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Full text of "Delaware County, New York; history of the century, 1797-1897; centennial celebration, June 9 and 10, 1897"

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(ilass . 




Gei\eral Erasius Root. 

Delaware C o^ntv? 

New ^orU 

History of tl)e Ccntar^j 


Centennial Celebration 

Jcini.- and lo, i J07 

Edited by DAVID MURRAY, LL.D. 


II K I. Fl 1 . \ . V. 





1 S 9 « . 


-O U 

Judge Ebenezer Foote. 




Pre (cice. 

IX issuino^ tins ceuteuiiial volume to the public tlit' ol)ject hus 
been to comuieiuorate iu some permanent and suitable way 
the events of the century which has passed. For this purpose the 
public celebration of the ceuteuui;il aunivcrsarv was held, and the 
records of this memorial volume ha"ve been collected and printed. 
To those who have contributed to these paj'^es we desire to ex- 
press our most cordial thanks, and to hope that thereby a work 
has been prt)duccd which may lie I'mnid in some deg'ree worthy 
of the occasion. We trust tliat the impulse wliicli lias been j^iven 
by this celebration to the spirit of historical iucjuiry amou<r our 
people may be augmented by the effort which has been made in 
this book to gather together what is still remembered of our 

It is impossible to name the almost numberless sources of 
help which have contributed to these jjages. Without the en- 
couragement and aid which have been so liberally afforded, it 
would have been imijracticabic to bring this enterprise to a suc- 
cessful issue. It is proper here to make grateful acknowledge- 
ment to the newspaper press of the county for the uniform 
kindness and enthusiasm with which the centennial celebration 
was commended and this forthcoming volume has been heralded. 
It may not be amiss tn ap<il(igiy.c here for the delay which has 
occurred in the issue of this centennial volume. It has l)e('U 
fcjuud impossible to present a book worthy of the occasion at an 
earlier day. As it is, we fear our friemls have often beconu? im- 
patient over tlie persistency with wliicli \vc have urged the com- 
pletion of the parts undei taken by them. We confidently commend 
the completed work to all tliose who are proud of their county. 


and wild iirc auxious tliat her career diiriii;^ the lirst ceutinv of 
her existence may be wortliily recorded. 

It has been the publisher's aim tn make this vulumo not (Uily 
valuable with historic facts Imt with ilhistialinns to jjreseut an 
accurate and quite comj)reheiJsive view nf the county as it ajjpcars 
at the Ijeginning of its second century. This feature will doubt- 
less 1)6 highly appreciated, and the durable and attractive binding 
gives added value to an imjjortant work. 

(xrateful mention should also be made of the interest and c-n- 

.. couragement manifested by the good people of the county, and the 

hope is indulged that expectations will in a measure be realized. 






Object of the Cfiitennial Volume 

Sources of luformaliou 

Authors of Town Histories 

Mr. J. A. Parshall ami Mr. S. B. Champion 


Portraits and Views 

Maps and Books relating to Delaware County... 

Buns Map of Delaware County 

(JoiUds Map ot Delaware County 

Gould's History of Delaware County .-. 

FriMii-h's Gazetteer and Hough's Gazetteer 

Beers's .\tlas 

Munsell's History of Delaware County 

Boston Biographical Go's biographies .. 

Other historioal material 

Section I.— Indian 0<'CCPANTs; Wild .\nimals. 

New York at the time Hendriek Hudson's first voyage 

American Indians 

The Confederacy of Five Nations, afterward Six Nations.. 

The Mohicans 

The peaceful policy of the Dutch 

Sir William .Tohnson and the English policy 

Treaty with the Indians as to thi' liiu' of property 

Traditions concerning Teunis 

Wild animals in Delaware c(i\inty 

The black bear 

The wolf, the fo.\ and the panther 

The deer 










20 I 






The woodchuck, squirrels, etc. 
Pa.ssenger pigeons 






( larmloss and iiiaraiKliuf; birds 35 

iiook tniut. anil black bass "5 

'luiis of shad iu the Delaware 35 

Section II.— Physical Features. 

I ijcueial features of tlie county S7 

The Susquehanna and the Delaware valleys ■V, 

(Jeolofjiral formations 37 

Bowlders •!« 

Flagging stones 3S 

Highest peak in the county 39 

Crops and products 39 

Section III. — Early Settlements. 

Dutch settlement in Middletown 4(1 

The Johnston settlement in Sidney 41 

Indian raid into the Johnston settlement 4-2 

Pounders of Harpersfield 42 

Early trials in Harpersfield 4.1 

Revolutionary experiences ■ 45 

A^ctive period of immigration 4(> 

Colonial patents in Delaware county (note) 47 

Character of the early settlers 48 

Settlers from New England 48 

The Koxbury contingent 49 

Scotch immigration 50 

Section IV. — Pioneer Experiences. 

Trials of the first settlers 52 

Example of a Scotch family 52 

The American axe and its use 55 

The logging-bee 56 

The first crop WJ 

Tools and implements 57 

The chimney and wood fire 58 

Tallow candles 58 

Friction matches ( note) .58 

Section V. — Revolutionaby Troubles. 

Tories iu all the settlements GO 

A ijuarrel at Middletown 60 




The r^i'ttli'iiii'iit SHVod \>y Tennis (iO 

A'i{,'ilauoi' eoiiiiiiitti>e at Harpeistield r.l 

Colonel John Harper <n 

.Iose|)li Brant the Indian chief <;2 

General Herkimer's ooul'erenee with Brant f'>'2 

Harperstield settlers escape <i5 

The settlement at Sidney visited by Brant fi-"> 

The Indians and British join in frontier raids til! 

Tlie Wyoming massacres GO 

The expedition under Generals Sullivan and Clinton fil". 

The liattle at Newtown l>7 

Indian country devastated .-.:'^ G7 

The Genessee valley invaded fiH 

Indian retaliations fiS 

Indians appear at Harpersfieid Gf^ 

Berainiscences of the war ''^ 

Sectiox VI. — Organtz.\tion op the County. 

New county proposed Gil 

Charter enacted by the Legislature Git 

Boundaries of the county G9 

Original towns '" 

New towns ^^' 

First meeting of the supervisors "1 

Court of Common Pleas organized "1 

First court house "1 

■Second ■court house '"- 

Present court house ''^ 

Exciting experiences '■' 

Population of the county by towns '*' 

Taxable inhabitants in 1820 "<■' 

I'ounty Judges ' ' 

Surrogates ' ' 

District .attorneys ' ' 

County Clerks ''^ 

Sheriffs ''* 

County Treasurers '•' 

Members of Congress '^' 

State Senators ''•* 



Members uf Assembly 79' 

Supreme Ciourt Justices So 

Coustitutioiial Delpijates H5 

State Officers S5. 

Section VII. — Military Con'cerxs. 

The Ki'voliitiiiuary iii(i\i'iiiriUs S6 

War of 1812, and the renewal of the military spirit 8& 

Organization of the State militia S(; 

General training H7 

A general training broken up 88 

Section VIII. — Anti-Rest Troubles. 

Lanil and land patents 89 

Leased lands ,S9 

Form of lease in use 9(1 

Movements in Albany, Rensselaer and Columbia eounlies 91 

Disguised Indians 91 

Law against disguises 92 

Shooting of Steele 92' 

Contests in the courts and the legislature :),") 

Settlement of anti-rent issues 9.5. 

Section IX.— The Civil War. 

Contribution of troops by Delaware eounty 97 

Company I of the 71st regiment 9T 

Troops raised in Colchester 98 

Cavalry companj' 98 

The Ellsworth regiment 99 

The Eighth independent battery 99- 

The Shepard rifles lOO 

Company I of the SOth infantry 100 

Contriliulion to the lolst regiment 100 

14Uh regiment : 101 

General conclusions 105 

Section X.— Early Industries. 

(iradual advamement of the county 10(i 

Intn>diicLion of grist mills lOfi 

Saw nulls and lumbering lOG, 107 

'I'annei-ies lOT 



Wood asli(>s Hi" 

Miiplo siifjar lO.s 

Miillvr iiiiiUiiiv; KIN 

Eiii-ly hiccils (if cows lii'.i 

r:irkiii.L; and niarUrtiiiK Imtlur 1 Ml 


Di'lawaii' an inland connt.v Ill 

Dcvi'ldpnient of roads 1 1 1 

Care of till' roads ♦. "... 11 1 

'I'll in pike loni panics 1 1- 

Tli.' Eric Canal 1 1-! 

AUc^'cd firicvaiice to rcnioto counties 112 

New York and Erie railroad 1 !•"> 

Mistake of abroad gaii^je II') 

liciiclil of the Erie railroad to Delaware <-oiinly ll'l 

Alliaiiy and Susquenaniia railroad IH' 

New York and ()s\vef,'o Midland railroad II" 

lionte and engineering c|iiestions II" 

I'.onding the towns for its construction 11" 

Ulster a"d Delaware railroad 11« 

Aided liy bonding the towns H"-' 

Ailvantages secured 1 !'•' 

Section XII. -Editation and Sihooi.s. 

The pioneer settlers eager for education I'iO 

Movi'Uients of New York for ciuiimon scliools 1"-" 

■jiie log school house 1-1 

En nil I lire and e(|uipnii"iits 1-1 

'Peachers' wages (note) 1-- 

Ucgretful renienibrance ''-•' 

Studies in a country school 1-5 

Going up and standing head '-•' 

Reading liooks '-■■ 

Writing, copies and |)eiis '-'' 

Ink and ink powder '-'' 

.\ritlinielic '-'' 

AilvertiBonienl of hook and slalioncry 1-' 

Thunder storm '-■ 

Till- Kelaware Academy '-^ 

10 irisrouY OF itFJ.AWMii': coixry. 


Tlio Di'la\v;iri> Litoi-aiy Iiistiluti' I'2:i 

The Fi'r;;iis()nvill(' A(-adpniy I'M) 

Acuclciiiv at Deposit l:ll 

Tlio Aiidos Acaclpmy 1:11 

Tlio Stamford Snminary 131 

^Vallnll Aoadomy and Uuioii Srlmol •. i;V2 

Section XIII.— Cmiunns and CiirKcir Movements. 

Relit!ioiis couviction.'^ of pionocr.s 133 

Coiigrefjational chuiclu^s 134 

Scotch Piosliyterian cliurdic.s 134 

IJaptisI c-li inches 13.") 

Mi'tliodist churches 135 

Protestant Episcopal churches 137 

Friends 137 

Koniau Catholic churches 137 

Separate bodies of Scotch churches 138 

Scdicli cliiircli in Bovina 13'.) 

Services, music, Sunday school, i>tc 1311 

(V!lel)ration of the Lord's Sujjper 113 

Section XIV. — Early Physicians. 

Want of |ihysicians among tlie early settlers 14.") 

Br. Oliver Wendell Holmes' view of medicines 14") 

The mothers were the physicians 14(1 

Sell- made doctors 14(1 

I'hysicians followed the coloni.sts 147 

The clergy were often skilled in medicine 147 

Sl.ile mi'clii-al society 14.S 

('oiinty niedic-al .societies 14,S 

Dr. J. H. Brett 14« 

Di-. Plait Towiisend 14S 

Other physicians H.S 

Walter Scott the country doctor 14'.l 

Life of George Washington ( note i l.")l) 

Dr. Scott's successor ].")] 

Equipment of a doctor's office LM 

Surgical operations ].",-2 

Tn rn-Key jr,o 

Bleeding ]',•> 


ExiK'iiiiH'Mls witli rlili)roriinn \'i'^ 

A smjjiiiil I'xpoiic'iicc Ifi;) 

SiwUlli'-liatis anil traveling l")t 

A I'alal acM-iili'iit l-')4 

Seition XV. -BioonAi'iiiiAr, Skkitiies. 

C'uloncl John Haipi'i'. Iiy Allen S. rrilil>s lo." 

.Iiiilf;i> Kboufzer Footi' H'd 

(Icncial Krastus Root l<i"> 

Hon. Samuel Sherwood, liy Saniii(>l Sliciwooil of New York Hill 

General Henry Leavenworth 174 

William B. Ogcleu IT'.I 

lU'v. Daniel Shepanl 1«'2 

.Tndge Amasa J. Parker 1K.'> 

Jay GouM 1H7 

Anthony il. Paine I'.ll 

Hon. Samuel A.. Law P'l 

Colonel Amasa Parker I'll 

Hon. Charle.s Hathaway ll'l 

Hon. Samuel Gordon 1''2 

Dr. (). M. Allahen lll'2 

Hon. Norwood Bowne 1!13 

Judge William Gleason 19:1 

Judgi' William Murray I'-);t 

General Ferris Jacobs, jr I'-'-t 

Judge Isaac H. Alaynard I'-"4 

The ('[^ntexnial CELEniiATioN. 

Afldress of W.-lcume by Hon. Abrain ('. Crosby 2li:i 

Letter from Rev. John L. Scott, D. I) -'i'^" 

Letter from Rev. A. S. Ked/.ie '210 

Remark.s of Gonerul Amasa J. Parker ^I'i 

Remarks of Mayor J. H. Milohell .' •21'"> 

Letter fiom David Murray, LL. D '217 

UemarksofJ. I. Goodrich Esii '21'-' 

Remarks of Thomas G. Smith Ks.| ■2'20 

Remarks of Hon. T. E. Hancock '2"2I 

Extracts from a b'lti'r ■2'2!l 

12 nisroRV of DKi.AWMiK corxrv. 


VcKMii "V.mi" l.y Artliur ifoic 2->.'i 

Aikliess l),v Hon. ('has. E. Lincoln 233 

List of Relics c-xliihitcd 23K 

Ci'iiti'nnial dinner 2311 

(I rami procession 240 

Words of Welcome by Col. R. 1'. Corniiick 24() 

Anti-Rent Episode by David Murray, LL. D 243 

The Anti-Rent "Andes Tragedy" by the, lati^ Hon. Richard Morse 2(i4 

Memorial airainst the Erection of the County 2(17 

Town Histoisies. 

Andes, by O.scar S. Nichols 274 

Boxlna, by Hon. D. L. Thompson 2'.ll 

Colchostei-, By Edward E. Conlon 3111 

Davenport, by Walter Seott ; 32(1 

Delhi, by John A. Parshall 331» 

Deposit and Tompkins, by Cu\. G. D. Wheeler 3.55 

Franklin, by Williara B. Hanford 373 

Hamden, by Henry W. Holmes 3K3 

Hancock, by Hon Wesley Gould 401 

Harpersfiehl, by Allen S. (Jibbs 41.5 

Korlrij,dit, by William B. Peters 451) 

Masonville. by A. F. (letter 4K1 

Meredith, by Josiah D. Smith 41(3 

Middletown, by Hon. Jolin Orant, and Mrs. J. K. P. Jackson 503 

Ro.xbury, by Dr. J. N. Wright 51S 

Sidney, by Edwin R. Wattles .52H 

St.'unford 547 

Walton, by Hon. Timothy Sanderson 5()7 


Kci'ord ol' First meeting of Board of Siiperxisors 507 

Ki'cor'd of first eleetion canvass (100 

NewsiKipers of Delaware County C.Ol 

Or'ganizatioir of towns (104 

f'or-i'cctioris and .\ddilions (i()4 

I5ist of llUr.slrcilions. 


Poi'Uait of Gomnal Enisliis Root Facinf{ title piif^e. 

Portrait of .Iiuij;i' El>oii('zor Foote 15 

A PIdiii'i'i- Home i:i 

Portrait of Hon. Saiimcl Slierwood :t:i 

Delaware eouiity waterfalls l:) 

Log house and aii old ihureh 5:! 

Portrait of Hon. Williaiii B. Ogdeu <>:) 

A raft, river foniiiis,', sugar making 73 

Portrait of Hon. .\masa J. Parker S3 

Delaware tounlv lakes 03 

The Sherwood residence 1M3 

Delaware eounty seeni'ry 113 

(ieneral Leavenworth's monument and stone ((uarry 123 

Early [ihysicians' outfit and reminders of early days 141 

State .\rm(iry at Walton lull 

Portrait of Jay Gould 177 

Group of portraits l'J5 

Centennial deeo rations 213 

Centennial Itadges 231 

.Vnli-Kenters' Indian disguises 24!) 

Centennial di'eo rations 263 

Village of Andes 273 

Villages of Union Grove and Shavertown 27il 

Village of Bovinn Centre "-Hi* 

Lake Dela wa re, Bo vi na 2i)'.l 

Village of Downsvjlle 311 

Village of Arena and Shavertown view 3111 

Village of Davenport 327 

Villages of Davenport Centre and West Davenport 331 

Village of Delhi 3.37 

County farm and liridge, in Delhi 343 

Village of Deposit 353 

Village of Cannonsville 3.5i)- 




Villages of Eoek Kift and Trout Creek 3(>5 

Village of Franklin 371 

Village of Treadwell 377 

Village of Hamden 3sl 

Village of DeLaneey and Hamden street 389 

Village of Hancock 399 

Villages of East Branch and Fish Eddy 405 

Villages of Harpersfield and North Harpersfield 413 

Colonel Harper's monument and views 421 

Villages of Halcottville and Kellys Corners 431 

Villages of Arkville and New Kingston 441 

Village of Bloomville 459 

Village of Almeda and Bloomville street 469 

Village of Masonville 479 

Villages of East Meredith and Mer.'dith 489 

Village of Meridale 495 

Village of Margaret ville. 501 

Village of Griffin Corners 511 

Village of Kosbury 319 

Village of Grand Gorge 523 

Village of Sidney 529 

Village of Sidney Centre 535 

Village of Stamford 545 

Village of Hobart 555 

Village of Walton 565 

Village of Walton 575 

Stratton's Falls and view 585 

Jersev cow and butter firkin 593 


DllLVWAliE c-ouiity has played au iinportaut ]iart in tlic jiast 
liistorv of the coiuiiiouwealtli of New York. It is tittiiig, 
Tthereforc, at the end of the first cciitiirv of her organized life, to 
■ forumemorate the eirciinistanees of her establishment, and to fi^ather 
up the faets of her experience which may serve as lessons for the 
future. The committee haviuj^' charire of the celebration of the 
centennial anniversary of the county has deemed it suitable to 
prejjare a volume, which Ix'sides coutaiuintj- th<> luoceedings of 
the days devoted to the public exercises at Delhi, should also 
include historical notices of the towns and the county, and bio- 
^■ra])hical sketches of some of her most eminent citizens. 

It is impossible to enumerate all the sources from wliidi in- 
formation has been derived for the compilation of tliis story of a 
• century. To the authors of the town histories whose names are 
given in the contents, the committee desires to express its special 
.thanks for their valuable contributions. Ackuowledpfenients are 
particularly due to Mr. John A. I'arsha]]. the veteran antiiiuarian 
of Delhi, for his constant and williuLr assistance at all times; and 
to Mr. S. B. Champion of .Stainford who for forty-seven years has 
edited and published a continuous newspaper and whose recollec- 
tions cover more than hall' of the county's history. 

For the illustrations which add so much to the interest and 
value of the volume we desire to express our obligations to those 
who have aided us in securing them — to Miss Foote who has per- 
mitted the photographing of a miniature bust of her ancestor, 
■Judge Foote; to Mr. E. B. Sheldon for permission to copy the 
portrait of General Root in his possession; to Mr. Samuel 
.Sherwood of New York for a ])ortrait of his grandfather and a 


view of the venerable house which he oecupied when he wa« a 
lewitleut of Delhi; to Mis. John V. L. Pruyu for a portrait of her 
father, Judge Amasa J. Parker; and to Miss Helen Miller (xould 
for that of her father, Jay (xould. Besides these notable illustra- 
tions, it is most fitting to make mention of the picturesque views- 
of places and things gathered by Mr. Chas. T. Telford, the i)hoto- 
grapher, who has traveled over the county in search of what would 
add interest to the past life of the century. 

It will be of interest here to enumerate the maps and books 
which have heretofore been published in reference to Delaware 
county. In this statement we do not include the most important 
publications of all, viz: the newspaper press of which an account 
is given in the appendix. Mr. S. B. Champion has kindly furnished 
a detailed statement of these publications from which this is chietly 

1. In 1829 David H. Burr, a land surveyor, i)ublished a map 
of Delaware county. It was maiulj' designed for the benefit of 
the owners of laud patents and their agents, and for lawyers con- 
ducting litigations concerning land. The boundaries of land 
j)atents and the location of the lots are there given. 

2. In 1856 Jay Gould, then in his 20th year, published a map 
founded on surveys made by himself. It is a wall map containing 
plans oi all the villages in the county. Mr. Champion admiring 
his pluck and self-reliance, furnished a small aiiKJiint of financial 
backing, with which he accomplished the jol). 

3. While Mr. Gould was making surveys for his map he also 
collected material tor a history of the county. The manuscript 
having been destroyed by tire had to be re-written. It was pub- 
lished finally in 1S.3(). 

4. In 18(j() a Gazetter of the State of New York, giving a brief 
history of every county in the State, was compiled by J. H. French 
and published by K. P. Smith of Syracuse. The sketch of Dela- 
ware county was mainly composed of facts taken from Simms" 
liistcu'v of Schoharie county, Campliell's histiuw of Tryon county. 

isriiiiiirfTiiii v. •>i 

aii<l ( iiiuld's history of J)(-la\viirc <-(iiiiitv. In IST.'i it new cililiiiii 
iif this gazetter was pulilislicd iiiidcr t he sii]i(r\ isidn of Dr. l-'iiiiik- 

liu B. Hough who hud Ix'ou eugaged in the |ur]iarati f the 

ori^^iiial work. 

."). In 1S()!I au athis of Dchiwarc ccmiity was ])rcjiaicd under 
the direction of F. W. Beers and |inl>lislied hy Beers, I'Ulis and 
Soule of New York. It resendilcd (iould's nia]! in styh' and ar- 
raiigeuient, and chiinis to liave beeu wade from ai'tual surveys. 
But this is uncertain. It contains forty-oue pages, a colored map 
of each town on u page and outlines of the larger villages on others. 

(i. In 188(1 a ([uarto vulunie of tiic liistory of Delaware coiintv 
was published liy W. W. JIuusell iV Co. of New York. It contained 
'MVl pages, and was illustrated with county buildings, farms and 
houses, and with portraits of resident citizens. 

7. In 181)5 the Boston Biot;'raj)liical l!e\icw I'ulilishing Com- 
pany issued a volume uf 71 (i pages, containing biograjihical 
sketches of 591 persons then resident in the county. aci'om)ianied 
with portraits of a portion of them. 

8. In 187"2 the citizens of Sidney celebrated the centennial 
anniversary of the first white settlement. The j)roceediugs of this 
celebration were published in the newspapers of the daj' but no 
centennial voluiue was issued. In lsi)7 a historical souvenir of 
Delhi and vicinity, of (!'2 ])ages, was ])ublishcd contaiuiug historical 
matter and illustrated with views and ])ortiaits. 

It. Besides these publications, which refer e.\<dnsiv<dy to Dela- 
ware ccniuty, mention may here lie made of the following works 
which deal more or less with the early settlements of the county, 
viz: Simms' History of Schoharie County, Campbell's History of 
Trvon Countv, and Stone's Life of Brant. 

Delaware Coant\;. 

Indian Occapant.s; Wild Animals. 

m^T^ we could tiike a birds-eye view of the .State of New 
York at the time Heudrick Hudsou in 1(500 sailed up 
the river which uow boars his name, we would behold 
a territory almost completely covered with forest. 
Here aud there shiuinn- lakes would be seen where 
the blue water is striviuf^- bravely to keep at l)ay the 
encroachiug forces of the laud. Numberless streams 
trickle, aud glide, and How along wooded banks out to 
the UK'asureless sea. The Hudsou river aud its tributaries draining 
the region of the Adiroudacks and the beautiful valleys to the 
south of them, — the Delaware aud Susquehanna reaching their thin 
tendrils up into the mountains of ceutral New York, — the branches 
of the Ohio laving their gentle banks in western New York, ;uid 
the mighty St. Lawrence and the streams which feed aud drain 
the lakes, — what a fascinating picture they present aud what a 
story they have to tell to him who can read the future or the pjist. 
The only inhabitants of this vast wilderness at the time of 
Heudrick Hudson's invasion of its solitude were the American 
Indians. Although jJositive and fixed homes cannot be assigned to 
these red men in the same sense as to the white men vvho followed 
them; yet in a general way it may be stated that the centre of the 
State was occupied by the powerfid confederacy of the Five Nations 
of Indians. These wore the ^lohawks, the ()noi<las, the Ononda>,'as, 

26 HISTORY OF ni':i..\\VM{h: forxrv. 

the Cavugas, aud the Senecas. Subsetiueutlv iii 1717 the Tuseavo- 
ras, a coguate tribe who dwelt iu the Caroliuus, removed to New 
York and were admitted into the Indian League, which uow l)e- 
canie the confederacy of the Six Nations. These tribes occupied 
the middle and western parts of the State. 

The Mohicans, sometimes called the Delaware Indians, occupied 
the regions along the Hudson river and as far east as the Con- 
necticut, and westward to the head-waters of the Susquehanna. 
This tribe was less warlike and more disposed to be friendly 
towards the white settlers than their enemies the Six Nations. 
The novelist Cooper in his "Last of the Mohicans"* has drawn 
a fascinating jjicture of the fragments of this tribe at the time of 
the French war in the region of Otsego lake. They had been 
conquered and reduced to a pitiable condition of dependence by 
their fierce neighbors; and at the time of the revolutionary war 
when the Mohawks, under the lead of Brant and at the instigation 
of the British, raided the loyal settlements, the Delawares were 
able to make no headway against them. 

No part of the present county was ever the permanent home of 
the Indians. They visited various parts of it on hunting excur- 
sions, and established camps which remained fixed for mouths; but 
they always withdrew before the rigors of winter began. The 
present site of Sidnej' village was thus an Indian hunting camp; 
and several places on the East Branch of the Delaware, and at the 
head of the West Branch where the valleys slope oS in several 
directions, were visited by Indians in their annual hunting excur- 
sions. This right to rove the forests in the ojjinion of these 
savages gave them an ownersliiii in territory, which the early 
settlers were considerate enough to respect. It was the jJolicy of 
the Dutch, who came first into the territory of the New Nether- 
lands, to treat the Indians as the real land-owners. They bought 
the island of Manhattan, although the price which they paid — 

* Wo have followed the novelist's cxamiilr in iisin;4 tlic word Mohican as 
till' name of this tritie. 


tw ciity-fDiir dollars — seems uow so ridicMilously iiiiiil('i|uate. The 
Yiiu Keusselaer colonists who settled the territory about Albauy 
bought the lauds of the ludiaus, of which they afterward received a 
f>-rant from the Dutch West India C'oiiipauy. So too, after the 
Dutch possessions in Anicricii had been transferred to the I'luglish 
iu 1()(]4, the new owners niaiutained the same peaceable relations 
with the aborigines. Aud when the great Hardenbcrgh patent 
was given by Queen Auue iu 1708 to Johannes Hardeubergh and 
his associates, it was required of them that they must extinguish 
tlie Indian titles before the grant would be complete. In doing 
this there arose a controversy between the patentees and the 
Indians as to whether the great tract lying l)etween the East and 
West branches of the Delaw-are river was included in the sale made 
by the Indians. In order to settle this dispute the patentees 
agreed to purchase frmii the claimants the disjmted territory, for 
which they paid the sum of one Iniiulred and forty-nine jiounds, 
nineteen shillings. 

In order to maintain amicalile relations with tlic Six Nations tin? 
English Colonial (Tovernment ap]iointcd iu 174(i William Jolinsou 
(afterward Sir William) as Commissary of Indian Affairs. He had 
been trained by the Schuylers of Albauy who had maintained the 
traditional Dutch policy of peace and fairness. He established his 
office at Johnstown in Fulton county, so called after himsi'lf. My 
his great influence he kept the Six Nations on the side of the 
British during the French war; and when the hostilities of the 
revolutionary war were about to break out, his ascendency was 
shown by the New York Indians alnitist uuanimously taking the side 
of the tories. He died in 1774 just before active hostilities began; 
but his i)olicy was continued by the members of his family who were 
maintained by the government in the same re.spousible position. 

One of the most important agreements which Sir William John- 
son made with the Indians was a treaty entered into at Fort 
Stanwix in 17(iH. This treaty was designed to settle the disputes 
which had arisen in reference to the western boundary line to 


which the loeatiou of white settlements mig-ht extend. The line 
tixed by this treaty was an irregular one beginning on the Ohio 
river and ruuuing eastward to the Susquehanna, and along branches 
of the same, thence to the Delaware river, and so north wiird near 
the present city of Rome and 1)y the Canada Creek to Lake Ontario. 
It was signed on the part of the British by Sir AYilliam Johnson, 
and on the jjart of the Indians by representatives of eac-h of the six 
confederated nations, viz the ^lohawks, the Oueidas, the Tuscaro- 
ras, the Onondagas, the Cayugas, and the Senecas. Sir 'William on 
behalf of his government paid to the Indian chiefs the sum of ten 
thousand four hundred and sixty pounds, seven shillings and three 
pence, and in return received a deed of the land so conveyed. 
Delaware county lay to the east of this line, which was known as 
the "line of pro2)erties." It was therefore open to settlement, both 
under the terms of this treaty, and under the Hardenbergh patent 
which had originally been bought from the Indians. 

The only Indian who is known to have lived in Delaware county 
after the Revolutionary war was old Tennis, who dwelt alone in a 
little tent by the lake which still retains his name, situated in 
Boviua near the borders of the town of Andes. The story con- 
cerning him is that during the Revolutionary war, when the 
Indians were about to make a raid upon the white settlements in 
Middletown, the family of Mr. Yaple received a friendly warning 
from this Indian who had received kindnesses from them. Taking 
advantage of this timely caution ilr. Yaple and his neighbors 
escaped and drove off their cattle and saved much of their belong- 
ings. Prol)al)ly the action of Tenuis in giving notice to the whites 
enraged his companions, and made it necessary for him to escape 
into solitude. Here he lived for many years, supporting himself 
by hunting and fishing, and occasionally receiving a little help 
from the white neighbors who always felt for' him a deep sense of 
gratitude for saving their lives. 

There is a tradition that when Teunis ran short of lead to make 
balls for his ritle, he used to make a journey of a few days from 


home, aud liriuj^ back with him blocks of a miueral which he used 
for the mauufacture of balls. This ga\e rise to the belief that there 
was somewhere within reach a lead mine to which Tenuis went for 
his sujiplv of this niiueral. Search t'nr it has often been made; but 
no such mineral deposit has ever beeu found. It is impossible that 
he derived it from anj' natural mine. Au<l he never revealed the 
source of his supply. It is j)robable that he had access to some 
secret store of lead which his tribe had established when they 
used to roam over this rejicion in search of {jjame. 

It is as apjjroisriate a place as we shall find to },'ive some account 
of the wild animals which inhabited the wilderness, when the white 
settlers came into Delaware county. The largest and most power- 
ful of these animals was the black Ixar (I'rsus anicricamisi which 
roamed freely through all the mountainous regions of the county. 
Their food was a mixed carniverous and vegetarian diet. When 
pressed with hunger they watched for and destroyed domestic 
animals. They were specially fond of honey, and when a tree 
contained a store of this delicious food the bear was always on hand 
to climb it and if possible extract some of its sweetness. . The 
earliest settlers suffered much from their depredations among their 
hogs. As was often the case the hogs were turned into the forests 
to collect nuts as food; and the liears took advantaj^'e of the 
opportunity to seize them and caiTy them off. At other times when 
the hogs were contiued in a pen to be fed with the milk of the 
dairy, the bears often came jirowling by night around the buildings 
and carried off the well fed occupants of the pen. 

For these reasons the farmers were always prepared to hunt 
these natural enemies. Every one had his rifle, au<l many were 
skilled in the use of it. The tlint-lock rifle was at these early times 
the chief kind of gun in use. The percussion cap was not iutro- 
(bucil until about IS-lO. The old fashioned long barreled Jliut-lock 
American rifle was a most effective weapon, not only in the hands 
of the white pioneer settler, but also in the skilled and steady 
hands of the Indians. 

30 iiisroh')- OF iiHi.AWAUH cofxrv. 

Tlie wolf (Cuiiis lujiiiK) Wiis ;ilso ;i foiuiuou pest, iilioiit tlic UfW 
farms. It was a cowardly Imt a luiscliievous auiiiial. Their spe- 
eialty was the waylaying- aDil killiij;^' of sheej.). They remained 
hiddeu during the day and came out at idght. A single wolf in 
this way often became the terror of a wliole neighborhood. From 
its lair, often almost inaccessible, it would sally out in search of 
unprotected sliee]!. If the season were winter and snow on the 
ground it was possil)le to track its depredations. But even when 
the hunter was able to follow the wolf to its lair, it was sure to have 
taken timely wai-ning and made its escape. Dogs were often used 
to follow tlic trucks of the wolves, and sometimes combined efforts 
were made to hunt and destroy what had become a serious and 
destructive nuisance. 

The red fox (Vulpex fulves) was another of the farmer's enemies. 
The destruction of poultry was its special purjjose. It also was a 
night prowler. It was hunted esj^ecially in the winter time by 
men with dogs. The English fox-houud was early introduced 
and was a common sentinel on the farms. The fox-skin had 
besides a commercial value which led to a keener interest in 
hunting this animal. 

The most dangerous wild animal which frequented the woods of 
Delaware county was the panther — commonly called "painter" 
(Felis concoler). It was not a large animal, but belonging to the 
cat family, was possessed of great agility. It sought its ijrey by 
noiselessly gliding within reach, and then making a sudden spring. 
Ill this way it attacked deer, and sheep, and (^ven cows. It was 
capable even of attacking a human being* when tempted by hunger 
or by the helplessness and exposure of its victim. It scarcely ever 
appeared in the oj^en fields, and whenever it was killed by the 
hunter it was nearly always when found lurkiu.n' furtixcly in tlie 

From time to time the l)c)ard of supervisors offered bounties for 

* Sec Coopi'r's desciiptiou of Loatherstockiug shooting a I'aiUln'i- and 
saving the life of Elizabetli and Louisa. Tlie Pioneers p. 337. 


the killing of some of the ilestnictive wild auinials. The bounty 
iu Inter times was $5 for kiiUin^^' a wolf, and S15 foi- killing a 

The animals hunted for food were not many, tlie red deer 
(Cervus canadensis) being the principal one, or indeed almost the 
only one. This graceful animal roamed the hills of Delaware in 
great numbers and even down to a recent period. The flesh was 
an im])ortant article of food to the j)ioueer settler. Tlu' ujale is 
provided with antlers which fall off every spring and grow out 
again during the summer. Each year additional prongs grow 
upon tlie antlers, so that the age of a buck nuiy be approximately 
known by the nundjer of prongs \ipon his antlers. The female 
gives birth to one doe at each time of breeding, so that the increase 
of the herd is not rapid. They feed entirely on vegetables. Their 
common food is the buds, leaves and twigs of forest trees, and the 
wild grass and plants which grow near streams of water. They 
arc liuntcd iu two ways: oiir the still hunt wlicrc tlie liuntcr cicejis 
silently and slowly ujiou his prey, and shoots one of a lunl. .\s the 
deer is exceedingly timid and very swift of flight, it is not easy to 
get within shooting distance. The aeconil method of liunting is 
with dogs who are capable of tracing the animal l)y scent, 'V\\v. 
deer runs usually in a well known track, and therefore the hunter 
stations himself near where it is expected to pass. The baying of 
the hounds gives warning of the approach, and when the Heet 
footed animal darts by the hunter must be ready to give it the fatal 

Besides the Hesh of the deer which furnished delicious food to 
i\u\ s !ttlcr, the skin was tanuc<l into a soft leather called buck-skin, 
which had niauy uses. The Indians used it for moccasins and 
othei- [uiniitivc purposes. White settlers made from it leggings, 
mittens, gloves, whip-l.islies, etc. 

There were besides the large game already enumerated, several 
smaller and xinimportant animals. Thus there was the woodchuek 
(.\rctomys niouax), which was hunted for the skin, and which fed 

32 IllsroliV (IF Dh'LAWAh'K ((ilXTy. 

speciallv ou the red-clover aud was troublesome to the farmer by 
making trails tlirout^h the growing meadows. There were at least 
three kinds of squirrels, which however playful aud pretty were 
destructive to the ripened grain: the chip-monk, the red squirrel, 
and the gray squirrel. To these may be added the beautiful black 
squirrel which however was more rare than any of the others. The 
squirrels, especially the chip-monk, were sometimes a great nui- 
sance to the farmer, in stealing corn aud wheat and rye. Some- 
times S(|uirrel-hunts were held in a neighborhood, when every 
body, who could get a gun, started out to kill all the squirrels he 
could find. There was usually a jjrize offered for the person who 
killed the greatest number, and a second prize to him who killed 
the next greatest. The necessity for this kind of destruction of 
squirrels has long since disappeared, and farmers are now cpiite 
willing that the nimble little marauders should steal all they 
need to supply their summer food aud their winter stores. 

Some of the older inhabitants of the county will remember the 
flocks of wild pigeons that sometimes in the spring llew over 
the valleys. These birds were jDroj^erly called Passenger Pigeons 
(Ectopistes migratorius). The breeding places of these birds were 
in the north, sometiiues as far as the Hudson Bay country. The 
immense flocks in which they crossed Delaware county were on 
their way to the breeding grounds. These flocks were sometimes 
half a mile wide and long enough to require two or three hours 
to pass over a given place. In Cooper's Novel of the Puiueers, will 
be found a description of a flight of pigeons near Otsego Lake, 
when the group of characters is represented as killing the birds 
with clubs, and guns; and how in their extravagance even a 
cannon loaded with scraps, was tired into the almost interminable 

Such migrations of pigeons however have completely ceased. 
"With the more destructive agencies now made use of, the pigeon 
like the buffalo has been almost hunted out of existence. Delaware 

* See Cooper's Pioneers, p. '2fi7. 

Hor). Sarriuel Sherwood 

ixniAX occri'Axrs: wild ammm.s. ;^r) 

•coimty sees tlieiu uo more, altbougli titty years aj^o they were n 
common sight which many of the ohl iubahitants will i-emember. 

Besides the swallows, the robins, the woodjieekers, and other 
birds which were harmless, there were a nuinlii r which were 
regarded as the enemies of the farmers and which were always held 
as legitimate objects of their skill in gunning. These were: the 
crows which fed voraciously on the newly sown grain and against 
whom scarecrows were almost valueless; the hawks, wliich were 
marauders of domestic chickens; owls which prowled about the 
houses h\ night to hunt for mice and other destructive rodents, 
l)ut which when tiesh is scarce do not hesitate to help themselves to 
grain and fruit; and more rarely the eagle which from its' tlight in 
the air pounced mercilessly upon the young lambs, and even some- 
times upon young children. 

It only remains to say a word aliont the wild inhabitants of the 
waters of Delaware county. The most notable of the tish in its 
■streams has always been the brook ti-out (Salmo fario). This 
delicious fish frequents the streams of t(iii])erate climates. It 
ascends all these, even the very small ones, for the purpose of 
selecting suitable ground for spawning. During everj' rise of the 
streams there is an irresistible instinct in these ti'ont to push on to 
higher and higher ground. They are fislu'd legitimately with a 
bait of angle-worms, or grasshoppers, or with an artificial fly. But 
the streams of the county have been so thorougldy fished, and the 
methods of illegitimate fishing with weirs and nets so much used in 
them, that the brook trout has very largely disapjieared. It is 
only where portions of the streams are "preserved" and protected 
from coniUKin fishing that a few of this delicious game are still to 
be found. 

In the rivers there liave been preserved from the earliest times 
some of the black bass, which is caught with a bait or with a ll\ 
It is an excellent table tish, but has never been very abundant. 

Among the early settlers along the West braudi of the Dela- 
ware as well as the East branch, there was for a time runs of shad 

:Mi iiisroiiY OF iiHi.AWAi:!-: corxrv. 

(Alosa saijidissfiiia) iu the spring. This of course was before the 
shad fishing on the lower Delaware was as destructive as it has 
since become. Now shad rarely go higher tliau the dam above 
Trenton iu the Delaware river, and sueh a thing as the expectation 
of a profitable run at Dej)osit or Colchester is out of the question. 
Thus we have traced the aboriginal inhabitants of the county 
from their earliest time of the white settlers. The forests that 
sheltered the Indians and the game on which they lived have 
almost gone. The streams of water^ once sheltered from evapora- 
tion by the abundant and over-hanging trees have dwindled into 
in.significauce. The lumber which used to give work to the chop- 
per, and a rush of business every spring to the raftsman, is gone. 
Instead we have thousands of civilized inhabitants, mdnstrious and 
thrifty; cows instead of deer; sheej) instead of wolves; roads and 
railroads instead of Indian trails; and churches and school-houses 
with worshij)pers and smiling school children on every road and in 
everv village. 


Ph\^sic^il Featares. 

IF we mark out ou the map of the Colour of New York, before its- 
settleiueut by the whites, the little space included iu the 
preseut couuty of Delaware, it would l)e found to be a very rou^^li, 
though a very picturesque spot. It is covered completely by 
woods, mostly of maple and beech interspersed with birch, eherrv 
and l)ass-wood. But at frequent intervals there were fine groves 
of pine and spruce, and inouutains clothed to the very tops with 
the rich green of the heiidock. The soil in general was stonv and 
incorrigible, and responded unwillingly to the tillage of the hus- 
bandman. But along the rivers and brooks there were here and 
there sweet bits of intervale which softened the roughness of the 
surface. Every where from the hillsides burst out little springs 
which each in turn contributed to streams that flowed into the 
picturesque rivers. 

The Susquehanna river roughly sjseaking Hows along the north- 
western border of the county; the East branch of the Delaware 
intersects the southern townships, and the West branch the central 
townships. The county is thus divided iiito three sections each 
with a high, irregular water-shed drained by numl)erless tril)utary 

I have before me the new geological ma]) of the State of New 
York, which Professor James Hall* the State geologist has issued. 
.\t my reijuest he has furnished me with a sjiccial colored map of 

* Professor Hall is li.v iiiauy years the seuior of any oflicur cu- employe 
of the Stale. He reei-iveil his tirst aiipointmeiit in the geolot^ii^ul survey from 
Governor Man-y in lH:t7. and ho has hi'on lontiauously since then in the 
service of the State. 


88 IllsrilUV (IF liKLAW'ARK CdrXTY. 

Delaware coimtv. More thau tbree-fourtlis of the couuty, iuchuliuji- 
all the southern portiou l)elou<>s to the Catskill foriiiatiou. A little 
corner on the north side iuchulinf^' portions of the to\vushi])s of 
Davenport and Harpersfield belongs to the Ithaca formation. 
South of this, extending;' alonj^' the Sus(iuehauna and including' 
parts of Sidney, Fraukliu, Meredith, all of Kortright, and j)arts 
of Harpersfield, Stamford and Roxbury, and following- the West 
l)riiuch down below Hamden, and the East branch below Halcott- 
ville, lies a very irregular space belonging to the Oneonta 
formation. Finally there is another very irregular tract forming 
the division between the Catskill and Oneonta formations, and 
belonging to the Chemung formation. No coal deposits occur in 
any of these formations, and no minerals of any kind have ever 
been discovered within the limits of the county. 

Occasionally bowlders have been encountered, especially in the 
northern part of the county, which indicate that in the glacial 
])friod much of this region was covered with ice. Moving with 
resistless impulse it carried with it from distant points the rocks 
which it had picked np on its way. In the township of Franklin is 
an immense bowlder which from its composition and character 
could not possibly have been derived from any neighboring rocks. 
This bowlder was brought to my attention by Professor J. C. 
Smock now superintendent of the (Teological Survey of New Jersey. 
He visited it when he was studying the evidences of the glacial 
I)eriod in New York and New Jersey, and expresses his belief that 
it was brought thither by the ice from some jjoiut in Canada. 

The rocks in Delaware countj' are not in general suitable for 
building purposes. The only valuable C[uarries are the fiagging 
stones which have been found in several localities. In the neigh- 
borhood of the village t)f Delhi these quarries have been worked 
to great advantage, so that few places have better tiagged side- 
walks than this charming country village. When building stones 
are required in the structures which are to be erected, they must 
be brought from a distance; or the}' may be picked up in small 

PIiysTCAr. FKATlliKS. Si)- 

quantities from the bowlders wbiuli have beeu dropped here and 
there as described above. 

The luoimtaius of Delaware couuty form a coiiiu'cting link 
between the Blue Ridge on the south and the Catskill and Helder- 
berg mountains on the north. The highest peak in the county is 
Mt. Pisgah situated in the township of Andes, said to be about 
3,400 feet above tide. In the southern part of the county the 
mountains are high and the vallej'S narrow and declivitous. With 
the exception of the bottom lands along the rivers, there was little 
land capable of growing successful crops of grain. The best 
crop — and this has given to the county its distinguishing spe- 
cialty — was the gi-ass which furnished pasture to the cows in 
summer, and hay for them in winter. The springs and brooks 
which provided abuudam-e of water, and the trees which i)r(>vided 
refreshing shade, were helps in the same direction. 

For a long time the aljuudauce of pine in parts of the louuty 
gave employment to many lumbermen, who cut and hauled and 
rafted* to market the product of the forests. In like manner the 
hills covered with hemlock furnished bark for tanning leather. 
But a century of such <lestructive industries has virtually ex- 
hausted these sources of jjrimitive wealth. Few rafts are now run 
either on the "West or J^ast branches. And scarcely a tannery can 
be encountered in any i)art of the couuty. 

* See below Section. 


Early; Settlements. 

THE only {jurt of the present coiiuty wbicli is claimed to have 
been oc(nipied by wbite settlers at a date [jrior to the Fort 
•Stauwix treaty is a small settlement on the East branch of the 
Delaware river in the present town of Middletowu. lu the year 
1762 or 1763 a small band* of adventurers of Dutch extraction set 
out from Hurley in Ulster county to explore the lands on the East 
branch of the Delaware. They ascended Shandaken creek, crossed 
over the mountains forming the divide between the triliutaries of 
the Hudson river and the Delaware, and found themselves in the 
beautiful valley of the East branch. To their great surprise they 
found here evidences of a deserted Indian village, which they 
afterwards learned was called Pakatakan; and even traces of Euro- 
pean settlements at several places. These latter were doubtless 
left by the hardy trappers and traders who had forced their way 
hither in search of beaver skins, and had found at least two homes 
of the beaver near this place. 

The hardy adventurer's from Hurley took up fai'uis along this 
valley, and having made some hasty prejiarations went back for 
their families. They obtained warranty deeds for the land from 
■Chancellor Livingston one of the heirs of Johannes Hardenbergh 
the owner of this tract. The price paid was twenty shillings an 
acre; and the deeds bear the date of 1763. The names of these 
first settlers, so far as they have come down to us, were the 
brothers Harmauus and Peter Dumoud, Johannes Van Waggoner, 
Peter Hendricks, Peter Brugher, and Messrs. Kittle, Yaple, 

* I aiij'iiidobtcd to n communication from Dr. O. M. Allaben, in Gould's 
Jlinlory of Delawuri' County, I'or this account of tlic iriddlctowii pioneers. 


KMil.V Sl'rri'LICMKXT.S. 41 

iSlougbtei' (uow uaiued Sliter), Hiiicbaf^li, Greeu aud Bicrcli. Their 
farms were c-hoseu alouf( the banks of the East branch, aud the 
viciuitv. The settlers were driven off* by the Indians in the Revo- 
lutionary war (1778), and the l)iiildin<is and iinprovonicuts were 
destroyed. But soon after tlic \\:ir tlu'V returned aud resumed 
their a1>an<loned farms. 

The first settlements in both Sidney aud Harperslield took place 
about the year 177(1; and both iu like manner were interrupted by 
the disturl)ances of the Hevolutionary war, which shortly followed. 
The pioneer of the former of these settlements was Uev. William 
Johnston a Presbyterian clergyman born in Ireland, and who had 
resided several years previous to his removal to the Susquehanna 
valley in the neighborhood of Albany. Mr. Joliustou aud his son 
Witter Johnston jo-urneyed by Otsego lake and thence down the 
Susquehanna, stoi>ping finally at the beautiful tlats which are now 
called Sidney. Here they found a few scattered but friendly In- 
dians, belonging to the Housntouick tribe, which at this time were 
subject and triliutary to the Six Nations. They selected a farm of 
520 acres bordering on the river, which w-as a part of a laud-patent 
belonging to Bauyar and Wallace, of which they bought the 
fee-simple. In the Hevolutionary troubles which soon came on 
Wallace took the tory si<h-. aud his property which the Johnstons 
had bought, Imt had imt ])aid for, was confiscated aud became the 
property of the State. On the recommeudation of the governor, 
however, the Johnstons on payment of the balance still due were 
contirmetl in the title to the land they had bought. 

The Johnston fauiily occupied their new home iu the year 177;^, 
and were followed by otlier families who soon made a thriving and 
attractive neighborhood. Ihey were named Sliter, Carr, Wood- 
cock and Dingnian. The Sliters inter-married with the Johnstons 
and iu the troubles of the I{evolutiouaiy war took witli them 
the patriotic side. But the others became tories and are lost 
sight of, except that Carr afterward is said to have erected 

* Soc IipIciw Section. 


the lirat grist-mill in this viciuity, upon Carr's brook which 
empties into the Susquehanna a few miles above the Johnston 

In 1777 during' the Revohitionarv war the Johnston settlement 
received a visit from Brant and a band of Iro(iuois Indians. The 
Susquehanna valley was a frequent resort of these fierce warriors; 
and all the scattered Indians of other tribes which wandered 
through the region between the Susquehanna and the Hudson 
were tributary to the Iroquois. Brant and all the Six Nations had 
made a treaty with the British through Sir William Johnson and 
had embraced the tory side in the pending controversy. He came 
with a band of about eighty men. The white settlers held a 
conference with the redoubtable chief, who announced to them his 
ultihiatutn. He gave them eight days in which to leave their homes, 
after which everything would be at the mercy of his followers. If 
any of the families chose to declare themselves British partisans, he 
promised them protection and i^ermission to remain in their homes. 
Under this urgent alternative Mr. Johnston and the other whig 
families took leave of their little jJossessions and hurried to Cherry 
Valley. They were there when the little village was burnt by the 
Indians in 1778; but the family escaped iu time from the massacre, 
and one of the sons was in the fort which withstood the efforts of 
the savages to burn or take it. 

After the war was over the fugitive families returned iu 1784 to 
their homes at Sidney, and resumed the peaceful and prosi)erous 
life which has made Sidney one of the most attractive of all the 
towns iu the county. 

It remains to say something about Harjierstield, which is the 
only other part of the county which was settled by white jjeople 
before the Revolutionary war. The founders of Harpersfield were 
a family of Harpers, whose ancestor James Harper migrated from 
Ireland to Maine iu 1720. After successive migrations of the 
family John, a grandson of the Irish emigrant, settled iu 17.54 at 
Cherry Valley in New York. A son of this John named John, ji'.. 

Near ttaraaretviUe. 

Steele's BrooK, Delt\i. 

Near Duriraveq. 

KAh'i.y si-:ttij-:mi-:.\ts. 45 

was the founder of Harperstielcl, and his son, also named John, was 
t.he noted Colonel Harper who was so conspicuous in the border 
wars of the revolution. 

In 1767 the Harpers obtained from the Colonial ^overunient 
permission to obtain from the Indians a tract of laud containing 
100,000 acres not before purchased, situated near the head-waters 
of the Delaware river. After this transaction was complete the 
Harpers received from the government a deed of the laud in 17()i). 
Two years after this, in 1771, Colonel Harper established his family 
upon this tract and proceeded to divide it into suitable farms for 
settlement. A considerable number of families from Cherrv Valley 
and old friends from New England soon after joined them, and tlie 
place took on an appearance of prosijeritj'. The first settlers 
however were suliject to some severe trials from the w-ant of food 
for themselves and their cattle. Their nearest neighbors were 
thirty miles olT at IScholiarie, and for grist mills they were com- 
pelled to go down the Schoharie creek to the Jlohawk. In 1775, 
however. Colonel Harper erected a grist mill for the convenience of 
his neighbors. The whole tract was heavily timbered, mostly with 
majjle and beech, and the making of maple sugar was one of the 
chief early industries. The lands covered l)y hardwood are always 
more easily cleared than those covered by pine or other evergreens. 
The rich and varied farms of Harpcrstield came rapidly into condi- 
tions of fertilit}' and were soon able to siipport a widesjiread and 
prosperous population. 

But before the settlement could attain this condition of 2^ros- 
perity, it was compelled to go through a jjeriod of trial during the 
Revolutionary war, which left its impress for a long time u])ou its 
inhabitants and its growth and progress. It was in the summer of 
1777 that the a])proacli of Brant and JJutler with a band of Indians 
and tories made the Harperstield settlers realize the danger of their 
position. Some Hed to Schoharie and some went back to New 
England. So that from that time to the close of the war Harpers- 
tield was almost deserted. Occasionally some of the fugitives came 

4(i HlsroIiV (IF DELAWARE CorXTV. 

back from Soholiarie to look after their possessions. Thus iu the 
spring of 1780 Captain Alexander Harper and a number of others 
went to Harpersfield at the usual sugar making season. Brant and 
his party of Indians surprised and cajjtured them. Some were 
killed and scalped, while Harper and several others were carried 
bv a long and tedious march to the British fort at Niagarii. 
There they remained as prisoners iu circumstances of fearful misery 
until the close of the war. Others were taken as prisoners to 
Quebec where they were kept until under the treaty of peace they 
were set at liberty. 

After the establishment of peace most of the families returned 
to their homes, which however had been in many cases desolated 
bv the Indians and tories. Other settlers rapidly joined these 
pioneers, attracted by the sturdy character of the founders, and by 
the liberal terms on which they could secure farms on which they 
might settle. From that time down to the present Harpersfield has 
continued to be one of the most thriving and prosperous of the 
towns in the coXinty. 

The 23eriod following the war was everywhere active in emigra- 
tion. The soldiers who had spent many years in fighting for their 
countrv had lost that attachment to their homes which made 
abandonment dif&cult. They had learned of hundreds of places 
where they could find farms to be taken up and homes to be 
established. Many of the officers of the army received in lieu of 
pay which was due to them grants of laud fi-oui which they 
expected to realize abuudant profits. They did not foresee the 
times when the fertile Genessee country, and the rich valleys of 
Ohio would be speedily in demand. But they eagerly accepted the 
proffered lands still unoccupied in the eastern portions of New 
York. Poor old General Steuben who had performed such noble 
service for his American friends, was rewarded with a townshijj 
named after him iu the rough i-egions of Oneida county. Baron 
DeKalb was in like manner rewarded with an equally fertile (!) 
tract of land in St. Lawrence county. 

/•;. 1 /i' /. r .s /■; rri. i:.\n:s vs. 47 

Much of the hiuil iu Delawari' coiiiity had liccu grauted iu 
various tracts before the breakiuj^ out of the war. The year 1770 
-seems to have beeu aiiiaziugly prolific iu Dehiware county patents. 
In the uote* appeudcd will be found the patents j^rauted in Dela- 
ware county by the English Colonial government. iSubsetiuent to 
the formation of the State government many tracts were i)urchased 
from the State, by land speculators who generally sold but some- 
times rented to settlers the farms which tliey undertook to clear and 
cultivate. The largest of these tracts was in the western angle of 
the State, aiul occupying a region owned l>y the Stjite of Massachu- 
setts. The two states settled the question of jurisdiction by an 
agreement that the price of tlie lauds when sold should go to Mas- 
sachusetts, l>ut tli.-it the whole tract slioiild belong politically to the 
State of New York. The land was in 17111 sol<l by the State of 
Massachusetts to Phelps and (iorhani; but on account of their fail- 
ure to fulfill the contract, it was resold subse(piently to them 
together with a numl)er of other purchases. Almost all the contents 
of the counties of the State west of Cayuga lake were included in 
this territory. .-Another large tract is usually called the Macomb 

' List (.if patents granted by the Enirlish Coloiiial Govoinnii'iu. in Delaware 
■county. Houijh'i* (Uizfleer, p. 48 : 

Bal)ingtOB's Patent, 1770, 2,000 acres, Charles Baliington. 

BeiUington Patent, 1770, 27,000 aere.s, John Leake and others. 

Clarke's Patent, 1770, 2,000 acres, James Chirke. 

DeBeriiier's Patent, 1770, 2,000 acres, John I)<>Bernier. 

Franklin Township, 1770, 30,0011 acres, Thomas Wharton and others. 

Golrlsljoroiigli Patent. 1770, (i.OOO acres, Edward Tudoi- and others. 

Hardenhergh Patent, 1708, , Johannes HardeuhiMgh and others. 

Harper's Patent, 17i',0, 22,000 acres, John Harjier, Jr. 
- Kortright Patent, 1770, 22,000 acres, Lawienci' Koitiighl. 

Leake's Patent, 1770, 5,000 acres, Robert Leake. Forfeited by attainder. 

McKee's Patent, 1770, 40,000 acres, Alexander McKee and others. 

MeKee's Patent, 1770, 18,000 acres, additional, Alexander McKee and others. 

Prevost Patent, 1770, , James Prevost. 

Strasburgli Township, 177(1, 37,000 acres, John Butler and others. For- 
/eited by attainder. 

Walton's Patent. 177ii, 20,000 acres, WIIUhmi \Viilto[i and others. 

Whiteboro Township, 38,000 acres, Henry Wliite ami i.thers. I'orfeii.Ml 
J)V attainder. 

48 msronv or hkla wauk c<jrx'ry. 

purchase, situated iu Fraukliii, St. Lawrence, Jefferson, Lewis, Os- 
wefi^o and Herkimer counties. The lands iuchided in these Liter 
puroliases were usually sold in fee sini])le to the settlers: while 
imii-li of that iu Delaware ciuinty. surli as tlic Hardei]l)er,yh patent. 
tli<' Ivortri^ht jiateut, the Liviuf^ston patent, the Verplanck tract, 
etc., were granted on lease. 

The settlements formed iu the various towns will l)e detailed iu 
the tt)\vu histories gi'^'^u below. The pioneers were of varied na- 
tionality, and in this respect were a fair sanqile of the mixed 
25opulatiou through(nit the State. From Kingston came the Dutch 
and Palatine (lermaus and a few of the Walloons, who settled iu 
Middletown along the East branch of the Delaware. The same 
classes of emigrants had settled the Schoharie valley and thus 
formed a continuous belt of low Dutch pioneers from Albany up the 
Mohawk river, thence up the Schoharie creek to its liead waters and 
then down the East branch of the Delaware, meeting the little body 
of Dutch jjioneers who had lirokeu through the mountain barriers 
from Kingston. It is needless to say that these emigrants were 
industrious, intelligent, and conservative. Like their Euroi)eau an- 
cestry they sought as places of settlement low-lying lands, border- 
ing the picturesque streams which aliouuded iu the new continent. 
There were no considerable number of these Holland emigrants who 
came into Delaware county. The lauds were opened up to settle- 
ment too late to take advantage of the Holland period of New York 
history. This jieriod ended iu 1664 when the Dutch possessions in 
America were by treaty transferred to England. After that time 
few emigrants came from Holland to New Y(n'k, aud the only Dutcdi 
j)ioneers into Delaware county came from the older settlements of 
the same nationality in other parts of the colony. 

The great mass of the early settlers in Delaware county were 
from New England. They had already learned that the hlcak hills 
where they had at tirst made their homes wew by no means the 
fertile aud productive regions they had anticijiated. From the 
earliest times there w'as a continuous stream of emigration from the 

h:.\Ri.y sirrri.h-MKXTs. 4>( 

■colonies iiud states of New Kiiyhnul, liist into ciistern New York, 
tlien into western New York, iinil still later into Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois and farther west. There was a time, just subsecjiient to the 
Kevolutiouarv war, when many of these restless aud adventurous 
New Euf^'landers stuii^ht homes near the head waters of the Susque- 
hanna and the Delaware rivers. The immense town of Fraid<lin 
which at its organization contained thirty thousand acres of land 
was largely settled l)v New Englanders. Slumaii Wattles the first 
settler came tliither from Connecticut in 17.S5 acconi])anied hy his 
brothers and sisters, and followeil hy numerous friends who ra]iidly 
huilt up a thriving and intelligent conununity. The town of Wal- 
ton was a part of Franklin until 17!(7, and it too was largely settled 
hy families of New England origin. Dr. Piatt Townsend came 
liither fnuu Dutchess ciiuut'. and lirought with him a iiunilier of 
friends fi'om Long Island who like himself had first migrated fiom 
Connecticut. This auspiiious hegiuuiug led many other New Eng- 
land families who were seeking new homes to come into the valleys 
of the Delaware and tlic Susi|U(iianna. 

Another notable company of colonists came in ITH'.t consisting of 
twenty heads of families and twii .single men from Fairfield c-ounty, 
Connecticut. They were exploring the wildei'uess in search of ,i 
suitable place in which to settle. They came from Catskill and 
after a long journey reached the head waters of the A\'est l)iancii of 
the Delaware. Here they found a friend in an old settler nam(Hl 
luman, who aided them to find hinds on which they could settle. 
I'art <pf them lo<-ateil in the p|-eseiit tdwii uf lioxbury, whicli tlieu 
was the town of Stamford; the others found luunes in wluit still 
bears the name of Stand'ord in Hose's brook. This lias continued to 
l)e a most thrifty and pnispcrous settlement,' an<l to this day be.-irs 
the marks of the ]iioneers wlio fcuinded it. 

* The names of this company arc ^iven in HimtiVit Ifinlori/ of Ihlidnirr 
•Coiiii/i/ as I'ullows: Josiah I'atcliin, Cajitiiin Atiraham (loiilil, Colonel John 
Hiililili", Aaron Rollins, I,suac HnljMi', Tah'ott (louhl. Isaac (loiild, (icorge 
Si|uires, Walter and Soth Lyou, John Polly, Ste|ihen .\fhiins. Peter and Ebea 
Jennings, Joseph Hill, autl one by the name of Gibson. The two unmarried 
jiien were David Gould and David Sipiirps. See p. 197. 


The Seoteb iiiniiij^riitiou iutu Dclawiirr cdniity was prim-qiallv of 
a later date. A few ciune to the ref^ioii alioiit the time of the 
Revohitiou. John More was a Seotehiuau who came iuto the cimii- 
try ami fouuded Moresville in ITHIi. Kortrin'ht, so uamed from 
Lawrence Kortrisht who jnirchased a patent of twenty-two thou- 
sand acres fi'om Colonel Harjjer, was settled principally l)y immi- 
grants from the uortli of Ireland and from Scotlauch The patent 
was purchased in 1770 and the settlement began from that date. 
But the great mass of the settlers came in during the first twenty 
years of the i^resent century. 

Andes received a large contingent of Scotch immigrants. These 
were not however the first settlers, who were of Dutch ancestry and 
came from the Hudson river counties. But a large numl)er of 
Scotch families came in at various times and settled the Cabin Hill 
region and some of the valleys towards Bovina. It was this same 
movement which led many of the same nationality to invade the 
rough regions of Bovina. They had been jjreceded in this move- 
ment by Elisha B. Maynard a New Euglander, who was the first 
settler, in 179"2. But the hardy Scotch crowded iuto the lauds on 
the head-waters of the Little Delaware, and made the little town, 
when it was organized in 1820, almost their own. The town of 
Delhi in like manner contains many families who by ancestry are 
Scotch. This is especially true of the mountainous region rising 
from the Little Delaware on the south-west. The section is still 
called the Scotch mountains from the fact that the greater part of 
it was settled liy Scotch families. It will be observed that m all 
these settlements of the Scotch, they have chosen the hills and 
uplands in preference to the fertile valleys. This was partly owing 
to the fact that they came into the county at a later date when the 
richer lands along the rivers had been already taken up. But 
besides this, and besides their general poverty which led them to 
select cheap lands, we must attribute their choice of hilly lands to 
their predilictions founded upon the dear mountains from which 
thev came, and for which thev retained siu-h fond memories. 

K.l A"/. 1' .S /•."/■ 77. /•;.!/ /■;.V7'.S'. 


It may he saiil in coiu'lusidii that wherever they settled the 
Scotch juMveil most thrifty ami successful farmers. They were 
without exceptiou iutellif^'eut ami religious; ami lost no time in 
providiufj for themselves auil their children churches and schonl- 
houses, such as they had lieen accustomed to in their ohl home. .Vs 
a consequence no j)arts of tlie county arc more prosperous and 
pro-^'ressive than those that have lieeu settled by the Scotch and 
which are still occupied by their fruf^al and industrious descend- 

Pioneer Experiences. 

WHATEVER the uatiuualitv of the pioiuei's, the 
through [which they were required to pass iu cleariug and 
recluciug farms to cultivation were esseutially the same. The Dutc.h- 
meu who came iuto Middletowu through the Shaiidakeu mouutaius, 
the Yankees who came to Roxburv or Harpersfiehi or Fraukliu, the 
Scotchmen who penetrated to the hill country of Andes or Delhi or 
Bovina, all had to go through the same trials and suffer tlie same 
inconveniences. It may be of interest at this point to follow a 
pioneer into the forests of Delaware county and watch him while he 
clears a place for himself in the wilderness. 

Take as an illustration a family which had come from Scotland, 
consisting of a father and mother with two little boys. They came 
first to the house of Scotch friends iu Andes; and after prospecting 
around took on lease a farm iu the adjoining town of Boviua, which 
had just then been organized as a separate town. This farm is en- 
tirely covered with forest of maple, beech, liii-ch, bass-wood, etc. 
The father, after selecting the jilace, leaves his family for a little 
with his friends and himself goes thither to cut down a few acres of 
the forest, and to put up log buildings for the protection of his 
family. When these were ready, we may inuigiue the little caravan 
on its way to the new home in the wildi^rness. A yoke of oxen 
drags a rude lumber wagon, on which are mounted the mother and 
the two little boys. The father drives them and carries on his 
shoulder an axe which he has already learned to handle. A few 
pieces of j^rimitive furniture are also carried (Ui the wagon, together 
with the pots ami kettles and dishes whirli are needful in the 
kitchen. A dog of the Scotch collie l)reed circles in excited joy 

,^..,-..'- ^ 



A Primitive Home. 


St. Peter's Ct\urcfi ^P. E ) Hv^-ban, Luili m io^l. 

i'i<>.\i-:Kh' h:si'i-:Rih:.\ch:s. 55 

.•irnnuil tlic |i:irty. stiirtliii<>- siiuin-cls aiiil l)!r(l>, iiiiil ]>iittin;^ tn Hifjfbt 
till' wolves, the foxes ami tbe bears whieli creep curiously out to 
see the passiufr cavalcude. A friend who is n'c'iiiK t" help to install 
the family in its new home, is drivinjj' behind theni a milk-cow and 
her calf, a half <lci/.cn sheej) and a sow with a half ^rown littci- of 
piffs. The fifood collie in the midst of all his miscellaneous duties 
considers liimscif sjiccially I'har.yed with the drivini,' of this diversi- 
Ked herd. 

Everytliinj,'- ^^'oes well. At every farm house they ]iass they 
receive a kindly word of welcome and offers of any hel]i they mif^ht 
need. Their journey is not lou^'; and before nij^ht they have 
arrived at their new home. A wood tire is started in the chimney; 
a hearty meal is cooked from the supplies they had brought with 
them. The oxen and the cow, the sheeji ami the ]ii,L;s are •■dl 
suitably housed and fed. The season was the early .-lutumn and 
the first ni<,dit was exquisitely beautiful. The same stars which 
they knew in Scotland, and the same full moon, the harvest moon, 
looked down ujion them uitli friendly eyes. They soon ]uit the 
furniture in order, and having- comniitted thcmsehcs to the care of 
him who eiiually is their- (xod in the wilds of .Vmeri<-a and in their 
dear native land, they were soon aslee]>. 

Every moment that was not needed for the care of his family 
ami iiis cattle is em]iloyed l)y the father in chol)l)in,!4 ih.wn the 
trees anmml his l)uildiu'--s. Little by little the <-li'ariii-- became 
larfjfer and the in-osjiects <>radually bri^;hten. The American axe, 
which he soon learned to wiehl with force and jirecision, is the most 
effective tool which has ever licen .levised. With it the intermin- 
able forests of the continent have been levelled and turned into 
fruitful fields. A few years later when the two l)oys had <,'rown so 
as to handle the axe. the three wtuild to^'ether attack a tree: the 
father cuttinf,' alone on one side, and the two boys putting; in 
alternate strokes on the other side. The tree cuttin- usually con- 
tinued during,' the entire winter and tliiis by s)iiin^'-tinie a coiisider- 
a1)le addition is made to the clearing'. 


The task lit' the ]iiniu'cr however iis not only to cMit dnwii tlic 
trees. Each tree after it bail been felled, was cut into loj^s of almut 
fourteen feet; the branches were trimmed off and piled into Ijiiish- 
heaps. Then when the summer sun had dried the branches, and 
the more pressing spring's work was passed, advantage was taken of 
a windv day when there was a strong breeze away from the build- 
ings. The brush heaps were all kindled, being watched lest tire 
shoukl do some damage, and in order that the heaps should be com- 
pletely burned. After this preliminary work was done, then came 
the great work of "logging." This was sometimes done by the 
pioneer and his boys. But it was a very heavy task, and if a large 
clearing was to be made the usual custom was to hold a " logging ' 
bee." A few of the ueighljors, who sometimes had similar favors to 
ask, were invited to help on this supreme occasion. Perhaps two 
additional yoke of oxen were brought, and each man carried his axe 
on his shoulder. They came after breakfast, and went away after a 
five o'clock sujajjer. A dinner was served at twelve o'clock and for 
an hour men and oxen were alike refreshed by rest. It is fair to 
say that on these occasions the farmer was expected to provide 
some kind of drink. It was either ram which came from New 
England or the West Indies; or it was the whisky which already 
began to be distilled in all these country towns. The men did not 
drink to excess, and noliody was much the worse for what they 
considered their suitable indulgence on these occasions. 

The work they had to do consisted in dragging the logs to- 
gether and making them into heaps for burning. A yoke of oxen 
was assigned to each gang, which consisted of two or three men 
besides the driver. Each log was drawn by the oxen to its heap 
and rolled hj the men with hand-spikes to its place. Fragments of 
the unburned branches were piled in along with logs, and thus log- 
heajjs were made throughout the clearing. As the whole space had 
already been burned over when the brush-heaps were tired, the task 
which the loggers now had w as by no means a clean one or an easy 
one. Their faces and their clothes were soon begrimed with the 


coal from the log« and tlir lirnui-lics. I>iit tliis did nut iiitcrfci-c 
with the good humor of the coiiijiuiiy m- with iu-tivitv and the 
williuguess with which they worked. 

After the logging, on some dry, breezy ilay the t'aiiiicr sets fire 
to these log-heaps, and watching and tending tlicni can't'ully sees 
them all burned n]i. Then among the stumps on the soil, well 
fertilized by the ashes left by the l)urued log-heajis. he sows his 
crop of rye. or oats, or buckwheat. Aud notwithstanding tlie 
rough and uuplowed surface these tivst crops wcic sure to be rich 
and abundant. Along with the first croj) of grain — rye or oats but 
not of buckwheat — the farmer also sows a cro}) of mixed timothy 
and red clover. The grain comes to maturity during the first 
summer, but the grass making a stsirt during this summer under 
tlie friendly shade of the grain, conies to a head and furnishes a 
crop of hay for the second summer. Potatoes are planted also in 
the new soil and yield a good crop. Some minor crojjs, such as 
turnips, cal)bages, and onions are also raised even from the very 
first. On the farms along the rivers and in [initccted places Indian 
corn is also planted, although not in' general until the secund 

The stumps and roots of the hardwood tindicr very soon begin 
to decay, and in a few years can be torn up and l)urned. Thus 
land which at first was covered with forest, in tlie course of five or 
six years became cultivatalile fields, yielding abundant crops of 
grain and hay and vegetables. \Vhere the forests were oi pine, as 
was the case in many places, the stumi)s were nnu-h longer in 
decaying. Indeed you may still see fields tilled with innc stumps 
which iinist have been cut fifty years ago. .■V stiuii]>-niacliine is 
generally necessary to eradicate the pine stiuiijis, and thin a lire 
soon reduces them to practicable ashes. 

The tools and implements in the case of a priniitive farm such as 
we have been describing were neither many nor elaborate. The axe 
was the most useful aud important, hammer and cut nails, the saw 
aud the crowbar. Then there were the voke, the ox-chaiu, the sled 

■58 HisroRV (IF /»/-,7,.i ir.i /,"/•: lorxT): 

to l)c drawn liy dxcn. the harrow used oii new laud cxcn Ix'fore the 
ploui^li, the hoe and the shovel. Alioiit the ham and stahle were 
the tlail. the t'aiinin.L;' mill, the half-lnishel ^raiu measure, birch- 
Iniioui, i't<-. In the house the cookinj;' of food and the neeessarv 
warmth were furnished by the open tire-])lace. The wood was cut 
usuiilly in the winter time and was thoroiifj'hly seasoned l)efore it 
was used on the tire. In the winter W'hen the weather was cold 
there was built an immense Are fcmsistinpf of a bac'k-lof>', a fore- 
sti(di, and the necessary top-dressin;;'. When sucdi a tire ;;-ot mnler 
way it was a sioht to behold. It must be rememliered that at this 
early chiy friction-matches* were unknown; and at nij;ht before 
.H'oiuj^ to lied it was ahvays the custom to cover up a bed of coals 
with ashes, so that the fire mig-ht be kept alive till nioruiuf^'. If liy 
any accident the tire became extiui;u:shed, the common resonrce 
was to send to a neighbor's for a shovelful of live coals. 

There is uothiuj> in which fj;-reater proj^ress has been made 
duriup the century than in the matter of artificial li<>'ht. At the 
time of the s<'ttlenient of our Scotch Pioneer — say IH'Ii) — almost the 
only kind of artificial li^lft in nse by such a family was the candle. 
It was made from the tallow of the beef or sheep; preferably from 
the former, because it was harder and .strou<>er. A row of wicdvs 
was huus' on a stick, ami the whole dijjped at once into a pot of 
melted tallow an<l taken out a>^ain. The stick with its row of 
dip])ed wicks was then hun^ in a cool place until the layer of tallow 
becanu' liard. In the mean time a second and then a third, etc., of 
the rows of wicks were dipped and hung up for coolin<,'. The 
process was continued until the candles became as lars'e as was 
desired. An improved method of makinf^- tallow-candles was to 
have a row of five or six tin caudle moulds soldered toj^etlier 
parallel. Wiid<s were inserted in each and drawn tii^htly thnuif^h 
the centre of the mould. Then the nudted tallow was jioured into 
the moulds around the wicks, and the row kept in a cool place until 

* It was aliiiut ISIU lliat Irictinii-liiatclies cainc iiitn use. In ri'iiidte locali- 
.ties tlioy were inliiiiluc-cd laler. The price was alicnU '2 ('■ I'm- a Iki.x el' Hfty. 

I'lilSEEH KXI'hjniCMKS. -,S) 

the i-HiuUcs liiul hecouie lianl. Attii this they were dniwu out of 
the iiioukls uiul wore reiidy for uw;>. ArtiHcial li^lit wiis not so iniK-h 
used ill those early (hiys as now. Ijuinjis for uhide oil \ver<' soiiie- 
tiiiics cniiiloyed when a brttvr lii^ht was iieeessary. But 't was not 
till the discovery of kci-osciic oil iu 185H, iu Peuusylvjiuia, that the 
nicat iniproveineiit iu the eharaeter of lifjfht for eouutrv houses 
l)eL;au. Since that time almost every house has its kerosene lainj)s., 
wlii<-li f\irn'sli a l:;;'lit ncarl\ ciiual to the ;;as-li;^ht of cities. 

Revolationar>j Troables. 

DELAAVAEE coiiuty was involved in the trials of the Kevolutiou 
ouly as a froutier comimmity. In tlie meagre settlements at 
Harperstield, Middletowu and Sidney there were differences of 
opinion which gradually grew into bitter controversies. Even iu 
the perilous times which resulted from the invasions of the Indians 
theie were tories who were ready to lead them against their jiatriot 
neighbors, and help them to raid their homes and carry off their 
slender possessions. 

The Middletown settlers were very sharply divided. Even the 
boys at school became bitter partisans. It is handed down by 
tradition that a quarrel occurred l)etweeu two of the school-boys, 
■one Isaac Dumoud a sou of Peter, and the other a boy by the name 
of Markle. The latter called Dumond a rebel; and in retiu-n 
Duuiond struck him. An encounter ensued; and probably other 
boys took sides. The matter ended in the breaking up of the 
school. In the spring of 1778, soon after the burning of Kingston 
by the British troops, the Indians advanced up the East branch for 
the purpose of making depredations upon the patriotic settlements. 
Their designs against Middletown were revealed Ijy the friendly 
Indian Tennis* as has been mentioned above. He notified ^Ir. 
Yaple his friend, and by him the alarm was sj^read among his 
patriot neighbors. They drove oft' their cattle and concealed such 
of their goods as they could. The Indians burnt their buildings 
and pursued the fugitives through the hills towards Kingston as far 
Mi Shaudakeu. It is said that Yai)le afterwards returned to secure 
some of his goods, and was taken prisoner by the tories au(l carried 
off to Pepacton. He was however soon after released. 

* See p. 28. 


A coiupiiuy of patriot luilitiu was seut from HcLohiirii' to protect 
■ the settlei's. A sad event occurred in connection with the \nsit of 
these troops. In Aiij^iist ITTN they took j>nsouer Messrs. Dumoud 
and Barrow, supposing them to have been tories, who had returned 
to the settlement to secure a piece of fjraiu which was ripe. They 
were mounted, both on a sinj^'lo horse, and at what they thought a 
favorable moment tried to make their escape. They were detected 
in their eifort and Dumoud was shot, but Barrow eluded pursuit 
and escaped. lu the autumn of the same year Peter Brufjher and 
his young son had returned to the Middletown settlement tt) 
harvest some of their crops. The Indians had been provoked by 
his piloting the Schoharie militia against them, and they took this 
occasion to kill him. The boy they took prisoner and carried him 
with others to Niagara.* 

The most trying scenes, however, of the Revolution which oc- 
curred in Delaware county, were those in Harperstield. Here the 
settlers were mostly patriots, and early — August 1775 — in the 
struggle they formed a committee of vigilance. The chief of this 
committee was John Harper, who received the commission of Col- 
onel. Others of the active settlers were enrolled and took a solemn 
oath of fidelity to the f)atriot cause. They had not then given up 
the hope that at least a part of the Indians might join the American 
•side in this controversy. As there was a gathering of the Indians 
. at Oipiago on the .Suscpiehanua river, it was deemed best to des- 
l)atch Colonel Harper to hold a i-oufercnce with them. This he un- 
dertook in the winter of 177(5. and carried with him a letter from 
the Provincial Congi'ess. He was received by them with kindness, 
and as he spoke their language fluently, he was given an opjiortunity 
to read the letter and state the wishes of the Congress. They 
treated him witli the most august ceremony and gave him the as- 
. surance of their wish to remain neutral in the controversy then 

But the hopes raised by this conference of Colonel Harper with 
* See liouldK Hwlory of Delaware County, p. 39. 

(J2 msToliV <ll-' liFJ.AWMih: corsTY. 

the ludiauK were of short duratiou. Joseph Brant,* a JMohawk lu- 
diau, and whose sister was the lu lian wife of Sir Williiua Johusou,. 
had become the war chief of the Six Natious. As a youth, l>v me 
iiirtueuce of Johusou, he had liccu scut to the Moor Charity School 
at Leliauou, Couuecticut. Here he ac(|uired a fairly ^ood educa- 
tion, and made the acquaintance of many boys who afterward 
became prominent. One of these was Captain Alexander Harper, a 
brother of Colonel John Harper. By the aid of Sir "William, and 
through his own active and ambitious genius, he had V)een ad- 
vanced to the leadershijj of the powerful league of Indians. He 
does not seem to have been 2:)resent at the conference between 
Colonel Harper and the Indians at Oquago. And when he after- 
ward joined the Indians he had little difficulty in reversing all the 
good inqjressions which had been made, and in persuading his- 
fierce and lawless warriors to enter upon the bloody succession of 
raids which followed. 

The result of a second effort to dissuade the Indians from 
making common cause with the Bintish was no more favorable than 
that just referred to. This effort was made by General Herkimer 
in June, 1777. He had known Brant as an old neighbor in the 
Mohawk country, and hoped to exert some wholesome influence 
upon him. Herkimer asked Brant to meet him at I'nadilla on 
the ■ Susquehanna, and this he did. Each of the leaders had come 
to the place of meeting with a considerable force. A conference 
was held, but without any good result. Indeed an angry alterca- 
tion occurred between Brant and a Colonel Cox who was one of 
General Herkimer's attendant officei's. And although no open 
breach of the peace occurred, both jjarties retired from the meeting 
more bitterly hostile towards each other than before. 

Under jiressure of such dangers the peojjle of the Harjurslicld 
settlement concluded that it was safest to escaj)e to some more 
populous place. A few of the hardy men remained to care for the 
property and ci'ops as far as possible; but the women and children 

* Wo fdlliiw Sloiif'x [.iff of Hniiil in those iiarlirulais. 

Hor). Willian\ B. Oydeq. 

h'h:\()i.iTioxAi;y rmiiiiLESi. (J5 

aii'l most of the men — Jiilv 1777 — took iiiiick aud ((niet lU'iJurture 
for Clierry Valley. Tlie stunlj- old Scotchman John More who 
lived remote from the Harperstield settlement had luil heard of 
their depiirture and was t[uietly remaining in his home. A friendly 
Indian who belonged to one of the threatening hands, escaped from 
his conipauious by night and came to John More's house to warn 
him to follow his friends and make his escape. He was wise 
enough to follow the advice and with his family and possessions 
joined in the procession to Cherry Valley. 

The Johnston settlement on the Susi[uehauna at Sidney i'laius 
had a visit from Brant and his Indians in June 1777. They stole 
some cattle from the settlers in order to feed, as Brant said, his 
hungry warriors. Mr. Johnston held a conference with them, at 
which Brant gave his ullimalum in the following speech: "I am a 
man of war. I have taken an oath with tlie king, and I will not 
make a treaty with ymi. I will give these families forty-eight 
hours* to get away. So long they shall bo safe. If any amiinf^- you 
wish to join us, I will protect them and they shall not l)e hurt." 
The Johnston and Sliter families who were patriots took advantage 
of the short respite and made their escape to Cherry Valley. Three 
families espoused the tory cause and remained under Brant's 
promise of protection. At Cherry Valley these families were pres- 
ent at the siege and burning of the place by the Indians and 
British ; but after the war was over they returned to their old 
homes, and resumed their pioneer life. 

The Indians of the Six Nations were mainly allies of the British 
in the Revolutionary war. Part of the Oneida tribe and i)art of the 
Tuscaroras were either friendly to the Colonists or neutral iu the 
war. But the Mohawks, the Cayugas and the Senecas, were hostile; 
and under the active leadership of Brant gave tiie fi'ontier settle- 
ments in Tryon county an infiinte amount of trouble. They had 
held early in the war a council with British commissioners, who 
urgently pressed them to cond)ine against the patriots. They 

• Another authority niveg the tiiiii' as eight ilays. 



thereupou made a treaty uuder which each chief of the savajje 
allies was to receive a suit of clothes, a brass kettle, a j,'uu aud aiu- 
iiuiuitiou, a tomahawk, a scalping knife, a piece of t^old, and a 
promise of a specified bounty for every prisoner or scalp delivered 
at head-quarters. 

Under these incentives many savage cruelties were enacted, 
sometimes by the Indians alone aud sometimes by British troops 
accompanied by Indians. The little village of Springfield at the 
head of Otsego Lake was destroyed in the spring of 1778, by Brant 
aud his warriors. In July, 1778, the terrible massacres at Wyoming* 
on the Susquehanna were perpetrated. The whole country was 
aroused, and the result was the sending of the Sullivan expedition, 
in order to exact due vengeance for the numberless barbarities 
which had been committed on the frontiers. 

This expedition was jjlanned by General Washington who in- 
sisted on the adecjuate punishment of the hostile Indians, who for 
so many years had acted as the willing agents of the British in 
harrying aud raiding the New York settlements. The forces of the 
expedition were to consist of two parts; — one under the command 
of General Sullivan, which was to ascend the Susquehanna; the 
other uuder the command of General James Clinton (the father of 
DeWitt Clinton) which was to be gathered in the Mohawk valley, to 
ascend the river in boats to Canajoharie, drag the 210 boats across 
the portage of twenty miles to the head of Otsego Lake, launch 
them there and traverse the lake to the outlet of the Susquehanna, 
thence to descend the rivet and juiu the first division at the 
junction of the Chemung aud Susquehanna. The task of this 
second division was most difficult, but was performed with prompt- 
ness and entire success. 

One difficulty General Clinton surmounted in a most original 
aud effective manner. It was in August, 1779, that he and his 

* Thomas Campbell's famous poem of Gertrude of Wyoming made a great 
impression. He calls Brant the " monster Brant." Brant's son, however, visi- 
ted London in order to vindicate his father's memory. It is said that he con- 
vinced the poet that Brant was not [iresent on this occasion. 

REVOLrriDXARY TliornLES. 67 

expedition arrived at the outlet of tlie lake. The drought had so 
lessened the How into the river that it was too low to tloat the l)oats 
which had been brouf^ht thither with such labor. Clinton had a dam 
erected across the outlet liv which the tinw was interrupted. In a 
few davs the water of the lake was raised to the necessary height. 
The boats had beeu in the mean time moored in the stream below 
the lake. Then when everything was ready the dam was removed, 
and the boats were carried down on the crest of the swollen stream, 
until they arrived August 22 at the designated place of rendezvous. 
The westward campaign at once began, under the command of 
General Sullivan. A considerable battle was fought at Newtown 
the site of the present city of Elniira. It is called the battle of the 
Chemung. A combined force of Indians under Braut and of British 
troops under Colonel ■John Butler, opposed Sullivan's army. But 
the British and Indians were swept away and the nnirch westward 
continued. The Indian towns which were found were everywhere 
deserted, and as a revenge for the long series of depredations upon 
white settlements, these towns and the crops alumt them were 
destroyed. The beautiful country* of the Cayugas and Senecas was 
the blossom of the highest Indian civilization. The Indians everj-- 
where ded as Sullivan's expedition advanced. A slight and ineffec- 
tive stand was made before Sullivan entered the beautiful valley of 
the Genesee. Everything was devastated and destroyed. The 
ripening crops on which the Indians depended for their winter's 
supply were Ijurnt "The town of Genesee contained one hundred 
and twentj'-eight houses, mostly large and very elegant. It was 
beautifullj' situated, almost encii'cled with a clear fiat extending a 
number of miles; over which extensive fields of corn were waving, 
together with every kind of vegetable that could be conceived." f 

* Stone in liis life of Brant says : " Tlicy liacl several towns and many large 
villugo.s, laid out with a con.sideraMe degree of regularity. They had franu'<l 
houses, some of them well fini.shed, having chimneys and painted. Tliey had 
broad an<l productive fields; and in addition to an al>undance of apples, were 
in the enjoyment of the pear and the still more deliiious peach. Lifi- of -lo- 
j»}>h Bninl. Vol. II, p. 'i."!. 

+ Sullivan's report as cited )>y Stone. Vol. II, ]i. :).!. 

68 HlsruliY UF DELAWMih: corxTy. 

This towu with all its accumulated supplies was utterly destroyed, 
besides forty other ludiau towus and villages- Oue hundred aud 
sixty thousand bushels of corn were burned or cast into the river. 
Fruit trees were cut down and fields of j^rowinj^- vej^etaliles were 
utterly devastated. 

On the Kith of Se])teiiiber Sullivan re-crossed the Cxeuesee river 
aud commenced his return. It had been intended that he should 
advance on Fort Niagara aud reduce this jjrincipal stronghold^ 
But perhaps fearing that his force had been too nuuh re<luced to 
undertake such a task, he did not venture ujjon the advance. He 
had accomplished the immediate object of his campaign. He had 
administered a stern and unsparing punishment upon the Indians 
for their barbarities committed ujion the white settlements. Per- 
haps such cruelties are justitialile under such circumstances; but 
modern rules of warfare would not justify the destruction of peace- 
ful towns and villages, without absolute evidence that they belonged 
to the guilty authors of the depredations. 

The Indians were roused by this expedition of vengeance to 
make retaliations. During the winter of 1779-80 Brant led a band 
of Indians against the Oneidas who had befriended the Americans 
in their struggle with the British. He comijletely destroyed their 
dwellings aud broke up their settlement. In the spring of 1780 he 
appeared again at Harpersfield. By a timely warning the inhabi- 
tants had made their escape and had taken refuge in Schoharie. A 
few of the men, among whom was Captain Alexander Harper, had 
returned to secure the luajjle sugar crop. They were surprised and 
taken jn-isoners. Part of them were marched off to Niagara, and part 
sent to Canada; where both jiarties remained till the end of the war, 
when they w'ere set at liberty and returned to their desolated homes. 

The only reminiscences of the scenes of the war were the 
bitternesses left by the disloj'alty of torv neighbors. Some of 
these tories ventured after the war to return aud re-estal)lish them- 
selves among their old neighbors. But they found their neighbor- 
hoods too hot for them, and were compelled to make hasty exits. 

Orcjani^ation of the Cocrntv 

DOWN ti> ITHT the territory uow foriuiuj^- Delaware eouuty was 
uicludeil iu the comities of Ulster aud Otsejro. The former 
reached to the West branch of the Delaware river which formed its 
north-west boundary; the latter reached the same stream whicli 
formed its soutli-east boundary. The inhabitants south of the river 
were compelled to go to Kingston for their necessary law business, 
while those on the north side went the low^ journey to Coopers- 
town. In IT'.il a plan was mijoted to carve from the two counties 
another, to lie called Delaware county from the name of tlie Dela- 
ware river which took its rise within the proposed boundaries. 
There \vas a strong opposition of course, as there always is, to the 
formation of the new county, and a j)etition numerously signed was 
sent to th<' Legislature protesting against tlic proposed action. 

For several years therefore the measure was held back, and it 
was not till 1797 that the bill was finally passed. During this 
session of the Legislature, Dr. J. H. Brett, a physician of Harpers- 
tield, \\&H a member of the Assembly from Otsego county, John 
Burr of Middletown a member for Ulster county, and Ebeuezer 
Foote a member from Xewl)urgli in Or.inge county. These three 
active aud eflicient members espoused the cause of the new county, 
and mainly by their agency the bill was cai-ried through the Legis- 
lature ami became a law Marcli ID, IT'.i". 

Some slight changes have been made iu the boundaries of the 
■county since the original act of incorporation was passed. In 1K17 
n section north of the Charlotte river was detached from Otsego 
<;ounty ami added to Dehnyare county. .\nd in ls22 a stiip of 
Delaware county lying on the south side of (lie Sus(|uehanna river, 


but separated from the bodv of the county liy ahiiost inaccessible 
mountains, was detached from Delaware county and made a part of 
Otsego. "With these exceptions the lioundaries of the county have 
i-emained as described in the original act. 

When the county was chartered there were only seven town- 
ships already established. They are given below: 

1. Harpersfield, organized 1788, in Otsego county. 

2. Middletown, organized 1789, in Ulster county. 

3. Colchester, organized 17!)2, in Ulster county. 

4. Franklin, organized 1792, in Otsego county. 

5. Stamford, organized 1792, in Ulster county; in 1834 a part 

was detached from Harpersfield and Kortright and at- 
tached to Stamford. 

{). Kortright, organized 1793, in Otsego county. 

7. Walton, organized 1797 (just before the organization of the 
county), in Otsego county. 

The other twelve towns of the county have been formed from 
time to time by slicing away parts of the older towns, in the 
following order: 

1. Delhi 1797, taken from "Walton and Kortright. 

2. Roxbury 1799, taken from Stamford. 

.'J. Meredith 1800, taken from Franklin and Kortright. 

4. Sidney 1801, taken from Franklin. 

.5. Hancock ISOd, taken from Colchester. 

(i. Tompkins 1806, taken from Walton (for two years called 


7. Masonville IMl, taken from Sidney. 

<S. Davenport 1.S17, taken from Harperstield. 

9. Andes 1.S19, taken from Middletown. 

10. Bovina liS20, taken from Delhi, Middletown and Stamford. 

11. Hamden 1825, taken from Delhi and Walton. 

12. Deposit 1880, taken from Tompkins. 


lu fuithciauce of the orgauizatiou of the new eountv the super- 
visors held tlieir first ineetiuj;' May 81, 17',)7. They met iu the new 
town of Delhi. Tlx' place of nieetinf;' was at the house of Gideon 
Frisbeo, which stood at the junction of Elk creek with the West 
brunch of the Delaware river and which for many years served as 
a tavern. The supervisors were as follows: 

1. William Hortou, Colchester. 

i. Enos Parker, Franklin. 

3. Roswell Hotchkiss, Harpersfield. 

\. Benajah Beardsley, Kortrig-ht. 

o. Benjamin ^lilk, Middletowu. 

{). John Lamb, Stamfor<l. 

7. Robert North, Walton. 

The records of this first meeting have been preserved and 
are of great interest. In the appendix will be found some 
facts concerning these early records. The court of common pleas 
held its first session at Mr. Frisbee's house on October 3, 1707. 
The first jury impaneled in the county was in attendance, and 
it is the tradition that its sessions were held under a large 
butternut tree which w-as standing until a few years ago. The 
judges of this court were: Patrick Lamb, William Horton, and 
Gabriel North; assisted by Isaac Hardenbergh, and Alexander 
Leal. The following attorneys were admitted to practice at this 
court: Conrad E. Elmendorf, Philip Gebhard, Anthony Marvine, 
David Phelps, Erastus Root and Cornelius E. Yates. Until a 
court-house was built, iu which the county business could be 
conducted, the courts continued to be held iit Mr. Frisbee's 

The first Court House was begun in 17!»S. The board of super- 
visors voted the sum of $1,200 for its erection and appointed a 
commission of substantial citizens to direct the building. An addi- 
tional sum of $oO() was afterward voted; and the whole expenditure 
was audited and paid at $2,()o4.42. This building stood on the 


{jfroimd which uow eoiui)oses the Court-House stjuare uear the r.iain 
street and which was donated for the purpose bv George Fislier 
and Levi Baxter. A part of the buihliug was used as a jail; and 
the office of the County Clerk was also situated in it. 

In 1820 this Court House was destroyed by tire; and a young 
man from Andes named Abram Coon who had been committed for a 
short confinement in the jail for petit larceny, perished in the 
flames. The citizens of Delhi took immediate measures to rebuild 
the Court House. Colonel Amasa Parker was sent to Albany, where 
the Legislature was in session, and where General Erastus Root was 
present as a member. Together they drew an act authorizing the 
State to loan to the county the sum of $8,000, with which to 
rebuild the Court House; the sum to be repaid with six j)er cent 
interest in four years. By General Root's activity and energy this 
act was imujediately passed, and the rebuilding was begun. It was 
provided that until the new jail was ready for use, prisoners, for 
whom no bail could be taken, might be confined iu the jail of 
Greene county. 

The building then erected continued to be used till 1871. But 
in 18(iS the board of supervisors took measures to replace it by a 
building more adequate and suitable. At this time an offer was 
received from the town of Walton to sujiply the county with all 
necessary buildings on condition that the county-seat should be 
removed to that place. This offer however was not accepted. It 
was felt by the eastern towns of the county that it would be a gi'eat 
inconvenience to have the county-seat so far removed from the 
centre of the territory. The people of Delhi were thoroughly 
roused by the danger of losing the county buildings and offices, 
and by a vote of the town authorized the ])ayment of $10,000 
towards the erection of the new Court House. The supervisors 
voted to exjiend the sum of ^30,00(1 foi' a buiUliug of brick trimmed 
with stone. The design for it was drawn by Mr. I. E. Perry the 
supervising architect of the State Capitol, and ^Ir. Robert Murray 
was the superintendent of the construction. 

oRtiAMZ.iTiox (II-' riih: coixry. 75 

The old buildiufj was sold to the villaf^e of Delhi for ii towii-liall 
ami removed to a site iu the rear. The cost of the uew buildiiitr 
was fouud to be i,'reater than tlic iii-chitect's estimate, and tlic 
supervisors voted au additional sum. 'Die bnildiufj was conipleted 
and opened Jamiarv 30, 1S71. 

The most excitiuf,' experiences in the court at Delhi were three 
below mentioned: 

1. The trial of John Graham, jiu Irishman, in 1814, for the 
murder of Hugh Cameron and Alexander McClilfrey. A i|uarrel 
had taken place between the parties at a loo-ging bee; and on their 
wav home through a piece of wood, (iraham struck them with a 
handspike. He was tried for the crime and convicted. He was 
hung July -ill, 1814. 

2. The second exciting trial was that of Nathan Foster for 
poisoning his wife in 1819. He had been a torv during the Revo- 
lution and was believed to liave iuluniianly noinlcred Colonel .Vlden 
at Cherry Valley in 1777. He was fouud guilty of the murder of 
his wife and duly hung. Martin VanBuren the Attorney General 
was present and assisted the District Attorney. Erastus Root 
and Samuel Sherwood were the counsel for the prisoner. 

8. The third period of intense excitement was wlicn the anti- 
rent trials* were held for the killing of Under-SheriflF Steele. 
These trials were held in the autumn of lS4(i, Justice Amasa J. 
Parker presiding. The Attorney-General John VanBuren assisted 
the District Attorney and Samuel Sherwood was special counsel. 
The counsel for the jirisoners under trial were .\masa Parker the 
uncle of the presiding justice, Samuel Gordon, and ^ritclicll San- 
ford of Greene County. 

*See the paper on thf .\.nti-Kent Episode. 


From the successive Uuited States censuses we have compiled 

the facts given below couceruiug the several towns in the county of 


1«KI ISld ISrill IWSO 1(<4() 18.")(1 ISWI 1K70 1880 1890 

Aucles l,:i7H l.HOO 2,17(; 2,fi7'2 2,987 2,K40 2,fi39 2,2(14 

BoviiKi 1,267 1,3-lK 1,403 l.SKi 1,242 J, (122 1,022 1,007 

Colchester . . 1,207 MH5 1,064 1,424 1,567 2,184 2,471 2,652 2,941 2,973 

Davenport 1,384 1,778 2,052 2,305 2,360 2,187 1,939 1,789 

Delhi K20 2,39(; 2,285 2,114 2,554 2,909 2,839 2,920 2,941 2,908 

Deposit 1,714 1,664 

Franklin .... 1,390 1,708 2,481 2,786 3,025 3,087 3,.307 3,2S3 2,907 2,897 

Hamden 1,230 1,469 1,919 1,836 1,762 1,496 1,507 

Hancock 578 525 76(> 1,026 1,798 2,862 3,069 3,238 4,745 

Harpersfleld, 1,007 1,691 1,884 l,97(i 1,708 1,613 1,466 1,485 1,420 1,386 

Kortright... 1,513 2,993 2,548 2,870 2,441 2,181 2,022 1,812 1,730 1,588 

Miisouville 719 1,145 1,420 1,550 1,683 1,738 1,673 1,397 

Meredith 213 726 1,375 1,666 1,640 1,634 1,626 1,462 1,563 1,555 

Middletown . 1,064 2,318 1,949 2,383 2,608 3,005 3,200 3,035 2,977 3,313 

Roxbury .... 936 1,892 2,488 3,234 3,013 2,853 2,.544 2,188 2,344 2,272 

Sidney 1,388 1,107 1,410 1,732 1,807 1,914 2,.597 2,461 3,122. 

Stamford.., 924 1,658 1,495 1,597 1,681 1,708 1,658 1.658 1,638 1,940 

Tompkins 869 1,206 1,774 2,035 3,022 3,564 4,046 2,534 2,626 

Walton 1,154 1,211 1,432 1,663 1,846 2,271 2,098 3,216 3,544 4,543 

Delaware Co. 10,228 20,303 25,587 33,024 35,396 39,834 42,465 42,972 42,721 45,496 

In 1820 the following was the number of the taxable inhabitants 
in each of the towns: 

Colchester 177 ^Meredith 'Mi 

Delhi . . ■ 124 Koxbury 169 

Franklin 205 Stamford 195 

Harpersfleld 105 Walton 183 

KortriiJ-ht 2(i(l 

Middletown 1(17 Total . 1,681 

We give in closing this chaj)ter concerning the organization of 

Delaware county a list * of the several officers from the formation of 

* For this enumeration we are indelitcd to the yen- York CirU Lixl, sup- 
plcunented by Mr. J. A. Parshall. 



tlR' couuty to tlu' iu'esciit, witli tlic tuuc of their electiou to 

I. C'orxiY JriHiEs. 

Joshua H. Brett 171)7 

Hl)eiiezer Foote l.slo 

Isaac Ofifileu IMIG 

Ebenezer Foote 1H28 

Jabez Bostwick 1S81) 

Charles Hathaway 1840 

Nelson K. Wheeler 1845 

l'.<lwiii More 
\\'illiuiii (rleasou. 


Jesse Palmer 1855 

William Gleasou 1859 

William JIurray 1 8()8 

Edwin D. Waj^uer 1S(I7 

Isaac H. Mayiuud 1.S77 

Daniel T. Arbuckle 18s:{ 

James R. Baumes 1881) 

All)ert H. Sewell 188;t 

Albert H. Sewell. 

II. Strrooates. 

Anthony Marviue 171)7 

John W. (iret^ory 1811 

Ann IS Dcinj^'lass lSl:i 

itobert North 1815 

Aniasa J. I'iuker 
Charles Hathaway 
Nelson K. Wheeler 



fSiuce 1847 the duties of the Surro^^ate have been performeil by 
the County .ludge. 

111. District Attiiknkys. 

William H, Kiting. . . 1818 

John B. S])encer 1821 

Sehlli i;. Hobliie 


Noadiah Johnson 


.\masa .1. Parkei- 


Samuel (lordon 

. 1H8(; 

NeU'in K. Wheeler. . . 


Jonas A. Hugliston. . 

. . 1842 

Truman H. Wheeler . 


Amasa J. TeiiBroeck . . 

. . 1S47 

William Murray 


Iioberl I'arker. . 


John (Irant 185ti 

George W. Clark 185i) 

Ueilbeu H. IJoot 1S(;2 

Ferris Jacobs, ji' ls(')5 

Harvey F. Davidson. 1S(;.S 

Ferris .lacobs, jr 1.S71 

Daniel T. .VrlnKkle Is7t 

Atirain C. Crosby ls77 

Jonas M. Preston iSSd 

.Samuel H. Faucher 18,s;! 

John 1'. (iraut 1889 

William F. Wliite lsi)2 



TV. County Clkks. 

Ebeuezer Foote 1797 

Philip Ciebbard 1801 

John Doll ISOH 

Homer E. Phelps ISdlt 

Asahel E. Paine IKIO 

Homer R. Phelps IHll 

Ambrose Bryau 1S13 

Asahel E. Paiue 1S15 

Homer E. Phelps iS'il 

Homer E. Phelps lS-22 

John Burhans 1825 

Crawford B. Sheldon 


William McLaughrv. . 


Beujamiu Cannon 


Robert S. Hiij^hston. . . 


William Ward (rraut 


Smith H. White 


Ransom A. Grant 


Georfje T. Warner. . 


Georue W. Crawford 


Joshua K. Hood 


Elias Butler 

James I. White 

Clark Lawrence 

Roswell Hotehkiss 
Nathan Edgertou, jr. . 

Jabez Bostwick 

Robert Leal 

Jabez Bostwick 

Martin Keeler 

Isaac Bvirr 

Martin Keeler 

Roger Case 

Martin Keeler 

Gurdon H. Edgerton 

John H. Gregory 

Duncan J. (iraut 

John M. Betts 

John Edgerton 

■Green Moore 

V. Sheriffs. 


DeWitt C. Thomas 



David Rowland 



Duncan McDonald 



Alexander H. Burhans . 



Baldwin Griffin 



Gabriel S. Mead 



John Calhoun 



Hamilton S. Preston . . 



Edward A. GritiUth 



Darius S. Jackson 



William J. Clark 



John Crawford 



William H. Douglass . . . 



Daniel Franklin 



John J. McArthur 



Thomas E. Elliott 



William C. Porter 



James D. Lawrence .... 



(>iii<.\siy,.\ri()S (IF Till-: cinsry. 


YI. CdlNTV TlvKAsriiKliS. 

Previous to lS4ii the tri'iisurtTs of the i-ountics wore iippoiiitcil 
l)v the Imiirds of sujtervisors aud held otHce durin;^' tluir plcusiive. 

•James Elwood lS4s .1. Suvau Paj^'e isTo 

Horatio N. Buckley l^i")l Miuor Stilsou . . . ISSl 

Charles A. Foote ISCd J. 1{. Houeywell 1^S,S7 

Theophilus F. Melutosh IHdlt C. S. Woodruff. l.sii.j 

Vn. Members of Congress. 

I'.nistiis Itoot lsn8-0o 

Krastus Moot isd'.i 11 

Samuel .Sherwood lsl;{-li) 

Erastus Root isl.") 17 

Robert Clark lslil^21 

Charles A. Foote l.S-28-25 

Selah R. Hobl)ie Is-JT Jl) 

Erastus Root l.s:51 :{8 

Noadiah Johus<ju 1S8;J 85 

Amasa J. Parker 1887- :{!( 

Samuel (iordoii 1S41 48 

Samuel (im-don ISI.") 47 

Hermau D. Ciould IHill-ol 

Jonas A. Hu^lisou . . lS.'j.')-o7 

James H. (xraham IS.'jH-dl 

Samuel F. Miller . llSdH-C;-) 

Charles Knapji ISC'I 71 

Samuel F. Miller 1875 77 

Ferris Jacobs, jr 1881 ,s:{ 

Charles J. Kuapp , 188i)-!)l 


Staik Skn \tors. 

Ebeuezer Foote 17'.i'.i. 
Joshua H. Brett 

Erastus Hoot 

Isaac Orfdeu 
•,i T More 

Isaac Of^'den 

Noadiah Johnson 

Erastv.s Root 
Ste])heii C. Johnson 
Join: M. I'.etts 



Henry E. Bartlett. . . 

. 1852- 




Edward I. Ikirhaus 

. 1858 




Orson M. Allaben. . . 

. 18(;4- 




James H. (iraham . . 

. 1872- 




Curtis Marvin 





Matthew \V. Marvin 





William Lewis 





James Ballautine 





John ( irant 





IX. ]Me;mhkks of Assembly. 

1797. . William Horton, Niitliauiel Wattles. 

1798. . . .Elias Butler, Erastus Root. 
1799 .... Patrick Lamb, Sluman Wattles. 

18(»0 Gabriel North, Erastus Root. 

1801 .... Gabriel North, Erastus Root. 

1802. . . .John Lamb, Elias Osborne. 

1803. . . Gabriel North, Elias Osborne. 

1804. . . .Adam L Doll, Anthony Marvine. 

1805. . . .Anthony Marvine, Gabriel North. 
180G. . , .John T. More, Joshua Pine. 
1807. . . John T. More, Gabriel North. 

1808 Daniel Fuller, David St. John. 

1809 John T. More, Elias 0.sborne. 

1810 .... Daniel Fuller, David St. John. 
1811 . . . Danel H. Burr, Isaac Ogden. 
1S12. . . Robert Clark, Andrew Craig, jr. 

1813. . . John T. More, Isaac Ogden. 

1814. . . .Robert Clark, Asahel E. Paine. 

1815 .... William Dewey, Henry Leavenworth. 
181(!. . . Martin Keeler, Asahel E. Paine. 

1817. . . William Beach, Erastus Root. 

1818. . . .James Eells, Erastus Root. 

1819. . . Peter Pine, Erastus Root. 
1820 .... John H. Gregory, Erastus Root. 

1821. . . Benjamin Benedict, Asa Grant. 

1822. . . .Asa Grant, Samuel Rexford. 
1823 James Ells, Peter Pine. 

1821. . . .Jabez Bostwick, Harmau I. Quackenboss. 

1825. . . .Erastus Root, William Townsend. 

1826. . . .Erastus Root, John Thompson. 
1827 Edward Doyle, Erastus Root. 

1828 William S. McRea, James G. Redfield. 

()R(iAXIX.\Tlii\ OF TIIK CorSTY. 


1829 Matthew Halcott, Erastus Root. 

1830 David P. Mapes, Peter Piue. 

1831. . . .James Coulter, James Hugbstou. 

1832. . . Jobu EilgertoD, Stixldiu'il Stevens. 

1833. . . .Samuel Gordou, Anuisa J. Parker. 
1834:. . . .Dubois Burbaus, "William B. Ogdeu. 
1835. . . .John (iiiffin, James W. Kuapp. 
lK3(i. . . Jesse Bootb, Tbomas J. Hubbell. 
1837 .... Cornelius Bassett, Darius ]Maples. 

1838 Icbabod Bartlett, Jonas :More. 

1839 Orson M. AUahen, Nathan Bristol. 

18-10. . . Stephen H. Keeler, Charles Knapp. 
1841 Samuel Eells, Orriu (iriffiii. 

1S42. . . .Milton Bostwick, Nelson K. Wheeler. 
1843 .... Edward I. Burbaus, Jesse Palmer. 

1844. . . .John McDonald, Linus Pcirter. 

1845. .Orrin Foote, Reuben Lewis. 
l!S4(j. . . John C. Allaben, Donald Shaw. 

1847. . . Piatt Townsend, John Calhoun. 

1848. . . .James E. Thompson, Luther Butts. 

1849. . . .George H. Winsor, Richard Morse. 

1850. . . Samuel Dovle, William Gleason, jr. 

1851. . . .Hezekiab Elwood, Lewis Willis. 

1852. . . .Charles S. Rogers, Daniel Stewart. 

1853 Samuel F. Miller, David Rowland. 

1854 William B. Smith, Ezekiel Miller. 

1855. . . .John Mead, John Haxtuu. 

1856. . . .Barna R. Johnson, Warren Dimiiiiil;. 

1857. . . .Fletcher Palmer, Samuel \. Law. 

1858. . . .Barna R. Johnson, Samuel A. Law. 
1859 Donald D. Shaw, died. 

Barna R. Johnson, Samuel A. I^aw. 
1860. . . .Seymour E. Smith, Daniel AVaterburv. 
1861 Nelson K. Wheeler. Daniel Waterburv. 

82 iiisTitiiv (IF dflawm;/-: loixrv. 

l!-!()2. Kol)(it W. Couitucy, Fiaucis 1{. (xilljeit. 
1S()8. ..leruiiic S. Laudtieltl, Fi-aiicis R. Gilbert. 
ISfi-t. . . Ira E. Sheruiiuj, Jatues Oliver. 
ISi;.") Ira E. Sherman, Joliu Ferris. 

18G(>. . . .Joshua Smith, (ieorge C. Gibbw. 
l.S(;7 . . Albert E. Sullard, Edward I. Burhans. 
1S68. . , Beujaniiii J. Bassett, Johu Ferris. 
ISd!) Alpheus Bolt, Orson M. Allaben. 
1870. Alpheus Bolt, James H. Graham. 
1S71 , , William Lewis, jr., Matthew Griffiu. 
1S72. . . .William Lewis, jr., Matthew Griffiu. 
1878. . Benjamin J. Bassett, Matthew Griffin. 

1874. . . .Warren (t. Willis, (ieorge G. Decker. 

1875 . . George D. Wheeler, Isaac H. Maynard. 
1S7G William J. Welsh, Isaac H. Maynard. 

1877. . . Albert H. Sewell, Robert P. Cormack. 

1878. . , .Albert E. Sullard, John S. McNaught. 
1S79. Robert Beates. 

1880. . . .William Lewis. 

1881. . . Chester H. Treadwell. 
1S,S2. . .Timothy Sanderson. 

1883. . . .Silas S. Cartwright. 

1884. . . .Silas S. Cartwright. 
1885 .... Charles J. Kuapp. 
1886. .David L. Thomson. 
1S87. . . .Charles J. Knapp. 

1888. George O. Mead. 

1889. . . .James Ballantiue. 

1890. Henry Davie. 

1 891 . James R. Cowau. 

1892. . , DeWitt Griffin. 

1893. Wesley Gould. 

1894. , , .Robert Cartwright. 

1895 Delos H. Mackey. 

1896. . . Delos H. Mackey. 
1897 . .Delos Axtell. 

Hori. flrriasa d. ParKer. 

oiiiiAXizATio.x OF rill-: corxrv. 

Sl'l'KKMK Ciillir •JrsTU'ES. 


1844 Aniiisii J. Parker. 

1867-87 . William Miirrjiy, apiicuntt'd in phicc of Justice 

1887 ... Francis E. Gilbert, ainxiiiited in place of Justice 


1821 . 


CoNSTrri rioNAi. DKi.Wi.vxKs. 

. Roswell Hotclikiss, Elias Osl)oru. 
.Erastus Root, Robert Clark. 
.Isaac Burr, David S. Waterburv. 
John Grant, Samuel F. ^liller. 
.Jonas M. Preston (conimissiouer). 
. Abram C. Crosby. 

St.\te Offu'ehs. 

1823-24. Erastus Root was Lieutenant-Governor. 

1824. . . .Erastus Root was ajipointed a member of a commis- 
sion to revise the laws. 

1835 . . . . Amasa J. Parker was chosen by the Legislature a 
Regent of the University. 

1854. . . .Norwood Bowue was elected State Prison Lisiiector. 

1855. . . .Joel T. Headley, who was born in AValton, but at the 

time of his election was not a resident of the 
county, was elected Secretary of State. 

?\ilitar>; Concerns. 

WE have alreaily leferied to the military uiovemeuts which 
pertained to the Revolutiouary period. These were uot 
uirtuy uor important, because the coimty was then only sparsely 
inhabited. The troubles that came upon Harperstield, and Sidnej' 
and the settlements ujjou the East Branch all arose from the 
Indians under Brant. Tories sometimes accompanied these expetli- 
tious, and the sufferings entailed were painful and exasperating. 
But the retribvitory expedition, which was undertaken under (ien- 
eral Sullivan in 1779, put an end to these annoyances and the whole 
eastern and southern sections of the State were permanently re- 
lieved from further raids. 

By the time the war of islii broke out the county was compara- 
tively tilled up. All the more inijxirtant settlements were well 
advanced, and had begun to take on the appearance which they 
now display. In common with other counties in the State, Delaware 
furnished troops for guarding the Canadian frontier. But these 
contributions of troops were only little employed, and the real 
services of Delaware county troops in this war were not impt)rtant. 
The chief effect produced by the excitement and achievements of 
the war was the revival of the military spirit. For many years 
thereafter the organization of the militia throughout the different 
counties of the State was kept up with an enthusiasm and an 
effectiveness which have never been equalled. 

The law of the State made all able bodied citizens (with a few 
exceptions) between eighteen and forty-tive yeai's of age liable to 
military duty, and reciuired them to attend once each year at a 
general muster at some central point in the county. Besides this 


j^eueral imister, tboiT wt-rt' m iuudv tnwiis vdluutt^er iiiUitia coiii- 
piiuies, which reoeived much more frequent traiuiuff and whose 
officers ami men were di'essed iu uuiform. These voluuteer com- 
panies were assembled for the general traininj-; at the sanie time as 
the uu-unifoi-med troops; and on these occasions counted them- 
selves, as well as were counted by the enthusiastic spectators, as 
intinitelv more impt>rt;uit and more to be depended on iu any case 
of real war. 

The fifeueral training above referred to was held in the month of 
Sej)tember, generally at or near the village of Delhi. There was a 
clear, open intervale below the village, called Cavins Hats, where 
the troops were usually assend)led and put tlnouf^h their evolu- 
tions. Three days were occujiied iu the function; the tirst being 
partly used in assembling, and the last partly iu going home. The 
middle day was the great day. Thousands of men and women, boys 
and g'irls, came from every jiart of the county to see the great 
sight. Every where about the entrance to the field booths were 
established for the sale of lemonade and ginger-bread, and other 
drinks and cakes. I think there was a special driuk often in 
evidence on these occasions, called infail. made from honey which 
had been allowed to ferment. This was a great favorite. But most 
of the children conHned themselves to ginger-bread and lemonade. 

