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Digitized by the Internet Archive 
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Mra. A. Louise Andrea 
















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Copyright, 1920, by 

All rights reserved, including that of translation 

into foreign languages, including 

the Scandinavian 



We have passed through a long and trying experi- 
mental stage of saving foods by dehydration. At last, 
means and methods have not only been perfected, but 
are at the service of every one. 

Dehydration may be accomplished easily and suc- 
cessfully, both in the kitchen and in commercial plants, 
— by the bushel or by the ton, as the case may be. 

For several years patient and unceasing work has 
been done along this line in order to attain the desired 
results, and personally I acknowledge with grateful 
appreciation the kindly co-operation and suggestions 
from Messrs. George Hillard Benjamin, O. H. Benson, 
Woodford Brooks, Joseph S. Caldwell, H. C. Gore, 
S. C. Prescott, Lou D. Sweet, the late Waldron 
Williams, F. G. Wiechmann and other sincere and 
able investigators. 

Moreover, in writing upon the development of de- 
hydration in the United States, it is only just to pay a 
sincere tribute to the altruistic and laudable efforts 
of Mrs. Oliver Harriman in behalf of this beneficent 


New York. 



List of Illustrations ix 


I. Regarding Dehydration 1 

II. Uses for Dehydrated Products . . .19 

III. For Pets and Domesticated Animals ... 26 

IV. Dehydrating in Large Quantities ... 29 
V. Packing and Preservation 41 

VI. Dehydrating at Home, followed by General 

Hints and Data 45 

VII. Directions for Home Dehydrating (Vegetables) 66 

VIII. Vegetable Flours and Meals 86 

IX. Home Dehydrating (Fruits) 88 

X. Cooking Directions 95 

XI. Soups 99 

XII. Vegetable and Pudding Sauces and Salad Dress- 
ings 105 

XIII. One-Dish Dinners . . . . . . .114 

XIV. Recipes for Using Dehydrated Vegetables . . 118 
XV. Recipes for Using Dehydrated Fruits . . .172 

Addenda — Practical Suggestions 196 

Index 201 


Mrs. A. Louise Andrea Frontispiece 


Diploma awarded with Gold Medal to A. Louise Andrea 
at Panama-Pacific International Exposition, San 

Francisco 4 

Mrs. Andrea's Testing Kitchen, New York City . . 5 
A Conveyor Dryer in which Loading and Drying are 
done automatically, the Idea being to save Labor 

Costs 32 

The Harrison Dryer 33 

Mrs. Oliver Harriman dehydrating Vegetables from her 

Country Estate 40 

A Type of Tray Dryer 41 

A Really Efficient Home Dehydrator .... 49 

Spinach, before and after Drying 50 

String Beans, before and after Drying .... 50 
A Dryer with Canvas Walls. A Cheap and very Effi- 
cient Dryer; Curtains can be lifted as desired . 60 

A Conveyor Dryer 61 

Canned Pears, before and after Drying ... 66 

White Squash ,67 

Onions, before and after Drying 67 





The dehydration of foods is one of the most im- 
portant considerations in the world. It is the means of 
preserving foods quickly, cheaply and perfectly, and it 
will save thousands of tons of garden, orchard and farm 
produce which have gone to waste hitherto. 

By dehydration, all kinds of foods — fish, meats, 
fruits and vegetables, and even milk and eggs — may 
be reduced to a fraction of their original weight and 
bulk. Moreover, when properly dehydrated, the foods 
maintain not only their nutritive properties, but their 
flavorings and colorings as well, being far superior to 
canned products in this regard. 

Those of us who have worked practically at dehydra- 
tion and with dehydrated products realize that this 
art or science is bound to effect a revolution in our 
means and methods of food preservation, and interest 
in dehydration and appreciation of its possibilities are 
spreading rapidly throughout the world. 

During my lectures upon foods and cookery during 
the past two years most of the questions coming from 


the audiences were about dehydration, or "drying" 
as the majority consider it, while I have people calling 
at my testing kitchen almost daily regarding systems 
and methods, among them being visitors from Cuba, 
South American countries, Italy, France, Great Britain 
and Canada, in addition to those from all over the 
United States. 

There is a very essential difference between drying 
and dehydration, and this fact must be recognized. 
As we know, all food materials are composed of myriads 
of tiny cells, these cells holding flavorings, colorings 
and nutrients, together with a large percentage of 
fluid — practically water. The problem has been how 
to extract the water from the cells without causing 
chemical changes and loss of essential principles. 

Broadly speaking, dehydration is a method of ex- 
tracting the water quickly without rupturing the mem- 
branes or cell walls. Thus only the water is taken away, 
and the volatiles, the flavoring essences, the colorings 
and the nutritive properties are left in the cells. It is 
just the principle of osmosis (a sweating, as it may be 
termed), and when the dehydrated or dehumidified 
products are soaked in water for a time their cells 
absorb moisture, and furnish, to all intents and pur- 
poses, fresh food materials which may be cooked and 
dealt with just as could be the original raw foods. 

Drying, on the other hand, is a slow process, — so 
slow that the cell walls crack and open, allowing the 
volatiles and aromatics to escape and the coloring prin- 
ciples to change; hence the flavor and appearance of 



dried products are not and cannot be equal to those of 
dehydrated products. 

As tangible evidence of this we will consider grass 
and hay. Hay is dried grass, and even though you 
soak hay in water you cannot "restore' it, whereas 
dehydrated grass "comes back" fresh, green and succu- 

Let us take dried apples as another example. Dried 
apple pie is always dried apple pie, as every one can 
tell upon tasting it, whereas pie made from dehydrated 
apples yields a dish that is really fresh apple pie, and 
it cannot be distinguished from pie made with the 
fresh-cut fruit. 

To emphasize still further the conspicuous merits 
of dehydrated fruits and vegetables, I have often 
served dehydrated products and strictly fresh ones at 
the same meal, and no one could t^ll which was which. 
Recently a food commissioner from a neighboring coun- 
try wrote to ask me what I thought of dehydration, and 
what plant or system of dehydration could I recom- 
mend. I replied that the subject was too important to 
deal with satisfactorily by correspondence, but that 
if he would call at my testing kitchen in New York he 
could see my exhibit of dehydrated products, — fish, 
oysters, meats and almost every fruit and vegetable 
grown in the United States, and that we could then 
discuss the technical details of dehydration to good 

This man came and brought another food official 
with him, whereupon I prepared a luncheon at which 



were served fresh-picked carrots, spinach, turnips and 
cabbage, the latter chopped finely and served raw with 
a dressing, as cabbage salad. At the meal I served the 
same things dehydrated, the carrots and spinach having 
been dehydrated a couple of years previously. My 
guests confessed that they could not tell which were the 
fresh vegetables and which were the dehydrated ones. 
Finally, one of them said, "Oh, Mrs. Andrea can 
make anything taste good," but while I appreciated 
the compliment, I protested very promptly, saying 
that he was not being fair to dehydrated products, 
because all can cook and serve dehydrated products 
that will be just as delicious as fresh-picked stuff, 
provided that they will follow simple rules and direc- 
tions. And, as it happened, in this particular instance 
my maid had prepared everything under my directions, 
so the whole thing was really a sincere tribute to 

As drying is a more convenient term to use, we will 
consider it for our purpose herein as dehydration, desic- 
cation or dehumidifying; consequently, when the word 
"drying" is used it is to be understood in its restricted 

I have tested samples of dehydrated fruits and 
vegetables from Denmark, Germany, Russia and other 
European countries, but find that over there they 
precook everything before dehydrating it. This means 
a great loss in flavor and appearance, and when the 
precooking has involved a boiling process a large per- 
centage of the valuable nutrients and solubles escape 




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into the water, with consequent and material loss of 
desirable properties. 

We have improved vastly over the European meth- 
ods, for we dehydrate most of our produce raw, with 
few exceptions, such as potato, beets and corn, the 
latter being steamed only long enough to set the milk. 

Just a word of caution will be a propos here. There 
is dehydration and what many people mistake for 
dehydration, the latter being improperly and imper- 
fectly done. The produce must be dried "below the 
enzyme stage" and throughout; uniformly from centre 
to surface. That is to say, there must not be enough 
moisture left to permit of fermentation or mold, but 
at the same time there must be a sufficient percentage 
of moisture left in the products so that they will 
"restore" as they should. 

Already, many people have met with disastrous losses 
through trying to put dehydrated products on the 
market in packages, without realizing the importance 
of the foregoing. The products molded and spoiled, 
and in many cases developed grub worms and insects, 
all of which meant loss and disappointment to the 
packers, and distrust of dehydrated products on the 
part of the public. 

This need not be a source of discouragement, however, 
for proper dehydration and treatment of the products 
overcome these troubles, and we must remember that 
when canned foods were first put on the market, con- 
stant spoilage and loss occurred until the packers 
learned the means and methods now employed by them. 


Of course, reasonable care must be exercised in regard 
to keeping foods that have been dehydrated, for nothing 
in Nature will stand abuse or mistreatment. As an 
instance of this I was once called into consultation with 
some people who were putting out dehydrated milk 
(milk powders) on a large scale. They were having 
constant trouble with their customers, with bakers 
especially, who claimed that while they realized what 
milk powders could do when used in their bread, cake 
and other mixtures, the powders became rancid and 
unusable, so that they would not experiment with them 
any farther. Upon visiting these dissatisfied bakers 
I found that after having purchased the powdered 
milk in barrel lots they were keeping these barrels 
open, and close to radiators, ovens and other sources 
of heat, so no wonder rancidity and spoilage ensued. 

When this little matter of cause and effect was 
pointed out, and their future supplies were kept in 
dry, cool and suitable places, no further complaints 
were received, and the business has grown to enormous 

In concluding this chapter I would say that while 
those who have worked with dehydration, and have 
used properly dehydrated products, become enthusiastic 
converts to this form of food preservation, as the sub- 
ject is so new and as yet comparatively little known, 
I will now quote statements regarding dehydration 
from various authorities in support of my own views 
and claims. 



General Realization coming 

As a people we have not yet realized that for many decades 
we have been paying millions of dollars annually for water 
that we did not want, — water that we might just as easily 
have had well-nigh for nothing, by working the pump or 
turning on the faucet. 

Take, for instance, a case of canned tomatoes costing about 
$4 and containing two dozen tins, each weighing 2 pounds. 
The canner's outlay for the tomatoes themselves did not ex- 
ceed 15 cents. In other words, the ultimate consumer is 
spending $3.85 for 15 cents worth of tomatoes, and probably 
full 90 per cent of each 2-pound can is tin and water — 
mostly water. 

The economic wastage becomes still more conspicuous 
when you realize that a tax in the way of freight charges is 
being levied for the transportation of every pound of that 
water, and of the cans and boxes that make it possible to 
ship the tomatoes in that form. The canned tomato is no 
whit more palatable or nourishing than its dried rival. The 
24-can case tips the scales at 60 pounds, while the same 
quantity of the vegetable when dried weighs only 2j pounds, 
and can be packed in pasteboard containers. 

Probably the sacrifices due to the water content of the 
canned product can be made even plainer. It is practicable 
to ship dried in 1 car what it would take 30 cars to carry of 
the canned goods. In a carload of canned tomatoes there are 
10,000 pounds of tin and 14,000 pounds of lumber, a total of 
24,000 pounds, and for 30 cars freight would have to be paid 
on 360 tons of materials that could in no wise help the hungry 
consumer. An expert has further elaborated upon the wastage 
and lost motion involved. He says: "There is the movement 
of the tin-making material from the mines to the tin-plate 


factory, and the movement of the tin plate from the tin- 
plate factory to the tin-can plant; and the movement of the 
logs to the sawmill and of the lumber thence to the box 
shook works, and the shooks from there to the cannery. The 
aggregate of this service gives us 105 carloads as against 1 
carload of dried vegetables." The cardboard containers 
are made from waste material, and the cartons, folded flat, 
capable of holding a carload of desiccated vegetables, can be 
carried in a very small space. 

Last year we raised 400,106,000 bushels of potatoes, and 
from government sources we learn that only about 32 per 
cent of our total potato crop ever moves out of the territory 
in which the tubers are grown. A staggering percentage of 
the potatoes are scrapped or fed to cattle simply because they 
are not first class, measured by market standards, or it is 
impossible to ship them away to other districts for human 

The potato is 78 per cent water in its edible portion. In 
Germany they dried in the course of twelve months, according 
to the latest available reports, 800,000,000 bushels, sub- 
stantially twice as many potatoes as we raise in the whole 
United States annually. Every pound of those desiccated 
potatoes was 100 per cent foodstuff, and could be kept many 
months without deterioration. This was apart from the 
potatoes which were utilized in the ordinary fresh condition. 

Again, for fresh vegetables shipped long distances we pay 
extravagantly. This is to cover spoiling in transit or pres- 
ervation while on the road, besides taking care of the trans- 
portation charges. A western grower urged Congress about 
a year ago to take steps to promote dehydration in this 
country. According to him: "Just before I left California 
I saw a shipment of 50 pounds of green sprouts about to be 
despatched to some point east where the express rate is 



12 cents a pound. In order to ship that 50 pounds of green 
sprouts they had to include a 100-pound cake of ice, and 
to pay on that ice at the same rate, making a total express 
outlay of $18. The whole 50 pounds could have been dried 
and mailed by parcel post, the package weighing 3 pounds 
and calling for 35 cents in stamps." — The Sun, New York. 

The United States Department of Agriculture informs us 
that fully 50 per cent of all the vegetables and fruits grown in 
America never reach the consumer. They rot on the ground. 

This tremendous loss is due to difficulties of transportation 
combined with the fact that only the fanciest quality of 
fruits and vegetables will pass final market inspection for 
profitable shipping and trading. 

The American dehydrating processes now encouraged 
would conserve every particle of these waste products, con- 
tributing tremendously thereby to the wealth of the farm, 
and adding thousands of tons of perfect foods to the nation's 

The value of vegetables and fruits because of their flavor, 
fiber and indispensable alkaline salts is recognized by scien- 
tists all over the world. Their use is essential to the physical 
welfare of soldiers, sailors and civilians. 

In the dehydrated products the food elements, the al- 
bumens, starches, sugars, fats, oil and salts suffer no impair- 
ment of their food value. The food cells and cell membranes 
are not injured, but retain their normal function. 

The dehydrated product after immersion in water resumes 
its original freshness and appearance, retains its original 
coloring principles, its essential oils and other volatile con- 

The drying process so imprisons the delicate bouquet and 
the fine flavor of the raspberry that the manufacturers of 



pure fruit extracts actually prefer the dehydrated berry to 
the fresh berry. The reason for this is very simple. The 
extract manufacturer has to wait from two to five days after 
the berry is picked before he can put his hands upon it. On 
the other hand, when picked fresh and put into the dehydrat- 
ing machine right on the farm or in a near-by plant the full 
flavor and bouquet of the berry is sealed up at once and 
remains sealed up until it is again released by its bath in 
cold water before cooking. 

What is true with regard to the raspberry is also true with 
regard to apples, apricots, figs, peaches, pears, plums, cherries, 
quinces, strawberries, blackberries, huckleberries, currants, 
grapes, rhubarb, tomatoes, eggplant, squash, pumpkin, corn, 
peas, mushrooms, string beans, horseradish, herbs, etc. — 
The Globe, New York. 

Dehydration is the science of removing water from vege- 
tables and fruits. There are two methods, — the German, 
which cooks the vegetable with live steam before drying, to 
break down the starch cells, and the American, which dries 
by passing hot air over the product. There is no loss of taste, 
color or food value with the American process. Virtually 
all fruits and vegetables can be dehydrated and they will 
keep indefinitely. — General Facts about Dehydration, 
published by the food for france fund, new york 

In order that the layman may realize something of what 
dehydration involves, it might be well to show how large a 
part water plays in some staple fruits and vegetables. Let 
us tabulate these for easier reference. 































Cabbage, . 










The housewife pays for all of this water at exactly the 
same rate per pound as she does for the food content. Fur- 
thermore, the nutritive value of dried fruits and vegetables 
increases directly as the percentage of water diminishes. 
Plainly we are dietary spendthrifts when we insist upon 
fresh produce, and it is evident that we can effect a very 
handsome saving if we will content ourselves in the cold 
seasons with dehydrated products. 

By the latest American process the products to be dried 
are commonly treated within a very few hours after they 
have been gathered; in fact, they reach the so-called dry- 
ventors far fresher than most of us know such commodities. 
We have to wait at times days before they come to the table, 
and nearly every hour after picking there is measurable 
deterioration and loss of flavor. 

The ultimate products when soaked in water, as they 
should be for a short time before cooking, regain their original 
form, and taste as crisp and fresh and full-flavored as though 



newly gathered. Of course, the dried foodstuffs occupy but 
a small part of the space taken up by the original fresh 

For example, a barrel of dried mixed vegetables that will 
make first-class soup weighs but 100 pounds and will provide 
a steaming plate for 7,000 persons. Before drying, these 
vegetables fill something like 30 barrels. This saving in 
weight and bulk is a matter of especial importance now be- 
cause of car shortage and railway congestion. — The 
Herald, New York. 

And the weight of expert opinion is emphatically that we 
are about to decide in favor of a revolution; that we are 
about to institute a change in our mechanism of food supply 
more fundamental in its nature, and more far-reaching in its 
results, than anything since the invention of the tin can 
itself. We are going to discard the whole elaborate system 
of preserving our food in condition to eat; instead of wetting 
it down and cobking it before preservation, we are going to 
dry it out thoroughly, and, in all but a few cases, preserve it 
raw. Dehydration is the word. — American Cookery, Bos- 
ton, Mass. 

And last, but not least, there are various types of dryers 
for home use, so that the housekeeper can see and learn how 
to dry or dehydrate her fruits and vegetables so that they 
can be "restored" by simply soaking in water at any time 
during the winter. The original orchard and garden fresh 
flavors and colors will be in them to perfection, for proper 
drying means that merely the water content has been removed 
without rupturing the cell walls or changing the flavors, 
colors and nutritive properties. It is a pleasant considera- 
tion that no winter day can prove so cold and dreary but 
that you can have the cheer and good things of summer time 



on the home table by means of dehydrated products. — The 
Tribune, New York. 

The one great lesson taught by the special instruction train 
to promote food preservation, which was visited by hundreds 
of persons last evening at the Erie station, is that of dehy- 
drating foods. Everything from peas to prunes, including to- 
matoes, asparagus, spinach, carrots, beans, pineapple, squash, 
can be dehydrated to advantage, eliminating the need for 
tin cans, glass jars and sugar, and absolutely doing away 
with the waste resulting from "spoiled" jars. 

Absolutely every bit of the dried fruits and vegetables in 
the train had been "put up" by Mrs. A. Louise Andrea. Mrs. 
Andrea received first prize for everything she canned and 
preserved at the San Francisco fair. Mrs. Andrea spoke 
informally to the groups of interested women who gathered 
around her, answered questions, and explained many of 
her little discoveries which make her work so successful. — 
The News, Newburgh, N. Y. 

Drying of garden products, however, is going to make the 
amount of food stored away for next winter's use much 
larger than it would be otherwise. This old-new idea of 
food drying has taken forcible hold of the American people. 
Revived at this time of imperative need, it has appealed to 
every one through its practicability. Food so prepared is 
wholesome, palatable and extremely cheap. From being the 
preoccupation of scientists, the subject of food drying has 
come to be, next to the war itself, the biggest topic of the 

Mr. Lou D. Sweet, president of the Potato Association of 
America, says on this subject: "Dehydration has come to 
stay in this country, and those who are familiar with the 
problem of food production and conservation are firm in the 



opinion that we are seeing only the beginning of what is sure 
to expand into an enormous and important industry. Every 
encouragement, therefore, should be given to home drying, 
in order that the people may become familar with the excel- 
lence of the products which may be prepared by this method, 
and to save the vast quantities of excellent food which goes 
to waste for lack of adequate means of conservation." — 
Charles Lathrop Pack, President, National War Gar- 
den Commission. 

A single pound of dried tomatoes or cabbage is equal to 
10 pounds of the fresh vegetable, and at least that number 
of pounds of the canned. A paper carton of dried tomatoes, 
no larger than a package of breakfast food, and weighing 
%\ pounds, is equivalent, in food values, to an entire case 
of canned tomatoes, containing two dozen cans, weighing 
60 pounds. When cooked, each will make the same volume 
of food. 

The use of dried vegetables in cafes, hotels and clubs 
carries with it many advantages. It enables the chef to 
have on hand, at all times and to meet any emergency de- 
mand, a supply of all varieties of vegetables. The compact- 
ness and lightness of these dried vegetables avoids the ne- 
cessity of maintaining large storage rooms, often refrigerated, 
for a tin of dried vegetables weighing 10 pounds, and occupy- 
ing less than £ cubic feet of space, will provide enough food 
for a thousand persons at one meal. As the food is non- 
perishable, it can be carried on the pantry shelves indefi- 
nitely without deterioration, and when wanted for use the 
soaking of a few handfuls in water will render the vegetable 
ready for cooking. 

Practically every variety of fresh vegetable is now being 
successfully dried. In the big drying plants on the Pacific 



coast all kinds of vegetables, berries and fruits are de- 

The best proof of the utility of evaporated vegetables is 
shown by the kind of institutions which use them. Famous 
hotels, clubs and cafes from Maine to California are using 
them regularly in their service, and many of the leading 
chefs of the country have testified to the merits of the new 
form of food. In New York the Manhattan and Ritz-Carlton 
hotels use evaporated vegetables, and the same is true of the 
Willard in Washington, the Palace and St. Francis in San 
Francisco, and many others throughout the country. An 
equally large list of prominent clubs and cafes have become 
converted to the new product. 

The owners of ocean-going vessels are also becoming in- 
terested in evaporated vegetables for use in feeding the 
passengers and crews during a voyage. The great saving 
in space, their wide variety, and other advantages have led 
some of the large operating companies on the Pacific coast 
to try out the products, and all of them report the results as 
being most satisfactory. — The Steward, New York. 

The advantages of dehydration are almost too obvious to 
require extended statement. Most evident of all is the loss 
in weight. All the vegetables in common use contain from 
65 to 95 per cent of water. The dehydrated product made 
from these vegetables should contain from 5 to 10 per cent 
of water. There is, therefore, a very large reduction in 
weight and consequent saving in the transportation charges, 
which in general are based upon weight. 

Similarly there is a loss in bulk amounting to from 50 to 
80 per cent of the bulk of the raw material. The importance 
of these factors to railroads in times of congestion such as 
we have just passed through, or to ships in overseas service, 



is very evident. In the mere matter of sending food to 
armies, one ship could easily carry the vegetable requirements 
which in the green or fresh state would take from 10 to 25 

From the standpoint of agriculture the greatest advantage 
of dehydration undoubtedly appears in the stabilization of 
crops and the conservation of materials. Under the present 
conditions we are confronted by either a feast or a famine. 
If we consider potatoes as the most typical root crop, it is a 
matter of experience that a year in which we get a very large 
harvest and consequently low prices is likely to be followed 
by a lean year with a small crop and high prices. This 
pendulum swing goes on decade after decade. With de- 
hydration the excess of the years of great yield can be stored 
up and made available in the following year, when prices 
are higher and the crop much smaller. After a short time 
this would tend to equalize the amount of planting, and, 
other things being equal, to give us year by year a sufficient 
quantity of food materials at normal prices. 

The second great advantage is in the conservation of food 
materials. It is estimated that over 50 per cent of the fruits 
and vegetables grown in this country now never reach the 
consumer, as a result of poor transportation facilities, irregu- 
larities in marketing or other causes. By making use of the 
process of dehydration the second quality materials could 
be preserved by drying, and made available for human 
food and not allowed to rot and waste. Again, taking the 
potato as typical, those of classes 2 and 3 (culls) could be 
used for the manufacture of dehydrated potato and potato 
flour, a product which has not yet received in this country 
the attention which it deserves, but which is now being 
manufactured to some extent in a number of different parts 
of the country. 



A third factor of importance in the relation of dehydration 
to agriculture lies in the fact that a better diversity of crops 
can be secured, and as a result of this there will be a good 
variety of the vegetables which are the equivalent of fresh 
materials available to poor and rich throughout the year. 
This means practically better feeding for the people at large, 
evening up of prices, and the prevention of famine or great 
food shortage as a result of poor crops in any particular 
location. — Maj. S. C. Prescott, United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. 

Dehydration of fruits and vegetables is a field offering great 
possibilities, once processes have been developed to make 
good products. Millions of pounds of water are being carried 
about in this country every day in freight cars at high rates, 
in the form of fresh fruits and vegetables. The water not 
only costs consumers millions of dollars in freight and bulk, 
but is the chief factor in decay and freezing. By good proc- 
esses of dehydration, which are now being perfected, apples 
and berries can be made dry as chips, and potatoes and 
cabbage likewise. A bushel of potatoes in the form of dried* 
flakes can be carried home under your arm in a tin can. No 
peeling, no freezing, no decay, no waste. Millions of pounds 
of such potatoes were dehydrated in America and sent to the 
Allies. In a little tin you will soon buy mixtures of dehydrated 
vegetables, six or eight different kinds, for soup. — The 
Saturday Evening Post. 

I am deeply interested in the industry of desiccated vege- 
tables and fruits. I believe that the general use of such 
products by the general public would be highly beneficial. 
The rapidity with which the samples are dried and the low 
temperature employed secure the full value of these products 



in so far as their vitamine and antiscorbutic properties are 
concerned. — Dr. Harvey W. Wiley. 

In my opinion, gathered from my own experiments and 
the evidence gathered in Germany, the food values of dried 
vegetables remain the same as fresh. Regarding the so- 
called vitamines, the leaf vegetables, such as cabbage, spin- 
ach and cauliflower, contain more than do the fruits and 
other vegetables, but owing to the high prices in wintertime 
the consumer with a limited pocketbook is going to buy 
the grain products he considers essential and cut out these 
green leaf vegetables. This is a great mistake. Children par- 
ticularly, and even the grown-ups, need this particular sub- 
stance which occurs in largest amount in these green vege- 
tables which will not be bought by consumers during the 
high-priced season, hence my great interest in the possibility 
of converting these leaf vegetables during the season when 
they are very cheap into an imperishable commodity which 
everybody can buy when fresh vegetables are too expen- 
sive in the winter season. — Professor McCollum of 
Rockefeller Institute of Hygiene. 




As intimated previously, almost everything which 
may be eaten can be dehydrated. As a matter of 
fact, 1 have succeeded with everything but watermelon, 
in which the percentage of moisture is so excessive and 
the cellular structure so delicate that I must exclude 
watermelon from the practicabilities, albeit the rind 
may be dehydrated for future use in pickles and con- 
serves. While it would seem that the tomato comes 
in the "impossible" category, nevertheless, the tomato 
can be dehydrated to good advantage, in quarters if 
the tomatoes are small, or sliced, and then ground 
into powder, if desired, the latter being the best for 
soups and sauces. Directions for making these are 
given elsewhere in this volume. 

Whether for commercial purposes or for home use, 
it must be realized that through dehydration the 
finest and freshest of farm and garden produce is 
always available for the bleak winter months, and 
for use where such produce cannot be grown. One 
can have young, tender beans, fresh peas, sweet corn, 
succulent, tender spinach, tropical dainties and a 
multitude of other food things at any time during 
the winter, and at any place whatever, all preserved 
at their freshest and best, and when cheap and plenti- 
ful. In fact, in many districts produce develops so 



rapidly and in such abundance during the summer that 
it can be often had for the mere picking, and those 
having farms and gardens may dehydrate in their 
kitchens such small amounts of fruits and vegetables 
as it would not pay to put up by a canning process, 
but which can be saved to perfection and without cost 
by simply using a little home dehydrator over a kitchen 

Those intending to do dehydration on a commercial 
scale are naturally interested in the possible sources 
of their raw materials and markets for the finished 
goods. I do not think that at first it would be advisable 
to try to sell small package lots to housewives and 
families, for the time and expense involved would 
hardly warrant this. Worth-while quantities may be 
easily sold to hotels, restaurants, clubs, camps, board- 
ing schools, hospitals and other institutions, however, 
and to the supply departments of railroads, steamships 
and sailing vessels. The advantages of such products 
are so many and so obvious that but little salesmanship 
is necessary, for it is a matter of obtaining fresh produce 
which is already cleaned and ready for use, which takes 
up little storage space, and at a positive saving of 
cost and labor to the purchasers. 

The tremendous reduction in space and weight is 
all-important as far as dining cars and ships are con- 
cerned. Many of the latter heretofore have been 
going without fresh fruits and vegetables on account 
of lack of room and refrigeration, to the detriment of 
both passengers and crews. But where a truck load 



of good, fresh produce has been reduced to a mere 
case or barrel, all the previous objections are done 
away with, and dehydrated fruits and vegetables will 
be carried and served, thus preventing scurvy and 
other ailments, and adding materially to the health, 
efficiency and happiness of all concerned. 

