie F.
Lewis, Lacquita J.
Lewis. Tanya C.
Lieb. Lori E.
Lieb. William K.
Lindley. Paige L.
Linnet. Shirley R.
Linsley. Joseph H.
Linville. Judy L.
Littlefield, Sheila A.
Livesay. David W.
Lobaugh. Regina L.
Long, Harold E.
Lookabaugh, Roy C.
Losson, Ann S.
Lott, Sheila L.
Love, Traci M.
Lovell. Brenda L.
Lovell, Everett W. Jr.
Mantooth. Vada E.
Marcum. Nita G.
Mardis. Loretta A.
Marker. James P.
Marlow. Julia Z.
Martens. Michael Booth
Martens, Nadine C.
Mrs. Dorothy Lowery, a Farmer Programs Loan
Technician for 35 years, talks with Gene Earnest and
Frank Evans at a retirement party In her honor.
Lowry. Teena S.
Loyall, WilHs L.
Lucas. Raye L.
Lucas, Royden J.
Luekenga, Ronald Gene
Mace, Zella E.
Maddux, Geneva A.
Maehs, Joyce M.
Mall. Cheryl Ann
Mamone. Dana D.
Mann. Cheryl L.
Mann, Debra R.
Manous, John L.
Martin, Betty J.
Martin, Gus D.
Martin. Melinda D.
Martm. W. P
Marvin. George S. W.
Marvin. Viola I.
Matheson, Monica L.
Mathis, Gregory K.
Matlock, Alvin Leon
Matlock. Cecil L.
Matlock. Karen J.
Maxey. John C.
Maxey. Richard P
May, Earl C.
May, Paula A.
Mayhall. Mary Sue
Mazurier. Lorrine F.
McArthur. Henrietta D.
McCampbell. Thomas E.
McCarty. Vera Mae
McCay. Kevin L.
McClellan. Sarah E.
McCollum, Naomi R.
McCray. Bobby Alan
McCuiston. Joe R.
McCuUough. Charles E.
McCurdy. Ellis L.
McCurley. Alvin D.
McDaniel. James L.. Jr.
McDaniel, Joyce K.
McDaniel. LaNelda J.
McDonald. Benny K.
McDonald. Hazel M.
McFalls, Custer R.
McGarry. Jean F.
McGuire. Ke\ in D.
McHenry. Lora B.
McKeaigg. George L.
McKeever. Carol J.
McKinney, Raymond W.
McLemore. Gloria D.
McMillan. Sam L.
McMurtry, Leonard C.
McNair. Carol A.
McNeal. Helen M.
McNeil, Olivia M.
McPherson. Antoni A.
Meadows. Ralph E.
Meikle. John W.
Meinke. Danielle D.
Melton. Dalton M.
Mendoza. Vincent L.
Thelma and Mac McCurdy
at an evening meeting
Photo private collection
Meng. John H.
Mercer. Doris E.
Mercer. Jana R.
Mercer. Lyndon W.
Merchant. Linda M.
Merklin. H. Eldon
Merrihew, Julie A.
Merrill. Eileen B.
Messenger. Marcy A.
Meyer. Mildred M.
Miller. Betty J.
Miller. BlutordW.. Ill
Miller. Howard W.
Miller. Leona M.
Miller. Matthew L.
Miller. Nancy L.
Miller, R. Colleen
Miller. Stacy M.
Miller. Tammi S.
Milner. Staci A.
Mirtz. John L.
Mitchell. Kevin L.
Moffatt. Ina L.
Mogg. Inabell G.
Moon. JoAnna H.
Moore. Brenda J.
Moore. Carol J.
Moore. David M.
Moore. James W.. Jr.
Moore. Kristina D.
Moore. Wayne H.
Morales. Sonia G.
Moreland. Barr> K.
Morgan. Be\erl\ S.
Morgan. Doris A.
Morgan. Richard E.
Morgan. Robert D.
Morlev. Leah K.
Morris. Dorothy Mae
Morrison, Johna Lee
Morrison, Kenneth H.
Morrow, Charles L.
Morse, Donna J.
Mosburg, Bobbie L.
Mullendore, Karen K.
Munson, Stanley E.
MuiTay, Andrew B.
Muiray, Billy D.
MuiTay, Raymond B.
Murrin, Kathy S.
Musick. Christon R.