The evolutions, especially when the general officers came upon 
the field on horseback, were watched with thrilling interest. Be- 
sides the Colonel (as I recall him. Colonel Robert Parker) and other 
officers of the regiment, there was also present the still more 
gorgeous Brigadier General (I think General Farrington) and his 
staff, who had come from a distance to be ])resent on this occasion 
and to iuspect the troops. As they gallnjied from j)lace to place on 
the field, aiul sat solemnly and majestically on their horses watching 
the movements of the rej^iment, they seemed like heroes and demi- 
gods. To witness these military displays of swords and muskets, of 
white trousers and brass buttons and shoulder straps, of manual 
drill and marching and evolution, of the music with drum aud fife, 

8f^ msroin' of dki.awahe corxrv. 

was to boys of tli;it day ;i most ort'ectivc stiimilus uud ediu-atiou. It 
was thus that the military spirit was aroused amon<f our people, 
and when at last war came there was iu every township scores of 
young men ready to vohiuteer for its jierilous service. 

Mr. J. A. Parshall, the veteran antiquariau of Delhi has given 
me his recollection of one of these general trainings, which came 
near having a serious terniiuatiou. On this occasion the gathering- 
was upon the Hats of the Webster farm about four miles above 
Delhi. Hundreds of country wagons were arranged both along the 
road and iuside the entrance gate. The usual booths were also 
placed near this entrance. Honey was one of the delicacies which 
was sold from them. The horses had been taken from the poles, 
tied to the wagons and stood eating the hay which had been 
provided for them. 

In the midst of the evolutions the bees from a ueighl)oriug farm 
had scented out the honey and had come to carry away the jirecious 
store. They concluded that the horses had no business so u^ar to 
these hoards, which they assumed were designed for themselves. 
So they grew very angry over the matter and attacked the horses 
and even the spectators who stood about. It does not take much of 
a bee to frighten a horse. In a few minutes the poor animals were 
kicking and p)lunging at every wagon. Then they broke loose from 
their fastenings and went galloping up and down the road and over 
the parade ground. Nothing more confusing can be imagined. 
The frightened horses respected neither men nor women, neither 
brigadier-generals nor colonels. They went galloijing recklessly, 
with harness trailing and farmers chasing and boys hallooing, down 
among the marching troops, where they enforced unforeseen move- 
ments and quick transformations not put down in the regular 
programme. It took several hours to capture tht runaway horses 
and to restore peace and order. And although nobody was hurt, 
and no harm had been done, beyond the breaking of some halters 
and the explosion of some bad words, the training of that day was 
much demoralized and liad to lie prematurely closed. 

Anti-Ucnt Troablcs. 

AT a prececliuf>: paffe* will be fdiiiid ii list of tracts of laud 
which had lieen obtaiued in Delaware county either by grant 
or purchase. The owners of these tracts endeavored to induce 
settlers to take up farms ujinn them. Perlia])s both the patentees 
and the settlers were often deceived or mistaken concerning the 
cliaracter of the land \.hich was thus transferred. Much of it was 
rough, rocky and difficult of cultivation. The farms which were 
cleai'ed often jtrovcd nniiroductive, and the settlers found they had 
a very serious task to |ini\id(' for theii' ramilirs and make the |)ay- 
luents on their land. 

Some of the patentees had from the beginning adopted the plan 
of selling their lands to the farmers, and making the ter)ns of pay- 
ment such that they could be met. Others (leem<(l it better jiolicy 
to give the farmers leases of their farms, — gi-anting tor the tirst five 
years the use of the land without rent, for the second live years 
requiring half the permanent rent, and then after this requiring 
a full rent of a certain number of bushels of wheat for each one 
hundred acres; or sometimes a certain sum of mouej- for one 
hundred acres. The greater part of the county was originally 
iu the Hardeubergh patent. Sotiic of this great patent, which is 
said to have contained more tlian two millions of acres, was sold 
in tracts to intermediate purchasers, b\it most of the remainder 
had continued to be owned liy the heirs of the Hardeubergh 

In the report made in the Assendjly iu ISKI liy the committee of 
which Mr. Samuel J. Tilden was chairman, there is coutaiued an 

* Soo p. 47. 


;)(( ///.STOAT OF nh'.L.WVMiK CnlSTY. 

acc-ouut uf the leasehold tracts. These luay he smiiiiiurized as fol- 
lows: 1st, the Kortrisht tract of which about "if ), (10(1 acres were 
under lease at six pence an acre; '2d, the Desbrosses tract of (>(),()()(l 
acres which origiually belonged to the Hardenbergh patent, the 
land had been leased for seven years rent-free and subsequently at 
an annual rent of one shilling au acre; 3d, the Morgan Lewis tract 
of 20,00(1 acres of which 15,000 acres were under perpetual lease, 
the first five years being rent-free, the second five years on a rent 
of ten bushels of wheat for each one hundred acres, the third five 
years for fifteen bushels of wheat, and afterwards for twentv bush- 
els of wheat; 4th, the G. and S. Verplanck tract of 20,000 acres 
under lease; 5th, the R. R. Livingston and Mrs. Montgomery tract 
of 20,000 acres under lease for twenty bushels of wheat for each 
one hundred acres; (ith, the General Armstrong tract of 8,000 acres, 
under three-life leases for twenty bushels of wheat for one hundred 
acres; 7th, the Hunter and Overing tx'acts under leases for twelve 
and a half, fifteen and eighteen cents an acre. 

In the History of Delaware County, New York; ISSO, (p. (i5), will 
be found a lease for a farm on the Coulter brook given by Janet 
Montgomery to James Thompson, jr., in 1H27. This farm was a 
part of the Hardenbergh jsatent, and had been inherited by Mrs. 
Montgomery who was a sister of Robert R. and Edward Livingston. 
"We give a few lines from this lease, which mav serve as a sample of 
the ordinary leases under which the lands of Delaware county were 
held: "Together with all and singular the trees, woods and under- 
woods to be made use of on the premises and nowhere else; saving 
and reserving to the party of the first part, her heirs and assigns, 
all water courses suitable for the erection of mills, with a right to 
erect mills or other works thereon with three acres of land adjacent 
thereto; and also saving and reserving a right to erect dams and 
cut ditches for the use of sucli water-works; and also saving all 
mines or minerals found on the devised premises with the sole right 
to dig for and work the same, the said party of the first part com- 
jiensating for nnv damage sustained thereby." * * * * "Yielding- 


ami i)ii.viii^ therefor durinj^- the cuutimmnce of this present lease, 
yearly aud every year the yearly reut of two fat heus aud tme day's 
labor, with a wafjou, sled or plough with ii yoke of oxen or jiaii' of 
hois;>s and a driver, at snch time and jilacc witliin ten miles as the 
party of the first part, her heirs aud assigns shall reipiire. * * * * 
And also it is further eoveuauted and agreed that upon every sale 
or assignment of the said premises * * the party of the second 
part shall pay to the party of the tirst part one tenth part of tlic 
consideration money." 

It will be inferred from the statement above that at the time of 
the breaking out of the Auti-reut tronbles in 1S44 a very large part 
of the eounty was held iiuder lease. No doubt the evils of the 
leasehold system bore heavily upon the farmers in these rough and 
unproductive regions. To spare from their little wheat crops 
enough to pay the landlord his reut was a pinching process, which 
compelled the families to live upon rye aud buckwheat. Or if the 
rent was payable in money, much of the returns from their little 
dairies was swallowed up for this insatiable purpose. It followed 
therefore that when the farmers heard of movements in Albany and 
Ilensselaer counties, in Columbia county, and even nearer at hand 
in Ulster and Schoharie counties, which promised to abate the evils 
under which they labored, they eagerly lent an ear to the sugges- 
tions of relief. Ambitious agents came amongst the simple-minded 
farmers, suggesting a combination not for the purpose of electing 
t<» the legislatui-e members who would secure for them changes in 
the laws, which would have been legitimate, but encouraging and 
planning to resist forcibly the jjrocesses of law-. 

The least excusable movement was the organization, in imitation 
of their friends in Albany, in Rensselaer, in Columbia aud other 
counties of disguised and armed bands of so-called Indians. The 
avowed object of these bands was to prevent the service of legal 
papers pertaining to the c<jllection of rent, and to interfere in case 
Bales of projierty for jjayment of rent were undertaken by the 
officers of the law. Most of the persons engaged in these Indian 


bands were young and inexperienced, and were led into unlawful 
proceedings without due consideration. It was in this spirit tliat 
the outrages upon the Sheriff's officers in Roxbury were comniitted 
in 1844. 

The legislature in 1845 passed a law making it unlawful for any 
person to appear in disguise, and if armed as well as disguised the 
person could be punished with imprisonment and fine. Several of 
those persons thus disguised and armed were captured and pun- 

The fatal termination of these proceedings came in the summer 
of 184.'). A farmer by the name of Moses Earl lived upon a farm in 
Andes about three miles from the village. It was a lease-farm be- 
longing to the Yerplanck tract, and carried a rent of $3'2 a year. 
The rent had not been paid for two years, and the agent deter- 
mined to collect it by Sheriff's sale. After one postponement the 
sale was fixed for August 7th, 1845. The Sheriff with a counsel, 
and with Under-sheriff O. N. Steele and Constable E. S. Edgerton, 
apjjeared to conduct the sale. A large body of disguised Indians — 
at least "200 — were present and ranged themselves around the 
cattle which were to be sold. An t)rder was heard given by one of 
the disguised chiefs: "Shoot the horses, shoot the horses." A 
volley followed which wounded the horses on which Steele and 
Edgerton rode. Instantly another order was given: "Shoot him, 
shoot him." Another volley followed and three balls struck Steele. 
One of these wounds was fatal, and he died after five or six hours. 

Following this tragedy was an intense excitement. Meetings 
were held everywhere throughout the county to deplore and 
denounce the crime. Rewards were offered for the capture of 
persons supposed to have been concerned in it. The Gt)veruor 
declared the county in a state of insurrection, and troops were 
ordered to Delhi to maintain peace and guard the captured pris- 
oners. A court was convened August 22, 1845, for the trial of 
those who were brought before it. Amasa J. Parker, who only a 
few years before had left the county to become a Judge, jjresided. 



Sirader's LaKe, Daveripon, 

Spring LaKe, Merediit\ 

WawaKa LaKe. Halcottville 

,\.\ri-i;i-:\r rnor 95 

lu all i'ij;btv-lV)iir pfisoiis wt-rc eitlicr i-oux ictcil or cDiit'csseil their 
•fuilt, aud were seuteuced. Two of the iiiiinlier, — Vau Steeiibur«f 
and O'Connor, — were found t^uilty ot' murder and sentenced to l>c 
luiuji-. In iicitlicr case was it proved, however, that the prisoner 
had tired auv of the shots. Under the <-ircnmstauces Governor 
Wrifrht conmuited their sentences to inijiiisonnieut for life. All 
the prisoners were traus|inrt( d to the State prison, where thej' 
remained in eoutinenieut until the winter of 1S47, when tliev were 
pardoned l\v Governor Yiuint;. There was much criticism of this 
act of clemency; but the lesson of obtdience to law had been thor- 
oughly learned, and not a breath of unlawful excitement has ever 
been nttered since then. 

The Anti-rent question was still agitated, however; but the 
ammunition used was not bullets, and tar-aud-feathers, but free dis- 
cussion and votes. Tlie Constitutional Convention of 1S4() ])laced 
in the new instrument several }irovisions which served to cure some 
of the evils under which the leasehold system had labored. New 
laws were enacted by the Le>iislature which distribnted the burdens 
of taxation more evenly. The clause in many leases which required 
a part of the ]>rice, in case of a sale by inie tenant to another, to bi' 
paid to the landlord, was declaied illej^al and void. The question 
as to tlie validity of the titles by which the landlords held their 
lauds were by dii'ection of the Legislature taken into the courts by 
the Attorney-General. In two cases the matter was carried to the 
Court of Appeals and by it decided in favor of the validity of the 
landlords' titles. Thus the legal questions which had furnished 
le},'itimate grounds for the excitement were disposed of, and the 
county ^'radmiUy subsided to its usual condition of quiet and good 

The circumstance, however, which led to this peaceful solution 
of an angry question, was the almost universal sale of the fee- 
simple of the leased lands to tiie farmers. The experienc<' of the 
landlords had been so unfortunate for a long time, that they were 
ready to put a very moderate price on the land, and to make very 



easy terms of puyiiiL'ut. Ou the othiT haud the teuaiits had had so • 
severe and memorable a lesson iij)i)ii the subject of reut-payiu^^, that 
they were ready to meet the hnidlord at a point more than lialf 
way, and beeome the possessors of their farms. Vast tracts in the 
county in this way, which before were almost universally under 
leases, have since then liecome fee-simple farms. Such an aj^ita- 
tiou as prevailed in 1845 and 18i(i would be impossible now. 




The Cisil War. 

1861 ISbS. 

A PERIOD of tiiiil through which Dchiwarc c-ouutv had to jxiss 
was the war of lS()l-o, wliich was t'dUijht for the preserva- 
tion of the Uuiou.* The seutimeut of tlie coiiuty was thoroui,'-hlv 
stirred in reference to this war, aud troops were contributed far in 
exeess of the average for the whole State. It is unnecessary to 
exphiin here the causes of this bloody war. It is enough to state 
tliat the spirit of the North was unanimously enlisted in behalf of 
the government at "Washington. Vt'e shall only enumerate the 
several bodies of troops which from time to time left the county to 
join the armies of the Nation in their effort to i)iit ilown the 

1. The first body to leave the county was Couqiany I of the 71st 
regiment. This company left Delhi June 4, IHfil, under the com- 
mand of Robert T. Johnson as c-aptain. Their movement to the 
front was a continuous ovation. .Vt tiist they moved to Camp Scott 
on Stateu Island, where they were attjiched to the E.xcelsior Bri- 
gade (Sickles Brigade) as Conqiany I of the Third Regiment. 
From tliis point they were transferre<l to a ])omt near Washington 
where they were on picket duty during the winter. In the sj)ring 
of Isf'rJ they w'ere attached to the .Vrmy of the I'otonnic, aud from 
tliat time were engaged in ni.ui\ l)attles, viz: Seven Pines, Peach 
Orchard, Glen Dale, Malvein Hills, Bristow Station, Second Bull 

• For the facts collectiKl \u this cliaptcr irouccruiiig the Delaware couuty 
troops in thi- Civil war I gratcsfully acknowledge my obligations to the Historif 
iif Delaware County. 1880. The fullness and particularity with which the cir- 
ciimslaiices are stated are worthy of all praise. 


!)K HISTORY OF liKI.AWAIiK coixrv. 

Kuu, Frcderickshur^f, Cbaucelldrsvilk', C'olil Hail>iir, iiud Peters- 
l)Ui'jj'. Nt) wouder that tbey were luucli rut up, aud when after 
their voliiuteered service of three years they were discharged in 
Aufiust, lS(iJ:, Init few of the original company returned to the 
county. The commander of this company. Captain Johnson was 
promoted to the rank of ]\Iajor in the li-lth regiment of X. Y. 
Volunteers, aud tliough lie was wounded, yet he still lives in honor 
of Delaware county's first coutrilnition to the war. This comjiauy 
had at various times during its term of service a roster uf twenty- 
one officers and eighty-three men. 

2. The second organized body of Delaware couuty troops was a 
company which was raLsed in Colchester in May, ISfJl. by Captain 
William H. Elwood and Elbridge G. Eadeker, who personally sus- 
tained the j^reliminary expense of the organization. As the body 
was not large enough to constitute a full comjjany, it was con- 
solidated with a similar <'ompany from Cattaraugus couuty. aud 
assigned to the 71st N. Y. Volunteers. They too experienced much 
hloody fighting under General Hooker. They were engaged in the 
following battles: Stafford Court House, Siege of Yorktowu, Fair 
Oaks, Savage Station, Charles City Cross Roads, jNIalvern Hills, 
Bristow Station, Second Bull Euu, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, 
Gettysburg, Wapping Hills, Wilderness, Spottsylvania Court House, 
Cold Harbor, and Petei-sburg. They served the full time of their 
enlistment, viz., three years, and were discharged in the spring of 
1864. The portion of the comjiany from Delaware couuty uund)ered 
tliiiteen officers and fifty-four ])rivates. 

;-i. As a third coutrilnition Delaware county sent a company of 
cavalry, denominated in the war records as Company E of the 8rd 
N. Y. Cavalry. Fifty-five men were enlisted at Delhi aud detach- 
ments were added at Walton and Hancock, so that the company 
numbered about one hundred men when it rendezvoused at Elmira 
in August, 1801. They were taken to the neighborhood of Wash- 
ington aud there subjected to the rigors of a winter's traiuiug. 
They formed a part of ^lajor Mix's liatallion. aud were with 

rill-: civil. ii'.iK— /.s'.7-/.w.i. ()<) 

Bunisiilc ill liis I'luujiiii;;!! in North C'liroliiia in ISd'J and IS(;:i. 
From this they wert* recjillecl to the ut'ij;hl)orh()oil of KichnKiml. 
Init aj,'ain were sriit back to North Carolina. They saw an imnicnsc 
amount of service, haviu^' beeu iu tbirtv-tive entfa^fenu iits. 'J'hcii- 
captaiu was Ferris Jacobs, Jr., of Delhi, who in 1S()3 was jironiotcil 
to Major, iu ISfil to Lieuteniint-Colouel, in 1S()5 to Brifjadier 
General, with which rank he was niuster<'il out at the close of the 
war. The eouipauy carried on its rolls liviuf^ jind dead thirty-one 
t>fticers and one hundred and tifty-tbree privates. 

4. The Ellsworth re^fimeut was recruited from various localities 
throu^^liout the State. Delaware county furnished a very consid- 
erable nuudter, who wei'e amonj; the very best of this suj)erb 
re^rimeut. It was ort,'aui/.ed at Albany in the summer of IKIil, 
uuder the military designation of the 44th N. Y. Volunteers, ^\■heu 
it started to the front in October, 1861, it numliered l,()(jl men. 
For a time the regiment was employed upon pi<ket duty; but iu 
time it had its full share of fighting. In 18()2 it was engaged iu 
the Second Bull Run, being almost annihilated iu this bloody battle. 
It bore its part in other engagements as follows: Hanover Court 
House, (iaines" Mills, Turkey Beud, Malvern Hill, Antietam, Shep- 
ardston Ford, Fredericksburg^-, Chancellorsville, Middle! )urg, Get- 
tysl)urg, Spottsylvauia Court House, North Anna, Bethesda Church, 
Petersburg and Weldou Railroad. It was mustered out after the 
three }'ears' term of service for which it had volunteered. Only 
fourteeu officers and !(>(• privates returned to .Vll>any, where they 
were welcomed home by Governor Seymour. .Ml the lest including 
theii- gallant Colonel Rice were left on Southern battle tields. 

o. The next contribution to be mentioued is tlie Sth N. Y. 
I'ldepeud'^nt Battery. It was organized at Newburg, October, IKfil, 
the enlistiueut being for three years. Most of the men, but not all, 
were from Delaware county. The captain was Butler Fitch a 
Delawar ' county man. On its roster, including of course jiromo- 
tlons and re-enlistments, were sixty-four officers an<l Hl"2 ])rivates, 
.•uid tliirtv-two recruits and re-enlistments. 


6. The 51st X. Y. Voluuteers wiis fonufd hy the cousolidatiou 
•of the Shepaid Kitlcs (so caUeil from Cohmcl Elliot F. Shepard), 
the Seott Ritles aud the Uuion RiHes. They were organized as cue 
regiment at New York in October, 18()1, and set out for the front 
under the command of Colonel Ferrero uumheriug H50 men. They 
were placed in the brigade of Geucral Kemi, aud went through 
the trying canipaigu of (ieueral Buruside iu North Carolina. The 
following liattles among others they shared in: Slaughter Mountain, 
Rappahannock Station, Warren Station, Manassas, Chautilly, Fred- 
erick City, South Mountain, Sharpsburg, Autietam, Banks' Ford, 
Vicksburg, Jackson. Blue Spring, Campbell Station, Kuoxville, aud 
Grant's Campaign against Richmond and Petersburg. The career 
of the regiment may in brief be stated as extending from Roauoake 
Island in 18()2 to the surrender of Lee at Appomattox. 

7. Company I of the S9tli Infantry X. Y. Volunteers was 
originally mostly from Delaware county. It was raised in Delhi 
by Captain Theophilus L. England and First Lieutenant Robert P. 
Cormack. The conjpany numbered eighty-two enlisted men. The 
remaining companies were mostly enlisted in the counties of central 
Xew York, and the regiment was organized at Elmira uuder Harri- 
son F. Fairehild as colonel. Like many others of the Delaware 
county troops the 89th were called to participate in Buruside's 
North Carolina campaign. They shared in the following battles: 
Roauoake Island, Camdeu, South Mills, Newbern, South Mountain. 
Antietam (where out of 500 men engaged 200 were lost), Fred- 
ericksburg, Charleston, Fort \Vagner, Fort Gregg. Under General 
■" Baldy "' Smith they were a part of the Army of the Potomac. 
They were present at Appomattox when General Lee surrendered in 
April. 1S()5. In all they were engaged iu twenty-three battles. 
When they were mustered in iu 1801 they numbered 980 men; aud 
when they finished and returned home there were only 225 left. 

8. The 101st N. Y. Volunteers was made up by combining two 
.skeleton regiments, one raised iu Delaware county and the other 
raised in Onondaga county. The cousolidated regiment was sent to 

rill-: civil. WAK -isiii-isus. idi 

the Ainiv of the I'i)ti)iiiac where it wiis Sd reduced by the casualties 
of war that it was consoliihitid uitli tlie :{7th N. Y. Volimteers, 
takiug tlie hvtter desiguatiou. After the terrible battle of Chancel- 
lorsville it was uecessarv afijain to consolidate the 'i7th with the 
40th N. Y. Yolimteers uuder tlie latter name. It was at last nius- 
: tered mit at the eml of the war in -luly, ISi;."). It had jinrticipated 
iu the foUowiiiji;' battles: Fair Oaks, Seven Pines, Seven Davs' 
Hetreat, Malvern Hill. CTaincsville, Second Bull Run, Frederick, 
Md., Autietani, Fredericksburg', Chaucellorsville, Gettysburg, Ma- 
nassas (rap, Brandy Station, Kajjidan, Culpepper, Kelly's Ford, 
Mine Knn. \Vil(leruess, Spottsylvania, North Anna, Cold Harbor, 
lieaui's Station, Petersburg and Appomattox. Of the ti'oops fur- 
nished by Delaware county in this consolidated and re-consolidated 
regiment there were of otiicers forty-one, and of privates 'I'.Vl. 

9. The most complete organization which Delaware eountv 
furnished to the war was the 14Ith regiment N. Y'^. Volunteers. It 
was raised in the summer of 18()2 when President Lincoln called 
for :^()(),()(M) more men to \)\\X down the rebellion. The utmost 
enthusiasm prevailed. Meetings were held everywhere throughout 
-the county. AVithin twenty days from the time of the first move- 
ments the i-egiment was ready, to be mustered iu. It was moved at 
once to Washington in order to aid in the defence of the Cai)itoI. 
and !it the same time to be trained and discij)liued into a hardy 
body of soldiers. In Ajiril, lK(i3, they were moved to Suffolk iu 
Vii<,'-iuia which General Longstreet was then besiegint^-. From 
there they were moved to West Point in Virginia. In July, IKOH, 
they were ordered to the Army of the Potomac; but in August they 
were sent to South Carolina where they were present at the bom- 
bardment of Charleston an<l Sumter. In February., 18(54, they were 
■ sent to Florida. Then later in the year they were employed in eo- 
. operating with (ieneral Sherman. in his great march through the 
-centre of the Confederacy. They were not engaged in as much or 
.as severe fighting as some of the other bodies of troops from 
.Delaware county But they were present at a luost important 

102 HISTORY Oh' lih'LAWAKK (dlWTV. 

l)friod of the \v;u', uinl wheu it uame to iiu end iu tlic spriu^ ot 
18(io, they were still iiu iictivc iiiiil intrepid body of troops. They 
were mustered out of the service in July, 18(j.5. The tlags which 
liad heen j^iven to them at Delhi wheu they left, they brouj^ht back 
with them wheu they returned. They were toru and shot through, 
and stained with lilood, and worn with wind and rain. But they 
were jsreeious relics of their campaigns and now are treasured with 
other mementos of the war in the capitol at Albany. 

We close the account of the services of this regiment by some 
statistics of the organization: 

The following were the Colonels from the begiunin-^- to the end 
of its service; Robert S. Hughston, Davi<l E. Gregory, William J. 
Slidell, James Lewis. 

Lifiitt-nant Colonels: David E. Gref^ory, James Lewis, Calvin A. 

Majors: Kobert T. Johnson, Calvin A. Kice, William Plaskett. 

Adjutants: Marshall Shaw, Charles C. Siver, George R. Cannon. 

Quarter-Masters : James H. Wright, Samuel Gordon, jr., Spencer 
S. Gregory. 

Surgeon : John R. Leal. 

Chaplains : Alexander H. Fullerton, David Torrey. 

There were also the following numbers of other commissioned 
officers, and of privates iu the several companies: 

Captains '^'2. 

First Lieutenants ^i^^ 

Second Lieutenants . . ^iS 

Company A IH.') Company F l.'ii» 

Company B l'")0 Company (t l:i:{ 

Company C 13J: Company H . H'> 

Company D . 145 Company I. 144 

Company E. 151 Company K l-JS 

Total Field officers, Commissioned officers and Privates., 1,51(;. 

rill-: I'lvii. UM/i' ■sai-isi;.'-,. 


Besides the ;il)i>vr martiiil Dr^aiii/.titioiis wliiili were (■(intiil)\it,o(l 
by Delaware county to the Cixil war, there wei'e manv voluiiteors 
will) ji>iii"d regimeuts <ir eoiuiiaiiics wliicli \ver<' raised iu neighbor- 
ing U)i.alities. Thus there were eulistuieiits carried ou along the 
Sus(iuehanua river, aud not a few of the boys from Delaware county 
were gathered into these centri s. It is inii)ossible to give the 
credit which is due for tliese ijatiiotic contributions. But it may 
be affirmed without hesitation that no part of the State responded 
with more readiness aud enthusiasm to the calls of the nation than 
Delaware county. For the saci-ilices both in men and money which 
were made for the preseivatiou of the unity of the country, the 
citizens of this generation may b ■ justly ])rou(l of the patriotism of 
the past generation. 


Earl^ IndtivStries. 

As the coiiutv was developed hv the labor of these industrious 
and intellif^eut pioneers the whole face of a neififhborhood 
became transformed. The forest was crowded back and in its pliice 
appeared smiling fields of wheat and rve, corn and Imckwheat, hay 
and potatoes. Apple orchards, plum trees, and currant bushes 
appeared ou every farm. The log-house and barn gave place to 
frame buildings; horses displaced oxen in many of the services of 
the farm and the family. Roads were laid out and maintained 
throughout the couuty. Mills* for grinding grain, which at first 
"were few and distant, were erected at convenient places on streams 
which furnished water power. When these mills were well nigh 
inaccessible the pioneers had recourse to home made wooden mor- 
tars, which were dug out of a green stump large enough tt) hold a 
peck of grain. Over this was bent a tough sapling to which was 
tied a heavy wooden pestle. "With this rough apparatus the farmer 
could break the husks from the grain, and even crush the kernels 
into a kind of rude meal. 

Saw-mills were early introduced at many suitable mill-sites. 
These were generally erected near pine or hemlock forests, and 
lumber was cut by them for the new frame houses and liarns which 
everywhere Ijegan to be erected. 

For many years lumljering was one of the great industries of 
Delaware county. At many places both on the East and West 

* The first settlers in Harin'islicld were oompelleti to go to Seholiarie with 
their grain ; tho!?e who settled in Middletown went to Kingston ; and the 
Johnstons at Sidney ascended the Susquehanna and found mills at Cherry 


EAHL) ixnrsTiiias. 107 

l)niuc'lies of the Delaware river great raftiug statiuus were maiu- 
taiued. The lumber was cut iu the winter, ami either prepared for 
raftiug unsawed, or it was sawed into Ixiards and joists and scaut- 
lin;,'. In the sprinj^- this hiniln r was liuilt into rafts in a protected 
eddy of the river. Then the lumbernieu taking advantage of the 
xisual freshets of the spring started their rafts ou the river. It was 
uo easy task, aud not wholly without danger, to steer the raft 
through the rough ami sinuous current and past the sharp head- 
lands and rocks. AVheu the narrow part of the stream had been 
passed, usually below the junction of the two liranches of the 
Delaware, the smaller rafts were joined together, four of the former 
making one large raft. In this fashion the raft was run dowu the 
whole length of the rivei- to the great huuber market of Philadel- 
])hia. It is only necessary to add here that the lumber of Delaware 
county has long since been exhausted and instead of the supply 
being sent out in rafts by the rivers, it has now become necessary 
to bring it in liy the car load on the railroads. 

There were a number of minor industries which for a time were 
prevalent iu the county, but which have gradually passed away aud 
are uo longer of consequence. 1. .\s long as hemlock tindjer lasted 
the tanning of leather continued. In many localities this was an 
important business, aud in some has continued until very recent 
times. But the hemlock forests have now been comi^letely demol- 
ished, and tanning has ceased to l)e of consequence in reckoning 
the available resources of the county. 2. When the forests were 
lieing cleared up, aud when wood was the only kind of fuel 
immense quantities of wood ashes were produced on the farms. 
These were used in nuxuy and various ways. Soft soap for use iu all 
farm purposes, was made by leeching wood ashes aud ju'oduciug a 
Jye. This when combined with animal fat producccl the well kuown 
soft soap, which farmers in early times almost univei'sally employed. 
The wood ashes also were sold by the bushel to establishments 
where they were reduced to merchantable potash and pearlash, 
which were largely used in the arts. 


The makiug of maple-sugar was from the earliest settlement of 
the couuty a promineut occupation. Even before the Harpers came 
to live iu HarpersHekl they had come thither in the spring of 1772 
to obtain this crop. The town was so well supplied with maple 
trees that for a long time it liore the name of " tlie Bush '' or the 
" Sugar Bush." Sugar was made iu the spring of the year at the 
time when sap of the maple begins to ascend from the roots to the 
buds. The tree that is used for sugar-making is called the sugar 
maple (Acer sacchariuum) which abounds in the northern part of 
the United States and Canada. An incision was made in the trunk 
of the tree two or three feet from the ground. To catch the sap 
which flowed from this incision a spile w^as inserted iu the tree just 
below it; and from this spile the sap fell drop by drop into liuckets 
or sap-troughs. It was gathered from these receptacles into a 
hogshead, from which it was fed to evaporating pans. Then when 
reduced to the consistency of thin molasses it was transferred to 
a pot where it was still further reduced to a consistency which 
would when it was poured into moulds cause it to harden into 

This maple-sugar was almost the only kind of sugar used among 
the pioneers, and is still manufactured in every part of the county 
where majsle trees are to l)e found. 

It soon became apparent that butter making was the industry 
best adapted to Delaware county. In general the soil was too stony 
and intractable for the raising of grain. Wheat was almost aban- 
doned as soon as facilities for importing wheat Hour became availa- 
ble. Rye continued to be raised, but usually not in (piautities much 
more than sufficient to sujjply the wants of the farmer's family. 
Oats were needed both for man and beast, and even the rough 
soil and the short season were no im])edimeut to the raising of 
good croj)s. Buckwheat and Indian corn and potatoes were also 
crops which were raised readily and freely, but farmers generally 
contented themselves with crops sufficient for home consumption. 
The main business of the farmer and his famih' was to make butter. 

KAHi.y ixinsriaKS. 109 

wliicli always ('(uild lie sold citlicr in Imlk or iu sniiill qiiautities 
for cash. 

The great question in ritVniicc to every farm was; how many 
cows will it keep. This depended on two thiufjfs, first the amount 
of pasture laud which furnished food for the cow's in summer, aud 
necond the amount of meadow land which furnished hay for the 
cows iu winter. Grass and hay, — these were the sta])le articles of 
food for the cows. There were, however, other foods which were 
sometimes used to supplement these. In the autumn when the 
{jfrass was bej^nnninj,' to fail sliced potatoes aud sliced turuips were 
feil to the milch cows. And in th<> sprin-f when the cows had j^rown 
tired of hay, au<l the pasture was not yet ready for them, they were 
ofteu fed with a mash of brau or crushed S'r''i" i" addition to the 
hay which was their maiu diet. 

Butter making was essentially the same iu the early i)eriods of 
the county as it is now. The cows,* however, were mvu-h inferior 
as milk-givers to the present breeds, and the milk was much less 
rich in butter. The cows were usually the native cattle which had 
spread from New England, and were the miscellaneous crosses 
between cattle imjiorted from Holland, Denmark, England and 
Scotland. They were small and geuerally active in climbing the 
hillsides of Delaware county farms. The average daily milking was 
from six to ten quarts. From this it was customary to make during 
the season at the very best about 100 pounds of butter. When 
these figures are compared with the (hiiry records of the present 
day they seem trivial. Now a good Jersey cow yields fifteen to 
twenty quarts of much richer milk, which if used for butter making 
■will produce something like "ioO to 800 pounds during the season. 

The milk was poured into tin pans aud these set in a cool dairy 
house until the cream had risen. Then the cream was skimmed 

'Professor E. B. Voorhees, director of the New Jersey Experiment Station 
who has given facts hero mentioned, says the dairy cow of the Middle States 
was undoubtedly a ilesccndant of the early importations from Holland 1(12.5, 
from Denmark 10-27, and from the West Indies into Virfjlniii as carlv as 1609. 


from the pans aud put into the cburu, where it was agitated witli a 
dasher uutil the butter "came." Churuiug was a tiresome task 
when done by haud; but this was ahiiost the uuvarviug custDin iu 
the earliest times. Later, wheels were constructed to do the churn- 
ing, which were sometimes turned by a dog or a sheep aud 
sometimes by the water of some convenient stream. The l)utter 
when taken from the churn had to be worked in a large wooden 
bowl with a wooden ladle iu order to squeeze from it the milk 
which might cling to it. Then it was salted with fine salt and 
jiacked into the firkins or tubs in which it was carried to market. 
Nearly all this heavy work, — and it was heavy — was done by the 
women of the jaioneer families; aud by this means they liore their 
full share in the labor of maintaining the families and producing 
the means by which progress and prosjierity were gradualh' spread 
throughout the new settlements. 

The butter, as we have said, was jjacked iu firkins holding from 
eighty to one hundred pounds; or sometimes in tubs made by saw- 
ing a firkin into two parts. A farmer kept these packages in his 
cellar until the cool weather of the autumn arrived. Then he 
loaded all his firkins into a lumber wagon, covering them carefully 
from the sun and the dust, aud carried them to some place on the 
Hudson river, whence it could be taken to New York. At these 
places — Catskill or Kingston generally — there were butter buyers- 
or commission merchants who were ready either to pui-ehase the 
dairies for cash, or to take them to New York on commission. At a 
period a little later there sjDrang up a class of men in various cen- 
tral localities throughout the county who undertook to purchase 
their butter from the farmers at home, and thus spare them the 
long journey which they had been obliged to take. Still later and 
withiu a comparatively recent time, there have appeared creameries 
at many points, to which the farmers now carry their milk. These 
establishments treat the milk, the cream and the butter in the most 
approved methods, and have done much to raise the dairying- 
industry of Delaware county to its present high character. 

Roads and Uailroads. 

DELAWARE c-ouiity is a completfly inlnuil t'oiinty; no occau or 
naviyjable river touclies it ou any side. More than this, it 
has a rough aud mouutaiuous surface, over which it is impossible 
to liuild far-reachiug roads, or railroads of commercial value. 
Access to the couuty was iu three principal directions: 1st, through 
the Shaudaken mountains from Kingston into Middletown and the 
valley of the East branch; •2d, by the head- waters of the "West 
branch through Schoharie aud Greene county from Catskill; 3d, up 
the valley of the Delaware as it winds through the mountains, and 
then up either branch into the various valleys of the county. As 
fast as the county became settled of course roads were oj^eued and 
settlements connected. At tirst these roads were little more than 
trails such as the Indians followed iu going from place to place on 
their hunting excursions. But the new settlers brought wagons 
aud horses with them, and these required wider roads, the trees to 
be cut down and the roots aud rocks to be grubbed out, aud 
bridges to be built over intervening streams. It is just to say that 
the roads iu this county were never good. Aloug the priucijial 
streams the roads were cut through the soft alluvial soil, aud were 
dusty in summer, muddy iu spring and autumn, and only good in 
winter when they were covered with snow. The roads up the 
smaller valleys and over the hills were invariably rough aud stony, 
every shower washing away the eaitli and leaving the stones more 
and more exposed. 

The care of the roads was iu the hands of a so-called path- 
master, who was elected to this office by the inhabitants of the road 
district. Each citizeu was assessed for a certain sum proportionate 


to the size of his fanii. He was jX'iMuitted, hmvever, to work out 
his assessment iipni the I'oads, either iu hand lal)or or with a team 
ami driver. As this was alnmst invariably his choice, the worl< wiis 
not always the best adajited to the wants of the highway. The 
pathmaster was generally iguoraut of the best method in which to 
treat his district, and iu cousLHjuence the repairs were very often 
mere waste labor which left the roa<ls iu a worse condition than 
they were in before. If the assessment had always been collected in 
money and that spent judiciously, the condition of the roads would 
have been much better, and the worry and annoyance would have 
been much less. 

In later years turnpike companies have sometimes been formed 
to keep special roads in repair, for which they were authorized to 
charge toll. As a temporary exjjedient this no doubt was an 
advantage, and the roads thus cared for have proved a great benefit 
to communities. But it is a great burdeu to the farmers, aud they 
are in general bitterly opposed to having the roads which they 
almost daily travel interrupted by toll-gates. It is the duty of the 
county, and of the State to provide good roads for its citizens. 
There is no duty more important or pressing' at the present daj' 
than this, and it is specially iucumbeut iu a county like Delaware 
which is not easily accessible to the great markets. 

When the Erie Canal was constructed aud oj^eued in 1825 a new 
era was begun for the prosperity of western and central New York. 
Even the counties aloug the Hudson aud the sea-port of New York 
city were vastly enriched. To connect such a sea-port with the 
interior of a great State, aud by means of inland lakes with the 
very heart of the continent, was one of the greatest feats of 
economic statemanshi}) which the world had seen. 

But it seemed a grievance to the counties distant from the line 
of the canal, — and it still seems a grievance, that they who eujoycd 
no benefit from it, have been and are still obliged to contribute to 
the millions which it has cost to construct, to enlarge and to repair. 
Delaware countv, removed as she necessarilv was from the line of 


flinieda Valley. 

Mereditti View. 

At St\averto\i)ii 

iniMis AMI i;mi.i;(>m>s. 115 

-the i';uial iicvci' roccived auv ilii'cct l)ciictit. She only ]irotiti"(l from 
it in a general way by tlio l)nililin^' u]) of the ;^rcat metropolis and 
the increase tliereliy of the ileniand for those jiroducts wliicli slie 
liail for sale. 

In eonunon witli tlie sontliern tier of eoiiuties across the State, 
Delaware county insisted with fifreat urp^eucy upon tlie construction 
of a I'ailroad which should connect New Yoik city witli Lake Erie. 
Phiiis for huildiug the N. Y. and Erie railroad were seriously 
iliscussed as early as 18'25. Petitions for aid in the enterprise by 
the State were presentetl to the Lej^islature, and in coujpliance with 
these the Coinptroller was authorized to loan to tlie company tlie 
sum of one million of dollars; one quarter of the sum when one 
hundred miles of the road had been completed, a second quarter 
when two hundred miles were completed, a third when three hun- 
dred, and the last when four hundred miles were finished. With 
this eiicoura^fement the stock of the road was rapidly sul)scril)ed 
for. Ground was broken for the beginning of the construction at 
De])osit in this county November 7, ISJ^o. But the financial strin- 
gency throughout the country in 188(5 and 1887 put an end for a 
time to the prosecution of the enterprise. But in 18:!8 the State 
again came to its aid by the grant of an additional loan of three 
million of dollars. 

The physical difficulties of Ijuildiug a railroad through such 
rough and mountainous regions as the Delaware and Susquehanna 
valleys, were not at first fully realized. Twice the location of the 
track was changed, in order to avoid obstacles which had not been 
fully a]ipreciated. 

Unwisely the road was planned to have a broad guage of seven 
feet instead of the ordinarj' gauge of four feet eight inches. This 
was in imitation of the gi-eat engineer Brunei who constructed the 
(Jreat Western railway of England with a broad track, under the 
impression that all the competing and connecting lines would 
finally conform to the broad gauge. But wlien the importance of 
■running cars from all roads over the l''.ric, and in turn of liein^'- able 


to seud the loiidetl ciu's of the Erie over the roads with which if 
connected, it became an urgent necessity to change to the narrower 
and standard guage. The t-haugc was lujt made, however, until 
much later, and then only at a very considerable expense. 

The Erie railroad only runs through a small jjart of Delaware 
county, following the Delaware river, entering from Sullivan county 
and leaving at Deposit. But even this inconsiderable contact was 
of infinite benefit to the county. Besides the aid it rendered 
to the towns immediately adjoining, many parts far to the east were 
much helped in having a better and easier communication opened 
up for them with the New York markets. Much of the travel 
which had before this sought an outlet eastward by long and 
mountainous routes to the Hudson river, now adopted this natural 
and easy route down the Delaware valley to Hancock. Many farm 
products which under former circumstances were not worth send- 
ing to market now became valuable and merchantable. This was 
the first step towards bringing Delaware county out into the 

The next stejJ was the opening of the Alljany and Susquehanna 
railroad. This line was organized in 1851, receiving State and 
local aid towards its construction. It was finished to Oueonta in 
1865, to TJnadilla and Sidney Plains in 1866, and to Binghamton in 
1869. In 1870 it was leased to the Delaware and Hudson Canal 
Company for one hundred and fifty years, and has since been 
operated as a part of its system. Although the Albany and Sus- 
quehanna railroad at no point enters Delaware county, yet as it 
runs for a long distance down the valley of the Susquehanna there 
are many places where it affords valuable facilities to portions of 
the county. From the station Emmons there was run for many 
years a daily stage by way of Elk Creek to Delhi. Erom Oueonta' 
there was easy communication into the towns of Franklin and 
Meredith, and from Unadilla and Sidney Plains into the western 
towns of the county. 

The third attempt to invade the solitude of Delaware county 


WHS iniule by the New York iiud Oswef^o iliiUaml iiiilroml, uow 
iiilleil the New York, Ontario i!^ Westeru. Tliis road was projected 
ill 1S(!.") and articles of iiiroiiioration tiled in ISCi;. [t was de8if>:ned 
to rrarh from New York city to Oswego, by ruiiuiuf,' throu^^'ll a. 
section of the State not before traversed by railroad and thus to 
open up some hopeful regions which heretofore had been shut in 
bv niouutaius. ^Iiudi special legishitiou was needed to carry out 
this desi-^ai. It jilainly could not rely for success upon the sub- 
scription of stockholders who would risk their money in the 
enterprise. Henry K. Low, Senator from Sullivau county, and 
Speaker Dewitt C. Littlejobn from Oswe^-o, were in the State 
legislature when the plans for buihbnj^- this road were under 
discussion; and l)y the powerful iiitlueuce of these two men the 
needed let,nslatiou was procured. The most important of the laws 
imssed was one enabling any town of a county through which the 
road was to pass to issue bonds for its construction,. — ^the sum to be 
raised not to exceed thirty per cent, of the taxable property. 

Much discussion occurred in regard to the location of the line. 
.Some of the most earnest friends of the road insisted ujDon the 
main line being located through the village of Delhi. It was not 
an easy thing, however, to lay a line through the mountains of 
I )elaware. Engineering questions are involved in it, and patriotic 
impulses must remain in the background. It was finally settled to 
make the main line cross the Delaware valley at ^Valtou, and build 
a branch line to Delhi. 

Mr. Ijittlejohu, who had been made president of the company, 
traversed the route from end to end, ajipealing to the several 
coiiiniuuities for their aid. As he was a man of endless resources 
and of most earnest and plausible address, he met with uniform 
success ill inducing the towns to lii)iid themselves. In the fore- 
closure proceedings instituted in isT'.t the cost of tlie road is stated 
at $2(!,883,0()(); of which sum the amount received from bonding 
the town.s was nearly §7,UUU,0()(), — the towns in Delaware county 
furnishing $(i(}0,8(JU. For the town bonds thus issued stock was- 


returned by the eoiupuuy. This stock was \vi])&d out by the fi ire- 
closure proceedings above referred to; and thus the towns were put 
iu the position of making an absolute gift to this road, ^\'hl) will 
say, however, that the benefits derived from it have not more than 
balanced the large outlay? Besides the amounts received from the 
towns, the company relied for building the road upon the stock 
subscribed for and on the amounts realized from mortgages. It is 
only necessary to add, however, that the road has never pr<iv(il a 
financial success. In 1873 it defaulted on its interest and went into 
the hands of receivers. In 1880 it was sold to a new company who 
have re-organized it on a basis which enables it to pay its way. It 
is now called the New York, Ontario and Western railroad. 

The fourth railroad whiih has penetrated the inhospitable re- 
gions of Delaware county is the Ulster and Delaw^are. This grew 
■ovit of the disputes over the location of the Midland railroad. A 
■strong party with Mr. Thomas Cornell at its head was very desirous 
of making the eastern terminus of this road at Kingston on the 
Hudson river, and of extending it westward through Ulster, Dela- 
ware and other counties. And when it was determined to build the 
Midland through Sullivan county and so northwest through Dela- 
ware, Mr. Cornell and his party set about building a road of their 
own. It was projected in 1865 and begun soon after. It was laid 
through a most intractable region, among the Shandaken moun- 
tains, over Pine Hill and then up to the head of the West branch of 
the Delaware. In 1870 the road was opened to Shandaken and at 
once develoj)ed a substantial business in carrying summer visitors 
into the Catskill mountains. In 1871 the road was over Pine Hill, 
the severest engineering obstacle it had to encounter. In 1872 
Rosbury village was reached, and in the same year the village of 
Stamford. This was the highest jDoint attained (1,888 feet). Here 
the Ulster and Delaware railroad halted for several years, although 
the original plans contemplated its extension through Kortright 
and Davenport. In 1884, it was carried down the valley of the 
Delaware to the village of Hobart, and finally in iSitl it was still 

lillADS A.\I) I{MI.H()MIS. 


further exteudod to Blooiiiville wlicro it uow rests. This terniinus 
is oulv ei'if'ht miles t'roiu tlie villaf,'e of Dellii. 

Like the Miilhuid railroiid this also was aided liy the towus 
through which it passed. Thus Middletowu was bonded for Sll>(),- 
()()(>, Koxl)urv for $120,()(K), Stamford for $1()(),(K)() and Harperstield 
for $l()U,(tOU. To all these towus aud to uiauy uot included in the 
list the road has heen of immense advantage. The whole dairy 
industry of the easteru j)art of the county has been put upon a uew 
and improved basis. The supplies of lumber, feed aud Hour which 
are required by the farmers aud others are lirought to them at a 
much less cost and at a more convenient distance. 


E-dacation and Schools. 

THE PIONEER settlers iu Delaware couuty were almost 
uuiformly iutellij^'eut and possessed of the eleuieuts of 
■education. The desceudauts of the Hollanders and Huguenots 
who came into Middletown although not at first hand from Hol- 
land, yet they brought with them the traditiouarj- regard for 
■schools, and early established them iu their midst. It will be 
remembered that the first outbreak of the Eevolution in Middle- 
town was among the school-boys at the school, where the one 
called the other a "rebel." The New Englauders who came to 
Harpersfield, Roxbury, Franklin and Delhi, always after becoming- 
settled in their homes made it their first duty to provide schools for 
their children. Nor were the Scotch immigrants, who came into 
Andes, Delhi and Bovina, behind the other nationalities in organ- 
izing schools, and maintaiuiug them for the benefit of the rising 

The State of New York almost as soon as it was constituted, 
began to legislate concerning education. In 1795 the sum of 
$50,000 annually was granted for five years for the encoui'agement 
of public schools. In 1811 five commissioners were apjiointed to 
organize a school system. In 1812 a public school system was 
organized with Gideon Hawley as superintendent. District schools 
were instituted to be mainly sujijDorted by rate bills. In 1821 
the office of State superintendent was abolished and the adminis- 
tration of the school system entrusted to the Secretary of State. 
In 1849 a free school law was passed and submitted to the jieople 
who sustained it by a large majority. In 1851 the free school law 
•was repealed and rate bills agiiin introduced. Finally in 18(i7 a 


EDrCATKlX .l.\7> SCHOOLS. 121 

• flTe scbodl liiw WHS a^aiii enacted wbicli with occasinual aiiiciiil- 
iiK'iits has rciuaiiuMl tw the ]ins('ijt. No dues are required t'l'inii the 
attfiidiu"'' children. The schools are sii]ii)oitiMl, first. Iiv ]iiililii- 
moneys received from the State, and second, by moneys raised l>y 
local taxation. 

It may not be iininterestiut^' to recall the district school of the 
early decades of the present century. It may safely be asserted 
that nearly all the school-houses of that time iu the county were of 
log's. Indeed in the annual report of the Superintendent of Public 
lustruction for 18!t2, there were still forty-five lop school-bouses iu 
the State. And at a time when the greater part of the dwelling- 
houses were of logs it is not probable that the school-bouses would 
be better. The log school house was a building almost s(|uare. It 
was made by notching the logs into each other and laying them so 
that the successive log.s would be as close to each other as possible. 
The spaces between the logs were then j)lastered both on the inside 
and outside with a mortar made of common clay. 

.\ chimney was built at one end of the oblong building, and an 
<iji( 11 tire-)ilace funiished the only means of heating the room. A 
door was cut in the logs at one side of the chimney, and the corner 
on the other side was used for the storage of wood. A window was 
cut in the logs opposite to the chimney, which furnished the only 
light for the little room. Along this end was jilaced a high slant- 
ing shelf at whicli to write, with a slal> scat for the accoiniiiodation 
of the writers. The seats for the other scholars were placed on the 
three sides of the room, but not across the chimney end. They also 
were roughly hewn slabs, each supported by foui' wooden legs. 
The teacher had the dignity of having a little se])arate table and 
chair, which stood at the end of the scholars' bench mi one side. 
There was an open space in the middle of the floor, where the 
scholars stood up to recite their .spelling and reading. The girls 
sat on one bench and the boys on another; and it was one of the 
teri'ible jninisliiiients for a mischievous boy to be sent to a seat 
.among' the g'irls. 


Ill the winter time this si-hciol was attended hy the larger hoys' 
and girls, as well as liy a part of the suialh-r ones; Imt in the sum- 
iiier the work ou the farms kept the ohler children busy, and then 
only the little ones were able to attend sehool. In conscMjiience of 
this the teacher in winter was always a mau and in the summer a 
woman. They were called resjiectively Master and Midrena. The 
wages* of the winter teacher were probably about sld to ?1.") a 
month for three months. And the wages of the youug woman in 
summer were about a dollar a week. lu both cases the teachers 
besides their wages in money usually "boarded round:" spending 
about a week at each of the families in the district. 

School life at this little country school-house was most delight- 
ful and fascinating. There was a little brook near by where the 
boys used to wade and Hoat their make-believe boats. There was a 
forest where they wandered, climbing the trees, picking wild Mow- 
ers, and drinking from a cool spring. There was ii wild honeysuckle 
shrub which grew in these woods, and in the season the boys would 
bring back from their excursions a little bunch of honeysuckle 
blossoms for the school mistress, which to their great delight she 
would i^nt in an old ink stand and keep ou her little table. 

The school assembled at nine o'clock and was dismissed at four.. 
There was a short recess at eleven o'clock; and then at twelve there 
was an intermission of an hour. Some of the scholars who lived 
near went home and got their dinner; but most of them brought 
lunch baskets with them, and at this intermission proceeded to 
enjoy what their mothers had jirovided for them. By far the most 
interesting part of school was this intermission. Nothing ever 
tasted so good as these simple lunches of bread and butter, a slice 
of cold meat and perhajis a raw apple. No enjoyment was ever so 

* In a history of the Setth'iiicnt at Fall Clovi' in .\udes there is a rocoid 
that Hobert Craig in 1H4'2 was hired to teach the district school tor three 
mouths at S12 a month ; also that Miss More was paid S17 for teaching seven- 
teen weeks. This same record also gives the inforination that ?;U.;?4 wcis 
received from the State as public money for the support of the school ; and- 
S8.63 as library monej. Hintori/ of Delaifare County, ISS:i, p. 100. 

Gen. Leavenwortli iVVoqUii\erit iri Foreground. 

Sio^e Ouairy Sliowirig RocK Formatiori. 

i-:i>rc.\Ti<)S AXi) sciKxii.s. 125 

iutcuse as the phivs auil nues ami fniliis wliicli wcro iuilulficd in 
(luriu«r this uoon hoiir. Although hall playiii;,^ was not rt'duccd to 
the system which has sim-e made it tlic national game, I venturer to 
assert that these school-boys got as much pleasure out of playinf;^ 
" two old cat" as the great professionals now derive from tlie most 
scientific game. 

There is a queer suliject of regretful remeiiil)l'im<-e whicli has 
remained with me to tiiis day. Once the supjily of liincli was mon; 
thau 1 i-ould dispose of. On my way home I hid a sur])liis ]iiece of 
breiid iiiul butter in the chinks of a stoue wall beside the road. No 
doubt tlu> sciuirrels found it and made short work of my suri)his 
hincli. Hut for a long time it worried me to think that I iiad 
thrown away this good bread and butter. 

The plays and frolics outside of school were, as I have said, far 
more enjoyable thau the exercises inside. There was a blackberry 
patch by tile sule of tlu' road where we sto})ped to gorge our- 
selves. 'l"he ]iatcli was on the land of a farmer who being old and 
fat was accustomed to sit ou the porch of his house. He would call 
to us to "clear out;" Imt knowing that he was too fat to chase us 
and too good natnred to catch us, we did not remit our berry 
picking until we had enough. 

Wliat shall I say of what we learned in this little country 
school V Reading, spelling, writing and arithmetic, were the subjects 
on which we were emjsloyed. Webster's spelling book was the text- 
book for beginnei's in ri'adiug as well as in sj)elling. The scholars 
stood in a row and read or si)elled before the teacher. Their 
ambitiim was stirred by "going up " and reached its supreme 
fruition by "standing hea<l." Shame and disappointment followed 
them as they went down and reached the climax when at last the3' 
" stood foot." 

Besides the reading matter which was in the spelling book, the 
older scholars read the English reader. Those who used it will 
remember the excellent, although somewhat difficult selections of 
which it was composed. The New Testament was, liowevei', iho. 

126 insroiiY of />/•;/,. i ir.i /,•/•; coiwry. 

liiy'liest and cliiff rt'adiii;^' lionk. They skipped the geiieidoyies and 
some other haixl chapters; l)ut the sermon on the nunmt, and some 
of the chapters in the l;i>s]ic1 of St. John were read and rei'ead 
until the reading was half of it reciting from memory. 

Writing was only second to reading in respect to the amount of 
attention which it received. Copy-books with engraved copies had 
not yet been intrnduccd in this country school. It was the duty of 
the teacher to set a copy at the top of each page. The pens were 
made from goose-tjuills, which preceded in universal use the more 
modern steel pen. It was (juite an important and not always an 
available accomplishment of a country school-teacher to make good 
(juill pens. We still have a reminiscence of this ancient and neces- 
sary skill in pen-making in the word "pen-knife," which persists in 
being used, although the thing itself has passed away for ever. 

Ink too was not so easily obtained as now. In the stationery 
stores ink-jiowder was sold, which could be mixed with vinegar and 
water and thus made into a writing fluid. But more often the ink 
of the country children was made from the sap of the soft maple. 
This sap was drawn from the tree in the spring, at the same time as 
the sugar maple is tapped for its sugar-making sap. This sap when 
exposed to the air becomes black, and when boiled down and 
treated with copperas makes a dye for coloring black. When it is 
still further concentrated it forms a very respectable ink. This was 
what the scholars principally used; but occasionallj- some high- 
toned boy put the rest to shame by bringing ink to the scliool made 
from the ink-powder wliich his father had bought. 

Arithmetic was never taught in classes. Each scholar proceeded 
on his own account to cypher through the arithmetic. The book in 
use during the early part of the present century was Daboll's Arith- 
metic. It was arranged under successive rules; for example, the 
rule of addition, the rule of subtraction, the rule of compound 
numbers, the rule of three, the rule of square root, etc. A scholar 
was expected to learn each rule by heart, and then work out all the 
examples under it. The teacher's business was to help him when 



u1>J)1'h1(mI to. He usually had a luauiisi-ript hook containiuji; all tlie 
I'xaiupks correctlv worked out, to which he turned iu case of 

H( ii> is an adveitisriiicnt of (1. iV Ii. M'hitc, 'M^ Maideu Lane, 
New York, 1SU4, euuiueratin<i' some of the books aud articles which 
were iu use duriu<^' the early jiart of the century. 

Webster's (irammar. 
Murray's Granuuar. 
School Master's Assistant. 
Cypherin g-books. 
Copi)er-plate Copies, 
Dutch Quills. 
Sealing Wax. 
Morse's Geograjihy. 


Writing Paper. 

Pen Knives. 

Lottery Tickets and Shares. 






I will close this sketch of flic countiv district school with an 
incident which I am sure nunc who e.xperienced ever forgot. The 
summer school-mistresses were usually young girls and often very 
bright and winsome; and of course the boys were devoted to them. 
One of these attractive school-mistresses was presiding among her 
uneasy little subjects on a summer afternoon iu July. The air 
grew close and sultry, and the sky became covered with thunderous 
clouds. A fierce shower broke over the little valley. Lightning 
fitfully illiuiiinated the dusky interior of the A 
deluge of rain poured itself upon the roof and walls, and easily 
found its way through a huntlred gajiing cracks. Both mistress 
aud children were thoroughly frightened. They stood about cry- 
ing piteously aud pale with fear. Every blinding llash of lightning, 
followed almost instantly by the splitting and terrifying thunder, 
arouseil a new paroxysm of weeping. 

But the young girl was eipud to the occasion. She got the 
school Bible from her desk and iu the darkened room read with 
trembling emphasis the 18th psalm: 

128 msraiiv OF iiHL.wvMit: cDryry. 

Then Oif uaitli sliook iiml In'iiibled: 

The foundations also ol' thi' hills moved and wcii- shaken. 

Because he was winth. 

There went vi]> a smoke out of his nostrils. 

.\nd lire nut of his niDutli ih>voured: 

Coals were kindled by it. 

At the briL;htness that was before him his ihiek elouds passed. 

Hail stones and eoals of tire. 

The Lord also thundered in the heavens. 

And the Highest save his voice ; 

Hail stones and eoals of tire. 

Aucl as the coiufortiufj verses of the psalm were read the 
fierceness of the li^htuiuj;- aud the raiu abated: 

With the merciful tlioii will show thyself merciful; 
With an upright man thou wilt show thyself upright, 
With the pure thou wilt show thyself pure. 

* * * * 
The Lord my God will eidighten my darkness, 
For who is God save the Lord? 
Or who is a rock save our God? 

The fri.yht which had disti<^iired every couuteuauce gradually 
faded away; and witli tlie siiushine which followed the storiu came 
Lack the bright cheerfuluess which naturally belonged there. 

In addition to the district schools which were established every- 
where throughout the eounty, a number of schools of secondary 
grade have attained mmdi promiuence. The oldest of these is the 
Delaware Academy at Delhi. It was chartered in 1820, General 
Root being then a Member of Assembly from Delaware county. 
An appropriation of $(),000 for its benelit was made by the legisla- 
ture from the proceeds of the sale of the lauds of Robert Leake, 
which had escheated to the State on account of his disloyalty in the 
Revolutionary war. The site for the first building was given by 
General Root, adjoining the site of the court house. Here it stood 
until the street was to be cut through, when the building was 


mo veil hack to the place where it now stauils, occupied for private 
uses. lu 185(i the present superb site was secured, and the three 
buildiujjs erected, wlierc the Academy has since been conducted. 
.\l)(>ut $40,00(1 was raised foi' these ])ur]i()ses, mostly on scholar- 
ships. Below is j^'iveu the successive priuci])als from the estalilish- 
uieut of the Academy until the present time. 

1. John A. Savage l,S-21-->4 

2. Frederick A. Fenn . ... 182-l~2(; 
8. Thomas Farrin^'ton 182()-27 
4. Stephen C. Johnson 1827-29 
.1 Robert Tolefree lS2!)-^30 
tj. William J. Mouteith 1830-32 
7 Rev. Orange Clark . . 1832-34 

8. Rev. Ebenezer H. Cressy 1834-37 

!). Rev. Daniel Shepard 1837 4(1 

10. William R. Harper lS4(i-47 

11. Merritt G. McKeon 1847-54 

1-J. .Ic.liu L. Sawyer 18.14-03 

13. Rev. Silas Fitch lS(>3-(;7 

14. Levi D. Miller 18(i7 G'.t 

1."). William Wight 18(;i)-75 

1(5. Sherrill E. Smith 1875-85 

17. James O. Griffin 188.-> iio 

15. Willis D. Graves 18V»0-!)8 

The Delaware Literary Institute at the village of Fraukliu, was 
chartered by the legislature in 1835. The sum of $7,000 was raised 
to purchase a site and erect a building. It was of stone, eighty by 
forty feet, and four stories high. The following were the rates of 
tuition ,it the bcj^'-iuiiiug: Fur arithmetic, English grammar, geogra- 
phy anil other common English branches, $3 a term; for surveying, 
mensuration and other higher English brandies, $4 a term; for 
Greek, Latin, Algeljra and Geometry $5 a term, and for Frencli 
$2 extra. 


Up to 1837 the male iiiiil female departnieuts were coudueted 
separately. Since that time they have been clasised together. lu 
1838 the institution was received under the visitation of the Ue- 
geuts of the University and shared in the division of the Literature 
Fund. In 1851 a ladies' boarding hall was erected, of wood fifty- 
tive by forty feet and three stories high. In 1854 the chapel was 
begun, eighty by forty feet and three stories high. In l.S5() the 
original stone building was destroyed by tire, the insurance being 
$3,000. And in the same year the chapel building which was in 
course of erection was blown down, so that it was necessary to 
rebuild it from the foundation. 

The Delaware Literary Institute has from its l)egiuning enjoyed 
a wide jJopularity, and has been the pride of the people of Franklin. 
Below are given the names of the successive principals: 

1. Rev. William Frazer 1830-38 

2. Silas Fitch, jr 1838-4() 

3. Eev. George Kerr, D. D 184(i-(50 

1:. Stephen Holden and Rev. Milan 

L. Ward 18(;0-(Jl 

5. Oliver W. Treadwell 1802-05 

6. George W. Jones 18()5-G8 

7. Rev. Frederick Jewel 1868-69 

8. George W. Briggs 1869-74 

9. E. M. Rollo 1S74-77 

10. Charles H. Verrill , : 1.S77-97 

11. Elmer E. French 1897- 

The Fergusonville Academy is situated in the town of Daven- 
port, on the Charlotte creek. It was founded by Rev. Samuel D. 
and Rev. Sanford I. Ferguson. Their residence in New York city 
led them to see the iniportauce of ])rovidiug sweet country school 
life for the growing boys and girls. The school was beguu in 1848 
and from the beginning was a great success. It was a purely 
boarding school, and the instruction was designed to train the 


boys auil ^ii'ls to liabits of virtuous liviuf,'. Both the fouudiTs wcro 
c'lerf,'_viiieu of the Methodist Episoopiil church, iiud tlieir wide iic- 
iiuaiutuuce in their denomiuatiou brought to them in this licautit'ul 
s])ot an almiidaiire of jiatronage. 

Ill ls.')(i the Ferguson brothers retired frnm the school wliuli 
they had foiiuded and James Oliver l)ecaiiic the inojirictor and 
ninuagcr. The school is now closed. 

An Academy was bej^un in Deposit in IS.'id, Imt the building 
was destroyed by tire in 1885. Again in 1851-2 a seminary' was 
built and incorporated under State laws. But it was not tiuaucially 
successful, and it was sold under foreclosure. The buildings were 
utilized by the village for a Union School connected with the 
public school system. With this Union School there is connected 
an Academical department, where secondary education is imiJarted. 

The Andes Academy was begun in 1847 by William Stoddard. 
Mr. Heniy Dowie bought the building and enlarged it in 1857. 
In isti'j a stock company was formed to wliicli Mr. Dowie trans- 
ferred the buildings and improvements. The i)rin(ipals have been 
in succession as follows: 

1. William Wight, who served only a short time. 

2. Rev. Peter Smeallie 1862-07 

3. Rev. James Smeallie 18(i7-7G 

4. Rev. E. H. Stevenson lK7i; SO 

The Stamford Seminai'y was begun in ls4il. .V stock company 
was formed and a building fifty by thirty-two feet was erected. 
The schot)l was opened in 1S41I and Jdlin L. Mur]iliy was appointed 
the first principal. He was a j^'ood teacher, but his financial man- 
agement was not successful. In 1852 E. W. Boies was nnide 
principal but he only continued six iiHinths. Then Charles (i. 
Churchill l)ou<.,dit the ])r(>i>(rty from the coriioratinn. and for a time 
conducted it as a jirivate enterprise. He in turn sold the buildings 
to Rev. O. F. Gilbert who for several years conducted the school 
with success. But he detennined to re-enter the ministry, and sold 


the school iii 18(!1 to Rev. Johu Wilde who liad before heeii 
connected with the Seminary at DejJosit. 

In 1866 Mr. Wilde sold the Seminary to S. E. Churchill, who 
made many iniprovemeuts iu the lmil(liu<,'s. The school now was 
in a tide of success. In 1872 the Ulster and Delaware railroad was 
finished to Stamford, and everything connected with the little vil- 
lage had a liooni. ^Ir. Churchill saw modes of making' money more 
easily than by maintaining a boarding school. So he ])r(>cured the 
incorporation of the institution in 1S72 in order to enable it to 
receive the bequest of Samuel Judson for the establishment of a 
Free Library. The people of Stamford in order to continue their 
Seminary then raised a sum of money and erected a new- and 
admirable building costing nearly $12,500. Here the Stamford 
Seminary has rested from its wanderings, and remains as the pride 
and delight of the little village. It is now a Union Free School. 

The village of Walton has been active in providing itself with 
secondary education. In 1853 an association was formed for the 
establishment of an Academy. The sum of §3.500 was subscribed 
for the erection of a building. A site was donated and the build- 
ing erected. The school was opened in the fall of 1853. In the 
year 1851 it was incorporated by the Regents of the Unive rsity. 
It continued as an incorporated Academy till 18()8, when it was 
transformed into a Union School under the public school system, 
with an Academical department arranged to give secondary instruc- 
tion. The jniucipals have been as follows: 

1. Eli M. Maynard 1851-57 

2. Marcus N. Horton . 1857-61 

3. Sidney Crawford 18(;i-(i4 

1. Charles E. Stimuer 1864-67 

5. Strong Comstock 1867-70 

6. T. D. Barclay 1870-72 

7. Strong Comstock, (second time). . . 1872-92 
<S. James R. Fairgrieve 1892- 


Chtrrchcs and Chciivh ""Xon cmcnts. 

A COMPLETE liistory of the foniuliii<^- aiul Ir.iildin- n]< ><( the 
sevci-iil chuicli or^'auizatioiis iu Delaware (Muinty would be 
most iuterostiug. It could only, however, be uiulertakeii utter ii 
prolonf^ed investigatiou of the records of each of the bodies, and 
would be best done by persons writing' each for his owu deuomi- 
natioii. What can here be attempted is to sketch the general 
movements by which the several denominations established them- 
selves in the new county. It is left to the town histories to give the 
accounts of the several churches which have grown up in them. 

It may in general be safely asserted that all the early pioneers 
were persons of religious convictions, and so far as possible brought 
with them their own church organizations and arrangements. 
With the New England settlers came the Congregational churches, 
which in many cases were transformed into churches connected 
with the Presbyterian body. From England and Scotland canie 
many families who at home had been Presbyterians, and who iu 
theii- new homes took measures to establish churches of their own 
kind. The -'Great Awakening" which arose out of the preaching 
of George Whitetield, the Teunants and the Wesleys, hail roused 
into activity the religious life of New England and the Middle 
States. And all who came from these ipiarters were ind)ued with a 
deep sense of dependence on an over-ruling providence. We leave 
it of course to the town histories to describe the special movements 
which led to the founding and de\ clojinient of particular (diurclies. 
It will be sufficient here to give some general account of the 
princijjal religious bodies and the movements by which they be- 
came established in this county. 


The Couyrog;iti(_)U!il fhiiii-lats with their peculiuiities auil Doliti- 
cal affiliatious came with the einigrauts from New Euf^laud. 
Harperstiekl, Fraukliu, ^lereilitli, Walton aud other towns, were 
settled iu jjart by New Englauders aud the establishmeut of Con- 
grenatioual churches followed soon after. Thus iu 17S7 a church 
which afterward became Presbyterian was founded iu Harperstield. 
It is uow called a Congregational church. Others followed thus; 
in Franklin, 17()3; Walton, 1798; Sidney, 1808; Deijosit. 1S12; 
Masonville, 1818; Davenport, 1825; Colchester, 182o; aud Han- 
cock, 1831. There was for a long time a mutual agreement 
betw-een the Congregational body and the so-called New School 
Presbyterian church to co-operate iu their pioneer work. It fol- 
lowed therefore that churches founded under New England intlu- 
ance often became connected with the adjacent bodies of the 
Presbyterian church. Presbyterian churches were founded as 
follows: In Delhi, the First Presbyterian I'hurch, 18(15; in Mason- 
ville, 1820; in Delhi, the Second Presbyterian church, IHHl ; in 
Franklin, the .\i-abia church, 1832; in Stamford, 1831. 

A class of churches, which may be termed Scotch Presby- 
terian, has arisen in many parts of the county. These were 
connected with the Associate, the Associate Reformed, and the 
Eeformed Presbyterian bodies. In 1858 the two former bodies 
combined to form the United Presbyterian church, by which name 
the body is now designated. The families who associated them- 
selves to form churches connected with these bodies were maiuly 
from Scotland aud the North of Irelaud, who came into the county 
in the early part of the century. As has beeu exi)lained this 
immigration began soon after the II 'volutiouary war and continued 
down as lats as 1810. The Uutherfords, the Scotts, the (iladstones, 
the Fletchers, the Forests, the Murrays, the Elliotts, the Telfords, 
the Thompsons, the .Archibalds and others all came from the 
South of Scotland; and the Lamouts, the McGregors, the McCiib- 
bons, the !McLaurys also spelled ilcClaughry, McLaughrys, McFar- 
lands, McDonalds, McCrackens, emigrated either from the North of 

ciirRciiKs .\\i) cniinii M()\-i-:.\/i-:.\rs. m^. 

.Scutluiiil or the >iorth ui Irfluutl. Tlu'V were nil protustiiut ;iuil 
I'hieriy Presbyterinn in tbeir religious affiliatious. Heuce in Andes, 
Boviua, Delhi uinl Ivortri^ht, where these settlers chiellx miigre- 
{,'ateil, Seoteh Presbyterian chiirehes fast followed: At the Flats 
below Delhi in 180.'), in Bovina in 1809, in Kortri<:;ht in 1810, in 
Andes in 1838, and at Cabin Hill in Andes in 1885. 

The r.aiitist chnrch caiiie wiUnMit iiiurh external [iressure. 
Whenever a few families of this faith f<>un<l themselves within reach 
of each other they usually combined themselves into a ehurcli. 
The form of church {foverument among the Baptists is congre- 
"•ntioual, so that it was possible for these little clnirches to spring 
up and flourish without dependence on any outsi<le organization. 
The early Baptist chiu'ches may be mentioned as follows: In 
Colchester, soon after the Revolutionary war; in Harperstield, 1792; 
in Franklin, 1798; in Masonville, 1810; in Deposit, 1812; in Rox- 
l>ury, ISKi; iu Sidney, 1817; in ileredith, ISIS; in Tom])kins, 1830; 
in Walton, 1888; iu Delhi, 1842; in Hancock, 1858; and in Stam- 
ford, 18(i8. 

The most numerous body among the churches iu Delaware 
county is now no doid)t the Methodist. They began the work of 
evangelizing in this region almost as soon as the Revolutionary war 
was ended. The machinery- of the church is well adapted to the 
circumstances of thinly settled, poor and religious conununities. 
The country to be covered is divided into circuits in each of which 
there are a number of preaching stations, situate(l so that one or 
two preachers (or circuit-riders) can visit them and }ireuch to them 
as often as the number of stations will permit. Thus if a circuit 
contains ten jjreaching stations two circuit-riders are assigned to it; 
and if tach of the preachers were to give the full Sabbath to eacdi 
station, they would 1)e able to visit every station once in live 
Siinilays. With even these infreijuent visits it would be ])ossil)le to 
keep uj) the church organization, and stimulate it to a healthy 
activity and growth. 

The work laid on these jiioneer ciicuit-riders was most onerous. 

18(i lllsroHY <IF DF.LAWAHE VOL STY. 

The long jourueys requireil of tliciu were chiefly luaile on lioiscbiu-k. 
They received so little pay that it was absolutely uecessary for 
theiu to live and lodge at siicli Imincs as ihey c-oidd tiiid among 
their owu people. Tlie circuiustauces counected with their lnug 
rides and their pressing services, made it iuipossilile for them to 
read or consult books, or make any study of tlie original languages 
in which the scriptures were written. In the early days of Meth- 
odism it was rare to find scholarly men among the clergy. The 
character of their work nnule it im])ossilile. They knew the English 
Bible, and this was almost the oidy book with which they were 
familiar. This must not be interpreted as the times of an ignorant 
clergy. The men who beciime eminent as preachers in the Dela- 
ware county circuits in the early days, were only to lie called 
unlearned in the bookish sense. In all other respects they far 
outranked the clergy of cities and pavements, of books and libraries. 
From the fresh woods through which they traveled, from the 
silence and solemnity of nature they learned lessons mcire prufmuid 
than books can teach. From the unspoiled children of the pioneer 
settlements they imbibed experiences far more instructive than can 
be found amid the centres of culture. 

The movements which led to the establishment of Methodist 
churches throughout the towns of Delaware county began, as we 
have said, soon after the close of the Revolutionary war. It would 
be impossible to trace these movements from that early time 
through the century which followed. Before the third decade of 
the eighteenth century was finished, iletht)disni liad ol)tained a 
lodgment in almost every township. And during the two decades 
which next followed, the churches had acquired a standing which 
has ensured their permanent growth and prosperity. 

It will be sufficient in ending what we have to say alxiut this 
j)Owerful body, to enumerate the times when the churches were 
founded in the several townships. The first movement of which 
we have any record was in Colchester in 1795; it was in this 
township that Brainerd the great Indian missionary once preached 


lit !i date eveu i-nrlii'V thiiu this. Then in ISdO Methn^list i huirhcs 
were fouudcd in Middletowu, iu Koxl)iii-y both at the viUaj^c iiiul at 
Moresville. Soou after tliis in 1S()2. and hlter in 1808 iu couse- 
(lUfiice cif the jireachiii^' of Nathan ]5anL;s a church was lic^iiu in 
Waltiin. In HjirperstieUl movenieuts were heM\ni in 1S(KS, but a 
ihun-h was not founded until some years hiter. Subseiiuent steps 
were taken and chureiies founded: in P^rauklin in ISIS, and Crotui 
bsll); in Amies in IS'id, but it was some years hitcr before a cliurcli 
liuildiuj;' was be<;un, whicli was occupied in an untinislicd state* in 
1S8(I, and eoin])leted in 1888; iu JIasouvine in 1S22; in Tt)mpkins 
and Deposit iu 1830; in Hancock iu 1831; in Davenport and in 
Hobart iu 1834; at Ferj^usonville iu 1830; iu Delhi iu 1S31I; and 
iu Bovina in 184!>. 

The Kjiiscopal church be^an in Hobart in ITD-l, the villaf>'e itself 
Inning- been calh'<l after the celel>rated liishoj) Hobart of New 
Jersey. The second township to fouiul au Episcojial church was 
Delhi iu 1819, and others iu the foHowin^- order: Walton. 1S30; 
Deposit, 18()0; Franklin, 18(>5. Tlie only nieetiu^;-house of the 
Friends, which, however, has not continued to the present, was 
l)et,'un iu Harpersdeld iu 1810. A cousideral)le number of Eomau 
Catholic churches have come into existence within the last half- 
ceuturv. These have arisen chiefly iu connection witli the Roman 
Catholic population, which has followed the construction and ad- 
ministration of the railroads which have jjeuetrated the county. 

It has already been said that the Scotch immi^'rants who came 
iuto Delaware county brouj^ht with them the liias in behalf of tlii' 
schools anil clnirches which they hail enjoyed in their old hoiu<'. 
Their first effort was always to estal>lish a school where their 
children could receive the elementary and us.'ful education of 
which they knew so well the value. 

Next to schools they invariably soufjjht to establish chui'ches for 
themselves and their families. They brouf^ht witli them, liowever, 

• It is said that tlie work-bench was used as a pulpit an^l a potash-kettle 

138 lUSTonV ur llKLAWARE COlXTV. 

till the church tlivisious that had arisen iu Scotlauil. Withiu the 
little circle of Scotch frieuds, there were, for iustauce, the Associate 
church, the Associate Reformed clunch, and the Eeformed Pres- 
hyteriau church, which latter body was commonly called the 
Oameronian church. Each of these bodies had its separate ors'ani- 
zation and maintained a rigidly distinct system of worship. They 
did not exchange pulpits with each other, and never gave an 
invitation to the mendx'rs of the other bodies to partake with them 
of the Lord's Supper. They all agreed iu using the j)salms of 
David for singing and the Westminster catechism for the instruc- 
tion of their children. And yet in spite of these marks of 
conformity, they were strenuously and sometimes even bitterly 
opposed to each other on account of disputes which had arisen iu 
Scotland and which did not in the least relate to their doctrines or 
their discijDline iu this country. Thus the Cameronians held that 
Christians ought not to take any part in sustaining or administer- 
ing' a government which was not conducted on relig'ious principles. 
Hence the members of the Cameroniau church never voted or took 
.any part in the elections which were held in America. 

The church concerning which the following recollections are 
given was connected w-ith the Associate body. It was the first 
church established in the town of Boviua: but was followed soon 
after by another Scotch church of the Cameroniau persuasion. 
The building was as ugly as could be imagined. It was 
almost square, without ornaments or projections, or steeple. It 
was a frame building, clap-boarded, and had been painted of a 
snuff-brown color. The jiaint, however, had long since been 
washed away, and the boards left of a natural wood color. • 

The inside, that is the galleries, the pews and the pulpit, was 
finished in unpainted piue. At the front of the church there were 
two doors from the vestibule into the open air. From the vestibule 
two uncarpeted stairs ascended to the galleries. Two doors led 
into the main body of the church, near which stood two stoves 
Imrning wood when the weather required them. The gallery 

ciiriiCHEs Axti ciirix'cii M(i\ i:mi-:xts. l:{<) 

• exteuded aroiiud three sides, aud ou the fourth side opposite the 
eutrauce stood a high pulpit. Directly in front of this was a scciuiil 
aud lower puljiit- for the precentor. The jkws were jiartly narrow 
sitting's and partly s(|uare boxes with seats around tlirec sides. 
The services never beingf held in the evenings, tluic were no 
arrangements for artificial lighting either by caudles or lani})s. 

The preacher in this church was a Scotchman who had inuni- 
grated to America when he was still a young man, having just 
tinishi-d his theological studies. He was a man of fair abilities, and 
devoted to his work and his Hock. It is impossible to say how 
much salary he received, but certainly it must have been quite 
small. .\s he grew older and his children increased in number aud 
size he found it necessary to purchase a farm on which he lived 
during the last years of his pastorate. 

The church services began at ten o'clock aud were of the ordi- 
nary Scotch Presbyterian character, consisting of singing, reading 
the scripture, extemporaneous prayers and a sermon. The whole 
service lasted about two hours, of which the sermon constituted 
<piite one-half. The preaching was always without notes; as in- 
deed the preaching of all the Scotch ministers of that day was. At 
the close of the morning service there was an intermission of an 
hour; during which the people scattered under the trees and 
among the wagons in which they had coiue to ehunli. They 
emjiloyed the hour faithfully in eating the luucheou which they 
had brought with them, in discussing the sermon, and in exchaug- 
iug the harmless gossiji of the week. There was a delightfid, cool 
sjiring' near the church, and nearly evei'vone took occasion to visit 
it during the intermission and to drink from it with a tin cn|i 
which was always kept there. 

The afternoon service began at one o'clock, and lasted aliDut an 
liou)- and a half. It was exactly like that of tjic niorniug with the 
exception that several of the parts including the sermon were a 
little shorter. The people scattered on foot and in wagons as they 
iiad come. The wagons were nejirlv alwavs the lumber wagons 

liO IllSIOHy OF lil-:i..\\VMiK COIXTV. 

which the fariuers used ou their fiuiiis. Thev were j)rovided with 
u spriii""' seat iu frout on which the driver and auother sat, and 
then with liuiird seats ]ilac('d iu-ross the box of the wa^oii. 1 sup- 
pose that iu very early times tlicse wagons were sometimes drawu 
to church by oxen, but in my time only horses were used, and often 
very good horses at that. 

The music in the church was of a \cry limited and old-fashioued 
description. There was no instrnmeutal music allowed in any 
of the Scotch Presbyterian churches of that day; and to a great 
exteut the same is true to this day. The human voice, in the 
opiuion of these good people, was good enough for the praise 
of God iu his sanctuary. The precentor who led the singing was a 
Scotchman who had learned what he knew about music before he 
left his native land. The number of his tunes was not large, 
perhaps a dozen in all. They were all Common Metre tunes except 
Old Hundred. They used Rouse's metrical version, iu which all 
the psalms are rendered in common metre, except the one hun- 
dredth which is long metre. As far as I can remember the 
following tunes,* with others, were used: French, Coleshill, Bangor, 
Martyrs, Dundee, Newton, Elgin, York, Mears, Irish, Old Hundred. 

The tune Ortonville was introduced during my daj' at the 
Scotch church. But it had the unpardoualjle fault of repeating tlie 
last line. This was contrary .to the spirit of the New Testament 
and was a "vain rejietition." So the jjrecentor reduced Ortonville 
to orthodoxy by omitting the repetition of the last line. 

A Sunday school was started in this Scotch climrli jirobably 
al)out 1840. It was the result of a general movement which was 
then taking place throughout the country in favor of the establish- 
ment of Sunday schools. It was held at the intermission, and 
the exercises were strictly in accordance with the doctrines and 
usages of the church. The children who composed the classes were 

* My readers will remember the sketch of "Jeems the Door-koepor " iu 
John Brown'K Sj>are ILiiirx. The tuiios he used in his solitary family worship 
were French, Searborougli, Coloshill, Irisli, Old Hundr(>d, Baiii^or, ami Black- 
burn. , 

Early Pliysicians' Outfit. 

Rerriir\der3 of Early Days. 


re(jiurf»l to comuiit to iiioiiioiy uliaptuis of tlic Jiil)l(', the j)salius in 
vers(\ and the Shorter Catechism. The parts of the scripture 
wLi'-li were coiiiinnuly learned were: the l"2tli chapter of Ecclesias- 
tes, the 58rd and the ()3rd chapters of Isaiah, chapters from the 
Proverbs, chapters from the Gospels, and from the epistle to tiie 
Hebrews. As a matter of course the childi'eu also were re(|uir(!d 
to repeat the Lord's Prayer, the .\postles' Creed and the Ten 
Coiiimandnicnts. These they had ])riilial)ly learned at home in 
accoidauce with the invariable Scotch custom. But many children 
who beloupred to families who were indifferent to religious instruc- 
tion, obtained in this Sunday school the training which implanted 
in them the seeds of religious faith. 

It remains to describe one of the peculiar institutions of th(' 
Scotch church as it had been derived from the practices in Scot- 
lau<l. This was tlic celebration of the Lord's Supper. The usual 
custom ill .Xiiicricaii cliurclies of Scotch origin was to celebrate 
this ordinance twice in the year, in the spring and in the autunin. 
It was so extended and laborious a series of services that tlu^ 
minister of a church always sought assistance. And as this as- 
sistance could only properly .come from ministers of the same 
body, it was sometimes no easy matter to obtain the help that was 

The first day of the celebration was Thursday which was kept as 
a '"ist-day. Meat and foods of a similar kind were geuerallv ab- 
stained from, but the day was not kept as an absolute fast. A ser- 
vice was held in the chuicli in the morning, when a sermon was 
preacdied either by the pastor or bj- the minister assisting him. 
Then there was a service on Saturday morning, when another 
sermon was preached. After the service was over the members of 
the church passed in line in front of the jireceiitor's desk, where 
one of tlie (dders stood and gave to each a "token," the possession 
of wliich entitled the holder to sit down at the Lord's Table. No 
general invitation was given to the members of other chundies, and 
only members of this particular cliurch were entitled to tokens. 


Tht tokens were little bits of chijiiied tliut, ou cue side of which 
bad lieeu cut the letters J. C. (Jesus Christ.) 

The principal service was held ou the Sabbath, when usuallv 
the visitiu^- cleryvmau preached a discourse which was called 
"fencing the tables." The object was to point out and declare the 
sins which would debar the members from sittinfij down at the 
Lord's Table. Often this was a most solemn and almost a terrify- 
ing- discourse. The extemporaneous Scotch eloquence penetrated 
to the hearts of the people, and faces grew pale and hands 
trembled, and sometimes suppressed sobs told of the searching 
impression which this discourse was making. 

After this discourse the comnumicants sat dt)wu at the table 
which had been spread through the middle aisle and across the 
sjiace in front of the pulpit. A\'heu all of the communicants could 
not be accommodated at one table, a second was served immediately 
after the first. An elder passed along the table and took up the 
tokens which had been distributed the preceding Saturday. The 
bread was then passed along the table by another of the elders, 
after which one of the ministers sjioke a few words of pathetic 
comfort. Then in like manner the wine was passed along the 
tables, and the other minister made a short address. The usual 
intermission followed, and the afternoon service was held as on 
other Sundays. 

The communion season was closed by a service on Monday 
morning, when one of the ministers preached, applying with great 
power the lessons of the occasion. 

Earh; Pbv,.sicians. 

IT is ii pn/./k' to :iuy ouo to uuderstuud liow tljr curly settlers iu 
this aud other couuties j^ot ou so well without doctors or with 
siu'h very pt)or doctors. Iu the early history of the colonies there 
was uo cessation in the birth of children or iu the sickness and 
death of both old aud y(muf>'. Eveu more than the usual amount 
of accidents must have occurred, calling for the aid which only a 
doctor can afford. It helps to esplaiu this difficulty, when we re- 
member that the pioneers who migrated into the new settlements 
of America were mostly younpf and well and stront":. The old aud 
feeble would not undertake so perilous an enterprise. And thou^'-h 
uothiug could prevent the well from l)ecomiuf>' sick, aud the sick 
from dying, the danger from such sickness and death would be 
much less than in the old communities from which they came. 

It must, however, be taken for granted that nature performed 
most of the cures in those early days as indeed she ]iri)l)ably iloes 
still. Doctors stood by then as now aud administered what they 
deemed very important remedies, but which after all had but little 
to do with the cures which nature WTOUght out by her own medica- 
ments. In the ITtii and 18th centuries, when most of the coloniz- 
ing in America took place, medical science was in a most defective 
condition even in jirogressive nations like England aud Holland. 
The medical theories which then prevailed have long since been 
abandoned, aud most of the remedies which were then relied on 
have given place to others. 

Dr. Oliver Wen(h'll Holmes in au address delivered in 1860 
makes some trenchant remarks concerning the remedies which even 
then were in use. He says: "Throw out ojnum which the Creator 


himself seems to prescribe; throw out a few of the specifics* which 
our art did uot discover and is hardly needed to appl;-; throw out 
wine which is a food, aud the vaj^ors which produce the miracle of 
anaesthesia, aud I firmly lielieve that if the whole moti'ria mt'dii-u, as 
now used, could be suuk to the bottom of the sea, it would be all 
the better for mankind, — and all the worse for the fishes." f 

The chief resource of the pioneer families in all that pertained 
to sickness and wounds, was the skill of the mother. She had 
inherited from her ancestors a knowledge of all the common <lis- 
eases which were liable to attack her children, and she kept on 
hand a supply of the medicines which were thought to be the sj)e- 
citic remedies for them. If there were cuts or bruises or burns 
within her domain, she knew how to stop the bleeding, soothe the 
pain and care for the wounds until they were healed. There were 
occasions, which were beyond, or apparently beyond, the resources 
of such homely skill. Aud there is no doubt that in some such 
cases death or deformity were the results, which a more trained 
skill' aud a more penetrating diagnosis might have warded off. 

Besides the mother's skill there was in almost every settlement 
some man or woman of more than common reisutation for curing 
diseases or healing obstinate wounds and sores. It was commonly 
believed that there was for every malady, whether it was a bite or 
sting or bruise or pain or fever, some curative plant which nature 
had provided. Animals in their natural state knew these cures by 
instiuct. A sick dog ate grass. A cat found its cure for almost 
everv ailment in catnip; aud all animals of the cat family, such as 
the tiger, the panther aud the lion have the same almost insane 
liking for this plant. [Many animals, it was believed, had an in- 
stinctive knowledge of the plants which would be an antidote to 
the bites of poisonous snakes. And it was inferred that men who 
came nearest in their modes of life to wild animals, would in like 

* He ijiinies aiiioiiL! spooifios : Cinchona, Mercury, .\rsi'nic, Coli-hi- 
cum, Sulphur and Iron. 

t Carrtnls and Coiud(!i--ciin-ent>), pp. 38, 39. 

KARLV l'liy:slCIA\S. 147 

iiinuuer approni-h tbeiii iu their kuowledge of curiitive herbs. Thus 
some old solitary Indian who had beeouie disconueeted from his 
tribe, or some half-crazed old man or wduian, was sure to be 
believed to have iniraoulous medical powers, and often spent his 
time iu searching for herbs out of wliich to extract specifics for 
human ailments. 

But physicians were not far behind tlie pioueers in our Ameri- 
can settlements. Dr. Le Baron came with the Mayflower, and Dr. 
La Montague came over m l(i29 with a colony of Walloons to New 
Amsterdam.* The French and Indian war (1754-63) brought into 
the country a considerable number of doctors of a more .skilful 
sort. They came as surgeons of the British troops which were sent 
over. Many American iiractitioners and nurses were associated 
with these military surgeons as so called " ^Surgeons' Mates," from 
whom they learned much of their skill in surgery, and a better 
knowledge of diseases and of the remedies applicable to them. 
Some of these English surgeons remained in the country after the 
war was over, and composed an appreciable element in the causes 
which served to advance the medical profession iu the American 

It is worth mentioning also that very many of the clergy in the 
early times were more or less skilled in medicine. The wants of 
the sick came naturally under their notice, and for this reason 
not a few of them were educated in both professions, as missionaries 
of the present day are trained, in order that they might be pre- 
pared for the circumstances of the pioneer settlements. Rev. Jona- 
than Dickinson of Elizabethtown, whose chief fame was as a 
theologian and as the first president of the College of New Jersey, 
had a high reputation as a physician. A notable description by 
him of the terrible disease called throat (listemi)er in his day, but 

• It was the custom in the early times as well as mine rccciU, to <l('riilc 
the physicians of the day. Dr. Douglass, a noted ami .sarcastic doctor of Bos- 
ton in the IMth century, mercilessly abuses the practitioners of his day. He 
quotes against them the declaration of the .\pocrapha : "He that siiini'th 
against his Slaicer, let him fall into the hands of the physicians." 


which is now knowu as (li|)btberia, shows him to have beeu a 
physician as well as a theologian. 

The chief ditticiiUy lay in the want of some leyal recjiiircnK'ut 
for liceusinj^' medical iiractitioners. lu the first years nf the i)res- 
ent century there w-as nothing to prevent any ignorant pretender 
from assuming the standing of a doctor, and practising among an 
unsuspecting community. The establishment of the State Medical 
Society in 1806 was the first step taken by reputable practitioners 
to protect the communities from such mischiefs. The same law 
which jjrovided for the formation of the State society, provided also 
for the organization of county medical societies, and gave them 
authority, through censors to be chosen by them, to determine who 
were fitted to enter the profession. Within a few years medical 
societies were formed in almost all the counties of the State, and 
the medical profession was organized into a compact and homo- 
geneous bod}-. The physicians of Delaware county met to form 
such an organization July 1, 1S(I6. Dr. J. H. Brett of Haqiersiield 
was chosen president; and a board of four censors was named which 
was aiithorized to examine and license those who should make 
application to them. This veueral)le county society still exists and 
prosjjers, and to it the satisfactory condition of the medical profes- 
sion must iu a large measure be attributed. 

The Dr. J. H. Brett mentioned above is closely connected with 
the organization of the county. He was a resident of Harperstield 
when that township was a part of Otsego county. And he was a 
member of the State Legislature when the act organizing the new 
county of Delaware was passed. He gave up iu great [lart the 
practice of his profession and was appointed County Judge. He 
held this position from 1797 to 1810. It was during this period 
when he was both doctor and judge that he became the first presi- 
dent of the newly organized county medical society. Another of 
the first physicians of the county was Dr. Piatt Townseud who was 
one of the pioneers of Walton. In 1784 he purchased from Mr. 
Walton who had come into possession of a large patent of lands 

KMii.y rinsiciAxs. 14(» 

ftlonfj the west hraui-h of the Delaware river, a tract of 5',()(t() acres. 
He was a resident of Duti-hess conuty, but a native of Couucetieut. 
lu 1785 he removed to Delaware county with a colony of twenty 
persons, and there estal)lished the settlement now known as 
Walton. He was known as ^i lar^e landed proprietor, hut still 
better as a skilful and synij><T i)hysician. 

The names of a few other physicians have come down to ns in 
pouneotion with the history of the county. Thus we have. Dr. 
.Vsnlicl K. Paine of Kortrij^ht. who was the father of General 
Anthony M. Paine the founder of the Delaware Gazette; he was 
president of the County Medical Society in ISKi; Dr. Thomas 
Fitch of Delhi, who immipfrated from Connecticut in 1803, and 
lived about four miles up the river where the familiar namt' of 
Fitch's bridge still recalls him; he was present at the formation of 
the County Medical Society in 1806; Dr. Ebenezer Steele, who was 
born in "Walton in 17',)8, and joined the County Society in 1821 ; 
Steele's brook is a perpetual reminder of him. To these familiar 
names we may add Dr. .Vlniiron Fitch born 1801, and Dr. Ferris 
Jacobs born in 1802, both of whom were eminent practitioners 
within the memory of men still living. 

It may be of interest to add some reminiscences of the doc- 
tors whom the writer knew in his boyhood. This will show better 
than anythinj,'- that I can write the relations of the profession 
to the community. The first of these country doctors was a 
Scotchman, named Walter Scott. He had migrated from Scotland 
some years before I had much occasion for his medical skill. It 
was usually said that he ncvci- had been educated as a rcj^ular pliy- 
aiciau or had taken a medical degree. But he had been a student 
at the University of Edinburgh and he showed in all his character 
and life the culture of a scholar. He had for a time served as a 
gardener to a practising physician ; and in this jjosition he 
employed his leisure in readin;^ his master's professional books, 
and in picking up the odds and ends of his practice. He was a 
uatui'al physician; and when he settled in the little Scotch neigh- 


borhood be quickly ciuue iuto notice as a most useful and slcilful 
man. lu this uei^Lhoiliood the ailments were chietlv a few bruises 
and cuts, now and then a case of colic from eatinpf green apples, 
and as a more serious event a broken bone wliicli liad to be set and 
bandaged. In all these contingencies the Doctor, as he was uni- 
versally called, soon attained a very notable reputation and won the 
coutideuce of all the families whom he served. He was a most kind 
and amiable man, and an entertaining friend and companion. His 
figure was spare an(\ tall and slightly stooping. His face was thin 
and tanned with the sun. He took snuff in the old fashicmed 
abundant way; and our first warning of his approach to the house 
was generally the trumpet like call with which he prepared himself 
for a new charge of bis favorite ammunition. His eyes had a 
pleasant twinkle, and his conversation was varied and musical and 
thoroughly Scotch. 

Such was the man who was called to attend me in a serious 
accident, the results of which kept me in bed for almost two years. 
He liad infinite pity for the poor little invalid, and I can still see 
the kind old face as he bent over me. '\Mieu I began to mend he 
brought me one day a little book, entitled the Life of George 
Washington. It was a tiny little book, bound in boards and was a 
fair sample of what was written for children in those days. I had 
not yet learned to read, and he told me that when I could read the 
fii'st page,* the book should be mine. So I struggled bravely for 
many weeks and perhaps months, until at last I earned its posses- 
sion. In some unexplaiuahle way I have preserved this (juaint 
little volume, and as I write these lines it is lying before me with 
my name written in it many times in every possible fashion of 
boyish hand-writing. 

* This is the first page : '■ lu the liistory of man, we contemplate willi par- 
ticular satisfaction those legislators, heroes and philosophers, whose wi.sdom, 
valor and virtue have contributed to the happiness of the human species. We 
trace the luminous progress of those excellent beings with sweet complacency. 
Our emulation is roused, while we behold them steadily pursue the path of 
rectitude in defiance of every obstruction. We rejoice that we are of the same 
species, and thus self-love becomes the handmaid of virtue." 

On tl^e TrerripersKill. 

Or) ttie Ouleout. 

Sirader's LaKe. 

Near AVargareiville 

KMii.y riD'siciAXs. ;i51 

Tbe n'ocxl old doctor ;it bist becrtiiip iufiriii and uualdf to visit 
the fjiiuilics who iicnhMl liis assistance. It was a coiiiinou sayiug 
iiinoli^' the circle of liis practice that: "There's uae j^iiid a heiu 
sick uoo, siu Doctor Scott caiiua come tae see us." \l hist he died 
amidst the \niiversal sorrow of tlie litth' Scotch neighborhood 
which he had so faithfully served, — a sorrow which could only he 
compared to that which pervaded the parish of Drunitochty when 
Dr. McClure died and was liuried, as lau ^faclaren has described it 
iu the Bouuy Briar Bush. 

Fortuuately a youu<^ man had been in course of training to take 
Dr. Scoffs place. He was a son of one of the original Scotch set- 
tlers of the ueighliorhood. He had studied medicine with Dr. 
Almiron Fitcli in Delhi and had lieen graduated by the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons in New York. He established himself iu 
the ju'actice of medicine about the time that Dr. Scott's disability 
made it necessary for him to retire. And although the proverb 
about a prophet beiun' without honor in his own country was often 
quoted against him, he gradually won the confidence of the families 
who had trusted in his i^redeeessor, and of many families far 
beyond the precincts of his neighborhood. 

The eciuiimieiit of the office of a couutry (h)ctor of that day was 
not specially elaborate. There was in this one a human skeleton, 
which was hung iu a closet and was the terror of the small boys 
who had the run of the ofKce. The medicines consisted of such 
commou remedies as: Ijjecac, opium, rhubarb, castor-oil, calomel, 
jalap, Spanish- fiie.s, valerian, Ijelladonua, Peruvian bark, gentian, 
etc.* Many of the medicines were made into pills in the doctor's 
own office. A mortar and pestle were a very necessary implement, 
and the energy of the office boy and often of the doctor himself 
were emjiloyed in com]iouudiiig the pills that might be needed. 

* Dr. Oliver Woiniell Hciliiics pictures tlie physician of liis larlv ilays as 
"he would look at the tongue, feel the pulse, and shako from his vials a 
horril)le mound of iiii-cac, or a revolting mass of rhubarb — jjood stirring rem- 
edies that meant business, but h'ft a flavor behind them that emliittcrs the 
'recollections of childhood." 


Besides the staudaril medicines there was always iu the office of 
a couutrv doctor a supply of the siir<^ical iustrunieuts which might- 
be wanted. A couutrv doctor is a poor stick unless he can perform 
the ordiuary ()i)erations which the exigencies of his ])i-actice call 
for. He must be ready to undertake them without delay and with 
a firm contidence in his own ability. Broken bones must be set. 
Bleeding wounds must be stanched and stitched together and 
jiut in the way of healing. Crushed limbs must be amimtated, 
and the doctor must do it or the mau will die. 

There was an old-fashioned imjilement called a turn-key which 
some will remember as being iu use for the extraction of teeth. If 
the patient was young the doctor put him on a low stool and took 
his head between his knees. Then he cut the gums away with a 
scalpel, and apjjlied the fangs of the turn-key to the outside of the 
tooth. May the Good Lord direct him to the right tooth I When 
all was ready he gave the instrument an infernal twisl:, which 
seemed to the miserable and helpless patient to be unsettling the 
foundations of the universe. But the jjaroxysm was of short dura- 
tion. He was soon released from his confinement, his mouth 
washed out, and a wad of cotton sopjied in creosote inserted in the 
toothless cavity. Then he was dismissed from the office feeling 
himself a very miub humiliated and demoralized individual, if 
indeed he was an individual at all. 

Bleeding in the early part of the century was regarded as the 
universal resort iu every kind of fever and intiammatiou. It was a 
(•(immon belief that horses ought to be bled in the spring to pre- 
vent a so-called spring fever which otherwise was sure to affect 
them. It was the theory then held, that a fever was a congestion 
of blood, and therefore the appropriate remedy was to draw from 
the sufferer some oi the troublesome surplus. A case of inflamma- 
tion, as of the lungs, the bowels or the throat, was to l>e treated iu 
the same way. I have seen a mau suffering from severe colic bled 
profusely until he grew faint and the pain abated. The lancet was- 
the universal companion of the doctor. He carried it with him on 

KAiii.y pin.siciAXs. if):} 

every occasion, aud wa'; ready at a nionieiit's waruiuf,' to wliij) it out 
and draw off a l)owlful of surplus blood. It is remarkable how 
completely tliis remedy has been superseded. The practitioner of 
the present day never thinks of drawing off the IjIooiI of his fevered 
patient. His effort is to supply foods and drinks which will make 
for him more blood, instead of takin<^' away his already impover- 
ished supply. 

When I was ])r(iiHriug for college at a preparatory school I 
lived for a time with a couutry doctor, who enjoyed a large country 
jiractice. I remember well when he came home from a meeting of 
the County Medical Society, bringing with him a Ixittle of chloro- 
form, with the wonderful story that it would render jiatieuts 
insensible to pain during the severest operations. That was the 
first time I had ever heard of anaesthetics. And we tried it. One 
of the boys breathed the vapor until he became apparently insensi- 
ble; aud the rest of us pinched him, stuck pins in him, pulled his 
hair and tweaked his nose, until we had assured ourselves that 
anaesthesia was no delusion. Thus one of the miracles of modern 
surgery had been wrought before our eyes. 

The most serious medical experience that I remember was 
encountered when I was Ii\-ing with this same doctor. A child had 
been born with a hare-lip in one of the families within his practice. 
After the child had grown sufficiently, the doctor wished to per- 
form the usual operation to close up the opening. He asked me to 
go with him to aid him. I did not in the least understand wliat 
the operation was like; or I certaiidy would have nfuscd. And 
although chloroform was known to him, he did not venture to use 
it in the case of this child. It turned out to be my duty to hold 
the screaming baby firmly in my arms, while the doctor clipped off 
tlie edges of the opening aud stitched them together. I think that 
experience has served me for a lifc-tiuK'; and 1 cannot to this day 
witness severe surgical oj)eratious, even when performed un<lir the 
influence of anaesthetics, without feeling an uiicontrollablc repug- 


The usual method of tiiivclint;' over the rouyh eouutry roads hy 
the doctor was on horscliack. Sometimes, however, he use<l a 
Tsuggj when the roads were sucli as to permit that kind of Iciromo- 
tiou. AVheu he weut (m horseback he carried a jiair of saddh'-ljags 
swung- across his saddh-. This consisted of two leather-covered 
boxes eoutaiiiini^' in separate comiiartmeuts little liottles of jiills, 
powders and liijuid medicines; and also a few surgical instruments 
which were most frequently called for. 

I close this chapter with a tragical occurrence su(di as some- 
times takes place in the experience of a country doctor, whose 
practice, however, is mainly simple and uneventful. About four 
o'clock in the afternoon a boy was seen galloping uji the street of 
the little village, his horse covered with lather, and his face almost 
as white as the foam which flecked the flanks of his horse. He 
drew up in front of the doctor's office, sprang to the ground and 
holding the bridle in one hand opened the door, and called in with 
a trembling voice: "Doctor, a tree has fallen across my father when 
he was chopping; one of his legs is broken and the other is terribly 
crushed." In five minutes the doctor gathered together the instru- 
ments he might need, including those for amputating a lindi, and 
not forgetting a Imttle of brandy. In five minutes more he was 
mounted on his fleet-footed little mare and was galloping l>a(dc with 
the frightened boy. The farm was five miles off, up a steep road 
and then along a difficult piece of cross-road. But the horses took 
it without pause or falter. 

Early next morning you might have seen the weary doctor 
I'iding slowly back. He had done for the poor man all that his 
skill enabled him to do. But he knew too well the terrible chances 
which menaced him, and his head hung sadly on his breast and his 
heart sank with apprehension. 

Next Sabbath morning a notice was read in Scotch church, 
announcing the funeral of Donald Knox who had been crushed 
.by a falling tree and had died from his injuries. 

^iooTapMcal s;3I>etcl)es. 


J A:\1KS harper, tlie -nmdfiitber of C'oloud Hiirper, oiiiij^Tato.T 
from tlie coimtv of Derrv, iu Ireland, and arrived with liiw 
family at Casco Hay iu ^faiue, iu October, 17"2(). There he settled; 
hut a war haviu;;- Iiroken out with the Indiaus lie removed to 
Boston, Massachusetts, with his family excejjt his youuf,'est son 
John, who remained for the defense of the Province, continuin<i' in 
the service a)4:ainst the Indians about throe years and ei^^ht months. 
After his discharge he weut first to Boston, and afterw;ird to 
Hopkinton, Connecticut, where he married .\biffail Moutf,n)mery, 
November 8, 17"28. From Hopkiuton he removed to Nodell's Island 
near Boston, where was born William, his eldest sou, Septend)er 14, 
1726. .lames, the second sou, was born March "20, 1781. IMary, 
the eldest (hxu^'hter, was born .lanuary 'J.'!, 17;{."{. John, the third 
son, was born May ^il, 17;M. ^NFar^aret, the second daughter, was 
born February 7, 1740. 

Iu 1741 the family removed to ^Middlctown, Connecticiit, where 
Joseph, .\lexaiider ,-iml Abij^ail were born between that time and 
1747, when they I'emoved to Windsor, Connecticut, where anothi r 
daut,diter, Mirriam, was 1)orn February 14, 1740. 

John Harper and his family removed from ^\'inds(Jr to Cherry 
Valley, tin u iu All)any county iu the Province of New York, in 
17.")4, where they ])urchasiMl a piece of land which they immediatelv 
commenced to clear and cultivate. 

The father and mother and their eij^ht children were all iutelli- 

•This sketch is prcparoil by Mr. Allen S. Gibbs of Ilariiersllelil, iiiid Is 
laki'ii from tho history of the town of Harpersflekl.> 

ir)(; insroRY of dklawark county. 

yeiit pei'sous, and the uaiues (if most of tliciu are intimately 
connected with the great struggle for iudependeuee. All tlicu 
living were patriots, aud after our independence was acknowledged, 
were prominent in their several localities. 

William, the oldest son, was a Member of the Provincial Con- 
gress, one of the judges of Montgomery county, aud after Otsego 
county was formed was one of the Associate judges of that county. 
He was also Member of Assembly from Tryon county for the years 
1781, 1782 and 1784, and from Montgomery for 1785-1789. He 
married Margaret Williams of Albany, April 18, 17(50. His long 
and useful life ended at the age of eighty-seven in ^Milford, Otsego 
county. New York. 

James, the second son, died of small pox, ^larch 2"2, 17()0. 

John Harper, Jr., the founder of Harperstield, was distinguished 
for his bravery and sagacity during the war of the Revolution, 
when he held a commission as Colonel. He was married to 
Mirriam Thompson, by whom he had four chiklren — Archibald, 
Margaret, John and Ruth. John, born July 10, 1774, was the first 
white male child born in Delaware county. 

During his youth Colonel Harper attended a school at Lebanon, 
Connecticut, and while there became intimate with a young Indian 
who afterward became the celebrated chief aud warrior, Joseph 
Brant; aud who, although his name has always been held up as the 
synonym of savage cruelty and outrage, there is much reason 
to believe has been greatly misrepresented by writers whose 
jjartisan spirit was too much excited to do him justice, and who 
were disposed to hold him responsible for the cruelties committed 
by Indians under his command. Were this true, it seems certain 
that so strong a partisan as Colonel Harper would not have con- 
tinued friendly with him during the war, and for many years 
afterwards. It is nearlv certain that on the occasion of the 
destruction of Harperstield by the Indians and Tories in 1777, 
Colonel Harper aud his family w'ere saved by a secret warning from 
Biaut, the particulars of which will be hereafter related. 

lUoiniAl'lIICM. SKETCHES. loT 

Josej)h Hariitr. the fc until sou, does not seem to liiivc been so 
proniiueiit in the events of the time as either of liis brothers, hut he 
foii{j;ht liravely in the frontier warfare, and was a niend)er of the 
Conmiittee of Safety of Har]ierstieUl. After the war he married 
Cutharme, dau<,diter of Joseph Douglass of Harperstiehl. 

Alexander Harper was nearly as ])rominent as his more eele- 
briited l)rotber. and held a eommissiou as C'ajitain. After the war 
be settled iu Harperstield, and is believed to have kept the first 
tiiveru iu town; as for several years all town uieetiugs were held at 
his bouse. He also for several years held the ouly commission as 
Justice of the Peace within the present boumls of the town. He 
married Elizabeth Bartholomew, daujifhter of au early settler on the 
Charlotte, near what is now South Worcester. 

At the breakiug out of the Revolution, men were compelled to 
side with the Kin;.;- or the Colonies, and in Harperstield nearly all 
sided with the Colouies. They formed a Committee of Safety as 
follows; Isaac Patchin, chairman; John, Joseph and Alexander 
Harper, Johu Harper Jr., Free{>:ift Patchiu, Audries l{el)ar, William 
McFarlaud, St. Leger Cowley, Isaac Sawyer, John Moore, and 
James Steveus. 

The first capture of Indians, as related by "Siuims," was made 
by Colonel Harper iu Juue or July, 1777. The Colouel had started 
ou horseback for Cherry Valley, about thirty miles distant. As he 
ueared the -Scheuevus creek, iu the present town of Decatur, he 
saw a ])arty of teu Indians approaching, and as he could not well 
avoid it he contidently met them. He at ouce recognizeil the 
leader as Peter, au Oquago chief. He met them in a friendly man- 
ner, calliu^r them brothera, and they sujiposiu^;' him to be a Kiuj^'s 
man were thrown otT their >,''uard. and informecl liim tliat they were 
ou their way to destroy the Sidney settlement of Itev. William 
Johnston aud others, and that their restiupr place for the night was 
to be a mile or two above the UKUith of the Scheuevus. Shaking 
hands with the jiarty he bade them gnod-bye. 

As soou as he bad passed out of their sight, lie hastily returned 

15K uisToKV or i>i:i,AWAiih: corsrv. 

aud sei-ureil tlirt'O Hiirtliolomew brotherH ou the Charlotte, ami at 
Harpersfield his Krothcrs Joseph auil Alexiiuder, anil other settlers 
uutil his i)aity iimnlicred eighteen. Well armed and with ropes 
they set forward aud reached the ludiau camp just before daylight; 
fouud them all asleejj, secured their arms, aud then with eight of 
their number ready with guns to enforce obedience a man with a 
rope approached each of the slee]3ers; the Colonel taking his stand 
beside the leader shouted in his ear: "Peter! it is time for business 
men to be up." 

The party all started to their feet, but tiudiug their own arms 
secured aud so many guns ready to shoot any who atteni])ted to 
escape, they submitted to be liound and were soon on their way as 
prisoners, to Albany. Soon after daylight Peter recognized his 
captor and exclaimed: "Ah, Colonel Harper, why me not knoic i/ou 
i/e.-tterday?" "There's policy in war, Peter." "O yes, me find 'em 
so now." 

Soon after the above capture, the enemy under McDonald 
(according to Simms, but Rev. H. Boies says Brant and Butler) on 
its way to Schoharie, visited Harjierstield intending to capture or 
destroy Colonel Harper aud his "Whig neighliors. Ou account of a 
heavy rain storm the enemy ludted a few miles away aud a friendly 
Indian stole from the camp, made his way to Colonel Harper's 
house and informed him of the intended attack. 

The Colonel hastily concealed what household stuff he could 
not carry, placed his wife and younger children on a horse, or 
horses; with the rest of the settlers hurried off in the rain and 
darkness over the Jefferson hills, to tind safety in Middlebnrgh. 

Harperstield the next day was sacked and destroyed. Colonel 
Harper's niill built two or three years before was burned. Simms 
savs the house was tired at two opposite corners, but the posts 
being cherry did not burn. 

During this raid, or not long after, a family named 21cKec is 
said to have been murdered below Odell's lake in the south part of 
Harpersfield. The father was absent, but the mother and children 

Slate Aririory at Waltori. 

View Sliowirig Location of tt\e Arniory. 


iiU)<:HM'in<'Ai. sKh:rciii-:s. ICX 

were hutclicicil auA tlimwii into (lie lliuncs of tlic bui'iiiii^ Imust!; 
exc(]it oiu' diiUfj^hU'V. Auue. wlm threw herself at tlie feet of a 
saviij^c who had his iixe raised to strike her. He admired her hohl- 
uess !iii<l spared her life. She was takeu to NiaH;ara, where she was 
coiiiiieUed by the siiuaws to rim the f^auutlet, and was uearly killed 
diiriufjf the terrible ordeal. She liowever reeovered, and after a 
loufi; captivity was allowed to return to her home. 

When ^IcDonald and his party appeared near Schoharie, the 
•garrison feeling' unable to contend with him successfully. Colonel 
Harj)er volunteere<l to i;o alone t<i .Vlliaiiy for assistance. Sto])pinfi;' 
at a tavern for the nij,'ht, the Tories attempted his capture, but he 
drove them from the door with his jiistols. The next day tiudinfip 
be was followed by two Indians who intended to wajiav him, he 
stopped in a hollow out of their sij^ht. stuck his sword in a stump, 
placed his l)ack ai^-'ainst his horse, waited till they approachci], then 
with a pistol in each hand, he exclaimed: " Stop, i/oii villains: face 
about and be off, or these bullets shall whistle throuf,'h your 
hearts." The Indians finding- him thus armed and ready, faced 
about as directed. Colonel Harper then proceeded safely to .\ll)any 
and obtained a troop of tweutj'-eis'ht horses. One of the party had 
a trumpet, from which an occasional blast — says Simms — produced 
au etf(?ct equal to that of an army with banners. This troop, with 
the partj- at Schoharie, met juid defeated McDonald, and Colonel 
Harper wrote the Provincial Council of Safety at Kingston: 

"ScH0H.\uiE, Au{>:ust '2.S, 1777. 

"Gentlemen: Since we put Captain ^IcDonald and his army to 
flif^ht, I proceeded with some volunteers to Harperstield, where we 
met many that had been forcecl by McDonahl, and some of tin in 
much abused. Many others were in the woods, who were volun- 
teers; and as we could not f^et hands on those that were active in 
the matter, I f^avc orders to all to make their appearance at 
Schoharie in order to give satisfaction to the authority for what 
the}' have done; and if they do not, that they are to be pioclaimed 
traitors to tlie United States of .\merica; which th<'y readily aj,'reed 


to, and further declare that they will use their best endeavors to 
bring in those who have been the cause of the present disturbance. 

"I would therefore beg the Honorable Council of Safety, that 
they would appoint proper persons to try these people, as there 
will Vie many that can witness to the proceedings of our enemy, and 
are not in ability to go abroad. 

"From your most obedient humble servant, 

"John Harper, Colonel." 


•Judge Foote was born April 12, 175(), in Colchester, Connecti- 
cut. He was the sou of Daniel Foote and the J)rother of Eli Foote 
whose daughter Roxaua married Rev. Lyman Beecher and was the 
mother of Henry Ward Beecher, Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe, and 
others of that talented family. Some of the Foote family espoused 
the loyalist cause in the Revolutionary war; but Ebeuezer was an 
ardent j)atriot, and when the first guns were fired he, with several 
other young men, tied from home without his father's permission 
and joined the patriotic troops near Boston. He was present at the 
battle of Bunker Hill and served continuously until the close of the 
war. For his bravery and efficiency he was promoted from the 
ranks in which he enlisted tu the position of Major. He attracted 
the attention of Washington and was by bim assigned to staff 


He had the misfortune to be taken captive during the war, and 
was confined with many others in the Bridewell prison in New York 
city. Along with a uundjer of others he formed a plan to escape. 
They managed to elude their guards and found themselves in the 

* We are iiidelited for the facts embodipil in this slietc-h to a memorial 
volume coneerniiig Samuel E. Foote in which there is an appendix jjiving the 
principal events in tlie life of Ebenezer Foote; also to an obituary notice t)y 
General Henry Lea ven wort li printed in the Delaware (lazette December 28, 
182'.i, and to memoranda furnished liy Miss Foote of Delhi, the great-great- 
grandaughter of Judge Foote. 