To prove my point I am constantly receiving letters 
asking where good dehydrated products can be secured. 
The following, from one of the largest corporations in 
the United States, is an example : — 

Dear Mrs. Andrea : — We are operating a large con- 
cession in South America, and are obliged to transport to 
our workers there commissary supplies. These have to go 
up a long river in gasoline boats and then on mule back. It 
has occurred to us that we might use to advantage dehydrated 
vegetables in this connection, and write you, as we under- 
stand that you have done a great deal of work in connection 
with the dehydration of vegetables, to ask if you can inform 
us the name and address of manufacturers of best grade of 
these products. We will greatly appreciate any information 
you can give us. 

Other profitable channels are opening up, such as 
the furnishing of basic materials for jams, jellies, 
syrups and extracts, for the fruits employed therein 
may be dehydrated and set aside to be used when 
convenient, and the resultant products are in no wise 
inferior to those made from the fresh fruits. 

There is no need of worry as to the outcome of 
a dehydration business, properly conducted. In the 
first place, it is dealing w T ith a necessary factor in 



life, namely, food. No matter what happens, whether 
wars, revolution or business depressions, every one 
must eat. Jewelry, books and even clothing may be 
unsalable at times, but where food of the finest and 
best quality can be supplied in convenient form, and 
at such a saving of labor, spoilage, space, bulk and 
weight, there will always be purchasers aplenty, and as 
dehydrated products become more appreciated, as they 
are bound to be, the number of purchasers will con- 
stantly increase. 

Nor need the competition of home dehydrators be 
feared. While there will be plenty of home dehydra- 
tion done, this will not appreciably affect dehydration 
done on a large and commercial scale any more than 
home canning has prevented packers from doing a 
world-wide business, and in many instances acquiring 
large fortunes. 

In marketing dehydrated products, while little 
argument will have to be used, as the facts speak for 
themselves, there will always be a certain amount of 
demonstration necessary, showing the dehydrated 
product in both its dried and restored forms. Occa- 
sionally a cooked demonstration will be demanded, 
which can be given very easily, quickly and success- 
fully, if done according to directions and recipes given 
later on. 

People are astonished at seeing for the first time how 
wonderfully fruits and vegetables "come back." 
Indeed, it is a modern food miracle, hence this compari- 
son should be in evidence as a selling factor. 



As it takes a little time to restore the products, it 
is neither convenient nor economical to restore samples 
constantly, for being restored in plain water and 
having come back to their original state or condition 
they will naturally spoil in the course of two or three 
days, just as fresh-cut foods would, and of course in 
hot weather decomposition would take place more 
quickly than during the winter months. 

To have the comparison in convenient and econom- 
ical form, however, you can allow the fruits and vege- 
tables to soak in water for the required time, and 
when they are restored put them into small bottles 
or jars full of fresh water, to which a few drops of 
formaldehyde are added. I have tried many preserva- 
tives and find formaldehyde to be the most satisfactory 
for this purpose. Just a few drops are to be added, 
however, — not more than three drops to a 2-ounce 
bottle, or five or six drops to a half-pint jar. If more 
than this is added the products will darken and lose 
their fresh, attractive appearance. The bottles must 
be tightly corked, while if jars are used rubber rings 
must be employed and sealing done just as in canning. 
Bear in mind, also, that formaldehyde is poison, so these 
display products are not to be eaten, but are merely to 
show how dehydrated foods will "come back.' 3 

In making a selling demonstration, a very con- 
vincing part of the exhibit may be a tin of canned 
spinach purchasable at any store carrying a good 
stock of canned goods. Then in a small open can you 
may have a small amount of spinach dehydrated. In 



my exhibit I have an ordinary can of spinach which 
contains 1 pound and 14 ounces, as printed on the 
label according to legal requirements. It is a large 
can, No. 3 size, and adjoining it I have a tiny can of 
dehydrated spinach which contains just as much of 
the actual vegetable as the large can does. This shows 
at a glance the astonishing difference in size, bulk and 
weight between canned and dehydrated goods. More- 
over, the dehydrated spinach, like other foods pre- 
served in this manner, may be kept in a paper bag, a 
cardboard box, jar or other receptacle. The canned 
spinach contains a very large percentage of water, 
which the consumer must pay for, whereas for de- 
hydrated spinach the chef or housekeeper simply 
draws the water from a faucet or well, adding it as 
desired. Furthermore, when the ordinary can of 
spinach has been opened its entire contents must be 
used up quickly or they will spoil, whereas with the 
dehydrated spinach a woman can use any portion she 
pleases, according to the needs of the moment, and 
the rest will keep for some future occasion. I have a 
stock of dehydrated spinach which has been in a 
cardboard container for three years, and it still comes 
back and cooks up perfectly. 

Following this subject of spinach still further, there 
is another advantage of the dehydrated as against the 
basket of fresh spinach for the hotel man or housewife. 
When one buys a basket of spinach there come with 
it roots, dirt and usually many decayed leaves, with 
weeds thrown in for good measure occasionally. Last, 



but not least, there is the arduous and disagreeable 
task of picking the spinach over, selecting the edible 
portions and then washing them, and unless washed 
very thoroughly and in a certain way the spinach 
will be gritty when it goes on the table. So, in addi- 
tion to the labor involved, by the time the spinach has 
been picked and washed a large portion of it has 
been rejected, whereas the dehydrated product comes 
picked over, cleaned and in compact form all ready 
to cook, for spinach does not need any soaking in 
order to restore it, but the necessary water can be 
added and the cooking proceeded with immediately. 

To further exemplify how dried foods save space, 
glass and tin here are the results of some tests made 
in the Tribune Laboratory : — 


Canned . r 



2 pounds, 8 

1 quart or 2 pounds, 

K pint or 6 


4 ounces. 


Peas, .... 

1 pound, 4 

1 pint or 1 pound. 

M pint or 4 




2 pounds. 

1 quart or 1 pound, 
14 ounces. 

1 pint or 4 ounces. 


2 pounds, 6 

2 pints or 2 pounds, 

}/i pint or 2 l A 


4 ounces. 


Corn, .... 

1 pound, 6 

1 pint or 1 pound, 5 

}/2 pint or 4 




Apples (quart), 

2 pounds, 4 

1 quart or 1 pound, 

V2 pint or 33^ 


12 ounces. 


Where it is intended to market the products in 
packages, a good trade name is advisable, for this can 
be quickly established as a valuable asset. As ex- 
amples of trade names there are registered and in use 
already, "Dryfresh," "Adwater" and "Cellsealed." 




Our bird and animal friends and their owners will 
profit through this new method of preserving grasses, 
herbs, fruits and vegetables. 

As I have already stated, grass can be dehydrated 
and then restored to excellent condition. This will 
be welcome news to many people w T ho have pet cats, 
especially to those living in places where the animals 
are deprived of outdoor exercise and such pasturage 
as even cats love and can obtain here and there in 
winter. To be perfectly healthy a cat needs a little 
grass at times and an occasional morsel of catnip or 
some other herb. 

I have made many cats and their owners happy 
through a little present of some dehydrated grass 
and dehydrated catnip. The grass allowed to soak 
for a couple of hours looks, and doubtless tastes, 
like June grass. Certainly the cats appreciate it, and 
as for the spray of catnip dehydrated and then re- 
stored, the little animals' relish of it is very agreeable 
to behold. 

The same thing holds true with herbs. These have 
a fragrance, flavor and value such as many of the old 
dried herbs cannot possibly furnish, and while I have 
not taken up, as yet, the subject of dehydrated herbs 



for general medicinal use, I am satisfied that here is a 
big and profitable field. 

Speaking of grass aiid other green fodder, it is true 
that silos give many farmers, stock raisers and dairy- 
men an invaluable adjunct. At the same time, there 
are thousands of men owning horses, cows and other 
animals who cannot avail themselves of ensilage, and 
whose animals must sorely miss a taste of green food 
during the long winter months, and really suffer for 
want of it. 

A stock of dehydrated grass, green corn leaves, pea 
pods, turnip-tops and the like would not only be of 
practical value but a real kindness to the animals for 
whose care, comfort and happy condition the owner 
is responsible. 

It is astonishing what a considerable amount of green 
fodder can be reduced to an infinitesimal compass and 
stored in any convenient place, even in a cold building, 
for dehydrated products will not freeze. A little of this 
fodder steeped in tepid water for a short time w T ill be a 
most welcome treat, and will tend toward preventing 
many ailments animals are subject to that are fed 
exclusively upon dried food. 

This brings up a very important potential proposi- 
tion of salvage, utilizing to good purpose pea pods, 
cauliflower leaves and other rejects from canning 
plants and elsewhere. Of course, when considering 
the use of such rejects it is necessary to be assured that 
no disinfectant has been thrown on them, for this is 
sometimes practiced in the case of heaps of outer 



leaves of vegetables and whatnot in order to prevent 
flies and odors. 

In this connection it is well known how much better 
off hens and chickens are if fed green stuff from time 
to time, whether egg production has to be considered 
or the marketing of poultry for table use. Here is a 
convenient and economical means of adding to the 
poultry rations, not only grass and other leaves, but 
an occasional meal of vegetables, the culls and un- 
marketable produce being useful in this way. When 
dehydrating, however, only fresh and sound stuff 
must be used. Badly wilted or decomposed parts will 
spoil the entire output; but as intimated, vegetables 
too small to market, or that cannot be shipped profit- 
ably in their heavy raw state, may be put to good use 
in this and other ways. 




We will now consider dehydration in commercial 
or community plants. Such plants have been and are 
being established all over the United States and in 
other countries as well, and various types of dehy- 
drators are being used, — tunnel, kiln and chamber 
driers, some of the latter being portable and others 
equipped with traveling belts instead of trays, this 
with a view to doing away with labor in handling and 
thereby reducing cost. 

As regards the commercial proposition, markets and 
sales require particularly careful consideration. 

A community plant may be conducted on a co-op- 
erative basis, with the idea of supplying local families 
with fruits and vegetables for home use, the idea 
being always to take advantage of summer low prices 
and abundance as against scarcity and high prices 
during winter. 

People bring their produce to the community plant 
where it is treated, either for a cash consideration or 
for a percentage of the produce itself. That is to say, a 
certain portion of everything bought is retained in the 
community plant to pay its operating expenses, and 
the balance returned to the farmer or producer who 
brings it in to be dehydrated. The patrons are en- 
couraged, and in some instances required, to bring 



their fruits and vegetables peeled and cut, or otherwise 
prepared before bringing them to the dehydrator. 
The objection to this is, however, the rapid deteriora- 
tion of materials after the protective skins have been 
removed and the cut surfaces exposed. For this 
reason it is better to have peelers and cutters available 
at the plant. And, once for all, the produce must be 
sound and as fresh as possible. Dehydration will not 
save "turned" or decomposed materials. 

Where the community plant is conducted in an 
ordinary business way the products are sold and a 
division of profits is made, fro rata, with the stock- 
holders, as in any other business, the stockholders 
in this case buying whatever they need from the com- 
munity plant and paying for it just as every one else 
would. In addition to this, if local producers are 
interested in the plant financially, it will tend toward 
assurance of raw material, both as to quality and 
regular supply. 

The managers of community plants, however, must 
assure themselves that those interested fully ap- 
preciate how much raw materials shrink when dehy- 
drated, otherwise there is apt to be suspicion and dis- 

People must realize, for example, that a pound of 
fresh carrots comes down to 2 ounces or less upon 
being prepared and dehydrated, it being remembered 
that part of the loss is caused through cleaning and 
peeling, and, with many things, through necessary 
rejection of bruised surfaces. The same reasoning 



applies to pod and leaf vegetables, so it is not only 
advisable but necessary to give ocular demonstration 
and proof at the very outset. 

Many systems of dehydration are being exploited 
just at present, "most of them bad," as one of the 
foremost experts in the country said to me. 

Dehydration seems so simple and so easy at the 
first glance that many people have gone into the busi- 
ness without due consideration or adequate knowledge. 
Experience shows them, how T ever, that there is a lot 
to learn and many factors to take into account. Hence 
they have obtained consequences instead of results. 

There are different qualities of dehydration, — poor, 
better and best. The first test of a dehydrated product 
is its keeping quality, and then, all-important to the 
consumer, how it restores and tastes when served. 
Poorly dehydrated products wdll not keep long; fur- 
thermore, they take too much time to restore (even 
when they will restore at all), and are then insipid and 
inferior in flavor. In fact, I have countless specimens 
of so-called dehydrated stuff which has been both 
brought and sent to me to find out why it would not 
come back, or why it quickly molded. If overdried 
or dried too slowly the cell walls have been ruptured, 
chemical changes have taken place, and in many in- 
stances an actual cooking has resulted, usually because 
too high a temperature has been employed or too 
much time has been consumed in the process. As for 
the molding, this is generally caused by the inner 
cells retaining too much moisture, and here is one of 



the points regarding which many dehydrators go 
wrong, as I will explain presently. 

I obtain the best results by starting the dehydration 
at a relatively low temperature, and I insure a perfect 
product by having a certain amount of moisture in 
the dehydrator at first. Relatively good products 
may be obtained without the employment of such 
moisture, or through a one-temperature drying, but 
some initial moisture and raising of temperature will 
be necessary to obtain perfect results, and here is the 
reason. If raw materials are subjected immediately 
to a high, dry temperature there is a very rapid evap- 
oration from the surface or superficial cells, which 
"skin dries" the material, forming practically a glaze 
or coating which prevents the inner cells from liberating 
their moisture as they should do. Consequently when 
the product is apparently dehydrated, the inner cells 
still contain too much moisture, and are still subject 
to enzymic action, besides which this moisture exuding 
later on will furnish a dampness sufficient to allow 
of the superficial molding which has given so many 
people such trouble and loss. At one time hot dry 
air was considered so necessary that attempts were 
made to eliminate moisture from the air by passing it 
through or over some hygroscopic substance such as 
calcium chloride or sulphuric acid, or by heat-drying 
the air before it was admitted to the drying chamber, 
but such methods proved fallacious besides adding 
to the operating costs. 

Dehydration is such a new subject that it is difficult 
















to find a standard or basis of agreement upon all points 
among those who are experimenting with it. But with 
all due deference to contrary opinions, and after 
having carefully tested many systems and worked 
with the subject for some years, I am able to secure 
the best results by observing the following rules: to 
use radiate heat rather than direct heat; to start 
with the lowest temperature necessary and finish with 
the highest temperature suitable. And, by the way, 
times and temperatures vary for different products. 
But whatever the necessary time or temperature, I 
can only get results satisfactory to myself by starting 
at the minimum temperature and finishing at the 
maximum temperature for each particular product, 
having moisture in the dehydrator for a certain length 
of time, which insures all the cells (both inner and 
outer) being uniformly dehydrated, finishing up with 
the highest heat called for, and dry heat at this latter 

My conclusions have been formed, as I say, through 
years of tests and at times great discouragements, to 
say nothing of mistakes and the following of theories 
which seemed plausible, but which experience and 
better knowledge of the subject made me discard. I 
still have people calling upon me who maintain that 
immediate, dry, direct heat and just the one tempera- 
ture are all-sufficient. The samples of their products 
force me to disagree with them, and in several in- 
stances I have noticed that the previous ideas of using 
dry, direct heat and a one-temperature process have 



been abandoned and other dehydration methods have 
been sought after, for it was ascertained, in the pro- 
verbially dear school of experience, that rapid "skin 
drying" means molding later on and imperfect restora- 

Further considerations, and essential considerations 
regarding commercial dehydrators handling ton lots 
of produce, are the costs. There are time, fuel, labor 
and other "overheads" to be charged up against the 
products, and I have seen plants where the cost of 
production per finished pound was more than the food 
could be sold for, even though the products were of 
pretty fair quality. Hence, an apparatus which might 
be used profitably in connection with dyes or chemicals 
would not handle food materials economically. There- 
fore, as there is dehydration and dehydration, so 
there are plants and plants, and it is very important 
when considering a plant to go into the matter of 
costs carefully, to say nothing of quality of output, 
and finally to plan and arrange the various steps so that 
there will be no waste action. 

Speaking of heat, radiate heat does give better 
results than direct heat from a furnace. The drying 
is more uniform and evaporation is more gentle and 
regular, all of which has an important bearing upon 
the finished goods. 

Heat, circulation and elimination of moisture are 
such essential factors in dehydration that these three 
coactive points should be carefully considered before 
purchasing any plant or adopting any system. And 



with a dehydration plant for which a large sum is spent 
and which does not embody these three factors in 
proper relation to each other, and w T hich is so expensive 
to operate that the resultant products cost too much, 
loss and disappointment are the certain consequences, 
in which event it is not fair to blame dehydration and 
its principles. 

Some people rely upon huge blowers. These have 
the fault of sweeping air so rapidly over the cut surfaces 
of the materials that "skin drying" or surface coating 
is often caused thereby; besides which the use of too 
much power or waste heat means an unnecessary fuel 
expenditure. The best products that I have found 
are obtained by a suction or drawing of the air, giving 
a slight vacuum effect, or by a process in which the 
fanning or blowing seems almost insignificant at first 
sight, but, which nevertheless, circulates the air in the 
dehydrator quite sufficiently, and the radiate heat, 
together with the correct amount of moisture elimina- 
tion, afford results which are eminently satisfactory. 

The Vacuum Process 

While vacuum dehydrators are excellent for many 
substances, no doubt, I have yet to be convinced that 
they are practicable, commercially speaking, as far 
as vegetables are concerned. 

From what I have seen, the equipment is elaborate 
and quite expensive. This system requires a cham- 
ber containing steam-heated shelves, together with 



a vacuum pump and the necessary heating appa 
rat us. 

As it is impossible to set an exact time for the de- 
hydration of any one material, it is necessary, with this 
system, to "turn off the vacuum" and open the cham- 
ber in order to inspect the material, and then to reseal 
and re-establish the vacuum in case the product is 
not ready for removal. Moreover, all this may have 
to be done more than once, and in case too high a 
vacuum is used the materials are apt to be shattered 
severely. In fact, I have seen foods treated by this 
process which were puffed up and blistered in many 
places, and in, other materials the cellular structure 
was obviously broken down, although this may have 
been the fault of the operator and not of the system. 

It is claimed for the vacuum process that fish and 
meats dehydrated thereby do not undergo protein 
coagulation, but for that matter I have seen fish and 
meats of various kinds dehydrated perfectly by other 
processes, and the delicate flavors and aromas of fruits 
and vegetables retained just as well. 

Despite the foregoing, however, I do believe that a 
good, commercial vacuum dryer will be procurable. In 
fact, I am to test one that is nearly finished and very 

Regarding Appearance of Products 

While it is most important to furnish or produce 
dehydrated foods that will restore and cook perfectly 



as to flavors, colors and other qualities, we must not 
overlook the necessity of attractive appearance when 
dehydration has been accomplished, as this means 
salability and demand. I am very sure that people 
would hesitate before buying, and even refuse to buy, 
dehydrated foods that were badly discolored and dis- 
agreeable looking. As a matter of fact, I have seen 
dehydrated stuff which restored and cooked very well 
indeed, but which was so dingy and dark and unat- 
tractive in the packages that most people would not 
take it as a gift, even though the producer knew that 
it would look well and taste good after restoration or 

Really precooked stuff does not look attractive, but, 
on the other hand, many raw materials treated with a 
little steaming before dehydration do look attractive 
and promising, and, when shown in connection with 
some of the same things restored, it is an easy matter 
to convince prospective purchasers. 

The drying should stop when the product is leathery 
and when no moisture can be squeezed out from the 
ends of pieces after breaking. The "brittle" stage 
may be reached during the conditioning later; but 
the products must not be dried "brittle" in the dryer. 

In order to set color and texture, steam blanching is 
advisable. In other words, most raw materials should 
be subjected to a brief period of steaming. This is 
called "blanching," a canner's term, and although 
I do not like the word blanching, as it is commonly 
used, I am following the precedent. 



Blanching may be done in boiling water, but then 
the materials lose some of their nutrients, whereas 
by blanching in steam nothing is lost and the color is 
intensified. Take the case of Brussels sprouts, for 
example. Cut the sprouts in half lengthwise and 
then dehydrate some without blanching and others 
after being steam-blanched. You will find that the 
blanched sprouts look much better upon the comple- 
tion of dehydration; also they restore more quickly, 
and even look better when cooked. 

The blanching should be quickly done. The truck 
containing the trays can be run into a steam chamber, 
left in for a brief period, and then be immediately 
placed in the dehydrator, which should be ready 
heated to the starting temperature. As soon as fruits 
and vegetables are peeled and cut they become subject 
to chemical changes, decomposition and the action of 
bacteria, yeasts and molds, so prompt action is nec- 
essary to arrest and avert undesirable change and 
destructive action. 

If no steaming apparatus is available and blanching 
must be done in boiling water, the material should be 
placed in a wire basket and active boiling be assured 
for the time necessary for each material. 

While approximate times and tables are given later 
on in this book, it must be understood that the times 
can only be approximate, for the produce varies ac- 
cording to the season, soil in which grown, and its 
staleness or freshness, and, of course, the way in which 
it is cut, — slices, cubes, strips and their relative 



thickness. Hence judgment must be exercised, but 
a little experience will soon enable one to determine 
the exact length of time for blanching, and, as ex- 
plained later on, for the dehydration process itself. 

Another question comes up, and that is the matter 
of cold-dipping. This means quickly dipping the 
blanched materials into cold water. Immediately 
after blanching, the materials are plunged into cold 
water, then quickly taken out, drained for a few mo- 
ments and placed in the dehydrator. It is said to set 
the color, the shock destroys certain bacteria, and that 
some products restore quicker after undergoing the 
cold-dip. So, while the cold-dip may be used, if de- 
sired, I have discarded it as of no particular advantage. 

After the products are removed from the dehydrator 
there is a process very essential, which has been called 
"conditioning" or " curing. " 

This means that the product is to be exposed in trays 
or bins for a time, and it should be covered carefully 
with cheesecloth, for the greatest care must be exer- 
cised to prevent insects getting at the material that 
is "conditioning;' otherwise infestation is probable, 
with disastrous consequences. There are moths which 
particularly favor dehydrated fruits and vegetables, 
and consider them ideal media in which to lay their 
eggs. These eggs would hatch later, and the grub 
worms, or larvae, would rapidly cause havoc in the 
product. Hence it is most important that the strictest 
precautions be observed. I have found that 72 hours 
is sufficient time for conditioning, and in this time the 



products dry out still further, so that is another reason 
why they should not stay in the dehydrator until 
brittle, but rather come out leathery, although suffi- 
ciently dry. 

The dehydrator and conditioning rooms must be 
kept immaculately clean; windows and doors should 
be screened, and I would advocate a thorough steriliza- 
tion of the entire plant at brief intervals. Moreover, 
while " conditioning/ * the products should be kept in 
a relatively cool, dark place and eternal vigilance be 
exercised to exclude the troublesome moth pests. 
Moreover, darkness prevents the products bleaching 
out, and for this reason it is advisable to have screens 
or shutters whereby the light can be excluded when 

During "conditioning" the product should be turned 
over twice a day so as to let the air get at it uniformly, 
and while this " conditioning " may seem like a trivial 
matter, again I say that it is most necessary. 

Auxiliaries such as peelers and cutters may be em- 
ployed to good advantage, depending largely upon 
quantity handled and labor costs, and, as with every- 
thing else, there are poor, good and best machines for 
this purpose. 


Mrs. Oliver Harriman dehydrating vegetables from her country estate 












The matter of sulphuring is a much-disputed point. 
Some people advocate it, while others are violently 
opposed to it. Those who favor it claim that it is not 
injurious to health, while their opponents assert that 
it is. 

Be that as it may, how long does sulphuring protect 
fruits and vegetables against insect attack? We have 
all seen sun-dried apricots, etc., horribly infested, 
although these products have admittedly been sul- 

At present, therefore, sulphurization would seem to 
be a matter of personal predilection. 

Generally speaking, apples, apricots, pears and 
peaches are sulphured before drying in order to pre- 
vent discoloration, and in many cases, after sun drying, 
to destroy the grub worms with which they have be- 
come infested during the process. 

As 1 have stated previously, I am not advocating 
the use of sulphur, and when we read that during the 
war the government specifications called for non- 
sulphured potatoes, it is readily seen that sulphuring 
is not looked upon with favor generally. There are 
those, however, who wish to employ sulphur, especially 
with potatoes, so for that reason I will say that one 
producer whom 1 know very well says that he uses 



250 pounds of sulphur to 100,000 pounds of sliced or 
cubed potatoes, these being all ready for the dehydrator. 
Moreover, he employs just a suggestion of sulphur 
fume in the dehydrator during the entire process, al- 
though the main sulphuring is done before the potato 
goes into the dehydrating chamber, and he states that 
sulphurization effectually prevents enzymic action, 
so that while the blanched product will ferment in 
humid climates the sulphured potato will not. 

In using sulphur judgment must be exercised and 
allowances made for whether the product is new or 
old, and how thickly the trays are loaded. 

In dealing with sulphured potatoes ultimately, it is 
very important that they should be cooked in steam 
instead of boiling water, as when cooked in boiling 
water they become slimy and have a disagreeable 
effect, which can be removed, however, by putting the 
pieces in a sieve or colander, after cooking, and letting 
hot water run through them. 

Sulphuring is an easy matter for those who wish 
to employ the process, but it should be done out of 
doors, as the fumes are very disagreeable. 

For small quantities of material a wooden box large 
enough to enclose the trays, one over the other, may be 
used, the lowest tray being a few inches above the 
ground. Sulphur can be placed in a metal container 
and ignited, but the product should not be left over the 
fumes longer than is necessary. 

For large quantities a wooden receptacle can be 
constructed which will hold anywhere from 8 to 15 



trays, — in fact, the average truck load of trays, — 
and the sulphur employed as just stated, some pro- 
ducers fuming for 10 minutes, while others advocate 
as much as 25 or 30 minutes. 

Dipping fruits to prevent discoloration has been 
tried extensively, chlorate of potash, permanganate 
of potash, sulphate of magnesia, chloride of lime, 
peroxide of hydrogen, etc., being used in different 
strengths, but none of these has proved satisfactory. 

Some people engaged in commercial dehydration sub- 
ject the products just before packing, or in the open 
packages, to a temperature of 180° to 185° F. for a 
period of from 3 to 5 minutes, in order to sterilize 
them. The material is put into cold chambers and the 
temperature is then quickly raised to the required 
degree. If in an oven the door should be left slightly 
open. Seal packages immediately after sterilizing. 

Regarding packages there are many forms of commer- 
cial cartons used, vegetables like potatoes and beans, 
which do not stain, being put up in ordinary paper car- 
tons, while berries and the like are put into cartons 
which are paraffined. There is also a very good pack- 
age, grease-proof, which is silica lined and waxed on 
the outer surfaces, and the reports I receive as to it 
are very favorable. There are also tin cans sealed 
under a vacuum process after being packed, while 
other cans have covers which can be pried open and 
snapped shut again. For moist, tropical climates cans 
may be necessary and probably are, but, generally 
speaking, dehydrated products keep better if the 



packages allow of some circulation of air, although 
they must be insect proof. 

For home use, paper bags securely tied and pref- 
erably paraffined, ordinary cardboard boxes, crocks, 
wooden pails, etc., may be utilized, but the packages 
must be kept in a dry place and preferably at a mod- 
erate temperature. 



Followed by General Hints and Data 

A good little home dehydrator is a useful and val- 
uable article. It will prevent internment in the kitchen 
and standing over a hot stove, for you can put your 
fruits and vegetables into it, use your little dehydra- 
tor on your range or stove, and practically no more 
attention is necessary until the time is up for the 
product to have finished drying. In this way you can 
save both small and large amounts of summer food 
materials, obtained when they are cheap and plenti- 
ful, for use next winter in so perfect a degree that they 
will be as tasty and delicious as when fresh picked. 

Furthermore, if you still want to have home-canned 
fruits and vegetables of your own, and good jams, 
jellies and preserves, you can make these up in winter, 
and at any time most convenient to yourself, from the 
products which you have dehydrated during the 
summer, for from the products which you have de- 
hydrated during the summer you can do your canning 
and conserving just as perfectly as if you did it at 
the time you got the fresh product. 

In order to satisfy myself that dehydrated products 
would do anything that fresh produce would do, I 
tested them out in every way, including canning, and 
in consequence I have a complete stock of canned 



fruits and vegetables, perfect jellies, jams, marmalades 
and conserves of every kind, all from dehydrated 

Where a coal range is being used constantly, the home 
dehydrator very soon pays for itself by affording the 
means of saving small lots of fruits and vegetables which 
might be lost or thrown away but for dehydration. 

It does not pay to put up just a small lot of stuff 
in glass jars, for there is so much work involved, — the 
sterilizing of jars, rubbers and tops, then the filling 
and emptying of the hot-water bath and other inci- 
dentals, whereas the fruits or vegetables on hand may 
be cut as desired, placed on the trays in the dehydrator 
and the drying down on the top of the range, where- 
upon no close attention is necessary. When the time 
is up the produce may be examined, and if dehydra- 
tion is completed the material may be set in a shallow 
pan or other cheesecloth-covered receptacle and put in a 
cool, dark place to condition for three days or so, stirring 
the stuff a couple of times daily so as to allow uniform 
curing. A cheesecloth covering is very advisable. 