Myers, Carl D.
Myers, Margaret J.
Myers, Ralph W.
Myers, Terra M.
Nahrgang, Jennifer D.
Nahrgang, Julie A.
Nahrgang, Sheiry L.
Nation. E. D.
Neese, L. J.
Nelson, Billy L.
Nestle, Mark H.
Newsom, Pamela R.
Nicholas. Helen I.
Nichols. Wendy K.
Nickels, Angela R.
Nickelson, Mark A.
Nixon, James A.
Nixon, Mark A.
Nobles. O. C.
Noel. HaiTison S.
Nolen. Dean R
Noll. W. R.
Norman. Jack B.
Nowlin. Alicia D.
Nunley, Elzia H.
Nunn. Linda K.
Nutt. Brenda K.
O'Brien. Catherine Sue
O'Mara, Joseph A
O'Neal, B. Severn
O'Neill, Helen G.
Ogden, Karen Joyce
Oler, Donna K.
Osborn. Lula F.
O'Steen, Harold C.
Otto, J. Neal
Overstreet. Maria E.
Overton, Max W.
Owen, Stacey L.
Owens, Carl L., Jr.
Owens, Cheryl H.
Owens, Van W.
Ownbey. Dana N.
Ozbim. E. Lee
Pace. Buster G.
Page. Cledon J.
Palmer. Colleen W.
Palmer. Monica D.
Parish. F. Ronald
Parish. Helen E.
Parker. Felicia N.
Parker. Leah H.
Parkey. Harold E.
Parks, James E.
Parsons, B. H. Jr.
Parsons, Lester O.
Patterson. Roxanne L.
Paul. Machelle M.
Payne. David C.
Payne. L. Jan
Payne. Phyllis C.
Peachee. Betty J.
Peak, Judith I.
Pebeahsy, Nina K.
Peck, Ralph S.
Peircey, Jimmy F.
Pendergraft, Valda L.
Pennington, Murrel W.
Perkins, L. N. (Cy)
Perry, John M.
Peters, Avis June
Petties, Erma E.
Petty. Melba E.
Pharaoh. Cris E.
PhilHps. Barbara L.
Phillips. Buddy L.
Phillips. Debora J.
Pierce. Charla Jean
Pierce. Susan C.
Pittman, Arthur Ray
Pittman. Donnie R.
Pittman. Jaqueline J.
Pittman. Richard S.
Plaster. Dena A.
Pledger. Marolyn J.
Poindexter. Delina C.
Powell. Carol D.
Powell. Robert G.
Powell. Talitha V.
Powelson. J. D.
Powers. James G.
Prater. William E.
Pratt. Clarence W.
Prentice. Hershel M.
Prentice. Louis R.
Prior. Helen J.
Pritchett. Dolores A.
Prophet. D. R
Provost, Rose S.
Pruitt. J. C.
Pruitt. Mechalle T.
Pryor. Doyle E.
Puckett. Robert E.
Purnell. McLean E.
Quick. Nancy J.
Quick. Teresa N.
Quigley. Kenneth W.
Quimby. Jimmy W.
Quisenbeiry. Raylene B.
Raab. George J.
Raab. Laura B.
Rabon. Heather Lynd
Rainbolt. Charles P
Rainey. Linda E.
Rakestraw. Tracy A.
Raley. Joy G.
Ramsey, Judy C.
Randall, Inga M.
Randall. Walter M.
Randolph. J. Leroy
Raney. Debra D.
Rankin. Roy D.
Rati iff. Adrian A.
RatlitY. Juanita B.
Raupe. Richard L.
Ray. Andrea D.
Ray. C. Arthur
Ray. Florene O.
Ray. Janice M.
Reagan. Gary H.
Redman. Deanna K.
Redman. John L.
Reed, Pearl J.
Reed. R. M.
Reese. Theresa C.
Reimers. Phillip F.
Reitz. Ivan A.
Rempe. Elizabeth L.
Rem\. Terr\ L.
Renew. Patricia K.
Renfrow, Ernest M.
Rich. Bonnie R.
Rich. John V.
Richards. Dalton M.
Richardson. Jennifer L.
Richardson. Ronald W.
Bonnie Rich (I)
Diana Stein (r)
survey the scene
at an FmHA meeting
Photo private collection
Ricks, Donus W.
Ricks, Josephine E.