•couutrv near where Chambers street now is. They made their way 
to the Hudsou river with the iuteutioii of crossiug it to New Jersey. 
They found an old leaky boat, but they were unable to make it 
sufficiently safe. All the other fugitives then took to the laud and 
tried to make their way through the hostile sentinels to the country 
north of them. But Foote found a plauk and with it undertook to 
Mwim the Hudson. It was in the month of Dei'cudjer and the water 
was piteously cold. He succeeded, however, in escaping the 
patrolling vessels, and in making his way to the other side. He 
landed at Hoboken where he found shelter aud dry clothes. He 
escaped, but he never recovered wholly from the ctfects of this 
terrible exposure. 

Major Foote from his rank iu the Itcvolutimiary army became 
a member of the Order of C'inciuuati, aud u]i to the time of his 
death took great pleasure in joining his comrades on the fourth of 
July to celebrate the achievement of American independence. 

At the close of the war he only possessed the back ])ay whicdi 
was due to him for his services. Part of this was paid to him iu 
money; and a part was liquidated hy a grant of unsettled land on 
the West branch of the Delaware river. He entrusted the certifi- 
cate of his army pay to an agent for collection and this precious 
rascal defrauded him out of the whole. He had married iu 1779 
Jerusha Purdy, a meniljer of the Westchester family of that uame. 
Her property also had been mostly destroyed by the British troo]is 
in their incursions into the regions north of New York. 

Major Foote had, therefore, to commence life anew. He started 
iu a mercantile career at Ncwbvir^h wliicli was then in Ulster 
county. In this he unist have been more or less successful : for we 
find that several times he was chosen to represent the county iu tlie 
State Legislature. He is recorded as having been in the Asseud)ly 
in 17112, 17'.I4. IT'.m; and IT'.t". It was during this latter year that 
the bill for the erection of Delaware county was under discussicju, 
and Major Foote took an active part in perfecting and securing the 
passage of the measure. He served as Senator from the Middle 


District ilurinf,' the years 17!t8, ITilll, 1K(MI, 1801 and 1H()'2. In 17i)ir 
he was chosen to serve as a member of the Council of Appointment 
under Governor John Juv. 

On tlie establishment of the new county he was appointed liv 
the Governor the county clerk, and immediately removed thither to 
assume his duties. At this time it must be remendsered that there 
was no village of Delhi. There were two sites which were looked 
upon as likely to become the locaticm of the pro])()sed county build- 
ings. One of these was at tlie mouth of Elk Creek on the grounds 
of Gideon Frisbee. Here already the first meeting of the board of 
supervisors had been held and the county court had held its first 
session. The other was the extensive flat at the mouth of the Little 
Delaware. There is a tradition that some of the early county meet- 
ings and courts were held in the latter locality at the house of Mr. 
Leal. It was near this beautiful intervale that the laud lay which 
had been granted to Major Foote for his military services; and it 
was near this on the south that he selected a site and built a 
residence for himself. The building is still standing but has 
2)assed out of the possession of his descendants. 

Mr. Foote served as county clerk until 1801 when he was suc- 
ceeded by Philip Gebhard. He was not only the clerk of the board 
of supervisors, but also the clerk of the courts held in the county 
and the custodian of their records. 

In 1810 he was ajijiointed by Governor Daniel D. Tompkins as 
county judge for a term of six years. Subsequently in 1828 he was 
again appointed to the same oHice which he held until his death in 
182'.l at the age of seventy-four. 

No citizen of Delaware has ever enjoyed a more distinguished 
circle of acquaintance. He knew and corresponded with the most 
active ijolitieal managers of the day, and many of them were his 
guests at Arbor Hill. We may mention a few from whom letters 
are still preserved by his descendants: The Patroon Stejihen Van 
Eeusselaer, Hon. Elisha Williams, (ioveruor Morgan Lewis, General 
Schuvler, the Livingstons, Cadwalader Golden, Josiah Ogden 


HoffiuiUi, l'lnlii> Villi Cdurtliuult. Martin Van Burtn, .Jolin Jav, 
DeWitt Cliutou, Aaron Burr, etc. Catherine Livingston writes to 
him regretting not lia\ing seen liini, and \v<iul(l like to sell him a 
young slave girl, as she has more than she can afford to keep. 

We have already stated that he married in 17711 Jenisha Purdy. 
He had four children, viz: Frederick Parsons, Charles Augustus, 
Harriet, ami .Margaret. Frederick served as general in the war of 
isl'J and died in Ijcgliorn, Italy, in IS'27. His second son Charles 
Augustus, was a lawyer and tilled many local ottices. He was a 
member of congress in liS24, hut died soon after, aged forty. His 
eldest son was a graduate of West Point, served with distinction in 
the Seminole \\'ur and finally was killed in the battle at (iaiues' 
Mills in lHt)2. The second sou of Charles Augustus Foote was 
Charles A. Foote of Delhi, who died in 189(), and who will be 
remendjered by many friends still living. He was born in IKIS and 
lieiug^ left an orphan he was obliged to care for liiniself. ^^ hi ii 
tweuty-oue years of age he commenced business and continued in it 
till his death. During these many years he maintained a character 
of spotless integrity. He held many positions of pul)lic trust. He 
vas treasurer of Delaware county for nine years — from 18(51 to 
isTo. He served as treasurer of the village of Delhi; he was town 
clei'k; he was a trustee of the Delaware Academy, and a director of 
the National Bank. In all these ])ositions he discharged liis trusts 
with unswerving fidelity. 


A full account of General l\oot would include a great part oi 
the history of the county in which so much of his life was spent. 
We give below the principal incidents in his varied and eventful 

1. He was born in Hebron, Connecticut, March 1(1. 177;{. 

2. He was graduated from Dartmouth College, 17il3. 

-i. He removed to Franklin, then in Otsego county, and when 


Delaware county was oi-fiaiiized in 17'.)7 be transferred liis resi- 
dence to Delhi where he coutiuued to dwell uutil the time of hi» 

4. He was married iu 180(5 to Miss Eliza Stockton of Walton. 
He had five children: 1. Julianne born 1(S07, married Hon. S. E. 
Hobbie, died 1898 in Washington, D. C. ; 2. Charles born ;\Iay 
(i, 1809, died December 8, 1828; :-i. Elizabeth born 1812, died 
1865; 4. William born 1818, died 1874; 5. Augusta born ISlC, 
died 1838. 

5. He was a member of the Assembly from Delaware county iu 
1709, 1801, 1802, 1818, 181!), 1820, 1821, 1826, 1827, 1828, 1880. 

6. He was Speaker of the Assembly, 1827, 1828, 1830. 

7. He was a State Senator, 1812-16, and 1840-44; at tliis last 
election in 1840 he was chosen by two majority. 

8. He was Lieutenant Governor 1823-4. In 1824 he was again 
a candidate for the same ottice, but was defeated by James Tall- 

9. He was a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1S21. 

10. In 1824 the Legislature appointed James Kent, Benjamin 
F. Butler and Erastus Eoot, as a commission to revise the State 

11. He was a member of Congress 1803-5, 1809-11, 1815-17, 

12. When the village of Delhi was incorporated in 1821 he was 
a member of the Assembly, and it was by his activity that the act 
was passed. 

13. In 1831 he was appointed by President Jackson along with 
James McCall of New York and John T. Mason of Michigan as a 
commission to lay out the (xreen Bay Indian Reservation. 

14. At the Democratic Convention in 1830 he was a candidate 
for the nomination for Governor, but he was defeated by Enos 

15. He was the postmaster at the village of Delhi during 
twenty years. 

IIKKiHAfllliM. SKh-r<lll-:s. 1(;7 

111. la lS;i:i hv al>audiiiR'il the Democratic pnrty ami liccamc a 


17. Ill his youtli ]]f piiblislied ftu arithmetic, ami in 1824 he 
pulilishtil a vdhnuf of AtUlrosses to the People. He had the houor 
of hoiiij^- immortalized in Fitz Greeue Hallock"s Croakers, in the 
poem iiildressfil ti> Mr. I'ottcr tlic V('ntrilo(|iust. 

IS. He died in New YniU oil his way to Washington to spend 
the winter with his (lau^litcr Mrs. Selali R. Hol>l)ie.* 

A collection of papers relatiuf^- to (iencral l\oot was ou exhi- 
bition during the celebration of the centennial anniversary. Since 
that time these papers have been presented to the New York State 
Library at Albany by Mrs. Selah 1!. Hobliic, then the only surviv- 
ing child of General Root, who has since died, and by Rev. Reeves 
Hobbie of Newark, her son. They are as follows: 

1. Diploma from Dartmouth College, 1793. 

2. Recommendations of Erastus Root for admission to the bar 
of ToUand county, Connecticut, February IG, ITMi. 

S. Certificate of admission to the bar of Tolland county, Con- 
necticut, February 25, 1791!. 

4. License to practise as counsellor in the Supreme Court of the 
State of New York, January 4, 1799. 

5. Aj)i)ointmeut of Erastus Root as Master in Chancery, by (tov- 
eruor George Clinton, January 28, 1802. 

(!. Appointment of Erastus Root as Brigade Inspector of the 
Militia of Delaware county. New York, with the rank of Major, by 
(ioverudr George Clinton, JIarch 29, 18(12. 

7. .Vppdiutincnt nf Erastus Root as Lieutenant Colonel, Com- 
mandant of the Hegimeut of Jfilitia in Delaware county, by Gover- 
nor George Clinton, March 24, l8():i. 

8. License of Erastus Root to practise as attorney-at-law in the 

•General Root's wil was infpii'ssiljli' ami I'lmml \riit un all occnsions. 
Wlii'ii Ilaiiiiltoii Fish was udiiiinati'd I'or Govi'iiuir hi' is saiil to have exprossod 
himself tluLS : '• No doiiht Haniiltoii Fish is a good man, but he can't swim in 
the waters of the Delaware." 


Supreme Court of the State of New Yurk, liv .Tames Keut, Chief Jus- 
tice, Au-ifust 18, 18()(i. 

9. Api)()iutiiieut of Erastus Root as Brigadier Geueral of Bri- 
f^'aile of Militia iu Delaware and other cduutics, by (loveriii)r Dauiel 
D. Tompkins, February 17, ISOS. 

10. Certificate of the election of Erastus Koot as meniher of 
Congress, June 3, 1808. 

11. Discharge of Erastus Root from the office of Master of 
Chancery, by (xovernor Daniel D. Tompkins, March 30, 1810. 

12. Certificate of the election of Erastus Root as a Senator of 
the State of New York, May 81, 1811. 

13. Ai)ji(nntmeut <>f Erastus Root as a Master of C!haucery, by 
Governor Daniel D. Tompkins, February 12, 1811. 

14. Aiipoiutmeut of Erastus Root as Brigadier General of the 
Brigade of Militia iu Delaware county, by Governor Dauiel D. 
Tompkins, April 10, 1811. 

lo. Appointment of Erastus Root as Commissioner for Insolvent 
Debtors, etc., by Governor Daniel D. Tompkins, June 7, 1811. 

1(). Order of Brigadier Geueral P. Farrington to Lieuteuant 
Colonel Erastus Root, September 4, 1814. 

17. Certificate of the admission of Erastus Root as Solicitor and 
Counsellor iu the Court of CUiiucery, by James Kent, Chancellor, 
August 23, 181(). 

18. Appointment of Erastus Root as Major Geueral of the 8th 
Division of Infantry, by Governor Dauiel D. Tompkins, March 22, 

19. Certificate of the election of Erastus Root as Lieuteuaut 
Governor, Deceiuber 4, 1822. 

20. Discharge of Erastus Root as ]Major (xeneral with the 
thanks of the Commander-in-chief, November 17, 1824. 



Siiimiel Sherwood was hovu iu Charlotte county (now "Washiuf;- 
ti>i) county) iu this State, April '24, ITT'.t. His father had come 
from Counecticut to settle in that thinly impulated rej^ion near 
Luke (leor^c, and on the lireakini;' nut of the Hexolution hecanie an 
officer of the vnlunteer troops. Iu ITSd occurred the invasiou of 
that rej,'ion l>y the British and ludiaus under Colonel Carleton, who 
rnva^^'ed the wliole district and burned many of the liousis of the 
Whi^jTs. l\Ir. Sherwood's father's house was liurued at that time; 
the mother takin-jf her two children, his brother and himself ou 
liorsebaek barely escaped the ludians. A few years after the war 
his father moved to Cayuya couuty; there Jfr. Sherwood received a 
f^ood education at the local schools aud was without doubt a ])re- 
j'ocious scholar, for at the ajje of si.\teeu he begau the study of the 
law iu the office of Judf^e Walter Wood of .Vurora. Before he was 
tweuty be had accumulated some landed i>roperty iu Cayuf^'a 
county. He entered the law office of Conrad E. Elmendorf of 
Kiuf^stou, where he remained until November. ITHlt, when he went 
to Delaware county. Before he was eij^hteen he had tried suits 
before justices, aud before he was twenty had tried causes against 
many of the eminent lawyers iu Ulster aud Delaware, such as Smith 
ThoHipson and (larret Van Ness. 

MTien Mr. Slierwnud went to Delaware couuty he had formed a 
]iartnership with Mr. Elmendorf aud did business in the hitter's 
name until his admission in Delaware Common Pleas, February 
Court, 1800. 

He was )iiarrie(l in isiid to Miss Deborah Hawkins and couj- 
menced housekeepiup at Delhi next winter. Thei'e were several 
ohildreu of this niarria^'e. the late 'Slvn. Herman D. (iould bein<,' the 

In 1S(I4 he estal>lisiied his house and law office at Sherwood's 

* This sketch is prefiari'il by Saiinn*l Shcrwooil "f New York City. 


bridge (tbeu called Lfal's luid^e) about a mile south of Dellii,. 
where he had accjuired fousiderablc laud. This house together 
with the adjaceut farm aud wooded hill were retained by him 
during his life and bequeathed to his grandson and namesake, in 
whose possession they now are. Woodland House, so called by its 
builder, is one of the oldest houses in the township. It is situated 
on somewhat rising ground overlooking the Delaware river. The 
architecture is Ionic in style, the woodwork of the porch being 
somewhat elaborate considering the period of its construction. 
Mr. Sherwood in selecting a building site had been somewhat of 
the opinion that a village or settlement was likely to spring up in 
the neighborhood on account of the junction of the Little Delaware 
with the larger stream, and in the early part of the century this 
seemed likely; for just above the bridge w-ere established a tan- 
nery, a grist mill and other industries. ^Ir. Sherwood was 
interested in many of these business enterprises. 

In politics he was originally a Federalist. On going to Dela- 
ware county he was appointed paymaster in Colonel Butler's 
regiment of local militia and later was appointed to take the census 
in Delaware county iu ISOO. 

In a memorandum made in 1850 he says: 

"My determination to make Delaware county my residence had 
its origin in the local ijolitics of the day. The Federalists of Dela- 
ware and Ulster counties were anxious to persuade me to break a 
lance with Erastus Root, some six or seven years my senior and 
then established as the leader of the Democracy of the county. 
We entered the lists in opposition to each other and rose and fell 
with the ebb tide of our respective parties. With the accession of 
George Clinton to the gubernatorial chair of state iu ISdl the 
Federalists lost power in the state, aud it was only during the war 
of 1812 that they again obtained a temporary ascendancy after the 
dissolution of the party, 1810 to IS'2'2. The portion of the party 
uniting with DeWitt Clintt)u came into power with him iu 1825 aud 
held this power till his death in 1828. Delaware county, 1798, was- 


liir^'fly anti-Federal or Democratic, uever j^iviuj,' less than four or 
tivi- Inimlreil Deiuod'atic iiuijoiity of votes under rep;ular orj^uiiiza- 
tion, and it became part of the tactics of th^ day for the minority to 
divide and conciuer, and as every year presented some ' ism ' it 
•generally happened that the Federalists were able to throw away 
tbeir vote ou some unobjectionable Democrat rather than ^'oinj,' to 
the i)olls with a certainty of defeat. In this warfare, which was- 
always unpleasant, we often succeeded in controlling the supervis- 
ion of the county and in subduing the tyrannies and injustices of 
our opponents." 

lu isri Mr. Sherwood was elected to Congress as a Federalist. 
The Federalists, as is well known, were Disposed to the war of 1812 
and presumably he was in sympathy with his party on that issue. 
but later he gave his support to the war measures proposed by the 
atlmiuistration of President Madison. 

In 1.S14 Mr. Sherwood, whose first wife had died in ISlO. was 
married to Miss Laura Bostwick and they spent the following 
winter in Washington. This was the year following the burning of 
the public buildings in Washington by the British troops; the war 
was still in progress, the outlook gloomy; nevertheless there were- 
the usual ceremonial receptions at the WTiite House. !Mrs. Sher- 
wood's letters written at the time give an interesting picture of the 
manners and customs of the period, and an entertaining descrip- 
tion of the appearance (jf Mrs. Dolly Madison, the President's 

Mr. Sherwood, after serving his term in Congress, was not 
again a candidate for ])ublic office and later in life became a 

His law practice in Delaware county contiuui d until ls;{0. 
.Vnioug those associated with liiiu as law ])artiiers or students may 
be mentioned .\masa Parker, (father of the late Robert Parker of 
Delhi,) Judge Aniasa J. Parker of Albany, Nelson Wheeler and 
Franklin Sherwood Kinney. 

In the early days of the century he was generally pitted against 


•General Koot in lej^al as well as political matters. Sdiuc did papers 
iu a libel suit entitled " Hoot vs. Sherwood " are still in existence 
and illustrate tlie conditions of politics aliout iSdS, Itoot claimed 
that Sherwood had libelled him by publishiufi' a political poster 
statiuj^' that he (Root) was an adherent of Aaron Burr, and char;,'- 
ma Root with complicity iu Burr's schemes in the west and urfjiufj 
the electors to " beware of Burrites." Root succeeded in ^cttinL;- 
one hundred dollars damaf^es. 

Iu the trial of James Graham for the murder of Cameron and 
Mc(Tillivrae the accused asked to have Erastus Root and Samuel 
Sherwood appointed his counsel. But Street, the District Attoruev, 
had already secured Sherwood for the ])rosecution. The latter in a 
private letter describes the trial as a most impressive one. Great 
crowds of peo2)le were present. Even many ladies, amcmg others 
the wife of the presiding;- judoe, Ambrose Spencer. 

About ISHd ^[r. Sherwood moved to New York and established 
a successful lej^al practice, which he coutinued until alxnit IS.")."), 
I)roniiueut iu general practice his specialty perhaps was the man- 
agement of real estate cases, ejectment suits and the like. He was 
also distinguished as a Chancery lawyer. In early life he had been 
in active practice against Aaron Burr. In the Anti-rent trials in 
Delhi he appeared for the jjrosecution at the request of 'Sir. Van- 
Bureu, the Attorney General. 

Although engaged in l)usiuess in New York he retained a deep 
interest iu Delhi. He had been associated with most of the enter- 
prises of the early period of the history of the village; he was 
interested iu the establishment of the Academy and was one of the 
founders of St. John's Episcopal Church. 

His home, Woodland House, has sheltered four generations of 
his family as well as many visitors. 

In appearance Mr. Sherwood was aliove the middle height, 
strougly built, with dark comjilexion, marked features. He was a 
uiau of few words but euergetic and forcible. He died in ISIi'i. 
Four of Ml'. Sherwood's children survived him: Mrs. H. D. (rould. 

IlKii.HM'IIICM. SKhrrcilKS. 17;^- 

•loLii Sherwood, iiolnit H. Slurwood ;iud ^Ir.s. i). C'oliltn ilunav. 
All these are now deiid. 

John Sherwood was born in Delhi in 1S'2(I. was educated at tlie 
Delaware Academy and New York private schools and was f^rad- 
iiated at Yale CoUejje in 188!). He studied law and practiced with 
his father. At one time he made a specialty of the law coucerniuj,' 
trade marks and had l)eeu euf^'aj^cd in important cases coiicernin;^" 
steamships and marine insurance. He was interested in historical 
literature and was especially conversant with the military history of 
the co\intry. 

He married in IS.")! Miss ilarv Elizalietli A\ ilsou. daughter of 
(ieneral James A\'ilson of Keene, New Hamiisliire. One of their 
sous, Samuel Sherwood, is the owner of the old Sherwood place and 
sjienils a jjood deal of his time in Delhi. Another son, Arthur 
Muriay Sherwood, is of the banking' firm of Tower tV Sherwood, 
Wall Sti'eet, New Y'ork. ^Irs, Arthur JI. Sherwood was Miss, 
liosina Emmet. 

Robert H. Sherwood, son of the late Samuel Sherwood, had 
lieen a lawyer. He died the year after his father's death, in ISti;! 
He married in 1852 Miss Mary Neal, daughter of John Neal of 
Maine. She survives him as do two daughters, Mrs. Picking, wife 
of Captain Picking, United States Navy, and Mrs. J. Wilson Patter- 
son of Baltimore. 

^Irs. Herman I), (loulil was the iddest daughter nf ilic late 
Samuel Sherw 1 and was born in this county in ISOd. She mar- 
ried Herman D. (iould, a prominent business man of Delhi village. 
He was a merchant and for some time president of the bank and 
Representative in Congress. They lived in the large and attractive 
house at the lower end of the village now owned and occupied by 
the Messrs. Bell. 

Mr. and Mrs. Gould had four sons: Sherwood D., S. Augustus,. 
Herman and Charles. S. Augustus (lould is the only survivor of 
the four. He married ^liss Weston and is now a resident of Chi- 
cago. Herman (iould had been prominent iu railroad woi-k and 


was a resident of Illinois at the time of bis death. He left a widow 
jiud three children — the Misses Rutli and Katharine fTould and 
Edward L. Crould. 


A monument to General Leavenworth stands on the hrow of the 
hill above the village of Delhi. The situation is beautiful, but the 
grounds about it have been sadly neglected, and now the graceful 
shaft is almost concealed l)_v the great trees and the encroaching 
iinderbrusli. "With my best endeavors I have been able to gather 
only a few facts concerning him of whom many were proud in his 
day, and to whose memory they erected this worthy monument. 

Henry Leavenworth was born in New Haven, C'i>nnecticut,' in 
178;-}. He belonged to the same stock as the noted General Elias 
W. Leavenworth of Syracuse who for so long a time was a promi- 
nent tigure in New York public life. Like many other young men 
of New England he had been smitten with the fever of emigration 
and followed friends into the county of Delaware. He had already 
begun the study of law before he left New England, and when he 
came to Delhi in ISO.') at twentv-(me years of age, he entered the 
office of General Erastus Root to continue his studies. In due time 
he was admitted to the bar and then became a partner of his pre- 

He imbibed from his j)artner not only a good knowledge of law 
xxuA a readj' and cordial manner with all who ajsproached him, but 
jDarticularly a keen liking for military matters with which the ex- 
periences of the Revolution made almost all the pioneer settlers 
familiar. Fi'oui this militai'v ardor came the movement of Mr. 
Leavenworth at the opening of the war of 1812. He raised a com- 
pany, (the 25tli Lifantry,) for service and was commissioned as a 

* Iq a sketch (if liini in the WdKliiiiijtini (IhiJiv \\'ii'M) liis birtliplace is j;iven 
AS Vermont, but it is bolieveii ttiat ttiis is an orriir. Tin' ni.irmiin'nt iibovi' re- 
ferred to gives the place or his nativity as Connecticut. 

lilOiiHM'IIICM. SKF.rcUF.S. 17.-, 

■Captain in the Unitcil Slalts Ainiv. He wus in the li;ittlo of ('lii])- 
pcwa whiTf lie was l)i-('V('ttc(l for hraverv, and attain in I lie battle of 
Niat,'ara, wliirc be was a second time brevetted. I'nil in this bist 
battle he had been severely woiiiub'd. Colonel Ijeavenwoitli had 
married Harriit Lovejov just before settinj;' out for the war. and his 
wife accompauied him to tlie field of service. Fortunately she was 
preseut to uurse him and eare for him in bis wounded condition. 
IJut he recovered and was able again to <i'ive bis services to the 

After the close of the war Colonel Leavenworth was allowe(l a 
leave of absence from the army, and on his return to Delaware 
county be was elected a mend)er of the State lej^islature. He ren- 
dered such service to his State and his party that pointed him out 
as a (■cmsjiicuously rising man. 

On re-entering the army be was appointed an Indian agent by 

. the government in the Northwest territory. He repaired to bis field 
of labor without bis wife; but after a few years, she joined bim in 
these then remote regions. There are still many reminiscences of 
Colonel Leavenworth's res-idence in that country. His duties were 
])artly civil and jjartly military. .\s a reward for his faithfulness 
and bravery the War Department had conferred on him the rank of 
Brigadier General. For the purpose of protectinj^' the frontier set- 
tlements against the Indians he erected many forts whicli would 
enable the slender forces of the United States to hold their own. 

-One of them, Fort Leavenworth, has given its name to a city in the 
state of Missouri. 

]>nrint,' the winter of 1S.'{4 lie came to Washington, on duty 
<-ouuected with bis mission in the West. During his visit he was 
admitted to the Supreme Court of the United States. He was put 
in comnuiud of the military department of the Southwest ami 
returned to bis duties in the spriuj^-. DuriuL; his o]icrations 
against the hostile Indians he was seized witli an attack of malarial 
liver He died from this at Cross Timbers in the 'I'erritory of 
.Vrkausas. Cajitain James Dean, who was with him at his death, 


lllsroliy oh' IIF.LAWARK COVXTV. 

wrote couceriiiu^- the p<iiiif\il civcumstauces. General Leaven- 
worth, foreseeing that his death was near, said to Captain Dean: 
"To the people of Delaware county I owe all that I ever have been; 
and at the beautiful little villai,')' of Delhi, that (U'lij^htful spot, I 
wish my bones to rest. Place luy body in a cothu of bordock wood, 
and let it be buried here until the cold weather comes. Then carry 
me by way of New Orleans back to my home." 

This was tenderly done, and accompanied by a detachment of 
his command his l)ody was brought to Delhi. Here it was received 
bv every demonstration of sorrow and respect by his townsmen and 
the military authorities of the State. The fuucral was held IMay 22. 
1835, and he was buried in the spot w^here his monument now 
stands. This was erected shoi'tly afterwards by his achuiriuf^ 
friends. It bears the following iuscrip)tion: 

On the West Front : 

(hi the Xinih Front : 

In JIejioet of Henbt Leavenworth, 
Colonel of the U. S. 2d Infantkt 


Bbigadieb General in the Army. 

.\s A Testimonial 

To his ptblic and phivate wokth 

His Begiment have erected 

This MoNrMENT. 

On the South Front : 

On the Fast Front . 

B<iRN AT New Haven, Connectktt, 

December 10, 1783. 


In the Service of his Cointey 

Near the False Waschita 

.TlLY 21, lH,3t. 

Fob his Civic Virtues 
His Fellow-Citizens of Delaware 

Honored him with a Seat 
In the Legislature of New York : 

The Fields of 

Chippewa, Niagara and .\uricharee 

Establish his Fame as a Soldier. 

iAr. clay Gould. 



The faiiiilv in wliicli William I?. Oj^ilcii lielonged cunie to Dcla- 
wiire ciiunty from Monistown, New .Icrsey. It seems to have 
eujovetl the special friendship of Goveruor Dickersou of that State, 
because we find that a yoimger brother of William B. was uamed 
after the ^'overuor Mahlou Dickersou Ogdeu. It is stated that 
Abraham the father of William started out to Hud a suitable j)lace 
iu which to settle. He had about dctermiued upou Washiuft'tou, 
the uew capital of the uatiou; but he met a frieud iu Philadel))hia, 
who had purchased a large tract of laud iu the wild regicms ou the 
upper Delaware. He set forth so attractively the opportunities for 
laud and lumber iu this picturesipie region, that it cmlcd iu the 
agreement of the Ogdeus to go to Delaware county instead of 

Accordingly iu ITHT a colouy of this family, all bearing substan- 
tial bible names, found their way into the valley of the Delaware 
and settled at Walton. Here Isaac and .\l)raham established a s;iw 
mill for cutting up the vast amounts of timber which was found 
around them. Subsequently they added to their establishment a 
mill for fidling the cloth which the settlers brought to them. 

Here William, the son of Abraham, was born in 1S()5. Long 
afterward when he had become a prosperous and well-known public 
man, he spoke of his early life: "I was born close by a saw mill, was 
early left an orphan, was cradled in a sugar trough, christened iu a 
mill pond, graduated at a log school house, and at fourteen fancied 
I could <1() auytliiug T turned my baud to, and that nothing was 

In his boyhood he was remarkably athletic, and was foiid of 
hunting and fishing. His father was obliged to make it a rule for 
him, that he must not fish more than two days iu the week. He 

• I am indebted to Hon. Andrew H. Green of New York for tlu» most of tlie 
information contained in tliis sketch. Tlie pamplilet referred to is No. 17 ol' 
till- Ferniis Historical Series, rclatlniL; to early Cliicago events. 


Wiis ii uotiiblv yood «but * iu the days wheu j^ood shootiuj^' was uot 

It had beeu determined in the fajuily eouucils that William 
should study law, ami he had beguu to make jjreparatiou for 
his prol'essioual studies. At this time, 18'2(), his father suffered a 
stroke of paralysis from which he died iu 1H"25. The duty of the 
son was to take up the responsibilities of the father and abandon 
his chosen career. This he did bravely and without hesitation. For 
the next ten years he was the intrepid business man of "Walton. In 
1S84 when he was still a young man of twenty-nine he was elected 
to represent the county in the State Assembly. The scheme for 
building- the Erie railway with State aid was iu that year before the 
legislature. ^Ir. Ogden, although inexperienced in legislation, was 
pvit forward as a leader in the advocacy of the desired measures. 
He made a speech on the subject lasting through three days, which 
is still spoken of as showing the far-sighted discernraeut of the 
future financier. 

It was during this winter that he became interested in the sub- 
ject of real-estate in the little village of Chicago. His friend Arthur 
Bronson of New York, and his future brother-in-law the late Charles 
Butler, had visited the west and had become impressed with the 
prosj)ects of this place. A land comjiany was formed and Mr. Og- 
den was asked to take up his residence there as its agent. 

Mr. Ogden therefore removed to Chicago in 1835. and entered 
on that splendid career which ended only with his life. Chicago 
had then only 1,50(1 inhabitants. But he was one of those who saw 
its future jjossibilities at the head of lake navigation and as a rail- 
road center. Two years later it received a charter as a city, and 
had then reached a population of 3,500. Mr. Ogden was elected the 

* Turkey shooting was a favorite amusement in days. Usu;illy a 
colored man owned the turkey and was paid twenty-five cents by each one 
who shot. If the marksman hit tlie head of the turkey it was his; but if he 
hit any other part it still was the negro's. When young Ogden shot he was 
made to pay twice the regular rate. The poor darkey would shout, "Dodge, 
dodge old gobbler, Ogden is going to shoot. Shake yer head, darn ye, don't 
you see that rifle pinting at ye?" See Arnold's memorial of W. B. Ogden. 

HHXiliM'llliAI. SKETCHES. 181 

first mayor of thf uew city. Td liiin mure thau to any otlicr iiiaii it 
owes its j)ositioii as tlio j^icaf niid-coniitry metroiiolis. 

It is im|H)ssil)lc tliut he slioiild liavc ^'oue on witli all his ijfrcat 
enterprises wnthout reverses. Durin-jf the crisis of IS")? lie was 
larjjely interested in the extension of the railroad which is uow the 
Chieafifo and Northwestern. Tliis corporation defaulted in the pay- 
meut of the interest on its floating deht. Mr. Ogden was the en- 
dorser of its |)apei- to the extent of a million and a half of dollars. 
The response of bis friends in this eml)arrassment is one of the most 
creditable tbinj^s in tiiiaucial history. Samuel Russell, the founder 
of the bouse of Russell \- Co. in ('bina, placed nearly half a million 
of dollars at his disiiosal; Robert Eaton, of Swansea, Wales, sent 
him eipfhty thousand (loUars to use at bis discretion; Matthew Laflin 
of Chicaf,'t) tendered bini from himself and bis friends one hundred 
thousand dollars; and Col. E. D. Taylor repeatedly ottered like sub- 
stantial assistance. But Mr. Ogden contrived to weather this storm 
without accepting this magnanimous aid. He was often iicaiil to 
declare that it was worth while to become end)arrassed in order to 
experience the generosity of such friends. 

The active spirit of I\Ir. Ogden kept him busy during all these 
years in developing new lines of industry. He founded an 
lumbering establisliment at Peshtigo in Northern Wisconsin; lie 
organized great iron and coal works at Brady's Bend in Pennsyl- 
vania; he was the leading spirit in the movements connected with 
the Union Pacific railroad, the Fort Wayne railroad, the Chicago 
and Northwestern railroad and many others. 

So much of his time was now re([uired in New York on account 
of his great interests, that in 18(i(i he purchased for himself a bouie 
on Fordham Heights ni'ar New York, which he calb;d Boscol)el. 
The Chi<^ago people never (piite forgave him for this desertion of 
the city be had dune su much td Ijuild up. But. lie did not give up 
Chicag'o. He always retained a iiouse and a legal residence there. 
He considered himself as a Cbicagoan living^ for conveniences in New 

182 lllsroHY OF liKhAWARE COVXTV. 

He was at Boseobel wheu word came to him iu 1871 that ( hicat^o 
■was on fire. He started thither by the earliest train. On his way 
lie received notice that his luiubcriug villaf,'e at Peshtif^o, two hun- 
dred miles from Chicago, was also entirely destroyed by fire. We 
may well suppose that Mr. Ogden was not the least brave of those 
who confronted the disasters of that terrible time. By their courage 
and iutrejiidity they turned the ruin of Chicago into lasting benefit, 
and gave it an impulse toward greatness which it has never hist. 

Up to 1875 Mr. Ogden had lived a bachelor, l)<)th at Chicago and 
Boscobel. But in that year he married Mary Aruot, daughter of 
Judge John Aruot of Elmira, and took her to reside at Boscobel. 
Here he died in 1877 aged seventy-two years. He left l)ehiud him 
a great name for financial skill and enterprise, for open-hearted 
generosity, and for a most attractive and charming personality. He 
never forgot his native town or county. In his will there was a 
clause bequeathing a sum of money to be expended in the discretion 
of his executors for charitable objects. This clause was attacked in 
the courts but was settled by compromise, and from it the sum of 
$20,000 was received for the establishment of a library iu the village 
of "Walton. A beautiful building for this purpose has been erected 
at a cost of $14,500. 


PR1N(IF.\I. (IF THE DKI, AWAKE ACADE.MY l.s;i7-4tj. 

No sketch of Delaware eovinty would be complete without an 
account of the Rev. Daniel Shepard, the principal of the Delaware 
Academy from 1837 to 1840. All those who knew him and knew 
the work he had done for the Academy, and esiiecially all those who 
were students under him, will be ready to testify to his high and 
exemplary character and his iusjjiring scholarshij). When he came 
to Delhi iu 1837 to take charge of the Academy he was only twenty- 
two years of age, and when he died iu 1840 he was only thirty-oue. 
We aj)pend a brief sketch of his short but brilliant life. 

lilOiiRM-mcAL SKETCHJiS. 18:{ 

He was boru at Portlaiul, Couuectii'ut, iu ISlo. His i)areut8 
were members of the Protestant Episcopal Churcb, and be was cou- 
firmed auil became a commuuicant at tlic ajj^e of sixteen. He was 
sent to Trinity C'olll•^'■e at Hartford, and was graduated iu ls:i(;. It 
was liis purpose to enter the university of the Episcojial Church, 
but as he was still very youny, he accepted an iuvitatiou to beco)n(> 
tbe principal of the Delaware Academy. 'While he held this position 
he pursued his theological studies and was ordained a dcac<in l>y 
tbe Bishop of Couuecticut iu 188!1, and a few years later was or- 
dained a priest by tbe Bishop of New York. During his principal- 
ship he occasionally officiated in the church at Delhi, and he never 
gave uji the design to devote his life to the sacred ministry, but 
death came before he was able to change the plans of his life. 

When lie came to Delhi the academy was in a depressed con- 
dition, and the prospects might have deterred a less alert and 
enthusiastic man. But ilr. Shepard had youth and health and 
unbounded vigor, and entered on his (bities with an assurance that 
speedily brought success. Nine years he remained principal, and 
each succeeding year of this period witnessed a marked advance iu 
tbe stauding and prosperity of the school. It had a patronage not 
only from the county of Delaware, but from the large cities of the 
country. Many boys were sent from New York, with the assured 
expectation that they would receive not only a sound educational 
training, V)ut would profit by the Ijraciug physical and moral atmos- 
phere in which they would l)e placed. 

The academy hail the contidenci' ami the patronage of the best 
and most distinguished citizens of the couuty and esi)ecially nf the 
village of Delhi. The old students will remember well the faithful- 
ness and vigilance of the trustees iu watching over the institution; 
how (ieneral Root in his old age renewed his youth and his sriidlar- 
ship by visiting the school on every suitable occasion; how t't)lnii(d 
Amasa Parker, Judge Amasa J. Parker, and others, were constantly 
present on occasions of examiuatiou or at the exhibitions which were 
lield at the close of the terms. 


'Sir. Slu'itani \v;is the priiiciiial character couiiei'teil witli th<! 
school. In the female (Icpartuieiit. however, which was separated 
froiii the male, Mrs. Teu Broeck (afterward Mrs. Howard) was for a 
lon^- time the preceptress, and endeared herself, uot only to the 
girls uuder her immediate care but to the l)oys iu the male depart- 
ment, lu classical learning particularly Mr. Shepard was an en- 
thusiastic scholar and teacher. Any of the lads wlm shciwed any 
special ajititude received from him every encouragement and assist- 
ance. He was a most successful disciplinarian, and maintained an 
easy and natural authority over his hoys which made impossible the 
taking of any liberties with him. He had a good-natured wit of 
which they had a wholesome fear, and with whicli he occasionally 
lashed them.* But it was his natural dignity and the kind-hearted 
spirit in which he administered his little domain that made him an 
easy and successful ruler. 

Mr. Shepard's career at the Dc'laware Academy was uot long, 
although it was memorable. At the close of the academic year iu 
1846, he planned for himself a trip to the He went as far as 
St. Louis and was there seized with a congestive fever. He started 
on his return home, iu spite of his illness. The facilities for travel 
were then by no means so great as they have since become; and the 
fatigue of his exertions materially aggravated his disorder. He 
reached home suffering still from the attack of fever, and after a 
few weeks closed his young and promising life. 

He had married, after coming to Delhi, Miss Hogau of Albany, 
who with a family of young children survived hioi. She still, after 
a period of more than fifty years, remains iu a placid old age await- 
ing the summons to join lier dear husband in the laud of eternal 

* Dr. McGregor of New York, wlm was Mr. Shepard's pupil for several 
years, remembers once when he was engaged with a class, some of the other 
boys in the room took advantage of the opportunity to neglect their work. 
Mr. Shopard without a moment's hesitation said : 

"Thomas Scott, you study not, 

Edward Bill, you're idle still, 

Walter Crear, come sit here." 



Of I'lW of luT citizeus is Delaware county uioi-c ))it)U(l tliau of 
the eiiiiuiut ami ufcoiiiplisbed Jiul<>e Parker. Althdujili he reiuDved 
from his home iii Delhi at au early age — only thirty-nine, yet he 
Latl remained long enough to lie chosen to most of the hom)ral)l<' 
offices of the county, ami to sliow liy his professional ability and l>y 
his energetic private career, his true worth as a man and a citizen. 

He was the sou of Rev. Daniel Parker, a Congregational clergy- 
man who for many years was the pastor of a church in Sharon, 
Connecticut. He was horn in Sharon in lS(l7; luit in 1816 the 
father removed to (Ireenville, in (rreene county, N. Y., where he 
took charge of the .Vcadei.iy of that place. The son, then only nine 
years old, here ci>mmeuced the study of Latin, and in the usual 
studies of a classical education made notable advancement. In 
May, 1H"2S, when only sixteen years old he liecainc pnuci])al of the 
Hudson Academy. In 1825 he entered the senior class of Union 
College and was graduated, still retaining his position in the Hud- 
sou Academy. After graduating he commenced the study of law in 
the office of Judge John W. Edmonds. 

In lK-27, at the age of twenty, he removed to Delhi and resumed 
the study of law with his uncle. Col. Amasa Parker. He was adniit- 
teil to the bar in 1N2S, and immediately was taken into partnership 
by his uncle. Here for fifteen years he was engaged in an extensive 
and laborious practice; his uncle almost entirely confining himself 
to the duties of the office, leaving to the learned and brilliant 
nephew the duty of apj)earance in court. 

In 1834 he was a meudier of the Assembly. 

In ISS") he was chosen a Regent of the University, which position 
he held till he was appointed Judge. 

In lH87-:!!t he was a mcmlicr of Congress from the counties of 
Broome and Delaware. 

In 1839 he was a candidate for State Senator against General 
Root, but was defeated 1)V a few votes. 


lu 1844 he was iippointed by Governor Silas Wrip^bt to the ottice 
of Circuit Jud^e of the Third Circuit. It was at this time he re- 
moved to Albany where he resided until his death. 

At no time in the history of the State have the judicial labors 
devolving upon the judges been more difficult and responsible than 
those which he was called upon to discharge during the twelve 
years of his service. The anti-rent excitement was then at its height. 
It crowded the civil calendars with litigation, and the eriniiual 
courts with indictments for acts of violence in resisting the collec- 
tion of rents. 

The trial of Dr. Boughton ("Big Thunder') in the spring of 
1845 before Judge Parker at Hudson lasted two weeks and resulted 
in a disagreement of the jury. The second trial was held by Judge 
Edmonds and the ijrisoner was convicted and sentenced to State's 

In the summer of 1845 Osman N. Steele, Under-Sheriff of Dela- 
ware county, while attending a sale for rent, at which more than 
two hundred disguised " Indians " were present, was shot and killed. 
Over two hundred jiersons were indicted for crimes connected with 
this killing. The trials were conducted during the autumn of 1845 
by Judge Parker. The cases were all disposed of either by trial or 
by the prisoners pleading guilty. The sad business was ended and 
Judge Parker had done a pathetic and trying piece of work. 

In 1846 a new constitution was framed for the State and duly 
adopted. Under this constitution Judge Parker was elected a Jus- 
tice of the Supreme Court of the State for the full term. 

After the expiration of his term of office he devoted himself to 
the duties of his profession in the city of Albany. A large part of 
his time was taken up with the argument of cases before the Court 
of Appeals. He was the author of several law books which were 
highly esteemed by the profession. Geneva College in 1846 l)es- 
towed upon him the degree of Doctor of Laws. He was called upon 
often in his home in Albany to aid in the management of educational 
and charitable enterprises. For many years he was a. professor in 


tbf All)!iuy Liiw Si-luHil iiud ilevoted imu-li time tv prepariug aud 
•jfiviiifj lectui'es. 

Hf was a iioliticiaii in its widest auil l)est sense. Twice he was 
thi' cauiliilate of bis party for CMtvcriioi- nf liis State, iu 1851; and 
n^raiii iu ISoS. 


Jay Gould was horu iu Eoxbiiry. Debiware couuty, in 188(). He 
WHS a desdeiidaut of the Goulds who immigrated from New Euglaud 
iuto Delawai-e couuty in 1781).* The ancestor of the family came 
from England iu HUG and settled in Fairfield, Conn. Abram Gould 
the great-grandfather of Jay Gould, was a colouel iu the Revolution- 
ary war and was killed in battle. It was the sou of this revolution- 
ary colouel who came with other pioneer settlers into Roxbury. 
Here his sou John B. Gould was born, who grew up to be one of 
the substantial citizens of the town. He married a daughter of 
John More who was the pioneer Scotch settler in Roxbury and the 
founder of Moresville. 

When their son Jay Gould I was fourteen years old, he was sent 
to the Academy at Hobart, where he made such good use of his 
opportunities that he became well founded iu the branches of which 
he was afterward to make such good use. In 1851 his father es- 
tablished a hardware store iu the village of Roxbury, and the ener- 
getic boy, now grown to be sixteeu years of age. was the chief 
manager of the business. In the midst of all his engagements, 
however, he contrived to save time to coutiuuc his studies iu survey- 
ing and engineering. .\ud in the next year, 18.")2, we find liim 
employed to make a survey of Ulster couuty for a proposed map. 
His employer, however, failed in his plans, and they were taken up 
and finished by his young assistants one of whom was 'Sir. Gould. 
Other surveys followed, — the village of Cohoes, and the counties of 
.\lbauy, Sullivan and Delaware, .\bont IS.").'! hf was for ,i time a 

• Soe pngt' 49. 

t Originally the name was Jason Gould. 


student in tlie Albiuiv Aciuleniy, uo ddulit with tlu- imrjiose 
■of jjcrfectiuf,'- biinsi'lf in the briiuches whicli he h;ul occasidn 
to use. 

His history of Delaware couuty — a uotrtl)ly thorough ami paius- 
takiij<4 piece of work — was issued in 18.')(). After the nuinuseript 
had Ijeeu sent to the printer in Philadeljihia it was destroyed l)y a 
lire in the printing' house. It was however re-written, and ready 
for the printer a second time within four mouths from the time of 
its destruction. The map of Delaware county was also published 
in 1856 when Mr. Gould was still Init twenty years of age. 

In the meantime he had formed the acquaintance of Col. Zadoc 
Pratt of Prattsville, wdio had a giit for discovering energetic and 
cajjable young men. Col. Pratt had come to the conclusion that 
owing to the failure of the supply of hemlock bark, the time tor the 
business of tanning at Prattsville w-as nearly ended. He despatched 
Mr. Gould, therefore, to search for and select some suitable place 
where the business could be profitably conducted. In pursuance of 
this purpose he selected a site in Pennsylvania, where there was an 
abundance of hendock timber which would furnish bark for a long 
time. Here he built an extensive tannery and entered uj)()n the 
business on a large scale. In a few years he was al)le to buy out 
bis partners, and finally in 1857 he sold out the entire establishment 
in order to enter upon the occupation which had always bad a fasci- 
Jiation for him. 

In his testimony before a Commission appointed by the United 
States Senate in 1883, to investigate the affairs of the Union Pacific 
Railroad, Mr. Gould, in describing this transition in his career, 
says: "I still retained my early love for engineering and I was 
watching the railrtjads; After the panic everything went down very 
Jow, and I found a road whose iirst mortgage bonds were selling at 
ten cents — the Rutland and Washington Railroad, runninj^- from 
Troy, N. Y. to Rutland, Vt. I bought a majority of the bonds at ten 
•cents, and left everything else and w^ent into railroading. That was 
in 18()(). I took entire charge of that road. I learned the Inisiuess, 


iiiul I was pit'siikut, tiiasurir uuil f^fUfial sujiciiutemlcnt, and 
(iwiinl a coutrolliug interest." 

The result of his foresij^lit and cncrjiv was soon apparent. The 
road which he had rescued was soon after consolidated with others 
into the Rensselaer and Saratoga Railroad with a very suVistantial 
profit to the young financier. After this profitable transaction he 
estflblished himself in the city of New Vnrk, becoming an extensive 
broker, esi)ecially in railroad jiroperties. The New York and Erie 
Railroad was at this time in dire tiuaucial straits, and ^Fr. Gould 
purchased large blocks of its depreciated securities. In 1872 he 
became the president of the road, and for some years thereafter was 
deeply engaged in its management. Finally however a decisive 
turn occurred in its affairs through the intervention of the English 
bondholders and ^Ir. (irould and his friends were retired. 

When the Union Pacific Railroad became financially end)arrassed, 
feeling assured of the substantial value of the transcontinental 
lines, he bought up large <|uantities of its securities. Tliese, when 
the affairs of the road had l)een improved, appreciated greatly on 
his hands and returned him a liberal profit. His dealings in the 
Missouri Pacific securities were of the same kind and le<l to the same 
profitable results. As he himself testified before the Commission 
above referred to: "The re-organization of broken-down roads and 
ren<leriug them profitable had become a hobby with me. I cared 
less for the money I made out of the transactions than for the satis- 
fa<-tion of re-establishing them upon a profitable basis." 

Another of his far-reaching and remunerative schemes was the 
organization of the Western Union Telegraph Comi)any. After 
.Beveral preliminary consolidations, the last which brought all the 
interests into one vast company was effected in issl. Hy this great 
transaction he became by far the largest holder of Telegi'.iphic 
stock in the United States. Soon after this he took up the Elevated 
Railroad interests in the city of New York, and it was mainly through 
his iiiHuence that the separate companies holding these valuable 
franchises were combined into one working organization. The 


results of this oiieratioii were to adil hu';^ely to his alreaily vast 
wealth. Thus Viy his own foresi;^ht aud by his clear and dexterous 
eoiid)iuatioiis this able aud eapal)le luau who "knew how to briug 
things to pass," had step Ijy step grown to be one of the reeognized 
tiuaneial powers in the eountry. 

In 1868 he had married Helen Day Miller, the daughter of Hon. 
Daniel S. Miller of Greenville, N'. Y. Their children who are all 
still living are: (ieorge Jay Gould, Edwin Gould, Helen Miller 
Gould, Howard Gould, Anna Gould, (now the Countess Castelan^ 
aud Frank Jay Gould. His wife died January 13, 1889, aud Mr. 
Gould himself December 2, 1892. 

lu memory of their father and mother, and in recognition of 
their father's birth aud early residence in Delaware couuty, the 
family has improved and beautitied the ancestral residence iu Rox- 
bury aud frequently it is occupied as a summer home. They have 
also built a beautiful aud picturesque little memorial cliurcli, which 
they have donated to the Reformed Congregation of the town. And 
lastly Miss Helen Gould, who most often takes up her summer resi- 
dence there, has bought back the old home of her father and cou- 
Terted part of it into a library and reading room for the people of 
the village. She has contributed mauy books to this library, aud 
the library association of the place has purchased others, so that 
the little village library has become a most valuable souri'e of culture 
and intelligence. 

All these benefactions have been inspired by the desire to com- 
memorate in some appro|iriate manner the lives of those who were 
so dear to them, aud at the same time to benefit the community to 
which early associations had attached them. It is a matter of no 
small pride to Delaware couuty that two of the most eminent finan- 
ciers of our country have thus l)eeu born within her territory, viz: 
William B. Ogden aud Jav (iould. 


Anthony M. Paine. General Paine was boni at Har|nTsliel(l, Slaieli 25, 
IWll. a sou of Dr. Asahel E. Paine, who came to Dellii in 1807, and Mr. X. SI. 
Paint- was a resident from that time till his death, March 10th, 1881. In 
Mareh. lN3:i, in eonipany witli Jaeoh D. Clark, purehased the Delaware Gazette. 
In early life Mr. Paine was engaged in mercantile l)iisiness in Delhi village. 
Kor many years he was a Justice of the Peace, also Sii|iervisor and Town 
Clerk. For one year he was Treasurer of the county, and in IKIiO census taker 
■of the county. He was a director in the Delaware Bank for nearly fort.y years ; 
for over forty years a trustee of Delaware Academy, and for fifteen years pres- 
ident of the board. He passed through the various promotions of the old 
State militia until he reached the rank of Brigadier-General, which position he 
lii'ld until the militia was disbanded. Mr. Paine was always very regular and 
punctual in attendance at his office: and rarely in the last forty-four years of 
his life did a day pass by when in the village that he was not to lie found there 
at his accustomed seat; and as he passed into and through nnddle life to a 
ripe old age, no man ever had occasion to .say that a single scar marred that 
life's record. His ear was never deaf to the story of suffering and distress, 
nor his hand empty to want and hunger. 

Hon. Samuel A. Law. Samuel K. Law was born in Cheschire, Conn., in 
1771. He was graduated from Yale College in 1792. He pursued the study of 
law at Litchlield, Omu. and was admitted to the bar in 1795. He was sent 
into Delaware county in 1798 as the agent of the owners of the Franklin Patent. 
The tract was then almost a wilderness; but the liberal terms offered to set- 
tlers led to the rapid filling up of the vacant lands. Mr. Law himself became 
a settler, and established himself at what has since been called Meredith 
S4|uare. He was appointed a Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, from which 
fait he was commonly called Judge Law. He died at his home in Mererlith in 
1x45 in the 74th year of his age. 

C>loneI Amasa Parker. Colonel Parker was born in Lilclilield county, 
•Conn., in 17x4. He was graduated from Yale College, studied law in Litchfield 
and afterward with Peter Van Schaik at Kinderhook, N. Y. In 1812 he removed 
to Delhi and formed a law partnership with Sanniel Sherwood, then in the 
acme of his professional career. This lasted until Mr. Sherwood removed to 
Xew York. His residence was near that of Mr. Sherwood at the inllux of the 
Little Delaware. Afterward he formed a partnership with his iiei)hew, Amasa 
J. Parker, which continued until the latter was apjiointixl a judge and removed 
to .\lbany. Then he still continued the practice of law with his son. Robert 
Parker. His distinguished services in his professj.iri iMnlerl with his di'ath 
in 18.55. 

Hon. Charles Hathaway. Charles Hathaway was born at Hudson \. Y. in 
17'.H.. |{c died at hi- home in Delhi January 21, 1X7(!. He came with his par- 
ents into Delaware county in 18(is, where he spent the whole of his long life. 
He commenced the practice of law in Delhi, b<'ing for a time in partnership 
with Hon. C. A. Foote. He held the office of County Judge and Surrogate be- 
ginning 1S40. to which he was appointed by Governor Seward. During his 
term of office there was a bitter controvers.y throughout the State as to the 
maladministration of the office of Surrogate. The rejiorts of Surrogate Hath- 


away \vi>io ospot-ially commeiideil as ruotlols foi- houosty ami fairm-ss in cvoiy 
particular. After the leiiniualiou of his term of office as county judj^e he 
retired from the practiee of law, and devoted himself to the extensive land 
interests for which he had lieeii appointed agent. These interests were the 
same as those for which .Judge Foote had acted. During his lifi' he had avail- 
ed himself of the assistan<-e of Mr. Hathaway in the niauagement of these im- 
portant concerns; and licfore his death had him sulistilutcd for' hhiisclf as the 

Judge Hathaway was during his whole life an active and public-spirited 
citizen. The introduction of water for the village, the organization of a fire- 
department, the Vmilding of cliurches and county buildings, the organization 
of the Delaware Bank, all found in him an active and zealous friend. 

Judge Hathaway married in l!S2S Maria Augusta Bowne, a neice of Judge 
Foote and a sister of Norwood Bowne. 

Hon. Samuel Gordon. Samuel Gordon was born at Wattles Ferry on the 
Susquehanna in isii-j. Like most of the young men of that day his education 
was chiefly obtained in the common schools of his home. His busy, active and 
intellectual boj'hood naturally led to a career beyond the community in which 
he was born. He acquired by persistent self-effort a good general education 
including classics and general literature. In 1827 he commenced the study of 
law with General Erastus Root in Delhi. After admission to the bar in 1829 
he became a partner of General Eoot and began that remarkable career of 
professional activity which ended only with his life. Scarcely a term of the 
court passed during that long period without his being engaged in some of the 
most important cases. He was elected in succession to nearly all the offices- 
which lay in the line of his profession. He was postmaster in 1831; he was 
member of Assembly in 183.3 ; he was District Attornej- of Delaware county 
from 1836 to 1839 ; he was elected a member of Congress from Delaware and 
Broome counties in 1840 ; he was re-elected in 1844; during the civil war he 
served as provost-marshal of the 19th congressional district until its close 
in 1865. 

His wife was Frances Leete and his children were Harriet, Frances, .\ima, 
Samuel, William and George L. 

He died at his home in Delhi, October 24, 1S7S. 

Dr. O. M. AUaben. Dr. Allaben was born in 1808 at a place then in the 
town of Delhi, but which now is in the town of Hamden. His father removed 
to Koxburj' when his son was still a small boy. He attended the Delaware 
Academy and prepared himself for his subsequent professional studies. He 
commenced the study of medicine in 1827 with Dr. J. B. Cowles of Koxbury. 
He was graduated in 1831 from the Waterville (Me.) Medical CJoUege, and in 
the same year settled. for practice in the town of Middletown. Besides his 
constant devotion to his profession he was always a most pulilic-spirited citi- 
zen, and ready to exert his influence for the benefit of his friends and the 
community. He was elected supervisor of his town for seven successive terms 
lieginning from 1839. He was a member of Assembly in 1840 and again in 
18711 ; and a State Senator in and 186.'). In the latter position he obtained 
the legislation necessary for bviilding the Ulster and Delaware R. R. In ist;3 
he started the Utilitarian newspaper which he per.sonally conducted for five 
years. In 1832 he married a <laughter of Noah DimmocU. He died at Mar- 
garetville November 27, 1891. 

i:i()i,ii.\riin\\l. skethies. 1<)3; 

Hon. Norwood Bowne. Xnrwnod Unwiii' was boru in Ni'W York City Jla.y 
•2, isl.!. He iNiil.v iM'i-aiiii' lainiliiir witli tlu^ (iri liter's tnuli> with wliirli his life 
was to be associated. He <'aiiie to Dellii in ls;50 in oiiier to enter upon tlie 
stuily of law witli his brother-in-law Charles Hathaway. But the taste for 
editorsliip and printiuj? was too strong in him. He wa.s for a time eoiiuected. 
with a newspaper ealled the Delaware Repulilieau estublislied by George E. 
Marvine. But this t^nterprise uot being successful, he returned to New York, 
where he was eonnected with the publication of the Protestant Vindicator. 
Tlie printing and publishing house was destroyed by fire in 1834, leaving t he- 
proprietors penniless. 

Ill 1S:11) he retunieil to Dellii lor the purpose of establishing a newspaper in 
the interests of the Whig party. The Delaware (iazetle, a Democratic Jiaper-, 
had been established in IHl!), and in 183!( was the only newspaper printed in 
the county. At this time Mr. Bowne founded the Delaware E.ipress and dur- 
ing the remainder of his life continued to be its editor and publisher. 

Mr. Bowne has held various local ofTlces. He was postmaster from 184a- 
1(1 18.V2; he was active both personally and by his paper in every important 
public enterprisi'. In 18.54 he was elected on the State ticket with Governor 
Myron H. Clark to the office of State Prison Inspector, in which he served loi- 
three years. He died at Delhi, January 7. 181)0. 

Hon. William Gleason. •Imige Gleason was born in Koxbury January 4, 
181'.l. He was educated in the common schools of his vicinity, and added ta 
his ac(iuirenients a vast amount of liberal culture attained by private reading 
mid study. To the very end of his life he took delight in works on literature, 
history and poetry, which hi- had learned to love in his boyhood. He studied 
law ill the office of Judge Levinus Monson of Hobart, and was admitted to the 
county bar in 1841! and to that of the Supreme Court in 184.5. He was elected 
H member of Aissembly in 1850 and took an active part in the business of that 
iHidy. In 1851 he was elected County Judge and Surrogate and removed his 
residence to Delhi. He was elected to a second term in 1859, and served also 
as supervisor of the town. He was in every way a i)ublic-s|)irited citizen and 
ready on every occasion to help forward measures for the jiublii- good. In the 
civil war when Delaware county was so conspicuous for its patriotic elTorts. 
no one was more active in devising and working for the public good tlian 
.Iiidge Gleason. 

Ill 18.53 Judgi' Gleason was married to Caroline, daughter of -John Bluiich- 
anl of Delhi. He has had three sons all still living : John 13. Gleason of New 
York, Wallace B. Gleason of Delhi, and Lafayette B. Gleason of New York. 
H.' died at his home in Delhi. May 9, 181)4. 

Hon. 'William Murray. William Murray was born in Boviiia in 18211. He 
was the son of William Murray who had migrated from Scotland two years 
before. In his early life he was engaged in the work of the pioneer settler. 
His education was such as could be acquired at the common schools and at 
the Di'laware Academy. He commenced the study of law in the office of 
Siiiiiuel (lordon and was admitted to the bar in 1848. He has held in succes- 
sion nearly all the offi<-i's in the line of his profession ; Justice of the Peace, 
District-Attorney, County Juilge. .\fter the e.xpiration of his term of office he 


was appointed by Govenmr Fi'iiKni in Januai-y, IHIiH, Justice of the Supn-me 
Court in the Sixth District in the place of Judge Mason, resigned. In the 
autumn of 1869 he was elected to the same office for eight years. And at tlie 
end of this term he was re-elected without opposition for the term of fourteen 
years. These evidences of popular favor were the results of his judicial fair- 
ness, his personal amiability and profound legal knowledge. 

In 18.50 Judge Muriay married Rachel Merwin of Hloomvillc. He has 
three children living; David Murray, lawyer, of New York, Mrs. Alexander 
Conklin of Delhi, and Asher Murray, lawyer, of Wadena, Minnesota. He died 
al Delhi, 1887, aged sixty-seven years. 

General Ferris Jacobs jr. General Jacobs, the son of Dr. Ferris Jacobs of 
Delhi, was born March 20, 1836. He received his education at the Delaware 
Academy, the Franklin Institute and at Williams College. From this last in- 
stitution he was graduated in 1856 in the same class with President Garfield. 
He commenced the studj' of law in Philadelphia but afterwani changed to 
Delhi where he was connected with the office of Parker and <;ieason. He was 
admitted to the bar in 18.59. 

Early in the civil war he enlisted a company of cavalry and was mustered 
in as captain at Elmira in August, 1861. His company belonged to the Third 
Regiment of New York Volunteer Cavalry. From this time he was in continual 
active service. He was with General Banks in the Shenandoah ; he was with 
Burnside in North Carolina, where he was in innumerable engagements and 
was promoted to the rank of Major; he took part in the memorable campaigns 
of 1864 and was again promoted to be Lieutenant-Colonel and commanded his 
regiment. His regiment was so cut up and reduced in numbers that it was 
necessary to consolidate it with other regiments and Colonel Jacobs resigned. 
He re-entered the service however and was assigned to duty on the northern 
frontier. In July, 1865, he was mustered out of service with the brevet rank 
of Brigadier-General. 

After his return from the war in 1865 he was elected District-Attorney and 
in 1871 he was elected tor a second term of the same office. He ran for the 
office of County Judge but was defeated. He was a member of Congress dur- 
ing the term 1881-83. 

In 1869 he married Miss Mary Hj-de of Yellow Springs, Ohio. He died at 
Delhi. August 30, 1880. 

Judge Isaac H. Maynard. Judge Maynard was born in Bovina in 1838, 
being the grandson of the first settler in that town. He was graduated from 
Amherst College in 1862. He studied law in the office of Judge Murray and 
established himself at the village of Stamford. Here he was supervisor in 
1869 and 1870. He was elected County Judge as a democrat, carrying the 
county by 1,355 nutjority. although usually its majority was 800 re|)ublican. 

In 1875 he was elected Member of Assembly; in 1884 he was appointed 
first Deputy Attorne\--General of the State, which position lie resigned to be- 
come Second Comptroller under President Cleveland. In 1887 he was appointed 
Assistant Secretary of the I'nited States Treasury. In 1892 Governor Flower 
appointed him one of the Judges of the Court of Appeals. 

Judge Maynard was a man of scholarly attainments, a brilliant and suc- 
cessful lawyer, and was highly esteemed by many friends. He ilied in Albany 
June 12, 1896, at the age of 58 years, and his remains rest in Woodland Ceme- 
terv at Delhi. 


Ul - 





Centennial Celebration. 

TV/f ARCH 10, IHIIT . . . the birtlula.v of Delaware couiitv. A 
1 A- couuty which has rouuded a full ceuturv is uo iiifiiut; 
there is uo poetical license iu the phrase " Old Delaware." Xatur- 
allv, as the liuudredth auuiversary drew near, there were thouf^'hts 
of some tittiuff celebration of the century milestone, but the various 
suffgestions of individuals or the couuty newspapers did not crys- 
tallize into definite action. The Delaware Express, at Delhi, had 
freiiuently called up a remembrance of Mandi 10, 1797. Its editor 
discussed the advisability of a celebration with many of the promi- 
nent men of the county but found little interest amouj^ the people 
;,'enerally. The project, however, was not to be smothered by any 
moist blanket of indifference; if the people who should care did not 
care, latent interest must be aroused. Delaware county had fin- 
ished a hundred years of honorable history; she had sent out from 
her borders a host of children who had made history in other 
counties and other states and had honored their birthplace; Iter 
sons and her daughters had ever been and were sturdy, honest and 
full of the free spirit of the native hills. The century mark of such 
a county must not pass unnoticed. In tlui issue of The Delaware; 
Kxpress for March (), 1S'.)7, the following call foi' a citizens' meeting 
was jtrinted: 

.V Centenntal Mekti-Ni}. On coiisullalinn with some of our iicoplc rn- 
-;ar"liiiK ilic Comity Ci!iiteiiiiial it is thouj^ht proper to liold a meeting of our 
'itizens and others who may ho in town ne.\t Tuesday evening, March '.), at 
VilhiKc Hall at eight o'clock, to consider the advisability of eelebratiiig the 
• ■vent. Come and express your opinion. 

When the a])])ointcd Tuesday evening came just thirteen patri- 
otic citizens gathered together in the Village Hall. Whatever 

200 insroRY uf hklawahe cor sty. 

misfortune is commonly associated with the fateful uumber thirteen 
or whatever ill luck comes from a thirteen club, it must heuce and 
hereafter Imld its jicacc in Delaware county. The meeting started 
on a Inisiuess basis: from this evening a Centennial Celebration was 
assured. Mr. "William Clark was elected chairman of the meeting, 
and Mr. K. P. Mcintosh, secretary. The practical outcome of the 
evening was the appointment of a committee to consult with the 
people at the county seat and to report at a later meeting some 
linal determiuatidii. The committee appointed was J. K. Hood, C. 
S. AVoodruff, W. I. Alasou, AI. T. Menzie and J. J. Burke. The ]nib- 
lication of the appointment of this committee stirred up an 
immediate interest in other towns and the county press gave every 
encouragement and called upon the citizens to support the move- 
ment. As oue pajjer said; " That the anniversary of so important 
an event should be fittingly celebrated finds an almost unanimous 
affirmative resjjonse from the citizens of old Delaware. Delhi has 
taken the initiative toward this end l)y temporarily organizing and 
now let the action of the county seat be ratified by every town in 
the county and at no distant date." This seemed to be the senti- 
ment of the entire county. 

The committee began an active campaign at once. It advised 
with the leaders of different organizations which it thought t'ould 
aid, notably the various fire departments of the county. In two 
weeks time nearly all of the fire organizations had agreed to come 
to the celebration, which the Committee had set for the 0th and 
Idtb of June. So general was tlie interest and widespread the en- 
thusiasm that no doubt of the Centennial's success was possible at 
the second pulilic meeting held Alarch "28, just two weeks after the 
real inception of the movement. 

Sub-committees were at once appointed, correspondence was 
begun with available men in every town in the county, the fire de- 
partments were enthused, athletic clubs were stirred up, men 
versed in the antiquities of their towns were selected as historians 
and relics of the past were engaged for exhibition. The make-up of 


the viui<>\is iiiiiniiittees represeuted the busiiu'ss anil professioual 
men of Delhi. In ailditicm to the General Committee the follow- 
iug were selected: 

Oh Fimnirr : M. T. Meiizie, S. F. Adee, Jas. E. Harpor. 

Oil HMonj: William Clark, Robert P. Mcintosh, S. E. Smith. 

Oil Sjiiiih iM : Hon. A. C. Crosby. 

On Relics : Dr. Win. Orniiston, Charles W. (iraham. 

Finiiii'ii's ('(iiiiiiiillir : Thi> Firemen's Board, J. J. Bnrke, Chiel'; W. A. 
Mcintosh. Secretary. 

Hiri/rlr Ciimmitlii- : R. P. Mcintosh. F. M. Farrington, C. R. Stilson, Jas. 
E. Harper. 

Arranjifements for the Centennial Parade were made <arly. Mr. 
Frank L. Norton of Delhi was made (xraml Marshal ami the Assist- 
ant Marshals chosen from different parts of the county were: 
Georfife JI. Bur^dn, Walton; George O. Leonard, Stamford; A\'ni. 
Brinkman, Franklin; A. B. Evans, Deposit; Arthur S. Meeker, 
Delhi, Gran<l Marshal's Aid. 

Every arraDf<euient was well planned and executed with thor- 
ouo-hness. When the calendar marked the opening' of the festal 
day, June it, nothing seemed lacking either in general plan or 
proper consideration of details. Delhi decked herself in holiday 
tinery as never before. Flags and luiutiug floated from house and 
business block, fine arches spanned the streets welcoming the citi- 
zens of the county to the capital town, special electric lights 
illumined the public buildings. Men, women and children were 
decorators and decorated. Never before had sucli a gorgeous 
tlisplay been shown in the county. Favorable comment was uni- 
versal. Although the committees had thus carefully arranged and 
earnestly labored, one point was forgotten in the mass of detail 
that had fallen upon them: tlie clerk of the wcatliei- li.-ul lieen 
overlooked. Old Jupiter I'luvins drew n\\ the Hood gates of the 
heavens and from Tuesday morning' the "drops that water tlie 
earth" were continually falling. 

But so great was the patriotism and enthusiasm of the peo])le of 
Delaware county that it could not be dampeiieil by the heavy rains. 
Tlie stulT that won the Delaware hills from wilderness to cultivated 


uud fertile fields could celebrate her birthday under a cauojn- of 
uncheekered blue. It seemed that the jjeople had all plauued to 
attend the celebration, promisinfi^ hj far the largest couvocation in 
the annals of the noble history of the county. Interest in the event 
had entered almost every home, and it was the assemblage was 
very large. 

The Delaware Express in reporting the celebration said : " We 
are confident that those who could not come were present in spirit. 
The thoughts crowding about the occasion have brought our people 
closer together and insjiired new feelings of patriotism. Doulitless 
there is also a newborn purpose in many hearts to laljor more earn- 
estly that the new century shall be brighter and better than the 
one that has passed. If this lie one result it is glory enough for 
two rainy days celebration of the Centennial of the l)est countj- of 
the best state in the grandest country on the face of the earth." 

The story of this inspiring and very successful event can only 
be briefly told in these jjages. The program for the first day, June 
9, included the town histories, addresses and papers prepared for 
the occasion. These exercises were held in the court room of the 
court house, which was beautifully ornamented for the occasion. 
It was a fitting place in which to recount the events of a century, 
with the portraits of such prime actors hanging upon the wall 
as Erastus Eoot, Samuel Sherwood, Amasa J. Parker, Jonas A- 
Hughstou, Colonel Amasa Parker, and Samuel Gordon. 

Hon. Abram C. Crosby, the president of the day, called the 
assembly to order and an earnest, appropriate prayer was offered 
by Rev. L. Willard Minch, the chaplain. Vocal and instrumental 
music was interspersed with the historical productions giving zest 
to the exercises. At five o'clock of this day a service of thanks- 
giving to Almighty Grod was held in the Second Presbyterian 
Church, conducted by Rev. F. H. Seeley and Rev. Dr. Robinson of 

The adcli'esses, papers and letters follow while the town histories 
constitute Part III. 


Addics.s of WcUoiiK-, l)v; Hon. .\l)i\iin <.". (■i\\sl)\', 

nv IiKI.HI, N. Y. 

Fellow Citizens: Wc mool to celebiato the oue huudicdth anniversary 
of till' county of Delaware. To the young a century seems a long period of 
tiiiio; to the middle-aged, who realize they have lived nearly half the century 
the period appears extremely short. Dela\vari> county was orgaidzed on the 
tenth day of Man-h, 1797, only si.\ days after George Washington retired from 
the duties and responsibilities of the office of President of the United States. 
Our history commences in the early days of the government when the Revolu- 
tionary heroes were actively participating in and directing the affairs of the 
young republic. 

During the one hundred years since the organization of this county the 
political map of Europe has been greatly altere<l. .V century ago Napoleon 
was planning his liret military movements. He had not won an imixirtant 
battle. His great European wars, greater than the battles of the Roman or 
(Irecian conquests, were subsefiuently fought. Then all the ports of China 
were closed to the whole civilized world ; then Japan had not learned the ad- 
vantages of our civilization, or secured the services of one of the honored sons 
iif Delaware county (David Murray, LL. D.) to establish and take charge of 
her educational institutions and stimulate an intellectual activity which has 
made her one of the strongest eastern nations in intellect, political economy 
and military and naval prowess. Then our own country embraced only a 
narrow belt along the Atlantic coast, scarcely extending beyond the AUeghe- 
ides, with a. population of less than four millions of i)eople: Michigan and the 
whole northwestern territory were inhaV)ited by warlike sa\agos ; Floritla, all 
the vast teiTitory between the Mississippi river and the Pacilic Ocean, Mexico, 
O-nlral America and nearly the whole of South America were under the control 
of the Government of Spain. 

Now since the acquisition of all that valuable territory and also rich and 
undeveloped .\la.';ka. like old England, we can boast that the sun never sets 
upon our possessions. 

Fifty years, after the formation of our county, had elapsed before the 
<liscovery of the gold producing mines of California— .so rich in their resources 
that they have reduced the value of the precious metal and materially aided 
in revolutionizing the financial system of the world ; ten years after the county 
was formed the first steamboat was built and plowed its way through the 
waters of the Hudson river, nuikiug our state the pioneer in steam naviga- 
tion; during the last half century petroleum has been discovered, the use of 
which has revolutionized illuminating, heatingand propelling ; twenty-five years 
after the formation of our county the lirst steam railroad was built and a New 
Vork capitalist is entitled to the credit of applying and adapting steam power 
to railroad transportation: sixty years ago railroad construction was in its 
infamy ; there was no banking institution except the I'lnled States bank: no 
-lock exchange; no telegraph or telephone lines; no mining stocks: no organ- 
ized money corp<»rations ; and the mail facilities were so limited at the timi- 


of the orgauizatioii of our couuly tliat Boujamiu Franklin, tin' Postniaister 
General, rode over the country in his old sulkoy and personally inspected 
every mail route in the United States. 

At the time of the organization of this county the representatives of the 
people were engaged in bitter dissensions in the national legislature, <-harges 
of plots to overthrow the new government were freely made, the treasury was 
liaukrupt, no satisfactory financial system had been developed or put in opera- 
tion, national debt had been contracted with no means of payment ; and citi- 
zens of Pennsylvania and Massachusetts were in open rebellion to prevent the 
collection of the revenues necessary for the ordinary expenses of government. 

Surrounded by such embarrassing circumstances and confronted by reas- 
onable doubt regarding the ultimate success of popular government, the 
patriots who by their wisdom and patriotism had solved the complicated 
questions that had arisen during the struggle for independence and by the for- 
mation and ratification of the constitution of the United States had firmly laid 
the foundation of American institutions, were successfully enacting laws andi 
adopting policies of government that have developed and made us the greatest 
nation of the earth. 

Then the county of Delaware was almost a primeval forest. The axe had 
hardly disturbed the solitude. A few inhabitants were living in scattered log- 
huts in the small clearings along the valleys of the streams and upon the 
slopes of the hills and mountains ; but nearly the whole county, in territorial 
extent almost as large as the state of Rhode Island, was in the simplicitj' and 
grandeur of nature. General Root, Samuel Sherwood and a few other grand 
and able men had established their homes at or near the county seat and 
were developing the local interests of the new county, while others at the 
Capital of the nation were maturing plans for the government of the wliole 

Many of the sons and daughters of old Delaware have settled in other lo- 
calities and, by their industry, energy and ability, have made their names and 
transactions a part of the history of nearly every state of the union. We re- 
call with pride the records of our ancestors who were prominent in the early 
history of our county and point with satisfaction to the work of their descend- 
ants who have developed its rescuirces and coiitributeil to its present pros- 

The mixture of races, the intermarriage of inhabitants of different countries 
and nationalities, especially of the European states, have developed stronger 
individu.alities and made better citizens physically and intellectually. Such 
has been the result among the inhabitants of the county of Delaware. Prior 
to the Revolution a few of the sous and daughters of Scotland had settled in 
and become inhabitants of a portion of our county. The descendants of the- 
Puritans of New lingland had crossed to the eastern portion of the county, in 
Koxbury. Stamfoi-d and Harpi'rsfield, and had also gone into Franklin and 
down the Susquehanna into Sidney and formed centers of population, whose' 
citizens loved their homes, liberally supported the church and promoted edu- 
cation under the many disadvantages surrounding them. They have left their 
good influences behind and a large portion of the county of Delaware has beea 


AiiH'iioauizi'il tiinl I'lliioatoil by the leaoliiiit,'* ami oxamplos nl' the piouoors 
from New Englaud and their ilesoeudants. The Dutch, slow and conservative- 
In their ways, cnnio up from Esopus, traveled across Pine Hill, drifted down- 
the East 1. ranch of tlie Delaware and up the stream into the town of Koxbury 
and there met and located with the pioneers from New England; the New 
Enijhinder had his little lionu" and farm to till and in many places had built 
his factories where the inanufactureil products needed for the comfort of the 
piMiple wi're successfully made. JIany of the Dutch were weavers and skilled 
In other tra<les and they were all peacefully inclini'd and lived and worked 
happily with the Yankees. Many Scotchmen with their families and Bibles 
came over soon after and located iu the interior towns of the county. Their 
llrndy esUiblisherl religious beliefs, home influences, deep interest in educa- 
tional affairs and love of and obedience to the fiovernment of their adoiited 
country has left an impress upon the people of the county of Delaware that 
will not be effaced for ^generations hence. The establishment of the chunli 
and the school, the hardy industry, pluck, determination and obstinacy of the 
Scciti'hnien and their families have contributed largely to the development of 
the intellectual and material interests of our county. 

There is not a nation in Europe from Scandinavia on the north to sunny 
France and Italy on the south that has not contributed to the population of 
old Delaware. The habits of the inhabitants, the church, the school, the- 
pure air and water, the mountain scenery and all the surroundings of nature 
and civilization have tended to develop the manhood of every European who- 
lias made this his adopted home; and instead of helping to till the prisons 
and reformatories or drifting down among the criminal classes of the cities 
he has bi'coine a good citizen of our county, adopted our customs and aided iu 
the development of our resources. 

During the last century our country has passed through trying ordeals, in 
« hich many of the citizens of Delaware county have particii>ated. By the war 
of 1S12 our government asserted its power and authority on the high seas; 
protected .\merieaii citizens in their person and property against the arrogant 
demands of the mother country and. by the bravery of her soldiers and sailors 
on land and on sea, demoustrati'd to the nations of the earth that we were one 
nation and people, under a common Hag, and that wherever the starry banner 
lloate<l the rights and interests of American citizens must be recognized and 

One hundred years ago our nation was disgraceil and humiliated by the 
accursed institution of human slavery; upon the platform, in the public press 
and the halls of legislation long and bitter discussions were had between the 
r.'presi'utatlves of frei- labor and slave labor, regariling the rights of the own- 
••rs of human ehatti'ls in free territory; the pernicious doctrine that tin' rights 
of the iudivhlual state were paramount to thi' authority of tin' national gov- 
ernment and that there was no power under the coiislilution to c-oerce a state 
and preservi- the unity of the nation was stn-nuously advocated until the slave 
holders attempted by armed force to disrupt the union, by open rebellion 
against the general government, and establish an independent confederacy 
baHed upon slavery as the foundation and corner stone. 

2(»(> nisroin' ah' dki^awmH': roiXT): 

At tlie i-.ill dl' llic I'liirf I'Xi'cMtivo niiiiiy liravc sons (if Di'lawjuc cihimI.v 
promptly enlisted, and went I'ortli to battle for their country, uphold its ffag, 
preserve the government and maintain the jirineipk-.s of liln'rty so dear to the 
heart of every friend of hunianit>. They fought the battles of thr union ajid 
established beyond ([uestioii that heneefoi-tli there will lie liut one counli'y, 
nation and people uiiitrd and happy undn- a cniiininn Hag and mai-c-hing on to 
<i higher destiny. 

In evei'y part of our county are evidences of the great struggle in which 
the}- were engaged; the empty sleeve, the wooden lindi, the broken constitu- 
tion of many of the old veterans show unmistakably that they gave the best 
years of their early manhood on the southern battle lields, and in the swamps 
and morasses, and prisons of the sout h ; the thousands of soldiers' graves in the 
national cemeteries and scattered throughout the land sileutly testify to their 
deeds of heroism and great sacrifices made upon the altar of human liberty. 
AVhen the old soldiers march through our streets to-morrow they should be 
greeted with uncovered heads showing that we fully recognize the services 
they have rendered and the sacrifices they have made, and but for the great 
expenditure of life and treasure and their loyalty and heroism instead of en- 
joying the great advantages of a united government under the glorious Mag of 
lilierty, with a population of over seventy nnllions of happy and prosperous 
people, our country would now be broken into forty-five separate and inde- 
pendent states, disputing with and warring against each otlu'r like the repub- 
lics of Central and South America. 

Human slavery, existing in our countrj', protected by law, contradicted the 
assertion tliat our government was a haven for the down trodden and op- 
pressed from every countrj- of the earth and its abolition was among the most 
glorious and important results of the great civil war. Over four millions of 
enslaved human beings were released from bondage, liberty ceased to be a 
theory and became an accomplished fact, and now wherever the banner of 
liberty and freedom lloats over American soil every citizen, whatever his race, 
coh)r or former condition, if obedient to the law, can proudly say I am a free 
American citizen. 

A century ago education was a luxury, enjoyed only by a linnted number. 
About that time Governor George Clinton lij- his messages to the legislature 
recommended the establishment of common schools and a board of Regents of 
the University and, foUowing his suggestions, laws were enacted resulting in 
the organization of our public school system which, by subse(|uent legislation, 
has been developed into the grandest and most liberal educational .system in 
the union. Our school houses, dotting every hill side and nestling in every 
valley throughout the entire .state, are nurseries of liberty and afford to the 
children of every citizen the facilities for a good common school training, 
while in the cities and enterprising villages of the state every opportunity is 
offered for the procurement of a higher and more liberal education. Inventive 
genius has facilitated and lessened the expense of jiublicalion of books, peri- 
odicnls and newspapers so that the poorest and hundjlest citizen has within 
his reach excell<Mit reading matter for himself and his family and the neglect 
or refusal to fnrnisli intcllrctual food for their use is absolutelv ineNcusable. 


For tin' pri r 11 ritiar or a drink of whisUry a iiidiitlily rimiiaziiii' i-aji !"■ |Hir- 

cliiisi'd rcpli'to with iiifuniialion ami tin- Iji'sl litciiu-.v pmiUii'litms of nioilrni 
writers. Thi" iiioiu\v that many of our peoplo daily pxpLMid for iiscli'ss hixiirios 
would soon covor tho family tables and fill the sholvos of home libraries willi 
th.' best books of ancient and modern history and literature. 

There is no community of people, remote from the cities, on the face of the 
earth, better housed, clothed and fed and possessing greater educational 
advantages of instruction by the school, pulpit, platform, books and newspa- 
pers than the iuluibitauts <if the county of Delaware. 

Throughout the civilized world the higher countries have furnislnil to tlir 
lowlands a constant and unfailing supply of recruits possessed of great physi- 
cal and mental strength and vigor. The inhabitants of the colder regions 
are compelled, by the rigorous demands of naturi', by industry an<l frugality. 
to provide for their physical wants, while the children of the w-armer clinuites 
rely upon the lavish productions of nature to furnish to them their physical 
necessities. Located among the spurs of the noble Catskills near the metrop- 
olis of the western hemisphere, with rugged soil, bracing atmosphere, long 
winters and clear streams of sparkling water running along the beautiful 
valleys toward the sea, Delaware county naturally produces men and wouu-n 
who are well fitted mentally and physically to enter a broader sphere of activ- 
ity and successfvilly battle in the struggle of life. From her borders nolile. 
ambitious and promising young men have continually gone forth to engage in 
the peaceful battles of education, legislation and business and aid in the 
development of other states throughout the union. There is hardly a consti- 
tutional or statutory law of a western state which has been framed without 
the parlicipaticm of some son of Delaware county. There is scarcely a great 
business enterprise in any of the leading cities of the union without a son of 
Delaware county connected with it in some capacity. They go out to win, and 
lDi|uire wherever you will you find that where one native born citizcMi of 
our county fails in whatever business he undertakes ninety-nine others suc- 
ceed. We are justly proud of the success they have attained within and 
without their native state and like the Koman mother, we point exultingly to 
them and exclaim, "These are our jewels." 

I heartily extend to you the sincere welcome of the entire county of Dela- 
ware and particularly of the village of Delhi. This celebratitm is not local in 
Its character: it is a gathering of the people from th(^ entire county, in which 
all classes have shown a great interest and for which they have furnisheil 
numerous and valuable contributions. The public proix'rty here belongs to 
the whole peojile (if the county. The citizens of Delhi are only stockholders 
in it. 

I sincerely hope that these anniversary exercises will develop a general feel- 
ing of harmony and unity among the people of the whole county. We have a 
• common interest and pride in our local government and institutions, and we 
'Should labor together without prejudices to |'r(pnM>lc tin- bi^^t iiiler.'sts of the 
whole comniunitv. 

2()S iiisr(ii;y or Delaware corxrv. 

Letter tropi r.c\ . John L. 5cott, I). I)., 


Allow 11)0 to assure you of my keenest regrets at not bciii^ alili" to atliMid. 
the coming Centennial of Delaware county. I had hoped the pleasure, but 
fate seems to have ordered otherwise, so I bow to the inevitable. This Cen- 
tennial, from its very nature, ought to be not only the source of personal 
pleasure, but also productive of lasting good. Delaware county was a gener- 
ous mother, and there are many things jier sons cannot afford to forget. If 
I were to be born over again, I would ask the good Angel to let me off in 
Bovina, on the banks of the Little Delaware, and near the old mill which my 
grandfather built just ninety-six years ago. It was a good place to be born 
in, and an equally good place to leave so soon as one was able to toddle away. 
As two streams unite to form the Delaware river, so two civilizations entered' 
into tlie early formation of the county. The Puritan and the Scotch. The 
Puritan was English, and halted long enough in Xew England to take breath' 
before attempting the ascent of the Catskills. He scattered his marks all 
along the way. Eoxbury, Stamford, Hamden, Meredith and Colchester, were 
the god-sons of New England sponsors. The Scotch on the contrary, were a 
direct importation. They came straight from old Scotia with their heathery 
brogue still fresh upon their lips. Andes, Kortright, and Bovina especially 
were but patches, cut from the map of Scotland and pasted on the face of 
Delaware county. I saw the last of those centennial pioneers as they were 
passing into the West now forty years ago. They were a race of honest men. 
With axe in hand they fought their way to the mountain summit, and but for- 
them many a rich, fertile farm had remained the forest of a century ago. 
These were the Highlanders of Delaware county, and formed a distinctive 
force in its developement. In my boyhood the anti-rent war was still fireside 
history. The line of battle stretched like a stone-wall through the towns of 
.\ndes and Bovina. The philo.sophy of this fact few have thought to inquire. 
It was simply a Scotch sense of injustice, manifesting itself In a strange 
county. My grandfather spent some money and more time in the log jail at 
Delhi, because somebody had been shot in an adjoining town. Not long since 
I learned the reason why he became a part of that hopeless struggle. His 
father had been a laird or factor, and cjuari-eled with the Earl whom he repre- 
sented. So he came to America, and took sweet vengeace on the Overings, 
the Livingstons, and the Kortrights, for what the Earl of Traquair had done 
at home. They were good haters and true friends. There is a tradition that 
when the old gentleman was rusticating at Delhi, an oflieer came and said: 
"Mr. Scott, we know you did not kill Steele, but think you can name the man 
who did, tell us and go homo !" The old man, sweeping his hand across his 
throat, and with an expletive which I hope the Recording Angel did not hear, 
replied; "take my head, sir, take my head. " Liberty at the price of dishonor 
had no quotation in their markets. Those men at the other end of the 
century were religious after a fashion [leeuliar to themselves. They generally 
attended church and those who did not, were always r>'aily with a reason. 

CEXTh:.\.\IM. CKI.KnixATKiX. 2(l".l 

it-l»'(.-i!illy it tlioy dill nul like tlio iiiiiiistor. Two iioi^hliiiis, whoso uaiiK's 1 
withliolil out of rpspeet to their Uescendauts. hud disagreements, of the most 
■ deadly Uiiid. One was a pillar in the eliurch and the other a M/cc/icr outside. 
'.Thi> niinistiT, tin' Kev. Jas. Douiilas. meeting tlie non-ehneh-goer. remarked 
.that his parishouer's et>Mdnet was devilish. '-Devilish, it is daninahle sir. it 
is damnalile." But the minister had done an uneoneious niissionar.v work, and 
tlie next Sunday his congregation was inereasi'd in attendance liy one. Not 
as Mr. A. 15. Douglas onee said to me. "that he loved IJome less, hut he 
lialcil Ids neighlior more. " This was l.ut ilic outside of a kind, poetic nature 
that few could understand. Somewhere over the hills and out of sight, there 
was a garden of wild native llowi-rs that best declared their worth. Delaware 
county owes them a debt which she can never pa.y. Their life and spirit have 
surviveil the century and live in the nol)lest manhood of the present. There 
wi're two forces in the Delaware of my day for which I am profoundly grate- 
ful, the church and village academy. The niijdslers were men of more than 
onlinary aljility. Forest, Laing. Doviglas. Graham and Wilson had bound 
their sheaves and were going through the gates. Gibson and Lee were the 
lirst preachei's I ever heard, and in the maturer judgement of all these years, 
I regard them still as men of exceptional power. The common schools wi're 
iuferior,but the village academies gave some of us an opportunity which 
otherwise had never come. Andes, Delhi, Stamford and Roxbury, were 
educational centres. I as a boy of fifteen, walked twue a we.'k to Andes, a 
d. stance of ten nules. For live days instruction it was no eas.v task, but 
under the tuition of Wm. Wight and Peter Smeallie it paid a thousand times. 
There was once a family intercourse among the good people of Delaware, 
which I susiiect has largely become a thing of the past. The old l>ariiers 
have been swept awa.v, and Delaware county has met and absorbed a newer 
•ivili/.ation. Our fathers are fast bi'coinjng mere names to be talked about. 

■■ Each in his narrow cell fore\ er hi id 
The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep. " 

But what they were cannot die. Their accents live in other voices and their 
footsteps are the paths by which we walk. The walled mountains are their 
monuments, and the integrity of their sons their highest eulogy. The aliserit 
salute you. and as we stand Ijy this well of common recollection, let us drink 
deep anri long t<> th<' honor of idd Delaware, and the men of one hundred 
years ago. 

A river dear as life to me. 
From out the nu>unlains liiids the sea. 
.\ud oft in thought I w.inder there. 
.\long the banks of Delaware. 

The mountains gaze in sondue liu-e. 
Upon the waters in theii- race. 
As if they watched in eonstani prayer, 
.The dear old l>iink« of.p.daware. 

210 iiisroiiv (IF iiF.i.AWAHt: cm wry. 

Along tluise banks.iiii cliisly bed, 
Thore sleeps in peace iny eliorished dead. 
Unvexed by toil or tnuiblous eare 
They rest u[">ii the Delaware. 

Anil wiirn the lace of lU'e is ruu. 
One boon I ask and ask but one — 
That I with them a ^rave may share 
Upon the banks ol' Delaware. 

Lcttoi' fiopi Picv. A. yS. Kc(I/:ic. 

OF GK.\N1) n.WEN, MICH. 

While thankful for an invitation to attend the celebration of Delaware- 
county's Centennial, it is too long a .journey for one of my age, four score and 

I would like to revisit the scenes of my boyhood in Stamford and Delhi. 
The earliest of these is readily recalled, being the building by my father of a 
stone milkhouse in Stamford, eighty years ago this month, to facilitate his 

It must have been about the year of your county organization when my 
grandmother Kedzie, whose family in 1795 found a home in what soon became 
Delaware county, found herself in Catskill, before Landlord Steele established 
his line of stages to that town, trj-iug on an autumnal Saturday afternoon to 
persuade a Delhi neighbor to delay his return home till Monday, ofl'ering to 
pay his hotel 1)111 so that she, refusing to travel on the Sabbath day, might 
ride home with him. He pleaded his business and went home. She went to 
church, and having bought a supply of tracts, spent Monday and Tuesday in 
tract distribution while on her way home on foot. 

I recall what I suppose was the dedication of the Masonic Temple in Delhi 
(now the Kingston hotel building | the year forgotten. My brother James and 
I were permitted to go from our home on the " New Patent" in Delhi town- 
ship to see the Masonic procession. In doing so we passed the field our 
father was "summer fallowing " and with amazement admired his industry, 
when instead of such work he could have a day's fun at the village. In that 
Masonic procession the thing I most vividly remember was the reverent way 
Mr. Knapp, familiarly known as Father Knapp, carried the open Bililc tliroiigh 
the street. 

When my fathm- removed his family from Stamford to Drihi, wi- attended 
worship in Rev. Mr. Ma.Kwell's church below Delhi. 

Gen. Koot, Judges Parker and Sherwood, the merchant, Herman D. 
Gould, the surveyor, Mr. Hathaway, the hatter, Mi-. Thurber, Mr. Penlield 
and his blacksmith shop, Kobert Hyde with his trowels, Gurdon Edger- 
ton and Mr. Steele with their hotels. Judge Foote in his home law onii-e 
are prominent liguj-es in the gallery of my early recollcctidiis. 

<i-:.\ri:.x.\iM. cELKiiUAriox. -211 

Delaware's aiiti-roiil war aiid auli-ncasiuiic pulitics cuiin' later, awalii'iiiiij; 
iliseussioii ami sliriiut; society to its piolinnnlest tleplhs. 

AiiiDii;^ the tnulitioiis of my boylKiml is ii llieolofjical iliseiissioii lield in 

LilKi-'iton's tavern " liy Lorenzo Dow with Gen. Root and Mr. Busli. Wlieu 

asked for his idea of Heaven, ilr. Dow promptly replied : •■ II is a vast 

etliereal plane in which there is neither a Koot nor a Bush, and I fear never 

will he. ■• 

One of my early attraetious was the annual meeting of the Delaware 
County Bible Society, held each winter in the old couit house, whose two 
pillars were trimmed with evergreens. In one such meeting Rev. Robert 
Forrest arose in his stately manner and said : " I have been a member of this 
society for ten years and am so plea.sed with its work in distributing I lie 
Woril of God, that as a thank-offering I give ten dollars to its treasury. " 

Thi're was a day's fun every autumn for us boys in attending Rogiinental 
Training, with its gay sights and a|)petizing gingerbread; also, with the 
regiment formed in a "hollow square" in its season of i)rayer led by Rev. 
Mr. Ma.xwell, whose hat was reverently placed upon the bass drum covered 
with a black ch)th: all concluded with inspiring stiaius of martial music, a 
grand inarch up the town's main street and a scurrying home of us boys, tired 
hut well paid by a day's fun. 

My early recollections are of the Delaware Gazette, whose columns on or 
alHiut September, IH'iH, made record of my father's death, written by Rev. Dr. 
Maxwell. Seventy years ago the Gazette was wont to <'ome to our home in 
the wilderness of Michigan with the refreshment of " good news from a far 
countrj', " though its •• news by the last ship from Europe " was a month ol<l ; 
yet the Gazette, even to the advertisements was eagerly read by the whole 

This hastj" recital of a few things of the long-ago times brings to mind the 
fact that Delaware county in the first century of its history has oidy and I 
trust fully shared in the |>rogress, which by invention and discovery through 
ste^ni and electricity has made this a new world. 

"Praise Goil from whom all blessings flow. " 

1'. S. — The descendants of my grandfather Kedzic? have held residence in 
Delaware county during all the years of its organized history. And those of us 
who have strayed far away still hold some claim to such connection with old 
Delaware, even though we declined the environment of its dose-abutting hills. 

My careless, and as I now recall it, joyous boyhood in Stamford and 
Delhi, seem almost like a former existence, as all this world will soon seem to 
be to mi'. And of the world I ho]ie then to have as iih-asant recollections as I 
now have of your ju.stly proud county, aged one hundred years. 

I hope the historian of your celebration will be abli' to show the steps and 
recount the toils and troubles by which Delaware, in lields and homes, in 
-hools and churches, in reforms and politics, came, within a century, to 
leh its honorable standing among the counties of the Empire state despite 
ad hindrance of hills, which with all their ruggedness an- still dear to my 


I'lCiiKirK.s of ck'nci'iil j. ParKcr, 


Mb. Phesident. Ladies and Gentlemen : It is a matter of great plcaKure 
to nie to lie witli j'oii here in my native village, upon this occasion, and to join 
with the sons ami daughters of old Di'laware in celebrating the Ceuteunial of 
her life. Such a celeliration could not be inaugurated and carried through liy 
an inert or slothful people. That would be impossible! On the contiary, 
such a celebration can only have its conception and being among an active 
and aggressive population, proud of its past history and achievements as well 
as ambitious for future growth and renown. Not only is a Centennial of this 
character to be appreciated for re\i\iijt,' ihe past and for the expression of 
hopes for the future, but for the social and neighborly iutercoui'sc among the 
people brought together from all parts of the county. 

The history of this county which will be laid Ijefore you at this time, the 
facts which will lie brought to light, the duties which will be taught, will in a 
great measure tell upon the character of every one who takes part in this 
interesting celebration. Those who are here will, returning to their homes, 
impart newly gained knowledge to others and thus much that was almost for- 
gotten in the laud will lie revived and stam))ed upon tlie memories of a new 

While considering the past of this county we caimot ovei'look the fact that 
it has contributed its full share toward the bui!di;<g uji of our great State and 
Nation and that her sous have ever loyally fcuighi lor the inlcgrily and honor 
of the country. 

"Well may we here to-daj- renew the memories of our forefathers' days, for 
our own good and the lessons taught. They were daj-s of trial and want, of 
courage, devotion and sacrifice. The steadiness, thrift, economy and industry 
of those days was in strong contrast with these days of luxury, extravagance 
and speculation. For (me, I should hail most heartily much more simplicity 
and earnestness in every day life, without, in any degree, detracting from the 
spirit and lite of true progress. 

I am here from busy surroundings for but a few hours to record myself as 
present and join in these festivities. Personally I prefer to listen and ponder, 
rather than talk iiiuili upon this occasion. Besides many are here and each 
one should have an opportunity to speak. Kichly cherished memories crowd 
iipoii me in these surroundings. Though taken by my parents to .\lb.-Liiy 
when about a year old I was here in this village many times in my boyhood 
and enjoyed many a ramble or drive among the hills and in the valleys of Del- 
aware county. My few latest trips, say during the last twenty-five years, 
have been sad ones when dear friends or elders of my kin have been laid at 

This county has ever held .-i warm place In my affections and my )iarents 
early inspired me with their love for its generous, intelligent, cultured. (Jod- 
fearing and prosperous people. Many of those I prized here in my youth and 
those who became my friends in later years, beginning with school and college 




"lays, fiiim Di-luwure fiuiuty, urc vory ik'ur U> my iiR'iuory ami iicaily all of 
tlu'iii have already passed over the dark river into the life eternal. 

May the (Ireat Ruler i>f all who doeth all things well and who has show- 
ered his blessings upon us in the past, eontiuue His pniteclion and direction 
for all time. 

l\>.-nKii-K.s o\ n.iv^'i' I- II- nililHil. 
OF ionoi;s, N. V. 

MH. t'HAIKMAX, L.4.DIES AXD GENTLEMEN: It is Hot wilhuul eousidenible 
trepidation that I, a physician, respond to your call for a speech on this occa- 
sion, especially in the presence of so many lawyers as aliound at this county 
seat anil who are presumably better fitted by trade and training' for this than 
I. .\nd it is fair to assume tliat they are more fitted Ijy natural predilection 
and training for tliis task, for I once heard of a father and mother (up here in 
the hills of Delaware or somewhere) who wished to educate and prepare one 
of their sons for the greatest influence in life of which he was capable. They 
thought it necessary to ascertain his natural bciil or inclination, believing 
that they would attain larger and surer success by educating him along this 
line. So they left him alone in a room in which had been placed an orange, a 
dollar and a BiV)le, and they said : " Now it on our return we find that he has 
taken the oi-ange we will make a farmer, an agriculturist ot liiiii. II he has 
preferred the dollar we will educate him for a business man, a financier. If 
he has taken to the Bible we will make him a preacher." Keturning after a 
few minutes they opened the door and found .Johnnie sitting on the Bible, 
eating the orange and with the dollar in his i)ocket. The old farmer ex- 
claimed : "Mary .lane that boy is a hog, we'll make a lawyer of him." I give 
that to the lawyers just to allay my nervousness. Seriously, ladies and gen- 
tlemen, I congratulate you on this occasion which you celebrate, and as I 
address you my heart Alls with pride and pleasure for, Mr. t'hairman. I deem 
it not only a pleasure but a privilege to be with you all to-day. I ,iiu prouil 
that I am a son of old Delaware county, and when I look into the faces of my 
old associates many are the recollections of by-gone happy days that Hash 
vividly before my memory, and as these recollections appear before^ me I feel 
like repn>ating poetry and song : 

Backward, turn backward, oh time in your Might. 
.\nd make me a child again just for to-night. 

If it be at all times discreditable to man's character to fail in jiatriotic love 
and loyalty t4) the land of his nativity, how much more inexcusal)le such 
recreancy is in a son of old Delaware county. Where in all the broad land can 
we find a locality offering so much to appeal to patriotic love and pride as this 
county presents to her sons and daughters. Her climate. .So salubrious, so 
varied, always stopping short of uncomfortable extreiiu's in wint<'r or in sum- 
mer. Her physical geography and landscape, scenery, hills and valleys, a 
happy medium always between the rugged, rocky and often barren mountains 
«n the one hand, and monotonous levels on the other. 


Her pure pereiiuial spiiiij;s, purliiij; rills and stately rivers, tlie feitility ot' 
her soil ; nowhere else tlo we find the earpeling of the valleys ami the drapery 
of the hillsides more delightfully verdant with grass, or more biautifully 
bespangled with flowers, and nowhere else do we find more various, more 
beautiful or more stately woods than those which are indigenous to her soil, 
and which frieze and embroider the landscape on every hand. Agriculturally, 
a country especially adapted to grazing and dairying, her pastures clothed 
with flocks, her cattle on a thousand hills, add interest to the scenes to mem- 
ory dear. The agricultural products such as milk, butter, eggs and maple 
sugar are those which will always lind a market in the great cities of the east 
not far away, while the character of the climate, the nature of the soil and the 
purity of the water are such as make these products the best on the market, 
untainted by garlick, ragwood or a thousand other noxious and deleterious 
weeds which grow in other sections. These advantages afford greater stabil- 
ity in the prices of his products and value of property and a more sure reward 
for his toil to the farmer of Delaware county than to those of other sections of 
our great country. Delaware county has not suffered as have other sections 
of our land from the stringency and depression of the last few years. Then, 
the people of this generation, as we remember them (and we trust they may 
always continue to be) were a self-respecting. God-fearing, church-going race 
who reared their children and sent them forth into all departments of human 
life in the world, inspired, athletic, girded and panoplied ; and we think we may 
safely affirm that the children of old Delaware county wherever they may have 
gone and in the midst of whatever opportunities and responsibilities they may 
have been tested, they have proven themselves exceptionally true and strong 
in all that goes to make up a noble and useful manhood or a beautiful and 
lovely womanhood. .A.nd this, after all, is the highest purpose which a com- 
munity like old Delaware subserves, to furnish men — fresh, pure, strong 
manhood. Look down the roll of great men who in all departments of human 
thought and enterprise have attained distinction and have achieved success, 
especially as heroes and benefactors of the race. Begin with that old history, 
the Bible, follow down the ages to the present time, trace the biographies of 
the great men, the successful men, in all walks of life to-day, and note how 
large a proportion of them came from the influence and environments of rural 
and agricultural communities. This can all be explained, but that is not my 
purpose here nor have I time to do so. Enough it is to note the fact, and 
remember that there is no more ad\antageous sphere in which to rear a family 
of boys and girls and attain the highest results to which any wise parent 
would aspire than that this county furnishes, viz., character, not wealth, nor 
fame necessarily, but manhood and womanhood. And never was there greater 
need and demand for this product so peculiarly indigenous to old Delaware- 
than to-day. 

Ill fares the land, to hastening ills a prey. 
Where wealth accumulates and men decay. 
Princes and lords may llourish or may fade, 
A lireath can malie tliem. as a breath has made. 
But a bold peasantry, their country's pride. 
When once destroyed, can never be supplied. 


lA'ttir \'vom lion. l),^i\iil ^\uiici\;, LL.D., 

OF Ni:\V liKlXSWICK, X. I. 

It is with {;rc!it rogrot tluit I am conipi'lltMl ti> abiiudon my wish to be 
ineseiit at the (•clebiation ol' the ci'iitciiuial aiuiiviTsary of the political orj;aiii- 
7.alioii of Delaware county. \ century seems like a long period in the history 
of any civil body ; but when at its completion we look back upon its rounded 
ypars, it counts for comparatively little. In a certain sense the whole period 
can be spanned within my own experience. Thus, the political life of General 
Erastiis Root reaches back to the very origin of Delaware county. He was a 
Member of Assembly, representing the county in 1798 — the second year of its 
i>rgani'/.ation. .\nil yet when I was a school boy at Delaware .\ca(lemy, I 
reniemlicr perfectly his veneralile figure as he used to sit on the veranda of 
his house opposite the old .\(iidem}- liuildiiig. To us he seemed a most inter- 
i-sting and pictures<|ue old man. He was fond of gathering us about hitu, and 
as was his wont, teasing us and telling us stories. He was the President of 
the Board of Trustees of the Academy, and as such he was a person of great 
importance, and considerable terror to our little community. He was nearly 
always present at the examination of our classes, and used to frighten us very 
much by the learned questions he used to put to us in our Latin and other 
studies. It was with a kind of awe that it was whispered among us tliat in 
his youth he had published an arithmetic, wlijch fcir a time held its place 
beside those of Pike and Dalioll. 

>!}• friend, Ihe late Judge Parker, of .\lbany, told me a story of General 
ituol which I have never seen in print, and which you will perhaps pardon me 
if I here insert : — In the early days of Delaware county, when General Koot 
was a member of the Legislature, the route from Albanj- to Delhi was by stage 
ilown the west side of the Hudson to Coxsackie, and thence out over the Cats- 
kill mountains to the Delaware river. On one of these trips the stage was 
u|isel and Geiu'ral Root had his leg broken. He was detained at the poor 
little village many weeks, while his leg was mending. .Jutlge Parker, who had 
then taken up his residence at Albany, went down to visit him during his con- 
valescence and foun<l him in a most irritable and impatient frame of ndud. 
It must be understood that at that time very many of the inhabitants of Cox- 
sackie, being descendants of the Dutch settlers, spoke little except Dutch. 
General Root complained bitterly of his forlorn and wearisome condition. 
••Think of it," said he, "here I am in this miserable, God-forsaken hole; with 
nobiHJy to talk to and nobody to drink with; and if I were to die here and be 
buried among thi'Se Dutchmen, when I rise at the resurrection I will not be 
able to understand a damned word which these Hollanders have to say." 

I have referre<l to the Delaware Academy in connection with General 
U<«)t; but one eaiujot recall this venerable Institution at that day without 
bringing to mind its accomi)lislu'd Principal, Rev. Daniel Shepard. You 
cannot appropriately celebrate the past century of Delaware county without 
making mention of him who rendered so great and so valuable a servi(M> to 
this community. His line .scholarship, his apt .•md attractive methods of 

218 HISTORY OF DELA^yAliE corxrv. 

teaching, liis graeol'ul and attractive ])Oisonalty, anil liis puro and manly 
eluiraetor niailo him the idol of the students and the pride and honor of the 

I confess to a kind ot, gralilication in belongiug to that interesting section 
of the people of Delaware county which we may denominate the Scotch contin- 
gent. You will agree with me, I am sure, that no part of the settlers of this 
county has contributed more to its solid growth and prosperity. In reading 
the annals of Drumtochty, which Ian Maclaren has so inimitably sketched in 
the Bonnie Brier Bush, I have often thought that here in your very midst was 
a Scotch element which only needed such a hand of genius to make equally 

Delaware county received its Hrst installment of Scotch immigrants before 
the richer regions of Western New York, or the still more fertile and atl raetive 
territories of Ohio, and the farther West was open to settlement. They came 
here because the hills, the streams and the valleys reminded them ot their 
dear old homes in Scotland. They brought with them their churches, their 
. schools and their love of political and religious liberty ; and they have here 
helped to build up intelligent, honest and God-fearing communities, which 
have made this county a .synonym for all that is best and most suljstantial. 

There have been three periods of trial tlirough which this county has been 
called to pass in attaining her present standpoint. The first of these was the 
Revolutionary period. This was indeed over before the separate history of 
the county was begun ; but the patriotic qualities of the heroes of that day 
w-ere submitted to a sharp test. ■ The second period was the Anti-Kent episode, 
which in 1845-6 stirred the countj' to its angry depths. And yet out of tlie 
excitement and tragedies of that time the character of its population has sur- 
vived unharmed. A third period of trial came when in common with all the 
North, you were called upon to put down the great Rebellion of 1861-.1. Even 
yet there are hearts in this community which are wrung with pain at the 
recollection of the sacrifices which they were called upon to make at that time. 
Of the hundreds of husbands and sons who were given up to join in that terri- 
ble conflict, how many are sleeping in unknown graves? and of the thinning 
ranks who still survive, how many are carrying with them perpetual memen- 
toes of their battles, their marches and their encampments? And yet out of 
all these heavy trials who does not recognize that this noble and stalwart 
county has by means of them been chastened to a higher destiny, and to-day 
at the end of her first century, stands more conspicuously strong and vigorous 
than ever before. 

As one of her loyal sons, who has enjoyed the high privilege of having 
been born and fostered within her territory, I desire to-day to join with others 
equally loyal, in celebrating her centennial annivei'sarj-, and in extending to 
her our congratulations upon the past century of success, and in wishing to 
her in the future the same allotment of good fortune and prosperity. 

CEXTi:y.\iAi. ci-:li:i!ratii)X. 2iu 

liCilliirN.s o| ). 1. lioodiivh,\., 

(ir IIKI.HI, \. V. 

Mh. Phesidext and Fellow Citizens: Ninety-seven yenrs jifjo niy fjiiiiid- 
fiillier. Isaai- (lootlrich, who had been a. soklier of the Revolution, willi Ins 
family and liis lirother . Tared with his family eanie to Dehiware eouuty. He 
selll.'d in the town of Delhi at a plaee now ealled DeLaneey, then beinn a |iail 
of I)i!lii the town of Hainden not having been foiiued till twenty-five years 
afleiward. At this time my father, Hiram B. Goodrich, was eij^ht years of 
«(;e, antl when he arrived at the age of twenty-one years lie enlisted as a sol- 
ilier in the war of 1812 and eontinued in the service until the elose of the war. 

I was born in Delaware county, have always lived here, and no man has 
^{reater reason to cherish feelings of love and gratiludi' towanl this county 
than myself. 

The early settlers of this part of the county were many of them from New 
England. They cut loose from civilization ; they brought their all with them ; 
lliey burneil their bridges behind them. These l)rave hardy men with their 
faithful devoted wives, their strong stalwai't sons, their flrm-hearted daugh- 
ters and the little children " homeless except for the mother's arms and couch- 
less except for the mother's breast," plunged into this wilderness and enlisted 
ill a life struggle for its conquest. 

Instead of being surrounded by the comforts, conveniences and enjoyments 
of civilized life, '■ Bleal; nature's desolation wrapped them round, eternal for- 
ests and iinyicliling earth." Instead of the sound Of the steam whistle and 
the church bell they heard the howl of the wolf, the Scream of the panther and 
the war whoop of the Indian. 

Id those days when a man got up in the morning he had to fed of his scalp 
t<> see if, like his country's flag, it was "still there." 

This was no " camping out " party, this was no holiday excursion ; it meant 
business. The siivage beast and the still more .savage man had to be driven 
out, the forest lijid to be cut down and subdued, and all the hanlships. priva- 
tions an<l daugei'S necessarily incident to the conversion of a wildiuness had to 
be encountered and endured. And yet in spite of all these hindrance's and 
iibstaides such was the energy and industry of these pioneers that we lind by 
the census of 1825 that they had changed this wilderness into a thriving coin- 
iniinity with a population of nearly thirty thousand. 

Delaware county has always discharged her dutii\s, public .iiul pri\ate, 
faithfully and well — has borne her full share of the burdens in war ami in 
peace. In the war of 1812 she furnished her full i|Uota of soldieis, and in the 
war of the Rebellion no county of its size in tiiis state or any other sent to the 
front more or better or Ijraver men than Delaware county. Scarely a battle 
Held of the war which was not moistened by tlic I. Ion. I of Delaware county's 


Di'laware county being an inland county with no cities, no great coniiner- 
eial or railroad centers, no extensive manufacturing towns or establishments, 
thousands of our most active, energetic and amliitious young men have gone 


out from us to huilil up oilier- loi-iilities or to engagi' in luisiiu'ss when- quii-UiT 
and j;ieater returns woro promisctl. The West is full of them, ami when ymi 
find a Delaware county lioy you find a leader. 

But in spite of this drain upon our population Delaware county has always 
had and still has as successful teachers, as eloquent preachers, as skilful phy- 
sicians, as able lawyers, as up-to-date farmers and mechanics as any similar 
locality in the State. 

Delaware county has reason to lie proud of her history, her rec(jrd, her 
able men, her uolile women, and nevi>r more so than to-da.v. 

rn-marl^.s of Ar. Thomas Ci. 5tr»itb, 


Ladies and Gentlemen: I have been delighted in what I have seen and 
heard this afternoon at this Centennial celebration of old Delaware county. I 
have heard a great many things this afternoon that take me back to the days 
of my boyhood. I can recollect in old Delaware county when there was no 
such thing as a mile of railroad known, no telegraph, nothing but the old stage 
coach for a means of conveyance ; when it was guite a circumstance to make a 
journey of a hundred miles; when it took four or five days to get a letter a 
hundred and fifty miles at a cost of eighteen cents postage. In looking over 
some of the old relics down in the jury room I was reminded of things in my 
boyhood days. I well remember when my father used to raise flax, when my 
mother used to spin it on a little wheel, weave cloth, make tha summer gar- 
ments for the family out of the tow cloth, and the winter garments out of 
woolen cloth ; she would spin the wool and dye it and make the cloth. * ' 

Many of these things remind us that we are getting along in years in the 
historj' of Delaware county. We call it "old" Delaware. I think ninety-seven 
times this afternoon I have heard the expression "old Delaware." But, in 
another sense of the word, what is "old?" "Old" is not always represented 
by years. AVe get a better idea b.v comparison sometimes. If a man is a hun- 
dred years old we call him old. If a country or a government was a hundred 
years old we might not call it old. I think I heard one speaker this afternoon 
say that there was a building in Roxbury a hundred and four years old. A few 
years ago, in that marvelous city in the Adriatic sea, I stood inside of a i Iniich 
building that was built in the sixth century, over thirteen hundred ye:irs old. 
It looked as though it was made for another thousand yeai'S. We would call 
that old in Delaware county. * * « 

For all that I am willing to admit that old Delawai-e, I am rea<ly to allow- 
that terra, I am proud of it, I am glad to hear the term applied to it, "old 
Delaw-are." I am proud of being a citizen of old Delaware. Delaware does 
not possess .some things that other countries do, I will admit that. She does 
not have any wondeiful Niagara Falls ; she does not have such a grand fissure 
in the earth as the canon of the Yosemite ; she don't have any range of snow 
capped mountains piercing into the clouds ; don't have any sunny climes 
where the frost king never is known. On tlie other hand she don't have any 


mia.'^ma, don't liave any earthiiuakcs, tlou't hav(> any tornadoes, don't liavc 
any blasting sirocco. Bnt sho docs have these grand green hills, these beauti- 
ful vaUeys, these pretty villages dotted all over, this [iri-tty Delhi backed liy 
its beautiful green hills. .\11 over the hills of Delaware gushes the sparkling 
water that is <lrink for man and beast and rivals the fabled neetar of the gods. 
All hail, old Delaware! And when the second century of its establishniiMit is 
(•elebrated may it liaxc grown better and better with the years in the century. 

r>cnuirk.s of Hon. T. E. Hani'Oils, 


Mli. Cn.\iini.\N. Fellow Citizens, L.vDiEs .\NU GentlemeK : I am pnmd 
and pleased to be the salutatorian this evi'niug. I'lnler that arrangement yn\i 
will soon lie out of tronlile and so will I. 