If comparatively large amounts are to be dehydrated 
at home, a regular day's work can be devoted to this 
purpose, and as the dryer may be filled and emptied 
two or three times a day, it will be realized that a large 
amount of good farm or garden produce may be set 
aside to be used during the following winter, where- 
upon it will be found to be as delicious as the fresh- 
picked, — that is, if it has been properly dehydrated, 
— a simple matter, after all. 



There are as many theories about home dehydration 
as there are about home dryers. I do not think it is 
worth while to go into the details of these various 
theories, so I will tell what means and methods I 
have personally found to be the best, after several 
years of doing dehydration in my kitchen. 

The very first, and a most important, consideration 
is the dryer itself. You cannot get satisfactory results 
from a dryer which is not built on correct principles, 
and which works against Nature's laws, as many of 
the little dryers do. 

As I said earlier in this volume, drying and dehy- 
dration are not the same thing. I think it will be well 
to give my reasons again for making that statement. 

Everything is composed of tiny cells, each cell 
containing flavoring essentials, coloring matter and 
nutritive properties, and of course a relatively large 
amount of fluid. By dehydration you quickly draw 
the water or fluid through the cell walls or membranes 
without rupturing the cell walls. Thus you leave 
everything in the cells except the water, and this can 
be restored by allowing the products to soak in water 
for a certain length of time, when they will take back 
all or nearly all of the water that was originally ex- 
tracted. Whereas mere drying is a long, slow process, 
and after a time the cell walls crack and allow the 
volatiles to escape and chemical changes to take place, 
so that you lose flavor, coloring and other properties. 

To dehydrate, whether it be on a large commercial 
scale in ton lots, or in small quantities in the home, 



you must have a certain degree or degrees of heat, 
neither too little nor too much, for if the temperature 
is too low you do not extract your moisture rapidly 
enough, and if the temperature is too high you break 
the cells and even cook the produce, and if it is once 
cooked it will never restore to a nice fresh flavor, 
appearance and condition. 

So you must have the requisite heat; also a good 
circulation of air and an efficient means of taking 
away the moisture that is liberated from the cells, 
and this must be done quite rapidly and continuously. 

Hence while drying can be done in an oven, dehydra- 
tion is impossible thereby, for the necessary circula- 
tion and prompt removal of moisture cannot be ob- 
tained. Consequently the stuff bakes or else cooks in 
its own steam. 

I have tested something like twenty home dryers, 
but I have found that most of them lack the necessary 
qualifications whereby good products can be assured. 
As I have stated already, in order to dehydrate prop- 
erly there must be a certain amount of heat, a circula- 
tion of air and a continuous means of removing the 
moisture that is liberated by evaporation. The ma- 
jority of the home dryers are painfully lacking in these 
respects. Many of them do not give uniform dehydra- 
tion, even on one tray, and taking the trays through- 
out, you will find that the product on some of the 
trays is hardly warmed through, while the material on 
the other trays is overdried or even scorched. 

When you have a dryer with trays set above each 



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other and with an open bottom, which is placed on a 
coal range or over a gas or oil burner, the materials 
on the lowest trays become warmed first, and as the 
moisture is liberated it rises and upon coming into 
contact with the cooler materials on the upper trays 
the moisture condenses and precipitates. Thus you are 
working against yourself. Of course, this can be ob- 
viated to a certain extent by changing the trays from 
time to time, but this requires work and attention 
which are not always convenient. However, there is 
a home dryer which does away with the need of this 
work and fussing. It is a simple and inexpensive little 
dehydrator which you place over the source of heat, 
and beyond looking at the thermometer inside once or 
twice during the process of drying, no more attention 
is necessary. Furthermore, this little dryer is equipped 
with a deflector or radiator which distributes the heat 
and so helps to prevent scorching or cooking when 
placed over the direct flame of a gas or oil burner. 

Speaking of this particular little home dehydrator, 
one of the greatest food authorities in the United States 
called at my testing kitchen and saw the dehydrator 
operating, and also examined the splendid products 
emanating therefrom. He wrote an article for one of 
the leading New York newspapers, in which he said 
that "this little cheap device makes use of a scientific 
principle which is foolproof in its operation and which 
turns out the finest foods I have ever seen." 

It is always well to have a thermometer, for then 
you can be assured that you are employing the proper 



degree of heat as per the temperatures given with the 
approximate time-tables in this book. Guessing at the 
temperature is a mistake, for then you can neither be 
sure of quality of your product nor the time to leave 
it in the dehydrator. It is well to be as exact as possi- 
ble, so obtain a thermometer with a flat back, and 
after putting the dehydrator on the range or stove 
with the heat on, place the thermometer on one of 
the lower trays, and see that it registers the proper 
degree of heat before you put your produce into the 

I found it well to have a little moisture in the bottom 
of the dehydrator so that the outer surfaces of the cut 
materials will not become glazed over, as they will if 
dry heat is immediately applied. That "skin drying" 
prevents the moisture from the interior of the pieces 
getting out as it should. Consequently, when the 
product feels quite dry and you might think it was 
dehydrated throughout, there is still enough interior 
moisture to cause a fermentation and eventually form 
a mold on the surfaces by slowly coming through. 
I have seen cubed carrots, for example, which were 
quite brittle and which would snap in two, and many 
would judge that these carrots were sufficiently de- 
hydrated, but upon peeling off the outer surfaces the 
cubes would bend instead of snapping, and one could 
promptly see that the middle of the cubes had not 
been thoroughly dried. 

In the case of produce with which it is advisable to 
use moisture, I put a shallow pan of boiling water in 


Spinach, before and after drying 

String beans, 1 bushel, weighing 26 pounds before drying; weight 

after drying 2.5 pounds 


the bottom of this little home dehydrator, which is 
arranged for this purpose, and I leave the water in for 
half an hour. This gives a certain amount of humidity 
which keeps the cut materials from becoming glazed 
over or seared, and permits of their being warmed 
throughout, — the pores all being opened, so to speak, 
— uniform moisture liberation being assured. At the 
end of the half hour I remove the pan of hot water and 
allow the dehydration process to take its natural course, 
finishing with a fairly high and dry heat. (See approxi- 
mate time and heat tables.) 

Now to mention blanching and cold-dipping in con- 
nection with home work. I have dealt with this in my 
previous chapters upon dehydration, so in case you 
have not read them I would refer you to those chapters, 
as blanching assures the maintenance of pretty colors, 
especially the green shades. 

For blanching at home a special steamer is not 
necessary. You may do the steam blanching in the 
washboiler, as directed later. After taking the tray 
out of the boiler, shake gently for a few moments to 
allow it to drain, then insert the tray into the de- 
hydrator, which has previously been brought up to 
the starting temperature as given in the time-table. 

Manipulating the trays in this way saves a lot of 
handling and possible breakage of the product, and 
you thus obtain a nicer looking and a better dehydrated 

In the table, where no blanching time is given, you 
will understand that it is purposely omitted. Regard- 



ing the produce which I have found it advisable to 
blanch, I mention a special time in each instance. 

Only a day or two ago I made another test while 
dehydrating a quantity of Brussels sprouts. Half of 
them I blanched and set into the dryer without cold- 
dipping. The rest I blanched and cold-dipped, but 
found that the cold-dipped ones took from 20 minutes 
to a half hour longer to dehydrate than did the ones 
that were not cold-dipped. The explanation for this 
is that the second lot, having been coofed off by the 
dipping, required a certain amount of warmth before 
dehydration could proceed, and, possibly, "the pores 
having to be opened." It is analogous to what we 
experience in a Turkish bath, the pores being opened 
in the hot room and then closed by a plunge into the 
cold-water tank. I do not use cold-dipping. 

After removing your product from the dehydrator, 
be sure to allow it to cure or "condition" three days 
and nights, stirring twice a day or so, so as to allow 
the air to influence throughout and evenly, and then 
pack away in cardboard boxes, lard pails or other 
receptacles, making sure that they are covered tightly 
enough to keep out insects of all kinds, but not so 
that they will be absolutely air-tight. I have seen de- 
hydrated products that were kept in glass jars, tightly 
sealed with rubbers, just as in home canning, but 
materials kept in that way have a rather musty odor, 
and do not have as good a flavor as foods kept in 
packages which are not air-tight. 

I wish that I could give exact times for dehydrating 



(as absolutely as I am able to do for home canning), 
but this is impossible, since fruits and vegetables vary 
so much according to their freshness and whether they 
are grown in sandy or clay soils, or in wet or dry seasons. 
Moreover, there is the cutting to consider, as to whether 
they are cut into very thin slices, strips or cubes, or 
into relatively thick pieces. While approximate times 
can be given and are given, the final test is through an 
examination of the materials. When they are leathery 
and no moisture appears upon breaking a piece and 
squeezing the ends, then it is safe to say that dehydra- 
tion is complete. The material should not be brittle 
as it comes from the dehydrator, although it may be- 
come so after a few hours or days, which is all right 

Furthermore, every piece or strip will not be dried 
to exactly the same stage, but during "conditioning" 
and turning over they average up, some which are a 
little too dehydrated perhaps absorbing moisture from 
those which have not been quite sufficiently dehy- 
drated, the latter giving out their little surplus of 
moisture, so that it may be said to average into proper 
state. For this and other reasons the "conditioning" 
is a very important matter and should never be neg- 
lected. I say this after having tested products in 
two ways, — one "conditioned" as aforesaid, and the 
other being packed into closed receptacles directly 
after taking the stuff out of the dehydrator. To 
further assure myself on this point I have even put 
the dehydrated products directly from the dehydrator 



into tin cans, sealing them hermetically forthwith, 
also into vacuum jars; but after restoring and cooking, 
my preference is decidedly in favor of the air "condi- 
tioned" product. 

As many raw materials reduce, approximately, from a 
pound to an ounce or so through peeling, trimming and 
dehydrating, it will be readily seen what a saving of 
space is assured by this process, and if the packages 
are stored m a dark, dry place, at a moderate tem- 
perature, and the contents have been properly de- 
hydrated, there is little danger of spoilage, although 
it is just as well to use up everything the following 
winter. Yet I have some stocks of dehydrated fruits 
and vegetables which have been kept for three years 
or more, and are still in perfect condition. 

A Time-table 

All fruits and vegetables should be cut uniformly 
so that dehydration will be even throughout. They 
should be as fresh as possible, and all wilted and 
decayed portions should be removed. 

The following time-table is the one used in a de- 
hydrating plant where very good products are turned 
out in large quantities from a chamber tray system. 
And here most of the fruits and vegetables are sliced 
or shredded not to exceed one-eighth inch in thickness. 
Even these times depend somewhat on the condition of 
the raw materials, and where heavier slices or shreds 
are used the drying times must be increased accordingly. 







Drying Time 


(Degrees F.) 




4 to 8 

110 to 140 


Brussels sprouts, 

Until skins can 

be slipped off 

by hand 


2V 2 to 3 
3 to3H 

110 to 150 
110 to 145 

Cabbage, . 



110 to 145 

Carrots, . 



110 to 150 



3 to3H 

110 to 145 



3 to 4 

110 to 140 

Garden peas, . 


3 to3H 

110 to 145 

Green string beans, 

3 to 5 

2 to 3 

110 to 145 



2Y 2 to 3 

110 to 150 



2 l / 2 to 3. 

110 to 140 

Lima beans, 

3 to 5 

3 to3Ji 

110 to 145 



2 to 3 

110 to 140 



2V 2 to 3 

110 to 140 

Parsnips, . 


2 l / 2 to 3 

110 to 150 

Peppers . 


2 to 3 

110 to 140 



3 to 4 

110 to 140 



1 to\y 2 

110 to 130 

'Parsley, . 


i to \y 2 

110 to 130 

Spinach, . 


i to \y 2 

105 to 140 



i to \y 2 

110 to 145 

Squash, . 


3 to 4 

110 to 140 

Sweet corn, 

2 to 5 

3 to 4 

110 to 145 

Swiss chard, 


3 to 4 

110 to 140 





Drying Time 


(Degrees F.). 

Vegetables — Con. 


To loosen skins 

1 tol^ 

110 to 140 

Wax beans, 

3 to 5 

2 to 3 

110 to 145 

Potatoes, .... 

1 to 3 

According to age 

125 to 150 

-; Sweet potatoes, 


According to age 

140 to 160 


~ Apples, 

> • • 


4 to 6 

110 to 150 




4 to 6 

110 to 150 

Berries, 1 , 



4 to 5 

125 to 145 




2 to 4 

110 to 150 


• • 


4 to 6 

110 to 150 



4 to 6 

110 to 150 


► « • 


4 to 6 

110 to 150 


• • 


4 to 6 

110 to 150 

1 Except strawberries. 

The Proctor people sent me the following data, as 
the result of experience with their Three Conveyor 
Dryer, — a traveling belt arrangement. 

White Potatoes 

Potatoes are washed, pared, washed and cut into three- 
eighths-inch strips, placed in boiling water for 3 minutes, 
then in cold water for 5 minutes. 



Wet weight per square foot (pounds), . . . .4.60 

Dry weight per square foot (pounds), 92 

Moisture per square foot (pounds), . . . .3.60 

Moisture percentage removed (wet weight basis), . 80 

Drying temperature (degrees F.), 180 

Drying time (hours), 4 \ 

Shredded Potatoes 

Potatoes are washed, pared, washed, steamed until thor- 
oughly cooked, then shredded. 

Wet weight per square foot (pounds), . . . .1.87 

Dry weight per square foot (pounds), 47 

Moisture per square foot (pounds), . . . .1.34 

Moisture percentage removed (wet weight basis), . 74 

Drying temperature (degrees F.), 180 

Drying time (hour), J 

Sweet Potatoes 

Potatoes are washed, pared, washed and cut into three- 
sixteenths-inch strips. 

Wet weight per square foot (pounds), . . . .3.90 

Dry weight per square foot (pounds), 94 

Moisture per square foot (pounds), . . . .2.96 

Moisture percentage removed (wet weight basis), . 78 

Drying temperature (degrees F.), 180 

Drying time (hours), 2 \ 




Spinach is washed and the roots and cores removed so that 
leaves will readily fall apart. 

Wet weight per square foot (pounds), . . . .1.81 

Dry weight per square foot (pounds), 11 

Moisture per square foot (pounds), . . . .1.70 

Moisture percentage removed (wet weight basis), . 94 

Drying temperature (degrees F.), 180 

Drying time (hours), 2.5 

String Beans 

String beans are strung, washed and sliced lengthwise. 

Wet weight per square foot (pounds), . . . .2.50 

Dry weight per square foot (pounds) , 24 

Moisture per square foot (pounds), . . . .2.26 

Moisture percentage removed (wet weight basis), . 90.50 

Drying temperature (degrees F.), 150 

Drying time (hours), 4.4 


Onions are washed, pared and cut into three-sixteenths- 
inch slices. 

Wet weight per square foot (pounds), . . . .4.00 

Dry weight per square foot (pounds), 36 

Moisture per square foot (pounds), . . . .3.65 

Moisture percentage removed (wet weight basis), . 91 

Dry temperature (degrees F.), 150 

Drying time (hours), 0.5 



Red Beets 

Red beets are washed, pared and cut into three-sixteenths- 
inch slices. 

Wet weight per square foot (pounds), 

Dry weight per square foot (pounds), 

Moisture per square foot (pounds), 

Moisture percentage removed (wet weight basis), 

Drying temperature (degrees F.), . 

Drying time (hours), 







Reduction Table 

According to the table furnished by Professor Cald- 
well, hundred-pound lots of fresh fruits and vegetables 
reduce as follows upon dehydration: — 


Apples (autumn and winter 
varieties) to 

Apples (summer 

Apricots to . 
Blackberries to 
Beans to 
Beets to 
Cabbage to 
Carrots to . 
Cauliflower to 
Celery to 
Cherries (pie) to 
Cherries (sweet) to 
Corn (sweet) to . 
Figs to 
Loganberries to . 


12 to 15 

10 to 12 
16 to 18 

16 to 20 

11 to 13 
14 to 17 

8 to 9 
10 to 12 

12 to 14 
8 to 9 

17 to 21 
22 to 26 
26 to 33 

18 to 23 
17 to 22 


Okra to 
Onions to . 
Parsnips to 
Peaches to . 
Pears to 
Peas (garden) to 
Potatoes (sweet) to 
Potatoes (white) to 
Prunes to . 
Pumpkin to 
Raspberries to 
Spinach to . 
Squash to . 
Tomatoes to 
Turnips to . 

10 to 11 
9 to 11 
20 to 22 
13 to 16 
18 to 22 

22 to 25 
30 to 35 

23 to 25 
30 to 33 

6 to 8 
17 to 23 

8 to 10 

7 to 9 
6Hto 9 

7 to 8 



Fish and Meats 

Fish and meats should be dried at relatively low 
temperatures, otherwise coagulation will result. 

Fatty portions and connective tissues should be 

When fresh these materials will dry quicker than 
when previously frozen. Moreover, they will restore 

They should be restored in cold water. 

Codfish dries well in both the commercial or home 
dryers, either as steaks or in flakes. Time, about 5 
hours, maximum temperature, 130° F. Dip fish in 
weak brine solution for 15 minutes, dry without 
rinsing in clear water, and dehydrate. 

The "lean" fish dehydrate well, but the oily kinds, 
such as salmon, cannot be dried as easily or as well 
until one has acquired experience and technique. 

Oysters and clams dry out well, temperature not to 
exceed 130° F. Suitable for chowders or stews. These 
products may be restored in cold milk. 

Good results are obtained by first dipping meat in 
soya bean or other oil of good food value. After 
dehydration the meat should be dipped into warm 
water, 130° F. or thereabouts, in order to rid it of 
the oil. Then return to dryer long enough to get rid 
of the surface moisture. 
























a -t 











Notes and Data 

The amount of water vapor which can be "lifted" 
by any given volume of air depends upon the tempera- 
ture, doubling practically at each £7 degrees rise in 
temperature, — having four times the lifting capacity 
at 114° F. than it did at 60° F. 

The following table shows substantially the weight 
of aqueous vapor in 100 cubic feet of air saturated 
therewith, at various temperatures : — 


At50°F., 936 

70° F., . . . . . ... . 1.826 

90° P., . . 3.386 

113° F., .6.488 

131° F., 10.350 

The Three Temperature Standards 





































































The Three Temperature Standards -— Continued 































































































































































The Three Temperature 


— Concluded 





Centigrade . 































































































Sugar beets may be dehydrated, stored and the 
sugar extracted therefrom as and when convenient. 

A good deal of spoiled product comes through the 
carelessness or negligence of employees. It is well, 
therefore, to have thermostatic temperature regula- 
tion and other automatic devices wherever possible. 

Fruits cut into halves should be dried with the cut 
side up, or they will lose valuable juices. 




If okra, string beans and peas are blanched in boiling 
water, a half teaspoon of soda to each gallon of water 
helps to set the color. 

To prevent apple, pear, apricot and peach from dis- 
coloring, drop the pieces, as cut, into cold water con- 
taining lemon juice or salt, — juice of 1 lemon to 3 
quarts of water, or 3 level tablespoons of salt to 1 
gallon of water. These fruits should not be blanched. 

Bell peppers may be peeled quickly by placing them 
in a pan and heating in the oven until the skins blister, 
whereupon the skins can be readily pulled off. 

Dehydrated mashed potato may be obtained and 
stocked by boiling potatoes until tender, pressing 
through a ricer on to the trays and drying until crisp. 

Large stalks, as with spinach, should be cut from the 
leaves, dried separately and mixed in later; otherwise 
the leaves will become overdried while the stalks are 
being dehydrated. 

Cut cauliflower "flowerets" into halves or slices. 
Dry separately from the stalks. The stalks make 
good soup stock, but the leaf parts should be removed. 

It is well to spread the trays with cheesecloth when 
treating bananas and the like. Acid fruits should not 
come into contact with the metal tray bottoms, neither 
should tomatoes. 

Onion slices should be cut across, otherwise the mem- 
branous "onion skin" may prevent uniform drying. 

If large berries are to be dried whole, they should be 
pierced lengthwise. A steel knitting needle will serve 
the purpose. 



Corn on the cob can be dehydrated, but the centre 
of the cob must be bored out. Corn dried in this 
way takes too long to dry and to restore to be prac- 

Changes of flavors, or rather addition of flavors, 
may be produced by blowing in fine powders during 
drying, — mint, for example; many novel and appetiz- 
ing effects are thus made possible. 

When prunes, peaches and other fruits are dipped 
into hot lye solution, the dipping basket should there- 
after be plunged into cold, fresh water so as to wash 
off the lye. 

Fruits must be well ripened but not soft, and well 
sorted and picked over. When paring and slicing are 
done, exposure to air is to be avoided. Rapid, con- 
tinuous work and fresh, sound produce are necessary 
for the best results. 

As regards soup mixtures, the components must be 
dried separately and then mixed as desired, taking 
care to use materials that will all restore and cook 
up equally or nearly so. Whole peas and beans require 
longer soaking than the usual soup vegetables; conse- 
quently, they should be avoided in the original com- 
bination, although they may be added, if desired, after 
longer and separate soaking, and then cooked in. A 
popular combination is turnips, carrots, onions, cab- 
bage, celery, potatoes and a little parsley, while some 
producers add leek, tomato and green pepper. The 
proportions or percentages vary considerably. 





To obtain the very best dehydrated products, see 
that only first quality food is used. Those that are 
young and tender, in other words, "in prime condi- 
tion," will, when soaked, restore to a first-class product. 

The first step is the cleansing. Thoroughly wash 
so that no grit, dirt or sand is left. Then scrape or 
pare to remove skins, with such vegetables as potatoes, 
carrots, etc., or shell to remove pods from peas, lima 
beans, etc. ' 

The second step is cutting the product into the 
desired shape, such as slicing, cubing, dicing or shred- 
ding. To facilitate the work the drying tray should 
stand under the cutting machine, so that the cut 
product drops directly onto the tray. 

The third step is blanching. A wash boiler is excel- 
lent for this, and will hold the small trays of most 
home dryers. Blanching is as important for home 
dehydrating as it is for home canning, and is done for 
practically the same reasons, namely, to kill certain 
bacteria, to improve the color and to soften the texture 

Blanching is best done in steam, as there is less loss 
of mineral salts than when boiling water is used. 


Pears, before drying, 1 quart. Note space saved after drying 

White squash, fresh, 17 pounds; 
after peeling and cleaning, 
weight 8 pounds. Reduced to 
% pound when dehydrated 

Onions, before and after drying 


To steam-blanch, place four tall, clean tin cans in 
the boiler, partly fill these with boiling water to hold 
them steady so that the edges of the tray will rest on 
them, then add boiling water to the boiler to a depth 
of 3 inches, and when the water is boiling lower the 
tray so that it rests on the cans, and cover boiler 
tightly; or else use hooks to suspend the trays. 
Water should not be so high that it will touch the 
product when in active motion. 

Have a clock in sight when blanching and remove 
the product when the time is reached. 

The fourth step is to place the tray of blanched 
material into the dryer, which should have been heated 
to the required temperature; and let me caution you 
that there must be no "guesswork" as to this tem- 
perature. A small and inexpensive thermometer is 
necessary. Place this in the dryer, and when the 
correct temperature is reached and the fire so regu- 
lated that the desired temperature is maintained, 
place the material in the dryer. The regulating of the 
temperature should be started sufficiently early, so 
that there may be no delay after the blanching is 

The fifth step in home dehydrating is called "condi- 
tioning." After your product has reached its dried 
stage it is then placed in a rack or pan and set in a 
cool, dry place for three days. During this period the 
dried product is poured into another container once 
or twice each day. This mixes it and allows all parts 
to dry evenly. If there are no screens on doors and 



windows, be sure to place a piece of clean cheesecloth 
over the product during the "conditioning" period. 
This prevents any insects from alighting on the food 
and depositing their eggs. If this should happen, then 
look out for worms and trouble. 

The sixth and last step is storing. Home-dried 
foods can be stored in clean boxes, heavy paper bags, 
cartons that can be sealed against insects, paraffined 
containers, cans, etc. After packing the foods keep 
them in a cool, dry closet or room. 

When is the Product Dry? 

The best test I find is to break or cut a piece in two, 
and press the cut edge between the fingers. If no 
moisture is noticeable it is sufficiently dry. 

Length of Time for Drying 

This can be given only approximately, as varieties 
of the same product differ in their drying time. 

Again, the age of the product has a great deal to do 
as regards the time required; also how thick the slices 
are cut. The larger the surface that is exposed to the 
heat, naturally the less time is required for evapora- 
tion of the moisture. Likewise some home dryers may 
take longer than others. In my kitchen we have 
noticed a difference of nearly an hour when using the 
same product on different kinds of home dryers, to say 
nothing of quality of finished product. 

I would advise that you keep a careful record of 



your drying time and use this as a guide for your next 
summer's work. 

In all home drying the temperature must be raised 
very gradually. The degree of heat first mentioned 
should be maintained for about a quarter of the whole 
drying time. With few exceptions, such as herbs 
and leaf products, the drying time is usually of several 
hours' duration. From this you can see that the 
product is kept for some time at the opening or start- 
ing temperature, and then the heat increased 10 
degrees for another period, and so on until the finish- 
ing heat is reached. A very little experimenting with 
one product will give you an idea as to how the heat 
affects it. 


Select beets that are young. Leave all the root and 
3 inches of the top on the beet. Wash carefully and 
place in boiling water, leaving in the water until the 
skin can be slipped off with the hands. This can be 
determined by trying a single beet. Dip beets in cold 
water a minute, drain and remove skins. At same 
time cut away any blemish. Slice vegetable one- 
eighth inch in thickness onto the trays, and place 
each tray in the dryer as soon as prepared. 

Starting temperature, 110° F. 
Finishing temperature, 145° F. 
Approximate time, about 3 to 4 hours. 



Beets are sufficiently dry when there can be no 
moisture pressed from them. The length of time 
depends upon the age of the vegetable. A young 
beet without a woody center will dry quicker than an 
old one. 

" Condition " as directed on page 67. 

Beet Greens 

Prepare and dry as directed for Spinach. (See 
page 82.) 

Brussels Sprouts 

Look over vegetable, remove all decayed or wilted 
leaves. Wash in cold water, drain, cut in halves length- 
wise and place on trays. Blanch in steam as directed 
on page 67 for 3 minutes, counting time from moment 
cover is placed on boiler. Remove tray, shake to drain 
and place in dryer. 

Starting temperature, 110° F. 
Finishing temperature, 145° F. 
Approximate time, about 3 to 4 hours. 

The sprouts are sufficiently dried when no moisture 
can be pressed from a cut end. The light leaves in 
center of vegetable may discolor during drying, but 
will restore to their natural color. 

"Condition" as directed on page 67. 




Select stringless variety, remove stems and tips. 
Wash in cold water, drain and cut lengthwise into even 
sizes. Place on trays about 1 inch deep, and blanch 
in steam from 3 to 5 minutes. Remove tray, shake to 
drain and place in dryer. 

Starting temperature, 110° F. 
Finishing temperature, 145° F. 
Approximate time, about 3 to 4 hours. 

Beans are sufficiently dried when no moisture can 
be pressed out. 

"Condition," as directed on page 67. 

Lima beans are shelled, placed on trays and blanched 
from 3 to 5 minutes, depending upon age of the prod- 
uct. Remove tray, shake to dry and place in dryer. 

Starting temperature, 110° F. 
Finishing temperature, 145° F. 
Approximate time, about S\ to 4| hours. 

Drying test is the same as for stringless beans. 

"Condition," as directed on page 67. 

Wax beans are treated the same as stringless beans. 


Remove outside wilted and decayed leaves and cut 
away the stalks. Slice cabbage, from one-eighth to 
one-fourth inch thick, directly onto the trays so 



the product lies about 1 inch in thickness on the trays. 
Blanch in steam 3 minutes, shake to remove water 
and place in dryer. 

Starting temperature, 110° F. 
Finishing temperature, 135° F. 
Approximate time, about 3§ to 4 hours. 

Cabbage is sufficiently dry when no moisture can be 
pressed from stalk portions. Do not increase tempera- 
ture too rapidly or the leaves will not retain their light 

"Condition" as directed on page 67. 


Select young, tender carrots. Wash with brush in 
water, scrape and wash again. Cut crosswise into 
one-eighth inch thick slices, or lengthwise into slices. 
Pile slices one on another and return them to slicing 
machine for cutting into Julienne strips. Place cut 
carrots on trays and steam-blanch for 3 minutes, re- 
move trays, shake to drain and place in dryer. 

Starting temperature, 110° F. 
Finishing temperature, 145° F. 
Approximate time, about 2 § to 4 hours. 

If a piece of carrot is broken and no moisture can be 
pressed out, the product is ready to come from dryer. 

"Condition" as directed on page 67. 

The Julienne strips will dry somewhat quicker than 
the slices. Carrots may also be cut into one-fourth 



inch cubes. If one vegetable is cut into different 
shapes, each should be dried on separate trays to give 
a uniform product. 