Rierson. N. Eric
Rigdon, Alan R.
Riley, Gaylene D.
Riner. Margie A.
Riser, Diana K.
Ritchey, Karen L.
Robbins, Darlene K.
Roberts, Donald D.
Roberts, Frank M.
Roberts, Richard Eber
Roberts, Steven M.
Roberts, Tom E.
Robertson. Edna M.
Robertson, John D.
Robertson, Milford M.
Robinson, Jerry L.
Robinson, Ora Mae.
Rosalez, Denise M.
Ross, Phil S.
Rosson, Connie S.
Rosson, Phylliss R.
Rote. Angle M.
Rounsaville, Delbert A.
Roy, Helen K.
Runyan. A. Louise
Russell. Joyce M.
Rutland. N. H.
Ryel. L. M.
Salter. Betty J.
Sanders, Billie K.
Sanders, E. J.
Sanders, Evelin T.
Sanders, Karen M.
Sanders, Ki-istie M.
Sanders. Susan E.
Sandmann. Louis B.
Saunders. Sibble O.
Scammahorn. Gary L.
Scammahorn. Michael L.
Schanbacher. Lyle G.
Schaufele. Beverly A.
Scheffler. A. J.. Jr.
Schladt. George J.
Schlegel. Cynthia J.
Schlegel. Norbert R.
Schrammel, Michael W.
Schuler, Kharla Y.
Schultz, Kristi L.
Schwab, N. Jean
Schwabe, Robert V.
Schwartz. Merle G.
Scott. Frances G.
Scott, Sonja J.
Scott, Tamara L.
Sebranek, Frankie J.
Seddon, Evelyn G.
Sellers, G. Duane
Sellers, Susan D.
Sewell. Billye S.
Sexton, TeiTi D.
Shadoan, Mary Ann
Shafer. Orvis R.
Shaip. Leslie W.
Shaunty, Elizabeth A.
Shearhart, Amy D.
Sheffield. Richard Paul
Shenold, William L.
Sheppard, Kermet E.
Shimanek, Phyllis M.
Shiplett, Sid A.
Shipman, Linda J.
Shirey, Kaylee M.
Short, James H.
Shriner, Ray D.
Shumaker, Byrl B.
Sien-a, Mary J.
Simmons. Jerry L.
Simms. Brenda J.
Simms. Grant W.
Simon, Lawrence F.
Simpkins, Johnny D.
Sims, Edward H.
Sims, Marsha K.
Sipe. Karen J.
Sisson. Ariand D.
Skidgel, Kelley A.
Skimbo, Johnny L.
Slatten, Jack A.
Slatten, James H.
Sloan. Be\eriy J.
Sloan. Eva S.
Smalley. Keith L.
Smith. Billy M.
Smith. Buster E.
Smith. Charles Ray
Smith. Clyde J.
Smith. Evelyn R.
Smith. George W.
Smith. Haney D.
Smith, James V.
Smith. Jimmie C.
Smith. John D.
Smith. Kevin L.
Smith. Lana J.
Smith. Lorita D.
Smith. Melanie J.
Smith. Patsy R.
Smith. Ray L.
Smith. W. Dabney
Snavely. Linda M.
Snider, Wanda J.
Snow, Judith. I.
Soderstrom. Dawn M.
Sonells. Wilma J.
South. Wanda C.
Sparks, Judy L.
Spears. Belinda L.
Speer. Zella B.
Spixey. Grace L.
Spleth. Stephen W.
Spraggins. Nadyne G.
Spray. Jean M.
Spung. O. N.
Spurlin. James B.
Stalford. Malea B.
Staiger, Donald G.
Stearns. Hollis D.
Steed. Jim M.
Stein. Diana S.
Stelting. Gala S.
Stephens. Dallas L.
Stephens. Randal! D.
Stephenson. Larry E.
Stewart. James T.
Stipe. Carolyn A.
Stokes. Mark A. L.
Stoll. Opal E.
Stormont. Jimmie D.
Stout. Charles E.
Stricklin. Catherine J.
Strom. John L.
Stuhhs. Willis L.
Stucki. Tammy L.
Summars. Valjean C.
Sutherland. Jimmie Jean
Sutton. Delton S.
Swan, Frank R.
Swift. Lara L.
Swinnea. John A.