I I'ongratulate you upon being one humlred years old to-day, as a county; 
certainly not as individuals, especially the ladies. Judging from what I heard 
here this aftemooD, if oiiu person should attempt to tell all the good things 
that eouhl be said concerning tliis county and its sons and daughters he would 
speak from now until the dawn of the next centennial day. 

I have not armed myself with those deadly weapons, the cyclopaedia and 
the gazetteer, if you have one, but I remember reading in a New York paper 
the other day that Delaware county was celebrated for many things; among 
others that it was distinguished for its hops. I understand you claim not to 
raise hops here, but it must be so, if it says so in the paper. You are 
noted for your maple sugar, for your tanneries and your temperance Demo- 
crats. That is certainly glory enough for one county. I have been in a great 
ninny counties that were not distinguished in that way, especially in the latter 

One of your fellon- citizens who is dead and gone and who has been referred 
to by your speakers, called Delaware county the Swit/.c^rland of .\merica ; and 
with its hills and valleys, its healthful clime and fertile soil, it seems to me 
that it combines the beauties of Switzerland and of the country about the 

This same veracious newspaper that I was speaking about lievoted some 
remarks to myself in an adjoining column, of course complimentary, in which 
it called me, if I remember correctly, a statesman from the Onondago Keser- 
vation. If that be true, I must be related in some way to the tribe of Dela- 
wnres. I certainly ought to be interested here because, if I remember rea<liug 
correctly, in 17(i« (uie of my progenitors, a chief by the name of Segareesera 
joined in a deed of conveyance whereby he sold all his right, title and interest 
in and to Delaware eount.v and thi' surrounding country to King George the 
Thiril for tifty thousand dollars. I.and was high in Delaware county at that 
lime, comparatively speaking, because I remember before that Manhattan 
Island was sold for twenty four dollars. A few years after that King George 
the Third transferred to a free and independent people all his title to the 
whole country for a much smaller consideration. 

222 IllsroliV OF DlCLAWMtK t'OlXTV. 

I also am iulorestiMl iu this county lierause I believe I I'oniierly lived iir 
Delaware eouiity, by proxy, at least. I think that Onondaga i-ounty, in fact, 
all the counties between Oswego and Delaware once belonged to Tryon county, 
iiiKl you could travel all the way from Delhi to the Onondaga valley without 
going out of the county, and if a man wanted to visit his neighbor, all he had to- 
do was to gel upon his horse, put his wife on b(>hind him, travel three or four 
weeks and he would find himself in his neighbor's back yard. Those were the 
days of stage coaches. These are the days of chain lightning. If you desire 
to visit with a man in London to-day, iu half an hour you can shake hand.s 
across the sea. If you want to talk with a man in Chicago, in five minutes 
you hear him at the other end of the wire. 

We do well to celebrate the deeds of our ancestors. I ha\e been pleased 
to hear these venerable men speak about the sires of '76, how the good old 
men of Delaware county fought for thi'ir liberty, fought to achieve independ- 
ence for this nation, to build up this garden of the gods where you are living 
to-day. .\nd I was pleased to hear them tell of the patriots of 1H12. who 
fought to maintain the dignity and self respect of the youngest of the family 
of nations; and then still later, how the sons of Delaware left their homes and 
their firesides, kissed their wives and children good-bye, said farewell to father 
and mother and went down into the vallej' of the shadow of death to fight in 
behalf of home and native land. We do well to praise such deeds and to 
remember gratefully those who have preceded us. 

I have been told since I have been here that Delaware county is sur- 
rounded by seven other counties and one State. I would not undertake to tell 
what those counties are, I never was good in geography. I believe that Sulli- 
van is one, and Greene and Ulster, Schoharie, Broome, Otsego and Chenango; 
and Pennsylvania. Is that right'? That is the best recitation I have made in 
geography in a long time. But, judging from the patriotism I have seen man- 
ifested here, you are not willing to be bounded by any such narrow confines as 
that. Sometimes the further a man gets awa}' from home the more patriotic^ 
he is, and some of you seem to be feeling about like a man from the wild and 
woolly West who was celebrating the Fourth of July in Paris. In fact there 
were three of them ; one was from Boston, the other from the South and the 
other from the West. They were having a Fourth of July celebraticm all by 
themselves. Aud the gentleman from Boston proposed a toast to the United 
States. With true Bostonian precision, he says : " Here's to the United States ; 
bounded on the North by British America, bounded on the South by the Gulf 
of Mexico, bounded on the East by the Atlantic Ocean and bounded on the 
West by the Pacific Ocean." The reconstructed gentleman from the South was 
not satisfied. He says. "I think that hardly expresses the idea. I will pro- 
pose a toast to our native land. Here's to the United States; bounded on the 
North by the North Pole, bounded on the South by the South Pole, bounded on 
the East by the rising sun, bounded on the West by the setting sini. ' The 
gentleman from the West was not satisfied with that. He says, "I think I 
can express the idea more clearly ; I will propose a toast. Here's to the 
United States ; bounded on the North by the North Star, bounded on the 
South by the Southern Cross, boundetl on the East by chaos, bounded on the 


Wi'st liy I'ti-ruity." Ami 1 >u|i|i(>se thai is iilioiit tin' si/.c of Dcinwarc ooiuity 
t'«-ili»y. Wi> oiitsidi'is, lliMitiles, so to speak, aro wiliiuK to coui't'dc tliat Di'ia- 
wuri- I'ouiity is about all tlioro is of it. It was uot our fault that we were not 
liorii hi>rt»; we w<>re not consultefl, we didn't have our ehoice. 

I am expectin;; to lii>!ir tliat travel strike and I do not intend to talk nuuh 
longer. I have hi'ard snnir MTy line things about Delaware county. I have 
been told that for sixteen yc-ars after you built your first jail the county judge 
and district attorney and the committing magistrates were discouraged be- 
cause no one viMitured to lireak the law, and linally they turned the jail into a 
hotel. Anil then for about twenty or thirty years after that when a nuiu coni- 
niitte<l a misdemeanor he walked into the jail and locked himself in ; this was 
way l>ack in '"iJt. I suppose that explains the temperance Democrats. I am 
reminded that some of my fellow members of the bar (I am supposed to be the 
titular head of the members of the bar) felt aggrieved at some remarks that 
were made liere this afternoon by a physician concerning the boy who sat on 
the Bible with the orange in his mouth and the dollar in his pocket. He- 
claimed that the boy became a lawyer. Now, we can all say that, as far as the 
dollar in liis pocki't is concerned it is a mistake; but I would call the gentle- 
man's attention to that passage of s<ripturo which reads as follows : •• And .Vsa 
was sick, and they sent tor a physician, and Asa, died.' 

Now, fellow citizens, I am somewhat embarrassed. I ha\ e ha<l to arrange 
my speech as I went along. I don't know but what I am trespassing upon the- 
lime of some one else who is to follow. But I find it difficult to stop. The- 
thenu' is fruitful, the occasion suggestive, and your faces an inspiration. You 
have my good wishes. I congratulate you again. I congratulate you over the 
fa<-t that you are citizens of the United States, where every man is a king and 
every woman a ipieen. I congratulate you over the fact that you are citizens 
of the grejit imperial State of New York, first in wealth, lirst in strength and 
lirst in material resources. I congratulate you that you lielong to the good 
• lid county of Delaware, and hope that j-ou live long and prospi'r. 

EAti'cict.s from a I.olti'i'. 

In 1774 my great-grandfather, .\lexanilcr Leal, willi his wil'e and six sons, 
came from Paisley, Sc-otland, and settled near the centre of Korlright. Last 
summer, IS'.lli, I had a wliili' rose from a busli mi Ihc plai-e whicli has blos- 
somed for over one hundred years. In writing adviie to his iliildren Mr. Leal 
said : "I reproved myself for bringing a family into tlic wildi'i-uess where there 
was no preai-hing of the gospel." They soon found ways to have a minister. 
.\ Mr. .Vnniui. from New .Jersey, came over one hundri'd miles, and lie preached 
for lliem and baptized a cliild. Very soon the way opened for a gradimte of 
Edinburg UniviMsity, William McCauley, to come among them. There was a 
desire among the Slaml'ord people i now South Kortright i to have him. Kort- 
rlght Center prevailed. A church was organized, and lor a linu> Mr. Mcl'auley 
iiiid the elders walked Sabbath afternoons over to Stamford, a distance of si.\ 
miles and hail service. After a while Mr. Forrest was settled in Stamford.. 


He was miR-h rosiipcteil by his pooplc. Butli ministcis wcri' coiisidciiMl im-ii 
of ability. I tliink llr. McCauley was tliought to be tlio stn>nf?er of the two 
as to intellect, but Mr. Foirest wore the broadcloth auil luul the more poli-shed 
manner. One time the Associate Reformed body met at Newburg. Those in- 
terested in that assembly felt disheartened when tlie man who was to preaeli 
for them appeared, dressed in a homespun suit, but when Mr. McCauley offered 
his prayer, all fears vanished : they felt sure they had the right man, and ever 
afterwards it was a favor to have Mr. McCauley come among tliem. * « « 

In those days the people came from all d.rections, eighl or ten miles, to 
church. At communion seasons there would be services beginning with Friday 
and lasting until Monday afternoon. The different churches came together, 
the houses nearby opened their doors and welcomed all who came. Many a 
friend stayed over and made a visit of weeks. In reading the story of Chan- 
cellor Livingston, I was reminded of those days. It was stated of him that he 
would have friends visiting him, and when they were too much at home, he 
would send money to another friend and ask him to send for them to visit; 
after awhile they would return improved. The money was not so plenty, but 
the interchange of friends was ([uite common. * * * 

The Sabbath was sacred; no work that was not absolutely necessary to 
life was done; the dishes would bo left until Monday morning, the wood was 
brought in Saturday night. If the choice were given to me to have an Aca- 
demic course without a religious education or a common school education with 
the old time religious training I would .say every time give me the latter, for 
they who have that, do the clearest thinking and have the strongest will power 
to overcome difficulties. I am reminded of a time when Dr. Agnew asked me 
if I knew two ladies who had called on him from Betty's Brook, they appeared 
very refined and cultured he said ; .so they were ; a family of daughters and two 
sons, but with a stirring father and a capable quiet mother the Scotch-Irish 
element was well developed, there was no backwoods people with such train- 
ing. The mothers of those days were not clamorous for place, but they held 
the rudder all the same, behind the scenes. 

Early in this century the father of the Leals went down below Delhi and 
bought land for his four sons on the east side of the Delaware, his own farm, 
I being now called the Meeker farm,) the poor-house lot and the one below; 
there being no church in the town then, he used to walk to Kortright Center, 
fourteen miles, every Sabbath. Mrs. Gould told me that she had often seen 
Grandfather Leal on horseback with Grandmother behind him going to Stam- 
ford to church. Judge Bostwick told me that no one dared to fish or hunt 
until the old gentleman was off; they were sure to be fined if he saw them. It 
was not long before he had a church near by; it stood on the flat a little be- 
low the Little Delaware bi-idge. Mrs. Thurlier told me that he stood on the 
bridge and saw the last rafter go up; he leaning on his long staff said, '• Kow 
Jettest thou thy servant depart in peace, for mine eyes ha\e seen thy salva- 
tion ;" thus he had seen three churches organized, ami liis exhortation to his 
children was, "be always ready to support the Gospel; be mindfufcif Mr. Mc- 
Cauley for he has been a faithful minister to ye all. " 

Mr. Maxwell was settled over the Delhi church, he preaching occasionally 
in the Court-house and also at Cabin Hill ov(>r the Scotch mountain. .\ few of 


ihi' villagi- in'opU' wi'iil ilowu lo the rluncli, Iml they were not a <-hui-cli-i;()iiij,' 
•fommunity ; they were iiipn of affairs, al)le lawyers; the first bar in the State 
-outside of the city of New York it was said : there was a true aristoeraej'; the 
duiigliters were sent away to school ; in those days Catskill had a superior 
school, ease of manners and quiet deportment were tauj^lil. Mrs. Ma.\well 
(Judj^e Foote's daufjhter i was an example of a rdiiiert, delicate lady, and a 
kind. f;entle woman, always attentive to everyone, but never conileseendiiif! : 
the yotnifj ladies of that time were not street girls, they were protected liy 
their homes. 

The Judges of thai time seemed to lie distrilmleil aroiiinl the country at a 
distance of three or four miles apart. Judge Law at Meredith Si|uare ; he had 
hopes of having the county town up there. Why not ? The only Slate road 
ivissed over the hills, three stage coaches a day passed that way, it lieing the 
most tiireet roail from Western New York to Catskill en route to New York. 
But down hill the judges came: Judge Frisbee at the foot of Elk Creek, i the 
first court was held there,) Judge Keeler farther up the river; Judge Leal be- 
low the village; Judge Foote two miles further on ; later on Ju<lge Bostwick 
across the river. 

Probably the law business would not support thi-m, or perhaps it was 
proper to be a land holder. Mr. Sherwood, a well known lawyer lived below 
the village. • * « 

In the thirties there came a great change in the religious feeling all over 
the country, there were what were called protracted meetings held in many 
places. The old churches were holding their places and keeping their children 
mostly, but the multitude were living careless lives, they cared for none of 
these things. Then came an evangelist, Mr. Orton. a refined Christian gentle- 
man and with all very zealous, who had a great influence among the people; 
meetings were held in the Court-house and in the District school-house at 
■Sherwood's bridge. The leading village people began to be interested, many 
of them came out decided Christians, among them Mr. and Mrs. Gould. Mr. 
G<iuld gave largely of his means and was active in working. He used to have 
a school Salibath afternoons in our school-house, and meetings during the 
week. The young |)eople of the Scotch families were interested ; I remendjer 
hearing my Grandfather say to ray Grandmother, "I thiid< I will go over and 
hear what our young people are getting:" became hack finding no fault. I 
was too young to go generally, but one evening was then'; I iiiuch inter- 
ested in hearing Deacon Knapp sing alone, 

" The year of jubilee has come. 
Return ye wandering sinners home." 

He was a di'vout old man ; he used to have a prayer meeting in the village ; 
his family thought him foolish to go. When asked who was thiui' he would 
say. " I was there and the Saviour was there." Who knows but like Cornelius, 
his prayers were heard and answered? Certainly he lived to see the school 
house crowded. In a short time a church was orgaidzed and a building put up 
where the Second Presbyterian church now sUmds. 

Mr. Kedzie, Uncle Robert Leal and James Leal (my grandfather), with 
itheir fannlies left the S<'otch Church and uniteil with the village church. The 


Episeopiil L-luuvh imisl have boon iiij^'iini/.cd very scion. There wiis u great 
eliaiige in the village; those who were imi church-goers were the excei)tions. 
The old Presbyterian churches looked uiioii tlie " new lights," as they were- 
called, as not quite orthodox ; they sang hymns, they had many isms, there 
was danger of depending upon good works. Time has straightened out these 
dift'orenees so that they are now of one mind, liolding the same views essen- 
tially, only keeping the diftVnnit names to help those who are anxious to keep 
their own individuality. By tliis time there wore churches in all the towns: 
at Moreditli Square n. large Cmigregationalist church ; I remember going tliere 
when it looked doubtful about getting a seat. The southern towns were all 
well sustained religiously — among tlie best known names were Wheeler, Ogden, 
Mead, Eells and St. John. Delaware county has had many men tliat she may 
well be proud of. 

Delaware Academy must have been started in tlie early part of this cen- 
tury; the first teacher was a Mr. Savage, probably from Washington county, 
New York. I rememljor my grandmother speaking very respectfully of Uncle 
and Aunt Savage from that section. General Knot was a loyal citizen. Mr. 
Samuel Sherwood lent his inlluence for the good of the place. I think we all 
feel as my brother wrote fifty years ago. 

Land of my own green home forever! 

Of rugged glen, and cloud-capped hill; 
Lanil of llie lake and rolling river — 

My childhood's home, I love thee still ! 

Land where the Catskills rear their heads 

Aloft, to mock the storms of Heaven, 
Of fair.v dell and weird cell, 

And mighty oaks by lightning riven : 

Home of my youth, though Time and Fate 

That alter things, may change thee; 
Yet Tinu' nor Fate shall ever drive 

Thine inuige, Delaware, from me. 

Stern land of mountain, rock and Hood, 

Of barren heath and stormy sky. 
Thy sons are freemen and thy clifft^ 

The fortresses of Liberty I 

Forever rest that (Joddess bright 

Thy firm emliedded rocks among ; 
While Freedom hath a home on earth, 

Or Freedom's chorus shall be sung ! 

A rugged band are they — those men 

Who cleave thy iron rocks for food ; 
Stern zealots of the olden time, 

" Who live not but in the fear o' (iod." 

Men of the ol<l Douglass line. 

Who ne'er was liearded in his den 
Wlio like their fathers for their rights 

Would firndy draw the sword again. 

Forever be among them there. 

The blood they from old Scotia draw; 
The firm resolve, the Christian walk. 

.\nd meek obedience to the law. 


■"ocpi, "1007," 1)\; \ithui- ''\oi\', Esq., 

(ir iiKi'osrr, X". v. 

OiK" lin.v, liittiiig in my sauuUim, 

( The word is quiti> 11 Hood one,) 

I siuuohow jjot to tliitiking, 

Or, it may be, lialf-way ilrcaming, 

Over days that long were passed, 

Over which the shadows passed, 

A very queer illusion. 

Or. possibly, delusion, 

I eliani-ed upou an old-tiinc bi>()k. 

It had a inildewed. iinriiMil Uxik, 

It's date was 1H1I7. 

II' I'm uot very much mistaken, 

It is a rare and novel relie. 

In truth a genuine old antiiiue. 

I read it o'er with greatest care, 

But whence it came I'm not aware. 

I trust you'll get the book and read it, 

E'en though it's stale to our time critic. 

But of the nineteenth century 

It's a curious epitome. 

That it is old, you'll givi^ it credit, 

Because it's not in the "phonetic. " 

(I simply stop right here tn state 

You will not find It up to date.) 

From it I gather llie impression, 

And so will you on careful reading 

( That is, of <'0urse, providing 

You comprehend the spellingi. 

That in eighteen hundred ninety-seven 

Delhi had some sort of celebration — 

That many people met up there. 

From every part of Delawarr : 

They read some scraps of history. 

And dilated on their glory, 

And how they'd reached the summit 

By excellence of wil . 

What was its purposi', I donl krmw, 

Because it was so long ago. 

Yet 'tis true they hfid this celi'bratiou. 

Per se, for mutiuil admiration. 

.\iid I give it to you gratis 

They boasted of their "status," 

But what they had to brag about. 


Or why llicy ilid so jiiiup aud bliuiit, 

Is what we can't exactly know, 

Because it was so long a;^o. 

In nineteen liundred uiiicty-seven, 

Existing by tlie grace of Heaven, 

We can't conceive as you well Ivuow, 

AVliy these old things were ever so. 

It seems, in those old-fashioned days, 

The people had peculiar ways 

Of doing things from hand to hand 

That we, you Icnow, can't understand. 

They iiad something called a "phone" 

By which they talked from home to home; 

They had a wire, or some such matter. 

They used for lack of something better, 

And these were stretched on sticks, they say. 

In a peculiar sort of way. 

Now tliese old things we can't conceive, 

Nor scarcely in our mind believe. 

Why such crude things were e'er in use, 

We can't our minds quite disabuse. 

Why, now we talk with men in Mars, 

They called it then one of the stars ; 

When we converse right through the air 

We can't see why they used a wire. 

As I read backward to that time 

I'm quite bewildered in my mind. 

They talked of gold and silver, 

'Twould any mind bewilder. 

They talked about the ratio. 

And the consequential value. 

Now we're making gold and silver. 

As you'll well remember. 

By a well-known composition 

Of this century's invention. 

They talked of the precious mclal, 

And of the monetary evil. 

Gold seemed to them great virtue bear 

Because it was so very rare. 

But since we've got to making it 

At a reasonably fair profit. 

We keep the ratio as we want 

By the working of the plant. 

Our mills are running on full time 

And our output of gold is tine; 

And our trade's expanding fast — 

This year greater than the last. 

CKXThWXIM. CF.I.r.nHA TliiX. o-H) 

Our ciiniiiii'ivc Willi all piuipli' far uiid wide 

Exalts our nation's piido. 

Our aiuliatisadof at Noitli Poll? 

Reports a good coudition as a wholo; 

We've nothing from that part to fear, 

Except an early frost this year. 

No doulit that our reciproi-ity 

Has Miueh advanced us in Unit cciuiiiry. 

The delicacies that they produce, 

Exchanged with us for things of use. 

As we look back a lumdri'd years 

It fills our eyes with scalding tears. 

Our fathers in their vain, boasted role, 

Did never, never take the " pole," 

And yet, with great solemnity. 

On the record placed their own stupidity. 

Then they had a long contention 

O'er the question of combustion, 

By burning wood or coals, 'twould seem, 

(Or did I learn it in a dream, i 

Why, ever since I can remember, 

We made our fuel out of \vater. 

The date of this discovery 

Is not now in my memory. 

But we have no contention 

O'er a coal trust combination. 

Why I should reckon not, 

When we make thi- water boil the pot. 

To extract the fire from water 

Is a very simple matter, 

And 'tis queer this thing they didn't know. 

Only a hundred years ago. 

It didn't even have a mention 

At that wondrous eelebrati<ui. 

Yet the fullness of their wisdom 

They related with great unction. 

And prated of their knowledge 

Got in common school and college — 

That the summit of their wisdom 

Covered all things 'neath the sun. 

We extend to them our jiity 

In the line of Christian duty. 

Beyond our wildest imagination 

Is the picture of their ignorance. 

Things that to them seemed credulous 

Are plain as noonday sun to us; 

They were not of the twiiilietli century. 


TherefDrf not as wise as we. 

I will not tx' an unfair eritli-. 

They tliimglit tlioy knew things Uiat tliey didnl, 

A common thing, e'en now, we must admit. 

So we will not in judgment on them sit. 

Our fathers were a fairish class, 

Considering they were in the past. 

They sermonized on the " world " 

As though in that all things were told. 

They wisely talked about some planet 

And through a spy-glass thought they saw it, 

But whether it was land or ocean. 

They didn't have the slightest notion : 

By the way, I'm just reminded. 

And I pause right here to state it. 

Our annual coming great event 

(See sjiecial small bills freely sent I 

The vestibuled excursion out to Mars, 

On the modern airship "Golden Stars," 

I am not the company's agent, 

But I freely recommend it; 

Tlie rates are low and very fair. 

(No extra charge for best of air) ; 

I was out there in the month of May 

fpon the vessel "Windy Way." 

The people there are much like us, 

This I observed in a town caucus. 

It gave me (juite a homelike feeling 

To mark the ijuantum of their stealing. 

They are very active after spoil 

Ami quite averse to hardy toil. 

So we can call the Marsden "brother' 

In any sort or kind of weather. 

The men of Mars are peaceably inclined. 

And by the name are very much maligned. 

They were theu holding a convention 

To etTect an arbitration 

With their neighbors in the "Milky Way ' 

At some early future day. 

We came back by way of Jupiter, 

But owing to distress of weather — 

The wind was blowing south by west 

Our captain thought it was not best^ 

We cliil not make a landing. 

Which wasijuite disappointing; 

But we made the port of Venus 

And 'twas there the boys all left us. 

They said they'd take the next ship back, 

Butthey didn't, that's a fact. 

I thiidi they found an Oklahoma 

In the goddess' fair country. 

And I'm strong of the opinion 

That they setth'd in that nation. 

How little did our fathers kunw. 

>Only a hundred .years ago. 

JentermJal Badges worri by ttie Officers of ttie Delt\i Celebratior\. 


Addiw^.s h\ Ik-'n. c" hd.s. K. Ltruoln. 


Ml!. President. Ladies and Gextle.mes : At the outsi-t 1 want to cxpn's.-i 
my uratiliuli' to your distinguisheil cilizon and my good friend Mr. Crosby, for 
ilivitiii;; nu' to attend this eelebratiou. It was not until yesterday that I felt 
sure that I could be here, but now I am ready to say that I count this one of 
the fiutunate occasions of my life. As I have sat here to-day and listened to 
the histories of your various towns, and the devel(>|iment and growth of this 
■county, ray patriotism has been stirred, my love of country has grown, and 
my respect for American citizenship has increased. I am very glad to-night 
that I am able to make this visit to Delaware county. 

I am not a son of Delaware county. I am not even a brother-in-law. More 
than that, I am not even a .son of Xew York. I first saw the light of day in 
old Vi'rnioiit, anil for more than forty years my father and mother have slept 
beneath her sod. But I came to this State when a child, and I have lived here 
I'ver since. This has been my State. I have taken an interest in all her affairs, 
I have become proud of her history, I have become proud of her station as the 
Empire State of this great union; and as I have studied her history and 
watched her development, I have become more and more proud to be a citizen 
of the State of New York. 

There are some things about the State of New York to which it might be 
well for us to call attention. I recall the fact that back in KiHIi a Colonial 
.\ssenibly was held, and passed what it called a "charter of liberties." In 
that charter of liberties it declared that the government rested linally with the 
" people met in general assembly." You who have read that history remem- 
ber that King James objecte<l to those words, "the peo])lc," because, he said, 
they were not in any other constitution in America. So the State of New I'ork, 
■or colony of New I'ork, was first in the declaration of a government by the 
people. Not from old Massacnusetts, not from Delaware, not from Virginia. 
but from the old Dutch and English settlement of New York, Hrst came into 
our constitutional history those great words, '-the people," the keystone of 
popular government. It is worth while for us to remember this as we think 
•of the development of our liberty, ami of all the free institutions which we so 
much enjoy. 

It seems incongruous that I should be called on to say anything here. 
This is a family reunion, and I am a stranger to you, this is my first visit to 
Delaware county, but I had had the pleasure and the honor of being acquaiuted 
with a few of your citizens, so that when Mr. Crosby invited me to come I con- 
»ente<l. not only to visit with him and other citizens with whom I am ac- 
■<iuainte<l, but that I might take in the full meaning of a great occasion like 
this in Delaware county. But, after all, it may be projier that I, a stranger to 
you. should <ome here and say a few words of greeting. My home is in the 
county of Cattaraugus. We cannot have a centennial in Cattaraugus in twenty 
jears, but I want to take this occasion to invite you to come and help^us cele- 
brate when we do h<dd it. It makes me feel young, looking at this celebration 



to-night from the standpoint of Cattaraugus. It was not until the oest year 
after this county was organized, that the first white settlement was made in 
Cattaraugus eounty, and then a few Qualsers wont up the Allegany river and 
settled just over the line in what is now the southern part of our county. You 
trace j-our history back farther than the organization of the county, because 
you go back with the history of the State itself, and to the colony of New 
York. I bring to you to-night the greeting of Cattaraugus, greeting you and 
congratulating you upon this auspicious event, that you have come up through 
these years, and that Delaware county has developed so grandly that to-night 
you are able to celebrate with proper pride this great history of yours which 
we have heard recounted to-day. 

You do not expect me to give any of the history of Delaware county. Your 
own people will do that. But I count you a part of the State of New York ; 
you belong to the same family of smaller commonwealths to which I belong. 
Cattaraugus and Delaware are only jiarts of this great State of New York; 
smaller divisions, originating from the English habit of dividing the common- 
wealth into smaller municipalities. AVe have our county government as you 
have yours, and our general development has been substantially the same. 

The other day I found in the State Library the history of Delaware county, 
written by Jay Gould, and I found it a very interesting book. One little item 
in that book attracted my attention ; no one has referred to it to-day, and it 
seems to me to be of some significance. On the third of October, 17!t7, the 
seal of the old Court of Common Pleas was established liy an order of that 
court. The emblem put on that seal was a stream of water issuing from a 
high mountain. That seal was changed only two or three years afterwards. 
Mr. Gould remarked of that original seal that it was emblematic of the surface 
and general features of the county. I find in it a much deeper meaning than 
that. A stream of water issuing from a high mountain. A mountain indicates 
strength and stability, and those have been characteristics of Delaware county 
in all this century. K stream of water represents life, power, progress and 
influence, and all those characteristics have also marked Delaware county in 
all these years. It is like that stream which Ezekiel saw in that wonderful 
vision. When he first measured it, it was only ankle deep ; the next time, it 
was up to the knees ; the next, it was up to the loins ; until now it is so broad 
and deep that it is immeasurable. You cannot measure the influence which 
has gone out from Delaware county. We have had some account of it to-day 
as we have heard of your great men, of your noble women, of the men who 
have gone out spreading this influence far and wide, even around the globe, 
and into remote hemispheres, and upon the islands of the sea. Everywhere 
this force has gone, illustrating the emblem of water issuing out of a high 
UKmntain, carrying with it everywhere influences which shall never stop, and 
cannot stop, because measured only by eternity. That was a significant sug- 
gestion to me, and if I were now a citizen of Delaware county I should regret 
that that first seal was ever changed. It was of deeper significance than the 
historian suggested. 

Emerson wrote an essay on " The Uses of Great Men," in which he said 
that the search after a great man was the dream of vouth, and the most 


serious Ofcupation of iiiaiili(x>il. We have been going over to-day, some of us 
listening, others in fact, the history of Delaware county, and while we liave 
not lieen purposely searching for great men, we have Ijeen tiudiiig great men 
all along this strong line from the earliest days until now. We lind men who 
are gri'at. great in their patriotism, great in tlieir devotion to i)nncii)le, great 
in their love of education, great in every department of human effort: great 
men who established the county of Delaware and made it strong, and firm, 
and stalile, as indicated by that first emblem upon that old cnunty seal, n'pn-- 
sented by a high mountain and a living, growing stream. 

Shortly after I came to the bar an incident occurred in England that made 
a very profound impression on my mind. It was the (^xpiratiou of a lease 
which had been given a thousand years before. Think of it ! .V lease a thous- 
and years oUl. And yet. when the lease expired, the peojile who were entitled 
to the reversion of the land upon the expiration of the lease were on hand 
ready to take their property. That incident, more than any human language 
can convey, illustrated thi' strength and the stability of English institutions. 
That incident showed that the England of .■Vlfred, of William the Conciueror, 
of Elizabeth, and of Cromwell, is the England of Victoria. It showed also 
that the England of Hastings, and of Eunnymene, and of Marston Moor, is the 
England of Waterloo. It showed also that the England of Spencer, and of 
Shakespeare, and of Milton is the England of Tennyson. It showed that the 
England of those old days had continued practicallj- unchanged, here and 
there modif,ing its form of government slightly, but all the while the same 
grand old England. The Plantagenets. and the Tudors, and the Stuarts, and 
till' Brunswicks, and linally the Hanovers, have occupied the throne of Eng- 
land, but it is old England still. As I have thought of that thousand years 
lease the question has occurred to me. Will this nation last a thousand years? 
Why not? We are told that historj- repeats itself. That is true to a limited 
degree, but I do not believe it is true of nations. Nations do not repeat them- 
selves. There was only one Babylon ; there was only one Gn^ece, the mother 
of arts and literature. The Greece of to-day is not the Greece of Solon and 
Pericles. There was only one Rome: although it existed for lifteen c(>nturies, 
the Home of to-day is not the Eome of f'lesar, and of Cicero, an<l of Justinian. 
But the England of to-day stands as the development of peculiar principles 
and institutions. What reason is there to suppose that this nation may not 
last a thousand years, and more than a thousand years? It would depi'nd. of 
course, upon the people who come after us. First upon what we do. tlieii 
upon what those do who may follow us. 

While that lease was lying in somebody's possession, winking out its pur- 
posi' iluring those ten centuries, it saw many important evtiuts. So, this 
county, while only a hundred years old, has seen many important events, and 
many great changes in the history of the worlil. 

When your county was organized, there were oidy three cities in the 
State; — New York, Hudson and Albany. Now we have forty-one cities, and 
we have one city next to the largest on the gU>be, and one which, long before 
the expiration of the next century will, I believe, be the lirst city in the world. 
Your C(uiiity to-day possesses a larger population than there was in the entire 


Stati' of New Yorli wlioii your oouuty was orgauizi'cl. Tlicri' an- nioir pcnjile 
ill the State of New York to-day, anil Goveruor Blai-k is Cliief JIagistratc of a 
larjjer iioimlatioii, tliaii there was in the entire union wlien Thomas Jefferson 
was eleeted President. We fount our wealth by billions ; we eount our popu- 
lation by millions. We have become in fact, and we are destined to remain, 
the Empire State of this great nation. All this development has come about 
W'hile you have been progressing, and developing, and making this particular 
part of the State a strong, stalwart, stable county. 

This county in its development has seen three complete and revised con- 
stitutions adopted ; it has had occasion to observe that Now York has been 
the pioneer in great legislation, in great legal reform, and other States have 
been copying from us all these years. New Y'ork stands to-day, not only in 
these material respects that I have mentioned, but in other respects, in law, 
and legal and constitutional reform, the greatest State, and the great example 
of all the States of the Union. Y'ou in Delaware county share all this. You 
have helped to produce it. We are all together a part of this great common- 
wealth. Y'ou had your share in it, and we have all had our share in it, and we 
have a right to feel to-night proud of our constitution, proud of the results of 
constitutional government, proud of this material prosperity, proud of the 
character of our citizens, proud of the condition of our citizenship, and proud 
of all these things which go to make up this beneficent institution which we 
call American civilization. 

Now, these institutions which wc boast .so much of have come down to us 
from our fathers. Webster made the remark that these institutions which we 
have are ours "to enjoy, to preserve, and to transmit." Ours to enjoy : we 
enjoy them day by day. Ours to preserve, and see that our posterity takes 
them from us untarnished. Ours to transmit to remotest generations, these 
institutions which have built up this nation and uuide us what we are. And 
Webster made this further remark, that if, under such fa\-orable conditions as 
had existed and did then exist in his day in this country, for the establishment 
of a government by the people, and for the people, if a free republican govern- 
ment could not be maintained under those conditions, it could not be main- 
tained at all. We believe it is here to be maintained through the cycles of the 
ages, with all these institutions of civil and religious liberty which we are so 
proud of to-night, and which we glory in as we stand here at the close of this 
first century of your count}'. 

Wc stand here to-night on the pinnacle of this century. We look ilown 
into the past and we see those men struggling through hardships and priva- 
tions to build this nation, and to establish these institutions; and this genera- 
tion is responsible not only to the past, to see that we properly preserve and 
take care of the institutions which we have received from It, but responsible 
for the future, that we may be able to transmit to our posterity and to 
generations yet unborn these institutions which we believe are destined to 
make and to continue to make this American nation the flower of the world in 
all ages. 

But there are people coming after us. We have heard n little to-night of 
the next century. What shall our greeting be to-night to the men and w(unen 
of 1997? They will look back upon this occasion; they will read the liook 

( EXTEWIA I. ( KI.I-:ilI{A TKIX. -J:!? 

whii-li your piesidout 1ms sugges^U'il will bo [uiuti'il, loiitaiiiiuf,' thi' s|ii'cihi's 
niid thi" histories wlii<-li wo havo hoard horo, and Ihoy will UkiU into it to see 
what sort of nion and wonion livod in Dolawaro eoiiuly at this tinio, and what 
kind of institutions you had. They will loolj to soo what kind of a t'onstitu- 
tioM you had, whetlior it oxpressod the very hijjhost form of -{ovornniont, and 
whotlior it was i-ak-ulalod to produce the very best oitizonship. and wliotlior it 
was inteudod to bring about tho greatest happiness of the people. They will 
consider all these institutions, and they will consider us personally to see how 
much of our personality, and how much personal eharaoter we put into these 
institutions which we are to hand down to them. The responsibility nn'ans 
much as we stand here at the close of one century, and look into anotlier, and 
look down the aisles of time until we see the end of that century, and in imag- 
ination behold that eontiMiiiial a hundred years from now. What will it be? 
Imagination is uiieiiual to the task of portraying what centennial will be, 
what institutions it will find, what conditions of people will be there found, 
and what sort of government they will enjoy ; and whether they will so modify 
the government as to lose sight of the cardinal principl'^s upon which our 
institutions are based. Those things will demand their attention, but it is our 
duty to see that we hand clown to tln"m these institutions in the very best con- 
dition possible. 

You remember that remarkable oration by Daniel Webster upon the two 
hundredth anniversary of the landing of the Pilgrims, in which, after going 
over thi' ground of the development of tho causes which led to the colonization 
of .America, and the formation of this government, he turned his face toward 
the future, and he wondered what we should be able to say to those people 
condng after us a century later. And as he dwelt upon that future, and upon 
those conditions which he could barely describe, he exclaimed: "Advance, 
then, ye future generations. We welcome you as you rise to take the places 
which we now fill, and where we are now passing and shall .soon have passed 
our brief human duration. We welcome j-ou to the pleasant land of our fath- 
ers : we welcome you to these healthful skies and tliese verdant fields ; we 
greet your accession to this blessed inheritance which we have enjoyed; we 
welcome you to the blessings of good government and religious liberty ; we 
welcome you to the treasures of science and the delights of learning; we wel- 
i-onie you to the transcendent bliss of domestic life, the happiness of kindred, 
of parents, and children ; we welcome you to the immeasurable l)lessings of 
iiitional existence, the? immortal hope of f'lirisliaiaty, and the light of e\cr- 
lastiug truth." 

To-niglit, fellow cilizi'iis, let that be the greeting which we send to the men 
ami women of lli!)7, and lot us hand down t<i them these institutions untar- 
nished, without syiot or wrinkle or any such thing, and tlien they will look 
back upon us and call us blessed, an<l as they recount in their histories the 
deiKls of 1S97 they will thank us that we have preserved for them, as Webster 
said, and transmitted to them, these institutions without fa\dt and witliout 
blendsh, so that they could enjoy them, improve them, build upon them, make 
human life bettor, and better still ; make human life more happy in all its 
developments, and make themselves the greatest nation which tho worlil has 
ever seen. 


HavhiK' now presented the ])riiici]i;il iuldrcsses, papers and let- 
ters prepared for this occasiou — excepting Dr. Murray's sketch of 
the Anti-Rent wai', which follows, — it is in order to give an outline 
of the other exercises of the celebration. 

The efforts of the committee on relics were rewarded l>y a large 
and exceedingly interesting collection of articles, implements, uten- 
sils, souvenirs and curios gathered during the years of the century. 
This exhibit was nicely disjilayed in the grand jury room of the 
court house, and throngs of f)eople enjoyed a visit to that museum 
of ancient handiwork and genius. There were many coutri1)utious 
from nearly all parts of the county, but the towns of Bovina, Delhi, 
Kortright and Roxburv were most numerously represented. The 
largest individual exhibits were from W. B. Peterw of Bloomville, 
Edmund L. Fish of Fish Eddy, A. M. Warner of Stamford and 
Admiral Gillis of Delhi. 

In the collection of W. B. Peters was an exceptionally good 
showing of Indian relics, all found in the town of Kortright. 
Among these were stone aiTOW heads, knives and tools used by the 
primitive sons of the forest at the beginuiug of the century, a scalp 
hook which his grandfather captured with twelve bloody scalps 
hanging thereon. He also had an admirable collection of rare 
books, of valuable coins, and musical instruments. 

Edmund Fish had a display of Hint implements which had been 
gathered from various parts of this couutry. Illustrative of the 
early struggles of the pioneers, the best collection came from 
Bovina, which included household articles, carpenters' tools and 
implements. The collection loaned by Admiral Gillis contained 
many revolutionary relics and a great variety of interesting things 
from Peru. A. M. Warner exhibited geological specimens, Indian 
relics, old firearms and quaint musical instruments. 

Some of the other articles of especial interest were a chair used 
by the Colonial Congress, by AV. B. Hanford of Franklin; an old 
high post bedstead and coverlet IIT) years old, by H. W. White of 
Delhi; tin lanterns, the oldest one shown In- Dr. William Ormistou 

CENrh:XXIA L CELEBRA 770.V. -280 

<jf Dcllii; old t'liniituic, lioru spoons, guns, jiistols, powder liorus, 
crockery, fi'lassware, niajis, books, fancy work and crude tools of all 

To the older peojile a study of these auti(|uities "turned liack 
time in its riii;ht " and revived memories of theii' youthful privations 
and struggles. To the younger people it was au interesting revela- 
tion — a source of wonder and even amusement to many. They 
could not belj) wondering how their forefathers got along with 
those iuiperfect aids to their work. This was really as successful 
as any part of the celeliration, and it is a regret that the exhibits 
<-Rnnot be reproduced in pictures. 

When Thursday morning came the rain was still falling and 
many who had planned to witness the grandest parade ever held in 
the county were compelled to forego the pleasure. However, a 
great company journeyed to the county seat that morning. The 
firemen were not deterred from their duty in meeting the promises 
made and all the comjjanies came, accompanied by their friends. 
Kepresentatives of the several posts of the Graiul Army of the 
l{epublic and other veterans of the war of the rel)elliou also came 
to join the parade. Visiting organizations were escorted to their 
headipiarters by the Delhi Cornet Band, and accorded a hearty 

At eleven o'clock began the serving of a suni])tuous dinner, at 
the opera house, to the 1,000 invited guests, provided by the citi- 
zens of Delhi. The firemen, the veterans, the Thirty-third Separate 
Company from "Walton and the bands were the guests. "William D. 
Smith of Delhi was chii'f of the coniinissarv department, and the 
following committee were in charge of the opera house, the hostelry 
of the occasitm: ^Irs. L. "W. Firth, Mrs. Mary Dann, Mrs. John A. 
Woo.lburn, Mrs. K. W. Paul, Mrs. C. (i. Maxwell, Mrs. A. J. Frank- 
lin and Mrs. J. J. Burke. The young ladies of Delhi volunteered 
to serve the meals, which they did with thoughtful attention. The 
visitors were profuse in their j)raises and thanks for this part of the 


A patriotic iiud eutbiisiastic people were cheered when at noon 
the raiustonn abated for a little, so that the grand procession could 
lie formed. The grand marshal, Frank L. Norton, and his assistants, 
arranged the companies on the public square, and when in readi- 
ness Prof. Willis D. Cxraves, president of the day, secured attention 
and in a few words introduced Colonel R. P. Cormack of Delhi, who 
extended a welcome as follows: 

•' I am directed by the residents of this village, to extend to you, one and 
all, the most kindly, cordial, and hearty welcome, to a participation in tlwir 
hospitalities that can be framed in words. To the Veteran Soldiers, I am 
further instructed to say that they, in common with their fellow citizens all 
over the country, understand and appreciate the sacrifices j'ou made in sever- 
ing home ties and accepting camp life, the trials of bivouac, the long and 
weary march, the discomforts of the trenches, fronting the enemy tor months 
in succession, and in the fierce heat of battle, that the Nation might live and 
the Union of the States remain intact, and to assure you that the patriotism 
which prompted you to spring to the defense of our country, will never be 
undervalued. To the Firemen of Delaware county, it is made my duty to say 
that the people of Delhi, although having been exempt from devastating fires 
for many years, by reason of the activity of their own firemen, feel very thank- 
ful for the singleness of purpose, which prompts you to devote your time to 
the protection of your neighbors' property and sometimes their lives. The 
frequency with which firemen are maimed in the discharge of their duty, and 
the number who have laid down their lives in effort's to save others, sufficiently 
attests the danger of jour calling, and I here venture, in the name of the peo- 
ple from whom you severally come, to sincerely thank you for your noble 
woik. The people of Delaware countj- also extend a hearty welcome to the 
Thirty-third Company of the State National Guard, and desire to congratulate 
them upon their soldlerlj- appearance, while they recognize in their personnel 
the same element and characteristics which have made the American soldier 
famous all over tiie world, and it is my province to say that your fellow citi- 
zens repose the most pei-feet eonfldence in your patriotism and love of country, 
if you should be called into the field for earnest work. This celebration is 
peculiar in its characteristics. It interests all the people of the county alike. 
It is at once patriotic, sentiniental and historical, and like the century jilant, 
it blossoms only once in an hundred years. 'We are glad to see so many 
familiar faces from all parts of the county, and sincerely thank you for your 
pi'esenc(> and I will close my remarks by quoting the old adage, that brcxity is 
the soul of wit. The town is yours for this auspicious occasion. ' 

CKXThX.XIM. Cin.hlUiATKlX. 'i-ll 

Wlu-ii till' si>(_';iker had (•(iiii-ludcd, the lines were ([iiicklv ur- 
niu^rfd and the jirocessiou moved iu the fdlhiwiiij^- order: 


Platdon of ('hiof Engineers. 
Carnages i-untaiiiiug speakers and (.listiiiguislieil guests. 

Fiisl Diemion. — Marshal, Geokoe M. Bubgin.— Sidney Dniiu Corps; 
Tliirty-third Separate Company, Walton; Sidney Centre Band; Plielps Host- 
Company, Sidney; Cartwright Hook and Ladder Company. Sidney; Bovina 
Ham); Ben Marvin Post, Walton; Jolm \. Logan Post, Stamford; Eggleslon 
Pos(, Deposit; Plaskett Post. Hancock; Fleming Post, Dt)wusville ; Bryce 
Post, Hamden; F. T. Hine Post, Franklin; England Post, Delhi. 

Second Divi-iion. — MARiSHAL, Wii,i.iAM Brinkman. — Brown's Band. One- 
onta; Stamford Hose Company; Maynard Hose Company, Stamford; Cliurehill 
Hook and Ladder CV)mpany. Stamford; Fleiselimann's Band; Koxbury Hose 
Coiiipany; Pakalakan Hose Company, Margaretville ; Arena Hose Company, 
.\rena ; Hine Hose Company, Treadwell. 

Third /JicwiV™. — Marshal, George O. Leoxaru.— Downsville Band ; She- 
liawken Hose Company, No. 1, Hancock ; Hancock Hose Company, No. 2, 
Hancock ; Hancock Hook and Ladder C<;)mpany, No. 1, Hancock; Andes Band ; 
Howie Hose Company, Andes; Andes Hook and Ladder Company; Hamden 
Hose Company; Franklin Baud: Edgerton Hose Company. Franklin ; Edgor- 
tou Hook and Lad<ler Companj-, Franklin. 

Fourth />irwioH.— Marshal. John P. Matthews.— Walton Band; Mmiow 
Hose Company, No. 1. Alert Hose Company, No. 2, Fancher Hook and Ladder 
Company, No. 3, Townsend Hose Company, No. 4. Walton ; Deposit Baud : 
Deposit Hose Company ; Bloomville Band; Cascade Hose Company, Hol)art; 
Delhi Band; Coiiuago Engine Company, No. 1, Yonmaus Hose Company, No. 
•2, Graham Hook and Ladder Company, No. :!. Sheldon Hose Company, No. i. 
Active Hose Company, No. 5. Athletic Hose C^)nlpany, No. ti, Delhi. 

Tlie line of march im-luded the follow in>^ streets of the villai^e: 
Court, Second, Franklin, Woolerton. Clinton and ^[aiii. Au iiiter- 
esting feature of the ])iirade was the (iim|i.niv of ■•Anti-Reuters" 
from Andes, dressed iu the Indian L;arli of disj^uise. .V ])ictnre of 
this company appears elsewhere. 

This jjiirade was one of jifreat interest, representing- every p.irt of 
the county. The many liands discoursed inspiring;' music. The 
tirenieu were resplendent iu bright uew uniforms, in various colors 
and shades, represeutiug safety from the r^vap^es of tire. The vet- 
irans of '()1-T)5, now grown cfray with years, representiuf,' the uohle 
army whidi saved our country in time of peril — an iudestructihh- 

:242 HrsToiiv of Delaware roT-xTv. 

union. The separate compauv, iu full imitoiin, representative cif 
ilie state's defense ajjfainst invasion by enemies. The past century 
had not seen the equal of this inspiring spectacle, and it was a 
proud day for the gathered thousands. 

After the i)ar!ide many watched the game of base ball, while 
Main street held a crowd of people interested in the hose races and 
the hook and ladder races by the firemen. Cascade Hose Company 
•of Hobart won first prize, ?5(), in the hose race and Phelps Hose 
Company of Sidney second prize, §2.5. Cartwright Hook and Lad- 
<ler Company of Sidney was the only one entered for the hook and 
ladder race, and second prize of $"25 was awarded. 

In the early evening there were band concerts and later a dis- 
play of fireworks and the celebration of a hundred years existence 
as a county, by loyal citizens, came to a close. This Ijrief story and 
pictures therewith give but a faint conception of the important 

The Anli-Rent Episode in the 5 tale of" 
New ^lorlv 

^X David n(iira>:, LL.D., 


THE Auti-Reut ayitatiou which occurred in the state of New 
York lietween 1889 aucl IS-lli was iu runuy respects a re- 
markable 7iiovenieut. It had its ultimate origiu iu the leasehold 
tenure of lamls which was intrDilui-ed into this country from Eu- 
rope, and which was sujjposed to carry with it a trail of the feudal 
system that for centuries had held its sway iu almost all the coun- 
tries of Europe. The communities which hecame involved iu these 
Auti-Rent troubles, and were led into exhibitions of lawlessness and 
even bloodshed, were iu almost all cases hij^h-toued, industrious and 
moral. They belonf,'-ed to the staid and conservative parts of the 
people, as indeed the aj^ricultural elements of a state are sure to 

The objects of this paper are to give some account of the Anti- 
Rent disturbances in Delaware county. To do this intelligently it 
will be necessary to explain the introduction of European land 
tenure into America and how out of this unreasoiial)le system arose 
troul)lcs which involved the best parts of tlu- State for many years. 

The first settlements witJiin tjic jiroscnt boundaries of New York 
were made by the Hollanders. The object of the Dutch "West India 
Company in its American policy wiis a profitable trade. .\nd almost 
the only article of trade to be derived from tlic Holland territory iu 
America was the jx'ltry of fin-hcariii^' aiiiiuals. Hence it was im- 
portant that jjermanent and trustworthy settlements should be 
established at convenient points within this territory. The ])r<'seiit 

?8tate of New York contains within its boundaries at Little Falls the 



most available route across the Allei^'hauies to the west, and at the 
time of the Dutch settlements was the home of the most thrifty, eu- 
terprising aud war-like tribes of Indians. To bring themselves into 
contact witli these sources of the fur-trade, the Dutch West India 
t'ompauv undertook to develop a settlement at All)auy. To this end 
they ofifered imjiortant concessions to such men of wealth as would 
engage to found colonies on the frontiers of the Indian territories. 

Killain Van Rensselaer, a rich pearl merchant of Amsterdam, was 
the first to undertake this task. He received a grant of land ex- 
tending twenty-four miles along the Hudson river at Alljany, aud 
running back twenty-four miles on each side. This extensive tract 
covered the chief parts of the two counties of Albany and Rensse- 
laer. The recijiient of this grant was denominated a patroou, and 
he engaged to plant within seven years a colony on his lands, of at 
least fifty families. 

In KKiO a ship-load of emigrants was forwarded from Holland, 
and in succeeding years others followed. They were chiefly planted 
on farms in what is now Albany and Rensselaer counties. The 
lands were leased to them on what are called perpetual leases. The 
annual rent was at tirst tixed at ten bushels of wheat for one hun- 
dred acres, together with four fat hens aud a day's work with a 
team. In the later leases the rent was tixed at fourteen bushels of 
wheat for one hundred acres. 

In 16()4: the Holland possessions in America were all transferred 
by treaty to England, and among them the patroonshij) of the Van 
Rensselaers. The personal rights of the inhabitants were not dis- 
turbed, and the patroonship became the manor of Rensselaerwyck, 
with the rights and usages of an English manor. 

The English during their ascendency created several othei' great 
njauors. The most important of these was the Livingston manor in 
what is now Columbia county. It covered 1(5.5,240 acres. The ob- 
ject of the English colonial government in thus founding manors- 
was of course to secure the prevalence in America of a landed aris- 
tocracy after the jiatteru of England. Tlic land of the Livingston 

'/•///•; AXTiuHXT i:i'isiiiiK. 245 

limUdi' >\iis like tlijit of lifiisscliicrwvck assij^iicd to settlers on lease, 
•some iu perpetuity, some for uiiuty-iiiiie years, and some tor one or 
more lives. The "greater jiart. liowcxcr, was leiised for two lives. 
The aunual rent varied between fourtceu and eighteen liusliels of 
wheat for one hundred acres. 

Thei'e were other large patents in different eastern counties, 
wliose tenants became involved in the Anti-Kent agitation. The 
principal of these were in Schoharie county, iu Schenectady county, 
the George Clark tracts iu Montgomery, Scoharie, Otsego, Oneida 
and Delaware counties, in Greene county, in Ulster county and iu 
Sullivan and Delaware counties. 

The tract of greatest interest to Delaware county was the Hard- 
eubevgh patent. It was granted by Queen Anne in 1708 to Johannes 
Hardenbergh of Kingston and iiis associates. It included ten miles 
square, and was claimed by the grantees to extend to the West 
branch of the Delaware; but this claim was disjiuted by the settlers 
■who held that grant only extended to the East branch. The orig- 
inal grant specified that the land extended to the " Main Branch of 
the Fish-lvill or Delaware river." Which is the main branch is even 
yet almost impossible to decide. As the two How toL;etlH>r at Hau- 
•cock they are so nearly of the same size that we may pardon the 
dis])utes of the patentees and the settlers. 

The lauds of the Hardenbergh patent were nearly always granted 
to settlers on leases at one shilling an acre. Besides this large pat- 
ent, there were in Delaware county several other considerable tracts; 
thus there were the Morgan Lewis tract of 15,(100 acres; three 
tracts of Gulian and Samuel Yerplanck originally of 50,000 acres, of 
which there were 20,000 acres under lease at the time of the Auti- 
Hent outbreak. To these tracts must lie added tlinse of liobert R. 
Livingston and Mrs. Montgomery, and the extensive tracts of 
Hunter, Kortright and Overiug.* 

The first Auti-Hent outl>reak took place in the lands of the 

♦These itctiis are lukeii from the rt^poj'l of Hon. SuMiiiel J. TiliJen in the 
-winter of I84fi to the New York Assembly. 


Helderljcr^s iu All);iiiy county iu l.s:{!). It ui-Dse from the iitteiiipt 
made to euforce the collection of rents wLicb the too great leuieucv 
of tlie patroon Stephen Van Rensselaer had suffered to accumulate 
in arrears. At the time of his death this accumulation amounted to 
not less than $-!:()(), (l(»l. The effort to enforce payment led to violent 
resistance, and the officers of the law were compelled to cull upon 
the governor, William H. Seward, for military assistance. After the 
forcible settlement of the questions at issue, at the sutfgestiou of 
the governor commissioners were appointed to endeavor to make a 
comiaromise between the landlord and his tenants. But no satis- 
factory result came from this conference and the commissioners 
reported their failure to the next legislature. 

Soon after this, the agitation as to the payment of rents spread 
to the Van Rensselaer leasehold properties on the east side of the 
Hudson river. Anti-Rent associations began to be formed iu all the 
considerable localities. These associations became affiliated and ex- 
erted a wide intiuence iu all the subsequent movements, both in the 
Van Rensselaer and other leasehold domains. In connection with 
these associations there ajjpeared a set of professional agitators, 
who went about descanting upon the evils of the system of rents 
and encouraging the tenants in the methods of violence which they 
adojited. Dr. Boughtou who was afterward tried and convicted iu 
Columbia county, and ^Ir. Brisbane who was present at the killing 
of Steele in Delaware county, were both professional anti-rent lec- 

It must not be assumed that the aims aud purposes of these 
associations were wholly or even principally wrong. There was- 
a perfectly legitimate object which they did much to promote. 
In them began that persistent agitation which finally brought 
about those reforms which the leasehold system fairly needed. 

Til the meantime the employment of disguises had been intro- 
duced to aid iu the resistance to the 25!\ymeut of rent. Wherr- 
these disreputable disguises were first used we hjive not been 
able to ascertain. It the second ti'ial of Dr. Boughtou in IXi-'i 

riiK .wriHExr ei'isode. 2-4T 

.Imlge Eilmoiids in jiroiiouiii-iuji' st'iitcuct' uixni liim, clmr^^cs tlnit 
he was the first to introduce them; but tliere is reason to believe 
that the same dispfuise was used at a much curljer date. The 
disfjuise consisted of a shecpskiu ciiji [luUed down over the head 
and face, out of which had bcoii cut holes for the eyes, ears, 
mouth and nose. Sometimes the caj) was trimmed with orna- 
mental feathers or plumes of horsehair, and with an artificial 
beard. The disguised persons called themselves Indians, and 
the commanders assumed such names as Bi^f-Thunder, Little- 
Thunder. Blue-Beard, White-Chief, .^c. Besides the caj), the 
body of the Indian was disguised by a calico blouse extending- 
a little V)elow the knee, which was contiued at the waist by a 
colored sash. These "Calico-Indians" were armed with pistols 
and knives, and usually also carried a ritle. 

Serious disturbances, accompanied by the appearance of dis- 
guised Indians, broke out both in Rensselaer county and ui)ou 
the Livingston manor in Columbia. These disturbances generally 
consisted in the resistance to the sheriff in serving pajiers upon 
chdiuquent tenants, or in interfering with sales which the sheriff 
was called upon to hold for the liquidation of rents. The diffi- 
culties reached such a pass that at last the governor was called 
upon to aid the officials of Columbia, and to send troops to assist 
them in the performance of their duties. Similar disturbances 
manifested themselves in Schoharie county, in Ulster county, and 
a second time in Albany county. 

While these events were transpiring in other counties, the 
affairs in Delaware county were rapidly converging towards a 
tragi<'al crisis. Tlie parts of the county in which the excitement 
first began were the towns of Roxbury and Middletowu. The 
lands here were a part of the Hardenburgh patent. They lay 
in the disputed section of the patent l)etweeu the east and west 
I tranches of the Delaware river. The tenants had been getting 
stirred u]) by the disturbances which occurred in Albany and 
Columbia counties. Professional agitatois had visited thcni and 


liiul advised them to resist the payiiient of reut. Auti-reiit asso- 
ciatious had beeu founded and thousands of tenants had enrolled 
themselves as members. Thev paid a certain niimlier of cents 
for each acre of their farms, and out of the funds thus collected, 
the exjjeuses of the aj^itation were paid, puch as exjseuses of 
meetings, pay of lecturers, equipment of Indians, and their out- 
lay and maintenance when upon any excursion connected with 
the organization. 

In the summer of 1844: John B. (Toukl, the father of Jay 
Gould, who resided in Eoxbury, was visited by a baud of Indians 
who requested him to cease having his dinner horn blown for 
his workmen at dinner-time, as was the custom of all the fanners 
of that region. The object of this request of course was, that 
the blowing of Mr. Crould's dinuer-horn might not be mistaken 
for the signal by which the Indians were summoned to a gather- 
ing, Mr. Gould however refused to give up the use of his 
dinuer-horn, notwithstanding the insistauce of the Indians. They 
threatened him with violence if he continued the practice, and 
he finally drove them off with a gun. A few weeks later a 
larger body of Indians surrounded his house and tried to in- 
timidate him; but he absolutely refused to yield to their demands, 
and finally as the neighbors began to collect they retired, with- 
out having secured their end. On their way home they took 
revenge by capturing Hiram J\Iore and tarring and feathering 
him. In September of the same year, another outrage was com- 
mitted in the tarring and feathering of Timothy Corbin, who was 
engaged as a deputy-sheriff in serving jsapers on Daniel W. 
S(|uires. The official papers w-hich he carried were taken from 
him and destroyed. 

In February, 1845, Under-Sheriflf O. N. Steele with three assist- 
ants arrested Squires, who had been indicted by the Grand Jury for 
riot, assault and battery, in being engaged in tarring and feather- 
ing Mr. Corbin, in compelling the surrender of the sheriff's papers. 
He was arraigned and admitted to bail. A week later than this. 




rn" I li •^ irn 




Deimty-Sluiirt' J. A. Jiorsoii of MiddUtowu uudcrtook to serve a 
deeliiratiou iii a case uot eouuecUd with Auti-Kcut. He was met b_v 
nine (lisguiseil ludiaus, who threateued Liiu with tar iuul fciithcrs, 
if he came agaiu ou a like erraud. 

For api^oariup disguised aud armed in Roxburv and MidcUctowu 
the (iriind Jury in lfS-l5 indicted Sihis Tonijjkins, Lewis Knnpp, 
Anson K. Burrill and Ezekiel C. Kelly. This indictment was under 
II law which liad liceu enacted by tlie lef^'islature duriii;^' the session 
i)f 184"), making it unlawful to appear in disguise aud specifying 
the iiunishment in two degrees, first when disguised and isecond 
when disguised and armed. Of the persons thus indicted Kelly 
pleaded guilty and was tiucd i?"2.")0; the otlicr three w'ere tried, 
found guilty aud sentenced to State Prison for two years. 

Under-SheritT Steele with an escort, who had been serving 
l)apers ou delinquent tenants in the town of .\ndes, was stopped on 
his way home by a body of ludiaus near the little lake now calh'd 
Lake Delaware. They were taken back to the village of Andes and 
there confined in a tavern. Steele found means to despatch a mes- 
senger to Delhi, which is distant about thirteen miles. The Sheriff, 
Green Moore, being warned of the predicament of his assistant, 
-summoned help and started for his rescue. The ludiaus having 
learned of liis coming immediately scattered aud left their j)risouers 

Shortly after this Under Sheritf Steele and Deputy Sheriff Edg- 
erton made an incursion into Roxburv for the purpose of arresting 
persons who had been engaged in tarring aud feathering the 
slieriff's deputy and in abstracting his papers. They marched in 
two parties, each composed of thirty to forty men. They made 
several arrests of persons who were alleged to have been in disguise 
foutrary to law. Two of them, viz. James O. Bunill and Warren 
W. Scudder (Blue Beard) were committed, aud four others were 
discharged for want of proof. Scudder was admitteil to bail. 

While these disturbances were thus accumulaf iug, tlic slicrilf 
became concerned for the safety of the jail aud the other jiublic 


biiildinf>'s. He sumiiioued a t^uard from the surioiiudiuj^- towus, 
which he j)hiced iiuder the comniaud of CoUmel Miirviu of Walton. 
I'udcr the authority of a hxw which liad Iteeu passed by the lej^-isla- 
ture at its preeediug- session, he l)orrowed from the State a hundred 
sabres, a hundred pairs of pistols and six hundred ball cartridges. 
With these preparations he deemed the prisoners under arrest safe 
from the attempts at rescue which from time to time were 

There is evidence that these attempts at violence and resistance 
to law were contrary to the moderate and sensible oj)inious of even 
the strongest anti-rent communities. Many meetings were held, 
some of which were meetings of anti-rent associations, in which a 
disapj)roval of acts of violence and lawlessness were most strongly 
and peremjjtorily expressed. But for the time being the guidance 
of matters was in the hands of the reckless and ii-responsible. The 
absurd freak of disguises was mainly played by the young and 
inexperienced, who usually had no property or character of their 
own at stake. It reipiired the serious and heavy hand of the law to 
be laid upon them, before they could he awakened to a realizing 
sense of what they were really doing. The event which was to 
startle them all back into a full consciousness of the dangerous 
position in which they stood was now ujion them. 

On the 7th of August, 1845, Sheriif Green Moore, Under-Sheriff 
Osman N. Steele, Constable Edgerton and their counsel P. P. 
Wright, Esq., weut to the town of Andes to sell jH'oiserty belonging 
to Moses Earle which had been levied on for the non-payment of 
rent. His farm was upon the Yerplanck tract and subject to an 
annual rent of $82. It was in arrears for two years, and therefore 
the Sheriff was to sell property to the value of $()4 and enough 
more to cover the cost of collection. Mr. Wright had been 
employed by the agent of the Verplanek landlord, and went to the 
sale prepared to bid on the property otfered, if necessary. 

Sheriff Moore and Mr. Wright arrived at the premises about ten 
o'clock. There were present already a considerable nund)er of 


spectators. Mr. W'riyht soii);Lit :ui iuti'rvifw witli ^Ir. Kurlc aud 
proposed a settlement of the luatter without a sale. But he de- 
cliiicil and replied, "You must ^o ahead, I shall tij^ht to tlie 
liardcst." About eleven o'eloek, Mr. Wrijfht says iu his evideuce 
afterward fj^iveu, a small body of disf^uised ludiaus crossed the road 
aud weut through the pasture where the cattle which were to be 
sold were gathered, and theuce entered the woods. Afterwards 
other bodies of Indians made tluir a]>]i(arauce, until it was lielieved 
that more than two hundred were present disguised aud armed. 

About 1 o'clock one hundred or more of the ludiaus marched 
single file out of their ambuscade and took their place in the 
pasture, ilr. Wright was near enough to hold some conversation 
with them. He called out to them that, "they were all there to 
break the law." They answered, "Damn the law, we are here to 
l>reak it." He was told by the Indians that if he dared to bid on 
tlie property, he would go home to Delhi iu a wagon feet foremost. 
A pail of whiskey was brought out from ~S\r. Earl's house aud car- 
ried along the line, from which the Indians drank. 

OtKcers Steele and Edgerton came to the farm about '2 o'clock 
on horseback. The Sheriff then announced that the sale would 
be l>egun, aud started with two or three citizens to drive uj) 
the cattle which were to be sold. They were driven to a pair 
of bars opening into the road; but the Indians stopped them 
from going through. They formed themselves into a hollow 
sipiare, enclosing the sheriff, the cattle, Mr. Steele and Mi-. 
Edgert.(m on horseback, and 'Siv. Wiight. 

It was at this supreme moment, when all the parties were 
ill a state of the greatest excitement, that an order was heard 
from the chief of the Indians, "Shoot the horses"; and a moment 
later another shout from an uncertain (|uarter, "Shoot him, shoot 
him." A voUej' was at once fired and blood was seen to How 
from Edgerton's horse. A few seconds later another volley was 
lired, and Steele fell bleeding from his horse. Three balls had 
pierced him, besides others which had entered his clothing. 


Both the horses died from their wouuds. Sheriff Moore appealed 
to the Indians, " For God's sake desist, you have done enough." 
Steele was carried into ]\Ir. Earle's house, and Drs. Peake and 
Calhoun were summoned to his aid from the village of Andes 
which is about three miles distant. Three serious wounds were 
found upon him: One in his arm, another in his hreast, and a 
third which entered at his Lack and came out through his 
bowels. He lingered five or six hours in great agony and then 
died. ^Tiile- lying in his sufferiug he is said to have toM Mr. 
Earle that if he had agreed to a settlement this morning, he 
would not have been shot. Earle replied that lie would not 
settle if it cost forty lives.* 

There was also a question raised at the trials which followed, 
■whether Steele had fired upon the Indians before he was tired 
ui^ou. It was understood that upon his deathbed he acknowl- 
edged having fired his revolver after he had received the wound 
in his arm. The pistol was subsequently picked uj) and was 
presented at the trials. The condition of the barrels showed that 
it had not been tired excej)t as stated by Steele. Neither the 
sheriff, Mr. Edgerton nor Mr. Wright tired their pistols. I 

The fatal termination of this affair aroused the greatest excite- 
ment, not only throughout Delaware county, but throughout the 
State. NewsjDapers denounced the mad violence which had resulted 
in the death of an officer in the performance of his duty. Every 
where meetings were held by the friends of the anti-rent movement 
protesting against the injustice of charging this criminal folly 
against anti-renters. Nothing could have happened whicli would 

* It is fair to state that Dr. Calhoun who was present at Steele's death, 
denies the accuracy of this statement. He saj-s that Earle's answer was, 
"If they will show me their title I will pay every cent of rent; but if they 
mean to bully me out of it, I will not pay if it costs forty lives." 

t There can be no doubt that there was a sjiecial hatred against Steele 
among the disguised Indians present at Earle's sale. He had been the 
most active of the SheriiT's officers in searching for and arresting the dis- 
guised men. The fatal shots which were poured into him, and into no 
others, were unquestionably fired by some of his victims or their friends. 

THE AXri-liEXT El'ISODE. -255 

tcml to deprive a cause, which nianv cleemod a {^001! caiiwf, so 
I'oiuiik'tely of the sviupatliv to which it min^ht be entitled. 

(lovernor Silas Wright at once offered a reward of $500 for the 
arrest of Warren W. Scuddcr, who was believed to have been m 
eoiiiniaud of the Indians at Earl's sale. Sheriff !Moore also offered 
a reward of $;^00 for the apprehension of So udder, and 8200 for the 
apjirehension of William Bartlett. The Sheriff with an armed /w.»r 
scoured the county, searching for those who could be showu to 
have been engaged in auj' way in this fatal affair. On August 'llih 
(Jovernor Wright issued a proclamation, declaring Delaware county 
iu a state of insurrection, and ordering thither a sutKcient military 
force for the preservation of order and the guarding of arrested 
prisoners. Two companies of volunteers were summoned from the 
towns in the south and west of the county, where no lease land nor 
anti-rent sentiment was to be found. Colonel Marvin of Walton 
commanded these troops, one hundred of whom were mounted and 
were used to escort the Sheriff' and his ofhcers iu making the 
needful aiTests. The jail was so tilled with prisoners awaiting 
trial, that the Sheriff was obliged to build a temporary structure in 
order to provide room for them. 

The trial of the persons charged with complicity in the death of 
Steele was conducted in the Circuit Court held by .Tudge .\^masa J. 
Parker, beginning August 22, 1845. It was a most trying ordeal 
through which he was obliged to pass. He had resided for many 
years in Delhi, and there had begun his brilliant legal career. 
N[any of the persons who now ajjpeared before hiiu for trial were 
known to him, and their j^resent critical positions must have deeply 
touched the sensibilities of his nature. It may safely be said that 
no person in any way connected with these trying events exerted a 
more benign intlurnce than Judge Parker in putting an end forever 
to the methods of violence which had sprung u]i in tliis sober 
and conservative community. The arraignment and conviction 
of so many prisoners seem like a barbarous and unnecessary 
cruelty. But such an experience was necessary to convince them 


of tlie danger and futility i>f tvitlin^- with the execution of the 

The District Attoruey who eornluctetl these trials was Jonas M. 
Hughston, and he was assisted by John Van Burcu then the Attorney 
General, and by Samuel Sherwood as special counsel. The counsel 
for the prisoners were Samuel Gordon and Amasa Parker an uncle 
of the presiding Judge, both residents of Delhi. The results of 
these trials, which continued into October, may be summarized as 

No evidence was presented which made it certain that any of 
the prisoners had fired the fatal shots. The nearest apjiroach to 
this was in the trial of John Van Steenburg, in regard to whom it 
was testified that he asked to borrow a ramro<l in order to re-load 
his gun. On this evidence he was convicted of mui-der. In the 
case of Edward O'Conner it was proved that he was jjresent at 
Earl's sale, disguised and armed, and that he proJmhhj discharged 
his gun. On the technical ground that he was present disguised, 
armed and aided as a subordinate Chief of the Indians, he also was 
convicted of murder. It was j^roved that the Commander of the 
disguised Indians at Earl's was Warren W. Scudder of Roxbury. 
And although a reward was offered for his capture he was not 
arrested and probably had left the State. 

The list of convictions and punishments is as here given: 

1. John Van Steenburg and Edward O'Connor, found guilty 
of murder and sentenced to be hung, November 29, lt^4r). 

2. Daniel "\V. Scpiires, Moses Eai'le, Zera Preston and Daniel 
Northrup, indicted for murder, pleaded guilty of manslaughter 
in the first degree, and sentenced to State prison for life. 

3. John Phoenix, John Burch, John Latham, William Keside, 
and Isaac L. Burhaus, indicted for murder; pleaded guilty of 
manslaughter in the first degree and sentenced to State prison 
for seven years. 

4. Caleb Madison, same as above except sentenced to State 
prison for ten years. 


5. Williaui Brisbaue, fouud guiltv of niiiuslaughter iu the 
secoml ilcjfree and sentenced to State prison for seven years. 
( He was a professional Icctunr and was present at the sale un- 
disffuised. ) 

(!. Charles T. McCmnber, found fjuilty of robbery in the 
second de«;ree; sentenced to State prison for seven years. 

7. William Jocelyn, fouud f,aiilty of manslaughter iu the second 
ilegree; sentenced to State prison for two years. 

N. Thirty persons pleaded ),'uilty and were fined sums between 
"'."idd and S2.5. 

!'. Thirty-nine persons pleaded guilty and their sentences 
were suspended. 

The following is a summary of the punishments meted out 
to the persons convicted or who pleaded guilty: 

"2 to lie hung. 

4 manslaughter, first degree, life imprisonment. 

1 manslaughter, first degree, 10 years' imin-isonment. 

5 manslaughter, first degree, 7 years' imprisonment. 

•2 manslaughter, second degree, 7 years' imprisonment. 

1 manslaughter, fourth degree, 2 years' imprisonment. 

30 fined sums varying between $500 and §25. 

3!t sentences suspended. 

84 total sentenced. 

This number did not include either the leading chiefs of the 
Indians, or those who could he proved to have tired upon Steele. 
These had early escaped from the country or h.'ul nKinagc<l to 
elude detection. 

The sentence of death which had been passed upon \"au 
Steeuburg and O'Connor was felt under the circumstances to be 
unnecessarily severe. Governor Wright therefore promptly com- 
muted their sentences to imprisonment for life. 

They as well as the large nundier of other prisoners were 
conveyed to the State jirison at Sing Sing, where they remained 
till pardoned. 


The fxcitemeut iu Delaware county after these trials aud 
couvictions rapidly subsided; so that on the 18tli of the follow- 
ing December the {Governor deemed it safe to withdraw the 
proclamation declaring the county in a state of insurrection. 
The troops which had been employed to guard the public build- 
ings at Delhi were ordered home; and soon everything resumed 
its ordinary peaceful routine. For a long time how-ever a very 
bitter feeling * jDrevailed as to the harshness and severity with 
which the Anti-renters had been treated iu these trials. 

The exjjenses of this insurrection, which were paid by the 
State and afterwards charged to Delawiu-e county, were S63,- 
683.'20. It is said that this sum has never been rei^aid by the 
county, and will not probably now be called for. 

It is unnecessary to go into the details of the measures which 
were taken to remedy the evils of which the anti-renters com- 
plained. It was plain that the remedies to be hereafter applied 
must no longer jjartake of violence aud lawlessness. The gover- 
nor iu his message to the legislature made several important 
recommendations, and the legislature gave a good degree of 
attention to measures of amelioration. The chairman of the 
special committee in the Assembly was Hon. Samuel J. Tilden, 
aud it is to his earnest and liberal efforts that material amend- 
ments were made to the laws. Mr. Tilden in an elaborate report 
gives these weighty conclusions reached by his committee con- 
cerning the anti-rent questions: 1. Leasehold tenures have 
exerted an unfavorable influence wherever they have prevailed, 
2. The easy terms at first required seem a great benefit to the 
tenant, but afterward are often misleading and dangerous. 8. 
The proprietorship of laud is natural and exhiliratiug to the 

* Yi^irs after tin- i)eriod of these trials, a relatne of one of the ofTieers 
who attended Earle's sale, was running for member of Assemblj'. He be- 
longed to the dominant party in his district and had no doubt about his 
election. To his amazement he found himself overwhelmed in an ignomin- 
ious defeat. The cause was subsequently found to be that he had served 
on the Sheriffs posse in the old anti-rent times and assisted in making 
some of the arrests. 


liuniiiu mmil and has a vast iuriueiii'o iu sefiiiiu><' the prosjurity 
of ^rowiu^' t'oiiiiminities. 4. The restraints iuserted in the ohl 
leases to the alieuatiou of himl arc a serious inqicilinient to the 
(levelopmeut of leasehold properties. The more enterprising set- 
tlers are kei)t out and the steady making of improvements on 
farms is discouraged. 5. It is reasonable and fair that the 
interest of the landlord iu the farms, of which the annual rent 
is the measure should pay its equitable part of the taxes assessed 
for State and local purposes. 

Besides the laws enacted, the constitutional convention of 
1H46 inserted several important clauses bearing upon the ques- 
tions of land tenure. Thus Section 1-1 provides that no lease or 
grant of agricultural land for a longer period than twelve years, 
hereafter made, iu which shall be reserved any rent or service 
of any kind shall be valid. Section lo provides that all lines, 
tpiarter sales, or other like restraints ui>on alienation, reserved 
in any grant of land hereafter to be made, shall be valid. 

In the election which was held in the autumn of 1840 the 
anti-rent vote was cast in favor of John Young for governor 
and in consecpience he was elected. In January 1847 a few 
weeks after he took office. Governor Young issued a proclama- 
tion pardoning all the anti-rent prisoners remaining iu the State 
prison. There was some complaint against this wholesale pardon, 
but the governor in his proclamation made a calm and judicial 
statement of his reasons; and the consei|ueuces which followed 
his action have seemed to justify his views. Enough had been 
done to show that the tpiestions at issue were not such as 
could be settled by violent resistance to law. The period of 
legislation and of appeal to courts of law hail now come and 
tiiis phase of the question was destined to continue many years- 
I'assing over this legal struggle we have a few words to say 
al)out their effects on the natural relation of landlord and 

The agitation which had so long continued over i)aymeuts of 


rent, rtud the laws wbich had been enacted, usuall.v in the interest 
of the tenants, rendered the landlords wary of the situation. The 
Van Eensselaer landlords especially became heartily tired and dis- 
couraged over the continual resistance whicli they met with in the 
collection of their rents. First they made propositions to sell the 
fee-simple to the tenants on more liberal terms than had before 
been offered. Many of the tenants being equally weary of the long- 
contest took advantage of the depression in the value of the land- 
lord's holdings and bought their farms outright. Finally the 
Van Eensselaer family, which had been landholders for more than 
two hundred years, sold out all the leases which remained and 
ceased to be the greatest landlords in our country. 

In Delaware county where the tenants had received such a 
severe lesson concerning the payment of rent, they were ready to 
meet their landlords more than half way in settling this burning 
question. In some cases the landlords sold their rights to new 
parties, who were ready to arrange witli the tenants for the pur- 
chase of the fee-simple. Usually the new purchasers, having 
ac<|uired their properties at a tritling valuatiou, were ready to 
bargain with the tenants at easy rates. 

In the report which Mr. Tilden made to the Assembly iu 1S4B 
he made an approximate estimate of the amount of laud under 
lease. Thus: 

In Albany couuty there were 1,397 leasehold farms comprising 
233,900 acres. 

In Rensselaer couuty there were l,()(;f; leasehold farms compris- 
ing 202.100 acres. In another account referring to the same date 
the following statement is made: Nearly one-half of Rensselaer 
county was covered with leases; the greater part of Columbia 
county; a large part of Delaware county; and about two-thirds of 
Albany county. 

To show what changes had been made iu rented farms up to the 
vear 1880, we refer to the U. S. Census as cited in Professor Che- 
ney's pamphlet on Anti-Rent Agitation ( Philadeljihia 1887). 


Albany C'uuutv 3,325 fniiiis, (iSK) ou lease. 

Columbia County 3,825 fanns, 735 ou lease. 

Delaware County .").2<i+ farms. ()8S on lease. 

It appears from these statistics that leases in ISSO covered 
about 12'j per cent, of the farms. This is a proportion not <jreater 
than in other counties of New York or in New Englaml. They 
show that the anti-rent question, which for a time stirred this 
peaceful couuty to its very dejiths, has passed away and become a 
matter of history, like the ^lexican war with which it was con- 

v*r>ources of Information. 

1. Files of till" Albany FrcoluiUlor. 

2. Files of the Delaware Gazette. 

;t. Records of Itie Clerk of Delaware County. 

4. Lcfjislative Documents of the State of New Yoik. 

.5. Session Laws of the State of New York. 

Ci. .K. -J. Weise's History of Albany. 

7. History of .\lbany County. 

H. History of Rensselaer County. 

it. History of Columbia County. 

111. Jay Gould's History of Delaware County. 

11. Brodliead's History of New York. 

12. Hough'.s Gazetteer of New York, 187-i. 

13. The .\nli-Renl Agitation : By Professor Cheney. Philadelphia 1SH7. 

14. Anti-Rent Disturbances: By D. D. Barnard, .-VnierieaM Wliig Ri-vlew, 
II : .-.77. 

!.■>. Sketch of Anson Bingham : By A. J. Colvin, Albany, 1882. 
Ifi. Manor of Rensselaerwyck : By 0." Pepper, 1846. 
17. Mrs. .T. V. L. Pruyn : Memoranda of her father, Hon. A. J. Parker. 
IH. Mr.s. William Y'ounians : Scrap book kept by her husband. Hon. \Villiain 

10. Hon. Martin I. Towiisend of Troy : Personal KecoUections. 

20. Hon. Verplanck Colvin: Meiuoramla of liis father, Hon. A. J. Colvin. 

21. Professor .1. M. Vincent. Johns Hopkins I'niversity: Letter of Judge 
John Martin of Columbia County concerning Anti-Rent dislurl.ances, 184.5. 

22. Jolin .\. Parshall, Esq. . Personal Recollections. 
2.'{. Robeil Murray, Esq. : Personal Re<'ollection8. 

24. The Author Is also indebted to Mr. David Murray, Jr. for searches 
made at the Library of the New Y'ork Bar .\ssociation in the Session Laws and 
the Legislative Documents of the State of New Y'ork. and in the New Y'ork 

Tbe Anti-Rent ''Andes Tracred^." 

THE followiug- is a sketch of the sale at wLicli Deinity-Shei'iff 
Osmau N. Steele was shot, as prepared by the bite Hou. 
Richard Morse of Andes, aud endorsed h\ others who were 
present. This account is printed here because it is accepted by 
many as correct, and was written after the bitter feeling of the 
anti-renters had passed away aud by one not directly interested. 
Mr. Morse says: 

"The history of any important event should be a correct 
narration of the facts and circumstances surrounding the event, 
so that the student of history may not be misled in his con- 
elusious. History is generally made up of traditions and these 
are usually colored by the feelings and sympathies of the nar- 
rator, and no better jjroof of the truth of this can be found 
than in consulting the two published versions of the ' Andes 
tragedy,' the first appearing in Jay Gould's history of Delaware 
county many years ago, and the last pul)lisli('d iu ^[uusell's his- 
tory in 1880, neither of which gave a correct and truthful state- 
ment of the facts. It was my fortune to be present at the 
'Earle's sale,' and therefore an eye witness of the 'tragedy' 
which may now be very properly called the 'Appomattox' of 
English feudal tenures in this country, because from that time 
on the war ceased and peacefid negotiation has since resulted iu 
substantially wiping out that odious system of tenures. 

The Earle's sale took place on the 7th day of August. 18-15. 
Both (if the histories alluded to assert that Steele and Edgerton 
were there in their official capacity, which is manifestly incorrect, 
as was proven by the testimony of Green More, who was then 
Sheriff of the county, and present at the sale. At the O'Connor 


Cer\teqriial Decoratioris, Maip Street, Deltii. 

THE AXrr-R.EXT -AXDES TliMi i-jivr •>{■■,:•, 

•trial, lie tfstitit'd that bis orders to Steele and Ivlj^crtoii were 
not to ajijieiir at the sale unless tliev liroiiylit a 'posse' of at 
least forty men with them. John Allen swore that he ai^reed 
to give Steele aud Edgertou the sixtv-foxir dollars reut for which 
the 'distress' was made, if they would attend the sale aii<1 hid 
off the i)roperty. The arrangement with Allen, who was the 
agent of the landlord, shows couelusivelv tliat neither of them 
attended the sale otKciallv, on the contrary their jiresence there 
was clearly for the purpose of speculatioiL 

Colin Cam])bell aud myself, who at that time occupied adjoin- 
ing farms to Mr. Earle, were re(iuested liy him to attend tin 
sale and hid m the property for him. saying that he wanted to 
jiay his rent aud stop the trouble, aud desired to take that course 
to do it: we cousented and it was for that purpose that we at- 
tended the sale. A\Tien we arrived at Mr. Earle's, he called us 
to one side aud informed us that Northviiii. the 'Indian Chief,' 
liad sent word to him from the woods, where they were assem- 
liled, that if he procured us to l)id off the cattle, the 'Indians' 
Would shoot them, but if he would let P. P. Wright or any other 
agent of the landlords bid them off, the ' Indians ' would shoot 
them and the anti-renters would pay him all the damages he 
sustained. We stated to him that under such circumstances we 
would have nothing to do with the matter, and we remained 
there after that simply as spectators. When the Sheriff wanted 
to commence the sale, the ■ Indians ' and a number of citizens, 
not in disguise, repaired to the field where the cattle were graz- 
ing and drove them into a corner near the road and surrounding 
them, told the Sheriff to proceed with the sale and they would 
protect him. About that time Steele and Edgertou rode uj), 
and someone wanted the cows driven into the highway. Mr. 
William Brisbane objected to that, claiming that the advertise- 
ment stated that the sale was to take place on the preniises of 
Moses Earle, and that the highway belonged to the jiublic. At 
this juncture Steele aud Edgertou rode down to the barn where 


oue of till' uotiees of sale was jiosted, and then rode back to the- 
bars leadiuj^- into the field where the cattle were surrounded by 
the 'ludiaus' aud Sheriff. "When tliey came to tli<' bars, P. P., 
Wriyht ste])ped iu between their horses ami jnilled down the 
top bar, and seizing- the inside stirrup of each horse he vaulted 
over the bars with them. As the bars were cleared, the horse- 
men rushed in among the 'Indians' and at this moment Edger- 
tou drew a pistol aud riouvishiuy it over and around his head, 
commanded all persons jjreseut to assist iu keeping the peace. 
As he was swinging his pistol it went off, and that was the first 
reports of fire-arms on the ground that day. I was standing 
on an elevation where I could see aud hear all that transpired. 
As soon as the report of Edgerton's pistol was heard, the order 
was given by the Chief to shoot the horses, and I saw an ' In- 
dian' run up to Edgerton's hoi'se and shoot him in the breast. 
At this time there were many shots fired. The horse when shot 
reared up aud Edgerton junijied off and raised his baud and 
cried out, 'For Clod's sake, don't shoot me.' About this time 
Steele's horse was shot — he having a pistol iu his right baud — 
aud the horse turned toward the bars. Theu I saw an 'Indian' 
run up by the side of the rail fence and take aim aud fire at 
Steele, who crouched down. The horse fell near the bars. Two 
persons raised Steele ujj and carried him down toward the house.. 
I then left aud the 'Indians' and spectators all dispersed." 


Ao'ainst tbe Erection of the CoQnt\;. 

H]''. following' rciudustrniice is j^'ivcu tn sluiw t]\v oppo.situni 
Xn fs\;\}>]\s]]m<y DchiwiU't' CDUutv: 

To the Honorable Hit l.i fiixlnliin' of llic Sitilr of Ncir York, coiiveiieil ol Xew 
York. Janimr)/. ITOr, : Tlu' piayiM' of yoar petitioners humbly showetli llmt 
whereas your Honors have on the 'ilst and •24th of March last resolved in Ijoth 
Houses that Daniel Wattles, Joshua L. Beitt and othi-rs have liberty to present 
to either House of the Legislature at the next session a bill to erect into a new 
County all those parts of the counties of Ulster and Otsego according to the 
lines mentioned in a late publication in the public newspapers printeil in 
Kingston and other places. 

We, your humble petitioners, inhabitants of New Stamford, viewing with 
great concern the unhappy situation and circumstances of the country for such 
an event as the passing said bill and influenced by osqual solicitude for the 
present and future prosi)erity of our New Woild, beg leave to exercise our just 
and constitutional rights of remonstrating against the passing said bill, as it 
strongly agitates our minds and we [iresume will dei'ply affect oui' interest and 
the interest of our felh)w citizens. The matter has undergone a full discussion 
and is the fruits of mature deliberation. Our reasons against said bills taking 
place is as foUoweth : 

First, We humblj' conceived that the petition of Wattles, Beitt and others 
in favor of passing said bill is no more than the selfish views of designing men 
to place themselves in posts of himor and profit and thus building themselves 
up on the ruins of their neighbors, profusely and by deceit and flattery liave 
duped many people to join them without due consideration. 

Secondly, The country is rough and uneven, consisting of largo uninhaliited 
mountains and narrow valleys, and those mountains extend almost through 
the country; likewise it abounds with large streams of water and those belch- 
ing forth in fierce inundations in such a maimer as to destroy all commuica- 
tlons from one part of the <'Ountry to anotlier. Those obstructions render it 
very troublesome and expensive to mal<e and maintain convenient roads and 
bridges for the use of the inhabitants and the traveler, ami iji line it creates a 
demand far beyond what we at present are able to supply. 

Thirdly, In most parts of our country it is so thinly inhabitecl that it is out 
of our |M>wer to nniintain common schools of learning for the education of our 
children, although we have a large sum of money to pay for the benefit of 
sehools, and are not situate<l so as to enjoy the privilege of the same and we 
despair of having our country ever settled to advantage for any social enjoy- 



ment, for the new lands are held up to such a large and extravagant price that 
the people utterly despair of buying or taking a lease on the hard terms that 
is offered. 

Fourthly. We lieg your Honors to take into your serious consideration tlie 
propriety of erecting a new county in a place where they are not able to make 
necessary roads and Ijridges. nor even to build decent houses for public wor- 
ship. Moreover the country will not admit of any central place suitable to 
accommodate a Court of Common Pleas and its attendance. Furthermore, the 
lines of said new county run in such a form that it cuts several towns in such 
a sort that it discommodes them very much in doing ordinary town business. 

And we your humble petitioners find no kind of inconvenience in doing our 
county business, as we are obliged to go to the Hudson river once or twice a 
year and it ever will he our place of trade at Kingston and other places along 
said river, so that we can dispatch all necessary county business with little 
trouble and expense. 

And we, your petitioners, sensible of the undistinguished favors you have 
hitherto shown us in guarding against the views of designing men, we still 
repose our cenfidence in your deliberation and your petitioners as in duty 
bound shall ever pray. Signed William Keator. Francis Sumrick. .John C. 
Jieator, Joseph Keator and 108 others. 



Tovn Mbtorie^. 


THE most valuable part of the centennial celebration was tlie 
Town Histories which hail been prepared for the occasion. 
To the authors of these histories the readers of this volume are 
uuder the deepest obli','atioii. Thev have Ix'cii prepared with 
iutiuite troui)le by busy men, and nothinf^' but a sense of the 
public interest and of the f^ratitude of their fellow citizens can 
ailcijuatel}- reward them. 

Below these histories are given in the alphabetical order of 
the towns. 

Andes. By Oscar S. Nichols. 

BoviNA. By Hon. D. L. Thomson. 

CoLCHESTEK. By Edward E. Coulon. 

Davenpout. By Walter Scott. 

Dki.iii. By John A. Parshall. 

Deposit and Tompkins. By Col. George D. 'WTieeler. 

FuANKi.iN. By William B. Hanford. 

Hamden. -By Henry W. Holmes. 

Hancock. By Hon. Wesley (iould. 

Hahpkuskiki.d. By .\llcn S. (libbs. 

KoKTHKiHT. l'>y William B. Peters. 

Masonville. By A. ¥. (ietter. 

Mkhedith. By Josiah D. Smith. 

MiDiii.ETowN. By Hon. .lohn (iraiit, and Mrs. J. K. P. Jackson. 

lloxBURv. By Dr. J. N. Wright. 

Sidney. By Edwin R. Wattles. 

Stamkoud. Written for this work. 

Walton. By Hon. TinKitliy Sanderson. 



IjY O.scar »">. Nichols. 

OF the earliest settlemeuts uiiide iu tliut portiou of Delaware 
eouuty now comj^rised iu the towu of Andes, there exists to- 
day a record of little more thau tradition. The circumstauces at- 
tending the advance of the pioneers before the revolutionary war 
were not such as favored the acciniiulatiou of elaborate material 
for future history. Coming generations shall never know the 
trvie story of that early march of civilization into the heart of 
the American forests; and it is difficult to realize what must 
have l)eeu the hardships and deprivations and uncertainties which 
the leaders iu that forward movement encountered. There re- 
mains for us the story of success and progress; the failures and 
reverses belong to those details that are left to the imagination. 
The exi^erieuces of the early days were doubtless common to 
all the settlers of the Middle States; and iu the following nar- 
rative an attempt will be made to refer to some of the more 
familiar traditions clustering al)out the l)eginuing of this town. 
Prior to the Revolution there appear to have been scarcely 
auy permanent settlements in this |iorti(ui of the county. The 
peculiar topographical relations — the rocky hills, often thickly 
wooded and cut by deep valleys, with wild mountain streams, — 
offered few immediate advantages t<i the Indians and hence it is 
principally lower down the streams, after they join the Delaware, 
that records of Iiuliau tribes (the Delaware Indians) appear. The 
earliest white inhabitants, coming from the New England districts, 
and from the lower portions of New York, followed along the 
streams and sought such places amid their banks as gave prom- 
ise of i-eward for labor e.vjjended. But these settlers left no 


• ft ^ 

roil'.V (>/•• AXDES. 275 

|ieriimii('iit trsices; tbey may have failed to overcome the difficul- 
ties which the peculiar character of the country preseuted, aud 
doubtless some left to joiu the throng of revolutiouary warriors. 
'I'licri' arc no records which justify auy certain conclusions as to 
the fate of these individuals; liut the traditions of their existence 
lend conii>leteness to the history of the later community, and 
contributes to the enthusiasm which the tales of colonial strug- 
gles arouse in American heitrts. 

It was during the revolutionary period aud in the following 
years that the tirst permanent settlements began. According to 
various authorities, the years 1781 to 178i mark the date of these 
pioneer movements. At about this time several families, making 
their way up the East branch of the Delaware river, located at 
the place now known as Shavertown. These families included 
•lohu, Jacob and Philip Shaver (hence the name). They had mi- 
grated from Dutchess county, while Philip Barndardt had come 
to this district from Schoharie county. These names, like those 
which follow, serve to indicate the nationality of the early set- 
tlers. .V few years later other individuals began to direct their 
way along the smaller l)rauches of the rivei". These branches 
afforded the natural paths along which the invasion into the un- 
known territory should lie conducted. Thus we learn of Robert 
Nicht)lson who made his home about 17!)() up the Tremperskill, 
the small stream joining the East Branch at Shavertown. To 
the same neighborhood came Thomas More, James Phenix, Elijah 
Olmsted, Joseph Erskiue, Silas Parish, K. \\asliburH aud Eli Sears, 
naiiics, many of which are familiar in tiic county auuals. 

Somewhat later than the period just referred to l)egan a 
movenu'ut towards the district under discussion, along the direc- 
tion of the West Branch of the Delaware. Communication with 
the outer world was less easy along this path, and coiis((iuently 
the immigration in this direction was less extensive until at a 
much later ])eriod. Toward the close of the eighteenth century, 
however, settlers had followed tlie West Branch as far as Delhi, 


aud theu pursuiug their cuursf up the Litth' Debiware — the 
stream joiuing the West Branch just below the j)resent vilhige 
of Delhi — had made tlieir way into the preseut town of Boviua 
aud tbeu gradually iuto the uortheru portiou of what is uow 
known as Andes. How entirely iudejjendeut the two lines of 
jjioneer niovemeut were, is well illustrated by the following in- 
cident which we take from the historical account of the town by 
H. W. Blake: Aaron Hull, a pioneer, who came l)y the Tennis 
Lake route, had taken up his abode about one mile north of the 
present village of Andes. His nearest neighbor to the south was 
Jonathan Earl, who in 1795 had located on the farm now occu- 
pied by Robert McNair on the road from Andes to Shavertown. 
"These two families lived for a j'ear or more unknown to each 
other, until one evening Mi'. Earl while looking for his cow that 
had strayed up to what was then the swamp, uow the site of 
the village, found her in company with Mr. Hull's cattle that he 
was driving home from their browse pasture." 

As iu the adjacent parts of the county, so here the early 
settlers devoted much of their time to the lumber industry. 
Rafting soon became a profitable business on the Delaware where 
it was extensively undertaken. The numerous streams in the 
locality under consideration afforded means of transportation for 
the logs, aud in the course of time saw mills were erected. 
With the changes incidental to the country's growth, however, 
all this has changed, and today dairying forms the chief industry 
of the community. 

It was not uutil after the war of 1812-14 that the present 
town of Andes was formed. At that time the county comprised 
fifteen towns. By a special act of the State Legislature, passed 
April 13, 1811t, a portion of Middletown was set aside to com- 
jirise the present town of Andes. The name, rather unique iu 
character, is said to have arisen through a suggestion regarding 
the extremely hilly character of this part of the county, aud the 
word Andes was chosen to be applied to the town including this 

V'OH'.V OF AXDKS. 277 

UKPUiitiiiii-likc district. 'I'liiit the ilcsiHimtioii wiis uot altogether 
iiiai)i)ro])ri!it(' will In- evident wlieu it is remembered that the 
hit,diest puiut in the ciivinty — Mt. Pisgah, witli an altitude of 
;t,4(Hi feet — lies in the northeastern [)nrt of the town. 

The new town was the fourth in size in the county, hut was 
indeed little more than an unbroken forest with a few settler 
iuliabitauts. On the first Tuesday in ^larch, IK'20, the first town 
iiieetiutf was held in what was then designated as the village of 
Treuipersville, the name being changed to Andes in the following 
year. At this meeting the town ofKeers were elected, viz: Super- 
visor, town clerk, assessors, overseers of the poor, commissioners 
of liigbways, etc. In the absence of general legislation, l)y-laws 
were adopted, one to the effect that ''No cattle shall be allowed 
t<i run at large within forty rods of any Publick House, Tavern, 
Grist mill, Fulling mill and ^dl places of Publick Business from 
the first day of November until the first day of April, under the 
jieualty of one dollar." 

The first election for State officers was held on the last Tuesday 
in April, 1H2(), and continued for three days. The relative import- 
ance of the new town is indicated by the results of this contest. 
Seventy-six votes were cast for governor, DeWitt Clinton receiving 
twenty and Daniel D. Tompkins fifty-six. At a later date, instead 
of continuing the election three days at one place, the inspectors 
went each day to a ditTerent part of the town for the convenience of 
the scattered voters. At this period there was but one hamlet in 
the town. The church and school were never forgotten in tliose 
ilays, and formed the center about which civilization clustered in its 
rural abodes. Accordingly the town containc<l a church, — Presby- 
t<-rian in denomination, — eight school districts, a tavern, a grist 
mill, a saw mill and .a tannery. If we add to these the log-cabin 
homes of tillers of the soil. thei"e is j)resented to the imagination a 
picture which seems strange indeed to the child of the closing years 
of the nineteenth century. AVhere the forest trail formed the only 
line of communication with the neighboring districts, to-day th<' 


telejiboue extends from lianilet to liamlet aud the earth's forces are- 
subdued to assist the wants of man in a manner and degree that 
our forefathers could not venture to dream of. In place of the bi- 
monthly mail of 1820, tlie great New York dailies to-day bring their 
treasure of intelligence to the home of the farmer on the very day 
of their issue. Such have been the changes that time has wrought. 

In the period succeeding 182(1, the town of Andes experienced a 
slow and steady growth. Other hamlets beside old Trempersville, 
began to form. Thus Shavertown which, as we have seen, was early 
a growing settlement at the junction of the Tremperskill and East 
branch, was established as a ijost-office in 1828; Union Grove, fur- 
ther up on the East branch, was likewise organized in 1857; while 
the village of Andes was incorporated in 18(11. At this period its 
population was about 850. The more fertile valleys of the town 
had become settled by a thrifty class, and it is during these years 
that various well known localities in the town began their growth. 
These places have in many instances received characteristic and 
peculiar designations, auK)ug which we may refer to Fall Clove, 
Wolf Hollow, Bussey Hollow, Shaver Hollow, Canada Hollow, 
(rladstone Hollow, Dingle Hill, Lake Hill, Palmer Hill, etc. More 
mills were built in the region, but of the many that existed in the 
first half of the century few remain at the present day. Among 
these land marks are still to be seen one at Pleasant Valley (O. E. 
Miner's ). and another at Union Grove ( Jenkins' mill ). These relics 
of early Andes industry serve to demonstrate how thoroughly the 
character of the occupation of the townsmen has changed in late 
years. Of the causes contributing to this change we shall speak 
later on. 

As regards the religious life of the commuuity, there has been 
evidence from the earliest days of an enthusiasm and interest that 
speak praises for the fathers of the early generation. Meetings for 
devotional purposes were held in various portions of the town long 
before church edifices had been erected, and the unusual devotion 
of the Andes people is shown in the considerable number of 

Uqiori Grove. 

Village of Sl^avertowri. 

7VM\-.V (*/•■ AXOKS. -iSl 

fluiri-lies that were erected e\iii liefore the sixties. Presbvteriau- 
isiu i>re(loiiiiuiited, but by no iiieaus exeliuled other sects, anioDg 
whom the Methodists aud Baptists were most active. In the earnest 
effort to siiniid tlic Christian faith a religious society ( Presbytei-ian) 
was organized as early as 18(tl, aud in 1818 a church was erected, 
l)art of whicli now forms the Town Hall building in Andes village. 
In 1888 a United Presbyterian Church was erected at Cabin Hill; 
in 1888 the Methodist Episcopal edifice at Andes was opened. 
These were followed by Presbyterian house.s of worship erected in 
1848 at Andes, in 1851 at Shavertowu, and in the following ytar at 
Pleasant Valley. 

All the churches have laliored incessantly and speut money 
freely in proclainiiuf,'- the words of truth, and to-day the spires of 
eight churches point heaveuward and afford opportunity for the 
people to meet together in their respective houses aud worship 
accortliug to the dictates of their own conscience. It may not be 
without interest to note that Rev. Dr. James Bruce of the United 
Presbyterian congregation of .\jides village has spent thirty-three 
consecutive years in its service. 

Up to the year 18!)() Andes had at least two public cemeteries, 
one being located at Shavertown, the second and larger one a short 
distance southwest of Andes village on the Tremperskill road. The 
attempt to incorporate this with a larger area of laud failed, owing 
to the difficulty of making satisfactory arrangemeuts with holders, 
of adjoining,' i)roi)erty. Acc(jrdiugly in 18!(0 an association was 
foniied and the ])reseut Rural Cemetery opened. The farm, Icuown 
as the Smith pro]icrty, located on an elevation to the north of the 
village, was purchased and a jiortion of it, duly incorjiorated, was 
set aside for the purpose meuti(med. 

It was in the year 184.5 that the well known .Vnti-Heut difHculties 
reached their culiiiination in this county. In tlic previous years the 
settlers who had U]i to that tiirje jiaid their annual rents un<ler what 
was known as the Hardenlx ig Patent claim refused longer to sub- 
mit to what they considered unjust lunl exorbitant demands, while 


the lessors prosecuted for rent. Associatious of the iiff^rieved were 
formed with the purpose of seeking redress aud preveuting the 
colleetiou of the rents. Men disguised as Indians banded together 
to carrj- out the purjjoses of these individuals. The processes of 
the law were iuterfered with ; aud meanwhile judiciul and legislative 
proceediugs were on foot to remedy the difficulties. 

The climax was tiually reached in a series of events taking place 
in Audes, aud leading to the death of Deputy Sheriff Steele. An 
Act had already heeu passed forbidding the proceedings of the 
ai'med aud disguised bands, and severe penalties were directed. 
The immediate occasion of the so-called Anti-Rent " Andes tragedy" 
was the attempt of Sheriff Green ^loore to sell the property of 
Moses Earl upon an execution for rent. Mr. Earl at that tLme 
resided about oue and a half miles from Audes village, on the 
mountain road leading to what is now called Dingle Hill. The 
property is at present in the possession of William Scott. 

Of the events that transpired incident to this Audes tragedy 
there are a number of accounts, varying in the statement of the 
details, and doubtless colored largely by the sympathies of the 
narrator in the questions involved. It is difficult, indeed, to find a 
■description of the transactions of that fatal day that is free from 
evidences of prejudice at the same time that it bears the stamji of 
fiutheuticity. The writer has carefully reviewed the various pub- 
lished accounts and has likewise received useful information from 
inhabitants of the town of Andes who were present at the Anti-Rent 
affair. The following narrative is, in his judgment, warranted by 
the results of this study : 

On the 7th of August^ 184"), the Sheriff of the county, Mr. (xreeu 
Moore, went to Andes to be present at the sale referred to. When 
the Sheriff wanted to commence the sale the " Indians," and certain 
other citizens not in disguise, repaired to the Held where the cattle 
to be sold were grazing, and drove them into a corner near the 
highway. After surrounding the cattle, the "Indians" advised the 
>iheriff to proceed with the sale, and promised at the same time to 

rows OF AxnKS. 283 

protect liirii. At this jimc-ture two Doputy Sheriffs. Steele iiml 
Edjjertoii. !i])i)eare(l upon the seeiie, :ilthoii^h tlie hest authorities 
iudieilte that they had heiii r((iu(st{'cl nut to h<- jn'eseiit. Wheu it 
was suggested that the cattle be driven upon the hi-jhway jirior to 
the snle. iiu objection was ininiediately raised ou the i^rouod that 
the notice of sale distiuctly stated otherwise, aud, furthermore, that 
the hij,''hway was publie property. The two Deputy Sheriffs here- 
Hi)Oii roile alonj^' the hi^'hw.ay to the barn where a notice of the sale 
bad beeu posted, aud then returned to a poiut where there was an 
openiuf,' into the field closed by bars. Steele aud I-^dgerton, who 
were joined by P. P. Wright, entered the field with their horses; 
Edf^erton, rtourishinfr a pistol, coininaiuled those present to assist iu 
preserving the peace. The fiic-arm was discharged, — accidentally 
it is stated, — aud immediately the leader of the Indians commanded 
them to shoot the horses. At once there was a report of pistols; 
amid the coufusion two horses were killed and Steele was fatally 
shot. He died in a short time. Tlie events of the day were 
reported to the Governor aud the county jiut uuiler martial law. 
Various legal ])rosecutions followed, two individuals being con- 
victed aud imprisoned. They were fully pardoned at a later period. 
The abandonment of the secret Anti-Rent organizations quickly 

The opening of the Civil war found Andes ready to send 
forth her (piota of men to defend the Nation's I'ights and to 
battle for the cause of the North. -\ goo<l number of her sons 
started from their homes an<l joined the other volunteers from 
the county. These men were for the most part members of the 
14-tth Regiment Volunteers, anil many of them saw considerable 
of the struggles of the Rebellion. The enthusiastic meetings 
held in the village of Andes during the wai- are recidlad by 
many of the older icsidents; patriotism reached a high ])itcli and 
Henry Dowie, a prominent citizen, entertained Horace (Jreeley 
■on one occasion. The survivors of the war have organized a 
prosperous Post of the Grand Armj- of the Republic, and named 


it Fletflier Post, to bouor the memory of oue of tlie tiist of 
Andes' residents to fall in the great struggle. 

In the years following the war Andes experienced such trans- 
formations as were connuou to many of her sister towns in the 
county. The chief occupation of the townsmen gradually was 
changed more and more into that of a dairying community and 
agriculture took a leading part in the lives of the people. It 
gave rise to a quiet, uuimpetuous, religious community whose 
daily life was merely a record of hard work with satisfactory 
returns. The village of Andes grew steadily from a hamlet of 
350 people to one of 500 inhabitants, and it became a commer- 
cial center for the surrounding district. The farm produce from 
the neighboring towns was brought to the village to be ex- 
changed for the necessities which the farm did not prodiu-e and 
"trading day," Saturday, afforded many scenes of earnest activity. 
For years no town in the county enjoyed the prosperity whii-h 
came to Andes. The i^rogress which it experienced was largely 
due to the eflforts of one man, Heitry Dowie. In addition to 
his extensive business interests, he was deeply concerned with 
all enterprises which were undertaken in the direction of im- 
proving the village. His prosperous butter business brought 
people from distant parts of the county and gave to the village 
an impetus that was long felt. It was to the reverses of fortune 
in the case of this one man that the decline of the once pros- 
perous village is largely due. The tide of trade has drifted to 
other channels; the facilities of travel and communication have 
improved so greatly in later years that the farmer no longer is 
compelled to go far to find his market. Thus the progress of 
the age has wrought changes in the fortunes of the town. 

Among the incidents which have left their impress upon the 
village of Andes was the disastrous tire of June ^(i, 187S. The 
origin of the conflagration was probably accidental. The flames 
started in the wagon house belonging to the Union Hotel owned 
by Peter Crisjjell and standing on the premises ojjposite to the 

7'(Mr,V (IF .WDES. 2.S.") 

hotel. The tire exteutled in l)<)th iliieetious from this property, 
<-()iu])letel.v destroviuji' nil tlie Imihliuj^'s on the north side of the 
street as fiii' us Pchiwiirc Avcnni' td the west, iuid the street 
leading' to Hi.uh street on the east. No less th.-iii tifteen hiiild- 
iufjs were eonsiimed, some of them stores, others jjrivate residences. 
Althoun;h a volunteer tire department had already been organized 
in 1S77, and the Andes water works were in operation, the flames 
maile rajtid headway, and the dry weather and wind prevailing 
caused so rapid a spread of the work of destruction that the 
efforts of the citizens were of little avail. The loss was estimated 
at $4(),0<I0. This portion of the village was subsequently re- 
built in large part and the new structures have adde<l materially 
to the appearance of the place. In August, ISiXi, the Union 
Hotel, which was built in 1S33 and had for many years lieeu a 
landmark in the town, was burned to the ground. This place 
has not been rebuilt up to the present date. 

In (-(mnectiou with various enterjarises which originated in 
the town of Andes it is necessary to record a series of transac- 
tions which have been of serious consequence to the development 
and progress of the town. The incidents I'eferred to are known 
as the Andes Town Bonds affair. After the construction of the 
Ulster and Delaware Railroad from Kingston to Stamford a pro- 
ject was entertained of connecting the valley traversed by the 
New York and Oswego Midland Railroad, now known as the New 
York, Ontario and Western Railroad, with the railway crossing 
among the Catskills from the Hudson river. This new road, 
which was to pass through Andes, promised to afford a valuable 
outlet from this region as well as to give easier means of access 
to the town. The new railway was surveyed to run from Ark- 
ville, where it juincd the Ulstt^r and Delaware liailroad, through 
Arena, Uni(Ui (Jrove, Shavertown. u]) the Tremperskill to within 
two and one-half miles of Andes village to the present farm of 
David iluir, theu(;e along the valley leading to Lake Delaware. 
From this spot the road was jjJanued to follow the valley of the 


Little Dehiwiire to the villiiye of Delhi. A coiupany was incor- 
porated under the name of the Delhi and Middletown Railroad; 
a survey of the road \vas uuide, riglit of way obtained and a 
portion of the road from ArkviUe to Andes was graded. The 
interest of the town of Andes in the enterprise was evidenced by 
the action of the town-^the only one along the line of the pro- 
posed railroad doing so — in bonding itself to the extent of 
§!)8,000 for the benefit of the organized company. The se(ji;el is 
well known. After various vicissitudes and unfortunate incidents 
the completion of the road was never undertaken, while the ob- 
ligations assumed by the town could not be released. The burden 
was a severe one, esjiecially under the circumstances related. 
For several years interest (at seven per cent.) was faithfully ])aid. 
At the end of this period, a sentiment opposed to the continu- 
ance of this debt having gradually arisen, the bond affair became 
a matter of litigation and remained in the conrts for several 
years, when a temporary relief was obtained. The old debt was 
released and the town bonded anew for $120,000, with interest 
payable at the rate of three per cent. There is a debt balance 
not yet jii'ovided for at this time. The history of the Bond affair 
is the story of a heavy burden ujaon the town, without compen- 
sation in the form of a railroad, or redress of any kind. 

Since the failure of the Delhi and Middletown Railroad there 
have been several attempts at various times to organize railroad 
companies and build a railroad to Andes, but none of these have 
been successful. The people of the town have, however, l)y no 
means lost confidence in the ultimate success of their long con- 
tinued efforts in this direction. 

The last two decades have witnessed no startling changes in the 
make up of the town. Business interests have been transferred 
from time to time, a new generation of iuhalutauts has sprung up 
and there has been a transition from the bustling days of the seven- 
ties to the more qiiiet times of the present. Of the older inhabitants 
identified with the progress of the town many are dead, among 

TdWX <)l-- A.XDKS. -287 

these Hi'ury Dowie, of whom meution has alreudv Ix'fu iiiiulf. 
Diiucau ]5alhuitiiie. for many years President of the First National 
Bank of Amies, died iu ISSi). The dirertion of the affairs of the 
bank i>assed into the hands nf his son David, but the institutidu 
closed its doors a few years later. Another son, James Ballantiue. 
was siieeessively Supervisor of the town. Member of Assembly and 
finally State Senator at Albany. He died before conipletiu'>: his 
term of service, 'Slay 4, 18!)fi. Prominent anioiif;- the iiier<diants of 
Andes were Daniel B, Shaver who began his business career in 1833 
and for many years occupied the building erected bj' him iu 1835. 
Mr. Shaver died iu May, 18117. A. S. Dowie, Sr., for many years 
the head of the firm of A. S. Dowie \- Son, died in 1878; the junior 
member is now in business in Philadeljiliia, the tirni having been 
lati-r succeeded by Hotchkiss I't Marx, who subsequently dissolved 
partnership, Mr, Hotchkiss retaining the old store while Mr. ^[arx 
has opened a new place of business near the site of the old 
destroyed Union hotel wagon house. Mr. E. M. Norton has for 
many years been engaged iu the drug business in the village, his- 
])reseut location beiug in the building erected by Daniel H, Hawks. 
The hardware business was conducted in Andes by a number of 
parties who succeed each other iu the course of a few years. 
Thus the establishment of Nichols cV Dickson was conducted by 
O. S. Nichols, Nhdiols cV Murray, and E. J. Turnbull. Eli Feltou 
jr., afterward Feltou A; Cant, were succeeded by James Bruce jr. 
The Ajades Recorder, originally issued by Rev. Peter Smeallie 
and successfully couduiteil for many years by William Clark, has 
continued publicatiou under various ownershi2)s, beiug conducted 
at the present date by Miller iV Crawford. A banking business is- 
now conducted by James F. Scott, who has represented the town 
on the Board of Supervisors for many years ami twice has liceu its 

.\ndes has always maintained a satisfactory educational estal)- 
lishment. For years the Andes Collegiate Institute, founded in 
1S47, drew students from distant points and it was perhaps the 


most prosperous school of the i-ouuty. With the iiuprovciiieut of 
the public school system and the growth of other similar iusti- 
tiitious iu mauv of the iicarhy towns, the jirosperity of the Institute 
declined and its doors were finally closed iu 1880. Several at- 
tempts were made to revive the school hut the efforts have all 
failed and the spacious buildings now stand idle, remindiug the 
citizens of their usefulness in the earlier days. The Andes Union 
Free school, later the Andes High School, was organized in 1893 
in the old district school building which was enlarged for the 
purjjose. This institution has been improving steadily and now 
stands high as a preparatory school for girls and boys. A num- 
l)er oi the young graduates have completed a collegiate course, 
giving evidence of the thoroughness of the pre]iarafion afforded 
by the Andes school. 

The first telegraph line connecting Andes with the exterior 
was erected by the Andes and Delhi Telegraph Company in 187(i. 
The first message was sent over the thirteen miles of this line 
June 1, 1876. Afterwards this line was extended to Arkville on 
the Ulster and Delaware Railroad and likewise connected with 
Boviua Center. This line has recently been converted into a 
telephone line and has greatly facilitated the ease of coninjuni- 
cation between Andes .and distant places. In 18!>6 another com- 
j)any was organized and a telephone line built between Andes 
and Dowusville, passing through Shavertown and Pepacton. This 
line is connected with many of the farm residences along the 
route and considerable local business is thus transacted by the 
use of the telephone. 

The old Delhi and Kingston Turnpike — the road early con- 
necting Delhi with the Catskill region and the Hudson river — 
was abandoned lieyond Arkville in 187'2. Later, that portion of 
the road between Andes and Margaretvjlle was given u]) liy the 
com]iany, which at the present time still controls the well kept 
road from Delhi to Andes villaire. 


IjV lion. I). L. Thorn |),son. 

ONE liuuilred aud seven years ago three or four liai'dy youug- 
meu from Westchester couuty, with rudely coustrueted 
kuapsaeks fastened to their belts aud with trusty rifles upon their 
slidulders luadc a surveying aud i)rospccfiiig tour (iver au ludiau 
trail fnnu Stamford, through the eastern part of the couuty. 