Select large, firm, white heads and immerse flower 
side down for 1 hour in a bowl of cold salted water to 
draw out any insects. Then rinse and drain. Separate 
the head into flowerets, cutting off the large stems. 
Every part should be cut into slices one-eighth inch 
thick. Place prepared vegetable on trays, about an 
inch thick, and steam-blanch for 3 minutes. Remove 
from steam, shake a moment and place in dryer. The 
flowerets should be cut lengthwise. 

Starting temperature, 110° F. 
Finishing temperature, 145° F. 
Approximate time, about 4 to 6 hours. 

Cauliflower is sufficiently dried when no moisture 
can be pressed from stem of flowers. 

"Condition" as directed on page 67. 

Instead of separating the cauliflower into its flowers, 
it can be cut into slices one-eighth inch thick. It is 
very interesting to see how the small wisp of dehydrated 
cauliflower rehydrates into its natural colored and sized 
floweret. Indeed, while this vegetable may darken 
considerably during the drying it restores beautifully. 
All leaves should be removed from the stems before 




Select crisp, tender stalks. The white bleached 
celery becomes somewhat dark in drying, whereas the 
green seems to hold its color better. Separate leaves 
from stalks and dry each separately. Directions for 
drying celery leaves will be given under Spinach, on 
page 82. Cut away all discolored parts and cut cross- 
wise into half -inch length pieces. Place on trays an 
inch deep and steam-blanch for 3 minutes. Remove 
trays, shake to dry and place in dryer. 

Starting temperature, 110° F. 
Finishing temperature, 140° F. 
Approximate time, about 3 to 4 hours. 

Celery is sufficiently dried if no moisture is apparent 
when pieces are pressed between fingers. 
"Condition" as directed on page 67. 


The sweetest dehydrated product will be obtained 
from corn in the "milk" stage; that is, when a kernel 
of corn is pressed and the milk flows. Beyond this is 
the "dough" stage. Husk, place on trays and steam- 
blanch corn on the cob long enough to set the milk, 
— about 5 minutes. Drain and cut corn from the cob, 
cutting kernels about half through for one tray; then, 
using back of the knife, scrape the cobs (on another 
tray) to obtain the pulp. Treated in this way there is 



little danger of including the chaff from the cob. Place 
directly into dryer. 

Starting temperature, 110° F. 
Finishing temperature, 140° F. 
Approximate time about 3 to 4 hours. 

When corn is hard it is ready to come from the dryer. 
"Condition" as directed on page 67. 


Use only such vegetables as are free from fibrous 
centers. Wash and peel thinly, cut into slices one- 
eighth of an inch in thickness, place on tray and steam- 
blanch for 3 minutes. Remove trays, shake a moment 
to drain and set tray in dryer. 

Starting temperature, 110° F. 
Finishing temperature, 145° F. 
Approximate time, about 3 hours. 

Kohl-rabi is properly dried when no moisture can be 
pressed from a cut end. 

"Condition" as directed on page 67. 


The very small pods may be dried whole, the larger 
pods being cut into slices one-fourth of an inch thick. 
Wash pods, cut or leave whole, place in single layer on 



tray and steam-blanch for 3 minutes. Remove tray, 
shake well to drain and place in the dryer. 

Starting temperature, 110° F. 
Finishing temperature, 135° F. 
Approximate time, when cut, about 3 hours. 

Product is sufficiently dried when no moisture can 
be pressed from the ends. When the pod is dried 
whole, break and press to determine if dried. 

"Condition" as directed on page 67. 


Use vegetable of one color to give best dried product. 
Peel and cut across the onion into slices one-eighth 
inch thick. It is not necessary to steam-blanch onions, 
but place each tray into the dryer as soon as it is 
ready. Product should not be too thick on the trays 
to be evenly dried. 

Starting temperature, 110° F. 
Finishing temperature, 140° F. 
Approximate time, about 3 to 4 hours. 

Onions are dried enough when no moisture can be 
pressed from a cut end. 

"Condition" as directed on page 67. 

During drying this vegetable is apt to discolor, but 
rehydrates to a good color. 



Parsley and Other Herbs 

Wash to remove all dust, cut away any wilted or 
decayed parts, and dry without separating leaves and 
stems. Place on tray to a depth of 2 or 3 inches and 
set in dryer. 

Starting temperature, 110° F. 
Finishing temperature, 145° F. 
Approximate time, 45 minutes to 1| hours. 

If no moisture can be pressed from thick part of 
stems the product is sufficiently dried. 

"Condition" as directed on page 67. 

If desired, before packing, part of the product can 
be powdered and stored in glass jars. 


This is one of the vegetables that should not be used 
if old, as it develops a woody, fibrous center. Wash, 
scrape and wash again, cut into slices one-eighth inch 
thick and place on tray. Blanch in steam for 3 min- 
utes, remove tray and shake to drain. Then place in 
the dryer. 

Starting temperature, 110° F. 
Finishing temperature, 140° F. 
Approximate time, about 3 to 4 hours. 

Parsnips are sufficiently dry when no moisture can 
be pressed from a cut edge. 

"Condition" as directed on page 67. 




Select young and strictly fresh-picked peas, and on 
no account use any that have stood utitil pods are 
wilted. A quick way to shell the peas is to place the 
washed pods in a large saucepan of boiling water and 
leave for 6 minutes. Then drain on to the tray and 
rub the pods briskly over the tray with the hands to 
loosen the peas, and if the mesh is too fine for them to 
drop through, it is a simple matter to shake the peas 
to one end and empty them on to another tray. When 
one tray is loaded to a depth of about 1 inch, steam- 
blanch for 2 minutes, remove tray, shake to drain and 
set in dryer. 

Starting temperature, 110° F. 
Finishing temperature, 140° F. 
Approximate time, about 3| to \\ hours. 

To test when dry cut open, and if no moisture shows 
in center remove from dryer. 

"Condition" as directed on page 67. 


The small pods may be dried whole like okra pods. 
Larger peppers should be placed on plates in the oven 
until the skins blister, then peel with the fingers. Cut 
large peppers into strips one-eighth of an inch wide, 
discarding all seeds, or they may be cut in halves, 



in which event remove the midribs. Place on trays and 
dry without blanching. 

Starting temperature, 110° F. 

Finishing temperature, 140° F. 

Approximate time, about 3 hours or longer, depending 

upon how the product is prepared, — whether cut small 

or left whole. 

The whole and cut peppers are sufficiently dried 
when no moisture can be pressed from a cut edge. 
"Condition" as directed on page 67. 


White Potato 

If a peeling machine is used, there will be less waste 
if potatoes of uniform size are used. While washing the 
vegetable, grade for size. Peel vegetable thinly and 
drop immediately into cold water to keep it white. 
When sufficient have been peeled to fill one tray, the 
potatoes should be sliced one-fourth of an inch thick 
directly onto the tray. Each tray can be loaded 1 inch 
deep. Place the filled tray in the steam container and 
blanch for 3 minutes; remove from steam, dip the tray 
into salted tepid water for a minute, drain by shaking 
and place in the dryer. 

Starting temperature, 120° F. 
Finishing temperature, 160° F. 
Approximate time (according to age). 



Potatoes are dried until they are brittle. 

"Condition" as directed on page 67. 

If a variety is desired, cut some of the sliced potatoes 
into Julienne strips or larger strips (five-eighths of an 
inch thick), like French fried. Again, these vegetables 
can be steamed until cooked in their jackets, then the 
skins peeled off with the fingers and the cooked potatoes 
pressed through a ricer directly onto the trays. If 
you have no ricer put them through your food chopper, 
loading each tray direct from the chopper. Spread 
evenly on the tray and place in the dryer. When 
dried mark the container holding this product "De- 
hydrated Mashed Potato." Directions for using this 
are found on page 153, in last part of recipe for Mashed 

Sweet Potato 

Select potatoes of uniform size and wash well with a 
brush. Place in a saucepan with boiling water and 
boil until slightly tender. Drain and peel at once by 
scraping the skins. Sweet potatoes can also be pared 
in a peeling machine. Cut the precooked potato into 
one-eighth inch thick slices directly onto the tray, 
loading it to a depth of 1 inch, then set tray in dryer. 

Starting temperature, 125° F. 
Finishing temperature, 155° F. 
Approximate time (according to age). 

The test for sweet potatoes is the same as for white 



"Condition" as directed on page 67. 

Prepare some of the sweet potatoes by cooking in 
boiling water until nearly done, then remove skins and 
put through food chopper. Load tray evenly and place 
in dryer, using same temperature as above. When 
product is brittle it is dried. This is a "Dehydrated 
Mashed Sweet Potato," and is your sweet potato flour 
when ground. (See Sweet Potato Pie, on page 193.) 


Select a firm, deep-colored pumpkin and cut into 
strips 2 or 3 inches wide. Peel, remove seeds and 
soft, stringy centers, then cut into slices one-eighth 
of an inch thick. Place prepared pumpkin on trays to 
a depth of an inch, and place directly into the dryer 
without blanching. 

Starting temperature, 110° F. 
Finishing temperature, 140° F. 
Approximate time, about 3J to 4 hours. 

Pumpkin is sufficiently dried when no moisture can 
be pressed from a cut edge. 

"Condition" as directed on page 67. 


The firm, prime stalks give best results. When 
very young do not skin, but if the rhubarb is old, then 
peel. Cut into pieces about a half inch long, cover the 
trays with one thickness of clean cheesecloth, then 



load trays with rhubarb an inch thick and steam-blanch 
for 1| minutes. Remove from steam, shake to drain 
and place in dryer. 

Starting temperature, 110° F. 
Finishing temperature, 140° F. 
Approximate time (according to age). 

Cut a piece of dried rhubarb and press cut edge. If 
no moisture shows, it is sufficiently dried. 
"Condition" as directed on page 67. 

Spinach and Similar Produce 

Look over the vegetable very carefully, removing all 
wilted, decayed leaves and foreign matter, and cutting 
off the roots. Have a dishpan filled with water as 
hot as for dish washing, put in the spinach and wash 
carefully. Lift out spinach, pour off water, rinse pan 
and return spinach. Add more hot water and rinse 
thoroughly, then lift out the vegetable and place on 
trays. While loading the trays cut off the stems and 
dry them on a separate tray. Load tray to a depth 
of several inches, shake to drain the product, then 
place in dryer. 

Starting temperature, 110° F. 
Finishing temperature, 130° F. 
Approximate time, about 1| to 2| hours. 

Spinach is dry when the thick part can be pressed 
without showing moisture, but be careful not to over- 
dry or the product breaks. 



"Condition" as directed on page 67. 

The stems of spinach are dried separately from the 
leaves, as they usually require longer time, and if they 
were left on, the leaves would probably be dried to a 
powder stage when the stems were ready. After drying 
and "conditioning' the leaves and stems separately 
they may be mixed and then packed. The spinach can 
also be cut into slices one-eighth inch thick. This will 
materially hasten the drying, reducing the time to 
about 1 hour. Celery leaves, Swiss chard and beet 
tops are treated the same as spinach. The heavy 
midrib of the chard is cut out and dried separately from 
the leaf. 


I prefer a late squash to the summer variety. Cut 
into strips 2 inches wide, peel and remove soft centers 
and seeds. Cut into slices one-eighth inch thick. 
Place on trays and insert in the dryer without blanching. 

Starting temperature, 110° F. 
Finishing temperature, 140° F. 
Approximate time, about 3| hours. 

Drying is finished when no moisture can be pressed 
from a cut piece. 

"Condition" as directed on page 67. 


Select firm, sound tomatoes that are ripe. Remove 
skins by placing in a wire basket and scalding in boiling 



water for from 1 to 1| minutes, or until skins crack. 
When cool enough to handle pull off the skin and cut 
out core; also remove any blemishes. Cut crosswise 
into slices one-fourth of an inch thick. Cover trays 
with a piece of clean cheesecloth, then place slices in a 
single layer and insert trays in the dryer. 

Starting temperature, 110° F. 
Finishing temperature, 140° F. 
Approximate time, about 2 to 3 hours. 

When tomatoes are sufficiently dried no moisture 
can be pressed from fleshy part of the slice. 
"Condition" as directed on page 67. 

Soup Mixtures 

These consist of different kinds of dehydrated vege- 
tables rather finely cut and mixed in varying propor- 
tions according to the flavors desired. A good way to 
do is to use proportions as given in your favorite recipe. 

The vegetables usually combined in these mixtures 
are onions, carrots, turnips, cabbage, celery, parsley, 
potatoes and green pepper. Dry separately. 

For a vegetable soup the vegetables look daintier if 
cut in different shapes. For instance, potatoes and 
turnips can be cubed, carrots and peppers in Julienne 
strips, celery and onions sliced, cabbage shredded and 
parsley powdered. 

Try the following combinations, or arrange your own 
proportions : — 



Soup Mixture No. 1 

\ Cup dehydrated carrot strips. 

\ Cup dehydrated cabbage. 

\ Cup dehydrated onion. 

\ Cup dehydrated turnips. 

% Tablespoons dehydrated green pepper. 

1 Tablespoon dehydrated parsley, powdered. 

Mix thoroughly and store. When using, take one- 
half cup of the soup mixture to 2 quarts of liquid. 

Soup Mixture No. 2 

2 Cups dehydrated tomato. 

Cup dehydrated onion. 

\ Cup dehydrated carrot. 

1 Cup dehydrated cabbage. 

\ Cup dehydrated green pepper. 

\ Cup dehydrated celery leaves. 

£ Tablespoons dehydrated parsley, powdered. 

Mix thoroughly before packing. This gives 5 cups 
of dehydrated vegetables, which is sufficient to flavor 
from 20 to 24 quarts of liquid. From this you can 
readily see how far the soup mixture goes. It is in a 
most convenient form, and is a decided addition to 
many dishes, especially those of the pot-roast style. 
Have all soup vegetables finely cut, as this gives best 




Under this heading may be found — 

Pea meal or flour. 
Bean meal or flour. 
White potato meal or flour. 
Sweet potato meal or flour. 
Pumpkin meal or flour. 
Squash meal or flour. 
Tomato meal or flour. 
Corn meal or flour. 
Spinach meal or flour. 

Potato Flours 

A very excellent grade of home-made potato flour is 
prepared as follows : — 

Make sure that both the sweet and white potatoes 
are dehydrated until they are brittle. After "con- 
ditioning" run these products separately through your 
food chopper, using a medium-coarse knife, then change 
to the finest knife and run it through twice. This 
produces a fine product. Shake through several sifters, 
starting with the coarser mesh and finishing with a 
fine one. Your finely sifted home-made potato flour 
is ready to be made up into various recipes, such as 
combining with corn meal or wheat flour into muffins, 



biscuits, griddle cakes, waffles or breads, and even into 
a good pastry if used in proportion of about one-eighth 
potato flour to balance of wheat flour. 

The first sifting of the flour was coarse, and this can 
be kept to use in potato croquettes, soups or for thick- 
ening sauces, etc. 

The sweet potato flour is all ready to have the 
custard addition, then turned into a pastry lined pie 
tin as a Sweet Potato Pie; see page 193. 

Pumpkin Flour 

This is prepared by drying the pumpkin until it is 
brittle, then "conditioning," putting through the food 
chopper, and sifting as is done with potato flour. When 
so prepared it is no trouble to make pumpkin pie, 
timbales or any other dish in which mashed pumpkin 
is the foundation. In fact, with a supply of dehydrated 
vegetables made into flour or meal in your kitchen 
pantry it is far easier to make many dishes than when 
one must start with the preparation of the raw vegeta- 

These two recipes are given simply as a guide to 
direct you so that you can make any one or all of the 
meals in the list. The main point to remember is that 
any dehydrated vegetable that is to be ground up into 
meal must first be dried until it is brittle, or it cannot 
be put through either your food chopper or your hand- 
flour mill and give a satisfactory product. 




Both the large and small fruits can and should be 
dehydrated. Many of the directions given for vegeta- 
bles are applicable to fruits. 

Only firm, ripe fruits should be used if their original 
shape and color are to be retained in both the dried 
form and when rehydrated. 

Naturally, after the fruit has been cooked, it will be 
changed in shape, and frequently the color will be 
somewhat different, in many cases this being accentu- 
ated after the addition of the sugar. 

To wash the tender small fruits such as berries, 
place them in a shallow flat strainer and hold them 
under the cold-water faucet. Let the water run gently 
on them. This can readily be done if the hand is held 
under the faucet so that the water first strikes the 
hand, and then trickles off on to the fruits. Be careful 
that the berries are not crushed or broken, as that 
means a loss of juice, which naturally would impair 
both color and flavor. 

After washing, the berries are drained and gently 
rolled out of the strainer on to the trays, which should 
be covered with a thickness of clean cheesecloth. This 
is done to prevent the fruit from coming in contact with 
the metal trays, as the acid would cause chemical action. 

While the berries are being placed on the trays any 



wilted, unripe ones can be removed; also leaves or any 
foreign matter. 

Fruit should be promptly placed in the dryer after its 
preparation. Be very careful not to load the trays 
more than two layers deep. Berries are very tender 
fruit, and if loaded deeper they will be crushed out of 
shape. During drying examine the trays, and if fruits 
are lumping and sticking together, separate carefully 
so that the drying is done evenly. 

The test for drying is by pressing a cut edge, and if no 
moisture exudes the product is sufficiently dried. 

After drying the "conditioning" period must be 
observed, as with vegetables. When this is finished 
the fruits are stored in similar containers, and should 
preferably be kept in the dark so that they will not be 
faded by the light. 


Select firm, sound fruit. Remove cores with a coring 
machine or knife, if apple is to be cut into rings, and 
pare quickly. As soon as peeled cut into slices one- 
fourth inch thick and place on trays about 1 inch 
thick. As soon as a tray is ready it should go immedi- 
ately into the dryer and other trays loaded as quickly 
as the apples are pared. The quicker this is done the 
better the product, as there will be less danger of oxidiz- 
ing or discoloration. 

Starting temperature, 120° F. 
Finishing temperature, 160° F. 
Approximate time for drying, 5 to 6 hours. 



Length of time depends upon the kind of apple, as 
well as thickness of slices. Apples are sufficiently dried 
when a cut edge is pressed and no moisture is noticed. 

"Condition" as directed on page 67. 


Use firm fruit, but well-ripened. Reject all soft 
apricots and cut away any bruises. Cut in halves 
without peeling, remove stone and lay in single layer 
on trays with cut side up. As soon as loaded place 
trays in the dryer. 

Starting temperature, 120° F. 
Finishing temperature, 150° F. 
Approximate time for drying, 5 to 7 hours. 

Apricots are dried when no moisture can be pressed 
from a cut edge. 

"Condition " as directed on page 67. 


Select firm, ripe, yellow bananas. Remove skins 
and cut lengthwise into quarters, or crosswise into 
slices one-eighth inch thick. Place in single layer on 
trays, dust very lightly with powdered sugar, shaking off 
all surplus, and set trays in the dryer. 

Starting temperature, 110° F. 
Finishing temperature, 135° F. 

Do not have heat any higher or the fruit will soften. 
Condition" as directed on page 67. 





Select such fruit as you would for table use. Look 
over, rejecting decayed and wilted berries, and wash if 
necessary. This can be done as follows: place berries 
in a shallow wire basket, hold the hand under cold 
water faucet, and let water trickle on fruit through the 
fingers. Drain and place berries in single layers on 
trays lined with one thickness of cheesecloth. As 
quickly as loaded set trays in dryer. 

Starting temperature, 120° F. 
Finishing temperature, 150° F. 
Approximate time for drying, 5 to 7 hours. 

Berries are dried when no moisture can be pressed 
when berries are cut. 

"Condition" as directed on page 67. 


Perfectly sound fruit should be selected and all of one 
color kept together. Look over before pitting, remov- 
ing all decayed and crushed cherries. Both the sweet 
and sour cherries may be dried. There is less loss of 
juice if fruit is dried whole, with pit left in. Where 
cherries are large they may be pitted with a machine, 
the juice saved and sterilized. Some cut the fruit in 
halves. If this method is followed the cut side should 
be placed uppermost on the dryer to prevent further 
loss of juice. As soon as prepared load cheesecloth 



covered trays two layers deep and place at once in the 

Starting temperature, 115° F. 

Finishing temperature, 145° F. 

Approximate drying time for cut fruit, 4 to 5 hours. 

Cherries are dry if no moisture shows when a cut 
edge is pressed. 

"Condition" as directed on page 67. 


If this fruit is dehydrated it is available at any time 
of the year. Examine and remove all decayed and 
broken-down fruits; likewise unripe berries. Cut in 
halves and place on cheesecloth-covered trays to a 
depth of a half inch, and set in dryer. 

Starting temperature, 120° F. 
Finishing temperature, 145° F. 
Approximate drying time, 2 to 3| hours. 

Berries are dry when no moisture can be pressed from 
a cut edge. 

"Condition" as directed on page 67. 

After product is dried stems can be readily removed. 


The cherry currant gives the better dried product. 
Remove soft and decayed fruit, but do not stem, as 
this can be done after drying. Load cheesecloth- 



covered trays to a depth of an inch and place in 

Starting temperature, 120° F. 

Finishing temperature, 145° F. 

Approximate drying time, 3 to 5 hours. 

Currants are dried when no moisture can be pressed 
from a cut edge. 

"Condition" as directed on page 67. 


The .yellow fleshed peaches give a richer looking 
finished product than do the white fruit. These may be 
peeled or not. A quick way to peel is to place peaches 
in wire basket and immerse in boiling water for a 
minute until skins crack. Remove from water, drain 
and pull skins off with the fingers. Cut fruit in halves, 
remove stones and place on cheesecloth-covered tray 
with cavity side up, loading trays one layer deep, and 
place each tray in dryer as soon as it is ready. Work 
quickly so that the fruit does not darken by being ex- 
posed to the air. 

Starting temperature, 120° F. 
Finishing temperature, 150° F. 
Approximate drying time, 5 to 7 hours. 

Peaches are dried when the product is leathery. 
Press a cut edge to determine if there is any moisture. 
"Condition" as directed on page 67. 
Peaches may be cut in quarters if desired, or sliced. 




These should be perfectly ripe but of firm texture. 
Pare, cut in halves or quarters, remove cores and place 
on cheesecloth-covered trays with cavity side up. As 
soon as a tray is loaded it should go into the dryer. 
There should be no undue delay in the preparation of 
fruits for the dryer, and this is especially true of the 
kinds that tarnish quickly when their pared and cut 
surfaces are exposed to the air. 

Starting temperature, 110° F. 
Finishing temperature, 150° F. 
Approximate drying time, 6 hours. 

When dried there will be no moisture when cut edge 
is pressed, and the product will be leathery. 
"Condition" as directed on page 67. 


Thoroughly ripened fruit should be selected in which 
the sugar is well developed. Cut in halves, removing 
stems and pits, load on cheesecloth-covered trays with 
cavity side up, and to a depth of one layer only. Place 
in dryer as soon as each tray is ready. 

Starting temperature, 110° F. 
Finishing temperature, 150° F. 
Approximate drying time, 5 to 6 hours. 

When dried there should be no moisture when a cut 
edge is pressed. Product should be like peaches, — 
somewhat leathery. 

"Condition" as directed on page 67. 




In restoring the dehydrated products you will notice 
that some take more time to rehydrate, or bring back, 
just as some require more time to dry than others do. 

Where long soaking is necessary, say 8 or more hours, 
it is convenient to put the product to soak over night. 

It is advisable to soak the food in a deep bowl, with 
the amount of water needed, and turn into the sauce- 
pan when ready for cooking. 

Do not have heat too strong at first, but bring gradu- 
ally to boiling point, and then boil gently (a little more 
than simmering) until tender. 

The water in which vegetables are soaked and cooked 
should be used as part of the liquid in the sauce (see 
recipe for Vegetable Sauce, page 109) when the vegeta- 
ble is served with one. The liquid may also be used in 
soups, thus obtaining flavor and utilizing the mineral 
salts that were dissolved during the boiling of the 

Vegetables may be soaked in tepid water instead of 
cold, which will hasten their restoration. 

If dehydrated foods are being soaked in hot weather, 
they should be placed in the refrigerator or other cold 
place. Then cook as soon as the product has been re- 



Where dehydrated products are to be used for flavor- 
ing, break or cut into small pieces before soaking. 

Fruits as well as vegetables should be cooked in the 
same water in which they are soaked. Bring very 
slowly to boiling point and simmer for 15 minutes, then 
drain, add sugar to liquid, reheat until boiling, add fruit 
and simmer until tender. Best results are always 
obtained by very slow cooking. A fireless cooker serves 
excellently for this purpose. 

Regarding length of time necessary to rehydrate the 
dried product, this depends largely upon how the ma- 
terial was treated before dehydrating. A vegetable 
that was cooked until tender, then dehydrated, will 
restore quicker when soaked, and will cook in a very 
short time. 

Furthermore, after the food is dehydrated, if it is 
ground into a powdered form, little time will be re- 
quired for cooking, and no previous soaking is neces- 

If your dehydrated products are cut in different ways, 
such as sliced, diced or into strips, select the style of 
product best suited to the recipe. As an example, sliced 
potatoes would be your choice for escalloped potatoes. 

The thoughtful and careful housekeeper who plans 
her meal in advance will find that dehydrated products 
are very easy to serve. The foods that require long 
rehydrating may be soaked over night for a midday 
meal, putting them to soak as late in the evening as is 
convenient. And for the evening dinner, start soaking 
dehydrated products early in the morning. 



Suppose, in looking over the recipes included here- 
with, that a housekeeper plans her meals ahead for a 
week. The recipes given, generally speaking, are 
sufficient to serve four people. With this in mind any 
one can cut the proportions in half or double them, 
according to requirements. Or if one wishes to cook 
enough of any one kind of the dehydrated product for 
a second meal, follow the Preliminary Directions, and 
the food is then ready to be served in any way desired. 

There are also a number of recipes for dishes that 
are really a meal in themselves, and, with the addition 
of bread and butter, a salad dessert or fruit, nothing 
more is required. Any one of the following will furnish 
a most delicious meal and one requiring but little 
work : — 

Savory Meat Stretching Dish (page 114). 

One-dish Meal (page 115). 

Corn Chowder (page 137). 

Pot Roast and Vegetables (page 116). 

Vegetable Stew (page 117). 

Measurements for Cooking Dehydrated 


The cup specified in the recipes is the cook's half- 
pint measuring cup, and when dehydrated products 
are used the cup is measured heaping full. 

A tablespoon or teaspoon means all that the spoon 
will hold. 

The above refer to dehydrated vegetables that are 
cut into dices, slices or Julienne strips. 



When the product is finely cut before dehydrating, 
more can be put into the cup than when the pieces are 
larger. In this event use level measure; also when the 
dehydrated product is powdered, use level measure. 

Unless otherwise stated, all other ingredients are 
measured level. 




Chicken Soup 

As the meat portion, use carcass either of a roasted 
chicken or a small turkey. Break into pieces, removing 
all the stuffing. 

| Cup dehydrated onions. 
J Cup dehydrated celery leaves. 
2 Tablespoons uncooked rice. 
Salt and pepper to your taste. 

Put vegetables into saucepan, add bones and meat 
and sufficient cold water to nearly cover the bones, 
bring slowly to boiling point, add salt and pepper and 
simmer for an hour and strain. Blanch rice for 5 
minutes in boiling water, drain, add to strained stock 
and cook until rice is tender. Serve in bouillon cups. 

Beef Stock 

4 Pounds beef shin. 
i Cup dehydrated turnip, cut small. 
| Cup dehydrated carrots, cut small. 
J Cup dehydrated cabbage, cut small. 
\ Cup dehydrated onion. 

1 Cook's Bouquet. (See page 106.) 

2 Quarts cold water. 
Salt to taste. 



Put all vegetables in one-half the water and let soak 
while you are cutting up the meat. Crack bone, cut 
meat into small pieces and brown part of the meat in 
marrow. Put balance of meat and bone in the cold 
water and bring slowly to boiling point. Add browned 
meat and rinse out the pan in which it was browned 
with a very little hot water and add to soup pot. Let 
this simmer for an hour, then gradually bring the 
soaked vegetables and water to a boil, add to meat 
stock, also "bouquet," and salt to taste; simmer for 
several hours. Strain through colander, and when 
liquid is cold remove all fat. May be served as clear 
soup, or, if desired, add a quarter cup of Soup Vegeta- 
ble Mixture which has been soaked for a half hour in 
the stock; then cook gently until vegetables are tender, 
— usually about 20 minutes, as vegetables are finely 

Cream of Celery 

1| Cups dehydrated celery. 
4| Cups cold water. 

1 Tablespoon dehydrated onions. 

2 Cups milk. 

4 Tablespoons butter. 
4 Tablespoons flour. 
Salt and pepper. 

Soak celery and onions in cold water for 8 hours and 
cook until tender in same water, then press through a 
sieve. Melt butter in a saucepan, add flour and stir 



it over the fire, then add milk and vegetable puree, 
stirring until slightly thickened. Season to taste and 
serve at once. 

Cream of Mushroom Soup 

| Cup dehydrated mushrooms. 
4 Cups cold water. 
4 Tablespoons butter. 
J Cup thin cream. 
3 Tablespoons flour. 
Salt and pepper. 