Ruby Moore. Virginia Stephenson, Wayne IVIoore
(standing). Larry Stephenson. Jewell and Frank Evans
admire Frank's dessert. Photo private collection
Stevens. Desiree T.
Talle\. Kenneth R.
Tar\er. Trac\ L.
Tasso. Vanessa V.
Taylor, Cecilia L.
Taylor. Cherriwatha C.
Taylor, Dorothy Lea
Taylor. Jack Jr.
Taylor. Lisa R.
Taylor. Rubye A.
Teague, Vada U.
Teehee, Wanda L.
Terbush, Victor L.
Terrell, William G.
Thionnet, Mildred A.
Thomas, Barbara J.
Thomas, Ben F.
Thomas, Carolyn Y.
Thomas, James C.
Thompson, Betty J.
Thompson, Lavona J.
Thompson, R Renee
Thompson, Robert A.
Thomsen, Kay Lynn
Thomson, Houston L.
Thornton, James E.
Throne, Melissa L.
Thurston, Phillip R
Tibbetts, C. A.
Tillman, Agnes Mae
Tims, Linda L.
Tinder, Linda K.
Tippins, William A.
Tipton. George W.
Tipton, Gerald V.
Todd, Bettie J.
Tootle, Kenny A.
Tow, Betty S.
Tracy, Vickie L.
Trammel, Lany J.
Travis, Michael Jay
Trice. Edward M.
Triplett. Wanda L.
Urban. Ritson L.
Vache. Betty L.
Van Hauen, Judy
Van Zandt. Edgar L.
VanBuskirk. Glenna E.
Vanderpol. Gerald, Jr.
VanMeter. John E
Vann. C. Neale
Vamer, Patton A.
Vassar, S. Carolyn
Vau2han. Cecil L.
(I to r) Chester J. Dotter, Agnes Mae Tillman,
Viola Smith, and Murrel Pennington
Photo, USDA Oklahoma office collection
Trost, John P.
Trotter. Doris A.
Tubby, Linda F.
Tucker, Gary L.
Turn. Linda S.
Turner, Jack D.
Turner, Lloyd G.
Ulrey, Valera K.
Vaughn. Brenda S.
Veech. Everett R.
Vernnon. Lucinda K.
Venill, Evelyn V.
Viers, Marvin M.
Vilhauer. Joyce L.
Villines. Sandra C.
Vinson, Sharon K.
Vogt, Henry W.
Von Tungeln, Bruce
Voss. Walt. Jr.
Wadley. Joseph L.
Walker. Betty S.
Walker, Janet G.
Walker, Marlene C.
Wall, Gary W.
Walters, Christi L.
Walters. Gladys A.
Walton. Rena I.
Walzer. Ronda J.
Ward, Donna J.
Ward, James E.
Ward, Linda K.
Ward, Ricky E.
Warde, Velma K.
Ware, Ralph R.
Warner, Gail E.
Washington, Gerald A.
Washington, Veronica G.
Washmon, Anita M.
Waters. Rex R
Watson, Melanie L.
Watt, James M.
Watt, Linda S.
Watts, Opal L.
Wearmouth, John Clyde
Weaver, Weldon W.
Webb. Cathy L.
Wedel, Carolyn Sue
Wells, Dale A.
Wells, Earl D.
Welpton, Gladys O.
West. Billie Kay
West. Cynthia M.
West. Linda L.
Weston, Kristie L.
Wheeler, Clyde A.
White. Betty J.
White. Don L.
White. Melody D.
Whitesell. Ann A.
Whitlock, Angela L.
Whitney, Vernon D.
Whitworth, O. Dwight
Whorton, Dwight E.
Wicker, Dennis W.
Wicker, Joy G.
Wickersham. M. Renee
Wickware. Vicky L.
Wilcox, Leonard R.
Wilcoxson. Jennifer J.
Wiley. Leonard C.
Wilham. Oliver S.
Wilkins, Mary E.
Williams. Cara D.
Williams. Dorothy M.
Williams. Ferna Sue
Williams. Harold H.
Williams. Kymherly P.
Williams. Lovella (Peggy)
Williams. Mary E.
Williams. Mary P.
Williams. Phyllis Kay
Williams. Robert A.
Williams, Roy Dale
Williams. Thomas D.
Williams. Tracey W.
Williams, Zack, Jr.
Willis, Gilbert C.