In that little party was Elisha B. Mayuard, a youug man of 
English descent, in search of a future home for himself aud his 
fitniily. With keen perception and astute judgment iu regard to 
richness of soil, he selected that sjjot of ground which is now, and 
ever since has been iu the possession of the Maynard family in 
Bovina. In the summer of 1701 young Maynard cleared up two or 
three acres of land, built a little cabin, mostly under ground, sowed 
a bushel and a half of rye aud then returued to liis liouie iu West- 
chester county. He spent the winter of 17'.)1 and 171*2 iu making- 
preparations for his new home, and in the spring of 1792 moved his 
family aud all his belongings upon a wood-shod sled drawn by two 
yokes of o.xen, all the way from the Hudson river. For two years 
youug Maynard had no neighbors this side of the Stamford range 
of mountains. The somewhat dangerous conditions and the actual 
privations incurred by him must be largely left to the imagination. 

(lame of every kind was abundant, the tameness of which on 
account of uufamiliarity with uiau was even annoying. It was diffi- 
cult to raise stock on account of the depredations of bears, 
])anthers, and wolves. Benefits, however, resulted from these 
circumstances, for the mouutaiu brooks were filled with the fiuest 
trout anil the woods with deer, that fuinisjicd a material )iart of 

the family food. 

1,;' 291 


lu 17!)4 Alcxauiler liriisli caine from Long' Islaiul iiiid settled 
upon that tract of laiul wliii-li now iufludes the vilhif^'e of Boviua 
Centre, six miles west of .Mr. Mayuard, his nearest neighbor. These 
two earliest settlers were blest with unusually lari;fe families, Mr. 
Maynard haviug- twelve children and Mr. Brush nine. The old 
Puritan custom of j;iviug children Bible names was in vogue with 
the Yankee element of the early settlers. Every one of the ]\Iay- 
nard and Brush families were given Scripture names — the boys 
having such names as Abram, Isaac, Jacob and Elisha, and the girls 
Miriam, Kuth, Rachel, Esther, etc. 

Mr. Brush a year or two after his settlement here, with a spirit 
of enterprise and the best of motives, bought the seed of the white 
daisy and sowed it upon his laud, also giving it to neighbors 
around him. He lived to hear maledictions heaped upon his head 
for his well meant but mistaken idea of improving the pasturage of 
the farms. 

About the beginning of the present century a number of set- 
tlers, mostly from Scotland, began to establish homes and clear up 
the land. Among them were the Landons, Leets, Davises, Dumouds, 
Moscrips, Hiltons, Eussells, Hamiltons and Ormistons. Those peo- 
ple endured privations and hardships which the jiresent third or 
foui'th generation of their sons and daughters could scarcely 
imagine. The comforts, the conveniences, and the luxuries of life 
were to them unknown. Their necessities were easily supplied, and 
the source of them came from their immediate surroundings. The 
crt)ps raised from the newly cleared land were jDrincipally rye, 
potatoes, and tlax. Sometimes the family enjoyed the luxury of 
pork for dinner, provided the bears had not cajitured the pigs 
before butchering time. In such a case they resorted to licar meat, 
if they could catch the bear. 

As a sample of physical strength and endurance growing out of 
the necessities of their environments, it is I'elated that a 'Sir. Davis 
and a Mr. Hilton upon different occasions canned each of them 
upon their backs two bushels of rye to a grist mill in Schoharie 

rowx OF noviXA. >293 

cimntT, a distanct' of cij^htt'cii miles from their homes, aiul returned 
with tile tlt)iir the same day. However, a tjrist mill was soou after 
erected on the other side of the Stamford moiuitaiu at the foot of 
Udsc's luook, and to this mill was carried on tiie hacks of men or on 
horseback the grain to be made into tiour for family use. 

Amid such surrouudiuj^s the sous and daughters of these 
pioneers loved and married as in more modern days. The first 
marriage was that of James Russell and Nancy Iticliie, the first 
l)irth Elisha Horton JNJaynanl igraiidfatlur of the late Isaac H. 
Jlayuard) in 17it;i. The first death was that of Hezekiah Davis in 
179S. The first sermon was preached by Rev. James Richie in 1795. 
The first school teacher was William Edwards, who taught a school 
in 1808. The first general store was kept l)y James "Wetmore. The 
first grist mill by Htei)hen Palmer. The first resident physician was 
Dr. Kelly. The first church was built in 1809. 

From this time onward, early iu the morning and late at night 
could be heard the sounil <if the axe as it felled the trees of the 
forest, which after seasoning for a few weeks were rolled into heaps 
and reduced into ashes. The burning of so much tindier produced 
large quantities of ashes which suggested a new industry — that of 
converting the ashes into what was- called potash and pearl ash. 
The works where these substances were manufactiu-cd were called 
asheries. David Ballantine, grandfather of the late Senator Ballan- 
tine. built an asliery and ran it for many years in connection with a 
small general store. Eight or ten cents a bushel was paid iu trade 
for ashes delivered at tlie store or at the works, the good house- 
wives almost invarial)ly t;d<ing pay in dishes. 

The town or townslii]] of Bovina, a name given it by General 
Erastus Root, was formed from parts of Delhi, Middletown and 
Stamford in 18'20. The name is said to have been derived from the 
word Bovine, alluding to the fact of its being prominent iu the 
dairying l)usiiiess. With the e.xception of Harj)erstield it is in -area 
and jjopulation the smallest town in the county, containing only 
27,000 acres, or forty-two stjuare miles of land. Fifteen years after 


its oryanizatiou iuto a township, or more detiuitely iu 1835, its pop- 
ulatiou was 1,41 "2. Since that date until the present time there has 
been a steady aud ahuost regular yearly decrease, until now the 
]iopulation numbers less than 1,0(10. Its general features are hills 
and valleys supplied with abundant springs of pure cold water, 
making it admirably adapted for dairying jjurposes, which is and 
has been from its earliest settlement its chief and most important 

Its enterprising citizens are justly inoud of the flattering 
appreciation of the excellency of Bovina butter, and the reputa- 
tion it has gained. Upon two occasions Bovina dairies have 
supplied the tables of the presidential mansion at Washington, 
being recommended as the finest flavored butter made iu the 
United States. 

In March 1820 the first town election was held at the house 
of John Hastings, who then kept an inn on the farm now owned 
and occupied by his grandson, James E. Hastings. At this elec- 
tion Thomas Landon was chosen Supervisor, with a full corps of 
other town officials. Some resolutions adopted at these early 
town elections are suggestive and amusing. For instance at a 
meeting held April 5, 1821, is this record: "Voted that . a 
jjauper be sold to the person who will keep him the cheapest." 

was then put up at auction and sold to John Bennett for 

one year at 9 shillings and sixfience a week. So vigorously op- 
p)0sed were the jDeople at this time to paying taxes for the support 
of imupers, that at a town meeting in March 1838, they passed 
this resolution: "Voted that the county poor house at Delhi 
be abolished." 

Among those distinguished by long terms of office as Super- 
visor, maj- be mentioned Judge James Cowan, who held the 
office from 1825 to 183!1 — fourteen consecutive years. Alexander 
Storie was supervisor for eight years and David Black for 
eleven years. The present Supervisor is William L. White, 
a grandson of Eev. John Graham, who for over twenty years 

Towx OF /.'or/.v.i. 2i»5 

was the pastor of tlif (uow) Uuitod Presbyteriau Church of 

lu the time that has king goue by, the habits and customs 
ami to us the ijeeuliarities of the early settlers seem strange 
and somewhat amusing. The older inhabitants now living cm- 
pliasize the claim that there was more sociability and frieudshi]) 
among the people in those days than now. There was no 
<livi8iou or distinction among them on account of wealth, for all 
were poor. Neighbors would drop in oi an evening to have a 
social chat and a drink of whiskey with a fellow neighbor. 
Whiskey seems to have been regarded as a necessity. There 
was at one time three distilleries in the town for its manufac- 
ture. And I have been told that the home consumption did not 
allow of any exportation. A settler would take a bushel of rye 
to the distillery and receive for it two gallons of whiskey. They 
flaimed that they could have a milder drunk on the whiskey 
of those days than in more modern times. 

.In old gentleman who was enthusiastic over the good old times 
and friendships of those early days, told a story that so evidently 
contradicted the facts claimed, that we are led to believe that 
there were sinners as well as saints even in the long ago time. 
He said that two neighbors, whom I will call A and B, had 
become somewhat careless about their line fences, which naturally 
made bad blood between them. On one occasion A's sheep got' 
into B's lot, where B caught three or four of them and cutting 
the thin skin separating the muscle of the hind leg from the 
gandirel joint he stuck the other hind leg through the aperture, 
and in this shape sent them home on three legs. A just chalked 
this bit of neighborly courtesy down and waited for his chance, 
which soon came by B's hogs getting over into his lot. A caught 
the hogs and cut their mouths almost back to their eyes. AVheu 
B saw his hogs he started for A's with all the vim of a modern 
Fitzsimmons and throwing his coat on a stump he wanted to 
know what .V mtant by slashing uj) his hogs in that shape. A 


said, "Well, uow, just hold ou, B; I'll tell you how this came 
about. Your hogs were over iu iiiy lot wheu luy sheep came 
home ou three legs, aud when the hogs saw those sheep they 
began to laugh, aud laughed so heartily that they split their 
mouths opeu clear back to their ears. " 

There is a tradition of a lead mine iu the southern part of the 
town. An Indian named Teunis built a hut or cabin on the farm 
now owned by Walter A. Doig. This Indian was often observed to 
leave his cabin and after a short absence return with pieces of rock 
richly tilled with lead ore, from which he obtained his bullets. He 
admitted the existence of a valuable lead mine, but would never 
make known its location. It is said that upon one occasion when 
this Indian was over ou the East branch of the Delaware, he was 
assaulted and beaten by two drunken white men, when a ]\Ir. Bas- 
sett of Andes came to his rescue. He afterward invited Mr. Bassett 
to come to his cabin, saying he would show him something that 
would make him the richest man in all the region around him. Mr. 
Bassett visited the friendly Indian, who blindfolded him and led 
him through the woods for a short distance. After removing the 
obstruction from his eyes, he was shown a lead mine of unusual 
richness. The Indian told him that he would not yet reveal the 
location, but promised that before his death he would do so. The 
old Indian, however, died soon after aud all knowledge of this mine 
died with him. Mr. Bassett and others spent mouths in fruitless 
search for this buried treasure. The Mr. Bassett referred to was 
the father of the late Peter Norton Bassett of Andes, a man whose 
integrity aud veracity was never doubted. 

The adaptation of the early settlers to their necessities and sur- 
roundings ought at this time to teach us lessons of economj' in 
many of the affairs of life. Flax was grown in large quantities from 
which the good housewife ujadc her husband's shirts aud suiuuier 
clothing. The woolen ganuents were likewise made in the home. 
The wife and mother carded, spun aud wove the wool for the 
cloth, and often completed the preparation of the garments for 

the liacks of her husbaud and chililreu bv cutting- auil iiiakiiif^- 
tlieiii. They may not have beeu artistically tittcd, but uiotLn-i- 
made tliem; while less critical eyes than those of modern times 
surveyed them. An old gentleman said that the men of those 
days, as they looked down on their thick cow-hide boots, were 
not always certain whether they were going home, or away from 
home. An old lady referring to the amount of material put into 
the men's shirt collars in those times, laughingly remarked that 
the shirts might have been worn vvnmg end u]i without attract- 
ing unusual attention. 

But it was the men and women icarcd iu such surrouudiugs 
that the ]>eoj)le of Boviua to-day are jnMuid to call their ances- 
tors. Their labor soon developed the limited resources about 
them into material prosperity, and all now feel the truth of a 
sentiment once so beautifully expressed by Thomas Jefferson when 
he said, " Let the fai'mer be forever houoi'ed in his calling, for 
they who till the soil are the favored and chosen peojjle of God." 

From 181") to 1820 those who settled in Bovina came largely 
from Scotland. They brought with them that Scottish thrift and 
piety that has so honored the land of Burns and of Bruce, and 
demonstrated in their love of country and their loyalty to Christ, 
the true elements of that Christian character which the world 
respects to-day. It has been rei^orted by agents of the American 
Bible Society that no family in Bovina has ever been found with- 
out a bible. The influence of the clergy is universally felt. For 
forty years no license for the sale of li(|U(ir has l>eeii granted, 
and with one exception of a few months not a jiauixr from the 
town has been an inmate of an almshouse. 

From lK-2() to ISUO hired men's wages were from eight to ten 
dollars a month. Hired girls received seventy-five cents a week, 
and if they could weave they got one dollar a weik. .Vn interesting 
fact in the history of this town is, that the Mormon Proj^het, Joseph 
Smith, once worked here as a common day laborer. There is a 
.stone wall still standing on the fai"m of Frederick Johnston built 


b_v him between the years 1835 and 1840. lu 1885 when slavery 
was abolished iu the state of New York there were two slaves 
in the town; one was owned by John Erkson and the other by 
Alexander Johnston. 

One custom of Scottish origin was that of offering cake jmd 
wine at funerals. This was kept uj) for some time. Whenever 
the jjeople entered a house of mourning they were offered cake 
and wine. This simple service at the burial of their dead was 
suggestive of appreciated sympathy in times of bereavement. 

Briefly noticing what is called the Anti-Rent, or Equal Eights 
party, it may be said that the tirst meeting of this jjarty was 
held at the hotel of John Seacord, in Bovina, Oct. 1, 1844. 
John McDonald of Kortright and George Thompson of Andes 
were nominated for the Assemlily at this meeting. - Mr. ^IcDon- 
ald being endorsed by the Whig party was elected. For the 
killing of Under-Sheriff Steele at the Earle sale in Andes, Aug. 
7, 1845, John Van Steenburg aud Edward O'Connor wei-e senten- 
ced to lie hanged Xov. 27. O'Connor was a citizen of Bovina, 
then living on the farm now owned and occupied by Mr. Stejihen 
Russell. Naturally the most intense excitement and deepest con- 
cern were felt for the fate of O'Connor. The sentence was how- 
ever changed to iiuprisoumeut for life, and early iu 1847 at the 
request of nearly 12,000 petitioners, Governor Young pardoned 
Van Steenburg and O'Connor with all who had been iinprisoued 
for this tragedy. The result of this Auti-Reut afritatiou was that 
the tenants bought the soil of the laud they bad tilled and 
occupied, at easy pi-ices. But it had created bitter feelings and 
animosities among the jjeojile that took years to remove. Busi- 
ness men who were iu sympathy with the landlords were boycotted 
to an extent that drove them from the town. Horace Greeley's 
2iaper was iu sympathy with the Anti-Reuters aud was uuiversally 
patronized. Almost everybody in Bovina took the Tribune. It 
was jestingly said that " up in Bovina the people didn't read 
anvthing but the Bible aud the New York Tribune." But the 

TiJWX OF noviXA. 301 

Auti-Keut couriict has g'oue iuto liistory, a history oi whii'h the 
towu to-tliiy scarcely remembers with either pride or pleasure. 

The tirst post-oflSce iu this towu was estalilisheil at Lake 
Delaware iu 1821. Previous to that time the mail was brought 
from Stamford, a distance of sixteen miles, ouce every mouth, 
people takinjj turns in briufjfiuy it over the mountain. The post- 
office iu Bovina Centre was established iu 1S41 with Johu Erk- 
sou as postmaster. The present postmaster is Wni. McC'uue. 
The early mail carriers iu briuffing the mail, wheu withiu a mile 
of the post-oflice commenced to blow a horn, aud continued to 
blow every two or three minutes until their arrival at the post- 

The first physician, as has been said was Dr. Kelly — present- 
physicians, Drs. Phinney and Dickson. 

AVben this towu was established there were upwards of 4tM) 
children of school age; nt)w there are less than 275. 

The most important trade center is the little village <)f Bovina 
Centre, in which there are four general stores, one for tlour and 
feed, one hardware, one drug aud one grocery store, one saw and 
grist mill, two blacksmith shops, two cooper shops, two boot 
ami shoe shops, one millinery ])urlor, one barber slio]) aud one 
hotel. Sixty years ago all the goods sold in this towu consisted 
of three or four wagon loads drawn semi-annually from Catskill. 
some Go miles distant. 

The present trade, exclusive of the liaiulliiig of butter, from 
figures and estimates, amounts to over one hundred and twelve 
thousand dollars annually. 

The schools of this towu are small. No educational .-idvan- 
tages except the common school have ever been enjoyed by the 
people iu their home town, wliilc thousands of dollars have l)een 
paid for education in the academies, seminaries and colleges at 
other places. Bovina has furnished for the educational aud pro- 
fessional vocations of life withiu the past forty-tive years, forty- 
oue persons who have been graduated with distinction from; 


colleges arouud us. In .ill st.itistics of this tdwa it is fair to 
consider the smalluess of populatiou. 

In OctoV)er, ISdi), the Associate Presljyterian Congregation of 
Little Delaware, now the United Presbj'terian Church of Boviua, 
was organized with a membership of eleven souls. The barns 
tmd private dwellings of the people were used as places of 
worship until ISl.'i. The first sermon was preached by Rev. Dr. 
Alexander Bullions in the bar-room of Thomas Landon's hotel 
at Lake Delaware. The minister stood behind the bar, with his 
Bible resting upon it, and expounded to his little audience the 
truths and teachings of the Gosijel. About this time Dr. Bullions 
preached in a barn yet standing upon the farm of ]Mrs. Lucy 
•Coulter, at which an incident occurred that greatly disturbed for 
a time the devotional spirit which ought to exist during religious 
worship. Old grandfather Coulter had prepared the barn flooi' 
and provided seats for the female jaart of the audience — the men 
were to stand, or sit on the hay mow. Dr. Bullions had just 
begun his sermon when a hen flew off her nest with an unusually 
loud demonstration of cackling, taking a circuit around among 
the worshipers, to the great diversion and merriment of the 
•children and less sedate hearers. The preacher stopped and asked 
is someone would not remove the fowl from the building. Just 
then old Mr. G., a large '2-40 pound Hcotchman, caught it by the 
feet and poking it under the hay sat down on it. The hen 
gave one squeal, and never after disturbed a religious meeting. 
But the spiritual solemnity of that service was badly impaired. 

The first pastor of this congregation, Rev. James Laing, was 
installed in June, 1S14, receiving a salary of $250 per annum. 
In 1815 a house of worship was built, which was not however 
completed until 1824 For nine years it was used for religious 
services without pews or pulpit or stoves. The carpenters' work- 
bench was used for a ])ulpit, with blocks and benches for seats. 
During the winter season wt)men brought foot stoves tilled with 
•coals which for a short time at least kept their feet from freez- 

voir.v or i:()\i.\A. no:! 

■iufJT. The uieu were Imrdy aiul endured the discoinfoit us lust 
■tlicv could. In IS'24 this cliuvch buihlinj^- was furnished with 
pews and ]iiil]iit hut was without any means of heating,' for a 
nniulier of vears. The conLj'rej^ation j^radually ;;rew in nundiers 
and in intiuenee in this coufi'euial soil for Presbyteriauisni. Rev. 
John (Irahani succeeded Rev. Mr. Laiuf^- aud was its pastor for 
twenty years. He in turn was succeeded by Dr. James B. Lee, 
who lemained with this people for thirty-two years. The salaries 
of its clerj^ymen have been j^radually iiu-reased until the present 
j,'ifted and pojndar younj,' preacher. Rev. W. L. C. Samson, receives 
$1, ")()(! per annum. The present membership of this congfre- 
pratiou is 'M'l. The contriliutions the past year for all purposes 
were over ?!!, ;{()(•. A history of this congregation would scarcely 
be complete without further notice of the long aud acceptable 
pastorate of Dr. Lee, who spent the better part of a life time 
in devoted service to the spiritual aud material prosperity of 
r.nvina. It every enterprisiug project aud moral reform he was 
a leader. Difficulties did not discourage him, uor opposition 
intimidate him. He faithfully aud fearlessly espoused that which 
he believed to be right, whether it was popular or not, aud his 
agency in the town's progress was marked in its prosperity and 

The Reformed Presbyterian or Covenanter Congregation was 
organized in 1814. It is a church that is and always has been 
one of practical disseut from the Constitution of the United 
States, holdinj^- that the National Constitution is radically wrong 
and <lefective in failing to acknowledge the existence of (xod, 
the supremacy of Christ as Kint; of Nations, aud the Word of 
(iod as the supreme law. They ilo not vote, hold office, or take 
any part in the administration of the government, yet always 
I'ceognize its authority in things lawful ami ri;^lit. 'I'iiey are 
somewhat exclusive, cmphHsi/ing the purity rather thau the 
popularity of their denomination. The society numbers about 75 
of o\ir most enterprising and respected citizens. The present 


pastor of this people is liev. T. M. Slater, verv recently iustulled 
over them. The one imiuediatoly j^receding, Rev. A. I. Rol)b, left 
this fharye to become a missionary in China. Their first church 
building at upper Bovina was of stone, "i-l by 34 feet, and was 
built in 1825. The present church building is a comfortable and 
commodious one in Bovina Centre. This congregation since its 
establishment ha.^ had eight different pastors. 

The Methodist Episcopal Society was so far as jireachiug was 
concerned, the jjioneer of all others. Alexander Brush, the second 
settler in town, was a local preacher, and often preached in his own 
house and that of others for years. He was followed by Rev. 
AVilliam Jewett about 1S12. who was the first regular preacher. 
Services were held in houses, barns, school houses and groves until 
1849, when, they built a house of worship in Bovina Centre, which 
was dedicated August 22d, 1849. There was at one time some 
ojjposition manfested to Methodism which the historian scarcely 
cares to record. The incidents attendant upon that opijosition are 
not of pleasant memory. But times have changed, and now the 
different churches of Bovina are in closest christian friendship and 
fellowship. The present pastor of this people is Rev. S. E. Myers. 

It is frequently regreted that the old church buildings, — the 
landmarks of our civilization and religion, had not l)een preserved 
in all their original features; for the peculiar construction of them 
both inside and out would to-day be matters of interest. 

Some occurrences of the long ago time are amusing. One 
rather peculiar character in Bovina whom I will call Billie Smith — 
more often called General Smith. He was well known throughout 
the county. He was somewhat short in stature and remarkable for 
his wit and presence of mind. He could take a joke as well as give 
one; l)ut u])on the occasion to be related he thought the trick was- 
too much of a joke to be funny. One warm day in summer he was 
at church sitting in a pew with a door oi)euiug out into the aisle, 
which was fastened with a button on the outside. Smith became 
drowsy during the long sermon and finally got sound asleep, lean- 

TOWX or l:n\-IX.\. ;^05 

iuj,' heavily against the door of the pew. A wag sitting immediiitclv 
l)ehiml him, ami watching the jji-ogress of his slmiiher, cautiouslv 
reached arouud aud turned the button. Sujith hmded out into the 
aisle almost on the top of his head. His (luiclc wit imd rare pres- 
ence of mind came to his rescue and he hiy as lie fell all iu a lieaji 
to suggest a faint. "When he was carried outside he gave his 
opinion of that joke aud joker in language hardlv tit for a week 
day, much less a Sabbath day. It was many years after this before 
Smith could be induced to attend church. 

The principal industry of this town is butter making. To pru- 
duce (juantity aud improve quality, aud to give it a standing in the 
first markets of the State aud out of it, neither effort or expense 
have beeu spared. The first Jersey stock brought into Bovina was 
by John Hastings and Andrew Archibald in 1S();5. The Hastings 
l>rothers were enthusiastic iu their appreciation of that strain of 
cattle; while a majority of dairymen at that time were slow to 
acknowledge its superiority. But facts and figures became so con- 
vincing that the skeptical became believers, and .Jeisey stock was 
soon found to be profitable and po2)ular. About 1870 "William L. 
Rutherford, a farmer of considerable means, jiurchased a herd of 
twenty head from a Conuecticut stock dealer, paying ?2.")() a head, 
or $5,(100 for the herd. They were all registered thoroughbreds. 
For ten years the residt of the transaction was highly profitalde to 
^Ir. Rutherford in sales of stock from that herd. 

In William L. Ruff, purchasing the farm of Mr. Rutherford, 
also purchased the stock paying $(!,300 for it aloue. For eighteen 
years ifr. Ruff has given jiersoual attention to this stock, of which 
lie is justly proud. His transactions as a stock dealer during this 
time, independent of the butter jiroduced by the herd, has exceeded 
$88,(100. He has paid !?1,0(I0 for a sinj^le aidmal as a breeder, 
whose sire was sold for :?rj,(Mio. Mr. RulT has sold three months 
old calves for over $200, cows for $350 each, .•in<l u]iiin one occasiiui 
lie refused an offer of $2,00(( for ten calves. His largest sales have 
been priuci]) dealers in j)ure Ijlooded stock. To Mr. Pearson 


of Wayne uuimty he sold a beifer which sit Kve years of age pro- 
duced tweuty-eight and three-- [Uartcr pounds of butter a week. 

James E. Hastings, who may be said to 1)c a pioneer in introchic- 
iug this stock into Bovinii, also has one of the finest and most 
valuable herds of thoroughbred cattle in the county. 

There are live or six pure Jersey dairies in town. Purchasers 
have come from Pennsylvania, Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, and some 
of the Southern States, and made selections from these and other 
herds of Jersey cattle in Boviua. The entire dairies of the town 
are of high grade. As high as 360 pounds of butter per annum 
have been made from each cow. Much of Boviua's prosperity in 
former years was due to this superior breed of cattle, and the 
excellency of the butter produced. 

A conspicuous dairy of Guernseys is owned by T. H. Ludington 
of Lake Delaware. They are said to be a hardy and extraordinary^ 
milk and butter producing cattle. Mr. Ludington, a man of more 
than usual intelligence, speaks enthusiastically in favor of this- 
breed, claiming a production of over 800 pounds per cow. 

During the civil war Bovina furnished seventy-one volunteers 
for the army. 

Bovina is the possessor of a banner given l)y the Delaware 
county Sabbath School Association, entitling it to the h(}nored 
distinction of being the banner Sabbath School town of the county. 
One of the Sabbath schools of this little town is the second largest 
in Delaware county. Its reports show a contribution of $100 each 
(|uarter for benevolent and missionary purposes. 

Connected with and under the management of the United Pres- 
byterian congregation is a large and well selected library of 500 or 
600 volumes which is open to the general public. To this library 
Commodore Gerry of New York City has contributed $300. 

The cemetery at Bovina Centre is one of the finest and best kept 
in this section of the State. Mr. Gerry has also aided in beautify- 
ing this resting place of the dead by presenting to its trustees- 
massive iron gates of considerable value. 

7VM\-.V dh' IIOVIXA. 307 

Mrs. E. T. (icvrv's simiincr lesidfiici' is at Lake Delaware in 
15oviuii. Tlic estate siirroiiuds a beautiful lake covering over l.jO 
acres, wliicli is stoikeil with finest trout. This wealthy and f>'euer- 
i>us faniilv by ileeils of charity and labors of love, have won ^^rateful 
apju'eeiutiou throu-jjhout the comiiiuiiity in which for a few weeks 
duriufi; the summer they reside. 

We ought not to close this l)rief history of Boviua, without 
referring to some of its citizens who have become distinguished in 
|irofcssioiiaI life. 

Jiidge William Murray of the Supreme Court of the Sixth 
•ludicial District was born in Boviua, November 21st, 1820. His 
career was one of steady advancement from a boy working on his 
father's farm, to that of a Supreme Court Judge. His success was 
in no way a surprise to his fellow townsmen. He came of a family 
of brains, inheriting that persevering and determined ambition 
which always wins success. 

Judge Murray began the study of law in the otMce of Samuel 
(iordon in 1S4S, and was ailmitted to the bar at a gtucral terii] 
held in Albany. His progress was one of steady advancement. 
He was a Kepul)lican in j'olitics and a firm believer in the 
principles of his party. His personal appearance was one of 
affable dignity, and liis decisions as a jurist showed a (lcc]> knowl- 
edge of law. He died in 1887. Dr. David Murray now living, a 
brother of the late Judge Murray, attained eminence as Professor 
in Itutgers College, New Brunswick, N. J., and later as superin- 
tendent of educational affairs in Jai>an. He is a man of high 
Bcholarly attainments and his reputation and standing in highest 
educational dej)artnients is world wide. 

Hon. Isaac H. Maynard, a grandson of the tirst settler of 
the town, was born in 18;W. He was graduated from Amherst 
College in lH(i2, studied law in tlic office of Ju<lge Murray and 
was admitted to the bar at Binghamton in 18(i.'{. In politics lie 
was a Democrat. In 187.5 he was chosen to re])resent Delaware 
countv in the legislature at .\lbnnv. In 1877 was elected to tlie 


office of County Judge aud SuiTogate iu tbis Rcimblicau eouuty 
by 1,'355 majdrity. In 1S83 he was a candidate on the State 
Democratic ticket for Secretary of State, bnt was defeated on 
account of his tirni aud uucoiapnmnsiug couvietions upon the 
temperance question. In 188-t he was appointed First Deputy 
Attorney-General. He resigned this position and accepted the 
office of Second Comptroller of the United States Treasury to 
which he had beeu appointed by President Cleveland. In 1887 
IVIr. Maynard was Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, and iu 
1892 Governor Flower appointed him Associate Judge of the 
Court of Api^eals. He afterwards became a candidate for that 
position but was defeated. He died in 1895 at the age of .57 

Bovina cherishes with pardonable pride the memory of other 
■citizens both living aud dead which must be left for later rec- 
ords. To the ministerial profession it has given eleven young 
men; to the educational profession iu colleges and seminaries, 
thirteen; to the medical profession six, aud to the legal, six. 
The jseople are intelligent, industrous, frugal and God fearing. 
It is said there is uot a family in town who does not attend 
religious church services. A quarter of a mile from the village 
of Bovina Centre, beautifully situated ou a knoll iu the Forrest 
Talley, is one of the finest cemeteries in the county. Many of 
the dead who slumber here have left behind them precious mem- 
ories. It was at one time a custom among the early settlers to 
bury their dead upou their owu lauds. There has beeu at least 
twenty of such burial places in the town. Now the dust of the 
fathers has been largely gathered into this beautiful cemetery, 
where it will i-emain until "this mortal shall have put on im- 

Note by D. M.— The attention of the writer of this note has been called 
by Mr. Uilbert Tucker, the editor of the Country Genlli-mioi. to a "Cow Census 
of the Town of Bovina, Delaware Co., N. Y.," wliich was taken by the Dairy- 
men's Association for the year 1891. It was published as a bulletin, dated 
18!)2. He tells nie that he knows of no other similar eensus that has ever 

roir.V Oh- liOVISA. ;)()<) 

been taki'U. Tin- paniphli't is now lictVue nie from which I have oonipiled a 
few facts. Tlio town was selected because it was conspicuous for tlie quantity 
ami i|uality of its dairy pioilucts, and because its inhabitants are more 
iiMiformly engaged in Initter malting than any other town in the State. 
l"n>iii tliis important pamphlet the I'ollowing statistics are derived : 

1. lioviua contains -J", 271) acres of land; the assessed valuation of which 
in lyi'l was #:!'.)ii,25'.l. The average value of the land including woodland, 
swamp, etc., is $14..");) an acre. The value of the improv<'d land may therefore 
1"' estimated at from live to seven times this sum. 

2. The population of the town as given in the Census for 1890 was 1,007. 
As enumerated in this pamphlet there are 117 farmers engaged in dairying 
owning 2.<'i(iy cows thus averaging 23 cows to each. The cows are in large 
pro|>ortion Grade .Ti'rseys : although a number of farmers report part of their 
stock ns •' thorimghbred Jerseys," "registered Jerseys" or "full-blood 
Jerseys. ' 

3. The total amount of butter made is reported a* (J6,'J88 pounds. Besides 
butter the farmers sold calves, pork, and other dairy products. The average 
earnings per cow varied between #101.13 and $30. IS; and for the whole town 
was $t;3.fl9. 

4. Mr. B. G. Gilbert, the secretary of the Dairymen's Association, in sum- 
ming up tins census says; "The majority of these farms pay their owners 
from six to eight dollars per acre for the whole acreage, over and above the 
entire expense of the dairy, with the exception of what labor may be required. 
This includes uncleared as well as cleared land ; and the labor is often done 
by the farmer ami his family. The probability is that from the land under 
cultivation and available for cattle sup|iorl the dairymen of Bovina obtain 
fully ten per cent net." 



IjY Edvai'd tf.. Conlon. 

THE town of Colchester was formed AjHil 1(», IT'.l'i, from tin- 
town of Middletown, and iucluded the present town of Han- 
cock and a portion of the town of Walton. It was then in the 
county of Ulster. In 1799 a part was annexed to the town of 
Walton. Hancock was taken oif in 18()(), and a part of Walton 
was annexed to Colchester in 1827. Since which last the boun- 
daries of the town have remained unaltered. At the formation 
of the county of Delaware in 1797, Colchester was one of the 
seven constituent towns. The name of the town was suggested 
by Josejsh Gee, an early settler, who came from Colchester, 
Conn. It is a matter of regret that the euishouious Indian name, 
Pawj)acton, was discarded for this harsh sounding English name. 

The East Branch of the Delaware river runs south-westerly 
through the north-central jjortion of the town. The Indians 
called this river Paw2iacton. The Beaverkill river flows west 
through the southerly corner of the town. The Indians called 
this river Whelenaughwemack. 

In the year 1766, Timothy Gregory, then a young man twenty- 
three years of age, came from Westchester county, and erected 
a log house on the flat on the east side of the river about one- 
fourth of a mile above the present river bridge at Colchester, 
where he lived uutil the Revolutionary war. Tliis was the first 
house ever erected within the bounds of Colchester, and stood 
midway between the highway and tlic biunekill, opposite a little 
sjjring that Hows across the highway at a point a few rods 
above a small bill in the highway. In the succeeding years 
a few other settlers located farther up the river, and at the 






coinmeufi'ineiit of the Revolution there were uiiic houses in this 
Betth'nient. Frederick ^liUer's was farthest up tlie river and 
stuoil near where the Sliufelt Shaver house was afterwards erected; 
Mr. Parrish lived at the mouth of Cole's Clove, Russell Gregory 
just below Broek's lirid^e on tlie east side of the river, William 
Hose on the west side of the river below Dowusville, near Rock 
Eddy. The other persons who are known to have resided here 
prior to the Revolution are, Thomas, and John Gregory, James, 
and S. Shaver, Silas Bowker, Peter, Harry and Nehemiah Avery, 
Jacob Baruhart and Daniel Parrish. 

In 1778 these settlers, on account of the hostility of the In- 
dians, were compelled to abandon their homes and seek safety 
within the settlements along the Hudson, but at the close of the 
war many of them returned and be^au life anew. 

The first school was established in the town in 1784, by 
Daniel Parrish. The school house stood at the northerly base 
of the gi-avel knoll at the entrance to Cole's Clove. 

The first marriage occurred Dec. 14, 1788, the contracting 
parties being Abraham Sprague and Mary Parrish, who was a 
sister of Daniel Parrish. The ceremony was performed by the 
Rev. Bezaleel Howe, a Baptist minister. Sjjrague was tweutj'- 
two j-ears of age and his bride twenty-one. Sj)rague was a 
member of the Washington Guards during the Revolutionary 
War, and was present at the execution of Major Andre. He 
resided for many years after his marriage on the farm across 
the river from Dowusville, and cleared the first land there. His 
house stood between the jireseut highway and tlie biiiiiekill and 
above the road leading to Dowusville. 

The first birth, which is recorded, was that of (^atherine Rose, 
daughter of William Rose, born Dec. '24, 1784. 

The first death was that of Thomas Gregory, wlio died Dec. 
31, 1788, aged twenty years, and is buried in the Phelj)s burying 
ground at Colchester. 

Abraham Sprague and Daniel l}t>wker ran the first raff down 

314 lUsroliV OF DELAWARE CorXTV. 

the river that went from above Sliebawkeu, (Haueock), it con- 
sisted of spar tiuiLers for the I'liiladelpbia ship yards. Upon 
this trip they gave to many of the turns and islands along the 
river the names which they still bear. 

The first saw mill stood on the biuuekill below the residence 
©f S. O. Shaver. 

The first grist mill erected in Delaware county was erectecl by 
William Horton, and stood on the west side of the river, alxiiit one- 
half mile below Colchester, on the farm of E. D. Horton. The 
people brought their grain to this mill in canoes from a distance as 
far down the river as Equinunk, and for many miles in all directions 
it was brought on horseback. In the early part of the present 
century as many as 7,000 bushels of wheat were ground at this mill 
in a single year. 

The Phelps burying ground at Colchester is the oldest in town, 
named from David Phelps, whose residence stood near by. In this 
Ijurying ground ()nly three graves are marked l)y lettered head- 
stones, which are common field stones. Besides that of Thomas 
Gregory mentioned above, are the following: 

Josiah Gregory, died Dec. 14, ITDG, aged 25 years. 

Timothy Gregory, died Dec. — , 1821, aged 78 years. 

In the year 17'.IS the first tax was levied in Delaware county, 
and the total assessed valuation of real and personal property 
in the town of Colchester, which then included the town of 
Hancock, was $14,803.75. The present valuation of such i^roperty 
is $578,815. 

The official records of the town begin in 1703 and the record of 
every town meeting, and all official acts, are carefully recorded in 
the town clerk's office down to the present time. From these 
records it appears that the first town meeting in the town of Col- 
chester, county of Ulster, was held at the house of Lazarus Sprague, 
in April, 1793, "Where the following officers were duly elected viva 
voce, by a majority, namely, for the ensuing year: William Horton, 
Supervisor; Pet«r Ten Broeck, Jr., Clerk." 

T<n\\\ til-' cnLrlllCSThli. ;^15 

A c-oiupleto list of towu officers follows, and amoug the rtsolu- 
tious adoptt'il at the nieetius' is the following-: "Resolved that hogs 
may run coniinoncis witli a two foot yoke and ring through the 

Upon the formation of the county of Delaware in 17!)7, "William 
Horton, who had been supervisor since 171);{, was again re-elected 
to that office. The following is his oath of office duly recorded in 
the town clerk's office: 

I, William Hortdii, do solcniiily and siiiccroly iiroiiusc and swear, that I 
will in all thinj^s to tlio best of my knowlodKO and abilities, faithfnlly and 
impartially execute and perform the trust reposed in me as supervisor of the 
town of 0)lchester, In the county of Pelaware, that I will not pass any amount 
or any article theri'of wherewith I shall think the said county is not justly 
chart;oal)le, nor will I disallow any amount or any article thereof wherewith I 
think the said county is justly chargeable. William Hortox. 

The following is from the official records of the towu clerk's 

At a special town meeting held in the town of Colchester, for the purpose 
of dividing said town, convened at the house of Abraham Sprague, on ye 28tb 
of December, 180.5, XTnanimously agree — 

1st. RfMihvd. that the said town be divided. 

•2nd. RixDifi'il. that the line between the two towns cross the Papakunk 
river at the upper end of the liuig (tat that Abrani Sprague now lives on. 

'ird. /f(W)/r<v/. that the bounds be such beginning at the upper end of the 
farm that Al>raham Sprague now lives on where the road crosses the river 
running easterly in a direct line to strike the county line at right angles; 
thence starting from the placi' of begiMiiitig and coiuinuc the same line west- 
erly to the line of Walton. 

4th. ReMolvKil, that William Wheeler. Jonas Lakin and Soldnion Miller lie a 
committee to bring the above resolutions into elTect. 

At the annual towu meeting, March l;i, 18l;J, it was "Resolved, 
that the sum of seventy dollars he raised for the support of 

The following are correct transcripts from the records of the 
town clerk's office: 

Born on the 2Hth of September. 1810, a male child of a black slave to John 
Hitt. Recorded Novemb.'r Kith, IHKi. 

A negro boy ti.uned Tom belonging to Alexamler Cole was three years old 
the fourth of March, lsi:t. 


Born of a black slave iM-longinjj to Alexander Cole, a male cliild named 
Benjamin, born the seeon<l day of January. IslS. Recorded the id day of 
July, 1813. 

Born to a black slave belonging to Alexander Cole, a female child named 
Gin, the twentieth day of January, 181.5. Recorded 13th January, 181(;. 

Born of a black slave belonging to Alexander Cole, a female child named 
Harriet, the twentieth day of Decemlicr, ISlfi. Recorded the 2Kth February, 

The oldest buildiuf,' in the town is tlte l);iru iiow staudiii-,' on 

the Jason Gregory farm at Grej^orytown. It was erected by 

Timothy Gregory in 1789; the original frame is still sound, and the 

building gives promise of standing yet many years. 

William Holliday was the oldest person who ever died in the 

town; his age was Ktl, and he is buried in the old cemetery at 


The town has furnished the following members of the Assembly: 

William Horton, elected 1798; John H. Gregory, elected 1821; 

Hezekiah Elwood, elected 1852; Barna R. Johnson, elected 1859, 

served three terms; Robert Beates, elected 1879; James W. Kuapp, 

elected 1836. 

John H. Gregory was elected Sheriff of the county in 1831. 

William Horton was also one of the Associate Judges of the 

Court of Common Pleas, when that court was first organized in the 

county in 1798. 

David Phelps was one of the six attorneys admitted and sworn, 

at the first session of the Court of Common Pleas in 1798. Phelps 

resided many years in the town, was a man of scholarly attainments, 

and always a true frieud of Colchester. He made an earnest effort 

"to have the county seat located ou the East branch, — a movement 

which was successfully opposed by General Root and others. David 

Phelps died at Deposit, at a ripe age, and in obedience to his wish 

expressed in life his remains were taken back to his l)elov(d town 

of Colchester, where the best of his life had been spent, and he rests 

in the old cemetery at Downsville. Horton and Phelps were the 

leaders of their respective parties for many years in the town of 

Colchester, but Horton's party was far in the ascendancy in the 

TOir.V OF CULCllEsrEH. 317 

town ami c-oimty, and be was houored luauy tinifs with office, while 
Pheljis reiiiaiued in private life. 

At iiiescnt there are six post-oflices iu the towu, Pepaetou, 
Downsville, Colchester, Sliinhopple, Hortou and Butternut Grove. 
The two last named are on the Beaverkill. Downsville was so 
named in honor of Abel Downs. Pepaetou is a corruption of the 
Indian name, Pawpacton, and is live miles up the river from Downs- 
ville. Colchester is the oldest post-office in towu, that having been 
the principal settlement in the town for inauy years; it is two miles 
•lown the river from Downsville. Shiuh()j)j)le is at the mouth of 
Trout brook, five miles below Downsville, and received its uame 
frum the large number of hobble bushes which ^row un the dats iu 
that vicinity. 

Early settlers were accustomed to griud their corn in small 
mills, which by reason of their peculiar construction were called 
tub-mills. Prior to the Revolution William Rose had such a mill at 
the falls on the little brook above Downsville, and it was from this 
that "Tub-mill Brook" received its name. 

Those who have known about shad fishing in the East Inanch 
may be interested in the following extracts from affidavits used in 
178o in the investigation into the title to the laud between the 
branches of the Delaware river: 

Jo.shiia Pine, junior, aged twenty-four years being duly .sworn deposeth 
and saith, that his father having purehasi'd lands in John Walton's Patent, on 
the west side of Cookquago branch of the Delaware river, he, the deponent, 
went with his father to settle there in the month of May in the year 1785 ; that 
sometime in the month of June in the same year the deponent went down the 
I'awpacton, or East branch of the Delaware river, with a canoe, from the 
-■■ttlements at Piiwpactoii to Schehawken ( Hancock), and thence up the West 
branch to Walton's Patent, to the knowledge of any of the settlers, but that 
the shad came up to about Cookhouse ( Deposit;; and also that the people of 
Pawpai-ton told deponent that they had caught thirteen hundred shad the 
year before, at one haul, in Pawiiactoii river ; that deponent never lieard of 
any such quantity being caught in the West branch. 

Peter Dumond also testified: 

That iluring the time he lived on the East branch of Delaware, near 
I'aughkataean i Margaretville i, beginning in 17(13, he frequeiuly lished for 


shad below Papacnuk iluriug tlii'ii' season, as also above the inoutli of the 
Beaverkill, or Whelenaughweniaek, when he caught large quantities of shad. 
This deponent remembers the time when the white people settled at Papaeunk 
caught as iiianj- shad at one fishing, about three miles'below their settlement, 
as served the whole of their families for that season, as this deponent was 

The followiug is a complete list of the supervisors of the 
town, showing the years in which they were elected. Joseph S. 
Bliven was elected at a special town meeting held in Sei^tember, 
1822, iu place of Abel Downs, incapacitated by sickness. Begin- 
ning with 1894, supervisors were elected for two years: William 
Horton, 1793-97; Adam Doll, 1798; Abel Downs, 1799, 18(tl-01, 
1814-22; Roswell Bradley, 1800; Jonas Lakin, ISO,"); Adam I. 
Doll, 1806; Lewis Hait, 1807-10; John Moore, 1811; Anthony 
Lloyd, 1812-13; Joseph S. Bliven, 1822. (To fill vacancy). Ben- 
jamin Pine, 1823-24; George W. Paige, 1825-27; Hezekiah El- 
wood, 1828-29, 1833-34; Charles Knapp, 1830, 1835-3(5; Alexander 
Cole, 1831-32; John H. Gregory, 1837-38; James W. Knapp, 
1839-40, 1845; Rensselaer W. Elwood, 1841, 1844, 1852, 1855-57; 
Barna Radeker, 1842-43; Robert M. Hanmer, 1846-47; "SVilliam 
Holiday, Jr., 1848; Alfred Hunter, 1849, 1853-54; Enoch Horton, 
1850-51; George W. Downs, 1858-59; Alexander Elwood, 1860; 
Elbridge G. Radeker, 1861; "William B. Champlin, 18()2-63, 
1865-68; Edwin D. Wagner, 1864; E. L. Holmes, 1869; Edwin 
H. Downs, 1870-71; Alston W. Hnlbert, 1872-73; William H. 
Hitt, 1874; George P. Bassett, 1875-77; David Anderson, 1878; 
Charles L. Elwood, 1879-80; Charles K. Hubliell, 1881-82; 
James M. Radeker, 1883 85; Milo C. Radeker, 1886; J. Arthur 
Montgomery, 1887; Charles S. Elwood, 1888; Charles E. Hulbert, 
1889-90; Frank W. Hartinau, 1891-92; Henry J. Williams, 1893- 
94; Edward T. Smith, 189(!i)7. 


Prior to 1766, the date of the first settlement, the Pawpac- 
ton valley was the home of the Wappinger Indians, and within 
the territory that is now the town of Colchester were two 

Village of Arena. 

rii.-redj and YiciriHy. 

TUWy OF a)Hlii:sTEI{. y21 

Iiiiliiin villaj^es. riiwpaetou auil P!i])aif()uck, the .former located on 
the riat near the nioutb of Cole's Clove, the latter is believed 
to liave beeu located on tlu' westerly side of the river about 
two or three miles lielow Dowusville. but it seems the ludiaus 
bad ceased to make their home in tliis vicinity before the white- 
Ncttlei's came. 

Soon after the commencement of the war the Indians, whose 
headquarters at that time were on the Ouleout, began to liarasa 
and worry these settlei's, and encouraged by the tories, they 
erected a kind of fort on middle hill, on the westerly side of the 
river, about two miles below Downsville, which they made their 
iieadquarters while committing their depredations. About the 
year 177S an incident occurred that compelled these settlers to 
abandon their homes along the East Branch and seek safety 
within the American lines on the Hudson River. The Indians- 
liad captured two patriot scouts, who, in charge of three Indians,, 
were being taken to the Canadian line, their iian<ls being securel,y 
tied with strong thongs. One night while the Indians slept, a 
jirisoner, whose name was Anderson, discovered that one of the 
Indians had partially turned over in his sleep and uncovei-ed 
his tomahawk. ( On such occasionsi the Indian always slept on 
liis tomahawk ). Anderson carefully rolled himself over until ht^- 
reached the uncovered tomahawk, and with it rolled awaj' again. 
With the aid of the tomahawk he managed to cut the thongs 
that bound him and was soon free. He ere])t to where his com- 
panion lay and awoke him, and (piickly cut the thongs with 
which he was bound, and giving his co]n))aiiioii the tomahawk 
instructed him to kill the Indian to whom it Ix'longed at a signal 
from .\ndersou. Anderson then went stealthily to the other two 
Indians and succeeded in ol)taining his tomahawk from one of 
the Indians without waking him. Anderson's companion weakened 
and did not want to kill the Indians, claiming it would be safer 
to make their escape and leave the Indians sleeping, but Ander- 
son, who was a firm believer in the adage that " There is no. 


f;'00(l luiliiiu but a ileail ludiau, " was determiucd to carry out 
his purpose and insisted that bis compauiou should kill one 
while be killed the t)ther two. At the si<>ual from Anderson 
each buried his tomahawk in the head of au Indian, and like & 
flash and before the third Indian could sirring to his feet, al- 
though he was awakened by the noise, Anderson's toiuahawk 
again descended and this Indian followed his companions to the 
liajipy liuuting ground. The men then took the corn which the 
Indians had with them and started east. The main body of In- 
dians in that vicinity almost immediately discovered their dead 
companions, and set out ujion the trail of the scouts. They 
knew the two men could never reach the Hudson without aid 
from the white settlers; that without such aid they must subsist 
upon the little corn they took from the Indians and the roots 
they might dig. The Indians therefore sent swift runners ahead 
and informed the settlers that whoever harbored, aided or fed 
these men would be killed by slow torture. Among the settlers 
thus warned were those re.siding in Pawpacton. Anderson and 
his companion succeeded in reaching the East Branch, and from 
the top of the high mountain below Downsville they looked down 
upon the log cabin of Timothy Gregory. They waited till night 
and under cover of the darkness they descended and crossed the 
river and went near the house of Gregory. Fearing that the 
inhabitant of this house might be a tory they dare not knock 
at the door, but lay down by the side of the path that led from 
the house to the spring, and soon Mrs. Gregory came towards 
the spring for water, and Anderson cautiously accosted her and 
told their story. She informed her husband. The two men were 
nearly dead from hunger and exhaustion. Gregory acquainted 
the men with the terrible threat of the Indians against anyone 
who should aid them, and told them it would be unsafe to 
conceal them in the house. He brought thein food, and then 
directed them down the river about three miles and hid them 
in the rocks on the mountain between the river and Fuller Hill. 

T(nv.\ (JF CiJl.rUKSTKH. ;-{23 

Here tliev reumiued concealed aliout oue week, Gref^orv liriug- 
iug food to them iu the iiif^lit time, and when thej" had saiu*"'! 
sufficient strenp'th, early oue morning before it was lipht, he 
directed thcni ti> the line between Lots tive and six of the Hiir- 
deubergh Patent, which line strikes the river near Gregorytowu, 
and. runs east to the Hudson, and aloug the line of blazed trees 
they set out for the east and reached the Hudson in safety. 
The mountain on which these men were concealed is known tn 
this day as ••Anderson's mountain." Soon after leavinj;- these 
men at the line menticmed, (iregory met three Indians, and they 
inquired of him why he was so far from home at that early 
hour. He tuld them he liad come down with his dog and gun 
to see if he could start a deer — that they freijueuted the river 
at that place iu the early morning. But the Indians were sus 
j)iciaus that all was not right and they (juestioued him closely 
as to whether he had seen the two white men, whom they 
described. Fortunately, while they were talking, Gregory's dog 
Ijegau barking, and a large deer dashed down the hill into the 
river, which Gregory shot and killed, and which he divided 
lil)erally with the Indians. This completely allayed the suspicious 
of the Indians, and they believed that Gregory had told the 
truth as ti) his business there at that early hour. The Indians 
soon learned that Anderson and his companion had reached the 
Hudson. They had succeeded in following their trail to the 
vicinity of the Colchester settlement, and knew the scouts had 
received aid from someone there, though everyone denied having 
any knowledge of the matter. A council was held and the In- 
dians decided to reek a terrible vengeance upon these settlers 
unless they could learn who the guilty jiarties were. Their plan 
was to begin at Frederick Miller's, the farthest u]i tlic river, 
and take every mend)er of the family ti) the next house below, 
and so on, taking every member of the family to the next house 
below, and at each house they were to give the settlers an op- 
portunity to divulge the names of the persons who had given 


aid to Autlersou iiuil his frieud, ;iud wlieu they roiiclifd the lust 
house, that of Timothy Gregory, if they coukl uot obtain the 
required iuformatiou, tliey would theu massacre every iiiaii. 
womau aud child. A friendly Indian informed the settlers of 
this ])lau aud they lost no time in seeking safety in the eastern 
settlements. It was in the fall of the year, and a part of the 
corn had been cut aud stacked. This the settlers burned, and 
destroyed what of their other crojjs they could. Their cooking 
utensils and tools aud iron ware they l)uried, or sunk in the 
river and binuekillp, aud along the Hue of blazed trees between 
Lots five and six they started for the Hudson. They had left 
none too soon, for on the second day of their journey they were 
overtaken by an Indian's dog, (They knew it was an Indian's 
dog by its being closely cropped, as was the Indian custom )-, 
aud that night they sent the women and children some distance 
from the line, and the men lay in ambush and waited for the 
approach of the Indians, who they felt certain were on their 
trail. But morning dawned and no Indians had been seen. 
They then resumed their journey and reached the Hudson in 
safety. The next spring a few of the men ventured back to see 
their homes. They found that some of the houses had been 
burned, that the Indiaus had gathered what corn had not been 
destroyed, and had wintered in the little ravine or gulf about 
two miles below Dowusville on the west side of the river, and 
directly back of the residence of C. A. "Warren. 

In 1779, shortly after the battle of the Miuisink, two scouts were 
employed, Bowker aud Osterhout, to watch the East branch of the 
Delaware and report if auy Indians came up the river. It was 
thought that if Brant sent a detachment against the Susquehanna 
settlement they would probably take that route. These men were 
to receive a bushel of wheat each for their services. They took up 
a position on the poiut of land between the East branch and. 
Beaverkill, and on the second day after their arrival, they saw a 
band of Indiaus coming up the river in cauoes. They remained 

roir.v OF ciii.<ni:sri:i;. 325 

loufj euou',''h to make an fstiiimtc of the iiuhiImt of Iiuliiuis. and 
theu started iij) the Beaverkill, wliicli tlicv t'rcinioiitly crossed, iu 
(inler to render it dittieidt for the Indians to pu'.sue them iu ease 
their <-ani|i at tlie point sliouhl he disroverecl. Tlie Indians hmded 
at the phiee where the scouts had been eucanijied, and lost no time 
iu seudiufi' a small detachmeut iu jmrsuit. Xotwithstaudiuji- the 
precautious of the meu tliey were overtaken aud captured while 
crossiuf^ the AVillowemock rivei'. But thev succeeded in making 
their escape aud carried the news to the eastern settlements. 
Ahout thirty soldiers were immediately sent to aid iu proteetiujif 
the settlement upon the Susquehanna. They struck the head 
waters of the East brauch aud descended that river. WJien near 
PejiaetoH their scouts informed them that Indians were eueamped a 
siiort distance down the river, and uot wishing to encounter them, 
tliey turned up Cole's Clove, crossed the notch iu the mountains 
and descended Downs' brook which empties iu the river at Dowus- 
ville. 'W'heu tlie soldiers were about where the village now stands, 
.they suihleuly came upon the Indians aud were received with .a 
volley. The soldiers deployed aud scattered among the heavy 
timbers on the mountain side, aud then the battle began iu true 
ludian fashion, every one for himself, shielding himself behind 
trees, or rocks as l)est he could. The Indians were about the same 
iu numbers as the whites. The battle lasted from five o'clock in the 
afternoon until night. When darkness came all was silent. Iu the 
luorning the soldiers found that the Indians had abandoned the 
field, but had left four of their dead behind. The soldiers buried 
their own dea<l in that vicinity, but the exact spot is not known. 
They theu proceeded on tlieir way to the .Susquehanna. 


Vjx Walter .Scott. 

THE westward iiiiirch of civilizatiim probably had not reached 
the territory embraced in the present town of Davenport 
prior to the Revolutionary wai\ The frontier of New York being 
exposed to the depredations of a race of savages more fierce and 
warlike than those inhabiting any other state, of com-se no settle- 
ments were made dining the time of that struggle. But as soon as 
peace was established, the " Star of Empire " resumed its westward 
course, and .is early as 1786, the enterprising pioneer had made his 
way into the Charlotte valley. 

An old publication states that the first settlers were Daniel 

Farnsworth and Pross, who settled at Davenport Centre. But 

they could not have much jjreceded Daniel Olmstead, who settled 
on the farm now occupied by the widow of Chauncey Olmstead, for 
Mr. Alexander Shellman informs me that his grandfather settled 
near the old Emmons hotel, three miles east of Oneonta, about 1790, 
and that in making the journey to Schoharie, the Olmstead settle- 
ment was the first one passed. The orchard on that farm is said to 
be the oldest in town. Mr. Shellman says that for several years it 
was the custom in his grandfather's family to make j)eriodie trips 
on horseback, along the Indian foot jiath to the nearest grist mill, 
which was at Schoharie, to have grinding done for the family. As 
the family consisted of twelve persons and the grist was only about 
one and one-half bushels the interval between ti-ips could not have 
been very long. 

Among the other early settlers were Humphrey Denend, Har- 
mon Moore, George Webster, Elisha Orr and a Mr. VanTalkenbiirg, 
whose given name I have been unable to learn. The first physician 


■nnvx OF iiAVKxronr. 32!) 

was Dauiel Fuller, who settled in the towu iibout IT'.Ki. 'I'lic tivst 
mill tliim built iu the towu was across the MiiliUehrook at the site 
uow oeeuj)ied by J. T. Yerilou, a saw mill and f^rist mill was orectcd 
there about 17!)8, Dauiel Preutice beiuj^' the builder. 

The first marriage takiu^- phice in the town wiis that of Hiuiiiou 
Moore aud ^larv Orr, iu ITlll. Miss Orr was a distaut relative of 
Robert J. Orr, uow a resideut of West Davenport. The youu^' 
eouple weut to housekeeping- iu a log house ou the site of a frame 
house now owued by C'haiiucey Houghtaliug. The latter house 
replaced the log t)uc about sixty years ago. Mrs. ]\[oorc was also 
the first adult to die iu towu, as one of her childreu had beeu the 
first person. Richard Moore aud a IMiss Bauker were also married 
ou the same day as Harmou Moore. Hauuah Dodge was the first 
school teacher. Dauiel Prentice was the first iuu keej)er and Ezra 
Deneud the first store keeper. 

The old ludiau trail from the earlier settlemeuts at Schoharie 
aud Harpersfield to those upou the Husi|uehauua, leading along the 
Charlotte, must have been the scene of many an encounter between 
the pale faced scout of the Revolution and his dusky foes. It often 
served as a war-path for the uoted Timothy Murjihy, whose 
descendants still live in town. But at this late day, it is impossible 
in the limited time at my disposal to separate facts from fiction 
concerning some of the incidents which occurred in the Charlotte 
valley during the Colonial period, and the early days of the 

The march of Colonel Harper ou the occasion of his capture of a 
banil i>f fifteen Tndiaus, was through the town of Davenport, aud 
the capture itself occurred within gunshot of its bonier. The facts 
as to the event were given by Colonel Harpei', himself, to Rev. Mr. 
Fenu, late of Harpersfield, who narrates them as follows: In the 
year 1777 Colonel Harper had command of the fort in Schoharie, 
and came out through the woods to Harpersfield iu the time of 
making sugar, and from thence laid his course for Cherry Valley to 
investigate the state of things there, aud as he was jiursuing a blind 


liiud of Indian trail ami was aseeudiug what are now called the 
Decatur Hills, he cast his eye forward and saw a comjDauy of men 
•comingf directly toward him, who had the appearance of l)eiug 
Indians. He knew that if he attempted to tiee from them they 
would shoot him down; he resolved to advance right uji to them, 
and make the best shift for himself he could. As soon as he came 
near enough to discern the white of their eyes, he knew the head 
man and several others; the head man was Peter, an Indian with 
whom Colonel Harper had often traded at Oquago, before the 
Revolution began. The Colonel had his great coat on, so his 
regimentals were concealed, and he was not recognized. The first 
word of address on Colonel Harper's part was, " How do you do, 
brother?" The reply was, "Well. How do you do, brother? 
Which way are you bound, brother V " '-On a secret expedition. 
And which way are you bound, brother ? " " Down the Susque- 
hanna to cut o& the Johnstone settlement." (Parson Johnstone and 
.a number of Scotch families had settled down the Susquehanna at 
what is now called Sidney Plains, and those were the people whom 
thej' were about to destroy.) Says the Colonel, "Where do you 
lodge to-night?" " At the mouth of the Scheneva's creek," was the 
reply. Then shaking hands with them, he bade them good sjieed 
and proceeded on his journej'. 

He had gone but a little way from them before he took a circuit 
through the woods, a distance of eight or ten miles, to the head of 
the Charlotte river, where were a number of men making sugar; 
ordered them to take their arms, two days' provision, a canteen of 
rum and a rope, and meet him down the Charlotte, at a small 
e-learing called Evans' place at a certain hour that afternoon. Then 
he rode with all speed through the woods to Harperslield, collected 
.all the men who were making maple sugar, and being armed and 
victualed, with each man his rope, laid his course for the Charlotte. 
When he arrived at Evans' place, he found the Charlotte men there 
in good spirits, and when he mustered his men, there were fifteen, 
including himself, exactly the same number as there were of the 

v^'-.v- sr. 

Village of Daveriport Ceqter. 

Village of West Daveriport. 

ToW.y OF DAVK.XrilUr. 8HS 

■eueiuy; tbcu tlic Colouel luinlc his iiicu :ic(|u:iiiit('(l with liis 

Tbev iiiiu-i'hcil ilown the river a little distiiiice, :ui<l then licnt 
their i-iuirse across the hill to the mouth of the Seheuevus creek, 
auil wbeu thej' arrived at the brow of the bill, where they could 
overlook the valley, where the Seheuevus flows, they cast their eyes 
down upon the flat aud discovered the fire around which the eueni_v 
lay encamped. '-There they are," said Colonel Harper. They 
descended with j^reat stillness, forded the creek, which was breast 
deeji. .\fter advaucin;^' a few hundred yards, they took some 
refreshments, and then prepared for the contest — daylight was just 
lieginuinfi; to appear in the east. "When they came to the enemy, 
they lay in a circle with their feet toward the tire, in a ileep sleep. 
Their arms, and all their implements of death, were stacked up 
according to the Indian custom, when they lay themselves down for 
the night. These the Colonel secured by carrying them ofif a 
distance, and laying them down; then each num taking his rope in 
hand, placed himself by his fellow. The Colonel rapped bis man 
softly and said: " Come, it is time for men of business to lie on 
their way," and then each one sprang upon his man, and after a 
severe struggle, they secured the whole number of the enemy. 
After they were all safely bound, and as the morning had so far 
advanced that they could discover objects distinctly, the Indian, 
Peter, exclaimed, " Ha ! Colonel Harper, I know thee now — Why did 
I not know thee yesterday?" The Colouel marched the men to 
.\lbauy, delivered them up to the commanding officer there, aud by 
this bold and well executed feat of valor he saved the whole Scotch 
settlement from wanton destruction. 

Among the incidents of pioneer lite whiih occurred within the 

town of Davenport, and which have probably never appeared in 

print, I will mention: On one occasion a deer being chased bv a 

small dog, uear where E. F. Sherman now resides, ran on to a field 

of ice anil slid down against the house of Peter Shellmau, who then 

resided there. Mrs. Shellman went out, and before the deer could 


regain its fodtiiij^- she killed it witli an ax. A little Dutch j^irl who 
resided ou the top of the iiiouutaiu just south of West Davenport, 
while playing near the house, made the acquaintance of two little 
animals who were as full of play as she was, and all three enjoyed 
themselves immensely. When the j^irl's mother found the f^irl she 
recognized in the new-found playmates two bear cubs ! That hap- 
pened about the beginning of the present century. The girl lived 
until the present decade. If the cubs' parents had discovered the 
newly made acquaintanceship before the girl's jiarents did, it is 
bearhj possible that some other historian might have been selected 
to write this sketch, as the girl lived to be the grandmother of the 
present writer. 

The greater part of the town of Davenjjort was embraced in a 
tract of 2(1,000 acres granted to Sir William Johnson, the Indian 
Superintendent of the British Government. Sir William was a man 
of superior talents and of great executive ability, and was much 
respected by all who knew him. It is thought by some that at 
heart he was friendly to the American cause; but believed that his 
allegiance belonged to the British crown, and it was asserted that 
he ended his own life to avoid the struggle in his mind between his 
inclination and what he conceived to be his duty. His estate 
descended to his children, all of whom were Tories, and it is said 
that their patent was the only portion of Delaware county which 
was confiscated for disloyalty of its owners, during the Revolution- 
ary war. I have not had the time since I was assigned the duty of 
writing this history to trace the chain of title from the Johnsons to 
the settlers; but in the earlier deeds of laud iu the patent, the name 
of "John Jacob Astor, Merchant, of New York City," frequently 
appears among the grantors. Later, the patent came into the con- 
trol of Peter Smith, and after him, his sou Gerrit Smith, the 
celebrated Abolitionist. 

The present town was formed from parts of Kortright aud 
Maryland, on the 81st day of March, 1S17. The law was passed 
during the four months that John Tavlor acted as governor, Isaac 


();,'<leu lit thiit time representing the county of Delaware in tlio 
Senate and ^lartiii Keelcr uiiil Asahel K. Paine in the Assembly. 
The town was named in honor of John Davenport, who became the 
first Sujiervisor. A portion of the town was annexed to Mex-edith 
in 1S7S. Among the noted institutions of by-gone days was the 
Kergusonville Academy, founded in 1S4S, by Kevs. Samuel D. and 
Sanford I. Ferguson. It afterwards came uuder the management 
of Hon. James Oliver, who had previously been a preceptor of Jay 
Gould's. This was one of the last schools to succumb to the com- 
petition of schools suijported by the public. 

The poi)ulation of Davenport is perha|)s more cosniupolitan 
than that of any other town in the county. Representatives of 
many nations have settled here and amalgamated, and the result 
is a good specimen of the true American race. Many of her 
sons have risen to eminence; but I refrain from meutioniug their 
names lest I lie accused of partiality, thi-ough the accidental 
omission of some names that should be mentioned. 

Geographically Davenport is a long and narrow town, lying 
in and along the two sides of the Charlotte valley. The soil is 
of a chocolate colored clay loam, resembling that of Otsego 
county more than it does that of a great portion of Delaware 
county. The scenery is unsurpassed for beauty and grandeur. 
Sexsmith lake, a body of water shaded on one side by n virgin 
forest, is one of the most beautiful sheets of water in the world. 
Strader or Goodrich lake at Davenport Centime is another beautiful 
sheet, smaller but more accessible and perhaps better known 
than Scxsmith's. The Charlotte river affords excellent water 

When the Albany and Susquehanna railroad was first pro- 
jected it was designed to run through the Charlotte valley; but 
it was diverted to one side, mainly through the influence of 
Judge Westover, a large landowner of Kichmondville. Then other 
roads began to be built (m other sides, and until recently Dav- 
enport was left without any "f the modern facilities for trans- 


j)ort!iti()U. Still it was tar fiDiii bcfumiuj^' the least prosperous 
town in the county. As it lay in the natural line of travel 
Ix'tweeu the Hudson and the west in the a^c of the Indian 
trail and of the turnpike, it is no less in the natural line in the 
ape of railroads. Let us hope that the natural advantafjes will 
soon be utilized by the continuation of a railroad to tide-water. 
Then, with adequate facilities for exercise the natural intelligence 
and enterprise of the inhabitants will show themselves in the 
renewed prosperity of the town, and I have no doubt that 

Cast in some diviner niDuld 

The new cycle will shame the old. 

At the first town meeting, in April, 1S17, John Davenport was 
elected suiservisor, and Seth Goodrich town clerk. The sulise- 
quent supervisors have been, Jesse Booth, Gains Northway, John 
M. Ten Eyck, Carlton Emmons, Abijah Paine, Thompson Paine, 
Benjamin Parker, David Morrill, Zebulon E. Goodrich, Morton 
B. Emmons, William Simson, jr., Henry Ten Eyck, Geo. C. Paine, 
George W. Goodrich, Cornelius Miller, Sanford I. Ferguson, 
Aaron Ford, D. M. Dibble, William F. Ford, John Hitchcock, 
William McDonald, Jacob E. Norwood, J. George Lockwood, 
James M. Donnelly, George W. Crawford, John L. Beardsley, Elbert 
A. Tabor, Henry S. Wickham and Gilbert T. Scott. 

The population of the town in 1840 was 2,052, and has varied 
but little since that time. Davenport, formerly East Davenport, 
is the largest village. The others are Davenport Centre, West 
Davenjoort and Fergusonville. There is a Methodist Episcopal 
organization in each village and a United Presbyterian congre- 
gation at Davenport. 

The first newspaper was established in 1877 hy Marcus M. 
Multer, and afterwards owned by Edward O'Connor. Later it 
was called the Transcript and edited by Amasa J. Champion. 
It was discontinued and the Standard was established by Charles 
S. Hitchcock. 

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Vj'i John \. I'cir.slviU. 

DELHI, the eij^lith town foniuil in tliis county, w;is organized 
^lan-li 'I'.i. IT'.IS, iuul was taken fniui Midilletowu, Kort- 
rij,'Iit aiid Walton. A part was taken therffroni in 1<S20, to form 
Boviua, and a jjortiou therefrom to form Hamileu, 1825. How 
it came to be called Delhi has been often told, and it is not 
necessary to repeat it here. The officers designated to locate 
the Court House and gaol provided that they shall not be erected 
at a greater distance than two miles from the mouth of the 
Little Delaware. 

Previous to the location of the county buildings there were 
but few settlements, the largest one being just below the village, 
the next one on the corporate bounds of the now village, and 
the thii-d in size a little above the village, where Gideon Frisbee 
first settled, and where the first courts were held, before the 
county buildings were erected. 

June IK, 1812, it was enacted "that it sjiall be lawful for 
the comrs. of excise in and for the town of Delhi, in their dis- 
cretion, to authorize an inn or tavern to be kept in the building 
occupied as the jail of the county of Delaware." 

I have heard (ien. Paiue allude to it. and think he stated 
tliat the jailer generally had the bar therein. 

At Sherwood's bridge at one time there was a tannery, sad- 
lUe and harness shop, a trip hammer and one or two other 
industries, and I have been told there was a store there. Sher- 
wood and Parker had a law oflice there, and at one time were 
the leading lawyers in the town. 

Among the first settlers in the town were Gideon Frisbee, 



Thomas Farriugtou, B. Tendes, J. Deuio, George Fisher, Jnhu, 
Francis aud Levi Baxter. The first birth was that of Huhlah, 
daughter of Gideou Frisbee, Juue 14, 1787; the first marriage 
that of Philip Frisbee and Jerusha Harmon, 1791; the first death 
of an adult that of Dr. Philip Frisbee, 1797. 

The Sherwood place has Ijeeu in the uninterrupted possession 
of the familj' since 1801. The main part of the building was 
erected in 1804, aud there Mr. Sherwood had his law office 
until his removal to New York in 18S1, aud until his death, 
October, 1862, speut every summer at the old family mansion. 
Many and many are the gay parties that have been held in that 
venerable old mansion. The same may truly be said of the old 
mansion erected by Judge Foote, a short distance below aud on 
the opf)Osite side of the river, and in the early days of the present 
century many distinguished guests have been entertained by each 
in their hospitable homes. Probably there are but few premises 
of land in this town that have been- held in the uninterrupted 
possession of the same family for over ninety-six years, as in the 
Sherwood family. 

Robert J. Blair states that his farm on Scotch Mountain was 
occupied first by his grandfather in 1803 or 1804, aud so on dowu 
to its present owner. 

Col. Aniasa Parker bad a dwelling house near Mr. Sherwood, 
and it is still known as the Parker House. 

Early in the present century the village began to be settled 
>)y business men, lawyers, merchants aud mechanics of all kiuds, 
attracted here, as lieing the county seat. Among them were 
Gen. Root, Gen. Leavenworth, Dr. A. E. Paine and many others 
who became prominent men in its affairs. Of her residents eleven 
were elected to Congress, aggregating thirty years; one Lieut. 
Gov. two years; Sjjeaker of the Assembly three years; State Sen- 
ators twenty years; Members of Assembly aggregating nearly 
thirty years, and a Justice of the Supreme Court about twenty 
years, and many other ofiices which it is uuueces.sary here to 

TOWS or DELHI. 341 

Delhi has si'iit out iuto the diflFereut couuties of the State, aud 
iuto viirioiis states, iiieu who have lichl iiii|ii)itaiit places in the 
various positions of life — eminent clergymen, lawyers and med- 
ical men, bankers, etc. 

The first church erected in the town of Delhi stood just below 
.Sherwood's brid-^'e on the opjwsite side of the river, and was 
built in 1811. Rev. E. K. ilaxwell was pastor thereof twenty- 
eif,''ht years. The tirst child baptized by him is still living in this 
town. This is now the First Presbyterian church, a now building 
being erected in the village in 1881. The tirst chui-ch built in the 
village was St. John's church. In the Gazette of July l-t, 1S3() the 
following notice appears: 

Notice. — The inhahitants of Delhi and adjoining towns are respectfully 
invited to assist in raising the Church in this village on Tuesday, the '20th 
inst., at 9 in the morning. The frame is heavy, and will require 100 good 
hands to put up the main body. The frame will be put together on Monda\', 
which will reiiuire forty hands. E. Steele, 

C. r>. Sheldox, 
N. Hathaway, 
Delhi. July 14th, 1830. Trustees. 

In the Gazette of the next week it is stated that the building 
■was raised without furnishing any ardent spirits, which is the first 
instance, it is believed, of a public building being raised upon cold 
water principles. The Second Presbyterian edifice was erected in 
1831, the Methodist in 1841, and the Bai)tist in lS-t4. 

The Christian church at Fitch's bridge was built aljout 1816, 
the 'West Delhi United Presbyterian church was organized in 1841. 

The Catholics have never had a church here. After the Village 
Hall was placed in its present location, they occasionally held 
services therein; now they have a very neat little room over Brady's 
meat market. 

The first fire company organized in the village of Delhi, or in 
the county of Delaware, was on the 1st of August, 1821, composed 
of Ebenezer Steele, Captain; Herman D. Gould, Noadiah Johnson, 
<'hai-les Hathaway, Nathaniel Hathaway, O. S. Decker, Selah R. 

342 msTony of delawahk couxty. 

Hobble, John J. Lappon, Caleb Tlmrber, Homer R. Phelps, David 
Newcomb, Abner G. Thvirber aud Elijah H. Roberts; appointed by 
Erastus Root, president, aud G. H. Ed{i;erton, clerk. 

Of the above members, three in after years were elected Mem- 
bers of Congress from this county. 

The first hand engine was the old I'hu^uix, which was bought in 
New York in the spring of 1832. The Cataract engine was bought 
in IS-tO, I think, by private subscription, aud was known as the " up 
street " engine. 

I cannot omit to mention " Corporal Trim," a somewhat promi- 
nent character in Delhi fifty or sixty years ago. C. E. Wright, who 
learned his trade in the Gazette office, thus alludes to him: "Of 
course many of your peoj^le will remember 'Corjjoral Trim," as he 
was styled, a colored servant, or body guard of General Leaven- 
worth. Long after Trim had left the service of his master, he loved 
to tell to a company of listeners, when his tongue was well lubrica- 
ted by a few potions of old rye, of his fright when the General 
ordered him during the battle of Chippewa or Niagara Falls, I 
don't remember which, to wipe with a tuft of grass the brains of a 
man that had been sprinkled upon the saddle of his horse, a cannon 
ball having taken off the owner's head, all in view of the 'Corporal.' 
Of course Trim obeyed, but the 'hair of his head stood on end like 
quills upon the fretful porcupine,' and he was i^ale even to white- 
ness. According to his own story, the close of the battle found the 
redoubtable ' Corporal ' snugly euscoused under the lowest layer of 
a rail fence, whither he had crawled for safety. It was a rare treat 
to hear this quaint character relate these with many others of his- 

A kind Providence has not blessed our little town with any 
celebrated mineral spring to make us a great summer resort; but 
up Elk Creek, from our earliest settlement, there has been a salt 
spring from which a fine quality of salt has been obtained, and in 
the Gazette of April, 1832, reference is made thereto, and also hy 
W. W. Mather, State Geolooist, in 1840. 

County House ar\d Farrqat lt\e left. 

Kir)gsior\ Street Bridge. 

Towx OF DELHI. :^45 

III Marcli, ISCi.'j, a stock coiiiiiuiiy was fonucil. kuowu as the Ell; 
("reek Salt and Petroleum Company. The capital stock thei-eof was 
$3()(),0()(). !Si)ou thereafter work was heg-uu, ami after spcmlint;- a 
few thousaml dollars work was ahaudoiied. 

But a munificeut Providence has favored us with ilivcrsitied hills 
aud valleys upon which f^'raze many choice herds of cattle, cool aud 
refreshiuff si)riuf,'s, and thereby we are eual)led to manufacture as 
tine a qiuilitv of l)utter as any other county in the State. Soi'ie 
years aj^o a lady of this town made a small ])ackage of butter that 
took the first premium in Loudon. l'rol)ul)ly this same lady, and 
others in the town, coidd have sent a packaj^e of butter to Queen 
Victoria on her sixtieth anniversary, for her dinner on that cele- 
livatcd Occasion, and that she and all the memVters of the royal 
family would have awarded the ///•.-./ premium to the tine sani])li' 
from Delhi. All honor and praise to the fair maids and matrons 
who make our far-famed Delaware county butter. 

Of the various industries carried on in this town from time to 
time, I think there was never a distillery for the manufacture of 
whiskey. A few years ago there was a still at the Fall Mills for the 
manufacture of cider brandy. 

In the generation or so past the games in vogue were playing 
of ball, pitching of quoits, etc., aud many a game has taken place 
between town and town, and often at "The Hook," and Delhi had 
some crack players. Xeitlier should the game of checki'rs be omit- 
ted. At one time we had a place here called "Checkerville," 
situated somewhere up the Little Delaware, and in those days 
no barroom was considered complete without a checker board 

A "s(piiiiel hunt" was one of tlie sports in the days past. 
(Generally in June the boys and older men chose sides and hunted a 
day for wild game, aud at a given time and place met and counted 
the game, and the defeated party paid for the supjjer — and some- 
times great dexterity was displayed in stealing game from side to^ 


Ill those days Thanksffiviupj was uot considered ])ropei'l_v 
observed unless a shootiuf>- match was <,'otteu up in wiiich the 
■crack shots of the town were present. Rare sport indeed it was. 
General Training, too, was one of the events eagerly waited for. 
The Fourth of July and General Training- were the only holidays 
in the land fifty or sixty years ago. 

It would be impossible here to give the names of the Kevolu- 
tionary soldiers now reposing in the dirtereut cemeteries of the 
town, and the soldiers of the war of 1812, the Seminole war, or the 
jNIexican war. 

When the post-office was first established in Delhi, I am uualtle 
to state. A few years ago I wrote to the Post-office Department at 
Washington and learned that the original records were destroyed 
by tire. The first records on tile were October 1, ISOI, when 
Erastus Root was postmaster. Until within a year or so past there 
has been but one post-office in the town of Delhi. 

The first Temperance Society formed in the town was in Jan- 
uary, 1829, Dr. Ebeuezer Steele, President. At the annual meeting 
of the Delaware County Society in 1831, Levinus Munson, Amasa J. 
Parker and Charles Hathaway were appointed delegates to the State 

The first common school record I can find is in December, 1812. 
Ambrose Bryan, Erastus Root and Asahel E. Paine were chosen 
trustees, and R. Deuio, collector. 

As early as 1788 there was said to be a saw mill in this town, 
iind fifty or sixty years ago there was scarcely a brook in the town 
but what one or more saw mills were located thereon, and rafting 
was one of the events every sjjring. Today there are but two or 
three mills in town run by the old water wheel, and if the first man 
who sawed logs in Delhi in 1788, could be transferred for a moment 
to the Crawfords & Adee mills, what would be his amazement; and 
then pass along our streets, see the railroad, telegraph and tele- 
phone poles, our electric lights, hundreds of bicycles, upon which 
are ladies and gentlemen, lioys and girls, propelling themselves at 

voir.v Oh' itKi.iii. -.iij 

tbe nite i)f ii mile iu six to ten luiuutes, tlu'U tiiily would he say: 
""Lo, this only have I found, that (rod hntli made inau uj)rip^lit; Init 
they have sou^dit out many inventions." And then, too, what would 
uncle .lohu Hunt say to see buildinj^s moved without ox teams? 

At the time this county was formed slavery was lej^alized in 
this state, and a few slaves were held in this town. A distiu- 
■ruished Representative iu the Legislature iu this State from this 
viUage. raised his voice iu advocacy of its repeal and voted therefor. 

At the beginning of the present century thei'e were but six- 
teen states in the Union, w'ith a population of scarcely 5,000, 0(H), 
and our borders of civilization scarcely reached out to the Ohio, 
an<l wli; re now stands the city of Chicago, probal)ly the foot of 
white luan had never trod. Xow Chicago is the second city iu 
size in the United States, and its first JFayor was a J)elawiire 
county boy. 

The first l)urial ground in the town was jn-obalily that on 
Judge Frisliee's place, just above the village, where the Frisbees, 
Farringtons, Fitchs and other early settlers were buried, and 

'•Where hcave.s the turf iu many a niouldciini; lieap. 
Each in his uariow cell forever laid. 

The niile fnrcfathers of the hamlet slei'|i." 

The first assessment roll of the town was in May, 1798, and 
contains 1"25 names — the largest assessment was that of Gideon 
Frisbee, $'2-2(i.-2r); total value, $7,8r):5.i;t. Alex. Leal, Gideon Fris- 
bee, W'm. Cornell and Elijah Beardsley were the assessors. 

The first town meeting was i-eijuired to be held at the house 
of Levi Baxter. Ebenezer Foote was the first Supervisor, but 
the other officers elected I am unable to give, as the town rec- 
ords for many years after its organization are missing. 

Those who have entered the U. S. naval service frou) this town, 
(natives) are Charles S. Root, (son of Gen. E. Root.) who died 
on board the F. S. ship Hudson, as midshipman, iu the harbor 
of Rio Janeiro, December H, 1828, aged 111 years. Buiieil in the 
Protestant cemeterv in that citv. \\"m. K. \\'lieeler. Lieut. Com- 


uiaucler of the U. S. luivv, (lied at sea March 14, ls7(), hiiried at 
Cxaboo, West Africa. His remains were afterwanls I nought to 
this viUage ami phicetl iu Woodhiud cemetery. 

Ill the U. S. Army, Capt. lleusselaer W. Foote, litli lufautry, 
jiai'ticipated in the Seminole war; killed at the battle of (iaines 
Mills, before Richmond, June '11, 18(52. 

AVm. Root was in the regular service as a commissioned officer, 
and at the breaking out of the Mexican war resigned, and died 
September 21, 1874, aged 61 years. 

Frederick Steele was a graduate of West Point, and was iu 
the Mexican war and participated in many engagements; was 
meritoriously mentioned for distinguished bravery, and was pro- 
moted. In the war of the Rebellion he had important commands, 
and was made a General in command of all the cavalry in the 
Department of Missouri. He died iu California, January, 18(>5, 
aged 49 years. 

Intimately interwoven with the history of Delhi, are its news- 
papers, and a brief recital of each, which from time to time has 
been p)ublished in the village, is necessarily proper in this sketch, 

The first pajier published in Delhi, or iu the county of Dela- 
ware, was the Delaware Gazette, issued November 18, 1819, John 
J. Lappon editor and proprietor. On the 23d of April, 1822,. 
David Johnson became its j)roprietor and continued as such un- 
til March, 1833, when Anthony M. Paine and Jacob D. Clark 
became its projarietors. In May, 1839, Mr. Paine became sole 
proprietor and continued so until February, 1872, when his interest 
was transferred to his son, George H., and Ira B. Kerr. In Oc- 
tober, 1881, Mr. Kerr sold his interest to Mr. S. E. Smith, and 
the firm was Paine iV: Smith until J\[r. Paine's death in January, 
1895. February, 1895, Mr. S. E. Smith became sole proprietor. 
It may here be stated that Gen. Paine and his descendants had 
an uninterrupted interest in the paper for sixty-two years. The 
venerable old Gazette has lived to see the rise and fall of several 
paj)ers in this village. The Gazette building was erected in 1837, 

7'r)ir.v OF DKi.lil. ;34<) 

iiuil occiiiiit'd ill OftoliiT i)f tliiit year, lunl the Gazette Las l)ecu 
issiieil weekly tlierefroiii ever siuee. 

The Delaware Republican (No. 1), was issued iu June, 1.S21, 
Elijah J. Roberts publisher. H. H. Nash afterwards became its 
publisher, and it was discontinued in 182/), or thereabouts. 

The Delaware Repuldicau (No. 2,) was issued in Septend)er. 
1S:{(). by (reorge Marviue. Messrs. McDonald & Bowne subse- 
i|Ueutly became its jiroprietors, and the last number issued was 
dated Dec. 12, IS82. 

The Delaware .Ji>\irnal was issued April 1(1, 1S;U, by Wlii]i])le 
iV Wrij^ht, and was published but a few years. 

The Delaware E.xprcss was issued in January, 1S8SI, by Nor- 
wood Bowne, who remained its editor and publisher until his 
death. January, ISild, a jieriod of fifty-one years. After his death 
the paper was published by his sou, Charles N., for a short 
period, when it was pul)lished by Bowne cV Gillies, then by P. M. 
(iillies, and he afterwards sold to Mr. S. F. Adee; Mr. Adee sold 
to William Clark, its jiresent proprietor. 

The Voice of the People, (the organ of the anti-renters), was 
issued by William S. Hawlcy, in June, 1S4(J, and a few years there- 
after was discontinued. 

The Star of Delaware was issued iu Decend)er, 18.59, Ijy ]{<'v. 
C. B. Smyth. How long it was published I do not now recollect. 

The Young Patriot was issued in 1860 by Ira G. Sprague, 
and iu 18(52 its name was changed to the American I'anner, and 
as sn<-li was published for a short time. 

The Delaware Rei)ublican (No. :{,) was issued May 12, 18(10, 
by A. Stnrtcvant and T. F. Mcintosh. In February, 18(18, :Mr. 
•Sturtevaut sold his interest to Joseph Eveland; and the same 
was published by them until January, 1870, when T. F. Mcintosh 
l>ecanie sole proprietor, and remained as such until April l.'j, 18!t.5, 
when his son, Robert P., became associated with liis father, by 
whom it is now published. 

The Monthlv Croaker, an amateur publication, was issued in 


July, 1SS7, liy Joliii F. Van Der t'ook, Jr., :i bov only twelve 
years old, aud contimied witlioiit intermission until Novemlier, 
1891. lu October, 1SSI2. he went to Cleveland as a reporter on 
the Press, and after a stay there of six months went to New 
York city as a reporter on the Harlem Local Reporter, and now 
is the Eastern manager of the " Seripps-McRae News Company. 

In our exhibit of relics of the past, what a pity an old Ram- 
age press, which was about the only printing 2)ress in use when 
this county was organized, and ujion one of which the first 
issue of the Gazette was printed, and a pressman could print 
only about 20i) an hour, was not on exhibition, and then com- 
pare it with the power presses now in use on our large daily 
journals which strike off many thousands an hour. What a change, 
indeed, has taken place in less than a century. "The improve- 
ments in printing and printing machinery have been great and 
rapid. Printing has come, in these days, to be a tine art, and 
the ijroduct of the jirinting press, in its highest and most artistic 
phases, fully justifies its popular reputation as one of the first, 
greatest, and most progressive of the modern achievements 
of men." 

Since the introduction of telegrams and cablegram dispatches, 
great changes have taken place in our receipt of news. To-day 
a person can send an account of our Centennial celebi-ation to 
our namesake in India, (Delhi) thousands of miles away, and have 
the same published there to-morrow. 

The older inhabitants of the village will jsrobably remember 
the old clock in the belfry of St, John's church. It was the 
gift of Gen. Erastus Root, and the gift document is dated Nov- 
ember, 1831. Some years ago it was taken out. 

As we review our little history of the County Seat for the 
past century, who will doubt that our forefathers were men of 
marked ability, solid worth, action, enterprise, thorough patriot- 
ism and true courage? 

May the next recurring anniversary of our Centennial witness. 

roir.v oh' HKi.iii. Hal 

as jjreat uuil iiiipoitiiut chauj^es iu the ouwaiil stride of civiliza- 
tion as in the past; auil may our beueficeut Father voiu-hsafe 
to lis His ever-watchful care iu the future as in the past. 

"What dearnr privilege, imleed, tlmii U> do as our sires have iloiie, 
To follow in the paths they proved, t<> linish as they begun; 
To give to our children uiuleliled. In all that our fathers won." 

Delhi was the second village iucorjiorated iu the count.v, ^Nfurch 
■Jl. IS'il, and its first otKcers were: Trustees, Ei'astus Root, Charles 
S.. Foote, (iurdeii H. Edgertou, Jahez Hitchcolk and Nathaniel 
Steele, jr.; Clerk, Gurdou H. Edgerton; Treasurer, Henuau D. 
Oould; Overseer of HijL,'hways, Jabez Hitchcolk. 

The Delhi Fire Departnieut was organized March ;{(i. 18(i(t, aud 
its first officers were: Chief Eugiueer, Apollos C. Edgertou; Assist- 
ant Engineer, Dexter Petteugill; Clerk, John A. Farshall; Treasurer, 
Caleb A. Frost. 

The first taverns, built of logs, were opened iu 17110, hy Gideon 
Frisbee just above the village, and l)v George Yendes in the lower 
part of the town. In 179H Mr. Denio opened a log tavern on the 
present fair grounds. 

In 1824 the Delaware Wocjlen Factory was started by a company, 
Samuel Sherwood aud H. D. Gould, i)riucipal owners. In 183i) 
Hichard Titus purchased the business, and later O. S. Pentield & 
Company, also Smith tt Pentield. In 18'2(J George Sherwood built 
the grist mill, aud in 1870 Smith & Pentield constructed the jiresent 

Cassia Lodge, No. 180, F. & A. M., was instituted in Delhi in 
March. ISOJ). Erastus Root was Master, Ambrose Bryan, Senior 
Warden. Elnathan Heath, Junior Warden. Delhi Lodge, No. 41}',), 
F. A: A. M., was instituted at Delhi in ISoS, P. B. Merwin Master. 
Delhi Chapter, 1-24. H. A. M., was instituted at Delhi, April VI, 1827. 
Its tirst officers were: Auuisa Parker, H. P., Amasa Millard. K.. 
Lorenzo Henry, S. Delhi Chapter, No. 240, R. A. M., was instituted 
at Delhi. Aprd, 18()i». Its first officers were: J. S. Page, H. P., John 
Woodburn, K., J. ^f. Preston, S. 

352 HiSTortr OF Delaware corxrv. 

Delhi Lod},'e, No. 2(!5, I. 0. O. F., was institutf il at Delbi, March 
2, 1847. Its first N. G. was Trumau H. "Wheeler. After au exist- 
euce of many years it surrendered its charter. Delhi Lodp^e, No. 
()2r), I. O. O. F., was instituted at Delhi, March, 18i):i, M. E. 
Arbuclde, N. G. 

One of the important industries of Delhi is the Crawfords Wagon 
"Works, which was established in 181)4, and was enlarged in 1895. 
They give employment to from forty to eighty men, and their plant 
now covers about four acres of ground, and comprises four large 
buildings, and about an acre of Hoor sj)ace. The principal manu- 
facture is the Stiver gear, pneumatic wagons. 

The New York Condensed Milk Company established a milk 
bottling works here in 1805. "Borden's Condensary," as it is called 
here, is an important acquisition to our village, and gives employ- 
ment to fifty or more men, and receives the milk from nearly two 
hundred farms. 

Sanford's Creamery, in the lower part of the village, is an 
imi^ortant industry in our village, and has been hei-e a number of 

Some seventj- years ago Mr. Elting had a potash manufactory on 
the east side of the river, just above the upper iron bridge. Many 
years afterward James Elwood had a j)otash manufactory not fai' 
from where the residence of George H. Maxwell now stands. 

Deposit i\nd TompI>ins. 

THE town of Deposit is tlif youiifjcest towu in Delaware couutv, 
and is anionj,'' the snuxUer ones in its area, Imviuf;' 27, (J22 
acres of land; there are two towns haviu-,' a less nunil)er of acres. 
In vahiation of real estate, it bears a very favorid)le conij)arisou 
with other towns; there is one town of equal valuation per acre, 
twelve that are lower, and but five of higher valuation. The 
personal j)roperfv n( tlii' town, when orj^anized, was greater than 
eleven towns and nearly equal with that of the other seven. It 
has been materially reduced within the last two years by the 
removal of the Deposit national l)ank to that portion of the village 
of Deposit situated in Broome county. 

The town was organized by the Legistattire of the State in 
1880, the territory being taken wholly from the town of Tomp- 
kins, which was the largest towu in Delaware county excepting 
one, Hancock, and is still the largest towu in the county, except- 
ing two, Andes and Hancock. 

It is the most western, or south-western town in the county, 
iind is bounded on the w-est partly by the state of Pennsylvania 
and partly by Broome county. The village of Deposit is divided 
by the boundary line which separates Delaware and Broome 
counties. The greater uund)er of inlialiitants of the village, ,ind 
by far the greater business interests are in Broome county. Yet 
a majority of the churches, and nearly an equal number of in- 
habitants, including many of the old residents of the village, are 
in Delaware county. 

Ajiplieation for a division of the town of Tompkins and the 

'■rection of the new town of Deposit was twice made to the Board 
I'.l :i'>3 


of Supervisors of Delaware county. In 187(i at a nicetiuf^ of the 
hoard, a vote was taken which resulted in nine for division and 
eight against. There was a majoritj^ in favor of the new town, 
hut as the law recjuired a two-thirds vote tlie (|uestii)n was lost. 
It Wits fully shown to the hoard hy the applicants for this pro- 
ject, that their only ohject in asking for a division of Tompkins 
was to save the voters and husiness men of the j)roposed new 
town the unnecessary distance which thej' were ohliged to travel 
in attending every town meeting, and in transacting husiness at 
the town clerk's otKce. There were 350 voters then in the ter- 
ritory, and more than that number now in the town of Deposit. 
The extra travel which was always expensive, unpleasant and 
annoying, was over sixteen miles on an average to each voter, 
making an aggregate amount, counting all the voters, of about 
(),()()() miles. The extra travel is now saved to the voters of the 
town of Deposit, and all the people of the tow-n are accommo- 
dated in their business interests like other people of the towns 
of the county. The only ohjection urged against the passage of 
the bill by members of the board of supervisors, was that if the 
new town was organized it would be lost to Delaware county, 
and the people of the town woiild " stejj down and out " and be 
gathered into the adjoining county of Broome. It was publicly 
announced before the hoard, l)y those who were opposed to the 
division, that the generous inhabitants at the county seat had 
such a devoted love for the people of the jsroposed new town, 
that they could not allow the joetition to be granted. It would 
he placing a wicked temptation for eovetousness within conven- 
ient and easy reach of Broome county, and would be an efficient 
move for the dismemberment of good old Delaware. 

No protestation of the people of the proposed new town, of 
their loyalty to Delaware county, was a sufficient guaranty of 
their honesty, and no declarations of the inconvenience and un- 
necessary annoyances which they were obliged to suffer ct)uld 
arouse the sympathy of their loving friends in the eastern por- 


tioii of flic county. Tlicy were ol)lijifecl to ^o to the Legislature 
of flic State, aud ask of strau^^ers what could not be •,'raiited to 
fliciii by their friends at home. 

The town of Deposit is too youuff to furnish anything'- like an 
ancient history of its early settlement. All the early records 
apply to the old town of Tompkins, wliich was organized Feb. 
•2H, iKOfi, from the town of Walton and was called Pinelield. It 
retained this name about two years, until the loth of ^Vlarch, 
1S()8, when the name was changed to Tompkins in honor of Gov- 
ernor Daniel I). Tompkins. The first supervisor of tiie town was 
P.'ter Pine. 

Very little is known of the territory iui'luded in the present 
towns of Tompkins and Deposit before the war of t"he Revolution. 
It was inhabited by various tril)es of Indians; the Leui Leuaj)es 
(or Delawares) aud the Mohawks were the principal occupants. 
Their council ground was located near Deposit village, on the 
east side of the Delaware river, at a place opposite the point 
where the Tewbeac (Butler Brook) and Oipiaga Creek empty into 
flu- river. This is at the most westeiii bend of tlu' Delaware, on 
land formerly known as the Peter Pine farm, and later as the N. 
K. Wheeler farm. On this place the Indians had several acres of 
cleared land, where they planted their corn. About two miles 
Ixlow Deposit they liad another clearing. The place at Deposit 
tliey called Big Coke-ose, and the place lielow was Little C'oke- 
ose. These names were afterwards perverted by fjie wliife in- 
habitants aud the village of Deposit was called Cookhouse; Lit- 
tle Coke-ose lost its name entirely. 

Deposit was incorporated by the Legislature of the State in 
IHH, and was the first village incorpcjrated in Delaware county. 
11 included only 15() acres of land, being Lot No. forty-three, 
Evans Patent, lying between the river and the county line. It 
wa« wholly within the County of Delaware and had very few in- 
habitants. In 185L the charter was amended so as to include 
tlie territory within its present limits. 


The first white okiu kuowii to have resided in the vicinity of 
Deposit, or in the territory of the present town, was Peter Hyu- 
hack, (usually pronounced Hinepaw). He was a Dutchman, and 
came up the river in a canoe with his wife and several children 
to Biy Coke-ose, and settled on the l)ank of the river about forty 
rods from the Indian council ground. He was a trader with the 
Indians, was very familiar with them, and after they left the 
country in 1785 he remained four or five years and then follo^Ved 
them to Canada. He purchased quite a large tract of laud of the 
Indians with their improvements; these consisted of their clear- 
ing on which a few apple trees had been planted or grown, and 
nothing more. Several of she apple trees are still standing and 
bearing fruit. About the year 171)0 he sold his possessions to a 
Mr. Yandervoort, and Mr. Yandervoort sold to Andrew Craig. 
This last sale was of iOO acres and included all of the old Peter 
Pine farm. The consideration of this sale and purchase was a 
dark colored boy about fifteen years of age who was to be owned 
and treated as a slave. He was to be delivered to Mr. Vander- 
vooi't at Carjienter's Point, now Port Jervis, and two men were 
hired to "deliver the goods." 

These men were Conrad Ediok and Henry Sampson. The 
boy's name was John Magee, generally called Jack. He was 
placed in a canoe and all started down the river. They were 
obliged to stay over uight ou the way, and stopped at Skinner's 
Eddy. All were tired and all slept, l)ut in tlie morning there 
was no "Jack in the box." He had made his escape and not 
long after he returned to Mr. Craig, his former owner, and lived 
to grow up a free man. He was regarded as a man of consider- 
able ability. He held the office of Justice of the Peace in the 
town of Tompkins for a number of years. His residence was at 
Trout Creek, above Cannonsville. 

This farm which was sold in 1790 for the price of a slave, may 
be considered historic ground, not only as the council groimd of 
the several tribes of Indians who roamed over the hills and 

Towxs OF DKi'nsrr A\i) vvj.ur/iV.v.s. :m\i 

viiUcvs (if this i-egiou before the Hevolutiouiu-y war, but ass their 
|icnuaiK'nt scttlenieut and home for many years, as shown by their 
ruih' farniinH' pUit. their orelianl and buryin;;- ground. ^Nfaiiy 
arrows and sjjear heads and stone pesth's for f^rindinj^ corn have 
lieen found nn the premises. Here too, as stated, lived tlie first 
white settler, and here was the first f^round broken for the ci in- 
struction of the New York and Erie railroad. 

On the 7th of November, IS;}"), James G. King, president of 
the railroad company, with a few representatives of the organi- 
zation, met witli citizens of Dej^osit and the surrounding country 
to break the first ground for the road. President King commen- 
ced the work with the shovel, and Hon. Samuel B. Ruggles with 
wheelbarrow nuived the first earth into line for the road. Mr. 
Stuyvesaut, treasurer, and Wm. Beach Lawrence, another ofiicial 
(if the company, took pai-t in the work; Gen. Root, of Delhi, and 
Judge Drake, of Owego, were among the number. All present 
participated in a very moderate way in removing some of the 
c.-irth liy shovel (ir wheelbarrow, in the very first work upon this 
enormously expensive road of 488 miles. Forty miles of the road 
from Deposit to Callieoon were then put under contract, and the 
grading was immediately commenced. 

The first permanent settlement in the territory included in 
the towns of Tompkins and Deposit seems to have been made l)y 
a Mr. Fitch, of Bainbridge, father of Jabez Fitch, who afterward 
became a merchant in the village of Deposit. He came to what 
is now called Stilesville in 178.'), and located on a small clearing 
made by tiie Indians near the nidiitli (if the .Vstraguntira (unw 
called ('(lid Spring Brook) two miles fnnii Deposit village. He 
built a log house for his family and erected a very rude saw mill 
with a woo<b'n crank, and with a log carriage whiidi had fd bo 
"gigged ba<'k " with the foot and hand. The running of the mill 
was fdund t(i lie rather unprofitable, and ^fr. Fitch sold (Uit to 
Hubbard Burrows and Aaron Stiles anil returned to Bainbridge. 

The next settlement was nuide by Jesse Dickerson in 1780 


at Cauuousville, at the uidutli of the (iaunuissy, uow called Trout 
Creek. He was a native of New Jersey, a man of great energf)- 
and of considerable property. He went from liis home in New 
Jersey to New York city, thence by a chartered sloop to Catskill, 
then with his family and a stock of cows, horses, oxen, shee]), 
etc., he worked his way throu<fh an almost unbroken wilderness 
to Stamford, at the head of the Mohawk, or west branch of the 
Delaware river, and thence down the river, by slow and difficult 
travel to his new home in the wilderness. He was two weeks 
on his way from Catskill. There were no roads of any kind, in 
any dii'ection to or from his place. He purchased a large tract 
of land and made extensive arrangements for the improvement 
of his possessions. He laid out grounds and streets for a city, 
iiu(\ named it Dickerson city. The place was called •• the city " 
for liftv years or more. He was instrumental in bringing other 
inhabitants into the territory. Soon after reaching the jjlace he 
built a saw mill, which was only just finished when it was com- 
pletely wrecked and torn away by a flood. He built another mill 
the next year on the same site and soon after built a grist mill. 
The grinding stones of this mill were (quarried out of the mouu- 
taiu about two miles below the city and were worked out and 
fitted in a rude way by hand. They answered better than the 
pestle which had lieeu used for mashing grain, yet there was no 
bolting cloth used. To this mill men would bring their grain 
from the surrounding country, thirty or forty miles away. A 
man who was hungry considered himself fortunately situated if 
he lived near the Delaware, so that he could load his grain in a 
canoe and drag it up or down the river to the city mill. People 
living in Windsor on the Susquehanna river, l>rought their grain 
on horseback by an Indian trail to Cookhouse, fifteen miles, and 
then by canoe or Indian trail eight miles to Dickerson city. Mr. 
Dickerson ran the first raft of sawed lumlier down the west branch 
of the Delaware to mai'ket. He l)uilt several houses and made 
numerous improvements to his large property, which he called 


the '■ Miltou Estate," but like many a new enterprise the expen- 
ditures were greater than the iuconie, autl tiudiufj; that his specu- 
lative i<leas were uever to he realized, he mortgaged his property 
aud tinally turned it over to tlie mortgagee, and abandouiug his 
cherished iiroject, lie left all and went to Philadelphia. 

This property was bought by Benjamin Cannon, aud was deeded 
to him iu 18(1!) by the executors of Al)raham Dubois, of Philadel- 
phia. He built a public house and made additional improvements. 
Other iiermaneut inhabitants came iu and the name of the place 
was changed to Cannonsville, which it still retains. 

Among the first settlers of the territory now included iu the 
town of Deposit, who bought lands aud remained as permanent 
inhabitants, were Scpiire V.'hitaker aud John Hulce. Mr. "Whitaker 
came froui the Wyoming Valley in Pennsylvania with his family, 
escaping the terrible Indian massacre, to Carpenter's Point, (now 
Port Jervis.) 

In 17S() he went up the river iu a canoe with all his house- 
hold eifects and stopped for a year at Shehoekeu. Iu 1787 he 
moved his canoe coutaining his family and household goods to 
Little Coke-ose, two miles below Deposit, where he bought a 
large farm of a Mr. Chapman on which was a small Indian clear- 
ing. He paid down for the farm by giving a saddle. His first 
habitation was a very rude cal)in covered with liark, and iu 
this cabin was the first wedding of the town. The ceremony 
was jierformed by a missiouary froiii Connecticut, Timothv 

The hajipy groom and Inide were Capt. Conrail Edick, a 
Revolutionary soldier, and Margaret Whitaker. 

Capt. Edick came to Big Coke-ose from the Mohawk Valley 
aud became identified with all the early incidents of Deposit his- 
tory. He was highly respected by all the people of the surrounding 
country. He reared a large family in the Cookhouse, where for 
many years he kept the only tavern, or jjublic house, aud died 
in lK4ri. S(|\iire Whitaker lived to rear a large familv on the 


t'anii for which he gave his saddle. One of his descendants now 
occupies the same premises. 

John Hulse who is named as one of the first settlers who 
bought land and became a permeuent inhabitant, located just 
north of the present village of Deposit. He came from Orange 
county, N. Y., in 1789. Many of his descendants remained on 
the j)remises purchased by him, and were honored and respected 
inhabitants of the town. His grandson, M. R. Hulce, lately de- 
ceased, was a native of Deposit. His acquaintance with people 
of Delaware county and in the surrounding country has Ijeen 
as extensive, perhaps, as that of any man in the Delaware valley. 
He has for years been the historian of Deposit. To him the author 
of this sketch is indebted for most of the items of the early his- 
tory of Tomj^kins. 

The town of Deposit, as is well known, was formerly a rough 
lumbering territory. Its hills and valleys were covered with pine 
and hemlock, and the quality of the lumber was of the very best. 
That lumber has all been rafted down the Delaware river to 
market, and yet no man in all the town, or in the valley of the 
Delaware, ever became wealthy by the business of lumbering. A 
few sharp men who bought lumber and took it to the Philadel- 
phia market were fortunate in making a little money, but the 
men who took off their coats and did the hard work and suffered 
the risks of the business, were never the better for all their 
harassing labor. 

The village of Deposit received its name from being the jilace 
of dejiosit of lumber from the Susquehanna valley and the sur- 
rounding country. For at least fifty years this place was the 
lumberman's favorite rafting ground, and the Delaware was the 
great water way to the Philadelphia market. All is now changed. 
There are no rafts of lumber run from this section of country. 

The town of Dejjosit, like many of the towns of Delaware 
county, has a large portion of its ai-ea in uuproduetive and al- 
most worthless land. Along its few creeks and river Hats and 


Village of Trout CreeK. 

■^lA^i^e .: K-Cr; K; 


ou some of its liills the f.-iriiit'i's are spemliii^'' tl)eir (|uiet lives- 
in (lairyiuy;. 

There is very little other business iu the towu. Nearly iilL 
the iiiercautile and luauufacturiujj; business of the village of De- 
posit is done iu Sauford, Broome eounty. There is oceasioually 
found in the hills of the town a stone (|uanv whicii furnishes a 
few working men with hard labor, but produces little money. 
This is something like the lumbering business, and both remind 
one of the old adage of the value of a horse hide, "The skin 
of a horse is worth a dollar, and it is worth a dollar to skin 

In all the improvements which have been made in Delaware 
county within the one hundred years of its existence, perhaps. 
Deposit has had its full share. The building and opening of 
the Erie railroad furnished the first permanent advancement of 
the business interests in all the southern portion of the county. 
Lands have been cleared and cultivated, manufactories have been 
established, mercantile business has been opened for the accom- 
modation of the increasing population, schools and churches 
have been built and the whole people are now enjoying the ad- 
vantages of a great commercial thoroughfare. 

In the village of Dejjosit many comfortable modern resiliences 
and business houses have been erected, and although the limits 
of the corjioratiim include a jiortiou of Broome county, yet the 
ilivisiou line of the two counties does not separate the people in 
their social and business relations. They are at peace with each 
other and with all mankind. They have what they deem a be- 
coming pride in their (jwii prosperity, and in the prosperity of 
Delaware county. Those who arc inhabitants of the county wish 
to be regarded as loyal subjects of ''The powers that be" iu the 
^'ood old eounty of Delaware. Yet they do not feel indebted to 
nuiny of the towns of the county for their improved condition. 
Their resources for business are almost entirely dciivi-d from 
the adjoining county of Broome and the state of I'liinsylv.uiia. 


There are still liviuf^' some of the old inhaliitauts of the vil- 
lage who can reiiieiulier seventy years aj^o when the " {'(idkhouse" 
liad not more than twenty dwelliufj houses in the settlement. 
There was but one church which was built in 1818, to which 
some of the members occasionally came to worship from ten 
miles away. A number of years passed before any other church 
was built. One of the worshippers at this tirst church was some- 
times brought by her only sou in a canoe from Hancock. She 
was the widow of Major Ebeiiezer Wheeler, a soldier in the war 
of 1S12. The only physician. Dr. Thaddeus Mather, who then 
g-uarded the health of the people, rode his old gray Imrse by 
night or day twenty miles up and down the river to visit his 
patients. There were fe^v bridges across any of the streams. 
The hills and many of the narrow valleys were then covered 
^vith a dense forest growth which aiforded comparatively safe 
j)rotection to the deer and other wild animals which uboumled 
in this locality. Everything is now changed. 

There are none of the pioneers who tirst came to this almost 
inaccessible country, and broke the stillness of the dense forest 
along the Delaware valley by their rude lumljeriug ojjerations, 
who have lived to see the product of the last noble forest tree 
tloat away down the river to market. They have not seen the 
bright and thrifty villages that have sprung up in every town 
in Delaware county. Nor did they hear the rumbling of the rail- 
road engine, or its warning whistle as it rushed along the Dela- 
ware valley contributing its great power to transportation and 
commerce. Their descendants however are enjoying the comforts 
and blessings which result from the privations and toils of their 

One of the later inhabitants of the Delaware valley, who was 
Ijresent and took part in the tirst breaking of ground for the 
Erie railroad, made the remark, which then seemed a rash projjh- 
ecy, "that the time would come when a traveler could take his 
breakfast in Deposit and his .supi^er in New York city." That 

roir.v.s- (IF ni:i'i>siT ash tdmi'Kixs. 309 

time lias i-oiiic. He nccil not wait for liis sui)]icr. He can take 
iiis twelve o'clock (liiincr in the i-ity. The lailioads that traverse 
the county of Delaware have indeed afforded the most ett'ective 
menus for transportation, and they are_ uow carryiu;,' to the jjreat 
metropolis of our country the products of every town in the 
county, and are hrinj^in;^ back the necessaries and luxuries of 
life fi'om every laud aud every clime. Yet it seems a straufice 
couditiou of affairs that the five railroads runuiufi; throu<jh or 
into the county cannot better accommodate the peo])le of the 
towns in their inl.-md travel and their connection with each 

The distance from the head of the Delaware to the lower line 
of the county is about sixty miles, (a fji'Qod days travel for a good 
pedestrian) aud yet the mail passing regularly over this distance 
l>y railro.-id and stage is never less than two days on the way 
aud often three. Time may be saved by those " who know how- 
to travel" by sending letters via. New York city, a distance of 
'2-yO miles. But whj- need we comjilain of our ]ireseut accommo- 
dations in traveling. Let us look back a hundred years to the 
time of the f(Uiii;ition of oui' county, when lUir fathers had no 
railroads aud no regular mails. 

The improvements for Delaware county are not fully accom- 
plishe(h We have yet to see trolley roads ruuuiug aloug each 
branch of the Delaware river ami threading the valleys of the 
smaller streams through every town in Delaware county. 

The moral, intellectual and social couditiou t>f the people of 
the county, within the century since the time of its organization, 
may be attributed to their churches, their schools and public 

Delaware county has more thriving villages with graded 
schools aud first class institutious for the education of the youug 
than almost any inland county of the state. We need these 
schools to pre]iare the coming generations for the active duties 
of life. 


The earlj' settlei'H of the couutv fouuil a rouj^b aud ruj^j^eil 
territory, which could only be subdued by the strong arms and 
courageous hearts of these jDioueers. A less daring and persever- 
ing race would have been discouraged and have sought a more 
congenial climate and an easier soil for cultivation. By their 
active, honest, intelligent labor, they oj)ened and prepared the 
way for the present prosperity of the people of the whole county. 
The reputation of the people of the county has never suffered 
by a comparison with others of the state. And now with all the 
modern improvements of the present age and the facilities for 
advanced education, the present and coming jiopulation will be 
held responsible for the moral, intellectual aud jiolitical character 
of the countv. 




FUANKLIN was tiikeu from Harpersfield Miirch lit, 1793, while 
a part of Otsego county, aud four years before Delaware 
vouuty was organized. But its area has been much reduced by 
the setting off of Walton, Meredith and Sidney. Its surface is 
uneven, rising into ridges and low niouutaius. The soil is mostly 
red clay loam underlaid by hard pan, from one to two feet below 
the surface. Along the creeks the subsoil is gravel or clay. There 
is very little waste land, and nearly all is suitable for agricul- 
tural purposes. 

The Ouleout creek and its branches flow southwesterly across 
the northern part of the town, to join the Susquehanna, and 
forms good drainage and some water powers. The hills on either 
.side of the Ouleout and some of its branches were covei'ed with 
ilense forests of the largest and best quality of pine. The ixeu- 
eral forest is beech and maple. In localities there is oak, hickory 
and chestnut, with scattering varieties. The first town meeting 
held in Franklin was held at Bartlett Hollow, near Edwin Tay- 
lor's, at the house of Sluman Wattles. Slumau Wattles was 
«lected super^■isor and Robert North town clerk; Gabriel Smith, 
David St. John and Samuel Hanford, assessors. The other town 
otMcers were also elected, after which resolutions were passed. 
The eighth was as follows: " Resolved, that the next town meet- 
ing be held at the house of Daniel Root, at ten o'clock, forenoon." 
That place was some five miles from the present village. That 
meeting was held as appointed. It was the first town meeting 
vailed by the town. The meeting held at Shiman M'attles' on 

the tirst Tuesday of April, 1793, was not called by the town, but 



was appointed by the Legislature aud was a part of the ai-t of 
incorijoratiou, because none in the town liad the power to call 
a legal town meeting till they had been elected. 

The early settlers were men uud women accustomed to labor. 
Their first and main business after building a log house for their 
families and making them comfortable was to cut the timber, 
till the land and to bring it into cultivation. They looked at 
their former homes and the many privileges and comforts they 
there enjoyed and had sacrificed for their forest htnues. That 
brought no discouragement. They came to this new and wild 
I'egiou to build for themselves homes. They saw clearly that 
what was needed to restore to them what they had sacriticed 
was steady, persistent labor and economy. Those thoughts in- 
spired new efforts and energy. So that every tree that was felled, 
every rod of ground that was cleared brought those comforts and 
blessings nearer to their homes. They learned that steady and 
efficient labor was no barrier to mental or social happiness. Most 
of those early settlers were from Christian homes and clnu<-li 
jjrivileges. They soon felt the need, and regretted the al)sence. 
This feeling grew and became stronger, till a public meeting was 
called to consider the necessity and propriety of forming a Bap- 
tist church. The meeting was held on the 1.5th day of January, 
17i):-i, and a Baptist church was organized. This was the tirst 
church organization in the town. On the 12th day of October,. 
17133, the Congregational element, influenced by the same anxious 
desire, came together by appointment and formed a Congrega- 
tional church. Those two churches were the only ones iu town 
until 1838. The Methodists had some preaching. The earliest 
records inform us that Rev. Stephen Whitehead is known to have 
preached here iu 1802. Some time after that there was Method- 
ist itinerant preaching, but no church house till 1838. There are 
now eight churches iu the town, viz: Two Congregational, two 
Baptist, three ^lethodist and one Episcopal, each having a good 
church edifice and stated pastors laboring for the advancement 
of the moral and Christian good of all. 