Soak mushrooms in water for several hours, then cut 
mushrooms into fine pieces and simmer until tender. 
Reserve a tablespoon of the cooked mushrooms and 
press rest through a strainer with the liquid. Blend 
together the butter and flour and stir into the mush- 
room liquor; add salt and pepper and bring to boiling 
point; add cream and the tablespoon of mushroom 
pieces. Serve in bouillon cups. 

Onion Soup 

1 Cup dehydrated onion. 
3 Cups cold water. 

1| Cups Thin White Sauce. (See page 109.) 
Salt and pepper. 

Small slices of bread, toasted, 1 slice for each person. 
% Tablespoons bacon fat. 

Soak onions in cold water for 8 hours, then simmer 
until onions are very tender, strain onions from liquid 



and brown them in the bacon fat. Then add onion 
liquor to them and the white sauce; add seasonings 
and bring to a good boil. Place the toasted bread in a 
hot tureen, pour in the soup and serve immediately. 

Potato Soup 

^ Cup ground dehydrated potato. 
3 Cups water. 
2 Cups milk. 

i Teaspoon dehydrated parsley, powdered. 
Salt and paprika. 

Bring water to a boil, add ground potato slowly, while 
stirring, and boil for 15 minutes. Scald milk in double 
boiler, add to potato, season with salt and paprika and 
pour into a tureen. Sprinkle parsley crushed between 
fingers over the soup, and serve. If liked thicker, blend 
a little butter and flour to a paste, stir into boiling soup 
and boil for several minutes. 

Pea Soup 

2 Cups dehydrated peas. 
2 Quarts cold water. 

Ham bone or bacon rind. 

2 Tablespoons each dehydrated onions and carrots. 

3 Tablespoons butter, 
lj Tablespoons flour. 




Soak onions, carrots and peas in water over night; 
next morning add ham bone and cook slowly until 
vegetables are very soft. Remove bone and press rest 
through a strainer. Blend together the butter and 
flour, add to puree, reheat to boiling, and boil for 
several minutes to cook the flour. Season to taste. 
Pour in hot tureen, sprinkle over 1 cup crotitons, and 

Tomato Bisque 

\\ Cups dehydrated tomatoes. 
3 Cups cold water. 

2 Cups Thin White Sauce. (See page 109.) 
J Cup dehydrated onions, cut small. 

1 Tablespoon dehydrated green pepper, cut small. 
\ Teaspoon soda. 

2 Teaspoons granulated sugar. 
Salt and pepper to taste. 

Soak tomatoes, onions and green peppers in cold 
water for 4 hours, then simmer until vegetables are 
tender and press all through a strainer. Reheat tomato, 
adding sugar, salt and pepper. Heat white sauce in 
double boiler, add soda to tomato, stir thoroughly and 
combine with white sauce, stirring while mixing. Serve 
in hot bouillon cups with a spoon of whipped cream, 
and on top of this a delicate touch of powdered de- 
hydrated parsley. 



Vegetable Soup 

2 Quarts soup stock. 

£ Cup dehydrated soup mixture. (See page 85.) 

Soak vegetables in stock for 10 minutes, then bring 
slowly to boiling point and simmer until vegetables are 
tender. Instead of using soup stock, cold water and 
bouillon cubes may be used. Soak and cook vegetables 
in water until tender, dissolve cubes in a cup of the boil- 
ing liquid, add to vegetables, bring to boiling point and 
serve. In this way a vegetable soup may be quickly 
prepared, requiring about a half hour. 

Many other soups may be made from the dehydrated 
products by using the recipes given here as a basis for 
other soups. To save time, put the dehydrated product 
through a food chopper, or if the product is dried until 
brittle it can be ground into coarse meal through the 
hand-flour mills. In this event soaking is not neces- 





Vegetable Sauces 

Brown Sauce 

1 Teaspoon dehydrated onion. 

1 Teaspoon dehydrated carrot. 

3 Tablespoons warm water. 

4 Tablespoons butter. 
i Cup flour. 

2 Cups soup stock. 

Small Bouquet. (See page 107.) 
Salt and pepper to taste. 

Soak onion and carrots in warm water for 10 or 15 
minutes, then cook in water until liquid is evaporated. 
Add butter, Small Bouquet and stir constantly until 
butter browns; butter must not burn. Add flour and 
continue stirring until browned, then add stock and 
bring to boiling point; boil for a minute, then strain 
and add salt and pepper to taste. 

Cheese Sauce 

2 Tablespoons butter. 
2 Tablespoons flour. 
1 Cup milk. 
^ Cup grated cheese. 

Salt, pepper and dry mustard to taste. 



Melt butter, add flour and stir over fire for 2 minutes, 
add milk and stir until sauce is smooth and slightly 
thick, then add cheese and seasonings and stir until 
well blended. 

Cook's Bouquet 

1 Bay leaf. 

2 Sprigs of thyme. 

1 Blade of mace. 
12 Peppercorns. 

2 Cloves. 

5 Sprays of dehydrated parsley. 

Soak parsley in cold water for 15 minutes, then lay 
the sprays in palm of left hand. Place the spices in the 
parsley, then fold over parsley so the spices are hidden; 
tie securely with a clean white cord. By using the 
Bouquet in soups no one flavor predominates, but a 
delicate blending of all is given to the soup. 

Hollandaise Sauce 

2 Yolks, unbeaten. 
8 Tablespoons butter. 
1 Tablespoon lemon juice. 
5 Tablespoons boiling water. 
Salt and pepper. 

Wash butter and divide into three portions. Put 
yolks, lemon juice and one piece of butter in upper part 
of small double boiler. Place over boiling water and stir 
constantly until butter is melted. Then add another 
piece and continue stirring, then the last piece of butter. 



When melted and sauce thickens, add boiling water 
and let cook for a minute, still stirring constantly. 
Remove from fire and season to taste. 

Small Bouquet 

J Small bay leaf. 

1 Small sprig of thyme. 
5 Peppercorns. 

2 Sprays dehydrated parsley. 

Put together as directed in Cook's Bouquet and use 
for flavoring sauces. 

Sauce Tartare 

J Cup Mayonnaise Dressing. (See page 112.) 
J Tablespoon chopped olives. 
J Tablespoon chopped gherkins. 
\ Tablespoon chopped capers. 
1 Teaspoon dehydrated parsley. 

1 Teaspoon dehydrated onion. 

2 Tablespoons cold water. 

Cut onion into very small pieces with scissors. 
Powder parsley with fingers and cover these with cold 
water and let soak for 30 minutes. Drain, add to 
chopped ingredients, and mix thoroughly in the may- 



Savory Tomato Sauce 

(To serve with spaghetti.) 

1 Cup dehydrated tomatoes. 

1 Tablespoon dehydrated onions. 

1 Tablespoon dehydrated mushrooms. 

§ Tablespoon dehydrated green peppers. 
If Cup cold water. 

3 Tablespoons butter. 
2J Tablespoons flour. 

1 Teaspoon salt. 

| Teaspoon pepper. 

2 Teaspoons granulated sugar. 

| Teaspoon dehydrated parsley, powdered. 

Soak tomatoes, mushrooms, onions and peppers in 
cold water for 2 hours, then cook slowly until tender 
in same water. Melt butter in saucepan, add flour 
and stir over fire for 2 or 3 minutes; add vegetables 
and their liquid and stir until slightly thickened. Add 
seasonings and parsley crushed between fingers. 
Bring to boiling point and serve. 

Thick White Sauce 

3 Tablespoons butter. 
5 Tablespoons flour. 
1 Cup milk. 
Salt and pepper. 

Melt butter, add flour and stir over fire for 2 min- 
utes; add milk and seasonings, and stir and cook 
until smooth and thick. Then use as directed. 



Thin White Sauce 

2 Tablespoons butter. 
2 Tablespoons flour. 
1 Cup milk. 
Salt and pepper. 

Make as directed for Thick White Sauce. 

Tomato Sauce 

f Cup dehydrated tomato, 
lj Cups cold water. 

1 Teaspoon dehydrated onions. 
%\ Tablespoons butter. 

2 Tablespoons flour. 

Salt and pepper to taste. 

Soak tomato and onion in cold water for 2 hours, 
then cook in same water until vegetables are tender. 
Melt butter in a saucepan, add flour and cook for 
two minutes while stirring constantly. Add cooked 
vegetable pulp (pressed through a strainer), liquid and 
seasonings. Stir over fire until boiling hot. If tomato 
is very acid a pinch of soda should be stirred into the 
tomato before straining. 

Vegetable Sauce 

3 Tablespoons butter. . 
3 Tablespoons flour. 

§ Cup water in which vegetables were boiled. 
§ Cup top of bottle of milk. 
Salt and pepper to taste. 



Melt butter, add flour and stir over fire for % minutes. 
Add liquid and stir until sauce is smooth and slightly 
thick, then season to your taste. Using the water in 
which the vegetable was boiled as part of your liquid 
adds to the sauce the mineral salts and other solubles 
which usually find their way down the sink. 

Pudding Sauces 

Hard Sauce 

1 Cup powdered sugar, sifted. 
6 Tablespoons butter. 
1 Teaspoon flavoring. 

Cream butter, then add sifted sugar gradually, and 
then flavoring. If wished as a decorative sauce, place 
on ice until quite firm, but not hard, press through a 
pastry bag and tube on to chilled plate, and return to 
ice box. When ready to use, dip a thin, flexible- 
bladed knife in boiling water, run blade under each 
rosette and place on the pudding or at the side, as 

Nutmeg Sauce 

lj Tablespoons corn starch. 
\ Teaspoon salt. 
4 Tablespoons sugar. 
1 Cup cold water. 
1 Tablespoon butter. 
Grated nutmeg to flavor. 



Sift cornstarch, salt and sugar into a saucepan, 

add water and stir over the fire for 5 minutes, then 

add butter and nutmeg. May be used either hot or 


Ruby Sauce 

J Cup currant jelly. 

1 Tablespoon butter. 

4 Tablespoons raspberry juice. 

Melt butter in double boiler, add raspberry juice 
and jelly, and stir with a fork until jelly is nearly 
dissolved. Remove quickly from fire and serve at 
once. The sauce is very effective when small pieces 
of red-colored beads show through it. Raspberry juice 
may be obtained by crushing % tablespoons dehydrated 
raspberries, covering with cold water and soaking for 
two hours. Then simmer until soft, strain and use 
liquid. Sweeten slightly while hot. 

Salad Dressings 

French Dressing 

4 or 5 Slices dehydrated lemon. 
\ Teaspoon salt. 
\ Teaspoon pepper. 
8 Tablespoons olive oil. 
3 Tablespoons cold water. 

Soak lemon in cold water for 1 hour, then drain, 
saving water, and press lemon in a lemon squeezer. 
Put the ingredients in a glass mixing bottle and shake 
until well blended. Chill in refrigerator. 



Boiled Mayonnaise 

4 Yolks. 

4 Tablespoons mild vinegar. 

8 Tablespoons olive oil. 

1 Teaspoon salt. 

1| Teaspoons dry mustard. 

2 Teaspoons sugar. 

4 Whites of eggs beaten stiff, or — 
1 Cup whipped cream. 

Put yolks in double boiler, add vinegar and half the 
oil. Mix thoroughly and stir over boiling water until 
mixture is creamy. Remove from fire and chill. Then 
add seasonings and balance of oil slowly. When per- 
fectly smooth, place in a jelly glass in refrigerator and 
add white of egg when ready to serve. 

The cooked part of the dressing will keep for some 
days, and the cream or white of egg may be added as 

Mayonnaise Dressing 

2 Yolks. 

3 Tablespoons lemon juice. 

1 Tablespoon tarragon vinegar. 
1 Teaspoon salt. 
1 Teaspoon sugar. 
1 Teaspoon dry mustard, 
lj Cups olive oil. 

Sift salt, sugar and mustard into bowl, add yolks 
and mix well, then vinegar. Add oil a teaspoon at a 
time at first, then when sauce begins to thicken add a 



little lemon juice and continue until all the oil and 
lemon juice are used. When made keep in refrigerator 
until ready to use. Add paprika at the last, when 
mayonnaise is in its serving dish or mixed with salad, 
as this gives a decorative touch to the dressing. It 
is not necessary to have materials chilled before mixing, 
but it is most essential that the temperature of all 
ingredients should be the same. 

Stiff Mayonnaise 

To proportions given in Mayonnaise Dressing add 
1 teaspoon granulated gelatine soaked in 1 tablespoon 
cold water for 5 minutes, then stirred over boiling 
water until dissolved. Stir until well mixed with 
dressing. When cold this can be pressed through 
pastry bag and tube so as to form roses, rosettes, 
etc., as a decoration to the salad. 




A Savory Meat-stretching Dish 

2 Cups dehydrated potatoes. 
\ Cup dehydrated onions. 
§ Cup dehydrated carrots. 
\ Cup dehydrated turnips. 
8 Cups cold water. 

1 Pound beef. 

2 Tablespoons minced suet. 
Salt and pepper to taste. 

1 Tablespoon parsley. 

Soak each vegetable separately in cold water for 
several hours; drain and dry with a towel the onions, 
turnips and carrots. Cut the meat into small pieces 
or put through food chopper, using the coarsest 
knife. Try out the suet and cook the onions, turnips 
and carrots in it until slightly browned; add 4 cups 
boiling water and the meat, and cook very slowly for 
\\ hours; add salt and pepper and the soaked and 
drained potatoes. Continue simmering until potatoes 
are tender, adding more boiling water as needed. 
When finished there should be about 1 pint of liquid. 
Drain off liquid, place vegetables and meat on a hot 
platter, thicken liquid with 2 tablespoons flour mixed 
with a little cold water, bring to a good boil, add 1 
tablespoon caramel and pour gravy over the cooked 



Almost Meatless Hash 

1 Cup chopped, cooked meat (corned 

beef is especially good). 
1 Cup dehydrated potatoes. 
J Cup dehydrated onions. 
J Cup dehydrated carrots. 
4 Cups cold water. 
3 Tablespoons drippings. 
Salt and paprika. 

Soak potatoes, onions and carrots separately in cold 
water for 5 hours, then cook all but onions until tender 
in same water. Drain and chop fine. Drain soaked 
onions and saute in drippings until tender, add other 
vegetables, meat and seasonings, mix well, add 1 cup 
boiling water, and cook, stirring frequently, until 
liquid is absorbed. Allow hash to brown on lower 
side. Fold like an omelet on hot platter, decorate 
with parsley, and serve. 

One-dish Meal 

3 Cups dehydrated tomatoes. 

^ Cup dehydrated onions. 

1 Cup uncooked rice. 

1 Cup grated cheese. 

3 Tablespoons olive oil. 

Salt and cayenne. 

1 Teaspoon dehydrated parsley. 

Soak tomatoes in 5 cups cold water for 6 hours, and 
onions in three-fourths cup for same time. Dry 



onions on towel and brown slightly in the oil. Add a 
pinch of soda to soaked tomatoes and cook slowly for 
10 minutes, then drain, saving liquid. Combine 
onions, tomatoes, rice (previously blanched for 5 
minutes) ; add 2 cups of tomato liquid, salt and pepper, 
and cook slowly until rice is tender; stir lightly with 
a fork while cooking. Turn mixture on a serving dish, 
cover thickly with grated cheese, and sprinkle with 
crushed parsley. Brown in a quick oven. Serve at 
once in same dish. 

Pot Roast and Vegetables 

4 Pounds bottom round. 
J Cup dehydrated onions. 
J Cup dehydrated green peppers. 
| Cup dehydrated carrots. 
' Noodles. 
2J Cups cold water. 
1 Small Bouquet. (See page 107.) 
Salt and pepper. 

Place vegetables to soak in the cold water for 5 
hours, then drain off water and bring it to boiling point. 
Get a small piece of suet when selecting the meat. 
Chop suet fine and try out in the saucepan you intend 
using for the meat. Brown meat on all sides in the 
fat, then drain off surplus fat. When meat is browned 
add boiling water, soaked vegetables and Small Bou- 
quet, and let simmer for several hours, until meat is 
tender, adding salt and pepper when partly cooked. 
Remove meat, place on serving platter and keep hot 



in oven. Strain off the liquid, saving vegetables and 
discarding bouquet. Parboil noodles in boiling salted 
water for 5 minutes, drain and finish cooking in the 
pot-roast gravy. When tender lift out with a strainer 
and surround the meat with them. Sprinkle over 
noodles the vegetables that were cooked with the meat. 
Thicken gravy with flour and water mixed together, 
adding sufficient boiling water to give about a pint. 
Boil for several minutes, pour several spoonfuls over the 
meat, sending rest to table in a gravy boat. Decorate 
with parsley. 

Vegetable Stew 

2 Cups dehydrated potatoes. 
J Cup dehydrated turnips. 
1 Cup dehydrated carrots. 
\ Cup dehydrated onions. 

1 Tablespoon dehydrated green pepper. 
4 Tablespoons butter. 

2 Tablespoons flour. 

3 Cups milk or soup stock. 
Salt and pepper. 

Place each vegetable separately into a bowl, cover 
with cold water and let stand for 6 hours, then bring 
to boiling point and boil for 15 minutes. Drain, com- 
bine vegetables, add stock, seasoning and boil until 
tender. Drain liquid and save it. Melt butter in a 
saucepan, add flour and stir over fire for 2 or 3 minutes, 
add liquid and boil, then return vegetables to the sauce 
and cook slowly for 10 minutes. Any other combina- 
tion of vegetables may be used. 





String Beans 

Preliminary Directions. — Soak 1 part dehydrated 
string beans in 3 parts cold water for 8 hours and cook 
until tender in same water, adding a pinch of soda to 
accentuate their color, and salt when vegetable is partly 
cooked. Time required, about 1| hours. String beans 
restore nicely and to almost their natural green color. 

Buttered String Beans 

1 Cup dehydrated string beans. 
3 Cups cold water. 
3 Tablespoons butter. 

Soak and cook as directed, then drain, return to 
fire with butter and toss with a fork until well coated. 
Turn into a hot vegetable dish, dust with pepper and 
serve. These may be served on the meat platter as a 
garnish to broiled steak or chops. 

Creamed String Beans 

1 Cup dehydrated string beans. 

3 Cups cold water. 

1 Cup Thin White Sauce. (See page 109.) 

Soak and cook as directed, and reheat in white sauce. 



String Beans in Stock 

lj Cups dehydrated string beans. 
4 Cups cold water. 
% Cups beef stock. 

Soak and cook dehydrated string beans for a half 
hour in water in which they were soaked. Drain, add 
stock and finish cooking until they have absorbed most 
of the liquid. 

String Beans Maitre d'Hotel 

\\ Cups dehydrated string beans. 

4 Cups cold water. 

5 Tablespoons butter. 
Slight grating of nutmeg. 

1 Tablespoon lemon juice. 
1 Teaspoon minced parsley. 

Soak and cook dehydrated string beans as directed 
and drain. Cream the butter with a fork, add lemon 
juice gradually, then nutmeg and parsley, add to the 
drained cooked beans and toss over the fire until very 
hot. Excellent. 

String Bean Salad 

1 Cup dehydrated string beans. 

3 Cups cold water. 

J Cup dehydrated onions. 

J Cup cold water. 

1 Tablespoon dehydrated green peppers. 

\ Cup cold water. 

French Dressing. (See page 111.) 



Soak vegetables in separate bowls in their respective 
amounts of cold water and cook the dehydrated string 
beans as directed in Preliminary Directions until 
tender, then drain and chill. Onions and peppers are 
soaked for 6 or 7 hours, then drained and used without 
cooking. Chop peppers fine and onions rather coarse, 
mix with the chilled string beans. Pour over the 
French Dressing and let them marinate in it for 20 
minutes. Arrange crisp lettuce leaves in a chilled salad 
bowl, and heap the prepared vegetables in center. 
Fresh radishes cut into thin slices make an attractive 

String Beans with Bacon 

lj Cups dehydrated string beans. 
4 Cups cold water. 
3 Slices bacon. 

Soak and cook dehydrated string beans as directed, 
and drain. Cut bacon into small pieces and fry crisp 
in a frying pan, add drained beans, toss in bacon fat 
until hot and serve. Delicious. 


Preliminary Directions. — Beets are cooked until 
nearly if not quite done before skins are removed and 
the beet cut for dehydrating. Consequently there is 
no long preliminary soaking necessary (3 hours being 
quite sufficient), which is a good thing, or the color 
would not be so deep. But as the cooking before the 



beet was cut set and kept the color to a certain extent, 
the dehydrated beet restores to its attractive bright 
red color, and compares in every way most favorably 
with the fresh product. 

Buttered Beets 

2 Cups dehydrated beets. 
4 Cups cold water. 
\ Cup butter. 
Salt and pepper. 

Soak as directed and cook in same water until done. 
Drain, add butter and toss over the fire until well 
coated. Dust with salt and pepper. They will be 
deliciously sweet. 

Beet Salad 

2 Cups dehydrated beet (diced are best). 

4 Cups cold water. 

J Cup English walnut meats, coarsely chopped. 

2 Hard-boiled eggs. 

Crisp leaves of lettuce. 

Mayonnaise Dressing. (See page 112.) 

Soak and cook as directed in Buttered Beets, drain 
and chill. Mince whites of boiled eggs, add with nut- 
meats to beets and moisten with mayonnaise. Arrange 
lettuce in form of nests, add to each a generous portion 
of beet mixture, add yolks pressed through a sieve 
and top with a mayonnaise rosette (stiff mayonnaise 
forced through rose tube and bag). Add a whole 
walnut meat and serve very cold. 



Creamed Beets 

1| Cups dehydrated beets. 
3 Cups cold water. 
1 Cup Thin White Sauce. (See page 109.) 

Soak and cook as directed in Buttered Beets until 
tender. Drain and reheat to boiling point in the sauce. 

Pickled Beets 

Cup dehydrated beets (sliced are better than diced). 
Cup cold water. 
Cup cider vinegar. 
Tablespoon whole mixed spices. 
Tablespoon granulated sugar. 



Mix water, vinegar, sugar and spices and add beets, 
letting them soak over night. Serve on a small plate 
as a pickle. (If beets were not thoroughly cooked 
before dehydrating they must be soaked and cooked 
first, and then let stand in the pickle.) 

Sweet-Sour Beets 

2 Cups dehydrated beets. 
4 Cups cold water. 

1 Cup Sweet-sour Sauce. (See Sweet-sour 
Cabbage, page 128.) 

Soak and cook as directed in Buttered Beets, until 
tender. Drain and reheat for 10 minutes in sweet- 
sour sauce. Serve as a vegetable. 



Brussels Sprouts 

Preliminary Directions. — Soak 1 part Brussels 
sprouts in 4 parts cold water for 6 hours. Cook until 
tender in same water, adding salt when half done. 
Requires from 30 to 40 minutes boiling. These are a 
most satisfactory dehydrated product and restore to 
their natural color, showing the gradations of color 
from the light center leaves down to the dark outside 

Brussels Sprouts au Gratin 

lj Cups dehydrated Brussels sprouts. 
6 Cups cold water. 

1 Cup Thin White Sauce. (See page 109.) 
\ Cup grated cheese. 
Buttered bread crumbs. 

Soak and cook the sprouts as directed, drain. Place 
a layer in a buttered casserole, cover with sauce and 
sprinkle lightly with grated cheese; continue in layers 
of sprouts, sauce and cheese until all is used, covering 
top with buttered crumbs. Brown in quick oven and 
serve in same dish. 

Creamed Brussels Sprouts 

1 Cup dehydrated Brussels sprouts. 
4 Cups cold water. 

1 Cup Thin White Sauce. (See page 109.) 
Salt and pepper to taste. 

Soak and cook as directed above, drain and reheat 
in the sauce. 



Sauteed Brussels Sprouts 

lj Cups dehydrated Brussels sprouts. 
5 Cups cold water. 
4 Tablespoons butter. 
1 Teaspoon flour. 
1 Teaspoon sugar. 
Dust with pepper. 

Soak and cook the sprouts as directed and drain 
thoroughly. Return to saucepan, add other ingredi- 
ents and toss over the fire for several minutes, then 


Preliminary Directions. — Soak 1 part cabbage to 4 
parts cold water from 5 to 6 hours. Add salt to taste 
when half done and cook until tender in the same 
water. Requires about 25 minutes time for cooking. 

Baked Cabbage 

% Cups dehydrated cabbage. 

7 Cups cold water. 

^ Tablespoon salt. 

2 Beaten eggs. 

i Cup cream. 

2 Tablespoons melted butter. 


Buttered crumbs. 

Soak and cook as directed, drain and chop fine. Mix 
eggs, cream and melted butter and dash of pepper with 



the cabbage, place in buttered baking dish, sprinkle 
top with buttered crumbs and bake until brown. Any 
left over cold, cooked meat could be finely chopped 
and mixed with the cabbage to give variety. 

Cabbage au Gratin 

lj Cups dehydrated cabbage. 
6 Cups cold water. 

1 Cup Thin White Sauce. (See page 109.) 
\ Cup grated cheese. 
Salt and cayenne pepper. 

Soak and cook cabbage as directed, drain and chop 
coarse. Butter a baking dish, put in half the cabbage, 
cover with part of the sauce and sprinkle with cheese, 
dust with cayenne, and balance of cabbage, cover 
with sauce and rest of the cheese, and bake until 
brown. Serve in same dish. 

Creamed Cabbage 

1| Cups dehydrated cabbage. 
6 Cups cold water. 
2 Tablespoons butter. 
% Tablespoons flour. 
1 Cup milk. 
Salt and pepper. 

Soak and cook cabbage as directed. Make a smooth 
sauce from butter, flour, seasonings and milk. Place 
cabbage in vegetable dish, pour sauce over it, toss 
lightly, dust with paprika and serve. 



Escalloped Cabbage 

H Cups dehydrated cabbage. 
6 Cups cold water. 
3 Tablespoons butter. 
2 Tablespoons flour. 
1 Cup milk. 

Salt and pepper to taste. 

Bread crumbs. 

Soak and cook cabbage as directed above, drain and 
chop coarse. Melt 2 tablespoons of butter, add flour 
and milk, and stir over fire until a smooth, thick sauce; 
season to taste. Butter a baking dish, put in a layer 
of chopped cabbage, cover with sauce, and continue 
in alternate layers until dish is full, having sauce as 
top layer. Sprinkle over some soft crumbs and dot 
with balance of butter. Brown in oven and serve in 
same dish. 

Fried Cabbage 

1^ Cups dehydrated cabbage. 
4 Cups cold water. 
1 Cup dehydrated white potatoes. 
4 Cups cold water. 
Bacon fat. 
Salt and pepper to taste. 

Soak cabbage and potatoes separately in water, and 
cook until tender in same water, salting to taste when 
partly cooked. Drain and mix vegetables and chop 



coarse. Melt some bacon fat in a frying pan, put in 
the vegetables, dust with pepper and fry until browned 
on the under side. Fold as an omelet and serve on 
an oblong platter. Garnish with bacon curls, or it 
may be served with broiled pork chops. A very savory 

Cold Slaw 

3 Cups dehydrated cabbage. 
8 Cups cold water. 

1 Beaten egg. 
£ Cup vinegar. 

f Cup top of the bottle of milk. 

2 Tablespoons melted butter. 

1 Tablespoon granulated sugar. 
1 Teaspoon salt. 
1 Teaspoon English mustard. 
Dash of cayenne. 

Soak cabbage in cold water for 6 hours, drain and 
chop coarse. Put milk, salt, sugar, mustard and egg 
in upper part of small double boiler and cook over hot 
water until thick, stirring constantly; add vinegar 
gradually, then butter, mix thoroughly and remove 
from fire. When cold add cayenne and mix sauce with 
the cabbage. Heap in salad dish and sprinkle with 
finely chopped red radish peeling. The radish adds 
both a touch of color and piquancy to the salad. 



Sweet-Sour Cabbage 

2 Cups dehydrated cabbage. 

7 Cups cold water. 

J Cup dehydrated apples. 

1 Cup cold water. 
Salt and pepper. 

J Cup brown sugar. 

2 Tablespoons vinegar. 

1 Tablespoon flour. 

2 Tablespoons butter. 

Soak cabbage in 7 cups of water and apples in the 
1 cup of water for 5 hours, drain and bring the water 
to boiling point. Mix apples with cabbage, pour over 
the boiling water to cover, add salt and boil until 
tender. Drain, add butter, sugar and vinegar and 
sprinkle lightly with flour. Toss over fire for a few 
minutes and turn into a hot dish. 


Preliminary Directions. — Soak product in 3 parts 
cold water to 1 part carrot for 1 hour; bring slowly 
to boil in same water and boil gently until tender, 
adding salt when half done. Time required, about 
30 minutes. 

Buttered Carrots 

lj Cups dehydrated carrots. 
4 Cups cold water. 
J Cup butter. 
Salt and pepper. 



Soak and cook as directed, drain and return to sauce- 
pan with butter. Stir over fire until carrots are well 
coated and boiling hot. Add seasonings and serve 
around broiled chops or steak. 