Willis. Herbert L.
Willis. Kayla D.
Willoughby. Tonya M.
Willson. Earl L.
Willyerd. Jane M.
Wilson. Connie L.
Wilson, Dee Dee K.
Wilson. Rebeccca K.
Wilson. Sandra J.
Wingo. Linda J.
Winkle. Robin Lynn
Winslett. V E.
Winteiringer. Joan K.
Winters. Thomas J.
Wion. Monte L.
Wolf. Robert L.
Wolff. Dale E.
Wolff. Zita L.
Wood. C. R.
Wood. Jimmy D.
Woodard. Jennie G.
Woods. Holly A.
Woodson. Ashley L.
Woodson, Shana L.
Woodward. Raymond T.
Wright. Afia N.
Wright, Aldon H.
Wright. Audie Ruth
Wright. Kimberly D.
Wyatt. Chelsa M.
Wyatt, Howard H.
Wyatt, L. J.
Yager. Sara J.
Yates. Dicky O.
Yates. R. M.
Yost, Cheryl E.
Yott, Nioma S.
Young, Sally J.
Young, Trelenza J.
Zachary. Howard E.
USDA Farm and Home Management Report
FOR Alfalfa County, 1 94 1
CABLE 7. TASM PHODUCTS ACTUALLY USED BY FAMILY ON 30 P.S.A, FAiiMS
IN ALPyJJA COUNTY, OKLAHOM* IN I9H0
AVERAGE ATEPAGE 10
30 ".-J^u.;? men F.\PMs
,' .".ue ; Ji.antl^.y
Wirle Milk (Gals.)
b -10 Mado Cheese (Lbs.)
H:r:.e Mado Butter '^Lbs)
UL2 [ C.38
5. 1 13
29, 1 - 09,
29. j 2^
lerd.Fat , Bacon, Etc, (Lbs. )
-.;L.n Pork (Lbs.)
-:-: & Veal (Lbs.)
ii.itt:)n ti. Lamb (Lbs.)
>■^ sh & Game (Lbs, )
rr:ed Beans & Nuts (Lb)
Iciratocs & Citrus (Lbs,)
Leaf/ Gr.&Ycllow V. »
O-chor Vegetables (Lbs.)
Canned Food (qts.)
Fruit Used Fresh (Lbs.)
White Pptatoes (Bu,)
Sweet Potatoes (Bu.)
Com Meal (Lbs.)
TOTAL FABM PBDDUCTSt
TABLE g. TABM FAMILY LIVIIIG COSTS ON 30 F. S. A, FAEMS IN
ALFALFA COUNTY, OKLAHOMA, IN I9U0.
CASH LIVING EXPENSE:
Furn. & Equipment
Life Ins. Savings
CASH FAMILY OPEHATING EXPENSE
FARM PRODUCTS ACTUALLY USED
TOTAL LITIN& COST FOR YEAS
HOME CAPITAL GOODS PUECHASEI
TOTAL CASH FAMILY EXPENSES
Number in Family
Food From Farm
Total Food Cost
Food Cost Per Person
Cash Food Expense Per Persoi
Percent of Food Fron Farm
Percent of Living From Farm
•Does not include house rent and home produced soap anc
L family use of
If retail prices for farm products had teen used instead of farm prices,
the percent of the food furnished by the farm would have been nearer
75 percent. A good record 1^ being made in the production of food but
there is still lauch room for laqarovement* Many families are finding out
how to produce more food at home aaff also have a better variety.
Frame Gardens, tub gardens, spring gardens, fall gardens and big gardens
are all proving helpful. How many kinds do you have? Did you grow any
Porter tomatoes last year? If not, why not try them in I9U1. Did you
have as many as 25 different varieties of garden products last year? It
is a possibility being realized by many farm families.
We hope to have a bigger and better report for 19'+1,
Whether we do or not depends upon the records you folk
keep in your I9U1 book. We all are hoping for the
most successful year of years. Let's keep a good re-
cord of it. The r.S.A. orgamzation will do it's very
best to help you. Don't wait too long to see them.
To BcTTEfL FA^t^^HOr-
IT PAYS TO ASg C^UESTIOITSi
Whether you have been in the hi^
group or the low group or just about
average, IT PAYS TO ASK QUESTIONS.