TdWX (IF /••/iM.VA7./.V. 375 

In the early diu-s of tbe towu there was much ausiety iu re- 
ffanl to the educatiou of the childi'en. The settlers were few 
and scattered. That made it difficult to establish any system of 
education. There was then uo i)iil)lic scliool money to be divided 
among the schools and each parent or j,niardiaii was liable for 
teachers' wages iu j)roportii)ii to the uuml>er of childreu they scut 
to school. This furnished but very limited means of educatiou. 
And those wishing higher attainments than the common schools 
(or graauiiar and select schools as they were calltHl) could give, 
had to seek it outside the county. As the population and finan- 
ces increased common schools grew into more importance. Our 
state gave large endowment fund? and our schools were benefit- 
ted by its interest. Laws were enacted, school districts formed, 
school otKcers elected and teachers recjuired to pass an examina- 
tion. This brought the district schools up to a much better 
position; though our schools had been advanced to a better position 
uo effort was made for a higher educatiou than a good common 
school could sjive till IH'20. In the vcar ITTd a yiaiit 1)V the Kiuir 
of England was made to a conij)auy, of 27, (KM) acres of laud, 
•since known as the Bedlington iiatent. That patent had fallen 
to the state by escheat. Gen. Erastus Root, in 182(1, being a 
member of the Legislatiu'e, introduced a bill to incorporate the 
Delaware Academy and also appropriating the sale of those es- 
cheated lan<ls f(}r the erection and endowment of said academy. 
It was strongly opposed, but Gen Hoot's popularity carried, and 
the bill was passed and the academy built at Delhi. This awakened 
a new interest and other academies were talked of. Franklin 
eventually began seriously to take measures to obtain that object. 
In 1H8.") a petition was sent to the Legislature asking for a grant 
of incorporation for an institution of learning to be called Dela- 
ware Literary Institute. On the 2.'!(1 day of April, IS.'J."), the 
petition was granted and the Delaware Literary Institute was 
located at Franklin. Measures were then taken to raise $7,000 
for the purchase of fifteen acres of land for a site and to build 


the lustitiite. Tliis seemed almost au iinpossibilitv. But the 
public took hold of it with a will aud the amouut was raised aud 
"the tirst huildiug was built; this was of stone, eif>hty feet long 
aud forty feet wide aud four stories lii^li. The iustitute was uow 
a permanent institution of learning, fully equipped for business, 
aud gave large promises for the future. Aud well have those 
l^romises beeu fulfilled. This stone structure stood for tweuty- 
iwo years, wheu it was discovered to be on fire. Every effort 
proved unavailing, and it burned to the ground. The citizens 
put forth renewed effort, and by voluntary coutril)utious raised 
sufficient funds and rebuilt the building. While the chapel build- 
ing was in process of construction it was blown down, necessi- 
tating additional expense that was soon raised and paid. The 
ladies' boarding hall was built, a structure 40x80 feet and three 
stories high, costing a large sum. And all, amounting to $-l(),000, 
has been paid by the citizens of Fraukliu, without asking the 
state to contribute a dollar, with the exception of the first $7,000 
that was for building the tirst Institute. At that time there were 
those out of this town with large liberality whose names are re- 
membered with grateful respect and gratitude. But most of that 
class are gone to a happier world, as we humbly trust and lielieve. 
When the Institute was ready for use the public gave their 
•support aud patronage in full, until au increased population aud 
new organizations has given to mauy of the towns union schools 
with academic departments. 

Up to 1819, there was no paper pu1)lished iu Delaware couuty. 
All necessary printing had to be doue out of this county. There 
was compyaratively little needed. It was not till 1819 that the 
first newspaper, the Delaware Gazette, was published iu Delhi 
by John J. Lappan. The Ulster County Plebian, published by 
Judge Buell, had furuished reading matter for a large proportion 
of Franklin readers, aud the same of the county. There are uow 
twenty-two newspapers published in the county. 

The general business of the farmers in the earlv davs was 


TOWX or FliAXKI.IX. 379 

>cleariug htuil, laisiii'^- priiiii, pork ami cattle. The f^iaiii and jxnk 
fouuil market aiiioiif,' the luiubermeii alou;^' the Delaware. The 
cattle were mostly Iwugbt by drovers and driveu to the eastern 
markets. Manufacturing and rafting lumber down the Delaware to 
market began very early to attract attention till it became a very 
general business. Silas Johusoii, a young man from Walton, who 
iu after years kept hotel and li\ed and died in Franklin, steered the 
first raft of lumber ever run from Walton. Franklin had jileuty of 
pine timber and gradually worked into the lumber l>usiness till for 
jnauy years it was actively engaged in manufacturing lundier and 
■drawing it to the Delaware at Walton and rafting it to Philadel- 
phia. This business continued for some years till a very large 
proportion of pine bad been carried away. But it never proved a 
lucrative business. The business of the farm changed from grain 
and stock growing to sheep and wool. The town of Franklin 
became one of the largest wool growing towns iu the county, and 
for some years Delaware county was the largest wool producing 
county of the state. A few years later another change came over 
the business of the farm, changing from wool to dairying. And 
to-day this county is one of the largest butter-producing counties 
of the state, and its character for cpiality stands at the head of the 
butter market. Franklin has done its share in raising the dairy 
character of the county to where it now stands, botli iu i|uantity 
and quality. 

The town has two villages, Franklin and Trcadwell. Treadwcll 
is an enterprising and prosjierous village of some iour hundred 
inhabitants and situated midway between Franklin and Delhi, is 
pleasantly located and a place of considerable business for its size. 
The village has two churches, a Baptist church and a ilethodist 
church, fovir stores, and one hotel, but no license. Treadwcll does 
not appear to be of the right soil to grow license j)lants. They 
have one of the best, abundant and unfailing water supplies of soft 
spring water for use and tire ])urj)08es. It is l)rought from a 
distant hill, many feet above the level of the vilhigc. 

Franklin village is seventeen miles from Delhi, four from the 
D. iV. H. railroad at Otego, and five from the N. Y., O. iS: W. 
•station. There are four churches iu the village, viz: Congrega- 
tional, Baptist. ^lethodist, and Episcopal; eight stores, a bank of 
fifty thousand dollars cai)ital, organized in 1804, which never has 


passed a dividend, aud never has paid less than three per cent, 
dividend every six months, and no depositor has lost a dollar bv 
depositing in that hank, and no stockholder has tailed to receive 
an equivalent more than equaling the interest on his stock. It 
has a large surplus and always ready to meet legal ilemands 
when presented. There is one hotel but no license. There has 
been no license granted to any one for more than twenty-tive 
consecutive years. And at our last town election, after an ex- 
perience of twenty-live years of no license, the town gave a 
majority of 110 against licencing again. There is one newspaper, 
the Delaware Dairynuiu, printed in Franklin, a large, eight-jiage 
paper, alive and actively dispensing all the dairy and agricultural 
news and the early general information once each week to a 
subscription list of '2,500 subscribers, and doing a large amount of 
job printing. The village has a large and splendid water supply 
of the softest and purest of water so arranged that no external 
impurities can reach it. It is from a height that gives a hundred 
jiouuds pressure to the square inch on the main pipes in the 
■village. That gives full force to the hydrants so that no other 
power is needed in case of tire. There is a full and eflicient 
company of firemen for each of the departments that are well 
equipped, and take pride in their doings. 

The new Ouleout Valley Cemetery is the pride of the town. 
A good many thousand dollars in money have been expended on 
it. Improvements are continually l)eing made. The public feel- 
ing aud interest, and it is continually growing, and is of interest 
to all. But it needs to be seen to be appreciated. 

There is Frank T. Hine Post, (1. A. R., men who took the risk 
of standing in the l)reach of a divided nation at war. and risking 
their lives in bringing back the ceceding to a hajipy reunion and 
to a powerful aud undivided nation. They are worthy of the 
gratitude and respect of the nation ; but it is sad to see that 
number decreasing as they are discharged, and we lay them away 
in peaceful rest. 

There is a baud of gentlemen that dispenses good music to 
the village, that awakens our drowsy spirits and quickens our sensi- 
bilities and gives a cheer after the wearisome business of the day. 
They ai-e a worthy, happj- band, ever ready to render their sweet 
melody where necessity requires it, or where love of music asks it. 

yiiiage u] naQider\. 

Mam ((en. 

l^X Mcnry \\ . Holmes. 

TH !•", Iiistory of tlic tnwii of Hiiiiidfii diite.s ouly from the tiino 
of its erection l).v Lc-^islative eiuictmeut April 4, 1825. 
The prior history of tlif t<rritory coiuprised within the [jresent 
houudaries of tlie tnwn helou^^s properly to those towns from 
whieh the town of Hanideu was formed. It may, however, prove 
iiiterestiuf,' to the present and future generations to know that 
from Nov. 1, 1()88, when the first (u-ganized government was formed 
iu the colony of New Yolk, until ^Farch 1(1, 17'.)7, when Delaware 
county was erected, all that [lart of Hanideu lying east of the 
Delaware river was iu<-luded in the couuty of Ulster. That part 
of the town lying west of the Delaware w-as in Albany county until 
^larch 1"2, 177"2, wheu it was included in the new couuty of Tryon, 
the name of which was changed to Montgomery April 2, ITS-l. From 
iloutgomery was formed Otsego, February 1(!, 17!)1, and iu this new 
county was included the western part of the pi'eseut town of 
Hamden. Thus wheu Delaware county was erected from Otsego and 
Ulster, that j)art of Hamden lying east of the river was a part of the 
town of Middletown, Ulster couuty, and that part of the town west 
of the river was a part of the town of Harperstield, Otsego county. 
Between the erection of the couuty in 17!I7 and the crcc-tiou 
of the town in 1H25, the number of the towns in the county bad 
been increased from seven to sixteen. Hanideu, the seventeenth 
town, was taken largely from Delhi, and a portion from Walton. 
The original liiii' between Delhi and Walton was the u])])er line 
of the Lupton farm, now owned by James A. Chambers, but in 
1H12 this line was moved u\> in the lower line of the farm now 
owned by .Yrthiir Shaw, therefore prior to .\iirii 4, 182"), idl that 


])iirt (if Huiiiileii uortli of this lius was a part of the towu of Delhi 
ami that portiou south of the line was iucludeil in Walton. 

The bouudaries of the towu have uever been changed. Its 
arpa is about 34,000 acres or fifty-three square miles, oue tweuty- 
sixth of the area of Delaware county. 

The assessed valuation of its real estate was in ISDT Sodl, ()()(), 
one-twenty-sixth of the valuation of the county. The personal 
assessment iu the same year was $(13, 000, or oue-thirty-tifth of the 
county; the population in 1890 was 1,507, or one-thirtieth of the 
county. More than one-half of the total area, probably 20,000 
acres, lies east of the river, but census returns show fully as many 
inhabitants on the west side as on the east. 

The greatest width of the town is along the east bank of the 
river, seven miles, the width along the west bank being but live and 
one-half miles, the Delhi line on the east bank being further uj) the 
river than on the west. The greatest length of the towu is from 
the point where Hamdeu, Andes and Colchester corner, near Solo- 
mon Signor's, to the Hamdeu-Franklin line near Edward Howlaud's, 
which is thirteen and one-half miles in air-line. We are unable to 
ascertain what was the population of the towu in l.s;!() when the 
first census was taken after its erection, but subsequent censuses 
show that at that period the population was rapidly increasing. 
Thus, the census of 1835 shows 1,34!) inhabitants; 184(1, l,40!t; 
1845, 1,7(>7; 1850, 1,!U!); since when there was a steady decrease 
until ISJSO. when there were 1,407. Under the census of 18!tO there 
were 1,507, and there is reason for the belief that there has since 
been a small increase. Prior to 1880 the United States censuses 
were taken by the United States Marshal and his deputies, but since 
the wtirk has lieeu done by enumerators appointed within the towu. 
The United States census in both 1880 and 1800 were taken by 
Henry W. Holmes, and the State census of 1875 by Harvey M. 

In March. 182G, the towu was divided into fourteen highway dis- 
tricts, which have since been increased to the number of fortv-seveu. 

Towx OF n.\Miih:x. 385 

111 Julv. lS'J(i, the towu was iliviJed into eight school districts, 
Nos. one, two aud three being the river districts and covering a 
wide expanse of territory on both sides of the river. The first 
change after the original division was the erection of No. nine, 
being that part of No. three lying on the west side of the river from 
DeLancey. The number of districts was graduallj- increased until 
in 1S4.^ No. sixteen was erected in Gregory Hollow, being set off 
from Basin Clove, which remained No. eight. 

The number of districts remains at sixteen, all comniou scliool 
districts, there being no graded school within the town. The 
consolidation of some of the smaller districts, or the adoption of 
the " township system ' has already been agitated aud it is evi- 
dent that a positive change will ere long take place in the local 
school system. 

The first known settler within the town of Hamden was David 
Harrower who came from "down East" with his wife and two 
sons and a cow, in the summer of 1779 according to the most 
authentic records, but well established tradition places his advent 
into the unbroken wilderness at an earlier date. They came down 
the river from Stamford in a canoe, the cow being driven along 
the Indian trail, and camped upon the river tlat on the farm now 
owned by Arthur Shaw, where a cabin was built aud the pioneer 
settlement of the town of Hamden was permanently established. 
For a period of six years this family ha<l no known neighbors 
nearer than Cauuonsville or Stamford. Tradition hath it that in 
1785, while Mr. Harrower was catching fish he observed a large 
fresh chip floating down with the current, which to his alert 
observation was indisputable evidence of the jiroxiniity of other 
white settlers. Starting at once on a trij) of investigation, after 
going up the river about five miles he came to where Bartholcmew 
Yendes had just settled and begun his clearing. It can well l)e 
imagined that the advent of such near neighbors was hailed with 
great gladness by both families, and tliat a frei|uent ami iiiutually 
beneficial intercourse was thereafter maintained. In isdo tlie 


old " Hari'owei' iiiiiiisioii " was erected u|ii>ii tlie kuoll near the 
river, iipou what bail tbeu become a eoniparatively well developed 
and valuable farm. lu 1S18 this tiue estate of SOO acres, com- 
prising the present farms of Arthur Shaw aud William Brvce, 
became the property of Hou. Douald Shaw, aud the Harrower 
Louse was occuj)ied by him for many years, aud was the birth 
place of his children. It is only within the jiast ten years that 
the old "mansion," the oldest in town, was razed. 

William Cornell settled iu 1787 the farm now owned by Donald 
Crawford aud occupied it until 1814. In 182(( it was purchased by 
Donald Crawford senior, aud has always remained iu the (h'awford 
family. The first saw-mill in town was built im this farm by Eos- 
well Peake prior to 1800. 

The Howards, several brothers, were among the earliest settlers 
and occupied a tract of land comprising the present Youmaus, Heu- 
derson and Stewart farms and much of the village of Hamden. 
James Howard is accredited as the first iun-keeper of the town, 
having opened such business as early as 17!)(), probably earlier, ou 
the lot now occupied by Dr. W. D. Heimer. 

Walter Chace first came ft) town iu 17!tl and secured emjiloy- 
ment from Beuajah McCall, making shingles. He I'eceived $4.00 
per month aud board, which may be accepted as the regular com- 
pensatiou for skilled labor at that time. About 1800 he purchased 
of Gershom Howland the farm now owned by his grandson Charles 
W. Chace, where he resided many years and l)ecame one of the 
leading men of the town, holding the office of justice of the peace 
seventeen consecutive years from 1828. His son Harry P. Chace 
succeeded him on the farm aud was also a prominent man, holding 
the office of supervisor iu 1835 aud 1836, and being the last Demo- 
crat ever elected to that office in town. 

Gershom Howland came from Rhode Island iu 179(i with four 
sons — Joseph, Job, Phineas aud Gershom. Phiueas settled on the 
J. B. Hawley place. Job on the farm now owned by James Kent, 
and Gershom on the Charles W. Chace faim, which, however, he 

TOWN OF HA^n>EX. 387 

ssoou sold to \\'ultfi' Cliacc ami rciiKivcd to the t'iiniiau farii] in 
Howliiud Hollow. 

Jiiiiies Musou !iud his son (xeortre came from Schoharie couuty 
ill 17!(.") aud settled iqiou the farm now owned l)y his great-ffraud- 
childreu, John A. aud William (J. More aud their sisters, the 
children of James M. More, who died about 1S(U. This farm 
has therefore remained in the possession of the original settler 
aud his lineal descendants for a period of 108 years. The son, 
(xeorffe Mason, soon after settled upon the farm now owned by 
Henry Loos. The only daughter of .James INfasoD, Jane, married 
Roswell Peake, who settled in 17118 Mpou the J. S. Murray lot 
now owned by R. J. Granlees. 

Henry Wagfoner cai;ic in 179() and settled ou the lower part 
of the Bagley farm, now owned by Wm. •!. Oliver, which soon 
after passed into the possession of .\rchiliald Church, ;ind is des- 
ignated to this day as the Church lot. 

About 1792 Reuben Ward settled on the farms now owned 
by E. J. Combs and Andrew Buckliam. Soon after Ward sold 
the Combs lot to Isaac Roberts. ■Tt)hu Combs came from \ew 
Durham in 1<S(I5 and settled on the Brisack farm, now owned by 
J. H. Turnbull. One sou, John, settled ou the Raitt farm, now 
owned by James A. Nichol. Another son, Anson, purcha.sed of 
Isaac Rol)erts the farm where his sou Edmund J. Combs uow 
lives, and where he was born in ISKi; the house in which he 
was born still standing aud formiug an annex to his present 
residence. Here is a man who for eighty-two years has lived 
on the same farm and practically in the same house. 

The Ebenezer Fraser farnj now owned by Isaac Scobie was 
settled in 17'.l7 by Abraham Barber and his sons Simeou, Oi'bin and 
Minius, who soon settled the adjoining farms and occujiied them 
mauy years. 

Abraham Bush first came to Hamdeu in IHIO aud settled on the 
F. M. Keene place opposite DeLaucey. In 1818 his sou Caspar 
Bush settle<l on the farm now owned by Mrs. Racliel Shaw .-idjoin- 
iug William Vails. 


Nathaniel Steveus iu ISOl settled ou the fanu in Terrv Clove 
now owneil by his graudson Henry M. Stevens. Matthew Tiff was. 
a very early settler ou the farm now owned by John A. Saltou, 
which he sold in 1834 to ^yilliam Lewis, who iu turn sold it to 
Alexander Salton in 1850. Alexander Neish eame from Scotland iu 
182fi and tirst settled iu Andes, Imt in IS'28 removed to Terry Clove 
to the farm on which his son "William Neish uow lives and where he 
has coutiuuously resided since 1S"2H. 

Urbaua Terry came from Connecticut iu 17i)'J and settled ou the 
farm uow occupied by Isaac Belcher. His sons Nathan and Darius 
soon after settled upou the Louis Robisch farm where they 
remained many years, after w hich they emigrated to the West with 
their families. Another son, Samuel, was the first occupant of the 
Robert W. Stevens fai-m. Three sous still reside in town. 

Bartholemew Signor on the John D. Saltou farm and Thomas 
Signor on the Alexander McDougall farm were also very early 
settlers in Terry Clove, and have numerous descendants within 
the town. The Salton family came from Scotland in 1880. The 
four brothers, Alexander, David, William, and John, all married 
and occupied farms iu Terry Clove, and three of them died there 
within the past few years, William having removed to the west 
in 1875. 

Roswell Belcher has resided upou the farm uow occupied 
by him iu Terry Clove since 1819, when his father came there 
from Connecticut. Roswell had three brothers, Elijah, Isaac, 
and Alva. They were the first colored family iu the town and 
have always been respected as an intelligent and upright family. 
Roswell Belcher was the first colored man in Delaware county 
to serve upon a jury. 

James IVforrison, Andrew Christie, Jacob Gray, Archie Lawrence 
and Peter Merritt were the tirst permanent settlers in Basin Clove. 
David Nichol entered Gregory Hollow in 184!) when it was an al- 
most unbroken wilderness. He cleared the hind aud developed the 
farm uow owned bv his sou-iu-law Hugh C. White. 


Village of Delaqcey. 

•2"»= XT rjm*-f» 

Street Viev. ir, liar;\;e; 

7V>ir.V OF IIAMDEN. W.n. 

The t'ovt'its were settlers in Covert Hollow at au early date. 
Uuderhill Covert on tlie Philip McFarlane farm and Ahraliaui 
Covert ou the Allen Anderson place. Tbev were anion^' the best 
men in town and Abraham was one of the three commissioners of 
hi^'liways elected in 18'2(i, at the first town meeting. 

No history of Hamdeu would be complete without mention 
bein;,'- made of •' lame Peter " Lauut and his brothers, Lewis and 
John. Peter carried the Delaware valley mails on horseback 
three times a week to Catskill over the old Catskill turnpike. His 
home is with his brother, Lewis, who married Jauette McFarlaue- 
These three brothers, John aged 94, Peter 88, aud Lewis 85, are re- 
markable for their rugged health and activity and the keenness of 
their mental faculties. 

Malcolm !Mi'l''.-iilane came from Sc(.)tland about ls2() aud settled 
ou the farm at the head of Chambers Hollow where his sou Gilbert 
still resides. 

Eli Baglev came from Hilsdale, Columbia county, in liSUi), and 
having married Eunice Goodrich bought the Henry Wagoner farm. 
Hei'e Edward Baglev was born in 1SL5 aud succeeded his father in 
the ownership of the farm, adding to it the "(ioodrich lot," making 
it one of the most productive aud valuable properties in town. He 
also kei)t puljlic house and conducted a wa^ou sliop ou the site of 
H. Nichol's shop. The latter l)usiness he solil to his son Charles 
about 18(]6, continuing his hotel ami farm until ISSD when he sold 
it to William J. Oliver who came from Boviua. Jlr. Bagley still 
lives within a few rods of his birth-place. He married Orril A. 
Pettis daughter of Joshua Pettis, whose son, Philander B. Pettis, is- 
another native of the town who has for eighty-three years resided 
within sight of his birth-jjlace. He married Barbara Chace, daugh- 
ter of Harry P. Chace. and for a time resided with his father in 
DeLancey, but soon jjiirchased the property now owned by his son. 
H. K. Pettis, where for many years he combined the business of 
farming, lumbering and keeping public house. 

.\llen Stoodley was one of the first settlers in that portion o£ 


the town for luiiuy years kuowu as Stoodley Hollow, l)ut now 
kuowu hv the uame of its post-office, North Haindeii. The Stood- 
Jey faiuily eaiue in 18'21, aud was speedily followed by the Millers, 
Kussells, Fishes, Howlauds, Deuuys, Woods, Ponieroys, Kipleys, 
Bentons and Goldsmiths. The postofliee was established shortly 
after 1S5(I with a weekly mail from Walton. About ISS" another 
postotiiee was established two miles down the brook from North 
Hamden under the name Mundale with Huf>h C. Munu as ])ost- 
master, who was succeeded l>y .1. P. Davidson, Alfred Leseur, and 
last by Rev. Daniel Harris. The first families in this locality were 
the Munns, Eassons, Doigs aud Darts. A blacksmith shop, cooper- 
age aud store comprise the business of the vicinity. A co-operative 
•creamery was conducted for a time about 18510. 

Wakeman Andrews was one of the early settlers in scIukiI dis- 
trict No. 15 on the farm now owned by Donald Crawford and 
known as the Mayham place. His son, Andrew Andrews, settled on 
the farm now owned by Creorge S. Andrews, where he continued to 
reside until his death in IS'.X! at the age of ill years. He accumu- 
lated a tine property, an<l in his prime was one of the prominent 
men of the town. George S. Andrews held the otKce of assessor 
nine years and is one of the most prominent and substantial men in 
the town. 

In 1787 Joseph Fisk came from Bloomville and settled upon the 
farm now owned l)y Joseph A. Kelley. Benajah MeCall is supposed 
to have been one of the very early settlers, the date of his occupy- 
ing the James A. ChamV)ers farm being placed at 17S7. In 1808 
this property was purchased by William Lupton a wealthy emigrant, 
who erected the Lupton mansion, the most elegant residence in the 
Delaware valley, the degree of elegance in those days being in 
jDart measured by the smallness of the window panes aud the acute- 
ness of the gables. This farm was afterward occupied by Robert 
Murray, a prominent builder and once Supervisor of the town; and 
about 1880 it became the property of James A. Chambers, one of the 
energetic and successful young farmers of the town, who removed 


tlic old iiiimsioiL, ( rec'ted uew l)uil(liufj:s aud trausfonned a very 
much ruu down estate iuto a iiiixlel aud productive farm. 

The tirst settlcnieut iu DeLaucev was made iu 17!l(l liy Henry 
aud James Edwards, who settled upon the farm uow owued by 
Cai)tain AVilliaui Hyiuers ami S. P. HowlamI, ami conducted a saw 
mill at the-mouth of the brook ueai- the river brid}j;e. The tirst hotel 
iu DeLaueey was kept by Isaac Goodrich, who came iu 1808 aud set- 
tled on the '-(Toodrich " lot, uow included iu the farm of William 
J. Oliver. 

Jabez Bostwick opened the first store iu DeLaueey in ISOil, l)ut 
soou after removed to the farm uow owued by ^I. ('. ^tcNaiit,'-lit, 
which, however, remained in the Bostwick family uutil liSSO. Jabez 
Bostwick was county judpfe, sheriff, member of assembly and one of 
the most prominent men of the county in his day. Joshua Pettis 
was also a vei\y early settler and soou after IKOd opened a grocery 
business ou the lot between the residences of D. M. Murray and 
Kobert Davidson. .V depression iu the ground still shows the site 
of his builtliuf,''. 

Sheldon Patterson settled ou the Solomon Siguor farm iu ISl'i, 
and kejit jniblic house. 

At the tirst town meeting held March 7, lS'2(i, Jabez Bostwick 
was elected supervisor aud Daniel Coleman, Jr., town clerk. Since 
then twenty ditferent men have beeu elected to the oftice of super- 
visor. Besides the present incumbent Imt four of them survive, 
viz.: Smith M.Titus who served iu IH.'iH, and who for many years 
has resided iu Kansas; Bobert Murraj', uow residing in Walton; H. 
X. Combs, and Donald Crawford who served eight yeai's aud was 
chairman of the board of supervisors two years. Two ex-supervis- 
ors, Alexander Shaw aud Henry Holmes, have <lie(l withiu the past 

The principal town othcers at the present time are as follows: 
Supervisor, William Bryce; Town Clerk, Joseph Davidson; Justices 
of the Peace, Henry W. Holmes, Royal J. Elderkin, Donald Crawford, 
('. S. Hymers; Assessors, James A. Chambers. John .\. Ballantine, 


Robert L. Meiu; Couiiuissiouer of Highways, Friiuk !M. Keeue; 
Overseer of the Poor, Jobu B. Mable; Collector, John A. Butler. 

Tbe removal of tbe " forest primeval " and its manufacture- 
into lumber was the lirst great industry of the early settlers, and 
within a few years of the first settlement nearly every little rivulet 
had its saw mill, and on each of the larger streams were several. 
The manufacture of the lumber gave employment the whole year 
around to all who desired to labor, and the Delaware river was 
a cheap and rapid thoroughfare for transportation to Philadelphia, 
the greatest lumber market of the Atlantic coast. 

Going " down the river" several trips each spring was looked 
forward to with joyful anticipation by the lumbermen. Although 
much hard labor and more or less risk were involved, the pleas- 
ures of the voyage and the excitement of seeing the sights in 
one of the largest cities of the United States, outweighed every- 
thing else with the average raftsman. This industry was at its 
highest point in 1850, and some who can remember claim that 
to have been the most prosperous era of the town's history. Cer- 
tainly there was no scarcity of work and money was plenty, but 
the fact remains that with few exceptions the lumbermen lived 
!i hard life and died poor. Tbe lumber business after 1850 began 
to decline and by 1S70 had substantially ended. But one saw 
mill remains in the entire town, that of H. JI. Seaman at De- 
Laucey, on the site of one of the first mills erected in the town. 
A small amount of ciistom sawing is done at this mill, barely 
sufficient to pay for keeping it in repair, and this mill is the sole 
relict of an industry which at one time, it is estimated, annually 
brought $75,000 of foreign money into the town. 

As the lumber business declined the farmer turned naturally 
to dairying, and from 1800 till 1890 butter making was the one 
great industry. The great prices received for butter during the 
Civil war and for many years thereafter enabled many farmers to 
pay off their mortgages, erect new buildings, purchase new and 
imjiroved implements and machinery and live in greater comfort 

TOWX or IIAMDKX. 8!)5 

iiud with j^ri'utor ('iisc. 15\it in its turn the Imttfi- iiulustiv lias 
.«o ilecliued and tlic protits are so small that is uo longer possible 
to pay for a farm from its products, and with the hope of more 
profitable returus most farmers, whose location permits, have en- 
gaged in the shi]iiiient of milk, and it is probable that at least 
oue-Lalf of all the milk now jtroduced in the town is shipped to 
New York, or manufactured in co-operative creameries. Large 
creameries are conducted at Hamden and DeLancev; others at 
Terrv Clove and ^fuudale at present inoperative will doubtless 
he re-opeued another season. In aihlition to these the Borden 
coudeusary at Delhi daily receives the ])r<Hlu(t frdui thirty to 
forty Hamden dairies. 

A\'ithin the past few years it has been develo])ed that many 
of the hills, praeticidly worthless for farming junposes, are tilled 
with blue stone of the finest quality and suitable foi' flagging, 
curl)ing, or Imilding purj)oses. This business is in its end)ryo 
state, not yet fully devek>ped, but steadily increasing in volume 
and already affordiug emplovmeut to many who would otherwise 
be unable to secure employment within the town. 

The breeding of sheep and the manufacture of woolen cloth and 
yarn which was at one period quite extensively conducted, there 
)>eing one large woolen mill employing several operatives in town, 
has almost entirely ceased, and the mill has Ixen transformed into 
a grain and feed store. 

.\t the first g^eneral election, held in 1H"2(), there were east in the 
town of Hamdeu 142 votes, of whi(di W. B. Rochester received 
ninety-six and DeAVitt Clinton forty-six. The total vote in ISHO 
was 42G, of which (iartield received a majority of 25(!. The vote of 
1SS4 was 41(t, of which Blaine received 272 majority. The vote of 
ISSK was 43K, of which Harrison received 28iS majority, and the 
vote of 1K!)6 was 412, of which McKiuley received a majority of 245. 
The vote of IMSS was the largest of which we have any record and 
was doubtless the largest ever cast iu the town. Piior to IH.'id the 
lowu was usually Dem.ocrati<'. then the Whigs gained the asccml- 


Hucy uuil iu ^eucial maintained it until 1M56, when tlif l{epul)lu'au 
ticket received a niajority of over 'iOO votes. It is a remarkable 
fact, jn'obably witliout a jiarallel in the state, that for more ikan 
forty years no candidate of the Republican party for a state or 
national ofKce has failed to receive in the town of Haniden a 
majority exceedinfif '200, often nearly 8()(), out of a total vote which 
lias never reached 440. And further, no Democrat has been elected 
to the office of supervisor, town clerk, or justice of the peace since 
1836. While in other towns there have been political revolutions 
brought about by general or local causes, the Ke])ul5lieau party iu 
Hamden has never had a reverse or lost any degree of its prestige. 
This is doubtless due to the fact that " Free-soilism " early took root 
in the minds of our voters. The same love of liberty of s])eecli and 
action that caused a large percentage of our voters, or their fathers, 
to emigrate from a land of oppression to a land of freedom, caused 
these voters to early esjjouse and enthusiastically support the cause 
of abolition of slavery and to join and adhere to the political i^arty 
which made the United States in fact a country of free speech and 
free men. 

Less than oue-tliiid of the town's popuUiliou live in villages. Haiiidoii, 
the principal village, has nearly three hundred inhabitants, but is much more 
important as a business center than its size would indicate. Four large 
establishments dealing in general merchandise, one hardware store, one 
furniture and undertaking establishment, two feed and grain dealers, two 
hotels, two blaeksmitli shops, a cooperage and two firms dealing in butter 
comprise the business directory of the village. Two physicians divide the 
medical practice, viz ; W. D. Heimer who came from Andes in LSTfi and has 
ever since practiced iu the town, and enjoys a reputation for success an<l skill 
second to none in the county, and H. C. Neff, who came from Michigan in 1893, 
and has worked into a good practice and is well liked bj- his townsmen. 
There are two churches, the First Presbyterian, erected in lSfi4 and since 
improved and remodeled, is a substantial and attractive Imildiug. Kev. 
George Brown was its first pastor. He came to Hamden in 1854 and preached 
in the old union church Ijuilding until his own church was erected. He con- 
tinued its pastor until 1892 when because of failing health he i-esigned and 
removed to AValton, where he died in 189.5. The present ',3astor is Rev. J. H. 
Turnbull. The Methodist Epi-scopal society occupied the old union church for 
many years prior to 1892 when they liuilt a new edifice of modtu-n architecture. 

Two miles above Hamden on the east side of the river lies the village of 
DeLancey with a population of 175. The location, with its wide stretching 
river Hats which never overflow, perfect drainage and shaded streets, is <me of 

yoir.v OF IIAMDEN. :m)7 

tlie lliirst in till' i-oiirity I'm- a lai't,'i' villai,'i', lnit with im iiiaiiiitai-lorv nr Imsi- 
noss outerpri-si' to siiiiporl a lait,'i'r iiii|iiilaUoii, tlu'ie i>. no f;iovvlli ami no 
prospect of any. Ouo ncuoral ini'icliandisi! establishment, one jjrocciy, a 
piitilic house, a blaoksmith shop, a cooperage ami a K'''*t mill arc the principal 
Imsincss estftblishmcuts. H. M. Seaman for many years <'oii(luct<'(l licre thi' 
only tannery in town, but tlie supply of liark becoming exhausted he creclcil a 
large grist mill on the site of his tannery and utilized his water powiT for 
griniling grain. This is the only mill in town and is largely patronized. He 
is also an extensive dealer in flour, feed and grain. The United Presbyterian 
church society of DeLaucey erected a building in 1H4S which was remodeled in 
1KH2 aud was used until December 24, 1H()6, when it was totally destroyed by 
lire, which was firet discovered about eight o'chiek .\. M. .\ new building was 
inmiediately planned and was built during the suninier of l.S!)7 at a cost of 
nearly ST.tUlll for building and furnishing. It was deiiicated October 14, 1897, 
and has since been used. Kev. Dr. Thomas Park, of Walton, was pastor of 
this church from 1H7H till 1H92 and under his ministry the membership was 
greatly increased. The present pastiir is Rev. N. L. Heidgcr, who came from 
Philadelphia in November, lH!t.">. The Christian church of DeLancey was 
erected in 1H44 aud was regularly supplied by preachers of that denomination 
until 1H77, since when it has lieeii occupied only at long intervals. Its last 
pastor was Rev. James Topping, who regularly supplied its pulpit during the 
year 18911. The only other church in town is one of the United Presbyterian 
ilenomination at llundale, erected in 1881 when the society was first formed. 
Its pastor is Eev. Daniel Harris who came thereto from Kock Rift in IS'.Ki. 

There arc lour post-olliccs in the town, viz: Hamden, DeLancey, Mundale, 
and North Hamden. The first two arc money onier ollici's, the others are not. 
Donald Crawford, Henry W. Holmes, Daniel Harris and Amos P. Wood are the 
respective postmasters at the ofBces in the order named. 

The building of the New York & Oswego Midland Eailroad was a matter of 
much interest to the people of Hamden, aud when it was decided that the road 
would follow the Siilney-Wallon and Hancock route, the tow-n was bon<ied to 
aid ill the constructiim of the Delhi branch. It was represented that the town 
would receive stock in the new roa<l to an amount equal to the amount of 
lionds issued, which could in a very few years \>c sold at par, thus realizing 
the sum neces.sary to retire the town's bonds at very little actual cost to the 
town. On these iepresentati<ms the necessary consent of the ta.xpayers was 
secured and SKHl.diMi of coupon bonds were issued by William Li-wis, Marshall 
Shaw and James Chambers as Railroad Commissioners, bearing date of issue 
■lanuary 1, 1H(>9, due twenty-five years after issue with no option of redemp- 
tion, rate of interest seven per ci-nt., payable semi-annually. .\s early as 1880 
the town was desirous of refunding this issue of bonds, but the holders would 
not accept payment and <ml.y $11,1100 had been surrendered and retired when 

the entire issue fell due. The original railroad company having sp lily 

become bankrupt and the road having passed into other hands, it was snp- 
|Hise<l that the stock ai'(|uired by the town was of no value, but in 18HI William 
Lewis as Railroad Commissioner sold it for five and oni'-fourtli |>i r leni,, thus 
realizing S-i.2.i0, which, together with the- railroad ta.\ rebates, were invested 
us a sinking fiinil for the li(|uidatioM of the town's lionded debt. When the 


JiODils IVU due Jjinuary 1, IM'.l-l, this sinkius,' fund Miiidurdrd to alicmt *r,,il(l(i. 
leaving $85,()l)U of the bonded debt still unprovided for. New lion<l.s to that 
amount were issued to the Comptroller of New York State and the proceeds 
■used to redeem and retire the old bond issue which has been done with the 
exception of one SlOO bond which has never been presented. The new bond 
issue bears interest at three and om^half per cent., and fi.lKlO of the principal 
-sum is payable each year until May 1, 11)14, when the entire sum falls due. It 
will readily be seen that our town has paid dearly for their railroad, liut we 
believe the concensus of opinion is that it has been a good investment, and if 
to-day the people of the town could get back their money by relinquishing the 
road they would undoubtedly refuse to do so. 

It is estimated that not less than one hundred men were enlisted from 
Haniden in the civil war. most of them serving in the 72d, H9th, 101st and 
144th Regiments New York Volunteers, and more in the last named than in 
any other organization. As a matter of fact Companj- C of the 144th Regiment 
was very largely made up of Hamden men and was commanded first by Captain 
Thomas Lewis and later by Captain M. C. Lewis. The regiment was, during a 
portion of the war, commanded by Colonel James Lewis, now a distinguished 
Presbyterian clergyman residing at Joliet, Illinois. These three Lewises were 
all natives of and enlisted from the town of Hamden. Most of the veterans 
residing in town belong to Bryce Post, No fil2. G. A. R. 

Donald Shaw, hereinbefore referred to, was for many years the most prom- 
inent and for a long time wielded a greater influence than any other man in 
town. He came from Scotland in 180<j, and to Hamden in 18"20. purchasing the 
narrower estate and engaged extensively in lumbering and tanning. Business 
and politics being then as now almost inseparable, he became a political leader 
^nd was elected supervisor in the years 1837, 1838, 1839 and 1842, and in 1847 
represented the First district of Delaware county in the New York Assembly. 
He died about 1866 leaving an estate valued at $100,000. His son Donald D. 
.Shaw, a young man of exceptional ability and just graduated from Yale college 
was elected to the Assembly of 1860, but died before the opening of the session. 

William Lewis was another Scotchman who became prominent and influen- 
tial in the town and county. Born in 1827 and emigrating in 1834, he lived on 
the farm in Terry Clove now owned by John A. Salton until 1850 when he 
engaged in the mercantile business in the village of Hamden. He soon became 
a recognized leader of the Republican part,y, and in 185G was elected to the 
office of justice of the peace in which he continued eight years. From 1863 till 
1866 he was United States assessor of internal revenue. In 1871, 1872 and 1880 
Jie was elected to the Assembly of New York. From 1875 till 1881 inclusive he 
was supervisor of the town and was chairman of the lioard in 1877 and 1878. 
In 1887 he was elected to the State Senate and for two j'ears represented the 
Delaware-Chenango-Broome district. He had sold his mercantile business in 
1874 but for se\eral years thereafter had dealt largely in Delaware county 
butter, being for a time the most extensive dealer in the town, if not in the 
county. During his senatorial term his health failed and steadily declined 
until he died, December 11, 1891. He despised deceit and hypocrisy, was a 
steadfast and loyal friend, never making a promise whicli he did not fullill, 
.and died univer.sally respected for his ability and integrity. 






I^Y Mon. Wcslcv ciouUI. 

THE town of Hancock \v!is formiMl iu ^larcL, ISOd. It was 
iiaiiu'd after tlie cclcliratcd .Tt)bu Hancock, anil hears tlic 
same relatiou to towns iu jjiMicral that the sifjuature of Hancock 
to the Declaration of Independence bears to oi'dinay siijnatures. 

The town contains nearly ITU sqiiare miles of territory, and 
the Delaware river, including the West and East branches thereof, 
flows u]iwanls of forty miles through the town and along its 
southerly border. 

With its lofty and extensive mountain ranges, its numerous 
valleys, beautiful lakes, hundreds of springs and streams of the 
coldest, purest and sweetest water, teeming with tine trout and 
various other fish, its immense forests of oak, pine, hemlock, 
maple, beech, birch, basswood, cherry, ash, and other valuable 
timber, abounding with deer, wolves, bears, wild turkeys, part- 
ridges and other game, it presented a fine and desirable field 
for the hardy pioneer and the bold huntsman; but liad few at- 
tractions for the weak and etTeminate of the human race. 

But little is known, at the present time, of the savage tril)es 
who for long centuries fished in its waters and hunted in its 
forests. "The steel of the white man hath swept them away." 
A few small clearings, remnants of Indian villages, and a small 
number of .scattered, roving red men, uniler the chieftain Canope, 
were still found along the river by the early settlers of the town. 

Until the latter part of the eighteenth century this vast do- 
main was comparatively unknown to the white man. In the early 
<lays of the American Revolution a few hardy spirits settled in 
the town. The first permanent settler was Josiah Parks, who 
21 *'" 


hiiviug beeu au otticer in the British iiMvv, was coiiiiiiouly kuowit 
as "Bo'seii" Parks. The only two otlier white men that are known 
to have settled in the town prior to the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, were John Johnston, who was killed by the Indians, and 
one Cadoce, whose cabin was located at the mouth of the creek 
now bearin^^- his name. Nothing furtlier is known of him. and 
it is thought that he too was killed by the Indians. 

Josiah Parks was a man of heroic mold, a man that would leave 
his impress upon any people that he came in contact with. Many 
of his descendants are still living in the town of Hancock, and a 
history of the town would be very incomplete without at least 
a short sketch of this hardy pioneer. He was born in New Lon- 
don, Conn., in the month of February, 1745. At an early age 
he and his brother Silas entered the British naval service in an 
expedition against the Spaniards. After an unsuccessful assault 
upon the Spanish fort at Havana, young Parks stvidied out a 
plan by which he thought he could capture the fortress. The 
British officer, learning of his plan, gave him sufficient men, and 
Parks landing his men on the mainland made an assault wpon 
the Spanish works and captured them. For this act of bravery 
he was promoted. Shortly thereafter his brother Silas died and. 
was buried at sea. On reaching home he left the British ser- 
,vice, married and moved to Shawangunk, in Ulster county,, 
where he remained until the breaking out of the Revolution. 
He procured from the government, service as a scout among the 
Indians and tories, and did much valiant work in that capacity. 
Up to the day of his death the word " tory ' would arouse in 
him the fiercest passions of his tiry natui'e. After the battle 
of Minisiuk he moved his fanjily to Equinunk, coming up the 
river in a canoe with his family and all their belongings, and 
finding shelter in a cave in the rocks. Shortly thereafter he built a 
log cabin on the line of what is now the town of Hancock. While 
at this point a friendly Indian inforniiMl him of the intended In- 
dian raid upon the "Wyoming Valley. He at once started to inform 

7V;\r.\' OF l/A.\('<icK. 4();{ 

the iiiiliiij)i>v people of tlieir iiii]H'U(liii<,' diuif^cr, Imt :ilas, tliey 
woiilil not believe the tale, iiutl history loconls the terrible disaster 
that befell tbeni shortly thereafter. Only two fai'iilies believed 
aud jjrotited by the warning-, viz: Fiillertou and Whitaker, who 
cftiue away with him, the Fullertou family facing to Orange eounty 
and Whitaker to Hhehocking. Numerous descendants of these 
families still live. 

Ill 17S4 a Bajitist miuister, by the name of Ezekiel Sampson 
settled on the flats a short distance below where Haucock 
village now is, but he remained there only a few years, and then 
removed to Chemung county in 178i). In 17,s7 Judge Samuel 
Preston came to Stockport to survey the lands in that vicinity, one 
Edward Doyle from Doylestown, Pennsylvania, coming with him. 
In 178!) Judge Preston determined to establish a colony, locating 
himself across the river at Stockport. Young Doyle determined to 
remain with him, and thereafter only went back to Doylestown for 
an occasional visit. He settled at a point two and one-half miles 
below Shehocton, now Haucock village, on the farm now occupied 
by Frank Doyle, one of his descendants. Soon after he married 
Elizabeth Shaffer, and many of their descenchiuts still reside in the 
town. Edward Doyle was the first member of the Legislature from 
this town. He had three sons, Edward, John and Samuel, the last 
named being the third memlier of the Legislature from the town, 
and three daughters, Abigail, Elizabeth and Mary. His wife 
the first nieiidier of the Methodist Episcopal iliurch in tlii' town, 
she having been a memlter of that church at Canaan, Pennsylvania, 
where she regularly attended the Quarterly Conferences, going and 
returning on horseback. The Methodist church was first organized 
in IS.'U, at Hancock village, then a small liainlet. When they 
proceeded to organize they discovered that there was no copy of 
the Church Discipline in the place, so they posted a man on horse- 
back to the Doyle residence to procure one, in the nieautnne having 
a very enthusiastic meeting, singing hymns and giving testimony. 
That small l)eginning has grown into a church at the same place 
with a present membership of al)Out 30(1. 


lu tlic latter ])art of the eigbtecutb ceuturv one Ezra May 
located iu the town, teaching school in 1800 and ISOl at Sliehoctim, 
now Hancock village. He afterward became the tirst deacon of the 
Presbyterian church there. He also gave the old cemetery to the 
people for a burying ground for their dead. John Duseubury 
started the first store in the town. It wasn't much of a store, but 
no doubt was considered quite an acquisition l)y the settlers. 

Captain John Knight, from near Philadelphia, settled below 
Stockport about 1785. Numerous descendants of his still reside iu 
the town and have always been considered people of tine tastes and 
habits. About ITIH) Aaron Thomas and Moses his brother settled 
above Doyle along the river. Many of the Thomas family still 
reside in the town and are considered good substantial citizens. 
Along the East branch of the Delaware, settlement l)egan about 
the same time. 

Henry B. Bascom, D. D., one of the Bishops of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, South, was born iu Hancock May 27, 17f)(i. He 
was licensed to preach in 1813, and iu 18"28 was elected Chaplain to 
Congress. In 1827 he was called to the presidency of Madison 
College, Pennsylvania, and in 1842 became president of Transyl- 
vania University. He was editor of Quarterly Review of tlie 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 184(i-1850, and was elected a 
Bishop May, 1859. He died September 8th, 1850. 

The first settlement made in the upper end of the town, was by 
Abraham Sprague at Long Flats, iu 1788. His grand-son, A. 
Sisrague, is still living iu the town, in his eighty-sixth year. 
Abraham Sprague came direct to this place from Newburgh, upon 
his discharge from the Continental army. The tract of land upon 
which he settled, consisting of 261| acres, was granted to one John 
Burch, Esq., of Loudon, by Queen Anne, and was excepted out of 
the Hardenberg Patent. Burch conveyed the same to William 
Cockburn in 1772, and Christopher Tappan as agent for Cockburu 
sold the same to Mr. Sprague in 1777, while he, Sprague, was iu 
the army. Mr. S23rague soon after his settlement there sold 


Village of East Braqcf). 


Fii'iii iSkUxtm timiii 

Village o; i :sri i-. i ;y 

Tl')^y^' or ii.wcorK. 407 

portious (if tlif Tjoiil; I''l:it tn Titus Williams (f^Tiimlfatht'r of ('dloiiel 
'Williniiis now icsitliiij,' ut Kiist Hiaucli ) and Charles and James 
Sutton who settled tbereon about ITil"). In ISOO Titus Williams 
autl one Stephenson built tlii' first j^n-ist mill near there, and 
Ste]>hens(Ui run the same until his (h-ath, which occurred some 
years hlter by drowniuff at Early's ford. He attempted to cross 
ujjon the ice, but it tjave way and he fell in. His liat bein{>- found 
later upon the remaining ice at this point told the tale of his 
unfortunate death. His body was found the next sprinf^ at the 
head of Cochectou Falls. It was upon discovery buried at a point 
between high and low water mark, that being supposed to be 
the reijuirements of the law at that time. Silas Bouker, Major 
Laudtield and Jesse Baxter settled at Harvard in 1790. About two 
years thereafter Ichabod Benton, Solomon Miller and Elijah 
Thomas settled what is known as the Martin Flat near Harvard. 
In the same year James Miller, great-grandfather of S. Gordou 
Miller, and his two brothers settled at the juncture of the East 
branch and Beaverkill on the site of an ancient Indian village 
calle<l " Pacatacau," and on the exact sjiot where now stands the 
thriving village of East Branch. 

.Vl)out the same year, 17'.l'2, Jonathan Bolton settled on Bolton 
Flat, and one Gilbert Early on the Early Flat, about njidmay 
between East Branch and Fish Ed<ly. This flat contained several 
hundred acres of jiroductive laud, and was considered one of the 
finest along the East Branch for many miles. But a little over 
one-half of it now remains. Little by little, slowly but surely, 
each year during the past century, the Delaware river has been 
collecting the interest on the mortgage whicli she holds upon 
what was once the best farm in the whole town, and whose fertile 
acres once "filled heaping full the old cherry chest of Uncle 
(till " with l)right and shiny silver dollars. 

The first settler at Fish Eddy was Jonas Lakiu, better known 
as Squire Lakin, who cleared a small place near the mouth of 
the brook, and erected a store, thought by some to have been 


the tirst store iu towu. About the year 179"2 Ebeuezer Wlieeler, 
emigratiuf)' from Massachusetts, settled iu the towu and built a 
saw mill at Partridfje Island. The Wheeler house now staudiuj^' 
upou the banks of the river there being the oldest house iu towu. 

At Pease Eddy, a little farther down the river, Aarou Pierce 
was the first settler, after wliom came ^Ir. Pease, Asa Apjjley 
and Ezra Maine. 

About this time there came to Cadosia and Hancock the 
Leonards, Hawks and Sands, all of whom have numerous descen- 
dants iu the town. 

Prior to the beginning of the present century the settlements 
have all been along the river and its principal branches, but 
little being known of the immense tract lying along the section 
known at the present time as the French Woods and Goulds. 
That vast territory beiug well watered, and mostly covered with 
hardwood timber, is much the best part of the town for agricul- 
tural purposes. Numerous streams starting along this elevation 
flow northwesterly into the East Branch, and southerly into the 
Delaware. At the heads of many of these streams are tiue lakes 
and good farming lauds, l)ut m following the same as they uear 
the river the valleys become narrow, and the mountains upon 
each side steep and high so that the land is practically untillable, 
and this is so with each of the score or more of streams rising 
iu the highlands and flowing into the river, as already stated. 
This vast section of several thousand acres was deemed of little 
value by the early settlers. There being no roads, nor means of 
getting the timber to the river, it remained comparatively an 
unbroken wilderness for many years after the settlements along 
the river. In the early part of the preseut century David, Asher 
and Loring Leonard settled the westerly part of this section, 
known as the French Woods. Shortly thereafter colonies of 
French and Germans, principally from New York city, settled 
there, many clearing their lauds and making permanent homes. 
In this place the first Catholic church iu the town was erected. 

TOW.y (ly iiAxrocK. 409 

and recently ix INrptbodiat Episcopal tlimcli bus been erected 

lu the fall (if 1S42 .Jdlui (nmbl, baviuj^' excbauged twn brick 
bouses in tbc citv of Newlmr^di for a large tract of wild land, in 
the central jiart of tbe bij^-blands between the rivers, now known as 
Goulds, removed bis family there. In the early part of October, 
haviuy arrived at ^^'('sttield Flats, and tbe end of tbe roads and 
civilization, be tof^etbcr with bis family consisting of a wife, one 
daughter and seven sons, started with a caravan of six ox teams 
and sleds. Cutting their way through the forests, they arrived at 
their destination October 18th, having been three days and two 
nights on the journey through the wilderness from "Westfield Flats. 
The smoke curling from the nearest cabin was at least three miles 
distant, and there were but two or three neigbl)ors within four or 
five miles. With the pioneer spirit and lofty puritanism be left the 
culture and civilization of the beautiful Hudson valley, thinking 
that he might better rear his large family of boys 

" Far from the mad'niii^ crowd's ignoble strife." 
About ten years thereafter he was suddenly killed by logs rolling 
on him at a saw mill near Peakville. Seven of his sons served in 
the Union army, in the civil war. One afterward became a doctor 
and one a lawyer. 

Within a few years after ^Ir. (lould mo\ed into this section (piite 
a nund)er of families, mostly from Hehobarie county, settled there, 
generally engaging in farming, and at the jjresent time this is the 
best agricultural and most beautiful part of the town. Uj) to this 
time and for some years after this part of tbc town abounded in 
game, especially deer. The writer when a boy well remembers 
seeing six fine deer all in one drove in his father's fields, grazing as 
contentedly as if the land had been cleared and seeded for their 
special benefit. This settlement closed the period of pioneering, as 
the town had uo more large isolated tracts lying wild and unoccu- 
pied. Those coming later knew little of tbc privations and bard- 
ships endured by the early settlers. 


Agriculture b;is uot attained to very great iniportaiicc iu the- 
towu, liaviuj^- t^enerally beeu made secondary to luiuberiut^- and 
other employments. Mucli of tlie bind along the river is uot 
adapted to farming, the Hats being not very extensive and the 
mountains being steep and rough. The lands adapted to farming 
were settled very much later, and while promising to l)e very 
valuable iu future, are in many instances still uncleared, or if 
cleared not fully subdued and cultivated. One of the great draw- 
backs is the poor roads. The country being sparsely settled and 
the roads new and rough, will require much labor to make traveling 
very desirable or pleasant for years to come. 

The chief industries in the towu during the first three-quartei's 
of the present century, were tanning and rafting lumber dowu the 
Delaware. For many years millions of feet of hemlock, pine and 
hardwood were annually run to the down river markets, the 
heiulock bark being used principally at home in the tanneries. As 
the tanning business and the rafting of lumber declined, the manu- 
facture of hardwood, by chemical processes, into acetate of lime, 
wood alcohol and charcoal developed into an extensive business. 
There is at this time nine large factories in the town, costing, with 
equipments, several hundred thousand dollars, and giving employ- 
ment to hundreds of men. If the destructive forest fires could be 
entirely suppressed, this iudusti'y might continue for countless 
ages, as the natural reproduction of wood, from lauds cut over, 
would be sutKcieut to furnish the wood for an ecjual number of 
factories indefinitely. 

Another industry of much inq)ortance, aud of great lieuefit, has 
lately been developed into substantial magnitude, viz. : quarrying 
of blue stone. While this business already has attained to inqiort- 
auce, aud gives emjiloymeut to many men, it may no doubt be 
considered still in its infancy. The hills and mountains of the 
town are seemingly full of fine stone quarries, hundreds aud 
j)robably thousands of them yet unopened, and many of those 
opened are luit partially developed or exhausted. 

roir.v oh' iiaxcock:. 411 

There are still a iiuiiil)er of saw mills iu fi)\vii; ulso a lew 
wood workiug estal)lisbnieuts. Of the hitter the town has far 
too few. With iiuliiiiited water power, t;ood facilities for ship- 
l)iiig and plenty of timber, this industry should be eucouraj^ed, 
as it could give steady employment to uuiiierous perscms, witliout 
sucli a great waste of timber as was occasioned by the rafting 
of the lumber down the river, or by sliip]nng it. only partially 
luauufactured, from the mills. 

The growth of Hancock has been steady and sure. The two 
principal villages, Hancock and East Branch, are putting up a 
few new liuildiugs each year and making material growth and 
develojjmeut. Each Federal census has shown au increase iu 
population and wealth in the town. The census of 1S!)1) shows 
the population to have been -IJiii, two hundred more than the 
next largest town in the county. 

Since the Declaration of Indejieudence the growth of the 
United States has been about twenty fold, wliilc that of Hancock 
has been one thousand fold. Judging fi'oni tiic past and the 
present outlook, it is safe to predict that in the near future the 
town of Hancock will l)c the banner town of tlu' county, both in 
population and wealth. 

The liistory of Hancock presents, it is true, but little that is 
startling or gi-and. Her early settlers were nicn of robust strength 
and rugged honesty. They i)ossessed few of the comforts of life 
and none of its luxuries; still we jire not sure but they got as 
much real enjoyment out of life as those a)i])arcntly nu)re favored 
wlio are surfeitecl with the hixui-y of civ ili/.ation .nid rctiiicini'nt. 

The town of Hancock is not resting satistieil witli her ])ast. 
Like a young giant she is tirndy planting her feet, squaring her 
slioulders and jireparing for the onward march of civilization and 
prosperity. She has no old castles, no lofty monuments, speaking 
of mighty events already achiev(<l, no traditions or old wives' fables. 
Forward! is the word of command along the lines of business, 
education, religion and home life. 


Half a ceDturv ago tlicic was uo railroad witbiu lur liorders. 
Ti)-(lay the Erie railway, tnivcrsiu^' the town from east to west, has 
iijiwards of twenty miles of double track thereiu. The Ontario aud 
Western aud the Seniutou branch have about twenty miles of siui,'le 
track in town, making with the Erie forty miles of railroad in town 
with nine stations. At that time the only means of crossiuji; the 
river were by canoe, by boat or by fcirdiuf^-. Now there is one 
suspension bridge across the West l)ranch and one across the main 
river. These were erected by private capital. There are also three 
iron liridges across the East l)ranch and <me across the month of 
the Beaverkill, erected by the town. The total expense of these 
bridges was about S10(),0()(l. 

A century ago there were only two schools in town. Now there 
is a fine Union Free School at Hancock village and twenty-one 
common schools in the town. At that time there was not a cliiirch 
in the entire town, now there are thirteen churches, and religious 
services are held at a number of places in the public school 
houses. Then there were but a score of voters, now some 1,500. 
Then the entire property in town was valued at a few thcjusaud 
dollars, now the assessed valuation exceeds one million dollars. 

The future of Hancock ought to be, and is bright. With her 
large territory, her great natural resources, her diversified in- 
dustries, her numerous streams, furnishing unlimited power, her 
fine railroad facilities, her exhaustless stores of the finest blue 
stone, and her boundless forests, she ought not for ages to come 
close her pages of history, aud sit down content with achieve- 
Juents gained or laurels won. 

Nations, states, cities, towns and villages, yea, man himself, 
must either advance or recede. All things animate or inanimate 
are at this moment either growing, developing, perfecting, or 
receding, decaying, disintegrating. Happy indeed the condition 
of that people, or individual, who looks to the achievements and 
successes of the future in.stead of dwelling among the dead 
things of the past 

Village oj Harpers] leia. 


Village of Nortl\ Harpersfield. 


IjV AlUn .■^. <.al)l).s. 

THE history of Harperstield l)egins at a iiieetiu^- between the 
Hai-jjers ami the OuoughquaRe ludians, presiiiuably in 
17(i(5, at which au agreement was made for the purchase of the 
lands named in their petition to the Governor and Council of 
the province, which was granted. The follow-ing consent and 
deed has been copied from the originals owned by Mr. D. N. 
Gaylord, a great grandson of Col. Harper, such consent being 
necessary to enable them to olitalu a valid title from the gov- 

By his excelloiicy, Sir Henry M()<irc, Barojict, C'aiilaiii-(;cii.Tal 
. ) and G(ivernor-in-Chief of the Province of New Yoi-k and the 

]- Tfrritorics depondinK thereon in America, Chancellor and Vice- 
1 arms. I i r. 

' ' Admiral of the same: To all to whom these presents may i-omc 

or may concern. Greeting. 

Whereas, John Har|)er, Sen., Wiliiam Harper, John Harper, Jr., Joseph 
Harper, and Alexander Harper, by their humble petition, presented unto 
me and read in Council on this day, have set forth that there are yet certain 
lands unpurchased of the native Indians of Onoughiiuane, of which they are 
the proprietors, situate, lyinn and being in the county of Albany', upon the 
head of the Delaware river ; and the said Indians being disjiosed to sell the 
same, the petitioners, with thi-ir partners, are desirous to purchase one 
hundred thousand acres, or a smaller <|uantity, as it may In; found, in order 
to enable them to obtain his Ma.iesty's letters patent for the said lands, that 
they may settle, cultivate and improve the same; or any other unpurchased 
lands Ijelonging to the said Indians where they may be disposed to give them, 
not exceeiling the said (piantity ; and therefore humbly prayed my license for 
the purpose aforesaid. 

I have tlieiefore thought fit, by and with the advice of his Majesty's 
Council, to grant, and I do by these presents give and grant unto the said 
John Harper. Sen., William Harper, John Harper, Jr.. Joseph Harper, and 
.\lexandei- Harper, full power, leave and license to purchase in his Majesty's 
name from the native Indian pro|)rietors these of the lands aforesaid; pro- 
vided the said purchase to be made within one year from the date hereof, and 
<:'onformably to the regulations contained in his Majesty's proclamation of 



till' 7tli of Ot-ti)lior, 17<"i3 : or that tlii' partitas do jirodm-e a certifii-ato signed by 
Sir William Johnson, Baronet, his Majesty's sole Agent or Siiperinteudeut of 
Indian Affairs for th ! Northern Department, that thi^ Indians to be brought 
liefiire me for the sale of the said lauds are chiefs of or belong to the tribe or 
nation who are the owners and proprietors of the said lands, and that they 
have authority from such tribe or nation to dispose thereof, and for so doing 
thih shall be to them a sufficient license. 

Given under my hand and seal at arms, at Fort George in the city of New 
York, the ninth day of April, one thousand seven hundred and sixty-seven. 

(Signed) H. Moore. 

By his Excellency's command 

G. Basyar. D. Sect'ry. 

The time given iu the foregoing whs probnMy extended, us the 
purchase was completed iu presence of the (xoveruor, at the house 
of Sir William Johnson on the 14th day of June, 17()8, for the 
purchase of 250,000 acres extending from the east line of Harpers- 
field, down the Charlotte and Suscj[uehanua, one mile from each, — 
Sir William Johnson had the mile, — to the mouth of the Ouleout; 
thence direct to and down a creek called Canaskully, — Trout 
Creek (?) — to the Delaware river; theuce up to Lake Utsayautha. 
The Harpers' laud was run out the same year and Governor Moore 
having died, a deed reciting the before named facts and setting out 
their laud was granted by Cadwalader Colden, Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor, Andrew Elliott, Keceiver General, and Alexander Colden, 
Surveyor General, as commissioners, which concludes as follows: 

■• In pursuance whereof, and in obedience to his Majesty's said instructions 
we. the said Commissioners, do hereby certify that we have set out for them, 
the said John Harper, Sen., William Harper. John Harper. Jr., .Joseph Harper, 
Alexander Harper, Andreas Rebar, William (iolt, Thomas Hendry, John Wells, 
Robert Campbell, James Scott, John Wells, Jr., Joseph Harper, Jr., John 
Thompson, Robert Thompson, John Thompson. Jr.. James Moore, Robert 
'Wells, .James Harper, Timothy Mcllvain. John Rebar and Johannes Wahad. 
all that certain tract or parcel of land within the Province of New York situate, 
lying and being in the county of Albany, between the Cookquago branch of 
Delaware river and the branch of the Susquehanna river called Adiquitange, 
beginning at a rock maple tree marked on four sides with a blaze and three 
notches and with the letters au<l figures A. C. 17(!8. standing on a high point 
of laud at the south side of a small pond of water called by the Indians Utsay- 
autha, from whence the said branch of the Delaware called by the Indians 
Cookquago issues, and runs thence North thirty degrees West, five hundred, 
and forty-nine i-hains; thence South eighty-six degrees West, two hundred. 

rnir.V (IF IIAin'ERSFIKLD. 417 

AwA lifty eliains; thence South sixty-tliree degrees West, one huudreil and 
eleven chains; thence Sixith thirty degrees East, seven hundred chains, to a 
tract of six tliousand acres of land granted in the year one thousand seven 
hundred and forty to Areut Bradt, Volkerl Van Vechlen and others: thence 
aliini; the Northern and Eastern bounds of the last mentioned tract. Xorth- 
easterly and Westerly as they run. to thi' said lirancli of Delaware river called 
L'ooki|uago ; thence up the Northern bank of the said branch as it winds and 
turns to the rock maple tree where this tract tirst began, containing twenty- 
two thousand a<-res of land and the usual allowance for highways. And in 
setting out the said tract or parcel of land, we, the said Commissioners, have 
had regard to the profitable and unprofitable acres, and have taken care that 
the length thereof doth not extend along the banks of any rivei- otherwise 
than is conformable to his Majesty's instructions. 

Given under our hands at the City of New York the t wcMty-ninih day of 

November, one thousand si-ven hundred and sixty-nine, In the tenth year of 

the reign of i>ur Sovereign Lord George the Third, by the Grace of God. of 

Great Britain. Frani'c, an<l Ireland, King. Del'i>nder of the faith, and so forth. 

( Signed i C.\dw.\lladek Cot^df.n, 

Andrew Elliot. 

Alexander Golden." 

A pateut was soou after granted giviufj eacli of the patentees 
1.(1(1(1 acres, though most of them afterward deeded their rights to 
the Harpers. The patent reserved to the King all mines of gold 
and silver and all pine trees tit for masts, of twentv-foiir inches 
diameter and upwards twelve inches from the earth, for masts for 
the royal navy. The grant is also subject to a (luit rent of two 
shillings and sixpence sterling, yearly for each 10(1 acres, and is 
erected into a township forever. 

This township is to elect annually two assessors, two overseers 
of highways, two overseers of the poor, one collector, one treasurer, 
and fiiur coustaldes, to l)e chosen at the most public place in the 
township. Vacancies are to be tilled by election within forty (biys 
after they occur. 

Digging the gold or silver, cutting the pine tit for masts, or 
default in (luit rent renders the patent void. 

Ill 1771 Cdlniiel Harper removed his family from C'lierry \alley 
for the i)urpose of making a permanent settlement, and having the 
patent divided into lots and highways: Adonijah Stanburrough 
acting as surveyor assisted by several men, one of whom was David 


Rev. Harper Boies, who married a graud-dan^liter of C'olouel 
Harper and who took a deep iutereti' in the early history of the 
town and chureh, says; "The Cohmel first erected a shelter for his 
family in the form of a wigwam, and there lived till a house could 
be built; but not long after their arrival the Colonel was called 
away on business. His wife then superintended the erection of a 
dwelling, directing the men whom the Cohmel had brought with 
him to assist the surveyor, and before her husband's return the 
walls were fully raised. The house was soon roofed and fitted for 
the residence of the first white family that ever made a home in 
Harperstield. This house stood at the southeast corner of Lot Xo. 
133, near a small stream which crosses the turuj)ike below the 
Center, west of and near the cemetery. Part of the foundation is 
still visible crossed by a wall about ten rods north of the turnpike. 
The i^lace is now owned by Gideon E. Wickham, who says that 
lately he plowed up some bricks near the wall. A part of the house 
now occupied by him was built by Colonel Hari:)er." 

From this time forward settlers came in rapidly and lands were 
cleared till the Revolution. Nearly the whole tract was heavily 
timbered, and till crops could be raised, all the tiour had to be 
brought from Schoharie on the backs of horses or men. 

The following was related to Jay Gould by !Mr. Boies: 

■'The lirst wiuter succeeding the removal of the Harpers was very severe. 
Tlie arraugements they had beeu able to make proved hardly sufficient for 
the privations they were compelled to endure. « « « * Winter set in 
earlier than expected, and the snow fell to such depth as to render it almost 
impossible to reach any settlement, of which there was none nearer than 
Schoharie, nearly thirty miles away. 

In the midst of this dilemma their stock of provisions became reduced to 
a little corn, which was powdered in a mortar and made into jolumy cake. 
* * * * At last, but one small loaf of johnny cake was left, and the wife 
who had borne up well to now, began to yield. She had concealed the state 
of their provisions from her husband till it was useless to conceal longer, and 
she told him this small loaf was all; and the children were crying for that, 
but she dared not give them that for fear they might need it more hereafter. 
The father now resolved to travel to Schoharie on snow shoes on the morrow, 
and divided the loaf among the fandly but keeping none himself. « « « « 
In the meantime the Schoharie settlers being aware that their ni'ighbors in 

roir.Y OF llMiPERSFIKLD. X\\\ 

the ' Bush." as Harperslleld was usually called, must be slioit of provisions, 
had determined to go to their relief the same day that the last of the johnny 
laki' was eaten. Aoeordingly, early on the day in question, a eomiiany set out 
from Sehoharie on snow shoes, arriving at Harptnslield at riiidiiiijht, to the 
joyful surprise of the starving inhaliitaiils." 

The story as tolil by "Siinnis" is that the relief i)arty traveled 
with sleif^'hs; jiud is iini<-h less reasonable. 

It is related that on another occasion the Colouel's stock of 
hay beeame-exhaiisted, iiud he was forced to go over to the Dela- 
ware river, to a uiitural meadow ou lauds since owned liy the 
late Elijidi Churchill, and cany hay on his shoulders to keep 
his cow from starving. The distance is at least four niiles, and 
the journey was made on snow shoes; and these are only two 
out of many examples of hardships endured, and assistance ex- 
tended. Notwithstanding all this, more and more settlers were 
attracted l>y the liheral terms offered by the patentees, and as 
in all new settlements new comers were warmly welcomed, and 
when necessarj- the ready assistance of the settled erected houses- 
for the new comers at the shortest notice. 

A history of Harperstield would necessarily be incomplete 
without a historj- of the Harpers. That which follows is taken 
from records in i)ossession of his descendants. * 

cAPTntE oi' eowLiiv .\xn s.\wvek. 

Early in the spring of 177!), St. Ledger Cowley and Isaac 
Sawyer were cajjtured by four Indians. They were among the 
refugees from Harperstield who sought safety in Schoharie at 
the beginning of difficulties; where their families remained in 
their absence. 

The prisoners could speak Dutch, which the Indians under- 
stood nearly as well as their own language; and the latter could 
understand little, if any, of the conversation of these Anglo- 
Americans — Cowley being Irish and Sawyer Scotch. When t.ikeu, 
they intimated by signs as well as they could, that they were 

• The skelirh of Col. Haipei :i|i|iears in Part I. and was taki'n from this 


friends of the Kiuf^; aud not only evinced a williug-ness to pro- 
ceed \vitb their captors, liut a desire to do so. An axe l)eh)nfiiuf( 
to one of theiu was taken alonfi^ as a prize. The prisoners set 
off with such apparent willingness on their long journey to Canada 
that the Indians did not think it necessary to bind them; but 
they were compelled to act as "hewers of wood and drawers of 
water " for their red masters. 

After being eleven days captive they arrived at- a deserted 
hut near Tioga Point, aud the captives were sent to cut wood a 
few rods distant. On such occasions one cut aud the other carried 
it to the hut. While Cowley was chopping and Sawyer waiting 
for au armful, the latter took a newspaper from his pocket aud 
pretended to read it to his fellow; instead of which he was pro- 
posing a plan of escape. After the Indians were sound asleep 
the friends arose aud secured their weapons, shaking the priming 
from their guns. Sawyer, with a tomahawk, stood over the most 
desperate of the Indians, while Cowley, with his axe, placed him- 
self beside auother. At a given signal the blow fell, fatal to the 
two Indians. Sawyer drew the haudle from his weapou iu trying 
to pull it from the skull of his victim, aud Cowley had the rest 
of the tragedy to finish. As another rose to his feet he partly 
warded Cowley's next blow, which exposed his shoulder, and he 
fell back stunned. The fourth, as he was about to escape, re- 
ceived a heavy 1)low from the axe, tied iuto a swamjJ near, where 
he died. The Indian who was stunned recovered, and while the 
victors were planning their next course, sprang to his feet, dashed 
through the tire, caught up his rifle, snapped it at one of his 
foes, rau out of the hut aud disa})peared. 

Expecting to be followed, the friends took a zig zag course 
and succeeded iu eluding pursuit, though at one time they 
counted ten Indians in pursuit of them. After suffering much 
from exposure, and still more from hunger they finally reached 
their friends.* 

* Abridged from Simms' Frontiersman. 

Wtiere Alexander Harper vuas captured. 

Col. Harpers ftoriuirier\t. 

Site of Claxtoq House. 

Towx OF }i.\ni'i:nsiih:i.i>. 4-2:{ 

Sawver is said to biive diid iiiaiiv years alter in Williaiiistuwu, 

St. Led^'er Cowley eiaijirated to America from Duhliu, Ireland, 
.•ilioiit ITii'.i, with ills wife. Mary, and two children, •Jonathan and 
Samuel, and settled in (ireenlmsh, near Albany, where he eu^at^ed 
in trade: we would now style him a couiniercial traveler, — uot 
exactly a peddler, aud uot exactly a merchaut, — in which he contiu- 
ued several years. Exactly when he reniove<i to this section is 
not known, liut he located near Blooniville, perlnqis continuinf)- 
the same business. After the war he built the first jurist mill 
near Stamford villajre, the site of which still shows ou the west 
side of the river a few rods above the railroad bridf^e, below the 
villagfe. His saw mill stood on the opposite side of the stream, 
l)oth bein^ supplied l)y tiie same dam. His house stood abo\it 
sixteen rods northwest from the mill. 

After his death, his sou William moved the mill to a site near 
the present Stanley mill where it was Ijurued. His children, 
born in this country, were \\'illiani, Polly, Martha, Elizabeth, 
.Vnn, and Ledger. His will, the tirsf reconhd in Delaware county, 
is dated Sept. 8(lth, 17!H), aud be(|ueaths, iimon-^- other things, 
one thousand feet of pine lumber aud ten )iounds lawful money 
to aid in the completion of the Presbyterian church at Harpers- 
field; it disposes of about "20(1 acres of land in Delaware county, 
aud tifty acres and buildings in (ireeul>nsh, besides personal, 
and names his friends, Hon. Joshua H. Brett, Col. John Harper, 
and his sou William as executors, giving to each the sum of 
seven jiouuils for services. The will was })roved .Vug. 7. IT'.IT, 
before Anthony Marviue, at Kortright — now Delhi. His only 
descendants of the name now living in town are Wm. A. Cowley 
and his son John R. Cowley; the former, a great-grandson of St. 
Leilger. furnished the documents and iuformatiou for this sketcli. 


On the second day of April, 17KU, a scouting party commanded 
by ("apt. Alexander Harper, fourteen in all, was sent from Scho- 

4:24 HISTORY i)F DKLAWARE corxrv. 

biiiie to Hiupi'isticld for the puijiosf of imikiuf^ maple su^'iir, aud 
watching certain disaffected persons in that vicinity. The names 
of the party besides Harper were, Freegift and Isaac I'atchin, 
brothers, Ezra and Henry Thorp, Thomas, James, and John Hen- 
drj', brothers, Cornelius Teabout, James Stevens, M'illiam Lamb 
and sou Williiui], Dr. IJrowii, and one other. 

Shortly after they arrived at the block-house at Harperstiehl 
where they deposited their provisions, a heavy snow storm came 
on during which about three feet of snow fell, in addition to that 
already on the ground. 

After seeing the uu'u fairly engaged in sugar making at the 
different camps — tive in number — Harper went l)ack to S<hoharie 
on some business, and did not return till the Sth. 

Among the early settlers was one Samuel Claxton, or Clock- 
stone, who resided on Lot No. 18, (situated on the road since 
called Smith street.) He was a Tory and had harbored the In- 
dians and Tories since the commencement of the war. The house 
had become so noted in this respect that it was known long after 
the war as the "Tory house." It was situated about thirty rods 
from the west line of the lot, and aliout fifty rods from the present 
highway. The house stood on the trail from Schoharie to Har- 
pers field, and when on his return to the camps. Harper arriveil 
near the house, instead of following the trail in a curve past tlie 
house he determined to go straight across, both to shorten the 
distance and avoid observation. Near the large tree in front of 
the house, while on this route, he stooped to fasten his snow- 
shoes, when Brant and two other Indians came upon him un- 
awares and took him prisoner, Brant exclaiming as he recognized 
him; "Ah I Captain Harper, is it you? I am sorry to see you 
here." "Why," said Harper, "are you sorry to see me here?" 
"Because," he replied, "I must kill you, though we were school- 
mates in youth." Harper replied that it was no use to kill those 
who submitted peaceably. He was accordingly bound and taken 
to Claxton's house, where he found the rest of Brant's forces. 

Tdwx oh' UMii'hJiisi-iKi.i). 425 

tiiiioiintin^^ ill nil to forty-three Imlirtiis ami seven Tories. Tliis 
Wiis iilioiit eij;lit o'clock in the niniuiuff. 

Ill oriler to make the surprise more complete, and allow noue 
to escape, the enemy were distrilnited so as to fall upon all th(* 
siij^ar makers at once, nud so well was it carried out that no sig- 
nal of alarm was j^iven. \ company a]i]iroathe(l the house where 
Hteveus was eugaj^ed, which was on Lot. No. 57. He liad been 
up most of the uight hoiling sap. and towards morning, having 
boiled all the stock on hand, he laid down in the store trougli 
and fell j^sleep. The voices of the enemy awakened him, and he 
sprang up to get his gun, when an Indian came to the door and 
seeing the movement threw his tomahawk, which Stevens <lodged, 
and catching the Indian threw him head foremost into the coals 
uud<'r the kettle. This he ha<l scarcely done when a second toma- 
li.awk was thrown, killing him instantly, when he scaljied 
and left. Four years later, when Samuel and Mrs. Sally Hunt 
Wilcox moved into the house, blood stains were plainly seen on 
the floor. 

.\ second ])arty jiroi-eeded to the camp of Thomas Hendry on 
Lot No. 87, when he, offering some resistance, was killed and 
scalped, while his brother John, submitting peaceably, was taken 
prisoner. Another detachment captured William Lamb and his 
son William, a boy eleven years of age, on Lot Xo. S4. L.iiub 
was in the hut when taken. The son was gathering s.ap, and 
just coming to the hut, when seeing the Indians he dro]ipcd his 
pails and ran towards the Schoharie trail, but reaching a place 
where the sun had softened the crust he began to break through 
and surrendered. James Hen<lry is supjiosed to have been killed, 
and some of the jjarty captured near the highway leading from 
the school house of district No. 2 toward the (biylord and May- 
uar<l farms. Tlie Patchins and Thorps were taken near the north- 
west (corner of L(jt No. "214, now owned by Dr. S. E. Chuichill. 

.\fter J)luuderiug the cami)s of sugar and othei- aiticles, the 
parties reassembled with theii- jilunder and prisoners, when Urant 


(Iciiianded of Harper whether there were anv truops at Scholiarie. 
Harj)er saw at ouce that their lives depeiuleil ou his auswer; if 
he said '-Xo." which was the truth, they would all be killed, and 
the eueaiy would proceed to Schoharie and perhaps cut off the 
entire settlement. He therefore replied that three hundred con- 
tinentals arrived there three days l)efore — a righteous lie. 

The party then started for Niagara and after proceeding a few 
miles met Claxtou, the tory, who was surprised to see them, as 
he knew them all. Brant related his adventures, and how he had 
been defeate<l by the story of troops at Schoharie. 

"Troops!" said Claxton, "There are no troops at that place, 
j'ou may rely upon it. Captain Brant; I have heard of lioue." 
Brant sj)raug towards Harper and exclaimed: "How came you to 
lie to me so'?'" when Harper turned to the tory and said, "You 
know, Mr. Claxton, I have been to the forts alone, and if Cap- 
tain lUant disbelieves me he does it at his peril." His going the 
tory did know, and he answered, "Yes, I know it." 

Several miles from the place of capture the party halted at a 
grist mill owned by a tory, who told Brant he might better have 
taken more scalps and less prisoners. After a frightful joui-ney 
during which captors and captives nearly starved, they reached 
Niagara, where Harper found friends who saved him from much 
of the suffering endured by his comrades. 

After the war Harjier and the Patchius and Ezra Thorp re- 
turned to Harperstield where they had before resided; after a 
time Harper and his brother Joseph, with a number of others, 
removed to Ohio, founding Harperstield in that state. 

Freeegift Patchin after a time removed to North Blenhciui, 
where he became a General of Militia, and ]\Ieml)er of Assenil>ly for 
several sessions. Isaac moved to Jetferson, upon land owned l)y 
his wife, and died at about seventy years of age. Ezi'a Thorp 
never married, but lived for many years, and died on what is still 
known as "Thorp Hill." where also lived another brother, Daniel, 


who at the time of tliis liiiil was I'li^^a-^fd iu ilefeuse of the coiist; 
j)i-iil)al>ly Couuecticnit. 'Ihf latter was father uf the late Nelson 
L. Thorp of this town. 

William Lamb, previous to the war, owued the farm where he 
was captured, and when released, returned there and luiilt a 
house east of tlie toll gate, near the Centre, where he died aliout 
IHlit, aged eighty years. The house has been repaired and en- 
larged, and is now owued l\v Joseph Tate. The bt)y, William, 
was absent eleven years before he reached the house of an aunt 
in Schoharie, where his father went to bring him home. William 
afterwards settled iu the western part of the state with a brother 
Peter. Two other brothers were John aud David, the former 
passing his life iu Harperstield, aud leaving a son, William J. 
who is well remembered. David was an easy, improvideut man, 
who after living awhih- in Hari)erstield removed to Kortright. 
M'ni. R. Stanley, a grandson of Wm. Lamb, is now ninety years 
old. Of the Hendrys, only John was married, aud his wife and 
a son, four years old, were at Schoharie when he was captured. 
He was a carpenter, au<l the British wished him to go to Ber- 
muda to work, which he refused to do, and to subdue his "in- 
different spirit" as they called it, he was confined in a dungeon 
at Quebec, in which he died. He wrote to his family that they 
might kuow why he was so cruelly treated. 

The foregoing was related to Simms by Thomas Hendry, the 
young son of John, whost; widow married a JTcPhersou with whom 
the boy lived till old enough to learu the trade of ship carjieuter. 
About 1800 he moved to Lot No. ITS, whirh had lieen owned by 
his fatlier, ami l)uilt a small framed house, which was unusual 
for the tirst house on a new farm. About the same time he mar- 
ried Eupha (Iraham, by whom he had several children, of whom 
William (). and David B. settled iu town, the latter on the home- 
stead, each leaving one sou — James A., son of William, ainl Charles 
M.. son of David. Charles now owns the homestead. 


Of the celebrated toiubstoues to the meiudiv of the murdered 

iuiil captured Hendrys in Harperstield Rural Ceuicterv, one was 

erected by Thomas Heudrj', iuscribed as follows: 

Sacred to the Memory of 

Thomas and John Hendry, 

Who was Sacrificed by the Tory Party 

April Kth, 1780, 

For the Crime Called Democracy. 

When the British and Tories, O'er This Land Bore the Sway, 

A Less Critel Indian, My Body Did Slay*. 

Thomas Hendry. 

When my Brother was Mirdered, I was Standing By, 

But in Qdebeck Prison I was Doomed to Die. 

John Hendry. 

The other stone, iimch older, is iuscribed: 

In ;\Ifmory of Mr. James Hendry, 
Who was Killed by Indians and Tories, 
April Hth, 1780, 
In the :{i(TH Year of His A<iE. 
While British Tiranny Overspread This Land 
I was Slain by Criel Hands. 
W^illiam Heudry, a brother of John, James, and Thomas, set- 
tled on Lots No. 15 and 1(5, after the war. He married Catharine 
Hall, from Mohawk. Of his children, William lived in Jefferson, 
Schoharie county, leaviuj^- a numerous family. Catharine mar- 
ried Clark Bryan, who died youn^-, leaving three sons, of whom 
William published a newspaper for many years in Hudson, and 
Clark W. is now publisher of "(n)od Housekeeising " at Springfield, 
Mass. Their mother lived to be nearly or quite ninety. Polly 
married William Buckingham, who was a soldier of 1812, super- 
visor and justice of the peace of the town, and Lieut, of Cavalry 
in the Anti-Rent war. They passed their lives on the old farm. 
He died in IS-Ki, she living many years longer, leaving a large 
{amilv of children. 


As earlv as 1782 an c)])iin(iii ]ii(\aile(l anion;,' the Tories iu 
this section that a chan^jc of iesi(h'm'(' was ilesinible, auil a liastv 
removal was the couseiiueuce. The followiug incidents would 
indicate that their opinions were well ^^rouuded: 

Among the must cruel and malicious of tlie Tories was one 
Beacraft. who was one of the seven with Brant at the capture of 
the sugar makers. The night of the capture the prisoners were 
confined in a log pen, and Beacraft, one of the guards, would 
freijiieutlv call to them, "You'll all l)e in hell before morning," 
while all througli the journev to Niagara he was continually taunt- 
ing them, and boasting of the numerous cruelties lie liad committed 
and particularly of having cut the throat of a little Vroman boy, 
then scalping him and hanging his body across a fence. This 
continual boasting and nagging was kejit u]> till the prisoners 
all hatccl him with a deadly bate. .\fter the war he had the im- 
pudence to return to .Schoharie. His j>reseuce becoming known 
H party of AVhigs surrounded the house he was in, near where 
the Blenheim bridge now stands, and leading him from it into 
a grove neail>y, wliiiiped liim with hickory gads, giving him be- 
tween every ten lashes the reasons for that particular uundjer; 
this was continued till he was nearly dead, and some of them 
out of pity put an end to his sufferings. 

Simms recites the story that he thanked thciii for sparing his 
life, an<l was never afterward heard from l)y the citizens of Scho- 
harie, and the foregoing exj)lains that although it was a terrible 
punishment there was a terrible ])ro vocation. 

Simms relates also that a party from Harpersfield went down 
the Delaware and gave the miller who preferred their scalps to 
their persons nearly a hundred lashes; and from thence proceeded 
to the house of a Tory neighbor and gave him al)Out the same, 
g'iving as a reason that they had harbored and fed tlie enemy on 
their way to niiirder their neighl)Ors. The ciil])rits were both 
ndnioDisbed to leave the coiintry and never return. One of them, 
it is supposed, went to Camubi and staid there, the other went 


to Albany coiiiity lor u time, l)ut was afterwards allowed to re- 
turn. The Tory C'laxton sold liis land to a C'apt. James Smith, 
who had been a soldier iu the French war and in the Hev(jlutiou, 
and though Claxton was never accused of cruelty to the patriots, 
his havin<^- harbored the enemy made him so diltideut of meeting 
his old nei^'hbors that he came back in the ni^ht to ^-et his pay. 

Capt. Smith came from Haddani, Conn., and buyiuji' Lot Xo. 
12 in addition cut the two lots across into five farms, phicinfj- 
his four sons, Frederick, Nehemiah, Hubbard, and James Jr., on 
four of them, and disposing' of the tifth to a friend, or relative. 
William Dart. Each farm contained fifty acres, beiuf,' forty rods 
wide and two hundred rods lou^'. Frederick and James Jr. had 
also been soldiers in the Revolution. The reason for Captain 
Smith's removal to this country was to prevent his sons from be- 
coming sailors, which was likely to l>e the case if they remained 
in Haddam. 

David Garmsey was another soldier who settled in the same 
school district, being on Lot No. 5(5. 

Abijah Baird, also a soldier, settled on Lot No. ;i"2, at the top 
of the ]\Iiddlebrook hill, in ITS!), his lot cornering on the south- 
east with Cajjt. Smith and on the southwest with Mr. Garmsey. 
He was the first blacksmith in town. It is said he intended to go 
further, but looking over the great forest ahead, he was discour- 
aged, and concluded to sto]) where he was. 

The Harpers came back in 17s:i S4. The Colonel rebuilt his 
grist mill, and his wife having died during the war, he married 
the widow of his cousin, Joseph Harper, by whom he had two 
daughters, Abigail and Sally. Of his nine children, only Margaret, 
who married Hon. Roswell Hotchkiss, passed her life iu this town. 

Tradition says the Colonel had a saw mill near his grist mill,, 
three-fourths of a mile below the Centre; if so no signs of it re- 
main; biit he built a saw mill on the Middle brook, not far from 
the school house of Dist. No. VI, one of them being the first saw 
mill in town. With the Harpers, and following them, came most 

Yillaae of Halcottville. 

Villaue of Kelly's Corriers 

TOWX OF IIMil'KKSFIKl.l). J,^;^' 

of the earlier settli-rs — thou-^'b some hiul sickeuetl of hardships 
:iiul gone back to the ohler settlemeuts, — followeil by mauv uew 
settlers. Aiiioug the tirst of the ucw oues was Samuel Wilcox, 
who, as before iiieiitioued, iiiDved iutu tlie house where Jimies 
Stevens was killed in ITSO. He became a ]iroiiiinent man, was 
Supervisor, Justiee. and one of the tirst Deacons of the Baptist 
church, when he came near being placed on trial for shooting a 
wolf on Sunday; the wolf being found prowling around the log 
pen wlicre the Deacon housed his slu'cp. 

.\nother settler of 17.S8 or 1784 was Levi Gaylord, tirst Deacon 
of the Presbyterian church, who came with his sons, Levi, Jedediah,. 
and Joel, all of whom became jirominent. and useful men in town. 

The following is a list of tlic earliest known settlers on the 
various lots in town, revised from a list made several years ago: 
Ijot 2, Aaron Scott: '.\, Samuel Southmayd; 4, Daniel Lindsley: •">. 
Daniel Nichols; (>, John Brown; 7, Amos Baruum; 8, Kaymoud 
.Starr: it, Ezra Nichols; 10, William Baird: l-->, ('apt. James Smith; 
i;f, Samuel Claxton; 14, Hazard and Salmon W. Beardsley; 15, Kv 
William Hendry; 17, Phinneas Bennett; 18, James Morrison: li>,^ 
2(1, Levi Gaylord; 21, Ezra Thorp; 22, Joseph and John Barnum: 
23, Edward Evans; 24, 25, Joseph Benson, Nathan Holmes; 2(i, 
Joseph Kitte; 27, Najah Beardsley; 28, Lewis Peutield: 211, John 
r.indsley; 80, Eden Hamilton; .'il, -.Vl. Abijali Band; X\ 34, Caleb- 
(lil)bs; .'55, Stephen Judd; 30, 37, Thomas Hendry; 3H, Joel Gay- 
lonl: 3'.t. James Montgomery; 40, Daniel Edwards; 41, Freegift 
Patchin; 42, Ezra Thorp; 43, Daniel Thorj); 48, Gabriel Gray; 50,. 
51, Samuel and John Kuap]p; 52. Muttliiw Lindsley; 53, James 
Si)encer; 54, Plymeut Dayton; 55, Voluntine; 5(), David Garnisey; 
57, James Stevens; 58, Samuel Wilcox: 5!(, Richard Bristol; (iO, 
David Lamb; (Jl, William McEarlaud; (>2, Thomas Maxou; 63, Syl- 
venus Graves; (>4, Samuel Stevens; (55, John Moutgomery: <ili, 
Joshua Drake; (III, Hemau C'oi>ley: 7(i, .Vl)cl Sclcy; 72, Hcnjamin 
Pierce; 73,74, Isaac Pierce; 75, Benjamin Owens; 7(i, James Bryan; 
78, Davtou; 70, Ezekiel Baird; 8(1, Zacli. Brvau; 81. Presbv- 


teriau church; S2, Alexiiudcr Harper; h:5, Jt>hu M()utjiroiiier\ ; S4, 
William Lamb; 85, Thelus Hotchkis; 87, Uriah Adams; 88, Asa 
Warner; 89, Noah Buck; IH), (irershom Davis; 91, Robert Eus:lish; 
t);"), John Birdsall; 97, Joseph Copley; 98, Perez Pierce; 109, 191, 
James Campbell; 10:i, Isaac' Dayton; 1(14, Abel Dayton; 1(15, Ki)ine- 
tus Buckiupfhani; l()(i, Andrus Jerome; 1()7, Zadoc Osboru; 198, 
Colonel Harper; 110, Joshua H. Brett; 111, 112, Abrani Williams; 
ll:S, Richard Stanley; 114, Daniel Peters; 117, Alden Bennett; 119, 
Jacob Titus; 120, Lemuel Birdsall; 121, John Hari)er; 12H, Samuel 
Campbell; 124. William I. Harper; 12'), Burgoyne ^Icllvaine; 127, 
Hug-h and John McCuUoui^h; 128, 129, Benjamin Morse; 130, Joel 
Davis; 131, Daniel Prentice; 132, Roswell Hotchkis; 133, Colonel 
Harper; 13(i, William McClure; 137, Martin Kello-ifK; l-^*^. Elisha 
Sheldon: 139, Eliab Wilcox; 142, William Butts; 143, 144, Gideon 
and John Wickham; 145, Ezekiel Woodbeck; 152, Samuel Doane; 
153, Joel Hubbard, sen.; 154, Robert AVatkius; 155, 15(i, Samuel 
and Thomas Loyd; 159, Ransom Packard; KJO, James Douj^lass; 
IGl, Uriah Odell; l(i4, Elial) Wilcox; 108, Charles MeMulleu; 1(59, 
Heman Copley; 170, Robert Henderson; 171, Simcoii Fuller; 173, 
James Bell; 174, Abel Seley; 175, Colonel William Harper; 17(1, 
James Scott; 178, John Hendry; 179, James Brown; 180, 181, Ros- 
well Hotchkis; 182, Joel Mack; 184, Robert Hamilton; 185, David 
Hendry; 188, William Wardwell; 189, John McClelland; 190, 
Thomas Porter; 195, Robert and John Wool; 19(5, John Wilson; 
197, Daniel Butler; 203, Benjamin Odell; 204, Ruliff Voorhis; 205, 
20(i, David and John Wilcox; 207, Andrew Rickey; 210, Stephen 
Churchill; 217, St. Leger Cowley; 219, Peter Monfort. 

On the northeast corner of the town Benjamin Bartholomew 
and his brothers, Thomas, Joseph, James, and Jt)hu, both before 
and alter the war owned five lots called the Bartholomew tract, 
or thousand acres; five other lots being north of the Charlotte. 
They built mills on westerly lots, but which side of the creek is 

On the northwest corner of the town Benjamin and Ebenezer 
Poster, Daniel Sawyer, and Isaac Cleveland were early settlers. 

TOM'X OF IIARrHliSFlKl.D. 435 

A lai->»'e part of wluit is cjillcil Middle lnook was settlid l>_v 
people from Daiil)iirv, Coiiu., iiud for suiuf tiiiii' was called New 

Some veai's aj^o Mr. .loliii Nieliols. then in liis iiinety-tliii'd 
vear, stated that he \v:is fuiir years old wheu his father, E/ra 
Nichols, settled ou Lot '.', now ()wiie<l l>y Isaac P. Nicliols. The 
first work after their arrival was t<> erect a h)fjf house, which was 
built of peeled tii' poles notched toj^ether at the corners, the 
spaces between the poles beiug tilled with mnd. The roof was 
covered with lar<ife pieces of elm hark fastened on with wooden 
pius. The door was a woolen blanket, and the tloor was of sticks, 
split in halves and hewed as smooth as possible, and called punch- 
eons. Mr. Nichols believed that he killed the tiist skunk ever 
seen iu town; he had set a trap uear a dead horse hoi)iiif^- to catch 
a fox. Ou Koiufj to see what he had caught he found a siMall 
spotted animal fast, but busily gnawing at the horse. I'pon his 
trying' to loosen the trap he was astonished to tind himself in 
the midst of a tei'ribly disagreeable odor which nearly tcmk away 
his breath. He killed the animal, however, and was told at home 
what it was. He sold the skin to a ^Ir. Montgomery who ke})t 
a store at the Centre, and it was there nailed uj) as a curiosity. 
Mr. Nichols sai<l also that ci'ows did not appear for some years 
after their arrival. 

As related by ^Ir. David Ji. Baird, -a grandson of Abijah, — one 
of these New Daubury settlers, Jehu Kuapp, was rather eccentric, 
and being greatly troubled Ijv the sliee]i of a neighbor named Day, 
which persisted in foraging on his crojas, Kna])]! finally caught 
one i)f the sheej), and cutting a slit in one hind leg stuck the other 
leg through it.' The shee]) hobbled home and the rest stayed away; 
not long after. Knapp's uld sow got down to Day's and came home 
with her mouth i ut njien as fai- l>ack as a knife would lin. Kiia]>]i 
■went for" Day for misusing his hog so, and was coolly told that 
• when that sow got down here, and see how funny that 'er sheep 
looked with one leg tucked through t'other, she just split her 
mouth laughin'." 

436 • HISTORY OF iiF.i.AWAiih: rdiwrv. 

In till' iiiii-tliwfstfi'ii [lai't 1)1' the town, on wlntt is still known as- 
(^luiker Hill. tluTc settled from Duteliess county ii colony of 
Quakers, or Friends, as they styled themselves, of about twenty 
families who built a lofj churcli with a \o'^ partition through the 
middle to sejiarate the men from the women. If a couple wished 
to marry, the youuf^' man stated their intention to the meetiuL;' and 
took his scat with his intended on the women's side. Preachinpr 
was only as the spirit moved; often uothinj^' was said; just shook 
hands and separated. 

Harpersfield, the only ori<)inal town iu Delaware county, was 
first organized April 27, 17S7. and covered about the same territory 
as the 250,000 acre tract purchased from the Indians June 14, 17('iS. 
For some reason this act was inoperative; and March 7th, 17H8, the 
town was again organized as follows: Harpersfield, and all that 
part of the said county of Montgomery between the C"ook(|uago 
branch of the Delaware river and the branch of the Sus(|uehauna 
river called Adiquitauge, beginning at a rock maple tree marked on 
four sides with a blaze and three notches, and with the letters and 
figures .\.. C, 1708, standing on a high point of laud at the south 
side of a small lake called by the Indians Utsayantha. from whence 
the said branch of the Delaware called by the Indians Cookquago- 
issues, and running from thence North thirty degrees West to the 
said Adiquitange, and thence down the same and the Susiiuehanna 
to the bounds of Pennsylvania, and East along the same to the 
river Delaware, and then up the siime river to the place of begin- 
ning, shall be and is hereby erected into a town by the mime of 

The territory embraced averaged about fourteen miles wide by 
about sixty miles long; and from it nineteen towns and parts of 
towns have been formed iu tlie counties of Broome, Chenango,. 
Delaware and Otsego. The names of the towns ai-e: Afton, Bain- 
bridge, Colesville, Davenport, Delhi, Deposit, Franklin, Hamden.. 
Harpersfield, Kortright, Masonville, Meredith, Oneonta, S.iuford. 
Sidney, Stamford, Tompkins. Walton, and Windsor. 

rnwx iiF iiMxfi-:i;sFih:i.ii 4:^7 

Altliciuji;h partiiij^ with so nnicli tcrriturv has nunh- the ohl town 
tlic siiiiiHcst ill the (•(uiiity, rciluciiij^' her from more thiui eight 
.huudred to but little iiidrc tluiii forty square miles, she is the best 
Jookiug town of the lot, as the ma]) will show. 

'riic lirst town meeting of which any record exists was liehl 
Vpril 1, 1787, as follows: 

Chosen unanimously, A\'m. Cure, moderator; John Harper, 
■treasurer; Samuel Wilcox. John Deuiston, assessors; Isaac Patchiu, 
Sen., collector; E/ra Thorp, 'i'helus Hot<'hl<iss, const.aliles. 

June 1"J, 17S7. This day appointed Wni. McFarland Towii 
i<.'lerk in jilace of Walter S.iliiu. former Clerk, al)seut, and Isaac 
Patchin. Sen., Assessor, in jjlace of Benjamin Bartholomew, absent. 

At a town meeting of the Inhabitants of the District of Har- 
persfield, voted at the house of Alexandei- Har]ier, Esq., on Tuesday 
the first day of April, .V. D. 1788: 

Ist, voted: Wm. McEarlaud, Town Clerk. 

'Id. voted: Edward Paine, Es(j., Supervisor. 

8d, voted: E/ra Thorp. Constable. 

4th, voted: Levi (iaylord, Samuel \\'il<-o\, (labriel North. Shi- 
man Wattles, and David Parsons, Assessors. 

5th, voted: Stephen Judd, Moses Clark, autl Simeon Hyde, 

litli, voted: Alexander Harper, Esq., Treasurer. 

7th. voted: William Hendry, John Brown. Nathaniel Skinner, 
iiichard Bristol, Ezra Paine, John Gardner, Path Masters; Eli 
Reynolds, Jr., (iideon Frisliee, Beuajah McCall, Samuel Johnson, 
and Hugh Thompson, Path Masters for P. D. (supposed Paint'S- 

8th. voted: ('apt. David Parsons, Benj. Morse, Poor Masters. 

'••th, voted: Levi Gaylord, Samiu^l Wilcox. E/ra Paiue, Sam- 
uel Johnson, Fence Viewers. 

Kith, voted: Daniel Mack, James Douglass, Fiancis Clark, 
iSenaj'ii McCall, 'Prisers damages. 

The second town meeting held .\])riJ 7tli. 178".), at the same 


place, elected besides persons within the pr< s^ut limits of tbe 
town, Closes Clark of Hampden, and Robert Freeman, Walton, 
Constables; Alex. Smith. Johorakim Burfifett, and Gabriel North, 
Assessors; Robert Freeman, .SiV)bles Bennett, Collectors; Jacob 
Houghtail, Henry Buryett, Dau'l Parker, Nathaniel Wattles, John 
Ogden, Witter Johnson, Michael Goodrich, Joshua Pine, David 
Harrow, Path Masters. May Jllth of the same year was the first 
election of commissioners of hij^hways; previously they had either 
been appointed by courts of Special Sessions or commissioned by 
the Governor. Such a commission issued to Hon. Roswell Hotch- 
kiss is still in existence. The commissioners elected were Samuel 
Wilcox, Jared Goodrich and Nathaniel Wattles. Also at the same 
time, Abel Kidder of Franklin, Kenoth Chisholm of Painesdale, 
Andrew Kilt' of Goalsborou^'h, and Georf^e Wiseamore of Whites- 
borough, were elected Pathmasters. 

The following resolutions would indicate that these town meet- 
ings had considerable authority over the other districts, or that 
they were rather free with criticism: 

April 6th, 179(1, voted: That the proceedings of Kortright, 
Hampden, Walton, and Clinton are ajjpproved of and ratified by 
this meeting. 

April 5th, 1791. voted: That the proceedings of Kortright, 
Hampden, Walton, Franklin, and Charlotte river, be ratified and 
approved of by this meeting. 

April 8J, 17!I2. voted; That the proceedings of the town of 
Kortright shall not be ratified by this meeting. 

April "2, 1798. The proceeilings of Kortright, viz: (.\pproved, 
of course. ) 

Grover Smith, commissioner of ro.-ids; Thomas McClaugliry. 
James Stewart, assessors; Thomas McClaughry, Caleb D. Ferris, 
overseers poor; Ephraim Barrit, Grover Smith, Warner Lake, David 
Mcllvaine, Daniel Harris, Aaron Stewart, Caleb D. Ferris. Hugh 
Sloan, John French, James Stewart, Richard McClaughry, Thomas 
McClaughry, pathmasters. 


A later resoliition reiuls: Any lin;^- louiul ou the ruiniiums with- 
out being well rinf^'cil mid yoked, .thall pti;/ a tine of titty ccuts. 

Another time it was voted : That hofj's on the ooiiiiuon shall In- 
irriix/i-il iu the nose on peniilty of twenty-five cents. 

The followinj;; seems to show that the town came (|U!ti- near 
luiitiii^' (•hiircli and state: 

April "ili, ITllt'i, Resolved: that all the money that has arose from 
the excise in this town shall l)e collected ami loaned to the proprie- 
tors of the Presbyterian meetiuj,' house, at the usual interest on 
dcniaiid. for the purjiosc of carryiu;; on the liuildiu^''. 

April 2. IT'.l'.t. iiesolved: that tin- excise money now in the hands 
of the overseers of the poor, shall be aj)propriat<Ml to the special use 
of the several religious societies and dissenters, to be for their use 
forever, within the town of Harperstield, for the puri)ose of erecting 
or rej)airing houses of public worsliiji or other juirijoses, and that 
the assessors of said town for the last year shall be empowered to 
ascertain what proportion of said money belongs to t^ach religious 
society and dissenters, in pro])ortiou to last year's tax list, each 
Bociety producing a list of the nicmhers of their own society under 
the hands of their jjarticular members, within six months after this 
second day of April, 179'.t, an<l the mcuieys to be paid over to the 
societies or persons entitled thereto, within one year from this date. 

Mai'ch 2, 1H02, Resolved: that the money now due the town, 
iu the hanils of the Coiniiiittee of the I'resbytcrian meeting house, 
shall be laid out towards repairing au<l finishing the said house 
for the benefit of said town to hold Public Town .Meetings, and 
when necessary, anil when the whole of said sum, which is ^\(\'2 
;iiid cents, with the interest till paid, shall be laid out in iii.iniier 
aforesaiil, which shall be <lone liy the tirst of November next, 
then the notes given by said Committee of said house shall be 
given u]) and <lischarged. Rut if not laid out m manner as above, 
then the privilege hereby meant to be granted by said town to 
be forfeited. 

Rv resolution passed March fi, Isdt, one lmndre<l doll.ns of 


■excise mouey was given to the Bajjtist society to :ii<l in Iniilding' the 
cliurcli near Stevens', the town to ha\c the \ise of the church for 
j)ul)lic nieetiu^fs if the societj- do not uecd it at the same time; Init 
in isri when application was made to the town meeting for help to 
huild a school house out of the excise money, it was 

Resolved, theretm: that the town cannot ap]iroj)riate any of said 
mouey for erecting common school houses. 

The following is a list of olKcers from the first recorded: 
Sujiervisors: 1T8H, Edward Paine; 1789-98, William McFarland; 
1794, Samuel Wilcox; 1795-97, 1S12-18, Roswell Hotehkiss; 1798, 
Aaron Wheeler; 1799, Salmon W. Beardsley; lK()()-()4, Levi (lay- 
lord; 18()5-()(;, ISU-K;, 1818-:20, 1824-'2r), t'yrenus Gibbs; 1807, 
(xiles Humistou; 1808-10, Elisha Sheldon; 1817, 1821-28, 1820, 1829, 
James Ells; 1827, Samuel Stevens, Jr.; 1828, 1880, Baruch Taylor; 
1881, Frederic A. Fenn; 1882, l88(;-87, Stoddard Stevens; 1888-84, 
Nathan Bristol; 188."), 1848-44, William Buckingham; 1838-40, 
Lymau Hakes; 1841-42, Phineas L. Bennett; 184.5-40, Johu Harper; 
1847, Asahel Cowley; 1848-49, Johnson B. Bragg; 18.50-51, Ira S. 
Birdsall; 1852-53, Elias B. Penfield; 18.54, 18i;(), ^[ichael Daytcm; 
1855, Jeffrey H. Chamjilin; 185(), Sheldon A. Givens; 1857, James 
S. Peters; 1858-59, 18()()-()9, Norman P. Dayton; l8(il-(;3, Richard 
E. Davis; 1804, Henry TenEyck, Jr.; 1805, Truman B. Seley; 1870, 
John L. Beardsley; 1871-72, 1878-88, Allen S. Gibbs; 1873-75, 
Richtniyer Hubbell; 1870-77, Haujilton S. Preston; 1884, Calvin 
Hull; 1885-87, Amos Barnum; 1888-91, Levi B. YanDu.sen; 1892-95, 
Johu J. McArtliur; 189(;-97, William M. Beckley; 1898, .John W. 

. Town Clerks: 1787, Walter Sabin; 1788-89, AViUiam McFar- 
land: 17S»(l-94, 18()()-nl, Roswell Hotehkiss; 1795, Aanm Wheeler; 
1790 99, Levi Gaylord; 1802-03, Salmon W. Beardsley; 1804, Enos 
Bell; 1805, James Smith, Jr.; 1800, Eliab Wilcox; 1807-10, Peter 
Pentield; 1811, John Davenport; 1812-14, Joshua H. Brett; 1815, 
James Ells; 1810-17, Ebenezer Penfield; 1818, Cornell Smith. Jr.; 
1819-21, John Lake; 1822-28, Joseph Hotehkiss; 1824. 182(), Aaron 

Village of ArKviUe iq Distarice. 

Village of New Kirigsioq. 


Willi. x; l.s-io, Aiisim Pciiriclil; 18-27-:!(l. Ficileiick A. Feiiu; l,s;Jl-32, 
Nathan Hiistol; ls:{:{-84, .Jos(].li W. Habi'ui-k; 1885-87, 1848, Jobu- 
■80n B. Bragg; 1888, Smith rcntichl: 188'.)-4(), Myrou Tremsiiu; 
1841-42, James McMiu; 1844-45, Heuiy K. Hamiltou; 184G, 1858, 
Alexauder Dales; 1847-48, James Fraui-e; 184it-5(), Horace Lock- 
wood; 1851, I8t!(l-(i8, Elias B. Peutield; 1852, William C. Lamont; 
1858, E. L. H. Moeller: 1854, Beuj. F. Gibbs, Jr. ; 1855, AUeu S. 
(iibbs; 185f), Russel D. Baird; 1857, 1859, William Elsbree; 1804. 
C'alviii H. Peters; 18(15, Lewis C. Wilveruail; 18(1(5, John Bell; 1807- 
08, Kichtuiyer Hubbell; 1809, Seth W. Hubbard; 1870-78, 1887-89, 
Samuel I). Hubbard; 1874-75, Peter I. Merriam; 1870, 1879, Charles 
L. Foote; 1877, Thomas M. Douglass; 1878, Alviu F. Laiu; 1880, 
Samuel H. Vau Dusen; 1881-88, Hiram P. Hubbell; 1884, Charles 
W. Phincle; 1885-80, Jay :M. Dyer; 1890, 1898-98, (leorge B. Dav- 
enport; 1891, (Jideoii E. Wirkham; 181(2, William S. Dart. 

Justices of the Peace: 1780, Alexauder Harper; 1791, Joshua H. 
Brett; 1808, Elisha Sheldon, Samuel Wilcox; 1804, Roswell Hotch- 
kiss; 1800, Salmon W. Beardsley; 1809, Cyrenus Gibbs; 1812, Eden 
Hamiltou; 1814, Peter Penfield, Cornell Smith; 1821, Calvin How- 
ard; 1828, Stephen Lockwood, Barucli Taylor, Samuel Stevens, 
Kaynioud Starr; 1827, Josejjh Copley; 1828, Frederick A. Fenn; 
1830, James Spencer (elected); 1881-85, John Wool; 1882-84, James 
Bristol; 1882, Ira S. Birdsall; 1880, William Buckingham, Nathan 
Bristol; 1887-40, Alonzo B. Wilcox; 1887, Michael Dayton; 1841, 
Joseph Ells; 1841-45, Nelson L. Tlmrp; 1844-48-51, Levi Seley; 
1S48-40-5O, Benjamin F. (iihbs; 1848, Hiram Graves; 1844-48, 
James Strain, Jr.; 1844-47, Apollos B. Wilcox; 1849-58, Jeffrey H. 
Champlin; 1850-52, John Flausburgh; 1854-59, Johnson B. Bragg; 
1855-09, Wiley Beard; 1857-00, Ezra J. Nichols : 1S58, Almus M. 
Babcock; 1859, Fredus Baldwin; 1802-00, Allen S. Gibbs; 1802-09- 
74-77, Michael Odell; 1804-07-71, Thomas H. Smith; 1805, James 
Loughrau; 1807, John S. Baldwin; 1871-74-88-80-90-94-98, Stephen 
VanDuseu; 1872, Colonel D. Wiltsie; 1875, James D. Seley, Morell 
Wager; 1870-80-84-88, John J. McArthur; 1878, James Beilby; 

444 Hisrouv of Delaware covxty. 

187"(-.S:5-87-'.H, ItifliiU-a JI;ih^cc; 1S.S1-.S2. Siumiel D, Huhbiird; 1885^ 
Cheeney A. Crowell; 1881), Daiii.l W. Peters; 188<)-!)-2-<)(;, Edfrar 
B. Dayton; 18;):{, Charles A. McJIurdy; 1S!>4-1I7. (U'or-c t'. (; 
1895, Eolla (t. Nichols. 

The first religions society iu Harjtersfiekl was organizeil Juue 
7, 1787, at a meeting lield for that purpose at the house of CoL 
Johu Harper, wheu Col. John Harper, David Heudry, Benjamin 
Bartholomew, Joseph Hotchkis, and Daniel Mack were chosen 
trustees, and it was unanimously agreed that the trustees and 
congregation should be called "Presbyterian Congregation of Har- 
perstield." The election was held pursuant to an act passed by 
the Legislature. April (i. 1784; Deacons, Levi (iaylord and William 
McFarland. The proceedings were certified by John Deniston 
and Levi Gaylord, the officers of the election; witnessed by Alex- 
ander Harper and Roswell Hotchkis, and acknowledged before 
William Harper, one of the Judges of ^Montgomery county. Five 
days after their election the trustees agreed to make proposals tO' 
Rev. John Lindsley, which included the offer of VM) as an annual 
salary and £100 as a settlement. Mr. Lindsley accepted the ott'er 
with the understanding that he was to be paid in labor, cattle 
or notes. He commenced his labors iu the fall of 17s7, and 
continued them till 17111. He is also supposed to have taught 
the first school iu town. Between 1791 and 1798 Eev. David 
Huntington and Rev. William Stone jn-eached for the society 

In 1793, Rev. Stephen Fenn became the minister, and was to 
receive seventy acres from Lot No. 108, the whole of Lot No. (iT), 
(one hundred acres,) and XlO in building material; the whole 
valued at £200, to be considered as his settlement. He was also 
to receive £7(t annually for four years, after which his salary was 
to be increased £5.158 per year till it amounted to 111;), which 
was to be the annual salary thereafter, but if he left before the 
end of twenty years he was to forfeit £10 per year for each year 
he fell short of twontv, unless he left through the fault of the 

TdWX (IF IIAni'KliShlFJ.n. 445 

society. Mr. Feuu lenigjiui/.cd the society in ITitS, jinil Caleh 
(iil>l)s iiud .losliun H. Brett were elcctcil Deacons, ^[r. l''enii cou- 
tinueil Lis labors with the cliuirh over tliirty-tive years, aud was 
finally disniisseil in conseqiu'nce of the auti-Masouic excitement 
caused by the abductiou of ]Morj,^aii, he being' a Masou, and re- 
fusing to sever his connection with that order. (Rev. H. Boies 
hist.) It is believed that a church was Imilt — i>rolialilv ot logs — 
soon after the formation of the society. It is first referred to in 
the records Nov. 3, 178!), as follows: "Resolved, that it shall Ixt 
the duty of the Clerk for the time being to notify each annual 
meeting, sixteen days previous to the first Tuesday of NOveniher 
annually, at the place of |iul>lic worship and likewise at Col. 
Harper's grist niill." .Vlso Nov. 15, 17!)1, a resolution specifying 
the circumstances under which the Trustees shall open the (diurch. 
The tirst church, however, of which anything is otherwise known 
was erecteil about IT'.U. an<l was erecteil by sid)scrij)tiiins |ia\able 
in labor, material, etc. This church was used till 1SH7. when a 
new one was built under contract for S2,525 and the ol<l meeting 
house. At one time the society uundiered over two huiulred 
members; but the estal>lisliirient of other chui'ches, and internal 
disseutions have reduced it to a very small mendiership. 

The following shows the methods of the society one hundied 
and six years ago: 

At a meeting of the session of the Presbyterian ciih. in Harpers- 
field, regularly warned and held at the house of Mr. Stephen .hidd, 
ou Thursday, July the I'.tth, Ann. Dom. 17!)-_>. 

Present, Rev"d ^\'illiunl Stone. M. .V., New I'alt/,, !Mod. pro teni. 
Messrs. C.vLEij Gihhs, ) Klders 

Liivi G.wi.oKii. \ of said t'hii. 

The following persons presented themselves to take the Cov- 
enant of (iod \ij)on themselves, aud to be admitted to solemn 
ordinance of baj)tism, viz: Messrs. Joseph Harper, David Hendry, 
William Heudrv, Thomas Jlontgomery, Nathaniel Skinner, Itnliert 


iloutgomery, Joel (iaylunl (by iqjplicatiou of his wife, be beiut<- 
absent), Mrs. Mercy Gaylord, wife Mr. Jedediali Gay lord. 

All these were examined aud approved aud recoiuineuded liy 
the Elders (excepting Mr. Joel Gaylord, who being in family con- 
nection with the Elders — son of one and son-in-law of the other) 
was recommended by Messrs. Joseph Hotchkiss and Nathaniel 
Bristol. Aud likewise Messrs. James Cooley aud Jacob Bright- 
mau presented themselves to receive the ordinance of baptism 
for their children, and after a full and caudid examination were 
approved and recommended, provided that Mr. Cooley shall, i>re- 
vious to his taking the Covenant the next Lords-day, subscribe 
to, aud publicly acknowledge a written confession of the ruiuoiis 
sin of drunkenness; and Mr. Brightman subscribe to, and make a 
public confession of the detestable sin of fornication at the same 
time aud place. ******** 

True copy of record. 