Carrot Croquettes 

2 Cups dehydrated carrots. 
4 Cups cold water. 

J Cup Thick White Sauce. (See page 108.) 
1 Yolk. 

Salt and paprika. 

Bread crumbs. 

Deep hot fat. 

Soak and cook as directed, drain and mash. Add 
sauce, seasonings, mix thoroughly; beat yolk and mix. 
Place in ice box until chilled. Shape into croquettes, 
roll in fine crumbs, dip in egg (1 white and 1 tablespoon 
cold water slightly beaten to mix), then again in 
crumbs. Fry brown in hot fat and drain on brown 

Carrots and Peas 

1 Cup dehydrated peas. 

3 Cups cold water. 

§ Cup dehydrated carrots. 
1| Cups cold water. 
1 Cup Thin White Sauce. (See page 109.) 
Salt and pepper. 

Soak and cook carrots as directed, and peas as 
directed under Preliminary Directions for peas on 



page 147; drain vegetables and mix. Reheat in sauce, 
add seasonings as needed, and serve as a vegetable. 
Most attractive combination. 

Carrots and Turnips 

1 Cup dehydrated carrots. 
1 Cup dehydrated turnips. 
6 Cups cold water. 
1J Cups Thin White Sauce. (See page 109.) 
Salt and pepper. 

Soak carrots and turnips separately each in half 
the water for 1 hour, then cook in same water, salted, 
until tender. Drain and reheat in sauce. 

Carrots, peas and turnips may be combined as 
above, using same amount of each vegetable. 

Glazed Carrots 

1 Cup dehydrated carrots. 
3 Cups cold water. 

\ Cup Beef Soup Stock. (See page 99.) 

2 Tablespoons butter. 

2 Tablespoons granulated sugar. 
1 Teaspoon lemon juice. 

Soak and cook as directed until tender, drain and 
place in a baking dish. Sprinkle with sugar and dot 
with butter. Add lemon juice to stock and pour it 
over the carrots. Bake in moderate oven until liquid 
is reduced and vegetable is brown. Serve as a garnish 
with meat. Carrots have a delicious flavor when 
cooked in this way. 



Lyonnaise Carrots 

J Cup dehydrated onions. 
1 Cup dehydrated carrots. 
3| Cups cold water. 

J Teaspoon dehydrated parsley. 

Salt and pepper. 

Soak onions in half a cup of water and carrots in 
balance, and cook carrots until nearly done; drain 
thoroughly. Drain and dry onions on towel. Melt 
fat in frying pan, add carrots and onions mixed, season 
with salt and pepper, and cook very slowly for 20 min- 
utes, stirring vegetables occasionally. Sprinkle with 
powdered parsley and when brow r ned turn into heated 


Preliminary Directions. — Soak 1 part dehydrated 
cauliflower in 4 parts cold water for 8 hours. Cook in 
same water, adding salt to taste, until tender, — about 
25 minutes. Drain and serve as per any one of the fol- 
lowing recipes. If the head of cauliflower was sliced 
before dehydrating, handle it carefully when cooking 
so that the slices will not become broken. If the prod- 
uct was separated into the flowerets it will not break 
quite so easily. While the dehydrated product may be 
dark in color, it rehydrates and cooks as white as does 
the fresh. 



Baked Cauliflower 

2 Cups dehydrated cauliflower. 

8 Cups cold water. 

1 Cup Vegetable Sauce. (See page 109.) 

£ Cup buttered breadcrumbs. 

Soak and cook as directed, then heap into a casserole 
dish and pour over the sauce; sprinkle top with but- 
tered crumbs and bake in hot oven until well crusted. 

Cauliflower au Gratin 

1§ Cups dehydrated cauliflower. 
6 Cups cold water. 
\ Cup grated American cheese. 

Dash of paprika. 
§ Cup Vegetable Sauce. (See page 109.) 

Soak and cook as directed, drain and shape into a 
mound on a gratin dish. Cover with the sauce, sprinkle 
thickly with cheese, dust with paprika, and brown in a 
quick oven. Serve as a vegetable entree. 

Cauliflower Fritters 

To give the most attractive dish use dehydrated 
cauliflower roses instead of slices. Soak for 8 hours 
in 4 times their bulk of cold water, cook in same water 
until tender, drain carefully (save water), then dip 
each piece in — 



Fritter Batter 

1 Cup flour. 

2 Eggs. 

1 Tablespoon olive oil. 

§ Cup (about) cold cauliflower water. 

\ Teaspoon salt. 

Sift flour and salt into a small bowl, add liquid 
gradually, then beaten yolks, mix well and fold in the 
stiffly beaten whites and lastly the olive oil. Before 
dipping roses into the batter, have ready the saucepan 
of hot fat and fry as soon as dipped. Drain fritters 
on brown paper. Makes an attractive garnish to the 
meat dish, or may be served with Sauce Tartare. 
(See page 107.) 

Cauliflower Souffle 

1 Cup dehydrated cauliflower. 
3^ Cups cold water. 
1 Cup Thin White Sauce. (See page 109.) 
3 Eggs. 

Salt and paprika to taste. 

Soak and cook as directed, drain and press through 
sieve and add to white sauce. Add yolks, unbeaten 
and one at a time, blending each thoroughly before 
adding the next one. Beat the whites in a good-sized 
bowl until stiff, and pour cauliflower mixture into them, 
mixing lightly but thoroughly. Pour into a buttered 
covered baking dish and bake, uncovered, in moderate 
oven until done, — when there is no sound when you 



" listen" to the souffle. Have cover to dish hot and 
place on souffle before removing from oven. Serve 
immediately, as souffle is apt to fall with change in 

Cauliflower Timbales 

1 Cup dehydrated cauliflower. 
3£ Cups cold water. 
1 Cup soft bread crumbs. 

1§ Tablespoons melted butter. 
3 Eggs. 

Salt and pepper, nutmeg. 

Soak and cook the cauliflower as directed, drain and 
press cauliflower through a sieve. Soak crumbs in milk 
until soft, squeeze dry and add them to the cauliflower, 
with melted butter, beaten yolks and seasonings. Mix 
thoroughly and fold in the beaten whites. Have 
ready individual timbale molds, buttered and crumbed. 
Fill two-thirds full, set molds in a pan of hot water 
and cook in oven until firm. Test with knife in center. 
Turn out on platter and surround with a White or 
Cheese Sauce. Delicious. 

Cauliflower with Cheese Sauce 

Use proportions as given in previous recipe. To 
the sauce add the cheese, and stir it over the fire until 
blended, then pour it over the cauliflower mound, 
dusting lightly with paprika and serve without brown- 
ing. Serve as a vegetable. 



Creamed Cauliflower 

2 Cups dehydrated cauliflower. 
8 Cups cold water, 
lj Cups Thin White Sauce. (See page 109.) 

Soak and cook dehydrated cauliflower as directed, 
then reheat in the white sauce and serve in a hot 
vegetable dish. 


Preliminary Directions. — Allow 1 part celery and 3 
parts water. Soak 8 hours and cook in same water 
until tender, adding salt when partly done. Drain and 
serve as per any of the following recipes. 

Celery Fritters 

2 Cups dehydrated celery. 
5 Cups cold water. 
| Cup flour. 

1 Egg. 

2 Teaspoons melted butter. 
Pinch of salt. 

| Cup water celery was boiled in. 

Soak and cook celery as directed and drain. When 
cold, dip in batter made as follows: sift salt with 
flour, add liquid and beaten yolk, then the beaten 
white and lastly the butter. Fry in deep hot fat and 
drain on brown paper. Serve as a vegetable garnish 
for the meat. 



Creamed Celery 

1 Cup dehydrated celery. 

3 Cups cold water. 

1 Cup Thin White Sauce. (See page 109.) 

1 Yolk. 

Soak and cook as directed, drain and reheat in sauce 
to boiling point. Remove from fire, stir in beaten 
yolk, mix thoroughly and serve in ramequins. 

Escalloped Celery 

l£ Cups dehydrated celery. 
4j Cups cold water. 

1 Cup Thin White Sauce. (See page 109.) 

1 Tablespoon lemon juice. 
Salt and pepper. 

Soak and cook as directed; drain and cook 5 min- 
utes in the sauce. Add lemon juice just as it comes 
from fire and season to taste. 


Preliminary Directions. — If steamed until nearly 
cooked before dehydrating, corn will not need to be 
soaked long before cooking, but if only steamed long 
enough to blanch before dehydrating, then it needs 
longer soaking. Allow 1 part corn to 2 parts cold 
water, and soak for 4 hours, then cook slowly in same 
water until tender, — about 45 minutes. 



Corn Chowder 

| Cup dehydrated corn. 

1 Tablespoon dehydrated onion. 

1 Cup dehydrated potatoes. 
4 Cups hot milk. 

2 Tablespoons fat salt pork, minced. 
2 Tablespoons butter. 

Salt and pepper. 

Soak corn in 1^ cups cold water over night, potatoes 
in 3 cups cold water for 6 hours, and the onion in one- 
half cup cold water for 3 hours. Boil potatoes and 
corn in same water they were soaked in until tender. 
Try out the pork, dry onion thoroughly, and fry it in 
the pork without browning; add corn, potatoes and 
hot milk, season with salt and pepper. Soften 6 soda 
crackers in milk. Turn chowder into hot tureen, place 
crackers over top and serve. A hearty and inexpensive 

Corn Croquettes 

f Cup dehydrated corn, ground fine. 
1 Cup Thick White Sauce. (See page 108.) 
1 Egg. 
Salt to taste. 

Put corn through food chopper or hand mill, add 
sauce, salt and egg, and set in ice box to chill. Shape 
into croquettes, roll in soft crumbs, dip in egg slightly 
beaten with 2 tablespoons cold water, and again roll 
in crumbs. Fry brown in deep hot fat. 



Corn Fritters 

| Cup dehydrated corn, ground coarse. 

1 Cup milk. 

J Cup water. 

1 Egg. 

1 Tablespoon sugar. 

Salt and pepper to taste. 
1 Teaspoon baking powder. 
1 Cup (about) flour, or enough to give 
consistency for drop batter. 

Soak corn in milk and water in ice box for several 
hours, then cook gently until soft. Remove from 
fire and cool. Sift together the dry ingredients, add 
to corn with beaten egg, mix well and drop by spoon- 
fuls into deep hot fat, and brown. Drain thoroughly. 
If corn is ground finer (like meal) it will not require 
the soaking or cooking. Then omit water and use 
about one-half cup of milk. 

Corn Omelet 

J Cup dehydrated corn, finely ground. 

4 Eggs. 

8 Tablespoons milk. 

^ Teaspoon salt. 

Dash of pepper. 
3 Tablespoons butter. 

Separate whites and yolks and beat whites until 
very stiff and yolks until thick. Add milk, seasonings 
and corn to yolks and mix well, then pour into the 



beaten whites, mixing lightly. Melt butter without 
browning in deep frying pan and pour in egg mixture; 
place over slow fire and cook until set on the bottom, 
then place pan in hot oven a minute to cook the top. 
Holding the pan in the left hand, run a knife under 
edge of omelet and slip it out on to a hot platter. 
With one-half of the omelet resting on the platter, 
fold the other half on top. Decorate with parsley. 

Corn Relish 

| Cup dehydrated onion, 
f Cup dehydrated pepper. 
3 Cups dehydrated corn. 
2 Cups dehydrated cabbage. 
2 Cloves garlic. 

1 Cup salt (or to taste). 

2 Cups sugar. 

J Cup cider vinegar. 

1 Ounce English mustard. 

Put all vegetables separately through the food 
chopper, using medium-sized knife, and measure after 
chopping. Place them in a preserving kettle, cover 
with cold water and let soak several hours (about 4). 
If water has been absorbed, add enough more to 
prevent burning, and cook until soft. Then add sugar, 
salt and vinegar and boil slowly until thick, stirring 
often. Mix mustard into a thin paste with vinegar, add 
to corn mixture, boil 5 minutes, fill into hot jars and 
seal. Serve as a relish with meats. 



Corn, Southern Style 

1 Cup dehydrated corn. 

2 Cups cold water. 

2 Slightly beaten eggs. 
2 Tablespoons butter. 
2 Cups milk. 

Salt and pepper and granulated sugar. 

Soak and cook until nearly tender, as directed before. 
Remove from fire, add butter and seasonings. Mix 
milk with slightly beaten egg and add to the corn 
mixture. Turn into a buttered baking dish, set dish 
in a pan of hot water, and bake in a moderate oven 
until custard is set. Serve as a vegetable in same dish. 
The time required for soaking and cooking until nearly 
tender may be saved if the cup of corn is first put 
through a flour mill and then mixed with other in- 
gredients and baked. 

Creamed Corn and Green Peppers 

lj Cups dehydrated corn. 

lj Tablespoons dehydrated green peppers. 

2 Cups cold water. 
§ Cup milk. 

3 Tablespoons butter. 
Salt and pepper. 

Soak vegetables in cold water as directed and cook 
slowly until tender. If water is absorbed, add milk 
and complete the cooking in a double boiler. When 
tender add seasonings and butter* 



Fried Corn 

This is a good way to use up any left-over stewed 
corn. Place over the fire and simmer until milk has 
been absorbed, then add some butter and stir over a 
brisk fire until corn is a golden brown. 

Stewed Corn 

1 Cup dehydrated corn. 

2 Cups cold water. 
J Cup cream. 

Salt and pepper. 

Soak and cook as directed, add cream and seasonings 
and serve. 


1 Cup dehydrated corn. 
6 Cups cold water. 
1 Cup dehydrated beans. 
4 Tablespoons butter. 

Salt and pepper. 

Top of bottle of milk. 

Soak corn in half the water for 4 hours, and beans 
in balance of water for 6 hours, then cook both vege- 
tables until tender in same water. Drain, combine 
vegetables, add seasonings, butter and milk to just 
moisten. Stir over the fire for 5 minutes. 




Preliminary Directions. — Allow 3 times as much 
cold water as vegetable. Soak for 15 minutes and dry 
and use as directed. 

Eggplant Saute 

8 Slices dehydrated eggplant. 
Cold water. 

Salt and pepper. ' 


Soak the eggplant as directed, drain and dry with 
towel. Dust each side of the slices with salt and 
pepper and fry slowly until tender and browned. 
Drain on brown paper. 

Eggplant with Brown Sauce 

2 Cups dehydrated eggplant (diced). 

5 Cups cold water. 

1 Cup Brown Sauce. (See page 105.) 

Grated cheese. 

Bread crumbs. 


Salt and cayenne. 

Soak in water as directed, drain well and place in 
baking dish in alternate layers with Brown Sauce, 
seasoning each layer of eggplant. Bake covered until 
tender, then sprinkle top with grated cheese, cover 
this with crumbs, dot with butter and brown quickly. 



Fried Eggplant 

Sliced dehydrated eggplant. 

Salt and pepper. 
1 Egg. 
1 Tablespoon cold water. 


Soft bread crumbs. 

Soak in cold water for 15 minutes, dry between towels 
and dust each slice with salt and pepper. Beat egg 
slightly with 1 tablespoon of cold water, dip each seas- 
oned slice first in flour, then egg, and then in crumbs. 
Fry in fat until tender and browned. Keep hot in 
oven until all are cooked. 


Preliminary Directions. — This vegetable adds so 
much to sauces and other dishes that a supply should 
be kept on hand. Allow 1 part mushroom and 2 parts 
cold water. Soak for 1 hour, then cook in same water 
until tender. 

Creamed Mushrooms 

1 Cup dehydrated mushrooms. 

2 Cups cold water. 

2 Tablespoons butter. 

£ Tablespoons flour. 

J Cup thin cream or top of the bottle of milk. 

Salt and pepper. 
1 Teaspoon lemon juice. 



Soak and cook mushrooms as directed, then set 
aside. Melt the butter in a saucepan, add flour and 
stir over the fire for 2 minutes; add mushroom liquor 
and stir until sauce is smooth and thick. Add cream, 
seasonings and mushrooms, stir until boiling, remove 
from fire, add lemon juice and serve at once. 

Mushrooms in Ramequins 

\\ Cups dehydrated mushrooms. 
2| Cups cold water, 
f Cup Thick White Sauce. (See page 108.) 

Dash of nutmeg. 

Buttered crumbs. 

Soak and cook mushrooms as directed, and drain. 
Add a half cup of the mushroom liquid to the white 
sauce, reheat mushrooms in it, adding a touch of 
nutmeg. Pour into ramequins, sprinkle top with 
buttered crumbs and brown in a quick oven. Serve 
as a vegetable entree. 

Mushrooms on Toast 

1 Cup dehydrated mushrooms. 

2 Cups cold water. 

\ Cup Thick White Sauce. (See page 108.) 

Salt and pepper. 
% Tablespoons cream. 
1 Yolk. 

Rounds of buttered toast. 



Soak and cook mushrooms as directed. Drain and 
add a half cup mushroom liquid to the white sauce. 
When boiling add mushrooms and seasonings. Beat 
yolk, add cream and stir into the mushrooms. Remove 
from fire, pour it over the toast and serve. 


Preliminary Directions. — Soak dehydrated onions in 
twice their bulk of cold water for about 6 hours, and 
cook tender in same water, adding salt when half 
done. Drain and use as directed. 

Creamed Onions 

2 Cups dehydrated onions. 
4 Cups cold water. 
Salt and pepper. 
1 Cup Vegetable Sauce. (See page 109.) 

Soak and cook dehydrated onions as directed, and 
drain. Reheat to boiling point in Vegetable Sauce, 
add seasonings and serve. 

Escalloped Onions 

3 Cups dehydrated onions. 

5 Cups cold water. 

1 Cup Thin White Sauce. (See page 109.) 

Bread crumbs. 




Soak and cook as directed, drain and place in a baking 
dish in layers with the sauce. Shake bread crumbs 
over top and dot with butter. Bake in quick oven 
until browned. Serve in same dish. 

Fried Onions 

2 Cups dehydrated onions. 
4 Cups cold water. 


Salt and pepper. 

Soak onions for 6 hours, drain and dry between clean 
towels. Melt some fat in frying pan, add onions, dust 
with salt and pepper, cover pan and cook very slowly 
until tender and a golden color, — about a half hour. 
May be served as a garnish to steak. 

Onions in Hash 

To use dehydrated onions in hash allow to each 
pint of chopped meat 2 tablespoons of dehydrated 
onions. If the meat and potatoes are to simmer for 
about three-quarters of an hour, the onions need not 
soak, but can be put through food chopper, then put 
in saucepan with the amount of liquid that is to be 
used, and gradually brought to boiling point. Add 
meat and potatoes and simmer as directed. Dehydrated 
green peppers may be treated the same way if they are 
to be used as mentioned above. 




Preliminary Directions. — Soak peas in 3 times their 
bulk of cold water for 6 hours, then cook in same 
water until tender, adding salt when half cooked. 
Drain and use as directed. 

Buttered Peas 

lj Cups dehydrated peas. 
4 Cups cold water. 
3 Tablespoons butter. 

Salt and pepper. 
J Teaspoon dehydrated parsley, crushed. 

Soak and cook as directed above, drain, add butter 
and seasonings, and stir over fire until butter is melted. 

Peas a la Russe 

1 Cup dehydrated peas. 
J Cup dehydrated onions. 
4 Cups cold water. 
Salt and pepper. 
| Cup uncooked rice. 
1 Cup Tomato Sauce. (See page 109.) 
J Cup grated cheese. 

Soak peas and onions in water and cook until nearly 
tender, add seasoning and rice, washed, and cook 
until tender. If necessary, add a little more water 
while cooking, but the vegetables should have ab- 
sorbed the liquid when they are done. Moisten with 



Tomato Sauce and turn into a baking dish, sprinkle 
top with cheese and brown in a quick oven. Serve 
in same dish for luncheon. 

Peas and Carrots in Potato Nests 

£ Cup dehydrated carrots. 

§ Cup dehydrated peas. 

3 Cups cold water. 

§ Cup Thin White Sauce. (See page 109.) 

Salt and pepper. 

Potatoes prepared as for Potato Roses. 
(See page 156.) 

Soak carrots and peas in water for 6 hours and cook 
until tender. Drain and reheat in sauce, adding season- 
ings to taste. Form nests on buttered pan with mashed 
potato, brush with milk, and brown in oven. Transfer 
nests carefully and arrange as border round broiled 
chops. Fill centers with creamed peas and carrots, 
decorate with sprays of parsley and serve. A very 
attractive dish and one well worth trying. 

Peas and Onions 

1^ Cups dehydrated peas. 

J Cup dehydrated onion. 
4J Cups cold water. 

4 Tablespoons butter. 

1 Teaspoon granulated sugar. 
Salt and pepper. 

Soak onions in 1 cup water and peas in balance for 
6 hours, then cook each vegetable separately until 
tender, adding salt when partly cooked. Drain, add 



sugar to peas, also butter and onions, place over fire 
and toss with a fork until butter is melted. Place in a 
mound in center of hot chop plate, and lay broiled 
lamb chops round the peas. 

Pea Souffle 

\ Cup pea meal. 
1^ Cups Thin White Sauce. (See page 109.) 

Salt and pepper. 
3 Eggs. 

Put sufficient dehydrated peas through food chopper 
to give the required amount. Mix with the sauce, 
which should be boiling hot. Remove from fire, add 
beaten yolks and seasonings. Whip the whites in a 
good-sized bowl and pour into them the pea mixture, 
stirring lightly until blended. Bake in buttered dish 
in moderate oven until there is no sound when you 
listen to it. Serve at once in same dish. 

Pea Timbale 

\ Cup pea meal made by grinding dehydrated 

peas in mill or food chopper. 
3 Beaten eggs. 
1 Tablespoon butter. 

Salt and pepper. 
1 Cup top of the bottle of milk. 
1 Cup Thin White Sauce. (See page 109.) 

Beat eggs slightly, add seasonings, melted butter, 
milk and pea meal, and mix thoroughly. Pour into 
buttered timbale molds, set them in a pan of hot 



water, cover with a sheet of buttered paper, and bake 
in moderate oven until firm. Unmold on hot platter 
and surround with boiling hot white sauce. 

Puree of Peas 

1 Cup dehydrated peas. 
4 Cups cold water. 

Hot milk. 

Sprig of mint. 

Salt and pepper. 

Soak and cook peas as directed until tender, then 
press through sieve. Add seasonings, and hot milk to 
dilute to a creamy consistency. Remove the mint 
when there is just a suspicion of its flavor. Serve with 


Preliminary Directions. — If the product was cooked 
before dehydrating, then no soaking is necessary; 
otherwise soak in proportion of 1 part dehydrated 
potatoes to 3 parts cold water for 6 hours, then cook in 
same water until tender, adding salt when partly 
cooked. The length of time required for cooking 
depends upon thickness of the slices. 

Creamed Potatoes 

1 Cup dehydrated potatoes. 
3 Cups cold water, 
f Cup milk. 



Salt and pepper. 



Soak and cook as in Preliminary Directions. Drain 
and reheat in milk, dust lightly with flour, add butter 
and toss potatoes with a fork until milk is thickened. 
Season to taste and serve. 

Escalloped Potatoes 

1^ Cups dehydrated potatoes. 
4 Cups cold water. 
Salt and pepper. 

Soak potatoes in water for 6 hours, then drain. Have 
a buttered dish ready, place in a layer of potatoes, dust 
with flour, seasonings and dot with butter. Continue 
until all is used. Pour in sufficient milk to show, put 
cover on dish and cook in moderate oven until tender; 
remove cover and brown. Serve in same dish. De- 

Fried Potatoes 

2 Cups dehydrated potatoes. 
• 6 Cups cold water. 
Salt and pepper. 
Drippings or bacon fat. 

Soak potatoes in water for 6 or 7 hours, then drain 
and dry with towel. Melt the fat, add potatoes, 
season and fry at low temperature until tender, about 
30 minutes, then brown quickly. 



Hashed-browned Potatoes 

2 Cups dehydrated potatoes. 
6 Cups cold water. 

Salt and pepper. 

Soak and cook as directed until tender, and drain. 
Melt drippings in frying pan, add seasoned potatoes 
and fry until browned on under side. Fold like an 
omelet on a hot platter. 

Lyonnaise Potatoes 

3 Cups dehydrated potatoes. 
| Cup dehydrated onions. 

9 Cups cold water. 
Salt and pepper. 

Soak potatoes and onions separately in cold water 
for 6 or 7 hours, then drain and dry on towel. Melt 
the drippings in a deep frying pan, put potatoes and 
onions in alternate layers in pan, seasoning each layer. 
Cover pan and cook over slow fire until tender. Remove 
cover, increase heat and brown nicely. 

Mashed Potatoes 

3 Cups dehydrated potatoes. 
9 Cups cold water. 
Salt and pepper. 
\ Cup hot milk. 
% Tablespoons butter. 



Soak and cook as directed. Drain and mash. Add 
hot milk, butter and seasoning. Beat with fork until 
very light. If the potato was cooked and mashed 
before dehydrating, then take the quantity desired, 
heat in double boiler with hot milk and butter, beating 
until light. 

Pimiento Potato 

1 Quart mashed dehydrated potato. 
J Cup canned pimientos, chopped fine. 
3 Tablespoons butter. 

Cream to moisten. 

Salt and pepper. 

Follow directions as given for Mashed Potatoes, 
adding butter, cream and pimientos, and beating mix- 
ture lightly with a fork. Heap in a mound in hot 
vegetable dish and serve. A pleasing accompaniment 
to roast beef. 

Potato a la Andrea 

3 Cups dehydrated potatoes. 
10 Cups cold water. 

f Cup dehydrated onions. 

4 Tablespoons butter. 
Salt and paprika. 

Soak onions in 1| cups water for 6 hours, and potatoes 
in rest of the water. Cook potatoes until tender, adding 
salt when partly cooked, drain and set in oven, with 
cover lifted until dry and mealy. Dry onions on towel 
and saute in butter until tender but uncolored. Place 



spoonfuls of potato round broiled steak, and top each 
potato with some of the butter and onion, dust with 
paprika and serve. 

Potatoes au Gratin 

2 Cups dehydrated potatoes. 
5 Cups cold water. 

Salt and pepper. 
1 Cup Thin White Sauce. (See page 109.) 
§ Cup grated cheese. 

Bread crumbs. 


Soak potatoes and cook as given in Preliminary 
Directions, drain. Place in buttered casserole in al- 
ternate layers with the white sauce, sprinkling each 
layer of sauce with some cheese. Cover top with cheese 
and over this the crumbs; dot with butter and brown 
in quick oven. Serve in same dish. 

Potato Border 

Prepare potato as directed for Mashed Potatoes, 
forcing through bag and star tube into a border round 
the meat. Potato may be browned or not. 

Potato Cakes 

Prepare potatoes as directed for Mashed Potatoes, 
shape into cakes and fry brown in bacon drippings. 



Potato Omelet 

4 Eggs. 

3 Tablespoons butter. 

4 Tablespoons milk. 
Salt and pepper. 

1 Cup creamed potatoes. 

Chop the potatoes until quite fine and heat in 
double boiler. Separate whites and yolks, beat yolks 
until thick and lemon-colored, add milk and seasonings. 
Beat whites until stiff, pour yolk mixture into beaten 
whites and mix lightly. Melt butter without brown- 
ing, pour in eggs and place over a slow fire; shake pan 
so that it is evenly covered. While cooking, lift edge 
and let the soft part on top run on the pan. When 
under side is browned, set in oven a minute to cook 
top. Place hot potatoes across center of omelet, fold, 
and slip it onto a heated platter. Decorate with pars- 
ley and serve. Particularly good if made with left-over 
Potatoes au Gratin. 

Potato Puff 

2 Cups dehydrated potatoes. 

5 Cups cold water. 

% Eggs. 

2 Tablespoons butter. 

Salt and pepper. 
\ Cup hot milk. 

Soak and cook potatoes as directed, drain and mash. 
Add butter, hot milk and beaten yolks, mix thoroughly, 



add seasoning and fold in the beaten whites. Pile 
on a buttered shallow baking dish and bake in quick 
oven until brown and puffed. 

Potato Roses 

Use as directed in recipe for Mashed Potatoes, 
adding sufficient milk or cream to allow potatoes to 
press easily through a tube. Insert rose tube in bag, 
place potatoes in bag and force through tube on to 
a buttered pan. Brush lightly with beaten egg and 
brown in oven. Lift each rose carefully off pan and 
place round a broiled steak as a garnish. 

Pyramid Potatoes 

2 Cups dehydrated potatoes. 
5 Cups cold water. 
Salt and paprika. 
2 Tablespoons butter. 
2 Tablespoons milk. 
1 Beaten egg. 

Soak and cook potatoes as directed, drain and mash. 
Add butter, milk, seasoning and egg. Mix thoroughly 
and shape with the hands into cones or pyramids. 
Place on buttered pan, brush over with melted butter 
and brown in quick oven. Lift off with broad-bladed 
knife and use as a garnish for meat. 



Riced Potatoes 

3 Cups dehydrated potatoes. 
8 Cups cold water. 

Soak and cook as directed, drain and force through 
ricer into a hot vegetable dish. 