Of course, it is desirable to ask
other people about how they do
things, but the questions vhich pay
the really big dividends when ans-
wered properly are the questions
which each farmer asks himself.
It's plowseat thinking, not dream-
ing, that gets results. We hope
you will find it interesting when
you get time off to yourself to go
through the questions which follow
and check them off to see how many
you can answer "yes" to, how many
are "no", and whether they apply to your farm,
Grade yourself on your
Volume of Business;
1. Is your farm the proper size to give you and your family something
profitable to do each day in the year?
2. Do you have enough acres of pasture for your stock?
3. Is it possible to produce more per acre and increase your volume of
U. Is the soil adapted to the crops you produce?
CAN YIELDS BE INCEEASED?
5. Is your farm terraced and contour farmed?
6. Do you practice strip cropping?
7. Is your farm diversified so that labor and power cos£ is better dis-
tributed, insects and weeds controlled, and soils improved with
organic matter? Pasture improvement results in higher yields per
acre. Is it receiving your best attention?
SECUBE OUTSIDE ASSISTAIJCE.
8. Are you personally acquainted with your County Agent?
9. Are you making use of the Soil Conservation Service?
10. Are you getting your share of the AAA payments?
11. Do you need a new pond or well? Could you get a water facilities loan.
TAKE CABE OP THE SOIL. AND IT WILL TAKE GABE OF YOU,
12, Do you plow early in the fall, and deep enough to conserve moisture?
13, Do you plant winter cover crops of wheat, oats, barley, rye, etc.?
lU, Do you feed your feed to livestock and return the fertility to the
soil? The profits are in the manure pile.
When you feed milk, do you use utmost care in keeping containers
clean and free from flies? Do you scald containers onfle a da^<-
IT WILL PAY YOU WELL.
Do you keep mash before the layers at all times?
Do you refer often to your iDulletins on "Feeding Chickens" and your
circular on "Chick Management"?
Do you have the breed of poultry you like? Are you proud of your hens?
Do you do everything possible to see that they are comfortable and
well cared for?
Are your hens laying good by the first of October? Eggs are usually
worth about twice as much a dozen at that time.
Do you hatch your chicks off at the proper time so that pullets will
come into full production when eggs are worth the most?
Do you buy from reliable hatcheries and get good blood-tested chicks?
Can you keep your hens laying at 50 percent all the time?
1+6. Do you have a light, well drained soil for your garden? Have you
tried planting garden rows on contours. If it works for cotton,
why won't it work in the garden?
1+7. Is your garden the proper size according to your garden plan?
1+2. Does your garden get first consideration at cultivating time?
1+9. Do you manure your garden in the fall, broadcast, then disk and plow?
50. Do you plow at least eight or ton inches deep and leave the ground
rough so that cold weather will destroy insects, especially cut worms?
51. Do you cultivate your garden after each rain, and keep it free of
weeds at all times?
52. Do you plow sandy soils in the fall? Many of our &lk say it is poor
53 » Have you tried planting cane around the ends and sides and also across
the center to break hot winds. Some of our folk say it is almost as
good as a frame garden,
5I+. Do you follow your garden plan carefully?
55. Do you save your own good seed, and when you have to buy do you buy
high quality seed in bulk?
56. Is your garden plan arranged according to the table in the bulletin
"Home Vegetable Garden" or "Grow a Garden"?
57. Is your frame garden located near water? Of course you DO have a
frame garden !
580 Is there a possibility of a small irrigated garden just below the
dam on your farm?
59» Do you use arsenic poisons for biting insects like potato b\igs,
cabbage and tomato worms, cut worms and grasshoppers?
60» Do you use Black Leaf 1+0 on the sucking insects?
61, Do you remember the formula for Bordeairic mixture? 1 lb, bluestone,
1 IK lime, and 12| gallons of water. It kills a lot of pests.
62. Do you refer often to your "Vegetable Spray Calendar"?
63. Do you have a cool, dry cellar for food, plenty of closet space for
clothing and boxes or shelves for bedding!
61+, Does your cellar have plenty of shelves? And is the bottom shelf
built so it can be used for storing potatoes?
FEED GOOD LI7SST0CK.
15» Do you have high bred, carefully selected livestock? They don't
have to be purebred, but that helps. Purebred Jerseys and Guernseys
are popular in this county,
16. Do you keep plenty of water available at all times?
17. Are you selling dairy products to meet current expenses, and are
these sales made at a profit?