Attest Wm. Stone, Mod. P. T. 

\j It is said that a " bee " was made to get out timl)er for the 

old church, aud Elder "Warner Lake, a Baptist preacher, was 
jn-esent to help, aud it was suggested that he be asked to pray; 
Deacon McFarland was also present, aud said this was a "Presby- 
terian bee," and he made the prayer himself. Another time he 
rather discouraged the choir leader, who started to use a pipe to 
pitch his tuues, liy commaudiug him to " (Jit oot o' the hoose i' 
the Laird wi' that whussle." 

The second religious society in Harpersfield was Baptist, aud 
organized about 179"2. They held meetings for some time in a 
building near the present school house in district number three. 
Elder Lake, before meutioued, who lived iu Kortright on what is 
still known as Lake hill, where John Porter now resides, was the 
first and for many years the minister. Elder Mack was the second, 
aud was succeeded by Diugee Adams, who served as pastor mauy 
yeiu-s till very serious charges against him divided aud greatly 


weakened the society. They built a clitiri'h iu 1805 about half way 
between the Centre and Stamford, aided by the town with a site 
and one hundred dollars. This was removed and rebuilt at Stam- 
ford in ISUa. 

The Quaker society was formed about 1810, and for some time 
meetings were held at the house of John Wickham, an eai'ly settler, 
who was the first and only preacher. This society is extinct. 

.V Methodist class was formed in the north part of the town with 
Silas Washburn as leader and .■il)out thirty iiieiiil)ers, amonj^' whom 
were the Seleys, Darts, Butts and others. 

As related by a neighbor who was with him, Washburn ouce 
proved himself ijuite an evangelist. As was customary with farm- 
ers of that time they went to New York with their butter in the 
fall, and as they were going off the boat the horse of a carman 
backed off the dock and was drowned. The carman was greatly 
distressed at losing the only means of support for himself and 
famih', and the people present, though very sorry for him, began to 
separate. Uncle Sile, as he was called, got u))ou a l)ox and began 
to shout and a crowd gathered again. ■ You all say you are sorry 
for this man," said Washburn; " now how much are you sorry? I 
am sorry five dollars," and placing a bill in his hat passed it around 
and soon secured money enough to buy the poor fellow a good 
horse, for which of course he was very thankful. The next year as 
Washburn was leaving the boat a man accosted him with, " Ain't 

you the man that was so G d sorry for me last year when 

my horse was drowned ?" Uncle Sile knew him at once, and 
replied: "Yes, I was sorry for you; but I'm a great deal sorrier 
now!" "WTiy?" asked the carman. " Because," said Uncle Sile, 
" if you don't stop swearing and be a better man you'll go straight 
to hell ! " He soon had the man crying, made him kneel down, and 
prayed with him, and made him promise to stop swearing and lead 
a better life. 

The Methodists organized a soeietj' Jan. 2, 182;^, to be known 
as the Methodist Union Society of the town of Harperstield. They 


suoii after jmicbiiscd an i)l<l ston- wliicli they cliaiifjcd into a 
cliurcli and used till al)i)ut lS5(t, wheu it was abandoned, and it 
was used as part of a dwelliuy, and is still so used. This cliureli 
stood near llural cemeterj', where the wagon house of Lewis 
Hag-er now stands. For the next eight years meetings were held 
at the liinises of iuenil)ers and in school houses, till in 1858 the 
society purchased a building at the Centre, formerly an academy, 
using it as a church till 1871 wheu a new church was built at a 
cost of $3,. 50(1. This has been recently repaired and improved 
into quite a fine church. The society is now in a nourishing 

1857 a Methodist church was built at North Harpersfield by 
the successors of the Class before named, and services are well 

In the same year what was called a "Free Church" was built 
near the last named Methodist cliurcli, but has not l)eeu well 
kept up. 

Some years ago the Catholics liuilt a tine church in the Stam- 
ford end of the town which is said to be well attended. 

The first burying ground in Harpersfield was located (m the 
west end of the church lot (81) given by Col. Harper to the 
Presbyterian church, and most of the first Inirials were made 

Colonel Harper died Nov. 20, 1811, and was buried there, 
and also his second wife, liut about 1853 his descendants re- 
moved the remains of both to the cemetery below the Centre, 
where a monument was j^laced over them. The latter cemetery 
was opened about 1812, on account of the old ground being wet 
and unsuitable. The ground below the Centre is (juite well kept 
and has some good monuments. 

Harpersfield Rural cemetery, on the east side of Lot No. 68, 
is really the best ground in in town for the purpose, and was 
opened previous to 1705. 

Tlic burial in this ground of the murdered and captured sugar 

TOWX or IIAHI'h:iiSh'/KLD. 4|i( 

makers aud otlicr Ucvolufioniii-v hcidcs, of Hou. Josliua H. Bi-ett, 
ami other iiotulilc lueii nf tlic ciirly times, renders it i[uite worthy 
of uotiee iu this history. 

Five other grounds have been used in town, three in the uortli 
;ind two iu the soutli part, of wliieh the one on tlie Middlelirciok 
is the hest kept. A stone set to the grave of a child of Eden 
Hamilton, Iniried in 1711"), mentions that as the first hnrial in 
that ground. 

A lodge of Masons, known as Charity Lodge \o. 2'H, F. \ A. 
^r.. was organized Sept. 27th, 1S1;{, l)ut there seems to he uo list 
of memhers. A certiticate of mendiership issued to Michael Day- 
ton in 1815 shows the following olMcers: Elijah Andrews, W. M. ; 
Thomas Maxon, S. W. ; Tlr)mas Hendry, J. W. ; and Samuel Stevens, 
Sec'y. The lodge continueil its comnninicatious until the Morgan 
excitement was at its height when the members met in an up])er 
room iu the house of David S. Patchiu and formally surrendered 
their charter to the (rrand Lodge of the State of New York. Such 
property as belonged to the lodge was divided among the mem- 
bers. Michael Dayton was the last Master. 

The grist aud saw mills of Col. Harj)er aud St, Leger Cowley 
have l)eeu mentioned; but as stated 1)V his daughter, Mrs. Betsey 
Hamilton, now 95 years old, Mr. Campbell built a grist mill in 
1818 in the lower part of ^liddlebrook, aud two years later he 
built a saw mill nearer his residence. These were to replace mills 
built by him on the united Harperstield and Middlebrook streams, 
built about 17i)2 l)elow North Kortright, and which had been 
carried away by a heavy Hood. Mr. Campbell fearing the mill 
■would go went iu on Sunday and removed the j^'rain belonging to 
his customers, but would not l)reak the Sabbath enough to save 
his own of which he had a large quautity. 

About 1820 or 1825 Abijah Baird and his son William built 
grist and saw mills at No. Harperstield, which were run till alxuil 
lK4;i, when they were burned by an incendiary; l)ut were soon 
rebuilt and are still ninnin"'. 


In 1H(I4 Judge Hotchkiss liuilt u grist mill and a null fur mak- 
iug liuseed oil. Both are now out of use. There are uow six 
grist mills and four saw mills runuiug in town. 

There was formerly four clothieries in HarpersHeid, all doing 
a good business; but the spinning jenny and the power loom have 
driven them out of l)usiness, and they have been torn down or 
adapted to other uses, notable among the latter being the works 
of Newell & Co., whieh are now run by W. A. Cowley & Son as 
a machine shop and grist mill, a foundry being used in connection. 
In place of another cloth works a foundry was started at North 
Harpersfield, which has always done a good business. 

Of blacksmiths, Peter Pentield is said to have been the first 
to do job work, Mr. Baird keeping shop more for his own use. 

Eben Dodge worked on the old road in the west end of the 
town near the present residence of.W. Ct. Henderson, and Thos. 
Maxon worked near L. C. Grant's. 

About 1800 Ebenezer and David Penfield were running a 
scythe and axe factory near the Centre, using a trip-hammer to 
assist in forging. They finally dropf)ed the scythe business, dis- 
olved partnership, and started separate shops under the titles of 
E. Penfield & Sou, and D. Penfield cSc Son; both firms doing a 
jobbing business, and making axes and edged tools, the sons 
succeeding. The reputation of the Penfield axes extended over 
Delaware and the adjoining counties. At their first location they 
were succeeded by Beardsley Sanford, a celebrated manufacturer 
of sjoinning wheels and reels; and in those days no young wife's 
outfit was complete without a set of Sandford's wheels and reel; 
but the business died out from the same cause as the cloth 

The first store, so far as known, was kept by John IMontgom- 
ery in a house aftervFard occupied by Ebenezer Penfield, which 
stood across the turnpike from the present residence of H. Ralph 
Dart. About 179f) Giles Humiston was keeping a store near the 
residence of Geo. C. GibV)s in the Stamfcnd end of the town; and 


Inter Noiih iiiul Joliu Davcuport li.ul one iit tlic Centre, ami Kay- 
iiiund Starr at North Harpersticld. 

The first distillery was run l)y a man named Chapman, who 
also had a small store near Col. Harper's grist mill. Judge Hoteh- 
kiss was rvnming one alioiit 1800, as was also the Davenports 
and Starr, making four distilleries in Harperstield all running at 
the same time. No wonder the town was thriving, and had money 
to give out of the e.xcise fun<l. for building churehes ! But every- 
body drauk; the preaehei- and his fiock, and the doctor and his 
patients, and the man was inhospitable who did not offer it to his 

Within the memory of the writer, there was almost a riot at a 
l)aru raising because the helpers were served with food instead of 

Many different houses have been used as taverns in Harperstield. 
.\lexauder Harper is believed to have kept the first, as early as 1781) 
or 1787, at the Centre. After his removal to Ohio, a tavern was 
kept some years by Nathaniel Skinner, then by John Bristol, then 
by Asahel Merriam, who kept it as early as 1808, and till about 
18:20. The house had a reputation extending into the far west, 
under the management of Johnson B. Bragg, up to 1847, when 
Mr. Bragg sold it. From that time, as railroads were built, 
and under biid management, the custom decreased till it was 

Prior to 17!)(! Stei)hen Judd kept a tavern on the northwest 
corner of Lot No. 85, which was torn down in 1885. .\bout 180(1, 
and till 18i(), llajor Isaac Pierce kept a tavern in the north part of 
the town; and about the same time Samuefl Stevens opened a tavern 
about half way between the Centre and Stamford. \ house was 
nearly completed, and while the workmen were at dinner one day 
the building took fire and burned down. .Vnother was immediately 
begun and when finished was used as a tavern for some years. But 
it was <luring the ownershiji of his son, Stoddard, tiiat the Stevens 
tavern became almost as well known as Bragg's. 


Scveiul (itlicr houses were kejit as tiivenis, viz: ()u Lot !>, H. 
W. Hamilton; Lot :i(>, Biudt's Patent, Saiuncl Wilcox; Lot 41, 
Harper's Patent, W. P. Piulney; Lot 01, Joseph Hotchkis; Lots 
132, l;^3, Kausom Packard; Lot 156, Samuel Lloyd, James Ells; 
Lot 181, Joel Mack. 

]Maj. Isaac Pierce, John Hristnl, and James Cooley were early 

With the building of the Susijuehanua turnpike Harpersfield 
became a very active business ])lace; ])robably doing more than 
any other jjlace within many miles. It had three stores, tud har- 
ness shops, two cabinet shops, two shoe shops, two tailor shops, 
a hat factory, three blacksmith shops, and a wheelwright, aud all 
busy, which looked quite lively for a place of only twenty-four 
houses. Coaches ran tri-weekly, usually with an extra or more, 
aud the writer has seen eight four-horse coaches, besides the 
family coach of the proprietors, stop at Bragg's for breakfast. 
.Spring and fall the road was fairly lined with teams drawing pro- 
duce east or goods west. During the summer and early fall 
immense droves of cattle were continually passing through from 
the western states. 

The Delaware turnpike, nine miles long, built in 1841!, or 1844, 
paid for itself in four years. The advent of the Erie Railroad 
checked those little profits, and the Albany and Susquehanna 
cut them tine. The Ulster tV Delaware helped it somewhat, and 
it is now a little more than paying its way. 

From 1800 to 1812 the history of the town is uneventful. The 
town furnished its quota by draft aud enlistment, but most of the 
soldiers had an easy time, hardly any of them being in battle. A 
notable exception was General John Ellis Wool, who gained un- 
dying laurels in that and the Mexican war. A private from Har- 
persfield named Zenas Berse was so perfectly fearless that the 
General said if he had a thousand men like Zeue he would drive 
all the British off the continent. 

It is unfortunate that no record can now be found to show 

T(i\y\ (IF IIMil'ERSFIELD. 4.-):! 

tlic uaiiics of eulisted uicn tluriii^ the u iir cif the Kcliellii)ii. iicir 
the iimouut paid for bounties. 

The towu was iujiired much more h\ the hoouiiug of values, 
lea<liu<j to extra vaf^auce in mauy ways, tiian Ky the taxes for 
liouoties, though tliey were very huf^e. 

Before the homu had subsided, the railroad f(\(r struck us, ami 
the towu was bouded for islOO.OOU; aud after tweuty-four years of 
liayiufi^ priucipal aud interest we were out over $2(l(),()(l() for a rail- 
road we didn't get. 

During that time there was occasionally more excitement than 
during the war. Candidates for towu aud county olKces were 
elected, or defeated, according to the iugenuity of the stories for or 
against them about the railroad. Complaints befoi-e the railroad 
commissioners were prosecuted, and actions were carried to the 
coui't of appeals, only to be defeated, and till the pockets of the 
lawyers. Litigation must have cost the town twelve or fifteen 
thousand dollars. Since this great debt has been paid taxes have 
been lower, and the town is slowly recovering from its depression, 
aud if no further tariff agitation arises, we shall again feel as 
though Harpersfield was a good town to live in. 

Harperstield state tax for 1788, £l'.l, or about j<.{U. Harperslield 
state tax for 1888, $7(!(t.8(), with less than one-twentieth the 

The ]iric<' of cut nails in IT'.IT, as appi'aised in the St. Leger 
( owley inventory, were as follows: Ten pounds \d cut nails, $1.44; 
thirty-tive pounds 8*/ aud 'liUl, §().87. In 18!)7 the writer bought 
fifty pounds 4rf for $1.25. 


was born in Clieshire, Conn., July "24, 17(i'2, aud came to Har- 
perstield with his father, Joseph, aud his brothers, Thelus and 
Joseph, in 17K4. In 17H.") he married Margaret, eldest daughter 
of Cr)lonel John Harper, and settled on Lot Xo. 182, now owned 
l>y Stephen Van Dusen, but afterward removed to Lot N'i>. IM. 


wlicre he coutiuuetl to reside duriut^- the remainder of his life. 
During the war he served in the army, part of the time acting 
as orderly for one of the otiiuers. Being a bright, aetive young 
man he became secretarj-, thus acquiring the plain, peculiar hand 
which makes his wiuting admired wherever seen. At one time, 
while serving as one of the outpost guards to one of the forts on 
the Hudson, they were raided in the night by a troop of British 
and nearly the whole giuird slain. Hotchkis had stooped to tie 
his shoe, but seeing the trooper close upon him he dove into a 
clump of bushes close by and eseaj)ed. 

In civil life Judge Hotchkis served as Supervisor, Town Clerk. 
Justice of the Peace, and various minor oflices, being supervisor 
when the co.unty was formed. In the county he was Judge of the 
Common Pleas, Sheriff, 1805-09, and member of the Constitutional 
convention in 1801. Soon after the Federal (loveruuient was 
formed a post office was established at West Harperstield, of which 
he was postmaster till his death, when the office was discontinued. 
Judge Hotchkis and his wife united with the Presbyterian church 
in 1792, and at his death, December '2S, 1S4;!, he was the oldest 
member. His wife died in the spring of the same year. His only 
descendants now living in town are Daniel N. Gaylord, and his 
sons, Hai'per and Edward. The most of this sketch and the Hai'- 
j)er family history was obtained from Mr. Gaylord. 


was born in Massachusetts in 1797. He came to Harperstield in 
1830, and became the successor of Mr. Fenn, in July of that yeai-, 
which position he held for five years, when he returned to Massa- 
chusetts. During the first year of his ministry in Harperstield an 
extraordinary revival took place, and moi-e than one hundred 
members were added to the church. In 1850 he returned by 
invitation of the church and supplied them for the succeeding five 
years; during which time, — he being a widower, — he married 

7VMI-.V ((/■• IIMn'F.HShlKI.D. 455 

Miirguret, yimii-jest ilauj^litcr uf •liiclj^c Hdtilikiss. After 1H55 he 
■coutiuueil to reside in Hiirpersticld, j)icacliiiii^' for that and tlic 
iieit^'hboriug cougregatious, as his failing health permitted. 

Of a very loviug disposition, the mild deportmeut and affable 
manners which characterized Mr. Feun, belonged equally to him. 
His death, which took March 7th, 18(>7, the writer felt as a 
personal loss. Mr. Boies took gi'eat interest in the earlj' history of 
the town and church, giving material aid to Jay Goidd for his 
history, and the memoranda left by him have materially assisted 
the writer. 


The materials for this sketch were derived from Mr. E. A. 
Dayton, an aged neighbor who knew and remembers Mr. Fenu, 
from notes by Rev. Harper Boies, his successoi', and from his fare- 
well sermon. 

Mr. Feun was born at "Watertowu. Connecticut, in 17(ii), and 
graduated from Yale College in 17!)"2. He was of medium height, 
thick set, with rather sandy hair and tlorid complexion; and is 
described as being " mild in his deportment, affable in his manners, 
witty, as well as grave in his conversation, with a mind stored with 
a fund of amusing anecdotes connected with the experiences of 
himself and others." He came to Harjjersfield in 1798, where he 
officiated as ])astor of the Presbyterian church for more than thirty- 
tive years, and is sail! to hH\e been the first college graduate who 
ever preached in the county. 

During that time he performed seven hundred and thirteen 
baptisms in that and in societies around, and he also performed 
three hundred and sixty-seven marriages. He was a universal 
favorite with old and young^, being always s\'mj)athetic, whether 
the occasion was a wedding or a funeral. Probably no man during 
this time had a greater influence for good over the moral and social 
development of the town than Mr. Fenn. 

He might prol)ably have spent his life in this jiastorate, l)ut 


fur the iibtluctiou of William Morj^au iu lS2iS, as supposed, by 
Masons which rendered the order especially obnoxious iu Har- 
persfield. ^Ir. Feuu b;louj,''e(l to the ordei- and refusiuf^- to with- 
draw the occasion was used (by some iu abhorrence to the Masons, 
and by others who thought their pastor instead of being cheerful, 
like Mr. Feuu, ought always to be singing "Hark from the Tombs,") 
to procure his dismissal. About four years after leaving the pulpit 
iu Harperstield he was siezed with a tit of apoplexy while iu his 
wagon, on his way to till an appointment, and lived but about 
thirty minutes after the attack. He died September 2G, 1888. 
and his funeral was attended in the church where he had so long 
proclaimed the gospel. 

One of Mr. Fenn'^ anecdotes shows him as a boy. His family 
lived near the church and an old lady used to come to their house 
every Sunday between sermons, when Stejjhen was called upon to 
till and light her jiipe, which was a large oue, from the family 
crib; and after smoking awhile she would stick the pipe in her 
garter aud return to church. Stephen got tired, and one day 
loaded the pipe as full as he dared with powder, and not have 
it go off in the house. The old lady had her smoke. i)ut her 
pil)e iu the usual place and started for church, but before she 
got there an explosion took place which raised her about a foot 
from the ground, aud Stephen was freed from his servitude. 

This oue was rather at his expense iu two ways: A colored 
couple came to the tavern one night aud sent word up the hill 
to Mr. Feuu that they wished him to luarry them. ^Ir. Feuu 
went of course found a crowd there, and the party had lots of 
fun. After awhile Mr. Fenn began to dun the groom for his fee. 
"No," said the groom, "You've only half married us." " Yes, I 
have,' said ^Ir. Feuu, "I've married you just as usual. " "No," 
said the darkej', "You haiut kissed the bride yet, aud I won't ])ay 
till you do." Mr. Feuu went without the fee aud called on the 


IliiN. .KlSHIA 11. lilil/I'T. 

the tirst ])riicticiuf^ plivsiciaii in Hiupcrsticlil, was burn ulmiit 17.")(l. 
and t-aiiH' to Hsirperstielil about ITSS. The record shows that iu- 
was elected assessor iu ITSlt, ';«), aud '1)1; aud iu ITill he is tirst 
uoticed as oue of the justices of the peace. Iu 17!)") he tirst pre- 
sided at the anuual town uieetiug, previous to which a moderator 
liad always been chosen. In 17!)()-7 he was Member of Assembly 
for Otsej^o county, and it was largely owiug to his exertions that 
the county of Delaware was formed at that time, agaiust a stroup 
opposition. Iu 17'.)7 he was apjjoiuted first Judjije of Delaware 
county, which office he held till ISIO, wheu being' sixty years of age 
he was dis<pialitied by the constitution from holding it longer. He 
was State Senator eight years, l.S()4-ll, member of the Couucil of 
Appoiutmeut in 1805, and continued to hold office of some kind 
nearly to the time of his death, which took place December "24, 
18"22. None of his descendants reside in town. 

Members of Assembly from Harperstield: William Harper four 
years, Joshua H. Brett, James Ells twice, Stod<lard Steveus, Nathan 
Bristol, George C. Gibbs. 

Judge: Joshua H. Brett. 

Sheriffs: Koswell Hotchkis, Johu J. ^IcArthur. 

District Attorney: John P. Grant. 


was born in Litchfield, Conn., April 17, 17(58, being nineteen years 
old when he removed to Hari)erstield with his father, Deacon 
Caleb (iibbs, iu 1787, aud settled upou Lots No. 83 and 84. 

During the Revolution the Deacon was a member of the Com- 
mittee of Safety of Litchfield, aud at a special town meeting held 
Oct. 7, 1777. it was voted: "That Messrs. Caleb Gibbs ;uid 
others be a committee to purchase aud provide shirts, frocks, 
overalls, stockings, aud shoes, for the non-commissioned officers 
and "privates in the Continental army belonging to this town." 
Several of his daughters had previously moved to Harperslield, 


which is supposed to bavf beeu his reasou for moviu^''^ ^s he was 
uearlj sixty years old. The Deaeou and his sou cleared and im- 
proved their land, aud ujion the death of the former in 1801, 
the farm came into the possession of the sou, aud continued to 
lie his through life. 

Judge Gibbs was well educated for those times, an excellent 
business man, and he became one of the leading nien in town. In 
the county he held the office of Justice of the Peace, Clerk of the 
Board of Supervisors 18()9-1'2, aud Judge of the Common Pleas. 
Between 1805 aud 1825 he held the office of Supervisor ten 
years, aud at different times he was elected to uearl}' every office in 
town. He became a member of the Methodist church early in life, 
aud aided in forming the first Methodist society in Harpersfield, 
serving as cue of the officers and first class leader. He died 
August 10, 18-45. 

The name is represented in town by Major (leorge C. fxibbs and 
^son Ransom, Howard a nephew of the Major, and the writer and 
Jiis son Francis, who occupy the old homestead. 


I3V W. Vj. IVtcns. 

Ii-oiifts.s tliiit 1 tft'l somewhat proud to-duv to represeut uud 
to be represented with the good people of old Kortright. 

Alliiiiiy uiul rister counties are a hundred ami fourteen years 
older than Delaware, having been formed iu l()S;i with the Del- 
aware river for their boundary, and the territory now known as 
ivortright was situated iu turn iu the eounties of Albany and 
I'l'viui. iu tlir I'l'iiviucf <if New York, ami the counties of Mout- 
gomerv, Otsego and Delaware in the State of New York. A very 
old maj) in my possession christens us " The Manor of Court- 
wright, lying in the county of Albany aud the province New 

Kortl'ight was born of Harpersfield and altliongli not as large 
as in her childhood, she is still larger than liti' njothci' and quite 
as good looking. Originally she occupied all the hind of the 
Kortright, (loldsborough, Bradisli and ^Meredith Patents; liaving 
the Delaware river for her southern l)oun(hiry and extcuding in 
a westerly direction to a ]ioint situated within the coriioration 
limits of the present village of Delhi and within the Hight of an 
arrow from where we are at this moment standing, the line cross- 
ing Main street in a northerly direction between Meredith and 
( >i-chard streets. Koi'tright is four years older than oui- county, 
liaving been formed in 17!)8. 

The act of 17!t7 which formed our county dii'ected that the 
county business be transacted at tlie house of frideou Frisl)ee iu 
tlic town of Kortright until fuithcr legislative action. This house, 
as ii.any of you are doui)tless aware, is still standing at the 
Mioutli (it I'',lk Creek aud is occu])ied by Mi'. James Frisbee. 
'1\ ■"" 


Wheu Delhi was boru in 17'.).S wu rathei' liked the kiil ami 
gave it 15,(M)(» acres as a l)irthday present. AVe j,'ave Meredith 
15,000 at its hirth iu 1800. Davenport as iniicli in 1S17, and 
when good old Stamford claimed she was cramped in ls;i4 we 
turned in with Harpersticld and gave her enough room to make 
her comfortable. That our localitv was a favorite hunting and 
camping ground with the aborigines is not only attested by the 
records of our historians but also by the great number of Indian 
relics in the shape of tlint arrow heads, bits of pottery, tools, 
such as knives, scrapers, files, spear heads, etc., a tine collection 
of which may l)e seen anu)ug the towns' exhibits here to-day. It 
is not within our province if we had the time to go into details 
of the early experiences of settlers with these somewhat trouble- 
some neighbors, they having long before the formation of the 
town passed out from luuong us and on to the happy hunting 
ground which their wild fancy had so often pictured them. 

About the year 181-i having been long out of the original 
article, with some of our neighbors we conceived the idea of 
stocking up anew with a home-made variety, of a possil)ly less 
dangerous if not less useful sort, the outcome of which was the 
anti-rent movement of that year. Delhi, as I remember, having 
none of her own, swooped down on us one day and gobbled uji 
several of our choicest specimens and we were mad about it, and 
didn't like Delhi just a little bit, and iu fact didu't play in her 
yard much for the next ten years. On July 4th, 1845, we had a 
celebration at Bloomville. Hon. Ira Harris, then an aspirant for 
(iovernor, and later Supreme Court Judge and United States Sen- 
afor, with others, addressed the jjeople in what is now known as 
Peters' Grove. Such a multitude as gathered in that little village 
on that day was never there before or since; beside the civic 
throng, Indians in most fantastic dress and form and feature 
poured in from every hill-top. They quietly hung around and 
listened to the addresses, immediately after which, collecting iu 
the meadows below, they entertained the crowd for an hour with 

T()\y.\ Oh- KOnrHKIIlT. 4(J3 

ivlint was iU'si^''iiat('il an ludiaii traiiiiiiy, and wliicli consisted of 
II vciv well executed drill of scnii-niilitary tactics and evoluti(JUs, 
wliicli ill its wierd entirety created, I dare sav, ou the average 
Iielii.lder ail impression and a picture which time would not be 
likely to ohlitenite. A lad then of ei{>;ht years, I oliservod ii re- 
spectful dist!inc<! and at the close reached the village just a little 
ahead of those fellows, where in my excitement I was immediately 
knocked down and run over hy a four horse team, and carried 
lioiiie. what there was left of me, to my Ma on a pillow. The 
history of the sudden and somewhat tragic end of this — shall I 
say nonsense? — is too familiar to most of you to need mention. 

The first birth in our town, we are told, was that of Daniel 
McCiillivrae, the first school was taught by Jane Blakely, the first 
mill was built at Bloomville by Jacob Every. The first church 
that on the hill at Kortright Centre, the Presbyterian, tlie first 
))astor, AVilham ilc.Vuley, who was installed in the year ITiU and 
who continued in that position until his death in 1851. The 
membership of this church at times reached 500 and the weekly 
attendance was much more. A rather witty friend once told me 
in describing his early recollections of attendance at this <-lnircli, 
that with the rest of the small boys he was each Sabbath hung 
ui> on 11 narrow seat or shelf at the back of the gallerj-, where a 
man by the name of Leal was delegated to pick them up and re- 
j>liice them as one after the other tumbled off on account ot sleep 
or exhaustion. The service commenced at '.l:li(i in tiie nioniing 
and (rontinued with an hour's intermission until three in the after- 
noon. He assured me it was a hapjiy event each Lord's Day when 
the preacher reached that i)art of his closing prayer where he 
jileaded for a safe return to their several places of abode. It was 
then hurrah boys! we'll be out of this now in just three-(iuarter8 
iif an hour. Mr. McAuley was a man of the ]ieople and yet his 
reign of over half a centurj- was well nigh ngal. One only of 
his large family survives, Mrs. James (r. Ulakely, who at the age 
t)f eighty-three years is as brij.dit and witty as at forty. During 


a recfut vis^it to lier pleasant bome iu Kortiigbt she related to 
iiic this auecdote: Being called uimu at (iiit- time to marry a rather 
craukv parishioner, her father made the ceremom' unusually short, 
hopiuj;' thereby to win bis approval. The experiment was a failure, 
however, and the worthy miuistei was seriously re])roacbeil for 
his shortcomings by the injured benedict. A few years later, 
wife No. 1 ba\in^' died, he invited the pastor the secimd time to 
officiate in the same capacity; the good work was begun and the 
jjarties pledged in the usual manner, then came a prayer of regu- 
lation length, then a somewhat extended address to the bride at 
the end of which she was told to lie seiited, and the exhortation 
to the bridegroom, who i-emained standing, commenced and con- 
tinued for something like an hour, completing at length a cere- 
mony which the much married man was never known to criticise 
ou account of Ijrevity. The first Methodist church is believed to 
have lieeu the one at Bloomville, although the one built ou Betta's 
Ijrook dated liack to near the first of the century. John Bangs, 
one of the jiioneers of Methodism, was an early resident of the 
town and among the first as he was one of the most eminent of 
the many preachers who have represented that body, ^[any anec- 
dotes both humorous and pathetic might be told of these faithful 
and devoted men which are worthy of record if time would admit. 
In the year 1S87 Bloomville circuit paid its preacher $137 iu cash 
and ST(i in jirovisious, and his preaching places were limited to 
Bloomville, West Kortright, Elk Creek, Mei'edith Pond, Federal 
Hill, Delhi, Peake's Brook, Hamden, Haniden Hill, New Road. 
"Walton, Walton Mountain and the Griswold school house. Another 
of the early churches of the town was that of the Reformed Pres- 
byterian, organized in 1X14, with a church near the residence of 
^Ir. Harvey Bolles at Kortright Centre, at which time a man by 
the name of Williams became pastor and remained ten years, when 
Rev. Samuel M. Wilson became pastor and remained incumbent 
until his death in 1S()4:. A new church was built near the white 
house a mile west in 1S.51. ^Iv. Wilson was a faithful pastor and 

TDWX OK KdirnaniiT. 4(;.5 

the father of & wide awake familv, as I reuieiuhei' of two daughters 
aud as mauy sous; the latter were full of niiscbief iiud their j)rauks 
were the bane of the life of at least oue of the neighbors, au old 
lady, who had appealed to the foud father in vain for his friendly 
interference, and who on one occasion, hearing that the old gentle- 
man was daugerously ill, was provoked to say that " preacher or 
no preacher, if the father of those boys dies aud gets to lienvcn, 
he will make a good summer's work of it." 

Kev. .1. O. Bayles succeeded to the pastorate of this church in 
the year lK(i(i, and for about thirty years was a faithful and capable 
minister of the Word. 

The original survey of the Kortright aud Goldsborough Tracts 
were made by William Coekburu about the year 1770, aud Alexan- 
der Mills, a pioneer resident, was made agent for the proprietors. 

Alexander Leal, John McKenzie, aud Daniel McGillivrae, who 
with their families came from Scotland to Xew York in 1778. left 
their families iu that city early in the following spring aud in their 
search for a future home pressed their way through forest and 
stream and over mountain until they reached the wcjoded hills near 
where the village of Kortright Centre now stands. There these 
sturdy Scots found already gathered together in different localities 
within the present town limits a few and were soon followed 1)j' 
others as sturdy aud determined spirits as themselves, and having 
each selected one or more of the recently surveyed fari'is or lots at 
once began the work of clearing the timber and fitting up as best 
they could homes for their absent ones who were anxiously await- 
ing their return. 

These pioneers were nearly all Scotch aud Irish Protestants, and 
as no land was a home iu its true sense to them without a place of 
worship, they soon organized themselves into a religious society, 
and as early as the following j'ear petitioned the Associate 
Keformed Church of New York and Pennsylvania for a preacher. 
This request was shortly after granted by the Presbytery, aud as 
one of its "vacancies" was supplied and cared for until the settlers 


were ilriveo out iiiul scattered hy the storm of tlie Revolutiouiiry 
war. Mauy, aud indeed most of these settlers never returned. 
Among the few, however, were the families of Jlills, Leal and 
McGillivrae, and with them and following soon after came the 
names of Harjier, Riggs, McClaughry, Sloan, Stewart, Goodrich, 
McKenzie and others, all staunch Presbyters, who soon succeeded 
in reorganizing their society. A jireaching place was provided and 
after a season of supplies, with Rev. William McAuley as their 
pastor became the Associate Reformed Church of Kortright, for 
years one of the largest and most prosperous in the Synod of New 
York, and of which I have before made mention. After half a 
century of active work the venerable McAuley, having entirely lost 
his sight, laid aside his life work and Rev. Clark Irving was 
installed as juuior or "collegiate" pastor, Mr. McAuley remaining 
as senior until his death in IS.tI. Rev. Irving was of superior 
scholarship and au able and successful preacher. In the year 18-1'.) 
the church edifice was burned and out of its ashes grew three 
churches, one at North Kortright, one at West Kortright, and one 
on the old site at Kortright Centre. These churches have since for 
forty-five years each been doing earnest and successful work, the 
parent organization under the pastorate of Rev. Irving for twenty 
years. Rev. .\.. M. Smeallie for seventeen years, and Rev. N. E. 
Wade, the present incumbent, for eight years; all men of ripe 
attainments and earnest purjjose. 

The one at West Kortright under Rev. J. B. McNulty, Rev. John 
Rippey, and last though not least. Rev. R. T. Doig, has also been 
highly favored on account of the high rank of the men who have 
been called to minister to them in sacred things. And the t)ne 
at North Kortright under that of Revs. John Erskine, James 
Smealie, R. B. Taggart, R. C. Monteith and A. M. Smealie, all men 
eminently fitted to till the high ofldee to which they were chosen. 

The present church edifice at Bloomville was begun and en- 
closed in the year 1800. A man by the name of Every fell from 
the highest peak to the ground on the day of its raising without 

roir.V OF KliHTRIi.llT. 467 

sustaiuiug further permaneut iujurv thau the entire loss of oue of 
liis senses, that of siiielliuf,''. For uearlv thirty years it remained 
uutinisheil, the seats being composed of boards supported by h)ffs 
or timbers. It was completed about the year 1830, was rebuilt in 
1S.")7. and again rebuilt and modernized in the j'ear 1889. Anjcmg 
those who have done active work as preachers may be men- 
tioned J. B. "U'akely, Ii'a Ferris, A. C". Morehouse, Chas. Palmer, 
(leo. ■«'. Martin, E. White, O. P. Dales, S. J. McC'utcheon and J. 
1'. Race. Among these the pastorate of l{cv. A. C. Morehouse 
stands perhaps most prominent in the recollection of the ohlcr 
citizens. His labors l)egau in the spring of the year 185C; he was 
at the time a comjmratively young man, possessed of a reasonably 
sound head and an agreeable presence; he was an acceptable 
preacher and was particularly well adapted to pastoral work. Dur- 
ing his three years stay at Bloomville and Rose's Brook he con- 
ducted successful revival meetings and built or rebtiilt tine churches 
at both station.s. There were at Bloomville about ItKi accessions 
to the membership as the result of his first effort, among thesi' 
were many of the first and most influential citizens of the town 
and village. On one occasion soon after his first arrival at Bloom- 
ville he set out on a day to make pastoral calls in the village; 
his attention had been called to the fact that one family, con- 
sisting of sonu' four or five members, were all ciininiuuicauts of 
the church except the man of the house, who was somewhat 
skeptical and sometimes was disposed to resent any allusion made 
to him by the minister about his future. The new minister de- 
termined to make this cue of his first visiting places, which he 
accordingly did, selecting an hour when the head of the house 
would be likely to be present. He failed to find him in and after 
a brief call proposed a season of prayer. He had only knelt with 
the family and begun his petition when he was accosted in a deep 

bass voice with the command, "Here, d n you, ijuit that! 

(.^uit that!! Get out! Get outl!" whereupon he hastily arose to 
his feet, and in a half dazed condition undertook to offer a pro- 


test or au apology. lu liis i-oufiisiiiu it was some iiiiuutcs before 
the good woman of the house could sufficiently compose the youufi; 
minister to get him to understand that his tradueer was no other 
than an erring pet i)arrot which had been a favorite in the family 
and neighborhood for years. 

A jsrominent figure in Bloomville sixty years ago was that of 
Asher Merwin, father-in-law of Judge William Murray of Delhi and 
of Hon. Stephen H. Keeler of Bloomville. In company with Silas 
Kuajip he built the old hotel in Bloomville about the year 1800. 
One end of the same was used by him as a store, and the rest by 
Knajsp as a hotel. Colonel Merwin was a genial old gentleman and 
a pleasant companion of old or young. In his younger manhood 
he served for a time as clerk in the Bloomville hotel, kept at that 
time by Silas Knapjj, who later became his father-in-law. One 
evening while a young friend who had rode in on horseback from a 
neighboring town was calling on one of the young ladies of the 
house his visit, which had been somewhat prolonged, was rather 
rudely interrupted by young Merwin who informed him that his 
horse had got loose and had started for home, at the same time 
giving his friend the grateful intelligence that he had caused the 
boys to bring a horse, with which he could readily overtake his 
own if he made good use of whip and spur. The visitor mounted 
with a bound and was soon out of sight, but soon returned, saying: 
"Boys, I have a little l)usiness with you in doors; I thought before 
I reached the bridge that this horse rode strangely like my uu-n." 

Other early iirominent citizens of Bloomville and its vicinity 
were Jacob Every, who at different periods built two grist mills; 
Silas Kna2:)p, Thomas Fitch and Kufus Bunnell, who under the firm 
name of Fitch & Bunnell conducted a mercantile business and 
erected several important buildings, among which were the large 
house now owned by Mr. J. A. Hill, long known as the Bathrick 
house, the red stoi-e on the opposite side of the street recently 
removed from the corner of the S. Forman lot, and the Dr. Formau 
house now standing; Jehiel (iregory, father of Horace Gregory, 


Blooinville Street. 


who was 11 lifeloiif^ I'esitU'iit. a niercliaiit. I'attlc ilialcr ami an artivo 
Imsiucss uiau; Aarou, Johu aud William (ire^orv, Moses Lyou, Sr., 
•lohu Batbrick ami bis two sous, Dauiel ami Noah, Hiram Every, as- 
niercbaut and farmer; Colonel Adam Jaiiues, as liotel beeper, nier- 
chant and farmer: .rohn Peters, who as farmer and dealer iu 
general merebandise, wool, butter, bops, cattle and real estate 
spent fifty years of a busy life in the villai^e and upward of ninety 
within the present post-office limits; Yir^'il Bunnell aud sou, 
(leorge, the latter beiuj^' a man of particulaily tine presence aud a 
successful mercbant, doing business in the store now oi-cu]>ied by 
M. F. Allison; Henry aud Isaac Drake, furniture dealers; James R. 
White aud Andrew !More, mercbauts; Samuel Barlow, also a mer- 
chant, — the last three being iu their day not only wide-awake- 
l)usiness men l)ut each possessed of a love of innocent fun which 
kept a whole village from a couditiou of ennui: George Dales, hotel 
keeper, justice of the peace and manufacturer of ])roprietary medi- 
cines; Charles W. Duren, furniture dealei" Harvey Davis, merchaut, 
farmer and liverymau, was for many years suj)ervisor of the town; 
Josejih W. Browncll, cooper, justice of the peace aud merchaut; 
Al)ijah Fiebls Cooj)er aud Aaron Champion ^Miller, were among our 
most exemplary citizeus. Doctors Wadby, H. K. Wilbird, Stephen 
Formau, O. L. Butts, and J. R. Matbews each in their turn served 
their day in ministering to the sick and suffering aud are rcnicni- 
liered by many for thiir kindly offices. 

These represent a portion of the business num of Bloomville 
village and ouly such as have passed into history. Many more who 
are still among tlie living, and whose life work seems not yet to 
have been completed, bave done and are doing much among us, li\it 
their names can hardly be meutioned within the space of this 

.\ somewhat noted character who lived in another town across 
the Delaware, Imt who was almost a daily visitor and was counted 
one of our citizens, was William Youmans. or " I'nclc Bill," as he 
was familiarly c.alled. A idiief pi-culiaiity about the unin, and one 


that attracted people for iiiili's to see liiii), was a iimst iiijiiatiiial 
couditiou of his features, kuown as a liver face. It consisted of 
an almost blood I'ed growth exteuding dowu from the chiu the 
length of a medium sized potato, and which also hung pendant 
from each ear ami a correspDiidiiig disculoriug and slight growth 
of the same firey red color that covere<l the entire lower ]iart of 
the face. With this peculiarity of feature he was also the victim 
•of a shaking palsy, which kept these elongations in a constant 
tremor as though they had been formed of a jelly. His speech 
was also affected, and he talketl in a kind of jerky manner tiiat 
made him altogether a most remarkid)le personage. He was a 
man of much more than ordinary wit and intelligence, and very 
few met him if but for a few moments without going away with 
some sally of wit whicli would be as indellible as the sight of 
his features. On one occasion after having an animated s<Tiiitinul 
discussion with the minister on the story of the creation, on 
.starting for home with a new pair of boots on his arm he was 
met by the good man wdio asked him where he got his boots: "I 
■created them.'" "What do you mean by that?" "Why, I said 
let them be made, and they were made!" 

Prominent among the older residents of the town was the name 
of Alexander Leal, the father of Alexander Leal who now lives 
east of Kortright Centre. Mr. Leal was at one time the most 
extensive dealer in Initter in the state, and as incredulous as it 
may seem, is said to have practically controlled or ' ' cornered " 
the entire butter market of the country on different occasions. 
His residence at the time was on the farm lying east of that of 
his son Alexander. Lewis Mills was also an active liusiness man 
living at North Kortright. He owned and traveled with a circus 
for several years, which was not, perhajis, the greatest even then on 
earth, but was the best owned in Kortright, and furnished a very 
creditable entertainment. Several members of the Mills family be- 
came eminent on account of their business ability, and accumulated 
.elsewhere immense wealth. 

rOWX OF KORTRfdlfT. 4.7;-! 

Elisha ()sl)(ini, Tlimuas Sliiluiul and I'ftcr Fisher, Sr., livini,' 
ou tlic iiiouiitaiii so\ith of Bloonivillr, were citizens of sterling' iii- 
te>4Tity. Saiiiuol Oslxini aud Peter Fisher, sous, coutiuiied in pos- 
session of the ()sl)oru and Fisher farms up to the time of their 

Aniouf;: the prosperous farmers of former years living- akiiig the 
Dehxware were Joseph Clark, for several years supervisor of the 
towu, a most active aud reliahle citizeu, who succeeded his father, 
William t'lark, on the M. X. Fiisbic farm, Wheeler, Barlow, Peter, 
James, aud Audrew KitI, brothers, all of whom raised larj^e aud 
respectable families at Kiffville. Audrew kept a hotel in the house 
where DeWitt Kitf speut his last days, ou the east side of the high- 
way, Heury Sackrider, who was succeeded l)y James, his sou, ou the 
E. J. Wheeler fai'ui, Duncan aud Joliu McDonald, l)oth of whom 
lield different offices of trust aud honor. A sou of the latter, Graut 
McDouahl, became a successful business man iu New York and 
[)ossessed {jfreat wealth. John Andrews, who occupied for mauy 
years the farm owne<l by William Nesbitt, behuijied to a large 
and somewhat distinguished family who were sous of Samuel Wake- 
man Andrews, who spent his life ou the Daniel Andrews, or Sharp 
farm, ou the east side of the river. John Andrews was father of S. 
W. Andrews, Sr., who for many years was j)ro])rietor of an impm- 
taut line of stages in New York, from wliicli he realized a handsome 
competence. He was the fatlier of S. W. Andrews, the present 
owner of the palatial residence on the spot where Judge Martin 
Keeler formerly lived at South Kortright. Judge Keeler was a 
promiuent business man nf the town seventy-Jive years ago; held 
the oftice of County Judge and Sheriff, and was extensively engaged 
in mercantile pursuits. He was the father of Hon. Stephen H. 
Keeler of Bloomville, Hon. Martin Keeler, Kortright Centre, Fid- 
mund Keeler, North Kortright, and Charles Keeler of So\itli Kort- 
right. all of whom were m their ilay ai'tivc and inthicntial mer- 
chants aud business men, doing business at the above named places, 
the two first named liaving hrdd various offices of trust aud honor. 


Tboiuns Clark uwucd tlio faiiii which is uow the delijifhtfiil home 
of J. J. AudiewH. He WHS a dif^uitied ^'eiitlenian of Euj^lish Ijirth, 
aud iu couuectiou with the farm kept a hotel. A daiij^hter of his 
was the accomplished wife of the late James A. Thomas, who speut 
their lives near Bloomville in the town of Stamford. The names of 
Sauford, Griffin, Simmons, McMurdy, Hillis, Hauford, White, are 
synonyms of business prosperity and integrity. 

Back of fifty to seventy years ago a large proportion of the 
woolen garments worn by both sexes were home made. Sheep 
were kept on every farm, the wool was combed or carded into rolls; 
these rolls of wool were two or three feet long and a little larger 
around than an ordinary lead pencil, they were then spun or twist- 
ed into threads, each roll being stretched out as the twisting 
process was going on until it was as tine in the thread or yarn as 
the spinner was pleased to make it. This thread or yarn was then 
colored or dyed aud some " doubled and twisted " aud knit into 
socks or mittens, or left single and woven into cloth; this cloth 
when taken from the loom would be possibly five feet wide and was 
rough, thin and slazy. It could be held up to the light and objects 
seen through it. It was then sent to the "fulling mill" where it 
was placed in a vshallow trough and with soajD and cold water 
abundantly supplied it was pounded or squeezed by simple ma- 
chinery constantly for about three or four days, aud when taken 
from this bath was found to be "full cloth," thick, heavy aud tirm, 
and about two aud one-half feet in width or half as wide as when 
it left the loom; if four yards long when put in there would be 
possibly three when taken from the vat. These fulling mills were 
a necessity and were common; one was in operation iu Bloomville 
at the head of N. Moak's mill pond, nearly opposite the residence 
of L. H. Every, another at the river crossing just above the small 
bridge ou lands of W. H. Forman, another at Kiffville, and many 
others were scattered throughout the town. Oat mills aud oat 
kilns were also quite common. These were used in the preparation 
of oat meal. The oats were first spread in the kiln on an iron 
screen with a tire underneath and heated uutil the hard, dry hidl 
or covering was charred and brittle, then they were run or rolled 
loosely between two light mill stones which broke and loosened the 
hull, leaving the berry white and clean, then after the separating 
process the oat berry w-as ground into oat meal. One of these 
mills was also situated at Kift'ville. 

7VMV.V (IF KdirrHli.llT. 47.-) 

A gristmill wiis also situated a slidit ilistaiicc abovo tlio Hogs- 
l>nck oil lands of K. .T. Wheeler, and was run liy a man l)y the name 
iif John Tolditch, but who was somewhat a])])roi)riat(>lv called 
tor short, liy old and youn^'. and in fact only linown liy manv as 
■' Johnny Tolldish. " 

Saw mills and ;jrist mills were scattered at ditterent jioints 
throughout all parts of the town. Whiskey stills and j)utashcries 
were alsi> abundant throughout the town. 

Among the early teachers of schools we have often hcai'd men- 
tion of one named Patterson, an eccentric character but a man of 
more than comuiou educational al>ilitv. He enjoyed the reputation 
of being able to solve nearly any or all mathematical pioblems, and 
also to distort his features so as to frighten the most incorrigible 
scholar into a meek ol>edience. .\ story is told of an occasion when 
a most exasperatin^f violation of the rules had been conunitted 
within the temple of learning, and the l)oys were pron]]>tly called 
into the entry way and solemnly warned that the guilty boy must 
come forward, confess his crime, remove the obstruction and throw 
himself on the mercy of the court. The faithful pedagogue waited 
and worked his face for all he was worth, but it failed for the first 
time to start the unknown criminal. The situation was becoming 
.awkward, when the teacher fell 1>ack and su]))ilied himself with a 
very large slate and pencil and (piietly told the class that if that 
boy held off and put him to the further lalior and trouble of 
tigurinj^' out which one was the guilty one, the trouble with that 
boy in that school would only have just commenced. 'J'his was 
counted a most serious turn in affairs by the youngsters and the 
unfortunate victim at once walked up, confessed his guilt, and took 
his medicini' like a little man. 

.Vndrew (iilchrist, for many years a prominent citizens and office 
holder in the town, was a son of Thomas (lilclirist, who came from 
Irelanil about the year IHIO. Andrew (iilchrist was the father of 
Dr. William (iilchrist late of New York, now deceased, a gentleman 
of great wealth and whose benevolences throughout our town auil 
county, both public and jiiivate, have been ])rincely. He was a 
l)rother of Mrs. B. "SI. Banks and ^Frs. Smith of Bloomville. 

Alansou Banks came from Westchester county about the year 
ISOO. He was the father of John Tianks, who for many years was 
an esteemed citizen and who left a large family, of whom the fol- 
lowing were lon^r or are still residents of oui' town: .M;insoM Banks, 


who receutly died in Cortlaud coiiuty, Heiirv ]M. Biiiiks, Beujiuuiu 
M. Banks, both resideutH of the towji, ^Mrs. Jobu O. Thompsou, Mrs. 
Thomas Robertson, ^Irs. Lehiud Kcnyou, and Mrs. William (r. 

Moses Sackrider camL' from Westchester eouuty about the year 
1796. He was the father of Timothy, Henry, Daniel and Solomon, 
Polly, and Hannah Wetmore, wife of James Wetmore, Esq., late of 
Stamford, and mother of S. S. D. Wetmore and Thomas H. Wet- 
more, both substantial citizens and life long- residents of the town. 
Henry Saokrider married a sister of James Wetmore, senior, and 
was the father of James and Solomon Sackrider, who were louj^ 
prominent residents of the town. 

Thomas McClaughry was a native of Ireland, and came to Kort- 
right from Westchester county in 1784. Two brothers also settled 
in the town, Richard and Andrew. Thomas reared a large family, 
among whom known to the writer was Matthew and Edward. Mat- 
thew was the father of the late Mrs. James McGillivrae, of Walter 
T. McLaury of North Kortright and of Doctors James and William 
McLaury, who were long and successfully engaged as medical 
practicioners in and about the city of New York. Edward was the 
father of the late E. T. McLaury and grandfather of Judson Mc- 
Laury, now engaged in the mercantile business at Kortright Centre. 
A McClaughry (McLaury) lineage of the town of K(U-tright wouhl 
till a book. 

John Blakely came to Kortright from Schenectady iu 17;iS. He 
had five sous, William, James, John, George, and David, and sev- 
eral daughters. William Blakely married Nancy McDonald, a 
sister of Duncan and John McDonald, and was one of the prosper- 
ous and influential citizens of the town. He was father of Joliu D. 
Blakeley who married a sister of John Peters of Bloomville and 
spent his early life in Kortright, of James (i. Blakely who nuirried 
a daughter of Rev. McAuley, and whose wife and family still reside 
in Kortright, and of Goldsborough Banyer Blakely who married a 
daughter of the late Pierce Mitchell of ]\Ieredith, and whose wife, 
one son and daughter reside at Oneonta, N. Y. Many niend)t'rs 
of this and other branches of the Blakely family have become 
scattered and are no longer residents of the town. 

William Rowland, accompanied by his son Ebeuezer, moved to 
Kortright and settled on a farm at the foot of Keuyou Hill about 
ISOU. Ebeuezer Rowland became one of the wealthiest men of his 

7'oir.v (IF KoiiTRiciir. 477' 

iliiv residing,' in tlif towi]. He w;is fatliei' of \\'illiiiiii liowliuid Kscj., 
.liiiiics IJowlaud, El)eiu'Zfr Uowland and GeDij^'e llowhmd, all of 
whom Ijecunic substiintial aud wealthy citizens of tlie town and arc 
well known. The home of Ebeuezer Kowlaud who niarnc d a 
danyhter of Holxnt Mclhvaiu, Escj., and resides in the extreme 
western part of the town, is oue lit for a prince. In fact the visitor 
to our town of Kortright who fails to take in that region occui)ied 
l)y the residences of William INIcClintock. James Rowland, Joiin 
A[ore(h)(di, M(rritt S. and Joseph Kolierts, William H. Browni 11,. 
William Blakely and James Kelso, will miss a locality which 
on acconnt of tine farm houses, barns and outbuildings and neat,, 
productive, well fenced and well kept fanus is difficult to exceed. 

The veteran editor of the Stamford Jlirror, S. B. Champion, 
established his jjrinting bvisiness in Bloomville in the year IS.jl,. 
and continued the publication of the Bloomville Mirror in that 
village for about twenty years when he moved his plant to Stam- 
ford, giving his pu1)licatiou its jiresent name. 

Benjamin Gerowe, manufacturer of grain cradles, resided lor 
many yeai's at KilTville. He was the father of AA'illiam (ierowe of 
Walton, and Harvey B. Gerowe, who with his sou Lucius W. resides 
also near Kiffville, where they are extensively engaged in the dairy- 
ing business. Benjamin Gerowe is still living, in the state of 
Delaware, having reached very nearly the century mark. 

Orson J. Butts, R. W. and John W. McArthur, Cornelius \V. 
Every, William Shaw, John O. Thompson, Augustus Dunn, Geo. E. 
Scott and James (iibson are all ])rosperous and intelligent farmers 
living in the central ])ortiou of the town. Other substantial citi- 
zens who were prominent in their various vocations were John and 
Hugii Kinmouth, farmers, who came from Scotland about the year 
l.s;iu. The former was the father of J. A. Kiiuiioutli, who still res- 
ides on the ol<l homestead, and W. {{olio Kinmouth, a physician 
in New Jersey. Hugh Kinmouth was the father of two sons, l)oth 
of whom are physicians of note living in New Jersey. The elder,. 
Sutherland, having by means of well conducted transactions in real 
estate become possessed of great wealth. 

Simon Mcintosh was an early resident, came from Dutchess 
county iu the year IKOd ; his wife's mime wiis Bates, also 
from Dutchess. They were l)lesse(l with seven sous,, 
Heury. William. Matthias, Alexander, (ieorge and Simon. Of these 
Heurv had two chihlrt'n. William and Emeliue; William M<-Intosli 


is uow liviD^' ill Wasliiiij^ton, D. ('., the father of Jauies H., a fdnncr 
school commissioner of our coiiutv, iiiid A. W. Mcintosh of Delhi, 
N. Y. Emeline Mclutosh, claugliter of Heury, was the wife of the 
late Frances Fuller and mother of Mrs. J. E. Powell, (ieorj^e 
Mcintosh, a younger son of Simon and brother of Henry, lived for 
many years on Federal Ilill, town of Delhi, and was the father of 
Theophilus, the senior editor of the Delaware Republican. Other 
members of the family drifted to other parts of the county. 

John McArthur was a native of Ireland, came to Kortriyht and 
settled on the farm now owned by John W. McAi-thur about the 
year 181H; there was born to them one son, Robert, the father of 
John "\V. and Robert W. McArthur. The fact that the fond parents 
journeyed the entire distance to New Yoi-k in those slow and 
troublous times for the sole jjurpose of having their boy properly 
christened, is an incident which John W. should pin in his hat. 

Still others certainly no less deserving of mention, who by 
•devoted lives and generous impulses Jiave imprinted their names on 
the hearts of our people are the families of Roberts, Kerr, Orr, Mc- 
Murdy, Galloup, Donnelly, Donaldson, Kilpatrick, Loughren, Hus- 
ted, Forman, Smith, Burdick, Mitchell, Keuyon, Harkiiess, Harper, 
Parker, Jones, Douglass, Humphrey, Mcllwaiu, Ciimmiugs, Stouten- 
burg, Beken, Davis, Ceas, Hill, Every, Brown, Rowlands, McNeeley, 
Sexsmith, Tait, BoUes, Mc.Vuslin. 

I am warned that I must not trespass further on your time 
with this record to-day, but I cannot close without making mention 
of the honored dead — if I cannot of those still living — who were 
our defenders in the late civil wai-. A soldiers' monument erected 
at Kortright Centre records the names of Joseph R. McCracken, 
Levi Decker, John S. Burdick, Josepli Rowland, James T. Mc- 
La'iry, Walter T. Mead, John M. McCully, James Murphy, (xeorge 
Ceas, Richard Young, Horace S. Hauford, Chauncey D. Hauford, 
John B. McWilliams, Charles H. Barker, Frederick Ames, Samuel 
Tate, Andrew Tate, J. Newton McLaury, Hugh Black, and Wil- 
liam Davis. In the midst of our rejoicing on this occasion, ami 
the things of beauty and the national emblems which gladden 
our eyes and surround us on every side, let us stop to-day and 
in our minds wreath a garland and plant a flag over the i-esting 
place of those and all those who nobly served and nobly died 
for us and the couiitrv which we laud and love so well. 


THIS f.Dwu was t'onuetl from Siduey, April 4, ISll, uud was 
named after, llev. Juhn 'S\. ^lasoii, who in the ri^^ht of bis 
wife, a descendaut of (icn. Joliii Bradstreet, was owuer of the 
•,'rcatcr part of the Evans ])ati'nt, which hiid in this town. Tliis 
patent was surveyed in ITKIi by Wm. Coekburu. 

A few words will explain the physical features of the town. 
The Bennett brook rises in the eastern part of the town, iiins 
an easterly course and empties into the Susquehanna in the town 
of Bainbridf,'e. Cold Spriuf,' brook rises two and a half miles 
south of Bennett brook, runs south and discharges into the Dela- 
ware near tlie Stiles settlement. Two lidges extend on either 
side of these brooks their whole length. They are broken, how- 
ever by nuiiH'rous liiteral ravines through whieji tiow small streams. 
The highest summits are from five to six hundred feet above the 
valleys, and about eighteen Inindred feet above tide water. The 
surface is stony; the slialy loam only fairly pioductive. 

The village of Masouville is situated on Bennett brook, a little 
west of the center of the town. The first p(^rmanont settlement 
was made here in 1795, on what is known as the Cockburn gore, 
a strip of land running across the west end of the town. 

Tiie lirst settlers were mostly from JIassachusetts, among 
whom we note William and Adiu Wait, Samuel M'hitman, Daniel 

Scranton, Knos (1 Imaii, Justin North, Pere/. Moody ,iiid his 

Kou iI(>s<'K, Asa Terry and Caleb Monsou. The tirsf l>irtii was 
that of Sally Wait, August In. ITST. Tin- first .leatli was tliat 
of William Wait during the same summer. 

In 17'.t7 the State road was built, ending at Jericho, now Bain- 

4s'2 iiisToiiv OF i>p:i.AWAi{h: corxTY. 

lirid^c. OtlitT settlers came soou nftcr, Darius Siuitb, Tiuidtliy 
Enstiiiau, Beruice Hazor, Sj'lvester and Ebeuczer Smith. Dr. Eli 
Emmons taught the first school; Simeou Wells kej^t the tiist iuu, 
where the old Baptist pavsouaffc now stands. The site of the 
tirst school house is now occupied by the liarii of the late John 
^I. Parker. The tirst store was kept h.v Fitch and Phelps--, in ISOS. 
Joseph Biekuell built the first jurist and saw mill in 18U"2, about 
half a mile west of the present village. Hazor, Ebenezer Smith, 
Dr. Pliuy aud Darius Smith settled near the fciiter of the town. 
Collins Brown settled a little east of the center; Silas Kiieeland 
oil Beech Hill; Wearam Wi^i^ settled about two miles soiitli of 
the center im the Delaware road. He was well educated and a 
man of good judgment. He was the first supervisor of the town 
aud laud agent for John M. Mason for many years. JIalcolm 
Allen aud John McKinuon came about ISOO aud settled on the 
Sidney road one and a half miles northwest of the center. L. 
McQuaiu, the two Eloner brothers and Thomas B. Paliiier came 
in 1800; Joseph Bicknell, Ira Balcom, Levi Wells, Elijah Whit- 
man aud (ieorge Clayhom came about 1801; Elijah Whitman aud 
Wui. Bolt came from Saratoga county. William McCrea, a relative 
of the Jane MeCrea who was murdered by the Indians in 1777, 
also came from Saratoga couuty. There was a tragedy enacted 
at the residence of this McCrea, in which one Paugbourue, a 
laborer for McCrea, murdered his wife. There was also a case of 
murder in 1819 by Nathan Foster, who poisoned his wife. The 
trial was conducted at Delhi and created an intense excitement. 
Martin Van Buren was present aud assisted the District Attor- 
neys. Foster was convicted aud iiuug. Mrs. Martha Bradstreet 
came to ^lasonville in 1819 and commenced suits to recover 
lands of tlie Evans patent in Masonville and Tompkins. She was 
successful in some instances; but at the preseut date all these 
suits have been discontinued, as upon further investigation it was 
held that the claim was uot established. This claim aud the 
liti"atiou arising out of it had much to do in retarding the set- 


-tk'iiR'iit of the town. The villa'>c' of Masouville is ;i y.ivt of Lot 
18, iu the Evaus patent, tlie wliolc lot contjiiuiut^- l,(l()7 acres. It 
was all elainieil by the heirs of Mrs. ^Fartlia IJradstreet. Most 
of the occupants have settled with the ( laiiii;uits by paying $5,000 
to the late William Yoinuans, couusel for the ilainiants. 

Iu ITitK Timothy Eastman took a lease embraciuj; the site of 
Masouville. This lease was assigned to Reuben Bump, and by 
him to a man by the name of Nash, and by Nash to Darius Smith, 
iather of the late Stillman Smith, iu IKOl. I'licsc parties and 
their heirs have held possession ever since. Tlu' peo])lc ]iurcli,ised 
laud from them iu good faith and miule improvements without 
any knowledge of a trust deed until in IK")!). The settlers there- 
fore felt that the\- had been greatly wronged and that this deed 
should be caucellfd. 

The eastern part of the town, known as East ^lasouville, was 
settled a little later than the western part. The soil is better 
adapted for agriculture than the rest of the town. The farmers 
have the advantage of tin Ontario iV Western railroad which 
gives them an outlet for their produce. 


Agreeable to a vote of the inhabitants and an act of the I^egis- 
lature, March 1, isrj. the first annual town meeting was held at 
the house lately occupied by Samuel Wliitniiin, and was adjourned 
to the school house near Collins Brown. The following persons 
were elected to ofKce: Supervisor, Wearam Willis; town (derk, 
Pliny Smith; justices of the peace, L. Liverly, Uzziel Taylor; 
assessors, Lucius Scolield, Abuer Graves; commissioners of high- 
ways, Thomas B. Palmer, William McCrea, Erastus Goodman; 
collector, Robert AV. Fo.ster; constables, R. W. Foster, Job Ehner; 
fence viewers, William S. McCrea, Closes Shaw, Farriugtou Parker; 
pound keeper, Joseph Bicknell. 

At this meeting the following ri-solutions were passed: Res- 
olved, That the overseers of the poor of the aforesaid town give 
.their notes on interest to the supervisor and justice of the peace 


for all moneys received. Voted, that fences four iiu<l one-half 
feet liij^li shall be deemed a lawful fence. Voted, that horses- 
and bo<^s shall not run on the common land. Voted, that the 
damages done by horses and hoj^s shall be the penalty without 
any regard to the fence; said daiua^^es to be ajjpraiscd liy tlie 
fence viewers, the owners to pay all the costs. 

We had j^repared a list of the persons who had been sent to 
the Legislature, and who hail served as supervisors of the town, 
but fearing that this sketch may be too much extended, we omit 
tbese names. 

The census of ISSd showed about 21.()()(i acres of improved 
land and of unimproved about 11,001) acres. The nundser of acres 
under the plow was "^j-tlS, the pasture land something over 10,000 
acres, mowing laud nearly S.OOI) acres. The last report of farm 
lands does not vary much from rejiort of sales of 1S74. falling a 
little below. At tlie last census tlie inhabitants nundjered about 
1,(!()0, the slight decrease from year to year being caused by 
emif>ration to the west. 

There are now about "i.oOO rows on the farms of the town. 
Dairying is the })rincipal industry. One hundred and Hnc years 
ao'O the town was all forest through which wild beasts roamed 
at will. Seventy years ago there was on an average al)out one 
cow to a clearing; the tinkle of the cow bell could l)e heard 
from every hill and valley. As I have stated, we are now largely 
euga"'ed in dairying. About 475, .500 pounds of butter are pro- 
duced annually. In the western part of the town there is a cheese 
factory managed by Ernest Bilby. F. AV. Smith owns two cream- 
eries, one in the village and one at Jericho. W. A. (lifford owns 
one at East Mason ville and one at Tacoma. J. C. and V. \\. 
AVillis own one at Beaver Lake. The patrons of the creamery 
all use separators, and the butter ranks with the best sent to 
market, but at the present time the jirice is so low it leaves l>ut 
a small per cent, to the farmer. 

The lumberin.u interest in INI.-isonville was of vast ])ro])ortions. 

rnir.v (*/•■ MASdxvn.i.h:. 4S.-; 

from iS'id to ISoO. Little else was tlioui^ht of except to cut 
lof^s, haul lof^'s, sinv lof>'s and build rafts. Had the people followed 
fanning!' with the same teuacity and zeal as they did the luiid)er- 
iii<4' business tlic town would lit- niurli luttcr off to-day. Tn the 
winter time it was no tritlin.L;' matter to j;ct up at four o'clocU of 
a frosty morninjf, the mercury away below zero, feedinj^- teams, 
loadiuff slei^dis witli lumber and then starting,'- off for the river, 
twenty, thirty, ami often tinu's a greater nundier in procession. 
It was exciting, truly, but it was dry work. So they would sto]) 
at the coruers. as they calle<l it, to take a drink to warm them- 
selves; two and a ludf miles further on. at the height of the 
grade, they would rest their teams, and being weary themselves 
would stop for refrcshm 'iits at what is now known as the Bryant 
place. Again al)oiit two miles further s(Mitli at the forks of the 
Cold Spring brook they wjuld stip in to see how '• mine host " w as 
getting along this cold morning. Arriving at the river they would 
feed their teams, take a diink of whiskey, eat the lunch they had 
with them, unload the lunil)(r and then start for home. This is 
not an overdrawn picture. The writer, then but a little boy, 
has often driven a team in such a train and has often been urged 
to drink with the rest. 

( )n the return of Spring these lundieriuen would figure u]) 
their loss and gain. Many of them would Hud a l)alance ag'ainst 
them for the curn and oats they had bought. To saw this vast 
amount of lundxr no less than seventeen saw mills were kept 
running. It is unnecessary to enumerate tlieiu. They were im- 
portant enterprises when luml)eriug was in vogue; but now their 
usefulness is mostly gone. Besides these sawmills there was one 
place where the pioneers carried their apples to have them manu- 
factured into cider and vinegar. There were cooper shops, planing 
mills and shingle machines, and wagon and carriage manufactor- 
ies. It is needless to extend our enumeration of the ])laces of 
business, the factories and the residences which have been erected 
in the town. 

4s(; iiisTdiiv Oh' iii':h.\\vM{i<: coi/ntv. 


III ISI'2 wi' hiul !i vcrv (!()1(1 sui'uiicr; it froze evei\v iiioiitli of 
that year. The com nil rotted in the grouud; in June we planted 
a second time. I went out with my father to see liiiu phmt and 
came near freeziuj^- my hands and feet. It froze so hard that 
night that in the iiHU-iiiuL; 1 went out and slid on the ice with 
my bare feet. Again in ISKl it was very cold, it snowed every 
mouth in the year; no corn was raised, potatoes were no larger 
than birds eggs; grain of all kinds was a failure, there was 
neither hay nor fruit. In June it froze ice one inch thicl;; in 
July we had a hail storm or rather an ice storm which covered 
the ground with ice. Many sheep and yearlings were killed. I 
shall always remember it as the starving time. The inhabitants 
suffered much for food; almost all the cattle died. What kept 
the peojsle from starving was that they had grain left over from 
the preceding year, which was a year of jilenty. Fish and game 
were also abundant. The years 1820 and 1821 were almost as 
bad as that of 181(). Had we not secured a small crop of rye 
we must have starved. In 182(1 we had continuous sleighing from 
November first to May fifteenth t)f the next spring. Other re- 
markaV)le seasons were 1848, 1845 and 1850. "We think the times 
hard now and the jjrofits small, but they are Hush times com- 
pared to those early years of trial. 

In 1814 the ground where the Presbyterian church now stands 
was all covered with logs. They made a logging bee and cleared 
it up in one afternoon. 

Wild animals were very plentiful. It was a common thing to 
have encounters with or see bears, wild cats, panthers and wolves. 
Once when I was a lad, driving a jiair of oxen, I was attacked 
by what I supposed was a big grey dog. which I beat off with 
mv t)x gad. The animal proved to be a grey wolf. Mr. McCrea 
went out one morning to his sheep pen and found three sheep' 
killed l>y wolves. He found the travks of five wolves whicli he 

* Mr. (iravos died in L'i'.is ncnrly iiiiioly yciirs nl' a^c. 

roWX OF MASOXVII./.E. 487 

followeil oviT to liis next noi^libor's. Here tbey bud killed two 
sIriji. The iieif>:libors were uotitied to turu out mid buut tbein; 
Tbey followed tbem for some distance witbout killing tbeiii. 

An amusing story is told of Peter Couse, wbo was tbresbing 
liurkw heat, «1mii siidilculy a big hear was seen a])proacbing from 
tbe woods. He gave a loud sliout, turned and ran for tbc liousc. 
His dog was as scar(<l as bimsclf and kcjit close at bis beels. 
Uncle Peter, tbinking it was tbe bear at bis beels, was too 
fri^btened to look back, and ran, out of breatb, to tbe bouse. 
Tlif bear being frigbtened also liy Peter's sbout ran as fast as 
be could tbc otber way. 

It would be possible to gatber up many interesting tales of 
adventures witb wild animals iu tbese early days; but it is not 
possible to take tbe space bere. 


Tbe first Baptist cburch in Masonville was organi2e<l January 
■J7, isio, by tbe adoption of articles of faitb and a cburcb covenant, 
with eight members, namely : Caleb Bennett, Collins Brown, Joseph 
Sanders, John Balcom, Darius S. Kniitli. Louis Balcom, Zeljibia 
Smith, and Sally Welsh. 

The first cburcb was ))uilt m LSI'.) about one mile east of the 
present church. Tbey bad no facilities then for warming the bouse 
and each one carried a foot stone to keep tbeiu warm during tbe 
service. The cburcb was recognized and received into fellowship 
iu 1H12. The same year the cburch united with tbe Franklin Bap- 
tist association, iu which it remained until 1S54, wiien it joiueil the 
Deposit association to wbicli it now belongs. Tbe successive 
pastors have l)ccn; Orange Spencer, John N. Ballard, Simeon P. 
(hiswold, Henry Robertson Eight, E. L. Benedict, James .\imer, 
Henry Sherwood, E. Baldwin, E. T. Jacol)s, E. H. Corey, B. L. AVel- 
man, X. Ripley, L. AV. Jackson, W. E. Howell, R. Cary, il. Berry, 
W. S. I'.rry. 

The church that was built in LSI!) was simply enclosed. In this 
thev held their meetings for seven vears before tbev were alile to 


finish the iiitcrinr; and it was tliifc years after this l)rf()re stoves 
were set iij). Here they \vcirsliiji]ieil for twinty years. Then a 
building was erected in a more convenient location near the center 
of the village where they continued until 1SS4. A large and 
beautiful church was then built on tlie main street seating al)out 
three liundred au<l tifty people. Several churches have been formed 
in whole or in j'iirt from this oldest churcdi. Its j)resent member- 
ship is 128. 

The second cjiurch m Masunville was the Congregational, 
formed June IS, ISIS. The Rev. Caleb Wright was moderator of 
the council. A meeting was held ^larch 14, 1S21. for the j)urpos6 
of taking into consideration the erection of a meeting house. It 
was votei^ to l)uild a house forty-live feet long by thirty feet wide, 
fifteen feet posts. September 13 the society met and resolved that 
this society raise a sum not to exceed SloO, to be laid by tax on 
such members as should agree to be taxed, taking the town 
appraisement as a guide; to be taxed not more than thirty per 
cent, on all taxable property that is not encumbei-ed; such money 
to be used to pay a preacher one-half of his time. The first sale of 
slips netted S98.5(l. 

In 1S20 the Rev. John M. ilasou and his wife of the Brailstreet 
family granted a lot of 112 acres of land for the support of the 
ministry of the church. A Presbyterian society was formed to 
receive the grant under the law providing for the incorporation of 
religious societies, under the name of First Presbyterian Society of 
Masouville. The farm and the parsonage are about one mile south 
of the village, the proceeds are used for the benefit of the societj'. 
It is a good jjiece of laud and suitable for farming and dairying. 

The following have been the successive pastors: Egliert Roosa, 
John Fish, Charles Chapman, Daniel Manning, Moses Fatcher, 
Harvey Smith. In 1847 the church was changed into the Congre- 
gational form, succeeding which were the following jiastors: George 
Evart, Mr. Ketcham, A. H. Fullertou, Sumner ilandeville, P. B. 
Wilson, Mr. Perry, C. E. Gary, John Hutchingsou, Josiah Still, J. 
D. Cameron. 

Village of Mereditf\. 

Village of East l\erednt\. 

raWX ilF \l.\S(t\VII.LK. 4'.»1 

The cliurch cditici' was Imilt In IS'J'J .mil 1S4.'{. It was i-ciiiod- 
•cllcd iii \x'^^l. 'V\\v cliun-li liiis been couuectcd with Siisijiii'liiuina 
Associiitidii uiiil the C'liciiiuit^o Presbytery, aud is uow coiiuected 
witli the Biiif^haiiitou Presbytery. It has always been feeble as to 
iininl>i-rs and jikuh'N . .aiiil lias liad tii depend in a j;reat measure 
upou home mission liiuds for sui)2)ort. The Bradstreet claim for a 
lonji' time hamjiered it and paused anxiety.* 

.V Methodist Kpiscopal eliurcli was orf>anized in Masonvillc in 
\^i'l. I'ntil 1S.")1 tlic uicetiii^^s were held prini' in tiic sidn)oI 
house, at wliirli time a commodious (diurcli was erected, wliiidi was 
eulari^ed aud modernized in IST.'i. In 1S(U a jjarsonaf^e was pur- 
chased with a lot containing two aiTcs of land. This property 
beinj^- inconveniently situated was sold ami a parsonage on the 
main street near the cliur<di was bouj^hf. Preacdiinj^' has been 
maintained in this clnirch since its or{>;auizatiou. The names of the 
preachers can be j^iven, but they will occupy too much sj)ace for 
this history. Tlie church has had a steady fi'rowth from the first. 
Out of it has been formed cliurclies at Bennettsvillc and at Tacoma, 
which have drawn frnm the streuf^'th of the jiarent society. 

MASONVII.LE LOIIOE XO. (iliCi. 1'. ,\ \. M. 

This lodj^e was organized July 11. l.S(;(i, by electing •). C. 
Bourne, W. M. ; Hiram Seotield, V. ^\ . , A. C. Bailey, Jr., W. There 
weie twelve ciiarter mendiers. The lodge inis [irtispeicd fidm the 
beginning aud is now in a satisfactory condition. It has forty-two 
mendiers in good standing. The Sidney Lodge took a niind)er of 
the brethren from ilasonville Lodge as charter niendjers. 


It would be interesting' to give in detail the military move- 
ments wlii<di took place in this patriotic town. The following 
pers<jns are l)elieved to have lieen eugaged in the Revolutionary 
war, aud who ought jiarticnlarly therefore to be In Id in grateful 

'At till' riM|ui'Sl of Mr. Gcllei- Ri'v. .1. D. ('.•iiiieroii, [lastur <il' llic Presliy- 
liMiiiii diurcli, has prepuri'il a few [mges rolatitiji to llie recent history of tho 
rlunih. It is of groat iiilcrest, Iml f'lr want of spncc must lie here oinitteil. 

492 lllsrol!)- OF DELAWAKK corsTY. 

Keiiieiul)raiice: Ezekial Upsen, Jouatljau Hiile, Asm Gillett, Case 
Vau Tice, Ahraiu Houghtaliuf^', Elijah Wliitmau ami Collius Brown. 

Auotber list of those engaged in the war of ISl'i consists of 
Ambrose Bennett, Miner Wlieateu, John Houghtaliug, Nathan 
Shaw, Abraham Scott ami Joseph t'lark. 

In the Civil war. ISdl to ISOo. the part of the county in ami 
about Masouville was notably patriotic. It is ini])ossible to dis- 
tribute the names of those who entered the army with certainty 
among the localities from which they went. The town of Mason- 
ville, the town of Sidney and the towns of Tompkins and Deposit, 
together with localities on the Susquehanna river, not in the 
county, were all enthusiastic in the work of su])plying soldiers 
for this war. Not less than 150 persons could be enumerated as- 
volunteering from these towns. 


IjV Jo.siab D. >iiulb. 

IN attcMijitin^' tn write this liistory (wd serious ditiiciilties con- 
front the writer. SSoiiie years a-j^o the Imililiiij^ in wliidi the 
town reeords wore kept was destroyed hy tire, and much that 
woidd no doubt Lave been of material aid in nuikin;^' u]) this 
record was forever h>st. Ajriiin, within a few years many of the 
ohler inhabitants from whom valuabh' data couKl have been ob- 
tained have ]iassi'd away. Oiii- main dependence has lieen such 
historical facts as are already on record, toj^ether with items of 
interest furnished by present or former residents of the towu 
now liviufr, 

Mei-editli was foiMued from Franklin and Kortrij^ht. March 
14. 18(MI. and named from Samuel Meredith of l'liila<lel])hia. Its 
boundaries have remained the same as at its oryfauizatiou, except 
that iu 1H7S, at their own request, a number of laud owners in 
the town of Davenport, whose farms are situated aloupf the Ouleout 
vidley, were set otT and are now included in the town of ^[ereditb. 

The first settlement was made by Joseph liramhall in 17H7. 
Captain Amos Bristol settled in 17!)(), Clark Lawrence iu 17!tl, 
follov.ed by Closes aud Nathan Stilson and Nathaniel Stewart; 
the last tliree settling on a tract of 1,(MI(I acres iu the western part 
of the town that was purchased at oue dollar per acre. In 17!t8 
Caleb Strontr. Oliver Dutton, Daniel North, David Bostwick and 
Triinum Stilsou joiued the settlement. Caleb Stronj^' settled ou 
the farm now owned by his ^frandson, Lewis B. Stron^r. and so 
far as the writer has been able to learn this is the onl\ Liriii in 
town that has been owned aud occupied liy a direct descendant 
of the family since its first settlement. The ori^^iual deeds t,'-iveu 



\o Caleb Strong, bearing date of 'Shiy. ISO"), ure still in tin- i)osses- 
sion of the present owner. Oliver Button wiis a Sergeant la the 
war of the Kevohitioii, and took part in the battle of Bunker Hill. 
David Bostwick was the grandfather of Hon. Mi Itou Bostwick 
who meets with us to-day at the advaneed age of eighty-nine 
years. Hon. Samuel A. Law, pojiularly known as Judge Law, 
came from Cheshire, Couu., in 171)(), and settled at the Square as 
jigeut and part owner of the Franklin Patent, making the tirst 
surveys of farms in this section. Largely through the influence 
of Judge Law Meredith S(iuare became and for a long time was 
the most important })iiint along the Catskill turnpike, or in Dela- 
ware county. Judge Law was influential in cavising ipiite a large 
immigratiou from New England, and the town assumed much of 
the characteristics of a Connecticut town. Judge Law built the 
first saw mill at Meredith Hollow. He died December "28, lS-t5. 
Daniel Dibble settled on the farm now owned by Philo F. Bene- 
dict in the year 1799, which he bought of Daniel Smith who then 
owned the farms now occupied by Edmund Rose, John T. ^Ic- 
Donald and Alex. McDonald. Daniel Dibble was a Revolutionary 
soldier, and was present at the surrender of Burgoyue. The entire 
list of Revolutionary soldiers who settled in town were, Silas 
Brooks, Eleazer Wright, Daniel" Dibble, Oliver Dutton and Cap- 
tain Riley. The last two were pensioners. 

The following named gentlemen served in the wai- of'2: 
Trumau Smith, William Cramer, George Howland, Simon Knowles, 
Dennis Rice, J. Carriugton, Simeon Crane, C. Couse and Jacob 
Hunt, who settled in different sections of the town. The three 
Mitchell brothers, Aaron, Pierce, and David, settled on upper 
Elk Creek in 1S()2. Families of the names of Thornton and Peaster 
were early settlers in the eastern portion of the town. David 
Bostwick settled on what has since been known as tlic Wiard 
place in 1794. The first frame house built in town by Clark 
Lawrence, the tirst school taught in same by Lucy Austin, near 
where the dwelling of Hmi. Milton Bi>stwick now stands. Joseph 

ri)\vx OF .\ii:iii:iiirii. 4t)7 

liriiiiiliiill kept the tirst hotel, uiul tlic tirst liirtli uimI ilcutli occuiTfcl 
ill his fuiiiily. Riit'us liiiiiiiill kept the first store ;it the Stpiare 
in IT'.i'.l. David Spoor hnilt the tirst grist mill at Meredith Hol- 
low, iiiiw Mcriilule, at the raisin;^- of whicli a man came near losiii;^ 
his lite from falliiiH'. 

If space permitted the writer would gladly make mention of 
those who came on to take the jilaces of the older settlers aln aih 
mentioned. The Dihliles. !\[itchells. JOlder Sears, Deacons Ijake 
and C'arr, Jonathan Heiieilict. Deacon .losiali I). Wells, tlir i'oiters. 
De:ins. Duttons, Shavers, and many othei's who took an active 
jiart in town affairs, and in the organization and liuiiding n]j of 
the chnrches. 

The Baptist (diuich at Meredith was eonstitnted Vn^ust 2'J, 
IS]]. February 4, IHIS, it was decided to divide the C'Lurcli aud 
two Churches were formed, viz: the East aud West Meredith Raj)- 
tist churches. A report ma<le to the Association June 1, ISKi, 
gives the numher of mendiers as eighty-four and the name as 
Kast ^fei'edith liajjtist church. Benjamin Sears was invited to 
liecome pastor Aj)ril 1, IKIS; ()li\( r Dutton and Isaac Lake were 
chosen Deacons. 

Nathau Stilsou preached in West [Meredith before the cliuich 
was built. .Vmmon Bostwick went to Kent, Conn., an<l Inciught 
Klder Crane, who became tlie first pastor of West Jleredith church. 
.Vfter a time there arose a division and a large nundier withdrew 
,and formed the Crotou (now Treadwell) ciiurch. The <hnrch 
which was built in IS'JS was finally desti-oye<l l>y lir<- in 1S-|"J. 
Forty-eight members of the East Meredith Baptist church were 
dismissed to unite with tlie Delhi Ba])tist church. (By East ^b're- 
dith is meaut Meredith, and not the East ^leredith of to-day.) 

The present Bai)tist cimrcli at Meredith was erected in 1S48 
and remodeled in lS'.):i. The Congregational or I'lcsbyterian 
i-hurch at Meredith Sijuare was organized in IHl."), the first trustees 
being Samuel Moody aud Simeon (Iriswold, and the clerk Bildad 
Curtis. The present cliurch was built in IS^S, and William Fisher 


\V!iw the first settled pastor. The ebnrcli iiiterioi' was remodeled 
ill 1X57. Later the Free Will Baptists built a eburcli at East 
Meredith, uow owned ami i-ebuilt by Presbyterians; also the 
^lethodists have a church at Meridale. Special mention should 
be made of that Father in Israel, Kev. (leorjie F. Post, who was 
called as pastor of the Meredith Bajjtist church three different 
times, and served as pastor for a period of about twenty-one 
years, the total numl)er of baptisms beinj^- 1:55. He is still livinj^- 
at eighty-two years of age, l)ut in feeble health. 

The building of "The (ireat Catskill Turnpike," as it was 
called, was a notable event in the early history of the town. It 
was the great thoroughfare from western New York to Catskill, 
and thence by boat to New York city, and was in its time to the 
portion of the state through which it passed, what tiie Central 
railroad is to-day. It is said that there w'as at times almost a 
continuous line of teams passing and rejjassing, and there was 
an average of one hotel to every mile, and every one tilled each 
night. A former histm'ian says there were at one time seven 
hotels within the limits of the town. There were in those early 
days three distilleries and one brewery, two of the distilleries 
being owned and operated by prominent members of the Baptist 
church. Although rum drinking was not in those days attended 
with as swift and certain destruction as it is to-day, yet we tind 
the good peojile of the town becoming alarmed at the efifects of 
the drink curse caused by the presence of so many distilleries 
and hotels. Lawlessness, idleness, and the thousand ills that in- 
variably follow the liciuor traffic led to the organization of 
"The Social League," whicB was established by eighty-four of 
the best citizens of the town. This was the first temjierance so- 
ciety in Delaware county. So far as the writer can learn, the 
town of Meredith can boast of never having had a licensed saloon 
within its borders, aud who shall say that the efforts of those 
pioneers to save their young men from drunkenness has not been 
the leaven that has jiermeated the lives and acts of generations 

vnir.v ((/■■ MhjiEnrni. 49;) 

Lyinj^' fis iiiiuli ot till- tuwii does along the water-shed between 
'.the Siisi|iiehiuiii;i and Dehiware rivers, the soil which is niaiidy 
reil shale :uid <lisiutegrated s:ind stone t'ormiition, is better adapted 
to the growth of grass, oats and potatoes, than corn cnlture, dairv- 
.iug therefore has been the j)rincipal iudnstrv. And altho\igli 
there are a few practieallv abandoned farms, I l)elieve I am justified 
iu saying that no town in Delaware county eau present a larger 
proportion of farms free from debt, or a smaller percentage of 
liusiuess failures. 

The early representatives in the legislature were Hon. Benj;i- 
min Benedict in lS->"2, Hon. Samuel A. Law, Jr., in lH58-(i(), Hon. 
Milton Bostwick in 1S4:{. ^Ir. Ifostwick is the oldest living ex- 
assemblyman in the county, and there is only one older in tlic 
state. He is still living, at the advanced age of eighty-four years. 
Hon. D. H. JIackey served in 189(i and was re-elected iu l.S!)7. 

As the years have sped by the ])ioneers and tlieir successors 
one after another have passed over to the great beyond, and in 
many cases their places have been tilled by a stui'dy class of 
Scottisli sons and daughters, and their descendants are to-day 
among our most thrifty and upright citizens. 

Fifty years of um-emittiug toil and frugality were rewarded 
bv ho:nes of plenty, when over these hills and along these vallevs 
resouniled the clarion notes of war, and an experience came to 
these homes which, (iod grant, may never be rejteated. Long 
years ago there appeared a cloud, apparently no larger tlian a 
mau's liaud, and a few, at times but one, jif our citizens maiched 
each vear to the ballot box and deposited tlieir protest against 
the curse of American slavery. I need not repeat the history of 
gathering doiuls, and the final outburst of the most cruel war 
this nation has ever seen. Its record is indelibly inscril>ed on 
marble slul)s in liundreds of cemeteries, in vacant chairs whose 
occupants come not again, and on the tablets of hearts who freely 
gave their all to maintain the honor of the dear old Hag. 

Xo historian will ever tell the story of anguish that wrung 


tbf hearts of fathers and luDthers, or wives aud sisters, who 
hravely said adieu to sons, husbands and brotherH. Home of them 
went out from the homes never more to return. In this Heaven- 
horn sacrifice Meredith stands second to none of her sister towns. 
The conditions folhnvin^- tlie j^reat civil war have l)een much 
the same in this as in other towns, aud years of plenty have been 
succeeded by shortened crops and leaner harvests, but ovir people 
can with abundant reason lift their hearts in thanksgiving^- and 
praise to the great Giver of good that so few of the ills and mis- 
fortunes of life have come to us, and such an abundance of His 



Middle (o\.n. 

IjV; llv"'". John cii\uil. 

11' 1^ with sincere satisfiietion tliat I witness tli<'se exliibitious 
iif respect for the woithy deeds iif our forefuthers niid the 
eviileut disposition of our j)e()ph> everywhere to clierisli the nieiu- 
orv of tlieir iincestors; especially iu times like the present when 
|>ublic and private \ irtue so needs the reiuvii>or!ition of noble 
examples. In field and council the sons of Delaware have done 
ji;ood and honorable service, and the history of Delaware is cue 
of which we can well be proud. In the glory of her past history 
tjie original town of jNIiddletown took no small part and it is a 
pleasure for us, her cliildi'en, to assist in whatever wav we can 
in celebrating her oni' hundredth birthday. In this histiu'v I 
shall l)rietly recount some of the eai'ly history, leaving the later 
events and growtii and jirosperity of the town to the longer jiajier 
to be submitted later for j)iil)lic'ation. 

The town of Mid<lleto\\n was incorporated in 17S".), as a ]iart 
■of Ulster county, being formed from the towns of Woodstock 
and Rochester. It took its name from its central location — most 
of the po])ulation of the state being in tlu^ territory drained by 
ihe Hnilson, Delaware ami Susi|uehaiina rivers, of which the Dela- 
ware was the middle valley and the town of Middletowu contained 
nearly all that part of L'lster county lying within the valley. 
Middletowu is one of the original and one of the oldest towns 
in Delaware county, and formerly covered all the territory of the 
present towns of Koxbnry, Hovina, Middletowu, .Vmles, Colchester, 
Hancock, nearly all of Stamford, a large part of Delhi, Hamdeu, 
Walton and Tomi>kins, and a small jjortion of Shaudaken in 
rister county, comprising more than half of th<' whole county of 
■2(i ' •■>'" 


Delaware. By division it has been reduced to a territory of 58, ()()(»• 
acres, with a pojndation of about 4,U(KI iuhabitauts. The East 
branch of the Dehiware river flows throuf^h the eential part of 
the town, with the Jiataviakill, Bushkill, Dry Brook, Mill l!rook 
aud Plattekill streams as tril>utaries, draiuiuf^' fertile \allcys, and 
along which are located the thirteen settlements of the town. 
This extraordinary number of post otKces can better be appre- 
ciated directly after a presidential election or before a town caucus. 
The history of the permanent settlement of this mother of towns 
properly begins with the advent of the Dutch in 17t!:i, though 
the Canadian French were here about the time of the French 
and Indian war, and still earlier there was a Tuscarora Indian 
village called Pakatakan just above the present village of Mar- 
garetville, and the above Indian name Pakatakan is still used to 
designate a company of ]Margaretville firemen. Of this original 
occujiancy of the town by the Indians the Indian mounds and 
burying grounds on the old Dumoud farm attest, and the large 
number of arrow heads and tlint axes that have been found in 
this vicinity is an additional proof. Still further, there are in all 
probability many who have heard the authentic but hair raising 
stories told to this day in Middletown of the wonderful exploits 
ot Tom Quick and Tim Murphy, the Indian slayers whose favorite 
haunts were the valleys of the Delaware, stories more wonderful 
than the "good times coming" prophecies of the Republican 
politicians. I made mention above of the first jjermanent settlers 
being Dutch — they were with one exception, to my knowledge, 
and this was my maternal great-great-grandfather O'Connor, who, 
while he could speak nothing but the Dutch language, yet he 
was a full-blooded Irishman, born in Ireland. These Dutch .set- 
tlers at first consisted of only four families from Ulster county, 
who bought four farms on Great Lot No. 7, on the Jliddletown 
flats, receiving deeds therefor dated April '.1. 1708, paying S<2.5(i 
])er acre. Five more families joined them during the ne.\t eight 
years, and all maintained friendly relations with the Indians until 


tlic time of the Kevolutiim, when the frieudly and timely \viiiiiin{{ 
(pf iiu Indian named Tenuis, who afterwards lived in Bovina, alono 
saved them from being massacred by the Indians. As it was they 
were forced to return to Ulster eouuty. beinj; followed bv the; 
Indians as far as Shaudakeu. However, the settlers afterward 
returned and were never afterward disturbed, the Indians being 
driven westward. A single incident may suffice to show the present 
generation what kind of a life was lived by those early adven- 
turers: One night when tlie cows were driven to the enelosun? 
to be milked a stray yearling steer was noticed in the drove. 
The cows did not seem to be contented in his comjiauy, and after 
several vain attempts to milk the uneasy herd, the stray yearling 
was discovered to be nothing less than a black bear. 

Chancelh)r Livingston, as one of the heirs of Johannes Har- 
denbergh, was once the owner of all this secton, which was a 
part of the land granted Johannes Hardenbergh by Queen iVnno 
in nw, anil he, Hardenbergh, was thus the original proprietor 
of the soil, and the village of Margaretville is named after his 
great-granddaughter Marj^aret. Of the many privations and hard- 
ships endured by our forefathers in the early pioneer life of the 
town, in the limited time allowed, I can make but brief mention — 
personally, I have always sympathized with our foreniothers the 
most, for the reasim that they had to endure the same hardships 
that our forefathers did and our forefathers beside. 

In ITS'.), by act of the legislature, the town of iliddletown was 
erected, and Benjamin Milk was afterward elected a supervisor 
of the town to sit at the first meeting of the Board of Suiieivisors 
held at Delhi, May 80, 17il7 — seven sujiervisors sitting at this 
meeting. .\t this town election the ballot box was taken from 
place to place in the town for the convenience of voters, and it 
may be interesting to know that flu discovery was afterwards 
made that the successful canditlate, Benjamin Milk, was neither 
a resident of the town of Middletown or the county of Dela- 


The oldest liousc uow standing iu the town of Middlctowii 
is on the Daniel Waterl)ury farm. It was built iu IT'.H l)y Colonel 
John Grant, who was the first postmaster of the town and held 
office forty years. The town meetings were held here for many 
years, the draft for tlie war of ISI'2 took jilace iu the same l)uild- 
iug, and the broad iiieadow near was used for the general ti'aiuiug 
of the militia. At these general trainings the tubs and pails of 
whiskey punch were used so freely that the sham lights usually 
turned out to be real fights before the day was oyer. Very soon 
after the return of the refugees at the close of the Revolution, 
a Dutch Reformed Presbyterian church was erected in the old 
churchyard above the present yillage of Ai-ena, and the first sup- 
ply preaching was by a one legged man by the name of Anderson, 
who afterwards became a fortune teller and doctor. Probably 
the oldest burying j^l^''^ in the county is the old cemetery on 
the Dumond farm, just across the river from Margaretville. It 
was used by the early Dutch settlers and many years liefore liy 
half breeds who preceded them. In the war of ISI'2 three com- 
panies were drafted from JNIiddletown (as it was then) for the 
defense of New^ York harbor. In the Anti-Rent war Middletown 
took a considerable part, one of the saddest episodes of which 
was the shooting of Steele at Andes, for which Edward O'Connor 
of Middletown was convicted and sentenced to be hung, but was 
afterward pardoned by (xovernor Young. 

The history of the various settlements and villages in the 
town, the growth in population, schools, societies, business, news- 
papers, professions, military affairs, tire department, railroads, 
agriculture and public improvements will have to be left f(n- the 
published history. 

Politically, Middletown has always taken a leading part, and 
many of her citizens have sacrificed their time and submitted, 
from purely patriotic motives, to the discomforts of holding office. 

Thus reviving briefly the early history of this county we may 
safely say that none has a hist(n-y more romantic iu its incidents. 

Towx III-- Miniii.irriiww .-^((7 

more marked for tlit- stiirdv iuilepemleuce unci honesty of its 
people, for tlieir euer','_v, ^Jtrsistence, will iuiloinitable to defeud 
tiieir rif^dits. aud rcMidiuess to aceord like rif^hts to otbers. It 
is 11 i[iU'stioii \v]ii<-]i presses iijiou us wlietber the coiiiity in its 
snhsequent history has jnoved itself worthy its origin, and wiiether 
we of to-da}' deserve such aucestry. Tiiis spirit, luiuj^led largely 
with the spirit of nationality inspired our people to the heroie 
devotion displayed in the late eivil war. Beinj,' largely an ajjfri- 
cultural people, with uo very large towns or eities, and with 
few millionaires and little chance to grow rich by speculation, 
we have not been tempted to stray very far from our fathers' 
ways of industry, economy, simplicity of living and providence 
for the future. l''roni this little garden aud nursery of men how 
many have gone forth to the broader or more inviting fields oi 
tlie expanding west and to the great marts of commerce — and 
this seed of Delaware sowing, wherever cast, has burst into har- 
vests to the enrichment of many counties and states. One hun- 
dred years hence, when Delaware shall cehbrate the secoml cen- 
tennial year of her life as a county, when we, who to-day 
commemorate the virtues of our historic fathers shall have ])assed 
into sileiu-e; when they comjiare the present with this, may they 
tin<l a county and people softened by culture, l)ut true to the 
indomitable spirit of the past, — a people free, independent, intel- 
ligent, industrious, sober, honest, virtuous and religious, and 
above all, happy. 

I^V '\'"'<- J- K. i\ Jacls.son. 

Jliddletown contains eight hamlets of varying size, namely: 
New Kingston, in the northern |)art of the town, on the Platte- 
kiii, a tributary of the Delaware River. New Kingston was first 
sf^ttled by the Dutch. The laud was given liy William Living- 
ston to one hundred families who w<'re let't homeless after the 
burning of Kingston by the British in 1777. This fact gave the 


place its uaiiie. Latti' the Scotcli elfiiicut caiu(> iu prcdomiuatiug 
iiuiiihers. The laud is fertile aud well adapted to fanning — ex- 
celleut butter is made iu large quautities froui dairies of lilooded 
cattle, cbietly Jerseys. The village coutaius oue geueral store, 
a post office, a tire iusurauce assoeiatiou, a blacksmith aud a 
cooper shop, U. P. Church, aud a district school. The U. P. 
pastor is Rev. J. B. Pollock. 

Arkville, iu the central part of the town, derived its name 
from au incident in the history of oue of its oldest houses: In 
the time of a heavy freshet this house was the only oue that 
was uot disturbed by the water that came through the valley. 
Its location on a high knoll, coupled with beiug the home of 
one Noah Dimmiek, gave it the name of the ark, from which the 
name of the hamlet is borrowed. Arkville ccmtains four stores, 
the Commercial House aud Cole's hotel, a graded school with 
two departments, a Methodist cburi'b, a saw aud a jilauiug mill. 
Situated ou the Ulster & Delaware R. R. it is the principal depot 
for farm produce for the western portion of the town of Middle- 
town, aud the eastern terminus of oue of the few remaiuiug old 
time stage routes, conuectiug the Ulster A: Delaware with the 
Ontai-io' A: "Western at Delhi, tweuty-live unles distaut. Several 
large boarding houses for the accommodation of summer guests 
are here, and their best advertisement is that they are well tilled 
through the summer and fall mouths. The Hofifman house, sur- 
rounded ou three sides by forest trees, is the summer home of 
many artists aud lovers of uature. The Locust (rrove house is 
another delightful resort of historical record. This was the 
])roperty of Edward Livingston who was ouce INIiuister to France. 
While in Paris his style of liviu^ jjUiuged him iuto debt aud he 
mortgaged his estate to a French importer named Laussat, and 
Joseph Bouchand. They foreclosed the mortgage aud built this 
house about l.Sl"2. It was purchased from Laussat by the late 
Hiram B. Kellj', whose widow, Katie, aud son, Eldridge, ai"e now 
the proijrietors. 


Diiui-Hvcii is 11 post station <iii the Pliittckill. lu tlie diiys 
■^vh('ll the couutrv was new, and luuiberiuff and tauuiujj were 
proniiueut industries, it contained a f^rist mill and tannery. Early 
in tlie century the first of many tanneries in the town was l)uilt 
li( re. A primitive feature of tliis tannery was that tlic vats for 
iauniuf^ the skins were made l>y diffjjiug holes in the earth and 
poundiufj in a liniuj,' of lilue clay. The destruction of the hem- 
lock forests was followed by the decay of th(> tanning' and milling' 
industries, and to-day the mill and lumber yard of Oluey Smith 
is all that recalls the past. 

On the Delaware river in the western part of the town lies 
the village of .\rena, formerly known as Lumberville, a name sig- 
nificant of the early inc'ustry of the place. Arena has an M. E. 
churcli, a large district school, a (traud Army Post, three gen- 
eral and one hardware store, a Lodge of I. O. (). F., a fire company, 
and two hotels. At Grants Mills, four miles southwest of Arena, 
on the Millbrook stream, is the large boarding house of A. W. 
and J. M. DeSilva. This region is much sought after by anglers 
both from city and <-i)uiitry. 

In the eastern part of the town is Halcottville, named in honor 
of its first merchant, ilatthew Halcott, who was one of the promi- 
lu'ut business men of Middletown early iu the century. The 
Ulster iV: Delaware K. H. passes through the place. It contains 
one hotel, two general stores, a grange store, a large mill, with 
Hour and feed store. .\ Methodist church was recently built 
and Rev. R. S. Beckett is in charge. At tlie Baptist church Elders 
.\bner Morse and John Clark preside. A new school building 
has l)eeii erected in a sightly part of the village. Lake Wawaka, 
a line sheet of water over a mile long, is formed by a diuii across 
tlie river. On the lake are row boats and a steam launch for 
j)leasure parties. 

Kelly's Corners, another station on the Ulster & Delaware K. H. 
half way between Halcottville and .Arkville, contains a store, a post- 
office, a large creamery and cheese factory.' Limburger cheese is 
manufactured here. 


In the eastern cud of the town is (Irifiiu Conici-s, a village tliat 
has made rapid f^iuwth in the last ten years. It is situated ou the 
Bushkill stream aud the Ulster A Delaware E. R. The especial 
cause of its growth is the suiniiier boarding- business. The beauty 
of the mountain scenery, the ]iur(' air and fine water have won the 
city guest. The village has ii line public library, the gift of a 
woman who spent several seasons here. It is called the Skene 
library in honor of Dr. Skene, her husband. Other features of the 
village are four churches, viz. : Methodist, Old School Baptist, 
BajJtist, aud Episcopal. There are numerous fine summer boarding 
houses. The societies are Knights of Pythias, with seventy mem- 
bers, and Good Templars. A bridge over a small stream on Main 
street divides Griffin Corners from Fleischmanns, named after the 
senator who built a cottage and laid out l)eautiful grounds on the 
hill above the dejjot. About ten years ago city people began 
building cottages here, and now thirty-five ornament the hillside. 
The cost of these with their grounds is from three thousand to 
forty thousand dollars each. Among the prominent people who 
make their summer homes here are ^Irs. t'luirles Fleischmanu, JMrs. 
L. Blair a sister of the Senator, Louie Fleischmanu and the young 
widow of Max Fleischmanu, and Mrs. Seidl, the widow of the late 
musician and leader. There are three stores, mill and other enter- 
prises in this place. The people of Fleischmanns have fitted up 
fine grounds for bicycliug aud other athletic games, called the 
Mountain Athletic grounds; here also is a riding school building 
that cost $10,000. 

Marg'aretville, the metrt)polis of JNIiddletown, is located on the 
East brauch of the Delaware, at the foot of Blount Pakatakan, a 
lofty verdure crowned peak of the C'atskills, and near the central 
part of the town. It was named in honor of the daughter of 
Governor Morgan Lewis, who at one time owned this tract of land 
by inheritance from her mother. Her mother was a daughter of 
Chancellor Livingston. At the time of the Revolution Livingston 
was the owner of all this section of countrv. The first settler on. 

■Si . «^A^^ 


' -tf 



ToWX OF Mlliin.ETOWS. .-,l:j: 

the site of the vill!i<,'-e was Ig'iios DuiikukI, in ITst. He sold tLi' 
land for flOO to a !Mr. Tompkins, who Iniilt tlii' tirst saw mill. 
Tompkins sold to Jephtha Seafj^cr and Solomon Scott. 

In 1S4:{ the hit.- Dr. Orson M. .\lhil)(n succeeded Mr. Scott iu^ 
ow^ner of the west half of the fai-m. and David Sliter the Sealer 
part. .\t this time Marjjfaretville contained three buildinj^s, — a saw 
mill, mill house, and the house of Solomon Scott, the father of the 
venerable Methodist minister Russell S. S<-ott and ^ruudfatlier of S. 
F. Scott. The mill house was a frame buildinj^', enclosed with 
plank. It is still in j^ood repair, and occu])ied as a dwellint^'. The 
tirst hotel was huilt in lK-44 by David Ackerly. It was enlarged by 
his sou J. B. Ackerly in 1H71, and aj^ain in 1S8;{ and fitted for the 
accommodation of city boarders. 

The first store was kept in the ottice of Dr. (). II. AUaben. The 
Doctor and Rev. Ananias Ackerley, his partner, conducted business 
near the present home of Mr. E. Clute. lu IS 17 a lartjer store 
was built on the corner opposite the .Xckerley hotel and occupied in 
184!l by liurhaus A: Decker. Mr. Decker continued business here 
until lH.");'j, when he built a more commodious store near his house. 
In 187(i he sold his business to his son-in-law Orson A. Swart. 

Dr. Allabeu, believing the old adage "the pen is mightier than 
the sword," on July 7th, IHIWJ, issued the tirst iiuiuber of a weekly 
paper, called the Utilitarian. .\t this time the county had but live 
pajiers. He continued to till the editorial chair for live years when 
be sold the paper to A. R. Henderson and H. T. Becker. In 1S7'.I it 
was purchased by J. K. 1'. Ja(dvson, a staunch Democrat. In Issl 
a second ]>a]ier was started by Frank Bar(day. It was juiblishid 
about five mouths, then closed its career. In 1SS)4 the Messenger 
was established, owned by a stock coni));niy. with John (xrant as 
editor and Dr. J. W. Telford as assistant. 

The village of Margaretville was incor))or,ite(l in Is"."). .Vt the 
first charter election Di'. Smith \V. Keed was elected president, E. 
A. Olmstead, G. (5. Decker and .\. P. Carpenter trustees. The 
present corporation oHicers are: .\ndrew J. Kaufman president.. 


Charles Gorscli aud Hiifus (iavett trustees, Noiih 1). Oluistead 
treasurer, Herniou Roternioud sti-eet eoiimiissiouer. 

Margaretville has three churches. lu 18o() the tirst Mcthoilist 
E]n8copal church was built, aud Rev. R. S. Hcott was the preacher 
and Rev. Richard Decker his assistant. lu 1880 the society erected 
a larger buildiug ou Church street. The present pastor is Rev. 
Orville Van Keureu. This church has a large memljership aud a 
llourishing Sunday school. Hon. (1. (i. Decker has been its super- 
intendent for nearly fifty j-ears. This school was the first in 
^liddletown to establish a class in normal Sabbath school aud home 
department work. So interested was Mr. Decker in having the 
teachers in his school thoroughly familiar with Bililc history, that 
in 1893 he built a pleasant room connected with the ihurch for the 
use of those in the normal class. 

Through the instrumentality of Rev. W. N. Allalien a Bajjtist 
society was organized in 187-t. Services were held in tlic ohl 
academy building until the society in 1881 l)(iught and refitted 
the old Methodist church ou Main street. 

In 18",H a Presbyterian society was formed with Rev. 1{. M. 
Blaekl)uru as preacher, who only remained a few months; he was 
followed by Rev. Charles Ellis, Mr. Osborn, and Frank B. Seeley. 
A church was built, and dedicated in August, 1890. The society 
has made rapid grow-th. Rev. D. G. Law'sou is the present pastor. 

A Catholic society holds services once a month, conducted by 
priests from Stamford or Kingston. At present they have no 
church, but have been discussing the tjuestion of building one. 

Ill 188!) the Catskill Mountain Agricultural Societ}' was formed, 
with O. 'Si. Allaben, president, J. K. P. Jackson, secretary, O. A. 
Swart, treasurer, and William R. Swart, general manager. They 
purchased twenty-six acres of river flat, below the village, from 
Wni. R. Swart, paying S"2,5(l(l; improvements costing ^'i.SOO were 
added and the first fair was held in the last week of August, 1889. 

Margaretville has four lawyers: A. P. Carpenter, Calvin Hull, 
J. K. P. Jackson, and S. P. Ives; five physicians: Smith W. Reed, 

T()W\ OF Miiihi.F.'niws. 515 

•Charles Allulxn. (1 T Br..wii, J \V Telford, iiud William K. 
Heudrv. Dr. Iteed, the veteran pliysieiaii, has practiced here siuce 
185;-i; he has beeu sii})eriutendeut of eoiumou schools of the towu 
and has tilled the office of Supervisor for teu terms. 

Earlier than ISTl tlic educational advantafjes of the towu were 
such as could he procuied at tiie ordiuary district school of the 
day, where one teacher was expected to be able to teach sixty 
or seventy pupils. But in 1871 a new school buildiuf,' was erected 
and fitted for two departments. This was the first school in the 
towu to employ two teachers. As time advanced and Marfifaret- 
ville became a larger business center the need of a still better 
school becjime evident. From 1KH2 to 1892 Miss Lucy A. Water- 
bury, a lady of rare aliility as a teacher, a dauf^hter of Robert 
L. 'Waterbury, taut^ht a select school here. In 1H;I2 at a meet- 
iuff called for the pur))ose, it was voted to chauf^e the public 
school into a I^nion free school, with a school board of nine 
members, namely ; William K. Swart, E. L. O'Connor, Mrs. S. P. 
Ives, J. H. Hitt, C. Hull, Mrs. J. K. P. Jackson, Amos Allison, 
C. J. Dickson, and C. C. Kaufman. Mr. Swart was deeply in- 
terested in the success of the school and gave lilierally of his 
time and money. He was president of the board until his death, 
when Edward L. O'Connor filled the office. 

The first principal was Alviu A. Lewis. A tine library has lieen 
added to the school; the bnihling is furnished with running water 
and heated by steam. 

The supervisors who have watched over the interests of Middle- 
town fui- the last twenty years have been selected from this village. 
The following list gives the name and time of service of each: 
From IHSO to 1Hk:1 Dr. S. W. Heed; 1HH4, Dr. O. M. Allabeu; 1885, 
W. F. Doolittle; IHSC, S. W. Reed; 1887, James W. Kittle; 1888 to 
1892, S. W. Reed; 18;t2 and 1898, J. W. Kittle; 1894 to 1898, 
Thomas Winter. 

In 1885 a water company was established with $lf),(l()() <-apital. 
The present officers are: Alexander Thoni]>son. president : William 

516 HISTORY OF DKLAWAUK ro/.V'/'l". 

T. Winter, vice-prcsidciit; A. Albcis, secretary ami treasurer; E. L. 
O'Couuor, snperiutciulciit. 

lu 18.S7 the Excelsior Hook aud Ladder C()iiij)any was orpjanized 
with thirty members, aud soon after the Pakatakau Hose C'omjjauy 
with twenty-five memhers. The liic department was' acce])ted l)v 
the corporation trustees in lis'.tli. In ISKi; ;i tliree-story liuihlinji' 
was erected on Church street for the department. 

In 1891 a state bank was or<;anized with a capital of ?(2").(l(l(t. 
which has been increased to $40.0(1(1. A tine buildiuy was built ou 
the corner of ^laiu and Bridf^e streets. Hon. (leorfj^e G. Decker 
has been president of the bank since its t)rj;aui7.ation, John (irant 
its first and Noah Olmstead its present cashier. Howard Swart 
assistant, E. L. O'Connor vice-president, and J. K. P. Jackson 

The hotels of Margaretville are; The Ackerly House, the River- 
side House, the Bouton House. Tlie Rieneral mercantile business is 
represented by many active firms. 

There are several societies, the oldest is the Masonic. ()ri,'ani/.ecl 
in 1835, Knights of Pj'thias and (lood Templars. Another old 
organization of the place is the cornet band, formed in 185'J, and 
now, neai'ly thirty years after, it still contains several of the tii-st 

In the time of the Civil war ^liddletowu sht)wed her patriot- 
ism bv sendini,'' more men to the front than any other town in the 

The popularity of Margaretville as a summer resort is each 
year increasing. Its clear mountain springs from which it rei'eives 
its water supply, its improved roads and shaded drives, its miles 
of stone walk, its clean streets and tine mountain scenery attract 
all who visit the place. During the summer months the population 
is largely increased by city peojjle. Among those who have built 
cottages here is the artist, Mr. Henry ilosler, whose i>aintings 
are noted both in Euro]>e and Anierica. The normal pojuilation 
of Margaretville is about 80(1. 

roM'.V ((/■■ MllilH.h'.TOWX. 517 

Aniouf,' those peoph' piuiiiiiieut for their usefulness iu the 
town of Middletowu iiiuv be nientioued Dr. Orsou M. AUnheii, wlio 
ciiine here aud settled the year he g-railuated from Waterville 
Medical CoUejje, Maine, iu ISSl; here he practiced medicine until 
his ilcatli in 1S;I"2. The respect aud confidence placed in liiin liv 
the people is shown l)v the nnnierous public offices that he tilled; 
beiuf,' once a Senator, twice in the Assembly, and seven terms 
town supervisor. He procured the first lepfislatiou relating; to 
the Ulster iV Delaware Hailroad, aud was instrumeutal iu various 
early town and villaj^e improvements. 

(ieor<jfe (i. Decker came to Middletowu in 1.S4'.I. He was in- 
strumeutal iu establishinp; the ]Methodist Episcopal church, and 
especially liilpfnl tlicrein. He has been Supervisor of the town, 
Jlember of Assembly, aud is now jiresident i>f the Peoples Bank. 

Matthew GritJin, an attorney at (IritHn Corners, represeuted 
the second district of the county iu the Assembly for three years. 
His sou DeWitt (Jritfin is also an attorney and was Member of 
Assembly iu XsWl. 

John (irant, a uative of this town, was elected State Seiiiitor 
in IHlMi, the vouuL'est member of that bodv. 


VjX Dr. /. N. Wiitjhl. 

IN the year 178S dh tlic bcuutiful Hats u]>iiu whit-li ndw stautls 
the vilhige of Roxlmrv, a wauderiug hunter hy the name of 
Israel Inmau Imilt himself a house of lo<^s aud made a little 
clearing'. But agriculture was not Israel's forte. The glossy fur 
of the beaver — whose dam across the East branch of the Dela- 
ware at that point made those fiats a minature Venice — was vastly 
more to his taste. But luniau soon had company, for in the next 
year, 1789, a party of pioneers of about twenty families from 
Fairfield, Conn, followed a isathway, with blazed trees for a guide, 
from Catskill, and camped at the mouth of what is now known 
as Roses Brook in the town of Stamford. Their horses being- 
stabled in the woods to browse, the third day were missing, when 
a search party, of which Abram (irould was one, started on their 
trail. They followed them over the mountain aud on the other 
side met Inmau who told them he had their horses aud invited 
them to his cabin. So jileased were they with the location that 
they returned for their families, aud persuading two others to 
come with them they came l)ack over their trail to what is now 
Grand Gorge, passing through the mountain uotch and down the 
valley to a place now known as West Settlement. Thus the grand 
old town of Roxbury had its birth. 

But another settlement had added materially to the beg-iuuing 
of the town. In the year 17H(i that sturdy old Scotchman John 
More — whose'^numerous descendants are so closely and honorably 
associated with the growth and pros])crity of this town — estali- 
lished his home near the head waters of the East branch of the 
Delaware, at a jioint seven miles east of Inman's cabin, his land 


Tdwx OF nn\iui;y. 521 

diiiiii bciuj^' now purtiiilly covciod l)y the villii},'o of (iiuud (loiHt'. 
This befjiiiiiing was known as INfore's Settleiiiont, then Moresville, 
until in ISTo the ])i)st otlicc di'pavtnn'nt liy n^ason of the conl'usion 
arising from their hoini^' a niiniher of similarly muned otiiccs in 
this state chan-j^cd the name to (rraud Gorfje, nprnpas of the j^raiid 
mountain j^orf^re jnst west of the village. 

And now commenced the gigantic undertaking of transfonniug 
a howliuj^' wilderness into tlie heaiitiful town of to-day. 