Savory Potato Croquettes 

3 Cups dehydrated potatoes. 

9 Cups cold water. 

1 Cup minced cold cooked meat. 

1 Cup Thick White Sauce. (See page 108.) 

1 Egg. 

1 Teaspoon dehydrated parsley, crushed. 

1 Tablespoon dehydrated onion. 

1 Tablespoon butter. 

Salt and pepper. 

Bread crumbs. 

Soak and cook potatoes as directed, drain and mash. 
Soak onion in a quarter cup water, drain, chop and 
saute in butter. Add to meat, also crushed parsley, 
combine with potatoes, add seasonings, white sauce and 
egg. Mix thoroughly and set in ice box to chill. Shape 
into croquettes, roll in crumbs, then in egg beaten 
with 1 tablespoon cold water, and again in the crumbs. 
Fry brown in deep hot fat and drain on brown paper. 



Sweet Potatoes 

Preliminary Directions. — Soak in proportion of 1 
cup sweet potatoes and 2 cups cold water for 4 hours. 
Cook in same water until tender, unless otherwise 

Candied Sweet Potatoes 

3 Cups dehydrated sweet potatoes. 
6 Cups cold water. 

Brown sugar. 

Powdered cinnamon. 
6 Tablespoons water. 

Soak and cook sweet potatoes as directed until just 
tender. Drain and place in layers in buttered baking 
dish, sprinkling each layer with brown sugar, dust 
lightly with cinnamon and dot with butter. When 
all is used pour in the water and bake until browned. 
Serve in same dish. 

Casserole of Sweet Potatoes 

% Cups dehydrated sweet potatoes. 

5 Cups cold water. 

4 Tablespoons butter. 
\ Teaspoon salt. 

Brown sugar. 

Soak potatoes in cold water for 6 hours, then cook 
until nearly done, and drain. Grease a baking dish, 



put in a layer of potatoes, dot with butter, sprinkle 
with salt and sugar, and continue until dish is full. 
Place cover on dish and bake in moderate oven until 
done, — about a half hour. A few minutes before 
serving remove cover and brown top. 

Glazed Sweet Potatoes 

2 Cups dehydrated sweet potatoes. 
4 Cups cold water. 

6 Tablespoons granulated sugar. 

3 Tablespoons water. 
2 Tablespoons butter. 

Soak and cook the potatoes until nearly done, then 
drain and place in buttered baking dish. Make 
a syrup by boiling sugar and water for 3 minutes, 
remove from fire, add butter. When melted pour 
half the syrup over the potatoes and bake in moderate 
oven until tender. Baste while baking with rest of the 


Preliminary Directions. — Dehydrated spinach really 
requires no soaking, as it quickly absorbs water. Place 
in saucepan over fire, bring slowly to boiling point and 
boil gently until tender, adding salt when nearly done. 
Drain and serve as directed in following recipes. 



Creamed Spinach 

3 Cups dehydrated spinach. 

4 Cups cold water. 

1 Cup Thin White Sauce. (See page 109.) 
Blade of mace. 

Salt and pepper. 

2 Hard-boiled eggs. 

Cook spinach as directed, drain thoroughly, pressing 
out all the water, and chop. Add the mace to the 
sauce, reheat spinach and let boil gently for 5 minutes; 
remove mace and season to taste. Have ready the 
hard-boiled eggs, reserve yolks and chop whites until 
fine. Turn spinach into a shallow mound on a heated 
platter, sprinkle thickly on edge of mound with chopped 
whites, and press yolks over top through a coarse 
sieve, so that spinach is evenly covered with little 
yellow flakes. A very attractive and delicious dish. 

Puree of Spinach 

Cook as for Creamed Spinach and press through 
coarse sieve. Reheat until boiling, and serve on 
rounds of buttered toast. Garnish with slice of hard- 
boiled egg. An attractive way to serve it is to slip a 
poached egg in center of puree and serve as a luncheon 

Spinach en Croustades 

Cut stale bread into slices \\ inches thick. Make an 
incision round the slice one-quarter inch from edge, 
and cut down nearly to the bottom of each slice, but 



not through it. Scoop out the soft centers, leaving 
the cases empty, brush inside and out with butter, 
and brown in oven. The croustades are ready to be 
filled with the following : — 

3 Cups dehydrated spinach. 

4 Cups cold water. 

1 Cup Thin White Sauce. (See page 109.) 

2 Eggs. 

Dash of nutmeg. 

Salt and pepper to taste. 

Cook spinach as directed, drain and chop coarsely 
and drain again. Reheat in white sauce, add seasonings 
and unbeaten yolks, mix thoroughly and cook a mo- 
ment; remove from fire and fold in stiffly beaten whites. 
Fill each croustade full of spinach and set on platter in 
hot oven for 10 minutes. Serve as separate course, 
or use as a garnish round a roast. 

Spinach Loaf 

Cook sufficient dehydrated spinach (about 3 heaping 
cups) to give 2 cups when drained and coarsely chopped. 
Add three-quarters cup Thick White Sauce and 2 
yolks, mix thoroughly and season with salt and pepper. 
Fill a greased and crumbed loaf mold and bake in 
moderate oven until firm to the touch. Unmold on a 
hot platter and serve with a Hollandaise Sauce. (See 
page 106.) 



Spinach Souffle 

2 Cups dehydrated spinach. 

3 Cups cold water. 

\ Cup Thin White Sauce. (See page 109.) 
3 Eggs. 

Salt and pepper. 

Cook spinach as directed, drain well and chop very 

fine. Reheat in seasoned white sauce and add yolks, 

one at a time, and mix each thoroughly before adding 

next. Remove from fire and fold in the stifHy beaten 

egg whites. Mix and pour into a buttered baking dish 

in a moderate oven until done. Serve at once in same 



Spinach Timbale 

% Cups dehydrated spinach. 

3 Cups cold water. 

2 Beaten eggs. 

2 Tablespoons melted butter. 

Salt and pepper. 

Few drops lemon juice. 

Cook spinach as directed, drain thoroughly and chop 
fine. Add beaten eggs, butter and seasonings. Turn 
into buttered molds (individual), set these in pan of 
hot water, cover top with buttered paper, and bake 
until firm to touch. Unmold and surround with To- 
mato Sauce. (See page 109.) 



Spinach with Sour Dressing 

Cover spinach with twice its bulk of cold water, 
boil as previously directed. Drain and reheat in 4 
tablespoons butter, 2 tablespoons vinegar, and season 
to taste with salt and pepper. Serve in hot dish gar- 
nished with sliced hard-boiled eggs. 


Preliminary Directions. — Allow 3 parts cold water 
to 1 part squash and soak about 8 hours, then cook 
until tender in same water, adding salt when partly 

, Squash au Gratin 

3 Cups dehydrated squash. 
9 Cups cold water. 

1 Yolk. 

2 Tablespoons butter. 
1 Tablespoon milk. 

Buttered crumbs. 
Salt and pepper. 

Soak and cook as directed, drain and mash. Add 
beaten yolk, butter, milk and seasonings, mix thor- 
oughly, and heap in a mound on a gratin dish. Cover 
with buttered crumbs and brown in oven. 



Mashed Squash 

4 Cups dehydrated squash. 
12 Cups cold water. 
Salt and pepper. 
4 Tablespoons butter. 

Soak and cook as directed, drain thoroughly and 
mash. Add seasoning and butter, mix well and serve. 

Squash Pie 

Follow directions for making Pumpkin Pie. 


Preliminary Directions. — If the vegetable is to be 
made into sauce and soups it can be put through a 
hand mill after drying. This saves the time allowed 
for soaking, but where the tomato is to be used in 
other ways, the finished dish looks better if it is used 
in the slices. Soak in the proportion of 1 part de- 
hydrated tomato to % parts of cold water for 5 hours, 
then cook in same water with a pinch of soda until 
done, and use as directed. 

Tomatoes a la Creole 

2 Cups dehydrated tomatoes. 

5 Cups cold water. 

J Cup dehydrated onions. 

2 Tablespoons dehydrated green peppers. 

1 Teaspoon dehydrated parsley. 


Salt and pepper. 

Buttered crumbs. 



Soak tomatoes, onions, green pepper and parsley in 
water for 5 hours, then add a pinch of soda, salt and 
pepper, and cook for 20 minutes. Drain off part of 
the liquid, but not dry, add butter, pour into a shallow 
baking dish, cover with crumbs and brown in a quick 

Baked Tomatoes 

2 Cups dehydrated tomatoes. 
6 Cups cold water. 


Salt and pepper. 


Bread crumbs. 

Soak in cold water, and cook in same water with a 
pinch of soda for 10 minutes. Drain, saving water. 
Place in baking dish in three layers, sprinkling each 
layer with salt, pepper, sugar and crumbs, and dotting 
with butter. When all the tomato is used add sufficient 
water in which they were cooked to make as moist as 
for stewing. Bake in moderate oven for three-quarters 
of an hour. Serve in same dish. 

Fried Green Tomatoes 

Sliced dehydrated green tomatoes. 

Cold water. 


Salt and pepper. 

Soak in cold water for 6 hours, then bring slowly to a 
boil and simmer for 5 minutes; drain and dry carefully. 



Dust tomato with salt and pepper and dip into flour, 
place in frying pan with a little melted fat or olive oil, 
and cook slowly until browned and tender. Serve with 
steak as a garnish. 

Pilaf (American Style) 

lj Cups dehydrated tomatoes. 
%\ Cups cold water. 
\ Cup uncooked rice. 
4 Tablespoons butter. 
Salt and pepper. 
Pinch of soda if tomato is very acid. 

Soak tomatoes in water for 4 hours, then cook for 
20 minutes in same water. Wash and drain rice and 
brown it in half the butter, add to the tomatoes and 
cook until rice is tender; add seasonings and balance 
of butter. Heap on hot dish and serve. Pilaf when 
properly cooked should be dry, with each kernel of 
the rice separate. If necessary to stir while cooking, 
use a fork. This prevents rice from breaking. 

Tomato Puree on Toast 

1 Cup dehydrated tomatoes. 
1 Tablespoon dehydrated onions. 
6 Slices dehvdrated mushrooms. 
\\ Cups cold water. 

Salt and pepper to taste. 

1 Tablespoon flour. 

2 Tablespoons butter. 

Slices of bread toasted on one side. 



Soak tomatoes and onions together in 1 cup of cold 
water and the mushrooms in rest of the water for 4 
hours, then add seasonings to tomatoes and cook 
slowly for a half hour. Cook mushrooms in same water 
until tender, then drain and add the mushroom liquor 
to the tomatoes, and press tomatoes through a coarse 
sieve. Mix butter and flour to a paste and stir it into 
the strained tomato. Add cooked mushroom and let 
boil for a minute. Place the prepared slices on a hot 
platter with untoasted side up, cover each piece with 
some of the puree, placing the mushroom slice on top, 
and serve as a luncheon dish. Delicious. 

Tomato Salad 

Sliced dehydrated tomatoes. 
Cold water. 

French Dressing. (See page 111.) 
Lettuce leaves. 

Select the most perfect slices to serve this way and 
soak in cold water until plump. Be careful when 
handling that the soaked slices do not break. Have 
ready some leaves of crisp lettuce, arrange on individ- 
ual salad plates, and place the restored tomato slices, 
after draining, on the lettuce. Pour French Dressing 
over and serve. To chill the tomatoes, let them stand 
in the ice box while soaking in the water, but do not 
expect them to be as firm and crisp as a fresh vege- 



Stewed Tomatoes 

2j Cups dehydrated tomatoes. 
5 Cups cold water. 
2 Tablespoons dehydrated onions. 
4 Tablespoons granulated sugar. 

Salt and pepper. 
2 Tablespoons butter. 

Soak onions and tomatoes in water for 6 or 7 hours, 
then cook slowly for a half hour, add sugar and season- 
ing, and boil for 10 minutes longer. Stir in the butter 
and serve. 

Tomatoes stewed with Corn 

2 Cups dehydrated tomatoes. 
1 Cup dehydrated corn. 
6J Cups cold water. 
Salt and paprika. 
4 Tablespoons butter. 
1 Tablespoon granulated sugar. 

Soak tomatoes for 6 hours in half the water, and 
corn in balance of water for same length of time. Then 
cook corn in same water until nearly tender, combine 
with tomatoes and simmer for a half hour. Add other 
ingredients and stir until butter is melted. Serve as a 




Preliminary Directions. — Allow 1 cup dehydrated 
turnips to 3 cups cold water and soak for 2 hours, then 
cook in same water until tender, adding salt when half 
cooked. Drain and use in any of the following recipes. 

Creamed Turnips 

lj Cups dehydrated turnips. 
4 Cups cold water. 

1 Cup Thin White Sauce. (See page 109.) 

Soak and cook as above, drain and reheat in sauce. 

Escalloped Turnips with Potatoes 

\\ Cups dehydrated potatoes. 
J Cup dehydrated turnips. 
% Cups milk. 

Salt and pepper. 

£ Tablespoons flour. 

Soak vegetables separately in 3 times their bulk of 
cold water for 6 hours, drain. Place a layer of potatoes 
in buttered baking dish, dust with salt, pepper and 
flour, and dot with butter; then a layer of turnips, 
treating the same as potatoes. Continue in alternate 
layers until all are used. Add milk, using enough to 



show through the top layer. Place cover on dish and 
bake in moderate oven until tender, — about 1 hour. 
Remove cover and brown top. Serve in same dish. 
Excellent combination to serve with mutton. 

Glazed Turnips 

lj Cups dehydrated turnips. 

4 Cups cold water. 




Soak and cook turnips in the water until nearly done, 
drain and place in a layer in a shallow, buttered baking 
dish. Pour over melted butter, sprinkle with sugar, 
dust very lightly with salt and cinnamon, and bake in 
moderate oven until colored. Add a very little brown 
soup stock (beef) and cook until tender. 

Mashed Turnips 

2 Cups dehydrated turnips. 

5 Cups cold water. 

4 Tablespoons butter. 
2 Tablespoons milk. 
Salt and pepper. 

Soak and cook as directed before. Drain and mash. 
Add butter, milk and pepper and mix well. 



Turnips Roasted in Oven with Mutton 

1 Cup dehydrated turnips. 
3 Cups cold water. 
Salt and pepper. 

Soak turnips in water for 2 hours, cook until partly 
done in same water, then drain and dry with towel. 
Place round the meat and baste with gravy in pan, 
cook until tender, basting turnips every time the meat 
is basted. Serve as a garnish round the roast. 




The measurement for these products is "heaping" 
unless given by weight or otherwise stated. 

The fruits are generally soaked in cold water and 
slowly cooked until partly done in the same water. 
Then drain, add sugar to juice, let this boil for several 
minutes, then add the partly cooked fruit and continue 
simmering until tender. The slower dehydrated fruits 
are cooked the richer and better looking will be the 
finished product. 

A very slow oven or a fireless cooker prepares these 
foods the best. All of the larger fruits, such as de- 
hydrated prunes, pears, apricots, peaches and plums, 
are delicious when cooked in the oven in a bean pot or 

Time required to rehydrate fruits depends upon the 
condition and kind of product. While approximate 
time is given in the recipes, however, each cook must 
use her own judgment, and from personal experience 
determine the length of time the special kinds require. 

I have used a dehydrated banana that required no 
soaking, as it was found to be sufficiently tender when 
prepared as the recipe stated. Again I have seen the 
same fruit when dehydrated by others to be quite hard, 
thus needing some time to rehydrate. 




Apple Filling for Cake 

f Cup dehydrated apple. 
l£ Cups cold water. 

Grated rind of $ lemon. 

Juice of 1 lemon. 
1 Cup sugar. 
1 Slightly beaten egg. 

Soak apple in water for 2 hours, then cook until 
tender in same water, drain, and press apple through 
sieve; add other ingredients, return to fire and cook 
until thick. Cool and spread on layers while cake 
is still warm. 

Apple Gems 

i Cup dehydrated apple. 
$ Cup cold water. 

1 Cup flour. 

J Cup granulated sugar. 
\ Cup milk. 

2 Teaspoons baking powder. 
\ Teaspoon salt. 

\ Teaspoon lemon extract. 
2 Tablespoons melted butter. 

Soak apples in cold water for several hours, then 
drain and cut into small pieces. Sift flour, sugar, 
baking powder and salt into a bowl, add milk, butter 
and flavoring. Beat mixture hard and then stir in the 
soaked apple. Fill buttered muffin pans two-thirds 



full and bake in quick oven until done, — about 20 
minutes. Serve hot as a dessert with Nutmeg Sauce. 
(See page 110.) 

Apple Omelet, Baked 

lj Cups dehydrated apple. 
lj Cups cold water. 

% Tablespoons butter. 

4 Tablespoons granulated sugar, or to taste. 

3 Eggs. 

3 Tablespoons powdered sugar. 

1 Tablespoon flour. 

\ Teaspoon baking powder. 

\ Teaspoon each lemon and vanilla extracts. 

Soak apples in water for 6 hours, place in covered 
baking dish and bake covered until tender; then remove 
any liquid, add butter and granulated sugar to apples, 
and return to oven to keep hot. Beat yolks of eggs 
until thick and lemon-colored, add powdered sugar, 
flour, baking powder and salt, all sifted together, then 
flavoring, and mix thoroughly. Beat whites until 
stiff and fold them into yolk mixture. When blended, 
pour it over the hot apples, return to oven and bake 
until raised and brown. Serve hot as a dessert. 



Apple Sauce Cake 

1 Cup dehydrated apple. 
1§ Cups cold water. 
3 Cup granulated sugar. 
J Cup butter. 
1 Cup flour. 
| Cup raisins. 
1 Egg. 

£ Teaspoon soda. 
^ Teaspoon cinnamon. 
| Teaspoon cloves. 
£ Teaspoons cocoa. 
1 Teaspoon baking powder. 

Soak apples over night in the water, then cook 
until soft in same liquid. Sweeten as for table use and 
press through a sieve; there should be three-fourths 
cup of apple sauce. Add soda to apple sauce and 
stir until it foams. Sift together the flour, cinnamon, 
cloves, cocoa and baking powder, then add raisins and 
stir until they are well floured. Cream butter and 
sugar, add beaten yolk, then apple sauce and sifted 
ingredients, mix thoroughly and fold in the stiffly 
beaten white. Bake in loaf tin lined w r ith heavy 
greased paper, in moderate oven, about 45 minutes. 
This cake keeps well. 

Baked Apples 

| Cup dehydrated diced apples for each one. 
3 Tablespoons butter. 


Cold water. 



Place apples in bowl and cover with cold water. Let 
soak over night or for 8 hours. Drain and sweeten 
fruit to taste with granulated or brown sugar. Have 
ready a buttered baking dish, and arrange the soaked 
and sweetened apples in mounds. Place in moderate 
oven and bake until tender, basting while baking with 
butter melted in a quarter cup of boiling water. When 
done, lift apples carefully from pan to serving dish, 
dust lightly with powdered sugar while hot, and serve 

Baked Apple Dumplings 

Allow \ cup dehydrated apple for each dumpling. 

Cold water. 

Sugar. , 

Grated nutmeg. 


Use a cup of cold water to each cup of dehydrated 
apples and soak over night. Roll out pastry (recipe 
on page 190) on a floured board to an eighth inch in 
thickness, and cut into 4-inch squares. Drain water 
from apples, sweeten them to your taste, and heap 
mounds of the apple in center to each square; dust with 
a slight grating of nutmeg and fold the pastry over 
the apple, brushing edges of last corner of pastry with 
cold water and pressing into shape. Place on greased 
pan, prick each dumpling with a fork, and bake in 
moderate oven until apples are tender. Serve hot or 



Dehydrated Apple Cake 

1 Cup butter. 
£ Cups sugar. 
3 Cups dehydrated apples. 
£ Cups molasses. 
1 Cup milk. 
3| Cups flour. 

1 Teaspoon soda. 

2 Cups raisins. 

1J Teaspoons baking powder. 
| Teaspoon salt. 

Soak apples over night in water to cover. Next 
morning drain, add molasses and cook slowly for £ 
hours, then cool, and chop apples. Sift together the 
flour, soda, baking powder and salt. Cream butter, 
adding sugar gradually, then add the cooked apples 
and other ingredients. Mix thoroughly and bake in 
bread tins lined with greased paper, and bake in 
moderate oven about 1| hours. This cake keeps well — 
if under lock and key. Makes two loaves. 

Rice and Apple Pudding 

lj Cups dehydrated apple rings. 
lj Cups cold water. 
J Cup hot boiled rice. 

2 Cups milk. 

3 Eggs. 

1 Tablespoon melted butter. 

^ Cup raisins. 

I Cup sugar. 

1 Teaspoon lemon extract. 

6 Tablespoons powdered sugar. 



Soak apples in water for 5 hours, then drain. Mix 
together the rice, milk, yolks, butter, sugar, raisins 
and extract. Place half of the rice mixture in a baking 
dish, cover with apple rings, then with balance of rice. 
Bake in moderate oven until apples are tender. Re- 
move from oven and cover with a meringue made by 
beating the whites until stiff and gradually adding the 
powdered sugar. Brown in moderate oven and serve 

Apricot Ice Cream 

Follow directions and proportions as given in recipe 
for Peach Ice Cream. 

Apricot Tapioca 

1J Cups dehydrated apricots. 
1| Cups cold water. 

4 Cups milk. 

1 Cup granulated sugar. 
J Cup tapioca (granulated). 

5 Eggs. 

Soak apricots over night in cold water, then cook 
until tender in same water; cool. Scald milk in double 
boiler, add sugar and tapioca, and cook for 15 minutes; 
add beaten yolks and mix well, remove from fire. 
When cold stir in the cooked apricots. Pour into 
serving dish and cover with meringue made from beaten 
whites and 6 tablespoons granulated sugar. Brown in 
quick oven and serve cold. 



Banana Fritters 

3 Whole dehydrated bananas. 
1 Tablespoon lemon juice. 

Powdered sugar. 
1 Egg. 
1 Cup flour. 
\ Cup sugar. 

lj Teaspoons baking powder. 
\ Teaspoon salt. 
\ Cup milk. 
1 Tablespoon olive oil. 

Deep hot fat. 

Cut each banana crosswise into 3 pieces, sprinkle 
with lemon juice and powdered sugar, and let stand 
while preparing the batter. Sift salt, sugar, baking 
powder and flour into a bowd, add milk and beaten 
yolk, mixing to a smooth batter; add oil and lastly 
fold in the stiffly beaten egg white. Dip each piece of 
banana into the batter and fry in deep hot fat until 
a golden brown; drain on brown paper, dust with 
powdered sugar and serve with Ruby Sauce. If bananas 
are hard, cover with cold water and soak for several 
hours until softened; drain and pat dry with a clean 
towel, then continue as directed. 



Boiled Cherry Pudding 

1| Cups dehydrated cherries. 
3 Cups cold water. 

1 Cup milk. 

2 Beaten eggs. 

3J Teaspoons baking powder. 
\ Teaspoon salt. 

3 Cups flour. 

\ Tablespoon lemon juice. 

Soak cherries in cold water for 6 hours, then drain 
(save the water). Sift together flour, baking powder 
and salt, add milk slowly, then eggs, beating until 
batter is smooth. Add drained cherries and lemon 
juice and mix thoroughly, then pour into well-buttered 
mold, filling three-quarters full; cover top of mold with 
buttered paper, put cover of mold on, tie securely, and 
place in a saucepan of boiling water and boil steadily 
for 2| hours. Add more boiling water as the water 
boils away. Water should come up as high on outside 
of mold as pudding does on the inside. Turn out on 
hot plate and serve with sauce made as follows: — 

1| Tablespoons cornstarch. 

Water in which cherries were soaked. 

Boiling water. 
\ Cup sugar. 
1 Egg white. 

Add cherry water to cornstarch, and sufficient boiling 
water to give \\ cups liquid. Stir this over the fire, 



boiling it for 3 minutes, add sugar and stir until dis- 
solved, mix in lightly the beaten white, and remove 
from fire. Serve hot in sauce boat. 

Boiled Rhubarb Pudding 

2 Cups sifted flour. 
1 Teaspoon salt. 

4 Teaspoons baking powder. 
4 Tablespoons shortening, 
f Cup (about) milk. 

3 Cups dehydrated rhubarb. 

4 Cups cold water. 
Sugar to taste. 

Place rhubarb in a bowl, cover with cold water and 
let soak for 8 hours, then add sugar and place in a 
shallow saucepan that has a cover which will fit tightly. 
Place over the fire and let boil slowly until rhubarb is 
partly cooked. Sift flour, salt and baking powder into 
a mixing bowl and cut in shortening with a knife. When 
fine, add milk slowly, still mixing with knife until 
mixture forms a soft dough. Turn out on a slightly 
floured board and roll out a half inch in thickness. 
Then cover fruit with rolled-out dough, fasten cover 
on saucepan and continue cooking for 12 minutes. 
Remove cover, lift off the pastry, and place on a serving 
platter. Pour over the rhubarb and serve at once with 
a Hard Sauce flavored with orange. 



Bread and Fruit Custard 

1 Cup dehydrated banana slices. 
1 Cup dehydrated apple. 
% Cups cold water. 
\ Cup sugar. 
3 Cups hot milk. 
\ Teaspoon salt. 
3 Beaten eggs. 
\ Cup raisins. 
J Teaspoon lemon extract. 
Thin slices of buttered bread. 

Soak apples and bananas in cold water for 6 hours, 
then drain. Place in a buttered baking dish a layer of 
very thin slices of buttered bread, cover this with the 
drained fruit and raisins. Beat eggs slightly, add salt, 
sugar, hot milk and extract, mix thoroughly and pour 
it over the fruit. Set dish in pan of hot water and 
bake in moderate oven until custard is set. 

Fruit Cup (Individual Portion) 

1 Teaspoon dehydrated raspberries. 
1 Teaspoon dehydrated strawberries. 
1 Teaspoon dehydrated apples. 
3 or 4 Slices dehydrated bananas. 
3 or 4 Dehydrated cherries. 
Cold water. 

Sugar to sweeten to taste. 
Orange juice. 
1 Drop extract of lemon. 

Place each kind of fruit in a very small receptacle, — 
after-dinner coffee cups are good. Barely cover with 



cold water and let stand for several hours, then put all 
liquid in a small saucepan; add all fruit but bananas 
and bring very slowly to boiling point and then drain. 
Add sugar to juice, stir over fire until well dissolved, 
and boil a few moments. Put all fruit in one cup, add 
sufficient orange juice to flavor syrup, the lemon ex- 
tract, and pour it over the fruit. Let stand until 
cold, then chill. Prepared in this way the dehydrated 
fruit is like the freshly picked product. 

Filling for Jelly Roll Sponge Cake 

lj Squares unsweetened chocolate, grated. 
6 Chopped dehydrated figs. 
£ Teaspoons cornstarch. 
\ Cup water. • 

\ Cup granulated sugar. 

Chop figs and let soak in cold water while making 
the cake. Then add cornstarch dissolved in a table- 
spoon water, chocolate and sugar, and cook all for 3 
minutes, stirring constantly. Spread on cake while fil- 
ling is still hot. 

Loganberry Souffle 

£ Cups dehydrated loganberries. 

2 Cups cold water. 

1 Cup granulated sugar, or to taste. 

1 Cup milk. 

3 Tablespoons butter. 
8 Tablespoons flour. 

| Teaspoon salt. 

2 Eggs. 

2 Tablespoons granulated sugar. 
§ Teaspoon vanilla. 



Soak berries in water over night. Next day cook in 
same water until tender, add sugar, and continue 
boiling until mixture is beginning to thicken; then 
cool. Melt butter in a saucepan, add flour and half 
the milk, and stir mixture over the fire until it coats 
the saucepan; remove from fire, cool, and add very 
slowly the balance of the milk. When smooth stir in 
sugar, vanilla and beaten yolks. Mix thoroughly and 
fold in the stiffly beaten whites. Pour cooked logan- 
berries in a baking dish, and over them the souffle 
mixture, and bake in a quick oven about 35 minutes. 
Serve hot with thin cream, or cold with whipped cream. 
Delicious with strawberries or raspberries instead of 

Peach Ice Cream 

^ Pound dehydrated peaches. 
Cold water to cover. 
If Cups granulated sugar. 
^ Pint heavy cream. 
3 Cups thin cream. 
1 Teaspoon almond extract. 

Soak peaches in cold water over night, then cook 
until soft, and press through a sieve. Add sugar while 
pulp is hot and stir until it is dissolved, then chill. 
When cold, stir the thin cream into the peach pulp, add 
flavoring, and pour into the freezer can which has been 
packed with cracked ice and rock salt in proportions 
of 3 parts ice to 1 part salt. Let this stand for 5 min- 
utes, then start freezing. Have the heavy cream 
whipped, and when the mixture is partly frozen add 



whipped cream and continue until frozen. Remove 
dasher and pack freezer with salt and ice and let stand 
for 2 hours to ripen. 

Peach Shortcake 

5 Tablespoons butter. 

1 Cup sugar. 
% Cup milk. 

J Cup cornstarch. 
1| Cups flour. 
3 Teaspoons baking powder. 

2 Eggs. 

J Teaspoon almond extract. 