18. Da you market your livestock at the proper tiii.e so as to get the
highest returns from your feed?
19. Do you have a bunch of sheep to mow the pasture? And do you know
how to take care of them?
20. Do you use Western ewes? Or do you like to raise native stock?
Can you afford to eat a lamb once in a while? It is considered a
rare delicacy in the city.
21. Do you raise year own meat supply?
22. Are your hogs purebred and well adapted to both home and market
I^CHIIIERY AlID II^ROVK LENTS.
23. Do you keep your machinery in good repair and well oiled?
2^-. Do you make repairs in the winter when other work is slow?
25, Do you keep the doors on their hinges and the gates properly hung?
Landlords notice things like that !
26, Are the fences in good repair? Have you tried out one of the new
27, And most important of all , DO YOU HAVE A TSETCH SILO? One cow or a
dozen, you can't afford to be without a silo.
28» Do you attend group meetings for technical assistance in making
plans and securing other information?
29. Have you made arrangements with your landlord for a' long term
lease? He maybe as anxious to have one as you are.
30. Do you clean your poultry house at least once a week, and the
brooder house each day? Have you heard about dropping pits? Some
of the leading poultrymen in Alfalfa County are using them,
31. Is your poultry free from lice, mites, blue bugs and fleas? (See
your bulletin on "Diseases and Parasites of Poultry.")
32. Do you have at least 2^ square feet of space for Legharns or 3
square feet of space for larger hens in your poultry house?
33' I^ your poultry house warm in winter and cool in summer?
3'+. Do you use feeders which save feed and prevent diseases? (See
demonstrations in FSA office.)
35* Do you keep plenty of fresh, clean water before your chickens at al
36. And do you use split tires for water containers? (We hope not 11
White crocks are so much better.)
37» Do you try to keep some green feed and shade plants near the
Are your sere s in good repair so the flies t y out in the barn?
Have you painted the floors lately or refinished them with sandpaper
and a good filler or stain?
Have you planted any new flowers or shrubs lately!
Do you have the following items for each bedt
1, A comfortable mattress V
2. k sheets for each bed H
3» ^ pillow slips for each bed Y
k^ U quilts for each bed N
5» A spread for each bed
T ? 7 7
Do you have some method for keeping food cool? Some of our folks
have well coolers, window coolers, or shelves in a water pan surround-
ed by moist cloth. Your Raral Supervisor can tell you how to build
one of these.
Have you tried making an inexpensive dressing table with a board and
a couple of orange boxes and a little bright colored material?
HOffl SECURITY AND COMMOTITY COOPERATIOH,
71, Is your record book up to date?
72. Are all children of school age kept in school?
73« Do you encourage your children to belong to a Uh or FFA and FHO
7^, Do you subscribe to some good farm and home papers?
75« Do you hold family councils?
76> Do you attend all meetings of an educational and inspirational nature,
whether called by the Farm Security Administration or someone else?
77* Do you attend Church and Sunday School as much as possible?
78» Do you protect your health and cooperate with the county health nurse
and doctor by attending all clinics and folbwing the advise given?
79» Do you have a lot of fly traps so flies are kept at a minimom?
80. Do you have a sanitary pit toilet?
81« Do you keep your cistern or well clean at all times?
82« Are you doing your best to provide your family with plenty of good
healthful well-balanced food?
83« Do you make your own cereal from home-grown grains?
8U, Do you have about 15 chickens per person to eat each year?
85«. Do you have all the eggs you should have?
86« Will you have plenty of beef, pork and lard?
87» Are you planning to can at least 100 quarts of food per person?
88, Do you make your surplus milk into a cream cheese?
AND HEBE ABE A COUPLE OF QUESTIONS THAT IT WILL PAY YOU TO CONSIDER
89, ARE THERE ANY OF THESE QUESTIONS WHICH YOU WISH YOU COULD HAVE
90, DO YOU thine: it WOULD BE PROFITABLE AND WOULD PAY YOU TO DO SOME-
THING ABOUT IT???