"His echoing axe llie settler swuiik, 

Amid the sea-like solitude. 
And crasliiug, tliundering, down were liunji 

The Titans of tlie wood." 

It was soon learned that the l)ark of the hemlocks which cov- 
ered the mountain sides could be utilized, and large tanneries 
sprung into existence along every stream, tr()m which immense 
quantities of tirst-class sole leather found its way to the markets 
of the woi'ld. Saw mills on every niountain rivulet furnished 
lumber for the homes; green jiastures and waving meadows ap- 
peared, and Koxbury took the place which she long maintained 
as the first butter town in tlie I'nited States. 

In 1S45 l{oxliurv became involved in what was known as the 
Anti-Rent war. Masked and armed men disguised as Indians 
terrorized the jjeaceable farmers who thought ditferently from 
themselves in regard to leased land. Many serious and ludicrous 
incidents o<-curred, a fair specimen being the l)attle of Shacksville: 
As the signal for the gathering of the Indians was the blowing 
of a horn the farmers were forbidden to use theirs to call their 
men to meals. John B. Cioukl, the father of the late Jay Gould, 
refused to submit to their dictation and j)roceeded to lilow his 
horn when ami where he ])leased, until one noon after a particu- 
larly long and aggravating blast, a tribe of warriors swooped down 
upon him to execute vengeance. The old man. instead of begging 
for mercy, ([uietly took down his old flint-lock rifle from the antlers 
where it hung and confi-onted them. That .and the ominous 


clickiu'i' of tlif hick wiis euou^li; iu less time than it takes to 
tell it uotLiugf could l)e seeu but the cloud of dust raised by those 
bold warriors as thev scooted for tall timber, and the battle of 
Shiicksville was over. These differences however were soon ad- 
justed, but more or less of the auti-reut feeliuj;- prevailed until 
other issues al)sorbed the attention of its followers. 

"When the war cloud of IHGl spread its fj:loom over the country 
Roxbury sent nearly one hundred of her sous to defend the iu- 
tegritv of the nation. Enlisting in tighting regiments over sixty 
of theui sleep where they fell on the tield of battle, or in the 
tienches near the prison pens of Richmond, Saulsburv ajad Ander- 
sonville. Only about thirty of their more fortunate comrades are 
peacefully waiting for their final muster out as residents of this 

The building of tlie Ulster A; Delaware Railroad in IST'i marked 
a new era in the history of this town, making many changes iu 
long established customs and putting in touch with the outside 
world in a manner never dreamed of by its early settlers. And 
though the town was bonded for the large sum of $150,000 for 
the construction of this road, it has all been paid, and now this 
town has within its borders over fourteen miles of one of the 
finest and best managed railroads in the state. Its people can 
now leave their homes in the morning, go to Xew York, transact 
a fair amount of business and return liy nine o'clock in the even- 
ing, a wonderful change from the old five days journey by stage 
<-oach and steamboat. 

Roxburv has had the liouDr of contributing two county judges 
to the bench of this county. Edwin More, who was the first 
countv juilge elected under the constitution of 184(i, and "William 
•Gleason, who was elected in 1H51 and again iu 1850, serving 
eight years. Its citizens have also many times represented this 
county iu the legislature at .\lbany. 

In this brief sketch it is utterly impossible even to mention the 
names of those who have been prominent iu the history of this 




towu. Yi't iiifiiioi V loves to dwell upon the names of John !More 
who more [H'rlmiis tliaii any ntlier cnii lie calleil the fouutlei' of 
Itoxbun; of Jay Goukl, the most hiilliaut liuaucier of the age, 
who was born aud grew to maidiood in a typical Roxbury home; 
of Hou. Edward I. liuihans. the able and couscieutious magistrate 
aud sagacious mau of business; of Charles Harley, who for his 
whole long lift- was the honored merchant, genial companion aud 
trusted adviser of the entire eastern jiortion of the town, aud of 
John ('. .111(1 Jiisejili Keatiir, whose enterprise did so miu-li to 
make the beautiful valley of liatavia the splendid section that it 
is to-day. 

The town of iioximry has a ])oj)iilatiiiii of 2, ■Hi wiio receive 
their mail from four well conducted post offices. Eight cliuiches 
of th<' following denominations are well supported. Three Metlioil- 
ist Episcopal, two Reformed, two (old school) Baptist, and one 
Baptist; all of tliem having excellent edifices, and their ]iul])its 
supi)lied with ekxiuent and earnest pastors. 

Two beautiful villages are within its borders, luixluiry and 
(Irand (xorge. The incorporated village of Hoxlnirv is second 
to no village in the county. It has wide, level, well shaded aud 
well lighted streets, the licst possible system of water works, a 
well eipiipped tire department, a union free school supplied with 
all the iiiiideni metliods of education, a live newsjiaper, two aiiqile 
and well arranged public hulls, three tine churches, - one of them 
the (iould Memorial church, erected in loving memory of their 
father li\ the chihlren of the late Jay (iould, having a deservedly 
national reputation. 

' .\ lar^e number of first-class villas and cottages are every 
seasou tilled with summer guests, while the jirivate homes of Rox- 
bury are beautiful aud modern. Kirk-side, the elegant and spa- 
cious summer residence of Helen ililler Gould, is an ornament of 
which any village niiglit l)e proud, while the lucsence of Miss 
Gould in the town is a bcnisou indeed. Her interest iu every 

public imjirovement. the establishment aud mainteuance of a juiblic 


lil)r:irv, licr unostentatious and clet^iuit liosjiitality, combine to- 
place her aniou<,' the must Ixloved of women. 

"Our homos arc chi-eiicr for her sake. 

Our doorj'ards briKhtor bloomiii};. 
And all about the social air 

Is sweeter for her comiuf;. 

Her presence lends its warmth and health, 

To all who come before it; 
If woman lost us Eden, such 

As she alone restore it." 

The vilhige of Grand Gorge is what may be justly called a 
modern and up-to-date village. A mere hamlet in 1872, the build- 
ing of the Ulster i.V: Delaware railroad gave it an impetus, and a 
steady and substantial growth has been the result. Its situation 
commands the trade of a large portion of Greene and Schoharie 
counties, which with its extensive milk business makes it an ex- ' 
tremely lively village. It has two admirable churches, two large 
(creameries, two mammoth mercantile establishments, a splendid 
school, a tine system of water works, and its residences are with- 
out exception in tirst-class condition and of modern construction. 
It entertains a large number of summer guests, and is in all res- 
pects a good place in which to exist. 

Batavia, about four miles south of Roxbury village, is one of 
the most beautiful valleys in the county, and is a thriviu<>- farming" 
community. It has two churches, a post office, and many of the 
tinest farms and farm buildings in the town, and its inhabitants- 
are altogether a happy and prosiierous people. 

Such is a brief history of the town of Roxbury in 181)7, Del- 
aware county's centennial year. Its future is bright with many 
[jleasant anticipations which are sure to be realized, and it will 
always hold its position among the tirst towns in our county. 

The following is a complete list of the persons who have held 
the office of Supervisor: 

17SI9, 180<i, Isaac Hardenbergh; 1807, 1808, Joshua Ferris;. 
1809-25, 1882, 1838, John T. :\tore; 182(5, 1827, 1880, David P. 

T(nv.\ OF lioMiiin: ry-27 

Mapes; IH'iH, 182'.), Lewis Hiirdeubergh ; 1K:^1, Ih:^, IKM, IM'2, 
Jc.iKis ilorc; 1885, Alcxauder Diiuiels; 188(!, Diiuiol Rowland; 18:^7, 
18t:{, 1844, 184(5, 1847, Tliomas Keator; 183!», 1853, 1854, 1857, 
lS()4-(;(), E. I. IJurh.ins; isto. 1S41. Harvey Keator; isl."), .I,,|ii, S. 
More: 1848, Sheriiiiiii S. Street; 1S4!>, 18(10, Ira Hicks; 1850, xMar- 
tiu Kelly; 1851, 1852, 1855, 18(i3, Alexander H. Burhans; 185(i, 
Jonius M. Smith; 1858, 1872, 1878, Edward Burhans; 1850, Beuja- 
niiu Scudder; 1860, Charles Harley; 18()2, Alexander More; 18()7, 
Jaeol) Newkirk; 1808, Hii-am Meeker; 18(i!), Abram Van Dyke; 
1870, 1871, (leorge W. Lauren; 1874, Andrew J. Corbiu; 1875, 
187(1, Henry C. Soop; 1877, John E. Newkirk; 1878, 187!), O. A. 
Meeker; 1880, 1881, Daniel D. Andrus; 1882, Charles (!. Keator; 
1883, Geor{,'e W. Lauren; 1884, Daniel T. Keator; 1885, Charles G. 
Keator; 188(;, 1887. Ahiierin Cartwrif^ht; 1888, 1894-i)7, David S. 
Booth; 188'.)-i)l, B. B. Boutou: I8i)2, Charles Schermerhorn; i8!):{, 
Ezra H. Bartraui. 

I'rior to 187(1, the followiujj; held the office of Town Clerk: 
John T. More, John E. Burhans, Otis Preston, Thomas Mont- 
f^oniery, Jonathan B. Cowles, John Frisbee, Novatus Blish, Dubois 
Burhans, Ezekiel Preston, E. Follett, Thomas Keator, Truman C 
Bidwell, John P. Burhans, A. C. Cowles, A. H. Tyler. Alexander H. 
Burhans, Samuel B. Follett, Hiram Meeker, Daniel W. IMcGarry, 
Silas S. Cartwright, Orrin A. Meeker, Richard W. Van D}ke, Jolin 
C. Van Dyke, John E. Newkirk, Fred J. Youn<>;man, William W. 
Noble, Henry C. Soop. 

The early Justices of the Peace were the followiu^j: 
Al(!sauder Daniels, Harvey Keator, Daniel Rowland, Henry T. 
B<'<>ker, Timothy Cartwrit,'ht, Edward I. Burhans, Harvey Keator, 
Samu<'l More, Samuel Scudder, Eli AVrif,'ht, Cyrus Graves, D;ivid M. 
Smith, Benjamin H. Akin, .\. C. Cowles, Lewis Stratton, Ei-astus 
Mead, Solomon P. Moffatt, Nelson K. Dart, Hiram Meekei-, All)ort 
R. Terwila^-er. Geor},'e A. Dart, (ieorfje A. D(>nt, Robert B. Smith, 
Almerin Cartwri{,'-ht, John T. (irant, Jacob K. Benjamin, Erastus 
Mead, Ezia Mead, William D. Powell, Samuel B. Shout. 

r^V Edvin l\. Wattks. 

^^IDXEY was origiually part uf the town of Harperstitld. 
\~y Harpersfield was created a town iu Otsego county in 177H, 
and eiuljraced lands between the Siiscjuehauua, Charlotte and Del- 
aware rivers. It included Ijesides the present town of HariJersfield, 
Franklin, Sidney, part of Bainbridge, and part of Afton. 

Harpersfield was tlien in Montgomery county — the name !Moiit- 
gomery having been substituted iu place of Try on, because 
Governor Tryou was a tory. In 1791 the county of Otsego was 
created from Montgomery, and the town of Harpersfield, including 
Franklin and Sidney, became jDart of Otsego. In 179'i, Harpersfield 
was divided, the western part being called Franklin, — and Franklin 
was made to include what is now Sidney, — and Sidney was taken 
oliE from Franklin in 1801. The name of Sidney was given iu honor 
of Sir Sidney Smith, a British .Vdmiral, who about that time had 
achieved great success iu Syria (Asia Minor) by <'hecking the 
progress of Napoleon Bt)naparte. Sidnev' jn-ior to this time was 
called Susquehanna Flats, but at the suggestion of au English 
school master named Mandeville, the name was changed to Sidney. 
Rev. William Johnston, oue of the earliest jjioueers of our town, 
was boru iu Dublin, Ireland, in 1718. This remarkable man 
received a thorough education at Fjdinljurgh I'Ui\'ersitv, Scotland. 
He came to this country when a young man, and married Miss 
Cummins, an English lady. It is not fidly known where he resided 
during all the time prior to his removal to this town, but it is 
l>elieved that it was in the vicinity of Albany. His oc<Mipation liad 
been that of a minister (jf the gospel, of the Presbyterian Calviuistic 
faith. His wife was a lady of education, and was in recei]it of an 



nnvy of sii>.\i-:y. -,31 

iiuuuity of Cl'yU, wliicb, however, ceiisecl after the breakiu-^ out of 
the war. luterestiiiK iucideuts are related in the career of the 
elder Johnstou, aud the tradition is that tlic notorious Braut met 
General Herkiiiicr l)y appointment in the summer of I 777, cinMniixd 
on what is now known as the Milton Jt)hnston farm one mile l)elow 
the village of Sidney. Here they held a conference and the Rev. 
William Johnston was present at the interview, and Brant askid 
him which side he was on, and Mr. •lulinstoii told him lie was on thi- 
side of the people. 

Soon after these occurrences the Johnston family remove<l for 
safety to Chei-ry Valley. Before leaving they secreted some rude 
farm utensils that they could not carry with them, Imrying them in 
the ground ami under the hearth in the cabin. 

After the massacre at Cherry Valley, Hugh and Witter went to 
Schenectady and Florida in the Mohawk valley, where their father 
died in 1783, after preaching a sermon celebrating the result of the 
war. Witter and Hugh returned to Sidney in 1784, bringing tlicir 
mother with them. 

The following ol)ituary notice of the son Hugh is worth pre- 
serving: "Died at Sidney Plains, October 28, 1888, Hugh Johnston, 
aged 70 years. Cai^tain Hugh Johnstou was born A]>ril lufh, 17ii8, 
in Duanesborough, New York. He. with his father, Kev. William 
Johnston, with other connections, came to the Susnuehanna Flats, 
now Sidney, in 1775. They were the first settlers in that ]>art of 
the county, and for two years sutTered all the hardships and juiva- 
tious of a new country. In •Iiine. 1777, they were oliliged to leave 
their homes and Hee before an invading foe. Brant, a chief, with 
one hundred and ten warriors, came ami burnt their buildings and 
slaughtereil their cattle." 

At Sidney was the site of an old Indian fort where three acres 
of ground were enclosed by mounds of earth, surrounded by a 
ditch: and fiji- a long time this enclosure was calh-d tlii' l-'mt 

In company with Mr. T. (1. Smith we visited recently the old 


Indiiiii liurial jilacc, located uvur the Ontuiid \ Westei u l)ritlj,'e 
across the Susquehanna river at Siilney. We found a cireular, liav- 
stack looking mound about one hundred feet in diameter at the 
base, and ten feet in height, well authenticated as their burial 
place. Since that time one of the early tribes assembled on Moses 
hill just across the river, and decided to make an encampment 
where Sidney village is now located. Some of the tribes remained 
there for many years. Excavations and examinations of this mound 
have proved it beyond doubt to be an Indian burial ground. The 
unearthing of arrow heads and other relics was sufficient evidence 
to induce the jteople to have the mound rouain intact. 'Slv. Arthur 
Bird suggested to the village fathers to have a monument of an 
Indian chief placed on the mound, holding in his hand the calumet, 
or pipe of peace, a deserved and appropriate memorial of the 
"Indian lover" and "his dusky mate." 

The first grist mill west of Harpersfield was built in 177H by 
Abram Fuller, on the Ouleout, near Wattles Ferry. An inn was 
02)ened by Nathaniel Wattles at the Ferry in ITX.^. The first raft 
was sent d<iw)i the river to Harrisburg, in 179.5, liy Captain David 

In 1787 a great scarcity of provisions occasioned much distress 
in this valley, and the settlers were saved from starvation by a boat 
load of tiour from Northumberland, Pennsylvania, brought to them 
through the exertions of General Daniel Bates. 

The second settlement of white people was made upon the 
Ouleout in the summer of 1785, by Slumau Wattles, who was after- 
wards Justice of the Peace and a Judge of the County Court. Mr. 
Wattles was lioru in 1752, of Scotch descent, in Lebanon, Connecti- 
cut, and died in Sidney in 1837, aged 85 years. Arriving in this 
state he first settled for a short time at New Canaan, and moved 
from there to a place upon the West branch of the Delaware, at or 
near what is now called Bloomville. Leaving this place Mr. Wattles 
located in Franklin, upon what is now known as the Taylor fani), 
where he commenced clearing a ]5iece of laud, and the folK)wing 

Tdwx or siiiXKv. 5:-!:^ 

year weut back after his family, briu^'iiit,'- tlieiii with him on liis 
returu. lu the course of this joiiriiev a dau^'litcr was Ijorii ti> them, 
the first white female chilil born in Delaware county. Previous to 
movinj^' his family the Jndj^e hail minle some im])rovcments. havinj.; 
erected a lo^- cabin, the covering or roof as well as the ujjper and 
under floors of which were composed of elm bark. As near as we 
can learn this was in 1785. About this time John and Alexander 
Harper bought of the Indians the right and title to a large tract of 
laud, and soon after sold their contract to a (•ompauy, who 
petitioned the State for a grant of a patent of land. The 
patent was granted to Peter V. B. Livingstone, and was known for 
a long time as the Wattles patent, the Judge being one of the four 
proprietors. The Harpcis having failed to jiay the proprietors, 
Judge ^\'attle8 went to Governor Clinton and related the circum- 
stances. The (xovernor asked him if he had the money due the 
State, and learning that he had, they both went before the 
Legislature and the Governor stated the business of Judge Wattles, 
and thereupon an act was passed reinstating them in the contract. 
Soon after Judge Wattles, standing upon the banks of the Ouleout, 
called by the Indians "Leafy Water," surrounded by the swarthy 
denizens of the forest, made with them a memorable treaty. .Vnd 
many times thereafter during the frequent troubles that arose he 
was able, by this treaty, to save himself and family from being 

In this brief sketch many incidents and reminiscences must l)e 
omitted; but we would })ay a grateful tribute to the memory of 
those grand men who when quenching their thii'st from the flow- 
ing springs of the forest disj)layed a character as \nn-c as the 
fountain itself. 

We have in our possession Judge Wattles' old account book, 
more than a century old. written by his own hand with ink made 
from the bark of a tree, with a pen made from the wing of a 
bird captured in the same dense wilderness. In this book, now 
jt'ellow with age, we find histoi-ical records of great value, legal 


documents aud papers, which when we consider the dates when 
they were written, indicate remarkable ability. Aud what Mr. 
Francis W. Halsey said <if liiiu after a careful study of Judge 
Wattles' life aud character was true: " A\'heu Sluniau Wattles- 
left this world he took a man's life with him. ' 

Also we find in this book running accounts with Peter V. B. 
Livingstone, Jonathan Bush, Solomon Martin and many others in 
17!)1, aud later with Daniel Root aud all of the early settlers. 
Two entries of early dates read: "Nov. "iit, 1790. Benj. Hovey 
Dr. to cash £ 15s and lOd, to be delivered at Ball's in Catskill. 
April (), 1791, to cash received of Peter V. B. Livingstone, £11 
4s and 7d. " 

While cordially acknowledging our willingness to do honor to 
the pioneers of every town in our county we take honoral>le pride 
in the mention of the Johnstons, Smiths, Bidwells, Hodges aud 
Burdicks, who figured so prominently in the Susquehanna and 
t)uleout valleys. 

The next settlement was made upon Carr's Creek, at what is 
now Sidney Centre, m 1793. The first pioneer was Jacob Bid- 
well, who located upon the farm where Harper W. Dewey now 
resides. The coming of "Uncle Jacob," as he was familiarly 
known, was some years after the close of the Revolutionary war. 
Peace had been restored, Indian hostilities had f)ractically ceased, 
and though living in a dense wilderness very far removed from 
neighljors aud friends, they enjoyed a sense of security aud safety. 
Still, they had their battles to fight aud we can imagine some- 
thing of the sufferings and hardshijjs of these early pioneers. 

Earliest among the wants of the earliest settlers was that of 
a grist mill. It was more a necessity than a saw mill, because a 
good axe could cut and hew logs for a cabin and could thus de- 
lay the advent of sawu timber for j'ears. But with fiour and 
meal the case was more urgent. The hollow to]> of a tough 
stump, or a hollow boulder, soon became inadecjuate to meet the 
wants of the new comers. One of the first grist mills on the- 




U|)[)fi- Siisi|iiili:iiin:i was Imilt on Chit's t'ret-k. It \v:is Imilt a tew 
years liifinc the oiic whii-h Aluinu Fuller sot up on the Oiilcoiit, 
!in<l tliirtv years enrlier tlniii the one hnilt in I'uiulillii villa^^e. At 
the Baxter mill a small ainouut of griuiliuj,^ meal was done hefore 
177S, and sixteen years later it was destroyed by tin;. John Carr, 
its builder, and the builder of a saw mill on the same site, is famil- 
iarly known in local annals as a tory. When Joseph Brant Hist 
came to Uuadilla in June, 1777, Carr was one of those whom he 
allowed -to remain because he hail declared himself for tiie Kinj^. 

Another early settlement in our town was made in 1711.") by 
Captain Samuel Smith, at what is now known as Franklin Depot, 
liut for many years as .Smith Settlement. Mr. Smitli came from 
Bennin;;ton, Vermont, and first settled on the farm lately owned 
by Richard Ostrauder. The father of Cajitain Smith was killed 
at the ])attle of Benuiujctou, and Mr. Lyman ]i. Smith, a well- 
known business man of Jiin^hamtou, is one of his j,a'andsons. 

Jonathan Burdick was another of the early .settlers of Sidney. 
His father, Elisha Burdick, came to Kortright iu 1810. Mr. Bur- 
dick's father was a soldier iu the war for inde))eudence, serviufj;' 
live years. He was at the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown. 
and lie had been one of the j,'uards when Major .\nilre was taken 
from the old Dutch church to the place of execution. 

Joseph Niles moved to this town in 1H12. He was drafted to 
},'o to the war and hired a man to yo in his stead, who went to 
Sackett's Harbor under (reueral Hoot. David liaker came in l>^lt> 
and settled near the village of Sidney Centre, at which time the 
land upon which this flourishing village now stands, with the ex- 
cejitiou of one little spot, was an unbroken forest. 

A[r. .James Hughston settled soon after Mr. Wattles diil, and 
settled on the Ouleout. It was then a very dense wilderness, 
and so thick were the trees and bushes that it was said to be im- 
possible to drive a pair of yoked oxen from Mr. Hughston's house 
t(j Wattles' ferry. Mr. Hughstou moved his wife into this town 
on horseback, with her bed ami other articles strajiped on tlic 


horse; and she used to relate, iiiiioiiii' other iucideuts, how she 
iinide !l cradle tor her first child t'roiu a piece of a hollow tree. 
Mr. Hughstou lived aud died at Sidney, was a niafristrnte iu the 
town for about forty years, was several times supervisor and ouee 
a member of the State Legislature. 

Soon after the Revolutionary war, Adam Rifeubark settled on 
the bank of the Susquehanna, near what is now called C'rookerville. 
It is said he was a deserter from the British army. 

Tihiothy Beach, about the same time, moved his family into a 
cabin he had built at the junction of the Ouleout and Susquehanna, 
where he lived a number of years aud was drowned in the river by 
an Indian. He has numerous descendents residing iu this county. 

In the year 1789 Isaac Hodges came from the town of Florida, 
on the Mohawk river, to the Ouleout to look for lands for his sons 
to settle on. He purchased 5(10 acres, being a part of the patent 
surveyed by Judge Wattles a few years previous. He paid ten 
shilliuos an acre, aud divided this land among his four sons, 
Hezekiah, Benjamin, Isaac, and Josiah. Early in the spring of 
179(1, Hezekiah with his wife and three brothers took possession of 
the laud. They moved with a yoke of oxen and one horse, an<l 
carried their few household goods and jjrovender for the oxen on a 
sort of sled with crooked runners, which was called a dray, and was 
so constructed as to easily pass over logs and other obstructions. 
They arrived at their destination the 29th day of April, 1790, with 
•200 pounds of hay for their team aud a little corn. Ou the day 
after their arrival the snow fell two feet deep, and the intensely 
cold weather and scarcity of provisions and fodder caused them 
much suffering. 

In 1797 Stephen Dewey with his sons, William, Roger and 
David, settled on the Ouleout about one mile above. Soon after 
William, afterwards well known as Colonel Dewey, jjurchased the 
farm and resided ou it until his death. He filled mauy public 
positions, having served as Supervisor of the towu of Sidney, aud a 
member of the Legislature. He married the daughter of Judge 

TOWy OF SinSKY. 531) 

Wattlt»s rc'fcrrcil to us the first white female cliild Ikh'ii in Dflawarc 

AiiRiUf^' otlicr early settlers were -Toiiatliaii Hiisli, at whose house 
the first town nieetiut;' was held: and one Stevens, who ran a j^'i'ist 
mill ou the Ouleout, and also the fiist and onlv distillerx foi- 
niakinj,' whiskey in the town. Some other early pioneers were 
Oliver Giifirer, a captain in the militia; Xiithaiiiel Woleott, Josiab 
Thatcher, for many years Town Clerk; "William Evaus, and others. 
Most of these old settleis raised lar^'c families and left numerous 
descendeuts, some of whom still remain in Sidney, l)ut most of them 
are widely scattered. 

Jonatlian C'arlej" came from ])ut<-hess (-(uinty and settled ou the 
hanks of the Susqnehauua in tlie year 1795, two miles below Oteffo 
village. He found a family l)y the name of Collyer there, who came 
a few years earlier. Josiah Chase also canie about that tiuie; Labau 
Crandall, John French, Jerry Eeed and (xodfrey Calder came imme- 
diately after. The first school in that part of the town of Sidney 
was tau^rht by Miss Abigail Reed, in Mr. ('alder's barn. 

John Avery settled at Sidney Plains ( now Sidney ) in the year 
179H, and died in 1830, aged HO years. He was born at Ashford 
Corner, and served in the Revolution. 

Levi Baxter came to Sidney in 1803. He was a njan of marvel- 
lous industry and energy, and di( d at the age of S7. .Si|uire Baxter 
was the son of Mr. Francis Baxter, a Revolutionary soldier who 
during the war was taken prisoner by the tories and after suffering 
much abuse was incarcerated in that infamous den, the New York 
Sugar House. 

Deacon Peter Bradley came to Sidney at the close of the {{evo- 
lutionary war and resided there until his deatli in about 1S14. He 
settled on the farm where General Herkimer and Brant, the Indian 
chieftain, held their conference in 1777. 

Space forbids especial notice of many of the early pioneers, and 
the records are lost of others deserving of mention. Milton C. 
Johnston of Siduev, Witter Johnston of Fort Dodge, Iowa, and 


Laureus Johustou of Cbiillis, Iowa, now liviuj^, are f^reat graiul- 
phildreu of the Rev. William Johnston. 

The section of the town of Sidney lyiuj,' upon the Oiilcont ereek, 
at the point where Wattles feri-y was built, for a louj^- term iif years 
was the principal lousiness part of the town. It was here that 
Judge Wattles many times held court, and here elections, fjeuerul 
trainings and town meetings were held. At this place also the 
Hon. Samuel Grordon was born. 

Closely connected with the interests of early Sidney, and of very 
great local and commercial advantage, was the construction of the 
Catskill turnpike. The opening of this great thoroughfare from 
Catskill to what was then Wattles Ferry, along the Ouleout, a 
distance of eight miles through our town, was an important enter- 
prise all along the line, and also gave a wonderful impetus to the 
business of the village of Uuadilla, immediately across the river. 
The Catskill Turnpike, as a turnpike, dates from the year 1802; but 
the road itself was of much older date than that. The road followed 
lines nearly straight, and ran through lands owned by the stock- 
holders. Little regard was had for grade, the main jiurpose being to 
m.ake the laud accessible and marketable. It soon became a famous 
highway between the two rivers, the Hudson and Susquehanna. 
Toll gates were built every ten miles, and the immense amount of 
travel provided funds to pay the stockholders and kejit the road in 
tine condition. The rates of toll were as follows: For twenty sheep 
or hogs, eight cents; for twenty horses or cattle, twenty cents; for 
a horse and rider, live cents; for a horse and chaise, twelve and 
one-half cents; for a coach, twenty-five cents; for a stage or wagon,, 
twelve and one-half cents. Two stages were kept regularly on the 
road, the fare five cents a mile. A stage that left Catskill Wednes- 
day, reached Wattles' Ferry Friday night. 

The town of Sidney is located in the northwest coi-uer of the 
county, and is bounded on the north by the Susquehanna river, 
on the east by Franklin, on the south by Masouville, and on 
the west by the town of Baiubridge, ( Chenango Co.) The town 

Tow.y or siDXEv. 541 

comprises u larj,'e jii'cii of j)rcHluctive ami fertile himl. It bus two 
euterprisiufj villages: Sidiicv, located on the Susi|uebaiina, aud 
Siduev Centre, on Carr's Creek. The villat^c of Sidney Centre 
eoutains a population of about odd. and Sidney about :i.d(id; while 
the entire town aeeordiupf to the census of IS.'jd contained 1,807 
inhaliitiints, and by that of ISilO, ."{.112. At the organization of 
the town in l.Sdl tiic inhal>itants must have consisted of a few 
families at Sidney, Jacob Bidwell at Sidney Centre, Capt. Samuel 
Smith at what is now Franklin Depot, and a few squatters aloufjf 
Carr's Creek. 

The thriviuf,' villaife of Sidney Centre, located on the New 
York, Ontario iV Western railway, contains seven stores, two tine 
churches, and two large creameries; while the energy and enter- 
prise of its business men insures a healthy and steady growth. 
The first school built in the Sidney Centre district was located 
where George Simpson's barn now stands, and one of the first 
teachers was Miss Lydia Knapp, afterwards the wife of Daniel 
S. Dickinson. Garrett Dedrick kejit the tirst store, and William 
Smith was the first postuuister. Jlr. William Johnston of Penn., 
s))eakiug of himself in a friendly letter says: "I might say, and 
truthfully too, that I helped to swing the axe right and left to 
cut down the timber where the beautiful village of Sidney Centre 
now is." He says further, "Samuel Niles was a good mower, and 
Launt Thompson was the only man who could go barefoot the 
year through." If space allowed uk iition could be maile of many 
worthy men and women, and many interesting events described; 
but it is enough to call attention to the wonderful changes nuide 
during the century. lu the i)lace of hardsliip and suffering we 
see well cultivated farms and handsome villages: instead of being 
compelled to go to Schoharie to mill with a |icck or hidf-bushel 
of In<1iaD corn to be ground into meal to keep our families from 
starvation, we have everything in abundance growing on our own 
farms, or brought to our doors from idl the markets of the world. 
Tiuly this fact presents an object lesson worthy our consideration. 


The log cabiu was au evolution of the wigwam and was the 
fii'st dwelling of the wilderness, where the pioneer attempted to 
construct a home. Uude as it was it secured warmth and safety 
to the family, and sheltered men and women nf nulilc character 
and daring enterprise. The great stone cliimuey at one end of 
the cabin became the roaring tunnel for the household tire. At 
that time tire, in the form of living coals, was as carefull_y guarded 
and preserved as was the sacred tire of old. It was the last and 
most binding duty of the pioneer l)efore retiring at night to bury 
the tire, and the tirst necessity in the early morning was to search 
the ashes for living coals, and failing in that the next and only 
recourse was an early journey to the nearest neighbor, ( which 
was often a long distance,) to borrow a shovelful of coals. It is 
a long step from that condition of affairs to the turning on of 
the electric light by a simple motion of the hand; and think of 
all that has come between, since the pioneer and his family sat 
in the blaze of the open fireplace, heaping on boughs of wood to 
make a light by which the pages of an old book could be read ! 

This town was rej^resented in the Senate by John M. Betts in 
184:8-49. Jonas A. Hughstou was Mendjer of Congress in 1855. 
Members of Assembly were Sluman Wattles in 180U, Nathaniel 
Wattles in 1708, (then Franklin), William Dewey in 181(5, Charles 
Rogers in 1853, Samuel Rexford in 182;i, James Hughston in 
1832, Reuben Lewis in 184(5, Ira E. Sherman in 18(35, and 188(), 
Albert H. Sewell in 1878, Robert Courtney in 18(53, Robert Cart- 
wright in 1895, Timothy Sanderson in 1883. 

OwY town is highly favored as a railroad center. The Albany 
and Susquehanna, now owned l)v the Delaware and Hudson com- 
pany, was built in 186(5, tmd runs three miles, within our l)ound- 
aries. The New York, Ontario & Western railway was built in 
1870, giving the town fourteen miles more of railway. The New 
Berli)i Branch, running from Sidney to Edmeston, was completed 
in 1873. The junction of the great thoroughfares at Sidney give 
the village remarkable shijoijing facilities, and induce passenger 
travel, trade and commerce from many jioints. 

■/■oi\-.v (IF sin.\h:y. 543- 

Oiiv of tlu' must iiiiiHirtaiit imlustiii's of >Si<liic_v is the Sill; .Mill 
Coiiipauy eiiiployiiif,' loll Imiiils. The raw silk is iuiiiortid from 
Japan jukI mamifuctiiifd iuto ladies' "iloves auil mitts. The dyciuf^ 
and weaving are all done here, fifteen looms being iu operation f'oi' 
weaving the cloth, and each loom weaving a web ten feet wide. 

The Novelty Works used twenty-nine car loads of lumber iu the 
month of ^lay, employing 1(10 hands. 

The Sidney Glass Works employ 100 hands in making bottles of 
every description, and the Cart and Carriage Company and the- 
Lumber Machinists, each employs a large force in their extensive 

The Sidney National Bank was organized, with a caiiital of 
j;.5(>,(IOO, in December, 1887, with John A. Clark as president, 
Slumau L. Wattles as vice-president, and James L. Clark is the 
present cashier. The bank declared no dividend for eight years, at 
the end of which time its surplus equalled its original cajiital. 

Space will allow us to mention only a few of the conspicuous 
men of Sidney. The Hon. Ira E. Sherman ( lately deceased ) was 
held in the highest esteem, and his tine sense of honor, ability and 
kindness, made his presence seem like a benediction. His fame as- 
a poet is widespread, and from a brooklet, river, or old ruin he 
would weave a song stoi'V iu language surpassingly Ijenutiful. 

Mr. H. C. Weller is the oldest business man in our town, and by 
honorable business methods has been very successful and enjoys 
the contidence of his nuiny friends iu a remarkalilc degree. 

Mr. T. G. Smith enjoys a reputation not confined to our town or 
county. Retiring a few years since from active pursuits, he made a 
trip to the old country, visiting London, Paris, Na])lcs, Florence, 
Rome and Vienna, and also traversed Hollainl and Belgium. His 
correspondence, while abroad, was published in the metropolitan 
journals, and read with the greatest interest l)y many people. His 
description of the "City of the Sea," and other historic places, was 
appreciated and recognized by all who had the pleasure of reading 
Iiis letters. 


The village of Sidney contains five cbuicbes: Congregational, 
Methodist Episcopal, Baptist, Episcopal and Ronuiu Catholic. 

The first newspaper printed in Sidney was the Star, in 1K7(). 
We now have the Sidnej' Record, Sidney Advocate and the 
Transcript — the last named published at Sidney Centre. The first 
number of the Sidney Record, — Arthur Bird editor, — was issued 
December S, 1S8'2. The population of the village at that time was 
550. The organization of the Sidney National Bank, and the 
energetic work of the distinguished editor of the Record, gave a 
powerful impetus to the business prosperity of Sidney. Citizens of 
iHir town are proud of the honorable career of Mr. Bird, in j)ul)lic 
and private life, and appreciate his manly work in their l)elialf. 
This gentleman received the appointment of United States Vice- 
Consul General at Port-au-Prince, Hayti, in the year 1871). 

Sidney was the first village in the county to have an organized 
pt)lice force. Mr. Leroy Smith is the Chief, and under liis sujicr- 
vision the town feels comparativelj- secui-e. 

In conclusion we would pay a grateful tribute to the noble 
pioneers of every town who laid the foundation for all we have, 
and make their lives and character an object lesson for our young 
men to appreciate and value the rugged integrity and faithful 
industry of those grand men. The past is history and the future 
is the unwritten page. Of our uni)aralelled advancement in 
science, and the jiossiljilities already accomplished they could 
not have had the faintest conception. And when we review the 
wonderful growth of our towns, state, and nation, a panoi'ama of 
astonishing events is constantly before us, and indeed, it is true 
that the future is known only in a kind Providence and His 
knowledge is 

"The Diviiiily tliiit sliapcs nur ends, 
Kniifth li(>\v tlii'M] iis \Vi' will." 


Written loi- this lli>torv. 

TH !■", prcsfut tciwii lit' Stiiiiil'ord was t'onucrly a part of ristor 
i-ouutv, or as it was termed " Origiual County;" that is it 
was a coiiutv orjifauized l)efore New York State was iiuder its first 
coustitutiou as a state. Au Act to divide tUe Proviuce of New York 
into provint-es, sbires and counties was passed November 1, 1()S:S. 
The act provided: " That the said i)roviuct' he divided into twelve 
counties," to wit: City and County of New York, Westchester, 
Ulst r, Dutchess, Orauf^e, Richmond, Kings, Queens, Suffolk, Dukes 
and Cornwall. The two latter counties were afterward surrendered 
"to Massachusetts. 

The first known settlers in the town were Dr. Stewart and Johii 
and Alex. More, who emigrated from Scotland in 1778. Two years 
afterwards they were followed by James Stewart, William Fraser, 
Simon Fraser, Daniel and Abijah Bennett. Others who came were 
Elijah Baldwin, son of C'alel) Baldwin, a captain in the Uevolutiou- 
ary army, who came to Stamford early in 17!)2, Philander Smith, a 
practicing physician, Stephen Beers, a native of Stamford, Conn., 
Heth (iriftin. Burton Judsou, Isaac tiould, Beuj. (iilliert. These 
pioneers located in what was called the Towiishi]i Valley, on Town 
Brook, and about five miles from its nu)utli. It was the intention 
of the early settlers to make this place the center of business. 
Accordingly au act was passed by the Legislature, surveys made 
and a town plot, one mile square, was laid out into pilots forty rods 
square, with eiglit streets running at right angles. Fuv a new 
country this locality' was quite thickly settle<l jjrevious to the Bev- 
olution, most of the settlers coming from Stamford. Conn. The 
Indians and Tories drove tliem out and nniny of tiicni were 
■28 «■ 


compelled to retiiru to their uutive State. But with the close ot 
the war they returned uiid ii^aiu souf^lit the beautiful valley. 

ilauy of the settlers beiug from Stamford, Fairfield coimty,. 
Connecticut, the name of their former place of residence was f>iven 
to this locality, and it was called New Stamford. Two years later 
{ April (i, 17!)() ) an Act of the Legislature authorized the layiuj^' out 
of a road through to the Delaware and Susquehanna valleys. The 
road extended from near the mouth of the Ouleout to the Hudson' 
river. For that purpose the laud commissioners were authorized tO' 
draw from the state treasury a sum " not exceeding' eight hundred 
pounds." The contract for building this road was awarded to 
Nathaniel Wattles and Medad Hunt, but proving ruinous the con- 
tractors were relieved in 1793 by a further grant of one hundred 
and twenty pounds. The advantages of a road built by the state 
elated the peojile and in a comjiaratively short time the number of 
settlers increased; mills were built and an air of activity prevailed 
throughout the country. 

The number of settlers increased so rapidly that the formation 
of a new town was desired. This section was then embraced in the 
town of "Woodstock, as the territory of that town then extended to 
the Delaware river. An application for that purpose was made tO' 
the Legislature, which on April 10, 1792, enacted as follows; 

" All that part of the town of Woodstock in the county of Ulster 
bounded West by the west bounds of the county of Ulster, South 
by the north bounds of Middletowu, East by a line to begin on the 
side bounds of Middletown, two miles east of Papacton river, and 
running northerly to a monument number seventeen at the head of 
said Papacton I'iver, and thence continuing the same course north- 
erly until it meets the line of Albany county, shall be erected into a 
separate town by the name of Stamford, and the first town meeting 
in Stamford shall be held at the house of Peter Knajjp." 

This meeting was held on Tuesday, April 2, 1793. Patrick Lane 
was superintendent of the meeting and Peter Osborn moderator. 
These officers were elected for one year: Georg-e Scpiires, town 

roWX i)F STAMFOUP. 5.1;) 

clerk; Siiimicl Iii<^ei«oll, coustiihU-; Andrew Beers, supervisor; 
Josliuii Wrifjfht, Silas Kuji))]}, Abijiili Bennett, assessors; Daniel 
Bennett, Sanmel ^ferriaiii, Israel Innian, coniniissioners of lii;,'h- 
ways; Hufjli Rose ami James (irant, overseers of |)oor; (ieorge 
;MeKenna, Ezra Hart, Peter Osborn, Allen (irant, Salmon Mallett. 
•lacol) Smither, Joliu Wriylit, diHtrict roadmasters; Abraham (lould, 
Ezra Hait, Simon Frasier, feuce viewers and damaj^'e 'prisers; Peter 
Shearman, Zalmou Tousev, Israel Inman, pound musters. The next 
annual town meeting was held at the honse of Philo Norton. 

The question of a new county became a sid)ject for consideration 
as the settlement increased between the Delaware and Susiiuelianna 
rivers. On the lOth of March, IT'.IT, by an .\et of the Lef,nslature 
the county of Delaware became a fact. The entire territory of the 
county at first comj)rised the towns of Stamford, Harperstield, 
Kortright, Franklin, IMiddletown and Colchester, but a short time 
afterward the town of Walton was added. 

When first formed the town of Stamford liail an ai'ea of SI, ()()() 
acres. It possessed all that part of the county of Delaware lying 
north of tlie northern bounds of (ireat Lot No. -40 in the Harden- 
burgb Patent. The direct length of its south line was about 
sixteen and three-fourth miles, and of its eastern line about eleven 
and one-half miles. Its northern line was eleven miles ,ind its 
western side, direct from corner to corner, about thirteen and one- 
fourth miles, .\bout two years afterward its area was reduced 
more than half by the formation of the town of Koxburv. In 1820 
it sustained another loss of territory liy the erection of the town of 
Bovina. Ten years later ( 1830 ) six lots were taken from Haii>ers- 
tield at the village of Hobart and annexed to Stamford. 

Prior to ] S2() the town meetings were held down the Delaware 
and on Buse's Brook, with one exception, ( IT'.ll ) wiien it was held 
lit the house of Abel Watkins in the Town Plat. Town meet- 
ings were subse(]uently held at the Masonic hall in M'aterville, 
now Hobart, and the town house has ever since been located 


The first justice of the peace elected was Dimcau McDouahl, 
who was elected at the aumial town meeting held April G, 188(t. 
The methods of voting for town officers prior to 1822 was by cira 
voce, raising the hand, or l)y the voters arranging themselves on 
either side of the mom and heiiig counted. The first justices being 
made b_v appointment no record is obtainable. But bv official 
signatures it is found that Patrick Laml) held the office in 17!(8, 
being succeeded by Benjamin Ackerly, ITDi, Andrew Beers, 17i)5; 
Isaac Hardenburg, 1796, Hugh Rose, 171»7, Asahel E. Paine, 1S(»2, 
Elijah Canfield, 1808, etc. 

In 1800 a town insurance company was formed with these offi- 
cers: Jacob B. Van Housen, Charles Griffin, HenVy Pratt, Xelson 
L. Thorp, Cyrenus Gibbs, Lyman Wilcox, Frances R. Gilbert, Wuj. 
R. Beckley and Robt. T. Hume. Mr. Wilcox was chosen president, 
and Mr. Gilbert secretary. 

The following from Stamford have been Members of Assembly 
Patrick Lamb, 1800; John Lamb, 1803; Anthony Marvin, 1805-06 
Robert Clark, 1813; James G. Redfield, 1829; John Griffin. 18;i(; 
Orrin Griffin, 1842; Orrin Foote. 1846; Daniel Stewart, 1853; John 
Haxten, 1856; Frances R. Gilbert, 1863-64; Isaac H. Maynard, 
1876-77; John S. McNaught, 1879. 

In 1850 Levinus Monson of Hobart was elected a Justice of the 
Supreme Court (Sixth Judicial district). Only one man from Stam- 
ford was ever elected to the office of County Jvidge — Isaac H. 
Maynard in 1878. 

Those residents of the town who have been elected and served 
as Sheriffs of the county are Duncan J. Grant, 1835-37; DeWitt C. 
Thomas, 1847-49; Baldwin (iriffin, 1859-(il; William R. Clark. 

Many volunteers from Stamford helped to form the 144th Regi- 
ment, which left Delhi for the front on Sept. 27, 1862. Among 
those who enlisted were Wesley W. Sanford, Omer Champlin, Beers 
Grant, James Grant, and niauy others whose names we have not 
space to mention. 

T(nV.\ OF STAMI-'Olill. 5<51 

Anidii^'' those who resided in thr town :i ccnturv iij,'o were: 
iSteiihcii Ad.'iiiis. Suiuuel Adee, Diivid Austin, Samuel BaV)bit, Syl- 
viiuus BriKhaiii, Andrew Beers, John Bennett, Amos Baldwin, • 
Thomas Brooks, James Boutou, Asa Beach, Archibald Biirf^iss, 
Thomas Crosby, Alexander Cummiugs, Hemau Dewey, .Samuel 
Davis, Daniel Foote, Joshua Ferris, James (iraut, Isaac (Jould, 
Heth (irillin. .lolni Hayes, Ezra Hoyt, Eseck Inman, Benjamin 
Jones, Jabez Jeuuiugs, Silas and Peter Kuapp, Joseph Keator, John 
and William Lamb, Daniel Lynch, Niithan Lee, John Mallett, 
(xeoryf McKenney. Alexander JIcDonald, Klisha Mayuard. Asa 
Norton, John Polly, Solomon Parsons, Huj,di Rose, Daniel liobin- 
son, Aaron Rollins, Joshua Simmons, David Smith, John Sherman, 
Ebenezer Sturgess, Thomas Taylor, Nathaniel Tiffany. Charles 
Tucker, Henry Voorhis, Demar Wheeler, Joshua Wriyht, Anthony 
Wilber, Daniel W^oolsey, William Yeomans. 


With increased business came the needs of a bank, and on Octo- 
ber 24, 18(!8, the First National Bank of Hobart was establislied in 
that vilhif^e. Previous to the above date the banks at Kingston and 
Catskill had been used by depositors. The first board of directors 
was made up of Frederic W. Foote, John M. Olmstead, Russell D. 
Baird, John Griffin, Robt. I. Hume, Robt. ^IcNauglit, John Cowan. 
Mr. Foote was chosen president, and John M. Olmstead cashier. 
The capital at first was §50,000, which was afterwards increased 
to ^luil, 0(1(1. Ill 1,S72 Mr. Foote resigned his position and Mr. 
Olmstead was chosen to succeed him as president. In 1881 the 
bank went into voluntary licjuidation. To the credit of the institu- 
tion it may be said that during the eighteen years of its existence 
it never nussed declai-ing a dividend, and during that time it paid 
to its stockholders about ?lH(i,(l()(t. In 1872 Mr. F. W. Foote 
started a private banking house, which was known as the l'",x<-liange 
Bank. Its l)usiness career was short lived. 

It was on November 12, 1881, that the Stamford National 
was organized witii a capital of SoO.iKHt, which was increased in 


188() to $75,000. The bank befjau business early iu 188-2 with these 
officers: M. Fredenburgh, S. W. Hubbard, J. H. Merchant, I. H. 
Mayuard, Stephen Van Duseu, E. W. Churehill, Edgar Johnson, 
N. K. Wilson, R. G. Dayton. Mr. Fredenburgh was the Jirst presi- 
dent, and Mr. Hubbell the cashier. The present officers are 
J. H. Merchant, pi-esideut; C. L. Audrus, vice-president; (i. W. 
Kendall, cashier. Directors, E. W. Churchill, Stephen Van Duseu, 
Heth Griffin, H. S. Wood, E. W. Gallup, E. L. Seeley. 

The National Bank of Hobart was established Dec. 6, 1890, with 
a capital of $50,000. The lirst officers were J. R. Cowan, president; 
J. M. Olmstead, vice-jsresident; J. A. Scott, cashier. The same 
gentlemen are still retained in office, with the exception of Mr. 
Olmstead, who has been succeeded by O. I. Bennett as vice-presi- 
dent. The directors are J. R. Cowan, J. M. Olmstead, Jacob Law- 
rence, J. E. Bush, O. I. Bennett, John Bell. 


The first fraternal organization in the town of Stamford was 
that of St. Andrew's Lodge, F. cV- A. M., No. 48, chartered April 1"2, 
179(>. Andrew Beei's was the first master; John French senior 
warden and James Laughran junior warden. The first by-laws 
adopted, or at least recorded, were on December 20, 1796. The 
first number, 48, was renumbered 45, and the charter was forfeited 
(presumably for not making returns to the Grand Lodge) in 1832. 
The old warrant of St. Andrew's Lodge was returned to the Grand 
Lodge August 11, 1852. On September 4, 1852, a dispensation was 
issued to Harry Andrew-s, Elisha Wetmore, William McCaughan, 
Agnus McDonald, Alexander Stewart, B. Lyon and Joseph B. Hunt 
to erect a lodge at Hobart. Harry Andrews was named as master; 
Elisha Wetmore senior warden, and William McCaughan junior 
warden. A warrant was issued to these brethren as St. Andrew's 
Lodge, No. 289, Juue 8, lf^5;}. This last warrant or charter is the 
one under which St. Andrew's Lodge is now working. St. Andrew's 
Mark Master's Lodge was an off-shoot of St. Andrew's Lodge, and 
is not the first masonic lodge organized iu Delaware county as has 

Towx OF sTAMroRi). r)r>3 

•ermucDiislv lieeu recorded. The tirst rci-urds (ilitiiiiuililo of luiv 
minutes bear date March (1, IT'.IS. The otlicers were Andrew Beers, 
master; David (i. Wain\vrij;lit, senior warden; Robert (i. Wetmore 
junior warden; John S. Bradford, tiler. The lodf,'e of Mark Master 
^lasons was formed about the time the Grand Chapter of the State 
was organized. On February 4, 1S()2, n Chapter of Koyal .Vrch 
Masons was organized, Andrew Beers being chosen high priest; 
John Lamb, king; and Erastus Root, scribe. The number of tliis 
chapter was 14. The original charter of St. Andrew's Chajiter is 
uow in the possession of Delta Chapter Xo. 185, R. A. M. of the 
village of Stamford, lieing the legitimate and lineal descendant of 
old St. Andrew's No. 14. St. Andrew's Lodge and St. Andrew's 
Chapter were the first of the order in Delaware county. The tirst 
meetings of St. Andrew's Lodge were held at the house of Andrew- 
Beers, and at other members' liouics. Some time later a masonic 
liall was built near St. Peter's Episcopal church in Hobart. The 
Rtiilding, a frame structure, was moved to its present site more than 
sixty years ago, after having been abandoned for lodge purposes. 
It is now used as a tenement. The present masonic hall at Hobart 
was built in 18X!I. St. Andrew's Lodge is more than one hundred 
years old, its centennial having been celebrated at Holiart on Octo- 
ber 8, 18;)(;, at which time Major George C. CHbbs of Stamford was 
the historian, and to him the writer is indebted for much data 
concernmg the Masonic organizations. St. Andrew's Lodge has a 
membership of about one hundred. The present olticers are: G. A. 
Young, master; "Walter Kniskern, senior warden; William Barrett, 
junior warden; Norman K. Silliman, secretary; John Telford, treas- 
urer; Itdlicrt ('. 151ackl>urn. senior deacon; W. Frank Clark, junior 
deacon; John Coon, tyler. 

Delta Chapter, No. 18."), was organized Feb. K, iHli."). The first 
officers were, Michael Karen, High Priest; Robt. S. Brownell, King; 
•Oliver D. Young, Scribe; S. B. Cliamiiion, Secretary. Regular con- 
vocations are held in the village of Stamford. The present officers 
.are, .\. L. Van Dusen. Hif,'li Priest; E. A\'. Landon, King; J. W. 


Baldwin, Scribe; Joliusou Hiimiltou, treasurer; Geo. (). Leouaril,. 
secretarj-. There are sixty-five members. 

Hobart Lodge, No. :^;i!), I. (). (). F., wa.s orj^auized ^Lircli 7, 
1848, with these oflScers: Dr. C'alviu C. Covel, noble grand; Bald- 
win Griffin, vice-grand; John McDonald, treasurer. Capt. John R.. 
Baldwin was the first member to die, March 7, IHM, The ]u-esent 
officers are, noble grand, D. J. Young; vice-grand, Freeman Keyser; 
secretary, Geo. A. Young; treasurer, Justus Cobbe; warden, J. E. 
Butler. This lodge is the parent Odd Fellows' organizati(m of 
Delaware county. The lodge celebrated its fiftieth anniversary 
last spring. 


The organization of a fire department for the village of Stam- 
ford was perfected June H>, 1870. The first apjjaratus j^urchased 
was a hand engine of the Button make. It was a second hand 
machine, bought for $250, in Rome, N. Y., by Maj. Geo. C. Gibbs 
and Harvey S. Wood, a committee ajtiiointed for that purpose by 
the board of trustees. Major Giblis was appointed chief of the 
department and A. M. Martin assistant chief. A company consist- 
ing of thirty-five men was immediately organized to run with the 
machine, the company retaining the title, "Fort Stanwix Engine 
Co.," that being the original name of the engine while it was owned 
in Rome. John M. Bennett was elected foreman. The machine is 
still in commission but is not much used owing to the splendid 
system of water works with which the village is supplied. The 
present officers of the fire department are Geo. O. Leonard, chief; 
A. L. Van Dusen, 1st assistant; J. G. Dean, 2d assistant; E. L. 
McArthur, clerk. 

Stamford Hose Co. No. 1, was organized Nov. 21, 1883. The 
present officers are, Wm. Myers, foreman; A. L. Mattice, assistant; 
W. P. More, secretary; Eugene Stouteuburgh, treasurer. 

L H. Maynard Hose Co. No. 2, was organized April 17, 1880. 
John Dooley is foreman; F. A. Maynard, assistant; E. L. McArthur,, 
secretary; A. E. Fink, treasurer. 


yoir.v OF sTAMi-tiia). 557 

S. E. Cliiirchill Honk ami Liiilili r Co. was or;;iini/.c(l Ort. 2, 
1H95. The otticers are, Iv ('. Hant'ord, I'oninan ; C. E. Smith, assis- 
tant: J. A. Tooley, secretary; 1>. ('. Hoa^laiid. treasurer. 

\V.\li;i! WOKKS. 

The busiuess of the vilhifje haviiij^ increased to such au e.\teut 
that the need of a better su])ply of water for tire and domestic use 
became ini]ii rativc. <)ii Fcliruury 2, ISSl, tlir jiicseiit excellent 
system of water works was established. Au organization was 
formed and u company, capitalized at S"2(), 0(1(1. immediately bef^au 
business. The dire<-tors wfiv S. E. Churciiill. J. P. (irant, S. W. 
Hubl.ell. I. H. .Mayuard, J. C. Van Dyke, Johnson Hamilton. F. (i. 
Rulifsou, Edgar Johnson aud E. W. Churchill. S. E. Churchill was 
elected president; J. P. Grant, secretary; S. \V. Hubl)ell, treasurer: 
F. G. Rulifsou, supei'intendent. 

A reservoir was constructed about one aud oue-half miles north 
of the village and mains laid throughout the various streets. Octo- 
ber 29, 1892, the capital of the company was increased to $30,000, 
and again on March 8, 1897, to ^45,000. This last increase of 
capital was for the purpose of building another reservoir about a 
mile fuither north of the original one aud to put down au increased 
number of mains. The new reservoir was constructed early in the 
summer of 1895, at a cost of $1(),(MI(). The water works is one of 
the best iu the state of its size aud au abundance of pure spring 
water is supplied the citizens. There are twenty-six fire hydrants 
located about the village at im])ortant points. The jn-essure of 
water is 121 pounds to the sipiai-e inch. The present officers are: 
J. C. Van Dyke, president; J. K. Cowan, vice-president; AVilliani 
Whitney, secretary; U. H. Earner, treasurer: Johnson Hauiilton, 
superintendent; C. A. Crowell, A. M. Warner. W. V. (iillespie, E. 
W. Churchill, directors; George O. Leouard, (,'ollector. 


The first school commissioners of the town were Joseph llurd, 
Silas Kuapj) and Francis Burritt, who were elected at the annmil 
meeting in IT'.h;. On Fel). :}, lSi;i, the town was diviited into nine 


.sebodi districts, the connnissioners, Charles B. Perrv, Aaron BlisL, 
and Dauiel ■McGillivrae, being elected at a special meeting' held in 
January of that year. The first inspectors of schools were Kohert 
W Forest, William Kedzie, Joseph D. Beers, :Mutthe\v DcAVitt, Ituht. 

Greassou and Abel AVatkins. The first school building stood on 
the east side of Delaware street near the railroad crossing, in a 

•corner of the lot of the present residence of Mrs. I. H. Maynard. 

.Small select school had been kept at various times and in dift'i rent 
parts of the town, but it was not until 1S51 that the citizens were 
induced to contribute toward the erection of the Stamford Semin- 
ary building. The building finally passed into the hands of Charles 

■■O. Churchill, who built a boarding hall in connection with the 
school. The building later passed into other hands and is devoted 
to private eutcriirisos. It was not, however, until 1874 that the 
"Stamford Seminary " was incorporated under board of regents, 

.and on the 30th of May the corner stone of the present splendid 
structure was laid. The building with its apinu'teuanees, exclusive 
of site, cost S12, ()()(). A bell weighing 300 jjounds was subsequent- 
ly bought by private subscription. In the seminary building was 
kept the books of the Judson Library Association, named after 
Samuel Judsou, jr., who bequeathed to the association $1,500 upon 
condition that the citizens of the village would contribute an eqiuil 

-amount of money. This being done the Library Association was 
formed with a board of trustees composed of S. E. Churchill, J. 
C. Van Dyke, J. H. McKee and I. H. Maynard. The library con- 
tains about 3,(100 volumes. The establishment of a Union Free 
School was not perfected until August, 1881, when school districts 
No. 1 of Stamford, No. 15 of Jefferson and No. 5 of Harpersfield 
were consolidated and the Union Free School system was perfected. 
The first trustees were Norman K. Wilcox, Van Zandt Wyckoff, S. 
B. ChamiJion, S. I. Brown, Harvey S. Wood, H. S. Preston, I. H. 
Maynard, S. E. Churchill, John Hagar. I. H. INIayuard was elected 
president, and Van Zandt Wyckoff secretary. The seminary build- 
ing was secured and has since been used. The first principal was 

rnn'.v (II-- sr.\MF<)i:i>. -,.-)!> 

Ivolit. M. Hu^-'lifs. Ht' was siu'ceedi'il liv Ailelliert Gardonicr, ISS-t; 
F. M. Siiiitb, LS87; James Blakeslev, IHIH); J. B. Hastiii«rs, 18112; 
Jaiiics A. Tooley, 18IKi. The jiresent priucijtal is Prof. S. L. Howe, 
wb'i was PUfiafieil iu LSlKi. The present hoard of trustees consists 
of H. P. Huhhell, presiileut; S. V.. Churchill, J. H. :\[ereliaut, C. 
L. Autlriis, H. C. Lawrence, S. I. Brown, J. A. Toolev, A. W. Terry, 
E. E. Van Dyke. W. H. :\rcAlpine is clerk. The scho>>l has an 
attendance of alnuit ;?ti(i pupils. 


Hobart is a small village in the town of Stamford and aliout 
four miles west of the latter village. It has a po})ulation of ahout 
650 and is the oldest portion of the town of Stamford. The place 
-was ori-jinally known as "Waterville, presumably taking its name 
from the excellent water power which the Delaware river atfords at 
this point. The settlement was at one time called " Tiukertown " 
from the fact that a man liviuir here ajiprojtriated to his use a fidl 
•set of tinker's tools belonging to another man. The Rev. Philander 
Chase, the first rector of St. Peter's Episcojial church, suggested 
that the village be named after Bislio]) Hobart oi New Jersey, 
which was done. 

The village was incorporated early in the spring of ISss. The 
first meeting of the board of trustees was held on Jlay 81 of that 
year. Tlie first President of the village was Dr. J. S. lIcNaught; 
Trustees, J. K. Odell, S. D. Kerr, John Robinson; Treasurer, Case 
Ostrander; Collector, O. B. Barlow; Clerk, A. H. (irant. The pres- 
ent officers of the village are: President, James R. Cowan; Trustees, 
Jacob Lawrence, Oscar L Bennett; Treasurer, William S. Thomson; 
€lerk, A. S. Carroll. 

George Foote kept the first tavern, where the old Mansion 
House building now stands. 

Cyrus Beers opened the first store, on the same ground wlnre 
the store of J. W. Griffin is located. 

The first physician in Hobart was Dr. Josliua H. Brett, who was 
also the first judge of Delaware county. Other i)hysicians were 
Drs. Gregory, Hanford, Howard, and J. S. McNaught, the last of 
whom has been supervisor of the town and represented the diptrict 
in the Assembly. Dr. ilcNaught is still in active ])ractice and one 
.of the prominent citizens of the village. 

The first lawyers were J. B. S])encer and ,\ndrew Beers, the 


lattei- beiuy kuowu as tlu' iihuaiiiu- maker. Souk; of bis almanacs ^ 
are still in existence. 

Williaui Trotter was the first po.stmaster at the villaj.;e, ami 
James B. Eich is the present iucumbeiit. 

George Foote built the first canliuy iiiill. He also imilt a 
woolen factory, ami the water to run both mills was taken from the 
same dam, which althouj^h frequently rebuilt still remains and does 
good service. The foundry now operated by John Kobinson was 
built by Charles Whiting in the winter of 184!). Mr. Robinson has 
owned and conducted the foundry for nearly forty years. 

The Hobart Agricultural Society was organized June 17, l(S7(i, 
with these officers: President, D. C. Sharpe; Vice-Pi-esidents, Sam- 
uel H. Stevens, E. A. Gallup, Charles S. Stevens, H. Meeker; 
Secretary, E. S. McNaught; Treasurer, James S. Kerr. The first 
exhibition of the society was held October 10-12, 187G. The 
grounds and l)uildings are south of the village. The society has 
not held annual exhibitions in several years, not a sufficient interest 
being manifested to ensure its success. 

The Union School of Hobart was organized in 1K!)1, when the 
present building was constructed at a cost of about $7,000, which 
includes the furii^sliings. The building mas enlarged in 1895 by 
the erection of an addition. The board of education consists of 
James E. Cowan, president; A. S. Carroll, secretary; James B. Eich, 
treasurer; James A. Scott, R. Hume Grant, William H. McClelland. 
There is a well stocked library containing about 2,000 volumes 
attached to the school. Prof. George J. Dann is the principal, and 
Martha Belle Scott preceptress. The school is now known as the 
Hobart High School. 

The lire dejjartmeut was organized August 5, 188(1, the first 
company being called Star Hose Co. No. 1. In 1894 this comj)any 
was incorporated under the name of the Cascade Hose Co. About 
the time of the organization of the Star Hose Co. a small hand fire 
engine was bought in New York. It at one time belonged to 
Engine Co. No. 41, of the volunteer dei^artment of that city. The 
company organized to run with this machine was called Clinton 
Engine Co. No data of the formation of this comijauy is obtain- 
able. The "old tub," as it is sometimes called, is still in service 
but not much used owing to the village being supplied with water 
works. The officers of this company are, J. E. Butler, foreman; J.. 
C McMurdy, secretary; C. E. Hauford, treasurer. The officers of 

7V(ir.v o/- sT.\MF<ii;ii. .^(jl 

•Casciulc Hose Co. arc AV. J. H. KoljiiisDu, forcinaii ; Cliarlcs L. 
Shakcltou, assistant; A. S. C'aiidll. sccretavv; C K. Huiifonl, treas- 
urer. Justus CoMic is chief of tlic (lc|iaitiiiciit, and .\, S. ('ai-i-iill, 

The Mausiou House, wliicli is now closed, is the ohlest hotel 
iu the place. It was built more thau seveutv years ago. For iiiauy 
years the hotel was couilucted by Clayton Weeks. The last laud- 
lord was Jesse ifiuor. The Barrett House, "William Barrett, pro- 
jirietor, is the only public house at present iu the village. 

The Hobart AVater Company began business iu 1887, the capital 
stock of the company being $1'2,0()(). The otticers are: President, 
W. R. Brock; Seci'etary, Charles T. Leonard; Treasurer, J. S. 
McXaught; Superintendent, Robert AIcNaught. 

There is l)ut one newspaper published in tlie village, the Ho- 
l)art Independent. This paper was established iu 1885 by J. B. 
Rich, who in 1890 sold it to Mr. A. J. Cham])iou of Stamford. The 
latter conducted the paper but a few mouths when it jjassed into 
the hands of I. L. Braymau of Walton. In 18itl Mr. Frank B. 
Maybam, the present publisher, secured control of the pai)er and 
(■hauged its tone to that of the Democracy. 

The first creamery in the village was established in 1888 by L. 
B. Halsey of New York and J. V. Jordan of N'ewburgh, under the 
firm name of Jordan <.V Halsey. The name of the creamery was 
afterward changed to that of the Sheffields Farm C'reanu'ry. Last 
spring some of the farmers became dissatisfied with the jirice 
offered them for milk and withdrew their patronage. .Vs a result 
of this movement a co-operative association was formed by a large 
number of the farmers and the Hobart Dairy Condensing Company 
( limited ) was organized. A substantial two-story building has 
lieen erected neaj' the railroad station, which cost f\illy e(|ui])]>ed 
$lo,000. James A. Cowan is president; (). B. Foote, vice-i)resident ; 
S. O. Bennett, secretary; J. R. Stevenson, treasurer. 


Stamford is one of tin- most picturcsfnie ami ln'iilthv villages it tin' Stale. 
It is about H>2 miles from New York and seventy-four from Kingston. It is 
familiarly spoken of as the •' Saratoga of the Catskills," lieiiig i|uito noted as a 
summer resort. Its altitude is alioul l.SOII feet above tide watiT. Thi' vil- 
lage is roneheil by rail over the T'Ister .V Delaware railroad, which was built 
as far as Stamford in December, 1S72. Later the r<iod was i'om|i|eled to 
Jiloomville. thirteen miles distant. 

The village was .incorporated May 1'.'. IsTo. The llrst president was Isaac 


H. Maynaid, aiul the fust board <•( tiusteos Charles Giifflri, J. B. Van Houseiv 
J. W. llaj-naril. E. W. Clninliill, H. S. Wood. On February 19, 1873, by an 
Act of the Legislatuic tlic ari';i <it' tlic corporation was reduced to its present 
limits. The village lies at llie base of Mount Utsayantha, whose towering 
summit is reached by a two mile drive. From this point the entire range of 
the Catskills, the Hudson river valley and the Berkshire hills aic plainly 
visible in clear weatlier. 

The village is haud.somely laid out and has several well shaded streets. 
There is a normal population of about 1,000, but in the summer months this 
number is increased nearly four-fold. The village contains a number of large 
hotels and commodious boarding houses and numerous pretty cottages, some 
of which are owned by citizens of New York, Philadelphia and otlier cities, by 
whom they are occupied in the summer months. There are four churches 
(referred to below ), a public school and several substantial business blocks. 
The citizens are progressive, enterprising and take a natural pride in the 
village. Among the Important hotels are Churchill Hall and Rexniere. under 
the management of S. E. Churchill ; the Grant House. J. P. Grant, proi)rietor; 
the Hamilton House, A. E. Tallmadge, proprietor; and the Delaware House, 
Fred M. Tingley, proprietor. The latter house is one of the old landmarks of 
the place. It was built in the early part of the present century by Lemuel' 
Lamb, who was its landlord for several years. The " tavern " was a small red 
frame building and originally but a story and a halt in height. Daniel Clark, 
however, is said to have kept the first public house in the town. 

The Mirror office was built by S. B. Champion in the sunim(>r of 1S70, tin- 
frame being raised on the Gth of .July of that year. 

In 1893 Granthurst Park was annexed to the corporation. It is located on 
the heights overlooking the village and is surrounded by the handsome resi- 
dences of some of the more wealthy citizens. 

The Stamford Electric Light Company was organized April, 1892, with a 
capital of $20,000. The present officers are, J. P. Grant, president ; .1. K. 
Grant, secretary; S. E. Churchill, treasurer; .J. Corbin, manager. 

Of the three newspapers in the town the Stamford ilirror is the oldest. 
This paper was established in 18-51, by Simon B. Champion, who had previous- 
ly printed a newspaper in the village of Bloomville. Mr. Champion is the 
oldest publisher in the county and one of the few veteran editors in the state 
actively engaged in country .journalism. He became a resident of Stamford 
in 1870, having moved from Bloomville. The Mirror is Democratic in tone 
and principle and its venerable editor is highly esteemed by all classes. Mr. 
Champion has held many positions of trust in his town, Mr. A. .1. Champion 
is assistant editor of the Mirror and Mr. Clifford Champinn its Iiusiness 

The Stamford Recorder was establisiied in the village in .\pril. 1S!)2. by a 
company composed of representative Eepublicans who desired an exponent of 
tlieir political faith. The name of the corporation is The Stamford Printing 
and Publishing Company, and the printing plant of the Andes Recorder was 
purchased of William Clark, wlio became editor and manager of tlie Stamford 
Recorder. In August, 1894, Mr. Clark resigned and Edward .V. .\ckley has 
been the editor and manager since that time. 

TO WW (JF STAMF(Jlil). -,(;3- 

This youug villam' i.s t-ituutod iu tlio boiuitirul valley of Ihc West BiaiR-li 
ill the western part of the town. Sini'O the eoiiiiiig of the railioad new Iniild- 
ings, stores, hotel, ami a larjie and important ereaniery have been c-iocted. 
The ereaniery is owned and operated sneeessfully l)y a company of farmers. 
James MeLean and S. W. Andrmvs have each fine summer residences here.ind 
the latter is making very extensive improvements on his grounds. In the 
picture given on page 4(>0 this place is shown. 


The first building to be used in town for religious purposi-s was buill 
about 1798. It was a union meeting house, not denominational. The money. 
$.5.50, to build this meeting house was raised by popular subscription. Among 
the original subscribers were Thomas Rickie. Douglas Mcliityre. James Pud- 
ney, Nehemiah Whitney, Ralph Newell an<i Thomas Montgomery. 

The second chunh l)uilt in the town was St. Peter's Episcopal in llobart. 
The frame was raised on July 4, IHOI. It was a noted edifice for that early 
period, a picture of which appears on page .53. The organization of this 
church society dates from December 8, 171)4. when membei-s of the Episco- 
/palian church at Stamford, Kortright and Harpersfield met and elected Trii- 
V man Beers. Augu.slus Bates, Ebenezer Stiirgis, Gershom Hauford, Andrew 
y Beers, Herman Bradford, Stephen Bartow, Elijah Baldwin and Moses Sack- 
rider trustees. A parsonage, costing $.5'i;i,t;ri, was liuilt in the fall of IMOO. 
The money to build it was loaned In- the corporation of Trinity Church of New 
York, and the building is still in use. The Rev. Philander Chase was the first 
rector of the parish and the Rev. Benjamin T. Trego is now in charge. 

The third church was built in the Township valley in lS2:i by llie Meth- 
odist society, the framing and constructi<m of the building being superintended 
by Peter Grant. The building was not heated and for seats loose boards were 
thrown aen.)ss supports. 

The fourth church in town was built as a Union Church in the village of 
Stamford in WM. On June 24, lH:i4, the Presbyterians withdrew from the 
Harpersfield church and organized a church society. The Rev. Fordice Har- 
rington was the first pastor. While Rev. Warren Mayo was pastor, in 18.55, 

m 'y was raised by subscription and a new edifice was built in the village of 

Stamford. The present structure is a very attractive one. and the pastor 
is the Rev. Leonard E. Richards. 

The Methodist .socieiy, which is believed to have \n-ru the lifth church 
organization in the town, was organized about 1832. The Rev. John Bangs 
was the first pastor. The Methodists were the last to ufre the old Union 
mi-eting house, the Baptist soi-iely having withdrawn and in 18(14 they built a 
more modern structure. The Rev. F. D. Abrams is the present pastor. 

The Baptist church .society was originally organized in the town of Ji-ffer- 
son. Si'hoharie county, but the church building stood in Harpersfield, about 
two miles ni>rthwest of Stamlmd village. Iu 18f':t the society was reorgauizeil 
.iiid the present Ipuilding erected on Main strei't between the Methodist and 
Pii'sbvifiiiiM churclies. Some ye.irs au'o the church was rebuilt. The church. 

564 iiisronv of r)h:r.A\VARF corxrv. 

■was dedioatetl Novemlier 8, 18G6. The Rev. .1. B. Van Hooson was pastor of 
this church for many years. The present paster is the Rev. R. G. Sibley. 

The seventh cliureh in town was built in Hobart by tlie Presbyterian 
•society in 18.54, wiiidi lias not had a pastor rcfjularly. 

Tlie Jlethodists also built a elHireh at the head of Roses Brook uliiili was 
tlie eifihth church built in the town. 

William Trotter, esq., had much to <l(i witli the organizatior] of tlir Re- 
formed Presbyterian church of Hobart, which was effected in that villaj,'!' in 
]853. The following year the present edifice was built at a cost of Sii.'iOO. 
Mr. Trotter died before the church was completed. The church was dedicated 
in IS.o.) by the Rev. Andrew Johnston, the newly installed pastor. Later the 
society changed its name to that of First Presbyterian Church of Holiarl. 
which it still retains. The present pastor is the Rev. Charles II. Herrick. 

As a result of revival services in Hobart held in January, 1834, l)y the Rev. 
Uezaleel Howe, the Methodist Church Society was organized. The present 
church edifice was built in 183.T and in 1854 it was extensively repaired, and 
several years afterwards the society built a parsonage adjoining the church, 
costing SI, 500. The present pastor is the Rev. A. A. Walker. . 

Grace Episcopal Chapel was organized in Stamford village as a mission of 
St. Peter's church in the fall of 1883. The establishment of a mission was the 
■outgrowth of the efforts of Mr. James McLean of South Kt)rlright and New 
York, Miss M. R. Treadwell. Mrs. I. H. Maynard. Mrs. Ingrahaui, Mrs. H. S. 
Wood. Mrs. B. H. Foote, Mrs. R. C. Simpson and other ladies of the Episcopal 
faith living in Stamford. The chapel cost about S3, 000 and was built on a lot 
<lonated by Dr. H. S. Wood for that purpose. When the chapel was conse- 
•crated some years later the societj' was set apart as an in<icpendent mission 
and it has since been self supporting. The present rector is the Eev. Olin 

The Roman Catholic Church of the Sacred Heart, of which the Rev. Pat- 
rick Livingstone is pastor, was built in 1870 on Harper street. The structure 
is a frame building and cost about S4.000. The dedication of the church took 
place on Oct. 25, 1870, the Rt. Rev. J. J. Conroy, Bishop of Albany, officiating. 
It is a mission church and under the pastorate of the Father Livingstone has 
grown so as to occupy an important position among the mission churches of 
the Catholic diocese. 

Besides the cliurches mentioned above, the one at Alnu^da, or South Korl- 
right, is probably the oldest church organization in town. 

The Associate Reformed Presbyterian church was organized by Rev. Wil- 
liam McAuley in the year 1790, at South Kortright. In 1833 the .society built 
a second church, which has been remodeled in recent }"ears. During the first 
ninety years of the existence of tliis congregation there were but three pas- 
tors : Ri'v. Wm. Mc.Vuley, Rev. Robert Forrest and Rev. John D.Gibson. 
The membership of this church extended over a very large territory in the 
early days. In 1858 1 he name was changed to United Presbyterian, the Asso- 
-ciate and Associate Reformed organizations in the I'uited States having been 
merged into one body. This church is still prosperous after an existence of 
jiiore than a century, and Rev. W. L. Martin is the pastor. 



I^Y Hon. T. .^iindci-.son. 

IH.VN'K uiKlcitnkcii the tusk to collect jiiul arniiii^e iu as orderly 
a iiiiiiiiH T as the brief period of time assigned to me will 
permit, some of the principal eveuts which have trans])ired within 
the limits of the town of Walton within the past one hundred years. 

The year 1784 mai-ks the period of the first permanent settle- 
ment within the hounds of the jiri'seiit town of Walton. A ylance 
at that date recalls the fact that tlie w'ar of independence had Ijeeu 
brouf,'ht to a successful issue, and the mother country had been 
compelled to relimiuish her claim upon the thirteen colonies, and 
that henceforth they were to carve out for themselves tlic form of a 
{il'overnmeut and lay the foundations of a permanent republic. 
The great state of Xew York, even at that early period, began to 
give evidence of that supremacy among the sisterhood of states 
which she Las easily maintained for more than half a century. 
From the landing of tiie Dutch on ^lanhattan Island in llidil, until 
the transfer of the colonial government of the colony to the English 
in nCA, the principles of Dutch freedom became im])laiited in the 
governmental policy of the inhabitants. 

In l(i83 the state of New York was divided into ten counties, 
Albany, Dutchess, Kings, New Y'ork, Orange, Queens, Richmond, 
Suifolk, Ulster and Westdiester. 

At that date the territory that is now embraced within the liMiil> 
of the county of Delaware was included in the cdunties of Alli,in\ 
and rister. That portion of the county north of the ^\■(•st biiinch 
of the Delaware, or what was then called the Fishkill, was within 
the boundaries of Albany county, and that portion lying on thr' 
south of the aforesaid branch was included iu the county of Ulster. 
29 •'■'"■ 


Ou March 12tL, 1772, the couutv of Trvon was organized froiir 
the fouutv of Albany, so named from Tryou, the cohjnial j^overuor 
who during the Revolution became so zealous in the cause of the 
king that he wantonly sent out parties to burn and destroy all the 
property of the inoffensive eolouists, declaring that he would give 
twenty dollars for every acting committeeman who should be deliv- 
ered to the King's troops. 

The year succeeding the close of the Revolution, the name of 
Tryon county was changed to Montgomery. This county included 
that portion of the county north of the "West branch of the river. 

February IGth, Otsego was erected into a county, including 
within its boundaries the northern jjortion of the county of Dela- 
ware. Upon the erection of the present county of Delaware, on 
March 10, 1797, the southern portion of Otsego county included 
between the Susquehanna and the West branch of the Delaware, 
and that portion of Ulster south of the West branch and extending 
to the northern boundaries of the present county of Sullivan, was 
erected into the county of Delaware. 

Upon the formation of the county, six towns were included 
within its limits, to wit: Colchester, Middletowu, Franklin, Har- 
persfield, Kortright and Stamford. 

The town of Colchester was originally organized April loth. 
1792, and was carved out of the town of Middletowu, which had 
been organized March 81st, 1789, as a town of Ulster county. The 
territory of this town was taken from the towns of Rochester and 
Woodstock in Ulster county. 

The town of Franklin was organized April 10th, 1792. from the 
town of Harpersfield, which was organized ^larch 7th, 17SS, as a 
town of Montgomery county. 

Kortright was organized March 12th, 1793, from the town of 
Harpersfield. Stamford was organized April 10th, 1792. 

Seven days after the organization of Delaware county the town 
of Walton was organized. As originally organized the upper or 
northern boundary line was the line of White's patent, just above 

Towx OF WM.Tox. 5f;9 

D.lhi villiige, ruiuiint;- wi'storlv tlu'ouj:,^^ tlic tuwu of i'ljiukliu iiiul 
what is uow the town of Jlasonville to the Hue of Broome county, 
thc'uce southerly to the Dt'lawnrc river at Deposit. The West 
branch of the Dehiware was the southerly boundary of the town. 
Upon the formation of the town of Delhi in 1708, the upper line of 
Liviuf^ston's patent was the northerly boundary. That line was the 
upi)cr line of the Robert JIurruy farm. In 181"2 the town line was 
m )ved up to Arthur Shaw's line, Ixiu^'' the iipjx'r line of Bedding- 
ton's patent. In IM'io, upon the erection of the town of Haunlen, 
the town line was moved to its ]u-esent location. 

The town derives its name tmni William Walton, who obtainccl 
a j^'raut of tweuty thousand acres of land from the Kiuf^ of Enj^laud 
in 1770. This yraut extended from the Delaware to the Susipie- 
hanna river and was about two miles in width. The upper line of 
the patent was located about one mile above Walton villaj^e, near 
the farm formerly owned by Ste})hen Bcrray and the lower Hue 
al)out a ujile below the villaj^e. 

The to[)o{,'raphy of the town may be described !is a mixture of 
mountain, hill and vaHey. Through the southeastern portion runs 
the "West branch of the Delaware river. Along that portion of the 
river in the northern |>arf of the town are wide, fertile fiats. Below 
the village the Hats become narrower, and the mountains ai)proach 
almost to the river banks. That portion of the town north of the 
river is traversed by the East, West and Third brooks, wliicli empty 
into the river through the plain iipmi wliicli the village of Walton 
is now situated. The valleys of these various streams form some of 
the best farming lands in the county. 

The first pernuiuent settlement was made in the town in the 
year 17H4. Prior to that time hunters and prospectors had 
uinloubtcilly ])assed thrniigli tlic unknown forests which then stood 
as sentinels. Although but little more than one hundred years 
have passed, many of the events of those early days have faded into 
tradition, tradition into myth, and myth into fable. It is said that 
stmie of th(^ carlv settlers from the region of the Siisiiiichanna 


valley made iucursious into these regions, allured l>y the plentiful- 
ness of the game. 

At this period Dr. Piatt Towiiseiid, a resident of Long Island, 
purchased of William Walton a tract of live thousand acres from 
the south end of the 'Waltou patent. A portion of the purchase 
price was to be paid in surveying the tract, the doctor being a 
Ijractical surveyor. Seventeen hundred of the five thousand acres 
■was paid for in this work. 

Of the original settlers who came from Long Island with Dr. 
Townseud, twenty in number, were the following jjersons: The 
doctor's two sons, "William and Isaac; Robert North, wife and infant 
son, Benjamin; Gabriel North, wife and two daughters, Hannah 
and Deliorah; William Furmau, wife and two children; Joshua Pine 
and sons, John, Joshua and Daniel, and daughters, Nellie and 

They left Long Island in the month of March oi that year and 
ascended the Hudson in a sloop to what was then called Esopus. 
Leaving their families at Marbletown the men of the party made 
the journey fi'om that point to Walton on foot, traversing the 
almost unknown wilderness. No one of the number has left a 
detailed account of that interesting journey. Their route, no doubt, 
touched at the early settlement made at Pakataken, near the present 
village of Margaretville, and Pepacton on the East branch of the 
Delaware just above Downsville. When they arrived at the end of 
their journey they found that some timber pirates had preceded 
them up the river the year i^revious, and had cut from Pine Hill a 
quantity of the pine which covered it in great abundance from base 
to summit, and from which the hill had its name, and had attem^jted 
to raft it down the river for the Philadelphia market; but being 
unacquainted with the river the fruits of their piracy was strewn 
along the banks, the rafts not being sufficiently strong to stand the 
racking resulting from uuskillfvd jiilotage. These people had built 
a log hut or cabin for their temporary use, which Mr. Townsend 
and his party were not slow to apjiropriate and occupy. Though 

7YMr.V (//•■ UM/,7'O.V. 571 

rude, uo doubt, it was a palace of rest for the wear}- pioneers at the 
eud of their louf,' and perilous journey. The exact locatiou of this 
cabin iu the wilderness is somewhat in doubt, but the weiyht of 
authority seems to place it somewhere near the mouth of the East 
nronk, nciir what was formerly tlie residence of Damon Hull. 

Hobert North, one of the i)ioueers, built a lo<j house on the spot 
where, a few years later, iu ITit'J, he built a frame residence, proba- 
bly the first erected in the town, and which stood until replaced a 
few years since by the modern mansion of the North sisters. 

The early summer was spent in clearing- the laud and making a 
shelter for their families, and in the latter i)art of June they 
retraced their steps over the mountains and up the valleys to 
Kingston, and made preparations to move their families to their 
IK'W homes. It is said that a large portion of their belongings 
were taken down the East branch iu boats or canoes to the 
junction below Hancock, and from there up the West branch to 
Walton. The teams and wagons were, however, brought through 
the forests, a road lieing cut as they advanced. 

The star of empire moved slower in those days than in later 
years; the only sounds which broke the stillness of the forests were 
the woodman's axe, the crack of the ritle, the howl of the wolf and 
the cry of the pantlier. It is said that Mrs. Robert North made the 
journey from Kingston on horseback, carrying in lui' arms her 
infant son, Benjamin, while strapped behind her upon the back of 
the horse was her beddiug and some household furniture. 

Once settled in their new homes, and the fame of the new 
locality reaching friends upon Long Island an<l in Connecticut, 
they soon found congenial spirits, anxious to brave the hardships 
of frontier life, and nutke for themselves and posterity a home iu 
the wilderness. In the year immediately following, new settlers 
swarmed iu from Long Island and Connecticut. 

At this early day there were no mills for grinding grain nearer 
than Schoharie, and to that place, (ju horseback or on foot, the 
early settler carried his grist when he desired something more 


palat;il)le tliau tbe product which he oljtiiiued fi-om pouuiliufj; the 
graiu iu a hollow mortar made of stone or wood. 

It must also be remembered that there were uo mail facilities in 
those early days; uo electric telegraph spauuiug the contiueut, or 
calile resting upon the ocean bed. The grist carrier became a news 
carrier, and ujiou his couiiug from the mill, was besieged by the 
whole neighborhood to learu what had transpired at the Schoharie 
settlement, and what he had learned of the outside world. The 
first regular mail facilities were not established until about fifteen 
years after the first settlement. At that time, about the year ISOO, 
a mail hue was estal)lished between Kingston and Jericho, not the 
city whose walls were demolished by the blast from a ram's horn, 
but the place now known as Baiubridge, Chenango county. One 
mail weekly; from the east Fridays, and from the west on Satur- 
days, abundantly satisfied the then wants of the community. 

In the year immediately following the advent of the first 
settlers, the fame of the new country and its fertility having spread 
abroad, many were anxious to avail themselves of the privileges 
which the well watered and well wooded hills and the fertile valleys 
offered for permanent homes. The love of adventure and the 
excitement incident to clearing up the laud aud hunting and 
destroying the wild beasts of prey of which the forest abounded 
brought many from the states of Connecticut and Massachusetts 
and from the more recent settlements along the Hudson. There 
was something in the pioneer's life that seemed to chann them and 
it i-equired only a few years for the settlement to become too 
densely populated and too civilized for their restless spirit and they 
were anxious to advance to new fields and forests. 

As stated before, the fifteen years following the first advent 
brought many new settlers so that upon the organization of the 
town in 1797, March 17th, the population of the new town was not 
far from 1,200 inhabitants. The town then included the town of 
Tompkins and a large jsart of the town of Hamden. 

From the old tax roll of 17'.llt, now iu the possession of the Pine 


ffiiiiily, the taxable iiihabitauts withiu the preseut limits of the town 
uuinbered uiuetv-two. Allowiii','- five iuhabitauts to each taxpayer, 
the estimated population at that time woubl l)e 4(')(l. The followiug; 
is the number of taxpayers in the town and the estimated popula- 
tion for the followiug years: 

In 1^>()8, taxpayers 114; estimated inhabitants .570; assessed 
property, real and personal, §880.55. 

In 1810, taxpayers 172; estimated population iS(;o; assessed val- 
uation §108,801. 

In 1815, taxpayers lilO; estimated population 1150; valuation 

Walton village in the year 1815 cdiitiiiued 88 taxpayers ; 
estimated population Kio. 

In 1h20, taxpayers I'.IS; estiiuuted populutioii it'.MI; assessed 
valuation $178,890. 

In 1825, taxpayers 222; estimated population 1,110. assessed 
valuation §145,538. 

In 1880, taxpayers 25(1: estimated jKipulation 1,280; assessed 
valuation .^184,870. 

In 1885, taxpayers 8(!1; eeusus ])oinilation 1,754; assessed 
valuation $157,350. 

In 1840, taxpayers 887; census pojmlation l,S4fl; assessed valu- 
ation §182,S70. 

In 1845, taxpayers 879; census population 2,704; assessed 
valuation §192,2.50. 

In 1850, taxpayers 419 ; census population 2,277 ; assessed 
valuation §212.190. 

In 1855, taxpayers 497; census population 2,404. 

In 18()0, taxpayers 550; census population 2,740; assessed valu- 
ation §541,340. 

In 18f)5, taxpayers (ill ; census ])oi)ul;iti(iii 2,92(1 : assessed 
valuation §584,200. 

In 1870, census population 8,578; assessed vnluatiuii ?;.sl2,222. 


The first grist mill was Imilt l)y ^Michael Goodrich ou East 
Brook, about a mile from the village, upon the site uow occupied 
by the Rowland mill. From the best information obtainable the 
date of its erection is 17!)2. The site has been used for that 
purpose continuously since that time. The second grist mill was- 
built about two and one-half miles up the river from the village 
by Thomas W. Griswold about the year 1798. This mill has long 
since fallen into decay, and not a vestige is left to mark even 
the site. The third grist mill was erected in 1802 by Daniel Rob- 
inson in what is known as the Den, upon the farm now occujned 
by John Northcott. 

In 1806 William and Isaac Towusend built the fourth mill, 
which is still in existence and is owned by A. A. Haverly. This 
mill is located just above the village on the river. These early 
mills were very crude in eonstructiou, with only one ruu of stone, 
aud these were brought a great distance, probably from Schoharie 
or Albany. They were brought by wagon or cart to the head of 
the river, two canoes were lashed together aud the stones placed 
upou them and thus lloated to their destination. 

Several of the early settlers had a crude contrivance or vat 
for tanning their own leather. The first tannery was built by 
Nathaniel Steele ou East Brook on the premises occupied by Pol- 
lock Howlan<l. This was built in 1803. Alaii Mead a few years 
later established a tannery on Mt. Pleasant near the Fraukliu road. 
In 1810 John and Nathaniel Steele erected a tannery at what is 
uow the corner of Delaware and North streets, upon the site now 
occuijied by the Lyon building and the wagon shop of J. B. Eells 
& Son. This tannery was soon after purchased by Alan Mead, 
who abandoned the one ou the hill. At this time the bark for 
tannery uses was ground by a very rude process. A few years 
later, about 181.5, a more perfected machine was used for grinding 
bark. Iii 1842 John and Gabriel Mead built an extensive tannery 
ou West Brook. This was Inirued in 1857 aud rebuilt in the fol- 
lowing year, aud passed to the firm of Mead, North & Co. iu ISfiH. 




TdWX OF WM.TOX. 577 

lu 1S72 it was punhascJ by Tolx y \ WarutT. Mr. WaruiT dii'il 
iu 18!)i) auil the business is now carried on hy Mr. Tol)ey. 

In 187(> the Novelty works were started h\ W. C. (Joiild; for 
a time they were run liy Wood >V (i.ndd. and then by Peake <& 
Barlow. Mr. Peake bon-^ht out .Mr. Barlow's interest iu IKid,. 
and iu l.S!)5 a corporation was formed with a capital stock of oue 
hundred thousaud dollars. .\l)out one hundred and fifty meu are 
employed iu its various departments. It is now the principal 
manufacturing industry of the town. 

Two foundries are in operatiou; one owned by N. O. Flint, and 
one by L. E. Hoyt & Co. These are located at West End near 
the (). \ W. depot. L. K. Hoyt iV Co. employs about twenty men 
and the Flint foundry a less number. 

The manufacture of potash was oue of the early industries of 
the toW'U, coinmenciny about the year 1800. One potash manu- 
factory was located on East Brook and was discontinued alxmt 
18"28. In lK:-{(i one was established near the jinscnt dejiot by 
Xiles Berray, and still later au extensive oue was established Ijy 
William Ogdeu and Henry Smith, where the Novelty works are 
now located on Delaware street. These establishments have loujj 
since disappeared. 

Brick kilns were established as early as 1815. One was located, 
on the farm now owned by James Patterson on East Brook. In 
182H Ezra Benedict operated a kiln on East Brook. 

The clothing of the early settlers was largely made by h.iinl, 
to use a common phrase. TJie wool from the l)acks of the sheep 
was washed and carded by hand into rolls. These were spun into 
yarn upon a spinning wheel, from which it was taken upon a reel. 
The hand loom was i)ut into o])eration and the shuttle was sent 
back and forth with each downward motion of the treadles. Some 
of the housewives were very expert as weavers, and several yards, 
per day of good solid woolen cloth was the residt. Flax was- 
ijuite extensively cultivated, and the lian<l process from the break- 
ing to the weaving was wont to produce a good portion of the 


Avearing apparel of both male aud female for the summer mouths. 
A carding machine was first put into operation in the saw-mill 
of the Ogden's above 'SValtou village, early in the history of the 
town. Afterwards, Isaac and William Ogden put iu a fulling 
mill about the year ISOO, near the present residence of William 
Hall, formerly the Stephen Berray place.- In 1S(I7 ]\Ir Towusend 
erected the second mill near where the Haverly grist mill now 
stands. Quartus Merrick built a third mill up East Brook, near 
the Cyrus St. John place, now occupied by Henry A. St. John. 
During the Monroe administration these mills received medals 
for the excellence of the cloth produced. The mills have all passed 
out of existence long since. 

Among the early industries that of distilliug must uot be left 
out, for at that early date the necessity of "a little wiue for the 
stomachs sake " was fully recognized; nor was the appetite always 
satisfied with wine. The product of the rye and wheat seemed 
to be iu great demand. As early as 1795, John Eells established 
a distillery on the hill. Later Fletcher Gardiner erected one 
further up East Brook. About 1798 Selick St. John established 
the third and last one up East Brook. In the year 1810 the county 
of Delaware produced nineteen thousand gallons of spirituous 
liquors. It was u.sed on all occasions; the logging bee and the 
church raising alike felt its stimulus. But it would be a mistake 
to suppose that there were uot ardent advocates of temperance 
among those who made daily use of it. Prominent among the 
organizers of the first temperance society iu Delaware county in 
the town of Meredith were the owners of two distilleries. The 
legislation of that period too, had its peculiarities. For iustance, 
one of the provisions of the law of 1829, was that no person who 
did not have a license to sell intoxicants should put uj) a tavern 
sign under a penalty of $1.25 per day. Wiiat harm could have 
come from a tavern sign where no intoxicants were sold is a 
•question which would bear investigation V)y a student of sociology. 

The vear immcdiiitelv following the organization of tlie town 

Tdw.y (IF WM.riis. :^i\\ 

liceuse was •j:rautc(l l)_v tlif town Ijoanl to seveu places for the 
sale of li(juor, viz: James Howard, Georp^e Yeuiles, Joliu Eells, 
Thos. W. (iiiswdlil, Natliau Kellojijfj, Clark Cauuou, Elias Uiitlcr. 
In IH-iO a special town meeting was liclil at which 1!I2 votes were 
cast against license to S2 for license. At a special town mcetiu"- 
in 1H0() to vote upon the qiicstion of license. 41 (> votes were cast 
for license and 4K(( aj^ainst. The l:nv known ;is the Kaiucs law 
went into effect M.ucli l.S!)(;. 

Walt(ni has been, and is one of the leadinfj^ towns in the county 
in all that pertains to aj,'ricultural interests. Her location pecid- 
iarly tits her for dairvin-j and kindred agricultural pursuits. The 
river flats of the East. West, and Third hrooks produce an abun- 
dance of grain and hay; while the hills which rise on either side 
from which bubl)les cold, pure water in great abundance, produce 
rich, sweet pasturage, so necessary for the ])roductiou of the 
butter, the fame of wiiicli lias become worhl wide . Tlie ninuber 
of cows in the town at present is estimated at (),()(l(l. The amount 
of butter pro(lu<'cd is not as large as formerly owing to the growth 
of the milk traffic, which began to be developed upon the open- 
ing of the Ontario & Western railroad in 1872. Large (piantitieR 
of milk are produced in that portion of the town adjacent to the 
line of the railroad, which is shipped direct to Xew York city, 
thus diminishing in some degree the j)roduct of butter. The farms 
which produce the milk are so managed that the jiroduction ex- 
tends through the winter months, at wiiicli time the |)rice is ad- 
vanced, making the ]ir()cliictinn mmc jirotitable. Owing to increased 
railroad facilities from the west and the conseciueut cheapness of 
grain, large quantities of feed are purchased by the farmers and 
the number of cows upon their fanns has been largely increased. 
Formerly the farmer depended entirely upon his own farm for 
the feed for his stock. Now the great grain belts of the west 
assist in making the dairy of the eastern farmer. 

The lirst town meeting was held in the log church of the liiiou 
society in Ajiril, IT'.t". Prior to that time the town meetings were 


lirKl lit tlic house of iliijor Root, near the jivesciit ilivisicjii Hue- 
of the towns of Fraukliu and Walton. 

From the town records a few extracts may not be imintei-estiuf,'': 

"April ;^rd, 1798, at a town meeting held at the meeting house 
at Walton, the following perstjus were elected into otiice, to wit; 
Isaac Darrow, collector; David St. John, town clerk; Robert North, 
supervisor; Isaac Darrow, John Eells, and Clark Cannon, assessors; 
Benajah McCall, Thaddeus Hoyt, overseers of the poor; Aziel 
Hyde, Michael Goodrich, Reuben Crosby, commissioners of high- 
ways; Lewis Seymour, constable aud collector; Thomas Dennis, 
Joseph Adams, constables; Hilliard Burrhus, Andrew Craig, Dr. 
Wm. Maxtield, Samuel Teed, Asa Gears, John St. John, Thomas 
W. Griswold, Moses Hauford, Josiah Cleveland, Dr. Isaac Goodrich, 
-Vziel Hyde, David Smith, Nathaniel Emerson, Samuel Frisbee, 
overseers of highways; Benajah !McCall, Isaac Darrow, Samuel 
Johnston, King Mead, James Bradt, Joseph Webb, Jonas Parks, 
fence viewers; John Eells, j^ound master; Benajah McCall, Aziel 
Hyde, James Durfee, commissioners of schools." 

At a town meeting in 18U3 the following resolution was passed: 
"That any hog or hogs, running at large without a sufficient yoke 
and ring, the fence viewers to be judges of the j'okes, shall be 
liable to be taken aud shut up in any mans enclosure. The owner 
of said hogs, after being notified to take his hogs home, which 
notification sliall be made within twelve hours, shall be liable to 
a tine of fifty cents for each hog so found running at large with- 
ont yoke and rings, after the first notification, from the first day 
of April to the first day of December." 

The following is a list of the supervisors of Walton since its 
erection and the date of their first election: Robert North, 1797; 
David St. John, 180.5; John Eells, 1809; Gabriel North, 1811; 
Isaac Ogden, 1813; Bennett Beardsley, 1815; William Tow-nsend, 
1828; William Merwin, 1827; Alan Mead, 1829; Samuel Eells, 1832;- 
Peter Gardiner, 1830; John Townsend, 1839; Ambrose Ogden, 1842; 
John Mead, 1S41; David More, 1845; G. S. Mead, 1.S4H; Gabriel 

7VM\-.V (//•• ir.l/.7V(.V. .-(HI 

S. North. ISo"); Bcujiuiiiu J. Bassctt, iHSil; J. B. Kclls. l.s(!8; C. 
B. Wade, lK(i'.t: M. W. Marvin, 187(1; A. D. Peakf. ISTd; (i. O. 
Mead, 1877; Charles B. Bass(tt, 18!M); Joscidi Harhv, 18!)2; H. S. 
He well, 18!»:^. 

As early as 18()2 \vc tind the earl.v settlers of Walton conibiiiiu",' 
their eflforts toward securiuj,'' the advautafices of a piililii- hlirarv. 
Xearl.v fifty shares at $"2 per share were taken and with this fund 
;the foundation of a valuable collection was coiuiuenced. In l8(»ii 
the Walton library was incorporated under the f^eueral act of the 
leyislature. This organization was kept up and additions made 
to the collections until the number of volumes reached ()o8. On 
January 27th, 1852, the library was divided by lot among its mem- 
bers. By a ])rovision in the settlement of the estate of the late 
Wm. B. Ogden, a fund of twenty thousauil dollars was set aside 
for the purpose of erecting a library building and furnishing the 
same with books. This building is now in course of erection 
upon the jJublic square at the junction of North street and (Jar- 
diner Place. Fifteen thousand dollars of the fund is being used 
in tlie construction of a building. The balance, with some liberal 
contributions of friends interested in the project, will supjilv the 
books and provide for the care of the building. 

As early as 1813 the town was organized into school districts. 
Orig^iuall.v there were twelve districts; William Townsend. Alex- 
ander Ogden, commissioners of schools. 

As at present organized, the town contains twenty-three dis- 
tricts, the last organized being the Marvin Hollow district, wiiidi 
was organized in 1850. The necessity for more and better edu- 
cational facilities soon became apparent to the people of the town, 
and in 1852 the Rev. J. S. Pattengill, then ))aKtor of the Congre- 
gational church, a large hearted and lilxral minded man, began 
the agitation of more extensive educational facilities. He made 
the theme the subject of several sermons and lectures. .V wakened 
l)v these ap))eals, a su))scription ])aper was circulated and $."<,. "{(lO 
was subscribed in sums varWng from ?5 to $30(1. The subscribers 


organized tbeiuselv( s iiuder the uame of Tlie Academy Associatiou. 
At a meeting of tbe association, Foliruavv 3, 1853, the following 
persons were elected trustees, to wit: Col. John Townseud, D. H. 
Ciay, Hon. John Mead, Dr. J. S. McLaurv, William E. White, Kev. 
J. S. Pattengill, Dr. T. J. Ogden, Gen. B. J. Bassett, S. H. White, 
J. H. St. John, Thomas Marvin, AVhite (Iriswold, Nathaniel Fitch. 
The board was organized by the election of John Mead as presi- 
dent; Dr. McLaury, secretary; Nathaniel Fitch, treasurer. J. S. 
Pattengill, John Mead, and T. J. Ogden were appointed a building 
committee. The land was donated by John Townseud and J. Eells 
was appointed master builder. The frame of the building was 
erected June 23, 1853. The lower lioor was divided into two 
apartments, one used as a chapel and the other for a primary 
department. The upper floor was divided into two school rooms, 
one for ladies and one for gentlemen. The entire cost of the 
building was about four thousand dollars. The academy was com- 
pleted December 14th, 1853, and incorporated by the regents 
February 10, 1854. The first principal emjiloyed was Mr. Eli M. 
Maynard, assisted by his sister Miss Lucy A. Maynard. Miss Ade- 
laide Gardiner was the tirst teacher in the primary department. 
Mr. Maynard resigned in March, 1857. Henry E. Ogden acted 
as princij)al during the spring term of 1857. M. N. Horton took 
charge as principal August 26, 1857. During the spring of 1859, 
an addition was built to the main building at a cost of fifteen 
hundred dollars, and the lower rooms of the main building were 
used entirely for a chapel. Mr. Horton resigned March 18(il. In 
July, 1801, Sidney Crawford took charge as principal, assisted by 
the following corps of teachers: Miss Jeuuie S. Bostwick, !Miss 
Charlotte Marsh, who tilled the position of preceptress. Miss E. 
Maria Ogden, teacher of drawing and painting. Hon. John Mead 
resigned the presidency of the board March 30, 18G3, and David 
H. Gay was elected to succeed him. Charles E. Sumner was en- 
gaged as principal aud began his duties August 24, 1804. He 
remained in charge three years and was assisted liy ]Miss Lena F. 

TO WW OF WAi/rox. -,«3. 

Wlieiit as preceptress iu 1S(;4 aud 1H(!,"), ^liss Jcuiiic Siimucr, lS(io 
auil LS(>(i. iiij.l Miss Jeuuie F. Barues, 18(i(; to ISdT. Miss Hattie 
A. Taylor had charR-e of the primary ilepartnieut. Mr. Suiimer 
was siiceeeih-d by Strong Comstock, August I'.ttli, ISd", and .Miss. 
Martha Atwood was preceptress. Iu the spring of 1808 a uiiion 
school was organized, and the academy property transferred tn 
the board of education. Iu 1H70 the Rev. D. T. Barclay was chosen 
principal for the two following years. The diplomas were tirst 
awarded in 1S71. The tirst class consisted of Ella Love, Hannah 
N. Benedict, Charlotte E. North, Cornelia F. White. >riss Laura 
(iay was engaged as preceptress iu 1.S7U iind held the position 
until 188(i. Jlr. C'omstock was again called to till the position of 
principal iu IST'i and continueil iu charge uutil ISHl. when Pr(jf. 
Fairgrieve, of Fulton, N. Y., was chosen as principal. Owing to 
the rapid growth of the town, incident to the building of the 
Ontario iV Western railroad, the old building soou became inade- 
quate for the purpose for whi<-h it was intended, and a new l)uil(l- 
ing was erected iu 1892 at a cost of about forty-rtve thousand 
dollars. The new building is one of the tiuest of the kind in the 
state, and was completed and occupied in the fall of 18!)2. 

The brave and hardy pioneers who left their homes upon Long 
Island and Connecticut to establish their future homes iu the 
wilderness in the interior of New York, brought with them the 
principles and the faith which enabled them to bear up under 
and sustain the burdens incident to such a great uudertakiug. 
They were descendants of the men who I'lnturies before had left 
their own country ami braved the dangers of a stormy voyage of 
three thousand miles of ocean, in order that they might wi)rshi|i 
(rod according to the dictates of their own conscience. 

As early as 1791 a log house was built upon Mt. Pleasant for 
the double purpose of a ])lace of worshij) on the Sabbath and a 
school during the week. The church was formally organized Octo- 
ber 12, 1793, by Rev. David Huntington, a missionary from the 
(Tcucral Association of Connecticut. Mr. Huntington's stay was- 


Iiiicf. David Harrowev, a iiicmlier of tlic cliurcli, now (■ii1cic<l a 
ronise of studv, and in two years was cniployfd by the association 
as pastor. Three days after the or<)auizatiou of the churcli, Octo- 
ber 15, 1798, the ecclesiastical society couuected with the church 
was organized iu legal form. The first trustees were Daniel Eoot, 
.Samuel Johnson, CHias. Marsh, Michael Goodrich, (labriel Xortli, 
James Weed. The fii'st clerk was Robert North. A log meeting 
house was used for church jjurposes ten years. Mr. HaiTower 
remained with the church as stated supply ten years, spending 
•.some portion of his time in visiting and ministering to the (nit- 
Jj'ing settlements. A new church ))uilding was commenced in 
1800 and finished iu ISOS upon the same site. The church was 
without a stove until 1810, and at the town meeting that year a 
Tesolution was voted to purchase a stove for the meeting house 
and assess the cost upon the town for the ])rivilegc of using the 
building for town meeting purposes. 

The following are the pastors who have ministered to the 
•society: In 1807 the Rev. Archibald Bassett was called and re- 
mained until 1811. The Rev. Orange Seymour was stated supply 
for six months. In 1813 the Rev. Isaac Headley was called and 
remained until 1829. The Rev. Alva Lillian supplied for six months 
and Rev. E. D. "Wells was called in 1830 and Rev. A. L. Chapman 
in 1831. The Rev. Jonathan Huntington supplied for six months, 
and the Rev. Fayette Shepherd was called in 1834 and remained 
until 1838, and the Rev. Wilton Clark from then until 1842. In 
1840 the church was built upon its present site. The Rev. E. D. 
Willis supjjlied iu 1843 and remained until 1847. The Rev. J. 
S. Pattengill was installed iu 1S4S and remained until Ajiril, 1868. 
The Rev. S. J. White was installed in ISGil and remained until 
1875, and the Rev. H. M. Ladd was pastor from 1875 until 1881, 
when Rev. G. W. Nims came and has remained until the present 

The first Methodist class was organized in IcSO'J, and Scth 
Berray was chosen leader. The members were Anna Berray, 

SiraiioiVs Falls, Koxbury. 

View riear Canponsville. 

Tuwx (>y WM.Tux. 587 

Esther Bcrrav, John Heath, Di'iviil Hoath, Eleanor Heath, Mrs. 
Filkins, Elizabeth Orr, (^uartus Merrick, Lucia Jlerrick. The cele- 
brated Nathan Bangs held i)reailiinff services in "Warreu Tavern as 
«arl_v as ISdS, and afterwards a iireaclier named Richards came into 
town on bnsiuess and preached a few sermons. The Rev. Asa Hall, 
while visiting his father, preached in the house of Cyrus. St. John. 
That was about the year 181(1. The first regular apijoiutment was 
January 1. isl'.i. when A. S. Scotield was appointed to take charge 
of the church, since which time there has been regular j)reach- 

The following have l>een the appointments: In IS.U, David 
Terry and James Benson; 1885, ^M. VanDusen and D. B. Turner; 
183C, S. IL Knapp and T. Bangs; 1887, S. M. Knaji]) and Arad 
Lakin: 1888, H. Frost and Arad Lakin; 1889-40, B. Wakely; 
1841-4-2, Aaron Rogers; 1843, Sanford Washburn; 1844, J. Tippet, 
W. C. Smith, and A. H. Mead; 184r), B. M. Gerrung; 184(5, M. S. 
Peudell; 1847, George Kerr; 1848 George Kerr and Elias Rogers; 
184i), David Gibson; 18r,(l, D. C. Drake; 1851, Meto Coachman; 
1852, George Palmer; 1858-54, John Davie; 1855, William Hall; 
185()-57, Richard Decker; 1858, Charles Sitzer; l85!t-(;(>, P>dwin 
Clement; IStJl-ti'i, John Y. Richmond; lS(;8-64, Richard Decker; 
18()5-(;(i, John W. Gorse; 1867-69, A. R. Burroughs; 1870-72, J. 
J. Dean; 1878-74, J. :\r. Burgar; 1875, Joseph Eliot; 1876, J. G. 
.Slater; 1877-79, Edward AVhite; 1880-81, Rev. W. A. Chadwick; 
1882-84, Rev. George Hearn; 1885-87, Rev. L. .S. Brown; 1888- 
9(1, Rev. (). D. iiamsay; 1891-92, Rev. J. W. Bohlman; 1898-95. 
Rev. E. H. Roys; 1896, Rev. Robert Knapi.. 

The first Methodist church was built in 1811, and it cost $1,60(1. 
The first board of trustees was composed of the following persons: 
Sanford Ferguson, Julni McCall, Gersham H. Bradley, Hiram Fitch. 
Cyrus St. John. A new chun-ii was b\iilt in 18(!9 at a cost of 
$(0,(10(1. This church was used until 1892, when the jH-esent 
structure was commenced and built at a cost of $20,000. It is said 
to be the most beautiful church structure in the county. 


The first serviees of the Protestant Episeopiil cliiircLi were heM 
in Walton al)out the year ls;!i( by Rev. 'Sir. Johnson. 

The first vestry was composed of the followiuf>f named persons r 
James Noble and Everett Guild, wardens; Isaac Oydeu, Kobert 
North, Jr., James Smith, "W. B. Ogden, Peter Gardiner,. Joshua Pine,. 
Bennett Beardslee, Benajah Hawley, John F. St. John, Adam 
Mallory, Rufns Smith, vestrj'men. In ISHl the church edifice was 
commenced, and completed in 1884. The clergymen (connected with 
the early history of the parish were the Eev. Mr. Adams of Unadilla,. 
Rev. Orange Clark of Delhi, Rev. Russell Wheeler of Butternuts, 
Otsego county, and Rev. E. K. Fowler of Monticello,^ N. Y. The 
first installed rector was the Rev. John F. Messinger, who supplied 
here in 1834; in 1837, Rev. Amos Billings Beach; 1839, Rev. Rob- 
ert Campbell; in IS-IO, Rev. Asa Griswold; in 1842, Rev. David 
Hiintington; in 1846, Rev. William G. Heimer; in 1847, Rev. John 
Creighton Brown; in 1860, Rev. Charles Canfield; in 1861, Rev. F. 
S. Comptou; in 18f)3, Rev. Frederic Sisson; in 18(!5,. Rev. Gurdon 
Huntington, who died November "29, 1875; in 1876, Rev. Theodore 
A. Snyder; in 1877, Rev. Mr. Searing; afterward Rev. Mr. Rathbun, 
Rev. Reeves Hobbie, Eev. J. R. L. Nisbitt, Rev. Richard Searing, 
and Rev. Charles Temple at the present time, have been the rectors. 

The first Baptist church was organized in the year 1866 from the 
various outlying branches. Rev. Jenkins Jones was stated sujjply 
during the first year. In November, 1869, Rev. L. 'SI. Purriugton 
was called as pastor, and remained uutil 1877. The church edifice 
was erected in 1869 at a cost of $5, ()()(). In 1878, Rev. A. J. Adams 
was called; in 1881, Rev. E. B. Glover; in 1882, Eev. W. N. Thomas; 
in 1882, Eev. J. A. Hungate; in 1886, Eev. W. P. Chii)man: in 1887, 
Eev. C. A. Stone; in 189.5, Rev. A. J. Whaleu; in 1S95, Rev. W. A. 
King; in 1896, Eev. J. T. Barber. 

The Reformed Presbyterian church was organized September 5, 
18(51. The first church edifice was built on East l)rook, about five 
miles from Walton village. The first jjastor was Rev. David 
McAllister, who remained until 1S84. In 1S74 a new church wuj^ 

Towx or WM/ro.y. 5H«) 

orcted in Wiiltou vill!if,'e. In iMHo Rev. S. G. Slmw whs ciiUcl to 
tin- pastoriito and niMainrd until ISDC. Tlic jncscnt i>iistor is iicv. 
U. ('. Roed. 

Tlic I nitcd l'rcsl) ciiiiich xviis ()i;^anizid ()(t<il)ii- lit, 
IKC..'). The elders elected were -Idliu \V. Siiiitli, William Kil].atiieli, 
Thomas McLaurv, I'. M. Doij,'. The ehureb edifice was built in 
ISdS mid the Rev. W . II. Crow settled as pastor. In 187:{ Rev. S. 
\V. Meeks was chosen, an<l in 1878 Rev. W. M. Howie was called 
and remained until lSi)2, when Rev. Thomas Park, the jireseut 
l>astor, was called. .V new cluireli edifice was erected on the corner 
of North and East streets in 18<)1 at a cost of ahout six thousand 
dollars. The number of mendx-rs is 2H0. 

The following persons have served as town clerks of Walton: 
David St. Jolm, date of election \\)v\\ 4, IT'.IT; AVilliam Townscnd, 
1801; Robert North, ISOC; David St, John, 1828; Piatt Townsend, 
182!t; David H. Gay, 1848; Henry E. St. John, 1857; Charles B. 
Wade, 18(il; Orson J. Ells, 1SG8; George W. Fitch, 18(>4; David H. 
Gay, 18(;5; George O. Mead, ISt;?; John S. Eells, 1877; John Oliu- 
stead, 1888; John S. Eells, the present clerk, 1884. Within a p« riod 
of one luindred years, twelve men have served as town clerks. 

The War of Independence was brought to a successful termina- 
tion and a treaty of peace with the mother country was signed the 
year prior to the first settlement of the town, .\nioug the early 
settlers of file town were many who braved tlie dangers anil bore 
the sufferings in the jjatriot army under Washington during the 
eventful struggle. From the best information the following 
persons, early settlers of the town, served in tlu' Revolutionary 
war either as soldiers of the line, levies or militia: Mattiiew Marvin, 
.Tared Hoyf, Daniel Nichols, Cajitain James .V. Marvin, James 
.Vdams, Roger Case, Jonathan Weed, Reul)en Bartow. These men 
were enlisted largely from the state of Connecticut, and after the 
revolution moved into the state of New York. 

The following is a list of the residents of the town who per- 
formed militarj- service for the state during the war of 1812: 


Beujaiuiu E. Eells, Mead Eells, John Marvio, Stcphoii Berriiv, ;\Ir. 
Smith, Jouathau Beers, Sanuiel ^loreliouse, Natbau Nichols, (iiihricl 
North, Johu Patrick. 

The following is a list of those who were drafted iu the service 
ill. lull: Jonas Walker, William K. Seeley, Eliphalet Seeley, Syl- 
vamis Seeley, Seeley Benedict, Silas Benedict, Nathan Benedict, 
Teuas Ogden, Johu Raymond, Samuel Eells, Levi Hanford, Amasa 
Hoyt, Chauncey Hoyt, Billy Benedict, Alfred Bradley, Gersham H. 
Bradley, Captain Harmon Sawyer, Ebeuezer Steele, Smith St. Johu, 
John Hess, Thomas Marvin, Piatt Richards, Thomas Keeler, Johu 
Olmstead, Bueld Case, Hanford Wakeman, Hezekiah Yanderburg, 
Alfred Nichols, William Cable, Simon Cable, Nathaniel G. Eells, 
Lieutenant Gabriel North, Be