3 Cups dehydrated peaches. 
3 Cups cold water. 

1 Cup granulated sugar. 
Whipped cream. 

Soak peaches in water over night, and next morning 
simmer until nearly tender. Do not let them become 
broken. Add 1 cup sugar and stir until dissolved, 
continue cooking until tender, and then chill. Sift 
together flour, cornstarch and baking powder. Cream 
butter and sugar, add beaten yolks, then sifted in- 
gredients alternately with the milk; add flavoring and 
fold in the beaten whites. Bake in greased layer 
cake tins in quick oven. Drain the peaches from syrup. 
Flavor and sweeten the whipped cream with some of 
the syrup (balance of syrup can be used as a pudding 
sauce, or with cracked ice and ice water as a beverage) . 
Place a layer on a serving dish, cover with part of the 



drained peaches, then with part of the cream. Con- 
tinue with each layer, having top one heaped with the 
whipped cream. Serve as soon as put together. Makes 
a three-layer shortcake. 

Potato Flour Cake 

4 Eggs. 

1 Cup granulated sugar. 

^ Cup potato flour. 

% Teaspoons baking powder. 

1 Tablespoon white flour. 

1 Teaspoon vanilla. 

\ Teaspoon salt. 

Separate yolks and whites, beat yolks until thick 
and lemon-colored, then add half the sugar and beat 
mixture for 5 minutes. Add salt to the whites and 
beat until stiff, adding balance of sugar gradually 
while beating. Combine with yolk mixture, and when 
well blended add baking powder sifted with white 
flour, potato flour and vanilla, and mix thoroughly. 
Bake in two layers in moderate oven. When cold 
put together with strawberry filling. 

Prune Pudding 

% Cups dehydrated prunes. 

2 Cups cold water. 
£ Cups milk. 

4 Tablespoons cornstarch. 
1 Tablespoon butter. 

3 Beaten eggs. 

J Cup sugar, or to taste* 
\ Teaspoon nutmeg. 



Soak prunes over night in cold water, cook until 
tender, strain and remove stones. Dissolve cornstarch 
in a little milk, heat balance of milk, add cornstarch, 
sugar and butter, and cook, stirring constantly, for 
5 minutes. Add beaten eggs and bring to boiling 
point; add flavoring and prunes, remove from fire, 
pour into a buttered dish, and bake in moderate oven 
for from 15 to 20 minutes. Serve hot. 

Pumpkin Pie 

2 Cups dehydrated pumpkin. 
6 Cups cold water. 

3 Cups milk. 
2 Beaten eggs. 

1| Cups sugar. 
1 Teaspoon ground cinnamon. 
1 Teaspoon ground ginger. 
J Teaspoon salt. 

Soak pumpkin over night in cold water and boil 
tender in same water. Drain and press through sieve. 
Add milk, sugar, eggs and seasonings to pumpkin and 
mix well. Line greased pie dish with pastry, pour in 
mixture, and bake in moderate oven until custard is 
set. Proportions give two medium-sized pies. 



Pumpkin Timbale 

f Cup dehydrated pumpkin. 

2 Cups cold water. 

£ Cup sugar, or to taste. 

2 Slightly beaten eggs. 

§ Cup milk. 

J Tablespoon cornstarch. 

Pinch of salt. 

Grated nutmeg. 

Soak pumpkin in cold water over night, then cook 
in same water until tender. Drain and press through a 
sieve. When cool add salt, sugar, milk and eggs, and 
cornstarch dissolved in a tablespoon of milk. Mix 
thoroughly and flavor with grated nutmeg. Butter a 
timbale mold, pour in pumpkin mixture, set pan in a 
dish containing hot water, and bake in moderate oven 
until timbale is set. When baked, unmold on a serving 
dish and set aside until cold. Serve as a dessert with 
whipped cream sweetened and flavored w r ith ginger ex- 
tract. May be baked in individual molds instead of 
the large one. 

Rhubarb Dainty 

2 Cups dehydrated rhubarb. 

2 Cups cold water. 

1 Cup sugar, or to taste. 
1 Tablespoon cornstarch. 
J Teaspoon salt. 
j Teaspoon vanilla. 

3 Egg whites. 



Soak rhubarb in cold water over night, then cook 
tender in same water. Dissolve cornstarch in a little 
cold water, add to rhubarb, also sugar, and boil, stirring 
constantly for 5 minutes. Remove from fire and cool. 
Add salt to egg whites and beat until very stiff; add 
rhubarb mixture and vanilla and fold in lightly. Heap 
into glass serving dish and chill. Decorate with 
whipped cream just before serving. 

Rhubarb Mold 

1 Cup dehydrated rhubarb. 
1 Cup cold water. 

1 Tablespoon granulated gelatine. 

2 Tablespoons cold water. 

3 Eggs. 

Sugar to taste. 
2 Slices dehydrated lemon. 

Put rhubarb to soak over night in cold water, and 
the lemon in 2 tablespoons of cold water. In the 
morning squeeze the juice from lemon, add it to rhu- 
barb with sufficient sugar to sweeten, and cook in 
water it was soaked in, until very soft. Soak gelatine 
in 2 tablespoons cold water for 10 minutes, then add it 
to rhubarb and stir until dissolved. Beat yolks until 
thick, add to rhubarb, mix well and set aside until it 
begins to congeal; then mix in lightly the beaten egg 
whites. Pour into mold, rinsed with cold water, and 
set on ice until firm. Unmold on serving dish and deco- 
rate with sweetened whipped cream and any seasona- 
ble fresh fruit. 



Rhubarb Pie 


1J Cups sifted flour, 
| Teaspoon salt. 
| Cup shortening. 

Ice water (about J cup). 

Sift flour and salt into mixing bowl, add shortening, 
and cut it in with a knife until it is very fine; then add 
ice water gradually, mixing with knife into a firm dough. 
Chill pastry, then roll out on a slightly floured board 
an eighth inch thick. 


£ Cups dehydrated rhubarb. 
' St Cups cold water. 
Sugar to sweeten. 
1 Tablespoon flour. 

Soak rhubarb all night in cold water, drain and 
sweeten. Line a greased pie plate with pastry, pour 
in the sweetened rhubarb, sprinkle with flour and 
cover top with strips of pastry. Bake in moderate 
oven until rhubarb is cooked and pastry browned. 

Stewed Cranberries 

3 Cups dehydrated cranberries. 
3 Cups cold water. 
I \ Cups sugar, or to taste. 

Soak cranberries in cold water for 5 hours, add sugar 
and cook slowly until berries are tender. 



Stewed Pears 

1 Pound dehydrated pears . 

Cold water. 
1 Cup sugar. 
8 or 4 Slices dehydrated lemon. 

Place pears in bowl, cover with twice their bulk of 
cold water, and soak over night. Add sugar and lemon 
(soaked in 4 tablespoons cold water), and simmer over 
a slow fire until pears are tender. 

Stewed Rhubarb 

1 Pint dehydrated rhubarb. 
1 Pint cold water. 
Sugar to taste. 

Soak rhubarb in water over night. Next morning 
add sugar and cook in oven until done. 

Strawberry Filling 

1 Cup dehydrated strawberries. 
1 Cup cold water. 
1 Cup sugar. 
1 Egg white. 

Soak strawberries in water for several hours, then 
cook untij very soft and reduced to 1 cupful. Press 
through strainer and chill. Beat white until stiff, add 
sugar gradually while beating, then add strawberries 



a little at a time, and beat mixture for 15 minutes. 
Makes a delicious filling for cake, and may also be 
served as a dessert in thin glasses in alternate layers, 
with sweetened whipped cream. 

Strawberry Whip 

% Cups dehydrated strawberries. 
\\ Cups cold water. 
\ Cup heavy cream. 
2 Egg whites. 
1 Cup granulated sugar. 
1 Teaspoon vanilla extract. 
Lady fingers. 

Soak berries in cold water for 5 hours, then simmer 
in same water until tender. Drain berries and reserve 
a half dozen of the largest. Add sugar to the liquid 
and boil down the syrup; add berries to syrup and 
simmer until tender, then press through a sieve and 
chill. There should be 1 cup of pulp. Beat whites 
until stiff, add gradually the strawberry pulp, and 
continue the beating. Whip cream and add gradually 
to strawberry mixture, add flavoring and chill. Place 
several lady fingers cut in halves in tall, slender glasses, 
fill with chilled strawberry whip, and decorate top 
with the reserved strawberries which have been sweet- 
ened with powdered sugar. Serve at once so cake will 
not soften. 



Sweet Potato Pie 

lj Cups coarsely ground sweet potato flour. 

2 Beaten eggs, 
lj Cups milk. 

§ Cup sugar, or to taste. 

\ Teaspoon salt. 
\\ Teaspoon cinnamon. 

Beat eggs slightly and add milk. Mix together the 
sugar, salt, cinnamon and sweet potato flour. Add egg 
mixture and mix well. Line a greased pie tin with 
pastry rolled out to an eighth inch in thickness, pour 
in custard, and bake in moderate oven until custard 
is set. 


Cranberry Jelly 

2 Cups dehydrated cranberries. 
<&\ Cups cold water. 
\\ Cups granulated sugar (or to taste). 

Soak cranberries in cold water for 4 hours, then 
simmer until berries are very soft, strain, pressing 
berries so nothing but skins remain in strainer. Boil 
juice and pulp for 12 minutes, add sugar, stirring until 
dissolved, then boil until the syrup "jells." Pour into 
molds rinsed in cold water and set aside until firm. 



Mint Jelly 

| Cup dehydrated mint leaves. 
2 Cups cold water. 
1| Tablespoons granulated gelatine. 
2 Tablespoons boiling water. 
| Cup cider vinegar. 
J Cup granulated sugar. 
Pinch of salt. 

Soak mint leaves in cold water for 2 hours, then 
simmer in same water for 10 minutes and strain. Soak 
gelatine for 5 minutes in cold water, and dissolve in 
hot mint liquid. Add salt, sugar and vinegar. Pour 
into shallow mold, rinsed in cold water, and set aside 
until firm. Remove from mold, chop coarse, and use 
as a decoration round cold sliced lamb. 

Canning and Preserving Dehydrated Products 

Perhaps our summer has been spent in dehydrating 
our supply of fruits, and winter finds no shelves of 
canned fruits, sparkling jellies, delicious jams, marma- 
lades and all the other good things that we have become 
accustomed to. 

But with our stock of dehydrated fruits we may have 
some of them canned, make conserves, jams, marma- 
lades of others, yes, and jellies and pickles too. And 
best of all, both our dehydrating and, later on, our 
canning may be done in comfort, for dehydrating is 
carried on at a low temperature; consequently, the 



kitchen is not overheated, and in winter, when our 
dehydrated product may become a canned one, we 
are very glad of the extra heat. 

Whoever spent a really comfortable day canning 
and making all the other goodies in hot summer 
weather? Standing over the fire carefully stirring the 
kettle of jam can be comfortably done, however, when 
the snow is on the ground, and not when old Sol is 
doing his utmost to make the work a martyrdom. So 
do not think that because your fruits are in a de- 
hydrated stage you are barred from enjoying them as 
of yore. No, indeed; the dried product gives an 
excellent canned or jellied one, and this is equally true 
of the other forms of preserves, such as jams and 


Practical Suggestions 

Dehydrated products do not restore satisfactorily until 
they have been out of the dehydrator for 24 hours. This 
is probably because the cells are tired and need a little rest 
and recuperation, for even "inanimate" matter becomes 

Be careful not to under-dry, for if free moisture is left in, 
molding is apt to ensue. 

Approximate time-tables have been given, but, as ex- 
plained with them, the times indicated are approximative 
only, or, in plainer term, elastic. Climate, soil, season, al- 
titude, thickness of slices or pieces, water content, age of 
produce are all factors requiring consideration, but with a 
little practice one is soon able to tell by the "feel" whether 
dehydration is completed or not, and the test suggested 
previously for free moisture is a safe guide always. Generally 
speaking, products should be leathery and just past the free 
moisture stage. If dried in machine to crisp or brittle stage, 
restoration and quality are doubtful. Most products will 
harden during the conditioning period, which is as it should 

If a batch of fruits or vegetables should prove insufficiently 
dehydrated after removal from dryer, replace until really 
finished — in low temperature at first, and when material 
is well warmed through raise the temperature to maximum 
for that particular product. 

Dehydrate in dry weather if possible. This applies to 
packing away also. 



Dehydrators, large or small, should be thoroughly cleaned 
and sterilized at frequent intervals. 

Produce must be cubed, sliced or stripped uniformly, other- 
wise part of the dehydrator's contents will be ready to come 
out before the rest is done, resulting, perhaps, in both under 
and over drying. 

Moist air is always best in the dehydrator during the first 
quarter or third of the process. 

It is best to cut glutinous material into thin slices or fine 
strips — bell peppers and okra, for example. While such 
things may be dehydrated whole or in large sections, it takes 
very much more time. As a matter of fact, the finer all 
materials are cut, the greater will be the saving of time, fuel 
and attention. Output will be increased also, as the de- 
hydrator can be filled and emptied more frequently. 

With a view to the appearance of finished product, two 
agents are employed by some operators to prevent discolora- 
tion, namely, sulphur and carbonic acid gas. The latter was 
in vogue many years ago, having been employed in the old- 
style drum dryers, coke being the source usually. 

Drying times for potatoes vary greatly according to age 
of vegetable. 

When piling trays, allow for circulation of air and libera- 
tion of moisture. Slices should not lie closely on top of each 

Stems must be removed from leaves of spinach and the 
like before drying, but can be mixed later, after separate 
drying. With cabbage, the thick midrib should be cut from 
leaf and sliced before drying. 

Flavoring herbs, mint, etc., should not be blanched, as 
thereby they lose much of their volatile properties. 

Restoring and cooking are very important considerations. 
Do not drown products by using too much water for restora- 



tion, but see that there is sufficient for full absorption, and 
a little more. Cook the products in the same water in which 
they were restored, as directed in recipe section. 

In dehydrating large quantities there will necessarily be 
a good deal of broken pieces and scraps. These may be dried 
and mixed for soup stock. 

Before attempting to market various runs, test samples 
for restoration and other qualities. 

Be careful to keep containers insect-proof. Bags and 
packages must have no holes, and must be kept securely 
sealed. It is well to coat with paraffin after sealing. If 
glass jars and crocks are used, they must be tightly covered. 

As volatiles and other essentials are retained through 
dehydration, this process may become an important factor 
in the manufacturing of perfumes. Tests are being made 
now, in my experimental kitchen, with flower petals and 
other materials, to determine whether they can be dehy- 
drated and used later for perfume making, when and as 

Fruit juices are being dehydrated and used in powder 
form for flavorings. 

Vegetable Colorings. — Pure vegetable colorings are made 
by grinding spinach, beets, carrots, etc., to powder after 




Acid fruits, to keep from metal, 64. 
Addenda (practical suggestion), 196. 
Adding flavors, 65. 
Almost meatless hash, 115. 
Appearance of products, 36. 
Apples, 64, 89, 173-177. 

Baked, 175. 

Cake, 177. 

Cooking recipes, 173-177. 

Drying of, 89. 

Dumplings, 176. 

Filling for cake, 173. 

Gems, 173. 

Omelet, baked, 174. 

Pudding with rice, 177. 

Sauce cake, 175. 
Apricots, 64, 90, 178. 

Cooking recipes, 178. 

Drying of, 90. 

Ice cream, 178. 

Tapioca, 178. 

Bananas, 90, 179, 182. 

Cooking recipes, 179, 182. 

Drying of, 90. 

Fritters, 179. 
Basic materials for jams, jellies, 

syrups and extracts, 21. 
Beans, Lima, 71, 118. 

Cooking recipes. Same as String 
Beans, 118. 

Drying of, 71. 
Beans, string, 71, 118-120. 

Buttered, 118. 

Cooking recipes, 118-120. 

Creamed, 118. 

Drying of, 71. 

In stock, 119. 

Maltre d' hotel, 119. 

Salad, 119. 

With bacon, 120. 

Beet greens, drying of, 70. 
Beets, 63, 69, 70, 120-122. 

Buttered, 121. 

Cooking recipes, 120-122. 

Creamed, 122. 

Drying of, 69. 

For sugar, 63. 

Pickled, 122. 

Salad, 121. 

Sweet-sour, 122. 
Bell peppers, to peel, 64. 

Drying of, 197. 
Berries, to dry whole, 64. 
Blackberries, drying of, 91. 
Blanching for home work, 51, 66. 
Blanching time-table for commercial 

drying, 55. 
Blanching with steam, 37, 51. 
Blowers, 35. 

Bread and fruit custard, 182. 
Brussels sprouts, 70, 123, 124. 

Au gratin, 123. 

Cooking recipes, 123, 124. 

Creamed, 123. 

Drying of, 70. 

SautSed, 124. 

Cabbage, 71, 124-128. 

Au gratin, 125. 

Baked, 124. 

Cold slaw, 127. 

Cooking recipes, 124-128. 

Creamed, 125. 

Drying of, 71. 

Escalloped, 126. 

Fried, 126. 

Sweet-sour, 128. 
Canning dehydrated products, 45, 

Carbonic acid gas, use of, 197. 



Carrots, 72, 128-131. 

Buttered, 128. 

Cooking recipes, 128-131. 

Croquettes, 129. 

Drying of, 72. 

Glazed, 130. 

Lyonnaise, 131. 

And peas, 129. 

And turnips, 130. 
Catnip, 26. 
Cauliflower, 73, 131-135. 

Au gratin, 132. 

Baked, 132. 

Cooking recipes, 131-135. 

Creamed, 135. 

Drying of, 73. 

Fritters, 132. 

Souffle, 133. 

Timbales, 134. 

With cheese sauce, 134. 
Celery, 74, 135. 

Cooking recipes, 135. 

Creamed, 136. 

Drying of, 74. 

Escalloped, 136. 

Fritters, 135. 
Cherries, 91, 180, 182. 

Cooking recipes, 180, 182. 

Drying of, 91. 

Fruit cup, 182. 

Pudding (boiled), 180. 
Clams, drying of, 60. 
Cleaning and sterilizing dryers, 197. 
Cold-dipping, 39. 
Colorings, pure vegetable, 198. 
Community plants, 29. 
Comparative reduction table, 25. 
Conditioning or curing, 39, 67. 
Corn, 65, 74, 136 to 141. 

Chowder, 137. 

Cooking recipes, 136-141. 

Creamed, with green peppers, 140. 

Croquettes, 137. 

Drying of, 74. 

Fried, 141. 

Corn — Concluded. 

Fritters, 138. 

Omelet, 138. 

On the cob, 65. 

Relish, 139. 

Southern style, 140. 

Stewed, 141. 

Succotash, 141. 
Costs, 34. 

Covering during conditioning, 39. 
Cranberries, 92, 190, 193. 

Cooking recipes, 193. 

Drying of, 92. 

Jelly, 193. 

Stewed, 190. 
Currants, drying of, 92. 
Cutters and peelers, 40. 
Cutting for drying, 53, 66, 197. 

Dehydrating at home, 45-54. 

Dehydrating in large quantities, 29. 

Dehydration explained, 2. 

Demonstrating, 22. 

Demonstrating for selling, 22-24. 

Demonstration exhibits, 23. 

Desserts, cakes, etc., 173-195. 

Difference between drying and de- 
hydration, 2. 

Dining cars, 20. 

Domesticated animals, for, 26. 

Dryer, a good home, 49. 

Dryers to avoid, 47, 48. 

Drying at home, 67. 

Drying air unnecessary, 32. 

Drying; when finished? 37, 52, 68, 
89, 196. 

Dry weather work advisable, 196. 

Egg plant, 142, 143. 

Cooking recipes, 142, 143. 

Fried, 143. 

Saut4, 142. 

With brown sauce, 142. 
Essential factors, 34. 



Essentials for commercial plants, 34, 

Extracts, flavoring, 21, 198. 

Fans, 35. 

Fermentation and molding, 5. 

Filling for jelly roll cake, 183. 

Fish, dehydrating of, 60. 

Flavoring herbs, do not blanch, 197. 

Flours and meals, to make, 86, 87. 

Fritter batter, 133. 

Fruit cup, 182. 

Fruit juices, 198. 

Fruits cut into halves, 63. 

Fruits, home dehydrating, 88-94. 

Glutinous materials, 197. 
Grass, dehydrating, 3, 26, 27. 
Green fodder, 27. 
Guessing at temperatures, 50, 67. 

Hay and dehydrated grass, difference 
between, 3. 

Healthful and nourishing properties, 
17, 18. 

Herbs, kitchen and medicinal, 26. 

Home dehydrating (fruits), 88-94. 

Home dehydrating (vegetables), 66- 

Home dehydrators, 48, 49. 

Hotels, restaurants, schools, institu- 
tions, boarding houses, ships, 
etc., 20. 

How to determine when dehydration 
is completed, 37, 53, 68, 196. 

Insect-proof containers, 198. 

Jams, etc., from dehydrated prod- 
ucts, 45. 
Jellies from dehydrated fruits, 193, 
Cranberry, 193. 
Mint, 194. 
Juices, fruit, for flavorings, 198. 

Kohl-rabi, 75. 

Cooking recipeB. Same as Turnips, 

Drying of, 75. 

Length of time for drying, 52, 68, 69, 

89, 196. 
Loganberry souffle, 183. 
Lye solution, for prunes, peaches, 

etc., 65. 

Meats, 60. 

Milk, 6. 

Mint jelly, 194. 

Moisture in finished product, 5. 

Moisture, use of, 32, 50, 197. 

Molding and fermentation, 5. 

Moths and worms, 39. 

Mushrooms, 101, 143-145. 

Cooking recipes, 101, 143-145. 

Creamed, 143. 

In ramekins, 144. 

On toast, 144. 

Soup, 101. 

Okra, drying of, 75. 
One-dish dinners, 114-117* 

Almost meatless hash, 115. 

One-dish meal, 115. 

Pot roast and vegetables, 116. 

Savory meat-stretching dish, 114. 

Vegetable stew, 117. 
One-temperature drying, 32. 
Onions, 64, 76, 101, 145, 146. 

Cooking recipes, 145, 146. 

Creamed, 145. 

Drying of, 76. 

Escalloped, 145. 

Fried, 146. 

How to cut, 64. 

In hash, 146. 

Soup, 101. 
Oven dehydration not possible, 48. 
Oysters, 60. 



Packages, 43. 
Packing, 43. 

Parsley and other herbs, 77, 105- 

Cooking uses. See Sauces, 105-108. 

Drying of, 77. 
Parsnips, drying of, 77. 
Peaches, 64, 93, 184, 185. 

Cooking recipes, 184, 185. 

Drying of, 93. 

Ice cream, 184. 

Shortcake, 185. 
Pea pods, 27. 
Pears, 64, 94, 191. 

Cooking recipe, 191. 

Drying of, 94. 

Stewed, 191. 
Peas, 78, 102, 147-150. 

A la Russe, 147. 

Buttered, 147. 

And carrots in potato nests, 148. 

Cooking recipes, 147-150. 

Drying of, 78. 

And onions, 148. 

Pur6e, 150. 

Souffle, 149. 

Soup, 102. 

Timbales, 149. 
Peelers and cutters, 40. 
Peeling and cutting at home, 66. 
Peeling and cutting at plant, 30. 
Peppers, 78, 84, 85, 103, 108, 116, 
117, 197. 

Cooking recipes, 84, 85, 103, 108, 
116, 117. 

Drying of, 78, 197. 
Perfumes, 198. 
Pets, for, 26. 

Pilaf (American style), 166. 
Plums, drying of, 94. 
Potatoes, A la Andrea, 153. 

Au gratin, 154. 

Border, 154. 

Cakes, 154. 

Cooking recipes, 150-157. 

Potatoes — Concluded. 

Creamed, 150. 

Drying of, sweet, 80. 

Drying of, white, 79. 

Escalloped, 151. 

Flour cake, 186. 

Flour meal, 86. 

Fried, 151. 

Hashed-browned, 152. 

Lyonnaise, 152. 

Mashed, 64, 152. 

Omelet, 155. 

Pimiento, 153. 

Puff, 155. 

Pyramid, 156. 

Riced, 157. 

Roses, 156. 

Savory croquettes, 157. 

Soup, 102. 

Sweet, 80, 158, 159, 193. 

Sweet, candied, 158. 

Sweet, casserole of, 158. 

Sweet, cooking recipes, 158, 159, 

Sweet, drying of, 80. 

Sweet, glazed, 159. 

Sweet potato pie, 193. 

White, 79, 150-157. 
Pot roast and vegetables, 116. 
Poultry, for, 28. 

Precooked versus raw materials, 4. 
Preventing discoloration, apples, 
pears, apricots and peaches, 64. 
Products, to restore, 95, 197. 
Prune pudding, 186. 
Pudding sauces, 110, 111. 

Hard sauce, 110. 

Nutmeg sauce, 110. 

Ruby sauce, 111. 
Pumpkin, 81, 87, 187, 188. 

Cooking recipes, 187, 188. 

Drying of, 81. 

Flour, 87. 

Pie, 187. 

Timbale, 188. 



Putting back in dryer, if necessary, 

Quality requirements, 31. 

Radiate heat versus direct heat, 33, 

Raising temperatures, 32. 
Recipes for using dehydrated fruits, 

Recipes for using dehydrated vege- 
tables, 118-171. 
Reduction table, 59. 
Restoring, allow 24 hours before, 

Restoring and cooking, 95, 197. 
Rhubarb, 181, 188-191. 

Cooking recipes, 181, 188-191. 

Dainty, 188. 

Drying of, 81. 

Mold, 189. 

Pie, 190. 

Pudding (boiled), 181. 

Stewed, 191. 
Rules for good results, 33. 

Salad dressings, 111-113. 

Boiled mayonnaise, 112. 

French, 111. 

Mayonnaise, 112. 

Stiff mayonnaise, 113. 
Sales channels, 20. 
Salvage, 27. 
Sauces, pudding, 110, 111. 

Hard, 110. 

Nutmeg, 110. 

Ruby, 111. 
Sauces, vegetable, 105-109. 

Brown, 105. 

Cheese, 105. 

Cook's bouquet, 106. 

Hollandaise, 106. 

Small bouquet, 107. 

Tartare, 107. 

Thick white, 108. 

Sauces — Concluded. 

Thin white, 109. 

Tomato, 108, 109. 

Vegetable, 109. 
Scraps, use of, 198. 
Ships, for, 20. 
Soda, for setting color, 64. 
Sound materials necessary, 30. 
Soup mixtures, 65, 84, 85. 
Soups, 99-104. 

Beef stock, 99. 

Chicken, 99. 

Cream of celery, 100. 

Cream of mushroom, 101. 

Onion, 101. 

Pea, 102. 

Potato, 102. 

Tomato bisque, 103. 

Vegetable, 104. 
Spinach and similar produce, 82, 

Cooking recipes, 159-163. 

Creamed, 160. 

Drying of, 82. 

En croustade, 160. 

Loaf, 161. 

Purge of, 160. 

SoufflS, 162. 

Timbale, 162. 

With sour dressing, 163. 
Squash, 83, 163, 164. 

Au gratin, 163. 

Cooking recipes, 163, 164. 

Drying of, 83. 

Mashed, 164. 

Pie, 164. 
Stalks, separating from leaves, 64, 

Steam blanching, 37. 
Sterilizing products, 43. 
Storing, 68. 

Storing at home, 52, 54. 
Strawberry filling, 191. 

Whip, 192. 
Sulphur, use of, 41. 



Surface drying prevented, 32. 
Syrups, 21. 

Temperature tables, Fahrenheit, 

Centigrade, Reaumur, 61-63. 
Tests for quality, 31, 198. 
Thermometer, use of, 49, 50, 67. 
Times, can be approximately given 

only, 38, 53, 196. 
Times given by Proctor Company, 

Time-table used at commercial 

plant, 55. 
Tomatoes, 64, 83, 103, 108, 109, 
A la Creole, 164. 
Baked, 165. 
Bisque, 103. 
Cooking recipes, 85, 103, 108, 

Drying of, 83. 
Fried green, 165. , 
Pilaf, 166. 
Pure"e on toast, 166. 
Salad, 167. 
Sauces, 108, 109. 
Stewed, 168. 
Stewed with corn, 168. 
To keep from metal contact, 64. 
Trade names, 25. 

Turnips, 169-171. 

Cooking recipes, 169-171. 

Creamed, 169. 

Drying of. See Parsnips, 77. 

Escalloped with potatoes, 169. 

Glazed, 170. 

Mashed, 170. 

Roasted with mutton, 171. 
Types of commercial dryers, 29. 

Under-drying, 196. 

Uses for dehydrated products, 19. 

Vacuum process, 35, 36. 

Various opinions regarding dehydra- 
tion, 7-18. 

Vegetable colorings, pure, 198. 

Vegetable flours and meals, to make, 
86, 87. 

Vegetable sauces. See Sauces, 105- 

Vegetable stew, 117. 

Warning against imperfect drying, 5. 

Water, to use in dryers, 32, 50, 197. 

Water vapor in air at various temper- 
atures, 61. 

What not to do, 31. 

When is the product dry? 37, 53, 68,