_ 0-0- 0-0- 0-0-
Program Dollars Spent in the State
Total Assistance to Oklahoma from
RURAL HOUSING BUSINESS/UTILITIES
TOTAL 1 WATER/
B&l '" RUS/B&l
1998 $17,695,159 $55,021,330
$72,716,489 $28,283,568 $26,226,249 $54,509,817
1997 $14,455,674 $40,441,940
'' $54,897,614 $28,777,240 $26,909,927 $55,687,167
1996 $15,326,712 $37,885,100
$53,211,812 $24,718,933 $12,467,300 $37,186,233
1995 $10,797,510 $29,763,280
$40,560,790 $26,296,050 $15,464,442 $41,760,492
1994 $12,270,810 $24,461,500
$36,732,310 $26,647,490 $12,268,269 $38,915,759
1993 $9,827,235 $24,204,900
$34,032,135 $26,582,630 $4,206,200 S30. 788.830
1992 $10,474,022 $15,719,170
$26,193,192 $14,946,700 $266,800 $15,213,500
1991 $8,484,592 $12,762,330
$21,246,922 $16,590,920 $3,666,200 $20,257,120
1990 $8,244,864 $16,036,270
$24,281,134 $11,907,800 $2,700,500 $14,608,300
1989 $9,314,926 $16,336,280
$25,651,206 $7,466,500 $1,866,500 $9,333,000
1988 $10,206,944 $15,975,810
$26,182,754 $10,883,970 $5,775,000 $16,658,970
1987 $8,545,403 $15,543,960
1986 $8,821,144 $17,958,510
$24,089,363 $20,838,800 $5,214,800 $26,053,600
$26,779,654 $9,284,800 $1,475,000 $10,759,800
1985 : $22,880,818 $26,680,760
$49,561,578 $8,976,500 $2,246,000 $11,222,500
1984 $19,423,358 $38,176,642
$57,600,000 $8,600,000 $600,000 S9.200.000
1983 $19,040,700 $53,059,300
$72,100,000 $38,000,000 $1,600,000 S39.600.000
1982 $24,814,436 $59,563,690
$84,378,126 $17,449,600 $2,360,000 $19,809,600
$16,882,313 1' 1 ; 1 ;:
$10,017,270 111 1 ||
1977 $2,530,440 $153,272,360
$155,802,800 $39,963,500 $9,458,000 ' $49.421 ,500
1976 $3,806,170 $137,910,930
$141,717,100 $19,408,400 $30,144,800 $49,553,200
1975, $1,552,770 $69,605,370
$71,158,140 $11,538,400 $10,048,500 $21,586,900
1974 $856,500 $52,415,282
$53,271,782 $13,030,800 $7,741,400 $20,772,200
1973 $1,788,080 $48,528,750
$50,316,830 $11,511,100 $11,511,100
1972 $1,427,580 $60,056,442
$61,484,022 $10,430,800 $10,430,800
1971 $457,500 $49,483,113
$49,940,613 $14,940,200 i $14,940,200
1970 $529,350 $25,729,832
$26,259,182 $11,823,000 $11,823,000
1969 $479,400 $12,702,872
$13,182,272 S12. 110.860 ' $12,110,860
1968 $48,340 $10,694,180
$10,742,520 $13,380,840 ' $13,380,840
1967 $36,500 $11,303,301
$11,339,801 $10,406,965 $10,406,965
1966 $11,900 ,■ $8,432,995
$8,444,895 : $6,650,570 ■ $6,650,570
1965 1 $4,309,896
$4,309,896 $4,847,570 i , $4,847,570
1964 , $3,842,635
$3,842,635 $968,560 ' $968,560
1963 ! $5,394,700
1962 1 $3,156,617
' $8.301 .464 "
' $9,744,244 '
i $9,400,558 '
\ $6,333,658 '
1 $4,279,491 IP
1 $2,550,959 '"
SI. 094.124 f.
HOUSING : MULTI-
$0 1: $14,455,674
$0 1 $15,326,712
$0 ! $9,827,235 |
$0 [1 $10,206,944
$0 '; $8,545,403
$0 il $8,821,144
$0 ! $22,880,81 8
$0 [; $10,017,270
$0 [1 $12,830,090
$0 1: $9,555,617
$0 j $2,530,440
$0 ' $3,806,170
$0 : $1,552,770
$0 t! $856,500
Program Dollars: Single Family Housing
SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING
SELF- SITE REPAIR
REPAIR *" TOTAL ]
ID CM C35
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FARMER PROGRAMS |
-U.S. GOVERNMEMT PRimTNG OFFICE: